Okanagan Historical Society Reports

The thirty-second report of the Okanagan Historical Society 1968 Okanagan Historical Society Dec 1, 1968

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Array & N_ IRej] Atkinson Museum  785 MAIN STREET  PEKnCTQN4B.C   V2A5H  J <'ñ†*  QK^m R. N. (Reg) Atkinson Museufl  785 MAIN STREET  EENnCION/B.a   SJ2A5E3  Mr. & Mrs. H. O. Rorke  624 Young Street  Penticton, B.C.  _    '     ^ O.H.S. 32nd Annual Report  Index  Re-union  5  Notice of Annual Meeting  6  Officers and Directors  7  Minutes of Annual Meeting  9  The Annual Banquet      24  Some Reasons for Stern Wheel Boats     27  Vernon and the Okanagan  32  Winter's Last Effort  34  The Story of Lacrosse in Kelowna     35  Peaches  41  Anthony Casorso  42  The McDougalls of Fairview  53  Dewdney Trail Park  59  Edward Maurice Carruthers, J.P  63  The Story of Irrigation  69  Captain H. V. (Paddy) Acland     81  Trek to Historic Father Pandosy Mission Site  91  Fort Okanogan  93  Annual Meeting Penticton Branch  97  Thomas Wood—Pioneer Rancher      99  Indian Leadership Conference  105  Alfred E. Stocks—Okanagan Pioneer     109  The Log of the Good Ship "Onaway"     112  My Farming Experience Through the Years  118  Lest We Forget  122  The Junction Ranch  128  Kathleen Ellis, LL.D  133  Fairview and Stemwinder Mine  136  Public School Opening, 1894  140  Thomas V. Weeks     141  Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Reid  143  Louis B. Boggs—A Teacher  145  Grindrod  146  Soliloquy  150  Summerland's Centennial Year  151  A Tree Grows in Vernon     159  Membership List  197  Index of Illustrations     209 O.H.S. 32nd Annual Report  Illustrations  Giant's Head—Sketch by Irvine Adams  4  Captain Otto Estabrook  27  S.S. Aberdeen Crew Before 1902      29  Hon. H. H. Stevens  32  Kelowna Lacrosse Team  36  Lacrosse Team of 1898  40  Anthony Casorso and Harvey Watson  42  Mr. and Mrs. John Casorso, 1895  46  Anthony Casorso and Irrigation Flume  49  Anthony Casorso and Unbroken Horse  51  George McDougall  53  George McDougall General Store  54  Building the Oliver Syphon  56  Postcard in the J. E. Gawne Collection  58  Kathleen Dewdney, President O.H.S  60  E. M. "Ted" Carruthers  63  Office of Carruthers and Pooley  63  Kelowna Polo Team, 1905      66  W.C.R.A. Convention, 1956      70  Rutland Flats and Benches, 1904  72  Kelowna District Early Ditch and Flume  74  Rutland District, 1911  77  W.C.I.A. Convention, 1912  79  Jeanne and Paddy Acland  81  The Father Pandosy "Trek"  92  Historical Mark—Fort Okanogan  94  Essay Contest Winners  98  Early Picture of Thomas Wood  99  Thomas Wood Ranch  101  Thomas Wood in Later Years  103  Discussion Group Indian Leadership Conference  106  Mrs. G. Lezard  108  Lieut. Alfred E. Stocks  110  Onion Crop, 1909  119  Harvesting Tobacco, 1920  121  Mrs. James Leir      129  Nursery Paddock at Junction Ranch  131  Dr. Kathleen Ellis  133  Oliver Main Street, 1921  135  Boone Ranch, about 1911  136  Mrs. McCuddy's Store and Post Office  138  Thomas V. Weeks      141  First Locomotive in Penticton, 1912      142  Mrs. Alexander Reid on Her 90th Birthday  143  First School Built by Provincial Gov't, in Penticton  145  Monk and Son Store, Grindrod  147  Store and Radio Shop, Grindrod  149  Dedication of Giant's Head Park  152  Queen Katy Evans  157  All Saints'Church  161  Canon C. E. Reeve  162  The Rectory  164  Rev. I. W. Outerbridge  170  Interior of First Church on Tronson Ave  174  All Saints'Second Church  182  Rev. H. C. B. Gibson  183  Rev. LorinA. C.Smith  187  Interior of Present All Saints' Church  192  Interior of St. James Church, Lumby  196 O.H.S. 32nd Annual Report  .!?"<*?■ «t-_S_____M_"....,«f3—-JlB.     :SV"_^_-  'SfflSLH?^- ____^s_l^^";^^_li  GIANT'S    HEAD SUMMERLAND,   B.C.  Sketch by Irvine Adams, well-known international artist living in Summerland. O.H.S. 32nd Annual Report  Re-UniOn     By Janet Anderson  Greetings, friends of the early days;  Friends we have known, how long!  Since nineteen hundred and twenty-one,  In this place where we all belong.  For Oliver knows we're Oliver folks  No matter how far we stray,  And tonight we are wakening memories  We've shared, down Oliver way.  We were strangers all, back in '21,  And strange was the place we found.  A barren valley; and pathless hills,  And rocks in the thirsty ground.  Speargrass plagued us, and cactus bit;  Mosquitoes;   woodticks;  snakes.  But we pitched our tents; and we showed the world  That we all had "what it takes."  We were strangers, too, in the ways of peace;  And low was the cash in hand;  And that was why we heeded the Call,  The call of "Back to the land!"  Some of us camped, and worked on the Ditch  As it pushed from the Dam to the Border,  With pick and shovel and aching backs,  While the Major kept law and order.  A few of us chose the bare townsite  And started our little stores;  And all of us laboured from dawn till dusk;  And THEN we started our chores!  Others, the most of us, staked our claims  And cleared us a patch of land.  We hoed and planted and watered and weeded  Where now proud orchards stand.  Friends!   We remember those bygone days  When this place was an empty page,  And the records written since '21  Are our lives, from youth to age.  We read them proudly, gladly still  For we were the pioneers;  With none more true than the friends we knew  In the early Oliver years. O.H.S. 32nd Annual Report  NOTICE OF  ANNUAL MEETING  OF  The Okanagan  Historical Society  1969  Notice is hereby given that the Annual Meeting  of THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  will be held  Sunday, May 4, 1969  In KELOWNA at 2:30 p.m.  Place to be announced later.  BUSINESS  Presentation of Reports  Election of Officers  The meeting will be followed by the Society's  ANNUAL DINNER  to be  held  at  6:30  p.m.   Place   to   be   announced. O.H.S. 32nd Annual Report  Officers and Directors  of the Okanagan Historical Society  Honorary Patrons:  His Honour the Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia  Honorable George Randolph Pearkes, V.C., D.S.O., M.C.  The Honorable W. A. C. Bennett, P.C, Ll.D., D.Pol.Sc.  Premier of British Columbia  The Honorable Frank Richter,  Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources, and  Minister of Commercial Transport  Patron;  Mrs. Charles Patten.  Honorary Presidents:  Dr. Margaret Ormsby, The Reverend Dr. John Goodfellow,  Captain J. B. Weeks, Mr. H. C. S. Collett, Mr. Guy Bagnall,  G. D. Cameron.  Life Members:   Dr.  Margaret Ormsby,  Reverend  Dr. John  Goodfellow,   Mr.  F.  T.  Marriage,  Mr.  H.  C.  S.  Collett,  Mr. Guy Bagnall, Mr. S. R. Manery, Captain J. B. Weeks,  Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Mr. J. Donald Whitham,  Mrs. Harold Cochrane, Mr. R. N. Atkinson.  President: Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, 273 Scott Avenue, Penticton, B.C.  Immediate Past President:  Mr. Harold Cochrane, 2006 28 Cres., Vernon, B.C.  Vice-Presidents:   Reverend Alvin Miller, Mr. Nigel Pooley,  Mr. J. E. Jamieson, Rev. E. Fleming.  Secretary:  R. F. Gale, Box 24, Pineview Drive, Kaleden, B.C.  Treasurer;   Mrs. Harold Cochrane, 2006 28 Cres., Vernon, B.C.  Editor:  Major Hugh Porteous, Dereholme, R.R. 1, Oliver, B.C.  Auditor:   Mr. T. R. Jenner, 3105 29th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Essay Secretary: Mrs. G. D. Herbert, 1684 Ethel St., Kelowna, B.C.  Directors:  Vernon:  Mr. E. B. Hunter, Mrs. H. C. DeBeck,  Mr. Ken Ellison.  Kelowna:  Mrs. T. B. Upton, Mr. G. D. Cameron,  Mr. D. S. Buckland.  Penticton:   Mr. Victor Wilson, Mrs. G. P. Broderick,  Dr. W. H. B. Munn.  Similkameen:   Mr. Sam Manery.  Oliver-Osoyoos:   Major H. Porteous. O.H.S. 32nd Annual Report  Directors at Large:   Mrs. H. C. Whitaker, Mrs. A. E. Berry.  Editorial Committee:   To be composed of the Editor, Major H. Porteous, Chairman;   Mr. Nigel Pooley, Mrs. I. Crozier, Mrs. W. R.  Dewdney.  VERNON BRANCH  President:  Harold Cochrane, 2006 28th Crescent  Vice-President:   Mr. Ken Ellison  Directors: Dr. D. A. Ross, E. B. Hunter, Mrs. M. Middleton, Mrs.  G. Bagnall, Mr. and Mrs. I. Crozier, Mr. G. Bagnall, Mrs. J. A.  Grieg, Mrs. K. Kinnard, Mrs. A. E. Berry, Mrs. H. Cochrane.  Director at Large:  Mrs. A. E. Berry  Editorial Committee: Mrs. I. Crozier, Mrs. G. Bagnall, Mrs. W. Middleton.  KELOWNA BRANCH  President:   Mr. F. G. DeHart, 2668 Abbott St.  Vice-President:  Mr. F. C. Waterman, Campbell Rd., Westbank  Secretary:  Mr. J. L. Neave, Highway 97, Kelowna  Treasurer:  Mr. H. K. Keating, Lakeshore Road, R.R. No. 4  Directors:   Mrs. Primrose Upton, Mrs. D. Tutt, Mrs. T. C. Surtees,  Mrs. G. Lamont, D. S. Buckland, W. T. J. Bulman, J. J. Conroy,  Fraser Black, N. R. C. Pooley, A. W. Gray, J. S. Duggan, L.  Leathley, G. D. Cameron, J. L. Piddocke, W. Spear.  Editorial Committee:   Nigel Pooley, Fred C. Waterman, Mrs. Primrose Upton.  PENTICTON BRANCH  Honorary President:  Captain J. B. Weeks  President:   Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, 273 Scott Ave.  Vice-President:   Reverend Alvin Miller, 1330 Church St.  Secretary:   Mrs. G. P. Broderick, 1825 Fairford Drive.  Treasurer: Douglas Gawne, West Bench.  Directors:  Victor Wilson, R. N. Atkinson, E. D. Sismey, H. O. Rorke,  R. F. Gale, Douglas Stuart, Dr. J. J. Gibson, Wells Oliver, Dr.  W. H. B. Munn, Mrs. H. C. Whitaker, Mrs. James Gawne, Mrs.  Donald Orr, Mrs. Louise Gabriel.  Editorial Committee:   Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, E. D. Sismey.  Editorial Committee, O.H.S.:   Mrs. W. R. Dewdney.  Director at Large:  Mrs. H. C. Whitaker.  OLIVER - OSOYOOS BRANCH  President:  Major H. A. Porteous, Dereholme R.R. 1.  Vice-President:   Eric Becker, Osoyoos, B.C.  Secretary-Treasurer:  Mrs. J. A. Field, Osoyoos, B.C.  Directors:  Miss D. Waterman, Mrs. H. A. Porteous, Mrs. Reta Long,  Mrs. N. V. Simpson.  SIMILKAMEEN BRANCH  President:   Mrs. Ray Walters, Keremeos, B.C.  Vice-President:   Mrs. Alex McLachlan.  Secretary:   Mrs. H. 0. Lund.  Treasurer:   Mrs. Douglas Parsons.  Directors:   Mrs. Lucille Godfriedson, Mr. Sam Manery, Mrs. Bert  Parsons.  Editorial Commmittee:   Mrs. Ray Walters, Mr. Sam Manery, Mrs.  H. 0. Lund. The Annual Meeting O.H.S.  Minutes of the Annual Meeting  The Annual Meeting of the Okanagan Historical Society was  held in the Community Hall at Cawston, B.C. on Monday, May 13,  1968.  Prior to calling the meeting to order Mr. Cochrane asked to meet  with The President's Committee.  At this meeting it was moved by Mrs. W. R. Dewdney and  seconded by Mr. Sam Manery that Mrs. Hilda Cochrane and Mr. R.  N. Atkinson be nominated for Life Membership in the Society.  Unanimously approved.  The President, Harold Cochrane, called the meeting to order at  2:30 p.m. and welcomed all present. He introduced Mrs. Jack Royal-  ance, president of the Boundary Historical Society, and her party.  The President summoned all to a moment of silence in memory  of departed friends and members.  President's Report  Two executive meetings were called during the term. Due to  unexpected circumstances after calling the fall meeting I ended up  in Toronto.   My thanks to Paddy Cameron for sitting in for me.  The Society continues to make progress and the Annual reports  continue to receive high praise from our readers. The 31st was one  of the best yet. Though fewer articles they were longer and extremely  well written. Let us keep up the good work. There is so much of our  history yet to be recorded.  I was unable to attend all the meetings of the Pandosy committee.  I suggest that as many of you as possible visit the Mission this year  and see for yourselves the tremendous amount of work already done  by the Kelowna Branch of your Society.  I have not yet had the opportunity of visiting Fairview, but hope  to this year.  We had a request from Mrs. Stodola for as many issues as possible of the Okanagan Historical Society reports to be donated to the  Osoyoos Museum in Memory of Katie Lacey. Your executive agreed  to donate as many as are available.  I had a letter from the Fish and Game Club of Tulameen indicating they were petitioning the Government to take steps to preserve  as a Historic Site the pioneer town of Granite City. They asked us  to support them by also writing the Government that this site be preserved.  This was done.  Four essays were  received  from   Enderby  this year and  since 10 The Annual Meeting O.H.S.  there is no branch of our Society in Enderby the Vernon Branch  donated the prizes.  At the last meeting of your executive it was agreed to reprint  the Father Pat book. This will be done as soon as more pictures are  received. Mrs. Dewdney, Victor Wilson and Harley Hatfield are the  committee in charge. I would like to suggest that this meeting take  steps to appoint a committee to handle the books, sales, and that a  separate Bank account be set up in the City of the Committee Chairman  to handle funds received from the books and turned over to the O.H.S.  on the 25th of April each year until the books are sold. I don't think  the Treasurer of this Society should be asked to take care of the  Father Pat book sales and banking.  It has been suggested to me by some of the Vernon Members  that our Annual Meeting, if possible, be held on a Sunday. There are  some who would like very much to be here today but can not possibly  make it on a working day.  We were sorry to hear that the officers of the Oliver-Osoyoos  Branch had resigned but at the same time pleased to hear that steps  are being taken to re-organize the branch.  I am pleased to report that Past President Guy P. Bagnall received the good citizen's award for the City of Vernon for 1967. I  know of no one who deserved it more.  My wife and I had the pleasure of attending a general meeting  in Penticton when Vic Wilson showed movies and slides and commented on his family's trip to Expo by camper. We also had the  pleasure of attending the Penticton Branch Annual Meeting and the  Annual Meeting of the Kelowna Branch. We always look forward  to attending as many of these meetings as possible and meeting with our  friends up and down the valley.  Although I never expected, nor intended, to accept the Presidency  of our Society, I have enjoyed my term very much and expect to continue to take an active part in the affairs of the Society for some years  to come.  I don't think any organization has a finer, more dedicated and  easy to work with executive that the Okanagan Historical Society.  It is always a pleasure to meet and work with them.  I thank them all very sincerely for the pleasant co-operation I  have received during my term.  Editor's Report  The Editor of the Report reported that he had been pleased to  receive ample material  for the 31st Report and thanked the contri- The Annual Meeting O.H.S. 11  butors through their branches for their co-operation but he pointed  out that it was his policy as far as possible to include copy from  throughout the Okanagan and Similkameen. He said that sometimes  this was not accomplished as well as he would have liked, owing to  scarcity of material from some areas. This, he hoped, would right  itself in the coming year.  Treasurer's Report  Presented by Mrs.  H. Cochrane  for year ending April 30th,   1968.  Receipts:  Sale of Memberships and Reports  Armstrong     $     72.50  Vernon           975.74  Kelowna (included $25.00 re sale  Vernon books)         870.40  Penticton            356.50  Oliver-Osoyoos          135.20  Similkameen   44.50  Donation by G. D. Cameron for Essay Prizes  Interest on savings acct., B. of M. Osoyoos, 28.52    $2,498.36  Expenditures:  Essay Prizes   $      15.00  Penticton Herald -  balance owing on 30th report        489.01  Postage, express, and long distance calls  61.61  The Vernon News - printing 31st report ___    2,024.40  Bank Service Charge  10.00  Vernon Museum - sale of Vernon Illustrated  History by O.H.S. Kelowna  25.00  The Vernon News - Membership cards  41.28  The Vernon News - banquet tickets  8.82  Donation to Major Mathews re annual  meeting  25.15  Donation to Pandosy Mission Committee—.        200.00  Donation to Fairview Restoration          200.00  Purchase of six paintings at $25.00         150.00  Mrs. G. Lamont - gift re designing cover  for 30th report  10.00  The Secretary - postage, stationery  and stencils   41.41  Essay Secretary - supplies and postage   12.61     $3,314.44  Excess of expenditures over receipts  $   816.08 12 The Annual Meeting O.H.S.  Bank Balances  Bank of Montreal, Vernon   $   256.21  Bank of Montreal, Kelowna          142.24  Bank of Montreal, Penticton          130.54  Bank of Montreal, Osoyoos       1,107.31  $1,636.30  Total funds on deposit April 30, 1967   $2,452.38  Less expenditures over receipts  816.08  $1,636.30  STATEMENT  OF  REPORTS  AS  AT  APRIL   30th,   1968.  No. 31 reports sold: Armstrong, 23; Vernon, 188;  Kelowna, 254;  Penticton, 107; Oliver-Osoyoos, 25;  Similkameen, 14.  REPORTS on hand: No. 6, reprint, 26;  No. 11, 27;  No.  15, 67;  No. 16, 30; No. 17, 86; No. 18, 69; No. 20, 113; No. 21, 138;  No. 22, 95; No. 26, 53; No. 27, 132; No. 28, 120; No. 29, 140;  No. 30, 115; No. 31, 371. Total 1,582.  Submitted and moved by Mrs. Hilda Cochrane, Seconded by  G. D. Cameron, carried.  BRANCH REPORTS  VERNON, submitted by H. Cochrane, President  We have a had a quiet year. Through the efforts of the Vernon  Branch of the O.H.S. and the Vernon Museum & Archives we compiled and produced "Vernon, an Illustrated History." The Pilot Committee was composed of Dr. D. Ross, Ken Ellison and H. Cochrane.  We were fortunate in having the assistance of W. A. Martin, Production Manager of the Vernon News and Miles Overend, photographer of the Vernon News. Both these men were keenly interested  and their help and advice was very valuable to us. Text was by Mrs.  Theresa Hurst. Most of the pictures used were from the collection of  the City of Vernon Museum and Archives. Some we managed to borrow. The aerial views of modern Vernon were taken for us by Mr.  Eldon Seymour from his plane.  I held only one executive meeting and at that meeting asked  the executive to stand for another year as I would not be calling an  annual general meeting this year.  This they agreed to do.  Submitted by H. Cochrane, President.  KELOWNA Branch, submitted by Mrs. T. B. Upton  We held our Annual Meeting and dinner in St. Joseph's Hall,  Kelowna on April 1st, 1968, with one hundred and fifty-seven people The Annual Meeting O.H.S. 13  present. Our guest speaker was Mr. Bruce Winsby, Manager of the  Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, and President of the Kelowna  Chamber of Commerce, Kelowna. Mr. Winsby gave a talk with slides  on Gold Rush Days in the Yukon. The slides were made from old  photographs made during the Gold Rush. There were many interesting  historical paintings and photographs on display also. Tape and slides  depicting growth from Brigade Trail days in the Okanagan, to the first  settlement around the Father Pandosy Mission in 1860, to the laying  out of the site of the City of Kelowna in 1892, to the City's incorporation in 1905, were shown following the meeting.  The second printing of Ogopogo's Vigil is off the press and paid  for. There are about forty of the original thousand on hand. The  second printing, with its extra sixteen pages of old photographs, will  go much more slowly as far as sales are concerned.  Before the Annual Okanagan Historical Society Report came off  the press, we again sent out over 200 cards to local people who had  purchased the reports previously. To date we have sold 266 copies of  the report. Members of the Executive went on T.V. and radio. Newspaper publicity was also given. We wish to thank all the news media  for their excellent co-operation. To Trench's Drug Store, Kelowna  goes our very special thanks—they for so many years have sold memberships in the O.H.S., and tickets for our annual dinner meeting.  The Okanagan-Boundary Annual Picnic was held in this area  in June and was most successful with about 250 people attending.  Mr. G. D. Cameron did a wonderful job of organizing the tour which  included the Westbank Cairn on the Brigade Trail, the Lookout on the  side of the lake, Brent's Mill, a short talk about the Benvoulin United  Church and the Benvoulin School, Guisachan, lunch at the Kelowna  Riding Club, on to the Father Pandosy Mission, and the Indian  Village at Okanagan Mission. We are most grateful to all those  people who gave talks at various stops, and to those who organized  the tea, coffee and juice at the Riding Club Grounds.  There were eleven entries in the Annual Essay Contest, seven  from Immaculata, three from George Elliot and one from George  Pringle. Again we stress the importance of individual research—do not  try to copy from previous reports. Winners this year are Elizabeth  Middleton of George Elliott with an essay on Carr's Landing "Cus-  in-so-nook." Second prize went to Marjorie Gorman, student at  George Pringle with an essay on "Early Days in Glenrosa."  Members of this executive have done a great deal of work on  the Father Pandosy Mission. The co-chairman will be giving a report  on this committee. 14 The Annual Meeting O.H.S.  Again we have been in correspondence with local authorities  about road names. Subdividing organizations have also been contacted.  We have submitted names of old-timers to the City.  To the Executive of the Kelowna Branch, O.H.S., go my thanks.  They are a cheerful and hard working group.  Respectfully submitted by Mrs. T. B. Upton.  PENTICTON Branch Report by Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, president  The Penticton Branch enjoyed an active, colorful and successful  year with a record membership of 186 during Canada's spectacular  Centennial Year.  Meetings included three General and six Executive, all of  which were well attended. We had representatives at all Executive  Council meetings of the Parent Society, at meetings of the Father  Pandosy Committee, and at meetings of the Penticton and District  Community Arts Council.  We were hosts for the Annual General Meeting and Dinner  (smorgasbord) of the Parent Society held in the United Church Hall  on May 8, 1967. The dinner, toasts and decorations had the Centennial theme. Old classical songs were rendered by a trio: the Misses  Vera Christian, Helene Scott and Jacqui Harris.  The guest speaker, Major J. S. Matthews, archivist of the City of  Vancouver, gave a delightful and humorous description of his visits to  the Okanagan in the early days of the century.  The Autumn General Meeting was held in the auditorium of  the Community Arts Centre on October 26th. The Summerland  Camera Club showed their film, "In the Shadow of the Giant's  Head", which was the history of Summerland in pictures with a  running commentary skillfully done by Mr. Allan McKenzie. This  was a most enjoyable programme with excellent photography remarkably well put together.  The Winter General Meeting was held in the auditorium of  the Community Arts Centre on February 9, 1968 when Mr. Victor  Wilson took us on a tour using motion pictures and colored slides accompanied by a lively and colorful running commentary. The tour  in Canada's Centennial Year, started at Penticton with his family of  five in a camper, travelled to Expo 67 in Montreal, then home  again after visiting many interesting people, events and places across  Canada, and especially the wonders of Expo.  Our Annual General Meeting was held on March 29, 1968 in  the auditorium of the Community Arts Centre with about 180 members  and   friends  present.    Mrs.   Louise  Gabriel,   Senior   Councillor The Annual Meeting O.H.S. 15  of the Penticton Indian Band, gave an interesting and informative  account of progress made under the new programme for Indians on  the Reserve.  Mr. Victor Wilson presented a taped narrative by Mr. Robert  Orchard entitled, "Okanagan People", which recorded the voices of  Okanagan Valley pioneers. Mr. Wilson had skilfully synchronized  many of his slides to illustrate the narrative, thus bringing the storytelling pioneers and Okanagan scenery into view. Harold Cochrane,  president O.H.S., and Mrs. Cochrane, treasurer of the O.H.S., attended the Penticton winter general meeting and their annual general  meeting.  We continue to foster friendly relations, mutual trust and mutual  understanding with the Indians. Mrs. Louise Gabriel is a Director of  our Branch. Many of our members attended the salmon barbecue held  in July on the Reserve. We also attended their sales of handicrafts.  Two of our members were invited to take part in the Indian Leadership Conference held in Naramata from November 19 to 24, 1967.  During the past year the Editorial Committee has worked diligently to collect pictures, and collect and edit articles for the annual  Okanagan Historical Report.  Presently we are co-operating with the City of Penticton in  erecting a marker on the orginal site of Penticton's first church, St.  Saviour's Anglican Church, built by Mr. Thomas Ellis in 1892 on  Fairview Road.  Concerning the biography of the Reverend Henry Irwin, (Father  Pat), we are pleased to report that all copyrights have been released  to the Okanagan Historical Society with permission to have the book,  "Father Pat, a Hero of the Far West", by Mrs. Jerome Mercier  reprinted and republished. Presently we are collecting pictures associated with Father Pat's life for inclusion in the book.  In July 1967, in co-operation with the City of Penticton, we  published the book, "Penticton Pioneers in Story and Picture."  At the Peach Festival held on August 1, 2, and 3, in the Memorial Arena, we had a booth decorated in the Centennial theme where  members dressed in Centennial costumes sold the books: "Reports of  the Okanagan Historical Society," "Penticton Pioneers in Story and  Pictures," and "Ted Tells Okanagan Tales" by Ted Logie.  The Reverend Alvin Miller, our Vice-President, is working with  the local Fairview Committee for the restoration and re-creation of  the old mining camp at Fairview as a composite historic park.  Many of our members enjoyed the Okanagan-Boundary Annual  Field Day held on several historic sites in the Kelowna area on June 16 The Annual Meeting O.H.S.  11,  1967.   Members of the Kelowna Branch were our genial hosts.  The Essay Contest was held as usual. Thanks are again extended  to Mrs. Irvine Moss, teacher at McNicoll Park School, who so ably  encouraged the students to write essays. A cheque for $10.00 was  presented to the winner, Coral Henders, whose subject was, "The  History of the Square Dance Jamboree Week in Penticton." The  second prize of $5.00 went to Donna Orge. Certificates of Merit  were given to six other contestants.  Our President and a few members had the pleasure of attending  a meeting of the Oliver-Osoyoos Branch which was held to reorganize  the Branch. Mr. Victor Wrilson showed coloured slides accompanied  bv a running commentary of his visit to Expo 67. We also enjoyed  attending the Annual Meeting of the Kelowna Branch.  As our Branch is a member of the Penticton and District Community Arts Council, our President prepared and presented a brief  to the British Columbia Centennial Cultural Fund Advisory Committee for a grant in 1967. This brief gave the aims and the history  of recent activities of the Penticton Branch. In response to this application a grant was received from the Centennial Cultural Fund.  The past year has been exceptionally enjoyable and rewarding,  and my sincere thanks are extended to the Executive and members of  the Penticton Branch for their loyal support and co-operation.  Respectfully submitted, Kathleen S. Dewdney, President.  OLIVER - OSOYOOS  Mr. H. A. Porteous reported the society is being reorganized and  although no report is available at this time, it is hoped the coming  year will be more active.  SIMILKAMEEN  We had three executive meetings and one annual meeting. At  our sixth annual meeting on the 29th of March, 1968 we held a Card  Party in conjunction with the Annual Meeting, at which we had our  election of officers. Due to illness our President Mr. Manery was not  in attendance, therefore Mr. David Logan conducted the election of  officers.  Since we had no historical essay entries this year, our affiliation  with the local Parent Teacher's Association brought about a keen  interest and as such we were able to support our historical Essay competition among both Elementary and Secondary school pupils of  District 16.  From  the essays  submitted,  interesting  booklets were  compiled   ^ The Annual Meeting O.H.S. 1 7  which we have on hand, and which will supply you with a wealth of  information on the history of our pioneers and this valley.  The Grist Mill Marker we had on hand has now been erected  near the Munden property.  Tentative plans are underway to explore and locate the Indian  Pictographs which embrace the area from Rubis Ranch to Green  Mountain and the border at Nighthawk.  Further plans are underway to have a meeting to be followed  by a social gathering in the Indian Hall at Lower Similkameen in  October or November.  Respectfully submitted, Mrs. Mary Walters.  ARMSTRONG  No report available.  ESSAY CHAIRMAN'S REPORT  It is the aim of the Secretary of Essay Contests to enlist the  interest of School Principals and Teachers to encourage those students  in Grades 8, 9 and 10 to submit essays on suitable local history topics.  These essays are judged; first, in each separate Branch of the Society  in the Okanagan and Similkameen; and secondly, the winning essays  from each branch are sent to the Essay Secretary for final judging  which determines the awarding of the Shield to the School attended  by the winner.  In School District No. 23, this year the following schools have  submitted essays:  George Pringle High School, Westbank—one essay.  Immaculata High School, Kelowna—seven essays.  George  Elliott  Secondary  School,   Winfield—four   essays.  In addition four essays were entered from Enderby High School,  and quite a large number from Penticton.  The final winner is Miss Rita Van Solkema of Enderby, with  her essay on "Grindrod." The second prize goes to Miss Elizabeth  Middleton from George Elliott Secondary School at Winfield on the  subject "Cus-in-so-Nook," which is the Indian name for Carr's  Landing.  I am very grateful to Mr. Donald Whitham for his assistance  in judging the winning essays. We each marked them separately and  agreed on the first and second prizes as mentioned above. It is a much  more pleasant task when there is no question as to who should come  first—and second.  Mr. Whitham pointed out two factual errors which 18 The Annual Meeting O.H.S.  have been noted on each essay. His long experience as a resident of  this area fits him admirably to put us "right" on facts.  This year, at the suggestion of Mrs. W. R. Dewdney of Penticton, we made an appeal to Art Teachers to submit drawings or  paintings that would be suitable as a crest for letterheads, displays,  etc., pertaining to the work of the Society. There were no prizes  offered for this. We hoped that the satisfaction and honour of public  recognition for useful and artistic work would be sufficient reward.  However, there was no response to this request.  We also requested a list of persons from each district who had  received the Centennial Medallion. Mrs. Grace Whitaker of Summerland submitted a list of over ninety names of those who had been  honoured in and around Summerland. Unfortunately these arrived  too late to be incorporated in the 1967 year book.  In this, my last year of service as Essay Secretary, I want to take  this opportunity to wish my successor in this office, better results than  I have been able to accomplish. I also wish to thank the many officers  of the Society for their hearty co-operation and assistance when required, and to those principals and school teachers who have supported  this endeavor. It has been a rewarding experience in so many ways  to have been privileged to serve you in the capacity of Essay Secretary.  Respectfully submitted, Gladys E. Herbert.  SPECIAL COMMITTEES  FATHER PANDOSY REPORT  Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen, it has been a year since  you authorized the formation of the Father Pandosy Committee of  the Okanagan Historical Society. Mr. Marty and myself, as co-  chairmen, present to you your first report on the committee's progress  for the past year. The committee has been quite active, six committee  meetings have been called plus a few get togethers at the Mission Site.  Each meeting has had very nearly 100% attendance and each member has taken a personal interest in the Mission's development. However the one member who has taken the brunt of the work, has done  all the cleaning of the old buildings, supervised the moving of two  additional buildings, the building of the implement display shed and  the collection of many old articles and machinery is co-chairman Mr.  Joseph Marty.  On June 18th, 1968, the Committee had a very interesting  meeting with Mr. George Moore, Museum Advisor for the Provincial  Museums, at which time it was discussed in some detail the proposed The Annual Meeting O.H.S. 19  future improvement and development of the Mission. Mr. Moore  was very helpful and gave valuable advice on the possible development  of the Mission, and he stressed the need of authenticity in each era  depicted, ample spacing of buildings and exhibits and also the need for  an artistic touch in the general appearance of the site as a whole. He  had prepared for us a suggested plan and model of the proposed development. The model along with an artist's conception of the finished  site is now on display for your perusal together with some recent  pictures.  The Pandosy Committee has joined the B.C. Museum Association, we now receive their quarterly informative report "Museum  Roundup." We also contributed $100.00 towards the expenses of  having two of our committee members, Mrs. Upton and Mr. Marty,  attend the Provincial Museum Seminar held at Victoria last September. We believe this was quite worthwhile as it gave instructions and  information on the developing and displaying of museum articles.  Serious consideration should be given again this year to sending  delegates to the Seminar which will be held in Vernon.  By the efforts of committee member Carl Breise we were able,  through Mr. W. Beaton of Crown Zellerbach, to have delivered a  load of suitable poles for the implement display shed. Mr. Marty has  been busy this winter building this structure and will have it completed  in due course.  Mr. Marty has the Chapel and the "School Building" thoroughly  cleaned out and all the joints caulked with wire and mortar. In the  Chapel Mr. Marty has put in windows and a wooden floor made from  weather-beaten lumber. Mr. Paddy Cameron has moved, at his  expense, the old McDougall house from the Guisachan Ranch onto  the Mission and he has also given us the former log "Riding Club"  building which has also been moved into place. Mr. Marty is now  getting the McDougall house fixed up.  We have been very successful in obtaining many old farm implements, tools and early household articles, some of which cannot  be displayed until suitable and safe display space is provided.  Last June Mr. Marty made a suitable collection box with a well  worded notice above it and this brought in $163.00, this went a long  way in paying much of the costs of fixing up the buildings. A guest  book was also provided and this showed 1288 persons visited the Pandosy Mission that took the trouble of putting down their names and  where they came from. No doubt there are others that we have no  record of.  This is a very impressive number of visitors and is a good 20 The Annual Meeting O.H.S.  indication of the potential when we have something worthwhile to  advertise and see.  We had hoped to get some trees planted this spring but we lacked  the means for keeping the trees watered, through the summer, this  now will have to wait for another year. At the present time Mr.  Marty is constructing a wishing well as an added attraction and a  profitable one to us, we hope. It is our intention to make application  to the Department of National Revenue as a charitable organization  so that receipts can be issued for income tax purposes.  We wish to express our thanks to Stan Duggan, Archie Hardy  and Phil Horatin for the use of their trucks to move machinery to the  Mission. Mr. Duggan has been especially helpful and successfully  assisted us in getting old implements from Falkland.  The financial statement will give you the details of the income  and expenditures. The committee wishes to thank the Okanagan Historical Society for a grant of $200.00 and also the Knights of Columbus of Kelowna for their contribution of $400.00.  So much for the report of what has been done during the past  year Mr. President, but I would like to dwell for a minute or two  on the future. A very considerable amount of time and effort has  been expended, well over 2000 hours, many articles and implements  procured and we now have, I think, the -plan and frame work to  develop this Mission in some detail. However I can see that we as  a committee are going to get beyond our depth, so to speak, unless we  can find some means of getting substantial support. The amount and  type of work involved can be more than can be expected voluntarily.  For example, it is essential that we have a full time caretaker to live  on or adjacent to the property, and adequate security protection must  be taken.  This means wage costs and suitable living quarters.  We have had correspondence with Dr. Margaret Ormsby,  Director of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, who  has presented our inquiry for assistance to the Board. We have been  informed that a research paper will be prepared on the Father Pandosy Mission and it is hoped this will be on their agenda for the fall  meeting. Just what we can expect from this quarter remains to be  seen and it will take time. We have made inquiries regarding help  from the Provincial Centennial Culture Fund but unsuccessful so far.  The development of this Father Pandosy Mission is a big undertaking  and the more we get involved in it the more we can visualize the great  possibilities it presents. This could be one of the best Historical Mission Sites in B.C., exhibiting the early pioneer rural life not only of  the Okanagan but B.C.  It is going to take research and work which The Annual Meeting O.H.S. 21  means time and money plus a lot of enthusiasm.  The members of our committee are:  Joseph Marty and W. Bulman, co-chairmen; Mrs. Bennett  (Margaret) Greening, secretary-treasurer; Jack Bedford, Fred Waterman, Mrs. Primrose Upton, Paddy Cameron, Carl Briese, Harold  Cochrane, President O.H.S.  Respectfully submitted, W. T. J. Bulman, co-chairman.  TREASURER'S REPORT  From February 1st, 1967, to April 30th, 1968.  Receipts  Donations received  Okanagan Historical Society $200.00  Father Pandosy Council No. 2558 Third Degree  Knights of Columbus  200.00  Father Pierre Richard General Assembly  Fourth Degree Knights of Columbus  200.00  Okanagan Historical Society Picnic and Tour      13.33  Mr. G. D. Cameron (donation toward moving of  buildings to Pandosy Mission)    150.00  Mrs. M. C. Neave      30.00  Mr. Tom Carney      10.00  Mr. Anthony Casorso       5.00  Father Leo Casey         1.50  Mr. J. F. Bellefleur        1.00  Kelowna Branch Okanagan Society Annual Meeting    8.02  Received in box at Pandosy Mission   163.73  Sale of Gate       15.00       $997.58  Expenditures  Kelowna Builders Supply Ltd., mortar mix,  masonry cement, lath, nails, solvent  32.67  Scott's Building Supplies Ltd., nails, bolts,  cement, lath, staples   28.56  Peerless Pipe and Equipment Ltd., bolts,  threading pipe  7.05  Frank Walker Salvage, glass, iron   5.75  Lakeview Market, broom and dustpan  2.70  Kelowna Courier, photo  6.30  Vernon Business Service, photocopies  2.40  Kelowna Printing Co,, record book  1.26 22 The Annual Meeting O.H.S.  Active Machine Works, welding, making up pipe _ 17.05  Kelowna Industrial Supply, screen, bolts, nuts  3.41  Gas for travelling  43.50  Miscellaneous expenses (small items used to repair  building, etc., at Father Pandosy Mission)   51.60  John Kiene, hauling implement  7.00  Albert Daniel, hauling implement  10.00  Membership to B.C. Museums Association  5.00  Exchange on cheque   -.15  Expenses for delegates attending Annual Seminar  of B.C. Museums Association in Victoria  100.00  Okanagan Building Movers, moving two buildings  from Guisachan Ranch to Pandosy Mission __ 450.00  Albert Daniel, cutting grass  12.00         786.40  Excess of receipts over expenditures  $211.18  Bank Balance  The Royal Bank of Canada, April 30, 1968  $206.68  Cash on hand, April 30, 1968       4.50  Total    $211.18  Respectfully submitted, Margaret Greening, Treasurer.  FAIRVIEW RESTORATION REPORT  Rev. Miller first thanked the O.H.S. for the funds provided.  These funds were used to erect a sign showing Fairview Townsite  Area and location of the different buildings.  Oliver Chamber of Commerce set up a committee to work on  the restoration of the townsite. This committee has worked diligently  and has carried on for four years. Local historians have not given  too much help and the Chamber wants further help and direction from  the O.H.S.  A Historic Marker is planned by the Provincial Recreation  Branch. A request was made by the O.H.S. that 160 acres be set aside  as Parkland. The Government declined this request as they thought  the area was too large, and also that Oliver would require this area  in the future for housing. Rev. Miller did not agree with this thinking as Oliver was not making much growth at this time.  There was unfortunately some difference of opinion expressed  over Oliver Chamber of Commerce taking an active part in restora- The Annual Meeting O.H.S. 23  tion of this area. Considerable discussion followed at this point. Victor Wilson thought our problem was mainly a breakdown of communications and hoped the newly organized Oliver-Osoyoos Group  would actively push this project.  Submitted by Rev. Alvin Miller.  FATHER PAT REPORT  Mrs. W. R. Dewdney reported on locating pictures to be included in "The Father Pat" book.  It will be published this summer and the first printing is to be  1000 copies.  Submitted by Mr. W. R. Dewdney.  ESSAYS  Proposed by Mr. Nigel Pooley the Okanagan Historical Society  publish some of the good essays.  Moved by Mr. Nigel Pooley; Seconded by Mr. Ken Ellison,  carried.  ANNUAL MEETING  Proposed the Annual General Meeting be held on the first Sunday  in May 1969 at Kelowna on a trial basis, providing this does not conflict with the constitution and bylaws.  Proposed by Mr. Nigel Pooley; Seconded by Mr. Ken Ellison,  carried.  BOUNDARY HISTORICAL SOCIETY  FIELD DAY AND PICNIC  Mrs. Jack Roylance spoke to the meeting and invited all members to the Boundary Historical Society's annual Field Day and Picnic which will take place this year at Christina Lake, Sunday, June  16th, 1968.  Mrs. Roylance warmly thanked Mr. Eric Sismey for his help  with pictures he supplied for their report. 24 The Annual Meeting O.H.S.  The Annual Banquet,  1968,  of the  Okanagan Historical Society  Over 160 people attended the annual banquet of the Okanagan  Historical Society held in the Community Hall, Cawston, following  the annual meeting of the society May 13, 1968.  President-elect Mrs. W. R. Dewdney welcomed all present and  introduced the guests at the head table. These included: Mr. Jack  Roylance of Greenwood; Mr. Ray Walters of Keremeos; Mrs.  Douglas Parsons of Keremeos, Treasurer of the Similkameen Branch;  Major Hugh Porteous of Oliver, Editor of the O.H.S.; Mrs. Ray  Walters, President of the Similkameen Branch; Mr. David Pugh,  M.P. for Okanagan-Boundary; Mrs. Hilda Cochrane of Vernon,  Treasurer of the O.H.S.; Mr. Willard Ireland of Victoria, Guest  Speaker; Mrs. Hugh Porteous of Oliver; Mrs. Jack Roylance, President of the Boundary Historical Society; Mr. Gordon Herbert of  Kelowna, Charter Member of the O.H.S.; Mrs. T. B. Upton, Past  President of the Kelowna Branch; Mr. Harold Cochrane, Past President of the O.H.S.; Mrs. David Pugh of Oliver; Mr. Sam Manery  of Cawston, Past President of the Similkameen Branch.  Guest speaker, Mr. Willard Ireland, Provincial Archivist and  Librarian at Victoria, made a plea for action to prevent the loss of  Canada's historical material to the United States. He said too cheap  a price is placed on Canada's heritage. Federal legislation would go  a long way in preventing this loss. The treasures of Europe are protected by export permits, and similar conditions are needed to protect  Canada's.  He reminded us that this part of the country ties into the total  history of the province; first the pull north and south and later east  and west. At one time the Okanagan was the only route into the  province for fur-traders and it is notable that the old fur-trading posts  have continued to grow with the province and remain important  centres even now.  The provincial museum in Victoria gives a total picture of the  province, while the local museums and societies deal with their local  history in depth, he added.  Mr. Ireland said that but for the work of this Society much of  the lore and history of the Okanagan-Similkameen area would have  been lost which would also have been a loss to the province. These  valleys represent the total history of our province and of our nation  in miniature. The Annual Banquet, 1968, O.H.S. 25  He encouraged everyone to collect items of local historical interest, and he emphasized the part the children can play in getting pictures and stories and articles from their elders.  "It is going to cost a mint of money to collect and preserve all  that should be kept," he said, "but historical societies should have  government assistance the same as libraries. And collect not only the  past but also the present. In a hundred years many of the articles in  common use now will be museum pieces."  "Do not throw out your 'junk', you may be throwing away an  object that is irreplaceable. Let the archives in Victoria take the place  of your now non-existent attics and basements."  "The Okanagan has had more basic changes than any other part  of British Columbia," he said. "Goodness knows what the valley will  look like in 50 years time. Children may then have to go to a museum  to see what a cow is."  He also spoke of the necessary awareness as to what is going on  around us because what is commonplace today will be history tomorrow, and should be recorded.  "We have a heritage of which we can be proud and it must be  recorded and displayed not just for tourists but for our children and  our children's children."  "We have talked so much about the good old days, no one wants  to go back to them, but the young people want to be shown what they  were like.   If we wait too long this heritage will be lost forever."  "And do not neglect your historic sites. Barkerville and Fort  Steele are already being restored. The research for Fairview, McKinney and Granite Creek is already done but the work waits for funds.  Don't forget that Centennials are important and another one is coming in 1970! Think in terms of a project. We have to pay the cost  somehow for our heritage or lose it."  "Be proud of our heritage, get it recorded. Collect items of  local historical interest," urged Mr. Ireland.  Mr. Victor Wilson warmly thanked Mr. Ireland for his stimulating and timely address.  On behalf of the Okanagan Historical Society Mr. Sam Manery  presented a memento to Mr. Ireland for his inspiring address and his  help throughout past years.  On behalf of the Similkameen Branch Mr. Ireland presented a  gift to Past President Mr. Sam Manery, who helped organize the  Branch and direct its activities.  Mrs. G. D. Herbert presented prizes to the winners of the  O.H.S. Essay contest, Rita Van Solkema of Enderby and Elizabeth 26 The Annual Banquet, 1968, O.H.S.  Middleton of Okanagan Centre. The Enderby school was awarded  the Shield.  Mr. Ireland presented prizes to Bernadine Allison and Susan  Clark, winners in the O.H.S., Similkameen  Branch,  Essay Contest.  In recognizing the work of the young writers Mr. Ireland said,  "These young people are our future historians."  For faithful and dedicated work in Okanagan historical matters  throughout the years, the President commended Mr. Harold Cochrane  and presented him with a Past President's certificate; also commended  and presented with Life Memberships in the Okanagan Historical  Society were Mrs. Hilda Cochrane, Treasurer of the Society, and  Mr. R. N. Atkinson, Curator of the Penticton Museum.  Among those present who brought greetings and spoke briefly  were: Mr. David Pugh, M.P.; Mr. Bruce Howard, Liberal candidate; Mrs. Gordon Herbert, charter member of the O.H.S., who was  present at the first meeting of the Society when it was held in Vernon  in 1925. He recalled activities and stories about the early days of the  Society, and of its founder, Mr. Leonard Norris. Mrs. Jack Roylance extended a hearty welcome to everyone to attend the Field Day  and Picnic of the Boundary Historical Society to be held at Christina  Lake on June  16th.  Mrs. Ray Walters thanked Mrs. A. Laing, PTA President;  Mr. A. Kuhn, Similkameen Secondary School Principal; and Mr. K.  Timms, Keremeos Elementary School Principal, for their work in  the Historical Essay Contest and the publication of the entries in  booklet form.  Mr. Nigel Pooley thanked the ladies of the Cawston United  Church Sunday School Auxiliary who prepared and served the delicious dinner.  The President extended thanks to members of the Similkameen  Branch, our genial and capable hosts, who had helped to make our  Annual General Meeting such an enjoyable and successful event. Some Reasons for Stern Wheel Boats on Okanagan Lake  11  Some Reasons for Stern  Wheel Boats  on Okanagan Lake  By Captain Otto L. Estabrooks  Both the Canadian Pacific and the Canadian National railways  have rail service to Kelowna, and by another route through Penticton.  But neither railway has ever ventured to lay rails along either shore  of Okanagan Lake. It is more  practical to shuttle the freight cars  over the lake on car transfer  barges.  This service began in 1908  when the sternwheel steamer  "Aberdeen" with a barge load of  freight cars loaded from the CPR  terminal at Okanagan Landing,  bridged the thirty mile water gap  to Kelowna.  Although a yard had been  laid out at Kelowna, there were  no facilities for switching so the  boat crew would unload the barge  and spot the cars as best they could.  Later, teams of horses took over  the switching. Now it is done by  heavy duty trucks. They do an  excellent job switching cars  through tricky maneuvers here where locomotives cannot enter because  of sharp curves. (When I asked the engineer who surveyed the yard  why he made the yard and car slip SO' crooked, he said, "Any d— fool  could lay a straight track; it takes an engineer to lay a crooked one.")  This method of box car transfer was so successful and economical  that cars were soon delivered to Penticton. Such yards, isolated by  water from the parent railroad, were also laid at Summerland, Naramata, Westbank, and Okanagan Centre. These yards are still serviced by barge with no end of such service in sight, but now tugs handle  the barges.  Why was this service begun, and pre-provided by the sternwheel  boat? These boats were operated on the lake for the same reasons that  such boats were operated on other interior waterways for centuries,  and would dominate the British Columbia interior waters for a century.  Captain Otto Estabrook 28 Some Reasons for Stern Wheel Boats on Okanagan Lake  Their low construction and maintenance cost in comparison with other  boats of the same size at that time, or railroads, was a deciding factor.  Their adaptibility to pioneer conditions had been well demonstrated  before they were made the natural choice for the Okanagan Lake.  The first for this lake was the Str. "Aberdeen" built at Okanagan Landing for less than $50,000, and crewed for monthly board  and salary: Captain $100, engineer $95, purser $60, mate $50, steward $50, cook $40, fireman $40, deckhands $30.  One aspect of their adaptibility was that the bow of such boats  was constructed strong, for running the bow ashore. Landing aground  without harm to the hull was a necessary feature when landings had  to be made anywhere on shore either side of the lake, before government roads or wharves were built.  Anyone was privileged to call a boat anywhere. A recognized  signal was either a white cloth or two fires on shore. This call might  be made by a lone trapper, logger, a citizen of a beginning settlement,  or a homesteading family. On Okanagan Lake, when regular service  was set up, there were finally nineteen calls on the west shore and  nine landings on the east side, between Penticton and Okanagan Ldg.  Crashing ashore at full speed in fog was an eventuality. If the  captain was at the wheel, something must have gone wrong with that  compass! If a mate, hoping for promotion, was in high command  at such an unfortunate time, he had better quickly think up some excuse  never before offered—or else! I speak from long experience in both  of these positions that once buttered my bread.  Making shore landings with such a staunch hull sometimes invited carelessness, resulting in grounding too hard. Then, when ready  to leave, the paddle wheel in reverse would not have enough power  to pull the hull free without help. Their unique trump card, known  as dual control, then afforded the needed release. With this control,  the pilot could handle the boat with equal certainty when either working ahead or astern—an impossibility for any other boat at that time  to duplicate.  Ahead steering control, while under way, theoretically was worked  exactly as were sailing ships when under way. Astern control was  made possible by designing the paddlewheel aft of the hull and rudders. In this position, the wheel in reverse would throw a solid current  of water ahead against the three or four rudders that were bolted to  the hull transom. This enabled the pilot to swing the stern either way.  The action of swinging the stern back and forth would wiggle the  bow down off the bank into open water, leaving the boat free.  The big wheel could also force a channel through ice, either by Some Reasons for Stern Wheel Boats on Okanagan Lake  29  pushing a barge ahead of the boat to break the ice, or backing the  paddle wheel over the ice in reverse. Either way, the boat could make  herself a safe channel.  Another use for the wheel, was to dredge deep holes at the landing berths. With the boat made fast and her big wheel working full  ahead, a deep hole was soon made. Most of this work was done at  Penticton or Summerland.  Early sternwheelers were usually alone on their route, so a crew  was expected to get her out of any dead ends. Repairs were simple,  usually with lots of haywire.  Pleasant diversions were provided by these boats—excursions for  picnics, regattas, farm fairs, horse races, lacrosse, and even moonlight  cruises with dancing. For such events there was a routine matter of  moving extra life preservers from the freight shed to the boat to meet  inspection demands. These life preservers consisted of one simple  cedar plank, each two inches by twelve inches and four feet long.  Painted with the well known CPR red paint, white letters stencilled  THE S.S. ABERDEEN CREW BEFORE 1902  From left to right—Front row: Purser, J. McDonald. Mate, J. B. Weeks (later  Captain). Captain,  G.  L.  Estabrooks.  Chief Engineer,  R.   Hawes.   Steward,  C. Petman.  Centre: A waiter, "Slabs", a nickname because his duties were unloading the  cars of wood fuel and piling it neatly in the wood yard at Okanagan Landing.  Deckhand, A. McDonald. Freight clerk, A. Finlayson (with white tie). Pantryboy,  Wa Tip.  Back row, deckhands: W. Grosse, W. Gibbs, next three names not remembered.  Tom Jones. One on the right not remembered. 30 Some Reasons for Stern Wheel Boats on Okanagan Lake  on them to tell what they were supposed to be for. With a hand hole  on each tide to hang on to, they evidently created a feeling of safety.  At any rate no one complained that I know of. But no one fell overboard to test one for the curious.  The boats offered a safe, comfortable, reliable trip catering at  first to a very small amount of business. There were staterooms for  passengers, small, but better than could be offered on trains of that  day. There was always lots of good food, and lots of fun to help  digest it during the good old days. Most travellers of the sternwheel  era have many happy memories of boat trips.  Others though, remember them as enemies to polite society, harbouring bedbugs and cockroaches. Then the boat itself at times would  add insult to this affront. When called to a landing the steam would  be shut off for a minute or so to let the boat lose way. The steam in  the big cylinders, could then condense into water thus floating some  of the black cylinder oil. When nearing the landing the engines would  be thrown to full reverse, exhausting this cylinder brew via the smoke  stack into the open air. With the wind in the right direction this  coughed up dirty mess could descend silently on patrons waiting to  board the boat. Especially those in white dresses or shirts would find  themselves dyed a colorful black and white—an insult difficult to forgive and forget. The pleasure seeking passengers on board, under the  protection of the deck above always enjoyed this comedy. On such  craft those who helped build our comfortable civilizations were obliged  to travel, whether they liked it or not.  This catering to a small amount of business came to the sudden  end of an era when the mines south of Penticton began to open up.  Then started an ever-ascending volume of passengers and freight. A  deck barge came into use to handle heavy machinery and non perishable cargo. The sternwheelers were ideal for barge work because of  their dual ahead or astern control. More room was needed and soon  after the turn of the century the boiler furnace of the "Aberdeen"  was converted from a wood burner to a coal burner, then coal was  dumped into bunkers below deck so wood fuel no longer took up deck  space needed for freight.  Electricity was provided at this time to meet the needs of increased traffic and make the increasing night work safer.  Now space was ample but it was seen that the growing fruit and  farming communities would soon need a fast service to move perishable produce. The Str. "Okanagan" was built and placed in service  April 1907. She had the speed, and easily made a round trip a day.  The Str. "Kaleden" was built 1910 and carried explosives down the ^^^^  Some Reasons for Stern Wheel Boats on Okanagan Lake 31  lake for the Kettle Valley Railway construction. Finally the big Str.  "Sicamous" began her round trip a day beginning July 1914. She  satisfied the demand until the advent of gasoline vehicles, then the  paved highway era inherited the passenger business.  May it be said to her everlasting credit the last sternwheeler to  run on Okanagan Lake, the Str. "Sicamous" did not haggle with bedbugs or cockroaches; they were routed with modern methods. Neither  did she follow the habit of her ancestors in spraying waiting passengers  with a devil's brew of dirty hot water and oil from her smoke stack.  This mixture was trapped in her engine room with condensers.  Now permanently berthed at her last landing on the southwest  shore of Okanagan Lake, at Penticton, no dual rudder control can  budge her from such gracious retirement. Here she will remain for  historical interest.  However, one physical pleasure enjoyed on sternwheel boats for  centuries was continued on this lady to the end. A crew privilege.  Any member was permitted to drift into the steward's domain mid-  morning, afternoon or evening for a cup of tea or coffee and to chatter. A reminder for those who may wonder how the now popular  coffee break habit came into the world.  A LIST OF LANDINGS SERVICED BY STERNWHEELERS  ON OKANAGAN LAKE  The west side: Okanagan Landing, Whiteman Creek, Sproules  Ldg. (Killiney), Mordens (now Ewing), Jim Bruce Ldg., Shorts  Point (Fintry),.Nahun, Caesars Ldg., Wilson Ldg., Bear Creek, W.  D'Aeth Ldg. (Powers Pt.), Halls Ldg. (Westbank), Gellatly Ldg.,  Lambley (Trepanier), Peachland, Deep Creek, Greata Ldg., Camp  McKinney, Geo. Barcley (Summerland), Trout Creek, Penticton.  The east side: Okanagan Landing, A. Carr Ldg. (now Sunnywold), Rainbow Ranch, Okanagan Centre, McKinley Ldg., Kelowna,  Mission, Creighton Ldg., Paradise, Nine Mile (Naramata), Penticton. 32  Vernon and the Okanagan in 1894  Vernon  and the  Okanagan  in 1894  By Hon. H. H. Stevens  I came to Vernon in the Spring of 1894, via the CPR from  Peterborough, Ont. It took three weeks to Sicamous and I had to  walk down from there to Vernon. It was the year of "High Water."  There were numerous wash-outs through the mountains—hence the  delays.  The CPR was then a very primitive railway—no air brakes—  link and pin couplings—no steam heat in the cars, only a stove in  each car.  However, I did arrive in Vernon which at that time was a small  town—Barnard Avenue was its main street with very little else. My  father and my brother (W. H. Stevens) preceded me. They both  worked for Megaw and I got a job at once looking after the delivery  wagon at the store. Megaw had a thriving business—groceries, dry-  goods and ranching and farm implements.  The countryside was chiefly cattle ranching. O'Keefes, Green-  hows, Price Ellison, the Coldstream Ranch and the BX Ranch owned  by the Barnards of Victoria.  There were no orchards.   Lord Aberdeen planted the first orchard Vernon and the Okanagan in 1894 33  that year. It was protected by a rail fence but the deer used to jump  over the fence so they put a couple oi lines of barbed wire above the  fence to keep the deer out.  Cattle ranching was the chief occupation; at the south end of  the Okanagan Lake Tom Ellis had a ranch extending down to the  U.S. boundary. There was nothing at Penticton except Tom Ellis'  ranch and a boat landing. Kelowna did not exist—there was a Catholic mission there and it was called "The Mission."  The Boundary Country and the Kootenays were booming and  Vernon was the main centre of business serving the whole Okanagan.  Megaw had a store at Grand Forks and the Shatford Brothers with  headquarters in Vernon had stores also at Fairview (which was then  booming) and at Camp McKinney.  Later in 1897 Mr. Robinson came from Manitoba and decided  to start fruit farming. His first place was Peachland and later he  established Summerland and still later Naramata.  In the meantime the Shatford Bros, established an irrigating system on the bench land at Penticton. It was all very primitive but  these early businessmen deserve credit for turning a wild ranching  country into a rich fruit growing area.  To return to Vernon—the centre—I worked for Mr. Megaw as  stated and later I worked for Dick Neil—Neil and Wilson—trucking  firm. I also knew extremely well Joe Harwood. He came to Vernon  the same year that I did. He came from England and my first recollection of him was when he and his little wife conducted Salvation  Army services on the street corners. I sold him his first horse, with  which he established his "Transfer" business. It was a little horse  which was known as an "outlaw" on the range. I bought her for  $10.00 and spent the summer breaking her in. She turned out quite  a good animal and I sold her to Joe Harwood for $30.00 and he started  a local transfer business, which later developed into a modern business.  Another pioneer for whom I worked was Jim Schubert. He was  located in Armstrong but started a stage coach business out of Penticton south and east to Fairview and to Midway, Greenwood and Grand  Forks. I drove a stage for him from Penticton to Grand Forks. There  was nothing at Penticton in those days, only a boat landing. There  was, however, a lot of traffic through Vernon down the lake and on  to Fairview and other Boundary points.  I knew Price Ellison very intimately. I first met him in 1894  wnen I was a young chap in my teens, but he seemed to take a liking  to me. I remember one conversation I had with him when he told  me he had come to the Okanagan some "35 years ago"—that would 34 Vernon and the Okanagan in 1894  be about 1859. When I knew him first he had control as a rancher  of the range land lying east of Vernon to the Coldstream Ranch and  all south of Vernon from the creek up to what we called "the Divide."  He was considered a very fine type—he was a real gentleman. Later,  of course, he entered politics and became a member of Dick McBride's  cabinet.  I also remember Mr. Cameron who was the manager of the  Hudson's Bay Store at the foot of Barnard Avenue. Then there was  Mr. Campbell who conducted a furniture business on Barnard Avenue.   I knew him well and thought highly of him.  Then there was a real pioneer butcher in Vernon—Knight—his  store was next to Megaws. He had a slaughter house on that ranch  just southwest of Vernon. I can't remember the name of the old  pioneer who owned the ranch where this slaughter house was located.  He was a real French Canadian and quite elderly when I knew him.  Then there was Jacques Jewellery Store. F. B. Jacques was a  good citizen, always interested in local affairs. Also a Mr. Matheson  who had a men's tailor business on Barnard Avenue.  Vernon can well be proud of its pioneer businessmen. The conditions were so different from what they are today, and many of  them lost out to modern developments, but never forget they served  their times well.  Winter's Last Effort in the Okanagan  By Mayda D. Estabrooks  All through the night the snow and sleet  Fell on the valley's frigid lap—  It covered well her frozen feet,  And iced her mountain cap.  This morning, tardy flakes of snow,  Like toys of fitful breezes,  Whirl and scurry to and fro,  And rest, when South Wind pleases.  These hapless playthings of caprice—  Frail vagrants from the sky—  Soon must lose their starry fleece  And bid our vale good-bye. ^^^^~-—^^^^^  The Story of Lacrosse in Kelowna 35  The Story of Lacrosse in Kelowna  By Bill Spears  Editor's Note: This is a condensation of a fifty page  story on Lacrosse compiled by Bill Spears from the records  in the Kelowna Courier.  Lacrosse, not hockey, is Canada's national game. The Kelowna  Courier of 8th July 1954 says that at some time in Canada's history  an Act of Parliament was passed to this effect. By 1967 most of Canada had quite forgotten about lacrosse and Kelowna was one of the  few towns in Canada to feature it on their Centennial Program. They  arranged a league game between the New Westminster Salmon Bellies  and the Coquitlam Adanacs, two top members of the Coast Inter-City  League regarded as the NHL of lacrosse.  International lacrosse between Canada and the United States was  first played in 1885. Kelowna was therefore not too far behind the  times when they formed their first team in 1894. The team was  made up of such well-known names as:  Dr. B. F. Boyce, C. A. Atwood, W. R. Barlee, Geo. Bailey,  Leon Lequime, Dan Gallagher, Harry Chaplin, Louie Ledger, Johnny Pourier, Harvey Watson, Frank Small, Leon Gillard, Dave  Crowley,   Neil Thompson,   Col. Blackwood.  The playing rules in those days for twelve man or field lacrosse  were much the same as the present day box game except that no substitutes were allowed. If a man was injured and had to leave the  game the rest of the team carried on shorthanded unless the opposition  saw fit to drop one player. The playing field was 110 yards long and  almost any width depending on available space. Often a ball was  chased among the spectators until the referee decided to call the play.  The positions were goal; point; cover-point; first; second; and  third defence; centre; third; second; and first; home; outside home;  and inside home. All games were played in the afternoon and quite  often in temperatures of 95 and 100 degrees. A man had to be fit to  stay the full sixty minutes. Stores closed on lacrosse afternoons and  the farmers quit work.  Kelowna played Kamloops July 1st, 1899. The excursion required four days of travel. They left Kelowna by the afternoon boat  and arrived in Sicamous at 8 a.m. the following morning and in Kamloops at 1 a.m. the day after. This made it very difficult to form any  sort of league. However, in 1905 a league was formed between Kelowna, Vernon and Revelstoke. 36  The Story of Lacrosse in Kelowna  KELOWNA LACROSSE TEAM—1910—"Champions of the Okanagan". Back  Row (left to right): Gladdie Fuller, Len Pettigrew, Art Holden, Harold Glen,  Walter Parker (manager), Jack McMillan, George Kennedy, Angus McMillan.  Front Row, kneeling (L. to R.) Harold Newby, Billy Pettigrew, Tom McQueen,  Joe Carrie, Colin McMillan.  The new league inspired great enthusiasm and each team donated  $25 towards a set of medals. Mr. Jim Bowes, Kelowna's leading hotel  keeper, donated Kelowna's $25. Mr. F. R. E. DeHart presented the  local team with sweaters and Mr. B. Lequime donated the use of land  in what is now the Kelowna City Park for the games. The park was  a pretty rough piece of bush at that time and work parties of players  and interested citizens cleared an area of land and money was raised  by public subscription to have the new field leveled. A remark in the  Kelowna Courier points out that the proximity of the park to the lake  is a considerable advantage and the place could become one of the  beauty spots on the lake front.  In the same year a concert was held in the Raymer Hall with  talent from Vernon and even Kamloops assisting in the entertainment.  The proceeds went to building dressing rooms and a small grandstand.  Lacrosse was a major drawing card for any local community  celebration. On the 24th of May, 1905, Kelowna called off a sports  day in favor of an invitation from Summerland to join in theirs. The  result was that both the Vernon and Kelowna teams travelled down  to Summerland on the steamer York—Capt. Weeks in command.  They left Kelowna at 10 a.m. and arrived in Summerland to be met  by local dignitaries like J. M. Robinson and other prominent residents  plus the Summerland Brass Band. Rigs were waiting at the wharf to  transport the visitors to the recreation  grounds.   Football  and horse The Story of Lacrosse in Kelowna 37  racing were part of the program. The Courier reported that a large  crowd attended the affair of ranchers, cowboys, klootchmen, Indians  and half-breeds.  1905, the first year of the new Lacrosse League, seems to have  been a banner year. The first game of the season was between Vernon and Kelowna at Kelowna. The main body of the Vernon team  arrived at 1 1 p.m. the day before the game and put up at Mr. Bowes'  Lake View Hotel. Their host took them for a ride on the lake in his  gasoline launch. A contingent of Vernon fans arrived by SS Aberdeen on the day of the game. Dr. Knox acted as referee and medical  adviser. His advice was needed on more than one occasion. A number of games were recorded during this season with Revelstoke, who  fielded a strong team which usually included some experienced players  borrowed from New Westminster.  The names of the Kelowna players in 1905 shows a complete  change from the lineup in  1894.  Kelowna team: Kingston, Brennaugh, Elsworthy, Fraser,  Bowes, Small, Newby, Mawhinnie, Spedding, Prentiss, Ecclestone,  McLaughlin.  Revelstoke team: Tremble, McCorbie, Dunn, Buck, Lee, Les  Barber, Woodland, Knight, Turnbull, Latham,  Kerfoot,  Mills.  By 1906 Kelowna's team again showed an almost complete turnover of players.  The lineup for that year was:  V. Lemon, H. Newby, W. Fuller, B. Weddell, R. Fuller, C.  McMillan, E. Bailey, J. Budden, M. Wilson, L. McMillan, G. Fuller,  H. Glenn.  Referee: Dr. Knox.   Timekeeper:  W. Bawtenheimer.  1907—The league now included Revelstoke, Armstrong, Vernon, Kelowna and Penticton who all travelled to each other's communities to take part in local celebrations and sports days. The visits  usually entailed staying overnight and transport included horses, boats  and trains.  1908 was a year of active inter-city play.  1909 saw a general effort to get all sports including lacrosse on  a business-like footing. The season was sparked off by a letter from  Mr. R. H. Parkinson to the Kelowna City Council asking the city to  buy the present Kelowna City Park from Mr. D. Lloyd Jones for  $29,000. Mr. Parkinson was also the main mover in the formation  of a Kelowna Sports Association which raised $2025 by public subscription.  In the same year Armstrong went overboard in the matter of  sports and chartered a special train from Revelstoke to bring visitors  from the north and the SS Aberdeen to bring fans from the south to 38 The Story of Lacrosse in Kelowna  enjoy their sports day on July 1st. The Aberdeen contingent also enjoyed a special train from Okanagan Landing to Armstrong. Kelowna  fielded a lacrosse team with four McMillans, two Fullers, two Petti-  grews plus C. Baker, H. Paul, P. Bird and M. Wilson.  1910—Lacrosse was still in the front as a leading local sports attraction. Games with places like Armstrong were arranged with the  players travelling to Okanagan Landing by launch and from there on  by train. Before the year was out they started using cars. Kelowna  had a live High School team which included:  F. Day, B. Raymer, W. Thompson, R. Ritchie, McLennan,  H. Fraser, Bill Fuller, Treadgold, Weddell, W. Fuller, Wilson.  The Kelowna City Council considered favorably a suggestion  from Mr. P. Du Moulin that $1,000 should be set aside to bring the  New Westminster lacrosse team to Kelowna for an exhibition game  and that a further $500 should be used to improve the grounds.  1911—The season opened with a game in Penticton on May 24.  Not only the team but the Kelowna City Band went down on the SS  Aberdeen. The boat had recently been completely rejuvenated by an  overhaul and redecorating. Games this year were all played on Boyce's  Field, the fair grounds. The City Park field had fallen into disuse  by reason of the surface being too rough.  1912—Lacrosse flourished in Kelowna with one Senior and two  Intermediate teams. The Intermediate teams went by the name of  Upper Town and Lower Town. In a game with Armstrong two Kelowna players were laid out by one Armstrong player and doctors were  as much in evidence as the referees.  This was Armstrong's big year. They won the Kelowna Tobacco  Company Cup, The Vernon News Cup and the Lawson Cup. The  Kelowna team was unable to arrive at a game in Armstrong on July  25 because the rains had made the roads impassable. A Kelowna car  overturned en route to the game.  1913—All trips to outside points this year were made by motor  car. The team from Kelowna on one trip had to spend an unscheduled  weekend in Kamloops, "The Windy City," while they waited for car  parts to come from Vancouver. The Kelowna lacrosse team that year  appointed sixteen officers.  In a game against Armstrong this year two Armstrong players  were badly hurt and the fans rushed the field on several occasions.  Rough play had been the rule rather than the exception over the years  but 1913 with the spectators joining in brought a new high to this  aspect of lacrosse.  1914—Lacrosse still  maintained a strong executive  of leading The Story of Lacrosse in Kelowna 39  citizens like Mayor J. W. Jones, Geo. Meikle, D. W. Crowley, Frank  Buckland, Dr. Campbell, F. R. E. DeHart, Geo. McKenzie, W. R.  Trench and a dozen others.  New arrivals to the team were W. Spear who played goal in 1912  before moving temporarily to Vancouver, O. Patterson, E. Gillanders,  Carton Hill and Corney Painter. Large numbers of local fans accompanied players to out of town games going by SS Aberdeen and many  by car.  Hill and Gillanders, two of the new players, travelled to Vancouver to play for Vancouver Athletic Club against Brampton, Ontario, to retain the Mann trophy for Vancouver.  With the outbreak of World War I a number of well-known  players disappeared from the field to go overseas and by 1916 the senior  lacrosse team was so depleted that it was found necessary to form a  junior team to keep the game alive. In 1918 The Kelowna Amateur  Athletic Club was organized to encourage boys under military age in  all kinds of sport. A sub-committee of Jim Calder, Fred Fowler and  Lloyd Day was appointed to line up a lacrosse team. The City had a  steam roller and sprinkler working in the park preparing the grounds  along Abbott Street.  In 1919 Fred Fowler and Vic DeHart played for Vernon against  Vancouver Athletic Club. A meeting was called to consider reducing  the 12-man team to ten men because of scarcity of players.  The year 1920 was the first time substitutes were allowed.  By 1923 lacrosse had recovered from the lean war years and Kelowna listed more than thirty players with both Senior and Intermediate  teams. Names like McMillan and Raymer were playing for Kelowna  again along with new arrivals to Kelowna like Joe Spurrier and Clair  Mabee. Intermediates consisted of two High School teams and Chesterfield School.  The Rowcliffe Cup, symbol of valley lacrosse championship, was  first presented in 1924. Armstrong withdrew from the league this year  because of insufficient players and Salmon Arm took their place. However, Armstrong still held the Shaw Cup which they had won in 1914  and it had not been played for since. Kelowna challenged them to a  game for this cup and Armstrong sent far and near for their old players and managed to beat Kelowna in two straight games.  Armstrong came back into the league in 1925, no doubt re-  enthused by their successful effort to retain the Shaw Cup. Kelowna  won a game off them on August 13th, thus tying for the Valley championship. There were fights all over the field in this game with the  spectators joining in.   A final game scheduled for September was called 40  The Story of Lacrosse in Kelowna  Back row: J. Lusier, H. Lusier, M. Bailey, C. Blackwood.  Centre row: F. Fraser, D. Crowley, H. W. Raymer, H. Watson, S. Ray.  Front row: F. Small, T. McQueen, Leon Gillard.  off because half the Armstrong players had gone off to the prairies to  take in the harvest and half the Kelowna players were too busy with  the fruit harvest.  Lacrosse in the Kelowna area began to show signs of falling apart.  A meeting called for April 6th was called off due to lack of younger  players.  However, after some delays a league was finally got in motion.  Things got off to a slow start in 1927 and though a league was  formed in the Valley including Armstrong and Lumby the season fizzled out due to lack of sufficient players on all teams.  For the next ten years no lacrosse was played in the Kelowna area.  On the 20th of April, 1938, a meeting was held in the Aquatic  building to lay ground plans for forming a Kelowna Box Lacrosse  Association. The working committee chosen to bring this about was  made up of Dick Parkinson, Lloyd Day, Bill Spear and Bill Longley.  Vernon, Salmon Arm and Kamloops had already formed clubs and  started a league. A Kelowna league was formed with Lloyd Day  managing the City team and Roy Longley managing the Mission Creek  team. Games were played between these two teams with Mission Creek  uncovering some very good talent. In the later years the Kelowna  team was made up mainly of Mission Creek boys.  The new and faster game of Box Lacrosse got off to a good start The Story of Lacrosse in Kelowna 41  in 1939 and continued actively until 1956 when after a few years  lull the game got going again and now seems headed for continued  activity. Space will not permit the modern story here of box lacrosse,  perhaps in the 82nd Annual Report of the Okanagan Historical Society  someone will take the trouble to pick up the thread and record the story  of the personalities who have given their time to maintaining the excitement of box lacrosse, one of the world's fastest and roughest games  and may it still be recognized as Canada's National Game.  PEACHES  By Everett S. Fleming  I have just picked a hatful of peaches  Which look and taste as they should;  We have watched them growing all summer  While awaiting this moment good.  Now they lie, all mellow and glowing,  As though yielding themselves complete,  And we wish for the lusty appetites  Of Youth to attack this treat.  Their cheeks are round and tinted  By Nature's matchless brush;  The colours rich surpass all words,  They put all maids to the blush.  From dullest green they have ripened  To richest yellow and red;  They're aglow with tempting sweetness,  Like a bride with a crown on her head.  The colours are pleasing, aromas enticing,  The flavour has both tang and zest.  Each one is a peach, a peach of a peach  Grown here in this Vale of the Blest. 42  Anthony Casorso, Pioneer Kelowna Rancher  Anthony Casorso,  Pioneer Kelowna Rancher  By Margaret Greening  My father, Anthony Casorso, was born on March 8, 1880, in  Tonco, Allesandria, located in northern Italy. He was the second  eldest of a family of nine, consisting of his sister Caroline the eldest  and seven younger brothers. His  father, John Casorso, who was a  miller by trade, had heard many  tales of the new land and its great  opportunities; so after much consideration he finally decided to  migrate to Western Canada. He  was determined to make a better  life for his wife and family  which at that time consisted of  Caroline, Anthony and Charles.  Arriving in New Westminster early in 1883 via San Francisco, my grandfather met two  Catholic priests from the Okanagan Mission, Fathers Coccola  and Chiappini of the Oblate Order whose advice he accepted as  to place of settlement and accompanied them on their return to  the Pandosy Mission via the Hope trail.  In the early summer of 1884 my grandmother Mrs. John Casorso  and her three children, Caroline, my father, and Charles, commenced  their western journey of six weeks to join my grandfather. Travelling  to North America by Windjammer they stopped at San Francisco and  then to New Westminster and from there to the Mission by covered  wagon.  The family settled at the Father Pandosy Mission where my  grandfather was employed by Father Pandosy. During their stay at  the Mission my father and his sister and brother attended Sunday School  taught by Father Carion who was later transferred to the Indian school  at Kamloops.  There were two Lay Brothers, Brother Joe and Brother Felix,  Anthony Casorso and Harvey Watson  first school teacher at Okanagan  Mission. Picture taken in 1950. Anthony Casorso, Pioneer Kelowna Rancher 43  who had followed Father Pandosy up through the United States to  the Mission. At the Mission Ranch, which consisted of 2000 acres,  Brother Joe was in charge of the farm operations, mainly the growing  of various crops, such as hay, grain and vegetables. Brother Felix,  being interested in livestock, was in charge of about 500 head of cattle  and about 25 to 30 head of horses. During working hours the Lay  Brothers wore ordinary clothes but at religious functions they wore  cassocks.  Brother Joe was very deaf and one had to speak very loud to him.  He called each Sunday afternoon at the Casorso home to teach my  father and the other children Catechism. One Sunday afternoon everyone was amazed that he had suddenly regained his hearing. He said  that he had recited a Novena prayer for his recovery.  Brother Joe was working with a gang of men setting up a derrick  pole for haying when something happened and the poles collapsed falling on him and breaking his hip. There was no doctor in this area at  that time making it necessary to transport him by horse-drawn vehicle  to the hospital at St. Mary's Mission at New Westminster, where he  died as a result of gangrene.  There were many Indians around the Mission at various times.  They travelled about a great deal. Early in September, when the  Kokanees (at that time called Kickan-in-ees), began to run in Mission  Creek, they would camp along the bank of the creek for a period of  about a month, spending their time catching, cleaning, and smoke-  curing thousands of fish. My father and his family and most of the  settlers for miles around also participated in the catching of kickan-  in-ees, preserving them by the use of coarse salt. The catching of these  fish was considered a necessity in the early days as different varieties of  food were very limited and also sometimes scarce. Individual catches  ran into the thousands.  Father Pandosy taught the Indians Catechism. He also trained  an Indian Choir which my father often heard sing at High Mass and  on special occasions such as Christmas and Easter. It was an excellent  choir, well trained, and a great credit to the missionary.  My father attended the church built by Father Pandosy. This  church was originally located directly north of the present Pandosy  Mission site and later relocated on the opposite side of the road. The  Indians stayed at the back of the church kneeling on the floor as there  were no kneelers or pews in that part of the church.  One of the pews in the front of the church was reserved for  Joseph Christian with his name printed on it. He had donated the bell  (now in the new church in Kelowna), which he ordered from France 44 Anthony Casorso, Pioneer Kelowna Rancher  at the cost of five hundred dollars. Another pew was reserved for  Mr. and Mrs. Lequime.  At that time the Mission consisted of five buildings, two used for  living quarters, one for the Chapel, one for general purposes and one  for storage of vegetables. The buildings used for living quarters were  located near the road but were removed in later years. The others are  presently on the site of the Father Pandosy Mission.  Christmas at the Mission was very festive, also New Year's and  Easter. People of various faiths gathered at the church to attend Midnight Mass. Christmas and New Year's Day, also Easter, were the  scenes of festivities at the different settlers' homes. Special treats were  served including white bread, which was considered a luxury at that  time. White flour was very scarce and as a result ground wheat was  used as flour. This produced a brownish colored bread. Venison was  also served as well as beef. The latter was usually purchased from  the Mission Ranch.  Indians, around the beginning of September each year, came up  from the United States in a group of eight hundred to one thousand in  their dress regalia, the chiefs wearing their feathered head-dress and  fancy buckskin outfits. The papooses were carried bound to a board  which was either attached to the saddle horn or to the squaws' backs.  They brought most of their belongings including cats, dogs, and extra  ponies.  The Indians travelled to the Coldstream Ranch, at that time  owned by Lord Aberdeen, to pick hops. The work lasted about a  month. They received one dollar for picking a box of hops approximately eight feet long, two feet deep and two feet wide.  They travelled over the mountain trail from Penticton, going  past the Casorso Ranch and the Pandosy Mission. My father considered the arrival of the Indians on their journey to the Coldstream  Ranch a very colorful event and looked forward to it each year.  In 1884 my grandfather took up a pre-emption and after three  years built a log house (which is still standing today) for his family  now increased to four with the birth of my Uncle Joe in 1885, while  the family was still in residence at the Mission. The two-storey house  which was built of hewed logs with dove-tailed corners, consisted of  three rooms downstairs and three rooms upstairs—the upstairs first  being used as a storage area. Later as the family increased, an addition  was added with two rooms upstairs as bedrooms and a large living room  downstairs. The furniture—benches, tables and stools—were all handmade by my grandfather. The first wagon my father remembered at  the farm was built by his father and his Uncle Lawrence, who acquired Anthony Casorso, Pioneer Kelowna Rancher 45  a pre-emption adjoining his brother's. The wheels of the wagon were  made from blocks of wood cut from a pine tree, with a hole bored in  the middle for the hub and axle. It was used for some years on the  ranch and stood up very well. Stoneboats were regular equipment on  most farms.  Ten to fifteen acres of my grandfather's land was heavily timbered, mostly pine trees two to three feet in diameter which had to  be cleared by hand.  The first peach tree the Casorso family grew was a cling stone,  a very small peach, which was of excellent quality and the only variety  of peaches planted in the valley at that time.  My father first attended the Benvoulin School, which was the  first public school in the valley. One of his teachers being Fred Watson, who had come west from Ontario in 1890 after receiving glowing accounts of the valley from his brother, Jesse, who had settled  here in 1886.  Students who attended Benvoulin School from distant parts of  the valley, boarded in private homes during the school term. In 1893  the third and youngest Watson brother, Harvey, came to the valley as  a youth of nineteen. He farmed for a time but with indifferent success and he soon decided to go back to teaching. The Department of  Education would pay the teacher's salary. Mr. Watson located an  area south of Mission Creek and also found an old deserted log house.  All local settlers who had children were called to a meeting. It was  soon decided that the old building could be repaired and after a period  of several weeks the schoolhouse was ready. In 1894 my father attended this school at Okanagan Mission. The enrollment during the  year 1894 amounted to twenty and included the following pupils:  Caroline, Anthony, Charlie, Joseph, Louis, Peter, Felix, and Leo  Casorso; Josephine, Joseph, Henry, Fred, and Matilda Berard; Edith,  Edwin, George and Harold Small; Robert and Alex Crawford, and  Ada Smith.  In a very short time a new school was built by the government  near the old site. I had the great pleasure of meeting Mr. Harvey  Watson in June of 1950 exactly a half century after his departure  from the valley. He had came from Vancouver where he resided with  his daughter Mrs. Burrows, especially to visit his former pupils. He  called on my father and they spent several happy days and evenings  reminiscing about early days in the valley especially the school days.  They also discussed the great changes that had taken place. Mr. Watson, being the son of a prominent Ontario fruit grower, was particularly interested in the fruit industry in the valley.   It was a great thrill 46  Anthony Casorso, Pioneer Kelowna Rancher  Mr. and Mrs. John Casorso and family taken in 1895  in old school  house by  teacher Harvey Watson. Anthony, Mrs. Casorso, Mr. Casorso, Caroline, Charles,  Joseph, Peter, Louis, Felix.  for me to see my father and one of his teachers together.  While teaching at Okanagan Mission one of his hobbies was photography. He had taken many pictures of his school and pupils including my father as well as the Casorso family. Many of these pictures  he left with me, sending more which he had enlarged after his return  to Vancouver. During his visit I took pictures of him and my father.  These were the last pictures taken of him as he passed away suddenly  in October of that year at the age of seventy-six. After his death I  was contacted by his daughter, Mrs. Burrows, requesting me to send  the negative of the picture I had taken. I feel so grateful that I had  the pleasure of meeting, and corresponding with him up until the time  of his death.   He was truly a fine person and a great pioneer.  As a boy my father, while helping on the ranch, learned to handle horses and machinery. He was interested in horses and became  an excellent horseman, breaking most of the horses used by the ranch  for riding and herding cattle. He was also an expert roper. When I  was fifteen I received a horse as a present from one of my uncles. I  turned the horse out to pasture but on my return to get the horse for  a ride, I was unable to catch it. I returned home and informed my  father of my predicament.   He saddled his horse and rode to the pas- Anthony Casorso, Pioneer Kelowna Rancher 47  ture. He tried various means to catch the horse which failed and he  finally had to resort to roping the horse which he did expertly.  As a young man he took part in cattle drives to various places,  often riding as much as seventy-five miles a day. On many occasions  he rode to Vernon on business making the return trip the same day,  a distance of about seventy miles. The operation of the ranch made  it necessary for my father to ride the range seven to eight months of  the year.  In 1902 my father, Henry Gruell, and Odele Fasciaux, drove  about three hundred head of two- and three-year-old cattle which were  to be sold to Mr. J. Graves. Seventy of these belonged to the Casorso's  and the rest of the cattle belonged to Gruell and Fasciaux. The cattle  were to be fattened by Mr. Graves and then shipped by him to Pat  Burns and other buyers throughout Canada. Graves (accompanied by  twelve cowboys and a cook) came down to the Okanagan each spring  buying cattle. On this occasion my father, Gruell and Fasciaux were  to meet Graves at Wood's Lake with their cattle. When they reached  Wood's Lake they found that he had left word he would meet them  at Vernon. But at Vernon they discovered that he had moved on to  O'Keefe's with about twelve hundred head of cattle. They finally  caught up to them about eight miles west of O'Keefe's. My father  and the other two men had left home at three a.m. and it was ten  o'clock at night and very dark when they met up with him. Mr.  Graves had his cook prepare supper for my father and the other two.  They ate their meal sitting on the ground in the dark. Mr. Graves  paid by cheque immediately for the cattle. Then they returned to  Vernon where they spent the night.  In 1904 my father and Henry Gruell accompanied by Odele  Fasciaux travelled by horseback to> the Douglas Lake Ranch where  they purchased seven bulls from Mr. Graves. Leaving early in the  morning on their return trip they travelled approximately thirty-five  miles that day, spending the first night at Falkland, the second night  at the O'Keefe Ranch with the O'Keefe family. The next day they  rode into Vernon after going through a cloudburst on their way. That  night was spent in Vernon leaving early the next morning for home.  When they reached Dry Creek, on the Vernon Road near Dil-  worth's Ranch, they found that due to high water the creek was impassable. It was necessary to leave the stock in Dilworth's pasture until the water had receded. In order to reach home they travelled to  Five Bridges where they found the bridges all impassable. They put  planks down from the bank to each bridge and walked across swimming their horses while holding the reins.   That year—1904—Kel- 48 Anthony Casorso, Pioneer Kelowna Rancher  owna was under water. Boats were tied to hitching posts on Bernard  Avenue.  In 1890 two large sheep drives took place. The sheep were  driven from the United States and were taken through to the prairies.  Each drive consisted of two thousand to four thousand sheep. They  travelled past the Casorso Ranch where the road is located today (at  that time only a wagon trail). My father witnessed the passing of  these drives.  For several years in the 1890's, Tom Ellis drove about three  hundred cattle from Penticton to Benvoulin where he wintered the  cattle on hay put up by Robert Munson, north of what is now the  KLO Road.  In the spring the herd was returned to Penticton to graze.  One one occasion the cattle were driven through in the middle  of the night, the noise waking the Casorso family.  On another occasion a dispute arose resulting in one of the Ellis  haystacks being burned. One man was convicted and spent three years  in jail.  In September of 1893 my grandfather and three others drove  forty pigs to market in Vernon selling them to Pat Burns at five cents  a pound live weight. They travelled slowly covering approximately  eight miles a day. One man drove the wagon loaded with supplies for  the journey, while the other three were in charge of the herd. An  amusing incident occurred when they reached Duck Lake as two of  the pigs broke away from the group and started to swim across the  lake. My grandfather immediately headed for the other side of the  lake to rescue them, but as soon as they saw him on the bank the pigs  turned around heading back the way they had come. One pig made  it safely to shore on the return trip but the other drowned in the middle of the lake.   The journey took between four and five days.  In the spring of 1895 my father and grandfather travelled by  horseback over the mountain trail to Penticton, where they purchased  twenty sheep from Tom Ellis at the price of five dollars each. They  spent the night at his ranch leaving with the sheep right after six o'clock  breakfast. On their journey home, they walked, leading their horses.  Near Chute Lake they encountered some difficulty in driving the sheep  across a stream on account of the high water. The men were forced  to wade through the water driving the sheep ahead. In spite of the  many obstacles on their journey, they arrived home safely.  In 1945 my father, then aged 65, had a narrow escape from  drowning on one of his frequent inspections of the irrigation system  which  he constructed in   1925.   In  making these inspections it was Anthony Casorso, Pioneer Kelowna Rancher  49  Anthony Casorso   and   the   irrigation  flume and pipe he built in 1925. The  system was more than a mile long and  cost $3,000.00.  necessary for him to cross Mission  Creek on horseback. On one of  these trips—when the creek was  very high—he crossed at the usual  place. On reaching the middle of  the creek his horse stumbled into  a deep hole made by the current.  My father was flung from the  saddle into the raging water. He  grabbed the stirrup, barely managing to hold it while the horse  was swept downstream. Fortunately, they were swept towards  the bank. My father, clinging to  a branch, finally pulled himself  up on the bank, the horse doing  likewise a little further downstream. When he arrived home,  chilled and soaking wet, his main  concern was not that he had almost lost his life, but that this incident would upset my mother as she had poor health at that time.  My father often described the Indian huts, which were made of  tule reeds, round in shape, with a hole in the roof's center to let the  smoke out.  One evening, hundreds of Indians were camped directly east of  the Casorso home. They became very loud. My father, who was a  boy at the time, had accompanied my grandfather earlier in the day,  to work in the fields past the Indian camp. When they did not return  at supper time my grandmother became very upset thinking that the  Indians had taken them. Their arrival home just before darkness was  a great relief to my grandmother.  My father was an expert marksman and excelled in the hunting  and bagging of wild game such as deer, pheasants and water fowl.  I accompanied him on many horseback rides and hunting trips. We  would leave early in the morning bringing our lunch, and spend the  day in the hills. Drinking water was obtained from various springs  as my father knew where each one was located. He had the same saddle as long as I can remember—a special roping saddle—which he  had made to order around 1900 in the United States.  On September 5, 1906, my mother and father were married by  Father Dorvel of Lumby, in the Catholic Church, which at that time 50 Anthony Casorso, Pioneer Kelowna Rancher  was located across the road and a little to the north of the Pandosy  Mission.  My mother, Margaret McGarrity, was born in Montreal. In  April 1906, as a young woman, she arrived in Kelowna with her  parents, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas McGarrity, to visit her brother-in-  law and sister, Mr. and Mrs. William Alcock.  For a year after their marriage my parents lived where the old  Lequime store had been located, about one half mile north of the  Pandosy Mission. The next year they moved to their home on adjoining property to the south.  My father managed the family property, Pioneer Ranch—he was  in partnership with six of his brothers—until he decided to engage in  farming on his own.  In the fall of 1918 he started out by purchasing sixteen acres  at South Benvoulin from Mr. McPherson of Kamloops, buying more  as the years passed. My father, having no funds available, was forced  to borrow money from the bank in order to make a down payment  and also to finance farming operations.  For the next thirty years he was active in the production of fruit  and vegetables, principally tomatoes and onions. Many years the market was so poor that a great portion of the crop was dumped. All the  farm work was done with horses and hand labor. In the first years  my mother helped all she could in the planting and harvesting of crops.  My father was also one of the pioneers in the production of  tobacco. Later he was one of the earliest producers of honey. He  operated Benvoulin Apiaries for a number of years. While he was  learning bee culture he was assisted by a friend, Alex Mott, who had  operated an apiary previously and from whom he gained much information. For many years I helped my father extract honey, my main  job being to operate the extractor, which was a six comb machine,  turned by hand.  My father was a very hard worker, often working from four  o'clock in the morning until ten at night during the rush season. At  times he had as many as ten to twelve horses. Most of these horses  were raised and broken by him either for farm work or riding.  When my daughter Ann was a baby, he spent many hours each  day taking her for rides in her pram or stroller. Later she accompanied  him on long walks around the farm or to visit neighbors and friends.  When she was eight years old she was amazed to learn that he spoke  Italian fluently. I was equally amazed about the same age when I  found out he spoke the Chinook jargon!  He was a very sympathetic person—always willing to offer assist- Anthony Casorso, Pioneer Kelowna Rancher  51  Anthony Casorso preparing to mount an unbroken horse.  ance when it was needed. He visited friends in hospital and nursing  homes bringing gifts to them on birthdays and Christmas. He particularly enjoyed attending the Okanagan Historical Society's (Kelowna Branch) annual dinner meetings.  He had been in very poor health for five years before his death  due to a serious heart condition, which made it necessary for him to  cut down on his activities. In spite of this he remained cheerful, continued to visit his friends, and kept up an active correspondence with  friends in various parts of the world. His mind was as keen as a  teenager's and his hearing perfect.  He never learned to drive a car. "I used to fall asleep quite often  in my horse-drawn buggy," my father said. "The horse always kept  on the right road until I woke up. I never trusted a car to behave as  well."  He recalled that in the early years Lequimes had a store, saloon  and post office on South Benvoulin Road. Father Pandosy had a 2,000  acre Mission Ranch, John McDougal had 320 acres in Guisachan, and  Mr. Crozier 360 acres in the Five Bridges' area. A. B. Knox had a  ranch adjoining Mr. Lequime's. Dan Nicholson owned the Bankhead  area and in 1895 sold the 320 acres to Mr. McKay of Vancouver for  $10,000.  Okanagan Lake had as much as three feet of ice some winters.  The Indians camped on shore while fishing through a hole cut in the 52 Anthony Casorso, Pioneer Kelowna Rancher  ice. For many years the Casorso family cut ice on the lake storing it  in large sheds—packed in sawdust—to be used in the summer months.  Loads of hay were hauled by team and sleigh across Okanagan Lake,  to different logging camps. During a cold winter in the 1890's the  Postill family attempted to haul a load of hay across Duck Lake (north  of Kelowna). The ice cracked when they were out on the lake, and  they were forced to unhitch the team in order to save them. The hay  and sleigh remained at the bottom of the lake until the spring thaw  came at which time they managed to remove it.  My father as a boy of eleven first learned of Father Pandosy's  death when he and his sister and brother called at the Mission during  the week to attend Catechism. Father Carion met them at the door  and informed them there would be no Catechism that day as Father  Pandosy had passed away. They were taken into an adjoining room  to view the body.  My father travelled extensively while with Pioneer Ranch calling  at various wholesale houses on the prairie and eastern Canada, while  making arrangements for the sale of different crops, mainly onions  (they grew hundreds of tons each year—my grandfather became  known as the "onion king").  In 1909 when the large new Casorso house was built my father  was on a trip to Montreal and stopped at Toronto where he purchased  all the furniture for the new home.  My father passed away on July 21, 1967, as he would have wished  —quickly and quietly while walking in the back yard. His funeral on  July 25 was attended by his many friends young and old. Tributes  and messages of sympathy poured in for months after his death.  Thus ended another link with the pioneer days of the Mission  and Kelowna and surrounding areas.  NOTE: The cattle drive from the Casorso's Pioneer Ranch at  Kelowna to the Salmon River, a distance of nearly 60 miles in one  day, seems hard to believe. However, the story is authenticated by Mr.  Wilbur Thomson of Okanagan Mission who as a boy, though not  mentioned in the story, was on this particular drive. The incident illustrates the difference in type of beef cattle of 1900 and present day  cattle. The heavier set modern animal has much too short a stride to  even contemplate such a trip in the time, according to Mr. Julian Fry,  well-known past secretary of the B.C. Cattlemen's Association.  N.P. The McDougalls of Fairview—Father and Son  53  The McDougalls of Fairview —  Father and Son  By Eric Sismey  David McDougall spent a long week holding the lines of his  four horse team while he drove  from Spokane through Wenatchee  and up the Columbia and Okanagan rivers to Fairview in 1891.  His wife and daughter, Bessie, rode beside him on the swaying wagon seat and the canvas  covered wagon box held all their  possessions.  At that time Fairview was  in the headlines. It was, after  Spokane, the largest town in the  inland Northwest.  On August 12, 1892, the  first newspaper published in Oro,  Washington—it is Oroville now  —had this to say: "This camp is  in the same gold belt as we are,  and proves beyond a shadow of a  doubt that this is the most extensive mineral belt in the known  world." Unfortunately this was  wishful thinking. Fire ravished  the camp ten years later and that  was the beginning of the end.  The first claims in Fairview  were staked by Ryan^and Reed  who stayed just long enough to  name the creek which flows down the Gulch, Reed Creek. The real  discovery was made by George Sheean and Fred Gwatkins. They  staked the Stemwinder in 1887 and the rush was on. The Stemwinder  soon passed into the hands of a British and American syndicate which  began development. Machinery consisting of a stamp mill, concentrator, cyanide tanks, etc., were installed.  Soon after arrival Dave McDougall built his house a short distance up the Gulch and when this was done he acquired buildings on  the townsite suitable for enlarging and converting into a freighter's  barn and livery stable.   With headquarters at Fairview he  freighted  GEORGE McDOUGALL  Born at Fairview September 14, 1897.  His father David was one of the  original Fairview freighters. George and  Mrs. McDougall retired from their  orchard in 1964. They now live in  Penticton.  Eric Sismey photo, 1968 54  The McDougalls of Fairview—Father and Son  The George McDougall store at Fairview in 1916. Built diagonally opposite the  Golden Gate Hotel. Figures not identified.  Eric Sismey, Copy photo  with four and six horse rigs from Penticton to camps along the Boundary, to Camp McKinney, the Nickel Plate and to the Daly concentrator at Hedley. Dave McDougall also ran the mail and passenger  stage between Penticton and Oro (Oroville).  In 1903, the barn burned to the ground and much of the stock  perished. After the loss of Fairview headquarters Dave McDougall  moved to Penticton where he built a livery stable and freight barn on  Front Street almost opposite the B.C. Hotel. This was sold to Dignan  and Greer in 1906.  After disposing of his Penticton property Dave McDougall returned to Fairview where he opened another livery stable but the  mines, one by one, were closing down and freighting was at a low ebb.  According to son, George, now living in retirement in Penticton,  freighting may well have followed a pattern like this. After an early  start with a load of concentrates Penticton would be reached by evening. Next morning after loading at the Government wharf at the  north end of Ellis Street for one of the southern camps an overnight  stop would be made either at Okanagan Falls or at the freighter's barn The McDougalls of Fairview—Father and Son 55  on the Junction Ranch.  In freighting days conditions often dictated which road to Keremeos or Fairview would be chosen. There was, in addition to the  Green Mountain road to Keremeos and the one closely following B.C.  No. 97 south from Okanagan Falls, another road, known as the upper  road, from the Junction Ranch up the draw, past Prather Lake to the  White Lake basin and through Meyer's Flat to Fairview. The Keremeos branch turned at White Lake to the north shore of Twin Lakes  as at present. Another road followed the south shore of Twin Lakes  to a steep downhill to near the highway sign which points the way to  Apex ski area.  George McDougall was born in the house up the Gulch on  September 14, 1897. He claims to have been the first white boy  brought into the world by the late Dr. R. B. White who arrived to  serve the southern camps, particularly Camp McKinney and Fairview,  on May 24, 1897.  An elder sister, Bessie, the late Mrs. Frank Taylor of Penticton,  attended the first Fairview school which began on September 1, 1897.  School opened in an abandoned miner's shack half dug out of the hill  and formerly occupied by Billy Dalrymple. The first teacher was 17-  year-old Miss Rose E. Glover. Her class of 13 boys and girls whose  ages ranged from 5 to 16. It is worthy of note that while there was  a school at Okanagan Falls in 1896 there was no school at Penticton  until 1902.  By the time George was ready for school things had changed.  From the dugout in the hill school had moved into the new Anglican  church. But when George McDougall was ready there was a new  school building properly equipped with blackboards and the usual  facilities of the day.  School finished at entrance level, George worked around the home  ranch and barn until 1916 when he opened a general store diagonally  opposite the Golden Gate hotel. But the camp was dying, there was  not enough business to make the venture successful.  Through part of 1917 and 1918 George McDougall drove the  mail stage, a Model T Ford, for Seaman Hatfield of Kaleden. During this time, George recalls, wondering many times which side of  the one way road American motorists would take since this was before  British Columbia changed to the right hand drive. But speeds were  slower in those days and George remembers no head-on grinding crash.  On January 1, 1918, George McDougall married Miss Doris  Trotter at Penticton.  Her father, William, was one of the carpenters 56  The McDougalls of Fairview—Father and Son  who worked on the Incola Hotel. He built a large impressive house  for himself which still stands on Penticton Avenue.  George McDougall worked for Bob Parmley while he was in  Penticton but at the start of the Soldier's Settlement Project at what  ultimately became Oliver the McDougalls returned to Fairview where  he worked on the irrigation ditch and the wood stave syphon across  the valley. Later when the West Kootenay Power and Light Company began construction of the power line George McDougall was a  member of the survey party which laid out the pole line from Oliver  to Cawston.  Eventually the McDougalls bought 11 acres of raw land. That  was in 1927. Cantaloupes and tomatoes were grown while the trees  were coming into bearing. George remembers when cantaloupes and  tomatoes were shipped from Oliver at the rate of several carloads a  day and this writer remembers that more delicious cantaloupes have  never been grown, either before or since.  In 1964, after 36 years on the ranch where the McDougalls  raised their family, two boys and two girls, the Oliver property was  sold and the McDougalls retired to Penticton where they live quietly  except when their eleven grandchildren and three great-grandchildren  come from as far as Vanderhoof to visit them.  When asked for his early memories of Fairview George replied  that the steady thump=thump of the stamp mills and the rumble of  wagon wheels moving up and down the gulch were among his early  recollections.  Building the  Oliver  syphon—George  McDougall  is  the  figure  on  the  right.  Eric Sismey Copy photo The McDougalls of Fairview—Father and Son 57  He remembers boyhood scrambles to the mines and the workings,  the steam engines, compressors and the bright fires under the boilers.  He remembers the celebration on July 1, 1899, which marked the  opening of the Big Teepee Hotel, the most elegant hostel in the Interior. He remembers, too, when it burned down with the loss of several lives. This was in 1902 not many months before he saw their  own barn burn with the loss of much of their stock.  While George was still a growing lad he often rode swamper  on one of his father's rigs. It is impossible, he states, to imagine the  difficulties faces by the freighters in those early days. Steam engines,  boilers, air compressors, stamp mills, rails, pipe and, well, you name  it, were needed at the mines. Many of those loads would have taxed  a modern truck on a modern road. But somehow, in some way, the  freighters always managed to get their loads through. The road over  Anarchist Mountain was not always a high gear sixty mile an hour  road. In freighting days it zigged and zagged across the face of the  mountain to soar over 3000 feet to the summit. This writer remembers it fifty years ago, gravelly, sandy, dusty in summer; mud after  rain; icy in winter or an unbroken snow-bound track. It was little  better 40 years ago when it was still a low gear gravel road. This  was just one of the mountain roads and there are not many like it  left. But should you want to try an easier one drive the road up the  Gulch from old Fairview over the hill to Cawston and should you  feel uneasy remember that at one time six horse outfits with a trail  wagon were driven over far more difficult roads. George has pleasant  memories of the men who drove, Brents, Bassetts, Gillespies and others. Always ready to give a helping hand and to hitch a team of  their own to pull another out of trouble or over the hump of a hill.  The fire which destroyed the Big Teepee marked the beginning  of the end of the camp. Mines which had shown rich promise turned  out to be rich pockets and the end of a pocket can be the end of a mine.  It was sad to see a lively community fade away. Fairview had  been a pleasant place to live. Rough and ready in spots, but law abiding none the less.   A town where miners doffed their hats to a lady.  Fairview was a family town, there was culture, concerts and  whist drives, a dramatic society and soon a church.  All this in contrast to the mining camps a few miles away where  a gun was a part of a man's attire and where they were frequently  used.  But one by one, as the mines shut down, buildings were wrecked  for the lumber they contained or were just allowed to fall down.  Today, while a  restoration  is planned,  there  is almost  nothing  but 58  The McDougalls of Fairview—Father and Son  alien weeds to cover land where  a mining camp flourished  a  short  sixty years ago.  Other Fairview reading:  23rd OHS Report, pages 63 et seq  24th OHS Report, pages 87  et seq  27th OHS Report, pages 75-76 and pages 67 et seq  29th OHS Report, pages 103-104  31st OHS Report, pages 48 et seq and frontispiece  THE VERNON NEWS, August 10, 1893—  On Friday last one of our townsmen undertook to run down on  horseback an animal which he took to be a porcupine, but which proved  at a later stage of the chase to be a much viler animal. He next appeared in town in a complete change of clothing and his visit to the  drug store may or may not have had any connection with his desire  that the horse and saddle should be rid of the vile effluvium which  rendered them unapproachable. If you wish to incur his undying hatred  just introduce the subject of porcupines.  fa=s.  POST   C  CORRESPONDENCE  HERB  i   ...-^w  WcVo   *  \c.    A A ' °  NAME  ANJ> ADDRESS  HERE  " -P.  Photo Copy by Stocks Camera Shop of a postcard in the J. E. (Bud) Gawne  collection. Card addressed to Chief Susap George of Incameep. Signed by Val.  Haynes. Postmarked Fairview April 14, year missing, office was closed March  30, 1926. Dewdney   Trail  Park 59  Dewdney Trail Park  By Eric Sismey  It does not matter where the suggestion originated. The proposal  that the Okanagan Historical Society and the Boundary Historical  Society should alternate their field days was a good one. It has been  followed since 1962 and ghost towns at Camp McKinney, Fairview,  Deadwood, Phoenix and Hedley have been visited. Last year it was  Father Pandosy's Okanagan Mission and this year, on June 16, the  Boundary Historical Society welcomed their Okanagan friends in a  beautiful grove of trees at the foot of Christina Lake at Cascade, B.C.  The 140 mile drive from Penticton to Cascade is unique in all  Canada, not because of the scenery, although views from Anarchist  Mountain rival any vista on the continent, but because the road—B.C.  No. 3—not only follows the path of the 1865 Dewdney Trail for the  hundred miles between Osoyoos and Cascade, but also because it passes  through three climatic life zones, one of which is unique.  South of Mclntyre Bluff on B.C. No. 97, the Upper Sonoran  Zone extends a slim finger into Okanagan, and nowhere else in Canada. These desert lands, partly usurped" by Oliver and Osoyoos  orchards, struggle against agriculture which creeps like a blight over  more of the Indian land on the east side of the river. Among the birds  peculiar to this life zone are, the canyon wren, western lark sparrow  and the burrowing owl.  Antelope brush, commonly known as greasewood, is one conspicuous mark of the Upper Sonoran Zone but other dry country plants,  sage brush, rabbitbush, spring sunflower and bitter root are native to  this desert.  The Okanagan-Similkameen Parks Society and other nature  groups are pressing that this tiny bit of Upper Sonoran desert, the only  true desert in Canada, be declared a park so that its unique ecology  may continue undisturbed. But it seems unlikely that this request will  prevail over the march of so-called progress urging its conversion to  vineyard or to crops which mature before those of the rest of southern  Okanagan.  At Osoyoos where B.C. No. 3 crosses B.C. No. 97 our way turned  east up the slopes of Anarchist Mountain to climb from 910 feet at  lake level to 4405 feet at the summit. As the high gear road rises in  sweeping curves the flora changes as it passes through the Transitional  zone to the Canadian zone.   Mariposa lilies and phlox which decorate 60  Dewdney   Trail Park  Kathleen Dewdney, President of the Okanagan Historical Society, relates some  of her girlhood memories of the Boundary country.  Mildred Roylance, President of the Boundary Society, immediate left in photo.  Elizabeth Cox, Sec-treas. Boundary Society, in dark dress under the loud speaker.  Photo by Eric Sismey  the lower slopes give way to paint-brush and scarlet gilia near the  summit.  The open hills around Bridesville, an important rest stop in trail  days, seem unreal after the dry hillsides of Okanagan. Here growing  grain was green and the hay meadows rich with promise.  From Bridesville the road winds down into Kettle valley. The  small community of Rock Creek lies at the bottom of the hill where  a Point of Interest sign on a small parking proclaims that a little more  than a century ago Rock Creek was a camp where miners turned the  creek bed upside down in their frenzied quest for the yellow dust.  From Rock Creek, where B.C. No. 3 turns east through narrow  Kettle Valley the pavement crosses and recrosses the track of the old  trail. Near Midway the river ducks into the United States only to  enter Canada again at Grand Forks. But the highway and the old  trailway turn to follow Boundary Creek. Boundary Falls and Anaconda are ghost towns now but until the end of the first war their  molten slag piles glowed like the fires of Hades. Dewdney   Trail  Park 61  The powerplant at Boundary Falls which furnished electricity  to mine smelter and town is gone and even the slag heap is nearly hidden by growing trees and brush. At Anaconda on the outskirts of  Greenwood a parking and a Point of Interest sign tells a bit of the  history of the slag dump under the tall brick smelter stack. This  smelter treated ores from the Deadwood camp which lies not far behind. One day Deadwood will flourish again for there is more copper  in the Mother Lode and other claims than ever was taken away.  At Greenwood, Trans-provincial No. 3, as many highways do,  avoids as much of the old town as possible. But knowledgeable drivers  will turn to follow a street which parallels the highway. The red  brick postoffice, not unlike the one at Port Alberni, is worthy of examination and the Government office, a block further down the street,  was built when care and attention were not forgotten. Ornate, perhaps, but splendidly finished inside and out in a manner beyond the  skill of most modern day workers.  It is 23 miles from Greenwood to the lovely valley at Grand  Forks and from there another dozen miles to Cascade. Again the highway ignores the little town which is marked by modern motels bordering the road.  At one time it was known as Cascade City; an old photograph  taken in the 1890s shows 14 six horse freight rigs stretched along the  main street. It was an important rest stop in freighting days for a  mountain stood between Cascade City and West Kootenay.  About 150 members of the Okanagan and Boundary Societies  converged on the picnic grounds at the foot of Christina Lake where  tea and coffee were brewing. Christina Lake is One of the Boundary  beauty and holiday spots. It is becoming increasingly popular for both  summer and year-round living especially since the new high gear road  shortens the time while increasing the distance between West Kootenay  and the lake. The old road over the hill between Cascade and Rossland was rather a fearsome thing at any time of the year.  After lunch and after renewing acquaintance with those, perhaps,  not seen for a year, Mrs. Roylance, President of the Boundary Society,  welcomed the Okanagan visitors and those from the United States.  Several members from Oroville, Omak and Molson of the Okanogan  County (USA) Historical Society were present. The guest speaker,  Mrs. Heinreich of Omak, told about Okanogan county (USA) in  the early days.   Her four grandparents were pioneers.  The high spot of the day, and of course its historic purpose, was  a visit to Dewdney Trail Park. There are places along the 500 mile  trail where Point of Interest markers, and sometimes the lay of the 62 Dewdney   Trail  Park  land show the route of the trail. There are more where the exact path  of the pioneer track is known. But, there are few sections like the one  in Dewdney Park, where the furrow worn down by the plodding feet  of man and beast can still be plainly seen. And where the feet of this  generation can follow the old track.  A side road turns from the highway at Cascade to dead end in  the bush. From there a brushy trail leads through bush strange to  Okanagan eyes. The dense forest marks the Canadian zone where  trees are cedar and spruce. Under foot the soil is deep and damp and  the undergrowth is strange too. Many from Okanagan failed to recognize false Solomon's seal, salmon berry, arnica and delicate, white-  petalled Clintonia.  Unexpectedly the path emerges into a forest glade, this we were  told by our leader Mr. R. F. Sander of Cascade, was the site of a  rest camp on the trail and now known as Dewdney Trail Park.  Crumbling traces of old log buildings are scattered around the  clearing and the corner of one, reported to have been a road-house, is  still in condition to invite photography. Below the roadhouse the ford  over Christina Creek is readily discernible even at the high water time  of our visit. There are fallen timber structures on both banks that  suggest that at one time a guiding cable may have stretched from  bank to bank.  Other relics of trail days which time has not completely destroyed  are three beehive Dutch ovens built from native stone. One, in particular, is in such condition it could probably still be used.  Camp Dewdney was well chosen. A steep mountain barrier  separated the camp on Christina Creek from the Columbia river in  West Kootenay. It was a place where eastbound trains could spend  the night and rest before attacking the hill on the morrow and for  westbound trains a place to shed packs at the bottom of the hill. Let  us imagine the smell of fresh bread at the end of a tiring day.  While the camp site is of great interest little restoration is possible  except the best of the three ovens could be enclosed within a wire fence  and invading brush cleared away. But the best record of the camp as  it is today, and the only lasting one is by photography.  And I have tried to do something about that.  The members of the Society learned at press time of the passing  late in October of the Rev. John C. Goodfellow of Princeton, a life  member of the Society. A story of his valuable life of service to the  Society and his fellowman will be published in the 33rd Report. Edward Maurice Carruthers, J .P.  63  Edward Maurice Carruthers, J,P.  By W. R. Carruthers  Edward Maurice Carruthers, or Ted, as he was always called,  was the youngest son of Walter and Mary Carruthers of "Gordon-  ville," Inverness, Scotland, where he was born on July 28th, 1873.  His father was the owner and editor of the Inverness Courier, after  which the Kelowna Courier was named, when bought by the late  George C. Rose, whose family were close friends of the Carruthers  family in Inverness.  My father was educated in Inverness and in Dunkirk, France,  after his father's death, to which place his mother moved, with her  younger children, as living there was less expensive than in Great  Britain. In due course he returned to Inverness and for a short while  attended Inverness College. It was during one of his summer holidays  that, while working on a farm in the Highlands, he caught his hand  in the cogs of a piece of machinery and this resulted in the loss of his  two centre fingers on his right hand, together with the first joint of  his little finger.  At 16 he immigrated to Vancouver with George C. Rose, both  I POOLEY  r«Te  t  j  I  t  >*  /  / ^9_H_b_J_I  E. M. 'Ted' Carruthers  Office of Carruthers and Pooley  opposite C.P.R. Wharf, Kelowna,  1905. Left to right: E. M. Carruthers,  J. F. Burne and J. C. H. Seale. 64 Edward Maurice Carruthers, J.P.  having jobs promised them by Mr. G. G. MacKay, a cousin of his  mother's. G. G. MacKay was connected with the laying out of the  townsite of Benvoulin, east of Kelowna; a project that failed when  the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway came no further south than Vernon and the Lequimes founded the City of Kelowna. He was also  agent for Lord Aberdeen, who owned the Guisachan Ranch. It is said  that Lord Aberdeen had the long row of cedars, now leading to Mr.  Paddy Cameron's house, planted and that once they stretched nearly  to town. This was done to provide shade when driving or riding into  Kelowna.  George C. Rose left Vancouver for the Interior in the spring of  1890 and soon wrote such glowing accounts of the Okanagan to my  father, that he followed him in the October. He travelled by CPR  to Sicamous and then by the steamer "Red Star" to Enderby, completing the journey by stage coach to Okanagan Mission, where Mrs.  Lequime ran the hotel, saloon and store, while her husband ran the  ranch.  For several years my father worked as a ranch-hand for the Lequime outfit, the Catholic Fathers and many old timers, such as A. B.  Knox and Robert Munson. One of his stories of this period was that  due to his missing fingers he did not have to take his turn at milking,  which was done after the regular day's work was finished. However,  one Saturday evening he was the only man not going to Kelowna and  the foreman told him he would just have to do the best he could. When  he thought they had left, he settled down to do the milking, which  he could do perfectly well, when he heard the foreman's voice behind  him saying, "You so and so son of a gun, so you can milk! Well,  you'll do your share from now on."  My father eventually met up with Mr. Fred Ellis, with whom  he formed a partnership to construct "A" rail fences on contract. The  partnership flourished and they pre-empted land above the Casorso  Ranch. It was here, while building a fence that Mr. John Casorso,  after watching them, said, "That's right, boys, you build a good fence,  that make a good neighbour." Later on the partnership went into  growing wheat on the KLO bench. At first they were lucky, but one  year hail wiped them out, leaving them with nothing but a $400.00  debt at Mrs. Lequime's store. They both decided to join the volunteers  going to the South African War. Fred Ellis was accepted, but my  father was turned down because of his missing fingers.  After Fred Ellis left for South Africa, my father got a job near  Revelstoke, where the Columbia River was being cribbed to prevent  erosion.   During the following winter he teamed up with a trapper Edward Maurice Carruthers, J .P. 65  named Tom Boyd and trapped above the Canyon, upstream from Revelstoke. The following summer he again worked on the Columbia  and trapped during the winter with Boyd. After this he moved into  the Lardeau country and worked as a "cookie" in one of the mining  camps in the area. In due course he was able to pay off the debt owed  to Mrs. Lequime, all of which he shouldered, as Fred Ellis had been  killed in South Africa. On receiving the last payment, Mrs. Lequime  wrote on the receipt, "Blessed are they that expect nothing, for they  shall receive all!"  There is an interesting event connected with Fred Ellis' death.  On a troop ship, returning to Canada from South Africa, a poker game  was in progress and one of the players, who had lost heavily, threw a  battered silver Hunter watch on the table as his stake. One of the other  players picked it up, examined it and then accused the bettor of having  taken it off Fred Ellis' body. He put the watch in his pocket, remarking, "I know who should have this watch and I am taking it to send  it to him." In due course my father received it, had it repaired and  used it almost the rest of his life. I well remember it on one end of  his watch chain, with the key to wind it on the other end. On the back  was the monogram of Fred Ellis.  After paying off their debt at the Lequime store, my father returned to Kelowna, where he became interested in the possibility of  irrigating the upper KLO bench from Canyon Creek. Nobody believed  him that this was possible. However, with Mr. Sam Long, a surveyor,  he surveyed a ditch line which proved his contention. He managed to  purchase for $200.00 160 acres from Mr. Stanley Kirby, who had  left the valley and whom he met in a bar in Vancouver. As he had no  money he rode to Vernon and talked Mr. G. A. Henderson, the manager of the Bank of Montreal, into lending him the money on his note,  without any other security! Sometime later he sold the property at a  good profit, which gave him his financial start in life.  In 1902 he joined Mr. W. R. Pooley in the Real Estate and  Insurance firm of Carruthers and Pooley Ltd. This business is still  carried on in Kelowna under the name of Carruthers and Meikle Ltd.  My father and Bob Pooley were connected with the late Commander  T. W. Stirling in the formation of the Kelowna Land and Orchard  Co. Ltd., hence the letters KLO for the road leading to the benches  east of Kelowna, known as the KLO Benches. Carruthers & Pooley  sold all the Lequime property south of Mill Creek to the Kelowna  Land and Orchard Co., some 6,500 acres. The Lequimes had laid  out the infant town of Kelowna north of Mill Creek and this was  continued south of the creek by the KLO Co.   As a director, and as 66  Edward Maurice Carruthers, J.P.  Kelowna polo team 1905, Knox Mountain in background.  Left to right: Harold Stillingfleet, E. A. Barnaby, George Mappin,  E. M. 'Ted' Carruthers.  manager of the KLO Co. he was closely involved with the building  of the ranch buildings at the foot of the KLO hill, with the planting  of the orchards, where the present Keloka Orchards now are and with  the building of the KLO house, now owned by Mr. F. H. Turton,  which was the manager's house originally. When laying out the south  part of Kelowna, an area stretching from Pandosy Street to the lake  was donated by the KLO Co. to> be hospital property in perpetuity, as  there was no hospital organization at the time, the property was given  to the late D. W. Sutherland, In Trust, and was duly handed over by  him to the Hospital Association, upon it being formed.  In 1910 my father was sent to London to open and operate a  sales office for the Kelowna Land and Orchard Co. Ltd., the South  Kelowna Land Company Ltd., and the Belgo Canadian Company Ltd.  The offices were on Cockspur Street and the purpose was to sell fruit  ranches to those in Great Britain who were interested. While there  he made a trip to India and wrote several pamphlets on the fruit industry in the Okanagan and Kelowna area. In 1914 he returned to  Kelowna as manager of the Land and Agriculture Company of Canada Ltd.'s properties on what is now known as the Belgo District. This  company was owned by a wealthy Belgian family, with head offices in  Winnipeg. Among other properties they owned the L & A Ranch,  north of Swan Lake in the Vernon area, where they raised cattle.  When the 1914 war broke out, my father was faced with maintaining a newly planted orchard of considerable size on the Belgo,  together with the irrigation system, which had just been completed and ^^^^^^"^^^^^"^^^^^  Edward Maurice Carruthers, J.P. 67  known as the Black Mountain Irrigation Co. Ltd., now the Black  Mountain Irrigation District. Due to the German occupation of Belgium no funds for the maintenance of this undertaking were forthcoming from Belgium, as had been originally arranged. As a result  my father drew on his early experience and proceeded to raise cattle  and hogs on the company's property. Luckily the company owned large  areas of range land all around Black Mountain. In this way he was  able to keep the orchards and the irrigation system going and financially  sound. At the end of the war the president of the company came out  from Belgium and visited Kelowna. After seeing all that had been  done to keep things going, he announced that, as the company had a  cattle undertaking in Vernon, he wanted my father's cattle and hog  venture liquidated. When he saw my father's disappointment, he smiled  and said, "Mr. Carruthers, we greatly appreciate your efforts, but this  is a fruit ranch and we want it to be just that, however, I trust that by  doubling your salary, retroactive to the outbreak of the war, we will,  to some extent, temper your disappointment in our action and show you  how much we appreciate your fine efforts on our behalf."  Eventually the Belgo properties were all sold to individual fruit  ranchers, as had been the plan from the beginning. The range and  Belgo House, built by Mr. Grote Stirling and purchased by the L & A  Co. for the manager, were sold to Mr. Felix and Joseph Casorso, together with most of the ranch buildings.  My father then returned to the business of Real Estate and Insurance, in which he had retained his interest, realizing that eventually  he would sell himself out of his job with the L & A Co. In planting  the original KLO Co. orchards, varieties were planted in large blocks,  whereas when the Belgo was designed, various varieties were planted  in 20 acre blocks, each with a house site left on it. This made the properties very much easier to sell as each purchaser had different varieties  on his holding.  My father was one of those present when "Daddy Greene" held  his first Anglican service in the bar of the old Lakeview Hotel. He  was also closely connected with the building of the first church in Kelowna, the Anglican Church of St. Michael and All Angels, on what  is now Queensway. He was many times a Warden and for several  years read the lessons at the 11:00 a.m. service. From its inception he  was always keenly interested in the hospital. He was on the hospital  board for many years and was its president in 1926, 27, 28, and 29  during a period when extensive modernization was being undertaken.  He was a charter member of the Kelowna Club and was its president  three times.   He also wrote an account of the club's early history.   He 68  Edward Maurice Carruthers, J .P.  was always an active member of the Kelowna Board of Trade, now  the Chamber of Commerce, and was made a life member a few years  before he died. Another activity he was prominent in, was polo. This  was much played throughout the Interior in the early days and he was  captain of the Kelowna team on several occasions. Later he was one  of the founders of the Kelowna Golf Club and was its president in  the years 1931, 1939 and 1940. He was always closely connected with  the Aquatic Club, being many years on the board and several times the  vice-president. During his many years as a resident in Kelowna, there  were few public enterprises that did not benefit from his help and  experience.  In 1904 he married Miss Nora Higgin of Bolton, Lancashire,  England, in Toronto. The writer being born just before her death in  1905. In 1906 he married Miss Olvie Rumney of Sissinghurst, Kent,  England, who still lives in Kelowna. There are five children of this  marriage, Nora Ness, W. Howard, Brenda Meikle, Colin M. and  Joyce M. Harvey. For many years my father was a Justice of the  Peace and as such, one of his activities was the annual swearing in of  the newly elected members of the City Council.  He died in February, 1959, at the age of 85, a few months before his 86th birthday. After cremation in Vancouver, his ashes were  scattered by his family on the top of one of the foothills near Black  Mountain, overlooking the district and city he loved so much and in  whose growth he played so large and distinguished a part.  Incola Hotel, Penticton. During its construction in 1912. Construction began  Aug. 1911, opened Aug. 19,1912. The Story of Irrigation 69  The Story of Irrigation—Lifeblood of  the Okanagan   Valley's Economy  By Arthur W. Gray  Although irrigation has played a vital part in the development  of most of the communities in the Okanagan Valley, it has been  rather surprising how little reference has been given to this important  factor in the various publications produced by cities and towns and  individuals dealing with the history and development of the area. Even  the Okanagan Historical Society's own publication lacks information  in this regard. The index included with the 1966 annual report does  not even contain the word "irrigation"! In view of this lack I feel  that an article on this subject is in order, and drawing upon the files  of the valley news media, the records of some irrigation districts, plus  my own experiences as a trustee of the Black Mountain Irrigation  District, and on the executives of the Association of B.C. Irrigation  Districts and the Western Canada Reclamation Association, have endeavored to set forth in outline only, the development of irrigation in  the B.C. Interior. A detailed account of all that has been done, and  has been attempted in irrigation in the dry belt, and by whom, would  fill a book—and would probably make a somewhat boring story.  The story of irrigation in the Okanagan is a hundred years or so  old, and began soon after the arrival of the first settlers in Okanagan  Mission district, who took up land around Father Pandosy's mission  and Eli Lequime's trading post. Most of these pioneers were former  gold miners and were familiar with the diversion of water from  streams by means of a .ditch or flume, a common practice in placer  mining. Just exactly when the first irrigation began is not known, but  it probably coincided with the first extra hot dry summer to hit the  locality. Faced with drying crops it was inevitable that they should turn  their knowledge of sluice boxes to good account. It does not seem  likely that they found much difficulty adjusting from this to diverting  water by the same methods to irrigate their gardens and pastures in the  hot dry summers. Lequime came from California where primitive  irrigation was already being practiced in places. William Peon, who  guided the Oblate Fathers into the valley, was a miner, and worked  claims in Mission Creek and also filed on land adjoining Mill Creek  in what is now the City of Kelowna. The strong association of mining  with irrigation is still to be seen in the use of the "miner's inch" as  the basic measurement of water.  As the farming area extended and ditches ran greater distances 70  The Story of Irrigation  1  bis __  co   C   g  03   0)   P  flj _«    >h  c •__  HE S   C  "'   . -  3  a 0  a © «  B.C.  O'Sl  st vie  D.;  S  ____-ER__N  ON,  erry  mi, 1  n I.  ZO co §  s ..SB  > o    .  1   -(-> K>  _____■  ON  Dire  W.  eling  H  .4. §  £o §<£  W^  Hfl}5   _  n •_: c °  ffiCS _g  U.           Wl-g  en m a °  -i   3   3^>  _C   O   .-  H -fi>H'S.  K< "i  5    |3  PIC  ecto  id te  nide  ■ ■ s c a  zqIt  O       © Jd  1—1        •   +J     CO  < PQ  <u  SOC  ng),  (re  look  AS!  neeli  dent  Out  2^'__ j  hh a a S "o  E-1 1     "a c  5 a a~3Sj  ECLAM  ernon El  Camero  vice-pre  or, Peach  Q_ _>    J T3 +"  ^rS 8  Q-S^ cob  < SP •_-£-.:  Z^sO  <   O^^ffl  o +»  X   3   O        .9  ESTER  t row (1  ger, Mo  Dr. W.  ish McN  WKjEk *  1 Jg  £ § __ tS  *  ed: fr  y-ma:  B.C  ,.)Ha  He  i  £ S3 sK  -w   O   o  S £ g  h   _/ The Story of Irrigation 7 1  from the creeks, friction between neighbors often developed, sometimes resulting in violence and even bloodshed. As late as 1908 the  Vernon News carried a story of a man named Layton being shot and  killed by a neighboring land owner for digging a ditch across the lat-  ter's property for irrigation purposes, even though authority had been  given by the government department concerned for construction of  the ditch.  Recording of water rights began in the early 1870's, and a photostatic copy of early records on Mission Creek show one dated April  17, 1874, in the name of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Vancouver  Island, issued to cover use of water for irrigation of the Priests' ranch  at Okanagan Mission. The Lequimes were engaged early in the cattle  business and soon were in need of more hay than was available in the  bottom lands. In the early 1890's they built an irrigation ditch from  Canyon Creek to the upper bench that is now East Kelowna. This  was probably the first move toward irrigation of these dry bench areas.  E. M. Carruthers, who came to the valley in 1892, was employed by  Lequimes to patrol this ditch. In 1899 Carruthers and Sam Long  constructed a ditch for property of their own at the eastern end of the  upper bench. Long was a civil engineer by profession, which helped  no doubt.  The Kelowna Land and Orchard Company was formed in 1904  and they bought up the Lequime Estate (and with it the irrigation  system) from the edge of the little town of Kelowna to the upper  benches. The latter area is still known to most old timers as the  "KLO bench."  That same year John Rutland, an Australian, brought water in  an open ditch from Mission Creek to irrigate a section and a half of  land owned by him, in the district now known by his name. A syndicate from Kelowna, headed by D. W. Sutherland, later mayor of that  city, bought up Rutland's holdings, and subdivided the property into  12 and 24 acre lots. A year or so later the Central Okanagan Lands  Co., in which J. W. Jones, also a future mayor of Kelowna, and Dr.  Gaddes, were active principals, purchased Price Ellison's holdings in  the same area, and divided it into 10 and 20 acre lots, bringing water  from Mill Creek to irrigate this, and also the former "Dry Valley,"  north of Kelowna, which was renamed "Glenmore." Many smaller  systems, now classified as "water users communities"—the lowest form  of life in the irrigation fraternity—served other areas, one of the  oldest being the Brent-Davis system originated by Frederick Brent,  pioneer Okanagan miller, to irrigate his and other neighbors' property.  Over on the west side of Okanagan Lake pioneers such as Gel- 72                                                                                   The Story of Irrigation  •• "'■- Vai^-_.                                                                                          ~';--_.  Rutland Flats and benches looking East from Vernon Road—1904.  latly of Westbank, Bob Lambly of Trepanier and others developed  irrigation systems.  The big promoter, J. M. Robinson, boomed Peachland, Summerland and Naramata successively into being, with irrigation systems as the basis of their existence.  In 1909 the Belgo-Canadian Land Company acquired the bench  lands now known as the "Belgo," with H. C. S. Collett as manager  during the early stages, E. M. Carruthers later becoming manager,  and a resident of the area.   Grote Stirling, later a long-time Member  of Parliament, was engineer for this company for some time.  In the city of Kelowna there was an irrigation system in use when  the incorporation took place.   It began in 1884 with a record on Mill  Creek taken out by A. B. Knox, who owned a large part of what is  now Kelowna, and whose home was located near the site of Premier  Bennett's present residence.   A "Water Users Community" was later  set up to handle this system.   Many city properties in the early days  were in acreages, and required irrigation.   Tom Tomiye, who> owns  a nursery in the city, is the sole remaining water user.  Within the central  Okanagan there are now twelve  irrigation  districts, with a combined acreage of  15,756 acres, and in addition The Story of Irrigation 73  eleven Water Users communities with 2,376, a total of 18,132 acres  in the whole area.  In the northern part of the valley there has been a similar development over the years. The Vernon Irrigation District, largest of all  the Okanagan districts with over 10,000 acres under irrigation, is  mainly a system developed originally to serve the Coldstream Ranch.  The first recorded rights to use water for irrigation were secured back  in Sept. 1871, by Charles Vernon. The official acknowledgement confirms this as follows: "Chas. A. Vernon, Coldstream Creek, No. 4A  (22). Received this 25th day of Sept. 1871, in favour of Chas. A.  Vernon, (1000) one thousand inches of water to be diverted from  Coldstream Creek for irrigation and mill purposes. Pro—A. J. Bushby,  S.M. (signed) John Boyd." After Lord Aberdeen acquired the property in the early '90s and subdivision took place, orchards were planted  and a company was formed to develop Lake Aberdeen as a source of  supply. The Grey Canal, named after Canada's Governor-General,  Earl Grey, was one of the main distribution lines, together with the  South Canal. With a large part of the irrigated area being the property of the Coldstream Estate, it was natural that managers of the  company were active in administration of the affairs of the Irrigation  District that was eventually set up. F. E. R. Wollaston, Tom Hill  and C. D. Osborn of Lavington were in turn the leading figures in  irrigation affairs in the Vernon area.  In Oyama the Wood Lake Power Co. was formed in 1910 as  a limited liability company, to operate the irrigation system for that  area. Later the system was administered by an Improvement District,  set up in 1964. In the adjoining areas of Winfield and Okanagan  Centre the first development took place in the way of irrigation when  the Maddock Brothers bought up a number of the old ranches and  installed an irrigation system, now operated as an irrigation district.  The result of all these irrigation projects was the breaking up of most  of the large cattle ranches into small holdings, with the resultant influx  of new settlers, and transition of the area from ranching to a fruit  growing and mixed farming country, populated with people instead  of cattle.  In the southern end of the valley a similar change took place,  though somewhat later in developing in some areas. In 1905 the South  Okanagan Land Company was formed, with W. T. Shatford and  Lytton W. Shatford, who had been in business in Vernon, Camp McKinney and Fairview; and J. M. Robinson, as the main stockholders.  J. H. Latimer, B.C.L.S., then in Vernon, surveyed the townsite of  Penticton and laid out an irrigation system.   Naramata had been part 74  The Story of Irrigation  Kelowna District—Early ditch and flume irrigation employed for many years  throughout the Valley. Still in use where water under pressure is tiot available.  of this development area but was sold to J. M. Robinson, the vice-  president, who developed it separately. The Penticton area was served  from Penticton and Ellis Creeks, with storage sites on both creeks.  Today the system is municipally owned and operated. The Naramata  Irrigation District, formed in 1917, took over operation of the system there.  At Kaleden, James Ritchie of Summerland acquired the preemption of Warwick Arnott (who had originally purchased the property for $2.50) and with British capital developed an irrigation system in 1909, operating under the name of the Kaleden Estate Co.  Ltd. After a period of neglect during World War I the project staged  a comeback and is now a prosperous community, which, without irrigation would be "just the haunt of jack rabbits and rattlesnakes,"  one commentator stated.  Further south an even later development was the "South Okanagan Lands Project" which began in 1919 when the provincial government bought out the Shatford interests, the Southern Okanagan  Land Company, with holdings from Vasseaux Lake to Osoyoos. John  Oliver was premier, and T. D. Pattullo his minister of lands at the  time, and some 23,000 acres were acquired, with about 8,000 acres  considered irrigable.   A gravity system was constructed to take water The Story of Irrigation 75  from Vasseaux Lake, and the syphon that was installed to> carry the  water was considered an outstanding engineering feature at the time,  with pipes large enough for men to work inside them during construction.  The dam and syphon were officially opened by Premier Oliver  in 1921, but it was not until 1927 that the project, with some sixty  miles of flumes and laterals, was completed and the first irrigation  water served to the whole area.  Over in the Similkameen valley a company was formed back in  1909 called the Similkameen Fruit and Land Co., and they bought the  "R" Ranch, and established a headgate on the Similkameen River to  supply irrigation to the system. They later installed R. L. Cawston  as manager. The Cawston Irrigation District was later set up and  they took over the system, completing the development. A later development, after World War II, was the VLA project on the Cawston  bench.  With the expansion of the number of irrigated areas a logical  outcome was the setting up of an association to discuss mutual problems  and to speak for the irrigationists as a whole. Attempts at organization were made around 1920, but earliest records extant, according to  C. E. Sladen, present secretary of the Association of B.C. Irrigation  Districts, are dated 1923. Harry Everard was secretary and active  officers in those days were George Heggie, Vernon; C. E. Barnes and  E. M. Carruthers, Kelowna. In the depression days of the thirties  the districts ran into financial difficulties, and the A.B.C.I.D. became  the voice of the irrigationists in seeking some form of relief from  debts owed to the provincial government. Amortization or even complete wiping out of back debts, was sought. The latter idea did not  meet with much favor in government circles, but eventually many  districts did receive certain reductions and write-offs of accumulated  arrears and interest. The entry of the federal government into the  rehabilitation field with the enactment of the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act caused officials of the B.C. association to press Ottawa for  extension of its terms to west of the Rockies. They joined hands with  the prairie irrigationists by becoming members of the Western Canada  Reclamation Association. Efforts of B.C. representatives resulted in  that body recommending extension of the PFRA to all of Western  Canada. Not all growers favored the idea, for there were lingering  fears of overproduction, a hangover from depression days. The .first  steps in this direction were taken as measures to establish veterans on  the land after W.W. 2, with the projects at Westbank and Cawston,  which proved the thin end of the wedge. 76 The Story of Irrigation  During the difficult period of the World War II and the reconstruction period, the late Dougald McDougall was secretary of the  Association, and also of the Black Mtn. I.D. A civil engineer, he  was a valuable man to the district and the Association, in the operation  of the local system and the preparation of briefs to the governments.  His dogged determination had much to do with the Association's success in obtaining the wiping out of $131,829 of their collective indebtedness in June 1948. His ideas for extension and improvement of the  local B.M.I.D. system have since been largely adopted. Unfortunately he died of cancer in June 1948.. In writing of Dougald McDougall I know whereof I speak, having been chairman of the  B.M.I.D. board and president of the Association of B.C. Irrigation  Districts for some seven years in that period.  When local districts, and provincial irrigation associations have  played a large part in the progress of irrigation over the years, there  have been inter-provincial bodies that have played a considerable  role also.  Back in the first two decades of the century there was an organization known as the "Western Canada Irrigation Association" that  was very active, and held periodic conventions. Two at least were  held in British Columbia. In 1908 the W.C.I.A. met for the first  time in B.C. at the city of Vernon. At that time it seemed that the  CPR was a big factor in irrigation development on the prairies, and  in the Okanagan most of the irrigation systems were the property of  land companies, or were their subsidiaries. CPR irrigationists represented by Messrs. Bennett and Dennis of Calgary had a great deal to  say at the convention. The delegates were taken on a boat trip (CPR)  down the lake, visited Kelowna, Penticton and other valley points.  A resolution by R. B. Kerr, Kelowna lawyer, seconded by J. M. Robinson, Summerland land promoter, favored legislation to set up water  municipalities to own and operate water supplies for irrigation, and  also favoring a plan for government owned irrigation systems. The  resolution was split into two by the resolutions committee, and the part  about government owned irrigation systems was defeated. While in  the Okanagan the delegates took in the closing hours of Kelowna's  second annual Regatta.  Another W.C.I.A. convention was held in Kelowna in August  1912. Of particular interest was the passing of a resolution, moved  by Thomas Bulman and seconded by J. A. McKelvie, proposing that  "the present system of supplying irrigation water by joint stock companies was unsatisfactory, and that the provincial government prepare  legislation for water districts served by common sources of supply, to The Story of Irrigation  11  Rutland District, 1911—Looking northward across the Belgo Bench, showing  changes in appearance of area brought about by irrigation, by comparison with  1905 picture.  be set up to handle the development and distribution, the funds to be  loaned by the government for purchase of the system, and their improvement and extension." The motion carried. Government action  was far from immediate, but the resolution was a forecast of what  was eventually to come about.  An interesting picture taken at the time of that 1912 convention  by the Okanagan's pioneer photographer, G. H. E. Hudson, shows the  delegates as passengers in a fleet of automobiles of many makes, all  now vintage models that would be prized by collectors of these items.  The Courier's comment then was: "A surprising number of fine cars  lined up on Bernard Avenue to convey the visitors on a tour. Considerable discussion occurred amongst the crowd that quickly gathered,  on the quietness of some of the motors, purring gently away and the  noisy explosions of a few of the old timers." Sitting in the front seat  of the leading car was J. W. Jones, Mayor of Kelowna at that time.  The Courier report concludes: "Soon they moved up the entire  avenue, and as far as the eye could reach it was dotted by fast fading  'buzzers'.   It was a novel sight for Kelownians."  During the years the W.C.I.A. passed out of existence, but with  the advent of the dustbowl on the western plains a new association,  known as the Western Canada Reclamation Association, was formed 78 The Story of Irrigation  on the prairies. This became an influential organization, and as previously mentioned, the Association of B.C. Irrigation Districts eventually joined this body, sending delegates to a number of conventions  at prairie cities. In 1956 a convention of the W.C.R. A. was held  in the city of Vernon, with delegates present from the four western  provinces. Guest speaker was Harold T. Nelson, regional director,  Bureau of Reclamation, U.S.A., and a live topic was the waters flowing from the coast province to the state of Washington, through the  Columbia and its tributaries. The speaker estimated that 44% of the  water from the Columbia that was developed for power or other purposes came from Canada. Officers elected at the convention were  mainly from the prairies, but W. Ken Dobson, Vernon, was chosen  second vice-president. Other B.C. representatives were directors Vernon Ellison, Oyama; H. C. McNeill, Peachland, and A. W. Gray,  Rutland. Re-elected president was W. A. Cameron of Youngstown,  Alberta. The meeting strongly endorsed a B.C. delegates' resolution  urging extension of the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act to British  Columbia.  During the late fifties the Association continued to press for the  extension of the PFRA to new areas, and B.C. members of the executive formed part of the several delegations that went to Ottawa on  occasion to press this matter, and other reclamation projects. It was  an interesting experience, but the time and expense involved was considerable, and the reimbursement of travelling expenses, etc., fell far  short of the financial sacrifices made by delegates in neglecting their  own business.  Gradually the federal government, by successive moves, reached  the stage of recognizing reclamation as a national matter, and not a  local problem alone, and legislation known as the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act was passed by the Diefenbaker government, and federal aid to irrigation, as one of the methods of rehabilitation, became possible in any province that stood in need of this aid.  In these latter days we have entered what might be called the  "ARDA" period. Federal funds having become available for the  rehabilitation of existing systems, as well as the establishment of new  ones, many districts today are modernizing their systems with this federal aid. Along the main roads and the side roads of many irrigation  districts in the valley crews of men, with modern ditch digging  machinery, are busy installing not only irrigation lines, but domestic  water service, by underground pipes, and the old open ditches and  flumes are disappearing from the landscape.  From the days of the miner's primitive ditch and flume of the The Story of Irrigation  79  CONVENTION OF WESTERN CANADA IRRIGATION ASSOCIATION,  KELOWNA, B.C.  Bernard Avenue at corner of Water Street—August 15, 1912.  Car models listed: Cadillac, Reo, Everitt, Hudson, Ford, McLaughlin, Cartercar,  Tudhope, Napier, and others unidentified. Seated in leading car, wearing dark  hat, Mayor J. W. Jones.  Photograph by G. H. E. Hudson  1860's, to the modern underground, pressurized systems, and universal  use of sprinkling systems, irrigation has come a long way in a period  of 100 years. For this thanks should go in no small measure to engineers and officials with foresight and imagination, and especially to a  group of individuals who gave more of their time and energy than  they could spare, and for small recompense, the trustees of the many  irrigation districts and associations.  IRRIGATION DISTRICTS BELONGING TO  THE ASSOCIATION OF B.C. IRRIGATION DISTRICTS  Name Acres  B.C. Fruitlands, Kamloops    , -    -  2,500  Bankhead Irrigation  District,  Kelowna       -    -    -    -    - 85  Black Mountain  Irrigation  District,  Kelowna       -    -    - 4,258  Cawston Irrigation District, Cawston      ------- 100  City of Penticton     ------------ 1,970  Corp. of the District of Summerland      ------ 3,405  East Creston Irrigation District, Erickson      -    -    -    -    - 1,635.22  Ellison Irrigation District, Kelowna      ------ 624.38  Fairview Heights Irrigation District, Cawston       -    -    - 619 80 The Story of Irrigation  Glenmore Irrigation  District, Kelowna       ----- 1,663  Heffley Creek Irrigation District, Heffley Creek       - 1,232.75  Kaleden Irrigation District, Kaleden      ______        633.26  Keremeos Irrigation District, Keremeos      -----        930  Lakeview Irrigation District, Westbank       ----- 1,057  Naramata Irrigation District, Naramata      -----        860  Okanagan Falls Irrigation District, Okanagan Falls       -        232  Okanagan Mission Irrigation District, Kelowna      -    -    -        154  Oyama West Side Irrigation District, Oyama       - 293  Peachland Irrigation District, Peachland      -----        440  Robson  Irrigation   District,   Robson       ------        262  Scotty Creek Irrigation  District,  Kelowna       - 823.69  South East Kelowna Irrigation District, Kelowna      -    - 3,430  South Okanagan Lands Irrigation District, Oliver      -    - 4,830  South  Vernon  Irrigation   District,  Vernon       - 137  Trepanier Water Users Community      ------ 76.4  Trout Creek Irrigation  District,  West  Summerland       -        277  Vernon  Irrigation   District,  Vernon       -.--_.-- 8,000  West Bench Irrigation  District,   Penticton       -    -    -    -        276  Westbank Irrigation District, Westbank      -----        803  Winfield & Okanagan Centre  Irrigation  District       -     - 1,894  Wood's Lake Improvement District, Oyama*     - 792  Total acres 44,302.70  THE VERNON NEWS, October 26, 1893  The two highclass residences of Vernon will be the houses of  Judge Spinks and Mr. W. R. Megaw, both of which are progressing  as rapidly as the contractors can push them forward. We noticed the  other day a very handsome set of mantels for the various hearths in  Judge Spinks' residence. These were done on the coast and shipped  up, together with handsome tile plates of pleasing design for the  front. One of these mantels is of curly maple, beautifully carved,  and the others are of red cedar finish, with different but very handsome designs. A few more such residences as these, and the addition of  some more such residences through the district as that of Mrs, Greenhow will make the Okanagan famous for its palatial homes, and  where else should exist the most handsome residences in the country,  if it be not in the most beautiful district in the country? Captain H.  V.  (Paddy) Acland  Captain H.   V.   (Paddy) Acland  By Robert B. Morrison  Outside my window as I write, there is a young fir tree.   Every  winter its needles turn brown and we think the tree has died, but as  the spring progresses the tree takes on new life and the tips of the  branches show new growth. Paddy roamed the Okanagan, and  points further east, when occasion  demanded, for no less than sixty-  two years. During this time, the  valley became settled with people  from many lands, who through  their industry, have created the  Crown Jewel of British Columbia.  Paddy was typical of these  happy go lucky, carefree pioneers,  who faced multitudinous problems produced by fickle nature  and predatory humans in kaleidoscopic variety along with a complete reversal of moral values and  a vast transformation from mainly manual labour to the mechan-  Jeanne and Paddy Acland. fcal and electronic age.  Like our fir tree with its dead needles followed by newly appearing life, these pioneers saw their needles die, and every year they set  forth new needles to draw upon the sunshine and the soil for their  existence.  In the spring of the year 1906 Paddy arrived from England.  One of a motley throng who emerged from a colonist car at Sicamous  to begin the last lap of his venture into the Okanagan.  After five days in the train from the eastern seaboard, the setting  of Sicamous at the southern edge of Shuswap Lake is awesome in its  sheer beauty and vigorous freshness of mountain air.  The five day trip through the lakes and rocks of Ontario, followed by miles and miles of vast prairie and then the climb through  the majestic Rockies into British Columbia, lulled into somnambulance  by the clickety clacking of the wheels on the rails combined with the  fetid atmosphere of the coach, peculiar to those old steam trains, induces a physical and mental state of abject boredom in the traveller. 82 Captain H. V. (Paddy) Acland  And so, stepping out into the freshness and beauty of mountain  air at Sicamous is tantamount to starting a new life, as indeed these  people were.  Thus it was to Paddy an ever remembered experience, who with  every mile of the arduous journey, viewed the prospects with ever increasing amazement.  Brought up and educated for a professional military career in a  family of traditional Empire builders, his fondest hopes doomed by  political exigencies, this young officer but twenty-two years of age,  was faced with the unknown; in a strange country many thousands  of miles from his old home and surroundings,  Paddy had emigrated to Canada upon the advice of a cousin,  who had written to say that a young man had only to come to the  Okanagan, purchase ten acres of land, get it into cultivation, plant  some fruit trees and settle down to enjoy life on ten thousand a year.  The gauzy fabric of dreams. The beckoning hand of fate and  desire for achievement brought these pioneers to a barren land, fringed  with snow-capped mountains and paved with glistening lakes of many  coloured waters, to carve from the wilderness, the beautiful Okanagan  valley we all love so much today.  As Paddv travelled down the valley to Vernon past Mara Lake,  he fell in love with all he saw and, seated in the cabin of the Lake  Steamer Aberdeen he wrote his declaration of love to his father: "This  is the most beautiful country that I have ever seen and if I feel the  way I do now, I shall probably live and die here," and that is just  what Paddy did.  To this new strange life he brought the joie de vivre of the young  officer, which lasted him through the many vicissitudes of his life,  which inspired all who knew him and, although not everybody agreed  with him or even admired him, it must be conceded, he was very well  respected.  Paddy was not one to fret over the past, or even plan for the  future. He simply lived for the present moment, and he faced life  with a smile regardless of what it brought him.  Those early pioneers were strictly on their own resources. Most  of them brought a certain amount of money with them, which they  speedily lost and were brought sharply to face the grim reality of  being broke, a very common occurrence, even today.  As the steamer Aberdeen whistled its way to the Summerland  landing, Paddy was greatly intrigued by the sight of many people  rushing down the dusty track to the landing. The arrival of the steamer  was a  carnival-like  event,   when  the  whistle  was  heard,   everybody Captain H. V. (Paddy) Acland 83  dropped whatever they were doing and galloped down to the landing  as if their lives depended upon it, to chat with neighbours and friends,  collect the mail, shop for supplies or just plain gossip. Upon one  memorable occasion, a prospector, who had imbibed rather too freely,  found he lacked the wherewithal for normal trading, so he decided to  acquire his necessities by rather unorthodox methods. He had with  him four or five sticks of black powder. Someone was rash enough to  point out to him that he couldn't do anything with them at the store,  so he said, "I'll show you what they can do." Whereupon he threw  one of the sticks into the crowd. The crowd thinking of nothing but  personal safety immediately dashed for the exits and the store emptied  in jig time. Of course nothing untoward happened for the prospector  walked off with the sack of flour he needed. "Oh yes, he hadn't lit  the fuse, or had he?" It was not unusual for this sort of thing to  happen once in a while.  Paddy had never performed any manual labour, but one of his  first endeavours at Summerland brought him face to face with the  biblical injunction, except that Paddy did not confine his sweating to  his brow, but to the whole of his body for good measure.  In company with several other tenderfeet he secured work as a  labourer with the old Summerland Development Company as prime  mover of muck stick and pick.  Now the hardpan underlying the beauty of Summerland though  not so different from hardpan the world over, does anything but make  life a bed of roses for those who disturb it. To begin with, it is extremely hard, but when loosened it crumbles to dust and the dust being  very alkaline when mixed with salty sweat upon a sweating body, after  a time produces ulcerous sores, which have been known to eat down  to the bone. Then untutored muscles after eight hours of toil became  so stiff and sore that these tenderfeet generally went to work without  breakfast, they simply could not open their fingers to grasp their food,  etc. However, in time, both these impediments to a happy carefree  young life were relegated to the background of memory and life  assumed fresh lustre with every conquest.  The early settlers in the Okanagan, and I suppose elsewhere,  approached their daily tasks more in the spirit of fun. Paddy reminisces of the Craig boys of Summerland, who were famous for daredevil riding. On one occasion, shortly after commencing to work at  Summerland, the gang was improving the trail down to the landing.  Working on a sidehill, they were cutting the bank and throwing the  spoil across the road, when suddenly Paddy heard a shout and looked  up to see the body of a horse and rider sailing from the top of the 84 Captain H. V. (Paddy) Acland  bank across the road to continue downhill in a cloud of dust.  It did not take Paddy very long to acquire a horse of his own but  even here, he had to learn how to do- it the hard way. One day a certain individual approached Paddy and sajd he had heard that Paddy  wished to purchase a horse. He said, "If you can ride this one, I will  give you another one or you may have the one you can ride." Paddy  told the man, "I don't want both of them, but I will take the one  which you say is unridable." The poor beast had been plugged, which  to the uninitiated, means that it had been half starved and maltreated.  It was terribly frightened of anything which looked like a human  being. So Paddy took the horse. It took him two days to get the  animal's confidence to the point where he could pet him. After that  the horse would whinny when Paddy brought him his oats. At the  end of a week, it was possible for Paddy to place a saddle on the horse  and a bridle in its mouth. Paddy decided next day he would ride him.  Meanwhile the animal was tethered on a sixty foot lariat.  The following evening he went to ride the horse, so- after changing from riding boots to slippers, he eventually mounted the horse.  He then arranged with a friend that he would ride the horse next  morning whilst they went on a fishing trip. On the way home, he  accidentally touched the horse with his foot and was promptly pitched.  This was the only time that horse ever pitched him.  Two weeks later the owner of the horse claimed him and naturally since Paddy had neither bill or agreement of sale Paddy was  forced to part with the horse. So Paddy learned never to trust a  stranger.  Paddy crossed swords with an old farmer. He was scraping out  ground for a basement for a house, which the farmer intended to build.  The scraper consisted of a horsedrawn scoop with two wooden handles,  with which the teamster up-ended the scraper to empty it. It took quite  a bit of doing to drive a skittish team and also manage the scraper,  especially if the ground was at all rocky, which, in this case it was.  Actually this job called for two men.  The farmer and one of his cronies sat watching Paddy's struggles  with team and scraper. Every time the scraper tipped against a rock  the farmer bitched.  Well, it was a hot day and all that, and Paddy's temper got hot  too. In addition to being made the butt of the farmer's ill defined  irony, he was suffering from cysts on his arms caused by the alkali  dust previously mentioned. These cysts or whatever they might be  called were extremely painful. They gave Paddy a great deal of trouble Captain H. V. (Paddy) Acland 85  and so what with one thing and another the atmosphere became somewhat stormy.  Paddy stopped to light his pipe. The old farmer yelled, "Look  here, you god damned Englishman, I don't pay you to smoke a pipe."  The bounds of indignation burst with violence, Paddy walked up  to the farmer until he was close enough to give him a real wallop and  hit him hard enough to make him sit down. Slowly the farmer rose  to his feet. "What's that for?" he plaintively asked. "That's for  calling me a god damned Englishman. I'm not so stupid that I don't  know this is a two-man job."   After that they got along just fine.  Amongst his many accomplishments Paddy learned how to milk  a cow, mainly because job security demanded that he should. Paddy  had applied for the job of running a mixed dairy farm and orchard  shortly after coming to Kelowna, but since an ability to milk a cow  is generally considered desirable when running a dairy farm, Paddy  simply had to learn, and fast. In response to Paddy's desire a friend  introduced Paddy to a lady. Fifteen years old if a day; possessed of  all the accumulated experience an obstinate bovine can acquire in  fifteen years of many different milkers, she proved excellent as Paddy's  tutor, so much so that when Paddy approached his prospective employer  he was asked, "Can you milk?" "If you can milk that cow," pointing  to- a particular animal, "the job is yours." So, quite happily Paddy sat  down and milked the animal, which stood docilely and without animus.  However during the proceedings first one man came over and looked,  then another and then others and, eventually, one man said, "Where  did you learn to milk like that?" "Oh," replied Paddy, "another  farmer showed me some time ago." "Well," the man said, "nobody  has ever been able to milk that cow properly, it kicks everyone to  pieces who gets near it."  So Paddy got his job.  On March 13, 1912, a certain James Boyd held up the store at  The Mission and seeing a Mr. Randall buzzing off to sound the alarm,  Boyd took a shot at him with a revolver and then he took off down the  lower trail. He met up with a man named F. Wilson and the pair  made their way to Penticton, where they were duly apprehended by  the law. Whilst being returned to Kelowna they were confined in  the cabin of the Lake Steamer and whilst the steamer was sounding  her whistle for the Peachland landing, one of these men produced a  derringer, which had been concealed upon his person and shot Constable Ashton. Then they recovered the handcuff keys and setting themselves free, calmly walked off the steamer, and westwards over the  hills, but becoming confused in the multitude of trails, were once  again apprehended at Wilson's Landing. Captain H. V. (Paddy) Aclaitd  Naturally, during this time, excitement was running high.  Posses were scouring the country in all directions and many reports of  suspicious characters behaving in a furtive manner were investigated  by responsible authority.  Two tired, dirty, disheveled men arrived from the north and  checked in at the Bellevue Hotel at the Mission about nine o'clock one  night. Dead tired, they immediately went to- bed. Shortly after, two  other men, equally dirty, disheveled and tired appeared from the south,  but these men were also thirsty.  The loquacious bartender in course of conversation, told these  two men about the two suspicious characters, who had checked in  earlier.  So, being advised in which room the two bad men were sleeping,  they climbed to the roof and to the window of the room occupied by  the suspects.  Creeping as carefully as they could, they approached the window  which shot up with startling suddenness and a voice yelled, "Hands  up." Tired as these men were, they were not going to be taken unawares, which says something for their sagacity. But as it turned out,  both parties were members of the same posse, although neither knew  the other had decided to spend the night at the Bellevue.  One of these men, after further adventures, made a further attempt to escape by throwing pepper into the eyes of Warder L. B.  Simon, who outwitted the man, who was hanged a few days later.  A further sidelight on this business is the fact that of these two  men, one was married and the other single. The single man took full  blame for the whole episode to clear his friend, something one could  hardly expect today.  An amusing anecdote is told regarding what one might term  community thirst. Summerland has always been known as a dry town,  although probably not so true today, but in those days Summerland  was actually dry.  The leading druggist was not only a sworn teetotaler but also an  astute business man with some sort of conscience.  If a person developed a thirst—and who didn't in that alkali dust  —the knowing ones did not approach the druggist, Nunno—. Those  in the know, and word spread very speedily in those days, approached  the assistant in the back of the store, who would promptly and genially  sell you all the whisky you wanted at $12.00 the case.  Another of the leading citizens of Summerland, Proprietor of  the Livery Stable, was also the magistrate. His position demanded  decorum with discretion, in spite of the demands of health. Captain H. V. (Paddy) Acland 87  So, about twice a month, he would prevail upon someone to' go  down to Penticton to fetch something to aid his health. This magistrate was paid for his services out of the fines he levied. Upon one  occasion he had before him an Italian, who neither spoke nor understood a word of English, nor for that matter did the beak understand  Italian.  He simply glared at the unfortunate Italian for some minutes  and then with no further ado fined the man seventy-five dollars.  Fortunately a lady lived nearby, who was an expert linguist to  whom the Italian explained his plight. He was not appearing before  the magistrate to answer any charge, but in connection with something  entirely different. The Italian had no idea what the magistrate was  talking about and since he had committed no fault, he wanted an  explanation.  So the lady went to see the magistrate, who protested he could  not possibly hear the case again, he had been well paid, and was perfectly satisfied and that was all he cared about. 'Ģ Well, here was an  impasse, strange as it may seem, and the magistrate flatly refused to  take any further interest in the matter. Fortunately for the Italian,  there was by this time, a certain Anglo-Saxon element in the district,  who would not stand for such shenanigans. They forced the magistrate, who had come from the prairie, to reopen the case and remit  the fine.  Subsequently the right man was brought before the court, but his  fate is not recorded, probably it cost him double to compensate the  magistrate for double work.  Paddy pre-empted land at the foot of what is now known as  Acland Mountain a few miles west of Summerland and here he  brought his first wife, the former Jeanne van der Nest. Here they  raised their family. Mrs. Acland died in 1950. Their two sons, John  of Kaleden and Peter of Vancouver, and one daughter, Mrs, R. D.  Browne-Clayton of Okanagan Mission, and' two brothers and two  sisters survive in England.  Prior to the first war, the settlers had to create their own amusements. One of the most popular methods being what is known as a  Gymkhana. Of course nearly everyone possessed horses in those days  and they were always ready to show them off and pit one against the  other.  Costume races provided a lot of fun. One fellow in particular,  still alive, by the way, could always be relied upon to convulse the  crowd with merriment. He was a born clown and one of the best  tempered fellows imaginable. Captain H. V.  (Paddy) Acland  He was a good rider, in his own way. Entrants in this race were  required to gallop about a hundred and fifty yards to a line of sacks,  pick out a sack, dismount and don the contents, whilst hanging onto  a protesting mount. Then after donning the costume, gallop for the  starting point.  Well, on one occasion, and Paddy admitted this, for he knew  Jackie well and was a very good friend of his, he arranged a sack  containing a voluminous night dress, very large picture hat and a  Japanese or Chinese paper umbrella.  Well, the unsuspecting Jackie made good time to the sacks, but  then his troubles commenced. He managed to untie the sack and don  the night dress and by this time whilst trying to calm his mount he  was waving his other apparel around, which only served to disquiet  his mount. Placing the large hat upon his head, he opened the umbrella and walked towards his mount, who was terrified at the apparition walking towards him. By this time the race was over. But the  persistent Jack eventually succeeded in mounting and galloped to the  winning post where he arrived four minutes after the last arrival, the  pony, sagacious beast that he was, realizing the race was over, stopped  dead and Jackie turned a complete somersault over the pony's head,  landing on the flat of his back in front of his horse. He stole the  show that day and the crowd went crazy. Too bad these pastimes  have given way to the idiot box.  There was another character, a real family man, who lived in  Kelowna years ago, who, at one time was a magistrate. Periodically  he used to get very tight, but this man's wife was nothing if not resourceful. She used to keep her dining room floor very highly polished.  One day she observed the old duck, her spouse, waddling and weaving  up the driveway. Determined to do- something about it, she quickly  summoned the children to her aid and they piled all the furniture  upon the dining room table, then the children got out of the way to  observe the fun. Solemnly she led her spouse onto the floor, but he  couldn't keep his balance, and after a few gyrations, he measured his  length upon the slippery floor. He put on a first class show for the  edification of his family, who enjoyed his discomforture immensely.  After a few doses of this medicine he was very careful to get thoroughly sobered up before venturing near his home.  One of the most respected characters at the Mission was Archdeacon (Daddy) Green, whose house still stands by the lakeshore. He  was very well known and made use of by the patrons of the Lakeview  bar. On the stroke of midnight, everybody used to shout "Bottoms up  —To Daddy Green's and back."  Then everyone mounted their horses Captain H. V. (Paddy) Acland 89  to race to Daddy Green's and return.   The  first man  back had no  more drinks to pay for that night.  Then there is the story of the old fellow, ninety-one years of age,  who had the misfortune to break a leg when he was eighty-nine.  Shortly after which a friend of Paddy's called on him expecting to  find him in bed. In bed? No sirree. The old fellow, who lived all  alone in a shack, had split a couple of boards out of cedar, tied up the  leg with some dirty old sacks for padding and then lashed the two  boards to keep the leg straight. He was out feeding his cattle on a  pair of home made crutches, which he fashioned for himself.  One of the most remarkable things noticed after the first world  war by Paddy, was the most astonishing decline in morals, Paddy had  had occasion to go to the coast a couple of years before the war. He  had left his shooting coat hanging in the porchway at Acland-Barton,  his home near Summerland. It was the sort of coat one never sees  anymore. It had chamois leather pockets. In one of the pockets was  a chamois leather tobacco pouch, which had been given to him by his  father. The pouch bore the family crest, a little gold thing about the  size of a sovereign, plus a ten cent piece, and a fifty cent piece, etc.  In spite of the fact that many different people used to use the home  for hunting, the coat was still there when Paddy returned from the  coast.  But during the war, the story was entirely different. One party  came along and stole all the windows. They were easily found because they were custom built. That was the first thing. The next  thing was Paddy's neighbour riding along one day noticed smoke coming from the door. Investigating, he found that some campers, who  had used the home the day before, had stabled their horses in the  kitchen, although there were perfectly good stables not a hundred yards  from the house, and built their fire, not in the fireplace, but on the  wooden floor in front of it.  In another case, prior to the first war, a fellow left his solid gold  watch reposing on top of a fence post for at least a couple of days,  then his friend 'phoned him, "George, you left your blasted watch here  on top of the fence, better come and get it before someone pinches it."  After 1917 you couldn't drop a cigarette on the ground for someone  would pick it up. But to revert for a moment to the Mission and the  Bellevue. There used to live an old character, whose name has gone,  who used to live alone, his only pal an old hen, his pet for many years.  On one occasion he went to the Mission for his usual relaxation  and proceeded to get tight.   Whilst thus engaged, one of the brighter 90 Captain H. V. (Paddy) Acland  spirits decided to play a prank on the old man. First of all one of them  went out and pulled the swivel pin from his whiffle tree of the wagon.  This meant that when the horses moved, the wagon would stay put.  Then the prankster went in and had another drink and gained another  idea. With some pals they went out and took the front wheels off and  substituted them for the hind wheels and vice versa.  In due course the old fellow emerged from the bar, mounted  the box and yelled "Giddap durn ye." Shouting a cheery "Goodnight"  to all and sundry, and giddap they did; leaving the bewildered old man  fuming, whilst the docile team plodded for home. Naturally there  was a goodly crowd on hand. Someone shouted, "Gee, what a shame,  what a dirty trick, someone pulled the whiffle pin." Catching the team,  they rehitched them and replaced the swivel pin, but meanwhile some  of the pranksters wired the wheels together so they couldn't turn.  When all was set, once more calling goodnight the old man gave the  go-ahead to the team, but the wheels failed to turn, so the old man  turned somewhat peevish. He had a gun in his pocket, which he  pulled with homicidal intent. The crowd scattered in a hurry, but  some of the bolder ones came forward murmuring cries of sympathy  and cut the wire which fastened the wheels. So once more the team  started. They had about a hundred yards to go before making the  turn, but once more the old man was foiled, the larger back wheels  would not permit the wagon to turn. Furiously dismounting, he commenced to run towards the pranksters, but someone doused the lights  of the bar and the crowd dispersed, meanwhile whilst he was looking  for his tormentors, they changed the wheels, and that was the end of  the matter.  Paddy had run a good race of eighty-four years and to cheer him  along the last few miles he had the good fortune to marry the former  Mrs. Inez Sweetwood. They lived those last few years in retirement  at Efford Cottage, where Paddy continued his intense interest in the  great outdoors, doing a little fishing, feeding the wild birds twice daily  right up to the afternoon he passed gaily upon his way.  This short account does not reveal the Paddy I knew but I sincerely hope it will do some small part to keep his memory fresh in  the minds of his friends and those who loved him so well. Trek to Historic Father Pandosy Mission Site 91  Trek  To Historic Father Pandosy  Mission Site  By Primrose Upton  A little over a hundred years ago Father Pandosy, Father Richard, Brother Surel, guides William Peon, Cyprian and Theodore  Laurence travelled up to the Okanagan to found an Oblate Mission.  They spent the first winter in a rude shelter at the south end of Duck  Lake. The following spring, 1860, they moved to a location between  Simpson's Ranch and Dry Creek, and later the same year, chose the  site of the permanent Mission. They put up log buildings to serve  as Church, dwelling house and school. This became the first permanent  white settlement in the interior apart from the forts of the Hudson's  Bay Company.  On Sunday, June 30th, 1968, over two hundred people gathered  to watch the re-enactment of the arrival of Father Pandosy and his  party at the site. Taking part in the trek were four students from  Immaculata High in Kelowna—they were Len Bedford, Tim Schei-  tel, Tom Weisbeck and Alan Cameron. J. V. H. Wilson of Penticton  met the boys at Okanagan Falls and took them over part of the old  trail. They then walked down Shingle Creek to- the Indian Reservation where there was a welcoming ceremony. From there they were  taken to Paradise Ranch north of Naramata, where they walked over  the old trail to Okanagan Mission. Two pack horses suitably laden  with bedding, food, and such tools as axes, saws, hammers, nails, etc.,  accompanied the boys on the last part of the trip. All the news media  were there to welcome the weary travellers.  The Father Pandosy Committee of the Okanagan Historical  Society, has been working on the project of the restoration of the  Mission. Plans are that some of the original buildings will be set up  to portray the harsh living conditions under which the priests, lay  brothers and workers must have lived soon after the founding of the  Mission. Other log buildings which have been moved to the site will  portray life in the latter part of the century. A number of very interesting pieces of farm machinery will be housed in  implement sheds.  In the original chapel Joe Marty has fashioned articles of rough  furniture. Mrs. John Surtees has made a very realistic life-size model  of Father Pandosy.  Visitors were welcomed by J. V. H. Wilson of Penticton and  Mrs. T. B. Upton of Okanagan Mission. They both spoke of the  plans which are under way on the historic site, and asked for the help 92  Trek to Historic Father Pandosy Mission Site  of the public both in artifacts and money. It is hoped that this trek  will become an annual event, with more people participating. The  Committee is most grateful to the many people who travelled considerable distances to be present for this re-enactment, and to all those  who worked so hard to make it a success.  1859  1968  THE FATHER PANDOSY 'TREK1  MAP SHOWING  PART  OF  THE   OBLATE   FATHER'S  ROUTE   OF 1859, BEING  RETRACED   BY A   PARTY  OF   'PILGRIMS'      IN    JUNE 1968.  (TitAIL    ROUTE SHOWN    THUS  OVERNON  SCALE:   I    INCH*   20   MILES  WESTBANK-^/v7 ,%FATHER PANDOSY MISSION  PEACHLAND*  WHITE LAKE»V  SUMMERLAND*]     If  OLIVER  »OKANAOAN FALLS  Photo by Capital News, Kelowna  Trek Ma   by Fred Waterman  _Cfln__da—  U.S.A. Fort Okanogan—Where the Fur Brigade Trail Began 93  Fort Okanogan—Where the Fur  Brigade  Trail Began  By Eric D. Sismey  When the water behind Wells Dam on the Columbia River, a  dozen or so miles south of Brewster in Washington State, rises to  spillway level it will blot, for all time, an intimate chapter of British  Columbia history.  I use the word "intimate" intentionally. While the site of Fort  Okanogan is now in the United States, it was, from 1812 to 1946,  in a country dominated by British interests; first by the Northwest  Company and then by the Hudson's Bay. During these years Fort  Okanogan was the hub of the northern fur trade. From its storehouses  furs from New Caledonia were transported by water down the Columbia 423 miles to Fort Vancouver. And from Fort Okanogan the  land trail of the Fur Brigade stretched 491 miles to Fort Alexandria  where another water trail 236 miles to Fort St. James began. Fort  Okanogan also served to break the journey of the Overland Brigade  between Fort Vancouver and York Factory on Hudson's Bay.  The Brigade Trail between Fort Okanogan and Fort Alexandria was used for the last time in 1848 but local trading continued  until 1859.  David Thompson of the Northwest Company was the first white  man to look north along the wide river valley on a brilliant summer  day in July 1811. He learned that the river was the Okanogan and  its waters mingled with the broad Columbia at St'lakam.  Thompson and his men were racing to the sea hoping to arrive  before the Americans, but at the river mouth he found, to his bitter  disappointment, Astor's men in camp. This was on July 15, 1811.  He was too late.  After resting a few days at Astoria Thompson began his return  journey to Montreal. On the same day, July 23, David Stuart of  the Pacific Fur Company also started up the river. Stuart was accompanied by four clerks, four boatmen and two natives. His instructions  were to examine the country carefully and to find a place where a  trading post could be profitably established.  Allowing Thompson to hurry Stuart journeyed up the Columbia  until he reached a broad treeless plain which he described as follows:  "The plain was rich in tall grass. The landscape was open toward the south-east but closed with pine trees toward the north.   It 94  Fort Okanogan—Where the Fur Brigade Trail Began  was fragrant with flowers and musical with birds; and through it,  down from the northern lakes, came a clear cool stream which the  natives called the Okanogan and joined its water with those of the  Columbia."   It was here that Stuart decided to build his fort.  In Bancroft's History of the Northwest Coast we read: "Few  spots in the northwest could have been more favorable for the location of a factory. Besides a delightful climate, friendly natives with  multitudes of horses, rivers abounding with fish and the adjacent forests well  stocked  with  game,  natural  highways were  opened to the  m  FORT OKANOGAN  tmmgpmmM*m%m^  d  John Jacob Astor's fur traders built  Fort Okanogan in September, 1811. The  British North "West Company took possession in the War of 1812. The Hudsons  Bay Company owned the Fort from 1821  to I860. It was moved in the 1830s to  the Columbia River. A flagpole in the  distance marks the second site. Here,  at the mouth of the Okanogan River, the  Fort served as a trading center. The  United States won authority over the  region in 1846. The Hiidsons Bay Company  abandoned Fort Okanogan 14 years later. Fort Okanogan—Where the Fur Brigade Trail Began 95  north and east and to the south and west and even to the sea."  Caught in the bends of the river was an abundance of driftwood  from which Stuart erected a storehouse of logs sixteen by twenty feet  at the top of an easily defended hill. After the natives were found  to be friendly and had invited the whitemen to stay Stuart sent two  of his boatmen back to Astoria while he, v/ith Montigny and the other  two boatmen, continued to travel north leaving Alexander Ross in  charge of the fort. Stuart and his party followed the Okanogan to  its source, crossed the divide to the Thompson River where they wintered with the Shuswaps.  Ross put his lonely vigil to good advantage and in his published  adventures wrote: "During Mr. Stuart's absence of 188 days I had  procured 1550 beavers besides other peltries worth on the Canton market 2250 pounds sterling and which on an average stood the concern  (Pacific Fur Co.) 5^2 pennies apiece."  Elsewhere Ross records a trip through the Similkameen in 1813.  He was the first to explore the valley.  Fort Okanogan soon became a rallying point for the Indians  from the surrounding country and as the fort grew in importance it  became necessary to raise much of its food. When Governor Sir  George Simpson visited the fort while on his round the world voyage  in 1841-1842 he wrote: "At about eleven in the forenoon, we called  at the company's post, Okanogan, situated at the mouth of a river of  the same name, and maintained as an entrepot for the district of the  Thompson River. We found the post garrisoned by half a dozen  women and children, the person in charge being absent at the farm,  which on account of the sterility of the immediate neighbourhood  proved to be a few miles distant."  The Fort Okanogan farm has been reported to me, but not confirmed, was near Ellisforde—Schal'kees in the Okanagan tongue. It  was close to where Father de Rouge built a mission and where some  500 Indians lived in 1888.  Sister Maria lima Raufer, O.P., writes in "Black Robes On  The Last Frontier"; "These forts (Colville and Okanogan) did not  need fortifications . . . Fort Okanogan became the vital center from  which Christianity spread through the Okanogan valley. . . . The  hospitality and helpfulness of the officers of the Hudson's Bay Company in general and of Chief Factor Dr. McLaughlan deserves the  highest praise."  In 1859 increasing American pressure resulted in the company  closing Fort Okanogan and removing stock and merchandise to the 96 Fort Okanogan—Where the Fur Brigade Trail Began  Similkameen. The value of the buildings and other improvements  at the fort has been estimated at $25,000.00.  While the site of the first temporary fort will remain as a lookout adjacent to the highway the permanent locations will be under  water.  A visit to the Fort Okanogan museum a mile or two eastward  and on the road to Grand Coulee has much of interest about the old  fort and of Indian relics of the early days.  During the last year or two, in anticipation of the flood, the  University of Washington at Seattle has undertaken excavations at  the site of the old fort. One article of general interest appeared in  the Sunday magazine of the Seattle Times not long ago, but the findings of greater interest and photographs of the excavated buildings are  doubtless in the university archives and it is probable that a paper of  historic interest has been published. This writer, however, has not  seen a copy nor has he been in correspondence with the college.  But he does feel that these notes gleaned from lengthy publications together with the photographs which can never be taken again  do belong as a part of our Okanagan history.  While there seems to be no detailed. study of Fort Okanogan  there are many references which may be obtained from a public library.  Among them are:  Bancroft Works. History of the Northwest Coast, Vols. XXVIII  and XXIX.  Fur Hunters in the Far West, Alexander Ross.  Overland Journey Around the World, 1841-1842, Sir George  Simpson.  Ka-Mi-Akin, The Last of the Yakimas, A. J. Splawn.  Black Robes and Indians on the Last Frontier, Sister Maria lima  Raufer.  Douglas of the Fir, A. G. Harvey.  Cross in the Wilderness, Kay Cronin.  My Pioneer Past, Guy Waring.  Okanagan Historical Society, 6th Report, pp.  11 - 22. Annual Meeting Penticton Branch 97  Annual Meeting Penticton Branch  The annual meeting of the Penticton Branch of the Okanagan  Historical Society, attended by about 200 people, was held in the Community Arts Center on Friday, March 29.  After the regular business and the reading of the report of the  past season's activity by President Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, the awards  to the essay contest winners were presented by the president. Coral  Henders took the $10.00 first prize for her "History of the Penticton  Square Dance Jamboree." Donna Orge was awarded the $5.00 second  prize for her essay on "The Twin Lakes Dude Ranch." Miss Henders'  essay will be judged with essays of other winners from the five other  regions of the Society.  Honorable Mention certificates were presented to: Sandra Palmer,  Roberta Paton, Patsy Hilts, Vivian Foerster, Patti McLellan and Diane  Kroeger. All contestants were from McNichol Park Junior Secondary  School.  At the election of officers for the coming year the Nominating  Committee recommended that all officers and directors be re-elected  for a second term. And after the question no nominations were made  from the floor.  Officers for 1968 are: Captain J. B. Weeks, honorary president;  Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, president; Reverend Alvin Miller, vice-president; Mrs. Geo. Broderick, secretary; and Doug. Gawne, treasurer.  Directors for 1968 are: Victor Wilson, Mrs. Jas. Gawne, Sr., Wells  Oliver, R. N. Atkinson, Mrs. Donald Orr, R. F. Gale, Mrs. N.  Gabriel, H. O. Rorke, Eric D. Sismey, Mrs. H. C. Whitaker, Dr. J.  J. Gibson, the Mayor of Penticton Douglas F. Stuart, and Dr. W.  H. B. Munn.  After election of officers Louise Gabriel, senior councillor of the  Penticton Indian band, spoke of the progress of the band. Twenty  years ago, she said, Indian affairs were dictated by the Indian agent  and women were not represented. Today Indian women serve on the  band council which manages the business of the band with the agent's  influence becoming increasingly secondary.  After refreshment, a taped narrative recording the voices of  Okanagan Old Timers put together by Robert Orchard of CBC was  presented. It was illustrated with appropriate slides photographed by  Victor Wilson. Historical slides of people and events in keeping with  the narrative were interleaved with pictorial scenics. The slides added  a finishing touch to the eye-witness events of the taped recording, all Annual Meeting Penticton Branch  of which were of historic value and interest.  The evening ended  after Victor Wilson  was presented with a  carrying cast.' for his projector in recognition of his service to the society.  Winners in the Essay Contest. From left to right:  Coral Henders,  first prize;  Donna Orge, second prize;  Vivian   Foerster  and  Diane   Kroeger,   Honourable  Mention; and Mrs. Dewdney, President.  THE VERNON NEWS, August 5, 1893  A bicycle club has been organized in Vernon starting out with a  membership of ten and bearing the name "The Mountaineer Bicycle  Club" of Vernon. Application has been made to the secretary of the  Canadian Wheelmen's Association for affiliation with that body, and  when this step is completed the "Mountaineer" club will be the baby  club of the Pacific division. In addition to the Vernon wheelmen  Messrs. Lambly and Bell of Enderby have cast in their lot with the  Vernon club. It is expected that next season wheeling will become  more general in the district for the roads here in the early summer  months wear smooth and hard and a run along our mountain ways with  the sweet perfume of the Syringa roses wafted across the track afford  the keenest sense of enjoyment. Let us hope too that next season the  club will have the honor of enrolling a few lady members to enjoy  with them a run to some of the adjoining villages. Thomas  Wood—Pioneer Rancher  99  Thomas  Wood - Pioneer Rancher  By Art Gray  Re-published through the kind permission of The Vernon News  It was in the spring of 1861 that young Thomas Wood, son of  an Anglican clergyman in Newfoundland, left St. John's and sailed  away from his native land to seek his fortune.   He was 22 years old  at the time, and his destination  was Victoria, on Vancouver's Island, the western counterpart, in  a way, of his native Newfoundland. The ship carried him to  Aspinwall (now Colon) and  there he crossed the isthmus to  Panama City. Here he secured a  passage on another ship bound for  Victoria, where he arrived in  1862, after an adventurous voyage, under circumstances that today's travellers would consider intolerable.  After a short stay in Victoria he made his way up the coast  to the Cassiar mines, located 120  miles up the Stikine River, in the  wild extreme north of British Co-  An Early Picture of Thomas Wood  liimbia, in the hinterland behind the Alaska panhandle, then a Russian  possession. British Columbia was at that time a separate colony from  Vancouver Island. His mining venture in the Cassiar was not successful, and after some rough experiences he returned to Victoria for the  winter, as most of the miners who were working in the frigid parts  of northern British Columbia did then. The high cost of food in outlying places, and actual threat of starvation in some instances, drove  most of them out.  In 1863 Tom Wood set out for the Cariboo gold fields instead  of Cassiar, but only got as far as Lac La Hache, where he spent the  rest of the year, and the following winter too. The next season he  was employed hauling freight on the Cariboo Road between Lytton  and the mouth of the Quesnelle River. The next winter he decided  to go into business for himself, and made a trip into California, where  he bought up a herd of cattle to drive up to the  British Columbia 100 Thomas  Wood—Pioneer Rancher  miners. He drove them as far as Kamloops the next year, bringing  them up through the Okanagan valley, and wintering them near Kamloops during the winter of 1865-66. In the latter year, the Big Bend  gold rush was at its greatest peak, on the Columbia River, and with  two men helping him he started to drive the cattle to Little Shuswap  Lake, where they were taken on the Hudson Bay Company steamer  "Martin," to Seymour, at the head of navigation on "Great Shuswap  Lake," as it was then called.  At the Little Shuswap he had met up with a party by the name  of Cornelius O'Keefe, a man who was destined to- be his companion  and fellow settler in the Okanagan. The two "went in together" and  drove the cattle to their destination, travelling over the northern end  of the Gold Range, as it was called (now the Monashee Mountains),  reaching the Columbia about fifty miles north of the present city of  Revelstoke. There were 2000 miners at the diggings, and the cattle  found a ready market at a profitable figure. At the point on which  the cattle were disembarked from the "Martin," known then as Seymour City, there was another pioneer whose name became associated  with the north Okanagan. He was J. A. Mara, the Overlander from  Toronto-, who at that time was operating a store at that point. The  trail must have been rough over the mountains, for they mention it as  being swampy in places, some places heavily timbered, and at the summit, although it was June, they encountered snow, and lost thirteen  head on this part of the trip.  Returning from the mines they went south across the line again  to the Dalles to purchase another herd and drive them north to the  same market. On this trip they had a third party, Thomas Greenhow,  and the three of them drove the cattle up the west side of Okanagan  Lake, Wood being the guide, having come that way on his previous  cattle drive. On January 20, 1867, they camped at the head of Okanagan Lake. Instead of going on to the Thompson to winter the cattle,  they decided to stay where they were. They came to like the location  so much that they decided to stay there permanently and take up land.  At that time the Indians had two separate reserves in that area. Wood  took up land in between the two reserves, O'Keefe and Greenhow took  up land above this, but they continued to hold their herd as a partnership for some time.  Today, descendants of one of the partners, O'Keefe, still reside  on the old ranch, now also a popular tourist attraction. The government at a later date bought up the Wood ranch and turned it into  Indian Reserve. The three pioneers continued their ranching operations together for some years, but in 1871, Tom Wood sold out to Thomas  Wood—Pioneer Rancher  101  Thomas Wood Ranch Looking North About 1900.  Tom Greenhow and moved to a new location. Greenhow died in  1889, and his widow carried on for a time, but his holdings and part  of O'Keefe's eventually became part of the L and A Company's  big ranch.  In 1871 Thomas Wood set out to establish a new ranch of his  own further south, at the foot of what was then all called "Long  Lake," but now known as Kalamalka and Wood Lakes. The latter  is shown on some early maps by the Indian name of "Pelmewash."  Some road signs and maps used to show it as "Woods Lake." This is  incorrect, implying that the name might be derived from the wooded  nature of the surroundings. Present day road signs now read "Wood  Lake," and while grammatically more correct .than "Woods," are not  historically correct. Early reports and early newspaper references  generally used "Wood's Lake," which is correct, for it was "Tom  Wood's Lake," the name in its first application was possessive, for he  at one time owned most of the land around it. Incidentally, the two  lakes of Kalamalka and Wood ( ! ) were at one time only connected  by an overflow creek, and Kalamalka was three feet lower than Wood,  but a canal was dug in 1908 and both lakes assumed the same level.  It was in 1871, just ten years after leaving Newfoundland, Tom  Wood set out to establish a new ranch of his own on the hills and  the lower meadow lands that lie to the east and south of the lake that  now bears his name.   In due course he built a cabin, partly of hewn 102 Thomas  Wood—Pioneer Rancher  logs and partly of whip-sawn lumber, on the east side of the lake.  He named his new home "Winfield Lodge," and so far as I have  been able to find out there was no special significance to the name,  which eventually became the name of the district and of the post  office. It may have had some connection with his early Newfoundland  home, but relatives I have talked to and written to cannot give me  any better answer than "he just liked the sound of it!" Incidentally,  alternative names suggested for the post office, and rejected, were  "Osceola" and "Woodsdale."  "Neighbors" in the Okanagan Mission back in 1871 were not  too plentiful, his nearest neighbor being George Simpson who had a  ranch at the southern end of Duck Lake, which he had just bought  from Frederick Brent. The latter had just built his new grist mill  on what came to be called "Mill Creek." The Lequimes had a store  near the Priest's Mission. August Gillard was homesteading on the  future site of the city of Kelowna. The Postills bought out Simpson  soon afterwards and became Tom Wood's nearest neighbor. Incidentally the first telephone line in the central Okanagan was run in  1871 from the Postills' home ranch to William Postill who took up  land north of Duck Lake and became an even closer neighbor, and  the line was also extended to Tom Wood's, making it the Interior's  first party line.  When Wood first began to range his cattle on the ranch the wild  grass was so thick and succulent that the stock fed on it all winter,  and no supply of hay had to be put up. Came a hard winter, and Tom  Wood had to cut brush willow, pines and fir and strew it around to  keep the cattle alive. For lack of wheat for flour he had to gather  bunch grass and take the seed to Brent's mill to be made into flour,  fie gradually improved the productiveness of his ranch, and improved  his herds, though it is said that apart from a few thoroughbred bulls  he never bought any new stock, but became a wealthy and prosperous  farmer through the natural increase of his original herd. His surplus  animals he sold to the Douglas Lake Cattle Co., down through the  years. Tom Wood is said to have brought the first plow and the first  hay mower to the area, bringing them from Sicamous by pack horse,  the machines being taken to pieces, and then re-assembled after arrival  at the ranch. Indicative of his standing in the valley was his appointment as a Justice of the Peace in 1875.  Profiting by the experience gained in an early hard winter, he  began to put up more hay for winter feed, and by 1891 he was  reported in the Vernon News to be cutting around 200 tons for win- Thomas   Wood—Pioneer Rancher  103  Thomas Wood in Later Years  ter feed. This paid off in the hard  winter of 1892-3, when thousands of cattle died of starvation  in the valley, and when the ice  finally broke up on Wood's Lake  it was found to be three feet  thick! At that time Wood was  reported in the News to be owner  of 3800 acres, the greater part  being range, but a large part bottom land at the south end of the  lake. Around 1886 Wood made  a trip to Newfoundland to visit  his old home. This is mentioned  in an article about Charles D.  Simms, who at one time worked  for Wood on his ranch, and stated  that "Simms came to the Okanagan in 1887, his interest having  been aroused by Thomas Wood during a visit Wood made to his home  in Newfoundland."  In 1889 Thomas Wood married Miss Nellie Whelan, sister of  George Whelan, a large landowner in the Ellison district. The  Woods had a family of three daughters, Florence, May and Ruth,  all o-f whom were still living in 1967, two at the coast and one in  England. In 1902, having reached the age of 63, Wood started to  ease up. He leased part of his property to Price Ellison, and in 1906  M. P. Williams purchased 1705 acres of the bottom land for a stock  and sheep ranch. Mr. and Mrs. Wood had already moved to Victoria  to reside. Not long afterward Mrs. Wood passed away, and was  buried in Ross Bay cemetery, Victoria. Mr. Wood moved shortly  after to Vancouver where he spent the rest of his days at the homes  of his daughters in that city.  Back in the Okanagan changes were taking place on the old  Wood Ranch. In 1923 the Canadian National Railway branch line  to Kelowna ran their track through Thomas Wood's former ranch.  The crowning indignity was cutting right through the old ranch  house. "Winfield Lodge" was torn down to make way for the CNR  line. Many of the old hand hewn timbers were removed, however,  and were used in the construction of a house on the lower road in  Winfield, diagonally across from the Catholic Church.  Thomas Wood lived to what could be called without question, 104 Thomas   Wood—Pioneer Rancher  "a ripe old age." He lived to be 92. He passed away in Vancouver,  but the funeral was held in Victoria, and he was buried in Ross Bay  cemetery beside his late wife. At the time of his death two daughters,  Mrs. J. F. Johnston (Florence) and Mrs. E. J. Tingley (Ruth),  lived in Vancouver, and Mrs. F. L. Jameson (May), in Salmon Arm.  The Vernon News obituary said: "He was one of the oldest of the  old timers, and his death marks the passing of an era in Okanagan  history."  THE VERNON NEWS, April 19, 1894  At the conclusion of the service in the English Church on Sunday evening the Rev. T. W. Outerbridge announced that he had been  transferred by the bishop to the charge of St. Paul's Church, Vancouver. The announcement was a genuine surprise to the majority of  the congregation and general regret was expressed. Under the auspices  of the Ladies' Guild a farewell social gathering at the house of Mrs.  Gibbs was hastily arranged on Monday, and in the evening of that day  a large crowd assembled there. The church wardens and the sidesmen,  with the ladies of the church guild, attended in the hall of the house as  a reception committee. During the evening songs were given by Mrs.  McGowan, Mr. Somerville and others, and musical selections were  rendered on the piano by Mr. Billings, Miss Abbott, Mrs. Parke and  Mr. Cann. An address was read by Mr. Tronson, he being the people's warden, and was handed to Mr. Outerbridge by Miss Rosy Dewdney, she being the first girl parishioner in the Church of All Saints.  Later the guests dispersed after the singing of Auld Lang Syne in the  true old Scotch style—hands joined and crossed. Mr. Outerbridge  left Vernon on the train on Tuesday afternoon. While Vernon has  lost an eloquent and earnest preacher, his enlarged sphere of work in  Vancouver will doubtless give greater scope to his ability. Indian Leadership Conference 105  Indian Leadership Conference  By Mrs. W. G. Clough  The Indian Leadership Conference on community planning  which took place in the Christian Leadership Training School in Naramata from November 19 to 24, 1967, was not only a success—it was  a "first," according to Father Ronald Blacquiere, missionary to the  Penticton Band, who took part. It was the first time that Indians had  suggested, organized and paid for a conference, he said. Indian Affairs  officials were pleased that the initiative had come from the Indians.  Approximately 25 Indians from various points in B.C., including several chiefs and councillors, took part in the week-long series of  talks and group discussions on community development for the reserves.  Officials from Indian Affairs were guests at the conference for several  days, and answered questions on problems that arose, from the department point of view.  The suggestion to hold a conference on Indian problems came  from John Terbasket, of the Lower Similkameen reserve, who had  attended an eight-month course on community development at the  Coady International Institute in Antigonish, during the previous winter. His assistants were Leslie Williams of the Salmon Arm reserve  and James Nahanee Jr., a young Indian from the North Vancouver  reserve, who had taken the same course. Father Blacquiere and Rev.  Bernard McCosham from Duncan, who had been at Antigonish at  the same time, were present at the conference.  Also in attendance for several days were Bishop W. E. Doyle of  the Diocese of Nelson, Father Bill Devlin from Kamloops, and Miss  Kay Cronin, author of Cross in the Wilderness, a book on the work  of the early Oblate missionaries in the west.  Chief Dan George of the Burrard band gave the opening talk  on Monday morning. In order to speak he had interrupted rehearsals  for the Thursday opening in Vancouver of The Ecstasy of Rita Joe,  a play by George Ryga of Summerland. The chief is well known as  ol' Antoine on the television series, Cariboo Country.  Chief Dan George spoke simply, with an Indian's natural dignity  and rhetoric.  "Have faith in yourselves," he told the Indians. "Have hope in  the future, and have charity for your people. If you have good leadership on the reserve, the reserve will flourish."  He told them that the white man can help the Indians by stopping discrimination, by not making them appear ridiculous on stage 106  Indian Leadership  Conference  Taking part in discussion group at the Indian Leadership Conference, left to  right: Adam Eneas of Penticton Indian Band; Dick Sparks, assistant  superintendent of the Indian Affiars Branch in Vernon; Murray Alexis of the  Vernon Band; Ross Modeste, Cowichan Band manager; Mrs. Clarence Lewis of  the Vernon Band; conference director John Terbasket of the Lower Similkameen  Reserve; Fred Luis of the Vernon Band; Chief Barnette Allison of the Lower  Similkameen Reserve.  and television, and by giving them their proper place in the history  books.  On Monday evening, James Nahanee Jr. spoke on the necessity  of providing leadership training for the Indian youth, so that they  could take positions of leadership off the reserve as well as on it.  On Tuesday morning, John Nichols, from the Indian Affairs  Branch, Vancouver, spoke on the Indian Act and self-government.  Judging from remarks from various Indians, the Act seemed generally  disliked. On one occasion an Indian in a position of authority said:  "The Federal Government has assumed responsibility for the Indians  and has been making mistakes for the last hundred years. Now give  us the chance to make our own mistakes." Other remarks were: "The  Act ties our hands behind our backs." "It's the Indian Act that has  made us what we are."  (The Indian Act is in process of revision, and a preliminary  report has been sent to the chiefs for suggestions. However, the Indians  themselves had no representative on the committee which prepared  the report.)  On   Tuesday  afternoon,  during a  session   on . justice  and   law, Indian Leadership Conference 107  a mock trial was held before Penticton magistrate, Ross Coll ver, with  the Indians deciding what sentence the "culprit" should have. Mr.  Collver told them that their suggested punishment was more severe  than his would have been, and explained why he would be more lenient.  On Tuesday evening, Rev. Marvin Fox, a Blood Indian from  Cardston, Alta., spoke on the awakening he feels is occurring on the  reserves across Canada. He cited the example of a reserve in southern  Alberta, where the Indians have recovered their pride, as well as  improving their economic status, by starting various co-ops.  On Wednesday morning two band managers—Ross Modeste  from the Cowichan reserve, and Sam Lewis from the Squamish Band  —spoke on the duties of a band manager, a paid job which is new in  band affairs. It involves looking after the financial, social welfare  and administrative matters on their reserves, and acting as liaison with  Indian Affairs, and with the non-Indian community, they said.  in the afternoon, Father McCosham spoke on co-ops, and  community self-help, as he had studied them at Antigonish.  On Thursday, a panel of Indians, and Robin Ford of Indian  Affairs, Vancouver, talked about community development, and Henry  Smitheran, an Indian from the Manpower office in Vancouver, spoke  on the relocation program and counselling services available from his  department. A panel of Indian Affairs officials was also kept busy  answering questions on particular problems.  In the evening, a joint talk by Victor Wilson and Eric Sismey  of the Penticton Historical Society sparked the one somewhat heated  discussion of the conference, when Mr. Wilson urged the Indians to  be more outspoken and less gentle.  The grievances expressed ranged from history texts which say  so much about explorers, Simon Fraser and Alexander McKenzie, and  so little about their Indian guides, to the widespread derogatory use  of the word "squaw," and a question on why Indian children do not  seem to be put on the academic program at school. Commercial exploitation of the Indian culture, especially by the sale of totem poles  made in Japan, was also resented.  Friday was a day of summing up. Members of the conference  expressed themselves as satisfied with its success, and decided to hold  another early in 1968. They will also send a delegate to the Indian-  Eskimo conference in Vancouver in January.  They plan to report fully on the conference to those on the  reserves. Commented Jim Nahanee: "This will have been a success  if even one person is stimulated to greater action in his community."  Credit   unions,   museums   and   displays   of   handicrafts   on   the 108  Indian Leadership Conference  reserves were recommended, as well as more education of the public.  The women present said they would like contact with non-Indian  women's clubs.  John Terbasket, conference director, pointed out another benefit  which might result.  "By bettering ourselves on the reserves, relations between Indians  and non-Indians will be improved," he said.  84-year-old   Mrs.   George  Lezard  of  the  Penticton   Indian   Reserve   prepares  "Speet'lum" in her all electric kitchen. Speet'lum, a traditional Indian  dish,  is the dried root of Bitteroot—Lewisia rediviva. Alfred E. Stocks—Okanagan Pioneer and Adventurer 109  Alfred E.  Stocks  Okanagan Pioneer and Adventurer  By Arthur M. B. Stocks  With Foreword by Eric Sismey  In this, our centennial year, we would do well to look  back to its half way mark to an era when young men from  the Old Country left their home comforts with little more  than a Latin and Greek education, a one way ticket and a  pair of untutored hands for lands wherever the flag was  flown. These young men had been conditioned to adventure  since boyhood, by tales their fathers told, by the books they  read, Kipling, Rider Haggard and the Boy's Own Paper.  The doors to adventure were wide open, the horizon  clear and unsullied. These young men took their chance;  they faced the unknown, eager and bright eyed, to leave a  mark which will never be erased, or to find a grave on foreign soil.  Such were the men who built the world's greatest  empire and one, among them, was Alfred E. Stocks.  Alfred, my brother, was born at Great Bowden Vicarage, Leicestershire, England, on March 29, 1888. He was the son of the Reverend Philip Stocks, M.A.    (See OHS, Vol. 27, page  106).  As a boy he was sent to Cargilfield, a private boarding-school, in  Edinburgh, where, at his father's wish, his education was slanted  towards the Royal Navy. After private school he was sent to Eastman's, a naval crammer, at Southsea, and after successful examination  was posted to the H.M.S. Brittania, anchored at Dartmouth, where he  served for more than two years. After passing the finals he took a  discharge, left England for Red Deer in Alberta to work on a farm  at $10.00 a month and board. It was not long before he heard from  a cousin, Fred, at Wilson's Landing in the Okanagan and after shaking Alberta dust from his feet came to British Columbia to join the  happy-go-lucky young pioneers settled on the west side of Okanagan  Lake. Like many of the others, and with a partner W. R. Tozer,  he staked a pre-emption in the mountains above Nahun on the west  side. After building a trail to their land they lived in a tent while  building a log cabin and furnishing it with tables, chairs and bunks,  split, shaved or whittled out of wood from the trees which grew  round about. 110  Alfred E. Stocks—Okanagan Pioneer and Adventurer  Little thought was given to the future; it was enough to live in  a beautiful country, in a place to fish, hunt and trap and to enjoy the  goodwill and fellowship of other young men from the same station  in life.  Money did not enter the picture, its only use was to buy the few  necessities of life. You were on your own and free; that was the  good life before the welfare state had even been conceived.  After a year or two Alfred decided to visit England, perhaps the  wish arose from a remark often heard, "Do you think you'll ever go  back." But be that as it may, Alfred Stocks went to Vancouver where  he found the German four-masted barque sailing ship, Henriette, 3130  tons gross, at the Hastings Mill loading lumber for Melbourne,  Australia.  When he landed at Melbourne he was broke but at Christmas  time worked as a clean-up man at a pub until he found a sailor berth  and signed "A.B." on a British steamer bound for the Tilbury docks,  in London. And when he reached  home at the Holy Trinity Vicarage in Twickenham he was wearing the navy-blue jersey of the  shipping line with its name blazoned across his chest. Naturally  he was a hero to his younger  brother and two sisters whom he  regaled with tales of British Columbia; of weevils in the ship's  biscuits, endless pea soup and the  smell of salt meat in the harness  casks. But there were more pleasant tales of sailing ship days.  "Through the Trades I often  climbed to the fore royal yard to  where I could get away from the  German tongue, to where I could  see white horses stretching to the  horizon;   where   the   only  sound  Royal Naval Division ' J  Eric Sismey Copy photo     was the music of wind through the  shrouds and below me the sails all bellied tight.   I enjoyed my trick at  the wheel, she was so easy  to steer, how  responsive, how  gloriously  beautiful it was to see your ship, every sail drawing, rising and falling  with easy grace to the swell.  "But the Horn was miserably harsh at the time but a treasured  Lieut. Alfred E. Stocks  In Uniform of the Alfred E. Stocks—Okanagan Pioneer and Adventurer 1 1 1  memory when the rough weather days were done.  "The steamer voyage from Melbourne to London was pleasant,  the work easy and the food good. I enjoyed especially my watch on  the fo'castle head where I could watch the flying-fish and porpoises."  Then it was Canada again and to land at Sicamous without a  cent. But after reaching the Okanagan enough work was found to  keep the wolf from the barn yard. When war was declared in August  1914 Alfred wrote to the British Admiralty offering his services which  were accepted at once. He was commissioned in the Royal Naval  Division where he served throughout the war both at Imbros in the  Dardanelles campaign and later in France and Belgium.  When my outfit, the 49th Canadians, was at Mons in 1918  Alfred came to see me. He had borrowed a horse from the 63rd  Division and came in Naval uniform riding an army horse. He wangled a few days leave for me and took me to his billet in a Belgian  home at Asquille. On a large table in the living room the top was  completely covered with five franc coins which the Belgian home owners had dug from the garden where they had been hidden from the  invading Hun.  And I, a buck private, was taken around, treated royally by the  top brass and when we parted company my brother gave me 200  francs, quite a fortune in those days.  This was the last time I saw my brother, Alfred. When we  parted I had a premonition that I would never see him again. He  would not return to Canada, he wanted to go somewhere on his own.  Through friends Alfred obtained a nomination to the African  police and after passing examinations he was appointed, at the age of  31, Assistant Commissioner of Police on the Gold Coast, now Ghana.  After living in Africa about two years he contracted yellow fever.  He died in November, 1922 and was buried at Secundee.  Letters reaching home from fellow officers told of the funeral.  "Tears ran down the cheeks," they read, "of the coloured police who  laid him to rest."  Let us thank God for his life and let it go at that. But first let  me recite one of his cheerful tunes which he so often sang or whistled  and which, perhaps, is one of my most vivid memories of my boyhood  companion.  "My Eileen is the village queen,  She's the  queen of the  village green.  And when she plays the accordeen  A slicker gal you've never seen. 112 The Log of the Good Ship uOnaway'  The Log of the  Good  Ship  Onaway  Editor's Note: This story describes a cruise from Summerland to Kelowna and back in 1911. The sailboat <(ONAWAY" was owned by the Agurs of Summerland and was  apparently taking part in a race at Kelowna. There is in the  Kelowna Museum at present a very large cup, the property of  the Agur family which has the following inscription on it:  OKANAGAN LANDING REGATTA WINNERS  1905, T. W. Stirling;  1906, T. H. Packer;  1907,  ;  1908, A. A gu r;   1909, A. A gu r;   1910, L. C. Avis;  1911, A. Agur.  lt is not certain whether this is the cup referred to in  the story or whether there was another cup presented by the  Kelowna Regatta.  YACHT ONAWAY—  Sloop Rig.  Water Line—17  feet.  Overall—25 feet.  Beam—7 feet.  Sail Area—350 feet.  Burden—1500 pounds.  THE CREW—  Skipper—Allen Agur.  Cook—Eric Agur.  Deck Hand—David Bentley.  Scribe and Swab—Gordon Glassco.  THE LOG—  At 10:15 a.m. Monday, August 7th, under a cloudy sky, Onaway  cast loose from her dock and drifted several feet.  Eric then quit the ship by canoe to take a lingering look at the  town and thus forgot to "bring home the bacon." After some "stern"  mechanical persuasion from the Deck Hand, Onaway made Slumber-  land Dock in 1 hr. 20 min. elapsed time. Here we were met by the  new burgee spar and Eric.  Natural wind showing, we shoved ourselves off at 12 noon and  were soon sailing almost perceptibly. Made South Home point where  David got a pair of glasses—non-orthochromatic, also  non-alcoholic. The Log of the Good Ship "Onaway" 113  The Cook, still dreaming of Slumberland, lunch was postponed  until the first rain hit us. With it came some wind which made the  Skipper smile—and we all put on overcoats. Dessert of chocolate and  green apples stretched far into- the afternoon.  Later lying becalmed, the Scribe tried artfully angling with a  T.L. (trolling line) but nothing bit.  Cast anchor at Squally Point Cove at 5 :20 p.m. Eric went ashore  so the rattlers were scared off. After moving camp only once, we  proceeded to have supper and rain. The latter lasted the longer and  left us only one desire—to lift the tent for shelter. Here was spread  a tangled table of everything to be kept out of the wet, alongside some  steak and potatoes.  The Skipper then piled on a smart fire which we all watched from  our sheltering "shally," meantime parting with tales of our polka-dot  pasts.   Thus to bunks.  Tuesday, August 8th. With too much energy to be enjoyed  or emulated the Skipper skipped out of the tent at 5 a.m. and started a  fire. Consequently all were forced to admit being awake and in the  first flush of morning grouch proceeded to address advisory remarks  to the gay disturber. The result was the arrival of a bomb in our  midst, which was caught by David—on the elbow, and which scattered  its charred fragments over the resting slaves of Orpheus. The escape  of the Scribe was as narrow as a hen's face.  Chug-chug announced the arrival of Noel Higgin in search of  a warming welcome by the fire. The Skipper and the Swab entertained  him by using the lake for their matutinal tub. The Swab later found  on the beach a most excellent spar which makes a convenient ridge pole.  After a slow but select breakfast, we weighed anchor at 9 a.m.,  the Deck Hand succeeding in falling in for an abbreviated wetting.  With a dead beat all the way and a glorious sailing breeze, we  were off Kelowna at 3 p.m. and were met by our rivals in the "Iris"  who tried their speed with us on a few short legs.  By 4 p.m. the Onaway was stowed and riding at anchor after a  short tow from Harry Reynolds, who, with "Spot," joined us here.  The next four hours were spent in selecting a camping site at  what was afterwards called "Panacea Point," pitching tents and making the surroundings habitable. While scouting for equipment, three  were nearly nabbed by the town constable, only being saved by the  strategy of Eric.  Then followed a sumptuous supper for the five of us and the  dog, and we were entertained by promiscuous stories, more naughty  than nautical. 114 The Log of the Good Ship "Onaway"  Guiding our course only by the moon we soon made Sleepy Land  Haven, where all snoring was blamed on the dog.  Wednesday, August 9th. Even good sleeps must end and at  7 a.m. most everyone awoke together and discovered the "Okey" in  view.   Even this failed to rouse David.  A swim followed for all but the Skipper and Scribe who set out  by canoe to bring Mrs. Agur and Phil into camp. Their waving caught  the Skipper's eye and they were soon discovered on the dock accompanied by T. Knox, Esquire.  Breakfast and sailing then claimed attention, and a freshening  breeze promised a good race.  After the worst attempt at starting ever exhibited from a judge's  stand we crossed the line at 10:09, with our rivals rounding the course  in the opposite order. After sailing once around the course in these  divergent directions, the race was called off. This enabled us to get  our gay stay-streamers from Harry Reynolds.  Soon were seen the Misses Eleanor Cossitt and Lily Nicolls coming down the bay with the "Aberdeen" as a background, and they were  soon introduced to the intricacies of nautical life on shore.  After the judges had used large quantities of hot air in explanations, there was a great calm, and the race was put off for the morrow.  This let the Onaway take on a cargo of peaches and the Skipper  showed he was a jolly sea-dog anxious for a capture. The best prize  in view was the propeller-rigged craft "Ace-High"—Capt. Reynolds.  After some skilful skirmishing the Swab and the Deck Hand successfully boarded the enemy and captured their flag and precious cargo  in the person of Miss Mary Sutherland. Then followed an old fashioned sea fight, with many narrow escapes. Almost this history lost its  author—in the drink—and the Deck Hand was very nearly "roped  in."  Casualties were much drenching and loss of dignity on both sides.  After a bathing party had showed the lake how to do it, the cook  selected some supper, of which was the finest cake that ever caked.  With nerve only exceeded by his fancy taste, this was surreptitiously  slipped away by "Spot," who now lies stretched in the tent while the  Scribe writes up the Log.  With the Merry Widow Waltz and other newlike tunes playing  for the dancers in the distance, and the moon breaking her balmy way  through the bosky sky-line, the guardian of the Camp drifts away to  the Port o' Dreams, where Fancies cross the Bar and Facts never  come to anchor.   The pencil broke here anyway.  Thursday, August 10th. It must have been a dandy dance  from the tardy rising of the camp. The Log of the Good Ship "Onaway" 115  After successive swims we gradually collected for breakfast at  9 o'clock, the crew departing almost simultaneously for the race.  The start was made at 9:54 with Onaway in the windward  berth. Soon she had left her rival astern and passed Kill-Kare-Kottage  Buoy at 10:25. Here the spinnaker was quickly set and Onaway looked  like a sure winner, when the wind dropped and the race was again  put off.  The crafty crew canoed for camp, but were met by a despairing  maiden in need of nautical help. The daring Deck Hand then dart-  ingly dove and delivered Phil her precious purse; but the sight of easy  money had been too much, for pink-eye soon set in.  After a few Fables in Slang from David, followed by a course  of watermelon, we collected on the beach to admire two water nymphs  —Eleanor and Phil—disporting themselves in red costumes.  Then somebody made a noise like luncheon and the canny crew  set out in search of another race—and got it.  Crossing the starting line at 3:21 Onaway led all the way and  after an exciting race against the two-hour time limit, finished a winner in  1 hr. 43 min. elapsed time.  The feature of the race was the setting of the spinnaker; this sail  being changed or set at the rounding of every buoy.  On arrival at camp the Skipper and crew made a noise like a  chicken ranch and for some time the sand flew.  The camp then took appreciated advantage of the hospitality of  Dr. and Mrs. Huycke for supper and proceeded to the Club House  where we tripped the light fantastic and had a perfectly "Mazey"  time.  In the midst of this the clouds decided to- loosen up their three-  day "strangle-hold" on the wind, so there was soon a young tornado  tearing around our hitherto pacific point. The Swab tried to stake  things down at camp without the axe, which had been thoughtfully  borrowed by our neighbors on the approach of the storm.  In fancied security of the Onaway's ability to ride any storm,  we left her moored near the rival hulk, who tried by a night attack to  destroy that which had caused her so much shame by day. The cautious Skipper came to the rescue and by daring seamanship he single-  handed parted the tangled ships. The Onaway had done her best to  alter her rival's rig into the sloop class, herself suffering the loss of  bowsprit and tackle for'd.  Friday, August 11th. "A thing of beauty is a joy forever"  and Onaway's damage was quickly put under temporary repair by  Allen, Eric and Gordon first thing this morning.   They arrived back 116 The Log of the Good Ship "Onaway"  at camp at 10:45 a.m. and found first preparations for breakfast almost  under way.  After this meal was finally disposed with at about 1:30 p.m. it  was hoped all would go for a sail. This was postponed by the departure on the "Okey" of Mrs. Agur, Phil and Mr. Knox, who left the  camp at Panacea Point to the original Big Four, embellished by the  presence of two natty naiads.  Our return to the Point was marked by the best meal of the whole  camp and the fun set in. For the spirits of the party soared to heights  hitherto unknown and all the facts, fancies and follies of a good time  were cast loose as from a mooring—lightly. This day made all others  seem like Sunday afternoon in "The Deserted Village."  After these transcendental touches of triviality had pursued the  paths of proper license we got the good ship Onaway under way for  the first evening voyage of the cruise. A beautiful sail with the setting  sun on our port bow and David's mouth organ accompanying tunes to  the purling waves, brought us to a lingeringly cast anchorage at 8 p.m.,  whence we returned to camp.  Here we found Eric and soon set out to see things in town. Approaching Dreamland Theatre on the starboard beam and gazing  through a port-hole, the Skipper was promptly called for a piker, and  we all hastened away.  Fancy dishes of light refreshment soon had us all "guessing,"  but the Scribe thinks his "Merry Widow" the most companionable.  Returning to the theatre in a great hurry we sat expectantly waiting the pictures, meantime being super-saturated with pleasantries from  the audience. No one would even get up and make a noise like a song,  so we left for an impromptu dance at the Club House.  Our return to camp was rendered joyous by the glorious moon  whose silvery beams from a clear sky were as fetching as a mauve  ribbon of Cossitt blue (gosh it's blue).  The crew then set their course by canoe for McCullough moorings, and all too soon delivered and parted from the companionable  charges of the day's run.  The return voyage was the occasion of much exuberance of spirits  by the entire crew, and some even climbed trees to make a noise like  a monk.  Arrival at the deserted camp was very desolate—our feelings soon  drooped and we dropped off to slumber, for "What's the use of moonlight when there's no one 'round to love."  Saturday, August 12th.   6:30 a.m. found us all moving, even The Log of the Good Ship "Onaway" 117  David, who has been early of late. He used to be behind before, he'll  soon be first at last.  With the "timely" aid of Harry and the "Ace-High" we called  for the girls and got them to the "Okey's" dock early, so some pictures  were taken. It is hoped they will develop into illustrations for these  records.  Fond farewells finally finished the hungry crew in search of  nourishment deployed into the Lake View dining-room and enjoyed  breakfast. The rest of the morning was devoted to breaking camp at  Panacea Point—and desolate work it was. May we all gather there  again for as good a time.  At 11:45 a.m. Onaway cleared port with a fair head breeze and  soon had left the point vanishing astern like memories of a faded past.  Meeting fresher weather and heavy seas we put into Gellatly at  2:15 p.m., where a very "stout" lunch was opened.  Resuming again at 4 p.m. with one tuck and storm jib, we were  beating for Squally Point, when the "Okey" crossed our port bow,  and we were hailed from her deck by Mr. Agur.  Squally Point Cove was made at 5:45 p.m. and we were soon  appreciating the advantages of this excellent camp. After an early  supper all retired for a much desired rest, for the sun sank with nothing  funny happening to mar the day's run.  Sunday, August 13th. No grouches allowed this morning—  everyone had the full ten hours' sleep.  The Skipper and Swab enjoyed an early plunge from the rocks  while Eric got breakfast to the tune of the well spoken song: "Is  Grandma Growing Eye-Teeth, or Did Her Tooth Brush Strike a  Nail?" David in the distance also broke forth into song, his memories probably prompting: "Wind Yourself Around, Me, Honey."  Weighing anchor at 10:10 a.m. with a light head wind the Onaway made her homeward voyage as a bird to her nest, expectantly.  David delected us with the remnants of "Fables in Slang," and  thus we proved that a "sense of humor is a saving grace."  Spying through the marine glasses which were Onaway's prize  for her victory, we hoped to find the Boat House open and the flag  flying in honor of the good ship's return. No such warming welcome  awaited us however, and Onaway made her solitary way to the dock  at 3:30 p.m.  She was soon stowed and riding restfully at her home moorings,  while the crew went for a swim, and then took tea. At seven o'clock  the cruise of the Onaway ended by an "Inland Voyage," on foot, up  the Gulch Road. 118 My Farming Experience Through the Years  My Farming Experience  Through  The  Years  By Anthony Casorso  Editor's Note:   The piece that follows was written by  the author just before his death 21 July 1967.  I began in partnership with six of my brothers in 1913. I then  was elected manager, a position which I held until 1918 when I  decided to go out on my own. In the fall of 1918 I began searching  for a suitable location to buy a small farm. I found conditions very  tough. The price of land right after World War 1 was very high,  and having no money to begin with worked a hardship as everyone  wanted money down payments. I was fortunate in contacting Mr.  McPherson at Kamloops and he decided to sell me sixteen acres in  orchard for $5500. I borrowed the money from the Bank of Montreal and made him a down payment of $2,000 and took over a mortgage of $3,500 at 8% interest.  In 1919 I became interested in the growing of tobacco at 19c  per pound with a bonus of 2c per pound for high quality tobacco. A  Montreal firm had promised to buy it that year. Besides this we also  grew 1Y^ acres of onions. This was all done by day labour, much of  it Chinese help. In order to finance we obtained a line of credit from  the Bank of Montreal—for $2,000 to begin with and more as we  needed it until our crops started to come in. As it happened we had a  good crop of fruit that year, also a good crop of tobacco for which  we received a 2c bonus which brought the price up to 21c per pound.  We had a fair crop of onions that sold for 45 dollars per ton. We  also had a few tomatoes and carrots. Our tobacco experience that  year was one of grief as 21c per pound was not enough to cover our  overhead expenses.   We lost about a hundred dollars on this crop.  In the fall of 1919 we bought about 35 or 40 young pigs five  weeks old, paying five dollars and eight dollars apiece for them. In  the spring of 1920 when the pigs were five and six months old they  weighed about 200 lbs. each. We sold them for 21c per pound, live  weight.  In 1920 we started our plans all over again. First thing we  planned to grow eight acres of tobacco the same as in 1919—but on  the open market and take a chance on a better price. We grew the  same amount of onions—one and three-quarter acres. Once again  we had a good crop of onions. We also grew a large quantity of  hay.  That year we had no crop of fruit. ^^^^TM  My Farming Experience Through the Years  119  Onion Crop, 1909, grown by John Casorso and sons—281/. tons per acre.  When the time came to put our tobacco on the market there were  no buyers interested. We were forced to buck the eastern tobacco  market and all we were offered was fifteen cents per pound. This was  worse than ever. We were then advised to grade and cure our own  tobacco. This was a costly move. However, I was determined to get  back what we lost on our 1919 tobacco crop. I tried to get my neighbour interested so that together we could grade and cure our own  tobacco and put it on the market ready for the cigar factory. This  he would not agree to saying that he was not going to throw good  money after bad money. I had my obligation to meet at the bank  and otherwise. I decided to handle it single handed and graded and  cured all of our tobacco. This was in April of 1921 and by the middle of September 1921 our tobacco was all cured and ready for the  cigar factory. We got buyers interested and by the middle of October  we were fortunate enough to sell our entire crop, all grades selling at  50c per pound. That paid us back all the money we lost on the 1919  crop and we made fair money on the 1920 crop, otherwise it would  have been a complete loss as it was for my neighbour who did not  want to take a chance.  I also paid the field supervisor, Louis Holman, a bonus of  $492.50 on this crop.  The 1920 crop was harvested at the end of August and put in  the sheds for curing but due to adverse weather conditions the tobacco  was not drying. By the middle of November it was still green and  in great danger of freezing in the sheds and in that event it would 120 My Farming Experience Through the Years  be a total loss. In order to dry the crop we were forced to place large  fires along the shed in six different places by means of a pit dug down  to a depth of 18 inches, 2 feet wide and 8 feet long. A fire was  built in each pit and kept burning for ten days, without a break—24  hours per day, with a watchman on guard the entire time. I was on  guard a whole week—24 hours a day without a wink of sleep, as  the responsibility was too great to trust strangers.  The two tobacco barns used I rented from Mr. Louis Rampone  at a cost of $60.00 each. I had to take full responsibility for these  sheds in case of fire so to protect myself I had them insured for  $3,000.00. Besides this I had to buy $100.00 worth of wood. In  doing this we saved all our tobacco crop.  The onion crop for 1920 was good but unfortunately the market took a heavy drop about September 1. We sold 2/3 of the crop at  $30.00 per ton and the balance of about 8 to 10 tons were stored at  the Occidental Fruit Company packing house for the winter. In the  spring of 1921, instead of the market improving it got worse so that  we could not sell them at all. We were forced to haul the onions out  and dump them.  I had to work very hard—sometimes from four in the morning  until ten and eleven at night. My wife helped me all she could in  many ways. We had to be very careful how money was spent, to the  best advantage.  All our work was done with horses.  1922 to 1928 were fair years. We dealt in the buying and raising of pigs and also bought and raised cattle for a few years doing  fairly well although we lost money at times. On the whole we came  out all right.  From 1925 to 1935 I bought approximately 120 acres from my  brothers.   This included my home.  In 1925 we built our own irrigation system. This consisted of  5,000 feet of flume and 1,000 feet of pipe. Some of the pipe going  under Mission Creek.   This was at a cost of $3,000.00.  From 1925 to 1930 we engaged in mixed farming on a share  basis, growing 5 to 6 acres of onions, 15 acres of tomatoes, about 2  acres of cukes, beets, peppers, eggplants. Prices were not very attractive in many cases each year. Fruit and hay was very good some seasons and a drag on the market at other times. We also kept 30 to 40  pigs, buying them at 4 to 5 weeks, raising them to 5 and 6 months,  at which time they weighed from 180 to 200 pounds, when we sold  them. Besides this we had 25 to 30 cattle on which we did fairly well  though some years they were very cheap. My Farming Experience Through the Years  121  Harvesting Tobacco Crop 1920  1931 to 1938 times were very difficult. I sold good timothy as  well as alfalfa hay at $6.00 and $7.00 per ton. Onions as low as  $8.00 a ton and in many cases they were dumped. The highest price  received for onions in those years was $15.00 to- $18.00 per ton. In  those years many individual farmers dumped practically their entire  crop amounting to 100 tons and over. Fruit prices were drastic—as  low as 5 cents to 10 cents a box. In some cases we were sent a bill  for handling the less popular varieties after receiving nothing for  them. Potatoes were as low as $2.00 per ton with many hundreds of  tons being dumped in the spring throughout the valley.  By  1939 conditions began to improve slightly.  1942 to 1947 conditions were quite good. Everything was sold  at better prices, including most vegetables, such as onions, tomatoes,  cucumbers, carrots, beets, peppers, and eggplants. All these vegetables  were grown on a half share basis.  1948-1949 conditions changed again with prices dropping.  Despite the many hardships endured I enjoyed every moment of  my farming and ranching experience.  Footnote on B.N.A. Tobacco Company by Joe McGarrity, nephew of Anthony Casorso.  Commercial tobacco growing was started in the year 1910. British  North America Tobacco Company headed by A. W. Bowser with R. D.  Bone as Secretary and Dan Gordon as Bookkeeper established itself in  Kelowna that year and with Louis Holman as Field Supervisor contracted  with many farmers to raise tobacco from which cigars were manufactured.  A cigar factory was built on the site later used by Occidental Fruit  Company. Many of the curing sheds are still standing. The tobacco company operated until 1913 when it became insolvent and the raising of  tobacco was discontinued for a few years. 122 Lest We Forget  Lest We Forget  This life of mortal breath  Is but a suburb of the life elysian,  Whose portal we call death.  —L ongfellow  FRANCIS THORNELOE SR.  Passed away at Kelowna Oct. 18, 1967, Francis Thorneloe, an  old time resident and fruit grower of the area. He came to Kelowna  in 1906 and is survived by his wife Ethel Jean and one son Francis  of East Kelowna and one daughter Monica (Mrs. W. R. Hornsey)  of Vancouver, five grandchildren and one great-grandchild.  TERENCE BLIGH UPTON  Passed away in Kelowna Hospital Oct. 6, 1967, Mr. Terence  Bligh Upton of Okanagan Mission. He is survived by his wife Primrose and two daughters, Patricia, Mrs. Allan Oliver, Powell River,  and Valerie. Mr. Upton was an active member of the Okanagan  Historical Society and together with his wife made a valuable collection of Interior Indian artifacts.  MRS. CHRISTINA HAYNES  Passed away at Kelowna August 14, 1968, Mrs. Christina  Haynes, aged 96. She was Kelowna's oldest resident having been born  in the area and lived her whole life in the district. She is survived by  three sons and one daughter: George in California, Norman in Kettle  River, B.C., Leonard in Kelowna; Isabelle (Mrs. Daniel Saucier)  in Kelowna; 9 grandchildren, 6 great-grandchildren. Moore Mountain at the headwaters of Mission Creek is named after her father  who used to trap in this area.  MRS. CHARLES  De MARA  Passed away at Kelowna Feb. 20, 1967, Mrs. Marjorie (Marne)  Falconer DeMara. She came to Kelowna in 1904 with her parents  Mr. and Mrs. David Leckie. She was very active in sport and was  several times a member of Okanagan championship clubs. Her husband Charles and two sons Monty and Robert, and four grandchildren  survive her. Also surviving are her brother Russel Leckie of Kelowna  and (Kate) Mrs. Dr. R. L. Davison of Vancouver and (Dorothy)  Mrs. L. C. Wright of Victoria. Lest We Forget 123  MR. HENRY CECIL MALLAM  Passed away at Kelowna in November, 1967, Mr. Henry Cecil  Mallam. Mr. Mallam came out from England in 1903 and purchased  land in what is now the Okanagan Mission district where he raised  fruit and ran a dairy. Besides being an active member of a number  of early farm organizations he also took a keen interest in sports. He  played tennis and badminton and in the early days football and hockey.  Surviving Mr. Mallam are his wife Giffortina and son Peter  and daughter Amy, Mrs. W. Hayall of Okanagan Mission. Also  surviving are two sisters, Mrs. Waterhouse and Mrs. Grace Herrick,  both in England, and several nephews and nieces.  MRS. NAOMI JANE LLOYD-JONES  Passed away at Vancouver, November 1, 1967, Mrs. Naomi  Jane Lloyd-Jones, an old time resident of Kelowna. Surviving Mrs.  Lloyd-Jones are two sons and one daughter, Robert in Vancouver,  Arthur in Barriere, B.C., and Mildred in Vancouver; three grandchildren and one great-grandchild. Mr. William Lloyd-Jones predeceased  her in 1956.  MR. THOMAS G. GRIFFITHS  Passed away at Kelowna June 12, 1968, Mr. Thomas Griffiths,  aged 84. Mr. Griffiths is survived by his wife Mary; one daughter  Glennyes (Mrs. G. Meikle) of New Westminster; and one son Kenneth of Vancouver. Four grandchildren and five great-grandchildren  also survive.  Mr. Griffiths was born in Swansea, Wales, and came to Kelowna  in 1918 from Riverhurst, Sask. During his 50 years in Kelowna he  was manager of Darke's shoe store and manager of the Nippon  Bazaar. An ardent sports fan, he was president of the Kelowna  Lacrosse Club in 1949-50 and for three years president of the Kelowna Bowling Club in the 60's.  MRS, GRACE MADELEINE WILLIS  Passed away at Kelowna July 17, 1968, Mrs. Grace Madeleine  Willis, aged 84, a long time resident of Kelowna. Surviving Mrs.  Willis are her daughter Erica (Mrs. J. Leach) of Kelowna, and  Miss Patricia Willis in London, England. Her husband Mr. H. A.  Willis predeceased her in 1965.  Mrs. Willis came to Kelowna from England in 1909 to her  brother G. H. E. Hudson whose photographs of Kelowna and district  before World War I are familiar to all readers of Okanagan Historical Society Annuals. 124 Lest We Forget  MR.  HERMAN  EBENEZER SMITH  Passed away at Kelowna June 18, 1968, Herman Ebenezer  Smith, aged 65. He came to Glenrosa with his parents from Brandon,  Man., in 1913, moving to Westbank in 1916. Mr. Smith is survived  by one son Elwood, of Kamloops, one sister Ruth (Mrs. J. A. Ingram)  of Westbank, and five grandchildren.  MRS, EDITH EVERARD  Passed away at Kelowna June 17, 1968, at the age of 88 years,  Mrs. Edith Everard, a resident of Kelowna for 45 years. Mrs. Everard was active in the Kelowna Women's Hospital Auxiliary and the  Kelowna Golf and Country Club. Her husband Harry B. Everard  predeceased her in 1948.  Surviving her are three sons by her first marriage, Ross Black  of Powell River, Fraser Black of Kelowna and Alan Black of Vancouver.  MRS. MARIA ANNA CAPOZZI  Passed away at Kelowna May 21, 1968, Mrs. Maria Anna  Capozzi, aged 71 years, a resident of the district for 47 years. Born  Anna Maria Mussatto in Switzerland, she came with her family to  Rossland in 1905, later moving to Phoenix near Greenwood in 1919.  Her family moved to Kelowna in 1921 where she married Pasquale  Capozzi and helped him operate the Capozzi grocery store for more  than 40 years. She was active for many years in the Catholic Women's League.  Surviving Mrs. Capozzi are her husband Pasquale and three sons,  Joe and Tom of Kelowna and Herb of Vancouver, and ten grandchildren.  A brother and two sisters also survive.  MRS. GEORGE S. McKENZIE  Passed away in Vancouver May 7, 1968, Mrs. George S. McKenzie at the age of 90. Her husband who predeceased her in 1939  was a well known grocer in Kelowna for many years. Surviving Mrs.  McKenzie are four sons, Carl of London, Ont., Hugh of Cloverdale,  George of Richmond, and Dr. Allan of Vancouver. One sister also  survives.  MRS. RUBA MAY BURTCH  Passed away in Kelowna May 7, 1968, Mrs. Ruba May Burtch,  aged 85. She came with her husband the late Clarence Leslie Burtch  to the  Benvoulin  District  from  Ontario  in   1916.   Surviving  Mrs. Lest We Forget 125  Burtch are rwo sons, Stanley in Kelowna and Bruce in Coquitlam,  and one daughter Grace (Mrs. Jerry Goodkey) of Oliver. Two  granddaughters also survive.  MRS. ETHEL WINIFRED STALLARD  Passed away in Kelowna May 12, 1968, Mrs. Ethel Winifred  Stallard, aged 92 years. Mrs. Stallard came to the Okanagan Mission  district in 1914. She is survived by her husband John and one brother  Arthur in England.  MR. ARCHIBALD FARQUARSON CUMMING  At the age of 78, Archibald Farquarson Cumming, a long time  Penticton business man, died during the summer of this year. The  late Mr. Cumming came to British Columbia from Scotland. He  served with the 72nd Seaforth Highlanders in the First World War  following which he settled in Penticton. Mr. Cumming was active  in Penticton organizations having been president of the Rotary club,  the Penticton Branch of the Royal Canadian Legion and of the Okanagan District Boy Scout Association. He was a charter member of  Penticton's Canadian Club.  MR. JABEZ KNELLER  Died in Vernon May 13, 1968, Jabez Kneller in his 98th year.  Mr. Kneller was born in Edenbridge, Kent, England, and came to  Canada as a young man, first to Toronto and Morley, Alberta, before  coming to British Columbia. He arrived in Armstrong in 1892 and  worked on various farms in the Vernon and Armstrong districts. In  1901 he married Rose Killick and the couple settled at Salmon River.  Mrs. Kneller died in 1922 and Mr. Kneller remarried later. He was  an ardent member of Trinity United Church. Last year he was presented with a Pioneer Medal by Mr. Justice Peter Seaton of Vancouver in the Community Centre Auditorium.  MR. ALBERT EDGAR HARWOOD  Passed away in Vernon June 17, 1968, Albert Edgar Harwood  in his 70th year. The late Mr. Harwood was a life long resident of  Vernon, and is survived by his wife Annie, two sons and one daughter.  MRS. ANNE ELIZABETH  BRISTOW  Mrs. Anne Elizabeth Bristow died in Vernon June 19 of this  year at the age of 91. She is survived by one son and two daughters,  Charles Edward Bristow of Vernon, Ethel, Mrs. C. Prior of Vancouver, and Hilda, Mrs. H. Cochrane of Vernon. 126 Lest We Forget  ALBERT JOSEPH KENT  Albert Joseph Kent died in Vernon Jubilee Hospital December  5, 1967, in his 91st year. The late Mr. Kent was a veteran of the  South African War and came to Vernon in 1904. When he retired  from his business he took on the office of fire-chief and also served a  time as city building inspector.   Surviving are five nieces in England.  MRS. CROZIER  Mrs. Crozier, formerly Miss Kate Wade, died on March 6 in  Kelowna. She was born in England in 1887 and came to Edmonton  in 1902 and to Armstrong in 1907. She married Mr. Crozier in New  Westminster in 1912 and came to Armstrong where she was very  active in St. James Anglican Church and other community organizations.   Surviving are two daughters and two sons.  MRS.  LAVINA STANSFIELD  Died at Richmond on July 31, 1968, at the age of 86, Mrs.  Lavina Stansfield. Her parents, Mr. and Mrs. J. B. Deschamps, came  to Vernon from Quebec in the early 1890s and eventually settled in  Lumby where Mrs. Stansfield married, subsequently living in Vernon  and Armstrong until her husband's death when she moved to the  Coast.  MRS. BEATRICE FURBER  The daughter of a former owner of the Coldstream Ranch,  Mrs. Beatrice Furber, died in Vancouver in July of this year at the  age of 87. Her father, Forbes George Vernon, sold the Coldstream  Ranch to Lord Aberdeen when he was Governor-General of Canada  in 1893-98. She was predeceased by her husband Major Montague  Furber in 1940. The late Mrs. Furber had never lived in Vernon as  the family had moved to Victoria.  MRS. BLANDINE AGNESS QUESNEL  Died in Leduc, Alberta, in June of this year, Mrs. Blandine  Agness Quesnel. Mrs. Quesnel was the youngest daughter of Mr.  and Mrs. Pierre Bessette who came to the Lumby area in 1875, her  father being the first to pre-empt land in the Lumby district where  she was born. Educated in St. Ann's Academy, Victoria, she taught  school in New Westminster for a year, then returning to Lumby  where she married Mr. Quesnel and resided until 1964 then moving  to Warburg, Alberta. She is survived by her husband, five sons and  three daughters. Lest We Forget 127  MR. CHARLES KENNETH CHRISTIAN  Charles Kenneth Christian of Lumby died in Vernon May 10  of this year. Mr. Christian was born in Lumby in 1893 and lived on  the family ranch for 55 years before retiring in Vancouver. In March  of this year he moved back to Lumby to make his home with his brother  and sister-in-law Mr. and Mrs. Frank Christian.  MR. HERBERT CLARK McGUFFIE  With the death early in 1968 of Herbert Clark McGuffie of  Keremeos the Lower Similkameen and Southern Okanagan lost a  pioneer resident. The late Mr. McGuffie was born in Penrith, Cumberland, and came to Canada in 1902 where he worked in the grocery  business in Montreal before coming west to Vancouver. He was government agent in Rossland during the mining rush and later joined  the provincial police and was stationed in Prince George prior to being  moved as a constable to Keremeos. He served with the CFA during  the First World War, and on returning moved to Fairview. Returning to Keremeos Mr. McGuffie operated an orchard and became interested in many community activities.  MRS. ANNE CAMERON  HANBURY  Mrs. Anne Cameron "Nan" Hanbury of Osoyoos passed away  in St. Martin's Hospital, Oliver, February 4 in her 76th year. The  late Mrs. Hanbury was born in Glasgow, Scotland and served in the  First World War in Edinburgh as a member of the WAAC. She  came to Canada and married Alfred Hanbury in Victoria in 1924,  and in 1926 came to the Osoyoos area where they planted an orchard.  The late Mrs. Hanbury was active in many community and church  organizations in both Oliver and Osoyoos.  MRS. MARY BALL  Died in St. Martin's Hospital, Oliver, on March 17, 1968, Mrs.  Mary Ball. She was born in Brantford, Ontario, in 1877 and came  to Vernon as a bride in 1903 where her husband Louis Ball, who predeceased her in 1956, was editor of the Vernon News until 1925 when  they moved back to Ontario. In 1941 they returned to British Columbia and took up residence in Oliver. The late Mrs. Ball was the oldest  living graduate of the Nursing School of St. Michael's Hospital,  Toronto. 128 The Junction Ranch  The Junction Ranch  By Eric Sismey  The Junction Ranch is well named. It lies between two important highways which meet a quarter mile away. Trans-Provincial  No. 3A skirts its northern border, while B.C. No. 97, stretching from  the shade of Mount Shasta in California to Dawson Creek, B.C.,  almost bisects the property.  There is still another road, an older lesser road, the one early  freighters used. It winds through the hills past the Dominion astro-  physical observatory, past White Lake and on to the ghost town of  Fairview.   This road passes between the ranch buildings.  The Junction Ranch, a cattle ranch, owned by Jim and Patty  Leir, has a distinction that while most Okanagan cattle operations are  shrinking, curtailing operation or have disappeared altogether, the  Junction Ranch is expanding and bringing more acreage into intensive  production.  When search is made into the history of the parcels which make  up the present 3000 acre ranch one must reach to the early 1880s  when a man named Shoemaker, lived on the site of the home ranch.  Whether he was a squatter or a homesteader is not known since there  seems to be no record. The first recordings show that Richard Hynds,  an Irishman, pre-empted 320 acres in 1891 receiving his Crown grant  in 1899. Soon after settling on his property he built a two-storied  house and a large log barn which still stands in good repair to serve  the present ranch.  For many years, well into the present century, this barn was a  stopping place for freighters going to or coming from Penticton and  the mining camps to the south and east and west.  Soon after Mrs. Hynds died in 1898 Mr. Hynds decided to take  two of his children back to Ireland. The eldest girl returned to New  Zealand where the family had lived before coming to Canada. Hynds  sold his land to Basil Lawrence, a young Englishman, who first came  to British Columbia to learn cattle ranching from George Barkley  who, at that time, was advertising in Old Country papers for pupils.  Later Lawrence pre-empted additional land east of the Hynds property.  In 1895, Dugald Gillespie, a native of Ontario, arrived in the  Okanagan after a round-about journey through the United States and  the Fraser Valley (see O.H.S. report 31st, pp. 48-52). The Gillespie  property, eventually more than a section, lay on both sides of the present  road to Okanagan Falls. He built a two-storied frame house alongside the road.   The Gillespies, father and son, were freighters to the The Junction Ranch  129  Mrs. James (Patty) Leir of the Junction Ranch  mining camps south, but principally to the Nickel Plate mine and the  Daly Reduction plant at Hedley.  Dougal Gillespie built the first irrigation system in the present  Kaleden district. It consisted of a five foot earthen dam at the foot  of Marron Lake. The stored water was sufficient for at least one good  irrigation to- the hay lands- of both Gillespie and Lawrence.  In 1909, James Richie having completed the initial development  of West Summerland decided to develop the rolling bunch grass covered hills along the west shore of Dog, now Skaha Lake. In order to  secure irrigation water for his projected orchards he purchased the  holdings of Gillespie and Lawrence in the name of the Kaleden Estates  thereby securing the water rights on Marron Creek and Marron Lake  which were appurtenant to their lands. Water which was formerly used  wastefully to irrigate hay meadows was now to be used efficiently to  irrigate growing orchards. This left the former Gillespie and Lawrence lands with only the water seeping into Meyer's Creek below the  Kaleden intake.  Through the years Kaleden Estates made little use of the land  and were quite satisfied to lease it to others for a more or less nominal  rental. Among those leasing the land for grazing from 2000 to 4000  sheep were Willis and Graham; J. Harrison and Fred Brent. In  addition to the use of the land for sheep, hay to the limit of the water  supply was grown.  In 1911 a branch line was begun to bring water to the Gillespie 130 The Junction Ranch  Flats which were to be subdivided. Lack of funds and uncertainty of  enough water brought the extension to a halt with the branch line  reaching only as far as the Junction Ranch. The proposed Gillespie  subdivision—a little more than 600 acres—was abandoned.  After this scheme was dropped W. A. Jones, locally known by  a ruder name, brought an expert from the Washington Nursery Company to examine the land. About ten acres was fenced and cleared  at the north end of the flats. This was planted to nursery stock and  water brought over the hill from the Kaleden system. The depression  which began in 1913 followed bv the first war marked the end of  this undertaking.  As Kaleden orchards grew, requiring more water, the Gillespie  five foot earthen dam was replaced by a 25 foot concrete cored dam  in 1922. This raised the available storage in Marron Lake to about  1000 acre feet.  In 1934 H. M. Leir bought the property which had become  known as the Junction Ranch from Kaleden Estates and by so doing  consolidated the Junction Ranch with his other lands held in the name  of the Okanagan Falls Development Company to become the farm  where horses used in Leir logging operations were pastured, rested and  to serve as the nursery for the  foals.  During the war part of the Gillespie Flats was used for military  training by Company 71, Pacific Coast Militia. A rifle range with  firing points at 100, 200, 500, 600 and 1000 yards was built. Regular  practice was held under the direction of Captain R. N. Atkinson, O.C.  In February 1957 the ranch was taken over by son, James H.  Leir, who began raising cattle. Hay was grown on the home ranch  meadows for an increasing herd and where, in season, cows could drop  their calves.  In 1967 the Kaleden Irrigation District, faced with major repairs and additions to the existing water system, decided to change  from a gravity system and to pump from Skaha Lake. This released  the water rights on Marron Creek, Marron and Eneas Lakes and  Shatford Creek in favor of the Junction Ranch and presented Jim  Leir the opportunity to develop and irrigate an additional 500 acres  of land, much of it on the Gillespie Flats.  After surveys made to determine the most economical method of  bringing water to the raw land 13,000 feet of 12 inch steel pipe was  buried and proper take-offs or portable sprinkler systems arranged.  With the completion of the new pressure system 250 acres is now  served by sprinkler systems and in the near future water for the remaining 250 acres will be pumped. The Junction Ranch 131  Much of this new land will be planted to alfalfa where seed will  be harvested along with the hay. And now that alfalfa seed is contemplated another problem is encountered. Honey and bumble bees  do not pollinate alfalfa satisfactorily and in order that pollination be  completely dependable an alien bee is required. In the course of study  Jim Leir learned a great deal about insect behaviour and he finds himself forced to raise a certain species of bee for the job to be properly  done.  One cannot help but marvel at the complex life cycle of these  little bees and the degree of interdependence of the bees with alfalfa  blossoms.  Jim took a full quarter hour to explain this cycle and it would  take me an hour to write it down, even then something would be  omitted. Suffice it to write that special cellular, honey-combed, wooden  compartments must be provided in which the bees build their nests,  lay their eggs. These are then sealed with fragments cut from alfalfa  leaves. The compartments, filled with the nests and eggs, must be  kept under very strict temperature control in order that the eggs hatch  and the little bees are ready to do their part at the exact time the  alfalfa blossoms are ready too.  By the time this gets into print the first crop of alfalfa seed will  have heen harvested and probably sold at a good price to buyers from  A portion of the nursery paddock at the Junction Ranch. Patty Leir checking  cows and calves. Photo March 1968.  Eric Sismey photo 132  The Junction Ranch  hot weather American states who are always looking for northern  grown seed.  Everything written so far about irrigation, alfalfa and alfalfa  seed takes a very secondary place to cattle raising and if several hundred head range over five square miles of land horses occupy an important position in ranch economy.  The Leirs are glad that ownership of horses in Okanagan, which  had almost disappeared a few years ago, is regaining favour. Riding  clubs in many local communities attract horse lovers from deep in the  United States to attend our ^hows and gvmkhanas to compete in both  western and English style events.  As one would expect, the Leirs, Jim and Patty, daughters Virginia and Brenda, not only do the range work but raise their own  riding stock and compete in western and English riding events and this  includes pack stock races. Their remounts include several registered  Morgans, a breed that is quiet, gentle and easily trained. A Morgan  can be a show horse today and hold his own against all comers as a  cow pony tomorrow.  On April 23, 1968, one hundred and sixty head of Junction  Ranch steers were sold at an Okanagan Falls spring sale. They  brought a top price. But this is just a beginning and it may not be  long before the Junction Ranch becomes a show place in Southern  Okanagan. Patty Leir tells me that the Gillespie house, vacant for  many years and shown as the frontispiece in the 31st O.H.S. report,  has been restored and is occupied by ranch help.  Already motorists driving along B.C. No. 97 see curtains on  the windows of the old house and it will not be long before flowers  are growing in the front yard.  House built at Argyle and Eckhardt in 1910 by the late Dr. H. B. McGregor. Kathleen Ellis, Doctor of Laws, a Humanitarian  133  Kathleen Ellis, LL.D.  A Humanitarian  By Eric D. Sismey  When Kathleen Wilhemina Ellis died in Vancouver on Saturday,  March 9,   1968, Penticton lost her most illustrious daughter.   One,  who, like her predecessor, Florence Nightingale, devoted her long life  to easing the woes of suffering  humanity and to the edification  of the nursing profession.  Miss Ellis, born on June 16,  1887, was the second white child  to see the light of day in Penticton. She was the daughter of  Thomas and Wilhemina Ellis.  Her father, the first white settler, planted his homestead stakes  on the land which became Penticton. He developed and extended his holdings into a cattle ranch  which stretched from Summer-  land south to the International  boundary.  Of necessity, in those early  days Kathleen's schooling was  somewhat unconventional. A governess took care of A-B-Cs and  later the Reverend Thomas  Greene, the first rector of St.  Saviour's Church, tutored his young charge until she was old enough  to be enrolled at Havergal College in Toronto. At college Miss Ellis  found herself leaning toward the nursing profession and public health.  Soon after leaving Havergal she spent a year at St. Vincent's Hospital  in Portland, Oregon. Then after returning home to Penticton for  a short stay Kathleen Ellis spent three years in training at Johns Hopkins School of Nursing in Baltimore where she graduated in 1915.  During the first world war Miss Ellis served as Matron of  Military Hospitals on Vancouver Island. After discharge from military duty she served as Operating Room Supervisor at the Henry  Ford Hospital in Detroit.  Through the years 1921 to 1928 Miss Ellis was Superintendent  DR. KATHLEEN ELLIS  Photo taken by Eric D. Sismey at the  Peach Bowl on the occasion of the Ellis  Centennial Banquet January 28, 1966. 134 Kathleen Ellis, Doctor of Laws, a Humanitarian  of Nurses at the Vancouver General Hospital and during this period  became active in both local and provincial nursing organizations serving first as President of the Vancouver Graduate Nurses' Association,  and then for three successive years as President of the British Columbia Nurses' Association.  In 1929, Kathleen Ellis undertook a graduate study in public  health at Bedford College, London, England, this included observation  of European continental practice. She returned to Canada in 1930  sailing from Istambul, Turkey, to New York. Back in Canada Miss  Ellis accepted the position of Superintendent of Nursing at the Winnipeg General Hospital.  In 1934 Miss Ellis studied at Teachers' College, Columbia University, New York, where she graduated with a degree of Bachelor  of Science. Her appointment to the position of Secretary-Treasurer,  Registrar of the Saskatchewan Registered Nurses Association and advisor to schools of nursing was an important step in the development  of nursing in that province and in 1938, under her direction, the University of Saskatchewan School of Nursing was established. The program offered, and still does, a Bachelor of Science Degree in Nursing.  After a holiday, which included a cruise to North Cape and visits  to several European countries she returned to Saskatchewan and soon  after the outbreak of World War II, was selected to fill the position  of National Emergency Nursing Adviser. This entailed a survey to  determine the nursing capacity of Canada and the listing of registered  nurses and of those who had retired. This led to- the preparation of a  brief in 1946 which emphasized that the nurse's and patient's welfare  were inseparable. This, in turn, led to the establishment of adequate  salary scales, to satisfactory living and working conditions, sick benefits  and holidays. Another brief she helped prepare led to the establishment  and organization of student nurse courses and the first class was  enrolled in 1953.  By the time Miss Ellis retired to Penticton in 1950 she had  worked for the Saskatchewan Registered Nurses Association for 12  years and had seen many of her recommendations and suggestions put  into effect. Five years later, May 14, 1955, at the official opening of  the University of Saskatchewan Hospital a special convocation of the  University was held and the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws was  conferred on Miss Ellis.  Later when the Nurses' Residence was completed Dr. Ellis consented to allow her name to be used in naming the building "Ellis  Hall."  On January 28,   1966, the Ellis Centennial  Banquet was held Kathleen Ellis, Doctor of Laws, a Humanitarian  35  in Penticton's Peach Bowl. Dr. Kathleen Ellis, surrounded by immediate relatives and nearly 300 friends, was the honored guest. As  a part of this affair Dr. Ellis presented to Mayor M. Finnerty a large  framed portrait of her parents Tom and Mina Ellis. This picture  now hangs in the foyer of the City Hall. (O.H.S. 30th Report, page  160 et seq).  On Wednesday, July 25, 1966, Dr. Kathleen Wilhemina Ellis  was inducted as a Freeman of the City of Penticton, the first official  act of the City Council in the new City Hall. Aldermen and attending citizens acclaimed their satisfaction as Mayor Finnerty, standing  at the head of the new council chamber, presented Dr. Ellis with the  framed proclamation.  Dr. Ellis' retirement cottage was on the brow of a hill overlooking the city which has blossomed from Ellis land. She was always  active in civic matters, served on the Penticton Hospital Board and  took an interest in the Okanagan Historical Society.  While the funeral service for Dr. Kathleen Ellis, Wednesday,  March 19, was celebrated in Vancouver, a parallel service was observed  in St. Saviour's Church in Penticton.  The little church was crowded with her many friends, including  those from the Indian community. Nurses from the Penticton Hospital  attended in uniform, at least one dressed with the cap and cape of the  Saskatchewan Nursing School. And while we will miss you, Kathleen  Ellis, we know that Canada is the richer because you lived and we like  to feel that your influence over the nursing profession spread far beyond our own wide borders.  Main street of Oliver, 1921. 136 Fairview and the Stemwinder Mine  Fairview and the Stemwinder Mine  By Harvey Boone  My acquaintance with Fairview and .the Stemwinder Mine, which  was located a few miles further west (up the gulch), began on Nov.  2nd, 1902, when my mother and three of us children arrived by two-  horse spring wagon after a journey which took two- days, from the  town of Midway on Kettle River. We had arrived at Osoyoos Crossing at 11:00 p.m. the night before, and had all slept in an unoccupied  one-room cabin on the lakeshore, laying our bedding on the floor. A  family of bushrats played tag across our beds most of the night but  we considered ourselves lucky at that as there were only two or three  buildings there at that time and none that offered accommodation for  travelers that we knew of. Our driver scouted around with a lantern  and was able to locate a horse barn with feed for his team. There  was a fireplace at one end of the cabin with a stick and mud chimney  and at that time of year we were glad to have a fire for both light  and warmth.  My father, who was a carpenter and millwright by trade, had  been working at the Stemwinder mine since midsummer, building an  addition to the stamp mill. The mining boom in the Boundary country having collapsed he could see no better prospect for us than to  abandon our home in Midway and join him where he was reasonably  sure of having work for another year or so. Our home was eventually  sold for a very low price.  The only place near the mine that we were able to rent was a  F. B. Boone ranch house and barn taken about 1911,  situated 1 mile west of old Fairview. Fairview and the Stemwinder Mine 137  one-room log cabin about 16' x 24' constructed of round logs and with  a floor of rough sawn lumber. Here we had to live until spring before  we were able to move to a larger frame building with several rooms.  Fuel for our wood burning stove was always a problem. While there  was a crew of Chinese out in the woods steadily cutting cordwood for  firing the steam boilers at the mill, we were seldom able to buy any  wood for the reason that there was no one engaged in supplying that  need. I was required to spend a good deal of my time when not away  at school in Fairview, bringing in and cutting up dry poles and tree  limbs from the bush nearby. All the water had to be carried in pails  from a spring about 100 yards away.  As soon as we were settled in I took up my school work again by  starting at the school in Fairview. There was a very heavy snowfall  that winter and of course the roads were never plowed, but the two  paths on each side of the centre of the road that were packed down by  the horses' hooves and the sleigh runners of the traffic up and down  the road, usually made it fairly easy walking. I soon acquired a small  hand sled and it was then easy to come down in short time by lying  flat on it and sliding most of the way.  The nearest source of supplies was Shatford's store in Fairview  from which a delivery sleigh or wagon made the trip to the mine once  or twice a week. Fresh milk was unobtainable and we rarely had fresh  meat. Later on in the summer of 1903, after I had obtained a .22  rifle I was able to bring in many grouse, both Blue and Willow, that  were abundant at that time.  After the completion of the addition to the mill early that winter, there were then nine batteries of five stamps each pounding away  24 hours a day, grinding up the mineral bearing quartz for processing  by the machinery in the mill which separated the minerals from the  pulverized rock. The roaring noise made by all this could be heard  more than a mile away. Each one of these stamps consisted of a round,  vertical, steel shaft, some eight feet long, to the bottom of which was  affixed a cast steel foot weighing perhaps 200 pounds, when new, these  were lifted in turn by a cam shaft and allowed to fall down by their  own weight, crushing the ore to a fine sand, which was carried through  a retaining screen of metal by water to the concentrating machinery.  All the machinery of the mill was driven by a Corliss compound  steam engine with a drive wheel some six feet in diameter and with  a twenty-four-inch face which was connected to the cam shafts and  other machines by belts. Steam was supplied by two horizontal boilers  fired with four foot cordwood. This cordwood was constantly being  hauled in from the bush by men with teams of horses and wagons or 138  Fairview and the Stemwinder Mine  sleighs according to the season. The water for the boilers came from  far back in Reed Creek by way of several miles of wooden flume  and iron pipe. After the addition to the stamp mill was in operation,  a cyanide plant was constructed early in 1903 which treated the "tailings" or waste material flowing from the mill and was designed to  recover the fine gold which escaped the first processing. These tailings  were collected in huge tanks or tubs of wood, 30 feet in diameter and  8 feet deep, where they were treated with cyanide by some method  the details of which I am unable to give though my father was in  charge of this operation for many months. Once a public dance was  held in one of those "tubs" when it was newly finished.  The crew of miners, mill hands and others were housed in several large bunk houses and took their meals in a company operated  cookhouse and dining hall which cost them one dollar a day, deducted  from their pay which ran $3.00 to $4.00 per shift. In addition there  were two lodging houses near the mine and mill that fall of 1902.  One operated by a Mrs. Shurson and J. Moffat's "Fairview Hotel."  Mrs. Shurson's building burned that winter but the remains of Moffat's place are still to be seen in a very dilapidated condition on the  Otto Hess property.  There were many types of buildings strung along the road here  and there between Fairview and the mine and in the area close around  the mine and mill there were some fifteen or twenty private dwellings.  Some occupied by old prospectors and others by miners and teamsters  who were married. Some were only one-room log cabins which were  built of rough sawn lumber.   None were very pretentious as for the  Mrs. J. P. McCuddy in front of her  store and post office in Fairview. Fairview and the Stemwinder Mine 139  most part the owners considered them to be only temporary abodes,  like in most mining camps.  There was never a Post Office at the mine and getting mail to  and from the P.O. in Fairview was a very irregular business. When  I started back to school after the summer holidays in 1903, having  passed my 11th birthday in June, the mine superintendent made me a  proposition to the effect that he would undertake to collect 50c a month  from all private households who wished to take advantage of the plan,  and to make up the balance required for a total of $15.00 a month,  if I would undertake to carry the mail to and from the Fairview P.O.  as I went to school. The horse drawn stage that carried the mail from  Penticton made three round trips a week, coming in on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays and going out the three following days. This  meant that unless there was some very important mail to go out I would  not have to make the trip down on Saturdays when there was no school.  I agreed to undertake this responsibility and continued with it until  May, 1904, when the mill closed down for an indefinite period while  further exploration work was done underground in the mine. This  work went on for a year or so but no further ore bodies were discovered  and the mill never ran again.  At this time, work in my father's line being very hard to find,  he decided to file a claim to 320 acres of bench land about a mile west  of Fairview that was open for pre-emption. This he did early in 1904  and after building on it a small 3-room house, acquiring a milk cow,  a horse, and a flock of chickens, we moved there to live while he continued to take what constrr cion work he could find, sometimes finding work around Fairview, in Penticton and as far up the Okanagan  lake as Gellatly's Point.  In 1906 we were ready to start building a larger and more substantial house on the ranch but in order to get the necessary lumber we  would have to cut it ourselves. Arthur Madden, from whom Madden's  lake gets its name, had taken a pre-emption near the lake on which was  a stand of good pine timber. The sawmill at the mine was still being  used from time to time to cut timbers for use underground in the mine  and logs for this purpose were just then being cut by Mr. Madden and  hauled in to the sawmill by Mr. Top Basset with a four-horse logging  outfit. It was arranged that I go with Mr. Madden and help cut for  us enough logs to make about 12,000 board feet of lumber. Mr. Basset delivered them to the sawmill and during a slack period at the mine  my father was able to rent the sawmill for a sufficient time to enable  he and I, with one other man he hired, to saw these logs into the different dimensions of lumber we required.   Using a team of horses I 140 Fairview and the Stemwinder Mine  then hauled this lumber to the ranch and stacked it for drying. Early  in 1907 we built the house, making the shingles for the roof by splitting pine blocks with an axe and froe and shaving them thin at one  end with a draw-knife. All the inside. finishing lumber we planed  smooth by hand.  Here we lived for 15 years engaged in producing the usual commodities of a mixed farm, such as beef cattle, heavy work horses, a  dairy herd from which we made and sold butter, potatoes, hay, grain,  etc. Money was always rather short but little was needed as we were  self-sufficient in so manv of our basic needs.  THE VERNON NEWS, January 11, 1894  PUBLIC SCHOOL OPENING  On Monday last (Jan. 8), the public school opened in the new  schoolhouse, and it was apparent from the start that the two rooms  furnished with desks will not be sufficient to contain the number of  pupils who will be in attendance this term. In the principal's room, Mr.  Hoidge has 50 scholars enrolled, which fills every seat at his disposal;  while Mr. Buchanan is close behind with 49 children on his register.  In addition to this there are a number of children who attended last  term and have not yet put in an appearance, and when they arrive it  will be impossible to furnish them with sitting room. We understand  that the trustees intend to immediately make application for another  teacher and it is probable that before another year all of the four rooms  in the building will be occupied. On entering the handsome new building, one is at once struck with the spacious hall and wide staircase,  which are admirable features in the construction of a schoolhouse, as  the space is such as to minimize the danger of a crush in case of a  hurried exit from fire or other causes. The two rooms on the ground  floor are lofty and well lighted, and if any fault can be found with  them it is that they are not larger. On the second storey are other two  rooms of the same size as the ones below, except that the ceilings are  not quite so high. The building is so constructed that an addition can  easily be built at the rear when needed, and at the present rate of  growth it will not be long until such an extension will be necessary.  April 5,  1894—Miss Coghlan, the newly appointed teacher at  the public school, commenced her duties on Monday. Thomas  V.  Weeks  141  w~  Thomas   V.   Weeks  Thomas V. Weeks, brother of Captain J. B. Weeks, Past President of the Okanagan Historical Society, passed away in Colonel  Newburg Hospital in Edmonton on January 14, 1966.  Tom,  as he was known to  his many friends, was only seven  when his parents came from Eng-  f land to settle in Vernon in April  1893.   His first school was in old  *r^».'   k ,*9" Cameron Hall; he finished school  ing in the first brick school, built  on the Coldstream Road.  In   1901, while still a boy,  he began  work in the  Canadian  Pacific shops at Revelstoke: little  did he realize that he would be a  Canadian Pacific man for the next  fifty years.    Leaving  railroading  for  a short time he  signed and  made one round trip voyage as a  Thomas V. Weeks seaman   to  the   Orient  on   board  the CPR Empress of Japan.   Afterwards coming ashore he served as  fireman on board the SS York and the sternwheel SS Aberdeen on  Okanagan Lake.  Called again by the railroad he rejoined the shop crew at Revelstoke before being transferred to Moose Jaw. For a number of years  Tom Weeks fired steam locomotives at the time firemen shovelled coal  with a scoop. In time his seniority and experience brought him the  wished for job of locomotive engineer. He worked the Main Line  and several branches in the Saskatchewan Division. In 1946 he was  promoted to the Alberta Division where he was assigned to passenger  service out of Calgary.  On one trip between Field, in the Rockies, and Calgary, Governor-General, Earl Alexander of Tunis' private car was on Tom's  train. Approaching the engine, which had been changed at Field, the  Governor-General asked engineer Tom for permission to ride in the  cab.  When Earl Alexander stepped down from the engine after  thanking Tom for allowing him to handle the throttle, he remarked,  "Now I can tell my friends about the time I was a locomotive  engineer." 142  Thomas   V.   Weeks  After retirement Tom Weeks lived in Calgary before moving  to Edmonton. He was always interested in the Okanagan Historical  Society, of which he was a member. He belonged to the Masonic  Order, enjoyed fishing and hunting and frequent visits to his brother's  home in Penticton.  Few men are granted the privilege of serving a company for  fifty years. Especially a company as important as the Canadian Pacific  in the every day life and development of Canada. And to have done  so during the heyday of steam. The Royal Mail Steamer, Empress of  Japan, together with her white-hulled sisters, were among the most  beautiful steamships ever to have been built. It was his fortune, too,  to have served aboard the sternwheel SS Aberdeen.  It was also his reward, before retirement, to have sat on the right,  the engineer's side, of the cab with his hand on the throttle of the  most beautiful and powerful steam locomotives built and to have  wheeled them, in summer sun and through winter snows, through the  grandest scenery on the continent.  Retirement came just in time. Tom Weeks would never have  been happy in the cab of a diesel. —K. S. Dewdney.  .    e-.M,as, Mv-_ so ....  First locomotive into Penticton, B.C.  Saturday, October 26, 1912. Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Reid  143  Mr.  and Mrs.  Alexander Reid  Long Time Residents of Benvoulin  By Primrose Upton  Jemima Jane Smith was born on November 24th, 1872, at Dun-  nany outside Lachute, P.Q.   She was the daughter of Major and Mrs.  James Smith.   The west lured her and she taught at Riding Mountain  in Manitoba in 1894. On June  20th, 1894, she married Alexander Reid in Knox Church in Winnipeg. While they lived in Manitoba, Margreta, Charles, Isobel,  Nelson and James were born. Nelson died in infancy in Morris,  Manitoba. The family moved to  Benvoulin in July, 1903, and  here Ruthea, Wilbur, Chelta,  Thelma and George were born.  George still farms on the original  property. James was killed in a  logging accident in  1929.  Mr. Reid had been established in the blacksmithing business in  Morris, Manitoba. However, his  health became impaired, and a  warmer climate was indicated—so  British Columbia called him. He came, purchased a property in Benvoulin, and then brought his family out. When they arrived in July,  1903, water was very high—there had been a fire in the small settlement by the lake known as Kelowna. Mr. and Mrs. Reid with growing children found that the school at Benvoulin was unable to pay for  a teacher, so Mr. Reid and Mr. Archie Hardy put up the necessary  amount, and the school opened. Mr. Reid served on the Benvoulin  School Board for many years. Mrs. Reid never lost her interest in  education, and raised three of her daughters to be teachers.  Alexander Reid died on December 16, 1953. Mrs. Reid died  on June 25, 1967. Surviving children are Charles in White Rock;  Wilbur in Okanagan Mission; George in Benvoulin. Five daughters,  Mrs. D. (Reta) Harvey in Hannah, Alberta; Mrs. J. (Isobel) Milne,  Detroit, Michigan; Mrs. J. (Ruth) Piper, Foremost, Alberta; Mrs.  F.   (Chelta)  Snowsell, Victoria;   Mrs. C.   (Thelma)  Jacobs,  Barrie,  Picture of Mrs. Alexander Reid  taken at her 90th birthday party. 144 Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Reid  Ontario. There are twenty-six grandchildren, twenty great-grandchildren and three great-great-grandchildren.  When Mr. and Mrs. Reid arrived in Benvoulin in 1903, farms  were being established in the area. The larger holdings had been subdivided in 1891, and many new settlers were coming in. The infant  city of Kelowna was growing (incorporation as a City was to take  place in 1905). Mr. Reid began to- clear his homesite, turning bush  and swamp into productive acres. Mr. Reid was elected an elder of  Bethel Church in Benvoulin, and served as superintendent of the Sunday School. Mrs. Reid taught the primary department and was a  charter member of the original Ladies' Aid organized in 1906. When  the Church held its 60th Anniversary celebration, the honor of cutting  the birthday cake was given to Mrs. Reid. She also cut the ribbon at  the dedication of the new Sunday School Hall in April, 1957.  Mrs. Reid enjoyed good health until a couple of years before her  death. She could be seen in her house doing the housework, sewing and  cooking as she had for so many years. She enjoyed her grandchildren  and her great-grandchildren, taking a tremendous interest in their education. Few children in the district failed to discover her well stocked  cookie jar. She displayed an intense pride in all the achievements of  the young people in her district.  Gardening was a career with Mrs. Reid. The long rows of perfect vegetables yielded plenty for the large household, and always  "some to share." From her flower borders countless bouquets were  picked to accent occasions of joy or sorrow. The arrival of a new  baby, a young bride's first tea party, the Sunday service, illness or  bereavement anywhere in the neighborhood, brought her cheery flowers.  She remained active in church activities always, and in the growth and  welfare of Benvoulin. Louis B. Boggs—A Teacher  145  Louis B. Boggs—A Teacher  A Testimonial by Eric Sismey  Louis B. Boggs, principal of Penticton High School from 1921  to 1945, died on Wednesday, March 27, 1968.  Mr. Boggs came to Penticton from Nova Scotia in 1912 and  until he enlisted in the Acadia Unit, 219th Regiment, Canadian Expeditionary Force in 1916, he was one of the two teachers at the  high school.  After completing military service he returned to Penticton to  resume teaching.  He was chosen Penticton's Good Citizen in 1953 and when the  Penticton High School Class of 1913 held its reunion in 1962 eleven  former pupils, in their 60s, expressed affection to their former teacher.  Since then two other class reunions have honored him.  Throughout the quarter century that Louis Boggs served the City  as her high school principal it was ever his delight to see former pupils  make a name for themselves, not only at home, but in other parts of  the world and to feel the warm handclasp of home comers who took  the time to visit their old dominie.  Those who have read the book or seen the movie depicting an  old English schoolmaster, one who devoted his life to young people,  will see a resemblance between the central character, Mr. Chips, and  their old teacher.  Perhaps when they left the church after the funeral service or  read in some far off place of his passing they may well have whispered,  so none could hear, "Goodbye Mr. Boggs."  First school built by the Provincial Government in Penticton. Opened in 1907  at the junction of Main Street and Fairview Road. First High School class—  September 1911. Louis Boggs taught High School in this building until he went  overseas in 1916. This photograph was taken the day before the building was  demolished in November 1964 to make way for the Community Arts Center.  Eric D. Sismey photo 146 Grindrod  Grindrod  By Rita Van Solkema  Editor's Note: In order to encourage and stimulate research into the land they call their home, the Okanagan  Historical Society has instituted a school essay contest and  annually awards a plaque to the writer of the essay judged the  best by the School Essay Contest Committee headed by Mrs.  G. D. Herbert of Kelotvna.  The essay that follows was written by Rita Van Solkema, of Grindrod.  Grindrod was named about 1910 after a C.P.R. Telegraph Inspector of Kamloops.  Before this time it was known as North Enderby.  In 1908, only two years previous to the naming of Grindrod, a  large fire swept from about three miles south of there, right down  to Mara in a matter of hours. This took place along both sides of  the Shuswap River which was then called the Spallamacheen River.  Many of the men had been clearing dense bush for the use of farm  land and were burning the brush. A high wind blowing at a tremendous speed swept all the fires together and started north. Everyone  had to vacate their homes. Alex Bizznal, one of the more wealthy  land-owners at that time, had the largest clearing. In the middle  of this clearing he had just built a very large poultry barn. This had  not been in use yet, so of course, it was the place where all the people  headed. Alex Bizznal put them up for the night in the barn and gave  them breakfast the next morning. The next day when the people in  Enderby heard about it, a few business men were sent out to see if  they could help but by the time they got to Grindrod, it looked as if they  themselves needed help. They had to sober up before anything could be  done with them.  The destructive fire caused about twelve families to lose their  homes.   However, it did make it easier for farmers to clear the land.  In 1910 the first bridge appeared. This was a small, log-structured bridge which was built by the men of Grindrod. After this bridge  was built, Grindrod boomed. People were able to cross the river much  more easily and thriving businesses sprang up. This bridge was  replaced in 1923 by a second, more sturdy one. When traffic became  heavier in later years, a third bridge made of cement and steel replaced the second bridge.  It was put into use in 1958.  In  1911  the first school, a small log one, was built by Messrs. Grindrod  147  The J. Monk & Son store, owned and operated by the same family until 1967.  George McEwen, Fred Folkard, William and John Monk. Previously ten students had been going to the North Enderby School, one  and a half miles south of Grindrod. The first school master was  Mr. Joseph Gray who had just arrived from England. The school did  not only serve its purpose as a school but also was Grindrod's Community center. From Monday to Friday classes would be held. On  Friday the desks would be moved to the side of the room and then  the school would be ready for the weekly Saturday night dance. The  music was supplied by four local fiddlers. People from Enderby to  Mara would attend this affair. Some came by horse and buggy, some  just on horseback and others walked. The girls were always chaperoned by at least one of their parents. Dances promptly ended at twelve  o'clock but always a little before that time, John Monk would step  forward and sing, "My Darling Clemintine."  On Sunday the little school was packed to capacity for the two-  thirty church service. Farm dogs came to church as well as the  people. The people came to listen to the sermon and the dogs came to lie  beside the air-tight heater. The hymns were accompanied by Mr.  George Wells who played the auto harp.  Concerts were held in the school house too. This was a means  of entertainment which was always enjoyed by all.  In 1915, only four years after the little log school was built, a  larger one was built with the help of the government. There were too  many students for the small one by this time.   This school was now 148 Grindrod  the community center. The little school was still used for Women's  Institute meetings and those of other small organizations. When a  concert or dance was held, coffee was always made in the first school  and then brought to the larger one. The larger school was destroyed by  fire in 1942 so the classes were once again brought to the small one  until the third school was built. This third school is- the building which  is still in use as a school today.  The year 1913 brought a post office to Grindrod. This was  operated by Mr. John Monk in his home.  In 1915 the first store, garage and a radio repair shop were started.  Arthur Tomkinson owned the garage and radio repair while his brother  Harry owned the store.   These were both destroyed by fire in  1952.  During the year 1916 many of the local farmers were employed  at logging. At this time farms were small, and they did this for their  winter work. Most of the-land was covered by very dense bush. The  farmer-loggers made a booming business by cutting poles, fence posts  and railroad ties. These were shipped to coastal areas by track. Some  of the logs were brought to the mill operated by steam engine. It was  owned by Arthur Tomkinson and was situated on the east side of the  Shuswap River. At different times of the year, huge log drives would  be held. Hundreds of logs would be brought down the river guided  by small boats. Log booms were also common in the early days. When  it was not possible to make a dirt road exit to a logging area, corduroy  roads were made. These roads were made of logs placed parallel to  each other with dirt packed into the cracks.  In the year 1919, just after the war, St. Paul's Anglican church  was built. This was built as a memorial to the men who died in the  war.  A Grindrod Farmers' Hall was also built in 1919. A Joint Stock  Co. was formed and local people worked out their shares.  The Recreation Park was purchased in 1920. All the clearing and  burning of brush was done by volunteer labour. Debts were paid off  in a few years.  Horse racing in the park was enjoyed by all. June 3rd was  always a special day which always brought entertainment of all types.  A second store was built in 1922. This store was known as the  J. Monk and Sons Store. It was owned and operated by the same  family until 1967. This store was built in conjunction with a post  office.  The first Ukrainian settlers came to Grindrod in 1922.  A third store was built in connection with a barber shop in 1934. Grindrod  149  Radio repair,   garage  and  store  were  built  in   1915.   Owned  by  Arthur  and  Harry Tomkinson. Destroyed by fire in 1952.  The owner was Mr. D. Miletto. After his death, the barber shop  closed down. The store is now owned and operated by Mrs. A. Flem-  ming.  Today Grindrod is progressing rapidly with its population of six  hundred people. It now has two stores, a post office, one lumber mill,  a large feed mill, credit union, T.V. and radio repair shop, four  churches, large dairy farms, hog ranches, a dog kennel,' and Farmers  and Women's Institutes.  BIBLIOGRAPHY: I received all my information  from people whom I interviewed. These were Mrs. H.  Drake, Mr. and Mrs. G. Halksworth, Mr. A. Tomkinson,  Mrs. F. Fyall, and Mr. G. Handcock. Because of the limitations of words, I did not look in any magazine and books. 150 Soliloquy  SOLILOQUY  Editor's Note: The author of the poem below was  the wife of J. M. Robinson, the promoter of the development of Peachland, Summerland and Naramata.  By Mrs. E. M. Robinson  I gazed from the lofty hilltop  Towards the glow of the setting sun,  And I saw the gleam of a silvery stream,  And the valleys, one by one.  I list to the murmur of silence,  As I stood where the shadows fell,  While the soft mantle of light, enveloped from sight  The scene in the tranquil dell.  My God was 'round about me,  I murmured a word of prayer.  Then a ray of light pierced through the night  And lit the stream that was there.  It lay in the dim gray distance,  A twisted silvery trail  Winding its way at the close of day,  Through the soft mist of the silent dale.  Then the path of my life lay before me.  It came from the years that had flown,  But it lacked the gleam of the silvery stream,  And it led to the dim unknown.  With my eyes on the scene before me,  My heart filled with sudden fear,  And I cried in despair to the stream that shone there,  "Oh reflect on my path your brightness,  As you flow to the distant sea,  That my life may, each day, show others the way,  And my soul find Eternity." Summerland's  Centennial  Year 151  Summerland's Centennial Year  By Dr. James Marshall  The sun had dropped behind the Prairie Valley ridges, and the  swallows had begun their nightly coursings in the darkening orchards.  It was pleasantly warm this first of July 1967. From vantage points  all over the municipality thousands of people from scores of points  in the country watched and waited. Giant's Head, Summerland's  unique central landmark, was the focus. Slowly the shadows climbed  up the huge mass of rock, and its scattered pines and firs. Then, high  above, the summit caught the last rays of hidden sun, and it was twilight. Suddenly the north face erupted in a multi-coloured blaze, and  the mountain lay there in strange new relief. Summerland's Centennial celebrations had reached their climax with reverberating pyro-  technical thunderclaps, and rainbow-hued rockets and flares. It was  something new for Summerland. Summerland's salute to 100 years  of Canadian Confederation had been quite a party.  There had been commemorative goings on for six months. They  started with "The Best of Barkerville," the Vancouver-based show that  skilfully portrayed burlesque of a hundred years ago in Barkerville,  the Cariboo country's famous ghost mining camp. The High School  auditorium had an overflow crowd. A lot of the people who saw the  show wondered a bit about present-day stage humour. The gags of  yesterday certainly didn't suffer by comparison.  Then there was the vintage car run. Car buffs in hundreds  flocked around relics of the automobile's infancy, and marvelled that  the cars of forty to sixty years ago were still capable of travelling  from Vancouver to the Okanagan with no breakdowns. There was  the Stanley Steamer, the first Model T Ford, the Maxwell, the Overland, the Marmon, the Graham-Paige, the front-wheel-drive Cord,  and many another the sixty- and seventy-year-olds knew as children.  And there, virtually soundless, and vibrationless, was a dignified Rolls-  Royce saloon. Its thirty-five years sat lightly though the odometer was  well into its second round. Man's genius, the old car seemed to say,  had been about for a long time.  A month after "The Best of Barkerville" came "The Best of  Summerland." It was a variety show centred on the Summerland  Centennial Choir directed by W. A. (Bud) Steuart, grandson of Alec  Steuart, one of the community's early settlers. It was like old times.  Scores of citizens pitched in to sing, play an instrument in the orchestra, paint scenery, handle props.   The show was a great success.   It 152  Summerland's  Centennial  Year  Dedication of Giant's Head Park, July 1, 1968. Left to right: Girl Guide, Jill  Pruden, R.C.M.P. Constable E. D. Lucas, Rev. Kutch Imayoshi, Mrs. Donald  Orr,   Mr.   S.  A.   MacDonald,   Dr.   James   Marshall,   Reeve   Norman   Holmes,  Mrs. George Forster. Bert Simpson photo  was timeful; and for the survivors of Summerland's originals, it was  nostalgic. On two successive nights it filled the High School audi-  todium. "The Old Okanagan" and "The Summerland Hymn" were  a reminder that the musical capacity of our pioneers in the colorful  1905-1920 period has not since been equalled, let alone excelled.  A Centennial event of May 13th was the presentation of pioneer  medallions to Summerlanders whose life in Canada began before  January 1, 1892. The Rosedale Room of the Legion Hall was the  scene of the afternoon ceremony. Reeve Holmes was the Master of  Ceremonies. Ninety-one medallions were presented. As far as is  known Summerland had a higher percentage of citizens entitled to  the honour than any other British Columbia community. Tom Richie,  Summerland's one-man welcoming committee, was responsible for  seeing to it that every pioneer in the community received a medallion.  Following the presentations the Corporation of Summerland sponsored an excellent afternoon tea. Ladies of the Canadian Legion  Women's Auxiliary did the catering; and they did it handsomely.  Many an old-time yarn was swapped that afternoon; and the old-  timers discovered that they were by no means being taken for granted.  Reeve Norman Holmes later presented Medallions to those eligible  who were not able to attend.  The youngsters of MacDonald Elementary School were not to Summerland's  Centennial  Year 153  be left out of the Centennial celebrations. Without having to be  coaxed they staged an excellent musical evening in their school's gymnasium. Their leader was Mrs. Paul Roberge, daughter of the late  Nat May, a long-time Summerland resident. There was singing, and  there were skits; and it all emphasized the Canadian theme. As an  added attraction the energetic youngsters organized a sort of junior  museum crammed with early Canadiana, and particularly items that  had been used in the community around the turn of the century.  Of all the year's commemorative events one of the most appreciated was the showing in the Elementary School gymnasium of a  comprehensive series of historical slides prepared for the occasion by  the Summerland Camera Club. Particularly involved in this quite  outstanding affair were Mr. and Mrs. Jack Morrow, and Mrs. Chan-  non Snow. The commentary, skilfully done, was by Mr. Allan McKenzie. A series of "then and now" paired slides was a special interest. The first slide showed a local scene some sixty or seventy years  ago, the second showed a view of the same area in 1967. The paired  slides were augmented by a good selection of black-and-white transparencies prepared from old prints of pioneer individuals and groups.  After three showings there are still requests for another one.  In the East Kootenay the Upper Columbia Navigation and Transportation Company operated a stage into Fort Steele nearly a hundred  years ago. It was a hot day in Mid-Summer 1967 when the brightly  painted, old, red and gold stage, hauled by four fine horses, pulled into  Summerland to commemorate 100 years of Canadian confederation.  At the Memorial athletic park, north of town, the stage picked up  the Acting Reeve and his wife, the pioneer queen, and the chairman  of the local Centennial Committee and his wife, and clip-clopped  them down Highway 97, and through the town, to Parkdale Place.  There the driver presented commemorative scrolls to the Acting Reeve,  and to the Centennial Committee chairman. So great was local interest that the whole route of about a mile was lined with camera-clicking  spectators. One of those who rode the stage commented wistfully that  modern conveyances had little but high speed. How much more interesting the passing scene when viewed from a leisurely horse-drawn,  steel-tired stage, rattling, swaying, and bumping notwithstanding. The  tour of this stage through the province was the happy idea of the  Provincial Centennial Committee.  Another highlight of the centennial year was the visit of the  National government's truck-drawn, Centennial, historical Caravan,  a venture designed to inculcate greater pride in what Canada stands  for.   Imaginative, and carefully done, the undertaking well served its 154 Summerland's  Centennial  Year  purpose. Several thousand Summerlanders moved through the huge  trailers, the largest ever operated on Canadian highways. A lot of  older folk learned more of Canadian history in an hour than they  had absorbed as children in a month. Youngsters of school age suddenly found that history isn't necessarily dull.  Early in the evening of July 1, Summerlanders were privileged  to witness an event quite out of the ordinary among Centennial ceremonies. In the well-landscaped grounds of the new General Hospital  the local Japanese-Canadian citizens presented to the community, and  to the Nation, a Japanese Toro, three tons of traditional, hand-carved,  stone lantern. The striking, sculptured bit of Japan will be a persisting reminder of one small group's love of their adopted land. It was  a grand mark of appreciation and it prompted Reeve Holmes to reciprocate. In accepting the gift the Reeve didn't equivocate. "You people," he said, "are our best citizens," The tribute came from the  man best qualified to make it. Concluding the ceremony Rev. Kutch  Imayoshi offered a moving dedicatory prayer, a prayer that spoke of  the eternal values, of love of homeland, and of the brotherhood that  thoughtful Canadians hope for.  With the dedication of Giant's Head Park, July 1, 1967, came  the big moment in Summerland's Centennial year. The day's celebrations began with a parade led by the Summerland Band, from the  Co-op packing house to the MacDonald school it went; from there  through the business section of the town to end at the Memorial Park.  At Memorial Park, Miss Katy Evans was crowned Miss Summerland, and Elizabeth Orr and Ellen Davis were crowned her princesses. Then the town band, directed by Jim Grinder, pleased the  crowd with a concert. The music was good; but the environment was  a bit on the messy side here and there, as hundreds of youngsters flocked  to collect free ice cream. Finally came the announcement that the  new access road to Giant's Head Park was officially open, and all cars  were to proceed to the parking and picnic area near the summit of the  mountain. From the parking area it was "shank's mare" up the Centennial Trail to the top. Two jeeps provided rides for those unable  to walk.  The local detachment of the RCMP with auxiliary help and  with two-way radio communication, saw to it that traffic up and down  the mountain that day was strictly one-way. Hundreds of cars made  the initial trip without accident or delay.  The new park had been envisioned more than fifty years ago by  two of Summerland's pioneer citizens, Magnus Tait and Walter M.  Wright.   But because the estimated cost of an access road had been prohibitively high the idea lay dormant. Then in 1965 they suggested  that Giant's Head Mountain be developed as a Municipal Park to  commemorate Canada's one hundredth birthday. The local mill operator and lumberman Don Agur, grandson of Summerland's first reeve,  showed that it should be possible to construct a road at a fraction of  the cost projected by professional engineers. He was given the opportunity to prove his point; and did it to the entire satisfaction of the  local Centennial Committee, and the Municipal Council, not to mention the thousands of motorists who have already travelled the road.  Situated almost in the centre of the Municipality of Summerland  Giant's Head Mountain is a community landmark. From the summit,  elevation somewhat over 2700 feet, the view in every direction is  superb. Few panoramas in North America can match it. The development of the mountain as a park was a truly community effort.  Financed by the Municipality of Summerland, and the Governments  of Canada and British Columbia, the job involved hundreds of individuals, and no less than thirty community organizations.  The beginning of the access road to the picnic site, and parking  area is marked by wrought iron gates suspended from cut-stone pylons  that are buttressed by cut-stone curtain walls. The gates bear the Canadian centennial symbol, and British Columbia's provincial flower, the  white dogwood. The left curtain wall carries, in metal, the dates  1867-1967; the right wall, the words "Giants Head Park."  The road ascends steadily for nearly a mile and a half, and,  after a score of turns and switchbacks, reaches the parking area about  200 feet below the summit. There, in typical Okanagan parkland  with its yellow pine, Douglas .fir, Saskatoon bushes, bunchgrass and  sage, is parking space for hundreds of vehicles. Picnic tables and  toilet facilities have been installed.  Winding upwards from the parking area are two trails to the  summit, a short, steep one to the east (Confederation trail) and a  longer and smoother one to the west (Centennial trail). To- the north  is a third trail (Summerland trail). It circles the top of a grassy  knoll that overlooks Summerland's business centre, and many of its  orchards.  At the summit, anchored to the solid rock, is a commemorative  monument, a single huge, granite boulder set in concrete. The boulder bears a bronze plaque with appropriate wording. At the base of  the monument is a sealed chamber containing a machined brass time  capsule. The capsule contains typical items of the time plus a parchment signed by the Reeve of the Municipality, a photograph of four  of the citizens most intimately concerned with the development of 156 Summerland's  Centennial  Year  the park, and photos and account of the pioneer Gartrell family, the  first to establish itself in Summerland, and well represented in the  community by the third and fourth generation 80 years later.  Affixed to the concrete plug that seals th'e chamber is a small bronze  plaque indicating that the time capsule is to be recovered and opened  July 1, 2067. A century hence, when our descendants open the capsule, doubtless they will have good reason to ponder our quaint ways.  The summit of the mountain overlooks sheer cliffs on the south  and west. The cliffs are surmounted by a guard cable attached to  steel posts. Signs warn parents to watch their children. A number of  the posts bear viewing tubes upon each of which is inscribed the point  of interest that is seen by looking through the tube.  Beside the monument, mounted on a concrete base, is a steel flag  pole from which streams Canada's national flag. It flies every day  in the year, and can be seen from many parts of the municipality.  Nearby is a well-anchored symbolic sundial. Much of what is at the  summit was donated by local organizations.  An account of Summerland's Centennial celebrations must include something of the park dedication ceremony on the mountain  top. Flanked by a constable of the RCMP in dress uniform Reeve  Holmes got things underway with typically concise comment. Canada's new flag was hoisted by Scouts and Cubs; then the National  anthem was sung. Long-time Summerland school principal S. A.  MacDonald, now retired, delivered the dedication address, a gem of  its kind. It made you ponder your good fortune as a citizen of this  magnificent land.  Mrs. Donald Orr (nee Mary Gartrell) in beautiful period costume, spoke feelingly of Summerland since the early days, then unveiled the plaque on the north side of the monument. Miss Summer-  land, who was in charge of the time capsule, presented it to Reeve  Holmes. The Reeve slid the capsule into the recess at the base of  the monument.   Later that day the recess was sealed with concrete.  Rev. Kutch Imayoshi offered the dedicatory prayer. Summer-  land-born son of pioneer parents it was fitting that he should do so.  To hear that man of God, there on the sunny mountain top, Canada's  Maple-leaf flag streaming out above him, was a moving experience.  It will long persist in the memories of hundreds. The main speeches  were later taped and are being preserved for posterity.  During the dedication ceremony the Summerland Band played  appropriate selections, then accompanied the Centennial Choir as the  choir did the occasion proud, particularly with Beethoven's Magnificent Die Himmel Ruehmen suntr in English. Summerland's  Centennial  Year  157  The ceremony came to an end when Pioneer Queen, Mrs. George  Forster, in period costume, cut the Centennial birthday cake. Girl  Guides and Brownies then moved through the spectators distributing  portions of the cake done up in souvenir wrapping.  Thus did Summerland's spectacular Giant's Head Park get a  fitting start as one of Canada's most imaginative Centennial projects.  Queen Katy Evans presenting time capsule to  Reeve  Holmes  July  1,   1967.  A Tree Grows In Vernon  [jflZ   <Z7TL¬±to'lU   of  ALL SAINTS' PARISH  VERNON, B.C.  THE DIAMOND JUBILEE a 1893-1933  BISHOP OF THE DIOCESE OF KOOTENAY  RT. REV. F. P. CLARK, M.A., D.D.  THE  RECTOR  REV. LORIN A. C. SMITH, B.A., B.D.  ASSISTANT: REV. DESMOND D. HOLT, L.Th. This booklet is the work of the late Right Reverend A. H.  Sovereign, M.A., D.D., formerly a Bishop of Athabasca and  since 1950 a resident in this Parish of All Saints', Vernon,  where in an earlier day he had married Ellen Ellison. He  died May 16, 1966.  To Bishop Sovereign we are deeply indebted, as well as  to Mr. Venables, Mrs. Sunderland and others. ^m&mv^w^9m>xw  c^rfLL faints.' Gnwiak  VERNON, B.C.  1953  161 Canon C. E. Reeve, present minister of AU Saints' Anglican.  162 .. ContznttL ..  I.    THE SOIL. 1800 - 1880.  II.    THE SOWING OF THE SEED.  1881 - 1892.  III.    THE  SAPLING  GROWS.   1893 - 1906.  IV.    THE TREE IS  TRANSPLANTED.   1907 - 1930.  V.    THE  TREE  BURNS  BUT  IS  NOT  CONSUMED,   1931 - 1948.  VI.    THE  DIAMOND   JUBILEE.   1948 - 1953.  163 The Rectory—built in 1892, some years be/ore it was acquired by the  church for the Rectory.  164 CHAPTER   I  The Soil, 1800-1880  PIONEERS.  All the past we leave behind ;  We take up the task eternal, and the burden, and  the lesson,  Conquering, holding, daring, venturing, so we go  the unknown ways,  Pioneers I O, pioneers !  On and on the compact ranks,  With accessions ever waiting, we must never yield  or falter,  Through the battle, through defeat, moving yet  and never stopping,  Pioneers I  O, pioneers !       —Walt Whitman.  ^TJERE lies the Okanagan Valley, that excellent contrivance of  "*• nature and man, where the worthless sagebrush soil, with a  trickle of water brought in flumes out of the hills, has sent an  orchard flowing unbroken for a hundred miles. Blessed and fruitful  valley of homes among the apple trees!'' Thus writes Bruce Hutchison in his book, "The Unknown Country". The late Bishop Doull  frequently referred to his area as "the most beautiful Diocese in  the world."  But long before these hills in order stood, long before the forest  primeval with the minor music of "the murmuring pines and the  hemlocks", this area was the scene of belching volcanoes, of  wreathing smoke and flowing lava and volcanic debris. The remnants of basaltic lava streams are revealed in red igneous rock,  dead craters and in the columnar jointing found at Westbank and  Keremeos and "The Pillar" at Pillar Lake. Probably vast grinding  glaciers, retreating northward to their mountain fastnesses, gouged  out and furrowed our smiling valley and left these nestling lakes.  Then came man. Space does not permit a study of the native  Indians and their predecessors before the coming of the White Man  but we can picture in a vague way their crude and simple existence  in these sheltered valleys in the dim and misty past.  In the course of time, three gate-ways swung open to give  entrance to our Valley. In the first picture, we see the fur brigades  leaving Astoria on the Pacific Coast, passing through our Valley to  165 Kamloops, which by 1812 had become the great half-way Fort  where the brigades rested before going northward to Fort St. James  on Stuart Lake. Then they would return southward laden with the  precious furs.  The second picture reveals the heroic journeys of "The Overlanders" who in 1862 left England, crossed the endless Prairies  through the Yellowhead Pass and down the North Thompson to  Kamloops. They suffered great hardships. On the verge of starvation, they ate their dogs. At last in October, they reached Kamloops  and the next day, Rose Schubert was born, the first white child  to be born in this vast area.  The third gate-way swung open from the Pacific Coast and  gave to the adventurous traveller the choice of two routes—the  Hope-Princeton Trail and the Cariboo Trail which was opened to  Barkerville in 1865. The horses for the Barnard Express were largely  gathered from Southern California and Mexico and stocked at the  BX Ranch near (what is now) the City of Vernon.  Through these gate-ways, came the Pioneers of the Valley—  with their spirit of adventure, their vision of things unseen—men  and women, heroes and heroines of matchless courage, bound together with the comradeship of the frontier where all are friends.  In a centre, like the spokes of a wheel, six fertile vallies met, they  formed a settlement—and they called it Centreville, Forge Valley,  Priests' Valley, and then, Vernon.     This was the soil.  First Church on Tronson Avenue  166 CHAPTER  II  The Sowing of the Seed, 1881-1892  "Thy heralds  brought glad tidings  To greatest, as to least;  They bade men rise and hasten  To share the great King's Feast;  And this was all their teaching,  In every deed and word,  To all alike proclaiming  One Church, one Faith, one Lord."  T ET US never forget the Pioneers of the Faith. The Patriarchs of  'L'the Old Testament as they travelled, "pitched a tent, dug a well  and built an altar". The Patriarchs of this Valley never forgot their  spiritual heritage nor their Christian foundation.  The first services of the church of England in this area were  held in 1879 at Grande Prairie (Westwold) by Rev. J. B. Good who  came up from Lytton. The first recorded service of our own church  was held in Mr. Forbes Vernon's barn at the Coldstream on Sunday,  September 26th, 1881, by Rt. Rev. A. W. Sillitoe, the first Bishop of  New Westminster, consecrated in England on All Saints' Day, 1879.  Mrs. Sillitoe describes the service.  "Some excitement occurred during the afternoon service when  a hen, having laid an egg, flew upon some hay to announce the fact,  and so persistently and so loudly, that the Bishop could not proceed  with his sermon until she had been turned out. Among other unbidden visitors at the same time were some little chipmunks running  lightly and gracefully along the rafters—little animals in size  between a rat and a mouse, but in appearance more like squirrels,  having long bushy tails."  The Bishop had come over the Hope-Princeton Trail, the party  consisting of five persons and eight horses. The journey required a  week and they reached Osoyoos Lake where on the Sunday, service  was held. A two days' journey brought them to Penticton, "a promising settlement on low land separating Okanagan Lake from Dog  Lake." In three more days, they arrived at the Coldstream where  the above service was held. The Bishop did not like our Okanagan  trails and wrote of them—  "But the trails! The trails give one the idea of having been  constructed for the purpose of being abandoned. They are very good  167 here and there, where Nature alone is responsible for them; otherwise they give one the impression that human ingenuity had been  exercised in rendering them as tortuous and difficult as possible.  "It speaks volumes for the enterprise of men that they ever go  on them at all, and volumes more for the sure-footedness of animals  that men ever go over them safely. And yet this is the trail over  which the mail is taken once a month."'  Following the visit of Bishop Sillitoe, the Parish of Vernon was  served from Kamloops by three early Missionaries—Rev. D. H. W.  Horlock who had been brought to Kamloops from Yale and became  Vicar; Rev. A. Shildrick from Maple Ridge appointed assistant;  Rev. Henry Irwin (assistant) who came in 1885 from the Old Land  and became known as "Father Pat" of the Kootenays. These three  faithful shepherds covered an enormous field—from Keremeos and  Penticton in the south, through the whole of the Okanagan to  Kamloops and Cache Creek. The first service registered in All Saints'  Parish Records was held at the home of Mr. Jones at Grande Prairie  (Westwold) on September 30th, 1884, and was in charge of Rev. D.  H. W. Horlock. Then follows a list of many services taken by Rev.  A. Shildrick up to April, 1885. The entries reveal that, as in the days  of the Apostles, these services were held in the homes of the settlers  —Savonas (Newlands), Spallumcheen (Youngs), Grande Prairie  (Jones), Quilchanna (Halls), Nicola (McDonalds) and at Priests'  Valley (Price Ellison). The first recorded service held at Priests'  Valley is dated November 9th, 1884, and was in charge of Mr.  Shildrick.  The first Baptism in the Record Book was taken by Mr. Shildrick; Margaret Annie Whelan, born September 23rd, 1884, daughter  of George and Lucy Whelan, farmer, residing at The Mission, and  baptized in the School Room at The Mission, by Mr. Shildrick.  The first Marriage Service was read by Rev. A. Shildrick,  December 5th, 1884—Price Ellison and Sophie Christine Johnson,  residence Forge Valley.  The first Burial recorded is—Jeanette Swanson, age 2 years,  Spallumcheen, buried in Wicker's Field, A. Shildrick, May 28th, 1885.  The last service taken by Rev. A. Shildrick of Kamloops was  on April 12th, 1885 at 4:30 p.m. and was held at the home of Mr.  Price Ellison, and the note reads—"School Room burned down."  The first Rector was Rev. I. Williams Outerbridge and for a  while he was Vicar of the Okanagan. On October 14th, 1891, he held  a service at Kamloops and before the end of the year, he had been  at Vernon, Penticton, Trout Creek (Peachland), Enderby and Lansdowne, but gradually, by December, 1891, he was given charge of  Vernon, Enderby and Lansdowne. Usually the Sunday service was  168 in Vernon at 11:00 a.m. and at Enderby or Lansdowne in the afternoon or evening. And let us remember that these were the horse-  and-buggy days! These were also the mud-and-snow days!  Varied and original were the buildings used for public worship.  The old school house in Vernon, later converted into a modern  dwelling house, just south of the Park School, was used for services  on Sunday. Then as the congregation grew in size, the brick Court  House which had just been constructed (later the South Vernon  School) was used. The clergyman occupied the Judge's platform;  the choir sat in the Jury Box and the hymns were played on a small  portable organ. We have not been able to discover who occupied the  Prisoner's Box—perhaps some wayward Anglican or forgetful Warden. Afterwards services were held in Cameron's Hall, before the  construction of the first church.  The Women's Guild worked hard when only a little handful  of earnest workers had to do it all, raising money from strawberry  socials, concerts, theatricals and serving parties. I well remember  (writes Mrs. J. Sunderland) the efforts on the part of the Guild,  who never had bazaars in those far-away days but who took orders  for plain sewing. A special order came from Mr. Moses Lumby, in  the Government Office, a very stout man, for some old-fashioned  night shirts. We were not able to obtain a proper size pattern from  the shops, so as usual, the women did their best, but when the poor  man got into the ecclesiastical night shirt, it required the united  efforts of himself and his Chinaman to get him out again. "Tea and  cake stalls" were great money-makers—one such being held on  Kalamalka Lake on the ice where a fancy dress Carnival was held.  One can imagine the temperature of 30 degrees below zero and the  difficulty of making coffee and keeping it hot. Again there was a  stall at the first Fall Fair at Vernon in 1892 which was held in a  warehouse on Barnard Avenue which later became an auction room.  Mrs. Sunderland tells of the Rector's dog, a very faithful Irish  terrier. He enjoyed the privilege of coming to church, wandering  about and sniffing and nipping at the heels of the congregation who  did not appreciate this attention. Then the Rector would pause in  the service and would call, "Major!" But when his false smiles and  kind (?) words were without effect, he would come down and firmly  turn him out, and then proceed.  Soon it was resolved that the time had arrived for the little  congregation to build a House of God in which with the spirit of  holiness, they could worship the God of their fathers as revealed in  Christ Jesus the Lord.  The planted seed was bearing fruit, the seed of the Gospel, and  a little tree began to grow in Vernon.  169 CHAPTER  III  The Sapling, 1893-1906  "For the memories we treasure,  That to this our Home belong,  Hours of sweet and high communion,  Matin Prayer and Evensong;  For the lessons Thou hast taught us,  Taught by joy and taught by pain—  Lord, for all Thy countless blessings,  We uplift our festal strain."  r\N APRIL 30th, 1893, at 11:00  ^^ a.m., the first service in the  first church was held, consisting of  Matins and the Holy Communion  (fifteen communicants). The Service was in charge of Rev. I. W.  Outerbridge, the Rector, who chose  as the text for the sermon,  Deuteronomy 4:1—"Now therefore  hearken. O Israel, unto the statutes  and unto the judgments, which I  teach you, for to do them, that ye  may live and go in and possess  the land which the Lord God of  your fathers giveth you." How  prophetic! Thus began All Saints'  Church, Vernon.  This new church stood on the  northwest corner of Tronson and  Whetham Streets (31st Ave. and  31st St.) and was built by Edwin  Harris,  who  also  constructed  the  seats and the lectern and afterwards the small bell-tower. This did  not house the bell of more recent years, but a smaller bell which  was also rung at times as a fire alarm bell, there being no town fire  bell at that time. The church was an all-wood building, lined inside  with v-pointing, with wrought-iron fittings both for the lamps and  the altar rails. The cost for the construction of the church was  $2,000, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel  (England)  REV. I. W. OUTERBRIDGE  170 sending a gift of £40. The building materials were purchased from  Messrs. Smith and Clerm.  The first Baptisms in the new church were on June 27th, 1893—  Edith Hortense Clerm, Violet Merritt Pridham, Cynthia McGowen  (Mrs. Sunderland's sister). As there was no Font, the water was  placed in a china jar resting on a little table.  The first Confirmation held in All Saints' Church took place  on October 12th, 1893, and was conducted by Bishop Silitoe who  included all of the interior of B.C. in his Diocese—Kate Appleton,  Fanny George Cam, Francis Schubert, Mary Manley Spinks.  However, an earlier Confirmation service was held before the  new church was erected, on August 6th, 1892—William Joseph  Armstrong, Ada • Virginia Armstrong, Julia Rebecca Pelly, Rose  Valentine Dewdney, Fanny Daisy Cartwright, Bessie Emily Nicholson,  Minnie Gordon Burnyeat.  The first Wedding in the new church with Mr. Outerbridge as  Rector was held on May 10th, 1893—Charles Ernest Costerton,  bachelor, and Gertrude Anna Perry, spinster. Witness, Moses Lumby  of Vernon and Jennie Caldwell of Enderby.  The first Burial service was read by the Rector for John Chipp,  aged 60, a Doctor, born in Shropshire, England.  The harmonium in the little church was played by Mrs. W.  Martin, the first Mrs. Spinks and Mrs. McGowen, and was pumped  by Stuart Martin. Gradually a choir was formed and they even  essayed to sing Jackson's "Te Deum".  The church officers for 1894 were as follows: Vicar's Warden,  F. McGowen; People's Warden, E. J. Tronson; Sidesmen, Dr. Beck-  ingsale, S. Sommerville, R. J. Davies and Clement F. Costerton.  In the same year, 1894, on June 9th, Bishop Sillitoe died and  was buried in the cemetery at Sapperton. On June 29th, 1895, in St.  Paul's Cathedral (England), Rev. John Dart was consecrated Bishop  of New Westminster and thus became the Episcopal Shepherd of the  Okanagan.  The opening of the new church coincided with the year of the  first election for Mayor and Aldermen for the newly incorporated  City of Vernon. Mr. W. M. Cochrane was Returning Officer; W. F.  Cameron, Mayor, and James Lyons, A. G. Fuller, James A. Schubert,  S. C. Smith and W. J. Armstrong as Aldermen, R. J. Davies was  appointed City Clerk; H. R. Parke, Assessor and Chief Constable;  C. W. Ireland, Police Magistrate; H. Millar, Night Constable and  Pound Keeper. Church and state thus moved together.  Many and revealing are the notes in the "Remarks" column of  the Service Register:  171 No service—Rector had neuralgia."  "Harvest Thanksgiving; very good singing, the choir being full.  No organ."  "Church very cold. No fires lighted when I arrived. How long  shall we try to keep people from church?"  "No man to collect, therefore no offerings."  "A very fair congregation which was very devout."  "Poor congregation; two in choir, four in church; offertory 50  cents."  "Rev. A. St. John Mildmay assisted."  "Venerable Edwyn S. W. Pentreath preached. From Vancouver,  B.C."  "Large congregation. Instruments—2 violins, 1 cornet, 1 trombone."  "All Saints' Day, 1904. The Communicants were Mr. Mildmay,  Mrs. Mildmay, Mrs. Lambert, Harold Lambert, Mrs. C. E. Costerton,  E. Bate and J. H. Lambert."  "Very small congregation. Ink frozen solid! Finish!"  "Disgraceful attendance of choir! Would that those who cannot  come occasionally would resign!!"  "It is not always necessary to make Remarks. Perhaps the  officiating clergyman ought to be the only one to do so."  "Snow and thaw. Poor congregation. Poor choir and very lazy."  "One child of 8 years present, who responded audibly during the  whole Litany."  "Thursday in Holy Week. What is the world coming to! Two  men actually came to church!"  "Congregation assembled but could not stay because no stove  was lighted."  "No one present. I rang the Bell but there was no service."  "Easter, church crowded, many turned away."  Rev. T. W. Outerbridge who came to the Parish in 1891 continued  as Rector until the beginning of 1900 and then returned to England.  His successor was Rev. J. Hilary Lambert who came to Vernon from  Prince Albert, Sask., and conducted his first service in his new  Parish on April 29th, 1900. In August of the same year, his family  arrived.  Some of the active Parishioners during Mr. Outerbridge's time  (1891-1900) included Mr. and Mrs. J. P. Burnyeat (parents of Mrs.  Simms), Mr. and Mrs. Richard Davies (town clerk), Mrs. J. Monteith,  Mrs. Spinks, organist, Mr. E. J. Tronson, Mr. and Mrs. F. McGowen  172 (parents of Mrs. Sunderland), Mr. and Mrs. Clem Costerton, Miss  Thicke, S.S. teacher, Mrs. Martin, S. Sommerville, Leo and Eddie  Simmons, Walter Dewdney, Mr. and Mrs. Price Ellison the latter  acting as organist at times, Dr. and Mrs. D. L. Beckingsale, Mr. R.  Meyer, W. B. Cochrane, Mrs. T. Milne.  The Shuswap and Okanagan Railway was commenced in  August 1890 and by May 12th, 1892, the rails connected Sicamous and  Vernon and Okanagan Landing.  Some interesting gleanings from Parish Records tell of the  growth and unfolding of this spiritual tree.  "January 18th, 1896—Mr. F. McGowen having pointed out that  the site of the church had by error been conveyed in fee. to Moses  Lumby (since deceased) but that this deed had never been registered, it was moved by G. A. Henderson, seconded by C. F. Costerton  and carried:  "That the Okanagan Land and Development Company be  requested to cancel the grant and issue a new free deed to the  Bishop of the Diocese of New Westminster, in order to entitle the  Parish to a grant of $192.00 from the S.P.C.K."  May 19, 1896—Moved by G. A. Henderson, seconded by Captain  Carew and carried, "That the work of painting the exterior of the  church be given to Mr. Ritchie, his tender being $75."  Moved by G. A. Hankey, seconded by A. F. Venables (Lay  Reader) and carried, "That the roof be slate colour and the body  white with dark trimming."  February 1, 1901—Moved by G. A. Henderson, seconded by A. F.  Venables and carried. "That the Rector, J. H. Lambert, be authorized  to let by contract to Mr.- E. Harris the enlargement of the church,  by moving the church wall to line No. 2 as shown in the plan, the  whole cost not to exceed $50."  September 30, 1901—Moved by G. A. Hankey, seconded by C. F.  Costerton and carried, "That the Vestry Clerk be instructed to  write, asking if the Ladies' Guild would be willing to provide for the  heating, lighting and caretaking of the church for the present year,  as has formerly been done." (Editor: This sounds rather familiar,  does it not?)  September 21, 1905—Moved by C. F. Costerton, seconded by E.  Copley Thompson and carried, "That in the opinion of the Vestry,  it is inadvisable to enlarge further the present church structure,  inasmuch as the membership is considerably increasing, and it is  believed that in the near future, the present accommodation will  be totally inadequate for the ordinary congregation. It is also felt  that under existing circumstances we should put in order the foun-  173 dation of the present building and have the church painted; and  also that the subscription now started be embodied in a fund for  that purpose, as well as that for the building of a new church."  November 27, 1905—At an adjourned meeting of the Vestry  (there being present Rev. J. H. Lambert, Price Ellison, E. C. Thompson, G. A. Henderson, C. F. Costerton,, E. B. May, W. Duke, H. F.  Wilmot), after discussing the advisability of building a new church,  it was adopted, "That an endeavour be made to raise the sum of  $5,000 to build a new church."  October 21, 1900—"A Children's Service was held in the church.  The children were most orderly, sang nicely and showed that they  had been well trained in the Sunday School."  October, 1901—"Rev. F. V. Venables kindly assisted at the  Services."  July 29, 1906—Rev. William Thomas Johnson came as assistant  to the Rector and remained until October 14th, 1906.  Parish Statistics for 1906—Baptisms 20; Confirmations 13; Marriages 8; Burials 8; M.S.C.C. $61.00; Mission to Jews $11.40.  Thus another chapter closes and a new era opens.  iSCO. AUCHMRCH.VERSOK, 3,  Interior of First Church on Tronson Avenue  174 CHAPTER  IV  The Tree Is Transplanted;  Its Roots Deepen, Its Branches Spread  1907-1930  "Fill this latter House with glory  Greater than the former knew;  Clothe with righteousness its Priesthood,  Guide us all to reverence true;  Let Thy Holy One's anointing  Here its sevenfold blessing shed;  Spread for us the heavenly banquet,  Satisfy Thy poor with bread."  /^\N SUNDAY, June 9th, 1907, the new church on Mara Avenue  ^-^ was dedicated by the Bishop of New Westminster and Kootenay  (Dr. Dart) assisted by the Rector, Rev. J. H. Lambert, Rev. E. A.  St. George Smythe and Archdeacon Beer. The Bishop adds a special  note—"A beautiful church, service excellently ordered, the choir  large and admirably trained, a very large congregation."  During the ensuing week, a synod was held with the following  Clergy present: Rev. F. H. Graham (Nelson), Rev. F. V. Venables  (Enderby), Rev. Thomas Greene (Kelowna), Rev. Henry Steele  (Grand Forks), Rev. John Clelland (Rossland), Rev. R. S. Wilkinson  (Fernie), Rev. A. Mildmay (Penticton), Rev. W. T. Johnson (Arrowhead), Rev. E. F. Flewelling (Cranbrook), Rev. E. Baynes (New  Denver), Rev. A. Akehurst, Archdeacon H. Beer, Rev. G. Cook  (Kaslo).  The following memoir regarding the church building, brought  into being by this forward movement, is from the pen of G. Alers  Hankey and appeared in the Parish Leaflet in 1931.  The town and district made marked growth after 1900 and the  inadequacy of the old church, built in 1893, became more apparent  as the years passed. The late Mr. Lambert undoubtedly supplied the  initiative for the new building and the church members soon became  actively interested in supporting the scheme. Funds were raised  locally, and friends and relations of church members in England  also made contribution.  The site for the new building was bought from the townsite  company, and later other lots between what is now the rectory  175 property and the church were purchased. The church members at  that time are to be congratulated, both for changing the site of the  church, and for engaging the services of an experienced architect,  instead of building to the plans of a local contractor, as was so  customary in those days. Their decision resulted in a building with  a charm and appeal which amply repaid all the efforts for its  erection, and was for many years the most important church building in the Interior, with the possible exception of the one at Nelson.  One detail of the meetings, when the plans were being discussed,  curiously remains in my mind; and that was the height of the nave  windows which seemed high in proportion to the walls.  The late E. J. Tronson, on the suggestion of Mr. Lambert,  interested other old timers, who had been residents in the valley for  fifteen years or longer, in the presentation of the tower bell.  When the new church was built it was found that the old rectory  was inconveniently far away; and, when the late Mrs. Cochrane  offered the corner property for sale, it was acquired by the parish,  and the dwelling thereon has been the rectory since that time. The  old Rectory, known as "Creek House", was sold for $2,600.  The formal opening of the church took place in 1907.  There is an interesting minute of the Vestry on July 2, 1907,  which authorized that the Font in the old church be given to the  Church at Arrowhead and the pulpit to the Church at New Denver.  Quotations from minutes: June 25th, 1907—Moved by E. S.  Bates and seconded by R. Fitzmaurice, "That the Vestry authorize  the Building Committee to negotiate for the sale of the Old Church."  Mr. Hankey believed the sum of $2,000 could be realized from the  sale of building and lots.  The Women's Guild of All Saints  With the opening of the New Church, the members of the Guild  devoted all their energies to their new tasks. The officers at Eastertide, 1907, were—President, Mrs. Lambert; Vice-Presidents, Mrs.  Cochrane and Mrs. S. C. Smith; Secretary, Mrs. Vallance; Treasurer,  Mrs. Rogers; Executive—Mrs. Chas. Costerton, Mrs. Haldane, Mrs. C.  D. Simms, Mrs. Van Arum, Mrs. Stirling, Mrs. Milne, Mrs. Perry, Mrs.  Stodders.  Minutes, April 19th, 1907: Proposed by Mrs. Chas. Costerton and  seconded by Mrs. Troughton and carried—"That the Guild decides  to give the Altar for the new church instead of curtains, as proposed  at the last meeting."  April 29th, 1907—Resolved "that the carpet in the present  church be given for use in the Vestry."  176 May 17th, 1910—Resolved "that the Women's Guild be merged  with the Women's Auxiliary."  The first Baptism in this Second church—Harriet Elizabeth  Reynolds, the daughter of Francis S. Reynolds and Edith S. Reynolds.  The first Marriage—Amos Paivin Harper and Margaret Long-  mire, both of Enderby. Witnesses—Susannah Carew; Estelle Lucy  Fitzmaurice.  The following Gifts werepresented to the church—"to the Glory  of God":  Sanctuary Carpet—Mrs. Raymond.  Altar—All Saints' Guild.  Oak Stalls, Choir and Rector—Mr. Price Ellison.  Litany Desk, made from ancient oak from Winchester Cathedral  and Romsey Abbey—carved and presented by Mr. Catt of Lumby.  Processional Cross—Mr. H. Bull of Hereford, England.  Brass Alms Dish—Mr. Harold Lambert.  Church Bell—Old Timers of twenty-five years' standing. Dedicated May 2nd, 1909.  A handsome pair of Altar Lights"—Mr. A. Venables, in memory  of Mrs. Venables.  As in Apostolic Days, these Christians under their devoted leader, Rev. J. H. Lambert, "continued in the Apostles' doctrine, and in  fellowship, and in the breaking of bread and in the prayers." The  membership increased in numbers and devotion and in the worship  of the Lord in the beauty of holiness. He dearly loved his Church  and its Services, and with a great love of music which he instinctively instilled in the hearts and minds of choir and congregation,  he led his people nearer to their God.  On March 14th, 1909, he presented to his Bishop (Dr. Dart) a  Confirmation Class of 29 candidates for the ancient and sacred rite.  He conducted the Services on Sunday, March 21st, and then his heart  weakened and God called him "Home." He was born at Durham in  England and was 62 years of age. The Burial Service was read by  Rev. Thomas Greene and he was buried in the Coldstream Cemetery  on Sunday, March 28th.  Church Services from April to September, 1909, were conducted  by several Priests of the Church—Rev. F. V. Venables, Rev. D. E.  Johnstone, and Rev. J. H. Peabody. The new Rector, Rev. A. V. Despard, arrived for Sunday, Sept. 12th, and took charge of the Services  for that day.  In November, Rev. Owen Bulkley also arrived, but finding Mr.  Despard appointed as Rector and in residence, he went to Okanagan  177 Centre. On a Sunday in November, he remarks—"Twenty degrees  of frost, glorious weather but poor congregation," but on Nov. 28th,  he observes—"A record congregation—150 present and 28 communicants—let's hope it means a permanent improvement." On Epiphany, 1910, he writes—"Very poor congregation. Weather good.  People don't like Foreign Missions."  With the strengthening of spiritual stakes, the cords of spiritual  endeavour were lengthened. Services were held at Mr. Peter's house  at Okanagan Landing, at Trinity Valley, Lumby, White Valley, Lavington and Coldstream. A site for a Church at Lumby was offered  by Mr. Catt and sites for a Church at Coldstream were offered by  Mr. Stevens and also by Mr. Ricardo of Coldstream Ranch. On Oct.  18th, 1910, Rt. Rev. A. U. De Pencier on his first visit to this part of  his Diocese consecrated an additional portion of the Coldstream  Cemetery. In 1911, Mr. L. Stocks, Lay Reader, moved to Lumby and  took Services in Lumby and Lavington. Then in 1912, Rev. A. H.  Plummer, (Deacon) was given charge of Lumby, and when he was  priested in the same year, Lumby became a separate Parish. The  culmination of their prayers and labours was on Easter Day, 1913,  when their new Church of St. James was consecrated.  During the Incumbency of Rev. A. V. Despard, there were many  visitors at the Church Services but one of the most welcome was the  Rev. Canon Jocelyn Perkins, Sacrist of Westminster Abbey, who  preached at All Saints' Church on Oct. 2nd, 1910, and lectured on  "The Coronation" in the Vernon Opera House. Canon Perkins is still  Sacrist of the Abbey and had a very important part in Queen Elizabeth's Coronation. For years, he has been Secretary of the B.C. and  Yukon Church Aid Society.  In March, 1911, Rev. A. V. Despard resigned and on July 16th,  Rev. C. A. Seager became Rector and remained until June 30th, 1912.  He later became Principal of St. Mark's Theological College, Vancouver, B.C.; Provost of Trinity College, Toronto; Bishop of Ontario  and Archbishop of Huron. During his Rectorship at Vernon, the  Parish Hall was built and at the end of 1912, it was officially opened.  The Altar Reredos, presented to the Church by the newly organized  Chancel Guild, was placed in position for Christmas Day, 1912.  During the summer of 1912, Rev. T. G. A. Wright of Huron College, London, Ont., conducted the services. The succeeding Rector,  Rev. J. M. Comyn-Ching, began his ministry in Vernon on Sept. 1st,  1912, coming from a former incumbency at Dawson City in Yukon.  The stained-glass window, "The Crucifixion." in the Sanctuary,  was dedicated in January 1915, a gift from Mr. Raymond and Church  Pioneers in memory of Rev. J. H. Lambert. In September, the new  Pipe Organ was installed and dedicated and an organ recital was  178 given by Mr. J. E. Watson, Mus.Bac, the organist. This Organ was  built by the Karn Norris Organ Co. of Ontario at a cost of $2688, plus  $300 for the electric motor. It was a two-manual organ with 20  stops and 750 Pipes.  In October, a Branch of the Anglican Young People's Association  (A.Y.P.A.) was organized and through the years the young people  of the growing Parish have made a valuable contribution to the  spiritual and material expansion of the church community.  In December of the same year, a set of green hangings and  altar curtains were presented to the Parish along with a burse,  veil and stole. A set of green hangings had previously been given  by Mr. A. C. L. Madden.  A definite growth in Church life was manifested throughout  the whole Valley. Under the energetic leadership of Rev. H. A. Solly,  who had been appointed Organizing Secretary of the Diocese, the  following Parishes became self-supporting—Salmon Arm, Enderby,  Armstrong and Okanagan Centre.  In August, Rev. F. C. Heathcote, (Rector of All Saints' Church,  Winnipeg), succeeded Venerable Archdeacon Pentreath as Archdeacon of New Westminster.  Rev. E. W. Baxter was appointed Assistant-Priest in the Parish  and began his work on May 3rd, 1914—was married on July 2nd and  on Sept. 28th he left to become Vicar of Port Moody.  At the Synod held at Nelson, B.C., on Nov. 25th, 1914, The Very  Rev. A. J. Doull, Dean of Christ Church Cathedral, Victoria, B.C.,  was elected Bishop of the Diocese, Kootenay's first Bishop.  Then on August 4th, 1914, there came the Declaration of War,  and almost immediately the Valley was emptied of its men-folk  of military age. The Okanagan Valley had the highest percentage  of enlistment in Canada. Sunday after Sunday, the 30th Regiment,  B.C. Horse, attended the Morning Service as a unit.  The Rector was frequently assisted by the Bishop, Rev. A. C.  Mackie, Rev. D. Lintoff Taylor and many others.  At the end of October, 1915, Rev. J. M. Comyn-Ching resigned  and became Rector of Christ Church, Edmonton, Alta.  The Vestry Report for the year of 1915 contains the following  statistics—Baptisms 42; Confirmations 15; Marriages 28; Burials 10.  The Sunday School had a membership of 75 scholars and 10 teachers.  Open Offerings $1742.  Envelopes $1008.  The Church building was free from debt but there was a mortgage of $4500 on the Rectory.  179 During the interregnum which followed, the. Bishop of the Diocese most graciously took charge of the services, assisted by other  clergy. Rev. A. P. Laycock, who had been a devoted Missionary in  the Diocese of Caledonia was appointed Rector and was Instituted  and Inducted by the Bishop on August 6th, 1916.  His ministry will always be remembered in relation to the  Memorial Chapel on the north side of the nave of the church. He  himself was an accredited architect and he used this talent and  skill in planning and constructing a very beautiful place of worship  which breathes reverence and meditation. The work was a labour  of love. All was done by volunteer effort, largely by Mr. Laycock  assisted by Mr. Edwin Harris Sr., and Mr. A. L. C. Madden. What  a beautiful and fitting memorial to those who died that we might  live! It was commenced in Sept. 1917, and was formally dedicated  by the Bishop on Dec. 21st, 1917, St. Thomas' Day.  On Feb. 20th, 1918, the stained-glass Memorial Windows were  dedicated—  1. "Peace"—in memory of Lieut. E. D. Ashcroft and Lieut. L. E.  Ashcroft.  2. "Victory"—in memory of Lieut. E. S. Wilmot.  3. A brass Altar Desk—in memory of Lieut. F. F. McGowen.  These windows were presented by the parents of the Officers  named.  The Altar and Altar Frontal were the gift of Mr. and Mrs. Madden and Miss Dillon, in memory of the late Mr. Dillon.  The carpets were given by Mrs. Cools.  On Jan. 21st, 1919, stained-glass Memorial Windows were dedicated as follows—  1. "Justice"—in memory of Lieut. Frank Fernie McGowen.  2. "Conflict"—(St. George and the Dragon)—in memory of  Lieut. John Alexander.  The Lectern was given in memory of Lieut. A. H. Steedman.  The wall-panelling on the north wall was commenced on Feb.  5th, 1919, and the panelling on the south wall and to the Entrance  Lobby was done in December, 1919.  Much work was also done in the Church itself.  A new Prayer Book Desk of cedar was made for the sanctuary  and placed there in June, 1920, and an oak cover for the Font was  constructed.  The work for both of these was done by Mr. M. J. Wells of Vernon.  The woodwork for sides of steps at the West Porch was re-  180 ^^~~~^~^~~  newed and painted. During June and July, 1920, the whole of the  exterior dressed wood-work of the Church was painted, and in the  same month of July, a new electric lighting system was installed.  All of the above gifts, except the painting, were from Miss  Wilson of the Vernon Jubilee Hospital.  Many and varied are the "Notes" and "Remarks" in the Service  Registers at this time—  "April, 1919—All services cancelled on account of the epidemic  of influenza."  "Jan., 1920—An Organ Recital was given by Mr. H. De Beck."  "February, 1920—I inspected the bell and tightened up all bolts."  "April, 1920—The Regimental Colours of the 2nd C.M.R. were  deposited in the Church."  "April, 1920—Preacher—The Very Rev. C. S. Quainton, D.D., of  Victoria, B.C."  "Sept., 1921—Foundation Stone of St. Michael's School laid."  In July, 1920, Rev. E. P. Laycock resigned and accepted the position of Archdeacon of Columbia and later he returned to England.  For nearly 18 months—July 1920 to Jan. 1st, 1922—the Parish  was without a duly inducted Rector. The Bishop of the Diocese  again accepted the direction of the Church Services, assisted by  Rev. G. Larder, Rev. A. C. Mackie, Rev. J. A. Cleland, Rev. M. E. West,  Rev. C. H. Shortt, etc.  Rev. H. C. B. Gibson was Instituted and Inducted as Rector of  All Saints' on Jan. 1st, 1922, and remained as the faithful shepherd  until he resigned in March, 1948, thus completing 26 years of service. He came from the Parish of Swift Current, Saskatchewan, in  the Diocese of Qu'Appelle. From the very outset, the new Rector  displayed great ability in organizing the members of the Parish and  in stimulating willing and competent service for Christ and His  Church. In the work of the Parish, the Rector was assisted by two  kind and charming sisters, Miss Mab and Miss Susan. Their cheerful, humble and constant labours of love and devotion at all times  and in all places will long be remembered:  In 1926, a Parish Mission was conducted during March by Rev.  Canon W. Cooper of St. James' Church, Vancouver, B.C. The Services were well attended and a real deepening of spiritual life ensued.  The Missionary work of the Parish was extended in a very definite way by the establishment of a Chinese Mission under the direction of Rev. George Lim Yuen, who from time to time was of great  assistance to the Rector.  181 Two excellent Schools grew up within the Parish—The Vernon  Preparatory School for boys with Rev. A. C. Mackie as Principal, and  St. Michael's School for girls under Miss M. LeGallais. They were  always so welcome at the Church Services and received the ministrations of the Rector and also provided an education which rightly  included Religious Knowledge.  In February, 1927, the Altar Picture in the Chapel, painted and  presented to the Church by Miss W. Lloyd in memory of her brother  Frank, was dedicated.  Thus the Transplanted Tree continued to grow, its roots deepen  and its branches spread.  All Saints' Church, Second Church, Mara Avenue  182 CHAPTER V  1931  —  1948  The Tree Burns But Is Not Consumed  "Arbor Arderet, non Combureretur"  "Tuesday, Sept. 8th, was a fateful morning for us." Thus writes  Rev. H. C. B. Gibson, the Rector.  "At 5:45, the fire alarm was given.  An hour later, our beloved Church  was a mass of charred ruins. It  seemed like a mad dream as we  rushed to save all we could and the  gallant members of the Fire Brigade fought like heroes to check  the roaring and crackling flames.  We are thankful that the beautiful  Memorial Chapel and the Vestry  with all their contents, such as  the Communion Vessels and the  Church Records, are all safe and  unharmed. The fire was almost  certainly of incendiary origin for  six other fires occurred at the same  time under similar circumstances.  The Firemen worked hard to save  the valuable stained-glass windows. Those in the North and South positions are not beyond repair,  but the Crucifixion Window above the Altar, given in memory of  Rev. J. H. Lambert, Rector of the Church when it was built, is destroyed. The Regimental Colours and the King's Colours, personally  presented to the Church during the Great War, were destroyed.  Other donatons which were destroyed include the Bible from Dover  College; the entire lighting system given by Miss A. H. Wilson; the  Hassocks given by G. A. Hankey; the Rood Screen erected by the  Ladies' Guild; the Font installed by the children of the Parish; the  Flander's Cross from the officers and men of the 2nd C.M.R.; the  Altar Curtains donated by Mrs. A. T. Kirkpatrick; the Pulpit given  by the young men of the Parish; the wooden Cross from Romsey  Abbey presented by Mr. G. H. Catt. The Pipe Organ, paid for by  installments out of a fund which originated with the performance  REV. H. C B. GIBSON  183 of "The Country Girl" in 1908; the Choir Stalls, the gift of Hon. Price  Ellison; and the Litany Desk given by Mr. Catt were only partially  burned."  "Resurgam"  In 1666, St. Paul's Cathedral in Old London was destroyed in  the Great Fire. But Londoners at once began to build again, and on  the imposing southern pediment, high above the pavement, on a  great stone, Wren depicts the fabled Phoenix rising from the  flames with the motto "Resurgam." This was the symbol of the  spirit of the parishioners of All Saints' in 1931. The Tree burned but  was not consumed.  Thanks to the great kindness of the United Church, the congregation was granted the privilege of using the former Methodist  Church as a place of worship.  At a Parishioners' Meeting on Sept. 17th, 1931, it was decided to  rebuild immediately, and Mr. J. C. M. Keith, the architect of the Old  Church and also of Christ Church Cathedral, Victoria, B.C., was  chosen to be the architect of the new Church, Church Number  Three. "As a first step towards reconstruction, we pledge ourselves  anew to God and ask His Blessing on us all as a Parish."  The Foundation Stone of the New Church was well and truly  laid by the Bishop of the Diocese (Dr. A. J. Doull) on Friday, July  15th, 1932, with the following Clergymen also present—F. Greene  (Archdeacon), Rev. M. E. West, Rev. C. P. Percival, Rev. L. J. Tatham, Rev. H. Pearson, Rev. J. Brisco, Rev. Geo. Lim Yuen, Rev. A. C.  Mackie and the Rector.  The Church was dedicated and officially opened on Nov. 8th,  1932, by Rt. Rev. A. J. Doull.  The Consecration of the Church, free from all debt, took place  on Sunday, Nov. 3rd, 1940, Rt. Rev. W. R. Adams, the Bishop of the  Diocese, officiating—the Very Rev. Spencer Elliott, Dean of Christ  Church, Victoria, B.C., the special preacher. He said—"It is not only  this building that is consecrated; it is also yourselves. You are  the Church."  The brass Eagle Lectern was given in memory of Harold F.  Beattie by his widow and fellow-citizens and was dedicated Sept.  9th, 1934.  The Pipe Organ which was severely damaged in the fire was  repaired and restored by the Parish and by friends and relatives  in memory of Howard C. DeBeck (Organist 1912-1928), and A.  Waring Giles (Organist 1930-1935). Electric action was installed  through the benefaction of Miss A. T. Wilson, R.N. The work of  renovation and re-building was done by Mr. Chandos Dix of Vancouver (an English Organ Builder). A second pedal stop was added.  184 The Dedication of the Organ was conducted by the Bishop (Dr.  Adams) on Dec. 4th, 1936. Total cost of restoration $1500; total  value of the Organ, $4000.  The beautiful Font was made and presented to the Church by  Mr. John Ricketts.  The "Madonna Window" in the Chancel was presented by Mr.  R. Leckie-Ewing in memory of his wife, Eleanor Leckie-Ewing.  The total cost of the restoration of the Church as at December,  1932, was $29,174.91; received from Insurance Company $19,373.90,  and the balance was covered by donations, including £25 from the  S.P.G. of England.  Parish Gleanings  In 1933, Bishop Doull resigned and on Oct. 26th of the same year,  Rt. Rev. W. R. Adams of Cariboo was elected Second Bishop of  Kootenay.  On Feb. 16th, 1937, the congregation of All Saints' Church and  Churchmen and citizens from far and near gathered for the Funeral  Service of their First Bishop Rt. Rev A. J. Doull. The Archbishop of  New Westminster (Dr. A. V. DePencier), Bishop Adams and many  Clergymen were also present and took part in the Service.  "And there shall be no night there;  and they need no candle, neither light of the sun;  for the Lord God giveth them light;  and they shall reign forever and ever."  Sunday, Sept. 5th, 1939—Declaration of War. 11:00 a.m.—Matins. Preacher, Rt. Rev. A. H. Sovereign, Bishop of Athabasca.  The Bishop Doull Memorial Window in the Sanctuary—"Our  Lord in Glory"—was dedicated on Dec. 22nd, 1940. Thus the three  windows above the Altar are complete. The window was made by  Messrs. Heaton, Butler and Bayne of London, England.  On May 24th, 1941, the Flag Pole by the Church, made by Mr.  G. Reed, and presented by Mr. Craster, was placed in position and  the Union Jack, given by Mr. Joe Watkin, was hoisted.  Anglicans throughout the Diocese and especially in the Parish  of All Saints' rejoiced in 1942 when their Bishop (Dr. Adams) was  chosen Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Ecclesiastical Province  of British Columbia.  In 1943, a stained Prayer Desk for the use of the Assistant was  made by Mr. Smith, a retired carpenter and contractor, and presented to the Church.  185 Fire again caused damage to the Church in September, 1943.  The blaze, centred in the large Vestry, was quickly controlled, but  considerable damage was done to the floor and to the men's cassocks  and surplices. The insurance received covered all replacements and  repairs—$1200.  During the years 1944 and 1945, considerable repairs and renovations were made to the Parish buildings. Under the direction of  Mr. J. W. Smith, the roof of the Parish Hall was reshingled, the  stage removed and the wash-room enlarged.  A wash-room was also added to the Rectory, the kitchen renovated and the south side of the roof was shingled by Mr. J. W. Smith  at a cost of $500.  On Low Sunday, April 28th, 1946, the Honour Roll for War II  was unveiled and dedicated by Archbishop Adams.  "At the going down of the sun and in the morning we will  remember them."  Rev. James Dalton, who with his twin brother John, had been  ordained Deacon by Archbishop Adams on May 2nd, 1943, and appointed Assistant, left for work in Vancouver on Nov. 7th, 1946.  The Parish was host to the Synod of the Diocese in June 18th -  20th, 1946.  Mr. and Mrs. Roberts, caretakers since 1909, having given 37  years of faithful service to their Church, retired Sept., 1946, because  of ill-health.  During the war years, Sister Lois, S.S.J.D., served with prayerful  devotion as the Parish Social Worker and after three years returned  to Toronto. Her humble and loving life and influence will long be  remembered.  The Parish has always been blessed with earnest and dependable workers in its Associated Missions. One of these was Miss F. C.  Franckly who gave such unselfish and capable assistance to the  Sunday Schools at Lavington, Coldstream and Okanagan Landing,  gave up her tasks in July, 1947.  Effective Dec. 31st, 1947, Archbishop Adams resigned as Bishop  of Kootenay to become Bishop of Yukon.  For 26 years, Canon H. C. B. Gibson had served the Parish of  All Saints'—Dec. 1921 to March 1948—years of tremendous changes  and catastrophic events in Church and State. Much loved and deeply revered by young and old, he resigned to accept a less strenuous  work at Agassiz, B.C. "A devoted Minister and a faithful Steward."  Rev. K. E. L. Cushon, who had been Assistant to Canon Gibson  from Jan. 1st, 1948, was Priest-in-charge during the Interregnum.  186 CHAPTER VI  The Tree Today  The Diamond Jubilee Year, 1953  "Our fathers owned Thy goodness,  And we their deeds record;  And both of these bear witness,  One Church, one Faith, one Lord."  r\N SUNDAY, May 30th, 1948,  ^ Rev. Lorin A. C. Smith, B.A.,  B.D., arrived in the Parish in time  for the first official visit of Rt. Rev.  F. P. Clark, D.D., consecrated as the  Third Bishop of Kootenay on St.  George's Day, April 23rd. The new  Rector, who had come from Calgary, Alta., and who had been Western Field Secretary of the General  Board of Religious Education, had  been on duty in All Saints' Parish  during Holy Week and Easter, but  was unable to commence his ministry in the Parish until Sunday  evening, May 30th. His family arrived in July, his son David making  the journey from Calgary by  bicycle.  Rev. Grant E. Dale, who had  served at Fort Chipewyan on Lake  Athabasca in Northern Canada,  was   appointed   Assistant   in   July  1949, and served faithfully in the Parish until March 1950. He was  chosen Rector of the Parish of Princeton in the Diocese of New  Westminster.  During the summer of 1950, Mr. Brian Orvis of St. John's College, Winnipeg, and in 1951, Mr. Michael Saunders of King's College, Halifax, assisted the Rector.  In May, 1952, Rev. Desmond D. Holt, a graduate of the Anglican  Theological College in Vancouver, was ordained to the Priesthood  and was appointed Assistant at All Saints'.  REV. LORIN A. C. SMITH  187  _, Soon it became evident that it would be necessary to increase  and develop the accommodation in the Parish Hall and to modernize the whole building. Plans were drawn and the contract let for  the lengthening of the Hall, the erection of a new stage, provision  for a large room back of the stage and underneath a special Classroom for the Kindergarten Department of the Sunday School. A  Drawing Room with a fireplace was placed on the north side by the  A.Y.P.A., along with a spacious and convenient kitchen completely  equipped in a modern plan. A long, well-lighted corridor connects  the Hall with the Church, and two Classrooms and a Parish Office  and Rector's Study are accessible from the corridor. An adequate  and efficient furnace and heating system were installed which gives  warmth to Church, Chapel and Hall.  The total cost was approximately $30,000, covered by donations, a bank loan and "baby-bonds."  The Bishop of the Diocese (Dr. Clark) and a large gathering of  the parishioners were present at the Dedication on Saturday, April  21st, 1951. Thus a real forward step was taken in the life and  growth of the Parish life.  The year, 1953, the Diamond Jubilee Year, was remembered  throughout the twelve months. A special Anniversary Service was  held on Sunday. April 26th, the date nearest the opening of the  First Church on April 30th, 1893.  The Anniversary Banquet and Social Evening was held in the  Parish Hall on May 21st, 1953.  Approximately 300 sat down to a turkey dinner, prepared and  served under the convenership of Mrs. David F. B. Kinloch.  Tables were daintily appointed and flower centered.  Rev. L. A. C. Smith proposed the toast to Her Majesty the Queen.  One of the guests was Rev. G. A. Affleck, minister of Vernon United  Church. "Christian friends ... I bring you sincere wishes from  another congregation, and congratulations on your Diamond Jubilee. I congratulate you on the 60 years gone by. May God's richest  blessing rest on the years which are ahead," Mr. Affleck said.  Other guests included Most Rev. W. R. Adams; Right Rev. Frederick P. Clark, Anglican Bishop of Kootenay; Right Rev. A. H. Sovereign, retired Anglican Bishop of Athabasca, and Rev. Dudley Ritchie  of Sorrento, acting Bishop's Chaplain.  After dinner, Rev. Desmond D. Holt led the assembly into All  Saints' Church for a short service of thanksgiving conducted by the  Rector. Music for hymns was supplied by Mrs. Betty Johnston,  church organist; Mrs. Harland Fisher, 'cello, and Mrs. Mary Kolma-  tycki on the violin. The church was filled.  188 '  Archbishop Adams gave a brief address. A church, he said, was  a house of prayer; "here we ask many things for ourselves and  others"; it was a house of fellowship, where all dissension was put  away; "above all it had to be a house of power, where after resting  awhile, we go forth, strengthened and calm."  "I represent the church of the past. The past speaks for the  church of the present. What of the church of the future?" asked  the venerable archbishop.  "Everyone has that part to play; to make the church the centre  of all religious, corporate, private and community life," he declared.  The Bishop of Kootenay pronounced the benediction.  Upon returning to the parish hall, where tables had been cleared  and moved away and chairs arranged for speeches and entertainment, Mr. Smith drew the attention of the gathering to the "days  and weeks of organizing and preparation" put in by Mrs. Kinloch,  her committee and workers to prepare the dinner.  The rector read a telegram from his immediate predecessor,  Rev. Canon H. C. B. Gibson, of Agassiz, conveying his "heartiest  congratulations on your Diamond Jubilee."  "Mission work is the most important aspect of our church,"  said Mr. Smith, master of ceremonies for the program. "The W.A.  in particular carries the torch," he said, as Mrs. Smith assembled  the Junior Auxiliary members who sang "Once Again, Dear Lord, We  Pray." The Senior Choir sang Thomas Atwood's "Surely the Lord  is in This Place" and Psalm 150.  Rt. Rev. F. P. Clark who arrived only as dinner was concluding,  owing to a number of calls made in the North Okanagan en route  to Vernon from Vancouver, conveyed the congratulations of the  diocese.  The late Bishop A. J. Doull, and Archbishop Adams do not belong to the church of the past, but to the present; their influence  lives on . . . "Bless the 'now' of the years ago. Bless the 'now', which,  for the want of better words, we will call the future," interceded  Bishop Clark.  "The whole diocese is thrilled with what has been accomplished  in this parish of All Saints'," he added.  "The young bachelors came to church in those days," Mr. Smith  quoted Mrs. Sunderland as saying, adding that the church was the  centre of social, as well as religious life years ago.  All Saints' Church in its beginnings was part of the diocese of  New Westminster. It later became part of the Missionary district  of Kamloops, and the first service of which there was any record in  the church books was in 1884.  189 Mr. Smith said that life then and onward for many years was  geared to the horse and buggy days. "Life as such moved at the  pace of a horse and buggy . . . not at 60-70 miles per hour. It was  a symbol of leisureliness, not to be confused with idleness. There was  time to think; time to be friendly; time to pray and for churchgoing.  "Homes were solid. Families were together or at least within  reach. Into a totally different world a different ministry must fit  in this year of 1953.  "Years ago, people made their own entertainment. They had  to. There were no complex and difficult problems such as we face  today.  "We can re-capture, however, their loyalty and devotion and fit  it into the picture which is 1953," the rector said.  Mrs. Betty Johnston, Mrs. Harland Fisher and Mrs. Mary Kolma-  tycki played selections as a trio and A. E. Berry sang two songs.  A birthday cake was placed in the centre of the stage, surrounded by six tapers, each emblematic of a decade.  Mrs. Smith led Mrs. Violet Sunderland, Mrs. A. Rogers, Mrs. A.  H. Sovereign and Mrs. H. C. deBeck (representing the Price Ellison  family), Mrs. R. Fitzmaurice, whose father, the late Rev. J. H. Lambert, was a former rector, arriving here in 1900; and Maojr H. R.  Denison, whose late father, H. F. Denison, was a former church warden. These individuals lit the candles "in the name of all those who  lived, worked, sacrificed and died, from 60 years ago to this day,"  said Mr. Smith.  "Let us never forget or speak scornfully of the past. It is to the  present, what roots are to a tree. Remember, all the way the Lord  Thy God hath led thee," said Bishop Sovereign.  Turning to the present: "Our faith is in danger . . . Our church  faces a greater crisis than any since its formation. We are pulling  against the currents of a materialistic age," the speaker continued,  quoting, however in optimistic vein from Browning: "... The best is  yet to be."  "Let us not be self complacent ... all is not well with our  church."  "In some parts of Canada, unless we awake, the Church of England will be only a memory."  "Unless the church is missionary, it will wither and shrivel and  die.  "In Russia, churches are closed by platoons of soldiers.  "In Canada, they close our churches by staying away.  "Our great weakness is apathy and indifference."  190 ^^m  ■  May this day be a spring-board to greater adventure, deeper  devotion, a dynamic loyalty to Christ and His Church, ever increasing in generosity and sacrificial service. We have a glorious heritage!  May God help us to be faithful! We are the living stones of Christ's  temple!  We pay our debt to the past by making posterity indebted to us.  "Other men have laboured and ye have entered into their labours."  "Rise up, O men of God!  Your Church for you doth ivait;  Her strength unequal to the task;  Rise up and make her great!"  "Now he that planteth and he that watereth are one." 1 Cor. 3:8.  May God grant we may so faithfully labour that the Tree may  still grow in Vernon.  The Women of the Church  ALL SAINTS' CHURCH has throughout its history been greatly  -^- blessed by the services of faithful women. They have been organized in the Woman's Auxiliary, the Church Guild and the Chancel Guild. In the Choir and in the Sunday School, they have loyally given of their talents and time for the Church. Lack of records makes it impossible to write a complete record of their devotion and consecration but we will take a glimpse of some sessions of  the Church Guild in 1901. The following had paid their Fees or  opened their Mite Boxes—Mrs. Lambert, Mrs. Wilmot, Mrs. Burnyeat,  Mrs. Simms, Mrs. Gaw, Mrs. Cochrane, Mrs. Harris, Mrs. Dennison,  Mrs. Costerton, Mrs. Lefroy, Mrs. Carew, Mrs. Smith, Mrs. Thompson, Mrs. Greenhow, Mrs. Meyer, Mrs. Downes, Mrs. Davies, Mrs.  Henderson, Mrs. Ellworthy, Mrs. Vidler, Mrs. McClintock.  A Bazaar netted $197.60 and a Strawberry Social $53.70.  Good!  Money paid out—  Chinaman, cleaning Church  $    2.75  Towards purchase of land  150.00  Man cutting wood 50  A clock for Church      1.50  To Montreal for Candles       2.00  Flowers for Easter       4.00  Flowers for Christmas       4.00  1 Case Coal Oil       3.75  Broom for Church  50  Of each, it may be said—"She hath done what she could."  191 192 A Clerical Family  In this present day, when there is such a great need of trained  men for the sacred Ministry, the record of one Vernon family is  outstanding and most commendable—the Venables family. In the  earliest days, Mr. A. F. Venables was a Lay Reader and Vestryman  of All Saints' Church. His son entered the Ministry—Rev. Francis  Vernon Venables, and after serving in the North Okanagan went to  the Coast. His son, Rev. C. F. Venables, served at the Coast and is  now living in New Westminster. Another son of Mr. A. F. Venables,  Mr. Edmond P. Venables of Vernon, has served long and faithfully  as a Layman at All Saints', and his son, Rev. Arthur P. Venables, is  Vicar of St. James' Parish in the City of Edmonton. This is a laudable and inspiring record!  Based on information supplied by only 16 of the 28 Dioceses in  Canada, 132 new Clergy will be required in 1954; only 46 are in  sight, including all ordinands from Colleges and men from England.  Therefore in 1954, there will be a shortage of 86! How many will enlist from All Saints' Church, Vernon?  "Here am I, O Lord, send me."  Incumbents of All Saints' Church  1884-1887—Rev. A. Shildrick 1891-1900—Rev. I. W. Outerbridge  1900-1909—Rev. F. H. Lambert      1909-1911—Rev. A. V. Despard  1911-1912—Rev. C. A. Seager  1912-1915—Rev. F. M. Comyn-Ching  1916—Rev. F. Lin toff Taylor  1916-1920—Rev. E. P. Laycock  1920-1921—Services by Rt. Rev. A. J. Doull, and Nov. 192U to May  1921, Rev. J. A. Cleland.  1921-1948—Rev. H. C. B. Gibson.   Curates:  1943-'46—Rev. Jas. Dal-  ton. Christmas '47 to May '48—Rev. K. E. L. Cushon.  1948 to Sept. 1954—Rev. L. A. C. Smith  Sept. 1954 to Jan. 9, 1955—Rt. Rev. Bishop A. H. Sovereign, for three  months.  Jan. 1955—Rev. Canon Charles E. Reeve, present Rector of Church.  CURATES—July '49 to March '50: Rev. Grant E. Dale; May '52 to  April '54: Rev. Desmond D. Holt; May 9, '57-April 5, '59: Rev.  George Taylor; July '59-April 23, '61: Rev. Gavin M. Rumsey;  May '62-Sept. 15, '63: Rev. Fitzroy I. Richards; June 1, '64: Rev.  J. A. Grenhalgh. Rev. Grenhalgh was also on the staff of the  Vernon Preparatory School in the Coldstream. Aug. '67-Sept. 1,  '67: Rev. D. L. Malins (present incumbent).  193 Bishops of the Diocese  1. Rt. Rev. Acton W. Sillitoe. Consecrated at the Parish Church of  St. John the Evangelist, Croydon, by the Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Tait) on All Saints' Day, Nov. 1, 1879. Died at New  Westminster, B.C., on June 9, 1894, and buried in the Sapperton  Cemetery.  2. Rt. Rev. John Dart. Consecrated at St. Paul's Cathedral, London,  Eng., by the Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Benson) on June 29,  1895. Died at New Westminster, B.C., on April 15, 1910, and buried  in the Sapperton Cemetery.  3. Most Rev. Adam P. DePencier. Consecrated at St. Paul's Church,  Vancouver, B.C., by the Archbishop of Rupert's Land (Dr. Matheson)  on July 25, 1910.   Resigned 1940.   Died May 3, 1949.  4. Rt. Rev. Alexander J. Doull. First Bishop of Kootenay. Consecrated at Christ Church Cathedral, Victoria, B.C., by the Archbishop  of Rupert's Land (Dr. Matheson) on Feb. 24, 1915. Resigned 1933.  Died at Vernon and buried on Feb. 16, 1937.  5. Most Rev. Walter R. Adams. Second Bishop of Kootenay. Translated from the See of Cariboo to the See of Kootenay, Oct. 26,  1933. Resigned Dec. 31, 1947. Archbishop and Metropolitan, 1942.  6. Rt. Rev. F. Patrick Clark. Third Bishop of Kootenay. Consecrated  on April 23, 1948, by the Archbishop of Yukon (Dr. Adams). Till  his death in Dec. 1954.  7. Rt. Rev. Philip Rodger Beattie. Fourth Bishop of Kootenay, May,  1955. Died 1960.  8. Rt. Rev. William Robert Coleman. Fifth Bishop of Kootenay. Jan.  1961. Resigned Aug. 31, 1965.  9. Rt. Rev. Edward Walter Scott.  Jan. 25, 1966. Present incumbent.  Lumby  '"THE ANGLICANS first held services in Lumby in 1912. These  'ñ†* services were held in the Presbyterian Church (now the United  Church) by Rev. A. H. Plummer.  The Parish qf Lumby and District was separated from the Parish of Vernon by resolution of the Diocesan Executive in September  1912.  Rev. A. H. Plummer, who was Curate at All Saints', Vernon,  194 was appointed the first Incumbent. At that time, he was in Deacon's  Orders and on Sunday, Sept. 29th, 1912, was ordered to the Priesthood. The Parish included Lumby, Lavington, Trinity Valley, Rich-  lands, Shuswap, and Mabel Lake.  The Church of St. James the Less was consecrated on Easter  Day, March 23rd, 1913, by Rt. Rev. A. U. DePencier, Lord Bishop of  New Westminster and Kootenay. The Church Wardens at that time  were Mr. J. T. Bardolph and Mr. F. Hayward. The total cost of the  new Church was $1200.  The first Baptism in the new Church was on Easter Day, 1913—  Dorothy Muriel Napper, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. A. H. Napper, but  the first Baptism recorded in the Parish was conducted on November 3rd, 1912—Leslie Ernest Andrews, son of Mr. and Mrs. E. W.  Andrews.  The first Confirmation Service in the Church was in charge of  Bishop De Pencier on June 21st, 1914—Reginald Saunders, Donald  Saunders, Herbert Butters, Edward Powell, Andrew Powell, Fannie  Finlaison, Dorothy Finlaison, Florence Warner.  The first Wedding in the Parish—Charles Num and Fannie Nellie Wong Sing (both of Canton, China) on December 2nd, 1912. First  Wedding in the new Church—Andrew McNair Naismith and Elizabeth Jane Robinson, on July 29th, 1913.  The first Burial in the Parish—Edna May Peters, aged 8, Jan.  3rd, 1913; but the first Burial Service in the new Church was on  Sept. 5th, 1913—Peter Wright, trader aged 86.  Mr. S. V. Bailey took Mr. Hayward's place as Church Warden  and Mr. R. R. Saunders was appointed Lay Reader.  In the first year, 36 Church Families were registered, with 120  baptized persons; seven Baptisms and two Marriages. A Sunday  School was started with 25 pupils and two Teachers.  In Sept. 1926, the Parish of Lumby was united with the District  of Oyama and Rev. H. Pearson was placed in charge. The Wardens  at that time were Messrs. C. Morris and T. Gillian.  The Parish of Lumby has been blessed through the years with  faithful workers. We would mention the following among the many—  Mr. J. T. Bardolph, a tireless worker in the early days, the first  Warden and a very generous contributor to the Building Fund; Mr.  Herbert Butters, a member of the first Confirmation Class and a  Church Warden for several years in the early twenties. Miss L. M.  Wells was also one of the pioneer organizers of the Lumby Church  and gave so generously of her time, energy and money. Mrs. W. H.  Pierce was the regular Organist of the Church for 26 years prior to  her retirement in 1952. Nor can we forget Mrs. P. C. Inglis who was  in charge of the Sunday School for 20 years.  195 Interior of St. James Church, Lumby.  March 10, 1957, at a general parishioners meeting, it was agreed  to lease to the Association of Retarded Children, without charge, for  a period of five years, land at the rear of the church for a Retarded  School building. The former Women's Institute Hall was moved to  this site. It was also used by the church on Sundays for Sunday  school.  Shortly after the five years were up a new school for the Retarded Children was built in South Vernon and the Church bought  the former school building from the Association.  In 1962 an addition was built at the rear of the Main choir vestry  to link up with the school building. This new addition provided four  Sunday School classrooms and a junior choir room.  In July, 1956, the Rectory was completely renovated. The old  plaster and electrical wiring were replaced and new plumbing installed. Hardwood floors installed upstairs. It was also stuccoed outside. The plan of the building was not altered.  196 Membership List 197  Membership List Okanagan Historical Society  LIFE MEMBERS:  Atkinson, R. N., 551 Conklin Ave., Penticton  Bagnall, G. P., 3504 Barnard Avenue, Vernon  Cochrane, Mrs. H. E., 2006 28th Crescent, Vernon  Collett, H. C. S., Okanagan Mission  Dewdney, Mrs. W. R., 273 Scott Ave., Penticton  Goodfellow, Dr. J. C, Princeton  Manery, S. R., Cawston  Marriage, F. T., 424 Park Avenue, Kelowna  Ormsby, Dr. M., c/o University of B.C., Vancouver 8  Weeks, Capt. J. B., 614 Martin Street, Penticton  Whitham, J. Donald, Bluebird Road, Kelowna  HONORARY PATRON:  Patten, Mrs. Sophie, Armstrong  MEMBERS:  Adam, A. C, 1104 Kelview, Kelowna  Adams, C. R., Summerland  Adams, Mrs. C. R., Summerland  * Adams, C. J, R.R. 1, Enderby  Addy, David, R.R. 2, Kelowna  Agnew, Mrs. Earl, 126 Eckhardt Ave. E., Penticton  Aikins, Chief Justice John, Vancouver  Aitkens, O. St. P., 423 Christleton Ave., Kelowna  Akrigg, Mrs. P., 4633 W. 8th Ave., Vancouver 8  Anderson, Dr. W. F., 2302 Abbott St., Kelowna  Anderson, Mrs. J., 308 Lakeshore Drive, Penticton  Anderson, R. D., 839 Sutherland Ave., Kelowna  Andrew, G. M., 769 E. 25th Ave., Vancouver 10  Apsey, J. E., Box 44, Okanagan Mission  Apsey, N. T., R.R. 4, Kelowna  Argue, Mrs. J. H., Box 8, Oliver  Arnold, Arthur M., R.R. 1, Winfield  Arnold, G. N., R.R. 1, Winfield  Arnold, J. W., R.R. 3, Kelowna  Arnold, N. J., R.R. 1, Winfield  August, H. C, 409 Glenwood Ave., Kelowna  Bach, Paul, Box 36, Rutland  Bagnall, G. C, 10,951 S. Hermosa Ave., Chicago 43, Illinois, U.S.A.  Bailey, E. C, 207 Conklin Ave., Penticton  Bakke, Mrs. B., 2109 Pandosy Street, Kelowna  Balfour, Mrs. H., Hall Road, R.R. 3, Kelowna  *Ball, Mrs. A. H., 1804 43rd Ave., Vernon  Balsillie, Donald, Mayne Island  Barclay, W. P., R.R. 4, Kelowna  Barlee, Mrs. E. E., Okanagan Mission  Barnes, Mrs. J. W., No. 206 - 2015 Haro St., Vancouver 5  Bartier, B. A., R.R. 2, Kelowna  Barber, Ray, 1969 Knox Crescent, Kelowna  Barkwill, H. J., Summerland  Beairsto, David, R.R. 2, Vernon  Beattie, Steuart, Vancouver  Beaven, Mrs. N., R.R. 2, Vernon  Belli-Bivar, Mrs. Ethel, Box 45, Salmon Arm  Bennett, Mrs. Vera, 471 Winnipeg St., Penticton 198 Membership List  Bennett, Mrs. Lois, R.R. 1, Westbank  Bernau, Mrs. H., Okanagan Centre  Berner, Mrs. A., 3502 20th St., Vernon  Bernhardt, Charles, Box 226, Summerland  Berry, Mrs. A. E., 3502 19th St., Vernon  Berryman, G. F., R.R. 1, Penticton  Billard, Mrs. V. M., Okanagan Landing  Bingham, Mrs. Lucy, R.R. 1, Summerland  Bingley, Mrs. A., R.R. 2, Vernon  Bird, Clem, Kaleden  Bird, Mrs. E., Box 53, Armstrong  Black, Dr. D. M., 3530 Lakeshore Road, Kelowna  Black, Fraser, 374 Park Ave., Kelowna  Blair, Mrs. J., 551 Patterson Ave., Kelowna  Boothe, Miss B., 666 Haywood St., Penticton  Bowes, Mrs. G. E., 4120 Quesnel Drive, Vancouver 8  Boyd, Malcolm, 512 Memorial Drive, N.W., Calgary, Alta.  Brandt, Mrs. C, R.R. 3, Vernon  Briggs, Mrs. Florence, Lewis Creek  Bristow, Mrs. C. A., 3004 18th St., Vernon  Broderick, Mrs. G., 1825 Fairford Drive, Penticton  Brown, Mrs. J. H., Summerland  Brown, J. W., 750 Duncan Ave., Penticton  Brown, R. W., 1832 Maple St., Kelowna  Brummet, F. N., R.R. 1, Kelowna  Brunette, M., 4390 Locarno Cresc, Kelowna  Buckland, C. D., R.R. 2, Kelowna  Buckland, D. S., Okanagan Mission  Buckland, J. H., 567 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  Bull, Frank, 169 Grandview St., Penticton  Bullock, Mrs. Fred, Box 215, Grand Centre, Alta.  Burgess, J., 540 Papineau St., Penticton  Burns, J. M., R.R. 4, Kelowna  Burridge, Mrs. S. W., Box 394, Revelstoke  Cail, Mrs. E., Armstrong  Cail, Mrs. R., 2901 23rd St., Vernon  Caldwell, Mrs. A. B., R.R., Summerland  Caley, Hugh, 1391 Evelyn St., North Vancouver  Cameron, G. D., Box 86, Kelowna  Campbell, Mrs. Dorothy, 3204 33rd Ave., Vernon  Campbell, Mrs. Ida, 3306 25th St., Vernon  Campbell, J. F., 1947 Abbott St., Kelowna  *Campbell, Miss Muriel, 437 St. Paul St., Kamloops  Campbell-Brown, Dr. H., Okanagan Landing  Cannings, S., R.R. 1, West Bench  Cantell, L. E., Lakeshore Rd., R.R. 4, Kelowna  Carlson, Mrs. Phyllis, R.R. 2, Oliver  Carmichael, Donald, 1523 Cedar Ave., Nelson  Carney, Dr. J. J., 3531 West 33rd, Vancouver 13  Carney, T. J., Box 222, R.R. 2, Kelowna  Carruthers, Dr. E. P., 1847 Maple Ave., Kelowna  Carruthers, W. H., 3010 Glencoe Road S.W., Calgary, Alta.  Carruthers, W. R., 3162 Watt Road, Kelowna  Carter, C. J., Box 141, Vernon  Casorso, A. R., R.R. 4, Kelowna  Cawston, A. H., Cawston  Chambers, E. J., Box 195, Naramata Rd., Penticton  Charlton, O. F., Box 387, Rutland  Chesterton, Mrs. G., 1150 McCleave Ave., Penticton  Christensen, Mrs. L., 3704 32nd St., Vernon Membership List    199  Christie, J. R., Okanagan Falls  Clark, Mrs. Dorothy, Keremeos  Clark, Dr. D. A., 1953 McDougal, Kelowna  Clark, Mrs. T. B. M., 170 Mack St., Parksville  Clarke, J. Ken, R.R. 1, Kelowna  Cleland, E. H., Box 134, Penticton  Clements, W. E., 1919 Pandosy St., Kelowna  Clough, Mrs. W. G., Naramata  Clyne, Mrs. A. H., 910 Lawrence Ave., Kelowna  *Cochrane, Harold, 2006 28th Crescent, Vernon  Collins, Sydney, R.R. 2, Vernon  Collis, M., R.R. 2, Armstrong  Colter, Russell, Box 233, Armstrong  Comer, Miss C. R., Box 424, Kelowna  Conroy, J. J., 2259 Aberdeen St., Kelowna  Constable, F. L., 2267 Aberdeen St., Kelowna  Cooper, Miss B., R.R. 3, Kelowna  Corkle, Mrs. B., Keremeos  Corner, R. W., 1650 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  Costerton, Mrs. M. F., R.R. 4, Vernon  Cotton, A. B., 3514 Calumet Ave., Victoria  Craig, Mrs. L., R.R. 4, Kelowna  Craig, Mrs. Jack, R.R. 1, Osoyoos  Crane, David, 1367 Bing Ave., Kelowna  Craze, W. H., 1485 Ellis St., Kelowna  Cretin, H. W., 945 Borden Ave., Kelowna  Crooker, Fred, Keremeos  Crozier, Mrs. I., 3902 29th Ave., Vernon  Dain, C. H. R., R.R. 1, Westbank  Davis, I. T., Okanagan Lake, Vernon  Davidson, A., Westbank  Davison, J., Box 562, Enderby  Davidson, Mrs. J., R.R. 1, Westbank  Day, Mrs. Frank, Richter St., Kelowna  Day, G., R.R. 3, Kelowna  *Day, Mrs. D. M., 144 Battle St., Kamloops  Deering, A. J., Falkland  DeHart, F. G., 2668 Abbott St., Kelowna  DeHart, N. E., No. 306, 1880 Pandosy St., Kelowna  DeHart, V. T., Okanagan Mission  Dell, Mrs. Lexye, Peachland  DeMara, R. C, Skyline Rd., R.R. 1, Westbank  Denison, Eric, Winnipeg, Man.  Denison, Mrs. N. H., 2600 26th St., Vernon  Denny, Miss J., R.R. 4, Kelowna  Deschamps, F., 3004 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Dewdney, Edgar, 1223 Woodlands Place, Penticton  Docksteader, E. S., R.R. 3, Armstrong  Doerflinger, Mrs. E., Grindrod  Dooley, Lyman, R.R. 1, Westbank  Downer, Fred, 3407 Schubert Ave., Vernon  Doyle, Most Rev. W. E., 813 Ward St., Nelson  Drake, A. F. G., Box 21, Okanagan Mission  Duggan, Mrs. T. D. O., R.R. 1, Winfield  Dunlop, Mrs. H. C, Okanagan Mission  Dunn, George, 2024 Pandosy St., Kelowna  Dunsdon, P. S., Box 325, Summerland  Ede, Howard, 814 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  Elk, C, 2311 Pandosy St., Kelowna 200 Membership List  Elliot, D. F., Oyama  Elliott, G. Alan, R.R. 1, Kelowna  Ellison, K. V., Oyama  Embrey, W., Box 67, Kelowna  Esselmont, Mrs. D. G., 3190 Rutledge St., Victoria  Estabrooks, 0. L., 796 Martin St., Penticton  Evans, Harry, 3811 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Evans, Mrs. Olive, 347 Green Ave., Penticton  Farrow, B., Kelowna  Faulkner, R. E., 495 Tennis St., Penticton  Fead, Mrs. A., 702 Duncan Ave., Penticton  Fearnley, Mrs. A., Box 133, Westbank  Ferguson, Mrs. M., Peachland  Fewell, Mrs. A., R.R. 1, Westbank  Fillmore, D. C, 216 Poplar Pt. Rd., Kelowna  Finnerty, Mrs. M. P., 855 Ross Ave., Penticton  Fisher, Mrs. D. V., R.R. 1, Summerland  Fitzgerald, Mrs. G., R.R. 3, Kelowna  *Flack, A. H., 4305 Mackay Ave., Minneapolis, Minn.  Fleming, Stuart, 2001 Schubert Ave., Vernon  Foote, R. J., 809 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  Forsyth, Mrs. Nancy, Box 722, Oliver  Forster, Mrs. B. M., R.R. 1, Summerland  Foot, E. J., East Kelowna  Francis, Mrs. Blaine, Box 67, Oliver  Fraser, D. P., Osoyoos  Fraser, Major H. N., 1002 Forestbrook Dr., Penticton  Fraser, R. A., 722 Lawson Ave., Kelowna  French, Basil, 13 Massey Place, Calgary 9, Alta.  French, Mrs. W., R.R. 2, Vernon  Furber, Mrs. Beatrice, 2075 Nelson St., Vancouver  Gabriel, Mrs. Louise, Penticton  Gammer, Mrs. M., 3923 Lakeside Drive, Penticton  Gaven, Mrs. G., 3605 16th St., Vernon  Gawne, Mrs. J., Naramata  Gayton, A. R., Penticton  Geen, P. A., R.R. 5, Kelowna  Gemmell, Mrs. Lorraine, Cawston  Gemmill, J. D., 2110 Abbott St., Kelowna  Gibbard, L. A., 465 Ellis St., Penticton  Gilbert, Mrs. F., 820 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  Gillespie, W. J., Chilliwack  Gladman, Mrs. G. G., 441 Desnorpe Ave., St. Paul, Minn.  Glenn, Mrs. H, 1435 Ethel St., Kelowna  Godwin, E. H., 459¬ßfW. 15th Ave., Vancouver  ^-HTf/f *  Godwin, W. L., 380 Wade Ave. E., Penticton  Goldie, James, Okanagan Centre  Goodman, F. L., Osoyoos  Gore, Mrs. F., 1403 Bankhead Cresc, Kelowna  Graham, J. S., Oyama  Gray, A. W., Box 274, Rutland  Gray, Mrs. B., 1705 29th St., Vernon  Greening, Bennett, R.R. 4, Kelowna  Greening, Mrs. Margaret, R.R. 4, Kelowna  Greening, W. H., No. 32, 2751 West King Edward Ave., Vancouver  Greensill, A. H., 1104 Pacific, Kelowna  Gregory, Mrs. H. W., Box 308, Armstrong  Greyell, C, 226 Windsor Ave., Penticton  Grierson, Mrs. M., 2650 Abbott St., Kelowna .  Membership List 201  *Hall, J., RR. 1, Halfmoon Bay  Hall, R. H., Okanagan Mission  Hall, R. 0'Äû Box 127, Okanagan Falls  Hallam, Mrs. Clara, Falkland  Hamilton, W. D., R.R. 4, Vernon  Hanson, P., 3903 29th St., Vernon  Harper, Mrs. W., 7312 Roseberry Ave., Huntington Park, Calif.  Harris, F. R., Beachcomber Bay, R.R. 4, Vernon  Harris, J. G., R.R. 2, Penticton  Harris, J. T. A., 2801 17th Ave., Vernon  Hartman, J., R.R. 5, Kelowna  Harvey, R., Box 89, Okanagan Falls  Harwood, Fred, 3102 41st Ave., Vernon  Hassard, W. A., 3302 17th Ave., Vernon  Hassen, Mat S., Box 10, Armstrong  Hatfield, H. R., 689 Vancouver Ave., Penticton  Hauser, Jacque, Box 825, Seahurst, Wash.  Hayes, D. L., 513 Lawrence Ave., Kelowna  Hayes, Mrs. Harry, R.R. 3, Armstrong  Hayes, Leo, 1019 Joan Crescent, Victoria  Hayes, Mrs. S. W., Morva, St. Just Lane, near Truro Cornwall  Henderson, Eric A., 815 Linden Ave., Victoria  Herbert, Mrs. G. D., 1684 Ethel St., Kelowna  Hereron, Miss F., 1831 Ethel St., Kelowna  Herrick, G. W., R.R. 1, Penticton  Heuckendorff, H. R., R.R. 1, Summerland  Hobson, David, Hobson Road, R.R. 4, Kelowna  Hobson, Mrs. H. R., Hobson Road, R.R. 4, Kelowna  Hope, Henry, Armstrong  Hopkins, E. A., Box 685, Oliver  House, Mrs. H. C, 634 Latimer St., Penticton  Howard, C, 2nd Ave. E., Oliver  Howrie, David, 2507 37th Ave., Vernon  *Hudson, J. S., 1960 Robson St., Vancouver 5  Hugh, Fabian, Box 730, Cloverdale  Hume, Mrs. Lorna, 4418 Pattedale Dr., North Vancouver  Hunter, E. B., Airport Road, Vernon  Hunter, Floyd, Armstrong  Hunter, Ivan A., Box 39, Oliver  Hunter, James, Box 731, Oliver  Hunter, Mrs. J. L., 3316 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Husband, C. W., R.R. 2, Vernon  Irwin, Mrs. Ronald, R.R. 4, Kelowna  Iverson, Robert, R.R. 2, Oliver  Jackson, O., R.R. 3, Kelowna  Jamieson, Jim, Box 130, Armstrong  Jellett, Mrs. E. M., Radant Road, R.R. 4, Kelowna  Jessop, M. M., 1372 Lombardy Square, Kelowna  Johns, Miss N. E., R.R. 4, Kelowna  Johnston, B. W., 1777 Water St., Kelowna  Johnson, E. C, 490 Glenwood Ave., Kelowna  Johnston, Mrs. L. T., Box 814, Drayton Valley, Alta.  Jordon, Mrs. Mabel E., 1126 6th Ave. S.W., Calgary, Alta.  *Kabella, S., Lakeshore Road, R.R. 4, Kelowna  Kayes, Mrs. Margaret, Greenwood  Keating, H. K., Lakeshore Rd., R.R. 4, Kelowna  Kennedy, Mrs. F. V., R.R. 1, Tappen  Kerry, L., 2188 Abbott St.. Kelowna 202 Membership List  Kidston, J. R., 3900 Pleasant Valley Rd., Vernon  Knowles, C. W., 2641 Abbott St., Kelowna  Laidlaw, J. R., 297 Cambie St., Penticton  LaLonde, Mrs. L. K., R.R. 2, Vernon  Lambert, Jack, Cawston  Lambert, Mrs. Laura L., Keremeos  Land, Mrs. S. J., Okanagan Centre  Landon, J., R.R. 2, Armstrong  Lane, J. D., 1867 Princes St., Kelowna  Langridge, J. T., 1051 Fairview Road, Penticton  Lantz, L. A., 3403 Mara St., Vernon  Large, Hugh, 3941 West 20th Ave., Vancouver  Large, Miss M., 2440 Heather St., Vancouver  Large, Mrs. R., 3600 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Laurel Co-op Union, 1307 Ellis St., Kelowna  Lawrence, G., Keremeos  Lea, George, 1345 Gordon Ave., West Vancouver  LeDuc, Mrs. C, Box 464, Armstrong  Lee, Howe Y., 5020 Venables St., Vancouver  Legg, Mrs. P. G., Box 751, Vernon  Legge, F. L., c/o Restholm, Vernon  Leir, H. M., England  Leuze, Mrs. W., 1266 Albatross St., Kitimat  Lilburn, G. F., 3114 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Lindsay, Mrs. W. G., Box 46, Okanagan Falls  Logan, Harry, Box 13, Princeton  Louttit, Mrs. G., R.R. 2, Armstrong  Loyd, A. K., Kelowna  Loyd, N. K., Kelowna  Mack, William, 2155 Aberdeen St., Kelowna  Macorquodale, Mrs. D. F., 81 Highfield Ave., Montreal 16, P.Q.  Maddocks, R. C, Castlegar  Manning, Miss Ruth, 640 Coronation Ave., Kelowna  Mallet-Paret, Mrs. J., Lakeshore Road, R.R. 4, Kelowna  Marshall, E. C, R.R. 1, Kelowna  Martin, Mrs. Ray W., No. 311 - 445 Buckland Ave., Kelowna  Martin, Russel, R.R. 4, Kelowna  Martin, Mrs. S. J., R.R. 4, Vernon  Martin, W. A., 3305 20th St., Vernon  Meldrum, Mrs. Ida, Keremeos  Melville, T. C, 1912 Pandosy St., Kelowna  Mickleborough, George, No. 701 - 6060 Balsam St., Vancouver  Middleton, W. D., The Paddock, Okanagan Centre  Middleton, Wm., 1905 Schubert Ave., Vernon  Miller, Lloyd A., R.R. 1, Summerland  Miller, Rev. A., 1330 Church St., Penticton  Mills, Mrs. Monica, R.R. 2, Armstrong  Mitchell, Harold, Naramata  Moffatt, Miss Alice, Lakeshore Rd., R.R. 4, Kelowna  Mohr, Mrs. Minnie, 2506 36th Ave., Vernon  Monford, Mrs. E. B., Rutland  Monford, Miss Zella, Box 348, Rutland  Moore, E., 501 Municipal Ave., Penticton  Morgan, Mrs. Anita, R.R. 1, Summerland  Morgan, F. J., 332 Eckhardt Ave. W., Penticton  Morgan, Mrs. H. G., Okanagan Mission  Morrison, J. T., c/o Sun Auto Parts, Vernon  Mortimer, Fred, R.R. 1, Westbank  Moss, Mrs. A., 2500 Abbott St., Kelowna  Moubray, P. R., R.R. 1, Kelowna Membership List 203  Munn, Dr. W. H. B., R.R. 1, Summerland  Munro, F., 1701 Fairford Drive, Penticton  Munro, W., 1701 Fairford Drive, Penticton  McAllister, James, R.R. 2, Vernon  McAstocker, Mrs. Ivy, 455 Yorkton Ave., Penticton  McClure, Mrs. H. R., Eldorado Rd., R.R. 4, Kelowna  McCluskey, Morgan, 3302 20th St., Vernon  McCreery, Mrs. Hazel, c/o Georgia Hotel, Vancouver  McCreery, Joe, 318 E. 20th St., North Vancouver  McCulloch, Mrs. E., 1939 Abbott St., Kelowna  McCulloch, F., 1382 St. Paul St., Kelowna  McCulloch, Mrs. Vera, 1500 39th Ave., Vernon  MacDonald, D., 342 Walden Crescent, Penticton  McDonald, Frank, 168 Naramata Road, Penticton  McDougall, R. J., 1407 W. 59th Ave., Vancouver  McDougall, Mrs., 1435 Ethel St., Kelowna  MacFarlane, J. N., 1670 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  MacFarlane, Mrs. J. N, 1670 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  McGie, Ross, R.R. 2, Armstrong  MacGillivray, W., Box 369, Nakusp  McGuire, Major M. V., R.R. 2, Vernon  Maclnnis, D. W., McLeod Lake  McKee, R, Lakeshore Road, R.R. 4, Kelowna  McKenzie, Alan, Summerland  MacKenzie, D. O., 2652 Wesley Place, Victoria  McLellan, Mrs. T. H., 457 Patterson Ave., Kelowna  McLennan, Mrs. E. M., Box 158, Oliver  MacLeod, E. L., 3805 27th Ave., Vernon  MacNeill, H. G., Peachland  McNeill, Mrs. Vera, Abbotsford  McQuillin, Mrs. S. A., R.R. 4, Kelowna  Nameth, Andy, Keremeos  Naylor, Miss E. E., No.. 202 - 999 Heywood, Victoria  Neave, J. L., Box 186, Kelowna  Neave, Mrs. M. C, Box 224, R.R. 2, Kelowna  Needham, Mrs. J. H., R.R. 4, Kelowna  Needham, L., 11263 17th Ave., R.R. 1, Haney  Neid, J. J., East Kelowna  Neid, L. A., R.R. 3, Kelowna  Neil, R. R., R.R. 4, Vernon  Neil, W. R., R.R. 2, Vernon  Nelson, R. P., 2601 26th St., Vernon  Netherton, Dr. F. J., 437 Martin St., Penticton  Niblock, Cpl., R.C.M.P., MacKenzie, B.C.  Nichols, H. H., R.R. 3, Kelowna  Nivens, Arthur, 3502 31st St., Vernon  Norris, Justice T. G., 800 W. Georgia St., Vancouver  Nuttall, Mrs. G. A., Naramata  Ohlhauser, Miss M., R.R. 2, Vernon  Ormsby, Dr. H. L., 51 Glen View Ave., Toronto  Orr, Mrs. Donald, R.R. 1, Summerland  Osborn, C. D., Coldstream Ranch, Vernon  Overton, Cyril, Box 550, Oliver  Painter, A. F., Okanagan Mission  Painter, Mrs. E. P., R.R. 2, Campbell River  Parson, M., Box 372, Vernon  Parsons, Mrs. Alberta, Keremeos 204 Membership List  Patten, Mrs. C. J., Armstrong  Paterson, H. M., 6162 Granville St., Vancouver  Patterson, Mrs. A. L., Buckland Apts., Kelowna  Patterson, Mrs. L., Belvedere Apts., Kelowna  Pearson, Miss C. S., Scenic Valley, Penticton  Pells, F. J., 2175 Jefferson Ave., West Vancouver  Perron, Mrs. G. M., 629 Birch Ave., Kelowna  Perry, Miss F., 933 Harvey Ave., Kelowna  Peterman, A. N, Box 193, Oliver  Pettigrew, Mrs. J., 1961 Abbott St., Kelowna  Pettman, H. A., R.R. 4, Kelowna  Phillips, M. J. E., Box 773, Summerland  Phillips, W. M., 2602 24th Ave., Vernon  Philpott, Gordon, 1211 Ethel St., Kelowna  Piddocke, J. L., Anderson Road, R.R. 2, Kelowna  Postill, Miss Edith A., 3307 15th St. S.W., Calgary, Alta.  Pow, Bernard, R.R. 3, Vernon  Powley, H. M., 1905 Carruthers St., Kelowna  Powley, W. R., R.R. 1, Winfield  Pound, Rev. A. C, 2407A Bellview, West Vancouver  Price, H. A., 3040 Beil Ave., Calgary 44  Price, Stanley, R.R. 3, Armstrong  Price, Ted, 2804 35th St., Vernon  Pritchard, Mrs. A. B. C, 932 Borden, Kelowna  Prosser, R. D., 1675 Pandosy St., Kelowna  Quigley, W., R.R. 5, Kelowna  Randall, R, 9560 5th St., Sidney  Reid, Miss E., 614 Martin St., Penticton  Reid, G. R., R.R. 3, Kelowna  Reid, R., R.R. 2, Armstrong  Reid, Mrs. W. H., DeHart Rd., R.R. 4, Kelowna  Reith, Miss H. W., 4242 Winnipeg St., Penticton  Renfrew, Mrs. C, Okanagan Mission  Renwick, H. A., 1445 Marpole Ave., Vancouver 9  Renwick, Miss M. I., 987 Lawrence Ave., Kelowna  Ritch, J., 962 Laurier Ave., Kelowna  Ritchie, Mrs. R., 545 Burne Ave., Kelowna  Ritchie, W. H., R.R. 1, Cawston  Ritchie, W. R., Cawston  Roadhouse, L., 3142 Watt Road, Kelowna  Robey, Ronald, 1805 39th Ave., Vernon  Rorke, H. O., 624 Young St., Penticton  Ross, Mrs. D. H., 2103 25th Ave., Vernon  Roylance, M., Greenwood  Ruhmann, William, 371 S. Irving St., Coquille, Oregon, 97423  Rutherford, Mrs. R. G., 1861 Bowes St., Kelowna  Sanson, A. J., Box 282, Sicamous  Schubert, G. C, R.R. 1, Penticton  Seath, Miss Irene, Okanagan Centre  Seath, R., 1934 McDougall St., Kelowna  Seon, Mrs. G. E., Hornby Island  Serra, Johnny, Box 272, Armstrong  *Sexsmith, Mrs. D., 880 Manhattan Drive, Kelowna  Seymour, S. P., R.R. 2, Vernon  Shaw, John D., R.R. 1, Penticton  Shaw, Mrs. E., Penticton  Sherlock, Eric, Okanagan Mission  Sigalet, Mrs. W. A., 3701 36A St., Vernon Membership List 205  Simard, Joe, 2663 Gore Ave., Kelowna  Simkins, Mrs. Cecil, Paret Rd., R.R. 4, Kelowna  Simmons, Mrs. M., R.R. 2, Oliver  Simpson, N. V., R.R. 1, Oliver  Simpson, R. M., 2010 Keller Place, Kelowna  Simpson, Mrs. S. M., 2496 Abbott St., Kelowna  Sismey, E. D., 1348 Government St., Penticton  Skermer, Mrs. Helen, 273 Douglas Ave., Penticton  Smith, Mrs. Arthur, Victoria  Smith, Mrs. A. J., No. 308 - 1764 Oak Bay Ave., Victoria  Smith, Mrs. A. M., R.R. 2, Vernon  Smith, Mrs. C. L., 295 N. Ogilvie St., Prince George  Smith, G. S., Summerland  Smith, John A., 3308 35th Ave., Vernon  Snow, Mrs. C. B., Summerland  Snowsell, Mrs. B. J., Glenmore  Solly, I. H., c/o Bank of Montreal, Esquimalt  Solmer, T. L., R.R. 3, Kelowna  Spence, Mrs. Stanley, Cawston  Stafford, H., R.R. 1, Westbank  Stephens, L. R., 353 Boyce Crescent, Kelowna  Steuart, C, R.R. 3, Kelowna  Steuart, Francis, R.R. 1, Summerland  Stewart, John, McCulloch Road, Kelowna  Stevens, E. P., No. 15 -1292 Lawrence Ave., Kelowna  Stevenson, C. D., Williams Lake  Stevenson, Mrs. C. D., Williams Lake  Stickland, Mrs. E. C, Box 429, Enderby  Stirling, R., 3598 Lakeshore Road, Kelowna  Stocks, A. M. B., 282 Conklin Ave., Penticton  Stocks, R. B., 1040 Government St., Victoria  Stoneberg, Mrs. Margaret, Princeton  Strong, Mrs. Dwain, Cawston  Stubbs, A. H, Box 27, Okanagan Mission  Stubbs, R. A., 2802 24th St., Vernon  Stubbs, R. D., Box 27, Okanagan Mission  Suggitt, L. G., 634 Latimer St., Penticton  Sutherland, J. J., Enderby  Swales, Mrs. J., Kaleden  Sylvester, G., Maillardville  Tait, Mrs. D., Summerland  Tanner, Mrs. M., Box 172, Okanagan Falls  Tassie, G. C, R.R. 2, Vernon  Thorburn, H. J., R.R. 3, Vernon  Thorlakson, S., Oyama  Thorneloe, F. Jr., East Kelowna  Tilton, R. M., Box 147, Peachland  Titchmarsh, E. A, 755 Walden Crescent, Penticton  Todd, Mrs. F., 1475 Bertram St., Kelowna  Toombs, Mrs. K. M., 2288 Aberdeen St., Kelowna  Topham, P., Peachland  Tozer, G., 1627 Abbott St., Kelowna  Tozer, W. R., 390 Royal Ave., Kelowna  Treadgold, Mrs. A., 1907 Abbott St., Kelowna  Truswell, H. A., Box 272, Okanagan Mission  Tulloch, Mrs. F., 2203 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Turnbull, Mrs. A. D., 3614 Cadboro Bay Road, Victoria  Turner, R. G., Box 15, Hedley  Tutt, C. H, Box 186, Trail  Tutt, Mrs. D., R.R. 1, Kelowna 206 Membership List  Upton, Mrs. T. B., Box 1, Okanagan Mission  Van Ackeren, H. J., 1919 Pandosy St., Kelowna  Wainwright, A. S., Cawston  *Wakley, S. M., 3494 St. George's Ave., North Vancouver  Walburn, H. G., Box 55, Okanagan Centre  Waldron, E., 1461 Hitchwood, Kelowna  Walker, Harvie L., 2055 W. 15th Ave., Vancouver  Walker, Mrs. W. D., Okanagan Mission  Walker, Mrs. W. E., 424 Orchard Ave., Penticton  Walters, Mrs. Mary, Keremeos  Wamboldt, Mrs. P., 3811 Kamloops Road, Vernon  Ward, A. L., R.R. 3. Kelowna  Ward, H, R.R. 3, Kelowna  Warren, Mrs. A. M., 854 Main St., Penticton  Waterman, Dorothy M., R.R. 1, Osoyoos  Waterman, Fred C. E., R.R. 1, Westbank  Watkins, S., No. 8 Malcolm Cresc, Red Deer, Alta.  Weatherill, Miss A., 2000 37th Ave., Vernon  Weatherill, H. P., 1660 49th Ave., Vancouver 13  Webb, H. V., Box 2, Okanagan Mission  Webb, Mrs. R. J., Harrowsby, Invergewrie, Dundee, Scotland  Webber, Mrs. C. M., 1480 Esquimalt, West Vancouver  Webster, Mrs. A., 402 Orchard Ave., Penticton  Weddell, Mrs. A. D., R.R. 4, Kelowna  Weddell, Mrs. Mary, Box 120, Rutland  Weeks, G. A., Box 637, Revelstoke  Weeks, L. J., 3211 Kitchener St., Vancouver  Weeks, Ted, Box 393, Kelowna  Welch, Miss F. M., 1489 St. Paul St., Kelowna  Welch, Mrs. H. J., 2140 Palmerston Ave., West Vancouver  Welker, J., R.R. 3, Vernon  Whitaker, Mrs. H. C, Summerland  White, Mrs. A. L., Box 258, Oliver  *White, Ronald, 291 McGill Road, Kamloops  White, Dr. W. H., 702 Winnipeg St., Penticton  White, Mrs. W. R., Enderby  Whitehead, W. J., Box 293, Rutland  Whitham, J. Gordon, 3611 Carnation Drive, Trail  Whyte, B. M., R.R. 4, Vernon  Wigglesworth, Mrs. Ted, Dundas, Ont.  Williams, Mrs. Scott, 582 Van Home St., Penticton  Willis, Mrs. H., 1190 Lawson Ave., West Vancouver  Willitts, Mrs. P. B., 1779 Pandosy St., Kelowna  Willitts, Dr. R. E., 208 Poplar Pt. Drive, Kelowna  Willett, Mrs. A., R.R. 4, Kelowna  Wilmot, A., Hobson Rd., R.R. 4, Kelowna  Wilmot, F. H., R.R. 2, Vernon  Wilson, Jack, Tappen  Wilson, Mrs. J. C, R.R. 2, Oliver  Wilson, J. V. H.? 124 Jermyn Ave., Penticton  Wind, Mrs. B., Box 794, Oliver  Winkles, Mrs. W. H., R.R. 2, Armstrong  Winsby, N. B., Lakeshore Rd., R.R. 4, Kelowna  Woodd, H. S., 2914 W. 29th Ave., Vancouver  Woods, Jack, 3207 Schubert Ave., Vernon  Woods, R. W., Box 221, Westbank  Woodworth, T. N, 236 Poplar Pt. Rd., Kelowna  Woolner, R. F., 1191 Kelview, Kelowna  Worth, Mrs. Grace, 4921 Mara St., Vernon Membership List 207  Wostradowski, Mrs. A. M., Box 154, Rutland  Young, Mrs. B. F., R.R. 3, Armstrong  Yuill, T. E., No. 46 - 3506 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Zoellner, Mrs. W. J., Box 580, Courtenay  SCHOOLS, UNIVERSITIES, LIBRARIES, ETC.  Corporation of Township of Spallumcheen, Armstrong  Kamloops Museum Associaton, Kamloops  Kelowna Chamber of Commerce, Box 398, Kelowna  Dora Hood's Book Room Ltd., 34 Ross St., Toronto 2B, Ont.  Glenbow Foundation, 902 11th Ave. S.W., Calgary, Alta.  Historical Society of Montana, Helena, Montana  Northwest Digest Ltd., 5543 129th St., R.R. 1, Cloverdale  Penticton Branch, O.H.S., Penticton  Radio Station CKOV, Kelowna  The Royal Bank of Canada, 510 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 816 State St., Madison 6, Wis.  Calgary Public Library, 616 2nd St. S.E., Calgary, Alta.  Catholic Library, Kelowna  Kansas City Public Library, 311 E. 12th St., Kansas City, Missouri  Library Association of Portland, 801 S.W. 10th Ave., Portland, Oregon  Library of Congress, Washington 25, D.C.  Parliamentary Librarian, Ottawa, Ont.  The Newberry Library1, 60 West Walton St., Chicago, 111.  New York Public Library, 5th Ave. & 42nd St., New York, N.Y.  Okanagan Regional Library, 480 Queensway, Kelowna  Prince George Public Library, 425 Brunswick St., Prince George  Provincial Archives, Victoria  Provincial Library, Victoria  Seattle Public Library, Seattle, Wash. 98104  Spokane Public Library, W. 906 Main Ave., Spokane, Wash.  Tacoma Public Library, 1102 S. Tacoma Ave., Tacoma  *Toronto Public Library, 214 College St., Toronto 2B  Vancouver City Archives, 453 W. 12th Ave., Vancouver  Vancouver Public Library Board, 750 Burrard St., Vancouver  Victoria Public Library, Victoria  Eastern Washington State College, Cheney, Wash.  Gonzaga University, Spokane, Wash.  Indiana University Library, 1000 E. 17th St., Bloomington, Indiana  McGill University Library, Montreal, P.Q.  Notre Dame University of Nelson, Nelson  *Simon Fraser University Library, Burnaby 2  University of B.C. Library, Vancouver 8  University of Toronto Library, Toronto 5, Ont.  University of Victoria, Box 1700, Victoria  University of Washington, 3917 University Way, Seattle, Wash.  University of Windsor, Windsor, Ont.  Washington State University Library, Pullman, Wash.  Westminster Abbey Library, Seminary of Christ the King, Mission  City  Beairsto Elementary School, Vernon  *Carmi Ave. School, Penticton  Clarence Fulton Sr. Secondary School, Vernon  *Kaleden Elementary School, Kaleden  Jr.-Sr. Secondary School, Armstrong  Lumby Elementary School, Vernon  McNicoll Park School, Penticton  Nkwala School Library, Penticton 208 Membership List  North Island Secondary School, Box 100, Port McNeill  O'Connell School Library, Penticton  *Penticton Secondary School, Penticton  Rutland Secondary School, R.R. 2, Kelowna  St. George's School, 3954 W. 29th Ave., Vancouver  W. L. Seaton Jr. Secondary School, Vernon  South Okanagan Secondary School, Oliver  Summerland Secondary School, Summerland  School District No. 16, Keremeos  School District No. 64 (Gulf Islands), Ganges  School District No. 77, Summerland  School District No. 89 (Shuswap), Salmon Arm  * Indicates prepaid membership  Addresses given are B.C. unless otherwise noted. Index of Illustrations  209  Okanagan Historical Society Index of Illustrations  >orts Nos. 1 to 31 Inclusive  Rep(  First No. is Report Number  Second No. is Page Number  Report Pg.  9  7  173  4  65  35  100  68  105  106  96  21  33  29  52  66  121  141  191  192  23  128  All Hallows School, Yale, B.C. 24   100  Allyn, Will; E. J. Lacey; Frank  McDonald 21  Andrew, Dr. F. W. 22  Annual Meeting, Penticton 30  Archaeological Map of Interior  Plateau 16  Armstrong, B.C., 1896 26  Arnott, Ellen 30  B  Baden-Powell, Lady, at Vernon    30  Black, F. M. 31  Barklay House 31  Bankhead Orchard 28  Barn of James Gartrell at Trout  Creek 31  Barnes,   Harry   D. 15  Basaltic Cliff, Lower Mission  Creek 18  Basaltic Columns at Keremeos 5  Basaltic Columns at Westbank 9  Basketry, Example of Coiled 31  Bassett Freight Wagons 30  B.C. Express, Ashcroft to  Cariboo,   1889- 19    117  Before the Days of Mechanization  on Coldstream Ranch  Belgo Canadian Land Company  Bell, R. B.  Bell, Mrs. R.  B.  Bell, George, Enderby's First  Mayor, 1905-1910  Bell, Order of the  Bellevue   Hotel  Bar 30    197-198  Benvoulin  United Church        26    135-136  Bernard Ave., Kelowna, 1906 17     85  Bernard Ave., Kelowna, 1906 18      69  Bernard Ave., Kelowna, 1894 -  1905 - 1954 18      95  Best, Edward; Rev. A. A.  Pound;  P. S. Tennant  Billings,  Frederic  Boyce, Dr. B.; Hardie, Mrs.  R  Brent Brand, The  Brent, Frederick (J.P.)  Brent, Frederick  Brent Flour Mill at Kelowna,  The Brand of  Brent, Joe, House  Brent Mill, Sketch of the  Brigade Trail, Hudson's Bay  Bromley-Browne, James William 29  Brown's, Prior, First House 1893 26  Brownies  Buckland, Frank M.  Burne, John Ford  Cabin, Log  Cairn at Westbank  Camel in the Okanagan  Cameron, G. D., President of  the O.H.S.  Cameron's, Hughie, Famous  Hotel, McKinney, B.C.  Cameron, W. F.  Cameron, Mrs. W.  F.  Cameron's, W. F. First Store  Carswell, Mr. and Mrs. Robert  Carving, Slate, by George Lezard 31  Casorso, Joe, Old Time Rancher  in Okanagan 24     54  26  63  29  127  30  201  16  120  17  93  22  39  31  71  30  133  16  118  13  30  29  31  26  51  30  243  17  2  24  62  30  193  31  32  11  111  28  8  13  146  16  64  16  62  16  50  30  124  31  31  Catholic Church on Indian  Reserve, Penticton  Cawston Home, Old, Cawston,  B.C. 13  Celery Fields at Armstrong, B.C. 28  Centennial Medals, Recipients of 31  Centennial Supper in the Peach  15    147  110  42  78  31    122  29  13  31  31  30  31  31  31  Bowl (Penticton)  Central Okanagan Land Co  Office  Centreville (Vernon) 1892  Chinese Home  Chinese Scroll, Photo 2  Chliluk—Spotted  Lake  Christie, Jim's Refuge  Christie, Jim and Dog  Christie, Mount  CKOV's First Transmisser (1931) 29  Clark, Herb; Sam Manery; Victor  Wilson 29  Clement, J. Percy 24  Cliffs of Enderby 10 front  Coat of Arms, British Columbia 22 front  Coat of Arms for Summerland 31 22  Community Hall at Okanagan  Falls  Conroy, Mr. and Mrs. John  Corbitt, H. W., 1964  Cordy, Miss Doris  C.P.R. Wharf, on Kelowna  Crichton, Bertram E.  Crowd, Part of Second at Father  Pandosy Mission  91  158  45  112  75  164  158  160  32  100  116  29  35  26  101  31  97  24  98  20  200  27  130  31     35  Dalrymple Log Cabin, at  Okanagan Falls  Dam at Outlet of Okanagan Lake 13  Davis, Willard Albert  Day, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur  Deadwood Camp, at the Site of  Deer in the Main Canal  Detjen, Gertrude  Dewdney, Edgar  Dewdney Trail, Building the  Dewdney Trail, Map of the  Dewdney  Trail   Map  Dewdney Trail Parallels Hope-  Princeton  Dewdney, Travelling Over the  Trail  Dewdney, W. R., and Leonard  Norris  Dewdney, Mrs. W. R.; Hon. Frank  Richter; Major J. S. Matthews  Dewdney, Walter Robert  Dominick  Douglas, Sir James  Drag Hounds, Vernon  Druggist, P. B. Willets, Pioneer  Dunn, George, and Mayor Jack  Ladd of Kelowna  Dunsdon, Mr. and Mrs. Harry,  1904  Dunsdon's, Harry, Cabin in the  90's  E  Ellis   Centennial   Banquet  Ellis  Home, 1894  Ellis Homestead  Ellis Homestead Marker  Ellis Homestead, Original 1877  Ellis, Tom, and His Bride, 1872  Ellis, Thomas and Wilhelmina  Ellison, Price, M.P., and A. R.  Lord  Enderby, Aerial View, 1955  Exhibition  Building in Kelowna  28  41  13  67  14  22  18  61  29  41  20  30  30  134  23  61  22  77  21  129  22  80A  22     80  22     75  20     40  31  76  23  10  14  153  19  11  21  53  31  118  29     27  29     57  20      14  30  161  14  103  30  162  20  158  14  100  14  99  30  167  28  59  19  1  29  72 210  Index of Illustrations  Fairview, B.C., 1875  Fairview Booth at Penticton  Peach Festival (Two Views)  Fairview, Motoring to the World  Fair  Fairview, Old Camp  Fairview School, First, 1897  Fenton, Miss Annie, First School  Teacher at Black Mountain  Fire Engine in Park at Kelowna  Fire, Old Engine, Kelowna  Flag Raising  Fletcher's Threshing Crew  Flour Mill, Brent, Brand of  Foot Bridge, Abbott Street, 1907  Fort Garry in 1862  Fortune, Memorial to Alex Lesile  on Enderby United Church  Grounds  Fortune, Mr. and Mrs. A. L.  Fortune, Portraits, Mr. and Mrs.  A. L.  French, Frank and Anna  Gabriel, Mrs. Louise, Penticton  Gabriel, Mrs. Louise  Gallagher, Dan, About 1939  1962 in  Penticton  Gartrell House at Trout Creek  Gartrell, Mr. and Mrs. James  Gartrell, Mr. and Mrs. James  Gartrell, James, Barn at Trout  Creek  Gelatly, Mrs. D., View of  Garden  Party, Pioneer, Aug.  George, Chief Dan  General Joel Palmer in Later  Life  Generations, Four,  R.  W.  Neil  Gillard, August  Gillespie House, The Old. Between  Kaleden  Junction  and  Water  man Hill  Gillespie, W., at Penticton in 1966 31  Gillespie, Willie, Atop His Wagon  Box  Girl Guides, Scouts, Okanagan  Mission  Girouard, Luc  Glacial Erratic on the Coldstream  Glenemma Hall School Class,  1909  Glenfir Camp Life  Glenmore School  Pupils  Glory Hole, The (Phoenix)  Goodies Everybody Enjoyed, Penticton Branch Annual Meeting 31  Government Office, First in Vernon  Gray, R., Log House  Green, Charles Deblois  Grist Mill at  Keremeos, 1877  Group at "Castle Rayleigh  Digby"  Group at Curlew, Washington  Groves, F. W. Plaques  Grower's Wife, Normal Way to  Go to Town  Guichon, Dr. Lawrence  Guides at Coldstream Ranch  (Girl)  Guisachan Farm, Local Riders,  1905  Guisachan, Stone Wall at. Near  Kelowna  Gummow, Mrs. B. F.  23  64  29  103  26  126  27  76  23  62  IS  127  11  65  22  151  30  242  30  203  31  71  18  123  20  115  21  82  20  100  21  69  31  130  18  24  31  156  29  66  26  43  31  64  18  53  22  143  31  106  13  34  31  134  31  37  31  148  18  n  59  31  4  31  48  31  50  30  241  17  109  11  61  29  51  28  72  16  105  30  46  31  155  16  48  30  209  24  31  27  98  23  66  23  19  23  48  31  144  27  125  30     36  26     88  Harwood, Mr. and Mrs. J. H.  Hatfield, Seaman A.  Haughton, Lieut. Col. C. F.  Haynes, Charlotte  Haynes, Fairfox Moresby  Haynes, Home of Judge  Haynes, Judge J. C, Sketch of  Home  Haynes, John Carmichael  Haynes, Val; Mrs.  Parkinson;  Hester White  Haynes, William B.  Heggie, George  Henderson, George Arthur  Hike, A Sunday Hike Up the  Mountain  Historical Marker, Ellis Homestead  Hobson, W. D.  Holland-American Line S.S.  "Duivendyk"  Hostel, Joyce  Hotel, Sailor, McKinney  Hoy, Capt. Ernest (D.F.C.)  Hudson's Bay Co., Fort at Lake  St. Anns, North of Edmonton  Hudson's Bay Store, Vernon  (First)  Hunter, Mr. and Mrs. John  I  Indian, Chief Dan George 31    134  Indian Pictographs Near Vaseau  Lake 19     46  Indian Sweat House, Okanagan    26     28  Inglewood, Francis Xavier Richter's Home 25       4  Inkameep Church, Sketch of Old 28     94  Inkameep Presentation, Group at  (of Jubilee Medal) 21     22  Irvin, Rev.   Henry (Father Pat)    23      13  24  37  28  113  15  41  16  39  16  43  22  133  15  54  16  40  21  10  24  49  26  104  31  81  29  124  30  161  30  209  21  46  30  114  13  145  25  131  20  136  12  45  29  122  Johns, Hector  Johnson, N. S., Enderby Mayor,  1949-1955  Jones, O. L. (M.P.)  Kalamazoo  Kaleden Townsite in 1921  Kelowna, Aerial View of, 1955  Kelowna Elementary School 1952  Kelowna  Football Team 1908  Kelowna Lake Shore  Kelowna Races, 1908  Kelowna Riding Club Race  Kelowna Riding Club Race, 1898  Kelowna, View of (about  1900)  Kelowna-Westbank Ferry  Keremeos, 1906  Keremeos, 1906  Keremeos Exhibit at First  Canadian Apple Show  Kermode, Jack  Kidston, Mr. and Mrs. John  Kipoola Lake  Knowles, Mrs. Annie  Louise  Knowles, James Bacon  Knox, A. B., House  Knox, Arthur Booth  Knox, Dr. Wm. J., Testimonial  Banquet  Knox Wharf  31    175  19  23  18  2  26  159  15  122  20  41  28  61  18  38  18  29  30  195  26  87  26  89  28  80  18  85  28  34  28  131  29  3  24  73  24  107  15  112  26  56  19  2  28  84  28  74  28  89  28  80  127  69  H  Hardie, Mrs. R. and Dr. S. Boyce 30   201  L. & A. Ranch, Harvest Time  Lacey, E. J.; Will Allyn; Frank  McDonald  Lacey Ranch on Kruger Mountain  Ladd, J. J., Mayor, Kelowna  26    108  21  110  3 Index of Illustrations  211  Lambly, Thomas McK.  Lambly, Mr. and Mrs. Robert  Lambly's; Postill's; Stillingfleet's,  1900  Land-Seekers on Board S.S.  Okanagan  Langell,  Reverend and Mrs.  P. F.  Leader of the Palmer and Miller  Expeditions  Leir, Hugh Charles Musgrove  Lequime Bros. Co. Original Store 18  Lequime, Eli  Lequime, Eli  Lequime, Eli  Lequime, the Store, About 1900  Kelowna  Lequime, Store, 1900, Kelowna  Lezard, Mr. and  Mrs. George  Lipsett Grout Picture  Log Driving, By River and Lake  (Map)  Logging, 1909  Lord, A. R., and Hon. Price  Ellison, M.P.  Lumby, Three Early Photos of  Lumby, Moses  Lumby's   First  Commissioners  Lyon's, The Old House  Lysons, H. B. D.  Mc  MacDonell, J. A. J., Gen.; Col.  Steele; Lord Strathcona  MacKay, George Grant  McKenzie, Monsignor W. B.  McLean House, Okanagan Falls  McClure, Mr. and Mrs. John  McCluskey, J. W.  McCluskey, Mr. and Mrs. W. R.  McCulloch, Andrew, 1864-1945  McCurdy, Sam  McDonald, Frank; Will Allyn;  E. J. Lacey  M  Mail, Waiting For  Mak Sing, Letter From (photo 1) 31  Manery, Sam, Holds Charter  Manery, Sam; Victor Wilson;  Herb Clark  Map, Sketch, by W. G. Cox  Matthews, Major J. S.; Mrs. W. R.  Dewdney; Hon. Frank Richter  Medals, Recipients of Centennia  Methodist Church, Mountview,  and Parsonage  Middlemass House, Eldorado  Arms Hotel  Middleton, Morrice S.  (Portrait) 21  Mission, The Building Today  Mission, the Building Before  Restoration  Mission, Gateway of Restored  Mission, the Original Building  Morgan,  Granville, 1874-1958  Morrice, S. M.  Mortar and Pestle  Munro, Mr. and Mrs. Findlay  Mountain  Bible Class Picnic  Murray, Mr. and Mrs. George  N  Naramata, S.S.  Natural Gas, Laying Lines  Neil, R. W., Four Generations  Nesbitt and Family, Mr. and  Mrs. J. A.  Nkwala Mountain  Norris, Leonard  Norris, Leonard  Norris, Leonard, and Dewdney,  W. R.  17  118  30  83  30  81  29  93  26  133  31  40  30  119  18  99  6  97  17  87  22  149  17  91  18  71  31  44  24  106  27  104  30  196  28  59  16  96  16  45  20  85  16  56  30  211  24  76  16  46  31  145  31  96  26  49  29  141  29  138  25  72  28  47  21  12  64  31  112  27  32  29  100  17  51  31  76  31  78  30  55  30  245  21  28  17  70  22  9  22  14  22  10  23  77  21  28  31  60  31  62  30  56  16  74  29  125  22  79  31  148  27  78  30  144  11  14  14  6  12  19  15  rear  27  56  27  30  55  187  30  30  246  236  30  30  17  22  235  221  13  .122  15  206  17  28  19  19  19  148  69  42  44  43  20     40  Norris, Miss Martha J. 15     68  Okanagan Valley and Adjoining  Areas, Map of  Okanagan Valley and  District  Okanagan Centre, Construction  of New Road  Okanagan Centre, South Road  Near Camp 2, Construction of  Okanagan, S.S.  Okanagan Mission Community  Hall  Okanagan Mission School, 1950  Okanagan Mission School Pupils,  1929  Okanagan Mission Store  Okanagan Pioneers  Okanagan Pioneers  Okanagan Valley and Adjoining  Areas  Okanagan Valley and Surrounding Areas  O'Keefe  Ranch House  Oliver, 1921  Oliver, 1930  Oliver, Pioneer Days In  One Hundred and Twenty-Five  Guests, Four Generation  Dinner 29     37  Osoyoos Custom House, Sketch  of 21       7  Osoyoos Museum 30    123  Osoyoos, Unveiling of Plaque at 21       8  Ox Team on Way to Barkerville,  1881 19    118  Palmer, General Joel, in Later  Life 31     37  Palmer and Miller Expeditions,  Leader of 31     40  Pandosy Church, Father, on the  Penticton Indian Reserve     27    181-183  Pandosy, Father, Mission 30    181-183  Pandosy, Father, OMI 17     57  Pandosy, Father, OMI 22      12  Pandosy Mission, Part of Second  Crowd 31     35  Pandosy, Father, Photostatic  Copy of Signature of  Pandosy, Father, Signature  Pandosy's Chapel, Father  Pandosy's School, Father  Parkinson, Mrs.; Val Haynes;  Hester White  Parrish, Mrs. Jessie  Patten, Mrs. C. J. (Sophia),  Armstrong  Paul's Tomb, Entrance to  Pendleton, Elizabeth  Penticton Branch Annual Meeting on Indian Reserve  Penticton, First Packing House  Penticton, Motoring to the  World Fair  Penticton Silts, Terraces, West  Summerland  Pestle and Mortar  Phoenix Mine  Building  Picnic of O.H.S. at Hedley  Picnic Site, Boundary Society  Pioneer Arrangement Committee,  Okanagan Pioneer Reunion        26     44  Pioneer Family Attend Convention—Mrs. A. H. Ellen Sovereign, Kathleen Ellis, Hester  White 24 front  Pioneer Okanagan Family Celebrates Four Generations 29     36  Pioneers, Meeting of Three, Tom  Ellis, Hon. Edgar  Dewdney,  E. J. Tronson 14   107  18  15  22  14  26  144  26  142  21  10  19  48  28  35  24  22  31  151  31  155  30  3  26  127  27  71  31  60  30  46  29  98  30  45 212  Index of Illustrations  Pioneer Room, 1912  Plaque, The Inscription  Postill, Mrs. Edward  Postill, Eleanor and Alfred  Postill Family, 1895  Postill Home, 1900  Postill Ranch  Postill Ranch  Postill's, Lambly's and Stilling-  fleet's, 1900  Pound, A. A.; Tennant, P. S.;  Best, Edward  Pound, Mrs. W. C.  Pound and Orchard, W. C.  Powers, Mr. and Mrs. John  Presidents, Past, of the Okanagan Historical Society  Princeton, Boulder Inscription  Princeton Telephone Cutover  Princeton Telephone Staff  Program, Souvenir  26  42  21  10  30  83  30  78  30  78  30  83  30  76  30  80  30  81  26  63  25  163  25  156  25  124  30  25  24  15  30  91  30  93  31    126  Quaedvlieg, Mr. and Mrs. Victor   29    156  Race   Programme, 1906  Raymer, H. W.  Raymer, H. W., Kelowna's First  Mayor, 1905-1906  Refuge, The,  Jim Christie  Red Cross Fete, 1916  Red  River Cart  Religious Service,  Imaginary  Sketch  Rice, Mr. and Mrs. W. H.  Richter, The Brothers  Richter, Florence Elizabeth  Richter, Hon. Frank; Mrs. W. H.  Dewdney; Major J. S .Matthews  Richter, Frances Xavier  Richter  Pass Highway, at the  Opening of the  Richter Pass Highway, a Section  of the New  Robinson, J. M.  Rogers, Benjamin  Rogers, Mr. and Mrs., in the  Early 1940's  Rosoman, Graham  Rosoman, Graham  Round  Prairie School  Group  Ruhmann, Max Herman  Rutland, Bench Looking Towards  Black Mountains  Rutland District About 1905,  View of North-West Part of  Rutland, Grain Harvesting In  Rutland, John Matthew  Rutland School, About 1925  Rutland School Classes, 1915-1916  Rutland School Classes, 1916-1917  Rutland, New United Church  Sage, Dr. W. N.  Salmon Valley School Photo, 1915  Santa Rosa Orchard, Blossom  Scene In  School, First Jitney  School Jitney, First  School, First Okanagan West  School Picnic, Boys at Okanagan  West  Schubert, Augustus  Schubert, Mrs.  Schubert Memorial  Scott's Mail Stage  Shorts, Captain Thomas  Silt Banks, Columbia, Near  Athalmer  26  90  22  152  18  104  31  164  30  229  20  117  15  56  30  168  22  44  25  97  31  76  25  97  29  78  29  76  19  62  29  153  29  167  15  195  19  20  16  94  30  94  27  23  29  95  27  24  27  20  29  87  29  85  29  83  30  56  19  9  29  50  27  27  30  233  14  60  15  133  15  135  9  69  6  23  25  61  21  37  26  140  Silt Bank, Remnant of a Similkameen Valley  Smith, Alexis  Southern Crossroads, Government Sign  Sovereign, The Right Reverend  Arthur H.  Sports, Early  Sports, Mounted  S.S. Sicamous  S.S. Sicamous, First Officers of  the, 1914  S.S. Sicamous, Queen of the  Okanagan  S.S. Sicamous, Reunion, 1964  Slate Carving by George Lezard 31  St. Andrew's Church, Okanagan  Mission  St. Andrew's Pupils  St. Joseph's Mission, Map, Showing Location of  St. Saviour's Church in Early  1900's, Penticton  Stage Coach at Keremeos, Old  Stage  Route  Half Way House  Stage Teams and Bassett Bros.  Stamp Mill, Cariboo Mine, McKinney  Steamer "Sicamous" Assembled  Okanagan Landing, 1914  Steele, Col.; Strathcona, Lord;  MacDonell, Msj. Gen.  Steer Roping  Stillingfleet's 1900; Lambly's;  Postill's  Stirling, Commander Thomas  Willing, R.N., O.B.C.  Stirling, Grote, P.C.  Stocks, Arthur, on the Hudson's  Bay Fur Brigade Trail  Stocks  Brothers Cabin  Stocks, Grave of the Rev. Philip  Stocks, The Reverend Philip  Stocks, The Rev. and Mrs. at  Stocksmoor  Stone Wall at Guisachan, Near  Kelowna  Store, First General, in Armstrong  Strathcona, Lord; Col. Steele;  Maj. Gen. MacDonell 24  Summerland Coat of Arms 31  Summerland, Grade 8 Class, 1921 30  Sutherland, First School Teacher,  Kelowna 18  Swanson Farm, Haying at the     29  Sweet, Emma P. 16  27  10  73  105  23 front  29  30  30  13  61  223  231  58  28  25  28  28  31  4  33  31  30  30  237  239  24  60  28  27  21  13  98  4  34  140  13    143  21     61  24  30  76  81  30  81  15  17  185  9  31  31  27  27  54  55  107  106  27    108  31    127  16     86  Taylor, Lionel E., 1880-1962  Tennant, P. S.; Edward Best;  A. A. Pound  "Teepee," Big, at Fairview  Thomas, Frank, Richter Mountain  Thompson, John  Thomson, Mr. and Mrs. G. R.  Thornton, Jack  Threshing Scene on Coldstream  Ranch, 1910  Train, Last Passenger to Enter  Penticton, Jan. 16, 1964  Train, Last Passenger at Penticton  Travel, Modes of  Tug of War  Turner, Reverend James  76  22  26  98  123  102  26  40  26  63  12  63  19  49  10  75  30  205  13  138  27 123  28 97  28 142  30 188  30 234  26 66  27     65  Vernon's First Cricket Eleven 16 67  Vernon's First Hospital Staff 16 63  Vernon, Forbes George 17   116 Index of Illustrations  213  Vernon, George  Forbes 22 163  Vernon, Forbes George 31 153  Vernon Hose Team 16 62  Vernon-Kelowna, on  Road at  Long Lake, B.C. 27 53  Vernon School in 1889 16 52  Vernon School, 1891 Opening  Exercises 15 138  Vernon  High School, 1905,  "New"—First Class 15 142  Victor, Maggie 30 143  W  Walker, W. D.  Walker, Mr. and Mrs. W. D.  Walker, Mr. and Mrs. W. D.  Wanderer, Captain Shorts  Warren, J. J. (First President of  Kettle Valley Railroad)  Waterman, Mr. and Mrs. J., at  Hope  Watson, Harvey  Watt, George Muterer  Weddell, E. C, Q.C.  Weddell, Edwin, 1901  19  93  19  93  30  207  29  147  28  139  22  89  14  57  27  100  26  148  20  46  Westbank Cairn, Okanagan  Brigade  Trail  Westbank, View of Cairn  West Summerland, Early Days  West Summerland, Siwash  Flats  Whale Bone Found in Okanagan  Lake  Wheeler, The Late Sir Edward  Oliver, M.C.  Whelan, George, 1907  Whelan Home Prior to 1895  Whelan School, 1900  Whitaker, Hector  White, Hester; Val  Haynes;  Mrs.  Parkinson  White, Hester Emily  White, Dr. R. B.  White  Lake  Radio Telescope  Willets, P.  B., Pioneer Kelowna  Druggist  Wilson, Florence Waterman  Wilson, Mr. and Mrs. Victor  Wilson, Victor; Sam Manery;  Herb Clark  13  28  31  32  20  11  14  134  11  76  26  27  20  52  20  53  20  55  30  71  21  10  28  137  14  44  30  103  31  118  29  112  31  123  29    100 214 O.H.S. 32nd Annual Report  BOOKS AVAILABLE ON THE OKANAGAN VALLEY  PRODUCED BY  THE BRANCHES OF THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  "History of Okanagan Mission"   $2.10  Available at: Adelphi Bookstore, Victoria  Mrs. T. B. Upton, P.O. Box 1 Okanagan Mission,  B.C.  O'Keefe Ranch, Vernon, B.C.  "Ogopogo's Vigil" A history of Kelowna and the Okanagan  Valley in story and picture —  $3.50  Available at: Okanagan Historical Society, Kelowna Branch,  1344 St. Paul St., Kelowna, B.C. or any member  of the Kelowna Branch.  "Penticton Pioneers" in story and picture $3.66  Available at: Penticton Stationery Store,  240 Main St.,  Penticton, B.C.  "Vernon, an Illustrated History" Vernon's History in  story and numerous pictures   $3.00  Available at: City of Vernon Museum and Archives  Vernon, B.C.  "Father Pat" the story of Rev. Henry Irvin, beloved Anglican Priest  of the Boundary Country. This is a reprint of the book by  Jerome Mercier written in 1909   $2.63  Available at: All branches of the Society and from the Secretary, R. F. Gale, P.O. Box 24, Kaleden Olden  'ponm  Membership Fee $3.00 per Year, including the Annual Report.  Send orders to the Treasurer:  MRS. HAROLD COCHRANE  2006 28th Crescent  VERNON, B.C.  Q  Please send me Report No. 32 for 1968  T]  Please invoice me.  ]  Please find payment enclosed.  ~~\   Please put me on your permanent mailing list  ]  Please send me back numbers    Send  Name  Street    City     Back Numbers Available  11,   15,  16,  17,  18, 20, 21, 22, 26, 27,  28, 29, 30, 31.  Re-prints of No.  6 Report which contains the majority of articles  from Reports 1 - 5 are also available.  Some members are looking for earlier reports. If you have  any you don't want, please send to the treasurer.   L

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