Okanagan Historical Society Reports

The twelfth report of the Okanagan Historical Society 1948 Okanagan Historical Society 1948

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Array B« li .(Reg) Atkinson Museum  785 MAIN STREET  ,C_   ¥2A5E3  V j-j--? "  j  PENTICTON Mr.fSR.FM & ARCHIVES  PENTICTON,  B.C.  76e 7cvefy(6 'Refi&tt  oi the  okmagi  W4g  Founded September 4, 1925 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948 Publications  of  THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  First Report          -           - - 1926  Second Report    - "•- -' 1927  Third Report        -           - : '- 1929  Fourth Report      -           - - 1930  Fifth Report         -           - - 1931  Sixth Report         - •        - - 1935  Seventh  Report  - 1937  Eighth Report       -           - - 1939  Ninth Report        -           - - 1941  Tenth Report        -           - - 1943  Eleventh Report  -           - - 1945  THE EARLIEST MAP OF THE OKANAGAN VALLEY  (Picture on Opposite Page.)  In 1827 Archibald McDonald, Clerk in the Hudson's Bay  Company prepared for the use of the Company a "Sketch of  Thompson's River District". A copy of this map, now in the  Hudson's Bay Company Archives, is in the Provincial Archives,  and the portion here reproduced, is printed with the kind consent  of the Provincial Archivist.  Archibald McDonald's "Report to the Governor and Committee of the Northern Department of Rupert's Land on District  of Thompson's River," "probably the first from this place forwarded to Head Quarters" is included in the Publication oi the  Hudson's Bay Record Society for 1947.  Physical features shown in illustration above are as in the  original, but place names have been re-lettered for reasons  of clarity. Page  The Legend of Shuswap Falls, Maria Brent    16  The Seven Stones of Similkameen, .Rev. John C. Goodfellow 18  Okanagan Society for the Revival of Indian Arts  and Crafts, Albert Millar    24  Francis G. Claudet's Journal, 1867, Margaret A. Ormsby ...  29  The First Hudson's Bay Company Store at Vernon    41  Price Ellison, A Memorial by his Daughter, Myia K. DeBeck   48  Camp Fairview, Hester E. White     59  Early History of Hedley Camp, Harry D. Barnes    67  From Ranches to Orchards, F. M. Buckland   89  The First Penticton Townsite, 1892, H. J. Parham    99  Vernon's Early Bye-Laws, C. W. Morrow   104  Saw-Milling at Enderby, G. L. Ormsby   109  Black Mountain School Days, Minnie E. Mawhinney 112  Keremeos Chronicles, Sam. B. Manery   115  Osoyoos, George /. Fraser 121  Early Medical Service in the Okanagan Valley,  F. W. Andrew, M.D 127  Okanagan Newspapers, Burt R. Campbell 140  A History of the Okanagan Regiment,  Lt.-Col. D. F. B. Kinloch 151  Private Schools in the Okanagan Valley,  Hugh F. Mackie 160  G. T. Brown, Artist, Willard E. Ireland 166  The Summerland Experimental Station, F. W. Andrew ... .172  Marketing Fruits in British Columbia, A. K. Loyd 180  Recent Books Mentioning the Okanagan Valley   186  The Westbank Cairn, Dorothy Hewlett Gellatly 192  Okanagan Place Names, A. G. Harvey 193  4 1 OKANAGAN EMICAL SOCIETY  Honorary Patron: Col. the Hon. Charles Arthur Banks, C.M.G.  Honorary President:  Hon. Grote Stirling, Kelowna.  President: Captain Joseph B. Weeks, Penticton.  First Vice-President: Dr. F. W. Andrew, Summerland.  Second Vice-President: Mrs. R. B. White, Penticton.  Treasurer: Major H. R. Denison, Vernon.  Auditor: A. E. Berry, Vernon. :  Secretary: Rev. J. C. Goodfellow, Princeton.  Editor: Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby, Vancouver.  Editorial Committee  Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby (convenor) Mrs. R. B. White, Penticton.  G.   C.   Tassie,   Vernon Dr. F. W. Andrew, Summerland  Stuart  Fleming,  Vernon Burt R. Campbell, Kamloops  R. J. McDougall, Penticton  Photographs Committee  Mr. R. W. Neil (convenor); Messrs. R. Carswell, Frank Hassard  Directors  Nine Elected from North, Middle  and  South  Okanagan,  three each, for three, two and one years respectively:  Three Years Two Years One Year  North: Burt R.  Campbell G. C. Tassie J. G. Simms  Kamloops Vernon Vernon  Middle: F. M.  Buckland        Mrs. D. Gellatly Jas.   Goldie  Kelowna Westbank Okanagan Centre  South: Rev. F. Haskins G. J. Rowland H.  D.  Barnes  West Summerland Penticton Hedley  PENTICTON BRANCH  President:  Mrs. R. B. White Secretary:  R. J. McDougall  Directors: W. T. Leslie, R. G. Duncan, H. Cochrane  KELOWNA BRANCH  President: Frank Buckland  Vice-President: J. B. Knowles Secretary-Treasurer: L. L. Kerry  Directors:  Mrs. D. Gellatly, W. R. Powley, E. M. Carruthers, H. C. S. Collett  VERNON BRANCH  President: J. G. Simms  Vice-President:   G.  C.  Tassie Secretary:   H.  R.  Denison  Directors:  James Goldie, A. E. Sage, G. E. McMahon, J. G. Heighway,  Burt R. Campbell MEMBERSHIP LIST, OMGAN HISTORICAL SDCItTY  as at October 15, 1948  PATRONS  E. G. Baynes, H. D. Barnes, Frank Buckland, Dr. N. J. Ball, N. H.  Caesar, J. D. Cameron, H W. Corbitt, Douglas Dewar, Capt. O., L. Esta-  b.ooks, Miss Annie Fenton, James Goldie, Roy Haugh, J. G. Heighway,  B. T. Haverfield, G. D. Herbert, Dr. W. J. Knox, A K. Loyd, H. F. Mackie,  Mrs. Georgina Maisonville, G. E. McMahon, J. D. McMynn, Mrs. Macorquodale, H. J. Parham, Dr. R. J. Parmley, W. R. Powell, G. J. Rowland,  S. M. Simpson, A. A. Swift, G. C. Tassie, H. G. Walburn, T; V. Weeks.  MEMBERS  * Adams, E., 1998 Abbott St., Kelowna  * Adams, Most Rev. W. R., 2703 - 23rd St., Vernon  Anderson, Charles, Box 88, Kamloops  Agnew, J. C, 893 Cardero St., Vancouver  * Andrew, Dr. F. W., Box 11, Summerland (& '49 >  Andrew, W. J., G. S. Board, Marine Bldg., Vancouver  * Armstrong, W. L., c/o C.N.R. Freight Office, Edmonton, Alta.  Atkinson, W. S., 2202 Barnard Ave., Vernon  * Atkinson, E. O., "Green Gables", Penticton  Atwood, C. A. S., Greenwood  * Bartholomew, H. G., 3702 - 32nd St.,. Vernon  * Ball, Dr. N. J., Oliver  * Ball, L. J., Oliver  * Barnes, H. D., Box 63, Hedley  Bartlett, N., Bank of Commerce, Vernon  Bagnall, G. P., 3904 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Baird, G. D, Revelstoke  * Baynes, E. G., "The Grosvenor", Vancouver  Barr, Dr. H. P., 556 Lakeshore Dr., Penticton  * Beairsto, H. K.t 1800 Schubert Ave., Vernon  :i:   Beaven, Melville H. O, Box 1056, Vernon  Beddome, J. B., 3005 - 23rd St., Vernon, B.C.  * Berry, A. E., 2401 - 26th St., Vernon  Bloom, C. D., Lumby (Deceased)  Blurton, H. J., Drawer 11, Enderby  Boyce, Dr. B. F., Kelowna (Deceased)  Brooks, Major Allan, Okanagan Ldg. (Deceased)  * Brooks, Mrs. A., North Pender Island  Browne, Miss Elain, (Mrs. D. Dickson), Kamloops  * Browne, Dolph, Dolph Browne Ltd., Vernon  Browne, J. W. B., 2368 Abbott St., Kelowna List of .Members  Bingley, A., Coldstream Ranch, Vernon  Blakie, A., 327 Abbott St., Kelowna  Bennett, Mrs. C. G., The Bench, Penticton  Burnett, E., R.R. 2, Vernon  Bulman, R. T., 2502 - 23rd Ave., Vernon  Buckland, Frank, Royal Anne, Kelowna  Bull, Capt. C. R., Okanagan Mission  Biggin, Bernard, 3989 Angus Dr., Vancouver  Bishop, John A., R.R. 2, Vernon  Brown, G. D., Kamloops  Byron-Johnson, Mrs>, R. G., Fintry  Brown, J. A., Westbank  Caesar, N. H., Okanagan Centre  Cameron, Alister, 2337 Richter St., Kelowna  Cameron, J. D., 343 Brunswick St., Penticton  Campbell-Brown, Dr. H, 2700 - 22nd St., Vernon  Campbell, Burt R., Box 175, Kamloops  Campbell, L. V., 1920 Oak St., Trail  Carpenter, Geo. M., Vernon  Casorso, Anthony, R.R. 2, Kelowna  Casorso, Joseph, R.R. 3, Kelowna  Chapin, H. F., 1694 Pendozi St., Kelowna  Chapman, Mrs. E. P., R.R. 3, Vernon  Cochrane, M. B., 2103 - 39th Ave., Vernon  Cochrane, Harold, 836 Main St., Penticton  Collett, ,H   C. S., Okanagan Mission  Collins, Austin, 2509 - 35th Ave. Vernon  Clarke, Mrs. Gordon E., E. 569 Durie St., Toronto, Ont.  Chichester, Bert, Rutland  Colquhoun, M. M., 524 Lakeshore Rd., Penticton (& 49).  Cumming, A. F., Farrell St., Penticton"  Campbell, R. G., 1163 Kilwinning St., Penticton  Clements, W. E., Peachland  Corbitt, H. W, Kaleden  Corrie, James, Princeton  Chambers, E. J., The Bench, Penticton  Crowe, A. F., 2507A - 37th Ave., Vernon  Conroy, J. J., Ellison Dist., Kelowna  Cools, Joseph, Okanagan Centre '    -   . ,  Cosens, Arthur K. W., 3308 W. 37th St., Vancouver      .  Cull, R. H., 3303 - 20A St., Vernon  Catt, H. O, Lumby  Cunliffe, Major H. E., R.R. 2, Vernon _- .,.--  Carswell, Robert, 3301 - 26th St., Vernon  Davidson, R. A., 3600 P. V. Rd., Vernon  Denison, H R., Box 747, Vernon  Denison, N. L., R.R. 1, Lumby  Dean, Joseph, 3504 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Dewdney, W. R., 273 Scott Rd., Penticton  Dicks, E. R., 2803 Mara St., Vernon    ,  Dickson, Peter, 3102 P. V. Rd., Vernon  7 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  Ditmars, W. C, 2535 S.W. Marine, Vancouver  Dorland, P. N., 740 Winnipeg St., Penticton  Duncan, R. H., Middle Bench, Penticton  Duckett, A. S., Revelstoke  Dunsdon, Harry, R.R. 1, Summerland  Dunaway, Frank, Westbank  Dunlop, M. Royal Anne, Kelowna  Dwyer, Miss Melva, 172 Battle St., Kamloops  Dewar, Douglas, Kaleden  Estabrooks, O. L., 352 Main, Penticton  Elliott, Geo. F., 253 Sutherland Ave., Kelowna  Fallow, H. J., 3011 - 35th Ave., Vernon  Fenton, Miss Annie, R.R. 1, Enderby  Fenton, Richard, R.R. 1, Enderby  Ferguson, E. W., 631 Elliott, Kelowna  Ffoulkes, Miss M., 594 Barnard Ave., Kelowna  Finlayson, C. W., Lumby (Deceased)  Finlayson, Mrs. R. P., Okanagan Landing  Fitzmaurice, Lt.-Col. R., Box 757, Vernon  Fisher, H. C, Shuswap Falls, Lumby  Fleming, A., 2001 Schubert Ave., Vernon  Fleming, Stuart, 2001 Schubert Ave., Vernon  Foote, Mrs. Elsie J., 3400 - 19th St., Vernon  Fraser, Geo. J., Osoyoos  Fraser, D. P., Osoyoos  Fraser, Hugh, Okanagan Falls  Fraser, Dr. W. F., Armstrong-  French, Percy E., 2301 - 35th Ave., Vernon  French, S. P., Havenwood Ranch, Vernon  Fullford, E. C, 2402 - 26th St., Vernon  Fulton, Mrs. Anna, 2402 - 23rd St., Vernon  Fosbery, Wm. C. M., West Summerland  Gellatly, Mrs. David, Westbank  Gellatly, David, Westbank  Genn, Anthony, 1009 Richardson St., Victoria  Gemmill, Wm., R.R. 1, Lumby  Gibson, Rev. Canon H. C. B., The Rectory, Agassiz  Gibson, G. M., Okanagan Centre  Goldie, James, Okanagan Centre  Gray, A. A., Fintry  Groves, F. W., Kelowna (Deceased)  Goodfellow, Rev. J. C, Box 211, Princeton  Griffiths, G. W., 2501 Schubert Ave., Vernon  Guischon, L. P., Quilchena  Guischon, J. L., Ladner  Green, Walter V., 350 E. 6th Ave., Vancouver  Glen, Andy, Enderby  Hall, Wm. H, 3603 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Harwood, Joseph, 3107 Dewdney Ave., Vernon List ot Members  Harvey, A. G., 556 W. 18th St., Vancouver  Harvey, Dr. J. E., 2501 - 25th St., Vernon  Hassard, Frank, 3104 - 25th St., Vernon  Haugh, Roy, 1476 Water St., Kelowna  Hatfield, H. R., 681 Vancouver Ave., Penticton  Hatfield, A. S., 862 Fairview Rd., Penticton  Harris, Gordon, 645 Martin St., Penticton  Harris, F. R., 2702 25th St., Vernon  Haskins, Rev. F., Summerland  Hayman, L. A., 741 - 8th St., E., Vancouver  Heggie, Geo. R., Box 1397, Vernon  Heighway, J. G., Lumby  Hembling, O. W., Oyama  Herbert, G. D., 1684 Ethel St., Kelowna  Hickey, Thos., Summerland  Higgins, C. Noel, R.R. 1, Summerland  Hill, T. P., Coldstream Ranch, Vernon  Hooper, Norman, Penticton  Hooper, J. L., 543 Martin St., Penticton  Hope, John, 319 Norton St., Penticton  Horton, R, B., 1552 E. Pender St., Vancouver  Home, A. P., 4025 Granville St., Vancouver  Howrie, David, 2507 - 37th Ave., Vernon  Howlett, A. W., Royal Bank, Vernon  Hurmuses, Jeff, National Cafe, Vernon  Hayden, C. A., 2904 - 26th St., Vernon  Hassen, Matt, Armstrong  Haugen, Dr. R., Armstrong  Hopkins, J. L., Armstrong  Irwin, L. H, 8804 - 101st St., Edmonton  Jenkinson, C. H., Armstrong  (Deceased)  Jenkins, J. L., Princeton  Johnson, J. W., R.R. 1, Penticton  Johnson, Mrs. Mabel, 2310 - 32nd St., Vernon  Johnston, E. R., Box 327, Vernon  Jones, W. Lloyd,   1449 Ethel St., Kelowna  Kabella, S., Okanagan Mission  Kappel, Frank, Sicamous  Kidston, Mrs. John, 4008 P. V. Rd., Vernon  King, Grant B., 471 Lakeshore Rd., Penticton  Kinloch, Miss Crunie, Blairgowrie, Scotland  Knight, Graham, 450 Ellis St., Penticton  Knox, Dr. W. J., 1855 Pendozi St., Kelowna  Knowles, J. B., 874 Manhattan Dr., Kelowna  Lantz, L. A., 3403 Mara St., Vernon  Laing, F. W., 1122 Ormand St., Oak Bay, Victoria  Latimer, G. B., 613 Martin St., Penticton  Laxon, L. A., Kelowna  Lambly, Chas., Metaline Falls, Wash., U.S.A.  Leathley, Leonard, 1493 Water St., Kelowna  9 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  Leech, Hugh B., Entomology Dept., Court House, Vernon  LeBourdais, Louis, Quesnel  (Deceased)  Lefroy, C. B. L., Postmaster, Vernon  Lett, Rev.' A. R., Oyama  Leslie, W. T., Wade and Tennis, Penticton  Ley, R. W., 4200 - 33rd St., Vernon  Lamb, Dr. W. Kaye, Librarian, U.B.C.  Lanceley, E. J., 3305 - 22nd St., Vernon  Lawrence, Peter, Ewings Landing  Liddell, S. A., R.R. 1, Summerland  Lodge, Mrs. F. J., Keremeos  Loman, Miss J., R.R. 1, Kelowna  Lowle, F. W., Skaha Lake, Penticton  Loyd, A. K, 450 Cadder Ave., Kelowna  Little, Elmer, Court House, Vancouver  Mackie, H. F., R.R. 2, Vernon  Mann, A. J., Experimental Farm, Summerland  Martin, S. J., 3103 P. V. Rd., Vernon  Meers, G. A., 2914 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Middleton, Maurice, Oyama  Middleton, W. A., R_R. 2, Vernon  Miles, Fred, Coldstream Ranch, Vernon  Miller, Mrs. Daisy R., Oliver  Macdonnell, Lawrence, 3403 Mara St., Vernon  Macorquodale, Mrs. D. F., 1270 Regent St., Montreal 16  Maisonville, Mrs. Georgina, 767 Elliott Ave., Kelowna  Mathews, Major J. B., Archives, Vancouver  Mohr, Westley, 3202 P. V. Rd., Vernon  Monk, H. B., Vernon Garage, Vernon  Mowat, J. J., 2703 - 26th St., Vernon  Monteith, J. I., 486 Cadder Ave., Kelowna  Morley, H. B., 254 Main St., Penticton  Morley, Wm., 2408 - 34th St., Vernon  Morrow,  C.  W.,  M.L.A.,   3001   - 31st St., Vernon  Munn, Dr. W. H. B., Summerland  Munroe, Dr. J. B., 1826 Belmont St., Victoria  Murphy, James F., Enderby  Murray, Fred J., Armstrong  Munro, J. A., Okanagan Landing  Midgley, T. N., The Bench, Penticton  McBride, D. A., Okanagan Landing  McCormick, Miss Lucy, Lumby  McCluskey, J. W., 3001 - 26th St., Vernon  McDougall, R. J., 832 Fairview Rd., Penticton  McDougall, W. H. H., 115 Lake Ave., Kelowna  McCulloch, A. G., 348 St. Paul St., Kamloops  McKay, Alex., Peachland  McGill, W. A., 1866 Abbott St., Kelowna  McNair, David, 273 Burns Ave., Kelowna  McLarty, Dr. H. R., Summerland  McGie, W. Ross, Armstrong  McGonigle, F. A., Hedley v  10 List of Members  McMynn, J. D., 75 Penticton Ave., Penticton  McKenzie, Rsv. Fr. W., 39 Sutherland Ave., Kelowna  MacKenzie, A. C, Princeton  McWilliams, T. F., 2072 Abbott St., Kelowna  McMahon, G. E., Enderby  MacDonald, J. R., Princeton  Macdonald, S. A., Summerland  MacGinnis, E., 85 Cambridge St., Victoria  Macdonald, Colin C, The Bench, Penticton  McRae, Miss Catherine, 385 Martin St., Penticton  Napier, Col. R. Ross, 1247 Montrose St., Victoria  Nisbet, A. W., Summerland  Newton, L. V., 453 Martin St., Penticton  Nixon, Douglas, No. 8, 1924 Comox St., Vancouver  O'Brian, P. D., Three Gables, Penticton  Oliver, W. J., 1801 - 32nd St., Vernon  Ormsby, Dr. Margaret, R.R. 2, Vernon  Parham, H. J., Whyte St., Penticton  Parkinson, R. R., 1859 Abbott St., Kelowna  Parmley, Dr. J. R., 501 Vancouver Ave., Penticton  Patten, Mrs. Chas., Armstrong  Palmer, Dr. R. O, Summerland  Pettman, Dr. F. E., 3504 - 20th St., Vernon  Peters, Mrs. Frank, Keremeos  Pound, W. C, 3904 - 32nd St., Vernon  Powley, W. R., R.R. 1, Kelowna  Prowse, Dr. W. E., 3602 - 32nd St., Vernon  Procter, W. G., Mable Lake  Prickard, Mrs. M. G., Westbank  Powell, W. R., Prairie Valley, Summerland  Pearson, A. G., Naramata Rd., Penticton  Quaedvlieg, Mrs. Marie, Keremeos.  Reece, Adrian, Westbank  Reece, Nelson, Westbank  Reece, T. B., Westbank  Reece, Mrs. T. B., Westbank  Reid, Miss E., 614 Martin St., Penticton  Reid, W. H, Okanagan Mission  Richards, Mrs. Alice, 2079 Pendozi St., Kelowna  Robison, D. J., Okanagan Landing  Robison, Miss Priscilla, 3500 - 32nd St., Vernon  Rolston, W. J., 3100 Fuller Ave., Vernon  Rosoman, Graham, Enderby  Rottacker, Mrs. Henry, Okanagan Landing  Rose, G. O, R.R. 3, Kelowna  Riley, L., Westbank  Rowland, G. J., 948 Fairview Rd., Penticton  Rammall, Rev. F. E., Armstrong  11 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  Sage, A. E., Armstrong  Sage, Dr. W. N., History Department, U.B.C, Vancouver  Schubert, Mrs. A. E., Tulameen  Schubert, Trevor E., Box 422, Vernon  Schroter, Bernard H, 2501 - 25th Ave., Vernon  Shatford, S. A., Vernon  Sigalet, W. A., 3902 - 31st St., Vernon  Simms, J. G., 3303 - 26th St., Vernon  Simpson, S. M., 2120 Abbott St., Kelowna  Simpson, Mrs. S. M., 2120 Abbott St., Kelowna  Simpson, Miss R. M., 2120 Abbott St., Kelowna  Smith, A. R., 2507 - 35th Ave., Vernon  Smith, C. B., 1703 Schubert Ave., Vernon  Smith, Franklin, 2401 - 23rd Ave., Vernon  Smith. Saul L., 2891 W. 44th Ave., Vancouver  Smith, T. Aird, 3101 - 39th Ave., Vernon  Smith, W. J., Becker St., Armstrong  Sonnerman, Mrs. E. W., Altadena Apts., 608 Stephens St.,  Spokane,  Wash, U.S.A.  Solly, Mrs. D. O. A., Summerland  Solly, Ivor, Bank of Montreal, Enderby  South, Mrs. G. I., Whyte Ave., Penticton  Spence, Andrew, Coldstream Ranch, Vernon  Spinks, R. L. W., Bank of Montreal, Powell River  Steuart, Miss D. K., Box 1418, Kelowna  Stuart, G. R., Fintry  Sterling, P. S., 2505 - 24th St., Vernon  Stirling, Hon. Grote, 606 Burne Ave., Kelowna  Stark, James, C.P.R. Freight, Vernon  Swordy, Thos., R.R. 1, Lumby  Swift, A. A., Heales Ave., Penticton  Seymour, S. P., Kalamalka Lake, Vernon  Sinclair, G. F., West Summerland  Spyer, Sidney, 2503 - 25th St., Vernon  Taite, H. B., Kalamalka Lake, Vernon  Tarlton, Fred, 600 Winnipeg St., Penticton  Tassie, G. C, R.R. 2, Vernon  Taylor, David, Princeton  Theed, R. F., West Summerland  Thomas, G. R., 812 Winnipeg St., Penticton  Thorlackson, Ben, Okanagan Centre  Thompsett, Mrs  H., 1869 Lulie St., Oak Bay, Victoria  Tripp, L. E., 2905 - 26th St., Vernon  Tupper, C. H, 230 Orchard Ave., Penticton  Van Ackeran, H. J., Okanagan Centre  Vanderburg, Dr. A. W., Summerland  Walburn, H. G., R.R. 3, Kelowna  Walker, H. D., Enderby  Warren, W. A. A., 2405 - 26th St., Vernon (Deceased)  Watt, William, Barrier, B.C.  12 List of Members  Weatherill, H. O, 2000 - 37th Ave., Vernon  Weddell, A. D., 274 Lake Ave., Kelowna  * Weeks, Capt. J. B., 614 Martin St., Penticton  * Weeks, T. V., 235 N.W. 16th Ave., Calgary, Alta.  West, J. G., Kelowna (Deceased)  White, John, 2205 Barnard Ave., Vernon  * White, Roland E., 107 Battle St., Kamloops  * White, Mrs. R. B., Box 179, Penticton  Whyte, Bryson M., 2300 - 23rd Ave., Vernon  Williamson, Mrs. Gladys, 2000 - 39th Ave., Vernon  Williamson, Geo. J., 3706 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Wilmot, Mrs. H." F., Revelstoke  Wilson, J. H., Armstrong-  Winkle, Mrs. W. H., Armstrong  Wollaston, F. E. R., Vancouver Club, Vancouver  * Wolsey, Mrs  Janet K., Okanagan Landing  Woods, J. B., Okanagan Landing  Wood, Leonard, R.R. 3, Armstrong  Wood, Robert, R.R. 3, Armstrong  Wood, A. B., 1997 Pendozi St., Kelowna  Woolliams, Ewart, Summerland  * Willis, Mrs. H. A., 3837 Cartier St., Kelowna  * Young, B. Frank, Otter Lake, Armstrong  Young, T. C, Box 86, Jasper, Alta.  Young, Vance, Armstrong  PUBLIC LIBRARIES  New York Public Library, 5th Ave. & 42nd St., New York 18, N.Y.,  U.S.A.  * Okanagan Union Library, 594 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  * Provincial Library, Parliament Buildings, Victoria  * Seattle Public Library, Seattle, Wash., U.S.A.  Spokane Public Library, Spokane 9, Wash, U.S.A.  Toronto Public Library, College & St. George Sts., Toronto, Ont.  Vancouver Public Library, Vancouver  Vernon Public Library, 3006 - 30th St., Vernon  Victoi'ia Public Library, Victoria  UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES  Indiana University Library, Bloomington, Indiana, U.S.A.  Redpath Library, McGill University, 3459 McTavish St., Montreal, P.Q.  * University of British Columbia, Point Grey, Vancouver  University of Washington Library, Seattle 5, Wash, U.S.A.  University of Western Ontario, London, Ont.  University of Toronto, Toronto 5, Ont.  HISTORICAL SOCIETIES  Historical Society of Montana, Helena, Montana, U.S.A.  State of Wisconsin Historical Society, 816 State St., Madison, Wise,  U.S.A.  13 The Okanagan Historical Society—I  SCHOOL LIBRARIES  Penticton High School, Penticton  * Penticton Elementary School, Penticton.  Provincial Normal School, Victoria  * Vernon High School, Vernon  * Vernon Elementary School, Vernon  MUSEUMS, CLUBS, NEWSPAPERS AND OTHERS  * Kamloops Museum, Kamloops  * Vernon Club, 3000 31st St., Vernon  Country Life, 2609 - 32nd St., Vernon  Kelowna Courier, 1580 Water St., Kelowna  Okanagan Broadcasters, Radio Building, Kelowna  * Spyer & Cousins, 3006 - 31st St., Vernon  NOTE:— Due to the method of distribution of the 11th Report,  some names of members are missing from the foregoing  list. The existing mailing list was very incomplete  and some addresses very old. To offset this, a number  of the members took from six to twelve copies at a  time, for distribution. Without exception they turned  in the money, but, in many cases were unable to give  a complete list of those from whom they had collected.  * Indicates the payment of $2.50 in advance for 1948  Membership, to provide funds for publishing. Patrons  have in addition made outstanding donations for the  same purpose.  The Penticton Herald published a series of articles from  June until December in 1947 by Mrs. R. B. White entitled "The  Pioneer Trail," which contained much information concerning  Indian life and customs as well as Mrs. White's reminiscences  covering a long period of residence in the Okanagan Valley.  14 The Okanagan Valley and adjoining areas.  15 TRE LEGEND OT SRUS1P EALLS  "A long, long time ago, when the world was young and  fresh, before hatred, greed and strife entered, and all was  peace and happiness, and all the animals lived harmoniously  together, the Bear, Elk, Fox, Coyote and all animals and birds  were ancestors of human beings.  "Coyote lived in a lovely but very lonely place far away  from everyone, where he had no one with whom to speak or  play or feast. At last he became very lonesome and made up  his mind ever afterwards to break the monotony and invite  all his friends once a year to a great feast and jollification.  "So he set himself to work and built a great rapid and  gave it the name of Shuswap Falls. Then he made a big  kettle out of stone with legs under it and hung it over the Falls.  Over this he constructed a fish trap, also out of stone, where he  could catch many salmon and boil them in the Big Kettle. Then  Coyote made a seat for himself out of stone beside the Falls  where he could watch the fish being caught and being cooked,  and also where he could talk with his old cronies and at the  same time see the sports and watch the feasting.  "When he got all this finished to his satisfaction, the buds  on the fir trees were just bursting out. By this sign he knew the  salmon run was due. So he called aloud for his friends io  come and feast. His voice could be heard afar and near as  it can even to this day; so it sounded in the long, long ago on  every hill, in every vale and all Coyote's friends said, 'Hark!  There is Coyote calling.   Let us go.'  "Coyote could distinguish who was coming as his friends  called out to him on their way, accepting his invitation. He was  over-joyed, running round and round to catch his tail, as he  16 The Legend of Shuswap Falls  heard the bawl of the Grizzly, the howl of the Timber Wolf, the  snort of the Elk, the hoot of the Horned Owl, the chatter of the  King-fisher and all the other voices he knew.  "Soon they were all assembled and great was the astonishment and rejoicing when they beheld the wonder Coyote had  wrought and the provisions he had made for their entertainment.  It was a busy time, what with the feasting and the sports which  lasted a fortnight with camp-fires burning brightly by day and  by night, until all were dead tired, and the time came to depart.  Then all shook old Coyote by the hand with grateful hearts for  his hospitality. They all promised to come again when next  the fir trees were bursting out into bud. So all went home  happy.  "Now all this happened a very long, long time ago. Now  to this day when the firs are in bud each Spring, the hills around  Shuswap Falls still re-echo the invitation call of Coyote and the  answering call of Coyote's friends, and the camp-fire lights  re-appear.  "Wise people say this is only fancy, but we know better."  Such is the Legend of Shuswap Falls as narrated by the  old   folk   of   the   Okanagan   tribe,   and   translated   from   the  Okanagan dialect by Mrs. William Brent.  lune 15, 1929.  As in the past, the term "Okanagan Valley" has been taken  for the purposes of this Society to include all that portion of  British Columbia which is drained by the Okanagan, Similkameen and Spallumcheen Rivers and their tributaries.  17 TRE SEVEN STONES OE SIMILRAMEEN  By Rev. lohn C. Goodfellow  The last time I sat on Castle Rock, I had with me a volume  of Addison. It is quite possible that he conceived the Vision of  Mirza while meditating in Westminster Abbey as was his wont.  When he left the Abbey the vision was rudely interrupted.  Addison seems to have caught the sweet strains of the shepherd's reed, and enshrined them in his English prose. The  style is enchanting, and carries the reader from paragraph to  paragraph, until he is rudely awakened by an old form of  "To be continued in our next." Even so, did Mirza come to  himself when the genius disappeared; or Addison, when the  grey life of London burst upon him. Small wonder that Mirza  sees the great past as a black darkness, like a London fog.  Addison had been among the tombs and his mind had wandered back to the East, giving to his thoughts an Oriental setting.  The muddy Thames becomes the "Stream of Time." The bridge  across it is London Bridge. This blending of fact with fancy  in no wise detracts from truth. "What is grey with age becomes  religious." The language of Addison is worthy of the Hebrew  prophets of old. The background, no less than the harmonious  march of words, creates that indefinable, oriental atmosphere  so difficult to achieve in literature.  It can hardly be denied that some places have an "atmosphere" in which people live and move and have their being.  They may be hardly conscious of it, but their whole lives are  moulded by echoes of the past, which are more of feeling than  of hearing.    "Perhaps in this neglected spot . . ."  This may be more true of Eastern Canada, and the old lands  of Europe, than of western America.    Here we have only the  18 The Seven Stones of Similkameen  beginnings of atmosphere which clothes other lands with a  certain charm which is the true Mother of Patriotism. Once we  realize that mythology may be history seen through primitive  minds, and that Legend is one of the creators of atmosphere,  then we have travelled far towards a true appreciation of  history. The historian must have a wider horizon, and a deeper  insight than the mere chronicler. There is a wealth of truth  wrapped up in local legend.  Mention of Castle Rock, two miles east of Princeton, revives  a legend that is common in these parts. The valley of Similkameen is a land of light and shade. There is seldom fog in the  valley, but winters are long and sometimes severe. Nature has  a delightful way of striking a balance. Life is full of compensations. Wherever winters are severe, hearts are warm. When the  struggle for existence is hard the finer qualities of human hearts  seem to thrive. Friendship and courage take firmest root in  stony ground.  Oldtimers in Similkameen had an interesting way of marking distance. The first white settler was John Fall Allison. Now  he sleeps, with others of his family, at the base of Castle Rock.  In early days Allison often sat on the rock summit. Looking  west, he would see the Similkameen and Tulameen come together. In the forks of these rivers stands the Princeton of today.  Looking east, the united streams, under the name of Similkameen, wind through narrowing heights on their way to the  Pacific. A glorious panorama is this valley of Similkameen.  It is commonly said that it was Allison's wish to be buried at  the summit of Castle Rock, after he had crossed the Great  Divide. From there his spirit would watch the ever-changing  life of the valley below. When the end came, Similkameen was  in the grip of winter and Allison was laid to rest at the base of  the great rock.  How truly the Allison home had become the centre of the  valley is seen in the fact that even today distances are still  19 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  determined as from the first home of the first settler. The creeks  east of Princeton are called One Mile, Five Mile, Twenty Mile.  To the west theTe is the Nine Mile bridge.  The legends which give colour and background to Similkameen history have to do with seven stones, some of which can  no longer be pointed out with certainty — the Rainstone, the  Witchstone, the Ghoststone, the Firestone, the Lovestone, the  Leapstone, and the Hol(e)ystone.  The RAINSTONE was situated in the Similkameen River,  a little east of the original Allison home. About one hundred  yards east of the present W. Thomas residence is a large empty  building. The original Allison home was between this and the  river. The Rainstone was east of this, and not far from the  bank, but it can no longer be identified.  According to legend, if this stone were struck, it caused  rain to fall. One is reminded that Moses caused water to gush  forth by striking a rock. One early settler laughed at an Indian  who expressed faith in the rainstone. It was a bright, sunny  day and the sceptic said he would strike the rock and if rain  fell, he would ride naked to Keremeos. Seizing a big stick, he  struck the rock with such force that he broke the stick. Then  the heavens were opened and the rain came tumbling down.  The white man was as good as his word and he rode naked all  the way to Keremeos.   At least, so the legend goes.  The WITCHSTONE is still to be seen. It is to be found near  the entrance to the old Dignan place at the base of a large tree  on the right hand side of the road going in from the railway.  Old Mrs. Allison was a firm believer in Ogopogo, in witches,  and the hairy men of the mountains who have gained international fame under the name of Sasquatch. The belief in  witches and sea and land monsters is universal. The stone  in ■question has markings that suggest the prints of dancing  feet.    Of course, there is no proof that the markings originated  20 The Seven Stones of Similkameen  in the way suggested. Such "footstones" are to be found  elsewhere and local explanations differ. It is on record that  "our" Indians avoided the place at night time, but they did not  hesitate to go near the place in daylight. To newcomers the  tradition of witches may conjure up visions of dancing spirits  around a boiling cauldron, but it is quite likely that the site was  a meeting place for tribal discussions before the white man  came.    It is difficult to separate fact from fancy.  Then there is the GHOSTSTONE. Information about this  was supplied by the late David Whitley, who was better known  as "Red Paddy." The Ghoststone was about twenty miles north  of Princeton, on the One Mile, or Merritt Road. Travelling north,  one passed the Thynne ranch, then came to a long, steep hill.  If, instead of climbing the hill, one skirted the base at the valley  level he would come to the Ghoststone after walking a hundred  yards from the highway. Following reconstruction of the road  the site was buried under tons of debris, but Paddy remembered  when the rock was covered with thousands of pieces of wood.  No Indian would dream of passing the spot without placing his  little offering on the ancient rock.  No doubt the place was the site of votive offerings in  memory of dead comrades. According to Mr. Whitley, a battle  between the Nicolas and the Similkameens was fought here.  The Nicolas were forced to retire, leaving many dead on the  field. The offerings presented were in the nature of a tribute  to the memory of those killed in battle long ago. Here, again,  we have a custom that can be duplicated in many parts of the  globe.  When Mrs. Allison told me about the FIRESTONE, her  memory was already failing and she could not give the exact  location. She knew it was between Princeton and Hedley, and  thought it was in the vicinity of Kate's Rock.  The Firestone had the peculiar property of giving off smoke  by day, and fire by night.   This description reminds one of the  21 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  children of Israel marching through the desert to the Promised  Land. They were guided by a cloud by day and a pillar of  fire by night. It would be rash to brush off the local story with  a smile. It may well be a tribal memory going back for ages  to the time when there was an open volcanic vent in the area,  which emitted columns of smoke by day and fire by night, like  Mount Vesuvius seen from the sea.  The LOVESTONE is easy to identify. It is a huge boulder  with a square front over twenty feet in height, and there is an  upright staff on top. Travelling east, it is on the left hand side  of the road between Hedley and Keremeos, and only a few  miles distant from the latter point.  According to local legend, the daughter of a Similkameen  chief fell in love with a young brave of another tribe. The chief  frowned on the courtship. One night the chief caught the young  brave and determined that he should be put to death the next  day. The Indian maid pleaded on bended knee for her lover  but the chief was adamant. Then the young maid swore that  she would ride on horseback to the top of the square rock if  this would save her lover. The old chief grunted. He thought  he knew that it could not be done. And so he consented. The  young maid accomplished the feat, and the old chief was so  pleased with this exhibition of horsemanship and chivalry that  the young brave was forgiven and received into the family.  After hearing this story I went to see the rock, and decided  that it could not be done. I could not even climb halfway on  hands and knees without sliding back.  Here again, we must be cautious. During the hundred  years or more that have elapsed since the feat was reported,  it is quite possible that the angle of the rear approach has  changed. This is a common occurrence and I would sooner  believe this than rob our valley of such a delightful story.  The LEAPSTONE, or Lover's Leap, is the highest point on  22 The Seven Stones of Similkameen  the road between Coalmont and Tulameen, where the road  takes a sharp bend at the top of a long hill. There are several  versions of the local story. They have much in common with  the story of the Lover's Leap which can be duplicated in the  folklore of nearly every country.  Lastly, we come to the HOL(E)YSTONE, which lies on the  Thomas property across the road from the Princeton court  house. It is a relic of the days when rock drilling contests were  a feature of every Dominion Day celebration in Similkameen.  The stone is full of holes caused by drilling contests, and for  this reason has been christened the "Hol(e)ystone." It would  be a thousand pities if it were not preserved. It takes up little  room and is a source of interest to tourists.  The Hol(e)ystone is a link not only with the miner, but with  the prospector. When Spring came, many miners took to the  hills in search of hidden wealth.  It is given to few pioneers and prospectors to see their  dreams come true. Others reap where they have sowed. Not  every soul is cast in the pioneering mould, but those who are  do not hesitate to face hardship, and sacrifice present comfort  for the sake of the future gain. It matters little whether they  realize their dreams or not. The thing that matters is that they  do dream and work till sunset. This is the only happiness most  of them ever find. Such development as we have in this west  we owe to these hardy souls who have not hesitated to suffer  hardship while seeking out the hidden treasures of earth. They  have helped to create the atmosphere of the west, without which  no country can be truly great.  23 SOCIETY EOR TRE REVIVAL OF  NO! ARTS AND CRAFTS  Albert Millar, President  THE OKANAGAN SOCIETY for the Revival of Indian Arts  and Crafts came into existence in the Spring of 1941. Its  constitution is similar to that of the Victoria Society for furtherance of B.C. Indian Arts and Crafts, now known as "The B.C.  Indian Arts and Welfare Society," Victoria, B.C.  OBJECTS  1. To stimulate and record authentic native Arts, Legends,  Songs, Dances and Dramatic Art amongst the Okanagan  Indians.  2. To compile a schedule and pictorial record of authentic  specimens of Pictographs and Petroglyphs.  3. To encourage ethnological studies among young Indians.  4. To arrange exhibits of Indian Arts, Crafts and Drama.  5. To guide the efforts of the Indians so that their products  have real artistic and market value.  6. To keep in touch with similar organizations in Canada and  the United States of America.  7. To facilitate advanced studies in cases of pupils showing  outstanding ability where such study should have to take  place outside of the Reserve.  8. To publish leaflets, books and articles in harmony with the  work of the Society.  BY THESE WAYS AND MEANS:  (a) To provide the Okanagan Indians with the natural outlet  for self expression in the best tradition of their forefathers.  (b) To arouse public interest in, and sympathy with the  Indians.  24   . Okanagan Society for, the Revival of Indian Arts and Crafts  (c)    To provide such picturesque attractions as may encourage  tourist interest.  IN GENERAL  All specimens and material coming into the hands of the  Society shall be offered on loan to the Okanagan Historical Society if it has a Museum of its own, the Provincial Archives, the  Provincial Musium or to the Department of Education.  The Society was intended primarily to supplement work  being done by the Victoria Society under the leadership of  Miss Alice Ravenhill, the noted authority on Indian Arts and  Crafts, and to assist Mr. Anthony Walsh in promoting ihe  interests of his pupils at the Inkameep Indian Day School.  During the period from 1933 to 1940, Mr. Anthony Walsh  had achieved marvellous results with his little band of Indian  children. In the beginning he had encouraged them in experimenting in simple ceramics; as the pupils progressed, plastic  art, such as modelling, mask designing and construction was  introduced, followed by drawings of all kinds of bird and  animal life. The little band became enthusiastic and keen to  develop their latent talent, which, but for Mr. Anthony Walsh,  might never have come to light. Enthusiasm knew no bounds  when finally an endeavour was made to present the historical  background of the tribe by means of pictorial art.  Under Mr. Walsh's able guidance, all pupils began to show  talent for one or other form of the arts. One pupil, "Sis-hu-ulk"  possessed such outstanding ability that his paintings on buckskin were shown at exhibitions in London, Paris, Vienna, Prague  and Dublin and in many cities across Canada.  "Sis-hu-ulk's" work and that of other pupils won some of  the highest awards made by the "Royal Drawing Society" of  London, England.  The  impetus  given to  the  Inkameep  pupils  through  en-  25 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  couragement and assistance by this Society, brought quite  unexpected results and before long the children and artists  had earned a reputation which echoed across Canada. Dramatics became part of the training and in May, 1942, the Society  was able to finance the children's trip to Victoria where they  gave open air performances on the occasion of the opening of  Thunderbird Park, and where they were guests of the Department of Education. On their return journey, they stayed over  in Vancouver in order that recordings of their songs could be  made.  Following this, the children under the direction of their  teacher, Mr. Walsh, put on an evening's entertainment of plays,  songs and dances at Summerland, Penticton and Oliver.  In order to stimulate communal effort and public opinion,  the Okanagan Society arranged an exhibition of Indian Arts  and Crafts in the Osoyoos Community Hall in the Fall of 1942.  The Inkameep Reserve contributed nearly 500 exhibits. In  the' evening the Inkameep Players entertained a large audience with a presentation of Native Plays, Dances and Songs.  The costumes, masks and stage properties used in these plays  were of their own design and construction.  The Society felt very fortunate in having in the near  vicinity a "band" so richly endowed with creative talent. It  seemed only right that everything possible should be done to  encourage the further development of the budding talent of  this remarkable Indian band and guide it into broader channels.  At the same time every endeavour was made to regenerate  in these people a pride of race and self respect.  At the end of 1942, Mr. Walsh suddenly resigned from his  position at Inkameep. Although we here pay tribute to the  achievement of Mr. Walsh in his pioneer work of stimulating  and developing true Indian Art, we admit disappointment at  the tragic fate which befell the Inkameep community as the  26 Okanagan Society lor the Revival of Indian Arts and Crafts  result of his unexpected resignation. There is no denying ihe  fact that the Inkameep Band suffered an irreparable loss. For  over two years the children received little or no instruction.  Had the Society not intervened with the Indian Department at  Ottawa, urging the appointment of a teacher and also requesting improved living quarters for him, it is doubtful whether the  post would have been filled as soon as it was. Meanwhile,  the children as well as the young artists who had left school,  missed Mr. Walsh and his sympathetic attitude towards them,  and they became lost and confused. One teacher who accepted  the appointment remained long enough to discourage all effort  to develop Indian Native Art, by destroying all such exhibits  as adorned the schoolroom walls. As far as we know, no  effort has been made to re-establish the creative work that had  been initiated by Mr. Walsh.  Frustrated in its efforts to assist the Inkameep Indian  children, and realizing the helpless position in which these  wards of the Government live on the Reserve, and their inability  to improve their status under existing conditions, the Society  broadened its activities and endeavoured to stimulate public  interest in the welfare of our native Indian population.  In 1944, this Society submitted a Brief entitled "NATIVE  CANADIANS — A plan for the Rehabilitation of Indians" to  the Premier, the Right Hon. Mackenzie King. Nearly fifteen  hundred copies of the Brief were sent to interested groups and  individuals across Canada, with the result that many petitions  were forwarded to Ottawa requesting that our Brief be given  consideration.  Considerable press publicity was given to our Brief, which  was soon followed by others from Alberta, Saskatchewan, etc.,  with the result that public opinion could no longer be ignored,  and in May 1946, we had the satisfaction of learning that a  "Special   Joint   Committee   of  the   Senate   and   the   House   of  27 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  Commons" had been appointed "to examine and consider the  Indian Act."  This Joint Committee by July, 1947, had held 67 sittings,  and heard 102 witnesses. It is interesting to know that 153  written briefs or submissions were sent in by Indian bands or  organizations or other Canadian individuals or groups interested  in the welfare of our Native Canadians. The Special Joint  Committee of the Senate and the House of Commons has since  been instructed to continue and complete its examination  and consideration of the Indian Act. At the time of writing,  the Committee is still sitting.  In June, 1946, the Society presented a Supplementary Brief  entitled "Recommendations to be read in conjunction with ihe  original brief."  The Okanagan Society appears to have played an important part in the history of the Okanagan. It was the forerunner of direct appeal to Ottawa in the interest of our Native  Canadians, and was the first organization to present a comprehensive Brief dealing with the important question of Revision  of the Indian Act, which culminated in the appointment of a  Special Joint Committee of the Senate and the House of  Commons to examine and consider the Indian Act.  In an Editorial which appeared in "Saturday Night" September 23rd, 1944, it was stated:—■  "It seems odd that the most intelligent and understanding suggestions for ihe modernization of Canada's policy  towards the Indians of the Dominion should have come  from a little community in British Columbia. But such is the  case.  "The Brief of the Okanagan Society shows how Canada  has allowed her Indian policy to lag unchanged in a fast  moving world, and how much ashamed of it we shall have  to feel if we do not bring it up to date soon." FRANCIS 0. CLAUDET'S JOURNAL  A Trip to Investigate the Cherry Creek Silver Mine,  July 31 — Augusi 23, 1867.  By Margaret A. Ormsby  When, in 1863, silver ore was discovered on the west bank  of Cherry Creek, interest in the area was greater than earlier  when reports of the presence of gold had been circulated.    In  1864, 700 pounds of good ore were taken out and smelted in  San Francisco. Subsequently, however, the supply of ore at  the spot where it had first been discovered became exhausted,  and tunnels were dug in the hope of finding the main lode.    In  1865, Captain Houghton found Luc Girouard in charge of silver-  mining operations.  In the spring of 1866, another outcrop was discovered on  the bed of the creek, and on July 9 of the same year, the Cherry  Creek Silver Mining Company Limited, was registered. This  company had a capital stock of $150,000, which was divided  into 3000 shares of the value of $50 each, 1125 of which were  taken by the shareholders: V. Kopp, George Dietz, George  Landevoight, W. H. Sutton, Clement F. Cornwall, lames Robinson, W. J. Saunders, John G. Wirth, Hugh Nelson, W. H. Dell,  Luc Girouard, Donald Chisholm and F. D. Morrison, most of  whom were prominent business and mining men. In 1867, this  company leased 320 acres from the government for mining  purposes.  That same year, F. G. Claudet, Superintendent of the Assay  Office at New Westminster was sent by Governor Seymour to  report on the mineral wealth at Cherry Creek. Claudet's  journal is in the Provincial Archives. It covers the period from  July 31 until August 23, 1867, and is full of interest because of  29 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  the pains Claudet took to record his experiences, his impressions  of the country, and his examination of the mine. Permission to  print the journal has been granted by Mr. Willard E. Ireland,  and that part of it dealing with the period, August 7 until  August  18, inclusive,  is given herewith:  Wednesday,  August 7, 1867  Thursday,  August 8, 1867  Left Kamloops at about V2 past 6 a.m. having  made an arrangement with a halfbreed packer  at 2$ a day — We had bad accommodation  at this place, having to sleep on the floor  which was anything but clean whilst 3 or 4  roughs were playing at cards and drinking &  making an awful noise — The mosquitoes  were frightful and just as I got a little sleep a  cock which was in the room began to crow  about 20 times without ceasing. I found the  cock had been roosting just over my head.  Kamloops is about 28 miles from Savona's  ferry ■—• When we left Kamloops we continued  up the Valley of the South fork of the Thompson alias Shuswap river, which runs out of  Shuswap lake and arrived at Duck's ranch at  % past 12-noon — The scenery all along  is the same consisting of sand hills and flats  with volcanic rocks towering above the sand  hills —■ We have milk and wild raspberries  which are very abundant here — and all over  this section of the country. Ducks is about 16  miles from Kamloops. Some -time before we  arrived at Ducks ranch there was a thunderstorm in the mountain and we had a small  shower of rain in the valley — The Creek  at Ducks is called Monte Creek —  Left Monte Creek at about % io 7 a.m. and  arrived at Grand Prairie at 1 p.m. Grand  Prairie is 700 feet above Duck's place.    After  30 Francis G. Claudet's Journal  leaving Ducks passed up Monte Creek until  we came to a lake —■ All the way we passed  through timber up hill & down hill —■ (One hill  is very steep & long to go up, and too steep  to ride down) till you get to Grand Prairie  which is an extensive plain —-No signs of cultivation between Ducks & Grand Prairie —  The mountain we crossed is about 4000 feet  above sea-level by barometrical measurement.  The flies and mosquitoes were nearly unbearable & the heat most intense — I felt the  effects of the heat more to-day than I had done  before, and I was rather sore from riding —  It is a good 18 miles from Ducks to Grand  Prairie. Just before the house at G. Prairie,  you have to ford Salmon River a little stream  —■ Grog all out & none to be got.  Friday, Got up at 3 a.m. to make an early start for  August 9, 1867 Houghtons, but the horses were very wild and  were not driven in till past 4. Only started at  ... 5 a.m. after riding about 12 miles through the  timber & crossing a river (Salmon river again?)  Got into more open country more or less up &  down hill — passed one or two small lakes  of a beautiful deep green color ■—■ At 1 p.m.  reached the head of Okanagan lake —■ continued along the prairie more or less up &  down hill and reached Captain Houghton's  at y2 past 3 p.m. Very hot and tired, having  ridden 40 miles partly in a very hot sun —  We are very tired having been so much on  horseback. I purpose remaining here to rest  till Monday morning, Capt. Houghton having  asked me.  31 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  Saturday, Got up at about V2 past 8.    While at break-  August 10, 1867 fast Sutton and Dietz arrived — The day passed some shooting, some bathing &c — Horse  flies & mosquitoes abundant. Spent the day  in rest — Had a touch of tooth-ache.  Sunday, Got up at V2 past 5 a.m. — Packed up, and  August 11, 1867 made  an arrangement with  a fresh  Indian,  8th after the other being engaged by Mr. Leech to go  Trinity with him to Okanagan.   He is to pack a horse  and bring his own horse to ride for 1%$ a day  — If we return at the end of five days he is  to get ten dollars. We intended starting tomorrow, but Sutton is in a great hurry & rather  than go alone, I start with them to-day. Left  Houghtons at % past 8 a.m. with Sutton,  Horner 6c Dietz —■ Most of the riding is through  timber of which much is fallen, tedious 6c slow  travelling in consequence. Arrived after going  a circuitous path round the mountain, called  camel at % past 2 at the bridge (which is very  rotten) over the Spillamacheen rapids (Shuswap Falls) 20 miles from Houghtons ■—■ Scenery  very grand — We went over one by one as  the bridge is very shaky 6c rotten —■ Continued  up the Spillamacheen (Shuswap) valley about  7 miles farther 6c bivouacked for the night —■  Arrived here at about % past 5 p.m. the trail  being up 6c down steep places 6c very broken  with fallen timber — Mosquitoes troublesome  — rigged up netting. Cooked supper — We  are now on the bank of the Spillamacheen  river, and on either side run the hills — There  are some Indians here who have shot several  bears. On the way we found heaps of huckleberries of which we eat a large quantity —  32 Francis G. Claudet's Journal  We had nothing to eat all day except these  until about 7 p.m. when we had squirrel shot  by Dietz 6c a grouse shot by Indian. There is  a variety of pretty flowers in this section of  the country, wild lupins, wild hollyhock 6c  many of which I do not know the names —  We brought some tea, bread 6c bacon from  Houghton's with us — There are white birch,  cottonwood, cedar 6c various species of fir —  Monday, Started from Camp at about 6 a.m.    Had to  August 12, 1867 cross the Spillamacheen about 2 miles from  our camp. Took some time as the water was  too high to ford it, and we had to swim the  horses across — We went over in a bark  canoe — Cherry Creek empties into the Spillamacheen here — After riding about 3 hours  through brush 6c timber up 6c down, 6c fording  Cherry Creek two or three times we arrived  at 12 noon at the Silver Mine — At one spot  we found an abundance of wild raspberries,  which were not unwelcome to us as we had  eaten nothing all day but a small piece of  bread — Apparently the best route to these  mines instead of the circuitous 6c bad land  travel we have followed would be from Savona's ferry by water, to within 15 miles of the  head of Okanagan lake, thence by land to  Houghton's, and from Houghtons, over the  "Camel's back" mountain, which would give  about 50 miles of land travel instead of 89  miles as at present from Ducks to Cherry  creek — Cherry creek is about 8 miles beyond  where we camped, making it 35 miles from  Houghtons.  Tuesday, Went down the shaft and examined the tunnel  Augusi 13, 1867 at present in progress — the shaft is well built  33 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  round with timber 6c is 30 feet deep — The  tunnel runs from the base of the shaft Magnetic  North about 24 feet — Here the stratification  consisting of plumbago schist with quartz  seams of various sizes running parallel. The  gallaceous slate is visible with the stratification — In one place the quartz is 2 feet thick  but it is mostly in small threads — The foot  of the vein in the creek (now covered with  water) varying so much in thickness as I am  informed by Mr. Kopp, I should think it improbable that it is a true vein — The first ore  of all was taken out 3 years ago. On the  South side of the reef the large quantity of  ore was got which is now going to be shipped  to S. Fco next spring.  In the afternoon I went down the creek about  200 yds. and was shown the position of a  quartz vein which is now under water, which  runs in a parallel direction with the creek.  From this vein I was given three specimens  but I doubt whether any ore is in them. We  continued up a hill and then down the other  side through fallen timber 6c brush most disagreeable walking, until at the base of the  hill we arrived at the Canon — Here we saw  quartz in one or two places but nothing worth  mentioning — I consider most of the quartz  croppings are merely dykes, adjoining them  are trap, greenstone 6cC — The country is most  difficult to prospect as the only place where  you have a chance of seeing the strata laid  bare is in the creek, and you can only follow  up a vein by guesswork even with the compass   unless   you   have   two   croppings    on  34 Francis G. Claudet's Journal  opposite sides of the creek to give the direction  — All the surface of the country is thickly  timbered and overgrown with underbrush, the  soil is about 2 or 3 feet thick, and is of a  clayey character —• Evidences of the decomposition of Felspar is visible in many places —  Blocks 6c fragments of rocks of all sizes, character and shapes are scattered here 6c there  upon and in the soil. The hills in the immediate vicinity of the creek are about 300 to  500 feet in height — At the Mine there is a  little flat bench on both sides of the creek of  about 3 acres — This is being slightly cultivated — I forgot to note yesterday that we  went up the creek a short distance to look at  some outcrops, but I saw nothing of any  interest — Trap, metamorphic slates, Greenstone, 6cC all more or less acted upon by the  air 6c moisture, seem to be characteristic rocks  — The quartz as far as I could see was of a  very coarse description 6c containing no metal  but Iron —  There appears to be an opinion that there  is a sett of veins in this District, some running  E.W. others N.S. but I could not see anything  which would lead me to suppose this was the  case —  Wednesday, Saw a lump of ore weighing 54 lbs. which was  August 14:, 1867 got out of black ore lead — They were going  to send it down — They got out a piece  weighing 135 lbs. which was the largest. Saw  one piece of solid ore without any rock about  6 inches in diameter — (In the night we had a  thunder storm and rain. This morning it is  close and cloudy —)  35 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  Started from Cherry Creek at 11 a.m., arrived after fording Cherry creek three times,  at the Spillamacheen at about 1 p.m. The  Canoe Indian was not there, we had to wait an  hour 6c a half on the bank of the river — It  came on very cloudy 6c a thunderstorm was  gathering in the mountains — At about %  past 2 the Indian came 6c we went over in the  canoe, and the horses swam across without  much difficulty — After proceeding a short  distance it began to blow and rain violently  and a heavy thunderstorm came on. I got  wet through before I could get out my waterproof — At last we reached the Indian hut  near which we had camped on our way out —  While under this slender bark roof the thunder  6c lightning continued and the largest hailstones poured down I ever saw — Lumps of  clear ice the size of marbles ■—• At length it  held up a little and we made the best of our  way towards the bridge where we intended  camping —■ We were caught in more rain and  after riding through wet brush 6c fallen timber  up and down hill we at length arrived at our  camping place at 6 p.m. The view of the  Canon just above the bridge is very grand,  you ride down the side of the mountain above  the roaring torrent beneath — We started a  Camp fire and put up a tent with sticks and  blankets, had some hot tea 6c bacon 6c bread  6c turned in having dried ourselves as well as  We could — The storm continued for some time  — Hot grog would have been much appreciated just about this period — The miles in this  part of the country are very long, they call it  only 15 miles from Cherry Creek but I think  36 Francis G. Claudet's Journal  it near 20. On the road I was nearly torn off  my horse by his rushing through a small fir  tree — It is not pleasant travelling through  the timber 6c brush, this weather especially —■  Thursday, Left camp at the Canon at 9 a.m. weather a  August 15, 1867 little more promising — Got through the timber  in an hour 6c a half made good way till about  10 miles from Houghtons, Harry's Creek, when  we got off our horses to eat berries and they  ran off —■ We hunted after them to no purpose,  and made up our minds to walk, the Indians  having gone on with the pack horse — Our  Indian however returned to look after us and  we sent him to hunt up the horses — He found  them at length and we proceeded on our  journey reaching Houghtons at about 4 p.m.  We had some bread 6c jam 6c coffee having  eaten nothing but berries since 8 a.m. — I  then had a bathe in the creek which was a  great luxury — the mosquitoes were however  very annoying — Houghton is away at the  mission — at about 6 p.m. Mr. Phillips arrived  from Grand Prairie —  Friday, Got up at 6 a.m. to start — Indian however  August 16, 1867 backed out and we had to get another; we  had some trouble in finding the horses and  did not leave till 11 a.m. rode hard all day,  very fine and warm — Halfway, about 20  miles crossed Salmon river and had a drink  of water —■ Continued our way — 14 miles of  forest to ride through — After a long 6c hard  ride of 40 miles arrived at Grand Prairie at  8 p.m. Shot prairie ducks on the way and  cooked them for supper, having had nothing to  eat since 7 a.m. Went to bed early so as to be The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  up in time — The view from the head of Okanagan Lake was splendid; the mountains  having a rich bluish tinge. This is about 10  miles from Houghtons — The house at Grand  Prairie is very dirty 6c beastly in every sense  of the word for there are animals of every  description, cats, dogs, pigs, deer, chickens,  cows, horses and fleas 6cc in great profusion —■  Saturday, Left Grand Prairie at 6 a.m., weather fine 6c  August 17, 1867 warm — After a pretty long ride for an empty  stomach viz. 18 miles we arrived at Ducks  ranch at 12 noon — Here we found nobody  at home and we are starving — At length the  men arrived 6c gave us some much-a-much —  Being tired of riding and the horses being  nearly played out, we gave them a fee and  made an arrangement with an Indian to take  us down to Kamloops in a canoe — It was a  small one and the gunnels (sic) were within  an inch of the water so we could not move  about much — Left Ducks at 3 p.m. and arrived at Kamloops at about 8 p.m.. This  distance is 18 miles. Capt. Moffatt was very  polite 6c asked us to stay 6c have a shakedown  cxc. Howlett, Mr. Bissett, Mr. Pemberton were  there. Howlett kindly gave me his bed, which  was very comfortable 6c I had a good sleep  till the mosquitoes woke me up at about 5 a.m.  The banks of the river are lined with small  timber 6c brush, and then the flats or benches  extend for various distances to the Sandhills.  The sandhills which are at the base of the  mountains vary much in shape 6c size —  Sunday, Waited at the Fort all day, as the horses had  August 18, 1867 strayed away — We sent three men on horse-  38  L__ Francis G. Claudet's Journal  back including our Indian after them 6c they  were not brought in till 5 p.m. We passed the  day pleasantly, fine weather, beautiful view,  and lots of eating and drinking all day, Capt.  Moffatt was very hospitable —■ We had made  arrangements to go down by water to Savona's  Ferry in Howlett's Canoe (used by Bissett) but  could not start until our Indian returned, as  we had only bargained for his coming as • far  as Kamloops. Got a few specimens in the  course of the day of the rock in the vicinity —  The soil is very micaceous in places, evidently  produced from the disintegration of granitic  rocks, by the decomposition of Felspar. In  some places there are small layers of fragments of rock 6c small stones, like the occurrence of flint in Chalk —■ Atmosphere very  dry, no dew at nights, and salt does not absorb  any moisture — Having sent our Indian on  with the horses, we left Fort Kamloops at 5  p.m. in the canoe — Pulled down the Thompson 6 miles, and entered the lake; after about  12 miles pulling we camped, having lighted  a very large fire —  Claudet's Journal also contains lengthy notes made at the  mines on August 12 and 13. The information contained in  these was later incorporated into a report which was published  in the Government Gazette September 14, 1867, pp. 3 6c 4. The  main conclusion contained in this report was that "it would  appear that an extraordinary rich 'pocket' of ore was discovered  in the bed of the Creek, and that segregated veins, containing  ore, permeate the slate; but beyond this nothing definite is  known at present."  The Cherry Creek Mining Company prospected for nearly  two years at great expense, but finally had to abandon the  39 nhe Okanagan Historical Society—1948  work. In June, 1875, the lease of 320 acres was cancelled by  the government. In the meantime, however, interest in the  mine had spread to Eastern Canada, and the Gaits of Montreal  had a mineralogist by the name of Torrance brought out from  Freiburg, Germany, to examine the mine. He paid two visits  to Cherry Creek but found little silver there. The little that was  obtained was taken in pack-train to Hope, to be shipped to  Swansea, England, for smelting.  Since the last Report was published the Society has suffered  the loss through death of the following members: Dr. B. F.  Boyce, Kelowna; Major Allan Brooks, Okanagan Landing; C. D.  Bloom, Lumby; James Coleman, Vancouver; C. W. Finlayson,  Lumby; A. T. Howe, Vernon; Louis LeBourdais, Quesnel; F. A.  Lewis, Kelowna; Hon. R. L. Maitland, Victoria; Mrs. J. E.  Montague, Vernon; A. G. R. Prickard, Oyama; S. W. Gaunt  Stevenson, Vernon; W. A. A. Warren, Vernon, and J. G. West,  Kelowna.  The poems "Lake Kalamalka, B.C." by the late Rev. A. V.  Despard and "Lake Sea Drone" by Baroness Herry first appeared in Songs of Kalamalka, collected and arranged by Dorothea  Allison and published in 1944 to raise money for the Red Cross.  They are reprinted with the permission of Mrs. Allison.  Considerable interest was aroused in the Valley this  spring by the discovery by road-workers near the old Gartrell  homestead, Trout Creek Point, of a number of narrow-necked  jugs, glazed and of various colors which were similar to ones  used by the Chinese during the gold-rush days on the Fraser  River. Dr. and Mrs. Andrew of Summerland presented one of  these to Mr. T. P. O. Menzies, Curator of the Vancouver Museum.  40 TRE fIRST HUDSON'S RAY COMPANY STORE AT VERNON  The late David Power of Kamloops had an appreciation  of the value of historical material which was shared by some,  but not all, of his contemporaries. It was he who salvaged the  logs of the Hudson's Bay Fort building at Kamloops, making  possible its re-erection in Riverside Park. The building was  opened as an historical museum on Dominion Day, 1937, during  the celebration of Kamloops'   125th  anniversary.  Mr. Power also made copies of Hudson's Bay Company  Journals at Kamloops. Had he not had the foresight to preserve  them, much valuable material would have been lost. In one  letter-book, which Mr. Burt R. Campbell describes as being "an  old-fashioned one with the sheets of 'flimsy' used for copying  manuscript letters with application of water and use of a letter  press", he came across the following reports relating to the  establishment of a Hudson's Bay Company store at Vernon.  These reports were copied by Mr. Campbell and sent to ihe  late Mr. Leonard Norris.  J. Ogden Grahame, the author of these accounts, was the  son of James A. Grahame, -who was made Chief Factor in 1861  and appointed Chief Commissioner in 1873. After service as  his father's secretary, J. Ogden Grahame was sent to ihe  Thompson River District to take charge of operations in 1883.  He was responsible for the building of the Vernon store in 1887,  and the Nelson store in 1892. In 1941, when he was still living,  he was reported as being the last of the old commissioned  officers of the Company.  The first Hudson's Bay Company store was opened in August, 1887. It was replaced by a new building in 1897, and the  present building was erected in 1910.   Among the early man-  41 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  agers were C. E. Poulin, A. D. Worgam, A. G. Fuller, George A.  Sharpe, Charles McGinn, and Charles Simms who was manager from 1902 to 1914.  Mention should also be made of the fact that Mr. Power  knew Vernon. About 1890 or 1891 he joined the firm of E. G.  Prior 6c Company as salesman. He managed a store for this  company for a short time in Vernon, before it was taken over  by Frank S. Reynolds about 1907.  Under date of February 9, 1887, Mr. Graham wrote Thomas  R. Smith, Esq., Assistant Commissioner, as follows:  "I have just returned from my visit - to Spallumcheen and  Priest Valley, Okanagan.  "At Spallumcheen, 75 miles from Kamloops, grain is principally grown. Here I found no less than three stores and in  consequence the competition is keen and low prices prevail;  business at present is very quiet and very little cash. I approached Wood 6c Rabbitt, who do the principal business, on  ' the subject of carloads. They asked me for prices, stating that  they had already had mixed carloads from the East, and knew  to a fraction what sugar cost laid down, and if I could do as  well they would purchase from us. These people have already  made an assignment but are in business again, and I understand are doing a large business but on a credit basis. I also  saw Mr. Harvey who is doing a smaller but far safer business.  "Leaving Spallumcheen, 20 miles further Priest Valley in  the Okanagan is reached. The government agent resides here,  there are two hotels and two stores; a road runs from here to  the Mission, a well settled point 36 miles further on. The business at the Mission is controlled by Eli Lequime who gets his  supplies by way of Hope. The Cherry Creek road runs from  Priest Valley, Cherry Creek being the point where rich quartz  leads were discovered last summer.   Okanagan Lake is three  42 The First Hudson's Bay Company Store at Vernon  miles from Priest Valley and is a sheet of water navigable for  90 miles; a steamer will likely be placed on this lake and points  reached that now draw their supplies by way of Hope.  "I would recommend opening a store at Priest Valley but  before doing so it would be well to ascertain first the exact  terminal point of the railway to be built between Sicamous on  the C. P. R. and Priest Valley, as that will be the point to be  operated; at present the residents of Priest Valley do not favour  the idea of having the line traverse their land and may thus  turn it some seven or eight miles from them. Mr. M. Lumby,  secretary of the railway who is in Victoria, would be able to  give us the necessary information.  "The outlay in putting up a suitable building, cellar and  acquiring a lot would amount to in the neighborhood of $800.00,  at the lowest, there being no building that could be rented that  would suit. Should it be decided to open up a store at Priest  Valley the material for the building could be got ready and a  store opened to receive goods which would be shipped from  Kamloops in April or May as soon as navigation opened.  "I might add that the business done in Spallumcheen and  Okanagan is to a large extent a credit one, and great care  will have to be taken. Should an excitement break out in Cherry  Creek, Priest Valley is 20 miles nearer than Spallumcheen. At  Priest Valley cattle and grain, are raised, at Spallumcheen  grain only. Again the points which have hitherto been drawing  their supplies by way of Hope will in the event of a railroad  and steamer receive their goods by way of Priest Valley.  Spallumcheen and Okanagan have a certain settled population.  "At Priest Valley there are two stores, one owned by a Mr.  McGaw (W. R. Megaw) and the other by Mr. (W. F.) Cameron.  Mr. Cameron seems to be doing what business there is, but  he has little capital.  "The only difficulty in the way is procuring suitable men,  43 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  reliable, honest and energetic, and who understand store-keeping, and as the success of an outpost depends a great deal in  a constant supervision and a close scrutiny into all details, a  good energetic man would be required for Kamloops — one  who would take an interest in the growth of the business and  assist in drumming it up — as it requires pushing the whole  time. In the event of our building a warehouse here Mr.  (Norman) Lee's services could be turned to good account.  "I understand the Bank of British Columbia intend opening  an agency here. None of the merchants appear inclined to  move on to the new townsite, but still lots are being sold and I  would recommend that we be secured.  "I had intended pushing on to the Mission from Priest  Valley but owing to the severity of the weather I could induce  no one to risk it. I am sorry to say that numbers of cattle are  dying and feed is becoming very scarce."  THE FIRST HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY STORE AT VERNON  (Picture on Opposite Page.)  Reading from left to right, the men standing in front of the  store are: W. F. Cameron, a prominent storekeeper for years In  Vernon, who opened a store there in 1886 and was Vernon's  ..first Mayor; P. J. Gooden, a laborer; C. E. Poulin, Manager of  the Hudson's Bay Company store; Robert Wilson; Robert Kerr,  Manager of W. R. Megaw's store which was opened in the fall  of 1885, who later was Customs Collector at Midway; T. S. Gore,  brother of W. S. Gore, who for many years was Deputy Commissioner of Lands and Works; Walter Dewdney, Government  Agent at Vernon, a brother of Edgar Dewdney; a man by the  name of Fox with his two sons; Louis Christian, a brother of  Joseph Christian, who with Eli Lequime pre-empted land at  Okanagan Mission in 1867; Fred H. Barnes, a contractor and  builder in Vernon who married the widow of Gaston Lequime,  son of Eli Lequime; J. C. Tunstall, for years Assessor and Collector in Vernon. The horse "Mickey" was Dewdney's saddle  horse.  44 45 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  Writing further on the same subject, February 23, 1887,  Mr. Grahame says:—  "Your letters of the 16th and 19th inst. are to hand and after  looking into the several subjects carefully I have to report  further:—  "The place called Priest Valley is also called Centreville;  it is some three miles from the lake and the position of which I  have endeavoured to show by rough sketch herewith, you  will observe that the railway as at present surveyed does not  touch Priest Valley or Centreville.  "The Colurrfbia Mills is a new name for the Spallumcheen  Landing, the height of navigation on the Spallumcheen or  Shuswap river, where goods were landed by steamer from  Savona and Kamloops. Once the railway is "built through to  Okanagan Lake from Sicamous this point becomes a side station and I am un4er the impression a mill at Priest Valley  would be master of the situation. At present Columbia Mills,  which I visited, consists of a large mill not yet in operation, a  hotel and a store kept by an ex-H. B. man, Mr. Oliver Harvey.  Mr. Lumby's ranch is three miles from here. Up to now the  road to the Landing has been much travelled on account of  freight coming and grain being hauled to the steamer; the  railway built, the travel will cease except to haul to the mill,  and was my reason for not mentioning the place to you, for  should a mill be erected at Priest Valley one-third or one-half  the grain would go there.  "It is a matter that requires considerable thought to locate  the proper situation for a store, so I have therefore made a plan  of the new town which I enclose having marked several lots  thus + which in my opinion • are in good situations. Lot 9,  block 12 (sold) and lot 18 block 20 are I think good lots being  near court house and the bank and central as regards old and  new town, while lots 819 block 21, lot 20 block 31, lots 10 and  20 blocks 30 and 36 respectively have to be passed going and  46 The First Hudson's Bay Company Store at Vernon  returning from the station.   I have been unable to obtain any  information as regards the location of a new post office.  "Very little business can be done with the railway hands  as long as the store cars move up and down the line, and  both here and at Donald they are supplied from these. I have  made further enquiry regarding Donald and am told there is  little to be done there, and a report has arisen that the eastern  terminus of the Pacific division is to be moved from Donald to  Banff or Canmore in the N. W. Territory. Should there be any  stir in Kootenay, Golden City, next station east of Donald, would  be the point of departure of the steamer and where freight  for the Arrow Lakes would have to be shipped, the Columbia  being navigable up from Golden City."  "The Tale of the Nativity as told by the Indian Children of  Inkameep," printed for the Society for the Furtherance of Indian  Arts and Crafts, c/o the Provincial Museum, with a foreword  by A. G. Pickford, went through a fourth printing in July, 1945.  In every respect this is a highly artistic work, a tribute to ihe  talent of the Indian children and to their achievement under  Mr. Anthony Walsh's instruction and encouragement.  47 PRICE ELLISON  A memorial by his daughter  Myra K. DeBeck  In the year 1876 a young Englishman made his way into  the Okanagan. Led by the spirit of adventure he came over  the Hope-Princeton Trail, attracted by reports of gold at Cherry  Creek. He was Price Ellison, to become over the years one  of the valley's best known and most beloved characters.  He was of medium height and fine physique, with fair hair,  blue eyes, a fresh complexion and an engaging personality.  Born in Durham, Cheshire, he was educated at Bowden, Chexie,  and St. George's School, Manchester; next serving an  apprenticeship as a whitesmith. Upon its expiration he set  forth for America. His first three years he spent in Boston, and  then he made his way to the west coast.  Lured by tales of Cariboo gold he started for there, but  that rush had already petered out and he turned aside for  Cherry Creek. This field proved a disappointment, but the  beauty of the Okanagan had completely won his heart and  he decided to take up land here. He chose land bordering  the Long Lake Creek and rising into the benches on each side.  This home farm was later augmented by purchase of many  others, both in the vicinity of Vernon or farther afield.  Soon after his arrival he became friends of the Vernon  brothers and it was with them that he spent his first winter, at  what has since become the famous Coldstream Ranch. Those  first years passed pleasantly and he was a friend to all including the Indians and was known to all as "Price".  The year 1884 was a momentous one for him, for it brought  48 Price Ellison  to the valley his future wife, Sophie Christine lohnson. She  and a cousin, Emma Lind, were brought out for a visit by their  uncle, Peter Anderson, an early pioneer fur-trader from Oregon,  who at that time also had interests in the Okanagan. They had  travelled across the States from Peoria, 111., by rail, then' by  boat, next by the Canadian Pacific Railway, at that time constructed as far-as Yale. From Yale they came over the wagon  road—an adventurous trip for two delicately brought up city  girls. The advent of two charming young ladies caused quite  a stir and my father was not long in pressing his suit. He was  married to Miss Johnson on December 1, 1884, by Rev. A.  Shildrick. In preparation for his bride he built an addition io  his house and made a special trip to Kamloops to buy dishes  for her, but all he could get were three ironstone china plates  at $1 each. At this time the nearest white women were Mrs.  Greenhow, and Mrs. O'Keefe, 8 miles away at the head of  Okanagan Lake.  This marriage proved a very happy one and the home they  established became widely known for its warm hospitality. My  father would say, "There's always room for more" and, "we'll  hang them on a nail." This in fact meant that some of ihe  children were given mattresses on the floor so that guests might  have their beds. I have later memories of my father as a wonderful host, sitting at the head of a long table and carving  immense roasts—always cooked rare with the juices running,  and a table laden with fine fruits and vegetables, all products  of the ranch. And what a good talker he was with his tales  of early times, or amusing stories, for he had a gift for dialect  and mimicry and a keen sense of humor.  Over the years my father bought a great deal of land, as  some of the older settlers died or left the country. These we  called by the names of their former owners. There was ihe  Postill Ranch, 23 miles from Vernon on the Mission Road and  the Simpson Ranch about 5 miles farther on.   There was the  49 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  Lyons place at Swan Lake and the Andy Carr and other  meadows at Lumby. Another was the Sandy Grant place on  Okanagan Lake. This place, now called Otter Bay, and so  beloved by Scouts and Guides, is still largely owned by ihe  family.  I might mention here that my father was greatly touched  when in his later years he was presented with a gold, "Thank  You" Badge by the Boy Scout Association, in appreciation for  their use of this property over many years.  The Canadian Pacific Railway boats on Okanagan Lake  used to call at Sandy Grant's and at one time my father grew  wheat on the benches there. He made his own road by which  he took his threshing machine in. Another memory is of camping there in 1904 for about two weeks. We caught so many  fish that we sent to town for salt. The boat delivered it by throwing the sack onto the wharf, where it fell through into the water.  There was a rush for bathing suits to retrieve it but most was  lost. It was a year or two later, on a camping trip that a saddle  horse was sent down by boat. The wharf was judged unsafe  for it, because of holes, so a very surprised horse was pushed  into the lake and swam ashore snorting!  When Mr. Thomas Wood of Winfield Ranch first retired io  Victoria, father leased the Ranch for some years for its hay  meadows and fine range land. I can remember sleeping there  and being roused by my father at dawn and driving the full  length of Woods Lake on the east side when there was no road  at all, nor even a trail. His purpose was to inspect the cattle on  the range. How he picked his way along the benches and  across the many gullies I do not know. We were on the so-  called "Railroad" at sunrise and had a swim, reaching home  before the family had finished breakfast.  Quite early my father realized the need for irrigation. He  put in several systems for his land.   The principal one was  50 Price Ellison  taken from Long Lake Creek, near the present site of the Howe  packing house. It watered hay meadows now the site of ihe  Golf Club and extending to near the Box Factory. Next, it  watered the home gardens and orchard, ending in a field of  root crops where Poison Park is now situated.  Another ditch was taken from the "Brick Yard Creek." This  was so named by us because my father operated a brick-yard  there, using the same clay bank now used by Mr. Ebring, ihe  potter. Later he was a keen supporter of irrigation schemes  for the valley and also attended the first congress on irrigation  held in Alberta. I do not know what year my father started  the home orchard, but it must have been at an early date, for  in my early childhood there were already many large trees.  This was not a commercial orchard and had a large range of  varieties, mostly planted two of each. There were Yellow  Transpdrents, Red Astrakans, Duchess, Wealthy, Twenty-  Ounce Pippins, Newtown Pippins, Gravenstein, Beitingheimer,  (Beating hammers) a huge red apple which was delicious  when baked, Northern Spies, Golden Russet, Ben Davis, Transcendents and Hyslop crabs and an apple which I never heard  of before or since, which we called "Lady Apple". It was a  Fall apple and a good keeper and we all thought it very choice.  We had early cherries and sour cherries. Some of these  resembled modern varieties but I do not think any were the  same. There was also an assortment of Plums, among them  Greengage, Yellow Egg and Silver prune, also red and blue  varieties. There was a rather remarkably small, firm, speckled  red plum which we called a Weaver. It had a tough tangy  skin, but juice sweet as honey. It made a wonderful jam  which jellied perfectly. I have never seen or heard of them  elsewhere.   We had, too, several varieties of Pears.  It was at a later date, I should say the late 'nineties, that  my father planted his first commercial orchard—several acres  of Italian Prunes.   The first year that these had any consider-  51 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  able crop the price was one cent a pound, even less than  potatoes. It was later still that he planted a fairly extensive  orchard of approved varieties at Swan Lake and another of  about 14 acres at Oyama. This was on property bought from  the Moses Lumby Estate. The first "Mac" I ever tasted was  from this Oyama orchard and I thought it marvellous.  In its heyday the ranch was a village in itself. The home  stood in eight acres of garden and orchard, east of Coldstream  Road. The flower garden was a bower of beauty, with lawns,  shrubs, vines and a profusion of flowers. The irrigation ditch  flowed through it, increasing its attractiveness to the children.  On a number of occasions, lawn festivals or strawberry socials  were held on it—the tables centered by lamps with much  decorated shades and the lawn strung with Chinese lanterns.  Across the road stood building after building. There was  the Blacksmith's shop and the bunkhouse, the big granary, and  the smaller granary where the fanning mill stood and where the  wheat was bluestoned before seeding. These were all early log  buildings. For a time the Blacksmith's shop had been used as  a school and my mother taught there for a short time, when the  first school, newly built, burned down.  Then there was the carriage-house, built on a hill with a  root-cellar beneath it. In this cellar was an acetylene gas plant  which lighted the whole ranch in the days before electricity.  I remember, though, an earlier day of lamps and lanterns and  my mother has told of making her own candles, even at a  pinch of using a tallow dip! Starting also in this cellar was a  tall flue running through the high carriage" house. In it were  smoked the hams and bacons. The carriage-house held an  assortment of buggies, democrats, carts and cutters, with pegs  on the walls for saddles and harness. At a later date there  was a phaeton and a smart trap.  Next came a chicken house and a series of long sheds for  52 Price Ellison  farm implements, topped by hay lofts. There was the milk cow  barn and the big horse barn and the stallion's barn. '< Then  there were the corrals and down near the creek the pig-pens  and slaughter houes. East of the gardens stood a stone apple  cellar and above it storage for the threshing machine. Below  the implement sheds were open sheds -which were winter  shelters for cattle. There was also provision for geese, ducks,  turkeys, and pigeons.   Near the house was a large ice-house.  Threshing time was an exciting time. Father was at one  time the largest grower of wheat in British Columbia. Only  the largest ranches had their own threshing outfits, so after  our own wheat was threshed the outfit went to other farms.  Many extra hired men were taken on. The Chinese cook was  assisted by a cookee. Oh! the cakes, pies and biscuits which  were prepared and the great joints of meat and kettles of  vegetables. Threshing days were long and in mid-morning  and afternoon "Lunches" were taken to the men, great cans of  tea with milk and sugar, wrapped in blankets, and pans of  hot biscuits with cheese. My father himself usually carried  these refreshments out in a buggy and always accompanied  by some member of his family. In 1893 father took first prize  at the Chicago World Fair for his wheat and barley.  My father was a fine horseman and lover of horses and  brought into the valley a number of very fine sires of various  classes. There was Broadbrim, a thorough-bred, brought from  California, and Maximus a standard bred, also a fine hackney  and clydesdale. With his cattle, sheep and pigs, he also  sought to improve the strains.  My father was a keen fisherman and a frequent way of  entertaining guests was to arrange a fishing trip. One favorite  spot was at Rattlesnake Point—now the site of Amory Ranch  and camp. There he had arranged two places from which  to fly-fish, by placing a couple of long logs to extend out into  the lake.  There, too, the horses were watered on long trips to  53 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  the ranches, by driving horses and democrat into and out of  the lake in a sort of arc. As there were many rocks and considerable slope this always provided a thrill or an anxious  moment depending upon the nerves of the passengers. It used  to be said that Price Ellison could drive a horse anywhere  except up a tree!  An invariable accompaniment to a -fishing picnic was a  large frying pan for the fish. Only in the later years did our  faith falter and some bacon or steak was taken in case of need!  There would be a second frying pan for potatoes, fried raw  with a generous lump of butter, a large onion, a little water  and closely covered. These acquired a wide reputation as  "Potatoes a la Price." Another feature on some trips was flapjacks. My father was a past master of the art, making them  pan size, throwing them in the air to turn and landing them  upon a plate at some distance with perfect accuracy. On camping trips my father was always cook and had several other  specialties, notably a mulligan, made in a dutchoven and left  to cook while fishers or hunters were away from camp. And,  of course, a billy-can was taken. When the water boiled the  tea was thrown in and the can whirled over the head in a  wide circle.   Bannock was cooked with a reflector.  What a paradise that early life was for the children. Nothing was too much trouble to give them pleasure. My father  taught us to ride, to swim, and to skate. There were exciting  trips to the other ranches—-all day trips with the democrat or  boot cart and perhaps several children on horseback "taking  turns." Each trip had its special places where we got a drink,  or walked up a hill or had a lunch. When Long Lake froze  enough for skating my father took a big sleigh, covered with  hay and robes and collected a load to spend ihe whole afternoon. Wonderful hot food was taken, sometimes mince tarts  or doughnuts and cocoa, sometimes great pots of baked beans.  Another place he owned at a later date was on the benches  54 Price Ellison  of Six Mile Creek, above Okanagan Lake. This had a meadow  but was principally range land and big herds of cattle were  driven there for summer pasturing. The Simpson Ranch consisted of vast hay meadows and a dairy, some hogs and a  wheat field. The Postill Ranch had even larger hayfields, some  grain, a small orchard and vineyard, much range land and  all the side lines of a mixed farm.  At one time my father had about 800 head of cattle and  200 horses, a herd of sheep and considerable swine. Besides  feed for his own animals he baled and shipped hay. The old  Opera House which once stood on Barnard Avenue east of  the Railway track was built as a warehouse for baled hay  and was converted at a later date when the town badly needed  a hall. This was about 1906 or 1907 for I remember well a Ball  we gave in it in 1908—my first real dance.  It was in 1898 that father was first elected to the provincial  legislature. There he quickly made a place for himself. Soon  he was a party whip and in. this connection there was a pleasing incident. So well did he fill this rather thankless post that  at the session's end he was presented with a handsome carriage  whip. It had an ivory silver-mounted butt and a holly-wood  stock. It was attached to his desk and as he entered the house  he received an ovation.  He was a sincere and forceful speaker with a happy touch  of humor. He knew his riding well and was keenly aware of  its needs. So well did he plead our cause that when ihe  appropriations for Yale were read out a groan would go up  from his fellow members, who always thought that our riding  was getting the lion's share. Many fine schools and other  buildings, notably our Court House, are testimony of his persuasive powers. When the old Mission Road was relocated  and the present Kelowna highway built, people of less vision  thought it folly and unnecessary and referred to it as, "Price  Ellison's Scenic Highway".   Others, when our Court House was  55 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  built, objected to the size and cost and called it, "Price Ellison's  Monument". How right the years have proved him! He had  unbounded faith in our valley and was never happier than  when showing its beauties or extolling its possibilities to others.  Many notable visitors came to the valley at his invitation.  In 1909 he became a cabinet minister, assuming the portfolio of Commissioner of Lands, the last minister to hold that  title.  In this capacity his interests and responsibilities were wider  and under them he planned an exploratory trip into the heart  of the almost unknown interior of Vancouver Island. He, himself, in 1910 headed a party of 23 including a surveyor, a  forester, a timber cruiser, photographer, packers, canoe men  etc. As a result of this trip Strathcona Park was set aside as  a provincial park. He also was a strong advocate for ihe  establishment of the University of British Columbia, and as  a member of the government brought it. into being.  In 1913, as Minister of Agriculture, he made another trip  of great interest, studying the potentialities of northern British  Columbia. He crossed from Edmonton to Prince Rupert before  the railway went through. It was then built some distance out  from each city but the central portion was accomplished by  launch on the Fraser River—by buckboard on the toll roads,  by launch again on Burns and Decker Lakes and finally by  caboose of a construction train. In Prince Rupert he opened  the first agricultural Fair to be held there.  Perhaps the climax of his political career was a trip he  made to England when Minister of Finance in 1910. He represented the government of British Columbia and was given  a wonderful reception. He was guest of honor at a splendid  banquet in London at which the Duke of Connaught was chairman and which was attended by many political notables. He  spoke at this dinner and on several other occasions, and great  56 Price  Ellison  interest was aroused in British Columbia. The Agent-General  for British Columbia at this time was the Hon. John Herbert  Turner, a former Premier of British Columbia and a close  personal friend. Indeed it was under his leadership that father  first entered politics. As father was a strong Imperialist this  trip was particularly gratifying to him. It was also the only  occasion on which he revisited his native land. He numbered  amongst his close friends many men prominent in the early  life of the province. Among them were J. B. Greaves, the Nicola  cattleman, Hon. D. M. Eberts, for many years Speaker of ihe  House and later a fudge; Sir Richard McBride, an outstanding  premier of B.C. and Sir Frank Barnard, a Lieutenant-Governor  of the province.  As an employer, too, my father made a contribution. Many  men got their start with him, some of whom went on to fine  careers. He was greatly beloved and respected by his men.  His attitude towards them was generous and fair-minded and  kindly. Although it is almost 16 years since his death, we  still receive calls from men who once worked for him who  wish to honor his memory and pay their respects to his  family.  To the Indians he was the Big Chief and special patron.  He spoke Chinook and they brought their troubles to him.  My father was a man of strong Christian character and  the highest integrity. His conduct was founded upon the Ten  Commandments and the Golden Rule. In our home Sunday  was a day of rest and worship. On the farm no man worked  at any but essential jobs, such as milking and feeding ihe  animals. Every Saturday the horses were turned out io  pasture—no rides, no drives, no picnics. As a boy he had  sung in the choir and he delighted in singing hymns to us  children when we were small. Many hymns we associate  with his memory to this day. Once when his friend Alfred  Postill lay dying he drove to see him on a Sunday. We children  57 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  were filled with awe at the seriousness of the situation as we  saw him drive off alone. Although my father was Church of  England we had close connections with the Presbyterian  Church of which my mother was a member. In the earliest  days she was sole organist for both churches and our family  were warm friends of the early Presbyterian ministers and  their families.  Almost from its inception my father was principal owner of  the "Vernon News'- and took a keen interest and pride in it. As,  generally speaking, it was the only local paper, he, although  a strong Conservative in politics, endeavoured to keep it as  unbiased as possible and to give his opponents a fair chance.  He selected as its editors men of outstanding ability who contributed much to the town and community.  He, himself, though his chosen field was provincial politics,  yet played an important part in local affairs. Very early he  was made a Justice of the Peace and he was urged to run for  Mayor but never consented. For many years he was president  of the local Fall Fair Association and an exhibitor and winner  in numerous' classes. These prizes he always returned to the  Association. He was a director and shareholder in the first  flour  mill  at Armstrong.  His popularity was attested by the numerous clubs, and  societies of which he was patron or honorary president.  In concluding this brief sketch of a life crowded with action,  I would like to pay a tribute to a wonderful husband and father,  a splendid pioneer and a public spirited citizen. He was a man  of the highest integrity and great force of character. His  initiative and vision have left a mark upon the early days of  British Columbia.  In his public life he might be likened to John Bull, showing  principles, purpose and tenacity; in his private life to Mr.  Greatheart for his generosity, kindliness, unselfishness and  love for his fellowmen.  58 FA  Hester E. White  Years ago when "one-armed Reed" and his partner, Ryan,  placer miners, came on the scene, a beautiful limpid stream  frolicked down the gulch, casting a cooling freshness upon all  around, but revealing nothing of the hidden riches which it  passed on its way from its source high up on the mountain-side.  The name "Reed Creek" is the only evidence left to show that  they were the first to discover gold in this vicinity. In 1887  Fred Gwatkins and George Sheenan put in the first stakes on  the Stemwinder, which became known as the discovery claim.  On the main ledges on the eastern side of a low range of  mountains separating the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys,  700 feet above Okanagan River, a number of valuable claims  were recorded. Indeed, the recorded mining claims eventually  extended over an area of 30 miles, for many were staked under  the old mining law which permitted the location of extension  claims without requiring mineral to be in sight.  It would be a useless effort to attempt to enumerate all the  claims, but mention must be made of the Stemwinder; the  Morning Star, taken up in 1898 by Thomas Woodland, Steve  Mangott and Danny McEachern; the Evening Star, held by  Harry Rose who also had a fraction of the Morning Star and  the August; the Rattler, first owned by H. Mankin who sold it  to a company which put up a five-stamp mill, and which was  later bought by the Stratheyre Mining Company; the Ontario  owned by Dune Carmichael; the Wynn M. owned by Harry  Simpson; the Wide West, which lay across the gulch from the  Brown Bear, owned at first by Jno. Stevens and Mat Hodder,  and eventually by the Stratheyre Company; the Joe Dandy,  taken up by W. Poole and Evan Morris and sold later to Patrick  59 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  and  Clemens;   and   the   Tin   Horn,   the   Smuggler,   the   Black  Diamond and the Wild Horse.  After the finding of several well-defined veins of gold ore,  a large amount of English and American capital was invested in  the mines and several stamp-mills were set up. The Stratheyre  was an English company which sent out James Atwood and  Harry Reynolds in 1892, and which, on Atwood's recommendation purchased the Brown Bear located in 1887 by George Wilkinson  and  Joe  Bromley.  For nearly twenty years the camp at Fairview flourished.  In 1893, when a great amount of ore was produced at Fairview,  there was a considerable settlement. Starting up the' gulch in  that year, one would be welcomed at its mouth by Mr. F. R.  Kline, owner of the "Golden Gate" Hotel, a well-built log-house  of two stories. Miners' and prospectors' cabins would be found  at intervals as one proceeded up the gulch. On the left side  was "Miner's Rest", owned and operated by Mr. and Mrs.  Evan Morris. It was here that many of the "cousin Jacks",  Cornish miners, would gather to have a "rip-roaring" time.  Ahead, and situated at the sharp turn in the road, where it left  the course of Reed Creek to wind around the hill, was ihe  stamp-mill. "Blue House", the residence of the Stratheyre Mining Company's representatives, Messrs. Atwood and Reynolds,  was on the eminence overlooking the quartz mill, and commanded a beautiful panoramic view of the Okanagan Valley  to the south. It was the view here which caused the name  "Fairview" to be chosen. From this point one could overlook  Okanagan Valley, hemmed in by hills and mountains, with the  river meandering through the low land, through Haynes  Meadows and losing itself in the glistening waters of Osoyoos  Lake. At this time cattle were grazing here and there amidst  sage-brush and grease-wood.  Near the "Blue House" was the residence of Dr. Ben Boyce,  the popular physician of the camp, who had been brought to  60 Camp Fairview  the west by the Stratheyre Mining Company. Farther up the  road was W. T. Thompson's store which carried a large stock  of goods suitable for miners's needs. Thompson was a "Boston  man", who had been around mining camps since his boyhood.  Still farther along was W. T. Shatford's store with F. H. French  in charge. Past numerous shafts and the tunnel mouths of  various mines was J. Moffatt's saloon. At the head of the gulch  was the store of Tommy Elliott, the pioneer merchant who still  caters to miners.  When the writer arrived back in the Okanagan from England on January 21, 1895, the stage pulled up in front of the  "Golden Gate", and the passengers were greeted by Tommy  Elliott and lames Adamson, now the hosts, and miners galore.  After wine and a chicken lunch we left with "Mexican Joe",  the driver, for Osoyoos. Fairview had changed by this time.  The Stratheyre Company had pulled up its stakes and gone  and Steve Mangott was running Morning Star ore through the  Stratheyre mill. Fairview quartz was tricky; in "pockets" the  ore was very rich and streaks of gold were plainly visible, but  then it would disappear. In 1897 eastern capital came in when  the Fairview Gold Mining Company leased or purchased  claims and commenced work on the Stemwinder. This company  built the three-storey Fairview Hotel, known as the "Big Teepee" on the flat below the gulch and laid out a townsite. Soon  there were livery stables, offices, a drug store, a butcher shop  and W. T. Shatford's store was moved down the gulch. Jim  Schubert built the new government building, and C. A. R.  Lambly, Government Agent, and his family were moved from  Osoyoos. J. R. Brown, the Assessor, built a cottage nearby.  As Fairview boomed again, the Bassett Brothers' freight teams  were kept busy hauling mine machinery. As many as 16 or  20 horses were often needed to haul the huge loads up to the  mines. For a short time, five mills were active: the Stemwinder,  the Joe Dandy, the Tin Horn, the Smuggler and the Stratheyre.  Soon after Dr. Boyce had moved to Kelowna, Dr. R. B. White  61 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  arrived in camp on May 24, 1897. Dr. White's first patient was  Mike Moon, a freighter, whose badly crushed leg necessitated  amputation. The operation was performed in the doctor's office,  with the assistance of Tony Genn. Mike was cared for by the  doctor in his office and nursed back to health. On another occasion, the doctor was called to attend Old Edward, an Indian,  who had been attacked by another Indian while he was asleep  in a tent down near the river. Old Edward's leg had been  smashed with a gun. Dr. White amputated the leg on the  ground in the tent, with the assistance of Mr. Bate. When  Edward recovered, a collection was made for an artificial leg.  Some years later, after the Indian's death, his old wife Jenny  was seen one day riding into Fairview with the leg hanging  over the saddle. She had brought it to sell and wanted $80  for it.  Tragedy had stalked down the gulch in 1893 when a  diphtheria epidemic took the lives of some of the small children.  In November, 1902, gloom was cast over the whole countryside when the "Big Teepee" was destroyed by fire with loss of  life. The following year the large livery stable was burned,  and thirty valuable horses were lost.  THE "BIG TEEPEE" AT FAIRVIEW  (Picture on Opposite Page.).  WIDELY KNOWN AS THE "BIG TEEPEE" was built at  Camp Fairview in 1898 by the Dyer-Davidson and Russell Mining Company. It was officially opened July 1, 1899. It was  situated a half-mile east of the Golden Gate Hotel (at the mouth  of the Gulch) and overlooked the valley to the south. "Sandy"  McAuley was the first manager. He later managed the Kalamalka Hotel at Vernon, which like the Fairview Hotel, was  famous for its cuisine, its well stocked bar and general hospitality and comfort for its guests. Phillip Mathias was the manager  when it was burned to the ground in November, 1902. He, with  others, lost his life in the fire. The hotel was never rebuilt, and  this fire really was the 'beginning of the end' of Camp Fairview.  62 63 s_t  "?%  is-s  up"  64 Camp Fairview  The tragedy of 1902 was really the beginning of the end of  Fairview. But as long as the camp flourished, the settlers had  many good times. Many dances were held at Elliott's Hall  where Paddy Atkins, known as the "man that stole the boots"  played the piano into the wee small hours. The Marks Brothers  staged "Uncle Tom's Cabin" in Elliott's Hall and thrilled the  crowd. Pauline Johnson with Walter McRae gave a most entertaining performance at the "Teepee". Isobel Kerr was a  charming elocutionist. A ventriloquist with many shabby dolls  drew a crowd; and some Italians with trained white bears  caused excitement, especially later when some "over-joyed"  cowboys roped them and took them down the gulch.  The miners at the Stemwinder gave an unique dance on  one occasion. The Company was to operate a cyanide plant  for the reduction of ore, and four vats, 36 feet in diameter, and  10 feet deep were beautifully built and finished. The miners  asked all the inhabitants to a supper-dance. The floors were  polished; the fiddlers were on a platform between the two tubs,  and there was enough room for four quadrille sets and a good  one to call the dances. Some conscientious objectors preferred  not to dance, but played games and romped in the second vat,  which was known ever after as the "Methodist Tub".  WAITING FOR  THE MAIL  (Picture on Opposite Page.)  THE GOLDEN GATE HOTEL (The Bucket of Blood) — Built  by F. B. Kline in 1892. He ran it until purchased by Thos.  Elliott and James Adamson, later it became the property of  Harry and Charlie Jones. (Front row), 1, John Love; 2-3-4, Harry  Carr; 5, Sandy McAuley; 6, Johnny Steves. (Second row), 1, Dr.  White and "Dick"; 3-4, Joe Graham; 5, Hamilton; 6, John Burnett;  7-8, Ira Cutler; 9, Archie McEacheran, 10-11, Harry Tones; 12-13-  14, George Sheenan. (Back row), 1-2, George Prather; 3-4-5-6-7,  Hennesey; 8, Billy Dalrymple; 9, Fraser; 10, Robertson; 11-12-13,  Richmond Travis; 14, Bill Powers; 15, Dick Boeing; 16-17, Jack  Nicol.  65 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  After 1906 little mining was done and the place was soon  deserted. The Guggenheim interests held the "Susie" for years;  the Granby people studied the field; Britannia, Premier and  Hecla interests all cast enquiring eyes at Fairview; but the  Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company in time procured  most of the ground, for they need the particular quartz at Fair-  view with its silica as a flux in the Smelter at Trail. With the  high value of gold and better price for silver, Fairview is more  than paying its way. All the dumps at the old mines have been  trucked away.  Few people are left who experienced the thrills and chills  of Fairview. The little creek has lost its song and its "skirts of  green" along its bank have died with time. Still memory lives  on of the good old Fairview days.  (i(i EARLY RISTORY OF REDLEY CAMP  Harry D. Barnes  The little gold-mining town of Hedley, in the Similkameen  Valley of British Columbia, lies at an elevation of about 1,700  feet above sea-level and is situated at a point where Twenty  Mile Creek, after swinging around the western base of Nickel  Plate Mountain, emerges from its canyon and has cut a  boulder-strewn channel through the river-benches to flow into  the Similkameen River a short distance below the town. Nickel  Plate Mountain rises out of the Twenty Mile Creek in a series  of bluffs with nearly vertical faces, but its southern slope is less  rugged and is covered more or less with a scattered growth of  Douglas fir. Prospectors and others travelling over the Dewdney  Trail would notice the beds of limestone, quartzite, and other  rocks outcropping on the slope above the river-valley. Looking  up the Twenty Mile Creek the iron-stained rocks of Red Mountain would attract attention, as would also the folding of ihe  stratified rock of Stemwinder Mountain on the west side of the  creek. All of these together would indicate an area where  conditions might be favourable for ore deposition and would,  at least, warrant careful prospecting.  The first record of mineral claims having been staked on  what is now known as Nickel Plate Mountain was in 1894,  when James Riordan and C. Allison located three claims for  the Hon. Edgar Dewdney, and J. O. Coulthard, of Keremeos,  had a claim on what is now the Kingston Mineral Claim. These  four claims were recorded at Granite Creek, but were not  considered worth doing the annual assessment-work and were  allowed to lapse. In 1897 Peter Scott located the Rollo and  about the same time C. Johnson and Albert lacobson, grubstaked by W. Y. Williams, then manager of the Granby mines  67 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  at Phoenix, staked the Mound and Copper Cleft claims. In  1898 Peter Scott returned to do the assessment-work on ihe  Rollo and afterwards staked the Princeton, Warhorse, Kingston,  and other claims. In August of that year C. H. Arundel and  F. Wollaston staked the Horsefly, Sunnyside, Nickel Plate,  Bulldog, and Copperfield, and still later located other claims  on the mountain. It was the Nickel Plate which was to prove  the bonanza claim and to become the first producing lode  mine of the Similkameen, as well as one of the major gold  mines of British Columbia.  It was about this time that Peter Scott and others agreed on  "Camp Hedley" as a fitting name for the new camp, in honor  of Robert R. Hedley, then manager of the Hall mines smelter  at Nelson, B. C, who, it was understood, had grub-staked  Peter Scott the summer before when the Rollo had been staked.  The prospectors of the new camp had to travel to record their  claims and assessment-work to Fairview, where C. A. R.  Lambly was the mining recorder and gold commissioner for  the Osoyoos Mining Division. As news of the then recent  strikes began to circulate around the Fairview Camp, quite  a number of the prospectors came over to the new camp in  the early fall of 1898. Amongst ihe new arrivals to Camp  Hedley were Harry Yates, Fraser Campbell, and George Cahill.  Duncan Woods, for whom George Cahill staked the Mascot  Fraction, did not come in until the spring of 1899. Later in the  Camp's history it was the Mascot Fraction which was to become  famous, for although it contains only 8 or 9 acres at depth  it was to prove one of the camp's richest spots. Seldom in ihe  history of lode mining in British Columbia has so small an  area produced so much wealth in gold. During the spring  of 1899 many more prospectors came into Camp Hedley, and  by the end of the year the surface of Nickel Plate Mountain  was almost entirely covered with mineral claims.  Now to go back to the Nickel Plate and a brief description  68 Early History ol Hedley Camp  of the discovery showing as it was when found by Wollaston  and Arundel. The red, rusty ore outcrop occupied a small  clearing on a fairly steep hillside, and in all probability ihe  ore outcrop exposed to sight was about 15 feet in width by  20 feet in length. The ground both to the right and left, as well  as below the outcrop was covered by an overburden and  thickly strewn with jack-pine windfalls, amongst which a second  growth of young pines had already made a good start. On  the upper side of the ore outcrop a light-colored hard igneous  rock stood out boldly several feet higher than the ore, with ihe  contact between the ore and igneous rock being sharply de*  fined. As the development proceeded, the igneous rock was  found to be a sill which formed the hanging wall of the ore-  body. The igneous rock was later classified by Dr. Charles  Camsell as gabbro. - The red dirt from the outcrop panned  gold very freely, and a gold-pan of the material would often  gfve twenty to thirty coarse colours about the size of a pin-  head and also a long thick stream of fine gold. The results  of their first panning must have given a thrill of excitement  to the two lucky prospectors who had made the find, for few  indeed are the prospectors of British Columbia who have been  fortunate enough to find a prospect of equal size and so rich  in gold from the grass-roots down, as was the discovery showing of the Nickel Plate.  In the fall of 1898 Wollaston and Arundel took out some  samples of the surface ore of the Nickel Plate to the New  Westminster Fair and exhibited them there. M. K. Rodgers,  who was more directly connected with the early history and  development of the camp than any other person, first saw ihe  ore there. At that time he was travelling through the country  in the interests of Marcus Daly, of Butte, Montana, and he was  so impressed by the appearance of the ore samples that he  immediately started on a trip io the Nickel Plate to make a  close examination and obtain samples. The examination proved  so satisfactory that in November Rodgers took a bond on the  69 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  Nickel   Plate,   Bulldog,   Sunnyside,   and   Copperfield   Mineral  Claims, all of which were owned by Wollaston and Arundel.  The construction of a camp and the packing-in of supplies  was at once commenced. The first supplies for the new camp  at Nickel Plate were obtained from Fairview. In November,  1898, a pack-train of thirty-five horses laden with supplies left  Fairview in the charge of George Cahill. Later, as things became better organized, supplies were shipped from the Coast  cities to Penticton, then hauled by wagon to Keremeos, and  from thence packed by horses to the Nickel Plate by the Camp  Rest Trail. Permanent work on the claim was commenced on  January 12, 1899, and within a year the bond was taken up.  The consideration paid to Wollaston and Arundel was reported  to have been $60,000, and a few years later the two partners  sold other claims to Rodgers, and said to have been for a similar  consideration.  In the early years of the Nickel Plate mine M. K. Rodgers  obtained a British Columbia charter for the Yale Mining Company, and business was done through this company. Later  on, when it was decided to build a mill, it was found that ihe  original company's charter was not sufficiently broad to provide for the building of tramways, power flumes and the like,  or for the expropriation of land for rights-of-way. Consequently,  a second company, the Daly Reduction Company, Ltd., was  formed, and a charter obtained for it early in 1903, and from  then on it became the operating company for both the mine  and the mill.  Gomer P. Tones, who was to be connected with the Nickel  Plate for so many years, was engaged by Rodgers as mine  superintendent, and he arrived at the camp in August, 1900.  Mrs. Tones and their daughter Avonia came in a month or so  later and took up residence at the Nickel Plate. In the summer  and early fall of 1900 a road about 15 miles in length was built  over the mountains to the east of the mine to connect up with  70 Early History of Hedley Camp  the Penticton-Keremeos Road, and from then on supplies were  hauled direct from Penticton to the Nickel Plate. In the fall  of 1900 work was also commenced on the building of a road  between Keremeos and Princeton, and it was completed by midsummer of 1901. Before the building of this road only the old  Dewdney Trail had connected these two points.  In the fall of 1899 Thomas Bradshaw came over from  Greenwood and bought the newly built log hotel located near  the mouth of Fifteen Mile Creek from a man by the name of  Johnson. Shortly afterwards Mrs. Bradshaw and family came  over to make their home on Fifteen Mile Creek. Bradshaw's  stopping-place soon became well known io prospectors and  others of Camp Hedley as a place where they could always  be.assured oft. warm welcome, a good meal, and a comfortable  bed. In course of time the establishment was expanded and,  in addition, the Bradshaws had a thriving young orchard and  alfalfa growing on their place and had also acquired a small  herd of dairy and range cattle. All of the family has since  passed on, with the exception of their only daughter, Edith,  and the old log hotel, so long a landmark on the Keremeos-  Hedley Road, has been torn down.  *  The land where the town of Hedley now stands was  acquired by the Hedley City Townsite Company, and in the  summer and fall of 1900 R. H. Parkinson, P.L.S., surveyed ihe  townsite, and almost immediately building was commenced,  judging by the Similkameen Star, which reported:-  This important townsite is situated half way between  Princeton and Keremeos on the banks of the now famous  Twenty-mile Creek. The new wagon road to be built this  fall runs through the centre of the town. Hedley City will  be the supply point for the rich district which surrounds  Twenty Mile Creek and the Nickel Plate mine. The  company owning the townsite is composed of well-known  mining men who are fully alive to the importance of the  mining district they will cater to and will loose (sic) no  opportunity of pushing the place ahead.  71 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  Dave Hackney has a force of men busy constructing  a large hotel. An assay office is also being built and will  be occupied when completed by Messrs. Oliver and  Fetherstonhaugh. Several other buildings will be started  in the course of a few days, and as soon as the work on  the road begins, application will be made for a post office  and mail service. Mr. R. H. Parkinson, P.L.S., will be  manager for the townsite company and will be glad to  furnish information regarding prices of lots, etc.  That winter D. G. Hackney built the Hedley Hotel on Haynes  Street, a neat two-storey hewed-log building which was opened  early in March, 1901. Messrs, Kirby and Hind also erected a  two-storey log store building near the spot where later the Daly  Reduction Company's office building was erected, and opened  for business early the following spring under the management  of F. M. Gillespie. Two small log cabins were also built on ihe  townsite that same winter. During the summer of 1901 I. A.  Deardorf, of Fairview, built a livery-barn on the site now occupied by the Hedley Garage, and C. E. Oliver put up a two-  storey frame building for an assay office and residence. The  lumber for both of these buildings was hauled in from Penticton,  but later that summer Messrs. Tillman, McDonald, and McRae  hauled over their sawmill and planer from Phoenix and set it  up on the river-bank across from the mouth of Sterling Creek  and commenced cutting lumber. This mill was later to cut all  the lumber required in the construction of the Daly Reduction  Company's mill, the Twenty Mile flume, and other buildings, as  well as the lumber needed in the town.  In 1901 F. M. Wells took a bond on the Kingston and War-  horse claims owned by Peter Scott, and development of the Kingston was commenced in the fall of the year. Later the Metropolitan claim was also acquired by Wells. Development-work on  the group continued intermittently until about 1936, when the  Kelowna Exploration Company acquired the Kingston group.  The winter of 1901-1902 was a very quiet one for the new  town, but in the summer of 1902 it was decided to build a mill  72 Early History of Hedley Camp  for the Nickel Plate, and Hedley was selected as its site.  Preliminary surveys were then made for the tramways, ihe  power flume up Twenty Mile Creek, and for the mill-site by  Wesley Rodgers, brother of M. K. Rodgers, and construction  started that fall. Surveys were also sufficiently advanced so  that contracts were let for the grading of the mill-site and for  the building of the stone walls for the foundations of the mill,  and this work was completed by the spring of 1903.  In the late summer and fall of 1902 Messrs. McDermott and  Marks built the Grand Union Hotel, but sold it a few months  later to Robert Herron and Anton Winkler. A few years later  Herron sold out his interest to his partner, and under ihe  management of Anton Winkler it was in continuous operation  until it was destroyed by fire on December 31, 1918. C. E.  Oliver and his associates in the fall of 1902 built the Commercial Hotel, and it was opened up in the late spring of ihe  following year under the management of Neil Huston and  W. A. McLean. Within a few months McLean became the sole  proprietor, and the Commercial Hotel still stands. In August,  1902, lames A. Schubert, well known in the Okanagan, bought  out the Kirby and Hind store and moved it down into the town  near the bridge, and the log building thus vacated was later  used by the Daly Reduction Company for temporary offices in  the early construction days at the mill. Later that year Charles  Richter, of Keremeos, built a two-storey building as a butcher's  shop and residence, and he supplied the town with its meat  until he sold out the business to Cawston and Edmonds. Shortly  after this, John Mairhofer became associated with the business,  first as store manager and later as owner. His connection with  the business continued until 1931, when he sold out to Eugene  Quaedvlieg.  In the fall of 1902 W. E. Welby commenced running a  stage line between Penticton and Hedley, and at first the stage  left and arrived on alternate days, but the following year a  73 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  daily service each way went into effect, Sunday excepted.  The trip usually took about twelve hours, which included a  stop at the old town of Keremeos for dinner and a change of  horses. Open stages were used, which carried six to eight  passengers, and the mail and travellers had to take the  weather as it came, be it sunshine, rain, or snow. Later Welby  acquired a Concord covered-in-stage coach, but this was  reserved for special trips and occasions. Fred Revely, who  had bought out Deardorf's livery-barn, ran a daily stage io  Princeton in conjunction with the Welby stages, but travellers  from or to upper valley points had to stop over the night in  Hedley.  Up to this time one of the principal complaints of ihe  residents was the absence of mail service. However, in June,  1903, this was remedied when F. M. Gillespie was appointed  the town's first postmaster. He combined these duties with  those of manager of Schubert's general store, and at first the  post-office was in that store. A little later an annex was built  on the east side of the store building for the exclusive use of the  post-office business, and boxes were installed for rental to the  public. This continued to be the town's post-office until 1908,  when Gillespie bought out Love's drug-store, and there it remained for the next twenty-seven years. In the early part of  1903 L. W. Shatford put up a one-storey building on Scott  Avenue and opened a general store with F. H. French as  manager. Two or three years later the store building was  greatly enlarged and the firm's name changed to Shatfords  Limited. The old building still stands, and is now occupied  by Collen's Department Store. In 1903 Dr. F. Rolls opened a  drug-store and office.  In the early spring of 1903 work was commenced simultaneously on the construction of the mill and the grading and  building of the flume which was to furnish the power for the  mill, and as soon as the snow had gone from the hills, ihe  74 Early History oi Hedley Camp  work of clearing the right-of-way and grading for the tramways  was started. Four-horse freight teams loaded with machinery,  steel rails, and general supplies of all kinds now became a  familiar sight on the roads. About this time S. L. Smith resigned  as agent for the Canadian Pacific Ralway at Penticton and  accepted the position of accountant for the Daly Reduction  Company, a position he held with this and the two succeeding  companies until about 1937. Hedley became his home for  forty-one years. In August, 1903, Dr. H. A. Whillans accepted  the position of company doctor, and he and his family moved  down from Princeton to take up residence in Hedley. Later that  year A. H. Brown, of London, Ontario, was engaged as mill  superintendent, and shortly afterwards took charge of the mill.  Mr. Brown was well liked by the men serving under him and  also was held in high regard by the people of the town.  In September, 1903, Hedley held its first Labour Day  celebration, which was rather a modest affair, even although  "some two or three coach loads of merrymakers came from  Loomis, Wash., to join in the festivities and fraternize with the  good people of Hedley". The main event was a baseball  game between the Hedley team and one from Nighthawk and,  although the visiting team was the better, due mainly to Wesley  Rodger's pitching Hedley won the game, on which a good deal  of money had been bet by the backers of the respective teams.  In addition, there were two days of horse-racing, and a grand  ball marked the climax to the event, with the music furnishd  by "that famous knight of the bow" loseph Brent, of Okanagan  Falls. Later, Labour Day celebrations were on a much larger  scale. From a thousand to twelve hundred dollars would be  given in prize-money, and rock-drilling contests, baseball, and  horse-racing were featured. Rock-drilling teams would quite  often come from places as far away as Rossland to compete in  these contests. Many visitors would come to the celebrations  from both upper and lower valley points. The visitors would  begin to arrive on Sunday evening, and by Monday morning  75 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  the town would be full — and travel in those days was by  democrat, buggy, or horse-back. The big Labour Day dance  was the outstanding social event of the year for Hedley, and  the best orchestra available was secured for the occasion.  Sports would be resumed on the following Tuesday, but by  early evening the visitors would have all departed to their  various homes, and by nightfal the town had a tired, deserted  look about it, with scarcely a soul to be seen on the streets as  Hedley retired early to bed.  By the late fall of 1903 the mill building was about completed, and a good start had been made on the installation of  the machinery. The tramways were all graded and most of  the track laid, and also good progress had been made in ihe  building of the Twenty Mile flume. It might be interesting to note  that the ore-crushers and stamp-batteries were made in Eastern  Canada, as was also the large air-compressor for the new  power-house. But the ore-conveyors, Frue vanners, water-  wheels, pumps for the cyanide plant, electric locomotives for  the tramway, and most of the electrical equipment came from  the Unfted States, as did also the twenty large tanks for ihe  cyanide plant. Twelve of these tanks were 34 feet in diameter  by 6 feet in depth, and the remaining eight were 30 feet in  diameter by 10 feet in depth. All were made from California  redwood, knocked down and shipped from San Francisco by  boat to Vancouver, thence by Canadian Pacific Railway io  Okanagan Landing. From there they were transferred to the  lake steamer and delivered at Penticton and hauled by freight  teams the 50 miles to Hedley.  The first stamps of the new mill were dropped on May 4,  1904, and after a short period for making necessary adjustments all forty stamps commenced to drop, and ihe muffled  roar of the stamps became a familiar sound in the town. For  the first few years of the mill's operation a considerable proportion of the values recovered was in the form of free gold  76 Early History of Hedley Camp  caught on the plates. Each month two gold bricks, one from  the free gold off the plates and the other from the gold recovered  in the cyanide plant, were taken out under special escort io  Penticton, and from there shipped by Dominion Express to the  United States assay office in Seattle. The concentrates from  the twenty-four Frue vanners, rich in gold, were pulled daily  and dumped into the bin below, and after a period allowed for  drying, the concentrates were then put into double sacks — a  heavy cotton sack on the inside and a strong jute one on ihe  outside — and the sacks well sewn. The sacked concentrates,  weighing around a hundred pounds or better a sack, were  hauled io Penticton, and from there were shipped to the Tacoma  smelter. The four-horse teams which hauled in supplies also  hauled out the sacked concentrates on their return trip io  Penticton. Dougal Gillespie, of Okanagan Falls, who then held  the contract for hauling the company's freight, was paid $20  per ton on incoming freight and $9 per ton for ihe back-haul  of concentrates. The round trip usually took about a week  to complete.  During the years 1903-1905 the town grew rapidly and  many new buildings were erected.  Hedley City is the liveliest town of its size in the interior.  Its hotels are always full, and, as in the case of the  Commercial, an annex has been found hardly adequate  for the demands upon this popular hostelry. There are  two excellent general stores, in one of which, Mr. Schubert's, is the post office. There is a first class butcher shop  conducted by Messrs. Edmonds 6c Cawston, and a livery and  feed stable run by Fred Revely; a drug store and all the  other businesses usually found in a bustling mining camp.  Good sidewalks have been laid and a lot of street  improvements made by the townsite company of which  C. Oliver is the energetic resident manager.  A fine hotel is now under construction at a cost of  $15,000 and a large residence for M. K. Rodgers has been  completed.  77 The Okanagan Historical Society—1  In the summer of 1903 Grace Methodist Church was built.  This was the first, and for many years the only, permanent  church building in the town. It was built mostly by volunteer  labour under the enthusiastic direction of Rev. J. W. Hedley.  For many years it played a prominent role in the life of ihe  community, serving as headquarters for the school, the  Twentieth Century Club, and the library. Other early ministers  were the Revs. J. E. Fleming, C. E. Docksteader, L. Thomas,  R. W. Hibbert, J. J. Jones, and George Kinney. As was to be  expected, Hedley was but one of the many churches served  by these ministers in connection with their work elsewhere in  the district. The Presbyterian church soon began to conduct  services, at first with Rev. G. L. Mason in charge and later under  Revs. J. C. Stewart, A. J. Fowlie, E. Hardwick, D. F. Smith,  J. T. Conn, and A. H. Cameron. The latter, a pioneer of  Western Canada at the time of the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway was probably one of the best remembered  of the early ministers. Presbyterian services were usually held  in Fraser's Hall (or Fraternity Hall, as it came to be called),  which after 1905 was shared on alternate Sundays with ihe  Anglican church. In May, 1905, the Archdeacon of Columbia,  Ven. Edwyn S. W. Pentreath, visited Hedley, and as a result  the congregation of St. Mary's was organized, complete with  Ladies' Guild. Rev. E. P. Flewelling became the first resident  Anglican clergyman, and the following year he was succeeded  by Rev. E. R. Bartlett. Rev. Henry Irwin — Father Pat — so  well known in Rossland in the early days of the camp and  remembered for his many kindly acts, was an occasional visitor  to Hedley in the early days of the town, and when here would-  conduct services in one or other of the hotel dining-rooms. An  Anglican church, however, was not built until the early years  of World War I, and to C. P. Dalton, then manager of the Bank  of British North America in Hedley, must go the greater amount  of the credit for the building of the church, although he was  loyally assisted by Arthur Clare and  other members  of ihe  78 Early History of Hedley Camp  church. From the early days of Hedley, Roman Catholic  services had been conducted at frequent intervals by visiting  priests.  The first school for the children of the town was opened  in September, 1903, in a room at the rear of the Methodist  Church. Miss M. L. Whillans, a sister of Dr. H. A. Whillans  was Hedley's first school-teacher. Under the terms of the  "Public Schools Act" this was known as an "assisted school,"  and it was administered by a board consisting of S. L. Smith  (secretary), W. A. McLean, and J. Brass. When inspected on  May 5, 1904, it was reported that nineteen pupils had attended  irregularly throughout the year but that good work had been  done. Miss Whillans resigned in Tune, 1904, and was replaced  by Mrs. A. J. Coibeck, and in September of that year ihe  Hedley School District was created.  From the outset the major problem facing the Board was  that of finding suitable accommodation for its school. For a  time a site on Ellis Street was occupied, then the Gazette Hall  was used for a few months in 1905, after which the Ellis Street  property again came into use. It is not to be wondered that  the Inspector's report contained this comment: "The teacher is  working under difficulties — room too small and poorly  equipped." When school reopened on August 21, 1905, Mrs.  Coibeck had been replaced by her daughter, Alice, and ihe  house of W. A. McLean had been leased as a school. Plans  had, however, been drawn for a new school-house, but ihe  tenders received were too high. The School Board, having  secured a promise that the Provincial Government would pay  the rent until a proper building was built, soon embarked on a  novel plan. Several business men in the town, S. L. Smith and  G. B. Lyon amongst others, were consulted and they "secured  a lot, built a house on it and moved the school into it before  the last day of January, 1906", at a cost of $756.38. In the  meantime Miss Marion D. Lamont had become the teacher.   In  79 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  February, 1906, ihe plan to build a two-room school was announced, but further delays ensued and the school was not  completed until July, 1907. Miss H. J. Blake was the first teacher  in this new school.  In passing, it should also be noted that a school was  started at the Nickel Plate mine early in 1905 under Miss K.  Johnson. Elected to the provisional School Board were G. P.  Tones, Charles loyner, and E. Mills. Miss M. R. Ford taught at  this school during the 1905-06 term, and thereafter the school  was discontinued.  In the summer of 1904 C. A. R. Lambly, Government Agent  at Fairview, held an auction sale of the lots held at Hedley by  the Government, and many of the lots were sold at good prices.  About  that  time,  too,   M.  K.  Rodgers  was   successful  in  his  negotiations with the Department of Indian Affairs at Ottawa  for the purchase of the flat on Indian Reserve No. 2, which  adjoined the company's mill-site.    With the acquisition of this  land the company had ample room for buildings for its staff,  and also for sites for tailings-dam, lime-kiln, and lumber and  wood yards.    In the spring of  1904 the company announced  its   intention   of   laying   pipe-lines   to   supply   water   from   ihe  Twenty Mile flume to the houses in the town, but evidently  difficulties were encountered, for in August it was announced:—  . . . the town now depends almost entirely upon two  wells and a water wagon for its supply of water.    All the  water in the creek is now diverted for mill purposes.    In I  the   meantime   until   a   permanent   system   is   completed,  preparations are being made to give a temporary service  through pipes laid on the surface of the ground.  This system was none too satisfactory and gave rise to ihe  peculiar statement in the Princeton paper: "Hedley can boast  of having the most unique water supply in B.C. It furnishes  warm water during the day and cold at night." In due course  pipes were laid underground and a normal service was instituted.  80 Early History of Hedley Camp  During this year, too, electrical power became available.  As early as December, 1903, it was reported that "Electric light  was used at Hedley on Saturday night (December 5) last, ihe  dynamo being driven by steam power." Its use became more  general the following spring, for in April the poles were in place,  ready to receive the wire, and that month electric lights were  used for the first time in the Methodist church. By the fall the  houses were being wired for electric light.  In the summer of 1904 the Similkameen Hotel was built and  opened for business in the fall. It was a modern, well-built,  and comfortable hotel and soon became a popular stopping-  place for travellers. Unfortunately for ihe town, it was burned  down in February, 1916. For some time, too, it had been  rumoured that a newspaper was io be published in the town.  This became a reality on January 19, 1905, with the appearance  of the first issue of the Hedley Gazette, with Ainsley Megraw,  formerly of the Vernon News and Midway Advance, as editor  and manager. The Gaze.ie was, under his management, a  clean, well-printed, weekly paper. This newspaper suspended  publication on August 16, 1917, at which time lames W. Grier,  a veteran newspaper-man of the Kootenay and Boundary  country, was manager and editor. Hedley had the distinction  of having the first bank in the Similkameen Valley, and for a  short time the only bank in the valley. On April 20, 1905, ihe  Bank of British North America opened a branch, with G. H.  Winters as manager and L. G. MacHaffie as teller. Mr. Winters  was shortly afterwards transferred elsewhere, and L. G. MacHaffie was promoted to manager and J. J. Irwin became the  new teller.  It was also in the summer of 1905 that John Jackson built  the New Zealand Hotel on the site now1 occupied by the Shell  Oil Company's station, but this hotel was destroyed by fire in  the early morning hours of November 6, 1911. That fall G. H.  Sproule  leased  a building he  owned  to  John Lind  and  ihe  81 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  Peterson brothers which, when reconstructed by them, was  opened in 1906 as the Great Northern Hotel. The old building,  though with several additions, still stands and has been in  continuous operation. Hedley now had six hotels and for a few  years there was business for them all, and, as was common in  mining towns of the day, the hotel bars were kept open twenty-  four hours a day and seven days a week. In the summer of  1905 Finlay Fraser built Fraternity Hall, thus giving to the town  its first hall for meetings, dances, and other social events. It  was also used as a lodge-room by the Masonic Lodge and other  fraternal organizations. When the hall was under construction,  a freak wind-squall struck with such force that the building  was toppled over and badly wrecked, but fortunately the men  at work on it escaped with only minor injuries. Business houses  were also increasing. John Love was now well established  as the town's druggist, and James Clarke cleaned and repaired  the watches and clocks for the camp. In September, 1905,  Campbell and Shier opened their "gent's furnishing and clothing  store."  Hedley was very definitely growing up, as is indicated by  the number of community projects and organizations undertaken. No sketch of the early days of the town would be complete without some mention of the Twentieth Century Club,  which had its birth on New Year's Eve, 1903, at a social evening  held in the Methodist church. It had as its aims: "(a) literary  and social improvement, (b) establishment and care of a  circulating library and reading room, (c) securing newspapers,  magazines and writing material for its members." During 1904  it held weekly meetings in the Methodist church and reached  a membership of over 100. Its first officers were: President,  J. A. Mclntyre; vice-president, Mrs. Charles loyner; secretary,  Harvey Tingley; treasurer, Mrs. Tames Brass. Its career was,  unfortunately, a short one, for it disbanded on September 7,  1906, at which time the Gazette reported:  The Twentieth Century Club was organized on New  82 Early History of Hedley Camp  Years Day, 1904, that being the particular species of good  resolution which moved the members thereof. Its motto,  from Emerson, was "Culture, how indispensable." Thus  all that winter they imbibed culture in allopathic doses,  the Fridays, upon which meetings were held being the one  bright bonbon meted out to members and visitors. The  town that winter was chock full of talent, musical and  histrionic, some really good entertainment being given.  The next summer it began to languish. Whether the lassitude was due to hay fever or some other kind of sleeping  sickness, is not known, but the end came, and it is now in  order  to  plant daisies.  The library which the club purchased was "small but  showed a good selection of books," and later arrangements  were made to secure one of the travelling libraries made available by the Provincial Government. Even when the club was  waning, at least the reading-room in the rear of the Methodist  church was kept open, largely through the energy of Rev. R. W.  Hibbert.  By 1905, too, the Hedley Athletic Association was flourishing under the presidency of Dr. H. A. Whillans and plans were  afoot to establish a gymnasium. In August of that year the  Hedley Orchestra came into being, with H. A. Wright as c  ductor, and the following month the first concert was performed  for the public. Fraternal organizations were also not neglec'  Early in March, 1905, the first steps were taken towards ihe  organization of a Masonic Lodge. The moving spirits in this  effort were A. Megraw, Arthur Clare, Finlay Fraser, and A. H.  Brown. The probationary stage of the lodge's existence came  lo an end in July, 1906, when full standing was granted io  Hedley Lodge, No. 43. A few years later an Orange Lodge was  also organized. One of the first campaigns undertaken by the  editor of the newly established Gazette was the organization  of a Board of Trade. Early in January, 1905, a preliminary  meeting was held, with A. Megraw as chairman and lohn Love  as   secretary,   and   formal   organization   was   soon   completed.  83 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  While there was temporarily much enthusiasm, the interest  begar* to wane, but later, in 1907, the organization was reorganized and continued to function with greater success.  In September, 1905, a change was made in the management of the Daly Reduction Company. M. K. Rodgers was  succeeded as manager by R. B. Lamb, A. H. Brown was succeeded as mill superintendent by W. H. Brule, and Arthur Clare  ceased to be mill foreman. However, Gomer P. Jones continued  on as mine superintendent. Employees and residents of the  camp alike were sorry to have to say "good-bye" to Mr.  Rodgers and the members of his staff who were leaving with  him. For the year that R. B. Lamb was manager, the Nickel  Plate was a steady producer, and it might be noted that it was  under his management that the present machine and carpentry  shops were built and equipped with all the necessary machines  and tools for making any needed repairs to the plant. In ihe  fall of 1906 R. B. Lamb was replaced by F. A. Ross as manager  and E. A. Holbrook replaced W. H. Brule as mill superintendent,  and a few months later Arthur Clare returned to take up his  former position as mill foreman. During the three years that  Mr. Ross was manager, the mine continued to make steady  shipments of ore io the mill at Hedley, which was also supplemented by ore from Sunnyside Nos. 2, 3, and 4, where  important ore-bodies had been developed while Rodgers was  still manager. During the early years of the mill's operation  many were the visitors who came from far and near to see ihe  plant and to have explained to them the various processes used  to extract the gold and also, if possible, to ride up the tramways  to the mine. In the spring of 1907 ihe Geological Survey of  Canada sent in Charles Camsell to make a survey of Hedley  Camp, and field-work was completed the following summer.  CamseH's very comprehensive report on the geology of the  camp was printed by the Department of Mines at Ottawa in  1910.  84 Early History oi Hedley Camp  These changes in company management naturally affected  the town, which was almost entirely dependent upon the mine  and the mill. An indication of this dependence is reflected  in the history of the Hedley Hospital. In February, 1905, employees of the Daly Reduction Company discussed the possibility of establishing a hospital. Many meetings were held and.  a public subscription raised which, together with a grant of  $1,000 from the Provincial Government, assured the funds for  ihe construction of the building. In September the General  Hospital Society was organized, with a provisional board comprising G. P. Tones and John McKinnon from the mill, and  Finlay Fraser, F. H. French, and L. F. MacHaffie from ihe town.  In addition, deeds of two town lots were transferred to ihe  society by Messrs, Hedlund and Thomas. The following month  a temporary hospital of two beds was opened in the building  on Ellis Street vacated by the school. The following year ihe  hospital was incorporated, and in the spring of 1907 the new  building was erected by Messrs. Boeing and Brass.  The building is a three storey structure 24 x 40 feet  with a wing 16 x 26. The lowest floor or basement contains  kitchen and laundry and the main floor, entrance to which  from the outside is made from the hillside, comprises the  hallway, one large five-bed ward, two private wards, operating room and bath-room. The third-storey is yet unfinished but could supply two comfortable bedrooms for  nurses.  However, the hospital was not opened until the early spring  of 1910, at which time the Gazette made the following explanation of the delay.  Although young in years it has experienced the rigors  of adversity, and that at a very early period of its existence,  for the scheme was scarcely launched until a staggering  blow was administered to it by accession to power of  unsympathetic management of the leading industry of the  place, and without the active sympathetic interest and cooperation of that industry the institution could not drag out  an existence.    That  blow was  administered when Lamb  85 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  became manager and the weight of it was not lifted until  his successor, F. A. Ross had taken his departure. But it  is pleasing to note that as it was the attitude of indifferent  aloofness on the part of the management of the D. R. Co.  which left the institution practically stranded and unable to  open its doors when the building was completed, it was  from the same institution that succor came under the new  ownership, for it was the generous vote of $500.00 by the  directors of the present company in New York which put  fresh life in the people here and encouraged others to help  until the $500 has grown to $1300 and a sufficient sum was  in hand to enable the institution to be opened for the reception of patients, while a contribution of 50 cents per month  from each employee is an important lift for the board in  providing funds for running expenses.  The first operation was performed in the hospital on February 23, 1910. Dr. M. D. McEwen was the surgeon-in-chief,  and Miss Bond and Miss Fraser, both of Vancouver, were the  first two nurses. The hospital was closed down in the fall of  1930 and never reopened, and finally in 1945 the affairs of ihe  society were wound up and it passed out of existence. During  the twenty years the hospital was in operation, it gave good  service to the community and district, but, like many other  small hospitals, receipts seldom, if ever, kept up with expenses,  and at the end of the year there was usually a deficit which  had to be met in order to keep the hospital in operation.  In the years 1906-08 building operations had slackened off  somewhat, although T. H. Rotheram built and opened his poolroom and store on Scott Avenue in the summer of 1907. Shortly  after his arrival, Rotheram organized a volunteer fire brigade,  which later gave valuable service to the community in fighting  the fires which occurred from time to time. As early as 1903  the possibility of telephone connection with other parts of ihe  Province had been discussed. However, two years were io  pass before the Dominion Government built a line from Kamloops to Penticton, by way of Merritt, Princeton, Hedley, and  86 Early History of Hedley Camp  Keremeos. By February, 1905, the valley had direct wire  connection with the outside world, for a telephone had been  installed in John Love's drug-store. Later an exchange was  installed at the rear of this store, and Love received the appointment as agent. Originally the wires had been strung on trees,  but by July, 1907, it was announced that they had been put on  poles from Hedley to Vernon. Still further evidence of ihe  town's growth was the organization of the Hedley Golf Club in  April, 1909, with the links laid out on Pinto Flat.  The Daly Estate in 1909 gave an option on all its holdings  in the Hedley camp io a New York syndicate headed by I. L.  Merrill. That spring the syndicate sent in a party of five or six  people to sample and make an examination of the mine. The  examination took a good part of the summer io make, and,  when completed, the decision was reached to take up ihe  option. A new company, the Hedley Gold Mining Company,  Limited, now came into being and took over the former company. In the reorganization which followed Gomer P. Jones  became general superintendent and Roscoe Wheeler of Oakland, California, was engaged as mill superintendent. B. W.  Knowles, one of the original examining party, became the mine  engineer and William Sampson, who had been a shiftboss, was  promoted to mine foreman. F. A. Ross and E. A. Holbrook,  after a residence of three years at Hedley, left the camp, taking  with them the good wishes of employees and residents of ihe  town.  For years one of the great needs of the valley had been  proper railroad connection with the outside. The agitation for  such a line was prolonged and, with the advent of rival proposals, at times, heated. Principal contenders were the Vancouver, Victoria and Eastern Railway and the Great Northern  Railway. In 1908 the latter company, having acquired the  charter of its rival, commenced the grading of their line from  Keremeos to Brookmere, and steel was laid during the following  87 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  summer and fall. Regular train service was commenced on  December 23, 1909, and the first train from Oroville to Princeton  arrived at Hedley Station at 11 a.m.  The station at Hedley has not yet been built, but a  box car has been provided on a siding with steps leading  up to it, a stove placed therein and shelves around the  sides for parcels and luggage.  With the coming of the railroad the four-horse freight teams  and stages disappeared from the roads, and a new era was  entered upon. Of all the many prospectors who once had  climbed the steep slopes of Nickel Plate Mountain and of nearby Apex, Northey, and Riordon Mountains, and had there  trenched, dug open-cuts, sunk shafts, and driven tunnels in their  search for gold, how very few now remain. Some had left  early for distant green fields; others, with more faith, stayed  on until no longer able to do the assessment-work on their  claims; many are now dead. A few attained wealth, others  made a smaller stake, but the majority gained experience only  as the recompense for their labor. With their passing went  much of the romance and glamour of those early days at Camp  Hedley, the memories of which still linger on in the hearts of  the few.  1. Reprinted from the British Columbia Historical Quarterly,  XII (April, 1948), 103-126, with the kind permission of the  editor. TO  F. M. Buckland  In 1891 Smithson's Estate, where Okanagan School stood,  was subdivided and sold at auction by the executor, Mr. Cochrane of Vernon. A sketch plan of the property shows the old  trail and stage road as a main thoroughfare at this point, 66  feet wide, and named Gordon Street. With a road only half as  wide shown as running due west from a junction north of the  school as it does today, we have College Street. Pine Street  paralleled College Street for a quarter mile further south and a  Water Street ran north and south to the west of the main highway about a half mile.  Mr. Hall was anxious to secure some good farm land and  suggested that Mr. Ellison bid some lots in for him when attending the sale of the property, as it was impossible for Hall to get  down the Valley all that day. So Mr. Ellison bought Lots 17 and  18 opposite the school. He bid in the first lot at $36.00 per acre,  but the second one was run up in price by some of the neighbours who did not know they were being bought for the stage  driver. R. S. Hall farmed there several years. Mr. F. Conkling,  manager of the Aberdeen Estate, also purchased two ten-acre  lots.  The subdivision of Smithson's estate, R.P. 468, by his executor, was accompanied by others of greater magnitude. George  G. MacKay, formerly of Inverness, Scotland, and later of Vancouver, B.C., where he was connected with the Oriental Trading  Company, and was a Director of the Bank of British Columbia,  visited the Okanagan Valley about 1890. He was evidently  a man of vision, and saw possibilities for further development  in the Mission Valley where the rich bottom land would support  a much larger population, if it produced fruit and vegetables  89 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  instead of hay and grain. This was made evident by the small  orchards with their few trees around a ranch house and the  profusion of vegetables in the kitchen garden. Mr. MacKay first  bought Dan Nicholson's land, (Wm. Pion's original claim) just  east of Kelowna for $20.00 per acre. He then took over the  Johnny McDougall property, now the "Guisachan" - a name  which commemorates a certain Scottish countryside. The LeFevre, Moore, Christian, and Ortolan ranches were added io  the real estate already purchased, giving MacKay control of a  large block of land west of Mission Creek, between Lequimes  and Mill Creek, and the following advertisement appeared:  Fruit Farms for Sale at Okanagan Mission.  There are upward of 2000 acres of  land now offered for sale in the best  part of Okanagan Mission now under crops  of wheat and hay.   Lots to suit Purchasers  from 10 to 40 acres - Price $60.00 per  acre - one-third cash - 1 to 2 years at 8%.  Choice of Lots given in order of application.  This is bottom land with command of water,  such an opportunity was never before offered  in the Okanagan Valley.  Other lots may be had at all prices from  $10.00 per acre upwards.   All these lands  are almost free from timber.  Apply to Robt. Munson, Okanagan Mission  or to G. G. MacKay 6c Son, Vancouver, B.C.  Mr. MacKay, as agent for the Earl of Aberdeen, turned the  McDougall farm over to the incoming Governor-General of  Canada, en bloc, and Lady Aberdeen is said to have superintended the planting of that beautiful evergreen hedge still to  be seen as one drives towards Benvoulin.  A news item of that day tells us, "A barn and stable 50 x  32 feet is about to be erected on ihe Aberdeen Estate at the  90 From Ranches to Orchards  Mission. A considerable quantity of fruit trees have already  been planted there this fall, and since the acquisition of the  Coldstream Estate it has been decided to lay out the entire  Mission property in fruit in the spring. Northern Spy, Baldwin,  Gravenstein, Ribston Pippin, and other kinds of apples suitable  to export will be planted; also Bartletts and Jargonelle pears  for canning. Prunes will be extensively grown for drying, and  a limited quantity of peaches, apricots, nectarines and grape  vines. Small fruits of all kinds "for jams" will be planted  between the trees, the latter coming principally from Toronto  Nurseries."  After surveying these farm lands into 20 or 40-acre lots,  MacKay put them on the market at $60.00 per acre. Other  holdings were also subdivided into 40-acre lots and sold to  newly arriving settlers, many of them from Great Britain and  Ireland. A village or hamlet was laid out about half way  between Lequime's store and Okanagan school, where a newly  surveyed road met the Old Mission Trail. This spot had been  selected because the Vernon and Okanagan Railway Co. had  plans to build south to the Boundary, through the centre of the  Mission Valley, where this would be a station site. A hotel  was built here, also a store, a blacksmith shop and a Chinese  laundry, where Sing Lee washed white shirts for 10 cents each  and undershirts for 5 cents. The place was called Benvoulin,  for one of the loved mountains in Old Scotland. The V. 6c O.R.R.  was never built and the S. 6c O. Railway turned into Okanagan  Landing where freight and. passenger boats on the lake filled  the needs of the country for many years. Mr. Robert Morrison,  who later farmed in Dry Valley, was connected with G. G.  MacKay as overseer on the Estate, and it was through family  associations with MacKay, dating back to Inverness, Scotland,  that Messrs. E. M. Carruthers and G. C. Rose arrived in the  Valley in 1891 to take their part in the development of our  country.  Individual   notices,   posted   and   advertised   through   the  91 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  Government Office at Vernon, for application to purchase  vacant lands in and around the Mission Valley were signed by  lames Phillips, Robert Goldie, Michael Herreon, Alphonse Lefevre and Frederick Brent. The public was further notified  regarding lake transportation:  Str. "Penticton" —■ Capt. T. D. Shorts  Running between all points on Okanagan  Lake  after December   15th,  and during  the winter months the steamer will not  run on  schedule time but as  occasion  requires.  The same issue informs us that "Lord and Lady Aberdeen sail  on the 9th for England on the Majestic."  While Lord and Lady Aberdeen were in residence at  Guisachan it is told that Fr. Felix from the Catholic Mission  called one Sunday afternoon after Mass to pay his respects to  Their Excellencies. On arrival at Guisachan House the Priest  was shown into the dining-room where several of the Earl's  Protestant neighbours had foregathered for divine worship.  There was no Presbyterian Church in ihe Valley at that time;  neither was there a resident minister, so His Excellency, the  Governor-General of Canada, took the service. On returning  to the Mission, Fr. Felix was asked at Lequimes what he thought  of the Governor-General, and ihe Priest replied that he considered Lord Aberdeen a wonderful man because not only was  he Governor-General of Canada and a large farmer, but that  day he had found him a preacher as well. The following year  Benvoulin Church —■ plans and specifications by Mr. Howard  Dell — was built by W. H. Raymer and named "Bethel" at the  suggestion of Lady Aberdeen. It was referred to as a neat  edifice. Presbyterians of Guelph, Ontario, supported this church  as part of their missionary endeavour for many years.  TOWN DEVELOPMENT  The greatest development the Valley ever saw took place  in 1892.    That was the year the Shuswap and Okanagan Rail-  92 From Ranches to Orchards  way was completed and opened May 12th. Vernon had come  into existence five years previous to this, when the name of  the Post Office was changed from Centerville November 1st,  1887, and great expectations for this new business centre in  the Interior of British Columbia are expressed in a full page  advertisement appearing in the Vernon News, December 8th,  1891.   It read:  "VERNON  The Terminus of the Shuswap & Okanagan Railway  Situated in  the Heart of the  Great  Okanagan  Valley —■ The Railway Centre  of  the  Interior  "The Shuswap 6c Okanagan Railway is now under construction and will be completed and in operation io Vernon  early next year. The Okanagan and Kootenay Railway Company obtained a Charter (with land grants of 20,000 acres per  mile) to construct a Railway from Vernon to Sprats Landing,  via the Coldstream Valley and Cherry Creek Mines. A Charter  has also been granted by the local legislature to the Vernon  and Okanagan Railway Company to construct a railway from  Vernon south to the International Boundary to connect with the  American System. Vernon is situated in a pass commanding  and making tributary to it the whole of ihe famous Okanagan  Valley and its adjacent valleys, the grazing country of the  lower Nicola and Similkameen, the mining camp of Rock Creek,  Keremeos, Granite Creek, and Siwash Creek. It is impossible  to get to any of the above places without first going through  Vernon. A branch of the Shuswap 6c Okanagan Railway will  run from Vernon three miles to ihe head of Okanagan Lake  connecting with steamers and opening up country for 100 miles  south, for which Vernon will be the natural market and supply  point. The opening of the Shuswap 6c Okanagan Railway will  flood the favoured country with land and mining prospectors  and will give a great impetus to the farming,  fruit growing,  93 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  grazing  and  mining  industries.     Several  important  industries  are projected and will be started this year.  "This is a great chance to make money, as Vernon, being  ihe centre of the most extensive agricultural district in the  Province, will undoubtedly become a large and flourishing  city." The cultivation of Fruit and Hops and Barley for malting  purposes are destined to become leading industries of the  Okanagan Valley. Improved lands can be bought at from  $10.00 to $20.00 per acre. The climate of this section cannot be  excelled on the American continent. The Company has already  sold a large number of lots. Many of these will have buildings  erected on them this year. Special inducements are offered to  those who propose building. Free sites will be given io parties  establishing industries. A large hotel is now being erected by  the Company and a fine Water System for supplying the Town  projected. The best advice we can give prospective purchasers  is to go and see for yourselves. Take the C.P.R. to Sicamous,  thence S. 6c O. and stage to Vernon.  The Okanagan Land and Development  Company Limited  Head Office —■ Room 2 — Thompson-Ogle Block  Hastings Street, Vancouver  Local Agent at Vernon"  The Canadian Pacific Railway Company launched the  steamboat Aberdeen on Okanagan Lake May 3rd, 1892. She  was a sternwheel vessel, 146 feet in length with a 29 foot beam,  and carried freight, passengers, concentrates, livestock and  settlers' effects up and down the Lake three times a week for  the next fifteen years. Good meals served in a well-appointed  dining saloon, accompanied a well-furnished lounging saloon  and comfortable staterooms. The Aberdeen delivered hundreds  of home seekers io the wharf at Kelowna in her day, and played  an outstanding part in the development of other Lake settle-  94 From Ranches to Orchards  ments, especially those promoted by J. M. Robinson — Peachland in 1900 and Summerland in 1902. Pleasant recollections  of a voyage up or down ihe Lake in those steamboat days  linger in the minds of early settlers even to the present day,  and regret is often expressed for a pleasure trip on one of the  old flat-bottomed stern wheel ships that would, and often did,  push her prow up on a wharfless beach to deliver a letter, or  a bottle to some early pre-emption holder living on a land  claim.  The early 1890's saw a great deal of mining development  in the Similkameen and Boundary Country. A hundred four  and six-horse stage and freight teams travelled the southern  roads out of Penticton, carrying passengers, merchandise and  machinery delivered at the dock by the S.S. Aberdeen.. Bernard  Lequime, realizing the transportation advantages now offered  on the Lake, arranged to have property he had acquired on the  waterfront laid out as a townsite. The survey was made by  J. P. Burneat and J. A. Coryell, 1891, and comprised the half-  section pre-empted by August Gillard in 1863. The original  Crown Grant No. 3078 for District Lot 139, Osoyoos Division of  Yale District, of which Map 462 is a sub-division, was issued  to August Gillard on May 5th, 1887. Gillard in turn conveyed  the said property to Bernard ana. Leon Lequime March 1st, 1890.  Map 462 is the original Map of the Townsite of Kelowna and  was deposited on the 13th day of August, 1892, originally ffled  with the Registrar General at Victoria, and is now in the  Kamloops office.  On completion of the drafted plans of the Townsite, it was  imperative that a name should be selected for the coming  metropolis. Mr. Lequime, having discussed this all-important  question with neighbours and friends, decided the Old Bear  Killer, who had pre-empted the property almost thirty years  before, should be acknowledged in some way. Remembering  the incident which led to August Gillard's receiving of the name  Kim-ach-touch  from the  Indians,   consideration  was  given  to  95 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  that title. The native name for Brown Bear, however, was  deemed too much of a mouthful for white man's continued use.  Perhaps it was because of Old August's oft-told tale of killing  ihe California Grizzly Bear that the native name for this animal  was substituted. Ke-low-na they called it, so the new Townsite  was registered Kelowna in 1892.  That year several commercial orchards were planted beside  the 200 acres in fruii trees set out on the Guisachan. Small  lots of ten and fifteen acres were planted on the Smithson subdivision. Bankhead property was laid out and comprised 20  acres, and the Pridham place about 15.  The tree stock was grown by George Henry in the Fraser  Valley at his Mission Nursery.  Harry Chaplin, an experienced orchardist from Bowman-  ville, Ontario, was working for Henry at the time and was sent  to the Okanagan to superintend the Earl's plantings. Twelve  years later the fruit from these trees found a market in the  mining and lumber camps of B.C., the Prairie Provinces, and by  1903 had broken onto the British markets, when two carloads  were packed and exported by Stirling and Pitcairn of Kelowna.  Tree stock brought into the Okanagan Valley from Henry's  Nursery in the Fraser Valley were of varieties popular in  Eastern Canada and the States at that time. Many ranchers  were partial to the variety of fruit growing in their grandmothers'  backyard when they were children, with the consequence that  plantings of Northern Spy, Ben Davis, Russets and King of  Tompkins —■ off variety — were worked over or pulled out in  later years. Because the nursery stock was not fumigated  before shipping, aphis and other tree pests were introduced  into a valley, until now, practically free. This was resented by  old-timers like Father Richard, who proceeded to call one  "tenderfoot" to account when he found him dipping the tips of  the young trees in a concoction of soaked plug tobacco, soap  96 From Ranches to Orchards  and water. "You newcomers bring bad bugs to the country,"  complained the priest. "At the Mission, if we found one, it was  squeezed with our fingers and we had no trouble. Now, everyone gets green bugs." This was quite true, and the fruit  farmers were compelled to make vats and mix their own poison  which was sprayed on the trees with hand-pumped machines  hauled around on a wagon, or two-wheeled cart. There had  been quite a planting of small fruits and berries which were  producing, but, unfortunately, there was no jam factory.  In 1892 a trek of American Frontier families took place  when half a dozen or more covered wagons rolled through the  mountains to the Okanagan Lake Country and the new town  of Kelowna. They were driven by Missourians who had homesteaded in Idaho in ihe 1880's and after proving up on their  claims, were inspired again to try their fortunes in another  country. Coming to the end of the trail at Penticton, the wagons  and livestock were transported by S.S. Aberdeen to Kelowna,  where the heads of the families staked rural claims on the  fringe of Mission Valley settlement at Black Mountain and the  head of Mill Creek.    'ñ†  The winter of 1892-3 was extremely cold and long. Cattle  men suffered severe losses. Ranges and meadows were overstocked at normal times, so when a mild November and  December dissolved into sub-zero temperatures at the turn of the  year, the winter feed was soon exhausted. Week after week  the wind held in the north and by March hay, at any distant  haul, was selling at $100.00 per ton, with all strawsiacks in the  Valley cleaned up. By April hundreds of cattle were dead  from starvation and cold. Others were so weak they had to  be helped to their feet in the morning before they could feed.  Cowboys, one at the horns and one at the tail, had to jump for  their horses the instant a critter was helped to its feet, because  these wild range cattle would attack a man on foot even if it  were their last lunge.  97 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  Ice was formed so thick on the Lake between Westside and  Kelowna it carried heavily loaded log sleighs drawn by horses  to the Kelowna Sawmill. Out from the wharf, as late as the  first week in April, ice blocks eleven inches thick were cut for  summer use, and soon filled an ice-house. Tree plantings of  the two previous seasons were badly affected by the cold  winter and some young orchards were wiped out.  LAKE SEA DRONE  Sing a song of snake grass  Where a mallard flew;  Sing a song of white caps  White on thunder blue.  Sing a song of wild geese,  When the tide runs high;  Of pintails and of grosbeaks,  Or a dragon fly.  Sing a song of sea change,  For a loon has cried;  Sing a song of sea-green,  Now the wind has died.  Celestine Herry, 1944.  98 TRE FIRST PENTICTON TOWNSITE -1892  H. /. Parham  In response to a request of mine in February, 1947, I received from Mr. G. P. Kaye, President of the Yorkshire 6c Pacific  Securities Ltd., and its subsidiaries in Vancouver, three documents and a map in connection with the purchase of the original  townsite of Penticton from Thomas Ellis. The first of these, dated  August 23, 1892, was a Memorandum of Agreement between  Harry Abbott, General Superintendent of the Canadian Pacific  Railway, George Pepler Norton, William Farrell and E. E. Rand.  (The last named was a member of the Real Estate firm of Rand  Bros, in Vancouver and New Westminster in my early days, and  no doubt was instrumental in putting through the deal). The  second document, dated August 25, 1892, was an Agreement  between Thomas Ellis and Harry Abbott (with plan attached),  and the third, dated September (day omitted), 1892, was an  Agreement between Thomas Ellis and the Penticton Townsite  Co. Ltd. The map showed the Townsite and some adjacent lots.  These documents, and the map (which has many interesting  pencilled notes upon it), constitute, apparently, the birth register  of Penticton as a townsite, and from them we obtain the origins  of some of the names of our oldest streets. Most of these names  require no explanation, particularly the avenues named after  B.C.'s four chief cities of that date, plus Fairview (now Wade)  which was the nearest of the mining towns and camps using  Penticton as a shipping point.  The street names, from east io west are:—  1) Farrell, named for William Farrell, first manager of The  Yorkshire Company in Vancouver (1888-99), whose son  Gordon is well known today as the President of the B.C.  Telephone and other important companies.  99 The Okanagan Historical Society—1  2) Cambie, for Henry J. Cambie, chief engineer of the C.P.R.  western division, who brought the line to the coast and  lived long enough to become affectionately known as  "The Father of Vancouver". Members of his family, all  old friends of mine, still live at the coast.  3) Townley, for ]. D. ("Jimmy") Townley, assistant superintendent of the C.P.R. in Vancouver, and brother of T. O.  Townley, a mayor of that City. Another brother, C. R.  Townley, was C.P.R. Agent in Penticton in ihe early years  of this century; his home was on ihe lakeshore between  the old wharf and the mouth of the creek.  4) Norton, for G. P. Norton of ihe above mentioned document,  of Huddersfield, Yorkshire, England, founder of The Yorkshire Company, and the guide of its destinies for about  half a century.  5) Abbott, for Harry Abbott, first superintendent of the C.P.R.  in the west; brother of Sir John Abbott, premier of Canada,  1891-92.  6) Van Home, for Sir William Van Home, president of the  C.P.R.  7) Ellis, for "Tom" Ellis, the old "cattle-king" whose ranch  home, built in 1863, was at one time occupied by W. T.  Shatford and later by the Wyles family who demolished  the sound old building only recently. I knew all these men  personally except Van Home and Norton, and for three  years, 1895-98, I was a member of The Yorkshire staff.  It will be seen that the old townsite was almost entirely on  the east side of the creek, although the Abbott-Ellis agreement  provided for expansion, including, as it did, Lots 155, 188, 202,  203, 249 and 267.  The townsite was on the N. y2 of Lot 202, with a further  triangular piece piece of land (now including much of the chief  business section) marked on the map "Railroad Reserve". The  little street of one block between Van Home and Ellis, north of  100 The First Penticton Townsite—1892  ihe hotel site, shown on some later maps without a name, is  called "Shorts Street" on the old map, probably named for Capt.  Shorts who ran a steamboat on the lake in early days.  The map shows another "Railroad Reserve" taking in all  land between the lake, Vancouver Avenue, Abbott St. and Van  Home, with wharf running out from it into the lake.  The Esplanade ran from this Railroad Reserve east along the  lakeshore to ihe boundary of the old townsite, as it still does, I  believe.  There was no through road connection from Van Home io  Ellis between Victoria Ave., and Shorts St., on the original map,  but pencilled notes show that Vancouver Avenue (with jog) was  to be continued west; "Ellis will give one lot and Company to  give another lot, Lois 22 6c 23, Blk. 2, for proposed street". This  only took it to the lane, but someone else evidently surrendered  two more lots to carry the avenue through. We of today know  how much trouble this unsatisfactory jog has given, for it is  only now being straightened out and the grade made a safe  one.  When I arrived at the end of 1899, passengers and crew  from the S.S. Aberdeen had to climb up a double flight of stairs  (with a platform half way to rest and get second wind!) to reach  the Penticton Hotel. Freight went round the point of the bench  and then up Vancouver Ave. The point of this bench was cut  down some years ago by Dave Riordan who used the material  to make a fill by the lake shore for the C.N.R.. Fred Bassett tells  me that when he first came to Penticton they used six-horse  teams to pull the wagons straight up the very steep hill from the  wharf. Even when I arrived there was no "town" beyond the  short end of Van Home St. between Victoria Avenue and the  wharf, and it consisted only of the hotel with Alfred Wade's store  and post-office adjoining north of Vancouver Avenue; Welby's  livery-barn, a blacksmith's shop and the jail south of Vancouver  Ave.    Fred Bassett reminds me that Smyth Parker also had a  101 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  shack on or near Victoria Avenue. In 1899 Mr. Wade's house  was (as it still is with an added storey) on the edge of the high  ground between Ellis and Van Home. Provincial Constable  Nesbitt may have built his home on his lots south of Mr. Wade's  before this, but I do not remember seeing any house there.  The main road southward to the Ellis homestead, the little  Anglican church (built in 1892), the Indian reserve and the distant  mining towns and camps, forded Penticton Creek at approximately the site of the present bridge on Front Street. On the old  map it is shown (in pencil only) angling from this ford towards  the Fairview Road. It ran, I remember, between a thick forest  of cottonwoods.  Some of the pencilled notes on ihe map are interesting and  revealing. On Block 1, "All built over by C.P.R. Has this been  deeded io them?" On Esplanade opposite Lots 9, 10, 11, Blk. 3,  "Dynamite Magazine, on beach, very dangerous, should be  moved away." (I remember this old powder-house). On Lots  14, 15, 16, Blk. 27, the N.W. corner of Fairview (Wade) and  Ellis, "Vicarage built by Ellis. Is this deeded?" "Send deed  for Jail." "Instrt. Parker to clear Westminster Ave. from Ellis to  Van Home and send Account to me." "The Creek where marked //// wants cribbing to some lots, could be done for $200.  Schubert the best man for this work." The area thus marked on  N. side of the creek ran from Westminster Ave. and lane west of  Ellis to the middle of Block 25 on lane. The creek apparently  had ill-defined banks between these points; and have not those  who built there in more recent years suffered from flood damage?  About 20 names of purchasers marked on some 60 town lots on  the map are shown. Amongst these are a few that recall Okanagan settlers I have known besides Alfred Wade. "Hankey",  probably G. Alers Hankey of Vernon; "Gartrell" of Trout Creek,  no doubt; "Parker", undoubtedly Smyth Parker who had a ranch  at Marron Lake and seems to have been employed by the Town-  site company in its early days; "Nesbitt", this must have been  the early settler who became Provincial Constable at Penticton  102 The First Penticton Townsite—1892  about the time I came and later had his home and second-hand  shop south of Alfred Wade's home; "J. A. Schubert", "August"  Schubert as Peter Mclntyre always spoke of of him, one of the  Schubert boys who crossed the continent to Cariboo in 1862  with his parents in the well-known "Overland Party", of which  Pete Mclntyre was a member. His old store still stands at the  south-east corner of Ellis and Vancouver and was purchased  from Schubert in later days by Clement Dix and used as a feed-  store. For several years, about 1910-1917, it was occupied by  "The Penticton Herald".  Front Street was, I am told, originally part of the grading  done by the Columbia 6c Western Railway (C.P.R.) to hold their  rights to the extensive land grants between the Kettle and  Okanagan valleys. Other parts of the right-of-way were graded  and can still be found west of South Main St., and the present  location of that street near Skaha Lake is on the right-of-way.  Still another stretch was on the west side of Vaseux Lake; this  did eventually became of use to the C.P.R. when they built their  branch line to Oliver.  I had hoped to find among the "Yorkshire" documents and  plans, the name of the surveyor of the townsite. One can only  come to the conclusion that there was nothing more than a  "paper survey" at the time the Agreements were signed; a  surveyor would surely have balked at laying out a town with  such ridiculous street grades. Even today, with all our modern  machinery, only Vancouver and Ellis are through roads from  end to end of their short lengths! All the rest are blocked by  impossible grades from valley to bench, by deep potholes, ponds  and the creek, to say nothing of the later railway. Fairview  (Wade) and Farrell did have an unhappy marriage for a few  years before being divorced to avoid ihe probability of contributing to sudden death, and Fairview lost its status as a through  road when floods destroyed its traffic bridge, leaving it with a  foot-bridge only across the creek.  103 I'S EARLY RYE-I  By C. W. Morrow, City Solicitor  The City of Vernon was incorporated on December 30,  1892, when the Hon. Edgar Dewdney was Lieutenant-Governor.  The Charter provided for the election of a Mayor and five  Aldermen, and gave them the privilege of witnessing the count  of the ballot — provided they were in attendance. The Charter  also provided that, when elected, they must complete their  term, except in case of illness. In default, they were to pay $50  for ihe Municipal Revenue, this money to be collected by the  City Clerk before any Justice of the Peace.  A perusal of the earlier bye-laws passed by the City Coun-  all reveals some very interesting items. The first five dealt with  appointments and duties of various officers.  THE CLERK, for the first year was R. J. Davies, who held the  position of Treasurer as well — salary $500.  THE ASSESSOR, with which position went those of Collector,  Constable and Sanitary Inspector, was H. R. Parke.  The Clerk was entrusted with the preparation of all bonds,  and the prosecution of all offenders; the minutes do not disclose  whether he was a member of the Bar.  The Assessor, in his capacity of Constable, had many  duties, but in particular he was charged under Bye-Law No. 5,  to —  "Take charge of all persons found drunk and incapable  of taking care of themselves."  In addition it was his duty to take in charge all persons  lying about the streets, squares, lanes, and other thoroughfares,  even though not disorderly, lock them up and look after general  104 Vernon's Early Bye-Laws  comfort, see that they got their meals at regular hours and have  them ready for trial every morning, except Sunday, at 10 a.m.  By and large the Assessor was the Pooh Bah of the City.  Procedure at meetings of the Council was settled by Bye-  Law No. 9, and still holds good at this time. Parliamentary  Procedure was the order of the day, and the Bye-Law provided  that members of the Council are required, before speaking, to  rise in their places, uncovered, and address themselves to the  chair. They were required to sit down, if called to order, but  might explain afterwards. Offensive words against the Council  or any member were strictly prohibited.  The earliest Health Bye-Law was No. 10, which appears  to have been carefully drawn, and it apparently endeavoured  to cover every contingency. Paragraph 26 provided that the  night scavenger be paid one dollar for every place he visited,  and gave him the right to demand payment in advance. The  Mayor was given the authority to try anyone who disobeyed  this Bye-Law.  Until 1894 the question of morals does not seem to have  given the authorities any concern; in that year Bye-Law No. 19  was passed; it gave authority to restrain and punish immoral,  indecent, and other disorderly persons in the City. Paragraph  one of this Bye-Law prohibited the giving or selling of intoxicating liquor to any child without the consent of its parents.  Regardless of age, the consent of the latter seemed to make  the whole thing perfectly legal and moral.  It was in 1894 also that borrowings began; in that year  the City Fathers apparently decided a Grist Mill would be a  good thing for the District, and put a Bye-Law before the ratepayers to borrow $5000. The purpose of the loan was to make  a gift to anyone who would start a mill at Vernon and in  addition he would be given a free site, and be exempted from  taxation for a period of ten years.   This Bye-Law was received  105 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  enthusiastically by the rate-payers. The Grist Mill was established without delay and flourished for an extended period at  the location now occupied by Bulman's Limited.  From and after the passage of the grist mill Bye-Law,  borrowing became popular; a few of the earlier money Bye-  Laws shows the trend, viz:—  No. 39, to borrow $12,000 for electric light purposes.  No. 47, to borrow $30,000 for water works.  No. 54, to borrow a further $7000 to complete the water  works. (It was apparent the earlier amount was  on the short side, as the later Bye-Law says the  $30,000 is inadequate).  No. 66, to borrow $13,000 for electric lights.  No. 69, to borrow $6500 for a new City Hall. (This amount  was raisd on a 50 year basis, and will not be  retired until 1953; in the meantime the interest  alone amounts to $16,250).  With the turn of the century people began to be speed  conscious, and so Bye-Law No. 14 became law to prevent immoderate riding or driving. Under this Bye-Law, "No one  driving any carriage or other vehicle drawn by a horse, shall  cause, suffer or permit the horse or other animal to go at a  gallop or other immoderate speed exceeding eight miles  per  hour."  Not long aftrwards, bicycles came into the picture, and  they were restricted to the same speed, with the additional  restriction that, at intersections they were required to reduce  their speed to six miles per hour. They had to be provided with  a bell, to be sounded when passing or meeting another person,  walking or driving, and be provided with a night light.  Dogs came in for some early discussion under : Bye-Law  No. 57.   Even in those far off days every dog had one bite, for  106 Vernon's Early Bye-Laws  the Bye-Law provided that "fierce, malicious, and dangerous  dogs, KNOWN TO BE SUCH, shall be kept muzzled and chained." The final paragraph declared that if a dog strayed into  other premises, the owner of the premises was to be considered the owner for the purposes of the Bye-Law.  Until 1901, the City made use of a burial ground in unorganized territory on the Kamloops road, but in this year, it  borrowed slightly over $400 to acquire the Cemetery site still  in use at the northern end of the City. The Bye-Law prohibited  the use of the old site, and further prohibited anyone going into  or out of the new cemetery except through the gates.  In 1904 the various tradesmen were classified and licensed;  by to-day's standards some of the titles of ihe business ventures  truly belong to another age; for example, consider the licenses  granted to the following:—■  Any person vending spirituous or fermented liquor by  retail, $150, every six months.  Any person operating a restaurant, and who supplies beer  or wines, $25, every six months.  Any person selling opium, except Chemists and Druggists,  on a Doctor's prescription, $25, every six months.  Any person practising as an astrologer, seer, fortune teller  and clairvoyant, $25, every six months.  When electric lights were first installed, flat rates were  enjoyed for a few months, but the following rates were quickly  discarded:—  Dwellings, first 5 lights of 32 Candle Power     .94 a month  Hotels and Gaol, first 10 lights 1.33 a month  Stores and offices, first 5 lights 1.10 a month  A number of people have wondered about the shade trees  on Barnard Avenue; most agree that these trees make Vernon  completely different from  other  Okanagan  Cities;  they were  107 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  planted pursuant to Bye-Law No. 94, passed in 1906, which  provided for the planting of shade trees throughout the City,  and prohibited the fastening of horses or other animals thereto,  or to the case or box surrounding the tree. Apparently ihe trees  were well protected, as some of them are still in existence at  this time.  Vernon is building a new Jubilee Hospital, and it is interesting to recall that the old structure came into being following  the passage of a Bye-Law in 1907; this Bye-Law visioned a  $50,000 structure for the 50 beds; the share of the City was  $15,000. Today the new Hospital, with 100 beds, will cost  $500,000.  In the 55 years since incorporation, rate-payers have changed but little; money bye-laws have been kindly received,  generally speaking, but the majority of voters have absented  themselves on polling day. In the first money bye-law placed  before the rate-payers, 45 were in favor and 8 against. The  "Vernon News" of May 3, 1894, bemoaned the fact that they  were so apathetic. In the most recent appeal to ihe Vernon  rate-payers on a money bye-law, a scant 400 turned out from a  voting strength of 2200.  Another interesting comparison between 1894 and 1948 is  the assessed value of the City properties; then it was roughly  $500,000 as compared to $7,000,000.  For the purposes of the article, 100 bye-laws were reviewed,  ending with the period September, 1907; the average number  passed in each year was 8. The latest Bye-Law to be passed  in 1948 is No. 992. With the passage of the years, the City is  passing an increasing number of Bye-Laws; changing conditions are undoubtedly responsible.  (Note.—Vernon's new fire alarm loan bye-law is to be the  city's  1000th bye-law.)  108 ATE  G. L. Ormsby  In 1894, S. C. Smith, of Vernon, who operated a sawmill at  Okanagan Landing, decided to move the plant to Enderby. In  partnership with Norman McLeod of Armstrong, he erected a  mill on the Spallumcheen River which runs through the heart  of Enderby. The site then chosen is still the centre of saw-  milling operations, although the mill itself has witnessed many  transformations. The original mill had a capacity of 25,000  feet a day. Six years later, the plant was burned but was rebuilt on a larger scale.  The opening up by Mr. Smith of the vast hinterland running  back almost 100 miles through the Mabel Lake and Sugar Lake  countries and drained by the Shuswap and Spallumcheen Rivers, was the prelude to intensive lumbering activity. Logs were  cut as far back as Cherry Creek and even beyond to Sugar  Lake, floated down the Shuswap River, over Shuswap Falls,  where they joined Bessette Creek logs, and on to Mabel Lake,  where they were rounded up into rafts and towed 14 miles to  the mouth of the Spallumcheen River, and down to Enderby, 30  miles distant.  When I came to Enderby in 1903, Mr.'Smith had just sold  his interests to a New Brunswick syndicate headed by F. H. Hale,  formerly a Member of Parliament. Mr. Hale enlarged the mill  io a capacity of 40,000 feet a day. Mr. Robert Carswell, now of  Vernon, was in charge of the lumber-yard at that time. He  purchased millions of feet of logs from adjacent farmers that  winter, while Albert E. Johnston operated a camp at Mabel Lake,  so when the spring drive was over Spallumcheen River south of  Enderby presented quite an animated appearance.  109 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  In 1904 the mill passed into other hands. F. H. Hale (Okanagan Lumber Company) sold his interests to an Ontario syndicate headed by the Hon. George E. Foster and financed through  ' the Union Trust Company of Toronto. The purchase price was  $100,000. The new company, the Kamloops Lumber Company,  had as its manager Hon. George McCormick of Orillia, Member  of Parliament for Parry Sound. At the same time as the Enderby  transaction was put through, ihe syndicate also purchased the  Shields mill at Kamloops and the Arrow Lake mill at Arrowhead.  Over a million dollars was invested.  McCormick immediately enlarged the Enderby mill io a  cutting capacity of 50,000 feet a day, and large logging camps  were opened up at Mabel Lake under the foremanship of ihe  Johnstone "boys". Albert lohnstone enlarged Camp 3 and by  spring had a cut of 4,000,000 feet of magnificent logs, mostly  white pine. His brother Isaac operated a new camp at Cottonwood Creek farther up the lake and cut 3,000,000 feet. Across  the lake at the mouth of Spallumcheen River was another camp  under the management at Pat McLean of Orillia who took out  2,000,000 feet. Farther up the lake, a few miles inland, on  Shuswap River, Joe Doyle of Orillia also logged around 3,000,000  feet. So the year 1904 may be looked upon as the start of  intensive logging operations for the Enderby saw-mill. During  the period of the company's activity, the lumber was sold at a  contract price of $17.50 a thousand to ihe Independent Lumber  Company of Regina, a subsidiary company which was owned  by the same shareholders and managed by J. C. Shields.  The year 1905 saw the greatest change. The Kamloops Lumber Company sold out to the A. R. Rogers Lumber Company of  Minneapolis for the sum of $350,000. The new company immediately increased the capacity of the mill to 100,000 feet a  day. For ihe next fifteen years Enderby was the scene of great  saw-milling activity with many millions of feet of timber being  transformed into choice lumber. About 1912, the name of the  company was changed to ihe Okanagan Sawmills Limited, al-  110 Saw-Milling at Enderby  though the ownership remained the same. The mill continued  to operate steadily from 1905 until 1921, running night and day  for nine months in the year. In addition to manufacturing lumber, the company also shipped thousands of poles to the United  States market. In 1921, the Spallumcheen drive contained  40,000 poles and 15 million feet of logs. The same year, due  to financial reverses and a decline in the market price of lumber,  A. R. Rogers retired from the business, and the mill was partly  dismantled. Some of ihe machinery was sold to various concerns in other parts of the Province and what remained was  purchased by a local syndicate, Sigalet Lumber Co. Enderby  suffered a disastrous slump.  With the outbreak of World War II a change for ihe better  took place. The brisk demand for lumber led to the operation of  22 small mills in or near Enderby. Eventually the old Rogers  mill-site was taken over by the T. K. Smith Saw-mill Company  of Armstrong and operations are now in progress, although they  are not on the scale of the Rogers' period.  Ill SLACK MOUNTAIN SCROOL DAYS  By Minnie E. Mawhinney  In the Fall of 1901, having given up my school on Vancouver Island, and being in a slight state of financial embarrassment owing to a somewhat prolonged holiday in California, I  wandered into the Education office in Victoria to see if any  school vacancies were listed. Mr. David Wilson, the (then)  Superintendent of Education, had just received a letter from the  Secretary of the Black Mountain School, asking that a teacher  be sent to them, and Mr. Wilson asked me if I would like to go.  Neither he nor I had the least idea as to the location of the place,  but as Mr. Brown's letter had been post marked Kelowna, we  looked it up on the map and discovered that it was in the Interior.  Deciding that it would make a nice change from ihe Coast, I  promptly accepted the offer, at the same time, hoping that Black  Mountain would not be too remote from civilization. When I  arrived at Kelowna, Mr. Brown met me with his horse and  buggy, and I was driven io his home where I boarded for a  while. (Later I went to the Mount View Ranch then owned by  Mr. John Dilworth to whom I became related by my marriage  in January, 1903, to Mrs. Dilworth's youngest brother, Frank  Mawhinney). Mr. and Mrs. Brown and the latter's three children,  George, Jack and Dora White, had come to the Okanagan in  1897 and had made their home on a farm in the district which I  believe is now called Hollywood. There was no school nearby,  and as the White children were all of school age, and as there  were several families living on Black Mountain, Mrs. Brown  thought something should be done about it. Her efforts were  successful and so Black Mountain School came into being.  The Whites were the only Canadians, the other families  having come from across the line, taking up pre-emptions on  112 Black Mountain School Days  Black Mountain. Most of the children had been to school in the  United States, but one or two, although fairly well grown, had  had no schooling at all. The first school was a log building  situated a short distance up the mountain, and the first teacher  was a Mr. Fred Watson, who opened the school in 1897, with  fifteen pupils. He was succeeded by a Mr. William Clement,  whose family lived in Kelowna. Then some of the families  moved away — they seemed to be a more or less "unsettled"  lot — and the school was closed. It was re-opened in the Fall  of 1901 although not in the same building, with myself (at that  time Minnie Eleanor Nicholas) in charge. The salary, which  was the average for country schools of that period was $50.00  per month, but as room and board were only $15.00, one got  along quite well. The new school was a small frame structure,  situated on Black Mountain Road on the North East corner of  the Y. B. Brown property. There were only nine pupils in attendance. (Two of the boys, Luke and Russel Mcintosh, went  overseas during the war of 1914-18 and were killed). The school  was in operation for just a few months when it was again closed  for lack of pupils. In many of the small country schools of that  time, children of all ages were kept home to help with the farm  chores in the busy season with the result that the attendance  dropped off to the point that it wasn't worth while keeping them  open. However, the school was again opened in 1904 with Miss  Ada Howell (now Mrs. A. Beele) of Victoria, in charge.  Rutland had materialized out of what was known in earlier  times as the Ellison Flats, and with the advent of more people,  the school was never again closed. The little school house was  moved some time later to that part of Black Mountain Road near  the Rutland store and eventually torn down. Black Mountain  itself, was, in my time, largely range land, and I, as a city girl,  had the thrill of my life one day when several hundred head of  cattle were driven down into the valley past the school house.  And the Rutland of today bears not the least resemblance to the  country as it was when I first went there.   But in spite of bad  113 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  roads, no automobiles, or movies, or radios, we found life very  interesting. I remember dances where everybody who could  get there would come, and where Dan Gallagher (who died  not long ago) "was a familiar figure with his banjo which he  played very well indeed.  I remember, too, a dance at one of the ranch houses where  we danced to the music (?) of Rod Crozier's mouth organ.  Perhaps distance lends enchantment, but it seems to me  that the Okanagan winter climate was nicer in those days.  There was more clear frosty weather — more snow, and ihe  jingle of sleigh bells, and the exhilaration of a ride up the valley  in a cutter on a bright sunny day! Simple living and simple  pleasures, and, best of all, Peace throughout the land!  114 Sam B. Manery  Indians of the Ashnola and Indians of Chopaka lived in the  Similkameen long ago. Free and happy, they roamed at will.  Their trails branched in every direction: to the east they fished  in Okanagan Lake or on the Columbia River; to the west they  had their trade trail to the Fraser River. Over it they carried  bundles of hemp to trade with the Coast Indians for salmon  bellies, baskets and higua shells.  When the Boundary Question was settled in 1846, the Hudson's Bay Fur Brigade was diverted from the Colvile and Fort  Shepherd through the Kettle, Okanagan and Similkameen  Valleys io Hope. The Indians at first resented the intrusion of  the white men, but in time seemed to become reconciled io  their presence. Some of the Indians are worthy of mention.  Chief Ashnola lohn, after whom Ashnola Creek was named,  was, in appearance a typical Indian Chief. Tall, gaunt, with  straggly hair, and wearing a long buckskin shirt, he was a  familiar figure riding his pony down the road as late as 1912.  He was said to have had in his possession and hanging in his  cabin, the scalps of several whites. Later, John Nahumchin  became Chief. He was a quiet farmer. Paul Terabasket still  lives on the original cattle ranch. Although he is very old, he  can still relate stories of the days when the first white men  travelled through the Valley. He tells of the occasion when the  Indians ambushed and massacred several American soldiers  near the old Similkameen school. Their bodies were buried in  a rock slide there, and arrows can still be found.  Gold was discovered on ihe Similkameen just about the  time of the Fraser River excitement.   There was a short stam-  115 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  pede—Okanagan City rose out of the dust, flourished and died.  Far to the west the Wild Horse Creek excitement in 1864 caused  a "trek" to the Kootenay. Governor Douglas decided that a  road should be built from Allison's to the new mines. The  Dewdney Trail was the result. The pack trains of Governor  Douglas, Judge Begbie, Magistrates O'Reilly, Haynes and  Vowell attracted the attention of many outsiders to the advantages of settlement in the lower Similkameen.  Already, in 1860, the Hudson's Bay Company had moved its  trading post from Fort Okanogan io Keremeos, "a choice spot  in the Shimilkameen". Francois Deschiquette who was put in  charge was instructed to build a log hut or two, and cultivate  a few acres of land, raising oats, potatoes and other vegetables.  The first Hudson's Bay post stood where the Cawston Store is  today, on the bank of Brown Creek. Deschiquette was shot io  death in a quarrel with Frank Peio; his grave is on the north  side of Blind Creek where the old Similkameen-Fairview road  winds up the hill. The second post was located farther north at  Keremeos. Roderick McLean was made Factor in 1863, and  succeeded in 1867 by Tohn Teit. In 1871 Kootenay and Colvile  were closed, and all the stock and goods were moved from  Keremeos to Kamloops.  Among the early settlers in the Similkameen was Bob  Stevenson, a miner, who arrived in 1860, and whose romantic  yarns about the early days were listened to by many later  settlers. Joseph McCauley had sailed around the Horn io Victoria, had been in Cariboo at ihe time of ihe Gold Rush, and  later journeyed over the Hope Trail to take up land in ihe  lower Similkameen. His land was later turned over to Dan  McCurdy. The name of Francis Xavier Richter was well known  to all who came into the Similkameen. Richter was born at  Friedland, Bohemia, on November 5, 1837. He left home at the  age of 16, sailing to Galveston, Texas, and going from there io  San Antonio.   There he mined gold and silver for two years;  116 Keremeos Chronicles  then he went to Arizona where he worked in the silver mines  until the Civil War commencd. As scout for Captain Harnie,  an American Army officer at Fort Yima, Texas, he had varied  experiences. Later he went by mule to Los Angeles and by  boat to San Pedro, and then to San Francisco. The lure of  gold took him to Lewiston, Idaho, in 1862. From there he moved  io Colvile, where he mined at Rickey's Bar. He then formed  a partnership with King who had packed for the Hudson's Bay  Company, and who painted a glowing picture of conditions  in the Similkameen. The two men bought 42 head of cattle at  Butter Creek, Oregon, which they drove across Washington,  crossing the line at Osoyoos, where they paid the duty of $2.00  per head. They homesteaded in 1865 where Cawston is today.  Richter traded with ihe Indians for furs, which he supplied ihe  Hudson's Bay Company until 1867. Later he bought fruit trees  from Clarkson's Nursery at New Westminster. These he packed  over the Hope Trail and planted at his ranch. R. L. Cawston  and Ella Lowe purchased this ranch in 1885. Richter acquired  several other ranches in the territory between Keremeos and  Kettle River. Four of the five sons by his first wife are living  today. His second wife was Elizabeth Louden, and is now  Mrs. Harry Tweddle.  Another early settler in the Similkameen was Manuel Barcelo who came from Mexico to Texas, and from there drove a  herd of cattle to California in 1850. The Cariboo gold rush  attracted him to British Columbia. He became a packer for  ihe Hudson's Bay Company from Fort Hope to the Similkameen  and over io the Kootenay; and later homesteaded at Keremeos.  His widow is now 82 years of age. Living with her are ihe  two sons who are ihe only survivors of Barcelo's ten children.  For many years Barcelo employed an Ontario-born negro,  whom he always called "his smoked Canadian."  Barcelo's ranch-foreman for five years was W. J. Manery,  who was born at Owen Sound, Ontario, in 1859, and who came  117 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  The Old Customs House for Keremeos, situated about two  and a half miles from the Boundary.  west to Alberta by Canadian Pacific Railway in 1885. Manery  went south to Spokane, took the stage to Marcus, Washington,  swam the Columbia on horse-back, and proceeded io the  Similkameen. He was married in the East in 1887, and homesteaded twelve miles south of Keremeos. In time he acquired  1,400 acrs of land and 350 cattle. Of his ten children, nine are  living. The author of this article was the fourth white child  born in the Valley.  The first white woman to reside in the Valley was Mrs.  Daniel McCurdy. Her husband was born in Ontario in 1850.  He came west by way of Chicago, Minneapolis, Portland and  Victoria in 1884, and travelled over the Hope Trail io the  Similkameen to the Toe McCauley ranch, which he later owned.  The following year, 1885, he moved his wife and three children  to the west. For a while McCurdy was Customs Officer at  lower   Similkameen.     The   first   school-house   was   built   on  118 Keremeos Chronicles  McCurdy's property, and when it was opened in 1892, ihe  Cawston boys, the Daly children and the Barcelos rode for  miles, winter and summer, to keep up ihe attendance. Sam  McCurdy still lives on the old "home ranch."  The Cawstons lived for years on the first Richter ranch,  which was sold to Cawston and Lowe. R. L. (Dick) Cawston,  a cousin of W. H. Lowe, came out to the Haynes Ranch at  Osoyoos in 1875 to manage the cattle ranch. In 1885 he went  to Ontario io marry Annie Pearson. Their son, Percy, born in  February,  1887, was the first white child born at Keremeos.  Preceding the Cawstons, Henry Nicholson and Barrington  Price, Englishmen, came to ihe Valley in September, 1872,  and leased the Hudson's Bay post as a stock ranch. Price also  had a "smoke house" to which Mr. Haynes sent hams and  bacon from Osoyoos to be smoked. Tom Daly later bought  the Price place. Mrs. Daly was the first "postmaster" at Keremeos. Mail was packed over the Hope Trail, and later carried  from Penticton by Joe Brent, and then by Louis Brent.  Half a mile north of the place where the Hudson's Bay post  once stood is the old land mark "where the grist mill stones,  bought in Oregon and packed over the Trail for Nicholson and  Price, were placed.  Other pioneer ranchers and farmers in ihe lower Similkameen were the Barbeis, who lived at the Boundary, the Armstrongs and lohn Neal.  As the settlers arrived, the Hope Trail became busier. It  was open for pack trains and cattle from the middle of June  until the middle of November. Hundreds of head of cattle  were driven over it from the stock ranches of Ellis, Haynes,  Lowe, Cawston, Richter, Barcelo, Allison and others to ihe  markets at Victoria and New Westminster.  A lively interest in horse-racing existed in the Similkameen.  In 1874, a famous race took place between Barrington Price's  119 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  "Mountain Chief" and fames A. McDonnell's "Bulger Dick"  for the Keremeos Derby Stakes. There was great excitement  and much cheering on the part of whites and Indians when  ludge Haynes declared "Chief" ihe winner. The sterling silver  cup which Barrington Price won was later given to Valentine  Haynes as a christening cup, and is now owned by Wilfred  Lambly.  In ihe 'seventies, deer, mountain sheep and bear were  plentiful. The Ashnola mounains were the home of a large  herd of "Big Horn." Sometimes a hundred could be sighted  from Edward Bullock-Webster's farm. Big-game hunters came  from the United States, providing themselves with .luxurious,  although not too practical equipment. One hunting party consisted of Prince Ferdinand of Austria and his suite of six Austrian gentlemen and six servants. Their train of ten pack horses  and fourteen saddle horses was provided by Tom Ellis of  Penticton. The assassination of this prince led to the outbreak  of war in 1914.  120 By George /. Fraser  Osoyoos, ihe most southerly district of the Canadian Okanagan, the first to be visited by white men and the last to enjoy  intensive development, is rapidly coming to the fore as a fruit  and vine-crop producing centre and proudly boasts the signal  distinction of being able to market the earliest fruits of their  kind in Canada.  The name Osoyoos is an Indian one, meaning "The  Narrows" and applies to a point on the lake where a long spit  of land almost cuts the lake in two. Shallow water at the  narrows affords a natural crossing, and so even before the day  of bridges in the valley, there was a junction here of important  trails; for this reason, Osoyoos was well known to the old time  prospectors, miners and cattlemen.  Historians have recorded that Osoyoos was first visited  by white men in September, 1811, when a Fur Trader, named  David Stuart and a companion named Montigny, representing  the Pacific Fur Company, passed through on their way north  prospecting for a better trade route to the great interior of British  Columbia. After wintering in the vicinity of what is now  Kamloops, the explorers returned in March, 1812, making the  trip to Fort Okanogan in twenty-five days. As a direct result  of this exploration trip, Kamloops became an important fur  trading centre and Osoyoos went on the map as a Fur Traders'  camp-site.  Osoyoos was known only as a camp-site until 1860, when  the Trading Post at Fort Okanogan was abandoned and a post  was established at Osoyoos. Thus Osoyoos advanced from a  camp-site to an active Trading Post.  121 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  In 1861, when herds of stock were brought across the  border for the mining camps and ranches of Cariboo, the  Government established a Customs Port at Osoyoos with John  Carmichael Haynes, formerly of the British Columbia Constabulary, and latterly Customs Officer on the Similkameen  and Revenue Collector at Rock Creek, in charge.  Mr. Haynes proved such an efficient official that his advancement in the Government service was very rapid. In  addition to his commission as Customs Officer, Mr. Haynes  "later to be widely known as Judge Haynes", served as Gold  Commissioner, Stipendiary Magistrate, County Court Judge and  Member of the Legislative Assembly. With ihe exception of  two short periods when he was despatched to maintain law  and order in new gold-mining camps in the Kootenay, Judge  Haynes continued in office at Osoyoos until his untimely death  in 1888 at Princeton, when he was returning from official duties  at Victoria. In addition to pioneering as an official of the Crown  in so many important offices, Judge Haynes pioneered in ranching, an industry that soon developed io one of major importance.  The ranch domain of the Judge grew from the original homestead until it encircled some 22,000 acres of land, while his  herd of cattle increased until it numbered in excess of 2,000  head. Others followed the lead of the fudge and some idea of  the extent to which the ranching industry grew may be gleaned  from an official report issued in 1892 which placed the number  of cattle on Osoyoos and adjacent Similkameen ranches at  20,000.  In 1889, Theodore Kruger, trader and pioneer resident of  Osoyoos, received the appointment of Customs Officer. Mr.  Kruger came to Osoyoos in 1866 as manager of the Hudson's  Bay Store. In 1872 the Company sold the store to Barrington  Price, who operated it for one year, and then sold to Kruger.  That same year, 1873, Mr. Kruger married at Victoria, a young  lady sixteen years of age who had just arrived from Denmark.  The happy couple proceeded to Osoyoos where they lived, and  122 Osoyoos  continued in business until the passing of Mr. Kruger in 1899.  In addition to carrying on the business of traders, the Krugers  looked after the welfare of travellers and their friendly, homelike welcome, the good food and the comfortable quarters,  provided pleasure that was not io be forgotten by any who  experienced their kindness and hospitality. Kruger mountain,  directly west of the town will ever stand as a monument to the  Kruger family, rugged pioneers, highly respected for their  industry, integrity and good deeds.  In 1892, a mining recording office at Camp McKinney, was  moved to Osoyoos with Mr. C. A. R. Lambly in charge. There  was great activity in prospecting during the 'nineties', and one  claim known as the Dividend, gave promise of big pay; but it  proved pockety and was abandoned. In 1898 the Recording  Office was moved io Fairview, where a real mining boom had  developed.  In 1934 Osoyoos Mines Limited, a company organized in  Calgary and financed by Calgary capital, obtained control of  the Dividend mine and several adjoining claims. A stamp-mill  and a ball-mill were installed, and later a huge cyanide plant  to recover gold from the tailings was set up, but the gold produced was insufficient to pay operating costs and so for a  second time the prospect of Osoyoos becoming an important  mining centre disappeared.  In 1906, Leslie Hill, a mining engineer of Nelson, B.C.,  acquired some 1200 acres on the east side of the lake from  Tom Ellis of Penticton, and proceeded to develop a model 40  acre orchard. This was the start of what has proved to be the  all important industry of the district. The Leslie Hill experiment  demonstrated that cherries, apricots, peaches, plums, pears and  apples could all be successfully grown here, and that the district  was particularly adapted for the growing of soft fruits such as  peaches and apricots and had the advantage of being the  earliest in Canada.  123 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  In the Fall of 1910, Geo. J. Fraser, of Penticton, found his  way to Osoyoos, and so fell in love with the district that he at  once set out in quest of land with lake frontage, and in association with some friends, 200 acres on the east side of the lake  were purchased from the late Frank Richter, well-known pioneer  of Keremeos. The land on the west side of the lake was owned  by the Southern Okanagan Land Company of Penticton, who  were holding it for sale undeveloped.  In 1917, Mr. Fraser and family, moved to Osoyoos. The  only other established residents of Osoyoos at that time were  the families of George lermyn, Customs Officer, and William  Richter, Rancher. The most serious difficulty facing these  pioneers was that of education for their children. A ruling of  the Department of Education called for a minimum of ten  children of school age being resident in a district before permission would be granted for the establishment of a school. In  Osoyoos there were only five, but the difficulty was nicely  overcome by persuading a Kruger Mountain family with five  children of school age to move in. An old Government building  that had once served one half as office and living quarters for  the Mining Recorder, and ihe other half as a Provincial Jail,  was taken possession of without any question as to authority.  The stout walls of the cells were removed, and the jail fitted  up for a schoolroom while the other part of the building was  made ready for the most welcome Kruger Mountain family.  Thus Osoyoos acquired a school with Miss Dorothy Evans of  Kelowna, now Mrs. Willoughby Crawford, of Vancouver, the  first teacher. The first Board of Trustees included George Jermyn, Chairman, Geo. J. Fraser, Secretary-Treasurer and William  Richter.  In 1919 the first move toward intensive development in the  district was launched, when a group of men: D. E. Burpee, Wm.  McConnachie, C. L. Carless, W. T. Hunter, Rev. J. F. Millar and  A. McMeans of Penticton, Leo Hayes of Kelowna, R. H. Helmer  124 Osoyoos  of Summerland, R. H. Plaskett and Geo. ]. Fraser of Osoyoos,  purchased the Leslie Hill Estate.  This group organized a private company "Osoyoos Orchards Limited", and immediately proceeded with the installation  of a pumping irrigation system to cover some 300 acres of lake  frontage property. The next year, fruit trees were set out over  the greater part of that area. Each member acquired and  developed a lot. Others who purchased from the company and  were in on the original development were F. L. Goodman, E. R.  Dawson and R. D. Fraser.  In 1920 R. D. Fraser opened a general store and was  appointed Postmaster. He volunteered to perform the duties  after the Postal Authorities had rejected ihe settlers' petition for  an office on the ground that the population of the district did  not warrant the service.  Following World War I, the Provincial Government purchased the holding of the Southern Okanagan Land Company  in this area, for development as a returned soldier project. A  huge gravity irrigation system was started in 1920, but as  Osoyoos was at the low end of ihe district to be served, it was  1927 before water was available here. Intensive development  quickly followed the arrival of water. The greasewood, sage  brush, bunch grass and cactus which had covered the land,  disappeared and settlers' homes, tilled land and young orchards  proclaimed that a new era had dawned at Osoyoos; that the  great cattle ranching industry was giving way to the more intensive one of horticulture. Population and production statistics  will best tell the resultant story.  The school population jumped from 7 in 1918 to 460 in  1948. The total population increased from 18 in 1918 to a  conservative estimate of 3000 in 1948. Production of fruit and  vegetables jumped from 60 tons in 1918 to an excess of 20,000  tons in 1947. In 1918 there were only 40 acres under irrigation.  In 1948 there are upwards of 2500.  125 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  The small cash payment required on land purchased from  the government, together with the long terms and low rate of  interest, extended on the balance, were inducements that  encouraged many people of very limited means to settle here.  Some there were who had the proverbial shoe-string. Today,  the splendid homes of the growers, their fine orchards, and ihe  good cars they are driving, all bear tribute to their thrift and to  the golden opportunity the district has afforded.  This is not to say that all has been without tribulation.  During the years that ihe settler waited for his orchard to  develop, he depended for a livelihood chiefly upon such vine  crops as cucumbers, cantaloupes, and tomatoes, and there  were seasons when many found the going tough, particularly  before the day of "one-desk" selling.  Lack of railway transportation had in some measure retarded development of the town prior io 1945, but the coming of  the Kettle Valley line in December of that year, was ihe signal  for the start of great activity, and today Osoyoos has every  line of business, common to districts of like population, well  represented.  Among industries of the town and district, are three large  fruit and vegetable packing plants with cold storage facilities,  and representing an investment of close to half a million dollars,  a fruit cannery with a capacity of 60,000 cases, two sawmills,  two cement block plants, and a box shook factory.  Urban Osoyoos was incorporated as a Village Municipality  in 1946 with W. A. Andrews, Joseph Armstrong and Gordon  Kelly as the first commissioners, the first named being elected  Chairman.  126 EARLY MEDICAL SERVICE IN TRE OKANAGAN VALLEY  F. W. Andrew, M.D.  An epidemic of smallpox raged throughout British Columbia  in 1883 and the terrified Indians became ready victims. The  Government sent some vaccine io R. L. Cawston and engaged  him to vaccinate the Indians of the Similkameen and South  Okanagan Valleys. The amount was quite inadequate. At  that time there were no regulations to prevent the taking of  the virus from a person whose vaccination was at its height  and using it to inoculate another. Cawston, being conscientious,  had recourse to this method. The usual technique was to scarify  the skin of the arm with the point of a needle or sharp knife,  and then rub in the vaccine. This was too slow for Cawston,  so he drove a number of pins through a section of a whisky  bottle cork, jabbed this contrivance on a vesicle that was ripe,  gave it a twist, and repeated ihe movements on any healthy  arm that was presented. Naturally, most of the arms were  infected but this was overlooked for ihe mass vaccination soon  ended the epidemic. Cawston considered he had done a good  job, for as he remarked, "They all took and had arms as big as  their legs."  The first professional calls were made by a Dr. Webb  of the Colvile Reservation in Washington. He attended some  of the early settlers of Osoyoos and the Similkameen as early  as 1885. In 1888, Dr. Chipps rode over from Nicola to Allison  (Princeton) to make a professional call. Just as ihe first exploration of the Okanagan Valley was made from ihe south (David  Stuart in 1811-1812), so the first medical services came from  that direction.  It was not until 1893 that the first resident doctor appeared  127     , The Okanagan Historical Society—11  in the South Okanagan Valley. Mining prospects were good  in ihe Fairview District and Dr. B. de F. Boyce was engaged  by one of the first mining companies. As his practice was not  confined to the miners, he saw much of the new country "from  the hurricane deck of a cayuse" as he made his professional  calls. He moved to Kelowna in 1895. Dr. Boyce was not registered until 1894. It frequently happened in the early days that  a doctor with proper credentials was allowed to practise on a  permit until a qualifying examination was held.  Dr. R. B. White came to Fairview in 1897 and attended ihe  employees of the mines, as well as settlers on pre-emptions.  When mining in Fairview began io wane, he moved to Camp  McKinney where prospects were brighter. He, too, travelled  about on horseback, carrying his supply of drugs and dressings in the old-fashioned saddle bags. When Camp McKinney  closed down he moved io Penticton, then a small dusty hamlet.  He was appointed Coroner in 1900 and still holds that office.  In 1908 he was joined by Dr. H. McGregor for a little over  three years when they separated and carried on in different  offices.  When ihe Kettle Valley Railway was under construction,  1911-1915, Dr. White and a Dr. Ker held the medical contract.  When the Railway commenced regular operations, Dr. White  was appointed medical officer for the division. He still retains  his railway connection and is held in high esteem by ihe  employees. Penticton was made a divisional point, and the  town grew rapidly, so in 1920 he was joined by Dr. J. A.  Affleck. Dr. A. P. Proctor, Jr., followed Dr. Affleck, and Dr. G.  C. Paine succeeded Dr. Proctor for a few years, after which  he opened his own office. In 1933 Dr. J. R. Parmley joined Dr.  White and a few years later his son, Dr. W. H. White, was  taken into the partnership. The three, with Dr. T. F. Parmley,  dentist, opened a clinic building in 1936.  Dr. H. McGregor operated his own office from  1912 until  .    128 Early Medical Services in the Okanagan Valley  his death in 1942. Dr. J. F. Haszard joined him in 1921 and  left after three years to establish a practice in Kimberley. In  1938 Dr. McGregor was joined by Dr. H. Emanuele and his  son Dr. H. B. McGregor. Dr. H. McGregor had the medical  contract for the men who worked on the Oliver irrigation project in 1919-1921, and for a number of years was Medical  Officer for the Penticton and neighboring schools.  Dr. Roy Walker opened his office in 1926 and Dr. L. F.  Brogden came in 1937. Others had practised in Penticton for  short periods. Four of the resident doctors enlisted during  the Second World War.  Dr. Averille was the first dentist to practise in the South  Okanagan Valley in 1898 and 1899. He drove a democrat in  which he carried his equipment and covered the territory from  Grand Forks to Princeton, and from Penticton to Osoyoos. Some  of his living patients say his extractions were not exactly painless. Dr. C. A. Jackson was the first resident dentist in Penticton.  When he retired, he was followed by Dr. T. B. Turner, a good  dentist, but given io speculation in mines.  Dr. Clayton practised for a brief period following the First  World War. Dr. Colin Campbell came in 1917.  Dr. V. E. Latimer had an office for treating diseases of the  eye, ear, nose and throat for several years in the twenties.  Dr. Flora Barr was the first osteopathist to practise in Penticton.  In 1912, Miss Edith Hancock opened a nursing Home for  which there was a great need. The Penticton Hospital was  built in 1913 with a capacity of 20 beds. It was enlarged twice,  until it had a capacity of 60 beds, and even then was overcrowded.  Miss Whitaker (Red Cross) was the first Public Health  nurse in the District and she was followed by Miss Twiddy  in 1930.    The latter also examined the school children.    When  129 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  the Okanagan Health Unit was formed, the nursing services  were merged with that body.  The first Drug Store in the South Okanagan, was operated  in Fairview by Henry Main. When that town was approaching  the ghost town status, Main moved to Penticton and bought out  Jack Logie who had operated a drug store there the previous  year.  Early in the history of Oliver, Dr. G. H. Kearney began the  practice of medicine in that village. After he withdrew, Dr. N. J.  Ball began practice in 1929. In 1942, St. Martin's Hospital was  opened. It was quite modern and had a capacity of 32 beds.  When Dr. Ball enlisted in the Navy in 1943, Dr. G. W. Cope  cared for his practice. Dr. M. C. Bridgeman opened his office  the same year.  W. R. Smith operated the Oliver drug store until 1947 when  he sold to M. G. Argue. A second drug store was opened by  A. P. Henderson.  The first dental services appear to have been given by the  two Doctors Hale, separately, and each remained only a short  time. Dr. J. L. Lundy began his dental practice in Oliver and  later Dr. H. O. Johnson opened a dental office and divided his  time between Oliver and Osoyoos. Miss C. Crafter, V.O.N.,  was the Public Health Nurse from 1936 until 1943.  In Osoyoos, D. W. Saunders started a drug store in 1945,  while Dr. Carl Leonard was the first medical practitioner, opening his office in 1946. Dental service is provided by Dr. H. O.  Johnson of Oliver. Osoyoos, now an incorporated village, as  well as the surrounding area, is growing rapidly. The picture  is quite different from that of the days when R. L. Cawston  vaccinated the Indians in 1883.  The first medical man in Peachland was Dr. C. M. Smith  who arrived early in the century.    As the neighboring District  130 Early Medical Services in the Okanagan Valley  of Summerland grew, he made frequent professional calls  there and in 1906 moved his office to the larger place. Dr.  A. C. Nash began practice in Peachland in 1908. He is now in  West Vancouver. In 1912, Dr. Wm. Buchanan arrived from  Glasgow and remained in practice until the time of his tragic  death in 1944. He was trapped while trying to escape, at night,  from his burning home.  As Summerland continued to grow, the writer, Dr. F. W.  Andrew moved in and began practice in 1908. He had previously relieved Dr. W. J. Knox of Kelowna while the latter did  Post-Graduaie wark. The following year, he was appointed  Coroner. Mrs. Ronald Sinclair opened her home as a cottage  hospital and could take care of five patients. Dr. Smith moved  to California in 1912. A new hospital on a hill overlooking  Lake Okanagan was opened in 1914. It had a capacity of 9  beds and was considered to be well equipped. The same year  Dr. W. W. Kennedy joined Dr. Andrew, but his stay was short  as he enlisted in the R.C.A.M.C. in November. In December,  1919, the hospital was totally destroyed by fire but no loss of life  or injury was sustained. The empty Felix Hotel at the lakeside  was pressed into use as a temporary hospital. In 1920, Dr.  E. C. H. Windeler began to practice medicine at West Summer-  land and the same year, Dr. C. ]. Coultas, a dentist, opened an  adjoining office. A new hospital with 16 beds was opened in  1922. Later a nurses' home and an addition to the hospital  were built, the hospital then accommodating 26 patients. In  1925, Dr. Windeler moved io Windsor and Dr. Coultas went to  Victoria.  Dr. A. W. Vanderburgh opened an office at West Summer-  land in 1926 and about the same time, Dr. J. R. Graham opened  an adjoining office for the practice of dentistry. Dr. Vanderburgh enlisted in the R.C.A.F. in 1941 and in the same year, Dr.  Graham moved to Salmon Arm. Dr. S. B. Walker of Winnipeg  began practice in 1942 at West Summerland and died three  years later.    In 1944 Dr. Andrew retired, and his practice was  131 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  taken over by Dr. W. H. B. Munn. In 1946 Dr. L. A. Day opened  his dental office in West Summerland, and the following year  he, with Dr. Vanderburgh and Dr. Munn, opened a clinical  building.  The first drug store in Summerland was opened in 1904 by  J. W. S. Logie. It closed in 1905 but Logie opened another store  in Penticton and then sold out to Henry Main. In 1907 he  formed the Summerland Drug Company. In 1912 Lloyd Mc-  Williams opened another drug store at West Summerland and  in a few years this was bought by the Drug Company. Then  it was bought in 1928 by C. N. Macdonald, and a few years  later, J. T. Green obtained possession of it.  When the Okanagan Health Unit was extended southward  in- 1942, Miss Velma Simpson was appointed Public Health  Nurse in charge of Summerland, Peachland, and Westbank,  with headquarters at West Summerland. She was succeeded  in  1943 by Miss Marion Boyd.  Two medical facts of importance have been proved by the  Summerland Experimental Station. The first, that endemic  goitre could be prevented by adding a small amount of iodine  to ordinary salt, and the second, that the liberal eating of  tomatoes can cause urinary irritation.  Naramata planned to erect a private sanitarium in 1908  and Dr. W. C. McKechnie was induced to act as Superintendent.  The foundations were laid and then the scheme collapsed, and  Dr. McKechnie who had practised there less than a year, moved  io Vancouver. When the Kettle Valley Railway was under construction, the medical contractors erected a temporary hospital  at Naramata. Dr. Whitehead was in charge for a year or two,  and in 1913 he was followed by Dr. W. L. Robinson, now the  Chief Pathologist for the Toronto General Hospital.  Kelowna and District received necessary medical attention  from Dr. O. Morris of Vernon between 1892 and 1895.  Dr. Boyce  132 Early Medical Services in the Okanagan Valley  of Fairview arrived in the latter year and remained in practice  until within a few years of his death which took place in 1945.  He was a friendly man who worked hard, and had many  interests outside his profession. Dr. H. L. Keller, a graduate  of St. Thomas' Hospital, London, came over from Rossland in  1898 and opened an office. He was the father of Major-General  R. F. L. Keller. His death occurred during the First World War.  Dr. W. J. Knox came in 1903 as locum-tenens for Dr. Boyce, and  in 1904 they formed a partnership which lasted until 1907. Dr.  Knox has an exceptionally bright personality and for several  years was President of the Provincial Liberal Association. In  1913, he took Dr. Gordon Campbell into a partnership which  lasted until the latter's death in 1931. Dr. Campbell was jovial  and readily made friends both in and outside the profession.  In 1933, Dr. Knox took Dr. J. S. Henderson into partnership and  together, they have had several assistants.  Dr. Boyce engaged Dr. Huycke as assistant in 1908, but in  three years time, the latter moved to Oregon City. Dr. A. S.  Underhill joined with Dr. Boyce in 1927, withdrew in 1934, and  in 1938 formed a partnership with Dr. W. F. Anderson. In  1931, Dr. Boyce engaged Dr. Reba Willitts, a daughter of the  druggist, P. B. Willitts, and to date, the only lady doctor io  practise in the Valley. She left in 1934, obtained her diploma  of Public Health, and is now with ihe Metropolitan Health  Committee of Vancouver.  Dr. Wilson Herald, who specialized in ear, nose and throat  came to Kelowna in 1920. He visited other towns to treat  referred cases, and it was while on a trip to Nelson thai he died  in 1925.  Dr. D. M. Black opened an office in 1940 confining his  practice to diseases of the chest. Before the Second World  War, Dr. F. P. McNamee of Kamloops made periodical visits  to Kelowna and treated patients with eye, ear, nose and throat  diseases.    After he enlisted Dr. L. A. C. Panton, a specialist in  133 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  the same diseases, became a resident of Kelowna.  The only osteopath to practice here was Dr. Milton Thorpe  from the year 1930 to 1933.  The first drug store in Kelowna was operated by Mr.  Wallace in 1899. In 1903, P. B. Willitts opened a drug store  and later took Alex. McKay into partnership and still later the  firm was incorporated. W. R. Trench opened another drug  store in 1908 and it also became incorporated.  There was a cottage hospital that could accommodate  seven patients before the Kelowna General Hospital, with 20  beds, was opened in 1907. This was enlarged and in 1926 a  branch of the Provincial Laboratory was opened in ihe basement. The shortage of beds became acute, so in 1941 a  splendid new hospital with 75 beds was opened. The population of the city and surrounding district has grown so rapidly  in recent years that many more beds are still required.  Dr. J. W. N. Shepherd was ihe first resident dentist, coming  in 1904. Dr. R. Mathison was graduated in 1897, opened a  second dental office in 1908. Dr. Wright came in 1919 and  practised for three or four years, and he was followed by  several younger dentists.  The Okanagan Valley Health Unit was the brain child of  Dr. H. E. Young, the Provincial Health Officer at the time. Dr.  G. A. Ootmar, who came from Holland and who was in charge  of the laboratory, together with Mrs. A. F. Grindon, R.N., carried  on a publicity campaign in 1928 for better sanitation and the  control of infectious diseases. They had io contend with misunderstanding and opposition that was almost insurmountable.  Eventually, Dr. Ootmar was appointed Health Officer for the  district outside of Kelowna as far as Okanagan Centre with  Mrs. Grindon as school nurse. Well baby and immunizing  clinics were held, and gradually more parents had their children  inoculated against small-pox, diphtheria, and scarlet fever.    In  134 Early Medical Services in the Okanagan Valley  1929, Kelowna was included in the Unit. Infectious diseases  decreased rapidly, and typhoid fever, which had previously  been quite prevalent around Kelowna, practically disappeared.  Kelowna was the first city in British Columbia io require the  chlorination of all domestic water and the compulsory pasteurization of all milk sold within the city.  After the death of Dr. Ootmar, Dr. J. M. Hershey became  Health Officer and the Unit was extended io include Peachland,  Summerland, Penticton, Naramata and Kaleden. The Unit  now employs eight public health nurses, and two sanitary  inspectors.  The first medical practitioner in Vernon was Dr. D. L.  Beckingsale who came just prior to 1890. He did not remain  long and went to Vancouver. The next was Dr. W. Reinhard,  a graduate of Leipzig, who arrived in 1892. Dr. Osborne Morris  opened an office in 1893. He was a large, good-natured man,  a colorful character. In 1896, he was appointed coroner, and it  was in this capacity that he sometimes had io travel as far  south as the International Boundary. Dr. Gerald Williams came  in 1894. His leg was seriously injured in a hunting accident,  but he continued to practise until the time of his death, which  occurred in 1935. Dr. G. E. Duncan came to Vernon in 1904  and moved to Vancouver after ihe First World War. Dr. J. W.  Arbuckle arrived in 1910 and he was associated with Dr. Morris  until 1918. Dr. S. G. Baldwin came in 1919 and joined Dr.  Arbuckle. The latter two doctors are now practising specialties  in Vancouver.  Dr. F. E. Peiiman was the medical officer in charge of the  construction work on ihe Kamloops-Vernon branch of the  Canadian National Railways and he began private practice  in 1919. In 1930 he became associated with Dr. Baldwin and  he retired in 1946. Dr. J. E. Harvey began practice in 1921 and  joined Dr. Morris in 1936 until 1941. Dr. H. Campbell-Brown  came in 1934 and Dr. H. J. Alexander in 1935.   Two clinics are  135 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  now in operation in the city — one headed by Dr. Harvey and  the other by Dr. Alexander.  The Jubilee Hospital was opened in the year of Queen  Victoria's Diamond Jubilee in 1897. When inspected in 1921,  the capacity was 70 beds and in 1946, 77 beds. It has been  inadequate for a number of years, but a larger and finer building is now under construction.  Dr. Corrigan was ihe first dentist. He came in 1902 and  died in 1945. Dr. K. C. MacDonald, who had practised elsewhere, came in 1905 and his side-line was politics. He was  elected to the Legislative Assembly in 1916 and in 1933 he  entered the Provincial Cabinet. As Minister of Agriculture  he assisted the whole fruit-growing industry by putting through  a Marketing Act which eliminated ihe abuses in ihe sale of  fruit and provided for an orderly marketing system that has not  seen its equal in Canada. By this legislation, Dr. MacDonald  proved himself to be the most useful citizen of Vernon. He died  in 1946. Another early dentist was Dr. Jos. Brown who arrived  before 1920 and died in 1943.  Alex. Muir was the pioneer druggist who opened his pharmacy in 1905. There are now three drug stores in the city.  The North Okanagan Health Unit was formed in 1944 and  placed under the administration of Dr. J. A. Taylor. It serves  Vernon and the surrounding country, and it is planned io include Armstrong, Enderby and Salmon Arm in the future. Besides the director, it employs two public health nurses, and one  sanitary inspector.  Dr. Bentley was the first resident doctor in Enderby, coming  in 1905 and he was followed by Dr. Thos. Verner who left in  1907 for North Vancouver. Dr. H. W. Keith arrived in 1907 and  practised until the time of his death in 1933. Dr. Keith urged  the need of a hospital and in 1917 one was opened with a  capacity of seven beds.   Later,'it was enlarged to contain 20  136 Early Medical Services in the Okanagan Valley  beds. In 1933, Dr. Munro opened his office but shortly after  decided to go to India. Dr. G. B. Helem, now of Port Alberni,  then began practice and he was followed by Dr. R. Haugen  in 1935 until 1937 when the latter moved to Armstrong. Dr. J. L.  Coltart also practised here until 1940 at which time Dr. J. H.  Kope opened his office.  Dr. K. C. MacDonald of Vernon made occasional trips to  Enderby to attend to the dental requirements of the population  prior to 1911 when Dr. E. H. Crawford opened an office and  remained until 1916.  Probably ihe first medicel man to practise in ihe Okanagan  Valley was Dr. E. J. Offerhaus, a native of Holland, who registered in 1883. He lived at Lansdowne and after the completion  of the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway, covered the Armstrong  and Enderby areas. Dr. Peter D. Van Kleeck might be said to  be ihe first doctor to settle in Armstrong although a Dr. McLaren  had been there for a short period previously. Dr. Van Kleeck  came in 1899. He loved outdoor life and was a faithful devotee  of the rod and gun. From 1910 until 1913 he had Dr. Thompson  as a partner. Dr. Logie was practising independently in 1915  but he did not remain long and he was followed by Dr. Skatch-  ard, Dr. Barrett and Dr. Adams. After the First World War, Dr.  Van Kleeck took Dr. A. Francis, a former Armstrong boy, as a  partner for four years. In 1925, he took another partner, Dr. P.  Tennant, who carried on the practice after the death of Dr. Van  Kleeck in 1929. Dr. Tennant took on Indian Department work  in 1932 and was succeeded by Dr. Shotten who turned ihe  practice over to Dr. R. Haugen in 1937.  A nursing home was opened in 1913 and in 1914 it received government aid. The hospital was opened in 1921. It  had eight beds and was later enlarged io hold 16 beds.  Dr. K. C. MacDonald of Vernon made periodical calls to  attend dental cases in the early days. Then Dr. S. F. Fraser  came in  1905, moved away, returned in  1940 and is still in  137 The Okanagan Historical Society—1  practice.   During his absence, Dr. Crawford, Dr.  Sumner and  Dr. Calvert also had dental offices.  There have been a number of druggists in Armstrong, ihe  earliest being R. R. Burns, E. T. Abbott, H. E. Woodland and  now A. H. Blumenauer. A second drug store was operated  by J. Urquhart and W. E. Chappell from 1925 io 1928.  Miss P. Charlton was the first School Nurse and she was  followed by Miss D. Mackenzie, Miss A. Mearns and Miss A.  B. McPherson. Miss A. Clayton acted as Public Health Nurse  in 1942 and 1943.  Besides the efforts of individual doctors, hospitals and public  health nurses, certain ancillary services have been established  to improve the general health of our people. Previous to 1912,  a Wasserman blood test cost the patient $10. but later this  was reduced to $3. In 1920, the Provincial Laboratories did  this test without charge, and supplied necessary drugs for the  treatment of venereal diseases. All examinations for the control  of other infectious diseases were also free.  In 1907, the sanitarium at Tranquille was opened for the  treatment of tuberculosis. In 1923, Dr. A. S. Lamb visited the  various hospitals, examined suspected patients, and took X-rays  of their chests. He was followed by Dr. G. F. Kincade. In 1946  the mobile unit was put into operation with the plan to X-ray  everybody, recognize tuberculosis in its earliest stages, and  stamp it out.  The Cancer Institute of B.C. was opened in 1938. This  supplied a consulting service to the-doctor who sent a suspected patient and advised the suitable treatment, if any. As ihe  Institute was well supplied with 'radium, this expensive form  of treatment could be given on the spot, and without cost if  necessary. Later, surgery and deep X-ray treatments were  added.  138 Early Medical Services in the Okanagan Valley  The Red Cross Society called for blood donors in 1947 and  now an ample blood bank is maintained in Vancouver whence  any doctor can obtain plasma or blood of any type without  charge.  Some observations might be made about the medical profession keeping abreast with the times. Previous to the First  World War, one seldom attended a convention while now ihe  annual attendance is routine. In 1921 the Southern Interior  Branch of the B. C. Medical Association was formed and meets  once a year with a one-day programme. As it is always within  driving distance, the attendance is usually 50 per cent, of the  doctors. Again, the attending staff of each hospital is obliged  to hold monthly meetings in order to review their work and  advise  each  other.  The First Aid and Home Nursing classes, stimulated by  the two World Wars, have also contributed to our medical  services. i  The practice of medicine in the Okanagan Valley has come  a long way since the doctors rode horseback or drove buggies.  Indeed, it is striving to equal the best that is offered in Canada.  139 By Burt R. Campbell  Although a newspaper usually follows early in the wake of  a new town, particularly where an energetic townsite company  is involved, this did not apply to the Okanagan in all cases. In  ihe earlier years the valley relied for its local news service  principally upon The Inland Sentinal published in Kamloops. It  was not until railway construction on the Shuswap and Okanagan was under way in 1891 that the Okanagan had a newspaper. The spring of that year The Vernon News entered on  its long career. A factor in bringing this about was perhaps the  influence of G. G. MacKay, energetic manager of the townsite  company. Two years later a mining flurry in the southern end  of the valley brought about a second paper. This was the  Okanagan Mining Review published at Okanagan Falls. There  a new townsite was sponsored by W. J. Snodgrass.  With a period of depression which started in 1894 and lasted  a decade, no other paper entered the field. The arrival of J. M.  Robinson from Manitoba early in the century saw Summerland,  Peachland and Naramata districts opened by the subdivision of  lands. Likewise Penticton area lands were subdivided and  made available by other parties for purchase and settlement,  and in the northern end of the valley similar development took  place. As a consequence, papers were introduced at various  points during the first decade of the century. In this, also,  partyism as between followers of the Liberal and Conservative  groups had a hand. This resulted in the opening of unwarranted  plants in the newspaper field at several points. Wiser counsel  among publishers has since developed and by amalgamation or  suspension this duplication has disappeared.  But few, perhaps, will realize that such a number of papers  140 Okanagan Newspapers  have served the Okanagan. The list following (arranged  chronologically) is believed to give complete coverage. As  there is no better record of a community's activities than a  newspaper file, it is important that any person having such, or  even odd copies of papers, particularly those defunct, should  see that they are deposited in the care of municipal offices, or  a museum if such there is, where they will be preserved. The  writer is most grateful to members of the staff of the Provincial  Archives for checking his notes and the furnishing of many of  the dates mentioned.   Following is the list of papers:—  THE VERNON NEWS — Pioneer paper of the Okanagan  Valley, The Vernon News was founded by Stuart 6c Harber  (Angus K. Stuart and W. J. Harber) May 14, 1891, with the office  in a building which stood next to the Capitol Theatre of today on  the east. A year later they disposed of the business to Henderson 6c Megraw (George G. Henderson and Ainsley Megraw).  This partnership lasted until November, 1893, when Mr. Megraw  disposed of his interest and returned to his former home at  Paisley, Ont. It was at this time that Price Ellison became interested and Vernon News Printing and Publishing Company  Lid. was formed. Also Mr. Harber, who for a few months had  operated a small job printing office on Coldstream Street opposite  the Victoria Hotel, amalgamated his plant and joined the News  staff. He, however, soon heard the call of the mining districts  to the south and moved to Greenwood to found The Boundary  Creek Times. Tohn A. McKelvie, former head clerk at W. R.  Megaw's general store, was another to join the paper, succeeding Mr. Megraw as editor. Mr. Henderson continued as manager  until the latter days of the century when he disposed of his  holdings and left for Fernie. As manager he was succeeded by  a member of the staff, F. J. Baker, who a few years later was  replaced by another staff member, Louis J. Ball, who continued  as manager until 1925. Mr. McKelvie developed into one of the  best editorial writers that British Columbia has known, and to his  popularity largely was due the success of the paper.   With the  141 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  building of a provincial jail in Vernon in 1906 (never opened but  later used as a menial hospital for a time) he was appointed  warden and did not return to the editorial chair until November,  1907; J. Forsyth Smith officiated as editor during the interval.  In November, 1920,. Mr. McKelvie was elected member of the  Federal House in a by-election and was again returned in the  general election of 1921. His death took place in Tune, 1924,  while he was attending the session in Ottawa. For the funeral  service prior to burial in Vernon Cemetery the grandstand in  Poison Park was used as the only suitable accommodation.'  W. E. McTaggari succeeded as editor until ill-health brought  about his resignation. The year 1925 saw the arrival in Vernon  of W. S. Harris, an experienced newspaperman in various points  across Canada. He soon became connected with the News and  acquired the business, acting in the capacity of manager and  editor until the time of his death, March 25, 1943. Since then the  business has been carried on by The Vernon News Ltd. with  Frank R. Harris, a son of W. S. Harris, as editor. On October 29,  1897, the News building and plant had been destroyed by ffre.  Publication was resumed December 2 in a new building on the  south side of Barnard Avenue which yet on the upper corner  carries the sign "Vernon News." Some time thereafter a move  was made to the former Martin Bros.' hardware building, now  Royal Bank of Canada site. August, 1909, saw a transfer to the  building which has since served as home of the News. A new  home for The Vernon News was erected this year on Tronson  Avenue and is now occupied.  OKANAGAN MINING REVIEW — This was the name given  to the valley's second paper and it made its debut at Okanagan  Falls in August, 1893. Publishers were Henderson 6c Megraw  of The Vernon News, and Robert Mathison (now Dr. Mathison  of Kelowna), formerly owner of the first job printing plant in Vancouver, was manager and the whole staff. Only seven issues of  the paper were produced and the plant was sold in November  of that year.    To one visiting ihe territory now it would seem  142 Okanagan Newspapers  strange that a paper there should bear such a name. However,  there was a flutter of mining activity in the southern part of the  valley during the 1890's. Cattle ranching was supreme and fruit  growing was scarcely visualized. Mr. Mathison returned to his  old home in Ontario after an absence of almost nine years, but  intended coming west again after a visit. While there he was  persuaded to take a course in dentistry at Philadelphia. On his  graduation he took up practice at Kamloops during the summer  of 1897, practising also in Revelstoke. He went to Greenwood  in 1899 and to Kelowna in 1908.  FAIRVIEW AND MIDWAY ADVANCE featured the period  during which considerable mining activity existed in the Fair-  view area. Its publishers were Stuart 6c Norris (A. K. Stuart and  W. H. Norris) who, on ihe suspension of publication of The  Okanagan Mining Review, bought the plant and had it moved to  Fairview. Both were former Vernonites, Mr. Stuart being one of  the founders of The Vernon News, Mr. Norris a farmer on the  west side of Swan Lake. The paper was circulated from Fair-  view from April 26, 1894, until Tune 30, 1902, the plant soon after  being taken to Midway io resume printing of the paper August  15, 1894, and continuing for some time.  SIMILKAMEEN STAR was first published March 31, 1900, by  the Princeton Publishing Company with Tames Anderson as  manager. The paper changed hands in 1905, A. E. Howse,  formerly of the Nicola district, becoming manager and, from  later indications, owner as well. B. Stone Kennedy (a brother of  lohn Kennedy, for a time editor of The Okanagan, Vernon), who  for a while was editor of the paper for Mr. Howse, purchased  the paper in April, 1907. In 1908 it reverted to Mr. Howse, who  carried on until May, 1908, when J. M. Wright, a well known  western printer, took over as manager and editor. Mr. Wright  bought the paper from Mr. Howse in September, 1911, and sold  it in Tuly, 1914, to Col. R. T. Lowery of Kootenay-Boundary newspaper fame. His Princeton manager was F. J. Smyth, in more  recent years a resident of Cranbrook.   The name was changed  143 The Okanagan Historical Society—i!  to "Princeton Star" November 1, 1917, when R. J. McDougall  purchased the paper. L. Pilkington succeeded Mr. Smyth as  manager in July, 1920, and George E. French, a resident of Vernon at different times, followed him in April, 1921. J. A. Brown  bought the paper in September, 1921, from Mr. McDougall and  sold it to Dave Taylor in April, 1929. Mr. Taylor is still owner  and editor of the paper, which reverted to its old name, "Similkameen Star", September 5, 1935. During the temporary absence of Mr. Taylor in the early 1940's, Rev. J. C. Goodfellow,  secretary of Okanagan Historical Society, acted as editor.  ARMSTRONG ADVERTISER was established in May, 1902,  by Ed. V. Chambers who formerly worked on The Inland Sentinel, Kamloops, and at other points but more recently of Golden.  The first issue was that of May 15. It would seem that ihe  Advertiser had ihe most varied career of any of the Okanagan  papers as will be seen by the many changes in ownership.  Fourteen months after its founding Mr. Chambers sold to Vernon  News Printing and Publishing Co. Ltd., but continued as business  manager for some time thereafter before being transferred to  The Vernon News staff. Who succeeded him is not recalled.  In Tuly, 1908, F. C. Wolfenden, a well known and popular Armstrong agency man, added to his accomplishments the work of  editor. (At this juncture type for the Advertiser was set on The  Vernon News linotype by the writer of this story, the metal being  sent by express.) The paper was taken over in August, 1910,  by Samuel Poison who for a few years had been engaged in  farm land subdivision and sale around Vernon. Mr. Poison sold  the business to Norman G. Gary and Chambers in January,  1912. The next change was to J. H. Mohr (now of Revelstoke  Review) and Chambers, and then to Cary Brothers (Norman G.  and Sidney). They sold the paper to Frank Briscoe in December,  1924, and Mr. Briscoe in turn sold to the present owner, John E.  Jamieson, in August, 1927. Mr. Jamieson, it would seem, has  stabilized the business and at the close of 1947 built a new  home for it which has since been occupied.    Associated with  .144 Okanagan Newspapers  him in the work is his son, James E. Jamieson.  OKANAGAN HERALD — There is some doubt as to whether  this paper became a reality. During the winter of 1903-1904,  E. A. Haggen, president of The Kootenay Mail Printing and  Publishing Company, Revelstoke, toured the Okanagan offering  for sale shares in his company. One of the inducements toward  purchase of shares was said to be that a paper bearing the  name Okanagan Herald would be published in Vernon. Several  prominent Liberals desirous of seeing opposition to The Vernon  News (Conservative) became interested and were among the  investors of shares offered. Some months afterward a newspaper press and other material arrived at the Vernon depot but  never was installed and put into use for production of the Herald.  The writer has a hazy notion that a few issues of the paper may  have emanated from The Kootenay Mail plant, but has been  unable to verify this. It is said there are no copies in the Provincial Archives.  THE EDENOGRAPH was introduced to Enderby May 18,  1904, by H. M. Walker who sold the paper to Fraser Bros. (William and Harry), June, 1905. It was incorporated with the  Enderby Progress, January, 1906, and ceased to exist as a  separate paper. Enderby Progress and North Okanagan Herald  was published from January 5, 1906, until September 19, 1907.  KELOWNA COURIER was first published July 26, 1904, as  the Kelowna Clarion and Okanagan Advocate. First owner was  R. H. Spedding, and the first editor was W. J. Clement. P. B.  Pelly became manager in August, 1905. The paper was sold in  October, 1905, to George C. Rose. The name was changed from  Kelowna Clarion to Kelowna Courier and Okanagan Orchardist  December 7, 1905. Mr. Rose was actively associated with the  business until very recently. In 1935 Messrs. W. S. Harris of  Vernon and R. J. McDougall of Penticton joined Mr. Rose and  R. A. Fraser in forming a company io take over the Courier.  They brought    R. P. MacLean from Ontario to fill the post of  145 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  editor-manager. As he was retiring from the newspaper business, Mr. McDougall sold his Courier interest four or five years  later to Mr. Harris and in a few months Mr. Harris sold to Messrs.  Rose, MacLean and Fraser. The latter two are now in active  control of the Courier which in 1947 became a semi-weekly  publication, having made rapid strides since the formation of the  publishing company.  HEDLEY GAZETTE was founded by Ainsley Megraw, formerly of Vernon, and began publication January 19, 1905. Mr.  Megraw sold the paper to William C. Martin in February, 1914,  but regained it in March, 1915, when Mr. Martin failed to live  up to his agreement. Mr. Martin had been with the paper for  five years before he took over. Mr. Megraw sold the paper  again, this time to lames W. Grier, a printer well known in  many places, in May, 1916, after A. B. S. Stanley, who had  served as editor for Mr. Megraw since July, 1915, left to join  ihe army. Mr. Grier was unable io continue the paper successfully and suspended publication with the August 16, 1917, issue.  About this period Mr. Megraw was inspector of Indian agencies  with headquarters in an office in the Vernon News block. The  Gazette plant was subsequently purchased by R. J. McDougall  of Penticton and incorporated with the plants of the Penticton  Herald and the Princeton Star.  ARMSTRONG ADVANCE — In 1905 a second paper entered  the field in Spallumcheen when Eugene Rhian started publication  of Armstrong Advance. This paper had but a short career and  was sold to the Advertiser in October, 1906, the two being  amalgamated.  THE OKANAGAN (Vernon) was founded by Louis W. Gould  some time in 1905. The next year he disposed of the business  to the Okanagan Publishing Company comprising local citizens  who were supporters of the Liberal party. John Kennedy was  the first editor under the new ownership and was succeeded in  October, 1907, by J. J. Langstaff.   During its existence there were  146 Okanagan Newspapers  several managers, Mr. Langstaff doing dual duty for a time  and William Skinner, former and also later foreman of The  Vernon News, occupied the position for a short spell during  the summer of 1909. Publication ended December, 1909. For a  period the Okanagan had been published as a semi-weekly.  PENTICTON HERALD had its beginning as the Penticton  Press in 1906, with W. J. Clement as owner. He sold to a company formed by Shatford Bros, in 1910. The first managing  editor was H. M. Blake and it was during his tenure of office  that the name Penticton Herald was adopted July 2, 1910. It was  at that time that The Penticton Herald Printing and Publishing  Company was incorporated. He was followed by J. Williamson  who became editor in Tune, 1911. Then came f. D. Tompkins as  editor in April, 1913. For a long period—about a quarter century—the paper prospered under ihe management and editorship  of R. J. McDougall who took over in October, 1914. Mr. McDougall for two periods (1917-18 and 1924-27) went back to  former positions (city editor and news editor) he had held on the  Vancouver Daily Province. However, he retained his Herald  ownership and returning to the paper in 1927, he made of it one  of the leading weekly newspapers of Canada. A new building  was erected in 1939. Uncertain health was a factor in his retirement and in 1940 the business was leased to G. J. Rowland,  iormerly on the editorial staff of The Vernon News. Mr. Rowland  subsequently purchased the Herald in the spring of 1946. Notwithstanding a fire which damaged the Herald's new home in  the spring of 1941, and caused the loss of considerable machinery, new equipment was obtained and the office is one of the  best equipped in the interior.  SALMON ARM OBSERVER was founded October 10, 1907,  by the Fraser Bros, after they had discontinued publication of  Enderby Progress and North Okanagan Herald at Enderby.  George W. Armstrong, a practical printer at different interior  points and more recently with The Okanagan, Vernon, took over  in February, 1909.   He continued until August, 1921, when the  147 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  business was acquired by William W. Bishop, foreman of The  Standard-Sentinel, Kamloops, and Robert G. Patterson, publisher  of the Kamloops Telegram. Mr. Bishop handled the Observer  with some editorial assistance for a few months until he was  joined by Keith C. Wiles who assumed the interest of Mr. Patterson and became editor. In July or August, 1928, Peter Campbell,  formerly owner of the Cowichan Leader, Duncan, purchased the  business and aided by his son, Don Campbell, carried on until  the paper was bought by Frank Marshall, formerly with the New  Westminster Columbian, in September, 1944. That Mr. Marshall  is now well established is evident from his building and now  occupying a new home for the business.  WALKER'S WEEKLY (Enderby) made its appearance March  5, 1908, under the guidance of H. M. Walker who had returned  from the United States. It became Enderby Press and Walker's  Weekly on May 11, 1909, and this continued until March 28, 1918.  Again the name was changed and Okanagan Commoner entered the field. Mr. Walker continued as publisher until failing  health caused his retirement in the later 1930's. His son, Henry  D. Walker, grew up with ihe business but early enlisted for  service in World War II; he is now in Vancouver. Two changes  of ownership have since been made and the business has suffered loss by fire but was restored and continues under the  ownership of J. D. Tucker.  KEREMEOS TRUMPET made its first appearance March.27,  1908, with J. A. Brown as publisher. Re-named Keremeos  Chronicle in ihe issue of April 2, 1909, the paper continued until  December 31, 1909.  SUMMERLAND REVIEW was founded by the Review Publishing Co. Ltd., the controlling interest in which was held by  J. M. Robinson, president of Summerland Development Company  and a former newspaperman. J. F. Watkins, a former linotype  operator on Vancouver Province, was the first manager, and the  paper  made  its  appearance  in August,   1908.    Mr.  Watkins'  148 Okanagan Newspapers  management was for but a short period due to ill-health and  subsequently early death. There then came on the scene Thomas Collinge, an Old Countryman, who assumed management.  In July, 1911, Ralph E. White, now of Kamloops Sentinel, but  formerly of St. John, N. B., took over the management, Mr. Collinge remaining in charge of the mechanical department. Mr.  White subsequently became a shareholder and continued until  July, 1925. Misfortune hit the plant in 1923 when it experienced  a serious fire, but it was re-established in new quarters. On  Mr. White's moving io Kamloops the Review was purchased by  R. J. McDougall of the Penticton Herald and was continued as a  separate paper until October, 1929.  ORCHARD CITY RECORD (Kelowna) — Published by Leathley Bros. (John and Charles H.), the paper made its appearance  December 30, 1908. It suspended publication September 30,  1920. The name was changed to Kelowna Record in 1911. The  Kelowna Printing Company was continued after publication  of the paper ceased, by John Leathley, and on his death by  members of his family who still do a considerable business and  published the Eleventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  Society.  PENTICTON STANDARD was a weekly started by J. A.  Brown and ]. C. Hanley early in 1921. It closed down in the  autumn of the same year, the plant being taken over by the  Penticton Herald.  THE WRANGLER was another paper published as serving  Princeton and Keremeos, but of this little is known; a few copies  are on file at the Provincial Archives in Victoria.  OLIVER ECHO appeared August 25, 1937, under ihe ownership of Herbert Berryman. The title changed July 12, 1939, to  Oliver Chronicle and Osoyoos Observer. Branching out, this  office added a new linotype to its plant early this year.  SUMMERLAND REVIEW (No. 2)—Two young soldiers of  World War II on their discharge from service brought about a  149 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  revival of the Summerland Review, now in its third year. The  publishers, John R. Armstrong and George R. B. Fudge, started  the new paper June 6, 1946. Unlike the original publication of  this name, which was issued from an office on the waterfront of  Okanagan Lake, the new location is in West Summerland. Mr.  Fudge was a "home town boy" who was an apprentice to ihe  printing trade on the original Summerland Review; Mr. Armstrong was at one time on Penticton Herald staff. He recently  purchased Mr. Fudge's interest in the enterprise and is now  proprietor.  OSOYOOS TIMES is one of the latest of the newspapers io  be introduced to the Okanagan field. It has been published  since January 28, 1947, by Stan Stodola.  THE VALLEY SPOTLIGHT published by Miss A. Gaustin is a  new Princeton and district venture, and made its bow in September, 1948.  The three major Okanagan papers, Vernon News, Penticton  Herald and Kelowna Courier have been frequent winners of top  honors among weeklies of the Dominion.  150 A RISTORY OF TRE OKANAGAN REGIMEN]  Lt. Col. D. F. B. Kinloch  In the two World Wars in which Canada has taken part,  ihe Okanagan Valley has been represented by its own Regiment, a Regiment which served with distinction in both conflicts. Unfortunately, this fact does not seem to be widely  known amongst the residents of the Valley to-day. I believe  the reason for this apparent lack of knowledge lies in the fact  that the valley unit went through so many changes of name  that it is difficult for anyone not connected with it to keep in  touch. However, the National Defence Forces List recognizes  the connection between the various names, and in ihe last  copy of that publication, dated just prior to World War II, the  British Columbia Dragoons, as the unit was then called, was  listed as British Columbia's oldest Cavalry Regiment. As such,  the Regiment was, and is, privileged to take the "Right of the  Line" on any parade of militia units held in this province.  The first mention of a unit of Militia in this Valley may be  found in ihe issue of the "Vernon News," dated Tune 9, 1898,  in which is published a notice of an organization meeting of a  troop of the Okanagan Mounted Rifles. J. A. McKelvie was  chairman, and C. F. Costerton, secretary. Regret was expressed  that Captain Sunderland refused to take command of the  Troop, and Judge W. W. Spinks was elected Troop Captain.  The secretary advised the meeting that the "Duty Roll" was  being prepared by Colonel Peters, D. A. G., and would be  ready for signature at the next meeting. This meeting was held  on Tune 10 at which time J. A. McKelvie was elected Lieutenant,  and R. G. Lawrence Second Lieutenant, and twenty men were  sworn in.  The next recorded meeting of the Troop was held on Sep-  151 The Okanagan Historical Society—P  tember 15, in the same year, and on this date it was reported  that only five names were needed to fill out the roll, that it  was expected that this would be done by the next meeting,  and that drills would commence shortly. At this meeting there  was a visitor, Captain Nash from Kamloops, who stated that  authority had been granted to form six Companies of Militia  in the Interior of British Columbia, and that Vernon could consider itself lucky in having the Mounted Troop. He said that if  Vernon could not fill out the Roll he was sure that Kamloops  could, as a Cavalry unit had much greater appeal than an  Infantry Company.  A report was published of the next meeting stating that the  Duty Roll was full and organization completed. Nothing further  appears until the issue dated October 27, the same year, in  which, under "Town and District" is found the following sentence: "What about the Okanagan Mounted Rifles?" As far  as I can ascertain, no answer can be found for that question  until 10 years later.  Major H. R. Denison who has been connected with ihe  Okanagan Regiment for many years, believes thai the Troop  organized in 1898 was disbanded owing to a change in Government policy. Unfortunately nothing more definite can be  ascertained now.  Since the connecting link with ihe 1898 organization has  been lost, the official history of the Regiment begins in 1908.  In Tune of that year, through the efforts of Messrs. E. Copley  Thompson, Price Ellison, and J. A. McKelvie, an Independent  Squadron, known as "B" Squadron Canadian Mounted Rifles  was formed at Vernon. Major H .A. Perry, D. C. M., a veteran  of the South African War, was appointed to command. Other  officers of the Squadron were: Captain H. A. Holland, Lieutenants R. S. Mutrie, M. V. Allen, E. J. Sunderland, R. O. G. Bennett  and C. C. McRae.  152 A History of the Okanagan Regiment  In the same year the name of the Unit was changed to that  originally suggested, namely, "B" Squadron, Okanagan Mounted Rifles. The summer following, the Squadron went into camp  at the head of Okanagan Lake. During this, the first Cavalry  camp in British Columbia, the Squadron was inspected by  General Otter. The camp, although a success from a training  point of view, was marred by tragedy: E. Copley Thompson  was drcwned while swimming, thus becoming the Regiment's  first casualty. Permanent Force Instructor at this camp was  Major C. C. Bennett, father of Lt. R. O. G. Bennett.  Due presumably to the successful showing made by ihe  Squadron in camp, authority was granted, in the following  year, 1910, to form a Regiment of Cavalry to be known as ihe  30th B. C. Horse. Since Major Perry had died during the year,  command of the unit was given to Lt. Col. C. L. Bott. Colonel  Bott was also a veteran of the South African War, and an  officer of considerable experience, having served with the 7th  King's Dragoon Guards and the 9th Lancers. The Regiment  was organized as follows: "A" Squadron, Lumby and Coldstream, commanded by Major J. T. Bardolph; "B" Squadron,  Vernon, commanded by Major M. V. Allen; "C" Squadron,  Armstrong and Enderby, commanded by Major H. E. Henniker.  Regimental Headquarters was in Vernon with Major H. A.  Holland as Second-in-Command, Capt. the Hon. C. D. Finch,  Adjutant, Capt. J. T. Mutrie, Quartermaster. Later Major Clarke  formed "D" Squadron, taking in Penticton, Kelowna, and as  far north as Winfield.  Camp that year was held in the Exhibition Grounds just  north of Vernon. Next year camp was at Kamloops, and from  then on until 1914 on Mission Hill, Vernon. This was to become  the site of many Militia camps and of a large Training Centre  for Canadian troops in the two World Wars.  At the outbreak of war in August, 1914, the Regiment under  153 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  Col. Bott was mobilized and brought up- to War establishment.  It took only a matter of 10 days to recruit up to strength. The  Unit was billeted in various large buildings in Vernon, and  began training until such time as the officers could discover  what role it would perform in Canada's Army. On ihe day war  was declared a telegram was sent by Col. Bott to the Minister  of Militia offering the services of the Regiment. This was  acknowledged with thanks, but no action followed as it had  been decided that the first contingent should be infantry.  Shortly after this Lieutenant Pyman left with thirty members of  the Regiment io join the First Canadian Division.  In the meantime the Regiment carried out intensive training;  also furnishing guards for ihe enemy alien internment camp  which had been established at Vernon.  During this period details had been worked out for turning  the Regiment into an overseas unit, with ihe result that when  the Commanding Officer received a wire on November 6th  offering him command of the 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles,  he was able to wire Ottawa a complete slate of officers. The  new unit was to be formed by amalgamating the 30th B.C.  Horse with the Victoria Independent Squadron, and the slate  of officers was made up from these two units. The Okanagan  portion of the Unit moved to Willows Camp, Victoria, in December of ihe same year, and the 2nd Regiment of Canadian  Mounted Rifles, C. E. F., came into being. "A" and "C" Squadrons 30th B. C. Horse became "A" Squadron, 2nd C. M. R.,  under Major M. V. Allen; "B" and "D" Squadrons became  "B" Squadron under Major J. T. Bardolph; and the Victoria  Squadron under Major W. Bapiy became "C" Squadron.  After many months of training and waiting the Regiment  received orders on June 1, 1915, to proceed overseas, and  three days later it left Victoria to join the First Canadian Mounted  Rifle  Brigade,  then  en  route  to  England.    The  Regiment  154 A History of the Okanagan Regiment  landed in England on June 22nd. After a short period of training it landed in France on September 22nd, exactly three  months after arrival in England.  On arrival in France the 2nd C. M. R.'s became part of ihe  2nd Canadian Division, but in December of the same year, ihe  C. M. R. Brigade was converted into infantry and transferred  to the Third Division. As infantry, the 2nd C. M. R.'s fought  through until the end of, the war. They were present at every  major engagement in which the Canadian Corps took part,  and may carry on their colours the following Battle Honours:  France and Flanders, 1915-1918; Pursuit to Mons, Somme, 1916;  Mont Sorrel, Flers, Courcelette, Vimy 1917; Amiens, Passchen-  daele, Cambrai, Hindenburg Line,  19.18.  During its term of service in France and Flanders, 206  decorations were awarded to members of the regiment, including two V. C.'s. In addition there were 21 mentions in  despatches. The V. C. winners were Major, (now Major-General)  George Randolph Pearkes, V.C., C.B., D.S.O, MC, (won after  his transfer to the 5th C.M.R.'s); and Captain, (now Lt .Col.)  John MacGregor, V.C., M.C., D.C.M, won while serving with  the Regiment at Cambrai  The nominal roll of this Regiment contains the names of  209 officers and 4088 other ranks who saw active service with  the unit. Of this number, 677 all ranks were killed in action or  died of wounds, and 1059 all ranks were wounded.  The 2nd C.M.R.'s returned io Canada in 1919 under command of Lt. Col. George Chalmers Johnston, D.S.O., M.C., who  was given the unit when Li. Col. Bott relinquished command in  October, 1916. Demobilization took place immediately. Col.  Johnston had previously served as Adjutant and later Company Commander.  In  1920, when the re-organization of the Canadian Militia  155 The Okanagan Historical Society—1  took place, the Regiment once again became a mounted unit,  with Lt. Col. Johnston in command. This unit was called the  First British Columbia Mounted Rifles, a name which was subsequently changed to the British Columbia Dragoons.  The B. C. Dragoons trained as Cavalry until outbreak of  war in 1939, attending camps in Vernon, Kelowna and Kamloops. The unit was commanded successively, after the retirement of Li. Col. Johnston, by Lt. Col. R. Fitzmaurice, Li. Col. F.  Barber and Lt. Col. G. C. Oswell. On re-organization the regiment had headquarters at Vernon, with "A" Squadron at  VernOn, "B" Squadron at Kelowna, and "C" Squadron at Penticton.  The outbreak of war in September, 1939, found the Regiment  supplying a large number of officers and other ranks for  Vulnerable Point Guards along the main line of ihe Canadian  Pacific Railway. A large detachment was also stationed at  Prince George under command of Capt. H. Angle.  In May, 1940, the remainder of the unit went into camp, as  usual, at Vernon. By the end of camp, the German Bliizkreig  was rolling through France, and ihe thought of striking canvas  and returning to civilian life with such a crisis existing oversaas  was intolerable to all members of the unit. As Col. Bott had  offered the Regiment's services in 1919, so did Col. Oswell in  1940. He wired the Minister of National Defence, demanding  that the unit be mobilized. No satisfactory answer was received.  Many of the men had seriously considered refusing io strike  canvas or turn in their kit, in an effort io force some action.  Fortunately they were dissuaded from taking this step, and  the camp broke up quietly.  In Tuly, 1940, Lt. Col. Oswell received orders to form the  5th Canadian Motor Cycle Regiment. In doing this, he used a  slate of officers from the B. C. Dragoons. At the same time  Major C.  W.  Husband was appointed to command the B. C.  156 A History ot the Okanagan Regiment  Dragoons (N.P.A.M.). The 5th C.M.C.R., after recruiting up io  strength, moved to Victoria, where it trained as a Motorcycle  unit for a few months, when it was again re-organized becoming  the 9th Armoured Regiment (British Columbia Dragoons). In  May, 1941, the Regiment moved to Camp Borden, Ontario,  where it joined the Governor General's Horse Guards and the  8th (Princess Louise's) New Brunswick Hussars io form ihe  Second Brigade of ihe 5th Armoured Division.  Armoured training was carried out in Borden until November when ihe Division sailed for England. After landing there  on November 24th, the Regiment trained intensively for two  years until the 5th Division moved to Italy in November, 1943.  Arriving in the Mediterranean Theatre without heavy equipment, the 5th Division was unable io commit its armour until  the spring of 1944, and it was on May 24th of that year that  the B.C.D.'s first saw action when they led the Division through  the Hitler Line to the Melfi River.  The Regiment fought with the Canadian Corps, pari of the  8th Army, up Italy to the Valley of the Po. It played a major  role in breaching the Gothic Line and fought at San Giovanni,  Coriano Ridge and San Mauro. Once in ihe Po Valley, the  Regiment was engaged at Bellaria, Bagnarola, Castiglione di  Cervia, and took Godo, Piangipane, Villanova, and the Naviglio  Canal bridgehead. The Unit's last action in Italy took place  at Bonifica Canal and ihe Vale di Commaccio area.  Early in the spring of 1945, the 1st Canadian Corps moved  from Italy to Marseilles and from there by road to the Northwest Europe Theatre. Here the B.C.D.'s led the Breakthrough  from the Arnhem Bridgehead and played an important part in  the long drive from there to the Zuider Zee. They fought through  until VE day, taking part in actions at Otierloo, Voorthuizen,  Ermelo, Harderwijk, Appingedam and Marsum.  When the Unit first saw action in Italy it was under com-  157 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  mand of Li. Col. F. A. Vokes. He was the fourth Officer Commanding since Col. Oswell relinquished command in Borden,  Ontario, prior to the Regiment proceeding overseas. Lt. Col.  J. H. Laroque of Montreal commanded from October, 1941,  until April, 1942, when he was succeeded by Lt. Col. W. C.  Murphy, D.S.O., E.D. (later Brigadier), who commanded until  March, 1943. At this time Lt. Col. H. H .Angle, D.S.O., E.D, was  given command. Col. Angle had had many years of service in  the B.C.D.'s (N.P.A.M.) prior io the war, and was the first officer  to go on active service in 1939. He commanded until February,  1944, when, on being appointed G.S.O. I. at 5th Division Headquarters, he turned over command io Lt. Col. Vokes. When  Col. Vokes was killed in the Gothic Line on August 31st, 1944,  Col. Angle returned to the Regiment and retained command  until the return io Canada.  The foregoing completes the war record of the Okanagan  Regiment to date. The record, however, would be incomplete  without a mention of the Reserve Regiments who soldiered on  a Non-Permanent basis during ihe two wars. Theirs was a  home defence role and their personnel was for the most pari  too old or too young for active service. In the First Great War  the 30th B. C. Horse carried on in this category, and in ihe  Second, the 9th (Reserve) Armoured Regiment (B.C.D.), was  under command of Lt. Col. C .W. Husband, E.D. Col. Husband  had served with the 2nd C.M.R's in World War I. As a Squadron  Commander he had Major H. R. Denison who was also with  the 2nd C.M.R.'s and who began his military . career with the  Okanagan Mounted Rifles.  The Active Regiment too, had its share of Dual Service personnel. They were: Major M. V. McGuire, Capt. J. R. Dudley,  MQMS H. J. Johnston, and RQMS A. J. Hayhurst, M.M., all of  whom served with the 2nd C.M.R.'s and ihe 9th Armoured  Regiment (B.C.D.). Among the officers of the Regiment was  Captain H. P. Thompson, M.C., son of E. Copley Thompson, one  158 A History of the Okanagan Regiment  of the founders of the Regiment.  On the return of the Active Regiment to this Province a  welcome home ceremony was held in Kelowna, at which time  Lt. Col. Angle, D.S.O., E.D., a resident of Okanagan Mission  was given the Freedom of the City. The Regiment was then  dismissed and its members departed to their various homes.  tSo great was their pride in ihe unit that many men from Eastern  Canada had journeyed to Kelowna for the ceremonies, rather  than take their discharge in the East.  To compare the record of the two wartime units is hardly  feasible owing to the different policies and the different types  of warfare engaged in in World War II. Units in World War II  were not in action for as long a period as their counterparts in  the First War. Some comparison can be made, for what it is  worth, in the number of casualties. The 2nd C.M.R.'s lost 677  all ranks killed and 1059 wounded, while the B.C.D.'s lost only  68 killed, while 1239 were wounded.  At the time the Active unit was demobilized, ihe Reserve  was commanded by Major A. H. Grant, M.C., of Naramata  and Penticton, Col. Husband having retired. On the re-organization of the Canadian Army in 1946, Lt .Col. Angle was given  command of the Reserve Regiment which had been changed  to a Divisional Reconnaissance Regiment (R.C.A.C.), to be  known as the 9th Reconnaissance Regiment (British Columbia  Dragoons). Col. Angle relinquished command on August 31st,  1947, and the Regiment was taken over by your Author, who  served with ihe 9th Armoured Regiment, having commanded  a Squadron in Italy until wounded at Rimini in October, 1944.  At present, Regimental Headquarters is at Vernon, with Squadrons at Vernon, Kelowna and Penticton.  159 PRIVATE SCROOLS IN TRE ORANAGAN VALLEY  Hugh F. Mackie  While it has always been a debatable question as to just  how far Private Schools are justifiable, or even necessary, in  a Province like our own where the standards of education and  teaching are admittedly high, yet the fact remains that such  Private Schools have been in existence for many years, and  must therefore be considered as meeting a need. It is only  natural that such a state of affairs should prevail in British  Columbia where the proportion of settlers from the so-called  "leisured class" in the Old Country is higher than elsewhere;  yet the curious fact remains that in Eastern Canada, where  the impact of the United States is more powerful than in ihe  West, and ihe admixture of races more pronounced, all ihe  oldest and largest Private Schools are to be found.  We may therefore take it for granted that there is a need,  and room, for Private Schools in this country. From our own  personal experience we have found that many parents sent their  boys to our school for one or other of the following reasons  (on the correctness or otherwise of which I venture no opinion):  lack of discipline either at home or in ihe local Public School;  lack of religious education; lack of athletic facilities; over-sized  classes; undesirable companions; too much teaching by females  in the Public Schools; to which may be added an unavoidable  feature of all day schools, namely, lack of personal supervision  of pupils out of school hours.  From the time when the Vernon Preparatory School was  founded by my brother, Rev. A. C. Mackie, in 1914, until fairly  recent years, a large proportion of our pupils came from ihe  Coast,  and comparatively  few  from the   Interior.    The  cynic  160 Private Schools in the Okanagan Valley  might explain this by saying that the parents at ihe Coast  didn't know the School so well as those who lived nearer. But  the real reason undoubtedly was, and is, that Vernon is so  admirably suited as an educational centre, both from the point  of view of its wonderful climate and elevation, and the nature  of its setting which favours every kind of outdoor activity.  When my brother and I walked up Barnard Avenue for the  first time in October, 1913, we were struck by ihe beauty of  ihe countryside, but any enthusiasm of parents io send their  boys io our School on the Coldstream was not so apparent.  Mr. Price Ellison (to whom we had an introduction) was most  kind and sympathetic: but these were the days of one of ihe  pre-war slumps, and any new venture was an odds-against  gamble.  Both my brother and I were educated at St. lohn's School,  Leatherhead, near London, an institution chiefly for the education of the sons of the Clergy. My brother held ihe Classical  Scholarship at Corpus Christi College, received his M. A., from  Cambridge, and later his B. D. from Durham University. He  was ordained in 1902. I had no idea of taking up teaching,  originally, but drifted into it more or less by force of circumstances. I put in two years as a lawyer in Regina before  deciding to change.  When we came to the Valley, there was no private school  for boys between Vancouver and the Rockies. There had been  a very small private school run by Rev. St. John Mildmay on  the Coldstream, but this had disappeared some years before  we arrived. Chesterfield School at Kelowna was not yet in  existence. Si. Michael's School for Girls in Vernon was in  those days a healthy young institution about two years old  under the guidance of Miss M. Le Gallais. For many years it  continued to expand until it became one of the best known  girls' schools in Western Canada with an enrolment of about  100 pupils.   Then, as schools will, it fell on evil days and was  161 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  finally closed in 1937.  The land boom which had existed when we came to the  Valley collapsed and was followed by depression. Little local  support could be found for our project, but my brother opened  the school on January 13, 1914, at the Shelton House on Aberdeen Road, with five boys: R. C. Henderson, J. B. and J. R.  Kidston (day boys), D. S. Godwin and J. F.. Bardolph. At first  we all had a desperately hard struggle, especially Mrs. Mackie,  who with two little children io look after, one of them chronically ill, somehow managed to cook for and feed the boys  and us, keep the place spotless, and then lend a hand, often  until after dark, with the Ranch. Much of the success of School  resulted from her never-ceasing energy and care for the boys.  In 1916 we leased the Howard Ranch of 20 acres. Our  experiences there are described in the "V. P. S. Chronicle,"  Vol XII, No. 3, Christmas, 1929:  "The ranch had not been tended for two years and ihe  task of getting it into shape was a man's job, but we were :ull  of ihe energy born of inexperience and revelled in the task,  putting in every spare moment from dawn till it was too dark  to distinguish weeds from young vegetables. We soon mastered  the art of ploughing, discing, mowing, raking and performing  the other tasks incidental to farming and considering that our  team consisted of a superannuated steeple-chaser and a nervous pacer we got along quite well though narrowly escaping  falling victims beneath our own implements; needless to say  our harness was a maze of hay-wire with here and there a  strip of leather. This saved our limbs on many occasions as  our steeds soon divested themselves of their habiliments and  left us and the wagon or mower behind while they catered  untrammelled over the countryside.  "We harvested our own fruit crop and packed it ourselves  after the boys were safely abed. Many a night we stood  shivering with cold in a semi-open shed till 1:30 a.m. sorting  162 Private Schools in the Okanagan Valley  and packing our precious fruit by the light of a stable lantern.  Those were the good old days when it was no disgrace not io  belong to the Union and when fruit inspectors were neither so  numerous nor inquisitorial as they are now. The statute of  limitations enables me to make a clear breast of our iniquities.  Any old thing was an apple: such things as culls did not exist;  everything was a No. 1. The problem of naming the varieties  was one that baffled old-timers in the fruit business, for our  orchard was one of the very first to be planted, and contained  varieties whose very names had been forgotten, but we solved  the problem by the simple expedient of inventing names, not,  mark you, without some nice discrimination of a subtle appeal  to the imagination or patriotism of the consumer. Thus ihe  fruit of a tree near the kitchen door went to the Prairies under  the inspiring cognomen of Kitchener, then at the zenith of his  power. The thrifty housewife who converted our seedling crabs  into jelly was in very truth preserving wild apples which had  sprung from a seedling, and believe me, were exceptionally  rich in acids. We shipped our pears so wizened and diminutive  that we reluctantly wrapped them in sulphide paper io prevent  their falling through the crack in the box. If there were any  justice in the world we should now be picking oakum or swinging in a gibbet.  "But the Nemesis which dogs the footsteps of ihe wrongdoers overtook us for we consigned one crop to one of ihe  Children of Israel and evidently regarding himself as ihe  instrument of Jehovah, he announced his inability io do what  none of his race had ever failed to do before, viz., io find a  buyer for what he had to sell."  In the spring of 1917, the School was moved to the Hensman  Ranch, which we had purchased, and where a building was  put up by A. D. Heriot to accommodate 18 boarders. In 1918  there were 27 boys, and accommodation was added for 24  more boys.   In 1920 room was made for 12 more boys, and a  163 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  library was added.   St. Nicholas' Chapel was built and dedicated in  1921.  The aim of Vernon Preparatory School was, and still is, io  provide such a course of education as would enable the pupils  io take up High School with the minimum dislocation: and our  experience has shewn that as a general rule our pupils, on  leaving us, were qualified for a higher grade than boys of ihe  same age at Public Schools.  One of our first local pupils was the late "lohnny" Costerton, son of then Alderman and later Mayor C. F. Costerton,  who stayed with us for several years: and it was he who was  the first to provide us with a pupil-son-of-a-pupil: so that, like  Mr. Chips, I found myself saying, "Ah! now when I used io  teach your father—!" Another mayor's son we had was young  McGeer, scion of the famous late "Gerry" McGeer of Vancouver. On one occasion we had quite a thrill when the Vancouver Chief of Police telephoned us not io let the youngster  out of our sight for a minute as ihe Vancouver underworld  against whom Gerry was then waging war, had announced  their intention of kidnapping the boy.  There is one more aspect of the Private School which should  be mentioned in such an article as this -— I refer io the economic side of the question. An institution of this kind is undoubtedly of considerable financial benefit to the local community. Until our retirement in the year 1946, we educated  456 boys, and our school expenditures in Vernon alone well  exceeded half a million dollars —■ at no cost whatever io ihe  taxpayer. There were also other indirect benefits such as increased publicity which might be taken into consideration.  In addition, every Tune there was held at the School a sale of  the boys' manual work, plants, etc., the net profits of which  amounted to $5,783 to June, 1946, and the money was used for  charitable purposes. Up until June, 1946, collections, almost all  of   which   were   given   to   religious   or   charitable   institutions  164 Private Schools in the Okanagan Valley  amounted to $8,229, making a total of $14,012.  This beautiful Valley of ours has many advantages over  other localities and it is pre-eminently ideal as a Residential  School centre. The day may — and I hope will — come when  it will be as famous for its Private Schools as it is today for its  orchards — and its Ogopogo!  LAKE KALAMALKA, B.C.  Oft on a clear, fresh summer morn  I've stood as one deeprooted to the ground  And gazed and gazed upon its loveliness;  Taking a deep draught to my thirsty soul.  It was the lake of many colors and I thought  No man can rob me of this gem — all else may go;  Sports, pleasures, pastimes — but this will remain  Constant in friendship and unfailing cheer;  Leave it, come back to it — 'tis always dear.  Most Eastern Races have a strong belief  That woodland, mountain, lake and stream  Has each its own inhabitant —■  Sprite, gnome or fairy — if that's so  That Lake of Many Colors must enshrine  Some super-spirit, beautiful Divine.  165 G. T. BROWN, ARTIST  By Willard E. Ireland  The delightful painting of Long Lake which appears in this  issue is the work of a California artist, about whose life little  information can be discovered at the present time. All that is  available is contained in the accounts in the Colonist which  describe his work and his success.  The Great Interior on Canvas  About three months ago Mr. G. T. Brown an artist of more  than local celebrity in California and elsewhere passed through  Victoria and joined Mr. A. Bowman's geological survey party  east of the Cascade mountains. At Kamloops Mr. Brown commenced taking sketches and secured one of a beautiful piece  of landscape of the South Thompson looking up the river from  Peterson's Hotel. The next is a very pretty picture of the same  charming river 18 miles higher up taking in a portion of Duck  and Pringle's ranch and the scenery adjacent. Shuswap Lake  is illustrated by four very fine views and Spillamacheen by  two, one of the river and the other with Mr. Fortune's farm  premises in the foreground, equally choice. Long Lake, a  beautiful sheet of water running parallel (sic) with Lake Okanagan has two sketches, one looking up from a very peculiar  low lying island at high water called the Railroad which at low  water divides the lake in two, and the other from same point  of view looking both ways. A nice bit of scenery taken from  Mr. Eli Lequime's residence, Okanagan Mission, comes next in  order, from which point the artist proceeded to Keremeos where  he took a charming sketch of the mountain a few miles from  Mr. Price's residence. Going up the Similkameen a lively  picture is made with a nice flat in ihe foreground and ihe  majestic Similkameen mountains, in which vast deposits of  silver are said to exist, stretching away south of the 49th parallel.  The Forks of this river just above Allison's ranch showing ihe  distant Cascades make an excellent picture, as does also ihe  Giant's Castle Mountain. Two or three magnificent bits of  scenery in ihe vicinity  of Hope are' transferred to  canvass;  166 G. T. Brown, Artist  together with several equally choice views on the Fraser between Hope and New Westminster. Those pictures were all  taken with the exquisite tints of autumn on the foliage; which  give the landscapes a rich warm coloring that must be seen  to be appreciated. Mr. Brown has a fine view of Mount Baker  taken from opposite Trial island and a number of other B.C.  sketches that are well worth a visit to his studio at the Occidental hotel, Wharf street. He is purposing to do those pictures  in water colors and will furnish any of them to order that visitors  may take a fancy to as he will stay in this city during ihe  winter and take another tour into the interior next summer. His  opinion is that this province may challenge the world for  magnificent and picturesque scenery.  (Victoria Colonist, November 28, 1882, p. 3.)  '   British Columbia Scenery  Mr. G. T. Brown, ihe artist, who passed several months of  last year in the province sketching ihe grand and beautiful  scenery which everywhere is presented to the view, has produced a large number of faithful descriptive paintings in oil.  These paintings Mr. Brown proposes to exhibit shortly in this  city. The collection cannot fail to prove of great interest to all  admirers of art and lovers of this beautiful and romantic land.  (Victoria Colonist, May 24th, 1883, p. 3.)  Exhibition  in  Oils  of British   Columbia  Scenery  Yesterday was the opening day of the exhibition at The  Colonist's new building of oil paintings from the brush of our  local artist, Mr. G. T. Brown. Viewed in the light of artistic  productions they were excellent, but when inspected by those  with whom the scenes represented were familar, their fidelity  elicited an extra meed of praise, proving that the artist has taken  great pains io make them correct portraits as well as good  paintings. They are executed from sketches made on the spot  by Mr. Brown, and have, therefore, the full benefit of little  details that would not be produced by one who had never  viewed the various localities. The scenes portrayed are 22 :n  number, comprising views of Victoria and surroundings, in  addition to scenes on the mainland. The gem of ihe collection,  is undoubtedly that entitled "Sunset on Shuswap Lake," which  is simply perfection from an artistic point of view alone independently of its resemblance to the original.   The effects of distance  167 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  have been carefully preserved, while the heavy clouds hanging  overhead, whose lights and shadows have been successfully  delineated, aid ihe calm, clear water to reflect in gold and  crimson ihe declining rays of the setting sun; and the foliage  of the trees, which thickly fringe the shores, borrowing its  brilliant shades from the same source, lends an additional  beauty io this lovely scene. Notable among the others also  were "Race Rocks and Royal Roads", "The Gorge" from ihe  west bank, and "Nature's Vase and Bouquet" the latter representing a mass of granite that ages ago has fallen from ihe  mountain above, but on whose surface sufficient soil has formed  to rear large trees of several kinds. The locality of this scene  is on the banks of the Okanagan Lake. Several of the paintings  have been already sold, and considering the general excellence of the display, the fact is not surprising. All who can  spare the time should pay a visit of inspection which is free io  all. The paintings will be on view every day this week from  1 io 5 p.m.  (Victoria Colonist, Tune 26th, 1883, p. 3.)  Art Exhibition  The attendance of visitors to Mr. G. T. Brown's picture  gallery on Government street was considerably greater than  that- of the day previous. During the afternoon his honor the  lieutenant-governor was present and purchased a painting  entitled "Twilight on the South Thompson" (a very pretty scene)  and expressed himself greatly pleased with ihe collection.  Those who are in the habit of boating on the Arm will at once  recognize the truthful likeness in the view called "Above ihe  Gorge". "Long Lake, B.C." and "Clover Point, Victoria", are  also worthy of notice, and at ihe risk of repetition reference  must again be made to the extremely beautiful painting "Sunset  on Shuswap Lake", marked in the catalogue as No. 9. It will  probably be quickly disposed of. Mr. Brown is already selecting fresh subjects for new pictures.  (Victoria Colonist, Tune 27th, 1883, p. 3.)  A BEAUTIFUL PAINTING—G. T. Brown has just completed  a sketch of Goldstream falls, which will be placed on exhibition  to-day with the present collection. It is a picture well worth  seeing, as it represents one of Victoria's choicest spots in nature.  The sketch was taken in the afternoon, when the cool, refreshing  168 G. T. Brown, Artist  pool below the falls is in shadow; above the falls the sun lights  up the foliage in rich warm tints, giving the entire picture a  clever picturesqueness.  (Victoria Colonist, June 29, 1883, p. 3.)  ART  To the gentleman who represented in his landscape paintings some of the most charming scenes of our beautiful province  there is more than praise due. The hand of ihe artist is  noticeable in all his paintings exhibited in The Colonist's new  building.  Taking into account that he is the pioneer—the originator  of this intellectual and refined art—that he is the first to supply  the young people of this city with the grand idea of the "noble  art"—he should be more than patronized. Not one of his  paintings should be left unsold. Any one of them is not without  merit.  In the "Goldstream Falls" painting the glorious tints of  summer foliage under a bright blue sky are delicately handled—  the waterfall itself looking as natural as it looks to the eye of  those who saw it falling into the midst of the cedar and pine  of the forest.  "The early morning at Vermillion Forks"—In this picture  the grandeur of mountain scenery is portrayed with wonderful  taste, the Cascade range unfolding the majesty of mountain  scenery.  "The thunder storm on Shuswap Lake." The grand gloom,  with the sunlight breaking through, is like hope coming in ihe  darkness of despair.    This painting is natural and fine.  "The Gorge, Portage Inlet, Victoria." This painting is so  natural that a dreamer might suppose he was looking at nature  itself. The foliage of the different trees in nature's variegated  colors is exquisitely put before the observer; the rocks and dells  are nature's.  If I were in the habit, or rather, if I had the ability of  describing landscape painting, any one of these pictures would  not be without a purchaser. Many of them are sold. They are  works of art, exhibited by the pioneer artist of the province.  169 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  They should all be purchased of him, if it were only to encourage those, (and they are few), who have a natural iaste  for the refined art of landscape painting.  .MAX  (Victoria Colonist, July 5, 1883, p. 3.)  Pictographs at Skaha Lake have been reported, although  not proved, io include Chinese character writings of an early  period. Mr. Rufus Woods of Wenatchee has declared that they  were photographed some 30 years ago by a Mr. Paul Donaldson who interpreted them to mean "There are 80 of us, many  have died from war, or vicissitudes or privations (actual intr-  preiation not known). It is getting warmer". On April 4, 1937,  the Penticton Herald listed the following sites where pictographs  are found: on the east side of Skaha Lake near Penticton, De-  Renzy's Canyon, Sheep Creek, Sawmill Creek, Shuttleworth  Creek Canyon, Yellow Lake in Marron Valley, Inkameep, both  sides of Vaseux Lake and above Okanagan Lake north of  Paradise Wharf.  "The Okanagan Arc" was observed by Dr. F. M. Andrew  at Summerland on August 8 at 12:30 a.m. and on August 25 at  9:30 p.m. It was also seen by Captain Estabrooks and others  at Burton, B.C. on August 17. The Nelson Daily News reported  thai "It was first noticed about 11:00 p.m. with a very bright  ray of light like that of a giant search-light beaming up from  the West and casting its ray right across ihe sky and coming  io rest on ihe horizon in ihe East. The ray was verv clear cut  as that of a search-light and was of a milky color. The display  lasted an hour or more and then the Eastern end gradually  broke up in rays running from North to South, then these disappeared and the display was over." The 'Arc' was again  very prominent Friday night, October 1.  170 171 TRE SUMMERLAND EXPERIMENTAL STATION  By F. W. Andrew  When it had been demonstrated that first class fruit could  be grown commercially in the Okanagan Valley, problems  began to beset the growers — problems that the existing experimental farms and stations were unable to solve. None had  had much experience in irrigation beyond using the garden  hose. So, when the Hon. Sydney Fisher, the Dominion Minister  of Agriculture, visited Summerland in 1909, a strong case was  presented to him for the establishment of an Experimental  Station in the Okanagan Valley. The fruit growers wished io  have the best scientific advice on varieties, pruning, pests,  diseases, irrigation, spraying, and other troubles that were  steadily confronting them.  It should be recalled that the first commercial orchard in  the Okanagan was planted by lames Gartrell, on Trout Creek  Point in 1890, although several ranchers had planted a few trees  prior to that date. The large Coldstream plantings were made  several years later and were soon followed by other orchards  in ihe Vernon and Kelowna districts. In 1898, J. M. Robinson  sub-divided the Peachland district into 5 and 10 acre lots, installed an irrigation system and planted apples, pears, peaches,  cherries, and apricots. This was the modest beginning of the  huge fruit industry which we have today.  In 1902 the Summerland Development Company was formed with Sir Thomas Shaughnessy as president and J. M. Robinson as manager. All the pre-empted land in ihe present limits  of the Municipality of Summerland was bought, sub-divided,  and an irrigation system was installed, ihe water being supplied  from Trout Creek. Before long, the district,'was settled with  hopeful, prospective growers.   The Penticton benches and those  172 The Summerland Experimental Station  of Naramata quickly followed a similar development.  Kaleden was settled in 1908, while the Oliver District with  its plentiful supply of irrigation was developed just after the  First World War, particularly for veterans. The Osoyoos area  is more recent. It was also found that ihe Similkameen Valley  was favorable for fruit growing, especially around Keremeos.  Even io this day new land is being planted to contribute its  quota to the vast tonnage of fruit thai is shipped each year.  Martin Burrell, M.P., ihe representative for Yale, H. C.  Mellor, ihe President of the Summerland Board of Trade and  J. M. Robinson, who had sub-divided and sold more orchard  land than anyone else in the Valley, all kept the question of an  experimental station alive before the Dominion Department of  Agriculture. In 1914 a parcel of 400 acres was secured, being  part of the Penticton Indian Reserve, and separated from the  Municipality of Summerland by the canyon of Trout Creek.  I. A. Kirk surveyed about 200 acres below the Kettle Valley  Railway for ihe irrigation system. This portion was intended  for the experimental growing of fruit trees, vegetables, field  crops and flowers, while the 200 acres above the Railway was  reserved for dry farming. R. H. Helmer, who had had a wide  experience in various branches of Agriculture, was appointed  superintendent, and he held thai position until 1923.  The new Experimental Station had no water records for  irrigation, so an agreement was made with the Municipality of  Summerland for the necessary supply. The people of Summer-  land were glad to encourage ihe much needed Experimental  Station but did- not foresee the trouble this agreement would  shortly create.  Many varieties of fruit trees, field crops, vegetables, flowers  and shrubs, were planted and some domestic animals were  supplied. Helmer confirmed the fact that endemic goitre in  domestic animals is a deficiency disease and can be prevented  by supplying small amounts of iodine through ihe medium of  173 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  the salt ration. Various methods of pruning, thinning, and  irrigation were studied. A more intensive investigation of the  culture of sugar beets, tomatoes, cantaloupe, and oihed vegetables was about to be instituted when the First World War  broke out.  During the war there was not much progress. The main  office building was erected, but most of the staff lived in shacks.  George W. Johnson was chief of the office staff and also kept  the meteorological records. After the war, additional buildings  were erected. A. ]. Mann and R. C. Palmer were appointed as  assistants to the superintendent. Mann began intensive studies  in forage crop and tobacco culture, while Palmer specialized in  horticulture. Poultry were introduced and D. G. Denny was  placed in charge. There were already some swine on the  Station, and valuable work was done concerning the feeding  of beef cattle.  When Helmer resigned as superintendent, Wilbur T. Hunter  was appointed as his successor. Beside carrying on the administrative work of the Station, Hunter established the Jersey  herd which has since become so famous. He persuaded many  growers to place a pure-bred Jersey calf on their orchards.  Hunter popularized the Station by instituting an annual Farm  Picnic. While these picnics were brightened by holding a  baseball tournament, the chief objective was io demonstrate  to fruit, vegetable and stock raisers the most recent advances  in their particular line. People came from all parts of the  Valley, the attendance sometimes exceeding 3000.  As the trees in Summerland grew larger and more land  was brought under cultivation, the supply of irrigation water  was found to be insufficient. The growers objected to the  amount of water diverted \o the Station, while the officials there  complained that due to the lack of water towards the end  of the season, many of their experiments could not be completed, so that the season's work was, in many cases, wasted.  174 The Summerland Experimental Station  While Hunter was superintendent, the Dominion Government  had acquired certain water rights on the Trout Creek watershed and had constructed a dam at Crescent Lake to increase  Summerland's irrigation water. But even this addition was  inadequate.  By this time the West Kootenay Power and Light Company  had enlarged their generating plant and were delivering a  plentiful supply of power to Summerland and ihe lower Okanagan Valley. This seemed to offer a solution io the irrigation  difficulty. The reeve of Summerland, W. R. Powell, foresaw  the need of still more water for irrigation in this Municipality.  R. C. Palmer, who had just been appointed superintendent of  the Station, was strongly in favor of pumping, for if water  could be successfully pumped to the benches of the Station,  irrigation could be continued to the end of the growing season.  The negotiations that followed resulted in an agreement between the Dominion Government and the Municipality of  Summerland, whereby the former would assign its water rights  to the Municipality and grant $10,000 if the latter would install  a suitable electric pumping plant on the Station. Two pumps  "were installed, the first capable of pumping 20 gallons per  second to the height of 290 feet and the second, or booster,  which raised part of the water an additional 112 feet. This was  accomplished with all Canadian materials and by all Canadian  workmen. When the system was officially opened by Reeve  Powell in 1933, it worked perfectly, and the pumps have continued to provide adequate water for the Station since that  time. Summerland now has ample supplies of irrigation water,  as in addition to acquiring the rights to the Crescent Lake  reservoir, new dams have been constructed on Canyon Creek,  and at Thirsk, on Trout Creek.  Amicable settlement of these irrigation water difficulties  did much to promote cordial relations between the Municipality  and the Experimental Station.  175 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  With the appearance of diseases such as pear blight, the  growers awakened to the fact that specially trained scientists  are necessary io fight these enemies successfully. So in 1921,  the Dominion Science Service erected a Laboratory of Plant  Pathology near the office of the Summerland Experimental  Station with H. R. McLarty in charge.  Some varieties of apples, including the Mcintosh Red, developed the disorders called drought spot, corky core and die-  back as they grew older. The diminishing returns caused by  the increasing number of culls gave the growers much cause  for alarm. A committee with W. T. Hunter as chairman, and  Dr. (now) H. R. McLarty as technical officer-in-charge persuaded  the Dominion Experimental Farms Service to purchase a block  of trees at East Kelowna for intensive study. After innumerable  experiments which included examination of the soil of the  orchards and lakeshore, the analysis of the irrigation wafer and  the lake water, the ash of various parts of trees, etc, it was  found that the silt soil of the bench land was extremely low in  the element boron. So boron in the form of boric acid was  packed in holes in the trunks of diseased trees and the next  season the trees produced normal fruit. Later it was found that  boric acid sprinkled on ihe ground in ihe fall gave similar  results. It was further observed that other trees, bushes, alfalfa  and various garden crops were benefited by the same treatment. This discovery was of incalculable value to the whole  Okanagan Valley. In 1939, the B.C. Fruit Growers Association  and ihe Summerland Board of Trade expressed their appreciation to Dr. McLarty and his associates by tendering them a  testimonial dinner.  Dr. R. E. Fitzpatrick was added to the staff of the Laboratory  of Plant Pathology and when he was transferred to Vancouver,  Dr. Maurice Welsh took his place. In addition, the laboratory  staff includes G. E. Woolliams and Thos. B. Lott. Recent problems studied by these pathologists include the virus disease of  peaches,  called  "Western  X"  which  spread  northward  from  176 The Summerland Experimental Station  Washington, and the "Little Cherry" virus which originated in  the Kootenay Valley. In order to study virus diseases to better  advantage, a small acreage has been secured on the bench  just south of the Station.  Dr. James Marshall has been in charge of the Entomological  Laboratory, of the Dominion Science Service for a number of  years. This laboratory was moved from Vernon to Summer-  land in 1945. It has operated in cramped quarters until 1948,  when it was moved to the new laboratory building on that part  of the Station's property on Trout Creek Point, just to the east  of the highway. It is planned also to house J. M. McArthur,  Ralph Myles, Cyril Woodbridge and other chemists in this  building.  Of all the numerous pests that attack apples, ihe most  troublesome and most defiant is ihe codling moth. Millions of  dollars have been spent in spraying to keep it under control,  but it is running into tougher living conditions. The earlier  sprays (containing lead arsenate) poisoned the soil and even  then there were too many culls. Cryolite was an improvement.  But it was not until just a few years ago that D.D.T. (dichloro-  diphenyltrichloroethane) proved to be the best insecticide yet  tried for control of codling moth. Unfortunately, it permitted  co-existing mites (European and Pacific) to flourish. In 1947  Dr. Marshall found that the addition of a very dilute solution  of Mono-DNP (Monoethanolaminedinitro-ortho-cyclohexyphenol)  to D.D.T. sprays gave both pests very little chance of survival.  R. C. Palmer was given the degree of Doctor of Science in 1946  in recognition of the successful work he had directed and  accomplished in horticulture. His chief assistant for many years  was W. M. Fleming, who, until his death, had charge of investigations covering animal husbandry, forage crops, vegetables and seed production.  Dr. J. C. Wilcox specializes in plant nutrition, soil conservation and irrigation.    He has had a great deal io do with the  177 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  installation of sprinkler irrigation for orchards on a sound  scientific basis. ]. E. Britton and Dr. D. V. Fisher devote their  time to study of problems concerning the harvesting, storage  and distribution of fruit. They have ascertained that harvesting  and storage procedures which are necessary to ensure delivery  of high quality fruit in good condition on distant markets over  long periods.  A. J. Mann and F. W. L. Keane are specialists in fruit breeding, propagation and the testing of new varieties for flavor,  appeal, keeping and shipping qualities. The two most important new varieties of apples originated at the Station have been  named Spartan and Jubilee. They promise to extend ihe  harvesting and storage season of Mcintosh type apples. The  Van Cherry is another product of this Station. It has many  desirable qualities, one being that it seldom splits in rainy  weather. Other promising varieties of fruit developed here are  the Reliable apricot and the Spotlight peach.  F. E. Atkinson is in charge of the Fruit and Vegetables  Products Laboratory. He is largely responsible for the successful establishment of the glaced cherry, Zucca melon, and apple  juice industries in British Columbia. For the past two years he  has given special attention to the preservation of fruits and  vegetables by freezing. His advice is frequently requested by  canneries, and by dehydrating and processing plants.  Dr. C. C. Strachan is engaged in studying and analysing  fruits, vegetables and their products to determine their mineral  and vitamin content and their health value. His laboratory  work has demonstrated "the necessity of ample fruits in the  diet to promote good health.  Each year for the past five years the delegates to the B.C.  Fruit Growers Association Annual Convention have shown  their appreciation of ihe work done by the Summerland Station  and their confidence in the staff in a tangible way.   They have  178 The Summerland Experimental Station  now voted $5,000 of B.C.F.G.A. funds to be used in research  work at the Station.  The results of the work of the Summerland Experimental  Station and the Science Service Laboratories located thereon  have justified the expense entailed manifold. The great fruit  growing industry which began without government assistance  is now flourishing under scientific direction. At a recent convention of the British Columbia Fruit Growers Association, Dr.  Palmer stated, "The permanence of the Fruit industry is dependent on the ability of the grower to produce heavy yields of high,  quality fruit at comparatively low cost without impairing the  fertility of the soil. Progress in horticulture depends, on the  introduction of new varieties — varieties that are well adapted  to our soil and climatic conditions, productive and resistant to  disease — varieties which produce fruit attractive in appearance, high in quality, rich in health value and with good  handling characteristics." To such, and more, is ihe Summer-  land Experimental Station dedicated.  Because of the delay in printing this report, the article  by Harry D. Barnes which appears in this issue was first  printed in the British Columbia Historical Quarterly and is reprinted from the Quarterly with the consent of the Editor.  The long record1 of 44 years' service in municipal offices  has been established by Mr. Graham Rosoman of Enderby,  who is now 88. Mr. Rosoman became City Clerk after Enderby's  incorporation in 1905, and served in this capacity until August  31, 1939. He was also Police Magistrate from January 1, 1907  until November 30, 1944, and Stipendiary Magistrate for a  number of years. When he retired as City Clerk, he was  appointed City Supervisor. He has been in attendance at 1000  meetings of the Enderby City Council. On the occasion of ihe  Governor-General's official visit to Enderby in May, 1948, Mr.  Rosoman was presented with a gold chain in recognition of ihe  valuable service he had performed.  179 MARRHING FRUITS IN RRITISR COLUMRIA  A. K. Loyd  President B. C. Tree Fruits Limited, Kelowna, B. C.  Marketing systems are usually closely related to the conditions obtaining in the area for which they are designed, and  consequently the marketing system that may produce good  results when applied io special conditions in one area may  not be particularly helpful to those in another. The system  presently in vogue in British Columbia might be said io be ihe  result of guerilla warfare extending over 30 years. For that  period the major problem confronting that Western Canadian  Province, insofar as the fruit industry is concerned, has been  the disposal, to the best advantage, of a surplus in excess of the  natural adjacent markets.  At the turn of the century and for a decade afterwards,  extensive plantings — modelled after those in Washington —  took place in British Columbia, with the intention of furnishing  fresh fruits io ihe four western provinces, British Columbia,  Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. In those spacious days  of yesteryear, anticipations often outran the realization dictated  by hard facts; and while it was generally admitted by conservative real estate operators that the population of the Prairies  would double or treble in the next quarter of a century, these  prophecies proved to be chiefly wishful thinking. For many  reasons ihe population in most provinces increased but little,  and in the meanwhile the trees, obeying the dictates of nature  rather than the optimistic forecasts of statisticians, continued to  grow and produce whether the embryo market developed or  not.  All through the 1920's and 1930's increasing tonnage accentuated the development of what amounted to a happy hunting ground for buyers and a discouraging and difficult situation  180 Marketing Fruits in British Columbia  for growers. By the middle of the 1930's the growers were in  such a desperate position that they were prepared to take a  step which they had long avoided — namely, the marketing  of their produce through one organization. Hence the formation  of B.C. Tree Fruits Limited, a central selling organization.  The primary objectives of this move were io achieve orderly  marketing of the produce. It was designed io check unnecessary  cutthroat competition amongst growers themselves, and to direct  a flow of supplies to the market in quantities which would avoid  unnecessary gluts and produce an orderly return io all concerned.  It has never been a principle endorsed by the growers'  selling agency that it is possible to obtain artificial prices for  the growers. The law of supply and demand has governed  from time immemorial, and will continue to do so indefinitely.  All that the selling agency set out to do was io return to ihe  grower as much as possible of whatever the market was able  to pay.  I think this is worth repeating, since one-desk selling has  too often been represented as an attempt io establish artificial  price levels. It is merely an attempt to return to the producers  cs much as possible of the market price, whatever that may be.  The method by which we, at the present time, in British  Columbia, handle our crops is as follows: the 40 or 50 packing  units within the area embraced by the scheme, deliver the  product when packed to the sales agency for merchandising.  Growers are free to utilize any one of the numerous firms in the  business of packing and processing the commodity. All of such  firms subscribe to the one-desk deal 100 percent. We have tried  often enough in the past to achieve a measure of success with  less than 100 percent included in a marketing system, and invariably have finally met with failure. Fundamentally, the  reason for this is that however efficient the operation of such a  sales agency, it will always be io the advantage of a minority  181 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  to stay outside, because of the fact that the agency and the  majority of the industry, for the sake of orderly marketing, are  shouldering burdens which necessitate certain financial sacrifice,  and which such a minority can avoid by shirking their share  of the more tiresome industry problems; e.g., advertising and  cold storage.  The manner in which B.C. Fruits operates, is as follows: its  authority is derived from two sources. First of all, it is designated as the single selling agency by the B.C. Fruit Board, a  Board which is established under the Natural Products Marketing  (Province of B.C.) Act. This Act, dating from 1935, has certain  legal powers, including the licensing and control of movement  within the province.  Secondly, its authority is derived from a three-party three-  year contract, signed as between the grower and his shipper  and the sales agency.  It is a Limited Company, incorporated under the Companies  Act of British Columbia, with a Board of Governors of ten members, holding one share each of ihe total capital of the Company.  It is entirely controlled by the B.C. Fruit Growers' Association.  In the Articles of Incorporation of the Company is included a  statement that no Governor can hold office unless satisfactory  io the Growers' Association. When B.C. Tree Fruits, as a Limited  Company, elects its Board of Governors, it has first of all io  assure itself thai they are acceptable to the growers as a whole,  as indicated by their representatives. The Governors in turn  appoint a Gneral Manager who is responsible from then on  for the conduct of the Company.  The operation of the Company on the markets is conducted  as follows: The Sales Manager and his assistants have before  them at all times either the estimates or the actual pack-outs of  the produce which they are expected-to sell. These, of course,  are kept up to date. We use in the six major cities in Western  Canada our own brokerage offices, which  are conducted at  182 Marketing Fruits in British Columbia  cost, and a fixed brokerage is paid to them for their services.  Any margin accruing at the end of the season to these offices,  of revenue over expenditure, is returned to B. C. Tree Fruits  Limited, and by the Company to the growers in the form of  rebates. These six offices are in continuous touch with the  central desk by means of teletype, in addition to the usual telephone and telegraph services. It is the duty of these offices to  market stocks submitted to them by the Company, and they are  further permitted to participate to some small extent in outside  commodities not obtainable from the fruit areas in British Columbia. In other markets, both inside and outside Canada, the  Company selects its brokers from the operators available, and  in this respect differs in no way from normal procedure.  The function of such a one-desk provides, amongst others,  certain outstanding economies. It can deal more equitably and  with authority in claims to the extent that ihe product itself is in  demand by the trade. For this reason it is to the advantage of  the Company to see that the product is kept as far as is possible  to a high standard. All commodities being in one hand, so io  speak, there exists no longer the possibility of grower being  worked against grower, or shipping house against shipping  house, in an unfair manner, and to the disadvantage primarily  of the producer and ultimately of the consumer.  Secondly, we can avoid a great deal of unnecessary expense in assembling our products. The large farming population  on the prairies at widely-separated country points, with few  large marketing centres, requires special attention in delivering  assortments of goods. Prior to ihe inception of a one-desk deal,  these assortments were brought often long distances in order that  the contributors to the assortment might all be affiliated with a  certain shipping house. Under present conditions they are  assembled from the nearest and most economical point, a saving  of many thousands of dollars to the producer.  The proceeds of the sales are distributed by means of a  183 The Okanagan Historical Society—1  pooling system, the objective of the pooling system being to  pay the same to all growers for a like variety, size and grade of  any particular variety of fruit. The apple pool itself is governed  by an arbitrary five-year average, established on the basis of  the pre-war public acceptability of the various grades, size  groupings and varieties, and adjustable by an industry committee.  One of ihe major urgencies of the grower has been for many  years the provision of greater information than he has had in the  past, and in order to satisfy this want the Company broadcasts  once a week a statement as io the condition of the markets, the  freeness or otherwise of movement generally, and all details  which can give a picture as of that moment to the grower in his  orchard. In addition, every four or five weeks a Growers'  Bulletin is forwarded to the growers, giving in detail the prices  of pools that have been closed as the season advances, and  other information such as Government agreements, export markets, etc., etc. Finally, he is shown the actual amount paid io all  shippers for the various commodities in which he is interested.  It becomes easy then for him to see whether ihe terms of his  contract with that particular shipper in regard io charges, etc.,  have been complied with.  Advertising is handled by the Company itself, utilizing the  services, when required, of commercial advertising set-ups.  A concern handling 10,000 to 17,000 carloads a year, is  large enough to require something more than $10.00 capital.  Provision has been made for this in the form of a Revolving  Fund. Every year, from the earnings of the Company $30,000  is set aside for a liquid reserve. In the third year after this had  been put into operation ihe first $30,000 was returned, resulting  in the establishment of a continuous floating reserve of $60,000,  the grower being rebated in ihe third year what he loaned to  the Company in the first.  As to the income of the Company itself, this is based on a  184 Marketing Fruits in British Columbia  fixed amount laid down in the contract, which it may deduct  during the season for its services. Three and one-fourth cents  as a basis on apples was the amount originally determined, and  this has been adhered to during the nine year life of the organization. At the end of the season, all amounts in excess of the  operating requirements of the Company are returned to the  growers in ihe form of an additional rebate. To date this rebate  has been quite substantial, and it is estimated that the cost of  operation, based on apples, amounts to approximately two and  one-fourth cents a box. Nearly all sales are made f.o.b., and  that is the objective aimed at. If the condition of the market  makes it absolutely essential to move without a firm sale, then  consignments are limited, as far as is possible, io the broksrs  controlled by ourselves.  A department is devoted to traffic and credit problems. The  work in connection with the latter has been particularly successful, inasmuch as bad debts to the debit of the Company have  amounted to less than $200.00 in relation to a turnover of 160  million.  Of late years provision has been made for the attendance at  meetings of the Board of Governors of a representative of the  consumers, and with this addition a marketing organization,  entirely democratic in control, has been devised, in line with  the wishes of the 3,000 to 4,000 fruit growers in the Main Line,  Okanagan and Kootenay areas.  185 RECENT POORS MENTIONING TRE DHANAGAN VALLEY  DOUGLAS OF THE FIR, A Biography of David Douglas, Botanist,  by Athelstan George Harvey (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts,  1947).  In his Letters on Life, W. Robertson Nicoli wrote: "The ideal  biography should begin with a very clear chronological table,  showing at a glance how the life was divided. For want of  this we misconceive - we do not see how events are spread  about or crowded together in a space of years." Measured by  this standard, Mr. Harvey's story ranks high. Some may be  surprised (if not just a little disappointed) to learn that David  Douglas did not really discover the Bluebell Mine, and that he  never saw the Kootenay Lake, but Mr. Harvey's conclusions  are so well supported by a mass of evidence as to leave no  room for doubt. In spite of a wealth of detail, and abundant  references, there is preserved the picture of a real man, an indefatigable student, and an intrepid explorer. We see Douglas  in spite of ihe trees. It is a real biography, not merely a book  about a man.  In the Spring of 1833 Douglas travelled from Fort Vancouver  to Fort St. James on Stuart Lake. "He traveled with the express  as far as Fort Okanagan, then set out over territory new to him.  Horses were used to ascend ihe Okanagan Valley along the  east side of the river and ihe west side of the lake." (p. 200-1).  After a few days at Fort Okanagan, the horse  journey with the New Caledonia brigade was begun.  They traveled slowly, and Douglas was able to botanize,  take astronomical observations, and fix geographical  positions  along ihe way.  On page 210 reference is made to Douglas's discovery of  gold "on the shore of Okanagan Lake."  186 Recent Books Mentioning the Okanagan Valley  To the north in the Columbia region on the shore  of Okanagan Lake, Douglas again found gold enough  to make a seal. He passed along the west side of the  lake on his journey to and from Fort St. fames in  1833 . . . Probably the discovery was made at the  mouth of some creek, several of which have produced  gold in later years. Once more his letters are silent  on the matter. His journal may have mentioned it, but  that was lost in ihe Fraser River. No doubt the information came to the recorder from some Hudson's  Bay Company man, as in the case of the California  discovery.  Footnotes to this paragraph contain supporting evidence  supplied by Dr. T. A. Rickard of Victoria, and Mr. Frank Buck-  land of Kelowna, B.C. One spot Douglas visited was the mouth  of Lambly (Bear) Creek, where he took observations. Mr.  Buckland tells that near this spot, about the year 1900, a friend  of his washed out gold dust worth $2000.  In his review of Mr. Harvey's book, in The Vancouver  Daily Province, Saturday, December 13, 1947, Wildwood writes,  "This biography is finely done, scrupulously fair, meticulously  annotated, a monument of research, "with all the charm of a  traveller's tale." It was about such a book that Dr. Alexander  Whyte of Edinburgh once said, "Sell your bed, if you have to,  but get it." The student of Okanagan history will be richly  rewarded.  GOLD DISCOVERIES IN OKANAGAN  In connection with gold discoveries in British Columbia,  Dr. T. A. Rickard has several references to Okanagan in his  latest book Historic Backgrounds of British Columbia (Wrigley  Printing Co. Ltd., Vancouver, B.C., 1948).  The first discovery by a white man was made as  early as 1833 by the distinguished botanist, David  Douglas.     In  a  stream  entering  Lake  Okanagan  he  187 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  found enough gold to make a seal. At that time, fifteen  years before the epochal discovery in California, even  a highly intelligent man would have no idea of the  portentous consequences ensuing from the successful  development of gold mines. . . . Gold was found again  in the same locality on Lake Okanagan in 1858 ....  (p. 291).  The following quotation is from: A Review of The Bird  Fauna of British Columbia by J. A. Munro and I. McT. Cowan.  Special Publication No. 2, December, 1947. Published by  British Columbia Provincial Museum, Department of Education,  Victoria, B.C.  Modifications in Environment   (pp. 7 ff.)  Important modifications of environment have taken  place in the more settled parts of the Province ....  The Okanagan region, which has been studied  closely and is referred to frequently in subsequent  pages, is an outstanding example of this development.  For the purpose of the discussion the Okanagan is  identified as the valley and the watershed of the Okanagan River from Osoyoos Lake in ihe south to "hat  portion of the Fraser and Thompson River watershed,  approximately twelve miles beyond the City of Vernon  to ihe north.  This region is part of the great intermountain  grassland and dry forest complex which, variously  modified physically and biologically, extends from  Mexico north to the border forests of central British  Columbia. The constituent parts of this vast and diversified country manifest at least one basic similarity which  determined its early development; that is the original  abundance of nutritious forage plants. The Okanagan,  like other grassland regions to the South, was exploited  first as a cattle country. Later, with the subdivision of  the large ranches, came an intermediate period of mixed  farming, involving an increased population and ihe  pre-emption of sub-marginal land, followed by a rapid  expansion into what is now primarily a fruit and vege-  188 Recent Books Mentioning the Okanagan Valley  table growing economy.  The change from an economy based on the cattle  business to one more complicated revolving chiefly  about the fruit and vegetable business took place gradually between 1901 and 1920. In'that time the human  population increased from 6,381 to 18,645 and ihe number of acres under orchard increased from 7,502 io  37,233. *  With the expansion of the fruit growing business  on irrigated bench lands, cattle grazing was concentrated more on the wooded mountain sides. Later the  sheep-raising industry was developed and high mountain pastures were penetrated in summer.  Biotic Areas,    (pp. 11 ff.)  The Osoyoos-Arid Biotic Area consists of a narrow  strip of territory along the Okanagan River system from  Skaha Lake south to the international boundary, a  distance of 31 miles. An area immediately north of ihe  international boundary, along ihe narrow valley of ihe  Similkameen River, while lacking certain floral features  of the Osoyoos-Arid Area gives faunal indications that  it should be included.  The altitude at Oliver near the centre of the area  is 995 feet. The winters are mild, the summers hot and  the precipitation light. At Oliver the average mean  minimum for January and February was 21° Fahr., ihe  average mean maximum for July and August 89° and  87°, the average annual precipitation 7.67 inches, and  the frost-free period 168 days.  Above the riparian bottom lands the valley rises  in some places as a series of benches, elsewhere as  bare cliffs. The area includes the bench lands and hill  slopes to an undetermined altitude on either side of ihe  valley. Except for ihe green of the riparian growth ihe  general aspect of the uncultivated portions is one associated with desert conditions further to the south :-n  the State of Washington. Much of the flat land is  covered with glacial debris. Rock-cliffs picturesquely  eroded are a feature of the landscape, and at their  bases talus heaps provide more suitable situations for  189 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  the growth of shrubs and plants than does the flat land  adjacent to them ....  The following is quoted from: A History of Prince George,  by F. E. Runnalls, B.A., B.D. (Wrigley Printing Co. Ltd., Vancouver, B.C.,   1946).  The old headquarters at Fort George on the mouth  of ihe Columbia River were superseded by the new Fort  Vancouver in 1825. From there supplies were carried  by water up the Columbia and Okanagan Rivers io  Okanagan Lake. Then they were transferred to pack  horses for the long overland haul from there to Fort  Alexandria ....  To operate the long overland trail by "horse brigade" efficiently, the Company maintained, from 1826  on, a large band of horses at Fort Thompson, and  smaller numbers at Alexandria and Okanagan, in order  io provide pack trains of from two hundred io two hundred and fifty horses. On the trail men were kept busy  from early morning until late at night, cutting away  fallen underbrush, adjusting packstraps, treading under  a hot sun without stop for noon-day refreshments. When  night came there were packs to unload, horses to tether  and water, tents to erect and supper to prepare. At  Fort Thompson the weary men could rest, while lame  and worn-out horses were exchanged for fresh beasts  io continue the overland journey. On the trail, they  marched in order of rank, the Chief Factor in the lead,  riding in all ihe pomp and glory of a king, clad in frock  coat, white shirt ruffled to the ears, knee breeches with  leather leggings, surmounted with a black high, beaver  hat.    (pp. 30-31).  Members of the Society will be interested in the following  books dealing with the Okanagan Valley:  Charles. W. Holliday, The Valley of Youth, which will be  released by The Caxton Printers Ltd., Caldwell, Idaho, 357 pp.,  on November 4, 1948. Mr. Holliday came io the Okanagan  Valley in the '90's and became well known for his work in  photography and painting.    His account of his adventures is  190 Recent Books Mentioning the Okanagan Valley  enlivened by illustrations made from his work.  F. W. Andrew, The Story of Summerland, published by the  Penticton Herald in 1945, 55 pp., to raise funds for the Red Cross,  which includes an excellent account of the early history of  Summerland.  F. M. Buckland, "Ogopogo's Vigil", a detailed history of  the Kelowna district, with much new information. The work  has been mimeographed and contains 110 pages.  Among recent references appearing in periodicals and  newspapers are the following:  Canadian Art, Ottawa, Vol. 5, No. 1, (Autumn, 1947), "Painting for Pleasure", p. 23 and p. 38, wherein the work of Miss  Topham Brown of Vernon in her art classes is described;  British Columbia Digest, Vancouver, Vol. 3, No. 5, (August,  1948), an issue devoted to the Okanagan but with little emphasis  on  its   history;  Vancouver Sun Magazine Supplement, Tune 17, 1948, pp.  6-7, an article by Bernadette MacAulay McKee about Kelowna.  The death of Mrs. Bernard Lequime, whose husband was  one of the founders of Kelowna, took place in April, 1948. Other  pioneer settlers who have died within the past few months are  Mrs. Cleophas Quesnel and Mrs. Claude Quesnel of Lumby.  Augustus Schubert Jr., the last survivor of the Overland Expedition of 1862, died at Armstrong on November 7, 1946.  S.S. Sicamous is still berthed at the C.P.R. docks at Okanagan Landing although reports in the press in September, 1947,  declared that ihe Yellowknife Transport Co. Ltd., Edmonton,  was anxious to obtain it for service in ihe North-West Territories.  - 191 TRE WESTRANK CAIRN  By Dorothy Hewlett Gellatly  Westbank has been chosen as ihe site for a cairn to be  raised to commemorate the passage through Okanagan Valley  of the Hudson's Bay Company Fur Brigade Trail.  This cairn, to be built of local basalt, will be erected this  autumn, or in the spring of 1949, and will carry a bronze  plaque, suitably inscribed. The location of the cairn will be at  the junction of the old and new highways, at a point just east  of the village, overlooking Okanagan Lake.  The unveiling ceremony will take place early in the summer  of 1949, at a time when Dr. W. N. Sage, U.B.C, and British  Columbia representative of the Historic Sites and Monuments  Board, can be present. Advance notice of this ceremony will  be given in the Valley press for the benefit of those wishing  to attend.  The plaque will bear the following inscription:  A link in the fur-trading route from New  Caledonia (North Central British Columbia) to  the Columbia River.  First explored by the Astorians in 1811, the  trail was used by the North-West Company  and from 1821 by the Hudson's Bay Company.  The gold seekers of 1858, coming through  the Okanagan Valley, followed the old trail,  which also in the early 1860's became a  second route  to  Cariboo.  192 OKANAGAN PWCE NAMES  Their Origin and Meaning  By A. G. Harvey  This compilation deals with names of towns, streams, lakes,  mountains, and other geographic features in the Canadian  portion of the Okanagan Valley and in the two closely related  areas: the Shuswap River Valley, to the northeast, and the  Keremeos part of the Similkameen Valley, to the southwest.  The purpose is to state ihe origin of the name and give facts  of an historic or biographic nature, and, in the case of an Indian  or foreign name, to state its meaning.  The names are taken from official maps 1 and from ihe  Geographical Gazeteer of British Columbia.2 A few other  names are also included. Some are names of places that have  disappeared. Former names and common names are shown  in brackets, and in some cases cross references are made.  Common names have a way of persisting, despite the decisions  of the Geographic Board of Canada.' 3  The oldest names in the region come from the days of the  fur trade. On his way down the Columbia. River, Tuly 6, 1811,  David Thompson, of the North West Company, entered in his  notebook:   "Last  course  fine  view   and   see   the   high   woody  1. "Vernon Sheet," Map No. 4 J, 1921; "Kettle Valley Sheet," Map No.  4 K, 1923; "Penticton Sheet," Map No. 4 N, 1930; all published by  British Columbia Department of Lands, Victoria.  2. Published by Department of Lands, Victoria, 1930. A new edition  is being prepared.  3. The Board, consisting of certain Dominion officials and of representatives of the provinces, was established by the Dominion Government  in 1897 for the purpose of settling "all questions concerning geographic  names in the Dominion which arise in the departments of the public  service." While its decisions are binding on civil servants and are  adopted on official maps they are not binding on the public, which is  free to accept or reject, as it sees fit. There is no legal authority for  geographic names in Canada except in the case of an area established  by law, e.g., a municipality.  193 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  mountains of the Oachenawawgan River." 4 In September of  that year David Stuart, of the Pacific Fur Company (Astor's),  led the first party of white men "up the Oakinacken — till  we reached its source; then crossing a height of land fell upon  Thompson's River - - - after traveling for some time amongst  a powerful nation called the She Whaps." 5  In 1827 Archibald McDonald, of the Hudson's Bay Company (which united with the North West Company in 1821), made  "A Sketch of Thompson's River District," 6 showing "Big Okan-  akan Lake," "Trout River," "Round Lake," and 'Sandy River"  (now Mission Creek).   Alexander Caulfield Anderson's "Map of  a Portion of ihe Colony of British Columbia, compiled from   notes between the years  1832 and  1851 ," 7 but not  made until 1867, shows "Great Okinagan Lake," "L. du Chien,"  "Lac Vaseux," and-several more names — most of them French  — many of which have since been changed.  The gold-rush period, 1858-65, and the ensuing period of  first settlement, brought more names, such as Cherry Creek,  Coldstream, Long Lake,  and Mission Creek.  However, most of the names in the region arose out of  the development during 1880-1910, a period of great activity  here as elsewhere in the province. Thus we have such names  as Vernon, Peachland and Summerland, and many creek and  lake  names  which commemorate pioneer  settlers.  Indian names are not numerous, comparatively speaking.  They occur more frequently in the southern part of the region  than elsewhere.  Much of the information contained in the following pages  is drawn from previous Reports of the Society (referred to as  "Ok.", followed by numbers of Report and page). Other  sources of information not already mentioned are:  4. J. B. Tyrell (ed.), David Thompson's Narrative of His Explorations  in Western America  1784-1812,  Toronto,  1916,  p. 480n.  5. Alexander Ross, Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or  Columbia River, London, 1849; Lakeside Classics edition, Chicago, 1923,  p. 163.  6. In Hudson's Bay Company's Archives, London; copy in Provincial  Archives, Victoria.  7. In Provincial Archives, Victoria.  194 Okanagan Place Names  Abreviated Reference.  Andrew — Andrew, F. W., The Story of Summerland, Penticton, 1945.  Ban. NW — Bancroft, Hubert Howe, History of the Northwest Coast, 2  vol., San Francisco, 1884.  BCHQ — British Columbia Historical Quarterly, Victoria; annual volumes  published in quarterly parts since 1937.  Dawson, "B.C. 1877" — Dawson, George M., "Preliminary Report on the  Physical and Geological Features of the Southern Portion  of the Interior of British Columbia, 1877," Geological  Survey of Canada, Report of Progress for 1877-78, Montreal, 1879.  Dawson,   "Shuswap"  —  Dawson,   George   M.,   "Notes  on  the   Shuswap  People of British Columbia," Transactions, Royal Society  of Canada, Sec. II, 1891, Ottawa.  Deaville — Deaville, Alfred Stanley, The Colonial Postal  Systems  and  Postage  Stamps   of  Vancouver   Island  and  British   Columbia 1849-1871, Victoria, 1928.  GB   18   —   Eighteenth   Report   of   the   Geographic   Board   of   Canada,  Ottawa, 1924.  Gellatly   —   Gellatly,   Dorothy   Hewlett,   A   Bit   of   Okanagan   History,  Kelowna,  1932.  Gosnell —  Gosnell,  R.  E.,  Year  Book  of  British  Columbia,   1911-1914,  Victoria.  Haggen — Haggen, Rupert W.,  "Origin of Place  Names  in Boundary  District,   B.C.",   MS,   1945.  Provincial  Archives,   Victoria.  Howay — Howay, F. W., and E. O. S. Scholefield, British Columbia, 4  vol.,  Vancouver,   1914.  Laing, "Names" — Laing, Frederick W., "Geographical Naming Record,  Established   and   other   Names,"   MS,    1938,   Provincial  Archives, Victoria.  Laing, "Settlers" — Laing, Frederick W., "Colonial Farm Settlers on the  Mainland   of   British   Columbia,    1858-1871,"   MS,   Provincial Archives, Victoria.  Parham — Parham, H. J., A Nature Lover in British Columbia, London,  1937.  Ravenhill — Ravenhill,  Alice,  The  Native  Tribes  of British  Columbia,  Victoria, 1938.  Sess. P., BC — Sessional Papers, Parliament of the Province of British  Columbia,  Victoria.  Spinks — Spinks, William Ward, Tales of the British Columbia Frontier,  Toronto, 1933.  Symons  —  Symons,  T.  W.,  Report on  an  Examination  of  the  Upper  Columbia River,  Washington, D.C.,   1882.  Trutch Map,  1866 — Trutch, Joseph W.,  Guide Map to  the Big Bend  Mines,   1866;   in  Provincial  Archives,   Victoria.  Trutch Map, 1871 — Trutch, Joseph W., Map of British Columbia, 1871;  in Provincial Archives, Victoria.  195 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  Wade — Wade, Mark Sweeten, The Overlanders of '62, ed. by John  Hosie, Archives of British Columbia, Memoir No. IX,  Victoria,  1931.  Also voters' lists, directories, newspapers, post office department  records and records of land pre-emption, land registration, water diversion and company incorporation. Information as to location and dimension is taken largely from the Gazeteer.  Many residents and former residents of the Okanagan  region have cooperated by giving information by letter, telephone or interview; some are mentioned in the entries; a  bracketed name at ihe end indicates the source of some (but  not necessarily all) of the information. Mr. Frank M. Buckland,  Kelowna, deserves special mention; he has helped in various  ways and with many entries. Major W. G. H. Firth, chief  geographer, Victoria, Mr. C. E. Hopper, superintendent of lands,  and other officials, have given information from their records.  Hon. G. S. Wismer, attorney general, has facilitated access to  some. The Provincial Archives and the Vancouver Public  Library also have assisted.  The compilation is not complete. Lack of time has necessitated leaving several names for presentation later. Information  about the origin or meaning of omitted names, also corrections  in and additions to what is now presented, will be welcomed;  address: A. G. Harvey, 556 West 18th Ave., Vancouver, B.C.  ABERDEEN LAKE—2% m. long, SE of Vernon; ABERDEEN MOUNTAIN, 6200', NE of Vernon; after Lord Aberdeen (1847-1934) governor  general of Canada, 1893-98, who bought the Coldstream Ranch  nearby, 13,261 acres, in 1891 from Forbes George Vernon for £50,000  (£49,000, in conveyance, July 30, 1894, £1000 having been deducted  to settle a dispute about the condition of the fences and the number  of cattle) GB 18; Ok. 6:183-184. The lake and nearby HADDO  LAKE were named in the 1900s; the latter after Lord Aberdeen's  second title, Lord Haddo, which was also the courtesy title of his  eldest son, the Earl of Haddo, born 1879, who succeeded his father in  1934.    (F. E. R. Wollaston).  AENEAS CREEK, see Eneas Creek.  AENEAS LAKE, head of Marron River, W of Skaha (Dog) Lake; after  Little Aeneas, a wizened old Indian who lived alone at the south end  of the lake for many years and died about 1946 aged over 100.  (Mrs. William Allen).  ALLEN GROVE, 11 m. SW of Penticton. Named by Richard Lewis  Allen, rancher here, 1905-39; born at Georgetown, Ont., 1863; died at  Penticton, 1943. The first post office in the district was at "Green  Mountain", the ranch of L. A. Clark, about three miles farther up  Sheep  (now Shatford)  Creek.   Mrs. Allen took over the post office,  196 Okanagan Place Names  July 1, 1907, and it was re-named Allen Grove June 1, 1908. PO  closed Dec. 31, 1931.    (Mrs. William Allen)    See Clark Creek.  ALVASTON, see Winfield.  ANARCHIST MOUNTAIN, E of Osoyoos Lake. Richard G. Sidley, JP  and customs officer, settled nearby c. 1889. An Irishman of advanced political views, he was often called an anarchist and was  relieved of his government posts; hence the mountain's name.  (Haggen, 4). He was also first postmaster at SIDLEY P.O., opened  Sept. 1, 1895; closed Sept. 30, 1913.  ARAWANA, on CPR 9 m. N of Penticton. Formerly Naramata Siding.  To avoid confusion in ticketing that name was changed by railway  officials c. 1915 to Arawana, a made-up name suggested by the name  Naramata. (J. L. Palethorpe). Another suggested origin is the title  of the popular song, Arrah Wannah, composed by Theodore F. Morse  and published by F. B. Haviland Publishing Co., New York; copyright, 1906.    (Mrs. Georgina Maisonville).  ARMSTRONG, 14 m. N of Vernon. Place Names in Canada by G. H.  Armstrong, Toronto, 1930, says this place was named in 1892 after  Hector Armstrong of London, England, who negotiated the bonds  of the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway. P.O. opened July 1, 1892;  Daniel Rabbitt, PM  (Ok. 6:145).  ASHTON CREEK, 5 m. long, enters Shuswap River c. 5 m. E. of Enderby.  Charles Ashton, cattle rancher, settled here in 1887; specialized in  shorthorn cattle. Born at Elstead, Surrey, England; came to  Victoria in 1865; farmed near where Armstrong is now, 1866-87.  Died Nov. 8, 1921, aged 74. Had four sons and six daughters.  (Thomas C. Ashton).  BALDY MOUNTAIN, see Tahaetkun Mountain.  BARRINGTON CREEK (Sheep), 5 m. long, enters Similkameen River  opposite Keremeos. Barrington Price, stockraiser, pre-empted west  of HBC land at Keremeos on Mar. 26, 1873, but transferred to  Thomas Daly together with other land he acquired later. An  Englishman of means, he built a flour mill at Keremeos in 'Ģ 1877.  Before coming to Keremeos he had a store at Osoyoos. (Laing,  "Names", 13; Ok. 6:79)).  BEAR CREEK, see Lambly Creek.  BEAVERJACK CREEK, 5 m. long, enters Bessette Creek, NE of Lumby;  after Andrew Jackson ("Beaverjack") Woodward, American beaver  trapper who worked up Kettle River and settled here in 1890; moved  c. 1903 to Shuswap River where WOODWARD CREEK is named  after him; moved in Sep., 1921, to Victoria, and in Oct., 1922, to Long  Beach, Cal., later to San Diego. Born near Carlisle, Warren Co.,  Ohio, Aug. 23 1850, eldest of five children, and had three younger  half-sisters; died at National City, Cal., Dec. 22, 1938. (W. G.  Procter; J. G. Simms; H. J. Blurton; H. A. Black, director, Canadian  Government Annuities).  BELGO CREEK (N Fork of Mission Creek), 13 m. long, E of Kelowna.  The Belgo Canadian Fruit Lands Co., incorporated in 1909, built a  dam here to conserve water for irrigation.    (F. M. Buckland).  BELLEVUE CREEK (Sawmill), 14 m. long, enters Okanagan Lake 5 m.  197 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  S of Kelowna. Named after the Bellevue Hotel, built near the  mouth of the creek by Gifford Thomson in the 1900s. The building  was taken over by the South Kelowna Land Co. and was known as  the Bellevue Hotel.    (GB 18; F. M. Buckland).  BENVOULIN, c. 3 m. E of Kelowna; the name of the Scottish home of  George Grant MacKay, civil engineer and early investor in Vancouver and Okanagan real estate, who came to Vancouver in 1888.  He bought land here in 1891 and gave the name to the district. He  bought the Coldstream Ranch as agent for his friend Lord Aberdeen (see Aberdeen Lake). His company built the Kalamalka  Hotel, Vernon. Extensively interested in other Okanagan property  and development during early 1890s.    (F. M. Buckland).  BESSETTE CREEK (Bisset; Bissette; Bassett), 14 m. long, enters  Shuswap River c. 23 m. E of Vernon; after Peter Bessette, pre-  emptor, 1877; a founder of the French Canadian settlement at  Lumby.    (Ok. 8:51) see Lumby.  BLIND CREEK (Fairview), 9 m. long, enters Keremeos Creek. So  named because it disappears underground at various places. Finally  comes down Cawston benchland.    (Mrs. R. L. Cawston).  BLUE SPRINGS, 9 m. E of Lumby; after a roadside spring which wore  out a small basin in the ground in which the water looked blue.  PO opened Oct. 1, 1892; Alexander MacDonell, PM; closed Feb. 1,  1896.    (Ok. 6:146-147).  BLURTON CREEK (Sullivan), 8 m. long, enters Shuswap River V2 m. N  of Mara; after Henry James Blurton, settler, 1893. Born, England,  1874; came to Alberta, 1890. Cowboy, CPR section hand, homesteader, big game guide, trapper, prospector, explorer and song  writer. First game warden, Shuswap district, 1910. Lives at Enderby.  (T. C. Ashton; Vancouver Province, May 10, 1941).  BOBBIE BURNS MOUNTAIN, 5000', W of S end of Mabel Lake. Named  in the early 1890s - presumably after the immortal bard - by James  H. Christie, settler at the foot of Mabel Lake in 1892. (W. G.  Procter).  BONGARD CREEK, 5 m. long, enters Shuswap River S of Mara; after  Edward Stanley Bongard, CPR employee, Kamloops. Born at Bon-  gard's Corners, Pictou, Ont., he helped construct CPR; later, brake-  man, conductor; retired, 1932; died at Kamloops, Feb., 1934, aged  67.    (L. H. Bongard).  BONNEAU CREEK (Robertson), 4 m. long, enters Ferry Creek E of  Lumby;  after Casimir Bonneau, pre-emptor,  1884.    (Ok. 4:20).  BOUCHIER MOUNTAIN, 2497', W side Okanagan Lake near Westbank;  after Isadore Boucherie, settler c.  1888.    (Gellatly, 33).  BOULEAU CREEK, 10 m. long, enters Whiteman Creek, upper W side  of Okanagan Lake; BOULEAU LAKE, 1% m. long, % m. wide;  BOULEAU MOUNTAIN, 6000'. This name probably comes from the  days of the fur trade. Bouleau is a French word meaning birch or  birch tree; this is the meaning of the Shuswap name of Whiteman  Creek, Muh-kli-num.    (Dawson, "Shuswap", 43; Sister Patricia).  BRASH CREEK, 5 m. long, enters Shuswap River E of Enderby. Thomas  John Brash, of Scottish  descent, born at Westport,  Ont.,  Nov.  10,  198 Okanagan Place Names  1851, settled here c. 1883. He came on SS Red Star from Sicamous  to Fortune's Landing (near Enderby), whence by rowboat. Later he  moved to c. 2 m. E of Enderby; died there June 10, 1915. (Mrs.  Gordon A. Mackenzie).  BRENT MOUNTAIN (Snow), 7227', 15 m. W of Penticton; after the  Joseph Brent family who lived at Shingle Creek, east of the  mountain for many years. They moved from Kelowna district to  Okanagan Falls in 1879 and to Brent Mountain Ranch on Shingle  Creek in 1904, although Mr. Brent had pre-empted land there years  earlier. He was born at Colville, Wash., and was the eldest son of  Frederick Brent, well known Okanagan pioneer, a former U.S.  cavalryman and Indian scout who came to the Valley near Okanagan  Mission in 1865, and in 1871 established the first stone grist mill between the Columbia and Thompson rivers. For some time Frederinit  Brent had a ranch north of Kelowna. Joseph Brent married Margaret, daughter of Roderick McLean (see McLean Creek). He died  at Shingle Creek, Dec. 2, 1936; his wife nearly two years later  Children: Ferdinand, Allen Grove; Mrs. Detjen (Gertrude Louise),  Okanagan Falls; Joseph Carl, Okanagan Falls; Mrs. Harvey McLellan (Angelina), Penticton; Roderick, Lumby. The only surviving  brother of the late Joseph Brent, John Brent, lives at Lumby and  the only surviving sister, Mrs. Renshaw, at Penticton. (GB 18; Ok.  2:19; 6:27; Mrs. Harvey McLellan).  BRENT LAKE, c. 10 m. W of Penticton; after Ferdinand Brent, pre-  emptor at the N end of the lake, Aug. 1904; and John Brent, pre-  emptor at the S end, Apr., 1903.    (Chief Geog.).  BREWER CREEK, 3V2 m. long, enters Craster Creek, S of Lavington;  after the Brewer brothers, Charles, George H., and Robert, settlers,  1884.    (Chief Geog.).  BRUCES LANDING, formerly on upper W side of Okanagan Lake,  between Shorts Point and Ewings Landing; after James Baxter  Bruce, settler in the 1890s. A quirk of his religious belief was "to  write letters and post them on the boat without stamps, generally  asking the purser to put stamps on them and the Lord would bless  him." (Captain J. B. Weeks). PO opened Feb. 1, 1898; William  Seivewright,  PM;   closed  Nov.  30,   1902.  BULLOCK CREEK (Bear; Goat), 1% m. long, enters Similkameen  River 3 m. W of Keremeos. William Howard Bullock-Webster and  Edward Bullock-Webster, farmers, pre-empted west of Keremeos,  Jan. 12, 1891. The former became a well known Victoria lawyer.  (Laing, "Names", 14).  BULMAN CREEK (Moore), 4 m. long, enters Kelowna Creek; after  Thomas Bulman, president of Bulman's, Ltd., dehydrators and canners of fruit and vegetables, Vernon, who bought Cloverdale Ranch,  north east of Kelowna, early in the century; previously in the  lithographing business at Winnipeg. Born, Toronto, 1872; died,  Vernon,  1933.    (F. M. Buckland).  B. X. CREEK (Deep), 15 m. long, enters Vernon Creek. The B. X.  (Barnard's Express) Ranch was established by Francis Jones Barnard east of Swan Lake, c. 1868, for supplying horses to the B. X.  stage lines.    (Laing, "Names", 10).  199 The Okanagan Historical Society—1  CAESARS LANDING, upper west side of Okanagan Lake; after North-  cote Henry Caesar, first settler here, May, 1893; born at Downton,  Wiltshire, England, in 1865. In the 1890s he built a small steam  launch, the Wanderer, 39 y2 feet long, using the 5 H.P. engine, from-  the S.S. Mud Hen and originally in the Mary Victoria Greenhow,  first steamboat on Okanagan Lake (see Greenhow Creek; Shorts  Creek). "With this boat we hauled booms of logs to the saw mill at  Kelowna, ore from Morning Glory Mine to the mill near Okanagan  Landing, dynamite to Penticton as the SjS. Aberdeen was not allowed  to carry it with the passengers - - - cricket teams to Trout Creek  and Okanagan Landing for Vernon games - - - we also did odd  jobs."    (N. H. Caesar, now at Okanagan Centre;  Ok. 6:220-222).  CAMAGNA, see  Cherryville.  CANYON CREEK, see Isintok Creek; Klo Creek.  CARRS LANDING, see Sunnywold.  CAWSTON, 4 m. SE of Keremeos; after Richard Lowe Cawston (1849-  1923), cattle rancher here, 1884-1911. Born near Stratford, Ont.;  came to B.C., 1874, and managed Lowe and Haynes cattle ranch at  Osoyoos until he moved here in 1884. Vaccinated Indians en masse  during a smallpox epidemic. A stipendiary magistrate for many  years. Died at Cawston, July 23, 1923. Had four sons; Pearson,  Richard, Beauchamp, and Alfred; Richard and Alfred are living.  (Mrs. R. L. Cawston).   PO opened Feb. 1, 1917; L. V. Newton, PM.  CHERRYVILLE (Camagna), 15 m. E of Lumby; near confluence of  Cherry Creek and Shuswap River. Formerly Camagna, after E.  Camagna, pre-emptor, 1909, postmaster, 1909-19. (Ok. 8:50). Camagna  PO closed in 1919: re-opened as Cherryville, Oct. 1, 1919; Mrs. A. J.  Hanson, PM; PO closed Apr. 30, 1947.  CHOPAKA MOUNT, on UJS. Boundary W of Nighthawk, Wash. Name  of legendary Okanagan Indian hunter who was turned into stone  by Coyote. (A. Walsh). A transformed Indian maiden. (Parham,  40). CHOPAKA PO opened Mar. 1, 1908: Walter N. Frith, PM;  closed Oct. 31, 1908.  CHUTE LAKE, CPR station 29 m. NE of Penticton. This name formerly  the name of Lequime Lake, comes from Chute Creek, former name  of Lequime Creek. Chute is French for "fall" or "fast water".  (F. M. Buckland). CHUTE LAKE PO opened Oct. 16, 1921; Mrs.  Jessie Martin, PO;  closed Oct. 31,  1923.  CLARK CREEK, 3 m. long, enters Shatford Creek SW of Penticton.  Leonard Albert Clark had the first post office in this area, May 1,  1903, called Green Mountain, the name of his ranch. Later it was  moved 3 m. downstream to Allen Grove. (Mrs. William Allen) See  Allen Grove.  COLDSTREAM; creek, 16 m. long, enters N end of Long Lake; municipality SE of Vernon. Colonel Charles Frederick Houghton came to  B.C. with the Vernons (see Vernon) in 1863 and pre-empted land  along this creek and land near the head of Okanagan Lake, which  he held in partnership with them until 1869, when by partition  agreement he took the latter parcel and gave up "the Coldstream  farm."   Trutch's Map, 1871, shows "Houghton's Coldstream".   These  200 Okanagan Place Names  references indicate that Houghton probably named the stream. "The  Corporation of the District of Coldstream" was incorporated Dec. 21,  1906; W. C. Ricardo, first reeve. (Ok. 6:140,184; 7:28). See Aberdeen  Lake.  COMMONAGE, THE. The area between Long and Okanagan Lakes,  south of Vernon, was withdrawn from pre-emption or purchase and  reserved for pasturage for Indians and whites in common (hence  the name) by award of a joint Dominion-Provincial Indian Reserve  Commission dated May 8, 1876. In 1889 the Dominion offered to  relinquish Indian rights to Okanagan pasture lands if the Province  would sanction establishment of an Indian Reserve on the west side  of Okanagan Lake. The Province agreed. The Province subdivided  the Commonage in 1892 and offered the land (25,114 a.) for sale by  auction at Vernon, Oct. 12, 1893, unsold pieces being left open for  pre-emption or purchase.    (Ok. 6:146).  CONKLE MOUNTAIN, c. 3000', SW of West Summerland station; after  William H. Conkle, settler in the late 1880s. In the 1890s he moved  to Kettle Valley where Conkle Creek and Conkle Lake also were  named  after him.     (Andrew,  3;   Chief  Geog.).  CONROY CREEK (North), 2 m. long, at head of Kelowna Creek. John  Conroy came from Cariboo in 1885 and opened a general store with  saloon bar in Mission Valley near Kelowna Creek. In 1892 he  moved to this vicinity.    (F. M. Buckland).  COOKE CREEK, 9 m. long, enters Shuswap River near Hupel, between  Enderby and Mabel Lake.   Joseph Cooke, farmer, came to the valley  in 1890  and was on a survey party hereabouts in the  1890s.    He  pre-empted at Ashton Creek in 1892.   Died at Victoria in the 194C  (Thomas C. Ashton; J. G. Simms).  COSENS BAY, E side of Long Lake, 6 m. S of Vernon; after Cornelius  Cosens (1837-1930), settler, 1893. He sold to. the Earl of Aberdeen  c. 1895. Afterwards lived at Fairview, Camp McKinney and Vancouver. Born in Sussex, England; died at Vancouver, June 28, 1930,  aged 93.    (Arthur Cosens).  COULTHARD CREEK (Bear) 5 m. long, enters Susap Creek S of  Keremeos; after John Oswald Coulthard and John H. Coulthard,  pre-emptors south of Keremeos in 1887.    (Laing, "Names",  13).  CRASTER CREEK, 6 m. long, enters Coldstream near Lavington; after  Edmund Stanhope Craster, settler, 1905. Born, Northumberland,  England, 1864; came to Ontario to farm when 17; later to an Idaho  horse ranch. Sergeant in Boer War. Afterwards on a Chilcotin  cattle ranch until he married and settled here. A school trustee.  Died 1930.    (Mrs. Craster).  CREIGHTON, valley and creek east of Lumby;   after John Creighton.  first settler, 1884; a peppery Irishman; veteran of Crimean War ano\  the Indian Mutiny;   died July  10.  1890.    PO opened Mar.  1,   1897;  W. H. Phillips, PM; closed June 1, 1917.    (Ok. 6:147-149).  DARKE CREEK (Freshet; Chinpatlin), enters Trout Creek, Summer-  land;  after Robert Darke, settler in the 1890s.    (Chief Geog.).  DILWORTH CREEK (Dry), at high water carries the overflow from  Mission Creek into Kelowna Creek; DILWORTH MOUNTAIN, 2072',  201 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  E of Kelowna; after John Dilworth (1850-1917), farmer nearby,  1900-09; afterwards an alderman of Victoria, where he died. Born  in Quebec Province; Manitoba farmer and grain merchant, 1868-  1900; veteran, first Riel Rebellion, 1869-70.    (Leslie Dilworth).  DOG LAKE, see Skaha Lake.  DUTEAU  CREEK   (Wolf;   Jones;   Dutot),  22  m.  long,  enters  Bessette  Creek   near   Lumby;   after   Vincent   Duteau,   settler   in   the   1860s.  Formerly Jones Creek, after Robert Jones, Cariboo miner, who settled  here in 1891.    (Ok. 8:50, Sess. P., BjC, 1887, 485).  DUTTON CREEK (Hamilton; Sheep), 5 m. long, enters Vaseux Creek;  after William Dutton, pre-emptor of lot 467, Jan. 11, 1898; cancelled.  (Chief Geog.). Former name, Hamilton, after Andrew Hamilton,  settler in the 1900s.    (Parham, 32).  ELLIS CREEK, 15 m. long, enters Okanagan River S of Penticton; after  Thomas Ellis, first settler in the Penticton area, 1865; first postmaster, Penticton, Dec. 1, 1889. A "cattle baron", he had more than  30,000 acres here and southward to Osoyoos. In 1905 he sold land  and cattle (3750 head) to Southern Okanagan Land Co. for $412,500.  (BCHQ,  4:196;   Ok.  6:152,  182-183).  ELLISON, 9 m. NE of Kelowna; ELLISON LAKE (Duck) 1% m. long,  % m. wide; after Price Ellison (1852-1932), long an extensive stock  raiser and wheat grower here; came from Manchester to B.C., 1876:  MLA, 1898-1916; appointed Commissioner of Lands, 1909, Minister  of Finance and Agriculture, 1910. Died Dec. 10, 1932, aged 81.  ELLISON PO opened May 1, 1912; Thomas Clinton, PM; closed May  15, 1920.    See Larkin.  ENDERBY, on CPR 23 m. N of Vernon; former names: Spallumcheen  (Indian); Lambly's Landing, after Thomas McKie Lambly and  Robert Lambly, brothers, builders of a freight warehouse, 1878;  Belvidere, townsite name, 1885. At an afternoon tea at the home  of Mrs. George R. Lawes one day in 1887, when the Spallumcheen  (now Shuswap) River was overflowing its banks, Mrs. Henry Oliver  recited Jean Ingelow's poem, "The High Tide on the Coast of Lincolnshire," beginning:  The old mayor climbed the belfry tower,  The ringers ran by two, by three;  "Pull, if ye never pulled before;  Good ringers, pull your best," quoth he.  "Play uppe, play uppe, O Boston bells!  Ply all your changes, all your swells,  Play uppe 'The Brides of Enderby'."  The lilt of the poem and the name Enderby pleased the ladies, and  at the suggestion of Mrs. Lawes they proposed to call the town  Enderby. The name was submitted to the Post Office authorities at  Ottawa, who approved it. Enderby PO opened Nov. 1, 1887; Oliver  Harvey, PM. "The Corporation of the City of Enderby," was incorporated, March 1, 1905; first mayor, George Bell.  The poem refers to a high tide which engulfed Boston, Lincolnshire, in 1571, and to the warning given the people by the church  bells; but the tune, the Brides of Enderby, was an invention of the  author's, although one to fit the words was composed afterwards.  202 Okanagan Place Names  Lincolnshire has three villages named Enderby: Bag Enderby, Mavis  Enderby and Wood Enderby, between Spilsby and Horncastle, all  small and all quite old. The church at Bag Enderby has a sepulchral  slab which states in Latin that Albinus de Enderby, who had the  church built, died in 1407.    (Ok. 2:33-34; 4:27-28; 5:21-22; 6:81).  ENEAS CREEK (Aeneas; Prairie), 14 m. long, enters Okanagan Lake at  Summerland; marked "Nicola's Prairie" on McDonald Sketch. 1827.  and "Prairie Nicola" on Trutch Map, 1871. James Dunsdon, who has  lived at the creek for 53 years, says it is named after Eneas, an aged  Indian who lived at the creek and in the Reserve where West  Summerland now is, and who died probably in the 1880s; not after  "Fatty" Aeneas of the Penticton Reserve who died much later.  EWINGS LANDING, upper W side of Okanagan Lake, 2 m. N of Shorts  Point; after Robert Leckie Ewing, resident here since the 1900s.  Shorts Point PO was changed to Ewings Landing, Dec. 1, 1907;  Ewing took over the office from E. C. Chamney, May 1, 1908; still  holds it.   Ewings Landing was one time called Morden's Landing.  FAIRVIEW, 2 m. SW of Oliver. Named for the fine view of the Okanagan Valley to the south and southeast. PO opened Dec. 1, 1892;  Thomas Elliott, PM; closed Mar. 31, 1926. Townsite plan registered  by Williams Alfred Dier and Augustus Alexander Davidson, June 9,  1897.  FALL CREEK, 5 m. long, enters Shuswap River between Enderby and  Mabel Lake. Named for its waterfall, 400', a lovely sight from the  road.    (Thomas C. Ashton;  H. J. Blurton).  FARLEIGH CREEK, enters Shatford Creek SW of Penticton. William  James Farleigh farmed and bred registered cats at his ranch here  (Sunnyside Ranch, or Sunnyside Cattery) about 1903-08. He died  here about 1908 and was buried here.    (Mrs. William Allen).  FAULDER, on CPR 14 m. NW of Penticton; after Evelyn Robert  Faulder, a Harrow man who came to Summerland in 1891 to learn  ranching and later pre-empted here.    (Andrew, 5; F. R. Gartrell).  FINTRY, see Shorts Creek.  FORTUNE CREEK (Wright; Swamp; Kirby; Davis; Miller), 14 m. long,  enters Shuswap River near Enderby; after Alexander Leslie Fortune  (1831-1915), pre-emptor here in 1866. Born at Huntington, Quebec,  Jan. 20, 1830; died at Enderby, July 5, 1915. A monument to him  at Enderby states, in part: "A member of the Cariboo Overland  Party of 1862. The First Settler in the North Okanagan, 1866. The  First Elder of the Presbyterian Church in the Valley. A Friend of  All Classes and Creeds — Indian and White. A Gracious Gentleman."    (GB 18; Ok. 6:28, 263).  GALLAGHER LAKE, V± m. long, Vs m. wide, c. 2% m. S of Vaseux  Lake; after Patrick Gallagher, settler in the 1890s; died c. 1909.  (H. J. Parham).  GARDOM CREEK, 1V2 m. long, enters Shuswap River S of Grindrod;  GARDOM LAKE, 1 m. long, V2 m. wide, NW of Enderby; after John  Williams Gardom, settler, 1893; afterwards lived at Victoria. Born  in England, Mar. 8, 1845; died at Victoria, July 26, 1922. (Basil  Gardom).  203 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  GARNETT VALLEY, Summerland; after Edgar James Garnett and  William Henry Garnett, pre-emptors,  1887.    (Ok. 6:296-297).  GARTRELL POINT, Okanagan Lake, SE of Summerland. James  Gartrell (1847-1930), came from Stratford, Ontario, in May, 1885,  with his wife and five children; Mary Jane (1868-1904; Mrs.  Ephraim Arthur Day); William James (1872-1901); Edith Ella (1875-  1930; Mrs. David Lloyd-Jones); George Norman and Frederick  Richard, both living at Summerland. They came via Sprague, Washington, and thence by covered wagon to Penticton; crossing the  Columbia River with two canoes under the wheels. Gartrell worked  for Thomas Ellis, two years; pre-empted in 1887. Had the first  commercial orchard in the Okanagan Valley. Gartrell PO opened  May 1, 1910; S. F. Sharp, PM; closed, 1914. Gartrell died July 26,  1930; his wife, April 9, 1930.    (Andrew, 3, 4, 20; F. R. Gartrell).  GATCOMBE, townsite laid out at Shuswap Falls, 8 m. NE of Lumby,  in 1914 for a power project undertaken by English capital, headed  by W. C. Ricardo (see Ricardo Creek). Named after Gatcombe,  the Ricardo home at Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire. PO opened  May 1, 1914; Lewis McAlister, PM; closed Dec. 31, 1914. The project  was ended by Great War I, and although a later project came the  townsite was not revived.     (Ok. 8:51; F. E. R. Wollaston).  GIANTS HEAD, 2774', SW of Summerland. First official record of the  name is in field notes of survey of lot 2561 (which takes in most  of the Head) pre-empted in 1905 by the late James Ritchie, prominent Summerland business man. (Chief Geog.). William C. W.  Fosbery, Summerland pioneer of the 1890s says oldtimers did not use  this name, and that before the "beard" eroded the mountain resembled Lord Shaftesbury.    (Frank Haskins).  GELLATLY, 6 m. NE of Peachland; after David Erskine Gellatly, large  scale vegetable and fruit grower and dealer, 1900-17. Came from  Scotland to Northern Ontario, 1883; to Okanagan Valley, 1893.  "Father of the produce business in the Okanagan." "Tomato King  of the Okanagan." Died at Vernon, Mar. 7, 1922, aged 65. Gellatly  PO opened June 1, 1903; C. D. Osborne, PM; closed June 30, 1926.  (Gellatly, 62-64,  78. 80).  GILLARD CREEK (West Fork of Bellevue Creek), 4% m. long, 5 m. S  of Kelowna; after Augustus Gillard who pre-empted at the site of  Kelowna in 1862 and is curiously connected with its name. Born  in France, 1825; blacksmith; California gold rush, 1850; died, 1898.  (Ok. 6:49) See Kelowna.  GILLIES CREEK (Naboth) 4 m. long, E side of Skaha Lake. John  Gillies got water diversion rights, April 26, 1905. (Compt. Water  Rights).  GLANZIER CREEK, 2 m. long, enters Fortune Creek NE of Armstrong;  John  Glanzier,  farmer, settled here  early in the  1890s.     (Thomas  c. Ashton).  GLENEMMA, 15 m. NNW of Vernon;  after Emma Phoebe Sweet  (nee  Deneys) wife of Kenneth Sweet, first PM, Aug. 1, 1895.    PO closed  Dec. 31,  1922.    (Ok. 6:145-146).  GLENHAYES  CREEK   (Glen),  4 m.  long, enters  Huntley  Creek  S  of  204 Okanagan Place Names  Armstrong.     Thomas   N.   Hayes,   farmer,   settled   nearby   in   1884.  (Thomas C. Ashton; Ok. 6:181).  GLENMORE (Starvation Flats; Dry Valley), NE of Kelowna. 'The  Central Okanagan Land and Orchards Co. Ltd., incorporated in 1901,  which subdivided and brought irrigation to the land in Dry Valley,  offered a $100 prize for a suitable name for the area. As the John  Morrison farm had been known earlier as "Glenmore", Mrs. Morrison suggested that name. Mrs. A. R. Walker, Kelowna, suggested  the same name. The prize was divided between them. "The Corporation of the District of Glenmore" was incorporated Oct. 6, 1922.  GLENROSA, 1% m. W of Westbank. Named by Curtis and Louis David  Hitchner, brothers; real estate, logging and sawmill; came from  Kansas, c. 1907. They first named their subdivision Glencoe, but  as the PO authorities objected, since the name was already in use  elsewhere, they changed it to Glenrosa. PO opened Jan. 1, 1912;  Louis David Hitchner, PM; closed Oct. 31, 1933.    (Gellatly, 66-68, 78).  GOTTFRIEDSEN MOUNTAIN (Hatheume), 6224', Trepanege Plateau,  NW of Peachland; after November Gottfriedsen, a Danish half-  breed, first settler on the wild hay meadows at Hatheume Lake,  1910-25; died at Kamloops in the 1940s. There is a story, probably  started by himself, that since he was born after his brother August  he was named September, but because he was "always late" he was  generally called November.    (R. S. Chapman).  GREEN MOUNTAIN, see Clark Creek; Allen Grove.  GREENHOW CREEK (Cedar, McLennan), 3V2 m. long, enters N end  of Swan Lake N of Vernon. Thomas Greenhow located 2 m. N of  head of Okanagan Lake, July 25, 1868. Had located in New Westminister District in 1862 and at Quesnel Mouth Registry in 1863.  Was trading partner of Cornelius O'Keefe, stock-rancher, from 1871;  and partner with Captain Thomas D. Shorts in the Mary Victoria  Greenhow, first steamboat on Okanagan Lake, 1886 (named for his  only daughter, who married Samuel O'Neal). Laing, "Names", 10;  Ok. 6:220, 260; Sess. P., 1878, 715-728.   See O'Keefe; Shorts Creek.  GREY CANAL, takes water from Duteau Creek to irrigate White Valley  and around Swan Lake. Constructed by White Valley Irrigation &  Power Co. Ltd., an offshoot of Coldstream Estate Company Ltd., in  four sections: from Duteau Creek to Lavington siphon, 1907; thence  to the intake at BX, 1909; thence to the outlet at Swan Lake, 1910;  thence to Okanagan Lake, 1914. Named after Albert Henry George  Grey, fourth Earl Grey (1851-1917), governor general of Canada,  1904-11.    (Margaret A. Ormsby;  F. E. R. Wollaston).  GRINDROD, on CPR 5V2 m. N of Enderby; named by CPR officials  after Edmund Holden Grindrod, first CPR telegraph inspector in  B.C., 1886-1910 (when telegraph lines in Okanagan Valley, down  Arrow Lakes and in Kootenay Country were constructed); afterwards  a farmer south of Kamloops. Born at Rochdale, England, Feb. 26,  1859; lives at Kamloops; (Kamloops Sentinel, Mar. 3, 1943; Burt R.  Campbell).   PO opened Nov. 1, 1911; John Monk, PM.  HADDO LAKE, 1% m. long, Vi m. wide, Grizzly Hill Forest Reserve, SE  of Vernon.    See Aberdeen Lake.  205 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  HAMILTON CREEK, see Dutton Creek.  HARLAND CREEK, 2% m. long, enters Fortune Creek S of Enderby.  Henry Harland pre-empted south of the original pre-emption of  Alexander Fortune on April 15, 1871.    (Laing, "Names",  10).  HAYNES CREEK, enters Osoyoos Lake; after John Carmichael Haynes  (1831-1888), an Irishman who came to B.C. in 1858 and was police  officer, customs officer, magistrate, assistant gold commissioner,  government agent, and county court judge in Similkameen, Osoyoos  and Kootenay Districts for many years; member legislative council,  1864-66, rancher at Osoyoos, 1866-88, accumulating 22,000 acres.  Generally known as Judge Haynes.     (BCHQ, 4:183-201).  HECKMAN CREEK (Fall), 7 m. long, enters Monashee Creek, SE of  Cherryville. Frank Smith Heckman pre-empted here (SW% of Sec.  2, Tp. 57)   Sept. 25,  1911.  HERERON LAKE (Twin), E of Postill Lake, NE of Kelowna; after Mary  (McKenna), wife of Thomas Hereron, who brought his family to  what is now Rutland in 1889. Mrs. Hereron was born in Co. Donegal,  Ireland, in 1866; came to Canada when 15; married Hereron at Sand  Point, Idaho, Jan. 11, 1888. They came to Donald, B.C., where their  first child was born — the first white child born there. Hereron was  injured at work on CPR; moved to Kamloops before coming to the  Okanagan. He died Oct. 25, 1910; she, Jan. 8, 1919; both at Ellison.  They had eight children. (Mrs. Mary Boulet, the eldest daughter;  Chief Geog.).  HESTER CREEK, 2 m. long, enters Okanagan River S of Oliver. Named  c. 1893 by Emily Josephine (Pittendrigh) Haynes, wife of John  Carmichael Haynes (see Haynes Creek), after their daughter Hester  Emily, born at Osoyoos, April 25, 1877; married, 1897, Charles Anderson Richardson Lambly (died 1907; see Lambly Creek); afterwards  married Dr. Reginald Brant White, Penticton.    (Mrs. White).  HILTON, 17 m. E of Lumby; perhaps after Avery Hiltz, PM, Ap. 1, 1905,  to Mar. 19, 1906. Formerly Jackman, after N. Jackman, first postmaster, 1900-05.     (Ok. 8:51).    PO closed June 30,  1918.  HULLCAR, former PO, NW of Armstrong. Named by James T. Steele  of Grafton Farm, settler in the 1870s, who brought the first thoroughbred stock from Eastern Canada to B.C. It comes from the Indian  name of a nearby rock bluff (sometimes called Salmon Valley  Mountain) which Alexander Leslie Fortune (see Fortune Creek)  spelt Hurrahar, meaning "big rock." PO opened Aug. 1, 1894; David  Crane, PM, until it closed Feb. 7, 1913.    (Ok. 6:144).  HUNTLEY CREEK, 4 m. long, enters Otter Lake, SW of Armstrong.  Benjamin Hutley (sometimes spelt Huntley) got a crown grant of  land at the mouth of the creek, April 23, 1897. Died at Armstrong,  Nov.  12,  1914.  HUPEL, 20 m. E of Enderby; after Herman ("Mike") Hupel, an American  of German descent who settled here in the 1890s and was first PM,  Sept. 1, 1910. Cross-eyed, but with a genial smile, Mike was a good  neighbour and well-liked.   PO closed Dec. 31, 1947.    (Ok. 6:145).  HYDRAULIC CREEK, 14 m. long, enters Mission Creek SE of Kelowna.  Early settlers got water from this creek by hydraulic ram.    (F. M,  206 Okanagan Place Names  Buckland).  INKANEEP CREEK, 12 m. long, enters head of Osoyoos Lake.   Indian:  "at the head of the lake"    (Ok. 3:18-19);  "creek which loses itself  in the lake" (Albert Millar).  IRELAND CREEK (Slacks), 12 m. long, enters Shuswap River S of  Mabel Lake; after De Courcy Ireland who lived in Squaw Valley  along the creek in the 1890s when the area was surveyed by the  Province; pre-empted, 1895; abandoned, 1900; a son of Charles  Warburton Ireland who came from New Zealand and was police  magistrate, Vernon, in the 1890s. Previous name, Slacks, after George  Slack, pre-emptor, 1891; abandoned 1895. (W. G. Procter; J. G.  Simms).  ISINTOK CREEK (Canyon Creek), 6% m. long, enters Trout Creek W  of Summerland.    Indian:  "valley".    (Chief Geog.).  JACKMAN, see Hilton.  JOE RICH VALLEY, confluence of Mission and Rich Creeks. See Rich  Creek.  JONES CREEK, see Duteau Creek.  JOYCE CREEK (Poole), 5 m. long, enters Fortune Creek NE of Armstrong. Cyril Joyce, farmer, got water diversion rights for lot 990,  April  13,  1890.    (Compt. Water Rights).  KALAMALKA, on CNR 7 m. S of Vernon; after- a well-known Indian  who lived at the head of the lake called after him, now Long Lake.  In his old age (in the 1880s?) in order to obtain baptism he got  his four wives to renounce their status, taking in their place a  comely young maiden. A hotel in Vernon adopted his name in 1892.  The station was named c. 1926.    (Ok. 6:153-155; Spinks, 74-80).  KALEDEN, 8 m. S of Penticton. James Ritchie of Summerland laid  out a townsite here in 1909 and offered a prize of a town lot for  the best name proposed for it. Rev. Walter Russell, a Baptist  evangelist visiting the Okanagan, won by proposing this name —  made of Kal, from the Greek, "beautiful", and Eden, name of the  Biblical orchard. (Mrs. R. B. White). PO opened Apr. 1, 1910;  A. S. Hatfield, PM  KATHLEEN MOUNTAIN, c. 6300', W of Peachland. Named by John  Moore Robinson (see Robinson Creek), who had mineral claims  nearby and a mining camp, "Glen Robinson", in the 1890s, after his  wife, Elizabeth Catherine (nee Lipsett, of Meadow Lea, Man.). Being  of Irish descent he preferred the Irish form of Catherine, Kathleen.  Mrs. Robinson died in 1936 at Naramata. KATHLEEN CREEK, 4  m. long, enters Trout Creek; gets its name from the same source.  (Mrs.  Georgina Maisonville).  KELOWNA, on E side of Okanagan Lake, 33 m. S of Vernon. Indian:  "grizzly bear;" but no bear had anything to with the naming. It  is the story of Augustus Gillard's nickname. Gillard, a husky, hairy  Frenchman who pre-empted here in 1862, dwelt in a primitive hut,  partly underground, a sort of "keekwillie." One day some passing-  Indians saw him emerge from it like a bear from its den. "Kimach  touche," "kimach touche," they said to one another, meaning "brown  bear," or "bear-face," and this became the name for him and for  207 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  the place. When the embryo city began, in 1892, the few white  residents thought this name too awkward and chose instead another  native bear-name, that of the grizzly bear, "kelowna." PO opened  Feb. 1, 1893; Thomas Spence, PM. "The Corporation of the City of  Kelowna," incorporated May 4, 1905; first mayor, Henry William  Raymer. The Indian name for the Kelowna area was Nor-kwa-stin,  "hard black rock," used by the natives for sharpening flints for  their arrowheads. The fur-traders called it L'Anse au Sable, "Sandy  Cove." (Ok. 6:45, 153, 162-163; Kelowna Courier, Aug. 25, 1938). See  Lequime Creek.  KELOWNA CREEK (Mill), 18 m. long, enters Okanagan Lake at  Kelowna. The old and still common name, Mill, arose because water  from the stream was used to run early flour mills and sawmills,  commencing with a small steel mill which Frederick Brent packed  over the trail from Hope in the 1860s, and a stone grist mill which  he brought from San Francisco c. 1871. Indian name of creek,  N'co-quil-tack, "stream of warm water."    (Ok. 6:27, 49).  KENDRY CREEK (Christian), 3 m. long, enters Fortune Creek NE of  Armstrong. William McKendry got water diversion rights for lot  989, August 21,  1906.    (Compt. Water Rights).  KEREMEOS, 30 m. SW of Penticton. Indian: "wind channel in the  mountains." HBC post established, 1860, when Fort Okanagan on  Columbia River was closed and the property moved here. Post  closed, 1872. PO opened Aug. 1, 1887; Thomas Daly, PM. (BCHQ,  2:77, 88; Ban. NW, 2:711; Ok. 6:152). Another meaning given for  the name is "beautiful stream crossing the flats." The only Indian  place name in the Interior that uses the letter "r". (P. W. Luce,  Province, Mar.  15, 1948;  Gosnell, 345).  KILLINEY (at one time called Sprouls Landing), upper W side of  Okanagan Lake c. 3 m. N of Shorts Point. Named after the Hill  of Killiney, Monkstown, Co. Dublin, Ireland (his native place) by  Harry Percy Hodges, settler here in 1903; previously bookkeeper at  Coldstream Ranch; married Arabel M. Ricardo, sister of W. C.  Ricardo (see Ricardo Creek). Died at Victoria, 1922. (J. B. Weeks;  N. H. Caesar;  Mrs. Hodges, Abbotsford).  KIRTON, on CPR 26 m. NW of Penticton. Named c. 1915, after James  Kirkpatrick, KVR agent at Penticton; later, reeve of Penticton.  (G. M. Warren).  KLO CREEK (Canyon), 11 m. long, enters Mission Creek, SE of  Kelowna. A name made from the initial letters of Kelowna^Land  and Orchard Co. Ltd., formed in 1904 to subdivide and sell the  Lequime land hereabouts.    (F. M. Buckland).  KNOX MOUNTAIN, c. 2000', N of Kelowna; after Arthur B. Knox,  stock rancher at the foot of the mountain, 1883-1902. (F. M.  Buckland).  KRUGER MOUNTAIN, c. 3850', W of Osoyoos Lake; after Theodore  Kruger (1829-1899), HBC store manager, Osoyoos, 1866-72; merchant,  Osoyoos, 1873-97. Born in Hanover (then British); came to B.C.,  1858; mined on the Fraser and in the Cariboo and Similkameen, and  kept store at Princeton, before settling at Osoyoos.    (Ok. 6:76-80).  208 Okanagan Place Names  LACOMA CREEK (N Fork of Trepanege River); LACOMA LAKE; NW  of Peachland. In 1921 Roscoe E. Law, William Coldham and Mrs.  Mina Morsh, Peachland fruit growers, obtained a water storage  right on the lake (then unnnamed) for irrigation purposes. The  name, originally spelt Lacomo, was a combination of the first two  letters of their surnames.    (W. Coldham).  LAMBERT CREEK, 3 m. long, enters Shuswap River c. 1 m. N of  Grindrod. John Lambert, farmer, settled here c. 1888. (Thomas  C. Ashton).  LAMBLY CREEK (Bear), 17 m. long, enters Okanagan Lake NW of  Kelowna. Called Bear River in 1833 by David Douglas of fir tree  fame. (BCHQ 4:242). "R. a la Ours" (Bear River) on Anderson  Map, 1867; "Bears R." on Trutch Map, 1871; and still commonly  called Bear Creek. Changed to Lambly Creek by Geographic Board  of Canada in 1922, after Charles Anderson Richardson Lambly, pre-  emptor of lot 220, near Peachland, Mar. 1, 1887; previously on CPR  survey; government agent at Rock Creek and Camp McKinney; also  at Osoyoos, 1392-98, and at Fairview until his death, Jan. 29, 1907.  Brother of Robert and Thomas McKie Lambly, Enderby pioneers,  1876-77. (Chief Geog.; Ok. 6:79-81; Mrs. R. B. White). See Hester  Creek; Enderby.  LANSDOWNE former Spallumcheen PO, N of Armstrong); after  Lansdowne Hotel of E. M. Furstineau (or Furstenau) pioneer farmer  of 1874. The hotel, opened July 1, 1885, was named in honour of  the governor general, Lord Lansdowne, who visited B.C. soon afterwards, travelling by CPR, then under construction; first governor  general to visit B.C. by an all-Canadian route. See Spallumcheen.  (Ok. 6:138).  LAPSLEY CREEK, 2V2 m. long, enters Finlay Creek, W of Peachlandr  Douglas David Lapsley, Peachland, pre-empted lot  1378 here,  1902;  cancelled,  1923.     (Sup't Lands).  LARKIN (Ellison) on CPR 8 m. N of Vernon; after Patrick Larkin, St.  Catherines, Ontario, contractor, of Larkin and Paterson who built  the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway, 1890-92. He also took part in  constructing the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway and the first  dry dock at Esquimalt.    (Ok. 6:138).  LAVINGTON, 10 m. E of Vernon; after Lavington Park, Petworth,  Sussex, England, home of Sir James Buchanan, Bart, who bought  land here in the'early 1900s. He was also interested in Coldstream  Ranch and in White Valley Irrigation 8z Power Co. (see Grey  Canal), and in 1921 he became owner of the Ranch. (F. E. R.  Wollaston).   PO opened Dec. 1, 1911; Norman H. Moncreiff, PM.  LEQUIME CREEK (Wild Horse; Shoot; Chute), 10 m. long, enters  Okanagan Lake 4 m. N of Naramata; after Eli Lequime (1811-1898),  who settled in the Okanagan Valley, 1861; first PM, Okanagan  Mission, Oct. 1, 1872. Sold out in 1888 and moved to San Francisco,  where he died in 1898; his wife, in 1908. Father of Bernard Lequime,  who founded Kelowna,  1892.    (Ok. 6:96-98;  Chief Geog.).  LONG LAKE (Kalamalka; Woods; Chelootsoos), 14 m. long, V2 to 1V>  m. wide, 2 m. S of Vernon. Formerly called Kalamalka, after an  Indian  (see Kalamalka); and Woods, after Thomas Wood, JP, pre-  209 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  emptor at the south end of the lake, Ap. 14, 1871, and probably in  the valley as early as 1860. Indian name, Chelootsoos: "long lake  cut in middle." Trutch's map, 1871, shows two separate lakes:  "Long L." to the north "Prlmeewash L." to the south, with "Railway" for the strip of land between them — so called because it  resembled a railway embankment. (Laing, "Names", 10; Ok. 6:153-  154;   F. M. Buckland).  LONG JOE CREEK, 4 m. long, enters Osoyoos Lake; after Long Joe,  a tall, good looking Indian rancher here. He was drowned in  Okanagan River near where Oliver now is, c. 1898. Near this creek  were buried eighteen Indian victims of the smallpox epidemic of  1882-83.    (Mrs. R. B. White;.  LORNA, on CPR 36 m. NE of Penticton; after Lorna Edith Stratton  Warren, daughter of James John Warren, president of KVR, completed 1916. She was afterwards Mrs. John C. Clemmes of Toronto  and died at Calgary in 1935 from injuries received in a motor car  accident.    (J. L. Palethorpe; G. M. Warren).  LOWE BROOK, enters Similkameen River SE of Keremeos; after  William Hamilton Lowe, police officer at Osoyoos, 1864, and ranch  partner of Judge Haynes; customs officer, New Westminster, 1873-  80; died at Keremeos, 1882.    (BCHQ, 4:195, 198).  LUMBY, 15 m. E of Vernon. Moses Lumby, farmer, settled here in 1870.  Born in England, 1842; came to B.C., 1862; mined in Cariboo; farmed  near Monte Creek, east of Kamloops, 1865-70, and carried mail to  Big Bend Mines. Later a JP. Vice-president, Shuswap &; Okanagan Railway, 1886. Government agent, Vernon, 1891-93. Died,  Oct. 23, 1893. PO, "White Valley," opened Aug. 1, 1889; Peter Bissett  (Bessette), PM; name changed to Lumby, Feb. 1, 1894. (Ok. 8:51;  Laing, "Settlers," 448; Gosnell, 346).  McAULEY CREEK (Gold), 9 m. long, enters Harris Creek, SE of Lumby;  James McAuley pre-empted SV_ of NE1/., Sec. 29, Tp. 42, at the mouth  of the creek, April 8, 1893.  McCUDDY CREEK, 5 m. long, enters Inkaneep Creek, N of Osoyoos;  after John Pearson McCuddy, hotel-keeper in the 1890s. His was  a well known stopping place on the road between Penticton and  Camp McKinney. Previously he was a mule-team railway contractor  in Manitoba and U.S.A. (on GNR). McCUDDY PO opened Nov. 1,  1900; J. P. McCuddy, PM; closed Sept. 30, 1901. (Mrs. R. B. White;  F. M. Buckland).  McCULLOCH, elev. 4144', on CPR 58 m. NE of Penticton; after Andrew  McCulloch (1864-1945) CE. Served various railways, including GNR,  CPR, and GTPR; chief engineer, KVR, 1910, general superintendent,  1918-33.   Died at Penticton, Dec. 13, 1945.  MacDONALD CREEK (S Fork of Trepanege), 8 m. long, NW of Peachland. John Dron MacDonald, Peachland rancher, pre-empted  at the mouth of the creek in 1908; cancelled in 1925. (Sup't Lands).  MacDonald Lake at the headwaters of the Creek.  McDOUGALL CREEK, 10 m. long, enters Okanagan Lake near West-  bank; after John McDougall, fur-trader, farmer, hunter and miner.  Born at Fort Garry (Winnipeg) in 1827 of Scotch and Indian blood,  210 Okanagan Place Names  he joined HBC and came west as guide to Donald Smith (later Lord  Strathcona); drove pack trains on Brigade Trails for several years  before pre-empting at Okanagan Mission in 1861. Moved to W side  of lake in 1890. Drowned in the lake while fishing. Many of his  descendants live in the vicinity. The family pride is illustrated  by the story of one of the younger generation who replied when  asked if he was a half-breed. "No, sir, I'm a McDougall!" (Gellatly, 26-29, Ok. 6:48, 177). The creek is called "McDonald R." on  Anderson's Map, 1867, and "McDonalds R." on Trutch's Map, 1871;  probably after a fur trader.  McINTYRE BLUFF, c. 6 m. N of Oliver; after Peter Mclntyre, Vaseux  Lake farmer, who settled here in the early 1880s. From Canada to  Cariboo mines overland in 1862. Indian fighter in U.S., and Pony  Express  guard.    Died Feb.  12,  1925,  aged 91.     (Wade,  168).  McINTYRE CREEK, see Vaseux Creek.  McLEAN CREEK, 10 m. long, E side of Skaha Lake; after Roderick  McLean who built HBC post at Keremeos in 1860 and afterwards  farmed here.    (F. M. Buckland).  MABEL LAKE. 22 m. long, V2 to 1% m. wide, expansion of Shuswap River,  E of Enderby. Named by Charles E. Perry, CPR survey engineer in  the 1870s, after Mabel Hope Charles, eldest child of William Charles,  HBC manager, Victoria; until 1874 at Fort Kamloops; earlier at Fort  Hope, where Mabel was born July 31, 1860. In 1884 she married  David MacEwen Eberts, Victoria lawyer, afterwards judge, B. C.  Court of Appeal; she died Dec. 8, 1931; he died May 20, 1924. (Charles  W. Holliday; Mrs. Phyllis Adams; both of Victoria). MABEL LAKE  PO opened Jan 1, 1904; William George Procter, PM, retired Mar.,  1948.   Situated c. 4 m. S of lake.  MANUEL CREEK, 5 m. long, enters Keremeos Creek 3 m. E of Keremeos;  after Emanuel Barcelo, stock-raiser; pre-emptor on Mar 31, 1873,  but he evidently resided here in 1864.    (Laing, "Names", 13).  MARA LAKE, 10 m. long, S of Sicamous; MARA MOUNTAIN, 7200';  MARA, on CPR 12 m. S of Sicamous; MARA HILL, NW of Kamloops;  after John Andrew Mara, an Overlander of '62; born at Toronto; had  store at Seymour on Shuswap Lake in 1865, later at Kamloops; merchant, miller, steamship operator, promoter of Kootenay Steam Navigation Co. and Shuswap and Okanagan Railway (CPR, Sicamous-  Okanagan Lake), MLA, 1871-86. (Speaker, 1883-86); MP, 1887-96.  Retired to Victoria, where he died Feb. 11, 1920, aged 79. (Gosnell,  346; Wade, 164).   MARA PO opened June 1, 1893; S. Appleby, PM.  MARRON RIVER, 7 m. long, enters Skaha (Dog) Lake. Probably the  "River of Wild Horses" mentioned by David Douglas, botanist, 1833  (Edward Sabine, "Report on - - Observations - - by David Douglas - -," MS, Royal Society, London). "Marron R." on Trutch Map,  1871. Marron is a French word; one of its meanings is "domestic  animal that has become wild." The name probably refers to the  wild horses which, according to Mrs. William Allen and Mr. F. M.  Buckland, abounded hereabouts in early days. MARRON LAKE  PO (named after the small lake at the head of the river) opened  July 16, 1909; William Smythe Parker, PM; later name, MARRON  VALLEY;  closed Nov. 30, 1933.  211 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  MAZAMA P.O. (Rly. sta., Osprey Lake) 29 m. W of West Summerland.  The name - Spanish name of the mountain goat, which were found  hereabouts until even recent years - was suggested to the PO  authorities c. 1917 by the Chapman families, residents here since  1913. Previous name, Princeton Crossing, because here was the  first crossing of Trout Creek by the old trail from Princeton to  Okanagan Lake. Princeton Crossing PO opened July 1, 1914; Mrs.  Florence M. Chapman, PM; name changed to Mazama Feb. 1, 1917;  Mrs. Chapman is still PM.    (R. S. Chapman).  MEYERS FLAT, 2V2 m. NW of Oliver; after William Peter Meyers, a  German settler in the 1870s or 80s.    (Ok. 6:79).  MILL CREEK, see Kelowna Creek.  MISSION CREEK, 42 m. long, enters Okanagan Lake at Kelowna; after  the Okanagan Mission established by Father Pierre Richard, Father  Charles Marie Pandosy and Brother Surel, of the Order of the  Oblates of Mary the Immaculate. It began in 1859 at the south end  of Duck Lake (now Ellison Lake, 9 m. NE of Kelowna) but was  moved next year to this creek (SE of Kelowna) then known as  Riviere de l'Anse au Sable, "Sandy Cove River." Indian name of  creek, N'wha-kwi-sen, "smoothing stones." (Ok. 1:8-9, 15). The  stream is shown as "Sandy River" on the oldest map of the mainland interior, "A Sketch of Thompson's River District, 1827", by  Archibald McDonald, HBC.  MONASHEE; mountain, 5900', c. 40 m. E of Vernon; range, from U.S.  boundary to Canoe River. From the Gaelic, monadh-sith, "mountain  of peace." Mountain named c. 1881 by Donald Mclntyre, a Highlander who first staked the Monashee Mines. (Ok. 6:156-157). A  somewhat similar name is Monadhliath, mountains in Inverness-  shire, "grey or light blue mountain or moor."  MORRISON CREEK, 2m. long, enters Kelowna Creek; after John Morrison, overseer for George Grant MacKay, extensive Okanagan land  owner in the 1890s. He afterwards farmed here. (F. M. Buckland).  See Glenmore; Benvoulin.  MYRA, on CPR 51 m. NE of Penticton:; after Myra Newman, daughter  of a track-laying foreman during construction of this line (KVR)  c. 1914.    (J. L. Palethorpe).  NAHUN (The Golden Gate), upper west side of Okanagan Lake. Named  by Howard Bruce Kennard, first postmaster (PO opened Aug. 1,  1905) after Nahun Wenox, "child of the rock," of an Indian legend  that the little rock island on the opposite side of the lake was once  part of the big rock just north of Nahun wharf. Former name, The  Golden Gate, because packers on HBC brigade trail used to put a  barricade here and camp behind it so their horses could not stray,  owing to the rocky formation.    (J. B. Weeks).  NARAMATA, 10 m. N of Penticton. Named by John Moore Robinson,  townsite owner and founder of the place, 1907. He said he got the  name "from the denizens of the spirit world through the mediumship  of Mrs. J. M. Gillespie, one of the most prominent spiritualistic  lecturers and mediums of the American Spiritualistic Church. Big-  Moose was a Sioux Indian chief, and he dearly loved his wife of  whom he spoke in the most endearing terms, and he gave us her  212 Okanagan Place Names  name as Narramattah, and he said she was the 'Smile of Manitou.'  It struck me that this would be a good name for our village which  I thought of calling Brighton Beach. We therefore cut out the  unnecessary letters and called the town Naramata." (Ok. 6:143).  Later research, however, suggests that perhaps Mrs. Gillespie unconsciously drew the name from an Australian source, since "nara-  matta" in aboriginal Australian dialect means "place of water." Her  first husband had lived in Australia. PO opened Dec. 1, 1907; J. S.  Gillespie, PM. Previously the place was called East Summerland.  A ferry ran from Summerland in 1907. (Mrs. Georgina Maisonville;  Andrew, 16).  NICKLEN CREEK (Morley) and LAKE, enter Bessette Creek, E of  Vernon; after Frank Harold Nicklen, pre-emptor, 1895; afterwards,  of Vernon.    (Ok. 8:50).  NIGGER TOE MOUNTAIN, e. 3400', between Penticton and Summerland.  When or by whom this name (unofficial) was given is not on record.  The origin seems to be a tragic affair that began on Christmas Day,  1908, when three negroes, Charles Blair, cook, Arthur Wilson, his  assistant, and Arthur Chapman, waiter, all employed at the Hotel  Summerland, got lost in a snowstorm while returning from Mass  at Penticton. One of them was thrown from his horse and efforts  by the others to catch it led to their being thrown too. Blair had  been drinking and was unable to travel afoot. Wilson and Chapman  wandered about looking for one another or for help until night came  on. Chapman fell asleep from exhaustion and Blair from his  liquor - never to awaken - their bodies being found near the foot of  the mountain next day. Inquest verdict: death from exposure. Wilson, the survivor, slept less and moved about more than the others,  eventually   reaching   Summerland.      (Summerland   Review,   Jan.   2,  1909, per Provincial Archives). Officially, the mountain' is unnamed.  OKANAGAN. Various opinions have been given as to the meaning of  this euphonious name, popular on both sides of the International  Boundary. One is that it means "rendezvous" and was applied to  the head of the river at Lake Osoyoos where the Indians of British  Columbia and Washington often gathered for the annual potlatch  and to lay in supplies of fish and game. (Myron Eells, in American  Anthropologist, Jan., 1892; cited in Wash. Hist. Quar., 11 (1920):  290-291. Natives say it means "Big Head" and is the name of a  people having exceptional skill and valour and other admirable  qualities, a "chosen people." Further, see Ok. 6:133-136; Parham, 40.  The name has the distinction of having been spelled in no less than  forty-six different ways. Lewis and Clark in 1805 spelled it Otchen-  aukane; David Thompson in 1811 had it Teekanoggin, Oachenawaw-  gan and Ookanawgan, and in 1813 Ookenawkane; while in the transfer from the Pacific Fur Company to the North West Company in  1813 it was Okunaakan. Other spellings have been:  Oakanagans   (1855) Okonagan  (1854)  Oakinacken (1847) Okonegan (1854)  Oakinagan   (1831) Omahanes   (1856)  Okanagan  (1840) Okinaganes  O-kan^a-kan  (1871) Okinagans   (1842)  213  i The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  Okanakanes   (1843) Okinhane  (1856)  Okanaken  (1890) O'Kina hain  (1848)  O'Kanies-kanies   (1856) Oo-ka-na-kane   (1891)  Okanesganes  (1855) Oukinegans   (1850)  Okanakanes   (1842) Oukinagans   (1890)  Okiakanes (1857) O-kan-a-kan   (1871)  Okinakan  (1846) Okanagon (1900)  Okinakanes   (1854) Oknagan  O'Kinakanes  (1857) Oknagen  Okinaken  (1889) Oakenagen  Okinekane  (1843) Oakanazan  Okin-e-Kanes   (1857) Okinikaine  O-kin-i-kanes   (1857) Okanegan  Okinokans   (1878) Oknanagans  O-ki-wah-kine  (1848) Okawaujou  The name is now spelled Okanagan in Canada,  Okanogan in the  United States.    (Ok. 6:133-136;  Symons, 130).  OKANAGAN, former PO, head of Okanagan Lake. PO opened Aug. 14,  1872; Cornelius O'Keefe, PM; first PO in the Okanagan Valley, but  followed soon after by Okanagan Mission. PO closed Jan. 31, 1912;  re-opened, up Irish Creek, May 1, 1912; Ewan Grant, PM; closed  Jan. 31, 1924. (Deaville, 153-154; Ok. 6:142). See O'Keefe; Okanagan  Mission).  OKANAGAN CENTRE, E side of Okanagan Lake, c. 12 m. N of Kelowna.  PO opened Nov. 1, 1907; J. D. Kearns, PM.  OKANAGAN FALLS (Dogtown), at S end of Skaha (Dog) Lake, 12 m.  S of Penticton. Subdivision plan registered by Okanagan Falls  Townsite Co., Oct. 13, 1893. PO opened Feb. 1, 1899; John McLellan,  PM.  OKANAGAN LAKE; 69 m. long, % to 2% m. wide; elev. LW 1130', HW  1135'; area 127.32 sq. m.; at head of Okanagan River. Called "Big  Okanakan Lake" on Sketch of Thompson's River District, 1827, by  Archibald McDonald, HBC; "Great Okinagan Lake'" on A. C.  Anderson's map, 1867.  OKANAGAN LANDING, E side of Okanagan Lake, 5 m. SW of Vernon;  terminus of Shuswap and Okanagan Railway from Sicamous completed in 1892 (leased to CPR). PO opened Oct. 1, 1898; Mrs. M.  Grant, PM.  OKANAGAN MISSION, PO 6 m. S of Kelowna; established at Mission  Creek SE of Kelowna, Oct. 1, 1872; Eli Lequime, PM. PO opened  here Aug. 1, 1906; James H. Baillie, PM. Named after the Roman  Catholic Mission.    (Deaville, 153-154).    See Mission Creek.  OKANAGAN MOUNTAIN, 5154', E side of Okanagan Lake, SW of  Okanagan Mission.  OKANAGAN RANGE, S of Keremeos; highest peak, Snowy Mountain,  8507'.  OKANAGAN RIVER; length in B.C. 43 m.; flows from S end of Okanagan Lake southerly through Skaha (Dog) Lake, Vaseux and Osoyoos  lakes into U.S.A. and joins Columbia River c. 72 m. S of International Boundary.  214  _ Okanagan Place Names  O'KEEFE, on CNR 9 m. W of Armstrong; after Cornelius O'Keefe, first  PM at Okanagan PO (near the head of the lake) Aug. 14, 1872; native  of Quebec, of Irish descent; wealthy stock-raiser; genial and kindly,  and respected by all: "The O'Keefe of O-kan'-agan." (Ok. 6:141-  142, Deaville, 153-154).  OLALLA, 3 m. N of Keremeos. From the Chinook word, olallie, "berries".  Refers to the Juneberry (or Service berry, or Saskatoon berry:  Amelanchier) plentiful here. Named by William Campbell McDougall, townsite owner and first postmaster. (Mrs. R. B. White;  W. Kaye Lamb). PO opened Mar. 1, 1900; closed Jan. 10, 1912; reopened May 1, 1921; Mrs. Clara J. Christian, PM; closed Oct. 24, 1942.  OLIVER, 25 m. S of Penticton. Rugged "Honest John" Oliver (1856-1927)  was premier of B.C. (1918-27) when the province carried out the  irrigation and land settlement scheme here, "Southern Okanagan  Lands Project," 1919-21. PO opened May 1, 1921; Duncan Simpson,  PM. "The Corporation of the Village of Oliver" was incorporated  Dec. 31, 1945.  OSOYOOS, 14 m. S of Oliver; OSOYOOS LAKE, expansion of Okanagan  River at International Boundary, length in B.C. 7 m. From the  Indian, soo-yoos, "where two lakes come together," "a shallow crossing," or "a sheet of water divided in two by a narrow extension of  land from opposite sides" — referring to the shape of the lake.  Laing tells of a legend that when Hon. Peter O'Reilly, an Irishman  who was magistrate at Hope (appointed 1858), visited the district  he thought the Indian name ought to be dignified by adding an O.  However, Mrs. R. B. White, Penticton, daughter of Judge Haynes  (see Haynes Creek) thinks the O may have been added by her  father. Indians say the O was added prior to white settlement.  Shown "Osoyoos L." on Trutch Maps, 1866 and 1871. The name is  still pronounced Soo-yoos by Indians and old timers. "The Corporation of the Village of Osoyoos" was incorporated on Jan. 14,  1946. (BCHQ, 4:195; Gosnell, 348; Laing, "Names", 13; Parham, 39;  Mrs. R. B. White). Another place with the same name-origin is  TSUIUS NARROWS, Mabel Lake, where that lake is almost cut in  two.    OSOYOOS PO opened April 1, 1884; T. Kruger, PM.  OSPREY LAKE, 1 m. long, y_ to V_ m. wide, head of Hayes Creek:  OSPREY LAKE, CPR station, elev. 3606', 37 m. NW of Penticton.  An old name. The word means fish hawk. The lake is named in  Trutch's Map, 1871, which shows a trail from Princeton to Okanagan  Lake (near Peachland)  passing it.  OYAMA, on CNR,12 m. S of Vernon; after Prince Iwao Oyama (1842-  1916). Japanese commander-in-chief in Russo-Japanese War, 1904.  PO opened May 1, 1906; Henry H. Irvine, PM.    (Ok. 10:34).  PARK RILL (Meyers: Myerswest) enters Okanagan River 4 m. S of  Vaseux Lake. An old name; on Trutch's Map, 1871, where the  stream is shown entering "Chutes L.", between "Vasuix L." and  "Osoyoos Lake." The Anderson Map, 1867, has "pare" in this  vicinity, perhaps meaning "corral." That may be the origin of the  name.  PEACHLAND, W side of Okanagan Lake, 20 m. N of Penticton. Founded,  and   named   for   its   horticulture,   by   John   Moore   Robinson   (see  215  l The Okanagan Historical Society—l!  Robinson Creek) who promoted a land subdivision and an irrigation  system in 1897. Previous name, Camp Hewitt, a mining camp named  after Augustus ("Gus") Hewitt, prospector and logger in the early  1890s; c. 1898, he ran the hotel at Okanagan Landing; in 1901 he  built the hotel there now. Peachland PO opened, Dec. 1898; D. H.  Watson, PM. "The Corporation of the District of Peachland", was  incorporated Jan. 1, 1909; first reeve, W. A. Lang. (Howay, 2:600;  Andrew, 9;  J. B. Weeks).  PEACHLAND CREEK (Deep) 20 m. long, "R. de Trepannier" on Anderson map, 1867; "Trepanege R." on Trutch map, 1871. See Trepanege  River. At some time or other "Deep Creek" and "Trepanier Creek"  names were evidently switched on government maps. The present  Trepanege River runs through a deep valley Both streams drain  the Trepanege Plateau.  PEARSON CREEK (S fork of Mission Creek). Robert Pearson, now of  Kelowna, pre-empted here in the  1900s.    (F. M. Buckland).  PENTICTON, on CPR at S end of Okanagan Lake. From the Indian  name Pente-hik-ton, "ever" or "forever," referring to the constant  steady flow of the Okanagan River out of the lake. PO opened  Dec. 1, 1889; Thomas Ellis, PM (see Ellis Creek). First townsite plan  filed Nov. 15, 1892; a more extensive plan, July 31, 1905. "The  Corporation of the District of Penticton" was incorporated Jan. 1,  1909; first reeve, Alfred H. Wade; it became a city May 10, 1948,  first mayor, Robert Lyon.    (Ok. 6:152;  7:28).  POOLEY CREEK (W fork of Canyon) enters Klo Creek, SE of Kelowna;  after Walter Robert Pooley, who with others formed the Kelowna  Land and. Orchard Co., Ltd., in 1904 to subdivide and sell the  Lequime property. Born at Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England,  1880; died at Kelowna, 1915.    (F. M. Buckland; Mrs. W. R. Pooley).  POSTILL LAKE, 1% m. long, head of Kelowna Creek; POSTILL, on  CNR 9 m. NE of Kelowna; after the Edward Postill family. They  came from Yorkshire to Ontario; whence to B.C. in 1872. Postill  bought a ranch hereabouts but on the way to it he became ill and  died at Priest's Valley (Vernon) in April, 1873, aged 52. A son,  Edward, died Dec. 5, 1889, aged 32; another son, Alfred, died Sept. 26,  1897, aged 45. A third son was William. They ran a sawmill in the  1880s.   A daughter became Mrs. Robert Lambly.    (Ok. 6:88-89).  POWERS CREEK, 16 m. long, enters Okanagan Lake near Westbank;  (mis-spelt 'Power' on maps) after William Powers, (1866-1922), a good  natured young Englishman who came here from Montana in 1888  and pre-empted in 1890, but later abandoned, what is now Gellatly.  Carried mail on horseback, Kelowna to Grand Forks, 1891. Operated  saw-mills at Kettle River points, 1893-1922. (Gellatly, 45-46, 80).  The creek is shown as "R. Creuse" (Deep) on A. C. Anderson's Map,  1867, and as "Deep R." on J. W. Trutch's Map, 1871. Indian name,  Spil-kuk-a-nilh', "Eagle Nest Creek."    (Dawson, Shuswap, 44).  PRATHER CREEK, 2V2 m. long, enters Daves Creek, E of Kelowna;  after Oliver Bruce Prather, pre-emptor, 1893. He came in a covered  wagon trek of Missourians who had homesteaded in Idaho in 1880.  (F. M. Buckland).  216 Okanagan Place Names  PRATHER LAKE, W of Okanagan Falls; after John T. Prather, pre-  emptor here in Dec, 1895.    (Chief Geog.).  PRIEST CREEK, 7% m. long, enters Mission Creek E of Kelowna; after  the priests of Okanagan Mission.    See Mission Creek.  RAWLINGS LAKE (Rollings), % m. long, % m. wide, 4 m. NE of Lumby;  after William Rawlings, or Rollings, settler in the 1880s.    (Ok. .6:280).  REISWIG, set., 7 m. E of Lumby; after George Reiswig, pre-emptor,  1903; first postmaster, May 1, 1904. (Ok. 8:50). PO closed Feb 7,  1912.  REITER CREEK, 4 m. long, enters Shuswap River, S of Sugar Lake.  Gustov Reiter pre-empted lot 3424, at the mouth of the creek, April  13,  1923.  RICARDO CREEK. 1 m. long, enters Shuswap River 1V2 m. E of Enderby;  after William Crawley Ricardo, manager of the Coldstream Ranch,  1895-1914; afterwards a fruit farmer near Lavington. Born in  Gloucestershire, England; died at Victoria in 1946, aged 80. (Laing,  "Names", 11; F. E. R. Wollaston; Mrs. J. H. Edgell). See Gatcombe;  Coldstream.  RICH CREEK, 8 m. long, enters Mission Creek E of Kelowna; after  Joseph Rich, American prospector who had a cabin here in the 1880s.  Killed in a mine cave-m or blow-up in the Cariboo or Chilcotin.  JOE RICH VALLEY also is named after him.    (F. M. Buckland).  RICHTER CREEK, flows S into U.S. 2 m. E of Similkameen River;  RICHTER MOUNTAIN, 4766', between creek and river; after Francis  Xavier Richter, pioneer cattle rancher and fruit farmer. Born in  Bohemia, 1837, he came from U.S. in 1860, brought a herd of cattle  in 1864 and pre-empted later. Had charge of HBC pack horses at  Keremeos in the 1860s. Planted the first fruit trees (apple) in the  Similkameen Valley (at Cawston Ranch) - brought them over Hope  Mountains. Bought a ranch near Keremeos in 1895 and developed  the first commercial apple orchard in Similkameen. Died at Victoria,  Dec. 25, 1910; buried at Keremeos.    (Ok. 8:49; Laing, "Names", 13).  RIDDLE CREEK, 8 m. long, enters Shingle Creek, W of Penticton. George  Alexander Riddle pre-empted lot 3588, near the mouth of the creek,  Sep.  17,  1902.  ROBINSON CREEK (Mill), 5 m. long, enters Okanagan Lake 1 m. N of  Naramata; after John Moore Robinson (1855-1935) who founded  Naramata in 1907, Summerland in 1902 and Peachland in 1897. Born  in Ontario of Irish (County Sligo) descent; went to Manitoba, 1879;  taught school, edited Portage la Prairie Review, founded Brandon  Times, member of Manitoba legislature; came to Rossland, 1890.  While returning from prospecting for gold in the mountains W of  Okanagan Lake he dined at a ranch near present Peachland and  ate some peaches grown there. They impressed him with the region's  fruit-growing possibilities and led to his founding Peachland, followed  by Summerland and Naramata, and the introduction of hundreds of  families, mostly from the Prairie Provinces. (Mrs. Georgina Maisonville; Andrew, 9).   See Kathleen Mountain.  ROLLINGS LAKE, see Rawlings Lake.  RUTH, on CPR 44 m. NE of Penticton; after Ruth, daughter of Andrew  217  J The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  McColluch, chief engineer on construction of this line (KVR), completed in 1916 (see McCulloch). She became Mrs. Fraser Macorquodale, Montreal.    (J. L. Palethorpe).  RUTLAND, 5 m. E of Kelowna. John ("Hope") Rutland came from  Australia in the 1890s and wheat-farmed here. In the 1900s he sold  to a syndicate which subdivided the land and adjacent land and  named the district after him. (F. M. Buckland). PO opened Oct.  1, 1908; D. E. McDonald, PM.  SALTWELL CREEK, 4 m. long, enters Gardom Creek, N of Enderby;  after Ernest Bampfylde Saltwell, fruit grower, an elderly Englishman  from Kent who came here c. 1906 and got water rights on the creek,  then unnamed. He sold out in a few years and returned to England.  (G. M. Salt).  SAUCIER CREEK, enters Bellevue Creek, SE of Kelowna. Joseph Saucier, farmer, born in Quebec Province, Mar. 16, 1866, came to the  Valley in 1885. Married Eleanor, youngest daughter of Cyprien  Lawrence, early Okanagan pioneer who came with the Mission  Fathers (see Mission Creek) and pre-empted land in 1860. (Ok.  6:177). Died Oct. 9, 1947, after being bedridden for 21 years. Mrs.  Saucier lives in Kelowna.  SCOTTY CREEK, 8 m. long, enters Kelowna Creek; after William  ("Scotty") Donaldson, who pre-empted nearby, Sep. 25, 1872, but did  not obtain title. He is known chiefly for having conducted (?) a  roadhouse at Bonaparte River about 20 m. NNW of Ashcroft, which  he opened in 1860 or 1861. A noted hostelry during the Cariboo  gold rush, the small building with only one window was filled with  miners day and night, who slept under the tables and benches, as  well as on top of them and all over the floor; while the tavern, tiny  as it was, had a large supply of "cobblers," "streaks of lightning,"  and other well-vitrioled drinks. Scotty — he wore his bonnet at all  seasons of the year, regardless of the weather — was a decent chap  when sober but a demon when drunk. Sometimes, in his cups, he  would be seized with an hallucination that he was about to be  robbed and murdered and would rouse his slumbering guests and  drive them out of the house, to shiver blanketless and tireless for the  rest of the night. He died in the Okanagan, Mar. 28, 1882, aged 60.  SCOTTIE CREEK (note the different spelling) which enters Bonaparte River near his old location, is also named after him. Ok.  9:56-63; 10:131; W. Champness, "To Cariboo and back," The Leisure  Hour, London, XIV (1865), 249-250; Laing "Settlers," 482A).  SHANNON LAKE, V2 m. long, W side of Okanagan Lake near West-  bank; after Shannon Marshall, settler in the 1890s; from Washington  State; returned c. 1907 and died there. An able horse-breaker and  trainer; known as "Professor."    (Gellatly, 50, 54, 57-58, 66).  SHATFORD CREEK (Sheep), 8 m. long, enters Shingle Creek, W of  Penticton. The Chief Geographer says this is named after Walter  Tyrrel Shatford, prominent business man in the Osoyoos-Penticton  area in the 1890s and 1900s. With his brother, Lytton Wilmot Shatford (afterwards senator, 1917-20) he had general stores at Fairview,  Camp McKinney and Hedley, and in 1905 formed the Southern  Okanagan Land Co., Ltd., to purchase and subdivide the Ellis estate  218 Okanagan Place Names  (see Ellis Creek), and to develop the Penticton fruit ranches and  town. Died at Laguna Beach, California, Dec. 5, 1940. The creek  is shown as "Snake R." on Trutch Map, 1871. Mrs. William Allen  says early Forestry Department maps showed it as Sheep Creek up  to the confluence of Clark Creek, thence as Boulder Creek.  SHINGLE CREEK, 16 m. long, enters Okanagan River at Penticton.  "Beaver River" in David Douglas's Observations, BCHQ, 4:242; "R.  aux Serpens" on Anderson Map, 1867; "Beaver C." on Trutch Map  of B.C., 1871. In early days Indians and whites used to cut rough  shingles from cedar trees along the creek; hence the present name.  (F. M. Buckland; Mrs. William Allen). SHINGLE CREEK PO  opened Ap. 1, 1910; W. J. Armstrong, PM; closed July 15, 1917.  SHORTS CREEK, 16 m. long, upper W side of Okanagan Lake; SHORTS  POINT, near mouth of the creek; after Captain Thomas Dolman  Shorts (1837-1921) pre-emptor here, 1883, and pioneer ship-master  on Okanagan Lake. Operated the Ruth Shorts, a large rowboat  named after his mother in early 1880s, followed by the first steamboat, Mary Victoria Greenhow, in 1886, the Jubilee in 1887, and the  Penticton in 1890. (See Greenhow Creek). The creek is shown as  "Elk River" on McDonald's Sketch, 1827, and as "R. a la Biche -  Fine Mill Site" on Anderson's Map, 1867. (Biche: hind: female red  deer.) Shuswap name of creek, Ni'-kwin-i-o-ti-a-tin, "where they  were caught." Shorts sold his land, lot 686, c. 2500 a., in 1890. In  1909 it was bought by Captain James Cameron Dun-Waters, former  Glasgow newspaper owner, who named the place FINTRY, after the  family home in Stirlingshire; before his death on Oct. 16, 1939, he  presented it to the Prince of Wales Fairbridge Farm Schools. (Ok.  6:220, 225, 260; Dawson, "Shuswap", 43; Mrs. Dun-Waters.). SHORTS  POINT PO opened May 1, 1905; Thomas A. Dundas, PM; changed  to Ewings Landing, Dec. 1, 1907.  SHUSWAP FALLS, see Gatcombe.  SHUSWAP RIVER, 116 m. long, (including expansions: Mabel Lake, 22  m. long: Sugar Lake, 4y2 m. long), enters Mara Lake. Name of the  Indian tribe which controlled the Fraser River Valley from Lillooet  to Alexandria and the territory eastward to the Rocky Mountains,  being surrounded by or in close contact with the people of Okanagan  Lake and River (whose principal centre in early days was south  of the International Boundary) and of Upper Columbia River Valley  and Arrow Lakes. (Ravenhill, 23). Former name of river, Spallumcheen, from the Shuswap word meaning "flat mouth" or "meadow  flat"; changed officially in 1901. (See Spallumcheen).  SHUTTLE CREEK (Shuttleworth), 3y2 m. long, enters Keremeos Creek  2 m. N of Keremeos. The name is presumably of the same origin as  that of Shuttleworth Creek, which see.      (Laing, "Names", 14).  SHUTTLEWORTH CREEK (Keogan), 15 m. long, enters Okanagan  River S of Skaha Lake; after Henry H. B. Shuttleworth, Similkameen  Valley stock raiser and big game guide, who pre-empted near  Keremeos on June 18, 1877.    (Laing, "Names", 12).  SIDLEY, see Anarchist Mountain.  SILVER LAKE, 7 m. by map line NW of Peachland, enters Trepanege  219 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  River (Trepanier) via Silver Creek. Named after James L. Silver,  old-time resident of the Kelowna, Peachland and Vernon districts.  (R. J. McDougall).  SIMILKAMEEN RIVER (Castle; Roche), length in B.C. 95 m., rises in  U.S., flows northerly 39 m. to Princeton, thence southeasterly 56 m.,  to cross U.S. boundary, and enters Okanagan River. The original  native name was Similkameugh, meaning unknown, but said to be  descriptive either of the people or their territory. No connection with  Tulameen, despite the common ending, the original name having  been forced by the whites into the same phonetic groove as Tulameen, in much the same way as Kitsilano has been made to rhyme  with Capilano.    BCHQ, 2:67).  SKAHA LAKE (Dog), 1V2 m. long, V2 to iy2 m. wide, expansion of  Okanagan River, 4 m. S of Okanagan Lake. "L. du Chien" (Dog  Lake) on Anderson Map, 1867; "Du Chien L." on .Trutch maps, 1866  and 1871. Origin unknown. Later, Dog became the official name.  Changed in 1930 to Skaha "to agree with the local name," states  the Chief Geographer. However Okanagan Indians say 'skaha' is  not their word for dog, but is that of the Shuswaps, and that the  local word for dog is chokowapee. (Parham, 40). Another spelling  is kaekuwapa. The local meaning of skaha is horse. (Albert Millar).  That is also the meaning in the Nicola dialect.    (W. G. Clapperton).  SLACKS CREEK, see Ireland Creek.  SNOWY MOUNTAIN, see Okanagan Range.  SPALLUMCHEEN: small lake 6% m. W of Armstrong; municipality;  former PO; former name of Shuswap River. From the Shuswap  spil-a-mi-shine, "flat mouth," or spal-lum-shin, "meadow flat." The  name has had various spellings, often with four syllables. Spallamu-  cheen PO opened July 1, 1881; G. J. Wallace, PM; name later  changed to present form; closed July 20, 1908; first located west of  Lansdowne (N of Armstrong), later at Lansdowne. "The Corporation  of the Township of Spallumcheen" was incorporated July 21, 1892;  first reeve, Donald Graham; the first rural municipality in the  Interior of B.C. (Dawson, "B.C., 1877", 27B; Dawson, "Shuswap",  43; Ok. 6:136-138, 10:66). Claudet's Report of his trip to Cherry  Creek in 1867, refers to the river as "Spellmacheen".  SPOTTED LAKE, % m. long, % m. wide, c. 1% m. W of N end of  Osoyoos Lake. The surface is often spotted with nearly-transparent  rings of Epsom salts crystals formed by the sun's rays. They float  on or near the surface and afterwards sink to the bottom. The salts  were used to make explosives in Great War I.    (Parham, 29-30).  SQUALLY POINT; a rocky exposed point on the east side of Okanagan  Lake at the great bend midway between Kelowna and the foot of the  lake. In a cave here, according to Indian legend, the lake's great sea  serpent N'ha-a-itk (afterwards christened "Ogopogo") had its lair.  Here too the monster once wrecked Chief Timbasket and his family  while on a visit from their home far down Okanagan River. (F. M.  Buckland). The light at the point wets established in 1915; changed  to a battery electric light in 1944.  SUMMERLAND, W side Okanagan Lake, 7 m. N of Penticton.   Founded,  220 Okanagan Place Names  and named for its climate and horticulture, by John Moore Robinson  (see Robinson Creek) who promoted a land subdivision at the lake-  shore in 1902. PO opened Nov. 1, 1902; Frederick S. Moule, PM.  "The Corporation of the District of Summerland," incorporated  Dec. 21, 1906; first reeve, John Moore Robinson. West Summerland  PO opened May 1, 1910; James H. Ritchie, PM. (Andrew, 9, 10, 15,  16, 20).  SUNNYWOLD, upper east side of Okanagan Lake. PO opened July 1,  1909; Peter Sinclair, PM; closed July 14, 1939. Formerly called Carrs  Landing, after Andrew Carr, settler, c. 1895; died c. 1910. (N. H.  Caesar; J. B. Weeks).  SWALWELL LAKE (Beaver), 2 m. long, % m. wide, expansion of Vernon  Creek; after William Swalwell, settler in Shuswap Valley in the  1870s; moved towards Kelowna in the 1890s.    (F. M. Buckland).  TAHAETKUN MOUNTAIN (Baldy), 6680', 22 m. W of Vernon. Possibly  from the Shuswap name Pukhetkun, "full of ravines." (Dawson,  "Shuswap", p.-44).  TINHORN CREEK, 2V> m. long, enters Okanagan River c. 3V2 m. S of  Oliver. The nearby Tinhorn Mineral Claim was located by Lewis A.  Prather, June 17, 1895, and crown-granted to Tinhorn Quartz Mining-  Co., Ltd., Jan. 28, 1898, after being assigned to it by William A. Dier  and Augustus A. Davidson. A stamp mill was built in 1897 but was  abandoned and sold in 1901.  TREPANEGE RIVER (Trepanier; Jacques), 18 m. long, enters Okanagan  Lake 2 m. NE of Peachland; TREPANEGE PLATEAU, 4000';  TREPANIER, on Okanagan Lake, 2y2 m. N of Peachland. These are  old names, from fur trading days, and originally were applied to  Peachland Creek (Deep Creek). "R. de Trepannier", on Anderson  Map, 1867; "Trepanege R." on Trutch Map, 1871. Origin unknown.  "R. de Trepannier" means Trepannier's River — possibly named  after a fur trader. Another suggested origin is the incident in 1817  when fur-trader Alexander Ross, NWC, crudely yet successfully  trepanned the skull of Short Legs, a Shuswap chief who had been  attacked and almost killed by a she-bear (his legs were too short).  On early maps the river was called Jacques; "rivier Jacques" on  McDonald Sketch, 1827; "Jaques R." on Trutch Maps, 1886 and 1871;  and "R. de Jacques" on Anderson Map, 1867 — probably after Jacques,  one of Ross's men. (Ok. 2:35-37; 6:150-152). Names of Deep Creek  and Trepanier Creek were evidently switched in error at some time  or other. (See Peachland Creek).  TRINITY VALLEY, c. 14 m. N of Lumby; TRINITY CREEK, 14 m. long,  enters Shuswap River c. 9 m. E of Enderby. The valley was named  early in the 1890s by James H. Christie, settler at the foot of Mabel  Lake in 1892. The creek gets its name from the valley. (W. G.  Procter; H. J. Blurton). Trinity Valley PO opened Dec. 1, 1909;  Andrew J. Conn, PM; closed Dec. 3, 1942.  TROUT CREEK, 44 m. long, enters Okanagan Lake S of Summerland.  Named long ago for its fish. Shown "Trout River" on the first map  to delineate in detail the Okanagan region, "A Sketch of Thompson's  River District, 1827," by Archibald McDonald, HBC.  221 The Okanagan Historical Society—1948  TSUIUS NARROWS, Mabel Lake; TSUIUS CREEK, 17 m. long, E side  of Mabel Lake at the narrows.    (See Osoyoos).  VANCE CREEK, 10 m. long, enters Bessette Creek N of Lumby; after  Alexander Vance, from U.S., first manager of BX Ranch (Barnard's  Express; near Vernon) c. 1868-1885. Accidentally killed while horseback riding, June 8, 1887.    (Ok. 4:7; 5:17).  VASEUX LAKE, 2V> m. long, y2 m. wide, expansion of Okanagan River,  3y2 m. S of Skaha Lake. "Vasuix L." on Trutch Maps, 1866 and  1871; a mis-spelling of the French word vaseux, meaning muddy or  miry — descriptive of the lake's silty water. Probably named by  French-Canadian fur traders. For many years the name was spelt  Vaseaux; in 1945 the Geographic Board corrected it to Vaseux at the  suggestion of H. J. Parham, Penticton. VASEUX CREEK, 19 m. long,  enters Okanagan River 2 m. S of the lake, was known as Sawmill  Creek and Mclntyre Creek because Peter Mclntyre (see Mclntyre  Bluff)  had a sawmill nearby.    (Ok. 8:30; Parham, 15, 59).  VERNON, near N end of Okanagan Lake. Formerly Priest's Valley, because after Okanagan Mission was established, 1860, the priests had  an out station here; also Forge Valley, because of a blacksmith's  shop on the roadside at Price Ellison's farm. Priest's Valley PO  opened, Nov. 1, 1884; Luc Girouard, PM. Name changed to Vernon,  Nov. 1, 1887; after Forbes George Vernon, chief commissioner of  lands and works for B.C. who with his brother Charles, both British  Army officers, came to B.C. in 1863. They mined at Cherry Creek  in 1864 and held land in partnership with C. F. Houghton, including  the famous Coldstream Ranch of which F. G. Vernon eventually  became sole owner. "The Corporation of the City of Vernon" was  incorporated Dec. 30, 1892; W. F. Cameron, mayor. Also named  after F. G. Vernon are Vernon Creek and Vernon Hill, 4500', near  the city, and Vernon Lake, Nimpkish River area, Vancouver Island.  (Ok. 6:138-140, 284;  GB 18) see Coldstream; Aberdeen Lake.  VIDLER CREEK (Bear), 3% m. long, enters Harris Creek, SE of Lumby.  Albert Vidler pre-empted NW% of NE%, Sec. 29, Tp. 42, near the  mouth of the creek, May 18, 1892.  WESTBANK, on W side of  Okanagan Lake,  7%  m.  SW of Kelowna.  Name suggested c  1902 by John Davidson, settler in 1892.   PO opened  May 1, 1902; N. S. Marshall, PM.    (Gellatly, 49, 57.   Ok. 6:155.  WHELAN CREEK (Poplar), 4% m. long, enters Kelowna Creek c. 8 m.  NE of Kelowna; after George Whelan, pre-emptor at the mouth of  the creek, Feb. 17, 1874.    (Laing, "Names", ID.)  WHITE LAKE, 1/3 m. long, % m. wide, c 3% m. SW of Okanagan Falls.  Fringed with akali;  hence the name.    (Mrs. R. B. White).    White  Lake PO opened Aug. 1, 1895; H. Inglee, PM; subsequently closed.  WHITE VALLEY, Lumby vicinity, E of Vernon; after George Le Blanc,  pre-emptor,  1877;   a pioneer of the French-Canadian settlement at  Lumby.    (Ok. 8:51).    See Lumby.  WILSON  LANDING,   midwest  side  of   Okanagan  Lake;   after  Harold  Fitz-Harding Wilson, settler, 1900; still lives here.   PO opened Aug. 1,  1908;   Miss  Marion Violet Harvey Goodacre, PM;  she is now Mrs.  George Cecil Browse and is still in office.    (Mrs. Browse).  222 Okanagan Place Names  WINFIELD (Alvaston), at S end of Long Lake, 12 m. N of Kelowna;  after Winfield Lodge, home of Thomas Wood, JP. stockraiser, pre-  emptor here in 1871. Former name, Alvaston, given by A. Chatterton (first postmacter, Oct. 1, 1909) after a place in England. Alvaston PO closed Mar. 31, 1919. (F. M. Buckland). (See Long Lake).  WINFIELD PO opened Jan. 25, 1948; Leslie G. Clement, PM.  WINSLOW, on CPR 5 m. NW of Penticton. Named c. 1915 by James  John Warren, president, KVR, after Roy Maywood Winslow, B.C.  provincial agriculturist, 1909-17; afterwards manager of a fruit  shippers association at Vernon; assistant manager, Canadian Fish &  Cold Storage Co., Ltd., Prince Rupert, 1923-46. Born at Davenport,  Iowa, in 1886; lives at North Vancouver.    (Mr. Winslow).  WOLLASTON LAKE, 3 m. SW of Aberdeen Lake, Grizzly Hill Forest  Reserve, SE of Vernon; after Francis Edward Richmond Wollaston,  manager Coldstream Ranch, 1918-39. Born at Clifton, Gloucestershire, 1873; came to the valley, 1894; now lives at Vancouver. (Mr.  Wollaston).  WOODWARD CREEK (Big), 4y2 m. long, enters Shuswap River between  Lumby and Cherryville.    See Beaverjack Creek.  223  I  1 THE   PENTICTON   HERALD  r

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