Okanagan Historical Society Reports

The twentieth report of the Okanagan Historical Society 1956 Okanagan Historical Society 1956

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 TflU  *7wcatiet6  defiant  of the  1956  Founded September 4, 1925 Date Pn"  A-  _.— ?7/-/  /I s  iff  fur  R N. (Reg) Atkinson Museum  785 MAIN STREET  PENTICTON, B.C.    V2A5E3  ?7I- >* i  ^v^^  ZJhe    Uwentleth    rCeport  of the  ept  Ok  anaaan  2!  J4ist  onca  S^ocieL  y  Founded September 4,  1925  Summerland at the lakeside, the original town, showing industrial  area, wharves and some of the residential section.  *\ £  tent5  on ten  Title Page, Photograph of Summerland     3  Foreword      5  Charter   Members     6  Summerland Before Incorporation, F. W. Andrew   7  The Story of Michael Keogan, Katie Lacey  20  Mount Keogan Named for Pioneer   24  Vernon Museum, G. P. Bagnall   25  100 Year Old Rancher, George Shuttleworth, Vernon News 26  The Valley of the South Okanagan, Frank McDonald  28  Walter Robert Dewdney, Mrs. K. S. Dewdney    36  The Dewdney Trail, Charles E. Race   37  Kelowna's Golden Jubilee Celebration, /. P. Clement  .... 41  My Father, E C. Weddell    46  George Whelan Ellison District First Settler  Mrs. D. Allison   52  St. Michael and All Angels' Church, Kelowna, Betty Rennie 57  Jabez Kneller Recalls Early Days  66  Benvoulin Pioneers, Mrs. F. J. Day  69  The Story ol Lumby, Alleyne Tull    72  The BX Ranch, Mabel Johnson     86  The McBrides and Vernon Service, Mabel Johnson    90  Equestrian Display and Riding Feats, Guy Bagnall    91  How Mr. Megaw Broke His Leg, Vernon News  94  Reminiscences of A. L. Fortune, Introduction  97  The  Overlanders,  F.  T.  Marriage     100  The Okanagan Bookshelf  147  Correspondence     153  Parent Society and Branch Reports  157  "We Will Remember Them"    161  Okanagan Historical Society     194  4 -jroreword  The present Report differs from former ones chiefly in that  it has one article of more than usual length. This is the "Reminiscences of A. L. Fortune". The original papers have been  edited by F. T. Marriage of Kelowna. The intention is to publish  the whole story in two instalments the second of which will  appear in the next OHS Report.  As in former years, the Report has been made possible  only through the willing help of many contributors. An effort  has been made to have articles representative of different  parts of Okanagan so that the Report may not become sectional. We believe this effort has been attended with some success.  It would not be possible to name all who have helped in  the production of this Report, but some names must be mentioned: R. J. McDougall of Sorrento; F. T. Marriage and Mrs.  R. Allison of Kelowna; Mrs. Mabel Johnson, and Mr. and Mrs.  G. P. Bagnall of Vernon; Mrs. R. B. White and Mrs. V. E. Bennett of Penticton.  In the nature of things, the editorial committee must always be looking ahead, thinking in terms of the next Report.  This was discussed at one meeting of the committee, and various suggestions were received for the 1957 Report. It was  felt that this should be the "Centennial Report", as OHS.22  will not appear till late in the centennial year 1958. With this in  mind the committee will welcome suggestions from the Society's  membership.  For unfailing help, and encouragement, we have to thank  our president, J. D. Whitham of Kelowna. — J.G. (charter     iVlemb  erd  The Okanagan Historical Society was organized on the  fourth of September, 1925. Leonard Norris was the moving  spirit behind the organization. There were twenty charter members: J. S. Galbraith, Almira Furniss, Maria Brent, Price Ellison,  Charles D. Simms, Max H. Rhuman, Horace W. Galbraith, Leonard Norris, Gordon D. Herbert, Joseph Harwood, William Brent,  Hamilton Lang, Dr. K. C. MacDonald, Arthur O. Cochrane, Walter J. Oliver, W. C. Cryderman, F. W. Rolston, W. C. Pound, Guy  P. Bagnall and Thomas Robertson.  Of the twenty charter members, only four remain with us  at this time (29 August, 1956): Horace W. Galbraith, Gordon D.  Herbert, Walter J. Oliver and Guy P. Bagnall. Summerland    (/before    ^rncorporatlt  lion  F.  W.  ANDREW1  The first record of any exploration in the southern part of  British Columbia was that of John Jacob Astor's party (The  Pacific Fur Company) which sailed around Cape Horn from  New York to the mouth of the Columbia River. This was previously called the Oregon River. Astor had heard of the possibilities of a profitable fur trade and had gathered a number  of adventurers, voyageurs or coureurs de bois to engage in  this service. The captain of the ship had difficulties in handling  a crew of enlisted seamen mixed with volunteers and their  ship, the Tonquin, came to a disastrous end. In 1811, after still  more difficulties, they entered the mouth of the Columbia River  and established Fort Astoria at the present site of the city of  the same name. After settling there, according to Washington  Irving's Astoria, one party ascended the river as far as its  principal branch ,the Okanagan, where Brewster, Washington  now stands  A recent Vancouver Province reviewer makes this comment: "The Columbia is a little giant, fighting its way around  and through mountain ranges, carving canyons and leaping seaward over rapids that men have marked with the name  of Death. It was the pathway to Oregon and an empire for  the Americans who followed the footsteps of Lewis and Clark.  "Man has left on this river some of the biggest marks he  has made on this earth. It has been dammed and ditched to  the completion of the Grand Coulee project. It has been industrialized from the modest Hudson's Bay sawmill of Dr. John  McLoughlin to the stupendous mysteries of the Atomic Age.  1. Dr. Frederick W. Andrew, M.D., CM., F.A.C.S. Dr. Andrew was  born in Pennsylvania, U.S.A., and came in 1908 to Summerland  where he has been a practicing physician and surgeon ever since. In  what time he could spare from a busy practice he has written a  number of books and many articles. He is the author of The Story  of Summerland (Penticton, 1945), Early Medical Services in the  Okanagan Valley, History of the Summerland Experimental Station.  and Klinker, A Country Doctor's Dog (Toronto, 1948). Dr. Andrew  has written this article especially for Summerland's Jubilee Year. Summerland Before Incorporation  The rivers were old with the age of the earth. The Indians  found it a beautiful source of salmon on which was based  their economy. The white man found fur in the hills, he found  gold in its tributaries, he found water would make it bloom.  From it he wrested electrical power and killed the fish harvest. He has changed the course and even suggests turning  the surplus into another watershed."  I would that I could continue with the same pen the writer  used, but here's the story.  The International Joint Commission will probably decide ii  part of the water of the Columbia is to be diverted into the  Fraser River, but in any event the International Joint Commission will not be free of headaches.  Those members of the party who had ascended the Columbia to its junction with the Okanagan found the location  well adapted for a trading post. The climate was salubrious,  the soil was fertile, the rivers were well stocked with fish and  the natives were peaceable and friendly. There were easy  communications with the interior by the upper waters of the  Columbia and the lateral stream of the Okanagan, while the  downward current of the Columbia furnished a highway to  Astoria. . . . "Mr. Stuart and his men", according to Washington Irving, "set to work to erect a house, which in a little while  was sufficiently completed for their residence, and thus was  established the first interior post of the Company."  Some of the party obtained horses from the Indians and  ascended the banks of the Okanagan River, always on the  lookout for trade in furs. Leaving Fort Okanagan to go north,  this brigade reached the head of Osoyoos Lake where they  crossed to the western side, and climbed the open country  above Oliver, through Meyer's Flat, White Lake and Marron  Valley and crossed Shingle Creek. Following Shingle Creek  for some miles the trail crossed the height of land and dropped  down into Trout Creek above Prairie Valley and there continued to Three Lakes, then the head of Garnett Valley, and down  the mountain side of Okanagan Lake at Deep Creek a few Summerland Before Incorporation  miles south of Peachland. From there it followed the present  motor road to the Kelowna Ferry. From the ferry it ran along  the lakeshore to the head of Okanagan Lake, and then in a  westerly direction to Grand Prairie and Kamloops, much as  ihe government road does today. (F. M. Buckland O.K. Hist.  Report No. 6).  On the first exploratory trip they met at Kamloops some  members of the North West Company who no doubt had travelled from their nearest station which was Fort St. James. This  is about half way from either point. This was followed by subsequent trading trips that could be made by horses. Fort Alexandria on the Fraser River to Fort Okanagan became known  as the Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail. As a matter of fact, the  North West Company controlled the trade until it amalgamated  with the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821, but for business  reasons and charter rights it kept the name of the latter.  Most of the country covered in these explorations had a  climate that was too mild to yield first class pelts. So the fur  business gradually decreased and what remained was taken  over by the Victoria station of the Hudson's Bay Company.  Unlike the Cariboo and some other parts of British Columbia,  prospecting and mining was profitable only in sporadic instances. However, it was found that the prolific bunchgrass  and mild winters were favourable for cattle raising. The largest  landholder in the southern part of the Okanagan was Thomas  Ellis, who came to the valley in 1865.  Tom Ellis was an Irishman of an acquiring nature. He was  said to be stubborn in a deal, but kept his word and was kind to  his family. He tried to discourage an intending settler from  taking up a pre-emption and wherever possible he bought  land from the government. He kept adding to his holdings until  he owned, with the exception of a few pre-emptions, all the  land between north of Naramata on the east side of the lake  and the Indian Reserve at Penticton to the International boundary. The Reserve reached as far north as Trout Creek but  north of Trout Creek to Trepanier was an area reserved as a  pasture with equal rights to whites and Indians. So Ellis was  unable to obtain this land. Summerland Before Incorporation  A number of men who had worked on the Ellis ranch had  looked over this land with covetous eyes and made efforts to  pre-empt it. On January 10,1889, the following notice appeared  in the B.C. Gazette: "Notice is hereby given that three months  from the date hereof, the tract of land situated on the west side  of Okanagan Lake, Yale District, between Trepanier River  (Creek) and Trout River (Creek) which was formerly set aside  as a pasturage in common to Indians and white settlers, will  be thrown open for pre-emption, but not for sale. F. G. Vernon,  Chief Commissioner for Lands and Works, Victoria,  B.C."  Before the date mentioned, a few white settlers had recorded pre-emptions and in some cases water rights in this  grazing reservation. J. G. Simms, the former Provincial Assessor at Vernon, wrote this in explanation. "How these came to  be recorded in the first place it is impossible for me to say,  probably the official who authorized or allowed the recordings  was at the time unaware that there were restrictions from doing  so. It is impossible to give full details, owing to the lax way in  which records were kept in the early days. No notations have  been made on the records as to why this or that condition or  change has been made, or the authority for the same ... It  appears that all those who recorded, either abandoned or had  their records cancelled or re-recorded after the restrictions were  removed."  A creek, river or lake is a natural landmark when travelling by land or water (or air) and this part of the province was  commonly referred to as the Trout Creek district. Summerland  is the name of a small townsite and a post office on the lower  west side of Okanagan Lake. Summerland is also the name  of a District Municipality of British Columbia which roughly  extends six miles from north to south and four miles from east  to west. This area, after rising abruptly from the Lake extends  irregularly westward, the contour being broken by several  named mountains — Giant's Head, Conkle Mountain, and  Rattlesnake Mountain, and also by Garnett Valley, Prairie Valley and several lesser ones.  The first one to pre-empt in the present Summerland area  was Aleck McLennan but this was irregular and was  aban-  10 Summerland Before Incorporation  11 Summerland. Before Incorporation  doned. Edgar J. and William H. Garnett recorded their pre-emption at the lower end of Garnett Valley in March, 1887, but this  was cancelled and re-corded in April, 1889. Duncan Woods  recorded a pre-emption on the wooded point at Trout Creek  on March 3, 1887, James Gartrell recorded his pre-emption on  June 3, 1887, the road at the Trout Creek Service Station separating the two properties. Both Woods and Gartrell re-recorded  their pre-emptions in 1889 and 1890. James Gartrell was married and had three sons and two daughters. Dune Woods was  very much a bachelor. David Lloyd-Jones came from Ontario,  and on his second trip to British Columbia visited his cousins,  Ed. and Bill Garnett. He recorded a pre-emption close to that  of Garnett and in 1889 his two brothers and father also recorded pre-emptions. The holding of the Lloyd-Jones extended  from Garnett Valley to Crescent Beach and the present site of  Summerland. The ranch house stood on a road, now called  Highway 97, close to the present residence of Leo Hey worth.  The bench above this property has been called Jones Flat,  after Lloyd-Jones, while a bench of a slightly lower level including the area of West Summerland was, until recently, called Siwash Flat, and it included a small Indian Reserve of 320  acres.  Dune. Woods sub-divided his property and put it on the  market under the name of "Woodland", but evidently buyers  were not impressed and the sub-division was cancelled. But  Woods was oniy ahead of his time. Later, a Miss Sally Stoner  bought up some of this land and had it re-subdivided and at  present lake frontage on Trout Creek is probably the most desired property in the Municipality. Many of the more recent  settlers are employed in West Summerland or Penticton but  reside in Trout Creek Point, and find that the new modern highway and fast modern motor traffic ignore the few extra miles.  In 1890, George N. Barclay, whose father was a member  of the English banking firm of the same name, arrived here  with the intention of establishing a large ranch for raising  cattle and horses. He was able to purchase the entire holdings  of the Lloyd-Jones family. He moved the ranch house to the  site where James Ritchie lived at a later date on Prairie Creek  12 Summerland Beiore Incorporation  at the foot of the Giant's Head. He advertised in England for  pupils to learn ranching. His first pupil was E. R. (Bob) Faulder,  a Harrow man. Later Faulder pre-empted a few miles up Trout  Creek and when the Kettle Valley banch of the C.P.R. built  across his property they named the siding, Faulder. A classmate, W. R. Deans, soon followed, and he also took up a preemption adjoining that of Faulder. Richard M. H. Turner was  also a Harrow man and attended that famous school at the  same time as did Sir Winston Churchill. He bought the Arthur  Day pre-emption near Gartrell's. Other pupils settled here and  then moved on. But a few young fellows took up pre-emptions  without a course of study at Barclay's and among them should  be mentioned Harry Dunsdon, Granville Morgan, A. J. Preston, Jim Dunsdon, Wm. C. W. Fosbery, and Robert Darke. Harry  and Jim Dunsdon took up pre-emptions in Garnett Valley. A. J.  Preston's pre-emption included Happy Valley. Granville Morgan and Wm. Fosbery had pre-emptions on Trout Creek, while  Bob Darke recorded his pre-emption in Meadow Valley. Of this  number, all but Harry Dunsdon and Granville Morgan have  passed on.  This Trout Creek district lay within the tail-end of the Great  American Desert, narrow in the north around Armstrong, becoming wider as one proceeds southward, warmer and dryer  around Osoyoos. It continues to show these characteristics through Washington, Eastern Oregon, Wyoming, Nevada,  California, New Mexico and Arizona, right into old Mexico.  No other part of Canada resembles it. The climate is warm,  considering the latitude, and dry. The annual precipitation is  11 inches or less and the summer humidity is 30 degrees to 40  degrees. (Summerland Experimental Station). This district also  has its distinct specimens of flora and fauna. Where else in  Canada do you find sagebrush, cactus, greasewood and bunch-  grass? Rattlesnakes with the advance of civilization are becoming scarce, while occasionally a scorpion or black widow  spider is seen.  In 1897, Bob Faulder and Ed Garnett took a bunch of horses  from Barclay's to Ashcroft with the expectations of selling them  for the overland trek to the Yukon. There they met Wm. C. W.  13 Summerland Before Incorporation  -  -  14 Summerland Beiore Incorporation  Fosbery who had a brother (now of Grants Pass) working in  this district. Another brother, George, came later. He and other  young men of the district donated their labour for the construction of St. Peter's Anglican Church on a piece of land midway  between the Gartrell and Barclay ranches, known as the Anglican Cemetery, on the Giant's Head road. The church was  opened in 1898 and in it services were held once a month by  the late Archdeacon Thomas Greene, a fine example of an  Irish gentleman. His first wedding in this church was that of  Harry Dunsdon and Miss Annie Beatrice Stevens on June 1,  1904.  The early pre-emptions had recorded water rights either on  Trout Creek or on Aeneas Creek in Garnett Valley. Tom Ellis  had tried irrigating in a small way and Dune Woods and Jas.  Gartrell built a small system at the narrow part of the canyon  of Trout Creek. There were no flumes at first. The creek was  blocked with logs and rocks and then the land was periodically  flooded. In 1892, Harry Dunsdon and Frank Woods (no relation  of Dune Woods) built a dam for Lloyd-Jones on Aeneas Creek  about two miles above the Dunsdon pre-emption and at the  site of the present Municipal Hall. This was a well constructed  piece of work. The creek was tapped at a lower level and took  the water to the Lloyd-Jones. In 1895, Harry and Jim Dunsdon  built another dam below the first to store water for their own  use. A system of flumes then led to a better distribution of the  water, but the move in recent years has been towards the /  sprinkler system of irrigation.  Previous to any road construction in the Lower Okanagan  Valley, there was a horse trail from Okanagan Mission on the  east side of the lake to Penticton, over which Joe Brent carried  mail once a month. All mail destined for Trout Creek was relayed to Gartrells. The courier forded the Okanagan River  near where the old bridge existed, passed over the bench,  through the present location of the Summerland Experimental  Station and dropped down to cross Trout Creek. This road was  built at the lake level in 1910. The trail through Garnett Valley was continued northward to Peachland. This in turn gave  way to (1) a horse road from  Jones  Flat  over the bench to  15 Summerland Before Incorporation  Deep Creek and Peachland; (2) a lakeside road replacing  the above, but this was unable to resist the onslaughts of rough  weather; (3) a new road over the bench; and (4) re-location  and hard-surfacing the road with improved visibility. As part  of Highway 97 it will be incorporated with the bridge now  being constructed over the lake.  In 1886 Captain Thomas Shorts built the first steamer on  the Lake which he named the Mary Victoria Greenhow. This  made irregular trips between Okanagan Landing and Penticton.  The hull was burned but the engine served several vessels  that followed. The Shuswap and Okanagan Railway was completed in 1892 and was leased to the C.P.R. In 1893, the latter decided to put a suitable boat on the lake so the S.S. Aberdeen was constructed and launched at Okanagan Landing.  This was a stern-wheeler, length 146 feet, beam 29 feet, registered in Vancouver, and licensed to carry freight and passengers. The first master in charge was Captain Foster, who was  followed by Captain Lindquist, Captain Williams, Captain  Estabrooks, and Captain J. B. Weeks. This gave Summerland  and all the settlers on the Lake their first regular mail, freight  and passenger service. The boat left Okanagan Landing one  morning, called at the way ports and arrived at Penticton the  same evening and returned to the Landing the following day.  The traffic increased to such an extent that a second boat, the  S.S. Okanagan was built in 1907, and then a daily service was  given. A few years later the palatial Sicamous was added to  the fleet. Then due to better roads and the steady increase in  the use of trucks the Sicamous was laid up for lack of work.  She was finally sold to the Gyros of Penticton and dragged  up on the beach there to serve as a place of entertainment.  Those residents who had reason to use these boats will remember that "The meals served on these steamers were of  the best, served by solicitous white-coated stewards in a manner that made the traveller feel as though he were a special  guest of the C.P.R. The charge for all one could eat was six  bits. The cordial masters knew practically every resident in the  Okanagan Valley, as well as the numerous commercial travellers. Between ports, they chatted with the passengers, swapped news and helped to make the journey a social diversion.  How different on a Greyhound Bus!"  16 Summerland Before Incorporation  John Moore Robinson and his associates had come from  Brandon to prospect for gold in the neighbourhood of Peachland.  The gold was found only in nominal amounts. But one day  they had a meal at Lambly's ranch near the mouth of Trepanier Creek and ate some peaches that had grown on the  place. This led to the formation of a company, and the development of the soft-fruit industry.  The prospecting for gold was side-tracked and Mr. Robinson founded the Peachland Townsite Company. This Company bought several pre-emptions and subdivided them into  10 acre fruit lots. If peaches could grow in this latitude, in this  climate and on this land, there was a fortune in sight, for  peaches at that time could only be grown (in Canada) in the  Niagara peninsula or had to be imported from California. Mr.  Robinson foresaw the fruit growing business firmly established  with a good margin of profit for the promoters. So he looked  around for another tract of land, larger if possible, that could  be as profitably developed. The area around Trout Creek seemed to offer the right inducements but such a venture would  require more capital than he could command. However he  rode over the land and examined it carefully, and then went  in to see George A. Henderson, manager of the Vernon branch  of the Bank of Montreal, for financial advice. He was referred  to Sir Thomas Shaughnessy, president of the C.P.R. and the  Summerland Development Company Ltd. was incorporated  June 18, -1903, with Sir Thomas Shaughnessy as President, and  J. M. Robinson as managing director. The Barclay holdings and  surrounding pre-emptions were bought. The pre-emptions of  James Gartrell, Dune. Woods and those in Garnett Valley, however, could not be bought, and the 320 acre Indian Reserve, at  the present West Summerland, was not for sale.  Barclay had recorded water rights on Trout Creek but his  attempts to deliver the water met with difficulties, that permitted  only a very small amount of water to be used. However the  Development Company with the aid of its surveyors laid out  a system of irrigation ditches and flumes that, under supervision,  gave an even distribution of this life-giving fluid.  Mr.  Robinson contacted many influential men whom  he  17 Summerland Before Incorporation  persuaded to invest in fruit lots in the new district. He frequently referred to the new settlers as being "hand picked." Among  the investors who were known more or less through Canada  were Sir (afterwards Lord) Thomas Shaughnessy, Sir Edward  Osier, Sir Edward Clouston, C. R. Hosmer, R. B. Angus, Senator J. Kirchhoffer, Count Dentice and the Hon. William Hespeler.  Another group came from the vicinity of Brandon, another from  the Eastern provinces, and others directly from Great Britain,  but no groups from the U.S.A.  In order to accommodate the prospective settlers and supervisors, the Development Company built a good frame, two-  storey hotel with about 20 rooms. It was later enlarged. There  never was any call for a bar. A domestic water system was  installed and a number of fire hydrants. A hydro-electric plant  was installed, thus giving Summerland the first electric lights  in any town on the Lakeshore. A mercantile company, the  Summerland Supply Company, was incorporated, and it erected a two-storey building on Shaughnessy Avenue, corner of  9th Street. The upper part was finished as a good hall, "Empire  Hall" which was used for social events and travelling shows.  Other mercantile establishments came with the increase of  population. Among them were a grocery store, a butcher shop,  a drug store, a shoe and leather store, a millinery, and besides  the Development Company there were several real estate and  insurance offices.  On February 3, 1903, the progress of the new community  was expressed by a public meeting held in the hotel which  desired to form a school district. J. M. Robinson, J. R. Brown  and Harvey A. Atkinson were elected temporary trustees. A  room was rented for a classroom and K. S. Hogg was temporarily engaged as the teacher. By the end of the term some 24  pupils were in attendance. A contract was given to H. C. Mellor  to construct a one-room school on a site opposite to the residence  of the Misses Banks. This old landmark was recently torn  down. An insight of the value of a dollar is shown by the fact  that the teacher of 43 pupils, a Miss M. Smith after Mr. Hogg,  received $55 per month and the contract price for building the  school $1,280. In 1905, the school was overcrowded and Inspec-  18 Summerland Before Incorporation  tor Gordon called a public meeting to see what should be done.  It was decided to build a central two-room school in addition to  the first building. This building was used as a gymnasium for  some years.  In 1903 James Ritchie came out from Manitoba and after  looking around took up a pre-emption that covered a large part  of Giant's Head, land that was useless for fruit growing. He  bought the pre-emptions of the Garnett Brothers and the Dunsdon Brothers and proceeded to form the Garnett Valley Land  Co. Ltd. with G. A. McWilliams as secretary. This narrow valley was subdivided into 10 acre fruit lots and irrigation water  was provided from the dam higher up. The small 320 acre  Indian Reserve on Siwash Flat was now surrounded by orchard  land and representations were made to the government that  this reserve was holding up progress. The one family in residence on the reserve was easily persuaded to accept other land  and move there. So eventually Ritchie obtained title to this  land and sub-divided it into fruit lots with the' southern part  reserved for building lots, the present West Summerland. The  latter was called "Parkdale" but that name soon died.  Summerland began to feel growing pains. The need for  secondary education was satisfied in time by the advent of  Okanagan College. Gradually also came the desire for a local  newspaper, a telephone system, a ferry on the lake, and more  power in self-government. On December 21, 1906, the District  Municipality of Summerland was incorporated. In the elections  held on January 21, 1907, the following were elected: Reeve  J. M. Robinson; Councillors, James Ritchie, R. H. Agur, J. R.  Brown and C. J. Thomson.  19 OL Star*  Ot WickaetJC  *u   ^~Sf-   I v licnaei ^y\eoaan  As told by his daughter, Mrs. Matilda Dalrymple, to Katie Lacey  Michael Keogan was born in Ireland. His mother died at  his birth, and his father re-married. At the age of eight be  stowed away on a sailing ship because of the abusive treatment of his stepmother. Three days out at sea, half-starved, he  showed himself. The captain ,an old friend of the boy's father,  took Michael to San Francisco, where he put him in charge of  a fine Irish couple, with instructions that he work for his board  and get some schooling. He stayed with them until he was  eighteen when gold was discovered at Sacramento, and there  he worked until attracted to British Columbia by stories of rich  gold discoveries there.  Outfitted with saddle horses and pack animals, Mike (as  he was called) and a partner Jim Lines came to Rock Creek,  arriving there at the time of the "rush".1 Keogan struck it rich.  However, he was of a restless nature, and paid another man  to work the claim, while he (the owner) went packing supplies  from Hope, for which he received high prices. He even loaded  his saddle-horse to bring an extra load, and walked all the  way back.  On one trip he felt he was being followed. Camping at  Strawberry Creek, which flows east towards Osoyoos Lake, he  awoke to find his horses gone. Shortly afterwards, two Indians,  riding two of Mike's horses, swooped down on the camp and  grabbed a keg of whiskey, throwing it on the horse in front of  one of them, and riding away. One shot from Mike and they  dropped the whiskey, but they rode off with the horses. Mike  remained camped by his outfit, being reluctant to leave it unguarded.  1. Adam Beam discovered gold at Rock Creek in October, 1859.  Governor James Douglas visited the camp in September, 1860, and  reported that there were about 500 miners in and around Rock  Creek. See OHS.6, pp. 233 ff.  20 The Story of Michael Keogan  An Indian named Charlie, who lived on Nine Mile Creek,  rode to Kruger's to see if Mike had been along as he was then  three days overdue. Sensing that something was wrong, Charlie rode out on the trail and soon found Mike. Tracking the  horses, he found them on Kruger Mountain, and soon the packtrain was on the move again.  The Rock Creek gold rush did not last long, but Mike continued there for some time after. Subsequently, he was employed in various capacities by Judge J. C. Haynes of Osoyoos2.  While still at Rock Creek he had taken an Indian woman  named Esther for wife, and there were two children, Maggie  and Dick. The family moved up near Sidley. Here he felled  and cut tamarac trees into blocks, which were then split into  shakes with a home-made frow. Esther shaved each shake into  a smooth shingle. For this Judge Haynes paid her $250, of  which Esther received $150, the balance being paid to Mike.  His share was soon spent at Kruger's where he paid for his  grubstake.  About this time some people going through to the Cariboo  from Oregon with a large herd of Durham heifers had been  forced to sell fifteen head of yearlings to make up enough  cash for duty. Kruger offered Esther these fifteen head for the  $100 Judge Haynes had given her. She quickly accepted his  offer, and in a few years had a large herd of stock from this  small beginning.  Frank Richter was building up his ranch, near where Cawston is now, and wanted Keogan to cut rails  for him, so he  2. In letter dated "Penticton, September 20, 1956," Mrs. R. B.  White writes: "Mrs. Christie at Okanagan Falls has very good  snaps of the different cabins he built. He was at Osoyoos when  Charlotte Haynes was there from 1868-71 . . . There are some entries in an old Magistrate's book that I have, re work Mike did on  the "first" buildings at Osoyoos.  The references are valuable for dates established. "1877, August  1st. M. Keogan. Nine days work repairing stable at Osoyoos Government Station — $3 a day . . . $27.00."^ "Nov. 1st, 1877. Michael  Keogan. Services as Special Constable during threatened disturbance among Indians south of the Boundary Line during my absence  on Saturday 2nd August to the 6th. September inclusive. $3 a dav  — 11 days — $33.00."  21 The Story of Michael Keogan  moved the family there for the summer, and while there Matilda was born. But Mike was getting restless again and wanted  to go to the Cariboo. Esther insisted that he get a place for her  and her children and the heifers, and she picked the place at  Okanagan Falls that later became the Christie ranch. This was  the first homestead in the area, and it was close to here that  large concentrations of Indians used to camp every year for  the fall salmon run. They fished below the falls, and remains  of their drying racks may still be found along the river. Because of the incessant snarling and yelping of the camp dogs  fighting over scraps all night, which used to keep them awake,  Mike Keogan named the lake "Dog Lake".3  After getting his family settled, Keogan headed for the  Cariboo, leaving them to get along as best they could. Esther  fished and hunted, raised vegetables which she sold to the  cattle ranchers for a fe'w dollars; she poisoned coyotes in winter and sold the hides fcr fifty cents apiece. After a few years  Mike came back and started to work the homestead, raising  feed for the growing herd. One year he drove heifers to Grand  Forks, and traded them for steers to Joe Macaulay and Jim  McConnell,4 two of the first settlers in the Grand Forks district.  A fourth child, Mary, was born after he returned from the Cariboo.  In the early eighties Peter Mclntyre5 settled close under  the bluff that was named for him, and ran a sawmill operated  by water power. He procured the sawmill at the north end of  3. We feel that this claim should be placed on record, even though  it does raise problems of chronology. Dr. G. H. Kearney, formerly  of Oliver, maintained the name was suggested by the growling of  the ice in the spring break-up. It is suggested also that Keogan  simply gave an English translation to a native name. It appears as  "L. du Chien" on the Anderson map, 1867; and as "Du Chien L." on  the Trutch maps, 1886 and 1871. It is now officially called Skaha  Lake.  4. McConnell was an Irishman who worked for Judge Haynes.  Most of his property was afterwards divided into small holdings.  5. Peter Mclntyre was a native of Huntingdon, Quebec. He came  with the Overlanders to Cariboo in 1862. After mining in Cariboo  he went prospecting in Mackenzie River district in 1865. In the  early eighties he settled at Vaseux Lake. He died on 12 February,  1925, aged 91.  22 The Story ol Michael Keogan  the valley, and rafted it down Okanagan and Skaha (Dog)  lakes to the Falls. He hired Keogan to portage it around the  Falls. This was done by cutting poles five to six inches in diameter, using them as rollers after the mill was hauled onto them  by horses. It took two weeks to complete the portage.  Keogan was a hard man, and after a time Esther left him,  taking the eldest and youngest of the family with her to Fort  Spokane. Not long after this the boy Dick left home. Matilda  remained a few years longer. Her father had broken ground  with a wooden beam plough and was raising about ten acres  of wheat and ten acres of oats a year. This was harvested with  a cradle axid a scythe with long, wooden teeth, with which he  was very proficient. He built a corral and floored it with hewn  timbers. The grain which had been sheafed by hand was laid  criss-cross on the corral floor. It was Matilda's job to drive the  horses around and around the corral till all the grain was  threshed out. Cleaning was done by the wind, the grain being  tossed into the air so that the wind could blow the chaff away.  After it was all cleaned, the rocks having been picked out  by hand, the grain was sacked and loaded on pack-horses,  and taken to the mill at Keremeos. At that time the mill was  owned by Barrington Price and run by John Armstrong, father  of William, Arthur and Joe Armstrong. John was a big man,  standing almost seven feet, at least, so it appeared to Matilda  who had to help him with the grinding. The wheat was ground  into flour which had to do them till the next harvest. The oats  and bran were sacked for the stock.  After a time Matilda, too, left her father. He was getting  along in years, sold his homestead, and went to live with a  brother near Sprague, Washington. A few years later he died  at Spokane, and was buried there.6  6. Mrs. Lacey has found it difficult to set dates for all the details  of the story gathered from the interview with Mrs. Matilda Dalrymple. That is not surprising, but it is unfortunate. Mr. Keogan  was eighteen when gold was discovered at Sacramento, and this  should give some clue to date of birth.  No date is given for the sale of his homestead, after which he  went to live with his brother near Sprague, Washington. But  the  23 The Story of Michael Keogan  following extract from the Okanagan Mining Review (Okanagan  Falls, 2 September, 1893) may have reference to the sale of the  homestead. It was kindly sent by Mrs. R. B. White, who wonders  if it has reference to the time Mike Keogan sold his land to Tom  Ellis. It was a large tract of land.  "Mr. Mike Keogan from foot of Dog Lake has been  doing the town and spending a few days with his friends in  Fairview. Who says that agriculture is not a profitable  pursuit in the lower country when a handsome young man  like Mr. Keogan can retire with blushing honours of a  bloated agricultural plutocrat sitting lightly upon him.  May Mr. Keogan long be spared to enjoy the fruits of his  astute management and sturdy toil."  rrlounl  ~J\eoaan    f lamed   *jror  J-^ioneer  In 1953 the Canadian Board on Geographical Names decided to name the mountain about a mile-and-a-half west of  the south end of Skaha Lake in honour of the father of Mrs.  Mary Hawthorne Hall, of Okanagan Falls, Mount Hawthorne.  Mr. Hawthorne, who had lived in the district for 45 years, died  in December, 1951.  Before this was done, however, every effort was made to  discover if the mountain had any local name. Mrs. J. R. Christie replied that at one time it was known as "Cayuse", but that  she was strongly in favour of the name Hawthorne, Mrs. R. B.  White advised that some pioneers were in favor of naming it  for Michael Keogan. It was noted that the three original settlers  in that region were Mike Keogan, Pat Gallagher and Peter Mclntyre. Two of these had already been honoured by place-  names: Gallagher Lake south of Vaseux Lake; and Mclntyre  Creek which flows north into Vaseux Creek, north of Baldy  Mountain; and Mclntyre Bluff on the west side of Okanagan  River south of Vaseux Lake.  A happy solution was found to the problem thus raised, as  is shown in a paragraph from letter of 21 August, 1953, addressed to Mrs. White by W. H. Hutchinson, Chief, Geographic  Division, and B.C. Representative on the Canadian Board of  Geographical Names.  24 The Story of Michael Keogan  "In checking the names 'Mclntyre Bluff and 'Gallagher  Lake' that you mentioned, I note a prominent mountain overlooking Vaseux Lake, as yet unnamed in our records. Referring  to the enclosed map, I have marked this feature 'Mount Keogan'  with the suggestion that this would be a fitting memorial to  Mike Keogan, being in closer association with Mclntyre Bluff  and Gallagher Lake, thus allowing the mountain west of Okanagan Falls to bear the name 'Mount Hawthorne' ".  u  ernon   i ¬• /udeum  G. P.  Bagnall  Following the donation of the W. C. Pound collection ot  mounted heads, stuffed birds and other trophies by the Rev.  Allan C. Pound, M.A., B.D., M.Th., and Mrs. Guy P. Bagnall  (nee Pound) in 1949, the City of Vernon Museum and Archives  Board was formed in 1954. Temporary accommodation was  found in the Junior High School for housing the display.  Since then other specimens of native handicrafts, wildlife, and other items of local interest have been added; also a  valuable collection of ornaments and weapons in brass donated by Mrs. Vera King-Baker.  The Vernon Museum Board has made an initial collection  of paintings by local artists. Its collection of original manuscripts has been a source of wide-spread attention.  25 100   Ulear  vJld iKancher  Dominion Day, July 1, marked 100 years of living for  George Shuttleworth, pioneer ranchman and farmer of Vernon  district. Dominion Day found Mr. Shuttleworth still interested in  the old world and what is going on, though he is confined to  his bed. His daughter, Mrs. S. Smith, Six Mile Creek, with whom  Mr. Shuttleworth lives, sent an interesting report on the life  of an interesting person.  George Shuttleworth was born July 1, 1856, at Osoyoos, son  of Henry Bigby Shuttleworth, heir of a large English landowner,  Lord Shuttleworth.  Henry Shuttleworth took his family into the Kootenays over  the old Hudson's Bay trail. For some years the Shuttleworths  operated a 20-horse pack train between Princeton, Oroville and  Colville, Washington. Henry Shuttleworth married the daughter  of a blooded Indian Chief in Colville. George was helping his  father on the pack train at the age of fourteen.  For a time he worked on a tug-boat, travelling down the  Fraser River from Yale to New Westminster. At the age of  eighteen, George Shuttleworth, like his father, married the  daughter of an Indian chief.  Mrs. Smith said her father has been "Jack of all trades."  For a time he worked for Tom Ellis, training horses, broncho  busting, herding, driving and branding long-horn cattle. Some  of the drives were made from Penticton to Grand Prairie now  called Westwold, for wintering and back in the spring to Penticton down the west side of Okanagan Lake.  Mr. Shuttleworth remembers working on the main street  ol Penticton when it was nothing but boulders, stumps and  brush logs. He worked for some time on the construction of the  Summerland-Peachland  highway  with  two   teams   of  horses.  1.    Reprinted from The Vernon News, 2 August, 1956.  26 100 Year Old Ranchei  After this, he bought a farm at Westbank and farmed there  until 1910. Mr. Shuttleworth worked for seven years at the Coldstream Ranch when it was owned by Lord Aberdeen.  At about this time he married his third wife and settled into  a job with the O'Keefe Ranch. In 1948 he retired.  He developed an interesting hobby in his later years —  teaching the Indian language to his people in Penticton. He  still speaks of Price Ellison and the old Hudson's Bay store  opposite the Vernon Hotel, Mr. Tronson and Mr. Megaw's store.  He told with a chuckle how a Medicine Man named Kalamalka  had his teepee where the hotel of the same name now stands.  27 ^Jhe    Ualleu of the South  \Jhana,a.an  Some of its colourful history and with special reference  to the Southern Okanagan Lands Project System.  —Frank McDonald1.  What better place to start than at Mclntyre Bluff, a promontory 1300 feet above the surrounding terrain near the south  end of Vaseux Lake, where in its mighty shadows, Peter Mclntyre, an early settler, built his home in 1888. This landmark  unfortunately burned down and all that remains is his cellar.  Here also the "Ditch" (as it is locally known), has its beginning  — a modern concrete control dam holds back Vaseux Lake at  a constant 1073 ft. elevation which gives an even head for the  ditch flow. The original dam was built in 1920 giving place  to the new structure in 1954.  The main ditch here has a trapezoidal shape, 18' wide at  the top and 8' wide at the bottom — capable of handling 170  cubic feet of water per second on a slope of 1 in 4000 — not  very steep, but allowing the water to run at about 3' per  second. The ditch at first traverses the fan at Mclntyre Creek,  crossing under the creek in an inverted syphon. The canal keeps  to the east side of the valley until it reaches the latitude of  Oliver where it enters a large syphon, 78" in diameter, reported  to have cost about one million dollars and carrying the water  to the west side of the valley.  No. 1 flume is at Gallagher Lake, named after another  early settler, Pat Gallagher, whose son still carries on in the  cattle business his father started. The son is a member of the  Inkaneep band of Indians as his father married into this tribe.  The Inkaneep band owns 30,000 acres on the east side of the  valley which is watered by Inkaneep Creek rising on Baldy  1. Mr. McDonald was born in Armstrong, B.C., and taught  schools in New Westminster and Penticton before serving overseas  in World War I. When the war ended he was a pilot in the R.A.F.  Since then he has farmed in the Kelowna district for nine years,  was manager of the Penticton Co-operative Growers, and is at present manager of the South Okanagan Lands Project, Oliver, B.C.  28 The Valley of the South Okanagan  Mountain. Chief Manuel Louie has this story to tell of Mclntyre  Bluff: "Chief Crequour was Chief of Inkaneep band when the  Kamloops band coming overland spotted the fires along the  river bank where the Inkaneep were fishing for salmon. The  Kamloops band not knowing that Mclntyre Bluff was in front  of them started going forward and all perished except one blind  Indian and a small boy. The blind Indian sensed that there  was a drop in front of him. The present Okanagan language  spoken by the Inkaneeps is used by the Indian tribes from  Salmon Arm, Douglas Lake, Quilchena through to Colville,  Washington, and east to the Columbia River."  The flumes, twenty-six in number, are of varying length and  diminishing in size as we proceed southward for the twenty-  two miles the ditch traverses. They were designed to cross depressions in the topography such as Gallagher Lake, Wolf Cub  Creek, Read Creek, etc., the longest one being one and a quarter  miles on the cliff side north of the Osoyoos benches. Some  flumes are of galvanized iron, some of zinc and others of square  wooden construction Perhaps the most durable is one made of  wood stave of half round section. The most insecure one is No. 1  at Gallagher Bluff, where mountain sheep sometimes dislodge  boulders, or frost heaves the formations above, and rocks come  crashing down destroying the flume in their path. This has happened many times and when it does the country south to the  Border goes dry and the main canal with its sixty miles of  laterals, flumes and pumping area is in the meantime inoperative.  Credit for the vision of the possibilities of the settlement  in this wonderfully fertile region must go to Premier John  Oliver and his Minister of Lands, T. D. Pattullo. Mr. Oliver and  Mr. Pattullo suffered great criticism for spending so much of the  public money on this project. At the time when the first sod  was turned in 1920, the south country belonged to the Southern  Okanagan Land Company (The Shatford Interests) who had  purchased the territory from Tom Ellis, who in turn had acquired  it from the Haynes Estate. Mr. Ellis' daughter still resides in  Penticton (Miss Kathleen Ellis). A small siding at Val Haynes'  lower ranch, a creek and a street in Penticton commemorate this  pioneer whose holdings extended to the Border. Cattle raising  29 The Valley of the South Okanagan  and mining were the chief activities, but to Mr. Ellis goes the  credit of planting the first fruit trees at his home in Penticton,  perhaps in the 1880's. Some of these trees are still in existence  and still produce fruit.  Deer  in Main Canal  Contact with the south country was by horse-drawn stage  and the routes followed were: Penticton, (where the boat landed  daily bringing passengers and freight from the main line of  the C.P.R. at Sicamous); Okanagan Falls, Meyers Flat, Fairview,  Junction Ranch (Gillespie's), and from there either east to Camp  McKinney and Rock Creek, or south to Oroville. These stages  were discontinued in 1911 in favour of the automobile.  The first settlement near Oliver within the project was  the Engineers' Camp east of the river near the Fairview Road  bridge. This area is an old Indian camping ground and also  burial ground. It is in this location where the original community  hall was built in 1920. It still stands and is still the centre of  activities: badminton, square dancing, ballroom dancing, dinners, etc. Near here also is the athletic park where a well-kept  ballpark is used throughout the summer: tennis courts and a  30 The Valley of the South Okanagan  modern kiddies' playground including an adult swimming pool  and a wading pool for children. In the planning stage are an  adults' swimming and diving area and picnic grounds, in an  ox-bow of the old river channel near the tennis courts.  Economically the district is dependent largely upon its  orchard revenue; 5,000 acres are under intensive cultivation and  it is the earliest district in Canada where apples, pears, cherries,  plums, apricots, pears and grapes grow to perfection.  The canal bypasses some of the best land in the valley lying above it. One large area between Oliver and Fairview is  served by a series of pumps. However the charge for water,  $6.00 per acre, was uniform throughout the project, despite  pumping charges. Rates have been adjusted over the years and  at this time the charge is $12.50 per acre.  It is now considered that the land from the intake to the  north end of Osoyoos Lake requires 4 acre feet of water while  the Osoyoos bench requires 6 acre feet. Originally the system  was designed to supply two and a half acre feet but it has  been adjusted over the years as it was found that fully mature  orchards need from 4 to 6 acre feet in this hot, dry, near-desert  region.  Cattle raising is still an important industry and the adult  breeding stock comprise about 5,000 head, mostly of the Hereford breed. The bottom lands provide the winter hay and the  hills surrounding the valley provide summer range. To mention  a few ranchers, the first to come to mind is Val Haynes, who  originally was foreman for the S.O Land Company. Other  cattlemen are Ian Brown and son, Dick; George Pollock, who  bought part of the Richter Estate; Alex McGibbon; Lester Graham and Fred Phelps. It is interesting to note that most of the  above are either oldtimers or the descendants of early settlers:  for example the Browns are the son and grandson of Judge J.  R. Brown an early settler of Fairview. Mention should here be  made of Mr. and Mrs. Ed Lacey, who farmed in the early part of  the century at Kilpooia Lake, near the border west of Osoyoos.  The Laceys were the original owners of the famous "Sunflower"  stock bought from them by the Summerland Experimental Sta-  31 The Valley of the South Okanagan  tion and further developed there to produce Canadian Champion "Summerland Standard Flo."  During the early years the fruit farmers were forced to  plant field crops and one of the early crops was canteloupes.  So important was this crop that a festival was held each year  in Oliver. Miss Peggy Fraser was the first Queen in 1936.  Tomatoes and cucumbers were a standby as a means of  raising ready cash, but the most colourful of them all was the  Zucca melon, a huge, oblong melon attaining, at times, a  length of four to five feet and a girth of twelve inches. The  distribution of the seed was very closely controlled but it  finally became available and this industry thrived, production  amounting in recent years to as much as 500 tons annually.  Tobacco was another important crop and many drying  and curing barns were erected by the government in 1920.  However, this endeavor never really prospered and the barns  were sold at public auction in  1937 and  1938.  Mining is still carried on in the district, although the old  mines of Fairview and Camp McKinney are now closed down.  The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company is presently  operating the old Fairview. producing about 4,000 tons per  month. It is being mined for its silica content although the gold  content is still a factor and we understand is sufficient to cover  the cost of smelting. One mile north of Oliver is the site of the  Pacific Silica Limited where an open quarrie is worked, the  output being used for white stucco. Twelve to fifteen men are  employed. Some prospecting and mining is still being undertaken at old Camp McKinney and this may again be a producer.  The lumbering industry is next to the fruit industry in importance. The first mill was operated by the B.C. Government  Project to provide lumber for forms and timber for trestles.  This was later taken over by the Brophy brothers. This operation was conducted east of Oliver on the lower slopes of Baldy  Mountain. It is interesting to note that loggers and sawmill men  considered that all the easily accessible and merchantable timber was exhausted in the 1920's but the Oliver Sawmills Limited (Harold Wright, manager), is still logging on a perpetual  32 The Valley of the South Okanagan  yield basis in this same territory. New methods of logging,  manufacture and conservation measures have changed the  picture entirely.  Personnel for these industries is drawn from the fruit  farms and are second and third generations of the original  settlers.  The towns in the area, Oliver and Osoyoos, compete with  each other for the tourist dollar and for industry, sports etc.  For the most part it is a friendly rivalry.  Osoyoos boasts an earlier history as the first Customs  House was located tnere near the old cemetery and in A. W.  Hanbury's orchard. A suitable monument with a descriptive  plaque will be erected opposite the cemetery gate. The present townsite of Osoyoos was put on the market in 1935. Much  opposition to the change of location was expressed, the following being an example: "As the date for the auction of town-  site lots approaches, protests against the location of the town-  site are becoming louder". "The general opinion of Osoyoos  residents favours keeping the village in its present location."  "Osoyoos bitterly opposed location of a new townsite."  The objections died out as the new townsite lots sold quickly. The new town today, its location, size, width of street, is  proof enough that the plans to move the village to the north  of its' original location were sound. Some of the earlier orchards  were located on the east side of Osoyoos Lake, water being  supplied by pumping. Early settlers here included the Frasers,  Carlesses, Goodmans, Plasketts, Baskins, McConnachies, Bur-  pees and Hunters. Osoyoos industries include packing plants,  sawmills and tourist camps. The town is thriving, has modern  schools and a good shopping centre. It is the junction, as it  always has been, oi the Anarchist Mountain Road and the  main Okanagan Cariboo Highway No. 97, and soon it will  be the take-off point for Similkameen over the new highway  scheduled for early construction.  An important undertaking jointly planned and financed  by the federal and provincial governments is presently going  33 The Valley ol the South Okanagan  forward under a carefully engineered plan. A water course  from the outlet of Okanagan Lake to Osoyoos Lake whose  cross-sectional area is such that erosion of the banks is eliminated and which doubles the carrying capacity of the river,  is scheduled for completion in 1957. Dams at the outlet of Okanagan, Skaha and Vaseux lakes, together with drop structures, permit a maximum flow of 3,500 cubic feet per second,  and also control the lake levels in such a way that flooding  is eliminated, hence the name "Okanagan Flood Control". In  the overall plan even the Columbia River salmon were considered and spawning grounds extending from Mclntyre Bluff  for four or five miles south were preserved in their original  state. Four drop structures were utilized to provide bases for  bridges. In general the scheme is one which will add greatly  to the wealth and possibilities of the valley of the South Okanagan.  We now trace the course of the water as it finds its way  south to the Border. The large syphon at Oliver discharges its  flow into the canal near the Oliver High School. From here  "D" lateral takes off to the north and services an area on the  west side of the valley for a distance of three and one half  miles. A 24" syphon carries the flow from the end of the  village to the start of the flume running north. The area served  comprises about seventy-five ten-acre lots now in full production. The area near the river bottom does not use irrigation  water from the ditch but most of the growers there have their  own pumping systems.  From Oliver the ditch continues south and laterals, thirty  in number, are taken off at intervals, and are usually of concrete pipe construction.  These pipes were made at the government operated plant  just north of Hester Creek on the west side of the valley and  operated for the years 1920 to 1923. The laterals are lettered  "A" to "Z" and when the alphabet ran out "AA" and "BB"  were added at the border.  The ditch gets progressively smaller until at the border  it is only two feet wide. Spillways to take excess water are  34 The Valley of the South Okanagan  located at Mud Lake, Wolf Cub Creek, Syphon Head, Hester  Creek, Osoyoos Lakehead, Osoyoos Village and the last one  at the border itself. Hester spillway is named after Hester  White, sister of Val and Bill Haynes, and daughter of Judge  Haynes. Mrs. White is still a resident of Penticton. Ten bridges  cross the canal at various points where main roads are encountered or where access has to be provided to the range  land on the upper side of the canal.  At present there are about six hundred fruit lots under the  Southern Okanagan Lands Project system, originally sold to  returned veterans. The average size is eight to ten acres. Most  of the homes are modern and nicely landscaped. Ground crops  are confined to the Osoyoos area while in the northern area  around Oliver are fruit trees. However, to the east of Oliver is  a large field on the Indian Reserve of sixty acres operated by  Ritchie Farms and mostly in tomatoes.  What of the future? Of one thing we are sure, water will  continue to be the most important factor in the continued development of the valley. At present it looks as if sprinkler irrigation is here to stay and as such some re-designing of the  canal lateral system may be looked for. Upkeep of the canal  is imperative, as failure of any part of the system during the  season would be ruinous to growers depending on it for irrigation. Despite reverses, and some mistakes, the Oliver-Osoyoos area has made fine progress and faces a bright future.  Photographs of an old sword found at Okanagan Landing  nearly twenty years ago have been sent to the Smithsonian  Institute on the suggestion of T. H. Ainsworth, curator of Vancouver museum. Mr. Ainsworth, who visited Vernon to address  its museum and archives board, believes the sword to be of  Spanish origin. The sword was found by Stuart Martin near  O'Keefe's store. It is 18 inches long. The blade is of steel, and  the handle is steel overlaid with brass.  35 Walter IKobert oUewdneu  Kathleen Stuart Dewdney  My husband, the late Walter Robert Dewdney, who saw  almost fifty years of service with the Provincial Government of  British Columbia and was linked with the very foundation of  this province, passed away in Penticton on February 26, 1956.  Walter Robert, the elder son of Walter and Matilda Leigh  Dewdney, was born in Victoria, B.C., on February 2, 1877. Walter  Dewdney   Senior   was   appointed   Government Agent at Yale in 1881  and remained jg*  there  until he was  transferred  to  Enderby  in   1884.   When the Provincial Government  Agency was moved from Enderby to Priests'  Valley in 1885 he became the first Government Agent at what was to become Vernon  and he held this position until his death in  1892.   He was a brother of the Honourable  Edgar   Dewdney,    pioneer    civil    engineer,  land surveyor and trail-blazer whose name       Walter  Robert  was commemorated in The Dewdney Trail.             Dewdney  The trail he had such an important part in  building across British Columbia from Hope to Fort Steele. One  of his many government appointments was Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia.  My husband attended schools in Vernon, Kamloops and  Victoria, and college in Vancouver. After graduation he joined  the Civil Service of the Provincial Government at Victoria. He  was a member of the government office staff in Grand Forks  from 1901 until 1912 when he was transferred to Greenwood as  Government Agent. On April I, 1922, he opened the first government office in Penticton and remained there as Government  Agent until his official retirement on January 1,  1947.  At that time he held the following fifteen appointments:  Government Agent, Water Recorder, Registrar of Voters, District Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Marriage Com-  36 Walter Robert Dewdney  missioner, Gold Commissioner, Commissioner of Lands, Mining Recorder, Registrar of the County Court, District Registrar  of the Supreme Court, Clerk of the Peace, Provincial Collector,  Stipendiary Magistrate,  Magistrate of the  Small Debts  Court,  ^Jhe  esLJewdneu ^Jrail  Tippity-toe and away we go,  Bunch grass flats or up in the snow,  Blizzard or heat, but a first-class show;  (Pull taut on that pack rope!)  Tippity-toe of the cayuse jog,  Lowering peak and the beaver bog,  Balsam, sage and burnt pine log—  From old Fort Steele to Hope.  Tippity-toe and away we go,  Diamond hitch and the latigo,  Draw 'em in to the belly bow;  (Pull taut on that pack rope!)  Tippity-toe and the scenting pine,  Tippity-toe above timberline,  Tippity-toe and the air like wine—  From old Fort Steele to Hope.  — Charles E. Race  and  member of the Board  of  Management  of  the  Penticton  Hospital.  In September 1945 he was honoured as "Dean of the Government Agents" during a gathering of such officials at Victoria.  His popularity was attested to at the time of his retirement  when the members of the Provincial Government office staff  at Penticton entertained at a dinner and T. S. Dalby, his successor, in making a presentation to him said: "You are going  to be greatly missed by many people; many who in the course  37 Waiter Robert Dewdney  of business have come to regard you as a personal friend,  and many others who found in you an ever present help in  time of trouble."  Members of the Bench and Bar in Penticton and Oliver  tendered a banquet in his honour and in making a presentation to him, Judge M. M. Colquhoun commented upon Mr.  Dewdney's work and especially stressed the "unfailing courtesy" with which the former agent had greeted those with whom  he came in contact.  At a dinner given by the Penticton Board of Trade, H. B.  Morley, secretary of the board, referred to Mr. Dewdney's long  distinguished career of service with this district and indicated  that this had been "above and beyond the call of duty".  My husband had a grand sense of humour and recounted  many amusing and colorful anecdotes of the "early days"  ranging from early childhood, through school days and during busy years spent in the government offices.  While a tiny tot in Yale he was kidnapped by an Indian  squaw who had taken a great liking to him and wanted him for  her own.  During his school days in Vernon, he often accompanied  Doctor Morris on his visits to his patients and acquired an early  insight into the practical duties of a doctor. He had happy  memories of his lengthy visits with the Reverend Mr. and Mrs.  Shildrick in Kamloops and he was a friend of "Father Pat" and  his wife, a sister of Mrs. Shildrick. A book I treasure greatly,  "Father Pat, a Hero of the Far West", by Mrs. Jerome Mercier,  was given me on Christmas Day, 1909, by the man who later  became my husband.  A different experience in his life took place when he lived  in Carey Castle in Victoria with his brother Ted and his sister,  Rose, when his uncle, the Honourable Edgar Dewdney, was  Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia.  In the government offices he met many interesting people  38 Walter Robert Dewdney  from all walks of life. Among these were the prospectors and  miners whose claims he recorded, some of which became the  famous and highly productive mines at Hedley, Greenwood,  Fairview and Phoenix.  During my husband's tenure of office in Grand Forks the  city was considerably larger than it is now and the Boundary  country was at the height of its mining activity. At that time  the Granby Company's smelter, located in Grand Forks, was  going full blast. It was the largest copper reduction works in  the British Empire, and among the biggest in the world, second  only to the great Washoe works at Anaconda, Montana. It had  eight blast furnaces, having total treatment capacity of 4,000  to 4,500 tons of ore per diem. Its copper converters were equal  to producing 36,000,000 pounds of blister copper per annum.  The great bulk of the ore smelted at those works came from  the company's own mines at Phoenix, just a few miles from  Grand Forks and Greenwood. There were smelters also at  Greenwood and Boundary Falls. The chief marketable constituents  of Boundary  ores  were  copper,  gold  and  some  silver.  Grand Forks was a wide open town with saloons going  all night, a number of dance halls, gambling joints and the other  appurtenances of a regular mining town of the early days.  Greenwood had twenty-five hotels and fifteen lawyers.  While in Greenwood my husband passed through the  hectic days of prohibition when amusing incidents and tragic  happenings took place. There was rum-running between Canada and the United States and smuggling of liquor from "wet"  provinces.  As a Magistrate on the Bench he had a variety of cases  and he always did his best to be fair and just in his decisions.  When Registrar of the Court he counted amongst his  friends many lawyers and judges with whom he was associated. Included in this list were men who held responsible positions in British Columbia during important phases of its development.  39 Walter Rcbert Dewdney  My husband was a talented musician and played the  violin and piano. For many years he was organist in the Anglican churches at Grand Forks  and Greenwood.  During his retirement in Penticton his hobby was garden  ing.  Throughout our years of wedded life he was always a devoted loving husband and  father, and he supplied a  continual fund of encouragement and help in the education of our children.  Besides his wife, Kathleen Stuart, he is survived  by one daughter, Mrs. J. H.  Davis of Fruitvale, B.C.; two  sons, both veterans of World  War Two, Edgar, a barrister  and solicitor in Penticton,  and Harold, a structural engineer in California, a graduate of the California Institute of Technology at Pasadena; six grandchildren;  one nephew, Peter Dewdney of Trail, B.C.; three  nieces, Mrs. C. L. W. Wors-  ley of Victoria, B.C.; Mrs.  Jack Fingland of California  and Mrs. Leigh McBride of  Nelson, B.C.  Leonard Norris & W. R. Dewdney  Photograph  by  Holliday,  Vernon,  about 1893.  'On high peaks,' says Stuart Chase in a lovely image,  'were mountain goats and mountain sheep clinging with airy  grace to the edges of eternity.' —Quoted by John Stewart Collis  in The Triumph of the Tree (Jonathan Cape, 1950) p. 213.  40 ^J\elowna $  Ljolden  /jubilee  K^-ellb ration  J. Percy Clement  May 4, 1955, marked the anniversary of a very important event in the history of Kelowna. Just fifty years before, the  city had received its Charter of Incorporation. Difficult times  lay ahead, particularly during the early years, for those pioneers in charge of the destinies of the infant city. Funds were  short and much had to be done. An adequate supply of good  water was one of the first services provided and this was followed early by electric power. During the succeeding years  many industries were established and modern stores, beautiful  homes  and public  buildings  erected.   Many  miles  of  paving,  Aerial view of Kelowna  cement sidewalks and sewers were laid, until by 1955 Kelowna had everything that a modern city possesses. The time  had arrived for a great birthday celebration.  So, May 1 to 7 was proclaimed Golden Jubilee Week. On  May 1st, the just completed Jubilee Bowl in the city park, was  41 Kelowna's Golden Jubilee Celibration  officially opened at 3:00 p.m. to be followed by a religious service with massed choir, sponsored by Kelowna Ministerial Association.  The most important events of the week took place on Wednesday, May 4, which was a day to be long remembered. The  morning arrived, bright and clear, with a gentle breeze.  Throughout the whole day the sun shone in a blue and cloudless sky, with the temperature around 73 degrees, making it a  typical Okanagan spring day.  Invitations had been sent by the city to former and present residents of the district — anyone who had lived in the  neighbourhood during 1905 or earlier, and they came from far  and near, to take part in the great celebration. Each guest was  provided with a blue ribbon, lettered in gold, "Kelowna Golden  Jubilee Old Timer, 1955." At a brief but impressive ceremony  held in the Paramount Theatre, Mayor Ladd was presented  with robes of office, complete with gold chain, hat and white  kid gauntlets. These were a birthday gift to the city purchased  by a group of community-spirited citizens who had resided in  Kelowna for 50 years or more.  A number of interesting events were scheduled during the  day. There was a splendid showing of old-time photos in the  Health Centre Building on Queensway; a Stock Car Club Meet  at Knox Mountain Track; a variety concert with band at the  New Jubilee Bowl, City Park; continuous free showing of "Old  Time Movies," Charlie Chaplin etc. in the Empress Theatre;  "Old Time Review" by Kelowna Little Theatre on the corner of  Pendozi Street and Bernard Avenue; a Midway on Bernard  Avenue from Pendozi to Water streets and street dancing, ill  of which proved very attractive and interesting.  However, the most outstanding event of the day was the  mile-long, colourful Jubilee Parade down Bernard Avenue.  Seats for the old-timers were provided along both sides of the  north half of the 100 foot wide street, from Pendozi to Water  streets and these were well filled before the parade started at  1:30 p.m. Upper windows and even roofs along the route were  crowded by eager spectators.  42 Kelowna's Golden Jubilee Celibration  The popular Canadian Legion Pipe Band led the parade,  followed by Mayor and Mrs. Ladd, the former wearing his new  robes of office complete with the mayoral chain. Then came  the Legion Drill Team, followed by the Kelowna City float,  decorated in black and gold with the figure "50" in the centre.  The next float bore a replica of the City's Coat of Arms. Other  tastefully decorated and interesting floats, interspersed at frequent intervals by splendid bands, followed. These showed  the steady growth of Kelowna and district since the arrival of  the early missionaries, fur traders, gold prospectors etc. Early  and modern modes of transportation, progress of the fruit industry, lumbering, education, the medical profession, recreation,  hunting, sports and fire protection were all depicted. A public  address system was set up at three different points and the  commentators gave a graphic description of Kelowna's fifty  years of progress. This was a splendid idea and did much to  brighten the whole proceedings. Altogether the parade was  pronounced the most ambitious and colourful ever held in Kelowna and was witnessed by over fifteen thousand spectators.  In the evening a banquet was given by the city to the old-  timers and special guests at the Anglican Parish Hall. There  were some three hundred present and each wore his blue and  gold ribbon. D. K. Gordon, the senior ex-mayor acted as banquet chairman and started the banquet with a few well chosen  remarks. After Dr. W. J. Knox said grace everyone set to work  on the delicious food provided.  A huge birthday cake, donated by McGavin's Bakery, was  cut by Mrs. Carrie Renshaw and Mrs. Christine Haynes, both  of whom have resided in the district for over 80 years. Every  old-timer present was given a piece of the cake.  J. Amab McDougall, born in the area in 1869, had the honour  of flicking a switch in the hall, which lighted the huge birthday  cake set up at the foot of Bernard Avenue. This cake, 27 feet  high, neon-lighted and built of plywood was on display throughout the whole summer.  Over 200 scrolls were presented to old-timers.   Of these, 21  43 Kelowna's Golden Jubilee Celibration  were awarded to specially selected guests and were presented  by Alderman Dick Parkinson. These were: Mrs. W. D. Walker,  earliest living school teacher, 1903; Mrs. M. L. Lewers, earliest  living telephone operator, 1905; Mr. and Mrs. C. G. Clement,  earliest living married couple and still residing here, 1901;  Mrs. E. Saucier, living person having the longest term of  residence, 1867; Mrs. C. Renshaw, born in Kelowna area, 1871;  Mrs. C. Haynes, born in Kelowna area, 1872; J. Amab McDougall, born in Kelowna area, 1869; J. P. Clement, only person still  living to sign the petition for incorporation of the city of Kelowna, 1905; G. W. Sutherland, R. D. Knox, M. A. Meikle, Jack  Treadgold, Kelowna born aldermen; R. Blackburn, first child to  enrol in Kelowna school, 1893; Mrs. E. L. Adam and Mrs. Chester Owen, born in Kelowna, 1905 and still residing here; E. C.  Weddell, first high school matriculation graduate, 1907; Max  Jenkins, senior ex-chief Kelowna volunteer fire brigade, 1903;  Philip DuMoulin, E. M. Carruthers, H. C. S. Collett, living charter members of Kelowna Board of Trade.  With well chosen words, Mayor Ladd welcomed the old-  timers and guests. He then read a number of congratulatory  telegrams from Premiers of B.C., Alberta and Saskatchewan;  mayors of Vernon and Charlottetown, P.E.I.; Penticton Board  of Trade and a number of former residents of Kelowna, now  living at a distance.  E. M. "Ted" Carruthers was guest speaker and stated that  the city was fortunate in having good city councils over the  past 50 years and the splendid administration which Kelowna  had in the past and present were made possible by the energy,  loyalty and example of the old-timers. He made several humorous remarks about old-timers, Leon Gillard, John Casorso, Dr.  W. J. Knox, Max Jenkins and Jim Pettigrew.  The banquet wound up in a very congenial atmosphere  with the singing of "God Save the Queen" and old-timers greeting old-timers.  From the banquet the early residents were rushed to the  Memorial Arena, where they were entertained by a presenta-  44 Kelowna's Golden Jubilee Celibratior.  tion of the "Gay Nineties Review." An estimated 8,000 people  jammed the arena for the first presentation and another 5,000  for the  10:30 show.  On  Thursday  and  Friday  May  5   and   6,   Kelowna  Little  Theatre staged the play, "The Heiress" at the Empress Theatre.  During Thursday, Friday and Saturday the Kelowna Jubilee  Auto Show was held in the Memorial Arena.  This brought to an end the most spectacular and successful  celebration ever, held up to this time, in the City of Kelowna.  Not a day passes over the earth, but men and women of no  note do great deeds, speak great words, and suffer noble  sorrows. Of these obscure heroes, philosophers, and martyrs,  the greater part will never be known till that hour, when many  that are great shall be small, and the small great; but of others  the world's knowledge may be said to sleep: their lives and  characters lie hidden from nations in the annals that record  them. The general reader cannot feel them, they are presented  so curtly and coldly; they are not like breathing stories appealing to his heart, but little historic hailstones striking him but  to glance off his bosom; nor can he understand them; for  epitomes are not narratives, as skeletons are not human figures.  Thus records of prime truths remain a dead letter to plain  folk; the writers have left so much to the imagination, and  imagination is so rare a gift. Here, then, the writer of fiction  may be of use to the public — as an interpreter.  Charles Reade in The Cloister and the Hearth.  45 fvM ^rather  V  By E. C. Weddell, Q.C.1  My father, the late Edwin Weddell, was a resident of Kelowna from its beginning, up to the date of  his death in May, 1929. He  came out here first to Mission in 1891, and then to  Kelowna about a year afterwards. He was a Border  Scot having been born at  Hawick in the County of  Roxburgh, Scotland, on the  13th of August, 1857. It was  always his ambition to return to the land of his birth  for a visit but he never did  get there. He crossed the  Atlantic to Canada in the  year 1884 and settled first  in Petrolea, Ontario, then experiencing its oil boom.   He  Edwin Weddell  Photograph    by    Wadds   Brothers  of   Nelson   (c.1901)  1. Edwin Clyde Weddell, eldest son of the late Edwin Weddell, was  born in Petrolia, Ontario, and came at the age of two, with his  mother and sisters, to Kelowna to join their father who had arrived  a year earlier. The son attended the public and high schools of  Kelowna (with one term at Grand Forks), and matriculated in  June, 1907, jointly with the former Miss Gertie Hunter, the first  students to matriculate from Kelowna high school. In October, 1907,  he went to Vancouver, and was articled to the law firm of Davis,  Marshall, Macneill and Pugh as a five-year law student. Passing  his final examinations in December, 1912, Mr. Weddell was called  to the Bar of British Columbia in Janaury, 1913. In March of that  year he returned to Kelowna where he began his law practice. He  was a partner of the late J. F. Burne from January, 1917, to June.  1929, and has headed his own firm since then, it now being called  E. C. Weddell & Co.  Mr. Weddell was appointed one of His Majesty's Counsel in  1945. Married at Ottawa to Miss Katherine Bliss, they have three  sons; Edwin, Philip and Brian. He has taken an active interest in  church and community affairs.  46 ' My Father  stayed there for seven years and while there in 1888 married  Lottie Jane Coryell, the youngest daughter of the then late E.  ]. Coryell and his widow, Margaret E. Coryell. Mr. and Mrs.  Coryell had one older daughter and three sons Jack, Will and  Frank. Jack, the eldest, was an early graduate from R.M.C. at  Kingston as an engineer, and shortly after my parents' marriage, he and his two brothers came to British Columbia, first  to Vernon and the Okanagan Mission — there was certainly  no Kelowna then. He practiced his profession of civil engineer  and land surveyor which included the surveying of the town-  sites of both Kelowna and Penticton. His employer for the surveying of the Kelowna townsite was the late Bernard Lequime  who owned the property. I have always understood that it was  my Uncle Jack who picked the name of Kelowna for the new  and then empty townsite.  In the meantime, back in Ontario, my sister Rose, now Mrs.  D. H. Learn of Seattle, was born on the 23rd of February, 1889,  and I followed her on the first of January, 1891. My uncles  were writing home of this exciting new land across the prairies  on the other side of the mountains, and my father got the  urge to follow them which he did while I was still an infant in  arms. He never went back except once when he returned to  Petrolea to bring out my mother and her two children. That  was in the latter parr of the year 1892, and just then we could  get no further than Vernon for that was the year of the big  freeze and Okanagan Lake was a solid mass of ice from north  to south. My father on his arrival had gone to work for Mrs.  Lequime and later her son Bernard, at their store, or trading  post, at Okanagan Mission, and I only wish my memory would  allow me to repeat some of the many interesting stories he used  to tell us of Mrs. Lequime and those early days. So while the  rest of us were stalled in Vernon where my grandmother was  then living, having followed her boys out west, my father returned to his work until the lake thawed and he could return  for us and bring us down by boat, the S.S. Penticton, which he  did in March or April, 1893. While we were in Vernon my sister Verney was born there on the 14th of January, 1893. We  were always told she was the first child born in Vernon after  47 My Father  it was incorporated and that is why she was named Vernon  Victoria.  Also around this time the store at Okanagan Mission  branched out to Kelowna and on the 31st of July, 1893, a partnership agreement was entered into between Bernard Lequime,  Clinton Arthur Stickland Atwood (who recently died at Grand  Forks, B.C.) and my father to carry on the business of general  merchants at Kelowna and the Okanagan Mission. The three  partners were now riving in Kelowna and the Okanagan Mission branch was left in charge of the late Ernest Wilkinson. The  name of the firm continued as Lequime Bros. & Co., because  Leon Lequime, brother of Bernard, had originally been interested with his brother in the business but not after they opened up  in Kelowna under the new partnership. Mr. Atwood did not remain in the firm very long but remained in Kelowna with Mrs.  Atwood (who still lives at Grand Forks) with her two boys, Clinton and Eric until just before the turn of the century. Mrs. Atwood is a sister of W. R. (Billy) Barlee now of Okanagan Mission.1 Mr. Bernard Lequime with Mrs. Lequime and his two  children, Alice and Gaston, left Kelowna also for the Boundary, or Lower Country as we called it, and finally settled like  Mr. Atwood in Grand Forks. There also my grandmother, Mrs.  Coryell and her son Frank had settled on a large ranch. Jack  had gone off to the Boer War in South Africa and after it was  over practiced his profession for several years in British East  Africa and Madagascar. I do not remember the exact year in  which the Lequimes left but I do know they were here during  the Boer War because we had a local patriotic concert collecting funds for some purpose in connection with the war, and I  well remember Alice and Gaston singing Rudyard Kipling's  "Absent-minded Beggar" at the concert, and the many encores  they got. Mr. Lequime, although absent, retained his interest  in Lequime Bros. <S Co. and my father finally sold his interest  to him in 1912, which was quite a long partnership for those  changing days.  When we first came to Kelowna we lived in one of two  cottages facing west on the property where Dr. Boyce's large  1.   Mrs. Atwood and Mr. Barlee both died on 29 March, 1956.  48 My Fathei  house recently stood, but in 1894 we moved across the street,  or the road, as we then called it, to Mr. Lequime's house, which  we had bought from him. This was a bungalow which subsequently had its face lifted and a top storey added by the late  David H. Rattenbury. It is the apartment immediately east of  the Belvedere on Bernard Avenue and is now also the home  of Miss Mary Rattenbury. Just before we moved Dr. and Mrs,  Boyce arrived from Camp McKinney and built their first house  just west of the two cottages I have mentioned so now Kelowna  had its first doctor. Dr. and Mrs. Boyce had a lot of firsts in  Kelowna and one was the first tennis court; that was one which  at that time particularly appealed to me. As we were reminded  the other evening at C.K.O.V.'s collection of our old-time lacrosse players, Dr. Boyce was the first goal-keeper of a Kelowna  lacrosse team.  My brother Alwyn was born in our new home on the  30th of January, 1895, and then tragedy struck in the death of  my mother on the 11th of February, 1895. My grandmother  was still living in Vernon at this time but my uncles were  surveying in the vicinity of Midway. Somehow word was got  to them and they made a non-stop trip by horse back to Kelowna where the funeral was held on the 14th of February, Valentine Day, conducted by the Rev. George A. Wilson of Vernon. This was a great blow not only to us but to the whole of  the little community where my young mother was so well-  loved and popular. She had a particularly sweet singing voice  and that always means a great deal to new communities creeping out to the advancing edges of new settlement. We have  a very beautiful little poem written by our friend and neighbour,  the late George C. Rose in memoriam to our mother and in tribute to her voice. This was published in the Vernon News of  February 21, 1895, a copy of which I have.  My grandmother did her best to look after us for a while  but she was no longer young and was not in the best of health.  We were fortunate when during the next year, Miss Mary Blom-  field of Lakefield, Ontario, who was a cousin of the Atwoods  and Billy Barlee, came out west to look after us. She became  engaged to my father at the end of 1896 and on the 7th of Jan-  49 My Father  uary, 1897, they were married in Kelowna by the Rev. Thos.  Greene, then incumbent of the parishes of Penticton and Kelowna. Shortly after this, Mr. (later Archdeacon) and Mrs.  Greene came to Kelowna to live and he became the incumbent  of Kelowna parish alone, building a house immediately west  of Dr. Boyce's house.  Four sons were born of my father's second marriage, Cyril,  who settled after the First Great War in Joe Rich Valley and  died a few years ago; Ian now in California; Ralph of Osoyoos  and Reg of Kelowna.  My father felt rather lost after he sold out his interest in  Lequime Bros., but he was not very happy there either, as  conditions were so completely different from the early days.  The place had commenced to grow rather rapidly from about  1903 when the first influx of newcomers from the prairies began to arrive and buy property in the subdivision of the A. B.  Knox ranch on both sides of Bernard Avenue from the United  Church east to the Vernon road, north to Knox Mountain and  south to Mill Creek. This was followed by the subdivision of  the Lequime estate from Mill Creek southward and on the K.L.O.  Bench and the place really began to grow, as it has ever since,  particularly after the coming of the railroad in 1925. The coming of the automobile here as everywhere else also made a  new world for the oldtimers.  So Dr. Boyce in 1913, who was then our local magistrate  conceived the idea of getting my father to succeed him as such,  with the result that my father was first appointed Coroner in  August, 1913, then Acting Police Magistrate during the absence  of Dr. Boyce, and then when the latter resigned in March, 1914,  my father was appointed Police and Stipendiary Magistrate.  He was also appointed a Special Examiner of the Supreme  Court in July of 1915. He was very happy in this work and died  while holding these offices in May, 1929. He never ceased,  however, to look back with nostalgic memories to the days of  the early 90's. He had an amazing collection of funny stories  and he amassed this * collection largely by his practice of re-  fusin'cHo give a commercial traveller any order for goods until  50 My Father  he first came through with a new story. I only wish time and  my memory would permit me to pass on some of these stories  with his gift of mimicry, which always gave his listeners many  moments of hearty laughter.  In his thirty-eight years in Kelowna, and having come here  at the beginning, it was inevitable that he also had a number  of firsts to his credit, particularly as secretary-treasurer at the  birth of new organizations. The School Board and Kelowna  Hospital were I believe two of these, and also the local Conservative Association. I have minutes of meetings of the latter  as far back as 1903. There is certainly one thing in particular  for which I can never cease to be grateful to him, and that is  that he brought me to this, my happy home, Kelowna. I earnestly hope that you who are now going to have your homes  here during the next fifty years will be as fond of the place  as are those of us who have been here during the past fifty  years. That would make us happy too.  At the commemoration service on the fiftieth anniversary  of the death of Sir John A. Macdonald, who died on 6 June,  1891, the Rt. Hon. W. L. Mackenzie King quoted Joseph Howe of  Nova Scotia who "reminded his day and generation that 'a  wise nation preserves its records, gathers up its muniments,  decorates the tombs of its illustrious dead, repairs its great  public structures, and fosters national pride and love of country  by perpetual references to the sacrifices and glories of the  past'." On the same occasion the Rt. Hon. Arthur Meighen said:  "We turn aside for a mere moment to pay tribute where tribute  is due and to gain inspiration if we can, courage if we can,  wisdom if we can, at the fountain of history."  ranCTOH HIGH SCHOOL UftAfft  si    ->a^L 'ñ†    3C 2 3 Ljeorae    Whelan  C^lliAon   o&istrict ^rirst Settler  As told by his daughter, Mrs. F. Bell, to Mrs. D. Allison.  My father left England for New Zealand in 1865. He was  twenty-one years old at the time, and travelled by sailing ship,  which took three months to make the voyage.   After five years  in New Zealand, farming  amongst other things, he  came to British Columbia,  and reached Victoria in  1870. Early in 1872 he went  to the Peace River gold  mines, and in the fall of the  year came south to Kamloops where he stayed the  winter.  In the spring of 1873 he  came to Okanagan, arriving  at the head of the lake, the  same day as another pioneer, Edward Postill and his  family. They travelled down  the lake on a raft, taking  several days to reach what  is now Okanagan Centre,  but Mr. Postill died on the raft before they landed there.1  George Whelan  First settler in Ellison District.  Photograph taken in  1907.  My father stayed with his brother-in-law, Tom Wood, the  pioneer.   He lived at the south end of Wood Lake, which was  1. The Postill family came from Yorkshire, England, to Ontario;  and from there to British Columbia in 1872. The father, Edward  Postill, died in April, 1873, aged 52.   See OHS. 18, pp. 115-116.  52 George Whelan Ellison District First Settler  named for him.2 That fall, my father went prospecting and  trapping on Mission Creek. The following spring he bought an  interest in the property now known as the Pridham Estate, which  he later sold and pre-empted 320 acres which he called Cloverdale, now known as the Bulman Ranch. He added to his holding as the years went by, accumulating 3,000 acres, 1,000 of  which was arable land, the rest range land.  Mr. Whelan built a three-roomed log house, with a fire  place of stones and clay, and a log barn, all of which was  fenced  around.    Two  irrigation   ditches   supplied  water:    one  2 R Allison was the first fruit-grower on the east side of Wood  Lake He settled there in 1907, and retired to Kelowna about 1952  (OHS 18 p. 6, footnote). The lake was named for Thomas Wood  here described as "the pioneer." We find applications for grant or  purchase of land made by Mr. Wood in 1871, 1883 and 1884. The  earliest has reference to land "at the south end of Long Lake about  30 yards from the lake." This application is dated 14 April, 1871.  But the VERNON NEWS, 21 October, 1937, traces Mr. Wood's  history back far beyond that date. "Local historians state that  Wood settled in the valley in 1860 at the south end of what was  then known as Pelmewash Lake — known now as Wood Lake —  and that he used the range on the east side of the lake as grazing  land for cattle. It is stated also that he built his first cabin on the  isthmus between the two lakes — Kalamalka and Wood, in 1862.  This isthmus, locally known as the "railway" was apparently built  by beavers but there was a small creek connecting the two lakes.  At a later date the Dominion Government made a canal through  the isthmus, and still later an actual railroad was built there in  1925."  53 George Whelan Ellison District First Settler  from Scotty Creek in the south, the other from Mill Creek in the  north.  Much of the work had to be done by hand. Mr. Whelan  made his own harness out of raw hide, and a wagon with  wooden wheels. He was the first man to introduce cloverseed,  and for this reason called his farm Cloverdale. The old home  still goes by that name.  When things were organized sufficiently my father went  into farming quite extensively. He grew large fields of hay  and grain to feed nearly 500 head of range cattle, forty head  of cattle, a hundred sheep and a hundred pigs. Much of the  harvesting was done by native peoples, and transients. In the  fall of each year J. B. Greaves3 came in from the Nicola Valley  to buy up all the young steers from two to four years old, paying  $25 to $35 per head according to age. The cattle were then  rounded up into corrals by his own cowboys and taken to  Nicola Valley. The fat pigs were driven to Vernon on foot, and  it took about four days to make the trip. A team and wagon  followed with feed for men and animals, and a stop was made  each night. It usually took three men for this job, two men driving the pigs, and a +hird with the team and wagon. The pigs  were shipped to the coast.  Every two or three years buyers came in from the coast  to buy up young horses and train them for delivery, dray and  express work. The sheep were sold locally. For dressed lambs  butchers paid $5 each, and for sheep $10 or $12 apiece.  In the year 1882 my father decided to get married and sent  for his betrothed, Miss Lucy Freeman in England, to come out  and join him. She sailed from Liverpool, by way of Cape Horn,  to Victoria. From there she travelled by boat to Yale, then by  stage-coach to Cache Creek. Here she changed to the Kamloops stage which took her to the Spallumcheen Valley where  3. Joseph Blackburn Greaves was born at Putsey, Yorkshire, England, on 18 June, 1831. In 1845 he came to the United States of  America, and in 1867 to British Columbia. In 1882 he organized the  Douglas Lake Cattle Company, of which he was the general manager.  54 George Whelan Ellison District First Settler  she stayed at the Fulton farm. My father met her, and they  were married by the Justice of Peace. It was a great change  for my mother, coming as she did from a big city, but she  made the best of it. She cooked over the open fire-place, baked  bread in a Dutch oven, and made her own candles and soap.  Two years later they got a small cook-stove from Victoria, and  a sewing machine, which came in on the back of a mule.  The first baby was born in 1883. In those days, no doubt,  Mrs. Brent attended her, and proved efficient and kind. There  were five children in our family, four girls and one boy, and  all but one were born in the little, three-roomed log house.  There was little opportunity for schooling in those days, but  when the children were old enough, and an average of ten  could be collected from around, our neighbour, J. Christian gave  a large room in his home, and we children had our school there  for two years. In 1895 my father gave an acre of land on which  a school was built. Miss Dora Thompson, now Mrs. W. D.  Walker of Okanagan Mission, was our first teacher. She lived  at our home during the week, and rode back for week-ends at  her own home. My father was secretary and trustee for some  years.  The Whelan School (c.1900)  55 George Whelan Ellison District First Settler  In those early days, of course, we had no mail deliveries.  We had to ride or drive once or twice a week eight miles to  Lequime's store, near Father Pandosy's mission, to pick up our  mail and groceries. Later, we had a mail route, and wooden  mail boxes were placed along the highway.  We moved in 1896 to a new, twelve-roomed house newly  built by William Henry Raymer and John Curts, both now deceased. Most of the lumber and furnishings were hauled from  Vernon.  In 1904 my father treated the whole family, seven in all, to  a trip to England for three months. We sailed on the SS Tunisia. My father sold his farm in 1908 to William Henry Cross  of Winnipeg, who sold it two years later to Thomas Bulman.  It is now owned and operated by his son William Bulman.  In the same year as he sold his ranch, my father retired  to a smaller place, about a mile-and-a-half south. Here he built  a nice home, and farm buildings, keeping a few farm animals  and a flock of sheep. He planted a prune orchard of five acres.  Soon after moving to our new home, my mother passed away.  That was in 1910. She was 59 years old. Father lived on at the  farm with my brother till 1928, when he died at the age of 84.  My brother, Robert George Whelan, and my sister, Mrs. Mel  Bailey have also passed away. Surviving are Mrs. Ernest Leslie Clement and Mrs. Gus McDonnell, both of Winfield, and  myself, Nellie (Mrs. Ferman Bell) of Kelowna.  56 .-3/.    /¥1'ichaet and ^Afll ^rnaeld    L^hurch,  ^J\elowna  BETTY RENNIE  The Parish of St. Michael and All Angels' was originally  part of the Okanagan Mission District, established by the first  Bishop of New Westminster, the Rt. Rev. W. Sillitoe. D.D., in  1893. At that time there was no Anglican parish in the country  south of Vernon, B.C., in the Okanagan Valley, but in that year  Tom Ellis, of Penticton, built a church on his large estate at the  south end of the lake and to this living Dr. Sillitoe appointed  the Rev. Thomas Greene, B.A.  This vigorous priest was born in Louth, Ireland, in 1849,  took his degree at Trinity College, Dublin, and served in the  slums of London for a time under the famous Father Dolling.  In 1892 he decided to go to Canada, and arrived in that year  at Qu'Appelle, Sask., marrying a year later when his fiancee  came out from England to join him.  When they reached Penticton they found a primitive country where roads were incredibly bad, hardly more than trails,  and, except for the winter, either deep in mud or dust. Mr.  Greene administered to his scattered parishioners on foot, on  horseback, and by stagecoach, and he earned affection and  commendation far beyond the bounds of his parish. So large  was the area he travelled that he would be away for three weeks  out of the month, holding services in bars, mining camps, out-  of-doors, or anywhere he was needed.  Mrs. Greene was left for these periods with the two Indians  who worked for her, but she always slept with a revolver under  her pillow. Cattle in large numbers roamed the country roundabout, and she would have to force her way through these  beasts with -her babies in the perambulator, and cross a bridge  —not of planks, but of rough logs—to get into Penticton.  57 St. Michael and All Angels' Church, Kelowna  In 1894 Kelowna was added to Mr. Greene's parish. At  this time it was a pleasant and prosperous little settlement consisting of people mainly from Great Britain, who had come to  Okanagan on the advice of the Earl of Aberdeen and the late  G. G. McKay of Vancouver.  The first Anglican service was held in Kelowna on May  27th, 1894, in Lequime's Hall, and later, until a church was built,  there were monthly services in the old schoolhouse.  The first suggestion for building a church came from Mrs.  Crichton of Hereford, England, whose two sons were ranching  in the district, and as a result of her interest a meeting was  called by Mr. Greene of the members of the church on December 22nd, 1894, which was well attended. An active committee  was appointed consisting of T. W. Stirling, J. L. Pridham, Dr. W.  B. Boyce, A. H. Crichton, C. Mair, W. D. Hobson, C. Atwood and  E. R. Bailey. They worked earnestly, collecting subscriptions  and looking for a church site. In their report to the Easter Vestry  of 1895 they were able to state that $1,181.50 had been promised, and that the Lequime Brothers, the owners of the townsite,  had donated two large building lots. At this meeting the first  church wardens, J. L. Pridham and Charles Mair were appointed.  The builders, Curts and Blair, immediately began work, so  that the church was ready for use in the autumn. The Bishop  of the Diocese, the Rt. Rev. J. Dart, D.D., was able to consecrate  the church of St. Michael and All Angels on October 5th, 1895,  and on the following day, the Sixteenth Sunday after Trinity,  the Bishop confirmed six candidates.  At this time Mr. Greene still lived in Penticton, making  monthly visits to Kelowna, but in 1897 the Bishop divided the  district and appointed Mr. Greene to Kelowna with Trout Creek.  The matter of finances presented difficulty, but help came from  a number of generous individuals here and in Scotland, as  well as from the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel and  the Diocesan Missionary Society.  58 S.. Michael and All Angels' Church, Kelowna  In the spring of 1897 the Rector and his family moved from  Penticton to take up the new parish. There was no Rectory and  the Vestry decided to build one, but again money was the difficulty. Here Mrs. Crrtchon once more showed her interest and  generosity in offering to lend the sum of $1,500, which was  added to by friends of the Rector to purchase suitable grounds,  so that the work of building the house started in the spring of  1897 and was finished in July. Several years later Mrs. Crichton  presented the property as an Easter gift to the parish. The  Church lands were fenced by Mrs. T. W. Stirling and a large  stable for horses and rigs built. In the church, the font and  beautiful brass lectern were also her gifts, as well as the altar  candlesticks given jointly with her husband.  As the years went on several people helped to beautify  the church. H. S. Scadding, who had been people's warden for  some years, gave a bell, while the congregation subscribed  for the building of a tower. Mr. Scadding and his wife also presented the East window, and the late Mrs. F. A. Taylor gave a  beautiful sanctuary carpet and was a supporter of all church  efforts. The work of the late W. C. Cameron, who for some  years was people's warden, was of immense help in handling  the finances of the parish, and his death in 1910 was a great  loss to the church and to the community.  There is a long list of donors of church linens and furnishings, many from England, as well as other benefactions, and  with the combined aid of these and those of the first Church  Guild, the Women's Auxiliary of the Church, the Chancel Guild  and the I.D.K. Society, the furnishing of the church was complete, from hassocks to organ, with money put in the bank  for various projects: $275 towards a new church building fund  and $1,000 towards a parish room and electric lighting for the  new church of the future.  A new Diocese of Kootenay had been formed in 1903, and  to this diocese the parish now belonged. By 1906 the little congregation that first met in 1894 had much increased, and at the  Easter Vestry of that year the question of either enlarging the  church or building a new one was discussed.   For two years  59 .a. Michael and All Angels' Church, Kelowna  the matter was considered and then a committee of leading  churchmen, who were the Rector, T. W. Stirling, F. A. Taylor,  E. R. Bailey, W. C. Cameron, A. H. Crichton, R. H. Parkinson,  M. G. Gorrie, Dr. W. B. Boyce, E. M. Carruthers, J. B. Whitehead  and Dr. Shepherd, was appointed. After weighing all the facts  carefully they decided against,, the enlargement of the church  and strongly advised that a new one be built on a different  site. The Vestry told them to carry on with their scheme, and  therefore, a corner site on Richter Street and Sutherland Avenue  of about an acre-and-a-half of land was purchased, which was  in a more central position for the parish, due to the growth of the  town. Plans for the new church were asked for, and those of a  local architect, W. A. Peters, were chosen, and the work put in  hand.  On Sunday, July 30th, 1911, the corner stone was laid by  W. A. Taylor, the preacher on the occasion being the Rev. A. H.  Solly, while the Rector read the prayers. The church was not  completed until June 13th, 1913, on which day the Bishop of  New Westminster, the Rt. Rev. A. du Pencier, consecrated the  building and preached at morning and evening services to  large congregations.  This large and handsome church is of ecclesiastical Gothic  design, and all the exterior walls are of local stone and built  in what is known as random coarse rubble work. The trimmings for doors, windows, buttress caps, copings, etc., are of  granite from the quarries up the lake near Okanagan Landing.  The interior is of coast fir, the clerestory walls being supported  by massive octagonal columns, with Gothic arches. The aisles  are arched at each column with exposed timbers and the main  roof timbers and roof trusses are also exposed. The walls are  finished with plaster. All the windows at the date of consecration were of plain diamond leaded lights of cathedral glass, including the great East window. At some future date it is hoped  that a spire or tower will complete the west end of the church,  but at present this is only carried to the height of the church  roof, enclosed with a temporary roof, the main entrance being  through the porch thus formed, there being also a side entrance  and porch near the vestry.  60 St. Michael and All Angels' Church, Kelowna  With the completion of the church the parish was slowly  growing in membership, and also in various organizations  which had been started to forward the work of the church. In  1904 the Senior Branch to the Women's Auxiliary of the Missionary Society of the Anglican Church was formed, and has  carried on its work ever since. Besides giving substantial sums  to the Church Building Fund, they raised $2,000 to build the  first Parish Hall. In 1922 the land was free of mortgage and the  Hall presented to the Diocese. A Junior Branch of this organization was formed in 1916 which has given valuable contributions  in providing for various needs and repairs, and in 1918 the  first Girls' Branch was organized, and later a Little Helpers'  Branch. The Parish Guild was started in 1924 and over the  succeeding years has worked tirelessly to raise funds for the  necessities and repairs of the Church, Parish Hall and Rectory,  thus leaving the W.A. free to carry on with its work in the cause  of missions at home and abroad. Also in 1924 the Altar Guild  came into being to care for the appointments of the Sanctuary  such as hangings, linen, brasses, etc., and when the new altar  was installed, three of its members worked the red, white, green  and purple super-frontals, with a burse and veil in corresponding colours, for the seasons of the church year.  The years went on with the parish work ever-increasing,  and the Rector was made Rural Dean, and in 1916, Archdeacon.  Early in 1935, feeling the burden of advancing years, he asked  to be relieved of his clerical duties, and the Bishop of Kootenay,  in accepting his request, stipulated that he should retain his  rank as Archdeacon Emeritus. After his retirement the Archdeacon remained a frequent visitor to the hospital, and his  understanding of human nature and tolerance towards everyone of all creeds and colour endeared him to all. The Chinese  settlement in Kelowna never forgot that in the epidemic of  Spanish influenza in 1918 he went among them, nursing and  caring for them at the risk of his own life. He died in September, 1935, aged 87 years, leaving his widow and four daughters.  All through the many years of her life in the parish, beginning in Penticton, when she was the second white woman to  live there,  and continuing on in Kelowna,  Mrs.  Greene had  61 St. Michael and All Angels' Church, Kelowna  given endless hospitality to all who came to the Rectory, much  oi it under the primitive conditions of the pioneer days, with  no refrigeration or plumbing, water from an outside hand pump,  heating by coal and wood and lighting by coal-oil lamps. There  was a great deal of entertaining to be done, as befitted their  position, and the Rectory was often full of welcomed friends or  strangers.  Archdeacon Greene was succeeded as Rector by the Rev.  Charles E. Davis, M.A., who had been for two years his assistant priest. Mr. Davis was also an Irishman who had taken  his degree at Trinity College, Dublin, and previous to his coming to Canada had been Precentor and Librarian of the Cathedral of Waterford in Ireland. He was an accomplished musician and organist, and being a choirmaster of great ability  trained the church choir, largely composed of boy voices,  in the best English tradition, and this choir became famous  throughout British Columbia. No one who heard their lovely  voices floating upwards and filling the church will ever forget it.  Mr. Davis was also responsible for the building of St.  Aidan's Church, Rutland, and St. Mary's, East Kelowna. The  Church of St. Andrew, Okanagan Mission, had been built in  Archdeacon Greene's time, and consecrated on July 13th, 1913,  by the Bishop of New Westminster. These churches, though  separated by several miles, were all part of the parish of  Kelowna, but in 1946 they were made into a separate parish,  known as the parish of Okanagan Mission, and the first incumbent was the Rev. F. D. Wyatt.  While Mr. Davis was Rector a very handsome oak reredos  and altar were installed in the church in memory of those who  died in the first Great War of 1914-1918, and he was responsible  for a considerable enlargement of the original Parish Hall on  Sutherland Avenue, though this was still incomplete on his  retirement in July, 1942. After his retirement he continued as  choirmaster until his death in July, 1944, at the age of 72. During his incumbency he had acquired a large pipe organ from  the Wesley Methodist Church in Vancouver, which, after going  62 St Michael and All Angels' Church, Kelowna  through many vicissitudes, including the need of a new console and a complete overhauling some time after its installation, has proved to be an instrument of great beauty of tone  and a tremendous  asset to the services  of the  church.  The question of a Rectory again came up when Archdeacon Greene retired. The Church committee of that day had  given him on his retirement, the Rectory on Bernard Avenue  in which he and his family had lived ever since it was built  in 1897. Eventually a house on Sutherland Avenue was purchased as Rectory for Mr. Davis and his wife, but after his  retirement a large brick house on the corner of Richter and  Sutherland was purchased and the other sold.  The Ven. Desmond Stanley Catchpole, B.A., D.D., recently  appointed Archdeacon of the Okanagan, became the new Rector. He is a graduate of the University of Toronto and Trinity  College, and for thirteen years had been Rector of Rossland,  B.C., beginning his ministry in Kelowna on July 16th, 1942. In  the years that have followed the parish has steadily grown in  number, having at the present time about fifteen hundred members.  The Church was much enriched by the beautiful stained  glass East Window in memory of the life and ministry of the  Ven. Archdeacon Greene. It was dedicated by Archbishop W.  H. Adams on May 12th, 1946. The two centre panels of the  window depict the Supper at Emmaus, the North panel  St. Michael the Archangel and the south, St. Patrick. On this  day also was dedicated a Chalice, Paten and two large cruets  in memory of those who died in the war of 1939-1945.  The Church holds two other stained glass windows, both  memorials; one to the Rev. Charles Edward Davis, the late  Rector, dedicated on Christmas morning, 1948, and showing St.  Cecelia, the Patron Saint of Music; and the other, which was  installed when the Church was built, dedicated to William C.  Cameron, an early active people's warden, showing a picture  of Christ holding a Chalice.  The beauty of the Church has also been enhanced by the  63 gift of a handsomely carved oak pulpit, given by Mr. and Mrs.  Hughes-Games in memory of their son, Flying Officer Norman  Hughes-Games, who died while on flying operations in 1944 at  the age of twenty-one. In 1948 new oak seating was completed  and given to the Church as a Thank-offering for the safe return  of service personnel from the war.  The improvements under the direction of Archdeacon  Catchpole's active supervision and encouragement, include one  very valuable addition to the life of the parish, and this was  the commencement of an entirely new Parish Hall, completed  in 1950. This is a fine structure, 118 feet long by 74 feet wide,  with an upper storey containing a large committee and other  rooms. The Board Room in this building was named after T. W.  Stirling, one of the original committee appointed by Archdeacon Greene when the parish was newly-formed, and who  worked heartily regarding the building of both churches. Another memorial room is the Cameron Room on the main floor  in memory of Mrs. William C. Cameron, one of the chief organizers of the Women's Auxiliary, the Parish Guild, and a great  supporter of all church work.  The latest building to be placed on the Church property is  the new Rectory. It is on the spot planned by Archdeacon  Greene and his committee forty-five years ago as a suitable  position for the Rectory. It is a fine house of brick and stucco in  the fashion of the present day, amply big for any needs and  with every comfort for its occupants, and stands well back  from Richter Street beside the Church. It was finished in 1956.  After the death of the Bishop of Kootenay, the Rt. Rev. F.  D. Clark, in December, 1954, the Rt. Rev. Philip Roger Beattie,  D.D., was elected to take his place and was enthroned on May  31st, 1955 as Bishop of Kootenay at St. Saviour's pro-Cathedral  in Nelson, B.C., and he has since then chosen Kelowna to be  his home.  It is only sixty-two years since the first Anglican service in  Kelowna was held in Lequime's Hall. None of that tiny congregation, coming in from their farms and ranches or from the few  64 St. Michael and All Angels' Church, Kelowna  homes in the little village that was the Kelowna of that day,  could by any stretch of imagination have then foreseen the  great growth of the district and of the Church in their parish,  or visioned the splendid stone and granite church and its surrounding buildings which now occupy the Church land. And  yet it is from the devout purpose of the first Rector and the  efforts of his small congregation that, under the grace of God,  there should now stand these outward symbols — symbols of  the inward devotion of both those who have ministered, and  the many members, from that time until the present day, of the  Parish of St. Michael and All Angels'.  (With grateful acknowledgments for information and the  use of documents given by Mrs. W. D. Walker, Miss B. Greene,  Mrs. O. St. P. Aitkens, Mrs. C. H. Davis, Ven. Archdeacon Catch-  pole, Rev. C. Clark, and E. C. Weddell, Esq. K.C. — B.R.)  65 Aabez ^J\nelter r^ecalld  (L.arlu  oLJauS  In writing this article for the Okanagan Historical Society,  I, Jabez Kneller, am writing of what occurred at Oyama in  1898. That is fifty-eight years ago now. I had been working for  Price Ellison of Vernon for one and a half years and I heard  that land could be taken up at Oyama. I had just bought my  first team from Rube Swift, who was farming half way to Lumby  on the Vernon to Lumby road. I took a trip across the small  neck of land that lies between Long Lake, now called Kalamalka  Lake, and Wood1 lake south of it. This narrow strip of land was  then called The Railroad. It is now called Oyama and has the  Canadian National Railway, Kamloops to Kelowna branch line,  running on this same narrow piece of land.  We had no road on The Railroad in 1898, but we drove  on the Wood Lake shore. I then kept going straight east, up the  mountain, first coming to the Orby Bovee place then on to the  Manford Bovee pre-emption. Each had likely pre-empted one  hundred and sixty acres. Manford Bovee2 had cut off pine trees  level with the ground and cultivated the land, irrigating two or  more acres, growing oats for hay. I saw a few fruit trees growing, so I asked him about peach trees having fruit. "Yes," he  said, "they had." And he had grown one and one-half tons to  four tons Or more of oat hay to the acre. So I settled east and  above his place. There was a better place east and above  my one hundred and sixty acres. I moved to my new quarter  section with Alf Woodcroft and his brother Joe to put in the  winter with me, so we  soon had a cabin erected.  I planted  1. Mr. Kneller, in common with other oldtimers, calls this  "Woods Lake", but we have followed spelling given in the Gazetteer  of Canada: British Columbia (Ottawa, 1953) where it appears as  "Wood Lake, east of Okanagan Lake, south of Vernon, Osoyoos  District." There is also a "Woods Lake, east of the junction of Cain  Creek and Salmon River, Kamloops District."  2. Mr. Bagnall supplies this note from A. M. Bovey about spelling of this name: There are three spellings. Albert Mason Bovey  came to Okanagan from England in 1894. The two brothers Bovee  came to Okanagan from Louisiana. U.S.A. Of French origin, they  arrived in Oregon, then moved to British Columbia. Both brothers  married into the Parker family. Mr. Bovet came from Quebec. All  lived within a few miles of each other.  66 Jabez Kneller Recalls Early Days  twenty-four standard fruit trees close by a spring. I understand  that Vernon Ellison now owns the place I took up. There is a  large lake east of Oyama on top of the mountain that I call  Aberdeen Mountain.3 I'd say it is five miles across and it has  two small islands near its centre. I took a water record on the  two creeks, or springs, running through the place about four  hundred yards apart. I reckon Oyama Bench lands, south of  mine, are now growing lovely large Bing and other cherries as  well as prunes and apples, etc., that are hauled to the packing  house on The Railroad. This is a branch of the Vernon Fruit  Union. Oyama town, proper, is mainly situated at the west end  of The Railroad and runs south and north of The Railroad with  fruit trees of peach, apple, etc., for some distance each way.  F. H. Latimer, a surveyor of Vernon, owned the part that lies  north towards Vernon.  I reckon Manford Bovee grew the first peaches and fruit  east of Oyama town. I would say that Mrs. Maurice Middleton  is now located on what was part of the Latimer place. A. M.  Bovey, now living at the foot of B.X. Creek, Vernon, was a settler,  or at least living in a cabin, on the south-east corner of Kalamalka Lake. Close by an otter had been eating bullrushes,  or tullees as we called them, and Manford Bovee had lent  Wild Goose Bill, whose real name was Bill McLaughlan, a boat.  Wild Goose Bill seemed as though he would stab Manford  because Manford had told Bill he was to leave the boat where  he got it from instead of away across the lake. Manford was  a real good shot with the rifle, claiming he had shot five deer  out of seven on the hill by the Big Canyon. Two other men, Mr.  Bovey claimed, stayed in the cabin near Big Canyon. I watched  a bear in the canyon one day and also killed a rattlesnake on  the mountain side above it. I also killed a rattler on the east  end of The Railroad, one east of the Latimer place. Price Ellison  came along as I had just killed it, so I dumped it into my bread  pan, getting fifty cents for it from Pound, the taxidermist of Vernon. He would have paid me one dollar for the rattler's skin, but  3. The name "Aberdeen" has not been retained for the mountain  described by Mr. Kneller. The Gazetteer (1953) lists Mount Aberdeen  which is now named Silver Star Mountain. It is north-east of Vernon.  67 Jabez Kneller Recalls Early Days  it being late on Saturday afternoon, he didn't want to stop and  skin it. It had twelve rattles and a button on it.  When I first saw Barnard Avenue, which is the main street  of Vernon, about sixty years ago, not even a saddle horse or  rig or buggy was to be seen on the street. Now especially at  week ends, cars are very numerous. I arrived in Armstrong on  a mixed train of box cars and a coach on September 1st, 1891  via Sicamous from Alberta and went to live on the part now  called Glenemma that lies seventeen miles from Vernon on what  is now the main highway of the Kamloops to Vernon road. I  killed sixteen deer that winter; two of them I gave to Bill Endall  as part pay for my board, as nine dollars had to keep me all  winter. It was a very hard winter. In February 1892, it was  forty-six below zero and at Merritt that lies south of Kamloops it  was reported fifty-two to fifty-five below. Many cattle and  wild horses died. Although the Douglas Lake Cattle Company  shipped in Niggers wool hay from Calgary costing sixteen  dollars per ton, they lost seven hundred head, three hundred of  which were cows. I saw Mr. Curry of Westwold, then Grande  Prairie, then riding one horse and leading four more. Horses at  that time were selling for from fifty cents to five dollars for the  very best. I saw four elk in the Salmon River Valley that year,  near Charlie Schweb's bridge and one day Harry James Blurton  and I counted fifty-two on the Needoba place, now called  Salmon Bench.  I left Glenemma for a job and walked to Kamloops in three  days; threshed peas for my supper and breakfast at  Pringles, Westwold, then helped lift cattle on to their feet for my  food at Monte Lake. At Campbell Creek, where I stayed over  night, Mr. Campbell and his wife, their sons and their families  were all in the same house. I slept under the harness in the  harness room. I got a job as a section hand at .one dollar and  twenty-five cents a day, with no board, and was shipped to  North Bend. I came back to Salmon River twelve months later.  The one-time Lavington general store and post office, a  landmark in White Valley, was burned to the ground in September,   1956.  68 (/dSenvoulin f^ioneerd  Mrs. Fred J. Day  An accurate report on the original boundaries of the historic district of Benvoulin is almost impossible, since memories  are sometimes vague, and often vary, and records more than  fifty years old are almost non-existent, or hard to find.  Much of the legendary past of this district, bordered and  coursed through by Mill Creek and Mission Creek, can be  partially reconstructed by the reminiscences of the few remaining "old timers".  Mr. Leonard Gillard, born in 1873, has lived in the Okanagan Valley 72 years, spending a good number of those years  in and around Benvoulin. He came into the district of Benvoulin  from Hope at the age of nine, accompanying his parents and  brothers Arthur and Fred. Mr. Gillard recalled the hey-day of  the old Benvoulin Hotel, built by Dan Nicholson's family, which  changed hands more than half a dozen times. Past managers  remembered were Charlie Shayler, Alex Gray, and Fred Gillard. Built in 1895 on the south corner of the present Burns Road  and the original Benvoulin Road, the hotel was a ten-roomed  frame building, with a stable at the rear. The house standing on  the corner to-day, and owned by Harry Perchaluk, was built  from lumber reclaimed when the old hotel was torn down. An  annual event recalled was the Christmas turkey shoot. Held in  the Casorso field, just east of the hotel, the shoot attracted many  to try their luck at the bull's-eye and the abundant reward for  good marksmanship.  Another oldtimer of the Benvoulin district is Tony Casorso,  born in 1880, one of a well-known family of nine. He recalled  the building of the old Benvoulin Church around 1895, and the  blacksmith's shop opposite the hotel on the Benvoulin Road  run by S. T. (Sam) Elliott, and next to it the old Lequime store  and Post Office built before 1880 and managed by Ernie Wilkinson, and later by Will Lloyd-Jones. It was recalled that a stage  ran from the store to Vernon every day for the convenience of  69 Benvoulin Pioneers  passengers and the delivery of mail and goods. Another pioneer  remembered by Mr. Casorso was Jim Crozier who lived at the  Five Bridges where he owned 160 acres. For three months  every fall for several years Crozier ran a grist mill where  Dominico (Minnie) Rampone's house stands to-day. The mill  produced three grades of chop for pigs.  Perhaps it is not generally known that Benvoulin was  originally intended as the site for the city of Kelowna. Alex  McKay with the proposed townsite in mind subdivided his  holdings on the Benvoulin corner in approximately 1892-1893,  but was out-manoeuvred in real estate by Bernard Lequime who  owned more land, with the added attraction of water frontage.  Other pioneer land-owners recalled were Joe Christian who  owned the property later held by the Munson family; Archy  Hardy, one-time foreman for Bernard Lequime; old man Brent  on property later owned by the Dilworth family; Alfonse Lefevre  on holdings later owned by the Crichtons; Sax Lexon and  Ernie Wilkinson owning ten acres where Alex Reid's rebuilt  house stands to-day; John Conroy, and John Basette; Harvey  Watson teacher at the Okanagan Mission school; John Moore,  John Haynes; the Smithson estate; Louis Holman who inaugurated the growing of tobacco on the old Lequime place; W. A.  Bowser who promoted a large company by the selling of shares  and later mysteriously disappeared; Franchot Ortoland a French  sailor who owned 160 acres or more, later known as the Stubbs'  place; Wynne Price, Barlee, and Bushrey.  Mrs. John Haynes, a Benvoulin oldtimer, mother of seven  children, has lived in the valley 84 years. She remembered  Benvoulin's original log school built on the site of to-day's present up-to-date frame building. The logs of the first school were  bought by Andrew Patterson and used for a barn. Mrs. Haynes  recalled the days of the flour mill on Mill Creek operated by  Frederick Brent behind the present site of the Jervers' residence.  Indians brought wheat from Penticton by pack-horse to be  ground into flour at this mill.  A well-known oldtimer of the Benvoulin district, no longer  with us, was E. A. Day. He was born of English parentage in  70 Benvoulin Pioneers  Mt. Pleasant, Utah, which is about 150 miles from Salt Lake. At  eighteen, possessed with the spirit of adventure he went north  on horseback, passing through the states of Oregon and Washington. En route to new horizons he met Alan Bain, a man  who knew life in British Columbia and urged him to pioneer in this country. The two journeyed to Newcastle, near  Renton, which is within a few miles of the city of Seattle. Here  they prospected, fished, and worked in logging camps, turning  their hands to whatever the times afforded. Pushing northward  they came to Tete Juan Cache and from there, engaged in similar activities, they worked their way down to New Westminster.  After some months on the coast, they journeyed by horse over  the old Hope-Princeton trail, settling in the Penticton area. Mr.  Day remained in the South Okanagan some fourteen years,  prospecting and managing the Ellis and Barclay estates, during  which time he married Mary Jane Gartrell, eldest daughter of  James Gartrell of Trout Creek. A younger sister, Edith, married  David Lloyd-Jones, a carpenter. The two brothers-in-law were  close friends and at length went into the sawmill business  together at Kelowna — Mr. Day managing the logging and Mr.'  Lloyd-Jones the mill. Prior to this, Mr. Day had become foreman  oi the Lequime estate, succeeding Frank Conklin. Both E. A.  Day and Lloyd-Jones purchased property in Kelowna and the  outlying districts, and the present Day farm in the Benvoulin  district was where Mr. Day established a home for his children  after the death of his young wife. In the beginning this was  poor alkali range land. It has been enriched and brought into  full productivity by the energy and foresight of F. J. Day, second  son, and is now passing into the youthful hands of the third  generation —■ present manager, Ernest Day, second son of  George Day, brother of Fred Day. Old Mr. Day lived ninety-  three years and saw many changes in the district he helped to  develop. He raised a family of seven children, four surviving  him. He was esteemed for his sound judgment and foresight,  temperate living, kindliness and humour, his sturdy independence, and generosity. His beautiful and delicate wife, Janie  Day is still remembered with affection for her happy disposition  and her gracious community spirit. In later life Mr. Day married  Miss Margaret Turnbull who was a great comfort and companion in the last twenty-three years of his venerable life.  71 ^Jhe Storu of oLumbu  Alleyne Tull  On December 20, 1955, roughly ninety-one years after the  first white settler arrived in the district, Lumby became an incorporated village. The first election of commissioners took  place February 18, 1956. This step towards maturity has caused  the community to look to the story of its past and to want it  recorded for posterity. The story of the lives of the people who  opened the little valley and cleared the land with broadaxe  will take long to compile, but the growth of the village and  something of its founders should be told now as it takes its  place beside other organized communities of the province.  Ninety-one years ago, a young man from St. Anicet, Quebec, named Louis Christien came in and liked what he saw.  But Lumby cannot claim Louis Christien exclusively; that honour must be shared with Vernon. Though he did build a little  cabin on what was then called Bull Meadows, and spent much  time prospecting from there foi minerals, he farmed between  Vernon and Okanagan Landing. But farming was never to be  Mr. Christien's first love. The California gold rush had been his  first incentive to "go west" to San Francisco. In 1852 he travelled by boat to Victoria, and eventually found his way to Okanagan.  In 1873 he returned to St. Anicet, married Celina Quesnel  in 1874, and together they returned to his beloved Okanagan.  Mrs. Christien dictated brief biographies of her husband and  his brothers shortly before she died and noted that when she  first came out, she and Mr. Christien visited Mr Christien's  brother Joe in Kelowna, travelling by row-boat down the Okanagan Lake from what is now Okanagan Landing and camping  overnight on the present site of Okanagan Centre. They were  assisted on the trip by a Luc Girouard.  Two daughters were born to Mr. and Mrs. Christien while  residing on the farm near Vernon. Even then Mr. Christien was  72 The Story of Lumby  spending most of his time in the Lumby area. Later they disposed of their Vernon holdings to make Lumby a year-round  residence. Charles was born in 1880 in their Bull Meadows  home and so became the first white child to be born in the  district. It is said that they called it Bull Meadows because of  the quantity of bull moose in the area. The name of this little  arm of the Okanagan was changed to White Valley from the  English translation of the name of one George LeBlanc who  is recorded as being in the district and having built a four-  roomed cabin about 1874. This man was no relation to the Joe  LeBlanc who came sixteen years later and whose descendants  still call the community home. Years later Bull Meadows was  sold to Lord Aberdeen and is known today as Coldstream  Meadows.  First Pre-Emption  The first man to pre-empt land in the district was Pierre  Bessette and the part of Lumby that is east of Shuswap Avenue  formed a portion of his original pre-emption. Mr. Bessette arrived before 1874. He came via the old Okanagan trail. One cannot help mentioning this man's generous nature. Many prospectors were grubstaked by Mr. Bessette, to be paid when  they were successful or helped again if they were not. Several  years later, when Mr. Bessette made a trip back to his old home  in Quebec, he brought back some lilac seeds and most of  the bushes in Lumby today stem from that seed.  By 1875, besides Pierre Bessette and Mr. and Mrs. Louis  Christien, Pierre's brother John and his wife and Louis' brothers  Tommy and Charles, and their wives, had arrived from St.  Anicet to make White Valley their home. George LeBlanc was  here also, of course, and these men had taken up mining at  Cherry Creek. The ore was packed out on the backs of Chinamen to what is now Lumby and loaded on pack horses to  continue on its journey. Correspondence on the matter records  the ore as being very good. In 1876 Tommy Christien was  killed in a mine cave-in. His wife later became Mrs. Pierre  Bessette. There was no town of Vernon then and all supplies  had to be obtained from Kamloops. An older Christien brother,  Joe, remained in Kelowna  so there were  some difficult trips  73 The Story of Lumby  made by entire families to visit Kelowna kinfolk. John Brent,  who died in Lumby in 1955, and who was the son of Kelowna's  first citizen, Frederick Brent, used to walk the trail to Lumby to  visit his friend Pierre Bessette.  Next group to come in included Mr. and Mrs Charles Levas-  ser, Mr. and Mrs. Alex McDonnell and Cassimer Bonneau; also  William Murphy. In 1888 Candide Quesnel, his wife and 18  months old son, Albert, arrived. Mr. Quesnel was a distant  cousin of Mrs. Louis Christien and his wife was her sister.  Women were as they are now and Mrs. Quesnel found she  had five other ladies to visit. By this time all the men had preempted large acreages and were busy clearing land that is  still considered excellent farm land today. Their tools were  crude and mostly homemade. The wheels of their wagons  were sawed from large trees, and their trips for supplies were  slow and tedious. There was still no real road to Vernon.  Louis Morand, Quinn Faulkner, and their wives, were the  next to arrive, then in 1890 Mr. and Mrs. Joe LeBlanc, Mr. and  Mrs. Cleophas Quesnel, Osias Quesnel, Mr and Mrs. Paul  Bessette, and John Genier joined their relatives here. Most of  these brought families and this included Paul's twenty year  old son, Napoleon. Joe LeBlanc brought Maple tree seeds with  him and the trees are still growing and beautiful on his original  homestead at Blue Springs.  John B. Dechamps had come to Okanagan in 1888 and in  1891 he went back for the rest of his family. They stayed about  eight months in Vernon and then Mr. Dechamps pre-empted  land at Blue Springs. His children, most of them still living in  Lumby, remember well the long walk over the sand hills to  school in Lumby. His eldest son, Alphonse, bought the land  around Harris Creek for a horse and saddle, while son Joe  (also known as Isaac) turned his hand to carpentry. It was  before 1890, too, that Alex, another brother of Louis Christien,  brought his family in.  By the fall of 1892, Louis Morand had acquired 650 acres  of land, which he sold, all but forty acres, to Quinn Faulkner.  74 The Story of Lumby  The forty acres he laid out as a townsite and named it "Lumby" after Moses Lumby, government agent for the Vernon district from 1891 to 1893. Mr. Lumby was a rotund little man with  a jolly outlook on life and a mania for fishing.  First Store  Lumby's first store was built in 1891 by a man named Harry  Seed. This store was built where the Bridge Service Garage  now stands, but after the townsite was laid out in 1892 the  store was moved by stump pullers to where it stands today on  Vernon Street. It has been added to, with Joe Dechamps doing  the carpentry and is now home of Mr. and Mrs. D. Inglis. Mr.  Inglis is the eldest son of Dave Inglis who arrived in 1892. Mrs.  Elizabeth Inglis, his wife, celebrated her ninetieth birthday the  day after the first elected village commissioners were honoured  by a banquet. Dave Inglis senior travelled to Vernon on the  new railway during the first month of its operation. He was  a chronic sufferer from rheumatism and found that the Okanagan climate so agreed with him that he was able to throw  away his canes.  The second store was built by Louis Morand in 1898. It  still stands and is now the Post Office. It was operated by  Walter Woods and later sold to W. R. Megaw. W. J. Shields  came to Lumby in 1907 and worked in the store for Mr. Megaw  until 1910 when he bought him out. For a short time he had  Cleophas Quesnel and J. T. Bardolph as partners, but he soon  bought them out too and in 1912 built a new store on its present  location. It measured 36' x 60' and included a warehouse. Fire  destroyed it in 1932 but he rebuilt immediately, this time a  brick structure 54' x 81' with a separate warehouse.  H.M. Mail and P.O.  Mail was first brought into Lumby on horseback by Charles  Christien (this branch of the Christien family now spell their  name Christian). One son, Frank, still lives in Lumby. Mr.  Christien met the B. F. Young stage at Priest Valley (Vernon)  and delivered it to the Pierre Bessette home where Mr. Bessette  was post  master. The  second carrier was  John Genier,  who  75 The Story of Lumby  made trips twice-weekly into Vernon by horse and democrat  and later by car. It eventually became a daily trip which he  continued to make till around the commencement of World War  Two when he retired and this duty was taken over by the  Lumby-Vernon bus owned by Harry Chamings.  Louis Morand became the second post master and the  office was in his store. When he sold the store the post office  was moved to where Walter Truster now lives on Shuswap  Avenue, but after Mr. Shields moved into hj^ new store in 1912,  the post office went back to its original building.  First Hotel  Louis Morand did not wait for someone else to make his  town of Lumby a reality, for in 1891 he built the first hotel and  called it the Ramshorn Hotel. Unfortunately this structure burned down within months of its building so in 1892 Mr. Morand  built his second hotel on the same site and called it the Ramshorn also. About the turn of the century he sold out to Tom Norris who operated it for seven months, with Oliver Bonnville managing it, then sold it to his father-in-law, Louis Christien. Mr.  Bonnville continued to manage it until it was taken over by W.  Skermer.  The third hotel was built by Louis Morand in 1907. It sat  beside the Ramshorn Hotel and was called the Morand Hotel.  However both of these hotels, along with Shields' store and a  residence built by Joe Nesbit and later also owned by Morand,  were burned to the ground in 1932. The memory of this fire did  much to get a fire truck and a good volunteer brigade established in the community in 1952.  The present hotel was built on the site of the Ramshorn  Hotel in 1934 and was first operated by Harry Weeks.  First Blacksmith  The first blacksmith shop was where the Pay and Save  Store now stands. The shop was torn down and rebuilt of the  same lumber when it was in the way of No. Six Highway just  before the turn of the century and was finally moved intact onto  the location now owned by William Shumka, who finally dis-  76 The Story ol Lumby  mantled it about two years ago. When he did he found very  old newspapers in the wall and took these to the local newspaper office to be kept for posterity. The first operator of the  blacksmith shop was Neophil (Fy) Morand, brother of Louis  Morand. He later married the widow of William Murphy, nee  Rose Deiima Quesnel who came to Lumby in 1890, and was a  niece to his brother's wife. His step-son, Albert Murphy, is the  present post master.  Livery Stable to Garage  The first livery stable was owned by Tommy Christien, son  of Alex Christien who was the last of the Christien brothers to  move to Lumby when he arrived in 1889. This was the first  establishment to be converted into a motor car garage and was  operated by Ray Shaeffer and Walter Kempton. This building  was torn down only a short time ago to make way for Morrison  Motors. A. F. Andre opened the second garage not long after.  First cars in the district were owned by Tom Norris and J. T.  Bardolph, and the usual stories of frightened horses and predictions that they just would not last were loud and long.  Saw Mill  Paul Bessette, father of Napoleon, built and operated the  first saw mill. It was a water wheel job and was built on the  Pierre Bessette property. This spot is now owned by William  Skermer. It seems odd that despite the lovely stand of timber  in the area and the wealth it now produces annually, earliest  citizens we, e first attracted to the land and farming was the  main industry for many years, with hay and cattle being the  produce. There were cattle drives and many thousands of tons  of hay hauled to Vernon by team and wagon to be shipped for  the use of Vancouver horses.  Churches  Needs of the Roman Catholic residents were cared for by  the Oblate Mary Immaculate Fathers. Father Pandosy made  trips in before 1880 and after his death in 1891 O.M.I. Fathers  came from Kamloops. Before there was a church, services were  held in the Pierre Bessette dining room. This house was near  77 The Story of Lumby  Sam Derry's barn. The first Roman Catholic Church was built  in the cemetery in 1892. Paul Bessette and son Napoleon were  among the volunteers who built it. This building served till  1921 when, while Father Carroll was resident priest, the present church was built in town. In 1924, Father Smith built the  parish hall and priests' residence.  First Baptisms in the community were Charles Christien,  son of Louis; Eugene Bessettte, son of Pierre; and Nora Christien, daughter of Charles Christien and these all took place in  the first half of the 1880's. The first baptismal records to be  kept in Lumby, however, were in 1897 when Duncan Lesley  and Jessie Belle McDonnell, children of Mr. and Mrs. Alex McDonnell were baptised by Father Cornellier, O.M.I., Anne  Janette McLellan, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Archie McLellan,  was also baptized that year.  Father Roi was the first resident priest, serving from 1900  to 1905. One of Pierre Bessette's sons, Herbert, was the first  native son of B.C. to be ordained. The first Bishop to visit Lumby  was Bishop Augustin Donteinville, Bishop of New Westminster  in 1907. The present priest is Father M. O'Reilly.  Presbyterian services were held in the home of Coleman  (Cole) MacDonald, one-half mile north of Rolands Lake before  1893. The Rev. Paul F. Langill of Vernon, 1890-1894, used to  come out to look after the needs of the Protestants. At that time  Lumby townsite was mostly French-Canadian while north was  British. One should not forget the Proctors who were very early  settlers towards Mabel Lake.  In 1895, under Rev. G. A. Wilson, also of Vernon, the present church was built on a lot donated by Louis Morand. This  church is now the United Church. Mr. Wilson held morning  and evening services in Vernon and afternoon services in  Lumby, necessitating a thirty-two mile round trip with a horse  and buggy every Sunday. Before 1900 the first student minister  was obtained for the Lumby and Coldstream area. He was W.  E. Knowles. It seems odd that a community whose heritage is  generally thought to  be  French-Canadian  should  have their  78 The Story oi Lumby  own Protestant minister almost ten years before the first Roman  Catholic Priest took up residence and when the history of the  people of the entire district is compiled, the number of early  British pioneers in the area might be surprising.  G. H. Catt, father of Magistrate H. C. Catt donated the land  for the Anglican Church in 1911. This was one of his last acts  prior to returning to England to stay. The church was built  in 1912. One worker in this church to be remembered was Miss  Maud Wells who now lives in England.  Schools  Tom Norris arrived in Kamloops on June 30, 1893 at the  age of eighteen. The desire to continue his education in engineering and the tales of good wages out west had prompted  him to apply for the teaching position in two schools, one at  Lumby and the other on Lulu Island, but being a lover of hunting and fishing he decided on Lumby. He spent five days in  Kamloops writing exams to qualify as a B.C. Elementary teacher then continued on to open his school.  He recalls waking up after his first night spent in the Ramshorn Hotel to see hundreds of ducks leaving the Bessette Mill  pond to fly to the mountain lakes, and seeing deer in the bush  where the present schools now stand. Mr. Norris never did get  back to University to become an engineer, but nevertheless he  has led a very full life and only at the beginning of 1956 did  he retire as a businessman in the community.  The first school was built beside the Roman Catholic Church  near the cemetery, and opened in September, 1893. It was  called the White Valley School. He recalls he had about twelve  pupils and most of them French-speaking. The older children  helped their parents with the harvest and attended school during the winter months. One of his pupils, Edna Christien, daughter of Louis Christien, later became Mrs. Norris. One of his  daughters, Mrs. Lloyda Wills followed her father's profession  and still teaches in Lumby.  Mr. Norris taught for five years at White Valley school,  79 The Story of Lumby  then could not resist the call of the Yukon Gold Rush, so off  he went to Atlin. Lumby and possibly Edna Christien must have  had persuasive powers, for before long he was back and in  the real estate business. The school situation had changed by  the time he returned. There were enough children in Lumby  to merit a school, so one was built on the townsite and is now  the blacksmith shop in Lumby Timber yards, while the Norris  school was moved to Blue Springs. While teaching, Mr. Norris  received $60 per month. Going wages in the community were  from $25 to $35 per month for labour.  What is now the Primary school was built in 1912 by Dave  Wilson and Oliver Bonneville. The Intermediate school that  was torn down last fall was built in the thirties while Charles  Bloom was trustee. A school was needed. Lumby was then a  small school district and not too wealthy but citizens were  undaunted and most of the work was done by volunteers.  Charles Bloom was a step-son to Alphonse Dechamps and was  taught by Tom Norris. He served for twenty years on the Lumby  School Board. The new high school was opened in 1950 and  has since been named the Charles Bloom High School.  The first real estate office in Lumby was Norris and Bardolph. Later it became Norris and Catt and finally Norris owned the business himself, which he continued to operate until his  retirement in January 1956. The first Justices of the Peace for  the townsite were Tom Norris and J. T. Bardolph with H. C. Catt  replacing Bardolph in 1924. In 1929, Mr. Catt was made magistrate and he still serves the community in this capacity. Justices  of the Peace for the outlying district were G. G. Dickson and V.  E. L. Miller.  Mr. Catt taught school in Lumby's first school within the  townsite. The reputation that Lumby girls were pretty must have  existed even then for he, too, married one of his students, Miss  Elta LeBlanc, daughter of Joe LeBlanc. Mrs. Catt's elder sister,  Josephine, became the wife of Napoleon Bessette.  Albert Quesnel became the first Lumby constable. He joined the B.C. Police in 1924 and retired in 1950. He was eighteen  months old when he came out with his parents Mr. and Mrs.  80 The Story of Lumby  Candide Quesnel in 1888. He covered a greater territory than  is now covered by the Lumby detachment of R.C.M.P. He was  responsible for all the Mabel Lake area including the north  end which necessitated boat travel when trouble arose there.  Asked about car accidents then, he commented that there  weren't many in the summer, but they certainly had their time  in the winter. Albert Quesnel was a good policeman, I have  never heard anyone say anything but good for him. He was  a friend of the needy, father to the wayward and an example  of good living himself.  Lumby had a building boom in 1912 which continued until  World War I when every able-bodied man went off to answer  the call. Besides Shields' store, Dr. Ormsby built the Ormsby  hall, giving the town a new community centre. The town acquired a three-roomed school (already mentioned) and Dr. A. C.  Nash set up an office and drug store where Cec's Service now  stands. He was helped by his brother, Peter, and a Mr. Nais-  mith, in the drugstore. Mr. Naismith had a photo studio in the  back. Wooden sidewalks were built along Vernon and Shuswap streets. In later years they have been replaced with gravel.  Lumby's first bank also opened its doors in 1910. It was the  Royal Crown Bank and was in the same building where the  Bank of Nova Scotia now does business. In fact, under its modern decoration is hidden the bullet holes that remain as mute  evidence of Lumby's one attempted bank hold-up.  This bit of excitement occurred in the bank's first year of  operation while Mr. Murchison was in charge. Mr. Murchison  lived on the premises and late one night a man named Milo  Roberts demanded that the doors be opened. When Mr. Murchison refused, Roberts shot through the door. One of the bullets went through the bank manager's hand and penetrated his  chest. Mac Morland heard the disturbance and went for help.  Tom Norris, Justice of the Peace swore in several men as deputies including H. C. Catt and they set out to find the culprit who  by that time had disappeared. They searched the rooms of  the Ramshorn Hotel arresting several loggers for being illegally in possession of weapons. One was even sleeping with his  shot gun. Roberts was also picked up;  he was in bed fully  81 The Story of Lumby  dressed, cork boots and all. Milo Roberts was found guilty and  sentenced, then Lumby settled down to normal again.  William McGee built a creamery in Lumby in 1904 and  operated it for six years. It closed for a while then Moses  (Mosey) Adams, now of Vernon, came in as butter maker and  it opened again for about two years. The building was later  converted to triplex dwellings on its original sight on Faulkner  Avenue.  Lumby's first social activities were held in the hall above  the store Louis Morand built in 1898, then in the Ormsby Hall  after 1912. By 1933, however, the community had outgrown  all this so everybody pitched in. to build a community hall and  they planned to hold its opening on July First. But for some  reason, the flooring was delayed and arrived only the day before. Men with hammers worked all day and all night until  the early hours of July First while the Women's Institute served  lunch. The floor was finished and the hall opened on schedule  with a big dance at night. One of the members of the orchestra  that played that night was T. J. (Tom) Tull, then a Vernon high  school student. His father, J. E. Tull, had come from England  after the Boer War and gone straight to the south end of Mabel  Lake to work for the Rogers Lumber Company, which had a mill  at Enderby. The logs used to be boomed down the Shuswap. Mr.  Tull later bought property and lived in Vernon where Tom was  born. Tom Tull has since returned to Lumby to teach and recently accepted the appointment of principal of the Lumby Elementary schools.  Fire at their Enderby Mill did much to cause the Rogers  Lumber Company to close about 1920, and it was then that  Henry Sigalet saw the possibilities and started into the logging  business, bringing logs overland to Lumby instead of by river  conveyance. It is not known just how many men he employed  at first, but it was a modest beginning. He worked hard with  his men and his wife was camp cook. From this small beginning, Lumby Timber Company has developed and with it  Lumby's pride in her timber. Mr. Sigalet was born in Vernon  and later owned a farm at Mabel Lake. Son Harold has fol-  82 The Story of Lumby  lowed in his father's footsteps and so Lumby has "H. Sigalet  (1953) and Company Limited" and "Interior Poles".  The Canadian National Railway built their track into Lumby in 1924 and Bell Pole followed shortly after bringing another  large development. Napoleon Bessette continued in the sawmill business his father had started and many other local  people began logging and mill ventures that grew to noteworthy proportions, until today Lumby's payroll (not including  sub-contractors) is estimated at over one million dollars annually.  Unfortunately, two-thirds of those on the payrolls live out of  Lumby and their domestic spending is done elsewhere. A recent  survey showed Lumby's annual production output exceeded that  of Kamloops and Kelowna together.  With incorporation, it is appropriate to note the first children born on the townsite. Armand Quesnel, son of Cleophas,  may take the first nod. He was born within the townsite in  1893. Dick Morand, son of Louis Morand was second. He was  born in the fall of 1894. Eva Lesher, (Mrs. Hugh Cox) daughter  of George Lesher, who with William Bouchard, came about  1892, was third with her birth being recorded as  1896.  Queen of the May  Crowning of the May Queen was first held in 1913 and  Linda Jackson, whose father at that time managed the Morand  Hotel, was the first Queen of the May. Unfortunately, tragedy  mars this memory, for Miss Jackson contracted pneumonia and  died a few months later.  Lumby developed a newspaper in 1936 when N. R. (Pat;  Duke began to print a small paper he called The Lumby  Logger. His feature writer was Isabelle (Puff) Inglis, now Mrs.  Bob Morris of Vernon and granddaughter of the first David  Inglis. She wrote "Aunty Puff's Column". This continued until  Mr. Duke enlisted in World War Two. After the war Charles  Sadd and Harvey Howard again started a newspaper using  the same name. Mr. Howard later bought out Mr. Sadd and  with his wife he still publishes the local happenings weekly.  83 The Story oi Lumby  In 1955 Lumby acquired its first plane, when Ronald Catt,  son of H. C. Catt bought a small plane which will be kept on  his farm when his runway is completed.  Incorporation was first tried in Lumby about 25 years ago  but the community rejected the idea. Success came only after  the second attempt in recent years and then the final vote  showed some 87 per cent in favour.  Incorporation  After the date of incorporation was effective the Interim  Commissioners were Cecil Wills who has a family tie to the  heart of Lumby, for his wife is daughter of Tom Norris and  granddaughter of Louis Christien; W. F. Shields and John Dyck.  Election of Commissioners saw thirteen candidates and a  praiseworthy vote cast of 92 per cent. The spirit of Lumby's  founders is living in Lumby's first elected Board of Commissioners, for chairman is N. R. (Pat) Duke, whose wife's father and  grandfather, Napoleon and Paul Bessette, arrived in 1890. Commissioner Ernest Pierce is married to the daughter of Tom Norris  and granddaughter of Louis Christien. Commissioner James W.  Inglis is a son of David Inglis, 1892, then to round out the commission are what oldtimers would call new citizens, John Kirch-  steiger, 1928, and George Fisher, the most recent to make Lumby  his home in 1942. On their wisdom will be built the success or  failure of the beginning of the village of Lumby.  Prior to incorporation problems were handled by the Lumby  and District Board of Trade. This very active and public-minded  group had the honour of having a native son of the district as  its president three years ago, when Joe Martin Jr., son of  Joseph Martin who came to Lumby to farm in 1907, held office.  Second native son to hold this honour is the president for this  year, J. W. Inglis also born on the townsite of Lumby.  A wonderful era has ended and a new one begun. But,  however pleasing the new one is, there is a nostalgia that lingers  from the old. It is the memory of women leaving their homes  and families to assist others when sickness struck. They acted  84 The Story of Lumby  Lumby's first commissioners being  sworn in by Magistrate H. C.  Catt. ' Left to right: H. C. Catt, E. R. Pierce, J. W. Inglis, George  Fisher, N. R. Duke, John K.rchsteiger.  as mid wives at the birth of one another's children, and here  among many others Mrs. Dave Inglis should be remembered.  Oldtimers remember the get-togethers in one another's homes  and the house parties held in those days when people made  their own entertainment.  Lumby, unorganized territory, though it had a potential  townsite was like a large friendly, brotherly hand with fingers  that stretched up the valleys to Mabel Lake, Rolands Lake,  Sugar Lake and Creighton Valley, with the Mill Road area that  could be thought of as a good sturdy thumb. There was a wonderful feeling of unity and esprit de corps — a fine example of  living together.  Incorporation, however desirable, does set boundaries.  Indeed it is the beginning of a new era, but with its new beginning, may some of the old live on. DL BX Ranch  Mabel Johnson  One of the oldest-established ranches in the Okanagan  Valley is the BX Ranch, located some five miles from Vernon's  city center. Originally purchased from the crown by Francis  J. Barnard, chief shareholder and general manager of the B.C.  Express Company, it has been under four ownerships during a  period of nearly four generations.  The BX Ranch originally comprised 6,300 acres, and was  established in the 1860's. Stephen Tingley, one of the "crack"  drivers of the old Cariboo Trail, was an associate of F. J. Barnard, and went to New Mexico in 1868 where he procured some  400 horses to stock the BX Ranch. Some of these horses, (and  they were of the Morgan breed), went to Ashcroft for the Cariboo  stage, and others were used on the run south to Mission. Stages  were usually drawn by four-horse or six-horse teams, while the  old freight wagons, (two or more hitched together), required as  many as eight to 12 horses, according to the load, Incidentally,  the Mission stage was taken off in 1892, when the S & O railway came through the Okanagan. The Ashcroft-Cariboo stage  ran until about 1915 or 1917.  Upon the completion of the Shuswap and Okanagan Branch  Line of the Canadian Pacific Railway through the Okanagan  Valley, one of the chief functions of the stage service passed;  but the ranch was retained by the Barnard Estate under Sir  Francis Stillman Barnard, as a horse ranch, which by that time,  was supplying a number of B.C. Coast stables with horses for  cabs, "tally ho's" and the like. They bore the registered brand  of "BX".  In the year 1900, the ranch was purchased by Alexander  Macdonell, who carried on much the same line of activity until  real estate in B.C. began to boom.  The ranch was then subdivided, and only 320 acres re- The BX Ranch  tained, when mixed farming became general on the BX. Water  rights on what is known as BX Creek were obtained by the  original owners of the ranch before the city of Vernon was incorporated in 1892.  The ranch changed hands again in 1931, when it was purchased by the late John DeRoo, who carried on mixed farming  until 1947, when it was sold to the present owner — Lancashire-  born Arthur E. Dodd, who, for a time specialized in breeding  and raising pure-bred Hereford cattle.  Adjacent to the ranch was the Brookside orchard, established by the Barnard Brothers prior to 1894. This property  was located east of the BX Ranch, near BX Creek, and added  its bit of color to the beautiful and historic acres of its august  neighbour, the BX Ranch.  BX horses brought the mail and amenities of civilization  to early settlers before the railway plunged its steel into the  heart of the now lush and productive Okanagan Valley and  the Cariboo.  Into the rich pasture lands, and gentle sloping ranges of  BX Ranch are woven the hopes,  ambitions, toils and fears  of  early settlers, who came with youth, their major asset, and  faith to the Okanagan Valley their lodestar.  The name "BX" is an abbreviation of "B.C. Express", and  has been retained throughout the four ownerships. It was  known in the early days, far and wide, for the quality of its  horseflesh. It has since become famous for its pure-bred beef  cattle  and  irrigated  pastures.  A name well-known in North Okanagan is "McCluskey".  In 1888 Mr. and Mrs. W. R. McCluskey came to manage the  ranch for the Barnard Brothers. On it some of their eight children were born, some of whom, and their descendants, are now  among the district's best-known residents; including Mrs. Aird  Smith, of Vernon, to whom this 1956 Okanagan Historical Society Report is indebted for much of the information contained  in this  article.  87 The BX Ranch  The original BX house was lived in by the McCluskeys  and was incorporated in another house, built on the same site  which burned on New Year's Day, in the year 1912, when Mrs.  Macdonnell, wife of the then owner,  lost her life.  When the BX Ranch was first established, there was no  "Vernon" as such. The community was known then as Priest's  Valley. It was in 1888 that the late Mrs. Price Ellison, wife of  a former B.C. Minister of Finance, re-named the town "Vernon",  honouring the government agent of that time, Forbes Vernon.  Application  to  change the  name went  to  Victoria  in   1887.  Horses raised on the BX Ranch in the early days were  used on the arduous run from Ashcroft to Clinton, gateway to  the Cariboo. In wagons, stage-coaches and pack-trains rode  men from all over North America, searching for gold.  Along the white-veined, black velvet ribbon of Highway  97, which now pierces the beautiful and rich cattle country  known as the Cariboo, which is also a gateway to Canada's  fabulous northland, horses from BX Ranch slowly plodded  their difficult way when it was little more than a trail.  Today, travellers may see stage-coaches, preserved as  relics, at Cache Creek, 100-Mile House and other Cariboo  points, drawn in their heyday by horses from BX Ranch. What  is still known as "Hat Creek House" was the first stop to  change horses north of Ashcroft, owned for many years by  Steve Tingley, who, so it is claimed, was the earliest pioneer  to visualize the potentialities of the BX Ranch.  100-Mile House, built in 1863, was another old stopping  place on the "trail to riches", and coaches ran past its door  as late as 1917 when the Pacific Great Eastern Railway took  over. A stage-coach, the gift of Leslie Cameron, manager of  the old B.C. Express and holder of the mail contract, is one  of the old-time conveyances still preserved as a relic and a  link with the gold rush days, in which horses from BX played  a large part. And in the freight wagons drawn by 8, 10 and  even 12 BX horses were not only the gold-seekers themselves, The BX Ranch  but the necessities of life, such as flour, oats, tea, coal oil and  demijohns of rum.  Into the historic acres, then, which now constitute BX  Ranch, came Arthur E. Dodd in 1947. Mr. Dodd spends most  of his time on the continent of Europe. He bought the BX and  St. Christopher's Ranch at Monte Creek, a few miles distant,  after the second world war.  At present, 160 acres are under cultivation, and the ranch  also has 360 acres of bushland above Swan Lake. Until recently the manager was Dr. V. de Ondarza, son-in-law of Mr.  Dodd, and a medical doctor. He husbanded 90 head of pure  bred Hereford cattle from the famous Earlscourt stock, owned  by Col. Victor Spencer. However, he felt that the medical profession held more for him and his young family; so the BX  Ranch is now looked after by a trusted employee; the Here-  fords have been sold, and Dr. Ondarza is serving as intern at  Halifax Infirmary.  The ranch house is closed when Mr. and Mrs. Dodd are  not in residence. They live in the best traditions of English  aristocracy. A modern home nearby, houses the ranch manager and his family.  But on the verandah of the BX Ranch house is a plaque,  on which is inscribed the following:. .  "I was a stranger yestreen,  I put food in the eating place,  Music in the listening place,  And in the sacred Name of the Tribune,  He blessed myself and. my home,  My cattle and my dear ones.  And the lark said her song  Often, often, often . . .,  Goes the Christ in the stranger's guise."  89 ZJhe   l IIlc(J3ride5  CSf   Vernon Se  service  Mabel Johnson  Forty-two years of grocery retailing in Vernon concluded  July 31, 1956, when the Okanagan Grocery Limited closed its  doors. Mr. and Mrs. David McBride had been sole owners since  April 15th, 1943. Mr. McBride is nearing his 80th year.  On June 17, 1914, George Woods, Thomas Robertson and  David McBride took over the Okanagan Grocery, then operated by W. H. Smith, a former Vernon mayor. On January 31,  1927, the late George Woods, sold his interest in the business to  T. Robertson and David McBride. Mr. Robertson retired on April  15th, 1943, and has since died. His interest was taken over by  Mr. and Mrs. McBride, since then sole owners of the exclusive  grocery store.  Many changes took place in the 42-year-span of the busi  ness. The oldest employee was Albert Harwood, member of  the well known Vernon family of the same name, who joined  the firm in its early years. With the exception of service in two  world wars he stayed with the firm until Mr. McBride locked its  doors for the last time. On July 11th, 1956, Mr. and Mrs. McBride  celebrated their golden wedding.  Since coming to Vernon, Mr. and Mrs. McBride have taken  a keen interest in Vernon United Church, where Mr. McBride is  a member of the Session and chairman of the Worship Committee. He is a charter member and past president of Vernon  Rotary Club; past Exalted Ruler and District Deputy Grand  Exalted Ruler of the B.P.O. Elks' Lodge, and now an honorary  life member. Mr. McBride was also a member for many years  of Vernon Curling Club and Vernon Lawn Bowling Club. Mrs.  McBride holds the honour of throwing the first ball when the  Lawn Bowling Club was formed. The couple have now retired  and are living a quiet life in their beautiful home on the shores  of the lake at Okanagan Landing, enjoying fishing, gardening-  church work — and their friends.  90 C^auedtrian  <=>L)isplau and iKidina  ^jreatd  G. P. Bagnall sends the following historical item under the  title "An amazing equestrian display." Mr. Bagnall of Vernon  is an "ex Medical Staff Sergeant (30th B.C.H.), 2nd C.M.R."  "Back in the year 1911 the 30th British Columbia Horse  assembled in Kamloops for spring training. Regimental headquarters and B squadron rode the seventy miles from their  home in Vernon to the junction of the North Thompson and  Fraser rivers, and a ten-day period of training ensued at Kamloops.  "Returning to Vernon, the troops bivouacked for the night  at Grande Prairie, now known as Westwold, where they were  ordered to off-saddle and place their mounts in a corral. As the  horses were released inside the corral, they lined up in sections of fours, in true military formation, with Major M. V. Allen's  horse in the lead, and smartly trotted around inside the corral.  The riderless and tired mounts continued their performance,  circling the corral, for about twenty minutes, while the troops  scrambled up the corral rails to cheer their mounts.  "The performance was unrehearsed and unexpected, and  had to be seen to be believed. The late Col. C. L. Bott was then  commander, and Tom Godfrey sergeant-major, of the regiment.  In 1914 the regiment was mobilized and served overseas in  World War I as the 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles."  Mr. Bagnall's article recalls two sentences from an article  by H .A. Bryden on "Some great riding feats," in an old copy  of Chamber's Journal, which will serve to introduce instances  of endurance that should be placed on record.  "The combination and generous alliance of horse and man  have resulted in some marvellous feats of endurance; and  though most of these are forgotten or unrecorded, a few remain, from which the curious may realize what flesh and blood  have been able to accomplish in the days when our ancestors  91 Equestrian Display and Riding Feats  relied upon the aid of that valuable animal Equus caballus . . .  In an age when horsemanship and manly endurance are likely  to be forgotten qualities among us, these notable examples  seem to be well worth rescue from oblivion."  In the year 1932 William (Bill) Eddie of Princeton told of  a boy who rode on a grey horse from Allison's townsite to Rock  Creek in one day. According to Mr. Eddie, considering roads  then, the journey must have been a hundred miles. Mr. Eddie  had no details of the feat, but suggested a letter to H. S. Pittendrigh of Grand Forks for further information. Under date 3  November, 1932, Mr. Pittendrigh replied that he had no know-  edge of the horse-riding feat reported by Bill Eddie, but, considering his own experience of long rides, did not doubt it.  In letter dated "Grand Forks, Dec. 7th, 1932," Mr. Pittendrigh enclosed some details of long rides he had made. "These  rides were timed by my own watch. There was not any guess  work about them. They were rides made from necessity.  "The main thing in making a long ride is first to have a  good horse, secondly to know the road thoroughly, so that you  know where to urge your horse and where to save him . . ."  Here follow three statements, each one signed by Mr. Pittendrigh.  "July, 1882. I left Fort Hope to go to Osoyoos to bring a  band of wild colts to the coast for a person named Robert Stevenson. I left Fort Hope at 10 a.m. and rode to the cattle corrals just  this side of the summit by eight o'clock that evening. I left the  corrals the next morning at 6 a.m. and arrived at Osoyoos at  4 p.m.  "Another trip I made in August, 1882, for the same purpose.  I left Fort Hope at 7 a.m. and rode to Powder Camp by 5 p.m.  I left Powder Camp the next morning at 7 a.m. and rode to  Osoyoos and up to Stastolinton Creek and back to Osoyoos  with a bunch of saddle horses to the corral by 5 p.m.."  The distance from Hope to the Dewdney Trail summit was  38 miles. From the summit to Princeton was another 28, making  92 Equestrian Display and Riding Feats  a total distance of 66 miles. From Princeton to Keremeos the  distance is 44 miles; and from Keremeos to Osoyoos by the  Richter Pass 26 miles, a distance of 136 miles from Hope to  Osoyoos. The creek with the outlandish name referred to by Mr.  Pittendrigh was spelled Stashtavalentha in the 1930 Gazetteer.  For obvious reasons this name appears as Testalinden Creek in  the 1953 Gazetteer.  "July, 1890. I left Princeton at 7 a.m. and arrived at Fort  Hope at 3 p.m.  "In August, 1890, I rode from Osoyoos to Penticton in the  afternoon. I left there the next morning at 7 a.m., arriving at  the Mission at 10:40 a.m. I got a fresh horse and rode to Vernon  that day, the next day I returned to Mission and the next morning I left the Mission at 7 a.m. and arrived at Osoyoos at 5  p.m."  "July, 1891. I left Princeton at 8 a.m. and arrived at Barrington Price's store Keremeos at 11:30 a.m."  "August, 1892. I left Rock Creek at 1 p.m. and I arrived at  Kruger's store Osoyoos at 2:40 p.m."  In her article on "Pioneers of the Similkameen" (OHS.13,  pp. 109-116), Mrs. Verna B. Cawston tells of Richard Lowe Caw-  ston's famous ride against time. "His record-making ride on  Barrington Price's horse, Moujiks (a buckskin), from Hope to  Keremeos in twenty-four hours is also part of local history. The  occasion was a race against time to Vernon for the purpose of  filing on a grazing pre-emption. After Moujiks' death, Price  had a hoof of the stout-hearted little horse silver-mounted as a  humidor and presented to Mr. Cawston."  It is a matter of regret that more records have not been  preserved of famous rides in Okanagan, Similkameen and the  Boundary country.  93 ^rrow   rf/r.    /tleaaw (J5roke ^rr'id cJLea  On Monday, September 6, 1909, Lord Strathcona barely  escaped serious injury during the course of a horse-and-carriage  trip from Vernon to the Coldstream Ranch. The high commissioner suffered only a bruised right arm, but the owner and  driver of the carriage, W. R. Megaw, was thrown to the ground  and his leg broken.  This is the substance of a story appearing on the front page  of The Manitoba Free Press, published in Winnipeg and now  known as the Winnipeg Free Press.  The newspaper, dated Tuesday, September 7, 1909, was  handed to The Vernon News by a city woman who declined  to identify herself but said she had discovered it in a house  which she and her husband had just purchased.  The lead story on the front page tells how Commander  Peary had reached the North Pole and, in the words of a telegram to the Associated Press, had nailed the stars and stripes  to the pole.  Statistics published by the paper showed the previous  year's wheat crop was "the most valuable crop so far in the  country's history." Average price to the farmer was 82 cents  a bushel at his own station for all grades. Crop totalled almost  97 million oushels.  A report date-lined Vernon, September 6, disclosed that  Lord Strathcona was injured when Mr. Megaw's team became  unmanageable on a steep hill about three miles east of town.  The carriage overturned when Mr. Megaw pulled the horses  into a wire fence.  Here is the story as it appeared in the Free Press:  1, Reprinted from the Vernon News, 12 July, 1956, sent by G. P.  Bagnall of Vernon, who adds this note: "W. R. Megaw, 1848-1939,  was ore of Vernon's most enterprising citizens. He served as mayor  1899, 1900, 1901 and 1907."  94 How Mr. Megaw Broke His Leg  "LORD STRATHCONA HURT IN RUNAWAY" — Team  Dashed Down Steep Bank Toward Lake at Vernon and Carriage Overturned.  Vernon, B.C., Sept. 6 — Lord Strathcona narrowly escaped  serious injury in an accident near Vernon on Saturday evening.  Accompanied by Sir Edward Clouston, C. C. Chipman and Mr.  Pellard, he drove out from Vernon to visit Lord Aberdeen's celebrated fruit farm, the Coldstream Ranch.  "They were driven by W. R. Megaw, who is a prominent  merchant and ex-mayor of the city. On a steep hill near Long  Lake, about three miles from town, the team became unmanageable and bolted down the road toward the lake.  "Mr. Megaw is an experienced horseman and one of the  best whips in the country, but he could do nothing to stop the  animals which had become frightened by the whiffletrees striking their legs. At the foot of the hill there is a sharp turn of the  road. Seeing he could not make the turn, Mr. Megaw pulled  the horses into a wire fence. The carriage overturned and all  were thrown to the ground. Fortunately all escaped serious injury except Mr. Megaw, who had his leg broken. Lord Strathcona's right arm was bruised but he made light of it saying that  it would be all right next day.  "A telephone message to town brought out an automobile  at once and the party were conveyed to their car, which immediately left for Laggan, to spend  Sunday at that point.  "Lord Strathcona made light of the accident, as far as he  was concerned, but expressed great concern over Mr. Megaw's  misfortune ..."  There are several references to the accident above noted  in The Life oi Lord Strathcona & Mount Royal, G.C.M.G.,  G.C.V.O (1320-1914) by Beckles Willson (Cassell & Co. Ltd.,  London, 1915). According to the account on page 559, Mr. Megaw had both legs broken:  95 How Mr. Megaw Broke His Leg  "Leaving Winnipeg, several visits were made to parts  of the West, including British Columbia, where his uncles,  John and Robert Stuart, had long laboured. During one of  these expeditions in the Okanagan Valley, he incurred  what might easily have been a serious or fatal accident to  a man of his 88 years. A wagonette and pair of horses overturned down a hill, and literally shot the four or five occupants, including Lord Strathcona, out on to the bank and  field. The driver had both legs broken. Lord Strathcona  was quite unhurt, excepting for a cut and strain of the hand  and arm, which he carried in a sling some weeks afterwards."  Succeeding references suggest that injuries sustained by  Lord Strathcona were more serious than at first reported. "The  injury to his right arm caused by the accident at Vernon prevented him from using a pen." (p.563) In April,. 1910, he de  cided the time had come when he should resign the High Com-  missionership, and he wrote to this effect to the Prime Minister,  Sir Wilfred Laurier. Sir Wilfred begged him to reconsider his  decision. In reply, Lord Strathcona reaffirmed his desire to be  relieved of his high office. "I am still inconvenienced and suffering somewhat from the effects of the accident to my right  arm at Vernon, in September last, and of a subsequent slighter  injury to the other arm from a motor collision here." (p. 564)  Lady Strathcona died on 12 November, 1913, in her 89th year;  and Lord Strathcona died on 21 January, 1914, in his 94th year.  Mr. Megaw lived till he was 91. He had been active in  local affairs for many years, and earned the esteem of all in  the community in which he lived.  The new Anglican Bishop of Kootenay Diocese, the Right  Reverend P. R. Beanie, B.A. DD., took part in the services held  on October 9, 1955, m St. James' Anglican Church, Armstrong,  the occasion being its 70th anniversary. Also officiating at this  significant milestone was another bishop, the Right Reverend A.  H. Sovereign, D.D. The incumbent of the historic church of St.  James is Rev. C. E. Lonsdale, who was instituted as rector by  Bishop Beattie on the church's 70th anniversary.  96 l^eminidcenced of _-Xr. <=JL.  fortune  INTRODUCTION:  Society members who attended the 1955 annual meeting in  Vernon, and visited the museum housed in the Junior High  School, were privileged to see the original manuscripts prepared  by Alexander Leslie Fortune telling of his life and work. There  are seven sections. They were in the possession of the late  George Heggie of Vernon and after his death were presented  by his daughter to the Vernon Board of Museum and Archives.  The first section was carefully edited by Dr. M. A. Ormsby,  and appeared in OHS. 15 (1951), pp. 25-40. The remainder of the  Fortune papers have been edited by F. T. Marriage of Kelowna,  and will appear in two instalments, the first in this Report.  Mr. Marriage has brought critical judgement to his task,  and although there is some condensation, nothing essential is  omitted, and the "flavour" of the original has been preserved.  The result remains Mr. Fortune's story.  A biographical notice of Mr. Fortune will be found in the  appendix to The Overlanders of '62 by the late Mark Sweeten  Wade, M.D. (Archives of British Columbia, memoir No. IX, Victoria, 1931). "Mr. Fortune was born at Huntingdon, Quebec, on  January 20, 1830, and died at Enderby on July 5, 1915. In 1862  he was married to Miss Bathia Ross of Lancaster, Ontario, who  remained behind when her husband joined the Huntingdon  group of Overlanders. Mrs. Fortune arrived at Spallumcheen in  1874 and resided there until her death on November 13, 1930.  Both are buried in the old cemetery at Lansdowne" (Dr. Ormsby  in OHS.15, p. 25).  The original manuscript of the section edited by Dr. Ormsby  was written by Mr. Fortune for the British Columbia Historical  Association when he was over eighty years of age, and is in  the library of the University of British Columbia. It was written  in 1910-11.  Mr. Willard E. Ireland, Provincial Librarian and Archivist,  in letter dated "Victoria, B.C., May 29, 1956", addressed to Mr.  97 Reminiscences of A. L. Fortune  George Melvin, President, Vernon Museum Society, has some  helpful comments with reference to editing the Fortune papers.  These comments make it evident that the Vernon Museum  "Papers" are only one set of a number of such documents, and  that there are variations between them. It must, therefore, be  kept in mind that the Fortune Papers appearing in this and  subsequent Reports are the Vernon Museum manuscripts as  edited by F. T. Marriage. We are grateful to Mr. Ireland for help  he has given, and print in full his letter addressed to Mr. Melvin:  "Under separate cover, by registered post, I am returning to  you the typed script of the seven portions of the A. L. Fortune  manuscript that you loaned to me when I was recently in Vernon in order that I might check the material that we have here.  I hope it reaches you safely and I do appreciate having the  opportunity to check it over.  'Ģ"I think the editorial problem that you are going to run into  in publishing this material is obviously formidable and should  certainly be thought out very carefully, before you become too  heavily committed. In the first place, this material should be  properly referred to as "Reminiscences of A. L. Fortune" for  in no sense of the word do they really constitute diaries. From  all the researching I have been able to do here, it would appear  to me that the material you have in Vernon was done about  1903 and it must have been transcribed for we have typewritten copies of all seven pieces. The only difficulty is that there  are a great number of variations between our transcript and  yours and not all of them are typographical in nature, which  leads me to assume that there probably were different versions  written by Mr. Fortune before he hit upon his final one.  "In addition, I imagine you realize that Part I, which is  called "History" was published in your 15th Annual Report,  but obviously from a different transcript since it varies from  your present one and also from ours.  "In addition to all this material, we have certain additional  sections which I think would interest you if you are planning  to publish his full reminiscences. For instance, there is a chapter  98 Reminiscences oi A. L. Fortune  on Indians and one relating to religious history. These we have  in the original as well as transcripts and for your own information I am sending you a copy of the transcript of each.  "We also have in his own handwriting what would look to  be a general outline of what he was proposing to undertake.  This has not been transcribed but it could be done if you so  desire.  "Then, insofar as that portion in your series is labelled  "Record - Feb. 5, 1903" we have the manuscript of still another  variant done in two parts, the first dated October 26, 1906 and  the second, November 14, 1906 which deals with the overland  journey to Cariboo in 1862 but it is quite different from the transcript that you have. We have never had this transcribed but  if it would be of any assistance to your editor, in his work, we  would be only too willing to do so.  "Also, we have another manuscript dated June 5, 1911,  which deals with general history of the Okanagan Valley and  looks extremely good for he talks about many of the pioneers  and identifies them. I do not believe that you have a copy of  this and if you wish it we would be happy to have a transcript  prepared.  "We also have two other small items, written in the form  of extended letters to N. C. McConnell of the B.C. Historical  Association, which really was a commercial organization sponsoring a book to be written; the first dated September 5, 1910,  is autobiography and the second November 16, 1910, is entitled  "Earthquake and Rum" . . ."  We venture to think that the present printing of the Vernon  manuscripts, as edited by Mr. Marriage, will be of great interest  to all our readers, and also of service when the definitive story  comes to be written.  Reference has been made to Dr. Wade's book dealing with  the Overland expedition of 1862. There is another book, Overland to Cariboo, by Margaret McNaughton, wife of one of the  pioneers, (Toronto, 1896) from which we have taken some pictures to illustrate our story. —J. G.  99 ^Jhe  \Jverlandi  er5  CHAPTER I  Being the Reminiscences of A. L. Fortune, written about 1903,  Edited by F. T. Marriage, 1955.  Mr. and Mrs. A. L. Fortune  In travelling over the civilized or primitive countries or  places of this earth, we see nothing that inspires so many  people with ambition and industrious effort as the longing or  wish for a home. We see this in the poor beggar-child in the  street who succeeds in touching some generous hearts who  will give to the needy; rushing home with food and fuel to a  sick mother or dying brother.  We notice the untutored savage tying the top ends of a  few poles, on which he spreads rush mats or bark, thus form-  in? a rude tent, in the centre of which he builds a small fire.  With his wif? and family he enjoys the supreme comfort of a  home. The millionaire in the midst of parks and boulevards,  living in a palatial residence, with all the fineries and conveniences that money can provide, proves man's natural wish for  the comforts of a nome.  100 The Overlanders  Take the lonely frontier settler living in squalor and a mud  hut, holding his homestead with the stubbornness of a hero,  and we have a further proof of man's home ambition. No song  nor story has moved so many hearts nor moistened so many  eyes as "Home, Sweet Home."  It is this love of home, the knowledge of home's happy comforts, the experience of those joys that home alone can give,  which cause so many in early life to break away from parents  and friends to make homes for themselves.  We know that there are some who never bring sunshine  to their homes. Boys and girls will part with a loving mother to  get away from a cruel father. Some over-crowded occupations  force the unemployed away to new lands.  So long as the broad acres of the west are unoccupied, the  small farm holdings of the east must send streams. Yes, floods  of immigration to develop our mines, work in our timber, and  cultivate our lands.  The home seekers and the fortune hunters have come, and  are coming. They will come, and verily they must come to the  west.  We did come !ong ago.  In 1862 a large company of young men, mostly Canadians,  a few Americans and Engtishmen formed themselves into an  overland travelling company. They crossed the prairies by the  North Saskatchewan River and the mountains by the Athabasca,  Miette, and Fraser River valleys, in order to get a share of the  gold in rich Cariboo. It would afford me great pleasure now if  I had obtained a list of the names of all that memorable party  with whom we travelled. They all left dear friends and homes  behind them and were in good earnest bent on getting back  to those homes when Cariboo's golden treasures would belong  to them.  INTO THE CARIBOO  During the summer and fall of 1861 the hardy and persevering  gold  hunting  explorers  who  had  been  working  on  101 The Overlanders  benches and bars along the Fraser and Quesnel rivers, found  their way into the Cariboo region. They suffered privations, of  course, and endured untold hardships with their heavy packs  on their backs, containing tools, bedding and provisions. Tearing through forests and over logs, through thick brush, climbing  steep and high mountains, digging holes here and there in the  dry or very wet ground, washing pans of dirt by the hundred in  the hope of finding some rich prospect of gold, they finally  immortalized the fame of Cariboo by finding very rich gold  deposits in various places, and especially on the shallow  benches of Antler and Williams creeks.  The news of these rich discoveries got into the Victoria  and other coast papers and found their way to the Eastern  press of Canada and the United States. Even over the Atlantic  the "gold news" created a "gold fever", a fever which can  spread very fast, and one that ordinary doctors cannot easily  cure. In fact, many doctors were smitten with the fever. Lawyers,  engineers, army officers, gentlemen's sons, yes, all classes had  representatives who made their way by sea or land to the  famous gold mines of Cariboo in that good year of sixty-two. In  the months of February, March and April, great reports were  published about the many thousands who were leaving New  York by the Commodore Vanderbilt Line and other lines of  steamers via Aspinwall, Panama, San Francisco and thence  to Victoria for the great gold mines of Cariboo. We had seen  the paper reports of the years '49, '52 and later excitements in  the gold fields of California and Australia and the cheering reports of many who were successful in their mines, but there  was not much written about the many failures of the majority.  We naturally hoped that we might be among the lucky ones  who could go to Cariboo goldfields, be back in a short time  with a competency, and again join our friends in those homes  we loved so dearly.  Why should we not succeed as well as others did? We  were criticized for thinking of such a move. We were told that  we had better stay and work faithfully in the east than go to  uncertain ties in the west. They were kind, loving and true  friends who thus advised us. What grief we caused. Oh what  102 The Overlanders  sad hearts that parting gives. Let us draw down the curtain and  leave our dearest friends in their funeral grief.  "THOSE WERE DIFFERENT DAYS"  Those were the days when the rights of slavery were  wrestling with the rights of freedom; when the aristocracy of  the Southern States fought for their vested rights against their  brethren of the North.  There were not many called millionaires in America at  that time; not much talk of strikes, nor bold destruction of  property by striking mobs. The papers were not crying hard  against combines or monopolies in those good old days of  individual manhood. There were no over-land railways then.  It was not so safe nor so pleasant and comfortable to travel on  the ships of those days as by the modern ocean palaces and  giant steel steamers that we have now.  This was before the confederation of our great Dominion;  long before the late Sir John Macdonald and Sir Charles Tupper  fought side by side against the radical elements of Canada and  the Maritime Provinces. It was at the time when the late and  much-lamented Honourable George Brown was a giant in  Ontario, and when his paper, the Toronto Globe, was read  nearly as much as the Bible by the majority of Western Canadians. This paper not only informed its readers of the richness  of Cariboo and the wonderful gold piles found by the bold prospectors Moses and Aaron, but it also gave glowing accounts  of gold discoveries made on the North Saskatchewan near  Fort Edmonton by Timoleon Love, who had been in Cariboo  and came through one of the mountain passes with gold in his  possession. This, when exhibited at Fort Garry, made the  foundation for the story of the rich gold finds near Edmonton.  The pioneer paper, The Nor' Wester, owned and published  by the late James Ross and another gentleman near Fort Garry,  made public those wonderful reports about rich gold mines  easily worked near Edmonton. Several articles under the heading "Edmonton Gold Mines" appeared in the Toronto Globe  and other Eastern capers; hence the reason why so many de-  103 The Overlanders  cided to try the overland route instead of going by sea and  Panama. We can understand how men will meet to discuss  such questions; how they write for wanted information. So  it was in many places in the winter of '62.  FROM WHENCE WE CAME  We can mention a few names and the places from which  many of our party started. First, the Montreal party, a small  number, included George Tunstal, who for a long time worthily  filled the position of Government Agent, etc., at Kamloops;  Archibald McNaughton, of the mouth of the Quesnel; a Mr.  Fletcher and W. W. Morrow. If any others did belong to that  party they are forgotten. The second party was from Huntingdon  and numbered some sixteen members, of which we remember  James and William Wattie, John Bowron (who is still in Cariboo and who has for a long time been filling the position of  gold commissioner and government agent), William and James  Sellars; Wm. Cameron, George Read and Henry Blanchford;  (the last three were blacksmiths) Wm. Schyler, Arthur Anderson, Joseph White; besides others whose names I have forgotten.  The third party we will call the "Ottawa", which included two  brothers named Glassford, Peter Mclntyre, Joseph, William  and John Galfpeny (?) and one or two more. Fourth, the Whitby  company was not numerous, but it boasted of professionals. I  remember a printer a tailor and Dr. McPherson. The others I  cannot place.  Fifth, there was a company from near Markham, back of  Toronto. Joseph Torrance and Wm. McKenzie were in that  company. Sixth; The Toronto company did not hold well together, but there were distinguished men from that city, including the present representatives of Yale and Kootenay district at  Ottawa, the Hon. I. A. Mara; Mr. Wallace, (once connected  with the Evening Express at Victoria), Mr. Josling, Mr. Hinds  (a landscape painter) and Mr. Redgrave, long a "keeper of the  peace" in B.C. There may have been a few more but they are  not remembered.  Seventh, the largest company, twenty-six, came from near  St. Catherines or Niagara.  104 The Overlanders  The chosen leader was the late Thomas McMicking, who  was accidentally drowned near Westminster. He wrote and published in the Westminster paper a very good account of that  expedition. He was highly respected by all parties. We still  have his good brother Robert McMicking, who has been very  well and favorably known nearly 34 years in B.C. Wm. Fortune, whose enterprising business spirit and kind hospitality  cannot be too highly praised, is still living at Tranquille, B.C.  There were a few of the 26 messing in six different tents, all  orderly and considerate men.  Eighth: the St. Thomas company consisted of some 14  members, if I remember aright. Among them was the late  Brock McQueen, who lived near Kamloops till his death. There  was John Dodd, who loved to chase the game with gun in  hand nearly all the time.  Sam Berdam and his brother, and John Nicholas joined  this party on the boat going to Fort Garry.  Ninth: the Acton party numbered six — Thomas Dunn,  James Kelso and Erastus Hall, (all three dead), John Malcolm,  (still mining in Cariboo), John Burns in Ontario, and the writer  of these words.  I can only remember a few more names but cannot place  them in parties. Robert Warren from Acton joined a few from  Goderich. Among these was a Mr. Robertson, who was drowned in the Fraser River west of Tete Jaune Cache. James McKenzie, late trader in the H.B. Co. store at Kamloops, was with  two more in a canoe, and by some wetting, his companion,  named Paterson, caught a severe cold. He died at Fort George,  where we buried him. There are other people of whom we will  not write at present, until we give our account of the trip to  Fort Garry.  THE START ON MAY 2, '62  The writer boarded the train at River Beaudet station on  the second day of May, 1862. This station is near the line  separating Quebec from Ontario.  It was Saturday, and in a  105 The Overlanders  few hours we arrived at Kingston. I enjoyed the kind hospitality  of the Revs. P. D. and Thomas Muir until Monday morning, when  I bade those good lamilies farewell. I again took the train, this  time for Detroit. Oh what a lonely feeling crept over me, for all  friends were left behind. The weeping inclination seemed to  possess my whole soul and body. I could see the farms, the  fields, the houses, the towns fly past in. a panorama of confusion. Why should I leave those most dear to my heart to seek  that which I might never find?  I strove to see the beauties of Ontario, of whose front range  of farm life I could only catch a passing glimpse. I saw mile  after mile without rock, marsh or mountain, occupied by adjoining farms, with good substantial houses, barns and other  buildings, all giving promise of future greatness, as we sped  along past cities, towns and villages. I knew that range succeeded range northward for many miles, and that most of the  habitable lands of Ontario are occupied. I could easily see that  her sons would, in jater years, follow me and others to the west,  not finding scope ^ear home to satisfy their longing for better  conditions of life. I noticed by the masses of foliage that spring  was earlier near the large iakes than it was on the shores of  the St. Lawrence east of Kingston. I could not help noticing  the prosperous conditions of the Ontario farmers living on one  and two hundred-acre farms. I thought of the small holdings in  Lower Canada and the hopeless future of a people that can  content themselves on a few acres of worn-out land poisoned  with thistles and wild mustard. I never could see the possibility  of acquiring wealth on these small holdings in the lower  province.  The Canadian sun shone brightly by spells, and then dark  clouds would cast shadows over the landscape. These shadows  matched my gloomy thoughts of severance from all that was  dear. In all the long journey I met with none going my way to  Cariboo until I reached Acton, where I saw signs of sad parting with friends and lovers. As the train moved away from the  station and all the waving of hands subsided, I discovered five  cdditional passengers who were bound for Cariboo by the overland   route.   We    .iscussed  the   journey  and   the   dangers   of  103 The Overlanders  travel, and presently found that we had glided out of Canadian  territory into Uncle Sam's land via Port Huron. That night we  passed in Detroit, Michigan  Long before our visit Detroit was a prosperous and promising city, boasting much of metropolitan charm and great commercial advantages because of its safe port and navigable  facilities on the Deiroit River. Here in Detroit our party of six  must provide ammunition, pistols and rifles, so as to be ready in  case of having to fight our way on the plains against Indian  tribes. We knew we would soon arrive at the end of city or  settlement life, and be out ot reach of the arm of the law.  READY FOR "ALL ABOARD"  We were soon ready for the cry "All aboard", and away we  sped on the Michigan Central through that part of the state, much  of which is sandy and rolling. But judging from the buildings  on the farms and the bright villages we saw, with the thrifty  orchards, we felt convinced there was more than sand in the  soil. As we approa:hed the lake we thought less of the country,  and did not esteem that corner of Indiana near the south end  of Lake Michigan, tor the land seemed low and sandy.  The great Chicago of today casts the old Chicago of that  time vastly into the shade. We never dreamt, that night we  spent in Chicago, how the great plains of the west, north and  south would pour into this city from ten thousand channels, the  cattle, sheep and hogs, with wheat and corn; nor how the  clever Americans were to levy tribute on these resources in  Chicago to make so many of its citizens rich and make it the  vast metropolis it is today.  The morning train bound, for La Crosse soon widened the  distance between Chicago and our car. We passed over semi-  prairie and forest lands in that part of Wisconsin; some parts  were only sparsely settled. At La Crosse we dropped all railway travel and got aboard a Mississippi stern-wheel steamer  which ran all night against the strong current of the Mississippi  River. About 10 am. next morning our boat landed us at the  city of St. Paul. Without accident or any vexation of note we  107 The Overlanders  reached this place in safety. St. Paul was a small city with a  few good stone buildings, but most of the buildings were of  wood and many had no paint. We thought the site of the city  v/as a good one, on the north bank of the river, with rolling  lands behind and prairie plains to the west. St. Paul, we  thought, should be a city, but when her citizens would enjoy  the cheap luxuries of the eastern cities and bear the cost of  freighting so far inland, was a question for the future to decide.  Here we prepared to travel on four-wheel coaches drawn  by four horses. They were fairly comfortable, having covers  for protection from rain and sun. These coaches had been making several trips some 400 miles to Georgetown on the Red  River, where the steamer International was being built. After  a short stay at St. Paul we took our places in the prairie coaches  and were soon wheeled into the village of St. Anthony, now  Minneapolis. We took our midday meal in what was then the  best hotel; today it might rank as a sixth or eighth-rate house  compared with the hotels of that city. We saw a few scattered  buildings, none of them show, ng confidence in the future greatness of the place. Now we find the city of Minneapolis containing a population of nearly 200,0001, and almost joining St. Paul.  Both show every modern facility for trade, business, and plea-  bure. This illustrates the staying qualities and industrious worth  of both city and rural population, who came here, after our  visit, and developed the resources that we thought too remote  for us to meddle with.  Leaving St. Anthony, our course lay nearly northward.  We found that part of Minnesota thinly settled. The land was  undulating and somewhat sandy. There were clumps of brush  wood, not much forest and considerable clear prairie land.  Spring appeared less advanced here than in Michigan. We  could see that a ailroad had been graded along our route,  but for some cause it had been given up for a time. On Saturday night we crossed the Mississippi at St. Cloud2, some 80  miles from St. Paul. The current was swift and the water shallow at this place. We put up at a respectable house where  <T)     Today's population above half million.  (2)    75 miles NW of St. Paul.  108 The Overlanders  board was to be hcd but no drinking allowed. We were well  treated and pleasantly entertained in this house from Saturday  evening until Monday morning.  WEATHER SO FAR PLEASANT  The weather had been pleasant, with much brightness day  ;nd night during our travel to St. Cloud, through Ontario and  the various states so far. About La Crosse and in St. Paul city  gardens, the spring growth was as far advanced as in Ontario  east ot Kingston the week previous. We grant that seasons vary  and spring may possibly be a week or two earlier some seasons about St. Paul than at Montreal, and vice versa.  At St. Cloud, flour was sold for a trifle over $2.00 a barrel,  and other farm products in proportion. All questions were kindly answered by gentlemen qualified to give us information  touching every matter about that part of the country, the people,  the climate and the markets. We saw nothing to make us anxious to join the pioneer town of St. Cloud or the surrounding  settlement.  Having a quiet time and a long rest at St. Cloud, we were  preoccupied with thoughts of home and friends. Here we stood  near the limit of settlement, on the verge of the unknown, uncivilized, vast western region. We were about to leave behind  us the vanguard of the bold pioneers, that brave and sturdy  class of men and women who had reclaimed the eastern and  middle states and the Canadas from the primeval forest; who  had cleared the land of its timber and boulders, made roads,  built cities, given life to commerce, set factory wheels humming  as they moved westward like great waves of humanity, bent  on  subduing opposition and  making  life a  success.  At St. Cloud we were moving away from that good and  great company of helpers and protectors. We were leaving  behind us the advantages of civilization, the centres of refinement, books and all literature, post offices, railways, telegraphs,  streets, roads, sidewalks churches and schools, the homes —  our dear ones — where friends were mourning for us as for the  dead. All these, like a panoramic picture, passed before our  109 The Overlanders  minds as we were stepping out into the unsettled west. With  some foreboding of want and hardship; with no little dread  of the Indian's scalping knife; with positive proof of no servants to wait on us, no well kept rooms and spring mattresses,  or silver or china to eat or drink from, and no luxuries promised  or expected, we left St. Cloud and its hospitality. But we did  not forget the kindness of the good people who had so pleasantly entertained us.  THROUGH FORESTS TO PRAIRIES  West of St. Cloud we travelled through some fine forest.  The land was good and well-watered; we crossed a number  of fine streams, some of which abounded with fish at the time.  The wheels of our carriage were wide, to prevent them cutting  through the prairie sod. We were nine strong with our driver  and luggage. He proved himself a pleasant and helpful guide,  and not only handled the "ribbons" well, but was careful and  considerate with the horses. Our course lay west and northward, and it did not take us long to leave that belt of timber behind us. We could now see the vast prairie in front, without  timber or even a mound to break the monotony. Sky and prairie seemed to join at the horizon. At midday we arrived at a  house providing for travellers, where our horses were exchanged and lunch served to us.  As scon as we were ready, we pressed forward with fresh  force and fair headway; not much talk, for the monotony was  depressing. We met no one. We saw the brown, withered  grass on all sides. Now and again there was a small creek to  cross, with a lone tree near its banks. The sun, the clouds, and  the blue sky were our only companions. They helped to unite  all the ends of the earth, whether on the boundless ocean or the  lone prairie. A while before sundown we halted for the night  nearly 50 miles from St. Cloud at a way-station which did not  pretend to much accommodation. The people did what they  could for our comfort; we paid them tribute and pressed  on. We saw no animals and very few birds; we forded some  streams; travelled day after day; rested at noon; exchanged  horses; rested at night; talked a little and admired less; saw  very little rolling land and less trees. We could not have been  110 The Overlanders  more lonely out on the ocean far from land on a good ship. At  length we came to Ottertail Creek, a feeder of the Red River.  The water was up and the crossing intricate. Our lodgings for  the night on the north side of the creek were better than we  had had since leaving St. Cloud. Here we found a family of  good, kind people who did their utmost for the travellers. In  this house we found a strange-looking man. He was called  "the wild man of the prairie". He seemed idiotic, but was capable of shifting for himself by begging from the Indians. He  did not seem to have a home nor any life-purpose. His hair  and beard were exceedingly long; his clothing was made of  skin. He could give no history of himself and was a great  wonder to all who met him. He might have been about 45 years  of age, or less.  WINTER STILL LINGERED  The night was frosty and the wet prairie suggested that  the last footprints of winter had still an impression on the landscape. We saw no green areas to prove that spring was in the  air. We made another change at noon, and that night landed  a: Breakenridge. We had read about and studied the beautiful  city map of this place long before we got there. It consisted  of one hotel being built, a shed (making shift for a stable) and  one or two neighbours some 25 miles distant. At Breakenridge  we met a returning stage on its way to St. Paul. One of the  passengers was a sick man named John Nichols who was very  helpless and seemingly far gone in consumption. An American, Dr. Symington, who was aiming for the west also, advised  the sick man not to return to friends or doctor as he would surely  die. He recommended him to continue the overland journey,  and if he died we would bury him; but the doctor thought that  the journey over the wild prairie with its pure air at this season  would be more healing, in his case, than the best hospital treatment. The sick man joined us in the coach, and that "Good  Samaritan" doctor cheered us all with his Christlike goodness  to the sick stranger. Our journey lay nearly northward on the  prairie, with woodlands growing close to the Red River on our  left. At each watercourse emptying into the river we found  timber, which added much to the interest of the travel. An  occasional clump of timber drove ennui and dullness quite  away.  Ill The Overlanders  About noon on the second day from Breakenridge we arrived at Georgetown, a distance of over 400 miles from St.  Paul, which we had accomplished in eight days, without roads  or bridges. We travelled over much good land, but thought  the spring too late and backward. We did not see much promise  of prosperous rural life in such a region, where the summers  must be short and the feeding season nearly seven months  long.  There was a small company of soldiers stationed at Georgetown. If they had not been there the mechanics working on  the new steamer might have been obliged to leave their work  or be killed by the Indians. The steamer "International" had  been launched some days previously, and would soon be  ready for the first trip. The many tents scattered over the riverside made us think of the term "canvas town". It had been built  in a few weeks by the travellers bound for Fort Garry or Cariboo, or by such as were going to mission work near the Peace  or Mackenzie rivers.  We arrived here about the middle of May. The air was  still cool and the sun did not seem to warm the winds much.  We did not wander far from the fort or "Canvastown" for fear  of meeting hostile Indians. We could see that the land was good  and the area immense, especially to the west. We learned afterwards about the terrible Indian massacre that brought death  and destruction to many of those kind people we found living  in those way-stations where we lodged and got relay horses;  besides hundreds farther south who suffered as badly. Indian  wars can generally be avoided. A kind and humane treatment of  the Indian tribes seldom fails to result in safety to the whites  and in improvement of the Indians themselves.  BOARDING THE NEW STEAMER  About the third day at Georgetown we were told to get  on the new steamer. What berths were ready were soon occupied. Among so many, we were bound to have a share of notables. Governor Dallas' lady and suite were on board. She  was a daughter of the late Sir James Douglas, first governor  of British Columbia. The late good and famous Bishop Tache,  112 The Overlanders  with some young priests fresh from Europe were also with us.  The Bishop's home was in St. Boniface, and his diocese extended from latitude 49 to the islands of the Arctic, and from the  western settlements of Ontario to the Rocky Mountains. There  was also another lady with her husband on board, on their  way to start settlement on the prairie. Besides our large party,  mostly young men, called "the overland", there were the officers and crew of the boat. We were furnished board and  passage for a reasonable rate, but had to look for a soft spot on  the deck of the steamer.  The Red River is amazingly crooked, and hence our steamer had many a rub against the bank in the sharp turns. In  some places overhanging trees damaged the decks. The water  is red because of the sediment it carries. The country stretching far away on either side seemed very flat and grassy; old  grass, only, could be seen at that time. A few trees were growing  near the river in certain bends where they were protected from  prairie fires. We pondered much on this question—"Why  should these vast regions be without timber while the territory  north, south, and east abounded with it?" The reasons given  vary, but we think the most plausible one given is that dry  seasons and fires cause destruction to forests and must certainly prevent trees from growing; hence such regions must  be barren of timber. But rich lands must be active, and a kind  providence scatters seed by the wind. Up spring the grasses  and flowers everywhere, fill the summer air with charm  vigor and perfume. There we find the lowing kine, and the bee  collecting honey for the cities by the sea. Now the traveller  can see the rapid growth of civilization and human progress,  turning those grassy plains into stock ranges and wheat fields.  Where at that time we could see no hut to dwell in, we now  find great cities and happy homes with long chapters of loving  life to brighten, or disappointed ambition to blot, the pages of  western history.  FOOD SUPPLY RUNS LOW  About the third day out from Georgetown we were informed  that provisions were getting scarce and we were to live on  two small rationed meals a day. This was not welcome news,  113 The Overlanders  for our appetites were good. Some of the more demonstrative  railed at the management of the steamboat company, who had  no idea and were not informed, that so many people would  join the steamer on her first trip. All provisions had to be drawn  nearly 400 miles by oxen and carts or prairie wagons to supply  the boat. On the fifth day we were reduced to pemmican and  some hard sea-biscuit. Hunger is always good sauce, and it  took some share of that kind of sauce to make the pemmican  palatable, for it was mouldy and full of buffalo hair. If it had  been sound and clean, it would have been good enough for  a few days, even on small allowance.  We were not interfered with by Indians until we were  crossing the boundary at Pembina, where there was a trading  post. Here we saw a band of Indians come to the river; some  of them seemed to act under the power of rum, and threatened  to do all sorts of mischief to us and our boat. We soon glided  out of their reach without making any stop at the place. We  saw no more Indians, and had better navigation the whole  way to Fort Garry. The line referred to at Pembina was the  49th parallel of latitude, and the boundary between the American states of Minnesota and Dakota on the south and the  British possessions on the north known as Manitoba. The prairie  land seemed lower than most of the country we passed through.  There were signs of life in the shape of a few log houses, mostly  on the west side of the river. These were the homes of a few  French-Canadians and half-breed Indians.  REACHING FORT GARRY  Our approach to Fort Garry on the eighth day was a welcome event to the hungry boat-crew and passengers; it was also  a notable event in the history of that place. Very few came  down to the boat landing to meet us for here was no town, and  no idle population to supply a crowd of onlookers at the arrival  of boats or trains. There were no insulting bands of hoodlums  to bother us as we quietly left the boat and looked for a favorable spot on which to place our tents. What is now the populous city of Winnipeg was then only a H.B.C. trading post inside a fenced wall, sufficiently strong and high to prevent the  Indians from enforcing their will upon the few men in the employ of the company.  114 The Overlanders  Fort Garry in 1882  The home of Bishop Tache was on the east side of the  river; and St. Boniface was then a mere beginning of its present importance. We found His Lordship very kind and ready  to give us information about the "Lone Land" and the many  tribes of Indians. We found him pleasant and free while on  board the steamer. We frequently troubled him for information, advice and help while we were preparing for our long  journey. We trusted him for direction in getting a good guide  for our journey to Edmonton.  Our large party was made up of so many small companies  from different places, that it developed upon each to make  arrangements independently of the "federal" party. We were  a great benefit to the Selkirk settlers, for we left them gold for  oxen, horses, carts, etc. Oxen that had not been worth money  for years were now demanding $35, $45 and some $50 per head.  We met the late James Ross, editor of the old "Nor Wester",  who with a few more people was living outside the fort. We  were also much pleased to meet the late Dr. Black of Kildonan  in his own home; the account he gave of his pioneer experiences was very entertaining. One of the pleasing features of  his report was the high moral character he gave the people of  the Selkirk settlement. In searching for animals, carts, etc., we  met several of these families. We could see very good promise  of a great future for the nation when such a foundation was  being laid. They feared God and delighted in His Word.  115 The Overlanders  We were shown how high the recent Red River flood had  reached into some of their houses, and were told how the people  had to move back several miles to higher ground to save their  stock and household effects, until the waters subsided. An ice-  jam near the mouth of the river was blamed for the high water.  This occurred in 1861, some 351 years ago, and. we have not  heard of so serious a time with high water since. It was nearly  the end of May when we arrived, but the spring grass did not  make much of a green shade on the landscape. The season  was about five weeks later than in and around Toronto.  Governor Dallas of the H.B. Co. kindly received a deputation representing our whole party and gave us much good information concerning the route we were to travel. He sent a  courier ahead of us to inform the chief traders of the several  posts that we were to travel their way. He very kindly instructed them to deal justly with us, and if possible, use their influence with the Indians on our behalf. The H.B. Co's boats  were ready for us at each ferry.  PRAISE FOR THE OKANAGAN  If they neglected having boats there, we would have been  sorely embarrassed at six of the river crossings. We look back  with warm feelings of gratitude to Governor Dallas and to all  those men of the company who treated us not only justly but  generously on that long and lonely route. Governor Dallas had  been a traveller in other countries before he visited British Columbia, and he did not then say much about this province to  increase its importance in our view, except regarding that portion known as the Okanagan Valley. He declared that this was  the most charming piece of country he had ever seen. He mentioned the mountains, the timber, the rocks, the charming lakes,  the brooks or water courses, the bald mountain tops and slopes  fit for herds of cattle or flocks of sheep, the great extent of  bench and valley land, filled with grass and grains, birds in  great flocks and deer in herds. The Governor thought Okanagan  a veritable paradise, fit for God's people to live in.  At Fort Garry and all the other trading stations we passed  or traded in, we were well treated and liberally dealt with by  1.   This would read "42 years ago" if this portion of the story was  written in 1903.  116 The Overlanders  Red River cart  the company's officers and men. Most of the oxen bought by  our party were trained to travel in harness. Our two-wheeled  carts had no iron, even on the wheels. Harness was made of  buffalo hide (rawhide) and served the purpose sufficiently well.  During our seven days' waiting at Fort Garry we wrote  many letters to friends giving accounts of our journey and bidding them last farewells. We knew it would be late in the fall  before we would write again or hear from them. Some of us  might have been excused if we had returned home from Fort  Garry, instead of going into the vast and unsettled west. But  not so did our brave boys. We wrote good-byes — for months,  and to some of our best young men —- for all time. We could  picture for ourselves the troubled hearts of the mothers and  fathers for the sons of their hope when they read those last letters from Fort Garry, how the wives of such as were married  wept and pictured to themselves the long years of separation  and the sad dread of no reunion with their beloved husbands;  and those girls of promised troth, seeing none like unto the departed lovers; what hopes may have been blasted as they read  those lost letters from Fort Garry.  117 The Overlanders  CHAPTER II  -Arcro35   lire  j'   tains  Our people held several meetings to discuss rules and regulations, and to appoint a managing committee so that we  might travel systematically and in order. We agreed to have  three men as our leaders or captains. They were Thomas McMicking from St. Catherines, James Wattie, (now of Valleyfield,  Quebec), and Alexander Robertson from Goderich, Ontario.  (He was drowned in the Fraser about 30 miles west of Tete  Juane Cache). They were three good men and brave, excellent  commanders and untiring friends of the company.  We were cmazed to see the depth and richness of the soil  in that prairie country. Some of the people told of fields that  produced forty crops without manuring, and how long the land  would continue productive did not seem to concern the settlers.  The flatness, the want of timber and hills to catch the eye gave  a lonely feeling. One soon tires of the monotonous view — prairie and sky — sky and prairie. We did talk of settlement and  cities for these lonely lands, but they seemed too far off to wait  for. That these have since proved to be great production lands  did not count for much at that time. There were no markets for  anything from that region except furs and buffalo robes. All  goods and groceries and manufactured articles came in by  way of Hudson Bay, the Nelson River, Lake Winnipeg and the  Red River to Fort Garry, or by ox-trains and carts from St. Paul,  expensive in both cases. Some flour was made by one or two  grist mills run by wind power, but as they had no cleaning  apparatus, and threshed on the ground, much dirt was ground  with the wheat, which made a dark-looking flour. The black  heavy bread made from this flour was not pleasing to the eye nor  the taste, even when the latter was sharpened by hunger. Such  was the flour we bought, and we paid ten dollars a barrel for  it. Now we find wheat and mills all over Manitoba as good as  can be found anywhere.  THE START FROM FORT GARRY  We had good hot sun and warm weather while waiting at  118 The Overlanders  Fort Garry, which greatly helped the growth of the grass. Seeing  a fair prospect for feed on the prairie, and being ready for the  journey, we made a kind of start on the sixth of June. The  cargoes in each cart varied from five- to eight hundred pounds,  and consisted of flour, pemmican, other varieties of food, bedding and tools. The tools were mostly for mining, but some for  making bridges and rafts. Our caravan was more primitive  than imposing, but still it might be termed picturesque, interesting and complete in a way. We all had to learn to handle the  single ox in harness and cart. We only made seven miles the  first day. We tied our oxen to stakes with a long lariat or rawhide rope to prevent them leaving us. We had to continue this  custom for several days out from Fort Garry.  Our Acton company had wisely secured a good milch  cow. She cost $22, and was some trouble to lead and keep with  us for a while. After a few days she got attached to us and the  oxen, and followed like a dog. She gave us plenty of milk and  no concern for her whereabouts. Her milk was ever a treat,  and frequently helped others also. It was agreed that all parties would reach White Horse Plains and wait till every company had arrived. Then we would all start together and enjoy  the advantage of our guide equally. At this place we had good  grass and plenty of wood and water. It was in every way a fit  place to wait a short time.  Some of the companies were ambitious, on the rush, and  not too well furnished with patience. Others were slow and did  not get in trim for travelling so handidly. To keep these extremes together and get all companies to enjoy equally the  benefits of the guide, was already a puzzle to the committee of  management. Some of the companies who reached these  plains the first day would not wait for the laggards, but pushed  on with the guide. Some of the companies who were exercising  patience waited for those who were behind until the afternoon,  although all had promised to be on hand at ten o'clock. We  travelled over the plains, following the road easily and at  night halted for refreshment. We then resumed our journey,  having much difficulty in finding our way in places. Still, we  overtook the leading party, with the guide, about midnight.  119 The Overlanders  KEEPING THE PARTY TOGETHER  We were early on foot next morning, with the firm resolve  that no ox nor cart should leave that camp until all our company should catch up to us. Some of us made it publicly known  that the first ox to be led out of camp to start the journey before receiving orders from the captains, would be shot. Everybody waited till all the small companies reached camp. The  grass was fairly good here but the water was taken from small  lakes and had to be strained before using. The fuel was small  brush. There were many good reasons for excusing the ambitious and pushing spirit of the men who got ready first and  were leading out on the journey. We all knew that the summer  season in Cariboo was short. We learned that there were no  situations in B.C. with fat pay to keep the wolf from the door  in winter. We could see that our travelling season was short  and our journey long, with progress uncertain and slow. These  men went forward with the guide, laboured early and late,  worked hard and intelligently, and lost no time in preparing  for the journey. But they did lose patience with those who  were detaining the company from making a start. It was trying for them to lose time. It must be tedious to all companies  or parties, trying to be leaders, to have the drag of indolence,  ineptitude or laziness clogging the wheels of progress. In a  large crowd of men we can always find some who cannot do  much for themselves, are helpless when thrown on their own  resources, and would as soon starve as get out of old habits.  They need mothers and sisters to prepare food for them and  servants to wait on them. They have self-esteem of a kind, but  do not know how to make friends. Their habits unfit them for  self-reliance; they are a burden to any society they may join.  We had some generous Samaritans in our company who kindly  lent a helping hand when needed. Thus even the awkward and  thoughtless, by the help of these kind men, awoke to a more  active manner, learned the routines of travel and strove to  make themselves useful and worthy.  The country varies north of the Assiniboine River. We  travelled through considerable brush land, some swamp, flat  prairie, and some rolling or hilly land. There were a few small-  streams,  not  many  springs,  but  quite  a  few  lakes  or  ponds  120 The Overlanders  with poor water. Some time before we reached the river-crossing near Fort Ellis, we found the country broken and hilly, with  clumps of poplar and small timber, usually on the north slopes  and in valleys between the hills. Here we saw, and elsewhere,  beautiful summer ranges for cattle, sheep or horses. We could  see a promising future for the stock industry if winter feed and  shelter  could  be   made   sufficient.  As we approached the high outer banks of the Assiniboine  we made a short halt to admire the charming view. From side  to side of the low valley we could trace the course of the river  as it flowed south and east to Fort Garry. This low valley was  not wide, but its green, grassy flats gave us a home feeling of  welcome, and added much to the beautiful picture so well  formed by the sloping banks of alternating grass and timber.  We found the descent from the uplands to the river, long and  steep in places; and we almost thought we had just come from  a mountain top as we neared the bank. This was our first  river-crossing. The H.B. Co. had a scow run by a cable and  pulleys at this ferry, which proved a great convenience to us.  We all got over safely but it took a long time to cross so many  oxen and carts, besides the men. After a short run over the low  flats we came to the place of ascent and had a long climb to  reach the summit of the table-land. Here we collected brush  for a camp fire on ground near Fort Ellis. This was a small  trading post, having only a few log buildings, but boasting an  exciting history of defence against Indian attacks by traders of former days. We had a forest-like view on all sides of  this camp. There was a large, deep ravine to the south, with  timber on both slopes, while on the opposite side rose high  mountains, covered with timber to the summits. On the north  a park-like forested table-land stretched toward the Qu'Appelle  River. There was a long dangerous descent to this crossing.  Our camping ground was a home-like and sheltered place,  well fitted for our Sunday rest, giving us a chance for calm  thoughts and reflections.  GETTING THE GUIDE IN ORDER  I was somewhat versed in the French language, and our  guide was a half-breed Frenchman. He had been acting under  121 The Overlanders  the influence of a few who gave him rum and were not agreeable to conform to our travelling regulations. He had been told  repeatedly not to obey anyone but the three commanders, but  some influences caused him to err. I was told to have a talk  with him, but we concluded to hold a council of a few of the  committee and I would interpret. The result was fair promises  from the guide, that he would not drink but obey the head men.  Every man was anxious to benefit from the guide's advice and  his knowledge of the route.  I have omitted to mention before that our agreement was  to rest on Sundays, and at a certain hour we gathered and  joined in religious services conducted by three or four who took  the lead in this work. There was reverence for God and Godly  exercises in most of our company, and at Fort Ellis the gentlemen in charge joined us in our devotional services. We saw  very few ready to join the scoffers. In fact, I often thought that  it could help to establish one's faith to be so much at the mercy  of circumstances and in the hands of providence, for we were  ever on the alert for fear of calamity or Indian attacks.  We had been instructed by our informants to have our  firearms and ammunition always ready; to arrange our carts  in a circle at night; and to have our oxen inside this cart-corral.  We erected our tents outside the carts and had a strong sentry  on guard all through the dark hours of the night. We had to  attend to these precautions in case of Indian attacks. In going  through the country of the Assiniboine Indians, up to this point,  we had much fear of the native tribes, but we were told of the  boldness of the dreaded Blackfeet and felt that we might be  a prey to them any day in the near future.  The weather had been pleasant, favourable both for travelling and the growth of grass. The prairie sun shone brightly  and forced vegetation very quickly. The nights were warm and  pleasant, and the growing season in full force. The trees were  in full leaf; the grasses strong and giving strength to our oxen;  the gay prairie flowers adorned the plains, and the health-  giving air was charged with fragrant perfume. The fatigue of  travel made us enjoy our homely food and the night's rest more  122 The Overlanders  than we had anticipated. Consideration for the strength and  durability of our oxen prompted most of our people to walk  most of the time. This gave the oxen a chance to gain strength,  which they did after they got on good grass.  SCHUBERTS IN THE PARTY  I shall here mention that we did not intend nor expect to  have any women or children travelling with us over the plains,  much less over the rougher journey through the mountains.  But it so turned out (and I have often thought it providential)  that a good lady with her husband and three children and two  men helpers joined our party. They started from Fort Garry  with some horses, a covered wagon and two cows. Mr. and  Mrs. Schubert and family have been long and favourably known  in Spallumcheen, B.C. The kindly help and sympathy of many  of our men was frequently manifested to the heroic woman and  her little children when help was needed. Her presence in our  company helped to cultivate a kindly and more manly treatment of man by man.  On the Monday morning we left Fort Ellis and drove north  about two miles to the Qu'Appelle River crossing, where we  found another ferry boat ready. The road leading down from  the table-land to the crossing was steep, and by some misstep W. W. Morrow fell and was dragged by his ox and somewhat bruised. Then someone nearly lost his life by dropping  off the ferry boat. All got over alive, however, and found a  good camping ground for the night, not far from the crossing.  The rain came down fast and we got through supper in a hurry.  We found our tents a much needed shelter from the rain. Our  carts and cattle were put in shape and the sentry in his place,  and all went to rest for the night.  On Tuesday morning our guide intimated that we were  just getting into good game country, on the strength of which  he borrowed a good rifle, ammunition and matches, and a  horse, and disappeared from view among the rolling hills, in  search of buffalo. Not many of us knew of his absence. We were  expectant, and thought a pleasant surprise of big game would  be welcome to all, especially as no fresh meat had been eaten  123 since we left St. Paul. The guide was to be back at noon with  his welcome trophy.  Ever since crossing the Qu'Appelle we had travelled over  a sandy stretch of rolling country which improved in appearance as we neared our noon camp ground, where the grass  and other foliage gave a welcome feast to our tired animals.  So far our mishaps had not been many nor serious, and we all  seemed to be happy and cheerful. But before our dinner was  ready, and while some were rushing and waiting to be called,  the news — "No guide in camp" — fell like a bombshell in our  midst. As soon as it was known that he had prepared for a  hunt and that he had failed to reach camp by noon, most of  our company feared the worst and concluded that he had left  for good. What was to be done? Some had one opinion and  some another. We lunched, waited, speculated as to his return, and looked around the camp, but we could see no sign of  our guide.  FORWARD WITHOUT THE GUIDE  It was a bright and balmy day with a pleasing landscape  of low hillocks and flat vales, with grass and flowers everywhere. The land was better and the trail distinct. We all started  without waiting for the guide, cherishing the hope that he  would be up with us by the time we camped for the night.  Some of our bright young men, mounted on Indian ponies,  rode ahead of the company and made sure as possible that  we kept on travelling on the right road, as determined by signs  of its being the most travelled route. Our anxiety increased as  we travelled and reflected on the importance of a good guide.  We reached what we concluded might be a good camp ground  near some wood and water, with plenty of grass. But our guide  did not reach us. We did not know what he might do. We  thought of him returning with a band of Indians to rob and murder us in the night. Our sentry was made to understand what  might be expected at any moment. All were in readiness with  rifles and revolvers in case of an Indian attack.  The night passed without trouble and at daylight we got  ready and started, every man looking and watching in case  124 The Overlanders  of Indians rushing in upon us suddenly while travelling. Imaginary troubles of this nature are very trying and a heavy  strain on the nerves. But our troubles were increased when  none of us knew the road or the country. We frequently came  to parts of the road which, being seldom travelled, were obliterated from view by the effects of rain or the growth of grass.  Again at noon the question of the guide occupied our conversation. We certainly thought now that he had left us. We found  that he was afraid of some of the party who had made certain  threats if he would not submit and travel with them instead  of being under the control of the authorized commanders.  Our company, as a whole, early in our travels, had agreed  that every small company would take their turn to lead with  their oxen and carts and thus benefit by having the new road  or fresh prairie to travel on. We found that so many wheels  passing over the same road and so many animals straying  on the same trail (if at all soft) made travel very fatiguing and  difficult for the animals in the rear. So in arranging our places  for travel in rotation we all fared alike on the mud or unbroken  sod of the prairie.  The weather got very hot; hence we commenced to travel  very early in the morning and late at night, so as to rest during  he hot parts of the day. We found this essential for the animals,  as they were naturally soft by living on the young grass. There  were no wayside houses with oats and timothy hay to feed  our stock with. This early and late travelling interrupted our  night's rest and sleep, while in the middle of the day the flies  and mosquitoes prevented either. Neither did our animals feed  or rest well while tormented with flies, heat and mosquitoes.  Some of the men suffered very much with sore feet, especially  those who had leather boots or shoes. Such as had laid in a  stock of Indian moccasins and persevered in using them  learned to appreciate their pliable and cooling influence on  the feet. They were made of dressed buffalo hide, very porous  and of short duration. We got them for twenty-five cents a pair.  They wore out very fast when the grass was wet, and stretched to very uncomfortable lengths and breadths. Moccasins are  much cooler in summer than boots or shoes. Low shoes let in  125 The Overlanders  the dust, which soon makes walking difficult. Buck skin is better than buffalo skin, but caribou skin is much tougher and  more durable than either for moccasins or gloves. Sore feet  had to be borne without murmuring, for no one could lay off  and rest and expect sympathy for aches or pains. Everybody  mus: drag himself along and hold to the travelling caravans, or  become a prey to the wild beasts or savage Indians, and be  left to perish on the prairie.  THE INVALID IMPROVES  Let us now refer to the sick invalid John Nichols, Doctor  Symington's patient. He had recuperated greatly before we  reached his place, his cough was nearly gone and he was walking part of the time. The good boys from St. Thomas took special care of him. In a thousand ways they showed great readiness and goodwill, helping anyone in need, and doing more  than their share in duties which benefitted the whole company,  such as bridge building. I consider the St. Thomas boys kind  and generous, and they made no parade of their kind offices.  There was one young Englishman who came along humming, and fell in with several who helped him through. He could  sing, and one of his songs had a chorus — "And by studying  of economy we can live like a lord". We doubted him, but he  was not only tolerated but helped very humanely. Walking to  him was a labor, as he was very flat-footed and clumsy. Still,  he was witty, and may have made a success in life. We did  feel, however, that it was wrong, very wrong, of him to impose  upon others in such a way and count on their humane treatment.  I do not know of another case in the whole company that  was a burden to us. There may have been a few that ran short  of means, if so, only their intimate comrades knew of it and  helped them. Some of our men had flutes, fiddles, cornets and  other instruments, and a fair number sang well. These good  men made our evenings entertaining when not too much fatigued. Singing, playing and telling stories and anecdotes helped  to cheer us on our way.  126 The Overlanders  On we went with no guide, and yet not losing our trail  for any length of time, except on one occasion when a considerable halt was made to give our scouts time to explore several passes between the hills and decide as to the proper  course. We passed a considerable stretch of alkaline country  soon after losing our guide. From a hill over which our course  lay we got a view of part of the undulating land lying in the  direction we were travelling. From that elevation we counted  thirteen lakes, none over a mile distant. Some were mere ponds.  As they were mostly alkali or saline, we thought the land hereabouts too much charged with these substances to be fit foi  agriculture. In less than two days we found better land and  water, with scattered hills having precipitous slopes, not stony,  and mostly covered with grass. While in the alkali lake district the cattle seemed to enjoy the water, and grazed comfortably. Many of our men had a pleasant time bathing in some  of these lakes, and found, to their surprise, no need of soap.  I may here mention that similar lakes are numerous in certain  districts of B.C., and some of the early settlers boasted that they  were as good as tubs and soap. Later in the season many of  these lakes became dry through evaporation, and a white  coating like salt or soda covered the bottom or as far as the  water had reached. Deer and stock seem to relish these lakes  even when dry. The water is fit neither for drinking or cooking.  Here, as in many other camping places we felt the need of a  guide to show us where to camp for wood and water.  INDIANS ARE ABSENT  We still had not even a visit from Indian raiders. On to  the west we travelled, ever watchful of the trail, which followed  the windings of the valleys, bounded by miniature mountains.  These hills surprised us with their precipitous sides, many  being perpendicular. They seemed free from gravel or boulders. Out of this interesting sea of hillocks we travelled to what  is known as the Touchwood Hills. These were mostly covered  with brush and sparse spots of timber. Soon after this we arrived a* the crossing of the South Saskatchewan River, here  about 250 yards wide. It is known as the Bow River near Bare-  ton (?). Here we camped and arranged to take our stuff over  in the boat provided by the H.B.  Co.  The  following  dav we  127 The Overlanders  labored hard, crossing with the carts and bedding and swimming our stock. We nearly lost James Kelso of the Acton Company by drowning. He had ventured too far into the river while  urging the cattle to cross. In deep water he sank and was given  up as lost, but our good friend George Reid of Huntingdon  stripped, plunged into the river, and soon came up like a hero,  holding the drowning man. We found life still in our dear  friend and worked at him until the spark became a flame.  After a while he was brought across and comfortably placed in  a cart, where he lay till we reached Fort Carlton, on the south  bank of the North Saskatchewan River. This is eighteen miles  from the crossing of the south river.  Most of the land is timbered, with much peavine and grass  under the trees. Carlton House had no fortifications; it was not  far from nor high above the river. There was no forest near it,  and the higher land was about a hundred yards south of the  house. We inferred that the traders were on good terms with  the Indians as they had neither stockade nor other fortifications  for defence. A few purchases were made. Here, as usual the  H.B. Co. provided boats by which we crossed all in one party,  drove our stock into the water and soon landed safely on the  north shore of the North Saskatchewan River. The crossing occupied nearly two days. The river here is wider and shallower  than the south river we crossed the day before. We found on  the north side of the river a great piece of undulating prairie,  neither too flat nor too hilly. The soil seemed good, with  occasional lakes and creeks. There were some little plots of  brush and timber occasionally, but very little variety on this  part of our route until we neared Fort Pitt. Some miles east of  Pitt and south of the river the country seemed mountainous and  timbered. We were now nearing Fort Pitt, some two hundred  miles from Carlton, but had still seen no Indians in this great  Indian country. I think the crossing of the South Saskatchewan  where James Kelso was saved from drowning has since been  called Batoche, and fighting took place there during the North-  West Rebellion.  WEATHER CONTINUES WARM  We had balmy June weather, with very little rain, ever since  128 The Overlanders  leaving Fort Ellis near Qu'Appelle River mouth, and scarcely  any swamps or miry spots to hinder our travelling. The country  was mostly rolling and hilly with clumps of small poplar trees.  We did have some odd winds that made us flatten our tents.  The sun was usually bright and too hot for comfort during the  middle of the day. We often talked of the wonderful future of  this extensive country. We saw great facilities for a vast network of railroad communication, immense opportunities for  agriculture (if the climate were favorable), and the certainty  that beef, butter, cheese, pork and horses would be found here  in abundance some day. Why should we not expect these  grassy regions to be covered with hives of industry and centres  of trade and commerce, excelling those of more southern climes?  Here was land, rich soil and fertile hill and dale, all inviting  millions to settle and enjoy home life. But we could not see  markets nor outlets for that country's products at that time. We  saw signs of buffalo soon after leaving St. Cloud, Minnesota,  and right through to this western region near Fort Pitt. As we  neared the fort we travelled through some timber flats on the  north side of the river.  At Fort Pitt we saw a trading post, some dwellings and other  buildings belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company. Before  reaching this point we were told that the majority of the men  working for the company came from the north of Scotland and  the Orkney Islands. Some of them lived singly; others took Indian women as their wives, thus interfering with the rights and  feelings of their native lovers. We can easily imagine cases of  grief and scenes of revenge affording romances for the pen of  the novelist.  We were much pleased with the hospitality of a Highland  Scotsman who invited us to dine with him. He was his own cook  and housekeeper. Our feast consisted of buffalo meat boiled and  stewed, without salt. We had nothing else. Our talk was of  home and friends, of long distances, Indian wars as probabilities, and blessings in the future. The H.B. officials here served  us as kindly as they of the other forts did. With the help of  their boats we crossed to the south side of the river; our oxen  and horses swam across.  129 The Overlanders  NEW GUIDE FOR PARTY  We did not leave this fort without a guide. The Indians  might be more troublesome on this part of our journey, and we  were informed that finding the best trail might puzzle us. Our  guide was a half-breed Indian, agreeable and attentive, and he  proved to be a valuable help, especially in choosing proper  camping grounds and watching correct landmarks. Much of  the trail was overgrown with grass.  After leaving Pitt and the river it took us some time to  reach the country level, for the bed of this river seems lower than  that of the South Saskatchewan. We had not been troubled  much with high water in the creeks and small rivers before we  reached Fort Pitt, for the weather had been rather dry and  warm, but now we seemed to have entered a rainy region, or  else the usual time of rain had come. Trials galore, we soon  found, were in store. Not far from the river the rain came down  good and heavy, and by the time we reached camp everybody  was soaking wet, as was our bedding also. We found the grass  truly fine; as feed we thought it excellent. The country was  rolling and the soil very rich. Hills, dales, mounds, plains and  small patches of timber made up the landscape. Going wet to  bed, being wet all night and the following day made us think  of home comforts with longing. We had nearly twenty days of  wet weather. The creeks became full to overflowing, and many  were the bridges we had to construct over streams we could  not ford. Those were trying days, very encouraging to coughs  and rheumatism. Tenting at night with wet clothes on damp  ground was more dangerous than travelling in rain during the  day.  On a certain Saturday night near the middle of July we  reached a point of difficulty. Here, as usual every night, we  arranged our carts in barricade, still guarding against Indian  invasion. Many of our party were uneasy on account of the  long journey and the unknown difficulties before us. These men  proposed to build a bridge over a large and much-swollen  stream on the Sabbath Day. A goodly number objected strongly  to Sunday work or travel. After our Sabbath morning service  a few of the uneasy and resolute men declared it wise to build  130 The Overlanders  the bridge at once before the rain made the creek so large as  to make it impossible. Those of us who objected to Sunday work  or travel were in the minority on this occasion. The large majority went at the bridge and worked hard and anxiously till  finished. They then crossed with their animals and camped on  the opposite side, but showed no intention of going further on  Sunday. Our party, who opposed Sunday work, did not cross  the bridge that night, although several deputations from the  new camp visited us and advised us to cross, lest the flood  rise and carry it away. We told them kindly that we would trust  the God of the Sabbath, who also ruled the floods. Our sleep  was sweet and our confidence in God well rewarded, for the  floods abated and on Monday morning early we crossed the  bridge safely. The bridge builders showed no animosity because we had the benefit of their hard work, for they knew  that in all previous cases our industry and daring were equal  to any in the party. I do not remember another Sabbath of  bridge building nor Sunday travel on that great journey,  MANY SIGNS OF BUFFALO  We had seen no live buffalo yet, but signs of that noble  stock were many. Trails like a checkerboard were there, leading  in all directions; the carcases of the dead were now bleached  bones, through long exposure to sun and weather. All proved  that great herds of bison had lived during the winters in the  country between Fort Pitt and Fort Edmonton. There were long  stretches of country in which we might almost keep our feet  off the grass by stepping on the buffalo chips as we travelled.  Prairie wolves were plentiful, and seemed satisfied with these  dead carcases although they were in a decayed state. Our  boys who loved the chase were sore at heart at the sight of  bones only. We wondered what had become of the living herds.  Why should they leave such luxuriant grass? Why leave shelter  from the winds and sun, with plentiful water? After we reached  Edmonton the experienced traders gave us the explanation.  They said that the herds came north in winter to escape the  blizzards of the southern plains and find shelter in the hilly  or rolling country further north, where there is an abundance  of long grass. They go south again in early spring to feed on  the shorter and more acceptable short grass in Alberta or the  131 The Overlanders  Dakotas. We had often heard of the Indians following buffalo  herds, so it is likely that they were south with them and thus  we escaped trouble with them.  We thought the country lying between these two.-points  richer and more inviting for agriculture, dairying or stock-  raising than any part of the great plains we had seen. We  imagined that the winters which suited the buffalo so well  would not be too severe on farmers who would prepare shelter  and feed for their stock. There may be more desirable places  south or north of what we saw, but we found nothing west of  Fort Garry, nor west of Edmonton, so good and so well adapted  for settlement as this buffalo-winter region west of Fort Pitt.  Our course here was some miles south of the North Saskatchewan River. Some distance east of Edmonton we found a  sharp and steep descent from the upland to the bed of a creek.  Here we had to use ropes, fixed to trees at the top of the bank  with a slacking or running tie, to lower our carts and cargo.  Helping and being helped gave us another lesson of dependence on our neighbours. A journey of this kind helps wonderfully to root out conceit from the traveller, especially when no  family connections are near and we find strangers filling a  brother's place. Then we are reminded of Christ's lesson of the  Good Samaritan. We got nicely over this critical gulch and  climbed the western slope, but it was hard work for our oxen.  The timber was more plentiful now, and the land very good  until we reached a camping ground on the south bank of the  river opposite Fort Edmonton. The bluish-grey waters of the  North Saskatchewan River flowed eastward between our camp  and the fort — that great Fort Edmonton we longed so much  to reach and where we might get all the gold we wanted, (if we  could find diggings as rich as reported in the paper "Norwester"  and copied in the Toronto Globe.)  Our large party spread their camp on a high flat bench,  where the only Protestant missionary in all that country came  to visit us. If we do not make a mistake his name was Tim  Wolseley, and he was stationed not far east of Edmonton. He  132 The Overlanders  preached to us on the following Sunday, at services which  were impressive and, we hope, beneficial to many. Our best  singers took active lead in God's praise that day. A spirit of  gratitude seemed to pervade our party, which became us well,  for we had enjoyed God's mercy, guidance and protection.  THOUSAND MILES COVERED  We had now accomplished nearly one thousand miles  travel in this primitive style, over Indian country where at many  points we might have been overpowered or massacred by the  wild Crees or Blackfeet, who glorified in decorating themselves  with the scalps of their foes. We were thankful to have been  saved from such a doom, and happy to know that we had not  lost one of our party. Mr. Schubert, his wife and three children  arrived safely also. They had cows which proved to be excellent  help to the family, as they got fresh milk night and morning.  The family came through with a light double wagon, having  springs and a canvas cover. A number of our party took much  interest in their safety and well-being. Great sympathy was  manifested for the brave and devoted mother of those three  children.  Our animals stood the journey well and improved greatly  before we reached this point. A good number (of our people)  had been ailing before starting on the plains, but improved in  health. Some had been warned by friends that they would die  on the way, being thought too sickly for the journey. But long  before reaching Edmonton we had no weak member in the  party, none looking for doctors, medicine, or nurses. Even  the twenty wet days sent none to the doctor. Our next camp was  west and not far from the fort. We sold oats and such articles as  we could not pack on animals to the company. Some sold their  oxen and bought horses and pack saddles. We were new to this  work of packing and made many mistakes. I kept my ox and  fitted a pack saddle with britching and shoulder braces to  keep it and the load in place going up and down hill. One ox  belonging to the Huntingdon party bucked wildly when the  saddle was placed upon him, scattering his load. We were  serenaded by our guide and some other half-breeds and Indians,  by singing, drum beating and dancing.  133 The Overlanders  In this place was a gentleman, in authority, who had a  lawful wife in one of the southern states but kept an Indian  woman as his wife. She seemed quite a superior person for a  native. We felt shocked at such conduct, but since then we  have met many parties just as much out of order and insulting  to the proper order of domestic life and duty. We were told that  in the fort there were five or six hundred dogs belonging to the  company or its employees, being essential for tobogganing or  for food when buffalo meat failed, and useful in freighting when  horses could not travel on the crusted snow. The noise of their  barking was terrifying, especially at night. Some of our party  suffered from the thieving dogs. The dwelling houses, trading  and work shops, stables, dog sheds, in fact all buildings were  inside the strong stockade, to be safe from Indian invasion.  The Company had tried to grow wheat and built a small  windmill to do some grinding. The frost bothered them in summer, and good flour was scarce. I sold flour at 20 cents a  pound there, and I think I got a pack-horse for 20 pounds of  flour. We sold our milch cow here for $60. We cannot speak too  highly of the comfort and benefit afforded by the cow on our  journey.  CHAPTER III  -_/o   the  f  romi&ea   oLand  Our Acton party broke up here; three remained to look for  gold; I joined the Huntingdon party, and the other two travelled  alone with the general crowd. John B. Burns and Thomas Dunn  (who died at Lillooet in 1868) were the two Acton men who  crossed the mountains with the main party. James Kelso, Malcolm and Erastus Hall were the two who remained to prospect  the Saskatchewan River bars for gold. One day these men  were out hunting and Erastus accidentally shot himself through  holding his gun by the muzzle. The following season Kelso and  Malcolm reached B.C. Others remained at or near Edmonton  until the next season and then crossed the Rockies.  134 The Overlanders  We started from Edmonton about seven days after arriving  there. Except for a small settlement at St. Albert about eight  miles north (or a little west of north) the whole country was open  to us if we had wished to settle there. The land was good, with  some spots of timber, and the wonderful abundance of grasses  showed plainly that the land was rich. In July we could not  expect much sign of frost, but we were informed that summer  frosts were a serious drawback to vegetation over most of this  great lone land. "Bah," said some of our 'wise men,' "those frosts  we hear about — that is to keep people from settling in the  the country." The H.B. Co. have too good a speculation, too  wide an interest in the great North-West to allow settlers to  interfere with their Indian-and-fur trade. I am of the opinion that  10,000 acres of the best of that land would not have been sufficient inducement to hold one of us there as a permanent  settler, for we thought it too remote and isolated.  So away we went, leaving to the H.B. Co. and the Indians  all that good land and its possibilities for others to take. I do  not covet their opportunity. I do not suppose many from B.C.  would prefer living in or near Edmonton, yet there may be a  great future for that vast fertile region. We proceeded the first  night to St. Albert, a Roman Catholic mission-station, near  enough to Fort Edmonton to be safe for Christian and educational work among the Indians and half-breeds. I did not have  an opportunity of forming any acquaintance with the remote-  frontier missionaries, as our time was limited; our stock was  restless and had to be herded.  "SKEETERS" WERE PRESENT  The mosquitoes were in quantity and I feared they would  prevent me from reaching St. Albert; the horses and the ox were  so tormented by them that I had to tie one behind the other  and lead, to prevent them rushing into the brush where they  might fight the pests. Our supply of milk did not follow us here  and I missed it very much. Still, I bought some choice pemmican, which I found to be the best of all foods for such a journey,  and soon became reconciled to the loss of the milk. We had engaged a guide with a horse; (in fact, he brought two horses with  him). His first name was Andrew and he was half French and  135 The Overlanders  Indian. He was an honorable and trustworthy man, instructive  and entertaining concerning the route and the country. He gave  us much help in time of need.  After a night's halt at St. Albert, where rain added weight  to our tents, we raised camp and with our animals followed  our guide west over prairie and pools, but not many creeks.  The country did not seem so favorable for settlement as near  St. Albert or between Forts Pitt and Edmonton. We judged it  to be too near a water level. In about five days after leaving  Edmonton we arrived at Lake St. Ann Mission, all well and  hopeful. John Nichols was strong and well, much liked and with  the ambition of a conqueror. (At a camp six miles east of St.  Ann's one of my horses strayed and this detained me for half  a day behind the main party.) Three Sisters of Charity are  established at St. Ann's to teach the Indian children, and also  two missionary Fathers in another establishment, all sent by  Bishop Tache. The Sisters complained sorely that the work was  not encouraging because the Indians would not settle long  enough in one place, as living by hunting, they had to follow  the fur and game animals.  H.   B.   CO.'S  POST,.'"LAKE  ST.   AXN's.  (Fifty Diffe. nvrtk-west of Edmonton.)  I thought it a very great sacrifice of life and its charms  that was made by these lovely Sisters. Since then I have often  had the pleasure of meeting self-denying and zealous Sisters  of Charity in different places, laboring to build hospitals, orphanages and schools, and in many ways relieving the poor,  helpless, erring and suffering. A Scotch gentleman, Col. Colin  Fraser, was in charge of this trading post. He had an Indian  136 The Overlanders  wife and family, mostly grown-up daughters, who had no  chance of any education except recently, by the Sisters. He  greatly regretted the lack of civilized opportunities for them.  We had here some fine whitefish taken from Lake St. Ann's.  For use on our journey we secured some good butter, a cake  of buffalo tallow, and a good supply of Indian moccasins.  TRAIL ROUGH AND MIRY  I started at noon with my ox and one horse to overtake the  caravan which had left in the morning. After travelling about  four miles over brushy and open country on the trail of the  main party I got into heavy spruce, cedar, and other coniferous  timber. The trail was wet and miry, and so badly cut up that  my animals had great difficulty in wading through the swamp.  Several times I had to unpack the horse and carry his load  over to better footing. A kind providence brought me out of the  mire and led me safely to the camp of my companions. The  land here was rolling (after leaving the belt of timber and  swamp) with prairie, bush, and aspen forest. Our trail skirted  some small lakes of good water where ducks were sporting.  Wood and water were both good and plentiful, and our own  cooking and baking highly relished. We had mostly fine travelling; the sun bright and the wind refreshing. All got along  well and no stock strayed. At noon we rested and as usual  ate heartily, enjoying neighbourly visits and telling of experiences with sore backs on some of the stock. (The various styles  of pack saddles were not the proper kind to save our animals  from sore backs,) Besides, very few of our stock ever had packs  on their backs prior to their trial at Edmonton. Our guide tried  perseveringly to train us in saving our animals on the journey.  We made many mistakes and suffered loss; they lightened the  loads by throwing away superfluous tools, clothing, and furnishings.  We soon reached the first crossing of the Pembina River.  Here we found a small hill, part of the east bank of the river,  pouring out a column of smoke. We found that a bed of coal  lay under the river, and inferred that the stratum extended  underground in all directions not over 50 feet from the surface.  The campfires were all made of coal and burned freely with  a whitish flame. Wood was now plentiful in spots, but the land  was lighter and the grass not so good.  137 The Overlanders  On the following day we made the crossing, and our guide  showed us how to make use of some of our larger tents. He  spread one on the beach near the water, collected our provisions, blankets and other articles, made a neat bundle of them,  gathered the tent-edges together and tied them as one does  with a sack of wheat to prevent water from entering. He then  mounted his horse, and with a rope attached to the bundle,  towed it across to the opposite bank. Others followed his example and all were safely across the river by noon. I remember one bundle getting water inside it. The river was deep  enough to oblige some of the smaller animals to swim. I can  still remember dear Mrs. Schubert riding her horse into that  deep ford — and it had to swim. I think she depended on  friends taking her three children over safely, as her husband  and his two men were attending to the stock and provisions.  That afternoon we pushed on, over country that showed  small promise of encouraging farmers. The soil was cold and  the timber dwarfish and sparse. That evening we came to mossy swamps, so loose that our progress was sorely interrupted.  Most of the horses, and especially the mules, were unable to  struggle through with their loads; the pack oxen, however,  seldom needed help. We understood that these swamps extended long distances south-west and north-east. Our progress  was very slow but at last we arrived at McLeod River, which  was certainly four times wider than the Pembina, and the current much swifter. The guide led the way through the shallowest parts, over bars of boulders and coarse gravel that made  travelling difficult for the animals. The men forded on foot. One  of the St. Catherines men stepped too far down stream into  deep water and was being carried away by the current' when  our noble guide, Andrew, rode on horseback after him and  saved him as only an expert could have done. There were  other mishaps, but none serious. Approaching McLeod River  the land was, for several miles, more timbered and better than  that near the swamps. On the left bank we pitched our tents  and prepared for a long rest of two nights and the Sabbath.  How great were our successes? How much we owed to the God  of all travellers. All worshipped Him, feeling so dependent upon  Him. There were two gentlemen in the St. Catherines company  who were always willing to lead in devotional exercises.  138 The Overlanders  OUT OF THE SWAMP COUNTRY  We found fine fir timber on the west shore, where we  camped. On the Monday, all well rested, we got ready early  and the guide led us along the river in a south-westerly direction until he found a route which avoided swamps. The  country was now varied, part timbered and part prairie, with  stretches of small spruce and belts of mixed good-sized poplar and fine spruce, and also, I think, balsam. In one of these  timber belts my old cream pack-horse dropped out of our caravan, and I did not discover that he was missing till we reached  our morning camp-ground on the south-east bank of the great  river Athabasca, (where we enjoyed a long view both up and  down stream). Oh, how vexing to have to return and hunt for  that missing horse! Grateful boy Economy offered to go back  with me to find it. Our party went on and we two returned  some six miles. We hunted and listened, walking or running  in all directions. After a while we heard trampling, and found  the horse fighting flies in a shady place. His load was in good  trim, for which I was thankful, and we hastened back to where  we had left the other horse. Our course lay along the east bank  of the Athabasca, which was not often in view on account of  the timber. At last twilight was gone, and the darkness was so  dense that sometimes we had to go on our knees to feel the  ground and satisfy ourselves we were not off the route, and to  hold the horse by the tail in order not lose sight of him. We  were timid and doubtful now, not knowing what wild beast  might be scenting our trail. We moved slowly, but at ten  o'clock a charming full moon had risen and lighted the rest of  our way. All fears vanished, for we not only had moonlight  but often open forest with no underbrush to darken our view.  We went forward and caught up to the advance party, who  were asleep.  IN CLOSE SIGHT OF THE ROCKIES  On that Monday we had not travelled long on the high  river-bench when our course led downhill, so much so that our  knees were painful through walking on the steep down-grade.  The timber was thick enough to hide the mountains from view.  When at the low flat we walked out of all timber, it seemed  that,   not  many  hundred  yards   from   us,   there   towered   the  139 The Overlanders  Rocky Mountains — rock from top to bottom, and no room for  soil or trees. Such a sight was new to most of us, and gave us  a surprise that the guide enjoyed, for he had wanted to see  the effect of this sudden view.  A short walk over a low grassy flat brought us to the edge  of the river, across which we waded and skirted the foot of  Miette Rock, keeping the river still on our right. Soon we again  left the low land near the river and climbed the slope of a mountain some two thousand feet above the river in order to save  us crossing and recrossing it. The climb was steep in spots and  very fatiguing to men used to level country. On our way up,  a hornet's nest hung over the path and most of our animals  were stung and badly rattled in a steep and dangerous place.  We all had serious dread of what might happen. Up we climbed  till we reached the summit of the trail. Some four or maybe  six thousand feet below the top of the mountain. Here we  rested. Here were-soil and grass and beaten paths — the trails  of mountain sheep. As we looked north-west we viewed the  great Jasper Mountain with its crest lost in cloud and eternal  snow. To the south, mountains of rock stood boldly as forbidding  barriers to the foot of man. A large area of flat land lay at the  bottom of the valley, with a few trees around Jasper Lake,  which was a natural mirror reflecting the mighty grandeur surrounding it. The great Athabaska River came from the south  between high mountains that seemed to bid defiance to our  progress in that direction.  ONE LONE HOUSE  One lone house nestled near the river on the north-west  bank about one and a half miles from our resting place. This  was Jasper House, once a trading post but not occupied in 1862.  We had to descend the dangerous zig-zag path, and were not  far from the mountain when we had to step into that terrific  mountain creek where our footing was uncertain among the  boulders. The ford was not over one hundred feet across and  the water not over three feet deep, but it was running in foam  because of its speed. Our course was still down-hill until we  reached the river near the outlet of the lake. Our noon camp  was charming, but though our eyes and souls had a feast of  140 The Overlanders  views, we had to come down to pemmican and black bread to  satisfy the cravings of hunger. Our animals had grass and good  water, but we dreaded that they would suffer in their feet  through walking on rocks and boulders. For although we had  several blacksmiths in our party we possessed no forge or  horse shoes. Barely two miles from the lake the valley was  like a canyon, and here we must climb to the top of a rocky  bench, but after a couple of miles of rough road we found bench  land with considerable timber. Not long after we left the canyon  the valley widened and the river, here about three hundred  yards wide, ran more slowly. We had to unpack and make  the animals swim across. When all were ready we brought  my old cream horse and instructed him to lead into the water.  Most of the animals followed, but a few gave trouble. To ferry  our effects, we resorted to the mode of rafting and poling or  paddling with shovels. We found some dry timber which floated  very well, so we made several small rafts, and on these we  loaded our effects. By repeated crossings we got every article  across, leading some of the horses with the rafts.  On we went a short distance to find better feed. The valley  was now much wider, with mostly light soil and no heavy crop  of grass. Travelling was easy but night was near and we had  to halt. Our musical men felt like entertaining the boys, and  we were all pleased with their performance. Next day we found  the travelling easy for a few miles, with open timber and not  much brush. Our guide pointed to a square heap of mouldering  logs and said, "That is the old Henry House. It was built by  some of the voyageurs in the early days before the H.B. Co  brought their goods around Cape Horn to British Columbia."  AT FRASER HEADWATERS  We were now bearing more to the west and leaving the  Athabaska valley. Our course was to reach the Miette River, a  small tributary of the Athabasca. We crossed that stream  fourteen times that day. Once my ox took a notion to cross in  a wrong place and had to swim. I stripped and swam across to  send him back. The water was ice-cold and I nearly perished  with the chill. We found a grassy region after our day's journey, with abundant signs of otter and beaver. The mountains  141 The Overlanders  were lower and less rocky here. Next morning we drank the  last water of the eastern slope and left the Miette River to cross  the Rocky Mountain divide. The path led southward across flat  timbered land. After a few miles we stepped over a small stream  and were told that this was the beginning of the mighty Fraser.  We soon came to Moose Lake, four to six miles long and a few  hundred yards to a mile wide, which received mountain streams  on all sides and discharged them into the Fraser, now a much  larger stream than when we first saw it. Some of our time was  taken up cutting out such logs as we could not step over.  A strange black hairy substance was noticed on some of  the brush. We first thought it was the falling coat of black  bear, but it turned out to be a species of moss common in B.C.,  where the rainfall is not too heavy. At noon, near the west end  of the lake we went up an easy slope in search of berries.  Someone shouted "Bring your rifle." In a small cave under  a rock we could see animals. After the shot was fired a porcupine rolled out of the cave dead. Our guide roasted the tail,  which I thought good eating, but the other parts were not  relished. Then we travelled slowly down the west bank of the  Fraser, now a considerable and rapid stream. The scenery was  not releasing until we reached Cow Dung (?) lake, the south side  of which was bounded by mountains with what appeared to be  rmall timber; the recent frosts gave grand coloring to the foliage.  We had to follow the north shore of the lake over gravel for  three or four miles. This short journey wore the animals' feet more  than all the rest of the mountain travelling. One of Mr. Schubert's  horses swam into this lake with his pack, and the men in  charge had a wet time getting him back. The stock suffered so  much in their feet that they feared to step on boulders, and  we found it difficult to urge them on. I had to drop my grey horse  and pile his load on the cream one and the ox. It was a great  relief to find better roads at the end of the lake. I think we  camped early to give the stock a rest.  TOWARDS THE COLUMBIA  The clouds were now gathering and the signs of rain  increasing. I think that about the second night from the lake  we camped  in heavy timber where there was no grass  for  142 The Overlanders  the stock, which were all tied to trees. During the night rain  poured in torrents. We started early next morning and when we  reached a grassy place we halted for the stock to feed. They  were fast losing flesh (and heart) but there was no remedy but  to press on and feed when grass was found. We had to stop  and cut a trail along a piece of rock with swift water below.  We got over this safely, all hut one horse which slipped and  was lost in the river. Looking up the valley, our guide pointed  out three snow-covered peaks which he called "The Three  Sisters", but from our position we could see no other high  mountains. We were informed that some distance to the south  were the headwaters of the Canoe River, which flows into the  Columbia at Boat Encampment. Our trail was easier now, and  soon after noon we arrived at Boat Encampment or Tete Jaune  Cache. The guide warned us of the probability of Indians being  camped hereabouts. Sure enough, we saw on the south bank,  nearly opposite, signs of a wigwam and smoke arising from  a camp fire. They were a small band of the Shuswaps who had  left the tribe some time previously. Some five of the band had  attempted to cross the mountains in the spring of '62 and all  but one were buried under a snow slide. Two canoes with five  large salmon came over to our camp. They were in fine condition and a great surprise to us — 800 miles from the sea! We  paid for them with clothing and other articles. Our Huntingdon party, headed by Capt. James Wattie, bought one which  was sufficient to give a hearty supper and breakfast for our  party of 17.  WHICH ROUTE TO TAKE?  A wide bench stretched northward. Here we fed on ripe  June berries and blue berries. To the south-east was a broad  plain reaching far beyond our view, and the question was  "which route shall we take?" The guide did not know whether  the river was suitable for rafting, but we knew that the H.B. Co.  had run boats down to Fort George and up to this landing. The  guide did not know much about a route south to the North  Thompson River. A large party decided to start on the Thompson route and secured most of the animals, hoping to get them  through to Kamloops and have some benefit from them later  in the Cariboo mines. A large number decided to go down the  143 The Overlanders  Fraser. Some made rafts, others canoes, and one party a boat  of ox-hides. Our Huntingdon party soon got a raft of cedar together, 22 feet wide and over 40 feet long, with two long sweeps  at both ends. After further consideration they made another of  the same size and lashed it ahead of the first. The idea was to  carry stock on the leading raft and passengers with provisions  and luggage on the other.  Mr. and Mrs. Schubert expressed a wish to join our  Huntingdon crowd on our large raft, (some 85 by 22 feet) but  our wise men thought they would be safer to join the party  with the most animals and take the land route via the Thompson to Kamloops. We thought the Fraser route more dangerous.  The McMicking party, numbering 26, built a smaller raft and  furnished it with row locks and sweeps. Robert Harkness was  captain, pilot and commander. The Ottawa party had a smaller  raft and two oxen on board. Robertson from Goderich (?) with  another man, dug out two canoes and lashed them together.  Mr. McKenzie, late of Kamloops, with a young man named Patterson and a third party made one large canoe. Another party  of clever men collected several hides of oxen killed in camp,  stitched them together and secured them over a strong skeleton  of ribs and curbs with trace beams. Thus they made a good  water-tight boat.  Our great raft and its crew were committed to the care of  Wm. Sellars, from Huntington, Que. We soon found him worthy  of our confidence, and obeyed him as true soldiers obey their  general, or worthy seamen their captain. The river flowed  swiftly and we glided with the current. We were much cheered  by making so long a run on the first day, with no fatigue to  men or animals. This was a great change from walking, cutting trails, and making bridges.  We tied up at night where we could find feed for the stock.  After a night that was not too cool, we collected our nine stock  and tied them to a frame fixed to the raft.  On the second day, soon after starting, a craft overtook  us,   saluted,   and   passed   confidently   without   any   apparent  144 The Overlanders  thought of danger. About 10 a.m. we noticed a sand-bar some  distance down stream with two men and a canoe on it. Capt.  Sellars and I paddled our canoe to the south shore, took the  men to our raft and listened to their sad tale. They had not  considered danger, but had paddled into a swell caused by the  water flowing over a large boulder. The canoes had filled with  water and the ties holding them together broke. Mr. Robertson  told the other men he would swim to shore and come to their  help as soon as possible. We travelled up and down looking  for him but found no sign of him. So, late in the afternoon we  gave him up for dead, as the water was so cold. He had been  an engineer in Goderich, and third captain of the whole party  being well fitted to command respect. We provided as best  we could for the two additions to our company on the raft.  That was a night of real sorrow.  Next day we encountered shallow bars and a narrow channel with a swifter current. The command came — "Head to  the left bank". We walked along the bank and there saw rough  water near the right bank and a rocky bluff in an elbow-shaped  bend which caused the river to form a great whirlpool which  threatened the timbers of our raft. We thought we might try  the run if we lightened the raft, so all stock, freight and idle  passengers were put ashore.  RUNNING THE RAPIDS  Eight of the crew with the captain volunteered to risk their  lives with the raft. We pushed off and then worked our sweeps  to prevent going to the right bank. Down we shot like a cork  and our oars barely escaped striking the rock, but a kind providence favored us and our raft was borne by another current  away from it. But then a new whirl caught the forward corner  of the raft and held it fast while another caught the aft right  corner. Thus we were anchored for a short time. Although we  strained at our sweeps with two men at each we failed to gain  upon the power of the eddies. Then all of a sudden we were  washed past the dangerous place. The river now widened to  a lake nearly a mile across each way, and soon we got our  raft to a place where we could re-load.  145 The Overlanders  I may mention here that William McKenzie, who at one  time belonged to the Toronto party, was ahead of us in a canoe  with a young man named Patterson and a third man. They  upset and Patterson caught cold and died at Fort George. Because the water was now deep we could not pole the raft and  it took us a long time to cross the lake by rowing. We were  now puzzled as to the course of the river. We ventured to the  south side where we could see bare rocks and landed the raft  in a safe place. Some of us began to explore the river. We saw  where it passed between two great rocks, steep on both sides  and with a gradual fall that made white-caps on a big swell,  but no further view. There was no way to portage anything, nor  could the animals travel.  On we went, running the foaming rapids at great speed,  and instead of touching the rock at the bend our raft was  lifted past it by the powerful current. Now we were in a real  canyon, which, after spells of hard rowing we passed and  reached a wide expanse of river with trees stuck on the shallows but little sign of a channel. The current was not swift  and the water was muddy due to clay banks falling into it.  This quiet stream checked our speed, and we used sweeps to  make headway. One evening our stock was put on shore for  an hour to feed and then, after re-loading, we floated all night.  I don't think we made over 15 miles each of the two days. Our  quiet river narrowed after a while and soon we reached an  Indian camp — the first sign of life since leaving Tete Jaune  Cache. We spoke English but could get no information regarding the river or our distance from Fort George. Some of the  party bartered articles for dried salmon. The Indians seemed  not to fear us, and we gave them some presents.  TO BE CONCLUDED IN NEXT REPORT.  146 ^Jhe   \-Jhanaaan d5oohshelf  The following references do not include many articles on'  Okanagan and Similkameen which appeared in coast and district  newspapers.  There  are   some  references   to   forthcoming  books.  CENTENNIAL HISTORY  M'-s. Mabel Johnson writes: "Vernon, one of the oldest  communities in the Okanagan Valley, takes pride in the fact  that Dr. Margaret Ormsby will write the colorful story of British Columbia for its centennial next year. Dr. Ormsby was born  in Quesnel, came with her parents in 1919 to Vernon, where  she received her elementary and high school education.  "Dr. Ormsby has been given leave of absence for next  year by the University of British Columbia so that she may  write the history of this province. During that time she will reside in Victoria.  "A graduate of the University of British Columbia, and  Bryn Mawr with a doctor of philosophy degree, Dr. Ormsby  has been on the teaching staff of the University of British Columbia for a number of years (Department of History). She was  editor of the Okanagan Historical Society's annual reports for  six years; and has held high office in provincial and dominion  historical associations." (Mabel Johnson)  REGIMENTAL HISTORY  The battles of Ypres, Mons, Vimy Ridge, and many other  conflicts were re-lived in Vernon on June 3rd by a group of 75  old soldiers, veterans of the 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles and  the British Columbia Dragoons, at their 22nd annual re-union.  Self-styled the "Whizzbangs," members of the two regiments are now scattered all over B.C. Colonel G. Chalmers-  Johnston, of Duncan, Vancouver Island, now in his eighties,  came to Vernon to take the salute at the march past, and  otherwise participate in the program.  It was  Col.  Chalmers-  147 The Okanagan Bookshell  Johnston who brought the 2nd C.M.R.'s back to Vernon after  World War One.  Rev. C. E. Reeve conducted a service of remembrance at  the Cenotaph, when Colonel Chalmers-Johnston and Major  M. V. McGuire laid a wreath.  The "Whizzbangs" came from Victoria, Vancouver, the  Cariboo, Kamloops, Salmon Arm, through to south of the border. Retiring president John "Paddy" Hill,, of Lavington, presided at the business session. He was succeeded on June 3rd  as president of the association by Peter Adams, of the old B.C.  Dragoons, now a resident of Penticton. Harry Willis is vice-  president; secretary is Dor. Cadden, all of Penticton, where  the 1957 annual meeting will be held in June, 1957.  At the business meeting in Vernon, it was decided to  compile the regimental history of the B.C. Dragoons for publication. District representatives elected were: Vernon: Col. C.  W. Husband, Fred Shumay; Kamloops and district: Hugh  Ehlers; Kelowna and district: R. Hughes, J. Monteith; Armstrong  and North Okanagan: Ken Seaman, G. McEwen; Summer-  land and district: W. McCutcheon and Ben Newton.  The "Whizzbangs" have every reason to be proud of their  regiments. A total of 4,500 men passed through its ranks. Of  these, 685 were killed in action or died of wounds. Decorations  foi bravery and distinguished service numbered 214, including  a Victoria Cross. (Mabel Johnson)  The World Before Us — Encounters with places and people in four continents, by John Lennox Cock (Collins, London,  1955). Mr. Cook was born at Kew, Surrey, England, and educated at King's College School, Wimbledon. After leaving University, he taught schools in England and Egypt, and won  recognition as a novelist and writer of short stories. In a fit of  boredom he suddenly announced that he would motorcycle  around the world, and the result is told in The World Before Us.  In the course oi his travels, Lennox Cook and his companion Tim arrived at Vancouver on the Aorangi. They travelled  148 The   Okanagan   Bookshelf  east to Okanagan, then south to  San Francisco,  and crossed  country to New York.  Instead of crossing the Rocky Mountains, we turned south towards the U.S.A. and drove through the lovely, fruit-growing valley  of Okanagen (sic). For many miles a beautiful, tenuous lake sparkled far below the road. At one point we stopped . . . we were looking up at a big American car that had stopped beside our bikes.  Someone leaned out of a window. "Would you like a cup of tea?"  We followed the car-load of cheerful Canadians who had recognized  us as "the two world motor-cyclists" and came to Penticton, an attractive summer resort where Swedish-built chalets stood romantically secluded among the pinewoods. and pine-clad hills sloped  down to the placid waters of Skaha Lake. A single street skirted  the southern shore. A walk over the crackling pine needles brought  us to the Ducommins' (sic) home and to a host of friendly relatives whose exact identities remain, I'm afraid, as obscure as they  did then.  A cup of tea developed into an expansive supper on the verandah; a bathe, drinks in the lounge; a broadcast on the local radio; a bed for the night . . .  We were off prompt next morning in the bright sunshine.  "Good Luck" beamed a placard from the pinewoods. "And Come  Again to Summerland." (pp.224-225)  In the Epilogue Mr. Cook concludes that endurance, distance, strangeness, illness, apprehension are the great curatives of boredom (p.255). The journey described was made in  1951, and lasted eight months.  Summerland Golden Jubilee 1906-1956 — This anniversary souvenir was published by the Summerland Board of  Trade and the Golden Jubilee committee, with cover design  by H. Wouters. The municipal seal is reproduced. It carries  the legend "Incorporated Dec. 21, 1906. Home of the luscious  peach." There are nineteen illustrations of places and people.  It is an attractive booklet, recording past history, and telling of  the modern community, in the District Municipality of Summerland. It is dedicated to the pioneers who helped to make  dreams come true, to whom the "Message from the Reeve",  F. E. Atkinson, pays fitting tribute.  Summerland's reeves and councils are listed, beginning  with J.  M. Robinson and council members C.  J. Thompson,  J.  149 The Okanagan Bookshelf  R. Brown, Jas. Ritchie and R. H. Agur in 1907, to F. E. Atkinson  and members H. J. Barkwill, F. M. Steuart, D. M. Wright and  J. R. Butler in the Jubilee year 1956.  Our copy of the Summerland souvenir booklet was sent  by Mrs. Hector C. Whitaker; also copy of the Jubilee map of  the district drawn by her husband. It is a unique production  which has been in great demand. It contains a wealth of information such as is not usually found in local maps.  The History of Summerland Baptist Church 1905-1955 —  Last year Summeiland Baptists celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of their church, and Marjorie K. Vanderburgh prepared an excellent 32-page brochure to mark the occasion. The  story was compiled "from things remembered by Mrs. James  Ritchie, charter member, Mrs. James Darke, Mr. Wm. Ritchie  and Mr. John McDougald, pioneer settlers and early members  of the church, and from the record books"; also from "The  History of Okanagan College", B.D. thesis presented to Mc-  Master University by Rev. "Kutch" Imayoshi, B.A. The booklet was printed by The Penticton Herald, and is dated 19 September, 1955.  On p.2 is a photograpn of the original document containing signatures of the seventeen charter members. Other photographs show Ritchie Hall, part of Okanagan College, which  was burned in 1941; the original Baptist church at West Summerland; Lakeside church, built as a Baptist church and taken  over by the United Church in 1926; West Summerland in early  days showing the new Baptist church on the hill; and the Baptist church as it is today.  The origin and progress of the various church organizations are traced; and on page 30 the pastoral succession is  noted, beginning with Rev. T. N. Ritchie, July, 1905, to February, 1906; to the present incumbent Rev. Lyle D. Kennedy,  who began his Summerland ministry in October, 1954.  The "Friendly Letter" begun by Rev. F. W. Haskins during  World War II as a link between the congregation and its members in the services, has been continued by Mrs. W. C. Wilkin.  150 The  Okanagan   Bookshelf  Glimpses of Pioneer Life of Okanogan County, Washington — "A series of Biographies, Experiences and Events intimately concerned with the settlement of Okanogan County,  Washington," reprinted from articles in the Okanogan Independent, and issued in book form in August, 1924.  Our present interest is in the chapter on the "McLoughlin Indian Fight", pp. 73-74, and only to point out that members  of the expedition crossed over into British Columbia, thus linking the story with Okanagan and Similkameen.  Pageant oi B.C. — Glimpses into the romantic development of Canada's far western province, by B. A. McKelvie  (Thomas Nelson & Sons (Canada) Ltd., 1955), with illustrations  by Frank Newfeld. In a review of this book Torchy Anderson  wrote, "If you want to brush up on B.C. history you can not do  better than start with Mr. McKelvie's pageant". In the first  chapter Mr. McKelvie gives a number of facts and references  supporting Oriental occupation of our coast before the white  man came. In the "glimpses" are only passing references to  Okanagan and Similkameen, but there is a chapter on the  excitement at Rock Creek following Adam Beam's discovery  of gold there in October, 1859. Mr. McKelvie has long been  interested in our Okanagan Historical Society, and his book  is  warmly  commended  to  its   members.  British Columbia — Its History, People and Industry by  Fred H. Goodchild (George Allen & Unwin Ltd., London, 1951).  In this book is only brief mention of Okanagan; chapter XI on  "Agricultural Riches" (pp. 110-121), and in chapter XII on "Mining Riches" (pp 122-128). Chapter VII has to do with "Places,  Names and Legends", and has some interesting speculations  on these.  "Six languages can be traced in place-names of British Columbia—Spanish, Indian, Russian, British, French and Mongolian,  and it is the last one that is a constant source of speculation  among students and scientists. Mr. Tom Maclnnes, an authority  on place-names, points out that some Mongolian names are used  without alteration, such as Tsacha, Uhal-gak, Tchai-kazan, while  numbers of others are obviously derived from China. One theory is  that Mongols at one time inhabited the coast ..."  (p 66) The Okanagan Bookshelf  In his book Chinook Days, published by the Sun Publishing Co. Ltd., Vancouver, Mr. Maclnnes has a chapter on "Chinook Jargon" (pp. 25-35). He was one who did not dismiss  lightly the suggestion that Orientals may have inhabited our  coast, and possibly the interior of our province, long before the  white man came to our shores.  The Family Herald and Weekly Star has had at least five  articles on Okanagan and adjoining territory since July of last  year: "From Stage Coach to Irrigated Pastures", by Mabel  Johnson (3 Nov. 1955), reviewing the history of the BX ranch;  "Art Class in the Okanagan", by Margaret Ecker Francis  (23 Feb. 1956); "A daughter of the West," by Margaret Ecker  Francis (1 March, 1956) telling of Miss Kathleen Ellis, of Penticton; "Guidepost tor Okanagan Orchardists", by J. S. Cram,  (4 June, 1956), recording experimental work at Summerland; and  "Success on the Shuswap" (19 July, 1956) dealing with Scandinavian enterprize in farming All these articles are well illustrated.  "Long ago, and alone under a pine tree on a hilltop, an  Indian came and told things to me between sound and silence  that were tah-oo. When leaving he gave an all-round wave of  his arm and said: 'Kwonsum Sokalie Tyhee mamook kopa  sokalie. Pe kwonsum Yo mitlite Yo.' That is to say: 'Forever the  Lord on High works high. But forever Yo stays Yo.' How about  that? How about that notion of Yo, the eternal, unexistent yet  potential matrix; anterior to God as the sky is anterior to the  sun? Such a notion was neither acceptable, nor perhaps comprehensible, by such of our people as were engaged in giving'  the comfort of our religion to those who were being killed off  by our culture." (Chinook Days by Tom Maclnnes, Vancouver,  B.C. n.d.) p. 35.  152 C-o  orreSiaonaence  _¬a/_>  Writing from Vernon on 19 July, 1956, Guy P. Bagnall tells  of stirring events in early days.  "You will recall the incident in Mr. Fortune's story where  he meets the Red Star boat to collect some freight, and on the  same boat was the first keg of rum to reach the Okanagan. It  was addressed to the Lumby Estate, later known as the Stepney  Ranch. Fortune pondered the situation: should he, or should  he not, take this evidence of the very devil himself to his  friends and neighbours?  "R. B. Blackburn told me how the incident ended. The old-  timers held a memorable celebration on the Lumby estate, three  miles south of Enderby, when a terrific storm struck the district,  the violence of which exceeded anything previously known  there. A band of timber was struck by lightning and was  turned from verdant green to a brown colour. The band followed  an easterly direction and crossed the top of the mountain. Mr.  Blackburn says he can locate the spot where the lightning  struck, even though the forest has since been logged off.  "After the storm an Indian said to Mr. Fortune, 'Nika tumtum Saghalie Tyee yaka hiyu sollecks okoke sun.' A free  translation would be, T think God above must be really angry  today'."  Julian E. Johnson of Chicago writes to discover date when  the David McLoughlin expedition was attacked by Indians north  of Riverside in Washington at what is now called McLoughlin's  Canyon. Two accounts he has, simply state that this happened  "after 1858". To this enquiry reply was made:  "Reference to the expedition is made by Robert Stevenson  in an article in The Oroville Gazette for Christmas, 1910. The  article is mainly about the Tohn Collins expedition in 1860, but  extended reference is made to the McLoughlin fight "a few  years before." That is rather vague, though Stevenson has much  to say about it.  153 Correspondence  "Two pages about the McLoughlin expedition are given in  Hubert Howe Bancroft's History of British Columbia (San Francisco, 1887: pp. 367-368), and here a more definite date is given.  The company made "their rendezvous at Walla Walla in July,  1858." The expedition was assembled in ten or twelve days.  "Two or three days travel after crossing the Columbia . . . the  whole party was attacked."  This reply brought a letter raising questions of interest to  local historians.  "You enquire as to the two accounts of the McLoughlin  expedition I have found. One is Ka-Mi-Akin, The Last Hero of  the Yakimas, by Andrew J. Splawn (1917). The second is Early  Okanogan History by WilUam C. Brown (Okanogan Independent, Okanogan, Washington, 1911; 27 pp.). Judge Brown is  preparing a revised edition.  "Splawn's book refers to correspondence with survivors  of the McLoughlin expedition. Judge Brown's short book quotes  a good deal of source material. The Geological Survey of the  United States Department of the Interior, issues topographical  maps which cover the scene of the McLoughlin affair. The  particular map concerned is known as the Osoyoos Quadrangle.  "The Okanogan Independent also published in 1924 a collection of biographical sketches called Glimpses of Pioneer Life  of Okanogan County, Washington.  "Another book is My Pioneer Past by Guy Waring, with  an introduction by Owen Wister. In the map at the beginning  of this book is the footnote: "N.B. Okanagan was the old and  correct way of spelling." This should mark its author as a  man of discernment! Incidentally, Waring was a Harvard  graduate and acquaintance of Teddy Roosevelt. He set up a  store which finally became the town of Loomis — in the sense  that a small town grew up around it ... "  A subsequent letter from Mr. Johnson discusses the confusion which has arisen through misspelling David McLoughlin's  surname. Bancroft spelled it with an 'a'—McLaughlin. This was  154 Correspondence  copied by Howay. This form was used by Robert Stevenson, and  in some books both forms are used. We have seen it so spelled  on some maps. In his letter of 29 August, 1956, Mr. Johnson  points out that the leader of the expedition was David, the son  of Dr. John McLoughlin, known to history as "The Father of  Oregon."  Mr. Johnson was born in Chicago, the youngest of three  sons. In 1910 the family moved to Riverside, on the Okanogan  River. He completed high school there, taught school for a time,  and served in the United States army during World War I. He  has lived in Chicago since then.  KEREMEOS  COLUMNS  PARK  "Princeton, B.C., 4 July, 1956: To the Minister, Lands and  Forests, Victoria, B.C. Dear Sir: Mrs. Marie Quaedvlieg of  Keremeos has written with reference to the status of the Keremeos Columns Park. She has a cutting from the Similkameen  Star of 1931 which states that 340 acres (presumably including  the columns) were set aside as a provincial park. Now she has  met someone who claims ownership, and is rightly disturbed  about this.  "I think the cutting referred to was based on Order in  Council of 31 July, 1931. In an article on 'The Keremeos Columns' in the sixth report of the Okanagan Historical Society  (1935) is this paragraph:  The Keremeos Board of Trade interested itself in the  preservation of these columns, and the result of their  action was that on the 31st July, 1931, an Order-in-Council  was passed by the Provincial Government reserving 720  acres adjacent to Lot 2116-S for a public park to be known  as the "Keremeos Columns Park." (OHS 6, p.  185).  "Mrs. Quaedvlieg is anxious to know if this Order-in-  Council is still effective; or was it revoked, and rights given to  private concern?"  To this enquiry the Hon. Ray Williston, provincial Minister  155 Correspondence  of Lands and Forests, made the following reply, dated "Victoria,  16th July, 1956:"  In response to your letter of July 4th, J may say that at  the representation of the Keremeos Board of Trade, an  area comprising 720 acres, more or less, was reserved and  set aside as Keremeos Columns Park by Order-in-Council  No. 994, approved July 31st, 1931, and that by Order-in-  Council No. 1660, approved December 14th, 1940, the above-  mentioned area was classified as a Provincial park of  Class "A".  Unfortunately, while it was obviously intended that  Keremeos Columns Park should preserve the columnar  outcropping known as the "Columns", recent surveys and  examinations indicate that this formation is situated on  alienated property outside of the designated park reserve.  Subsequently, the area of the park was reduced to 50  acres adjoining Lot 2863 within which the Columns are  located.  From the foregoing, it will be apparent that the Order-  in-Council of July 31st, 1931, is presently partially effective,  but that some 670 acre, of the original park area have  reverted to the status of Vacant Crown Land.  Yours   faithfully,  RAY WILLISTON, Minister.  156 I  arent Societu and (/branch /Reports  Four branches of the Okanagan Historical Society were  represented at the annual meeting, held in the Anglican Parish Hall, Armstrong, on 9 May, 1956, commencing at 2 p.m.  Delegates came from Armstrong, Enderby, Vernon, Kelowna,  Penticton, Okanagan Mission, Okanagan Centre, Summerland,  Sorrento, Winfield and Oyama. There were 47 present. The  president, J. D. Whitham of Kelowna, was in the chair, and  Mrs. Vera Bennett at the secretary's desk.  The minutes of the 1955 meeting at Vernon were adopted,  after which the president asked all to stand and observe one  minute's silence in memory of members who had passed on  during the year.  REPORTS OF OFFICERS  In his presidential report Mr. Whitham expressed satisfaction at the progress made by the Society during the year, noting that the nineteenth report had commended itself to members and the public. Branch editorial committees had been a  great help to the editors. The need for more members was  stressed, and all branches were asked to strive for increased  membership. During the year the president had attended  branch meetings in Penticton, Vernon and Kelowna. On Sunday, 6 May, he had attended the unveiling of the plaque marking the site of the Ellis homestead in Penticton.  The treasurer's statement was presented by Guy P. Bagnall of Vernon. It covered the year ending 31 March, 1955, and  showed a balance of $1070.25. Mr. Bagnall appealed for more  patrons of the society, donating the sum of $10.00 or more, so  that society finances would be on a firm footing. Mr. Whitham  expressed the thanks of the meeting to Mr. Bagnall for his  excellent work.  In a letter addressed to the president, the secretary, Rev.  J. C. Goodfellow, asked to be relieved of the secretarial office,  157 Parent Society and Branch Reports  after eleven years service; at the same time expressing willingness to continue as editor of the Society's reports.  BRANCH REPORTS  Vernon — President Fred Harwood reported a successful  year for the Vernon branch, and gave special thanks to Mrs.  G. P. Bagnall and Mrs. M. S. Middleton for their excellent work  on the editorial committee. He expressed the need for greater  interest and participation in local branch affairs.  Kelowna — G. M. Watt of Okanagan Mission, president  of the Kelowna branch, commended the work of Mrs. D. Allison, and others on the local editorial committee. At the annual  meeting on 5 April. The guest speaker was Leo Jobin, formerly  game warden and predatory animal hunter of Williams Lake  area, who is well versed in native lore. Since the last annual  meeting of the parent body Kelowna had celebrated its 50th  anniversary with fitting ceremonies. The original Father Pandosy school has been taken over by the Roman Catholic  Church. The school will be restored and become a point of  historic interest.  Ellis Homestead marker, showing Dr. Kathleen Ellis last on right.  158 Parent Society and Branch Reports  Penticton — J. G. Harris, who is president of the branch,  presented the Penticton report. Five executive and general  meetings were held during the year. Plans for Penticton museum are well advanced. On 6 May, 1956, a marker on the  site of the Ellis homestead was unveiled by Dr. Kathleen Ellis,  daughter of Tom Ellis, first white settler in Penticton. The ceremony was followed by a tea at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Harris. On the 4 May, four members attended the opening ceremonies of the South Cariboo Historical Association museum at  Clinton.  Oliver-Osoyoos: The report of Mrs. K. Lacey, secretary, told of  formation of a museum society. Reg. Atkinson had appraised  Indian artifacts and other items. Classifying and cataloguing  are in progress. D. P. Simpson of the Customs office has the  first written receipt issued at the Osoyoos Customs when Mr.  Kruger was in charge, and he offered it to the museum just as  soon as it has a fire-proof deposit box. A good sale of Society  reports was cause for satisfaction.  Armstrong-Enderby: Mr. Blackburn, president, stated that  since organization a year ago twenty members had joined.  Mrs. Vera Bennett told of the opening of the Clinton museum and the banquet which followed.  BUSINESS  Discussion centred around the next Society report, which  would contain the first instalments of the Fortune papers in the  keeping of the Vernon museum.  Willard E. Ireland, provincial librarian and archivist, suggested that the time had come for the work of the historical  societies to be extended into the museum field, and that this  should be done soon. He recommended that local groups appeal  for government assistance. Mr. Ireland then proposed that a  one-day meeting or "workshop" of all historical societies in the  province be held to discuss problems common to all. He suggested that a "zone" meeting might be held in Penticton, and  a committee was appointed to arrange such a gathering.  159 Parent Society and Branch Reports  Officers for the ensuing year were then elected (see list inside  front cover).  Mr. Bagnall then commented on the fact that Dr. M. A.  Ormsby had been selected to write the centennial history of  British Columbia, and suggested that Dr. Ormsby be assured of  any help the Society could give.  It was then moved by J. G. Harris, and seconded by Captain  J. B. Weeks, that "the next annual meeting of the Society be  held in Penticton." This was carried unanimously. Thanks were  extended to local newspapers and radio stations for co-operation; to the Armstrong-Enderby branch for their efficient arrangements for the annual meeting, and to officers and members who had worked faithfully during the year.  BANQUET  Over 100 attended the annual banquet in the United Church  hall at Armstrong. Willard E. Ireland, provincial librarian and  archivist, was guest speaker. In his address he showed how the  history and development of British Columbia had been affected  by the movement of the white man across the face of the province, commencing with the fur traders, then the cattlemen and  miners, and finally with the railroads and industry. Mr. Ireland's address was greatly appreciated.  The meeting closed with the singing of the National Anthem.  In The Canadian West in Fiction (The Ryerson Press,  Toronto, 1949) Edward A. McCourt writes: "The fur-traders of  the Hudson's Bay and North-West Companies also fare badly  in Canadian literature. With the exception of Frederick Niven,  whose characterization of Court-Nez is one of the best things  in Mine Inheritance, Canadian novelists have done little to  re-create the early trader or his way of life . . . The missionary  has fared no better than the fur-trader." pp. 109-10.  160 We    Will IKemember ZJh  em  "I thank my God upon every remembrance of you" (St.  Paul: Philippians l:3). At the annual meeting of our Society,  held in different valley centres each year, we pay a simple  tribute to the memory of pioneers and others who have died  since our last meeting.  The Psalmist tells of the sacred joy of the pilgrims on entering the Holy City, when from every part of the land they  went" up to Jerusalem" at the time of the Great Feast. Hearts  warmed as friendships were renewed, and all joined in the  sacred rites. Zion was indeed, the city of God. At every such  gathering there was also a "time of remembrance." So it is  at our annual meetings. We stand for a minute in silent remembrance, mindful of those whom we have known and loved,  and lost a while. For a moment we are conscious of the comfort born of faith which transcends knowledge. None but the  lonely heart can know how deep is the comfort born of an  abiding faith in Him who said, "I am the resurrection and the  life."  For many of the notices that follow we are indebted to Mrs.  Mabel Johnson and Mr. Bagnall of Vernon; and to Mrs.  Alleyne Tull of Lumby.  W. H. MOODIE: resident in Kelowna for many years,  Walter Hill Moodie died in November, 1955. He was 84 years  of age, having been born in Quebec in 1871. From 1891-1896 he  lived in Alberta as rancher and surveyor, then came to British  Columbia. He lived for three years in Kaslo, then served with  the RCR's in the Boer war, after which he continued in Africa  with the Imperial Military, later the Central South African, railways.  Returning to Canada, he came to Kelowna in 1909 to assist  C. A. Stoess, developing the Belgo Canadian Fruitlands, now  known as the Black Mountain Irrigation District. In 1911 he was  engineer in charge of the Canyon Creek Irrigation system.  161 We Will Remember Them  In 1914 he enlisted in the Rocky Mountain Rangers for  home defence; and the following year went overseas as Major  with the First Canadian Pioneers, later the 9th Battalion, of  which he was in command in 1917. During his service in World  War I, he was mentioned in dispatches, and awarded the DSO.  In 1919 he returned and took up fruit farming in East Kelowna,  retiring in 1944 to live in the city.  Col. Moodie was married in 1903 to Marcella Twiss, who  died in 1949. Surviving are two daughters: Mrs. R. T. (Janet)  Graham, Kelowna, and Miss Marcella Ellen, Vancouver; and  one son, Edward Campbell, counsellor at Canada House,  London, England.  /. H. BROAD: Former owner of the Kelowna Royal Anne  hotel, James Henry ("Harry") Broad, died on October 30, 1955.  Mr. Broad had been in retirement since 1946. He was born in  Hamilton, Ontario, and came west in 1907, first to Banff and  Lake Louise, then to Kelowna in 1922 when he took over the  old Palace hotel. He was associate owner and manager of the  Royal Anne from 1928-1946. Active in many community projects,  he was a member of the Kelowna hospital board for eighteen  years. Mrs. Broad died in 1950. He is survived by a sister, Mrs.  Joseph Bamford,  and  a  nephew  in  Toronto.  R. W. NEIL: A veteran of the Northwest Rebellion, Richard  (Dick) Wellington Neil, age 86, and a resident of Vernon since  1888, died in November, 1955. He was the last surviving resident who came to the city before it was incorporated in 1892.  Mr. Neil worked on the Coldstream ranch for Forbes Vernon,  for whom the city of Vernon was named. In 1896 Mr. Neil went  into the livery business with T. Godwin. He is survived by his  widow, a son Russell of Vernon; and three daughters: Mrs.  Ian Garven, Vernon, Mrs. E. A. Wales and Mrs. J. McCreery.  MRS. BURT R. CAMPBELL: In OHS. 19 we recorded the  passing of Mr. Campbell on 13 September, 1955. Mrs. Campbell  did not long survive him. She died in Kamloops on 9 December,  1955. They are survived by three sons and four daughters.  162 We Will Remember Them  CHARLES QUINN: After a lengthy illness, Mr. Quinn, aged  74, resident in Kelowna since 1904, died on 20 November, 1955.  Born in Formby, Lancashire, he was of Irish descent. He resided  in Edmonton before moving to Kelowna, where he worked for the  Growers' Exchange before setting up as building contractor.  On the outbreak of World War I he enlisted in the 172nd Regiment, served in France with the 2nd CMR's, was wounded at  Vimy Ridge and invalided home in 1917. He married Theresa  McGarrity; and was Dominion fruit inspector before his appointment as secretary-manager of the Kelowna Club, a post  he held for ten years.  MRS. M. ATKINSON: Mrs. Mary Atkinson, age 77, died in  Penticton hospital on 22 November, 1955. She was survived  by her husband, and three step-sons: Reginald and Arnold of  Penticton, and Ted of Summerland. Born in Leeds, England,  she was a daughter of Robert Potts, head of a famous English  clock-making family. One of the clocks they made is in the  Parliament buildings, Victoria.  E. O. ATKINSON: On Christmas day, 1955, Edward Octa-  vius Atkinson passed away in Penticton hospital in his 88th  year. Born in Yorkshire, he was the eighth son of Dr. Edward  Atkinson, honorary surgeon to the Leeds Infirmary, and chief  surgeon to Lord Raglan during the Crimean war. Florence  Nightingale was a member of his staff.  Mr. Atkinson was educated at the Leeds Grammar School  and came to Canada in 1888. After a year on the prairies he  moved to Victoria, and was engaged in postal work till he  moved to Penticton in April, 1907. He was the first appointed  railway mail clerk of the E. & N. Railway. From 1890-1897 he  ran between Vancouver and Calgary, then till 1907 he was in  charge of the forwarding branch and foreign mails and retired  as assistant postmaster of the Vancouver General Post Office.  Mr. Atkinson was postmaster of Penticton from 1907-1910  when the office was in the Schubert store at the corner of Vancouver Avenue and Ellis Street. He planted one of the first  orchards  on the main bench,  and was  a  successful private  163 We Will Remember Them  shipper. For over forty years he was a choir member of St.  Saviour's Anglican Church in Penticton, and People's Warden  during much of that time. In 1912-13 he was chairman of the  Penticton school board during the building of Ellis school, and  was an original trustee of Branch 40, Canadian Legion. He  was the first Freemason initiated in Orion Lodge, 1 July, 1908.  Mr. Atkinson was married in old St. Paul's church, Vancouver, on 3 October, 1891. He and his first wife celebrated  their diamond wedding in 1951. Mrs. Atkinson died in April,  1953.  MRS. W. R. WRIGHT: Born in Yorkshire, England, Mrs.  Wright came to Ontario in 1910. The family came to Vernon  in 1917. Mrs. Wright died in December, 1955 at the age of 82.  She is survived by her husband, and one son Lawrence of  Vernon.  MRS. DAVID WILLIS: Mrs. Clara White Willis, 83, resident  in Vernon for 37 years, died in December, 1955. She was a  nurse in the First World War. Mr. and Mrs. Willis came to  Vernon in 1919, and operated a fruit ranch near Lavington.  FRANCIS BIRD: Funeral services were held in January,  1955, for Mr. Bird who formerly operated the old Penticton Sawmills, and then purchased the Kettle Valley farm, later going  into the dairy business. He is survived by his widow, two sons:  Clem of Penticton, Peter of Prince Rupert; and a daughter, Mrs.  J. R. Stevens of Victoria.  GIDEON ENEAS: Former chief of Indian reserve near Penticton, died in hospital in December, 1955. He was 63. Funeral  services were held in the Indian reserve church on 22 December.  MRS. GAYTON: Mrs. Charles H. Gayton, age 87, died in  January, 1956. She was born in New Brunswick, and had lived  47 years in Summerland. She was clerk of the Summerland  Baptist church. Surviving are four sons: Arlington of Oliver,  Arnold of West Summerland, Dr. J. Gayton and Warren of Vancouver.  164 We Will Remember Them  MRS. ELIZABETH GOLDSMITH, age 96, resident in Kelowna  since 1906, died in February, 1956. Mr. Goldsmith died in 1930.  They are survived by two daughters and two sons.  W. G. BASKIN: Funeral services were held for Mr. Baskin  of Penticton on 4 February, 1956. William Gerald Baskin, who  died at the age of 75, had spent more than forty years in Okanagan, and was one of the leaders of the Okanagan fruit industry. He was born in St. John, N.B., graduated as a civil engineer,  and for a time was employed on the construction of the Panama  Canal. He commenced fruit farming in Okanagan in 1912, and  in the thirties was prominent in the "cent-a-pound or on the  ground" campaign. He is survived by his wife, the former Eva  Le Feur, whom he married soon after arriving in Penticton.  JAMES NEWTON: A veteran of World War I, Mr. Newton  died in Shaughnessy hospital, Vancouver, in February, 1956.  He was born in Derbyshire, England, came to Vernon in 1905,  and in 1908 moved to Oyama where he operated a fruit ranch.  MRS. H. RAMSAY: Mrs. Hugh Ramsay, who died 20 February, 1956, came to Canada from Scotland in 1909, and to Vernon in 1912. She is survived by her husband, a daughter, Mrs.  J. E. Lewis of West Vancouver; and three sons: Bert of Winfield,  Dr. Finlay Ramsay and Hugh, both of Seattle.  PAUL TERBASKET: At the time of his death in February,  1956, Paul was reported to be 110 years old. In early times he  was a prosperous cattle man along with his brother William.  They were noted for their fine horses and homes. Paul was  born in the year that the boundary between American and  British territory in the west was determined. As a young man,  Paul worked for Frank Richter, senior, then a servant of the  Hudson's Bay Co. He is survived by his wife, Madolin (reputed  to be 103 years of gae), and one son Tommy, seven grandchildren, and 31 great grandchildren.  MRS. R. W. HOLLIDAY: Mrs. Annie Holliday, who died in  April, 1956, had been a resident of Salmon Arm for 64 years,  having arrived there with her father in 1892.   In 1898 she mar-  165 We Will Remember Them  ried R. W. (Billy) Holliday. They had one of the first businesses  in the district, and operated a farm for over 45 years. Mrs.  Holliday is survived by her husband, two sons and four  daughters.  LOUIS BALL: Mr. Ball was active in helping the late Leonard Norris organize the OHS in 1925. At the age of 80 he died  in Oliver on 4 May, 1956, after a brief illness. Born in Hawkes-  ville, Ontario, he was apprenticed to the printing trade in Niagara Falls and Brockville before moving to Vernon in 1897. He  was general manager of the Vernon News for 28 years, then  returned to Ontario as manager of the Canadian Weekly Newspapers Association. Returning to Okanagan in 1951, he settled  in Oliver where he operated a real estate and insurance office.  He is survived by his widow, and three sons: Dr. Norbert and  Harold of Oliver, and Neil of San Francisco; and two daughters:  Nurse Rita, R.N. of Edmonton, and Sister Mary Monica of Hamilton.  FRANK LAXTON: On 5 June, 1956 Frank Laxton died in  Kelowna hospital. He was 71 years old. He was born at Coventry, England. A solicitor by profession, he followed other pursuits after coming to Canada. He and his brother operated a  general store in Turner Valley before World War I, during  which Frank served in France until he was invalided home in  1918. After the war he studied Forestry at Oxford University,  and returned to Canada in 1920. For a number of years he  assisted the late F. W. Groves in survey work.  C. H. JACKSON: Charles H. Jackson, age 76, well-known  Kelowna resident, died in June, 1956. In addition to his work  as a chartered accountant, Mr. Jackson was official administrator in Kelowna for a number of years. He was part-owner  of the Mayfair apartments, and was interested in several mining  properties.  HENRY KEITH WHIMSTER: Formerly of Bench Road, Mr.  Whimster, aged 74, died in Penticton hospital on 11 April, 1956;  survived by his wife; one son, William H. L. of Naramata; and  one daughter, Mrs. R. M. Putnam, Edmonton, Alberta.  166 We Will Remember Them  Mr. Whimster was born at Strathclair, Manitoba. He operated a store at Frank, Alberta, and after the Turtle Mountain  slide on 20 April, 1903, buried the town and eighty people, Mr.  Whimster moved to Fernie B.C. The business section of Fernie  was destroyed by fire in the spring of 1904. Later, Mr. Whimster  moved to Medicine Hat and Winnipeg, then, in 1920, to Penticton, where for many years he was associated with the fruit  industry. He took an active interest in many community projects, and was among the pioneer workers for the Penticton  memorial arena.  Mr. Whimster "was a talented violinist and in 1925 organized a symphony orchestra which gave many concerts until it  was disbanded in 1939. Many years ago he played in the old  Pantages Theatre in Edmonton."  (Penticton Herald, 14 April, 56).  MRS. SKYRME: Mrs. Emily Skyrme, early resident of Enderby district, died in June, 1956, at the age of 72. Born in Croydon, England, Emily Hardcastle came to Canada in 1906, and  after twelve years in Ontario, came to live at Grindrod, and  married the late Thomas R. Skyrme. She is survived by two  sons: Clifford of Grindrod and Thomas of Enderby; and four  daughters: Mrs. Edith Stephens and Mrs. Ethel Churchill of  Grindrod and Mrs. Emily Jefcoat and Mrs. Alice Emeny of  Enderby.  WILLIAM KNOX: Mr. Knox, who died in Shaughnessy hospital, Vancouver, in April, 1956, was born in Edinburgh and  came to Canada in 1910 as a civil engineer. He worked on the  Kettle Valley railway. He served overseas during the First  World War; and is survived by his widow in Penticton.  GEORGE BRODERICK: A well-known logging operator,  resident in British Columbia since 1902, George Broderick, aae  93, died in Penticton on 11 April, 1956. Mr. Broderick was born  in Honeywood, Ontario, and came west with the first Parry  Sound colony, settling near Edmonton, Alberta, in 1892. Coming to British Columbia he logged in Golden and Arrow Lake  district; also Creston, where he logged off the townsite. In 1917  he went to Dome Creek, Cariboo district, where he continued  167 We Will Remember Them  logging till he moved to Penticton in 1921.  Here, and in Princeton and Kirton districts, he logged for the next fifteen years.  Mr. Broderick was held- in the highest esteem. He was one  of the oldest Orangemen in Canada, having been a member of  that Order for 75 years.  Surviving are his wife; three sons: William John (Jack) of  Summerland, George of Penticton, Sherman of Keremeos; one  daughter, Mrs. Ray Letts of Penticton; one brother: Gideon of  Canmore, Alberta; two sisters: Mrs. Rose Freeman of Edmonton, and Mrs. Dora Smith of Ahmic Lake, Ontario.  W. J. MARSHALL: William John Marshall, age 84, died in  Kelowna hospital April, 1956. Mr. Marshall was born in Ridley  Park, England, and came to Canada as a child. In 1911 he  moved to Kelowna from the prairies, and later owned the property on which Marshall Street is located. He is survived by a  son, Mel of Rutland; and two daughters: Muriel of Kelowna,  and Mrs. T. P. Hill of Kamloops.  W. LLOYD-JONES: A pioneer resident of Kelowna, and  operator of one of its first sawmills, William Lloyd-Jones died  on Tuesday, 10 July, 1956, age 77. Born at Burford, and educated at Hamilton, Ontario, Mr. Lloyd-Jones came west in 1898,  and entered the lumber business. He settled first at Republic,  Washington, then at Grand Forks, and in 1901 came to Kelowna  to work for Bernard Lequime, who operated a store and sawmill  at Okanagan Mission. After a time he went to work with his  cousin, David Lloyd-Jones, who owned a sawmill on the property where the City Park is now located. This mill was destroyed by fire in 1903. He and his cousin then formed the Kelowna  Sawmills Co. Ltd., in 1905. Of this company William Lloyd-Jones  was secretary-treasurer till the time of his death.  After S. M. Simpson Ltd. purchased control of the company  Mr. Lloyd-Jones remained with the firm. He was active in the  United Church, the city council, Board of Trade, Rotary, and  lodge work. Besides his widow he is survived by two sons:  Arthur at home, Robert of Vancouver, and one daughter, Mildred of Vancouver.  168 We Will Remember Them  J. H. BAILLIE: Mr. Baillie, who died in Kelowna on 11 July,  1956, aged 84, was born in London, England. James Hugh (Jim)  Baillie was educated at Oxford University. As a young man he  went to the West Indies, where he lived twelve years, before  coming to Canada in 1903. Coming to Kelowna he bought over  800 acres in the Okanagan Mission district, also 320 acres in  the Joe Rich district. This was cleared and sold for orchard land.  He gave a half-acre on which the present St. Andrew's church  stands. He was proprietor and owner of the old Bellevue hotel,  and built and operated the first store at Okanagan Mission,  which is now owned by the Hall Brothers. In 1904 he was married to Lucy Kathleen Patmore-Peter of England. He is survived  by his wife and three sons: John at Powell River, George at  Ruby Creek, Phillip of Vancouver; and one daughter, Mrs. G.  Williams of Chilliwack.  JOHN WHITE: Manager of Vernon Fruit Union for almost  thirty years, and a member of its staff since 1920, Mr. White  died in Vernon on 7 May, 1956. Surviving are his wife; a son  Archie in Vancouver, and two daughters: Mrs. Don Harwood  of Vernon, and Mrs. Nat Shklov of Honolulu.  JOHN CONWAY: A former superintendent of the Kelowna  Growers' Exchange, Mr. Conway died in May, 1956. Born in  Manitou, Manitoba, 73 years ago, he came to Okanagan in  1906, residing first at Summerland, then Kelowna, and for a  time in Vernon before returning to Kelowna. He is survived by  his widow, a daughter, Mrs. L. W. Bassett of Victoria; and a son,  John of North Vancouver.  THOMAS WHITEHOUSE: Born in Bristol, England, Mr.  Whitehouse came to Canada fifty years ago. Most of that time  he operated a grocery business in Armstrong, and retired eight  years ago.  He was 81 years of age.  REV. Y. YOSHIOKA: Born 30 December, 1889, in Saseho,  Japan, Mr. Yoshioka won a scholarship at Kwansei Gakuin to  study at the University of Toronto and Victoria University, where  he obtained his M.A. and B.D. degrees. Throughout his ministry in Canada he served as a Japanese language missionary  169 We Will Remember Them  for The United Church of Canada. His longest pastorate was  in the Okanagan Valley, where he spent 23 years, with residence in Kelowna. Other places served were Steveston and  Vancouver, B.C.; and Lethbridge, Alberta, where he died on  26 May, 1956. Surviving are his wife and two sons: Rev. Edward of Brockville, Ontario; and Dr. John of Vancouver, B.C.  R. B. SHERIDAN: Mr. Sheridan settled in North Vancouver  45 years ago, and moved to Keremeos in 1938. He was secretary of Keremeos School District during the last ten years. He  served overseas in the First World War. He died in Penticton  hospital on 16 August, 1956, age 78.  MRS. F. MILLS: Mrs. Bessie Maude Mills died in Armstrong  on January 6, 1956, in her 77th year. Born at Bellmont, Ontario,  on December 5, 1879, she moved west with her parents to  Regina, Sask., as a small girl, arriving 48 years ago in Armstrong, where she had resided since. She was married in August  1910, to Frederick Mills. Surviving is her husband; one son,  Gerald Mills, of Armstrong; a half-sister, Mrs. H. McKeen, of  Armstrong, and a half brother, of Matsqui.  F. TIMBERLAKE: Funeral services were held January, 6 1956  in Armstrong for Frank Timberlake, a pioneer B.C. jeweller, who  died in Armstrong on January .2, at the age of 93. Born at High  Wickham, England, February 11, 1863, he took up the occupation of watchmaker as a young man, coming to Canada about  44 years ago, when he established a jewellery business first in  Armstrong, and later in Victoria.  FRANK ORNST: One of the first white settlers in Enderby  district, Frank Ornst, died on February 11, 1956, in his" 81st  year. He took up a homestead on the Mabel Lake Road in  1904 where he and his family lived until 9 years ago, when he  and Mrs. Ornst went to Enderby to retire. He was a member  of the Canadian Legion. His widow, three sons, and two daughters, survive. Interment was in Enderby cemetery.  MRS. R. JONES: Enderby lost another of its pioneers on  December 18, 1955, with the death of Mrs. Eleanor Mary Jones,  170 We Will Remember Them  in her 87th year. Born in North Wales, where she married  Robert Jones in 1887, the couple came to Canada in 1891, and  settled at Armstrong, moving to Enderby in 1899. Five sons  survive: George and David of Enderby; John of Beaverdell; T.  O. Jones, of Hullcar; W. H. Jones, of Vancouver; two daughters,  Mrs. W. J. Garratt, of Enderby; Mrs. K. Faint, of Vancouver. Her  husband died in 1933.   Interment was in Enderby Cemetery.  ROBERT L. GERRARD, 72, died suddenly on January 5,  1956, in Armstrong Hospital. He was a long-time resident of  Armstrong, and is survived by one son, Charles, a student in  Michigan.  /. R. CHEESMAN: John Reginald Cheesman, 70, resident  of Okanagan Centre since 1908, died on July 19, 1956. He was  laid to rest in Winfield Cemetery, following last rites conducted  by Rev. R. W. S. Brown, under auspices of the Canadian Legion.  Born in Kent, England, January 19, 1886, Mr. Cheesman went  overseas during the First World War with the 54th Infantry  Battalion, 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles, and was twice wounded. Surviving are his widow, Hilda; one daughter, Mrs. John  Richards, of Peachland; one brother and two sisters in England.  MRS. H. R. DENISON: Mrs. Mabel Hamilton Denison, widow  of Major H. R. Denison, died in Vernon on February 9, 1956. Mrs.  Denison was born in Java of English parents. After going to  Britain, she came to Vernon in 1912, becoming the bride of  Major Denison in 1915. Mrs. Denison was an active member  of Chrysler Chapter, I.O.D.E., Vernon, and for many years a  member of All Saints Anglican Church, also in Vernon. She was  a member of the Vernon Symphony Orchestra, playing the  cello in a well-known trio with the late Mrs. R. A. Davidson and  Miss Elaine Jamieson. Surviving are one son, Eric N. Denison;  two daughters, Miss Enid Denison, and Mrs. Stuart Whyte. Three  children died before her: R. W. Denison, who died in 1951;  Cecil Denison, killed in active service in 1940, and a daughter,  Phyllis who died in 1932. Internment was in the family plot,  Vernon Cemetery.  MRS. S. POLSON: Mrs. Elizabeth Poison, widow of Samuel  Poison, died in Vancouver, May 6, 1956, in her 97th year. Mr.  171 We Will Remember Them  and Mrs. Poison were pioneer residents of Okanagan, arriving  in the valley in 1905. Mr. Poison donated to the city of Vernon,  the sites of Poison Park and that of Vernon Jubilee Hospital, and  in the latter institution, a plaque on the wall of the ground floor  perpetuates the gift. He also donated the site of Riverside Park  to the city of Enderby. Mrs. Poison, as a young woman, was  among the first settlers to travel by narrow gauge train and flat  bottomed boat up the Red River to Winnipeg, and by ox-cart to  Rapid City. She was the first white girl, at 19, to be married in  what, at that time, was called "Little Saskatchewan." Nine  sons and daughters survive, amongst whom are Mrs. S. H.  Speers and Victor Poison, both of Enderby and Ross Poison, of  Vernon.  GEORGE CORBISHLEY. Mr. Corbishley, age 77, resident  of Penticton district for half a century, died in October, 1956. A  native of Cheshire, England, he came to Penticton with his  wife and son Donald, in 1906, and was greeted by his younger  brother Wilfred. The newcomers came down the lake on the  old Aberdeen, and made their home in the vicinity of what  was later jermyn Avenue. A second son, Herb, was born in  1918.  Mr. Corbishley and his brother, who died six years ago,  bought, developed and sold land during the earliest years of  their residence in Penticton. Finally, from the DeBeck acreage,  George Corbishley acquired the orchard property at the corner of Johnson and the Upper Bench roads. He retired in 1946,  making his home at 678 Winnipeg Street. He is survived by his  wife Elizabeth, and two sons: Donald of Oliver, and Herb of  Penticton.  N. G. GARTRELL: Norman George Gartrell, pioneer fruit  grower of Okanagan, died in Vancouver in October, 1956, and  was buried in Summerland. For twenty years Mr. Gartrell was  provincial fisheries inspector in the interior. A native of Stratford Ontario, he moved with his family to the Okanagan when  he was eight years old, and lived on the family ranch four  miles south of Summerland. He is survived by two sons: Arthur  and James, in Rhodesia; and a brother Fred in Summerland.  172 We Will Remember Them  ALFRED BINGLEY: Associated with the Coldstream Ranch  for 38 years, Alfred (Bing) Bingley died in April, 1956. Born in  Sussex, England, he came to Okanagan in 1908. He worked in  the Customs Department in Vernon and later as Water Bailiff  for the Black Mountain Water Company of Kelowna. In 1915  he went overseas with the 2nd King Edward's Horse Regiment,  was wounded in action, and discharged in 1917. On his return  to Kelowna he was appointed Deputy Game Warden for the  district which extended from Okanagan Centre to the 'International Boundary. This district he covered on horseback. In  1918 he became bookkeeper for the Coldstream Ranch. Beginning in 1922 he was weather observer for the Coldstream Station.  Mr. Bingley was a member of the Coldstream XI cricket  team. He loved the outdoors, and occasionally went shooting.  Among his favourite books were the annual OHS Reports. He  is survived by Mrs. Bingley. An only son, George, was killed  over England while serving with the RCAF in 1941.  In Overland to Cariboo by Margaret McNaughton, wife of  one of the pioneers, (William Briggs, Toronto, 1896), we find the  following record under the caption "A Singular Presentiment:"  "Mr. Carpenter's companions had observed that when he was  exploring the canyon he took out his note-book and made a  memorandum therein then carefully returned it to his inner  pocket, and this coat he left on the bank before attempting to  run the rapid. His sorrowful companions opened the note-book,  and found this entry: 'Arrived at Grand Canyon; ran the canyon  and was drowned.' Mr. Carpenter left a wife and child in  Toronto, and was a man of great promise. This singular incident  excited much wonder and speculation. Did the danger which  he was going to risk make such an impression on his mind that  it amounted to a presentiment?" pp. 97-98.  173 \Jkanaaan ^J^fidtorical Societu  N. B. —  *  indicates prepaid membership.  N. B. — All postal addresses given in the Membership List are in  the province of British Columbia, unless otherwise indicated.  PATRONS  Lieut.  Gov. Frank Ross, Government House, Victoria  *Miss Annie Fenton  ♦James Goldie, Okanagan Centre  ♦Mrs. H. Hendrickson, Enderby  Mrs. G. South, Van Horn St. Penticton  G. R. Stuart, Ewings Landing  HONORARY LIFE MEMBER  Dr. Margaret Ormsby, University of British Columbia. Vancouver.  MEMBERS  Albrecht, Mr., Osoyoos  Alexis, Nick, 3005 38th St., Vernon  ♦Allison, Mrs. R., 301 West Ave., Kelowna  Anderson, Dr. W. F., 2302 Abbott St., Kelowna  Andrew, Dr. F. W., Box 11, Summerland  Andrew, W. J., 2866 Bellevue Ave., West Vancouver  Armstrong, J. R., 4251 Burke St., South Burnaby  Arnold, G., R.R. 1, Winfield  Ashton, T., Enderby  Ashton, L. C, Enderby  Atkinson, F. E., West Summerland  Bagnall, Geo. C, 5538 Ingleside Ave., Chicago 37, Illinois  Bagnall, Guy P., 3317 Coldstream Ave., Vernon  Bailey, J. M., Box 37, East Kelowna  Baker, W. J., Suite 6, 317 South High St., Port Arthur, Ont., (dec.)  Bearcroft, E. S., 599 Eckhardt Ave., Penticton  Belli-Bivar, Mrs. Ethel, Box 45, Salmon Arm  Benmore, G. C, 2059 Pendozi St., Kelowna  Bennett, Mrs. V., Penticton  Bentley, C. E., Summerland  Bergen, Mrs. Myrtle, Box 260. Lake Cowichan  Berner, Mrs. A., 2500 26th St., Vernon  Beveridge, G. K., 2000 32nd St., Vernon  Beurich, W., Osoyoos  Blackburn, Mr. and Mrs. R., Enderby  B'ackwood, R. H., R.R. 2, Vernon  Blumenauer, A. H., Armstrong  ♦Boss, M. T., 455 E. 17th Ave., Vancouver  ♦Bowsher, A. P., 8th Floor, Pacific Building, Calgary  Bowell, Mrs. B. M., 340 5th St., New Westminster  Bristow, C, 3614 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Brown, Miss Topham, 2003 37th Ave., Vernon  Brown, A. M., 3402 17th Ave., Vernon  Bubar, Charles H., Mara  Buckland, D. S., Okanagan Mission  Buckland, C. D., R.R. 2, Kelowna  Bull, Frank, Penticton  Bull, C. R., Okanagan Mission  174 Okanagan Historical Society  Burtch, Mrs. Henry, RR2, Kelowna  Butler, L. G., East Kelowna  Cameron, G. D., Box 86, Kelowna  Cameron, J. D. Brunswick Street, Penticton  ♦Cameron, Mrs. A., 449 St. Paul St., Kamloops  Campbell, George, 1902 31st St., Vernon  Carney, T. J., R.R. 1, Kelowna  Carruthers, E. M., 364 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  Carson, D., Cawston  ♦Casorso, Anthony, RR 4, Kelowna  Casorso, Jos., R.R. 3, Kelowna  Catani, S., 540 Pleasant Valley Road, Vernon  ♦Chambers, E. J., Penticton  Chichester, Bertram, Box 41, Rutland  Christensen, Parker, 2700 - 30th Ave., Vernon  Clarke, Dr. D. A., 390 Queensway, Kelowna  Cleland, H., Penticton  ♦Clement, L. Percy, 1322 Walnut St., Victoria  Clement, Mrs. C. S., 2276 Speer St., Kelowna  Cochrane, H., 836 Main St., Penticton  Cohen, Jack, Penticton  Collett, H. C. S., Okanagan Mission  Cooper, Fred, 3104 26th St., Vernon  Cooper, W. A., 987 Winnipeg St., Penticton  Corbett, Mrs. Ruth, 995 E. 41st Ave., Vancouver  Corbitt, H. W., Kaleden  Corrie, Jas., Princeton  Cowan, H. F., Enderby  Crawford, E. J., 993 Harvey Ave., Kelowna  Crozier, Mrs. R., Armstrong  Currie, Gordon W., R.R. 2, Kelowna  Dain, Miss, West Summerland  Davidson, Alan H., Box 131, Westbank  Dawe, A., Okanagan Mission  Day, Dr. L. A., West Summerland  Deering, A. J., R.R. 1, Armstrong  Denison, Eric, Box 131, Smithers  de Pfyffer, A., Court House, Penticton  de Pfyffer, Robert, 1961 Abbott St., Kelowna  Dewdney, Mrs. W. R.. 273 Scott Ave., Penticton  Dickson, Mrs. G. H., Box 473, Dunville, Ontario  Ditmars, W. C, 2535 S.W. Marine Drive, Vancouver  Dixon, Earl, Armstrong  Dovauo, Mrs. S., Box 16, Lumby  Dumont, Paul, Osoyoos  Duncan, R., R.R., Penticton  DunWaters, Mrs. J. C, Okanagan Mission  Easton, Mrs. S. J., 725 Piedmont Drive, R.R. 2, Royal Oak, V.I.  Ellis, Miss K. W., 268 Cambie Street, Penticton  Emanuele. Dr. H., 798 Argyle Street, Penticton  Embrey, William, Box 64, Kelowna  Estabrooks, R. H., Penticton  Estabrooks, O. L., Penticton  Evans, Mrs. Bob, Penticton  Farmer, J. P., Enderby  Faulkner, Ronnie, Penticton  ♦Fenton, Miss Annie, Enderby  Ferguson, E. W., 621 Elliott Ave., Kelowna  175 Okanagan Historical Society  Ffoulkes, Mrs. M., 480 Queensway, Kelowna  Fillmore, D. C, 1470 Water St., Kelowna  Fisher, Mrs. D. V., West Summerland  Fitzgerald, Mrs. G. D., R.R.3, Kelowna  Fitzmaurice, R., Long Lake, Vernon  Found, Dr. N. P., 427 Lawrence Ave., Kelowna  ♦Fraser, Major H., Okanagan Falls  Fraser, R. A., 722 Lawson Ave., Kelowna  Garner, Mrs. R. J., 401 Burnside Road E., Victoria  Garner, Mrs. A. J., Box 40, Proctor  Gellatly, Dorothy, Westbank  Gee, Murray, 3402-19th St., Vernon  Genn, Anthony, Glenshiel Hotel, Victoria  Godwin, Fred, 380 Wade St., Penticton  ♦Goldie, Jas., Okanagan Centre  Goldsburg, Mrs. M., 120 Vernon St., Nelson  Goodfellow, Eric, Box 196, Princeton  Goodfellow, Rev. J. C, Box 187, Princeton  Gordon, C. B., 545 Transit Road, Victoria  Gorman, Harry, c/o C.J.I.B., Vernon  ♦Graf, Walter, Osoyoos  ♦Graham, Glen G., Osoyoos  Graham, Guy G., Osoyoos  Grant, James, Box 744, Vernon  Gray, L. S., 3606 27th Ave., Vernon  Greenside, E. L., 1758 Ellis St., Kelowna  Greenwood, Terry, 1815 Maple St., Kelowna  Gregory, Mrs. C, R.R., Armstrong  Gregson, Mrs. P. C, 3421 30th Ave., Vernon  Greyell, Willard, 7187 Cypress St., Vancouver  Greyell, Cliff, 226 Windsor Ave., Penticton  ♦Griffiths, H. T., 540 Burrard St., Vancouver  Grinaldi, Mr., Naramata  Gruhl, Alfred, R.R., Osoyoos  Guichon, L. P., Quilchena  Hadow, R., Enderby  Haines, Chas., R.R. 2, Vernon  Haines, Mrs. Pearl, Rock Creek  Haynes, Val, Oliver  Hales, F. C, 1069 Harvey Ave., Kelowna  Hall, Robert O., Box 26, Oliver  Hamilton, Wm. D., Vernon  Hamilton, William, 33-5 22nd St., Vernon  Harris, J. G., Bench Road, R.R., Penticton  Hatfield, A. S., 864 Fairview Road, Penticton  Hatfield, Harley, 687 Vancouver Ave., Penticton  Hassen, Mat, Armstrong  Hayhurst, Cliff, R.R., Armstrong  Hayman, Mrs. Gwen, Naramata  Hayward, Frank, 1460 W. 49th St., Vancouver  Hayman, L. A., 7162 Beachwood Ave., Vancouver  Hazlewood, J. H., 580 Hornby St., Vancouver  ♦Hendrickson, Mrs. H., Enderby  Herbert, G. D., 1684 Ethel Street, Kelowna  Hereron, Miss F., 579 Sutherland Ave., Kelowna  Hewlett, E. E., East Kelowna  Higgin, Noel, West Summerland  Hoy, Ben, 1902 Pendozi St., Kelowna  176 Okanagan Historical Society  Hodge, S., Roy Ave., Penticton  Hooper, J. L., Penticton  Howrie, David, 2507 37th Ave., Vernon  Hughes, Mrs. T. S., 2162 Acadia Road, Vancouver  Innis, Mrs. D. J., Keremeos  Irwin, Rev. and Mrs. H. M., Enderby  Jackson, Mrs. A. E. M., 1014 East Angelino Ave., Burbank, Calif  Jackson, O., Box 64a, R.R. 3, Kelowna  Jacques, George, Barnard Ave., Vernon  Jameson, W. H., Box 220, Penticton  Jamieson, Mrs. J., Armstrong  Johnson, Mr. and Mrs. N. S., Enderby  Johnston, Mr. Alvin, Box 575, Quesnel  Jones, Miss Phyllis, Oliver  ♦Kabella, S., Okanagan Mission  Kenny, Mrs. M. A., 305 Milton St., Nanaimo  Kerr, N. F., R.R. 3, Kelowna  Keating, H. K., Box 150, Peachland  ♦Kerry, L. L., 2188 Abbott St., Kelowna  Kidston, Mrs. J., R.R. 2, Vernon  Kinlock, Mrs. D., R.R. 2, Vernon  Kneller, Jabez, R.R. 4, Vernon  Knight, Graham, Penticton  Knowles, C. W., Box 9, Kelowna  Knowles, Mrs. J. B., Manhattan Drive, Kelowna  Lacey, Mrs. E. J., Box 144, Osoyoos  Laidlaw, Mrs. A., 1008 London St., New Westminster  Lamont, Mrs. John, R.R. 4, Kelowna  Lowle,  F. W.  L.,  R.R. Skaha Lake,  Penticton  Leslie, W. T., 400 Tennis St., Penticton  Lincoln, M. A., 3500 32nd St., Vernon  Lindsay, Mrs. B. J., Osoyoos  Lloyd-Jones, W., 1449 Ethel St., Kelowna  Logan, W. H., Box 261, Enderby  Loyd ,A. K., 381 Glenwood Ave., Kelowna  Lundy, Mrs. J. C, 878 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  ♦McClelland, James, 421 Haynes Ave., Kelowna  McCulloch, Mrs. V., 1500-39th Ave., Vernon  McCulloch, Capt. W. A. W., 1939 Abbott St., Kelowna  McDonnell, Mrs. Nancy R., 4913 30th Ave., Vancouver  McDougald, Miss C, Peachland  McDougall, R. J., Sorrento  McGibbon, Alec, R.R. Oliver  McGregor, D. A., 800 St. Georges Ave., North Vancouver  McGuire, M. V., Kalamalka Lake, Vernon  McKechnie, K. B., R.R., Armstrong  McKenzie, Msgr. W. B., 839 Sutherland Ave., Kelowna  McKenzie, Mrs. N. R., Apt. 3, 455 Harvey Ave., Kelowna  McKenzie, Mrs. R. M., 588 Royal Ave., Kelowna  McLeod, Geo., M.P., Enderby  McMynn, J. D., 14 Murray Drive, Trail  McWilliams, T. F., 2072 Abbott St., Kelowna  Macfarlane, Hon. Justice, Supreme Court, Victoria  MacLean, R. P., 1869 Maple St., Kelowna  Manery, Mrs. Sam, Cawston  Marriage, F. T., 424 Park Ave., Kelowna  Marshall, Gordon, R. R. 1, Kelowna  Marshall, Miss E., 1691 Water St., Kelowna  177 Okanagan Historical Society  Marshall, L. E., R.R. 1, Kelowna  Marshall, A., Armstrong  Marshall, George, Copper Mountain  Marty, J. E., 1866 Abbott St., Kelowna  Massy, G. E., Dept. of Highways, Salmon Arm  Matheson, A. S., 516 Harvey Ave., Kelowna  Mayfield, Elisha W., R.R. 2, Duncan  Meek, Monty, R.R. 1, Gibson's Landing  Melville, Jack K., 555 Burrard St., Vancouver  Middleton, Mrs. M., Jadebay, Oyama  ♦Midgley, T. N., R.R., Penticton  Miles, F. A., Box 444, Vernon  ♦Miller, Mrs. Daisy, Box 2. R.R. 1, Oliver  Mitchell, Miss J. B., Apt. 10, 1489 St. Paul St., Kelowna  Mitchell, Dr. Ross, 524 Corydon Ave., Winnipeg  Moll, Mrs. H. M., Box 56, Chapman's Camp  Mcodie, Miss M. E., St. 4, 1455 West 15th Ave., Vancouver  Morgan, Granville, R.R., Summerland  Morley, H. B., Boswell, B.C.  Morrison, G. F., 644 Kingsway, Winnipeg, Man.  ♦Moss, A., 2500 Abbott St., Kelowna  Moss, J. P., 790 DeHart Ave., Kelowna  Munro, K. K. Mrs., Box 129, Kelowna  Munroe, Findlay, 1701 Fairford Ave., Penticton  Moyer, Dr. E. L., 3302-19th St., Vernon  Murchison, Earl, 1781 Abbott St., Kelowna  Murray, Eric, Main St., Penticton  Murray, Miss P., Armstrong  Murray, F. J., Salmon Arm  Nelson, Miss P., Box A 86, Keremeos  Newby, Dr. C. D., 375 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  Norman, E. A., Armstrong  Ostafew, Miss Marlene, Osoyoos  Parrish, Mrs. Jessie, Route 4, Box 154, Everett, Washington  Patten, Mrs. C. J., Armstrong  ♦Patterson, Mrs. A. L., Ste 15, 1489 St. Paul St., Kelowna  Patterson, Miss L. M., 453 Harvey Ave., Kelowna  Paynter, H. O., Westbank  Perley, Rev. D. M., 1846 Water St., Kelowna  Pettman, Harold A., 228 Lake Ave., Kelowna  Piddocke, Mrs. L., R.R. 1, Kelowna  Pidoborozny, Mr. and Mrs., Enderby  Pooley, N., East Kelowna  Porter, Mrs. Geo., East Kelowna  Pound, Rev. Allan C, B.A., D.D., M.Th., Horse Shoe Bay  Preston, Mrs. H., Enderby  Quesnel, Earl, 2905-24th St., Vernon  Powley, W. R., R.R. 1, Winfield  ♦Quinn. F. H., 1975 McDougall St., Kelowna  Rattery, Bryan, Osoyoos  Reekie, Miss Jennie M., 253 Lawrence Ave., Kelowna  ♦Reid, Miss E., 614 Martin St., Penticton  Renwick. Miss M., 987 Glenn Ave., Kelowna  Renwick, H. A., 708 1445 Marpole Ave., Vancouver  Richards, Mrs. E. M., 1326 Vimy Ave., Kelowna  Richmond, Lome, Oliver  Rolston, W. J., 3100 34th Ave., Vernon  Rorke, H. O., Penticton  178 We Will Remember Them  in her 87th year. Born in North Wales, where she married  Robert Jones in 1887, the couple came to Canada in 1891, and  settled at Armstrong, moving to Enderby in 1899. Five sons  survive: George and David of Enderby; John of Beaverdell; T.  O. Jones, of Hullcar; W. H. Jones, of Vancouver; two daughters,  Mrs. W. J. Garratt, of Enderby; Mrs. K. Faint, of Vancouver. Her  husband died in 1933.   Interment was in Enderby Cemetery.  ROBERT L. GERRARD, 72, died suddenly on January 5,  1956, in Armstrong Hospital. He was a long-time resident of  Armstrong, and is survived by one son, Charles, a student in  Michigan.  /. R. CHEESMAN: John Reginald Cheesman, 70, resident  of Okanagan Centre since 1908, died on July 19, 1956. He was  laid to rest in Winfield Cemetery, following last rites conducted  by Rev. R. W. S. Brown, under auspices of the Canadian Legion.  Born in Kent, England, January 19, 1886, Mr. Cheesman went  overseas during the First World War with the 54th Infantry  Battalion, 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles, and was twice wounded. Surviving are his widow, Hilda; one daughter, Mrs. John  Richards, of Peachland; one brother and two sisters in England.  MRS. H. R. DENISON: Mrs. Mabel Hamilton Denison, widow  of Major H. R. Denison, died in Vernon on February 9, 1956. Mrs.  Denison was born in Java of English parents. After going to  Britain, she came to Vernon in 1912, becoming the bride of  Major Denison in 1915. Mrs. Denison was an active member  of Chrysler Chapter, I.O.D.E., Vernon, and for many years a  member of All Saints Anglican Church, also in Vernon. She was  a member of the Vernon Symphony Orchestra, playing the  cello in a well-known trio with the late Mrs. R. A. Davidson and  Miss Elaine Jamieson. Surviving are one son, Eric N. Denison;  two daughters, Miss Enid Denison, and Mrs. Stuart Whyte. Three  children died before her: R. W. Denison, who died in 1951;  Cecil Denison, killed in active service in 1940, and a daughter,  Phyllis who died in 1932. Internment was in the family plot,  Vernon Cemetery.  MRS. S. POLSON: Mrs. Elizabeth Poison, widow of Samuel  Poison, died in Vancouver, May 6, 1956, in her 97th year. Mr.  171 We Will Remember Them  and Mrs. Poison were pioneer residents of Okanagan, arriving  in the valley in 1905. Mr. Poison donated to the city of Vernon,  the sites of Poison Park and that of Vernon Jubilee Hospital, and  in the latter institution, a plaque on the wall of the ground floor  perpetuates the gift. He also donated the site of Riverside Park  to the city of Enderby. Mrs. Poison, as a young woman, was  among the first settlers to travel by narrow gauge train and flat  bottomed boat up the Red River to Winnipeg, and by ox-cart to  Rapid City. She was the first white girl, at 19, to be married in  what, at that time, was called "Little Saskatchewan." Nine  sons and daughters survive, amongst whom are Mrs. S. H.  Speers and Victor Poison, both of Enderby and Ross Poison, of  Vernon.  GEORGE CORBISHLEY. Mr. Corbishley, age 77, resident  of Penticton district for half a century, died in October, 1956. A  native of Cheshire, England, he came to Penticton with his  wife and son Donald, in 1906, and was greeted by his younger  brother Wilfred. The newcomers came down the lake on the  old Aberdeen, and made their home in the vicinity of what  was later jermyn Avenue. A second son, Herb, was born in  1918.  Mr. Corbishley and his brother, who died six years ago,  bought, developed and sold land during the earliest years of  their residence in Penticton. Finally, from the DeBeck acreage,  George Corbishley acquired the orchard property at the corner of Johnson and the Upper Bench roads. He retired in 1946,  making his home at 678 Winnipeg Street. He is survived by his  wife Elizabeth, and two sons: Donald of Oliver, and Herb of  Penticton.  N. G. GARTRELL: Norman George Gartrell, pioneer fruit  grower of Okanagan, died in Vancouver in October, 1956, and  was buried in Summerland. For twenty years Mr. Gartrell was  provincial fisheries inspector in the interior. A native of Stratford Ontario, he moved with his family to the Okanagan when  he was eight years old, and lived on the family ranch four  miles south of Summerland. He is survived by two sons: Arthur  and James, in Rhodesia; and a brother Fred in Summerland.  172 We Will Remember Them  ALFRED BINGLEY: Associated with the Coldstream Ranch  for 38 years, Alfred (Bing) Bingley died in April, 1956. Born in  Sussex, England, he came to Okanagan in 1908. He worked in  the Customs Department in Vernon and later as Water Bailiff  for the Black Mountain Water Company of Kelowna. In 1915  he went overseas with the 2nd King Edward's Horse Regiment,  was wounded in action, and discharged in 1917. On his return  to Kelowna he was appointed Deputy Game Warden for the  district which extended from Okanagan Centre to the International Boundary. This district he covered on horseback. In  1918 he became bookkeeper for the Coldstream Ranch. Beginning in 1922 he was weather observer for the Coldstream Station.  Mr. Bingley was a member of the Coldstream XI cricket  team. He loved the outdoors, and occasionally went shooting.  Among his favourite books were the annual OHS Reports. He  is survived by Mrs. Bingley. An only son, George, was killed  over England while serving with the RCAF in 1941.  In Overland to Cariboo by Margaret McNaughton, wife of  one of the pioneers, (William Briggs, Toronto, 1896), we find the  following record under the caption "A Singular Presentiment:"  "Mr. Carpenter's companions had observed that when he was  exploring the canyon he took out his note-book and made a  memorandum therein then carefully returned it to his inner  pocket, and this coat he left on the bank before attempting to  run the rapid. His sorrowful companions opened the note-book,  and found this entry: 'Arrived at Grand Canyon; ran the canyon  and was drowned.' Mr. Carpenter left a wife and child in  Toronto, and was a man of great promise. This singular incident  excited much wonder and speculation. Did the danger which  he was going to risk make such an impression on his mind that  it amounted to a presentiment?" pp. 97-98.  173 V-Jkanaaan ^hristorical Socletu  N. B. —  ♦  indicates prepaid membership.  N. B. — All postal addresses given in the Membership List are in  the province of British Columbia, unless otherwise indicated.  PATRONS  Lieut.  Gov. Frank Ross, Government House, Victoria  ♦Miss Annie Fenton  ♦James Goldie, Okanagan Centre  ♦Mrs. H. Hendrickson, Enderby  Mrs. G. South, Van Horn St. Penticton  G. R. Stuart, Ewings Landing  HONORARY LIFE MEMBER  Dr. Margaret Ormsby, University of British Columbia. Vancouver.  MEMBERS  Albrecht, Mr., Osoyoos  Alexis, Nick, 3005 38th St., Vernon  ♦Allison, Mrs. R., 301 West Ave., Kelowna  Anderson, Dr. W. F., 2302 Abbott St., Kelowna  Andrew, Dr. F. W., Box 11, Summerland  Andrew, W. J., 2866 Bellevue Ave., West Vancouver  Armstrong, J. R., 4251 Burke St., South Burnaby  Arnold, G., R.R. 1, Winfield  Ashton, T., Enderby  Ashton, L. C, Enderby  Atkinson, F. E., West Summerland  Bagnall, Geo. C, 5538 Ingleside Ave., Chicago 37, Illinois  Bagnall, Guy P., 3317 Coldstream Ave., Vernon  Bailey, J. M., Box 37, East Kelowna  Baker, W. J., Suite 6, 317 South High St., Port Arthur, Ont., (dec.)  Bearcroft, E. S., 599 Eckhardt Ave., Penticton  Belli-Bivar, Mrs. Ethel, Box 45, Salmon Arm  Benmore. G. C, 2059 Pendozi St., Kelowna  Bennett, Mrs. V., Penticton  Bentley, C. E., Summerland  Bergen, Mrs. Myrtle, Box 260. Lake Cowichan  Berner, Mrs. A., 2500 26th St., Vernon  Beveridge, G. K, 2000 32nd St., Vernon  Beurich, W., Osoyoos  Blackburn, Mr. and Mrs. R., Enderby  lEVackwood, R. H., R.R. 2, Vernon  Blumenauer, A. H., Armstrong  ♦Boss, M. T., 455 E. 17th Ave., Vancouver  ♦Bowsher, A. P., 8th Floor, Pacific Building, Calgary  Bowell, Mrs. B. M., 340 5th St., New Westminster  Bristow. C, 3614 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Brown, Miss Topham, 2003 37th Ave., Vernon  Brown, A. M., 3402 17th Ave., Vernon  Bubar, Charles H., Mara  Buckland, D. S., Okanagan Mission  Buckland, C. D., R.R. 2, Kelowna  Bull, Frank, Penticton  Bull, C. R., Okanagan Mission  174 Okanagan Historical Society  Burtch, Mrs. Henry, RR2, Kelowna  Butler, L. G., East Kelowna  Cameron, G. D., Box 86, Kelowna  Cameron, J. D. Brunswick Street, Penticton  ♦Cameron, Mrs. A., 449 St. Paul St., Kamloops  Campbell, George, 1902 31st St., Vernon  Carney, T. J., R.R. 1, Kelowna  Carruthers, E. M., 364 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  Carson, D., Cawston  ♦Casorso, Anthony, RR 4, Kelowna  Casorso, Jos., R.R. 3, Kelowna  Catani, S., 540 Pleasant Valley Road, Vernon  ♦Chambers, E. J., Penticton  Chichester, Bertram, Box 41, Rutland  Christensen, Parker, 2700 - 30th Ave., Vernon  Clarke, Dr. D. A., 390 Queensway, Kelowna  Cleland, H., Penticton  ♦Clement, L. Percy, 1322 Walnut St., Victoria  Clement, Mrs. C. S., 2276 Speer St., Kelowna  Cochrane, H., 836 Main St., Penticton  Cohen, Jack, Penticton  Collett, H. C. S., Okanagan Mission  Cooper, Fred, 3104 26th St., Vernon  Cooper, W. A., 987 Winnipeg St., Penticton  Corbett, Mrs. Ruth, 995 E. 41st Ave., Vancouver  Corbitt, H. W., Kaleden  Corrie, Jas., Princeton  Cowan, H. F., Enderby  Crawford, E. J., 993 Harvey Ave., Kelowna  Crozier, Mrs. R., Armstrong  Currie, Gordon W., R.R. 2, Kelowna  Dain, Miss, West Summerland  Davidson, Alan H., Box 131, Westbank  Dawe, A., Okanagan Mission  Day, Dr. L. A., West Summerland  Deering, A. J., R.R. 1, Armstrong  Denison, Eric, Box 131, Smithers  de Pfyffer, A., Court House, Penticton  de Pfyffer, Robert, 1961 Abbott St., Kelowna  Dewdney, Mrs. W. R.. 273 Scott Ave., Penticton  Dickson, Mrs. G. H., Box 473, Dunville, Ontario  Ditmars, W. C, 2535 S.W. Marine Drive, Vancouver  Dixon, Earl, Armstrong  Dovauo, Mrs. S., Box 16, Lumby  Dumont, Paul, Osoyoos  Duncan, R., R.R., Penticton  DunWaters, Mrs. J. C, Okanagan Mission  Easton, Mrs. S. J., 725 Piedmont Drive, R.R. 2, Royal Oak, V.I.  Ellis, Miss K. W., 268 Cambie Street, Penticton  Emanuele, Dr. H., 798 Argyle Street, Penticton  Embrey, William, Box 64, kelowna  Estabrooks, R. H., Penticton  Estabrooks, O. L., Penticton  Evans, Mrs. Bob, Penticton  Farmer, J. P., Enderby  Faulkner, Ronnie, Penticton  ♦Fenton, Miss Annie, Enderby  Ferguson, E. W., 621 Elliott Ave., Kelowna  175 Okanagan Historical Society  Ffoulkes, Mrs. M., 480 Queensway, Kelowna  Fillmore, D. C, 1470 Water St., Kelowna  Fisher, Mrs. D. V., West Summerland  Fitzgerald, Mrs. G. D., R.R.3, Kelowna  Fitzmaurice, R., Long Lake, Vernon  Found, Dr. N. P., 427 Lawrence Ave., Kelowna  ♦Fraser, Major H., Okanagan Falls  Fraser, R. A., 722 Lawson Ave., Kelowna  Garner, Mrs. R. J., 401 Burnside Road E., Victoria  Garner, Mrs. A. J., Box 40, Proctor  Gellatly, Dorothy, Westbank  Gee, Murray, 3402-19th St., Vernon  Genn, Anthony, Glenshiel Hotel, Victoria  Godwin, Fred, 380 Wade St., Penticton  ♦Goldie, Jas., Okanagan Centre  Goldsburg, Mrs. M., 120 Vernon St., Nelson  Goodfellow, Eric, Box 196, Princeton  Goodfellow, Rev. J. C, Box 187, Princeton  Gordon, C. B., 545 Transit Road, Victoria  Gorman, Harry, c/o C.J.I.B., Vernon  ♦Graf, Walter, Osoyoos  ♦Graham, Glen G., Osoyoos  Graham, Guy G., Osoyoos  Grant, James, Box 744, Vernon  Gray, L. S., 3606 27th Ave., Vernon  Greenside, E. L., 1758 Ellis St., Kelowna  Greenwood, Terry, 1815 Maple St., Kelowna  Gregory, Mrs. C, R.R., Armstrong  Gregson, Mrs. P. C, 3421 30th Ave., Vernon  Greyell, Willard, 7187 Cypress St., Vancouver  Greyell, Cliff, 226 Windsor Ave., Penticton  ♦Griffiths, H. T., 540 Burrard St., Vancouver  Grinaldi, Mr., Naramata  Gruhl, Alfred, R.R., Osoyoos  Guichon, L. P., Quilchena  Hadow, R., Enderby  Haines, Chas., R.R. 2, Vernon  Haines, Mrs. Pearl, Rock Creek  Haynes, Val, Oliver  Hales, F. C, 1069 Harvey Ave., Kelowna  Hall, Robert O., Box 26, Oliver  Hamilton, Wm. D., Vernon  Hamilton, William, 33-5 22nd St., Vernon  Harris, J. G., Bench Road, R.R., Penticton  Hatfield, A. S., 864 Fairview Road, Penticton  Hatfield, Harley, 687 Vancouver Ave., Penticton  Hassen, Mat, Armstrong  Hayhurst, Cliff, R.R., Armstrong  Hayman, Mrs. Gwen, Naramata  Hayward, Frank, 1460 W. 49th St., Vancouver  Hayman, L. A., 7162 Beachwood Ave., Vancouver  Hazlewcod, J. H., 580 Hornby St., Vancouver  ♦Hendrickson, Mrs. H., Enderby  Herbert, G. D., 1684 Ethel Street, Kelowna  Hereron, Miss F., 579 Sutherland Ave., Kelowna  Hewlett, E. E., East Kelowna  Higgin, Noel, West Summerland  Hoy, Ben, 1902 Pendozi St., Kelowna  176 Okanagan Historical Society  Hodge, S., Roy Ave., Penticton  Hooper, J. L., Penticton  Howrie, David, 2507 37th Ave., Vernon  Hughes, Mrs. T. S., 2162 Acadia Road, Vancouver  Innis, Mrs. D. J., Keremeos  Irwin, Rev. and Mrs. H. M., Enderby  Jackson, Mrs. A. E. M., 1014 East Angelino Ave., Burbank, Calif  Jackson, O., Box 64a, R.R. 3, Kelowna  Jacques, George, Barnard Ave., Vernon  Jameson, W. H., Box 220, Penticton  Jamieson, Mrs. J., Armstrong  Johnson, Mr. and Mrs. N. S., Enderby  Johnston, Mr. Alvin, Box 575, Quesnel  Jones, Miss Phyllis, Oliver  ♦Kabella, S., Okanagan Mission  Kenny, Mrs. M. A., 305 Milton St., Nanaimo  Kerr, N. F., R.R. 3, Kelowna  Keating, H. K., Box 150, Peachland  ♦Kerry, L. L., 2188 Abbott St., Kelowna  Kidston, Mrs. J., R.R. 2, Vernon  Kinlock, Mrs. D., R.R. 2, Vernon  Kneller, Jabez, R.R. 4, Vernon  Knight, Graham, Penticton  Knowles, C. W., Box 9, Kelowna  Knowles, Mrs. J. B., Manhattan Drive, Kelowna  Lacey, Mrs. E. J., Box 144, Osoyoos  Laidlaw, Mrs. A., 1008 London St., New Westminster  Lamont, Mrs. John, R.R. 4, Kelowna  Lowle,  F. W.  L.,  R.R. Skaha  Lake,  Penticton  Leslie, W. T., 400 Tennis St., Penticton  Lincoln, M. A., 3500 32nd St., Vernon  Lindsay, Mrs. B. J., Osoyoos  Lloyd-Jones, W., 1449 Ethel St., Kelowna  Logan, W. H., Box 261, Enderby  Loyd ,A. K., 381 Glenwood Ave., Kelowna  Lundy, Mrs. J. C, 878 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  ♦McClelland, James, 421 Haynes Ave., Kelowna  McCulloch, Mrs. V., 1500-39th Ave., Vernon  McCulloch, Capt. W. A. W., 1939 Abbott St., Kelowna  McDonnell, Mrs. Nancy R., 4913 30th Ave., Vancouver  McDougald, Miss C, Peachland  McDougall, R. J., Sorrento  McGibbon, Alec, R.R. Oliver  McGregor, D. A., 800 St. Georges Ave., North Vancouver  McGuire, M. V., Kalamalka Lake, Vernon  McKechnie, K. B., R.R., Armstrong  McKenzie, Msgr. W. B., 839 Sutherland Ave., Kelowna  McKenzie, Mrs. N. R., Apt. 3, 455 Harvey Ave., Kelowna  McKenzie, Mrs. R. M., 588 Royal Ave., Kelowna  McLeod, Geo., M.P., Enderby  McMynn, J. D., 14 Murray Drive, Trail  McWilliams, T. F., 2072 Abbott St., Kelowna  Macfarlane, Hon. Justice, Supreme Court, Victoria  MacLean. R. P., 1869 Maple St., Kelowna  Manery, Mrs. Sam, Cawston  Marriage, F. T., 424 Park Ave., Kelowna  Marshall, Gordon, R. R. 1, Kelowna  Marshall, Miss E., 1691 Water St., Kelowna  ■ -  177 Okanagan Historical Society  Marshall, L. E., R.R. 1, Kelowna  Marshall, A., Armstrong  Marshall, George, Copper Mountain  Marty, J. E., 1866 Abbott St., Kelowna  Massy, G. E., Dept. of Highways, Salmon Arm  Matheson, A. S., 516 Harvey Ave., Kelowna  Mayfield, Elisha W., R.R. 2, Duncan  Meek, Monty, R.R. 1, Gibson's Landing  Melville, Jack K., 555 Burrard St., Vancouver  Middleton, Mrs. M., Jadebay, Oyama  ♦Midgley, T. N., R.R., Penticton  Miles, F. A., Box 444, Vernon  ♦Miller, Mrs. Daisy, Box 2. R.R. 1, Oliver  Mitchell, Miss J. B., Apt. 10, 1489 St. Paul St., Kelowna  Mitchell, Dr. Ross, 524 Corydon Ave., Winnipeg  Moll, Mrs. H. M., Box 56, Chapman's Camp  Mcodie, Miss M. E., St. 4, 1455 West 15th Ave., Vancouver  Morgan, Granville, R.R., Summerland  Morley, H. B., Boswell, B.C.  Morrison, G. F., 644 Kingsway, Winnipeg, Man.  ♦Moss, A., 2500 Abbott St., Kelowna  Moss, J. P., 790 DeHart Ave., Kelowna  Munro, K. K. Mrs., Box 129, Kelowna  Munroe, Findlay, 1701 Fairford Ave., Penticton  Moyer, Dr. E. L., 3302-19th St., Vernon  Murchison, Earl, 1781 Abbott St., Kelowna  Murray, Eric, Main St., Penticton  Murray, Miss P., Armstrong  Murray, F. J., Salmon Arm  Nelson, Miss P., Box A 86, Keremeos  Newby, Dr. C. D., 375 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  Norman, E. A., Armstrong  Ostafew, Miss Marlene, Osoyoos  Parrish, Mrs. Jessie, Route 4, Box 154, Everett, Washington  Patten, Mrs. C. J., Armstrong  ♦Patterson, Mrs. A. L., Ste 15, 1489 St. Paul St., Kelowna  Patterson, Miss L. M., 453 Harvey Ave., Kelowna  Paynter. H. O., Westbank  Perley, Rev. D. M., 1846 Water St., Kelowna  Pettman, Harold A., 228 Lake Ave., Kelowna  Piddocke, Mrs. L., R.R. 1, Kelowna  Pidoborozny, Mr. and Mrs., Enderby  Pooley, N., East Kelowna  Porter, Mrs. Geo., East Kelowna  Pound, Rev. Allan C, B.A., D.D., M.Th., Horse Shoe Bay  Preston. Mrs. H., Enderby  Quesnel, Earl, 2905-24th St., Vernon  Powley, W. R., R.R. 1, Winfield  ♦Quinn, F. H., 1975 McDougall St., Kelowna  Rattery, Bryan, Osoyoos  Reekie, Miss Jennie M., 253 Lawrence Ave., Kelowna  ♦Reid, Miss E., 614 Martin St., Penticton  Renwick. Miss M.. 987 Glenn Ave., Kelowna  Renwick, H. A., 708 1445 Marpole Ave., Vancouver  Richards, Mrs. E. M., 1326 Vimy Ave., Kelowna  Richmond, Lome, Oliver  Rolston, W. J., 3100 34th Ave., Vernon  Rorke, H. O., Penticton  178 Okanagan Historical Society  Rosoman, Miss Hazel, Enderby  Ross, D. H., 2000 32nd Ave., Vernon  Ross, Dr. D. A., 1703 37th Ave., Vernon  Salter, Mrs. Fred, 11 Peck St., Attleboro, Mass., U.S.A.  ♦Seath, R. W., 1934 McDougall Ave., Kelowna  Seeley, Mrs. H., Harwood Ave., Vancouver  Schmidt, Richard, Osoyoos  Shannon, Mrs. R., Oliver  Shepherd, Ken, 2034 Pendozi St., Kelowna  Sigalet, Wm., 3902 31st St., Vernon  Simms, J. G, 3305 26th St., Vernon  Simpson, K., 241 Orchard Ave., Penticton  ♦Simpson, Mrs. S. M., 2120 Abbott St., Kelowna  ♦Simpson, H. B., 176 Vimy Ave., Kelowna  ♦Simpson, Mrs. R. M., 808 Glenn Ave., Kelowna  Sinclair-Thompson, Mrs. W., Box 1510, Kelowna  Skipper, R. V., Box 34, Dewdney  Smith, H. S. Harrison, 434 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  Smith, J. A., Court House, Kelowna  Smith, W. J., Armstrong  Smith. George, Armstrong  Snowsell, Mrs. E., R.R. 1, Kelowna  Solly, I. H., West Summerland  ♦South, Mrs. G., Penticton  Spear, Mrs. W., 547 Lawrence Ave., Kelowna  Speechly, M. K., R.R. 2, Vernon  Speers, Mr. and Mrs. H. S., Enderby  Stevenson, C. D., Box 303, Williams Lake  Stewart, E. L., 1261 Burgoyne St., Mount View, California  Stiell, W. M., 285 Strestview Rd., Ottawa, Ontario  Stirling, Geo. F., 634 Michigan St., Victoria  Stubbs, A. H., Okanagan Mission  Sunderland, Mrs. E. J., Coldstream, Vernon  Swift, A. A., Penticton  Tarlton, Fred, Penticton  Tassie, G. C, Coldstream Creek Road, Vernon  Teece, Mr. and Mrs. H. A., Enderby  Timberlake, Mrs. F., Armstrong  Thebis, W., Box 97, Kitimat  Thorn, W. A., 2800 26th St., Vernon  Thompson, Mrs. A. B., 345 Rose Ave., Kelowna  Thornloe, Jr. F., East Kelowna  Tilling, Rose M., 369 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  ♦Torrent, Henry, Long Lake, Vernon  Truswell, H. A., Box 272, Kelowna  Turnbull, Mrs. A. D., 300 Kootenay Ave., Trail  Turner, R. G., Box 1305, Rossland  Turner, R. M. H., c/o H. Rennie, R.R. 1, Summerland  Tweddle, Mrs. F., Keremeos  ♦Upton, Mrs. T. B., Okanagan Mission  Volkers, Barry, Lake Cowichan  Walburn, H. G., R.R. 3, Kelowna  Wallace, Mrs. Barbara, c/o Davis Riding Stables, R.R. 4, Kelowna  Warberg, Mrs. Mary A., Box 805, Maple Creek, Sask.  Ward, A., R.R. 3, Kelowna  Warren, Mrs. A. M., 854 Main St., Penticton  Watt, H. J., Enderby  ♦Watt. Geo. M. Box 39, Okanagan Mission  179 Okanagan Historical Society  Weatherill, H. P., Royal Bank, Vancouver  Waddell, A. D., 274 Lake Ave., Kelowna  Weeks, E., Box 393, Kelowna  ♦Weeks, G. A., Box 637, Revelstoke  ♦Weeks, Capt. J. B., 614 Martin Street, Penticton  ♦Weeks, L. J., 3211 Kitchener St., Vancouver  ♦Weeks, T. V., 235A 16th Ave., Calgary, Alta.  Whipple, D., 81, B Woodbine St., Chilliwack  Whipple, W. I., Box 188, Osoyoos  Whitaker, Mrs. H., West Summerland  White, Mrs. H. E., Skaha Lake, Penticton  White, G. M., Enderby  White, Ronald, 107 Beattie St., Kamloops  White, Cull A., Quincy, Washington, U.S.A.  Whitehead, W. J., 439 Osprey Ave., Kelowna  Whitham, J. Gordon, 1725 Pendozi St., Kelowna  ♦Whitham, J. D., 1725 Pendozi St., Kelowna  Willis, Mrs. Mary, 383 Cartier Ave., Vancouver  Willits, Mrs. P. B., Pendozi Manor, 1716 Pendozi St., Kelowna  Wilson, J. L., 413 Patterson Ave., Kelowna  Wilson, Jack, Tappen  Wilson, Dr. Wallace,  1386 Nicola St.,  Vancouver  Wilson, J. H., Armstrong  Wood, E. O., 268 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  Wood, H. S., Enderby  Woods, Mrs. W. J., Enderby  Wright, C. C, Armstrong  Young, Arthur, Armstrong  Young, Mrs. B. F., Armstrong  Zoellner, Mrs. W. J., Box 55, Grand Forks  PRESS AND RADIO  ♦The Vernon News, c/o Frank Harris, Vernon  Kelowna Courier Ltd, 1580 Water St., Kelowna  CKOV, 1490 Pendozi St., Kelowna  CKOK, Penticton  CJIB, Vernon  Book Nook, Penticton  UNIVERSITIES, LIBRARIES, SCHOOLS AND MUSEUMS, Etc.  Copper Mountain Elementary School, Copper Mountain  School District 78, Enderby  School District 16, Keremeos  Vernon Junior High School Library, Vernon  School District 23, 599 Harvey Ave., Kelowna  School District 22, Vernon  School District 15, Penticton  Macdonald Elementary School, West Summerland  School District 14, Osoyoos  School District 14, Oliver  School District 15, Penticton  School District 77, West Summerland High School, West  Summerland  Oliver Elementary School, School District 14, Oliver  School District 16, Keremeos  Charles Bloom Junior High School, Lumby  Vernon Senior High School, Vernon  Junior-Senior High School, Armstrong  180 Okanagan Historical Society  Queen's Park Elementary School, Penticton  Carmi Avenue School, Penticton  Jermyn Avenue Elementary School, Penticton  Okanagan Regional Library, Penticton  Okanagan Regional Library, Kelowna  Historical Society of Montana, Helena, Montana, U.S.A.  ♦Kamloops Museum Association, Box 337, Kamloops  ♦Parliamentary Librarian, Library of Parliament, Ottawa, Ont.  Public Library, Prince George  The   State   Historical   Society   of  Wisconsin,   816   State   Street,  Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.  State College of Washington Library, Technical Service Division,  Pullman, Washington, U.S.A.  Tacoma Public Library, Tacoma, Washington, U.S.A.  ♦Toronto Public Libraries, 214 College St., Toronto, Ontario  Victoria Public Library, Victoria, B.C.  Provincial Museum, Victoria  Public Archives, Victoria  Provincial Library, Victoria  Public Library Commission, Victoria  Eastern Washington College of Education, Cheney, Washington,  U.S.A.  Gonzaga University, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A.  Seattle Public Library, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A.  Vancouver City Museum, Vancouver  Branch Librarian, Public Library Commission, Prince George  Fraser Valley Regional Library, Abbotsford  Library of Congress, Washington 25, D.C., U.S.A.  ♦Toronto Public Libraries, 214 College St., Toronto 2, Ontario  The Book Nook, Penticton  B.C. Directories Ltd., 2733 West Broadway, Vancouver  Glenbow Foundation, Calgary, Alberta  Southern Similkameen P.T.A., Keremeos  Vancouver Public Library,  Vancouver  Vancouver City Archives,  City Hall, Vancouver  G. C. Rose's Collection, c/o Okanagan Investments Ltd., Kelowna  The Carswell Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont.  OTHER CORPORATE BODIES  City of Armstrong, Armstrong  Laurel Co-operative Union, 1304 Ellis St., Kelowna  Vernon Club, Vernon  Women's Canadian Club, Vernon  Kelowna Club, Kelowna  Municipality of Spallumcheen, Armstrong  181 *3Ua*  UBRMy  rf  o*  182   ^  /''ñ† a  <&  #  y fON   HERALD

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