Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Thirty-third annual report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society Nov 1, 1969

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 Thirty-Third Report  H N. (Reg) itktosofl Mus  785 MAIN STREET  PENTJCJON, B.C   V2A5E3  am»p_«P>  November J, 1°69 y~\  >k ^ '  //'Ģ  #/ n. li (Reg) mmnmn  785 MAIN STREET  THIRTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT  of the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL SOCIETY  Founded September 4,  1925  Cover picture: Front Street wharf, Penticton, B.C. Pre World War I.  November  1,   1969  Mr. & Mrs. H. O. Rorke  624 Young Street  Penticton, B.C. 1  1 CONTENTS  Table of illustrations  4  Officers of O.H.S. for 1969-70  5,6  ANDERSON—Harvest home (Poem)  66  ARMSTRONG—Integration (Poem)      22  BOONE—Harvey Boone—Pioneer  52  DUDDLE—Aircraft CF-AOM of Vernon, B.C  88  EMERY—Indian road (First prize essay)  145  GEEN—Dr. W.John Knox—Beloved Doctor of the Okanagan  9  GOODFELLOW—John Christie Goodfellow  97  GRAY—Lakeview Hotel—First in Kelowna  78  GRAY—First Okanagan School—Still functioning  82  GREENING—Louis Casorso  51  HATFIELD—When commerce went ahorseback  67  HENDRY—Another page of the Dewdney history  178  HERBERT—Frederick Thomas Marriage  64  HODGSON—The reason  19  JOHNSTON—"Maggie" Smith of Kelowna  81  KELLY—The probable origin of "The railway"  24  LESLIE—Hedley (A school essay)  147  LOUIS & ROSS—Pierre Louis, Okanagan Chief  23  McALLISTER—With the Forest Service  93  MORROW—The first twenty years of Scouting in Vernon  54  RANDALL—Memoirs of the early 1900's  106  SISMEY—Mrs. C. G. Bennett's story  94  SISMEY—Chief Jack Alec  21  SISMEY—Joseph B. Weeks of Okanagan Lake  25  SISMEY—Field day at Granite Creek      172  THOMAS—The Thomas story  99  UPTON—William Thomas John Bulman  49  UPTON—Nigel Robert Cathcart Pooley  50  UPTON—Annual banquet, 1969  167  WAMBOLDT—Enderby and District from wilderness to 1914  31  WATKINS—Why not learn Okanagan?  102  WHITE—Notes on the Okanagans  100  WHITHAM—32 steamboat wharves on Okanagan Lake  29  WIENS—The old hotel (A school essay)  151  WORTH—Autobiography (1900-1910)      113  Obituaries (Edited by H. Cochrane and P. Upton)  153  Report of Annual Meeting  159  Annual Meeting and Banquet O.H.S., 1969  170  Suggestions to contributors  181  Notice of Annual Meeting, 1970  182  Membership list  183  Order form       195  Errata  196 ILLUSTRATIONS  Dr. Knox's Home on Pandosy St., Kelowna  7  Dr. Knox  8  Jack Alec  20  Chief Jack Alec  21  Lillian Armstrong and Daughter Jeanette      22  S.S. Aberdeen  26  Captain Joe  27  Enderby, B.C., in 1902      30  George and James Bell  38  Andy Glen's Threshing Rig      41  Vol. 2, No. 12, May 20, 1909  43  Enderby, B.C., c. 1910 44 and 45  Hotel Letterheads  47  W. T. J. Bulman  49  N. R. C. Pooley      50  Louis Casorso  51  Harvey Boone  52  Scouts at the 1914 Camp on Okanagan Lake  55  Scout Hall, Vernon, 1926  55  F. T. Marriage  64  Harley Hatfield on Fur Brigade Trail  69  Lakeview Hotel on Abbott St  79  Wharf at Summerland Before World War I  80  Mrs. W. D. Walker at 90 Years  83  St. Stephen's Anglican Church, Summerland, 1912  87  CF-AOM "City of Vernon" 1935  89  Frame of CF-AOM and Builders      89  Pages from Log  91  Mrs. C. G. Bennett in 1965  95  Rev. J. C. Goodfellow  97  Okanagan Language Workshop  105  Coldstream Ranch  Ill  Coldstream Ranch Football Team  Ill  Mr. and Mrs. Harry Worth  114  The Worth's Home and Barns  123  Trinity Valley, 1913  143  The Old Hotel  152  President Dewdney and Sec. Gale  157  President Mrs. W. R. Dewdney  158  Historians of Penticton Branch      164  Essay Contest Award Winners      164  Granite Creek Field Day      173 THE OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL SOCIETY  HONORARY PATRONS  Colonel the Honourable John R. Nicholson, P. C, O. B. E., Q. C, LL. D.,  Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia  The Honourable W. A. C. Bennett, P. C, LL.D., D. Pol. Sc.  Premier of British Columbia  The Honourable Frank X. Richter  Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources, and  Minister of Commercial Transport  PATRON  Mrs. Charles Patten  HONORARY PRESIDENTS  Dr. Margaret Ormsby, Mr. H. C. S. Collett,  Mr. G. P. Bagnall, Mr. G. D. Cameron  PRESIDENT  Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, 273 Scott Avenue, Penticton, B.C.  IMMEDIATE PAST PRESIDENT  Mr. Harold Cochrane, 2006, 28th Cres., Vernon, B. C.  VICE-PRESIDENTS  Mr. J. E. Jamieson, Mrs. Duncan Tutt, Mr. E. D. Sismey  SECRETARY  Mr. R. F. Gale, Box 24, Pineview Drive, Kaleden, B.C.  TREASURER AUDITOR  Mr. John Shephard, Mr. T. R. Jenner,  Box 313, Vernon, B.C. 3105 29th Avenue, Vernon, B.C.  ESSAYSECRETARY  Mrs. G. D. Herbert, 1684 Ethel St., Kelowna, B.C.  DIRECTORS  Vernon: Mr. Ken Ellison, Mr. E. B. Hunter, Mrs. H. C. DeBeck  Kelowna: Mr. D. S. Buckland, Mrs. T. B. Upton, Mr. G. D. Cameron  Penticton: Mr. Victor Wilson, Mrs. G. P. Broderick, Dr. W. H. B. Munn  Oliver-Osoyoos: Major H. Porteous Similkameen: Mrs. Ray Walters  DIRECTORS AT LARGE:  Mrs. H. C. Whitaker, Rev. E. Fleming, Mrs. A. E. Berry  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE:  Editor, Dr. D. A. Ross, Box 313, Vernon, B.C. Mrs. W. R. Dewdney,  Mr. H. Cochrane, Mrs. T. B. Upton,  Mrs. A. Thomas.  1969-70 BRANCH OFFICERS  VERNON BRANCH  President: Mr. Harold Cochrane, 2006 28th Crescent  Vice-President:  Mr. Ken Ellison  Directors: Dr. D. A. Ross, Mr. E. B. Hunter, Mrs. M. Middleton, Mr.  and Mrs. G. P. Bagnall, Mr. and Mrs. I. Crozier, Mrs. J. A. Greig,  Mrs. K. Kinnard, Mrs. A. E. Berry, Mrs. H. Cochrane. THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  1969-70  BRANCH  OFFICERS (Continued)  Director at Large:  Mrs. A. E. Berry  Editorial Committee: H. Cochrane, Mrs. I. Crozier, Mrs. G. Bagnall.  KELOWNA BRANCH  President: Mr. F. G. DeHart, 2668 Abbott St.  Vice-President:  t\/\r. J. L. Piddocke  Secretary:  Mr. R. C. Gore, 480 Queensway  Treasurer: Mr. H. Keating, Lakeshore Road, R. R. No. 4.  Directors: Mr. G. D. Cameron, Mrs. T. B. Upton, Mr. D. S. Buckland,  Mrs. D. Tutt, Mr. W. Spear, Mr. A. W. Gray, Mr. W. Bulman, Mr. L.  Leathley, Mrs. J. Surtees, Mr. F. Black, Mr. J. L. Neave, Mr. J. J.  Conroy, Mr. S. Duggan, Mr. F. Waterman.  Editorial Committee: Mrs. T. B. Upton, Mr. A. W.Gray, Mr.F. Waterman.  PENTICTON BRANCH  President: Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, 273 Scott Ave.  Vice-President: Mr. E. D. Sismey, 1348 Government St.  Secretary: Mrs. G. P. Broderick, 1825 Fairford Drive.  Treasurer: D. H. Gawne, 91 Newton Drive, West Bench  Directors: Victor Wilson, R. N. Atkinson, H. O. Rorke, R. F. Gale,  Mayor F. D. Stuart, Dr. J. J. Gibson, Wells Oliver, Dr. W. H. B. Munn, Mrs.  H. C. Whitaker, Mrs. Donald Orr, Mrs. Louise Gabriel, Mrs. F. A.  MacKinnon, Frank McDonald, Dr. W. H. White, Clem Bird, Hugh Cleland.  Director at Large:  Mrs.  H. C. Whitaker.  Editorial Committee: Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Mr. E. D. Sismey.  OLIVER-OSOYOOS    BRANCH  President: Mr. Don Corbishley, R. R. No. 1, Oliver.  Vice-President:  Mr. E. N. Lacey, Osoyoos.  Sec.-Treas.: Mrs. J. A. Field, R. R. No. 1, Osoyoos.  Director at Large: Mrs. Hugh Porteous, R. R. No. 1, Oliver.  Branch Historian: Miss Dolly Waterman, Osoyoos.  Essay Secretary: Mrs. N. V. Simpson, R. R. No. 1, Oliver.  Directors:    Mrs.   H.   Porteous,   Mr.   C.   MacNaughton,   Mrs.    E.  MacLennan, Oliver; Mrs. Peggy Driver, Osoyoos.  SIMILKAMEEN BRANCH  President: Mrs. Ray Walters, Keremeos.  Vice-President: Mrs. Alex McLachlan.  Secretary:  Mrs. J. L. Innis, Keremeos.  Treasurer:  Mrs. D. Parsons, Keremeos.  Essay Committee: Mrs. Ray Walters, Mrs. A. McLachlan.  Mr. Sam Manery, Director at Large.  Editorial Committee: Mr. A. Thomas, Mr. Eric Goodfellow, Mr. L. T.  Leslie.  Directors:   Mr.  G. Cawston, Mr.  L.   Innis, Mrs.  D.  Parsons, Mr.   R.  Walters,    Mrs.     L.     Gottfriedson, Mrs. A. Advocoat, Mr. W. H.  T.   Jellett,  Mr.  F. Manery,   Mr. A. Thomas, Mr. Eric Goodfellow,  Mr. L. T. Leslie. .--"!>.-%.  Dr. Knox's home on Pandosy St. Kelowna, B.C. Built in 7977.  Photo by R. G. Lecki( DR. W.J. KNOX  Dr. W. J. Knox  Photo by Ribelin DR. WILLIAM JOHN KNOX 1878-1967  BELOVED DOCTOR OF THE OKANAGAN  By David Green M. D.  It was a very strange mixture of planning and coincidence that  broughtthe young Dr. Knox to Kelowna in the first place, and kept him there  to practice medicine for a full 60 years. The young doctor had come to do a  locum tenens for Dr. Benjamin de F. Boyce. Boyce, Kelowna's first doctor,  had graduated from McGill in 1892 and had come to Kelowna in 1894, after  spending about two years at the mining town of Fairview just above  Osoyoos. The only other doctor in the area, which probably had a total  population of between one and two thousand people, was Dr. Keller. He was  a retiring individual who did a very limited practice, principally among the  English residents of the community. The nearest doctors to these two in  Kelowna were Dr. Osborne Morris, in Vernon 35 miles to the north; and Dr.  R. B.White, in Penticton, 40 miles to the south.  In 1902, Kelowna was certainly one of the most isolated frontiers of a  very young province whose total population was still slightly less than one  quarter of a million people. The first permanent settlers in the Kelowna  area, the Oblate Fathers, had established a mission about three miles south  of the present city in 1859. The present settlement had only grown large  enough to require a postoffice 10 years prior to Knox's arrival. Kelowna was  not even served by direct railway communications until 1925.  William John Knox was born of Irish-Scottish parentage on June 5th,  1878, at Fitzroy Harbor, a small village 40 miles west of Ottawa, on the  Ontario side of the Ottawa River. His mother, the former Jessie Argue, had  been a school teacher. His father was an ordained Methodist minister. Will  was the second of the eight children born to Reverend and Mrs. Knox. It was  the custom of the Methodists to rotate their ministers every three or four  years. When young Will was about three, the family moved to Shawville  where Reverend Knox's younger brother practiced medicine. It became  understood when Will was still young, that he would eventually also enter  medicine. When Will was about 10 years old, his mother's uncle returned  Kelowna, the Okanagan, and indeed British Columbia, lost a well known and  much beloved pioneer when Dr. William John Knox died on December 28, 1967. It  was not given to many people to become a legend in their own lives—but "Billy"  Knox did. A man who loved life and all fellow human beings, the feelings of warmth  and affection were returned by countless people in all walks of life. I doubt if there  were many who did not gain immeasurably from having known him.  Although his house on Pandosy St. is now being torn down to make room for  yet another apartment block, his name is carried on in the Knox Clinic and in the  Dr. Knox Junior Senior School.  As one of the many thousands of babies brought into the world by Dr. Knox,  I will always remember him for his fantastic memory, his interest and warmth in  dealing with his fellow men.  Dr. David Geen of Okanagan Mission and Rutland did a thesis on Dr. Knox,  and we reprint it here in its entirety. As well as giving an excellent coverage of early  practitioners in the central Okanagan, Dr. Geen has paid a warm tribute to a great  man.—PRIMROSE UPTON. 10 DR.WM. JOHN KNOX  from the Pacific coast. He had been employed in the fishing industry and  brought back romantic tales of mountains, ships, and whales. Young Will  was so impressed that he decided he too would come out to the west coast.  With his future goals so clearly in mind, Will was always a conscientious student. Upon completion of his studies at Athens High School, he  did not have sufficient funds to enter medical school. After spending four  months attending a Model School, he accepted a teaching position at The  Jock, a small community near Richmond, Ontario. His immediate  predecessor had suffered a fate apparently not too uncommon in small rural  communities. He had been run out of the school by its pupils. When 18 years  old Knox arrived early in 1897, there were 93 pupils on the register, with an  average attendance of about 75, distributed through nine grades. After  removing 12 students from the roll because they would not agree to take a  full course of studies, the young teacher's authority was not further  challenged. For two and a half years Knox's pupils made considerable  progress, several successfully completing their provincial examinations.  For his efforts young Knox was paid the grand sum of $350 per annum.  Fortunately the cost of his room and board was of similar magnitude—only  $80 for the entire term!  In the fall of 1899, Knox, now 21, entered Medical School at Queen's  University, Kingston. At this time the Medical School, which had been  established in 1854, was one of seven medical schools operating in Canada.  The medical training program was basically the same as it is at present. The  first two years were allotted primarily to the pre-clinical subjects of  anatomy, chemistry, pathology and pharmacopeics. The final two years  were devoted to the clinical problems of patient care. Since no pre-medical  university training was required, the whole course took only four, rather  than the present seven years. Young Bill's name frequently appeared at or  near the top of the honour roll. A classmate writes: ".. . Bill could take notes  faster than any of us, and he could review them at exam time just as fast—as  for reading them—he alone could do that!" During his spare time, while  teaching school, Bill had worked through Grey's Anatomy Text. He  therefore had a distinct advantage over many of his classmates and led the  class during his first two years. During the final two years, however, he did  notfare quiteas well, because, as the doctor at 87 years of age explained, "a  keener interest in certain members of the fairer six prevented him from  spending quite as much time with his studies."  Student pranks were just as much in vogue then as they are today.  Although the faculty frowned on many of the hijinks, they encouraged one  form of activity that would certainly be discouraged today. At the turn of the  century it was very rare for citizens to donate their bodies to medical  schools. Therefore cadavers for anatomic instruction were always in short  supply. It was a student tradition that steps should be taken to rectify this  situation whenever the opportunity arose. Following tradition, Knox found  himself in the vicinity of a grave yard with shovel in hand one dark night.  After a long and frustrating search, he and his associate were forced to give  up. The following evening, after his accomplice had obtained more careful  directions, Knox found that he really was too busy as he had a date for a  dance—and it was too cold anyhow!  This avid desire to obtain cadavers had earned the "Meds" such a bad DR.WM. JOHN KNOX 11  reputation among the townspeople in the vicinity of the Kingston Hospital,  that they were most reluctant to rent rooms to any student. Knox, because of  a mutual acquaintance, was able to secure quarters from a lady on George  Street, immediately adjacent to the hospital. Since Knox's rooms were much  closer to student activities than any of his classmates, they were the natural  headquarters for nine members of the class of '03, who referred to themselves as the "George Street Brood." Knox recalls that: . . "At the time we  thought we ran the whole school, and it was many years before we  discovered that perhaps we didn't!" Even so Knox was class president on  several occasions and at the close of his final year was elected permanent  president for the class of '03. It was not at all unusual for Knox to return  home at night and find one or even two members of the "Brood" fast asleep  on his bed while awaiting the arrival of the stork. Parties held at the  "Brood's" adopted home were frequently rather boisterous. Consequently,  Bill often found it necessary to add an extra dollar or so to his $30 a month  rent or find himself out on the street.  The volume entitled The Century Book of Facts, served young Bill  most royally during each summer recess. Through their sale he was able to  raise sufficient money to carry on his schooling for the following year. His  winning manner must have been as evident then as ever, for a fellow  member of the "Brood" writes some 65 years later—"I do not know what his  approach was to the prospective buyer, but I do know he could look  genuinely sorry for anyone who had to get along without his volumes".  Upon graduating only those with financial backing could afford to take  further internship training. Consequently, the new William John Knox M.D.,  and his two trunks (one full of medicinals—because he expected that he  would be practicing in an area with no druggist) arrived in Calgary on the 10  dollar "Farmer's Special" in the summer of 1903. Dr. Knox proceeded to  Vancouver, where he obtained a posting on the "Empress of China", and  then over to Victoria to take his British Columbia licensing examinations.  Apparently only about 11 out of 16 or so sitting were successful, and received  their licenses. One of the less fortunate had previously promised to take a  six-month locum tenens for Dr. Boyce in Kelowna. This young man, who had  known Knox in Ontario, sought out Bill in an attempt to find a replacement.  Knox was interested and when the "Empress" docked, he found that the  current ship's doctor welcomed the opportunity of remaining on board until  the following spring.  Afew weeks later Knox arrived in Kelowna fully intending to return to  his ship duties in the spring. Everything went very well for the young doctor  during those first few months, a fact he attributes to the health of his  patients, most of whom were young and didn't smoke. One such patient was  a young chap whose wagon upset, rolling three logs over his head and hip.  Knox was summoned, and the unconscious man was covered with a horse  blanket and left, apparently for dead, in a barn. When the new doctor  arrived, many hours later, the patient was still breathing. Further investigation found that much of the weight of the logs had been taken by a  large rock, rather than the young man's skull. Over the next several months  the man was slowly nursed back to health under Knox's care. Some 60 years  later the man was alive and well, but still had a squint that developed soon  after the accident. The base of his skull had been fractured and in the 12 DR. W.W.JOHN KNOX  process of healing, the nerve that supplies the lateral rectus muscle of the  eye had been damaged.  In the spring Dr. Knox returned to Vancouver to board the "Empress  of China". When he arrived at the Coast, he was informed that the ship had  been delayed three weeks. After several days of inactivity, the young doctor  was bored and missed his practice. He flipped a coin—it said to return to  Kelowna! He wired his girl back in Kingston of his decision, and once again  set off for the interior. This time to stay for a life time.  On his return he went into partnership with Dr. Boyce. Anecdotes, for  which the beloved doctor became renowned reflect the rough and ready life  and medicine sometimes seen among the early pioneers. One Sunday afternoon Dr. Knox was called to a place about 12 miles from Kelowna. He  found an old fellow by the name of John McGinnis, who had been holding  bottles or cards while others shot the necks or spots off. Of course there had  been considerable drinking. Marshall, the grandson of Sir Samual Baker the  African explorer, was one of the best shots. There were two brothers who  were cattle thieves, and one or two others there. As the daylight grew dim  they shot the end off McGinnis's thumb and finger and made excuses that  Marshall had done wonderful shooting, but that McGinnis had wobbled a  little." When Knox arrived they had the victim strapped to a chair, and on  top of his whisky they had given him a teaspoon full of chlorodyne, so he was  dead to the world and needed no anaesthetic. They laid him down on the bed  and took turns holding the lamp while Knox trimmed off and stitched up the  ends of the wounded fingers. Every person became sick and had to go out  except old Marshall. Marshall held the lamp to the last, when all the rest had  gone out. The wounds healed well, even though the chief disinfectant was  only iodine.  Another Sunday, Knox was called to go out to a place north of Kelowna  and found that a blonde lady of rather easy virtue had been playing under a  tree with an old timer. "A young chap had told the old man to leave her  alone, she was his girl, and if he didn't, he would shoot him. Well, he didn't  leave her alone, so the young fellow shot; but he missed the older man and  hit the girl in the head." When Knox got there she was lying not moving, with  her eyes tight shut. Knox trimmed off the hair and found by the slant of the  hole that almost surely the bullet had not entered her head, just entered  between the two plates of her skull. Knox took a probe and put through the  eye of the probe a piece of gauze. He stuck it in the carbolic acid bottle then  drew it through the hole and brought it out of the top of her head. Everything  was quiet for about half a minute, then the girl let a yell out of her, jumped  up, and took to her heels across the creek and into the house. When Knox got  there, he found her upstairs under the bed. He told her to come out, or he  would have to do it all over again. She came out warily, Knox bound her  head, and "everything healed with no trouble whatever."  Even though practicing in one of the most isolated spots in North  America, Knox made an honest attempt to keep up with the advances in  medicine that occurred after his initial four years of formal training. In 1895,  Roentgen published his first papers on the x-ray. A short 12 years later, Dr.  Knox was setting fractures with the aid of the new technique. His first  "machine" was purchased at a cost of 1,000 dollars. Unfortunately, as is so  often the case in medicine, the dangerous side of new discoveries only DR.WM. JOHN KNOX 13  becomes apparent because of detrimental effects on their initial users. For  many years Dr. Knox has been plagued by recurring skin malignancies on  his badly burned hands.  Fourteen times in all, he journeyed East to spend several weeks or  occasionally several months studying in the medical centers at Boston,  Rochester or in New York. The first time he was able to get away was in the  fall of 1903 when Dr. F. W. Andrew, who later practiced for many years in  the Summerland area, supplied. In 1915, his advanced training was  recognized and he was granted his fellowship in the infant American College  of Surgery.  When Knox was first in Kelowna on his locum for Dr. Boyce he was  paid 75 dollars a month. When he returned in 1904, he was taken on as a  partner. By 1908, Knox's reputation in the young city was firmly established.  Boyce was apparently spending more and more time with his horses and  non-medical affairs, and less and less time with his patients. Knox therefore,  decided he would be better off on his own. He practiced solo from 1908 to 1913,  when Dr. Campbell joined him. Campbell had graduated from Queen's in  1910 and he had spent three years doing post graduate work in New York. He  was a stocky, robust chap and an outstanding athlete. While at Queen's he  had captained his university hockey team to the Allen Cup. Knox was again  on his own from 1916 until Campbell returned from the services in 1919.  While overseas, Campbell was for a time in charge of a military hospital at  Orpington in England and became noted for his orthopedic abilities.  In the fall of 1918, while Campbell was still in the services, the great flu  epidemic reached the Kelowna area. The Chinese community, awe-struck  by the disease, tended to conceal their sick. On one occasion rounds made by  Dr. Knox and a constable uncovered four bodies locked away in their tiny  rooms. At the height of the disease four hospitals operated in Kelowna. The  General Hospital handled the regular non-flu cases, the converted High  School handed the Caucasian flu victims, another building was used for the  Japanese, and yet another for the Chinese members of the community. Dr.  Knox practised almost single-handed throughout the whole epidemic and  regards it as the most hectic time of his career. For a time volunteers drove  his car, and the doctor cat-napped between calls, so that he could maintain  his vigorous pace for twenty or more hours a day.  Dr. Knox's vast practice always kept him extremely busy, but he was  certainly not one who believed there should be all work and no play. In his  first few years in Kelowna, the young doctor played lacrosse. After ceasing  to be an active participant, he maintained his interest in the game as a  referee, and later as a team manager. Knox was also an ardent hunter.  Autumn excursions to the Joe Riche or McCullough Valleys, some 25 miles  east of Kelowna, came to be an annual tradition. R. E. McKechnie, a surgeon  from Vancouver, made at least one visit to Kelowna each fall. He would  spend the first day in the operating theatre, removing six or seven thyroid  glands (Knox chose not to do this type of surgery). Then, he, Knox and  several other friends would retire to the hills for a week or two of hunting and  fishing. Of course the evenings were passed with whiskey in hand, playing  poker. In 1904 Knox joined St. George's lodge AF and AM. He was chosen  Master in 1912, and district Deputy-Grandmaster in 1937-38. When the  Kelowna Rotary Club was founded in 1928, Dr. Knox was a charter member. 14 DR. WM. JOHN KNOX  Some 30 years later the club presented him with a plaque, recognizing his  "years of outstanding service to the community".  What was the medicine like as practised by Dr. Knox and his  associates in the Okanagan Valley during the first quarter of this century?  One of the most obvious features was a direct result of the difficulties in  transportation. The house call was of supreme importance, since the sick  could not easily be brought to the hospital or doctor's office. Although Dr.  Knox purchased his first car in 1909, many of his calls for years following  were made on horseback, because the few roads were impossible for several  months of the year. Water travel, occasionally even by row-boat, was an  important method of transportation, as Dr. Knox gave service to the tiny  settlements on both sides of Okanagan Lake. Most of the deliveries took  place in the home until the 1920's. Knox's first, of some 5,380 maternity  cases, occurred soon after his arrival in 1903. The patient, 48 or 49 years old,  was lying in a bunk in one room of a small shack. Overhead was a loft that  held the beds of seven of the patient's previous children. The doctor's  assistant was the married daughter of the patient. Her child was in the  adjacent room, which was curtained off from the patient. Both rooms were  so small that, when the young doctor bent over his patient, the other half of  him was in the next room. The delivery proceeded uneventfully, but neither  Knox nor his mid wife had ever washed a newborn baby, so the young doctor  took charge and spent several minutes chasing child and water around a  basin.  Dentists were unheard of, so dental problems fell to the lot of the  doctor even though he had no training in their management. As Doctor Knox  commented many years later . . "There was a book for everything and that  is how I pulled my first tooth—by watching the book while I did it".  Many of the diseases that were extremely dangerous and often fatal in  the early years of the twentieth century are now only of minor annoyance. At  one time there were 13 infants lying unconscious in the Kelowna hospital, all  suffering from infantile diarrhea. A person under 20, who developed diabetes  prior to the mid 1920's, would invariably be dead in six months. 25 per cent of  the Kelowna school children had large goiters prior to Dr. Knox,s introduction of iodine supplements. Each spring and fall he visited the schools  with a little packet of 30 "Goiter Pills" for each child. Pernicious Anaemia  was truly pernicious prior to the discovery of the palliative effects of liver.  Death came slowly and was preceded by profound weakness and immobilizing neurological changes. Pneumonia was a revered and feared  affliction. Prior to the antibiotics, over 25 percent of its victims did not  survive. In 1927 Dr. Knox, who was then 50 years old, suffered a broken  femur when his car went off the road near Vernon. He subsequently  developed pneumonia. Although gravely ill for many days, his iron will and  strong constitution would not give in, and finally he recovered.  The Knox-Campbell partnership, which had apparently been a fruitful  pairing of two robust personalities, came abruptly to an end on December  16th, 1931, with Campbell's death, due to a heart attack at the age of 44.  Several doctors came to assist Knox, who was at the time president of the  British Columbia Medical Association. Dr. Kingsley Terry stayed for 18  months and then, like so many medical personnel during this period, was  stricken with tuberculosis. DR.WM. JOHN KNOX 15  Doctor Stanley Henderson, who was born in Chilliwack, followed Dr.  Terry. After graduating from McGill in 1926, Dr. Henderson had spent seven  years in post-graduate study of womens' and childrens' diseases at Montreal, Baltimore and New York. He returned to British Columbia in 1933,  with the intention of taking a position in a Vancouver hospital, but because of  the depression, the money for his salary was not available. Knox, who was in  Vancouver on B. C. Medical Association business, was introduced to Henderson and invited him to come to Kelowna for six months. After the six  months in Kelowna, Henderson was so entranced by the Okanagan that he  readily accepted Knox's invitation to join as full partner.  By the time the war was over, the demand for medical services had  increased markedly in Kelowna. Three more doctors had joined the Knox-  Henderson partnership by 1950: Dr. J. Hector Muir (Manitoba '44) and  George Athans (McGill '48) in general practice. Dr. Knox's associates had  turned full circle when one of his "own babies", Dr. K. Alan France (Queen's  '54) joined the group in 1955, Dr. Dorromce Bowers (Toronto '49), an internist, joined in 1957. Facilities in the downtown offices soon were no longer  adequate and in 1951 the new ultra-modern Knox Medical Clinic was opened.  Unfortunately, shortly afterwards, Dr. Henderson suffered a stroke and had  to retire from practice. Three more physicians, Dr. William S. Cave (McGill  '51) a general surgeon, Dr. Gerald N. Stewart U.B.C. '56) a general practitioner, and Dr. John S. Bennett (London, England'53) an obstetrician  and gynecologist, joined the clinic prior to Dr. Knox's retirement at the  end of 1963.  In the meanwhile hospital facilities in Kelowna had developed from a  small cottage hospital. Nurse Edgill, an English lass who had originally  come to Canada to take care of a sick relative in the Enderby area, opened  this hospital in 1906.  Kelowna was growing very rapidly during these early years, largely  from the stimulus of the infant fruit industry. In 1905 Kelowna was incorporated. In 1908 the first buildings on the present hospital site (12 acres of  land donated for the purpose by T. W. Sterling) were opened. They consisted  principally of the present hospital annex.  Even as late as 1917, major operations were occasionally undertaken  on the dining-room table in a home. One evening Dr. Knox made a call and  diagnosed a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. The patient was so gravely ill that  she could not be moved to hospital. Since ether was the only anesthetic agent  available, no gas lamps could be used. With Dr. Boyce administering the  anesthetic, and illumination provided by the headlamps of an automobile  shining through the window and by members of the family holding  flashlights, Dr. Knox successfully entered the abdomen and controlled the  bleeding.  The young doctor's wire when he flipped the coin that brought him  back to Kelowna in the spring of 1904, went to Miss Jean Dickson of Kingston,  Ontario. Miss Dickson, the daughter of a revenue collector with the Ontario  government, had also been a student at Queen's. Knox first noticed his  future bride walking about the campus with the son of a lawyer and soon  arranged an introduction. The young couple were married in Vancouver on  June 1, 1905. Four children were born: Audrey in 1906, Constance in 1909,  Robert in 1914, and William Jr. in 1918. 16 DR. WM. JOHN KNOX  For the first few years the family lived on Bernard Avenue right next  to the jail, but in 1912 they moved into the present family home on the edge of  Mill Creek. Life in the Knox home naturally revolved around medicine. The  family rarely had the opportunity of dining together for their evening meal.  What little rest the doctor would allow himself often came only at the in-  sistance of his wife. Mrs. Knox's kitchen was frequently used for minor  surgery. Pots were always on the big stove sterilizing instruments for lancing boils or stitching cuts.  All of the four Knox children attended university. The two girls attended the University of Toronto and subsequently married doctors:  Audrey, Dr. H. Boucher, at present an orthopedic surgeon in Vancouver;  and Constance, Dr. H. Atwood, a practitioner in Williams Lake. The boys  attended the University of British Columbia. Bob afterwards returning to  Kelowna to enter the real estate and insurance business, and Bill going on to  McGill and receiving his M.D. in 1943. After serving in the Canadian Army  Medical Corps, Bill accepted residency appointments in Montreal and New  York for post-graduate study in surgery. While in his final year of training he  suddenly became ill. Within a few short weeks, at the age of 32, he died of an  internal malignancy.  In January 1906 young Dr. Knox topped the polls in elections for  representatives to the School Board. He remained on the School Board until  1912 and served as its secretary until appointed medical inspector of schools  in 1909. In this capacity he offered a unique service, that undoubtedly improved the health of many of the children in the district, and also proved to  be a very successful method building a solid family practice. Any child who  required more extensive medical care and who had no private physician was  invited to come down to Dr. Knox's office between 10 and 11 o'clock,  Saturday mornings, for a "more private and particular examination—free  of cost". Dr. Knox's concern for his pupils was not limited solely to their  physical ailments. One of his former pupils recalls that "He would  mysteriously segregate the boys and girls into separate rooms and then  proceed to explain to each group all about the birds and bees". Initially Dr.  Knox handled both the rural and the city schools, but after the Health Unit  was established in 1928, he restricted his duties to the schools within the city.  Each year, for a total of 53 years, Dr. Knox presented the school board with a  report on the conditions of the schools and health of the school population.  His service to the school district was formally recognized in 1961 with the  opening of the Dr. Knox Junior-Senior High School. Over the entrance to the  school is a mural—The artist commented at the unveiling " . . each scene is  part of his life, that life undoubtedly part of the history of Kelowna".  Although consistently refusing pleas, even from McKenzie King, that  he should run for Parliament or the Legislature, Dr. Knox always retained  an active interest in politics. He headed Kelowna city, provincial and federal  riding associations, and for 11 years, from 1936 to 1947, was president of the  British Columbia Liberal Party association. Dr. Knox never allowed politics  to interfere with his professional life, as a longtime friend and former mayor,  somewhat jokingly commented ". . despite his political activities his friends  forgave him!" Dr. Knox was Liberal party president in 1941, when political  exigencies of the war and a minority government brought about a Liberal-  Conservative   coalition.   His    Irish   wit   and   renowned   abilities   as   a DR.WM. JOHN KNOX 17  peacemaker were evident in the party convention in 1947. Coalition was  becoming less popular with Liberals, and there was an attempt to put a time  limit of two years on the continuance of the partnership. There was quite a  bit of support for the motion, but Chairman Knox killed it with the comment  "That time limit just won't work. If you ever gave your wife notice that in  two years you were going to divorce her, you would be in for a hell of a  time!" The delegates laughed and only one lone vote was recorded for the  resolution.  Medical politics also attracted Dr. Knox's keen interest. He was instrumental in the forming of the first interior medical association; and in  1922, Knox was given the honour of being elected as its first president. In 1932  Dr. Knox served as president of the B.C. Medical Association. In 1935 he was  one of the Canadian representatives to a combined Canadian and American  Medical Association convention at Atlantic City.  Nineteen hundred and forty-six marked the first of many official  acknowledgement of Dr. Knox's "distinguished community service". The  above citation was made by Lord Alexander, the Governor General of  Canada in 1948, when he presented Dr. Knox with the Order of the British  Empire that King George had awarded two years earlier. His Alma Mater,  Queen's, expressed similar sentiments in 1951 when they awarded him the  degree of Doctor of Laws. In 1953, he was chosen the Good Citizen for  Kelowna and district. The city again paid tribute to "their doctor" in 1961  when he was made a Freeman of the City. Probably the most appropriate  acknowledgement came November 12th, 1963, just 60 years and three days  after Knox had disembarked from the S. S. Aberdeen to the high board  sidewalks of the tiny hamlet of Kelowna. On this date citizens of the city and  district, which now numbered almost 30,000 held a Testimonial banquet in  honour of their beloved Dr. Knox. Attending were many of the representatives of families in which Knox had delivered members for three  generations-grandmother mother and daughter. Tributes were made by  several of the doctor's longtime acquaintances including an old timer who  had been a poker mate of the young Knox when they both resided in the old  Lakeview Hotel in 1903; a School Board Representative whose family had  lived adjacent to the Knoxs'; and a pioneer city druggist and former Mayor  of Kelowna who had been filling Knox's illegible prescriptions since 1905.  There was even a letter from one of Knox's first patients, the same chap who  nearly 60 years earlier had been nursed back to health by the young M. D.,  after his skull had been crushed by a load of logs.  And thus this venerable M.D. became a legend in his own time. The  thousands who had been his patients over the years were invariably heartened by his jovial, bluff natures-He had been more than just a doctor to  them, or perhaps more correctly, he had been a true family physician,  concerned with their lives in love, work and play, as well as with their  sicknesses. This capacity to show interest and affection for others, which  was even recognized by his classmates at Queen's, seemed to stem from an  innate interest in people as people. This interest coupled with an amazing  memory for intimate details of family lives, and a personality which allowed  him to enjoy positions of leadership, proved to be an invaluable combination  for a young doctor in a growing community. These attributes at times made  for more than stiff competition for younger associates, who set up their 18 DR.WM. JOHN KNOX  practices along side of his. Yet, upon his retirement, all members of the  medical community joined in the following tribute:  "The Kelowna Medical Society has been honoured for many years by  your wise and active participation. The good fellowship to be found in  its company undoubtedly had its prime source in your gregarious  personality. The high ideals which it pursues almost certainly  originated in your sound principles. You have been a jewel in the  diadem of Kelowna Medical Society for more than 60 years.  When you came to Kelowna in 1903 you challenged yourself to prove  that a young man with industry, courage and integrity could carve a  lofty reputation for himself not only in his own small medical community but also in the medical fraternity of his Province and his  country. The tributes which we have read from district dignatories  show how successfully you met your challenge. More important to us  however is the fact that through the years you have mightily refuted  the old adage that a prophet is without honour in his own land. Those  of us who have had the privilege of seeing you at close hand in your  own bailiwick facing the every day and every night trials of a hectic  medical practice, have also developed a never ending admiration and  respect for you."  A)  Newspapers:  1. Kelowna Courier; January 1940.  "In our Spotlight—Dr. William John Knox"  2. Kelowna Daily Courier; November 13, 1963.  3. Kelowna Daily Courier;  Dec. 19, 1964, Jan. 16, 1965, Mar. 27, 1965.  4. Vancouver Daily Province; December 22, 1931.  5. Vancouver Sun; March 31, 1961.  B) Tape Recordings:  1. Browne, Mrs. J.;—Interview with Dr. Knox in 1958 for the program  "Old Timers" on C.K.O.V.  2. Herbert,   William;—Interview  with   Dr.   Knox   for  the   program  "Assignment" for C.B.C, October 9, 1963.  C) Publications:  Canadian Doctor—March 1962-p. 29  "Custom Tailored Clinic Building"  D) Personal Communication:  1. Boucher, Mrs. H. E.; 6025 Angus Drive, Vancouver, B.C.  2. Bowers, D., M. D.; 1605 Glenmore Street, Kelowna, B.C.  3. Bull, Capt. C. R.; Okanagan Mission, Kelowna, B.C.  4. Clarke, A.D., M.D.; South Okanagan Health Unit, Kelowna, B.C.  5. Grigg, Miss W'; 2212 Pandosy Street, Kelowna, B.C.  6. Hamilton, J. J.; Secretary-Treasurer, Queen's Alumni Association,  Kingston, Ontario.  7. Haug, Mrs. E.; 1746 Water Street, Kelowna, B.C.  8. Kearney, Mrs. W.; (nee Knox), 1855 Pandosy Street, Kelowna, B.C.  9. Knox, W. J., M. D.; 1885 Pandosy Street, Kelowna, B.C.  10. Pannell, W. L., M.  D.; Queen's '03;  144 Harrison Street,  East  Orange, N. J.  11. Underhill, A. S.,M. D.; 1635 Abbott Street, Kelowna, B.C. 19  THE REASON  By Marguerite E. Hodgson  My parents and I stood in front of our house on the shore of Okanagan  Lake and watched an old Indian couple approach in their dug-out canoe.  Their paddles cut the sparkling water, sure and clean, even as their ancestors had done generations ago.  The early morning sun outlined the old lady hunched over in the canoe  as the old man ground it ashore. Her soft brown eyes glowed a silent greeting  as she followed her man out of the boat. The Indian grunted as he heaved the  canoe, with my father's help, onto the beach. Then he straightened, proud as  a chief, his face lined and brown like old leather.  My parents wise in the ways of Indians, waited silently for their first  soft-spoken greeting, 'How 're yu?' They were our old friends. They stepped  forward and solemnly shook hands with all three of us, then presented father  with a huge fresh-caught fish. After admiring this gift, my parents led the  way into the house. The Indians carefully seated themselves-their faces  inscrutable. The immobile lines in these ancient faces showed the patience  and struggles of their race and masked the inner knowledge that was their  heritage.  The old lady motioned to me and reaching into her beaded buckskin  bag presented me with the daintiest pair of moccasins! A slow smile crossed  her withered face at my childish joy as I slipped them on and danced around  admiring the colorful beaded embroidery. Her eyes showed her pleasure in  our praise and thanks. Very little was said except a few soft-grunted replies  to my parents' questions about their well-being since they had last met.  Mother prepared lunch which they accepted politely. Tea was the highlight  of the meal. There was brief conversation about a probable good summer, a  late fall and a long cold winter.  Then knowing their ways, mother and I set about our household tasks,  mindful of their watching and occasional soft murmur ings in their own  language. The scent of smoked buckskin had spread throughout our little  house. It was a haunting scent that can never be forgotten-even as I can  never forget that old couple.  We knew that there was something they wanted us to do that day, but  only when they were ready to tell us. The sun was settling at the west end of  the Lake when our friends, conversing softly to one another, began to stir as  though to leave. Father came in from his outside work. Mother started to  prepare supper. The old Indian stood up, with his woman beside him and  very carefully made the solemn statement for which they had come. 'Please  would you order some blankets for us from the Big Book?'  At last we had learned the reason for their visit! Mother sat down and  opened the big mail order catalogue. 20  CHIEF JACKALEC  On left, young Jack Alec, later Chief of the Penticton Indian Band.  Courtesy Mrs. Pierre Louis 21  Chief Jack Alec of the Penticton Indian Band.  Photo by Eric D. Sismey  CHIEF JACK ALEC  By Eric D. Sismey  Chief Jack Alec of the Penticton Band died on Wednesday, September 3, in  the Penticton Hospital. Chief Jack was born on the local reserve and had  spent most of his life there. He attended school at Kamloops.  Chief Alec was well thought of in Penticton. He was ready at all times to cooperate with city leaders. The 68 year old leader guided the band for the lasL  17 years. During recent years Alec worked closely with Reverend Ron.  Blackquiere, the band's priest and councillor. As a result of their efforts the  Indian village is served with electricity, telephone, piped water and City fire  protection. And a salmonbarbeque, now a yearly event, attracts thousands  of guests.  Chief Jack Alec and Mayor Stuart represented Penticton at  ceremonies welcoming Canada's newest submarine, the HMCS Okanagan,  when she was commissioned at Halifax. 22  Lillian   Armstrong   with   drum   (puh-meen)   accompanying   her   daughter  Jeanette (Lacht-lacht-te-ge, Music-of-flowing-water) singing the wicked owl  (Ska-loO-la). Photo by Eric D. Sismey  INTEGRATION  By Jeanette Armstrong  Beneath the pressure  Of ever increasing white  Still a few cling  Now bleak and naked.  Soon, soon among  The white they fall  And mingle  Gone  Gone forever  Golden red leaves 23  PIERRE  LOUIS, OKANAGAN CHIEF  By Mrs. Ben Louis and D. A. Ross  A gentle outstanding Canadian, former Chief Pierre Louis, died on  March 11, 1968, in his 86th year. He was born near Oliver B. C. shortly after  his parents had left Colville Washington. His mother had been born in what is  now Poison Park of Vernon.  Pierre en joyed a happy youth in the Okanagan, mostly near Oliver and  in the Vernon area. His daughter-in-law Mrs. Ben Louis recorded the  following: "He was about 15 years old when his father died. He worked after  that for five dollars a month feeding cattle, pigs, milking cows and gardening. He attended Mission Reserve School, and a day school at Oroville,  and later,classes in the tiny log school at the Head-of-the-lake under Father  LeJeune."  He met Catherine of the South Okanagan, and married her June 9,  1905. They made their home at the Number one Reserve".  Pierre Louis was a cowhand for the Coldstream Ranch before the first  World War. In the year 1917 he worked on the Westside Road near Nahun  with horses, pick and shovel. In 1922 he helped build the school at Six Mile  Creek. He was pole cutter and rancher, and took part in rodeos. He did most  of the veterinary work on his own animals."  Pierre Louis was Chief of Okanagan Indian Reserve Number 1, and of  Number 2 (Westbank), also of Duck Lake at Winfield, for 29 years. He was  responsible for bringing irrigation to the Head-of-the-Lake in the year of 1934  and did the same for the Hedley and Oliver reserves. Pierre Louis and the  late George Gottfriedson rode and worked with the construction horses. He  also was responsible for the Hydro development around the Head-of-the-  Lake. He had the waterrights recorded for Pinaus Lake, Shannon Lake  (Westbank), and the Oliver Reserve."  In 1936 he received a special medal from King George V, for outstanding services to his people. He was awarded another medal in 1953 from  Elizabeth 11 at which time he and his wife were presented to the Queen. He  received a Canada Centennial medalion in 1967."  A bust of Pierre Louis, sculpted by Miss M. Sychuis, was  ceremoniously given to the City of Vernon Museum and Archives in 1960."  In later life his hobbies were lacing and braiding leather, and telling  his grandchildren Indian Legends."       »■•"  Surviving are: his wife Catherine, four sons, six daughters, 73 grandchildren and 71 great grandchildren."  Pierre Louis was descended from the blood line of Indian Chiefs of the  Okanagans and had accumulated a vast knowledge of Indian tales and of  Indian ways in the early days. Unfortunately only fragments of this  knowledge, passed on by the old chief, were briefly recorded for the files of  the Vernon Museum and Archives. 24  THE PROBABLE ORIGIN OF  "THE RAILWAY"  ByC. C. Kelley  "The Mission is connected with Kamloops by a good wagon road,  which, however, does not follow the shore of Okanagan Lake, but a parallel  valley lying a few miles east of it, occupied by smaller lakes. The first or  southern lake (almost a mile in length), is called Duck Lake. The second,  generally known as Long Lake, is 13V2 miles in total length, but is almost  completely divided four miles from its southern end by a very narrow  transverse strip (of low land) known as "the Railway". This is supported in  the centre by a little rock mass. The southern portion of Long Lake is  separately distinguished as Primewash Lake on Trutch's map."*  It is evident that the land area between Long (Kalamalka) and Wood  lakes exists because of two comparatively low ridges of bedrock separated  in part on the Long Lake side by bays. When a south-moving glacier cleared  out to bedrock the valley bottom now occupied by Long Lake, it had to climb  over these rock ridges on its way south. In doing so a large amount of fine  material, dredged from the Long Lake bottom area, and carried on the sole  of the glacier, was dropped just south of the north ends of the rock ridges.  This took the shape of two drumlin-like masses, the larger being the eastern  one, now largely in orchards.  At a late stage of deglaciation the depressions of Long and Wood lakes  were probably ice-filled to an elevation 200 feet or more above the present  lake surfaces. This ice was ponded, and on the bottoms of these temporary  lakes there was deposition of varved clay, which was also stratified. These  bottom deposits on underlying ice preserved the ice during the time of  maximum erosion, before vegetation became established. Thus in effect, the  lake basins were like large kettles. As the ice in the lake bottoms melted, the  clay settled and the present lake basins were formed. About half of the land  area between the two lakes is surfaced by remnant masses of this stratified  clay.  When the lakes achieved their present elevations, the drainage from  Wood into Long Lake was probably on the east side of the larger drumlin-  shaped mass. This channel is still swamped, partly as a result of being  pinched at the north end by the fan of Oyama Creek. There could have been  some damming by beavers in this channel, if willows, cottonwood and aspen  were abundant nearby. The lakes are now kept in balance by a channel cut  between them when the C. N. R. was built around 1925.  'ĢPreliminary Report on the Physical and Geological Features of the Southern Portion  of the Interior of British Columbia, G. M. Dawson, Geological Survey of Canada, Report  of Progress; 1877-78. (See O.H.S. 6:90-93). 25  JOSEPH  B. WEEKS OF  OKANAGAN  LAKE (1877-1969)  By Eric D. Sismey  The passing of Captain Joseph B. Weeks on February 23, 1969, closed  the book on sternwheel steamboating on Okanagan Lake.  Joe Weeks, born on October 1,1877, was 15 when his father tiring of the  drapery trade, sold their possessions in 1893, in Shrewsbury, England, sailed  from Liverpool on the Allan liner S. S. Parisian, to settle on 14 acres of land  now inside Vernon city limits. For the first year or two young Joe did odd  jobs, among them helping his father build their home from logs cut on their  land. In 1895, or 1896, Joe was never quite sure, he, with two companions,  undertook development work on mineral claims in the hills behind Camp  Hewett—it is Peachland now.  Soon after leaving Okanagan Landing aboard the 55 foot S. S. Fair-  view, a wood-burning sternwheeler, the Canadian Pacific sternwheel S. S.  Aberdeen, her white paint glistening, swept by, her whistle sounding a  scornful toot. There and then Joe Weeks decided that he would apply for a  job on this beautiful ship as soon as his obligations were fulfilled.  When Joseph B. Weeks crossed the gangplank of the S. S. Aberdeen on  October 7, 1897, decked out in new overalls and carrying a bedroll, little did  he dream that he would follow steamboating for the rest of his working life  and that before many years had passed he would captain sternwheelers.  When retirement came he would have logged around two million miles.  In no time Joe Weeks learned that deckhanding was just another name  for hard work and long hours. Loading wood was a rough job—10 cords for  each round trip. In 1897, mail, passengers, and freight were carried not only  to booming settlements along the Lake, but for trans-shipment to the rich  mining camps of the Boundary. Settlers effects came by rail in carload lots;  farm machinery and merchandise were often piled on the deck above, and  sometimes loose grain was shovelled in the spaces between. Often deckhand  Joe walked the guards to get from one end of the ship to the other.  While his shipmates fooled spare time away Joe studied ship lore,  cargo stowage and the elements of navigation, encouraged by his skipper,  Captain George Ludlow Estabrooks.  Early in 1899, Joe Weeks passed examinations in Victoria where he  was granted a Mate's certificate covering operation of steamships on all  rivers and lakes in Canada, except the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence  River.  Soon after receiving his ticket Joe Weeks was transferred in October  1899 to Slocan Lake as mate of the S. S. Slocan. In 1899 the Silvery Slocan of  promotors was nearing its peak of mineral productivity. Rich galenas  from mines at Sandon, New Denver,!Silverton and Enterprise were being  shipped to Trail. Joe remembers sacks of silver concentrates, no larger  than 49 pound sacks of flour, but as much as a man could lift, each worth  more than his month's pay. And it was almost a daily task to supervise and  tally   the   loading   of   concentrates worth a king's ransom. 26  JOSEPH B. WEEKS  In 1902, Joe Weeks served for a short time as mate on the passenger  sternwheel, S. S. Moyie, on Kootenay Lake, before returning to the  Okanagan where he was posted mate on the S. S. Aberdeen.  He found the Okanagan undergoing great change: the 30,000 acre Tom  Ellis cattle ranch stretched from Penticton to the International border; the  large mixed farms at Kelowna and Vernon were being subdivided into  smaller holdings; townsites were being staked, and orchards planted; and J.  M. Robinson was developing Peachland, Summerland and Naramata.  In 1904, Joe Weeks was examined for a Master's Certificate at  Arrowhead. Soon after receiving his "ticket" Captain Joseph B. Weeks was  given command of the S. S. York. The S. S. York, built in Toronto for the  Canadian Pacific, was 88 feet long with a 16 foot beam and a draft of less  than five feet. Her twin screws operating in a tunnel allowed her to go almost  anywhere as long as she did not drag along the bottom. She was of unusual  design being built in sections that could be taken apart without disturbing  engines and boiler. She was a general purpose ship, doing everything from  towing log booms, pushing barges, breaking winter ice, general freight  service, carrying picnic parties on special charter and relieving the Aberdeen when she was laid up for overhaul.  Captain Weeks as skipper of the York saw every phase of lake service.  While breaking ice was a cold miserable job, picnic parties of men and  women in summer finery laden with baskets of goodies were always a  delight. Not long ago Captain Weeks met one of his former picnic  passengers. "Do you remember a picnic party to Peachland many years  ago" she asked. "Yes,! dear lady, he replied. And I remember your cherry  pie too!".  The year 1907 Captain Weeks was promoted to skipper his first love,  the S. S. Aberdeen. Ten years before he had boarded her dressed in overalls:  Now, 10 years later, he crossed the gang plank as captain with gold braid on  S.S. Aberdeen, Captain Week's ship.  Vernon Museum and Archives JOSEPH B. WEEKS  27  Captain Joe donned his old uniform at my request. December, 1964.  Photo by Eric D. Sismey  the sleeves of his jacket and around the peak of his cap. For the next five  years Captain Weeks commanded the S. S. Aberdeen until, racked by 20  years of hard work, she was retired in 1913 and Captain Weeks was transferred to car barge service on Okanagan Lake. At one time or another, he  was captain on the tugs Castlegar, Kelowna and Naramata and sometimes  the York.  "I shall never forget Christmas Day, 1915", Captain Weeks remarked  when I called on him Christmas morning a few years ago. "The York left  Okanagan Landing about 10 o'clock in the morning with a carload of high  strength dynamite for the Giant powder agent in Penticton. There was a  fresh breeze blowing when we sailed, but by the time we reached Squally  Point the wind had freshened to a full gale. Rounding the point exposed to the  full sweep of the 15 mile reach from Penticton we met waves six feet high.  Even on 'slow bell' we made heavy weather until one wave, larger than  most, swept over our bow 'green' and . . . stove in the forward door of the  main deckhouse." "It was not very comfortable," Captain Weeks chuckled, 28 JOSEPH B. WEEKS  "to feel boxes of high test dynamite sloshing about our feet."  In 1922, Captain Joseph B. Weeks was promoted to command the 200  foot, 17 knot, S. S. Sicamous, the last word in sternwheel ships. She was  elegant and luxurious from her stem to the 24 foot paddle at her stern.  By the early 1930s passenger traffic had declined to such a degree that  this service was discontinued on January 5, 1935, and the Sicamous was  relegated to freighting during the soft fruit season. When this did not prove  economical the erstwhile Queen of Okanagan Lake was retired, and berthed  at Okanagan Landing until purchased by the City of Penticton as a beach  attraction.  After the Sicamous was withdrawn from service Captain Weeks  returned to pilot the tugboat Naramata pushing car-laden barges between  Penticton and way points north until he retired on October 1, 1942, after 45  years on inland waters.  At his home in Penticton where Captain Joe lived since 1926 he was  never far from reminders of his old life. His living room was decorated with  pictures of the ships he had commanded; a model of the S. S. Aberdeen,  tables, reading lamps and a clock, centred in a 12 inch model ship's wheel  which he had fashioned from wood taken from the top deck of the Sicamous.  A large silver cup refreshed his memory of a regatta at Naramata, on June  23, 1910, when he and his crew from the S. S. Aberdeen defeated crews from  the S. S. Okanagan and S. S. York in a lifeboat race. The contest was not  without amusing incident. Confusion in handling the "falls" on one of the  other ships dropped one end of one of the fifeboats, ducking the crew in the  lake.  Joseph B. Weeks looked back with great satisfaction to the part he had  played in changing the Okanagan Valley from sage brush barrens into the  fruit basket of Canada and he enjoyed talking about it. "It is refreshing, he  declared one day, to see so much that I recognize and remember—brought to  lakeside points by my old ship S. S. Aberdeen." "I like to go around the  benches when the orchards are cloaked in blossom, and again when branches bend with their load of sun-blushed fruit, knowing that many of these  trees had grown from the bundles of nursery stock that I once checked  ashore. While I was mate of the Aberdeen, it was my duty to tally the first  fruits from young Okanagan orchards billed to outside markets. And 35  years later, on my last trip north, to have captained the S. S. Naramata,  pushing a barge from Penticton to Kelowna laden with 'reefer' cars of red-  cheeked Okanagan apples. Then, too, are memories of the men I knew and  respected; my first skipper, Captain Estabrooks, whose sterling qualities  and friendly disposition are cherished by all who had the good fortune to  have known him. "My passengers, Tom Ellis, Frank Ritchter, Charles  Lambly, Father Cornelier, Dick Cawston, Reverend Irwin (Father Pat)  and many others whose experiences reached back into the 1860s. They were  pathfinders, every one."  Ninety-two year old Captain Joe, was much more than a steamship  captain to his large circle of friends. He enjoyed visitors, he enjoyed conversation and if you played cribbage with him you were certain to meet  defeat.  The Okanagan Historical Society was dear to his heart. He was its JOSEPH B. WEEKS  29  second president taking office after Leonard Norris and piloted the Society  through the difficult period 1941-1948. Captain Weeks contributed to the  annual reports of the Society beginning in 1930. He served the Penticton  branch as president, treasurer and for many years as a director. Joseph B.  Weeks was elected Honorary President of the Society in 1963 and was  awarded life membership that same year. More recently when the weight of  years began to tell he insisted that the meetings of the Penticton executive  be held in his house. On January 30, when we left his home at the close of an  executive meeting little did we dream we were shaking the hand of our dear  friend for the last time.  On April 17, Captain S. Podnoroff and his crew stood in silence along  the stern rail of the diesel tug Okanagan as she sailed past Squally Point  while Jack Petley, local Assistant Superintendent, scattered Captain Joe's  ashes on the bosom of the Lake he knew and loved so well. That was the way  Captain Joseph B. Weeks wanted it.  32 STEAMBOAT WHARVES ON  OKANAGAN  LAKE  By J. D. Whitham  List compiled by J. D. Whitham, assisted by Capt. J. B. Weeks who  ran C.P.R. Boats on Okanagan Lake from 1897 to Oct. 1st, 1942 when he  retired on pension.  EAST SHORE  Okanagan Landing  Carr's Landing  Rainbow  Okanagan Centre  McKinley's  A. B. Knox's  Kelowna  Priest's  Okanagan Mission  Mitchell's (Crichton)  Paradise Ranch (Pine Creek)  Naramata  SOUTH END OF LAKE  Penticton*  WEST SHORE  Trout Cr. (GartreU's)  Summerland (Barclay's)  Greata Ranch (Camp Helena)  Camp Hewitt  Peachland (Lambly's)  Trepanier  Gellatly's  Westbank (Hall's)  Bear Creek  Wilson's Landing (Stuckey's)  Reid's  Caesar's  Nahun  O'Neil's  Fintry (Short's Point)  Bruce's  Ewing's (Morden's)  Killiney  Whiteman's Cr.  *Penticton Wharf—Pre-World War I on cover of this report. 30 31  ENDERBY AND DISTRICT:  FROM WILDERNESS TO  1914  By Beryl Wamboldt  Geologists tell us that the Glaciation which ended about 10,000 years  ago probably covered the Okanagan Valley completely. It is thought that a  layer of ice, 7,000 feet deep, chiselled out our north-south valleys to smoothed  outtroughs. As the ice-sheet melted, rivers and streams were left, and these  waters, much larger than our water courses of today, helped to clear the  valleys of the glacial debris as they washed their way to the sea.  It is thought by those who make a study of such things, that the chain  of Okanagan lakes, and Sugar and Mabel lakes are the result of glacial  action. As the ice melted, large ice-lobes remained and melting ice-water cut  channels to bypass the ice-lobes. As the ice lobes melted lower and lower,  channels were followed until it became the terrain we know today, with its  terraces or benches. In some places ice-lobes formed giant deep depressions  into valley bottoms that became filled with water as the ice melted away,  leaving us the rivers and lakes for which the Okanagan is famous.  Enderby is at the North end of the Okanagan Trench which reaches its  maximum width of eight miles near Armstrong.  It is believed by geologists that during the end of the last glacial period  water from the Shuswap River flowed southward but when the main valley  bottom became blocked by sediments, carried by Fortune Creek, drainage  diverted northwards. The accumulation of black soils and clay loam made  the District of Enderby a good agricultural area.  British Columbia, with its giant virgin forests and dense underbrush  must have seemed formidable to the first explorers but there were river  valleys and lighter-treed areas and the large inland plateaus—150 miles of  dry, high country between the Rocky Mountains and the Coast Range. Here  lay acres of open grass land, and land lightly treed with deciduous trees,  interspersed with a chain of lakes, rivers and streams. This then was our  area before the white man came from his European home. As the Europeans  came to North America and traversed the land from sea to sea, they found  the native Indian well established throughout the length and breadth of the  land; not all spoke the same tongue.  Dr. Diamond Jenness, an authority on Indian languages claims 11  languages and 40 dialects existed among the natives in Canada during the  days of the fur-traders and explorers. Of these 11, six were used in British  Columbia alone. The two largest linguistic groups dwelling in British  Columbia are the Denes and the Salish; within both are many dialects. The  Salish, residing between the Alberta-British Columbia border and south of  Knight and Bute Inlet on the Coast speak in a dialect remotely resembling  the Algonquin tongue.  The Salish group is divided into two major groups the Coast Salish and  the Interior Salish and each became composed of several smaller divisions.  The Shuswaps of the Eastern Interior, the Lillooet of the Lillooet area, the  Thompsons, and our own Okanagan,extending from just north of the U. S.  border, between the Columbia and the Fraser Rivers. Although fish was the 32 ENDERBY ANDDISTRICT  primary food of the Interior Salish, too, once the lakes and streams froze  over, they, of necessity had to turn to hunting game for both food and  clothing. While the Coast Salish could depend on the sea for a permanent  food supply and thus could establish permanent homes for shelter, the Interior Salish were forced by Nature to become more nomadic and although  settlements were established in the Interior, the search for food often caused  them to set up quarters, often subterranean, wherever the cold of winter  found them.  How long the settlement of Indians has been at Enderby is unknown,  but A. L. Fortune recorded that when he and his two companions camped on  the banks of the Shuswap River in June, 1866 they saw no sign of habitation  until the third day. Then they were visited by a group living nearby.  Although it is thought likely they were the first whites this band of Indians  had seen, they were very friendly toward the three men.  Mr. and Mrs. Dan Joe were both born on the Enderby Indian lands  over 80 years ago, around the time the town was being surveyed by the  Government, approximately 1884. How long before that their parents had  lived there is undetermined. Chief Hulla, a Grandfather of Adrian Alexander  is remembered by pioneer residents as the Chief of quite a large band of  Indians near Enderby in the early 1890s. Alex Jones and his brother Fred,  were born near Enderby in 1890 and 1898 respectively.  It was June 14th, 1866, that Alexander Leslie Fortune, with John  Malcolm and Thomas Dunn paddled a canoe up the Spallumcheen River and  camped on the bank where Mr. Fortune later developed beautiful "Riverside Farm."  The Spallumcheen River, now known as the "Shuswap" winds its way  through Enderby, Grindrod and Mara, flowing into Mara Lake on its way to  lose itself in Shuswap Lake and eventually the Pacific Ocean. There are  two interpretations of the Indian word Spallumcheen, one is that it means a  meeting of the waters, and near Armstrong we have the geographical  division point where the waters divide; the other interpretation is "a flat rim  or edge." Either could fit the locale nicely as the Spallumcheen Valley  stretches out in a wide flat valley, rolling up in ledges to the west.  Records in the Provincial Archives tell us that, the first day, the men  spent fighting a small fire they had started as a smudge to keep off the  mosquitoes, and it had gotten away. It is thought, by Mr. Fortune the fire  may havbe been the reason Indians living in the same area did not visit their  campfire until the third day.  During the autumn of 1866 the first trees were cut down to clear the  land and on May 6th, 1867, the first sod was turned by Mr. Fortune when he  began his spring ploughing. The closest white neighbors were the Vernon  brothers, Forbes George, and Charles, and C. F. Houghton, who had come to  the mines at Cherry Creek and remained to pre-empt land at the present-day  city of Vernon.  During 1876 Robert Lambly pre-empted what is today the site of the  city of Enderby, after walking into the Valley over the Dewdney Trail from  Hope. The following year his brother, Thomas, sold his book store in New  Westminster and joined him.  Thomas Lambly was soon appointed Assistant Commissioner of Lands  and Works for the Okanagan Polling Division. The year of 1878 the Lambly ENDERBY ANDDISTRICT 33  Brothers built a large freight shed on the river bank: part of the building was  made into an office for Thomas. Robert Lambly wrote in the 6th (1935)  Okanagan Historical Society Report, that the lumber for the freight shed  was brought from Kamloops by boat, but the shingles were made nearby.  Upon the completion of the Cariboo Road in 1860, a roadway extended  from Cache Creek to Savona Ferry, where an Italian named Savona  operated the ferry at the west end of Kamloops Lake. Here for many years a  steamboat began its run from Savona to Fort Kamloops. Later this was  extended up the Thompson River to Shuswap Lake and to Sicamous, then  called Perry's Landing. From there boats travelled up Shuswap River to  Steamboat Landing, as the Indians called it, or Lambly's landing. A wagon  road was built from Lambly's Landing, later to connect with the Kamloops  Wagon Road at the O'Keefe Ranch.  On February 15, 1881, David Lloyd Jones, William Postill and Robert  Lambly completed the first frame house in Enderby for the Robert Lambly  family. The Lambly home is thought to have been about where the Dew Drop  Inn is situated today, and the barn about where the Bank of Montreal stands.  A livery stable operated here prior to the erection of the first Bank of  Montreal building. By 1884 Thomas Lambly had been appointed Chief  License Inspector for Yale and his former position had been taken over by  Walter Dewdney. The Government Agency was situated in Enderby first  and moved to Vernon later.  On the 14th of February, 1885, 14 acres, known as lot 149 of the  Government Reserve at Enderby was subdivided and the lots offered for  sale at auction by Mr. Walter Dewdney. This followed surveys by Government crews, who had named the newly surveyed site Belvidere. At the  auction all the lots but one were purchased by Robert and Thomas Lambly;  it was purchased by their brother-in-law, Alfred Postill. There were 20 lots in  all; each was seven tenths of an acre and sold for $70.  In 1885, following completion of the C.P.R. main line, construction of a  wagon road was begun along the east side of Mara Lake from Sicamous to  Enderby.That same year a store was built near the river bank on Lot 4, by H.  F. Keefer, a sub-contractor during the building of the C.P.R. The store was  sold to Oliver Harvey and W. B. Bailey. This building later was the Poison  Mercanfile Store, the Enderby Grower's Exchange, E. H. Coulter, and  finally Jim Boot's, when it unfortunately burned to the ground in 1966. This1  was the second Harvey store, the first being over by the mill yard.  A large grist mill known as the Columbia Flouring Mills was built in  1887 by G. R. Lawes and G. H. Rashdale at Enderby. It was built in two  sections, five stories high. An "ad" in the first Vernon News advertised  "Premier" and "3 Star" brands, with the slogan "The Pioneer Rolling Mill  of the Province." This mill was re-organized in 1903, still called the  Columbia Flouring Mills, under F. V. Moffat. The building now owned by  Noca Dairy was the Moffat home. According to the late Fred Barnes, this  mill had the distinction of shipping the first Canadian flour to the Orient.  Forty sacks, marked "J3, Kobi, Japan" were shipped on January 28th, 1904.  This flour mill finally ceased operation on May 31,1923.  The Enderby Ladies Literary Society met regularly and read popular  essays and poems aloud. At oneof the meetings the ladies heard the poem by  Jean Ingelow "High Tide on the Coast of Lincolnshire" telling the story of 34 ENDERBY AND DISTRICT  the brides of the little town of Enderby. Mrs. F. Lawes suggested "Why not  call our town Enderby?" On the 1st day of November, 1887 the Enderby Post  Office became official with Oliver Harvey as Postmaster, and irremained in  the Harvey family until taken over by Enderby-born Pat Farmer on the 16th  of July 1947.  The first issue of the "Vernon News" published in May 1891 carried a  column of Enderby news. Contractors Patterson and Larkin and Co. were  busy building a 280 foot wooden bridge across the river at Enderby and the  town was preparing for the arrival of the first train on the new Valley line  from Sicamous. This momentous occasion took place at 4 P.M. on May 23rd,  1891. The locomotive chugged into Enderby, greeted by a loud whistle of  welcome from the engine of the Columbia Flouring Mills and loud cheers  from the citizens, gathered along the newly laid tracks. A loud blast from the  train whistle answered a tumultuous welcome. Several ladies from  Sicamous Junction had ventured to make the journey by thefirsttrain all the  way to Enderby and they were entertained royally by Webb Wright,  proprietor of the Enderby Hotel.  On the following day, Queen Victoria's birthday, the town celebrated  with sports and races. Enderby Baseball Team was beaten badly by Vernon  but Enderby evened it by taking the "Tug of War" captained by T. W.  Fletcher.  The baseball line-up may bring back memories for Enderby pioneers:  Watson—pitcher Bailey—3rd base  Gardner—1st base G.A.Smith—field  Sm ith—2nd base Box—1. field and catcher  Bell—1. field Knight—catcher and c. field  McBain—shortstop  The Ball scheduled for that evening had to be cancelled due to the  intense heat.  I would be remiss not to mention the steamer "Red Star" that had  plied the river under Captain Cummings for the Columbia Flouring Mills.  Many of our earliest citizens came up the river by this boat. Mrs. Edgar  Emeny told me that a part of the Emeny farm just north of Enderby is still  known as "the Scow" where the wood was taken after being cut for the Red  Star and where she pulled in to take on the cord wood fuel. Later when the  boat no longer plied the River, the Railroad, with its wood-burning engines  ran through the Emeny's farm, and that family contracted to supply cord  wood for the railway also.  Some of the business enterprises of Enderby in 1891 were: H. W.  Knight and Co. operating a Pork Packing Establishment; Rashdale and  Costerton, Real Estate; McArthur, Stevenson and McArthur, General  Merchants; Wright and Lawrence Livery Stable, accommodation and  stageline to boats and trains; Oliver Harvey, General Merchant; Columbia  Flouring Mills with Sam Gibbs, Manager; F. B. Jacques, Jeweller; and Miss  M. Fraser dressmaker for the Enderby ladies.  During May 1891 a site was selected for the Church of England and  building was commenced in June. The Rev. J. M. Turner held the first  protestant service in the North Okanagan at the Fortune home in 1874; attending were Moses Lumby, Herman Witcher and Mr. Matheson.  In 1891 Mrs. Hassard, and her son William, purchased the Harland ENDERBY ANDDISTRICT 35  place. Mrs. Hassard was the mother of Frank and grandmother of the  members of the Frank Hassard family of 17 children, who also are now  married, and have grand children throughout the Okanagan Valley.  Mr. and Mrs. Fortune, (Mrs. Fortune joined her husband in 1871), had  lived near Enderby for 20 years when on June 11th, 1891, the townspeople  gave them a touching farewell as they boarded the train for Sicamous  Junction to transfer to the Transcontinental for their first well-earned  holiday.  Nicholles and Renouff, of Victoria, appointed C. F. Costerton the agent  for their line of farm implements and hardware, which he kept in his  warehouse at Enderby, in 1893. S. Bowell was a contractor and Noah Kenny,  who had been sent out by an Ontario firm to build the flour mill, had  remained to make his home in Enderby and do carpentry work.  In the Spring of 1893 William Hutchison, who had established a  blacksmith shop in Enderby at an earlier date, enlarged his shop and built a  rustic covered square front on the building. It was located where the  Government Liquor store is today and the Hutchison home was opposite the  shop where Lundaman's Hardware now stands. The same spring Webb  Wright greatly enlarged his hotel along Cliff Street on the corner now the site  of the Provincial Forestry building. The new hotel was completely refurnished, containing, sample rooms for the travelling salesmen to display  their goods, as well as clean comfortable rooms for the travelling public. hl\r.  Webb Wright is remembered as a large, sturdily built man and Mrs. Webb  for her abilities in nursing the sick people of the district. She was not a  professional nurse but was endowed with the spirit of a good woman and was  a kind neighbor to all who needed nursing.  The summer of 1893 saw the completion and dedication of Enderby's  first Methodist Church by Rev. Betts of Kamloops. The Rev. J. E. Rosoman  had brought his family from England to join a son who had been living at  Mara. They were accompanied by Mr. and Mrs. Stroulger and family. The  Stroulgers took a ranch just north of the Appleby and Eaves farm at that  time. The Mara Post Office was also established during 1893 with S. Appleby  the postmaster until 1896 when it was taken over by Mrs. Mary Rosoman.  Mara residents began appealing to the Provincial Government in 1893 for a  bridge across the River.  In Enderby July 1st was celebrated by holding a Community Basket  Picnic at the Fortune Ranch.  The photographer, Chas. W. Holiday was visiting friends in and  around Enderby.  Fifty acres of land were being cleared for the Lambly Brothers by  Messrs. Fenton and Logan, who had contracted to do the work. They used,  for the first time in Enderby, a new-fangled machine called a stumping  machine that not only took out stumps, but dislodged whole trees.  Enderby's Gun Club had a large membership and the Racing track  situated in the vicinity of Malpass—today, had been successful in bringing  some very good racing stock to Enderby.  In 1894 Frank Hassard became the area's Road Foreman and some of  the names on the 1894 Provincial Electoral list were: Bacon, R. Bailey, G.  Bell, J. Bell, Alexander Campbell, John M. Campbell, T. W. Fletcher, H.  Greyell, 0. Harvey, W. Hutchison, Edwin Jones, Wm. Jones, Noah Kenny, 36 ENDERBY ANDDISTRICT  R. Lambly, Geo. Lawes, Wm. Long, Duncan McCallum, D. M. Mclntyre,  N. McLeod, and G. Taylor. And for Deep Creek it listed Alexander Grant,  Robert Gibb, and Henry Hill.  The Bell Trading Company operated a store in Enderby where  Reimer's large store is today. W. J. "Billy" Woods arrived to work in the  meat department for Bell's in 1895; later he became a partner with George  Bell and Robert Peel. Eventually he became the sole owner, selling out to  William Duncan, who had worked in the Wood's store for many years, and to  his brother, Gordon Duncan. Mr. Woods passed away, in his 91st year in  June, 1966 in Enderby survived by his wife. He had married Miss Alice  Johnson of Enderby in 1905; they celebrated their Diamond Wedding Anniversary in 1965 at their home in Enderby.  The late Mr. "Dick" Blackburn, used to recall the time when no  logging was done around Enderby. It was in 1895 when Smith and McLeod  opened a sawmill that Enderby became a logging town.  Pioneers mention that the first school house was a little log building by  the River but the one most frequently recalled was built near the Gordon  Garner home of today, with Mr. Bannerman as the teacher.  While the town was expanding and developing at the turn of the century, England was involved with the South African War. How much this War  meant to the residents of the little settlement of Enderby, far away from  both England and the battlefields of South Africa, can be pictured through an  item in the "Vernon News" dated June 7,1900. When word was received over  the C.P.R. wires of the surrender of Pretoria, Enderby celebrated this  glorious event. The British flag was run up and flown high from the flag  pole of the Enderby Hotel. F. Appleton rounded up business men and  housewives and by 6 P.M. a picnic supper had been prepared at the Fair  Grounds. A. L. Fortune, Justice of the Peace, thereby the local representative of Queen Victoria, was driven to the grounds and tendered a 21 gun  salute, followed by the singing of "God Save The Queen." Mr. Fortune  delivered an inspiring address, suitable for the occasion. Following supper,  races and sports were held until the shades of night fell over the loyal little  settlement.  During the races a piano had been moved into the Hall and the  townsfolk re-assembled there. With Mrs. Crane at the key-board, solos by  Mrs. Alden (mother of Hudson), Mrs. Graham Rosoman, Mrs. Bell,  George Heggie, H. C. Alden, Howard Lawes, L. Long and Percy Rosoman  were enjoyed. Finally after three rousing cheers for Queen Victoria, three  cheers for Lord Roberts, and three lusty cheers for "Tommy Atkins", the  evening was turned over to dancing and singing until 3 a.m.  In 1900 J. C. Bentley, M.D. began his practise in Enderby. Prior to that  Dr. Offerhaus of Lansdowne had served the entire area.  On May 18th, 1904, Volume 1, No. 1 of Enderby's first newspaper  "The Edenograph" was published by H. W. Walker. Baird Brothers had  established a brickyard in Enderby during the 1890's, and in the spring of  1904, A. M. Baird bought out his brother's interest. H. Byrnes and  Charlie Strickland had cleared a large tract of land and were busily engaged  setting out orchards. Two good wagon roads led North and South from Enderby, one to Vernon, and a 23 mile road to Salmon Arm to the C.P.R.  main railway line. New stores were being built in the townsite and land in ENDERBY AND DISTRICT 37  the area sold well at $3 to $10 per acre, unimproved, and $40 to $100  improved. The Okanagan Lumber Company Ltd. employed 50 men at  their mill which turned out a daily capacity of 75,000 feet; the latest band  saws and three boilers for their steam engines were used. Ten million feet  and a year's supply of logs was the boast of Manager F. H. Hale. J. L.  Ruttan's and Robert Mowatt's "Rothesay Lumber Company on a  corner of the pioneer Tom Gray land at Mara, was cutting another 20,000  feet of lumber per day. The Enderby Coal Mines were located in Logan and  Weir's Gulches.  During the Spring and Summer of 1904, 25 houses were built in Enderby. Some of these were: four houses built by Ira C. Jones, J. Gaylord, F.  H. Hale, J. Greyell, J. Johnson, A. Baird, J. W. Evans, and Charles  Strickland; two cottages and a business block by W. Hancock; R. P.  Bradley's hardware store; Hutchison's business block, and a large barn for  S. Teece.  Enderby's population had reached 500. Names in the news columns  were: Baird, R. Blackburn, Bailey, J. F. Dale, A. Dale Jr., Wm. Folkard,  Handcock,  G. R. Williamson, and F. Lawes and S. Teece.  The business section contained the following: Henry Harvey, General  Merchant; Enderby Furniture, owned by James E. English; J. C. Metcalfe,  General Merchant; R. P. Bradley, Hardware; Wm. Handcock, Harness  maker and Saddler; Enderby Brick Co., owned by A. M. Baird; Wm. Hutchison, Blacksmith; Enderby Hotel (Rate $1. and $2. per day) owned by  Webb Wright; E. A. Chappel, Painting and papering; Enderby Meat, owned  by George Sharpe (father of Vernon's Mrs.Vera McCulloch); Ira C. Jones,  builder; Miss Garnet, Home Baking; Enderby Trading Co., Columbia  Flouring Mills, J. E. Orchard, Decorator; E. T. Smith, Drayman;  Okanagan Lbr. Co.; Magnet Pharmacy; Frank Pyman, Jeweller. The  "Edenograph" carried ads for nearly all the businesses in town.  The Loyal Orange Lodge No. 446 with Rev. A. E. Roberts, Worshipful  Master and H. J. Blurton, Secretary, met the first Saturday night of each  month.  Activity on Cliff Street was interesting to watch as the Bell Block,  owned by George Bell, began the preliminaries to erection.  The farms around were producing wel I. Wheat sold for 60c per bushel ;  oats were $20-25 per ton; potatoes sold at $10 per ton; apples were $1. a box;  swine sold at 5Vic per lb. on foot; and labor was $30. per month. Crops were  so good during the growing season of 1904 that the Enderby Branch of the  Farmer's Exchange was organized August 10, 1904 with directors Thos.  Grey, W. Owens, C. W. Little, George E. Little, V. Redman, L. B. Massey,  Frank Richie, John Moser and J. Eaves.  Enderby in May 1904 wanted a bank and a campaign was carried on by  the editor of the newspaper as well as petitions around the town and area.  The controversial issue of church union had just been introduced to the  community and the subject of Enderby becoming a City was also capable of  starting a heated argument at a moment's notice. Arguments pro and con,  with numerous meetings had taken place all winter but despite antagonism  the biggest and most controversial issue of the day became a reality on  March 1,1905 when Enderby was incorporated as a City with George Bell as  the first Mayor.  Graham Rosoman was appointed City Clerk. 38  ENDERBY AND DISTRICT  George and James Bell. George was Enderby's first mayor.  Vernon Museum and Archives  Probably one of the most vigorous opponents of incorporation at the  time was Fred Barnes, who had come from Kamloops in 1896 and remained  to build and manage the first mill for Smith and McLeod. Once incorporation  became a fact Mr. Barnes served as an alderman in 1906, as Police Commissioner in 1918 and Mayor from 1919-21. Sir Richard McBride appointed  him as Justice of the Peace which office he held for 50 years. The playground  on the Highway south of Enderby was built on property donated to the City  for this purpose by Mr. Barnes many years ago. Following its establishment  as   an   Enderby   Lions   Club   project   it   was   officially   named   Barnes ENDERBY AND DISTRICT 39  Playground in his honour. Mr. Barnes was made a Freeman of the City in  1954 at the age of 96. He died in his hundredth year.  Close on the heels of the City's incorporation *he Bank of Montreal  opened its doors in April, 1905. Although the original building was torn down  to make way for a modern bank a few years ago, the Bank of Montreal is still  Enderby's only Bank.(although other banks operated here for a time). Mr.  A. E. Taylor was the first manager. Many fine bankers have managed the  Enderby Branch throughout the year; possibly the one who stayed longest  and was manager during the difficult days of the depression, was A. B.  Greig.  The Masonic Lodge was organized in January 1905 with Worshipful  Master R. McQuarrie, W. Fred Barnes, J. W. W. H. Kenny and Treasurer.  Graham Rosoman. In May of 1905 the Independent Order of Oddfellows was  established: Noble Grand G. W. Allan, V. Grand G. A. Paul, Secretary E.  Wheeler, and Treasurer J. C. Metcalfe.  Early in 1905 the Farmer's Exchange was re-organized with directors: George Heggie (president), W. Monk, F. H. Hassard, J. Cook and W.  Anderson.  Enderby was booming! The subject of water for the new City became  the burning question in the spring of 1906 and both Smith and Brash creeks  were considered and inspected; Brash Creek was finally chosen, but not  unanimously. Water was turned into the Enderby mains in January 1907 at a  cost of approximately $20,000. Brash Creek is still Enderby's main source of  water supply. Mrs. Fortune laid the corner stone for the new Presbyterian  Church in May 1906 and presented the new St. Andrew's Church with the 500  pound bell that hangs in the steeple. For many years it has been heard  calling its members to worship. As a bride on the farm over the hill from  town I always liked to hear the church bell ringing at the close of day.  Pauline Johnson, the noted Indian Poetess visited Enderby and  recited her many poems. Premier McBride was tendered a Banquet at the  new King Edward Hotel. Dr. Verner a graduate of London and Dublin  hospitals, purchased Dr. Bentley's practise. He came from Toronto after 20  years practise there.  Basil Gardom became Enderby's first policeman at $15 per month. In  later years he was a Director of the Independent Milk Producer's  Association of Vancouver.  The City Hall report for 1906 read:  Salaries:  Clerks $149.95 Police 92.50  Teachers 625.95 (Public School)  Principal 70.  Miss Beattie 55. Con. Gardom 15  Chuck, 8. (Janitor at school)  $186.91 in bank at end of first year.  The Independent Order of Foresters organized in Enderby in 1906 with  Wm. Hancock, Dr. Verner, Geo. McCormack, J. A. Morrison, A. E. Taylor,  W. Fraser, A. Shields, F. V. Moffatt, Orator J. McMahon, J. Bogert, W. F.  Gibson, W. Monk, and was organized by R.W. Timmins.  Samuel Teece, who then owned the land from the back Salmon Arm 40 ENDERBY AND DISTRICT  Road to the Railway track and up to the present Jack Armstrong farm and  the house that is the present Archer home, began a dairy business in Enderby. Housewives paid 6 cents a quart for fresh milk from the Teece farm  daily.  In 1906 the Fortune Ranch was sold to Gracie and Wylie of Scotland.  The Fortunes built a large home just south of Enderby on the back Armstrong Road where they lived until Mr. Fortune's death in 1915. A road was  built to the Bogert and Coltart farms two miles west of town. Both were  pioneer farms. Abram Gunter took the land now known as the Wamboldt  farm following his work as a bridge builder on the C.P.R. construction in the  1880's. In 1904 his stepson Richard Coltart and his wife had moved to Enderby from Vancouver to take over the farm from the ailing Mr. Gunter, who  died in 1915. Mr. Coltart served as both mayor and alderman in Enderby  during the years and was a losing candidate in a Provincial Election, running on the Conservative ticket against Dr. McDonald, Liberal, and Price  Ellison an Independent Conservative. Dr. McDonald, his opponent, but good  friend, was the winner. As Mr. Coltart's health failed Percy Wamboldt was  hired to look after the farm work with Mrs. Coltart and to tend the Ayrshire  herd which Mr. Coltart had established before 1910. Mr. Coltart died April 10,  1939 and Mrs. Coltart in January 14, 1961. The Bogert farm is owned by Gus  Karras today. Only a grandson of the pioneer Bogert family, Johnny Bogert  of Ashton Creek, remains in the area. The Coltart Farm was purchased by  Percy Wamboldt, who married Mrs. Coltart's niece (the writer of this  history).  The Mill was sold to the Roger's Lumber Company of Minneapolis in  1906. Talks were being held to have a road built to Mabel Lake.  Early in 1907 a City Foreman was appointed, I believe it was Robert  "Bob" Bailey, who at this early date served as Enderby's policeman and  water works custodian. Later Tom Kneale became City Foreman and at his  death Peter Litzenberger, present City Foreman was appointed. Graham  Rosoman was appointed Police Magistrate in 1907.  Plans were in progress during the autumn of 1908 to build a Hospital  (now the Enderby Rest Home Apartments). Dr. H. W. Keith had purchased  Dr. Verner's practise the year before and had moved his wife and baby  daughter to Enderby. His second daughter, Jean, now Mrs. J. R. Kidston of  Vernon, who was born in Enderby, describes their home in the 1966  Okanagan Historical Society Report" a rambling old fashioned house, sitting in grounds that ran a full city block, with stabling for horses, chicken  runs, large fruit, vegetable and flower gardens, all of which he (Dr. Keith)  looked after in his free time. The surgery and the waiting room were part of  the house." A great number of the middle-aged residents of Enderby were  more than likely ushered into this world by Dr. Keith who remained in  Enderby until his death in 1933. He was followed by Dr. Munro, Dr. Coitart,  Dr. Haugen and then Dr. J. H. Kope who has now spent more years doctoring  in Enderby than the respected beloved Dr. Keith. The house remained on  corner until Dr. Kope built his first office where McLeod Agencies are today.  The old "Doctor's" house was remodeled as a butcher shop for Gordon  Garner and Norman Danforth, then expanded by Frank Fuller to the  Sanitary Meat Market, then as Jack Bolens "Sanitary Food Market." Now it ENDERBY AND DISTRICT  41  Andy Glen's  threshing  rig  on  the  R. J.   Coltart   farm   near   Enderby  in  the early 7900s. Courtesy B. Wamboldt  is Haywood's Bazaar." The southern corner has been occupied by George  Rand.  The farmers living on both sides of Shuswap River wanted a bridge at  Grindrod and in 1908, Messrs G. S. Salt, Handcock, Enemy and Waddel  (former owner of the Ernie Skyrme farm) met with Price Ellison, M.P. to  further their cause. That same month of December, the Enderby Board of  Trade was organized with George Lawes, Chairman and Graham Rosoman,  Secretary.  The new Baptist Church was dedicated in February 1909 and in March,  Samuel Poison purchased the property, building and stock of Harvey and  Dobson changing the name to the Poison Mercantile Co. Ltd. His son-in-law,  Sidney Spears, formerly employed by W. R. Megaw, of Vernon, became the  Manager of the new store.  The Carlin Estate of 1,400 acres on the West side of Shuswap River at  Grindrod was surveyed by Surveyor Williams in April, 1909, for the  establishment of a new townsite. It was to be laid out between the railway  track and the River at a point where a government bridge was to be built.  West of the railway track 10 acre blocks were to be sold to bona fide settlers,  sales to be handled by H. W. Harvey.  The month of May, 1909 will long be remembered by pioneer residents  as the time of the Great Fire. It turned out to be a "blue Monday" for a great  many people. Slashing had been taking place on the Fenton Farm, about  three miles North of Enderby, and it is thought a spark from a C.P.R.  locomotive set fire to one of the slash piles. A. H. Duncan, (father of W. E.  Duncan who then lived along the east bank of the River, near the present Vic  Poison farm) noticed a heavy pall of smoke while shopping in Enderby and  decided he should get back home as soon as possible. When he arrived he  found the fire had run through the J. Emeny farm, burned the barn and  fences and j umped the river to burn the Duncans out entirely. 42 ENDERBY AND DISTRICT  The fire swept down both sides of the River, leaving desolation but  fortunately no loss of life. A. D. Stroulger's brand new barn, filled with hay  and the lumber for their new house and Dan McManus's building were  demolished but his house was saved. W. Monk, the Mack brothers, E. B.  Hoffman, C. S. Handcock and R. Waddell lost heavily but managed to save  their buildings. J. Knapp's seven cows stamped into the bush and were  burned to death, and everything Mr. Knapp owned but the clothes he wore,  his team of horses and an old black cat were lost. J. Dickie, Jack Rothwell  and the Peacock family lost everything. J. Lambert had obligingly stored  the belongings of Gerald Neve in his stable until Mr. Neve was ready to move  into his new home, only to have the fire burn the Lambert stable and with it  the Neve belongings.  The fire raced on toward Mara, taking out three bridges and leaping  the river again to take with it Jim Bell's hayshed and out-buildings and  everything at George and Charles Littles, A. Robertson's, and E' Bennet's.  The Rothesay Lbr. Co. went up in smoke and at the Tom Grey farm a little  drama unfolded when Mrs. Grey put two of her small children, a girl and boy  in a buggy with bread and butter and told their older sister Ethel (now Mrs.  Ethel Doerflinger of Grindrod) to take them away out into a field that the  fire seemed to have passed by and to stay there until she came to get them.  This was about five o'clock at night and each farm had had the fire descend  upon it so rapidly no one could help a neighbor. Each family had to fight its  own battle with the blaze. The Gray's had a bucket brigade going and Mrs.  Gray felt the children would be safest in the open field. She was right, the  house was saved but some of the buildings in the yard were lost. It was not  until the next morning that the mother was able to bring her children safely  home, neither knowing through the long, horrifying night what was happening to the other.  On the other bank of the river C.P.R. section hands managed to save  the Mara Bridge but the Rosoman home and Post Office were burned out.  Mrs. Rosoman was carried to the River's edge and placed in a boat and  covered with dampened blankets thus saving her life. Before reaching the  Cadden place (now Bill Makella's), where it seemed to just peter out, the fire  had burned out Sam Patula entirely, Blurton's barn and Witala's hayshed.  No news of the terrible fire reached Enderby until the next day as the  burned out settlers began to arrive in town for supplies. People cleared land  constantly in those early days and the smoke of slash fires was a familiar  sight and the fire had travelled so quickly before a brisk breeze that communication was nil. Everyone was occupied on his own premises.  As usual there were miracles: firstly no human lives were lost and  secondly, Mrs. Zettergreen, with her young family was alone that day  directly in the path of the fire but just before it reached the home the fire  veered and passed them by.  Very little insurance was carried but as usual these early settlers took  their terrible setback stoutheartedly and rebuilding was soon under way.  Enderby was now the centre of quite a populated area. 174 acres in  North Enderby had been purchased by a Mr. Donaldson, McQuarrie's  Glengarrick Dairy operated a few miles south of the city. The new impressive City Hall had been completed and opened and the Bell Block was  being built on the main street. ENDERBY AND DISTRICT  43  Enderby. B. C, May I  AND      WALKER'S       WEEKLY  VoL 2; No. 12; Whole No.  A  GALA DAY PR0MIS__-DiM_2?_?^|IN AND ABOUT ENDERBY  May 24th promises to be a very  interesting day at Enderby. At  no time in the eighteen years  that Enderby has been celebrating Victoria Day were efforts  more earnestly made to make the  celebration a success. A. E.  Taylor and Robt Peel at their  own expense, went to Revelstoke  last week and quickly arranged  the matter of special train, baseball and lacrosse. Revelstoke  will send its crack baseball and  lacrosse teams, and with them  will come one of the biggest  crowds that Revelstoke has ever  sent into the Okanagan.  Armstrong will send her infantry band, lacrosse team and I  hose-reel team; and with them  will come her public-spirited |  citizens. Salmon Arm will send  her foot ball team and her lovers,  of sport. Vernon was to have  sent her football team, but Enderby was not able to employ the  Vernon band in addition to the  Armstrong and Enderby bands  and so Vernon's footballers withdrew. But this isn'tthe genuine  Vernon spirit, and, inspite of the  puny pickled pique, Vernonites  of the broader spirit promise to  fill the cars for Enderby. justas  Enderby fills the cars for Vernon.  The program of sports will  crowd the day full. On Cliff  street, before the big events are  calli:-!, the children's races will  be held. This will give the boys  and girls a chance to win spending money for the day. They  will enter the races while fresh  and strong, not late in the day.  tired and worn.  After the children's races will  come the firemen's wettest. For  this contest the prizes will be  $50 and $25.  Following the wet test, which  will be held on Cliff street, the  march will be made to the recreation grounds. Here many improvements have been made to  and the Enderby City band  provide the music on the grounds  and there is every assurance that  there will be   an   abundance of  the best.  In addition to the regular program of sport, our horsemen  promise to put on four hours of  horse-racing for the edification of  any interested in the sport.  Word comes from Revelstoke,  Armstrong and Salmon Arm that  these places will send the biggest  crowds they ever turned out to  Enderby.      _  The Eckardts, Swiss Bell Ringers, will appear in K. P. Hal!  as the closing event of the 24th  of May celebration. The Enderby!  performance a dance will be given. The  Eckardts are well spoken of by  the provincial press. "It is one  of the best musical aggregations  that ever held the boards at the  Auditorium," says the Cranbrook  Herald.    IMPORTANT  All committees especially, and  anyone else interested in making  the Celebration a huge success,  will please attend the final meeting to be held in the City Office  THIS (Thursday) EVENING at  P o'clock.     A. Fulton, Pres.  The brick masons are finishing  the walls of the Bell block this  Fred H. Barnes is serving on  the grand jury this week, leaving  Tuesday morning.  Friends of Aid. Forbes are glad  to see him on the Btreet again,  after two or three weeks' sick-  Mr. A. R. Rogers and Mr. Geo.  H. Prince, owners of the A. R.  Rogers Lumber Co., paid Enderby  a visit this week.  H.   H.   Magwood,   of Regina,  has joined the Poison Mercantile  bookkeeper.     Mr.  Mag-  highly recommended.  WALKER'S   WEEKLY  add to the  fort of spectators and players.  There will be no more crowding  into the field, and no more danger from foul balls. The grand  stand is substantially roofed and  otherwise improved. The refreshment booths are situated  within the curling rink, where  ample accommodation will be  provided for the crowds which  are expected.  Here Revelstoke'B best baseball team will play Enderby, and  the Revelstoke lacrosse boys will  contest the field with Armstrong.  Here the Salmon Arm footballers  will wallop the bigskin with Enderby. These contests promise  to be the swiftost ever pulled off  on the Enderby grounds. The  field was never in better shape.  The Armstrong Infantry band  ^jT is encouraging to find that the busi-  I   ness   community   of   Vancouver   is  •*- awakening to the fact that the basis  of this city's prosperity lies in the development of tne agricultural potentialities of  the province." Thus writes "Bruce" in  the Saturday Sunset. And then he proceeds to elucidate. British Columbia imports $7,000,000 worth of farm produce annually, in spite of the fact that we have the  most productive lands in the world; the  most equable climate in North America,  and can offer attractions to the farmer and  settler such as few places in the world can  command. And yet, with ail of these advantages, settlement and farm development has proceeded at a snail's pace. We  import butter from Ontario and New Zealand; eggs from Ontario and Alberta; .aeon  from Chicago and Alberta; flour fran the  prairies ;beef from the prairies, ani even  hay. It is pointed out that the fjcihties  and encouragement offered by the ,'overn-  ment in respect to settlement on he land  are not one whit better than theywere 37  years ago.  In this connection "Bruce" refca to the  absurd policy of holding in a stse of idle  wastefulness so much land in th; name of  Indian reserves. "Steps should fe taken,"  says he, "to throw open for settementall  the Indian reserves not in actuate by the  Indians. It is & notorious fact 1at Indian  reserves occupy large tracts o the most  valuable lands in British Colmbia and  that the Indiana have under leir control  anywhere from five to ten tiies as much  land as they use or need. Th writer has  seen dozens of Indian reserve where not  one-tehtfi of the land  where in many cases the lanc3 were totally  abandoned. He has seen gardens and  orchards surrounding deserted cabins fallen  into decay, overgrown with forest trees,  where no Indian has set fout for years, anc  where all other available lands "had beer  taken up by whites, and were under cultivation. Our present Ind;  nothing for the Indians and holds back the  wheels of progress. "  If "Bruce" will come to the Okanagan  we will show him a tract of 3,000 acres of  the best land out of doors, upon which  seven Indians loaf and get a living. W  will show him another tract of 6,000 acre  held by less than 200 Indians, andnotmor  than 200 acres under cultivation or utilized  in my way. We will show him an Indian  settlement of something less than 200,  where there is no school, no industry-  nothing to teach the younger generation  anything but sloth, slop, slovenliness and  slirers. It is a crying shame that the  government persists in this policy of darkness and slotn. To say that the Indian  can't or won't elevate himself, simply  shows our ignorance of Poor Lo. The Indian will learn if given the chance. But  the policy of our government encourages  indolence and sets a premium on idleness  and filth. The only civilizing influences set  about the Indians are venereal diseases and  the church. By disease the tribe is robbed  " its virility, and the church—is used more  a place where the cinch is tightened than  a place where souls are enlightened.  Speaking of the Enderby Indians and reserve, we are confident that if the govem-!pr°ec3e"nt.lhRev.  j Jas. Johnstone is putting the  j finishing touches on the handsome residence erected for Mr.  and Mrs. Fred Stevens, next to  the managtr's home.  J. C. Engl'sh returned from  Kelowna last Thursday, having  disposed of the boot and shoe  business h« and Geo. R. Sharpe  purchased from the creditors two  months ago.  Ira C. Jones writes from 204  7th ave.,West Mt. Pleasant, that  he is building a home at the  number given; business is brisk,  weather fine, and all are happy  in their new surroundings.  Frank Princ$ has had erected  in the shade of the cedars and  pines on the high ground back of  the residence of Fred. Stevens,  a modern bungalow, with open  sleeping apartments, etc., the  whole presenting a very attractive appearance.  He's better now, but it was an  awfully close call for him. The  editor wai presented with twenty thousand dollars yesterday.  The shock was bo great that he  forgot to take down the presentation, but from this distance the  words have a honey aspect even  Little Eddie Sparrow fell from  his horse on Sunday afternoon,  brought to his home in  condition.    Dr. Keith  called, and on Monday Dr.  VanKleek was summoned from  Armstrong in consultation.   The  remained in a semi-conscious  condition until Tuesday, when he  showed signs of rallying and is  dw rapidly recovering.  The deal on the W. Allan place  hereby the property is transferred to the Attenborough Bros.,  closed this week.   The price  named 13 $5,500.   Eighteen years  ago Mr. Allan began the clearing  of this 80-acre property.    He has  spent his full time upon it ,  have been made upon it. There  are three Attenborough brothers  and th,py will soon be joined by  their mother.  At the home of Miss Gibbs,  last Friday evening, the members of St George's church and  Glee Club, gave a presentation to  Mrs. Geo. R. Lawes, in the form  of a handsome mahogany chime  members  J.  Leech-Porter  ment would open to the whitenmimdsellj^^^^^^^^^  for the Indians 5,000 acres of the 6,000 re-1    ■--**      ■■  served, and with the proceeds establish a  fund to assist and educate the tribe, the  Indians would do as other tribes have done,  and get more out of themselves, more out  of life, more out of their land—they would  become of some use to the community.  And the country would be developed instead of being wet-blanketed by  logizing the recipient ;.,   highest tenxiB for her uniform  patience, tact and ability, and  her unceasing loyalty as organic  of the church. It is the wish of  the members to publicly express  their appreciation of the favors  shown'by Mr. Dake in procuring  for them at first cost the handsome clock and for other cour-  therewith.  Vol. 2, No. 12, May 20, 1909.  Courtesy Miss Rosoman 44  ENDERBY AND DISTRICT ENDERBY AND DISTRICT  45 46 ENDERBY AND DISTRICT  A tract of land belonging to H. A. Baxter, six miles east of Enderby  was divided and sold; 80 acres to Paul Stainer, 40 acres to Frank Ornst and  40 acres to Frank Shanky during May of 1910. A mail stage through Ashton  Creek and on to Mabel Lake was opened by Mike Hupel in September of the  same year.  The proposals of the Hospital Auxiliary Committee to build had met  the public's favour. When the hospital was under way, petitions were going  the rounds to construct a rink.  Enderby boasted a very good band that attended all sports days at  home and in neighboring towns and cities. To add further pleasure to life in  Enderby the bandsmen had built a little bandstand near the C.P.R. station  complete with lights where they played on nice summer evenings. The  townsfolk strolled along Cliff St., shopping or window shopping as they enjoyed the music of their band in concert.  In November of 1910 Fulton's Hardware opened its doors on Cliff  Street ready for the Christmas trade. Later known as McMahon's Hardware  it was operated by Ernie McMahon and then as Farr's Hardware. Today it is  Central Hardware. Scott's Shoe business was operated in Enderby by Lil  Sutherland's father. Lil and Jim Sutherland today have operated the Enderby Bakery for over 25 years,- Mr. J. R. Harvey had had a bakeshop  there previously. J. R. Linton had opened a Pole and Tie Mill south of Enderby with H. H. Worthington managing the office maintained in town.  During the Spring of 1911 the new townsite of Grindrod began to be  settled when a family named Crowes bought Lot 26. Hoffman's from Winnipeg settled on lot 56 and Crandlemires and George Wells followed a year  later. The Monks, Weirs, Waddels and Handcocks lived on the other side of  the river and had come much earlier. The Peacocks, Rothwells, Neves,  Dickie and Knapp farms were settled also prior to the townsite settlement.  Lots in the Barnes addition of Enderby had gone on sale.  In May 1911a school was built in Ashton Creek. Ashton Creek had been  named after the pioneer Ashton family who farmed in the area. The father,  Charles came first to Lansdowne from his home in Elstead, Surrey, England  in 1866, moving to a farm five miles East of Enderby in 1887. Ten children  were born to the family. Mr. Ashton died in 1921 but many of his heirs live in  the North Okanagan today. The Cookes, the Brashs and the Bawtrees are all  pioneer families of the same area.  The Sawyer Brothers built the Enderby Opera House during the  summer of 1911 and opened it in October. Later this became known as the K.  P. Hall and today is occupied by Bill Lutz' "Enderby Electric."  Word came from Ohio that Paddy Murphy's race horse "Earl J" had  won the record Pacing race in Cleveland, Ohio. By the end of 1911 Enderby's  population had reached 871 and plans were to build a large, new school on  three acres of Flewelling Property west of the railroad tracks at the Forbes  home, owned by Samuel Poison.  That year L. A. "Lockie" Lantz opened a barber shop in Enderby and  the Dill brothers, Art and Ed. bought out the Evans Grocery business  renaming it Dill Bros. Grocery. At Ed's death Art carried on under the name  of A. W. Dill until a few years ago when ill health forced him to retire. He  died in 1964. This building is now the Enderby Second Hand Clothing store ENDERBY AND DISTRICT  47  Wit Snterft? ftottl  Sprrial 3'tfntion paid to Srabrlrri  lEntorbk B-dt-^y .3 1912  Hofe/ letterheads  Vernon Museum and Archives  and the Enderby Pool Room stands on the lot beside it, formerly a part of the  Dill property.  Land was beginning to change hands. The McQuarrie Dairy sold out  and the Waddell farm at Grindrod sold to Skyrme brothers in August of 1912.  The Government opened up lands to the public at Mabel Lake which soon  made Mabel Lake a popular place to camp during summer vacation.  During January of 1914 five blocks of land owned by S. Poison and  known as the Linton place, three miles south of Enderby were sold in five  and ten acre pieces. These were mainly bought up by Norwegian families  and became known as Stepney Siding.  The name Stepney has a place in the story of Enderby and area. A  large holding called Stepney Ranch lay between Enderby and Armstrong,  owned by Sir Arthur Stepney. Sir Arthur had represented the Burroughs of  Llanelly and Carmanthen as a  Liberal candidate from  1876 to 1878.  He 48 ENDERBY AND DISTRICT  retired in 1892 after serving in the Foreign Office for 20 years. His wife, the  former Honourable Margaret Warren shared the county seats of "The Dell"  Llanelly; "Woodend", South Ascot, Berkshire, with him. During these years  he had invested in land in the Okanagan.  Sir Arthur Stepney advertised for a young man to manage his 1600  acre Ranch near Enderby, B.C. Canada, in British newspapers and from  among the applicants he chose George Heggie born in Antrim, Ireland  September 27, 1870 of Scottish parents. Mr. Heggie arrived in Enderby in  1895 and took up his duties on the Stepney Ranch. Men like Dick Blackburn,  the Skyrme brothers and Arthur Tompkinson found work with Mr. Heggie on  the Stepney Ranch and he took an active part in the early events in the  growing little city of Enderby. In September of 1910 Sir Arthur Stepney died  and 1,300 acres of the Ranch were taken over by a syndicate of English  financiers.  Enderby's first Rural Mail Route No. 1 began in 1913 and on January  1st, 1914 a beautiful brick school was opened and the Board of School  Trustees named it Fortune School to honor the pioneer A. L. Fortune.  That summer Enderby suffered a severe lightning storm and before it  ended, the Roman Catholic Church on the Indfian Reserve had been struck  by a lightening bolt and burned to the ground. The present church was built  and dedicated by the pioneer missionary Father Le Jeune. It stands today at  the Corner of Highway 97 and the Canyon Road.  Deep Creek had its first settlers around 1889, according to the pioneer  Naylor family. A Mr. Pickering took a homestead there and the late Mr.  Naylor spent the winter in the Pickering cabin. In 1891 Mr. Pickering moved  his family to his land in Deep Creek and in 1894 a road was built through the  Deep Creek area from Hulcar northward and became partially settled.  While R. Davison is the only one of the original settlers left, many of the  families once located in Deep Creek are well known throughout the  Okanagan today: Hill, Gardom, Best, Gibbs, Truesdale, Hayhurst, Mclntyre, Piper, Ross, W. Fortune, G. Salt, T. Sharpe, Garbuttand Stroulger.  In 1911 a small building on the Davison farm was used for a school and  later a school was built on a part of the Ginn farm. Historians seem to agree  that Deep Creek's first settler was a West Indian negro named "Prosper",  who was living there when the first settlers came in 1889.  In 1914 England became engaged in the First World War and the men  of Enderby were being mustered to arms under the aegis of Major Henniker.  The Cenotaph in the grounds of the City Hall is a grim memorial to the  manhood of Enderby answering the call of the Motherland in need. Some  returned to take up life once more in the area—many gave their lives.  It would be impossible to tell a complete story of Enderby and District,  so many people have lived in the community, some for a short while and  others for many years. While I have tried to tell the story of the "beginning"  of Enderby there will be omissions and although I may have omitted names  and events please bear with me, for each person who has lived in or around  Enderby has contributed to its history. It would be impossible to recall  everyone. 49  WILLIAM THOMAS JOHN  BULMAN  (1913-1969)  By Primrose Upton  When Bill Bulman passed away on Monday, July 21st, 1969, he left  behind him a long record of hard work, both as a successful rancher, and for  the many organizations to which he belonged.  In 1907, his father had bought  the Cloverdale Ranch from George  Whelan at Ellison, and here Bill was  born in 1913. Following schooling at  Ellison and Vernon, he went to  University at Pullman, Washington,  but left to manage the Ranch on the  death of his father in 1933. He  married Joan McCall of Kelowna,  and they had two children, Donald  and Karen. Cloverdale Ranch has a  history of being a well run place with  fruit, grain, grapes, vegetables and  cattle being raised. Bill however,  brought it to its most stable and  productive state, raising hay, and  cattle and bringing the pastures to  their peak of production. In 1955 he  was named Grassman of the Year  for the Kamloops, Nicola and  Okanagan areas. He was President  of the North Okanagan Beef  Growers' Association and of the B.C.  Beef Cattle Growers' Association. He was a director of the B.C. Vegetable  Board, and was given a five year leadership award by the Canadian Council  of 4-H Clubs.  One of the warmest tributes has come from the 4-H Club where he was  a Beef Club Leader for eight years. "He was very well liked and respected—the kind of leader so hard to find these days. He was always willing to  help with all 4-H activities, and the first to congratulate those who did well in  their projects. Arranging of Awards Night must have taken weeks, but he  did this cheerfully and thoroughly. Mr. Bulman explained that the emphasis  today in 4-H is on the child, whereas the emphasis used to be on the project.  Now the project is rather a means to an end. It will be hard to find any one to  take his place—he will be sadly missed by so many."  The Okanagan Historical Society will miss him too. He has been a  tower of strength as co-chairman of the Father Pandosy Restoration  Committee. Along with Joe Marty and Stan Duggan, he has spent many  hours tracking down old farm machinery, and other things which could add  to the authenticity of the Pandosy Mission. He was on the Executive of the  Kelowna Branch, and was always a most willing worker with any project.  W. T. J. Bulman 50  WILLIAM THOMAS JOHN BULMAN (1913-1969)  After Mr. and Mrs. Bulman sold their ranch and moved to Okanagan  Mission in 1962, he continued his work with 4-H, Beef Cattle Growers'  Association, Historical Society, and helped with projects and clubs in  Okanagan Mission and Kelowna. He was active with Scouting, with the  Kelowna Kinsmen Club of which he was a Charter member, charter  President of the K-40 Club. He was President of the Kelowna Rotary Club,  and one of the prime movers and workers for the Rotary Beach. He was a  member of the Kelowna Chamber of Commerce, and one of the original  members on the convention and visitors Committee. He was also manager of  the Farm Labor Board in  Kelowna in 1968.  Indeed a valued member of the Community, he will be much missed  by all of us who were privileged to know him.  NIGEL ROBERT CATHCART POOLEY  By Primrose Upton  The Okanagan Historical Society suffered a great loss in the death of  Nigel Pooley on November 13, 1968 at the age of 56 years. His father, W. R.  Pooley, had been active in the development of the Kelowna Land and Orchard   Company,   and   the   South  Kelowna  Land and Orchard  Company, and  had one of the earliest  orchards in East Kelowna.  Nigel Pooley at the time of his  death, was President of Fruit  Growers Mutual. He was among the  first Board of Governors of this  organization in 1955. He was born in  East Kelowna and attended school  there and in Kelowna. He served  overseas in North Africa, Italy and  other European fields of War from  1940-1945. He served on many  committees—School Trustee,  Scoutmaster, Little Theatre,  Kelowna Club, and was a most  valued member both of the Kelowna  Branch and the parent body of the  Okanagan Historical Society.  In 1945 he married Mary  Carnegie in London, England. They have three children Ian, Adair and  Christine. A sister Mrs. Frank Hayward lives on Salt Spring Island, and  a   brother, Tony, lives in Vancouver.  Nigel had a fund of stories, which he would recount in his light-hearted  amusing way—possibly he has recorded some of these, and we will hope to  print them in a future Report. He loved the countryside, his home and his  orchard, and was always ready for a new adventure.  N. R. C. Pooley 51  J  1  LOUIS CASORSO (1886-1969)  By Margaret Greening  My uncle,   Louis  Casorso,  was  born  on   September  25th,   1886,  at  Okanagan Mission, in the log house his father, John Casorso, had built after  taking up a pre-emption in 1884, a building still standing, east of Mission  Creek on Casorso road. He was the  son of Mr. and Mrs. John Casorso,  who had immigrated to Canada  in  the early eighties from Alessandria,  Italy.  In 1908 he married Catherine  Dapavo in the Catholic Church at  Okanagan Mission: the church, at  that time, was located across the  road and a little to the north of the  Pandosy Mission. After his  marriage he lived in a cabin on the  Pioneer Ranch, later moving to  South Benvoulin for several years,  before returning to the ranch, where  he resided in the large Casorso  house (built in 1909) until his death.  Uncle Louis was in partnership with six of his brothers on  the family ranch—Pioneer Ranch—for a number of years. In 1911  the family opened a butcher shop  (Casorso Brothers Meat Market  Ltd.) in Kelowna situated on Water  Street just north of the Bank of Montreal. When the Casorso Block—now part  of Fumerton's Store—was built in 1913 the meat market was moved there.  Uncle Louis assisted in butchering for the shop for some years as well as  being in charge of custom buying cattle and hogs. As stock buyer, he  travelled from the Border in the south, to Kamloops in the north. He continued in this capacity until 1940, at which time he decided to devote his full  time to farming, but still maintained an interest in the stores, in Kamloops,  Vernon and Penticton and the original store in Kelowna. He was one of the  pioneers in the hog raising industry in the Okanagan Valley.  Louis Casorso passed away on August 2, 1969. He was laid to rest  beside his parents in the family plot at the Catholic Cemetery in Okanagan  Mission. He was predeceased by his wife in 1950, also by three brothers:  Joseph in 1960; Charles in 1960; and my father, Anthony in 1967. Surviving  children are Mrs. R. (Mary) Bertoia in Rossland; John in Vernon; and  August (who still farms part of the original Casorso property) in Okanagan  Mission. There are 14 grandchildren and 12 great grandchildren. Four  brothers also survive. Peter, Felix and Leo in Kelowna and August in  Vancouver. Uncle Louis had a deep affection for children: his generosity and  interest in these little ones will long be remembered.  Louis Casorso 52  HARVEY BOONE —PIONEER  Harvey Boone  By J. A. Boone  Our early settlers have spanned an enormous transition from the  pioneering era to our modern times. Some have achieved great local fame,  others have lived their lives  relatively unnoticed. In carrying out  their daily lives they contributed  much to the development of our  Valley. Harvey Boone was one such  person.  He was born in Hartline,  Washington, on June 23, 1892. His  father was a millwright and  depended for work on the opening up  of mining operations. Thus, Harvey  was four years old when the family  crossed the border at Osoyoos on  their way to Midway in the Kettle  Valley where a number of mines  were beginning operation. On page  38 the 22nd Report of the Society  their entry to Canada is recorded in  an article by Mrs. K. Lacey.  Quite in keeping with the fate of many mining ventures in those days,  the mine at Midway was short-lived. The family was then beckoned to  Fairview in the Okanagan in 1902. Harvey has recorded his early recollections of Fairview in an article on the Stemwinder mine in the 32nd Report of  the Society. Following closure of the Stemwinder mine in 1904, the Boones  took up a 320 acre pre-emption of bench land south of Fairview where they  constructed a house and lived for 15 years. The land did not really support a  living, and work had to be sought elsewhere. One spring Harvey and his  father, with the help of another man, contracted to extend the Fairview road  from the summit down to Cawston. This project yielded a total of $6. a day  for the Boones: $4. for Mr. Boone and his team, and $2. for son Harvey.  Money was not plentiful, but there always seemed to be some work to be  obtained including periods of cow-punching or haying for Val Haines. A  period of fire-fighting on Anarchist Mountain and a fire lookout job on Mount  Kobau in 1914 has been related in an article in the 28th Report of the Society.  Harvey was well into early manhood when the nearby town site of  Oliver was being planned. Driven by an appetite for hard work and carrying  with him carpentry skills he had learned from his father he managed to  obtain a number of construction jobs in the Oliver and Osoyoos areas during  their early years. The building of the irrigation canal was a source of work  for newcomers and oldtimers alike and he worked on the trestle construction  south of Oliver. Many of Oliver's first business buildings including Tuck's  Cafe which is still operating, were constructed by him. Other buildings which  were later replaced by more up-to-date structures included the first Bank of  Commerce where Jack Smith was manager. That building was later torn HARVEY BOONE-PIONEER 53  down by Harvey and the first part of the present building was erected.  Several buildings of his construction were to follow including the Griffin  Block, the Oliver Lumber Yard and the Riopel Hotel. In 1930, he built the  Oliver Overwaitea Store whose first manager was Milton Garward. In the  same year he built the first Osoyoos Packing House and the following year  provided it with an addition. Although school classes had been held in  Osoyoos since 1916, Harvey built the first school house in 1932 and added a  second room in 1934. He supervised the building of the Osoyoos Community  Hall about the same time.  An enterprise long forgotten by most people is the Dividend mine west  of Osoyoos, but in the hopeful days of its establishment by J. O. Howells it  provided work for many people and Harvey was in charge of construction of  its buildings.  Harvey bought a freshly planted orchard in the spring of 1924 in the  Testalinda district south of Oliver and interplanted it with tomatoes and  cantaloupe. About the same time as the land began to yield an income, the  early building boom of the neighbouring communities began to diminish and  he abandoned the building trade. When the orchard finally came into full  bearing it was there that Harvey and Elsie Boone built their permanent  home where Harvey spent the rest of his days.  Being an orchardist and recognizing the importance of pollination,  Harvey developed a hobby of keeping bees. He never tired of observing the  orderliness of a bee-hive and marvelling at the industry of its occupants.  Although he had received little formal education of any kind, and certainly  none in bee culture, he developed considerable knowledge of bees and skill in  their handling. This won him a Bee Master's Certificate awarded by the  British Columbia Department of Agriculture, and he was taken on the staff  of the Apiary branch. His wisdom was much respected among those close to  him in the bee business.  During his lifetime he demonstrated willingness in the area of public  service. In the early days he worked with other volunteers to build Oliver's  Community Hall as well as the first school at Testalinda. He faithfully  served on the executive of both fruit grower's and honey producer's  organizations and for a period of time was a Commissioner for the Village of  Oliver.  It is noteworthy that among his friends numbered many young people  who admired his forthrightness and candid way of expressing himself. They  felt privileged that he had been part of their life and experienced a deep  sense of loss when he passed away in his sleep, February 2,1969. 54  THE FIRST TWENTY YEARS OF  SCOUTING IN VERNON  By Judge C. W. Morrow, Scoutmaster  Scouting in Vernon was organized in the Fall of 1913, by two gentlemen: Mr. Geoffrey Kearne had the backing of All Saints' Anglican  Church, where he had been in charge of a boys' club, and decided to switch to  the scout program, which had been launched in England in 1908 under  General Baden-Powell, later Lord Baden-Powell; at approvimately the  same time, Mr. Guy Bagnall, later to become one of Vernon's "Good  Citizens", was in charge of a boys' club at the Methodist Church, and also  decided to switch to the scout program. He met with some resistance, as  there were some who thought it was a military gesture, but he overcame the  opposition. So it was, that the two troops were formed, and chartered in the  Summer of 1914. A camp was organized for the 34 scouts in the two troops;  supplies and equipment were hauled to Okanagan Lake through the kindness  of a Mrs. W. Haldane; her son later attended the Mackie Preparatory  School, and is now practicing law in Victoria. In the first Troop, the Rector of  All Saints' assisted in the planning of the camp, and his son, Reginald Comyn  Ching was one of the patrol leaders; other members of the first troop were  Robert Foote, James Moore, Arthur Fryer and William Jessett, Brother of  Tom Jessett, later to become an Assistant Scoutmaster, and still later Canon  Jessett of Spokane; still others mentioned in the records were Samuel  Moore, Alan Robey, Horace Foote, Stanley Pateman and James Peters,  later killed in the First War, after winning the D.C.M. and his brother  Johnny Peters. The records of the Second Troop list the following boys as  members, although there were others: Barton Harris, Charles Woods,  Wilfred Woods, Eddie Foster, Lloyd Glover, Douglas Glover, Russell Neil,  Sid Briard, Herbie Glover, Peggy Hunter, Earl Taylor and Harold  Briard.  Mr. Bagnall was able to attend the camp at Okanagan Lake, in the  vicinity of Adventure Bay; on the Sunday the camp attended service in the  Church at Okanagan Landing, and the boys made their way back to camp  after dark, with the assistance of Chinese lanterns attached to their staves,  like so many glow-worms. A visitors' day was arranged, and a sham battle  was held the final day, firecrackers being used as ammunition; several  rattle snakes were killed, and for this reason a rattle snake patrol was formed, hat bands being made from the skins of snakes killed by the scouts.  World War one broke while the scouts were in camp, and shortly after, both  troops found themselves without Scoutmasters, as both had joined up.  The second troop discontinued meetings, but the first troop carried on  with the assistance of the new Rector of All Saints', Reverend Mr. Laycock.  In 1916 the first troop also discontinued its meetings, but they were resumed  in February 1918. Many new names appeared on the roll at this time, including Nicholas Carew, Jack Morse, Aylesford Shatford, and Fred Smith.  Mr. Kenneth Burnyeat, Superintendent of the Sunday School came to the  meetings for a short time, and following this Tom Jessett and James Moore,  with the assistance of Maurice Meredith, who had recently moved from FIRSTTWENTY YEARSOF SCOUTING  55  ^V^lrk.***  r'-vs^v  s  Scouts at the 1914 camp on Okanagan Lake, with Scoutmaster G. Kearn.  Photo by G. P. Bagnall  The Scout Hall Vernon, 1926. 56 FIRSTTWENTY YEARS OF SCOUTING  Vancouver, also Charles Woods and Finlay Ramsay, later to become a  physician in Seattle. Later in the year other recruits were taken on the  strength, including Richard Cooper, William Ruhmann, Frank Smith, and  Harold Cochrane.  In August 1919, Charles White, the manual training teacher agreed to  act as Scoutmaster. A bicycle hike was organized to Okanagan Lake; apart  from those already mentioned, others who took the hike were Douglas  Gillespie, Hector Richmond, Ronald Robey and Arthur Lang; they were  drenched with a sudden downpour and stayed overnight; a posse came out in  search, but did not disturb them when the scouts were found asleep, but wet.  C. W. Morrow arrived in Vernon in May 1920 and took over as Scoutmaster. The troop had a football team, but no wins were recorded. Mr. White  retired as Assistant Scoutmaster along with Henry Crowley. The first Court  of Honour was held in the Ranchers' Club, on the site of the City Hall area.  An attempt was made to hold a camp, without success; Douglas Gillespie  was promoted to Troop Leader and William Ruhman to Patrol Leader. The  Kelowna troop, which had been organized earlier, invited two of the Vernon  scouts to attend their camp; those chosen were Norbert Ball, now a  Physician at Oliver, and Aylesford Shatford, now of Kelowna; they gave a  good account of themselves, especially on sports' day.  The first major project considered by the troop was an ice cream and  soft drink booth on the occasion of the rodeo staged by the Vernon Amateur  Athletic Association in August 1920; the project did not proceed, but the  scouts were given a donation of $100 in lieu. Following the rodeo, Aylesford  Shatford collected 840empty bottles, at 10 cents a dozen and turned this over  to the troop as well.  In the Fall of 1920, as an experiment the troop was organized along  military lines, with Tom Jessett acting as Adjutant; weekly orders were  issued and published in the Vernon News. At Christmas a banquet was held,  which became an annual event; at this first banquet Mr. White was  presented with a "Thanks" badge as a small token of gratitude from the  troop; at this time troop strength stood at 30; among the newcomers were  Gerald Little, Neil Ball, Larry Lang, Jack Watson, Arthur Lefroy; Gerald  Little was killed in a hunting accident in 1932.  In the Spring of 1921 the local regiment under Colonel Johnston, invited the scouts to attend divine service with the regiment; Coldstream  Scouts from Mackie School also attended. Church service became an annual  event.  During the Easter week-end of 1921 a camp was held in the BX area, 29  of the 30 scouts being in attendance; each scout brought and cooked his own  food; this occupied most of the time in camp. Two new scouts attending were  Vere McDowall, now deceased and Robert Cooper. Results in tests were  good; some of those who were successful were Harold Cochrane, Welby  Ryan, Dudly Johnston, Frank Smith, William Ruhmann, Hector Richmond  and Val. Lewis, sister of Mrs. Earl Cullen, who did such good work with the  scout plays for many years.  Having had a taste of camp, the troop decided to have a Summer  camp. Funds were raised by a concert, and one of the stars was Julian  Robarge. A location had to be found and with this in mind, the Scoutmaster  and Assistant, hiked to Okanagan Lake and hired a rowboat from William FIRSTTWENTY YEARSOF SCOUTING 57  Peters; various spots were examined but eventually Otter Bay was decided  on. It was owned by the late Price Ellison, Esq., former Minister of  Agriculture for many years: this area later became known as Ellison Park,  when taken over by the Government of B.C. Transportation of supplies and  equipment were handled by Captain Lang of Okanagan Landing who had a  launch and scow. A heavy storm was encountered, but apart from delay  there was no inconvenience. Bell tents had been borrowed from the militia  but meals had to be taken in the open, and as the weather was bad, this really  made things tough for the cooks. This was the first occasion when the  Reverend and Honourable T. R. Heneage, later to become Lord Heneage  attended the camp; he continued to do so until 1945, when ill health forced  him to remain in Vancouver. There was no road to the camp in those far off  days so the scouts marched in. The week's camp proved to be an exciting  event in the history of the troop; swimming was excellent, as were the many  games and sports events. A large number of visitors were able to attend by  launch on visitors' day.  Following the camp, a jetty was built with the assistance of Captain  Barrington of Okanagan Landing, and this was used to good advantage for  many years. In the fall of 1921 the troop lost three of its senior members,—Tom Jessett secured a teaching position in Honolulu; Albert Prior  moved to Winfield and Stanley Pateman moved to Armstrong. The latter two  have since passed away. Welby Ryan suffered a severe injury to his hand.  Vernon's first May Day was held in 1921; the scouts paraded and acted  as Guard of Honour to the Queen, Helen Cochrane, daughter of Mr. Arthur  Cochrane, M.L.A., and President of the Association in 1926. He died very  suddenly on the eve of the opening of the Scout Hall.  In the Spring of 1922 the troop staged a play, "A Street Boy's Honour"  which was a great financial success; new names appearing in the roll included Ernest Rendell, Blandford Marley, Gordon Mutrie, Kenneth Moffatt,  Arthur Emerson, Noel Gillespie, Philip Wainman and Percy Nelson. The  camp was again held at Otter Bay, where it was held for many years to  come. A dining marquee had been borrowed which proved a great convenience; 50 were in camp; Ernest Rendell and Gerald Bate took the  honours on sports' day. By Fall, troop strength had increased to 65, and was  run in two sections, as the Parish Hall was too small to accommodate so  many; an attempt was made to buy or lease the Otter Bay area, without  success.  1923 was a banner year for the troop in many ways; a Mr. Mitchell  arrived from Timmins, Ontario, and associated himself with the troops; he  was a great athlete, and did excellent work with the scouts, whom he termed  his "acrobatic archies". William Meek arrived from Vancouver as a Patrol  Leader. In May the troop visited Kelowna on the occasion of their Spring  concert. A Spring play "A Country Boy Scout" raised funds for the camp.  During the Summer, the Imperial Order, Daughters of the Empire staged a  huge pageant, and one of the scenes, "The taking of Quebec" staged by the  scouts, proved a popular number. Several hundred took part in the large  affair. Just prior to camp there were a number of promotions, including  Hector Richmond, Stanley Patemen and Douglas, Gillespie, all to be  Assistant Scoutmasters; William Ruhmann to be Troop  Leader;  Herbert 58 FIRSTTWENTY YEARSOF SCOUTING  Thorburn to be Patrol Leader. The Summer camp lasted a full two weeks,  and 55 attended. This was the first year a radio was in a camp, a crystal set  owned by Gerald Bate. New names in the troop included Vernon Clip-  pingdale, Charlie and Fred Little, William Fulton, William Greenaway,  George Carter, George Pothcecary, Gussie Palmer, and George Dungate.  During the camp Commissioner Ross Sutherland of Victoria, and Scoutmaster Allen of Naramata inspected the troop in connection with its entry  for the Lieutenant-Governor Challenge Shield. In October the troop received  word that it had won this coveted honour. At this time there were 72 in the  troop, an all time high. The presentation took place in October; later in the  Fall, the local Association came into being with Mr. C. B. Lefroy the first  President. At the close of the year, an editorial appeared in the Vernon  News: —  "The Vernon Scouts" Vernon has always been proud of its Boy Scouts  but Vernonites will be even more proud of this well organized troop  for the lads have won the highest honour that can come from  provincial authorities. The Lieutenant-Governor's Challenge Shield  has been awarded to the Vernon Troop following the inspection held  during camp.  The lads have always given a good account of themselves wherever  they have appeared   The Boy Scouts develop citizens of whom any country might well be  proud. Scouts are taught to be manly, to live upright, honest lives,  and at all times to be loyal to their country. It is an order that has  done exceptional work throughout the Empire, and in this work  Vernon has done its part, as is shown this week by the high award that  has been made to the Vernon troop. Congratulations."  A large and sumptuous Christmas Banquet was held at year end.  Truly 1923 was a banner year for Vernon scouting.  Early in 1924 Charlie White, the Troop Leader moved to Kelowna and  his place was filled by Ronald Robey; Arthur Lang and George Dungate  were promoted to Patrol Leader and Second. Newcomers included Calder  Goodenough, Frank Oliver, Monte Nesbitt, Tierney O'Keefe. Assistant  Scoutmaster Douglas Gillespie left for University; later a party was held in  the Agricultural Hall in the Court House with patronesses Mrs. W. J. McDowall, Mrs. Hamilton Lang, Mrs. Earl Cullen, Mrs. C. M. Rendell, and  Mrs. C. White. For a spring play, the troop chose "Professor Pepp", under  the direction of Mrs. Cullen, the first of many she directed. The scouts took  the girls' parts and made a great success of the production. The usual Spring  Church parade was held, this time in conjunction with the Girl Guides, and  the turnout was good.  Victor Bulwer joined just before the Summer camp. The freight  problem was solved by C. P. R. who took the baggage and advance guard in  at the rate of 24 cents per 100 pounds. The newly formed Troop at Oyama  decided to join forces with the local troop at this camp, and 14 attended  under Scoutmaster Vernon Ellison, son of the owner of the area. Mr. Ellison  loaned the property to the scouts for a period of 25 years without charge, and FIRTYTWENTY YEARSOF SCOUTING 59  for this he received the "Thanks" badge at a ceremony held in 1932. The  camp was large, some 55 being in attendance, with Assistant Scoutmasters  Ernest Rendell and Gerald Bate attending in that capacity. Mr. Bate is now  in the U.S.A. and Mr. Rendell met a premature death. The year 1924 was the  year the troop was able to acquire its own tents and camping equipment, and  this was used for many years. Among those in attendance from Oyama,  apart from the Scoutmaster were Chris and Kenneth Dobson, Larry and  Eldred Evans, George Pothecary, Pat and Norman Bowsher, Ken Wynne  and Elmer Crawford. A car from Oyama piloted by Mr. Crawford successfully made the trip over the hills right down to the lakeshore, although it  suffered a bent axle in the process. This pioneer effort paved the way for the  fine highway that connects Ellison Park with Vernon to-day. During the  camp the troop staged a burlesque on the American Revolution, written by  Fred Little, and Ronald Robey; the Boston Tea Party was a bit too realistic  as two of the boys were thrown into the Lake.  The 1925 Spring play was called "A Bunch of Fun" which was a  financial success. The I.O.D.E. Chrysler Chapter, which had taken over the  sponsorship of the Troop donated $150 towards new uniforms. During camp,  Mr. H. C. Dalziel of Cameron's Point attended in the evenings and took many  of the scouts for a trip in his launch. Mr. E. K. Peters of Vernon did the same.  On one occasion Mrs. R. Peters brought in the supper for the scouts, blanc  manage and jellied meat, both greatly appreciated. Mr. Knight-Harris of  Armstrong who was substituting for the Vernon News editor made a trip to  camp, and was impressed with what he saw; he wrote a lengthy editorial on  the need of a scout hall. It is significant that a scout hall materialized the  following year. The Parish Hall committee had requested the scouts to find  another meeting place, and for a brief period the Armoury was used.  Another item of interest in this year was the transfer of the Navy League  boat to the Scouts; Mr. Hugh Heggie, the former magistrate officiated at the  changeover at Kalamalka Lake. So it came about that Sea Scouts were  started. This rounded out the scout organization, there now being, cubs,  scouts, rovers and sea scouts. From the Armoury the troop moved to the  Skinner packing house, now occupied by A. Fleming Ltd.  Early in 1926 the troop again changed its meeting place, this time to  the Alhambra Hall (later the Empire Hall at the West end of Barnard  Avenue, presently an apartment block with stores below. The local  Association came to the conclusion that it would be necessary to try and  build a hall for the various groups, and under the Chairmanship of Charles  White, a contract was let to Mr. William Morley. At the outset the hall was  intended solely for scout and kindred groups but the plan was extended to  take in other organizations. Certain funds had already been collected for a  gymnasium; the trustees were persuaded to turn the funds over to the  Association which undertook to raise a similar amount by the sale of baby  bonds, and also undertook a lottery of a new Chevrolet the cost of which was  only $851. The I.O.D.E. promised to put on a concert; the City Council  donated the property just North of the Bus depot, but it was discovered that  the creek running under the lots could not be by-passed, and other lots were  donated, where the Scout Hall now stands. The entire community was behind  the project and it was formally opened in November 1926, and fully paid for 60 FIRSTTWENTY YEARS OF SCOUTING  as follows: —  Sale of baby bonds  $2000.  Chevrolet raffle  850.  Furnacedonation  500.  I.O.D.E.donation  1200.  High School Gym fund  2000.  1st War Gym Fund  850.  Elks and Rotary club donations  600.  $8000.  The Association never took title to the lots, and the City, in a generous  mood, never assessed the Association with the value of the improvements;  in addition the City donated water, light and other services. The hall was  operated as intended, for the whole community and all operating profits  were plowed back into the building. In addition the Association staged  various events to assist in adding many needed improvements, for example,  the balconies, the opera seats, the benches, the supper room and kitchen  equipment. The Vernon Old Scouts completed the White room in memory of  the president Charles White, and the scouts and guides donated the stained  glass window and sign. Improvements over the years would total many  thousands. Both the Scout Association and the City of Vernon have a large  equity in the building; thanks are due to the latter for its continued interest  and co-operation over the years 1926 to 1969. The opening ceremonies were  fully reported in The Vernon News in November 1926, and part of the report  is included in this history, "Vernon's new hall for the use of all the boys and  girls of the town—the Scout hall was opened in due form last Thursday.  Shortly after 3, the people began to assemble outside, and at 3:30, with the  band leading,the parade swung around the Kalamalka Hotel; it was worth  seeing, guides, brownies, cubs, scouts and school children; there was a  salute in front of the hall, and Mayor Stewart then unlocked the door, and all  entered as the band played the Maple Leaf Forever; the hall was filled to  capacity with 1000 outside; Bishop Doull gave the invocation and dedicated  the building to the use of all organizations working for the good of the young;  the key was presented to the President Mr. White, who made a short speech  of acceptance. Then Mr. Hamilton Lang addressed the audience, and spoke  feelingly on the passing of Arthur Cochrane, M.L.A. the Honorary President,  and thanked the many groups for the help in raising the necessary funds to  erect the hall. In the evening a dance was held in honour of the opening,  which was attended by 400."  While the Association was fully occupied with plans for the construction of the Scout Hall, the troop went ahead with its usual training  program, and in preparation for camp, staged an ambitious play "Dandy  Dick". It was well done and some 800 saw the two performances; a Vancouver paper published a picture of the young actors. A reception was held  at Gateby in honour of the director, Mrs. Cullen. In June the troop journeyed  to Kelowna to hear Sir Alfred Pickford, the Overseas Commissioner, and  Mr. John Stiles, the Dominion Commissioner; 232 scouts and guides attended the church parade.  The Summer Camp advance guard went to Otter Bay under Assistant  Scoutmaster Ronald Robey. During the Fall, the Woodmen of the World FIRSTTWENTY YEARSOF SCOUTING 61  staged a dance in aid of the Scouts; so ended 1926, another outstanding year  for scouting in the Vernon area.  The 1927 Spring play was "The Arrival of Kitty"; scouts again took  both male and female parts. Prior to camp there were a number of  promotions, William Fulton, Wilfred Martyn, Calder Goodenough and  Herbert Phillips. St. Michael's School held a rally day early in June, and  invited the patrol leaders; they enjoyed themselves very much, especially at  Tea. A movie was sponsored by the troop, "The Regular Scout" which netted  a good sum for camp. The camp lasted 10 days; Oyama again sent a patrol,  this time under Scoutmaster Sidney Land. As 1927 marked the occasion of  the Diamond Jubilee of Confederation, the committee in charge was most  anxious to have the scouts come up from Otter Bay on July 1st. A large  launch was chartered in Kelowna, and the Rotary Club provided the transportation from Okanagan Landing to Vernon; celebrations included a  service at the Cenotaph, sports in the afternoon, and a display of fireworks in  the evening. The return journey was a bit hazardous as the skipper got lost,  missed Otter Bay and took the Scouts to Carr's Landing; by the time the  boys got to Otter Bay it was 1 a.m., and one of the scouts walked off the pier  into the Lake. New names appearing on the strength at this time included  Clarence   Fulton,   George    Roberts,  George   Carter,   Wilfred   Carter,  Huntlley Campbell and Rex Owen.  Early in 1928 Barrie Earle, David Kinlock, Donald Crawshaw, Bernard Drage and Reid Clarke were taken on the strength. The Spring play  ,was "Cinderella O'Reilly" and this time the guides took the girls' parts. The  camp was restricted to Second Class scouts or better, as an experiment and  was run by William Fulton, George Carter and Hugh Clarke. In the Fall the  ,troop arranged the first convention of the Patrol Leaders of the Okanagan;  the chairman was Patrol Leader Clifford Pickrem and the Secretary, Arthur  Lee; Robert Grant was in charge of the finance and Victor Bulwer and  Calder Goodenough looked after the luncheon arrangements. Among new  scouts taken on in the Fall were Stanley Northcott, Albert Prior, Norman  Hyland and Ted Coombes; Charlie Bristow and Colin Lefroy received  promotions, and William Greenaway was made an Assistant Scoutmaster.  Early in the Spring of 1929 the troop was asked to nominate a scout to  attend the International Jamboree in England; the choice fell between  Robert Grant and William Greenaway; the former was chosen in view of the  fact that Greenaway had been born in  England.  In April new recruits were Harold Viel, Errol Dent, John Lishman and  Alex Pontin; Cammie LeBlond was promoted to Patrol Leader; the camp  was held at Otter Bay.  In September Robert Grant returned from the Jamboree and was met  at the station by the Mayor, the President of the Association, and all  members of the troop. The Women's Institute put on a luncheon in the Scout  Hall. The troop later attended a ceremony in Poison Park, when a plaque  was unveiled in honour of the late Mr. Poison, a former Mayor, who had  donated the park to the City in perpetuity. The troop had now grown to such  an extent that it became necessary to divide it into two sections; William  Greenaway was put in charge of Section "A" and William Fulton in charge  of Section "B". The troop did not stage a play but Mrs. Cullen chose an adult  cast for "The Key Note"—a mystery play that drew great praise from The 62 FIRSTTWENTY YEARS OF SCOUTING  Vernon News. Peggy Homer Dixon took the lead, and was later killed in a  motor car accident. The new set-up in the troop made many promotions  possible, among them being: Robert Grant to be Troop Leader; Saxon  Peters, Clarence Fulton, Colin Lefroy and George Whiten to be Patrol  Leaders; John Tarry, Harry Roberts, David Kinlock and Donald Crawshaw  to be seconds. Robert Grant gave a detailed report on his trip to the Jamboree. Sir Robert Baden-Powell had been honoured many times during the  Jamboree, including the degree of LL. D., from the University of Liverpool;  scouts throughout the world contributed five cents, the English scouts a  penny, which resulted in the gift of a Rolls-Royce and trailer, plus a cheque  for 2750 pounds; the American Scouts sent $10,000 to further the work of  scouting. The Canadian Scouts at the Jamboree presented an Indian head  dress, over 150 years old.  In 1930 there was no Spring play; in lieu the troop staged a large raffle.  The camp was run by William Fulton, who acted as Scoutmaster, with the  assistance of Hugh Clarke and George Carter. Commissioner E. C. Weddell  of Kelowna with Scoutmaster James Laidlaw visited the camp for the first  time. The annual Patrol Leaders convention was again held in Vernon.  In 1931, two Chinese youths joined the troop, David and Andrew Lim ;  their Father was an Anglican Minister. In the Spring the troop joined forces  with the old Scouts Association to stage a dance, which took the form of a  cabaret.  This was the first and only occasion when a bar was in operation, with  the permission of the Liquor Board, but the dance was attended by adults  only. In another effort the troop joined forces with the local Association in  sponsoring the U.B.C. Spring play. A final project was an additional cabaret  staged with the assistance of the I.O.D.E and the old Scouts, to help finance  the expenses incurred in the White Room. A group of Scouts from Wenatchee  visited the camp and invited the troop to send a delegation to the International Camp-O-Ral to be held in September. The invitation was accepted and 15 scouts journeyed to Oroville; other Cities in the district were  also represented. The affair took the form of an outdoor scout show in conjunction with the Fall Fair. There were 6 major competitions of which  Vernon won three outright and tied for a fourth. Many courtesies were extended the Canadians by the Commissioner R. E. Crompton and his assistant  Donnie Van Doren both of Wenatchee; they proved capable executives and  wonderful hosts. Two of the Vernon Scouts, Saxon Peters and Victor Bulwer  got crecit for saving a jockey Indian while in camp; he had been drinking  and walked into the river. The trip acted as an incentive for the balance of  the year, and quite a number of recruits came into the troop.  The year 1932 proved to be an eventful one for the troop. No Spring  play was undertaken but instead the troop went in with a Miss Pratten of  Kamloops, along with the Guides, when she staged her annual talent show,  after the pupils had a season learning various dances. The troop also  sponsored the annual U.B.C. production. George Carter took charge of the  camp, assisted by Rev. Mr. Heneage. After the camp the troop embarked  on its biggest project—a large international camp at Otter Bay, with the  highlight being a scout circus in Poison Park at Vernon, on the concluding  day of the camp. A large advertising campaign was undertaken, and camp  opened with 90 in attendance. The camp staff from Wenatchee was in camp, FIRSTTWENTY YEARSOF SCOUTING 63  under Commissioner R. E. Crompton, assisted by Donnie Van Doren, Pablo  Hayward, Arthur Hannes and Arnold Eliot. District Commissioner E. C.  Weddell was also present; Rev. Heneage was in camp, as was the Scoutmaster and the regular assistants. A guest arrived from the Bellingham  Council, in the person of Mr. Cleo Bullard.  During the camp a number of scouts journeyed to Vernon to attend the  meeting of the Rotary Club, and put on an interesting program of songs and  music. The Rotarians provided the transportation to bring the scouts to the  park on the final day. The Vernon News headlined the circus write-up as  follows, "Large crowd thrilled by wonderful display given at Boy Scout  Circus." For the first time the crowd saw a varied and colorful program  exemplifying practically every aspect of the scout work. From the official  opening by Rt. Rev. A. J. Doull, Bishop of Kootenay, followed by the march  past and flag raising ceremony there was not a moment when the spectators  were not fascinated by the detailed pageant being enacted before them.  Mayor Prowse addressed the gathering, and there was a reply by Wilbur  Elder of Wenatchee. The Scoutmaster later received the Distinguished  Service Medal for many years of scouting. Price Ellison was presented with  an award for his kindness to the scouts over the years, by Commissioner W.  Solway of Vancouver. In the evening a dance was held in the Scout Hall;  gross receipts for the day were $1100, by far the largest one day effort ever  undertaken by the local troop. As might be expected the circus brought in a  large number of recruits, and it became necessary to organize a second  troop; once more the Anglican Church acted as sponsors and meetings were  held in the Parish Hall, Noel Gillespie was named Scoutmaster and Saxon  Peters Assistant, who became Scoutmaster when Noel left the district. New  patrol leaders in the first troop were Archie White, John Lishman, Harry  Watson and Tom Townrow. The Earl of Bessborough, Governor-General  visited the district in the late Summer and inspected the Scouts. At Christmas time a toy shop was operated for the needy children of the district.  And so ended 1932 another banner year in scouting for Vernon.  In 1933 Joe Peters was put in charge of instruction for the fireman  badge. A hike was arranged to BX Falls. Once again the troop sponsored the  U.B.C. Spring play. The Rovers headed by Mr. Percy Allen and Mr. A. P.  DuFeu provided several instructors for the troop. The Summer camp was a  joint affair for the two troops. Motion pictures were taken for the first time,  and it is believed they are still with William MacDonald and Donnie  Cameron who took them.  Following the camp arrangements were made for still another troop in  Vernon, and over the intervening years the association has grown beyond  anything thought possible back in 1913. The story of scouting for the years  1913 to 1933 indicates some 700 scouts have had the benefit of the scout  training; a later article will cover the succeeding years. 64  FREDERICK THOMAS MARRIAGE,  1890-1969  By Gladys E. Herbert  The passing of Frederick Thomas Marriage on June 23, 1969, marked  the close of a lifetime devoted to the cause of education and of music. For  some 30 years, he served Kelowna as teacher, principal and musician, and  endeared  himself  to  children   and  parents   alike,   through   his   deep  concern for the well-being of those  who came under his care. As one of  his       contemporary       teachers  remarked,  "People swore by him,  never at him."  Born February 23, 1890, in  Streatham, he spent his early years  at school in Croydon. (Both  Streatham and Croydon are now a  part of the City of London, England.)  At the age of 12, he won a Scholarship which took him to Emmanuel  School near Wandsworth Common,  close to Croydon Junction. This  school was founded about 1394,  though its actual functioning was  established around the year 1500. It  was organized for gentlemen's sons  who were expecting to enter the  Indian Civil Service. This was a  residential   grammar   school,   but  young Fred was a day scholar, and achieved what was then known as a  Form III standing. His musical education ran concurrently with his  classroom training, and before he left England in 1913, he had attained the  degree of A.T.C.L. (Associate Trinity College of London), in Theory, Harmony and Counterpoint. His practical achievements at the piano and organ  were largely self-taught.  School teachers at this time learned their "trade" by apprenticeship,  and Fred was apprenticed under the London County Council at the age of 15  years. When he had qualified as a teacher, he went to Barnet, where he was  House Master in a Reform School for Boys which had been endowed by a  Colonel from the Crimean War. The Head Master was a clergyman of the  Church of England, and vicar of the local parish. In addition to the regular  school curriculum, there was provision for certain vocational training; such  as, a carpenter's shop, a dairy farm, a shoe-making or cobbler's shop. Fred  was a class-room teacher in this school for two years, from 1911 to 1913.  Doubtless this experience laid the foundation for his concern for underprivileged children everywhere, for as a classroom teacher in Kelowna, he  made it his business to visit the home of each child, so that he could better FREDERICKTHOMASMARRIAGE 65  understand their moods and attitudes.  At the age of 23 years, Mr. Marriage came to Canada, and taught for  one year in acountry school at Deadwood, just outside of Greenwood, British  Columbia. The next two years were spent teaching Public School at  Arrowhead, B.C. From there, he went to South Vancouver, where he taught  for eight years, the last appointment being at The Charles Dickens  Elementary School at 18th Avenue and Glen Drive, under Principal John  Dunbar. During this eight-year period, he had two church-organ appointments; the first, at the original St. James Anglican Church—a "High"  Church at the corner of Cordova and Gore Streets; and the second, at St.  Mary's Anglican Church in South Vancouver. It is a matter of interest that  the rector of St. Mary's, at this time, was The Rev. James McDougall,  brother-in-law of Mrs. Hazel McDougall, well-known and beloved Kelowna  teacher and elecutionist.  Because the coast climate did not agree with Mr. Marriage, he went to  Rock Creek, where he taught for one year in a one-room school. The  following year, 1926, he came to Kelowna where he taught at Central  Elementary School. The Junior High School was built in 1929, and in September of that year, Mr. Marriage assumed the duties of Principal for one  year, due to the protracted illness of the appointed Principal, C. J.  Frederickson.  From 1930 to 1936, Mr. Marriage continued to teach in the Junior High  School, with Latin and Music being specialty subjects, in addition to Social  Studies and other subjects as the need arose. Perhaps his greatest love was  his School Choirs, of which he trained a great many for Christmas Concerts  and various other entertainments, including the Annual Musical Festivals.  When Mr. Marriage entered a Festival competition with his pupils, they  ALWAYS captured the 'top' award.  Then another re-organization took place and Mr. Marriage became  Principal of the Elementary Schools in Kelowna; i.e., Central, Glenn Avenue  and DeHart Schools. This position he held from September 1936 until June  1945. From 1945 until his retirement in 1955, three more schools came under  his jurisdiction; i.e., Raymer, Graham Street, and Martin Avenue. Mr.  Claude Bissell became his successor, to be followed in 1960 by J. E. (Ev)  Greenaway. By this time the duties of Principal of Kelowna's Elementary  Schools were divided, and some of the outlying schools had their own principals.  During his early years in Kelowna, Mr. Marriage was organist of St  Andrew's Church at Okanagan Mission. As he never drove a car, some of his  parishioners would drive him to and from church. When he left, he was  presented with a silver tray, suitably engraved. The next organ appointment  was at St. Michaels and All Angels Anglican Church, Kelowna, where he  presided for 10 years. Latterly, he shared these duties with Mrs. Emily  Pritchard, L. R. A. M. and A. R. C. M. In 1961, ill health forced him to resign  from this responsibility, and Mrs. Fred Verkerk became his successor. For a  period of 19 years, Mr. Marriage spent each Saturday evening at the home of  a valued friend and accomplished violinist, Mr. "Billy" Murray. A daughter,  Isabel Murray, completed the trio, and together they would make music for  the sheer joy of self-expression. Though Mr. Marriage always said that  music was his hobby, he was an accomplished artist, in every sense of the 66 FREDERICKTHOMASMARRIAGE  word, and his audience sensed this from the striking of the first chord. His  every stance was that of a master.  In December 1914, Mr. Fred Marriage married Miss Caroline Ellen  Osborn, in Greenwood, B.C. They had been acquainted in England, where  Miss Osborn's father was curator at Kew Gardens. The couple were reunited in Nelson, B.C. and went from there to Greenwood. Mrs. Marriage  pre-deceased him in April 1967.  The esteem in which Mr. Marriage was held in Kelowna is indicated  by the fact that he held five Honorary Life Memberships in this City. He was  District Deputy Grand Master and Life Member of the Masonic Order;  Honorary Member of The Gyro Club; Honorary Member of The Rotary  Club; Honorary Member of the B. C. Teachers' Federation; and Life  Member of The Okanagan Historical Society. He was Editor of the Annual  Report of The Okanagan Historical Society for three years—1958, 1959 and  1960. He was a member of the Editorial Staff for some years preceding this.  He will long be remembered in Kelowna as "a dedicated dominie". He  is survived by one son, Robert, in Penticton, and one sister Mabel, in Lancing, Sussex.  HARVEST HOME  By Janet Anderson  The last apple is off the trees,  The pickers have drawn their pay,  The trucks are loaded and on their way,  Come in, old man, let's call it a day.  Forget the jobs that are still to do:  The disking, the winter hay,  The props scattered hither and yon.  Forget them! Stop! Come in, and stay!  The trees you planted and pruned and sprayed,  Thinned and watered, they've done their best.  They stand triumphant, lightened, free.  Like you, they're through, they have earned a rest.  The Indian summer is cool and calm;  Sunbeams squander their gold all day.  We'll sit at ease on the porch and dream  Of the past and the games we used to play.  The whole season you've laboured long;  The lads who helped are gone away;  You're tired now, and the crops are in;  Come in, old man, and call it a day. 67  WHEN COMMERCE WENT  AHORSEBACK  By H. R. Hatfield  This piece is really just a sneaky way of asking for the help of all those  from Kamloops to Osoyoos who believe they know the actual location of any  part of the Fur Brigade Trail; the trail which carried the commerce of the  Interior from 1826 to 1847. I will try to keep sifting and assembling the  knowledge and ideas if others will continue to help with the supply. To  acknowledge by name those who help is already a hopeless task; there are  too many. I write as a collector of other people's knowledge rather than as an  author. To any who are offended at the callous lack of acknowledgement, my  apologies.  Many of us who do not, should try to make our contribution to the  pages of the Okanagan Historical Society Reports. Many of the contributions  contain inaccuracies which are regrettable in an historical publication, but a  lot of the best articles would never have been written if the authors had  waited until they had the time to check all the facts as thoroughly as they  wished to do. Many good stories have never been written because the  potential authors never found that time.  To say that one should take the bull by the horns would perhaps be an  unfortunate simile but in any case I am hereby making my attempt to  plunge into print in hopes that other and more able new contributors will  follow.  Some later, more complete article, should perhaps go over the well-  known story of how the Scots-Canadian David Stuart, then working for  Astor's Pacific Fur Company, came up the Okanagan in 1811 after David  Thompson of the North West Company failed to lure him past the River's  mouth; how Stuart went as far as Kamloops and how he and Larocque of the  N.W.C. both established posts at Kamloops in 1812. Each year from here on  saw whitemen travelling through the Valley but the busy days of the  Okanagan Trail started with the ruling by the Council of the Northern  Department of the Hudson's Bay Company, at the behest of Governor  Simpson, that the outfits of 1826 and subsequent years for New Caledonia  would go by ship to the mouth of the Columbia thence by water to Fort  Okanagan, by horse to Alexandria and again by water to Fort St. James.  And so starting in 1826 and up to and including 1847, the yea rafter the Oregon  Boundary Settlement, the great Fur Brigades and smaller supply parties  and the express messengers of The Honourable Company passed this way  regularly on their lawful occasions between the Columbia, Thompson's  River and New Caledonia.  Previous to 1826, the Pacific Fur Company 1811 to 1813, the North West  Company 1813 to 1821, and after the amalgamation of 1821 the Hudson's Bay  Company,had used the route quite extensively off and on. The entry of 18th  October 1814 in Harmon's Journal at Fort St. James notes the arrival of the  first goods to pass this way to New Caledonia. "This afternoon I was  agreeably surprised at the arrival of Joseph La Roque and ten common men  in two Canoes, laden with Goods from the mouth of the Columbia River (Fort 68 WHEN COMMERCE WENT A HORSEBACK  George formerly Astoria) which place they left the latter end of August  last."  After 1847 the flow of outward bound furs and inward bound goods  through the Okanagan continued on a reduced basis for several years with  the direction of travel through the Valley reversed. The Colvile*Brigade with  the returns from what is now northern Idaho and Montana and northeastern  Washington came up the Valley to join the Thompson's River and New  Caledonia Brigades at Kamloops for the westward crossing of the mountains  and came down later in the summer on their inward trip with goods. As the  Campement des Femmesto Fort Hope route became established the Colvile  people took the more direct route via the Similkameen either joining the  other two brigades at Campement des Femmes (Tulameen) or going alone  over to Hope. Until 1860 at least the Okanagan Trail continued to be used by  the H.B.C. for messengers and for the transfer of personnel and small lots of  supplies. The Indians, who undoubtedly pioneered much of it hundreds of  years before, continued to use it. Many placer miners of the late 1850's and  early 1960's followed it to where fortune beckoned. But it was widened here  and detoured there to better accommodate herds of cattle and wagons, and  finally much of it paved to carry the rushing frantic automobile. Never again  did it see the long strings of pack horses jostling for place with the dust rising  in clouds and the engages swearing in French.  Due to the inconveniences of freighting through foreign territory and  even more to the dangers occasioned by the Indian war, which broke out  almost immediately on the Country south of the 49th parallel becoming  exclusively American territory, it was necessary for the H.B.C. to find a new  route to the Coast.  In 1848 and for the westward journey of 1849 the brigades went via  Nicola Lake, the Coldwater River, over the mountains to the Anderson River  and crossed the Fraser at the Indian village of Kequeloose near Spuzzum  and thence via the Douglas Portage to Yale. This was a terrible route and the  return trip of 1849 was made over one previously explored by A. C. Anderson  and by Henry Peers from Hope via Peers Creek, Sowaqua Creek, Podunk  Creek and the Tulameen River to the hunting trail of the Indian Blackeye  which was followed to Tulameen and then to Nicola Lake and Kamloops.  This, the second famous horse brigade trail in our part of the Province, was  used until the building of the Dewdney Trail and the Cariboo Road in the  early 1860's.  The old maps are the best working base from which to try to trace the  old trails. However they are only roughly to scale and show little detail  which we can positively recognize today. Thompson no doubt established the  longitude and latitude of the mouth of the Okanagan and John Stuart, Second  in Command in Fraser's party, the position of Lytton. Anderson or someone  may have established that of Kamloops but generally the earlier maps were  sketched from compass readings and an estimation of distances. It took a  long time, well into this century, for all the main features of the country to be  fully interpreted and set down on paper. The officers of the early fur trade  travelled as a matter of course from Montreal or Hudson Bay to the Pacific.  They were not greatly concerned with the small features that a trail up the  west side of Okanagan Lake might pass; besides they would travel "en  *Andrew Colvile—Governor Hudson's Bay Company 1852-1856. WHEN COMMERCE WENT A HORSEBACK  69  brigade" or have a local guide. And yet to torture a poor local trying to  follow their tracks a century and a quarter later they would put on the maps  such things as "the Lone Tree" and "Monte a Plombes' Garden", both I fear  long since departed.  The posts and main rivers and lakes were usually given English  names after the officers of the companies or kept their Indian names. These  names were of importance in Montreal, Fort William, York Factory and  Victoria, even in London. The local features and campsites were given  French names by the Canadiens and Metis to whom purely local things were  of importance. Their French was not always of the kind found in dictionaries  and they used idioms of the fur trade.  The tracking down of the names and their origins would have been a  delight to Sherlock Holmes. For instance after some reading one realizes  that a Pare in fur trade parlance was an enclosed place in which horses were  "parked" overnight. Hence Park Rill in the White Lake area got its name  not because it runs through open parklike country but because somewhere  on its course was an overnight campsite with an enclosed pasture. I wonder  just where? Again to a fur trader a marron was an untrained or wild horse.  Marron Valley was "Wild Horse" Valley. Wild horses were still being caught  there 60 years ago.  To further confuse things the names of lesser streams seem to have a  Harley Hatfield on the lower road of the Fur Brigade Trail at the north  end of the Game Farm on Kaleden Flats, June, 1969.  Photo by Eric D. Sismey 70 WHEN COMMERCE WENT A HORSEBACK  habit of not only changing but of jumping from one stream to another. Our  Testalinda Creek below Oliver was Tea River. Our Trout Creek was Riviere  a la Truite but our present day Deep Creek at Peachland was Riviere de a  Trepannier and our Trepanier Creek was Riviere de Jacques. Bear Creek  from the first was Riviere de I'Ours but is now changed on our maps to  Lambly Creek. Ferris Creek, now so named, near Falkland was originally  Riviere de Mons. Faries after Hugh N. Faries a well known trader with the  N.W. and H.B. companies and who, in company with Jules Quesnel, in 1807  broughtto Simon Fraser two canoe loads of much needed supplies from east  of the Mountains. While Fraser went to the mouth of the River and back  Faries and two men occupied Fort George. On the point of working up a good  grouch on this change of name I discovered that even in his lifetime his name  was sometimes spelled Ferris.  There are many venerable trails through the Valley all too easy to  confuse with the Fur Brigade Trail. And indeed a number of them were  doubtless used after 1847, and perhaps before, by H.B.C. travellers. After all  the Brigades stopped coming this way about a 120 years ago. After that the  route was changed in places because of forest fires, fences, to better serve  new uses and because someone found, or thought they had, a better way to  go. The oldtimer's story that the old trail went this way or that way is usually  true but the "old trail" familiar to him or to his father may or may not have  been the Fur Brigade Trail of 1826-1847.  In most places the Okanagan Brigade Trail is hopelessly lost under  highways, orchards, houses, fields and back country roads. The very fact  that it was well located was assurance that later most of it would be covered  by roads. Even where it may still be visible there is often such a maze of old  cattle trails that it is difficult or impossible to pin point the original Trail. In  many places, perhaps most, the Brigade Trail itself would not be a single  pathway. In all but a few stretches, as in a narrow defile or a made set of  switchbacks on a hill, or where the trail was cut into a steep sidehill, the  passage of several hundred horses would naturally make more than one  pathway. Beside the packed animals, travelling loose, and the horses ridden  by the men and often some accompanying Indians there would be a number  of spare horses and probably some colts charging hither and yon along the  flanks.  Being forearmed, with all these excuses for not being sure of the way,  let us now set out upon the road and f ol low as best we may the Okanagan Fur  Brigade Trail from the Canadian border to Kamloops. The maps we will use  include a Map of a Portion of the Colony of British Columbia, Compiled from  Various Sources, Including Original Notes from Personal Explorations  Between the Years 1832 and 1851, by Alexander Caulfield Anderson, 23 May  1867; a Sketch of Thompson's River District 1827 by Archibald McDonald;  Thompson River District, from a Map in the Possession of H. E. Governor  Douglas, C.B., made in 1835 by S. Black, Esq., H.B. Company's Service. The  positions of New Westminster, Douglas & Hope are those determined by the  Royal Engineers. Lithographed under the direction of Cap't Parsons, R.E.,  July 1861, by order of Col. R. C. Moody, R.E.; These three were made by  Officers of the Hudson's Bay Company whose work included the command of  Brigades passing through our Valley. We will also use the sketches made by  the famous botanist David Douglas when he came up this way with a Hudson WHENCOMMERCEWENTAHORSEBACK 71  Bay cattle party in April of 1833; a Map of British Columbia compiled under  the direction of Surveyor General the Honourable J. W. Trutch in 1871; a  map of a Portion of the Southern Interior of British Columbia, Embodying  the Explorations . . .made in 1877 by G. M. Dawson and in 1882-4 by Amos  Bowman; the Shuswap Sheet by G. M. Dawson assisted by James McEvoy/  1898; and the modern maps covering the area.  Between the confluence of the Similkameen and Okanagan rivers and  the foot of Osoyoos Lake, where Oroville is now, we cross from the east bank  of the Okanagan to the west bank. Then we follow the flats west of Osoyoos  Lake passing the vicinity of the present customs houses on the 49th Parallel  and also that of the Historic Monument marking the location of the first  customs house on our side of the border. It could well be that the Trail goes  across what is now the Osoyoos graveyard and possibly twice a year the  pioneers of our day who sleep there may exchange a word or two with the  passing ghosts of old brigades. Certainly the men of 1900 would have more in  common with those of 1830 than the men of 1970 with those of 1900. There  undoubtedly was an Indian trail up the east side of the Lake and this may  well have become the principal trail but the early maps, including those  made by the fur traders themselves, all show the Fur Brigade Trail on the  west side.  When we come down from the sage bush flats to the northwest corner  of Osoyoos Lake there is a good place to let the horses drink, and a campsite.  The ground is firm and dry as the sage grows almost to the water's edge and  the shore is sand. The trail then continues north along the dry open area with  the rocky hillside on the left and the swampy bush and meadow land on the  right. We go between the hillside and the pond now known as Deadman's  Lake and presently cross Tea River, now called Testalinda Creek. One is  curious to know how it came to be called Tea River and how of all the  streams between Osoyoos and Kamloops it, almost alone, came to be named  in English. Itwas still called Tea River, on the mapsat least, in 1884.  Having crossed Tea River I am already lost. All we can do is go by the  legendary route gradually bearing to the left uptoand across the alluvial fan  where later, for some 30 years from about 1890, was the mining, ranching  and administration settlement of Fairview. Thence we follow the road to the  south end of Myer's Flat where we are once more on pretty safe ground.  A. C. Anderson shows three locations of interest between Tea River  and a point north of White Lake where the trail divided into the Upper Road  and the Lower Road. The first was Monte a Plomb's or Moule a Plomb's  Garden to the left of the trail. In 1855 the Thompson's River journal mentions  an Indian named Mul a Pion showing up there with his two sons. Could this  have been the gardener and just where was the garden? It must have been  .ne of the first gardens in these parts. The next was Cote de Sable, sand hill'  or shale slide, and lastly before the junction the Pare which must have been  an overnight campsite. Anderson's map shows the Pare as about 30 miles  north of the Border. He seems to have been around five miles long on his  distances about here but in any case it would be about two days travel from  the Forks of the Okanagan, Oroville. It appears that the annual brigades  camped in the vicinity of the Forks where large numbers of Indians would be  waiting to do some trading and to collect a little tribute of tobacco.  And now we come to the division or junction of the Upper and Lower 72 WHEN COMMERCE WENT A HORSEBACK  Roads. Again the paper is stained with tears of frustration because I don't  know where we are. A year ago I could have guided you over the Trail with  great aplomb but mistakenly started some factual research and am finding  out how little we really know about its location. Once more falling back on  the legendary or traditional we will go via Twin Lakes across to and then  along Highway 3 for a short distance and then bear left into Marron Valley.  Safely ensconced again in a good substantial valley we will follow it,  generally as today's road does, to the crossing of Riviere aux Serpens, our  Shatford Creek. It would seem to me now that it is possible, (please note the  use of words), that to follow the Trail we should have continued along the  general course of the present White Lake Road to within several miles of its  junction with Highway 97 and then angled left, coming out on the bench  above the lower end of Marron Lake and joining the route we have followed  as it enters Marron Valley.  We cross Riviere aux Serpens about where the Green Mountain Road  crosses it now and nearby find a comfortable place to camp at the lower end  of Farleigh Lake. It is likely that the party David Douglas was with camped  here in 1833.  From here we enter the Beaver Creek, Shingle Creek to us, valley high  up on the west side, then keep along about level and cross the Creek at or  very near the present road crossing. More or less continuing to follow the  route of the road we cross Riviere a la Truite and bear right, down present  day Prairie Valley, coming out on Nicda's Prairie, the present Summerland.  We cross Aeneas Creek north of the Summerland business district where the  Creek swings to the east, and about here is a short cross-connecting trail to  the Lower Road. We continue on up the east side of our present Garnett  Valley and stop for the night at Campement du Pretre, the Priest's Camp, on  the eastshore of Garnett Lake. This I think is still a spot favoured of fishers,  hunters and picnickers; not to suggest that travelling with a brigade in say  1830 was any picnic.  From Campement du Pretre the trail bore genfly right to come out on  the brow overlooking Okanagan Lake and went down the steep hillside,  much as the road does now, to join the Lower Road just south of Riviere de  Trepannier, presently called Peachland Creek on the maps and by us natives  Deep Creek. Later the American Joel Palmer apparently took some wagons  down this hill during his trading excursions in these parts in 1858 and 1859.  He let them down the hill by lines snubbed with a turn or two around any  sturdy convenient tree.  If our party had been a small one and it were winter, or if there were  no senior officer along on business bent and we had friends or sweethearts In  the Indian village at Penticton, we would almost surely have taken the  Lower Road. It must have followed the route of the present White Lake Road  to its junction with Highway 97 then that of the Highway to the south end of  the "Kaleden Flats". It would cross the flats near>the base of the hills on the  west and then climb to enter the defile which starts at the extreme north end  of the present Game Farm and through which the telephone line runs.  Emerging from the defile it followed a gradually descending bench and then  went down to about the level of the highway before the present one; which  could be called road 3. From here I have no guess as yet as to whether it  dropped to the level of Lac du Chien about where road 2 did or kept up on the WHEN COMMERCE WENT A HORSEBACK 73  approximate level of roads 1 and 3 and then went down to the flats and the  Village.  The Village of Penticton sat astride "Shingle" Creek as it does today  but Anderson used the name Riviere aux Serpens, while on Black's map it is  Beaver River, and the "Shatford" Creek branch Snake River. On the  Dawson map of 1884 it is Beaver Creek. Mrs. Louise Gabriel tells me that the  English equivalent of the Indian name for Shingle Creek is Poplar and for  Shatford Creek is Salmon. The mix-up in names and disregard for old names  seems to have started a long while ago.  From Penticton the Lower Road trail followed the west side benches,  crossed Riviere a la Truite, went along to the east of Giant's Head, across  Prairie Creek, now Aeneas Creek, and so along the route of Highway 97 until  it was joined by the Upper Road, as we have noted, near the mouth of R. de  Trepannier, our present Peachland or Deep Creek.  It is most likely that Riviere de Trepannier was named for a man  Francois Trepanier (or Trepannier) who was employed as a guide west of  the Mountains. After fording his river, no trouble to us as we are with an  ingoing brigade in the late summer, we get above the low rock cliffs south of  Peachland and go along to the flat at the mouth of Riviere de Jacques. In the  winter of 1812-13 Alexander Ross of the Pacific Fur Company went from Fort  Okanogan to Fort Cumcloups (alias Thompson's River or Kamloops) to visit  his boss David Stuart. On the way back with his man Jacques he took a  different route, hoping, I think, it would be a short cut, perhaps the old Indian road from Nicola Lake which came out on R. de Jacques near its mouth.  As many others have discovered before and since, they found a shortcut can  be rather long and they got lost. One morning Jacques was having trouble  starting a fire in the deep snow. Ross suggested that a little powder might  help. Jacques, the impetuous Frenchman or maybe just with cold stiff  fingers, poured on the whole horn full and was quite badly scorched in the  ensuing explosion. He lost his whiskers but gained the naming of the stream  on whose headwaters they were camped. Only in time the whiskers grew  back and some person or persons unknown all but removed his name from  the stream and took that of Trepanier from the next one south to replace it.  One branch of what we call Trepanier Creek is Jack Creek on our modern  map. Jim Creek would have been better as the translation of Jacques is  James not John.  Crossing Riviere de Jacques we go up the north side a bit then switch  back up to the present Trepanier bench and crossing it skirt the hill and go  through the valley, where the little lakes are, about as the highway does.  Then we cross Riviere Creuse (Deep Creek), our Powers Creek. We  probably camp near the Indian village by present day Westbank, perhaps  notfar from the Monument which now commemorates the Trail.  If we haven't stayed up too late with our Indian friends smoking,  speechmaking and feasting on boiled dog we will get away in reasonable  time in the morning. For a big horse brigade this means about nine o'clock.  For an officer of the Company travelling light or a small party on exploration a "reasonable" time could be as early as 3:30 A.M. with a stop for  breakfast, say about seven. Once under way the brigades of course kept  going. You can't stop a hundred or two hundred horses for lunch. Usually  camp was made after say five to seven hours of travel and the horses 74 WHEN COMMERCE WENT A HORSEBACK  unloaded and put out to graze, in a pare if there was one but in any case  under the care of the horseguards. Near a village or Indian camp a wiley  Chief Trader or Chief Factor would entrust the horses to the care of the local  Chief, knowing that the Chief would not dishonour himself by allowing  anyone to lift a horse left in his care; whereas otherwise in spite of the  guards horses could disappear in the night and leave nota trace behind.  From the vicinity of the Westbank Monument it seems that we should  keep to the west of the Highway, perhaps where the highway was 25 years  ago. In any case McDonald's River, now McDougall Creek, is soon crossed.  What warring of the clans was involved in this change? Now we turn to the  right quite sharply and reach the lakeshore at Anse de Sable (Sandy Bay)'  by the old ferry landing, a good place to let a 11 the horses havea drink so long  as our men keep a sharp eye out to see that none of them lie down in the  water and get their packs wet. If this should happen everything has to be  taken out, thoroughly dried and carefully repacked. These goods came from  London around Cape Horn and more than half have yet to go some hundreds  of miles. They were probably requisitioned two years before and it would  take two or three years to replace anything lost. The Chief Factor or Chief  Traders in command of the Brigade is responsible for the goods in his charge  and it has been known that those lost through the laxity of his supervision  have been changed to his personal account.  We go along above the rock cliffs south of Riviere a I'Ours where it is  understood the Trail is visible to this day and then cross the stream itself,  still known generally as Bear Creek but officially as Lambly Creek after the  pioneer family of that name. From R. a I'Ours we follow the benches close  above the Lake and toward the end of the day's travel come to Mauvais  Rocher, another of the few places where the Trail can still be seen.  Some 60 years after the last brigade passed the "Bad Rock" a number  of young men took up preemptions on the high bench land to the west and  came down to the dock at Nahun to get their mail and supplies left there by  the sternwheelers.* Also sometime after the brigade days another trail  much higher on the mountain was used, undoubtedly by H.B.C. people as  well as others because about 1910 it was known as the Hudson's Bay Trail.  However itseems certain thatthe brigades used the lower older trail.  Mauvais Rocher was a stretch of narrow trail perhaps 200 yards long  on a shelf along the face of a broken cliff and winding between huge boulders  lodged on the shelf. Cattlemen later knew the place as the Golden Gate. It  may well be that the original Okanagans had a similar name for it in their  language because here they would hide in the crevices and behind the  boulders with arrows on taut bow-strings and suddenly appearing at the  appropriate time would relieve smaller parties of white travellers of their  horses and other possessions. The tourist trade was of some importance in  the Valley from the very early days.  Our large party having passed here with all the goods intact we will  proceed for a few miles and again camp. The camping spots we are using are  not the only well known ones on the Trail, or even perhaps the most used  ones. It is difficult to pick them out on the Okanagan Trail where there are  places at least reasonably suitable every few miles. I expect that much  would depend on the luck of the day where camp was made in the afternoon,  'ĢSee O.H.S. Report 31, "West Side Settlement" WHEN COMMERCE WENT A HORSEBACK 75  and certainly annual brigades, small supply parties, horse and cattle  drovers, casual messengers, the Annual Express bound for Hudson Bay, and  touring Chief Factors would all travel at different speeds and so camp in  different places.  Quite early the next day we cross Riviere a la Biche ( Dog River), to us  Shorts Creek, and possibly a hunter with the brigade will be fortunate  enough to get a mountain sheep so that we can get a change from dried  salmon or dried horse meat. This was not, you understand, dried salmon and  vegetables or dried salmon and bread. It was dried salmon. The allowance  was three fish per man per day. The annual requirement for the Thompson's  River District was in excess of 20,000 fish. By the 1830's some dried corn and  peas and some grease was sometimes taken along and the men would get the  odd meal of these. Farms were being developed on the Columbia and at  Kamloops and such luxuries as flour and potatoes and even butter were at  times available to the men at the posts. In the earlier days it was customary  where possible to give out some flour and tea at Christmas. On the 4th of  March 1831 Jean Baptiste Bouche, Jnr., made his mark on a document  engaging him to the service of the Honourable Company for a period of three  years as an Interpreter in New Caledonia. Beside his salary of £l7 per annum, Jean, due to his rank as an Interpreter, was also to get, according to a  notation on the outside of the contract, 15 pounds of flour and 10 pounds of  sugar per annum. By the time Jean died in the Service, some 35 years later,  he undoubtedly would have more than this to add variety to his rations even  in hard bitten New Caledonia but you can be sure that in the 1830's if he was  among those sent out with the New Caledonia Brigade that he did not risk  any of his 15 lbs. of flour or 10 lbs. of sugar on the road. One can imagine  that the horse which carried the coming year's supply of such delicacies for  the Gentlemen and petty officers came under vigilant supervision.  After all this talk on the way and a long day's travel of some 20 miles  we reach the north end of Great Okanagan Lake and encamp near the Indian  village. During the day we have crossed R. a la Biche, R. aux Pacquets (to  us Whiteman Creek) and Equesis  River.  in the morning we cannot linger long to trade and gossip in the village  as there is another long day ahead of us; almost 20 miles to go to camp,  probably somewhere about present day Falkland, perhaps by R. de Mons.  Faries. We set off up the valley along the present Highway 97 and go to the  left of Round Lake and to the right or east of Spallumcheen Lake. From the  old maps it would appear that we cross the stream known then and now as  Salmon River a bit downstream from the present highway crossing and then  follow its left or north side somewhat as the highway does.  The next morning we cross Riviere au Bouleau (Birch River), now  Bolean Creek, and are soon crossing Grande Prairie at the western end of  which Salmon River and an Indian trail debouch from a valley on our left.  We however continue on to Monte Lake and possibly being a large and  heavily loaded brigade we will camp in that vicinity. Certainly, I believe, we  spend the next night at Campement du Poulain (camp of the Colt) in the  range country short of Monte Creek. The raising of horses for the brigades  was a very important part of the business of Fort Kamloops and here was no  doubt an area where the brood mares were kept and perhaps the colts  broken in.  In the early  1850's Chief Trader  Paul  Fraser replying to an 76 WHEN COMMERCE WENT AHORSEBACK  enquiry from Eden Colvile at Norway House wrote that the brood mares  were in good condition and that soon Kamloops should be able to supply all  the horses that were needed. That there were certain difficulties connected  with the raising of horses is shown by the following extracts from the  Thompson's River Journal. 2 March, 1852—"Same weather. Mathew  commenced making pack saddles. Bourke with Defonce making dishes for  milk. McNeill chopping wood and Hugh McLeod with Allen carting with the  bulls. Shaw attending tothe cattleand McDougall and York to the horses and  the latter report that a year colt is missing and cannot be found. As there are  a number of starving Indians along the River I am of opinion they must have  eat him." 20 Sept. 1854—"Two colts eaten by the wolves during the night."  2 April, 1859—"Killed four old mares as provisions for men, horned cattle  getting scarce." In earlier days there were no horned cattle.  From Campement du Poulain, or perhaps the camp of the night  before, a messenger was sent ahead to the Fort to tell of the imminent  arrival of the brigade, and perhaps to ask that some fresh horses or food be  sent to meet us. From there word would be sent on to Alexandria and as  opportunity offers over the next few weeks letters will be on their way to  Fort Vancouver, Fort Garry, York Factory and Montreal telling of the safe  arrival of the brigade; sometimes they had also to tell of the loss of life and  property on the way but not often on the Okanagan Trail.  In the morning we leave Monte Creek near its mouth and follow the  South Branch of Thompson's River. Monte was "the place of mounting"  where the people sometimes left canoes to mount horses or left weary  horses to mount fresh ones. Coming to Riviere Sanpoil (without furs), our  Campbell Creek, we stop an hour while the men spruce up for the arrival at  Kamloops. This night camp is made where the City of Kamloops now stands.  The next day all the goods in their parfleches are ferried across to the Fort  and the New Caledonia horses swum across. Fort Kamloops from 1812 to  1841 was where the Indian Reserve now is. In 1842 it was moved across the  North Thompson and in 1863 to the present site of the City, or what was its  site two years ago. The City now includes also the site of the 1842-1863 fort in  former North Kamloops.  The Thompson's River outfit for the year is now sorted, checked and  put away in the storehouses. The New Caledonia people will rest a day or two  letting their horses rest and feed, and themselves enjoying some fresh meat  and checking and repairing horse agres. The traditional and preferred  method of travel in the fur trader's world was by water. Horse gear or  harness was "agres", ship's rigging. Even long stretches of trail away from  a waterway were "Portages", as the Douglas Portage running back of the  mountains between Yale and Spuzzum, Blackeye's Portage across the big  bend of the Tulameen. The New Caledonia Brigade will replace some of their  weaker horses from the Thompson's River band. Perhaps they will have to  break in some strong young marrons although this would be more practical  on the outgoing trip when the loads were bales of fur. The breaking in seems  to have consisted in loading them up and one wild day of trying to keep them  under control. The next day off they went.  The earliest route north from Kamloops went up the North Thompson  and crossed at La Praverse beyond Barriere and thence over to the Cariboo.  Our friends however after farewells to the Thompson's River people.for WHEN COMMERCE WENT AHORSEBACK 77  another year will go along the north shore of Kamloops Lake, up Carabine  Creek, across Riviere du Defunct, our Deadman's Creek, and by Loon Lake,  Lac Vert, Lac la Hacheand William's Lake to Alexandria; where they leave  their horses and embark on the even more strenuous water journey to Fort  St. James on Stuart Lake.  We may well have lost our way a few times between Tea River, and  Fort Kamloops and have probably camped in the wrong place. Where you  know, or think, that I have strayed please let me know at 687 Vancouver  Ave., Penticton.  The post journals are disappointing in that they do not, in those I have  seen, cover much detail of the routes or travels of the brigades. They do  however give us some insight into the lives of the hardy people, both officers  and men who made these trips and into some of their problems affecting life  at home in the forts and on the trail. 'A few excerpts from Thompson's River  follow. Unfortunately I have not as yet found any journals of the time when  the Okanagan Trail was in full use. These are from the 1850's, mostly in Paul  Fraser's time at Kamloops. Things were somewhat easier than they had  been 20 years before but living was still not luxurious. Paul, who incidentally  was not a close relative of the famous Simon, was killed in 1855 by a falling  tree on the Campement des Femmes to Hope trail and was buried there at  Campement du Chevreuil.  23 March 1851, "Marrian and Gaspard arrived from New Caledonia  with the Express."  2 April 1851, "Arrived the 5 men appointed to this place. The cause for  their detention was that they lost themselves."  21 May 1851, "Stamped 67 of the horses brought from Okanagan."  3 June 1851, "A number of Indians arrived going up the South Branch  to dig roots."  9 June 1851, "Arrived Mr. McLean with the New Caledonia Brigade, 9  days from Alexandria."  10 June 1851, "Got 2 oxen shot as customary for the New Caledonia  Brigade."  19 Sept. 1851, "Four men making a park for the purpose of stamping  cattle."  20 Feb. 1852, "Murdock McLeod who went to see the cow (it had been  reported shot) found her wounded by arrows, done by Toppis for no cause  assigned—he has not been seen today."  22 March 1852, "Marrian and 2 retiring servants arrived with the New  Caledonia Express—there are five men on the way who are to proceed to  Colvile on their way to Canada."  22 May 1859, "Mr. Shuttleworth arrived from Colvile and now enters  the H. B. Service."  And to go back to the 9th October 1854, "Despatched Pacquette and 2  Indians to meet the York Factory Express at Dalles des Morts on the  Columbia River." They would go by Seymour Arm of Shuswap Lake and  across the mountains.  2 Nov. 1854, "Pacquette returned from Dalles des Morts without  having seen the Express boats—he gives for his reason starvation and deep  snow. He is a worthless fellow." Trifles were not supposed to hold up men of  the fur trade. 78  LAKE VIEW HOTEL, FIRST IN KELOWNA  By Arthur W. Gray  In 1892, as soon as the new townsite of Kelowna had been laid out by  Bernard Lequime, a block of land on Abbott Street, between Bernard  Avenue and Lawrence, facing what later became the City Park, was purchased by Archie McDonald. A contract for the construction of a three storey  hotel was let to Crowell and Holland, of Vernon, and soon the hotel, which  Archie called the "Lake View", because of the—at that time—uninterrupted  view of the Lake, and of the west side mountains, was completed. A three  story building (the third floor was lighted by windows sticking out of the  roof), the structure was Kelowna's pride and joy for many years. There was  a wing on the north end of the building, in which the diningroom was located.  Later south wing was added, in which the bar was located, the extension  taking the building to the corner of Abbott and Lawrence. There was a  verandah along the front, where guests could sit and admire the view.  Across the street was a large area of undeveloped land belonging to  the Lequimes. It was partially covered by trees, and had a nice beach. With  the consent of the owners, Kelowna folks used part of it for a ball-field and at  a later date the community-minded Archie McDonald built a bandstand on it  for the use of the town band. The opening of the new hotel was celebrated  with a dance on Saturday August 26, 1892, with many coming from points up  and down the Lake to join with Kelowna residents in the celebration. In those  days when the right to sell liquor was easily obtained, there were many  small stopping places up and down the Valley. Between Vernon and Kelowna  there were at least half a dozen, where travellers could stop and rest their  horse—and have one or more "for the road." Under these circumstance it is  not surprising that a trip to Vernon and back took as long as old timers said it  did! McDonald operated the Lake View for 10 years, after which he sold out  to a Mrs. E.J. Newsome of Vernon.  Mrs. Newsome leased the hotel two years later to James M. Bowes,  who came from Silverton, a mining town in the Slocan where the boom had  collapsed. Jim Bowes proved an even more popular host than McDonald,  and became an active member of a number of local organizations, particularly sports, and I remember him as the manager of the Kelowna  baseball team for many years. As Kelowna grew, new hotels were built.  There was the "Palace", a three storey wooden structure, built in 1905 for J.  W. Milligan. It was featured by a high verandah along the front and the west  side, with a balcony above. Now it is the modernised and expanded "Royal  Anne". Down through the years, as long as Jim Bowes was running the  "Lake View", it continued to be Kelowna's best hotel, and known to the  travelling public as "the" place to stay when coming to Kelowna. The Lake  View was also the favourite place for banquets and fraternal gatherings. In  1928, almost a quarter of a century after he first became lessee of the "Lake  View", Jim Bowes left Kelowna to take over the Montebello Hotel at Salmon  Arm. The move came as a shock to his many friends, after his long  association with Kelowna's best known nostelry. The occasion was not  allowed to pass without suitable recognition, however. A Courier of August  28, that year, gives the details, of which the following is a condensed version. LAKEVIEW HOTEL  79  a  1      I  Lakeview Hotel on Abbott St. before addition of south wing. Foreground  is now part of Kelowna City Park. Jim Bowes lessee 1904 to 1928.  "Ostensibly assembled for quite a different purpose, some 50 citizens  of Kelowna and district, the majority of them old timers, sprang a real  surprise upon James Bowes, retiring lessee of the Lake View Hotel on  Friday night. They made him the guest of honor at a banquet arranged  largely by Messrs. F. R. E. DeHart and J. B. Knowles. When all were seated  at the table, Mr. DeHart and Mayor D. W. Sutherland sallied forth and  "arrested" Mr. Bowes in his office, and brought him 'under guard' to a chair  kept vacant, next to the chairman. As the guest of honor entered he was  greeted with the singing of "He's a Jolly Good Fellow", vigorous rounds of  cheering, and a "tiger." The dessert stage being reached, Mr. DeHart explained the reason for the gathering, to do honor to Mr. and Mrs. Bowes. In  the town's early days he had been the mainstay of sports of all kinds,  lacrosse, hockey, baseball, football, trap-shooting, curling, horse-racing, the  Fall Fair: all had received generous support. After a song by George  McKenzie the chairman invited stories on "Jim" Bowes, and they came fast  and furious. Mayor Sutherland, in a happily phrased little speech, said that  the history of the Lake View Hotel was largely that of two men, Archie  McDonald and Jim Bowes. As a token of esteem from old timers he had  much pleasure in initiating their friends into the "Order of the Bell," an  institution which had been in existence in Kelowna for many years, but  whose insignia, a horse or cow-bell, mounted in silver and bearing the  initials of the original founders, had been conferred upon only a limited 80  LAKEVIEW HOTEL  number. He presented the bell to Mr. Bowes with the hope that they in  Kelowna would hear the sound of it frequently. Mr. Bowes, said, in reply,  that he was "completely flabbergasted", and deprecated all the kind things  said about him. The Mayor then presented Mrs. Bowes with a handsome  leather suitcase, and Mr. Bowes with a luminous travelling clock. All joined  hands and sang "Auld Lang Syne". It might be mentioned that on the silver  bands of the cowbell which formed the insignia of the "Order of the Bell",  was engraved with the wish "That you will never be found 40 miles from  home without a bell on." This was a favorite saying of one of the founders,  the late R. N. Dundas.  The old Lake View Hotel gradually fell into a decline. The name was  changed to the "Mayfair", and eventually it was torn down. The site of the  old hotel was a parking lot for a time, but now it is once more being put to its  original use, and a new modern motel stands on the site of the Lake View,  opposite the City Park. No motel, however, could ever take the place that the  old Lake View Hotel occupied in the community life of Kelowna in its early  days.  Wharf at Summerland before World War I.  Vernon Museum and Archives 81  MAGGIE SMITH OF KELOWNA  1875-1959  By Bert Johnston  There has never been a town anywhere, even a small one, without one  or more citizens who deviate from the normal and accepted patterns of  behaviour. Some of these unique souls have been gently labeled "eccentric",  while others achieve more distinction, of a sort, by being placed in the  category of "town character".  Undoubtedly one of the latter was Margaret Currie, "Maggie" Smith  of Kelowna, proud possessor of a scintillating vocabulary of profanity a  volatile temper and a propensity for alcoholic beverages. There are those of  us who can still recall the rough edge of Maggie's tongue,—and it was a very  rough one indeed!  Maggie was born in Aldershot, England, in 1875 and came to Kelowna  in 1911 with her husband "Freddie" Smith. It has been reported, probably  reliably, that both were loaded onto the ship via a large wheelbarrow,  normal locomotion having been completely suspended by a series of lengthy  farewell parties. After Freddie passed on some years later, Maggie did a bit  of work as a cook, but achieved her greatest fame as a window washer in the  business district. There, perched on her ladder, she could survey street and  sidewalk, exchange pleasantries with all and sundry,—and woe betide  anyone who failed to answer her greeting, polite or otherwise! She knew  everyone and everyone knew her, and one of her many subterfuges will be  well remembered by merchants and others who were in business on Bernard  Avenue during Maggie's day. This one was known as the "Birthday Handout". Maggie would enter shop or office, fix a steely eye on the proprietor,  announce that it was her birthday and what was he going to do about it? This  manoeuvre was repeated several times during the year, which testifies to  the success of the operation! Not wishing to be blasted for being an unsocial,  unfeeling wretch, the "captive" invariably paid up.  One of the things a great many people were not aware of however was  her faithful and frequent journeys to place flowers on Freddie's grave in the  Kelowna cemetary. Through fair weather and foul, she trudged the considerable distance, on foot, right up to her eightieth year! She died on May  21st 1959 at the age of 84 and was taken on her last journey over the winding  road to be beside her Freddie in the burial ground.  A "character" yes, undoubtedly so,—and there's many a tale could be  told that we haven't! But be that as it may, here lived and died a hard  working, honest soul, to whom cleanliness ranked considerably ahead of any  other virtue, who in an odd sort of way, added something to the community  and has thus earned a place in the annals of local history. 82  FIRST OKANAGAN SCHOOL —  STILL FUNCTIONING  By Arthur W. Gray  William Smithson of Okanagan Mission Valley made the first move  toward obtaining a public school for the Okanagan. Back in 1784 he donated  an acre of land to the government as a school site, and later the government  purchased a log cabin from him for use as the first school building. A school  district was formed that embraced what is now the city of Kelowna,  Okanagan Mission, Mission Creek and Benvoulin districts.  The school actually served a much larger area, for some pupils came  to the school from other parts of the Valley and boarded with local residents  during the school term. While the District was formed in 1874, getting a  teacher was not easy, and it was the following year before the school actually opened. Today the school still exists, on the same site, but serving a  more limited area.  Frank Buckland gave a fairly complete report on the first Okanagan  School in the 1953 Report of the Okanagan Historical Society, and told  of the difficulties in obtaining a teacher. Some time was to elapse  before one was available to come to this backwoods   settlement.  In June 1875, nearly a year after the school district had been gazetted,  itwas reported that a teacher from California was coming to take charge. In  due course a Nova Scotian, Angus McKenzie, who hailed originally from  Pictou County, walked into the district carrying his blankets and school  books. He held a first class certificate issued by the State of Kansas, which,  it seems, entitled him to a temporary certificate to teach in British  Columbia. It was not until December 1875 that he was officially engaged—at  a salary of 60 dollars per month! However, in addition he was to be supplied  free with meat, milk, butter, eggs and firewood, a substantial help toward  his budget.  First trustees were William Smithson, Frederick Brent and Joseph  Christien, (sometimes spelled Christian) the latter being secretary-  treasurer. Needless to say the school was a prime topic of conversation in  the Valley and most of the pioneers visited the school, amongst them the  priests from the Mission, the Postill brothers and Miss Lucy Postill (later  Mrs. Robert Lambly). In Frank Buckland's account he tells of McKenzie  overcoming the shyness of some of the backwoods children, some far from  home in a strange situation, by treating them to a slice of bread and syrup to  gain their confidence. McKenzie, we are told, was a big man, standing well  over six feet, and he wore whiskers somewhat after the fashion of Abraham  Lincoln, the American president who had been assasinated only 10 years  previously. McKenzie was also said to have a cast in one eye. He was gentle  and kindly as a rule, but not to be trifled with if his temper was roused! He  was a man of many parts, for sometimes when the congregation gathered at  the schoolhouse for the Sunday service, and the minister was unable to attend, McKenzie would take the service himself very acceptably.  The Superintendent of Education in his 1877 report stated: "The school FIRSTOKANAGAN SCHOOL  83  •.___-__.•_»*--_.  Mrs. W. D. Walker at 90 years (nee Dorothea M. Thomson). From 7898  to J902 she taught at Okanagan School.    Coo""y "_"_ Upk_ 84 FIRST OKANAGAN SCHOOL  in the Okanagan District was visited on the 21st of May, when all the children  on the register, 21, were in attendance. The results achieved since the  opening of the school have been remarkably successful and satisfactory in  all respects. It is difficult to speak too highly of the work accomplished.  Children who, 18 months ago, were utterly ignorant of the simplest  rudiments, and unable to speak a word of English, had advanced so rapidly  as to be able to read fluently and clearly the fourth reader. The examination  in grammar, geography and arithmetic was eminently creditable to teacher  and pupils, and must have still further increased the confidence and esteem  which the parents entertained for their conscientious and hard working  teacher."  I am sure any modern teacher would be happy to receive such a  complete endorsement from a school inspector, let alone the Superintendent  of Education.  Angus McKenzie taught school there until 1878. In October 1878 Miss  N. Coughlan was engaged as teacher. She was a sister of Mrs. Thomas  Greenhow, whose husband was one of three pioneers who settled together at  the Head-of-the-lake in 1867, the others being Cornelius O'Keefe and Thomas  Wood. Miss Coughlan taught until the summer of 1882.  From July to October the school was closed for lack of a teacher, due  in part to the reduction of the salary offered to 50 dollars per month. R. S.  Hanna became the next teacher—at 60,dollars per month—, and like  McKenzie, walked into the Valley carrying a large valise. This was possibly  his fault for he missed the stage at Yale,and had to walk. It was a long time  between stages in those days, and thumbing a ride on the Cariboo Trail  through the Fraser, or over the Hope Trail was hardly feasible.  In 1885, he left for Priest Valley school, to succeed Miss Sophie  Johnson, who had resigned to marry school trustee Price Ellison. The next  teacher was Thomas Leduc, who in turn was followed by Fred J. Watson,  who taught at the Okanagan school for a number of years. A younger  brother, Harvey, taught at Black Mountain and later at Okanagan Mission.  In 1881 Trustee Smithson was taken seriously ill with a permanent malady,  and was replaced on the board by Alphonse Lefevre. He had come to the  Okanagan in 1878 from Fort Hope and had acquired the homestead of John  B. Moore, trapper and miner. He later bought the Boucherie Ranch north of  the Frederick Brent farm on Mill Creek. He had married Susan Walker,  daughter of a sawmill owner at Fort Hope, who had as her school teacher  there Susan Louisa Moore, later known as Mrs. John Fall Allison, a resident  at "Sunnyside", now Westbank. Allison Pass is named after her husband.  The Lefevres raised a family of 10 which helped to keep the school  operating! Two of the youngest, a daughter Leontine and a son John were  still attending school in 1909, at Black Mountain, the latter sharing one of the  old style double desks with me. The daughter of old John Moore, who became  Mrs. Johnny Haynes, and Mrs. Lefevre, were lifelong friends. Mrs. Haynes  lived to be the oldest surviving pupil of the Okanagan school, passing away  at the age of 90. Though bedridden and blind, she continued to reside in her  small house near the school until her death in August 1968.  One of the early teachers at Okanagan School was Mrs. W. D. Walker,  who resides at Okanagan Mission. Then Miss Dorothea Thomson, she taught FIRST OKANAGAN SCHOOL 85  in the old log school at the turn of the century. She had come with her  parents, Mr. and Mrs. Gifford Thomson, from the Shetland Islands,  Scotland, in May 1892. Previous to teaching at Okanagan School Miss  Thomson had been the first teacher at what is now the Ellison district. This  school district was formed in 1894 and was called the Okanagan Mission  School District. It was the fourth school district in the Okanagan, the second  being Priest's Valley (Vernon) and the third Kelowna (1892). Pupils in the  Ellison school were first taught in an upstairs room in the home of Joseph  Christien, the same man who had been secretary of the Okanagan school,  then a trustee of the new district. Miss Thomson taught at the Okanagan  School from 1899 to 1902, then at Ellison until 1904, at which time she married  W. D. Walker. In spite of advancing years Mrs. Walker is still active. A  daughter, Mrs. Primrose Upton, is well-known throughout the Valley for her  interest in the work of the Okanagan and the Kelowna Historical societies.  Continuing with the history of the Okanagan School we learn that in  1906 the log school was torn down and a new one-room frame school was  built. The logs from the old school were bought by a local farmer, Andy  Patterson who used them to build a barn, a rather inglorious ending for the  historic structure.  In 1931 the school was doubled in size by the addition of a second  classroom on the front, and it became a two division school with an additional teacher.  Prior to these happenings, in July 1929 to be exact, a change of name  took place. The "Council of Public Instruction" decreed that the name of the  school be changed "to conform with present day situation, and avoid confusion." The school was henceforth to be known as the "Benvoulin" school.  As a matter of fact the district had been known as Benvoulin since the days  of the residence there of Lord and Lady Aberdeen in the early 1890's. The  proud name of "Okanagan School" had been honestly acquired as being the  first school in the Valley. The Kelowna Courier commented in a July 1929  issue: "While the new name is more appropriate to the locality, there is  naturally some regret at the passing of a name that has been a landmark for  over 50 years."  In 1966 an interesting ceremony took place at the Benvoulin-nee  Okanagan school. Itwas one of British Columbia's two "centennial" years,  and on May 24 a Douglas-fir seedling, donated by the B.C. Forest Service,  was planted with due ceremony on the school grounds. Present for the occasion were 14 former teachers and pupils of the early days. Anthony  Casorso, the oldest pupil, of record still extant, planted the tree. A wooden  plaque was placed on the front of the school inscribed: "Benvoulin School.  On this site the first public school was erected in 1874."  The newspaper story failed to grasp the real significance, simply  referring to the school as "the oldest in School District 23!" A tea, served by  the PTAfollowed, at which Mrs. W. D. Walker, the pioneer teacher, cut the  decorated cake baked for the occasion. J. H. Hayes, chairman of the  Kelowna Centennial Committee, was guest speaker. Early pupils of the  school in attendance were Mrs. Leon Gillard, Mrs. Bennett Greening, Mrs.  W. D. Quigley, Mrs. William Spear, Mr. and Mrs. Duncan Tutt, Joseph  Berard, Fred Day Sr., Stan Burtch, Archie Hardy, and Rev. E. S. Fleming,  1974 is the centennial of the formation of the school district, and 1975 of the 86 FIRST OKANAGAN SCHOOL  opening of the Okanagan's first public school. The historic dates should not  pass unobserved, and a permanent memorial to commemorate the occasion  should certainly be constructed at that time.  OKANAGAN SCHOOL-LIST OF TEACHERS  1875-78 Angus McKenzie; 1878-82 Miss M. Coughlan; 1882-85 R. S.  Hanna; 1885-90 Thos. Leduc; 1890-97 Fred J. Watson; 1897-98 Miss I. E.  Birnie; 1898-02 Miss D. M. Thomson; 1902-3 Miss M. M. Clement; 1903 Alex  Smith; 1904 Miss L. Leighton; 1904-5 Miss H. B. Milne; 1905-6 Miss C. J.  McDonald; 1906-9 Miss K. M. Cockrell; 1909-12 John Kincaid; 1912-13 Miss M.  I. Biggar; 1913-17 Miss A. H. Hunter; 1917-18 Miss B. M. Ruffell; 1919-20 Miss  A. E. Ballantyne; 1920-21 Miss L. Johnson; 1921-23 Miss L. Owen; 1923-26  Miss M. E. Topliss; 1927-28 Miss M. A. Svenson; 1928-29 Miss E. M. Fisher;  1929-32 Miss M. N. Schroeder.  In 1929 the name of the school changed to "Benvoulin", and in 1931 a  room and second teacher were added. Second teacher was Miss M. L. Moor  1931-32; 1933-35 Miss E. Gleeve and Miss M. W. Laing; 1936-42 Miss M. W.  Lang and Miss M. E. Peterman; 1942-46 Mrs. N. Marty and Miss E. E. Price  1942-45 and Miss Jean Girling 1945-46; 1946-49 J. E. Smith and Miss Barbara  Stirlin 1946-47; and Miss Joan Richardson 1948-49; 1949-50 Samuel Dumka  and Miss Wilma Richardson; 1950-51 Donald E. Matheson and Pearl D.  Slater; 1951-56 Roy M. Greening and Eva Marie Stephenson 1951-53; and  Miss Sara Unger 1953-55; Miss E. P. Bradshaw 1956; 1956-58 F. Dyck and  Miss E. P. Bradshaw; 1958-59 G. D. McKenzie and Mrs. Agnes Clark;  1959-60 Mrs. S. Christian and Mrs. W. Shannon; 1960-61 Mrs. A. McClure and  Mrs. E. Dilman; 1961-65 Miss A. Hasehan and Miss E. Vaughan; 1965-  67 Mrs. M. Hynes and Miss Vaughan; 1967-68 Mrs. D. Gartel and Mrs.  E. Vaughan; 1968-69   Mrs. M. Tatlow and Miss E. Vaughan. 87  'ñ†  St. Stephen's Anglican Church, Summerland, B.C. in  1912.  St.  Stephen's  Diamond Jubilee was commemorated April 20 to 27, 1969.  Courtesy Bessie Wilson (Tomlin) 88  AIRCRAFT CF-AOM OF VERNON, B.C.  By James Duddle  In the spring and summer of 1933 CF-AOM "The City of Vernon" was  only a dream, a dream of two youths, Eldon Seymour and Jim Duddle, aged  17 and 18. The dream of building a powered aircraft sprang from building  and flying a glider two years previously.  Many hours were spent in poring over aircraft magazines; many  designs of home-built airplanes were examined. The final decision was made  when the design, by O. G. Corbin of Madison Wisconsin, for the Corbin Senior  Ace was published. It was a two-place side-by-side seating airplane, of all-  steel fuselage and tail assembly, combined with a sitka spruce wing  structure, employing a Salmson AD9-40 h.p. power plant.  Now that they had firmly established the type of aircraft they wanted  to build, the next move was to arrange the financing of the project. They took  their ideas along with the drawings, to Mr. Jack Taylor, a retired bachelor  who at the age of 64 had a keen interest in flying. He agreed to put up the  necessary monies to finance purchase of the materials for the aircraft, with  the understanding that the monies would be paid back as they became  available. At this time a Mr. Ernie Buffam, a former aircraft welder also  became a member of the group, forming a team of four, with the total cost of  construction to be split four ways.  The first purchase was a set of large scale drawings. From these a list  of materials was compiled. All the material with the exception of the sitka  spruce was bought in the U.S.A. as there was little or no source of materials  in Canada. The work went on all through the fall and winter of 1933 into the  spring of 1934. By early spring the aircraft was all but completed. All work  had been limited to evenings and week-ends. Purchase and installation of  the engine still had to be done. The group had scanned all aviation  publications for a Salmson engine, and decided on one from Minneapolis. It  was represented as brand new and the price was right. A bank draft was  forwarded and the long wait commenced. At long last after many letters the  engine arrived in Vernon. What a sad day it was! The engine had been  robbed of all its accessories—magnetos, carburettor, valve rocker arm  assemblies and other necessary components. Every effort was made to have  the seller of the engine put the matter right but to no avail. At this point Mr.  Taylor became very upset and refused further financial assistance. For a  while it seemed that a lot of Vernon citizens were right—that a flight would  never be accomplished.  Having no manual or parts list for this engine, of French origin, it  seemed hopeless. Eldon and Jim had heard that a party in Vancouver had a  similar make of engine so they undertook a journey to find him. They found  him co-operative and he loaned them a manual and parts list. It was learned  that the Salmson Engine Co. had a subsidiary in Surrey England. In due  course a manual and parts list arrived from England. During the wait Eldon  and Jim had completely dismantled the 9 cylinder radial engine and had  inspected every piece prior to saving sufficient money for new parts.  It was spring 1935 when the parts were ordered and their arrival was AIRCRAFT CF-AOM  89  Take-off test flight, May 1935. CF-AOM "City of Vernon."  Courtesy Mrs. I. Crozier  The frame  of  CF-AOM, and   the   builders,   left   to   right:   Ernie   Buffam,  Jack Taylor, Jim Duddle, and Eldon Seymour.  Courtesy Mrs. I. Crozier 90 AIRCRAFT CF-AOM  eagerly awaited. At last they arrived by way of the Panama Canal. Eldon  and Jim set out to instal the parts and for 48 hours worked around the clock.  Installation of the engine was completed very early in the morning: all it  needed was oil and gasoline to determine how well the work had been done.  As Eldon and Jim had daytime jobs this had to wait until noon hour. Gas and  oil had been delivered to the Vernon airport in the meantime. At noon the  tanks were filled and it was time to start the engine by swinging the  propeller. It was a great thrill when the motor fired on the first pull, and  settled down to a nice smooth purr. It was the climax of all they had worked  for in the past months. CF-AOM was alive and eager to test her wings.  During the final weeks of construction Eldon and Jim had not lost sight  of the need for a test pilot, and as there was no one in Vernon area, they  contacted Lowell Dunsmore, a former instructor at the Vernon field. He was  then flying in Drumheller, Alberta. Things were slack and he agreed to come  to Vernon with his wife Peggy a member of the Langstaff family.  Lowell arrived on the morning of June 1, 1935. As the weather was  unsuitable he waited til evening to do the test. It was his intention to taxi the  plane at various speeds to get the feel of it but it was not necessary. He  simply taxied onto the field and opened the throttle. The take-off was smooth  and the climb rapid.  Some adjustments of a minor nature were made and Lowell began to  take up passengers, many of whom were noted citizens of Vernon. Lowell  stayed for two weeks, and Eldon and Jim had an opportunity to fly with the  dual controls and became quite familiar with control of the plane. It was only  natural that after Lowell's departure that they could not resist the temptation to take her up for a flip: they made several unauthorized flights, one  o\/er three hours at an altitude of 11,000 feet. Soon the Department of  Transport said "No more flying without a license."  It had become a must that one of the builders secure a pilot's license,  but money being very scarce, this was no easy task. In the fall of 1935 a Ford  Trimotor visited Vernon on a barnstorming tour, and one of the crew Len  Waagen, a qualified pilot, was looking for anyway to increase his flying  hours during the stay of the Trimotor.  The possibility was discussed that Len would come over from Edmonton the following spring, and that Eldon or Jim would fly with him in the  plane to Edmonton to take a course on a commercial trainer and qualify for  a pilot's license. Len kindly offered to let the person who went stay at his  home.  And so it was that Len Waagen and Jim Duddle took off from Vernon  enroute to Edmonton via the southern Route Grand Forks-Cranbrook-  Fernie-Calgary-Edmontonon May 9, 1936. It would be a real test of pilot and  plane as the route was over the Rockies, a formidable territory in those  days, with no navigation aids, or proper weather reports. The only weather  reports available were those obtained at the railway depot from the  telegrapher who would contact the agent at the next destination. He would go  outside to look at the sky and wire back his observations. The flight to Edmonton was made in easy stages, and other than a few weather delays, was  accomplished with only one minor mechanical delay at Cranbrook.  Immediately on arrival in Edmonton Jim enrolled as a member of the AIRCRAFT CF-AOM  91  4°  )">■  ^» ^__-j,>_»-.  (k <J)-_^ j^SU^  (A 9—<J*1±~*.&  . . ,/_^Xj»—-i  Cti^ULU0  2/___*_~.      Vi $■-..  (J Carry forward  *~dLJtA.  v&4£  ^A^~'  3. Certificate of A  4. Certificate of Ri  5. Category of aircraft'  PS>r i. ..tiLsJh...  AIRCRAFT           2. RegiMration mark. Cr- O Q...!Y\  d._d     J u n e. "--1 _   e. sution.   Ve,m o n, T3. C.   15-lJ  "Priyaie  JohaTaulor ..Aid,TM Vernon,"B.C..    ...... i___-_-t.T3ritish  Ja me s ID u c_cTIe....a.n.dl       Eidi.o.n..Seu.rn.c>.a..c _    _    ._   DESCRIPTION OF THE AIRCRAFT  Builder.  Appro—u_ate weight empty.   Maximum total weight authorized   Fuel  24. Capacity of petrol tank  J.JDueiel.le   £X  ZH-'   X."    14. Length 1%' is. Height fe._..J_ .."   -J  ..lbs.    21. Compulse  gala.    25. Oil gals-     26. Flying hours WithJfdTI power close to ground ( pta. per H.P. hour)...  Marks and type* of cn^DRa..^^ifXi^Q..fl .ri'jj..^.....   28. Normal revolutions .V^Sf    29. Total horse-power...  Propellers 3l   CA&jOits-..{."CACdTO-JC-   M. Apparatus for ludiiig by ^-fftft-Isea L-SLQ-X...  Licence for wireless issued (date)...    33^)^i^j|n^  34. Type of wireless apparat  Done at Ottawa this.  J--L-2-3- Ju-i-e,...,   <#- 7r. (°m^y__/p^  "JP- ContTO-W- of Civil Aviat  Pages from Log courtesy Mrs. L Crozier 92 AIRCRAFT CF-AOM  Northern Alberta Flying Club where he took instruction to obtain a pilot's  license. This was accomplished by June 9,1935. On June 10 Jim took off to fly  the "City of Vernon" home. The same route was followed on the return trip.  Some strong headwinds were encountered, otherwise all went well and  Vernon was reached on the 12th of June. The plane had flown the Rockies—  no doubt the first time for a totally home-built airplane. Probably this record  has not been duplicated since.  On October 9, 1936 Jim and Eldon took the "City of Vernon" to Vancouver thus completing flights over all the mountain ranges from the  Prairies to the Pacific.  The "City of Vernon" was flown during the period from 1935 to the end  of 1941, and became familiar to thousands of people in Alberta and British  Columbia. It was engaged in various air searches, photography missions,  forest cruises, and once came home with two Christmas trees strapped to the  struts.  At the end of 1941 all private flying ceased, for the Army Camp at  Vernon expanded onto the airport site, and it was necessary to find new  quarters. It was difficult to find storage for an airplane, even when  dismantled, so in the ensuing years it was moved from here to there until an  offer from Spokane was made to buy it. It was sold for a very small sum in  the 1950's*  Make—Corbin Senior Ace  Designer O. G. Corbin, Madison, Wisconsin  Canadian Registration—CF-AOM  Wing structure Sitka Spruce  fabric   covered  Wing span 34'  Chord 60"  Airfoil Clark Y 15  Fuselage Steel tubing fabric covered  Tail Assembly Steel tubing fabric covered  Seating 2 place side by side  Weight empty 550 lbs.  Weight  loaded  1000 lbs.  Top speed 85 MPH  Cruising speed 70 MPH  Landing speed 30 MPH  Maximum ceiling 15,000 ft.  Engine Specifications  Make—Salmson AO9-40 Maximum break HP 54  Type—9 cylinder, radial, air cooled.  Maker—Salmson Aero Engines Billancourt, France  Weight—148 lbs.—oil system, pressurized, dry sump.  *We now  understand  that the aircraft is in  possession of two engineers from the   Boeing  Co. of Seattle and is being reconstructed as an antique aircraft.—H. E. Seymour. 93  WITH THE  FOREST SERVICE  By J. V. McAllister  On the last day of June 1919, I made a routine trip to Aberdeen Lake  district to check on fire hazards as I was a patrolman in the Forest Service. I  stayed overnight then headed for Lumby. There I found the Chief Forester in  a great state of excitement due to smoke rolling down from Harris Creek  plateau. I got on the phone to the Silver Star lookout but could get nothing  definite as the countryside was covered in smoke. I said that if I could get  another horse, I would go back to the Lake that night. I asked the Forester to  have the road foreman send six men to the end of Aberdeen road with  provisions and cooking utensils. I put up my horse at the livery stable, and  asked Tommy Christiansen if he had a horse for hire. He had a Ginger Roan  outlaw mare, well-known around Lumby. It turned out to be a dark night,  and Ginger did not want to go to Aberdeen Lake and would not stay on the  trail. Arriving at a cabin I unsaddled, and put hobbles on the mare's front  legs. She raised such a commotion that Fred Hunter and Bill Smith, who was  staying with him, wakened and came out to see what was going on.  We could see no sign of the fire from the Lake so Fred suggested that  we get breakfast and then go east to higher ground. We hiked several miles  without success, then returned to the cabin.  As we were eating lunch I was surprised to see Paul Johnson, the  trapper, and his wife come riding out of the brush. Paul had spotted a fire  near his cabin and was on his way to report it.  The Johnson's came in for lunch. Paul's little fox terrier made a  sudden dash across the kitchen; we seized all the food and dishes and rushed  outside. The dog had seen one of Fred's tame skunks come up through a hole  in the floor, and the skunk did what skunks usually do!  No fire-fighters had arrived so I headed out to look for them. I found  six men with shovels waiting at the road with provisions but no cooking  utensils. The men and I stayed at the cabin that night and started for the fire  early in the morning. I knew of a nice spring near the trail so we stopped  there for lunch. John Daily, a black-bearded Irishman, undertook to cook. He  told the men to wash their shovels in the creek and grease them with bacon  fat. He opened a sack of flour, then mixed up dough on top of the flour. Soon a  fire was going, and each man held his shovel for John to put some dough on.  In this way the batter was cooked over the fire.  Back at the Lake, with Paul and Fred guarding the fire, I headed once  again for Lumby and sent a team for the men. Ginger didn't do badly at all  except for one break when she bucked straight down a high bank at the Jones  Creek crossing, tearing my shirt to ribbons. 94  MRS. C. G. BENNETT'S STORY  (1891-1969)  By Eric D. Sismey  When Mrs. C. G. Bennett—Vera to her many friends—died in Penticton on February 28, 1969, the Penticton branch of the Okanagan Historical  Society lost one of her stalwarts. Vera had served as secretary; was on the  local executive for a number of years and had contributed to the annual  reports of the Society.  Vera Bennett's memories were so intimately connected to early facets  of Provincial history that her parents must be introduced. Her father, blond,  six foot two, Gus Erickson, left home in Sweden in the late 1870s for the New  World. Soon after landing in the United States he travelled west finding work  with survey and construction crews pushing the Northern Pacific Railroad  through Montana. Early in 1885, learning the Canadian Pacific was laying  steel through the Rockies to the sea Erickson rode horseback from Billings,  Montana, to Calgary where he was given a construction foreman's job at  Field, B. C. And he was there when the first Canadian Pacific transcontinental train steamed down the Pacific slope in November 1885.  In 1887, Erickson was promoted to roadmaster with supervision over  the track from Golden B.C. to the prairies.  While on a holiday in Medicine Hat Gus Erickson met Florence  Dobbin, a young Irish girl who was visiting her brother. Florence, the  daughter of a British army officer, was born in Mussoori, an army post in the  Hill Country of India. After a short courtship Florence became Mrs.  Erickson in 1890.  When the Ericksons stepped from the train at Field after a short  honeymoon Gus was met by the telegraph operator who handed him a  telegram telling of trouble down the line and giving instructions for him to  report there immediately. With a jerk of his thumb roadmaster Erickson  pointed out their home—two box cars on a side track—to his young bride,  then with a kiss and a wave of his hand he boarded the train again and that  was, the last Mrs. Erickson saw of her husband for nearly two weeks.  When Erickson reached home again he was astonished at the changes  made to the box-car domicile. There were bright curtains on the small  windows, scatter rugs on the floors, cupboards and shelves made from boxes  and crates. It was homelike and cosy.  At the time of Florence Erickson's first confinement a message  tapped out by the telegraph operator brought Dr. Brettfrom Banff riding the  cab of a special locomotive and on August 22, 1891, daughter, Maud Vera,  Louise, was ushered into the world.  In 1892, the Ericksons moved from their car-box home to a new well-  built log house. It was a little farther from the main line track but still close  enough for puffing locomotives to rattle the windows and for Vera to watch  the trains. In this new house a second datrghter, Florence (Babs) was born.  Vera remembered numerous incidents of early life at Field—a life too  interesting to be forgotten. Sometimes guests would be snowbound at the  nearby C.P.R. hotel for several daysand then Mrs. Erickson might be asked MRS. C. G. BENNETT'S STORY  95  Mrs. C. G. Bennett in 1965.  Eric D. Sismey  to bake bread or pies or cookies for the stormbound guests.  Mrs. Erickson, like most Old Country girls, enjoyed walking. From  the time the ground was bare in early summer until early snows covered it  again she roamed the hills to enjoy forest and mountains and wildlife. In  winter there was nowhere to walk except along the track through the snow  gorges ploughed by the rotaries. But before starting, her roadmaster  husband taught her to get clearance from the dispatcher so that she would  never be caught by a train. "Always remember that trains go faster than  you and Vera can run".  Vera remembers clearly the day her father was carried to the house  on a door. A falling rock in one of thetunnels had nearly scalped him. From a  distance Vera remembered the hustle-bustle as Dr. Brett sewed up the gash,  and she never forgot the smell of iodoform.  Mrs. Bennett cherished her memories of Field for they were exciting  days: the passenger trains; people going to and from the hotel; the echoed  thunder of locomotives laboring up the hill and the warning whistles—"I am  coming"—bouncing from cliff to cliff; waiting helper engines, blowers  roaring and with thin plumes of steam from the safetys,- coal smoke and  cinders; the smell of steam and hot oil; and perhaps of her father standing  with hands deep in pockets chatting to an engineer.  When the Ericksons were transferred to Cranbrook in 1898 Gus had  served 13 years at Field, two as construction foreman, and 11 as roadmaster  on the toughest section of railroad in North America. Four miles east of  Field (elevation 4,172 feet) at Cathedral, B.C., the grade changed from 1.8 96 MRS. C.G.BENNETT'S STORY  per cent to 2.2 per cent to the summit at Stephen. This has been described as:  "The Big Hill—14 miles of twisting, looping pull up 1260 feet from Field to  Divide at Stephen".  Soon after the move to Cranbrook in 1898 Vera attended All Hallows  School at Yale, B.C. (OHS, 24th report, pplOl-104) for two years and until her  father was transferred again this time to Schreiber on the shores of Lake  Superior as main line superintendent between Chapleau and Port Arthur.  While at Schreiber Vera attended Ladies College at Ottawa until the family  was moved back to Cranbrook where her father had been appointed  superintendent of the Crow's Nest line from Medicine Hat to Sirdar at the  head of Kootenay Lake. If you will take a look at your road map you will find  a station "Erickson" close to Creston, B.C.  While the family lived at Cranbrook again Vera attended schools in  Vancouver and Calgary and with schooldays done Miss Erickson spent a  year in England visiting an aunt in Tunbridge Wells. Soon after returning to  Canada she married C. G. Bennett, Accountant of the Bank of Commerce in  Cranbrook, in 1913.  Vera Bennett had many happy memories of the years spent in  Cranbrook. There were picnic and fishing parties to Jacksmith Lake; trips  to Fort Steele, to the worked out placer diggings and the ghost town at  Wildhorse Creek, expeditions every spring to watch the log drive on the  Skookumchuck and to see the salmon beds at the head of Columbia Lake  where salmon in their teeming thousands ended their spawning journey  from the sea.  She remembered the real estate boom in the Columbia Valley which  brought retired army and naval officers from the Old Country lured by  fanciful tales of money to be made raising chickens and growing fruit. They  came to build large houses, bringing their china, silver and furnishings. The  first war saved them from financial ruin; they were recalled into the Service; they never came back.  Mrs. Bennett also remembered the friendship between Ericksons,  Bennetts and Captain F. P. Armstrong, builder in 1886 of the first steamship  on the Upper River, the Duchess. He was also at the wheel of the Nowitka,  the last ship to churn the waters of the upper Columbia in 1920. It was always  a delightful trip on the River on a bright summer day with Captain Armstrong at the wheel. He was such a gracious host that he made you feel you  were his guest on a fairyland excursion rather than a passenger.  In 1924, Mr. Bennett was transferred to manage the Bank of Commerce in the rapidly growing town of Creston. Here they occupied a new prefab house, which in Vera Bennett's words "Every board was green and the  wind whistled through cracks not provided by the architect".  From Creston the Bennetts were transferred to Fernie in 1925 and  from there to Vancouver in 1931 where he was bank inspector. In 1935 the  Bennetts moved again, this time to manage the Penticton branch.  In Penticton the Bennetts lived in a house surrounded by fruit trees,  high on a bench above town where south-facing windows offered a  magnificent view over part of the city and the length of Skaha Lake. After  Mr. Bennett died in 1952 Mrs. Bennett continued to live in her orchard home  until the management of a large house and garden became too great a  burden. 97  REVEREND JOHN CHRISTIE  GOODFELLOW (1890-1968)  By Eric M. Goodfellow  Reverend John Christie Goodfellow D. D. died in his sleep in Princeton  on October 24, 1968: service was held in St. Paul's United Church where he  had  ministered  for  more than  30  years.  A man of independent mind,  though linked with the church for  most of his life, he had a varied  career .... sailing before the mast,  serving at Gallipoli, spreading the  gospel to, and studying the culture of  Coast Indians. He was, however,  best known as an historian,  specializing in the history of the  United Church in British 'Columbia,  for which service he was awarded an  honorary Doctorate of Divinity in  1950.  He was secretary of the B.C.  Synod (Presbyterian) Historical  Committee from 1923 to 1925, and the  B.C. Conference (United) Historical  Committee from 1925 to 1950, and its  convener from 1946 to 1950.  He was,council member of the  B.C. Historical Association, its  president 1941-2, and a frequent  contributor to its Quarterly  magazine.  A  life   member  of  the  Okanagan Historical Society, he held various offices, among them editor of  its Annual Report 1954-56, to which he was a prominent contributor.  He was prominent in the work of the Orange Lodge and held high office. He was a charter member of Princeton Branch Canadian Legion, and  sometimes its chaplain. He was active in local community work, such as the  Board of Trade and Ski Club, helping to organize the first tournament in  1929.  In 1924 he visited B.C. Coast Indian settlements, preparing a brochure  on totem poles for the Vancouver Museum.  For many years he conducted parties over the historic Hope-  Princeton trail, original access to the Southern Interior, built in 1860.  In the 20's, normal transport failing, he chartered a plane to keep an  appointment at an obscure mission on upper Vancouver Island .... believed  to be the first "sky pilot".  Then came adventure, a voyage to South Africa, round the Horn, by  sailing ship.  Rev. J. C. Goodfellow 98 REVEREND JOHN CHRISTIE GOODFELLOW  On return to Vancouver in 1913 he enrolled at Westminster Hall. His  studies were interrupted by service in World War I, as a private in the 62nd  Battalion, medical corps and field ambulance, campaigning in England,  Macedonia, Italy, France, Belgium and Germany. He married Miss Isabelle  Marshall of Liverpool, England in 1917. After the war he completed his  studies at Westminster Hall, was licensed to preach 26th September, 1921  and ordained 16th March, 1923.  He was Presbyterian minister at Port Moody and loco 1923-1925, then  assistant minister at First United Church, Victoria, until 1927, when he  accepted a call to Princeton, arriving 29th June.  Princeton, a rugged frontier town, had had 19 ministers in the 27 years  of the church's organization. Here beloved 'Father Pat' thrashed  blaspheming miners, bound their wounds and prayed for forgiveness. Here  in 1911-12 stormed Rev. J. Richmond Craig who went back to preach  prohibition to his native Scotland in 1919. Rev. Goodfellow's predecessor was  the celebrated Dr. H. E. D. Ashford.  The first regular Presbyterian services were conducted in 1900 by  Rev. Fowlie from Nicola, but as early as 1891 Rev. A. R. Sharp, a  missionary, preached to the sparse settlers of the lower Similkameen at the  McCurdy home.  An ancestor of Dr. Goodfellow has peculiar claim to fame. James  Chalmers, a Dundee bookseller, is said to be the true originator of the idea of  the adhesive postage stamp, usually credited to Sir Rowland Hill.  In 1954 Dr. Goodfellow was awarded the Princeton Board of Trade  Good Citizen award.  Editor's note . . . The Reverend Goodfellow began life in Broughty Ferry, Scotland, 14  May, 1890. He came to Canada in 1908 as a student missionary. After one year on  the Saskatchewan field, went to British Columbia, then to South Africa. 99  THE THOMAS STORY  By Alfred Thomas  When my wife and I attended the Field Day sponsored by the  Okanagan Historical Society at Granite Creek on June 15, it occurred to me.  that if gold had not been discovered along Granite Creek in 1885, my family  name "Thomas" might well have been spread across Australia instead of  the Upper Similkameen.  It happened this way: John Fall Allison and his wife Susan  homesteaded a few hundred yards downstream from the present Princeton  in 1885. My mother was a daughter from the ensuing large Allison family of  eleven. The Allisons ran a trading post in their large two-storied log home  which soon became the recognised stopping-place for travellers on the  Dewdney trail. In 1884 other settlers came, among them the Coles, Homeses  and Kirklands.  The Allisons were never lonely for the family was large enough to  amuse itself. Besides there was always work to do. Occasionally, however,  older children rode from 8 to 10 miles to visit a neighbour.  Always the store was busy and interesting. Indians brought buckskin  moccasins, gloves and furs to trade. Miners, Chinese and white, exchanged  gold dust for supplies. Letters were left at the Allison store for the first  passing travellers to take to Hope. And pack-trains provided excitement and  brought the news.  When John Chance discovered placer gold along Granite Creek on  July 5, 1885 everything suddenly changed. John Allison, representing the  government, kept busy recording placer mining claims and trading supplies  for gold. But when stores and saloons were built at Granite City Allison went  into the butcher business to keep the booming camp in meat.  As the fame of Granite Creek spread around the world a young man,  Charles E. Thomas of Gloucester England, heard about it. He was in  Australia at the time but by 1887 or 1888, he was working for Tregillis and  Malone partners in a Granite City store and saloon. About 1890 he was in  charge of A. E. House's store at Nicola Lake and while he was there his  brothers, Ernest, William and Bert came from Gloucester to join him.  In 1893, Charles Thomas opened his store in a log cabin where the  Dewdney trail bridge crossed over the Tulameen into what is now Princeton.  Soon brother Will joined him to construct a large two-storied building which  was operated many years as Thomas Brother's store at Princeton. When  high water washed the Allison home away in 1895 Charles Thomas took over  the post office. He also bought the supplies and other goods saved from the  flood.  The first Thomas store was supplied by Indian pack trains from  Spence's Bridge where a road of sorts connected the Canadian Pacific  Railway to Granite Creek. It was not until after the turn of the century that  the road was extended to Princeton.  Granite City began to fade in the mid 1890s when the "placers"  became exhausted. Then large mining companies moved in with a dredge  and hydraulic monitors to recover what was left. Mr. Hugh Hunter, the Gold  Commissioner  was transferred  to   Princeton  where  he was  appointed 100 THE THOMAS STORY  Government Agent in the early 1900s.  Other mining ventures along the Similkameen brought temporary  boosts to Princeton but it was not until 1902 that hard-rock mining at Hedley  brought prosperity to the Upper Similkameen. At the same time a wagon  road was built through to Penticton and William Welby of Penticton began to  run his stage.  My mother, Caroline Allison, was married to William Thomas in the  Ellis Church—St. Saviour's— in Penticton in 1902. I was born in 1903.  Grace Allison  was married to Bert Thomas the same year.  Mother has often talked about the old days. She told of rides from  Princeton to Granite City to visit Mrs. F. P. Cook and Mrs. Hunter, wife of  the gold commissioner. Sometimes she rode even farther through Otter  Flat—it's Tulameen now—to the Thynne Lake Ranch where she stayed for a  day or two with Mrs. Jack Thynne.  Now this brings me back nearly to where I started, to the Granite  Creek Field Day last June and to the Thomas clan. Had it not been for  Granite Creek gold and two of John Allison's girls, the Thomas name may  well have been scattered across Australia instead of around Princeton.  NOTES ON THE OKANAGANS  By Hester E. White  Hast-haia-halt (greetings) this morning! We find the Okanagans, 2000  of them, camped beneath the pines on the flat near Sa-ha-nit-que (meaning  falls), now Okanagan Falls. They are ready with willow baskets and drying  racks to catch and dry the beautiful blue-green Ste-ween (small salmon),  and for immediate use, the Stutz-a-wain (salmon fry) from the stream.  Great preparation and forethought have preceded this June See-ah-tan  (fishing).  It is ah-tan the serviceberry moon. The berries have been picked  dried and stored, in sacks, made from strands of the silver willow bark, and  these put into larger receptacles of cottonwood bark. This was women's  work to whom fell the task of making the transient camp life comfortable.  Gathering wood was a continual chore as fires smoldered always while in  camp. Fire was mady by rubbing a stick along a groove in dry wood. Matting, the summer covering for their teepees was made from the tules or  round rushes, sewn together with silver willow threads, which they got at  Sooyoos. These mats were reinforced with slender willow rods. Teepees  were of different sizes: one set of poles was used for a small family; two sets  for a large one; and three sets for the council or dance teepee.  Small bone needles were difficult to make, the most prized being those  from the small bone in a swan's leg. Sinews, horsehair and willow strands  for thread, were coloured with natural dyes.  Baskets for berries and roots, and baskets and wooden pots (no-no-  luaks) for cooking all had to be carefully made. Hemp, grass, willow, birch NOTES ON THE OKANAGANS 101  and cottonwood bark filled the need. Cooking with heated stones placed in  pots or baskets, containing the food was the usual method. A bread (Sku-  leep) made by soaking the moss found hanging from fir, pine, and tamarack  trees as shaped into cakes and baked on flat heated stones laid on the grass.  Meat and fish were prepared and dried, then stored in caches for  winter use. These caches were made by removing stones from the required  size holes. To keep mice out it was lined with dried pine needles. Meats or  fish were placed in separate caches covered with pine needles with stones on  top.  Summer garb for the men was a buckskin breech-cloth and a small  skull cap or band around the head. Women's summer garb was a grass or  slashed buckskin skirt, and around the head a buckskin band holding a small  bone to scratch an itchy spot. The Okanagans had beautiful jet black hair  and would travel for miles to Spotted and White lakes, to wash their hair in  the alkaline waters.  To Stem-tee-ma, the grandmother, was left the authority to impart  knowledge and self-discipline to the youth, and to tell the stories and legends,  relating to the lives and customs of the Indian people. Story-telling was  known as Chip-chap-tiquik. It told of the animal people and of legendary  times. One of the women in a band would be noted as a story teller and went  from camp to camp to tell them. Many stores centered around Sin-ka-lip  (coyote) revealing his cunning and guile. He was accused of piling stones at  the foot of Skaha Lake, and also in Similkameen River, thereby preventing  the salmon from getting upstream into the lake.  The legend of Stuan-aw-wkin, the hair-covered giant who lived in  caves at Tul-a-meen was told. His size, though he had never been seen, was  imagined by enormous tracks found near the food caches and molested fish  traps. The monster's odour "as of burned hair" created panic among hunters and berry pickers, and tales of his doings sent children scurrying under  bed coverings. Stories of the In-cha-mas-akilu-ak (little cave men) living in  the mountains to the west of Okanagan Lake, were also told.  Na-ha-ha-itque (snake in the water), now given the meaningless  name of Ogopogo, has according to legend existed in Okanagan Lake for  many, many, moons: because of his presence Indians would not bathe in the  Lake or paddle a canoe or dugout on it (without making a peace-offering).  The adolescent boy or girl was subjected to severe training often being  sent off into the hills or mountains alone for days and nights to live on berries  and roots and to bathe in the cold water by which means they gained courage  and improved their physique. 102  WHY NOT LEARN OKANAGAN?  By Donald Watkins*  With bilingualism and biculturalism so much in the forefront today,  the Okanagan Indians are showing us white folk the way to do things: they  practice the two-isms much more than most of us do. For years educators  have stressed the importance of learning a second language. So why not  learn Okanagan? If some of us could speak Okanagan we would be taking a  major step towards improving communications with our Indians, at the  same time opening up a whole new world of myths, ceremony, and  celebration. Surely this would be much more meaningful than studying  languages spoken thousands of miles away. And to the cynic who believes  that an Indian language is nothing more than a collection of grunts and  snorts, I say: if a language is that easy, why can't you speak it already?  English has a written alphabet of 21 consonants, like b. c. d. etc., and  five vowels: a, e, i, o, u. To write Okanagan meaningfully we would require  some^4 consonants and three main vowels: a, e, and o. Besides these main  vowels Okanagan also has some automatic vowels, among them i and u. The  first appears in the wordfor"! am," kin. So kin Bill means "I am Bill." Ku-  means "You are" or "are you?"; so kuswet means "Who are you?". Kuch  kech literally means "You are come", and is commonly used as a greeting  when a person is visited by a friend. The visitor replies: kinch kech,  literally "I am come here", but really meaning something more like "it's  nice to see you again".  In Penticton the main vowel e is pronounced like the e in "see",  whereas in Vernon it sounds more like the e in "they". So the word koswet  "Who are we?" has a slightly different pronunciation depending whether  you are in Vernon or Penticton. The mark over the letter e tells you to emphasize that part of the word. Incidentally, the s is pronounced about halfway between s and sh. The letter a represents an "ah" sound, and comes in  *Mr. Watkins was born and raised in Monmouthshire, South Wales, Great Britain. He  was educated at Universities in Wales, Goettingen, Germany and Alberta, Canada. He  has degrees from Edmonton of Bachelor of Education and Master of Arts. During 1951-  1953, he served in the British Army in Eritrea, East Africa as interpreter. Mr. Watkins  has worked as a High School teacher of French, Latin and German in England and  Canada, and taught French, German and Linguistics at the University of Alberta. Presently  he teaches French and Linguistics at Red Deer Junior College, Red Deer, Alberta.  Mr." Watkins is working towards his Ph.D. degree in linguistics and has chosen  for his thesis, the Okanagan language, which has received little attention.  During the summers of 1966 and 1967 he worked with an Interior Salish band  at Vernon, in 1968, he worked on the Reserve at Penticton. He is happy with the cooperation received both at Vernon and Penticton where informants have done their best  to help his project. He has documented a vocabulary of about 2000 words and is  engaged in mastering the complicated grammar which includes the syntax (study of  arrangements of words in a sentence) and the morphology (study of arrangements of the  meaningful elements within a word).  He has completely mastered the delicate nuances of unfamiliar Okanagan sounds;  he can write instantly in linguistic characters the utterances of his informants and when  associating with older Indians fluent in their native tongue can not only understand them but can make himself understood.— ERIC D. SISMEY. WHY NOT LEARN OKANAGAN? 103  the expression way shlaxt, "Hello friend!" If you are Scottish, you'll have no  trouble with that x-sound: it comes at the end of "loch" as in Loch Lomond.  To say "How are things?", you say tanchawt, and to answer "fine!" you  say tehast. Sounds easy so far?  The consonants are a little tougher. Take the so-called glottal stop. We  write it with a question mark even though it has nothing to do with questions,  ?. In English we can signify yes by saying "aha", and change it to no by  using two glottal stops, "?a?a". The glottal stop is a stopping and releasing  of air deep in the throat. In Okanagan the glottal stop is very common. So, in  saying spo?os, "heart" or "mind", we briefly stop the airstream between  the two o's. Now we can say, stem aspo?os "What's on your mind?". The  answer could be, lotstem "Nothing". When the glottal stop comes after  sounds like m, n, I, r, w, and y, we simply cut the sounds short by cutting off  the air flow. This usually happens at the end of a word. So perhaps stem,  "what", should be written stem?. This glottal stop can be very important,  since it makes all the difference between words like snamotn "chair" and  snam?otn "stool".  Okanagan has sounds that correspond to English sounds that we  represent with p, t, tl, ch, and k. Now in English we could pronounce p in  various ways. Take a word like "top". We could say it without releasing our  lips at the end, or we could release our lips slightly. Maybe we could even  speak emphatically by giving the p an extra spurt of air at the end, to  distinguish it from, say, "tot". Now Okanagan has two kinds of p's: the one  that has the extra spurt at the end, written p', and the kind that resembles  the ordinary English p. The spurted p' comes in a word like shlep, "wood,  lumber". It is possible to change the meaning of a word by changing the kind  of p you use. For example, kinpexam means "I'm hunting", but kinp'exam  means "I'm branding". How's that for unusualness? And what's more the  same applies to the other four consonants mentioned above: you can change  the meaning of a word by using t', tl', ch', and k'. So now practice with  tek'ast "That's bad!".  A hard nut to crack for the English speaker is to make a difference  between the Okanagan sounds written with k and q. K is easy, it's like  English, but q is a k-sound made at the back of the mouth. You have to slide  your tongue much farther back than for any English sound. Don't give up if  you fail the first attempt; it's not easy for us. When you become expert at it,  then try making a spurted q', and when you are successful you can really say  you've accomplished something. Again q and q' can change meanings: qway  means "blue" or "green", but q'way means "black". When you can  separate those two it may be time for a rest; nobody learned to pronounce a  new language in one day! But now when the warm weather comes you'll be  able to say, qwa?ach, "It's getting warmer".  We have now described all but three of the important sounds of  Okanagan. To describe the last three we have to go away from English to  make comparisons. At this point things would be much easier if we could  enroll the help of a Welshman, a Frenchman, and an Arab. It's quite  remarkable that such widely divergent languages have sounds that  resemble Okanagan sounds. Little wonder that the early explorers and  missionaries had so much trouble with our local language!  Start with the Welsh sound. Llewellyn, Llanelly, and Llandudno are all 104 WHY NOT LEARN OKANAGAN?  Welsh names starting with a "voiceless I", written II. The sound is made  with the tongue in the usual I position. But instead of using the voice to  produce the sound, we just blow air over and around the sides of the tongue.  This is how a person who lisps pronounces the letter s. This sound occurs in  estallam "my boat" and kinellin "I'm eating".  Maurice Chevalier with his Parisian accent could help us with the R-  sound that many Frenchmen make on the back of their tongue when they say  "PaRee" for Paris. Okanagans have this sound too; but it does not seem to  occur with any great frequency. If you can make that kind of R you can then  say chiRep, "tree", or muRmen "pin" or "fastener". But since French  Canadians don't usually make this kind of R, they won't be much help to  us here.  The strangest sound of all is kept until last. It's one that occurs in  Arabic: linguists call it a pharyngeal consonant. This one again is made  right at the back of the mouth. To produce it you start by saying "ah" and  then tighten the muscles at the back of the mouth to make a strangled kind of  "a". Do not tighten the muscles too much, otherwise you stop the flow of air.  The exact nature of this sound is still being argued over by linguists. If you  have trouble with it don't worry too much; it is often difficult to hear it even  in the speech of native Indians. We write this sound as A and keep it separate  from the other a-sound already described.  Those are the sounds of Okanagan as it is spoken in our valley. No-one  has ever yet presented a complete description of them. Some of the people  who have tried were Dr. William Tolmie of the Hudson's Bay Company (c.  1877), George Gibbs (1877), Franz Boas, the great American anthropologist  (1890), Father Jean-Marie LeJeune, and Charles Hill Tout (1911). The  language presents a real challenge even to the person who knows other  languages. And of course an understanding of the sounds of a  language is only the first step in learning how to produce complete  sentences.  But to learn anything worthwhile takes effort. And if you think the task  at hand is too formidable, just remember that our native children still learn  Okanagan at their mother's knee. WHY NOT LEARN OKANAGAN?  105  Okanagan Language Workshop on  the  Penticton  Reserve.  Left to  right:  Simon   Lezard,   Judy   George,    George    Lezard,    Sandy    Lezard,    and  Donald Watkins.  Photo by Eric D. Sismey  PRACTICE WORD LIST  animal  st'amAalt  black bear  skimxest  bee, wasp  sqo?ll  bird  skakaka?  buffalo  qweysp  cat  pos  kitten  popa?s  bullfrog  smenap  dog  kikwap  duck  xwatxut  golden eag  e melqanops  hen  lepol  mole  po?lawx  mosquito  salaqs  otter  litko?  pig  nichichaqs  puppy  staq'am  owl  snena?  red salmon  sch'owen?  spider  topi?  trout hoho?mena?  whooper  s?etwan? 106  MEMOIRS OF THE EARLY  1900's  By Reuben Randall  This narrative is not intended to be in the nature of an adventure, but a  simple story relating the experience of a young lad coming from England to  Canada to see the country, and perhaps to better his working and living  conditions. My experiences could apply to many young men coming to  Canada in the days when conditions were vastly different from what they are  today.  Before proceeding with my story, I would like to make it known that I  had a brother, seven years my senior, in Canada. He had gained much experience in this country, working at all kinds of jobs, from Quebec to British  Columbia: apple picking in Montreal, farming in Ontario, ranching in  Alberta, surveying on the Crow's Nest Pass Railway, and fruit-ranching in  the Okanagan for several years before going to New Zealand in 1909.  When I left England in October 1899 to join my brother in Wapella,  Saskatchewan, I was in my early teens. I crossed the ocean on board the  Allan Liner S. S. Numidian. The passage from Liverpool to Montreal was  uneventful, but interesting especially going up the St. Lawrence River to  Montreal. The train journey from Montreal to Wapella was a great experience: the vast expanse of land, mile after mile, day after day, was an  eye-opener. My brother was at the depot to meet me, accompanied by a  friend, Mr. Joseph Epton, and we proceeded to my brother's homestead, a  few miles out of Wapella.  My brother and I batched part of the winter of 1899-1900 the latter half  of which we lived north of Wapella with a family composed of Mr. and Mrs.  Marshall, their sons Tom, Ernest and Percy and their daughter, Ada. We  worked for our board until early spring at the same time making plans and  preparations for going west. We made a little wedge tent and assembled  such things as we thought would be required for the trip. In the first instance  we planned to drive a pony and cart. However, Billy, while a splendid saddle  horse, had his own ideas about pulling a cart loaded with a man and a boy,  plus suit cases, pots and pans and tent poles. He would trot along very nicely  when in the mood. When not in the mood nothing would shift him, so we  decided to sell the cart, put our various things on the pony's back, and  walked. This method of travel did not work out well. While the prairies were  nice at that time of the year—late April—with lots of ducks to shoot, we found  the going slow and disheartening. Distances were deceiving. A day of  walking seemed to get us nowhere. To add to our troubles, we got sore feet,  so my brother decided to sell the pony at Wolsley. I was not present at the  transaction but I believe a man operating a hardware store bought it for $30.  We next sent our suitcases, along with shotgun, rifle, blankets, tent etc., via  C.P.R. to Okanagan Landing. It was our intention to travel as light as  possible, which left us with little more than we were wearing. We intended,  mainly, to beat our way to the Okanagan Valley. Finances from the sale of  the pony and cart helped us considerably on our way.  We were plodding along the railway ties west of Wolsley when we  encountered a farmer ploughing somewhere in the vicinity of Indian Head.  He wanted us to work for him, but we were headed for the west. He strongly MEMOIRS OF THE EARLY 1900's 107  advised us not to beat our way on the trains,—"the Redcoats will have you  for sure". This put a scare into us and we paid our fare to one station west of  Regina, headquarters of the Mounties. We met some nice freight train  crews, and on occasion were permitted to ride in a box car and sometimes in  the caboose for the distance of a division, for a couple of dollars. We rode on  various parts of freight trains, both inside and outside, but never underneath  on the rods.  Nothing unusual happened, but there were many interesting incidents  and the scenery was wonderful. The foothills of Alberta stand out in my  memory: lovely bright days; meadow larks whistling their spring song;  curlews soaring overhead sounding their shrill notes; and wild tulips in  abundance everywhere.  We headed west via the Crow's Nest Pass route. My brother had  worked with the engineers on the survey and construction of the Crow's Nest  Pass Railway with camp headquarters at Elk River Crossing during 1897-98.  His immediate boss engineer was a Mr. Brunell, whom we hoped to contact  at Fort McLeod or Lethbridge. We had no luck in locating him however, and  so had to abandon any hope of assistance in procuring work on the continuation of the railroad, which had come to a dead stop at Midway, B.C.  The days seemed to pass fairly well but the nights were a problem as  they were cold, and we had no blankets. As evening approached we would be  on the lookout for shelter such as a prospector's cabin. I remember one old  prospector who invited us to stay in his cabin for the night near Eholt, which  was quite a town at that time. He gave us a good feed of beans. The mining  towns throughout the Kootenays at that time were lively. Some are now  classed as "Ghost towns".  Many a time we would build a fire for warmth, and sleep in the open.  We arranged to sleep one at a time, the other staying awake to keep the fire  going, but this did not work well. Usually both fell asleep, waking up half  frozen and the fire out. Nevertheless, we advanced-slowly but surely through  the mining towns.  At Kootenay Landing we came to the end of the railway track. We  found out that box cars on the track laden with coal were consigned to Nelson  by tug-boat and barge so we clambered into one of the box cars and settled  down as comfortably as lumps of coal would permit. We had been in there a  short time when the little end door was slid back. We were scared it was the  brakey come to put us out! However, to our surpr.se a little negro stuck his  head in, surprised to find us there. He also clambered in. After a while our  car was moved onto the barge or scow and we were on our way to Nelson. It  was practically an all day trip, and we arrived at Nelson at dusk, all of one  colour,-black. We found a restaurant quite close to the track where, on the  advice of our companion, we bought "two bits" worth of sandwiches, which  we split three ways. We then found a dry, empty box car and put up for the  night. Our companion wanted us to stay at Nelson and go to work at one of  the mines nearby: brother Albert was to hammer and I to turn steel. This did  not appeal to us, and in any event we were headed for the Okanagan Valley.  We hit out in the morning for Robson, a long tiring hike, arriving just  before dark. Crossing on the ferry the next morning I thought the ferry  captain was very good not to charge us fare, not knowing it was a free  crossing. We proceeded to Grand  Forks and  Eholt. Our finances were 108 MEMOIRS OF THE EARLY 1900's  running low. I went into the bunkhouse at one mine near the track at Eholt  jand sold my watch to a miner at one of the card tables for $4. This was to  carry us to Okanagan Mission. Having passed through the Kootenays we  came to Midway, where the railroad ended. Here we struck a piece of good  luck. There were two freight teams on the siding loaded with small bags of  fine, crushed mineral, to be transferred by rail for refining and smelting.  The teamsters offered us a ride to Camp McKinney Mine if we would dump  all the bags of ore into the railroad box car. We willingly undertook this job,  and even though the bags were extremely heavy found it interesting to see  the yellow mineral trickle down the heap. It looked like real gold: perhaps it  was.  One other nice incident happened at Midway. A boy, perhaps 12 years  of age engaged us in conversation and invited us home for a cup of coffee and  some johnny cake. I had no notion what johnny cake was like but it sounded  good and we were glad to accompany this fine boy and meet his mother who  made us welcome. We were glad of the refreshments after the strenuous  work of dumping the sacks of ore.  We proceeded to meet the freight teams, and were soon on our way to  Camp McKinney. We spent part of two days and one night with these  teamsters. They fed us well.  After leaving Camp McKinney we struck off down the hill, still heading  for the Okanagan Valley. After a while we came out into an open spot, from  which we could see a sizeable town in the distance, which proved to be  Fairview. Proceeding down the hill we came to open country and a valley of  sagebrush and bunchgrass about where the town of Oliver now stands. After  trudging along the trail for several miles we met a man driving a team and a  hayrack waggon. Passing the time of day with him we asked him how far it  was to the Okanagan Valley. He said "You are in it now".  We had little idea what the Okanagan Valley would be like, but it  certainly did not come up to our expectations. We continued north through  Okanagan Falls and along Dog Lake. There had been few farms or settlers of  any kind until we reached Penticton. We bought 25 cents worth of sandwiches at the Penticton Hotel, and made a few enquiries regarding the road  to Kelowna, the next town on our line of travel. It was getting late so we  scouted around for a place of shelter to stretch out for the night. We found a  nice-looking log building, which happened to be a storage for ice. It was open  at the top so that we climbed the logs and gained entrance that way, and as I  remember spent a fairly comfortable night in the thick sawdust. Although  the S. S. Aberdeen was making round trips between Penticton and Okanagan  Landing, we did not, for very good reasons, investigate passage on the  sternwheeler but elected to walk the trail over the hills to Okanagan Mission.  This trip was uneventful except for the herds of cattle encountered which  were curious and sometimes annoying, as they continually circled trying to  keep us in sight. We learned later that these more or less half-wild cattle  roaming the southern end of the Valley were the herds of Mr. Tom Ellis who  controlled thousands of acres of range land.  On leaving the trail we came into open country, the approach to  Okanagan Mission. At a small ranch and orchard we met a Mr. Healey or  Wealey. He invited us for supper and gave us lodging for the night. We met a  young boy by the name of Riddell who washolidaying at the ranch. This lad MEMOIRS OF THE EARLY 1900's 109  later became a prominent lawyer in Kelowna. After supper we all went down  to the lake for a swim. The following morning we lit out for Kelowna. When  passing the hotel at Okanagan Mission we saw a man standing on the hotel  steps. His name was Ernie. We asked if he knew of any work to be had in that  area. He replied "John Conroy is looking for some men for haying", so we  headed for Conroy's ranch a few miles north of Kelowna. Mr. Conroy hired  us for the haying season. Martin Conroy, the eldest son and I had quite a bit  of fun together after work hours. Martin was about nine years of age. We had  chores to do before working in the fields, night and morning. I looked after  the pigs; my brother looked after the cows and did the milking.  One day, going down to the creek to bathe I spotted a little sucking pig  in a deep pool floating tail up. I fished him out and to the best of my ability  commenced revival action. To my pleased surprise, after a few minutes of  working his front legs open and closed he began to show signs of life. I then  took him back to the house and wrapped him in blankets. So far as I know the  little pig fully recovered and lived to make bacon.  I found haying and stooking grain was heavy work and much too hard  for me. Pitching hay in the blazing hot sun nearly killed me. I stuck it out  however, but I was not sorry when the job was finished. I found much of  interest though, and gained a certain amount of farm experience such as  learning to plough.  Mr. Conroy had some very nice horses. I still remember the names of  some of them; Fly, Dolly and Dick. He had a nice dog called Sport. A few  incidents stand out in my memory while at this ranch. One is that my brother  made the round trip, for a repair part for the binder, by saddle horse to  Vernon and back in one day. The horse, Dolly, a rough saddle horse, was  equipped with a wide Mexican saddle. This trip was a feat of endurance  under such conditions. Another incident, an unfortunate one for Mr. Conroy,  was the loss of his false teeth which he had obtained only a short time before  from Mr. Corrigan, dentist of Vernon. The teeth were very uncomfortable,  as new teeth generally are, so Mr. Conroy usually took them out and laid  them on the table when half way through his meal. Unfortunately, one day  when he was ploughing, he took them out and carefully wrapped them in his  handkerchief. Later he pulled out his handkerchief to blow his nose,—and,  that was the last of the teeth.  One other incident was my first meeting with a skunk. We were haying  on Mr. Conroy's upper farm near the Mike Heron farm. I was asked to take  Mr. Conroy's cultivator horse to water at the creek at noon. I got on the  horse's back and struck out for the creek. As we were going through the  brush a small black and white animal came out and trotted along the trail in  front of the horse. The horse nearly stepped on it. Mister skunk decided upon  self-protection and shook his tail. I then learned what a skunk looked and  smelt like! I was well out of the direct spray, but the poor horse caught the  full blast on his forelegs. My boss was driving the horse all afternoon  cultivating potatoes, and every time Sport, the dog, came near him he  chased the poor dog away, thinking it had been next to the skunk. I kept  mum, but had many a snicker to myself.  I also learned not to stook rye when wearing a woolen shirt.  Before leaving the Kelowna part of my story I would like to mention,  with the greatest respect, the name of a fine old gentleman Mr. O'Reilly, 110 MEMOIRSOF THE EARLY 1900's  Mrs. Conroy's father, a splendid, understanding Irishman.  Bringing our stay in the Kelowna-Ellison area to an end we contacted  the Kelowna-Vernon stage, then driven by the celebrated John Scott. Mr.  Scott had a wonderful assortment of yarns; the scenery was lovely, and the  journey to Vernon was enjoyable. We encountered a rattlesnake in the road  at Rattlesnake Point and Albert promptly dispatched it. Mr. Scott's  headquarters in Vernon in the summer of 1900, was at the Vernon House or  Hotel. We stayed there a few days and were very comfortable and the meals  were first-class. Our stop in Vernon was short as we were anxious to get to  work and make a stake for the winter.  We set out for the Greenhow Ranch. After walking what seemed a long  way we spotted smoke rising from what we figured to be the thrashing outfit  where we hoped to get work. It looked to be miles away. Anyway we thought  it would be too far for us to go and return to Vernon that same day, so we  returned to Vernon. We decided to try our luck the next morning at the  Coldstream Ranch which was under the management of Mr. Crawley  Ricardo: Mr. H. T. Hodges was book keeper. What a beautiful ranch it was!  The field or ranch work was more or less divided into three sections, farm  and stock, orchards, and hops. The foremen were: Ranch—Bob Stewart;  Orchards—Frank Rayburn; Hops—William Robbins. Albert and I had a  fancy for orchard work, and accordingly went in search of Mr. Rayburn. We  found him in the upper orchard with a gang of about eight Japanese picking  Transcendent Crabapples. My brother asked Frank if we could get work in  the orchard with him. He sized us up and thought he could use us. On making  enquiries as to how long the job would last he replied "Until the snow flies if  you fill the bill; if you don't fill the bill it won't last very long." We arranged  to start work the next day, walked back to town, gathered our belongings,  and headed out to the ranch again, commencing work the next morning. I  found the orchard work interesting, and the time passed quickly until the  work ended on the last day of October.  We made many friends on the ranch, one being Richard Hatfield  (commonly known by the ranch hands as "Sir Richard"). Mr. Hatfield  talked us into going to Salmon River Valley for the winter. He knew of a  deserted pre-emption with a log cabin, which could be procured. The cabin  was on the river bank and water was easily available. We fixed up the cabin  a bit and moved in. Our post office was Glenemma named after Glen and  Emma Sweet who were operating it.  My brother rode to Kamloops and applied for pre-emption of the bush  ranch, taking two days for the round trip. I had a saddle horse of a kind  which I bought from Billy Pratt for $6. I used the pony as a pack horse when  required. We hunted quite a lot, getting seven deer, a lynx and a number of  coyotes. The winter was nice and our neighbours were good, and time passed  quickly. I well recall the names of some of our nearby neighbours: Jabez  Kneller, Harry MacLeod, Mr. and Mrs. Charley Swebb at Swebb's bridge,  Mr. McKenzie, Dicky Hatfield, the Bird family, the Fergusons, Morgans and  others. These were mostly quite some distance apart but we used to meet at  the little log Community Hall and have nice gatherings. Our nearest neighbours were the Knellers and we visited them quite often. They were kind and  invited us to many a dinner. I remember in particular the delicious  preserved citron Mrs. Kneller made. MEMOIRS OF THE EARLY 1900's  111  Coldstream Ranch,  1904. Extreme left is implement shed, bunks upstairs,  next is bunkhouse, then a combined cook and bunkhouse. Extreme  right  IS  WOod shed. Courtesy R. Randall  Coldstream Ranch  football team, after playing  at   Lumby  on   1st  July,  c. 1903.  R.  Randall centre  of middle  row.  Top  row left to  right:  Fred  Miles, Jim Grisdale, Andy Smith.  Courtesy R. Randall 112 MEMOIRSOF THE EARLY 1900's  As spring approached we made preparations to return to the Coldstream Ranch. When we left in the Fall Mr. Rayburn asked us to come back  about the first of April. Accordingly we rolled up our blankets and other  belongings and put everything on the pony's back, and hit out for the Coldstream Ranch on foot, the way we had left the previous fall. We commenced  work again in the orchards with Mr. Rayburn.  I stayed on the Coldstream Ranch almost 12 years. These were  profitable years for me and I gained knowledge and experience in the  science of fruit-growing, nursery work and fruit ranching in general. I met  and associated with hundreds of men from all parts with varied experiences,  which, they were always ready to relate.  Ranch help in the early days was not of a very steady type, and it was  a common practice for a man to work a few days and then suddenly ask for  his time (wages), and move on. There were a few steady hands, "key men"  who stayed on the year round for a period of years. I remember most of those  who were on the ranch in 1900: Bill Richards the blacksmith, Andy Smith the  carpenter, Fred Godwin hop foreman; Tim Boies, fruit packer; Colin  Corbett, cow man; and Walter Long, pig man. From the spring of 1901 I  became one of the steady hands. I cannot speak too highly of my old friend  and boss Frank Rayburn. He insisted that I learnand do all the various jobs  by the methods in practice for fruit culture,—ploughing, discing with a three  horse team, single-horse cultivating, spraying, picking, thinning, pruning  and so on. I grew up with the trees. The fruit trees were only a few years old,  perhaps seven or eight. Northern Spys had not commenced to bear at all,  and the lower orchard contained a 20 acre solid block of this variety. I helped  harvest hundreds of tons of Northern Spys during my stay on the Ranch.  Most other kinds were commencing to bear in limited quantity; the  fruit hauling was completely done by a single horse (old Major) and waggon.  In addition to apples other kinds of fruits were produced: pears,  strawberries, sweet and sour cherries, prunes and plums. Various fruit  products were shipped almost entirely to the Oscar Browne Company,  Edmonton. Spraying was not of vital importance which may be judged by  the fact that I did it entirely alone during the first few years on the ranch.  The principal kinds of apples were Northern Spy, Kings, Mann, Pewakee,  Golden Russet, Greening, Wealthy, Yellow Transparent, Duchess and  Gravenstein. Few of these varieties are commercially grown today.  Excepting Northern Spy most varieties were planted in rows of three,  trees 30 by 30 feet apart. Plums, prunes, pears and cherries were planted  closer, and consisted of an assortment of varieties. It was quite a problem to  pack apples in standard boxes in rows and tiers and attain the right height to  make a snug pack. This difficulty was overcome to a great extent by packing  tiers of large size and tiers of small size in the same box. Packing problems  were overcome however in a few years when the packing experts, the  Sampson boys, and others from south of the line introduced the orange  system, off-set pack, for apples. Packing schools were organized throughout  the Valley in a short time.  I have many pleasant memories of my early days in the Okanagan  Valley, especially as itwas in the good old days,—the Early 1900's. 113  AUTOBIOGRAPHY* (1900-1910)  By Grace Worth  Our love of the land, and its scarcity in England, plus the attractive  Canadian Pacific Railway propaganda, lured my husband and I to Canada.  Previous to our marriage my husband's brother Jack had been living in  British Columbia for eight years. In the autumn of 1900 he returned to Devon  to marry his sweetheart Flo Edwards of Shaugh Bridge Farm. Jack persuaded Harry to try his luck in the Okanagan, and the only persuasion I  needed was an invitation from my boy-friend to "come too".  Early in March 1901 I left London, where I had been teaching school,  and stayed with my sister in Devon until Harry and I were married on March  27th at Cornwood Parish church. It was a wedding with little display as we  were both orphans with financial limitations.  We took our tickets for Vernon, B.C., from an agent in Plymouth. We  wanted to sail on the Parisian which was the first boat to reach Montreal that  year, after the ice break-up, and this was her maiden voyage. But she was  booked up long before she sailed, and we had to be satisfied with an old boat.  A one-way ticket from Plymouth to Vernon cost us 87 dollars.  We left Liverpool on the 26th of April 1901 on the Corinthian, Allen  Line, travelling grade B. Itwas called second-class. We were at liberty to go  down into the steerage, but not to go above our deck. The first class  passengers were free to descend to us, but I didn't notice any mingling. We  used to go to the end of our deck and gaze down on the steerage in pity,  which of course is akin to love. The steerage supplied their own blankets, and  helped themselves to a big pot of stew or whatever it was. We could not see  any sleeping arrangements. But in a few years after we came to Canada, the  Montreal Witness exposed the conditions given by the Allen Line to steerage  passengers, accusing them of treating steerage passengers worse than  cattle. For this exposure the Allen Line sued the Witness and lost, because  the accusations were true. After that conditions improved very much, and  eventually steerage was done away with.  When we arrived at Montreal, after 11 days at sea, bells were ringing  continuously and we wondered why there were so many church services in  one evening. These were railway engine bells, a strange experience for us. I  think we stayed in the Windsor, a big affair near the departure station.  Compared to our farm-house in Devon, everything seemed sumptuous, but  Mrs. Jack Worth had little respect for it.  On boarding the train at Montreal we met many of the steerage  passengers. After much discussion we decided it would be cheaper to take  our food with us. This we did and purchased hot water on the train to make  our beverage. Just so did class B and class C become good companions and  fellow travellers. But to class Awe remained untouchable to the end.  After leaving the boat the Canadian Pacific Railway became  responsible for our journey overland, and to them the Bs and Cs were all  small potatoes.  There was no audience to sing to, and there were no officers to flirt  'ĢAbridged by the editor. 114  AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910)  "The man and woman from  Trinity Valley." Mr. and Mrs. Harry  Worth,  ca. 1910.  with. But viewing the everchanging landscapes, and studying the varieties  of the human element, was like watching the world go by, and left little  opportunity for looking backward.  We slept on metal contrivances that swung down on chains above our  seats. Conditions on the boat for us were luxurious compared to C.P.R.  facilities.  The geographical world flew by so quickly that it was impossible for  my mind to register many things that drew my attention at the moment. The  stone walls of Eastern farms have remained, and the nimble gophers and  groundhogs of the prairies. We walked the wooden sidewalk of the main and  muddy street of Winnipeg. This sidewalk was on one side of the street only.  The other side was sparsely built upon. There were some trees near the  station at Medicine Hat, and many Indians wrapped in brightly coloured  blankets.  At Calgary, two young brothers called Lloyd, whose mother had introduced them before we left Liverpool, said good-bye to us and left the train  to travel north. I have often wondered if they settled near what is now the  town of Lloydminister. In-as-much as there was an attempt to colonize here  with British immigrants this town has an interesting history. So many  Canadians overlook the importance of registering historical facts as they  arise. The struggle for existence in those days, left little time for culture of  this kind, and in later years we vainly wish we could turn back the clock.  Travel was very slow through the Rockies, and like a snake in fear of  haste, with its head nearly touching its tail, we descended in trepidation.  Although the mountains were very beautiful it was impossible—for me at  least—to enjoy them in full, in what seemed precarious circumstances.  We soon arrived at Sicamous, where we left the mainline to travel AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910) 115  south to Vernon, via "The Molasses Ltd." As the train south ran only thrice  weekly, we had to stay in Sicamous overnight. Here is where we got our first  real shock of the cost of living in B.C. There were two hotels, the C.P.R.  where prices were prohibitive, and another a little way down the branch line,  the Lake View I think. Here there was only one bedroom available. It contained two double beds. So perforce we all slept in one room. Both Flo and I  voiced objections, but felt there was safety in numbers. My regard for  etiquette suffered more severe shocks later.  It was at Sicamous that Flo and I noticed people who apparently had a  disease of the jaws, for they were continually moving them, just like a cow  chewing her cud. The cud-chewers seemed to increase in numbers as we  travelled south. So in Vernon we asked brother John for an explanation. He  was much amused, and said it was just a habit they enjoyed, like scratching your back when you take off your undershirt,—a couple of freedoms  for which we stand on guard.  On arrival in Vernon we stayed at the Coldstream Hotel, opposite the  station, which was called the "dee-po." This hotel was managed by Mr.  Muller.  In 1901 the Kalamalka Hotel was patronized by the upper ten. Lord  Aberdeen who was Governor General of Canada from 1893 to 1898, was then  the owner of the Coldstream Ranch, and had occasionally resided there. A  story told by the old-timers was that the Hon. Majoribanks—pronounced  Marshbanks—Lady Aberdeen's brother, rode his horse into the hotel when  he wished to get a drink. This spectacular behaviour could have been a  display of horsemanship, as the approach to the hotel was a short flight of  broad shallow steps. Then again, throwing the limelight on ability, is apt to  keep inability in the shade, for it is said his riding excelled his management  of the ranch.  The day of our arrival in Vernon was a lucky day, or so we thought at  the time, but as I look back I wonder. Being unable to see into the future, and  very green in regard to the ways of our new world, we drifted along like  straws on the stream of life.  Harry's brother John who had lived in B.C. for eight years, had  previously pre-empted 160 acres on the upper Arrow Lake. But he caught the  gold fever, and neglected the land, to prospect in the surrounding mountains,  in order to get rich quickly.  It so happened that Paul Jackman and his sister Minnie were at the  Coldstream Hotel the day we arrived. They had come from Cherry Creek  with a team and wagon to get provender, etc. Their father kept the Post  Office at Cherry Creek, and carried the mail to Lumby weekly. John's shack  was 15 miles beyond their home, and they were glad to convey us and our  chattels through the mountains to the north fork of the Kettle River.  Sensing breakers ahead, John did his best to persuade Flo and me to'  remain in Vernon. There were several small empty houses on land south of  what is now the National Hotel. Our husbands wanted to rent one of these and  leave us there, while they sallied forth to fortune. But we had neither  Wintered them, nor summered them. Our love exceeded even that of Ruth  for Naomi. So we entreated them not to leave us, saying, "Whither thou  goest I will go, and where thou lodgeth I will lodge." But while Ruth's  determination and trust led to eternal honour and glory, through a wealthy 116 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910)  male in the offing, our determination led to a washout.  So we went shopping and were introduced to W. R. Megaw the mayor.  He kept an important supply store where we bought groceries and hardware.  But at that time he did not stock some of the things we required. We went to  Shatford's drapery store to search for white sheets. Taking white sheets to  our mining shacks was about as sensible as sweeping a chimney in white  satin.  Canadian Arithmetic baffled Flo, and her trust in salesmen was weak.  So it fell to me to change dollars into L.S.D. every time we bought anything.  The Shatford sheeting was $3.75 a yard. When I told Flo that was about 15  shillings she was shocked. She said "My heavens! We could get that in  Plymouth for one and eleven pence ha'penny." And although the extraction  was painful, we would have gone without a shirt to sleep in sheets, and we  had never heard of any sheets but white ones.  A few years later Mr. Megaw extended his store and merchandise. I  remember being served by his assistant Harry Stevens who was a good  conservative and later became the Hon. H. H. Stevens.  Before leaving Vernon we stocked up with pots, pans, groceries, and  white sheets. We left Vernon in the morning of a lovely day in May. The  Coldstream ranch orchard at that time was more extensive than to-day, and  for miles the roadside was a beautiful picture of bursting apple bloom. Not  far from the ranch house was a walnut tree. Later all the old trees were  taken out and much of the land used for market gardens, and smaller mixed  farms. Early in the century before the land was sub-divided, the Coldstream  apple orchard was considered the largest in the world.  Our locomotion was slow and the characteristics of the country side  could be enjoyed, and friendships made as one journeyed. One did not travel  far but every mile was marked on the memory.  Our first stop was at a creek about seven miles from Vernon. The  horses were unhitched and taken down to drink. There was a narrow wooden  bridge there which is now built out of concrete. There was no Lavington.  Farther along the road there was a wind-mill.  We were welcomed at the Ram's Horn Hotel, Lumby, by Louis and  Mrs. Morand. Mr. Morand did the entertaining, Mrs. Morand worked hard,  and behind the facade, she was the dependable backbone of the business. Mr.  Morand was postmaster and owned a small store which was skimpily  stocked. The hotel booze department seemed to be well supplied with liquor,  and customers and proprietor were also well stocked. Bedrooms were clean  and comfortable, and we got all we could eat for a quarter.  The town consisted of the Hotel, the small Presbyterian church, a log  shack occupied by young Mr. McPherson the minister, who could speak the  "Hieland" dialect, Mr. Synder the Lumby school teacher, and Mr. Maine  the Blue-Springs school teacher. They batched in co-operation.  There was one good dwelling house. It was pink and occupied by  members of the Besette family. There were a few other dwelling places and  the one room school was on the other side of the creek, where the office of the  lumber mill stands at present.  We slept at the Ram's Horn Hotel that night, and the following morning after collecting the mail we left for Mr. Jackman's home at Cherry  Creek. We rested the horses at noon, at the bachelor home of Al. Stansfield, AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910) 117  who kindly invited us to lunch. We had bacon and eggs, flapjacks with butter  and apricot jam in a cardboard container which was an innovation to me.  Everything tasted delicious.  After lunch we wended our way to Cherry Creek, and I clearly  remember a carved loon over the door of Charlie Ringle's shack.  Our unheralded appearance at the Jackman home was a great surprise for the family, which was a large one. But they gave us a hearty  welcome, and through improvisation and sacrifice on their part, accommodated us for the night.  The next morning we left our trunks there and started on our last lap.  We rode 10 miles to Monashee in the wagon. The pack horses were tied  behind for our trip through the mountains, and Mr. Jackman Sr. was our  chief guide.  Mr. Jackman came from Luxemburg and was quite a good-looking old  gentleman with gray whiskers. As he led us through the wilderness I felt that  the Israelites surpassed us in numbers only. He often corrected me saying  "Mrs. Wert, my name is not Jackman, it is Yaukmon. And I would retaliate  with "Mr. Jackman, my name is not Wert, it is Worth." Although Mr. Jack-  man left few wordly goods for his descendants, he left what is more  valuable,—physical and mental ability, plus other desirable features, which  are apparent unto the third and fourth generation.  Along the steep winding wagon track there were outcrops of coal,  which our guide said were not mature enough for mining.  Before we said good-bye at the Jackman home, Minnie invited us to  return in a few days, to go with them to the sports at Lumby, on the 24th of  May. When I asked why Lumby was having a holiday on that day, they were  surprized that I, coming from England, did not know that it was Queen  Victoria's birthday. Although I appreciated their kindness, I did not think it  was worth walking 15 miles to keep anyone's birthday. Since then I have  walked 15 miles several times to attend a political meeting. The lane  depends on the love.  The most difficult part of the journey lay ahead. The team and wagon  were left at the Monashee. Our provender and blankets were loaded on to the  cayuses. The men and pack horses went ahead on the trail. Flo and I walked  behind in our long flapping skirts and picture hats, suitable for Piccadilly  Circus. The trail was very narrow, with steep cliffs on one side and deep  ravines on the other, which were filled with water from melting snows. They  looked like dark bottomless lakes. Snow and mud on the trail, which often  slanted, made it difficult and dangerous. We watched the progress in  trepidation. One cayuse with its awkward load slipped and slid down the  bank, while we held our breath in fear. But Paul Jackman's horsemanship  aided by fallen logs and debris saved the situation, and got him safely back  on the trail.  Just before dark we emerged onto an open tract of land and reached  the river bank. There was a log shack near the river where we halted for  consultation. In order to reach our destination it was necessary to cross the  river on a log. The river was a rushing, roaring flood, and the water touched  the bottom of the log in the dark. So perforce we all had to sleep the night in  the shack. We made tea and ate. We were all very tired so went to bed and 118 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910)  slept the sleep of the righteous. The five men threw blankets on the floor,  while Flo and I enjoyed the luxury of the bunk.  The next morning we rose at daylight to get ready for th^ one more  river we had to cross into the land of our dreams.  There was an old stove in the shack, so we had bacon, flapjacks, syrup  and tea, and packed up again for the crossing. Although daylight favoured  us, the water had risen during the night and now covered the log. The  cayuses struggled through the water which almost covered them, and the  men walked over the log to demonstrate how easy it was. Mr. Jackman was  a wonderful Moses including the whiskers, but he had no brother Aaron, and  if we wanted to continue our honeymoon we had to walk on that log. I had  always boasted sex equality, and here was a terrible test in which I failed.  My pride was humbled by deep waters.  Saying "Heaven help us," but preferring the visible means of support,  we held on to our husbands' coat tails. Afraid to look either up or down, we  centered on their backs, and proceeded inch by inch, and foot by foot. With a  few Ohs! and screams we reached the other side with nothing worse than wet  feet.  Following the river for a mile or more we came to John's humble  home. There was a low bed on one side, and an old stove on the other, but no  room to swing a cat. Flo looked for a moment in consternation, said, "Oh  John!", sat on the bed and burst into tears. John said, "I begged you not to  come," while I sang, "Oh why did I leave my little back room in Blooms-ber-  ree," and tried to persuade Flo that everything would come out all right.  When I asked John where Harry and I could go to carry on the  honeymoon, he said "You go along the trail to Fred Williamson's shack,  and if he isn't home you stay there." I've never met Fred Williamson, but  wherever he is I want to thank him for not being home in May 1901. The  shack was roomy,—most all room. There was a bunk with cedar branches in  one corner, and a hole in the roof for a chimney in the opposite corner. The  fire-place was thefloor and the floor was the ground. But with a rustic table,  two apple boxes and white sheets it looked homey. No curtains were needed  for there were no windows. But with the chimney hole and the open spaces  between the logs, fresh air and light were provided, and windows were  superfluous.  My first duty was to bake bread. This was new to me, but I borrowed  John's Dutch oven and followed directions on the yeast box. I lit a fire outside, put the moulded dough in the oven and oven in the ashes, and watched  until the time was up, but when I took it out it was like a lump of lead. That  was the first fly in the ointment of the honeymoon. Harry said I didn't have  enough fire and I said I did. I bet he couldn't do any better, and allowed him  to try just to prove my words. So when the next loaf was ready, he sat by the  fire to replenish and watch the time. But all the big man laboured to deliver  was—a cinder. John baked the next loaf and showed me how to do it. Since  then I have often questioned the wisdom of learning.  One day Flo discovered she had lost a bracelet, and thought she had  left it in the shack at the river crossing. So we decided to walk back there in  the evening. Harry and I walked ahead, leaving Flo and John—who carried  an old-fashioned gun—a considerable distance behind. Before we rounded a  sharp bend in the trail, caused by a high bank on our left, we heard a noise of AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910) 119  snapping twigs, and suddenly as we turned the corner we came face to face  with a big shaggy animal. Very innocently I said, "Is that a Dartmoor  pony?" but almost immediately recognized it was a very big bear. My  screams re-echoed between the hills. This caused the bear to turn tail and  run. Hearing my screams, John rushed up with his antiquated gun and fired.  At the same time the bear stumbled and we thought he had injured him.  Despite our pleadings he reloaded, "That's the biggest Grizzly I've ever  seen, his hide is worth 30 dollars," forgetting that if the bear turned on us our  hides wouldn't be worth 30 cents. It took so long to reload again that the bear  was too far away to hit. At the crossing, the waters had abated, so we  bravely walked the log and found the bracelet. But our homeward journey in  the dark was not exactly enjoyable.  John took mountain fever, and as Harry could not proceed with the  mining without his help, we decided to investigate our surroundings.  In a shack across the river lived Al Marsh, with a crop of patriarchal  whiskers. He was an industrious neighbour who, all alone, in his search for  gold had dug a tunnel hundreds of feet long under the mountain.  One day I wore my Curdurory bloomers and we hiked up the mountain  side with John's gun for protection. We saw a rather clumsy animal on a  stump, and decided it was a small bear, so to save us from destruction Harry  shot it. Then we proceeded to a small lake further up. Here we saw a big bird  on the water, making a blood-curdling noise. It dove and popped up occasionally to make "music", so of course as we had a gun it was a god-given  targetfor practice. Although itwas a hard target for a marksman, the green  Englishman killed it with the first shot. We could not reach it so like  conquering heroes returned to tell John of our wonderful progress. We asked  the names of the "wild" animals we had slaughtered. He said "You have  killed a loon and a porcupine, they are both protected, so keep your mouths  shut or the gamewarden will get you." This was discouraging, so Harry  being a farmer said "I think I'll go down to that big Coldstream Ranch and  try to get a job." To which John replied, "If you go down there with those  breeches and leggings on, the foreman will know you're a bloody Englishman and think you're no good for work." Deeper discouragement!  But when the butter, potatoes and jam gave out, I told Harry I was  tired of bacon and beans, and that if he wouldn't go I would walk out alone.  Another fly!  The next day we rolled our blankets, packed a lunch, said good-bye,  and walked to Jackman's—15 miles. I wore buttoned boots; with high heels,  and after walking a few miles, walking became a torture. When I took them  off I suffered from tender feet.  Eventually we reached the Jackman home which seemed like a  palace. We enjoyed raw cariboo meat which had been cured by the Indians,  and feasted on Mrs. Jackman's home cooking. We rested a few days and  then went forth to find land from which to carve a farm. From then on there  were more flies than ointment, so it was good-bye honeymoon.  While staying at Cherry Creek for a few days we visited a Chinese  settlement close to the Jackman place. They were placer mining, and Duck  who wore a pig-tail gave us "hookie liney to catchie f ishie." We caught trout  in the mining ditch, and Duck invited us in to lunch. He cooked our trout and  steamed stale bread which made it taste like new. In a conspicuous place on 120 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910)  the wall was a gorgeous picture of Queen Victoria, and his praise and admiration put me to shame.  We visited Jack Merritt whose birthplace in Cornwall was only a few  miles from our home in Devon. His shack was at the junction of two creeks,  and he took us into a tunnel he had dug under the hill. We fished near the  shack, and everytime I caught a fish I screamed for someone to come and  take it off the hook. Jack Merritt had a pre-emption of good farming land, not  far from the postoffice, but in Creighton Valley, through which there was no  road. The Thomases lived near there. One day Mrs. Thomas took us fishing  at Eight Mile Creek. She caughta lot of fish but we caught none.  Before going to Cherry Creek the Jackman's had pre-empted good  farming land and built a house in Trinity Valley. Their claims had not been  jumped but the places were neglected. Knowing we preferred farming, Mr.  Jackman persuaded us to go with him to see his place in Trinity Valley,  where there was "timothy up to the horses guts". We went, we saw, and he  conquered. So we went back to the Vernon Court House which was then at the  west end of town. We paid Mr. Jackman for releasing his claim, and took  over the pre-emption.  Although it was not a big sum, it gave Mr. Jackman freedom to indulge. This indulgence caused much concern during and after our return to  Cherry Creek, where our trunks had been left.  We left Vernon in the morning and had lunch at the hotel in Lumby. It  was a hot day and when we were ready to hitch up the team for Cherry  Creek, Mr. Jackman was incapable, so he asked Harry to drive. Although  Harry had only driven teams tandem style, necessity forced acceptance.  Mr. Jackman sat in the front seat of the democrat with Harry. I sat behind.  When we arrived at the Jackman home, Mrs. Jackman and Minnie  were preparing supper, and Paul and his brother returned from working on  the road soon after.  Next day with our trunks, some blankets, a mattress, and a few  cooking utensils, packed in the Jackman wagon, we set for our log house in  Trinity Valley, picking up a sack of flour and some groceries in Lumby. Mr.  Jackman gave us an old Brandon cook stove. The ashes fell from the  fireplace into the oven, but I used it for five years.  It was late in the evening of June, 1901 when we arrived at our  "home". It rained tremendously that day, but for six weeks following not a  drop fell.  Paul Jackman's team needed a rest so he stayed overnight. But where  was he to sleep? There was just one mattress and no hay in the barn for a  bed. We threw the mattress on the kitchen floor, and in our day attire all  three of us stretched out on the mattress. We were constantly disturbed by  "bushtails". We had set traps for them, and had to get up and re-set them  continually. By morning we had caught 32. Although later on we pulled down  the stairs, and split the cedar lining into the logs, the "perfume" of the rats  remains to this day.  We bought a sorrel horse called Mike from Mr. Jackman, and a two-  wheeled cart and harness in Vernon. This enabled us to shop in Vernon,  which was 32 miles away. One day we left home in the morning, fed the horse  and lunched at Lumby. There was a ditch of running water by the side of the  road at the Coldstream Ranch. Harry thought Mike would like a drink. It AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910) 121  was too much trouble to take him out of the cart, so where the bank of the  ditch sloped gradually, he led him down. In turning round the cart upset and  Mike lay down in the shafts. Harry fearing someone would come alone and  seethe green Englishman's catastrophe, wouldn't stop to unbuckle all the  necessary buckles, so he cut one strap with his pocket knife.  When Teddy Bates, the livery man at the Victoria Hotel unharnessed  Mike, he asked Harry what happened. Harry told him it was done by  bushtails. Teddy Bates said, "That's the smoothest bite I ever saw a bushtail  rat make." By thetime we had done our business in Vernon it was too late to  start home. So we stayed two nights at the hotel. This meant three days away  from home.  We bought a revolver at Megaw's. This I carried in the cart when I  drove alone, so that I could shoot wild animals if attacked. There were 12  miles of forest trail without a dwelling, and although I had had no experience  in handling firearms, the revolver gave me much courage. We learned later  that itwas illegal to carry a revolver without a special 50 dollar licence. And  how near that revolver came to making me a widow. Harry had gone to  Lumby, and said he would not be able to get back that night. There were no  neighbours so perforce I had to stay alone. My fear was of Indians as I had  not then realized that they were the most moral people in the country. So I  worked far into the night. Then I sat at the table near the closed door and  tried to read, with the revolver fully loaded at my right hand. Sleep was out  of the question. About one o'clock a.m. I heard a noise outside as of someone  approaching, so I cocked the revolver and sat in readiness. Then a horse  neighed and a saddle creaked, so I bravely called out "Who's there?" And  ohithe relief when Harry answered "It's only me."  Losing a husband through natural causes is unfortunate, to shoot him  unintentionally is more so, but when he carries no insurance it's nothing  short of a calamity.  The next time we went to Vernon we bought Prince, and from that day  until his death Prince was one of my best friends. He was a lovely dark bay  horse, sired by a famous trotting stallion—Ben Morral. He was born near  Kelowna and brought into Vernon that day with many other horses. Major  "Somebody" an agent for the Federal Government was supposed to be in  Vernon to buy horses for the Boer War. The Major did not appear, and the  owner of Prince was reluctant to take the horse back to Kelowna. He asked  75 dollars for Prince, and it would have been a most unnatural thing for a  Devonshire farmer to buy an animal without attempting to lower the price.  So we eventually paid 72 dollars and 50 cents. Louis Morand of Lumby owned  a half-brother of Prince. They were both wonderful trotters and Mr. Morand  often tried to buy our horse to team with his own. But from the first day I  drove Prince he became a member of our family, and money couldn't buy  him. He was most sagacious and if anything went wrong with the cart or  harness, instead of running away, as many young horses would, he would  stop dead in his tracks until it was fixed. The only thing he refused to do for  me was pass a Chinaman with an open umbrella near the Coldstream  Ranch. He came to a standstill several hundred yards back and refused to  move. I had to shout and ask the Chinaman to close his umbrella, before we  could proceed. But when automobiles appeared on the roads he seemed not  to notice them. 122 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910)  In the summer of 1902 I drove from Lumby to Vernon with Rose and  Blanch Quesnel. About eight miles from Vernon we met the first car owned  in the North Okanagan. It belonged to, and was driven by Judge Spinks. But  Mr. Ricardo, manager of the Coldstream Ranch rode beside him as his  assistant. Long before they reached us Judge Spinks stopped and signalled  for us to stop. Then Mr. Ricardo got out and led our horse by. He needn't  have bothered. We met them again on the road home, and Prince didn't  deign to notice them. With the advent of the motor car many people had  trouble with their horses on the roads.  One of our earliest purchases for our "farm" were two little black pigs  which we bought from Johnny Genier, the Lumby mail carrier. While  waiting for Mr. Genier to catch the pigs and put them in a gunny sack, I  made friends with his two little daughters Malvina and Elizabeth, in the  farm yard. Malvina carried on the conversation, as "Lizzie" who is now  Mrs. Rod Chisholm, was not old enough for formal talk.  Harry put the sack containing the pigs in the bottom of the cart at the  back. The sides of the cart were very low. We arrived at Lumby,—about a  mile and a half,—with no pigs. So we drove back to look for them. We met  Mr. Charles Christien, Senior, who was a neighbour of Mr. Genier's. He had  picked up the sack of pigs in the road, and we were lucky that he was an  honest man.  Flo and John had remained at Kettle River that summer. They left  there in September and came to our place with their blankets, packed on  John's two cayuses. They stayed with us over winter. We did not have  luxurious quarters, and often when we woke in the morning, the tops of our  blankets would be decorated with a wide hem of frozen breath. Despite much  discomfort none of us caught a cold.  That fall Fred Levasseur from Lumby came to Trinity Valley to make  cedar shakes. He got Harry to help him and in that way Harry learnt a trade,  which helped us tremendously in our struggle for existence. We had much  good cedar on the place, and for many years shakes were our chief means of  sustenance.  We bought our first cow that year from Mr. Clephas Quesnel at  Lumby, and through that Mrs. Quesnel became one of my dearest friends  until her death. Although she was only about 14 years older than I, she took  the place of a mother to me. Mr. Quesnel delivered the cow—Susy—to our  place. We drove some distance ahead of him in our horse and cart. He had  Susy's calf in the back of his democrat and Susy tied behind.  When we got to McKay Creek about three miles from home, a large  tree had fallen across the road, and it was impossible to drive around it.  Harry had learned by this time that in travelling on that trail it was  necessary to carry an axe. So he started in to chop and had done a considerable amount of chopping on the upper side of the trunk when Mr.  Quesnel caught up to us. With a wide grin Mr. Quesnel took the axe from  Harry and explained to him that he was chopping in the wrong place. If I  remember rightly Mr. Quesnel stood on top of the tree and chopped from the  sides. There was no saw, and after a long wait on my part, and much hard  work by the men we were eventually enabled to drive through. About a mile  further along there was another tree across the trail, but by driving up the  hillside we were able to get around it. There was also another one quite near AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910)  123  home which we drove around.  We drove to Lumby many times that summer, and although Harry  carried an axe, he never chopped out a tree which he could circumnavigate.  But we went to the Court House in Vernon and asked Leonard Norris if he  could send someone up to clear our road. The civil servants at the Court  House were of course, very Civil, and behind our backs undoubtedly much  amused.  That fall Flo and John arrived at our place, the first thing John said  was "Why the hell don't you clear out the trees across the road?" Harry had  recently acquired a cross-cut saw so they went out the next day and cleared  away the trees. Although Harry had had much experience on farms in  England, there, the landlord was responsible for all repair work, and the  District Council for the roads. And we thought British Columbia was British.  Mr. Quesnel rented the Besette Estate, and grew many acres of  timothy hay. This was baled and shipped out by rail from Vernon. In September of 1901 we visited at the ranch. The Chinaman cook had become  offended and left without notice. Help was hard to get and Mrs. Quesnel was  forced to cook for a big crew of balers.  She asked me if I could stay and give her a hand. As Flo was at our  place and able to care for Harry and John, I was pleased to do this. I was  exceptionally green in regard to the cooking. But I could wash dishes, sweep  floors and scrub them, and wait table. And Mrs. Quesnel taught me how to  make yeast, bake bread, prepare vegetables and make a layer cake.  The Quesnels had just bought a new piano, and I was able to teach the  girls five-finger exercises, and get a little fun for myself with my favorite  tunes. One day I was playing a tuneand Mr. Quesnel said "I can sing that  in French." So I asked him to sing it and teach me the words. This he was  very pleased to do and I learnt parrot-wise. The next day in the kitchen, I  sang it to Mrs. Quesnel to display my knowledge of French. I had not  proceeded far when she said "Oh don't let anyone hear you singing that,  it is terrible." Today I have forgotten all the words but the bad ones.  The Worth's home and barns. 124 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910)  I stayed with Mrs. Quesnel until after Christmas, and played the organ  in the school for the children's songs at the Christmas concert. Mr. Snyder  was the teacher, and I remember a few of the elder girls,—Alice  Deschamps, Eva and Clara Christien, Rose Quesnel, Ella Ingles. I hope  those whose names I have forgotten will forgive me. They sang "Soldiers of  the Queen" with much gusto. Some of their friends were still fighting in  South Africa for "England's glory". We were young and "What they killed  each other for we could not well make out."  Grandma Hardie from Auchterarder—Mr. Richard's mother-in-law  was in the audience. She carried on a most animated conversation with Mr.  McPherson the Presbyterian minister in Gaelic. It was the strangest speech  I had ever heard.  I returned home early in January and did not leave our place until  spring opened the road. The snow was deep and getting out to Lumby in  winter was the most difficult undertaking. The only other person in the  Valley was Mr. V. L. E. Miller. He lived about four miles from us nearer  Lumby. The man who worked for him and stayed with him at that time, was  a young Englishman named Fred Lindsay.  In those days the Government never used a snow plough on our roads.  And we didn't know what a snow plough was. Mr. Miller had a big well fed  team. Compared to the majority he was a very wealthy man. He drove to  Vernon once a month, to arrange his financial affairs and get supplies. In  this way the road was slightly impressed from his place. The journey from  our place to Lumby in winter was a cruel strain on the horses. So we did not  go out unless absolutely necessary. And when Harry did go I preferred to  stay at home, as I hated to see the poor horses struggling through the deep  snow. During the early years, before there were enough teams to help keep  the winter road open, several of our horses died, because this extra strain  hastened their death.  In the summer of our first year, before Flo and John came to us, we  were alone on the place. We bought a side-saddle and Harry and I would  roam the hill-side on horseback, penetrating the forest wherever possible.  These rides we enjoyed but they didn't bring in any income. After the first  summer there was no chance for me to use a side-saddle, I had too many  other things to do.  There was a piece of land not far from the house, which had been  cleared by the Jackmans. Harry cut this grass with a scythe. He also cut a  considerable amount of grass growing between the stumps of the cedar trees  which had been used by Mr. Jackman for building purposes. In that way we  gathered enough hay to fill the loft of the barn, and a rough shed behind the  barn. We took the seat of the cart out and hauled it in the cart.  A big cottonwood tree had fallen across part of the cleared land. After  consultation we thought we should burn the tree and prepare the land for the  following spring. Then I went in to scrub the kitchen floor and try to get rid of  the rat odour. But I soon heard a crackling noise and smelt smoke. I rushed  out to see the flames running along the dry grass, and it was not too long  before much of the valley to the north of the barn was on fire. We pumped all  the pails and utensils we had full of water and carried them to the barn. We  could do nothing but try and save our hay and barn. We soon saw the barn  would be safe except for sparks from a distance. So we spent the night on the AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910) 125  top of the hay in the shed. We sat there for hours and enjoyed the spectacle.  When the flames ran up a tall tree and threw up a magnificent display of  sparks, I said to Harry "It's as good as the fireworks were at Crystal  Palace." But we didn't leave our hay until daylight came. By that time the  fire was too far off to bother about. Only the fact that there had been a fire  there not long before we went there and left much charred space, and that  rain came soon, saved the valuable timber farther north. Many years after,  the Enderby people told us how they had seen the fire and worried about it.  But they never knew the culprits.  One warm afternoon in September an Indian visited us. He said he and  some of his people had come up an old pack trail from Enderby but it was  difficult to get through. "Itwas jump, jump, most of the way." His name was  Jim Nicholas. He was very pleasant, and asked if we would lend him our  saddle. They were going to Mabel Lake Mountain to the east of our place to  pick huckleberries. We shivered in our shoes for fear, and we wouldn't have  dared refuse him if we wanted to. We were glad when he left and never expected to see our saddle again. But after a few days he returned our saddle,  with a leg of venison and many smiles. After that we always welcomed them,  and I used to trade butter for gloves and huckleberries in baskets made of  birch bark.  In the late fall of 1915 when Harry junior was two and a half years old,  the wife of Louis the Indian chief came with a little pair of moccasins she had  made for "Your baby," saying that he was the prettiest baby she had ever  seen. He was just a happy common-variety baby, and in some ways spoilt by  the rest of the family. It was perhaps because he was very fair, and perhaps  because they were always invited in, and the children became friendly.  Flo was never happy in this country. She had never before left her  farm in Devon. That winter she received word that her father had died, and  she grieved. The circumstances of her life here were very different to what  she had been accustomed, with many discomforts. So they decided to go  back to England as soon as spring came.  At that time we had sufficient funds left to pay our way back to Devon,  but our control over 320 acres of wilderness, plus our imaginations, which  peered into the future and anticipated its possibilities, anchored us to British  Columbia. The home people didn't expect us back before five years. That  was our promise. But it was not long before the bank balance became  depleted, and we have since realized that we sailed on a river of no return.  Flo spent barely a year in this country and after she went I missed her  sorely. She was an experienced worker in the home, and I was green by  comparison. I disliked housework and longed to be outdoors, especially with  the animals.  We expected our first baby in the autumn, and realized that for the  event it would be necessary to be nearer a settled community. We also  realized that such circumstances demanded an income. So we approached  Mr. and Mrs. Quesnel for their advice. They needed help on the ranch, so Mr.  Quesnel hired Harry for the summer. And I got bed and board for doing what  I was able around the house. Also provision was made for our horse and cow  on the ranch.  I had a brown cashmere maternity gown made for me at Shatford's. It  cost me 25 dollars which was a lot of money when compared with English 126 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910)  prices. Such comparisons rose in my mind for a long time. I paid for the  dress and was most thankful that I filed the receipt, for later in the year the  bill was sent in again for payment. Someone in the firm was careless in the  accounting.  One day in the summer I drove Prince in the cart to Vernon to make  arrangements for my sojourn in the Vernon Hospital. The hospital then was  low down in the south-west of town. Miss Henderson, the manageress had a  very pleasant personality. She wore a black silk dress with skirts to the floor  a la mode. She showed me the maternity wards, and I said I expected to  come at the end of September. The charge was to be a dollar a day for  everything, and I was to pay the doctor. There were only two doctors,—Morris and Williams—and as Dr. Morris had been recommended to  me, I asked her to inform him.  Through colossal ignorance of the requirements of the human body,  even in normal circumstances, I spent a most miserable time during the  summer.  On Saturday evening the 20th of September 1902 we retired early at the  ranch house, intending to drive to the Vernon Hospital on the Sunday morning. But we had not been in bed long, when I woke Harry and asked him to  go downstairs to Mrs. Quesnel's room and ask her to come up. She immediately sent to Lumby for help, then removed her girls from their  downstairs bedroom and put me in their room. Mrs. Deschamps who had  had much experience as a midwife, and her daughter Mrs. Tommy Christein  came over as soon as possible. They thought that the baby would soon be  born and that a doctor would not be necessary. But after several hours of  tribulation, they changed their minds and sent for Dr. Williams. There was  no phone, and the fastest means of travel was on horseback. Ernie Pratt who  was working for Mr. Quesnel, had a swift pony and he kindly rode to Vernon  for the doctor. At 8:30 o'clock the next morning, when about 20 men were  having breakfast in the dining room close by, my baby introduced himself.  But the noise he made was as nothing to the noise his mother made before he  arrived. Dr. Williams who came in his buggy was too late for delivery, but  his further ministrations were essential. He enjoyed shooting a good bag of  grouse in Mr. Quesnel's meadow. He came again the following Sunday and  got moregrouse. His fee was a dollar a mile. We did not receive the bill until  thefollowing spring, when I drove to Vernon and paid it at his house. It was a  beautiful place. His wife made me a cup of chocolate and he picked me a  bunch of roses. The house is now known as the Gateway.  Not many years after this Dr. Williams acquired a motor-cycle which  of course was a wonderful innovation for a doctor's out-of-town patients. But  Dr. Williams who was a clever surgeon, was not so well acquainted with the  make-up of a motor-cycle, as with the make-up of a man. He was called with,  great urgency to the McDonald home at the top of Blue Springs Hill. He  made ittothe bottom of the hill in short time, but here his "horse" refused to  climb. Dr. Williams in angry determination to impose his will on his new  "hobby" spent enough time in expletive persuasion to walk up the hill 10  times over. Eventually his wheel of intelligence swung back to balance, and  he walked up.  We named the baby Vernon Harvey, Vernon after the city and Harvey  after my brother. But Mrs. Quesnel's little daughters, who could justly claim AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910) 127  a share in his existence, refused to call a baby after a city. They called him  Harvey and won their way. But for three years his mother called him Baby.  When he was two weeks old we moved back to our house in Trinity  Valley. Susy the cow was dry so we left her at Quesnels for the winter. I was  supposed to supply sustenance for the baby.  Mr. Morand sold his store in Lumby to Mr. Woods from eastern  Canada. Mr. Woods was willing to take shakes in exchange for groceries,  etc. Harry got a young Englishman called Tom Cookson, to help him make  shakes, and the future seemed full of promise.  That was a terrifying, grinding winter for me, for the baby cried most  of the time and kept me awake at night. Despite the teaching that woman  was made for the glory of man, there was no glory for Harry or Tom that  winter. The baby was always in arms in more ways than one and Tom  Cookson the bachelor was the best "mother" of the three. There was bread  to bake, meals to get, and ceaseless washing to be done by rubbing a  corrugated board. Breakfast at seven, the baby to bathe, and lunch at  twelve, for the shake factory must go on. There was neither peace nor rest  within the home. Outside the white "feathers" kept peacefully falling and  piling. Yet often on a moonlight night the call of the coyotes or the howling of  a wolf would reverberate across the space.  During the year 1903 I stayed on in our place in Trinity Valley. Early in  the year Tom Cookson left us to seek work elsehwere, and I regret that we  lost trace of him. He was so considerate in our home, and the baby loved  him. Consequently, kind thoughts of him have periodically arisen in my  mind all down the years.  After he had gone, Harry and I and the baby carried on. The big cedars  for shake making were really quite close to the house, but we had to walk  over a half a mile to get to them. So we took our lunch, and I acted as spring-  pole. That meant that in sawing down the big trees, I took one handle of the  cross-cut saw, and without expending much energy, lightly guided or controlled my end of it, while Harry undertook the strenuous exercise. The baby  would sit on a blanket and watch us with interest. When the cut was nearly  through Harry would shout "Timber" and I would grab the baby and rush  away in the opposite direction to which the tree would fall, and Harry would  finish the job.  As the might monarch of the forest fell with resounding crash, both  baby and I would scream with delight. I would leave early, carry the baby  home, feed the chickens, and the pig, and prepare supper.  There was wild pasture almost everywhere, so we put bells on Susy  and the red cow and they were allowed to wander where they would.  Sometimes they would wander far, but after supper while I cleaned up and  put the baby to bed, Harry would fetch and milk the cows. When our tasks  were done there was no time for culture, so we called it a day. Sleep would(  overcome us, sleep too deep for dreams. We had to wake early to milk and  feed the animals before breakfast, in order to get all the daylight possible for  the shake business. Harry would saw the timber in shake lengths in the bush,  and haul them home on a stoneboat with the team, to the back of the house.  Here he split them into shakes with a frow, and pressed them into bundles  and bound them.  When he had a load of shakes ready he would haul them to Mr. Wood's 128 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910)  store in Lumby and bring back groceries, sacks of grain for the team. Occasionally baby and I would go with him. I always got a sore throat during  these visits to Lumby. The women there used to think I was the greatest  talker on Earth. They overlooked the fact that for months on end, I had no  woman to talk to, and that my husband had no time to even listen.  Sometimes in winter when the snow was deep, Harry would start out  with a load and reach Lumby with two bundles, having dumped them by  instalments on the road side. It was a cruel journey for our horses and a  great expense for us.  Early in 1904 Mr. and Mrs. Quesnel wished to visit their old home at  Three Rivers—Quebec. They had five children. The eldest one, Rose, was  then at the convent school in Kamloops. Armand the boy and Rhea the  youngest went with their parents to Quebec. Mrs. Quesnel's father—we  called him Grampa Christien—and two little girls, Blanche age ten and  Leonie age seven stayed at the ranch. Mr. Quesnel asked Harry and me to  stay on the ranch that winter. Harry was to attend to the necessary work  outside the house, and I was to be responsible for the housework. For  decision on any question with which we were not familiar, we sought  Grampa's advice, as he made his home there and understood. I accepted this  job with pleasure, it was a change for me in many ways, and I felt I could  accomplish what was needed. The children and I were very good friends.  As I look back on my 63 years in Canada I realize that I have experienced some heart-rending circumstances, but that winter was the  saddest of them all. For Mrs. Quesnel the grief was almost unbearable. We  lost through death one of the most lovable and beautiful little girls of that  community.  The first damper on my enthusiasm was caused by the baby, who was  toddling around and investigating everything he could get in contact with. I  carelessly left a large saucepan of hot soup on the cupboard floor. I shut the  door but did not fasten it properly. He not only poked his nose into the cupboard, but also put his foot in the soup. And because his silly mother  neglected to give his foot the attention it should have received, it became  infected and did not heal for many months,—until after we returned home in  the spring.  That winter sore throats were very prevalent in the Lumby vicinity.  Blanche, Leonie, the baby and myself all had sore throats, but Blanche  seemed to suffer more than the rest of us. I thought a doctor should examine  her. Because of cold weather, taking her to Vernon seemed unwise. She  wanted me to send for Dr. Morris as she didn't like Dr. Williams. So we  consulted Grampa and he thought that Williams was the best doctor to get.  Williams came. He first examined Blanche and said "She's got  diphtheria, I'll give her an injection of antitoxin." He then looked at Leonie's  throatand mine, saying our throats looked bad, but didn't suggest injections.  Then he took the baby in his arms and said "Open your mouth." The baby  closed it firmly. He then scolded him so much that the baby started to cry,  and in crying he opened his mouth sufficiently for the doctor to insert a  teaspoon, and press down the tongue. Then he called me to see the baby's  throat and said "Look he's got it too." But he never suggested an injection  for the baby, and for this I have been thankful all my life.  Mrs. Charlie Christien,  and Mrs.  Deschamps—great aunts of the AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910) 129  children were there during this examination. We had put Blanche to bed and  Dr. Williams went into the bedroom to attend her. He left his bag with  requirements, poisons etc. open on a chair in the kitchen. We were all very  busy, and when the doctor went to his bag, the baby was trying to open a  bottle of poison. He pulled it roughly away and scolded the baby severely.  Mrs. Christien said to Mrs. Deschamps—in French—"It's not his  fault, he had no business to leave it there." They were very surprised  when he answered them in  English,  saying "I know it's my fault".  He gave Blanche the anti-toxin and told us he would send up the Health  Officer to quarantine us, and return to see Blanche in a few days. The  aunties went to their homes and their families, and it looked as though I was  to be left alone to struggle with the nursing and the work. But Mrs. Ingles  called to see how I was getting along, and said " If no one comes to help you I  will stay, and help with the nursing, as it is impossible for you to do it alone."  Mrs. Ingles Snr. was one of the finest humanitarians the Lumby community  ever knew. She never refused her services to poor people in need, and loving  memory of her will remain with me to the end.  Dr. Morris was the Health Officer. He came and examined our throats  and put us under quarantine without comment. But how did he examine the  baby? He cuddled him in his arms. Then he took out his watch and asked him  if he could hear the tick-tick. The baby smiled and thought the watch was  wonderful. Then the doctor said "Now I want you to do something for me, I  want you to open your mouth very wide." The mouth was immediately  opened as wide as possible and the Dr. got what he wanted with smiles all  around.  Mrs. Ingles' cheerful manner and help relieved us all, and Blanche  improved very much.  When Dr. Williams came the second time, he was so pleased with  Blanche's improvement that he said "I'll give her another injection."  She got worse from that moment and in about two days she died.  No one in the Lumby district except Blanche, died that year, and as far  as I know, no one there had died of that idease since. We were quarantined  for several weeks. We gargled, rubbed, and wrapped our throats, and they  got better in a few days. But had not Mrs. Ingles undertaken to nurse  Blanche, no one knows what might have happened to the rest of us. I have  puzzled over the circumstances all down the years. But after having read an  article in a medical journal a few years ago, saying the toxins of this nature,  in order to be effective, had to be fresh, and that often in distant places  stocks were not replenished. I have decided that the first injection was stale,  but that the second one was very much alive.  When the Quesnels came back from Quebec we were able to return  home, but it was a sad summer for all concerned. Our main occupation was  shake-making but during the summer Harry cut grass with a scythe between  the stumps and any open place he could find. In this way we got enough to  feed our team and two cows.  That year Mr. Ross the Dominion surveyor and his men surveyed the  20 miles each side of the C.P.R. main line. Indoingthisthey had to cross over  the top of the mountain west of our place. Mr. Ross employed Harry to fetch  their needs from Lumby in his wagon and pack it on the horses as far as  possible up the mountain side. From there the men had to pack it to the top 130 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910)  on their backs. We of course were very glad to earn the money. Mr. Ross told  me that in all his surveying through Canada, he had seen some fine views,  but none to compare with what he could see from the top of that mounta'n. In  recent years the Ganzeveld Bros, have made quite a decent logging road  there, which approaches the Ross point of view, and it is now possible to  travel to Armstrong over this mountain.  My next memory of this impressive year concerns wolves.  One evening in the spring, we had worked as long as daylight allowed.  Then while I did the necessary jobs in the house, and prepared supper, Harry  took the 30-30 and accompanied by Puppy the collie and Jack the black  spaniel, he went to fetch Susy the cow. Susy was our main source of  sustenance and this day she had wandered far. He found her at the extreme  end of the place about a mile from home. It was twilight and as he plodded  home on the trail, he saw many gray forms sneaking through the surrounding bush. Susy seemed alarmed, and the dogs kept close to heel. In the  gloaming, Harry thought they were large coyotes, yet he had never seen so  many nor so bold. Though they instilled fear it was too dark to shoot, and he  was glad when they reached home safely.  The next morning Harry called me out to listen to continual bloodcurdling howls, which reverberated through the valley. He said "That's  wolves! They're tearing something to pieces. It could be Strsy; I'll go and  see." I could not go because of the baby, so I begged him not to go. I even  wrestled with him but he tore away. I knew that the cow came first. He went  off with the dogs and the gun as bold and boastful as the British Navy when it  kept "our foes at bay." I was left lamenting. "Neighbouring hind and cot  was none, my contact was with God alone." Yet I loved him still and despite  God my heart sank within me. I paced the floor in distress, often going  outside to listen. The howling became spasmodic and distant, and the  peaceful intervals comforted me. But every moment seemed a minute, and  the minutes an eternity. Then going outside again I heard a renewed outburst, and felt he was really in the jaws of death. I could stand the suspense  no longer. Reason was beyond me. And I've never forgiven myself for the  irresponsible error I committed as a mother. I loaded the revolver, taking  extra cartridges, kissing the baby saying "Mama get Daddy, baby be good".  He smiled and waved bye bye as I stepped over the baby barricade at the  door.  I wept as I ran a quarter of a mile, then beheld the conquering heroes  coming. The man dragged a gray wolf and a black wolf, over which they all  gloated, although the collie was drenched with blood from a neck wound.  Not long after they left the house the dogs scented and gave chase.  Harry followed them until they were lost to sight. Arriving on a high-ridge,  he saw the pack of wolves on the opposite hill-side. He counted nine black  ones and there were more than twice as many gray ones. While he was  watching they quietly concentrated in one spot with tails wagging for a kill.  Then he heard the dogs cry in fear. He fired the 30-30 into their midst and  they scattered. The dogs seized their chance and ran back to their master,  who sheltered behind a big tree. But a black wolf chased the black dog, and a  gray wolf chased the collie. When they got within range he shot the black  wolf, but the gray wolf chased the collie around the tree many times and nine  bullets went into him before he dropped. Only one bullet remained and Harry AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910) 131  cleared out in haste.  The next day Harry found the remains of a big buck deer in a windfall  near the house, where they had cornered and devoured him.  No one visited our house for weeks and my baby could have died of  starvation and a broken heart. My message to young mothers in similar  circumstances is stay with your baby whatever betides.  _^ i£ i£ i£ i£ i^-^-^i^i^  During our first year in the valley Harry and I used to ride the trails  together, but after the baby came there was neither time nor opportunity, so  I sold my side-saddle to Ella Ingles.  In September 1905 we expected another baby and I decided that this  time I would get to Vernon early in the month. In order that I should be near  the neighbours that summer, Harry got a job with Mr. Warwick in his sawmill at Lumby. We lived in a house close to the saw-mill where there was also  a barn for Prince. Thanks to Prince and the cart I was able to contact many  good friends in the district and enjoyed their company that summer. The  only discouragement was a bad tooth, which Dr. Williams would not allow  me to have drawn.  Harry promised to take me to Vernon Hospital on Sunday, September  the second. He would not go any other day of the week, because he had to  work. But again there was no time to get to Vernon. So in the middle of the  night of September the first Harry got Fred Levasseur to fetch Mrs. Ingles  who lived at Mr. Bonneau's farm about two miles away. Through bathing  and exercise recommended to me by Mrs. Ingles, my second baby was born  on September the second without much trouble, and a doctor was not  necessary. After her mother went home Ella, who was 17, stayed with me for  a few days and then I was able to manage alone. But the tooth still caused  much trouble. So when the baby was four weeks old I made arrangements  with Mrs. Quesnel to care for him, and taking Harvey with me I drove to  Vernon to get it pulled.  The rain poured down that day, and my friends tried to persuade me  not to go. But being from Devonshire rain held no terror compared to a tooth  ache. As I drove through Lumby, Mr. Pooler who was working on Napoleon  Besette's house called out "Where the Hell do you think you're going?"  Prince being in good fettle didn't take long to get to the Victoria Hotel, where  Teddy Bates attended to him. Then Harvey and I went to see Dr. K. C. McDonald who had not been living in Vernon long. I thought of my tooth-  drawing experience in England and dreaded the ordeal. There was no one  there to hold me down, and I wondered how he would manage me. He first  injected something and that was a new experience. When he started to pull I  was ready to struggle, but to my surprise the tooth was out before I had a  chance to resist. Here at least was one thing which gave me a chance to  cackle of the superiority of Canada when I wrote home to England.  We went back to the Victoria Hotel at once, to hurry back to the baby  in Lumby. And I remember that Mr. Tronson who owned the Victoria Hotel  was in the sitting room with his wife and two daughters. He very proudly  introduced them to me. And I was pleased that he was proud. From that day  Mr. Tronson has been sacred to my memory. Some part of me was wounded  when Tronson Street in Vernon got a new name. 132 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910)  In the early fall of 1905 we moved back to Trinity Valley, and while the  weather was favourable we burned stumps and rubbish in an endeavor to  extend our clearing. When winter came Harry carried on with the shakes. I  did not mind being alone all day. My two babies and my housework, which  was far from proficient, kept me busy.  Mr. Miller, who was a bachelor, nearly four miles away, was our only  neighbor. The Derbys and Richards were 12 miles from us, and I was glad  there were no "Joneses" to keep up with. We had "No knocker on the door,  no carpet on the floor, yet ours was a happy little home." Neither was there a  beer parlour with a billiard table down the street. Our abstinence and any  advance we gained thereby, should not be credited to our strength of  character. In reality it was, that circumstances had planted us far from  temptation.  We were especially lucky in that Mr. Miller was a voracious reader,  and a wealthy man with an extensive library. He passed on to us more  magazines than we could read. He often got a box of books from England  through the Times Book Club, and many of those books he gave me, because  he knew I liked to read.  Our greatest obstacle at that time was the 12 miles of road or trail  before we reached the main road that ran out to Lumby. In summer the  stumps in the middle of the trail tended to knock out the bottom of the cart,  and was rough on the liver. In winter the deep snow was a great strain for the  horses, thus making our journeys expensive.  We did not stay put on our place very long. Although we worked to  clear a bit of land whenever we had the opportunity, there was not enough  land cleared to make a living for many years. And as Harry could always get  a job of some kind in the Lumby district, we moved out whenever the  weather was favourable. It took more than shakes to feed the family.  Relatives in England helped out by sending clothes. They would send new  clothes for the little ones. My sister-in-law's clothes fitted me fairly well, and  I became an expert "Second Hand Rose".  But it was impossible to deceive the Lumby ladies, for the first  question would be "Did you get that at Eaton's?" Their inquiring minds in  this respect would shock me, but I realized that they sought my friendship  and was not discouraged. It was a wonderful way of life for knocking off the  rough edges of conceit.  In the spring of 1906 we moved into a log shack on the Witmer place  about 2 miles north of Lumby. Mr. Witmer built onto it a large room of  lumber which was very useful in the summer time. He built it with green  lumber, and consequently it was not long before it became a pleasant airy  cage. It had two drawbacks—it was dusty on windy days, and Kenneth the  baby loving to investigate where possible, would push small articles between  the floor boards, and squint through to see if they landed safely underneath.  Yet the building was too close to the ground for me to retrieve them. In this  way my decent cutlery disappeared, and some spoons which were wedding  presents, and I could replace them with only very inferior stuff.  The Pinsents who were from Devon lived in a shack a little to the east  of us. The Witmers were near to the north, and the Richards and Derbys  were about a mile west. They were all kind neighbours and my brain is  crowded with pleasant memories of the time I spent in that shack. Mrs. AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910) 133  Richards and Mrs. Pinsent, neither of whom could drive, wanted to shop for  a day in Vernon, and the Witmers wanted some sacks of grain and flour from  Vernon. The Witmers had a spare team and democrat, but Mrs. Witmer  couldn't leave home. None of the men would think of wasting a days work to  drive a few women to town. The women thought they were doomed to  disappointment, when Mrs. Richards had the bright idea of asking Mrs.  Worth to drive them. She said that Mrs. Witmer would look after the surplus  youngsters, and that her daughter Janet would fetch my baby in his carriage  and take him to her place while I was away. There were no babysitters in  those days, and necessities of this nature were attained through cooperation.  I knew that old Dan was a dependable horse which the Witmer  children drove to school. Fanny the other horse was a light bay and I knew  nothing of her. Neither had I driven a team of horses to town in a four-wheel  vehicle. Never-the-less I was most anxious to oblige and gain prowess in the  attempt.  It was a lovely day during school-holiday time, and we started out  after an early breakfast. It was not long before I discovered that Fanny was  a mean female, who was trying her best to make the male uncomfortable. It  was a good job for all of us that old Dan was tough and dependable, and  disregarded her female side-swipes. We reached the Victoria Hotel safely  and Teddy Bates took over the team.  Sometime in the afternoon when the shopping was over, I got the team  and drove around to collect the goods. My passengers were seated and we  had a load on, when I found myself facing west outside Megaw's store, which  is now known as Bagnall Block. Twice I tried to turn around to the right on  Barnard Avenue, but the right hind wheel would go under the body and it  would tip, and Fanny would bite Dan, while we seemed to balance on the  edge of a precipice. We all got excited and I said "My Heavens I can't turn  around." Mrs. Richards who was from Auchterarder and generally broke  out in her native dialect at such moments said "Dinna turn around my dear!  Dinna turn round and nobody will know that you canna, just drive around the  block." So with renewed confidence in my horsemanship that is what I did.  Going home Fanny behaved quite decently, for two reasons—she had a load  to pull and she was homeward bound.  Mrs. Richards was quite ill on the return journey, and we had to stop  for her to leave her lunch on the wayside. That was bad enough but what  worried her most was that she couldn't acknowledge Mr. Ricardo when we  met him. Mrs. Richards was an old friend of Lady Aberdeen's and through  her was well known to Mr. Ricardo. He was driving with his bride, who had  recently arrived from the Old Country. When he passed us he called out  "How do you do Mrs. Richards?" I acknowledged the greeting but couldn't  say "Very well thank you."  Mrs. Richards was a worthy citizen and well respected in the neighbourhood. She was a staunch member of the Presbyterian Church. This is  what the protestant church at Lumby was in those days. The Rev. Mr. Vans  was the minister and occasionally I would play the organ for their Sunday  service. And once when I was staying with the Quesnels before Christmas, I  went with Father Roy to the Catholic Church near the junction of the  Creighton Valley road to help with the Christmas carols.   Having  been 134 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910)  brought up to accept without question the rites and ceremonies as presented  by the Church of England, the differences in performances tended to make  me think for myself. Naturally I was drawn towards neutrality. My friends  of either fraction sensed this, and I would often hear members of one faction holding forth on the "crazy" ideas of the other. Yet in a crisis when the  test of true Christianity came, they were immediately good neighbours and  stood up to the test in a magnificent manner.  To-day Lumby is a village with a commissioner, etc. with numerous  religious denominations, yet fundamentally the people are similar in their  attitudes when trouble strikes.  But I will get back to the personality of Mrs. Richards. Only once did  she scold me for deceiving her. It was that same year in the month of September. Most of the time the babies and I were alone in the shack, and a  roast of meat was too much for us to handle.  Refrigerators were unheard of and ice was out of the question. Tom  Norris had given Harry a very nice sizeable roast of bear meat. I took it up to  Mrs. Witmer. She had never tasted bear meat but was quite willing to try it.  She invited the babies and me to supper.  The roast was in the oven and supper well on the way, when Mrs.  Richards with a friend who had recently arrived from Scotland, called to  visit for awhile. Mrs. Witmer consulted me privately. She wishes to invite  them for supper, but was in doubt, because of the kind of roast in the oven. I  said "Why not? It has a delicious taste".  So they stayed to supper and enjoyed it, Mrs. Richards taking a second  helping of meat. She told us afterwards that she said to her friend as they  drove home, "What was that meat we had for supper? It wasna beef and it  wasna pork, but it tasted very good." But the children must have let the  "bear" out of the bag, for the next time we met she scolded me severely for  not telling her. I pleaded guilty and accepted my punishment as a just  desert. However, it did not diminish our friendship in the least.  I lived in the Witmer shack from the spring of 1906 to the fall of 1907  and many memories crowd my mind.  In June of 1906 Howard Derby who lived across the road from Mrs.  Richards, married Isabelle Smith who had recently arrived from Scotland.  Harry and I and the babies drove in the cart to the reception at Mr. Derby's  house in the evening. I saved all the cream I could for the occasion and upset  it with my feet in the cart, never-the-less we had a most enjoyable evening,  and I got much satisfaction for my ego by singing the songs I learned in  England. Mr. M. V. Allen who managed the Lumby store for Mr. Megaw was  there with his wife, and Mrs. and Mr. Ingles were there. The following spring  while Mrs. Derby was visiting her mother in Vernon, their house burned  down. The loss of course impeded progress for a long time. But undaunted  they carried on.  That winter we went to a party at Mrs. Ingles house in Creighton  Valley. Mr. Putman, a neighbour, brought his gramophone,—the first I had  ever seen. Songs by Uncle Josh amused me immensely. That was the  beginning of the end of self-entertainment.  Not all of my memories of my stay in the shack are pleasant. It was an  extremely cold winter. The thermometer dropped to 50 below. We had a  cooking stove and a heater in the shack, and much of my time was taken in AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910) 135  keeping the fires going. I got little sleep at night, because I was afraid of fire.  Also the bawling of Mr. Ellison's cattle was heart-rending. In a.field adjoining the Witmer place, Mr. Ellison had a big herd of cattle. There was a  shack of hay in one corner, which was fenced off. The creek was frozen over  very thickly. There was a man left in charge who neglected his job and spent  most of his time in the Lumby Hotel more than two miles away. Neither was  there a shed to shelter the cattle. Some of the cows were calving, and both  calves and cows froze to the ground. One day the cattle stampeded and broke  down the fence to get to the haystack. Many of them were trampled to death.  Someone eventually informed Mr. Ellison, and he got a trustworthy man to  take over. This man was Deefie Cook who was very deaf and partly of Indian  blood. He had fine characteristics, and later because he had a trapline  through our Valley, he often visited us and became a friend of the family.  But the conversations on my part were of necessity concise, as I had to write  everything. But Mr. Cook on the other hand was well able and eager to talk  on many interesting local questions with which he was well acquainted.  After he arrived on the scene the cattle were well attended to, yet  some of the cows were so weak they died in calving. A few of the calves were  taken by the neighbours and nourished, but many died, and Mr. Ellison's  loss financially that winter must have been considerable.  The following summer a skunk took up residence in Mrs. Witmer's  cellar. This made life difficult for them, as they were afraid to fetch  necessities which were kept there, although the skunk was quite well  behaved. They tried to entice him out but he was too well pleased with his  lodgings. So Mrs. Witmer sent the girls down to ask me to bring my gun and  shoot the skunk. Here was a splendid chance to exhibit my skill and I  responded with alacrity. I had a gun of German make which Mr. Miller had  given to Harry. It could be used as a revolver is used, or it could be extended  for longer distance. I had good results with it shooting hawks which attacked  my chickens.  No skill was required to shoot this animal as he was cornered. In  reality I hated to hurt or kill any animal, and am ashamed of the deed to this  day. There were no flashlights and our difficulty was to get him in the light  of the cellar door. When that was accomplished the end came quickly. But all  that summer the Witmers wished they had let him live, for the air was thick  with effluvia.  That winter Harry went into partnership with Pete Bessette. They  bought an engine and boiler from a man who was hauling logs with a tug boai  to a saw-mill on Long Lake. The boat was named the Violet after the  daughter of the owner. This engine is now in the Vernon Museum. It was  originally in the Mary Victoria Greenhow, and was the first steam engine on  Okanagan Lake.  One day that winter Pete Bessette drove the team and sleighs to  Trinity Valley to haul out a load of shakes. The trail was unbroken, and the  snow so deep it took two days. Mr. Bessett slept at our house overnight. After  he had finished supper and attended to his team at the stable, he spent his  long evening reading an Argosy magazine, by the light of an oil lamp on the  kitchen table. There were no blinds or curtains over the windows. Speaking  of it afterwards he said he heard slight noises outside the house, but was so  interested in his reading that he didn't bother to investigate. 136 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910)  When he went outside the next morning, the snow around the house  was well-trodden down by what must have been a pack of wolves.  The kitchen window was low down, and the snow on the windowsill was  well marked with the imprints of wolf paws. They had been watching him  through the window!  About a year previously to this a man had come to our place selling  young apple trees. He explained to me that they were a "Rooshian" variety  and would do well in a cold climate, so I ordered a half dozen. When they  came we planted them inside the picket fence which surrounded the house.  They grew well and I was proud of them.  Not long after that Harry brought home a small axe for Harvey. He  probably remembered his own ignorance in handling an axe, and determined that his son, being a Canadian, should be skilled in this accomplishment. In this idea his son became most co-operative, to such an  extent that one could wonder whether he aimed to become an executioner.  The first experiment was on the apple trees. I was just late enough on the  scene to see the last one fall. There was no chance to tell a lie, and whether  he had that noble quality of George Washington I shall never know.  Fetching and milking the cows, feeding the pigs and chickens, baking  bread, washing clothes, and piling up what we could for fall fires on the land,  kept the boys and I busy in a very healthy way. Any leisure time was spent in  reading to the boys. Their favourite literature was the jokes in the Family  Herald, and the stories of Thornton W. Burgess. Also Harvey got scant information on the three R's.  When we first went to Trinity Valley there was a well at the back of the  house, with a wooden pipe and pump. Over this was built a small shelter  about 10 feet square. The sides and roof were covered with shakes, and there  was a real broad shelf inside. Everything was made of cedar and with this  the well was cribbed. This had all been done by the Jackmans. Old Mr. Jack-  man, who was born in Luxemburg was a most ingenious gentleman. He  seemed to have every quality necessary for the creation of a progressive  Canada, in those days.  We neither of us knew that in freezing weather, the handle of the pump  should be left up in order to drain the water out. Consequently the pipe froze  and burst the first winter we were there. Instead of putting in another pump,  Harry pulled the water up with a rope attached to a coal-oil can. My muscles  had not developed sufficiently for me to pull the water up, but life went on as  usual with Harry supplying the water. This method continued for several  years and I used the pump house to put dairy utensils on, and everytime I  went to this bench I had to walk near the edge of the well.  One day I had rendered lard and was carrying a pot of very hot lard to  put on the bench, when my left leg went down in the well, and I stuck there  like a crooked fork with the screams. Luckily Harry was near and extricated  me, but not before the hot lard had seeped through my winter skirts and  scalded me.  Despite incompatibility we valued each other immensely, but no insurance was carried, so his immediate thought was how to prevent such a  catastrophe in the future. As he was making shakes at the back of the house,  he just threw the knotty parts of the cedar shakes in the well until it was full.  Hence no more water from the well. AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910) 137  At that time the boys were quite small and it was beyond Harry's  imagination to dig another well. So we fetched it from the creek using the  cattle trail which was easiest but farthest, being nearly an eighth of a mile.  However as Harry was a busy man, and woman was made for the glory of  man, it fell to Grace to carry most of the water from the creek in two coal-oil  cans.  As soon as Harvey was old enough to consider things he said "Why do  we carry water from the creek? There's a spring over there, and if we dig a  hole and put a barrel in we can get water close by." So Daddy got a barrel in  Lumby, and Harvey who was only just big enough to handle the barrel  finished the job and we got good water from that source for many years.  Occasionally our two cows would steal off in the night and march out to  Mr. Quesnel's ranch. It fell to me to get them home, and in this the boys were  very useful. It was an exciting change from the common round and we enjoyed it. We tied one cow to the cart and one followed. Our chief difficulty  was the Derby Hill road, which at that time went over the range. If there  were no cattle near, our progress was good, but sometimes complications  arose. I remember when Susy rushed across the range to seek new company  in the distance. Harvey ran to head her off but I didn't think he could manage  it alone, so I left Kenneth holding the lines with orders not to pull them but to  let Prince guide himself. Then I started to run too. But my skirt deterred me  so I took it off. Luckily I had worn my old country corduroy cycling bloomers  underneath, so if anyone saw me these would cushion the shock. In those  days corduroy bloomers on an adult female were shocking enough. When we  got Susy headed in the right direction, I turned my attention to the cart. It  was in a most precarious position with one wheel up on the bank. So I shouted  "whoa" and ran again. It was surely a great relief when we entered the  forest trail to continue slowly unhampered.  In the spring of 1908 settlers began to come to our Valley, and we had  many neighbours though none was very near. Some of them stayed and  made permanent homes, some of them were subject to wandering fever,  always searching for the end of the rainbow. Many were greenhorns who  pre-empted unsuitable land. Canada's trial and error method both of lands  and humans has been the cause of much unnecessary waste, disappointment  and suffering. There was no education, preparation or plan to help people  make a living in a new land. Dividends for railway companies, and real  estate sharks took precedence.  The new settlers were of different nationalities but a good percentage  were English. Memories of them, and incidents in connection with them,  come crowding in, so that I have to do a lot of reckoning to put them in  sequence. The influx of new comers demanded more roads, and improvements to the old road, where the stumps in the middle battered the  bottom of the cart, and shook the liver.  We had a conservative government, and Mr. Miller was a wealthy  man and a strong conservative. Mr. Price Ellison was our M.L.A.  Mr. Miller thought we should have a road foreman for Trinity Valley  and knowing that Harry Worth was a conscientious workman, he recommended him. No one was more surprised than Harry Worth when he was  informed of the fact, and of course he was glad. Whether he was sufficiently  accomplished for the job was another matter. At that time neither Harry nor 138 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910)  I knew that it was a political job. Harry was not old enough to vote in  England, and there had been only one election after our arrival. That was  Federal. I had no vote, and Harry had no more idea of political questions  than my hat. So before leaving for Lumby where he was going to vote, he  said to me "How shall I vote?" I answered "Socialist of course." This he did,  and when the votes were counted there was one socialist vote in Lumby, and  many people wondered who it was. But neither Mr. Miller nor anyone else  was aware of this, so Harry was appointed road foreman.  Although he lacked knowledge on certain aspects of road-making  which one would consider essential, he had qualities which were lacking in  many civil servants of that day and indeed this day. His naivete in regard to  accepted political customs, resulted in honesty of purpose, which offended  many. He hired without question those men who were good workers, and  best able to carry out the job for which they were required, not even thinking  that political affiliations had anything to do with road making. It was many  years before we were aware of the fact that he was condemned by many,  because he hired Liberals and foreigners. Yet on the other hand, Mr. Lang,  the superintendent, told him that he got more done for the amount spent than  any foreman under his jurisdiction. He also told him that he was pleased  with his monthly accounts, which were balanced and needed no rectification.  Although Harry accepted with pleasure the credit for this latter accomplishment, it was in reality due to his loving wife Grace. Harry was a  poor accountant, and many a night I sat up into the small hours of the  morning, in order to balance his accounts.  During Harry's term of office, there was one foreman who, when work  was slack, would mail an anonymous letter to the authorities at the Court  House, to complain about a bad piece of road in his district, and ask them to  please send Mr. (himself) to repair it right away. Democracy simplified!  Previous to 1908 the Catt family came out from England. They bought  the Tom Norris farm in Lumby and built a big new house on the hill-side,  from which there was a good view of the Lumby district on the east and  south. Two of the young women who came with them—Amy Remsberry and  Ellen Curtis—married and settled in our valley. Miss Remsberry married  Andrew Conn, a carpenter from U.S.A. and Miss Curtis married Bert  Pritchard, who had been a bank assistant in England.  Mrs. Conn was a very accomplished woman and dearly loved by all  who knew her. She did not live to be old and one reason was that she  sacrificed herself for others to the extent that her health was undermined.  Certainly through her good deeds she lives in the memories of all who knew  her. Mrs. Pritchard who is still here is about a year younger than I, and  every year we spend many happy hours together, and live again the lovely  and unlovely past.  There was a reception at Mrs. Conn's house in Trinity Valley when  Mrs. Pritchard was married, and I made a wedding cake for this.  The day I made the cake, with everything weighed according to Mrs.  Beaton, Cecil Saunders was ill in bed at our house. He had been working on  the road and got rather bad internal pains. So I treated him according to the  knowledge I acquired. After I had put the cake, which was to cook for several  hours in the oven, Cecil, who was feeling quite comfortable, said he wished I  would get my mandolin and sing. This of course I was delighted to do, and AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910) 139  time went merrily on, until I smelt a terrible burning smell. I rushed out to  the kitchen stove to find the cake badly burnt. I was in a worse fix than King  Alfred, for I had to make another one. Luckily there was plenty of material  on hand, and I was able to do this. My second was a success, for my trial and  error had taught me a lesson. The next morning I ground almonds and made  a paste a 'la Beaton and iced the cake, with an icing machine I had bought  from Montgomery Ward's in Chicago.  That same summer Ernest Andrews married Alice Edwards who  came from London, England. They were married in Vernon, and there was  also a reception for them at Mrs. Conn's house in Trinity Valley, and all the  settlers were there. For this occasion I made the cake from the same recipe,  without a hitch, and assumed the pride of a professional.  During the early years many more settlers came into the Valley, a  number of them with wives and families. Yet most of them were miles apart.  The winters were long and dreary and with so much snow that trips to  Lumby for social purposes were out of the question.  Such circumstances made it dull for some women folk. So they  discussed this problem among themselves, and decided that they would take  it in turn, and each month one of the families would give a party, everybody  invited. This gave the women something to prepare for, and something to  look forward to. The bachelors were all anxious to help in some way.  Amusements had to be arranged also. Old Mr. Saunders would sing  his favorite song, Grandfather's Clock, and Ernest the "Campdown Races"  while everyone joined in the chorus, and Bill Carpenter was wonderful with  the mouth organ.  Preparation for my first party certainly helped to tone down my  bumptiousness.  That spring I had hatched out a setting of Indian Runner duck eggs  sent to me by a friend in Washington State. They were healthy and active,  but being allowed full freedom, they interfered too much with the chickens'  diet and drinking water. After a rain there was always a puddle below the  kitchen window. Here they would congregate and splash until the window  became opaque with mud. So I decided that three of them should be executed  for the benefit of our party.  Grandma Dodds who in her young days had catered to duck-hunters in  North Dakota, told me the best way to remove the feathers and down. The  rest of the preparation I thought I knew. Harry killed them and I carried out  Grandma's instructions. Then I withdrew the entrails, but couldn't find the  crop! So I shouted to Harry who was in the other room and said "I can't find  the duck's crop, do you know if ducks have crops?" He said "Of course they  have! Don't you dare put those ducks on the table without taking out their  crops!" But that didn't help me any, so I wrapped one of the dead ducks and  carried it a quarter of a mile to Grandma's cabin. When I told her of my  difficulty she certainly enjoyed the joke and said "My dear ducks don't have  crops."  1909 is also a year of crowded memories. Price Ellison's men were  clearing land two miles north of Lumby and the fire got away. The Richards  and Witmers fled in their wagons to save their lives. The road men went to  help Mrs. Richards save some of her furniture, and the first thing they did  was to get the cook stove jammed in the doorway, which prevented the 140 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910)  removal of other things. The Witmers left nearly everything, and left a rag  stuffed in a broken window pane in the kitchen. Luckily neither of the houses  burnt. Although the fire swept around them. The Witmer's house was saved  by Ed. Faulkner who was driving home to Trinity Valley from Lumby, and  drove up to Witmer's to see if he could help. They had fled but the rag they  had left in the kitchen window was burning. He pulled it out and thereby  saved their home. After that there was a law-suit between the people affected and Mr. Ellison. How itwas settled I do not remember.  By December that year road work for the season was over. We wanted  to put a new log bridge across our creek. The old bridge was not dependable  for bringing home hay from the meadow at the north end of the place. For  this purpose two of the neighbors came to help us,—Will Dodds and Jesse  Briddon. The Dodds family had farmed in North Dakota, and Jesse Briddon  was a young Englishman who had pre-empted near us. As the Dodds lived  three miles from us and had no conveyance we invited them with their two  children to stay with us until the job was finished. Mrs. Dodds and I were  bosom friends, our children were about the same age, and they enjoyed  playing together. It was a bit of change for all of us and helped to enlighten  the dreary winter days. We had grown a good crop of vegetables that  summer, and on this eventual day, Mrs. Dodds was making delicious pickles  from beets and horseradish.  It was on the morning of December 15th that Mr. Briddon and Harry  went to the scene of operations—about an eighth of a mile from the house—to  split timber for the bridge. A little after eight Mrs. Dodds looked from the  window and saw Mr. Briddon approaching the house with Harry leaning  heavily on him. We both ran to Mr. Briddon's assistance, and between us we  got him to the house, with blood dripping in the snow all the way. He then  became unconscious, and we laid him on his back on the floor in the living  room. There was a small hole in his heavy mackinaw trousers through which  the blood had been forced.  It was left to me to undress him from the waist down, and in the circumstances it was a difficult job. There was a tiny wound on the inside of his  leg about six or seven inches down from the groin and considering the great  loss of blood, we thought that his main artery had been cut. It was lucky that  there had been a public phone installed in Lumby. Ed. Faulkner who lived a  mile and a half in the Lumby direction was the nearest neighbour with a  team. There were only two doctors in Vernon. Dr. Williams was supposed to  be the best surgeon. So I asked Mr. Faulkner to phone Vernon and ask Dr.  Williams to come to Trinity Valley. Mr. Faulkner got in touch with the  hospital. They said Dr. Williams couldn't be found but Dr. Morris was there.  When he asked Dr. Morris to go to Trinity Valley, he said that the road would  be difficult for him, and it would be easier to take Harry to Lumby and he  would examine him there. Mr. Faulkner said "But they think that a piece of  steel from a wedge has penetrated his leg and cut his main attery." Dr.  Morris answered "If that is the case he will be dead before you get back."  There was not enough snow for sleighs all the way so Mr. Faulkner decided  to engage Phil Morand who brought his team and democrat to our place.  Meanwhile we had put a pad over the small wound and bound the leg to the  best of our ability, and Harry was resting comfortably on his bed. Mr.  Morand cleaned the floor of his democrat, and they lifted the mattress with AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910) 141  Harry on it and laid it on the democrat. I left everything in charge of Mr. and  Mrs. Dodds and went with Harry. In Lumby we stopped at Mr. Morand's  temperance hotel which he had recently built. Mrs. Morand told us that Dr.  Morris and a nurse had been, and gone to visit Bardolph's who were then  residing at the Catt house on the hill. Mrs. Morand telephoned them and they  came right away. The doctor had Harry laid on the dining room table and  examined the leg. He said "Well Harry you just missed the main artery.  Come down to the hospital and I'll take out that piece of steel." Harry said  "Do you really think I missed it Doctor, as I bled a great deal?" The doctor  laughed and said "Of course you missed it." There were no X-Rays, and no  blood transfusions.  Phi Morand wanted to drive the same team to Vernon, but I objected  so strongly that Mr. Quesnel offered one of his teams, and we set out for  Vernon. The accident happened at eight a. m. on the 15th, and we arrived at  the Vernon Hospital at five thirty a.m. on the 16th.  Dr. Morris arranged to operate right away thinking it was going to be  a simple affair. I waited in the waiting room underneath the operating room.  There was a phone in the room. Very soon a nurse hurried in to phone. She  said "Dr. Williams will you please come to the hospital immediately." It was  not long before Dr. Williams came. He said "good morning" to me and at the  same time opened his bag to take out a pair of forceps. I decided it was a  maternity case, and that is what he intended me to think. But it was Dr.  Morris who was in trouble. He must have been in terrible trouble, for he had  sought advice from his greatest enemy—Dr. Williams. For this I have  always admired him.  I entered the waiting room about 5:30 a.m. and after four hours of  waiting Dr. Morris came in and put his hand on my shoulder in a kindly way  and said "It's all right Mrs. Worth, Harry has come around, but for a long  time we were very worried about him, but now he is resting comfortably and  I think he will do all right. You go to the hotel and have a long sleep, and  come back to-morrow to see how he is getting along." As I had had no sleep  the previous night, and lots of worry, I felt tremendously relieved and  followed the doctor's orders. The next morning I returned to the hospital,  and Harry seemed to be having a jolly time joking with the nurses. However  as he had to remain in bed for quite awhile, I decided it would be safe enough  to leave him, and got permission from the Doctor to go home.  The facts of the case were revealed to us later. When Dr. Morris  opened up the small hole made by the steel, he found that the artery had been  severed, and the blood burst out afresh, drenching the attendants and the  room. And Harry having lost so much blood previously, was in a very  weakened condition. As to the method to be used the two doctors disagreed.  Williams said "Bring the two ends of the artery together and join." Morris  said "Tie each end and the blood will make new channels." Dr. Morris  followed his own ideas, and Harry lived to his 81st year. There is a sequel  which I will relate in due order.  I rode from Vernon with Johnny Genier who drove the Lumby stage  three times a week. The Trinity stage went to Lumby once a week and was  driven by Mr. Conn with his team Tom and Jerry. These horses were accustomed to tough times on the Trinity road, but I think their Christmas trip  of 1909 was the toughest they ever experienced. Before Mr. Genier reached 142 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910)  Lumby that day the snow was falling fast. Mr. Conn had a heavy Christmas  load and five passengers besides himself. His passengers were Bert Pritchard, Ernest Saunders, Ernest Andrews, Cecil Plum and Grace Worth. He  decided that it was snowing so badly we had better stay at Lumby for the  night, and leave after breakfast in the morning. More than a foot of snow fell  that night, and on the Trinity road we had to break through at least 20 inches  of snow. The first three miles from Lumby were partially broken by Mabel  Lake settlers, and although we made slow progress we were able to drive  that fast. But when we turned into Trinity everyone but the driver had to  walk, and I was the driver. Another three miles of struggling up the hill, we  were all hungry, and we needed a rest, especially the horses. We foraged in  the load and found crackers, cheese and beer, which we enjoyed. Then we  continued our weary journey. But we hadn't gone far when Mr. Pritchard  was seized with internal pains. So we put him in the driver's seat, and I took  my place "mushing" behind the men.  We made the next six miles at about a mile an hour, and it was dark long  before we could reach a resting place. When we reached the Dodds' place we  decided to stay the night. There was a stable for the horses. Mr. Conn had  oats but no hay. The chimney pipe was filled with snow, and this had to be  cleaned before we could start a fire.  The men were clothed to resist the elements, but I was soaking wet to  the waist. I searched Mrs. Dodd's bedroom for women's wear. There was  nothing for she had taken it all with her to our place. But Mr. Dodd's best  trousers were there. These I donned with glee and emerged to superintend  supper. For this we were really lucky. I had bought a plentiful supply of  finnan haddie, and we found potatoes, onions, and bottled peaches in the  cellar.  We had come to the parting of the ways, and were all, about three  miles from home. The men had to trek east and I had to trek north.  After supper we sat around the kitchen stove and rested several hours.  Mr. Conn who had a marvellous imagination entertained us by relating some  of his exploits as a young man. For years he drove a twelve-horse team in the  Yukon, and we winked as we visioned him behind Jerry and Tom.  Eventually Mr. Conn decided he would try to get the load home that  night, as there was to be a Christmas party at his home the following evening  and the things on the load were needed. They refused to leave me alone, so  the two bachelors—Ernest Saunders and Cecil Plum—remained, and the  three married men struggled home. But, the, load had to be left on the hill  and fetched the next morning.  Mr. Dodds' trousers were comfortable and I slept very soundly on  Mrs. Dodds' bed, while the men slept on their blankets on the floor, and kept  the fire going to dry our clothes.  The next day Mr. and Mrs. Dodds with their children and mine came  with our sleighs and we all rode over to Conn's for the party. As our team had  to struggle through very deep snow for seven miles, we were not too early.  We had foot-warmers and blankets, and sang songs and carols on the way.  There was never a dull moment.  I was so tired that night that I lay on Mrs. Conn's bed to rest. Through  the partition I listened to a discussion on the American civil war between old  Mr. Saunders and Mr. Conn. It ended by Mr. Conn saying "Ah well!  If the ::  AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910)  143 144 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (1900-1910)  North hadn't beat the South, the South would'a beat the North." Mr. Conn  was from the South and didn't love the Negro.  As Mr. Conn was a colourful figure in the history of our valley, a more  familiar introduction will be in order. Not long after Miss Remsberry  arrived from England with the Catt family, in whose employ she had been  for 19 years, she met Mr. Conn who was a carpenter helping to build the new  house for that family at Lumby. Originally Mr. Conn had come from the  southern United States. He was rather a handsome man with thick curly  hair, and many incidents in the history of his life, as recorded by him, were  really remarkable.  Most males know how to woo, but the older ones who have had much  experience are often experts, who create the highlights and keep the low-  lights under cover. Everybody loved Miss Remsberry, her kindness endeared her to all who knew her, and she accepted us all in good faith.  After she married and came to our valley, although we were six miles  apart, we often walked to visit each other. At meal time Mr. Conn would  amuse us by revealing incidents in his life of which she had never heard.  Apart from allowing his imagination to run riot, he had a good many  qualities, not the least of which was his admiration for his wife.  During the summer of 1910 roadwork was carried on whenever  possible, and Harry found that if he walked fast his leg pained him. This  condition was often mentioned to friends. But he did not think it serious,  deciding it was the natural consequence of the operation and that in time it  would return to normal.  After Harry brought out Pete Bessette's share on the engine and  boiler—before mentioned, we took it to Trinity Valley and set it up by the  creek not far from the house, and used it to cut shingles. We had a ready  market and supplied shingles for the creamery which started in Lumby  about that time. I think the roof is still in good condition.  There was no one to drive the engine so perforce I had to learn the job.  Consequently my household duties were often neglected.  (To be continued in the next report) 145  INDIAN  ROAD'  By D. Emery2  "Indian Road" was the name given to the ancient Indian trail, marked  on the Archibald McDonald map of 1827, which ran between Princeton and  Peachland, following the shore lines of Link, Chain and Osprey lakes  through the country drained by a creek called "Spil-Kul-a-Nilh",3 meaning  "Eagle Nest". Indians, fur-traders and miners through many years used  this trail as a short-cut between the Tulameen, Similkameen and Okanagan  valleys.  "Indian Road" was originally used by the Interior Indians to avoid the  longer and more difficult Keremeos Creek-Yellow Lake route between the  Okanagan Lake Country and the Similkameen and Tulameen valleys.  For centuries, before the white man came to the interior of British  Columbia, the Indians of the Okanagan had travelled "Indian  Road" to "Yak-Tulameen", where they obtained the red ochre needed  for face paint. Yak-Tulameen was a popular place in southern British  Columbia where the prized red ochre was found and Indians from as far  away as the Kootenays came and camped at "Long Flats" to trade  with  the   Similkameen   Indians   for ochre.  There were a number of Indian camps on "Indian Road". One was  located where the trail crossed Jacques Creek" now known as Trepanier  Camp. Trepanier Camp was used by the Indians as an overnight stopping  place for hunting and fishing. Arrowpoints, numerous scrapers, and other  artifacts including a fine soapstone pipe have been recovered from this site.  The largest and most famous Indian camp on "Indian Road" was Vermillion  Forks located at the forks of the Tulameen and Similkameen rivers where  the present city of Princeton is now situated.  Early in 1858, John Fall Allison arrived in British Columbia from  England and shortly afterwards settled in the Similkameen Valley where he  became one of the first cattlemen, and later Justice of the Peace and Gold  Commissioner at Princeton. In the early 1870's, Allison and an American  partner named Hayes, imported a herd of well-bred Durham cattle from the  United States.  Allison located his ranch, Sunnyside, on the west side of Okanagan  Lake directly across from the larger ranches at the mouth of Mission Creek.  He blazed, cut out and reopened "Indian Road" in 1874 so he could move his  cattle from his winter feeding grounds at Sunnyside, to his summer range  and the cattle markets at Princeton. Allison kept the trail open for his cattle,  and by 1877 the "Indian Road" was locally known as "Allison's Trail".  After the discovery of gold on Granite Creek in 1885, the "Indian  Road" was used as a pack trail for food, tools and merchandise, which were  brought to Kamloops via Canadian Pacific Railway, then transported to  1 First prize essay, 1969 O.H. Society Contest (see p. 166).  2 Penticton Secondary School.  3 "Spil-Kuk-a-Nilh", meaning "Eagle Nest", was the Indian name given to the creek,  renamed before 1820 by the fur-traders as "Trepanier". Between 1870-1880 it was  "Deep Creek". Today it is officially "Peachland Creek".  4 "Jacques Creek" was the fur-traders name for present Trepanier Creek. 146 INDIAN ROAD  Enderby by lake boat, then packed on horseback. The Granite Creek trail, as  it became known, left the Hudson's Bay Company Brigade Trail west of  Powers Creek just beyond Hardy's Lakes, skirted the hillside in a westerly  direction, crossed Jacques Creek three miles from its mouth, then continued  up Pigeon Creek to cross Deep Creek some eight miles from its mouth. From  here the trail turned south until it crossed the upper reaches of Trout Creek.  During the 1885-90 period, considerable mining exploration was done  in the vicinity of "Indian Road", and the country between Jacques and Deep  creeks became known as Camp Hewitt. In 1893, J. M. Robinson of Manitoba,,  influenced by the mining excitement in British Columbia attempted, with  some associates, to develop a mine up Deep Creek on "Indian Road". This  mine became known as "Kathleen Mine". Its development led to the construction of the first wagon road on the west side of Okanagan Lake in that  district.  This mining venture was a failure, and Robinson diverted his attentions to development of an orchard district below "Indian Road" near  Okanagan Lake. "Robinson bought and surveyed the Lambly Horse Range  and other properties into 10,15, and 20 acre lots which he sold to a number of  Manitoba friends. Thus Peachland came into being at the north-east end of  the 'Granite Creek Trail'. By 1897, a dock for the S. S. Aberdeen and a post  office were established".  From 1897 to 1930 little development took place in this area, and once  again "Indian Road" became overrun with undergrowth and fell into  general disrepair and disuse.  In 1931, at the summit of the depression, there was an undertaking by a  volunteer labor force from Peachland and district, under the supervision of  William Miller, provincincial road foreman, to widen "Indian Road" and  make it passable for wheeled vehicles. The Kelowna Board of Trade grubstaked the venture with food and tools, while Westbank farmers donated  loads of hay for the teams of horses on the job, and Princeton contributed  money.  On May 28, 1931, two Kelowna men, J. N. Cushing, Road Superintendent for South Okanagan, and F. M. Buckland, Chairman of Roads and  Transport, for the Kelowna Board of Trade, decided to travel the "Indian  Road" by car. They started at Peachland and struggled over very rough  terrain until they reached an old abandoned logging road which led to  Osprey Lake. From Osprey Lake to Princeton the drive was much easier.  This was the first wheeled vehicle to cross the high country between  Peachland and Princeton, a seventy-two mile drive.  "Indian Road", originally used by Indians traveling to Yak-  Tulameen, and later by miners, fur-traders, and cattleman is one of the  many transportation routes which opened up the southern interior of British  Columbia for settlement. Up to now "Indian Road", although used as a  short-cut for centuries and a natural route between the Similkameen and  Tulameen valleys and the Okanagan Lake Country, has been neglected by  our generation. 147  HEDLEY  By Thomas A. Leslie  Hedley is located in the steep and narrow canyon of the Twenty Mile  Creek, where it enters the Similkameen River. In bygone days, Hedley was  one of the most important towns of southern British Columbia and contained  one of the largest mines in Canada. When prospectors first came, the only  way to get in or out was by way of the Dewdney Trail. This was built by  Moberly and Dewdney in 1860 along the Fraser River from Hope down the  Similkameen River and through to the Kootenays. It was first used by the  Hudson's Bay Company traders, and later by prospectors, ranchers and  other travellers.  After hearing of the rich placer discoveries in the Cariboo, most of the  prospectors from California made their way north in the summer and fall of  1859. Many went by sea to Victoria and then up the Fraser River, and some  followed the Columbia and Okanagan rivers; passing the mouth of the  Similkameen, others followed the route to Kamloops and the Cariboo Trails,  prospecting as they went. Others that were in no great hurry branched up  the Similkameen to the mouth of the Twenty Mile Creek where they found  gravels containing metals.  In 1894, C. Allison and J. Riordan staked three claims for Hon. E.  Dewdney and others. These were the first recorded claims in Camp Hedley.  Mr. Coulthard also had a claim on what was known as the Kingston Mineral  Claim. These four claims were recorded at Granite Creek, but were not  considered worth the annual assessment work and were allowed to lapse.  In 1897 Peter Scott located the Rollo claim and after doing the  necessary assessment-work, he located three more in the following year.  About this same time the Mound and Copper Cleft claims were staked by two  Swedes and in August of that year Wallaston and Arundel located the Horsefly, Sunnyside, Nickel Plate, Bulldog and Copperfield. Some samples from  the Nickel Plate and Copperfield surface ore were taken by Wallaston and  Arundel to exhibit at the Provincial Fair at New Westminster. And it was  here that M. K. Rogers first saw the ore. He was traveling through the  country in the interests of Marcus Daly and was so impressed by the appearance of the ore samples that he immediately started on a trip to the  Nickel Plate for a closer examination of the samples. Since the samples  looked too good to be true he thought that they must be salted.  However, at this time there were no roads in the country and the  journey took several days by rail, stage and horseback. After a personal  examination Mr. Rogers found the samples genuine and immediately sent  some to a Montana Assayer. When he had read the results, he found them so  encouraging that he decided to obtain the property. A bond was taken in  November on the four claims, and development work started in January,  1899—the work of cutting trails, erecting buildings and packing in supplies.  In 1899 Peter Scott and others decided to name the new camp "Camp  Hedley", in honour of Robert R. Hedley, the manager of Hall Mines Smelter  at Nelson B.C., who had grub-staked Scott when the Rollo claim was staked.  1 Similkameen Secondary School (see page 166) 148 HEDLEY  The name of R. R. Hedley should not be confused with Rev. J. W. Hedley who  came to Hedley in 1902 as a Methodist Minister.  The first supplies for the new camp were brought in from Fairview by  pack horses. Later as prospects improved, supplies were shipped from the  Coast to Penticton, then hauled by wagon to Keremeos. From there they  were packed by horses to the Nickel Plate by the Camp Rest Trail. In the fall  of 1900 work had begun on the Keremeos-Princeton road and was completed  in 1901, thus connecting Camp Hedley with shorter bases of supply routes.  In the early years of the Nickel Plate Mine, M. K. Rogers obtained a  B.C. Charter for the Yale Mining Company and business was done through  this company. When it was decided to build a mill, the original charter was  found inadequate; as a result, a second company, the Daly Reduction  Company Ltd. was formed and a charter was obtained for it in 1903.  Early in the spring of 1903, work started on the grading and building of  the flume and construction of the mill. When the snow had gone from the  hills, the work for clearing the right of way for the tramway was started.  The first stamps of the new mill were dropped in 1904. Making only a  trial run, a battery of 10 stamps worked for nearly an hour; after the  necessary adjustments all 40 stamps commenced to drop.  For the first few years of the mill's operation a considerable  proportion of the value recovered was in the free gold caught on the plates.  Each month two gold bricks, one from the free gold off the plates, and the  other from the gold recovered in the cyanide plant, were taken out under  special escort to Penticton, and from there shipped by Dominion Express to  the U.S. Assay office in Seattle.  The concentrates from the 24 Frue vanners, were pulled daily and the  rich gold dumped into the bin below. After a period of time allowed for  drying, the concentrates were put into double sacks, heavy cotton on the  inside and strong jute on the outside. The sacked, heavy concentrates were  hauled to Penticton and from there were shipped to the Tacoma Smelter.  The four-horse teams which hauled in supplies also hauled out the concentrates on their return trip to Penticton. The round trip usually took about  a week to complete.  From 1903-1905 Hedley grew rapidly and quite a number of buildings  were constructed. It was a lively, busy little town with six Hotels operating  round the clock. Grace Methodist church was built in 1903 and was the first  and for many years the only permanent church in the town, built mostly by  volunteer labour under direction of the Rev. J. W. Hedley.  The School was held in a room at the rear of the church. Nineteen  children attended sporadically throughout the year, but good work had been  done. Although the first teacher resigned in 1904, she was soon replaced. The  Hedley School District was created in 1904 and the Board was faced with a  number of problems, the main one—to find a suitable place for its school.  Plans were drawn for a school house, but the Board did not have the means  ,to go ahead with the project. However several businessmen were consulted  and they procured a lot at the foot of the mountain, on the north-west corner  of the town, and built a house on it at a small cost. They moved the school  children into it before the building was completed in 1907. After the big slide  early in January 1939 it was torn down and some of the lumber was used to  build the present school located opposite the Hedley Centennial Hall. HEDLEY 149  In 1900 the Hedley Townsite Company was formed and R. H.  Parkinson made the first survey. That year D. G. Hackney built the first  hotel. In 1902 the Grand Union Hotel was built and continued serving the  people till fire destroyed it in 1918. The Commercial Hotel was opened in  1903. It too was destroyed by fire in August 1956, as was the Similkameen  Hotel built in 1904 and burned in 1916. The New Zealand Hotel built in 1905,  was destroyed by fire in 1911. The Great Northern, opened in 1906, met the  same fate in January 1957.  Today, Hedley cannot boast of having six hotels, "with bars stocked  with the best brands of liquor and cigars." However, a spacious staff house,  formerly owned by the Kelowna Exploration Company opened for business  in 1958 as the Colonial Lodge.  During 1904, water pipes were laid underground for the residents, and  electric power became available. Electric lights were used for the first time  in the Methodist Church. For a thriving community the next step would  indicate some form of entertainment and in 1905 the Fraternity Hall was  built and used by various organizations for meetings, dances, and other  social activities. That year too, Ainsley Megraw was editor and manager of  a newspaper, the "Hedley Gazette", but publication was suspended in 1917.  It was through Megraw's efforts that a Board of Trade was organized. The  Bank of British North America opened a branch in Hedley and for a short  time was the only bank in the Similkameen Valley. With the opening of a  bank, a newspaper, and churches, the next step was a hospital. After a long  struggle the hospital was opened in 1910, with Dr. M. D. McEwen surgeon-in-  chief. The hospital closed in the fall of 1930 and today it is used as a family  dwelling.  F. M. Gillespie was appointed the first postmaster in 1903. He was  succeeded in 1918 by R. E. Baxter; then by T. C. Knowles in 1937; M. W.  Mack in 1959; and today Mrs. Anny Lyon.  The Daly Estate sold its holdings in Hedley Camp in 1909 to a New  York syndicate, headed by I. L. Merrill, and a new company, the Hedley  Gold Mining Company Ltd. took over the operations.  Still lacking was efficient transportation. After many proposals from  other contenders, the Great Northern Railway upon acquiring a charter  began grading a line from Keremeos to Brookmere. Steel was laid in the  summer and fall of 1909 and late in December 1909 regular train service  commenced. With the advent of the railroad, the stage coach and freight  teams soon disappeared. Today the railroad has also disappeared, and is  replaced by freight trucks and busses. The horse is still in demand but  mainly for hunting and trail riding.  After the Daly Estate worked its holdings, the mine and plant continued operation, except during the winter of 1920 when ice on the  Similkameen River caused a temporary shut-down of the hydroelectric  plant. Then in 1930 the Hedley Gold Mining Company suspended operations  because of the low grade of ore.  In the summer of 1932 the Hedley Gold Mining Company sold its  holdings to the John W. Mercer Exploration Company which later was  merged into the Kelowna Exploration Company Ltd. With price of gold on  the upward swing the company continued operating till 1955. Then one day  you suddenly realized that something was missing in the once-lively mining 150 HEDLEY  town of Hedley. Where once the continuous roar of the mill spread over the  valley there was just a deathly silence. Soon even the hulk of that mill will  disappear and only the bare, peculiarly striped rocks will glisten. The people  who come to Hedley wonder and ask questions, and some return to buy  homes and live out the days left to them. Although there is no industry, only  the few scattered farms, and cattle ranches, the children still attend  school—summer and winter; the old age pensioners go out for a game of  cards; and still others go fishing or hunting. The town is sleepy looking in the  summer heat, and cool and crisp in winter months; but always the homes  and gardens are well kept, and there are newly erected street signs. This is  HEDLEY.  References  Barnes, H. D. 1948. Early history of Hedley Camp.  Annual Report O.H.S. 12:67-88.  Leslie, Mary. (Interview).  Megraw, A. In Hedley Gazette:  April     1904.  March 1906.  June     1906.  May      1908. THE OLD HOTEL 151  THE OLD HOTEL  By Nancy Wiens1  About one and four-fifths miles north of the village of Keremeos, one  comes upon an old, dilapidated, wind-worn, poster-scarred, two-story, relic  of a building—the old Central Hotel. It is often referred to as the "Old  Keremeos Hotel"—which of course is not true. The so-called "Old Keremeos  Hotel", was called the "Kirby Hotel" until the Salvation Army bought it,  tore it down, and built their present post in Penticton out of the timbers.  The first Central Hotel was built in 1902 then totally destroyed by fire  in 1904. The proprietors, Harry Tweddle and Jim Reith, immediately hired a  carpenter by the name of Comkeland to build a new hotel at a different site.  This construction took place in 1905 and hotel business boomed again in 1906.  Not only did Mr. Tweddle run the hotel, the post office, the livery  stable, and have a partnership in Richter Hall, but also had a Stage Line  running from Upper Town to Penticton. He offered free taxi service, (first  with a horse and buggy, then with his first car—a Case) for passengers on  the Great Northern Train from Vancouver.  At   the    top    of    the    Hotel's   Stationery beside a picture of the hotel*  was this quotation: —  "Headquarters for all Stage Routes, Livery Stables in connection.  Free bus to and from all trains; special attention to Tourists and Commercial Men. Large, airy and comfortable rooms.  THE CENTRAL HOTEL  Harry Tweddle prop.  KEREMEOS CENTER, B.C 191  This building, modern for the early 1900s, contained: 32 rooms,  a bar, a dining room, a kitchen, and a billiard room. The Central Hotel was  kept running by: the barkeepers, Dave Kruger, Harry Tweddle, and Johnny  Hemmel; the waitresses—Jessie Phelps and Mrs. Rogers; Mrs. Howel, who  served as a chambermaid; and Mr. Howel, managing desk clerk, and part-  time bar attendant; and several Chinese cooks—the most popular being Ho  Chew—a small man with long black pigtails and a little black cap.  Chinese New Year was a time even the youngest member of the family  looked forward to. For this was the time of the year Ho Chew threw a big  party for everyone in the community. A large tripod was set out in front of  the livery stable across from the hotel and a grand display of Oriental  fireworks lit the clear night sky. Afterwards everyone turned toward  Richter Hall for songs and gay dancing—the ladies each proudly carrying a  new silk handerchief—a small personal present from their host.  Prices were quite a bit cheaper than those of today. A good hearty  dinner cost 50c, with bed and breakfast $1.50—a reasonable price—considering eggs were 40c per dozen. A drink of hard, raw, whiskey at the bar  was 25c (whereas a glass of beer cost only 5c); a bottle of rye was just one  dollar. In the stable, managed by Joe Burnell, rates for one horse overnight  was 25c, and for four teams $2.  There was quite a difference in wages: the cook received only $30 a  ' High School student, Keremeos, B.C. 152  THE OLD HOTEL  and Archives '  month, plus his room and board. Many cowhands received less although top  hands received a little more.  Searching through the register book I found many familiar names of  families still living around this vicinity: Allison, Terbasket, Prince,  Smitheram, Richter, Parsons, McCurdy, Shurson, Gillanders, Manery and  countless others. Some wandering cowboys were listed several times, each  time with a different address. One of these was a Mr. Raincock. Some were  the steady customers like Rev. A. H. Cameron, the district minister, and Dr.  McEwen, the district doctor from Hedley. Then too were the jokers  —scrawled in the bottom corner of a register of 1917 was "G. E. Willis, Hans  Richter, etc. San Quentin, California".  Since the men seemed to dominate the first floor in the area of the bar  and billiard room, a special "Ladies Parlour" on the second floor leading  onto the balcony, complete with piano, was arranged for the ladies entertainment. In 1917 during World War I the hotel was closed down because  liquor trade across the bar was no longer legal.  The West Kootenay Power Lines Company took over in 1919 and used  the hotel as a bunkhouse for its crew.  The early 1920s found a swarm of female tomato pickers called  "farmerettes" taking over. About 150 women worked the soil, planted, hoed,  and picked the fruit from the plants for the Armstrong and Dominion Canneries.  After the War, the hotel completely owned by Mr. Tweddle since Reith  sold out his interest in 1910, was changed into a bunkhouse for the cowhands  of his large ranch.  Following Tweddle's death, the building was abandoned before it was  bought by the Hedley Masonic Lodge with the intention of using it for a hall.  After they bought it they decided they didn't want it so once again the "Old  Central Hotel" was abandoned. Later it was sold to a gentleman from  Victoria—Mr. Hass the present owner.  Alone again, the warped wooden relic is merely a page of the past. 153  OBITUARIES  Edited by Harold Cochrane and Primrose Upton  Mona Lillian Agnes Bent  Mona Bent of Mayer Road died at  her home March 21st, $969.  Miss Bent, 70, was a longtime  resident of Kelowna, moving here from  Winnipeg shortly after the First World  War. She worked as a nurse in the  Kelowna General Hospital for several  years before going to work in a  greenhouse where the Kelowna Secondary School offices now stand.  She later owned and operated a  flower shop before moving to her small  acreage on Mayer Road about two years  ago.  Joseph Albert Berard  Mr. Joseph Berard of Kelowna died  on November 22nd, 1968. He came to the  Okanagan in 1888.  Edith Margaret Bond  Edith Margaret  Bond died in her  84th year, 2nd September, 1969, after a  lengthy illness.  Born in Yorkshire, England, in  1886, the former Miss Thompson immigrated to Canada and settled with her  parents at Okanagan Mission in 1904 She  met C. H. Bond, whom she married in  1909, taking up residence on the Rutland  Bench, east of the present Rutland High  School complex, where they were  engaged in fruit growing and mixed  farming for nearly four decades.  Bertram Chichester  A long-time Belgo district resident,  active in various Kelowna and district  organizations for many years, died 12  May, 1969.  Bertram Chichester, 70, who during  the years was active in the Catholic  Church, the Knights of Columbus, the  Central Okanagan Naturalists, Club and  various outdoor associations such as the  fish and game club, died Monday about 10  p.m.  Mr. Chichester was an orchardist in  the Belgo area until his retirement a few  years ago.  Born in England, he came to the  Okanagan as a child with his parents.  Bertram Chichester was a second or third  cousin of Sir Francis Chichester, Gypsy  Moth skipper, with whom he had been in  close contact during the past few years.  Henry Chaldecott Dalziel  Mr. Henry Dalziel died in Victoria  on February 21, $969. He was born in  Suffolk, England and had resided in  Okanagan and Mill Bay, B. C. before  moving to Victoria in 1959.  He served in World War One with  the Strathcona Horse Regiment.  Florence May Day  Mrs. Day aged 81 years, widow of  the late Norman Day an old time resident  of the Kelowna district died in Vancouver  February 16, 1969.  Petronella DeHart  Mrs. Petronella DeHart, 92, wife of  third mayor of Kelowna F. R. E. DeHart  died in Kelowna General Hospital Feb. 11,  1969.  Mrs. DeHart, came to Kelowna as a  young woman with her husband in 1904,  where she lived until her death.  She was born in Oshawa, Ont.  Henri R. Demontreuil  Henri DeMontreuil passed away in  Kelowna on February 4th, 1969 at the age  of 74 years.  Gertrude Louise Detjen  Gertrude Detjen—nee Brent—a  long time resident of Okana_gan Falls died  in Penticton on December 3, 1968 at thei  age of 79. Mrs. Detjen, daughter of  Frederick Brent was born near Kelowna  where her pioneer father built and  operated the first grist mill in southern  Okanagan (The Brent Story. OHS 30th  Report ppl29-134).  Hazel Dickson  Hazel Dickson, wife of E. C. (Ted)  Dickson, formerly of Vernon late of  Oliver died on November 27, 1968.  Mrs. Dickson was the daughter of  the late Mr. and Mrs. F. B. Jacques, early  pioneers of this area and founders of the  jewelry business bearing their name.  She was born and educated in  Vernon and lived most of her adult life in  this city.  In 1921 she married Edward C.  Dickson, son of the late Peter Dickson,  also a pioneer of Vernon.  Mabel Donaldson  Vernon lost one of its first pioneers,  Miss Donaldson of Okanagan Landing in  September 25, 1968 at the age of 84. She  had been a resident of this district for 77  years.  Born in Sprague, Wash, in 1884, of  pioneer settlers of English and Scottish  origin, Miss Donaldson came with her  father, the late John A. Donaldson, and  other members of her family, by stage  coach via Portland, Oregon, to Penticton.  There, they boarded the first  steamer on Okanagan Lake, owned and  operated by Capt. T. D. Shorts, for  Kelowna, thence overland to Vernon, in  1890.  The family settled on a large tract  of farm Crown land on Okanagan Lake,  1V_ miles south of where Okanagan  Landing later developed, when the CPR  extended its Vernon line to the lake. 154  OBITUARIES  George Devereux  Fitz-Gerald  Mr. George Fitz-Gerald, 67, died  Monday, Feb. 17, 1969.  Mr. Fitz-Gerald was born in  Grenfell, Sask. in 1901 and moved to East  Kelowna in 1906, where he resided since.  He attended Chesterfield School in  Kelowna, then went into the fruit growing  business with his father.  William James Gillespie  William   Gillespie  the  last of  the  Southern   Okanagan  freighters  died  on  March 29, 1969 in Chilliwack.  Willie, as he was known to his  contempories and 'Tenas Man' to Tom  Ellis, was born in Merlin, Ontario on June  12,1885. Willie, first wor king for his father  Dugald, began wheeling four and six  horse rigs to the Nickel Plate mine and to  the Daly Reduction concentrator at  Hedley around the turn of the century.  When freighting ended about 1910 the  Gillespies left the Okanagan. (See  Okanagan Historical Society Report No.  31, for 1967, pages 48-52).  Mrs. S.M. Gore  Mrs. S. M. Gore died on March 30,  1969 in Kelowna.  Born in England in 1880, Mrs. Gore  came to Canada in 1898, settling briefly in  Qu'Appelle Valley, Saskatchewan (then  known as Northwest Territories), before  coming to Kelowna in 1907. She married  Stanley Gore, who she first met in  England, in 1902. The couple established  the Kelowna Steam Laundry, the city's  first such business, in 1911, which the  family continued to operate until 1946.  Eric Arthur Henderson  Eric Arthur Henderson passed  away in Victoria, B. C. on 2nd January  1969 at the age of 71.  He was the oldest son of the late Mr.  and Mrs. G. A. Henderson and was born in  Vernon, B. C. where his father was, for 30  years, Manager of the Bank of Montreal.  Eric also spent all his working life with  the same Bank and retired from the Main  Branch, Victoria, a few years ago.  He served with distinction in both  World Wars. He was with the 7th Battalion, C. E. F. in the First World War and  waswoundedin France. In 1938 he became  commanding officer of the First Battalion, Canadian Scottish, and early in the  Second World War went overseas with the  Regiment but after 18 months in England  was considered too old for action. He  returned to Victoria and enlisted in the  merchant marine service as a wireless  operator and served in the Pacific with  various ships.  He loved to write articles about the  Canadian Scottish and he wrote merry  jingles and verses which were read at  meetings of the Victoria and Island  branch, Canadian  Authors' Association.  William Gordon Holmes  William    Gordon    Holmes   passed  away on   February  12,  1969 in his 85th  year in Kelowna.  J. H.Horn  A man who rose from the ranks of  the unemployed to city alderman; from  private soldier to lieutenant-colonel;  from common man to one of Kelowna's  most prominent citizens died on June 9th  1969 at the age of 75.  Lt.-Col J. H. (Jack) Horn is dead,  but behind him stretches a career which  included two world wars, a decade of  service as a city alderman, railway official and hotel operator.  Born in Tilbury, Ont., in 1893, Col.  Horn moved at an early age to Orillia  where he received his formal education.  He graduated and was employed in the  Trader's Bank when ill health forced him  to move west.  For three days in Edmonton Jack  Horn was broke and jobless and hungry,  until he heard of a vacancy in the freight  offices. He got the job and launched a  railroad career that extended over many  years.  At the outbreak of the First World  War, Col. Horn enlisted as a private in the  Loyal Edmonton Regiment then transferred to the 43rd Cameron Highlanders,  where he received his first commission.  He was wounded and discharged from  active service with the rank of captain.  Calhoun Lee Jackson  Calhoun Lee (Dixie) Jackson,  soldier of fortune, Klondike pioneer and  kin of generals Robert E. Lee and Andrew  Jackson, died at his Okanagan Mission  home April 16, 1969. five months short of  his 100th birthday.  Known to many in the Kelowna  area as "Dixie", Mr. Jackson's colorful  lifespan stretched almost a century back  to a farm in Virginia where he was born in  1869. Raised by a Negro slave until early  manhood, Mr. Jackson's adventuresome spirit soon sought out the  action areas of the world, and he was  believed to have been the only known  survivor of the Boxer Expedition to China  in 1890. He learned to speak the language  fluently, and later added Spanish to his  bilingual repertoire.  During the First World War, Mr.  Jackson is believed to have been with the  British Imperial Army, where he served  as a chef.  Back on North American soil after  the war, Mr. Jackson's keen curiosity for  challenge and change soon swept him  North to the Klondike gold rush. He got  his first sight of Kelowna in 1928, where he  cooked for various logging camps and  later exercised his culinary talents as a  tow-boat crew member. Apart from his  proficiency as a chef Mr. Jackson was  also adept at fortune-telling. OBITUARIES  155  John Bastion Lander  J. B. (Babe) Lander 70, known  across Canada as Mr. Apple Ambassador  Extraordinary, died 28 November 1968 in  Kelowna.  Apart from his capacity as general  sales manager, he held a number of posts  in Canadian Horticulture Council circles,  chief of which was chairman of the apple  committee.  He also received international  recognition, serving as president of the  International Association.  John Luthy  With the death of John Luthy,  Oliver lost a long-time resident and  community worker.  Mr. Luthy was born in Switzerland  and came to Canada settling in Manitoba  45 years ago, and to Oliver in 1936 where  he operated the Oliver Dairy. He later  became a fruit grower retiring in 1966.  Thomas MacDougall  Thomas MacDougall of Westbank  passed away on February 21, 1969 at the  age of 67 years.  Enoch Mugford  Mr.   Enoch   Mugford  an old  time  resident of the Rutland district died on  August 22, 1969.  Karl Nahm  Karl Nahm, 69, a resident of  Kelowna for 41 years, died in Kelowna 29  November, 1968.  Stone steps surrounded by  shrubbery, a curved stone wall, a garden  sundial. Many Kelowna gardens are  ornamented by these things. Almost  without exception they are the creation of  Karl Nahm, an artisan in stone and a  landscape gardener who worked in  .Kelowna since the 1920s. He received his  professional training in his native Germany. This included several years of  working under the noted German landscape architect Wiepking. He also worked  and travelled extensively in Italy.  He came to Kelowna alone in 1927  and camped out his first night at Poplar  Point. There was one home there then and  little did he realize he would be landscaping many of the homes that would  hang on the hillsides 40 years later.  John Henry Nelson  John H. Nelson of Kelowna died on  December  31st,  1968, at  the age of  68  years.  Walter John Oliver  Mr. Oliver, a resident of Vernon for  48 years, died on November 26, 1968.  A. Leone Patterson  Mrs.   Patterson   of   455   Buckland  Avenue died on February 13, 1969.  Cecil Ambrose Phillips  Cecil A. Phillips aged 67 years died  in Vernon on 29 September, 1969.  Herbert Porter  Mr. Herbert Porter died December  4, 1968 in Kelowna, B. C.  Mr. Porter, who was 84 was a  former employee of Occidental Fruit  company and a resident of East Kelowna  since 1917.  He was born in Layton, England in  1884 and came out to Canada in 1913, first  working on road construction between  Kelowna and Wood Lake. He was joined  by his wife and two sons a year later.  They then moved to East Kelowna.  Mr. Porter worked for Kelowna Land and  Orchard Company and later went into  carpentry in the district working in the  Occidental packing house in the fall.  He helped build the First East  Kelowna Community Hall and St. Mary's  Anglican Church besides what is now the  main part of the KLO General Store.  In the 1940 he began work with  Keloko Orchards, plying the carpentry  trade, until his retirement two years ago.  Ruby Evelyn Noreen Raymer  Miss Ruby Evelyn Noreen Raymer,  daughter of H. W. Raymer, the first  mayor of Kelowna, died December 14,  1969. Her father was an early pioneer of-  the Valley.  Miss Raymer was born in Kelowna  and received her education here. After  graduating from high school,she took her  normal school teachers' training in  Vancouver and taught school for a short  time in the Columbia Valley and in the  Cariboo, before returning to Kelowna to  reside with her mother at Lilliwappe, an  orchard property on the west side lake  front.  Mrs. Raymer died in 1952 and Miss  Raymer took over management of the  orchard. She always found time to  cultivate her garden and grow the  beautiful flowers she loved so much.  Adolph Theodor Roth  Adolph Roth, president of Roth's  Dairy and three times exalted ruler of the  BPOE  died  in   Kelowna   17  June,   1969.  Born in Camrose, Alta., in 1908, Mr.  Roth came to Kelowna in 1921 and  married one year later.  His dairy career started as a horse  and buggy delivery man and bottle  washer with Cameron Dairy.  He stayed with Camerons until 1939  when he joined Kelowna Creamery. Mr.  Roth was a distributor for them until 1950  when he joined NOCA Dairy.  He was with NOCA until his death,  operating under the company name of  Roth's Dairy.  Someof his 13 employees were with  Mr. Roth for mere than 20 years.  He first became an Elk in 1953 and  by 1957 had become exalted ruler, an  office he was to hold two more times, in  1958 and  1967. 156 OBITUARIES  He    was    district    deputy    grand Ellen Carrie Willits  exalted ruler in 1961 and vice-president of Ellen Willits 85, died March 1, 1969.  the B. C. Elk Association. Mrs.   Willits,   one   of    Kelowna's  Elk spokesmen said that in his 16 pioneers was born in  Red Wing, Ont., in  years with the association he held almost 1883, one of seven children. She moved to  every office possible. Kelowna  with  her family  in   1893.   Her  father E. R. Bailey was made postmaster  Jessie Sismey shortly after.  Mrs. Eric D. Sismey died on April 8, Mrs. Willits married P. B. Willits in  1969 in Penticton after a lengthy-illness. 1905. Mr. Willits was mayor of Kelowna in  Jessie Sismey was born in New Denver 1906 and   the  founder  of   Willits-Taylor  and came to Penticton in 1913. Drugs.  Jessie Grove Tailyour Mark Russell Woods  Jessie G. Tailyour, aged 86, widow Mark Woods of Enderby died at the  of   the    late    Mayor    Kenny    Campbell age of 67 March 1st, 1969  Tailyour   M.   C.   died   at   her   home   in  Trepanier on March 5, 1969. 33rd REPORT 157  Reports of the Annual Meeting of the  Okanagan Historical Society  May 4th, 1969, Kelowna, B.C., and  subsequent historical outing  FROM THE MINUTES  PRESIDENT'S REPORT K. S. DEWDNEY  SECRETARY'S REPORT R. F. GALE  EDITOR'S REPORT MAJOR H. PORTEOUS  TREASURER'S REPORT    H. COCHRANE  BRANCH REPORTS:  VERNON    H. E. COCHRANE  KELOWNA F. G. DeHART  PENTICTON    K. S. DEWDNEY  OLIVER-OSOYOOS     MAJOR  H.  PORTEOUS  SIMILKAMEEN    M. WALTERS  FATHER PANDOSY COMMITTEE W. T. J.  BULMAN  M. A. GREENING  ESSAY CONTEST * G. E. HERBERT  ANNUAL BANQUET P.  UPTON  GRANITE CREEK TRIP    E. D. SISMEY  NOTICE OF ANNUAL MEETING  ANOTHER PAGE OF THE DEWDNEY  HISTORY S. HENDRY 158  33rd REPORT  President Mrs. W. R. Dewdney and secretary R.  F.  Gale, Kelowna, B.C.  4 May 1969.  Photo by Eric D. Sismey 33rd REPORT 159  FROM THE MINUTES  The Annual meeting of the Okanagan Historical Society was held in St.  Joseph's Hall, Kelowna on May 4th, 1969 with about 50 people present for the  business meeting.  President Mrs. W. R. Dewdney welcomed those in attendance and  called for two minutes of silence for executive members of the Society who  had died during the past year.  It was reported that markers will be put on the Fur Brigade Trail at  several points where the trail is still clear. These markers will be cemented  in, in the hope that vandalism will not occur.  J. V. H. Wilson of Naramata will head a committee consisting of Mrs.  W. R. Dewdney, W. T. Bulman (since deceased) and Mrs. T. B. Upton to look  into possible assistance from the B.C. Cultural Fund, to aid in various  projects being undertaken by the Historical Society.  Walter Oliver, a charter member of the OHS had died recently. There  are now but three of the charter members living, Guy Bagnall of Vernon, G.  D. Herbert of Kelowna, and H. Galbraith of Vernon.  Life memberships in the Okanagan Historical Society were presented  to Major Hugh Porteous of Oliver, and G. D. Cameron of Kelowna for the  outstanding work they have done for the Society for many years.  PRESIDENT'S REPORT  The Okanagan Historical Society has just completed another successful year. Two Executive meetings were held when considerable business  was dealt with. Of major importance was the publication of the Annual  Report in December 1968.  Great credit is due the Editorial Committees of the Branches who  supplied articles and photographs from their districts, for without this  assistance it would not be possible to publish the Annual Report. My sincere  thanks are extended to the Editorial Committees for their contributions and  to the Editor for compiling them.  Another historical book the Society republished and copyrighted  during the past year was, "Father Pat, a Hero of the Far West", by Mrs.  Jerome Mercier. This book which was first published in 1909, is the  biography of the Rev. Henry Irwin, an itinerant Anglican missionary, affectionately known as "Father Pat". He travelled on horseback and on foot  and ministered to every mining camp and scattered settlement across  southern British Columbia from 1885 to 1901. The text of this reprinted book  is the same as that written by the author, but pictures of places and people  associated with Father Pat have been inserted to add interest to the story.  The Okanagan Historical Society is now in control of the Fairview  Park Project. Your President received a communication from the Oliver &  District Chamber of Commerce which stated that they had turned over all  their interests and property to the Okanagan Historical Society.  Mrs. Gordon Herbert, Essay Secretary, again conducted the Essay  Contest in her usual gracious and efficient manner. It has been her aim to  get the students interested in the history of the Okanagan and Similkameen,  to do original research and to record what they have learned. My sincere  thanks to Mrs. Herbert. 160 33rd REPORT  The Annual Okanagan-Boundary Historical Field Day was held at  Christina Lake in the Boundary on June 16, 1968, when members of the  Boundary Historical Society wereour genial hosts. On a perfectsummer day  with sunshine and wild flowers in bloom, an enjoyable time was had by all.  This event was well described in the 1968 Report of the O.H.S. by Eric  Sismey.  We are fortunate in having talented speakers, writers and  photographers in our Society.  I attended two meetings of the Pandosy Committee of the Okanagan  Historical Society. On June 30th several of us from Penticton watched the  arrival at the Mission of four students from Immaculata High in Kelowna  who had re-enacted the historic trek of Father Pandosy to the Mission in  1859.  Some members of the Okanagan Historical Society had the pleasure of  attending the Annual meeting and dinner of the Boundary Historical Society  which was held in Greenwood on October 25,1968.  Several members of the Penticton Branch enjoyed the Annual meeting  and dinner of the Kelowna Branch. Guest speaker, Victor Wilson, showed  excellent slides accompanied by a vivid commentary entitled, "Do You  Know The Okanagan?". He gave a year-round glimpse of the Okanagan  Valley showing in colour the natural beauty of each season, also some  historic scenes of pioneer days. He warned us of the damage that could  result from the pollution of our lakes, rivers and streams.  I am pleased to report that a signal honour was paid Mr. Victor Wilson  when the library in Kaleden was named after him. The plaque in the Kaleden  school library reads: "The Victor Wilson Community Library. In appreciation of eight years devoted to our children. June 1968".  During the past year we were .saddened by the deaths of several  former officers of the Society including: The Rev. John Goodfellow,  an Editor; Captain J. B. Weeks of Penticton, a President; Mr. Nigel  Pooley of Kelowna, a Vice-President; and Mrs. C. G. Bennett of Penticton,  a Secretary. They will be sadly missed by all, and sincere sympathy  is extended to their families.   I  attended most of the funerals.  Throughout the year, the work accomplished, the activities undertaken and the friendships made, have been enjoyable and rewarding to  me. I sincerely thank the Executive and members of the Society for their  loyalty and co-operation.  Respectfully submitted, Kathleen S. Dewdney, President.  SECRETARY'S REPORT  Madam President, Ladies and Gentlemen:  This report is brief, however there are a few things I would like to  mention. Executive members travelled to Kelowna twice for Executive  Council meetings, and although no new projects have been started, projects  now underway are progressing favourably. Correspondence has not been  heavy during the past year, it Deing mainly between branches.  The Father Pat book has been published and copyrighted. It is now on  sale by the Secretary and each Branch of the Historical Society.  On June 16, 1968 members of our Society journeyed to Christina Lake 33rd REPORT 161  to join the Boundary Historical Society for the Annual Field Day and Picnic.  The weather was excellent and we all enjoyed the outing.  On October 25, 1968 members of our Society travelled to Greenwood to  attend a Testimonial Dinner hosted by the Boundary Historical Society  honouring our President, Kathleen Dewdney. This was a most enjoyable  affair and all members who attended were delighted with the hospitality  shown us.  The past year has been most challenging and I wish to thank all the  members for their friendly co-operation.  Respectfully submitted, R. F. Gale, Secretary.  EDITOR'S REPORT  Major Hugh Porteous in reporting on the 1968 Annual Report thanked  all contributors for their efforts in keeping up the long standing excellence of  the Report. He said that during his time as editor it had been his policy to  endeavour to have all areas covered in each issue of the Report, and commended each Branch for the efforts made in this regard. Some articles sent  in were not included; not because they were unworthy but solely to allow  room for as nearly as possible total coverage. They are kept on file and are  available for future use. Major Porteous concluded by saying that he felt it  was time he retired and asked the meeting to accept his resignation. He said  in accepting the post eight years ago he considered it a challenge, and had  enjoyed it all; in particular meeting old friends and making new ones. He  assured the meeting that he would remain an active member of the Society.  In moving the adoption of this report Victor Wilson paid tribute to  Major Porteous for the years of outstanding service given by him in maintaining the high standard of the Annual Report and that we accept his  resignation with regret.  TREASURER'S REPORT  STATEMENTOF RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES  FOR YEAR ENDING APRIL15,1969  RECEIPTS:  Sale of Memberships & Reports:  Armstrong $ 81.00  Vernon 971.58  Kelowna 864.00  Penticton 443.50  Oliver-Osoyoos (includesone Father Pat") 152.68  Similkameen 65.50  Intereston Savings Account,  Bank of  Montreal,   Osoyoos 16.60   $2,594.86  EXPENDITURES:  Essay Prizes $     15.00  The Vernon News-printing of 32nd Report 2,139.47  The Vernon News-" Father Pat" Reprint 676.60  Boyle & Co., Penticton-registration fee, Ottawa,  re copyright of book "Father Pat" 45.00 33rd REPORT  3.00  79.00  13.13  5.60  23.05  15.00  3,014.85  $    419.99  $1,636.30  $1,216.31  162  Printing names on Life Member Certificates  and Past President's Certificate  Postage & Express  Floral Tributes-Walter Oliver, Charter  Member, and Rev. J. C. Goodfellow  Bank Service Charges  Kelowna Printing Co.-postcards  Secretary-stamps & stationery  Excess of Expenditures over Receipts  BANK BALANCES:  Total Funds on deposit April 30,1968  Less expenditures over receipts  Net Balance  (Bank of Montreal,  Vernon    $131.99  Kelowna    278.99  Penticton  205.34  Osoyoos     599.99  $1,216.31  (Mrs.) H. Cochrane, treasurer. Mrs. Cochrane thanked all who had  helped throughout the year and  moved  the adoption  of  these  reports.  BRANCH REPORTS  VERNON BRANCH  Ladies and Gentlemen: I held only one Executive meeting. I just have  not had the time to put in on historical work this year. I did sendout almost  200 letters to advise members that the Thirty-second Annual Report was  ready and also to let them know the "Father Pat" book was on the market  and well worth reading.  This Spring I took about 25 pictures of old houses in Vernon. I showed  these at our Executive Meeting and got some information as to when they  were built and for whom. I have more to take yet and hope to get the story on  them. So many of the pioneer homes are being torn down and we would like a  record of them.  I hope next year that I will have more time for historical affairs.  Respectfully submitted,  Harold Cochrane, President  KELOWNA BRANCH  Again we held our Annual Meeting and dinner in St. Joseph's Hall,  Kelowna on April 7, 1969, which was Easter Monday and I am sorry to say,  proved to be an unfortunate choice of days on which to hold an affair of this  kind. Our attendance was down from 157 last year to 115 this year, so we  suffered financially and I regret to say, so also did the good ladies of the  Catholic Women's League who had catered for 150. However, being the good  sports that they are, they split the difference with us and we both came out  about even.  Our guest speaker was Victor Wilson of Penticton who really took us  all to task for the way we are polluting our lakes, rivers and creeks and 33rd REPORT 163  neglecting our history and historical sites. The topic of Mr. Wilson's lecture  was, "Do You Know the Okanagan?" or "This was the Okanagan", and he  showed a fine collection of coloured slides to prove his points most  dramatically, as only Victor can. I am sure we all got the message.  The second printing of 'Ogopogo's Vigil' is selling well, having realized  approximately $750.00 to date, and it is anticipated that sales will pick up as  the tourist season advances.  Before the annual Okanagan Historical Society Report came off the  press, we again sent out some 200 cards to local people who had purchased  the Report previously. To date we have sold approximately 235 copies. We  wish to thank the news media for their excellent co-operation. To Trenchs'  Drug Store goes our special thanks. They have for many years sold memberships in the O.H.S. and tickets for our Annual Dinner.  I am sorry to report that we had only one entry in the Annual Essay  Contest this year, although the same procedure was followed with regard to  the distribution of rules, etc., as in other years.  Members of this Executive have done a great deal of work on the  Father Pandosy Mission. The Co-chairman will be giving a report on this  Committee. The re-enactment of the arrival of Father Pandosy's party at  what later became Okanagan Mission, staged last June by four stout lads  from Immaculata High—Len Bedford, Tim Shertal, Tom Weisbeck and Alan  Cameron turned out to be a most successful happening, with over 200 people  gathered on the site to watch them arrive.  I don't feel that I can end this report without mentioning the great loss  this Society has felt in the passing of one of our most vital and faithful  members, Mr. Nigel Pooley.  To the Executive of the Kelowna Branch of the O.H.S. go my thanks  for their hearty co-operation during the past year.  Respectfully submitted  F.G. DeHart, President  PENTICTON BRANCH  The Penticton Branch enjoyed an active and successful year with a  membership of 179.  Meetings included three General and seven Executive, all of which  were well attended. We had representatives at all Executive Council  meetings of the Parent Society, at meetings of the Pandosy Committee, of  the O.H.S., and at meetings of the Penticton & District Community Arts  Council.  The Annual General meeting and dinner was held in the Royal  Canadian Legion Hall on March 27, 1969 with about 200 members and guests  in attendance. The business session was brief to allow more time for the  programme which is recorded elsewhere in this Report.  Response to the Historical Essay Contest was gratifying and prizes  and certificates were presented to the winners. Thanks are extended to the  teachers at McNicoll and Penticton Secondary Schools who so ably encouraged the students to write essays.  The Autumn General meeting was held in the auditorium at the  Community Arts Centre on November 1, 1968 with 100 members and friends  present. Guest speaker was Robert Broadland, Historic Sites Officer, Dept. 164  33rd REPORT  Historians of the Penticton Branch, O.H.S. honoured on March 27, 1969:  Back, from left: James Gawne, Rev. A. Miller, O. L. Estabrooks, N. L.  Barlee, H. R. Hatfield, R. N. Atkinson, J. V. H. Wilson and E. D. Sismey.  Front, from left: Mrs. Donald Orr, Mrs. Granville Morgan, Mrs. W. R.  Dewdney, Mrs. H. C. Whitaker and Mrs. J. Gawne.  Photo by Penticton Herald  Award winners in the Historical Essay Contest, Penticton Branch, O.H.S.,  March 1969. Back, from left: Mrs. Irvine Moss, teacher at McNicoll Park  School, Joan Lindeburg, Anne Douglas and Jacinta Winkelaar. Front:  Andrea Dane, Sharon Daly, Susan Wigen and Coral Henders. Seated:  Don Emery, top writer, and Mrs. W. R. Dewdney.  Photo by Penticton Herald 33rd REPORT 165  of Recreation and Conservation, Victoria, B.C. His address, "Is  Historic Interpretation Necessary?" pointed out the many ways of interpreting history and stressed that we should encourage young people to  record what happens today, for tomorrow it will be history. He  showed excellent slides of Fort Steele, Barkerville and historic sites  in eastern  Canada  and  the  United   States to illustrate his address.  The Winter General meeting was held in the auditorium at the Community Arts Centre on February 6, 1969 with a capacity audience.  Programme for the evening was an excellent slide presentation with vivid  commentary by Victor Wilson which portrayed the unlimited beauty of the  Okanagan and some historic scenes from Vernon to the Boundary.  On behalf of the Branch the President presented Mr. Wilson with a  carrying case for his projector in appreciation of his help during past years  in planning projects and programmes and showing his own slides and  movies.  On behalf of the Branch Victor Wilson presented Mrs. Dewdney with  photographs taken by Eric Sismey. These photos recorded many happy  events in her life in the Okanagan Historical Society and were to be put in the  album which recorded events of her life in the Boundary.  During the past year the Editorial Committee worked diligently to  collect pictures, and collect and edit articles for the Annual Report.  We again submitted a brief to the B.C. Centennial Cultural Fund  Advisory Committee for a grant. In response to this application a grant was  received for which we are most grateful.  Our members attended the salmon barbeque held in July on the  Penticton Indian Reserve. We also attended the Spring and Autumn sales of  Indian handicrafts and home baking held in the Community Hall on the  Reserve.  We are helping to sell the books: "Father Pat, A Hero of the Far  West"; Penticton Pioneers in Story and "Picture"; and the Annual Report  of the Okanagan Historical Society.  Progress is being made with the City of Penticton in erecting a marker  on the site of Penticton's first church, St. Saviour's Anglican, built by Mr.  Thomas Ellis in 1892.  A new project we undertook during the past year and will continue in  the future is, "Recording the Voices of Pioneers". In order to do this we  bought a tape recorder which we have been using.  The past year has been enjoyable and rewarding and my sincere  thanks are extended to the Executive and members of the Penticton Branch  for their kindly co-operation.  Respectfully submitted, Kathleen S. Dewdney, President  OLIVER-OSOYOOS BRANCH:  Major Hugh Porteous in reporting for the Oliver-Osoyoos Branch said  he was pleased to say that the Branch was now fully re-activated. Following  some spade work by an ad hoc committee set up early in 1968 and through  the energetic work of Mrs. Pam Field a general meeting was held early in  the year which was attended by Victor Wilson who showed slides of his trip  with his family to Expo. Officers were elected with Major Porteous as acting  president and Mrs. Field as secretary. This meeting was held in Osoyoos. In 166 33rd REPORT  the Fall a general meeting was held in Oliver which was well attended by  members from both the communities.  At the annual meeting in April of 1969, Mr. Don Corbishley, a long-time  resident of the South Okanagan, was elected president; Ed Lacey Jr. of  Osoyoos, vice-president; Mrs. Pam Field, secretary, and directors; Mrs.  Hugh Porteous, Mrs. Verne Simpson, Miss Dolly Waterman, and Carleton  McNaughton.  Among projects discussed which were deemed to be within the  competence of the Branch were: the repair of the old Fairview jail; research  into the records and possible restoration of the old Fairview cemetry; a  suitable memorial to the late Mrs. Katie Lacey, and a possible summertime  trek along the old McKinney Road to Rock Creek.  Respectfully submitted  Major Hugh Porteous, President  SIMILKAMEEN BRANCH:  The Similkameen Historical Society held two regular meetings and  five Executive meetings during the year.  In November we held our first meeting in the Indian Hall at Lower  Similkameen to encourage our first citizens. Mr. Walters showed movies of  rodeos as far back as 1954 in which a number of Indians took part.  Since the winter was very cold and long we postponed some arranged  meetings, one to which the Old Age Pensioners were invited.  Due to the fact that so many of our museum pieces from the Indian  Reserve are being taken from the country, one way and another, we met  with the Indian Agent from Penticton and were assured we would be given  help in any way possible.  The tape recording of life stories of pioneers has not been too successful as most of them are reluctant to give such interviews. However, we  hope to pursue this further.  In March the President and Mr. Manery were invited to attend a  Keremeos Village Council meeting to discuss the possibility of obtaining a  building for a museum. Several possibilities were suggested, the most  suitable one at this time being the Municipal Office if and when it is vacated.  The President and Secretary were advised to write to the B. C.  Minister of Finance and the Hon. Frank Richter, to inquire about financial  aid from the Centennial Museums Council but were informed that there were  no funds available. On March 17, 1968, Mrs. A. McLachlan, vice-president  and I attended an Executive meeting of the O.H.S. in Kelowna, still in pursuit of financial assistance. At this meeting we were advised to pursue the  possibilities of joining the Museums Society, hoping this would pave the way  for funds for such projects as we have in mind.  We sent in a bid of $50.00 in the hope of obtaining a very old church in  Merritt of historical value to us as one of our senior citizens now residing in  Keremeos, Mrs. Bertha Corkle, formerly of Merritt, once played a large  part in the building and use of this church. However, the Stewards of the  church decided they should leave it in the community of Merritt.  Our Executive has been working very closely with the Parent  Teachers Association and the school staff in creating an interest in historical  essays. At the Kelowna meeting we were told that some of the best essays  came from   our  Keremeos-Cawston students.   The 1968 booklet of essays 33rd REPORT 167  proved to be very popular and the students plan to print another booklet this  year. Requests were received for booklets from both Federal and Provincial  levels, also from the Special Collection Museums department of the  University of B. C.  Our membership has increased; therefore we hope to complete our  restoration of the Indian Pictographs and also have the Hudson Bay Cairn  erected in Cawston.  On Saturday, March 29, 1969, we held our Annual meeting in the  Canadian Legion Hall. We had a large turnout of members and visitors from  Princeton and Hedley. A minute of silence was observed in honour of the late  Rev. Dr. Goodfellow, pioneer citizen of the Similkameen. Alfred Thomas of  Princeton gave an interesting talk on the aims and philosophy of Dr.  Goodfellow.  Prizes were awarded the essay contest winners as follows: First, Tom  Leslie of Hedley for his essay on "Hedley"; second, Margaret Minshull of  Keremeos for her essay entitled "My Pioneer Grandfather"; and third,  Lorna Strong of Cawston who wrote on the "Old Similkameen School".  A delightful Indian dance and song, "The Medicine Man" was  presented by the three children of Mr. & Mrs. Robert Dennis of Keremeos  under the direction of Mrs. Yandle, their teacher. Refreshments were  served.  Respectfully submitted  Mary Walters, President.  FATHER PANDOSY COMMITTEE REPORT:  Madam President, Ladies and Gentlemen: This report and the  financial statement will only cover the eight months from May 1, 1968 to  December 31, 1968. As the operation and public interest at the Mission fairly  well follows the calendar year the Pandosy Committee decided to make our  fiscal year the same as the calendar year. We have had five committee  meetings and added another interested person, Stan Duggan, to the Committee. Mr. Duggan has been of considerable assistance. However, as I  reported last year, the brunt of all the work and development at the Mission  and the collection of early relics and implements has been done by co-  chairman, Joe Marty. Without him we would not have progressed this far.  Through the efforts of Carl Briese and Victor Wilson the re-enacting of  the Pandosy Trek of 1859 was successfully completed. Four students from  the Immaculate High School at Kelowna dressed in suitable garb and with  packs left at a point south of Penticton on a two-day hike via the east side of  Okanagan Lake, stopping at the church on the Indian R«servation at Penticton and finishing at the Pandosy Mission on Sunday afternoon, June 30.  This was well done and created public interest. It might be well to consider  the usefulness of making this a yearly event.  On July 29, 1968 a sub-committee waited upon the Kelowna City  Council at their regular meeting, presenting a brief on the present and future  development of the Mission and then followed up with a request for financial  assistance. We were well received by the Aldermen and were gratified to  receive a donation of $500.00. This has been held in a separate trust account.  The interest of the general public in the Father Pandosy Mission is 168 33rd REPORT  most gratifying and without any advertising whatsoever we have recorded  through the guest book 2,820 visitors, being almost double that of 1967. The  collection box beside the guest book, unfortunately, did not follow the same  trend producing only $220.00—fifty percent increase over last year. Other  donations were: $100. from Father Pierre Richard General Assembly, and  $45. from interested individuals.  We reported last year about our efforts to obtain assistance from the  National Historic Site & Monuments Board of Canada. Unfortunately,  through a change of the B. C. Director and the seeming misplacement of our  supporting material sent to the Board through the B. C. Director, our request  did not reach the proper channels. We are now starting over again with the  new B. C. Director, James K. Nesbitt, of the Parliamentary Press Office,  Victoria.  The development of the 'Ksan at Hazelton and the building of the  Gitskan Indian Village with financial help from the B.C. Government and A.  R. D. A. aroused our interest. However, through correspondence with R. A.  Ahrens, Director of the Parks Branch, Department of Recreation and  Conservation, Victoria, we were informed that we would not be eligible for  aid from A. R. D. A. Aid was given through the Rural Development Leg. to  assist and help to develop this backward rural area.  Mr. Marty has completed the new implement display shed. This will  afford weather protection for many of our early implements. He has  repaired and made operative many of the vintage implements and attached  name plates showing names of donors. Also during his spare time he  procured additional valuable relics for our collection. Mr. Marty is building  a wishing well which, when completed will compliment the Mission and we  hope will be a revenue producer. As an added attraction, Joe furnished the  Father Pandosy Chapel, as nearly as we can ascertain, to its original form.  The life-size model of Father Pandosy was made by Mrs. John Surtees. This  was indeed an attractive and interesting display but unfortunately, it was  damaged twice by vandals and the exhibit had to be partially dismantled  before the end of the season.  It is imperative that we provide living quarters for a full-time  caretaker as quickly as possible, and that we instal running water and  proper sewage disposal facilities. This will help to protect us from vandalism and we can then display many of the valuable articles of early rural  history. This will take top priority for next season. The development and  restoration of the Pandosy Mission is proceeding very slowly at this point for  the want of adequate funds in order to carry out the more ambitious sections  of our plans. However, your Committee is not giving up; on the contrary—it  is working quietly and diligently toward our goal of a unique and historical  attraction.  Members of the Committee are: Joseph Marty & W. Bulman, Co-  chairman; Mrs. Bennett (Margaret) Greening, Sec.-Treas.; Mrs. T. B.  Upton; Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Mr. Jack Bedford, representing the Bishop of  Nelson; Mr. Paddy Cameron, Mr. Carl Briese; Stan Duggan, Fred Waterman.  Respectfully submitted  W. T. J. Bulman, Co-chairman 33rd REPORT 169  REPORT OF  ESSAY CONTEST SECRETARY:  As in the past, the High Schools in the Okanagan Valley and the  Similkameen have received a circular letter from me, outlining instructions  and directives about the Essay Contest. Several copies of this circular have  been sent to each Branch Secretary who, in turn, contacts the School  Principals directly to enlisttheir interest in this project.  This year, the response has been below that in past years, there being  only one essay each from Vernon and Kelowna areas. Three essays were  submitted from Keremeos and three from Penticton. The Penticton trio  represent a selection of the best from some 70 essays that were written  there.  The judges for the final awards were: Donald Wh