Okanagan Historical Society Reports

The twenty-fifth report of the Okanagan Historical Society 1961 Okanagan Historical Society 1961

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  Date r*  ue f% I  P£3  m  /  isnoiD^sepa.-  ■II.    M  /^>v 3$f&  R. N. (Reg) Atkinson Museum  785 MAIN STREET  PENTICTON, B.C.    V2A5E3  p 8 3  ^M 3 3?$r  \ oLidt of ^jrtludtrati  ion A  Inglewood, Francis Xavier Richter's Home    4  Shubert Memorial     61  Andrew McCulloch     72  Florence Elizabeth Richter     97  Francis   Xavier  Richter     97  Mr. and Mrs. John Powers    124  Capt. Ernest Hoy, D.F.C  131  Belgo Canadian Land Company     141  W. C. Pound and Orchard   156  Mrs. W. C. Pound    163 C- on ten  t*  Title   Page     1  List  of  Illustrations    •    2  Old Timers, Isobel Christie McNaughton  5  Notice of Annual Meeting     6  Forward, Frank McDonald    7  Officers of Okanagan Historical Society   8  Branch Officers and Directors    9  Minutes of Annual Meeting  .,  10  Walter Moberly, Rt. Rev. A. H. Sovereign  17  Mail Day, Hester White   25  Bishop Sillitoe and the Okanagan, Vera E. Bennett  27  Vernon  Memories     33  We Cross the Columbia in a Indian Canoe,  Hester White   36  Portrait of a School Master, Rt. Rev. A. H. Sovereign  42  Trials and Tribulations in the Okanagan Fruit and  Vegetable Canning Industry, Leopold Hayes  .... 47  Entertaining a Governor-General   57  Overland to the Cariboo    61  Andrew McCulloch, Civil Engineer,  Ruth McCulloch Macorquodale   73  The Churches of the Incameep, Katie Lacey   76  Francis Xavier Richter, Kathleen Stuart Dewdney  78  A Heritage, Jacqueline Morrison     102  Early Days of Fruit Growing in the South Okangan,  R. O. Hall   ■  105  lohn Power, Pioneer of Penticton, Muriel G. Power  123  The Hudson's Bay Company in the Similkameen  Miss S. A. Hewitson    127  Capt. Hoy's Crossing of the Rockies, Guy P. Bagnall  130  W. D. Walker, Primrose Upton    137  Belgo Canadian Land Company, William Quigley  140  The Cascadilla, Kate Lacey     145  Samuel Poison, Benefactor, Gertrude Peel  147  Leonard Albert Clark, Herbert Clark   150  The Pound Story, Guy P. Bagnall  153  Obituaries      166  Membership List  174  OldZfi  imerA  You who rode across the gold-brown Okanagan hills,  Many singing years ago, with glory in your eyes,  Packing down the long trails sweet with sage and grey  with dust,  Dreaming oi great ranches spread beneath the blue,  blue skies;  You who built your homes in little corners in the hills,  On meadows green, and by the lakes, in happy days  of old—  Are these the things you dreamed lor us,  These tidy rows, these orchard plots?  Or are you seeing still  The rolling hills, the wide brown lands  Before the fences came—■  The white-face herds and the wild horse bands  That roamed their way down a lonely land  In the lading years of old?  Lord of all the pioneers,  Lord of all the old-time folk—  However little be our lands,  How rushed and crowded be our lives—  Grant that our views may be as broad,  Our hearts as warm, our minds as free,  Our hospitality as kind,  As theirs in days that used to be—  As theirs still is in little homes  Where they can sit when lights are low  And tells the the tales of long ago.  Isabel Christie MacNaughton  from Woods Fires, 1942. i lot ice    of  ^Arnnual    /1leetina  1962  Notice is hereby given that the Annual Meeting of the  Okanagan  Historical  Society will be held  on  WedneAclay,     Way    14th,    1962  In Osoyoos at 2:30 p.m.  BUSINESS  Presentation of Reports  Election of Officers  General Business  The meeting will be followed by the Society's  ^rnnual    ^Dinner  NOTICE OF MOTION  At meeting of Directors and Editorial Committee of the Okanagan Hisorical Society it was moved by Mr. Geo. Watt, Okanagan Mission, seconder Mr. F. Harwood, Vernon, that:—  That whereas the printing, illustrations, and publishing costs  of the Report are steadily increasing and whereas the monies to meet these costs must come from membership fees.  Be it resolved that the present membership fee of $2.50 be  increased to $3.00 so that the high standard of the Report  may be maintained. ^jrorward  by FRANK McDONALD  President of The Okanagan Historical Society  This report will mark twenty-five years of progress for the  Society which actually began in 1926 but remained inactive  for several years during the second World War. Our Society  can truthfully be given credit for being one of the most active of its kind in Canada, and has made a great contribution to the historical record of early British Columbia. It has  been a pleasure and a satisfaction to have been associated  with its group of fine officers during the past year and I want  to acknowledge their help and cooperation.  Early this year it became necessary to select a new editor because of the retirement of Fred Marriage due to ill  health. After many weeks of searching, we were finally successful in getting Hugh Porteous to take on the job, one of  the most onerous in the Society. He is one of the early settlers of Oliver, is interested in early history, and well qualified to fill the position. I bespeak your assistance by ever  being on the alert for material for the next and following reports.  This year, seven hundred copies of the report have been  printed and the sale of these reports is vital to the very existence of the society and I ask for that little extra effort which  I am sure will result in a complete sellout. This, with the disposal of some eight hundred copies of earlier reports still on  hand, will 1 am sure, put the society on its feet financially.  The interest of our youth is essential to our survival and  I feel that the schools essay contest is a spur towards this end.  This year's winning essay "My Heritage" by a Kelowna contestant, Jacqueline Morrison, appears in the pages to follow. Also  towards this objective was a resolution passed asking the  educational authorities in B.C. to include LOCAL history in  the curriculum of the schools.  With the help of Harold Cochrane and Mrs. Morris Middleton efforts are being made to re-activate the Armstrong-  Enderby Branch. I look for a revival of interest in the area so  rich in the history of the early days. How about it? You  descendents of those storied pioneers.  My sincere thanks go to all members and officers who  helped to make our 25th Anniversary Year a success. cm  icerd    an  of the  J 2).  irectorA  OL  anaaan  r  ^J^ridtoricai    S^ocieti  9  Honorary Patrons: His Honor, the Lieutenant Governor of B.C.  The Honorable W. A. C. Bennett  Honorary Patrons: Mr. H. C. S. Collett, Kelowna.  President: Mr. F. O. McDonald, P.O. Box 117, Oliver.  Vice-Presidents: Mr. G. P. Bagnall,   Mrs. E. J. Lacey,  Mr. G.  M.  Watt.  Secretary:   Mrs.   V.   E.   Bennett,   Middle   Bench-Naramata   Rd.  Penticton.  Treasurer: Mrs. Hilda Cochrane, 2006 28th Avenue, Vernon.  Editor: Major H. A. Porteous, Oliver.  Auditor: Mr. T. R. Jenner, Vernon.  Directors  NORTH  Mr. F. Harwood  Mr.   J.   Jamieson  Mr. A. E. Berry  CENTRAL  Mr.  D.   S.   Buckland  Mr. G. D. Cameron  Mr.  J.  D.  Whitham  SOUTH  Oapt. J. B. Weeks  Mrs. H. Whitaker  Mr. E. J. Lacey  OLIVER - OSOYOOS  Mrs. French  Directors at Large  Dr. D. A. Ross,    Mr. B. Hoy,    Mr. H. Cbrbitt.  Editorial Committee  Mrs. M. Middleton, Mrs. M. Johnson, Mrs. I. Crozier, Mrs. D. Tutt,  Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Mr. R. N. Atkinson, plus Chairmen of Branch,  Dr. Goodfellow, Mrs. Pidorboronzy, Mr. S. Manery, Mrs. T. B. Upton,  Editorial Committees. (/->ranch     \JfficerS    and    ^Direct  irectord  VERNON:  President:  Mr.  H.  Cochrane,  2006 28th Ave.,  Vernon  Vice-Pres.: Mr. D. Howrie Sr., 2507 37th Ave., Vernon  Sec.-Treas.: Mr. R. G. Byron Johnson, R.R. 4, Vernon  Directors: Mr. G. P. Bagnall, Mrs. M. Middleton, Mrs. I. Crozier,  Mr. F. V. Harwood, Mr. Wilfred Trouller.  Editorial: Mrs. G. P. Dagnall, Mrs. William Hurst.  KELOWNA:  President: Mr. J. D. Cameron.  Vice-Pres.: Mr.  J. W. Bedford.  Secretary: Mrs. D. Tutt.  Treasurer: Mrs. D.  S. Buckland.  Directors: Mrs. B. Hoy, Mrs. I. B. Upton, Mr. G. M. Watt,  Mr. Nigel Pooley, Mr. Wm. Spear, Mr. J. J. Conroy.  Editorial: Mr. Nigel Pooley.  PENTICTON:  President: Mr. J. G. Harris.  1st Vice-Pres.: Mr. R. N. Atkinson.  2nd Vice-Pres.: Mr. H. O. Rorke.  Secretary: Mrs. W. R. Dewdney.  Treasurer: Oapt. J. B. Weeks.  Directors: Mrs. V. E. Bennett, Mrs. H. Whitaker (Summerland),  Mrs. R. B. White, Mrs. A. M. Warren, Mrs. W. Nuttall,  Mrs. H. Davis, Mr. Eric Sismey, Mr. H. W. Corbitt, Kaleden,  Mr. Victor Wilson, Naramata.  Editorial: Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Mrs. R. B. White,  Mrs. R. L. Cawston, Mrs. A. Schell.  OLIVER-OSOYOOS:  President: Mrs. Geo. French, Oliver.  Vice-Pres.: Mr. Ivan Hunter, Oliver.  Sec.-Treas.: Mrs. E. J. Lacey, Osoyoos.  Directors: Mr. Robt. Hall, Mr. D. Corbishley, Oliver,  Mr. E. J. Lacey, Miss Dolly Waterman, Osoyoos. VlHinutei   ol  -STnnual    J/Vle  Minutes of Annual Meeting of The Okanagan Historical Society,  held in the United Church Hall, Penticton, on Monday, May 8th, 1961,  at 2 p.m.  The meeting was called to order by the President F. O. McDonald  at 2:15 p.m.  At the request of the President the Secretary read the call to  meeting.  Mr. McDonald called for one minute's silence in memory of members who had passed away during the year.  Guests from The Boundary Historical Society, Grand Forks, were  introduced, Mr. Archer Davis and Mr. Reynolds, Who brought greetings from, the Boundary also mentioning that the 3rd Report of that  organization is out and that copies were available. Members of O.H.S.  who had received copies, complimented the Boundary society on the  excellence of the Report.  MINUTES  The President explained that minutes of the last Annual Meeting  were published in the 24th Report and asked if it would be the wish  of the members to have them read by the Secretary.  Moved by Mr. Pooley.  Seconded by Capt. Weeks "That minutes be taken as read." Carried.  BUSINESS ARISING  Resolution on change in Constitution.    "That there be  3 Directors from Vernon and district  3 Directors from Kelowna and district  3 Directors from Penticton and district  1 from Armstrong-Enderby  1 from Oliver-Osoyoos".  This resolution had been approved by Directors in meeting.  Mr. Whitham asked if all members had been notified of this  change.  Secretary: "They have not."  Mr. Whitham: "To make change legal this must be done."  Mr. Cochrane: "That as the notice of change has been published  in the minutes of last Annual meeting, the legal requirements had  been fulfilled."  Moved by Mr. Cochrane.  Seconded by Mr. Latimer: "That the change in constitution be  made".   Carried.  Resolution, moved by Mr. Cochrane and seconded by Mr. Watt  at meeting of Directors and Editorial Committee held September 26th,  1960.  "That all material for the Report be submitted to the Branch  Editorial committee before being sent to the Editor." This resolution carried.  Resolution approved by members at Annual Meeting.  CORRESPONDENCE  A letter from the British Columbia Historical Association giving  notice of the Annual Meeting to be held May 12th-13th in Vancouver.  Inviting Okanagan Historical Society to send a delegate and a report  and expressing the hope that O.H.S. would consider affiliation with  10 their organization. A letter from Mr. Frank Iasky of Time Magazine asking for back numbers of O.H.S. Reports and requesting that  he be placed on mailing list.  Letter from New Westminster Public Library asking for information en possible sources of Historical information in this area.  The President called for discussion on the suggestion by the British Columbia Historical Association that O.H.S.  affiliate with them.  Mr. Whitham: "That as the Boundary Society had been a member of the B.C. Group and had decided to give up membership, perhaps Mr. Davis could give an idea of advantages or otherwise."  Mr. Davis: "That after a few years of membership in the British  Columbia Historical Association, the Boundary Historical Society had  decided that they would do better to assume their own identity and  to publish their own Report."  Moved by Mr. Whitham, seconded by Mr. Bagnall: "That, while  we will be willing to help the B.C. Historical Association in any way,  we wish to keep our own identity and publish our own Report."  REPORTS  President's Report.  Mr. McDonald stated that he did not feel he had made enough  contribution to the Society since his election, principally owing to the  fact that, for the first few weeks he had been ill, since then he had  been greatly encouraged by the increased interest shown in the work  of the Society. As President, he had attended three annual meetings.  The resignation of Mr. Marriage as Editor had been a blow to the  Society but we had been fortunate to secure the services of Major  H. A. Porteous of Oliver. Mr. McDonald expressed a hope that Armstrong-Enderby Branch could be reorganized, many in that area are  interested but no leader seemed to be available.  Memberships and Reports have gone well, showing what can  be done with a little extra effort. Mr. McDonald conveyed the thanks  of the Society to Mr. Bagnall for his contribution towards the cost  of the Society Seal, and his thanks also to the Secretary and Treasurer for their help and encouragement.  SECRETARY'S REPORT  Two meetings of Directors and Editorial Committee were held  since the last Annual Meeting.  At the first, held on September 26th, 1960, 17 members were present. The main business of the meeting dealt with arrangements  for publication of the 24th Report. It was decided to award the contract to the Vernon News.  The Secretary was instructed to order a seal for the Society, this  has been done and thanks are due to Mr. Bagnall for his contribution  of $10.00 towards cost of same.  Several recommendations were made which will be brought before this meeting.  The second meeting, held on March 20th, 1961, 20 members present. The Treasurer reported, that, of the 600 copies of the Report  printed, only 125 remained on hand. This is evidence that greater  efforts have been made by Branches to increase membership and  so dispose of Reports.  The appointment of Major H. A. Porteous of Oliver as Editor,  was approved.  Greater interest in the Essay Contest has been shown, particularly by the Kelowna schools.  11 Moved by Secretary, seconded by Mr. Whitham: "That report be  adopted"  carried.  Commenting on the Treasurer's Report, Mr. Whitham said, that,  with increased cost of printing, etc., a serious financial situation is  developing, and that, some method of increasing membership would  have to be developed.  Mr. Bagnall remarked that membership this year showed a  promising increase, due largely to the extra effort put forward by  Branches. But he still is concerned about the bank balance which  is not enough to carry on and to undertake publication of the 25th  Report.  The President noted that back numbers of Reports on hand were  an asset, some effort to dispose of this might help to solve the problem.  Mr. Latimer suggested that an advertisement in the local papers,  stating that certain numbers of Reports are available, could increase  sales.   Mr. Cameron suggested a notice be placed in Libraries.  Moved by Mr. Latimer, seconded by Mr. Cameron: "That the  Society contact public Libraries asking permission to place notices  in the Library. If this does not bring results ads should be placed  in local papers."    Carried.  BRANCH REPORTS  Vernon: Presented by the President Mr. Cochrane.  During the 1960-61 year, 6 Executive and 1 General Meetings were  held. The Executive meetings well attended but only 15 present at  the General meeting. At the General meeting November 4th two  petitions were presented.  (1) To the Minister of Conservation and Recreation at Victoria. Re  Monument at Swan Lake Creek Bridge, commemorating the Historical crossing "Jumping off Place", and also showing where  the first Priest's house was built. This was approved by the department and is being attended to.  (2) To the Minister of Northern Affairs, Ottawa.  That a monument be erected on the side of Vernon's old flying  field to commemorate the first Cross Canada flight by Captain  Ernest C. Hoy, D.F.C., who landed here to re-fuel on August 7th,  1919.  A letter was written to the City Council of Vernon protesting the  proposal to make a trailer camp in the Rotary Park adjoining Pol-  son Park, and suggesting instead that more picnic tables, etc., be  made for the benefit of the tourist and citizens.  The City replied that the decision to proceed had been made to  make a camping area, not a trailer camp, and that the situation  is not such that the decision cannot be revoked. With pressure from  other groups as well this project was dropped.  Thanks to the Executive for co'-operation and also to Mrs. Middleton and Mrs. Crozier for their efforts and help in the attempt to  reorganize the Armstrong-Enderby Branch.  Annual meeting held April 19th in Armstrong 35 present. President of O.H.S. Mr. McDonald attended. Mr. Matt Hassen gave a  talk en the development of Agricultural Exhibitions. The success  of the meeting largely due to the efforts of Mr. Jim Jamieson of Armstrong. Mrs. Crozier and Mrs. Grieg took charge of refreshments  after the meeting.  Kelowna: Report presented by President Mr. Cameron.  Six Executive meetings were held during the year, all well attended.    Main  project,   the  collecting of  information on  the  early  n days of the Fruit Industry, with the idea it could be used from time  to time in the iSociety's Reports, as it is felt, that, in the not too distant future it would be hard to get first hand information about the  start of the industry. Mr. Pooley, Chairman of the Branch Editorial  committee was able to get a number of very good accounts of the  starting of orchards, etc., also a number of early photographs.  As in other years the question of correct spelling of names of  old-timers on road signs was taken up with the Dept. of Highways,  without much success except for a promise that when signs need  repainting names will be spelled correctly.  Two suggestions for inscription on Historical marker to be placed at the lookout at the West end of Okanagan Bridge were sent to  Mr. C.  P. Lyons.    One was chosen and will read  KELOWNA, ORCHARD CITY  "Opposite this  historical  Lake crossing,   Father  Pandosy  established the first Roman  Catholic  Mission in British  Columbia in. 1859.  Here he built the first place of Worship, the first school,  and planted the first fruit trees in the Interior of the Province.  The townsite of Kelowna was laid out by Bernard Lequime  in 1895."  Mr. Guy Bagnall presented the Branch with a copy of the plan  of Okanagan Lake Bridge, this has been framed and hung in the  Museum.  A request received from Kelowna City Council asking if Branch  members would inspect old house on the Christian ranch, which is  now part of the Airport, believed to be the oldest building left in the  district. The house found to be well built of hand hewn logs under  siding and in a good state of repair. As this was where the first  school in the district was held and as there are not many such buildings left, it was suggested that when funds are available the building be removed to a suitable site and used as a tourist attraction.  Information was received that the barn on the old Brent Mill site  was in need of a new roof, on making inquiries it was found that  Mr. Fleming, the present owner of the property, is trying to get the  Parks Branch to take it over as a camp site in which case repairs  will be made.  Word also received that the Forest Service had built an access  road through the canyon on the Naramata trail and that some Indian paintings on the rocks would need protection. On investigating  it was found that the paintings were not near the road.  The Branch Annual meeting was held on April 12th, 1961, Mr.  James Hume of Penticton was guest speaker. Honored guests were  15 young people who had entered the essay contest which was won  by  Jacqueline  Morrison.  The Branch sent out a number of post cards notifying where the  24th Report could be procured.    The response was good.  The Branch Executive sustained a great loss in the fall with the  very serious illness of the Treasurer Mrs.  J.  B.  Knowles Who has  always taken a great interest in affairs of the Society.  Oliver - Osoyoos — Report presented by Mrs. French, President.  The Branch has had a successful year, considerable local interest  has been shown which is encouraging. .To date 81 memberships have  been sold.  The Annual meeting for 1961 took the form of a Banquet, attended  by 121. Mr. Willard Ireland, Provincial Archivist and Librarian was  13 Guest Speaker. Among those present were many from other Branches,  Armstrong, Vernon, Kelowna, Penticton, Okanagan Falls, Cawston,  and Keremeos.  A general meeting in January, with Mrs. Lois Haggen of Grand  Forks as Guest Speaker was also well attended. Mrs. Haggen gave  much valuable information regarding the restoring of abandoned cemeteries, stating that grants could be obtained from, the Dept. of Lands  and Forests. A project of the Oliver - Osoyoos Branch has been restoration of the Fairview cemetery, this is now awaiting inspection by  the Cemetery inspector for the Public Utilities Commission who administer these grants, if passed, this cemetery should be eligible for  a grant of $200.00 per year.  A great deal of correspondence has taken place with regard to the  early Mission Church on the Inkameep Reserve. According to the latest  information received (From Dr. Goodfellow of Princeton) this Church  was there in 1860 - 1870. Investigation is being continued.  Two Essays were submitted for the contest by Norman Allyn and  Jeanette Edmonds, because of the excellent quality and diversity of  the Essays a choice was impossible so the $10.00 award was divided,  $5.00 to each contestant.  It is hoped that a suitable celebration of 100 years of Customs  Service at Osoyoos will take place this fall. The Osoyoos and Oroville,  Washington Chambers of Commerce are investigating the possibilities.  Penticton — Report read by Secretary, Mrs. Dewdney.  Three meetings of the Executive and the Annual meeting of the  Penticton Branch were held during the past year.  At the Executive meeting on Sept. 14th 1960, final arrangements  were made to serve refreshments during the final evening meeting of  the Seminar for the British Columbia Museum representatives, held  on Sept. 15th in Penticton.  At the meeting held on December 8th, 1960, reports on assignments  regarding the life sketches of pioneers were given.  At a meeting held on March 24th, 1961, all members present reported on number of memberships they sold.  Arrangements were made for the Annual meeting of the Penticton  Branch.  Mr. H. W. Corbitt was appointed Chairman of the Nominating  committee.  The Annual report of' the Penticton Museum for 1960 was given by  the Curator Mr. R. N. Atkinson, and was filed.  Nominations for officers and directors of the Parent Body took  place.  A well attended Annual meeting was held on April 20th, 1961, in  the Jubilee Pavilion, reports on the year's work were given by the  President, Secretary and Treasurer. Membership for the year was 33.  Miss Marna Leslie of Penticton was presented with the prize of  $10.00 for the best Essay entered in the contest.  Guest Speakers were Mr. Herb Clark of Keremeos and Mr. Sam  Manery of Cawston, who gave interesting talks on the early days, in  the district.  It was decided to have an Old-Timer's booth at the Peach Festival  where former residents and visitors would be welcome.  NEW BUSINESS  A resolution from the Vernon Branch, brought before the Directors  at their last meeting and approved by them, was presented for confirmation.  14 Resolution: That a family membership be instituted so that each  additional member of a family become a voting member for the sum  of $1.00.  During discussion of this resolution, Mr. Bagnall expressed the  opinion that this would not be a good move and that more care and  thought should be given to any alteration in the Constitution.  Mr. Cochrane suggested that the financial situation of the Society  might be improved by implimenting the resolution. After some further  discussion the Resolution as presented to the Directors Moved by Mr.  Cochrane Seconded by Mrs. Lacey.  "That the membership fee of $2.50 include the Report, and that  additional family, voting membership, NOT including the Report, be  $1.00." This carried.  Moved by Mrs. Bennett Seconded by Mr. Cochrane, "That Branch  Annual meetings be held at least one month before that of the Parent  Body, and that those nominated for the principal offices be contacted  and consent given." Carried.  Moved by Mr. Cochrane, Seconded by Mr. Cameron, "That all back  numbers of Reports held by Branches excepting the two latest, be  reurned to the Treasurer." Carried.  Moved by Mrs. White, Seconded by Mr. Whitham, "That a life  membership be conferred on Mr. Marriage, former Editor, in recognition of his valuable service to the Society." Carried.  NEXT ANNUAL MEETING  Moved by Captain Weeks, Seconded by Mr. Watt, That the 1962  Annual meeting take place on second Monday in May. The Hosts to be  the Oliver - Osoyoos Branch if convenient for them." Carried.  Moved by Mr. Pooley, Seconded by Mr. Bagnall, "A special vote of  thanks to the President, Treasurer and Secretary for their work for  the Society." Carried.  Mr. Whitham suggested that addresses on mailing list of Reports be  checked.  Mr. Bagnall, That a list of all back numbers of Reports available,  be sent to each Branch.  Adjournment moved by Mr. Pooley at 4:14 p.m.  DINNER  115 guests attended the very delicious dinner served by the Ladies  of the United Church Federation.  Oh Canada was sung,  accompanist, Mrs. H. O. Rorke.  The Grace was said by Dr. Goodfellow of Princeton.  At the conclusion of the dinner the caterers were thanked by Mr.  E. W. A. Cooper.  The President welcomed guests, in particular the Speaker, Mr.  Cull White of Ephrata, Washington, and Mr. and Mrs. Josephy of  New York.  Mr. McPherson brought greeting from the Mayor and Council.  The Speaker was introduced by Mr. J. G. Harris who gave the  audience a resume of Mr. White's background.  Before commencing his talk Mr. White asked Mr. Josephy to say  a few words.  Mr. Josephy explained, that, while working for Time Magazine he  became interested in American history, particularly that of the Pacific  Northwest. Eventually he became a staff member of the magazine  "American Heritage" designed to give Americans a better knowledge of  their own history. As the history of the fur trade, etc. along the Colum-  15 bia is so tied in with the history of our own Province, Mr. Josephy hopes  to return for further study.  Mr. White spoke of his experiences with sheep ranching and hunting  of wild horses and told of the many interesting people he had met. The  speaker was thanked by Mr. Whitham on behalf of the Society.  An interesting part of the program was the presentation by Mr.  Bagnall, of the Society's trophy for the best Historical Essay in the  current contest, to Miss Jacqueline Morrison of Kelowna for her Essay  "My Heritage."  An enjoyable evening closed with the singing of "The Queen."  (/Reliance  ^heet  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  Statement of Receipts and Expenditures for year ending April 30th, 1961  Receipts  Sales of Memberships and Reports:  Vernon       $  732.94  Kelowna   312.50  Oliver - Osoyoos   162.20  Penticton    225.10  Interest on Savings Account, Bank of  Montreal, Osoyoos   1.00  Donation, G. P. Bagnall  10.00  Donation, Mrs. Cail   2.50  $1,446.24  Expenditures  Printing tickets etc. for annual  meeting - 1960   21.62  Bank service charges  9.00  Office expenses   5.00  Cost of seal   12.08  Postage stamps    20.00  J. R. Kidston, re: Constitution and  By-Laws   31.00  Printing No. 24 Report, including cuts .... 1,343.23       1,441.93  Excess of Receipts over expenditures  $      4.31  Bank Balances  Total funds on deposit April 30th, 1960    $186.60  Plus receipts over expenditures           4.31  Total funds on hand April 30th, 1961    $190.91  (Vernon   $ 87.29  (Kelowna — $379.39 less  o/s cheque $350  29.39  (Osoyoos — 191.58 less o/s cheque $175  16.58  (Penticton — 157.65 less o/s cheque $100  57.65  $190.91  16 Walk,  WoUy,  C£.  THE FORGOTTEN EXPLORER  by Rt. Rev. A. H. Sovereign, M.A., D.D., F.R.G.S.  In a few months, thousands of motor cars will be streaming  westward from the prairies over the new transcontinental highway which will complete the link between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Judged by standards of majestic and inspiring  scenery, and of spectacular road-building, it will be without a  peer in North America.  Westward from Calgary, the ribbon-like highway circles the  foothills seeking a gateway into the castellated fortress of the  mighty Rockies. By Banff the beautiful, shadowed by Mount  Eisenhower and Mount Temple, by the turquoise waters of Lake  Louise, the traveller passes the Great Divide and begins the  descent into the gorge of the Kicking Horse Pass where highway, river and railroad contend for the right of way.  Rising steeply from the historic valley of the Columbia, the  highway at last pierces the Selkirks through what is known today as "Roger's Pass", down the Illecillewaet River to Revelstoke and Sicamous where the road deploys westward to Kamloops or southward through the lakeland of the Okanagan Valley. But why was this pass named Roger's Pass? Who first discovered it? May honour be given him who merits it and who  rightly earned it!  That man was Walter Moberly.  On March 7, 1907, at a meeting of the Canadian Club of  Vancouver in the old Pender Street Hall, I had the unique privilege of hearing Walter Moberly give an address on "The Northwest Passage by Land", and since that time I have taken a  special interest in this pioneer. In my possession is a verbatim  copy of his address of that day, and from it I will quote from  time to time.  Walter Moberly touches the greater Okanagan area at  three points and in three projects: the Dewdney Trail to the  South, the Fraser Canyon and the Cariboo to the west and the  Trans-Canada highway and highway 97 to the north. In twenty-  four years, these pages have not included an article on this  neglected and almost forgotten pathfinder.  17 Walter Moberly, C. E.  Walter Moberly was born at Steeple-Ashton, Oxford, England, in 1832. His father, a captain in the Royal Navy, was with  the fleet at Cape St. Vincent and in other actions of the Napoleonic wars. His mother was a member of the Polish nobility on  her mother's side. There were four sons and one of them, Harry,  was a factor in the service of the Hudson's Bay Company at Fort  St. John, after whom Moberly Lake, near that community was  named.  In 1834, the family immigrated to the Province of Quebec  and thence to Barrie, Ontario, where Walter went to school and  spent most of his youth. He received his technical education in  Toronto where he was graduated as a Civil Engineer. His first  job was with the Ontario, Simcoe and Union Railroad, the first  railroad in Upper Canada.  During the years 1854-1857, Moberly spent much of his  time exploring the wilderness region north of Lakes Huron and  Superior. Already, in his passion for exploring, he had visions  of a trans-continental railway reaching across British North  America, and these were the first surveys towards the realization of the dream. In Vancouver, he said: "The many and noble  efforts which had been made to discover a northwest passage  by sea, convinced me that the obstructions caused by ice in the  northern waters would render such a passage, even if eventually found, of little or no value for the commercial interests of  the British Empire. I believed that the true northwest passage  would be by land and that its western terminals would be on  the west coast of British Columbia."  It was during these same three prophetic years, 1854-57, that  he met the celebrated artist, Paul Kane, who had just returned  from the Pacific Coast by way of Astoria. Throughout many  days and long evenings, Kane conveyed to his eager listener  a graphic description of his overland journey. To the pathfinder,  this came as a call and a challenge. Later, Kane gave to Moberly a letter of introduction to Sir George Simpson, Governor  of the Hudson's Bay Company, who in turn gave him one to  Sir James Douglas in Victoria.  When Moberly returned to Toronto at the close of 1857,  he learned that the Imperial government had sent out an expedition under the command of Captain Palliser through the  western part of British North America for the purpose of finding  18 Walter Moberly, C.E.  a passable route to the Pacific coast. He at once made plans to  meet Palliser.  A third spur urged him to set out for the west, there were  well-founded rumors that rich deposits of gold had been found  in the valley of the Fraser river and its tributaries.  Moberly heard the call,  "Something hidden, go and find it;  Go and look beyond the ranges.  Something lost beyond the ranges,  Lost and waiting for you, go."  From New York, he sailed around the Horn to San Francisco and there found a ship bound for Esquimalt. He landed  there late in 1858. In Victoria, he found the little town full of  gold miners who had taken part in the first rush to the gold  fields on the Fraser. He at once called on Governor Douglas and  was immediately offered an appointment in the government  service. Because he was anxious to meet Palliser, Moberly declined, and also because he wished to be free to carry out his  own explorations. He did agree, however, to report on the feasibility of the Harrison Lake - Lillooet route into the interior.  Early in the year 1859, Moberly crossed the Gulf of Georgia  on the Hudson's Bay steamer "The Otter" and landed at Fort  Langley where he was hospitably received by William Yale,  Chief Factor on the Fraser. The next day he proceeded up the  river on a little stern-wheeler, "The Enterprise", with a Captain  Tom Wright in the pilothouse. The Enterprise was the first  steamer to navigate the dangerous river as far as Yale.  He disembarked at the mouth of the Harrison River and,  by canoe, reached Port Douglas at the head of Harrison Lake.  The post was full of miners and packers en route to the gold-  fields and he followed their trail up the Lillooet River to Lillooet  Lake. He describes his experiences as "a miserable journey  with cold, stormy weather accompanied with much rain and  snow", in fact at one point he was near to a starvation diet. On  his return to Fort Langley, he reported that the Harrison trail was  not suitable for railway construction, nor even for a good wagon  road.  Then, at his own expense, Moberly proceeded to make care-  19 Walter Moberly, C. E.  ful explorations up the Fraser and examined the formidable  canyons from Yale to the mouth of the Thompson. He reported  to Governor Douglas that a wagon road or even a railroad  could be built on the hanging rocks along the Fraser but added  that it would be a costly piece of construction.  Colonel Moody, who had arrived with the Royal Engineers,  then engaged Moberly to assist in surveying the site for a new  capital, first to be known as Queensborough and later as New  Westminster. In August, the energetic explorer cut a trail from  the new townsite to the site of Port Moody on Burrard Inlet. He  writes: "Here I saw the many and great natural advantages it  possessed for a future city." Soon after this, he actually preempted some land on which the city of Vancouver now stands.  During the winter of 1859-60, Moberly met Captain Palliser  in Victoria and also Dr. Hector and other members of his party.  Palliser, said that in his opinion, it would be impossible to obtain a survey through the Rockies and Selkirks. For a time  Moberly was discouraged and deeply disappointed, but was  still hopeful and believed that his dream of a transcontinental  railroad would in some way be realized.  Governor Douglas accepted Palliser's judgment and refused to listen to Moberly or to assist him in any manner, but  he did envision a wagon road through the southern interior.  In 11946, the international boundary line had been set at  the 49th parallel, and in order to escape custom office delays  and misunderstandings, the Governor decided to build, if at all  possible, a trail eastward from Hope on the Fraser. Once more  the project was hastened by the call of "Gold". On August  20th, 1860, a contract was awarded to Edgar Dewdney, a young  civil engineer who arrived from England in May, 1859. Associated with this was Walter Moberly.  It was a bold undertaking, and today, travelling on the  modern Hope - Princeton highway, we catch glimpses of the  original trail over which so many of the Okanagan pioneers  entered their new land, a good land of hills and valleys. Mrs.  Hester E. White, in an article in this journal of 1952 mentions  that in the Haynes home at Osoyoos, "Edgar Dewdney, Walter  Moberly and others were regular visitors."  20 Walter Moberly, C.E.  Now Walter Moberly turns to another pioneer task, "About  the end of the year 1861, the wonderful deposits of gold in the  Cariboo section of the country were beyond doubt, which gave  me the opportunity to make a desperate effort to get the great  Cariboo wagon road, via the canyons of the Fraser, constructed."  Of this he writes, "Colonel Moody requested me to accompany him. up the valleys of the Fraser to examine thoroughly  the obstructive canyons, and he was convinced as I was, after  we had made a careful examination of them that the great  wagon road should be built through them".  Alfred Waddington advocated a road to the north which  would reach the Pacific via Bute Inlet. Unfortunately he and his  whole party were massacred by hostile Indians. A Mr. Green  advocated a still more northerly route from the head of Bentinck Arm where Bella Coola is now situated. At Victoria Colonel Moody strongly supported Moberly and together they persuaded the Governor in the choice of the Fraser route. Thus  during the years 1862-3-4, he was busily engaged with this  great project.  Moberly formed a partnership with Charles Oppenheimer  and T. B. Lewis and they were granted a charter to build the  road eastward from Lytton.  In spite of great difficulties and financial troubles, this section of the road was constructed to Ashcroft and Clinton but  Moberly lost heavily. He then served as superintendent under  other government contractors, and by 1864, the road was completed to Barkerville. That Cariboo Wagon Road from Hope to  the north was a marvelous achievement both for those who  dreamed it and those who built it.  But Moberly never lost his vision of a transcontinental railroad through the massive Rockies, even though Palliser said it  was impossible. In 1865, with the support of the new governor  Frederick Seymour, the restless pathfinder set forth. Several  routes seemed hopeful, but all appeared difficult and expensive. The first of these choices was by way of the Fraser Canyon and the North Thompson and through the Yellowhead Pass  to Edmonton. This was felt to be too far north and would per-  21 Walter Moberly, C. E.  mit the southern part of the province to fall into the orbit of the  United States, but it had the lowest gradients and the fewest  engineering difficulties.  A second possible route was via the Fraser and South  Thompson and a maze of canyons to the Columbia River,  around the Big Bend, thence by way of the Blueberry River and  Howse Pass eastward. Mr. Gilbert Tassie of Vernon says "actually, Howse Pass is about 500 feet lower in altitude than the  Kicking Horse and the approaches are on better ground." A  third route was by way of another series of canyons through the  Selkirks to the Kicking Horse Pass.  In 1865, with the mountaineers tireless energy, Moberly  faced the Selkirks which seemed unbroken and impenetrable.  His party consisted of Albert Perry and two Indians. In canoes  they went up the South Thompson from Kamloops and by way  of the Shuswaps, landed at the mouth of a stream flowing westward near Sicamous. Moberly writes, "I arrived at the Eagle  River and on top of a tree I saw a nest full of eaglets with ihe  two old birds sitting on a limb of the same tree. I had nothing  but a small revolver in the shape of firearms; this I discharged  eight or ten times at the nest but couldn't knock it down. The  two old birds, after circling around the nest, flew up the valley  of the river. It stuck me then, if I followed them, I might find  the wished-for pass. I explored the valley for two or three weeks  afterwards, and having been successful in finding a good pass,  I thought the most appropriate name I could give it was the  Eagle Pass".  To quote Moberly again, "As soon as I had discovered  the Eagle Pass, I knew that an Imperial Highway, the true northwest passage, would be of the greatest value to the British Empire and especially to the Dominion of Canada and to British  Columbia."  Moberly and his party continued exploration up the north  branch of the Illecillewaet River, but it was late in the season  and his Indians, fearing they would be caught by the winter  snows and never get out of the mountains, refused to go further.  In the following year, 1866, Moberly sent his partner, Albert Perry, into the area to survey the southeast fork of the Illecillewaet and through what is now known as the Rogers Pass.  22 Walter Moberly, C.E.  His report was favorable, and "to my knowledge Albert Perry  was the real discoverer of the actual pass, a discovery made  sixteen years before Major Rogers ever saw the Selkirks."  Perrry was a well known character, tall, lean, but broad  shouldered, who spoke gently and was born in Tennessee. He  was known throughout the the west as  "Mountaineer Perry".  In 1866, while Perry was finding his way through the Selkirks, Moberly was exploring the Big Bend from Revelstoke to  Golden.  In 1871, when confederation was being discussed in British Columbia, and a transcontinental railway being considered  as one of the terms, Sir John A. MacDonlad called Moberly and  told him of the plans, and Moberly was appointed head of the  surveys in British Columbia. In the same year, Major A. B.  Rogers came through the pass and his name was given to the  gateway.  Walter Moberly most graciously writes: "The pass by the  south-easterly fork of the Illecillewaet was discovered by my  assistant Albert Perry in 1866, and subsequently very improperly called Rogers Pass." Major Rogers was ironically known as  "the Bishop" because of his remarkable fluency in the use of  luminous language.  Moberly's closing days were passed in Vancouver where he  lived in furnished rooms on Hornby St. surrounded by many  friends. He died at the age of 83 years in comparative poverty;  he was given a public funeral in Christ Church Cathedral. His  body was cremated and the ashes were scattered in Eagle Pass  among the eternal hills which he knew so well and loved so  dearly.  He was a great pathfinder and explorer. He ranks with the  great pioneeers, Alexander MacKenzie, Simon Fraser, and David Thompson. Fortunate indeed is the school in Vancouver  which bears his name, The Walter Moberly School.  In the Coronation Year, the historically minded citizens of  Revelstoke during their Golden Spike Days from July 1 to July  7, dedicated their celebrations to the memory of Walter Moberly and erected a stately and majestic monument to his mem'  ory bearing the following inscription:  23 Walter Moberly, C. E.  WALTER MOBERLY, C.E.  1832-1915  Pioneer surveyor, engineer and road builder  came to British Columbia in 1858  when leading the government sponsored  Columbia River Exploration in 1865, he  discovered Eagle Pass through the  Gold Range, a vital link in the  route through Canada's first  Transcontinental Railway.  From The High-Way — the Anglican  Quarterly  On February 19, the first Sunday in Lent, St. Andrew's  Church celebrated its Golden Jubilee with three morning services for the whole parish.  The newly elected Bishop of Kootenay, assisted by the  rector, Reverend John Snowden and Reverend F. D. Wyatt, who  was first Vicar of the Parish of Okanagan Mission, celebrated  Holy Communion at 8 a.m. with 49 present. Reverend F. Wyatt  held a service for children at 10 a.m. attended by 110, and at  11 a.m. there was a service of Matins at which 106 people were  present.  At this last service both former incumbents, Reverend Cyril  Clarke, and Reverend F. Wyatt, assisted with the Rector, as did  Mr. J. Garner, Lay Reader of St. Aidan's, Rutland. The Bishop  preached a challenging and inspiring sermon. The new altar  was also dedicated.  The parishioners had the opportunity of meeting their new  Bishop and Mrs. Coleman in the church hall.  Mrs. T. B. Upton's History of St. Andrew's Church was off the  press in time for the Jubilee; it has entailed a tremendous amount  of painstaking research and much checking and re-checking,  and will prove an invaluable addition to her earlier history of  Okanagan Mission, which she undertook to prepare for the B.C.  Centennial Year.  24 Wall 2)ay 1882  By HESTER WHITE  The arrival of mail for the Okanagan in the 70's and  80's was an exciting event, to be looked forward to for months.  The mail did not come dropping from the sky on swift aeroplanes, or even by slower trains and buses. It was carried  over rough and hazardous trails on the shoulders of the tough  and hardy mail carriers; such men as "Bristol Bill" Sinsinnot-  kin, the Indian, "Ranald", and Jim Wardell of Hope.  I remember particularly the first mail to arrive via the  Hope trail, in the spring of 1882. The sack was carried into  the dining-room; every one stood round tense with excitement; the seal was broken and out poured the mail on to  the table. Official letters for my father were tied with red  tape and sealed with large blobs of red sealing wax, personal letters tied in bundles with tape or string, copies of  English papers and magazines sent out by Father's aunt, wrapped and tied securely as only she could do, The Illustrated London News, the London Times, Tit Bits, Punch, and the Ladies  Home Journal, on the cover of which was a "Lady" complete  with huge leg-of-mutton sleeves and an enormous "bustle".  Then the bundles of the Victoria and New Westminster papers. All work was suspended while letters and papers were  read and discussed.  In one of the coast papers was an announcement which  greatly excited my Mother; it read as follows:  "Lord Lome, Governor-General of Canada, and Her Royal  Highness The Princess Louise, daughter of Queen Victoria,  will visit British Columbia, travelling by way of Niagara and  Chicago to San Francisco, arriving there on September 13th.  Thence they will embark on H.M.S. "Momus" for Victoria and  then to New Westminster."  My Mother, like so many of her generation, loved Royalty; as a little girl, she had been at Aldershot when Queen  Victoria reviewed the troops on their return from the Crimean War. The Queen stopped and spoke to her, for, with  her  mother  and  father,   Captain  Pittendrigh,   she  had  been  25 Mail Day, 1882  at Scutari, where the Captain was wounded and suffered the  ravages of cholera.  My Father was pursuaded that the family must be in Victoria and New Westminster to enjoy the festivities attendant  on the Royal visit, so we all journeyed over the Trail to Hope  and thence to Victoria, remaining at the coast for a year.  Commodore Michael G. Stirling,- 46, formerly resident in the  Belgo District, and now of Kingston, Ontario, has been appointed senior Canadian officer afloat (Atlantic) effective Sept. 18,  the Royal Canadian Navy has announced.  Commodore Stirling, former member of the directing staff  of the National Defence College at Kingston, succeeds Commodore James Plomer of St. John, N.B. and Halifax, N.S.  Commodore Stirling is the younger son of the late Grote  Stirling M.P., who came with his family from England in 1912  to the Belgo district. In 1917 they moved to Kelowna. Commodore  Stirling was educated in Kelowna Schools and at Shawnigan,  Vancouver Island. Training on "Frobisher" in England in 1933,  Commodore Stirling then joined the Royal Navy as a Midshipman, and has had a distinguished career. Hon. Grote Stirling,  M.P., was Conservative member for Yale constituency for many  years. He was a first cousin of T. W. Stirling, pioneer fruit man  of this district.  The Okanagan Society for the Revival of Indian Arts and  Crafts is doing an excellent work, especially in calling attention  to the fact that the North American Indians of Canada are a  superior people . . . and have qualities which the Anglo Saxon  does not possess.  26 d5iAnop Sillitoe and the  \yhanaaun  By VERA E. BENNETT  The white man came to the Okanagan for many reasons.  First the Fur Brigades to find an easier route to their Forts on  the Columbia River. Then the miners seeking gold in the hills  and along the mountain streams. And finally those adventurous young men who saw a great future in the raising of cattle  on the acres of grasslands bordering the lakes. All these with  a vision of a fortune to be made.  But there were those who came with no thought of gain  for themselves, who gave up homes and comforts and sacrificed  all to convert the natives and bring help and comfort to the  scattered white population. These were the dedicated priests  of the Roman Catholic, Anglican and other faiths. One of the  greatest though least known, was Acton Windeyer Sillitoe, who  with his wife, came out from England to be the first Anglican  Bishop of the Diocese of New Westminster, who made three  journeys through the Okanagan, and who, as far as can be  ascertained, conducted the first service of the Anglican faith  in the Valley, 81 years ago.  Much could be written about Bishop Sillitoe, his travels over  the huge Diocese which embraced all of the mainland of B.C.,  and his firm belief that education was second only to Christianity in importance, which resulted in the establishment of  schools for both Indian and white children, and even his dream  of a University for the Province. It is recorded that he was chairman of the first meeting held to consider such a project. But  this article must be confined to his journeys through the Okanagan Valley.  Acton Windeyer Sillitoe was born in Sydney, New South  Wales in 1840. In 1854 his parents returned to England and the  boy commenced his education at King's College School in London, later entering Pembroke College, Cambridge, where he  received his B.A. degree in 1862 and his M.A. in 1866. Ordained  a Deacon in 1869 and a Priest in 1870, he served in parishes  in England and the Continent. In 1879 he was chosen to be  first Bishop of the Diocese of New Westminster in the very new  27 Bishop Sillitoe and the Okanagan  Province of British Columbia, and was consecrated in the Parish  Church of Croydon.  In April 1880 the Bishop and his young wife sailed for Canada on the Allan liner Samaritan, then considered the last word  in luxury. After arriving in the East they crossed the continent  to San Francisco by the Union Pacific railway, at that time the  only transcontinental railroad. From San Francisco they sailed  on the steamship "Idaho"' for Victoria; not a very comfortable  journey as the ship was crowded with men going north to work  on the C.P.R. Western Division, on which construction had just  commenced. After a short rest in Victoria they set out for their  home in New Westminster, arriving there on June 18th, 1880.  The task ahead must have seemed a formidable one to the  new Bishop and his wife, New Westminster a primitive village  on the banks of the Fraser River, living conditions somewhat inadequate, and hardest task of all, the hundreds of miles of ihe  Diocese to be covered over difficult trails on horseback or in  wagons. But no time was lost in wondering where to start or  what to do.  After a month or two spent in travelling up and down the  River, visiting construction camps, Indian villages and canneries, it was decided that a trip must be made to the interior before  winter set in. The Okanagan was chosen as the first venture.  So in September 1880 the adventurous couple set out by boat  for Hope on the first stage of the journey. With them went their  Indian guide and packer, George, and also Mrs. Sillitoe's  horse "Punch." At Hope they were able to engage Judge Haynes'  Indian packers, Antoine and Susap, paying Antoine and five  horses $4.50 per day and Susap and one horse $1.50. (Mrs. R.  B. White thinks that the Indians escorted Mrs. Haynes and her  young family over the Hope Trail from Osoyoos and had been  instructed by Judge Haynes to wait there for the Sillitoes.)  The cavalcade left Hope at 7:45 a.m. on a Friday morning,  the Bishop, Mrs. Sillitoe, George, Antoine and Susap riding with  three led pack horses. It was raining and the trail was soft and  slippery so not many miles were covered before camp was  made. The only account of the trip is contained in a small  pamphlet written by Mrs. Sillitoe in which she describes the  Trail as very narrow but in places beautiful, groves of fir trees  28 Bishop Sillitoe and the Okanagan  and many wild flowers. Powder flat was reached on Saturday,  where they remained over Sunday, the Bishop holding a service  Sunday morning, quite possibly the first and only Anglican  service held in that spot. No other camps are specially mentioned. In places the trail was rough but in others through parkland where deer were seen. On Thursday they sighted Osoyoos  Lake and how welcome it must have been, promising rest and a  degree of comfort after the arduous journey. Judge Haynes  welcomed them to his primitive dwelling, the Customs house  having been burnt down a short time before. He was living in  a rough log cabin and in a letter written to Mrs. Haynes, he  mentions his hesitation in entertaining the Bishop and his wife  in such miserable quarters.  A service was held Sunday morning attended by Judge  Haynes, Mr. and Mrs. Kruger, W. L. Lowe and Constable Young.  The Bishop in his diary observes that "the soil at Osoyoos  is apparently barren but, with irrigation, it seems capable of  producing anything; potatoes were seen weighing 3-4 lbs., turnips 27" round, while melons and tomatoes ripened freely."  After resting at Osoyoos until Wednesday, September 22nd,  the journey continued to Penticton, reached "along a good trail  across the mountains, and past small lakes full of wild fowl."  Rain fell all day so even a bad camp, wet, and without brush  beds, was welcome. At this camp they had a terrifying experience. About 2 a.m. they were awakened by a thundering noise,  they went to the door of the tent and saw their Indian guide  looking very frightened, a band of stampeding wild horses rushed towards them, at the last moment dividing and passing on  either side of the tent, if they had become entangled in the tent  ropes the result would have been tragic.  Penticton was reached on the 23rd, described as "a promising settlement on low land separating two lakes, the approach  through a marsh where the horses sank to their knees in mud."  Here they were entertained at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Ellis,  services were held and a good rest enjoyed before starting  north. The first camp was described by Mrs. Sillitoe as "a point  opposite the Mission, no soul was living within miles of the  house in which we stayed, the Bishop baptised the four younger  children of the family." Unfortunately no name and no clear  29 Bishop Sillitoe and the Okanagan  description is given of the location. On Saturday they were  welcomed by Mr. Forbes Vernon "at his farm near Priest's  Valley" (now Vernon).  Sunday morning a service was held and again quoting  Mrs. Sillitoe "There was an unusually large congregation for  the service as the threshing crew was paying a visit to the ranch.  A large airy barn was used as a church, boards being placed  across boxes for seats. All went well until the sermon, when,  just as the Bishop gave his text, a hen in the hay piled up on  one side, having laid an egg, proceeded to announce the fact  in ear-piercing tones. The Bishop waited until she finished and  again began his text but the hen seemed to take this as a signal  to repeat her announcement. In the meantime Mr. Vernon left  the barn, and climbing up on the hay from outside, tried to  shoo the hen away, but, just as the Bishop for the third time  began his text, down she flew into the midst of the congregation  with shrieks which outdid all her former efforts."  Monday, northward again, calling at ranches and settlements along the way. Tuesday they went on board a boat "The  Lady Dufferin" the trip described as "down the river to Eagle  Pass and up another arm to Cape Horn, then through the Narrows. Wednesday at 8 a.m. a small lake was entered and  thence into the Thompson River." Kamloops was reached at  5 p.m. So ended the first journey through the Okanagan. Returning to New Westminster by wagon and boat, they arrived  home on October 25th, nearly two months after leaving.  The second visit of Bishop and Mrs. Sillitoe to the Okanagan took place in 1883, starting from New Westminster on May  16th. Between that date and the end of July the Bishop and his  wife visited the Nicola Valley and the Cariboo going as far north  as Barkerville, holding services, baptising babies, marrying  couples and generally bringing help and comfort to all along  the way.  The end of July or early in August they were back in Kamloops and commenced the trip south, this time by wagon. As it  had been a dry year much of the Valley was on fire. Travelling  by way of Grande Prairie and Salmon River, burning trees fell  over the road making travel extremely dangerous. On August  10th they reached Spallumcheen and were welcomed at the  30 Bishop Sillitoe and the Okanagan  home of Mr. Fortune where a large congregation attended services on Sunday. Another stop was made at the Forbes Vernon  ranch and many isolated ranches visited along the road.  After resting at the Mission they changed from the wagon  to horseback as there was apparently no wagon road to Penticton. The trail used was evidently the old Indian one on the  east side of the lake. Mrs. Sillitoe describes it, "of all the roughest, the steepest and the worst is that we are now on. It speaks  volumes for the enterprise of men that they go over it at all,  and yet this is the trail over which the mail is carried once a  month." In his dairy Mr. Ellis mentions this trail as being very  rough and steep.  At Penticton, in the absence of Mr. and Mrs. Ellis, they  were entertained by Mr. Wade, Mrs. Ellis' brother. On August  19th a service of Holy Communion was celebrated at 7:30 a.m.  Matins and sermon at 10 and a mission service in the evening.  On Tuesday, again with an Indian guide the party set out for  Osoyoos which was reached in 10 1-2 hours.  As the population of Osoyoos consisted of only two families,  the Haynes and the Krugers, it was arranged that the service  should be held on the United States side of the line where there  was an encampment of U.S. cavalry forming an escort for General Sherman. The Osoyoos party was rowed down the lake in  a boat manned by Judge Haynes, who, according to a story  remembered by his daughter, Mrs. White, was wearing a helmet, whether this was part of a uniform or just a sun helmet  the tale does not say, but it was to prove useful later.  Arriving at the calvary camp they were greeted by General  Sherman and his staff, service was held "under a leafy awning  in front of the office quarters, sacks of oats formed the seats and  a camp chest the pulpit". Four children were baptised; Harry  Granger, and August and Theodore Kruger, but the name of the  fourth is not available. On the way back up the lake a wind  storm blew up, the heavily laden boat shipped a quantity of  water, the only bailer, ludge Haynes' helmet.  Instead of going home over the Hope Trail, Bishop and Mrs.  Sillitoe retraced their steps north, reaching the Forbes Vernon  ranch on September 2nd. As usual, ranches were visited along  31 Bishop Sillitoe and the Okanagan  the way and a detour made to the Nicola Valley. On September  16th they arrived at Yale and embarked on the "William Irving" for home and put into port at New Westminster exactly four  months after leaving, having travelled 1,682 miles by horseback, buckboard and boat.  It is recorded that, in 1892, Bishop Sillitoe was in Penticton  and consecrated the Sanctuary of St. Saviour's Church which  had been built the previous year, but I have not been able to  find any story of this journey.  After 14 years of strenuous work among the white and Indian population of the province, Bishop Sillitoe died in -New  Westminster of pneumonia on June 19th, 1894, and was buried  in the Churchyard of St. Mary's Church, Sapperton. Mrs. Sillitoe passed away in Vancouver in 1934. Their lives were a continual sacrifice for the good of their fellow men, there are not  many living today who remember them, but succeeding generations owe much to a couple who "loved all men above themselves".  References  "Pioneer Church Work in British Columbia, a memoir of  Acton Windeyer Sillitoe" by H. H. Gowan. Kindly lent by the  Library of the Anglican Theological College U.B.C.  "The Anglican Church in British Columbia," by Rev. Peake.  Two pamphlets written by Mrs. Sillitoe loaned by the B.C.  Archives.  Letters etc. from files kept by Mrs. R. B. White of Penticton.  32 Uernon   i IIU  emoried  What follows are extracts from a letter to Guy Bagnall of  Vernon from Major J. S. Matthews, Archivist for the City of Vancouver, who counts himself a Vernon pioneer.  The Editor.  I don't know when I first stopped at Vernon, but it was a  long time ago that I got off the train at Sicamous, fought the  millions of mosquitoes and got down to Vernon about noon.  loe Harwood took my bags over to the Kalamalka and Sandy  Macaulay. Harwod had a bit of an express wagon drawn by a  horse. We soon found our way to the bar, matched coins to see  who should pay, usually "two bits". We got the bottle pushed  towards us and we helped ourselves; none of this measuring  they do now. We took what we wanted and it was two bits for  two.  Last week I had an old photo copied for "Bunch" Martin,  who was then the Belle of the Okanagan. Dear old Bill Martin, her father, was our agent and had a bit of an office in a  tiny wooden building in the middle of the pasture. It was the  first office of the Imperial Oil. Miss Martin became Mrs. D. C.  Tuck, and she wrote me last week from some place in Ontario  where she is visiting. I'm sending her a copy photo of her  father and his old dog. Mrs. Martin could set the finest dinner  table I ever saw; we called her "Madame Martin."  One day Mr. Martin and I went up to the Opera House  across the track, but the doors were locked and we peeked in  through a crack. Inside were a lot of ladies and gentlemen on a  stage performing their antics. It was about four in the afternoon  and they were practicing for some preformance. An old chap  in baggy trousers, a faded wool sweater — a hard looking old  morsel — was carrying a bucket towards one of those old pot  bellied stoves. It must have had coal in it. I remarked to Mr.  Martin "who's the old boy tending the stove?" Mr. Martin replied, "That's Ellison", and so it was, the Honorable Price Ellison  M.L.A., Minister of Finance, and father of Mrs. Sovereign. G.  A. Henderson of the Bank of Montreal was also one of those  on the stage.  In the cool of the evening one day, Alderman W. H. Smith  33 Vernon Memories  and I were seated on the Kalamalka Hotel verandah, gossiping  with our feet on the verandah rail. Smith was bemoaning his  troubles about fuel for the electric light plant, and was wondering about this new stuff they called fuel oil — black looking  stuff — which he heard was now coming to Vancouver for use  in steamers and office buildings, from the new oil fields in California. Smith said that wood was getting scarce; it had all been  cut off the hills and they had to go as far as Lumby, a new  place away off somewhere in the east. He said that the freight  cost for hauling of coal from the coast was high, and he did not  know what they were going to do.  I suggested, "Why don't you try a diesel plant?" and Smith  asked, "What's that?"  So I told him about that Danish ship which was equipped  with diesel engines and afterwards sent him a photo of her.  Then I forgot all about it for six months; until one day when I  was again in Vernon, he hurried up to me and told me they  had bought a diesel. Sure enough they had. They had erected  a new power house up the track and the engine had been installed.  That was the first diesel power plant in British Columbia,  and I think the engineer, Mr. Excell, is still living in Victoria.  Afterwards, Kelowna, Penticton and Salmon Arm all got diesel engine powered electric light plants, but Vernon was the  first, not only in the Okanagan but in all B.C.  There at that time were Charlie Simms, manager of the  Hudson's Bay; old W. R. Megaw of the hardware, and Jim  Vallance of the Vernon Hardware; S. C. Smith of the sawmill  — nice old gentlemen, and the station agent with a name something like Cummisky.  And then, there was the Okanagan Mounted Rifles. I was  at their first camp down on the lake; the first camp of soldiers  in B.C. I was in Vernon the day Col. Bott went off with his  C.M.R.s Oh! there are a lot of names I've forgotten; Finch,  who afterwards became a Lord or something. I have even  forgotten, for the moment, the manager of the Coldstream.*  Then there was the famous tank wagon. The Imperial  Oil had the idea that they could sell oil from a tank wagon;  34 Vernon Memories  they had an old one somewhere down on the prairies and  they ssnt it to Vernon. We didn't want it; we called it a "dam  thing". It was never used, but all the same it was the first  tank wagon in the interior of B.C. What became of it, I don't  know.  I was sort of manager for the Imperial Oil for all places  east of New Westminster to Revelstoke, and from the North  Pole to the U.S.A., the only employee in the whole of the Interior. I travelled from place to place seeing how things were  getting along. We put up a couple of storage tanks 11' 6" wide  and 20' high, one for gasoline and one for coal oil. I did not  build the warehouse nor put up the tanks, but I did install the  pumps.    Neil and Cryderman were our first agents.  I have enjoyed this rambling story, recalling old and pleasant recollections.    When you are ready for a few dollars for  the Hoy memorial, let me know.  Footnote: *W. C. Ricardo.  The Vernon Fish and Game Club first came into being in  March, 1921 under the leadership of E. D. Watts. From 1922 to  1940' the presidents were, C. W. Little, R. Fitzmaurice, A. Quesnel, Robert Carswell, R. N. Clerke, E. Dixon, E. Cliff, S. Seymour,  W. S. Harris, Frank Boyne, F. McKay and Dr. Harvey.  During this time pheasants were re-introduced and grew  in numbers; Hungarian partridge migrated into this area from  the south and were replenished from time to time by the fish  and game club in cooperation with the provincial government.  Projects undertaken since the club's formation include, Indian Reserve permits, the planting of wild rice and wild celery  at Swan Lake, the placing of screens on irrigation ditches rising  from streams and lakes to prevent the loss of young fry and  the trapping of more than 80 tons of coarse fish for the same  purpose.  35 lA/e  L^rodd the  L^olumbia. in a Jsndi  lan  L^a  -anoe  by Hester White  It was late October, 1883, and the Haynes family were in  New Westminster, a long way from our home in Osoyoos.  We had been in New Westminster since June, 1882. At that  time my father had come down to attend officially, the visit of  the Marquis of Lome and Princess Louise, Mother and the children to enjoy the gala occasion. Then, owing to an outbreak of  smallpox at Osoyoos, we were obliged to remain. On September  8, 1883, Baby Sherman made his appearance and there was  further delay until Mother was able to travel.  With great hope my father made all preparations to return over the Hope Trail, but word came from Jim Wardle, express, postman and storekeeper at Hope that the Indian Sin-sin-  at-kin had arrived from Allison on snowshows to say that the  Trail was closed because of a blizzard, that he had left the pack  train at Allison's, and what should he do? After much discussion of ways and means it was decided that we should return  by way of Portland and Sprague. Word was sent to Sin-sin-at-  kin to return to Osoyoos with the pack train and to send the  ranch wagon with the camp outfit to Sprague to be there on a  certain date.  Plans were soon made to travel by boat to Port Townsend  and thence by train to Portland, so began a memorable journey.  Memories of the voyage are hazy as I was sea-sick all the  way but after landing at Port Townsend I remember climbing  a long flight of stairs with Matilda who carried Baby Sherman  wrapped papoose-fashion in a light gray shawl; we would stop  now and again on samll platforms to rest and look out at the  ocean.  On arrival in Portland we stayed at a large hotel, all somewhat confused by the noise and tall buildings . . . Matilda had a  bad toothache so Mother took her to a dentist who said the tooth  must come out, in preparation he gave her a large drink of  brandy and waited for it to take effect, but the result was not  36 We Cross the Columbia  quite what he expected, Matilda felt so much better, she got off  the chair, put on her hat and coat and walked out.  Memories of the trip by train from Portland to Sprague are  of a day coach very bare and not too clean, the only passenger  I remember was Malcolm Sproat who sat across the aisle and  further back in. the coach; he was Commissioner of Indian Affairs. About lunch time he came and asked me, a small girl of  six, to share his lunch with him, we were nicely started when he  unrolled a small packet, it smelt so horrid I knew I would be  sick if I stayed so I ran back to Mother. Matilda laughed and  said the stuff was "pumpernickle" a German cheese, but the dictionary says that it is a bread of unbolted rye, whatever it was  I can still smell it when I get on a train.  The track followed the banks of the Columbia for some distance then stopped. By this time I was back with Mr. Sproat and  was horrified to notice that the engine and part of the train  were on the other side of the river. Mr. Sproat explained that,  it with some cars had crossed on the ferry and that our coach  would soon be ferried across, coupled on, and we would once  more be on our way.  It was evening and dark when we reached Sprague, then  the terminus of the railway, though construction was being carried through to Spokane Falls. Much to Mother's horror it was  learned that the better hotel had been burned down a few days  before and the only place to stay was a navy's resort. We got  out of the train on the side away from the hotel and were told  to go round the end, but Matilda took two of the children and  crawled under the train. Nothing daunted Matilda.  The large room we entered was a general purpose room,  dining, waiting and lounge, a narrow stairway led up one wall  with no railing and a narrow balcony also without a railing, ran  round the four sides of the second floor, the bedrooms opened  off this. Matilda was kept busy herding us up and down these  stairs. As the wagon had not arrived we spent two nights in  dirty, uncomfortable quarters. Pa was busy gathering provisions  for so many people for a long journey and feed for the horses.  At last the wagon arrived but then arose further difficulty and  delay; the wagon would not hold the family, baggage and provisions; another team and a light buggy had to be purchased.  37  . . J jg  We Cross the Columbia  The team, small white cayuses were named Pancake and Patsy,  it was rumored that they had once been with a circus; they were  extremely wild. When Pancake's heels were up, Patsy's head  was down or he reared up on his hind legs, but, as Pa remarked, "the load would soon take the devil out of them". At last  everything was ready, though it was late in the day Mother  begged to make a start, to travel a short distance and camp  where it would be clean and quiet. A few miles out a camping  place was found on the banks of a small stream. Val, Will,  Irene and I slept in the covered wagon, Mother, Pa and the  baby in the lighter one, the two drivers some distance away,  and the horses tied to trees. Mother said she did not sleep as  the wagon was on a slope and she was afraid it would slide  down into the creek. Pa told her not to be silly as, of course, the  brake was on.  At nine next morning we were ready to start on what was to  prove a difficult and tiring journey. Mother, Pa and the baby  led the way in the light wagon, Pancake and Patsy prancing and  rearing; Matilda and we children followed in the heavy ranch  wagon. The going was slow for the trail was rough and dusty  and the loads heavy, 20 miles a day -was good going.  On the 4th day out we came to "Wild Goose Bill's" place  Pa had known this character on Wild Horse Creek in 1864, when  he was a miner and packer; his real name was Samuel Wilbur  Condit, born in 1840 near New York. He came west in 1852 with  an uncle and from then on his life was one of adventure. At one  time he fought in the war against Chief Joseph. He married an  Indian woman and had three sons. It was evening when we  arrived and camped near a stream; slight misfortune followed  for Pancake got loose in the night and found the oat sack. After  eating his fill he drank from the stream. In the morning he was  dead. A horse was purchased from Wild Goose Bill and broken  to harness before we could go on which caused quite a delay.  Now the road was up and down steep hills. Sometimes the  two ponies would balk and refuse to pull up hill; the ranch  team would have to be unhitched, hitched to the light wagon  and pull it up the hill and then back to take us to the top. Camps  were poor, water scarce and wood even scarcer except for sage  brush here and there.  Finally we came to Grand Coulee and the Columbia River  38 We Cross the Columbia  could be seen far, far in the distance but many miles and many  hazards had to be overcome before we reached the river. The  so called road was the most difficult yet encountered, down into  deep ravines or gullies then up the far side. The trail so steep,  that going down the hind wheels had to be "rough locked", that  is, a chain was wound around the hind wheel and fastened to  the front axle which caused the wheel to drag and act as a  brake. Going up again the teams had to be double hitched. In  many places it was considered safer for us to walk.  Thirty miles out from Coulee was a camp which had been  started by a band of U.S. soldiers on their way to Lake Chelan  where a fort was planned in 1887 as a defence against Indian  aggression, but was abandoned as unnecessary after the Nez  Perce war. Here we found cord wood which must have been  hauled for some miles. We camped to rest and clean up, for remember we had a small baby with us and in those days there  were no disposable diapers.  Proceeding again, the ravines were, if possible, deeper and  more frequent, the worst aptly named "The Three Devils". But,  by rough locking and doubling, we finally reached the bench  land from where we could look down on the river. Several Indians were on the bank, by "moccasin telegraph", they had  heard of our approach.  There was the river, our goal for many weary miles, but  what a terrifying sight it was. The wide swirling waters, four  frail canoes drawn up on the bank, the Indians dressed in buckskin, their long hair in plaits and their faces painted. Somehow,  we, the goods and wagons must reach the other side.  Pa went ahead and talked to the Indians in Chinook, after  much "wa-wa" it was decided that the family all go over in  one canoe, blankets, provisions, etc., in the other. The Indians  protested that there were too many people for one, but Mother  would not think of the family being divided, so in we got, first  an Indian in the bow with his paddle, then Matilda with Will  and Irene, then Mother. When she was seated Pa gave her the  baby wrapped like a little mummy in his warm gray shawl.  Pa got in and took me, I sat between his knees. Val was in the  stern with the other Indian paddler. The canoe was shoved off  into the swirling waters, the other Indians shouting that we  39 We Cross the Columbia  would never make it. Pa cautioned us to be very quiet and to  keep our eyes on the far bank, not on the rushing water. Mother  grasped the side of the canoe, as she did so her fingers were  in the water. She made the sign of the Cross, blessed us all and  prayed for a safe crossing.  Pa in a low voice began to tell us the story of the river, how  it rose far up in the mountains starting as a little stream, and,  as it was fed by other streams, became the great body of water  we were on; then that it was 1,200 miles long out to the Pacific  Ocean where the water was salt; how David Thompson a fur  trader with the Hudson's Bay Co., like Mr. Kruger, was the first  white man to come down in a canoe. We heard of the million  of dollars worth of furs bought from the Indian trappers for  beads, shawls, etc., of gold discovered at Wild Horse where he  had been sent for the government. From a mysterious source a  biscuit was produced for each of us which we were told to  much slowly, so the time passed and we forgot our fear.  The Indians paddled with all their might, the canoe going  forward but at the same time drifting down stream, at last the  bank was reached and one by one we got out on shaky legs and  made our way to level ground where soon a camp would be  set up as it would be some time before the two wagons could  be brought across. It took two canoes to ferry the wagons. A  log was placed to brace them the right distance apart to permit  a front and back wheel in either canoe. The poor horses had to  swim. At last Matilda was able to make up the beds in the wagons, and a weary family tucked away for the night, Pa being  the last to retire. The Indians were camped some distance away  and seemed friendly but he wanted to be sure that all was safe.  Next morning the small wagon train was on its way, and  after what seemed to be hours and days of endless treking  through sage brush, cactus, sand and dust, up hill and down,  shut up in a springless wagon, we came to the Okanagan River  which had to be forded twice. At long last we sighted Hiram  Smith's ranch at Oroville, he came out to greet us and wanted  us to rest, but Mother thanked him and said we were very anxious to get home; three and a half more miles.  Coming to the Boundary fence, the sound of the gate bars  being thrown one by one on the ground, the first woodsy sound  40 We Cross the Columbia  of "Home" along through the pasture and past the little grove  of aspens all aquiver in the afternoon sun, and as we rounded  the grove, the home bars of the big corral appeared and a flock  of "barnyard biddies" came to greet us. They must have heard  the creaking of the wagon wheels. As we came through the  bars Justinian Pelly (a brother of Mrs. Sillitoe) who had been  left in charge of the ranch greeted us and at the kitchen door  was Susap to help us down from the wagons, the first to make  their way up through the Okanagan Valley. The house was  nice and warm, the white cat Tom and the red one Fixy rubbed  gently against our wool stockinged legs, purring with content.  How good to be home at last.  All was not joy in our home coming for several of our Indians had died of smallpox brought in by some Indians who had  been in Hope, where they had picked up a tent belonging to a  white man who had died of smallpox.  The disease spread rapidly; there was no one to care for  the poor Indians except one or two of their own people who had  had the pox. Mr. Cawston wired to Victoria for vaccine and  vaccinated many with a buckskin needle. The Indians were  buried at Joe Creek on the east side of the lake.  So ends the story of one of the many journeys of the Haynes  family.  The first agricultural exhibition in the Okanagan Valley was  held by the Okanagan and Spallumcheen Agricultural Society  on October 15th, 1891, in the Kalamalka Hotel in Vernon, then  under construction and loaned by the contractors, Holland &  Crowell, to the Society for the occasion. Lord Aberdeen, who  opened the exhibition, is reported to have said in his speech:  "The opening of the exhibition was coupled with another event  of great interest to the surrounding community — the arrival of  the first passenger train at Vernon. He was happy to be one of  the passengers as he was determined to be in time for the  exhibition." Ref. O.H.S. No. 10, p. 62.  41 f-^ortrait of a S^chool  tf/adter  By RT. REV. A. H. SOVEREIGN  Taken from The Vernon News of 12 December, 1960  (The following appreciation of a well-known Vernon school  teacher, the late Clarence Fulton, Sr., was written by Bishop  A. H. Sovereign at the request of the editor.)  "No printed word nor spoken plea  Can teach young hearts what men should be,  Not all the books on all the shelves,  But what the teachers are themselves,  For education is—making men."   (Guiterman).  This was the creed of the late Clarence Fulton, a great  pioneer schoolteacher.  He came from Nova Scotia which has been the cradle of  so many intellectual leaders.  There is the story of a tourist in Nova Scotia who paused at the crossroads and said to a farmer, "In God's name,  what does this country produce?" The peasant solemnly removed his cap and said, "Sir, in God's name, it produces  educated men."  Clarence Fulton was a born teacher, for at the age of  17 years he began his life's work. To prepare himself adequately for the future, he was graduated from Dalhousie University and Truro Normal School, and came to Vernon in  1902—just 58 years ago.  Served Two Generations  For two generations he has lived and served as Vernon's pioneer schoolmaster. Today, hundreds of men and  women in Canada and in the United States rise up and thank  God that it was their privilege to have sat at the feet of this  devoted and inspiring teacher.  Mrs. Sovereign was in his first high school class in 1902,  and many are the stories she tells of his life and influence  in school-room and playground.  This was the second high school in the Interior of the  province, Nelson being the first.  42 Portrait of a School Master  At first, only 16 students could be induced to register,  but by dint of much canvassing, eight more were rounded up  to make a total of 24 as required by the government.  Made Clean Sweep  In the second year, 1903, with Mr. Fulton as principal, the  matriculation  class  made  a  "clean  sweep",  and  the   school  boasted a seven-piece orchestra, a male quartette, a literary  society, a tennis club and a baseball team.  Our pedagogue was a man of high ideals and clear vision. He believed in the dignity of teaching and in the joy  of service.  To him, wisdom was greater than knowledge. Education  was not just the filling of the mind with facts, but the ability  to think rationally, to live purposefully, to live according to  laws which are self-imposed and to listen to "the choir invisible whose music is the gladness of the world."  Believed in Laughter  He believed in laughter, in love and faith, and in all ideals  and distant hopes that lure youth onwards and upwards.    He  led his pupils not simply to learn what they liked, but to like  what they learned.  One of his pupils wrote to me: "Mr. Fulton loved all that  was good and beautiful, all that was true and upright."  In English, he taught his pupils to know and love and  appreciate good literature, and to separate the good from the  base ■— the gold from the dross.  His drama club learned and acted excerpts from Shakespeare's plays, such as the trial scene in "The Merchant of  Venice." I know of one of his pupils who took the part of  Portia who still disturbs the peace with declamatory voice,  "The quality of mercy is not strained ..." At times methinks  it sounds a little strained!  History Has Human Dream  History became a living thing in his class-room, for he  believed that history was a human drama, enacted by men  and  women,   and  that  without   this   knowledge,   we   cannot  understand the present or forecast the future.  43 Portrait of a School Master  He believed in discipline, in obedience, and that no man  could learn to command unless he had first learned to obey.  He was always openly just and manifestly fair.  Here is a typical example. One of his lady teachers  had a boy in her class who was wilfully disobedient and  beyond her powers of correction.  Recommended Strap  She took him to principal Fulton and recommended the  strap.     The  principal   bent   the  boy   over   the  desk   and   the  strap taken from the drawer.  Then the teacher said. "Not too hard, Mr. Fulton, the  boy has no underwear on."  "Very well," said the principal, "that will be taken into consideration."  Operation paddle proceeded with lesser force.  Likewise our minister of justice said last month: "In our  judicial and parole system, the punishment must not fit the  crime, it must fit the offender."  When Scott was dying in the little tent swept by the swirling icy blizzards of the Antarctic, he wrote with freezing hands,  the words, "Take good care of Peter, give him difficult things  to  do."  That was the philosophy of Clarence Fulton. He so enthused his athletes that the "Spartan Drill" began at six o'clock  in the morning on the race track.  Think of it! They suffered gladly and were proud of it.  I know, for my son was one of them.  In an age when so many of our young people have become anaemic and flabby, seeking for soft cushions for soft  bones, the "Spartan Drill" of this great schoolmaster is a  clarion challenge to a more rugged adventure.  Gave a Spark  But  he   gave  to   his   learners   something   more  infinitely  precious  —  that  which   only  rare  teachers   can  give   —  a  spark.    He gave them ambition, an aim,  a call to climb to  the heights.  44 Portrait of a School Master  With an innate, intuitive faith in the supreme value of  human personality, he saw a divinity in minds and souls.  He saw them in terms of what they could become.  A lad from Summerland area came to the Vernon school  and he became Dr. William Robinson, one of Canada's great  pathologists, head of his department at Toronto University  and an associate of the Banting Institute.  Acknowledged Debt  Three or four years ago, he wrote to a friend in Vernon,  asking about Clarence Fulton and acknowledging the debt  he owed to his teacher in giving him a sound academic foundation, infused with an ambition "to strive, to seek, to find  and not to yield."  What power is generated when a glad teacher meets  and touches a glad learner!  Above all, he was a man of deep and enduring faith  —faith in his pupils and his fellow men and faith in his  God.  Needs Foundation  He   believed,   even   as   Huxley   acknowledged,   that   man  cannot   sustain   a   high   ethical   and   moral   standard   without  a firm foundation in religion, that is, in God.  This teacher was a servant of the Great Teacher. He  could not and did not teach denominationalism in the class  room, but he did lead his scholars to a faith in God and  in his Son, the Man of Nazareth.  He taught not only by precept but by the example of a  transparent Christian life which never faltered. He loved his  church, his choir, his pupils, his Sunday school. He "allured to brighter worlds and led the way."  Influence Lives On  Clarence  Fulton  has  ceased  to  teach  on  earth,  but his  influence lives on in the lives of those who knew him and  loved him.    I  therefore  am  glad  to  sing the praise  of this  schoolmaster and of every consecrated teacher.  "He keeps watch along the borders of darkness and  attacks  the  trenches   of  ignorance  and  folly.    He  awakens  45 Portrait of a School Master  sleeping spirits. He quickens the indolent, encourages the  eager, and steadies the unstable. He communicates his own  joy in learning and shares with his scholars the precious  treasures of his heart and mind. He lights many candles  which in after years shine back to cheer him. This is his  reward."    (Henry Van  Dyke).  "And  so  he  passed  over,  and  all  the  trumpets   sounded for him on the other side."  (John Bunyan).  Miss Lillian Smith of Armstrong has in her possession one of  the first licence plates used for the operation of motor vehicles.  The first legislation enacted in British Columbia to control the  operation of motor vehicles came into being in 1904 under the  Motor-Vehicle Speed Regulation Act, 1904. The act provided for  the issuance of a permit which was to be carried and displayed  on the motor-vehicle with the number and record being kept by  the Superintendent of Provincial Police.  It became the practice for motorists to mount four inch numbers on the back of the motor-vehicle mounted on a plate usually  made of leather by a saddlery firm. The first Government issued  plates were made of enamel by a stove firm in Hamilton, Ontario, known as the McClary Manufacturing Company. These  plates were first issued in 1912.  The late T. K. Smith of Armstrong had one of these leather  plates on his first car, and it is now in the possession of Miss  Smith.  46 ^Jrials and ^Jribaiationd in the  Kykanaaan  ^jrruit and   Ueaetable  K^annina ^rndudtru  1910    -    1939  BY LEOPOLD HAYES  I crossed the Atlantic on the S.S. Tunisian, Allan Line, from  Southampton to Montreal, thence CPR, to Okanagan Landing  then S.S. Okanagan to Kelowna arriving in June, 1910. I had  come direct from London.  In London I had a friend who was secretary of The Canada  Newspaper Co., their offices were not far from mine in the Cov-  ent Garden Fruit Market. I was thrilled with everything he had  told me and what I had read in "CANADA" about beautiful  British Columbia, how everything was booming at that time,  and of the wonderful opportunities. I shall forever remember  the thrill of my first trip over the Rocky Mountains and down the  lake from Okanagan Landing to Kelowna.  As we approached, Kelowna appeared quite a small place,  there were a lot of people on the wharf, they all seemed to appear suddenly from nowhere. I concluded it was a regular thing  for most of the inhabitants to meet this boat whenever it arrived.  I was told the population, including the surrounding country,  was around eleven hundred. I was astounded at the wonderful  welcome I received, such hospitality so far from home would be  hard to beat anywhere. If this was a sample of the spirit of the  west, of which I had heard, then I certainly had soon found it.  I noticed the vehicles were keeping on the same side as in  England; they were horse drawn. Someone told me there were  two motor cars in the country already, one owned by a doctor  and the other by an Englishman at Okanagan Mission.  It was not very long before I found out how enthusiastic  and interested people were in the early development of their  country and Kelowna in particular; it was amazing. Capital  was badly needed to accomplish this, and anyone who could  start any new industry was soon held in high regard. Already  there were the Kelowna Sawmill, Kelowna Tobacco Co., Crawford Sawmill, Kelowna Brewing Co., and Kelowna Canning Co.  There were  several land companies,  busy  subdividing their  47 Trials and Tribulations  land and putting irrigation water on their respective holdings.  Real estate values were climbing all the time for reasons I  failed to comprehend. An Aquatic Club had recently been  formed by some enthusiastic citizens, and the Theatrical Society  were about to produce Gilbert & Sullivan Opera "H.M.S. Pinafore"; it was performed in the Raymer Hall.  First Cannery  About two years before I arrived George and Frank Fraser  had started a small cannery, it was on Abbott St., just opposite  the City Park and it was in this same building several years  later, S. M. (Stan) Simpson operated. The Frasers had to haul all  their materials and their products to and from the wharf at the  foot of Bernard Avenue. It was in 1910 they had raised sufficient capital and formed a company to be known as the Kelowna Canning Co. Limited. They had purchased a lot on Haynes Avenue on CPR trackage, it was immediately opposite William Haug's Cement Plant and they entered into a contract with  George Ritchie to build a small cannery and soft drink room on  this property. It was a frame building, built on piles, tulles  grew underneath and around, and it was painted red.  The company had a very influential board of directors. T.  W. Stirling, W. R. Pooley, W. J. Mantle, P. B. Willits, Dr. B. F  Boyce and Frank Fraser who was manager. Secretary of this  company was to be my first job.  Apart from the boiler and engine most of the machinery  and equipment came from the Sprague Canning Machine Co.,  Chicago, 111., who in order to assist our new industry offered to  absorb most of the import taxes. Wagon scales were also installed in anticipation of heavier tonnage.  Growers had .to be persuaded to plant tomato acreage, it  was all new to them, but fortunately there were some Japanese  in the country, hard working and intelligent growers available  for this work. These Japanese were very soon working on shares  then renting land for this purpose. Our cans were made in Vancouver with tin imported from South Wales by Cliff & Sons. This  firm supplied the fish canneries on the west coast, and they were  not lacquered inside as they are today. The sizes were 2s, 3s  and 10s (gallons).  Early deliveries of tomatoes were weighed and trucked on  48 Trials and Tribulations  to the platform by the manager and secretary. The problem of  getting help to peel tomatoes on a piece work basis was solved  by employing Chinese who had been working for the land companies. A contract was made with a boss Chinaman by the  name of Wah Yuen, old timers should remember him, he was  about six feet, very reliable and quite an imposing figure as  he marched in the rear of a single file of Chinese wearing pigtails.  Railroad construction had commenced on the Kettle Valley Railway; Grant Smith & Co., had been awarded a contract  to build the line from Princeton through Penticton and McCullough to the Kootenays. Railroad and mining camps provided an  excellent market for gallon goods in tomatoes, catsup, apples  and pumpkin. Wilson Bros., Victoria; A. Macdonald & Co., Vancouver; Nelson and Fernie wholesale grocers were all interested  in buying "Okanagan Brand" and "Standard of Empire Brand"  canned goods.  Excessive deliveries of tomatoes at the peak of the harvest  in our first year's operation necessitated running the plant on  Sunday and we were immediately reminded by the Lords Day  Alliance, Toronto, we were liable to prosecution. Correspondence gave us time to save the tomatoes from going to waste.  Every community was looking for a payroll and a market  for cull fruit. Canneries were started in Vernon, Okanagan Centre, Peachland and Summerland. It was some time before they  all discovered the industry needed fruit superior to culls.  Expansion  The Kelowna Canning Co. Ltd., had two very successful  years, prospects for future operations were very promising, real  estate values were still rising, everyone appeared over-optimistic I thought, but I was new to the country and did not want  to speak out of turn. The Directors decided further expansion  was demanded. Land was acquired from an old timer named  Wittup, it was just east of the Rowcliffe Cannery of today, and  a small body of water adjoining was known as Wittup's Pond.  The name of the Company was changed to Western Canners Ltd., and a much larger factory was built, with adequate  space for storage and cans and canned goods. It was a brick  building.  49 Trials and Tribulations  Increased production called for a wider market, accordingly the secretary was sent to Calgary. Wholesalers were not interested, preferring to buy established eastern Canadian brands.  Very reluctantly the retail trade was approached. John Irwin on  8th Avenue was the first and only contact, this gentleman had  recently been through the Okanagan, and was very intrested  in Western development. He was financially interested in a  wholesale grocery firm. There was no comparison when we began to compare samples of our "Okanagan Brand" tomatoes  with those of other brands from eastern Canada. Thanks to a  very substantial order, we found our way into the prairie market. John Irwin, I believe, was the last Conservative member  of the Alberta government, eventually he retired to Victoria,  where he died.  Disaster  In 1923, like a bolt from the blue, came a terrible depression,  real estate values disappeared, our increased production became a burden, our bank refused further finance until all stocks  were disposed of, in consequence the Company was forced into  voluntary liquidation. It was very hard for those associated with  this business from the start to understand such a sudden disaster to the industry, just in its infancy and started with such  enthusiasm and promise. One had the feeling if ever conditions  returned to normal, all could be well.  On the west side of Ellis St., there stands a three storey,  well built brick building, floors are mill construction 2 by 6 in.,  laid on edge and spiked together. This building was erected  by the British North American Tobacco Co., as a cigar factory,  which enterprise had failed. This company had liquidated and  the building was for rent. It was in this building, the Occidental  Fruit Co. commenced operations in 1914.  Occidental Begins  Declaration of war in 1914 somewhat reversed the situation. It was soon evident there would be an increasing demand  particularly for all lines of food products of every description.  On May 17, 1915, the Occidental was incorporated as a limited company.  In 1916 the Occidental purchased from Mr. Eakens, liquidator of the Okanagan Centre Canning Co. Ltd., their plant, ma-  50 Trials and Tribulations  chinery and equipment. Here the opportunity was presented to  return to the canning business in a small way. The building was  small, built on a wharf, and all shipments were handled by  CPR, lake transportation. Jim Goldie of the Rainbow Ranch was  very co-operative and planted a very substantial tomato acreage. N. H. Caesar, another old timer and other growers who  had lost money in the previous venture, planted smaller acre-  age. Arthur Dawson was engaged as factory superintendent.  With the addition of a Sprague Lowe Filler, tomatoes of high  quality were packed, also some pumpkin and apples. Mac-  donald's Consolidated Ltd., Winnipeg, bought the whole pack.  Reverting to the fresh fruit and vegetable end of the business, great strides had been made by the co-operatives. An  organization known as the Okanagan United Growers or  O. U. G. had been formed. At the head of this organization were  many fine, influential and sincere growers, among them particularly outstanding was E. J. (Ted) Chambers, president for many  years thereafter.  Canning Resumed  Macdonald's Consolidated Ltd., were so impressed with the  quality of our first year's pack of tomatoes, they were willing  to enter into a contract to purchase more than this little plant  could pack. Under these circumstances with an assured outlet  it was decided to transfer our canning operations to Kelowna  where we could expand our operations in every way.  In 1918 the building for the cannery was erected on the  south side of the three storey building. Machinery and equipment was moved down from Okanagan Centre and with the addition of a Pressure Cooker, Filler and Exhaust Box acquired  from the U.S.A., was brought right up to date. The three storey  building was now used for storing cans and canned goods. In  1919 additional storage was provided by the erection of the  building on the north side of the three storey building.  The American Can Co., had bought out Cliffe & Sons and  built a new factory in Vancouver, they had introduced the open  lacquered can, doing away with the old soldering machines  and use of solder. The lids were now put on and sealed, after  passing through the exhaust box, by a double crimping machine  operation. These machines could only be rented from the..,A#w*  51 Trials and Tribulations  erican Can Co., and they did a perfect job.  In 1919, by brother Paul, after four years in the Imperial  Army, came from England to join in the business and he was  a great help. He joined the B.C. Dragoons in the Second War;  he died on January 9th, 1945.  This canning factory, as it stands today, was operated by  the Occidental Fruit Co., Limited, until 1929 to the satisfaction of  the growers and the company. Macdonalds Consolidated Ltd.,  Winnipeg, had purchased practically the whole output over  the period of operations.  It is interesting to note that in the last year's operation the  Occidental Cannery packed almost 200,000 cases of canned  goods of fruits and vegetables, mostly tomatoes and catsup.  1929 was to be a fateful year for the Occidental because  an American company, the Safeway Stores, had decided to  operate in western Canada and they had bought out the wholesale grocery of Macdonalds Consolidated Ltd., as a medium of  supply for their retail stores. This sudden change over, to say  the least, was quite a blow to the Occidental and presented a  very uncertain situation for future operations.  Following the above change over, and with equal suddenness, the Occidental were approached by the Canadian Canners Ltd., Hamilton, with the idea of buying out the Occidental  Cannery.  Acquisition by an American retail of such a large wholesale grocery as Macdonald's Consolidated Ltd., was somewhat  frightening, it made one wonder if this was the beginning of a  new era for the economic absorption of our country by the United States. We sold out, somewhat reluctantly, figuring it was  the best course to pursue, having regard to all the circumstances.  It is sad to relate that in 1960, after being operated over forty  years, first by the Occidental Fruit Co., Ltd., then by the Canadian Canners Ltd., this factory closed. It is now just a monument.  Having covered the canning operations from 1910 until  1929 I will return to the Occidental Fruit Co., Ltd., as Fruit and  Vegetable Growers, Packers and Shippers. When I arrived in  1910, if I remember rightly, there were only three packinghouses  52 Trials and Tribulations  in Kelowna, namely, Rowcliffe Bros., Kelowna Farmers Exchange (Co-op) and Stirling & Pitcairn, the latter bought fruit  at firm prices from Land Company Orchards and Growers. They  had exported two cars of apples to Scotland and one to Australia. This firm, as soon as the Land Companies had disposed  of their holdings,  folded up voluntarily.  Occidental Expands  Orchards were now coming into production very fast  throughout the valley, Co-operative Shippers, Grower Shippers  and Independent Shippers were springing up everywhere. In  Kelowna the Occidental Fruit Co., Limited, had built across the  track from the CNR station and they were also operating in Penticton, Summerland, Oliver, Osoyoos and Vernon.  With such a limited home market the rapid increase in  apple production presented a real marketing problem. After  the early market appetite had been satisfied, all these shippers  of the different denominations found themselves scrambling for  further and later business. This situation was aggravated by the  fact there was little or no cold storage in the valley at that time.  The Okanagan United Growers who controlled a large tonnage had set up a selling agency for their growers and changed  their name to Associated Growers. They had opened offices in  Vernon.  The Co-operatives, greatly to their credit, commenced to  provide cold storage, and they used their influence through the  British Columbia Fruit Growers' Association in securing subsidies from the federal government.  Markets Worsen  Marketing conditions grew steadily worse each year. The  leaders of the Associated Growers blamed this situation on the  Grower Shippers and Independent Shippers. They claimed, if  their organization controlled the whole tonnage in the industry  they could control the price, they wanted all competitors eliminated.  All Grower Shippers and Independent Shippers were agreed  the situation was serious, that something should be done about  it if possible, but how could they find a way to co-operate with  those who were preaching their elimination. They were all just  53 Trials and Tribulations  as interested in their country as the co-operatives, they had their  investments and their all in their respective businesses.  Voluntary co-operation was tried in an effort to stabilize  the situation without success as the surpluses were still there  with no reliable control. At one time a Committee of Direction  was set up under a government appointee, it failed to produce  the desired results.  The co-operatives under the Associated Growers were getting desperate, their tonnage had increased, likewise their surpluses. They had more fruit than they could possibly sell and  resorted to consignment. They were consigning their export to  Britain through one channel.  Sapiro  The Independent Shippers were barred from membership  in the British Columbia Fruit Growers' Association and Aaron  Sapiro, a co-operative evangelist was brought in from the U.S.A.  to speak to a meeting in Vernon. The process of evolution in the  industry was well under way.  The Kelowna Theatrical Society were producing the "Pirates of Penzance". Drury Price, secretary of the Occidental Fruit  Co., played the violin in the orchestra. He wrote an extra topical  verse into one of the songs in the opera.  "When Sapiro isn't going round sapiring  Or maturing his co-operative plans.  You will find him, giving stokers "hints on firing"  Or teaching all the rules to baseball fans.  And then he'll turn around and show his mother  How the gentle art of cooking should be done  Ah, taking one consideration with another  He's the man who put the currants in the bun."  In 1924 I decided to explore the Australian and New Zealand markets, and sailed from Vancouver on the S.S. Makura.  In Suva, Fiji Islands, I sold one car of apples. Size specifications  were amusing. Large apples for Fijians, medium for British Indians, small for white population. In Auckland, New Zealand, I  got a substantial order for canned goods and apples. The trade  in Australia were interested, but grower organizations were  strongly against importations. I reminded the importers of the  shipment made to Australia by Stirling & Pitcairn.  54 Trials and Tribulations  Consigning fruit to Great Britain appeared to be the height  of folly, I figured we should sell F.O.B., for cash as the Americans were doing. Could this be accomplished when the co-operatives were consigning. I decided it was a salesman's job by  personal contact.  My early experience in Covent Garden Market, and knowledge of the fruit trade throughout Britain was very helpful to  me. I made a survey of all the important markets before deciding on a definite modus operandi. It was very fortunate the consignment deal in Britain was through one channel, then parcelled out by the receiver at whim. It left open an opportunity of  approach to those importers who had been left out in the cold.  Importers in Manchester and Birmingham were in the habit  of buying in Liverpool, while those in Aberdeen and Dundee  would go to Glasgow. I decided I would only sell the importers  at the ports, confining one brand to one or two buyers at each  port, depending on the size of the market. Every year until 1939  I drove from London to Bristol, Liverpool, Carlisle, Glasgow,  Edinburgh, Leith, Newcastle and return to London.  Exports  It was hard going the first few years, then steadily a cherished export trade was built up over the years on an F.O.B.,  cash basis. No chances were taken on the quality of the arrivals and all Jonathans were shipped via Atlantic, first ship  on arrival as soon as packed. In 1939 Occidental sales in Great  Britain were 225,000 boxes of apples and pears. When war was  declared I was in Glasgow. I managed to procure a gas mask  and travelled the following morning to London. After six weeks  I got a berth on the S.S. Washington from Southampton to New  York.  Although the co-operatives still were consigning under the  O.K. Brand, they had appointed agents in London to sell "John  Bull" a new brand. Consignment was on the way out at last.  The co-operative organization through these years was finding it increasingly difficult to market their large tonnage. Their  leaders continued to campaign for some form of legislation that  would give them their desired control over the whole industry.  Fruit And Produce Marketing Act  For reasons previously stated, the Independent  Shippers  and Growers Shippers, fearful of what form such legislation  55 Trials and Tribulations  might take, strongly oposed all their representations. However,  in 1937, the Hon. E. D. Barrow, Minister of Agriculture in the  provincial government, introduced the Fruit and Produce Marketing Act into the B.C. Legislature. This Act was finally passed,  setting up a Board of Control 'with unlimited power. The three  members of the Control Board set up the agency B.C. Tree Fruits  Limited.  This designated agency immediately assumed control and  were responsible for the sale of the whole B.C. crop, but they  fought shy of export at the start, possibly they were a little  scared, knowing what had already been accomplished by the  Independent Shippers in the British market. Eventually all export  was sold by the agency.  The late Dr. A. R. Lord, noted educationist, who died September 14, 1961 in Vancouver at the age of 77 years, began his  teaching career in Kelowna in 1910.  Born at Merigomist, Nova Scotia, he attended Queen's University and received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1910 and  was principal of the Kelowna Elementary School until 1916  when he became provincial Inspector of Schools, serving in  Prince Rupert, the Okanagan and Vancouver school districts.  He lived for some years in Vernon, later coming to Kelowna.  In 1950 he retired as Normal School principal and became  a special lecturer at the College of Education until 1958. Dr.  Lord was a member of the Senate of the University of British  Columbia from 1936-1950 at which time he received the Ferguson  Memorial Award for "outstanding contribution to education in  British Columbia."  56 C^ntertainina a   ^Jouernor-K^ieneral  Excerpt from a booklet, entitled "Pioneer Days  in British Columbia" by Violet E. Sillitoe, wife  of Bishop Sillitoe, first Bishop of New Westminster, 1879-1894.  During our sojourn at St. Mary's Mount we had the honour of entertaining three governors-general. Princess Louise  accompanied her husband, the Marquis of Lome; Lord Lands-  downe was accompanied only by his staff, while Lady Stanley of Preston came out with her husband. In each case, our  house, which was none too big, was taxed to the limit and  beyond.  The Marquis of Lome was the first one to come, in the  early autumn of 1882. His party consisted of H.R.H. the Princess Louise, with her two ladies-in-waiting, Miss McNeil and  Miss Harvey; Colonel de Winton, comptroller of the household and two valets. Other members of the party we found  room for in the old Government House and in town.  We had only twenty-four hours notice of the honour in  store for us, and, as usual, it found us with every room in the  house occupied; indeed I never remember the time when  the house was not full. We had, therefore, not only to provide for the incoming guests, but to find quarters for the outgoing ones. Staying with us at the time were two of the  Cowley Community, Fathers Hall and Shepherd, who had come  out to spend the summer ministering to the men working on  the Canadian Pacific Railway construction. Later Father Hall  became Bishop of Vermont, while Father Shepherd died in  South Africa.  I was still very young at the time, and very shy, and  stood in great awe of these two holy men, but when they  asked if they could do anything to help, my need was so  great that I promptly accepted, and giving them two big aprons, set them to work to clean the silver. Like everything  else they undertook, the work was done to perfection. Miss  Kendal, who was at the time in charge of Columbia College,  the Church school for girls, was also most kind in helping  me.  St.   Mary's   Mount   had   three   fair-sized   bedrooms,   and  57 Entertaining a Governor-General  two very small ones, and into these the party was packed,  H.R.H. and the Governor-General having our bedroom and  one of the small rooms as dressing-room, the two ladies-in-  waiting sharing a room, and Col. de Winton occupying the  remaining large one. The Bishop and I and all our possessions were piled into the second small one, which was about  six feet by ten or twelve, with no cupboard. I shudder when  I think of the appearance of that room.  The party arrived about 1 o'clock and in great style, for,  there being no carriage on the mainland, other than high  old fashioned stage, a landeau had been imported from Victoria.    A party of Bluejackets formed the escort.  As the luggage was to follow later, the Princess asked  if she might borrow one or two articles from me, and happily amongst the wilderness piled up I was able to find what she  needed. Amongst other things put in, at the last minute, was  our little dog, who was apt to bark at strangers. When the  Princess came downstairs she said to me; "I hope I have  not done wrong, but when returning your belongings I let  out your little dog." Just imagine my feeling at H.R.H. having seen that awful room!  The Princess told me to be sure to make use of the valets — the two men having been accommodated with tents  pitched in the field at the back. If I had been awed at the  thought of entertaining royalty, I was simply terrified at the  valets, but again extreme need came to my aid. Our domestic staff consisted of one Chinaman, who had to look after the horses, milk the cow, attend to the vegetable garden,  besides cooking, baking and washing for the family. Help  therefore was urgently needed, so I had the head valet in,  giving him directions as to setting of and waiting at the table.  I explained that I had made the coffee myself in the drawing-  room, of which he quite approved, saying that H.R.H. did the  same at Government house, but when I further explained  that after coming from viewing the torchlight procession and  illumination on the River I wanted him to bring in the tea  tray which I would have ready, there his approval ceased,'—■  "We don't have tea at Government House, madam. "Feeling  that I must assert myself, I said "I think I would like you to  bring it in," and then he thought he had been a little too of-  58 Entertaining a Governor-General  ficious, for he added rather apologetically; "You see, madam,  our gentlemen don't drink enough to require it". His enlightening of my sophisticated mind on the reasons of tea and  coffee after dinner was so deliciously funny that I had to  go into the drawing-room to repeat the conversation, which  caused much amusement.  Princess Louise was an ideal guest, so simple and unassuming, as were the ladies-in-waiting. Miss Harvey was a  first-rate musician. Miss McNeil afterwards married, as his  second or third wife, the old Duke of Argyle, and so became  step-mother-in-law to Princess Louise.  The Princess made several sketches from our field and  these appeared later in the London Graphic. As it was still  too early for fires, she went into the kitchen herself to dry  her sketches, catching the Bishop at the back of the house  in his shirt sleeves doing some necessary chores. Between  tea and dinner we spent the time with music, the Princess  and I singing duets, she taking the alto and I the soprano.  Next morning there was a great gathering of Indians to  see the "Queen's Papoose" and also to make speeches to  the Governor-General. Just before leaving, Colonel de Win-  ton came in to tell the Princess what arrangements had been  made, for she was to return to H.M.S. "Momus" that day  en route to Victoria, and the whole party, ourselves included, were to go with her to Port Moody. The Marquis was to  return with us as he was going on up country and the two  ladies-in-waiting should drive in the landeau, the Bishop and  I in the buckboard, and the rest in all sorts and conditions  of buggies and stages.  "Oh, no," said the Princess, "that won't do. I am going  to drive in the buckboard with the Bishop," and no amount  of persuasion or expostulation would turn her from her purpose.  This was the first the Bishop had heard of the honor in  store for him, and he hastily slipped out to the stable to have  a look at the harness and to see to the harnessing of the horse.  The buckboard had seen service, and indeed very little of its  original coating of paint remained, while the harness had  been second hand when we  bought  it  and  had  since then  -59 Entertaining a Governor-General  grown perceptibly shabbier, and, although not held together  las much of B.C. harness was) by cord and telegraph wire,  still it was only a few degrees better.  "Punch", my beautiful horse, given to me by the Bishop  on my first birthday in British Columbia, had blue blood in  him. He was bred for a racer but had ignominiously failed  in his first race, and the Bishop, therefore was able to acquire him for the price of an ordinary horse. But even "Punch"  did not appear at his best. His coat was shaggy and none  too well groomed; in fact the whole turnout, to say the least,  was appallingly shabby. It headed the procession, passing  through the decorated grounds to the playing of the bands,  the waving of flags and the cheering of the crowds.  Next came the landeau with the Governor-General and  myself, and the two ladies-in-waiting opposite. The honor  thrust upon me was not at all appreciated, and I sighed for  the buckboard and the company of my husband. We all  lunched on the "Comus", returning in the afternoon, and next  day after bidding farewell to the Marquis of Lome, we returned to our ordinary "daily round".  60 \-Suerland to the  (^arib  ariboo  When the Native Sons of British Columbia presented Mr.  James A. Schubert of Tulameen, B.C., with an honorary life membership in the organization, they did honor not only to a pioneer  of the Province but to the memory of one of the most remarkable  pilgrimages of Canadian history.  It was a journey featur-  \ ed not only by acts of cour-  § age, but signalized by the  | bravery and devotion ■ of a  woman who with her three  small children crossed the  pathless prairies and pioneered for her race and sex,  the way through the passes  of the Rocky Mountains.  Rarely, indeed, is it  given to a body of the present generation to get into  such personal touch with  those who were at the very  genesis of the civilization  and settlement of the country  as it -was to the Native Sons  when they entertained Mr.  Schubert. Seated about the  banqueting board at the  Point Grey Golf Club, with  the well-trained orchestra of  the order, playing the latest  music, eating electrically  cooked foods, while powerful automobiles lay parked  in the ground without to take them back to their homes, they  went back through the vista of years with Mr. Schubert to the  days of the great overland expedition that left Garry in lune  of 1862 — the first of its kind to cross the Canadian West.  Qualified For Hall Of Fame  Stories of the sturdy manhood that pioneered British Colum-  Shubert Memorial  Armstrong, B.C.  61 Overland to the Cariboo  bia half a century ago are well known to the native born but it  was the story of Mrs. Schubert's courage that roused within them  a feeling of awe and admiration. By unanimous decision of the  committee in charge it was decided that Mrs. Schubert had qualified for the pioneer's Hall of Fame.  The story of the Schubert family was one of continual pioneering. Mrs. Katherine Schubert was born in County Down,  Ireland, in 1834 and came to America in 1850. Four years later  she married August Schubert at Springfield, Mass., and the next  year, following the advice of Horace Greeley, the young couple  moved west, taking up their residence in the infant town of St.  Paul, Minnesota.  "I was born at St. Paul," said Mr. James A. Schubert, in  telling of the life of pioneering. "It was in 1860, when I was a  a few months old, that the incident took place that caused my  parents to flee in mid-winter for the protection of Fort Garry,  now the city of Winnipeg.  "It was about Christmas of that year. The soldiers who were  garrisoned at St. Paul were called away owing to some difficulty with the Indians. Our home was the rendezvous for the  settlers about the place, as we had a big sitting room. One night  when father and mother were talking with some friends, there  was a crash of breaking glass.  "Mother rushed into the room where I lay sleeping in a  crib to find that an Indian had broken the window with a plank  and was crawling into the room, evidently with the intention of  taking me away. Mother picked me up and ran screaming into  the sitting-room. Father seized a big poker out of the house. He  caught the Indian and beat him badly with the poker about the  head and shoulders.  Slipped Away At Night  "The next night about forty Sioux Indians, led by one of the  Chiefs came to the house and demanded admittance. Luckily,  the magistrate was visiting with us that night, and they seemed  afraid of his authority. They declared, however, that if anything  had happened to the Indian who had been beaten by my father,  they would return and kill us all.'"  "There had been a lot of trouble with the Indians and father  62 Overland to the Cariboo  and mother decided they had better get away. They feared that  the Indians would claim that the man had been maimed or had  died as a result of the thrashing.  "Two other families decided to flee with them. One of these  families was named Ness and some of the descendants are still  living in Winnipeg.  "In the dead of night two or three days later, with what belongings could be packed onto the horses, father and mother,  with my brother August, four years older than me, and my little  sister, started off for Fort Garry. It was between Christmas and  the New Year, and you can imagine what kind of a journey it  was in one of those winters with the distance roughly about 450  miles."  Keeping a sharp lookout for Indians they travelled with all  the speed possible looking forward to their arrival at Fort Garry  as the place where safety lay. Once, as they stopped for a rest  at a deserted shack on the banks of the Red River, a band of  Sioux warriors, painted and wearing war dress, rode up. The  fugitives believed that they were to be slaughtered/ but they  were in a hurry and demanded all the food that our party had  with them. Taking this, they again mounted their horses and set  off across the snow-clad prairies as hard as they could ride.  Welcome Sanctuary  "At first father and the others were astonished, but soon  there appeared riding hard on the trail of the Indians, mounted  troops, and they told our little band that they had swooped down  on some settlers that morning and had massacred them. Had it  not been for the speed of the soldiers from St. Paul, we too would  probably have been killed, but so hard were they pressed by  the bluecoats that they did not have time to stop to kill and torture us.  At last we reached Fort Garry, and the stone walls of the  old Hudson's Bay post were indeed a welcome sanctuary."  The Schuberts remained at Fort Garry until the summer of  1862. Then it was that the Hudson's Bay Company's steamer  International made her first trip from Georgetown up the Red  River to Fort Garry.  The whole settlement turned out to welcome the boat, and  63 Overland to the Cariboo  were surprised when nearly 150 men came off the steamer. They  were on their way to British Columbia, then practically unknown. All that was known of it was that the most distant outpost of the Hudson's Bay Company across the great plains and  beyond the barrier mountains. Gold had been discovered in a  section of that country called the Cariboo.  Children Ride In Basket Cradles  The tales told by the adventurers fired the imagination  of August Schubert and he determined to join the party. Mrs.  Schubert declared that she would go with him and so it was  finally arranged that not only would Mr. and Mrs. Schubert become members of the expedition, but that they would take along  with them their two boys and a little girl. Great preparations  were made at Fort Garry for the expedition, as the course to  be followed had never before been attempted by others  than the Hudson's Bay Company trappers and traders. Not even  the great fur caravans of that company had numbered so many.  Red River carts, big, clumsy, wooden-wheeled affairs were purchased and to these spans of oxen were hitched, while horses  were provided for the men and one woman.  In place of an ox, in one of the carts was a cow, which the  Schubert's brought along to provide milk for their young family. Mrs. Schubert bestrode a big buckskin horse. Two basket  cradles, were fashioned and these were slung across the shoulders of the horse. In one rode little Mary Jane, and in the other  August, the older of the boys. Little Jimmie was carried either  by his father, or when he was ahead as one of the advance  guard, by Peter Mclntyre.  Nearly A 100 Carts  The wagons were loaded with mining implements, tents,  and foodstuffs, mostly pemmican. There were 96 carts that drew  away from Fort Garry on the afternoon of June 2nd, 1862, and  the whole settlement turned out to bid them Godspeed. Bishop  Tache blessed them, the word was given, and the oxen started  away.  First stop was made at Whitehorse Plains two days later,  and here the party was organized into some semblance of military formation. Thomas McMicking of Queenston was elected  captain, and it was largely due to his leadership, ability and  64 Overland to the Cariboo  cheerfulness that the party came through the many trials and  dangers that beset the way. He had as lieutenants, W. C. Thompson, James Wattle, Joseph Halfpenny, A. L. Fortune, A. C.  Robertson, August Schubert, Hutchinson, Phillips, Hough, Ur-  bin and several others.  Food was rationed out and advance guards were told off  to ride in advance of the main party to explore the way. By June  11th the Little Saskatchewan was reached and forded on the  following day, and Fort Ellice was visited. Sunday was spent  at the fort, where Mr. McKay, the Hudson's Bay Company official in charge, was very kind to the travellers.  Assinboine River Crossed  The Assinboine River was crossed on a raft, and the party  continued to Gulch Creek, where they camped. This stream is  a small tributary of the Qu'Appelle River. Here their guide, a  halfbreed, named Rochette, who had been recommended to  them at Fort Garry, deserted. The journey had been a rough one.  Water was poor, and accidents of more or less serious character  were daily happenings, but the adventurers kept on. Captain  McMicking, by his example and words of encouragement, kept  up the courage of some who were fain to turn back when Rochette's deliquency was discovered.  Past the Touchwood Hills and on to Fort Carlton the expedition made slow and weary progress. Alkali water, shortage of  food and continual fear of hostile Indians were ever present  troubles. At the fort they secured a supply of buffalo pemmican  and again started on their way. Several small trading posts  were encountered on their way to Fort Pitt.  In crossing the South branch of the Saskatchewan River,  Robert Kilso, one of the party, who was distinguished by his  readiness to be of service to others, was almost drowned. He  was rescued by several members of the party.  The streams were swollen by incessant rains, which continued for eleven days and forced the travellers to build bridges  at every turn.  Rest At Edmonton  On the morning of July 21st, the welcome walls of Fort Edmonton were sighted and the Union Jack was run up above the  place in welcome to the adventurers.  65 Overland to the Cariboo  A rest of a few days was made at Fort Edmonton, Mr. Brazeau, the Hudson's Bay Company officer in charge of the post,  gave them every possible assistance, and they reciprocated by  putting on three concerts, some of the party being well-trained  musicians. At St. Alberts, a small place a few miles from Edmonton, the majority of the oxen were disposed of and horses  were secured. Then the long trip to the Rockies was commenced,  with the blessing of Rev. Thomas Woolsey, who was stationed  at Edmonton.  Captain McMicking's next objective after leaving Edmonton  was St. Ann's, about fifty miles north west of the fort. The way  was most difficult but after two days the place was reached.  Here Mrs. Schubert was delighted to find four women, Grey  Nuns, from Montreal. When the party drew away from St. Ann's  it was to the tune of the bagpipes played by Mr. Colin Fraser,  the officer in charge of the trading post.  Chopping Through The Tangled Brush  The first part of their journey had been difficult but from  now on it presented obstacles that made the trip across the  prairies seem a pleasure expedition by comparison. Progress  was slow, axemen having to chop a way through tangled brush  and fallen logs, and swift rivers had to be forded and deep  marshes and swamps avoided and before them in the distance,  were the rocky heights of the mountains.  It was on August 13th that the travellers had their first sight  of the Rockies, loomed in the distance. Gradually day by day,  they grew nearer. A week later they were among the foothills  and a few days after had entered the Yellowhead Pass, then  known as the Leather Pass, for it was through that pass that the  leather Brigades travelled between Hudson's Bay trading posts.  The majesty and grandeur of the pass thrilled them. Its  rushing torrents and forbidding heights, beautiful to view, added  tremendously to the difficulties of the brigade. The days were  becoming shorter, and slow progress made each day, caused  the leaders to fear they would not be able to get through the  mountains by the time they had estimated.  Mrs. Schubert and her little ones were given every attention by the men of the party who always saw that they were  supplied from the meagre store of game that was killed. Food  66 Overland to the Cariboo  supplies ran short, but there was no complaint from the brave  woman. Only about ten miles a day could be averaged.  Pemmican supplies — dried buffalo meat — was rationed  out but still there was prospect of hunger. As they dragged  their weary way through the pass, sharp lookout was kept for  game. Even squirrels and small birds were shot down for food.  Some of the men were driven to such extremities that they  boiled their buffalo lariat ropes and gnawed them. At last,  gaunt and weak, they crawled out of the pass and encountered  a camp of Shuswap Indians where they traded ammunition,  clothing, camp equipment and anything that was demanded for  salmon, pemmican and dried berries.  In the midst of the mountains a terrific thunderstorm burst  overhead and torrents of rain fell, swelling the streams and  soaking the travellers to the skin.  Old Posts Used By Fur Traders  Jaspers's House was sighted and then Henry House, old  posts used by the fur traders, but now deserted. On August 22nd,  they crossed the Maquette River and camped at Moose Lake.  They had crossed the divide and now started to descend into  British Columbia, the land of their dreams. The footsore and  weary brigade now hastened on with renewed hope and eventually struck the Fraser River.  No longer could the oxen or the Schubert cow be driven.  Lean and hungry, they were slaughtered and the tough meat  eaten by the immigrants whose food stocks were exhausted.  The cow was driven as far as it possibly could be in order  to supply milk for the children. Then it was killed and its hide  stripped into thongs to be used in raft building later. The meat  was smoked over the fire, as was that of the remaining oxen.  The buffalo pemmican that had served them so long was exhausted, and the lean carcasses of the oxen provided food for  150 persons for only a few days longer.  Growing Weak From Lack Of Nourishment  The smoked meat exhausted, starvation stared the party  in the face. The last morsel of food was saved for Mrs. Schubert  and her little family. Mr. Schubert and his companions going  without in order that the woman and babes might be cared for.  67 Overland to the Cariboo  Men were growing weak from hunger when it was decided to  kill off a horse that was old and decrepit. This was cooked over  the fire, pieces of the flesh being toasted on sticks.  Company Divides' at Tete Jaune Cache  At Tete Jaune Cache which they reached on August 27, it  was decided to divide the Company. Those who were the best  supplied were to go overland. About twenty men voted in favour  of this method while the balance decided to cross the mountains to the headwaters of the Thompson River. Mr. and Mrs.  Schubert threw in their lot with these.  The dangers and sufferings of that trip were terrible. For  two weeks the party struggled through dense, trackless forests,  over hills and through deep gulches. At last they reached the  Thompson. The torrential character of the stream frightened  some but it was found impossible to continue by land. Rafts  were constructed and the remaining horses turned loose.  Through Rapids For Seven Days  Mrs. Schubert was forced to say farewell to her buckskin,  the animal which had so faithfully served her and her two children on the long trip across plains and mountains. It was with  tears streaming down her face that she turned the beast toward the forest, as she clambered with her husband and three  little ones on a rudely constructed raft.  For seven days they ran through rapids, avoided shoals  and dodged snags. Four of the party were marooned for two  days and a night, their raft having been caught on a snag. In  this predicament they remained without food. A young fellow  named Strachan was drowned as he attempted to carry a line  to some of his companions who were clinging to a boulder  upon which their raft had smashed.  In Danger From Excited Squaw  Food supplies were exhausted and starvation again faced  the party. At last an Indian village was sighted and the rafts  were run to the shore in the hope of getting more food. Mrs.  Schubert, with the little ones stayed on the raft, while the men  went forward to barter. The craft was tied to the bank by the  green cowhide. An old squaw, moved by curiosity to see a  white woman, ambled down to the river bank. Instantly she  became excited, and pointing to the rope, shouted and waved  68 Overland to the Cariboo  her arms. Indians came running to the place. The woman took  hold of the rope and threatened to cut it, which would have  allowed the raft to be carried down the swift flowing stream  to destruction. Mrs. Schubert clung to her children in terror.  Fortunately the men of the party heard the excited shouting,  came running back. It appeared that the woman had lost an  animal some time before and noticing the black hide of the cow  on the rawhide concluded that she had discovered the persons  who had stolen her property. After some haranging, the old  squaw was convinced that she had made a mistake, but it was  thought advisable to embark without further parley. Only a  small amount of provisions had been obtained.  Potatoes Found In Smallpox Village  There was nothing to eat for a whole day and then when  the voyageurs were in despair another Indian camp was sighted. Again the rafts were put to the banks but not a sign of life  could be seen about the village. Cautiously the men climbed  the slope only to pause horror-stricken, bodies lay about the  houses and fields. It required only one glance at the festering  remains to ascertain the cause. The place had been visited by  the dreaded smallpox and those who had escaped its first  ravages had fled. So desperate were the white men that they  rushed to a field where they saw potatoes growing and feverishly dug the tubers, carrying them in their shirts and pockets  back to the rafts, returning with bags for more.  As quickly as they could they escaped from the place and  the rafts were again put in motion. Now they came to rapids  through which the rafts could not be taken. It was necessary  to portage their belongings for eight miles. New rafts were  constructed and the journey was continued. For four days they  had nothing to eat but raw potatoes. The diet made a number  of the men sick and it was a weary party indeed that arrived  at Fort Kamloops, October 14th, 1862.  The rafts were run ashore above the fort and a tent was  hastily run up by Mr. Schubert and in it, a few hours later, was  born the first white girl in the Interior of British Columbia, Rose  Schubert, now Mrs. Henry Swanson of Armstrong. An Indian  woman from the fort attended Mrs. Schubert and when the baby  was born she seized it and stepped out in the cool October air,  69 Overland to the Cariboo  and holding it in her arms delightedly exclaimed "it's Cumloops,  Cumloops."  At first Mr. and Mrs. Schubert were inclined to give the  babe the name that the Indian woman had chosen but later  decided to call her Rose.  Little Mary Jane who had crossed the mountains with her  parents, died later but August and James are still respected  residents of the Province. Only one other of that daring party  is alive, Mr. Peter Mclntyre aged 89. He now lives in the Okanagan and when invited by the Native Sons to attend with Mr.  Schubert the dinner in honour of the Overland Expedition he  wired his regrets saying, "I am not as strong now as when I  swam the Athabasca with little Jimmie Schubert on my back  sixty-one years ago.  Of the party that descended the Fraser River there were  three drowned in the dangerous rapids of that stream and one  took ill and died at Fort George.  The Schuberts remained at Fort Kamloops and then proceeded to the Cariboo, where Mr. Schubert engaged in mining  for a time, while Mrs. Schubert conducted a school in addition  to attending to her household duties.  Later Mr. Schubert followed his friend A. L. Fortune into the  Spallumacheen Valley where he had located on a fine piece  of prairie land. Mr. Schubert took up land near the present site  of the city of Armstrong. His friend was the original settler of  the Enderby district.  The privations and obstacles that those brave men underwent in pioneering the fertile valley would furnish inspiration  to those who today are seeking to carve out homes in British  Columbia's agricultural area. They had to manufacture the  most of their implements and tools but succeeded in growing  fine crops. So scarce was food that Mr. Fortune subsisted for  a whole winter on the wheat he had grown. He cooked it in  every conceivable form, roasting it to make coffee, making it  into bread, frying it, and tried to vary the monotony of his fare.  Many of those who came overland with the expedition of  '62 took prominent part in the development of British Columbia,  not a few of them serving later in the Legislature and Parliament  70 Overland to the Cariboo  while others occupied public positions with credit to themselves  and benefit to the Province of their adoption.  Both Mr. and Mrs. Schubert lived to see the day when the  journey which had taken them months to accomplish can be  made in three days. Mrs. Schubert survived her husband by a  few years, dying at Armstrong in 1918.  +  71 Andrew McCulloc-i, 1864-1945  72 ^Arndrew   IIVIcv^ulloch,   i^iuil C^naineer  by Ruth McCulloch Macorquodale  On June 17th, 1959, a concrete memorial pillar of a type  now familiar in several parts of Central British Columbia was  unveiled in Gyro Park at Penticton. This particular pillar bears  a plaque inscribed "To commemorate the work of our pioneer  engineers, among them Andrew McCulloch who located and  supervised construction of the Kettle Valley Railway which  reached Penticton 1914". It was a thoughtful tribute honoring  the memory of the engineers, named and nameless, whose inspired work contributed so much to the progress of this area at  a time when railways were the only means of progress in the  development of such areas.  The pillar was erected by the Association of Professional  Engineers of B.C., and the Engineering Institute of Canada, two  bodies of which Mr. McCulloch had been a member for many  years. Present at the dedication service were many people who  had known him during his 55 years of engineering in Canada  and the United States. These people included engineering associates, Kettle Valley Railway men, fellow Rotarians, and  many old friends and neighbors such as Mr. and Mrs. A. A.  Swift, Judge Colquhoun, Archie Cumming, Bert Nicholson, Dr.  Bill White, Mr. and Mrs. R. V. (Jack) White, Clem Bird, W. H.  Whimster, Alec McNicoll, Johnny Cameron, Hughie Johnson,  Perley MacPherson, Charlie Oliver, Harley Hatfield, Capt.  Weeks, Mrs. T. M. Syer, Mrs. K. Daniel, Mrs. W. R. Dewdney,  as well as many other.  As a fairly full article on Andrew McCulloch, his life, his  achievements and work, written by his daughter Ruth (Mrs. D.  Fraser Macorquodale) appeared in the 1949 report of the Okanagan Historical Society, it seems unnecessary to repeat all the  same information here. Mrs. Macorquodale has in her possession all her father's field books, work records, and dairies complete from 1889 to 1945, as well as the story of his life written by  himself for his own family, and also several other writings of  an autobiographical nature.  For these purposes, suffice it to say that Andrew McCulloch  was born on a farm in Lanark County, Ontario, in 1864, the  '73 A.ndrew McCulloch, Civil Engineer  oldest of five children whose parents had come from Scotland  with their parents in the 1820's to settle in what turned out to  be a rocky and difficult part of Ontario. Even today one can  see the log cabin in which he was born, and three miles away  the log schoolhouse he attended on foot. Farm work and shanty-  ing (logging) occupied his earlier years until he could finish  his education in Kingston, Ontario. There not being much opportunity in his line at that time in the east, and also having  been born with a love for travel, he headed for western Canada  in 1889 along with his friend Angus Nicholson of Glengarry,  (later of Princeton, B.C.) in search for work. As there was a lull  in the engineering line in Vancouver at that time, Mr. McCulloch went south to the U.S. where he worked on survey and  construction of the Great Northern Railway in both Idaho and  Washington for a number of years.  At the turn of the century he returned to B.C. to work for  what is now the Canadian Pacific Railway in the Nelson and  Lardeau areas, and also in the Rockies when the spiral tunnels  above Field were being planned. Then, after a few years in  charge of Grand Trunk Pacific construction in Saskatchewan  and Manitoba, he transferred back to the C.P.R. and was stationed at head office in Montreal from 1908 until 1910. However,  he preferred the west, and thus when the C.P.R.'s Shaughnessy  was looking for an engineer to investigate possibilities for a  rail line through southern B.C., it was not unnatural for him to  choose Andrew McCulloch who was familiar with mountain  railroad engineering. Preliminary surveys were soon made, a  head office established under the late J. J. Warren at Merritt,  B.C. (later moved to Penticton), and work on the Kettle Valley  Railway went ahead until its completion in 1915. Having been  in charge of the surveying, locating, and construction of the  line, it was unusual to find oneself on the operating side, but  Mr. McCulloch nevertheless headed the K.V.R.'s operations for  its first dozen years, until Mr. Tom Trump (now of Vancouver,  and father of N. Trump, president of the C.P.R.) came to Penticton. Andrew McCulloch remained as Chief Engineer of the  K.V.R. until his retirement in 1933. Between 1915 and 1933, he  built a railway line in the Copper Mountain area, also a line  south from Penticton to Oliver, and was consulted in connection with other, both old and new, railway lines in British Columbia.  74 Andrew McCulloch, Civil Engineer  While there is no doubt that the Kettle Valley Railway was  his favorite piece of work, he had not been too convinced of its  future usefulness when he was locating it. Nevertheless he built  it in a day when the railroad was the principal form of transportation, and lived to see the line justify its existence. It would  sadden him today if he could see the present trend of all North  American railways which are concentrating on heavy freight  only, and giving scanty passenger service, but he would have  understood that in the cause of progress and the increased pace  of Canadian life today, motor transport and airlines are having  their turn. To all those who loved the old days of steam, when  there was time for daylight runs and a chance to appreciate the  surrounding scenery more leisurely, it is sad to bear with efficient diesels, and night runs. Some say the "scooter service"  (daylight diesel service) on the K.V.R. was too fast for one to  see the scenery properly anyway!  Andrew McCulloch died in Penticton on December 13, 1945.  75 ^Jhe  Churches of ^ri  ncameep  By KATIE LACEY  Editor's note: Considerable interest is being shown by the  Oliver-Osoyoos Branch towards the restoration of the old church  at Incameep and the establishing of the date of the original  mission church which, it is thought, was established by the  Jesuit Fathers of the Colville Mission and to be the oldest church  in this part of the Interior.  See 17th Report O.H.S., Father Pandosy, O.M.I.  From the pages of the House Diary of St. Francis Regis Mission at Kettle Falls, Washington, the following was taken ....  "May II, 1870. Today about 10 o'clock Fr. Joset started for  a missionary tour of the Okinagan and then down the Columbia  river, purposed to remain at the Sanpoilshi at the time of their  fishing the salmon, then come up the Columbia and be back  to St. Paul by the time the Spolelpi will begin their fishing at  the Kettle Falls (St. Paul) completing his tour in a month and a  half about; taking for companion Kalosaskat; for provisions 100  lb. white flour, 20 lb. short., 20 lb. dry smoked meat, coffee, etc.  He has been instructed to leave to Fr. Pandosi those Okinagans  who have built for Fr. Pandosi a chapel on the very division  line, but to notify this to the same Father that we may be certain those Indians are attended to."  From Dr. John Goodfellow, of Princeton, who in company  with the late Alan McDonald of Oliver, interviewed Chief Baptiste George at Incameep on July 11, 1933, we received the  following from his notes, as they were interpreted to him by  the old chief's granddaughter . . . The original Church was the  windowless building by the cemetery and that Baptiste George  was baptized there in the 1860s.  From Chief Manuel Louie we learned that the original  church was closer to where the present church is and being  told through an interpreter could account for a slight variation  there. The foundation of the original church can still be found.  Somehow it did not seem possible that the Indians of the  1860s could have put up a building such as stands by the cemetery today- The early Indian-built churches were of log con-  76 The Churches of Incameep  struction, windowless, pole and sod roof or shakes, dirt floors  and tulle mats, no seats. We apparently have proof that such a  building did exist there and no doubt is the one mentioned in  the Kettle Falls Mission Diary.  A person named "Boots" had been mentioned in Judge  Haynes magistrate book who had done carpenter 'work in the  early days. Mrs. Matilda Dalrymple was asked if she remembered hearing of such a person, and after considerable thought  told us of a roving carpenter named "Boots" and who the Indians called "Pooch". It was because of these peculiar names  that she was able to remember him. She also told us she could  remember the older people telling of Fr. Pandosi sending to  Rock Creek for Boots to build a church. He went back to Rock  Creek and brought two Chinamen who cut the logs and shakes  and whipsawed the lumber for this church which is the one  that stands beside the cemetery. It was probably built with the  help of the Chinamen and Indians. The logs were all cut in  the draw below Mike Gallagher's place.  Mrs. Dalrymple was born in 1873 and was living with her  parents at Okanagan Falls, and when she was about six years  old she and her brother ran away from home and on the way  hid in this church. Also from Chief Manuel Louie we learned  that it was there when he was a small boy so that it must have  been built before 1880.  In 1880 Mrs. Haynes was staying at New Westminster and  Judge Haynes wrote to her in September of that year to say  that "Purdy is putting up the bell at the little mission at Incameep", Mrs. Haynes had ordered the bell and donated it-to the  church. It was mounted on a scaffolding beside the church and  is the same bell that is in use in the present church. The present  church was built about 1911, and the lumber was all hauled  from Okanagan Falls by Wm. Hines.  The old church that stands beside the cemetery is still in  very good condition and could be restored without too much  expense, and it would be a fitting counterpart to the Pandosi  Mission at Okanagan Mission. Further research and checking  will no doubt bring to light more proof and dates. We are indebted to Sister Maria lima O. P. of Spokane for her help in  research.  The expression "division line" is not exactly clear yet.  77 -jrrancid /Xavier nCichter  By KATHLEEN STUART DEWDNEY  "The shadow of Frank Richter, his own artless and enduring monument, stands giant-like astride the early story  of the Lower Similkameen.  "Like all big men, whate'er their sphere, his greatness  was simple, massive, elemental. The story of his success is  in the small words, the vital words. He built vastly, of simple,  solid bricks.  "And yet, of single, simple purpose, he was necessarily  a man of many parts, spanning the transition between frontier wilderness and supersonic modernism.  "He was Hudson's Bay man, gold rusher, cattle baron, orchardist, land promoter, miner, merchant and magistrate; and  always the true pioneer, and every inch the individualist, he  was, in the subtler tones, showman, sportsman and orator.  "The Okanagan denied him, he was the Tom Ellis and  the Theodore Kruger of the neighboring valley. And, in the  Horatio Alger cast, like Kruger, he had much in common with  another countryman, John Jacob Astor, a humble emigrant  who hewed an empire from the wilderness resources.  "He came to Similkameen by chance in 1864. He died  in 1910 reputedly the richest man in the Valley, his estate said  to be worth several hundred thousands dollars."   (1)  Francis Xavier Richter, youngest son of Carl and Veronica Richter, was born in Friedland, Bohemia, Austria, on  November 5, 1837. He had two brothers, Carl and Joseph,  and they all attended the public school at Mildenau during  their youth.  Carl Richter, Senior, a textile manufacturer, expected his  son Francis, to learn the family business, but the lad had no  desire to be confined in a factory or office for he had heard  glowing accounts of The New World with its vast, open  stretches of undeveloped country and its unlimited opportunities for making money.  78 Francis Xavier Richter  At the age of sixteen, like many another adventurous lad  of his times, he sailed for America. He landed in Galveston,  Texas, and for a few years worked in a wholesale grocery  establishment in San Antonio. Then he struck the trail for  Arizona where he mined for silver. Here he found himself  among early pioneers of the southwest during a period of lawlessness, which discouraged him from settling there permanently.  Captured By Apaches  Frank   Richter's   daughter,   Frieda   Marie   (Mrs.   Norman  Shaw), gives us the following account of her father's experience in Arizona:  This was the time of the Apache uprisings. The settlers  buried their dead by night. The morning brought new massacres.  Richter, a scout for Captain (later General) Harney during the Civil War, on one of these missions, was captured by  a band of Apaches, and kept bound and guarded in a ravine  in the foothills.  Secretly through the long, hot day he managed to loose  his bonds. Towards dusk an Apache warrior rode into camp  leading a fine, fresh horse that he had captured. The warrior dismounted, leaving the horse nearby, 'ñ†while he talked  with the guard. The rest of the camp was lying relaxed or  sleeping. Richter sprang up, vaulted upon the fresh horse,  and fled down the ravine.  His startled captors gave hot chase but lost him in the  darkness. He was, however, wounded by two of their arrows, at the back of the neck and in the foot.  For three days and nights he fled over the desert, hunted, hungry, and fevered from his wounds, but reached safety  at Fort Yuma.  He found he had been given up for lost. Captain Harney, in command, put him in the Infirmary and showed him  such kindness as to earn his undying gratitude.  Later, Richter had made from the silver he mined, two  pairs of silver spurs fashioned by a German craftsman friend.  One pair was of engraved design and one pair plain.    The  79 Francis Xavier Richter  engraved spurs he gave to Captain Harney. The plain pair  are in the possession of Richter's youngest son, The Hon. Frank  X. Richter, M.L.A. of Cawston.  In January, 1960, Mrs. Norman Shaw with her husband  visited the old Franciscan Mission in Tucson, Arizona, where  100 years before her father had buried in the Mission Garden,  the lead pipes from the stamping mill at the silver mine, so  they would not fall into the hands of the Apaches, for bullets.  They also visited Yuma, site of the old Military Fort, where  her father had been nursed back to health.  About 1862, Richter made his way westward by mule train  to Los Angeles, and thence by boat to San Francisco. Attracted by the gold excitement, he placer-mined for a short  time in Florence, California. Travelling northward to Lewis-  ton, Idaho, he again engaged in mining. Then lured by tales  of the finding of gold on the Columbia River, he once more  pushed westward along the old Oregon Trail. He finally  arrived at Fort Colville, then a Hudson's Bay Company's trading post. In the vicinity of the present Brewster, at Rich Bar  on the Columbia River, he mined, opened a store, and ran  a freight boat between there and Marcus.  From a miner by the name of King who had been a packer for the first Hudson's Bay Company's post at Keremeos,  Richter learned about the sunny Similkameen and its favourable conditions for stock raising. King told him that there  was good bottom land with enough wild timothy and pea-  vine to winter all the Company's horses, also watering places  full and open all year round.  After ten years in America, with little to show but his  scars, Richter decided to settle in Canada and take up stock-  raising.  From Mines To Cattle  In July, 1864, he sold his interest in property at Rich Bar,  and in partnership with King, went to Butter Creek, near Pendleton, Oregon, and invested in 42 head of cattle. He served  his cowboy apprenticeship in helping King drive them the  long miles to Keremeos. They paid the duty at the Customs  port of Osoyoos, and drove the herd through what is now Rich-  80 Francis Xavier Richter  ter Pass to Keremeos, arriving in October when the rich crimson and golden hues of autumn bedecked the landscape.  They turned the cattle to graze, monarchs of all they surveyed, then started to explore and choose the location for a  home.  Richter's first preference was where Penticton now stands,  but this was vetoed because of an impending Indian Reservation.  When Richter first gazed on Similkameen and Okanagan  it was vast, virgin beauty . . . lush with promise, but totally  uncultivated, an isolated wilderness blocked by the rugged  barrier of the Hope mountains from the primitive settlements  that fringed the Coastline.  A handful of intrepid whites grubbed for furs and gold.  The Indian bands were small, nomadic; they trapped and fished and hunted.  But the land was wonderful. The emigrant youth was  enchanted with the rolling pastures, swaying with bunchgrass  and studded with sagebrush; its lovely lakes «and rushing  rivers; its sparkling mountain streams and virgin woodlands;  its abundance of fish, wild fowl and big game. This was to  be his home, his empire.  Trades For The Hudson's Bay Company  This account of Richter's early days in Similkameen was  given us by Mrs. Tweddle, as told to her by her first husband,  Frank Richter.  She said he arrived in Similkameen with scant assets save  his interest in his original herd of 42 cattle, so he worked for  the Hudson's Bay Company, contracting to put the roof and  gables on the new post, which was being built a few miles  up the valley from the former site near present-day Cawston.  In the spring of 1865 Richter went back to Fort Colville  for supplies for the Company, and his return he and King  helped move goods from the old post. Roderick McLean was  Factor at that time.  In March,   1865, he and King dissolved partnership, and  81 Francis Xavier Richter  Richter filed a claim on a pre-emption of 320 acres on the present site of the A. H. Cawston ranch. This homestead within three years became the nucleous of a prosperous venture  known as the "R" Ranch.  The Hudson's Bay trading post, first established in 1860,  (2) had a small farm in connection, and Richter was put in  charge of the stock. He continued to help at the post as long  as it was in operation, as well as working at his own ranch.  During the winters part of his work at the post included trading with, and collecting furs from, the Indians.  He had the task of cleaning, scraping, trimming, and baling the furs which were shipped by pack train to Fort Hope,  thence by steamer to New Westminster, then on to Victoria,  and thence to London, England. Fur-bearing animals such  as beaver, muskrat, marten, lynx, and mink were abundant  until forest fires ravaged the hills.  Until the post was closed in 1872 Richter accompanied  the brigades to Hope. On the return trip from Hope the brigades carried in the season's supplies and merchandise for  barter with the Indians.  The butter made on Richter's ranch was the first produced in that part of the country. He made the tubs by hand of  cottonwood bound with willow hoops, each tub big enough to  hold fifty pounds of butter which he sold to the Company for  one dollar a pound. This butter was taken by their pack  trains to their posts at Fort Hope, Fort Shepherd, Fort Kootenay,  and Wild Horse Creek.  Richter was working at the Hudson's Bay post when Edgar Dewdney and party came through Keremeos in 1865,  while building the Dewdney Trail to Wild Horse Creek in the  Kootenay.  Terrorizes Indians  The  following story  of  "The Haunted Aspen Grove"  as  told to us by Mrs. Tweddle shows Richter's skill in dealing  with the unsophisticated Indians.  His pre-emption was on land claimed by the Indians, and  was a favourite camping place because it was near springs  and  sloughs that never froze  over.    The   Indian   graveyard  82 Francis Xavier Richter  was east of the camp in a grove of shimmering aspens. Richter found it a nuisance because of the motley native dogs  that chased his cattle, pigs and chickens.  That October he had a fine patch of pumpkins, and he  conceived a resourceful Hallowe'en prank, playing on the  natives'  superstitions.  He made a jack-o'-lantern, with a bit of candle to burn  out in about ten minutes. Then, late at night he put on moccasins, stole to the grove, and hung the jack-o'-lantern on a  tree. The dogs vented their alarm and brought the Indians  from their tents. The weird phenomenon filled them with  terror. The next day they asked Richter if he had seen anything strange. His solemn denial only accented their alarm.  The next night he again took his "spectre" from under the hay  and hung it on a tree. As before . . . barking, bustling, quaking.  Next morning the Indians moved to a new site near the  Hudson's Bay post. The following spring, much to Richter's  astonishment, they dug up all the bodies in the cemetery  and reburied them in a fresh plot on the Cawston bench,  thus leaving Richter in peaceable possession of the pre-emption.  Ever after, the Indians believed the place to be haunted and whenever they passed along the road near the quaking aspens, they would sing loudly and yell to frighten away  the evil spirits.  Entertains Viceroy  Mrs. Tweddle (the former Mrs. Richter) said that one of  the highlights in her life was the visit of Earl Grey, Governor General of Canada in September, 1908. He and his party arrived at Keremeos by Great Northern Railway. After  paying a visit to Mr. and Mrs. Richter, at Inglewood, Earl  Grey and his aide-de-camp visited the school. Elizabeth and  Frieda, Richter's daughters, then little girls at the school, remember Earl Grey's visit and his request that all the Richter children stand up so he could see them. He then proclaimed a holiday.  Mr. and Mrs. Richter were invited to afternoon tea in the  83 Francis Xavier Richter  Governor General's  private  car.     She  was  the  only  woman  present.  On the following day Earl Grey and his party, equipped  with saddle horses at the Richter ranch and with Charlie Richter as their guide, rode over the Green Mountain trail to Penticton.  His First Family  Frank Richter and his first wife, Lucy Richter, had five  sons: Karl (Charlie, 1869-1949); William (1872-1921); Joseph  (1874- ); Edward (1876- ); and Hans (John, 1878. ). (3) All  were born in Lower Similkameen at the "R" Ranch, and they  became almost as well-known throughout the country as their  father.  Joe and Ed now living in Penticton, and Hans at Cawston, (3) tell colorful anecdotes of their boyhood. They delighted in riding the range, enjoyed ranch life, and excelled at  celebrations, stampedes and rodeos, winning many prizes and  trophies which they still cherish.  With their brothers, Charlie and Will, they attended the  Government School at the Mission (later Okanagan Mission),  near present-day Kelowna, then the only school serving the  Okanagan and Similkameen. They made the long trip on  horseback using the trail over the mountains to Penticton,  then along the east side of Okanagan Lake. They boarded  with Frederick Brent and returned home during the summer  holidays.  Although Mr. Richter paid for their board they eagerly helped Mr. Brent's own boys with the chores. In addition  to routine tasks such as cutting wood, feeding chickens, tending sheep, stacking hay and rounding up cattle, there were  sacks to fill with flour at Mr. Brent's mill — the first stone  grist mill in the Okanagan and Similkameen. They still  laugh in telling how white they became — as if they had  been sifted with flour. They helped to dress the mill stones,  chipping them with special picks, a precise operation.  They also attended Father Pandosy's historic Mission  Church School where they received their religious and musical instruction. Having inherited their father's sense of humour, they did not lack   mischief.     Such   were   the   pranks  84 Francis Xavier Richter  against their school mates that Father Pandosy would twitch  their ears and exclaim,  "You Similkameen rascals!"  Father Pandosy had a school band. It included: Joe Richter,  B-flat cornet; John Brent, E-flat cornet; Bill Brent, trombone; Joe  Brent, alto horn; and John Haynes, B-flat cornet. Later Joe Richter  and Joe Brent played the violin.  In later life Joe Richter derived much pleasure from the  musical training which he received from Father Pandosy. Fifty  years ago when the writer taught in a small log school house  on Ingram Mountain, in the Kettle River district near Midway,  three of her pupils were Juanita, Josephine and Jean, daughters  of Joseph Richter. At a Christmas party in the school after the  children's festivities, a dance was held. Joe Richter played his  violin, the teacher played her small portable organ and Charlie  Bubar did the calling for the square dances.  Joe, Ed and Hans relate for us some interesting and happy  memories of their father, and of pioneering days on his extensive  cattle ranches. They remember when there were no roads into  Similkameen, and the only access was by trail. When small  boys, they would watch their father's pack train with about  fifteen horses starting out from Keremeos laden with produce to  make the long yearly trips over the trail to Hope, then the return  trip laden with wonders of provisions and supplies.  Packing Supplies From Hope  The pack-train was an institution and an art in the vital lifeline of transportation of a bygone era. It was an unforgetable  sight . . . the plodding corridor, threading through defile and  over skyline — the endurance and strength of the sure-footed  animals, bearing huge burdens on vast journeys; their trained  conformity to the travelling file; the skill of the packer, with  proper padding, exact balancing, secure lashing, and sure knotting of the weather-proof cover.  Richter's pack-train usually consisted of from ten to fifteen  horses. No pack-saddles were used; in their stead, a large rawhide sack filled with deer hair, straw or bunch grass and called  an aparajoe, was girded tightly upon the animal's back. Upon  this was lashed the freight (150 to 250 pounds), covered with  heavy canvas, and secured with the celebrated diamond hitch.  A great variety of provisions and supplies as well as heavy  85 Francis Xavier Richter  articles such as wagons, mowers and machinery, taken apart  and assembled upon arrival, were first brought into the valley  by pack-train.  A bell-mare led the pack animals that followed faithfully in  a uniform file. Besides Mr. Richter or his sons, and a cook, there  were two or three Indians to help with the daily unpacking at  night and repacking in the morning.  For the first few years until work horses became available,  oxen were used on the ranch. Home-made wagons with solid  wooden wheels sawn from pine trunks were used on the ranch  for many years.  Cotton and woollen material was scarce and their mother  made most of their clothing from buckskin, for there was no lack  of deer. This was, too, the most serviceable garb for the country  at that time; sometimes Father Pandosy wore a suit of buckskin.  The Harvest Is Gleaned  Before they had coal oil lamps their mother made candles  from tallow, and she also made her own soap.  At first all the lumber used on the ranch was home-made  by the laborious operation of whipsawing. A log was rolled  upon two skids over a pit, and one sawyer descended into the  pit while the other stood on the log above. Then with a long saw  in upright position they sawed the log into lumber.  Joe, Ed and Hans describe for us the haying and thrashing  operations on their father's ranches.- On a stock ranch hay and  grain, mostly oats, were essential fodder. Crops grew well on  the Richter ranches and produced plenty for their own use as  well as some for sale. At first, primitive methods were used in  harvesting the hay and grain. The oats were cut with a cradle,  a scythe with three or four long teeth above the blade, which  gathered the oats into small bundles. The oats grew luxuriously  from four to six feet high on the meadows at the Lower Ranch,  and Joe said he cut two acres a day. A man followed him and  bound the grain into sheaves by hand as fast as it was cut.  After harvesting the sheaves, the oats were threshed out on  the barn floor. The barn was 30 feet by 90 feet, and the threshing  space 30 feet by 30 feet. After the grain was thrown criss-cross  on the floor, horses were let in and driven around for about  86 Francis Xavier Richter  twenty minutes until the kernels fell out. The grain was gathered up, the straw thrown out, and a fresh lot thrown on the floor.  This was repeated until all the grain was threshed. Later, a  threshing machine was used.  The grain was put through a fanning mill and the crank  was turned by hand. This mill fanned two tons of oats a day by  blowing the chaff and weed seeds from the grain. Then the oats  were sacked for home use and for sale.  Wild timothy, red top and clover grew luxuriantly on the  meadow at the Lower Ranch. At Inglewood, which was irrigated,  there were about 200 acres in alfalfa and three crops totalling  1,000 tons of hay were cut each summer by scythe. Later mowing machines were used. After the hay was removed the cattle  were turned into the fields to graze on the stubble.  Richter's sons did most of the haying for hired help was  hard to get and consisted of a few white men and Japanese, but  mostly Chinese who wandered along the trail.  A small amount of wheat was grown and hand-ground into  flour, and oats were ground into oatmeal for home use.  Becomes A Brave  Richter's sons give us these gems about their father's way  with the Indians. He said that at first the Indians were hostile  and resented his intrusion. They would point to a shale pile in  the vicinity and say, "We will put you there with your forefathers." They meant that they would bury him in the shale  pile with the white men they had killed and buried there. Richter  showed no sign of fear, and by dealing honestly and fairly with  them he soon gained their confidence and became their trusted  friend and counsellor. They considered him "A Brave," so  treated him with great respect.  Frank Richter was gazetted Justice of the Peace in 1906, and  his cases, that we know of, dealt mostly with horse stealing,  cattle rustling, petty theft, and assault.  The Indians were shy and reticent and sometimes during  a case Richter would speak to them in their native tongue in  order to put them at their ease and to get their story. Sometimes  when the case involved only Indians, he would look around the  court and if he saw a few curious white spectators, without com-  87 Francis Xavier Richter  ment except perhaps a subtle facial expression, he would conduct the case in the Indian dialect.  One day, Richter was visited by an Indian whose horse had  been stolen by some hostile Indians. After listening to his story  Richter jumped on his horse and rode to the Indian camp where  he saw the horse tied to a tree, and all the Indians standing  around. He nonchalantly rode to the horse, untied it, and led it  away without a word.  The Indians watched in silence and never made a move.  Thus ended one case of horse stealing, perhaps, not according  to the rules of English Criminal Procedure but, nevertheless, not  without justice.  In family affairs he was equally shrewd. A young Indian  came to him saying that he had been married only three months  and his wife had just given birth to a baby so he wanted to know  what to do about it. Richter said, "That is all right, you never  can tell when the first baby will arrive." The Indian went away  quite satisfied and one family was saved from a breakup.  One year, three horse thieves stole horses in small bands  at different times from local ranchers. They drove them to Midway, a terminal point on the Canadian Pacific Railway, where  they were sold and shipped to Calgary. For months the thieves  evaded all efforts of the police. After about 140 horses had  "gone east," Richter appointed his son, Hans, a sheriff and sent  him to catch the thieves. Hans soon rounded them up and delivered them to the authorities. They confessed and were duly  sentenced.  Needless to say, few horses or cattle were stolen from the  Richter ranch but other ranchers lost many.  Second Family  Frank Richter and his second wife, the former Miss Florence  Elizabeth Loudon of Loomis, Washington, whom he married in  1894, had five daughters: Florence Elizabeth (Mrs. A. Pendleton); Frieda Marie (Mrs. Norman Shaw); Frances; Helen (Mrs.  H. Clark); Kathleen (Mrs. P. Durnan); and one son, Francis  Xavier Richter.  The girls were taught by an English governess, Miss Jane  Sumner, for several years until she became the bride of their Francis Xavier Richter  half-brother, Edward Richter. Then Richter sent his daughters, as  residential pupils, to St. Ann's Academy in Victoria. Later, for  the benefit of the drier climate, they were transferred to St.  Ann's at Kamloops. Following an epidemic of scarlet fever and  diphtheria there, they were kept home for one year only, during  which time they attended the Keremeos public school. That was  the year Earl Grey visited the school. The girls returned to St.  Ann's in Victoria, where Frieda graduated, then she took the  teachers' training course at Normal School. Later she took dancing lessons, and became a professional ballet dancer.  Richter's youngest son, the Honourable Francis Xavier  Richter, M.L.A., presently Minister of Agriculture, has represented Similkameen in the Provincial Legislature since 1953. He  was educated at Keremeos public school, Vancouver College  and Gonzaga University.  Family relations between Frank Richter and his children  were always the best. He could depend upon his sons for their  co-operation to keep everything running smoothly on his  ranches.  When his son Joseph was married in 1900 to Sarah McCurdy, daughter of Dan McCurdy, a pioneer of Keremeos, the  wedding gift from his father was the Ingram Ranch near Midway. This fine large ranch was complete with large log house,  stable, and other farm buildings, machines, and a herd of cattle  and horses.  Gifts to Charlie from his father were the butcher shops at  Princeton and Hedley, and the management of the hotel (Kruger's stopping place) at Osoyoos. William inherited the historic  Kruger Ranch at Osoyoos, which his father had purchased after  Kruger's death in 1899, and thus got land in the Okanagan after  all.  Edward inherited the fine large Nicholson Ranch at Rock  Creek. Hans and all Richter's other children were left their share  of his estate.  His daughter, Elizabeth, tells us, "My father was well-  known throughout Southern British Columbia at one time. So  well-known that I am sure a letter addressed to Frank Richter,  British Columbia, and dropped in a post office anywhere be-  89 Francis Xavier Richter  tween Vancouver Island and Tobacco Plains in East Kootenay  would have reached him without much delay."  When speaking of her father Frieda Marie said, "My personal memories of my father are coloured with the warmth of  his unfailing courtesy and kindness, and a special sympathy  and consideration in guiding our youthful enthusiasms. There  was always music in our home and appreciation of the arts,  which he encouraged."  His Empire  With the twilight of the fur trade dawned the golden era  of the cattle barons, and among those of Similkameen Frank  Richter was king. They built vast empires over the wide open  spaces. The huge roundups, the mighty cattle drives, the skill  of horse and herdsman, presented a picturesque pageant that  too, is gone forever.  Richter's homestead of 320 acres and his herd of 42 cattle  became the nucleus of his extensive farms and cattle ranches,  which comprised 10,000 acres including ranges of 6,000 acres  for 1500 head of prime beef cattle — mostly Shorthorn, Hereford and Aberdeen Angus and many fine draft horses (he bred  and raised Percherons from stock he imported from the U.S.A.),  also fleet and hardy saddle horses.  In the spring the herds would be driven to the vast open  ranges far up the valley beyond Princeton, or to the south and  east. In the Fall the huge round-ups took place, then the sorting  out of the herds and the branding.  Then the large cattle drives began — miles and miles to  market, over the trail to Hope en route to Victoria, for many  years the only market. The Hope (Dewdney) trail was open for  pack-trains and cattle from the middle of June to the middle of  November and was a ten-day trip, with Richter in charge. This  historic trail, for many years before the advent of the railway  the only artery between Coast and Southern Interior, is dotted  with campsites that immortalize a by-gone era.  Early in the 1890's the large cattle drives, in charge of Richter's sons, began their long treks east to the Boundary and  Kootenay districts. These drives continued throughout railway  construction  and  mining boom  days.  Cattle  buyers  or their  90 Francis Xavier Richter  agents made yearly or semi-yearly trips to the Richter ranch.  Most of the cattle at that time were bought by Pat Burns of  Calgary, Alberta, whose slaughter houses and retail butcher  shops were scattered throughout western Canada.  The influx of settlers taking up homesteads, and the springing up of mining camps and smelter cities throughout the Southern Interior brought an end to the reign of the cattle barons  over vast open spaces.  Stock raising still has its place but on a reduced scale, and  the cattle are transported to livestock auctions by contractors  in special stock-trucks and trailers over paved highways. Cattle  auctions are held in the stockyards at Okanagan Falls, a village and ranching community at the southern end of Skaha  Lake.  Similkameen's First Orchard  Richter, the cattle king, was a man of foresight, courage,  and wisdom. He foresaw the decline of stock raising, and having  recognized the fertility of the soil and the mildness of the climate, he ushered in the area of fruit growing and farming  by planting the first orchard in Similkameen about 1880.  This one-acre orchard planted on his original homestead,  the "R" Ranch, consisted of many different varieties of apples,  as well as other kinds of fruit. Mrs. R. L. Cawston said that the  trees were bearing when she arrived in 1885, and the orchard  continued to bear excellent fruit for many years.  Richter's second orchard was planted about 1886 at the  Lower Ranch in the Pass, and his sons helped to plant the trees.  This two-acre orchard planted on the benches consisted of sev  eral varieties of fruit, including 100 Italian prune trees. Although  the ground on the orchard site was rocky, it was irrigated and  all the trees produced excellent fruit. The prunes were large,  sweet, and delicious. As there was no local market for fresh  fruit, Richter built a drying-shed in which he dried hundreds  of pounds of prunes.  Richter's third orchard, which eventually comprised about  35 acres, was started in 1897, at the Inglewood ranch at Keremeos Centre, and his sons planted the trees which he had  bought at the Layritz Nurseries at Victoria. This orchard pro-  91 Francis Xavier Richter  duced prize winning fruit and is bearing well today. Richter carried off 23 prizes at the Provincial Exhibition at New Westminster in 1906. This Exhibition held annually during the early  years of the century was an outstanding event, just as the Pacific National Exhibition at Vancouver is now. Frank Richter  was a member of the Royal Horticultural Society of New Westminster. At the apple show in Vancouver in 1910, he received  a bronze medal for a new apple he originated and named,  "Richter's Banana" apple.  Richter always had a fine vegetable garden, although when  he first arrived he had been warned by a couple of Hudson's  Bay Company's packers that nothing would grow there but  weeds. They said they had planted seeds in the spring and  when they had come back in the fall there was no crop to be  seen, only weeds shoulder-high. Richter decided that weed-  bearing soil also would produce garden crops. He was right,  and his vegetables as well as his fruit were outstanding in size  and quality.  "The arrival of the first Great Northern train from Oroville,  Wash., to Keremeos took place at high noon, 5th October, 1907,  and Keremeos staged a worthy welcome . . . Frank Richter  characteristically stole the show. The platform sagged with an  exhibit of its gardens and orchards . . . climaxed by Frank  Richter's pumpkin, eight feet in diameter."  At a meeting on March 23rd, 1907, of the newly formed  Keremeos Fruit Growers' Association, Frank Richter who was  a director made a public, speech. This was, indeed, an occasion. The concensus was that his Crawford peaches excelled  his oratory, but that he made a very good speech. His inherent wit shone as he related in a jocular manner the following  account of his first amateurish adventure into the fruit business.  "Undaunted as unsure, he went to New Westminster and  at William Clarkson's nursery bought as many trees as he  could load on pack-horses over the long Hope trail. Eager for  early returns, he bought four or five year stock, some all of  eight feet long, and the unwieldy and unfamiliar cargo irked  the animals. They, however, were early enthusiastic converts.  When he awoke after the first night's camp, he found the trees  denuded of most of their greenery and their tops eaten off. Ever  92 Francis Xavier Richter  thereafter a faulty fence was temptation to the voracious appetites of every animal. He planted the trees and despite all setbacks, including gophers nibbling at their roots, they survived  and flourished under the salubrious Similkameen sunshine. He  said that Mrs. Lowe on the "R" Ranch was harvesting the reward  of his efforts.  "His neighbours ridiculed his notion that from the desert  might spring forth fruit, sure that he was only throwing away  money by planting an orchard on the stoney benches of the  Lower Ranch. When they saw his efforts crowned with success  they, too, planted orchards, and within a few short years the  fruit from this pseudo scrub land was acclaimed at the Empire  Exhibition the finest in the world. Richter claimed it was the  lime in the soil that gave it color and flavour."  The formation of the Keremeos Fruit Growers' Association  united the fruit growers of Similkameen in a pioneer co-operative with their own cannery and marketing organization.  Speaking about his orchards early in November, 1910,  Richter said, "The fruit crop at Keremeos this year has been  a bumper one, though the ranchers have been greatly hampered by an inadequate supply of labor .We have to employ  everybody who happens along and offers — Chinese, Indians,  and Japs. We pay as high as $2.00 per day and board.  "The principal markets for our fruit are in the,prairie provinces. I had been shipping direct, but this year agents came and  purchased themselves and did their own shipping. I showed  the people in that section of the country how to raise fruit. I  have about 35 acres under cultivation. I raise apples, pears,  peaches, plums—in fact, everything in the fruit line. The climate is not severe. It is seldom that we get enough snow for  sleighing. There is comparatively little rain.  "The country is rapidly filling up with settlers, who are  going in for fruit ranching. Business conditions generally are  in a very satisfactory state. Our chief trouble is the lack of  labor. In my opinion, this will constitute one of the pressing  problems in this province."  Had Five Homes  Frank Richter had five homes on three distinct ranches in  93 Francis Xavier Richter  Similkameen. On his original homestead he built in 1865, a log  cabin of fir trees. Then, later he built another log cabin nearby,  and connected the two with a breezeway. One cabin was used  as a kitchen and the other as a bedroom. A large fireplace  made from field-stones set in clay served for cooking and heating purposes, and the furniture was all hand-made from the  wood of local trees. At first there were only dirt floors.  The grove of aspens, believed by the Indians to be haunted,  stood beside this cabin.  Within two or three years this homestead became the nucleus of a prosperous ranch known as the "R" ranch. Richter's  herd of cattle increased rapidly and he gradually purchased  adjoining acreage until he had over 5,300 acres, and he leased  additional rangeland at Princeton and Osoyoos.  About 1880 Richter engaged Frank Cupp, a carpenter, to  build for him on the "R" Ranch a two-roomed log house with  sleeping quarters upstairs. This house was well and strongly  built and all the lumber used in its construction was whipsawed  on the ranch. The nails were "cut", hand-forged with square  heads.  About 1885 Richter sold this "R" Ranch to R. L. Cawston and  Mrs. Ella Lowe. A. H. Cawston, a son of R. L., is the present  occupant of this old home. On the ranch at that time, in addition to the original log cabin and the new log house, were  numerous farm buildings: a stable and double corral, a granary, a smokehouse, a chicken house, and two cellars for fruit  and vegetable storage.  After selling the "R" Ranch Richter moved to property, later  known as the Lower Ranch, he had bought from Otto Schwartz  and Henry Nicholson in Richter Pass. Here Richter built two log  cabins, connected with a breezeway, similar to, but larger  than his original home. There was a large stone fireplace in  the bedroom and a cooking stove in the kitchen. The floors  were made of whipsawed planks.  In 1887 David Lloyd-Jones, the well-known and highly respected Okanagan carpenter, contracted to build Richter a  seven-roomed house at the Lower Ranch. David's father helped  his son build this house. The lumber used in its construction was  94 Francis Xavier Richter  bought wherever it was available from sawmills in the vicinity.  Special thought and workmanship were given by Jones to  the building of this house. The ornamental fretwork on the verandah and gables was hand-cut by Mr. Lloyd-Jones Senior. Today this house is occupied by the present owner, Mr. A. Pollock.  David Lloyd-Jones remembered with gratitude the man who  so kindly befriended him on his first journey to the Okana-  gan.(5)  In September 1880, David Lloyd-Jones had landed at Hope  after coming from Ontario at the request of his elder brother to  help build a home in the Okanagan for A. L. Fortune of the  famous Overland trek from Fort Garry in 1862.  After getting off the steamer at Hope the bewildered young  traveller engaged in conservation with a man standing at the  head of the gangplank. This man was Mr. Yates, storekeeper  for the Hudson's Bay Company, who told him that Eli Lequime's  pack-train with which he was to travel to the Okanagan had  gone because the boat was late. They had thoughtfully left him  a horse and the prospect of a solitary eight-day journey through  the unknown.  Mr. Yates told him another man was going over the trail  the next day, and took it upon himself to say that young Jones  could go along. After reaching the store he took down from the  shelves blankets and a complete outfit of his own selection,  simply observing, "You'll need these." When the youth protested that he was short of money and could not possibly pay the  bill, he was peremptorily told, "You'll have some." He began to  think this a strange land, where men did things summarily  and explained nothing.  Duly his assigned companion showed up, and he recognized him as a fellow-passenger on the boat. But they had had  no conversation, and there was virtually none now, or for the  next four days that they travelled over the trail.  Always the other travelled ahead, almost as if alone. But  at noon and night when they rested, he ministered to the comfort of the youth like any saint, and he was equally solicitous for  the welfare of his horse.  95 Francis Xavier Richter  Towards the end of the fourth day, with no prior sign, the  elder man turned in his saddle when they came to a fork in  the trail. "That branch" he explained, "goes over to the Okanagan. You can come to my place if you wish; it is eight miles  out of your way. If you wish to proceed on your journey, a little  further on you will find a cabin (Frank Surprise's) and say,  'Frank sent me'. The man will put you up for the night and instruct you on the rest of your journey."  When Jones chose to go on, the elder man flicked the reins  with a laconic "So long". And so Frank Richter went his own  way.  Jones concludes: "I was sorry to part with him, for I had  enjoyed the four days we had travelled together as, indeed,  who would not when in the company of a man like that."  Richter continued to thrive at the Lower Ranch. His herd  of cattle increased rapidly, he had a flock of sheep and many  horses. He planted an orchard, grew hay and grain, and acquired many more acres of land.  When this ranch, which since 1934 had been under the  management of Frank Richter, youngest son of the founder, was  sold in 1948, it comprised 8,700 acres and about 600 head of  prime stock. This herd was the basis of some of the finest show  animals for many years. On this ranch were: the seven-roomed  house built in 1887, a four-roomed foreman's cottage, two large  barns with corrals, a series of implement sheds; a fully equipped blacksmith shop, 'which, since earliest times had been an  essential part of large ranches; a chicken house, a shed for  drying prunes, a cooler house •— an ingenious device over a  stream for cooling meat, butter, milk, etc. —a granary, and two  cellars for fruit and vegetable storage. The reputed price of  the sale was about $100,000.00.  Inglewood  In 1895 Richter bought from Francois Suprenant, better  known as Frank Surprise, a ranch at Keremeos Centre on the  most important road in those times, and today our present Highway 3, the Southern Trans-Provincial route. This ranch soon  became famous for its fertility and productiveness from the Okanagan to the Pacific Coast, and was known as Richter's Manor.  96 Francis Xavier Richter  On this ranch, above which rises the noted rock formation  known as The Columns, was built in 1898 Richter's fifth home,  Inglewood, a large two and one-half storied graceful, white edifice, which in those times seemed like a mansion in its rural  setting.  Richter engaged Mr. Smith, a carpenter at Victoria, to build  Inglewood. Richter's sons hauled the lumber from several sawmills in the vicinity, and the windows and doors were brought  from the coast. It was the first house for many miles around to  be built with modern nails. The firebricks for the fireplaces came  from Wales around Cape Horn, and most of the furnishings were  bought at Weilers in Victoria. The present occupant of Inglewood is Richter's eldest daughter, F. Elizabeth, Mrs. A. Pendleton.  Richter employed a gardener to plant and tend the many  evergreens and shrubs, the gorgeous rose garden, the beautiful flower beds and the spacious lawns.  Frank Richter was noted for his open-handed hospitality and  was genial, courteous, and affable to those with whom he came  in contact. Mrs. Richter was a wonderful helpmate to her hus-  Florence Elizabeth Richter  Francis Xavier Richter  97 Francis Xavier Richter  band, and many a heart-warming tale is told of her hospitality.  Besides numerous relatives, friends, and neighbors, some  well-known personages were guests. These included: Father  Charles Pandosy, O.M.I.; the Rev. Henry Irwin ("Father Pat"),  Anglican clergymen; the distinguished American Civil War  General, William Tecumseh Sherman, with a cavalry escort.  The party consisting of 81 persons, 66 horses, and 79 mules,  made a brief stop when travelling over the Dewdney Trail from  Osoyoos to Hope in 1883; Earl Grey, Governor General of Canada; ludge W. W. Spinks; Dr. John Chipp, a physician and surgeon of early days in Barkerville, Cariboo, later in the Okanagan, Nicola, and Similkameen; Dr. Charles Camsell, a geologist of the Dominion Geological Survey, made his first survey  of Similkameen in 1906. Later he became Deputy Minister of  Mines and National Resources; M. K. Rogers, Field Exploration  Engineer for Marcus Daly, mining magnate of Butte, Montana,  who worked through winter snow in 1898-'99 to prove up fabulous Nickel Plate gold mine at Hedley; The Hon. E. Dewdney;  The Hon. C. E. Pooley; H. D. Helmcken, K.C.; L. W. Shatford,  M.L.A.; J. B. Greaves, cattle king of the Nicola Valley, and Pat  Burns of Calgary.  Looks For Gold  When Frank Richter arrived in the  Similkameen  Valley  tales were told of the gold rush to the Similkameen River in  1859, so the search for the golden nuggets continued to lure  him.  In 1865 he turned his cattle out to fend for themselves, and  took leave of absence from his lean acres to join Theodore  Kruger and others in placer-gold mining at Kruger's Bar, a few  miles above Princeton. This venture was not too successful, and  Richter soon returned to Keremeos. He also tried his luck during the gold rush at Granite Creek in 1885.  About the turn of the century when lode mining took the  place of placer mining throughout the Southern Interior, ore  worth millions of dollars was taken from the mines. Richter  invested in some stock at Hedley and elsewhere but he made  no fortune from his dabbles. He must have ruminated how  Nickel Plate or Copper Mountain or McKinney might so easily  have been his.  98 Francis Xavier Richter  Frank Richter was a member of the Hall of Victoria, Lodge  Number 1, I.O.O.F., of Victoria, B.C. The date of his initiation  was October 15th, 1883.  During the period of rivalry between the Great Northern  Railway backed by American wealth, and the Canadian Pacific Railway to tap the rich resources of British Columbia, considerable speculation regarding townsites took place.  Richter, assuming that Keremeos Centre would be a terminal point on the Great Northern Railway because of its location and early settlement, promoted a townsite there. He built  a new general store, advertising brand new stock, and for many  years thereafter this store was kept well-supplied with goods  required by all classes in the district.  Richter and H. Tweedle, who was eventually to marry  Richter's widow, were partners in the ambitious Central Hotel.  The Great Northern Railway by a subsidiary called the  Vancouver, Victoria, and Eastern, probing to link Jim Hill's empire with the coast, pushed out of Oroville and slowly crept up  the Similkameen Valley to Keremeos in 1907, then on to Princeton in 1909.  Townsites notwithstanding, "The railway was a blessing.  In isolation, so perishable a commodity as fruit had virtually no  market, and the orchardist had to feed to his cattle apples that  were bringing $2.50 a box in Spokane."  Old Timers Get Together  "The first South Okanagan-Boundary Old Timers' Association was formed in Keremeos in October, 1903. The members  included old timers of the Boundary, South Okanagan and  Similkameen. The officers were: R. A. ("Sunset") Brown, President; A. S. Black, Secretary; Henry Nicholson, Frank Richter,  S. T. Larsen, R. G. Sidley, and J. R. Jackson, executive committee."  Passes Away Suddenly  In December, 1910, Frank Richter with his wife left for a  visit to his old home in Austria, with plans for stop-over visits  in Victoria and California. On Christmas Day, after eating his  Christmas dinner with a few friends at St. Joseph's Hospital in  99 Francis Xavier Richter  Victoria,  he was stricken with a heart  seizure  and  suddenly  passed away.  After impressive services were held and Requiem Mass  conducted on December 29th in St. Andrew's Roman Catholic  Cathedral in Victoria, the remains were forwarded by the  "Princess Victoria" en route to Keremeos. The pall-bearers were:  The Honourable C. E. Pooley, The Honourable Edgar Dewdney,  W. I. C. Ward, J. B. Greaves, G. Gillespie, and H. D. Helmcken,  K.C.  On a perfect, clear, sunny, winter's morning, January 3rd,  1911, the final funeral services for Frank Richter were held and  Requiem Mass conducted in Richter's Hall at Keremeos. A great  number of his neighbors and friends from the Okanagan to the  coast, with many Indians from a wide area, joined his sorrowing family in paying their last respects. His remains were laid  to rest in the family plot in the Keremeos cemetery. The pallbearers were: L. W. Shatford, M.L.A., S. McCurdy, R. L. Cawston, W. Lowe, A. Kruger, and G. Loudon.  Today his descendants include four sons: Joseph, Edward,  (Hans (3), and Frank; three daughters: F. Elizabeth (Mrs. A. Pendleton), Frieda Marie (Mrs. Norman Shaw), and Kathleen (Mrs.  P. Durnan); thirty-nine grandchildren; ninety great-grandchildren; and four great-great- grandchildren.  Frank Richter, one of the earliest settlers to acquire land  in Similkameen, Okanagan, and Boundary, was a true pioneer  of Southern British Columbia in every sense of the word.  As a young man endowed with pluck, vigor, and unbounded faith in the future of the country, he was the first to demonstrate the possibilities and the commercial value of the southern interior as a stock raising and an agricultural district.  He early realized the potential of real estate. He was a  man of excellent judgment when it came to picking out land,  and as he had a large sparsely settled country with good unused land from which to choose, he managed to secure title to  many acres of the very best.  From a humble beginning he amassed a fortune built upon  frugality, industry, and business sagacity.  100 Francis Xavier Richter  For almost half-a-century, Francis Xavier Richter trod the  fields and ranges of his beloved Similkameen, and he left a  heritage and a memory which any man might well envy.  (1) The foregoing paragraphs were written by Dave Taylor.  (2) Hudson's Bay Company, Winnipeg, Manitoba.  (3) This article was written before the death of Hans Richter on July 16th, 1961.  (4) O.H.S. Report 22,  1958, pp 42-46.  (5) O.H.S. Report 6, 1935, pp 291-292.  The writer extends her thanks to those members of the  Richter family and Mr. Dave Taylor who kindly co-operated  during the preparation of this article.  101 ^Ar J^terit  a     aae  Editor's Note:  In 1958 the Okanagan Historical Society instituted a  competition in the Senior High Schools of the Okanagan  and offered a trophy for the best essay on Okanagan history submitted by a High School student. The essay that  follows has been judged the winning entry for the year 1961.  By JACQUELINE MORRISON  of the Immaculate High  School, Kelowna  "A little bit of range and a bouquet of bunch grass is more  precious than gold — if it is your own." These were words I  heard my Grandpa Tom say when I was a very little girl. He  always told a lot of stories of the olden days, when he was a  boy. He was born in Scotland but came to Canada with his  parents, brother and sister in 1893. After spending three years  in Winnipeg on the Ogilvie Farm at Kildonan, the family came  to the Okanagan Valley.  Lord Aberdeen had been chosen to represent the Queen  as Governor-General of Canada in 1896. He had numerous  holdings here, one being the Guisachan Ranch at Benvoulin  and another the Coldstream Ranch near Vernon. John Morrison,  senior, my great grandfather, was overseer on the Guisachan  Ranch from 1896 to 1903.  Lord and Lady Aberdeen visited their properties often before Lord Aberdeen became Governor-General of Canada. After  this honour was conferred on him his visits could not be so  frequent. As a good and careful owner he still had a great interest in the goings-on on his properties. The overseers were  called on to give an accounting of the affairs of each ranch.  To the ladies this was a great occasion, as a new outfit was of  course a necessity. Even in those long ago days women and  vanity were friends.  One time when my Great Grandma and Great Grandpa  were summoned to the Coldstream Ranch, Great Aunt Kather-  ine just didn't have anything fit to wear, but that didn't stop  them. Grandpa Tom was hurriedly sent riding on his horse into  102 A Heritage  town. His path took him through the brush and brambles and  he came out near where the Pandosy Street bridge is today.  This was just a trail which was taken by those on horseback  and was often ridden over by the children out on paper chases.  A bolt of 'goods' was purchased at Lequime's store and operation dressmaking began. The pattern was chosen and the dress  cut out at home but from there on nothing was normal. As the  trip had to be made by boat, the sewing machine had to go  along, too. I imagine it was taken in the back of a carriage or  democrat and landed on the boat so Great Grandma could complete a dress fit for a little girl to wear when meeting the first  lady of the land. After many fittings, things looked quite successful and when they docked at the Landing all that was left  to be done was the hem. Great Grandma's fingers must have  been nearly broken by now but the dress had to be finished.  It was put on and hemmed in the carriage as they were driven  along the road to the Coldstream Ranch. On their arrival I am  quite sure all was ready and Lady Aberdeen never knew what  a panic she had caused by summoning the Morrisons without  giving them the usual length of time in which to make preparations.  After the Guisachan Ranch was sold in 1903, my Great  Grandpa and Great Grandma moved to Dry Valley, now known  as Glenmore. The name Glenmore came into being when a  prize was offered for a more suitable name than Dry Valley. My  Great Grandma won this contest and shared the prize with a  Kelowna lady who made the same choice of name. Their farm  was about 640 acres. We haven't heard many stories of Dry  Valley days but later the family moved to Mill Creek near  the Crossroads. Grandpa Tom had more tales of this home. He  said, "Don't let any boys laugh at girls scrubbing floors" because that was a chore only for boys in those days. From  Grandpa Tom's stories that house was much too large! This  was the family's first move into the Ellison-Rutland district where  we live now.  Their eldest son, John, married Norma Tully; their daughter  Katherine died in 1904 and their younger son, Thomas, later my  Grandpa, married Rita Maxwell in 1918.  Rita Maxwell was the daughter of Thomas and Janet Maxwell, oldtimers of Rutland. They came to Rutland in 1909, plant-  103 A Heritage  ed an orchard and had a home built by Willis Schell on the  Rutland bench. Thomas Maxwell, from Delbeatie, Scotland, arrived in Winnipeg in 1906 with his wife, the former Janet Ellis  of London, England, whom he married in 1895. They lived in  Edmonton for two years and saw the first street-car run in that  city. Mr. Maxwell had worked on the Field Tunnel during the  construction of the C.P.R. In Rutland he was active in Farmers'  Institute affairs. Their daughter, Rita, started school in England  at the age of four. When she came to Rutland at the age of  twelve, she attended school in the building which is now called  Anne's Dress Shop. It was a long hike in the spring and summer time. There were no warm buses in the winter in those days  to pick you up at the back door. Instead, some of the children  had to walk to school while the more fortunate ones came with  horses and cutters. Sometimes when the cutters arrived in the  school yard they were more tightly packed with children than  they had started out to be. From this early school the pupils  moved into a brand new brick school which is still in use as an  elementary school.  Grandpa Tom and Grandma had one son, John Gordon  Morrison, who lives on Leithead Road with his wife and family  of eight girls and two boys, ranging in age from sixteen years  to three months. I come into this story by being one of the eight  girls. I am the second oldest, my age is fourteen and, being the  second oldest, I have a fair amount of work to do. I like a large  family because I believe the larger the family the more cooperation and fun you get and have with the children. You also  receive a large amount of love from each of them.  I hope you have enjoyed reading about my pioneers — my  family — as much as I have enjoyed writing about them.  104 Carlu  a&au5 ol ^srruit Ljrowina in tht  -J^outh   y^shanaaan  By R. O. HALL  The first record we have of fruit trees being planted in the  South Okanagan Valley, is by Mr. Hiram F. Smith, (a most  colorful character known as Okanagan Smith), who at one  time had the contract to carry the mail from Fort Hope to Marcus, Washington.  In 1858, Mr. Smith packed in twelve hundred fruit trees  and grape vines and planted them on twenty-four acres, immediately south of the International Border in Washington, on  the East side of Osoyoos Lake. He later planted a peach orchard from peach pits, in about 1879. This orchard being well  cared for, did well in the rich deep soil and even to-day there  are a few of the old trees still living and bearing crops. One  tree taped 105 inches in trunk circumference. Okanagan Smith  sold his fruit to the mining camps, towns and ranches, over a  large area. Mr. Frank French, while operating a store in Vernon,  said he purchased peaches from Mr. Smith in the years of 1894  and 1895.  It was not until the early 1890's that we have information  of fruit tree plantings on the Canadian side of the International Border.  Mr. Hiram Engle, a bachelor, who owned a place just west  of White Lake on the old Penticton-Keremeos road, planted  a small orchard in the early 1890's. Some of the apple varieties were: Ben Davis, noted for its hardiness and keeping qualities, if not for its flavour; also King and Jonathan. He also  planted an Apricot orchard, but when they came into bearing,'  found that he had no market for them, thus being disillusioned,  he, in disgust, turned his cattle into the orchard with drastic  results to the trees.  Mr. Engle was a man of great hospitality and a fair cook,  and loved to put on a good spread of well prepared food for  his guests.  Mrs. R. S. Hall (nee Mary Ann Manery) a young woman  105 Early Days of Fruit Growing  who was the product of a strict Methodist home of Ontario, told  a story of her first trip to the Similkameen, to visit her brother  and his family, Mr. W. J. Manery, about 1890. She and her  younger brother, Bob, left Robert Munson's home, near Benvoulin, Kelowna, early one winter morning, on horseback, and  travelled down the East side trail of Okanagan Lake through  Penticton, arriving at Mr. Engle's place late in the evening,  tired, cold and hungry. Mr. Engle, in his hospitable manner,  took them in and administered to their needs, with good food  and warmth and, as it was a cold night, with a long ride to  the nearest place to stop, invited them to spend the night. Miss  Manery looked about and could see nothing but a small one  roomed cabin, with a single bunk to sleep on. In panic Miss  Manery could not see how she could spend the night here and  was determined to proceed on the way, but Mr. Engle pointed  out the complete foolishness of proceeding on such a night.  So while the two men went outside, Miss Manery climbed into  the bunk fully dressed. The men returned and slept on the  floor. Next morning, fully refreshed, they continued on their  way.  Also in the early 1890's, lohn and Peter Stilkia, of the Inkaneep Indian Reserve, bought trees from Murray's Nursery, on  the Columbia River near Brewster, Washington, and planted  them at the mouth of Inkaneep Creek on Osoyoos Lake, making an orchard of several acres.  Mr. Pete Mclntyre, whose place was immediately under  the shadow of Mclntyre Bluff, (which was named after him)  also about this time planted a small orchard a short distance  north of the present Southern Okanagan Lands Project irrigation canal dam and intake, consisting of apples, pears and  soft fruit.  During the heydays of mining in the Fairview and Camp  McKinney areas, there were many small orchards planted to  supply fruit to the local markets.  About 1900 Mr. Harvey Garrison, a freighter in the South  Okanagan freighting out of Okanagan Falls and between the  various mining camps, bought the ranch on the west side of  the Valley on the bench above Haynes Siding, now known  as the Garrison Ranch Owned by Mr. Val Haynes. He planted a small orchard consisting of apples, pears, peaches, plums,  106 Early Days of Fruit Growing  etc., and with irrigation from Hester Creek supplied them with  water. About the same time, Mr. A. Dalrymple, also planted  fruit trees on the North side of the creek, and as the Fairview  Mining Camp was then booming, they found a near market  for much of their fruit. Many of these trees, although neglected  for years, are still living. The Albert Dalrymple family after  farming a few years, moved into the town of Fairview.  The Park Ranch Company was incorporated in 1902 by  a group of men, Messrs. R. H. Parkinson, R. B. White and W.  T. Shatford. This ranch consisted of 160 acres on the bench  above the Oliver Sportsmen's Bowl, and is now owned by Mr.  and Mrs. C. H. Beldam. Soon afterward there was some 40  acres cleared and planted to Wagner, Alexander, Red Astra-  chan, King, Snow, Baldwin, Black Twig, Rhode Island Greening, Wolf River, and Cox's Orange apples, crab apples, and  Triumph and Crawford peaches. Clean cultivation by horse  drawn implements was then the practice. Little spraying was  necessary as pests and diseases were few. Sprayers were  hand operated and were slow and inefficient. A dam was  constructed near Myers Flat about a mile from the property  to catch the drainage from the surrounding hills. This provided a constant flow of water, which was conveyed by an open  ditch to the log buildings for domestic use, and to the orchard  for irrigation.  In 1905 Mr. C. J. Rippin arrived from England to take over  the management of the Company, and the next year, his wife,  Jeanne, from Paris, France, followed. Here they pioneered and  raised their three children, in an environment raw and rustic,  compared to their former life.  In 1908 a devastating December freeze destroyed the entire original orchard, with exception of the Crab apples. After  clearing the land, for a second time, it was again planted in  the spring of 1910 to four varieties: Mcintosh, Jonathan, Wagner and Winesap. In 1912 Mr. Rippin acquired possession  of the property from the Company, which he operated until  1920, when he sold out and moved to Summerland.  When production commenced on this property, the crop  was packed in a shed on the ranch, carried by horse team  and wagon to Okanagan Falls and there put on a boat and  transported to Penticton.  107 Early Days of Fruit Growing  About the year 1906, Mr. Leslie Hill planted one of the  largest orchards on the East side of Osoyoos Lake at the mouth  of Haynes Creek, on a piece of property he received from Mr.  Tom Ellis. Mr. Hill planted 40 acres to the following assorted  varieties: cherries, apricots, nectarines, plums, prunes, peaches,  pears and apples. The apples included Romes, Newtowns,  Jonathan, Spitzenberg and Cox's Orange. Mr. Hill had the  idea that, with such an assortment he could keep an experienced crew of men working throughout the year.  Mr. Hill, who was a mining engineer, employed Mr. E.  A. Helps as foreman, as he was away a great deal of the time.  Mr. George J. Fraser, in his story of Oosyoos, reported, "that  on one of Mr. Hill's visit to his orchard, found that Mr. Helps  had not carried out his instructions, and on taking Mr. Helps  to task about it, Mr. Helps replied, "the way you wanted it  done was not the right way, and I was not going to do it the  wrong way". "Mr. Helps", said Mr. Hill, "this is my orchard  and I want things done my way, whether it is the right way  or the wrong way". He forthwith gave Mr. Helps 30 days notice.  The late George E. Parham orchard, was also planted about  this time by Harry Parham. Mr. Parham was an Englishman  who gave very careful attention to details. The soil, being of  a mixed nature, from good to gravelly patches, necessitated  this especially during the summer months, when some trees  would be showing wilt, while others would not. When Mr.  Parham noticed a tree wilting, he would hurry about and by  digging trenches around the tree, with a hand shovel, would  see that it received a special watering. This orchard on the  West side of Highway 97 at the South end of Vaseux Lake,  is now owned by Mr. Max Johnson, and still has a goodly number of the original apple trees bearing well.  Until the early 1920's the only motive power was the horse,  and the method of starting a young orchard, consisted of first  clearing the land of what surface growth there was and, if  the stumps were large, powder had to be used to blow them;  they then had to be rooted out, hauled into piles and burnt.  The large stump holes then filled, the ground plowed by horse  drawn plows, and levelled for irrigation ditches (for there were  no sprinklers in those days, and all irrigation was by gravity  108 Early Days of Fruit Growing  flow). Then the ground was laid out either by a surveyor's  instrument or by a measuring wire or tape and eyesight, and  stakes set where the new trees were to be planted. The holes  were dug by hand with a shovel, putting the top soil on one  side, and the subsoil on the other. The new young trees were  then planted in the holes, care being taken to see that the  stem was where the stake had been, the top soil put about  the roots, a pail of water poured in the hole, let settle, then  the filling of the hole was completed. Ditches were then made,  either by a plow or a ditcher for irrigation water, and after  each irrigation the ditches were cultivated in, and new ditches  made for the next irrigation. By these methods the young  trees grew exceptionally well in the new and virgin soil.  During the days when the old Stemwinder Mine was running, Henry Lee, the accountant, pre-empted the land below  the mine and planted about 2 acres to apples, cherries, peaches,  etc. Many of these trees are still courageously trying to live,  against the encroachment of the surrounding forest.  About 1904, Joe Gignac, planted Ben Davis apples, peaches  and grapes on the bench near Myers Flat. It is said that on  one trip to Hedley, he sold $400.00 worth of grapes, from his  vineyard.  In 1907, Mr. F. B. Boone, father of Harvey Boone, bought  Jonathan, Apricot and Cherry trees from Mr. Jess Patten's father, who was selling trees in the district for several years,  and planted them on a bench overlooking Fairview. Harvey  Boone says that in 1916 he hauled apricots picked off the trees  that his father planted in 1907, to Kaleden, and sold them to  the Stewart Fruit Co., for 8c per pound.  A Mr. Smythe planted a large peach orchard at Okanagan Falls, south and east of the cliff now known as Peach  Cliff. Mr. Harold R. Potter, reports that this orchard was bearing well when his family purchased part of it in 1910. Some  of the varieties were Alexandra, Belle of Georgia, Crawford,  Elberta, Triumph, Yellow St. John. Peaches were growing at  Okanagan Falls in the early 1890's, as G. N. Gartrell, of Trout  Creek Point, said his father procured peach pits there, for his  plantings.  During the years these scattered orchards were being de-  109 Early Days of Fruit Growing  veloped, the surrounding country was being used as cattle  range, with large herds roaming over it, making fences a prime  necessity.  In 1904, Mr. W. T. Shatford and his brother L. W., of Fair-  view and Hedley, became interested in fruit growing and formed a development company. This company bought the Tom  Ellis holdings around Penticton and South to the Boundary,  in the name of the South Okanagan Land Co. Their holdings  south of Skaha Lake continued as cattle country until 1919,  as they were unable to develop it for orchard purposes, because of financial reason. They did, however, plant an apple orchard on Myers Flat about 1910, which was cut down  in the late 1920's because of codling moth infestation. Many  of the old stumps have since grown into trees.  It was not until 1918 that the South Okanagan Valley really  started on its way to becoming one of the major fruit growing districts of the interior. In this year the British Columbia  Government purchased the property from Mclntyre Bluff to  the Boundary, consisting of some 22,000 acres for the sum  of $350,000 for the rehabilitation of the 1914-1918 War Veterans. This tract of land now comprises the Oliver-Osoyoos  districts.  According to news reports at the time, it was estimated  that the cost of installing the irrigation sysem, laying out the  property into 5-10 acre lots, etc., would be from $800,000  to $1,000,000. This cost to be recovered by the sale of 10,-  000 acres at the price of $200 per acre; 5,000 acres at $100  per acre; 7,000 acres at $10 per acre, and the two town sites  of Oliver and Osoyoos for $100,000 each, making a total  return of $2,770,000. This would leave some $920,000 over  lor the development of roads, schools, etc. Later news  reports claimed that these first estimates were far too optimistic, that the Project had cost $4,000,000 and the returns from  the sale of land would never even come near to the original  estimates. In short the whole Project would be a failure. Such  dire foreboding could have only originated in the Government's opposition. Time, however, amply vindicated the foresight and courage of those responsible.  The Penticton Herald in its issue of January 16, 1919, re-  lio Early Days of Fruit Growing  ported that the people of Oroville, Washington, heralded the intended move of the British Columbia Government with great  gratification, as their own similar district was proving such  a great success. Under irrigation water the good soil, climate and sunshine, the new Project should do equally as well.  On January 30, 1919, The Honourable T. D. Pattullo, Minister of Lands, in the John Oliver Government, announced the  appointment of Mr. E. A. Cleveland as the chief consulting  engineer of the huge development, saying that it would require the best engineering brains in the Province. Mr. F. H.  Latimer of Penticton, was appointed chief engineer on the  ground with Major Harry Earle, as his assistant.  Mr. Latimer and assistants went right to work, laying levels and grades and estimated that about 10 miles of canal  would be laid in 1919. It was first thought that an open earth  ditch would be all that was necessary, but the gravelly nature of the soil soon proved this to be impractical, so the great  canal, 18 feet across the top by 5 feet deep and designed to  carry enough water to put it 10 inches deep on every acre  every month during the irrigation period, had to be concrete  lined. This threw the early cost estimates away out as did  many other unforseen obstacles, such as the very heavy rain  on May 23rd, 1921, which filled the new ditch with sand and  debris and washed out the intake and gate controls to the big  7 foot syphon which crosses the valley at Oliver, going underground through the town.  It was the spring of 1921 when the irrigation first became  available to the arid soil. On March the 4th of that year the  first sale of land took place in the Steward Hall, Penticton.  This was open to returned veterans only, and the following  veterans purchased lots, in the following order, W. Raincock,  Lot 4; Captain C. H. Baker, Lot 159; Sid Cox, Lot 38; D. P. Simpson, Lots 40-40A; F. W. Nesbitt, Lots 52-52A, and C. M. Leighton Lot 54. These lots were all North of Oliver on Highway  97, or what came to be known locally as the West Lateral.  The first to purchase south of Oliver were: George E. Mabee..  Lot 155; J. A. Burns, Lot 136, and G. P. Bagnall, Lot 156. These  were soon followed by many others, and the Oliver District  was well on its way to becoming the earliest fruit growing  district in Canada.  Ill Early Days oi Fruit Growing  At this time the New Development was being advertised  overseas and it was expected many retired British Army Officers would settle, so quite a large tract of land was reserved  on the benches immediately South of Grave-yard Hill on Highway 97 at the North end of Osoyoos Lake. But there were  few applications, and as it would be some time before water  could be delivered, Blocks "H" and "E", near Oliver, were  set aside for them. Of these original settlers, Major H. A. Porteous, on Lot 182, is the only one living in the District to-day.  The new owners, with great optimism and enthusiasm, ordered fruit trees and prepared their land, which in the main  was open grassland with the odd pine tree here and there, with  the aid of horses and horse drawn implements and by shear  hard hand labour, in the expectation that water could be delivered that Spring. Mr. George E. Mabee and Mr. D. P. Simpson were the first to get their trees planted, while others not  so early, heeled theirs in for later planting. Irrigation water  was made available in mid May of 1921, but disaster befell  when the east end of the big main syphon was washed out  on May 23rd, and it was not until several weeks later that  water was again made available. In the meantime the growers, many of whom had no previous experience in farming,  who had planted, kept their trees and plants alive by watering them by hand with water in barrels hauled by horse from  a neighbor's well or some near source of water.  The Horticultural Branch of the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, with Mr. R. P. Murray, as District Horticulturist, stationed in Penticton, and the Dominion Experimental Farm, Summerland, recommended the following varieties  of fruit trees for planting:  Cherries — Bing and Lamberts with Tartarian and Deacons as pollinizers.  The Cherry tree being a beautiful looking tree when in  full bloom and leaf, it was decided to kill two birds  with one stone, so it was recommended to plant them  along the lot boundaries for beauty and utility. From  the utility point of view as regards the Bing and Lambert, this proved not very profitable, as pollinization  was poor.  112 Early Days of Fruit Growing  Peaches — Elberta, J. H. Hale, Rochester (a new variety), Yellow St. John, and Crawford. Today all of these varieties are being replaced by better and earlier ones.  Apricots ■— for the fresh fruit market, Wenatchee Moorpark  and Kaleden variety (propagated in Kaleden by the  late Mr. Harrison). The Kaleden proved itself to be  very winter hardy, and when of proper maturity, is  good eating.   They are no longer being planted.  Pears — The Bartlett, Flemish and D'Anjou. The Bartlett does  well throughout the whole District, but the D'Anjou  is more selective and does well only in certain areas.  Prunes — The Italian strain, which most growers still find to  be a paying crop. Although today the earlier strains  of De Maris and Greta are being planted.  Apples ■— The main plantings were of Winesap and ordinary  Delicious, with lesser numbers of Newtowns, Rome  Beauty, Stayman and Jonathan. The Yellow Transparent was the main early variety, for the green cooker trade.  During the early days while the young trees were growing, the new future fruit growers grew vegetables or ground  crops between the rows of young trees for an early cash crop,  consisting of cucumbers, tomatoes, new potatoes, and cantaloupes. Later tobacco was introduced and several drying sheds  were erected. All of these crops did well on the virgin soil  and warm sunny weather, assisted by the intense cultivation,  done mostly by hand and by horse drawn cultivators. While  all this proved very beneficial to the fruit trees and vegetables,  it did not always prove so for the new growers, for the markets were weak and undeveloped. Penticton was the nearest  shipping point, and the nearest packing house at Kaleden, 18  miles distant. The roads were unpaved, winding, rough and  dusty.  During the winter of 1921-1922 the Growers formed The  Oliver Producer's Association, and became incorporated under the Societies Act on January 12, 1922, to fill the need of  packing and shipping facilities in the District. The first officers were: Harry Earle, President; H. W. Corbett, Vice-President; F. W. Nesbitt, Secretary. According to a membership  list, there were 94 members (veterans) with 108 Lots. Of these  still living in the district today, there are only 10.  113 Early Days of Fruit Growing  The year of 1922 was the most disastrous year in the history of the fruit and vegetable industry of the Okanagan, as  the returns to the growers were either very low or (what is  now known as Red Ink), a charge from the packers for their  services.  Mr. R. G. Tait says, that he delivered the first eleven crates  of cantaloupe to the packing shed of the Oliver Producers'  Association, after first having to find the part time foreman,  (believed to be Frank Fillingham) who was working elsewhere,  and from that day to this he has heard nothing of them.  With poor returns for their produce fresh in their minds,  the grower body of the Interior fruit growing area decided that  a Central Sales office was the only answer to their problems,  so in 1923, the Associated Growers Ltd. was born, with some  thirteen locals affiliated with it; the new formed Oliver Cooperative Growers being one of them.  The West Kootenay Power & Light Co. who had started in  1919 to build a transmission line from the West Kootenay to  Princeton and Copper Mountain, through Oliver, made power  available for electric irrigation and domestic water pumps,  and consequently for general use in 1922. Also in 1922 the  B.C. Telephone Co. made their services available, to replace  the temporary lines installed during the construction days.  In August, 1922, the Penticton Herald stated that 275 were  employed in the area in the various construction camps and  the main highway which up to this time had been on the east  side of the Valley, was now being constructed through the  Village of Oliver on the west side.  Some of the first canning tomatoes grown were shipped  to Kelowna for canning with disastrous returns to the grower. During 1922 the growers were able to sell their canning  tomatoes to the Dominion Canners Ltd. in Penticton. This  was not very satisfactory as it was a long 26 mile haul over  very rough roads.    The price received was $12.00 per ton.  In 1921 the Government established a nursery for the  propagration of young fruit trees, about three miles South of  Oliver on the East side of Highway 97. This was put in charge  of Mr. Dick Simpson, and at one time, had some 30 acres in  114 Early Days of Fruit Growing  nursery stock. From this nursery many of the original fruit  trees were planted. It was operated until 1925 when it was  sold to a Mr. Pattison. It is said that Mrs. Dick Simpson (Let-  tie) was the first woman to arrive in the new settlement.  As quite large sections of the district's soil was of a light  nature, the Government decided in 1922, to plant some 39  lots (or 409 acres) immediately south and south-west of Oliver, as a demonstration for the new growers. With the aid  of the District Horticulturist, the Dominion Experimental Farm,  and Mr. Dick Simpson from the nursery, this was done. The  Government Nursery supplying most of the trees, which were  of the recommended varieties for the District. Mr. George E.  Mabee was appointed foreman and proceeded with teams  and plows to prepare the land for planting. The majority  of the land being of a rocky nature, he soon found that just  plowing was not enough, so men were put to work throwing  the rocks into long windrows, some of which were four feet  high and eight feet at the base. Between these rows of rocks,  the small fruit trees were planted, often with little care or water. Consequently most of them died and had to be replaced the next year, this happened so often that some of the new  growers began to say that the fruit tree was an annual plant.  However, they were not greatly concerned about this, the soil  or the District not being able to grow fruit trees, for this unusual circumstance provided them with a job and a meal ticket, till their own came into bearing.    (Old Soldiers).  Due to the unforeseen costs of having to line the canal  with concrete, and the building of many big flumes, the time  schedule was delayed, and in place of 10 miles of canal being completed the first year, as estimated, water was not available at Testalinda Creek, 10 miles distant, until 1923. It took  until 1927 to complete the 23 miles from Mclntyre Bluff to the  U.S. Boundary.  The newly formed Oliver Co-operative Growers in 1923  was composed mostly, save for a few older orchards on the  East side of Osoyoos Lake at Osoyoos, of growers starting  out on virgin soil and were growers of Ground Crops (vegetables), until their trees came into bearing. It was in this  year the Oliver Cantaloupe first made fame on the markets  by its delicate flavour, for there were shipped that year 44  115 Early Days of Fruit Growing  carloads via Kettle Valley Railway, now the Canadian Pacific  Railway, which that spring, on May 24th, had arrived in Oliver. The trains were brought from Penticton to the North  end of Skaha Lake and there loaded onto a barge which was  towed by the old steam tug "York" to Okanagan Falls, where  it was again put on tracks and taken to Oliver and the end  of the steel, 3 miles South, where there was a "Y" for turning, now Haynes Siding. While the district was young this  service was adequate, but during cold winters Skaha Lake  would freeze over and train service would be cut off for six  to eight weeks. During this time the train came down regularly twice a week and at any time for two or more cars.  In the late autumn of 1923, Mr. P. F. Eraut, with three  associates, instituted proceedings for the establishment of a  privately owned cannery at Oliver. A site was purchased,  from the Government, immediately across the C.P.R. tracks,  East of the Oliver Co-operative Growers building. Early in  1924 the Oliver members of the Tomato Growers Association  met in the upstairs room of the Government building, along  with representatives of the Association from Kelowna (the  late Mr. J. R. J. Stirling being one of them) to come to a final  agreement with Mr. Eraut. This resulted in a contract being  signed for $22.50 per ton for the John Baer variety of tomatoes.  However, pressure was brought to bear on Mr. Eraut and Associates, and they sold out their rights to the Dominion Canners,  B.C. Ltd., with Mr. Eraut remaining as Manager. The building was constructed at a cost of $15,000, and canning was  commenced in August, 1924, with Mr. and Mrs. M. M. Lang  among the first employees. Mr. Eraut continued to operate  the plant till 1928 when he was appointed Supervisor of all  the Dominion Cannery Plants in the Okanagan Valley. As  the crops increased in tonnage, so the Oliver plant capacity  was increased to take care of it, and as the trees grew in size  the production of tomataes fell and that of stone fruit increased. To meet the need of the stone fruit growers, the Cannery  put in a fruit canning line, and eventually canned only fruit.  In the late 1930's it was bought by the Canadian Canners Western Ltd. and operated as such. As the roads became paved and truck transportation became better, the Canadian Canners decided it would be more economical to consolidate their  operations in Penticton, and the Oliver Plant was put up for  116 Early Days of Fruit Growing  sale. It was bought by the T & L Storage in January, 1960, for  a general warehouse.  In 1923 the first packing shed of the Oliver Co-operative  Growers, (a building about 30'x60') was built by Contractors  Bill Deacon and Art Dicken, at a cost of $3,000. This building was the centre of their operations until 1928 when a new  addition for packing room space was added.  The first President of the Oliver Co-operative Growers  was Mr. D. P. Simpson.  In 1923 the Provincial Government issued a price list  for the Lots available for sale, with irrigation water supplied,  at the rate of $6.00 per acre for two and one-half acre feet.  The Lots were numbered from 1-585 with several Lots reserved, and priced from $1,650 to $3,500 for 10 acres. It was  maintained by the new settlers that these prices had little  relation to the actual value of the land. That the lots had been  valued by a man riding about on horse-back, making a surface survey only. This was a cause of great discontent  later.  The terms of sale were fairly generous. According to  a prospectus issued by the Government of British Columbia  over the signature of the Hon. T. D. Pattullo, then Minister of  Lands, for other than British Columbia returned soldiers (for  whom special privileges were allowed) 20 % of the purchase  price was to be paid down. No further payments of the principal were due until five years from the date of purchase. The  balance was then payable in four annual instalments with  interest at 6 per cent. Water rates were set at $6.00 per acre  to be paid annually.  These terms were later extended to 20 years with the  interest rate reduced to 4£% and still later reduced to 10  years at 4-£% which are terms today.  Returned soldiers from the first war who enlisted in British Columbia were required to pay 10% down. When the  first instalment of the balance fell due in five years, they received a rebate of $500 provided the purchase price exceeded $1,000.  The year 1924 saw the completion of the Provincial Gov-  117 Early Days of Fruit Growing  ernment building on the corner of Highway 97 and Fairview  Road, from which the Southern Okanagan Lands Project has  been administered ever since, under the following managers:  F. H. Latimer, Harry Earle, C. A. C. Steward, D. G. McCrae,  D. W. Hodsdon, and F. O. McDonald, who holds the office  at the present time.  It was not until 1924 that the District had advanced in  production to the extent that the Provincial Horticultural Branch  mentioned it in their reports. On July 15 the report said that  apricots were about cleaned up and the tomato crop was good.  During the early years the grasshoppers were a great  pest and did much damage by eating the leaves of the young  trees and the vegetable plants. The Government assisted  in the control of them by supplying poisoned bran, etc., which  was given out free to the growers who wanted it, to spread  on their lots and surrounding land.  At this time, 1924, the Oliver Transfer, Mr. Roy A. Jak-  ins, Manager, taken over from Shorty Knight and A. M. Wells,  contracted the hauling of L.C.L. shipments from the packinghouse to the shipping points at Penticton, (where they were  loaded on to the C.P.R. Steamer "Sicamous") and even as  far as Kelowna and Vernon. By today's standards these were  very rough and expensive hauls, as the trucks were of small  capacity (1 to l-j tons) and most of the road was still un-  paved. The rates charged were $4.00 per ton to Penticton,  and the charges for hauling from the growers was 3c per box  for empties out and filled boxes back to the packing house,  later an extra charge of ic per empty box out was made.  One of the trucks used was a Little Titan, l-_r ton capacity  with solid rubber tires. The other trucks had pneumatic tires  and were 1 ton Ruggles, 1 ton Ford and l-j ton International.  In 1927 Mr. Jakins sold out to Mr. Jack Sprosson who with  Mr. Jock Telfer as driver did a great deal of hauling for the  district. They also had the school contract for transporting  the school children, which was done by putting a van on the  flat deck of the trucks.  In September, 1925, the late Mr. F. W. Nesbitt, wrote to  Mr. G. P. Bagnall, in Vernon, who was giving a talk on the  118 Early Days of Fruit Growing  Oliver District, giving the following information:  Acreage sold to date  1,700 acres  Land leased       226 acres  Under Government development       409 acres  Trees planted —  Apples     20,227  Apricots    ' 16,410  Peaches      5,717  Prunes       1,148  Cherries      1,594  Pears   4,873  Plus estimated 1925 plantings 10,000  59,969 Total  Production of Cantaloupe between 16 to 18 thousand crates.  Production of Tomatoes between  10 to  12 thousand tons.  Population  of  Oliver       200  Population of District  800  Number of school children         60  Assessed value $61,110.00  Work on the land ceased due to frost on December 15th,  1924, and commenced again in early March, 1925, and early  potatoes were planted March  10th.  By 1926 the dissatisfaction, among the new settlers, over  the valuation of their properties, coupled with poor returns  for their produce and efforts prompted a meeting with the  Honourable T. D. Pattullo, Minister of Lands, in the British  Columbia Government, in Oliver. The purpose of this meeting was to get a reduction in the cost price of their properties.  The meeting proved to be a very hot one, with the end result being that a 25% reduction in payment rate was given.  This, however, did not clarify the matter or appease the landowners, who took the reduction and continued to fight with  just as much gusto as before. The result of this agitation was  an organized and thorough revaluation of all properties in  1929, by R. J. Penrose, of Penticton, assisted by A. R. Gayton,  of Oliver. These new valuations were considerably less on  nearly all lots, and met with general approval from the land  owners.  The above is an example of the character of these return-  119 Early Days of Fruit Growing  ed men of the First World War, 1914-1918, who were hardy  fighters and went all out for what they considered to be their  rights. It was due to their toughness of character, that the  Oliver-Osoyoos district soon became known far and wide as  the earliest fruit growing district in Canada. The Penticton  Herald in its issue of March 20, 1930, to illustrate the character of the early settlers, said, "You simply have to hand it to  these people at Oliver, they go after a thing and get it", and  continued on with a story describing their efforts and accomplishments.  One can more fully appreciate these efforts, when one  realizes that up until the 1930's it was generally said and forecast that the whole Project was a mistake and doomed to failure.  As the new landowners were mainly growing ground crops,  and as any import of Oriental labor would be a great threat to  their standard of living, the following pledge was circulated for  signature on March 4th, 1927, and was signed by some 45  landowners, (10 of whom are still living in the District); "Realizing that it would be detrimental to every interest of the Community to allow Orientals to become established in this District,  we the undersigned, members of the White Race, being residents, property owners, or in control of property either by way  of lease or rental, in the South Okanagan Valley, do hereby  each and severally agree and pledge ourselves to use every  legal endeavour in our power to exclude all Orientals from the  South Okanagan District and in furtherance of this object undertake and agree neither to sell, lease nor rent any lands or  buildings, nor to employ in any capacity whatsoever, directly  or indirectly, any member of the Oriental Race." The Penticton  Herald in its issue of April 4, 1929 reported that the above pledge  had been put to the test, as one of the property owners had hired  a Chinese at $40 per month to work on his lot.  This breach of faith by one of their number caused a wave  of very high feeling throughout the District, with the result that  a secret meeting of hooded men met in the dark of night, to  consider ways and means of dealing with the matter. It is said  that one of Oliver's leading citizens of today, was made leader.  Next morning they with others gathered on the main Highway  97, and proceeded to the offending grower's home for a dis-  120 Early Days of Fruit Growing  cussion of the situation. The grower's wife upon seeing the  crowd approaching, phoned the Police. When Constable D. A.  Macdonald arrived, he found his services not required, as no  law had been broken. After a very heated discussion, the grower agreed to send the Chinese away. But according to the  stories the grower was rather slow about doing this, with the  result that one evening as the Chinaman was travelling along  the road, he was kidnapped and taken on a very rough ride  over the mountain and there told never to come bc;ck again.  The strange part of this affair is that no one seemed to know  anything about it, although it was rumored that a certain young  man received $300 for untold services.  The Development Area, south of town, which up to this  time, 1926, had been looked upon primarily as a grub-stake for  the new growers, received a new approach and new management, with the result that the trees started to act as though they  were perennials instead of annuals. Good wooden flumes were  installed (it is said that much of the lumber hauled on to the  area in previous years, disappeared at night), the place well  fenced and the trees cultivated after each irrigation, and re-  ditched for the next irrigation. Under proper care the trees did  well, resulting in a fair crop of peaches being harvested in 1929.  With the defeat of the Liberal Government in 1928, the new  Conservative Government in 1929 decided to put the Area on  the market for sale and advertised it in the Valley papers. In  September, 1929, the Apex Orchard Co. Ltd., of Kelowna (owned  by the late G. W. Ward & Sons) travelled to Oliver to look at  the Area. At that time one would have gone far to see a better  looking stand of young trees. The sight was only marred by the  long rows of rocks piled between the tree rows. The Apex Orchard Co. bought 33 lots comprising some 340 acres fully planted, and appointed Mr. R. O. Hall, of Kelowna, as Manager.  The winter of 1929-30 was a cold one with temperatures  dropping below zero for most of January, and the Sicamous  which was then running on Okanagan Lake, could only travel  as far south as Trepanier, as the lake was frozen solid up to  there from Penticton. This cold weather caused a great loss of  trees throughout the Okanagan Valley as far south as the Columbia River, and the young trees on the Development Area  recently purchased by the Apex Orchard Co., suffered greatly.  121 Early Days of Fruit Growing  All the apricots with the exception of the Kaleden variety, were  killed, a third of the peaches and many of the apples and  pears, with a large percentage of these left badly damaged. This  was a severe blow to the Apex Orchard Co., as they had bought  primarily to supply the Sales Service Ltd., (a sales organization  for a number of independent shippers) with apricots and peaches needed in their L.C.L. and carlot shipments, for at this time  most of the soft (or stone) fruit was controlled by the Associated  Growers Ltd.  In 1930 the B.C. Horticultural Branch reported the following  about the Oliver-Osoyoos Districts:  Trees planted        Boxes shipped  Apples  56,442  62,121  Crab apples  43  379  Pears  10,761  4,089  Plums  949  264  Prunes  648  2,748  Cherries  4,142  1,403  Peaches  13,915  28,727  Apricots  16,103  17,610  In addition to the above there was shipped large quantities  of early Cucumbers, Semi-ripe Tomatoes, Cannery Tomatoes,  Early Potatoes and Cantaloupe.  The foresight of those who had conceived the development  of the Oliver-Osoyoos Area as an orchard district, was now  showing signs of being fully justified.  122 Aohn flower, f^ioneer of J^enticton  By MURIEL G. POWEi.  lohn Power first visited the Okanagan in August, 1906.  Born in Bangor, Wales, he spent his earliest years there, then  moved to Liverpool with his family and grew up in that city.  While quite a young man he came to Canada and settled  in S. W. Manitoba where he met and married Agnes Ball. After  his father, Capt. Richard Threlfall Power, retired and had settled  in New Westminster, B.C., John Power moved West and joined  his father in the operation of the "Gladys," a steamship carrying  passengers and freight between New Westminster and Chilliwack. He obtained his First Mate's papers at this time.  During a disastrous flood in the Fraser Valley in 1894, the  Gladys, along with all other available craft, was engaged in  rescuing stranded people from their flooded farms. One of the  persons rescued by Mr. Power was Mr. J. B. M. Clarke of Keremeos, then an infant. The "Gladys" was burned in the New-  Westminster fire and Mr. Power then obtained a post as Purser  on the ferry operating between the City and the South bank of  the Fraser river. He later joined the City Hall staff.  On August 1, 1906, Mr. Power left on a trip through the  Okanagan. According to his diary the train trip was rough and  full of delays. He stopped at all points en route to Vernon, looking over the district, interviewing various people in regard to  conditions and business opportunities and leaving posters and  prize lists for the forthcoming New Westminster exhibition. In  Vernon, as elsewhere, he met many friends and acquaintances  as well as meeting many of the prominent business men. His  diary mentions calling on Judge Spinks and having a pleasant  visit recalling their old school days and associates.  Mr. Power next visited Kelowna, Peachland (where he found  the peaches exceptionally fine in flavor), Summerland and Penticton. In Penticton he called on Mr. W. T. Shatford, managing  director of the S.O. Land Co., which was developing the area.  Mr. Shatford drove him around the district and was immediately  impressed with the fine beach. Mr. Shatford later donated the  beach between the roadway and the lake to the Municipality.  123 John Power, Pioneer of Penticton  On inquiry he found the 1 acre beach lots were selling for  $450.00 to $500.00, but very few were available, the nearest  being about 1/2 mile from the present C.N.R. dock.  Here he made his usual inquiries as to business opportunities, costs of materials, etc. He found the cost of lumber very  high and the quality inferior. One man was building a small  £P_e£  Mr. and Mrs. John Powers  store, 14'xl8' in size, one storey, shingled, brick chimney, one  ply lumber and paper lined. The cost of material was $125.00.  Mr. Power then went on to Keremeos, leaving on the 7:30  stage, the four horses kicking up quite a dust as they rattled  along Main St. It was a very warm day, 100 in the shade, and  the 35 mile trip took 7 1/2 hours. In Keremeos he met Mr. J. J.  Armstrong and Mr. Richter who showed him over their orchards.  Mr. Power decided to settle in Penticton and on his return  there purchased the property on the lakeshore where he resided  until his death.  On his return to New Westminster he made immediate  plans to move his family to Penticton and early in September  they arrived on the S.S. Aberdeen. It must have been a tiring  trip with five small children, but the doctor said Mrs. Power's  health could not stand another winter in the damp coast climate.  Mr. Power joined the staff of the S.O. Land Co. and remained  124 John Power, Pioneer of Penticton  with that company until they sold their last remaining properties, the Oliver-Osoyoos area, to the B.C. Government for Soldier Settlement purposes. He was also connected with the Okanagan Cattle Co. which ran a large herd of cattle in the Southern  area. After this operation was closed down he devoted his full  attention to the Penticton Herald of which he was a co-owner  with Mr. Shatford. He later sold his interest to Mr. R. J. McDougall.  Mr. Power was a quiet, conservative, even-tempered man,  loved and respected by all. He had an intensive pride in Penticton and took an active interest in many community affairs.  He was a member of the first council when the town was incorporated and at a later date, during the days of prohibition,  held the office of Police Commissioner. It was during his period  of office an amusing incident arose. It was Mr. Power's practice  to be down at the stockyard when cattle sold by the O.K. Cattle  Co. were being weighed. The cowboys were hard working and  hard drinking men. While in a nearby boardinghouse for a  meal, operated by a known bootlegger, one of the men offered  Mr. Power a drink, much to the consternation of those v/ho knew  he was the local Police Commissioner. The offender was immediately rushed away by his companions. But nothing came  of the incident as Mr. Power felt he was there as a representative  of the Cattle Co. It was also at this time he solved the mystery  of where the town's chief bootlegger stored his supplies.  Mr. Power was a member of the Turf Club which operated  the race track on what is now Queen's Park. He was cm active  member of the Board of Trade, holding the positions of President and Secretary at various times. He was one of the group  that formed the Penticton Aquatic Club which built and operated  the clubhouse located where the Centennial Pavilion now  stands. He was President of this organization for many years  and took an active part in arranging the very successful regattas  held at that time. He was also a member of Orion Lodge AF  <& AM.  During the First World War he was the representative for  the Patriotic Society which looked after the welfare of the wives  and families of the men who were overseas, and many people  later told Mrs. Power they owed him a very great debt of gratitude for the assistance he was able to give. He was one of the  125 John Power, Pioneer of Penticton  group that built the first curling rink in Penticton, and was a  keen lawn bowler. He taught his family how to handle a boat  and how to feather oars. He taught his sons how to handle and  care for a gun and how to fish. He even tried to teach them to  play cricket. He could play a good game of tennis and demonstrate how to cut figure 3's and 8's on skates. And many would  have envied his ability to sing college songs.  Christmas 1935 was a warm sunny day, and as Mr. Power  was taken for a drive around town one could see how much  he loved the city he had helped create. He commented on the  many changes; improved roads, the schools in comparison to  the original school held in the church above Guernsey's pond,  the fine business and residential sections. Mr. Power passed  away on January 20, 1936 and is buried in the Penticton Cemetery, a cemetery which now includes the orchard he originally  planted.  Power Street is named after him.  Mr. Power was pre-deceased by his oldest son, Richard, and  his oldest daughter, Christina. Mrs. Power passed away in 1940.  Of his remaining family his youngest daughter, Gwendoline  (Mrs. R. A. Lyons) resides in New Westminster. Miss Muriel  Power and Mr. R. C. Power live in Penticton.  126 ^Jne ^J^ruddon 5 d3au  L^ompanu  in the Similkameen  By MISS S. A. HEWITSON  Librarian Hudson's Bay Company  The Hudson's Bay Company found it necessary to establish a post in the Similkameen Valley largely because the  treaty with the United States necessitated its removal from  that country. Chief Factor William Fraser Tolmie writing to  Chief Trader Angus Macdonald, who was in charge of Fort  Colville district, in January, 1860, recommended that Francois  Deschiquette be removed from Okanogan to a choice spot in  Similkameen. He said that the erection of a log hut or two,  and the cultivation of a few acres of land with potatoes, oats,  and vegetables were all that should be attempted at first. He  also asked for Macdonald's views as to the eligibility of the  place as a trading post from whence the business of Colville  might be carried on after the Company left American territory.  The London Committee, having been informed, advised that  the land should be bought from the government of British Columbia but it seems that some years elapsed before the matter was settled. Chief Factor Dugald Mactavish writing to  Chief Factor Roderick Finlayson in July, 1862, instructed him  to ascertain from Deschiquette the most suitable place in the  valley for a permanent trading post. Finlayson reported on  his trip saying that he proceeded from Fort Hope across the  mountains by the new road to Similkameen. The government had levied a tax on Company goods transported by this  route of one-half cent a pound, the proceeds to be devoted  to the upkeep of the road. But the road was in very bad condition and Finlayson suggested that a formal complaint on  the subject should be made to His Excellency, the Governor  of the Province, with a view either to getting the road repaired or the tax money returned so that the Company might repair it themselves.  Deschiquette was ill when he arrived at the Company's  station on the Similkameen and was, therefore, unable to help  127 The Hudson's Bay Company  him choose the site for the trading post. He said that the mining operations carried on the year before on Rock Creek and  Similkameen had been almost entirely suspended, and that  the miners had left their well built houses, to the number of  about sixty, at Rock Creek entirely abandoned. On his return  to Similkameen from Fort Colville, Finlayson found Deschiquette so ill that he was not expected to live.  Deschiquette died in September, 1862, and for a time the  place appears to have been unoccupied but it was re-opened  about June, 1863. In 1864 Tolmie visited the place and stated that the post was suited for securing trade of the lower  Okanagan and Shimilkomeen Indians, "being within about  ten miles of the American Frontier, to which, in this direction,  a practicable though rough waggon-road from the Columbia  River already exists, and near to one of the two most frequented trails leading from Washington Territory to Cariboo, Shimilkomeen may, as population increases afford an important  outlet for British goods." However, he recommended that, as  the present locality was fully two miles off the trail from Hope  to Colville and Shepherd, and the flies were so troublesome  during the travelling months, the post be removed about three  miles distant adjoining the Hope and Shepherd trail. He added that the present site should be retained as a stock station  and advised the placing there of about fifty brood mares from  Thompson's River as well as a herd of sixty to a hundred cows.  He pointed out that horses were greatly in demand among the  Shimilkomeen Indians and that a ready sale, in barter for furs,  would be found there as at Kamloops. About two years, however, elapsed before the station was removed to a new site  as is seen by the following extract from Finlayson's letter to  Roderick McLean in April, 1866 — "We are aware that you  require cash for current necessary disbursements especially  now that you are removing the station to Keremeous born  (sic) . . ."  In 1866 Fort Shepherd was detached from Fort Colville  and made into a separate district with Kootenay and Similkameen posts as dependencies. The post continued to be called  Similkameen although occasionally the name Keremeos was  used. John Tait succeeded McLean in charge in the fall of  1867. In 1869 Similkameen was made into a separate district  and business was improving.    In  1871, however, as the dis-  128 The Hudson's Bay Company  tricts of Kootenay and Colville had been closed, Similkameen  was also closed. All its livestock and other unsold property  was transferred to Thompson's River. After the business had  been settled, the Company's property was leased to William  H. Lowe for a number of years.  129 C^apt. ^Jsrou 5  K^roSSina. of the rZockied  EDITOR'S NOTE:— Mr. Bagnall has long felt that some  suitable means should be taken to commemmorate this first  crossing of the Rocky Mountains by an airplane and interested  Stuart Fleming M.P. (Okanagan-Revelstoke) in the idea of approaching the Board of Historic Sites and Monuments with a  view to erecting, on a government site at Vernon, a cairn to  commemorate the event.  Mr. Fleming was successful in getting the Board to review  the project and come to the decision that the historic event  should be suitably recorded but it considered that Vernon was  not the key location for the monument.  Since the following article reached the editor's desk, word  has been received that the Board of Historic Sites and Monuments has decided that memorials should be established in two  places, Vancouver and Lethbridge.  By Guy P. Bagnall  On Saturday, October 22nd, 1960, Mr. E. C. Hoy, at the invitation of the Okanagan Historical Society, visited Vernon,  when he was interviewed by Guy P. Bagnall, director of the  society. Later, Mr. and Mrs. Hoy were entertained at a luncheon as guests of the City of Vernon; Mayor Frank Becker and  Mr. Frank Oliver, president of the Vernon Board of Trade attended; Dr. D. A. Ross and Guy P. Bagnall represented the Okanagan Historical Society, Mr. R. H. Ducharme, district supervisor for the Sun Life Insurance Company was also an invited  guest.  Mr. Hoy was born at Dauphin, Man., May, 1895; on July  12, 1922, he married Margery Day of Wingham, Ont. The wedding took place in Vancouver. They have two children. We  asked Mr. Hoy what, in his opinion, had been the most notable  development in aviation since his epoch making flight of more  than 40 years ago, and with only a moment's pause for reflection, he stated "The Reversible Propellor". He qualified his answer by saying that other fliers may not agree on this, but the  iet plane of today could not be landed on the average tarmac  without  the  reversible propellor.  It  had  made  the  jet plane  130 Capt. Hoy's Crossing of the Rockies  practical. The reversible propellor was invented by a Mr. Hamilton, whose mother is an Ontario lady, though he himself was  born in Seattle, Washington.  Preparing for the Flight  Mr. Hoy states that George Dixon and he made a number  of exploratory fights over the Coast Range together prior to his  trip across the Rockies. The first flight of this kind was to attend  a fair in Vernon on July 1st, 1919, and the inducement for this  flight was a fee that the City of Vernon paid. "I believe $1000.00  Capt.  Ernest Hoy, D.F.C.  for my attendance". The writer carried his research to the Vernon City Hall, where found the following resolution inscribed  in the minutes, under date of July 14th, 1919. Moved by Aid.  L. J. Ball, seconded by Aid. W. F. Kennedy: "That the committee  in charge of the financing of the Peace Day Celebration and  Rally Day, August 4th and 5th, be advised that a guarantee of  131 Capt. Hoy's Crossing of the Rockies  ONE THOUSAND DOLLARS ($1000.00) will be placed at their  disposal, this guarantee to be on the same basis as other guarantees, that only such proportion be called for as may be necessary to cover any deficit. Carried — Signed, S. A. Shatford,  Mayor, July 14, 1919."  Mr. Hoy continues:— "If this offer had not been made it is  quite possible the flight across the Rockies with the machines  we had at that time would not have materialized. George Dixon  and I first flew to Chilliwack, then flew up the railroad to Coquihalla Pass. As we were flying at about 1500' at the time I can  assure you we hestitated just a bit before entering the pass,  without knowing whether we could turn around in it. We then  landed at Merritt and from Merritt flew on to Vernon." Mr. Hoy  recalls an interesting part of that first visit to Vernon was the  report they received on an Indian who came into the fair and  told some of his cronies that he had, that day, seen a great big  flying fish. His description of the flight as he saw it seemed to  indicate that aviation was in its early stages and perhaps from  a local point of view, the first landing in Vernon might be more  important than the trip across the Rockies.  Tuning up a plane for a long flight has always been a matter for absolute precision, and calls for a critical inspection. It  was so back in 1919 and for this trans-mountain flight Tom  Cowan, Vancouver, B.C., a man of outstanding aircraft mechanical ability was chosen. His brother, Alex M. of 4005-32nd St.,  Vernon, B.C., well remembers the thrill their family felt through  being associated with the historic event.  Captain E. C. Hoy, CFC, was the first pilot to take an aircraft across the Rocky Mountains of North America. The biplane used, a relic of World War I, was known as a Jenny Curtis. Taking off from Vancouver at 4:13 a.m. he landed at Vernon, B.C., where the plane was refuelled while he had a hurried  breakfast; other refuelling stops were at Grand Forks and Lethbridge, where he landed at 6:22 p.m. for a total of 13 hours, 9  minutes elapsed time; the next stop was Calgary, Alberta. Capt.  Hoy flew with the Royal Flying Corps during the first world war  and had a distinguished flying record. The story which follows  has come from the files of the Lethbridge Herald:  I returned to Vancouver January 1, 1919. During the spring  132 Capt. Hoy's Crossing of the Rockies  of that year a number of flying men got together and formed  what was known as the Aeriel League of Canada. We had great  plans for the development of aviation in the Dominion, but very  little money with which to start. However, through the co-operation of Ernest Rogers, a flying officer with considerable means,  who endorsed a: note for us for something like $7,500, we were  able to purchase five old Curtiss JN 4 training machines. We  then made arrangements for a flying field in the centre of a race  track, and began to take up passengers. We organized a sky  carnival at which the attendance, I believe, amounted to something like 6,000 people.  The newspapers gave us great support, and the general  interest in flying reached a high point. At the time, too, the late  John Nelson, who was the editor of the Vancouver World, in  co-operation with Mr. Buchanan of the Lethbridge Herald, and  Mr. J. H. Woods of the Calgary Herald, was striving towards inauguration of an air mail service across Canada. As a preliminary, a demonstration flight across the most difficult part of the  territory — the Rocky Mountains — was considered highly desirable. The plan at that time was to raise funds to purchase a  large Vickers machine, but this machine would have to be  shipped from England, and funds were not available for that  purpose.  In the summer of 1919 it was decided to attempt the flight  with one of the machines we had on hand — a Curtiss IN 4 with  a 90 h.p. motor. George Dixon and I had made a number of  flights over the coast range and, as I had lived in the interior  of British Columbia and was somewhat familiar with the contour  of the country, we mapped out the various landing spots and  wired ahead to the mayors of the towns concerned, advising  them of our intention, suggesting that they select and suitably  mark out a landing field in their respective areas.  Airport Trouble  Perhaps you do not think that the organization of a flight  such as this entailed very much work or diplomacy. Let me  tell you that both were needed in large quantities. At the beginning, when the plans were extremely nebulous, it was difficult  to secure the co-operation we desired. Had it not been for the  whole-hearted and unsparing support of Mr. Nelson, and of the  executives of the Lethbridge and Calgary newspapers, it is very  133 Capt. Hoy's Crossing of the Rockies  doubtful whether the flight would have been achieved. When  preliminary notice of the flight was made, large numbers of ex-  war pilots wrote to Mr. Nelson from all parts of the Dominion,  expressing their desire to participate in the projected flight, and  the general chaos was intensified by the inability of the mayors  and municipal councils, who were anxious to co-operate with  us, to visualize what constituted a suitable landing field. However, we went ahead from day to day, planning as best we  could in spite of a myriad of difficulties.  Then came the great question as to who would make the  flight. A number of members of the League were keen for the  favor and so the decision was determined by lot. The lucky draw  was mine. The next problem was that of arranging for extra  gasoline supply in the plane, as the old training machine we  had was not designed to make the distance of 200 miles between  Vancouver and Vernon, which was the first intended stop. The  difficulty was overcome by removing a tank from the wreckage  of one of the crashed machines and placing it in the front seat  compartment, with hose connections to the other tank. This primitive arrangement ensured a double supply of gas. The plane  used had a maximum air speed of just 90 miles an hour and  the only instrument that worked to any degree of accuracy was  an air speed indicator; another instrument was an altimeter  which indicated the approximate height above sea level at  which you were flying. The compass did not work, and the map  used was a Canadian Pacific contour map supplied in large  quantities to tourists. My first attempt was not successful, as I  found after starting that there was some water in the carburetor  and, as soon as I started out in the dark it was necessary to  keep the machine in the air until 'daylight, when I landed. The  next attempt was made on August 19, and worked out very well.  I believe the records will indicate that I started about 4:30  in the morning and landed in Vernon on time. I then flew across  to Grand Forks, where I had to select a larger field than the  one they had picked out for me. I decided to go over the Crawford Pass. This was a slight departure from the plan. My machine had a ceiling of only something like 7,000 feet and in  some parts of the Rockies where the air was rare, the ceiling  was less than this. However, I did struggle high enough to clear  the Crawford Pass by something like 150 to 200 feet, and landed  134 Capt. Hoy's Crossing of the Rockies  in Cranbrook, at which point I took off for Lethbridge and followed the railroad through the Crow's Nest Pass.  At Lethbridge I was greeted by Mr. Buchanan and a large  number of enthusiastic citizens, and from there they sped me on  my way to Calgary where I landed just as it became dark — 9  o'clock at night, by the aid of flares placed out in the airport in  such a way as to show me the direction of the wind and the  clear spot to land. Something like 5,000 people waited to greet  me at Calgary. In recalling the whole flight now, it seems to me  that a lot of good breaks were necessary with that particular  machine to make the flight successful because it was necessary  to use the mountain passes as sufficient height could not be  gained to surmount the peaks. I repeat what I said at the beginning; any pilot at the time could have made the flight provided  he had he breaks that I had. Life is just like that. Some people  get the breaks and others do not. The whole experience was a  grand one for me, but the finest part of it all was the many evidences of kindness displayed by so many people in the enthusiastic receptions I received in the five different towns in which  I landed on the way to Calgary, and at Golden and Vancouver  upon my return.  Many people who have talked to me about this flight since  have almost invariably expressed an interest in what would  have occurred if the machine had failed to operate at any particular spot on the trip. The general public, I think, are not  aware of the fact that anyone who is flying regularly, constantly  has in mind certain places where he would land in the event  of an emergency. For instance, I remember quite well, in the  Coquihalla Pass certain tops of snow sheds where the machine  could have been stalled up the mountain, in other cases — small  islands in streams, again others on the railroad tracks, and in  some cases the only possibility perhaps would have been the  stalling of the machine, where I was seated should theoretically  end up quite safely with a slight bump."  Having carried mail from Mayor Gale of Vancouver to  Mayor S. A. Shatford of Vernon and to the Mayor of Calgary  this would appear to be the first air-mail service between these  cities and was the forerunner of the Trans-Canada Air Mail  Service. Postage stamps used on that occasion are valued at  $250.00 each by collectors. Steps are on foot by the Okanagan  135 Capt. Hoy's Crossing of the Rockies  Historical Society to interest the Historic Sites and Monuments  Board of Canada in its proposal for the erection of a memorial  on or near the site of the landing at Vernon. The local sentiment  being that we would do well to establish some permanent record  of this intrepid flier's national achievement.  136 W.  2).   WaL,  By PRIMROSE UPTON  When my father, William Dalziel Walker, died on June 2,  1953, he was mourned by many people, young and old, and  from many walks of life. Two of the strongest attributes of his  character were patience and kindness. This verse written by  DuBose Heyward could have been written specifically about  him:  "Compassionate the mountains rise,  Dim with the wistful dimness of old eyes,  That, having looked on life time out of mind,  Know that the simple gift of being kind  Is greater than all wisdom of the wise."  The only son of W. T. Walker, he was born on Feb. 6, 1875  at Morecombe, Lanes, and was educated at St. Edward's, Oxford. Although born and brought up in England, his heritage  was Scottish. Reading the history of the new world reveals to  me some interesting facts about the Scots. Their reputation for  hard work and fairness in their dealings, is shown in the tremendous work of the early explorers, the key men of the North  West Co., and the Hudson's Bay Co., and on through the settlement and expansion of our great country.  On a hot day in August, 1894, my father came down Okanagan Lake on the S.S. Aberdeen to Penticton, to be met by  Edward Bullock-Webster of Keremeos, whose farm pupil he was  to be for two years. While at Keremeos, he visited Okanagan  Mission several times, hoping to acquire a piece of property  there. It was not until 1901 that he was able to purchase from  Father Eumelin of the Oblate Mission, lot 167, on part of which  some of his family still live. From 1896 to 1899 he farmed on a  small piece of land opposite the Benvoulin School, and in 1899  and 1900 rented the F. E. R. Wollaston property.  In 1901, when he acquired lot 167, he proceeded to clear  the heavy timber. Lumber for his house was cut where the  Community Hall now stands, when Crawford set up a portable  sawmill on that site. He kept the southern half of lot 167, the  late W. D. Hobson taking the northern half. After clearing the  137 W. D. Walker  land he put in ten acres of orchard, and a further seven acres  a few years later. Some of the trees standing in the Okanagan  Mission School ground are the original trees planted in 1903.  In 1904 he married Dorothea M. Thomson, eldest daughter  of Gifford R. Thomson. Mrs. Walker was the first school teacher  at Ellison, and also taught at Benvoulin. Their house, built by  Johnny Curts in 1904, still stands, and is known now as the  Middlemass house. In 1910 he sold this house and part of the  orchard to Dr. Wansbrough-Jones and moved down to the  lakeshore "Parson's Pleasure," adding on to what had been  a summer camp, built originally for Rev. Thomas Greene.  The Okanagan Mission Sports Club was organized in his  house. Cricket, football and tennis became popular. He was  Captain of the Cricket eleven for over seven years. He donated  an acre of land to the Sports Club, and did a great deal of work  with team and scraper, in building the tennis courts.  My father was most active in the growth of the whole community. A School trustee for 33 years, many were* the winters  he turned up with the team to clear the heavy snow. An ardent  supporter of St. Andrew's Church, he was Rector's Warden for  many years.  He was a keen orchardist, was an early director of the  Agricultural and Trades Association, first president of the Okanagan Mission local of the United Farmers of B.C., and later  served with the B.C.F.G.A. local. From 1932 to 1945 he worked  with the Dominion Fruit Branch. In 1946 he was sent by B.C.  Tree Fruits Ltd. to the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, to demonstrate the Okanagan method of packing and handling apples.  Very keen about water sports, he took an active interest  in the Aquatic Club from the time of its inception. He judged  the diving at the Kelowna Regatta until 1951. He taught many  young people in the district to swim and dive. He was most interested too, in track and field sports, and for years was a familiar figure at the inter-school track meets.  My memories of Dad are very happy ones — being taught  to swim, to dive, to run, to jump — he got tremendous pleasure  out of it. He was a man to whom people of all walks of life came  for advice and comfort. He had a huge sense of fun, a twinkle  138 W. D. Walker  in his blue eyes, and laughter that bubbled like a spring. He  had a very real understanding of the things that matter most.  Certainly to me, it is the gentle souls like this who leave a surprising blank behind them in a noisy and sometimes too clever  world.  139 ao Canadian cJLand v^ompanu  By WILLIAM QUIGLEY  A colourful period of Okanagan history occurred between  1900 and the outbreak of World War 1. This was the hey day  of the land companies. They purchased tracts of raw land,  applied irrigation water to it, subdivided it into ten and thirty  acre lots, and sold it to individual settlers at enhanced prices.  The profits of this type of enterprise looked promising on paper  but success depended on turning the land over quickly which  meant a continual stream of new settlers to keep up demand.  The success of the growers in marketing their fruit was a second big factor and finally the cost of supplying the irrigation  water (which was a capital cost the land company had to finance themselves initially) was the third largest item.  A few of the land companies were completely successful and made some money for themselves but most of them lost  money for their original promoters. The Okanagan fruit industry to-day is a monument to their vision and enterprise.  Typical is the Belgo Canadian Land Company which came  into being in 1909, financed by a Belgian syndicate which purchased a tract of raw land about eight miles East of Kelowna  on the north side of Mission creek. They were late comers in  the land company business and acquired their holdings from  the Ideal Fruit Company owned in turn by the father of all  Kelowna land company promoters, T. W. Stirling and his associates, in this case J. Hepburn and L. W. Bick.  With the purchase of the land, the company had acquired  water rights on Mission Creek sufficient to supply irrigation  water. To make proper use of the water, however, further investment was required in a storage dam to retain flood water, and flumes to bring it to the land. Site for a suitable storage dam was located (by their engineer, Mr. C. A. Stoess, C.E.)  about fourteen miles up the north fork of Mission Creek. Some  twenty miles in all from the land to be irrigated.  The next problem was where to take the water out of the  creek. By taking the water directly from the North Fork of  Mission Creek and keeping the main ditch at a high altitude  140 Belgo Canadian Land Company  some six hundred acres of range land would be made irrigable for possible future development. By taking the water  from the main Mission Creek itself, a much cheaper initial installation could be built but due to the much lower level of the  main ditch the high range land which was thought to be arable could never be irrigated.  The company officials decided on the more costly project; the high flume crossed Eight Mile Creek by a steel syphon  and traces of its high ditch can still be clearly seen winding  across the range land below Black Mountain. A steel pipe finally took the water from the 2600' level down to the first farm  located on the flat area at the corner of what is now Joe Rich  and Gallagher roads. This area for construction purposes came  to be known as No. 1 Camp Site. Half a mile west of this point  a small townsite was planned with a magnificent view overlooking the whole of the central Okanagan area. The little  pond that lies below was to be filled to lake proportions for  the recreation of the inhabitants.  Seated, left to right, H. G. Rowley, Lee Brown and Alf Bingley  Back row, Frank Adamson, Frank Reynolds and N. C. S. Collett  141 Belgo Canadian Land Company  Once the plans for the irrigation district were completed  on paper, an impressive list of men had to be hired to carry out  the actual construction.  Frank Reynolds, Assistant Engineer, H. G. Rowley, draughtsman; L. A. Bingley, in charge of stores; Joe Paret, timekeeper;  Archie Stewart, ditch construction foreman; Arthur Stewart,  blacksmith, and a Mr. Sakamoto, cook. Chris Schram and  later Clarence Raymer delivered the mail and groceries daily  by team from Kelowna to Camp One. A crew of Italian immigrants was hired to do the pick and shovel work and clear  the right of way. Besides these, there was a score of other  men including three brothers, George, Bill and Paddy Hewlett  who drove teams and emptied the scrapers and so on. Even  Dave McDougall, a well known big game hunter, was hired  for a time to get rid of a bear that was raiding the cookhouse.  While work was progressing on the ditch, another crew  was employed to build the storage dam at the headwaters of  the North Fork of Mission Creek about fourteen miles back in  the hills.  The crew at the dam site was clearing trees, drilling rock  for the cement core, and moving earth in for the fill. Cement  was hauled from Kelowna in winter by four horse team. The  first day the teams would set out from Camp One (corner of  Gallaghers and Joe Rich Road) and go to Kelowna and return  with a load of cement; the second day to the intake (now Phil-  pott's place) on the north fork. The third day the final drive  was made to the dam site where the cement was stored until  it could be poured in the spring. The empty wagons then returned to Camp One, so that in actual fact it took the better  part of a week to haul one load of cement to the dam site.  Some of the four horse teamsters still living around Kelowna  are B. Mclvor, Hector Johns and Jack Huston.  One of the Okanagan's first western type villains worked on this irrigation project, a character by the name of Jesse  James, whose story appeared previously in these pages.  The Belgo Canadian Company installed an elaborate  domestic water system for the benefit of its customers. To do  this they had to buy out Henry Rice, whose farm had prior  water rights on Eight-mile Creek.    A small dam was built on  142 Belgo Canadian Land Company  this creek where the present road crosses it, and the water  was carried by wood stave pipe all the way to the Belgo> properties.  While the irrigation project was being completed, the company went ahead and planted the orchard land and by the  outbreak of World War 1 a number of orchards had been sold.  Among the early purchasers were Robert Bury (still on his  place), H. P. Dick, R. M. Hart and T. Morrison. The first lot  sold went to Lovelace Bull, brother of Captain C. R. Bull, who  farmed it until the end of World War II. Grote Stirling, who  for twenty years was federal M.P. for Yale, was an engineer  on the irrigation district and also bought orchard property. As  soon as the irrigation was turned on, some thirty acres of his  land was flooded which is now known as the Belgo pond.  At the end of World War I, the company extended its flume  north and sold a substantial acreage to returning war veterans under the Soldier Settlement Board scheme. H. C. S. Collett managed the company for a period during its early days  and E. M. Carruthers managed it latterly.  Most of the orchard land companies in the Okanagan,  and in British Columbia for that matter, got into difficulties  in 1914. They had spent all their capital buying land, planting it and installing expensive irrigation systems. Success  depended on a steady stream of settlers with money coming  out and taking up orchard land. World War I completely stopped immigration at the most critical time. At the end of the  war soldiers taking up land under the S.S.B. were a partial  salvation,. but the stream of settlers with means never got back  to the proportions of the early 1900's.  The Belgo Canadian Land Company sold their last 135  acres of orchard to Joe Casorso and their large holdings of  range land below Black Mountain was sold too. E. M. Carruthers who was manager at the time of the wind-up related that  the value of the Belgian franc had dropped so much through  inflation after the war that the Canadian currency actually  returned the Belgians more Belgian francs than they had invested, which gave the particular project a happy ending.  The land companies played a very large part in opening up the Okanagan and founding the fruit industry. They sup-  143 Belgo Canadian Land Company  plied the initial capital, advertised the valley and as in the  case of the Belgo Canadian Land Company, provided work  for the initial stake that helped many pioneer fruit growers  to become established.  144 ^Jhe  L^adcadilla  By KATE LACEY  Few people today are aware of the fact that during the  winter of 1860-61 Captain William H. Gray built a boat at the  foot of Osoyoos Lake with the intention of hauling supplies for  the "miners" who were then swarming all through the Interior.  Gray had a ranch somewhere along the Okanogan river, but  the boat was built just where the water flows out of Osoyoos  Lake into the river at the Little Traverse as the ford here was  known.  The big flats east of the river, all planted to thriving orchards, now, was a favorite meeting place of the Indians where  they came to fish, and race their horses, and to play their  games. On the west side of the river the Hudson's Bay Company had a horse farm where horses for the Brigade trail were  conditioned and changes of horses available for the final stretch  to Fort Okanogan or the trip north to Fort Kamloops, the next  horse farm before their final destination at Fort Alexandria.  It was Captain Gray's intention to take the boat to Deschutes Falls, now known as Celilo, and bring back supplies  but apparently after making the trip down, there is no record  of any effort to return.  This boat was built during the winter of 1860-61. The  lumber for it was all whipsawed and its dimensions were as  follows —-91 ft. keel and 12 ft. beam. It was constructed without any tools other than a saw, a hatchet and a chisel. She  was caulked with wild flax mixed with pitch from the pine  trees.  This boat was named the Cascadilla and was launched  May 10th, 1861, and floated safely down the Okanogan and  Columbia rivers, running all the rapids without any trouble.  She was used as a sailboat between Celilo and Wallulu for  many years.  Captain Gray had come to Fort Vancouver Sept. 16th,  1836, with Dr. Marcus Whitman and Rev. Dr. Henry M. Spalding, Presbyterian missionaries, and their wives. Gray was  a lay missionary and the mechanic and handy man of the  145 The Cascidilla  party. He returned east during the winter of 1837-38 where  he met Mary Augusta Dix, and after a whirlwind courtship of  six days they were married Feb. 28, 1838, and left immediately  for Oregon.  In 1887 Gray was operating a ferry between Pasco and  Kennewick, ferrying trains across the river. Pasco at that  time was a wide open town and Gray organized a Sunday  School to get the youngsters off the streets. He could teach the  lessons and lead the singing but was incapable of praying  in public. He attempted to find some one for this task but  was unable to do so until someone married a schoolteacher who  could pray, who took the job over. In the meantime at someone else's suggestion Gray had mumbled a few words fast  and ended with a loud Amen, and the children hadn't known  the difference.  References: Ka-mi-akin — W. J. Splawn.  Pasco Carnegie Public Library.  146 Samuel j'   oldon, (J~>enelactor  By GERTRUDE PEEL  Gratitude is something that cannot be measured, and this  is true of the gratitude of thousands of adults and children to the  late Samuel Poison.  He is the man who made it possible for the people of Vernon  to have their beautiful park in the very heart of this lovely city.  In his memory, the park bears the name of Poison Park.  Within this park the people find retreat; they find rest,  pleasure and solitude. Children from all parts of the world with  their parents are able to rest here, and enjoy its beauties and  pleasures.  Mr. Poison not only gave to the city of Vernon its lovely  park, but made a similar gift to the city of Enderby, where in  the years that were to come, its people would find rest and enjoyment.  Mr. Poison was a man of outstanding heritage. His parents  came out from Scotland with Lord Selkirk's settlers some two  hundred years ago. His father was only eight years old at  the time and came across eastern Canada by wagon and canoe  to Winnipeg, then Fort Garry, which was the first fort in western  Canada.  Here, the group took up homesteads round about, and the  father ran a grist mill.  One evening when the Indians were dangerously near, the  father went to bring in the cattle and failed to return. The family and neighbors searched, but he never was found. It was only  about twenty years ago that an old Indian, dying in the St.  Boniface hospital, Winnipeg, confessed to having killed the  old man because he had accused him of stealing hay.  From this early stock, Samuel Poison took his place in the  world. As a young man he ran the mail from Winnipeg to  Brandon and Rapid City, a distance of 150 miles for the round  trip. He used snowshoes in the winter and rode horseback in  the summer. It was while he was on the mail route, in Rapid  City, he met his bride, the former Elizabeth Sibbald. She was  147 Samuel Poison, Benefactor  the granddaughter of the late Captain Sinclair R.N.  of Edinburgh, Scotland, who was with Lord Nelson when he died.  When Samuel Poison was thirty-five years old, he travelled  as far as Chicago with the famous evangelists, Moody and  Sankey, singing in their choir. He was always a religious man  and after his return to Canada he decided to go into the ministry despite the fact that by this time he had a family of five  children. He attended Manitoba College until he was ordained  and later built three mission churches in Winnipeg. For some  years he was choir leader in Kildonan Church, which was the  oldest church in Winnipeg. When he retired as leader of the  choir in 1883, he was given a six piece silver tea service. One  of the churches he built, St. Paul's, is still standing in Winnipeg  today.  Later he entered the real estate and insurance business  and came on an excursion trip further west, which was arranged  by a Winnipeg insurance man. Most of the party went on to  Vancouver, but Samuel Poison stopped off in the Okanagan  and wired home to his family, "Get ready to move. I have found  the Garden of Eden." Such were his words to describe Vernon  and the surrounding area.  With this love for Vernon and an eye for the future, he  purchased five of the big ranches in the district, which included  the B.X., Price Ellison, and the Tronson properties.  With the arrival of the Poison family there was evidence  of an increasing interest in civic and community affairs. Mrs.  Poison was responsible for the first Mall in Vernon which was  sponsored by the Ladies Hospital Auxiliary in 1906 when she  was president. She was assisted by the late Mrs. (Dr.) Morris  and various committees as well as her daughter Mrs. S. H.  Speers who now lives in Enderby.  The affair was held in the Vernon skating rink with the  various stalls decorated with flowers. Up and down the centre  was the mall where cakes and candies were sold. Mrs. G. A.  Henderson, the bank manager's wife, pinned roses on the men  and charged them a dollar apiece. Morris Middleton brought a  huge pumpkin, tied it to a beam in Mrs. Speers stall. Tickets  were sold at ten cents apiece permitting a guess at the weight,  the winner to receive a box of chocolates.  148 Samuel Poison, Benefactor  A note of color was added to the affair by the Japanese  costumes worn by many in the stalls. These were brought by  another of Mrs. Poison's daughters visiting from Chicago.  This was the year of 1906 when roses bloomed in the Pol-  son gardens all winter.  Mrs. Poison lived to a ripe old age, and when she was 95  she completed a quilt on which there were appliqued 2,007  silk roses, all of different colors. Each day she made twenty  roses to be added to this work of art until it was finished. It  now claims a place of high regard in the home of Mrs. Speers.  Mrs. Poison passed away at the Coast on May 6th, 1956, but  lived to celebrate her 97th birthday.  Mr. Poison, as well as being a religious man, was very  civic minded and for many years was mayor of Enderby. Prior  to his death in 1931 in the Enderby Hospital, the city of Vernon  received the gift of the property where is now located the Poison  Park and the Jubilee Hospital. The city of Enderby, where he  had made his home for some years, received a similar donation and this too bears his name, Poison Park. Accompanying  this were several large pieces of property, one being the site  where the old Enderby hospital stood for many years.  And like the works of many great men of the past which  were not appreciated during their lifetime, Mr. Poison's gifts  will now and in years to come, gain public recognition and be  cherished by generations still unborn.  Poison Park, whether in Vernon or Enderby will forever be  associated with a grand old gentleman who contributed most  generously to the happiness of his fellow men, Samuel Poison.  149 cJLeonard ^Arlbert L^larh  1840-1920  By HERBERT CLARK  Leonard Albert Clark was born in Vermont, September  27th, 1840, an only child whose mother was widowed while  he was young. He served in the American Civil War with  the Northern Armies and after the war he came west to Iowa,  where he married lane Jerusha Bagley. They had three  children: Dolly, Mrs. Forbes; Winnie, Mrs. Dave Innis, and  Garry.  After a few years he moved further west to Colorado,  where he learned the rudiments of irrigation, and after doing some irrigation lay-out work, he moved on to Spokane,  Washington, then to Northport. During this time he had done  some railroad grade contracting and the knowledge he gained stood him in good stead later in his life.  At Northport he had a store and livery stable, but when  a good part of the town was burned in a fire he lost everything but his horses.  Over the Canadian Border, Ross Thompson was just  starting the town of Rossland and he offered Leonard Clark  two town lots if he would settle there; but instead he moved to Calgary in 1893 where he put in the first irrigation system for W.  C.  Ricardo.  After three years, Mr. Ricardo moved to Vernon where  he took over the management of the Coldstream Orchards.  He then sent for L. A. Clark to come and oversee the irrigation system for this undertaking. Here Clark put in the  Grey Canal and other important works. He was also connected with logging at this time, in the Mable and Sugar  Lake areas. In 1898 he went over the Chilcootin Pass to  the Klondike with two Englishmen. In August, 1900, M. K.  Rodgers from the Nickel Plate Mine travelled to Vernon to  get someone to build a road from Penticton to the Nickel  Plate Mine. This road had to be suitable to haul mine machinery and supplies.    L. A. undertook to build it for him.  This road was a real challenge.    Mr.  Clark had to find  150 MBa.*****"*  Leonard Albert Clark  the route it would follow and also keep the road pushing  through as fast as possible. The road that he had to build  had its jumping off point just back of where the Roman  Catholic Church on the Indian Reserve now stands. It wound  up the sand hills directly back of this site until it reached a  natural bench on the south side of Shatford Creek, and  did not join the now known Green Mountain Road for some  5 miles or more.  From that point on, the road site has not changed since  that day. When one thinks of the obstacles that had to be  overcome with the tools at hand in those days, we certainly  have to take our hats off to these old timers.  This road was started August 10, 1900, and completed  by Christmas 1900 and was about 30 miles in length. The  tools used were teams with slip scrapers, saws, axes, wheelbarrows, and shovels with some drill steel and black powder. While this work was going on L.A. had the late Ezra  Mills (who was later quite well known in the Keremeos District) come down from Vernon to build the stopping house  and home for L.A.'s family. With his son Garry he took  up about 1000 acres of land in the Green Mountain District, as he called it. The surrounding country reminded him  of his boyhood surroundings in Vermont so subsequently  the name of Green Mountain.  In conjunction with the Stopping House at Green Mountain, he and his son raised horses. He brought in a few  good stallions which he crossed with wild mares which he  and his son were able to catch in Marron Valley. Prior to  his death in 1920 he sold his Green Mountain holdings to  Willard Thompson and  moved to  Penticton.  The choice of the Green Mountain House was a good  one for directly after the building of the Nickel Plate Road,  the government joined it up with the Horn Lake road which  led into Ollala and Keremeos. Both of these places were  prospering, as well as the infant town of Hedley. There  was a steady traffic of travellers through the Stopping House.  There were 3 stages a week and innumerable freight wagons  as well as saddle horse traffic.  The main stage was owned and operated by a Mr. Welby.  151 Leonard Albert Clark  (I believe this old coach can be seen in Princeton in the  museum). The main drivers on the stage coaches in those  days were: Welby, Barnes, McDonald and Roadhouse. Few  stage travellers stopped overnight, but the freighters did.  My grandmother would always, no matter what time of day  or night, immediately get a traveller something to eat and  make them comfortable. There was an English lady and  her niece who came out from England for two consecutive  summers collecting rare butterflies and made this place her  headquarters.  On the freight haul to the Nickel Plate the men would  haul their wagons to the top of the sand hills back of Penticton the first day. With an early start they would make it  to Green Mountain the next day. Their next overnight stop  would then be the Rustle House, the remains of which can still  be seen on the Nickel Plate Road about 4 miles from the  bottom of the switch back hill. The name of Rustle House  was given to this spot because the freighters had to rustle  for themselves at this stop. From the bottom of the hill to  this spot teams had often to be doubled up to make the steep  haul. The final day's trip into the Nickel Plate was a long  one, but the freight boys always made it. The outstanding  names of these freighters were: Dave Innis, the Bassett boys  (Top, Dick and Fred), Dignan, Gillespie and Prather.  The nearest neighbours at that time were Louie Good-  chap, his aunt Miss Manning and her mother. They lived  in a log house just before reaching the summit. Louie came  from India, so he named the summit "The Kyber Pass". Alec  Ford was the original owner of the LeLievre place.  Hedges lived in the Marron Valley and the volcanic  cone that looks down on Allen Grove was named Hedges  Butte after him.  Tommy Armstrong, a red headed Irishman and his Indian wife, lived in Marron Valley as well. He was one of  the men who worked on the original road.  Joe Brent and his family lived up Shingle Creek. The  Farleighs had the place that Ferdy Brent later owned.  These were the original neighbours, then later the Aliens  and Howells moved into the area.  152 ^Jhe J^ound Storu  By GUY P. BAGNALL  The late William Courtice Pound was born at Port Perry,  Ont, March 27th, 1858, moved to Morden, Man., in 1884,  where he homesteaded. On June 7th, 1885 he married Letitia Jane Yerex whose father, Nathaniel Yerex, was a United Empire Loyalist. Two children, Allan Courtice and Luta  Ann, were born of this union. Allan entered the ministry  of the United Church and went to China as a missionary  and Luta remained in Vernon, where she was married to  Guy P.  Bagnall.  Land Seeking  Leaving the pioneering experiences of the prairie behind, W. C. Pound travelled westward looking for pastures  green, he traversed the state of Oregon, came north to Vancouver, B.C., and there decided to push on to Vernon, where  boom conditions were reported. The Sicamous and Okanagan railway was building, its rails were expected to reach  Vernon the following year. There was feverish activity in  the building trades, some five new hotels were either building or projected. The population was swelling daily, many  of whom comprised the labor force, so that some 200 to 300  people were on location. Excitement was prevalent, and people were constantly on the move. Cherryville was still a  lure for miners, and Okanagan Mission and the settlement  at the foot of the lake — Penticton, were each held in high  regard by land seekers.  The Red Star  It was on May 20th, 1891, that W. C. Pound arrived at  Sicamous where he transferred to the stern wheeler "Red  Star", Captain D. G. Cummings, at 8 a.m. and reached Enderby Landing at 5 p.m. the same day. From there the party  was driven, in a three seated democrat, to Vernon. In  June of the same year Mrs. Pound and the two children arrived at Sicamous, where they boarded a four-wheeled jigger, called the Kalamazoo, consisting of an upright steam  engine mounted on a hand-car, on which the passengers sat  on  benches,   and  thus   on  this   air-conditioned  vehicle   they  153 The Pound Story  travelled by rail to Enderby. The engine was fitted with  a tremendous steam whistle, which not only scared the passengers but also sent the cattle, grazing on either side of  the track, stampeding hither and yon, at the will of the engineer. The journey from Enderby to Vernon was made  by horse and buggy.  The principal buildings in this north Okanagan town  at this time were the Vernon and Victoria hotels, Girouard's  log cabin post office, (now a museum number), Cameron's  general store and the Hudson's Bay Company's first store,  long since demolished. The Shatford store was under construction and the Coldstream Hotel was near completion.  On Shubert St. the Burnyeat and French families were building their homes, and Mr. Pound built his first home in Vernon  alongside the French's.  On March 2nd, 1893, Pound opened his taxidermy and  furrier business next to where the Bank of Montreal now  stands, where for the following fifty years he was to carry  on the operations begun that day. G. A. Hankey was an  important community figure in those days as he conducted  the one and only bank, a privately owned enterprise. He  also was manager of the development company, which still  owned most of the townsite lots. Incorporation of the city  took place in  1892.  Many years were to pass before Barnard Avenue was  graded and it may seem strange to say that there was opposition to the surveyor's grading, which left sidewalks, in places  several feet higher than the road, while in other spots business premises were found to be below the level on the roadbed. However, ultimately the grading was done, and the  sidewalks tackled later. The first sidewalks were of plank  and 2"x6", and plank cross walks were laid at intersections.  These cross walks came into their own in muddy seasons  as without them the unfortunate pedestrian would likely lose  his rubber shoes as he crossed over.  Frame construction was the rule for housing, none had  inside plumbing and none was plastered. V joint was used on  ceilings and walls, later the rooms were done with cotton  cheese cloth and wall paper.    Sawdust and  shavings were  154 The Pound Story  used for insulation. Square iron nails were the only kind  available. At first there were no sawmills in the vicinity  of the settlement, building materials had to be freighted in  over rough roads or shipped in from the coast.  . Early Records  Over the years, fire, smoke and water, played havoc  with the Pound records, but one journal remains, from which  we have extracted a number of entries, made in the hand  writing of Mr. Pound, between the years 1893 and 1914.  History sheds a benign ray upon the names to be printed  here, to some it has given a lustre of distinction or enduring friendship, to others the illumination, as of the setting  sun, upon a scene of labor, when the day's work is done;  they, — these people of Vernon's pioneering days — have  been laid aside, but few remain with us today. Their women stood by in every emergency of life, and it still remains  a rewarding task for a future historian to tell their story with  any degree of completeness. All too few are the records  such as the late Mr. Pound left behind — never thinking  for one moment that they should be used in the manner  we have chosen for them.  Here follows a few extracts from the journal:—  Mrs.   (Frank)  McGowan  purchased  a goat  skin robe  and marten muff.  Dr. Osborne bought a robe for $15.00 (most likely a  carriage robe).  Mr. Stillingfleet bought a fur cap $7.00.  Mrs.  (W. F.) Cameron bought a fur cap  $8.00.  A. L. Fortune had 2 rugs made up for $15.00.  T. W. Stirling an otter collar and fur cap $24.50.  Mr. D'Aeth a robe.  J. V. Colby, Doug Wright and E. Dunstall were customers at this time.  1897—I. D. Cameron paid for a pair of gauntlets.  C. E. Woods paid for the express on his rugs.  1898—Alex Duteau presented a cash order on W. R. Megaw for $3.50 to pay a bill. ("Orders" of this nature were common in early days, sometimes taking  the place of currency, which was very scarce. They  came into use when a farmer, by  selling his  crop  155 y#                   ».                                                                '■'       ^        "*   v                                 *J~  ■■     ■           ..■      '    '   - :■■.  ■    '    . . ■•"■■'  :  __S I            % ■ -  B *  ■'  m_l____lp^                    ^IH<-*  m&'-< 1'^ - '  .■'.J m  H~          . .  ■   -oss^^^s^^J"- s  iKf  I   *   '   4     t**_v* **  j_b:>9___!                                           :: :i________________l  .   ..■ :! -mmm m:mm'!-:'3i..,mimm£"  mm'  BrI           -  ■  .   ■.:. /     V.'!-  ..■:■■        ■   ■       .                   ■■■■:.■■, ■  ■  . ■. mm.mmm& mm^  J  ■   ■■■  ■       '■■   . ■■'.•■ ■    •• ■■■"   ■■..;.■:■  :  "■-'■■              "    ;  • % «**.  mm MmWm  1 *  ■ *     ;;      #  2  W. C. Pound and Orchard  156 The Pound Story  to a local merchant, had a sizeable credit with the  merchant against which he could draw — more usually in merchandise.)  Oct. 26th—A. L. Fortune paid the balance due on his  rugs.  William Donaldson, W. J. Armstrong and W. Stevenson were callers and then Price Ellison purchased  a fur cape for $20.00.  Looking through the blotter which tells of furs bought  and sold, we see the name of trappers and hunters but rarely is their address given, the reason being that everyone  knew everyone and where they lived, so why record it?  Psychology also played a part in fashioning this mental  directory,—thus: "G. Henderson" could only mean G. G. Henderson of Coldstream because G. A. Henderson of banking  fame was not likely to be out in the bush after big game.  1896 —■ George Bell of Enderby, C. A. Appleton, David  Gellatly, W. T. Shatford, T. Elliott (Fairview), Geo. Gartrell,  A. Dalrymple, George Proctor were other customers. 1896-  1897—The Morning Glory Mining Company rented offices  above the Pound store. April 14th—Case of mounted birds  shipped to George Whelan, Okanagan Mission. 1895—Master Archibald was paid $2.00 for herding the family cow for  one month. Dr. Beckingsale rented an office above the Pound  store.  H. R. Parke also had dealings with Pound. Mr. Parke  was one of the early postmasters, following Luc Girouard.  1893—F. H. Latimer, S. L. Smith, J. P. Burnyear, F. Barnes,  the French family. Dr. Corrigan, F. W. Padmore and Mr. Ma-  joribanks (pronounced Marshbanks) were all patrons of the  store. Alex Macdonell, who raised fine horses at his B.X.  ranch, purchased a wolverine robe.  1893—An exhibit of mounted heads and birds, which was  to bring great fame to the city of Vernon, was shipped February 23rd, to Chicago World's Fair. This exhibit won a  medal and diploma for the best Canadian exhibit in the  Show. Mr. Pound was frequently an exhibitor at the Provincial Exhibition in New Westminster, where his craftsmanship usually was awarded a first prize.  157 The Pound Story  In those early days, Vernon was the centre of a good  game country. Hunting parties from the United States, United Kingdom and Eastern Canada, visited here and would  return again and again, to track the Grizzly Bear, the Mountain Lion, the Mountain Sheep and Goats, which found their  habitat within relatively easy reach of the city. Specimens  of wild life brought into the Pound store were of fantastic  variety.—grizzly, brown and black bear, cougar or mountain lion, mule deer, caribou, elk and moose. In the smaller group were badger, foxes, coyote, marten, skunk, rats,  wolverine, weasel or ermine, lynx, otter, mink and wolf.  To this list should be added many birds, migratory as  well as those that lived here the year 'round. Fish, too, arrived to be mounted, the Shuswap lake at Sicamous provided many of these trophies. Many records of these have been  lost. No trouble was too great and no time too long to spend  mounting and recoloring a rainbow trout. There was a glamor in serving a world wide clientele centred upon a small  shop on Barnard Avenue. We append a list of his shipping points.  Scotland, New York, Singapore, New Zealand, Germany,  Hong Kong, Chicago, Montreal, Ireland, Capetown, Austria,  Nova Scotia, Mexico and San Francisco.  On October 1st, 1894, Sir Peter Walker shot a grizzly  bear 7'2" from tip of nose to tip of tail, and 3'11" from shoulder to root of nail (on fore paw). These measurements were  taken with the hide stretched out flat. The skull measured  15 1/4" in extreme length, with the jaw closed. 10 7/8" broad,  6^- " deep. Weight of skull 5 lbs. 2 ozs.  There was the "Big One" — which did not get away —  the Kelowna Fish. 3'3" long, 4i" thick at head, 3 1/8"  at tail, spread of jaws 9", weight 24 lbs. Caught by A. G.  Bennett  of  Okanagan Mission.  Vice Regal Train Delayed for the Honourable Archie  It appears that the Aberdeen family had many dealings at the Pound store but it was the honorable Archie, a  boy of about 12 years, who caught the fancy of Mr. Pound,  who  liked to retell this story about him.    It came about in  158 The Pound Story  this way, the Aberdeen family was due to leave Vernon  by special train, many dignataries had assembled on the  station platform and their number was augmented by one  half of the Vernon population: Their Excellencies had arrived and were ready to board the train but their two children  were not there. The Honourable Archie had other matters  on his mind; only that very morning he had shot a rabbit,  which he must take to Mr. Pound to skin out. He was greatly excited as he watched the skinning process: Lady Marjorie (his sister of about 15 years of age) looked on and was  astonished to hear her brother tell Mr. Pound that his first shot  had killed the rabbit. Oh! Honourable Archie, she exclaimed, "you fired three shots before you hit it, how can you say  it was the first shot had killed it'. I mean, he said, "the first  shot that hit it killed it." Mr. Pound, knowing the special  train now stood waiting in the station for the children, reminded the boy about it. His answer was quick as a flash.  "The train won't leave without my father, and my father  won't leave without me and I won't leave without my rabbit." So, the vice regal party waited until the Honourable  Archie's rabbit had been skinned out, and so did one half  the  Vernon population.  Currency of the Early Days  Copper coins were not used in Vernon until long after  the turn of the century, and when they did arrive a great  bowl of one cent pieces were placed on display in the window of the Hudson's Bay Company's store. The silver five  cent piece was the smallest coin both in size and value before the introduction of the copper pennies. "Two bits" was  the term in general use for the 25c or quarter dollar. Mexican silver dollars were termed "iron dollars"; English coins  were common in circulation and would be subject to a discount. The paper "shin plaster" was the 25c bill, long since  withdrawn from circulation. There was also the $4.00 bill  which is no longer seen; never popular, it disappeared about  1910 or 1911.  Indian Life  The  Indians gave a definite  color to  life  in Vernon as  W. C. Pound saw it.    They would trade with the whites, or  pale faces, bringing to town, in season, Indian corn, huckle-  159   . The Pound Story  berries and fish; they would also have hides for sale. Their  men would cut and haul cord wood; but it was not safe to  rely on their promise of delivery; most likely they would wait  until a real cold snap had passed before bringing in the  wood ordered, — meanwhile the buyer could freeze. Some  people insist the Indian of yesterday was lazy, but read this  list and judge for yourself. Their women would make buckskin shirts, jackets, gloves, gauntlets, moccasins, caps, handbags etc. many of them worked with beads or silk to form  patterns of flowers or even to demonstrate the cubistic art.  The influence of western art undoubtedly has reached some  of these Indians perhaps through the mission school, and may  be traced through designs which are none other than Christian. Their baskets were woven from reeds and roots, utilitarian in shape, and some baskets were made of birch bark.  The Indians have been slow to adopt the white man's  way of life and his customs; but then the white man has  been agonizingly slow to teach. Generally, they did not relish a full day of labor. Their women were more willing to  work in the fields than were the men, but not many women  or girls could be induced to accept domestic service for their  livelihood. In summary, small progress has marked the fifty  years of white living alongside the Indian.  The Chinese Community  The Chinese were a community within a community;  some 200 to 300 comprised the Vernon group. These people had come to Canada to work in the railway construction gangs, and remained to mine, to farm, or hire out their  labor. Not many Chinese women had entered Canada, and  so their population which otherwise might have risen to a  very significant total is showing a rapid decrease. The Chinese were more colorful than the native Indian. They had  their own peculiar customs and oriental standards which  have been slow to change. Perhaps their sing song language  was the most fascinating feature of Chinese life. As a group  they were industrious, law abiding and most loyal in their  friendships; often, it has been said, do a kindness for a Chinaman and he will be right back with a gift to repay the kindness. Coming, by and large, from the coolie class in China,  the men were seldom seen in their long silk gown either at  160 The Pound Story  home or attending a social function, but would constantly  be seen attired in cotton garments and wearing a large straw  hat. Their women, however, were more given to dress in  their native costume of silk, with beautiful embroideries, the  style was easy fitting trousers topped with a Kimona type  garment. Mandarin type, embroidered shoes on their feet.  The men wore their hair in pig tails, which hung down their  back, although at time the tails were coiled and worn under  a round pill box cap. The cap would be neatly embroidered  around the edge.  Growing Up  To grow up with a community is a real thrill, friendships are  formed which will last a lifetime. W. C. Pound went through  this phase of life in Vernon. He was ever ready to leave his  own work, close up shop if necessary, to help anyone who asked  his aid; and, being in business he became well known and often  was consulted on city affairs; this led, as might have been expected to his being asked to allow his name to stand in nomination for public office. He was duly elected as an alderman for the  City of Vernon and served in this capacity for ten years. Sophistication has come upon the community like a freezing winter  temperature since then. We are told conditions are different  now: However, in Vernon's early days a municipal election was  really something. Just as soon as the results were known, and  of course voting for mayor came every year, the town band  turned out, a torch light procession was formed, and the rounds  made to the successful candidates' homes. The candidate also  had his part to play, sometimes refreshments were ready to pass  out, and the band leader was given $10.00 for the band. Mr.  Pound's term of office had its highlights too. He was chairman of  committee when the first domestic water system was installed,  chairman of committee when the first electric lighting system  was established in Vernon: He was also most active in the  planting of the great elm trees, which gave a quiet claim to the  city.  He recalled to the writer his trip to the top of Silver Star  mountain in a quest for a gravity water system. There were a  number from City Council and engineering staff in the party,  saddle horses were provided as were pack horses, and the  ground thoroughly examined. And traces remain to this day  161 The Pound Story  of the trenches which were dug to catch the run-off water and  funnel it into what was then named Vernon Lake; a little damming was also done so that basically this lake became the origin  of the Vernon water supply.  AN ORCHARD TOO  Ten years is a fair term to serve the citizens on City Council:  Pound, was no different from most men holding such office, he  tried to please everybody, and failed. He was very happy to  turn his attention to his sadly neglected personal affairs. The  care he gave to the installation of an irrigation system paid off  in excellent results, as within a few years his B.X. orchard became a show place for the district. The irrigation ditches were arranged in a herringbone formation, down the centre of which  a large galvanized pipe carried the water, which was discharged through individual valves to each ditch, thus affording control  of the volume of water at each outlet. By the system every ditch  could be serviced with water at the same time; 3 or 4 days of  irrigation was usually adequate for a complete soaking of the  land.  Visitors came in numbers to see the system in operation and  government officials would bring others to view it. The photograph which appears elsewhere in this report shows what this  orchard looked like before the introduction of spray irrigation,  before bins replaced orchard picking boxes, and prior to the  advent of dwarf orchard trees.  AN ECCLESIASTICAL HONOR  On August 14th, 1948, when ground was to be broken for  construction of the new United Church of Canada in Vernon a  signal honor was conferred on Mr. Pound chosen because he  had been present at the formal ceremonies in connection with  the building and opening of both the first Presbyterian and Methodist churches in the city and therefore the oldest church member present at the 1948 ceremonies. To him was given the honor  of placing in the hands of one of the currently youngest church  members, a spade, and requesting that he, with all the spirit  of his youth, should dig and turn the first sod for the new church;  that boy was — Howard Thornton, Jr. And soon was brought to  a conclusion a very memorable occasion.  When Mrs. Pound came to Vernon and set up her modest  162 The Pound Story  home, males outnumbered the females by a wide margin and  there was a dearth of normal home life for many citizens, soon,  however, she fitted into the life of the community with grace  and dignity. Her home became a centre of church and social  activity. The small home became too small, when a larger one,  owned by the George Mabee famliy, was purchased.  MRS. POUND ACTIVE  Hospitality was most cordial, the ever widening circle of  friends brought new interests to the home life. Mrs. Pound joined  the Council of Women, the  Cottage Hospital Women's  Auxiliary and the Ladies'  Aid of her church, she was  also a member of the Woodmen of the World. She excelled as a baker of good  bread and fine pastery, and  won many prizes for her  baking; these prizes usually  took the form of one or more  100-lb. sacks of flour, and  were always given room in  her commodious kitchen  pantry.  At one time she was induced to enter for a Bread  Baking contest,  held at the  Mrs. W. C. Pound Vernon    Agricultural    Soci  ety's fair-ground. Old timers will remember the buildings, since  destroyed by fire, which stood on the high ground fronting Elm  Street, where the race track is now. There were problems to be  met — the baking must be done in the oven provided on the fair  grounds, there had to be a time table so that all contestants  would know when to appear with their dough. The stove itself  was the prize offered by W. R. Megaw for the best baked loaf  of bread. Interest was keen. One woman carried her bread  dough all the way from Maple Street to the fair building.  Mrs. Pound was inclined to skip the contest because she  did not need the stove, she had company at the time and was  163 The Pound Story  busy, but her small boy (Allen) said, "But mother, it's worth  trying for and will cost only a loaf of bread." That, of course,  had to be the decision, the dough was loaded into the buggy  and hurried to the fair. A good fire was burning in the stove and  Mrs. Pound pushed her bread-pan into the untried oven. Meanwhile, the woman to follow anxiously waited her turn but luck  was not to favor her that day. Mrs. Pound was awarded the  prize.  At the home, sing-songs around the old American organ  filled many an evening with happy memories. Later, when the  piano took the place of the organ, the sing-songs continued and  often after Sunday evening service a youthful group would fill  the parlor and blend their voices in hymn singing.  One cannot conclude these intimate contacts without mentioning the association which the Pound family had with the  Methodist church. Nearly every minister of that church in British  Columbia not only knew the Pound family of Vernon but had  tasted of its hospitality; many of them having been billeted there  for Conference or other church meetings.  The last change of residence came in 1910, when the Canadian Northern Railway (subsequently the Canadian National  Railway) bought its right-of-way through Vernon. The Pound  house lay in the path of the projection and was sold to the  company. The family then moved to 3904 32nd Street.  The lines by W. Wordsworth come to mind as appropriate  to the memory of a saintly woman—  "So didst thou travel on life's common way  In cheerful godliness: and yet thy heart  The lowliest duties on herself did lay"  W. C. Pound was a lover of animals and it was not unusual  to see a cub bear chained to a post on his front lawn, a cock-a-  too on the veranda, and a beaver or badger in a cage nearby.  The beaver did not like his quarters so engineered his way to  liberty and a new home on the Swan Lake Creek, which flowed  nearby. For a time the children had a tame deer to play with,  it would follow them around. Guinea pigs and magpies were  also in temporary residence. Most of the family residences of  the larger type had stabling for one or more horses, a cow and a  flock of poultry.  164 The Pound Story  Charter Member Of Okanagan Historical Society  Mr. W. C. Pound was a charter member of the Okanagan  Historical Society, he would read every article published by  the Society and was often called in consultation to advise on  articles in preparation, particularly where his experience as a  naturalist could be of value. He was a member of the Woodsmen  of the World, member of the National Geographic Society.  Numbered among his personal friends were the late Governor-  General of Canada, the Marquis of Aberdeen and Temair, and  the late Major Allan Brooks, the famous artist of bird life.  The Old Pioneers Pass  Mrs. Letitia Jane Pound died at Vernon, June 1st, 1939 and  ten years later, June 3rd, 1949, William Courtice Pound died at  the age of 91 years. In his passing Vernon lost one of her oldest  pioneers, having been in continuous residence here for 57 years.  "Say not good night,—but in some brighter clime  "Bid me Good Morning."     —A. L. Barbauld.  *Note: The Bank of Montreal opened its Vernon Branch in  the Schubert Block on the north side of Barnard Avenue, Dec. 1,  1892, later removing to its present location at the comer of Barnard Ave. and 32nd Street.  165 We   Will IKemember ^Jh  em  Human life is but a fleeting moment in the eons of time.  People come and people go, but in the period between the coming and the going, a life has been led and a contribution made,  sometimes great and sometimes small; a mark has been left  behind, and a personality gone. Each year takes its toll of those  amongst us who have taken their final curtain call on the stage  of life. We pay them tribute and "by their works, we shall know  them".  MRS. JOSEPHINE BORNAIS: The Ellison District lost one of  its old timers in the passing of Mrs. Josephine Bornais in the Vancouver General Hospital, July 4, 1961, at the age of 77 years.  Born Josephine Christien in St. Anicet, Quebec, she came to the  Okanagan Mission in 1908 on a visit to her uncle, Mr. Joseph  Christien, who lived there since 1861.  She married Alcide Bornais in 1912 and she and her husband farmed for many years in the Ellison District. Mr. Bornais  died in 1931 and a daughter in 1918. She is survived by two  sons, Ernest of Ellison, and Lawrence of North Vancouver, and  one daughter Mrs. A. Gloux (Stella) of Vancouver, and six grandchildren.  MRS MARY SMITH: Mrs. Mary Smith, who died in the Vernon Jubilee Hospital July 12, 1961, at the age of 63 years, came  to Kelowna with her parents, Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Hubbard in  1912, and to the Ellison District in 1920 on her marriage to Mr.  C. Bertucci. Mr. Bertucci predeceased her in 1936, and her second husband Mr. Norman L. Smith in 1956.  Soon after Mr. Smith's death, she sold the farm in the Ellison District and went to live in Vernon. The farm had been part  of the original lohn Conroy pre-emption. She is survived by one  daughter Mrs. (Melba) E. F. Tremblay, and one son Cesare N.  Bertucci in Vernon, and by seven grandchildren; two brothers  Charles Hubbard of Kelowna, Harry Hubbard of Vancouver,  and one sister and two brothers in England.  MRS. JANET ELIZABETH KNOX: Mrs. Knox died in the Kelowna General Hospital on March 29, 1961, at the age of 80. Born  in Kingston, Ontario, of a prominent Ontario family, she was the  166 We Will Remember Them  daughter of Charles Dickson. She came to Kelowna in 1905 having married Dr. W. J. Knox in Vancouver, and they have resided here since that time.  She is survived by her husband, Dr. W. J. Knox of Kelowna,  two daughters, Audrey (Mrs. H. H. Boucher) of Vancouver, Constance (Mrs. H. K. Atwood) of Williams Lake, one son, Robert  of Kelowna. One son, Bill, predeceased her. There are eight  grandchildren. Two sisters survive, lessie (Mrs. A. B. Gray) of  Vancouver, and Ethel (Mrs. Hugh Nickle) of Kingston, Ontario.  MRS. JOAN MAUDE GOLDSMITH: Mrs. Goldsmith, who  was born in South Africa, came to Canada and Okanagan Mission with her parents, Mr. and Mrs. C. C. Fuller, more than 50  years ago. In 1931 she married George Goldsmith. They made  their home at Okanagan Mission. Surviving are her husband,  George, one son Robert, with the R.C.M.P., and one daughter,  Mrs. Norman Orava (Louise) of London, England, and three  sisters. Mrs. Goldsmith died on July 18, 1961, after a lengthy illness and was buried at St. Andrew's Church, Okanagan Mission.  TOKUICHI YAMAMOTO: Mr. Yamamoto, long time resident of the Kelowna district, died in Kelowna General Hospital  on August 10th, aged 73. He and his wife farmed in the Glenmore district for many years. He is survived by three sons, and  four grandchildren. His wife predeceased him in January of  this year.  MRS. ADELAIDE IANE DORE: Mrs. Dore died in Kelowna  General Hospital on August 9th, aged 75 years. Mrs. Dore was  born in Font Hill, Ontario, educated there and graduated as a  school teacher. She taught in Ontario for some time before coming to Pincher Creek, Alberta, where she taught for several  years.  Mr. and Mrs. George Dore were married in Pincher Creek  57 years ago and came to Kelowna in 1918. She is survived by  her husband, George L., two sons Charles and Richard in Kelowna, two daughters, Mrs. K. W. Griffith (Nellie) of North Vancouver, and Mrs. A. E, Vowles (Mabel) of West Vancouver. One  son, Harold, predeceased during World War II. Mrs. Dore was  president of the Rebekah Lodge of British Columbia in 1937, and  had been an ardent worker for the lodge through the years.  167 We Will Remember Them  MRS. ADA NEWTON: Mrs. Newton was born in London,  England in 1887. She received her education there and trained  as a nurse at St. Thomas Hospital. She came to Canada in 1908  residing for two years in London, Ontario, then returned to  England. In 1912 she came to Kelowna, where she was D. W.  J. Knox's first office nurse.  Mr. and Mrs. Newton were married in Kelowna in 1915.  Mrs. Newton was the first woman to swim across Okanagan  Lake. She was a life member of St. Michael and All Angel's  Church Women's Auxiliary, and was an active worker for her  church. She was a member of the Shakespeare Club. She was  very active during World War 11 with many organizations  helping the bombed out Britons.  Toward the end of her life, Mrs. Newton was an invalid  for many years, a victim of multiple sclerosis. She is survived  by her husband, W. A. A. Newton, two sons, John of Vancouver and Peter in Kelowna; two daughters, Rosemary at home  and Mrs. T. Bakke (Jean) of Whitehorse. One sister survives, and  six grandchildren. Mrs. Newton died on July 30, 1961, at the  age of 72.  BERT PATTERSON: Mr. Patterson died in the Kelowna General Hospital on July 29, 1961, aged 61 years. He was born in  Ruthergland, Man., and came to Kelowna 56 years ago with  his parents. An avenue in the city is named after them.  He was master of St. George's Lodge, A. F. and A. M., in  1952, first principal of the Royal Arch Chapter, Kelowna, in 1949  and was a member of Scottish Rites Bodies, Vernon, Okanagan  Lodge of Perfection, Moray and Rose Croix chapters.  He is survived by his wife, two brothers, George of Duncan, James of Kelowna, four sisters, Mrs. E. Patterson (Mamie)  of Vancouver; Mrs. F. Dalzell (Florence) of Kamloops, Mrs. G.  Finley (Nellie) of Victoria and Mrs. R. F. Covey (Frances) of  Winfield.  MRS. ELLA FOURT GRAY: Mrs. Gray died in Kelowna General Hospital on July 13, 1961, at the age of 92. Her husband,  T. A. Gray, who predeceased her, came from their home in Wisconsin in 1906 to Okanagan Centre. Mrs. Gray was active with  the Christian Science Church, being a charter member when  168- We Will Remember Them  the society was formed in Kelowna and was a reader for several years. She was a member of the Okanagan Centre Women's Institute.  She is survived by one daughter, Mrs. Len Seeman (Sara)  of Kent, Washington, three grandchildren and seven great  grandchildren.  MRS. HANNAH PETTIGREW: Mrs. Pettigrew, a resident of  Kelowna since 1907, passed away on August 15, 1961, in her  96th year. She is survived by two daughters, Ida (Mrs. George  N. Kennedy), Olive (Mrs. A. Neill), Kelowna; two sons, Charles  of Victoria, and James of Kelowna, eleven grandchildren, twenty-  seven great grandchildren and three great-great-grandchildren.  Two sisters also survive.  The business of Pettigrew Jewellers, was opened in 1912  by two sons. lames Pettigrew has taken an active part in community affairs in Kelowna, having been Alderman, Mayor and  Fire Chief.  MRS. CAROLINE RENSHAW: A well-known resident of the  Okanagan, died in Penticton on October 31, 1960, at the age of  89. She was the daughter of Frederick Brent who arrived by  pack-train at Okanagan Mission in 1865, and was one of the  first and best-known pioneers in the Okanagan. He created and  operated the first stone grist mill in the Okanagan about 1871.  Mrs. Renshaw was born at Okanagan Mission and attended  Father Pandosy's Church School, and the Public School. Later  she attended St. Anne's Academy at Kamloops, where she  taught music, art and sewing in addition to the regular school  subjects.  Frederick Brent was a Justice of the Peace and Caroline  helped him with his correspondence and other business.  Caroline Brent married Martin Renshaw, a farmer at Kelowna. In 1916 they moved to Roe Lake in the Cariboo, then  later to! Williams Lake. They farmed at both these places.  Mrs. Renshaw was a school trustee at Roe Lake and also the  Post Mistress for the District, the Post Office being in her home.  For over ten years she was a mail carrier and brought in the  mail once a week through all kinds of weather, even when the  temperature dropped to 40 degrees below zero.  Mr. Renshaw died at Williams Lake. In 1943 Mrs. Renshaw  169 We Will Remember Them  bought  a home  in  Penticton  where,  with  the  exception  of  a  couple of years at Kaleden, she lived until her death.  She had three sons. David was killed in the First World  War. Leonard and Russell survive her; also seven grandchildren and 13 great grandchildren.  JOHN (HANS) RICHTER: A well known resident of the Similkameen Valley and a half brother of British Columbia's Minister of Agriculture, died in the Penticton Hospital July 16. He  was 82. He was the youngest son of the first family of the late  Francis Richter, a pioneer of the South Similkameen. He was  born on the "R" Ranch, now the A. H. Cawston Ranch in 1879.  An exponent of horsemanship, the late "Hans" Richter was the  winner of many medals and trophies and in his younger days  held the Western Canadian bucking championship. He is survived by his wife, four sons and six daughters; two brothers, a  half brother and three half sisters.  COLIN McCRAE: The first manager of the Bank of Montreal's Vernon Branch, died suddenly in Puerto Rico in June of  this year at the age of 80. He was predeceased by his wife several years ago, and is survived by one son Colin, in Puerto  Rico; one brother, Dr. McCrae of Vancouver, and a nephew,  Dr. Norman MacKenzie, president of the University of British  Columbia.  MISS PHYLLIS WILSON: A Penticton resident for 45 years,  died in Penticton on August 4, 1961, at the age of 63. She came  to Canada 49 years ago from Australia to live with her uncle  and aunt, Captain and Mrs. George Robertson.  Captain Robertson was the captain on several boats, including the steamer Sicamous, of the British Columbia Lake and  River Service of the Canadian Pacific Railway.  Miss Wilson was a member of the Penticton Branch of the  Okanagan Historical Society, and the Penticton Horticultural  Society. She was a member of St. Saviour's Anglican Church  and active in "Brownie" work where she acted as "Brown Owl"  for over 29 years. During the Second World War she was a  member of the Red Cross Corps.  She is survived by one sister, Mrs. Alice Woodall in West  ern Australia.  170 We Will Remember Them  MR. HUGH RAMSAY: Born in Glasgow, Scotland, May 13,  1871, died in Vernon, June 14, 1961, at the age of 91. Mr. Ramsay with his wife and 2 sons migrated to Canada in 1908 and  arrived in Vernon in 1911. For many years he was employed  at the C.P.R. shipyard, Okanagan Landing. He will be best remembered for his untiring work with the United Church as a lay  preacher chiefly in the Lumby area. Surviving are three sons,  Dr. J. F. Ramsay and Hugh Ramsay of Seattle; Bert Ramsay of  Winfield and one daughter, Mrs. J. E. Lewis, of West Vancouver. He was predeceased by his wife several years ago.  WARWICK ARNOTT: With the passing of Warwick Arnott  on May 13, 1961", in his 74th year, the southern Okanagan lost  one of the few survivors of the pioneer days.  Born in Beckenham, Kent, England, he came to Penticton  in 1903 when he was seventeen. In the bustling Fairview days,  he drove the stage between Penticton and Oroville, and later  went into the hotel business in Okanagan Falls with the late  W. B. Hine. Joining the 2nd CMRs a month after the outbreak of  World War I, Mr. Arnott served until after the armistice when  he returned to the old stage route between Penticton and Oroville, then one of the first motor stages in the district.  In 1919, he married Ellen Bassett, a member of one of the  pioneer Valley families. In his later years he operated the Penticton Auto Camp on Lakeshore Drive.  His wife, one daughter, Mrs. R. D. Symonds of Penticton,  and two' grandchildren survive as well as a brother and sister  in England.  FREDERIKA WILHELMINA CARMICHAEL: Died in Oliver  on April 24th and in her passing the southern district lost one  of its old time residents.  Mrs. Carmichael was born in Osoyoos on December 10th,  1877, the daughter of Theodore Kruger who came to Osoyoos  in 1866 to manage the Hudson's Bay trading post there. Later  he succeeded Judge J. C. Haynes as Custom's Officer there.  Except for brief periods in Nelson, Mrs. Carmichael has  lived in the district all her life. In 1898 she married Duncan Carmichael who predeceased her in 1932.  171 We Will Remember Them  She is survived by a brother, Theodore "Babe" Kruger,  now residing in Osoyoos, two daughters, Flora, of Oliver, and  Hilda of Vancouver, and three sons, Donald and Frederick of  Nelson and Wilfred of Seattle.  ELIZABETH INGLIS: Of Lumby died in Vernon on March 30  at the age of 95. Born at Ferry Hill, County Durham, England  and married at Roadhouse, 111., in 1886, Mrs. Inglis came with  her husband to Creighton Valley in 1892 and to Lumby in '97.  Mrs. Inglis played a great part in community affairs, particularly with the Lumby Fall Fair. Active in women's organizations,  she will be long remembered for her work in the planning of  the Lumby United Church. She was a friend of the sick, and her  home was noted for its hospitality. She was predeceased by her  husband in 1944.  BENJAMIN ARTHUR THORNTON: A native of Colverley,  Yorkshire, and a resident of Armstrong for the past 54 years,  died suddenly at the home of his son Jack on October 19, 1960.  A farmer in the Armstrong district for 46 years, he was past  president and an honorary life member of the Interior Provincial  Exhibition Association. He was a Past District Deputy Grand  Master A.F. & A.M., District No. 9 and a Past Master of Spallumcheen Lodge No. 13. Only a week before his death, he was  presented with a fifty year membership button at a meeting  of the lodge.  CHARLES GRIGGS ELLIOT: A pioneer resident of Peachland, died in the Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton on October 24, 1960, at the age of 91. Mr. Elliott was born in Quebec  and came to Peachland in 1898 at the request of J. M. Robinson, to teach in the one room school. After teaching for nine  years, he took up fruit growing. He became a member of Peach-  land's first municipal council in 1908 and held office until 1912  when he moved to Edmonton to resume teaching.  GORDON WABUM WHYTE: A son of the first resident minister in Peachland, Rev. C. W. Whyte died on board a small  freighter at sea in September 1960 en route home from a holiday  in Europe. He was 66. A veteran of the the First World War, he  took up dentistry on his discharge and on retirement from his  professional work in 1948, he made Peachland his home. A  brother Bryson M. Whyte of Vernon survives.  172 We Will Remember Them  JOSEPH WATKIN: Pioneer Vernon resident and car dealer,  died at his home in Vernon on Monday, August 21. He was 74.  Born in Belfast, Ireland, Joe came to Canada in 1903 and to Vernon in 1911. His lifetime was spent in the motor car business,  first in England, then in Eastern Canada and finally for over  50 years in Vernon. Joe was a co-founder of the Vernon Rotary  Club and a life member of the Golf Club and the Country Club;  a member of the Vernon Club; the Yacht Club; and the Miriam  Lodge A.F. & A.M. Surviving are his wife, one daughter, four  brothers and two sisters.  R. H. (DICK) ESTABROOKS: In Penticton on September 2,  1961, at the age of 58. He was the son of Captain G. L. Estabrooks, first captain of the C.P.R. SS Aberdeen. Born in Okanagan Mission, Mr. Estabrooks came to Penticton in 1908 where  he received his education. He joined the Kettle Valley line in  1917 at the age of fifteen and had completed 42 years of continuous service with the C.P.R. Mr. Estabrooks was active in  athletics and possessed a fine capacity for friendship. He is  survived by his wife Lillian, two sons, Donald of Summerland,  and Bruce of Fort St. John, and one daughter, Helen, Mrs. Jack  Killins of North Bend, and six grandchildren.  DR. IOHN E. HARVEY: Died suddenly at his home in Vernon on May 17, 1961. He was born in Indian Head, Saskatchewan, and was 75 years of age. Graduating in medicine from  Queen's University in 1919, he came to Verrnon in 1921 and for  some years he was in partnership with Dr. Osborne Morris and  later built the Medical Arts building where he became associated with Drs. Strong, Wright and Hart Scarrow from which  group the Vernon Clinic sprang. An active member of the Vernon United Church, he served on the Board of Trustees and was  an enthusiastic member of the choir. An active Mason, he held  the honorary 33rd degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish  Rite of Freemasonry which he received in company with the  Rt. Hon. lohn Diefenbaker and Premier Leslie Frost. He was  a member of the Fish and Game Club, the Vernon Club, the  Vernon Golf Club and Lawn Bowling Club. Dr. Harvey is survived by his wife, one son, Harold, of Don Mills, Ontario, and  one granddaughter and two sisters, Misses M. E. and Peggy  Harvey of Vernon.  173 \Jkanaaan ^J^ristoricai Societu  PATRONS  Bagnall, G. P., 3317 Coldstream Ave., Vernon  Bagnall, Mrs. Luta, 3317 Coldstream Ave., Vernon  Fenton, Miss' Annie, Enderby  Stuart, G. R., Fintry  HONORARY LIFE  MEMBERS  Rev. J. C. Goodfellow, D.D., Box 187, Princeton  Marriage, F. T., 424 Park Ave., Kelowna  Ormsby, Dr. Margaret, University of British Columbia, Vancouver  Weeks, Capt. J. B., 614 Martin St., Penticton  MEMBERS  Adam, E. L., 578 Rose Ave., Kelowna  Allen, Drew, 2906 32nd St., Vernon  Alton, Mrs. K., Osoyoos  Amos,, Ron, Oliver  Andrews, George, 769 E. 25th Ave., Vancouver  Ansell, C. H., 2105, 28th Cresc., Vernon  Armstrong, Mrs. Gertrude, Cawston  Arnold, G. N., R.R.l, Winfield  Arnold, Mrs. L, Oliver  Atkinson, R. N., 551 Conklin Ave., Penticton "  * Bagnall, G. P., 3317 Coldstream Ave., Vernon  * Bagnall, G. C, 10,951 S. Hermosa Ave., Chicago 43, Illinois, U.S.A.  * Bagnall, Mrs. Luta, 3317 Coldstream Ave., Vernon  Baird, R. A. Enderby  Ball, Mrs. A. H., Box 1161, Vernon  Banner, C. F., c/o Canada Safeway, Vernon  Bearcroft, E. S., 599 Eckhardt Ave., Penticton-  Becker, Mayor F., City Hall, Vernon  Bedford, J. W., 2021 Stirling Place, Kelowna  Bearcroft, Mrs. E. S., 599 Eckhardt Ave., Penticton  Becker, E., Osoyoos  Bennett, Mrs. C. G., Box 2278, R.R.l, Penticton  Berner, Mrs. A., 2500, 26th St., Vernon  Berry, A. E., 2401, 26th St., Vernon  Beurich, W., Osoyoos  * Bingley, Mrs. A., c/o 3811, 30th Ave., Vernon  Boone, H., Oliver  * Boss, M. T., 455 E. 17th Ave., Vancouver  Bovey, A. M., Vernon  Boyd, Mrs. M., 512 Boulevard N.W., Calgary  Bristow, Mrs.  C, 3614, 30th Ave., Vernon  Brown, I. R., Oliver  Brown, J., Oliver  Buckland, D. S., Okanagan Mission  Bull, Mrs. C. R., Okanagan Mission  Bull, Frank, 169 Grandview St., Penticton  Burtch, Mrs. H. B., R.R. 2, Kelowna  Butler, Mrs. W. J., 2379 McNeil Ave., Victoria  Cail, Mrs. M., Armstrong  Caley, Hugh, Armstrong  Cameron, G. D., Box 86, Kelowna  Cameron, J. D., 343 Brunswick St., Penticton  Cameron, W. A., 2337 Richter St., Kelowna  Cameron, Mrs. D., 3204, 33rd Ave., Vernon  174 Okanagan Historical Society  Campbell, Mrs. I. K., 3306 25th St., Vernon  Carney, Dr. J. J., Box 1312, Abbotsford  Carney,  Mrs. T. J., R.R.2, Kelowna  Carruthers, W. R., 727 Elliott Ave., Kelowna  Carruthers, Mrs. W. R., 727 Elliott Ave., Kelowna  Casorso, Anthony,  Box 102,  R.R.4, Kelowna  Casorso, Leo, 741 Saucier Ave., Kelowna  Casorso, Mrs. V., Oliver  Cawston, Mrs. Verna, 1188 Kilwinning St., Penticton  * Chambers, E. J., Lower Bench, Penticton  Chichester, Bertram, Box 41, Rutland  Christensen, S. P., 2700 30th Ave., Vernon  Christie, J. P., Okanagan Falls  Clark, Cecil, Box 760, Vernon  Clarke, J. B., McM., Keremeos  Clarke, G. B., Oliver  Cleland, E. H., R.R., Penticton  Clement, Mrs. C. G., 2276 Speer St., Kelowna  Clement, Mrs. E., 924 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  * Clement, J. P., 1332 Walnut St., Victoria  Clements, W. E., 1246 Broughton St., Kelowna  Coates, J., Oliver  * Cochrane, H. E-, 2006 28th Cresc, Vernon  * Cochrane, Mrs. H. E., 2006 28th Cres,c, Vernon  Cohen, Jack, Keremeos  Collen, C. D., Oliver  Collett, H. C. S., Box 9, Okanagan Mission  Conroy,  J. J., 2259 Aberdeen St., Kelowna  Cooper, R. K., 3000, 31st Ave., Vernon  Cooper, E. W. A., 897 Winnipeg St., Penticton  Cope, C., Osoyoos  Corbitt, H. W., Kaleden  Corbishley, D., Oliver  Corbishley, Mrs.  G.,  Oliver  Corner, J., R.R.4, Vernon  Corner, R. W., R.R.l, Kelowna  Cousins, E. B., 3006 31st St., Vernon  Craster, R. G., 2200, 34th St., Vernon  Crook, W. H., Oliver  Crozier, Mrs. I., 1801, 32nd St., Vernon  Cryderman, Miss H., 2603 23rd St., Vernon  Cummings, A. E., Penticton  Cunliffe,  E. H., R.R.2, Vernon  Davidson, A. H., Box 151, Westbank  Davidson, R. A., 2604 16th St., Vernon  Davis, Archer, Grand Forks  Davis, Mrs. H. V., 526 Braid St., Penticton  Dawe, Miss H., 3104 E. 27th Ave., Vancouver  Dawson, Crae, Osoyoos  Doerflinger, Mrs. E., Mara  Deering, A. J., R.R.l, Falkland  DeHart, N. E., 260 Lake Ave., Kelowna  Delcourt, F. V., 1835 Marshall St., Kelowna  DeLorme, A., 3505 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Denison, E. N., 3001, 28th St., Vernon  Deschamps, L. F., 3004 30th Ave., Vernon  Dewdney, E., 1428 Balfour St., Penticton  Dewdney, Mrs. W. R., 273 Scott Ave., Penticton  Dill'man, A., R.R.2, Kelowna  Dixon, Mrs. E., Oliver  175 Okanagan Historical Society  Dobson, K.,  R.R.3, Vernon  Doyle, Bishop W. E., 813 Ward St., Nelson  Dumont, P., Osoyoos,  Du Moulin, L. St.M., 5584 Churchill St., Vancouver 9  Duncan, R., R.R.l, Penticton  Duncan, R., Armstrong  Dunne, Mrs. F., R.R.,  Armstrong  Ellis, Miss K. W., 268 Cambie St., Penticton  Emanuele, Dr. H., 626 Main St., Penticton  Emerson, Fred, Okanagan Falls  Estabrooks, O. L., 352 Main St., Penticton  Fairweather,  V., Oliver  Faulkner, R., Tennis St., Penticton  Fenton, R. M., R.R.l, Enderby  Fillmore, D. C, 1470 Water St., Kelowna  Fisher, Mrs. D. V., Trout Creek,  Summerland  Fitzgerald, Mrs. G. D., R.R.3, Kelowna  Fitzmaurice, Miss K., 3104 30th Ave., Vernon  Fleming, Mrs. M. E., 4209, 34th St., Vernon  Fleming, S. A., 2001 Schubert Ave., Vernon  Forster, Mrs. M.,  1118 Government St.,  Penticton  Francis,, Blaine, Oliver  Fraser, F. J., 5226 Cambie St., Vancouver  Fraser, Major H., Okanagan Falls  Fraser, R. A., 722 Lawson Ave., Kelowna  French, Mrs. Geo., Oliver  Gervers, John, 2640 Bath St., Kelowna  Geddes, H., Lakeside Rd., Penticton  Gillespie, Noel, 6640 S.W. Scholls Ferry Rd., Portland 23, Oregon  Gladman, Mrs. G. G., St. Paul, Minn., U.S.A.  Godwin,  Mrs.  J.,   Wade  Ave.,   Penticton  Goldie, J., Okanagan Centre  Goodman, L., Osoyoos  Gordon, R. J., 258 Riverside Ave., Kelowna  Gorman, H, 3503 30th Ave., Vernon  Gough,  G. A., Oliver  Graf, W., Osoyoos  * Graham, G. G., Osoyoos  Grant, J. Sr., Box 1030, Vernon  Greenside, E. L., 1758 Ellis St., Kelowna  Gregory, Mrs. C,  R.R.,  Armstrong  Gregory, V. E., Osoyoos  Guidi, R., Oliver  Gummel, Mrs. A., Oliver  Hack, Mrs. F. W., R.R., Oliver  Hales, F. C, 1069 Harvey Ave., Kelowna  * Hall, John, 2062 Argyle Ave., Penticton  Hall, R. O., Oliver  Hamilton, W. D., R.R.4, Vernon  Hanbury, A. W., Osoyoos  Harris, F., c/o The Vernon News, Vernon  Harris, J. G., R.R.l, Penticton  Harvey,  John, Quesnel  Harwood, F. V., 3102, 41st Ave., Vernon  Hassen, Mat., Armstrong  Haug, R., 1746 Water St., Kelowna  Hayes, Mrs. H., R.R.3, Armstrong  Haynes,, Val C, Oliver  Hayward, W., 3108 24th St., Vernon  Higgin, N., West Summerland  176 Okanagan Historical Society  Hopkins, Mrs. J. L., Armstrong  Howrie, D., 2507 37th Ave.,  Vernon  Hoy, Ben, 1902 Pandosy St., Kelowna  Hunter, F., Wilson Ave., Armstrong  Hunter, I., Oliver  Hurmuses, Jeff, Kalamalka Hotel, Vernon  Husband, C, R.R.2, Vernon  Inkster, Dr. W. H., 3303   31st St., Vernon  Innis, Mrs. W., Keremeos  Iversen, Mrs. A.,  1965 Pandosy St., Kelowna  Jack, C, 2150 Haultain St., Victoria  Jackson, Mis,s Anne, R.R.2, Vernon  Jackson, Mrs. O., R.R.3, Kelowna  Jacques, G., 3122 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Jamieson, J. E., Armstrong  Jardine, Mrs. R., Oliver  Job, F., Enderby  Johnson, G. Byron, R.R.4, Vernon  Johnston, H. W., 469 Woodruff Ave., Penticton  Johnson, Mrs. J. A., R.R.l, Kelowna  Kabella, Mrs. S., R.R.4, Kelowna  Keating, H. K., 452 Birch Ave., Kelowna  Kelly, Mrs. C. C, R.R.l, Kelowna  Kermode, D., 2903 31st Ave., Vernon  Kerry, L. L., 2188 Abbott St., Kelowna  Kidston, J. B., R.R.2, Vernon  Kidston, J. R., 3900 Pleasant Valley Rd., Vernon  Kidston, Mrs. J. R., 3900 Pleasant Valley Rd., Vernon  King, Grant, 471 Lakeshore Dr., Penticton  King, Mrs. R., Kaleden  Kinloch, D. F. B., R.R.2, Vernon  Kneller, Jabez, R.R.4, Vernon  Kreller, W. B., Oliver  Knight, G., 450 Ellis St., Penticton  Knowles, C. W-, 2641 Abbott St., Kelowna  Knowles, Mrs. J. B., 879 Manhattan Drive, Kelowna  Knox, Dr. W. J., 1855 Pandosy St., Kelowna  Lacey, Mrs. K., Box 144, Osoyoos  Lamont, Mrs. J., R.R.4, Kelowna  Latimer, G. B., 613 Martin St., Penticton  Lea, G. B., 1345 Gordon Ave., West Vancouver  Lefroy, A., 3403 30th St., Vernon  Lefroy, C. B., 3506 25th St., Vernon  Leighton, C. M., Oliver  Lenke, R. H., Oliver  Lincoln, M., 3500 32nd St., Vernon  Lindsay, Mrs. B., Osoyoos  Lindsay, Mrs. J., Oliver  Lloyd-Jones, Mrs. W., 530 Buckland Ave., Kelowna  Lohlein, E., Osoyoos,  Long, Mrs. R., Osoyoos  Lowle, F. F. W., Skaha Lake, Penticton  * Loyd, A. K., 381 Glenwood Ave., Kelowna  Lutener, Mrs. C. S. Massett  Lynes,  G., c/o Bank of Montreal, Penticton  * Macorquodale, Mrs. D. F., Box 77, Georgetown, Br. Guiana  Main, Miss S., Oliver  Maki, Mrs. E. J., 2049 Valley View, Kamloops  Manery, S. R., Cawston  Marrion, T. J., 2603 19th St., Vernon  177 Okanagan Historical Society  Martin, D. J., 2038 Macdonald St., Vancouver 8  Massy, G. E., 81 High St., Victoria  Melville,  T.  C, Bank of Montreal,  Penticton  Middleton, Mrs. D., Okanagan Centre  Middleton, Mrs. M., Jade Bay, Oyama  Miles, F. A., 3301 35th Ave., Vernon  Mitchell, Miss J. B., 1716 Pandosy Manor, Kelowna  MitcheU, Mrs. J. H., R.R., Oliver  Mohr, Mrs. M., 2506 36th Ave.,  Vernon  Morrison, G. F., 644 Kingsway, Winnipeg  Moss, Mrs. A., 2500 Abbott St., Kelowna  Munro, Finlay, 1701 Fairford Ave., Penticton  Munro, Mrs. K. K., Box 129, Kelowna  Murray,  Miss P.,  Armstrong  Mutrie, G. B., 2906 33rd St., Vernon  McCallum, J. B., Bank of Montreal, Vernon  McClelland, J. B., 990 Richter St., Kelowna  McCuddy, A., Oliver  McCulloch, Capt. A. W., 1939 Abbott St., Kelowna  McDonald, F. O., Oliver  McDonald, R. A., 470 Granville St., Vancouver  McDougald, J., R.R.l, West Summerland  McDougall, R. J., Sorrento  McGibbon, A., Oliver  McGie,  W.  Ross,   General Delivery, Field  McGolderick, A., Oliver  McGuire, M. V., R.R.2, Vernon  McGuire, Mrs. M. V., R.R.2, Vernon  Mcintosh, Miss R. H., Nelson  McKenzie, Rt. Rev. W. B., 923 Burdett Ave., Victoria  McMynn,  D. J.,  Trail  Neave, Mrs. M. C, Box 224, R.R.2, Kelowna  Nelson, Miss E. P., Keremeos  Netherton, Dr. W. J., 657 Winnipeg St., Penticton  Newstrom, Mrs. W. E., Oliver  Norris, Hon. Justice T. G., Vancouver  Nutt, William, 295 Manor Park Drive, Penticton  Nuttall, Mrs. W., Naramata  Ogilvie,   Gordon,  R.R.,   Oliver  Oliver, W. J., 3112, 21st Ave., Vernon  Olmstead,  Eric,   Barnard  Ave.,   Vernon  Osborn, C. D., Coldstream Ranch, Vernon  Park, Alan J., 2911 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Parkinson, R. F., c/o Laurel Co-operative, Kelowna  Parsons, H. B., Oliver  Parsons, Mrs. M., Okanagan Landing  Patten, Mrs. C. J., Armstrong  Patterson, Mrs. A. L., No. 15, 1489 St. Paul St., Kelowna  Patterson, Miss Lily, 1489 St. Paul St., Kelowna  Pendleton, Mrs. E., Keremeos  Perley, Rev. D. M., 1846 Water St., Kelowna  Peterman, A. N., Box 193, Oliver  Pettigrew, J. D., 1961 Abbott St., Kelowna  Phillips, Dr. J. H., 2107 27th Ave., Vernon  Phihoott, Gordon, 1211 Ethel St., Kelowna  Piddocks, Mrs. J. L., R.R.2, Anderson Rd. Kelowna  Plaskett, K. A., Osoyoos  Poole, T., c/o Canadian Legion, Vernon  Pooley, Mrs. I. G., 1944 Abbott St., Kelowna  Pooley, N. R. C, East Kelowna  178 Okanagan Historical Society  Popham, R. E-, 1905 37th Ave., Vernon  Porteous, Major H. A., Oliver  Pothecary, J., Armstrong  Pound, Rev. A. C, 1343 Haywood Ave., West Vancouver  Power, Miss M., 308 Lakeshore Dr., Penticton  Powley, W. R., R.R.l, Winfield  Pringle, R. J., Enderby  Pugh, D., Oliver  Quigley, W. D., R.R.5, Kelowna  Quinn, Dr. F. H., 1975 McDougall St., Kelowna  Reid, Miss E., 614 Martin St., Penticton  Reid, Mrs. Gladys, 1807 Marshall St., Kelowna  Renwick, H. A., 708 1445 Marpole; Ave., Vancouver 9  Renwick, Miss M. S., 987 Lawrence Ave., Kelowna  Richards, D. E., 1923 Pandosy St., Kelowna  Richmond, L., Oliver  Richter, Frank X., R.R., Cawston  Ripley, A. C, Oliver  Ritchie,   T.,   c/o  Greyhound Lines,  Vernon  Roadhouse, Les., 990 Richter St., Kelowna  Roberts, J., Box 49, Chapman Camp  Rorke, H. O., 624 Young St., Penticton  Ross, Dr. D. A., 1703, 37th Ave., Vernon  Ross,, Mrs. D. H., 2103 25th Ave., Vernon  Rutherford, Mrs. R. G., 1861 Bowes St., Kelowna  Sanford, F. J.  Sankey, Mrs. P. O., 1375 W. 15th Ave., Vancouver  Scott, Mrs. H., Oliver  Seath, R. W., 1934 McDougall St., Kelowna  Seaton, J. E., Seaton Rd., Winfield  Selwyn, Mrs. F., Peachland  Semrau, O, 3100 32nd St., Vernon-  Seymour, S. P., 3111 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Sexsmith, Mrs. D., 880 Manhattan Dr., Kelowna  Shannon,   Mrs.   R.,   Oliver  Shaw, Mrs. J. D., Box 2290, R.R.l, Penticton  Shore, Mrs. R., 2100 34th St., Vernon  Simms, J. G., 3303 26th St., Vernon  Simpson, H. B., 176 Vimy Ave., Kelowna  Simpson, N. V., R.R.l, Oliver  Simpson, Mrs. R. M., 808 Lawrence Ave., Kelowna  Simpson, Mrs. S. M., 2120 Abbott St., Kelowna  Sismey, E. D., 1348 Government St., Penticton  Skipper, R. V., Box 34, Dewdney  Smith, Mrs. Aird, 3101 39th Ave., Vernon  Smith, E. C, Oliver  Smith, Mrs,. E. L., 3910 30th Ave., Vernon  Smith,  George, Armstrong  Smith, R. W., R.R.l, Osoyoos  Smith, W. J., Armstrong  Snelson, Mrs. W. H., 280 Farrell St., Penticton  Solly, I. H., Bank of Montreal, Esquimalt  Sommerville, D., Oliver  South, Mrs. G., 603 Van Home St., Penticton  Sovereign, Rt. Rev. A. H., 2501 23rd St., Vernon  Speechly, M. K, R.R.2, Vernon  Spence, A., R.R.2, Vernon  Stadola, S., Osoyoos  Sterling, P. S., 2504 24th St., Vernon  Stickland, Mrs. E-, Box 429, Enderby  179 Okanagan Historical Society  Strother, J. G., 3400 19th St., Vernon  Stubbs, Mrs. A. H., Okanagan Mission  Sunderland, Mrs. E. J., 3305 22nd St., Vernon  Sutherland, J. J., Enderby  , Swift, A. A., 281 Haynes St., Penticton  Taylor, C. H., R.R.3, Kelowna  Tassie, G. C, R.R.2, Vernon  Tassie, Peter, 2304 25th Ave., Vernon  Taylor, R. S., West Bench, Penticton  Thompson, Miss A. B., 446 Park Ave., Kelowna  Thomson, J. S., R.R.4, Kelowna  Thorburn, H. J., R.R.3, Vernon  Thornloe, F. Jr., East Kelowna  Thornton-Trump, Ted, Oliver  Titchmarsh, E. A., 250 Farrell St., Penticton  Tomlin, V., R.R., Oliver  Truswell, H. A., Box 272, Kelowna  Turnbull, Mrs. A. D., 18 Ritchie Ave., Trail  Turner, R. G., Box 1305, Rossland  Turner, R. M. H, West Summerland  Tutt, Mrs. D., Box 184, R.R.l, Kelowna  Upton, Mrs. T. B., Okanagan Mission  Van Blaricom, E. W., 409 Cedar Ave., Kelowna  Van Buskirk, Mrs. L., Hantsport, N.S.  Van Der Burg, Mrs. W., 1652 Fairview Rd., Penticton  Venables, E. P., 2205 39th Ave., Vernon  Venables, Mrs. V., 310 Dallas Rd., Victoria  Viel, L. A., 3104 32nd St., Vernon  Wagenhauser,  Mrs.  Emma,  108 Radcliffe Rd.,  Belmont 78, Mass.,  U.S.A.  Walburn, H. G., R.R.5, Kelowna  Walker, H., Suite 11, 1797 Water St., Kelowna  Walker, Mrs. W. D., Walker Rd., Okanagan Mission  Wallace, Mrs. J., R.R.4, Kelowna  Walsh, Anthony, Benedict Labre House, 308 Young St., Montreal, P.Q.  Ward, A., R.R.3, Kelowna  Ward, Edith A., Ste. 1A, 905 Chilco St., Vancouver 5  Ward, H., R.R.3, Kelowna  Warren, Mrs. A. M., 854 Main St., Penticton  Waterman, Miss Dolly, Osoyoos  Watkin, J., 2205 30th Ave., Vernon  Watt, G. M., Okanagan Mission  Weatherhill, H.  P., The Royal Bank of Canada,  675 Hastings St.,  Vancouver  Weddell, E- C, 1659 Bertram St., Kelowna  Weddell, A. D., 274 Lake Ave., Kelowna  Weddell, Mrs. Mary, Box 120, Rutland  Weddell, Mrs. R., Osoyoos  Weeks, E., Box 393, Kelowna  * Weeks, G. A., Box 637, Revelstoke  * Weeks, L. J., 3211 Kitchener St., Vancouver  * Weeks, T., 582 Edmund Heights, Calgary, Alta.  * Wernicke, Mrs. Ann, 2405 35th Ave., Vernon  Whitaker, H. C, R.R.l, West Summerland  Whitaker, Mrs. H. C, R.R.l, West Summerland  * White, Mrs. R. B., Skaha Lake, Penticton  * White, Ronald, 107 Battle St., Kamloops  Whitehead, W. J., 970 Lawson Ave., Kelowna  * Whitham, J. D., 1725 Pandosy St., Kelowna  Whitham, J.  Gordon,  1725 Pandosy St., Kelowna  180 Okanagan Historical Society  Wight,  W.  G.,  Oliver  Wilgress,  F. R., 4449 Pine Cresc, Vancouver 9  Wilde, A. C, 3115 30th Ave., Vernon  * Willis,  Mrs.  H., 3837 Cartier St.,  Vancouver  Willits, Mrs. P. B., 1716 Pandosy St., Kelowna  Wilson, C. J., 3102 32nd St., Vernon  Wilson, Mrs. D., 8687 Elm Drive, Chilliwack  Winkles, Mrs. W. H., Armstrong  Woodd,  H.  S., 2914 W. 29th Ave., Vancouver  Woods, Mrs. Anne, R.R.l, Westbank  Woods, J. B., Okanagan Landing  Woods, J. J., 703 Ardmore Dr., R.R.l, Sidney  Wright, H. R., R.R., Oliver  Young, Mrs,. B. F., Armstrong  Young, J. C, Oliver  Zoellner, Mrs. W. J., Box 55, Grand Forks  MUNICIPALITIES,   OTHER   PUBLIC   BODIES   AND   COMMERCIAL  ORGANIZATIONS  Allison Hotel, Vernon  Book Nook, Penticton  Boundary Historical  Society,  Grand Forks  C.J.I.B.  Radio Station,  Vernon  Calgary Public Library, 624 9th Ave., S.W., Calgary, Alta.  Canadian Bank of Commerce, Vernon  Canadian Bank of Commerce, Penticton  Carmi Avenue School, Penticton  City of Vernon Board of Museum & Archives, Vernon  Consolidated Press, 73 Richmond St., Toronto, Ont.  Davies Book Shop, 3468 Melrose Ave., Montreal, P.Q.  Eastern Washington College of Education, Cheney, Wash.  Eaton's of Canada, Vernon  Fraser Valley Regional Library, Abbotsford  Glenbow Foundation, Calgary, Alta.  Gonzaga University, E. 502 Boone Ave., Spokane, Wash.  Historical Society of Montana, Helena, Montana  Hudson's Bay Co., Vernon  Junior-Senior High School,  Armstrong  Kamloops Museum Association, Kamloops  Kelowna City Club, Kelowna  Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.  Public Library, Kansas City, Missouri  Lumby Elementary School, Lumby  Municipality of Spallumcheen, Armstrong  McGill University Library, Montreal, P.Q.  National Hotel, Vernon  National Library, Ottawa, Ont.  Library of Parliament, Ottawa, Ont.  National Museum of Canada Library, Ottawa, Ont.  The Newberry Library, Chicago, 111.  New York Public Library, New York, N.Y.  Okanagan Museum & Archives, Kelowna  Okanagan Regional Library, Kelowna  Oliver High School, Oliver  Provincial Archives,, Victoria  Provincial Library, Victoria  Provincial Museum, Victoria  Public Library, Prince George  Public Library Commission, Victoria  School District No. 16, Keremeos  181 Okanagan Historical Society  Queen's Park Elementary School, Penticton  Seattle Public Library, Seattle  School District No. 22, Vernon  School District No. 77, Summerland  School District No. 78, Enderby  Summerland High School, West Summerland  Spokane Public, Library, Spokane, Wash.  St. George's School, 3954 W. 29th Ave., Vancouver  State College of Washington Library, Pullman, Wash.  State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin  Tacoma Public Library, Tacoma, Wash.  University of British Columbia, Vancouver  University of Toronto Library, Toronto, Ont.  Vancouver City Archives, Vancouver  Vancouver Library Board, Vancouver  Vernon Club, Vernon  Vernon Junior High School, Vernon  Victoria College, Victoria  Victoria Public Library, Victoria  Wayside Press, Vernon  Wright's Travel Agency, Vernon  * Prepaid Membership  Addresses given are B.C. unless otherwise stated.  182 183 )!*  0  \0$  184   SCHOOL UKAftf  i-m^ PENTICTON   HERALD


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