Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Thirty-seventh annual report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society Nov 1, 1973

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 V  Thirty-seventh Report & N- *N* Afklltem'MlfieilRl  785 MAIN STREET  r PEMTOON/B,C   V2A5.I3  HJ£  OS  November J, 2973  PENTICTON MUSEUM & ARCHIVES  PJ=NT1CT0N, B.Q  THIRTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT  of the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  Founded Sept. 4, 1925  COVER PICTURE  Our cover was photographed by President Victor Wilson on the Field Day of the  Okanagan Historical Society at the Pandosy Mission, June 13, 1971.  It shows broad-axe artisan, Earl Carter, holding a plumb line to check the accuracy  of the beam he is fashioning. The broad-axe is now a vanishing tool, yet here is one  young man skilled in the performance of a dying craft. The log buildings at the Vancouver  Centennial Museum and all the log work at the Heritage Village at Burnaby spring from  his craftsmanship. And here, at the Mission, through the courtesy of the Provincial Museum,  we enjoyed the sight of revival of a knack outdated by modernity.  Earl Carter's broad-axe work echoes ihe skill of our own pioneers. Examine the  dove-tailed corners, the close fit of logs in the Pandosy Mission buildings,- the original  chapel where Father Pandosy ministered, The Mission school where he taught, the Christien  house and other log buildings erected more than a century ago. They still stand, sturdy  and strong, without the need of paint or other today's necessities. They will stay that way,  too, for a long time while tommorrow's buildings, with a thirty to forty year life span,  will begin to tumble down. E.D.S.  November 1, 1973 NOTICE  of Annual Meeting  of the  Okanagan Historical Society  1974  Notice is hereby given that the Annual  Meeting of the Okanagan Historical Society  will be held  SUNDAY, MAY 5, 1974  at 2:00 p.m.—Capri Motor Hotel,  Highway 97 N., Kelowna, B.C.  Afternoon Meeting 2 p.m.  and Dinner Meeting at 6:30 p.m.  BUSINESS  Presentation of Reports  Election of Officers ORDER FORM  In addition to current membership, the Society has in stock two reprints  of older Reports and some back numbers as indicated below. Please send  orders to:  MR.  JOHN   L.  SHEPHARD, Treasurer,  Okanagan Historical Society,  P.O. Box 313,  Vernon, B.C.  [ Membership for 1973-74, including  Report No. 37 $3.50    | Repring of No. 6, including many  articles from Nos. 1-5 $3.00    Repring of Nos. 7-10, under  one cover. $3.50    □ Nos. 15, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 26, 27, 28 and 29.  Circle the one you want.  Each at $2.50   □ Nos. 31 and 32. Each at $3.00    □ Nos. 35 and 36. Each at $3.50    Total Payment    I Money order or cheque enclosed.  | Invoice me.  Put my name  on   the   mailing   list.  The  current   report  will   be  automatically sent each year, and you will be invoiced.  Your Address:  Nnme  Arlrlrp<;<;  Are there any back issues you no longer want, especially those not  given above? We can use them Please send them to above address.  Thank you.  J BOOKS FOR SALE by  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL SOCIETY MEMBERS  The History of Armstrong $3.00  Plus 15 cents Tax  Johnny Serra, P.O. Box 272, Armstrong, B.C.  Illustrated History of Vernon $2.50  Plus 20 cents postage  Vernon Museum Board, P.O. Box 313, Vernon, B.C.  Ogopogo's Vigil    $4.00  Plus 20 cents tax  Okanagan Packers Union, 1344 Paul St., Kelowna, B.C.  History of St. Andrew's Church, Okanagan Mission, B.C. $1.25  Plus 15 cents postage  Mrs. Primrose Upton, Box 1, Okanagan Mission, B.C.  Penticton Pioneers — in Story and Pictures    $3.60  Penticton Stationery Ltd., 250 Main St., Penticton, B.C.  Boundary Historical Society — Society Report No. 6  . . . $2.50  Plus 20 cents postage  Father Pat — Hero of the Far West $2.50  BY JEROME MERCIER  Peter Bird, Kaleden, B.C. OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  PATRON  Mrs. Charles Patten  HONORARY PRESIDENTS  Dr. Margaret Ormsby, Mr. H. C. S. Collett,  Mr. G. P. Bagnall, Mr. D. G. Cameron, Mrs. W. R. Dewdney  PRESIDENT  Mr. J. V. H. (Victor) Wilson  PAST PRESIDENT  Mr. Kenneth V. Ellison  VICE PRESIDENTS  Mrs. G. P. Broderick, Mr. J. E. Jamieson, Mrs. D. Tutt  SECRETARY  Mrs. Angeline Waterman, 4270 Lakeside, Penticton, B.C.  TREASURER  Mr. John Shephard, Box 313, Vernon, B.C.  EDITOR  Mr. Eric D. Sismey, R.R. 1, Naramata, B.C.  AUDITOR  Mr. T. R. Jenner, 3105 29th Avenue, Vernon, B.C.  ESSAY CO-CHAIRMAN  Mrs. G. P. Broderick, Mrs. G. Lundy  BRANCH OFFICERS OF EXECUTIVE COUNCIL  Mrs. Hilda Cochrane, Mrs. H. Gorman, Mr. E. Hunter, Mrs. T. B. Upton, Mr.  G. D. Cameron, Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Mr. R. F. Gale, Mrs. Harley Hatfield,  Mr. T. H. Lewis, Mr. Alfred Thomas.  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Penticton; Mrs. T. B. Upton, Kelowna; Mr. Harold  Cochrane, Vernon; Mr. J. Serra, Armstrong; Miss Dolly Waterman, Oliver-  Osoyoos  DIRECTORS AT LARGE  Mrs. A. E. Berry, Vernon; The Rev.  E. Fleming,  Kelowna;  Mrs.  H. C.  Whitaker, Summerland; Mrs. T.  H.  Lewis, Oliver-Osoyoos and Mrs. D.  Landon, Armstrong. 1973-1974  BRANCH  OFFICERS  PENTICTON BRANCH  Honorary President and Life Member: Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, 273 Scott Ave.; President: Mr.  Hugh Cleland, Upper Bench Road; Vice-President: Dr. J. J. Gibson, 112 Eckhardt Ave., W.; Past  President: Dr. W. H. White, 702Winnipeg St.; Secretary: Mrs. G. P. Broderick, Box5, Hody Drive,  Okanagan Falls; Treasurer:  Mr. Douglas Gawne, 91  Newton Drive.  Directors: Mr. J. V. H. Wilson, Mr. R. N. Atkinson, Mrs. H. C. Whitaker, Mrs.Donald Orr, Mr.  E. D. Sismey, Mr. R. F. Gale, Mr. H. R. Hatfield, Mr. Lorenzo Smuin, Mr. Claude Holden, Mr. J.W.  McConnachie, Mr. J. R. Phinney, Mr. Ivan Phillips, Mrs. F. A. MacKinnon, Mrs. E. D. Sismey, Mrs.  Faye Scott, Mrs. Louise Gabriel, Mrs. Agnes Phillip, Mrs. C. R. Adams, Mr. Peter Bird, Mr. Randy  Manuel, Mr. W. T. Lambly.  Editorial Committee: Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Mr. R. N. Atkinson, Mr. Ivan Phillips. Delegate to  Arts Council:Mr. Randy Manuel.  Members of the Penticton Branch, O.H.S., who are on the Executive Council of the Parent  Society:  1973:  Honorary President: Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Penticton; President: Mr. J. V. H. Wilson, Indian  Rock, Naramata; Vice-President: Mrs. G. P. Broderick, Box 5, Hody Drive, Okanagan Falls;  Secretary: Mrs. Angeline Waterman, 4270 Lakeside, Penticton; Editor: Mr. E. D. Sismey, RR1,  Naramata; Essay Chairman: Mrs. G. P. Broderick; Co-Chairman: Mrs. George Lundy, Box 1,  Hody Drive, Okanagan Falls; Directors: Mr. H. R. Hatfield, Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Mr. R. F. Gale;  Director at Large: Mrs. H. C. Whitaker, McLachland Road, Summerland; Editorial Committee: Mr.  E. D. Sismey, Editor, Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, plus one member from each Branch.  VERNON BRANCH  President: Ken Ellison, Middle Bench Rd., Oyama; Secretary-Treasurer: Mrs. H. Gorman,  3503 Barnard Ave., Vernon. Directors: E. B. Hunter, Mr. and Mrs. G. P. Bagnall, Mrs. K. Kinnard,  Mrs. H. Cochrane, Mrs. Ivan Crozier, Mrs. Ian Garven, Mrs. D. Greig, Mrs. A. E. Berry and Mrs. M.  DeBeck. Director at Large:  Mrs. A. E. Berry.  Editorial Committee: Mrs. G. P. Bagnall, Mrs. I. Crozier. Vernon Directors for Parent Body:  Mrs. H. Gorman, Mrs. E. B. Hunter, Mrs. H. Cochrane and Mrs. A. E. Berry.  OLIVER-OSOYOOS BRANCH  President: R. M. Iverson; Vice-President: T. H. Lewis; Secretary: Mrs. Dorothea Lewis;  Treasurer:  Mrs. P. Driver; Editorial Board:  Miss Dolly Waterman.  Directors: Mrs. E. MacLennan, Mrs. H. Porteous, Mrs. Retta Long, Mr. and Mrs. Carleton  MacNaughton, Mr. Don Corbishley, Mr. Jim Mitchell, Mrs. J. A. Field.  Director at Large:  Mrs. Dorothea Lewis.  KELOWNA BRANCH  President: Mrs. T. B.,Upton, Okanagan Mission, B.C.; Vice-President: Frank Pell, 991 Leon  Ave., Kelowna, B.C.; Secretary: R. O Gore, 480 Queensway, Kelowna, B.C.; Treasurer: Mrs. J.  Surtees, Okanagan Mission, B.C.  Directors: Allan Lansdowne, F. F. Black, E. T. Sherlock, J. J. Conroy, F. G. DeHart, W. J. V.  Cameron, L. N. Leathley, G. D. Cameron, Bert Johnson, Mrs. D. Tutt, Wm. Spear, D. S. Buckland,  H. M. Powley, J. E. Marty, J. L. Neave, J. L. Piddocke, Mrs. Walter Hill.  Director at Large: Rev. E. Fleming, Highway 97, RR2, Kelowna; Editorial Committee: Mrs. T.  B. Upton, Okanagan Mission, B.C.  BRANCH OFFICERS  Kelowna: Mr. G. D. Cameron, Mr. D. S. Buckland, Mrs. T. B. Upton. EDITOR'S FOREWARD  At the annual meeting of the Okanagan Historical Society held in the  Incola Hotel at Penticton on May 13, 1973, I tendered my resignation from  the editorial chair with regret. My reasons; the burden too great and my age  was telling.  At the time I turned over sufficent material, collected since the 36th  report was published, more than enough to fill half the projected 1973 (37th)  report.  Now on an introductory page my name appears again as editor. It  seems that nobody could be found willing to assume the editorial task. Just a  few weeks ago I agreed to see the 37th report to its completion.  Naturally, with three months lost, there may be some delay in  publication. There may be shortcomings too. For this we apologize.  Your editor calls attention to two contributions of special interest.  One, a study, in depth, Okanagan Indians, by Elizabeth Dolby. This is the  type of material from which valuable historical reports are made. We get too  few.  The other, a muster of South African War (1899-1902) Veterans living  in the Okanagan and collected by Guy Bagnall. Guy was one of them. Here  are men, once "Soldiers of the Queen" living in this tiny corner of an Empire  over which, in their time, the sun never set.  Our continuing projects, Pandosy Mission and Hope-Tulameen  Brigade Trail have both been pursued actively. Work at the Mission is  reported elsewhere. Harley Hatfield has been busy with research and expeditions along the Brigade Trail have succeeded in pin-pointing newly  discovered locations. Of interest, too, is that much of this work was done by a  youthful group.  The Provincial Government, at our behest, is showing interest in  preserving the integrity of the historic trail, either by extending the boundaries of Manning Park or be declaring specific forest reserves — perhaps  both.  Mention of interest by youth groups on the Brigade Trail hikes brings  to the front the need to recruit many more young people into our society. We  must create interest and offer responsibility.  Opportunities are now available under several government assistance  programs. They should be given close attention. One such, was a Local  Initiative Project (L.I.P.) which was allotted a considerable sum, matched  by the City of Penticton, to restore the old S.S. Sicamous which was lying in a  sorry state on the beach.  Your editor urges local editorial committees to take their offices  seriously. They must be aggressive, search for and assign tasks to those who  know, and, if necessary, help put the story on paper.  This must be done while our friends are still with us, and not delayed  until they have passed through the gate at the end of the road.  There is a lot of history, still unrecorded, up and down our valley,  which, unless we work, will slowly drift away. CONTENTS  FATHER   PANDOSY  MISSION (Primrose Upton)    11  A REPORT(H. R. Hatfield)    12  HUDSON'S BAY BRIGADE  TRAIL (H. R. Hatfield)    13  A    REPORT —  BRIGADE    TRAIL  HOPE  TO TULAMEEN (H. R. Hatfield)    17  HISTORY, TOO (Eric D. Sismey)    20  THE  CHANGING   SCENE (Dorothy Hewlett Gellatly)    21  MOUNTAIN  PATHFINDER FOUNDER  OF   PRINCETON    27  ENDERBY'S  ROBERT CHADWICK (James Bell)    32  BOYHOOD   RECOLLECTIONS (J. J. Conroy)    33  CUSTOMS   OFFICER (C. B. Bash)    38  PAYNTER   FAMILY,   WESTBANK  (Sheila Paynter)    41  SIMPSON'S  SAWMILL (Jerry Rupp)    45  A WAR BRIDE'S JOURNEY (Florence E. Gould)    48  PICKING IN  THE  BALMY  DAYS (D. M. Waterman)    51  DR. B. F. BOYCE (Reba Schoenfeld)   52  THE  HOUSE  ON  THE  HILL (Ivan E. Phillips)    56  THE CARAVAN OF  HOPE (Mrs. O. V. Maude Roxby)    61  PRICE   ELLISON  ON   CHERRY   CREEK (Eric D. Sismey)    64  NORTH  OKANAGAN   NONAGENARIAN (James E. Jamieson)    65  WEST SIDE  RECOLLECTIONS (A. M. P. Stocks)    67  TOBACCO (Primrose Upton)    69  OKANAGAN  LAKE  BRIDGE (Primrose Upton)    70  NEW BOY SCOUT HALL  OPENED (Art Gray)    71  THE   PEACHLAND   STORY (Kathleen A. Aikens)    73  SUMMERLAND INDIAN   BURIAL  STORY (Ivan E. Phillips)    79  OVERLAND   EXPEDITION   OF   1862    81  OLD STEAM ENGINE VISITS PENTICTON (Eric D. Sismey)    84  THE   McCUDDY'S (Bob Iverson)   85  MEMORIES  OF  FORESTRY (A. H. Gint Cawston)    89  FIFTY YEARS  AT SEA (Eric D. Sismey)    95  OLIVER  GOLF  &  COUNTRY   CLUB (Hugh Porteous)    99  THE O'KEEFE  RANCH (Mary Moon) 101  MYNCASTER, B.C. (Eric D. Sismey) 104  ELEPHANTS  WANDERED (Eric D. Sismey) 105  THE  RISE  AND  FALL  OF   HEDLEY (David Butler) 109  THE  GREAT  FLOOD (Sam Manery) 112  F. L. McKEEVER (J. L. McKeever) 113  2nd   LOWER   SIMILKAMEEN   SCHOOL (Grant Willis) 117  THESE WERE THE  MUSIC  MAKERS (Ivan E. Phillips) 120  BOER WAR  VETS "STAND-DOWN" (Guy P. Bagnall) 123  OKANAGAN   BOOKSHELF (Eric D. Sismey) 127  N. R.   (Buck)   CRUMP 129  FUR    TRADE    AND    CULTURE    CHANGE    AMONG  OKANAGAN   INDIANS (Elizabeth Dolby) 134  OBITUARIES 152  FROM   THE   MINUTES 161  MEMBERSHIP    LIST 172 ILLUSTRATIONS  Presentation of Cheque to Father Pandosy Restoration    10  Remains of First School at Westbank   21  Remains of Allison Home at Sunnyside    23  Alfred and Barbara Thomas Display Painting of John Chance    29  Ellison Baseball Team About 1912    35  Penticton City Band, 1914    37.  E.   C.   Paynter,   Margaret   Paynter and   Grandchildren    42  Last Trip of CN Car Barge Service   44  Dr. B. F. Boyce    52  The House on The Hill   58  W. A. Cuthbert, Nonagenarian    65  Scout Hall, June, 1922    72  Old Steam Engine Visits Penticton    84  Captain Hugh  McLellan   95  Ship Arctic Stream, 1907   97  The Church at O'Keefe Ranch 103  Great Northern Train at Myncaster 104  J. Francis Guimont 105  Train Order Advising Trains to Keep Lookout for Elephants 107  Ore Train at Ore Bin, 1935, Nickel Plate Mine 111  Diesel Engine Powerhouse at Penticton 115  First Lower Similkameen School 119  Summerland Band Certificate 120  Summerland  Band 121  Mrs. Geo. Broderick, David Butler and N. R. Crump 129  Second Lower Similkameen School 133 10  FATHER  PANDOSY  MISSION  RESTORATION  Left to right: Joe Marty, Paddy Cameron, Mrs. T. B.  Upton, Mrs.  W. J.  T.  Bullm, Regent Dr. Knox Chapter I.O.D.E. Taken in  the   Chriestien  House,  January 1973, on the occasion of the presentation of a cheque from  the I.O.D.E. to the Father Pandosy Restoration.  photo FATHER PANDOSY MISSION  RESTORATION 11  FATHER PANDOSY MISSION  RESTORATION  By  PRIMROSE  UPTON  The moving of the log barn on to the Father Pandosy site marked a  great day for the committee involved in the restoration. It is a large barn  built in the early days of the Mission, and became isolated from the site when  the ranch was sold a few years after the death of Father Pandosy. Ben  Greening, owner of the property to the south of the restoration, donated the  barn, and the move was made one cold day early in January this year. The  building will need restoration, and will eventually house much of the old  farm machinery on the site. It is 62 feet long by 22 feet wide, and was moved  some 450 feet. The movers estimated its weight to be 40 to 50 tons. It was  jacked up on skids and then moved by heavy duty tractors, it was a  fascinating sight seeing the barn "inching" north to the well marked spot  where it now stands. I was sitting in the car with Paddy Cameron, Joe Marty  and my young grandson watching the operation — the last original building  to be moved. Since then foundations have been put under it, and doing the  roof will be the final touch.  The restoration committee was pleased recently to get Canada wide  coverage on the work done here, both in the Canadian Museum Gazette, and  the Dominion publication of the I.O.D.E. We are most grateful to the Dr.  Knox Chapter of the I.O.D.E. who gave us a donation in January, and to the  Father Pandosy Chapter of the Catholic Women's League in Kelowna, who  gave us a donation in April. It is assistance such as this which has helped us  so much over the years.  The Joseph Christien house, a magnificent two story example of early  building in log, has been restored — downstairs is depicted pioneer living in  the area, and upstairs the little schoolroom has been fitted up with old desks,  a stove, and a number of school books. This room is where Dorothea M.  Thomson (Mrs W. D. Walker) taught in 1894 and 1895 until the log school was  built at Ellison. At a ceremony held on July 15, 1972, Mrs. Walker rang the  old school bell for some of her former pupils.  Another log house on the property has been finished as a suite for a  caretaker. This has lessened vandalism considerably.  The Mission, founded by the Oblates in 1859, marks the tremendous  step forward in the history of the Interior of British Columbia. They encouraged settlers to come in and take up land — so here is the first settlement in the interior not based on furs or mining, but on agriculture.  It is hoped that this important work of restoration can be carried  on—the committee is always looking for avenues to raise money. Mention  must be made of the monumental amount of work done voluntarily by Joe  Marty. He has been much, much more than just a tower of strength to the  work of perpetuating the memory of Father Pandosy and his co-workers in  initiating settlement and agricultural living in this area.  In June this year, additional logs were put in where some had rotted at  the base of the barn, and cement blocks poured for foundations. The next  concern of the Committee is of Course re-roofing, replacing the aluminum  sheeting with shakes, and the moving of many pieces of farm machinery  under the protecting cover of the old barn — to further enhance the charm  and accuracy of this site, which depicts so graphically, days of pioneer living  in the Okanagan. 12 PRESERVATION AND EXPLORATION  OF FUR BRIGADE TRAILS  A REPORT ON THE  PRESERVATION  AND  EXPLORATION OF FUR BRIGADE TRAILS  MAY,  1972 to MAY,   1973  On the 17th of July last, Eric Jacobson, Phil Whitfield of the Parks  Branch and myself went up Peers Creek with several members of the Forest  Service and showed them the 1849-61 Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail where it  started to climb Manson Ridge. Letters have since gone from the Parks  Branch and others to the Minister and the Forest Service urging the  necessity of immediate steps to preserve that part of the Trail which was in  imminent danger of destruction by logging. The Minister of Resources has  given assurance that every effort is being made to preserve it.  On Dec. 22nd of 1972, the Okanagan Similkameen Parks Society  submitted a brief to the Minister of Recreation and Conservation asking for  an extension to Manning Park to take in the Brigade Trail from Peers Creek  to the Tulameen plateau. This extension would also include a section of the  Dewdney Trail, a further piece of the Hope Trail by the Skaist, pieces of the  Ghost Pass and Whatcom Trails, Paradise Valley and the Punch Bowl,  Podunk Creek, the headwaters of the Tulameen, the Sowaqua, the Snass,  and the Skaist, McLeod Peak, Johnson Peak, Mounts Outram, Dewdney,  Ford and Snass; the only truly natural and untouched country between us  and the Coast. The brief was well received and given wide support by  Historical and Conservation bodies. We understand that the proposal is now  being studied by the Parks Branch.  During last season five expeditions, that I know of, covered parts of  the Hope-Tulameen Brigade Trail; one led by Victor Wilson and Randy  Manuel of this Society making the through trip. Three of the five parties  consisted of men and Boy Scouts. One was a family party travelling by  horseback and one an exploring party-of two also-mounted.  Two more pieces of the Trail were discovered and marked and it is  interesting to note that one was found by following the description given by  Rev. J. C. Goodfellow in the 14th Report of the Okanagan Historical Society.  By exploration on the ground and the study of Lieut. H. S. Palmer's table of  latitudes the position of Campement du Chevreuil and the Trail over the  Cascade summit is definitely confirmed.  Through the co-operation of the Chief of the Geographic Division of the  Surveys and Mapping Branch, who is also the B.C. representative on the  Canadian Geographical Names Committee, a number of features along the  Trail have been named for people connected with its history. For details see  the 37th Report. Various trips and explorations on the Trail are planned for  this year.  A bit of further exploration has been done on the Okanagan Brigade  Trail this spring with rather good results considering the difficulty in  locating bits of this Trail between roads, fields, fences, newer trails, etc.  On the Hope-Tulameen Trail there are some miles and many places  where we can say with 100 per cent assurance, "This is it." But on the  Okanagan Trail it should be understood that in most places we have to settle  for 90 or 95 per cent assurance.  Markers put up so far on the Okanagan Trail are on the Mauvais  Rocher section at Nahun where the Trail descends to the Trout Creek flats  after coming through the Shingle Creek valley (leave your car where the  road turns sharply left to go down the hill; walk to the right or east along the  edge of the bench for two or three hundred yards), at the Shingle Creek HUDSON'S BAY BRIGADE TRAIL 13  crossing just below the road bridge up to the left where the Marron Valley  road first leaves the pine flat about a mile after leaving Highway 3 on the  detour known as the "Lower Road" about half a mile from the north west  corner of the Okanagan Game Farm.  There are three other places which appear to be well enough  established to be marked and which hopefully will soon be so. One is the  cross of Lambly (Bear) Creek where the road crosses and another say a mile  south of that where the road leaves the Trail location to go down along the  base of the cliffs. The third is quite a long piece in Marron Valley where the  road climbs to the westward to reach its greatest height between Highway 3  and the Green Mountain road. The Trail cut across lower down, crossing a  small stream a hundred yards or so below a meadow. From the study of  original notes of lot surveys made last century we know where the Trail went  in other places on the map but a good deal of work on the ground would be  required to mark it there.  The attention of the Historic Sites and Monuments section of the Parks  Branch has been drawn to the Mauvais Rocher segment of the Trail and they  have again reminded the Location Branch of Highways that this piece should  be protected in the event of road reconstruction in the vicinity.  Forty-eight Metalmark trail markers have been bought using the  $25.00 provided last year by the Society and a thousand plain aluminum  markers are being given by Okanagan Manufacturers Ltd. On the Hope-  Tulameen Brigade Trail, where sure of its location, we try to mark it well  enough for hikers to follow. On the Okanagan Trail a discreetly positioned  marker is placed for the benefit of those interested now and in the future.  Hopefully the souvenir hunting vandals will not find them.  A number of people have taken part in the exploration of the Trails  both on the ground and by interviews and letters.  Respectfully submitted, H. R. Hatfield  HUDSON'S BAY BRIGADE TRAIL  Summary of Events on and about the Hudson's Bay  Brigade Trail, Fort Hope to Capement Des Femmes,  for 1972 to date.  By  H. R.  HATFIELD  On the 25th of February, 1972, Victor Wilson gave an excellent slide  showing and talk to some 400 people in Vancouver. I gave a short introduction and read some excerpts from the journals of Palmer and Bushby  about their trip over the Trail in 1859. The meeting was under the auspices of  the Federation of British Columbia Naturalists and the Vancouver Natural  History Society assisted by several of the outdoor clubs of the Vancouver  area and was inspired by the missionary work of Harvie (30M) Walker.  The Hon. Frank Richter wrote to me on March 2nd quoting the  Minister of Lands, Forests and Water Resources to the effect that the Forest  Service were negotiating with the timber sale licensee on Peers Creek to see  if a reserve from cutting could be placed on the Trail area where it lies  within the sale on the west side of Manson Ridge. And that other sections of  the Trail had been noted on the maps by the Kamloops and Vancouver  Forest Districts so that Trail protection measures could be considered. And 14 HUDSON'S BAY BRIGADE TRAIL  that he believed that the Trail location and any adjacent forest cover could  be adequately protected under Forest Service administration, so that incorporation of the Trail within a gazetted park should not be necessary.  On March 19th, Mr. Richard Stace-Smith, Chairman of the Conservation Committee of the Federation of Naturalists, wrote a very fine  letter to the Minister of Recreation and Conservation. He enclosed a  resolution passed at the meeting of 25th February and signed by those  present, asking for the preservation of the Trail.  On July 17th, Eric Jacobson and I accompanied Phil Whitfield of the  Parks Branch, Harry Drage, Recreation Forest Officer, Vancouver  District; Verne Sundstrom, Ass't Ranger, Hope; Fred Amos, Forester i-c  Timber Sales, Vancouver District; up Peers Creek so that the Forest Service  people could see the location of the Trail up the west side of Manson Ridge.  On the 14th of August the Historic Parks and Sites Division of the  Parks Branch, through the Director of Parks, wrote to the Chief Forester  urging action on the protection of the Trail and particularly that part in the  timber sale. This letter emphasized that the Trail, besides providing access  to a splendid alpine country, is also an extremely significant historic site.  Going back to the 4th of August, the Inward Brigade for 1972 left Hope  on that date, driving up Peers Creek and camping for the night near Manson  Camp. Victor Wilson and Randy Manuel led a Brigade of 8 men and 4 Venturer Scouts. Of the 12 members, 6 men and 1 boy were from the Penticton  area, 2 men and 1 boy from Vancouver area and 1 boy from each of Victoria  and Surrey. They followed the Trail up over Manson Ridge, through Fools  Pass and up the Sowaqua Valley without difficulty to where it enters the  burn for the second time. The short cleared piece between the burns was  christened the Freeway. From there they split into two parties to explore the  burn and the lower part of the Sowaqua between Bushby Creek and the North  Branch. No trace of the Trail was found and the whole Brigade came up to  Campment du Chevreuil during the morning of the 9th. That afternoon they  moved forward to the vicinity of Palmers Pond, two of the Venturers going  straight over the mountain rather than around to the north by the Trail.  From Palmer's Pond the Brigade followed the general route of the  Trail down the left (north) side of Podunk Creek to its junction with the  Tulameen River. Note that the left (or right) side of a stream is to the left (or  right) when looking downstream. Then going down river for a mile or two  they climbed to the Tulameen plateau between the second and third creeks  coming in from the east below the Podunk junction; heading toward Deer  Mountain. In a valley near the plateau they found some old blazes and soon  came to Stock Trail No. 452. This trail led to the Coalmont — Whipsaw jeep  track about 4V2 miles out from Lodestone Lake. The final camp was at  Lodestone Lake for the night of 12th August. All members of the Brigade  seemed happy with the trip. Victor and Randy and two of the Venturers were  veterans of the 1971 Brigade.  On August 5th an expedition left for exploration around Campement  du Chevreuil. It consisted of 5 men and 8 Scouts; 2 men from the Vancouver  area, 2 from Penticton area and 1 from Trail; 4 boys from the Vancouver  area, 3 from Penticton and 1 from Washington, D.C. First Camp was at the  junction of Amberty and Vuich Creeks near the Tulameen River road and  the next night we camped by the route of the Brigade Trail at Jacobson  Lake, alongside Eric Jacobson and Family who came in by horseback. The  night of the 7th saw us settled in at Camp, du Chev. While there our  naturalist, Les Gibbard, noted something over fifty varieties of flowers and  plants. On the 9th of August Campement du Chevreuil was a lively place with HUDSON'S  BAY  BRIGADE TRAIL 15  13of us camped there, the through Brigade of 12 and the Jacobson family of 5  who rode up on their horses from Jacobson Lake to pay us a visit.  A rather limited amount of exploration convinced us that we were  pretty well on Trail going down from Camp, du Chev. with the 1971 Brigade  as guided by Eric. It now seems certain that the Trail going west went out at  the back of the Camp area, turned south, went almost level for a few hundred  yards then began to descend. It would seem that the first set of switchback is  to the north of the first main creek south of the Camp and that the Trail  perhaps then crosses this creek where the banks are reasonably low, between a canyon above and one below. It would seem that it probably then  switchbacks again to near the bottom of the hill, crosses a small creek and  arrives at the Sowaqua not far upstream from the mouth of the Matthew  Creek. All of this requires further study on the ground but from Lieut.  Palmer's Report, the Sowaqua crossing cannot be very far from the mouth  of Matthew Creek.  As we packed out to Jacobson Lake on the 11th, three of us, thanks to  the co-operation of the others, detoured near the head of Podunk Creek to do  some exploration. We were rewarded by finding a section of the original  Trail close along the left side of the most northerly branch of the Creek, in an  unburnt area, complete with old blazes and depressed travel way. The next  day we had to pack out to the Tulameen River road according to schedule  and drive out to civilization on the 13th.  The 26th of August saw an expedition of 6 men and 11 Scouts camped  on the Trail at Lodestone Lake en route for the Horseguards Camp. The next  day we drove out on the jeep track about 5V2 miles to where the track crosses  the headwater of Arrastra Creek. From there we back-packed down to the  Tulameen River. We started down between the first and second large creeks  tributary to the Tulameen from the east below the mouth of Podunk and  descending bore to our left until we were in the steep sided valley of the first  creek. On reaching the River we went upstream and through the Horseguards meadow to our campsite at the Tulameen-Podunk junction. The  boys studied geology with Evan Cameron and natural history with Les  Gibbard and explored with Gouin Barford and myself. Dr. Hugh Barr of the  original  Brigade Trail group was with us.  Thanks to the article in the 14th Report of the Okanagan Historical  Report by the Rev. J. C. Goodfellow, describing one of his trips with Podunk  Davis, we were able to find the Trail where it leaves the Horseguards  meadow (the first flat on the west side of the River below the Podunk) and to  trace and mark it up and through the draw to the west to where it comes out  on the slope above the Podunk in the burnt over country. Its route and or  probable route I feel sure can be traced up the Podunk for the ten miles or so  to the intact section we found at the head of that stream.  On the east side of the Tulameen we did find some heavy old blazes in  the area on the south side of the first creek from the east below the Podunk  junction but lost them in the heavy downfall and cold wet brush. Which of  Palmer's defiles the Brigade Trail went up to reach the plateau remains for  future exploration to determine. We came out up the valley of the creek  which joins the Tulameen slightly upstream from the mouth of the Podunk,  following the left (south) bank for three quarters or more of the way, then  crossing. This is a very easy way to reach the present jeep track but shows  no signs of the Trail and in no way fits Palmer's description of the route  Horseguards to Lodestone.  On the 7th of September I wrote to Mr. Frank Richter, re-elected as  MLA for Okanagan-Boundary, and to Mr. Wm.  L. Hartley, re-elected as 16 HUDSON'S BAY BRIGADE TRAIL  MLA for Yale-Lillooet, congratulating them and asking for their continued  support in our endeavor to get firm protection for the Trail.  The 8th of September saw Eric Jacobson with myself and his three  horses in his truck headed up the Tulameen River road. From the Amberty-  Vuich junction we rode up Vuich Creek and past Jacobson Lake to the  headwaters of the Podunk where we made camp Although it snowed all the  next day we made what we feel to be a most satisfactory exploration. We  have always had a feeling that there was one chance in a hundred that the  Trail actually crossed the divide to the south of where we had located it and  of the spot we have been calling Campement du Chevreuil. Walking up the  newly rediscovered section along Podunk Creek we followed the Trail across  the Creek and up the bank. Then striking left and climbing we followed the  base of the final ridge of the Cascades toward the next notch south of Camp,  du Chev. Below the notch we came to a lake (not shown on the present day  map 92 H-SW, second status) but it in no way fits Palmer's description,  whereas our Palmer's Pond does fit. We climbed a very steep slope to the  summit in the notch and the descent on the western side was even steeper.  Although we followed some game trail and saw the odd trapper's or hunter's  blazes, no where were there large or old blazes or other indications of the  Brigade Trail.  Going back to the last blaze where we had left the "new" section of  Trail, we then worked to the right or north. The area had been partially  burned over in strips at right angles to the Trail direction, but we did find one  old large blaze and the route leads naturally back across the Creek to join  the presently used trail at the bottom of the long open valley going up to  Palmer's Pond. We rest assured that our location of Campement du  Chevreuil, of Palmer's Pond and the Trail over the Cascade summit is  confirmed. Camp, du Chev. is at the very source of the second creek south of  the north branch of the Sowaqua. Its location is very well shown on the old 4Q  Hope-Princeton Sheet. Palmer's Pond is north east of the Camp, less than a  mile in a straight line, and we believe will be shown on the next edition of 92  H-SW. Once the deadfall is cut through, the newly found section of the Trail  will be a very much easier route of ascent to the Palmer's Pond area than is  the later steep detour which undoubtedly came into use because of the  deadfall.  From the "flat" where the north fork of Podunk comes out of the  distinct draw to the top of the right (south) bank at the first crossing of the  Creek, we placed frequent metal markers along the Trail. Remains to be  located in detail and marked the short portion between there and where the  Trail crosses back to join the present detour. This is just upstream from a  large old blaze on which we put an O.H.S. "Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail"  marker in 1969.  As we broke camp on the 10th some of the snow which had accumulated on our tent still lay unmelted on the ground and higher up where  we had been walking the day before was still white. There was no difficulty  in believing in Palmer's remark where he said the Trail was dangerous after  the 1st of October.  For all the trips wildlife was probably less numerous this year than  usual, but at different times we did see bear, deer, eagles, hoary marmots,  grouse and ptarmigan. The huckleberry crop was late and less than some  other years, but the masses of flowers were beautiful as always.  The support of the Okanagan Historical Society, the B.C. Historical  Society, the Federation of B.C. Naturalists, the Vancouver Natural History  Society, the Okanagan Similkameen Parks Society, the Federation of  Mountain Clubs of B.C., the Boy Scouts of Canada, the Kamloops Museum '  A REPORT 17  Society, any other organizations I may have missed in the endeavour to get  this little report to you, and of many individuals both in and out of Government and Government Service is gratefully acknowledged. We hope and  plan to do more exploration next year. We also hope that the Government of  British Columbia will confirm and perhaps improve the protection for the  Trail. You may well be asked for your support in requests made in this  connection. We still meet people who confuse this Trail with the historic  Dewdney Trail. The Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail from Fort Hope to  Thompson's River (Kamloops) was in use from 1^49 to 1860 or '61. Construction of the Harrison Lake route to the Interior was started in 1859 and of  the Dewdney Trail in 1860. Following are some approximate locations from  the Chilliwack Lake Sheet 92 H-SW, second status edition, and from Princeton Sheet 92 H-SE.  Lodestone Lake      Long. 120 deg. 51 min. 00 sec.— Lat. 49deg. 28 min. 00sec.  Horseguards Long. 120 deg. 56 min. 30 sec. — Lat. 49 deg. 22 min. 40 sec.  Jacobson Lake       Long. 121 deg.   3 min. 20 sec.— Lat. 49 deg. 21 min. 10 sec.  Campement du Chevreuil Long. 121 deg. 6 min. 20 sec.—lat. 49 deg. 21 min. 00  sec.  Mouth of Matthew Creek Long. 121 deg.   8 min. 00 sec. — Lat. 49 deg. 20 min.  00 sec.  Mouth of Bushby Creek     Long. 121 deg.   8 min. 30 sec. — Lat. 49 deg. 20 min.  30 sec.  Fools Pass Long. 121 deg. 12 min. 20sec— Lat. 49 deg. 22min.50sec.  Manson Camp (very approx.)   Long. 121 deg. 14 min. 20 sec. — Lat. 49 deg. 22  min. 25 sec.  Coquihalla crossing (very approx.)      Long. 121 deg. 18 min. 40 sec. — Lat. 49  deg.23min.30 sec.  Approximate Elevations — Lodestone 5975, Horseguard 4150,  Jacobson Lake 4800, Cascade Summit 6000, Camp, du Chev. 5400, Mouth of  Matthew Creek 2700, Fools Pass 3800, Manson Ridge 4750, Manson Camp  3000, Coquihalla crossing 750.  A REPORT  Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail — Hope to Tulameen  687 Vancouver Avenue  Penticton, B.C.  April 13, 1973  Editor, Okanagan Historical Report  Dear Sir:  Having ferreted out the report of the 1972 activities on the Brigade  Trail, Hope-Tulameen, written for those taking part, you now demand a  further report. My only hope is that your readers are not bored with the  subject.  About a year ago I was privileged to work for a few days in the archives of the Hudson's Bay Company at Beaver House on Great Trinity  Lane, London. For me, Great Trinity Lane was almost as hard to find as  parts of the Trail. Directed successively by a number of Londoners I finally  closed in until it was in sight. Carefully calculating my direction I dove into 18 A REPORT  the underground crossing but on emerging could see no sign of it. So I went  back and recalculated and the next time came up and there it was. At lunch  time I took good care to have my bitters with sausage and mashed in a pub  from the door of which Beaver House was in plain view.  For the purpose of locating the old trails in this area the B.C.  Provincial Archives probably have more material readily available but it  was interesting to sit in the archives in Beaver House, work on old journals  and hear warehouse noises, presumably the handling of packs of furs, in  other parts of the building. In the entrance and hallways and in the large  committee or board room are old pictures and momentos of the fur trade.  The Archivist seemed to have a staff of at least three and it is nice to think  that a commercial company has vision enough to put that much effort in to  the preservation of its history, which is also of course a large part of the  history of Canada. The Hudson's Bay Record Society, Beaver House, Great  Trinity Lane, London EC 4, publishes a limited issue book every two years  from material in the Archives. Membership is presently $5.00 per year including the books, and is open.  Nothing much to my knowledge, in the way of exploration, has happened on the actual Trail since last September. A number of expeditions are  planned for this season, one of which by Venturer Scouts is proposed to start  as early as June 30th.  The big news is the application put forward to the B.C. Government by  the Okanagan Similkameen Parks Society to have Manning Park extended  to the north and west to include the Brigade Trail from Manson Camp to the  Horse Guard Camp and beyond. This extension would also cover the Canyon  section of the Dewdney Trail, more of the Hope Trail up the Skaist, a bit of  Blackeyes Trail, a section of the Ghost Pass trail and a piece of the Whatcom  Trail. Support for this request has been good from all the historical,  naturalist and outdoor organizations. We have been assured by the Minister  that every effort is being made to save the surviving west end of the Trail in  Peers Creek valley from further destruction by logging. The Parks Branch  as always has been most helpful and seem to be taking an increasing interest  in historical trails.  Through the HBC Archives in London we are now in touch with a group  from the North Shore Hikers, headed by Mr. R. C. Harris, who are exploring  the 1848-49 Brigade Trail. They have found and re-marked a good part of the  section which left the Fraser at Kequeloose, near the Alexandra Bridge, and  went over the mountains eastward and by the headwaters of Anderson  River. This Trail followed Spius Creek down to the Coldwater and went on to  Kamloops by the Nicola Valley. Mr. Harris is a map maker par excellence  and has been most helpful in our research. To have a proper knowledge of  one historic trail it is quite necessary to know something of its relationship to  the others in both time and geography.  Mr. D. F. Pearson, the B.C. representative on the Canadian Permanent Committee on Geographical Names, has been most co-operative in  naming features along "our" Trail, as was his predecessor Mr. H. R. Young,  now retired. New maps as they come out will show a dozen named features  which were previously anonymous and difficult to describe.  The first sizeable stream in the Sowaqua valley southeast of Fools  Pass and at the crossing of which the Brigade Trail is very plain is now  Colvile Creek. Eden Colvile, co-Governor in North America with Sir George  Simpson and son of Andrew Colvile after whom Fort Colvile was named,  came over the new trail in October 1849 on his way from Lachine to Fort  Victoria. From Norway House on Lake Winnipeg to Victoria he was accompanied  by  Chief Trader  Paul   Fraser and  he found   Paul's  snoring A REPORT 19  something of a trial. Colvile made a report on the Trail for London and also  issued instructions to James Douglas regarding improvements to be made  including the sowing of timothy and clover at the campsites for horse feed.  The timothy and other forage is still growing at Campement du Chevreuil  and Paul Fraser has been sleeping there now for 118 years.  The three tributaries of the Sowaqua coming down from the snowfields  between McLeod Peak and Mt. Outram are now, from northwest to  southeast, Bushby, O'Reilly, and Matthew Creeks; so named for Judge  Matthew Bailey Begbie and his judicial staff who walked the Trail to  Kamloops in September of 1859. The creek at the head of which is Campement du Chevreuil (Camp of the Deer) and which flows into the Sowaqua  from the east downstream of Bushby Creek is now Chevreuil .Creek.  A large branch of the Sowaqua occupies the deep valley along the  south base of Tulameen Mountain and drains all the southerly parts of the  Mountain. This is Montigny Creek after Edouard Montigny of part Indian  blood who was in the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company and had a considerable part in the original location of the Trail. He was also with A. C.  Anderson as interpreter on his explorations in 1846 and 1847. While we have  no definite proof, that I have seen, it is entirely reasonable to presume that  Edouard was the son of Ovide de Montigny who joined the party of  voyageurs on their way to New York to take service in the Pacific Fur  Company of J. J. Astor, at Whitehall on Lake Champlain in July of 1810.  Ovide, a clerk in the Pacific Fur Company service, was one of the fortunate  ones who disembarked from the Tonquin at Astoria. He was with David  Stuart on the first trip by white men through the Okanagan in 1811 and when  the North West Company took over the posts of Astor's company he joined  the Norwesters and stayed west of the Mountains. So in Montigny Creek we  have historic links with Lake Champlain, Astoria and the Okanagan.  The "pretty sequestered little lake", "invisible except from the rocks  immediately surrounding it" which Lieut. Palmer noted in his report is now  Palmer Pond. It is not Palmer's as we previously thought. The Committee  on Geographic Names does not approve the possessive form as it leads to  confusion in spelling. At the very head of Podunk Creek will now be Mount  Davis; named of course for Podunk Davis. To the south of it and nestled  close against the east side of the summit ridge of the Cascades is another  pretty little lake now named Grant Pond after Russel Grant who was in this  area when in the Forest Service out of Princeton. His father, Jim Grant, was  a well-known character in the South Okanagan some years ago.  Palmer's "larger lake lower down on the eastern slope, on whose  banks, there being plenty of firewood, travellers from the eastward  frequently camp" and which is probably a bit north of the main trail, is  Jacobson Lake after AdoJf Jacobson a pioneer of Phoenix and Princeton and  father of Eric Jacobson who since 1967 has been the leader in the field in our  explorations on the Trail.  There are a number of streams entering the Tulameen River from the  eastward by steep defiles from the plateau. The mouth of one is almost  opposite the mouth of the Podunk and this one is now Blackeyes Creek after  the Indian who met A. C. Anderson on the River near Tulameen in 1846.  Blackeye told Anderson of the Indian hunting trail across the plateau, took  the starving party to his lodge on Otter Lake and gave them some fresh carp  (suckers), sent his son-in-law to bring up Anderson's horses from Red Earth  Fork (Princeton) and then acted as guide to Kamloops.  The next stream below is now Packer Creek to commemorate all the  packers who have passed over the Trail in Brigade days and since. The  Horse Guard Camp was  just above this creek on the east side of the 20 HISTORY,  TOO  Tulameen. And the next downstream is Squakin Creek after Charley  Squakin of the Similkameen who hunted in this ancient hunting ground of his  people and whose grandson, Manny Squakin of Hedley still goes there.  There are of course many other old timers whose names deserve to be  remembered. Many of them already have a stream, lake or hill named after  them, or for someone of the same name, somewhere. Some are fortunately  still living which makes their name ineligible. There are lots of features still  nameless but the naming of these listed will be of great help to all those interested in the area.  Another thing that has helped to make the picture more clear is a map  (unsigned but I am sure by Palmer), which gives the latitude of the various  campsites. It gives us final proof of the locations of Manson Camp, Campement du Chevreuil, the Horse Guard and Campement des Femmes. Unfortunately it was snowing when Palmer was at Lodestone and no observation could be taken. Unless someone has moved the lake in the last 114  years, which would seem highly improbably, there is no doubt about where  the HBC party he was with camped there, "on the borders of a small, nearly  circular, lake, half a mile in diameter."  And that Sir is my report to this date.  Yours etc., H. R. Hatfield  HISTORY, TOO  By  ERIC  D.  SISMEY  There are physical connections, minor perhaps, between the tiny Isle  of Man, a dot in the Irish Sea, halfway between England and Ireland, and the  Okanagan.  Flatten the bumps, cut the tops from Snaefell and Cronk ny Ihree Laa  and she could drown in Okanagan Lake.  A few days ago, while examining newspaper clippings, I read the O. H.  S. president Victor Wilson's maternal grandfather, Colonel Falkland George  Edgeworth Warren, C.B., M.G., born in 1834, attended King William's  College in Castletown, Isle of Man from 1845 through 1848. After Sandhurst, a  military college, he was gazetted to the Royal Artillery. He served with;  distinction in India and other parts of the world. Soon after retiring in 1891 he  and the Warren family ventured to British Columbia where the name is  perpetuated at Falkland on B.C. '97, west from Vernon (OHS 29th report, pp  112-118).  Your editor attended King William's College through 1908-1910 and  justacross the lakeat Summerland, Gerald Hunter attended King William's  too, 1916-1918. Now if this is not enough to show that the world is small,  James Gawne of Port Soderick, Isle of Man, did boyhood chores in the  college gardens before coming to Canada and, eventually to Naramata,  where he builtthe house where Christineand I live today. THE CHANGING SCENE  21  THE CHANGING SCENE  By  DOROTHY  HEWLETT GELLATLY  The years have brought many changes to the Okanagan, though it is in  more recent times that changes have come to Westbank. Long ago, however,  there were changes in name, changes that were lost in oblivion, only to  reappear when origins of the history of the area were sought.  Actually, the first name, given by the fur-traders, was MacDonald's  Plain, but the known history of the area goes back still farther, to 1811, the  year before the Pacific Fur Company is assumed to have established Fort  Kamloops. It was in the fall of that year the Astorian David Stuart, and  Montigne, made their way up the Oakinnakin, or Okanagan, and passed  north along the west side of the lake on to the confluence of the North and  South Thompson Rivers.  Later, the Astorfa (Pacific Fur Company) interests were sold to the  North West and Hudson's Bay Companies, and to commemorate the old fur  brigade route, the first historical cairn in the Okangan was raised by the  Historic Sites and Monuments Board, Ottawa, in 1949, and unveiled by the  author. This cairn, of local basalt, bears a bronze plaque that tells the story  of the Fur Brigade Trail, and is fully dealt with by Margaret Ormsby in the  1949 annual of the Okanagan Historical Society.  A unique feature of the ceremony at Westbank on that occasion was a  n^oeantarranaed by old-timers of the district to catch the atmosphere of the  Remains of the first school at Westbank, opened in 1897. Snapped in the  early 1930's. THE CHANGING SCENE 22  fur-trade days. This consisted of a string of laden pack-horses and riders,  headed by a piper in full dress — the last a I ways an intregal part of Hudson's  Bay Fur Brigade trains. This was particularly apt in that Westbank's first  name was 'MacDonald's Plain', so-named for an officer of the HBC, and  MacDonald's Plain was a stopping-place for the fur trains.  But that first name was forgotten, except for its appearance on old  maps of those days, with the abandonment of the Okanagan Trail following  settlement of the Boundary in 1848. After that the fur-trains from the north  took the Fraser Valley route to Fort Langley.  Itwas in the 1870's that the area was re-christened, this time by Susan  Allison, who called her home here, overlooking Okanagan Lake, 'Sunnyside'.  Her husband, John Fall Allison, a medical student from England, had  followed the lure of gold to California, and later to British Columbia. Here he  was sent by Governor Douglas to locate a trail from Fort Hope into  Similkameen—thus we have Allison Pass. The following year he took up land  at the juncture of the Similkameen and Tulameen rivers — the future site of  Princeton.  In 1868 he married Susan Louisa Moir, daughter of a Ceylon tea-  planter, whose father died while she was a child. In 1860 she sailed the  Atlantic from England with her mother, step-father and family, crossing the  Isthmus of Panama and thence up the Pacific Coast to Victoria and Fort  Hope.  So Susan Moir became the bride of John F. Allison, and her  honeymoon was the ride over the Hope trail into Similkameen, and from her  own story she loved every hour and every mile of the way. In November,  1872, she became the first white woman to ride from Allison's, as Princeton  was then known, to her new home on Okanagan Lake, at Sunnyside. Here,  two months after her arrival, she gave birth to her fourth child, Louisa, born  January 2 — the first white child born on the west side of Okanagan Lake.  At Sunnyside the Allisons prospered until they had a herd of some 1,000  head of pure-bred Durhams, only to face a disastrous loss in the winter of  1880-81, when, their winter feed exhausted, unseasonably cold weather set in.  Sub-zero temperatures came and stayed, and stayed, until finally starving  cattle, huddling together in a vain attempt to keep warm, froze to death,  literally in heaps. Others of the few Okanagan ranchers lost heavily, too,  with the exception of Tom Ellis, at Penticton, who had enough feed to keep  his cattle from starving, and thus from freezing to death.  Thoroughly discouraged by his losses, Mr. Allison decided to abandon  Okanagan and return to Princeton, where he still held large tracts of land. In  vain Mrs. Allison begged to keep her home at Sunnyside, a home she was  never to forget, and soon the family trekked back to Similkameen with all  that remained of their once fine herd.  Ten more years passed before the next family came to Sunnyside — a  name long forgotten by this time. It was 1891 when John Davidson arrived to  take up land, later bringing his wife and young family from Vancouver. And  it was Mr. Davidson who suggested the third name, Westbank — for this  area, when a name was needed for the post office opened May 1, 1902, at  Shannon Lake, with Shannon Marshall as postmaster. Mr. Davidson, a  ship's carpenter from Scotland, worked frequently for the CPR, and was one  of the crew who laid the keel for the CPR's SS 'Aberdeen' at Okanagan  Landing.  There was quite an influx of settlers at the turn of the century, and one  of these was Leonard Hayman, who became skipper of the ferry-launches  that plied between Kelowna and the west side of the lake ... as a matter of  fact, Captain Hayman tells us that when he reached the Okanagan, the THE CHANGING SCENE  23  Remains of Allison  home  at Sunnyside  —   Westbank.  Built in  1870's — above was snapped in the early 1930's.  early  entire length of the west side from Whiteman's Creek south to Westbank,  was known as Westside.  Another to appear on the scene was Harry Hardy, who'd come west  from Chatham to join a work party engaged by Major Crichton following  survey of the CPR through the Rockies. Harry could spin many a yarn about  his experiences while 'working on the railroad'; one such being a description  of the 'golden stairs' in the Selkirks, where men and their heavily-laden  animals had to zig-zag up a terrific incline of some 1,000 feet, only to descend  an equally steep and hazardous course on the other side.  Then there was an occasion when the arrest of a gambler resulted in a  near riot by a crowd who swore to free the offender. Making a rush for a  bridge they must cross to reach the lock-up, they were confronted by the  Major, who, halting them at the point of his revolver, threatened to shoot the  first man to make a step forward. That stopped them, for a minute, then one,  defying the Major's order, started forward, and was shot down. Realizing  the 'boss' meant business, the rest slunk sullenly back to the quarters.  Harry told of strings of mules and cayuses packing supplies from Sand  Point, Idaho, to a point on the Columbia River, from where they were rafted  to Golden, then transported overland where needed. Among those supplies  were blocks of pressed vegetables, sealed with tin-foil, which were used in  making soup.  Another story was of the time he decided on a change of occupation for  the winter of 1883-84, and tended bar in Angell's Saloon at Beaver. One night,  when the 30-foot bar was crowded, two shots rang out simultaneously, and 24 THE CHANGING SCENE  both men involved were wounded. One was duly arrested; but the other got  away by sprinting for the door and out, dashing across the road and down the  steep bank of the Columbia, where a boat was moored, and in which he made  his getaway.  As for the driving of the last spike, at Craigellachie, Harry missed  witnessing the actual ceremony, though he was nearby, busy driving a band  of cayuses. He told of seeing the two trains waiting, one from the east and the  other from the west.  The CPR an accomplished fact, Harry turned farther west, getting a  job driving a train of 40 horses loaded with flour from Spallumcheen (North  Okanagan) to Granite Creek, where gold had been discovered the previous  year. Travelling through the Okanagan, he decided that was where he would .  settle, and later, at Westbank, planted one of the earliest orchards in the  district. He later moved to Peachland, where he served as Reeve, and in a  number of official capacities.  With the gradual arrival of more families a school was required, and  in 1897 a one-room log building filled the need. Built near MacDougall Creek,  on the site occupied today by Pine Grove Motel on Highway 97, the school  opened with George W. Hall as the first schoolmaster. And it was Mr. Hall  who gave the area its fourth name — Hall's Landing — which came about in  this manner;  At what was to become the new townsite, Robert Goldie had preempted bench-land that must once have inspired the name 'MacDonald's  Plain.' Here Mr. Hall, before his days of school-mastering, apparently,  entered into partnership with Shannon Marshall to grow grain, and they  rented the Goldie property for their purpose. Equipment for harvesting the  bumper crop anticipated was ordered and delivered on the beach, and later  a small wharf from which the grain was to be shipped, was built.  Alas for that one and only experiment in grain-growing! Seeded  during an exceedingly dry spell, the grain didn't even sprout until after a  heavy rain in July. Coming so late, the partners were advised to cut for  green feed, but saw no reason for doing so. Accordingly, it was October  before the grain was cut, and every sheaf bound. An October so wet that the  grain spoiled and was no good for anything.  It was becoming ovious by this time that for any kind of crop in this  Okanagan dry-belt, irrigation was an absolute necessity, and to Messrs.  Goldie, Lewis, Bailey, Peters, Silver and other early-comers, goes the credit  for Westbank's first irrigation system. True, itwas little more than a single  plowfurrow leading to the new settlement from high enough up Powers  Creek to provide gravity flow.  Eventually the 'Goldie' property came into the possession of Ulyssus  S. Grant, an American land-promoter, who subdivided this bench-land into  town and orchard lots, and piped water for domestic use from a spring still  good today. Whispered to have been a nephew of General U. S. Grant, he was  soon nicknamed 'Useless' Grant, and not in whispers, either, by some to  whom he sold lots. Perhaps he didn't deserve the nickname; but in those long  ago days before there were cash crops from newly-planted orchards, and  merely to exist was a problem, it was doubtless natural to place the blame  for hard times on the shoulders of the land-promoter, who — not a whit  dismayed — soon departed for greener fields.  In 1908 the post office was moved from Shannon Lake to the new  townsite, and in April of that year the Kelowna Courier commented; "A  movement is on foot to have the Westbank post office moved ... to the new  store recently opened by Mr. (W. M.) Collins. Mr. Marshall is in favour of THE CHANGING SCENE 25  the change . . . and it has the support of the majority of residents . . . Mr. U. S.  Grantsenta petition with one-hundred signatures to the postmaster-general  on Saturday. There is hope for a service of at least three times a week . . .  while the present service is carried on only once a week from Peachland. . ."  One hundred signatures? Must have been more settlers than was  realized. And why a weekly mail service from Peachland, when SS. Aberdeen passed Westbank on her tri-weekly trips up and down Okanagan Lake?  Of course, Mr. Marshal's substantial sum — for those days — of $600 per  annum, for carrying the mail, may have had some bearing on the matter.  Anyway, the move was made, and by this time, of course, a school at  the new townsite had become a necessity, too. True, it too boasted of only one  room, and pupils aspiring to higher learning, must go elsewhere. Not so  today; for now the George Pringle Secondary, named for Rev. George  Pringle who gave his life in World War Two, has a staff of 26, and an  enrolment of 592. It serves the area from Peachland to Lakeview Heights  and Bear Creek, while elementary schools in the first three instances are  bursting at the seams.  In those early days, however, Westbank didn't appear to offer much to  very many families, and certainly no conveniences. More, a glance over the  area didn't offer much in the way of homes, or so it seemed on New Year's  Day, 1910, when my parents, William George and Melia Ann Hewlett with  their brood, disembarked from ss 'Okanagan' at a desolate Hall's Landing,  to shiver in a temperature of 10 below. In fact, there wasn't anywhere for us  to live except in the deserted 'Lewis' cabins down in Powers Creek, until  such time as a house materialized, which it did with the spring. But that  afternoon, being driven up the winding road to the dreary waste that was  Westbank, we looked in vain for the village we'd hoped to see.  But the family stayed. And when at last the orchards came into  bearing, and more were planted, some of us younger ones were among the  first to pick, and then to pack the first fruits from those orchards, before  going on to greater things. And there were a lot of us to find a way to live; for  Mother and Dad had thirteen children, eleven of whom grew up, and ten  came to Westbank. The eldest, May, married and went to Mantioba, eventually returning to B.C.  I've often wondered why Dad, a master tailor, who'd spent two years  in Rome before his marriage, ever came to B.C., and can only suppose it was  because his three eldest sons preceded him here. Concerning his craft, an  interesting highlight occurred in 1960 when, shown over a clothing factory  established by a branch of the family in Portsmouth, I saw the outcome of  the 'Invertere', a coat designed and patented by my father more than half a  century before. By this time it had become the practical reversible coat, and  was being shipped across the world by this English firm.  In Westbank Dad built a home and general store, and in 1911 was  appointed postmaster, a position held until his death in 1915, when Mother  succeeded the appointment unitl her retirement in 1919.  Before that time Westbank was experiencing growing pains. More  water was needed for the expanding orchards, and the Hewlett boys, with  others, worked on the original Powers Creek survey. But now the war years  had come, too, and Stewart (Pat), joined up in 1914; George and Bill in 1915,  and Edward atage eighteen. All served in France, and all returned home, to  take up fruit-growing under the SSB. Bill served again in World War Two;  but, to his regret, was not posted overseas. He later did well in logging  operations, and with other of the family, served on various boards and in  many capacities in this unorganized district.  I  married David Gellatly in 1912, and in 1915 we went to Calgary where 26 THE CHANGING SCENE  David supervised his father's wholesale produce business. With four  brothers overseas I asked for, and got, a job with Military District 13, and  was there until 1919, when we came back to the Okanagan. During the  Second World War I was among the first group of women appointed fruit  inspectors, my sister Kitty later taking my place. In 1951 I was thrilled to be  chosen good citizen by Westbank Trade Board, and during 1958 Centennial  year, I was one of those receiving a scroll from the provincial government  for efforts toward community betterment.  David died in 1953, and having long written for the Kelowna Courier,  as well as compiling a history of the district, I was asked to join the editorial  staff. Itwas then I discovered I had printer's ink in my veins; inherited from  Dad, doubtless; for given a subject, he could write splendid verse at will. It  was a flair inherited by all of us in some degree.  Of the younger ones Art remained in the family busines. Ed left to go  into the building trade in Penticton. Rob and Bert chose the British Columbia  Forest Service for their careers, becoming forest rangers. Rob eventually  changed departments, and became a scaler supervisor, but Bert stayed with  his first choice, and at his retirement three years ago was ranger for the  Kelowna district. The youngest daughter, Grace, the only one born in  Canada, became a teacher, later staying home to care for Mother, who in  1950, died at age 84, missed by children, grandchildren and greatgrandchildren.  And today? Westbank is one of the fastest growing communities in the  Okanagan, but of the original Hewlett family only myself and Grace Hewlett  are here to see the changes wrought by time — changes that have no appeal  for us. Five of the family are dead, and those living are; May, who makes  her home in Salmon Arm with a daughter, Mrs. E. C. Turner. Edward is in  Surrey; Robert at Kamloops and Bert at Kelowna.  Bill's only son, Bill II and family, are at Lakeview Heights (West-  bank), and Stewart's youngest, Charlie, and family, are in Westbank.  FOOTNOTE:—Mention is made  in  the  body of this  article of a  survey of the  headwaters  of Powers Creek.  Frequent  disputes   between   the   Westbank   Irrigation   District  and   D.   E.  Gellatly (holder of the  prior water  right)  prompted  the Water  Rights  Branch  of  the   B.C.  Government to arrange a study of reservoir possibilites in the mountain lakes.  The survey was made during the summer of 1914. The engineer in charge was ?? Hayes. Pat  George and Bill Hewlett were members of the survey party.  In  August   1916,   this   writer,   with   the   Water   Rights   Branch   at  the   time,   was   instructed  by District Engineer O. F. D. Norrington to proceed to the headwaters of Powers Creek and  to release water for irrigation by cutting  beaver dams. A release of about 5 second feet  and measured by a Cipoletti weir near our campsite was suggested.  Several dams were breached, the largest being at Horseshoe  Lake.  I  was accompanied  by  Ed. Hewlett. We were packed in by George Hewlett with supplies for a month.—Eric. D.Sismey  REFERENCES  THE CHANGING SCENE by Dorothy Hewlett Gellatly.  A  BIT OF OKANAGAN  HISTORY  Centennial (1958) Edition by Dorothy Hewlett Gellatly.  BASALTIC  COLUMNS  AT WESTBANK  9th Report pp 11-14.  H.B.C. TRAIL  13th Report pp 85-88.  FIRST CAR  LOAD TO  LEAVE WESTBANK   16th Report pp 128.  INDIAN  ROAD  33rd Report pp 145-146.  GELLATLY  PIONEERS  34th Report pp 85-88. MOUNTAIN PATHFINDER FOUNDER OF PRINCETON 27  MOUNTAIN PATHFINDER FOUNDER  OF PRINCETON  The development of the Upper Similkameen, around Princeton in  British Columbia, was brought about mostly by the search for an access to  the Pacific Coast on the Canadian side after the boundary was established in  1846. Previous to this, David Stuart had been up through the Okanagan to  Kamloops. Alexander Ross had made a rough, hard trip up to Kamloops and  back into the Similkameen Valley in mid-winter. Around 1854 many gold-  seekers traveled from the south to the Fraser River through the  Similkameen but there were no settlers.  In the year 1858 James Douglas, governor of the newly formed crown  colony of British Columbia, saw the need for a road to the interior. He employed a man named John Allison to go and look for the lowest pass over the  mountains south of the rough Fraser Canyon. Allison was a native of Leeds,  England, where his parents had operated a pharmacy. While he was young  they had come by sailing ship to the States. Allison fulfilled his commission  and, having seen the land, came back the next year to stay and prospect.  This time be brought a partner named Hayes. They found placering  locations for gold, good grazing and a plentiful supply of fish and game.  Before coming over the mountains the second time, Allison wrote to his  parents in Oriskany, New York. In these words taken from a letter still in  possession of his descendants around Princeton today, he said: "I do not  know how we will like it, but we will be the first whites to winter in the  district."  In the year 1860 Douglas, a busy man with two crown colonies to administer — one, Vancouver Island and one, British Columbia, decided to ride  over the mountains into the interior and visit Rock Creek. There had been a  gold discovery there and the miners, mostly from the United States, were  getting their supplies from south of the border and refusing to pay duty on  them. At Rock Creek he talked to the miners and promised to build a road in  from the coast. The miners had agreed to the duties and, we suppose, the  miner licences.  On the return journey the governor and his company stopped at  Allisons. While there, envisioning a town on his proposed road, he had one of  the Royal Engineers map out and survey a place. They named it Princeton  or Prince Town after a Prince of Wales in Queen Victoria's time. By 1864 the  engineers and surveyors were busy building the Caribou Road up the Fraser  River, a wonderful piece of engineering for that time. The miners had all  headed north for the richer gold fields. All this did not leave much chance for  getting the road to the south built. Douglas did, however, let a contract to  Edgar Dewdney to widen the Indian trail over the mountains to the Allison  place and extend it to Rock Creek. The engineers had started the promised  road and had proceeded eastward for 20 miles from Fort Hope, but had  abandoned it when called to build elsewhere. The trail in the next few years  became noted for travelers and pack trains were established with regular  schedules in the summer time, packing supplies in for the beginnings of settlement in the Okanagan Valley. The trail was impassable in winter.  In 1868 Allison married Susan Louisa Moir in Fort Hope. In the next  year he brought his wife and one son to the Similkameen. Many years later  Mrs. Allison recalled that they encountered a forest fire. Smoke was so thick  in the narrow valley and the fire got so close to the trail in places that itwas a 28 MOUNTAIN PATHFINDER FOUNDER OF PRINCETON  wonder they got through. Considering that she always rode a sidesaddle and  that she had a very young baby with her we can imagine the difficulties.  By 1880 Allison had become a miner hiring20 Chinese to placer for him.  He had become a cattleman, also, owning about 5,000 acres, all the good  grazing land north of the river in that district. His store and trading post,  supplied by an Indian pack train from Fort Hope making regular trips all  through summer, was a supply post for prospectors, for the one or two  settlers within eight or ten miles and for the Indians. In trading with the  Indians he often took, in exchange, their buckskin gloves and moccasins. His  large, two-storey log home about 60 feet long with a large T-shaped addition,  with its dormer windows in the roof was not only a home for his eight or nine  children and Mrs. Allison but was a recognized stopping place for those who  travelled the trail.  Mail picked up at Hope had for a long time been left for addressees at  Allison's. Allison ran a post office from 1888 to 1895.  Allison also had a log cabin school and brought in teachers for his eight  children — 14 by 1890. In another cabin Chinese ran a restaurant. They  provided meals for cowboys during the fall roundup when beef cattle of  Keremeos and Okanagan ranchers were separated at Allison's from the  feeders, then driven over the trail to Hope to go by barge down the Fraser to  New Westminster.  Coming from Coeur d'Alene or farther south, General Sherman and  his military escort had in August, 1883 ridden over the hills and mountains in  that northern part of Washington State, crossed the boundary line at Osoyoos  Lake and from there crossed the hills to the Similkameen.  Some of us with that kind of experience, appreciate what it was like for  him at times when he had to jump his horse over fallen timber, when the  horses were stung by yellow jackets and when the deer flies were ravenously  trying to feed on the men's faces.  In the Similkameen he was on the Dewdney trail and exceptfor a place  where it was washed out it was good travelling and the flies were not bad.  One of his camps between Osoyoos and Fort Hope was near Allison's place.  My mother, Caroline Allison, told me about it many, many years afterward,  after she was grown and married and had raised her family. She was the  seventh of the Allison children.  In her own words she said, "I never forgot General Sherman. He was  just a big, kind man that did not forget a little girl when she was feeling left  out of things."  Sherman and his party had camped by a drift pile near the river and in  the evening Allison had invited him up to the house, we suppose to supper. In  any case, afterwards in the big livingroom he had been much interested in  the children of this isolated pioneer family. He had them marching around  like little soldiers, one after the other. Little George was so comical coming  last that he gave him his sword to march with, and he marched with it over  his shoulder. One may wonder what conversations they may have had with  this noted general. Did they mention his part in the Civil War and the taking  of Lee's surrender or did they mention his troubles getting Indians back on  the reservations after Custer's massacre? More likely they talked of the  railroads across the United States and the soon-to-be-finished Canadian  Pacific Railway in Canada and more likely they talked of events along the  trail.  While Sherman had the children marching around, little Caroline had  been in bed in the nursery. She had a bad cold and was getting better but she  had just not been allowed to get up yet. She must have made a fuss and attracted attention for she says, "General Sherman came into the nursery and MOUNTAIN PATHFINDER FOUNDER OF PRINCETON  29  Alfred and   Barbara   Thomas   of   Princeton   displaying   their   painting   of  John Chance, the discoverer of Granite Creek.  Eric Sismey photo  picked me up and took me into the livingroom and marched around with me  on his shoulder."  The next morning after the company had left for the rest of their  journey to Fort Hope, one of Allison's Indians found a sword where they had  camped and brought it to Mrs. Allison, calling it Sherman's sword. Many  years later Mrs. Allison gave it to her son George. It was always called  George's property. It is in possession of one of the Allison grandchildren  today.  In 1885 during a quiet spell along the trail, some of the Allison cowboys  went down the river across the line, to Loomis, I suppose, and they had  plenty to drink and proceeded to enjoy themselves. They talked of rich  places to placer mine in the river upstream from their place at home. The  result of this was that some Americans decided to look for gold up the river.  The story is told that the Allison boys had no idea that they could be telling  the truth but one of the Americans, a cowboy by the name of John Chance did  find gold on Granite Creek and sold his claim for $40,000, a lot of money in  those times.  At first, Allison was swamped with registering and recording claims. 30 MOUNTAIN  PATHFINDER FOUNDER OF PRINCETON  He secured scales and bought and traded in gold but within a month or so a  regular gold commissioner was established on Granite Creek.  News of the gold strike went far and wide and the results of it were  many. Indirectly itwas what brought my father's family and my mother's  family together. Perhaps I can say that if an American had not discovered  gold on Granite Creek I would not be here today.  Charles Thomas who was working in Australia heard of it. In 1887 or  1888 he came to Granite Creek and went to work for Trigillis and Malone who  were partners in a store, trading post, saloon and stopping place combined.  Thomas was their clerk. Today we would not call their place much of a store  or hotel but they helped, with others, to fill the need and supply the thousand  or more miners that flocked into the district.  In a short while after the discovery, a road of sorts enabled a wagon to  bring supplies from Spence's Bridge on the recently finished Canadian  Pacific Railway to Granite Creek and soon Allison abandoned his store. His  wife was tired of its care. Most of the serving in the store had been her job.  While mail had been picked up at Allison's for a long time, brought in from  Hope, Allison had an officially registered post office from 1888 to 1895. He  now began to sell a lot of beef to Granite Creek, butchering in his own shop.  In six or seven years Granite Creek was worked out. Charles Thomas  started a store in a log cabin between the forks of the river where the town of  Princeton is now, in 1893. He obtained some pots and pans and other items  left from the Allison store. His supplies came by pack train from Spence's  Bridge. His three brothers came from England to join him. Bert Thomas  worked around Nicola Lake for the Douglas Lake Cattle Co. Ernest Thomas  worked between the Okanagan and Princeton. William Thomas, a carpenter, helped Charles build a larger store of lumber from the first sawmill,  a water-wheel affair powered from a small dam on Graveyard Creek, or One  Mile.  In the years 1894 and '95 there was a very high water runoff in the  Similkameen River and Allison's large stopping place was undermined and  washed away in spite of efforts to save it. The river had changed its course,  taking the low bottom land. Two girls, Rose Allison, a tall girl, and Caroline  were watching the water inundate their beautiful garden of berry bushes.  "The Lord giveth and the Lord taketh away, Blessed be the name of the  Lord," quoted Rose. "Well, He isn't going to have all these berry bushes,"  said Caroline and she grabbed a shovel and started digging up the black  currant bushes. Today I have some of the offspring of those same bushes.  While most people had spoken of it as Allison's place, the name  Princeton had been there in the background. Father Pat, an Anglican cleric,  in writing home to England, headed his letters Princeton, August, 1885. The  postoffice while Allison had it from 1888 to 1895 was Princeton and when the  flood took their place and Charles Thomas kept the post office in his store, it  was still Princeton. Jim Wallace came from Granite Creek and built the first  hotel in 1896 and the town between the forks of the rivers was started. The  proposed town that Douglas had surveyed below the forks had been  forgotten, almost, but the name stuck and became the name of the new town.  In 1897 John Allison died leaving his wife and 14 children. The pack  horse and pack train as a means of transportaition were beginning to pass.  No more would the cry go up from the younger children, "The pack train's  coming." No more would they run up the path on the long flat to meet it. No  more would the Indian women who accompanied the men on the trail, reach  down and grasp a child by the hand and pull it up onto a horse for the ride the  rest of the way to the store. No more the excitement of unloading the packs  and opening them and placing the bolts of gingham and prints on shelves. MOUNTAIN PATHFINDER FOUNDER OF PRINCETON 31  There was no road up the river from where Keremeos is now to Princeton  until after 1900, but by 1897 they got a wagon road of sorts in from Granite  Creek.  Placer mining was becoming a thing of the past. Men were turning to  hard rock mining. One story circulated around 1900 was of an eastern mining  firm negotiating for some mining property. The assay from this place on the  Similkameen was high and there was said to be a large quantitiy of ore. The  company, suspicious of the low figure at which it was offered, hired a  Spokane mining man to investigate. He sent in a rugged Irish character who  returned after several weeks with this report: "The ore is there as  ripresinted. It is rich ore as stated, and there is a large quantity of it. But to  get your supplies in and your ore out, you would nade a pack train of bald  agles."  By 1900 Princeton was developing with two or three hotels, two or  three stores and a newspaper. A coal company was developing a mine. The  company bought out S. D. Sands, Allison's son-in-law, who owned most of the  land between the rivers. With the sale of town lots the establishment of the  city was assured. In 1902 William Thomas, who had followed his brother  Charles to Canada, married Caroline Allison. As a result of this marriage I  landed in British Columbia in 1903.  In 1909 the Great Northern Railroad arrived in Princeton and within a  year or so, if you looked at the Oroville, Wash., paper, you would see the  advertisement, "Princeton coal, $8 per ton, Cal Tilley, sales agent." I will  never forget that as a small boy I would count the cars in the long trains  hauling icefrom Otter Lakea few miles upstream from Princeton, bound for  Spokane.  What I have said is a lot of the history of one family, but the  development of a town has many records and many families and people.  Many times a settlement was started by one family. We think of Tom Ellis of  Penticton, Haynes of Osoyoos, Richter of Keremeos, Allison of Princeton,  but we must not forget those who climbed the mountains to find the mine at  Hedley around 1900. They built a tramway up it instead of using "bald  agles." The herdsmen for the cattle ranchers, Richter, Ellis, Haynes and  Allison, raised their families and have descendants around still. Other small  ranchers or sawmill workers who came in from 1885 to 1905 also have  descendants here. The first livery barn was run by W. Garrison who  freighted in much heavy mine machinery and raised a family here. Forbes  Vernon had owned the land between the forks at Princeton as a pre-emption  and let it lapse before Allison took it.  If I stand on a piece of bench land and look down on a long flat along  the river on the north side just below the present town of Princeton, I will see  where Allison's house washed away. If I look across the river I will see Highway 3 built where the Great Northern used to run, for it wasn't until 1949 that  the government got through a paved highway across Allison Pass. The route  that Allison explored and the engineers started in 1860 had not been used for  almost 90 years. Other than being on the south side of the river for 40 miles  below Princeton, we can now travel from Princeton to Osoyoos in a couple of  hours over that General Sherman took. Looking down at the flat by the river  I see, not the big two-storey log home and trading post, not the part of a 5,000-  acre estate but just three small houses. One I live in. One Caroline Thomas,  my mother, and one brother and sister live in, and one I rent.  The Bible says: "Honor thy father and thy mother and it will be well  with thee all the days of thy life." That is what a meeting of a historical  society is for. We are not the heroes, but the pioneers who built this country 32 ENDERBY'S ROBERT CHADWICK  are, and we gather to honor them. If what I say is to honor anyone, it is to  honor Caroline Thomas who is living today on property that was owned by  her father well over 100 years ago.  EDITORS NOTE: This article "Mountain Pathfinder — Founder of Princeton"  is reprinted from the Winter 1972, HERITAGE the journal of the Okanogan  County Historical Society (United States). Permission is  hereby acknowledged.  E. D. Sismey  ENDERBY'S ROBERT CHADWICK,  1872-1953  By JAMES  BELL  Robert Chadwick was born in Lancashire, England. He served an  apprenticeship and became a registered plumber. He spent about a year in  New York in 1893, then returned to England. In 1899 he married Mary  Elizabeth Rawlinson (1874-1968). To this union were born Doris (1900- ),  Robert (Roy) (1902-1972), and Alice (1910-        ).  Mr. Chadwick came to Enderby in the spring of 1910 and obtained  employment in his trade with Andy Fulton, where he worked until he joined  the Army Engineers in 1916. He was invalided back to Canada in 1918. He had  acquired a small farm about two miles out of Enderby in 1912, on which still  stands the original home, where the children were raised. He stayed with his  trade throughout his active years. He was a staunch Anglican all his life, and  had in his earlier years sung in church choirs.  Their daughter Doris married Harry Coell, an early Mara  homesteader, in 1922. They were the parents of \/era Elizabeth (1923- ),  who is married to Rev. Selby Irwin, who at this writing is the Anglican  minister at Ashcroft; and of David Roy Coell (1926- ) who married  Norma Whitemore (1929- ) of Kamloops. David is employed with the  Provincial Assessor's office at Victoria, and he has just completed a three  year term as Brigadier-General in charge of the Militia of British Columbia.  Mr. Chadwick's only son, Roy, became employed with the C.P.R. in  engine service, where he spent 44 years before his retirement in 1964. His  last 12 years as an engineer were spent on the Okanagan branch line between  Sicamous and Kelowna. He married Ina Rantasala (1907- ), herself an  early resident of Sicamous. Their daughter, Velma Mary, is married to  Elmer Aho, who also is a locomotive engineer at Revelstoke.  Mr. Chadwick's second daughter, Alice, has lived in Enderby continuously since 1911. In 1933she married Thomas Kneale, who had arrived in  Enderby from England in 1909. Of this marriage there were two children,  Margaret 1934- ) who is married to Major Clifford Hansen, a pilot in the  Canadian Air Force; and John (1936- ) who married Mary Davyduke  (1939- ), and Enderby girl. John is the manager of Enman Street branch  of the Bank of Montreal in Vancouver.  Alice Kneale, who was widowed in 1955, is, and has been the office  manager for the Enderby Commoner office of the Armstrong-Enderby  Publishing Company, since 1956.  All of these Chadwicks have proven themselves to be valuable citizens  and residents. They are, and have been, the types to which this Country, this  Province and especially this Valley owes its terrific success. They lived and  built when toil was the recipe for a good life, and their example is one that is  too seldom emulated today. BOYHOOD RECOLLECTIONS 33  BOYHOOD RECOLLECTIONS  Of the Okanagan of the Early Nineteen Hundreds  By J. J.  CONROY  I was born in what is now the Rutland District in the year 1898, at that  time the whole area was known as Okanagan Mission. My father, John  Conroy, owned the property now known as the Splett Place. He also owned  property in what is now the Ellison District which he had acquired from  Dave McDougal. One of my earliest memories is jouncing about in the back  of the buckboard, on our occasional trips to and from this area.  Our house on the home place was quite close to the creek and it was the  never ending fear of my poor mother that one of us children would be  drowned in the pool formed by an irrigation dam which was in our back  yard. So it must have been a relief from that worry, at least, when my father  decided to move permanently to the other place. It was quite a decision for  him to make as he was about sixty years of age at that time, and to start to  carve a farm out of the bush would have daunted many a younger man.  The Okanagan was not, at that time at least, a four seasons  playground. It was, to the early settlers a four seasons battleground. The  battle was against heat and cold, drout and the bush. The bush at the time of  which I write, covered the flat lands from what is now the Towers ranch, to  the road which runs north of the airport. Heavy bush it was too. My father's  property was fenced on the south side with fence posts made by cutting up  logs up to forty-eight inches in diameter. These logs were cut into six foot  lengths, and simply stood on end and the barb wire stapled to them.  I was four years old at the time of the move and had a brother and  sister who were respectively four and two years older. There was also one  younger sister. My elder brother and sister attended the school which was  called the Okanagan Mission school at the time. At the ripe age of five years  I was also drafted to attend, at least part time, as the trustees needed  another body to count, in order to keep the school open.  That little cottage school with its carpenter made desks seating two  pupils, its black painted wooden blackboards and large picture of Queen  Victoria had little in the way of modern equipment, but what we were fortunate in having, was a succession of dedicated teachers. I feel I must  mention the names of some of them: Miss Thomson, Miss Keith, Miss Frank,  Mrs. Stirling, Miss Vance, Jack Kincaid and Miss Raymer. I give the names  we knew them by as children.  School days, and the long, long days of childhood. Memories, the road  to school made mystical and strange by an Autumn fog, the race to school on  cold winter mornings with toque pulled down over one's face to keep one's  nose from freezing. When water froze on our slates as we erased our work.  The games we played, Pum, Pum, Pullaway, Stealing the Wicket, Ante,  Ante, Over the Shanty, Fox and the Goose and other games. Other memories  too, like the time my cousin Charley Hereron and I trapped a skunk in the  crawl space under the school, with rather disastrous consequences.  For a boy on a farm in those days life was never dull and though we all  had our chores and responsibilities we always seemed to get enough time to  enjoy ourselves. In the summer there was swimming in the old swimming  hole down in the "crick." Mill Creek in the summer is a spring fed creek and  in our area at least, icy cold. This did not deter us however, but it did make it  more difficult to learn to swim well. I remember one swimming expedition  which almost ended in disaster. 34 BOYHOOD RECOLLECTIONS  My brother Martin and I and our two cousins Charlie and Bill Hereron,  decided, for a change to try a new swimming hole. It was a pond formed in a  depression in the hills behind our place and fed by seepage from an  irrigation ditch and quite deep in the middle. Martin and Charlie who had  learned to swim a bit, were disporting themselves in the water and Bill and I  found ourselves two flume boards which we straddled and were having  ourselves a ball. Unfortunately, we forgot how deep the water was and of  course, when he reached the deepest place cousin Bill fell off his board. He  could not swim a stroke. Martin plunged in at once and was able to reach  him. They struggled in the water with the drowning boy grasping  desperately at his rescuer, nearly drowning them both. Fortunately Charlie,  with rare presence of mind somehow managed to drag an old raft into the  water and out within reach of the struggling pair and pull raft and them  ashore. It was a very sober and thankful bunch of boys who made their way  homeward. Of course we did not say anything about it at home.  Every season had its own particular thing to do, simple things they  would seem now, but they gave us much fun in the doing. The making of  whistles from willow withes when the sap flowed freely in the spring, of kites  to hopefully soar in the March winds, also the making of water wheels to  place in the irrigation ditch, which flowed past our house. I remember lying  awake but beautifully drowsy and listening to the thump, thump of our wheel  and the purl of the water. Summer there was, as I have said swimming, and  fishing in the creek for that most delectable of gustatory treats, the small  brook trout. For bait we used a small white grub which we found in the  creek, it was incased in a shell formed of gravel. There was at the time of  which I write, no earthworms in our area, which seems odd now.  Summer of course brought the school holidays, but it also brought  haying time and for small boys that meant a term in purgatory "driving the  derrick!" That meant driving, or leading an old horse to elevate the hay onto  the stack, usually shouted at and ordered about by the hired men enjoying  their brief authority.  The latter end of summer brought Kickininy fishing. This was an  important food item to the early settlers, particularly those of the Catholic  faith with their long season of Lent with its meat abstention.  The expeditions to the Mission Creek fishing grounds entailed a good  deal of preparation. The making of a net, usually of window screening, the  tightening up and soaking of the storage barrels and laying in a supply of  salt. On arrival the procedure was that someone held the net in a narrow  place in the creek, while the others splashed up the creek toward him, thus  driving the fish into the net. It was fun for small boys for a while but rapidly  became a chilly chore. The next day the fun had definitely gone as we had to  help cleaning the fish, an all day chore.  I especially remember one such expedition. My father had an attack of  lumbago and was unable to go, so my brother and I and the hired man were  delegated. The old Benvoulin Hotel was then operating, so on the way by the  hired man fortified himself against the chill of the water with a bottle of rum.  He fished very enthusiastically for a while but the water was cold and much  fortification was needed, so that by the end of the day we had to pour him into  the democrat.  The Fall season was, to me at least one of the best, bringing as it did  the coming of the thrashing machine. What an excitement, as the huge (it  seemed to us) steam tractor, piloted by a Mr. Dave Crawford, truly to us  kids the God in the Machine, followed by the separator and water wagon,  followed also if school was out, by all the kids within hearing distance, slowly  and ponderously turned into the yard. BOYHOOD RECOLLECTIONS  35  Ellison   Baseball   Team   about   1912:  Standing,  left   to   right:   T.   Carney,  J. J. Conroy, C. Hereron, M.  Conroy, G. Monford. Seated: C.  Whitaker,  L. Monford, H. Lang, S. Silke.  Eric Sismey photo copy  Fall also brought the Fall Fair, another exciting time for small fry.  The trip to town by the whole family, down the long dusty road in the smoky  haze of a September morning is never to be forgotten. Memories of the Fair.  Happy dusty people, the smell of cigar smoke, piles of delectable fruit and  huge pumpkins. Of trying to see between grown-up people, the harness and  jockey races and other events and finally the long drive home with Father  dozing over the lines up the long Orchards' Hill. Other fall memories, the  annual pig drive. I don't know why the hogs were driven rather than hauled  in a wagon, but that's the way it was done in the early days. The animals, as I  recall them, were very well behaved for pigs that is, as they were driven  down the roads, with us boys on foot and getting the occasional ride in the  accompanying buggy down the main street of Kelowna to the slaughterhouse  on the lakeshore.  Memory also takes me back to another Fall 'drive.' My uncle Mike  Hereron was a director of the Exhibition Association who were responsible  for putting on the Fall Fair, and finding a scarcity in the animal displays,  decided at the last moment to exhibit his dairy bull and a heifer. Bill Hereron  recruited me to help him drive them to town. It was late in the afternoon  before we got our horses, we were mounted this time and we had about ten  miles to go. We got along not too badly till we got into town, but the animals  were tired and dusk was falling and the animals decided to go their separate  ways. These ways let them into every open driveway, around some alarmed  citizens' house, leaving their calling cards on the walks as they went, with  Bill or I in hot pursuit. It was getting darker all the time and we narrowly  escaped being garroted by clothes lines several times. We finally ended up  with both animals in Billy Lloyd Jones chicken yard. Mr. Lloyd Jones kindly  advised us to shut the door and leave them there till morning, which we were  happy to do.  Winter was a time I was never too enthusiastic about as I seem to  recall many very cold winters about that time. However we did have good 36 BOYHOOD RECOLLECTIONS  times then too. We used to go skating on Carney's pond, and often dropped in  on Mr. and Mrs. Carney on the way home. There to consume huge quantities  of Mrs. Carney's home-made bread with wild strawberry jam. The skating  area was maintained by the boys and meantquite a lot of work clearing snow  and flooding the rink with buckets of water.  The school break at Christmas was a highlight in the winter season  with the Christmas tree and the school concert put on by the school pupils.  The preparation for these must have taken up a lot of school time but the  parents loved them and the kids found them a break in the school routine.  But that Christmas tree, nothing will ever again smell as lovely as that  newly cut, big fir tree, as it came into the warmth of the school room to be  stood in the corner to be decorated and hung with presents, finally to be  covered with sheets against prying eyes. Then the concert, and the agony of  anticipation as we children waited for the end of the entertainment and the  calling of our names by the acting Santa Claus.  The school house, in those days was a community center, the only  place where entertainments could be held. Concerts were given regularly in  winter with local talent providing the songs and music etc. Debates were a  favorite form of amusement and many a furious discussion on Local Option,  Women's Rights, etc., etc., were waged  These days of organized sports are contrasted in my memories with  the sports we played when I was a boy. I remember vividly my first baseball  game. Some of us somehow got together the essentials of the game, a bat, a  ball and some gloves. We had no one to show us how to play but we played  anyhow, and had a lot of fun. This was not enough for my cousin Charlie, who  was a great organizer. He felt that we were ready for bigger things and  issued a challenge to the Benvoulin school boys, to a game to be played in  LeFevres field, that is Mel Marshall's now. The result was dreadful from our  point of view. The Benvoulin boys had been playing for years and had a good  working knowledge of the game, whereas our knowledge was, to say the  least, very sketchy. The result, the score as I recall it, was Benvoulin 29, our  side one.  We did not a I low this to discourage us, however, as we went on to have  quite a good team, which we organized into the Ellison Baseball Club. We  wanted uniforms and we raised the money by putting on an entertainment in  the school with a dramatic skit. We used to call them dialogues, with the  boys in the team taking all the parts, including the feminine ones. Entertainment was scarce in those days and we had a very good reception. We  also organized a sleigh ride. Transportation to a dance in the Rutland school  from the Kelowna United Church corner and return. Tom Carney and Bill  Hereron were in charge of this project and they had rather a bad time, as  during that night a Chinook wind came up and most of the snow disappeared.  There is nothing more depressing on a driver than to hear the squeal of  runners over bare ground and nothing harder on the horses.  I mentioned earlier the struggle with the forest. My boyhood  memories are inextricably bound up with the sounds and smells of the bush.  The sound of a willow grouse drumming carried on a breeze on a spring  evening, the 'too hoo' of a horned owl on a warm summer night, the smell of  skunk cabbage in the swamps, and of fire weed growing in the burnt over  areas and always, when it wasn't the fire season the smell of burning  stumps.  Clearing was done after the saw logs were taken off. Robert Munson  builta sawmill on the Christien ranch which burned down about 1908 and was  rebuilt on the Bulman property, now owned by Kabal Singh. The timber for  the operation of this mill came from the surrounding properties. All the BOYHOOD RECOLLECTIONS  37  lumber except the finishing stuff, used in the farm house which my father  built in 1910, came from this mill. It operated at this place for about four or  five years. The mill was eventually acquired by Mr. S. M. Simpson and was  the forerunner of the S. M. Simpson complex.  After the logging was done the remaining bush was "slashed", that is  felled and windrowed for burning. After burning the land was left for a few  years for the smaller stumps to rot. Sheep were usually turned in to keep the  brush down. Then the smaller stumps were pulled with block and tackle.  Finally, or as money became available, the larger stumps were blasted out  or split by the blast so that they would burn.  Thinking of that reminds me of a time when my father had bought two  tons of an explosive called "Virite," which I believe was manufactured  locally, at that time. Not having any powder magazine this powder was  dumped in the field to be cleared, which was about a quarter of a mile from  any buildings. However somebody complained to the authorities, which led  to a visit from the local constable who told my father that the powder must  be put in a safer place. So in a day or so the powder was moved to our root  cellar which was less than a hundred yards from our house.  Memories, how they crowd into an old man's brain. These which I  have jotted down will give I hope, a glimpse of the Okanagan I knew in the  early part of this century.  INDEPENDENCE DAY, JULY 4,  1914  The Penticton City Band leads the parade at Oroville, Washington. Early  in 1915 the band enlisted to the man to become the  band of the 54th  Batallion, Canadian Expeditionary Force.  Photo Geo. Bartello. Photo copy Eric Sismey 38 CUSTOMS OFFICER  CUSTOMS OFFICER  He Hosted General Sherman  By C.  B.   BASH  Reprinted with the permission of the Okanogan County (USA) Historical  Society from the Spring 1973 issue of the Publication HERITAGE.  —Eric D. Sismey  My brother, A. W. Bash, was appointed Collector of Customs of Puget  Sound District by President Garfield, and took over his office about July 10,  1881. The district at that time extended from the Pacific Ocean to Idaho,  including Fort Colville and also Bonners Ferry, Idaho, I think. I was appointed deputy collector at Osoyoos Lake by my brother, which office at the  time carried a salary of $2500 a year, reduced to $1800 after my first year.  I arrived at Osoyoos Lake Aug. 7, 1881 and found Jacob Stitzel in  charge. Stitzel had then been in office seven or eight years with headquarters at Fort Colville (then a military post) until about two years previous to  my arrival when he was ordered to move his headquarters to Osoyoos Lake,  but his jurisdiction extended from the Cascade Mountains through Spokane  Falls to Bonners Ferry, Idaho.  The cabin occupied by Stitzel was built by John Lutz (possibly Utz)  who married a squaw by the name of Tenas Catherine (that is, Little  Catherine). After Lutz's death Catherine moved to Kettle River about 15  miles south of the boundary line, where she took up a ranch and raised hay  for the cattle which her husband had left her. Although she abandoned the  Osoyoos ranch for the one on Kettle River, she claimed the cabin and Stitzel  paid her a small sum for rent. On the arrival of a special agent for the  treasury and my brother, the collector, I was ordered to take over the  abandoned building, and expend $500 in repairs and furnish it with a good  cookstove to replace a dilapidated one that Stitzel had packed in and put up  with.  This building was located on a bench just above a beautiful spring of  cold water that bubbled out of the hillside of the canyon of Nine Mile Creek  which flowed within 30 yards of the cabin. According to old timers resident  on the American side, and Judge T. E. Haynes? the Canadian collector, Lutz  had fenced about 12 or 15 acres of land between the mouth of the canyon and  Nine Mile Creek and the trail going north. He claimed the land down to the  lake when Hiram F. Smith came over from Rock Creek where he had been  placer mining and had kept a little store.  He built a little house on the opposite side of the trail running north into  British Columbia, but between Lutz and the lake, on the land claimed by  Lutz. This caused a feud between them that led to quarrels which lasted up  until  Lutz's death.  After Lutz's death, Smith bought from Catherine, or appropriated, the  rails around Lutz's field and fenced in the part between the trail running  north and the lake. Smith planted a few apple trees and many peach trees  which he grew from seed, and that, with a patch of irrigated land, constituted what was called Okanogan Smith's ranch.  As part of my commission, I was obliged to have a horse to ride and  although Osoyoos Lake was headquarters, any place along the trail from the  FOOTNOTE:—Judge J. C Haynes CUSTOMS OFFICER 39  Cascade Mountains through Spokane Falls to Bonners Ferry, Idaho, was my  official station so far as the customs were concerned. While collections were  generally small, one year I collected over $5000 on Judge Haynes' beef cattle  which were sold to Willis Thorp of Yakima Valley.  In the year I was in office, great herds of range horses were brought  down from British Columbia to be driven over the then Colville Reservation  through or near Spokane Falls to Alberta, passing out of the United States at  Bonners Ferry, Idaho. They were driven down the Okanogan River to near  Omak Lake, thence to the Columbia River. I would send a convoy with each  herd who was to receive $4 per day and his living expenses going and  returning from Bonners Ferry. There were some breeding cattle also entered during my term which were on the free list.  I bought my supplies at Spokane Falls and had them hauled to Kettle  Falls on the Columbia River (later Marcus) by an Indian, Joseph Samo by  name, hauling from Spokane Falls to Kettle Falls and packing to Osoyoos  Lake for three cents per pound, divided as one cent from Spokane to Kettle  Falls and two cents thence to Osoyoos Lake.  The last two years in office, my supplies were hauled by white men in  wagons across the Big Bend of the Columbia and up the Okanogan River.  One of these freighters charged four cents per pound for bringing goods. His  name was Ward and he took up a ranch at the mouth of Johnson Creek.  Oneof the privileges granted me by the government, the station being  on the Colville Indian Reservation, was to fence five acres for a horse  pasture, which privilege I never exercised. There were about four wild plum  trees growing across a small garden in the gulch above the custom house  that, although the fence was broken down, I paid Tenas Catherine for, as she  came over from her home 40 miles away to gather the fruit. I repaired the  fence and grew my potatoes in this garden and my cabbages in a small lot  below the mouth of the canyon through which the creek ran.  One of the notable incidents during my term was the passing along the  boundary trail of General William Tecumseh Sherman on his way out to the  coast. He camped near the custom house one night so as to get water from  my spring. He had permission from the Canadian government to travel with  his escort, a troop of cavalry, through British Columbia to the coast, where  he took a boat to Vancouver.  I piloted him across the line to the Canadian custom house which was  occupied by Judge J. C. Haynes to whom I introduced the general and his  chief companions, and thence over the bridge across the narrows between  the Twin Lakes to Theodore Kruger's store and residence. In Sherman's  party were General Miles and Judge White of the Supreme Court of the  United States. The commander of the troop of cavalry, General Mallory, was  the executive officer of the party and paid the bills when it was necessary to  pay out money.  At Kruger's store, I introduced the officers and General Sherman was  invited into Kruger's residence where I remember he took one of Kruger's  children in his lap, August, I think. The bridge over which I crossed was a  privately owned toll bridge built by Kruger and his prices for crossing were  $1.25 per man with a saddle horse and 75 cents each for pack animals or loose  animals. Just below the bridge there was a ford which I knew and I offered to  guide the party over it. Sherman said we must not try to save money by  dodging the first thing we encountered in the foreign land, so he gave orders  to take the bridge. Kruger had notices up that he would not be responsible for  accidents. I assured the general that the narrow bridge without railings was 40 CUSTOMS OFFICER  strong and if troopers would dismount and lead their mounts there was little  danger.  As there were nearly 100 horsemen and I think as many or more pack  animals, Kruger received a large sum for the privilege of crossing the  bridge besides a lot of supplies which he sold them. On leaving the American  customs house horses were not mounted until after being led down the hill on  which the Customs House stood. At the foot of the hill, as General Sherman's  horse was somewhat restive, he was having a little difficulty in mounting, so  an orderly came forward to help him up, but he refused his services, and at  the same time said, "I realize, however, there is no such fool as an old fool."  Previous to Sherman's starting on his trip, Lieutenant Goethals, afterward General Goethals of Panama Canal fame, traveled along the trail  over which the General was to take, locating camp sites and mapping the  country. It happened to be my fortune to be at Kettle Falls when Goethals  was on his first trip in, so he was glad to have me travel with him as I was  familiar with the camp sites between Kettle Falls and my post. He located  camp sites as nearly as it was convenient, 20 miles apart, that is if good  water and grass could be had for horses.  On coming down the mountain along a creek which flowed in Curlew  Creek near its mouth and which was not named on the government map  which Goethals carried. I told Goethals I would get out and get a deer for  fresh meat for him and his escort if he would let me have his Indian packer to  help me pull it down the mountain. We got a beautiful barren doe and as the  creek was not named on his map and as he was remapping the trail, he  called the creek Mowitch Creek which is the Chinook word for deer, after the  incident. It is still so designated on government maps and it became known  afterwards by the settlers in Curlew Valley as Deer Creek.  I was allowed to go to the coast for the winter at one time, so about  Christmas time I rode over to Colville to get the stage for Spokane. On going  down Kettle River below what afterward became Grand Forks and just  above Kettle River Falls, which later was developed for power, I came to a  ford that was choked with anchor ice. This had backed the water up so that it  appeared to me to be a swimming matter and altogether too dangerous to  attempt crossing.  I examined a wide pool in the river just above the ford to see if I could  cross the ice. There was snow on the ice and it appeared to be sufficiently  solid to bear my horse which was a large grey weighing about 1000 pounds. I  first took the saddle off him and carried it across the river, then tying my  picket rope around his neck and holding him with the bridle reins in my  hand, started to lead him over the ice. In the middle of the river the ice gave  way under him but left a margin of about one foot above the break on which  for me to stand. The jce gave way for perhaps 20 feet towards the ford. As the  water was swimming, I had no other alternative except to try to pull the  horse out. I would let him float to the lower end of the open water and then  bring him up again as fast as I could make headway with him. I could  always get his body upon the ice but each time he would have one leg down  under it which would catch and allow him to slip back into the water. The  horse being a gentle one, seemed to understand that I was trying to help him  so he did not struggle or I should have been obliged to leave him eventually  to drown. This occurred about 15 miles below O'Connell's ranch where I had  spent the previous night and there was no house in the other direction for  about 25 miles. The cold must have been at least 20 degrees or more below  zero.  Judge Haynes named his next baby Sherman, after the General. The PAYNTER FAMILY, WESTBANK 41  last I knew of Sherman, nicknamed Sherry, he was working at the Mother  Lode Smelter at Greenwood.  Valentine Haynes, one of the Judge's sons, I heard, took up a ranch or  occupied some of his father's land between Osoyoos and Penticton and  another one of his sons whom in youth we called Manny, was in Hedley  mining camp the last time I heard of him. The Judge had two daughters, one,  Hesther,* married—I can't recall the name just now—who became the  Collector of Customs and a Magistrate at the government buildings just back  of the Kruger holdings on the west side of the lake near the narrows. There  was a younger daughter named Irene.  I was succeeded by Dave Stuart (not Stewart) in August or September, 1885, just four years after I assumed the duties of the office,  Cleveland having been elected president.  FOOTNOTE—*Hester  PAYNTER FAMILY, WESTBANK  By SHEILA  PAYNTER  The sign says "Paynter Rd.", Westbank, named by the Board of Trade  in honour of Edwin and Margaret Paynter, but members of that family still  think of itas Acacia Ave. after the row of trees their parents planted in front  of the original W. L. Daeth house where they raised their children, six of  whom live in the Okanagan.  Edwin Coleman Paynter was born in 1881, the fourth son of Henry  Augustus Paynter, a solicitor, in Alnwich Northumberland, educated at  Malvern Public School and St. Bees. He was always fond of the outdoors ,  especially the sea. One of his youthful memories was of paddling in a small  dinghy three and one half miles to the Fame Islands where his father had  established a bird sanctuary. Edwin spent the summer alone in a ruined  castle watching for poachers.  Shortly after he began legal training the Boer War broke out and he  joined upas a yeoman in a Northumberland regiment. He came back from  South Africa unhurt and was articled to his father's law firm in Clement's  Inn, London. While there he married Margaret Mary Barker, a teacher, in  1903.  Margaret was a very capable, adaptable woman as she needed to be  when her husband's spirit of adventure moved them to the Okanagan in 1909.  Edwin had bet one of his brothers that he could make a living with a pick and  shovel and if you add an axe to that list, that is what he did.  While clearing land above Kelowna, Edwin and Margaret, like most  early settlers, made do with a minimum of money and a maximum of hard  work. Edwin became one of the best tree-fellers in the district and Margaret  cooked for twenty young bachelors as well as caring for her three small  children. They lived in a shack belonging to a former school chum, William  Affleck. It boasted an upstairs reached by a ladder, a mud floor and water 42  PAYNTER FAMILY, WESTBANK  E. C. Paynter, Margaret Paynter, 1953, 8 grand children.  Eric Sismey photo copy  available from a creek. After a month or two they decided to buy a piece of  land from Tom and Sidney Pyman. All their friends, among them one or two  carpenters, had a bee after work every evening and built their first house.  The Paynters donated land for a school and opened the first store and  post office in the K. L. O. district in 1909, naming these benches East  Kelowna.  In 1912 the family made a return trip to England for Christmas,  coming back to a house near the brickyard at the foot of Knox Mountain.  In 1915 Edwin joined the First Canadian Pioneers as a private and in  1916 transferred to the Royal Field Artillery, reaching the rank of captain. In  the meantime Margaret had her hands full transporting a growing family  across the Atlantic. One memorable trip was on the Royal George which was  blown many days off course by a storm. It had been used earlier as a cattle  boat and to add to the difficulties the decks were often all awash with high  seas. Once while crossing the prairies their train jack-knifed and the  children were shaken up and thrown from their bunks.  After peace was signed, the Paynter family, now ten in number,  started again from scratch, this time in Westbank. They had been in touch  with Mr. H. C. Last of Glen Rosa but Edwin and Margaret found it unfeasible  to have a store and post office there so settled nearer the townsite. They  needed a cow right away and Edwin made a deal with Mr. Archie Hardy of  Benvoulin to let him have one. As the two older children started leading the  cow away for the twelve-mile (plus ferry) trip home, Mrs. Hardy took her  husband to task for selling the cow without a down payment or note of sale.  It shows the basic values of those early days that Mr. Hardy re-assured his  wife by saying "An Englishman's word is as good as his bond."  Edwin was named postmaster of Westbank in 1920, succeeding Alec  Nicol, and keeping that position until 1946. One aspect of that job was  meeting the S.S. Sicamous daily by horse and buggy to exchange mail sacks. PAYNTER FAMILY, WESTBANK 43  Actually Margaret was the one who operated the post office. Edwin spent  many of his happiest days in the tranquillity of the westside hills. He worked  for the Westbank Water Users' Co-op Association (later called the Westbank  Irrigation District) for forty-three years, twenty-one of those years as  secretary. In the early part of Westbank's orchard development he was  influential in getting the present water supply organized and spent much  time exploring the surrounding high-country. He lived up at the lakes for  long stretches of time, fished from rafts, ran a trap-line in winter and  discovered and studied water resources in Paynter, Horseshoe, Summit,  Dobbin and Bear Lakes. He diverted part of the Nicola into Dobbin lake and  shovelled and blasted a channel from Bear Lake towards Powers Creek even  though local men said it couldn't be done. This led to an extensive irrigation  program that covers approximately fifteen hundred arable acres and services seven hundred domestic outlets.  From the early twenties the family took solid root in Westbank, partly  through their growing family — an adopted daughter, Helen Slak, plus their  own two sons and five daughters — and partly through their participation in  Community life.  Helen (Nellie) married Reuben Hamilton, now deceased, in West  Summerland, in 1923, and now lives in Vancouver.  Edwina left for a tour of work and travel in 1934, byway of the Panama  Canal. She worked her way through the eastern United States, England,  France, Sicily and Corsica; served in the R.A.F. and the R.C.A.F. and since  the end of World War 11 has farmed at home, specializing in livestock.  Henry planted an orchard in 1926 and worked in local packing-houses  as a packer and fruit inspector. He married Berna High in 1938, joined the  R.C.A.F. as a service policeman and married his second wife, Sheila  MacKay of Peachland in 1946. He and his family are in a third generation  mixed farming operation in Westbank.  Rose was brought up by Mr. and Mrs. W. Affleck of East Kelowna. She  married Thomas R. Carter of Buckland, Herts, England in 1931. This was the  first wedding ceremony performed in St. George's Church, Westbank. The  Carters are well known through their long connection with the South East  Kelowna Water District.  Jessica married Vernon Yeulett in England in 1938 while she was  taking a nursing course. Her husband was killed in World War 11 in the crash  of a flight training aircraft and she returned to her parent's home in West-  bank. Eight years later she married Arthur F. Johnson who had been in the  R.C.A.F. and who now operates an orchard and hay farm as well as having  cattle.  John joined the R.A.F. as a wireless air-gunner in 1935. He served in  six Middle East Campaigns, later transferring to the R.C.A.F. He met  Almeda Campbell of Black's Harbour, New Brunswick and they were  married there in 1944. They also live in Westbank where John is an orchardist.  on the site of the present Industrial Park. While stationed in England she  met her future husband, Herbert Fuller of Launceston, Tasmania, whom she  married in 1944. "Jacky", in Australia since 1945, is the only family member  living at a distance from Westbank.  Doris, like the rest of her older brothers and sisters, attended school in  Westbank. She studied Home Economics at the University of Idaho and in  1939 married Jack Maddock of Peachland, who subsequently joined the  R.C.A.F. and became a pilot instructor. They have operated a garage and  also a farm.  Edwin and Margaret will be remembered for their contributions to the 44  PAYNTER FAMILY, WESTBANK  district of Westbank. They encouraged the building of St. George's Church  and Margaret helped as an orgainist, Sunday School teacher and member of  the W.A. until shortly before her death. She was also very active in the  Community Hall, Women's Institute, Pro-Rec and the Victorian Order of  Nurses. After retiring from the Post Office in 1946 she was able to enjoy  more fully her garden and grandchildren, and to help with orchard work as  long as her health allowed.  As well as his work for the irrigation district Edwin was a Notary  Public from 1910 until 1972 and in February 1954 the Westbank Board of  Trade gave him the Good Citizenship Award for the previous year. After his  wife's death on June 4, 1958, he made his home with Jessica and Arthur  Johnson. He often said how lucky he and his wife were to have most of their  family living around thm. He particularly enjoyed his grandchildren,  twenty-two of them, and his great grandchildren of whom there are twenty.  He was pre-deceased by one grandson and two great grandsons. Edwin  Paynter died at the age of ninety-one and is buried beside Margaret in the  Westbank cemetery, both graves shaded by a large acacia tree.  Last trip  of  Canadian   National  car  barge  service   on   Okanagan   Lake,  February  15,   1973. Photographed from   the  foot  of the  Dave  Littlejohn  orchard at Naramata. Eric Sismey Photo  After 47 years service Canadian National Railway car barge service  on Okanagan Lake came to an end on February 15,1973.  Service between Kelowna and Penticton included stops at Westbank,  Peachland, Summerland and Naramata.  Tug No. 6 making the final run, placed in service in 1948, had a tonnage  of 157.7 tons, was 89 feet 6 inches long and a 20 foot beam powered by a 6  cylinder 575 horsepower Enterprise diesel was capable of juggling a barge  loaded with 600 tons at 8 knots.  —Eric Sismey  NOTE—See OHS 36th Report page 165-169. MV Okanagan. Last of an era. SIMPSON'S SAWMILL —1913-1965 45  SIMPSON'S SAWMILL—1913-1965  By JERRY RUPP  (Grade 10)  K.L.O.  Junior Secondary School  Editor's Note—Jerry Rupp's excellent essay on the history of the S.M. Simpson  sawmill is illustrated with 18 photographs. It is unfortunate that his article  cannot be used to include all the photographs. I have hesitated to select  any one. His essay however should become a part of the Okanagan Historical  Society archives.  Mr. Simpson was born on July 12, 1886 in Chatsworth, Ontario. In 1913  he moved from Penticton, B.C. where he had been engaged in the house  construction business, to Kelowna, B.C., and started his own general  millwork. This was located just south of where the fire hall on Water Street is  now and employed only one person — himself! In 1917 he expanded his  operations to include doors, windows and general millwork, and he moved to  the old Kelowna Cannery building on Abbott Street between Lawrence and  Leon.  In 1924 the company was incorporated as S. M. Simpson Limited and it  expanded into the box factory business on Abbott Street where the Inn Tower  Motel is now situated. Also in 1924 Mr. Simpson expanded into the veneer  business in which he made covers for wooden fruit boxes as well as tin tops,  grape baskets and berry baskets. He turned these out by the millions.  In 1926 Mr. Simpson purchased a small sawmill from Mr. Fred  Munson. This sawmill was moved to different locations depending on wood  supply as it was more economical to move the mill to the lumber than to  transport the lumber to the mill. It was first moved to the Ellison district  near the airport and then to the Winfield district where Hiram Walker is now  located. Later it was moved to Hydraulic Creek on the Old McCulloch Road.  In 1930 a Veneer Container Plant was built at Manhatten near the  northern city limits.  In 1932 the sawmill was moved next door to the Veneer Plant on  Manhattan and Guy Street where it remained.  In 1933 the Box Factory was moved from Abbott Street to Manhattan  and Guy Street. In 1933 all the power was supplied by a steam engine fired by  waste materials from the sawmill.  In 1939 the major part of the sawmill and veneer plant was destroyed  by fire but during the same year it was completely rebuilt and expanded.  Considerable electrical power was used after the rebuilding of the company  and a turbine driven generator for producing electrical power was put into  use.  A major acquisition took place in 1924 when The Kelowna Saw Mill  Company Limited was purchased. This company operated a sawmill, a box  shook factory and a retail lumber and building supply outlet. The consolidation saw the K.S.M. identity retained as a retail outlet of lumber and  building supplies while S.M.S. Ltd. took over all operations of the sawmill,  box shook factory, and sash and door manufacturing.  In 1948 the sash and door operations, a millwork plant, as well as a  showroom and warehouse were consolidated on a new site on Ellis Street in  Kelowna, where the Courier is now located. The offices of both S. M. Simpson  Limited and the Kelowna Saw Mill Limited were centered at this location.  The retail lumber supply operation was active from 1948 through 1956 and 46 SIMPSON'S SAWMILL —1913-1965  was considered one of the most aggressive of its kind in Western Canada.  S&K PLYWOOD DIVISION  The granting of a Tree Farm Licence in 1951 was the prelude to the  1956 announcement of S. M. Simpson Limited's entry into the field of  plywood manufacturing. The Tree Farm Licence governed an area of some  200,000 acres to be used for planting and research. In 1953 half a million  trees, two to three years old, were planted throughout the tree farm. Also,  extensive lumber research programs were carried out. Concurrent with this  move came the announcement that the Retail Building Supply business  operated by the Kelowna Sawmill Co. Ltd. was discontinuing their services  in March 1956 so that they could concentrate all efforts and resources on  their development program. S&K Plywood Limited began the manufacturing of sheathing grade plywood on April 1, 1957. Beginning in 1962, at a  cost of $300,000, the waste wood from the mill was transformed into wood  chips. This was then shipped in Canadian National Railway cars to Vancouver and made into pulp for pulp and paper products.  KEL SERVICES LTD.  This company was established in 1963 when it was deemed necessary  to integrate all aspects of the bin, pallet, and shipping container operations.  Prior to this consolidation, the operations had been part of the S. M. Simpson  function with assembly and dipping contracted out. The millwork plant that  had been built in 1948 became the site of the Kel Services operation.  Distribution of the products of Kel Services was through S. M. Simpson Ltd.  THE  KELOWNA SAW MILL COMPANY LIMITED  The current function is a warehouse distribution centre for plywood as  part of Crown Zellerbach Building Materials Limited, B.C. Sales Region.  K.S.M. is also identified with the distribution of bins, pallets and shipping  containers in the United States as well as Canada.  Mr. Simpson fell ill and was not active in the company after 1955. He  died in 1959 at the age of seventy-three. Horace Simpson, son of the late Mr.  Simpson, took over the position of President of the company in 1955 and  continued in that position until 1965 when Crown Zellerbach bought out S. M.  Simpson's Saw Mill and Company. Mr. Horace Simpson was familiar with  the company when he took over as President as he had been active with the  company since 1935 in positions ranging from  Superintendent, Assistant  Manager and General Manager to Vice-President.  LUMBY TIMBER COMPANY LTD., LUMBY  This mill was acquired by Simpson interests in 1959. It was rebuilt  following a fire in 1962.  TRAUTMAN-GARRAWAY LTD., PEACHLAND  The Simpson group acquired the Peachland mill and outfit in 1955.  McLEAN SAWMILLS LTD., MALAKWA  When originally purchased in 1957, a stud mill was operated at this  location. No manufacturing was carried on at Malakwa. Logs from the area,  suitable for peelers, are shipped by CPR to Kelowna. Sawlogs harvested are  sold to independent operators in the area.  This is the story of S. M. Simpson's Sawmill — from when it originated  in 1913 and employed only one person, to 1935 when it employed three hundred people and to 1960 when it employed well over seven hundred people SIMPSON'S SAWMILL —1913-1965 47  from the surrounding area of Kelowna. This does not include contract  loggers and other contracts handed out by the company. The payroll alone  for the sawmill, box factory and plywood plant in 1964 amounted to over  $2,250,000!  BIBLIOGRAPHY  (Alphabetical Order)  Report on "the Interior Story" by Mr. Bremmer of Crown Zellerbach.  Notes on interviews with Mr. Bremmer of Crown Zellerbach.  Notes on old Courier clippings  Notes on interviews with Mr. H. Simpson.  Pictures supplied  by:  Mr.  Bremmer of   Crown   Zellerbach,   The   Daily   Courier,   Mr.   Horace  Simpson, photocopied by author.  BILL'S IN TROUBLE  I've got a letter, Parson,  from my boy out West  An' my ol' heart is heavy  as an anvil in my breast.  His letters come so seldom  that I somehow sort o' knowed  That Billy was a-trampin'  on a mighty rocky road,  But never once imagined  he would bow my head in shame,  An' the dust'd waller  his ol' daddy's honored name.  He writes from out in Hilltown,  an' the story's mighty short;  I just can't tell his mother;  it'll break her poor ol' heart;  An' so I reckon, Parson,  you might break the news to her.  Bill's in the Legislature,  but he doesn't say what for.  Extract from  the   "Yellow   Rose",   being   a   publication   of   Corpus   Christie   Golden   Age  Club, (Texas) U.S.A.  And favor of Mrs. A. S. Hurlburt, Vernon, B.C. 8.3.73. 48 A WAR BRIDE'S JOURNEY IN 1917  A WAR  BRIDE'S JOURNEY  IN  1917  By FLORENCE  E.  GOULD  My husband, Arthur Gould, expected to be invalided home during the  winter of 1917-'18. He was informed by Canadian Army Officials that a boat  leaving in December would be the last that winter to carry women and  children, and since I was pregnant, they thought I should travel then rather  than wait until the next convoyed boat, probably in late spring. We were  disappointed at not being able to travel on the same boat, but under war  conditions, one has no choice in these things. I was glad to be leaving war  torn Britain and being young thought nothing of the risks involved. My  parents, of course, looked worried but my doctor pointed out that travelling  with an unborn child was very much easier than with a young infant.  My journey started by train from my parents home in South Wales to  Liverpool. We reached Liverpool during the night, too late to be worth  getting overnight lodgings. A group of us stayed in one of the railway waiting  rooms to await the morning and further directions. In the morning we were  able to procure a breakfast of sorts from the station buffet. One enterprising  girl walked into a nearby hotel and got herself a bath, but most of us just  endured the grubby conditions, common to after rail travel in those days of  steam trains. Later we were taken by bus to some offices of the Canadian  Army and the shipping company to have our passports checked and answer  some questions. I was asked if I had been vaccinated for smallpox. When I  said "No" they simply noted that it didn't take!, and let it go at that. Then  followed a long wait at the docks where we got a taste of what mothers of  young children were enduring; and although help was provided for them the  children were far from happy. However after due time were were walked by  plank across the cobble of the beach under careful supervision and taken to  our various cabins. We had a first class deck patronized by officers wives  and those who had a little more cash, but most of us were quite satisfied with  the second class deck. We were told there were 200 infants and small  children aboard and it certainly sounded like it at times. Many soldiers were  returning to Canada for various reasons. Some were lucky enough to have  their wives on board. They were able to join the other passengers on the  decks and a few romances seemed to blossom.  Our ship was the Justicia, well camouflaged and wearing a number  (she was torpedoed on a later voyage). The crew did all they could for our  comfort and amusement. It was all lost for me, for I suffered with sea  sickness all the way.  We were, as we thought, ready to sail when we were informed that an  explosion had taken place in the harbour at Halifax, N.S. Rumors flew at the  usual rate but we just sat in harbour while those in authority decided on our  route. This was to make my journey to Canada slightly different from the  expected. It had been arranged with my husband's Grandmother in Halifax  that I would stay with her until Arthur arrived in February, then we would  travel together to Saskatchewan. This plan seemed rather uncertain with  the news of the damage at Halifax.  While we waited in Liverpool, the largest passenger boat of the era,  the Olympic docked and we were able to watch the disembarking and entertaining of her passengers; thousands of Chinese Coolies on their way to  France to work in the labour battalions. The shrill commands from their  N.C.O.'s reached us as we watched the proceedings. A WAR BRIDE'S JOURNEY IN 1917 49  After a two day wait we were able to proceed and I must say I enjoyed  it as long as were were in sight of land. We were not told where we would  land but all felt better when we caught sight of our armed escort. I had  become friendly with nurse Gladys Black, who was returning to Canada on  leave and hoping to transfer to an outfit going on active duty to France. She  had been nursing in a British Military hospital, and said the British Tommy  was too servile for her taste as a nurse! After about ten days aboard were  told that our destination would be New York. Sailing up the Hudson we saw  the Statue of Liberty, and were struck by the chunks of ice that were being  pike-poled away from the shore and sent into the current. The strange  American Indian names on the railway cars, and the huge and dirty docks as  wel I as the ferry boats — new sights abounded!  When we docked arrangements were started to give all the passengers  an adjustment in their rail fares so that their tickets would cover the fare  from New York rather than Halifax. I had no railway ticket and had brought  very little money because I had meant to stay in Halifax. I had no way of  knowing how my in-laws had fared in the explosion.  Nurse Black decided that she was going to take French leave of the  ship and visit her Aunt and Uncle in New Jersey and her old graduate nursing school in New York City. She invited me to go with her and I could wire  from there to Arthur's father, Allan Gould, in Saskatchewan for money to  take me West since there seemed no point in going back to Halifax. I accepted her invitation and after we had seen our luggage unloaded we slipped  off, picked up our trunks and I don't think we were ever missed! Since she  had trained in New York and often visited in New Jersey she knew her way  about and in no time we were on the New Jersey ferry and then by commuter  train to a country town. Miss Black's Aunt and Uncle had been very surprised to get her wire from New York and were happy to meet us at the  "Depot" (a new word to me). I sent off my wire and we walked the short  distance to the home of Mr. and Mrs. Corbett who turned out to be the kindest  people I think I have ever met. Mrs. Corbett was a Canadian from Ontario.  She had spent a year in Saskatchewan and was able to give me some idea of  what I would be facing there. My first impressions of the New Jersey  country-side were the clean bracing air, the clean white snow, the sleigh  bells on the horse drawn sleigh that brought our luggage from the "Depot",  the way the lawns sloped to the street without any dividing fence or hedge  and the clapboarded houses, most of them two storeys. On Sunday we attended the Corbett's church, one of the fundamental churches and we SAT  through the complete service. Each day Miss Black and I went to New York.  We watched a posh wedding in St. Patricks Cathedral, rode on a 5th Avenue  bus, saw high rise buildings, the Flat Iron building, sky scrapers like the  Empire State building and the famouse theatres on Broadway. The speed  limit at that time was 25 M.P.H. I was introduced to eating in an automat.  Child's restaurant had a chef cooking pancakes in the window, so we went  in and I had my first taste of pancakes with Maple Syrup. I could easily  understand why ice-cream seemed so welcome and popular; the buildings  all seemed to my British blood very overheated. I enjoyed going through the  large stores like Macys and Wanamakers. Their window displays were  marvellous although not as large as our English ones.  As Christmas drew near I was getting worried at the non arrival of my  money. My kind hosts offered to loan me the money. Gladys Black had to  leave in order to be with her people in Ontario for Christmas. My money  finally came and I was able to start on the next part of my journey on  Christmas day 1917. Mr. Corbett came to New York and saw me on my train  and then returned for his own Christmas day celebrations. Mrs. Corbett had 50 A WAR BRIDE'S JOURNEY IN 1917  supplied me with a travelling rug and cushion and a well packed lunch to last  me for the first stage to Toronto. This was my first Christmas in a strange  land and I spent it travelling and never missed the traditional Christmas  meal, so busy was I taking in all the new scenes from the train. I travelled in  a Pullman car, and the black porter was another novelty, as well as sleeping  on the train. In Toronto I bought my ticket and berths for the journey West.  When the agent told me the price $7.50, I said that you told me the train left at  6 p.m. Everyone around tittered before I realized that the man referred to  dollars and cents, While waiting for the train I took a short walk but having  no "galoshes" on very soon was down on the icy pavement, so decided to do  without the exercise.  My next stop was Winnipeg where I would be changing trains. Arthur  had given me his cousin's address in Winnipeg in case I might be going West  alone. It was terribly cold and I was not dressed for a Winnipeg winter;  however I took a street car and walked a few blocks only to find the cousin's  family were visiting in Ontario and the cousin, Arthur Conrad, boarding with  friends. I had noticed a small corner store near there so decided I could  probably get some information there. The store keeper immediately phoned  Arthur Conrad's sister-in-law who lived a few blocks away. She gave me a  hearty invitation to come along, which I was glad to do for by now my ears  and nose were getting very cold with just a small English hat for protection.  I had dinner and the evening with these people. The cousin arrived to meet  me and for the first time on this journey I was thoroughly homesick. I should  have taken a train the following morning but in order to avoid so much  sympathy, I decided to take a less direct one that left late that night. The  cousin saw me safely aboard the train for Saskatoon.  On the train the following morning (Saturday) I got into conversation  with a farmer's wife, a jolly Englishwoman. She asked me if I had any plans  about staying in Saskatoon since my train would not leave Saskatoon until  Monday. She suggested that I go with her to the Y.W.C.A. hostel. She always  stayed there when any business took her to Saskatoon. I did that and enjoyed  the weekend rest there and the young people who boarded there while going  to college, etc. We attended a nearby church in the evening and afterwards  the young people had a sing song in the reception room. The next morning  my new friend and some of the young people saw me aboard my train for  Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. While the train stopped in P.A. I noticed how  cheerful the young people on the platform were with bright eyes and colorful  caps, scarves and mittens. The whole style of their winter togs was new to  me. I think the train was a mixed one and it stopped at almost every station  making it due in Valparaiso, my destination, in the middle of the night. The  conductor of the train told me that he knew my father-in-law and would see  that I was directed to his home. When the train stopped back of the platform  the conductor took my suitcase and my arm to help me up the ramp. We  were then pelted with what I thought was snow. The conductor called out  and the "Pelters" ran away. I thought I had really come to the wild and  woolly west! However I was told the next day that I had been mistaken for a  recent bride with her goom returning from their honeymoon. It was rice that  hit so sharply. The young couple had wisely got off at the previous station.  The conductor gave me in charge of the man who met the trains with the  mail. After a short walk we reached my father-in-laws place. The family  were all asleep upstairs having expected me on the morning train. When my  escort finally got them awake and I was admitted, I was received with a very  hearty and affectionate welcome. After a few hours rest I was down to meet  my husband's young brothers and small sister, and since it was New Year's  Day 1918 I would also meet other relations at the family gathering. For the PICKING IN THE BALMY DAYS 51  first few days the children plied me with questions about ships and planes  etc. My daughter was born in May, 1918. Arthur got home in February, also  via New York, on the Olympic.  My father-in-law had delayed sending my money to New York because  he couldn't understand why I would be wiring from there, but on the advice  of friends he decided to risk it. My in-laws in Halifax had lost the ceiling in  their house from the explosion but were otherwise alright. Communications  were slow at that time but I heard from Nurse Black, that she had been  transferred to an American Hospital in France. My stay in Saskatchewan  was short. The Gould clan moved to Summerland, B.C. in 1919, but that is  another story.  NOTE — The other story has been taped for the Summerland Museum. E.D.S.  "PICKING  IN THE  BALMY DAYS"  By D. M. WATERMAN  It was during the first world war that the older teenage girls were  needed to help harvest crops such as tomatoes in southern Similkameen and  apples in the Okanagan, at which time the school holidays were extended  from the third week in August until after Labour Day.  In 1923, I ventured forth into the work-a-day world, first to pick berries  at Hatzic, at a farm employing 125 of us, until after the Loganberries were  off. Then a number of us went up to Vernon for the Macintosh apple crop. We  were housed in a fairly large building in Coldstream area, with rows of iron  cots in the upstairs and were told there was a stack of straw outside from  which we should fill our "Paillasse" mattress bags. There were cafeteria  facilities below.  The growers arrived each morning taking the number of girls they  would need for the day, bringing them back soon after 5 p.m. We took lunches with us, but the pleasant break was at 10 a.m. and at 3 p.m., when coffee  or tea, sandwiches or cookies were brought out to us. If I remember rightly  we picked at 5c a box. Our accommodation and meals were a $1.00 a day. But  unfortunately it rained every other day or so, which didn't make a very  profitable enterprise.  That year, 1923, as some previous ones and "later ones" growers  would say, they were in dire straits for a workable return for their fruit so  the slogan: "A cent a pound or on the ground" was adopted. I can't  remember how this worked out, but I do remember that after two weeks up  there, we all reluctantly had to go home, the growers having no ready cash to  continue to pay us, and I believe Chinese were used to finish the crop. In-  cidently we read in the paper a week or so after, that the building which  housed us was burnt down.  For a time I was alluded to by my father as, "The Gettum-rich-quick  Rockerfeller," which as you can see from my story was most unlikely, but it  was an interesting and healthy experience. 52  DR. B. F. BOYCE  DR. B. F. BOYCE  By  REBA  SCHOENFELD  Dr. Benjamin de Furlong Boyce was born in 1866 on March 30th in  Dartford, Ontario.  On his mother's side he was descended from the Huguenots who had  migrated to northern Ireland, hence his second name de Furlong.  He received his primary  education in Norham, Ontario and  attended high school in Camp-  bellford. From there he went to  Albert College in Bellville. In 1888 he  began his study of medicine at  McGill and graduated with his  MDCM in 1892. Following  graduation he interned at the  Montreal General Hospital.  Little is known about Dr.  Boyce's early years in Ontario as he  was not inclined to speak of himself,  and this story of his life deals almost  entirely with the time he lived in  British Columbia and especially his  life in Kelowna.  In 1883 he came out to B.C. to  the mining town of Fairview where  he worked as company doctor for the  Stratheyre Mining Company, and  many of the stories he used to tell  dealt with his practice in the rough  country.  Dr. B. F. Boyce  Eric Sismey photo copy  One of his most famous stories dealt with his first patient. It was his  first night in Fairview and the Doctor was standing beside an old miner who  was complaining about not hearing the fiddler who was playing for the  dancers. The old fellow claimed he would pay five-hundred dollars ($500.00)  if he could hear the music, an offer he was able to afford since he had  recently sold his mine!  Dr. Boyce, banking on the hearing loss as due to hard impacted ear  wax, and aware of the sale of the mine, offered to fix the old miner up. The  deal was made and the offending wax was found and removed.  Since he had only just arrived in the community the Doctor was broke,  and being anxious to make some money he wanted to claim his fee. But the  patient was reluctant to pay up and demanded to sleep on the bargain  overnight to see if he could still hear the music in the morning. Sure enough  he did hand over the money the next morning, but he claimed that his watch  had kept him awake all night!  Later in his first year in British Columbia, Dr. Boyce went to  Sicamous to meet his bride, Mary Eliza Sanborn. They were married in  Sicamous and lived in Fairview until the mine closed, and they came to  Kelowna in 1894.  Mrs. Boyce worked with the Doctor whenever her assistance was  needed and for as long as her health permitted.  There were few nurses available in those days and the Doctor often :   ■■  DR. B. F. BOYCE 53  took patients into their home where his wife cared for them. This was  necessary because of the lack of hospital facilities.  The Boyces became very interested in the small town of Kelowna with  its 200 inhabitants, and this concern extended beyond the field of medicine.  For some years Dr. Boyce was the only doctor between Vernon and the  United States' border. He attended patients in their homes, often rowing  across the Lake, riding horseback or going by two-wheeled cart behind his  favourite horse Cyclone.  His breadth of interest led him into many activities. He had two farms  — one in the city on which he built a beautiful home in 1906. It stood where  Super -Valu is now situated. The Doctor imported oak and maple lumber  from his old home town in Ontario for this house which became the centre of  many parties until the first World War.  His second farm was previously known as the Priest's Ranch — 240  acres between the KLO Road and Mission Creek. The Boyce's camp house  was on the beach of the farm, and the main part of the camp house still  stands as part of a lovely home on Watt Road. Mrs. Boyce's camp diary tells  of many visitors and parties which were part of their beach life in the  summer.  The Doctor also went into lumbering and had a sawmill on Okanagan  Lake where the Kinsman Park is now situated.  By 1903 Dr. Boyce's practice had grown to the extent that he needed an  assistant, and Doctor Knox came to join him in this capacity. Later Dr. Knox  went into practice for himself.  In 1908 Dr. A. H. Huycke came to Kelowna to join Dr. Boyce in practice. He stayed until World War I.  Around 1909 or 1910 Dr. and Mrs. Boyce took a trip to the Barbados to  visit Mr. Hinkson whom they had known well in Kelowna. While there they  arranged for the employment and transportation to Kelowna of its first  Negro family. Julian and Louise worked for the Doctor, Julian on the farm  and Louise in the house.  About this time the Doctor imported what was then one of the most  luxurious cars in the Valley — a Napier. It was dark green with an abundance of brass trim and light beige upholstery. For years, whenever special  persons were to be driven about Kelowna, the Napier was loaned (and  sometimes driven) by Doctor Boyce.  In 1915 Dr. Boyce joined the army and was appointed Medical  Recruiting Officer to the B.C. Horse Regiment and official MOH to the  prisoners' of war camp in Vernon. The Doctor was stationed there  throughout the war. The big house in Kelowna was closed and Mrs. Boyce  joined him. They lived at the Kalamalka Hotel and were thoughtfully cared  for by the manager, Sandy McAuley.  During the 'flu' epidemic of 1918, Dr. Boyce was the only doctor  available to look after the army camp, the prisoners of war, and the civilian  population of Vernon. At this time Dr. and Mrs. Boyce looked after the sick  from six in the morning until midnight. Mr. McAuley would not allow them  to be disturbed during the night. Retiring at midnightthe Doctor always took  a hot toddy and some quinine. He believed that it helped him to avoid the  infection.  At the end of the war, the prisoners of war gave Dr. Boyce a ship in a  bottle, a gift they had personally made for him as a token of their appreciation of his care.  In the early 1920's Dr. Boyce went East for post graduate study, and  Dr. Bruce McEwan looked after the practice while he was away. In 1926 Dr. 54 DR. B. F. BOYCE  A. S. Underhill joined Dr. Boyce in Kelowna, and almost ten years later  (1934) he left the partnership to start his own practice. In the same year  (1934) Dr. R. E. Willits joined Dr. Boyce until 1939 when she went to Toronto  for post graduate study.  In the mid-thirties the Federal Government established a series of  National Defence camps across Canada in order to cope with the serious  unemployment situation which prevailed. The men in these camps were  employed at army wages to build roads. One such camp was set up at  Wilson's Landing, and Dr. Boyce was appointed its Medical Officer. Twice a  week in the morning he went up the Lake on the S.S. Sicamous to Wilson's  Landing. Spending the day at the camp he held sick parade, returning to  town on the late afternoon boat.  In 1939 Dr. Boyce became semi-retired and moved his office back to  his home. Nor did he ever cease to look after his old friends who relied on  him for their medical care.  Throughout most of his practice Dr. Boyce was the doctor to the Indians who came to regard him not only as their doctor, but also as their  friend and champion. On one occasion when an Indian was accused of  murder it was Dr. Boyce who presented a defence based on medical  evidence which won the man's acquittal.  Dr. Boyce's love for Kelowna was such a large part of his life that I  have set aside a part of this story to tell of it, because it was service to a  community over and above the call of medical duties.  The Doctor was one of the early Police Magistrates, and in later years  he became Police Commissioner.  He worked hard to start the Kelowna General Hospital and was a  supporter of the Hospital as long as he practised. The Doctor gave the  property where the Kelowna Secondary School now stands to the Kelowna  Lawn Tennis Club as a place of establishment. He and Mrs. Boyce supported  the club as long as it was active.  The Doctor's largest gift of land was Knox Mountain Park which  comprises 196 acres given to the city of Kelowna to be kept in perpetuity as a  park. Mr. S. M. Simpson donated the money which paid for a road to be made  to the top of the mountain, the park summit.  In addition Dr. Boyce also gave the Gyro Park on Lakeshore Drive to  the Gyro Club to be maintained as a picnic grounds and bathing beach for the  people of Kelowna and district.  The Doctor also gave lots at Lindsay Point to three different churches  to be used as a common picnic ground to further interdenominational  tolerance and understanding.  Dr. Boyce was a director of the Okanagan Loan and Investment  Company (now Odium Brown and T. B. Read) for many years, and was a  member of the Canadian Legion, the Kelowna Club, the Canadian Club, Gyro  Club, Sons of England, and the Rod and Gun Club. In addition he was also a  devoted member of the Masonic Lodge, and before there was a lodge in  Kelowna the Doctor used to attend the Miriam Lodge in Vernon with his good  friends E. R. Bailey and P. B. Willits. Dr. Boyce was the first Master of St.  George's Lodge, Kelowna, when it was founded in 1905.  Although the Boyces had no children of their own they cared much  about other people's. Both the Doctor and Mrs. Boyce had a way with  children, and the Doctor was often seen with a car full of such going on his  rounds. Hallowe'en was a great delight to him and he always made special  preparations for handouts. Shortly before he died the Doctor rented the  theatre and invited all the school children to a movie.  Dr. Boyce was an enthusiastic gardener and had a wide knowledge of DR. B. F. BOYCE 55  this favourite hobby. He enjoyed growing unusual things, in particular the  amaryllis. The beautiful spring flower bed under the maples at the old home  will be remembered by the old timers. Many a patient was treated to a  beautiful bouquet from his garden in addition to medical care.  To those who knew him well Dr. Boyce was not one man but many  men. Not only was he a family doctor in the truest sense of the word, but also  a farmer, a philanthropist, sometime horse-trader, always kindly, and a  skilled raconteur of tales of the early days.  When Kelowna's Dr. Boyce died in September 1945, the city lost one of  its finest pioneers.  GOLDEN WEDDING  Sing her a song, a gold song,  A song for a golden bride  Proudly counting her dowry now  In the peace of eventide:  Golden coin of a man's true love  Cherishing, all-providing;  Courtesy, courage, enduring strength,  Loyalty long-abiding.  Sing, sing, for the gold bride  This priceless dower possessing.  Bring her a golden garland, twined  With her children's children's blessing.  Scatter the sweetest memories  Where her feet are lightly treading.  Kind stars, ride high in the evening sky  And shine on this golden wedding.  Dearly beloved, we wish you joy  Sharing the sunset's glow  And the warmth of the dreaming embers, fanned  By the countless friends you know,  Golden the pathway lies before you;  Golden the stars now shining o'er you;  May skies for you be bright and fair  With only passing shadoes there!  And may the golden twilight find  That all your clouds were golden-lined!  —Janet Anderson 56 THE HOUSE ON THE HILL  THE HOUSE ON THE HILL  By  IVAN  E.  PHILLIPS  On Giants Head in Summerland there stands a house. However, it is  not an ordinary house or even an old one. At least not by the ordinary  methods of assessment and age. Nevertheless, it is an imposing structure  and has a pleasing appearance of spaciousness. It is noteworthy by virtue of  the fact that it symbolizes an epoch, a page of history as it were in the  eventful and early story of Summerland.  Morton House, as it was orginally named, commands a breathtaking  view of the surrounding countryside. From the windows of the house may be  seen a panorama of scenic beauty. Below the house orchards stretch in  unbroken symmetry; although fast diminishing with the ever increasing  development. It is indeed a veritable kaleidoscope of ever changing charm  and loveliness throughout the four seaons of the year.  What is it? Who lives in it? When was it built? These are two, or three,  of the questions which have been asked, and continue to be asked, by visitors  and new residents alike.  So it was in 1906, in the Fall, that Okanagan College, a Baptist school,  affiliated with McMaster University, was opened in Summerland. First  classes were held in Empire Hall (since burned) at the lakeshore. This  college, the site for which was donated by James Ritchie, was on the flat  piece of land on what became known as College Hill, part of the larger  mountain called the Giant's Head, which dominated the West Summerland  area, (the name given to it because of its resemblance from certain spots, to  a hugh profile). A large donation towards establishment was the gift of the  Ritchie brothers, James, William and Tom. The college was closely connected with the Summerland Baptist church, and its influence helped to knit  the fibre of the educational, moral and spiritual fabric in Summerland. Mr.  Campbell resigned as pastor, to become a teacher at the college, and the  Rev. H. G. Estabrook, of Springhill, Nova Scotia, accepted a call to come to  Summerland in 1907.  At this time it may be appropriate to mention something of the College  paper. Since the primary purpose of a publication which claims to be the  voice of an organization or group in the propagation and the furtherance of  its aims, ideals and objectives, it must of necessity be of an informative  nature. This, the official organ of the college, certainly was. Within its pages  was an abundance of  interesting  reading.   Items  included were sports  reports, such as association football, of meetings, of social functions,  receptions, concerts, and of course contributions to the "Lyceum" from the  students and staff. One reads for example under the heading of entertainment, the following excerpt:  "Before the performance began the College boys entertained the  audience with college songs and specially prepared hits, on some of those  present, which brought down the house."  In the College, as was to be expected, the formation and the building of  character was the foremost and the ultimate goal of the Principal and the  Staff. This was, of course, in conformity with all such educational establishments, for itwas not only important, but also vital and essential. Apart from  the contribution that character necessarily makes toward the attainment of  an overall education, it had to be borne in mind that a fair number of Mr. ;  THE HOUSE ON THE HILL 57  Everett W. Sawyer's charges were boarders. Thus they came under his  direct surveillance.  However, this did not mean that the daily diet of the students consisted  entirely of lectures and lessons. Most certainly the Principal and the Staff of  the college were not unmindful of the old adage that "All work and no play  makes Jack a dull boy." Indeed, many and diverse were the activities which  took place outside the classrooms. These included indoor and outdoor pursuits. And the records prove that the scholars entered into games, sports and  the like with zest and enthusiasm. One should mention that the social side  was not neglected. For instance, the "Literary Society" played a leading  role in the staging of debates, mock trials and other interesting and entertaining gatherings. On October 16, 1908, the students of the College were  called together for the purpose of re-organizing and preparing for the Winter  season. It is of interest to note that there are family names and people that  are as familiar to many people here in Summerland, in this year of grace, as  they were sixty-four years ago. For the record, here is the result of that  election.  "With the retiring President Mr. W. Watson in the chair, the following  were the officers elected: President, Mr. R. C. Robinson; Vice-President,  Mr. Ward Duncan; Secretary-Treasurer, Miss G. Logie; Pianist, Miss  Auvache; Ushers, Messrs. Peck, Clay, Locke and Stevens."  There is no doubt at all that Summerland has always been a musical  minded community. This is substantiated from time to time as one delves  deeper and more frequently not only into early history of the college, but also  the town. For instance, under the date of March 1909 appears the following  two separate reports describing the Choral Concert Society:  "On Tuesday evening, February 2, the choral society of "Okanagan  College" gave their first concert of the season. The hall was filled with a  large and appreciative audience. The work done by the choral society was  well deserving of the praise bestowed upon it."  And of course, there were references, complimentary to the artists  concerned. And again, under the caption "Kelowna Choral Concert," one  reads as follows:  "On Saturday following the concert in Summerland, the choral club  gave an entertainment in Raymess Hall, Kelowna. The steamer "Aberdeen"  was chartered for the occasion, and left the wharf about 2 p.m. Many citizens  availed themselves of the opportunity of an outing, and about one hundred  persons boarded the steamer. A number from Peachland also took advantage of the trip. A crowded house greeted the society, and the applause  showed how highly Summerland talent is appreciated in Kelowna. On the  return trip, Kelowna was left about 11 p.m., the steamer arriving here at  1:15 a.m."  The Choral Concert Society had a counterpart in the "Okanagan  College Glee Club." Later on in this story the writer will relate something of  the activities of this musical and talented group during the Christmas  festivities. Incidentally the club comprised both ladies and gentlemen.  And lest it may be thought that singing was the sole relaxation  covering the activities of the students, one should mention, under athletics,  that the play of the college football team was also of a high standard, as the  following results will testify: College 4, Naramata 1; College 2, Penticton 1.  However, in the two matches played during that season the college lost by  two goals to Peachland. This was to be expected since the eleven were 58  THE HOUSE ON THE HILL  matched against a team of men. Nevertheless, in sports and games, as in  life, to win or lose matters far less than the result.  For when the One Great Scorer comes  To write against your name,  He marks — not that you won or lost —  But how you played the game.  To get an overall picture of Okanagan College, it may be of interest to  make some observations on the actual building. Although as a college,  founded in 1906, itwas entirely local in its operations. For the scholars that  year numbered only 24. One must of course remember, that Summerland  was at that time a very small community of around 1500 population, and thus  there were no schools like there are today. However, in spite of this, facilities  existed for all those of age to attend schools in two or three areas of the  community, so that there was no question as to education being neglected.  This picture changed completely with the opening of "Ritchie Hall," the  home of the college, the following year. Then the attendance reached a  figure of 72, and in 1908 students numbered approximately 100. Registration  continued to steadily increase after that each year, until the college per  force closed its doors, during the term of 1914-15. Over the good years  students representing the following places attended: Summerland,  Peachland, Naramata, Penticton, Kelowna, Okanagan Landing, Salmon  Arm, Revelstoke, Halcyon, Grand Forks, Nelson, Cranbrook, Vancouver,  B.C., Vegreville and Strachcona, Alberta, Brandon, Nelson and Winnipeg,  Manitoba. In addition the staff of the college was truly representative, for  example, from Acadia, Yale, Harvard, McMaster, Mount Allison, Woodstock and Toronto Business College.  As to the reason why the college closed, it doesn't really need an explanation, except to say that there was a dearth of students and teachers in  those tragic years between 1914 and 1918.  Originally, the college building which was erected by H. C. Mellor in THE HOUSE ON THE HILL 59  1907, a local builder and contractor, was known as "Ritchie Hall" and was  located on a plot of land comprising some 20 acres. It was well finished; a  wooden building of three and a half storeys, resting on a concrete basement.  Within the building, ample provision was made for the classrooms, chapel,  library and study and college office. In addition, it had accommodation for  one hundred boarders. Facing the lake, with the building itself being heated  by hot water and lighted by electricity, it was provided with a good supply of  pure water, and a fire hose on every flat. It must indeed have been a pleasant  and ideal place for study.  Unfortunately this fine building was burned to the ground in 1941. The  fire which apparently started on the top floor, owing to the intense heat  generated, consumed, storey by storey, the whole of the building in spite of  sustained and strenuous effort to save it.  Morton Hall, the present building which was built in 1910 or 1911 was  situated on what was known as College Hill. The building was four or five  hundred feet from Ritchie Hall and was designed exclusively for the  education of young ladies, with accommodation for forty students and  resident teachers. Ix commanded a view of unique beauty and the architectural design harmonized with that of Ritchie Hall.  One cannot help but wonder, how many people who have passed the  Youth Centre on Giant's Head Road hundreds of times, and with so many  others have been through its doors on numerous occasions, have any idea  that it was once the College gymnasium. Who knows! Perhaps it may be  possible in the not too distant future, to ensure the preservation of this  historic building, or at least to mark the spot where now it stands. Incidentally, it is worthy of note, that the students themselves raised some  $2,000.00 toward the cost of the building by personal gifts and solicitation.  And one must mention also that the piece of land on which the gymnasium  (now known as the Youth Centre) still stands, was in fact, deeded to the  College by Thomas Dale of Summerland. The Dale family was of course one  of the first to settle in the community in 1906, and it is good to know that a link  with the past still exists in the person of Miss Ruth Dale, the daughter of  Thomas Dale.  Perhaps one of the most striking facts emerging from an intensive  study of the known history of Okanagan College was the wonderful spirit of  generosity, enthusiasm and wholehearted support accorded the College by  its sponsors and friends. Indeed, this was demonstrated even in the planning  stage and throughout the life of the College, right up to its inevitable closing  in 1915.  Mention has already been made of various benefactors, yet one would  be remiss if one did not refer to those who were directly instrumental in the  founding of and the maintenance of a library adequate to meet the needs of  the students.  Atthe outset, the College owned a small library of approximately 1,000  volumes, largely the gift of the late Dr. Sawyer of Wolfville, Nova Scotia.  These were available to the students. Later a set of Nelson's Loose Leaf  Encyclopedia was added to the library, and it was intended to enlarge the  number of books as soon as it was possible to do so. It was also made known  that contributions in the shape of money or books would be greatfully  received. And it was intended to add new works to the library each year. In  the term which commenced on September 17, 1913, a considerable accession  was received from the Rev. P. C. Parker. And by the bequest of the late Rev.  Alexander Macdonald, over $600.00 was received by the College. It seemed  that there was always a closeness between the residents of the college and 60 THE HOUSE ON THE HILL  those of the town. One instance of this was the interest and help given to the  staff and students of Morton Hall, (the original and first building erected) by  the College Auxiliary of Summerland. This society not only kept the Reading  Room in the Hall well supplied with periodicals, but also made a valuable  contribution of new books for the use of the young ladies there.  After nearly sixty years, it is of interest to compare the furnishings  and the rules, as set out, to those of the present day. The following is an  example of what was expected from, not only the College, but also from the  students. Quote: "The College rooms are supplied with a single bedstead for  each pupil, mattress, pillow, combination dresser, chamberware, wardrobe,  table and chairs. The pupils are expected to provide bedding, towels, table  napkins and ring, and laundry bag. Additional furnishings are optional with  the pupils. Articles for the laundry should be plainly marked with the pupil's  name in indelible ink.  In addition, a special list is suggested for the guidance of lady pupils,  as follows. All bedding, except mattress and pillow, window hangings and  any other articles desired for the room. For example, table napkins and  napkin ring, two laundry bags, towels and soap, warm underclothing,  sensible comfortable shoes for cold, but not soft snowy weather, skates and  skating boots if that exercise is desired, storm coat, overshoes and umbrella,  two or three simple, warm school gowns, a coat suit for church etc., one or  two light, simple gowns for dress occasions (elaborateness of dress is  discouraged), some thin gowns or waists for warm autumn and spring days,  a hot water bag is desirable, dressing gown or bathrobe, hanging shoe bag,  money box with lock and key, and at least a half dozen coat and skirt  hangers." End of quote. Perhaps one may mention that a number of the  items, as used at the College, may still be seen amongst the exhibits at the  community museum.  That last Christmas at the College must have been a memorable and a  happy one for those students unable to get home, for the records indicate  that in spite of this, a vacation at Ritchie Hall was something to remember.  Indeed, there was scarcely time to fee! dull or homesick. Rules were relaxed  and freedom to move around was enjoyed to the full. It was known that more  than one midnight marauder visited the cake box and the apple bin. Apart  from the fun and games one associated with the festive season, nothing was  spared in time and in effort, to make the vacation pass pleasantly. Tea was  served every afternoon, in Morton Hall, so that all who availed themselves of  the opportunity wery able to feel at home.  On Christmas Day, friends from all over the town invited many of the  students and others out to dinner and supper. And it was a fact that not a  person was left in either Ritchie or Morton Hall on that day. Actually, during  the holidays the buildings were partially deserted more than once.  One can well imagine that with the near approach of the Christmas  vacation the Halls echoed to music and song. For indeed, this was the season  for the "College Glee Club" to regale and delight students and residents  alike, with items from their extensive repetoire.  The writer has before him a most excellent and enlarged photograph  of the "Okanagan College Glee Club" presenting one of the several concerts  staged from time to time and "College Gymnasium." The photograph which  is dated 1909 records the names of the performers as follows:  Ward Duncan, Gilbert Thornber, Robena Logie at the piano, Ethel  Brown, Gwen Robinson, Nellie Bartholomew, Miss Hains, Conductor Miss  Slavison, Alice Tait, Georgena Logie, Evelyn Brown, Margaret Hogg, Mrs.  Fish, Mr. C. P. Nelson, Granville Morgan, Mr. Fish, Magnus Tait, Sid Sharp, THE CARAVAN OF HOPE 61  Bill Grieve, John McDougald, Cam Robinson, Percy Thornber.  There are residents here in Summerland and those who knew the  "House on the Hill" as a seat of learning, either as scholars or residents. And  one must not forget those who came later and had knowledge of it as a  symbol only.  It follows that over the years the tenancy of the building has changed  from time to time. Yet, its symbolism will endure as long as it stands. A  monument to a devoted and dedicated band.  FOOTNOTE:—The writer acknowledges and expresses his thanks and appreciation to the  following ladies for the help given, and the subject matter used in this story—Mrs. H. C.  Whitaker, Mrs. Marjorie K. Croil and Miss Ruth Dale.  THE CARAVAN  OF  HOPE  By MRS.  O.  V.  MAUDE  ROXBY  The Trek from Princeton to Hope in 1943  For several years before the 1939 War, there had been suggestions and  requests for a highway to be built in southern B.C. from the Okanagan to the  Coast — particularly from Princeton to Hope.  People living at the south end of the Okanagan could motor to Princeton, where it was necessary to put their cars on the the train, and travel  over the CPR line, through the Coquahalla Pass, and take them off the train  at Hope, to continue to the Coast by road. Otherwise it meant going by road  north to Kamloops and down the Fraser Canyon, or else travelling south  through the States, and enterting B.C. again at Blaine. Naturally the railway  did not wish to give up the need for the use of their line, and were not in  favour of a road. Penticton was most anxious for the new road, being most  vitally concerned, and their members of the Board of Trade set about  organizing a trek from Princeton to Hope, in order to see what kind of terrain  a possible road might have to encounter.  In the early part of the War, where groups of Japanese were required  to be moved from the Coast, two work-camps were established, one near  Hope, the other some miles west and south of Princeton.  This was the proposed trek, suggested and organized by the members  of the Boards of Trade from Penticton and Kelowna, and the September 62 THE CARAVAN OF HOPE  Labour Day weekend was chosen for the time, Sept. 3rd, 1943, starting very  early, almost at daybreak, from Penticton.  Some of the party of hikers drove by cars to Princeton from Kelowna  and Vernon; others went by bus — and were not so lucky as the bus broke  down near Hedley, making our arrival at Princeton very late. Also, a further  delay, an extra passenger boarded the bus, and being very much under the  influence of drink, became thoroughly obstreperous, and the driver of the  bus turned back and put him off at Hedley. Two punctures on the way caused  more delay. However, we eventually arrived at Princeton and went to our  allotted Hotel for the night— tired and hungry, as we had started early from  Kelowna.  The next morning, September 3rd, Labour Day, we were awakened at  5:30 a.m. for an early start — going first to a cafe for breakfast. Each of us  was given a box-lunch as well, to take with us for the Trek.  At 7:00 a.m. the party, a hundred or so, gathered at the appointed  rendezvous and were put into or onto the road trucks for the start of the  journey, travelling in them as far as the road had been slashed, and opened  up by the contingent of Japanese working in that area. Our bumpy ride  lasted until about 10:30 a.m. when we were glad to stretch our legs and start  to walk. Itwas a lovely clear crisp morning, and the blazed trail we were to  follow was not too demanding — so thoroughly enjoyable.  We soon broke up into small parties. The one I was with consisted of  Frank Buckland, Mr. W. Hughes-Games, his daughter Eileen (the only other  woman of our party from Kelowna) and myself. Our group had the honour of  arriving first at the end of the trail —followed later by other groups with two  or three other women and some teenagers from Penticton. Our little group  was exceptionally fortunate to have Mr. Frank Buckland with us — his fund  of knowledge of the early pioneer days, and his amusing stories and anecdotes, made the Trek even more enjoyable. His account of the trip written  for the Kelowna Courier several years later in 1949, is simply full of tales of  the early days. I begged that he would write them down — perhaps in the  form of a book. Such valuable knowledge was far too precious to be lost.  Could that have been an extra incentive to him to write his wonderful book of  the early days "Ogopogo's Vigil?" He caught and passed on the spirit of  romance in retracing the steps of those old pioneers and shared it with us.  The Trek he named "The Caravan of Hope."  To be sure that the members of the hike did not get lost, or go too far  astray, we periodically met members of the Pacific Coast Rangers to give us  words of encouragement on our way. There was nothing too formidable in  the way of deadfalls or underbrush — and at times we crossed or followed  traces of the old Dewdney Trail, and also the one put in by the English Royal  Engineers in 1863 — still showing the stone revetments along the edge of a  steep drop into a stream — an excellent recommendation to the  thoroughness of their work. Several streams had to be crossed, and boggy  patches, using fallen trees as bridges, with very slippery footholds — but we  made it.  We passed by the side of a delightful little patch of open meadow, with  a pond, hardly large enough to be called a lake, though I think it was mentioned as Allison Lake, a spot that would have made a charming site for a  lodge or cafe on a future highway. It is difficult to pin-point an actual area,  butfrom the general lie of the land, itseems to be the place where the Public  Works Dept. now have their workshops at Allison Pass.  There was a signpost which pointed to the Dewdney Trail, which he  had come back to after a long swing to the south to avoid altitude. From here THE CARAVAN OF HOPE 63  we began to notice the floral change in the country — large areas of  Rhododendron bushes — not in flower now of course, and other coast-loving  shrubs.  On we went till reaching Skagit Bluffs and saw what tremendous  difficulties the road engineers were having, getting a footing for the  proposed road around the wall of rock. All the strata slopes down and out, at  an angle of 45 degrees, and as soon as a level strip was bulldozed out of the  side of the rock-face, the rest of the rock from above came crashing down.  That was the end of our hike — for some about 10 or 11 miles, others  had taken advantage of offers from work trucks, and had not walked quite so  far. Our group had "foot-slogged" all the way, and being the first four to  arrive, we had to wait some little time for the rest to follow, so we were able  to watch what was going on with the work of construction. From there we  were taken in more road trucks, standing at the back, swaying to and fro  over the roughly bulldozed road, past the Tashmi (sic) Camp of interned  Japanese. (Some of the hikers were met by private cars.) At the Camp we  were invited in to look around their grounds, and see some beautifully kept  little gardens around the huts.  And so to Hope, arriving about 3 or 4 p.m., where the women of the  party were taken in hand by the "Hope ladies" and made welcome with a  much appreciated wash and tidy-up before partaking of a most welcome  banquet hosted by the Hope detachment of the Pacific Coast Rangers. That,  in turn, was followed by a dance to celebrate the occasion, quite an  achievement, dancing in riding breeches or slacks, and wearing heavy  hiking shoes or boots. An amusing incident was told us by one of the men of  our group. On our arrival at Hope kind ladies took care of the needs of the  females of the party — the men were met and greeted by the local hosts and  invited toa homeand offered a mostwelcome drink of beer. Being war time,  beer was rationed, and here were many extra thirsty beer drinkers. After a  bottle or so all around, someone with a loud voice demanded that the Beer  Parlour be opened, but alas, the day's ration had all been commandeered to  welcome the "Hikers" — Hope was dry.  The dance, after the banquet was kept up until nearly midnight. Then  at 12:05 Tuesday morning we boarded a train for Princeton with two special  coaches at our service.  In spite of early starts the two previous mornings — a strenuous day of  walking, and a dance to add to our activities, no one seemed to want to sleep.  Many and jolly were the songs and choruses, lasting until we arrived at  Princeton at about 5 a.m. From there we left for home by motor car, having  breakfast at Penticton, and crossing to Kelowna on the 9:30 a.m. Ferry,  somewhat tired but very happy at having taken party, and being a member  of the "Caravan of Hope."  A LONGING  How I have longed to honour thee, dear islands!  Evening by evening, my thoughts turn westward homing;  But only my throbbing heartbeats sing for me  Remembering the ecstasy of sunrise.  I hear the thunder of waves and the sea-mews calling  Down through the mists of time:  Echoes from out of the caves on the boulder-guarded  Shores of the storied Hebrides.  —Janet Anderson 64 PRICE ELLISON  ON CHERRY CREEK, 1877  PRICE ELLISON ON CHERRY CREEK, 1877  By  ERIC  D.  SISMEY  In the 12th report of the Okanagan Historical Society a story on page 48  "Price Ellison" and written by his daughter Myra K. DeBeck begins: "In  the year 1876 a young Englishman made his way to the Okanagan. Led by the  spirit of adventure he came over the Hope-Princeton trail, attracted by  reports of gold on Cherry Creek. He was Price Ellison, to become over the  years, one of the Valley's best known and most beloved characters. (Note  EDS. Mr. Ellison became B.C. Minister of Finance in 1910 and Minister of  Agriculture in 1913. . .). Lured by tales of the Cariboo gold he started that  way, but the rush had petered out and he turned aside for Cherry Creek. That  field proved a disappointment too".  At Cherry Creek placer gold was reported on the south fork — now  known as Monashee Creek — in 1876. During the first years coarse gold and  some nuggets were found. The largest nugget weighed 8V2 ounces with a  value of $130, at a time when fine gold was bringing $20 a fine ounce. In those  days the placer gold was taken from about 3V2 miles of good pay-ground  located on Monashee Creek upstream from its junction with Cherry Creek.  On October 19, 1929, the Honourable Price Ellison, of Pleasant Valley  Road, Vernon, B.C. was interviewed by Messrs. George H. Thomas; Bob,  Thomas and Charles A. Johnson all of Seattle, and shorthand notes were  taken by Mr. Jas. Griffin.  A transcript belonging to Kenneth V. Ellison of Oyama, Grandson of  Price Ellison was loaned to this writer who has examined the transcript  hoping to find personal details of Mr. Ellison's life as a placer miner. These  are lacking.  Mr. Ellison did state that he began mining on Cherry Creek in March  1877. Leaving the Coldstream Ranch where he was living with Charles and  Forbes Vernon, his journey to Cherry Creek took 2V2 days by packhorse and  birch bark canoe.  Work started at the mouth of Fall Creek, his partners Christien,  Bassette and Snyder had worked there in the summer of 1876. Mr. Ellison  bought in as a partner in the spring of 1877.  We had another claim, Mr. Ellison said, further up Cherry Creek and  from it two nuggets were taken, one $120 and the other $125. Later these  nuggets along with our other gold was traded at the Hudson's Bay Store.  Not much gold was ever taken above the mouth of Fall Creek, Mr.  Ellison stated.  While the transcript is not perfectly clear it does show that Mr. Ellison  staked a claim in his own name elsewhere on the creek. And since nothing  more is mentioned it was apparently no bonanza. In 1877 when G. M.  Dawson, Government geologist (son of Sir William, President of McGill)  was preparing a geological report of the Cherry Creek District, Mr. Price  Ellison accompanied him.  The interview continued with Mr. Price Ellison describing the mining  done on the gravel bench above Cherry Creek and the digging of a long ditch,  establishing the grade using a miner's triangle, a primitive but very effective device.  It appears to this writer that the purpose of the interview by the  Seattle people was to question Mr. Ellison and examine in detail, as far as  possible, whether or not there was promise enough of gold in the gravel on  the benches above the creek to justify a larger operation. NORTH OKANAGAN NONAGENARIAN  65  Mention was made of a five foot flume carrying water enough to  hydraulic eight or nine thousand yards of gravel a day. However nothing  seems to have come of the idea and Mr. Ellison did not volunteer any encouragement.  In Myra DeBeck's story (OHS 12th Report pp. 48-58) she wrote that her  father married Sophie Christine Johnson on December 1, 1884, and while she  mentioned the romance she neglected one very important and interesting  detail, and that is the wedding ring that Price Ellison presented to his bride  was fashioned from placer gold that he had grubbed from the gravel of his  diggings on Cherry Creek.  CHERRY  CREEK  REFERENCES:  O. H. S.   6th Report, Page 57, also Page 74  O. H. S. 16th Report, Page 136  O. H. S. 17th Report, Page 107  NORTH OKANAGAN NONAGENARIAN  By JAMES  E.  JAMIESON  Sunday, July 29 (1973)  thur Cuthbert of Armstrong,  nonagenarian.  For 63 years of his ninety  years, Mr. Cuthbert has made  Armstrong his home.  Besides reaching this  remarkable age milestone, "Cuthy"  as he is widely known and called by  legions of friends, is one of the  handful (and we use the word  liberally) of remaining South  African War (Boer War) Veterans in  the Okanagan. He also, by virtue of  his long residence, is the dean of  vegetable growers and shippers in  the North Okanagan.  The youngest son of a  prominent Scottish shipping family,  whose home port was Greenock,  near Glasgow, and whose fleet of  merchant ships plied the oceans of  the world prior to and at the turn of  the century, Mr. Cuthbert obviously  had a family background of salt  water. But as a youth he craved the  spirit of adventure. It was therefore  understandable he was among the  youngest to seek enlistment and  eventual service in the South  African War — known more commonly as the Boer War.  was a  very special  day for William   Ar-  He  became the  North  Okanagan's  latest  H>  "Ittfc- *JBBttiP  -:•■--,-••-  W. A.  Cuthbert with  his  purebred  Weimar-  aner "Misty" several   days   before   his   90th  birthday, July 29, 1973.  Photo copy Eric Sismey  These were exciting as well as days of privation and hardship for the 66 NORTH OKANAGAN NONAGENARIAN  young Scotsman. He vividly recalls them and the great and near great  names of the campaign, now part of Victorian Imperial history, despite his  advancing years.  And there is no doubt that the urge to travel was whetted by participation in the South African War. It was not too long after returning from  South Africa that he struck out once more — this time across the Atlantic to  Canada. The year was 1904. His destination, Red Deer, Alberta, where he  lived for some time; long enough to become a member of that prairie city's  fire brigade and because of his small stature and lithesome movements, the  high laddre man (coloqually called the "monkey") in its precision drill  team. This team won numerous competitions against much larger centres.  One of Mr. Cuthbert's most prized possessions is a silver trophy cup won by  the Red Deer firemen at that time, and presented to him when visiting there  several years ago.  After the relatively short sojourn in Red Deer, the urge to go on to the  great and rapidly expanding Pacific province of British Columbia overcame  him like countless others, and in 1908 he came to Armstrong. He bought five  acres of bottom land at $500 an acre and 12 acres at $400, and he paid cash —  $7,3.00 was a lot of money in those days. But the Cuthbert family, apparently  was well endowed with such monitory requisites to enable such a purchase to  be made. Mr. Cuthbert rented some of this land to the Chinese for as high as  $60 an acre. For the next two years Mr. Cuthbert lived both in Armstrong  and at North Vancouver.  In 1910 Mr. Cuthbert made the final and permanent move to Armstrong. He purchased the F. T. Jackson packing house, built in 1894 along the  railway (where Buckerfield's is now situated). This business was operated  under the name of Fairfield Ranch, with Edward Poole as manager; later  George W. Dunkley became manager. During the first World War he supplied the Armstrong evaporator with vegetables, much of which was grown  on his property fronting on Wood Avenue and beautifully farmed by the  Chinese gardeners. Incidentally this evaporator plant employed over one  hundred Chinese in the dehydration process, with the late William Watson  the manager. The two large steel tanks used in the process for storage are  still in use, incorporated into the modern Buckerfield's feed manufacturing  complex.  Besides his real estate and vegetable shipping activities, Mr. Cuthbert, in his early days in Armstrong, managed the Mutual Fruit Packers,  owned by a Mr. Skinner. This was housed in a building near the Smith  Sawmill; it was the first of the Armstrong packing houses to go out of  business, and the building was demolished in the late twenties.  In 1910 a large brick packing house building was completed and F. T.  Jackson formed a partnership with C. T. Daykin — they operated under the  name of Daykin and Jackson. In 1919 this packing house was purchased by  E. (Ted) Poole; he was in business for three years. In 1923 Mr. Cuthbert  bought out Poole and the packing house was operated by an amalgamation  of E. Poole, Fairfield Ranch and the Associated Growers under the name  Armstrong Packers. Mr. CuthbeVt was owner; the late J. H. Wilson,  manager.  As reported in Johnny Serra's "History of Armstrong". . . "The  packing house had a large ice-house made of logs, with a steep ramp and  trestle across the road. Up this a chain pulled the ice to a crusher. When the  crusher was in operation, the noise could be heard all over the city. The ice  was cut and hauled by Josh Blackburn & Son from nearby Otter Lake."  For many years Mr. Cuthbert and his packing house interests had a -  WEST SIDE RECOLLECTIONS 67  special contract with the dining car and hotels department of the Canadian  Pacific Railway. All trains running from Sicamous (which was the junction  point to the Okanagan Valley) and as far as Calgary, all CPR passenger  trains with dining cars, and all CPR hotels and lodges in the Rockies, were  supplied with the famous Armstrong celery and head lettuce, as well as  other fresh vegetables through the Cuthbert outlets.  In 1955 Dolph Browne of Vernon bought out the Armstrong Packers.  He operated it for three years, closing the business in 1958. And that, unfortunately, was the end of the colorful and expansive vegetable packing and  shipping business in Armstrong. It was an era when Armstrong celery and  head lettuce particularly became nationally known for its superb quality.  Mr. Cuthbert served for several terms as an alderman on the Armstrong City Council. He has always been an active outdoorsman, and still  owns a lakefront property at Mabel Lake. He was also an avid curler in his  younger years.  His wife and an invalid son pre-deceased him many years ago.  Nowadays, "Cuthy" spends most of his time looking after his attractive property on Fletcher Avenue and Fred Street in Armstrong. While  physically this young-old Boer War Vet shows little signs of slowing up, he  does admit he's taking it a little easier; but his memory is as sharp as when  he left his "Bonnie" Scotland. In fact, he often speaks of making another trip  to his homeland.  He is the last surviving member of a once widely known Scottish  family dynasty; a nephew lives at Rye, New York, and a favorite sister-in-  law in Scotland.  As we talked to Mr. Cuthbert on his 90th birthday, he was sitting in his  favorite chair enjoying his traditional cigar, and with him was his four-  legged pet, a beautifully bred Weimaraner by the name of "Misty."  With his remarkably good health, William Arthur Cuthbert stands a  better than average chance of becoming an alert centenarian ten years from  now.  WEST SIDE RECOLLECTIONS  By  A. M. P.  STOCKS  Looking back 60 years, it seems a mellow, a friendly, a hard working  era has passed along together with the people who established it.  It was without doubt blessed with a great deal of character fortified by  fighting hardships, and sheer determination.  Characters which come to mind — a Chinaman with pigtails cutting  potatoes for seed above Okanagan Mission, Mr. Godwin in charge of the Hop  Fields on the Coldstream Ranch, where the full blooded Nez Perce Indians  used to come for the hop picking up to 1911.  Mr. Tom French, contractor, pioneer, who had a very happy  disposition and whom itwas a pleasure to work for.  Mr. John Kidson a strong character, fighting for the fruit industry at  all times, also a good boss.  Mr. Cox, proprietor of the Vernon Hotel. Wilson, boss on the Earl Gray 68 WEST SIDE RECOLLECTIONS  Irrigation canal, put in by men horses, plows and scrapers.  At Kelowna, George Mumford, George McCurdy, Charlie Nicol, a  cheerful and humorous soul, helpful and generous.  Sam Elliot and Billy Brown, who put in the Kelowna Mission Road  1911, Billy Millar of Peachland, Fred Johnson of Westbank and many others  which I wish I could put down.  These were the days when we lived with the big pine trees and their  inmates, the squirrels, the blue grouse, the chickadees, nuthatches, etc.,  real life as itwas made. It looked good, smelled good and felt good.  Coming down the zig zag trail, a steep drop of approximatley 2,000 feet  to Nahun on a Friday was the day to look forward to. The Aberdeen or  Okanagan stern wheeler ships would put in with the mail (criss crossing the  lake serving the many smaller communities). After a pleasant toot, the mail  was delivered in canvas padlocked bags, as the ships bows squeaked against  the piles of the wharf nudging them to a full stop. Captain Estabrooks or  Captain Weeks waved their welcome which added to the pleasure and anticipation of letters and papers with news from Home.  Nahun, I think was a lovely spot, a beautiful small bay in the company  of steep rocky background. Covered with big pines and fir trees, and bunch  grass, through which the old Hudson Bay trail passed, as the trail was very  rocky and dangerous with snow and ice, it is possible it was relocated to  where pack horse trains would not be subject to the same, at any rate there  was a trail 2,000 feet higher up where there were old blazes on the bigger  trees over 60 years ago. And a friend and neighbor of mine at that time, told  me an Indian chief told him the Hudson Bay trail passed close to his cabin  2,000 feet above the Okanagan Lake. May I mention his name? Charlie  Critchley, completely blinded by explosion on road work, in spite of that, full  of courage and good cheer, a good and real pioneer passed on September 17,  1972. Thanks be for his life.  Now the people who used to come to the Post Office at Nahun on  Fridays for their mail came from a distance up to seven miles from north  and south. Mostwalked and carried a sack to take back goods from the store  with their mail, some came by row boat, sometimes bucking a stiff wind, and  pulling up on the beach, it looked good to see two or three salmon trout up to  eight pounds in the boat.  The pioneer postmaster (quite a character) lived alone with his  Spaniel (Marco) held open house, mail days with a warm room and a good  hot mulligan to all who could do with it. He was a genial host to Indian  travellers, always a picturesque sight, perhaps a dozen on their horses with  their women and infants carried on their backs (papooses). They really were  part of B.C., going 80 to 100 miles from Penticton to Vernon and beyond in  stages.  Kennard used to stock a good variety of needed goods. Oats for they  cayuses, dry goods, groceries and meal came on the boat from Pat Burns to  those who could afford it. He had a work shop where we used to put leather  strips on our rubbers, so we didn't slip when the trail was icy, with a load on  our backs. We used to pack most of the heavy stuff from sugar, etc., on a  horse in the fall. I remember packing a buckskin, a wild horse we broke in  with a stump puller, when it ran away with a steel notched bar weighing  about 75 pounds down the steep mountain side. When we got to our shack we  were comfortable and proud of our efforts — it wasn't easy to come by, but  blessed with clean air and pure water, and truly as Charlie Critchley called  it God's Country. TOBACCO 69  TOBACCO  By PRIMROSE  UPTON  The growing of tobacco in the Kelowan area has a long and interesting  history, mixed up with its share of heartbreaks.  John Collins in 1894 started growing tobacco, the leaf was good, and  Louis Holman advised Mr. Collins to plant more extensively the following  year. In March 1897, the Kelowna Shippers Union Co. Ltd. approached Mr.  Collings regarding manufacturing the tobacco. Minutes of a meeting give  the following information: Mr. Collins proposed that the company shall take  over 500 pounds of tobacco of different grades in such proportions that one  grade blended with another will make the same class of cigars. That if after  the trial the company decided to continue the manufacturing of cigars, they  should take over the whole of his tobacco as it stands at fifteen cents per  pound for which he is to receive $500 cash and the remainder in shares in the  company. That he receive over and above the price paid for the tobacco, 25  per cent on the net profits received from the cigars, this to apply to stock on  hand and 1898 crop.  The commodious and well built storehouse of the Kelowna Shippers'  Union Co. Ltd. was built close to the wharf near the corner of Bernard and  Abbott Streets. Adjoining was the cigar factory. Mr. Wm. Wolz came from  New Westminster to be the foreman of the factory. This industry was carried  on here for some years, as well as in one or two other locations. Tom  McQueen, well known old timer of Kelowna, being in charge of cigar  wrapping and manufacture.  The next venture was that of the British North American Tobacco  Company, formed with a capital of $500,000 with headquarters at Kelowna,  and under the guidance of A. W. Bowser. A very flossy brochure tells that the  crop is transplanted by machinery, five acres per day being the capacity of  one machine with two horses and three men, doing the work of 55 men setting  plants by hand as in Cuba and Puerto Rico; the wonderful texture of the soil  in this district, freedom from weeds and stones allowing this method. Cuban  tobacco was grown for filler, Zimmer Spanish Wisconsin for binders, and  Sumatra under shade for wrappers.  Harvesting following the growing period was carried out with the  plants being cut, and tobacco spears attached to lathes each holding twelve  to twenty plants according to variety. The lathes were transported by the  tobacco wagon to the curing barns, where quite a complicated process was  gone through before the leaves went either to market or to the cigar factory.  This brochure states that the factory employed 60 hands. According to Mr.  MacQueen the tobacco was worked damp in the factory, the filler being cut  and put into cigar moulds, the final operation being the wrapping with the  outside leaf.  It is difficult to pin down the exact date of the building of "the fine new  brick structure on Ellis Street" moved into apparently sometime in 1913, but  the industry flourished for a short while until an official got away with much  of the capital, causing the company to go into bankruptcy.  The third venture into tobacco growing occurred in the late 1920's  when a tobacco barn was put up out at Okanagan Mission on a curve on  Collett Road. This leaf was mixed with that grown in Sumas and was put on  the market under the label "Kelowna Pride" manufactured by the Canadian  Tobacco Company in Vancouver.  Just an interesting little note appears in a 1911 Kelowna Courier which 70 OKANAGAN  LAKE BRIDGE  mentions that Louis Holman offered a prize of $10.00 to be given at the  Penticton Horticultural Show for the healthiest tobacco plant shown.  Of the flourishing industry few reminders are left — two tobacco barns  in the Benvoulin area are all that remain of the many dotting the countryside. Happily some of the tools have been saved and are housed in the  Kelowna Centennial Museum — tobacco knives and spears, a tobacco plug  cutter, a cigar mould, tobacco box, cigar trimmer, and one of the original  cigars put out—plus memories of old timers, some of whom worked in the  factory, some of whom grew tobacco, and many excellent photographs taken  by G. H. Hudson, of the growing of tobacco.  OKANAGAN   LAKE  BRIDGE  By PRIMROSE  UPTON  The dream of a bridge connecting Kelowna and the west side of the  lake became a reality in July 19, 1958, when H.R.H. Princess Margaret cut  the ribbon and declared the bridge open. This floating bridge is a far cry  from the first official ferry, the Skookum, built and operated by H. B. D.  Lysons in 1904. This was followed by other privately owned ferries, until the  Government took over in 1927 with the M.S. Kelowna-Westbank. More  ferries were put on as traffic increased and roads improved, until just before  the bridge opening there were three ferries operating.  The bridge started out as a toll bridge. It cost about $7,500,000. Construction was started in November 1955, and finished July 19, 1958.  Original reports recommended the construction of a suspension  bridge, or rockfill causeway. Subsurface investigations however indicated  that it would not be possible to build a suspension bridge. Engineering  reports on the bridge show one mile of approach road on the west side, 1400  feet of rock fill embankment, 175 feet west transition span, 2,100 feet pontoon  section, 175 feet each approach span, 300 feet of rock fill to east shore, and  500 feet of approach road through Kelowna City Park.  The pontoons were constructed at two graving docks specially constructed on the east shore, approximately one half mile north of the bridge  site. Concrete was supplied from a plant specially set up for this project.  Each graving dock had its own set of prefabricated wooden forms. The east  and west main piers were builtas floating caissons. Towers are of structural  steel. The deck of the lift span is made of steel open grid for the roadway  surface to reduce weight.  The floating section consists of twelve reinforced concrete units,  rigidly connected together to form a continuous pontoon. The six centre units  are each 200' by 50' and 15' high and are known as standard pontoons. At  either end of these are two superstructure pontoons. It is on these pontoons  that the roadway is gradually raised to allow passed of small boats under the  transition span. At either end of the floating section is a smaller 50' by 50'  pontoon on which the draught is increased some 14' to provide the additional  buoyance necessary to balance the dead load reaction of the transition  spans. Pontoons are held in place by heavy cables, running from the centre  of each one to large concrete anchors embedded in the approach embankment. The top slab of the pontoon gives a 36' roadway, two 6' sidewalks  and two 18" wide solid concrete handrails. There are lamp standards with  mercury vapour fixtures on top of the concrete handrail. Standard pontoons NEW BOY SCOUT HALL OPENED 71  are divided in the interior into quarters by 3 longitudinal walls and transversely by a series of cross walls. This makes a total of 56 cells. A group of  four cells constitutes a watertight compartment, with access from a  manhole in the sidewalk. Top and bottom slabs are 8" thick and sidewalls 9"  thick. Sidewalls are designed for hydrostatic pressure of the water and the  pressure due to wave action. A longitudinal ice beam is provided at the  waterline to strengthen the side walls. Cables are made of 90 zinc-coated  wires with a slightly larger one in the centre. Cables are fastened to an  anchor 20 by 32' of concrete embedded in the bottom of the lake. They weigh  70 tons and are buried 20 feet below the surface.  All the pontoons and the steel structures were floated into position.  Yes, there were windy rough days which I'm sure the engineers and crews  did not enjoy, but they got the job done. The bridge is certainly a boon to the  Okanagan, and should prove its usefulness for many more years to come.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Report by W.  Pegusch of  Swan   Wooster   &   Partners,  Vancouver,   Special   Bridge   Edition  of the Kelowna Daily Courier.  O.H.S. 23rd Report, pp. 86-88.  NEW BOY SCOUT HALL OPENED  By ART GRAY  The month of June, 1922, was marked by an important event in the life  of the Community of that day, the official opening of the new Boy Scout Hall  on Bernard Avenue. While the structure was primarily for the Boy Scouts  and Wolf Cubs, the building was made full use of by many other  organizations, particularly the basketball teams. It became in every sense a  community hall and filled a long felt want.  Previously the Boy Scout troop, which had been in existence for quite a  number of years, had used the old Anglican Church as their meeting place,  located on Mill Street (now Queensway). Active leader then, and for several  decades later, was E. C. (Bud) Weddell, local barrister and solicitor. A  feature of the Boy Scout's activities was the annual Scout Concert put on by  the boys themselves each year to raise funds for their annual summer,  camp. It was fitting therefore that the first event in the hall, coinciding with  the opening of the new building, should be the annual entertainment.  Previous entertainments had taken the form of a playlet, troop choruses,  etc., but with the capacity of the new hall the program was principally  physical drills and athletic training, made possible the size of the building.  The bugle band, a common feature of early Boy Scout troops, opened  the proceedings with two spirited marches. The band, we are told, had made  great strides under the painstaking tuition of Fred Gore. Swedish drill by a  squad of 38 Scouts, under the direction of Scoutmaster E. C. Weddell, then  followed. "Their smartness and precision was much admired," we are told.  A number of Boy Scout games and relay races followed, with a piggy back  relay causing much amusement. Blindfolded boxing was another amusing  feature, with half a dozen Scouts going it wild within a human square circle  formed by Scouts holding a stout rope. Rope climbing up a vertical rope,  along a horizontal rope and down another vertical one was smartly done by  two teams.  The Wolf Cubs then appeared on the floor. Smart little fellows, in blue  jerseys and shorts, they marched like regulars in fours, and went through a  game calling for quick changes of formation under direction of Cubmaster 72  NEW BOY SCOUT HALL OPENED  Scout Hall June 1922  Eric Sismey photo copy  Mantle. The Scouts next paraded in horseshoe formation for presentation of  badges by W. J. Mantle, president of the local Boy Scout Association.  Following this, Scoutmaster Weddell expressed the thanks of the troop to all  who had contributed toward the building of the hall. The Scouts had some  "Thank You" badges to bestow. Badges could not be given to all their  benefactors, he said, but a few had been selected. Those so honoured included W. J. Mantle, president of the Boy Scouts Local Association; Mrs. G.  A. Meikle, president of the Ladies' Auxiliary; C. McCarthy, donor of the  valuable site; D. Leckie chairman of the building committee; J. V. L. Lyell,  instructor in knot tying and donor of a case of knots; Colonel Cullin, architect, and H. G. Bartholomew, former Assistant Scoutmaster.  President Mantle made a brief address in the course of which he  stated that the cost of the building had been $4,873 to date, but more money  would be needed to complete the building. The Ladies' Auxiliary had given a  cheque for $450 and had also undertaken to meet the cost of the lighting  equipment, about $300.  A committee to manage the half would be chosen at the next meeting.  It was hoped to hire a caretaker competent to act as a physical instructor  which would increase the usefulness of the building.  Resuming the program six Scouts gave tuneful rendering of popular  melodies with mouth organs. Athletic events followed with four Scouts for  the high jump, the winner being Second H. Mantle, Scout Meikle coming  second and Scout Winter third. The high jump under 14 was won by Scout  Williams, with Scouts J. Peat, H. Campbell and Cub J. Williams tied for  second. An exhibition of tumbling did great credit to the training received by  the Scouts. The bugle band played lively music from time to time throughout  the three performances. At the time of its construction the Kelowna Scout  Hall was said to be the largest Scout building in Canada.  The moving spirit in the Boy Scout activities of that day, and for years  afterwards was Edward C. Weddell, the Scoutmaster for many years, and  also District Commissioner at a later date, holding down both posts for some  time. The Boy Scout movement in due course expanded to a second troop in  Kelowna, and troops in Rutland and other rural points. Scouting has played a  big part in the development of the youth of Kelowna, and the contribution of  the late "Bud" Weddell to the community, assisted by the possession of a  fine Scout Hall, was outstanding. THE PEACHLAND STORY 73  THE PEACHLAND STORY  By  KATHLEEN  A.  AIKENS  In 1888 John Moore Robinson arrived in the Okanagan from Brandon,  Man. to form a mining company for the purpose of finding gold in the  selected region which extended from north-east of Princeton to Camp Hewitt  (later called the Gladstone Mine) near the present site of Peachland. Mr.  Robinson (J. M. as he was usually called) was president of the company. He  wenttothe Prairies to sell stock in the new company, and as a result several  families moved to what is now known as Peachland.  On Trepanier Creek, adjacent to the site of the mining, was a ranch  owned by the Lambly brothers. This ranch was primarily given to raising  cattle and horses, but they had planted a few peach trees (the first peach  orchard in the Okanagan). One day J. M. had a meal at this ranch and ate  some of the peaches then at the peak of their maturity, and their excellence  gave him an inspiration that changed the lives of thousands of people.  The Niagara Peninsula was the only district in Canada where peaches  had been grown successfully on a commercial scale, and if peaches could be  grown in this latitude, he reasoned, other fruits such as apples, pears,  cherries, etc. could also be grown profitably. The prospect of establishing an  extensive fruit business was attractive and compelling.  Another trip to the Prairies resulted, and many inquiries were made  about peaches.  On March 4th, 1898 Dan Seaton and Thompson Elliott came to look the  district over, and build homes for their families. Others were to follow  shortly, for on May 6th, 1898 the first carload of settlers and their effects  arrived. Seaton and Elliott had been joined by Alex. Miller, Leon McCall  and others.  On that first carload brought by the S. S. Aberdeen were J. M.  Robinson with his wife and two children, Mrs. McDougald (J. M.'s sister)  and five children, and Mr. and Mrs. Huston and two children. These were  soon followed by R. C. Lipsett and wife. Dan Seaton's eldest daughter Annie  (Mrs. W. D. Miller) still lives in Peachland and has been a great source  of information regarding the oldtimers. A post office, named  'Peachland' at the request of Mr. Robinson, was opened in December 1898  with D. H. Watson in charge. Itwas opened at first in the store owned by Mr.  Watson. Mrs. McDougald clerked in the store for a time and eventually  moved into what is now called 'the old post office', and succeeded Mr.  Watson as post mistress. The old post office was in use from 1901 until  1950 when the present building was erected. Mrs. McDougald was succeeded  by her son Archie and then by her daughter Candace, who retired in 1953.  For a number of years this office handled the business of the government telegraph and long distance line serving the Valley as well as local  calls. A sidelight shows how the value of the dollar has changed. A contract  dated March 1st, 1901 provided for the conveyance of the mail, twice each  day, six days a week, from the C.P.R. wharf to the post office, 200 yards, at  $50.00 per annum.  With a fruit industry in mind, J. M. Robinson bought the Hewitt preemption and that of Harry Hardy. These were subdivided into fruit lots of 10  acres in size and offered for sale at $100.00 per acre through the Peachland  Townsite Coy. Ltd. Through this company he obtained water for the land  from Deep Creek, using ditches at first to distribute the water. Wooden  flumes were used later when a dam had been constructed, and the Townsite 74 THE PEACHLAND STORY  company agreed to supply water at a yearly rate of $10.00 to $25.00 for a 10  acre orchard.  In 1899 John Gummow (father of the late Ben Gummow, reeve of  Peachland for some time) came to the young settlement and planted the first  orchard in the newly sub-divided area.  Hugh McDougall, father of Bob McDougall, for many years publisher  of the Penticton Herald, came from Moose Jaw, Sask. in 1902 and established  a sawmill and store about a mile south of the village. W. A. Lang operated a  store in Peachland proper, and later, with associates, established a mill  about seven miles up Trepanier Creek. Later these enterprises were  amalgamated under the name 'The Peachland Trading Company', stock in  which was held by Messrs. Land, McDougall, Robinson, and others. These  mills have long since passed into history.  In 1898 a one room school was built with Mr. C. G. Elliott the first  teacher. He taught for several years until Paul Murray arrived in 1907. By  this time this school could not accommodate the number of pupils, and the  present school, a four room structure, was built and opened in 1908. One  room in the new school was used as a high school with the other three serving  as elementary. The first high school teacher was a Mr. Richardson followed  by John Barker and many others through the years until 1948 when the junior  and senior high students were sent to the new George Pringle High at  Westbank. Other teachers in 1908 were Paul Murray, Mr. Hicks and Miss  Milne.  Some of the other early settlers who made substantial contributions to  the progress of the little community fifty and more years ago were: The  Rev. C. W. Whyte, R. J. Hogg, the Pope brothers, Arthur and Octavious, the  three Miller brothers, Alex, Ollie and Jim, Alex Miller (no relation), the  Aitkens brothers, Ferd and Clem, Leon McCall, A. D. Ferguson, M. N.  Morrison, P. N. Dorland, A. Town, J. L. Silver, Hugh Williams, W. Coldham,  Hamilton Lang, Grant Land, J . L. Vicary, the Elliott brothers, Charlie and  Jim, Mr. Clarence and Harry Hardy. The last named was one of the real  oldtimers of B.C. He worked for the railway when it was coming into B.C.  and at one time ran a pack train from Enderby to Granite Creek. The trail  he used came down the west side and can still be recognized in spots behind  Peachland, but most of it has been obliterated with time. Harry Hardy's  career was exciting and varied, and his tales of the old days entertained  many a gathering but unfortunately were not recorded. He lived to a ripe old  age in Peachland.  Soon after the turn of the century the first church (Presbyterian) was  erected in the community. The project was spearheaded by Bert McKenzie,  who was a recent arrival from Winnipeg and who was a carpenter. About  two thirds of the work was done by volunteer labor. The Rev. C. W. Whyte  was the first resident minister in Peachland, having come a short time  earlier from Manitoba with his wife and three sons, Bryson, Gordon and  Farrell. All denominations used this church until they builtor acquired other  buildings. The first wedding recorded in Peachland was that of Lillian Pope  and R. H. Helmer, who was at one time Superintendent of the Summerland  Experimental  Farm.  In December of 1907 the Rev. H. A. Solly, who was in charge of the  Anglican Church in Summerland, came to Peachland and held service in the  Presbyterian Church, and thereafter, on two Sundays a month. Previous to  this Anglican Services were taken by Archdeacon Green of Kelowna, and the  Rev. S. Mildmay.  Members of the Anglican Church bought the one room school house  building in 1908 when itwas no longer needed as a school. Itwas re-decorated THE PEACHLAND STORY 75  and furnished and the first service was held on December 27th of that year.  It was named St. Margaret's.  The Orange Hall was built about 1904 and was used by the Baptists and  Methodists until their respective churches were built. The Baptist in 1910  and the Methodist in 1911. The Orange Hall was the scene of all dances,  socials, etc. in the days prior to the first World War.  Letters of Incorporation of the District Municipality of Peachland  were issued under date of December 31st, 1908, and the first meeting of the  Council was held on February 1st, 1909. This meeting was held in the Orange  Hall with W. A. Land as Reeve, with Councillors Callendar, Morrison, McCall and Elliott. The last named acted as Clerk until the appointment of H.  M. McDougall, which was done at that meeting.  In March of that year a delegation from the Local Option League  appeared before Council to complain that liquor was being sold on the S.S.  Okanagan while she was in port to others than bona fide passengers, and it  was decided to advise Captain Estabrook accordingly.  The first money by-laws to be voted on by the ratepayers were placed  before them on July 26th, 1909, and the voting was as follows:  No. 12 Electric Light For — 66 Againgst — 17  No. 13 Roads 89 0  No. 14 Fire Protection 37 1  These were considered and passed on the same evening by the  Council.  On February 11th, 1909 the Reeve reported on discussions he had had  in Vancouver with parties interested in locating a cement pipe plant, and  had offered them exemption from taxation and a free water supply. This  plant commenced operations about a year later with A. McKay as manager  and Jack McGregor as engineer together with eight employees. A large  warehouse was built and a drying place outside. Bunk houses and a cook  house were also erected. They manufactured cement pipes from 4 inches to  24 inches in diameter which were distributed throughout the valley. The  plant operated in the summer only, as the warehouse was not frost proof.  After about three years the plant closed down when sales were too small to  justify operation.  For several years thereafter the warehouse was flooded each winter  and served as an indoor rink for the young people. It is now the site of  Trepanier Bay Cottages. Peachland's Regatta is mentioned for the first time  in the Council Minutes on July 12th, 1910, when it was decided that the Reeve  would declare a public holiday for the Regatta on July 21st, and the road  foreman was placed at the disposal of the Regatta committee for that day*.  The Peachland Athletic & Aquatic Association had been formed and  several boats purchased, which included a war canoe, three small canoes  and two rowboats. All organizations, including the Women's Institute and  Farmer's Institute, got behind the planning of Regatta days and made them  gala days in the little town, and they were attended by old and young alike.  Peachland boasted excellent war canoe crews in senior, junior and mixed  classes and won many trophies and prizes both at home and at neighboring  regattas.  Excursion trips were run by the C.P.R. from neighboring towns, and  the day usually ended with a dance in the Orange Hall. Our regattas did not  last very long however. The first world war came along and Peachland was  too small to weather the loss of so many young men, and so regattas ended.  The war canoe was sold to the Kelowna Aquatic Club.  The long campaign to get a car slip built at one of the wharfs began in 76 THE PEACHLAND STORY  December 1921. A government engineer had visited Peachland and had  studied the situation in response to a request by the Fruit Union, and at his  suggestion a petition was prepared for signature of citizens for submission to  the Federal Government. In March of 1924 a grant of $25.00 was made to the  Board of Trade towards the cost of their efforts to secure a car slip for the  community. Again in 1925 a suggestion was made to approach the C.N.R.,  and itwas not until 1937 that a slip was finally installed by the C.N.R.  Two civic organizations have played an important part in the  development of Peachland, namely, the Board of Trade and the Women's  Institute. There have been other groups which have greatly assisted in the  Community, but these two are most frequently remembered. In the earliest  days the Board of Trade provided initiative in widening the interests of the  Council beyond the boundaries of the municipality, and the Women's Institute did much to promote the development of local amenities.  The Women's Institute was organized by Mrs. Lipsett in 1913, and Mrs.  J. M. Robinson was the first secretary. There were 93 members at that time,  the largest membership in the district. The first president was Mrs. George  Mitchell and the first vice-president was Mrs. Arthur Clarence. The  Women's Institute co-operated with the Farmer's Institute in arranging a  Fall Fair. It has grown proportionately with time and is now one of the  biggest "little" shows in the district.  Other projects in the early days of the Institute included putting up  swings at the school grounds, cementing a portion of the grounds for  basketball, and many other improvements to the school. They also undertook the upkeep of the Cenotaph and arranged for an annual clean-up of  the cemetery grounds They backed the building of the Athletic Hall, which  filled a great need at the time, with volunteer labor doing all of the work.  They also made the first move to obtain a Public Health nurse for the  Peachland, Westbank and Glenrosa districts.  Funds for these projects were raised by various means; selling ice  cream on the C.P.R. wharf on Saturday evenings when everyone came to  town; putting on concerts, Irish suppers, etc. At the meetings many interesting topics were discussed and demonstrated, such as spinning, making  paper flowers, to name a few. There was always musical entertainment at  every meeting, as there was no lack of talent in those days.  An interesting note from the records at this time is a resolution sent to  the Institute Rally in 1950 — "We petition the government to build a bridge  across Okanagan Lake at Kelowna to avoid bottle-necks in the future such as  occurred over the Easter Weekend."  Peachland has been nobly served by its municipal clerks. From incorporation in 1908 until 1952 the community has been served by only three  men. The first, H. N. McDougall, from February 1909 until March 1911. W.  M. Dryden until August 1926, to be followed by C. C. Ingliss who remained in  office until December 1952.  In every small municipality the clerk is the office and a great deal  more; he is the expert advisor to succeeding councils; he provides continuity  as the personnel of the council changes, and he is the workhorse of the administration. In a rural community where experience in business methods,  finance and legal procedure is not common, these responsibilities are so  much greater.  At the beginning of 1910 it was decided for find a permanent office, and  a building was located at a rental of $10.00 per month. The Council Chambers  was located here until June 1920 when it was decided to purchase the  Presbyterian church for a municipal Hall. It was rented to various local  organizations and was made available to the Board of Trade free of charge. THE PEACHLAND STORY 77  There had been a reading room in the front part of this building in the early  days; when the Municipality bought it, this part was made the Municipal  Office and the books were moved to a room at the back which became the  Library.  In March 1909 Dr. A. C. Nash was appointed Medical Health Officer at  a salary of $50.00 per annum. He resigned in 1912 and Dr. Wm. Buchanan was  appointed in his place.  The post war flu epidemic was cause for great concern, and it was  decided to prohibit all public meetings for a period, and to ask Mr. McDougald to keep the Post Office locked until the mail was sorted to prevent  congregating in a small space. These restrictions were removed two weeks  later subjectto the approval of the Health Officer.  The Municipality had its own electric light plant built in 1910, and it  was a great day for the residents when the power was finally turned on. The  lights were turned on each day just before dark and went off again at 1:00  a.m. Later on when electric irons and washing machines were being used the  power was on for two hours on Monday and Wednesday mornings for  washing and ironing. The scale of rates set in May 1910 were:  First two lights — 50 cents a month.  Additional lights — 20 cents a month each.  In November 1911 the scale was revised:  First two lights — $1.00  Next two lights — 20 cents each.  Additional lights — 10 cents each.  The advent of the B.C. Power Commission soon after the second war  saw the end of this power plant.  The the time of incorporation the irrigation system was the property of  the Peachland Townsite Coy., and at this time was the only source of  domestic water. To provide funds for installing a domestic water system a  bylaw was voted on and passed on July 26th, 1909.  Water was obtained from a dam constructed on Trepanier Creek  which also provided water to operate the power plant. Pipes froze during  cold spells and occasionally plugged up during the spring freshet but on the  whole served the community well  for a  great many years.  Irrigation water was quite a source of trouble to the council, and an  irrigation committee was set up in 1916. On this committee were Councillors  Powell, Douglas and McLaughlan. They explored the water resources in the  district and decided to enlarge the dam on North Fork Lake. Arthur Cutbill  was given the contract to pack in all the material required at two cents per  pound as there was not a road into the dam. A grant had been made by the  government but the irrigation system had not as yet been taken over by  them. A meeting was arranged between the Premier, Mr. Patullo, and the  municipal clerk regarding the premier's promises to have irrigation  systems declared appurtenant to the lands, etc.  In April of the following year the Government appointed the Municipal  Council to undertake repairs to the Peachland Townsite Coy. irrigation  system and operate it under the order in council passed in April.  Jack Seaton was engaged as foreman for ditch work. Albert Smalls  was the water bailiff, and continued in this position for many years. After the  dry years of 1927, 1928 and 1929 a considerable amount of work was done,  including diversion of water from other streams to the North Fork, and since  the advent of the sprinkling systems there is always an ample supply of  irrigation water.  The largest ranch in the district is the Greata Ranch situated ap- 78 THE PEACHLAND STORY  proximately six miles south of Peachland. G. H. Greata came to Peachland  about 1895 and pre-empted this property shortly after arriving. In 1899 Mr.  Greata took out the first water record (domestic) and in 1900 built a pipe line  to Deep Creek which was quite an undertaking in those days. W. M. Dryden  was associated with Mr. Greata at this time and they planted the first of  their many acres of orchard.  G. H. Greata sold this property in 1910 or thereabouts to a syndicate of  the Directors of the Westminster Trust company and Mr. J. T. Long was  appointed manager in 1911.  Mr. Long bought the property from the Westminster Trust Coy. in  1923. A family company was formed comprised of Mr. Long, Mrs. Long,  John, George and Doris. The Dan McLaughlan property, which formed the  northern boundary, was added in 1939. The Greata Ranch storage dam at  Brenda Lake was built in 1926, and a modern packing and cold storage plant  was constructed in 1946. Property in town was purchased in 1945 and houses  erected to house the workers.  Another piece of property south of the Greata Ranch was pre-empted  by James Cossar in the early days and sold to W. D. Miller in 1919. Billy  Miller and family lived here for ten years and this place came to be known as  the "Miller Ranch". It was sold in 1955 to the Forestry Department and is  now the Okanagan Park, and boasts a beautiful picnic grounds on the lake  shore and also space for trailers and campers.  A building that played quite an outstanding part in the history of  Peachland, and previously referred to, was the Orange Hall built around  1904. Entertainment, socials, dances and concerts were held here. Soon after  the close of the first world war it was purchased by the G. W. V. A. and  moved down to its present site from a short distance up the hill. On August  16th, 1923 it was officially opened as the G.W. V. A. Hall by Colonel Edgett of  Vernon. The first president was J. L. Vicary and the first secretary was C. G.  McDougald.  Tommy McLaughlin came to Peachland in 1905 with the family and  started a plumbing business the following year. His first big jobs were the  installation of plumbing in the houses of Mr. A. Town and Mr. M. N.  Morrison. Outside of a four year stint in the army during the first world war  he carried on this business until a few short years ago when Tommy, Jr. took  over. Tommy McLaughlin, Sr. has since passed away.  Fulks General Store goes back in history to 1906 when the south half of  the building was erected with the north half being built a short time later.  Bert McKenzie was the carpenter on both these jobs. Through the years this  business has changed hands many times. Amongst the former owners were  Morrin & Thomson, Alfred Town, H. H. Thompson & Harold McCall, Drake  & Cudmore and Charles Vincent. During the second world war Mr. and Mrs.  L. B. Fulks purchased the building and store. When their son Ken Fulks  returned from the war he became a partner, eventually taking over and  operating the business for several years. He has recently disposed of it.  Mr. J. H. Clements cameto Peachland with his family in 1908 and built  a general store with living quarters. The Clements family operated this  business until the second world war. It has changed hands several times  since.  The first garage was opened in Peachland in 1921 by Bert Baptist who  came from Olds, Alta. He operated it for many years before leaving for  greener fields.  In the early days it was the trend to own a pre-emption. One such preemption was taken on the south side of Deep Creek, several miles from the  village, by three men, Hamilton Lang, R. J. Hogg and another by the name A SUMMERLAND INDIAN  BURIAL STORY 79  of Bacon. Lang was customarily called "Ham" and so with this grouping of  names this region became known as the "Piggaries" and this name has  stuck down through the years.  Other pre-emptions taken out up Deep Creek were by Harry Hardy,  George Keyes, Sam Murdin, Clem and Ferd Aitkens, Sandy McKay and  McCall. Up Trepanier Creek Billy Coldham, Jim Miller, Law, Clement,  Greenslades, Hansen and Maxwell staked out pre-emptions.  The early settlers were very optimistic and would be proud of this  wide awake municipality today but would be hard put to recognize a good  part of it now.  REFERENCES:—Municipal records and memory.  A SUMMERLAND INDIAN BURIAL STORY  By  IVAN  E.  PHILLIPS  It is a significant fact that more and more people have become deeply  interested and fascinated by Indian culture, crafts and customs. This is  particularly true as it relates to archeology, for many of our "North  American" native artifacts which have been uncovered are the direct result  of systematic research and excavation. However, as will be related there is  the occasional and valuable find, which has been unearthed by pure chance.  Indeed, over a period of years, due mainly to large scale private and public  development, literally millions and millions of cubic yards of soil must have  been lifted, moved and pounded to a fine tilth by mechanical excavators.  It was around the year 1907 that a Mr. Henry Bristow with his family  was living in a house on the edge of a cliff. Located between the Canadian  Pacific Railway wharf in Summerland and Peach Orchard, it was one of the  earliest established properties in Summerland. At the time of this occurrence the house was owned by Mr. T. J. Smith, a brother-in-law to Mr.  Bristow. To the south of the house was a ridge of land which was somewhat  bigger than it is now, running down to what is known as Windy Point. To the  south of that again was a gully which it was necessary to fill. Apparently the  top of the ridge partly obscured the view of Okanagan Lake. So it was that a  man with a team of horses and a scraper was sentalong to rectify this, which  he did. And in the process he uncovered an "Indian Burial Ground."  On the highest part of the ridge there was excavated about twelve to  fifteen graves. The soil was of the hard packed clay which is common to the  cliffs a long the south Okanagan area. Thus by virtue of its composition it was  impervious to air and water. At the time of the opening up of the burial site  all the remains appeared to be in a perfect state of preservation. However,  and this is understandable, as soon as they were exposed to the air, the whole  of this valuable find, with the exception of the bone, jade and flint, began to  disintegrate and crumble to dust. In one grave, the body of a man, probably  a chieftain, was shown more honour than his companions, for he was buried  sitting in a chair. This was made of poles and carved in a simple Indian  design. He was wearing a beaded buckskin jacket, the beads being made  from the backbones of fish, or perhaps small animals. Alongside the man  were the bones of a small animal, perhaps a dog as was the custom in  Greenland, or even a fox or coyote. The fact that this man was an Indian of  some stature is confirmed, ar at least supported, since most of the artifacts  found were in this particular grave. These comprised about a dozen jade  skinning knives, most of which were brand new slabs of jade, about ten in- 80 A SUMMERLAND INDIAN  BURIAL STORY  ches long, half an inch thick and two inches wide and cut wedge-shaped at  the ends. A few of them showed signs of long use, having been worn so thin as  to be actually translucent towards the end. Other objects found were two  solid copper knives, green with veridgris. There were also the usual black  flint arrowheads with some larger white flint spearheads, these being about  three inches long. Incidentally, some of these had been bound by leather  thongs to slender pieces of bone. It is probable that these served a double  purpose. For instance, in the spearing of fish, as well as for weapons. All of  these items were found in the chief's grave and no jade or copper knives  were interred with the others.  This is not all. For there is little doubt that a number of other objects  may well have been scraped into the gully with the soil before they were  noticed. For along the trail made by the scraper there was found a polished  round white stone. This was about two inches in diameter and three-quarters  of an inch thick in the centre. It could conceivably have been a talisman  carried by the owner to ward off evil spirits, or to bring good luck to the  owner in battle or in the hunt, or alternatively for polishing knives or other  implements. For the stone could be held in the palm of the hand for such a  purpose.  Summerland's earliest pioneer physician, Dr. C. M. Smith, expressed  as his opinion that all of the bodies as found were adults. He added also, that  there was little doubt in his mind that apparently they had been scalped, for  otherwise the hair would still have been present. He also stressed the vital  importance of washing all of the articles very carefully, and being very  particular concerning the hands, for, as he said, it was possible and probable  that poison may have been used. In this.connection Dr. Boyce of Kelowna,  who, incidentally, owned a large collection of Indian artifacts, corroborated  Smith in hisopionion of the risk of such handling.  There is an intriguing sequel to this early historical Summerland  story. For it so happened that many years later, Mr. Bristow met an old  Indian from the Boundary country, who was able to shed light on this  mystery of the old "Indian Burial Ground." As a boy he said, he had witnessed a battle which had taken place in this area, between two Indian  tribes. For he remembered that the women, children and the older men  stood on a hill and watched the battle being fought on a neighboring hillside.  So it seems as if the assumptions as made at the time of this unearthing of  these Indian graves were correct in almost every particular.  And as one may well ask the question as to what happened to the artifacts, one is able to relate that they are in good hands and preserved for  posterity. A number of them were donated to the "Vancouver Museum" by  Mr. T. J. Smith. The remainder became the property of Mr. Bristow. It is of  interest to know also, that some of the artifacts were loaned to the Summerland Branch of the British Columbia Art League for the purpose of  display. And the location chosen was indeed appropriate, for the exhibition  was held in the "Log Cabin" in Peach Orchard.  A few years before his death, Mr. Bristow disposed of the greater part  of his artifacts to Mr. R. N. (Reg) Atkinson of Penticton. In this way he  ensured that some of these relics and reminders of our native Indians and  their culture, in this area of British Columbia, will always be available for  study by present and future generations. For Reg had for a long time tried to  acquire these artifacts for his museum where they could be displayed to the  best advantage.  *FOOTNOTE:—The writer expresses thanks and  appreciation to  Misses   Edith   and   Bertha  Bristow for the use of subject matter used in this story. OVERLAND EXPEDITION OF 1862 81  PETER McINTYRE RECALLS THRILLING  DAYS OF OVERLAND EXPEDITION  of  1862  Reprinted from the Vancouver Daily Province, Saturday, Oct. 25,1924  Shadowed by a tremendous precipice that towers hundreds of feet  above the Okanagan River at the narrowest part of that great valley, midway between Penticton and Oliver, is a comfortable home of two storeys,  with vines twining about the porch; its unpainted boarding merges into the  gray coloring of the great stone pile at the foot of the cliff in the background.  It is a house that gives the impression of sturdiness, of days of pioneering  and pathfinding, for it seems to be in closer affinity with the background of  hard stone than in keeping with the new earth of the recently completed  railroad, or the glaring white sides of the great irrigation flume that has its  intake but a few feet distant.  A person approaching the place instinctively expects that those who  live here are hardy individuals of the type that blazed the trails through the  wildernesses of the great West. This is, indeed, the case.  It is here that Peter Mclntyre, pioneer of the pioneers, last survivor of  the 150 men and women of the great overland expedition, lives, remembering the young days of his adventurous youth, keeping in touch with the  activities of the present and planning for the developments of the future.  Of the great caravan that left Fort Garry, now the city of Winnipeg, on  the morning of June 2,1862, setting their faces towards the land of the setting  sun, and travelling over the pathless prairies for British Columbia, only  three remain alive, but of the trio, only Peter Mclntyre remembers that  epoch-making trip, for James and August Schubert, infant sons of the only  woman of the party, Mrs. Catherine Schubert, who was daringly accompanying her husband to the "Land of Promise", were too young to  recollect the incidents of the trail.  Peter Mclntyre was a giant of a man, and even now in his 90th year, he  stands more than six feet in height, while his broad shoulders and big frame  are eloquent testimony of the great strength that was his in his younger  days.  Peter Mclntyre was born in the Province of Quebec of the hardy  Scottish stock that contributed so much to the upbuilding of that province.  He was brought up on a farm.  "We had been hearing stories of the wealth of the Cariboo," he explained. "The young fellows of our locality were all excited about it, but we  saw no opportunity of getting to the goldf ields, as the cost of making the trip  by way of Panama and up the Pacific Coast was so high we could not even  contemplate it.  "Then there came rumors that an overland expedition was to be  formed to cross over the great waste lands, penetrate the Rocky Mountains  where only fur traders and explorers had ventured hitherto. Our minds were  excited, and half-a-dozen of us decided to join the expedition if we could raise  the necessary amount with which to outfit ourselves. Money was scarce —  very scarce — in Quebec in those days.  "Finally a friend offered to loan me $200, the amount required. A  tremendous sum, it seemed, but I accepted it, and my companions managed  to secure some money as well.  "It would take too long to tell you all the incidents of that trip; how we 82 OVERLAND EXPEDITION OF 1862  went down to St. Paul, a frontier post, and came up the river to Fort Garry  on the old International on her first voyage. It was at Fort Garry that the  different parties were to meet.  "Itwas a quaint place, was Fort Garry, a regular trading post. Here  everything was bustle and excitement with such a big party gathering. We  camped outside the fort, secured Red River carts and pemican and other  supplies, elected our officers and arranged the details of the journey.  "On the morning of June 2 everything was in readiness. A guide was  recommended by Bishop Tache, and we started off. In the party were Mrs.  August Schubert and her three little children. She carried little Rose and  August in baskets slung in front of her across the back of her buckskin horse,  and it fell to my lot to take care of little Jimmie, who is now postmaster at  Tulameen — and great friends we have remained to this day.  " I remember well that journey, but it would be too tiresome to repeat  the whole story. We were young and full of life and the hardships were  nothing to us. We followed along the route which, they tell me, the Canadian.  National Railway runs today. It took us four months to make the journey,  and I understand that from Kamloops or Lytton to Winnipeg you can make  the trip in three days now. What a change! We were the first travellers, other  than the fur traders — probably the largest party to make the trip — and now  it is done in sleeping cars and people no longer eat pemmican, but dine  sumptuously in splendidly fitted cars off the best in the land.  "Our guide deserted us before long, leaving us on the prairies with no  one to direct us. If we could have caught that half-breed the boys would have  killed him without compunction, and he would have deserved it. But our  officers were splendid fellows and kept on going and we came through  without losing our way.  "It was difficult at times, especially for Mrs. Schubert and the little  ones. We drove cows along to provide milk for the children, but it was a hard  life for the babes. Mrs. Schubert was a splendid woman, willing to face any  danger at any time. Her husband was one of the advance guard, and I saw a  great deal of the family, carrying little Jimmie with me all the time.  " I remember we came to the Saskatchewn when it was in flood. There  had been a lot of rain and we were soaked through, tired and hungry. It was  getting dark. The boys made a raft to take Mrs. Schubert and the two  children across. It would hold no more.  "I told her that if she would consent that I would attempt to swim  across with Jimmie on my back. I never forget the look that the brave  woman gave me.  " 'Peter,' she said, 'go ahead. I know that if you get across that  Jimmie will, too, and that if he is lost that you will be, too.'  "I started to swim. I was pretty powerful and hardly knew my own  strength, but the river was in flood, and I had to swim so as to keep as much  of my body as possible out of the water. It nearly exhausted me. More than  once I felt like throwing up my hands, but the thought of the little fellow, and  of his gallant mother made me keep on. I was terribly cold in the water, and  after I was half-way across my greatest difficulty was to keep awake. That  may seem strange, but I wanted to sleep — felt drowsy, Little Jimmie actually did go to sleep.  "At last when we were almost across and I felt myself going, some of  the men who had managed to get across by themselves higher up threw me a  rope and I caught it and they assisted me ashore."  It was a terrible trip that those pioneers made through the Rocky  Mountains. Food gave out, the trail was most difficult and dangerous,  streams were swollen and difficult to ford. One young man sickened and OVERLAND EXPEDITION OF 1862 83  died. Finally the expedition divided, one party, to which Mr. Mclntyre attached himself, going down through the dangerous canyons of the Fraser,  losing several lives on the way, while the other crossed over to the headwaters of the Thompson and descended that stream, also suffering  casualties.  After arriving at Cariboo diggings, Mr. Mclntyre engaged in different  enterprises, teaming and working with a will at anything that offered,  earning money with which to repay the advance made to him by his friends  in Quebec.  The spirit of adventure was on him, and the year 1865 saw him up on  the Mackenzie River, while several years later he was down in the South in  the employ of one of the great stage coach companies, fighting road agents  and Indians who attacked the pony stage mails. All over the great West he  wandered from the Arctic Circle to the warm waters of the Mexican Gulf —  always in the midst of adventure and danger.  In the early eighties he came to the South Okanagan and engaged in  sawmilling operations. These proved disastrous to him, for there was not the  ready market for his product that he had anticipated, and he lost most of the  money he had gathered through years of effort.  He has remained in the locality ever since, still pioneering, for it is  only within the past few years that the district has emerged from the frontier  stage. The mining days of Fairview, when that now almost forgotten camp  was an important place; the great cattle ranches where thousands of  animals wandered over the range lands; the days when the wild horse bands  thundered down the valley; all these elements of the development of the  country have passed before the eyes of Peter Mclntyre, and now the harsh  shriek of the locomotive's whistle echoes against the great precipice behind  his home, where legend says a hostile tribe of Indians perished when driven  from the top of the cliff by their enemies — and Peter Mclntyre himself is the  last reminder of the days that are gone.  Mr. Mclntyre's sister, Mrs. Mackenzie, keeps house for him. They are  devoted to each other, and both adore the two fine grandchildren of Mrs.  Mackenzie who sometimes cross with their mother, Mrs. Kennedy to visit in  the vine-clad house in the shadow of the big bluff.  NINETIETH BIRTHDAY  I sought and found no words to bring  To you serenely journeying  Along this road we travel side by side:  But where you walk the sunshine lies  And flowers bow low;  And as you pass this milestone fair  Sweet music fills the listening air  For you, so kindly and so wise,  Beloved where'er you go.  What matter if no words be found  For you with love and homage crowned,  Beautified!  —Janet Anderson 84  OLD STEAM  ENGINE VISITS PENTICTON  Eric Sismey photo  OLD STEAM ENGINE VISITS PENTICTON  On June 19,1973, a 90 year old, coal fired locomotive, her bell clanging,  puffed into the old CP. Rail station at Penticton.  Among the watching crowd, many of whom had never seen a real, live,  steam locomotive, were grey-heads who remembered, wistfully, the day  they first shovelled coal into a locomotive firebox. They remembered, too,  the thrill on the day when they sat, for the first time, on the right hand side of  the cab, and had learned the language of steam, of injectors and valve gears.  An old engine built in New Jersey in 1883, rebuilt in 1914, had been  brought to Penticton where she was steamed up and displayed for local rail  buffs to admire. Afterwards she was towed behind a diesel to Chute Lake  where she will be used in a CBC program to re-enact the building of the  Canadian Pacific Railway.  In Myra Canyon, some 45 miles northeast of Penticton, the tunnels,  wooden trestles and the rugged terrain along the Kettle Valley railway will  represent the Fraser Canyon at the time the first train ran through to the  Coast in 1886 much better than the modernized Fraser route could do today.  During the filming the old engine will steam again, her bell will ring,  smoke will belch from her beehive stack and the clarion call of her whistle  will echo through the hills as it did until she was retired in 1960 after 77 years  of faithful service.  — Eric D. Sismey THE McCUDDY'S 85  THE McCUDDY'S  By  BOB  IVERSON  The story of the McCuddy family of the South Okanagan really starts  when John Parson McCuddy at fourteen decided to leave Kennelworth,  Ontario for Chicago. An older brother living there possibly had something to  do with his choice. He was a big husky boy, eventually over six feet and two  hundred sixty-five pounds. Big enough to have sparred a few rounds with  John L. Sullivan.  Railroad work was to be his occupation over the next years. Eventually he became a brakie on a line from St. Louis to New Orleans. Having a  fair singing voice he learned many Negro spirituals during his stopovers in  New Orleans.  Hearing of the railroad construction about to take place in Canada he  returned to take part in CPR construction around the Great Lakes; across  the prairies and into the Rockies where his job was building tote roads ahead  of the railroad. Sometime during this period he managed to get a glimpse of  the Okanagan. Possibly it was that glimpse that brought him back years  later.  Construction work apparently was the big thing in his life at that  moment so it was back across the line to take part in dam and railroad  construction. The 1880s were not exactly the most law-abiding period in the  west so it is not surprising that John McCuddy had a few adventures too.  While he was working on the Denver Rio Grande line a gang of  desperados made a practice of raiding construction camps stealing food and  anything else. Eventually they tried John's camp where they decided to  abduct the cook. Hearing the uproar John McCuddy appeared on the scene.  Big and powerful as he was he soon ended that attempt. Years later on his  ranch a man approached McCuddy identifying himself as that cook whom he  had rescued.  Shortly after this while building the first Bear River irrigation project  at Boise, Idaho he metand married Miss Sarah Jane Taylor, the local school  teacher, December 25, 1890. Arthur, their only child was born in 1892 while  John McCuddy was again on railroad construction at Wenatchee,  Washington. An accident on bridge construction resulted in McCuddy's leg  being crushed. And at the same time a depression resulted in the construction work on the railroad coming to a halt.  This was the turning point in their lives resulting in their return to  Canada and the establishment of the McCuddy Ranch and stopping place on  the old McKinney Road.  For a very short time he was postmaster at Oroville, Washington.  While there he bought a lot at Fairview, just below the old Strathyre mill.  This deal turned out to be a non deal since the property had already been  sold. No money was lost as he recovered his money.  For a short time the McCuddy's operated at store at Okanagan Falls.  Then came the move to what became the McCuddy ranch and stopping place  on the McKinney road between Fairview and Camp McKinney. Their  original home was homesteaded in 1893, Mr. C. A. Lambly at Osoyoos  recorded the claim. Shortly after hauling their belongings up the hill Mr. and  Mrs. McCuddy came down with what was known as the ague, possibly some  form of malaria. Although bedridden for two weeks in Fairview and their  possessions on the hill were unguarded nothing was lost. Their home was  now to be on the ranch and what started out to be a modest home finally 86 THE McCUDDY'S  became a fourteen-room stopping place. That together with bunkhouses for  single help and transients, stable room for one hundred head of horses plus  cattle, made quite an establishment.  Camp McKinney and Fairview were both starting their boom. For the  next ten to twelve years many travellers and much freight was to move up  and down the hill. All travel was by stage coach, saddle horse or freight  wagon so the distances travelled were not that great. A place that provided  good food and beds were always full. Many nights the McCuddy's slept in  chairs while strangers occupied their beds.  In addition to travellers there were for years up to six hired men on the  ranch. At first the big job was clearing the land. Since the timber had little  value in those days a lot of it was rolled up in decks and burned, the stumps  dynamited and the land prepared for crop. Root crops, berries and hay made  up the crop. A large root house across the creek from the house provided  winter storage of fruits and vegetables. There never was any problem  disposing of your produce. With mines operating at both Fairview and Camp  McKinney, prospectors and travellers, it was a busy time.  A sawmill employing between thirty and thirty-five men was located  on their property. A large warehouse for freighters to store some of their  goods was there also. One of the sawmill employees whose only name was  Red died of a heart attack one night. His grave, just above the McCuddy lot  on the road allowance, was originally marked by a wooden slab. Now that  too is gone and the exact location of the grave cannot be determined.  A Chinaman was usually employed as cook. Other Chinese were  employed on other jobs on the ranch. Running a place such as this, never  knowing how many would be there for meals or beds must have been quite  an undertaking. There was no neighborhood grocer to help out. And yet Mrs.  McCuddy and Arthur could somehow get berries and drive to either  McKinney or Fairview and peddle them. On one occasion coming home late  at night a wolf no doubt attracted by the fresh meat they were carrying,  followed to the door.  The Indian settlement around Manuel Louis was for a time known as  Wolftown. The wolves are long gone, the only memory of them is the creek  known as Wolfcub Creek.  In 1896 there was the famous gold brick robbery at Camp McKinney  and the subsequentshooting of Matt Roderick the suspect in the case. Arthur  told me the major part of the gold came out via the McCuddy ranch. Never a  guard along and handled as though it was of no value to induce anyone to  make a try for it.  A post office was established at the ranch January 1900 but lasted a  short time, closing September 1901. The miners were in a slump too, as the  gradeof oredeclined and there were many faults in the formation to make it  more difficult. Finally in 1903 the Caribou-Amelia at Camp McKinney shut  down. It was really the only mine there that amounted to anything. At  Fairview it was the same, the ore was playing out and values declined.  Arthur and his father were partners in sheep. Eventually the flock  amounted to about one thousand head. A hundred acres had been purchased  at the head of Vaseux Lake as a lambing ground. This land is now a part of  the bird sanctuary. The remains of the old cabin used by the shepherd can  still be seen above the road.  A sale of the sheep plus fifty head of cattle had been arranged with  Burns' company at Greenwood. After driving the stock as far as Midway  they were informed that they would not pay the agreed on price. Sooner than  let that happen Mr. McCuddy rented a ranch there and established himself  as a butcher. They sold everything at higher than the original price. Even THE McCUDDY'S 87  rabbits shot by Arthur were sold for there were many mines in that area.  While this was going on Arthur was attending school at Boundary Falls. A  hired man was working at the ranch in the meantime.  Late in December 1904 they left Greenwood and moved to Fairview to  go into the grocery business. The business was acquired from J. A. Stewart  who had been in business there for some time. In addition to the store they  had the post office and later the telephone exchange. The telephone did not  come until 1906. For some time there was just the one phone in Fairview.  Later one was installed in the government office and at the hotel. This was a  government operated line. To the west it extended as far as Tulameen, to the  north as far as Penticton, and to the south and east as far as Osoyoos and  Greenwood. Mrs. McCuddy acted as operator for the years from 1906 to 1917  when it was taken over by McGuffey. The store, post office and telephone  exchange at Fairview together with the ranch across the valley, which by  now totalled twelve hundred acres must have made for a busy life for the  entire family.  The first automobile in Fairview was a White Steamer. Coming from  Penticton and arriving at Fairview apparently the driver had trouble  stopping it so he drove up the hill to the mine, back down again and then  coming to a sudden halt in a rock pile. Apparently damaged it enough to  require towing to Penticton behind a team of horses. The next two cars of  some unknown make was from Oroville. One entire day to get to Fairview  due to road conditions, then one day giving all the children rides and finally  another day to get back to Oroville.  There are many stories of the old days of Fairview and Camp  McKinney. Arthur has told some of them and no doubt there are others who  can and will. A small stream originating in a spring on the lower McCuddy  lot apparently should be called "Fourth of July Creek." The way Arthur told  me the name was bestowed on it as a result of some freighters celebrating  the glorious fourth there. Some kegs of whiskey with the hoop tapped up and  a small gimlet or auger used, provided the liquid refreshment. A wood plug  driven in the hole and the hoop tapped back down and no one the wiser. Foot  races, tug of war and horseshoe games were some of the events.  Ed Cote had a cabin above Gregoire Creek on the McKinney road. He  would on occasion put people up for the night but it was not too popular as a  stopping place. One morning McCuddy's were barely up when they heard the  weirdest howls, cries and growling. Down the road came some freighters  and it was they who were making the commotion. "What is going on?" "We  stayed at Cotes last night, ate supper and breakfast there. Then he tells us it  was lynx we were eating so now we howl like cougars." Cote trapped in that  area for years mostly lynx until the big fire of the thirties finished the fur for  a long time. A little creek that passed by his cabin now bears his name Cote  creek. At one time he grew vegetables on what is now the R. P. Brown place.  He was, 1 am told, a veteran of the Riel Rebellion and was in every way a  true pioneer. The hill above Manuel Louis' was known as "Black Mary's  Hill." Just who she was is unknown. Her grave on the flat beside the road  was fenced and maintained for years. Now that too is gone.  In the area where the community hall now stands a group of Chinese  had a vegetable garden. A water wheel supplied water from the river. A row  of cabins for their accommodation stood behind that little hill that was  removed when the Arena and Curling Rink was built. In the same general  area was a slaughterhouse used by several of the local butchers. A wing  fence of poles from near the old bridge to Tuc-ul-nuit Lake helped in the  capture of stock.  Once Oliver started it meant the end of Fairview stores and business. 88 THE McCUDDY'S  McCuddy's closed their doors in 1921 buying property east of the river. Some  of it along the McKinney road has been subdivided and is now the site of  many homes.  Arthur still lives alone in his home on Park Drive. He also owns  property between his home and the river. John McCuddy passed away in  1937 in his eighty-second year. Mrs. McCuddy followed him in 1941. Arthur  now in his eighties is still quite active, very alert and I have found always  ready to talk of the old days. The ranch was sold 1964 to Mr. Mather of Ab-  botsford. The old house unfortunately burned down in 1925. No doubt much  was lost in the fire in papers, etc. Arthur still has ledgers, account books as  well as some snapshots of the old place. McCuddy Street in Oliver and  McCuddy Creek flowing through the old ranch ensure that the name will not  be forgotten.  SO LONG, NEIGHBOUR!  Could you have thought, neighbour, you would fold your tent like the Arab  And silently steal away,  Leaving all your old friends missing you, seeking you vainly  At the breaking of the day?  We know the horror you have of saying a sad Farewell ;  Yet parting can be sweet sorrow;  And now you are only turning over another page  With a bright new chapter opening tomorrow.  So we shall NOT be saying Goodbye to you now, neighbour;  No fond Auf Wiedersehen!  Nor even Mizpah, the sweetest benediction of all,  Lest the saying give you pain;  Only So Long, neighbour! So long you have lived among us,  So long, so kindly, so dear;  So long we are going to be missing you  When you're gone, and lost to us here.  So long our thoughts will be following you  So long you will live in our hearts;  May all the blessings we wish for you  Be yours when the new life starts.  " ■      • —Janet Anderson MEMORIES OF FORESTRY 89  MEMORIES OF FORESTRY  By A Lookout  By A.  H.  (Gint)  CAWSTON  As there were plenty of trees for fuel as well as for building purposes it  took some time before management of our forests was necessary in Canada.  Nearly every farm had timber to be cleared, and usually a portion was  left for fuel, maple sugar, and some trees were kept for sale to local mills.  As the country grew many sawmills procured leases of timber; since  most logs had to be floated down waterways to the big mills, the growing  industry had to have some governmental supervision. In the East the trees  were mostly of the hardwood (deciduous), but in the West that is B.C. the  trees were evergreens with only a very small portion of hardwoods.  In the East prior to the first war many old farmers found a ready  market for their large hardwood trees at a profitable price. These trees had  been held back from local mills but as England needed them and were  paying a good price the farmers sold at a good profit. The logs were  tremendous and were hauled in long lengths; one sleigh load of three sleighs  contained one log four feet at the small end, and many others had three to  five logs to a load — the weight was excessive. Many of our B.C. trees, too,  were huge and old time logging was only for the hardy and experienced  loggers.  Under B.C. log scale many Coast timber barons were created and  many of these firms continue in the industry.  As this is only a personal version of the B.C. Forest Service, I should  state that for some time there was some control and provisions enforced by  the Dominion Government, as to railway belts. There were Dominion  Rangers who later on came under our B.C. Forest Act in British Columbia.  The B.C. Forest Service came into force by the passage of the Forest Act in  February 1912.  Originally there were eleven districts, namely Cranbrook, Fort  George, Hazelton, Vancouver Island, Kamloops, Lilloet, Nelson, Prince  Rupert, Tete Jeune, Vancouver and Vernon. By 1930 these had been reduced  to six, Vancouver, Prince Rupert, Fort George, Kamloops, Nelson and  Williams Lake.  In 1930 the Railway Belt previously Federal was taken over by B.C.  Forest Service, parts of which had been in the districts of Nelson, Kamloops  and Vancouver. So Kamloops, from being a small district, became a large  one with the changing of its boundaries.  By 1932 the Caribou District with headquarters at Williams Lake was  eliminated and distributed between Kamloops and Fort George. The five  districts so formed remained essentially unchanged until this present year  1972 when the Caribou District was reactivated and territories taken back  from the other two districts.  Although there never was a division between the Kamloops and Nelson  Districts, there was, for convenience of administration a juggling of areas,  so that now a definite boundary is recognized. At one time Vernon was  separate but later became part of the Kamloops District, Merritt was once  under Vernon, and one might say Princeton, Penticton and Kelowna were  once under the Nelson District but now are in the Kamloops District.  For the information of these many changes and for the early history of  the B.C. Forest Service, I am in debt to the late Chief Forester Lome S. 90 MEMORIES OF FORESTRY  Swannell who was one of the many forestry friends I was privileged to  know.  My first interest in forestry, outside of the forests themselves was in  1913 when Billy Lowe of Keremeos was made a Patrolman or "Lightning  Patrol." With a saddle horse and pack horse he rode the ridges and high  country on watch for fires. "What a lovely way to earn wages I thought,"  never knowing that some sixteen years later I would be in the same job, but  not always on horseback. I had learned much about fires and how to fight  them long before I became used to the reports, paper work, and guide  references in the "Forester's Bible." Fire fighting varies greatly, of course,  if you get to a fire early your chances of stopping it are good. But once a fire  gets a start you then have many things to consider, terrain, humidity, winds  — whether they be up drafts and down drafts in basins, or quartering winds  caused by cloud appearance; the forecoming weather reports and the action  of the fire and what lies ahead of it.  Many fires have a common pattern but putting in guards in our hills  calls for experience and "know how" and getting to know firefighters, what  equipment to use, and a calm outlook to assume control is important, also a  good stand in public relations pays off.  Water is, of course, considered by many as the real opposition to a fire,  but I would rather have good earth soil as a guard and good earth with which  to smother with than water — except to have to drink. Even our bombers like  to have some soil in the water or other thickening material. We will have  shovels, hoes, mattocks, axes and saws for many years to come. Our heavy  equipment, in early days, was a light truck with canvas water tank, a team  of horses, a sidehill or walking plow, and sometimes a light tree or such  dragged by whatever was handy.  We now have modern equipment on the ground, and flying squads in  the air. Yet many fires end up being put out by a shovel and dirt. Forestry  officers in early days had many extra duties — such as inspections of preemptions, land inspections, Park work, besides the many special use permits. George Copley of the Grazing Division covered a vast area in his day  and his work and reports were gratifying to cattlemen and officials as well.  At one time it was suggested that the Forest Service take over the  duties of Game Department management. They did not do this then, but I  think it might be a good idea today if we are to have better management of  our wildlife. In fact Jim Cunningham, Game Commissioner, stated before he  died, at a game meeting, that we had asked for more game wardens but had  got instead biologists, nice young men, who had a lot to learn about game  management, and had already made some bad mistakes.  A remark often heard in early days was "pretty easy, eh? since the  fire season is over." What many never realized was that the main job of  Forestry is the sale of auction timber over a counter.  Fire fighting is the necessity of protecting the forests and comes under  the heading of 'Operation.' In so doing our water basins and resources, our  wildlife, our parks and our communities are protected by this vast pre-  organized set up in force in every district. An example of why Operation Fire  Fighting became so necessary was the many fires that occurred in the late  20s and the 30s in the depression when fire fighters got 25c an hour and grub  and of course kept many fires going for as long as possible. This resulted in  so heavy costs that the government cut the Forest Service staff in the  districts to Rangers and a few Assistants; and it was not until 1937 or later  that reorganizing got well under way.  In the late 40s and 50s forestry was booming and sales were hard to MEMORIES OF FORESTRY 91  keep up with, as were the many changes in the Forestry Act. I remember as  an Interim Dispatcher watching and listening to the Assistant Rangers and  Ranger as they received page after page of amendments to the Forest Act,  then when these were squeezed in, would come a circular letter amending in  whole or part of the amendment. Now all this was kept in a large black open  leaf book which they nicknamed "the Bible." It was divided in three parts:  Operation, Management and Grazing. This last Grazing Range Improvement called SRI took up little room as changes were few. Management  of course had made big strides as more country was opened up and many  came up to look for more virgin forests from the U.S. and other countries;  also big operators and pulp outfits were looking for more control and more  quotas. Soon the black manual looked like a pregnant woman going to the  company store on $1.49 day! About this time Victoria came out with a new  battle ship gray manual for Management. This was a great relief for  everyone, but soon showed that some joker in Victoria had not given up, as  shortly this new book showed signs of growing pains.  Unlike mineral claims, timber sales are advertised in local papers and  Gazettes and auctioned off in Ranger Offices, District Headquarters, with  large sales made in the Victoria office, to the highest bidder. This worked  well enough and was profitable for the Government as well as for many of  the communities where a second industry meant a great deal to the life of a  district not having much but fruit, a few cattle ranches and farmers.  Forest Management Licences were fine in so much as those having  one were not allowed to bid in the open market. Then came trouble and it was  thrown out and a hardly known term of "Tree Farm Licence" came into use.  Those getting these were the big pulp and timber operators, but it was soon  found that these big combines were allowed to bid in the open market. Soon  most of local mills were forced out or bought out — not for the mill, but for  control and the quota. Many timber sales advertised have a line which  reads, "No mill without chipping facilities (pulp) need apply!"  Many of the old Forestry men could still do the present job, but there is  a great advancement in office equipment for present day reports, also the  organization is far better equipped. Suppression crews were first made up of  mature men knowledgeable in fighting fires, many holding jobs in logging,  packinghouses and other industries. Now crews are made up of mature  teenagers from high schools (and other positions) and taught by a foreman,  the Ranger and Assistant Rangers to get to a fire and hold it or put it out,  giving the Forestry Officer time to arrange fire fighters to take over.  Lookouts are harder to get today but their buildings and comforts are  far superior to what earlier lookout men had, but I doubt if their records  would stand up to those of some of the men I worked with. The poor facilities  and unnecessary discomforts in one district resulted in the men thinking up  verses to illustrate their discontent. On a rainy day one of them put much of  this together and it will bring back memories of the days of the Forestry  telephone.  THE LOOKOUT MAN  Who is it comes when called upon in early June — the Lookout man,  Who is it sleeps without a cot on warehouse floor,  And sits without a chair, and eats without a table — the Lookout man.  Who is it journeys forth in rain or heat, 92 MEMORIES OF FORESTRY  And sleeps beneath a leaky tent, to the mosquitoes hum —  the Lookout man.  Who is it makes of himself a packhorse mule,  And shovels, chops and sweats enough for all,  the Lookout man.  Who is it that we meet upon the trail, with climbers on,  With cross cut saw and shovel, with axe and rolls of wire,  With a big bag strapped to his middle,  the Lookout man.  Who is it when the hot days come is hustled out upon the hill,  Who cannot have a horse to ride,  the Lookout man.  Who is it packs his wood at night, for many a mile,  And is at it long before the dawn:  Who gets his water from a snow bank,  the Lookout man.  Who is it in those hazard hours is seldom given time to eat,  Who sits and stares through all the hours,  the Lookout man.  Who is it on that aerial peak, so bleak through sleet and rain,  With hail and gale, he sees it through, forgotten and alone,  the Lookout man.  Who is it sits upon his ass and sleeps and eats,  And takes a shot at every strike in day or night until the storm is gone,  the Lookout man.  Who is it when it's five o'clock goes and works in his garden plot,  Who is it when the weekend comes, goes and visits with his friends,  Who is it on a Sunday brightgoesto church and does what's right,  Who gets the breaks on holidays, It is like hell,  the Lookout man!  Unlike the Lookout man other Forestry men have company in their  work. Many jobs make it necessary to work in pairs or groups. Timber sales  have a starting point either a surveyor's post, a point on a stream or known  place on an established timber sale. Compass lines are run in chains, the  compass being offset from North by the degrees of declination used in that  particular area. Timber sales are cruised in strips to determine type girth,  height and length, also the amount of trees per strip down to seedlings, also  the terrain is marked in so with maps, aerial, etc., a comprehensive idea of  the sale is known. Also the officer notices where roads should be built and  whether marking crews should paint for cutting or leaving of the timber.  Silvaculture crews sometimes establish where seeding strips or blocks  should be observed. Borings are also made and the core sometimes tells MEMORIES OF FORESTRY 93  quite a story of the tree's life and growth, good years, dry years even fires  can be estimated.  To list 311 the work Forestry men do is not my intent and it is not in the  vision of a lookout to know these things for he is but the eyes and the ears of  Forestry work.  PORTRAIT  From before sunrise to dusk their availability and long day  of watching is nearly done.  The lookouts alone in their solitude, nothing but nature  and the notes of the birds' vesper hour;  While in the west The Great Painter unfolds yet another scene.  Below all is hustle and the roar of commerce.  With bent heads they go oblivious to the better things of life.  —"Just Another Evening, A Sunset" —  To those below it was but another evening,  The close of yet another day,  To us high up, it was another wondrous Sunset,  Finale of the Sun's great bursting light,  Seen in the east so many hours away.  The mountain tops with fading light, took on a sombre hue,  Each little mountain's silhouette was plainly seen below,  And far to rim of mountain ranges, the sunset burst in view,  Between the rows of rolling clouds eastward bent,  A forgotten job to do.  Dark gun metal clouds keep rolling up  And in between the blue, each one edged with milky white,  Elfin golden beams streak in and out,  And some of rich red hue,  While others farther north are almost mother pearl,  With scores of shades too fine to name.  As time goes on the flame is turned to purple,  The sombre roles of state proclaim that night will soon be on,  Through long lines of jagged clouds, like sentinels standing  The last golden rays dim lights proclaim  The sickle moon in a little patch of blue.  And on a mountain peak, far off but not alone  Earn looks toward Beryl, and Gint knew Jack was looking too,  Russ wondered if Bob and Charlie had seen the view,  Itwas just another end of day, to them another sight,  It's wonders stored away, with promises of another one  If God would have it so.  To all Lookouts who watch the sun rise and set  A tranquil restful night. Amen! 94 MEMORIES OF FORESTRY  At lastthe summer wanes, the insects, butterflies and the flowers give  way to autumn; with a new alertness amongst the birds and animals, as  winter gives its first warnings. Cold windy stormy days with fog and snow  soon have the lookouts thinking of getting down below. Their thoughts turn to  when their orders will come to "pack up" and get ready to be brought back  into society again. They have listed all the things to be left and have made  out articles needed for the next year. Fire reports, etc., are all ready and  they wait day after day for the good word to get prepared to leave. Soon the  monitoring station hears quite a bit of bitching by the new Lookouts in their  after hours gossip. Being a considerate soul he waits till near bedtime when  the boys are saying good night and sends the following cheering message:  "The lookout before his look-out door was sitting in the sun —  just noddin, just noddin.  His eyes bugged out as he looked all around — just noddin.  His ears grew long as he listened for the radiotelephone call —  just noddin.  He sat and he sat just noddin, until he got cold.  Inside by the fire his muscles grew soft —  just noddin — just doing noddin,  In the fall when the snow had come, with rain, sleetand all,  They found him there all alone— just noddin, just noddin,  When they brought him home with his hair grown long  His folks just looked, he had stayed too long — just noddin —  just doing noddin!" HUGH  McLELLAN — FIFTY YEARS AT SEA  95  HUGH McLELLAN — FIFTY YEARS  AT SEA  By  ERIC  D.  SISMEY  Hugh   S.  McLellan  of  Naramata  was  born  on   March  7,   1886,  in  Highlands Newfoundland of Scottish seafaring people. He attended school at  Halifax until he was 14;  leaving school  he served as cabin boy on the  Highland    Brother,   a    Blue    Nose  schooner sailing out of St. John, New  Brunswick, trading to the West Indies  and as far south as Rio. %_  One day in 1902 when the full-  rigged ship, Arctic Stream, of  Glasgow, Captain Charles C. Dixon,  master, was loading at St. John for  Adelaide, Austrailia, young  McLellan,   fascinated   by   the   tall »  masts   which   stretched   160   feet (  above the deck, applied for and was  signed  as cabin   boy  for  the   long y——  voyage which  logged  14,120 miles. _^|  When the Arctic Stream sailed  from Adelaide to Falmouth, for  orders, another boy tended the cabin  and young McLellan was signed on  the ship's articles 'Able Seaman'  and for the next five years he was a  member of her crew.  At Falmouth the Arctic  Stream was ordered to Kingston  where her grain cargo was  discharged. From the Thames she  towed to Cardiff in Wales where she  was loaded with coal for Acapulco,  Mexico.  Captain Hugh McLellan,  Naramata, B.C.  1973 photo, Eric Sisn  Coal was a common cargo at the turn of the century. Wind ships did  most of this trade, which was a dirty one. After loading and unloading there  was black dust in every corner leaving a two-day cleanup job for all hands.  At Acapulco, like most small ports around the world, cargo was worked by  the crew, main and fores'l yards were cockbilled (pronounced co'billed) and  rigged for hoisting the cargo from the holds to lighters alongside while the  ship lay anchored in the stream. From Acapulco the ship sailed in ballast to  Vancouver where lumber was loaded at the Hastings Mill for Sydney,  Australia.  Then it was coal again from Australia to Mellendo, Peru. At Mellendo  the ship lay four miles offshore and the coal, 2,900 tons of it, was unloaded  basket by basket to lighters, a daytime job. By the time this was done and 300  tons of sand ballast shipped the Arctic Stream had been at anchor for four  months. Back at Sydney the Arctic Stream was ordered to Newcastle for  coal, this time for the United States Navy at Manila. Newcastle, when the  Arctic Stream was there, was a busy port. There were 70 sailing ships, 96 HUGH  McCLELLAN — FIFTY YEARS AT SEA  loaded with coal for the U.S. Navy, waiting for favorable tides and weather  before they could cross the bar. There was no coal storage ashore at Manila  so 500,000 tons of the black stuff was stored by dumping in the sea in 30 feet of  water. Some of it, the captain chuckled, is still there for it was not long  before the U.S. Navy changed her ships to burn oil.  At Sydney again Able Seaman McLellan was paid off. He had been  with the ship for five years and had sailed 100,000 miles.  "While I was aboard the Arctic Stream, McLellan said, several near  records were run; Sydney to Molendo in 62 days; Manila to Sydney in 34  days; Vancouver, B.C. to Sydney in 60 days and once during 1906 we sailed  1,200 miles in four days. At that time steamers could do no better."  When I asked what were the things during his five years on the Arctic  Stream best remembered. Hugh replied that first, as it should be, was his  respect and admiration for Captain Charles Dixon who was not only an  outstanding navigator and seaman but a gentleman who took good care of  his crew.  " I remember our ship slipping through the tide rips in the Straits of Le  Maire under reefed tops'ls and storm stays'ls while we made ready for the  dusting we would get when we sailed from the lee of the land. I remember  mile-long icebergs off the Horn where a savage squall blew sails away; the  Crozets, rocky islands along the trade route half way between the Cape (of  Good Hope) and Australia, smothered in a welter of foam. Once in  Mozambique Channel we were caught aback by a sudden change of wind; we  made sternway for several miles before things were righted, and on another  occasion near the Three Kings at the north tip of New Zealand a sudden  squall blew royals and topgallants away.  Perhaps my most cherished memories are of the lazy days in the  Trades (winds) when the ship surged along, day after day, with everything  set to the royals and never a rope was touched.  "Sometimes when there was little work to do I would climb the  foremast and sit astride the royal yard. Under full sail the ship pitched  easily, toscend and pitch again at each scends ending.  Below me the sails bellied tight before the warm, soft Trades which  hummed in low key through the shrouds. And all around the wide, bright sea  was blue with gentle whitecaps flashing in the tropic sun.  At night, under a full moon, when summer lightening flickered on the  horizon and the bow wave shone with phosphorescent glow the beauty and  majesty of the scene was overpowering and a trick at the wheel a delight.  The setting made one feel very small and humble and even the toughest  shellback forgot blasphemy, pausing to wonder, and perhaps regret his  many sins."  "Do you remember old-time shanties" I asked?  "Yes! I can sing them still. There was an old sailmaker who knew the  songs handed along since East Indiaman days such as High Barbaree; there  were the fo'cs'tle songs, Amsterdam, Western Ocean and Blow Ye Winds of  the Morning, and the work shanties, Blow the Man Down, Congo River and  the shorter ones Paddy Doyle and Sally Brown. Yes! I remember them and  Shannandore too, as it should be sung, but not in the TV way."  While Captain McLellan was talking about the Arctic Stream a thin  current of memory passed through my mind and on reaching home I found  on my shelves a volume'A Million Miles in Sail'which I had bought in 1933. It  was almost a biography of Captain Charles Dixon and his ships, one of which  was the Arctic Stream. I phoned Captain McClellan to see if he knew the  book. He replied that he had taken it from the Vancouver Public Library HUGH  McCLELLAN — FIFTY YEARS AT SEA  97  ^JV<  ISAk  Ship Arctic   Stream,   outward   bound   through   Sydney   Heads   Australia,  April 1907.  Photo copy Eric Sismey  some years ago but he would like to borrow my copy and read it again.  "Do you remember, I asked, the ocean race between the German  training ship Herzogin Sophie Charlotte and the Arctic Stream which began  on April 24,1907 and was reported by the Sydney Morning Herald?"  The German ship had a crew of 90 smart cadets and she was sailing  light while the Arctic Stream was down to her marks, her crew only 24. Both  ships, by arrangement, were to clear the harbor under sail without the use of  tugs.  The arrival of the two ships in the English Channel was reported in the  London Times. The race, 14,000 long, was won by the British ship, 97 days  from port to port, three days less than the German's time.  "I watched the Arctic Stream sail through Sydney Heads under full  sail, Captain Hugh replied. It made me a little sad to see the ship in which I  had served so long, sail away without me. My years on the Arctic Stream  had been happy ones; there was work to do, always hard, often unpleasant  and sometimes dangerous, but there had been a lot of fun too.  In ports our stays were lengthy, there were lots of opportunities to go  ashore in the company of appentice lads of my own age. We never had much  money to spend but in those days a shilling or two went a long way.  "I think we enjoyed Sydney more than any other port. Sydney on Port  Jackson is one of the finest harbors in the world and the most beautiful. We  roamed around the Domain and through the famous botanical gardens.  Trips on the ferry boats, rivalled only by San Francisco, were always enjoyed. We ferried to Manly where we enjoyed a swim in the surf and the big  shrimps served in a paper cornucopia, bought for a penny or two. A tramcar  ride to Bondi or Coogee was another Sunday excursion. The harbor, like San  Francisco, was always busy, ferry boats running around, sailing ships anchored in the stream, tramp steamers along the wharfs and crack passenger  liners, German, French and British, ranged around Circular Quay.  "I remember Sydney with great pleasure —I'd like to go there again. 98 HUGH  McCLELLAN — FIFTY YEARS AT SEA  "But there were five years gone. I wanted to return to Canada and  prepare myself for examinations that would allow me to move from the  forecastle to the cabins of the afterguard.  I found an American full-rigged ship, Reuce, at Newcastle loading for  San Francisco and it was coal again. Her skipper was glad to ship an experienced seaman who only wanted passage."  At San Francisco Hugh McLellan boarded his first steamer, the City of  Pueblo, again working his passage, this time to Vancouver, B.C.  In 1908, soon after landing at Vancouver, Hugh shipped quartermaster in the Canadian Pacific's Princess May and in 1909 after securing  his mate's ticket he signed as second mate for the Union Steamship Company and for nearly a year sailed, at one time or another, aboard the  Capilano, Cowichan and Camosun. And in 1910 after gaining his master's  certificate for coastwise trade he shipped as a mate on the Grand Trunk  steamers, Prince Rupert, Prince John and Prince George.  After receiving an offer from Greer and Coyle Ltd. in 1912 Captain  McLellan left passenger steamer service for good to become a tugboat  master. He skippered the Storm King until 1915 when he was appointed  owner's agent to supervise the building of the large 125x26 foot tugs Massett  and Moresby. He took the Moresby to sea on her trial trip and was her  master for three years.  In 1920, Captain McLellan, in partnership with Fred Reynolds, bought  the tug Osprey No. 7 which they operated until they sold her in 1929 at which  time Captain McLellan joined the Pacific Coyle Navigation Company to  skipper the deepwater tug Pacific Monarch for the next three years.  For the next quarter century Captain Hugh worked not only for Pacific  Coyle butfor Bill Dolmage and Vancouver Tug. His voyages would tally into  the hundreds. British Columbia coastal waters were criss-crossed from the  Queen Charlottes to Anacortes on the American side and on the outside from  Cape Flattery to Cape Scott. The names of the tugs he skippered would read  like a Lloyd's register.  Captain McLellan retired from a year-round job at sea in 1955 but  since then he has tug-boated every summer until 1965.  During half a century of tugboating Captain McLellan has seen many  changes but there is no hole where a log boom can be tied from the  Charlottes to the Skeena, along the mainland coast, through the off-shore  islands to Vancouver and the circuit of Vancouver Island that the captain  does not know — he has seen them all in all weather. He knew the coast  before it was well lighted and before radio weather reports; when observation of sea and sky and wind gave to the knowing what to expect.  Captain McLellan juggled his tows through Seymour Narrows when  Ripple Rock was still there; he knew the tide rips through the Yucultas  and the overfall in Seymour Inlet.  He has seen tugs grow to ocean-going size and the smooth pulse of  steam replaced by the clatter of diesels turning variable pitch propellers.  He has towed 12 and 14 section log booms in Georgia Strait; Davis  rafts from the Charlottes, and early log barges made from the iron hulls of  Cape Horn wind ships, and the modern self-dumping kind.  He remembers the first radio telephone and he has seen radar come to  draw the trace of shoreline and hazards in the stream patterned in light.  He learned narrow water navigation when whistle echo was the only  guide and he has coached younger men to count "One and — "Two and"  —"Three and" each count a second of time. Five counts to the mile if the  echo returns after the count of five Captain Hugh tells them you are about THE OLIVER GOLF AND COUNTRY CLUB 99  half a mile from the shore. "You had better get this for radar is a tricky  device.  It can go wrong.  Captain McLellan married Lola Morse in Vancouver in 1917. They  have four children, two boys and two girls. The eldest son, Hugh, spent the  war time years in corvettes on the Atlantic. Since discharge he has skippered ocean going tugboats all along the Pacific Coast. The younger son,  Bill, served in the Merchant Marine. Now with the Federal Government he  captains ships engaged in maintenance of the shipping facilities up and down  the B.C. coast.  Captain McLellan and Lola moved from the city to Naramata in 1948.  Their cosy cottage is close to Okanagan Lake, near the wharf where  Canadian National and Canadian Pacific tugs jockey car barges.** It is only  a short stroll to where Captain Hugh can gam with their skippers even  though they are fresh water men.  **Service discontinued in 1973  &  THE OLIVER GOLF AND COUNTRY CLUB  By  HUGH  PORTEOUS  On a midsummer night in 1925 six of the pioneer residents of the Oliver  District sat on the steps of the project office in Oliver to discuss the  possibility of forming a golf club to afford recreation for themselves and the  continuing flow of new settlers coming into the area as a result of the installation of the Southern Okanagan Lands Project initiated by the  provincial government for the purpose of opening up the southern end of the  Valley for settlement following the First World War.  The group sitting on the steps of the office that summer evening was  comprised of Harry Earle, the project manager of the time; Sandy Mac-  Pherson, a Scot and golfer of no mean ability and a merchant in the village;  Dick Simpson, also a Scot, and manager of the government nursery  established to provide nursery stock for the new orchards now rapidly increasing in number; G. Hill Wilson, retired from the British Army and an  embryo orchardist; John Mars, an engineer on the project, and the writer of  this chronicle, retired from the Indian Army.  The provincial government had advised that a block of about 200 acres  of sage brush and cactus lying below and south of the old mining camp at  Fairview would be made available and on that summer evening in 1925 the  Oliver Golf and Country Club came into being with Sandy MacPherson as its  first president and this writer as its secretary.  With the help of Bob Robertson, another Scottish golfer then living in  Kaleden, nine holes were positioned and with the help of other enthusiastic  settlers it was planned to prepare nine sand greens so that play could begin  in the Spring of 1926. The so called fairways could be called just playable and  used as grazing land for cattle, the greens being fenced with wire strands.  Enthusiasm ran high and nine members, each volunteered to keep a 100 THE OLIVER GOLF AND COUNTRY CLUB  green in shape and volunteer help was no problem and play began on a  Sunday morning in 1926.  In the early days lack of funds prevented the mowing of the fairways  which resulted in play being suspended during the summer months but late  in the summer with the grass dry a fire guard was plowed around the course  and the grass burnt off resulting in fresh, green turf ready for the Fall  opening. After a few years club finances permitted a fence to be erected  around the property with most of the work being done voluntarily by club  members.  With the growing community membership increased and a clubhouse  was built which throughout the thirties was the setting for many social activities then and following the Second World War.  During the late twenties and thirties many inter-club matches were  carried out with Penticton, Summerland, Oroville and Kettle Valley. The  passing of the years has blunted my memory but I can recall vividly Tommy  Syer, Tom Andrews, Chart Nichol I and his son Harold of Penticton and Joe  Richter of Kettle Valley. Enthusiasm ran high up to the beginning of World  War II but with the decline of membership on the outbreak of the war and the  succeeding years forced suspension of activities until peace returned  together with an added influx of people into the area, the club was  reorganized and became loosely known as the Triple O Club by virtue of  drawing its membership from Oliver, Osoyoos and Oroville.  During the Fifties the membership began to look into the future and  decided that steps should be taken to acquire water to make a green course  and the directors were authorized to approach the government with a view to  the tapping of Reid Creek which lay above the property. It was pointed out  that the greening of the course together with its scenic beauty would be a  tremendous asset not only to Oliver and Osoyoos, but to the whole Valley.  The reply was not encouraging but persistence prevailed and in 1957  the Oliver Golf and Country Club was incorporated under the Societies Act  and continuing investigation as to the acquiring of water was carried out.  In the early Sixties the apparent futility of trying to acquire water led  to a local group developing the Cherry Grove Golf and Country Club on the  slopes above Tucilnuit Lake where water was abundant and in 1964 the new  club came into operation resulting in a loss of membership to the old club  where water was still a problem awaiting solution.  However the hard-core membership of the old club was not to be  defeated and further representations to the Water Resources Branch  resulted in more favourable response with the club being advised to consult  with the Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District, just come into being,  and rights were obtained for water for ten acres which if constantly moved  would irrigate the whole course. A pump was installed in 1969 and four  greens and the approaching fairways were in operation by the Spring of 1970.  Pipe has been laid by volunteer labour to all the other fairways.  Five grass greens are now in use and it is expected that by the end of  1973 nine greens will be finished together with seeded fairways, Play then  can be enjoyed throughout the whole season. The acquiring of more water is  constantly being investigated.  Now looking backward throughout almost half a century this writer,  the only one alive of those six who sat on the project office steps that summer  evening in 1925 recalls with no little nostalgia those early days; the Sunday  foursomes and the many amusing incidents which go with pioneer days and  above all the superb panoramic view, still enjoyed, when standing on the  ninth tee overlooking the lush orchards and vineyards which have replaced  the cactus and sagebrush of those early days. THE O'KEEFE RANCH 101  THE O'KEEFE RANCH  By MARY  MOON  Established as  a  homestead over   100 years  ago  —   now   a  prime tourist attraction in the North Okanagan.  EDITOR'S NOTE — The O'Keefe Ranch story by Mary Moon, Asst. Editor of  the B.C. Motorist, appeared in the March April 1973 issue, and is reprinted  with the permission of the author and the magazine.  'Everything is original except the flowers on the altar,' says a sign in  the oldest Catholic church in the interior of B.C., St. Ann's on the O'Keefe  Ranch near Vernon. One of the earliest cattle empires in the Okanagan  Valley, the ranch has been restored as a museum of frontier life a hundred  years ago, and is opened to the public at Easter and closed sometime in  November.  The tiny and touching church has pine siding, window frames and door  of cedar but no bell because it never had one. The tall pointed windows each  featuring a different saint, have colored paper pasted on them to simulate  stained glass. Inside are statues of Jesus of Nazareth, St. Christopher and St.  Francis.  On one wall hangs a subscription list dated November 7th, 1886,  bearing the names of those who gave money so that this church could be built  three years later. Cornelius O'Keefe, a Quebec Roman Catholic of Irish  descent, heads the list with $150. Afer his name comes that of Mrs. V.  Greenhow of Greenhow Ranch, who donated $100. Price Ellison, who had  come here to the head of Okanagan Lake ten years earlier over the rugged  Dewdney (Hope) Trail, contributed $10. Further sums came from Catholic  and Protestant pioneers all over the northern Okanagan, from Enderby to  Kelowna. Residents of Vernon (in the next decade to be the largest settlement in the whole valley) attended this church for a number of years.  Details concerning the furnishing of the church are also displayed on  the wall. 'Twelve pews at $5 each' are still here. So is the organ, along with  'subscription list for the organ, 1891.'  In the cemetery near the church lie Cornelius O'Keefe and Thomas  Greenhow, who together in 1867 drove several hundred head of cattle up  from Oregon into the Okanagan Valley. They intended to sell the herd in  Barkerville, having realized that feeding gold miners was more lucrative  than prospecting for gold personally. However, while fattening their cattle in  the meadowlands at the head of Okanagan Lake, they became convinced  that a richer future lay in owning land there.  Thefollowing year, Mr. O'Keefe obtained 161 acres at the north end of  the lake (local legend says he paid fifty dollars an acre) and his ranch grew  to 15,000 acres within the next forty years. It is much smaller today, certain  portions having been sold. The Spallumcheen district's new golf course  covers about a hundred former O'Keefe acres, across the way from the  ranch's tall square archway and gates.  Other pioneers sleep in the O'Keefe ranch cemetery and when money  permits all the graves will be identified and surrounded by a white picket  fence just as they were in pioneering days. (Don't ignorethe collection box in  the church.)  Near the church and built of squared-off logs is the original two-storey  home of the pioneering O'Keefes. Snapdragons and hollyhocks have been  planted outside the windows of the wallpapered  parlor,  which  contains 102 THE O'KEEFE RANCH  elegant Victoria furniture with velvet upholstery, an iron stove for heating, a  stereoscope (with early 3-D pictures in it), embroidery equipment and a  spitoon of English china.  The kitchen table is bright with crystal and willow pattern plates but  the cooking appliances are of the last century's backbreaking types, a  heavy iron cooking pot hangs from a metal arm over the open fireplace. An  ornative stove with a metal chimney rising from itwas used for both cooking  and central heating, courtesy of the faithful ones who chopped, split, stacked  and carried in the wood. Drawers in the kitchen chest have rounded bases  for storing large quantities of flour, sugar and other domestic necessities.  An antique hallstand holds three hats of bygone days and a carpet  beater made of cane. This kitchen-dining-family room also has a rocking  chair and lace curtains.  Upstairs on the bed is a hand-crocheted spread and an eiderdown  comforter. Silver-backed hairbrushes, a basin and matching ewer and  shallow circular bathtub of the kind seen in works by the French impressionist painters, are among the souvenirs of the past in the bedroom.  The metal bed warming pan with the long wooden handle awaits below to be  filled with live coals from the kitchen fire.  Willow trees and a high hedge of evergreens hide 'The Mansion' from  public gaze but conducted tours go through the downstairs rooms regularly  during the open season. Tourists assemble on the carpeted verandah beside  the stained glass window which contains the words: 'Home sweet home.'  Cornelius O'Keefe began building this impressive home in 1880 and  completed it in 1900. Members of the O'Keefe family still live here, occupying the upstairs part and the extension at the back during the tourist  months and in winter they use the whole building.  The present owner of the ranch, Tierney O'Keefe (youngest son of  Cornelius), and his wife Betty have used their own family heirlooms  augmented by other treasured antiques to recreate the sumptuousness of the  Victorian era. Possibly the most valuable item in the house is the drawing  room chandelier of green Venetian glass flowers. Rug, drapes and  upholstery are all in the formal style of the nineties.  Through the hallway, past the 1702 Queen Anne chair, the Chinese  chest carved in high relief with a design of horsemen, you reach the library-  den in whose dark dignity Sherlock Holmes and Doctor Watson would feel  perfectly at home.  The inner part of the hallway, another kind of sitting room, is  dominated by two paintings a century old. They are unsigned because they  are the work of a woman and in those days it was thought immodest for a  woman to sign her work. (Pleasedon't tell Women's Lib.)  Too precious to use are the beflowered, one-of-a-kind china dishes  made at Meissen, near Dresden, in 1750. Arranged on the long dining room  table as if for a banquet when the house is open for inspection, each hand-  painted piece is carefully packed away for the winter. When a female  relative of Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (in 1889 he built the tower named after  him in Paris) died in Vancouver, B.C., the O'Keefes purchased these dishes  from the estate.  The cloth on the English oak table is double damask Irish linen, which  means the design is on both sides. Upon it, in addition to the Meissen dishes,  are Georgian silver plate candlesticks, antique silver flatware, Belgian  crystal goblets and cranberry glass bells for summoning servants. In a big  glass-fronted cabinet against the wall are displayed more pieces of the rare  and valuable chinaware.  Through the butler's pantry, or linen, room, is the breakfast room, THE O'KEEFE RANCH  103  The church at the O'Keefe Ranch at Vernon, B.C.  Photo copy from the original in color by Bill Moyrs. Eric Sismey copy  where a staircase leads to the off-limits upper story. In this room are family  photographs — Tierney O'Keefe, his wife Betty and their children — and a  1905, Swiss-made music box that plays the Blue Danube Waltz with such  charm that visitors buy recordings of the music as souvenirs of their visit to  the grandeur and grace of Victoria's reign.  Illuminated by gas lampposts and connected by an oldtime boardwalk  are other features of ranch life a century ago, such as the original North  Okanagan post office, the general store, the blacksmith shop, and the buggy  shed. This historical exhibit was opened to the public on June 15, 1967,  exactly one hundred years to the day after Cornelius O'Keefe arrived here  with his herd of cattle.  O'Keefe of O'Kanagan, as he was jokingly called by friends, was the  first postmaster of this area, from 1872 to 1884. Mail came in by horseback  once a month from Kamloops. But the name of the post office was spelled  'Okanagon' — all the post offices in the region spelled it that way in those  days.  A floor-length white linen dress with many insets of lace, especially on  the bodice, is displayed on a dress dummy in the general store. With the long  white gloves but without the Gibson Girl hat, it could be worn today to  opening night of the opera at the Queen Elizabeth Theatre, in Vancouver. So,  too, could the cream-colored, embroidered satin skirt with its formal black  blouse.  High-buttoned shoes, shawls, parasols and beaded purses with handles  of silver chain also appear in the general store. So do an antique scraper for  muddy footwear, a bear trap and many highly-decorated metal cans containing tea, chewing tobacco, peas, mustard, sago, tapioca, as well as  medicines for colic, cholera and other dreadful ailments.  In the blacksmith shop is a carriage with a folding top like that of a  baby buggy, a sharpener for axes, an anvil, huge bellows, and old cattle  branding irons. These bear the same'O'K'device as the tag they put on each  tourist at the gate, so that for a brief visit to the nineteenth century he or she  can wear the O'Keefe brand. 104 MYNCASTER, B.C.  MYNCASTER, B.C.  By ERIC  D. SISMEY  __»f**? '  Great Northern train on the trestle at Myncaster.  Courtesy Horry Sherling, Oroville  Myncaster, B.C., together with Sidley and Bridesville, was once  served by a railroad. Myncaster can hardly be called a ghost town for even  the ghost has departed. The railroad, the V. V. & E (Victoria, Vancouver and  Eastern) a subsidiary of the Great Northern ran between Princeton and  Grand forks and from there it was the Great Northern to Spokane.  While Bridesville, on Anarchist Mountain is served by a shoofly from  Highway 3. Myncaster appears on most road maps at the end of a four mile,  uphill, steep rough road from Rock Creek. Do not bother to try this way since  the only building in what was once Myncaster is the former Canadian  Customs which has now become a farmhouse.  Myncaster is said to have been named after the McMyn family who  not only owned a store at Midway but had large holdings of land and timber  through the rolling hills of the community that once boasted of a hotel,  Customs, railroad depot together with an agent, section crew, school, post  office and several dwellings. From the Myncaster depot a railroad spur ran  to a grain warehouse, an elevator and several large iron ore bins on the  American side.  Some road maps may show a road from Myncaster to Chesaw, Wn., —  one of the few towns in the United States named after a Chinaman — but a  gate bars the road which is only opened once a year at the time of the Chesaw  rodeo.  Although trains ran through Myncaster to Oroville, Wn, by way of  Sidley and Molson until 1931 service eastward from Molson, Wn. via Myncaster to Grand Forks continued until 1935.  The closing of the railroad marked the end of Myncaster and except  for the Canadian Customs building, now a farm-house, the rest of the  mountain community was left to tumble down.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Harry Sherling of Oroville, Wn. for information and photographs.  REFERENCES  OHS  36th Report, pp 109-110  OHS 35th Report, pp 23-26  OHS  30th Report, pp 252  (post office est. 15   10  07 closed 16  5   31 ELEPHANTS WANDERED  105  ELEPHANTS WANDERED THROUGH  EAST KOOTENAY  By  ERIC  D.  SISMEY  EDITOR'S NOTE—Elsewhere in this report an obituary of J. Francis Guimont  will be found. It brought to mind a story written about my friend which  appeared in the Islander section of the Victoria Daily Colonist on October 24,  1965. The original story has been slightly rewritten to adapt it to the  present day.  Mr. Guimont not only left his mark on the first move toward big game  conservation in British Columbia but he was the central figure in one of the  strangest events in the annals of railroad history.  When a man has pounded telegraph keys for nearly half a century;  after he has worked for many of the railroads on the North American Continent it is not surprising that he has 'DASH-DOTTED" train orders to cover  every sort of emergency, fire and  flood, snowslide and rockslide and  wreck. Yet on August 7, 1926, J.  Francis Guimont tapped out the  most unusual train order ever sent  over the wire. It read:  To all trains east at Sirdar,  B.C. "KEEP LOOKOUT FOR  ELEPHANTS ON TRACK. ADVISE  IF SIGHTED FROM THE  NEAREST TELEGRAPHING  GIVING LOCATION" — Signed J.  F. G.  J. Francis Guimont was born  at Inverness, Quebec, on October 3,  1886. After the usual schooling he left  home in February 1904 for North  Stratford, New Hampshire, where  his brother, a telegraph operator for  the Maine Central Railroad had  found him an office job. There, with  the chatter of the sounders always in  his ear, and with his brother's help,  he learned the code which became  the key to his travels. For the next  ten years he travelled through every  state and territory and during his journeys worked for twenty- two American  Railroads.  During the closing years of the nineteenth century and well into the  twentieth when railroads were extending steel, east and west, north and  south, experienced railroaders,telegraphers,engine and trainmen could find  jobs everywhere. These men, known as boomers, were among the best in the  country. If a man could do the job he stayed; if he fell down he was fired and  no two ways about it.  During these years Guimont not only worked in the large centres,  Chicago, Ogden, Omaha, but at whistle stops in the mountains and on the  plains. He worked the east coast from Portland, to Maine to Florida; the  J. Francis Guimont  Any mention of elephants on the track always  brought laughter.  Eric Sismey photo 106 ELEPHANTS WANDERED  west coast San Diego to Seattle and all the country between.  For a young man, a single man with all his possessions in a suitcase,  these were carefree days. A yarn about the Royal Gorge on the Denver and  Rio Grande was reason enough to move. Perhaps it was something about  Salt Lake, or the Golden Gate or Leadville on top of the continent. Maybe it  was the Feather River Canyon, the Grand Canyon or Imperial Valley down  below the level of the sea was excuse enough to go to take a look.  In 1911, Francis Guimont was fisting the key at Hardesty, Alberta. On  August 1, that year, he was transferred to Cranbrook, B.C. and in 1916 he was  appointed a dispatcher.  It did not take long for Guimont to realize that this was the sort of  country he had been looking for, a sportsman's paradise. It was, until  drowned by the Libby Dam in Montana, one of the most prolific big game  regions in the province. Here could be found Bighorn in the Rockies,  Mountain Goat, Moose, Woodland Cariboo, Wapiti (Elk), Deer and Bear.  And since National Parks straddle the British Columbia - Alberta boundary  there was, now greatly reduced, an overflow of big game from the park to  public lands.  In the early years of the century the Provincial Game Department  existed in name only. A Bryan Williams, its chief, had little help and even  less money. There was no licence fee and open seasons—existing on paper  — lasted from September to March. At the insistance of conservation  minded sportsmen, which included Francis Guimont and Randolph Bruce,  afterwards Lieutenant Governor of the Province, licence fees of $1.00 were  levied. This was a fair beginning.  A non-political Game Conservation Board was organized in 1917 whose  purpose was to place management, licencing and open seasons on a firm  footing and appoint capable men to the several big game districts  adminster the law. J. Francis Guimont, one of the original members, served  the board to 1929. He remembered with great pleasure the rewards that  membership brought. During his service he met and tendered advice to  world known big game hunters Carl Runguis, Gracel Fitz and Major Allan  Brooks of Okanagan Landing. Guimont, himself, hunted the legendary  Kootenay Ram. He sighted him more than once through binoculars, but was  never close enough for a shot. The ram, lame in one leg, probably the result  of a bullet wound, carried a magnificent pair of horns, a full curl with outpointing tips and with no trace of broom. Those who glassed this regal  animal were positive that he carried heavier horns than the ram shot on  Sheep Creek by James Simpson in 1920 and which topped the Boone and  Crockett record book until just a few years ago.  Among his naturalist and ornithologist friends were, J. A. Munro who  made a study of the bird population of Kootenay Flats at Creston and P. A.  Tavener of Ottawa, author of Birds of Eastern Canada and a companion  volume, Birds of Western Canada illustrated by Allan Brooks. If you, like  this writer, own a copy of the western volume, printed at Ottawa in 1926,  priced at $1.25 you are fortunate. It has become a collector's item.  During the twenty years Francis Guimont lived in East Kootenay he  always arranged his holiday in October to take advantage of the hunting  season and while hunting supplied meat for the pot it was the call of the hills  when foliage turned to gold that attracted him. On successive holidays he  explored the Purcells, sometimes in company with Konrad Kain, the well  known Austrain alpine guide, who left his homeland to guide professionaly in  Canada. Francis Guimont had followed Toby Creek to Farnum Tower and  the Lake of the Hanging Glacier. He knew Dutch Creek, Findlay Creek and  Bugaboo Creek to where he had seen but never scaled the Spires. On the east ELEPHANTS WANDERED 107  mm pKifi« www wnw   ?m i~  "*^*^   _: *        if  £&&#*  i   .,%,  U^Ui  Z^1^  jid. y^^c^^fe^C JjhJ%r***   <£*fy*A^ . '  - -'.  side he has followed the Bull River, Elk River and Sheep Creek. He told me  of an occasion when he stood beside an International Boundary monument  where he enjoyed a panorama of peaks from Glacier Park in Montana, to  Waterton Park, Alberta and the majestic sweep of the Rocky Mountains. He  wished that the camera equipment now available had been on the marker in  his exploring days, but none the less Guimont has many beautiful  photographs.  When Francis Guimont reached Cranbrook in 1911 the daily passenger  trains over the Crow's Nest route was still quite an event. Towns people with  a little time to spare would gather at the depot to meet the train.  After the Kootenay Central was built in 1914 between Corvallis and  Golden business out of the Cranbrook office increased greatly. There was  coal to haul for the railways, coke for the Trail smelter and increased  lumber shipments. In addition coal was moved to the main line at Golden  and an ever increasing amount of concentrates was freighted from the  Sullivan mine to Trail. And in 1916, after the completion of the Kettle Valley  railway through the Coquihalla Pass on July 31, the Kootenay Express ran  daily between Vancouver and Nelson.  Until 1930 when the railway was completed along the shore of  Kootenay Lake cars were barged from Kootenay Landing to Proctor on the  West Arm of Kootenay Lake. Passengers were transferred from the train to  the fast palatial sternwheel Kuskanook, later to the newer Nesookin, for the  voyage to Nelson.  "For my part, Francis told me one day when I visited him, I never  tired of the 50 mile journey along the lake and  I thought passengers ap- 108 ELEPHANTS WANDERED  preciated the chance to stretch their legs and enjoy a shipboard meal at  more leisure than in a railroad diner."  Eastbound passengers boarded the ship at Nelson, spent the night in  comfortable staterooms against the early morning start. After 1930 when  through train service was established the sternwheelers were retired  bringing to an end another fascinating chapter in British Columbia's history.  Now to return to the first paragraph of this story and to Train Order  No. 465. August 7, 1926 was to have been a great day for Cranbrook, in fact all  East Kootenay. It was, but not in the way anticipated.  The Sells-Floto had come to town and the circus train had arrived the  day before. All the kids in Cranbrook and for a hundred miles around were  looking forward to a great show. There was to be a parade through town with  lions and tigers in cages, a brass band, a calliope with prancing horses and  elegant riders. Later, in the big tent there would be clowns, high wire performers and trained elephants.  But something went wrong!  While the pachyderms were being unloaded something frightened  them, they stampeded and eleven of the great beasts escaped. Eight were  soon caught, but three — Tillie, Myrtle and Charlie Ed escaped and wandered over the mountains for days. Tillie was caught after 14 days of  freedom, her feet were sore and she was suffering from a bullet fired by an  Indian woman. Tillie spent some time in the CPR stockyards with her sore  feet wrapped in gunny sacks and where the town boys brought her apples.  When Myrtle was finally captured she, too, had sore feet and was the  victim of a bullet wound in the hip. She had become dangerous, she  developed pneumonia and had to be destroyed.  Francis Guimont owned the most powerful rifle in town, a Westley  Richards Express bought from a British army officer who had used it in  Africa, and he was chosen executioner. But at the last moment events made  a change necessary and to Guimont's relief another was chosen to squeeze  the trigger.  Charlie Ed, the little trick elephant, was at large for six weeks. He was  captured the day the first snow of the season fell. After serving as the star  attraction at the Cranbrook Fall Fair he was shipped by express to Santa  Rosa, California. Reportedly the charges were $1,200.00.  The escape not only provided excitement and disappointment in the  East Kootenay but throughout the northeast where billboards had advertised the date the great circus was coming with its star attraction,  Elephants.  On June 1, 1931, Guimont was transferred to Penticton where he  served until retirement just before Christmas 1949.  "I always wondered, he remarked one day, why the scenic attractions  of the Kettle Valley Railway were not more widely known. The scenery,  especially from McCulloch above Kelowna to Hope on the Fraser, would  compare with anything on the continent. The view from Myra, 3000 feet  above Okanagan Lake, the switchbacks above Naramata, Penticton orchards, Osprey Lake and the loop above Jellicoe on the way down to Princeton and the length of the Coquihalla Pass was breathtaking. It was a  masterpiece of construction, too, for few railroads anywhere in the world  climb over the top of three mountain chains in something like 300 miles.  "I never tired of the journey from Penticton to Cranbrook or to Vancouver but after the Coquihalla Pass was abandoned and trains rerouted to  Spence's Bridge and when passenger service was discontinued over the  Kettle Valley Railroad on January 17, 1964 I became regretfully aware that  another chapter in the history of British Columbia had come to an end. THE RISE AND FALL OF HEDLEY 109  THE RISE AND FALL OF HEDLEY  By  DAVID  BUTLER  In the beginning the Indians first knew about the area around Hedley  and called it "Sna-za-ist" (Striped Rock Place). The cliffs overlooking 20-  Mile Creek were lined with dull red and gold colored rocks.  The first white men to come into the area in the 1870's came on the  Hudson's Bay Company and Dewdney trails from the Coast. They were  coming to the Interior to collect furs and gold from the trading posts, such as  Fort Okanagan and Rock Creek.  One account of the discovery of gold at Hedley took place in late  August 1898. Two greenhorns walked into two old prospectors' base camp up  20-Mile Creek. They were very enthusiastic about prospecting but it was  evident that they had little experience. The two stayed for supper with the  old men and asked about the prospects of gold. They were told jokingly that  at the base of a cliff just over the hill they would find gold. Not knowing that  they were part of a joke, the two men, Woolaston and Arundel, spent the next  day toiling up the slopes of the mountain. Just at dusk they sighted the cliff,  and lying beneath it were handfuls of gold, worn away by centuries of wind  and rain. That day they staked four claims: Bulldog, Copper Field, Sunnyside and Nickel  Plate.  In 1899 they sold out their holdings to M. K. Rodgers for $60,000.00 His  men staked out more claims and the town of Hedley had its birth as rich ore  poured out of the Nickel Plate "Group." The town was named by a  prospector, Peter Scott, to honour Robert R. Hedley, manager of the Hall  Mines smelter in Nelson. Hedley had grub-staked Scott who had staked  some of the first mineral claims in the Hedley area.  Within weeks it looked as though every piece of good property was  staked. But in 1899, Duncan "Dune" Woods was checking some mining claim  maps at Granite Creek when he noticed a small area on a cliff on Nickel  Plate Mountain had not been touched by any other claims. On a hunch he  sent an assistant, George Cahill, to check it out. The fact was true and so the  following year they wentto Hedley tofilea claim. This area sits up on Nickel  Plate Mountain, some 3,000 feet above the creek at Hedley, which eventually  flows through Hedley into the Similkameen River.  "In 1902, work began on a tramway from the mine mouth, to the site of  a gold-milling plant on the valley floor. The mile-long mine tramway, which  at that time was the longest in the world, presented some challenging  problems to the men who were working on it. Since the ore cars would have  to be lowered on a continuous cable, it would mean the construction of a  cable two miles long. No manufacturer was able to guarantee or even  deliver such a cable. The solution was to break the tramway into two sections each one a mile in length. Then the cars could be lowered from the mine  mouth to halfway down where they would be transferred onto the other  tramway for the trip to the bottom. Up-going cars would be changed the  same way. The cables were produced in Eastern Canada and were deposited  at the bottom of the mountainside. They collected almost every horse and  mule around until there was literally a mile of them. The cables were then  looped around the whole procession and carried up the mountain to their  places."  Hedley grew rapidly from a regular mining camp of tents and tar-  paper shacks to a city. In 1904 and soon afterwards it had six hotels, a bank,  two churches, a school, a newspaper — "The Hedley Gazette", a hospital, 110 THE RISE AND FALL OF HEDLEY  many business establishments, and the services of a city such as: electric  light, a water system and telephone service. The Dewdney Trail was made  into a road and W. E. Welby operated a stage-coach service from Penticton.  This was a twelve-hour journey. The gold wagon under armed escort left for  Penticton each month with two gold bricks bound for the U.S. assay office in  Seattle.  As the output of gold from Nickel Plate Mountain increased year after  year the Great Northern Railway built a branch line into Hedley in 1909.  Dividends from the mine to shareholders were over $300,000.00 by 1911.  The social life was exciting for such a small town. "The biggest  celebration was on Labour Day. On this day, prize money of more than  $1,000.00 was offered and competitions were seriously held in baseball, horse  racing and rock drilling." Surprisingly, Hedley had its own golf course and  there were clubs like the Twentieth-Century Club which had numerous and  well-known members. There were some interesting characters in Hedley  like "Stuttering" Frank Bailey, a promoter of mining property. There was  another prankster, Noel Picard, who carried a large but defanged rattlesnake under his coat. He found it was a very good way to get people out of  a bar quickly so he could finish their drinks for them. The best-known and  liked person in the area was an Anglican minister, the Reverend Henry  Irwin, fondly called "Father Pat." He fitted in well with the miners who  considered him a special friend, and champion in Christian deeds.  There were many other claims on the hill but most of the gold, silver  and copper came from the Nickel Plate-Mascot Group. The Daly mining  firm from Butte, Montana became interested in the area after receiving gold  from the Nickel Plate Mine. Most of the ore that was mined from the  mountain from then on was shipped to a processing plant in California.  After nearly a quarter century of continuous mining, the ore started to  peter out. After extensive diamond drilling, the Hedley Gold Mining Company came to the conclusion that the mine was finished. They finally shut  down the mine in 1930. The mine had already been closed once during the  First World War and like a bad omen, the Great Northern Railroad closed  the line from Hedley to Princeton.  In 1933, the Kelowna Exploration Company bought all the holdings of  the Hedley Company and started a new exploration program. The same  year, "Dune" Woods, in bad health, sold his Mascot Fraction for an  estimated $500,000.00 to a company which became known as the Hedley-  Mascot Gold Mine Company.  By 1936, both new companies had found new gold deposits and the  mines were opened up in 1937. "In just one year, the new pay-streak at  Nickel Plate mined 29,929 ounces of gold while the Mascot produced another  21,442 ounces. In 1938, the total production of the two mines jumped impressively to 55,711 ounces."  In 1948, Highway No. 3, which had followed the old Dewdney trail rout  along the north side of the river from Princeton to Hedley, was rerouted over  the old Great Northern Railroad roadbed. A year later, the tiny Mascot  fraction, after yielding nearly $8,000,000.00 in gold, finally ran out of ore and  its operations came to an end. It was a bad sign and many people thought  that the great Nickel Plate, after producing for nearly half a century,  wouldn't last much longer. It did go on for another six years, averaging  nearly 40,000 ounces of gold and large quantities of silver and copper.  Finally, it ran out of good ore so, on September 23, 1955, after yielding  $47,000,000.00 in gold, it too stopped operating.  With the coming of 1955, the Great Northern Railroad pulled out its  line between Hedley and Keremeos, once more leaving the city dependent on ~~ "  THE RISE AND FALL OF HEDLEY  111  -*|*p**v<  I  Ore train at ore bin, 1935. Nickel Plate mine.  Eric Sismey photo copy  road traffic. The houses, post office and stores of the quaint little village of  Nickel Plate, which had been built by the company on top of the mountain,  were dismantled and packed down to the valley. In Hedley, a series of  disastrous fires in 1956 and early 1957 destroyed most of the business section  of the town including the famous Union Hotel.  Nickel Plate Mountain had achieved a record. A total of 1,556,749  ounces of gold had been mined as well as 200,000 ounces of silver and  64,000,000 ounces of copper. Because of a large joke, two greenhorn miners  discovered, by accident, one of the richest mining areas on the continent.  Today, the old workings of the Hedley-Mascot Mine can be seen on the  cliff, the Striped Rock place, several thousand feet above the town. Some  old-timers say that there is pay-dirt on the hills and they wait for the day  when Hedley will once again be a bustling town, filled with mineral-hungry  miners.  FOOTNOTE:—In David's essay "The   Rise   and   Fall   of   Hedley"   he   describes  the   delivery  of the two-mile-long cable to the mine. The same method was also described  in the  Hedley  story on page 26 of the Winter 1972 issue of Canadian Frontier. Whether this  method  was  used at Hedley is open to question.  Moving a long cable by packhorses is possible, in fact it was used in 1906 (and photographed)  to take a hoisting cable to the Silver Dollar mine near Camborne in the Lardeau country.  On pages 131-132 of the 30th OHS report I tell how machinery and cable was taken from  Penticton to the Nickel Plate along the Green Mountain  road to the Russell  House turnout  and thence to the mine (see also 31st OHS report pages 49-50).  Freighters, Gillespie, Bassets and Brent have told of the Nickel Plate freight haul.  Gillespies,  father and son, did much of the hauling both to the mine on the hill and to  Hedley. They  never mentioned to me the pack train  story accordingly   I   am   much   inclined   to   discount  its accuracy. —Editor 112 THE GREAT FLOOD  THE GREAT FLOOD  By SAM MANERY  I have been approached by many to record anecdotes of my early life.  In the beginning I must go back to 1894 when the people of British  Columbia experienced the greatest flood in the history of the province.  My parents, myself and sisters, Nell and Winnifred were located on  our pre-emption and living in a log house in the Lower Similkameen, having  moved there in 1890.  The winter of 1893-1894 piled up an unprecedented fall of snow. This  coupled with a very late spring, warm weather in June with warm rains,  caused the melted snow to cascade into the valleys, and otherwise turn the  meandering Similkameen River into a raging torrent, covering the entire  valley. Keremeos, where it is now located, lay under three feet of water.  Settlers were few and far between in those early days, and no one  escaped the raging waters.  Just as an example, upon awakening I found ten inches of water  running underneath my bed. The water continued to rise. At the peak of the  flood, water stood four feet in the house, which necessitated the family  moving to the attic. My father was forced to wade to high ground where he  had constructed a huge root cellar. He then constructed a good-sized raft and  moved the family from the house to the root cellar, where mother set up  house keeping. We were forced to live in the cellar for six weeks, as the  water never rose nor fell for one month.  Dad had planted a couple of acres of orchard in 1890. Varieties were  mostly apples like the White Winter Permain, the Blue Winter Permain,  Snow apples and Wolf River; also several trees of plums, peaches and  prunes. The White Winter Permain was very similar to our present day  Golden Delicious.  Lo and behold when the water receded all trees were flat ori the  ground. The earth became so saturated it would not support the tops. When  the ground had dried out sufficiently to support a team, the trees were pulled  upright again and staked. We were fortunate in not losing a tree.  Previous to the flood Dad had a hen sitting on duck eggs in the barn.  Naturally the barn was flooded being some distance away and on the same  level as the House. That morning the young ducklings hatched out, and the  mother hen was drowned. The ducklings (right in their element of course),  swam out the barn door into a swift current and were carried south of the  barn about a quarter of a mile where they were fortunate enough to get into  back water, along the shore line, the main current veering off to the west.  The ducklings following the shore line (paralleling the way they had  come,) finally reached the root cellar. Hearing my sister's and my voice,  they waddled out of the water chirping in delight as if trying to communicate. Instinct in this instance must have been a prominent factor in  their recognizing human voices. Needless to say the whole dozen never left  and were quite happy. This experience still remains quite vividly in my  mind. F. L. McKEEVER 113  F. L. McKEEVER  Penticton's First Electrical Superintendent  By J.  L. McKEEVER—Professional Engineer (Retired)  FORWARD — F. L. McKeever designed the powerhouse on Main Street  which was wrecked in 1971 to make way for the new RCMP building.  He also designed and supervised the distribution system around town  and on the bench.  The system was energized in 1912.  I enjoyed many years of close association with Mr. McKeever. I read  many books from his scientific and technical library. He fostered my interest  in astronomy and algae. I enjoyed many outings with him while adding  to our extensive algae collections. The books he encouraged me to buy are  now in the library of the Provincial Museum.  I will always be indebted to Mr. McKeever for his advice and warnings  against becoming dead-ended in Penticton. He urged me to go afield to where  my technical education would find a proper outlet. I did.  —Eric D. Sismey  My father, Frederick Leonard McKeever was born in 1871 in  Heidelberg, Germany, where his parents happened to be in residence at the  time. He was educated largely in Germany, attending university at  Heidelberg, Munich and Karlsruhe. He originally intended to be an  astronomer and studied under the famous Dr. Wolff in Heidelberg. However,  he later switched to electrical engineering and received his doctorate of  engineering from Karlsruhe University. After serving his apprenticeship  with Siemens, he spent a few years as electrical engineer with an oil refinery  in Upper Asam, India, managed by his brother.  He returned to Germany and was sent to Britain by Siemens to their  subsidiary, Dick Kerr Ltd. as an expert on the application of alternating  current to the emerging industry. He later joined Bruce Peebles Ltd. of East  Pilton, Edinburgh in the same capacity. Bruce Peebles at that time was a  family business and about 1910 it ran into financial difficulties and went into  receivership.  In the meantime he had met and married Elizabeth Bucher of Edinburgh in 1906.  After the failure of Bruce Peebles, he set up his own consulting  practice in Glasgow but economic conditions were poor and in 1911, he  decided to emigrate to Canada.  While in Germany and Britain he developed two rather diverse hobbies. One was mountain climbing and he did a good deal of climbing in the  Bavarian and Italian Alps. He was a member of several famous Alpine  Clubs. The other hobby was the study of algae. He was a member of the  Royal Microscopical Society and wrote and delivered a number of papers on  the subject of the algae of Scotland.  When he emigrated from Britain in 1911, he went all the way out to  Vancouver without any introductions or firm prospects. He worked for a  time as an electrician, wiring office buildings. Early in 1912 he obtained a  position with Matter, Yuill & Co., a firm of Vancouver consultants, and  almost immediately he was put to work designing and then building, a  number of diesel power plants in the Okanagan Valley. The first one was in  Armstrong, followed, I believe, by Vernon and then Penticton.  The Penticton plant consisted of a single 200 hp Mirlees, Bickerton and 114 F. L. McKEEVER  Day diesel engine, manufactured in England. This served the community  until about 1921 when a 250 hp semi-diesel manufactured in Seattle, was  added. These two machines carried the load until the arrival of the West  Kootenay power lines a few years later.  Just when the Penticton power plant was commissioned I do not  remember. All I know is that when my mother, grandmother and I arrived in  Penticton in May 1913, the house we rented from Mrs. Silk on Ellis St. was  already supplied with electricity and there were lines running all over the  town which at that time had about 1200 inhabitants.  Initially my father had no intention of settling down in Penticton but he  was offered the job of municipal electrical engineer, he decided to stay at  least for a time. He therefore sent his family who, as already stated, arrived  in May, 1913. Up to that time he had been boarding with the Sutherlands on  Main St. opposite the corner of Main St. and Penticton Ave. It was built by  Malcolm & Hogan, and completed sometime in 1913.  While nearly everyone rode horses in those days, I remember my  father saying that his propensity for taking long walks into the hills just for  the sake of walking, was looked at askance by most of the inhabitants. He  was also questioned closely as to his origins because his walking dress of  knickerbockers seemed to denote an Englishman and because of the  reputation of remittance men, the English were not looked upon with favour.  When they found out that his origins were Scottish, there was a marked  change in his acceptance.  My father had joined the local militia, the Rocky Mountain Rangers,  and when war broke out in 1914 he immediately enlisted for active serice.  However, the disease which was eventually to cause his death, and which  would now probably be diagnosed as muscular dystrophy, had already  shown up with the dragging of one foot, and his application was turned down.  The disease progressed slowly and it was not until 1924 that he became a  completely bed-ridden invalid.  My father was an exceedinly well-read man with a large library of his  own and I can recall long discussions between him and some of his friends  such as Harry Parkham, Major Naish and others concerning books they had  read. About 1922 he and some others, particularly Mrs. Gilly and her brother  Mr. Low, decided that Penticton should have a library so the Penticton  Library Association was formed with my father as the first president of the  Library Board and with Mrs. Gilly as the first librarian. Boxes of books  came to our house from the Carnegie Foundation so we always had a first  look at them before they went to the library. The first library was, I believe,  on the second floor of a building immediately south of the old post office on  the east side of the 200 block on Main St. The formation of the library was a  great joy to him and many of his books and my own boy's books went onto the  shelves.  As the dystrophy developed, my father found it gradually more dif-  ficulttogetabout. We never had a car and it became increasingly difficult to  hoist him into the buggy. Evenually he had to turn over the outside work to  others such as Jack Musser, and later, George Lundy but it is to the  credit of successive town councils that they kept him on half pay until his  death.  Although bed-ridden for at least two years before his death, his mind  remained exeedingly active and he continued to enjoy discussions with  Major Naish, Francis Scott, Dr. C. L. Fort, and many others who were kind  enough to visit him.  He died in 1926 shortly after I had returned to UBC for the fall term F. L. McKEEVER  115  Diesel engine powerhouse at Penticton, B.C. Originally built  1912, wings  added 1919? to accommodate the semi-diesel addition. Building wrecked  in 1972 to make way for the new RCMP building.  Eric Sismey photo  and is buried in Penticton cemetery beside his daughter Nora who died of  diphtheria in 1920 at the age of four. I look back on my father as almost the  ideal of what a father should be to a son, and I am ever grateful to him for  encouraging in me a love of books and of the natural world. He was so fond of  Penticton that I don't think he ever regretted settling and ending his days  there.  FOOTNOTE:—James Lawrence McKeever (Larry to this writer) is the eldest son of the late  F. L. McKeever, Penticton's first electrical superintendent. Born in Edinburgh, Scotland,  April 27, 1907, Larry attended Penticton schools. I Knew him quite well because through  1917 and into 1918 I ran the evening shift in the diesel powerhouse on Main Street and  Larry often came over to the plant to visit.  Graduating from Penticton schools Larry attended the University of British Columbia  where he was awarded a scholarship in his third year. He graduated B.A.-Sc, in electrical  engineering in 1930.  Leaving the university he was chosen to attend the Student Course of the Canadian General  Electric Co. at Peterborough.  From 1930 to 1935 he served the engineering department in the design of single phase  induction motors. This was his first step in his outstandingly brilliant career.  By 1952 through 1955 he was Engineering Manager of Apparatus Division and responsible  for all engineering and Scientific Recruiting. Then, in one step after another, he became  Manager of the Canadian General Electric Large Generator Section building large hydroelectric and steam-turbine generators. He was responsible for engineering, manufacturing,  sales and finance 1966-1968. There were 600 employees in this section and the annual sales  amounted as much as $15 million.  From November 1968 until retirement July 31, 1970, J. L. McKeever was Manager Churchill  Falls Contract for Canadian General  Electric  and  Associate  Joint Manager,  Churchill  Falls  (Machinery)   Consortium.   This   had   a   contract   value   of   $50   million.   And   it   was   at   this  point that Larry and I became in touch with each other again.  One of the members of an outside consulting engineering consortium, W. L. Chadwick, retired 116 F. L. McKEEVER  vice-president of the Southern California Edison Co., in charge of engineering, was asked  by Larry if he knew an E. D. Sismey. Mr. Chadwick replied that he had been in his  department for some ten years and was responsible for writing all transformers and hydroelectric generator specifications — another example of how small the world can be.  Mr. McKeever has always been active in community activities. He has filled high offices  in more than a dozen socities — Educational, Professional, Techncial, and to him the  most absorbing and rewarding are those of Conservation, Wilderness and Naturalist groups.  One of his fascinating projects is the interest that he and his wife Kay have in Owls. At the  moment, February, 1973, they have some 55 birds of 15 species in 14 large outdoor fly-around  enclosures. Many after being cared for will be released this spring.  In mid-February, Mr. and Mrs. McKeever appeared on the television program Our Land and  broadcast from CBC-TV at Kelowna. Several scenes originating from their private wooded  sanctuary on the Niagara Peninsula showed a few of their owls, their enclosures and  several splinted birds on the way to complete recovery.  A second son, Ronald, was born in Penticton in 1914. Ronald attended Penticton schools  until the death of his father in 1926 at which time he returned to Scotland with his  mother and grandmother. After completing his education he was awarded a commission  in the British Indian Police. After Indian Independence in 1947 he joined the British  Foreign Office. He held posts all over the world: in Taiwan, Poland, Germany and in  various parts of Equatorial Africa. Later he was posted to several of the former French  African Republics. Presently he is British Consul General in Naples, Italy.  After retirement in 1974 he intends to visit Penticton.  —E. D. Sismey SECOND LOWER SIMILKAMEEN SCHOOL 117  SECOND LOWER SIMILKAMEEN SCHOOL  By GRANT WILLIS  In 1892 the school population of British Columbia was 11,496 pupils  scattered throughout the province in over 169 districts. One of these districts  contributed a tiny percentage of students in a province that quickly understood the value of education. In 1892, the district of the South  Similkameen realized a dream common to pioneers throughout the  Canadian West; it opened a tiny school out on a lonely quiet sagebrush flat;  three miles south of the present community of Cawston. Ten students, the  children of ranchers, were its first pupils.  Canada has always felt a great need for education. One of the first  countries in the world to introduce universal, compulsory education, it was  only natural for the younger western provinces to convey this same spirit of  learning.  The British Columbia school system was slightly different than the  other provinces of the fledgling Dominion, as it had its own Common School  Ordinance prior to confederation. This ordinance drawn up in 1869 and  amended in 1870 was non-denominational and required parents to contribute  a share of the cost of public education. Due to many defects in this ordinance, the new provincial legislature passed, in 1872, an Act Respecting  Public Schools. This act set out the basic structure of educational policy that  exists today.  The Government was now empowered to establish new school districts  when there were more than fifteen children. Grants would be established to  assist these tiny districts to cover the cost of school construction, equipment  and teacher's salaries. In small areas without schools or school districts the  minimum of fifteen students would be waived to allow schools with only  seven students. "The objectives of the Act was 'to give every child in the  Province such knowledge as will fit him to become a useful and intelligent  citizen in after years'." 1  Thus the stage was set to allow the introduction of schools in sparsely  populated areas of British Columbia.  The school in the South Similkameen was typical then of many  throughout the province. There appears to be a spirit of education in the  pioneer west that has been implied again and again in book, movies and  writings from the period. Progress was shaped in many ways; not the least  being a school.  Sometime around 1891, the ranchers and their wives gathered for a  meeting and planned the education of their children. As required by the  Public School Act, three school trustees were required to plan the school and  procure the necessary finances and materials for the school. Mr. Daly was  the first secretary; Dan McCurdy, Bill Armstrong and W. J. Manery the  school board members. It was decided to construct the school in a central  location, so that all students would be as close as possible. The spot chosen  was on the south line of the McCurdy ranch. The locale was up on the flat,  probably so the school would not be endangered by flooding of the  Similkameen River; a common occurrence before the advent of flood  control.  Tenders were put out in July 1891, and awarded to Bill Manery who  apparently was the only one to enter a bid. The school board by this time had  1.    A History of Public Education in British Columbia.  F. Henry Johnson, Vancouver, U.B.C. page 45. 118 SECOND LOWER SIMILKAMEEN SCHOOL  notified the provincial government of its intention and received a $700.00  grant for construction of the building.  Mr. Manery, who later managed the building, bought the lumber from  a saw mill in Kelowna and hauled it by wagon from Penticton. Two carpenters from nearby Loomis, Washington were hired to construct the  building at the price of $1.50 each per day. The school was small, approximately 24' by 36'. It was one room with heat supplied by a wood stove.  Outhouses would be built and a few years later, a horse shed was constructed.  One of the stipulations set out by the Department of Education was  that the school had to open by the fall of 1892 to qualify for the grant.  However, construction was not finished by this date. On the McCurdy ranch,  approximately a mile up towards Keremeos, was the original McCurdy  home; a small log cabin. The children began their formal education here;  often called The First Lower Similkameen School. It was used for three  months until the Second Lower Similkameen School was completed and  classes moved there. The old log cabin still stands in a meadow; slowly  decaying and partially collapsed.  The first teacher was Donald G. McGillvery who was born in Riply,  Ontario. The school seemed to go through a large number of teachers, no  doubt due to the isolation of the area and the poor pay much less than $100.00  a year. Other teachers were Miss Trunwell, Mary Bell, George Boyer, J.  Sutherland, Miss Fischer and Annie Eastman (Mrs. McGuffie). The last  teacher in 1916 was Miss Letty Schofield. Teachers boarded usually at the  McCurdy's or the Cawston's.  As B.C. never had a teacher training institute until 1901, the first  teachers were probably trained in Normal Schools in the East.  Teachers had a lot to contend with in those days. They had to heat the  school, supply water, no doubt help the students with their horses, administer disciplineand teach. Classes went from grade one to grade eight in  all subjects with a mimimum of equipment.  Students, as previously mentioned, all came from surrounding ranches. The Daly children and Hans Richter travelled the farthest, at least  nine miles from opposite directions. Transportation was by horse and a lot of  time was spent just travelling to and from school. Some of the children who  attended were the Dalys, the Cawstons, the Manerys, the McCurdies, Arthur  Armstrong, the Barcelos and others.  Many Indian children also attended; among them Uffa Alexis, the  Allisons and the Terbaskets. In an area of Indian residential schools this  probably was a rare exception.  Materials were at a minimum in this tiny rural school. Text books  were provided by the Department of Education as were slates for the  children to write on. Local soapstone was used as a drawing tool. The  teacher had a blackboard and little else. The desks were crude by our  standards but probably were quite sufficient. Subjects taught were basically  the three R's plus geography and history.  Recreation at recess was totally child inspired. Sleigh riding was  popular in the winter when there was snow. Rounders, a game like baseball,  was played with homemade balls and willow bats. It was a popular game,  along with shinny, particularly by the boys.  Discipline was typical of the era; quite strict with its share of corporal  punishment meted out with willow switches chosen by the pupil in question.  Apparently one teacher did have trouble in controlling the classes as they  would all band together at noon hour and hide in a nearby draw. At the end of  the noon hour, the teacher would go looking for his charges who promptly SECOND LOWER SIMILKAMEEN SCHOOL  119  First Lower Similkameen School, used  for three  months  until the second  school building was completed.  Copy photo from color slide belonging to James Barber, Keremeos  would sneak in behind him and take to their seats leaving a rather confused  educator wandering through the bunch grass and sagebrush looking for his  elusive brood.  The school was destined for a short existence almost from its inception. Soon after it opened, the Daly children began attending school in  Keremeos Center (now non-existent) which was only three miles away. The  Richters went to Okanagan Mission. As other children left the school after  Grade eight, the classes got smaller and smaller. Finally, by 1916, the  situation was such that the little school was forced to close permanently.  Those children left either quit school or began attending in Cawston.  For 24 years it served as an educational center, a meeting place for the  school board and as a place of worship when the travelling preachers came  through the area. It stood for years afterward until 1935 when it burned  down.  Today all that remains of the school are the students, now living  scattered all over Canada and the U.S with a few still in the Similkameen.  Even the location of the school is gone; obliterated by the Richter Pass Highway. All that remains are memories. It's difficult to imagine that only 70  years ago, the same location echoed to the sounds of children playing far  away from any communities; surrounded only by the desert country of the  Similkameen. There was a time when these schools dotted British Columbia.  Sophisticated education and modern transportation destined their end. In  the hustle and bustle of the 70's we too easily forget that our largest social  institution was born from such humble beginnings.  See    23rd Report. Okanagan Historical Society, 1959, pp. 72-76  27th Report. Okanagan Historical Society, 1963, pp. 131-135. 120  THESE WERE THE MUSIC MAKERS  THESE WERE THE MUSIC MAKERS  By  IVAN  E.  PHILLIPS  The big brass drum and the drummer who beats it, has always been  the centre of attraction of the Brass Band.  It is regrettable, that the drum which is now an exhibit (and a  reminder to visitors and residents alike) at the community museum, is now  the only instrument remaining of the original Summerland Band.  It is known that the original band, that is the first group of these  musicians in Summerland, were very active in 1906, for a photograph is in  existence which shows the following members on the steps of the "Summerland Hotel": Mark Manchester, W. J. Lawrence, J. M. Robinson, A.  Anderson and C. Pineo. Certain it was, that even in those early days Summerland had a fine band and an enviable record to boot. For in the year 1906  it competed with many other Provincial bands at the New Westminster Fair.  Here it was placed second to an Indian competitor from Metlakatla, an up-  coast Tsimshian village. Indeed this Summerland group became one of the  most popular party of musicians in the province, for it became so well known  by its frequent public appearances that it was inundated with engagements.  The First World War could have been the reason for a break in the sequence  of the record of the band, for little is known of it until the 1920s. So it was  understandable that one should make contact with one who had knowledge of  band activities during this time.  Tom Charity proved to be a veritable mine of information. Since from  his earliest days and before he emigrated to Canada from his native  Yorkshire, some fifty or more years ago, he had been associated, and was a  participant, in band and orchestral music. Before the Crystal Palace was  destroyed by fire it was the mecca for all such instrumentalists from over  Britain. Many of whom competed for the yearly championship. The finals  #feanapn "fMep jUustcal Jftetftial  «  « Certificate » »  tjftfj  f'a  io   'ioevifiif in at   'JLi  m^         - •  fuu  deem timam/ed a        ... * .^t~»d-   c/aM %w/i.&Mie in t/te %mnfi,«tUt"€m  /> r            '-■       '   "'   i<"~m^   ,                                   iH l/l(, (Mujufffan 'faJ.Utf . ff<i.t<,~oi'  4wmfmfoMmi ^fei&wtd, Aetct <rJ Cmiowna, 8$m4idt. "mcdumira ■   • THESE WERE THE MUSIC MAKERS  121  Summerland  Band:  Back  row  left  to   right:   Harvey   Mitchel,   Tom  Charity, ???, ???, Fred Gale, Lester Arkell, H. V. Cline, Cecil Cope.  Front row: ? ? ?, Allan Hargraves, ? ? ?, Charlie Betuzzi, Ernest Doherty  ???,???, Freeman Read.  were for years held at the "Palace," and one could always be sure of a  wonderful feast of music. Under the baton of such conductors as Mortimer  and bands such as the "Black Dykes" it was a never failing attraction for  people of all ages who loved to hear good music.  It was in the 1920s that A. E. Cline, the Summerland Bandmaster, in an  effort to regenerate an interest, adopted a new approach. In addition to  recruiting regular musicians, he also commenced teaching the younger  people to play. In this way he hoped to ensure a continuous and an adequate  intake of members, to offset the inevitable wastage over the years.  However, it seems that the new band did not perform for long. Perhaps this  was after all understandable, for, it is probable, that in common with so  many other people of that age, the members suffered under a sense of war  weariness.  Yet again an attempt was made to revive the band. This was in 1939,  and Freeman Reid, who directed the campaign found that at last his efforts  were crowned with success. The group made a number of public appearances but as the days and weeks of that eventful year passed, one after  another of the members left to join up in the services.  It was three years, after the end of hostilities, in 1948, that the late  Herb Pohlman and Henry Schaeffer were working in close and harmonious  accord. From the start it was apparent that under the leadership of Herb and  the acquisition of new instruments the wind was set, for fair. With all the  members giving of their best, and working hard toward the goal, it was not 122 THESE WERE THE MUSIC MAKERS  long before sufficient cash had been raised to buy new uniforms. For a  number of years after, the band made numerous appearances in various  parts of British Columbia and the State of Washington it earned for itself not  only a name, but also prestige for the town from whence it came. It became  known for its musical ability and for the choice of its repertoire.  In 1954, John Tamblyn, who was the school bandmaster, and one who  has over the years played a prominent part in the cultivation and in the  appreciation of band music in Summerland, conducted classes for beginners. His purpose was to give adults an opportunity to learn the rudiments of  an instrument of their choice. As they became proficient, they were encouraged to join the senior Summerland band. The instruction as given by  John Tamblyn, and as repeated later by Jack Mason, proved to be very  popular. Several of these students eventually graduated to the band and  gained much by this instruction, in their appreciation and love for music.  In 1958 not only the members of the Summerland band, but all who  knew Herb Pohlman, were saddened at his sudden passing. He gave freely of  himself, in the cause so near his heart, for the band absorbed his talents, his  time and much of his energy. It was fitting that in 1960 an honorary life  membership in the "Summerland Band" was given to Mr. Schaeffer and  Mrs. Herb Pohlman.  High honour came later to the band under the direction of Mr. Bud  Steuart for at their very first appearance in the Okanagan Valley Music  Festival they were awarded the coveted shield. And in addition, they also  received high marks and praise from the adjudicator. This was not all, for  they repeated their triumph the following year, this again under the  direction of Mr. Steuart. For the record, these occasions were in 1957 at  Kelowna and the following year in 1958 at Penticton.  Following in the wake of Mr. Steuart, Jack Mason took over the band,  and served as leader until 1964. Unfortunately, due to retirements, by reason  of business, health and the like, membership gradually declined. The  amalgamation of the band with that of Penticton, with Jack Mason and  Harold Crane sharing conducting duties, helped for a short time only. So that  in 1964 there was no recourse but for the band to turn over its assets to the  Municipality, and thus suspend operations.  It is good to know that this was not the end of the story for in 1967 with  the Centennial of Canada on everyone's lips the band was once more revived  lending much colour and music to the celebrations. For this occasion the  band was under the direction of Mr. Jim Grinder, the Summerland Secondary School Bandmaster. Not only did all of the former memberc of the band  who were still residing in the community respond to the call for  revivification with alacrity, but throughout the whole period of the  celebrations they regaled all with a bumper program of entertainment and  good music.  One remembers in particular the Parade, the Outdoor Concert, the  Centennial Service and their accompaniment of the Choir.  This was apparently the swan-song of the Summerland Town Band.  However, one cannot help but feel, that be it early, or be it late, another band  is almost certain to take its place, eventually. For history does repeat itself,  and wishes sometimes do come true. A BOER WAR VETS "STAND-DOWN" 123  A BOER WAR VETS  "STAND-DOWN"  By GUY P.  BAGNALL  Names of Boer War Veterans who attended the Stand Down   Ceremony  at Vernon, B.C. May 28th, 1972 — Guy P. Bagnall, M.S.M., Vernon, B.C.;  W. A. Philip, D.C.M., Kamloops,- J. A. Kirkman, Edgewood and  Vernon, B.C.; R. S. Penny, Armstrong,- W. A. Cuthbert, Armstrong, B.C.;  W. S. McGregor, Kelowna, B.C.  SKETCH OF SERVICE  W. A. CUTHBERT, Armstrong; Born at 52 Great King Street, Edinburgh, Scotland 1883. Joined the Scottish Horse, Imperial Yeomanry, when  17 years of age, sailed to Capetown on the Raglin Castle. The vessel was  crowded with troops but the meals were good. Our horses were unbroken and  had come from Canada. The first officer I served under in S. A. was Captain  R. M. Burgoyne. I was discharged from the service in Scotland. Came to  Canada in 1904 and settled at Red Deer, Alberta. In 1909 I moved to Armstrong, B.C. where I have lived ever since. Entered the fruit and vegetable  busines, as owner of the Armstrong Packers, retiring in 1954.  R. S. PENNY, Armstrong, served with the 14th Hussars (a British  cavalry regiment), we have been unable to fill out his record as his memory  is not functioning like it used to; but we know he has resided in Armstrong  for a long number of years and is highly respected in his community. Now in  his 94th year.  J. A. KIRKMAN, Edgewood and Vernon, B.C. Born in England,  served with the 3rd Lincolnshire regiment, arrived in S.A. April 1902,  returned to Lincoln, England for demobilization Nov. 1902. Arrived in  Canada 1906, came to British Columbia 1935, settled at Edgewood and left  there to take up residence in Vernon 1966. He has the Queen's South African  medal and clasp "Cape Colony." Also served in World War 1914-1918, Oak  Leaf Emblem.  W.A. PHILIP, DCM, presently in his 90th year, is a veteran of both the  Boer War and World War 1,1914-1918. His South African service was with the  KOSB or, spelled out King's Own Scottish Border regiment, he also served  with the Royal Engineers (a British corps). We are making one more try to  get a complete record of this man's service as we understand it is most interesting. He has been very active on behalf of his fellow veterans. He has  many decorations.  WILLIAM S. MacGREGOR, one of the surviving South African war  veterans present at the "Stand Down" ceremony, held at Vernon, B.C., May  28th, 1972, was born at Carshalton, Surrey, England, June 5, 1878, even  among war veterans he holds a senior place at the age of 95 years. In his  early 20s he enlisted in the Imperial Yeomanry and in due time proceeded to  South Africa, where he was soon in action. He was severely wounded at  Ficksberg, South Africa, April 22nd, 1902, evacuated to England..not expecting to survive six months. Like many similar cases, his response to  treatment brought a change in his thinking; his recovery was rapid, when a  desire from earlier days found him thinking of a trip to Canada, to see what  that country was like.  He joined a group of Barr Colonists and duly arrived at Lashburn, 124 A BOER WAR VETS "STAND-DOWN"  Saskatchewan, where he took up a preemption. We turn now to a cousin of  the writer of this story, Arthur Plewman, now living in retirement in Victoria, B.C., who also lived and farmed at Lashburn, Saskatchewan, and still  has ties with the area. Mr. Plewman says, "Yes, I knew W. S. MacGregor  very well. He farmed four miles north of Lashburn. He was married, had  three children, two girls and a boy. The boy died in his teens from an  operation, both girls were married but one died at childbirth. I understand  his son-in-law and grandchildren, keep a watchful eye on him in Kelowna. He  belonged to the Masonic Lodge in Lashburn; and was a Councillor of the  Wilton Municipality for many years. He was well thought of and was a good  farmer: His brother-in-law Larry Layton lives quite close to us (the  Plewmans) and he says he gets a Christmas card from him every year."  The Secretary-Manager of the Royal Canadian Legion, Kelowna  states "In 1946, Bill retired from farming and came to Kelowna, B.C., where  he has lived ever since. Bill MacGregor has a routine which he follows every  day: he walks the mile from his home to the Legion Centre, fraternizes with  the veterans of more recent wars, has a little refreshment, and takes a cab  home, carrying his 95 years as though they were of little concern to him. He's  a regular guy with many friends."  The writer of this story feels a debt of gratitude toward those friends  who have made the material available. At the age of 95 years it is rarely  possible to get a documented record the equal of this.  K/ GUY P. BAGNALL. Born Dublin, Ireland, Oct. 8th, 1882. Enlisted  August 10th, 1901 in Militia Medical Staff Corps, Dublin Company. After  training at Aldershot, Eng., and in hospital duties at the Royal Infirmary,  Phoenix Park, Dublin, proceeded on Active Service to South Africa, Dec.  1901. Discharged from the British Army (Militia) at Wynberg, Cape Colony,  May 30th, 1903.  Once in civy street, Guy went to Natal where he obtained employment,  and soon became a member of the Natal Medical Corps, a Militia unit, and  continued his training, with emphasis on the requirements of the internal  defence of the colony, should the native population render this necessary.  The embarkation at Southampton in 1901 was a routine affair, over a  thousand men were being shipped to the Cape (meaning the Cape of Good  Hope). The weather was dirty as we put to sea and a storm delayed the ship  in the Bay of Biscay, where the ship lost a life boat overboard and a seaman  received a broken leg. A call was made at Gibralter.  The troops knew they were near land but it could not be seen; ships  speed had been reduced and presently an anchor dropped to the sea bottom  held the vessel fast. Simultaneously, as we looked up, we saw what looked  like an apparition in the sky, nothing less than the famed Rock of Gibralter,  floating in the sky. The sun shone brightly and the music of a military band  on shore was wafted across the water. The kalaidescope was ever changing,  faster than anyone could record it; Where there had been a low mist, the sun  dispersed it and, lo, the solid earth came in view. The unseen army band, in  the full array of bright uniforms was revealed, and the very foundations of  the famed Rock were visible to the naked eye. It was a magnificent picture.  Not likely to ever be seen again by the men on the S.S. Oratava.  Tremendous activity ensued, tugs, launches, barges and small boats  surged around the big transport. Britain was at war, every movement had to  be calculated, never a wasted moment, never a single mis-step. Two hundred young soldiers were landed for duty and two hundred old, time-expired  soldiers who had been doing duty on the Rock were taken on board ship for  South Africa. These elderly bucks had volunteered to serve in the Boer war  and were now on their way. Next stop, Capetown, South Africa. A BOER WAR VETS "STAND-DOWN" 125  We were witness to the heat of battle, the tragedy of war, were up  where some of the fighting had stained the soil of South Africa; where  thousands of trek oxen had also given their lives to satisfy the foolish ways of  mankind. It seemed incredible that an armistice could have been arranged  by the warring factions. Yet, within a few days of the signing of the Peace of  Vereeniging, soldiers under special contract for the duration of the war,  were on their way home to the United Kingdom for demobilization.  It was natural there should have been some sad partings as we left  for our respective homes and firesides. We had agreed to keep contact with  one another as long as life itself would last. Fundamentally, the soldier at  war is a sentimental fellow. These brave utterances were, however, destined  to be forgotten as we drifted into the labour field and found the going far  from easy. The fortunate ones took over the jobs they had left, while others  had to fit themselves for civilian employment. Legislation looking to the  care of the unemployed was lacking; and strange, as it may seem, there was  no rush to form associations for war veterans; in most instances as many as  twenty years were elapse before the "boys" from South Africa established  local associations.  THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR VETS ASSOCIATION  Major P. J. Locke of Lavington spearheaded a drive to get the  veterans living throughout the Okanagan to meet with him and, if thought  well of the idea, to form an association of South African war veterans.  Tremendous enthusiasm met the call, not a single dissenting voice was  heard; there should be no delay, so, the same evening, formalities were  covered, officers were elected; and, indicative of the harmony among the  boys, there would be no membership fees. The Queen's South African Medal  was passport enough for any South African veteran.  Believe it or not, thirty-five years had elapsed between the end of the  war (1902) and the holding our first reunion (1937) and another thirty-five  years to the demise of the reunions May 28, 1972.  P. J. Locke of Lavington (Vernon, B.C.), was the first president and  labored most faithfully in the interests of his fellow comrades for 13 years.  1952 was his last year in office.  Guy P. Bagnall of Vernon was nominated for the office of president; in  response he stated he would be both willing and honored to accept the office  but, he felt a change should be in the interest of the group. He felt a formal  organization with the officers scattered throughout the Okanagan was not  the most desirable method of holding the group together and suggested that  the offices be abolished, and he be recognized as Convener for the group.  This suggestion was adopted and prevailed for some twenty years (1972)  when the "Stand Down" terminated the group's activities.  Two important events were initiated by veterans of this group, yes  three, each of national significance:  One is related to the introduction of the Unemployment Insurance Act  while World War II was in progress. The scheme applied to all persons  employed or to be employed in Canada. But as Guy Bagnall read this formula, he noted that but little reference had been made to the troops then  serving at home and overseas; so he prepared a resolution proposing that a  section be added to the Act, providing that the Government of Canada be  regarded as an employer of labour, with respect to members of the military  forces of Canada, and that a book should be written up for each person in  Government service, and the book, fully stamped, should be given them at  the time of their discharge from Government service. This resolution was  presented at a regular meeting of the Canadian Legion, Vernon Branch, and 126 A BOER WAR VETS "STAND-DOWN"  forwarded by it to the Legion Provincial Command with request if found  satisfactory, they would forward it to Ottawa Legion Headquarters for  presentation to the Government. This was duly carried through and many a  man would be surprised at receiving a UIC book, paid up to the date of his  discharge from the service.  Another notable affair was the visit of H.M. Queen Elizabeth 11 on July  11th, 1959. It seemed the itinerary for the Royal Visit was near completion  and the Okanagan was once again to be overlooked. It was then Guy Bagnall,  representing the Boer War Veterans in this area, prepared a plan by which  Her Majesty might be induced to visit Vernon and see something of the  famed valley and the loyal subjects which had settled all through the  Okanagan. The plan was submitted to Mayor Frank Becker, approved by  City Council, and the Mayor left immediately for Ottawa, with the invitation  in his pocket. The outcome was a very pleasant visit from Her Majesty.  There was a burst of patriotism for both the Queen and Prince Philip. It was  a resounding success.  The third event to bring a big credit to the Boer War Vets of Vernon  came with the sixtieth anniversary of the signing of the peace which terminated the three-year war in South Africa, May 31st, 1902.  When petitioned in a formal manner, the suggestion was well received  and preliminary arrangements were speeded up by the War Vets in Vernon.  There was to be a monster parade in Ottawa, chiefly military in  character. The program was duly approved by the authorities. There would  be three divisions of the National celebration.  (a) The wreath laying ceremony at the South African War Memorial  on Elgin Street, Ottawa. One of the veterans attending from Vernon was  asked to lay the wreath representing all Boer War Veterans in Canada. The  Governor-General George Vanier (formerly of the 22nd Canadian Batallion)  attended, wearing his military uniform, to compliment the occasion. A  composite batallion was lined up on Elgin Street and the united bands of  Army and RCMP rendered the music for the very impressive service at the  memorial. Following this exercise, there was a march past for which the  Governor-General took the salute of the marching veterans.  (b) The second phase took place in the railway committee room in the  House of Commons, where the Governor-General again officiated in the  unveiling of the Book of Remembrance for all Canadian soldiers who fell in  the South African War, or died on active service connected with it. If the first  ceremony of the day was impressive, this was doubly so because here was  the name of every soldier and nursing sister who lost his or her life in that  conflict. Now the relatives of the dead were invited to come to the front of the  platform, after the ceremony had been concluded; there would be an attendant in uniform, and wearing white gloves, who would turn up the name  given him and read out the entry in the Book of Remembrance. When the  name had been found, there was a gasp, Ah, that was poor Jack or Bill (as  the case might be) and a tear of genuine pride was wiped away. How nice it  is that the Government should do this — after sixty years.  The Boer War Vets of Vernon thought so too. And the Government was  pleased having done this kindly deed. History is made the richer through  such events. They are a part of the heritage created by the present  generation, to be passed on to the next and succeeding generations.  The South African War Veterans Association, Vernon, B.C. has made  its mark in Canadian history — a mark which can never be erased.  Itwas with much gratitude that the six surviving Boer War Veterans  recorded their sincere thanks to the several branches of the Royal Canadian OKANAGAN  BOOKSHELF 127  Legion, throughout the Okanagan, for their generous hospitality over the  past many years; always, they were "on deck" to greet their comrades of an  earlier war, providing not only the cup that cheers but entertainment of a  high order. The readers of this brief chronicle are asked to let their memory  go back to the days when there was no pension for the elderly citizen, no  unemployment insurance, no community financial aid for widows or  children. Of course, the survivors of the South African conflict found the  economic conditions difficult to cope with, more particularly so when old age  swept through their ranks with alarming speed, reducing their number to  ten per cent, now down to five per cent, or less. It was with dignity and  honour their fallen comrades were remembered at the "Stand Down".  Seventy years since the Peace of Vereeniging was signed. And, the six men  moved back into the streams of life.  OKANAGAN BOOKSHELF  By ERIC  D. SISMEY  FOREWARD:—It is this writer's opinion that recognition should be given to writers in  Okanagan who have contributed to the making of local history and who may not always  belong to the historical society. To this end I have included such items that have come  to my attention. And if you have not read then you should. E.D.S.  Among the newer members of the Okanagan Historical Society is  Olive A. Frederickson of Okanagan Falls, who with Ben East of Outdoor Life  magazine, has written a best seller. Her book, The Silence of the North has  been chosen by the Book of the Month; sales are already in excess of 100,000  and the rights of foreign translation sold.  The book which could well have been titled Northland Heroine tells the  incredible story of a woman's fight for survival in the wilderness. On one  occasion their trappers cabin in the Northwest Territories burned with  everything they owned. They fled, with an infant son, through sub-zero  temperatures, to seek help from another trapper who lived forty miles away.  And as if that was not enough Olive was later widowed after her trapper  husband drowned in a far-away northern lake and she was left in a cabin on  the Stuart River, near Fort St. James, with three small hungry children. She  tells the story of how she was forced to hunt and shoot a moose, without any  help at all, to hold starvation at bay. But the book must be read: all 208 pages  of adventures which often skidded on the very brink of disaster. 128 OKANAGAN  BOOKSHELF  Martha Prytula of Kelowna has written a number of delightful short  stories which have been accepted by several smaller magazines. But when  you win, as she did, Reader's Digest, First Person Award you have certainly  reached the top.  Look back in your Reader's Digest file to September, 1972. The writer  again Martha Prytula and the title of her gem "A Bassoon of His Own."  Another Okanagan writer, L. A. N. Potterton of Kelowna, tells in his  Northwest Assignment, his life, from 1926 until retirement in 1952, in the B.C.  Provincial Police which was absorbed later by the RCMP. Patrol Sergeant  Potterton writes of his experiences as an officer of the law which found him,  at one time or another, along the northwest coast from Stewart on Portland  Canal to Bella Coola. His adventures and experiences, tragic, humorous and  often dangerous tell, among other things, how one lone officer manages to  keep a wild mining town under control by sheer courage, forbearance and  strength of character.  Bill Barlee has done it again. This time with a new magazine,  "Canada  Illustrated" which stretches from sea to sea.  Not satisfied with the success of his Canada West, a quarterly, first  published in 1969, and later by two soft-cover books, Gold Creeks and Ghost  Towns followed by Gold Panning in British Columbia which have all been  enthusiastically received he has the courage to start another.  B.C. Studies, a quarterly, published by the University of British  Columbia since 1969 includes in its bibliography many articles appearing in  our annual reports which the editors consider of historical value and many,  too, are articles in other publications written by this writer.  Mary Daem, Revelstoke for "The House on the Top of the Hill" a  delightfully written, illustrated in colour children's book. A Magic Circle  Book, published by Ginn and Company. This is Mary's second book in the  series.  Lou Ovenden of Chelan, Washington for his book "Ducks and  Spaghetti", delightfully illustrated with pen and ink sketches by the author.  It does not matter which way we spell the name of our glorious river  valley. We share it with the ducks and geese that Lou writes about. There are  historical societies on both sides of the line. We enjoy each other's field days  and several members belong to both societies. Lou, as a hunter, made his  name as a conservationist recognized by both State and United States  governments. Now, Lou, as a writer, finding his ninety years limiting his  activities in the field, has picked up his pen to record his happy memories.  A delightful book that belongs on every sportsmans coffee table. $10.00  from the author, Chelan, Washington, 98816.  Mae Atwood, Summerland, was awarded, recently, a plaque by the  Red River Valley Historical Society. Mrs. Atwood edited the memoirs of her  late uncle, Walter Traill, a Hudson's Bay factor. The book "In Rupert's  Land" (McClelland & Stewart) was cited as the most accurate record of the  events in the 1880s of that area. A fascinating book. N. R.(BUCK) CRUMP  129  N.  R. (BUCK) CRUMP  Has Left His Mark on Railway History  It was a gala day in Penticton on Sunday, May 13, 1973, for even good  King Sol, whose face had been partially obscured during the early part of the  week was in jovial mood. Indeed he seemed to be bent on making amends,  for, throughout the long hours of this particular "Mother's Day" he gazed  down on us all with a beaming and a benevolent smile.  This gathering of the clans was of course the Annual General Meeting  of the "Okanagan Historical Society" and the Banquet which followed after.  The hosts this year being the Penticton Branch under the Presidency of E. H.  Cleland.  These annual gatherings are always important, for they afford  members and friends, an opportunity to meet their counterparts from the  various and widely scattered branches, throughout the Okanagan and  beyond. Indeed, to foregather, to mingle and exchange greetings with  friends is always a delightful and pleasant occasion.  Preceded by the business meeting in the afternoon, a capacity house  was assured for the Banquet, which was held in the dining room of the  "Incola Hotel," incidentally, closely associated with "Canadian Pacific  Railway" and arranged for the evening.  One would be remiss were not one to make mention of the delightful  and enjoyable gathering in the "Cabaret" room of this historic hotel.  Bridging as it did the interval between the adjournment of the meeting and  the "Banquet,"  it was a remarkable demonstration of friendliness and  Left to right: Mrs. Geo. Broderick, Chairman Essay Contest; David Butler  1st prize winner 1972-1973 essay the Rise and Fall ot Hedley; N. R. Crump,  retired CPR President making presentation. 130 N. R. (BUCK) CRUMP  goodwill. Honoured Guest, Mrs. Fred Burton, or "Granny" as she is affectionately known, and believe it or not, aged 81 years young and in spirit,  seated at the piano, led the singing, and the playing of many popular and  well loved songs of over half a century ago. "Peggy O'Neill," "Springtime in  the Rockies" and the like were sung with obvious enjoyment and gusto.  Could it be that amongst our many members we have a galaxy of "Singing  Stars"? Indeed, the whole of this togetherness was akin to the celebrated  television show the "Pig and Whistle," clean and genuine entertainment!  And, if one may be permitted to paraphrase yet another song — "Thanks for  the Memory" Granny!  Seated at the Head Table with our distinguished guest, N. R. Crump,  was His Worship, The Mayor of Penticton, Frank Laird and Mrs. Laird, J. V.  H. Wilson, President of Okanagan Historical Society, and Mrs. Wilson, Jack  Petley, Assistant Superintendent of Canadian Pacific Railway Kettle Valley  Division, and Mrs. Petley, E. H. Cleland, President of Penticton Branch  Okanagan Historical Society, and Mrs. Cleland. Mr. N. R. Crump, a former  President of the Canadian Pacific Railway, with 52 years of service with the  Company, proved to be a stimulating and informative speaker. Our guest,  was, and still is, well known, not only in British Columbia, but also  throughout the vast expanse of Canada. He had held top management  positions in the CPR and is a fervid and renowned historian.  And now it is time for the passengers to board the train. And in a short  time to the rhythmic song of the wheels they are en route to their  destinations. As the train speeds through the ever changing panorama of the  countryside, always beautiful, but with a loveliness which is more than ever  accentuated at this season of renewal, all suddenly realize how hungry they  are.  Trooping to the entrance of the Dining Car, their tickets are quickly  inspected and collected at the door by an efficient official of the Company.  Dressed in the smart uniform of the Canadian Pacific Railway, he is a busy  and punctilious person, attending to the passengers comfort right through to  the end of the journey. "I know him" oneof the ladies whispers to her friend!  "I am sure he is Doug Gawne. He lives, or used to live in Naramata." Of  course, all this was but a fantasy on the part of the passengers. However, it  did seem to be so realistic. Nevertheless, strange but true is the fact that the  lady was right in her recognition, for the conductor was Doug Gawne, a bona  fide Doug. Disguised as he was, he certainly acted the part like a  professional. Indeed it was a faultless performance and reminiscent of the  old days.  Now all are seated and at the call of the President, Rev. Kidd, of  Vernon, rises and says Grace, after which a few brief minutes of silence is  observed.  And now a cathedral like hush descends on the company, as the  President of the Society, Mr. Victor Wilson, proposes the loyal Toast, The  "Queen." It is a moving and solemn moment, as the whole of the gathering  rises in spontaneous unison, and raising their glasses, echoes the President's  words, "The Queen."  In a few brief remarks, Mr. Wilson, toasted the Society's guest,  making mention of two or three outstanding events during Mr. Crump's  service with the "Canadian Pacific Railway."  Introducing the distinguished speaker, Mr. E. H. Cleland, the  President of the Penticton Branch of the "Okanagan Historical Society"  extended a warm and cordial welcome to Mr. Crump on behalf of the  members and guests. Expressing his pleasure and pride at his presence he  said  that the  Society felt much  more  than  a   passing   interest   in  the N. R. (BUCK) CRUMP 131  achievement of Mr. Crump. For not only was he western born, but he was  also a provincial celebrity. This was not all, for he was, in addition, a  distinguished Canadian. Continuing, Mr. Cleland remarked, that he well  remembered the promininence which was given in the press at the time of  Mr. Crump's retirement. One paper in particular, carried a banner headline  reading — "Last Of The C.P.R. Giants Retires." It had always seemed to  him that his was an apt and appropriate description. It was from Revelstoke  that Mr. Crump graduated to top management in the C.P.R. hierarchy.  Concluding, Mr. Cleland said that he was glad that he had been given the  opportunity and privilege of working with Mr. Crump for ten years at  Penticton. Certainly his years of service with the "Canadian Pacific  Railway" was not only a record but also a testimonial in itself.  Responding, Mr. Crump commented that this visit to Penticton was a  pleasant and a pleasurable one for him also, for it was many years since he  had passed through the portals of the old, historic "Incola." Much history  had been made, and not all of it written, since those far off days. And he  added, some of it made within the very walls of this hotel, for he recalled,  that the "Incola" had always been, primarily, used as it was intended to be  used, for railway people. Such a building steeped in history as it was, certainly merits restoration. He was, and will always continue to be, interested  in the history of the Okanagan Valley. However, he confessed that his involvement, interest and study is mainly centred on ancient history. This is  particularly true of the Mediterranean countries with preference for Greece.  And speaking of ancient Greece and its history reminded him of the  story as related by Lord Amery. Explaining his study and interest in ancient  history as an historian, he was later reported as an ancient historian. Much  laughter!  In his travels in Greece, he remarked, that he was struck by the fact so  forcibly brought home to him, time after time, that Greeks as a race,  regardless of their station in life, were very proud and fully conscious of  their ancient civilization, and culture. As an illustration, Mr. Crump told the  story of a Greek, apparently of humble birth, pointing out a church to the  speaker, and exclaiming in tones of pride — "That church is 17th Century  Byzantine."  The speaker made reference to the "Wailing Wall" in Jerusalem when  he was visiting the Holy Land. There was a ripple of laughter amongst his  listeners as he spoke of a conversation that he had held with another visitor.  During this dialogue between them this person said, "of course you do know  there are two "Wailing Walls." "Two did you say, I know of only the one"  Mr. Crump replied. "Well there is another" his companion retorted. "This is  oneof the walls. The other is the Income Tax Wall."  Reverting to the Canadian scene and drawing freely on his  reminiscences and his knowledge of past events, the Society's guest related  how a financial paper which was published in England around the year 1881  had this to say — Quote — This railway, the Canadian Pacific, will never be  completed, for even nature and the environment is against it. Indeed, the  country is a cold and forbidding one, with its seven months of frost and snow  every year. The writer feels bound to observe "How can the prophets be  confounded.  In his stimulating and thought-provoking discourse on current events,  the speaker commented that he had seen much of Canada during his  lifetime. For he had lived in six out of the ten provinces. Continuing he said,  that he was in favour of the amalgamation of the provinces into the five  regional forms of government as had already been suggested. In support of  this, he gave figures over a number of years of the Federal and Provincial 132 N. R.(BUCK) CRUMP  elections which had been held, and an approximate and conservative  estimate of the cost in dollars. Think of the total cost of these elections he  said, and then think of the savings in cash, and the incidentals, if the same  number of elections were to be reduced by half.  Or again, how many of our people realize that this land of ours is the  second largest country in the world. Yet we as a people are small. In fact, in  comparison with a number of other nations, our population spread works out  at five persons per square mile. Compare this figure with a number of other  countries and you will find the difference staggering. One wonders how long  can we expect to continue to retain such a figure.  Among other subjects and topics Mr. Crump touched upon was "Per  Capita Income" and the Gross National Product. He also compared the  systems of government of the United States of America and that of Canada,  Inflation, Foreign Investment, and the Permissive Society, Capital Punishment and a number of other topics, all of which came under his searching  and penetrating analysis.  Our guest on the conclusion of his speech was accorded a standing  ovation.  A few minutes before Mr. Petley rose to speak, it was observed that  there were broad smiles on the faces of those sitting nearest to him. This was  notall, for he seemed to be ill at ease and appeared to be lifting and pushing  his plate forwards and backwards, almost as if he was trying to read a  message, or an announcement underneath the plate. There was! For the  writing read C.N.R., which as everyone knows is an abbreviation for  Canadian National Railway. Comment was needless!  One suspects that the responsibility for Mr. Petley's discomfiture was  a well known member of the Okanagan Historical Society, Penticton  Branch. However, Mr. Petley, although perhaps a little red in the face took it  all in good part. Molly Broderick, the popular secretary of the Penticton  Branch, when so accused, repudiated vehemently all knowledge of the act.  Mr. Petley, who like the good fellow that he was, had now recovered  his composure. He expressed his thanks on behalf of all those present for an  interesting and an informative speech. All realized that he was, as had  already been mentioned, the last of a line of Okanagan celebrities who had  been associated so closely, and for so long, with the C.P.R. Itwas with great  pleasure that he now proposed a vote of thanks to the Society's guest. The  tribute was marked with a storm of applause.  A pleasing interlude during the evening was the presentation of two  shields by Mr. Crump to David Butler, a student at McNicoll Park Junior-  Secondary School at Penticton. Mrs. G. P. Broderick, co-chairman of the  Society's essay contest, sketched in brief outline the purpose and the  achievements of the students in this annual competition, with participation  and co-operation from the teachers of local schools. David's winning essay  was entitled "The Rise and Fall of Hedley." He was warmly congratulated  by Mr. Crump on the award, to the accompaniment of much applause from  the company. One of the shields will be displayed at the school and David  will retain the other in his home. Jerry Rupp, the runner-up in the competition, was also congratulated by all present for his fine and interesting  essay. There is a nexttimeyou know Jerry!  Much interest was evinced in the two beautifully made models of  locomotives, complete in every detail as those of the originals, and as used  by the Canadian Pacific Railway. These were displayed by Mr. Peter Bird, a  Director of the Penticton Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society. Ac- N. R.(BUCK) CRUMP  133  tually these wonderful locomotives in miniature were made from old tin  cans and must have entailed many, many hours of work.  The following also attended — Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Honorary  President. Other life members are Eric Sismey, H. Cochrane, Mrs. Upton,  Guy Bagnell. E. D. Sismey, Editor, Okanagan Historical Society, Harold  Cochrane, President of Vernon Branch and Mrs. Cochrane, Okanagan  Historical Society, Mrs. T. B. Upton, President of Kelowna Branch,  Okanagan Historical Society, Robert Iverson, President of Oliver-Osoyoos  Branch, Okanagan Historical Society, G. P. Bagnall, Charter member of  Okanagan Historical Society and Mrs. Bagnall, Alan Harrison, President of  Boundary Historical Society, Randy Manuel, Grandson of Mrs. Fred Burton.  Lastly one may say that the whole of this day proved to be a pleasant  and enjoyable interlude, in the business of living.  ■'■    '"'■■   : ■'■' '■:: . .:->:.-  Second Lower Similkameen School Built 1892 134 FUR TRADE AND CULTURE CHANGE  THE FUR TRADE AND CULTURE CHANGE  AMONG THE OKANAGAN  INDIANS  Honours Essay PSA 499-5  By ELIZABETH  DOLBY  INTRODUCTION — This is an ethnohistorical study of the relationship between  the fur trade and socio-economic change among the Okanagan Indians of  British Columbia and Washington.  For many years there has existed a theoretical debate among anthropologists concerning the origins of the nuclear family and the concept of  private property. Some anthropologists have contended that the nuclear  family was the original, or pre-contact family system of the Indians in North  America. Conversly, others claim that the nuclear family and private  property systems developed in America only after contact with European  capitalism. These anthropologists support a materialist interpretation  which asserts that the type of social and political organization of a society is  determined by an interplay of material conditions including the availability  of resources, level of technological development and the character of the  economic system.  Harold Hickerson (1970) in his study of the fur trade among the  Chippewa and Eleanor Leacock (1955) in a similar study on the Montagnais  both observed that the major effects of the fur trade among these groups was  to force the break-down of band organization and to encourage the  development of the nuclear family and individual land ownership. The  findings of these studies are significant for they lend well documented  support to the materialist theory by demonstrating a casual relationship  between the introduction of a capitalist economy, technological advances,  and the formation of nuclear families with private property rights.  The key factor forcing a break-down of the aboriginal social  organization among the Chippewa and among the Montagnais was the  overexploitation of food resources. Hunting patterns changed in order to  accommodate beaver trapping, and as a result, the deer resources near  traplines were soon depleted. In order to avoid starvation bands were forced  to divide into individual family units which guarded their rights to private  deer hunting grounds. There were three determinant factors in this process:  (1) a market for beaver pelts; (2) the technology (steel traps) for trapping  beaver; (3) a shortage of natural food resources.  Although fur trapping was important in the Okanagan for only a short  period of time (c. 1811-c. 1860), this remains an interesting area in which to  study its effects for the Okanagan contains two distinct types of evironment,  woodlands and plains. The development of a trade in horses between the  Okanagan Indians and the fur companies must also be considered an important factor in culture change in this area.  Due to the short period of time that was available for research, this  report can be considered only a preliminary study of culture change among  the Okanagans. Once the pre-contact conditions of Indian life have been  sketched, the aparent effects of the fur trade on the economic and social  organization of both the North and South Okanagan shall be discussed.  LOCATION  This paper is concerned with the Okanagan proper, that is, those FUR TRADE AND CULTURE CHANGE 135  bands who lived along Okanagan River, Okanagan Lake, and the  Similkameen River in south central B.C. and north central Washington.  Cline (p. 3:1938) has determined that the South Okanagan occupied the  drainage systems of the Methow and Okanagan Rivers in Washington. The  North Okanagan Valley and extended east as far as the Kettle Valley. The  town of Enderby, B.C. is located in the buffer zone between the Okanagan  and the Shuswap territory to the north. The Okanagan extended south to the  confluence of the Okanagan and Columbia Rivers.  LINGUISTICS  The Okanagan language is classified as Interior Salish. James Teit (p.  198: 1927) has included the Okanagan, the Sanpoil, the Colville and the Lakes  as part of the Okanagan "tribe". This classification is based on linquistic  similarities without regard to differences in such things as social  organization. Teit has divided the Okanagan proper into three sections: (1)  Okanagan Lake (2) Okanagan River; (3) Similkameen. There is general  agreement among the authors reviewed that these groups do compose the  Okanagan proper, therefore, this classification shall be followed in this  paper. It is important to remember, however, that there was much intermarriage with surrounding groups, particularly the Sanpoil, Columbia,  Wenatchi, Shuswap, Thompson, Lake, Colville, Spokane and Nicola  Athabascan (Teit; p. 215; 1927).  ENVIRONMENT: VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE  There is very little information available concerning the vegetation  and wildlife distribution in the Okanagan. The material presented here was  obtained largely from a B.C. government publication, The Okanagan  Bulletin Area, the Atlas of Canada (1958), and the National Atlas of the  United States (1970).  The entire Okanagan territory is located in the Interior Plateau between the Rocky and Cascade Mountains. The Plateau is characterized as  "rough and broken" country (Ray: p. 1; 1939). All of the South Okanagan,  from the Columbia River north to Okanagan Falls and to Hedley on the  Similkameen is arid grassland. The wildlife consists primarily of small  rodents, cottontails and jack rabbits, skunks, weasels, coyotes, lynx and  bobcat. Beaver became extinct in this area many years ago.  With the exception of the land immediately adjacent to the lake  shores, the area north of Penticton to the Head of the Lake and throughout  the Similkameen Valley is dry forest. This is a sparse forest containing  many roots, bulbs and berries. Grass is the characteristic vegetation cover  immediately adjacent to Lake Okanagan. Sage-brush, saskatoon bush,  soopolallie and mayberry are numerous.  The wildlife of the dry forest area consists largely of Mule deer in the  south and Whitetail deer throughout the Okanagan Valley. Bighorn sheep  were once numerous on the grasslands. Beaver, martin, muskrat, lynx and  coyote also inhabit this area.  Although the Okanagan can essentially be characterized as either arid  grassland or dry forest, there is also a small subalpine area east and west of  the head of Lake Okanagan as well as a Columbia forest region between  Mable Lake and Grand Forks. The Spallumcheen Valley which leads into  Shuswap territory is heavily wooded. There are many nuts and berries in the  woods. The wildlife consists of spotted grouse, priairie chicken, geese,  ducks, swans, blacktailed deer and bears. 136 FUR TRADE AND CULTURE CHANGE  PREHISTORY OF THE OKANAGAN INDIANS  The prehistory of the Okanagans must be reconstructed from  ethnographic and archaeological data. Very little archaeology has been  done in the Okanagan, particularly in Canada. Caldwell (1953), who conducted an archaeological survey of the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys,  noted a sharp contrast between the subsistence pattern of the North and  South Okanagan:  "Emphasis on fishing as a basic factor in subsistence economy is lacking  (in the North); none of the material adjunct of fishing is archaeologically  evident. On the contrary, stone points most assuredly hafted as projectile  weapons constitute a majority of the recorded artifacts; points are  numerous but stone net sinkers are infrequent. Further, house sites are  not chosen with a primary view toward accessibility of fishing locations  but rather toward control of deer runs and adequate water and shelter.  Emphasis seems undeniably on hunting. With the exception of the stone  structures, defense does not seem to have been significant in the selection  of habitation sites. Fishing constitutes an important subsistence factor  among the South Okanagan; there is no archaeological depth apparent  for such activity in the north, although from Oroville south sinkers are  numerous. The lacustrine environment in the north would limit the application of many of the fishing techniques (riverine) utilized among the  South Okanagan." (Caldwell: p. 22:  1953) ( ) mine.  Although fishing was decidedly less important for the North Okanagan  than was hunting, it continued to be a substantial part of the subsistence  pattern during the early contact period. They are known to have joined the  Southern Okanagan at the fishing grounds on the Kettle River during the  summers (Simpson: p. 231; 1828). Roots, such as camas, and berries were  an important part of the food supply in both areas.  Ethnographic and archaeological surveys of the Okanagan indicate  that this area was once an important aboriginal trade route. According to  James Teit (p. 250) trade was formerly ". . . in the nature of a gradual  filtering through of articles from one end of a large expanse of country to the  other . . . after horses had come into use these trips (across mountain  ranges) developed into important affairs, undertaken regularly by large  parties." ( ) mine. Teit suggests two major prehorse trade routes, one  bordering the water routes north from the Columbia River, up the Okanagan  River past Lake Okanagan, along the Spallumcheen River then west along  the Salmon River to what is now Kamloops and from there along the  Thompson and North Thompson Rivers. The other comes overland from the  Plains through Pend d'orielle Lake to Colville and Okanagan Falls then  merges with the first route.  Warren Caldwell (p. 22:1953) suggests from archaeological evidence  that the Similkameen route may have been more important than the Lake  Okanagan route for aboriginal trade:  ". . . evidences of contact are to the west and south with Okanagan and  Similkameen Valleys as alternative intermediaries . . . the evidence of  trade material and apparent cultural tie with the Thompson area is more  clearly developed in the southern portion of the valley, presumably via  the Similkameen route. The importance of the Similkameen area as an  aboriginal trade route should be emphasized, at least as a contemporary  alternative to the Lake Okanagan-Thompson tie."  Teit (p. 253:1927) describes the prehorse trade of the Okanagan Indians: ". . . there was not much direct trade between the Okanagan and  Thompson before the days of the horse, and what there was seems, to have  been confined chiefly to salmon pemmican and dentalia, which was exchanged for Indian hemp and dressed skins. The Okanagan traded the same  commodities to the Shuswap and to the Thompson. The Okanagan procured FUR TRADE AND CULTURE CHANGE 137  dentalia from the Shuswap, and it is probable that before the introduction of  the horse most of these shells were obtained from them." Teit notes that  there was some trade between the Okanagan and the coast across the  Cascades and that after the introduction of the horse this trade became very  important: "large packs of dried fish and oil, and in later days even salted  salmon, were transported over this trail . . . Indian hemp-bark and twine  and dried service berries, dressed buckskin exchanged for marine shells,  bags of the Nez Perces style, some horses, salmon, coiled basketry, some  stone implements and woven robes from the Columbia, slaves, tobacco and  certain kinds of roots were trade articles to some extent . . . pipes and  pipestones . . . were interchanged."  Walters (p. 75:1938) describes how the "Sinkaietk (South Okanagan)  infrequently go to Blackfoot country. They go down the Okanagan River,  south on the west side of the Columbia to Nez Perce country and across to  Blackfoot country. Sometimes the Moses Columbia, Spokane, Flathead, and  Nez Perce accompany them . . . Salmon, mountain goat hides, berries,  grizzly bear hides and deer hides are taken along to trade for buffalo hides  and meat." ( ) mine.  Archaeology to date has discovered little time depth either for this  flourishing trade, or for the more modest prehorse trade: "Associations  indicate that most if not all of the evident trade activity is late and possibly a  reflection of the earliest European trade conditions on the Coast." (Caldwell:  1953)  Not all of the Okanagan's relationships were peaceful. There has been  a tradition of raiding between the Shuswap and Okanagan and between both  of these groups and the Kootenai. According to legend, intense warfare  occurred during the time that the Okanagans invaded the Shuswap territory  around Lake Okanagan. James Teit dates this invasion at 1700 AD. Although  intermittent raids occurred between the Okanagan and Shuswap in later  years, neither seems to have posed a serious threat to the other.  Ray (1939: p. 7) notes that the village, not the tribe is the basic unit of  social organization for the entire Pacific slope of North America. Concerning the "tribes" west of the Rockies, Ray (p. 49) concludes, "The  essential point is that the larger group is invariably ethnic or social or  linguistic in nature, never political . . . Bonds of common habitat, common  interest, like customs, like values, one religion and one language are not to  be passed over lightly. Furthermore within the areas of common movement  blood ties intertwine the population." (my emphasis). Walters (p. 84: 1938)  emphasizes the importance of kinship obligations toward both the maternal  and paternal lines as the basis of inter-village unity.  James Teit (p. 4: 1927) described the band organization of the North  Okanagan, "Each tribe was divided into bands each consisting of varying  numbers of loosely connected families, who made their headquarters in a  certain district and under a single chief. Some families, however, would  winter with one band and some with another.  The description of band organization for the south Okanagan given by  Walters (p. 87: 1938) shows it to be similar, even identical, to that of the  North Okanagan, "there is no feeling of class distinction among these  people. Every individual is free to make his own decisions and to choose his  own manner of existence. Thus a man may fish, hunt or gamble when and  where he chooses. He may establish himself and his family in any one of the  village sites belonging to this band. Wherever he resides he must recognize  the chief of that area as leader, but if the methods of a specific chief are  displeasing he may always move elsewhere." 138 FUR TRADE AND CULTURE CHANGE  Alexander Ross (as quoted by Walters: p. 94: 1938), the first fur trader  to winter at Fort Okanagan in 1811 describes the band chieftainship, "the  government or ruling power among the Oakenackens is simple yet effective,  and is little more than an ideal system of control. The chieftainship descends  from father to son: it is, however, merely a nominal superiority in most  cases. Their general maxim is, that Indians were born to be free, and that no  man has a natural right to the obedience of another, except he be rich in  horses and has many wives; yet it is wonderful how well the government  works for the general good, and without any coercive power to back the will  of the chief, he is seldom disobeyed: the people submit without a murmur."  The duties of the band chief were to organize successful hunting,  fishing and gathering, to retain surplus food for redistribution in time of  need and to exemplify moral standards. In addition to the band chief there  are temporary war leaders. (Walters: p. 95:  1935).  In the ethnography The Sinkaietk or Southern Okanagon of  Washington (1938) the authors contend that the South Okanagan are very  different from the North Okanagan, they base this assumption partially on  an apparent difference in chieftainship. The North Okanagan are believed to  have had one "tribal" chief while the South Okanagan deny the existence of  such a person in their territory. It must be noted, however, that there were  band chiefs in both the North and South Okanagan, and that no head chief  had any pretense of real political power. It is a contention of this paper that  the "head chieftainship" of the North Okanagan is a post-contact development.  THE HISTORY OF THE FUR TRADE IN THE OKANAGAN  There were three fur companies involved in the Okanagan trade: The  Pacific Fur Company under the direction of John Jacob Astor; the North  West Company; the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1811 there was a race for the  mouth of the Columbia River between David Thompson of the North West  Company and the men of the Pacific Fur Company. The Pacific Fur Company arrived first and established Fort Astoria. David Thompson who took  an overland route was the first white man ever recorded to pass through  Okanagan territory. Unfortunately, his journals contain no mention of the  Indians in the area.  After establishing Fort Astoria, Stuart, Montigne and Ross travelled  north from Astoria with David Thompson's party to trade and establish Fort  Okanagan (Buckland: p. 10: 1926). The original Fort Okanagan of the  Pacific Fur Company was situated at the confluence of the Okanagan and  Columbia Rivers. Upon his arrival in this area Alexander Ross commented:  "Here the Indians assemble in friendly crowds, according to their usual  habit— presented us with abundance of salmon, offered many horses for  sale, and were in all other respects exceedingly kind. Here also they  invited us to remain, to build, and to winter among them: they said their  country abounds in beaver, nor should we want for provisions." (Ross: p.  104:   1966).  This eagerness to have a fort established in their territory is evidence  that the Okanagans were acquainted with the fur trade before the arrival of  the fur companies. It is known that David Thompson encouraged the  Kootenai Indians to drum-up trade in the Okanagan prior to the establishment of the Pacific Fur Company's fort at Okanagan (Johnson: p. 5: 1969).  In 1800 David Thompson saw some Kootenais and persuaded them to trade  their furs at Rocky Mountain House. These Indians already had steel traps  and were determined to enter the fur trade before the first recorded contact  with whites (Johnson: p. 160: 1969). Lewis and Clark (Elliott: p. 3) while FUR TRADE AND CULTURE CHANGE 139  descending the Columbia River in 1805 "found among the Indians living  quite a distance in the interior 'sundry articles which must have been  procured from the white people, such as scarlet and blue cloth, a sword,  jacket and hat . . .". No date can be given for the beginning of the  Okanagan's participation in the fur trade, but it undoubtedly began prior to  the establishment of Fort Okanagan in 1811.  The Pacific Fur Company appears to have had no formal Indian policy  except that of cultivating the friendship of the Indians, and of promoting  peaceful relationships between hostile groups of Indians.  On November 12, 1813, the Pacific Fur Company sold Fort Okanagan  to the North West Company for $80,500. As a result of the war between  Britain and the United States, the North West Company gained control of the  former American possessions at Astoria, Okanagan and Kamloops. In 1814 a  fur brigade route from the Columbia River through the Okanagan Valley  and Kamloops to the Fraser River was established. Many former employees  of the Pacific Fur Company, including Alexander Ross, were hired by the  North West Company.  The North West Company developed a general policy of creating  friendly ties with the Indians. They gave presents as a token of friendship  and their employees were encouraged to marry Indian women (Baker: p. 6:  1929). This practice cemented friendly ties with the Indians and fixed the  interests of the company's employees in the Oregon Territory.  The severe competition between the North West Company and the  Hudson's Bay Company east of the Rockies created problems in the western  posts: ". . . while the main interest of that body and its most earnest efforts,  were in crowding the old Hudson's Bay people to the wall, and forcing a  surrender to itself of their charter right. This attitude of the men had a  marked effect on their Indian policy which lacked organization. The fact  that the North West was in active competition with the Hudson's Bay  Company east of the Rockies caused it to neglect its posts on the Columbia.  The men of the North West Company were left to work out their problems  with little supervision or direction." (Baker: p.l: Ch.3)  In 1821 the North West and Hudson's Bay Companies merged under  the name of the Hudson's Bay Company. Unlike other fur trading companies, the Hudson's Bay Company was highly organized and had a formal  Indian policy. Chief Factor George Simpson writes in 1824-1825:  "I have made it my study to examine the nature and character of the  Indians and however repugnant it may be to our nature and feelings, I am  convinced that they must be ruled with a rod of iron, to bring, and keep  them in a proper state of subordination, and the most certain way to effect this is by letting them feel their dependence upon us. In the Woods  and Northern barren lands this measure ought to be pursued rigidly next  year if they do not improve, and no credit, not so much as a load of ammunition given them until they exhibitan inclination to renew their habits  of industry. In the plains however this system will not do as they can live  independent of us, and by withholding ammunition, tobacco and spirits,  the staple articles of the trade, for one year they will recover the use of  their bows and spears and lose sight of their smoking and drinking  habits; it will therefore be necessary to bring these tribes around by mild'  and cautious--?--which may soon be effected . . ." (Simpson: 1824-25; p.  179)  The Okanagans were to receive the "plains" or subtle treatment.  The employees of the Hudson's Bay Company, like those of the other  fur companies, married Indian women, but George Simpson did not view  this as favorably as others had. While at Fort Okanagan Simpson wrote: " ..  . almost every man in the district has a family, which is productive of  serious injury and inconvenience on account of the great consumption of 140 FUR TRADE AND CULTURE CHANGE  Provision; but by changing the men this evil will be remedied and the  women and children sent to their Indian relatives." (Simpson: p. 131). At the  same time Simpson recognized that these marriages formed a " . . . useful  link between trade and savages." (as quoted by Baker: p. 12: Ch. IV)  The Hudson's Bay Company was also responsible for bringing what  may be termed 'law and order' to the west. Their policy was one of "blood  for blood" and offenders, white or Indian, were tracked down and brought to  trial (Baker: p. 12: Ch. IV). There is no record of hostility between the  Hudson's Bay Company employees and the Okanagan Indians:  "The territory of the Hudson's Bay Company inhabited by numerous and  diverse Indian population, was an area of peace and order. Throughout  its length and breadth the Company's transportation service was  maintained, without interruption, by boat crews barely large enough for  requirements of the portage; the murder of a white trader was an event  that was infrequent and that was visited when it occurred with prompt  punishment; even intertribal wars yielded at times to the intervention of  the Company's officers. On the American side of the border, violence and  murder were the order of the day. Senator Benton in 1829 placed at five  hundred the number of American trappers and traders who had already  lost their lives to the Indians of the Rocky Mountains. This striking  contrast between British and American Indian policy was no temporary  phenomena disappearing with the passing of the fur trade.