Okanagan Historical Society Reports

The twenty-second report of the Okanagan Historical Society 1958 Okanagan Historical Society

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 The Twenty-second Report  of the  OKANAGAN  SOCIETY  f  J he t^ocieiu was founded t^eptember 4,   1925 Date Dm $6>aS  /  WTffi  m£  & N. (Reg) Atkinson Museum  785 MAIN STREET  PENTICTON, B.C.    V2A 5E3  y/7. // -^ f £%*>  The Twenty-second Report  of-  the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  ^SOCIETY  'vN\ 1958  Editor  F. T. MARRIAGE  J he <«__>©c/e£y was founded t^eptember 4,   1925 THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  Officers for 1958-59  Honorary Patrons:  His Honor the Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia.  The Hon. W. A. C. BENNETT, Premier of British Columbia.  Honorary President:  MR. O. L. JONES, Kelowna.  President:  MR. J. D. WHITHAM, 1725 Pandosy Street, Kelowna.  Vice-Presidents:  MR. R. BLACKBURN, Enderby.  MR. G. M. WATT, Kelowna.  MRS. R. B. WHITE, Penticton.  Secretary:  MRS. VERA E. BENNETT, R.R. 1, Box 2278, Penticton.  Treasurer:  MR. GUY P. BAGNALL, 3317 Coldstream Ave., Vernon.  Editor:  MR. F. T. MARRIAGE, 424 Park Avenue, Kelowna.  Auditor:   MR. T. R. JENNER, Vernon.  Editorial Committee:  Mrs. G. P. Bagnall, Vernon. Mrs. E. J. Lacey, Osoyoos.  Mr. H. W. Corbitt, Kaleden. Mrs. M. Middleton, Oyama.  Mrs. I. Crozier, Vernon. Dr. Frank Quinn, Kelowna.  Mrs. D. Gellatly, Westbank. Mrs. B. Pidoborozny, Enderby.  Dr. J. C. Goodfellow, Princeton. Mrs. R. B. White, Penticton.  Mrs. M. Johnson, Vernon. Mr. H. S. Woodd, Enderby.  Directors:   Mr. A. E. Berry (north), Mr. W. R. Powley (central).  Mr. E. J. Lacey (south).  Directors at large:  Mr. H. W. Corbitt, Kaleden; Mr. A. K. Loyd,  Kelowna.  OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS: OLIVER-OSOYOOS BRANCH, O.H.S.  President:   MR. D. WHIPPLE.  Vice-President:   MR. E. BECKER.  Secretary-Treasurer:   MRS. J. B. KNOWLES, 879 Manhattan Drive.  Directors:   MR. C. COPE, MR. E. J. LACEY, MR. A. McCUDDY, MR. F.  Mcdonald.  Editorial: MRS. E. J. LACEY.  OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS:   PENTICTON BRANCH, O.H.S.  President: MR. J. G. HARRIS.  First Vice-President:   MR. H. CORBITT.  Second Vice-President:   MRS. H. WHITAKER.  Secretary:  Mrs. V. E. BENNETT, R.R. 1, Box 2278.  Treasurer:  CAPT. J. B. WEEKS, 614 Martin Street.  Directors: MRS. BEARCROFT, MRS. G. BRODERICK, MRS. W. R DEWDNEY, MRS. H. WHITAKER, MRS. R. B. WHITE.  Director at large:  MR. R. O. RORKE.  (2) OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS:   KELOWNA BRANCH, O.H.S.  President:  MR. G. M. WATT.  Vice-President:   MR. J. McCLELLAND.  Secretary-Treasurer:   MRS. J. M. KNOWLES, 879 Manhattan Drive.  Directors:   MR. J. BEDFORD, MR. H.  CALEY, MR.  G. D.  CAMERON,  MR. BEN HOY, MRS. T. B. UPTON.  OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS:  VERNON BRANCH, O.H.S.  President:   DR. D. A. ROSS.  Vice-President:  DR. A, E. SOVEREIGN.  Secretary-Treasurer:   MR. G. BYRON-JOHN SON.  Directors:   MR. G. P. BAGNALL, MRS. I. CROZIER, MR. D. HOWRIE,  MRS.  M.  MIDDLETON.  Editorial:  MRS. L. A. BAGNALL, MRS. M. JOHNSON.  OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS: ARMSTRONG-ENDERBY BRANCH, O.H.S.  President:  R. BLACKBURN, Enderby.  Secretary-Treasurer:  MRS. M. PIDOBOROZNY, Enderby.  Directors:   E. McMAHON, H. COWAN, H. LOGAN (Armstrong), E. A.  NORMAN, MRS. R. CROZIER, MRS. H. WINKLES, MRS. C. J.  PATTEN, JAMES JAMIESON, A. MARSHALL.  Editorial:  H. S. WOODD.  (3) LIST    OF    ILLUSTRATIONS  Page  Dr. F. W. Andrew  7  The Mission  Building  Before Restoration  9  The  Original  Mission  Building .,..10  Father Pandosy,  O.M.I  12  Gateway of Restored Mission  14  Father Pandosy's Signature  14  Frederick Brent  39  The Richter Brothers  44  Traveling Over the Dewdney Trail  75  Building Dewdney Trail  77  Laying Natural Gas Lines  79  Dewdney Trail Parallels Hope-Princeton  80  Map of Dewdney Trail  80a  Mr. and Mrs. J. Waterman at Hope  89  Okanagan   Pioneers  122  Home of Judge Haynes  133  Mr. and Mrs. James Gartrell  143  Eli Lequime  149  The Old Fire Engine, Kelowna  151  H. W. Raymer  152  George Forbes Vernon  163  (4) f~^refc  ace  The Centennial Year, 1958, has been a notable  factor in making our people "History conscious" as far  as our province of British Columbia is concerned. Many  have been the functions of an historical character staged  in the various communities; the restoration of the Father  Pandosy Mission, the opening of new Museum premises  at Penticton, Kelowna and elsewhere, the dedication of  the Brent Mill Cairn—to name but a few—cannot but  have contributed to a new awareness in this regard.  Centennial historical books have been produced in many  centres, chieflv the work of local people. Indeed, this  fact may partly account for the fact that this report,  O.H.S. 22, apart from the "historical gazetteer" section, is the work of less than a dozen contributors. No  doubt many possible contributors have been busy with  local booklets.  It will be noted that there are only two articles in  this report of the "Old-timers' Reminiscences" type.  The Editor is well aware that this fact will not commend itself to some of our members, but as a matter  of fact only three such articles were submitted, of  which two were printed.  The Okanagan Historical Society is indebted to Hon.  Wesley Black, Provincial Secretary, for copies of the  B.C. Coat of Arms which features this Centennial Year  Report of the Society.  F. T. M.  (5) c  ontents  British Columbia Coat of Arms Frontispiece  Title Page ,  1  Officers 2&3  List of Illustrations  4  Preface  5  Table of Contents  6  Dr. Andrew  7  Restoration of Father Pandosy Mission  9  Memories of Westbank      . 15  Excerpts from Southern British Columbia  19  Kelowna   1904  27  Custom Business at Osoyoos Prior to  1900  30  Unveiling of Cairn at Brent's Mill  39  Cattle Drive Over  Dewdney Trail  42  Memories of Kathleen Gray  47  Naramata—Smile of Manitou  53  William   Ward   Spinks  58  History of Okanagan Falls  62  Okanagan Museum  65  Further Fairview - Osoyoos Chronicles  67  The Dewdney Trail  73  Map of Dewdney Trail                "      . 80a  Excerpts from Inland Sentinel  93  Centennial and Jubilee Booklets  97  Notice of 1959 O.H.S. Annual Meeting  100  Okanagan Historical Society Annual Meeting  101  We Will Remember Them      . 109  Mining Engineer Planned Princeton  113  One Hundred Years of Okanagan History    .     .     .     .     .     .     .114  The Coldstream Ranch  118  Historical  Gazetteer  of   Okanagan-Similkameen  123  Membership List O.H.S  169  (6) 2br.  <J.  W. ^4ndr  irew  Mrs. H. Whitaker  The Okanagan Historical Society lost one of its first, most valuable and enthusiastic members with the passing of Dr. Frederick William Andrew in the Summerland Hospital on November 24, 1957.  This is the hospital for which his knowledge and advice were so necessary when it was being built in the 1920's.  Dr. Andrew came to Summerland in 1908 and practised medicine  here until his retirement in 1944. He was well qualified to write  "The Story of Summerland" which traced the history from the be-  Dr. F. W. Andrew  ginning and through its development. All proceeds from the two  issues of this book were given to the Red Cross. Dr. Andrew and his  dog Klinker were familiar figures on the steep and dusty roads of  Summerland in the horse and buggy days. Klinker's faithfulness  inspired his master's book, "A Country Doctor's Dog." Dr. Andrew  was always willing to share his knowledge of our valley's history in  our Society's Reports and many of his interesting articles have appeared  in them. He truly believed that "History is Philosophy teaching by  examples."  Dr. Andrew's rewards and recognition in so many fields of his  endeavours bear witness to his qualifications in his profession, his  scholarship and civic affairs.  (7) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  He was born in Brooklyn, New York, in 1879. His early education was received there and in Ontario. In 1907 he graduated from  Manitoba University, being the only student who took all possible  scholarships. In 1920 he received a scholarship from the _\merican  College of Surgeons.  He took an active part in all community affairs. He was honorary  president of the Summerland Branch Red Cross Society and life  member of the St. John Ambulance Association. Many had his instruction in first aid work and home nursing during war years.  He was promoter of the Summerland Community Scholarship.  This was the first such in any rural district of British Columbia.  He was awarded Summerland Board of Trade Good Citizenship  Cup in 1941, and was given a life membership in that organization.  He was an enthusiastic President of Summerland's Golf Club  for ten years.  He was secretary of the pioneer business venture of the Summer-  land Telephone Company until it was absorbed by the Okanagan  Telephone Company.  He was a life member of Summerland Lodge No. 56, A.F. and  A.M. Also a member of Penticton Chapter Royal Arch Masons,  and a member of the Scottish Rite, 32nd degree.  Summerland mourns a friend, a physician and a benefactor.  At his funeral was sung the hymn from which Summerland  derived its name.  So in helpfulness and praise  Let us pass life's golden days;  Till in gladness and in joy we stand  At the portals of the gates  Where that gleaming city waits  Of the heavenly Summerland.  O, the Summerland  That heavenly Summerland.  (8) J he    riestoration tZS^tnd    nCededicatio  y*-)j    J ne      -father   f^andosvf <yVlissio  n  n  H. C. S. Collett  For many years I had passed by these old log buildings with a  feelings of regret that the}' should be allowed to gradually go to decay  without any effort being made to preserve them. They are of great  historical significance, having been erected by Father Charles Pandosy,  O.M.I., in the year 1859, being the first Catholic Mission established  in the interior of British Columbia. On many occasions this matter  was discussed at meetings of the Okanagan Historical Society and I  and Mr. E. M. Carruthers were appointed as a committee to inspect  these premises with the object of doing something towards their preservation but unfortunately we were not able to raise any funds for  this purpose.  On one occasion whilst attending a sale of cattle at Kamloops,  I met my old friend Mr. L. P. Guichon of Quilchena, a leading  cattle rancher and a keen historian.   I brought up the subject of the  The Mission Building Before Restoration  (9) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  The Original Mission Building  old Mission buildings and explained to him the condition they were  in. He being a close friend of the Reverend Father Fergus O'Grady,  then in charge of the Indian Mission at Kamloops, they evidently  had some discussion on this subject as on May 26th, 1954, I received  a long distance call from Mr. Guichon who mentioned that Father  O'Grady wished to meet me in Kelowna on June 3rd. I took them  out to inspect the buildings and as a result I was instructed to open  negotiations to endeavor to purchase the piece of land upon which  the buildings stood.  This land was originally part of the large holdings that had been  acquired in the early days by the Oblate order of Mary Immaculate  Priests and was commonly known as the "Priests' Ranch," where  they raised cattle and horses, their brand being O.M. About the year  1898 the land was sub-divided and sold, this particular piece being  described as Lot A.D.L. 3036, Map 1829, containing an area of  33 acres. It changed hands several times and at this time it belonged  to a Norwegian named Karl Sorensen, who was a bachelor and  traded in young cattle which he used to keep in some of these buildings; hence the appalling state they were in. He would sell only the  whole property, which was bought by Mr. P. Lyman who agreed to  sell the piece of land required for the sum of $1200.00,  retaining  (10) The Restoration and Rededication of Father Pandosy Mission  the right to move off any of the modern buildings that he required.  I advised Father O'Grady, who instructed me to proceed with the  purchase as arranged and to have it surveyed. On June 17th I instructed Mr. E. O. Wood of Kelowna to proceed with the survey.  This gave us a frontage of 265 feet on the Benvoulin Road by 328  feet, exactly two acres, now described as Lot A. Reg. Plan No. 6710  O.D.Y.D. I understand the purchase money was provided by a  Vancouver lawyer.  On December 20th, Father O'Grady and Father Mulvihill came  from Kamloops to inspect the property and decided that I should  clear away all rubbish, and fence in the spring. On February 14th,  1955, I received a letter from Father O'Grady, then in Ottawa, with  the request for an estimate of the cost of doing this work, which I  sent him in March, the estimated amount being $264.00. On April  2nd, I hired a bulldozer from Mr. Jack Serwa, and had all the rubbish pushed into a large heap at the back of the lot and set fire to it.  Then I had a new Page wire fence built with cedar posts. This  gave the property a more respectable appearance but nothing more  than cleaning some of the mess out of the buildings was done at this  time. At this time Father O'Grady was elevated to the Bishopric of  Prince Rupert, the ceremony taking place at St. Augustine's Church,  Vancouver, to which I had the honour of being invited to attend, and  Father Poupore, of Ottawa, took over his duties. On May 11th we  had another visit from Father O'Grady, Father Mulvihill and Mr.  Laurence Guichon. On this occasion we discussed ways and means  to restore the buildings but nothing was done until I received a letter  from Father Poupore to say that he had instructed Father Mulvihill  to make a further inspection. This took place on March 18th, 1957,  and he suggested that I obtain estimates of the proposed work of  restoration. I then obtained three estimates from local contractors,  which ranged in cost from $2200.00 to $3500.00. On June 13th,  Father Mulvihill came again and advised me that the Council would  provide the sum of $1500.00, sufficient to pay for materials but  not enough for labour. Shortly afterwards I met Mr. Jack Bedford,  who was head of the Knights of Columbus, Father Pandosy Council,  who informed me that the Knights might be interested in this work  and a meeting was arranged on August 23rd with some of the Knights  when it was arranged that they would undertake the work of restoration, outlined as follows: to restore three of the buildings only, as  the fourth, situated behind the two main buildings, was too far gone  to repair.    It had been used as a stable and the  original construction  (11) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  had been altered to suit the various purposes which it had been used  for; besides, it was necessary to have some spare logs to use in the  repair of the other three buildings. It was decided to raise each  building and put a stone and cement foundation and level them; also  to put a concrete floor up to the level of the first log and to put a  Father Pandosy, O.M.I.  new shake roof on the building used as a school and church; to  remove all modern lumber, and clean out all rubbish from the  interiors; to plough and level the land and to sow it to a permanent  grass.  On November 7th, we had a visit from Rev. Father Poupore  (from Ottawa), Father Mulvihill and Father McKenzie at which  Mr. Jack Bedford explained our proposals, with which they agreed;  it was also arranged to have a rededication ceremony at some future  date.  (12) The Restoration and Rededication of Father Pandosy Mission  The Knights commenced operations in the fall but had to wait  for spring and the land to dry up before they could do much.  The following April and May they went to work and in a short  time with the help of a large gang of willing workers they had the  project completed and in addition erected a most imposing entrance  made from logs out of the stable; also made a gravelled drive in  and set back from the road an old fashioned rail fence, the rails  being donated by Louis Casorso; made a turnstile entrance and built  a stone wall around the well. They have done a splendid job and  are justly proud of their achievement. The photograph shows the  entrance better than I can describe it.  The rededication ceremony was arranged to be held on June 15th.  to commence at 1:30 p.m.  In the centre of the top logs over the entrance is the insignia of  the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate. Below this is a large  marker made by the boys of the Indian School at Kamloops, inscribed  as follows: "The Father Pandosy Mission, Established 1859." On  either side are plaques which are made out of two of the original  hand-hewn planks which had been part of the floor in the stable. On  the right hand side it is inscribed as follows: "Father Charles Pandosy,  O.M.I., arrived here October, 1859. Founded Mission of Mary  Immaculate Conception and erected Permanent buildings, the first  white settlement in the Okanagan Valley. Restored 1958 as part of  Oblate Fathers Centennial year Ceremonies Commemorating the 100th  anniversary of the Founding of their first B.C. Mission in Esquimalt,  Vancouver Island."  The left panel is inscribed as follows: "Site of Father Pandosy  Mission, restored by the Most Reverend Fergus O'Grady, O.M.I.,  the Very Rev. James P. Mulvihill, O.M.I., L. P. Guichon, of Quilchena, N. M. Carter and T. A. Dohm, of Vancouver, H. C. S. Collett,  Okanagan Historical Society; Father Pandosy Council of the Knights  of Columbus; The City of Kelowna, and many others."  All these inscriptions were beautifully carved by Mr. Wilson  of Rutland.  The ceremony for the rededication and restoration was dulv held  on June 15th, attended by a large crowd, amongst whom were the  Very Rev. J. R. Birch, Assistant General from Rome, O.M.I., who  gave an outstanding address; Father Mulvihill, with the choir from  the Kamloops school; Rev. John Hennessy, O.M.I., Vancouver; The  Most Rev. T. J. McCarthy, D.D., Bishop of Nelson, The Rt. Rev.  W. B. McKenzie and Rev. F. L. Flynn, from Rutland, etc.   To give  (13) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  Gateway at renovated Pandosy Mission.  a full description of the ceremony would require a separate article.  In conclusion, as I pass by these hallowed buildings I do so with  the feeling of pride in the part I played in the restoration. They are  now in a state of preservation that with a little care will last another  hundred years.  $"<*>■&  *m\  .  \t/-4u/? Ce*f S'tir*#S*- J***** , j  (14) <yVlu t childhood ^sVlemories   >^>Y  (A/estbanh  Mrs. Clara Clabk, Falkland, B.C.  My folks, Emma and John Bailey, left Summerville, Oregon,  early in November, 1895, with all their household effects in one  wagon. But they had two teams. They got into snow at Oroville,  Wash. Dad left the familv there, came up to Westbank and got the  bobsleigh to bring them there. Mr. Kruger was the agent at the line  in those days. The household effects were shipped by the S.S. Aberdeen  from Penticton to Hall's Landing (as I think it was called) near  Gellatly's at Westbank. Mother arrived with three small children  on Dec. 5, 1895, and Dad rode the horses over the trail from  Penticton.  I was born at Westbank in the old Goldie house on April 1st,  1896. Dr. Boyce attended, as near as I have been able to find out.  I was the third white child born there and I have a few memories of  the old place.  The Goldie field had been plowed years before, and fenced with  logs which had started to rot. Sunflowers, sagebrush and large buttercups grew along the old fences. We lived in the Goldie house till  I was about a year old, and then Dad pre-empted land about half a  mile above the town of Westbank, behind the Indian reservation.  When I was old enough, what times we had gathering Indian moccasins—flowers—in the swamp near the house!  Dad built a two-room house with a fire-place in the partition  between the rooms. He cut the stone and built the fireplace himself,  as that was his trade then. The only fruit we had were the wild black  currants that grew in the swamp, and the Saskatoons. We had rhubarb  plants that Mother had brought up from the U.S.A. By the time I  was old enough to remember there was a nice garden.   Mother looked  EDITOR'S NOTE—Mr. John C. Bailey and his wife Emma were  among the early pioneers of the Okanagan. He worked as a carpenter  and stone mason in and around Kelowna, worked on the Beaver Lake  dam and also the pipeline for the Okanagan Centre Land Co. In 1910  he cut the stone for the building of St. Michael and All Angels Church  in Kelowna. Wages for stone cutting, now an almost extinct art, were  then $1 or $1.25 per day. It was John Bailey who installed the irrigation  system for Dunwaters and Godwin at Fintry Ranch about 1912.  In 1921 his wife and part of his large family moved to Falkland.  Injured in a logging accident near Kelowna, he lost a leg in 1925. Mrs.  Bailey died in 1942, and Mr. Bailey has since made his home with his  daughter, Mrs. Clara Clark.  (15) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  after the flowers. The Indians used to come in and admire them, and  to trade fish for flour, tea or coffee or to sell baskets, gloves and  trinkets. We grew blackberries and dewberries, large pumpkin and  mangolds so large that we children couldn't lift them into the wagon  box. Dad also planted a small orchard there, but I don't remember  much about it; perhaps it wasn't bearing when we left.  When my folks arrived at Westbank they found the Shannon  Marshall and John Davidson families. Dad's half-brother, George  Collins, had come from Oregon with the Marshalls the year before.  Two years after the folks came Dad went back to Lewiston, Idaho,  and got his mother and father, John Ward and Henrietta Bailey;  also his sister and brother-in-law, Bill Lewis and wife Mary. They  settled down in Powers Creek Canyon and Aunt Mary grew the first  peanuts in the canyon about the year 1901.  The Jim Silver family came from the East about 1899. They  had three children, Billy, Ella, and George, and Mr. Silver and Dad  worked together a lot on most of the roads and ditches. They also  logged together. The folks were always friendly with the Indians  and got along very well with them. We children used to like to see  great bands of them going by on pinto ponies and with pack horses;  the women with babies or papooses on their backs and one or two children in front or behind. Sometimes there were about three children  on one old horse with just a blanket and surcingle.  One old Indian I remember very well as he used to be quite  friendly. He could talk fair English and used to be interpreter for  the other Indians. He used to pay us visits, but most of the time he  was on business too, as they are quite a sly lot. His name was Tom  Dominick. His wife or klootch used to come with him sometimes;  she thought Mother's sewing machine a wonderful thing. They used  to tan hides—deer hides—and bring them for Mother to make gloves  and moccasins on her machine. Once the klootch came with yards of  blue and red silk for Mother to make two dresses. Mother was paid  in buckskins for the sewing she did for them.  My brother Jim traded a dog and a sack of flour for a horse, and  that horse was a tough old fellow; he was our plow horse, saddle horse  and driver for years. Dad used to pack him and take him into the  mountains. When turned loose in the mountains anywhere he would  lead the rest home. We called him Charlie, and he was in our family  until he died at about twenty-five years old. There were so many  wild cattle roaming around that it wasn't safe for us younger ones to  (16) My Childhood Memories of Westbank  go outside the fence. When we needed meat, Dad would go out and  shoot a deer—there were no game laws in those days.  I'll never forget how the birch trees in the spring would be just  grey with willow-grouse. Mother had quite a few half-grown ducks  and some chickens. They used to wander on the other side of the  swamp as Dad had a grain field and a little stock of grain there. One  day the chickens were making quite a noise. Mother took the gun and  I went with her. When we got there Mr. Coyote was just making  his get-away. Mother took a shot at him. We looked around the  grain stack; all we could see was about twelve little feet sticking  out. The little ducks thought thev were safe as long as their heads  were buried in the straw7!  One night in the summer time it was so hot in the house that the  boys decided to sleep out in the grass. So we two girls thought it would  be a good idea, too, but we didn't make our bed far from the house.  We woke up in the night and smelled skunk, so plain that we all  moved in pretty quick:  The Indian ponies and cattle gave us a lot of bother. Many a  night when Mother was alone with us children she would have to get  up and dress and wake up the older children and go out with the coal  oil lantern and the dog to drive stock out of the garden or field.  In those days Dad contracted for logs or road work, and built houses.  He also worked at the slaughter house in Kelowna. One fall he came  home with a wagon full of pigs' heads and feet for our winter's  supplies. He took the first ditch out of Powers Creek in 1899, built  a house for John Morrison in Dry Valley (now Glenmore) and  remodeled the old Guisachan Ranch house; [ohn Morrison lived  there then.  How well I remember the day when Mrs. Morrison invited us  over for a visit! Bright and early in the morning Dad hitched up the  team and drove to Siwash Point. Just about the place where the new  bridge is today he rowed us across. When we got to the other side  we had to wade through the swamp. Dad had rubber boots on. He  picked Mother up and carried her over the bad places. We had a  lovely meal—or maybe two—and we girls held out our pinafores for  Katie Morrison to drop the big fat cherries in. It was the first time  I had ever tasted cherries.  Two more children were born to the Bailey family at Westbank  —Wesley Jerome on November 8, 1899, and Aaron on January 3,  1901.   The only doctor available was Dr.  Boyce at Kelowna,  if or  (17) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  when he could get across the lake. Mrs. Silver was the nurse when  Wesley was born and Mrs. Davidson was there when Aaron was born.  Mrs. Henry McDougall worked for Mother for a short time.  We used to like to help Dad make bullets for his gun—or we  thought we were helping! In those days the tea always came in lead  packets, which Mother saved. Dad would put the lead in an old frying pan on the coals in the fireplace to melt and then pour it into the  bullet moulds.   He would buy new empty shells or refill old ones.  Our entertainment was a Christmas tree once or twice at the  Marshalls, who had the first post office at Westbank. They were all  musical; George, Johnnie and Mr, Marshall played the violin or organ;  Emily could play the banjo, guitar, or organ. Mother used to play the  bass violin. They would have a "Literary" or debate or concert at  each others' house. I remember one play they had. Dad was supposed  to be a dentist, and he pulled a horse's tooth out of George Marshall's  mouth!  Jim and William started school at Westbank; Mr. Hall was the  teacher. One time Will had to go to the lake to meet Dad at Siwash  Point with the wagon and team. We two girls went along. We  hadn't got far before it started to rain and the night was pitch black.  We got to the point and waited. Will tied the team up and we girls  went to sleep in the wagon. Soon we were pulled out by Indian women  who were camped near by. They took us into their big round teepee  with a lire in the middle and gave us a dish of stew and bannock.  When they thought we had waited long enough they helped hitch up  the horses and sent us away home. I don't know how we ever made  it home that night; it was so dark. But the horses seemed to know  where they were going. Dad didn't get home at all that night for  the storm.  Like all healthy children we had to have a good laugh once in a  while. The boys had a home-made wagon and harness; they would  hitch up our old dog—"Duke"—quite often, and drive him. So  when Jim got a new dog he wanted to teach him to drive, too. He  worked for a week or more to make a cart out of willows. Then  they hitched up both dogs and were going to have a dog race. But  both dogs baulked, and would only sit and bark.  In honour of Dad who will be 93 on December 7, 1958, this is  written by his daughter, Clara Clark, Falkland.  (18) dsxcerpts     -J~rom  "SOUTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA"  (The Garden of Canada)  Issued bv the C.P.R., 1906, to encourage colonists to B.C.  Kootenay, Boundary and Okanagan Districts and Vancouver Island.  A Brief Description of their Wonderful Resources and Scenic Beauties.  OKANAGAN DISTRICT  Lying west of the Kettle River Valley, and divided from it by a  comparatively low watershed is the Okanagan District which forms  an irregular strip of country stretching from Sicamous, on the main  line of the C.P.R., southward to the international boundary. The  district includes Spallumcheen, White and Creighton Valleys, Mabel  and Sugar Lakes, Priests' Valley and the Commonage in the north,  and Okanagan Lake, Okanagan Mission Valley, Penticton and Trout  Lake in the south. Okanagan District has been appropriately named  the garden of the Province, for in no portion of British Columbia is  cultivation more general and successful. The district is traversed from  Sicamous to Vernon by the Shuswap and Okanagan branch of the  C.P.R., which connects Okanagan Landing at the head of the lake  with C.P.R. steamers running to Penticton at its southern end. The  railway runs for almost its entire length (5i miles) through a magnificent farming country, a large part of which is open, some lightly-  wooded, and the rest more heavily, but all very fertile when brought  under cultivation. Many large farms in this section are devoted to  wheat, which yields well and is a sure crop. The wheat ground locally,  at Armstrong, Enderby, and Vernon, makes an excellent flour. This  part of the district is especially adapted to mixed farming, dairying  and fruit-growing. The soil produces large crops of vegetables of all  kinds and fruit of excellent quality, while native and cultivated grasses  grow luxuriantly. The rainfall in this section of Okanagan is sufficient  for all purposes and irrigation is not necessary. The climate is bracing  and pleasant, fairly hot in summer with cool nights, and cold in winter, averaging in winter 44.7¬∞ with occasional dips to zero and below.  Snow lies from three to five months, the average fall being 37 inches.  A Milder Climate  As Okanagan Lake is approached the climate is much milder and  drier, and from Vernon southward irrigation is necessary on all bench-  lands.   Here luxuriant vegetation is wholly confined to the borders of  (19) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  the lake and water courses, while the higher benches and round-topped  hills present the characteristic semi-barren appearance of this class of  pasture land. Appearances are deceptive in this case, however, for  those bare hillsides and benches are transformed into fruitful fields  and orchards by the application of irrigation. The country on the west  side of Okanagan Lake is generally hilly and broken by ravines formed  by water courses from the higher elevations in the background. These  water courses will furnish sufficient water for irrigation if a system of  storing it is provided. Many individual settlers and land companies are  putting in the necessary embankments and ditches. A peculiarity of  the Commonage, a large tract of high land near Vernon (regarded as  only fit for pasture and not worth taking up by earlier settlers, as no  water is available to irrigate) is the fact that good crops of grain and  vegetables are being raised on portions which have been cultivated.  There are probably areas of high land in this district and other parts  of Southern British Columbia which will turn out as wrell with anyone  bold enough to make the experiment.  Peaches, Grapes, Tobacco  Southern Okanagan with the Similkameen country further west  is destined to become the great peach and grape producing section of  British Columbia. At Peachland, Summerland, Penticton and other  points, a great many peach trees have been planted and the fruit is of  fine quality, and exquisite flavor, commanding the highest prices where  ever offered for sale. Grapes are successfully cultivated at various  points, but their culture is not general and quantity exported is inconsiderable. Mr. T. G. Earl of Lytton has gone extensively into grape  and peach growing and his success is encouraging others to plant vineyards. Tobacco of excellent quality is grown in Okanagan Valley to  a limited extent, the existing excise laws discouraging large plantations.  There is a brisk demand for1 lands in Okanagan, the prices ranging  from $10 to $300 per acre, according to location and irrigation  facilities.  Chief Towns of The Okanagan District  The principal towns of Okanagan District are  Armstrong,  Enderby, Vernon, Kelowna, Summerland, Peachland and Penticton.  ARMSTRONG and ENDERBY, on the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway, nine miles apart, are prosperous, growing towns and  rivals for the trade of the fine agricultural country which surrounds  (20) Excerpts from "Southern British Columbia  them. Each has sawmills, flour mills, brickyards and other industries,  while both are important shipping points for lumber, flour, fruit and  farm produce.  VERNON, at the head of Okanagan Lake Valley, is a pretty  town, the centre of a splendid ranching and fruit growing country and  the distributing point for the Okanagan Valley.  KELOWNA, on Okanagan Lake, 33 miles south of Vernon, is  a prosperous place, the shipping point for Mission Valley and Sunnyside districts. The town has a fruit packing house and fruit warehouses, sawmills, etc.  PEACHLAND and SUMMERLAND, on the west shore of  Okanagan Lake, are in the heart of the peach district and are growing  steadily, as the lands in the vicinity are rapidly filling up.  PENTICTON, at the southern end of Okanagan Lake, is a distributing point for the country south of the lake and is the headquarters  for extensive irrigation works, designed to reclaim 30,000 acres of  land suitable for fruit growing. The town has a bright future, as it  is likely to be an important railwav point as well as a supply depot for  a large area of fruit growing lands.  SICAMOUS, the gateway to the Okanagan, is a station on the  main line of the C.P.R., 334 miles east of Vancouver, and the northern  terminus of the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway. It is a favorite summer resort, famed for its hotel, which is one of the best appointed and  most comfortable in the province. Sicamous is the headquarters for  fishermen and hunters, the neighboring lakes and mountains affording  a great variety of sport.  Markets  It is an axiom in trade that "there is no market like the home  market" and in this respect British Columbia is singularly blessed, for  there is no country in the world which offers such exceptional advantages in the way of markets for farm products. The mining and  logging camps, with which the whole country is dotted, employing  thousands of men; the numerous working mines and smelters with  their large staffs of employees; the railways operating and under construction, and the lake and river steamers are all liberal patrons of  the farmer at prices unaffected by competition, for imported articles  do not disturb local trade, and in every case local products are preferred to those  from abroad.   The established cities and towns and  (21) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  the new ones which are constantly springing up, with the opening of  new mines and the establishment of new industries, afford splendid  markets for the farmer, who deals directly with the consumer and/or  retailer for cash—the trading system in vogue in older countries being  practically unknown. Fruits and early vegetables not disposed of locally  find an unlimited market east of the Rocky Mountains and in the  coast cities of the province. Eggs, butter, milk and cream are always  at a premium, the local production falling far short of supplying the  demand. In many towns, fresh milk is hard to get, and it is unknown  in the mining, lumbering and railway camps where the imported condensed substitute is used. The imports of these articles into British  Columbia for an average year throws the light on the possibilities for  dairying and poultry raising in Southern British Columbia.   They are:  Butter, $1,179,511.  Condensed Milk and Cream, $165,000.  Eggs, $339,000.  Poultry, $73,700.  If cheese, which is not made in quantity in British Columbia, be  added, $333,342, we have a total of over $2,000,000 sent out of the  province annually which can be profitably raised at home.  Again in the matter of fresh meats, and pork, ham, bacon and  lard, the yearly importations aggregate $2,136,300 as well as $800,000  worth of beef cattle, sheep and swine, all of which should be raised  by the farmers of the province.  Although British Columbia has begun to export fruits the home  market falls far short of being supplied, for we find that in the same  year (1904) the province imported $800,000 worth of fruit and fruit  products, viz: Apples, other fruits (not tropical), canned fruits, jams  and jellies. . . .  There is therefore, practically no risk to the farmer in settling in  Southern British Columbia. His market is at his door and will be for  many years, and he can confidently assure himself of such prices for  his produce as will give him a comfortable living and enable him to  lay away a "nest egg^ every year in anticipation of his old age. . . .  As an example of what can be done on a 10-acre farm in Southern  British Columbia the following statement of early fruit and vegetables  shipped from Gellatly, B.C., in 1904 by D. E. Gellatly & Sons is  submitted.   The results in that year were:  (22) Excerpts from "Southern British Columbia  By Express By Freight Total  Shipments lbs. lbs. lbs.  Beets     120 120  Beans, green   1,028 1,028  Corn, green   ,  998 998  Cabbage  815 3,711 4,526  Carrots   985 3,075 4,060  Cucumbers   3,295 3,295  Citron    4,090 4,090  Egg-plant     151 151  Melons  2,436 2,436  Onions     200 1,030 1,230  Parsnips   1,450 1,450  Pumpkins  .  275 275  Potatoes   1,780 11,005 12,845  Peppers  170 170  Rhubarb  ,  700 1,000 1,700  Raspberries   700 700  Strawberries    3,775 6,725 10,500  Turnips   1,060 155 1,215  Tomatoes   ___.     44,035 25,228 69,263  Totals   61,608 58,504 120,112  Total  60 tons, 112 lbs.  Plants  Tomato   85,000  Cabbage     10,000  Strawberry   80,000  Raspberry         3,000  Total  178,000  All this was raised on a ten-acre clearing in heavy bush the fourth  year after Mr. Gellatly located the land.  Fruit Growing  Fruit growing is one of the infant industries of British Columbia,  but it is growing rapidly and is quite certain, ere many years, to rival  mining, lumbering, or fishing. A few years ago a man who would  venture to describe the Kootenays as fruit growing districts would be  looked upon as a visionary or an imbecile.   Today all Southern British  (23) The Okanagan Historical Society—-1958  Columbia is acknowledged to be the finest fruit country on this continent. Not only will it produce fruit in abundance, but the quality  of its fruit is superior to that grown in any other part of America.  Certain varieties of fruit attain perfection in certain localities—for  instance the Fameuse apple develops its best qualities on the Island of  Montreal—but taking a collection of British Columbia fruit it is  larger, better colored and better flavored than any similar miscellaneous  lot, the product of any other country. Proof of this is not far to seek.  In 1903 Messrs. Stirling and Pitcairn of Kelowna, on Okanagan  Lake, shipped a trial carload of apples to Great Britain. The shipment consisted of Spys, Baldwins, Ontario and Canada Reds. They  arrived in Glasgow, Scotland, on November 9th, in splendid condition  and sold at six shillings per box, or about $ 1 more per barrel than the  choicest Eastern Canada apples—reckoning three and a half boxes to  the barrel. The British Columbia apples aroused much interest among  fruit dealers as well as consumers and many letters were received by  the consignors from persons eager to secure shipments of the splendid  fruit. In the year following, 1904, the British Columbia Department  of Agriculture forwarded a collection of British Columbia fruit to  London, England, for exhibition purposes. It consisted of apples,  pears and plums, including the following varieties: Apples—Fall Pippins, Kings, Vandeveres, Twenty-ounce Pippins, Blue Pearmains, and  Oranos, from Lytton; Ribson Pippins, Wolfe Rivers, Wealthies and  Snows, from Kelowna and Lytton; Warners, Kings, Canada Reds,.  King of Tompkins, Ontarios, Jonathan, Northern Spy, Belle of Bos-  koop, Baldwin, St. Lawrence, Greening, Golden Russet, Alexander,  Blenheim, Orango, Wagener and Mcintosh Red from Kelowna;  Wealthy, Ribstons and Gravensteins from Victoria. Pears—Beurre  Clairgeau, Easter Beurre, Beurre d'Anjou and Howells from Kelowna, and plums from Victoria. The exhibit was greatly admired  and evoked the highest encomiums from the newspapers. The London  Times, while hesitating to declare the fruit superior to the best English  specimens, admitted that they very nearly approached them in color,  shape and flavor, even after having travelled 6,000 miles by railway  and steamship. The Royal Horticultural Society's appreciation of the  fruit was shown by the award of the society's gold medal and diploma.  Prize Fruit  One result of this Exhibit was the deluging of the Agent-General  of British Columbia (Hon. J. H. Turner, Finsbury Circus, London),  with letters from prominent fruit dealers anxious to do business with  (24) Excerpts from "Southern British Columbia  British Columbia fruit growers. To momentarily satisfy the clamor  for British Columbia fruit and to emphasize the fact of its good qualities, the Department of Agriculture shipped in cold storage a full carload of assorted fruits to London in the fall of 1905, in charge of  Mr. R. M. Palmer, Provincial Horticulturist. This fine collection  was the chief attraction at the Royal Horticultural Fruit Show at  London, England, and at several provincial shows, and was warded  many prizes.   The  Royal Horticultural Society prize winners were:  Province of British Columbia (for collection), gold medal.  J. C. Gartrell, Trout Creek, silver-gilt Knightian medal.  J. R. Brown, Summerland, silver Knightian medal.  Thos. W. Stirling, Kelowna, silver-gilt Knightian medal.  Coldstream Ranch, Vernon, silver-gilt Knightian medal.  Thos. G. Earl, Lytton, silver Knightian medal.  Mrs. J. Smith, Spence's Bridge, silver Knightian medal.  Kootenay Fruit Growers' Association, Nelson, silver Banksian  medal.  J. L. Pridham, Kelowna, silver Banksian medal.  Education  British Columbia has an excellent public school system, free and  non-sectarian, supported by the government and the municipalities.  There are high schools in all the larger cities, those of Victoria and  Vancouver being affiliated to McGill University of Montreal. The  educational authorities are now taking action to establish a Provincial  University, which will be a branch of McGill. Schools are established  in new communities as soon as there are twenty children of school age,  between six and sixteen years of age. The provision for education is  very liberal, the annual expenditure being about $400,000, and the  standard for teachers is as high as that of any of the other provinces  of Canada. The minimum salary paid to teachers is $50.00 per month  in rural districts and up to $150.00 in city and high schools. Attendance in public school is compulsory. The Education Department is  presided over by a Minister of the Crown. There are also a superintendent and four inspectors in the province, also boards of trustees in  each district. According to the latest educational report there are 361  schools in operation, of which 13 are high, 65 graded, and 285 common. The number of pupils enrolled in 1905 was 27,335, and of  teachers 663. The public school system was established in 1872, with  28 schools, 28 teachers and 1,028 pupils. Its growth proves that education has not been neglected in British Columbia.  (25) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  The high schools are distributed as follows: Victoria (Victoria College), Vancouver (Vancouver College), New Westminster, Nanaimo,  Nelson, Rossland, Cumberland, Vernon, Kaslo, Chilliwack, Grand  Forks, Kamloops, and Revelstoke. There is also a provincial normal  school at Vancouver and many excellent private colleges and boarding  schools in various parts of the Province.  Wages  Miners, $3.00 per day and upward.  Coal Miners, from $3.00 to $4.00 per day.  Lumbermen, $2.00 to $3.00 per day and upward.  Mill hands, $1.50 per day and upward.  Mill foremen, $100.00 per month.  Railway construction work, $2.00 to $5.00 per day.  Government day labor, $2.50 per day.  Teamsters, $35.00 to $45.00 per month with board.  Farm hands, $30.00 to $50.00 per month, with board and lodging.  Domestic servants, $10.00 to $25.00 per month with board and  lodging.  Cooks, $25.00 to $50.00 per month, with board and lodging.  From "Kelowna Courier and Okanagan Orchardist" Thursday,  Dec. 21, 1911. Thanks to the energetic efforts of the Hon. Martin  Burrell, in response to the requests of the Board of Trade and the  Conservative Association, Kelowna now enjoys the facilities for  clearing foreign goods afforded by a local Customs Office. Acting-  Inspector Boyce arrived in town on Monday and opened the office on  Tuesday in temporary quarters in the post office. We are glad to  learn that our much esteemed fellow-citizen Mr. J. L. Doyle, has  received the appointment as Sub-collector. It is difficult for officials  of tax-gathering services such as customs, to be popular and at the  same time enforce the government requirements which they are sworn  to carry out, but Mr. Doyle may be trusted to discharge his duties  with fairness and impartiality and the least possible friction. The correct designation of the office is an "Outport of Customs," and it has  been placed under the survey of the Port of Revelstoke. Goods can  be manifested here now under bond from the frontier, and clearance  made without any delay at Vernon as heretofore.  (26) <J(elowna,   1904  F. T. Marriage  Someone has said "As uninteresting as yesterday's newspaper."  Yet the older a newspaper is, the more interesting it is to a student of  history, and people who know the place of publication.  Recently there came into my hands a copy of "The Kelowna  Clarion and Okanagan Advocate," dated Thursday, Oct. 13, 1904;  Vol. 1, No. 12. It is an eight-page production, but only four pages  had been printed locally, the other four, evidently pre-printed elsewhere. It measures 20" by 13", much smaller than its successor, the  Courier. The pre-printed pages contain household hints, medical and  health suggestions, anecdotes and patent medicine advertisements.  The paper sold for $2 per annum, and the heading on the editorial  page gives the proprietor's name as R. H. Spedding, with H. M. Spedding as manager and W. J. Clement, editor. I said "editorial page,"  but actually there are no editorials. Instead, there is a long article on  "Tobacco and its progress in the Okanagan Mission," tracing the  origin and growth of the tobacco-producing process in this district, and  illustrated by a small and almost undecipherable picture entitled "Harvesting Tobacco on L. Holman's Ranch, Kelowna, B.C."  The main points include mention of Messrs. Collins and Holman  and their difficulties encountered in the production of cigars. These  gentlemen leased seven acres of land from the Lequime Ranch in 1895  and began the growing of tobacco, with excellent results except in the  matter of "seating"—the final stage in the preparation of the leaf  for the market. Apparently local variations in temperature were too  great and the season too short to allow of the proper fermentation of  the leaf by natural means in one year. But by 1901 better results were  being obtained by different methods, Mr. Holman having visited  Wisconsin to study the business.  The article discusses at length the disabilities of Canadian tobacco  men as compared with foreigners—especially regarding licensing and  taxation, and concludes, "Much of the land in the valley that is not  suitable for other branches of agriculture is said to be the best tobacco  land; and the fact that tobacco growing improves our soil by extracting the alkali will lead many to go into' that branch of farming."  Apart from "Items of Interest" (fourteen of them, including the  marriage of Miss Dora Thomson to W. D. Walker and the fact that  the safe for the projected branch of the Bank of Montreal had arrived  and been placed temporarily in the Leckie Block) there is no "news"  (27) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  (in the newspaper sense) beyond an obituary notice (Miss Kate Morrison, only daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John Morrison), an account of  the parade of the local "Canadian Foresters" to the Methodist Church,  and a description by John Rowcliffe of "My first trip to the Coast."  It would be interesting to calculate what percentage of space is  devoted to the advertisements. The front page carries a boxed "ad"  measuring 11" by 61/2" for "The Big Store"—Lequime Brothers and  Co.—Ladies' and Children's Fall and Winter Wear," and another,  not quite so large, stating "Okanagan Fruit and Land Company, Ltd.,  F. R. E. DeHart, Manager—100,000 trees different kinds or as many  more as you want—apple trees one year old $150 per thousand, 3 to  4 feet." Other display ads, on the other pages, include those of Millie  & Co., Raymer's Block, Jewellers and Watchmakers; Kelowna Saw  Mill, (D. Lloyd-Jones); Boyce and Willits, Druggists; Lawson,  Rowcliffe and Company ("The Wide-awake Hustlers on the Corner"); D. Leckie ("Insist on getting Eocene Coal Oil"); Sutherland  and Stillingfleet Real Estate; Lake View Hotel, James Bowes, Prop.;  Kelowna Furniture Coy.—"Just arrived—a car of furniture—On the  way—another car of furniture."  Messrs. Carruthers and Pooley, Real Estate Agents and Notaries  Public, have a large display advertisement; Columbian College (spelled  "Columbia") a Methodist institution at New Westminster "provides  a home for both male and female students"; and Wallis Drug Store  desires to part with its stock of "perfumes of Worth."  Smaller boxed advertisements include the following: J. F. Burne,  Solicitor; J. Bouch's Shaving Parlors ("Hair Singing"—presumably  "singeing"); H. W. Raymer, Building Contractor; H. C. Cooper, saddlery; D. W. Crowley, butchers; John Curts, Contractor and Builder;  Kelowna Farmers' Exchange; J. P. Clement, Bookseller & Stationer;  Kelowna Meat Market, John Downton, prop.; Mission Valley Livery  Stable, C. Blackwood, Prop.;  Miss Curtis (Hats, no two alike).  C. Blackwood also runs the Kelowna Restaurant (first class meals  by the day, week, or month); S. T. Elliot, horse shoer and general  blacksmith; George Verey, watchmaker & jeweller; H. C. Cooper,  "the cheapest and best saddlery house in the Okanagan."  Finally, the announcement of a Liberal Campaign meeting on  behalf of Duncan Ross to be held in Raymer's Hall, and also another  in Benvoulin to be addressed by Senator Bostock. Culture is represented by Eustace Wyatt, "late pupil of Prof. Fernside," who offers  (28) Kelowna, 1904  "tuition in piano, voice production and enunciation—apply Lake View  Hotel."  Legal and "for sale" announcements appear under the names of  John, Joseph and Leslie Dilworth, John and Joseph Casorso, W. D.  Hobson, J. Rowcliffe, W. C. Cameron, Leon Gillard, Geo. E. Boyer,  D. E. Gellatly, T. Swordy and W. R. Pooley. There are 18 of these.  Mrs. F. Bouvette has 200 spring turkeys for sale at 18c a lb., or $2.25  each. Leon Gillard has lost a brown "cockrel" spaniel puppy. His  promise of a reward for its return is followed by the threat, "If dog  is found in possession of any person after this notice will be prosecuted."  Altogether, an interesting cross section of life in Kelowna in the  year of grace 1904.  First Boat's Engine home to rest. An engine which powered the  first steamboat on Okanagan Lake, and which later played a prominent part in pioneer activities in the North Okanagan, has finally  come to rest in the halls of Vernon Museum and Archives. Brought  from Trinity Valley last month, it is a donation of Mr. and Mrs.  G. H. Worth, of Vernon, whose family owned and used it for many  years.  The first steamboat was the Mary Victoria Greenhow, built by  Messrs. Hamil and Pringle of Lansdowne for Capt. T. D. Shorts  and Thomas Greenhow, and launched at the head of the Lake on  April 21, 1886, by H. F. Young and sons. She was a vessel with a  32-foot keel and a five-foot beam. She had a short life, for she  burned at Kelowna the same year. However, the engine was salvaged and used in her successor "Jubilee" and later in a barge "The  City of Vernon." This barge was later re-named "Mud Hen." She  leaked badly, so was succeeded by "The Wanderer," later re-named  "Violet." The engine finally found a resting place at Trinity Valley  in 1906, being used in a shingle mill and for cutting firewood.-—  Adapted from Vernon News, Dec. 12, 1957.  (29) \—customs JPjusiness 4z/4t   y^Jsouoos  "Prior   do   1900  Mrs. K. Lacey  Since the first fur-brigades travelled up and down the Okanagan  Valley, Osoyoos has been of strategic importance to those who used  its trails and wagon roads, and later, its broad highways. From 1812  when David Stuart established Fort Kamloops for the Astorians (who  sold out the next year to the North-West Fur Traders, and they in turn  sold out to the Hudson's Bay Company), the fur brigades travelled  the trails from Fort Alexandria to Fort Okanogan and back each year  till 1846, and all the trade and commerce of what is now British  Columbia and Washington went over this trail. All the great men of  that time, Ogden, Dease, Connoly, McLoughlin, the first Black Robes,  all used the Brigade Trail. The meadows at the head of Osoyoos Lake  gave feed for the hundreds of horses in the brigade trains, making it  an ideal rendezvous along the trail.  With the outbreak of the Cayuse Indian war in 1846 the trail  became unsafe and it fell into disuse till the discovery of gold on the  Fraser in 1858, and at Rock Creek and on the Similkameen in 1859,  sent miners swarming through the country. Soon large numbers of  horses and cattle, as well as men and packtrains with supplies for the  miners, moved over the trail again.  The Colonial Government moved quickly to establish a Customs  port, and appoint a Collector of Customs. In the Third Report of  the Okanagan Historical Society, Leonard Norris writes: "The importation of live stock on which duty was paid at Osoyoos during the  years 1861 and 1862 while Cariboo was at its height are given below:1  Horses     Cattle     Mules     Sheep  Jan. 1st - Oct. 19th, 1861      356  Oct. 19th - April 30th, 1862 ..    172  May, 1862      962  June, 1862   1065  July, 1862   461  August, 1862      141  September, 1862         172  October,  1862        54  November, 1862    December, 1862         12  250  681  203  988  135  1532  238  400  163  82  646  958  6  53  325  67  19  3  3396  4817   778  1371  i OHS 3, pp. 21-23, "W. G. Cox and His Times."  (30) Customs Business at Osoyoos Prior to 1900  In his book, Ka-Mi-Akin, A. J. Splawn, of Yakima, Washington,  tells of many drives that went from that country over the old Brigade  Trail to the Cariboo mines. He went, himself, in 1861, 1863, and  again in 1868, with drives to the Cariboo. He states that by 1870  there were thousands of horses and cattle in the Yakima country, and  that the British Columbia mines were their chief, and for a time, only  market. But in the 1870's settlers began to arrive, bringing small herds  with them. Such people as Judge Haynes, W. T. Lowe, Thos. Ellis,  F. Richter, M. Barcelo, J. F. Allison, as well as the local Indians,  started building large herds. They were followed by the Cawstons  and Lowes, the Dalys and Manerys and others on the Similkameen.  It was estimated that by 1890 there were 20,000 head of cattle on  the lower Okanagan and Similkameen ranges.  A letter from C. D. Bash to C. L. Thompson, Collector of Customs at Oroville, in 1934, tells of his arrival at Osoyoos Lake,  August 7, 1881. His territory was any place along the trail from the  Cascade Mountains, through Spokane Falls, to Bonner's Ferry, but  his headquarters were at Osoyoos Lake. His cabin was on Nine-Mile  Creek, on the east side, near the foot of Osoyoos Lake.  Just twenty years before, the flow of cattle had all been going  north. Although he does not give the year, it would be before the  death of Judge Haynes in 1888. Bash states that while collections  were generally small, one year he collected over $5,000.00 on Judge  Haynes' beef cattle, which were sold to Willis Clark of Yakima Valley, Washington.  He goes on to tell that in the years he was in office great herds of  range horses were brought down from British Columbia, to be driven  over what was then the Colville reservation, through Spokane Falls  to Alberta, passing out of the U.S. again at Bonner's Ferry, Idaho.  They were driven from Okanagan River to near Omak Lake, thence  to' the Columbia River. He would send a convoy with each herd,  who was to receive $4.00 per day and living expenses, going and  returning from Bonner's Ferry. There were some breeding cattle  entered during his term which were on the free list.  In contrast to the above figures we find from the Customs cash  book for Osoyoos from July 15, 1890, to September 31, 1896, a total  of 1,555 horses, 12,593 sheep, 37 mules, 183 cattle, 5 small pigs and  132 settlers including families; and a total of $15,995.46 duty was  collected. The entries in this book shed some interesting light  on the activities of that period. On the other hand the repetition  of    articles    declared    would    indicate    monotony    compared    with  (31) The Okanagan Historical Society—-1958  present day entries. The list of entries can be summed up quickly:  horses; settlers' effects, which included horses, wagons, cattle and  household effects; mining and milling equipment; sawmill equipment;  prospectors' supplies; groceries, hardware, and wearing apparel, in  small quantities. In the years 1895 and 1896, large quantities of fresh  fruit and vegetables (in season), bacon, eggs, and butter were brought  in by peddlers for the mining camps. The year 189.3 seems to have  been the busiest year when 50 settlers, including families, 200 horses,  1805 sheep, 10 mules, and 43 cattle passed through this port of entry,  the total receipts amounting to $3,667.97.  On June 27, 1893, eight families from the U.S. cleared the port  of Osoyoos as new settlers. In "From Ranches to Orchards,"2 F. M.  Buckland tells of several families of Missourians who had homesteaded in Idaho, and then decided to move on. They had travelled  with their wagons through the mountains to Okanagan Valley. At  Penticton the trail had ended and they had loaded their wagons and  livestock on the S.S. Aberdeen, headed for the new town of Kelowna,  where they staked homesteads on the fringe of Mission Valley settlement at Black Mountain, and the head of Mill Creek.  In the same report Mrs. M. E. Mawhinney in "Black Mountain  School Days" tells of the first school there: "The Whites were the  only Canadians there, the other families having come from across the  line, taking up pre-emptions on Black Mountain."3  Mr. Buckland gives the date as 1892, but the Customs entry  shows that these eight families all came through on the same day in  1893. A roll call of the names appearing in the book for this date  include W. H. Rice, Daniel Prather, A. Howard, J. J. Rice, George  McLurr, A. J. Sproule, P. T. Brown, and J. Clark. Unfortunately,  it does not give any information as to wives and children, which appears with most of the other settlers that entered. Possibly it involved  too much book-keeping for one day. A total of eight wagons, 41  horses and colts and two mules, settlers' effects and three sewing  machines are listed, and while each settler had horses and settlers'  effects, some had two or three wagons each, while others had none.  Interesting comparisons with present day prices and marketing  practices can be made from the following extracts taken at random  over the period 1895-1896, when there was apparently a ready market  at the mining camps for produce of all kinds, and this seems to have  2 OHS 12, pp. 89-98.  3 OHS 12, pp. 112-114.  (32) Customs Business at Osoyoos Prior to 1900  been supplied by peddlers. Such names as L. J. Snyder, father of  Charlie Snyder, well-known freighter, John Potts, T. A. Butter,  E. D. Nash, D. M. Boone, A. Ward, appear most often. Most of  these declarations were for the years 1895 and 1896 and there seems  to have been no fruit brought in before then.  Strawberries       100 lbs.  Gooseberries   240 lbs.  Rhubarb    125 lbs.  Currants -     20 lbs.  Apricots       160 lbs.  Cherries         45 lbs.  Grapes  216 lbs.  Peaches    350 lbs.  Pears     450 lbs.  Nectarines       130 lbs.  Prunes       143 lbs.  Crabapples    1 barrel  Melons    100 lbs.  Apples   2 barrels  Cucumbers        50 lbs.  Tomatoes   lP/z bus.  Potatoes        94 bus.  Onions   240 lbs.  Beans         7 bus.  Apricots, dried   257 lbs.  Corn, dessicated     120 lbs.  Cabbage  (salted)          2 bis.  Piefruit, canned   280 lbs.  Cabbage    400 lbs.  Wheat          6 bus.  Oats  250 bus.  Poultry       3 doz.  Eggs   90 doz.  Ham     370 lbs.  Bacon      85 lbs.  Lard      50 lbs.  Hay          2 tons  Salmon, 2 kegs  200 lbs.  (33)  Value  Duty  $10.00  $2.00  (2c lb.)  9.00  4.80  (2c lb.)  1.00  .20  4.00  1.60  3.00  .60  2.00  .90  (2c lb.)  4.00  4.32  5.00  3.50  (lclb.)  9.00  1.80  3.00  .60  (20%)  2.00  1.43  (lclb.)  2.00  .40  4.00  1.00  (25%)  4.00  .80  1.00  .25  (25%)  3.00  .77  (20c bus.  & 10%)  56.00  14.10  (15c)  2.00  :50  (25%)  6.00  1.05  (15c bus.)  24.00  6.75  (25%)  12.00  2.40  (20%)  30.00  7.40  (25%)  16.00  6.30  4.00  1.00  (25%)  4.00  1.00  (25%)  85.00  25.00  (10c bus.)  8.00  .80  (20%)  9.00  2.70  35.00  7.40  9.00  1.70  5.00  1.00  14.00  4.00  14.00  2.00 The Okanagan Historical Society—A958  11.50          1.00  44.00          8.80  23.00          6.54  3.00            .60  insons—  value  $1.00  duty       . 16  "     12.00  "      9.00  " 220.00  "    45.00  "     12.00  2.40  "    68.00  "    13.60  "    15.00  "      3.42  Mackerel, 1 keg ....    100 lbs.  Dried Meat   440 lbs,  Salted Meat    327 lbs.  Onion Plants  1200  Prices on staples will also bear comparisons-  3 lbs. Arbuckle Coffee   value  300 lbs. Beef   60 tons flour   240 sacks    340 lbs. Butter .   300 lbs. Sugar   In 1890 100 lbs. of sugar was worth $8.00 and the duty was  $4.60; a 60 lb. keg of butter was worth $15.00—$2.40 duty; 10  gals. Coal Oil $2.90—duty .75; 4 lbs. Price's baking powder $1.80  —duty .24; 3 lbs. tea $1.25—duty .12%; 15 lbs. lard $1.20—duty  .45; 200 lbs. B.C. Powder (blasting) $40.00—duty $18.00; 1,000  ft. Fuse $6.00—duty $1.20.  In 1892 the wholesale prices on men's clothing were:  1 doz. Gloves .. value  1 doz. caps   1 doz. suspenders    Vz doz. wool undershirts    Yi doz. shoes  ,   2 pr. overalls    Vz doz. pants    2 Mackinaw coats    Vz doz. blue jumpers    4 doz. cotton hose    In 1890 we find Lumden Bros, imported 200 mares, 75 colts,  and 19 saddle horses free; L. W. Armstrong, 30 small wild horses,  value $400.00—duty $80.00 (20%).  In 1891 Thos. Daly (Keremeos), one pedigreed American Angus  bull. F. Richter, 1 pedigreed Galloway bull ($212.00), 2 Angus  bulls, 4 Angus cows, $800.00; 1 Percheron stallion, $1500.00. George  McWha, 1 Clydesdale stallion $1500.00; R. L. Cawston for the  British Columbia Cattle Company imported:  lue $3.00  duty $1.05  2.00  j>  .60  "      5.00  >)  1.05  "      3.00  35  1.35  "      6.00  >>  1.50  "      2.00  ?J  .70  "      4.00  ?>  1.40  "      4.00  3J  1.40  "      2.00  JJ  .70  "      1.50  3}  .85  value  3300 Mutton Sheep  $8250.00  (34)  duty 30% @ 2.50    $2475.00 Customs Business at Osoyoos Prior to 1900  3,000 Yearlings      6000.00     duty 30% @ 2.00       1800.00  2200 lambs     2200.00     duty 30% @ 1.00 660.00  $16450.00 $4935.00  1 light farm wagon  75.00 duty 20% & 15.00 30.00  1 light buckboard  50.00 duty 20% & 15.00 25.00  2 blue horses  100.00 duty 20%   20.00  2 bay horses  175.00 duty 20%   35.00  1 grey horse  30.00 duty 20%   6.00  1 bay gelding  25.00 duty 20%.  5.00  2 sets Harness   60.00 duty 35%   21.00  140.00  The same year F. Harvey brought in 2232 sheep and lambs, duty  $1449.00. Other entries were Lucian and Thomas Tedrow, settlers,  who later homesteaded near Sidley. Joseph Christian, 1 purebred Percheron stallion, "Frank," value $700.00, free.  In 1892 Evan Morris, who ran the "Miners' Rest" at Fairview,  had this entry: 1 sewing machine $15.00 (6.00), 1 box Soda Biscuits,  $5.00 (1.00), 2 cant hooks valued at $5.00 (1.25). F. R. Kline,  who built the original Golden Gate Hotel at Fairview in 1892 imported one saw, and 2 16-lb. wedges, probably preparatory to getting  out the logs for the building, and in December of that year also imported :  8,000 shingles   value $30.00 duty $6.00  9 windows       "       18.00 "'     5.40  6 windows        "       10.00 "      3.00  3 doors       " 5.00 "       1.75  7 doors       " 7.00 "      3.85  5 lb. Seal of North Carolina plug tobacco was worth $3.00 (duty  2.38).  3 lb. Star plug tobacco $1.00 (duty $1.43).  In 1893 we find the well-known name of Steve Mangott first  mentioned. Further entries were D. M. McDougal, wife and 1  child, settler: John McCuddy and family, settler. He also imported  general merchandise for resale on which he paid $563.76 duty. Wm.  Snodgrass, settler; and Hiram Ingle's name appears. A. R. L. Thompson, imported a pleasure cart, value $20.00 ($14.00 duty), 1 set  harness, $10.00.   The trek of American settlers to the Black Moun-  (35) The Okanagan Historical Society—A 958  48.35        di  ty $47.67  22.40  3.36  18.20  2.73  39.40  5.91  38.50  5.82  1.60  .20  9.00  1.80  13.00  2.60  18.00  3.60  3.00  .60  11.00  2.20  tain district at Kelowna took place in 1893 also. D. M. Boone declared 50 doz. eggs, value $20.00 (duty $2.00), 50 lbs. butter $16.00  (duty $1.00). In November of the same year T. M. Murray imported a large quantity of fruit trees and berry bushes as follows:  1589 apple trees    value  $248.35  112  pear         "  91 apricots         "  197 plums         "  194 peaches         "  8 quinces         "  90  currants         "  650 strawberry plants         "  180  dewberries     125 raspberries         "  90 gooseberries        "  Also, C. Pittendrigh, 5 chairs $15.00, duty $5.25.  In 1894 D. A. Carmichael imported 1427 ft. lumber, 119 pieces,  $29.00, duty $5.80; 5246 ft., 371 pieces, $105.00, duty $21.00.  Wm. Snodgrass paid $71.33 duty on 59 items wholesale hardware.  C. Melville, settler, wife and four children; G. W. Gillespie, settler.  J. Monahan of the Cariboo Mine at Camp McKinney brought in  1 steam engine and boiler complete _.... value $800.00 duty $220.00  1 10 stamp and assay outfit complete __       "     2200.00        "'      660.00  $880.00  This was the mill on v/hich the duty was delayed, by permission of  the Deputy Collector of Customs. (See Camp McKinney Gold Brick  Robbery, by Arthur Cosens, O.H.S. Report No. 7.) The horses  and equipment with which the stamp-mill was hauled, together with  large quantities of mining supplies, horse feed, and cook house supplies, brought the total amount of duties levied up to well over $1,000.  N. J. Lambert, 9 mares and horses  $360.00    duty  $72.00  A. W. Carlin, 11 mares and horses        88.00        "       17.60  F. E. Zuelke and James Goodyear, settlers to Anarchist Mountain. Del Hart, 10 barrels of flour, and 40 sacks. Del Hart was for  many years a prominent real estate man in Oroville, Washington.  Wm. McMynn, large quantity grocery, hardware, and household  goods. Ah Kee, a long list of groceries and sundries, including one  pair of corsets. Later the same year, we find the Cariboo' Mining  and Milling Company imported, along with large mining equipment  (36) Customs Business at Osoyoos Prior to 1900  and other supplies, 10 gal. gasoline, worth $3.00, duty .60. This is  the only mention of gasoline in the entire record, and is possibly the  first importation of gasoline through the port of Osoyoos. We also  note the following prices on pipe:  90 ft. 3" pipe  $31.00    duty $1.85  1 elbow ______        6.60       "      2.31  1  3" T fittings           .75       "        .26^  1 3" Glove valve         5.25        "       \.SV/2  2 3" flanges  .95 " .26  1   3-2" reducer    .50        " .1434  C. DeB. Green appears for the first time; also John Prather and  Wm. Roland, settlers to Anarchist Mountain.  Following a financial panic in the U.S., many settlers lost their  homesteads, or could not find a market for what they were raising.  In 1893 there were only four ranchers between Osoyoos and Rock  Creek. They were R. Sidley, on Nine-Mile Creek; C. Pittendrigh,  who had staked the Pittendrigh Meadows; McBride Brothers on  Baker Creek; and a man named Johnson on what is now known as  Johnson Creek. He was the first to take up land in that area. Shortly  after, however, new settlers, mostly from the Big Bend country,  came from across the line and from the Fraser valley, over the Hope  trail, in 1894 and 1895, and there was a rush for land where the  soil was so rich and black, and the grass so abundant. Furthermore,  with the mining boom in the Boundary country, Camp McKinney and  Fairview, there appeared to be a profitable market for all they could  raise. This is why the' Customs Book for that time shows so many  new settlers bound for Anarchist Mountain.  Further extracts from the Customs book follow: 1895: Harvey  and Calvin W. Garrison, settlers; Martin Kirby, 1 thoroughbred  Percheron stallion, "Rousel," value $450.00; Manuel Barcelo, 7  barrels of flour; George Menil and J. C. Louark, settlers to Anarchist  Mountain; F. Struve, settler to Kettle River; Thomas Culling, settler to Anarchist Mountain; George Shurson (Similkameen), 1 homemade carpet, value $9.00 ($2.70); Mrs. A. J. Sroufe, to Ashcroft,  household goods $50.00, books, Bible, and song books for children  $12.00; C. Coss, 1 old mowing machine $15.00; R. D. Beecher,  settler, to Anarchist Mountain. Large quantities of supplies were  brought through from 1894 to 1896 by Wm. Hughes, who with his  wife, ran the cook house at the Cariboo Mine at Camp McKinney.  D. C. Runnals, 44 mares and colt $215.00 ($43.00); Luke Gibson,  Princeton,  Percheron stallion,  "Denmark."   R.  Sidley,  2 small pigs,  (37) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  value $4.00, duty .30.   Duty was H_c per pound which would make  them very small pigs.  The 1896 record ends with September. Most of the business  transacted for that year was with the peddlers who have been mentioned. Wm. Tippie, settler for Anarchist Mountain, had two pigs  included in his settler's effects and stock, the only one to do so; F. B.  Boone, settler, James M. Bozarth, settler for Anarchist Mountain,  (settled on One-Eyed Mountain) ; L. A. Huff, to Greenwood, settler,  G. A. Ford, settler, to Greenwood City, settler's effects and 1 bathtub  and fittings value $40.00.  C. Y. Foss & Co.—2 Winchester Rifles  $19.00 duty $3.80  18 boxes W. Cartridges _._.__ 7.00 " 2.10  9 doz. steel traps  8.00 " 2.21  1 pr. Ind. rubber boots ______ 5.00 " 1.50  1 pr. leather shoes   2.00 .40  9 Indian horses and mares _ 51.00 10.20  3 riding saddles   10.00 " 3.00  6 pack saddles  18.00 " 5.40  2 Bear traps         8.00        "       2.20  Another interesting item was for September, 1893: S. A. Halberg  and sons, settlers, to Fort Edmonton, N.W.T.  At present, 1957, an acute shortage of hay in the Cariboo is  responsible for the ranchers there disposing of many of their cattle,  and the flow is now going back across the line again, not in big drives,  as they did in the 1800's, but in huge cattle trucks and trailers over  smooth paved roads, and it takes only a few days to move the same  amount of cattle that it took months to move in earlier days.  (38) LA-nveilina   ^Jf   {—^airn   ^/^rt  £rent's JHdl,   IQutUJ  "Brent's Flour Mill. First industry of the Okanagan. Built in  1871 by Frederick Brent. The mill stones were brought from San  Francisco by steamer, stage and wagon. Pioneers from the entire  valley brought their grain here to be ground. Erected by the Rutland  Centennial Committee.   Dedicated August 10, 1958."  Frederick Brent  So runs the inscription on the plaque, presented by the Department  of Recreation and Conservation of B.C., and set in the stone cairn  designed by Mr. John Wilson and built by Mr. Carl Wenderhold.  It stands a few yards from the ancient wooden building which was  formerly "Brent's Mill" on the property of Mr. John Gervers, just  off Highway 97 near the drive-in theatre at Rutland.  On that hot Sunday afternoon a sizable group of people assembled for the unveiling and dedication of the cairn. Mrs. Caroline  Renshaw of Kaleden, 86-year-old daughter of Frederick Brent, assisted by Patrol Leader Bob Would of the Rutland scouts, removed  the Centennial flag that had previously veiled the cairn, and Father  (39) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  F. L. Flynn of St. Theresa's Church, Rutland, performed the dedication. Mrs. Renshaw was born on the farm where the old mill stands,  her father having owned the property from 1870 to 1892. She left  the district in 1917.  Several other members of the Brent family were on hand for  the occasion; Ferdie Brent of Peachland, a grandson Frederick  (nephew of Mrs. Renshaw), Roddy Brent of Black Mountain (another grandson), and two grand-daughters, Mrs. Gertrude Detjen of  Okanagan Falls and Mrs. H. McLellan of Penticton.  Before and after the dedication visitors inspected the old mill,  noting the sturdy construction, the hand-hewn beams and whipsawn  lumber. Square-headed nails were used in those days. Copies of the  stencil used by Brent on his flour sacks are still to be seen on the  beams.  Mr. A. W. Gray, chairman of the Centennial Committee, opened  the proceedings and called on Mr. Charles Buckland, vice chairman  of the committee (a son of the late Frank Buckland, author of  "Ogopogo's Vigil"), to present details of the history of the mill and  its builder.   Mr. Buckland cited the following facts.  Frederick Brent was born in Germany and emigrated to the  United States, serving in the U.S. cavalry during the Indian wars  of 1857 and the Civil War. He took his discharge at Fort Colville,  Wash., and came to the Okanagan with his wife and son Joseph in  1865. Settling first near Duck Lake, he operated a small steel grain  grinder with which he made flour in a primitive manner. In 1870  he bought the Calmel and Chapee homestead, 160 acres between Dry  Creek and Baldy Mountain, and in the following year built his mill.  Indians and settlers from all over the valley used to come with  their grain and spend a holiday camping near by while waiting for  it to be ground into flour. Brent was appointed a Justice of the Peace  and a small jail known as the "Skookum House" was built on the  property.  Other speakers were Mr. J. D. Whitham, President of the Okanagan Historical Society, the presidents of Rutland and Kelowna Boards  of Trade and Mr. Gervers, present owner of the property.  In the 1952 Report of the Okanagan Historical Society (O.H.S.  16), Dorothy Jean Whitham (Mrs. W. Zoellmer of Grand Forks)  quotes a story from "Ogopogo's Vigil" in her article entitled "A  Pioneer Okanagan Industry," to the effect that one of the ranchers  was dissatisfied with the percentage that Brent charged  for milling.  (40) Unveiling of Cairn at Brent's Mill, Rutland  He claimed that one-third was too much. In fact he said that one-  half was quite enough. "So the miller, going on the theory that the  customer is always right, let him have his way."  (See also the article "The First Stone Grist Mill" by Joseph Brent  in O.H.S. 6—1935.) F.T.M.  "British Columbia: a Centennial Anthology" (McClelland and  Stewart, 1958) is a handsome volume indeed, printed and bound in  Vancouver. Editor-in-chief Reginald Eyre Walters heads an outstanding editorial board, including such names as Willard Ireland,  Dr. Norman Mackenzie, Bruce Hutchison and Eric Nicol. The  Okanagan is represented by four items, viz., a page of colored pictures (two "blossom-time" cuts and a moonlight view of the lake),  and two advertisements taken from the Vernon News of late in 1900.  The first of these indicates that prices had a tendency to rise even in  those days, for one Jacob Smith, of the Vernon Bakery ("opposite the  Post Office") states that "owing to the Flour being on the rise, I  will raise the price of Bread from 16 loaves to 14 loaves for one  dollar after the 4th of November, 1900. Fresh Pie, Cakes and Pastry  Always on Hand." The other advertisement (Dec. 13, 1900) has  reference to the Boer War, then nearing its close, and offers pictures  of the more important battles recently fought in South Africa. It  concludes—"Agents! Coin money. Big profits. Enormous success.  The pictures are red-hot sellers. Veritable mortgage raisers . . .  address Box so-and-so, Chicago."  The fourth item is a poem, "Okanagan Summer," by Thelma  Reid Lower. F. T. M.  (41) v rattle <JDrive   \^Jver    Uhe ^JDewdne  Jrail  V  Kathleen Stuart Dewdney  The large cattle ranches in the Similkameen, Okanagan and  Boundary districts played an important part in the development and  growth of the Province of British Columbia for almost fifty years.  The cattle ranches were closely linked with Dewdney Trail over  which many thousands of cattle were driven to Western and Eastern  markets.  When the first settlers arrived, these districts with their creeks,  rivers and rolling bunch grass hills made an ideal range. The Hudson's Bay Company recognized the value of the rangeland in the  Similkameen when they established their trading post, with a farm  in connection, at Keremeos in 1860.  Jim McConnell, who worked for Judge Haynes in the 1880's at  Osoyoos, used to drive the stock over the Trail to winter on the lush  grazing lands on the open ranges along the Kettle River. The value  of these almost snow-free lands around Midway and Grand Forks  was known previously to the Hudson's Bay Company, and Angus  McDonald, the officer in charge at Fort Colville, used to send his  cattle to winter there.  As the settlers arrived the Trail became busier. From the Similkameen to the west, it was open for pack trains and cattle from the  middle of June until the middle of November. From Osoyoos to the  east it was open for a longer period.  Thousands of cattle were driven over the Trail from the stock  ranches of Frank Richter, John F. Allison, Manuel Barcelo, Dick  Cawston, W. H. Lowe, W. J. Manery, J. O. Coulthard, Thomas  Daly and others in the Similkameen; Judge Haynes and Thomas  Ellis in the Okanagan; J. R. Jackson, the Bubar Brothers, Allen  Eddy, C. Charlton, E. M. Cudworth and others in the Boundary.  Occasionally, flocks of sheep were driven over the Trail to markets  in nearby cities.  During the early cattle drives to the Coast, the cattle were bought  by butchers who owned their shops. Cattle were driven to Hope which  was at least a ten days' trip. From there, they were taken by boat  down the Fraser River to New Westminster and reloaded for Victoria. Later contracts were made with the B.C. Cattle Co., Pat Burns  of Calgary, and still later with Swift & Co.  (42) Cattle Drive Over the Dewdney Tri  Cattle were driven east over the Trail to the mining camps and  smelter cities that sprang up in the 1890's and the early part of 1900  in the Boundary and West Kootenay. Ready markets were found at  Greenwood, Grand Forks, Phoenix, Rossland, Trail and Nelson.  During the late 1890's, rough wagon roads were built through  the Boundary to serve the needs of the mining camps. Over parts of  these roads the cattle were driven. Soon railroads became necessary  to transport men, supplies, fuel and ore.  After the railway operated out of Midway in 1900, herds of cattle  were driven to Midway and Greenwood where they were loaded in  special cattle cars and then shipped to slaughter houses. Mining and  smelting operations ceased in the Boundary about 1919.  By this time, the decline of stock raising had set in. It still has  its place in the Similkameen, Okanagan and Boundary districts on a  very reduced scale. Fruit growing and farming have grown in importance, until today they are the mainstay of our valleys.  Through southern British Columbia where the cattle drives took  place, our present Highway 3 follows the general direction of the  Dewdney Trail, some sections of which were improved, widened,  and even slightly re-routed to serve the needs of a developing country.  Joseph and Edward Richter who were born in Keremeos (now  Cawston), and who presently reside in Penticton, are sons of the late  Francis (Frank) Xavier Richter, cattle baron of the Similkameen,  and Lucy Richter.  In 1864, Frank Richter and his partner King bought 42 head of  cattle at Butter Creek, Oregon, and drove them by way of Osoyoos  to the Similkameen. They homesteaded about where Cawston is now.  This was the beginning of Mr. Richter's extensive farms and cattle  ranches which comprised 10,000 acres, including ranges of 6,000  acres for 1,500 head of cattle and many horses.  Joe, now 84 years of age, and Ed, 82 years, are still hale and  hearty from a life spent outdoors in the healthful occupation of tilling the soil and riding the range. They tell many interesting tales of  pioneer days including their cattle drives over the Dewdney Trail  with their father and their brothers John (Hans), Charles and  William.  In the late 1860's ancl for many years afterward, Mr. Richter Sr.  drove cattle west from Keremeos to Fort Hope. When the mining  camps and smelter cities sprang up in the Boundary and Kootenay  districts, the Richter brothers drove cattle east as far as Robson.  (43) I1 he Okanagan Historical Society—-1958  A trio of men who helped make history on the Dewdney Trail were  "The Richter Brothers," Joseph, Edward and John (Hans), sons of the  famous pioneer in the Keremeos-Cawston area, Frank X. Richter.  During the mining boom days, the drives averaged 100 head of  cattle once a month during the summer and early fall, and 250 head  in the last drive of the season during the late fall or early winter.  The drives wended their way along the Trail at about 10-mile-  a-day pace. They skirted, forded or swam creeks, rivers and lakes.  They threaded mountain passes and river canyons. They climbed  mountain summits. They ambled through evergreen forests and  across bunch grass hills and valleys, to corrals at their destination.  The cattle drives were colorful processions with cowboys wearing  fringed buckskin jackets and gloves, large excellent quality Stetson  hats (10-gallon hats were not used in those days), bright colored  handkerchiefs around their necks, leather chaps made of cowhide or  angora goatskin (the cowhide was used in mild weather as a protection against cuts, etc., when riding through timber, and the warm  woolly goatskin was used in cold weather), high-heeled riding boots  and bronc spurs.  The cowboys were mounted on swift, sure-footed horses equipped  with strongly made bridles and stock saddles of best workmanship.  These horses were so well trained that a word or two of command  and a slackening or tightening of the reins would direct them.  The Richters had varied colored cattle of different breeds: Short-  (44) Cattle Drive Over the Dewdney Trail  horns, mostly roans, also some reds with small white markings; Here-  fords, white-faced; and Aberdeen Angus, black polled (hornless).  The Richter brand was a circle on the left hip. In May the  cattle were moved to the summer range near Princeton. In October,  the fall roundup took place and the stock was brought home where  many tons of hay had been cut and stacked for winter feeding.  The cattle drives were led by a bell-mare that carried the rawhide  boxes containing camping utensils and food supplies for bannocks,  bacon and beans, mulligan stew and coffee. The bell-mare was in  charge of the cook. The bell was used so- she and the cattle could  be located in the morning, should they stray during the night while  the cowboys were asleep.  Ed relates how faithfully the cattle followed the mare in a uniform file, with their eyes fixed straight ahead upon her, never turning  their heads either to the right or the left. This was so, even in later  years, when going through towns with traffic passing beside them  and spectators watching the procession.  Joe tells of one late fall drive over the Trail about 1892 with  250 head of cattle from Keremeos to Robson, where Pat Burns was  waiting to receive them. From Keremeos they wended their way  through Richter Pass to Osoyoos, then over Anarchist Mountain to  Rock Creek, then through Midway and Boundary Falls, thence on  to Grand Forks, at that time a little cluster of shacks supplied by a  tiny store where Joe and his brothers stocked up for the final push.  From Grand Forks they proceeded to Christina Creek, then they struck  out over the Summits to the slaughter house at Rossland where they  herded 50 of the cattle.  They camped for the night where the city of Trail now stands,  and herded the remainder of the cattle amongst the tall trees that  nestled by the river's bank. They slept on the ground, where a few  years later the floor of the Trail smelter was built. Today, Cominco's  huge metallurgical and chemical plants cover the site of their camping  ground.  In the morning they drove the remaining 200 head to the present  day site of Castlegar. Ingenuity as well as brawn was then displayed  by Joe and his brothers in getting the cattle across the Columbia  River. They hired two Indians to ride herd on the cattle in their  birch-bark canoes. Gathering 15 to 20 head at a time, Joe and his  brothers would run them into the river. The Indians, one on the  upper side of the cattle, and one on the lower side, would prod them  (45) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  along driving them to the opposite shore where one of the men corralled the animals. Ten trips were necessary before the entire herd  stood on the other side.  Joe and Ed are proud of the fact that not a head of cattle was  lost. In fact, not a head was lost during the entire time that they  drove cattle over the Dewdney Trail. That trip from Keremeos to  Robson took 20 days.  Stock was not valued by the pound at that time. Cattle brought  $35 per head, hogs $2 per head, and sheep $2.50 per head. A few  years later, the animals were weighed and sold by the pound. In those  early years there were no stock sales like those held today.  Most of the cattle at that time were bought by Pat Burns of Calgary whose slaughter houses and retail butcher shops were scattered  throughout western Canada. He also supplied meat to the Canadian  Pacific Railway construction camps in southern British Columbia and  to the cities that sprang up throughout the country during the mining  boom days.  Memories of the large picturesque cattle drives are still vivid to  the Richter brothers who in their youth rode the range, took part in  the round-ups, and trailed cattle for many miles over the Dewdney  Trail.  A Catholic priest-historian, who in his younger days was a reporter  and correspondent for some of the best-known newspapers in California  and New Mexico and who made his living for five years as a fiction  writer, has confirmed that Father Charles Pandosy and Father Pierre  Richard met each other by pre-arrangement at the west side of Lake  Okanagan across from what is now Kelowna on October 9, 1859.  Rev. Thomas P. Freney is currently doing considerable research in  the Okanagan for the Catholic Historical Association. He has made  several visits to Kelowna in the past, staying with his brother-in-law  and sister, Mr. and Mrs. A. T. Bregolisse of Glenn Avenue.  (46) <yVlemories   >->y   <~JVathleen ^fr&M  Mrs. Grace Worth  Early in 1958 it was my good fortune to spend a few days at  the home of one of the Okanagan's most colorful and interesting  personalities—Mrs. Kathleen Gray, of Mara, B.C.  In this our centennial year, factual information from our pioneers  of pack-trail and covered-wagon days, be it humorous, tragic, or just  plain progress, is of the utmost interest. Their struggle against adversities too numerous for the present generation to imagine, will be of  historical value to posterity. There are of course many records, but  not enough intimate and direct recording of the lives of the early  pioneers of British Columbia. The interesting experiences of so many  of them are now closed books, because no one took the trouble to write  them down. Yet the 19th century pioneers are fast fading from the  scene.  British Columbia is still creating pioneers, and they in turn will  have adversities to overcome, but scientific advance has wiped away  many of the circumstances which burdened, and sometimes broke, the  old-timers.  Mr. Tom Gray, a bachelor, from Yorkshire, England, pre-empted  160 acres in the district which is now called Mara, in 1887. At that  time, what is now a broad beautiful valley, with waving grain fields,  interspersed with alfalfa fields, and numerous herds of high-producing  dairy cattle, feeding in lush green pastures, was mostly, bush, timber,  and swamp, from the mountains in the west to the mountains in the  east, and only by a steep ascent on the mountain-side could any view  of the valley be obtained. For the families who live in the comfortable, and often up-to-date, homes in Mara today, the conditions of  seventy years ago must be hard to vision.  Mr. Tom Gray was one of the lucky bachelors who secured a  bride, for in those days there were many more males than females.  Mrs. Gray, nee Kathleen Eibenberger, was born in Hungary in  November, 1875, just after the Franco-Prussian war, and in her  young days "had to go from pillar to post." She said "I must have  been born a rebel, for as a girl I fought against religious control, and  regarded it as more or less a tyranny, and when the chance came I  was eager to get away from it and the poverty it imposed."  Now Kathleen Eibenberger had a Godmother—Mrs. Van Hook,  from whom she heard about the wonderful country of British Columbia.   Mr. Van Hook had homesteaded on the farm which is at present  (47) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  owned by Mr. George Bell, beside the Spallumcheen River near the  Mara railway station.   This river is now known as the Shuswap.  The fact that it was possible to take up 160 acres of good land,  improve it, make a home on it and make a comparatively small payment to the Government appealed very much to Kathleen, as it was  such a contrast to circumstances in Hungary where land was only for  the rich landowners.  So in 1894 she left Hungary and travelled through Germany to  Rotterdam, then across the North Sea to Grimsby, and by train to  Liverpool. Then she sailed on the "Mongolian" to Quebec, and from  Quebec to her Godmother's place in B.C. by train. She got food in  Montreal, as the stationmaster at Quebec told her she could get no  food on the train. But she got hot water. She remembers there were  just a few shacks at Fort William. Her journey took thirty-three  days and she landed at her destination on Oct. 13th, 1894, at the  age of 19.  She had noticed while in Quebec that Sicamous was very much  advertised, so she expected a big city. There was only one hotel—the  Belle Vue, so she asked the proprietor—Colonel Forrester, "Where  is this wonderful city of Sicamous?" He waved his arms in the direction of the lake, and laughingly replied "There it all is." The  stationmaster at Sicamous was Mr. Mojesky. The railway from Sicamous to Okanagan Landing had been in operation about   18 months.  "I was put off at the flag station but no one was there to meet  me. I was wondering what I should do next, as I could speak very  little English, when the wife of the section boss, Mrs. Pulciver, who  was a little Irish lady, said 'Come in, my girl'. I have never forgotten  her kindness and cordiality, and have endeavored to' extend such a  welcome to all new-comers to our neighborhood ever since. When  her husband came home they took me down the track on a hand-car  and across the river to my Godmother's place in a boat."  In December of that year Kathleen Eibenberger was married to  Tom Gray by Mr. G. E. Rosoman of Mara who had come out from  England as an English Church missionary.  Tom Gray had pre-empted near the Van Hooks. The district  was not named Mara until after Mr. Gray came, and Mrs. Gray  thinks that Mr. Mara after whom it was called was the first Member  of Parliament for the Okanagan. At first there was no bridge across  the river to connect the railway, and all goods that came in by train  for the settlers on the east side of the river were conveyed across on  (48) Memories of Kathleen Gray  a scow. There was a dirt road north from Enderby but only as far  as the south end of Mara Lake. This road smothered them in dust  in summer and bogged them in the spring. By comparison today's  roads are wonderful.  High water in 1894 swamped nearly the whole valley and reached  as far east as the highway is now, and people had to visit in boats.  In those days the mosquitoes were so bad that they had to smoke them  out before they could go into the house, and it was a choice of two  evils—clouds of mosquitoes or clouds of smoke. But gradually as  they cleared the land, they ditched the swampy places, and the Government supplied the oil for the neighborhood to prevent the pests  from breeding in the big sloughs.  Logging was the chief industry. This was carried on in the winter, and revenue earned was reinvested in stumping powder and necessary facilities to clear, plough, and seed the land during spring and  summer. This rotation of labor was carried on for many years until  the farm became self-supporting, with Mrs. Gray augmenting the  income in many ways, such as baking bread and cooking for the bachelors of which there were many.  One of Mrs. Gray's pleasures in early spring was to watch the  skilled loggers, sweeping the river of logs and guiding them in to  the boom on the lake.  For 63 years Mrs. Gray has lived on the same farm. She has had  eleven children. Three died when very young. There are four boys  and four girls living. Two of these reside in Mara. Mrs. Doerflinger  has a small restaurant near Mara school, and Tom the youngest son  carries on the farm, and his mother thinks he makes a very creditable  job of it.  Mr. and Mrs. Gray built quite a large house on the farm about  1910. Since Mr. Gray's death in 1940 Mrs. Gray has lived there  except during the winter of 1957. In September of that year she had  rather a bad stroke. Although she is generally alone, son Tom and  his wife, Olive, live quite close and are in frequent contact with  mother. And she is most thankful that Tom and Olive are within  call. She thinks Olive is a wonderful daughter-in-law. She said "I  am full of gratitude for all the patient and loving care she gave me  when I was ill, and the constant and diligent attention I always receive from her." However, as Olive is a farm wife with a young  family, Mrs. Gray thought she would be over-taxed in caring for her  during that winter. So she decided to accept her daughter Ethel's kind  hospitality, and she stayed with Ethel for some months following the  (49) The Okanagan Historical Society—A958  stroke. After great improvement she returned to her farm home in  the early summer of 1958.  Although Mrs. Gray has had to work exceedingly hard while  clearing up a bush farm, erecting buildings, and raising a large family, she says she has never regretted coming to Canada and making  her home at Mara.  She. visited Hungary in 1923 and returned in 1924, and what she  saw there gave her no desire to remain, but strengthened her opinion  that Canada is a far better country in which to live. Connections  made while visiting her homeland, and observations since, have convinced her that "religion is changing, but will never be destroyed.  Only superstition is dying and something far nobler is gradually  replacing it."  On May 2nd, 1906, a man at Grindrod was burning bush when  a wind came up and fire spread all across the valley. Many people  were burnt out; also the Post Office which had to carry on in the  school. No help came from the Government, but Armstrong and  Spallumcheen collected clothing.  In a little log school-house near the river the first Christmas tree  was displayed in 1896 with Miss Dell as the first teacher. When the  school was proposed there were not enough children to start one, so  three Finlayson children came down by train from Sicamous and  resided for a while with Mrs. Gray, going home to Sicamous on weekends. By the time these children had finished Mrs. Gray herself managed to keep up the supply. Community activities were also carried on  in this little log school.  On asking Mrs. Gray if she could stir up more memories wherewith to pad my skeleton story, she seemed unable to turn over the  bottom drawer of her brain. So Ethel (Mrs. Doerflinger) intervened,  saying that some of her mother's history was indelibly printed on her  mind. "I went to school before I was of school age to help make up  the number. Whenever I came home from school and saw Granny  Kelly in the doorway I never wanted to go into the house, as I knew  there were more duties in the offing for me. Granny Kelly was the  midwife and she would say 'Oh, come in, my dear; you've got such  a sweet little sister, or dear little brother'." But each addition meant  less freedom for Ethel, and as time advanced Granny Kelly's visits  became so constant and numerous that Ethel resented the advents. But  Mr. Gray would say, "Oh well, we can always grow another sack of  potatoes."  (50)  %?'*%S : «;v  m 5  w* Memories of Kathleen Gray  Later on Mrs. Gray herself followed in Granny Kelly's footsteps,  and was often called on in sickness or when a new baby came to Mara.  Once in the middle of the night an Italian section man crossed the  river in a boat to ask Mrs. Gray to come to his wife, as she was in  great pain. When she got to the shack she knew at once that a doctor  was needed. So she asked the section boss to take the hand-car and  go at once to Enderby for Dr. Keith. The section boss said, "Wait  till morning and we can go on C.P.R. time. If we go now I might  lose my job." She answered "You go immediately, or I shall hold  you responsible for this woman's life, and you can be sued for manslaughter." I said to one man—a Finlander who could speak the best  English, "When you get to Enderby run to Dr. Keith and ask him  to come right away." They were 45 minutes going and 40 minutes  returning. It was necessary to sacrifice the baby but the woman's  life was saved.  Mrs. Gray was a school trustee for twenty-five years and enjoyed  the job. At first there was a feeling that Mrs. Gray should not be a  school trustee because of her former nationality, but when Inspector  Miller came to Mara, he asked Mrs. Gray if she wished to be a trustee  and she said "Yes sir, I do! I have six children attending school."  Mr. Miller answered, "Then you are the person that should be there."  And from then on the Education Department at Victoria gave her  both help and encouragement in her duties.  In the early days a hall was built near the station, by the people  taking out shares at $25.00 a share. This hall is still used today and  improvements are paid for out of revenues.  Mrs. Gray thinks the coming of electricity the greatest boon and  blessing for the community.  Before the advent of Women's Suffrage Mrs. Gray worked hard  for that cause, and took around petitions for signatures, and she is  still anxious to extend rights for women. She is also a pension board  member.  The Grays were often visited by the Indians from the Enderby  reservation. She says "We got along fine with them and found them  very kind and considerate." They came to fish in the river, and traded  for farm produce. She has a picture of herself with Jim Nicholas  and his wife, taken when they came to fish.  Despite her many duties and the obstacle of mastering a strange  language, Mrs. Gray has read considerably, and observation of her  ideas regarding the future, convinces one that she is a deep thinker.  In summing up her conclusions on the conditions of the world today,  (5,)     : _.,AU*fM*.tU8i**  J*, 3^35- The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  they are well paralleled by the following quotation from Burke: "If  a great change is to be made in human affairs, the minds of men will  be fitted to it; the general opinions and feelings will draw that way.  Every fear, every hope, will forward it; and then they who persist  in opposing this mighty current in human affairs will appear rather  to resist the decrees of Providence itself, than the mere designs of  men.   They will not be resolute and firm, but perverse and obstinate."  "What we have been follows from afar, what we have been  makes us what we are." And when we think of Fort William as a  few shacks in 1894, and the industrial city it is today; and the community of Mara as a swampy wilderness then, but a beautiful farming community now, it is not hard to extend our vision to the whole  of western Canada. It follows that it is our bounden duty to honor  such pioneers as the Grays. They have in spite of tremendous odds,  not only glorified British Columbia, but all of Canada's west.  May the present generation emulate their courage and step into  the future with equal determination.  Princeton minister and wife feted. Friends honored Dr. J. C.  Goodfellow and his wife as he concluded a record-breaking pastorate  of 31 years at St. Paul's United Church. More than 200 persons  greeted them at a dinner in the Public School. Stanley Wilson, chairman of arrangements, presented a $500 purse to Dr. Goodfellow and  a lazy-boy chair to Mrs. Goodfellow. A leader in all phases of community life, the retiring pastor led scouts and other young people over  the old Hope trail every summer until recently. A long-time contributor to O.H.S. Reports, he was editor of the Society's publications  1954-1957.—Vancouver Province, June 28, 1958.  (52) <y\aramata—<^mile   ^-Jf ^sVlanitoM  Mrs. W. Nuttall  The fruit growing community of Naramata, situated on the east  shore and near the southern end of the beautiful Okanagan Lake, is  fifty-one years old in this year of British Columbia's centennial celebrations. The centre, which is noted for its scenic setting, is sheltered  on the east by gently rolling pine-clad hills, and bounded on the west  by the blue lake nestling against a breath-taking view of snow-capped  mountains.  Naramata, meaning "The Smile of Manitou," was formally  started in 1907 by the late J. M. Robinson who had by that time  already played an important role in developing Peachland, Summer-  land and other large acreage on the west side of Okanagan Lake. Mr.  Robinson, a former school teacher and newspaper man from Brandon,  Manitoba, was first drawn to the Okanagan Valley in 1897 by his  interest in mining, but this did not hold him for long. Soon realizing  the potentialities for greater wealth in fruit growing, he turned his  interest to developing the benchlands and sub-dividing the virgin land  into orchard holdings.  Meeting with success beyond his fondest dreams in opening up  the Peachland-Summerland district to settlers from across Canada,  the States and the old country, J. M. soon directed his attention to  setting up a similar scheme for developing the area on the east side  of the lake. This land, now known as Naramata, embraced an area  of approximately 800 acres, and was located about ten miles north  of Penticton between Four Mile Point and Chute Creek and was part  of the Tom Ellis cattle ranch that extended throughout the Okanagan  Valley to the international boundary.  The townsite was laid out and Naramata was started on April 22,  1907, when Mr. Robinson and his family came across the lake,  approximately three miles, in their houseboat "Lily of the Valley".  towed by their private launch "The Naramata." The launch and  houseboat were moored at their wharf located on the west shore adjoining the site where the Naramata Hotel was erected two years later.  The large two-storey hotel, a popular centre for the traveller in early -  days, is now known as the Naramata Lodge and is presently the home  of Mrs. Gwen Hayman and Miss Dorothy Robinson, daughters of  the founder of Naramata.  The rich benchlands in the new district, gently sloping to the west  and covered with sage brush and pines, needed irrigating for their  (53) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  development, and following incorporation into the Okanagan Trust  Company, Mr. Robinson proceeded with plans for supplying water  to the orchards from the Naramata creeks.  Men working with pick and shovel began the hard work of digging  the ditches which later distributed water from Camp Creek to the  land on the South Bench and from Mill Creek to the North Benches.  A pipeline distributed water to the townsite. Around 1909 lumber  was taken to the creeks and flumes were built to replace the dirt ditches.  Irrigation in Naramata followed this general pattern until 1917 when  the provincial government took over and formed the Naramata Irrigation District, a grower-owned enterprise.  The same year that the new townsite was laid out, a small school  house, dwelling and other buildings were erected and a post office was  opened with J. S. Gillespie in charge. He held that post for a brief  period to be succeeded by Harry Mulford, who served as postmaster  until 1908 when W. R. Bartlett took over the position he held until  his death in the early '40's.  A general movement of questing settlers into the West about that  time found many families and individuals arriving in Naramata and  remaining to contribute to the industrial and cultural growth of the  new district.  The first of the pioneer families to settle on the new land was  that of William Mitchell from Brandon who arrived in 1907. The  town was barely out of the planning stage when they and other early-  day settlers arrived. Others in this new group were Somerset Aikins  and his son Carroll, the Manchester brothers, Mr. and Mrs. J. S.  Gillespie, Mr. and Mrs. W. Wellband, Mrs. Palmer and family,  W. J. Robinson, Dan McKay, Guy Brock, Matthew Wilson, Mr.  and Mrs. J. C. Williams and family, Mr. and Mrs. Charles Turner  and Mr. and Mrs. George Wolstencroft.  Also among these first settlers were the "Happyland Boys," young  English lads from Lancashire who came to Canada in 1905, worked  in the east and gradually worked west to find their home in the village  of Naramata in the early part of 1907. These young men were  William Nuttall, Thomas Kenyon, Walter Land, Harry Hill and  Jim Crawshaw.  These first settlers welcomed many more to their swelling ranks  within the next few years prior to World War I. With this group  were Mr. and Mrs. E. H. Hancock, Mr. and Mrs. R. H. King, Captain and Mrs, F. G. Languedoc, Jack Logie, Mr. and Mrs, Frank  Rounds and sons, Mr. and Mrs. George Cook, Mr. and Mrs. H. P.  (54) Naramata—Smile of Manitou  Salting, William Armour, Charles Grimaldi, Mr. and Mrs. H. J.  Wells, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Scaife, the George Partridge family,  Mr. and Mrs. John Noyes and family, Mr. and Mrs. Ogden Hughes  and family and other members of the Roe family, Harold Endicott  and Robert Gammon.   .  With the influx of new families, it was found that the first little  "Red School House" was too small to accommodate the rapidly growing population, and plans were made to erect a new school building  which was completed in the fall of 1909. Several years later that  second school building was embodied into what is now the community  hall. Among those serving as teachers in the early days of Naramata  were a Miss Collins, T. H. Rayner, now 90 years of age and still  residing in Naramata, and T. H. Boothe, father of W. L. Boothe of  Penticton.  The social and cultural aspect of life in the pioneering community  continued to advance with the opening early in 1908 of the Opera  House where "The Entertainers" presented plays, concerts and other  programs with guests attending from as far away as Penticton, Summerland and Peachland. On April 4, one of the most successful programs drew an audience from Penticton. Those performing in the  presentation were J. S. Gillespie, Messrs. Hill, Crawshaw, Nuttall,  Land and Kenyon, Gladys Robinson, Margaret Mitchell, Bessie Mitchell, Kathleen Robinson, Anna Gillespie, Mr. Mulford and Mrs.  Wolstencroft.  One of the most significant developments in social activities at  that time was the forming of the Women's Unity Club, with the first  meeting being held October, 1907, in the tent home of Mrs. Gillespie.  A charter, believed to' be the first issued to a women's organization in  B.C., was granted the club on December 23, 1911; the same year the  members financed and erected a club house on a lot deeded the group  by Mr. Robinson.  With completion of the opera and club houses, the need became  apparent for a permanent building in which services of worship could  be held. The settlers responded generously to an appeal for funds and  with volunteer labor the church building was erected. It was known  as the Methodist Church and retained that identification until the  amalgamation of churches in Canada some years later. All denominations held services in the new building at that time. Rev. G. O.  Fallis served as first pastor of the new church.   Rev. H. A. Solly of  Summerland was the first rector to serve with the Anglican Congregate o     o  tion in Naramata.  (55) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  Regattas became a popular form of entertainment at an early date  in Naramata, and more than 500 water sports enthusiasts from neighboring communities attended the first, held in 1908 and officially  opened by His Honor Dr. G. H. B. Bulyea, Lieutenant Governor of  Alberta. Also testifying to the popularity of the sports event was the  presence of the Honorable Richard McBride, Premier of British Columbia. The second regatta held the next year attracted a still larger  crowd of nearly 800 people.  The Naramata Amateur Athletic and Aquatic Association sponsored the annual water events under the supervision of the board composed of J. M. Robinson, patron; J. S. Gillespie, honorary president;  Harry Hill, president; Walter Land, secretary; and W. T. Nuttall,  treasurer.  Keeping stride with the social and cultural development in the  new community were several new commercial establishments; a boat  building business operated by Thomas Scaife; a lumber mill at Mill  Creek; stores handling general merchandise, opened by Julius Block  and. H. J. Wells; a butcher shop by Harry Mulford; a drug store by  Jack Logie, and a branch of the Bank of Montreal located in the new  Naramata Hotel.  During this time of general development throughout the whole  community, the young fruit trees planted in 1907, the first by William  Mitchell, were beginning to bear and the orchardists set up a system  for shipping their fruit to market. In the summer of 1911, a temporary packing house was set up on the CPR wharf and the packed  fruit was shipped by ferry and scow across the lake to the Summer-  land Fruit Union from where it was distributed to market, chiefly in  prairie centres.  Transportation at that time depended almost entirely on the CPR  stern wheelers and ferry boats navigating up and down the Okanagan  Lake, and by horseback and wagon over the trails roughly hewn from  the rocky hillside east of Naramata. A new era in transportation  began with the building of the Kettle Valley railway in 1910-11,  extending west to' the seaport town of Vancouver, and east to Nelson.  Approximately 1,500 construction workers invaded Naramata during  this period to change the general picture and tempo of life in the  fast-growing centre.  The first World War brought many changes to the young community when sons of the pioneers and many of the early settlers themselves went overseas, many never to return and others crippled in  combat.  (56) Naramata—Smile of M.anitou  Many changes have come to Naramata with the years, and today,  in B.C.'s centennial year, it is a beautiful and thriving fruit growing  district and is rapidly developing into a well-known resort centre, and  reflects all the romance of the past fifty years in its present day charm.  The Kelowna Museum is now housed in its permanent home on  Mill Street, having been officially opened by the Lieutenant-Governor,  Hon. Frank Ross, on August 13, 1958. It contains many irreplaceable treasures; some of them are—the grinding-stones of Brent's mill,  the fossilized remains of a prehistoric bison found under 12 feet of  gravel and rock at Okanagan Mission, innumerable Indian artifacts,  the compass from S.S. Okanagan, a 1909 automobile, many fossils  and an interesting collection of old photographs.  The honorary curator is Mr. C. R. Walrod.  "The Summerland Golden Jubilee Booklet?' (Summerland, 1906-  56), published by the Summerland Board of Trade in co-operation with  the Golden Jubilee committee, gives a concise history of the town and  its neighborhood. There are 28 pages and 20 illustrations. The frontispiece is the municipal seal. Reeves and councillors, 1907-1956, are  listed, and there is a section on present-day facilities entitled "Modern  Summerland." Of special interest are pictures of J. M. Robinson, who  planned the original settlement and was the first reeve; Mr. J. L. Logie,  municipal clerk from incorporation to 1919, and of the lake front in  early days showing the C.P.R. steamer S.S. York.  (57) LAJilliam     VUard ^__5]pinks  By the late Major H. R. Denison  I cannot think of anyone who is more deserving of a place in our  historical records than the late Judge William Ward Spinks, for he  was a pioneer in every sense of the word and many of the experiments  which he carried out have proved of great value, not only to this Valley but to the rest of the Province.  He was born near Liverpool on the 10th of November, 1851. A  book which he published in 1933, under the name of "Tales of the  B.C. Frontier," gives much of the early history of his life. From  it we gather that his father wanted him to be a parson, but that he  rather grudgingly gave him the second choice of being a lawyer, with  one week in which to make his decision.  It was during that week that he visited a rather famous phrenologist of Liverpool, who told him that he would make a good lawyer  or surgeon. When asked by young Spinks if he would make a good  parson, Dr. Bridges, the phrenologist, replied, "Good Lord, boy, anything but that! You would be kicked out of any church." When  asked if he would put that in writing, he agreed to do so for an extra  shilling. Young Spinks considered this a bargain as he hoped that it  would weaken his father's decision to make a parson of him, which  it did, resulting in his being articled to a firm of solicitors of Castle  Street, Liverpool.  As he had only gone into law to escape being a parson, it is quite  understandable that he would have no love for it and as soon as he  qualified he started to think of a way out, instead of going into  practice.  He and his brother had married sisters and the four of them got  their heads together and decided to try their luck in New Zealand.  However, by chance, he met Sir Charles Tupper, who at that time was  High Commissioner for Canada, and Sir Charles persuaded them that  B.C. had much more to offer and that they should therefore book  passage via Canada.   This they decided to do.  They travelled by boat to New York, then, by train to Portland  and on up to Victoria by boat, arriving there sometime in March,  1884. Later that year the Judge (as he afterwards became) and his  wife moved to Kamloops and as there was no lawyer there, it was  not long before he found himself with a legal practice and after practicing for four years he was appointed a County Court Judge.  Prior to his appointment, a judge had to be sent in from Victoria;  (58) William Ward Spinks  therefore he was the first resident judge to be appointed to the district,  which extended from Kamloops down through the Okanagan to Vernon, Kelowna, Penticton, Fairview, Osoyoos, thence over Anarchist  Mountain to Midway, Greenwood, Grand Forks and for a time over  to Rossland and Nelson. On the return trip he branched off at Osoyoos  to Keremeos and Princeton; thence back to Kamloops.  There were few roads, so most of his travelling was done by  saddle and pack horse, which I am sure the Judge thoroughly enjoyed,  providing that the weather was fine, as he was an excellent horseman.  On his farewell journey in 1909, when he retired, he was able to  make the journey in comparative comfort and according to his book  the weather was all that could be desired and he enjoyed every minute  of it, especially as Dick Neil was his driver and it would be hard to  find a better or more entertaining companion.  From Vernon they drove to Okanagan Landing and loaded horse  and rig on the S.S. Aberdeen and unloaded again at Penticton; then  on through the Border country and back to Vernon via Osoyoos,  Princeton and Kamloops. One remark that he attributes to Dick Neil,  while on the trip, was that it evidently took as much common sense  to be a Judge as it did to run a livery stable.  The move to Vernon was made in 1892 and the Judge built a very  fine house on Pleasant Valley Road, which is now occupied by the  Price Ellison family. During the construction of the house, he and  his wife lived with the Government Agent, Moses Lumby, in the cottage just east of the Health and Welfare Building, which was the  Court House from 1893 until about 1910. Quarters must have been  rather cramped as Mr. Lumby was a very large man and one of the  front rooms was used as a Government Office.  Mrs. Spinks contracted a very severe attack of scarlet fever in  1897, from which she did not recover. In 1903 the Judge married  Margaret Black Stuart Clapham at Victoria and there were no children of either marriage.  The Judge did not confine himself to the law as he owned at  least three different ranches and had quite a large acreage behind and  to the south of his Pleasant Valley home. It is evident that upon his  arrival at Kamloops he had no intention of practicing law, as he purchased a rather large cattle ranch at Grand Prairie (now Westwold)  very shortly after his arrival. This he apparently sold when he moved  to Vernon in '94. He also had a place at Blue Springs next to a chap  dubbed "Greedy George," and another at the junction of the Goose  Lake Road and the old Vernon-Kamloops Road, about three and a half  (59) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  miles north of Vernon. History does not record when the latter places  were purchased but it was prior to 1 893 and might have been much  earlier, but not later.  It has often been said that the Judge introduced alfalfa into the  valley, although the first fodder crop that he experimented with was  sanfoin, which is coarser, but similar to alfalfa and has a pink flower.  Until about 1935 there were still two clumps of that crop near the  north end of 20th Street South, or south of 37th Avenue. His next  experiment was alfalfa and, although he kept his large field of sanfoin, his advice to the farmers was to grow alfalfa, as the yield was  so much larger. Many of us enjoy the vivid colors of the sugar maples  on the old Pleasant Valley Road place and think of this further contribution which he made with his experiments.  There were other things besides fodder crops, trees, shrubs, fruits  and flowers that the Judge experimented with, as it was he who brought  the first motor car into the Valley in 1901, purchasing it in San Francisco and driving it up. Its mechanism left much to be desired and it  was a standing joke, that whenever the Judge set out for a drive, Joe  Harwood got to hear of it and he would set off after him with a horse,  to tow the machine back to town. He is also credited with starting  ping-pong (the forerunner of table tennis) when he installed a table  on the veranda of the first Jubilee Hospital in 1898 or 1899. He also  tried to start polo but apparently did not meet with much success.  There has always been controversy about the origin of the name  KALAMALKA and it is interesting to note that one chapter in his  book is headed "How Kalamalka became a Christian" and it goes on  to relate how this chief of the tribe at the head of the Okanagan Lake  was an old crippled man but that he must have been tall and good  looking in his youth and prior to his accident. He goes on to say that  this made little difference, as an Indian seldom walks and while on  a horse he was as good a man as ever.  Many of his tribe had been baptized by Father le Jacques, who  refused to baptize the chief as he had four wives. He did agree to do  so if the chief kept his first wife and sent the others away. This  Kalamalka finally agreed to do, but when he told his four wives or  kloochmen of his decision to only keep his first wife and send the  others away, his first wife said that she would go too as she was not  going to take care of an old crippled man by herself and do all his  work for him. When he asked the others in turn, they all gave the  same answer, but the youngest wife, Anne, suggested that he take a  (60) William Ward Spinks  young strong wife to look after him and that his ex-wives would live  together and help the young wife when necessary.  Kalamalka was delighted with this arrangement, so he built a  large cabin for his ex-wives and selected a young strong wife to' do  his work. When Father le Jacques made his next visit the Chief  informed him that he now had only one wife and insisted on being  baptized before breakfast although the priest had ridden far and was  very hungry. The Chief stated that he had made a vow that neither  he nor his tribe would feed the priest, attend church or have their  children baptized until the chief had become a Christian.  After the short ceremony Kalamalka took the priest home to breakfast, where he expected to find the eldest wife in attendance. When  told how the problem had been solved he could hardly object as the  chief only had one wife; the chief was now a Christian and he would  get his rather large flock back into the fold.  In 1909, due to ill health, the Judge was forced to retire and for  a short time lived in California, but as soon as he was well enough  he returned to Canada, taking up residence at 1354 Craigdarroch Road  in Victoria, where he lived until his death in 1938, at the age of  eighty-seven.  During his lifetime he made many contributions to the Valley,  some due to his experimenting, a few of which I have mentioned, and  others due to his strong sense of civic duty and his splendid organizing  ability. Schools, hospitals, recreation facilities and cultural efforts  could always be sure of his active support.  The Judge was always a popular figure at any gathering, due to  his keen sense of humor, his infectious laugh and his kindly and good-  natured   disposition.    Even   transgressors   of   the   law   liked   and   re  spected him.  (61) <_^T <J~tistoru  ^-^V   \>~shanacjfan    J-alls  Joyce M. Overton  Condensed from the "Story of Okanagan Falls" by  Jas. R. Christie and Isabel Christie MacNaughton  The traveller visiting the Okanagan Valley may pass right through  the heart of Okanagan Falls on Highway 97. He will find a typical  small Okanagan village of about 480 inhabitants, with a church, a  school, two service stations, a handful of stores, a hotel and three  motels. He may be impressed by the hamlet's beautiful location at  the southern end of Skaha Lake, with brown pine-dotted hills rising  on either side to merge into the blue mountains beyond, but the pastoral view in this residential and ranching community will give no  hint of the excitement that ran so high in olden days that it prompted  the following description of Okanagan Falls: "The Geographical,  Industrial, Agricultural, Mining, Manufacturing and Railroad Centre  of the Southern Interior of British Columbia. Delightful and Healthful Climate. Head of Navigation for the Majestic Okanagan Lakes  and Surrounded by an Immense Wealth of Lumber, Coal, Mineral,  and Agricultural Land." (Okanagan Mining Review, Aug. 18,  1893.)  In early Indian days Okanagan Falls had been an important fishing and trading centre as it marked the uppermost ascent of the salmon  and was on a main canoe route. However, with the coming of the  horse the Indians followed overland routes and the importance of the  Falls diminished.  The fur trade and gold rushes brought white men to the interior  of B.C. and many stayed as settlers. The first white man to be crown-  granted land at Okanagan Falls was Michael Keogan, an Irish-born  American, on March 15, 1876. Harry Shuttleworth, Peter Mclntyre,  John Matheson, Roderick McLean and Hiram Inglis all settled here  in the 'eighties.  Keogan sold out to Tom Ellis in the 'nineties. Later the land was  purchased by two land companies who in turn sold to private ranchers.  In the early 'nineties the townsite was taken over by a syndicate  which included Mr. W. J. Snodgrass, Dr. R. Mathison, and Mr. L.  Holman. It was this group that held such a rosy vision of the future  of Okanagan Falls, as published in the Okanagan Mining Review.  The railway had come into the Valley about this time, and a survey  made for a canal connecting Okanagan and Skaha Lakes; so it was  generally supposed tht the Falls would be the terminal for lake-boats.  (62) A History of Okanagan Falls  During the 1890's many settlers who took part in the building up  of this and other Valley communities arrived at the Falls. Among  these were the Bassetts, John McLellans, Bob Meyerhoffs, the Garrisons, Gillespie brothers, the Prathers, Joe Brents, the Duttons, Beau-  cage brothers, J. M. Thomas, Joe Graham, C. Rankin, F. Harkins,  R. Travis and Geo. Maynard.  The first school was opened Aug. 10, 1896, with 21 pupils. There  has been a school at the Falls ever since, though the November, 1907,  register showed only seven pupils. The present school has two teachers  instructing pupils up to Grade 6. High school students are transported  to Oliver by bus.  Although Snodgrass's dreams were not all fulfilled, the village  was a freighting centre and stopping place in the days of horse freighting. W. B. Hine and Warwick Arnott built the Alexandra Hotel on  the lake shore in 1906 and 1907, and also owned the Penticton-  Oroville stage line until 1914. Stages were horse-drawn until 1911,  when they were replaced by automobiles and trucks.  In 1922 and '23 the railroad was built from Okanagan Falls to  Haynes' Siding, south of Oliver. In 1930 the railroad was completed  to Penticton, and the boats which had plied the lakes since 1893 were  retired from the scene.  "The Falls" still has some importance as a freighting centre as  it is the Okanagan terminal for a large trucking firm—Expressways  Ltd.  The Keogan family made cattle ranching the first industry at the  Falls when they settled here in the 'seventies. It was still a main industry when Tom Ellis ran his cattle, and also the Southern Okanagan  Land Co., which ran 3000 head of cattle over parts of this district.  Through the years it has continued to play a vital part in Falls' economy. The Southern Interior Stockmen's Association was organized  in 1941, with yards and head office at the Falls, and over two million  dollars worth of stock has since been sold at their auction sales.  Fruit trees were planted by settlers from Keogan's time. John  Matheson, who was crown-granted his land in 1886, planted it out  to what was probably the first commercial orchard in the district. R.  McLean and F. Harkins also had orchards planted in the 'nineties.  At the present date the fruit industry plays a large part in the industrial economy of Okanagan Falls.  The Falls has had stormy irrigation history, three dams in the  mountains east  of the  Falls  having  gone  out and  flooded  the  little  (63) The Okanagan Historical Society—A 95 8  community in 1928, 1936, and 1944. Water is now supplied to the  townsite and adjacent lands by a modern electric pumping system on  Okanagan river.  Until 1921 Church services and Sunday school classes were more  or less intermittent as there was no regular minister. In 1921 Rev.  Harry Feir of the Presbyterian Church arrived to take over the Oliver,  Osoyoos and Okanagan Falls pastoral charge. The present church  building was erected in 1929 with material from the old Presbyterian  church in Fairview. Regular church services are now held for United  and Anglican congregations, and the Sunday School is interdenominational.  Okanagan Falls has a proud record in both World Wars. Practically 100% of those eligible enlisted. The Falls' Centennial project, the Robert Christie Memorial Park, honors them, and is named  for one who didn't come back.  And if the traveller visiting Okanagan Falls stops awhile he may  still walk the trails the pioneers knew, and feel himself kin to the  gallant old-timers who started our community.  The centennary of the birth of the province of British Columbia  was celebrated in the Central Elementary School of Kelowna on Nov.  18, the true date (Oct. 19), being a school holiday. Mrs. T. B. Upton,  of Okanagan Mission, garbed in the fashion of the 90's, read a short  history of the Kelowna district prior to city incorporation. Her mother,  Mrs, W. D. Walker, who was the first teacher at Ellison and at Benvoulin, answered her questions about life under pioneer conditions. Mr.  H. C. S. Collett, who was in charge of the arrangements for the Father  Pandosy Mission Restoration project, and Mr. D. J. Whitham, president of the Okanagan Historical Society, also answered questions posed  by Mrs. Upton. Several ladies and little girls appeared on the stage in  costumes worn by a previous generation.  The program was followed immediately by the B.C. School Broadcast dealing with the Centennary of the Province.  (64) <Jhe   \^Jhanaaan  <^/Vtu.seum ^Z^rnd  ^Z^trchives ^y^fssociation  (As told to F. T. Marriage)  In 1925 a group of Kelowna and district citizens organized "The  Okanagan Historical and Natural History Society," which was later  (1936) divided into two separate societies—viz., "The Okanagan  Historical Society" and the "Okanagan Museum and Archives Association."   It is with the latter organization that this short article deals.  Incorporation under the Societies Act of B.C. was obtained on  December 2, 1936, and on March 31, 1937, the first annual general  meeting of the society took place under the chairmanship of the late  David Chapman. The following were appointed directors: E. R.  Bailey, O. L. Jones, Mrs. D. Gellatly, G. D. Herbert and R. G.  Rutherford.  The museum began as a collection of stuffed animals and birds  belonging to and mounted by Mr. George Harvey and his son Edwin,  the latter being owner of the Kumfy Kamp on the Vernon Road at  the entrance to the city. For some time the exhibits found a home at  Kumfy Kamp, but when that property changed hands they were removed to the rear of Mr. Dalton's barber shop on Bernard Avenue,  about where Stylemart Men's Wear is today. This accommodation  proving inadequate to house the whole collection, some exhibits found  a temporary home in a garage behind Waldron's Ellis Street Grocery,  which then occupied premises now used by Cruickshank and Son.  In 1944 the Central Okanagan Boy Scouts Association assumed  care of the exhibits. In the previous year, when it had become necessary for Mr. Dalton to move, Edwin Harvey had contacted Mr.  Geo. Yochim, of the local scouts, who formed a committee of six,  took charge, and housed the collection temporarily in Geo. Anderson's  garage at the corner of Pandosy St. and Lawrence Ave.  Next, Mr. David Lloyd-Jones offered the use of the upper floor  of his garage. Here the collection was assembled, together with a  case of arrowheads and Indian artifacts. When the Lloyd-Jones property changed hands, the scouts were fortunate enough to enlist the  interest of Mr. J. Bucholtz, who erected, at his own expense, the  museum building which stood at first in City Park and later on  Bernard Avenue near the park entrance.  The committee headed by Mr. Yochim now received a number  of stuffed birds and animals, and also some pictures, from the Fintry  estate of the late Capt. J. C. Dun Waters.  (65) The Okanagan Historical Society—7 95c?  In December, 1951, a new certificate of incorporation under the  Societies Act was obtained, the petition being signed by Messrs. A. K.  Loyd, J. B. Knowles, G. C. Beeston, R. A. Grant and Dr. J. W. N.  Shepherd, and the following year the Society took over custody of  the Museum from the Boy Scout Association. Directors were appointed  in the persons of the following: Hon. President, F. M. Buckland;  President, A. K. Loyd; Vice-President, G. C. Beeston; and the directors were C. R. Walrod, J. B. Knowles, W. J. McDowall, J. G.  Simms (Vernon), Rev. J. C. Goodfellow (Princeton), and R. J.  McDougall (Sorrento). Mr. McDowell acted as Secretary^Treasurer.  This executive was elected on March 27, 1953.  Four years later a new executive took office, consisting largely of  the above names, but also including C. W. Knowles, A. W. Bilsland,  H. M. Powley, with C. C. Kelly as secretary and W. J. McDowall  as treasurer. It was realized that the existing display space was inadequate and that a larger building should be the immediate aim. This  proved to be difficult of realization, but in 1958 the City of Kelowna  purchased the DeMara property on Mill Street and converted the  "Willow Lodge" building for the use of the Association in 1958.  "Salute to the Sockeye" (25c), a booklet sponsored by the Salmon  Arm and Chase Centennial Committee, has on its cover an excellent  map of the Shuswap district, including the area from Adams Lake and  Seymour Arm to Armstrong, and from Monte Creek to- Craigellachie  and Hupel.  In addition, there are 12 pictures of local interest and also of various  phases of the salmon fishing industry.  This pamphlet was published in connection with the October 10-  13 celebrations at Chase and Salmon Arm, and also the Adams River  spawning grounds.  (66) J~urther    jj~airview   k^Jsouoos v chronicles  Mrs. K. Lacey  On August 27th, 1892, the first newspaper, the Madre D'Oro,  was published in Oro, Wash, (later, Oroville, Wash.), J. M. Hagerty,  editor and manager; E. W. Dugan, associate editor; J. M. Hagerty  and Co., publishers. The printing office was in a tent. In the issue  of Aug. 27, 1892, the following articles are noted in a copy of this  first edition.  NEW CAPITAL FOR FAIRVIEW  George Atwood, a mining engineer of London, England, Edmund  Reynolds, and W. T. Thompson, capitalists, of the same place, have  been in Fairview the past ten days and have bought the Rattler mine  and mill. They are also examining several other properties with a  view to purchasing.  They left London May 4th, and have been all through the Slocan  and Kootenai districts before coming here and are very favorably  impressed with this country.  They have unlimited means at their command for legitimate  mining investments and intend to make further purchases.  FAIRVIEW CAMP, B.C.  Another promising camp in the Okanagan country is Fairview  Camp, in British Columbia, eighteen miles north of On>, close to the  Okanagan River. Gold was discovered there first about four years  ago but little was done toward development.  The first mine to bring the Camp into prominence was the Rattler,  discovered by Hank Mankin, and for a long time the only means of  support he had was to take the quartz and grind it to pulp between two  large stones, and then wash the gold out in a pan.  He finally interested some Spokane people in the property, and  they put in a five-stamp mill about four months ago. After the mill  was built disagreements arose between the owners. The creditors  came in and levied on the mine and the mill, but before it came to a  sale new parties came in and purchased it from the owners. They  will at once proceed to add more machinery and develop the property.  There are nine more mines located on the same ledge with the  Rattler, there being three parallel ledges on the same claims and the  ledges are from three to sixteen feet wide.  All have been worked more or less. The Wide West was sold  about sixty days ago for $15,000, and has a 250 foot tunnel.   The  (67) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  Brown Bear has a shaft sixty foot deep, and they have cross-cut on the  ledges twenty-five feet. The Silver Crown was sold about ninety days  ago to Wardner, Andrews and Patrick, and they have just completed  a tunnel 220 feet long. They started in just above the east ledge, and  have gone through the middle one which is ten feet wide. They are  sixty feet below the surface here and the ledge makes a fine showing,  and assays "way up." This property carries both gold and silver, but  gold predominates, as it does in all the others. They expect to build  a twenty-stamp mill in the near future.  One of the wonders of the Camp is the Joe Dandy, which lies  east of and nearer the river than any of the others, and has been a  paying proposition from the grass roots. The present owners bought  it sixty days agoi and hired a six stamp sampling mill to test the rock,  and it paid so well they have kept it running night and day ever since.  It has not only paid working expenses, but paid back the original cost  of the property in the first five weeks' run. They will put in at least  a ten-stamp mill as soon as possible.  The other properties on this mountain are the Stem Winder, the  Ontario, and the Wynn M.  This Camp is in the same gold belt we are on, and proves beyond  a shadow of a doubt that this is the most extensive mineral belt in  the known world. The miners there are at least nine-tenths of them  Americans.  MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION INTO THE  OKANAGAN COUNTRY  At the present time there are only two routes by which the traveller can get into this country by public conveyance.  The oldest route is by way of the Washington Central R.R. to  Coulee City, where you are turned over to J. E. Hetley's stage lines  (of which the obliging Mr. Graham is superintendent), which has  branches out to Waterville, Wenatchee, and Ellensburg, and another  line to the Okanagan country via Port Columbia and Ruby City to  Conconully. You are sure of good treatment too, from the time you  take the stage until you leave it, as Mr. Hetley, his agents and drivers,  do all in their power to make the trip pleasant for you.  At Conconully there is an independent line to Loomis, entirely too  independent for the comfort and convenience of the travelling public. But we understand Mr. Hetley will shortly extend his line to  Loomis.  (68) Osoyoos Chronicles  Oro and Penticton  The other route is a comparatively new one, only having been in  operation about sixty days, but has jumped into public favor at once,  as it is a much shorter stage route and gives a change of scenery and  combines steamboat, railroad and stage, also putting the passenger into  St. Paul or the Sound cities one day sooner than by any other way.  This route runs from Loomis to Penticton via Oro and is owned  and managed by S. T. Stanton of Oro, who has been a successful stage  manager in Montana and Arizona before coming here. He is running  four horse stock on his stages, but has ordered new six-horse coaches,  to keep up with the travel as he has had to run extras nearly every  day in August.  He will also put on a line to Marcus as soon as the road is completed through from Oro to Marcus,  An ad read as follows—  ORO AND PENTICTON STAGE LINE  S. T. STANTON, PROPRIETOR      Through in eight hours.    ■   OKANAGAN LAKE  AND THE GOLD BELT.  Stages leave Loomis  Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, via—   ORO   Arriving in Penticton the same day  And connects with steamers and C.P.R. for all points East and West.  A day and a half saved as well as money to St. Paul or the Sound.  For full particulars apply of Moore, Ish and Co., Loomis;  S. T. Stanton, Oro, or any Agent C.P.R.  OSOYOOS CHRONICLES  Following the death of Leslie Hill in 1916 the Hill estate was  leased by G. J. Fraser and E. A. Helps. The Dr. G. S. Jermyn  (Customs) and Wm. Richter families were the only other families  in the district. There were now five children of school age, but 10  were necessary before the Dept. of Education would supply a teacher.  Fortunately, that summer the E. Hobbs family with 10 children, five  of school age, moved down from Richter Mountain to Richter Pass.  (69) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  Arrangements were made with them to fix the old Government  building and jail as school and living quarters for the five Hobbs  children. Home made desks and seats that had been in use in the  closed school on Richter Mountain, were put in until suitable desks  could be purchased. A teacher was advertised for, and 67 applications were received. Miss Dorothy Evans of Kelowna was the first  teacher, and for the first week she found it necessary to keep her desk  across the doorway to keep inquisitive cattle out until a door was fitted.  In 1919 the Osoyoos Orchards, Ltd., was formed, the first directors being D. P. Burpee, C. L. Carless, Rev. J. Ferguson Millar,  A. McMeans of Penticton, W. T. Hunter, R. M. Helmer of Summerland, Leopold Hayes of Kelowna, and G. J. Fraser, R. H. Plas-  kett of Osoyoos.   They purchased the Hill estate and sub-divided it.  In 1919 the Provincial Government purchased the Shatford holdings, 22,000 acres, for $300,000.00. A concrete dam was built across  the Okanagan River, south of Vaseux Lake and a concrete ditch with  gravity flow was built to the American border, crossing the valley,  where the town of Oliver now is, by a stave pipe 3600 ft. long and  78 inches inside diameter and altogether 25 miles of concrete and  zinc canal were built to serve 8000 acres of land.  With these two projects started it was not long before a community came into' being in Osoyoos. Early in 1920 R. D. Fraser of  Veteran, Alberta, opened a general store opposite the Customs House  on land supposedly belonging to Wm. Richter. F. X. Richter had  purchased the H.B.C. land from the Kruger Estate following the  death of T. Kruger, and at Richter's death it had been willed to his  second son, William. A survey the next year showed Fraser was on  Government land which he continued to hold under "squatter's  rights." Kruger had closed his trading post in 1897 as he couldn't  be bothered with figuring the nickels and dimes that came into use  about that time, and the post office closed at his death. Thus Fraser's  store was the first since Kruger had closed his, and immediately the  settlers pressed for a post office again; mail at that time was received  either at Fairview or at Oroville, Wash. All supplies came in by  freight teams and gasoline was worth 85c a gal. in 4 gal. cans, butter  $1.00 lb., eggs $1.00 per doz., strawberry jam $1.50 per 4 lb. can,  sugar $16.00 per 100 lbs., and flour $11.00 per 100 lbs.  In 1921 a new survey was made over Anarchist Mountain road  and contracts let for construction of same. Fraser sold his store to  P. Salvis, of Spokane, Wash., one of the contractors who served the  public and the camps from his store.   Claughton Bros., of Penticton,  (70) Osoyoos Chronicles  built a poolroom and also a garage which was almost immediately  sold to Harold Emerick of Wenatchee, Wash. Louis Provost opened  a bakery. The same year Jack McLean of Rock Creek built and  opened a second general store which he sold right away to Patterson  and Montgomery, two returned men. McLean bought land at the  mouth of Testlinda Creek which he farmed until his death.  At this time there was much activity in and around Osoyoos and  both legal and illegal sale of liquor, as the U.S.A. had voted for prohibition, and some of the local businesses were just "cover ups" for  a liquid sideline.  J. Brown of Princeton, in association with D. Rearden and J. S.  Heales of Penticton, leased the Richter house (Kruger Hotel) from  Wm. Richter, who built himself a house a short distance west. Brown  operated a hotel and licenced premises until the place burned down  in 1923.   Wm. Richter died June 5, 1921.  Joe Murphy, one time prospector and rancher of Anarchist Mountain, had a cabin in Osoyoos and ran a large herd of horses on the  nearby range. Joe was a well known character during the prohibition  era on both sides of the line.  Upon completion of the road contracts Salvis sold his store to  J. DeRosiers of Greenwood; the store burned down shortly after,  together with the poolroom and garage. The store and garage were  rebuilt and DeRosiers sold to R. M. Lewis of Kelowna, who in turn  sold six years later to Geo. Carlson, of Star City, Sask.  Emerick sold the garage to Ian Brown of Fairview, who sold to  Bob Lawrence of Oliver, and he sold to Albert English of Wenatchee.  Patterson and Montgomery had sold' their stock out; English purchased their building and winched it over next to the garage in which  he opened the first cafe and confectionery in Osoyoos.  The South Okanagan Land Project ditch was completed and first  water served in 1927. First to take up land was A. W. Hanbury,  followed soon after by D. Barnes (ditch rider), Adam Cumine, E.  Bucher, Craig orchards, A. Ure, W. Arnott, H. Hulten, S. Field,  H. Emerick (run by A. Simms), and sold to R. Purdy and R. Kerr,  J. Calderbank, H. Price, J. F. Worthington, Max Kohler and Graf  Bros, On the east side of the lake F. L. Goodman, E. R. Dawson,  W. McConnachie, Martin, and Mrs. Hearle had settled from 1921  on. Young orchards were planted, but much attention was given to  ground crops—early tomatoes, cucumbers, cantaloupes and watermelon.  Extensive experiments were carried out during the first years in the  (71) The Okanagan Historical Society—A958  growing of tobacco and large sheds were built from the border  to  Oliver for the curing of it.  The site of the village of Osoyoos at this time was such that with  the death of William Richter that land was left in estate and could  not be sold. The government controlled the rest and would not sell  so no title was available. The S.O.L.P. was pressed for the laying  out of a townsite, the site having been previously set aside in the  original survey, about *4 mile north of the bridge.  First church services held in 1917 by a Mr. Borthwick, lay preacher  whose district was from Okanagan Falls, south to Osoyoos and over  Anarchist Mountain to the Kettle Valley, which he covered on a bicycle,  pushing it much of the way over the steep grades. He was followed  by a Mr. Warren, whose district took in from Okanagan Falls to  Osoyoos, including the Camps at Oliver, where the first sections of  the S.O.L.P. were getting under way. This man secured a horse and  buggy, but knew nothing about horses and the horse apparently recognizing it, did much as it pleased. The good man was having difficulty  getting to his meetings on time, so, in desperation, he wrote to Henry  Ford, outlining his difficulties while doing the Lord's work. Soon  after the Ford dealer in Penticton received authorization to sell Mr.  Warren a Ford on easy terms which he did and to the surprise of  every one he got along with it quite well.  On one of his visits to the camps, Mr. Warren found himself  without one single person in attendance, but as he had advertised the  meeting he felt he was compelled to hold it and so he preached his  sermon to an empty hall.  (To be continued)  (72) Kathleen Stuart Dewdney  As British Columbia celebrates her Centennial year, 1958, our  thoughts turn back to the pioneers who laid the foundation of our  present prosperous province. Chief amongst these pioneers was a young  Scot, James Douglas (later Sir James Douglas), who arrived in Canada in 1819. He was appointed Governor of Vancouver Island in  1851, and first Governor of the Mainland Colony of British Columbia  in 1 858, thus becoming Governor of both Colonies.  Governor Douglas was a commanding character of administrative  ability, and as he had travelled extensively across Canada in the employ  of the North West Company and later of the Hudson's Bay Company  he knew the need for, and the great value of, roads. He had seen the  arrival into Oregon of a steady stream of immigrants over trails from  the eastern United States, and he knew his Colony needed something  of that sort if it was to develop and also remain British.  The topography of the province is such that the travel from east  to west is necessarily over a series of mountain ranges which themselves run north-west and south-east. This fact, in the early days,  caused all travel to go north and south along the rivers, lakes and  valleys.  The trappers and fur-traders used these north-south trails, and  the Hudson's Bay Company carried on their business along the Columbia River from its source to the sea, and up the various branches of it,  and overland to the upper waters of the Fraser River.  By the treaty of June 15, 1846, when the 49th parallel was made  the boundary between the United States and Canada, it became necessary for the Company to discover new routes by which their brigades  could travel east and west, that would run entirely within British territory.   The Company anticipating this had moved their headquarters  (73) The Okanagan Historical Society—A 958  from Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River to Fort Victoria on Vancouver Island in 1843.  Alexander C. Anderson, the best explorer in the employ of the  Company, was detailed in 1845 to find a route over the Cascade Range  which blocked the way from the coast to the interior. He did extensive exploring and decided that the best route from Hope was by way  of the Coquihalla, Nicolum, Sumallo and Skagit Rivers, then up  Snass Creek to join the Tulameen River at a small lake, which  Anderson named the "Punch Bowl."  British Columbia has retained man}- of her descriptive and picturesque Indian names. Coquihalla means "Mysterious Passage."  "The quicksilver Coquihalla flashes through a timber-studded canyon."  Skagit is the tribal name applied to the group of people who inhabited the area adjacent to the river. Sumallo means, "up river Indians"  and Snass means, "rain."  An important event in the progress of the Colony took place when  placer gold was discovered in the rivers and streams and thousands  of prospectors and miners flocked into the country by sea and land  from the United States and other southern countries, up the Fraser,  Columbia, Similkameen and Kootenay Rivers.  Placer gold was discovered by two ex-servants of the Hudson's  Bay Company on the Columbia River at the confluence of the Pend  d'Oreille River in 1855; on the bars of the Fraser and Thompson  Rivers in 1856; in the Similkameen and Tulameen Rivers and at  Rock Creek in 1859.  Governor Douglas decided to build a trail on British soil to open  up communications between the camps on these rich streams in the  Similkameen and Boundary districts, and the two capitals of New  Westminster and Victoria. There was no means of communication  between the coast and these districts except through the United States,  with vexatious delays at the customs. Sometimes it took over a month  to get messages through to His Excellency at Victoria. Besides, Douglas wished to keep the trade in goods and supplies for the miners with  Canadian merchants instead of the Americans who were then doing  the business.  The only way British colonists could arrive was from the north  by way of the Hudson's Bay canoe route, the southern sea lanes and  overland from the United States. Governor Douglas wanted an east-  west route. He was determined that settlement by Americans should  not cause the British to lose this area, as he had seen them lose Oregon  a few years before.  (74) The Dewdney Trail  Miss Elsie Eyre, Mrs. Stevens, M. C. Kendall travelling  over the Dewdney Trail from Penticton to Hope in 1911.  Photograph taken by Captain Stevens.  Governor Douglas envisioned a Trans-Canada Highway, "A British Canadian Colonization Waggon Road." This road was to bind  British Columbia more firmly to Canada and the British Empire. It  was to start from Fort Hope, at that time the head of navigation on  the Fraser River, then cross British Columbia through a Rocky Mountain pass to meet a road he confidently expected would be built by  Eastern  Canada  westward across  the  plains.    Although   the  original  (75) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  plan of a wagon road had to be abandoned, a pack trail was built  which was called the "Dewdney Trail," owing to the prominent part  taken in its construction by Edgar Dewdney, a young civil engineer  who had arrived from England in May, 1859.  On August 20, 1860, Edgar Dewdney secured a contract which  empowered him to improve the existing very rugged narrow foot trail  from Hope to Similkameen and convert it into a thoroughfare wide  enough for pack trains. Walter Moberly was associated with Dewdney  in this venture. The work was carried on until the end of the year  by way of Anderson's route from Fort Hope to the "Punch Bowl."  Governor Douglas with his pack train inspected the trail while it was  under construction and declared that he was well pleased with its  progress and prospects. He visited Rock Creek, Osoyoos and Vermillion Forks (Princeton) in September  1860.  In 1861 the trail was completed to Vermillion Forks. The route  continued from where Dewdney had left it the previous year. It went  north of the Punch Bowl, cutting across the headwaters of Tulameen  River to Granite Creek, through Hope Pass, down Whipsaw Creek  and the Similkameen River to Vermillion Forks (Princeton). In  some places the Dewdney Trail parallels the fine paved Hope-Princeton  highway officially opened on November 2,  1949.  Vermillion Forks was so named by the fur-traders from the existence in its neighborhood of a red clay or ochre, from which the  Indians manufactured the vermillion face paint. The name Princeton  was chosen to commemorate the visit of the Prince of Wales (later  King Edward VII), who' had just visited eastern Canada. Tulameen,  an Indian name, means, "Red Earth."  In March 1865 Edgar Dewdney was commissioned by Governor  Seymour, who had succeeded Governor Douglas, to construct a trail  to the newly discovered gold mines at Wild Horse Creek (later Fort  Steele). This trail was to be similar to the one he had built from Fort  Hope and to be projected from his 1860-61 trail ending at Princeton,  to the new diggings at Wild Horse Creek. He was to be in charge of  it, select the route and have it finished by August or September.  The Governor said, "I am very desirous that our own pack trains  should be able to transport goods from Hope to Wild Horse without  having to pass through American territory; at present they can not do  so, and when our pack trains cross the boundary line they are either  seized or put to the expense and inconvenience of taking an American  custom house officer to where the goods are delivered and return,  charging four dollars a day and food for same.   If you take charge of  (76) The Dewdney Trail  When building his trail Dewdney reported that the terrain of the.  Rossland (he called them Norway) mountains with their two summits,  between Christina Lake and the Columbia River, was one of the most  difficult sections. To clear out the dense undergrowth and fallen timber  for the passage of the pack-train required many days of hard labor.  this work you can select your own men, and I will instruct the  Hudson's Bay Company's officers at the several posts along the line  of your work, and the government officials, to advance to you from  time to time what you may require. What I want is that we will be  able to send our goods through without detention this autumn." With  this understanding Dewdney agreed to take charge of the work.  After his interview with Governor Seymour in New Westminster  Dewdney chose four P.oyal Engineers, one of whom, George Turner,  he selected as his assistant. After purchasing supplies sufficient to take  him into the Similkameen he left for Hope where he engaged eighteen  Indians to pack his goods across the Hope Mountains to Princeton on  the Trail he had made in 1860.  Two of the best packers were an old couple, Mr. and Mrs. Polalee,  which means "powder." Mrs, Polalee packed a barrel of sugar which  weighed 125 pounds, just about her own weight, for she was a small  woman, but she kept up with the caravan quite handily. Later, Mr.  Polalee became an efficient and faithful mail carrier over the trail  from Hope to Osoyoos.  (77) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  For about a quarter of the way there was snow and the Indians  made snow shoes out of vine maple for bows, and rawhide cut into  strips for the lacings. The Indians called them bears' paws, being  nearly round but well suited for the snow in those parts. Here, I will  use Dewdney's own words, "On the summit it froze hard at night,  and it was then we travelled so as to take advantage of the crust. I  shall never forget the pleasure and enjoyment I had when walking  over the frozen summits on a bright, sunshiny, early morning, the  sun dazzling on the snow which seemed studded with millions of  diamonds, and the air bracing and seeming to give fresh life with  every breath I drew."  The 70-mile slow but pleasant tramp with heavy packs over a  6,000 foot summit covered with deep snow, was accomplished in  about ten days.  Here we will digress briefly to give a fleeting glimpse of the trail  that was built and the terrain over which it passed. At that time,  March 1865, little was known of this wonderful country except for  years previous it contributed largely to the commerce of the old world  in the shape of rare furs.  The country east of Princeton was unknown to Dewdney and in  building the trail he found it necessary to do extensive exploratory  work in the southern part of the Colony, near the International Boundary. His experience in blazing new trails and his resourcefulness  and hardihood enabled him to overcome the many difficulties which  beset his path.  He passed through territory inhabited by roving bands of Indians  with only two solitary Hudson's Bay Company's trading posts at  Keremeos and Fort Shepherd (there were also two south of the border  at Fort Colville and Fort Kootenay), and a few courageous hunters,  trappers and adventurers.  He passed through regions in which there was no sign of life save  the deer, the mountain sheep and goats, the bears, the beavers and  other native animals, and where the eerie howls of the coyotes broke  the stillness of the night.  The trail ran continuously over lofty mountain ranges, along  deep valleys, across swift flowing streams, and through vast forest  solitudes. It skirted creeks, rivers and lakes. It threaded mountain  passes and river canyons. It opened up a land of many rivers and  beautiful lakes, and almost impassable timber-clad mountains. At  some points it ran very close to, and parallel with, the boundary but  did not abandon British soil throughout its long meandering course.  (78) The Dewdney Trail  In the summer of 1957 the pipe line to carry natural gas from the  Peace River country was installed over these mountains. The builders  claimed that this section was the most difficult terrain for pipeline construction they had encountered. At times machines had to be hung on  the sides of the mountains by cables to enable them to work.  It saw pack trains of horses and mules carrying in a great variety  of provisions and supplies and carrying out valuable furs and gold.  It was traversed by the placer-gold miners in the sixties and seventies,  and by the lode miners in the late eighties and the nineties, Thousands  of range cattle from the ranches of the early settlers ambled over  it to western and eastern British Columbia markets, and droves of  horses were driven to and fro.  Distinguished personages, magistrates, lawyers, legislators and  other government officials, missionaries, doctors, mail carriers and  others mounted on horseback, either alone or by pack train, wended  their way along the trail.  Pioneers in quest of homesteads travelled over it, and today many  descendants of these pioneers are worthy citizens of our province.  Thus the Dewdney Trail helped in the settlement and development of our valleys.  Going back to Dewdney and his party we find them at the homestead of John Fall Allison, the first white settler in the Similkameen  valley, near  Princeton.    In later years  Mr.   Allison became one  of  (79) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958.  the best known cattlemen in the whole country. Here Dewdney paid  off his Indian porters and sent them back to the coast. Mr. Allison  outfitted Dewdney with twelve saddle and pack horses and from  here the actual work of blazing the trail eastward began.  They followed the Similkameen River ro 20-Mile Creek (now  Hedley Creek), so called because it was 20 miles from the Allison  homestead. At this place they passed over the site that later became  the busy little gold-mining town of Hedley.  Dewdney and part}- followed the Similkameen River to Keremeos,  "a choice spot in the Shimilkameen," where a Hudson's Bay Company's trading post, with a farm in connection, had been established  in 1860. At the time of Dewdney's visit in 1865 Roderick McLean  was the factor in charge and Francis (Frank) Xavier R.ichter was  in charge of the horses and cattle. Keremeos means, "wind channel  in the mountains" and was aptly named by the Indians.  After crossing Kruger Mountain through Richter Pass, Dewdney  and party entered the sunny Okanagan and soon arrived at Sooyoos  (later Osoyoos) Lake, which they crossed at the narrows. So-o-yoos  is an Indian name meaning, "water cut in two by land." Osoyoos  Lake has the record of being the lowest point on the Dewdney Trail  between  the  Fraser Delta  and  the  Rocky  Mountains,  the  elevation  The Dewdney Trail of 1860 is paralleled here by the Hope-Princeton  Highway opened on November 2, 1949.—"British Columbia Government  Photograph."  (80) The Dewdney Trail  being 910 feet. This part of the country is very interesting as it was  here the various trails met along and across the boundary. There was  a Customs House at Osoyoos where John Carmichael Haynes administered justice and collected Her Majesty's customs dues.  Thomas Ellis who arrived in the Okanagan by way of the Dewdney Trail from Hope to Osoyoos, had charge of a supply depot for  Dewdney at Kootenay Flats. Later he became the first white settler  at. Penticton. Penticton is an Indian name meaning, "a place of  permanent abode where waters pass by," and Okanagan means, "a  chosen people."  After leaving Osoyoos the leader and his party travelled east  into the Boundary country over Anarchist Mountain, so named at a  later date after an early Irish settler who was called an Anarchist  because of his radical political views. These rolling hills and valleys  were heavily covered with bunch grass and inhabited by Indians. The  party passed through what is now Bridesville, then travelled on to  Rock Creek. Here they found a deserted camp, except for a few  Chinamen who were washing for gold.  The Kettle River was followed to a picturesque valley where  Midway is now, thence up Boundary Creek to McCarren Creek, up  this creek to the summit, then down May Creek to July Creek which  was crossed, thence eastward to a beautiful broad flat valley called  Grand Prairie (now Grand Forks). Here Dewdney found only one  settler, Joe McCauley.  The party went south of Christina Lake and passed a small Indian  village, now Cascade, so named from the cascade in the canyon  through which the Kettle River flows a short distance away. Christina Lake and Creek were so named for Christina McDonald, daughter of Angus McDonald, who was in charge of the Hudson's Bay  trading post at Fort Colville. McDonald made trips to the lake and  the surrounding country to trade his goods for furs with the Indians.  Christina went along with her father's pack train as bookkeeper.  Continuing their journey eastward they crossed the heavily timbered Rossland Range with its two summits, by way of Big Sheep  Creek and Little Sheep Creek to the headwaters of Trail Creek, just  south of the present city of Rossland, "The Golden City."  Trail Creek was followed down to the Columbia River where  the city of Trail, "The Silver City," now stands. At that time Trail  was a primeval forest, today it is the site of "Cominco," the largest  non-ferrous smelter in the world. In 1891 Trail was so named  because it was on the Dewdney Trail.   This trail fixed the junction  (81) The Okanagan Historical Society—7 95c?  of overland and water routes through the West Kootenay at the  mouth of Trail Creek, and predestined the city that has grown up  there.  From Trail the party went down the west bank of the Columbia  River to Fort Shepherd, a Hudson's Bay Company's trading post  near the boundary. Here they were entertained by Mr. Joseph Har-  disty, then in charge of the Fort.  Although Dewdney had a time limit to meet he resolved to explore  every possible route in order to find the best one to Wild Horse Creek.  He went up the North Fork of the Kettle River, then struck across  the country through dense forests and over very high elevations,  coming out about half way down the lower Arrow lake. He also  explored Kootenay River and Kootenay Lake looking for a pass.  Kootenay is an Indian name that means, "people of the water."  While poling up the Kootenay River Dewdney almost ended his  career by drowning. Near the spot where the Slocan River, at that  time of the year a rushing torrent, enters the Kootenay he spotted a  couple of ducks. Likely anticipating a toothsome supper, he pointed  them out to the Indian in the bow of the birch bark canoe. The gun  which the Indian had was a percussion model and, while drawing it  out of the canoe's nose the trigger caught and it went off. Most of  the nose vanished in a hail of heavy birdshot. The Indian quickly  stepped from the canoe to a shallow, held what was left of the nose  in the air and dragged everything including the startled Dewdney,  quickly ashore. In less than an hour the Indian had repaired the canoe  and they continued upstream. The Indians always carried spare bark  and gum for repairing their canoes,  The Kootenay River is a very rapid stream from its mouth to the  lake, a distance of some fourteen miles, and Dewdney in speaking of  this said, "It was no picnic. We made fourteen portages and in some  places had to go miles from the river to find a deer trail through  which the Indians could carry my boats and supplies. When returning we rode all but three of the rapids and falls. One portage was  around the Bonnington Falls of a mile ... I shall always remember  my first sight of the Bonnington Falls. . . . The scene was magnificent." They passed the present site of the city of Nelson, "The  Queen City," then a virgin forest. (Nelson was named after Hugh  Nelson, Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia.)  Almost fifty years later when revisiting scenes of his early travels,  Dewdney again viewed the Falls, but the scene was very different,  for the falls and the river had been harnessed for a wealth of hydro-  (82) The Dewdney Trail  electric power supplying almost all the country he had explored.  While in the Kootenay Dewdney had one Indian with him from  Fort Colville whom he called his faithful Peter. He was a  strong man, and on the portages he packed Dewdney's blankets, a  sack of flour under each arm, his own traps, paddle and poles, and  the canoe on top of it all.  On Dewdney's trip around Kootenay Lake looking for a pass,  he saw no sign of human habitation on the east shore. He said the  Indian in the canoe pointed at the Riondel promontory calling it  Chikamin or Metal Mountain, and said they got lead for their bullets  there. This is now Cominco's Bluebell mine (lead-zinc), producing  650 tons of ore per day.  When building the trail Dewdney employed a good number of  Indians as guides and packers. As they were unwilling to travel  beyond their own section of the country this necessitated a continual  change of Indians. Although the natives were not noted for their  cleanliness they had other valuable characteristics that were common  to all of them. Dewdney found the Indians, who lived throughout  southern British Columbia, friendly, peaceful, faithful, honest, capable guides, trustworthy messengers, and very good packers.  Some natives in the Interior did not know what money was and  would not take it for their services. Others would not take it because  all the money, which was not of any great amount, was American  and the Indians at that time hated the Americans whom they called  "Boston men," but they liked the British, whom they called "King  George men." Articles of clothing, tobacco, powder, etc., formed  the most acceptable payment that could be made to them.  After returning to Fort Shepherd Dewdney again turned east.  As there was no ferry they swam their horses across the Columbia  River. The heavily timbered mountains to the east which had been  pronounced by the boundary surveyor, Captain Darrah, to be impracticable and the worst isolated on the boundary, were entered by way  of the Pend d'Oreille and Salmon (now Salmo) Rivers and Lost  Creek, then down Summit Creek to McLoughlin's Ferry, at the first  crossing of the Kootenay River.  From Kootenay Flats near Creston they entered the mountains  by Goat River, then by way of the Kitchener to the Moyie, meeting  that river at the present settlement of Yahk. Here the trail from  Walla Walla built the previous year and serving the East Kootenay  gold fields from the United States, was met.  They went along Moyie River and Lake, up Pea Vine Valley to  (83) The Okanagan Historical Society—7956?  Joseph's Prairie (now Cranbrook, "The Key City"), then on to the  Kootenay River at Galbraith's Ferry and Wild Horse Creek, their  destination, early in June. The placer mines reached for five miles  up the creek where about 2000 miners were at work.  Moyie is from the French "mouiller," "to wet," and received its  name from the Hudson's Bay trappers because of the moist condition  of the valley. Beaver colonies had inhabited the thick brush and heavy  timber along the banks of the river and lakes. Joseph's Prairie was  named after Joseph, an Indian Chief. Later, this property was purchased by Colonel James Baker who renamed it Cranbrook after his  birthplace in England.  The further extension of the Dewdney Trail through the Crow's  Nest Pass was built in 1879 by Peter (a brother of William) Fernie.  In telling of his arrival in Wild Horse Creek Dewdney said, "The  diggings proved to be rich, over a million in gold having been taken  out at that time, and a typical Bret Harte mining camp had sprung up  at the mouth of the creek. The arrival of our party was entirely unexpected and elicited the hearty approval of the few Britishers for it was  the most remote and inaccessible portion of the Colony."  Wild Horse Creek was so called because a party of prospectors who  arrived early in 1864 saw a band of wild horses headed by a fine,  black, wild cayuse stallion in the vicinity. Some years later the place  was named Fort Steele in honor of Colonel Steele, who came into  the country in charge of a troop of the North West Mounted Police  to quell an incipient Indian uprising.  Having blazed the route of the proposed trail to Wild Horse Creek,  Dewdney at once set about to build it. At the camp he secured 65 men,  mostly miners, one of whom was William Fernie, who later was one  of the locators of the famous Crow's Nest coal mines and for whom  the city of Fernie was named.  Dewdney decided that after leaving Osoyoos the easiest and most  convenient route lay near the International Boundary and so accordingly followed that idea out wherever practicable.  Fernie was put in charge of construction westward to Fort Shepherd. Other crews of workmen with foremen in charge were placed  at different points along the route. As the supply of white labor was  limited mainly due to the gold rushes, and as there were a good many  Chinese in the country at that time, 200 Chinese laborers were sent  from the coast to work on the trail west of Fort Shepherd. When  they reached the Fort and saw some of their fellow countrymen panning for gold on the banks of the Columbia, most of them quit.   They  (84) The Dewdney Trail  thought they could make more money in the gold fields than they could  on road work for which they were paid $75.00 per month. The  depleted ranks were filled with Royal Engineers, sappers and miners  hired at the coast. This made a force of 200 laborers, including the  few Chinese who remained on the job.  Dewdney spent most of his time travelling backwards and forwards on the line, pushing the work as fast as he could, supervising  all sections and arranging for supplies and the fairly large payroll,  which was paid mostly in gold, it being more plentiful than the coins  of the realm in the Colony at that time. Dewdney got the gold from  the Government Official, Mr. Peter O'Reilly, Gold Commissioner  at Wild Horse Creek. Thus the Dewdney Trail ranks as one, possibly  the only one, of Canadian Public Works projects which was paid for  with gold dust rather than specie or script. Gold dust was the miner's  term for the grains and pellets of gold he won from the river's gravel.  A large number of pack animals were used. Provisions, camping  outfits and all other necessary appliances for performing the work  were transported on horseback, mostly from Colville, Lewiston and  Walla Walla.  Large water courses had to be forded, or crossed in boats or on  rudely constructed rafts. Smaller streams were often bridged when  the banks were abrupt. These bridges were made with two large logs  for the stringers and smaller transverse logs laid side by side to form  the covering, then two lateral logs were securely fastened on top of  the smaller logs directly above the stringers. Some of these bridges  stood up for many years in tolerable condition, considering their  heavy, constant use and age. Through the forests timber was felled  and brush was cut, then hauled out. Through marshy sections of the  terrain and over the mud flats of the Kootenay bottom near Creston  transverse logs were laid side by side to form corduroy roads, Much  grading was done along the sides of mountains and wherever necessary to open a good, safe, four-foot trail with easy grades. Laborers  did the digging and grading with picks and shovels, and chopped down  the trees with axes.  By the middle of September, 1865, the trail was completed and  the merchants of the coast were sending in food and supplies bv pack  train through British territory. Pack trains carried out thousands of  dollars worth of gold from Wild Horse Creek to Hope, a distance  of some 360 miles.  The trail was constructed out of the tax levied on the export of  gold by American prospectors and miners.   Although placer gold taken  (85) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  from Wild Horse Creek was officially reported at over $6,000,000  this represented only a fraction of what the creek actually yielded.  To evade the excise tax many miners declared only a portion of the  gold they got from the diggings, while others never declared any.  The government officials were unable to keep check on the output;  thus the Colony was robbed of finances to build many roads.  From Princeton to Fort Steele, a total length of 291 miles, the  trail was completed in the remarkably short time of seven months.  The Dewdney Trail was called the key to the Kootenays because it  opened up to civilization and development one of the rich heritages  in the possession of the British Empire.  After returning to New Westminster Dewdney presented his  vouchers to the government authorities for a total expenditure of  $74,000 and not one item was questioned. Governor Seymour congratulated his contractor both for a speedy conclusion to the project,  and for satisfactory accounts.  The Dewdney Trail, the long, narrow, winding thread of civilization penetrating the wilderness, with its extension through the Crow's  Nest Pass, was the first transcontinental route constructed across British Columbia.  As the country became settled wagon roads were built. Teams  and vehicles took the place of pack horses and mules; steamers and  ferries plied the lakes and rivers, and later railroads were built. Although some parts of the trail fell into disuse, other sections in the  west were used for many years as a means of transit for droves of  cattle and horses, and by prospectors and miners who wished to visit  sections of the Interior remote from highways and railroad communications.  For the greater part of its length the Dewdney Trail passed  through regions which later produced vast mineral wealth. Although  the trail was built to serve the placer gold miners it played a more  important part in opening up vast new mineral discoveries along and  adjacent to its route by the lode miner. From the Tulameen River to  Wild Horse Creek was a continuous chain of very rich mining camps.  Prospectors and miners travelled along the trail, then branched out, up  and down almost every stream and mountain in search of gold and  other minerals. The discovery of one mine led to the search and discovery of many other mines. A few of the representative properties  and the approximate date of their discovery will give a general idea.  These mines brought into being most of the cities and towns mentioned.  In the Similkameen, placer gold and platinum were found in the  (86) The Dewdney Trail  Tulameen River, Granite and Whipsaw Creeks from 1860 to 1900,  and the villages of Tulameen and Granite Creek came into being;  on Copper Mountain south of Princeton valuable deposits of coppei  with some gold and silver were located in the eighties; coal mines at  Coalmont in 1900; gold mines at Hedley in 1898.  Gold mines were discovered in the Okanagan at Fairview in  1887, and today the property is operated as a source of siliceous smelter  flux for the Trail smelter, about 100 tons of which are shipped to  Trail daily.  Gold mines were discovered in the Boundary at Camp McKinney  in 1884. The silver-lead-zinc-cadmium Highland Bell mine was located at Beaverdell in 1S96-97, and is still producing. It is reputed  to be one of the richest silver mines in the British Empire. Placer gold  diggings were discovered at Rock Creek in 1859 and soon after in  Boundary Creek; copper-gold-silver mines at Greenwood, Deadwood  and Phoenix, and gold and silver at Franklin camp north of Grand  Forks from 1886 to 1896, with smelters at Grand Forks, Greenwood  and Boundary Falls.  In the West Kootenay district very rich copper-gold-silver mines  were discovered on Red Mountain in 1890 and gave birth to the cities  of Rossland and Trail and to the Consolidated Mining and Smelting  Company of Canada, Limited, known as Cominco, one of the world's  great mining corporations with its huge and important metallurgical  and chemical industry at Trail. Placer gold on the Columbia, Pend  d'Oreille and Salmon Rivers and Sheep Creek was discovered in 1855  and these diggings were worked for a number of years. The lead-zinc  Bluebell mine at Riondel first staked in the eighties is still producing.  Gold quartz mines and copper-silver mines were opened on Toad  Mountain and its vicinity in the late eighties, and gave birth to the  city of Nelson. Zinc-lead mines and a tungsten mine in the Sheep Creek  area near Ymir and Salmo were discovered in the early part of 1900  and are in operation today.  In East Kootenay the silver-lead North Star and the lead-zinc-  silver Sullivan mines at Kimberley were discovered in 1892. Today  the Sullivan mine, owned by Cominco, is the largest of its kind in  the world, producing about 11,000 tons of ore per day. On the south  side of Moyie Lake the important silver-lead St. Eugene mine was  discovered in 1893. Wild Horse Creek produced several million dollars in placer gold in 1864 and 1865 and hydraulic mining was carried on successfully for thirty years on this creek. Other streams in  that district were worked for a number of years with varying success  (87) The Okanagan Historical Society—795c?  from good to fair, and some streams with negligible results.  Along the extension of the Dewdney Trail through the Crow's  Nest Pass, extensive and valuable coal mines were located at Coal  Creek near Fernie, at Michel and Morrisey in  1887 and later.  Pioneers  Stay yet awhile,  'ere on ye go  As darkling in the twilight's glow  Against the purpling western sky  The legions of the past file by.  Their  colors  drooped,   they   leave  the   light  To mix again with endless night;  Brooding  o'er  this arena vast  Hovers the passion of the past.  And now the roll of muffled drums  Tempers the striding pendulums  And sends a-ringing down the years  The measured tread of pioneers.  The pack trains of Governor Douglas, Chief Justice Sir Matthew  B. Begbie, legislators, government officials, lawyers and magistrates:  G. W. Cox, P. O'Reilly, E. Dewdney, W. Moberly, J. C. Haynes,  C. F. Cornwall, E. H. Sanders, A. W. Vowell, Judge W. W. Spinks  and others, attracted the attention of many immigrants to the advantages  of settlement  in  the  Similkameen  and   Okanagan   districts.  The trail was used for over forty years by the early settlers and  their families. Many descendants of some of these pioneers are respected citizens of our Province. One of these, Mr. Frank Richter  M.L.A., of Keremeos, son of the late Frank Richter, is presently  member at Victoria for the Similkameen electoral district.  Some well known pioneers in Okanagan and Similkameen who  made frequent use of the trail were: John Pall Allison, Roderick  McLean, Henry B. Shuttleworth, Robert "Bob" Stevenson, John C.  Haynes, Francis (Frank) X. Richter, Theodore Kruger, Eli Lequime,  Joseph Christian, August Gillard, James Schubert, Thomas Ellis,  Frederick Brent, W. H. Lowe, R. L. Cawston, James McConnell,  Barrington Price, Henry Nicholson, Price Ellison, Robert and C.  A. R. Lambly, Frank Suprement, Manuel Barcelo, Joseph McCauley,  Daniel McCurdy, Joe Marcel, W. J. Manery, Peter, Joe and Jack  Bromley, Thomas Daly, J. O. Coulthard, C. E. and H. H. Thomas,  (88) The Dewdney Trail  Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Waterman at Hope en route to Princeton over the  Dewdney Trail, returning from a visit to Agassiz, September, 1901 The  goats were taken along for a supply of fresh milk.  W. J. and Ernest Waterman, David Lloyd-Jones, E. A. Day, Harry  D. Barnes, A. E. Howse, Hugh Hunter, and James Lynch.  Some of the original settlers brought their brides to their new log  cabin homes. Some of the brides who rode the trail were: Mrs. John  Fall Allison, the first white woman to ride the trail from Hope to  Princeton (1867), Mrs. J. C. Haynes, Mrs. T. Kruger, Mrs. R. L.  Cawston, Mrs. W. J. Waterman and Mrs, H. H. Thomas.  Father Pandosy, O.M.I., who established Okanagan Mission in  1860, occasionally travelled the trail to Fort Hope for mail and  supplies until his death in 1891. Bishop and Mrs. Sillitoe of the diocese of New Westminster journeyed over the trail from Hope to  Osoyoos in 1879, 1880 and 1883. The Padre of the Miners, the  beloved "Father Pat," the Rev. Henry Irwin, an Anglican missionary  travelled throughout the length of the trail from Hope to Fort Steele  on horseback or on foot and visited every mining camp and scattered  settlement where he held services from i885 to 1901.  Occasionally a distinguished personage travelled the trail. In  1883 when General William Tecumseh Sherman was subduing the  Indian uprisings in the American Northwest he travelled the trail  from Osoyoos to Hope. The party consisted of 81 persons including  a military escort of 60 men, 66 horses and 79 mules.  A hunting party consisting  of Archduke  Francis Ferdinand  of  (89) The Okanagan Historical Society—-1958  Austria and his suite of 6 Austrian gentlemen and 6 servants with a  train of 14 saddle horses and 10 pack horses provided by Thomas  Ellis of Penticton, travelled to the Similkameen to hunt for big game.  A very large herd of "Big Horn" made their home in the Ashnola  Mountains and deer, mountain sheep and bears were plentiful throughout the district. The assassination of the Archduke, heir to' the Austrian  throne, was the precipitating cause of the World War in 1914.  Dr. G. M. Dawson of the Dominion Geological Survey Department made a reconnaissance in the Similkameen and explored along  the trail in 1877 and 1878. This event had an important bearing on  the development of the mineral resources.  Pioneer doctors who travelled the trail on horseback with their  saddle bags containing drugs and dressings were: Dr. Webb, Dr.  John Chipp, Dr. McEwen, Dr. B. de F. Boyce, Dr. R. B. White  and Dr. E. P. Gordon.  Pioneer mail carriers with their pony express were a welcome sight  along the trail, for during long intervals the mail was the only contact  the isolated settlers had with the outside world. Some mail carriers  Mr. Polalee, Bill Bristol, James Wardle, Mr. Johnstone, Joseph and  Louis Brent, Bill Power, the Shuttleworths, Louis Marcel and  Harry D. Barnes.  The Hudson's Bay Company's brigades with from 50 to 150  pack animals, used the trail to carry out baled furs and gold to Fort  Hope. On the return trip from Hope the brigades carried in the  season's supplies and merchandise for barter with the Indians to their  trading posts. These posts were at Keremeos, Osoyoos (established  1866), Fort Shepherd, Fort Colville and Fort Kootenay. The Company closed their posts during the  1871-72 season.  The arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway on the western  coast in 1885, then its arrival through the Crow's Nest Pass to  Kootenay Landing and by steamers and barges in 1899 to Nelson,  thence the arrival of the Columbia and Western Railway (now the  C.P.R.) in 1899 to Midway, and finally the arrival of the Kettle  Valley Railway (now the C.P.R.) from Midway to Hope in 1916,  by way of the southern interior over territory which to Dewdney  was so familiar, diverted the passenger and freight traffic from a  trail to a railroad.  Few traces of the trail remain. Some parts are still used by the  Forestry Department and some sections linking important centres  were improved, widened and sometimes slightly rerouted to form  parts of our modern highways.   Our present Highway 3, the Southern  (90) The Dewdney Trail (Map)  Transprovincial route, follows the general direction of the Dewdney  Trail.  Today, a century later, the trail with its patient, plodding beasts  of burden has been replaced by Trans-Canada railroads using diesel  locomotives, by fine paved highways for motor vehicles, and by airlines with their swift and regular airliners.  Thus British Columbia was linked with Canada and the Empire  in a manner exceeding the dreams of Governor Douglas, to whom  great credit is due for the important foundation he so firmly laid.  His first foundation stones for a Trans-Canada Highway were laid  on the Dewdney Trail in 1860.  The Dezudney Trail  Tippity-toe and away we go,  Bunch grass flats or up in the snow,  Blizzard or heat, but a first-class show;  (Pull taut on that pack rope! )  Tippity-toe of the cayuse jog,  Towering peak and the beaver bog,  Balsam, sage and burnt pine log—  From old Fort Steele to Hope—  Tippity-toe and away we go,  Diamond hitch and the latigo,  Draw 'em in to the belly bow;  ( Pull taut on that pack rope! )  Tippity-toe and the scenting pine,  Tippity-toe above timberline,  Tippity-toe and the air like wine—  From old Fort Steele to Hope.  —Charles E. Race.  (A few highlights in the colorful life of Edgar Dewdney, the  trail builder. ... The Hon. Edgar Dewdney, C.E., P.C, (1835-1916),  was born, brought up and educated in the County of Devonshire,  England. Like many other adventurous young Englishmen he was  attracted to the West by the wide-spread tales of the finding of gold  on the bars of the Fraser River. He arrived at Victoria, B.C., in  May of 1859, with an introduction from Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton  to Governor Douglas.  Young Dewdney readily found employment under Colonel Moody,  (91) The Okanagan Historical Society—7955*  Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works and Commander-in-Chief  of the Columbia Detachment of Royal Engineers, in helping to survey and lay out the townsite of Queensborough (later New Westminster) ; he assisted in the building of suitable quarters for the government officials; in 1860 he was appointed town surveyor of New  Westminster, the infant capital; during periods in 1860, 1861 and  1865 he built the Dewdney Trail which passed along the mountain,  later named in his honor, on its route across southern British Columbia,  from Hope on the Fraser to Wild Horse Creek (later Fort Steele)  in the Rocky Mountains.  For several years Mr. Dewdney was engaged in exploring, prospecting, surveying and building trails to assist the gold-seekers in their  elusive quest of the shining metal. He was associated with many  historic places, some of these were Hope, Yale, Lytton, Spence's Bridge  and Lillooet, others were up the Fraser River to the Cariboo ( 1862  to 1868), and the Peace River Country (1869 and 1871): Richfield  (later Williams Lake), Soda Creek, Quesnel, Barkerville, Fort  George, Stuart Lake, Fort St. James, Fort Fraser, Tacla, Omineca,  Germansen and Finlay Rivers; he laid out a road from Cache Creek  to Savona (1866); he took part in some of the preliminary surveys  for the Canadian Pacific Railway (1872); he was engaged by the  Government to explore a suitable route for a Coast-Kootenay railway  (1901).  Mr. Dewdney was elected a member of the Legislative Council  of B.C. for Kootenay from 1868 to 1870. He was elected to the  House of Commons at Ottawa in 1872, to represent the districts of  Yale and Kootenay, which he did until 1879, when he was appointed  Indian Commissioner for the North-West Territories. In 1881 he  received the appointment of Lieutenant-Governor of the North-West  Territories which duty he carried on conjointly with that of Indian  Commissioner until 1888, when he was elected to represent Assiniboia  in the House of Commons. After his term of office was concluded at  Government House, Regina, he was sworn in as a member of the  Privy Council on August 3, 1888. He held the portfolios of Minister of the Interior and Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs in  the cabinets of Sir John A. Macdonald and his successor, Sir John  Abbott, until the autumn of 1892. After his retirement from Sir  John Abbott's cabinet he was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia, from 1892 until 1897. When his turn of office was  concluded he retired from political life entirely and settled in Victoria, British Columbia.)  (92) <2lsxcerpts    jf-rom  "THE INLAND SENTINEL"  Published at Yale, B.C., Thursday, October  18,  1883  NOTICE  Notice is hereby given that the undersigned intends making application to the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for permission to' purchase 640 acres, more or less, of meadow land, situated on  the east side of the Spallumecheen River, about 2 miles below Montgomery and Kirkpatrick's pre-emption—described as follows—Commencing at a stake on the river bank, thence east 80 chains, thence  north 80 chains, thence west 80 chains, thence south 80 chains to  point of commencement.  Wm. McKenzie  Jas. Montgomery  Lewis Kirkpatrick.  Spallamacheen, Sept. 2nd, 1883.  NOTICE  Notice is hereby given that we intend making application to the  Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for permission to purchase  170 acres of land situated in the Osoyoos Division of the District  of Yale and described as follows:—  Commencing at the S.E. corner of Lot 118, group I and running  thence east 80 chains, thence south 80 chains, thence east 40 chains,  thence south 160 chains, thence west 40 chains, thence north 40  chains, thence west 40 chains, thence along the shore of Duck Lake  about 204 chains to point of commencement.  Postill Bros.  Okanagan, Aug. 4th, 1883.  NOTICE  Notice is hereby given that I intend making application to the Chief  Commissioner of Lands and Works for permission to purchase 960  acres of land in the Osoyoos Division of the District of Yale and  described as follows:—  The east halves of sections 12, 13, and 24 of Township 8.  Thos. Greenhow.  Okanagan, B.C., 14th Sept., 1883.  (93) The Okanagan Historical Society—A 958  NOTICE  Notice is hereby given that the undersigned intends making application to the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for permission  to lease the following timber lands.  Commencing at a post marked B on Spallumacheen River or  Shuswap River at western end of portage and foot of canyon, thence  down said river to a post marked A, 5 miles by a width of 2 miles,  containing 6,400 acres, more or less.  W. A. Beddoe and Co.  Spallumacheen, Aug.  15th,  1883.  NOTICE  Notice is hereby given that the undersigned intends making application to the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for permission  to purchase 250 acres more or less, of land described as follows:-—  Commencing at a point on Shuswap Lake . . . Eagle Creek, thence  easterly, following boundary line of land applied for by James Mcintosh, 20 chains, thence northerly to the foot of the mountain 40  chains more or less, thence westerly along front of said mountain 80  chains more or less to the shore of said lake 40 chains more or less,  thence along shore of said lake to point of beginning.  W. A. Beddoe and Co.  Victoria, 28th Aug., 1883.  NOTICE  Notice is hereby given that I intend making application to the  Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for permission to purchase  320 acres of meadow land in Coldstream valley in the Osoyoos Division of the District of Yale and described as follows:—  Commencing at S.E. corner of Lot 17, Group 1 and running  thence E. 40 chains, thence N. 20 chains, thence E. 40 chains, thence  N. 40 chains, thence W. 40 chains, thence S. 40 chains, thence W.  40 chains, thence S. 40 chains to point of commencement.  James Lyons  Okanagan, 20th Aug., 1883.  NOTICE  Notice is hereby given that we intend to make application to the  Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for permission to purchase  400 acres of Grazing Land situated on the Okanagan Lake in the  Osoyoos Division of the District of Yale and described as follows:—  (94) Excerpts From "The Inland Sentinel"  Commencing at N.W. corner of Section 19, Township 0 and  running thence S. 80 chains, thence W. 80 chains to shore of Okanagan Lake, thence along shore of said lake in a north-easterly direction to point of commencement.  Tronson and Brewer  Okanagan, B.C.,  19th Aug., 1883.  NOTICE  Notice is hereby given that I intend to make application to the  Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for permission to purchase  320 acres of land situated in Okanagan in the Osoyoos Division of  the District of Yale and described as follows:—  Commencing at a stake 20 chains W. of the N.E. corner of Lot  88, Group 1, and running thence N. 40 chains, thence W. 80 chains,  thence S.  11 chains, thence E. 80 chains to point of commencement.  Chas. Lawson.  Okanagan, Aug. 20,  1883.  NOTICE  Notice is hereby given that I intend to make application to the  Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for permission to purchase  260 acres of land adjoining Lot 88, group 1, in the Osoyoos Division  of the District of Yale and described as follows:—  Commencing at a post at N.W. corner of Lot 88, Group 1, and  running 40 chains due W. to a post on the eastern boundary line of  the Wm. Mitchell pre-emption claim, thence S. 40 chains to a post,  thence east 120 chains to the corner post of James William's preemption, thence 20 chains to the S.E. corner of Lot 88 Group 1,  thence 80 chains W. to S.W. corner of Lot 88, Group 1, thence  N. 80 chains to point of commencement.  Forbes G. Vernon.  Okanagan, Sept. 23, 1883.  NOTICE  Notice is hereby given that I intend to make application to the  Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for application to purchase  640 acres of land situate at Okanagan Mission in the Osoyoos Division of Yale and described as follows:—  Commencing at a stake near Joe's Crossing on the Mission Creek  (95) The Okanagan Historical Society—-1958  and running E. 80 chains, thence S. 80 chains, thence W. 80 chains,  thence N. 80 chains to point of commencement.  Felix Guillet.  Okanagan, Sept. 23,  1883.  NOTICE  Notice is hereby given that I intend to make application to the  Chief Commissioner of Land and Works for application to purchase  320 acres of land situate at Okanagan Mission in the Osoyoos Division of the District of Yale and described as follows:—  Commencing at a stake at the mouth of Alec's Creek on Okanagan Lake about 2 miles south of the Mission and running thence E.  40 chains, thence N. 80 chains, thence W. 40 chains, thence S. 80  chains to point of commencement.  Felix Guillet.  Okanagan Mission, Sept. 23, 1883.  GENERAL JAIL DELIVERY AT LYTTON  Last Sunday at 7 p.m. Wilson, the burglar, and a half dozen  Indians broke out of the Lytton jail by bursting the inside door, and  securing a key to open the outer door. Two of the Indians returned  after snuffling the air of freedom, but the Indians that committed  the robbery at Mr. Mclntyre's store accompanied Wilson, the Basque  Ranch burglar. When last heard from the four escaped "jail birds"  were above Spence's Bridge and had 2 horses travelling up-country.  Several rumors are in circulation as to their whereabouts but we have  nothing authentic.  J. D. FRICKLETON, M.D.  member of College of Physicians and Surgeons  Ont. and Registered in B.C.  Office, Front Street, Yale, B.C.  (Oct. 18, 1883.)  Cures all chronic or diseases of long standing.   All who have tried  other Physicians without benefit give him a trial.   Particular attention  paid to the eye and ear and all female complaints.  In all cases of Hydrophobia and Cancer the money will be refunded  if a cure is not effected—provided the parties have not submitted to  mercury or the knife.  (96) V. centennial and jubilee JPjoohlets  ot the   y^-Jkanagan,   1958  1. Penticton, 1908-1958. "Historical Souvenir of Penticton."  On the occasion of the city's golden jubilee—prepared and edited by  Penticton Branch, Okanagan Historical Society. Copyright, City of  Penticton.   Plastic binding;  164 pp.  Preface acknowledges the work of Mr. R. N. Atkinson in gathering most of the material. Frontispiece first reeve, A. H. Wade, 1909.  Chapters on geophysical features of locality, early Indians, the brigade  trail, Shatford brothers, the South Okanagan Land Co., early church  history, post offices, the coming of the railway, lake steamers, early  schools, pioneers, street names, early athletes and medical men, Penticton's war record, industrial expansion and "our neighbors"—Trout  Creek, Naramata, Shingle Creek, Marron Valley, Okanagan Falls  and Kaleden. A total of 30 articles and stories. The book concludes  with a list of reeves and mayors. Rich in pictures—100 of them.  No list of contents or index.  2. The History of Rutland, 1858-1958. Orchard City Press, Kelowna. 128 pp., 85 illustrations and end map. Produced by Rutland  Centennial Committee. The sub-committee in charge of this work  was headed by Mrs. Ethel Rufli, with Mrs. E. Mugford, Mrs. Joy  Quigley, A. W. Gray and Bertram Chichester assisting. Frontispiece  "John Hope Rutland." This editor heartily agrees with a statement  in the foreword that "One of the great difficulties . . . has been the  contradictory statements by old timers, who often disagree as to dates  and even names of persons involved." Early settlers mentioned include  Wm. Pion, Frederick Brent, Dan Gallagher, John Rutland, the Flemings and Messrs. Morrison and FitzPatrick. The following are treated  at length,—early development, e.g., first farm, first grist mill, mail  carriers, first store, early orchards, the tobacco experiment, schools,  sports, scouts, churches, sawmill, irrigation system and local societies.  Vernon, B.C. "A Brief History." By Theresa Gabriel. Published  by Vernon Centennial Committee with the assistance of Vernon  Branch, Okanagan Historical Society, 1958. 63 pp., 17 illustrations,  with map of North Okanagan. Chapters on Early Indians, Explorers  and the Valley, Priests' Valley, Early Transportation—Capt. Shorts,  The "S and O" opens an Era, The City—Price Ellison, The 20th  Century, 1914-1939, Past to Present.  Osoyoos.    "The  Centennial  Edition,   Osoyoos Times."    August,  (97) The Okanagan Historical Society—7955*  1958. 44 pp., newsprint, 14^4" x 9J_", 37 pictures exclusive of advertisements. Cover design is a picture of view from near International Lookout. Acknowledgements include O.H.S. Reports and  "scrapbooks and clippings kept by Mrs. K. Lacey, Mrs. I. MacNaugh-  ton, Les. Goodman and Frank McDonald have added many interesting features, and the late George J. Fraser's book "The Story of  Osoyoos" provided an invaluable source of information and reference." Among the articles presented are the following—John C.  Haynes, The Kruger Family, General Sherman, Early Days in  Osoyoos, George J. Fraser, The Lacey Family, Growth of Education, Osoyoos Customs.  Westbank. "A Bit of Okanagan History." Centennial (revised)  edition. By Dorothy Hewlett Gellatly; 1958. 133 pp., 64 pictures  and pensketches. Dealing with Westbank and neighborhood, this is  the second and enlarged edition of a previous work of the same title  published 1932 with 80 pp. and seven pen sketches. The number of  chapters is increased from eleven to sixteen, and the story brought  right up to the present with the opening of Okanagan Lake bridge.  There is, too, a chapter on the recent V.L.A. development at Lake-  view Heights, and the book ends with lists of postmasters and pre-  emptors. Mrs. Gellatly is the widow of David Gellatly, son of  David E. Gellatly, who came to "Powers Flat" in 1900 and was the  first to ship produce out of the valley.  Okanagan Mission. "A History of Okanagan Mission. A Centennial Retrospect." By Primrose Upton (Mrs. T. B. Upton). Written and compiled at the request of the Okanagan Mission Centennial  Committee.  This is a 70 page History with cover design by Mrs. J. Lamont.  Illustrated with 28 half-tone cuts (photographs) and 6 line drawings  by Mrs. J. Lamont and Mrs. T. B. Upton.  The History starts with the Indians, goes on to fur trade, gold  discovery and the founding of Father Pandosy's Mission in 1859.  The growth and development of the religious Mission is followed  through until its decline and eventual sale in 1902. After this date  the growth south of Mission Creek is told in detail, particularly the  four schools, St. Andrew's Church, Okanagan Mission Sports Club,  Okanagan Mission Community Hall, Riding Club, Okanagan Mission  Store, Bellevue Hotel, Eldorado Arms Hotel, Boy Scout, Girl Guide,  Wolf Cub and Brownie organizations.  Early settlers such as Casorso, Saucier, Berard, Gillard, Walker,  (98) Centennial and Jubilee Booklets  Hobson, Lyons, Baillie, Thorneloe, G. R. Thomson, Crawford,  Mallam, Crichton, Barneby and J. H. Thomson are gone into in  detail.  The last few pages cover modern industries in the district.  Glenmore. "The Apple Valley." Published by the Glenmore  Centennial committee, 1958. At this date (October 11) this work  is yet in the manuscript stage, so no details of final make-up can be  given. Except for the chapters on the irrigation system and on the  Community Club and the Centennial Project, this history was written  by Mr. R. W. Corner, a fruit grower in Glenmore since 1919 and  Municipal Clerk 1925-55. He interviewed or wrote as many old  timers as he was able to reach and all available records and old maps  were consulted. There are 17 chapters, dealing with the period from  pre-settlement days to the present. It is understood that a map of  the municipality will be included in the book. The chapter on the  irrigation system is the work of Mr. W. R. Reed, manager 1912-  1949, and that on the Community Club and the Centennial Project  was written by Ruth Purdy. The dates of the arrival of settlers during the period 1910-1914 are given under the year of arrival.  The Boundary Historical Society, founded Jan. 29, 1951, recently  issued its first annual report, containing 37 pages and a map of the  Boundary country from the 49th parallel to Christian Valley and  from Mount Baldy to Paulson on Lower Arrow Lake; also 11 pictures. A short history of the society is given at the outset, followed  by chapters on Christina Lake, Cascade, the Grand Forks Valley,  Phoenix, Greenwood, Midway, Kettle River Valley, Rock Creek,  Beaverdell and Carmi. The Editorial Committee consists of Messrs.  R. F. Sandner (Cascade), E. S. Reynolds and Archer Davis (Grand  Forks), and Mrs. E. J. Roylance (Greenwood). O.H.S. extends  congratulations and best wishes.  (99) (100) K^Jkanaaan <J~\istorical <^ocietu  A NNUAL    MEETING  MINUTES  Minutes of The Annual Meeting of The Okanagan Historical  Society, held in the Community Centre, Osoyoos, on Wednesday,  May 14th, 1958, at 2:30 p.m. The President Mr. J. D. Whitham,  presiding.   50 members present.  The Secretary read the Notice of Meeting, as published in the  21st Report.  Minutes of the last Annual Meeting.  The President stated that minutes of the previous Annual meeting  had been published in the 21st Report. It has been customary to accept  the Minutes as read, but if any member so wished, the Secretary  would read said Minutes, Moved by Mr. F. T. Marriage, Kelowna.  2nd by Mrs. Knowles, Kelowna. That minutes be accepted as read.  Carried.  Business arising out of Minutes:  Mr. Whitham referred to the proposal of Mrs. G. P. Bagnall  that prizes be given, in each School District, for the best essay written  by a Junior-Senior High School student, on the subject, "100 Years  of Okanagan History," and stating that the response, in most Branches,  had not been good, and asked if it would be the wish of members to  continue with the idea. Mr. Marriage, Mr. Watt and Mrs. Lacey,  all spoke in favor of continuing, expressing the opinion that the practice would stimulate an interest in history and research. After some  discussion it was decided that the matter should be studied by the  Executive.  In Afemoriam:  The President called for a minute's silence in memory of those  members who had passed away during the year, with special reference  to the late Dr. Andrew of Summerland.  Reports:  President's Report  Mr. Whitham expressed satisfaction over the successful year enjoyed by the Society and thanked the Branches for the support they  had given the Executive, and for the work they had done and were  doing, to make the Centennial year a success.   Special  thanks being  (101) Okanagan Historical Society Annual Report  due Mr. Marriage, who assisted by Mr. Ron Fraser and Mr. Kerry,  took over when Mr. Whitham became ill and managed to have the  Report published early in December.  Evidence of the excellence of the Reports is shown by the number  of Public Libraries, Universities, etc., becoming members of the  Society. Mr. Whitham referred briefly to the increased cost of printing Reports, stating that he would be very much against raising the  membership fees. By increasing membership it might be possible to  hold to the figure of $2.50.  Oliver-Osoyoos Branch were congratulated on the very fine cairn  they have erected on the site of the first Customs House, and the  Knights of Columbus of Kelowna were praised for their efforts in  restoring the old Mission buildings to' their original condition.  Moved by Mr. Whipple, 2nd by Mr. Byron-Johnston, That the  President's report be adopted.   Carried.  Treasurer's  Report  Given   by   Dr.   Ross,   acting  Treasurer,   in   the   absence   of   Mr.  Bagnall.  Membership, 300.  Donation of $15.00 noted.  Cost of printing Report, $2.00 per copy.  Bank balance after all bills paid, $425.55.  A copy of the financial statement will be sent to all Branches.  Branch Reports:  Armstrong-Enderby: No written report. Mr. Blackburn, the  President, stated that only two members of the Branch were able to  be at Osoyoos, but expressed the hope that the membership of the  Society would grow.  Kelowna: Before giving the report of his Branch, Mr. Watt  expressed pleasure at being in Osoyoos and told of driving stage from  Fairview to Oroville in 1899 when there was nothing but the Customs  House in Osoyoos.  The Kelowna Branch have been interested in restoring the old  Mission buildings and in the preservation of Historic records, and have  endeavored to have the names of roads commemorating early settlers  remain unchanged.  Oliver-Osoyoos: This Branch reports a very successful year, the  erection of a cairn on the site of the first Customs House being the  (102) Okanagan Historical Society Annual Report  main endeavor.   Members have also assisted the Centennial committee  to obtain names of Pioneers eligible for scrolls.  Penticton: Two general and 16 Executive meetings were held.  Mr. R. N. Atkinson, a member of the Branch, was engaged by the  City to write a History of Penticton as a Jubilee and Centennial project. Members of the Executive met many times to select old photographs and pictures to be used in illustrating the history. The Branch  were also asked to undertake compiling a list of Pioneers to be invited  to the Jubilee and Centennial, and to take charge of registration and  entertainment. Of importance historically was the opening on Tuesday, May 13th, of the Civic Museum.  Vernon: At the Annual Meeting of the Branch held recently,  Bishop Sovereign was Guest Speaker. A fee of $1.00 was set for  Branch membership.  Projects for the year. 1st. Assistance in preparation of Historical  Booklet. 2nd. Co-sponsorship of Art Association exhibit of pictures  of Historic subjects painted by Janet Middleton.  Moved by Mrs, White, 2nd by Mr. Powley, That the reports be  adopted.   Carried.  Mrs. Haggen, M.L.A. and President of the B.C. Historical Association was then introduced by the President and asked to say a few  words, Mrs. Haggen addressed the meeting briefly on the proposed  plans for the re-organization of the B.C. Association. First extending the greetings of the Boundary Historical Society to the O.H.S.,  she went on to explain that the B.C. Association would be revived and  re-organized: noting, too, that they much admired the O.H.S. for its  method of recording History in the form of Reports. It has been  proposed that the next Annual meeting of the B.C.H.A. be held somewhere in the Okanagan and the suggestion made that the Annual  meetings of the two Societies be held consecutively. Mrs. Haggen  also spoke of the plans of the Parks Division of the Department of  Recreation and Conservation to mark Historic sites and Lookout  Points, and suggested that Branches write Mr. C. P. Lyons with suggestions for legends on markers in their respective areas.  Election of Officers:  Mr. Whipple and xMr. Powley appointed scrutineers.  The following slate elected.  Honorary Patrons:   His Honor, the Lieut.-Governor of B.C.; The  Hon. W. A. C. Bennett, Premier of B.C.  (103) The Okanagan Historical Society—795c?  Honorary President:   Mr. O. L. Jones, Kelowna.  President:  Mr. J. D. Whitham, Kelowna.  Vice-Presidents: Mr. R. Blackburn, Armstrong-Enderby; Mr. G.  M. Watt, Kelowna; Mrs. R. B. White, Penticton.  Secretary:  Mrs. Vera E. Bennett, Penticton.  Treasurer:   Mr. G. P. Bagnall, Vernon.  Editor:  Mr. F. T. Marriage, Kelowna.  Auditor:   Mr. Jenner, Vernon.  Editorial Committee: Mrs. G. P. Bagnall, Vernon; Mrs. I. Crozier,  Vernon; Mrs. R. B. White, Penticton; Mrs. M. Middleton,  Oyama; Mrs. D. Gellatly, Westbank; Mrs. E. J. Lacey,  Osoyoos; Mr. H. W. Corbitt, Kaleden; Dr. F. Quinn,  Kelowna; Dr. Goodfellow, Princeton; Mrs. M. Johnson,  Vernon; Mr. Harry Woodd, Enderby; Mrs. Podoborozny,  Enderby.  Directors: North, Mr. A. E. Berry; Central, Mr. Powley; South,  Mr. E. J. Lacey.  Directors at Large:   Mr. Corbitt, Kaleden;  Mr. A. K. Loyd, Kelowna.  The President thanked the Scrutineers for their work.  New Business:  Mr. Watt of Kelowna suggested that a reduced price be placed  on Reports of previous years remaining unsold.  Mr. Whitham explained that this could not be done as Reports  were not for sale but were given as a bonus on payment of membership fee.  Dr. Ross of Vernon stated that there is an increasing demand for  complete sets of Reports and that high prices are being paid for early  numbers.  Mr. Blackburn of Armstrong-Enderby said that he also would  be against any reduction in price.  Mrs. Lacey of Osoyoos told the meeting that her Branch had  sold 6 sets of the Reports she had available.  Mr. Bedford of Kelowna wondered if it would be possible to  combine all back Reports in one volume. Mr. Ron Fraser explained  that this would be much too expensive.  Dr. Ross of Vernon brought up the matter of a Constitution for  the Society, and moved that the Directors, at their next meeting, develop  a Constitution and Bylaws to be presented to the next meeting if  such has not already been set up.  (104) Okanagan Historical Society Annual Report  Moved by Dr. Ross, 2nd Mr. Cameron.   Carried. |:  Printing of the 22nd Report:  Moved by Mr. Powley, 2nd by Captain Weeks, That this be left  to the Directors and Editorial Committee.   Carried.  Next Annual Meeting:  Moved by Mrs, Upton, 2nd by Mrs. Willitts, That the next Annual Meeting be held in Kelowna.  Date to be set by Directors and notice of Meeting be included  in the 22nd Report.   Carried.  Mrs. White asked if the O.H.S. had been consulted re the naming  of the new Bridge, and suggested an old Indian name such as N'Walla  after an early Indian Chief of all the Okanagan Indians.  Mr. Blackburn suggested either Pandosy or Gillard.  The President asked for a motion thanking Radio stations and  Newspapers for their assistance.  Moved by Mr. Powley, 2nd by Capt. Weeks, That the Secretary  be instructed to write to Newspapers and Radio Stations thanking them  for their help and co-operation.   Carried.  Mrs. Lacey mentioned that the old Fairview road was to be  renamed "7th Street." ~  The President advised the Oliver-Osoyoos Branch to protest.  On motion of Mr. Watt the meeting adjourned at 4:45 p.m.  At 6:00 p.m. members and friends attended a dinner in the Legion  Hall, caterers being the Ladies' Auxiliary to the Centennial Committee.  "O Canada" was sung and Grace was said by Mr. F. M. McDonald.  Mrs. White introduced Pioneers: her brother, Mr. Val Haynes,  born in Osoyoos in 1875; Will Haynes, born in New Westminster  in 1879; Mr. Theodore (Babe) Kruger, born in Osoyoos in 1887,  (a son Of Theodore Kruger who established a Trading Post in Osoyoos  in 1866), and Mr. Ian Browne, born in Penticton and son of the  Gold Commissioner of Fairview.  Mr. Whitham then introduced Mrs. Haggen who expressed her  gratitude for invitation to meeting and banquet and mentioned the  fact that those recording History often lost sight of the fact that  they were making History.  Three young ladies in appropriate costumes sang songs typical of  the '20's. Mrs. Ivy Norcross accompanied. Mr. Whipple, President  of the Oliver-Ospyoos Branch, introduced the Guest Speaker, His  Worship Mayor Archer Davis of Grand Forks.   Mr. Davis gave a  (105) '/'//_? Okanagan Historical Society—1958  most interesting talk on the early days of the "Boundary" country,  its colorful history and more colorful pioneers.  The speaker was thanked by Mr. Marriage.  Mr.  Blackburn moved  a vote of thanks to the  Oliver-Osoyoos  Branch and to the ladies who served the dinner.  The evening closed with the singing of "The Queen."  Secretary.  PRESIDENT'S  REPORT,  1958  Kelowna, B.C.,  May 14, 1958.  To the Members of the Okanagan Historical Society.  Ladies and Gentlemen:  As President of your Society-, I herewith tender my report for the  year just concluded. This report will be only an overall picture of  the activities of the Society, and will not go into details, as reports  will be given by the Secretary, Acting Treasurer and Editor on the  work of the Society during the year and the Branch Presidents will  also give reports on the activities of their respective Branches.  I am pleased to be able to report that the Society has just completed a very successful year, both in the interest shown by all the  branches in the work of the Society, and also the work they are doing  in assisting the Centennial Committees, in their respective districts,  in making the 100th Anniversary of the founding of the Colony of  British Columbia a success. The Editorial Committees have also been  ver}' active in supplying articles to our Editor from their districts,  which is very important to our Society, for it would not be possible  for us to publish an Annual Report without this assistance. You will  see from the Financial Report, which will be given by our Acting  Treasurer, Dr. D. A. Ross, that we are in a sound financial position.  I would at this time, like to thank Dr. Ross for taking over the duties  of our Treasurer, Mr. Guy P. Bagnall, during his holiday trip  around the world.  With reference to our annual reports. The 21st report was published in December, and personally, I have heard nothing but praise  for this excellent work. The work of our Editor, Rev. J. C. Goodfellow, D.D., and his assistant, Mr. Fred Marriage of Kelowna, who  stepped into the breach at the last moment, made it possible for the  (106) Okanagan Historical Society Annual Report  Report to be out in December. Unfortunately my illness last fall  made it impossible for me to be of any assistance to the Editors but  Mr. Marriage carried on the good work and was assisted by Mr. Ron  Fraser and Mr. L. L. Kerry of Kelowna and our Treasurer, Mr.  Guy P. Bagnall of Vernon. I would like to sincerely thank these  gentlemen for the work which they did for our Society. The very  high standard of excellence in our yearly reports established by the  Society's Editors and assisted by the Editorial Committees of the  Branches is being recognized all over Canada and the United States.  Numerous Universities and Public Libraries are joining our Society  in order to receive this Annual Report, and in many cases. I am sure,  they are used as reference books for the history of our district. However I do think the Branches should do all in their power to hold the  present membership and at the same time make an honest effort to  procure additional members. Our Society is like any other Society or  business; we cannot afford to rest on our laurels, we must do everything possible to increase our membership. With our present membership our reports are costing us about $2.00 each and with our membership fee of $2.50, it leaves a very small margin for operating  expenses. However if the membership of the Society is increased,  which I am sure it can be, then this would lower the cost of each report,  thus allowing us a little money for expenses. Personally I am not in  favor of raising the membership fee above the $2.50 figure and as  stated above, by increasing our membership, we may be able to hold  to this figure, but with the ever increasing cost of publication of our  Reports, the incoming directorate will have to give serious consideration to this matter. While on the subject of reports, I note that many  small communities are, this year, publishing a Historical Report of  their districts to commemorate the Centennial year, which is an excellent work for the history of our districts. However if it had not  been for the twenty-one reports we have published, I think most of  the writers of these local reports would have had a very difficult time  without having our reports to refer to; so I am sure this is another  instance where our reports have been of value.  In my last Annual Report to you, I stated that it was very encouraging to see our Branches actively engaged in the placing of markers  on Historical Sites in their respective districts and this year I want to  congratulate the Oliver-Osoyoos Branch on the fine cairn they erected  on the site of the first Customs House at Osoyoos; and in the Kelowna  district the Knights of Columbus are busy restoring to its original con-  (107) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  dition the first mission building erected by Father Pandosy and I am  sure the Kelowna Branch will do all they can to assist with this fine  work.   .  Each year your Society has been very fortunate in having very  fine speakers for our Annual Dinner Meeting and I can assure you  that this year will be no exception, as we are very fortunate in having  with us today His Worship, Mayor Archer Davis of the City of Grand  Forks and we are very grateful to him for attending our meeting  today. Mayor Davis is an active member of the Boundary Historical  Society, a native son of Grand Forks, and a noted authority on the  History of the Boundary Country, so I am sure we will all look forward to his talk tonight, and we would like him to take back the best  wishes of the Okanagan Historical Society to his Society.  All arrangements for this Annual Meeting and dinner tonight  have been made by the Oliver-Osoyoos Branch and on behalf of our  Society, I would like to thank them for the work they have gone to  on our behalf.  In conclusion I would like to thank the Executive and Members  of the Society for the assistance they have given me during the year  just ended. It is this loyal support which has made this year so successful for the Society.  All of which is respectfully submitted.  J. D. WHITHAM, President  Okanagan Historical Society.  ERRATA in Report No. 21, "We Will Remember Them."  We regret an error in the name of Mrs. Mary Chapman on page  104.   Her maiden name of Tupper was used, and should of course  have read "Mrs. Mary Chapman."  We also regret that in the obituary notice for Mrs. Byron-Johnson  the date of her marriage was incorrectly given;  it should have been  given as 1933.  (108) VUe     UUill    rCemember   J h  em  Haines, C. E. The death of Charles Edward Haines occurred in  his 73rd year at Vernon on May 1st, 1958. Born in Norfolk, Eng.,  in 1885, he served in the Royal Flying Corps in World War 1, moved  with his family to Canada in 1920 and settled in the Coldstream district. He is survived by his wife Gertrude, one daughter (Mrs. W.  F. French), one son, "Bill," of Vernon, and a brother, Harry, also  of Vernon. A collector at heart, he ranged widely through the Okanagan countryside and brought home many Indian artifacts and mineral  specimens. In later years Mr. Haines made a notable contribution to  the Vernon Museum by constructing cabinets and arranging displays.  At the time of his death he was honorary curator of the museum and  an ardent member of Okanagan Historical Society.  G. P. B.  James A. Gleed, of Okanagan Centre, died August 6, 1958. For  nearly 50 years "Jim," as he was affectionately known, was a quiet  force in all district projects, besides his work as postmaster and storekeeper for over 30 years. He retired ten years ago. For many years  he was president of the Community Hall Association.  Mrs. Mary Ann Marchand, aged 103, died in Vernon Jubilee  Hospital three weeks after breaking her leg. Despite her venerable  age, her spirit was such that she had declared her intention of returning  home after her mishap. Born in 1854 in what is now Poison Park,  Mrs. Marchand was a resident of Okanagan Indian Reserve No. 1.  A religious leader among her people, she would often preach in the  absence of a priest. She had an intense hatred of "drink" and would  often berate the young generation for their insobriety and late hours.  Five sons, one foster-son, one daughter, 62 grandchildren, 105 great  grandchildren and nine great-great grandchildren survive her.  Mrs. Delphiue Lequime, widow of Leon Lequime, passed away  in May, 1958, at Lewiston, Idaho. One of the first white girls to be  born in the Okanagan, being the daughter of the late Mr. and Mrs.  Louis Christien, who pre-empted land in the central Okanagan in  the '90's. Her husband, Leon Lequime, was the youngest son of Eli  Lequime, who came to the valley in 1861. Leon Avenue in Kelowma  is named for him.  George Belsey. An Englishman, Mr. Belsey came to Oyama in  1908 and at first worked for Dr. Irvine. Later he operated Oyama  Store and post office before moving to Vernon in October, 1950. Two  sons survive.  Mrs. Margaret Paynter, the  first postmistress at East  Kelowna,  (109) The Okanagan Historical Society—-1958  who later held the same position at Westbank till 1947, died in June,  1958. After a seven-years residence in England beginning 1912, she  and her husband, Edwin C. Paynter, returned to the Okanagan and  took up residence in Westbank. Surviving are her husband, five  daughters, two sons and 18 grandchildren.  Alexander Laurence Macdonell, born in Lumby, Oct. 29, 1896,  died in Vernon on Dec. 11, 1957. Served with the Strathcona Horse-  in the first world war and was later prominent in the B.C. Dragoons.  George Ernie McMahon. Mayor of Enderby, died suddenly on  Christmas Day, 1957, aged 65. A native of Revelstoke, he moved  to Enderby as a young man. For some 40 years he engaged in the  hardware business, but later operated the Monarch Theatre, retiring  several years ago. Taking a keen interest in civic affairs, he was mayor  in 1945-6 and again in 1957; also alderman 1927-44, 47-48. He is  survived by his widow, two daughters and four grandchildren.  William (Billy) Kruger, one of the South Okanagan's most  colorful personalities, for many years prominent in horse racing  circles, died on June 15, 1958. He was born at Inkameep in 1872,  and was the son of Theodore Kruger, first Hudson's Bay trader at  Osoyoos. He came to Penticton as a young man on the advice of  Chief Francois, who granted him a large tract of land. He leaves his  widow, six sons and three daughters.  Sam E. Hawksworth, of Grindrod, for 27 consecutive years president of the Shuswap-Okanagan Co-operative Dairy Industries Association and its predecessor, North Okanagan Creamery Association,  died on Dec. 4, 1957. Born in England, he came to the Okanagan  more than 50 years ago, farming at first in the Swan Lake area and  later moving to Grindrod, where he specialized in breeding Ayrshire  cattle.  Thomas Charles Ashton, son of Charles Ashton for whom the  Ashton Creek area is named (1877) died last December. He was  born at Lansdowne 74 years ago.  Richard Byron Johnson, aged 90, died in Vernon on July 5, 195 7.  Born in London, Eng., he came to Canada 70 years ago, and for 49  years was a resident of the Okanagan Landing district. Connected  with the early development of Vancouver and Vernon, Mr. Johnson  and his late wife rode horseback over the Hope-Princeton trail. He  was an ardent rowing man and one of the few remaining witnesses  to the dedication of Stanley Park, Vancouver, in 1889. In 1902 he  built the first residence in Kerrisdale, later known as Crofton House  (110) We Will Remember Them  School. His son Guy, of Okanagan Landing, and four nieces survive.  George J. Fraser, a prominent resident of Osoyoos, died on Feb.  9, 1958. Coming west from Manitoba to Vernon in 1896, he lived  successively in Alberta, Kelowna and Penticton for short periods.  In 1917 he became manager of a cattle ranch and orchard in Osoyoos,  and two years later organized Osoyoos Orchards, Ltd. Later he was  president of Oliver Co-operative Growers and first president of  Osoyoos Co-op. He also dealt in Real Estate and Insurance, selling  out in 1947. In 1952 he published "The Story of Osoyoos." At his  death his community lost an active worker in all phases of local  endeavor. See pp. 20-21 of "Centennial Edition, Osoyoos Times,  Aug. 1958."  Mrs. Vera A. Cools, of Vernon, was a member of the Okanagan  Historical Society since its inception and possessed one of the very few  complete sets of its reports. She came to Vernon with her parents,  Mr. and Mrs. H. F. Wilmot, in 1898, and from then on resided continuously in the North Okanagan. Her death occurred at her residence, Carr's Landing on Okanagan Lake on November 30, 1955.  She was well known for her interest in flower culture, needlework  and weaving.  Frederick Hibbert Barnes, a former mayor of Enderby for two  years and police magistrate for fifty, died in Nova Scotia at the age  of 99. Born in New Brunswick, he moved to Winnipeg in 1879 and  five years later made the difficult journey to B.C. with a survey party.  Living at first in Vernon, he resided in Enderby from 1896, at first  managing a sawmill for Smith and McLeod. He did a great deal of  building in the district. Mr. Barnes was always active in the life of  the community, and has a lasting memorial in Enderby in the property  known as Barnes Playground. He donated the land, and the Lions  Club equipped it.  Mrs. Fred Cooper, aged 76 at the time of her death, was a resident  of Vernon for more than 64 years, having arrived in that city in the  spring of 1893.  Major W. R. Grieve, who died August 8, 1958, in his 81st year,  was the owner, since 1906, of the ranch "Eskdale" in the Coldstream  district. Educated at Rugby and Trinity College, Cambridge, he proceeded to the North Island of New Zealand to assist his uncle at a  sheep station there. It was not long, however, before he heard the call  of Canada, and decided to try his hand at fruit farming, at that time  being enthusiastically advocated by Lord AJberdeen and the then newly  (111) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  established Coldstream Ranch Company. He was a councillor of Coldstream Municipality for several years and served -an the '\first World  War, being demobilized with the rank of major. Mrs. Verite Jackson  of Coldstream and Mrs. Daphne Byatt of Oyama are daughters.  Charles Nichols, former government agent at Greenwood, Grand  Forks and Princeton, died recently .it the age of 68.   He had resided  at Princeton for 25 years, and acted as magistrate, official adminis-:  trator, president" (and later administrator) of the Hospital Board, and  judge of the Juvenile Court.   He was also prominent in the Masonic'  Order.  THE  HALF-BREED  Half white —half red,  Legitimate heir to trader ortrapper,  Or bastard son of:' a titled earl;  Many's the trail they broke  And many the camp firethey tended.  Theirs was a humble lot. ,j  But only for them the West  Would not yet be won.  They knew the ways  Of their forefathers red.  And of how to live off the land;  Theirs was the know-how  Of the way of the deer and the fish,  Of berries and roots  And herbs that meant life or death.  Their women fed apd nursed  The white man's family  In time of need,  And solaced the hunter,  The miner, the trapper,  Who ventured so far  From family and friend.  Now when the celebrations are over  The pioneers their laurels have taken,  Did thev remember the half-breed  Who helped bridge the gap  Between white men and red?  — Katie Lacey  am <~/VLinincj  (ZLsn&iheer   CJ^ tanned   f^rinceton  William John Waterman, a mining engineer, was one of the  early mining men in the Princeton area, where he bought land from  Mr. J. Sands, a son-in-law of-'Mr. Allison. Mr. Waterman organized  the (Vermillion P'orks Mining and Development Company, Ltd., in  London, England. This company was'the first to operate in the Similkameen district. In 1896-7 they surveyed and sub-divided into blocks  and lots the site of present-day Princeton.  Mr. Waterman married Florence B. Warren, then eighteen years  of age, in the historic Christ Church at Vancouver, B.C. They travelled by pack-train from Hope and took up residence in a log house  seven miles west of Princeton, where Mr. Waterman had placer-  mining claims.   Later, the family moved to Okanagan Falls.  In the accompanying photograph, taken at Hope, B.C., the Watermans were returning by way of the Dewdney Trail to their home  near Princeton after a visit to Mrs. Waterman's sister, Mrs.,]Cecil  Smith, at^Agassiz. Mrs. Waterman rode side-saddle and.wore a khaki  gabardine (a new color and material made during the Boer War)  riding habit and hat specially designed and tailor-made for her in  England. The little girl on the horse is their daughter Ena. The  goats were taken along for a supply of fresh milk and were considered  a very important,part of the pack-train. ■   . ._        ■:  A road over the mountains from Hope had not been built into  Princeton: at that time, and the only means of transportation was by  pack-train or on foot over the rugged mountains and through the  valleys. It took the Watermans three days each way. to make the trip  to:-'and* from Hope; tents were used for camping. Their camping  places were at "The Lake House," Canyon Camp and Powder Gamp.  Going to and returning from Agassiz they were ferried across  the Fraser on a large scow by the Popkum Indians. It was towed up  stream by horses, let loose in the current, and by the aid of long oars  guided to the opposite shore.  Mrs. Waterman/now Mrs. Matthew Wilson, resides in Penticton. Her son, Major J. V. (Victor) H. Wilson, whose home is at  Paradise Ranch, Naramata, is a well-known figure in  Penticton.  13) EDITORS NOTE—  Through the initiative of Mrs. G. P. Bagnall of Vernon, the Okanagan  Historical Society has this year instituted a competition in the Senior  High Schools of the valley whereby a prize of ten dollars was offered to  students in each School District for the best essay in Okanagan History,  and a trophy given by the Society for annual competition by the schools  concerned.  The winner of the trophy, 1958, was Southern Okanagan High School  at Oliver with the essay by Miss Sandra Ball, and the winner of the competition in District 22 was Miss Diane Osborn of Vernon Senior High  School.  Both essays appear below.  v_/mc <J~Lundred    sJJears   >^/  *<-shanaa  CKis  zanaaan  tor\  7/  By Sandra Ball  (Southern Okanagan High School.)  In the Okanagan Trench of British Columbia's Interior Plateau  is nestled one of Canada's most unusual and famous valleys—the  Okanagan—which is truly a valley of sunshine and surprises. One  of its unique features is the extension of the upper Sonora area from  the boundary to Okanagan Falls. The flora and fauna of the Osoyoos  valley are similar to those of Mexico at an elevation of 2000 feet.  Such distinctive vegetation as sage-brush, greasewood and numerous  varieties of cacti thrive here. The sage sparrow, five-toed kangaroo  rat, blue-tailed lizard and diamond-back rattlesnake are species of wild  life found in the Okanagan, but rarely, if ever, elsewhere in Canada.  This small area is Canada's only true desert. However, during the  past hundred years it has become the "Garden of Eden" of British  Columbia. Although the Southern Okanagan is concerned mainly with  fruit growing, the industries of the northern section are more diversified, and consist of dairying, lumbering, hog and poultry-raising,  and mixed farming. It is in the north that the world-famous Armstrong cheeses are produced.  What a difference, now, from the time when, in 1858, Father  Pandosy and his small band first entered the Okanagan, to find it  devoid of roads, boundaries, farms and irrigation systems. Encamped  at their primitive settlement on the shore of Okanagan Lake, with the  semi-nomadic aborigines as their only neighbors, they brought to the  Valley Christianity and the culture of the old world.  The first permanent valley residents were about 2000 Okanagan  Indians. Their influence is still felt in such place names as "Okanagan" (Indian for rendezvous), "Sooyoos" (where two lakes come  together), and other such colorful appellations.   Ancient Indian paint-  (114) One Hundred Years of Okanagan History  ings can be found at several locations throughout the valley. A gifted  Indian of the Inkameep Reserve, Sis-hu-lk, has received some of the  highest awards of the Royal Drawing Society of London for his  strikingly original paintings. Today, he and other descendants of the  early Okanagan Indians live on reservations where they are chiefly  employed in cattle ranching.  How did the unknown, undeveloped valley of 1858 progress to  the fertile and renowned valley of 1958? This progress may be  traced through the increase in population and the corresponding development of industry during the past century.  Mining was the "father" of Okanagan industry. About 1858  the rumor of gold at Rock Creek, Mission Creek, Bear Creek and  Cherry Creek was the magnet that attracted many money-hungry  prospectors to the Okanagan. Of these claims, none were notably  rich, but a good supply of silver at Cherry Creek promoted the Cherry  Creek Mining Company, which lasted ten years. Perhaps the most  colorful and successful of Okanagan boom towns was Fairview, three  miles above Oliver townsite. It had its beginnings in 1887, when  the first claim was staked at the "Stemwinder." Then appeared such  mines as "Suzie," "Morning Star," "Tinhorn," "Rattler," and others.  There were more than 3000 people in Fairview at its peak, with "The  Golden Gate," the "Miner's Rest" and "Big Teepee" doing a roaring  business. Fairview gradually faded away; today few traces remain  of this once thriving town. However, the Canadian Mining and  Smelting Co. still has interests there, to obtain silica quartz.  As a result of boom towns such as Fairview and Camp McKinney,  the cattle industry was developed to supply these camps. In 1861,  14,000 head of cattle, horses, and sheep were imported from Oregon.  The rolling, desert-like Okanagan terrain proved to be ideal for  them. Thus, from 1860 to 1900 cattle ranching dominated Okanagan industry under such old-time "cattle barons" as Kruger, Richter,  and Ellis. The first Okanagan meat-packing plant was established in  Kelowna in 1894 to process the four-footed members of the cattle  industry. Around the 1890's this area was indeed "a free and easy-  land of large ranches, used only for cattle and horses, with a sparse  population of Indians and miners."  When, in 1890, James Gartrell planted the first commercial  orchard in the valley the fruit industry had its modest beginnings. At  this time the Lambly brothers at Trepanier Creek had successfully  cultivated peach trees. Orchards then appeared in the North Okanagan, with the spotlight on Lord Aberdeen's Coldstream and Guisa-  (115) The Okanagan Historical Society—A958  chan ranches, 200 trees in all. Meanwhile at Peachland, J. M. Robinson and Company had planted all fruits of the temperate zone.  Following this, orchards were planted at Naramata, Summerland,  Penticton and Kaleden. The Oliver-Osoyoos area was opened after  World War 1 by the construction of the Southern Okanagan Lands  Project irrigation canal. This line irrigated the S.O.L.P. area from  five miles north of Oliver to the boundary. It is a miracle of modern  engineering and is the virtual lifeline of the South Okanagan. This  part of the valley has proved to be the most suitable area for tree  fruits, and is the only region in Canada where apricots can be grown  successfully for the market. Because fruit farming is such an important part of the Okanagan economy, special associations and agencies  have been formed to organize this industry. The farmers' own British Columbia Fruit Growers' Association was inaugurated in 1889.  Later, during the depression, farmers realized the need for a central  marketing agency to distribute their produce. It was for this purpose  that B.C. Tree Fruits was established. The Summerland Experimental  Station began operations in the early 1900's to provide scientific advice  on farming techniques and to develop improved varieties of plants  specially adapted to the Okanagan climate.  The fruit industry has produced many secondary industries to  provide for its needs. For example, the lumber industry- provides the  raw materials for box factories, where fruit boxes are made. The  Experimental Station conducts a program of research to discover better methods of storage and preservation, while bottling works, juice  plants, canneries and cold-storage units put the discoveries into practice.   Manufacturing plants produce scientific farm equipment.  The past century has also seen amazing progress in the field of  transportation. The scattered Indian trails of yesterday are a far  cry from our broad, paved highways of today. In 1892, before adequate roads were constructed, the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway  went as far as Okanagan Landing, where one had to board a steamboat to journey down Okanagan Lake. This boat trip was a slow  and tedious one, but was the safest way one had of getting to the  southern part of the valley. The improvement of highways and the  extension of railway lines steadily drained traffic from the stern-  wheelers until, in 1936 the last of them, "Sicamous," found a permanent resting place on the shore of Lake Okanagan at Penticton.  Gone are the days when fruit had to be shipped up the lake on a slow  boat to get to market. Today, refrigerated box cars and freight trucks  conduct it quickly to its destination.  (116) rPhe Okanagan Historical Society—1958  Since the first air-field in Vernon, 1930, fields have sprung up  at Ellison, Oliver and Penticton. This last airport is excellent and  receives a good deal of commercial traffic. Thus transportation in  the Okanagan has advanced from the age of horses, stage coaches  and river boats to the era of trains, automobiles, buses and airplanes.  Progress in communications has been equally as revolutionary as  that in transportation. The first telephone line in the valley has in  60-odd years grown into an extensive system connecting all parts of  the Okanagan. The year 1891 witnessed the beginnings of the  "grandpappy" of present-day Okanagan newspapers—The Vernon  News. In addition to the radio stations at Penticton, Kelowna and  Vernon, a television station has been started in Kelowna. Surely we  have reason to boast of our communication facilities!  This valley, with its energetic people and invigorating climate,  was bound to attract an audience. This has become a new and important business—the tourist industry. It enables us to show visitors  our beautiful valley, allowing them to marvel at its unique, appealing  scenery. It also gives us an opportunity to offer them enjoyment of  our healthful climate and the excitement of our gay local festivals.  Here they may participate in an unusually varied range of sports, or  may delve into the past by visiting historical sites and by examining  authentic primitive Indian paintings. Who would not be attracted by  the lure of "Ogopogo," the elusive, mysterious sea-monster inhabiting  Okanagan Lake? Who could help but be drawn to this valley of  youth—our heritage ?  (117) Uhe  \~~roldstream     Planch  By Diane Osborn, Vernon Senior High School.  Early in the 1860's there was considerable excitement in the North  Okanagan, as William Pion had discovered gold at Cherry Creek,  some thirty-five miles east of Priests' Valley, where Vernon now stands.  In the early summer of 1864 the colonial government under Sir  James Douglas as Governor, commissioned a Captain Charles F.  Houghton, who had recently arrived from England, to make an exploratory and prospecting trip into the vicinity of Cherry Creek. The  purpose of the investigation was two-fold, firstly, to report on the  rumors regarding gold and other minerals in the Cherry Creek area,  and secondly, to explore a shorter route to the Columbia River for  the transport of goods to the Big Bend mines.  Captain Houghton, formerly an officer in the 20th regiment of  the Imperial Army, had been gazetted out on June 29, 1863, and  had left England two weeks later. He arrived in British Columbia  accompanied by Forbes G. Vernon and Charles E. Vernon. The two  brothers started to mine for gold at Cherry Creek, and in partnership  with Capt. Houghton, pre-empted land between Okanagan Landing  and Priests' Valley, now Vernon. Capt. Houghton also pre-empted  land near the northern arm of Okanagan Lake, but this was disallowed, as Governor Douglas had just set aside, in this area, a  government reserve of ten square miles as an Indian Reservation.  By this time Houghton had looked over the North Okanagan and  in partnership with the Vernon brothers pre-empted an area five miles  east of Priests' Valley at "Cold Springs." Later he named the property "Cold Stream." In May, 1869, an agreement was signed at  Coldstream whereby Forbes G. and Charles Vernon agreed to give  up all claim to the farm "situated in the Priests' Valley near Okanagan Lake" in consideration of Houghton's withdrawing from partnership with the Vernons and making over his entire interest in the  Coldstream farm to them.   Later Forbes became sole owner.  It is interesting to note that subsequently Houghton played an  active part in military life in Canada. In 1873 he was appointed  Lieutenant-Colonel, and from that date till 1881 he served as Deputy  Adjutant-General, Military District 11, British Columbia. He served  in the same capacity in M.D. 10, Manitoba, until 1888. He took  part in the North-West Rebellion in 1885, where he was awarded a  medal for his services.  When Forbes G. Vernon acquired sole ownership of the Coldstream Farm property in 1872, it consisted of about 1450 acres.   He  (118) The Coldstream Ranch  took great interest in improving the property and stocking it with cattle and horses. He was active in district activities, and it is interesting  to note that Price Ellison, a newcomer to the district, spent his first  winter (1876) with the Vernon brothers at Coldstream.  Entering the Provincial Legislature in 1875, Forbes G. Vernon  became the Hon. Commissioner of Lands and Works in 1876 and  retained that office till 1878. He later held the same post from 1887  to 1894, and in 1895 went to London as Agent-General, remaining  there till 1899. While active in public life, he was also busy in building up the size and extent of his Coldstream property.  During these years great interest was being taken in the Okanagan  Valley by individuals in Great Britain, one. of which was the Earl of  Aberdeen, who came to the Kelowna District in 1890 and purchased  480 acres belonging to the McDougall family. He called the property "Guisachan" after his home in Inverness-shire, Scotland. In 1 891,  Lord and Lady Aberdeen, accompanied by their young daughter, visited  Canada and stayed for some time at Guisachan and were enchanted  with the Okanagan Valley. During this time Lord Aberdeen was  greatly taken with the Coldstream property and in the autumn of  1891 he purchased the whole property, consisting of 13,261 acres.  At once plans were made to plant large areas in fruit orchards and  hop-yards, and selling the best ground in lots to small growers. The  Hon. Coutts Marjoribanks, Lady Aberdeen's brother, was appointed  manager of Coldstream Ranch.  In 1893 the Earl of Aberdeen was appointed Governor-General  of Canada, so for the next five years the family enjoyed splendid holidays at Coldstream. During these annual visits Lord and Lady Aberdeen entered into the activities of the community and greatly enjoyed  meeting their neighbors at various informal gatherings.  The expenses of sub-division and development of the Coldstream  Ranch were very great, and Lord Aberdeen found it necessary to  incorporate the properties under the name of "The Coldstream Estate  Company, Limited," with various shareholders from Great Britain.  Olne of the chief of these was James Buchanan, (later Sir James  Buchanan and Lord Woolavington), who already owned property at  Lavington. In 1902 he had purchased the Duteau Ranch from J. T.  Bardolph and had developed it into a fine property with excellent  buildings. This property was known as the Lavington Ranch, after  Buchanan's home, Lavington Park, Petworth, Sussex, England.  The Hon. Coutts Marjoribanks resigned as manager of the Coldstream Ranch in 1895, and purchased a portion of the property over-  (119) The Okanagan Historical Society—19]58  looking Kalamalka Lake near Rattlesnake Point. W. C. Ricardo,  who had visited the Okanagan with his two sisters and friends on a  hunting trip in 1891, from his Calgary ranch; took over as manager  of the Coldstream Ranch in 1895. He was. a prominent person in the  district and there was great improvement and progress on the ranch.  Hop growing was greatly enlarged, and a colorful sight was the annual  trek of Indian hop-pickers and their families from the Nicola Valley  and the Nez Perces Indians of the Nespelem Reserve in Washington.  It is interesting to see the way the Coldstream Ranch accounts  were kept on behalf of the Indians.   Here is an example:  Cultus Joe—Goods $3.00.   Blankets $5.00.  $8.00  Old Annie of Penticton—flour, sugar, etc.  ._..     3.20  Millie—sugar, lard, etc.  : ___■     1.25  Old Man with Fur Cap—flour         .25  Squilascum  (a cripple)—flour  ■   5.40  Annie—fish _•___,_       .50 ' -  Alex (long legs)  _._■____     4.75    r  Ellen (old woman)—tenting      1.00  Lizzie—Goods    _...___      1.15  Soon other developments were foreseen and orchards upon orchards  were planted. When Coldstream Municipality was formed in 1906,  great improvements were made to develop a more extensive domestic  water system. This, in turn, led to possibilities of more extensive subdivision of ranch lands. At the same time Coldstream Ranch undertook to develop irrigation water supply and distribution works. The  White Valley Irrigation and Power Co., Ltd., was formed in 1907  for the development of Lake Aberdeen as a source, of supply for  irrigation and the Grey and South Canals for distribution.  In 1909 the High Commissioner for Canada, Lord Strathcona,  visited many parts of Western Canada and arrived at the Coldstream  Ranch" on Sept. 7. Old timers like Andrew Spence (blacksmith at  the Ranch since 1907), say that great preparations were made for  this special visit. A prominent merchant and ex-mayor of Vernon,  W. R. Megaw, drove Lord Strathcona and other visitors to the Ranch.  While returning to Vernon by way of Kalamalka Lake there was an  accident which could have been serious to the elderly statesman, then  in his 88th year. On a steep hill near Long Lake the horses became  unmanageable and bolted towards the lake. Mr. Megaw, an experienced horseman, could do nothing to stop them. They had become  frightened by the whiffle-trees striking their legs. Seeing that he could  not make the 'sharp turn at the foot of the hill, Mr. Megaw pulled  (120) The Coldstream Ranch  the horses into a wire fence. The carriage overturned and all were  thrown to the ground. Fortunately all escaped serious injury except  Mr. Megaw, who had his leg broken. Lord Strathcona's right arm  was bruised. He made light of it at the time, but in April, 1910, he  wrote to the Prime Minister, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, asking to be relieved of his position as High Commissioner as the accident near Vernon had caused an injury which prevented him from using a pen.  In 1914 J. A. Pitcairn of Kelowna took on the management of  the Ranch and at the same time F. E. R. Wollaston joined the staff.  The latter became manager in 1918 and held the position till retirement in 1939. He was a bachelor known as "Fluffy," and in his  Stetson hat was a colorful figure throughout the province.  The Coldstream Estate Company formed by Lord Aberdeen in  1903 agreed to disincorporate about 1920, and Sir James Buchanan  became sole owner of the Ranch properties in 1921. Later he transferred them all to his only daughter and heiress—the Hon. Catherine  Macdonald-Buchanan. This sole ownership continued till 1948 when  Coldstream Ranch, Ltd., was set up with a Board of Directors in  Canada responsible to Macdonald-Buchanan Trustees, Ltd., in England.  When Mr. Wollaston retired in 1939 Thomas P. Hill became  manager. He was a native of Scotland, had worked with nurseries  in Victoria and Kelowna, and joined the Coldstream in 1914; before  long he became orchard foreman. In 1951 C. D. Osborn of Laving-  ton joined the staff as assistant manager, and succeeded Mr. Hill as  manager on his retirement. In the late 1930's the Ranch orchards  were in full production and a modern cold storage and packing house  were constructed.  Great catastrophes have occurred since that time in the way of  killing frosts in the autumns of 1949 and 1950 which have almost  decimated the orchards. Some replanting is being undertaken but  meanwhile greater emphasis is being placed on the raising of beef  cattle, dairy cattle and hogs, with the production of potatoes.  In 1957 the Coldstream Ranch consists of about 11,000 acres of  the   original   land.  12 The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  (122) £z/4n <-J~Listorical ^-Jazetteer  v__y/  \^Jhanaaan-<S^imilhameen  EDITOR'S NOTE—  This project was originally conceived as a summary of the main  historical data concerning each place-name, including" obsolete ones, in  the two great valleys, the whole to be organized in alphabetical order  and authorities cited.  Unfortunately this ideal proved to be impossible of attainment under  present conditions, and it became necessary to print the whole in six  sections.  The Society is indebted to the following contributors for this result:  Rev. Dr. J. C. Goodfellow (Princeton), Mrs. K. Lacey (Osoyoos), Mrs.  V. E. Bennett (Penticton), Mr. H. Corbitt (Kaleden), Mrs. Nuttall (Naramata), Mrs. H. Whitaker (Summerland), Mrs. C. W. Aitkens (Peachland),  Mrs. D. H. Gellatly (Westbank), Mrs. M. Middleton (Oyama), Mr. R. G.  Byron-Johnson (Vernon), Mrs. M. Pidoborozny (Enderby), Mrs. R. Allison  and F. T. Marriage (Kelowna).  <S)imilkameen  ALLENBY--Company town (Granby M.S. & P. Co., Ltd.),  five miles south of junction of Tulameen and Similkameen rivers.  Until Granby closed its operations there, it was on CPR-KVR Princeton - Copper Mtn. branch line running south along the Similkameen  to the primary crushing plant at Copper Mtn. The Allenby station  was 5.5 miles south of Princeton, and 7.7 miles from Copper Mtn.  It was named for Lord Allenby of First World War fame.  Allenby reflected the rise and fall of copper production at Copper  Mtn. The Allenby concentrator received the ores, and shipped the  concentrates.  In 1926 Allenby had 54 houses, and there were 138 employees.  Store and mess-house were rented to Al. Almstrom. Work was stopped  from 1930-1937, after which it continued till 1957, when Granby  operations at Copper Mtn. closed. Since then only foundry work has  been maintained, and Allenby is practically deserted. A number of  the houses were moved to Hope. Allenby was linked with Princeton  by a cut-off from the road to Copper Mtn.  BLAKEBURN—Near south-west junction of Granite Creek and  Tulameen River, three miles from Coalmont, was named for Blake  Wilson and P. Burns, both of whom were financially interested in  the coal mines there. Coal was reported by "a man named Bonthrong"  in 1909 at Collins Gulch and at site of Blakeburn. Coalmont was  the railway "port" (KVR) for the mines.  At first, local business men interested themselves in development  (123) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  of mines. Prospecting was continued by Columbia Coal & Coke Co.,  1910-1912; and by the McEvoy Trust Co., 1913-15. The Coalmont  Collieries took charge in 1917. Transportation was by team, then  truck till the aerial tramway was installed in 1920. The G.N. Railway  arrived at Coalmont in 1911.  The mine was 1600 ft. above the tipple at Coalmont. In 1930  Inspector J. G. Biggs described Blakeburn and Coalmont as "the  largest and most important coal operation in the Princeton District."  Around 300 men were employed.  The disastrous explosion at Blakeburn No. 4 mine occurred 13  August, 1930 (Black Wednesday), when 45 men lost their lives.  Operations were resumed, and continued on a decreasing scale for  another ten years.   Now, Blakeburn is another "ghost town.  BROOKMERE—On CPR (KVR), altitude 3220', 38 miles  north of Princeton. Railway junction for Merritt. In 1951 population given as 32 white, and three Japanese families, totalling 80 adults  and 54 children. Creek and townsite named for pioneer named Brook.  Leopold Lakes named for trapper Andy Leopold. Life of town corresponds with that of railway.  CAWSTON—Four miles south-east of Keremeos, named for  Richard Lowe Cawston (1849-1923), cattle rancher 1884-1911.  L. V. Newton appointed postmaster, Feb. 1917. (OHS 13 (1949)  pp. 109 ff.).   Farming and fruit centre.  COALMONT—The population of Coalmont has dropped from  250 in 1930 to about 80 in 1958. Situated on CPR (KVR), and  Tulameen River, about 12 miles N.W. of Princeton, it was named  because of the belief that there was a mountain of coal which could  be stripped by steam shovels. N.W. of Coalmont are Tulameen 4 m.,  Brookmere (junction for Merritt) 27 m., and Juliet (logging centre)  37 m. The history of the area dates from HBC days, follows the  search for gold, the growth of lumbering and the development of  coal mining.  For many years it was a thriving town, the railway "port" for  Blakeburn coal mines.   Since 1940 the population has dwindled.  COPPER MOUNTAIN—Various dates have been given for the  discovery of rich ore which gave rise to the name Copper Mtn. In  Geological Survey memoir 243 H. M. A. Rice states (p. 82) that the  "first discovery of copper ore was made by a trapper in 1884, but it  was not until 1892 that the showing was staked by R. A. Brown.   In  (124) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  1900 the Sunset Copper Co. was formed to explore the claims, and  in 1905 the property was optioned by F. Keffer, who formed the  South Yale Copper Co." The trapper referred to was James Joseph  Jameson, whose son was with him at the time of the discovery.  Copper Mountain is ten miles south of Princeton, and is reached  by a 12-mile road. The valleys of the Similkameen River and its  tributaries are separated from each other by rounded mountains covered with fir and pine. There is an absence of peaks in this part of  the plateau which rises from the depression (2000') around Princeton  to 4000' at Copper Mtn., and to 6000' where it merges with the  rugged Cascades.  Various attempts were made to' develop the mine before it was  taken over by Granby interests in 1922 when Greenwood ore bodies  were exhausted; first under the name of Canada Copper Corporation,  then Allenby Copper Co., and B.C. Copper Co., and finally Granby.  Copper Mtn. operations were suspended during the Depression  years ) 1930-1937), then continued till the mine was closed in 1957.  Its reopening in 1937 was due to A. S. Baillie, who continued in  charge till he was succeeded by L. T. Postle in 1951. Granby operations at Copper Mtn. and Allenby came to an end in 1957.  GRANITE CREEK—An historical plaque was unveiled at Granite Creek on June 29, 1958, to mark the site of the gold rush in 1885  and succeeding years. It is at the confluence of Granite Creek and  Tulameen, one mile east of Coalmont, which is 12 miles north-wTest  of Princeton. From Princeton one must travel to Coalmont, cross  the river and follow the Blakeburn road.  The rush was started by the discovery of a gold nugget by cowboy  John Chance. The date of discovery is given as 5 July, 1885. Figures are unreliable, but one report states that between 1885-86 "probably $800,000 in gold and platinum was taken." Government  statistics are less optimistic. By 1900 Granite Creek had become just  another ghost town. Hugh Hunter, who had been appointed mining  recorder in August, 1899, was in March 1900 moved to Princeton  as Government Agent.  HEDLEY—The best summary of Hedley history is in "Early  History of Hedley Camp," by Harry D. Barnes, who died in Kelowna  June 22, 1952. The article appeared in BCHQ (April, 1948) and  was reprinted in OHS 12 (1948). Hedley is described as lying "at  a point where Twenty Mile Creek, after swinging around the western  base of Nickel Plate Mountain, emerges from its canyon and has cut  (125) The Okanagan Historical Society-—-1958  a boulder-strewn channel through the river benches to Row into the  Similkameen River a short distance below the town." Its elevation  is 1700', and its distance east of Princeton is 24 road miles. It was  formerly connected with points east and west by the GNR.  Placer mining, which began' at the mouth of Twenty Mile Creek  (now Hedley Creek), in the early 60's, was soon exhausted. The  period of lode mining began in 1896. George Allison and Jim Riordan  had staked three claims for Edgar Dewdney in 1894, and one had  been recorded by J. Coulthard. These four were allowed to lapse.  Peter Scott located the Rollo in 1897, and three claims the following  year. That same August (1898) Albert Jacobson and C. Johnson,  two Swedes grubstaked by W. Y. Williams, then manager of Granby  mines at Phoenix; located two claims; and four were staked by F.  I. Wollaston and C. H. Arundel. The Nickel was to prove the richest of all, and to' become Similkameen's first producing lode mine.  Peter Scott named the camp for Robert R. Hedley, then manager  of the Hall mines smelter at Nelson, B.C., who had grubstaked Scott.  In 1898 M. K. Rodgers bought the Woolaston and Arundel Nickel  Plate claims for Marcus Daly of Butte, Montana. With the bonding  of the group, permanent work was started in January, 1899. In  1902 a tramway was constructed, flume work undertaken, and the  erection of a stamp-mill and cyanide plant commenced. Milling of  ore began in May, 1904.  Except during winter of 1920-21, production was maintained till  1930 when operations were suspended. Harry Barnes records that  from 1904-30 there had been mined and milled 1,300,000 tons of ore.  In 1932 the mine was sold to the John W. Mercer Exploration  Co. (later known as the Kelowna Exploration Co. Ltd.), and once  again it became a major producer. Under the direction of W. C.  Douglas in 1937 a modern village was developed at Nickel Plate, at  an altitude of over 5000'.  Although gold-mining operations ceased in 1955, there is still a  lively community at Hedley. In 1956 two serious fires destroyed  much of the business section; and later the same year Hedley hotel  was- destroyed by fire. The block opposite the hotel was destroyed by  fire in January, 1957.  KEREMEOS—On south transprovincial highway, is 43 miles  east of Princeton, and 30 miles south-west of Penticton, and has 432  residents in incorporated area (1956). Originally an Indian settlement on  banks of Similkameen  River,  it was visited  by   fur-trader  (126) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  Alexander Ross in 1813, and was an HBC post 1860-1872.  H. H. ('Slim') Hill headed movement which resulted in incorporation in 1956, the anniversary of the date when the village was  moved from bench location to present site near river, and GN railway. HBC first located at Cawston, moved to Keremeos in 1864,  and in 1872 sold their property to Barrington Price and Henry Nicholson who later sold to J. O. Coulthard. W. H. Armstrong, of Armstrong, Morrison & Co., purchased the Coulthard holdings, and the  Keremeos Land Co. surveyed "Coulthard's Meadows" for the new  townsite in 1906.  Post Office was opened in August, 1887, with Thomas Daly in  charge. George Kirby, who had operated a hotel in the Upper Town-  site, built the Keremeos hotel in 1906, and D. J. Innis moved his  livery barn to the new site.   Other businesses followed.  The first GNR train arrived in 1907, and the settlement became  a lively centre of cattle raising area, and orchard lands. Among pioneers of area were Frank Richter, Manuel Barcelo, Francis Suprenant  (better known as Frank Surprise), Dan. McCurdy and William  Manery. The first village chairman, Fred. W. Kickbush, died in  April,  1958.  MOUNT DEWDNEY--/368'. North of Hope-Princeton Highway and framed by the "V" made by Sumallo and Skagit Rivers and  Snass Creek. Named for Hon. Edgar Dewdney, C.E., P.C, who  during periods in 1860, 1861 and 1865 built the Dewdney Trail  which passed along the mountain on its route from Hope on the Fraser  to' Fort Steele in the Rockies. He was Lieutenant-Governor of B.C.,  1892-1897.  NICKEL PLATE—Was company town north-east of Hedley.  In 1932 the Hedley gold mine was sold to the John W. Mercer Exploration Co., and was later known as the Kelowna Exploration Co.  The new company under the direction of W. C. Douglass was responsible in 1937 for much community development at Nickel Plate,  where a modern village was built at an altitude of over 5000 ft.  With the closing of the Hedley mines, Nickel Plate took its place  with Blakeburn and Copper Mountain as another mountain ghost town.  OLALLA—The 1930 Gazetteer gave population as 80. It is  four miles north of Keremeos. Formerly it was a mining place of  some importance, but no great developments followed. Now it is a  point of call for stages between Keremeos and Penticton.  (127) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  PRINCETON—(Altitude 2111'; estimated population 2200).  In the forks of the Tulameen and Similkameen rivers, referred to as  the "hub of Similkameen," is 182 miles east of Vancouver by road,  and 83 miles east of Hope (Hope-Princeton highway opened Nov. 2,  1949); 119 miles south of Kamloops (paved highway Kamloops-  Merritt - Princeton completed 1957). East of Princeton is Hedley  25 miles, Keremeos 43 and Penticton 73. Princeton is connected with  outside points by Greyhound stages and CPR (KVR "Budd" train);  and has emergency-landing airfield.  The place was named in honor of Prince of Wales, afterwards  Edward VII, in 1860, in which year he visited Eastern Canada. Before white men came, Similkameen, like S. Okanagan, was the home  of Interior Salish native peoples. First white men to visit valley were  fur-traders (Alexander Ross, Pacific Fur Co., 1813; Archibald McDonald, 1826-27). With discovery of gold in late 50's, "the forks"  an important strategic point in east-west travel. Following gold discoveries by Adam Beam at Rock Creek in Oct. 1859, Gov. James  Douglas determined to push a road through the mountains east of  Hope to Rock Creek and beyond. In this project he was assisted by-  Royal Engineers who arrived from England to help open up the new  mainland crown colony proclaimed at Fort Langley on 19 Nov. 1858.  The original Princeton townsite, just over a mile east of the present  village, was laid out by the R.E. in fall of 1860.  For many years Princeton was a thriving coal-mining centre.  Coal had been located within present village boundaries by John Fall  Allison (Similkameen's first permanent settler) in 1859. In 1866  (1867?) he was married at Hope to Lusan Louisa Moir, and their  ranch became a place of call. Coal-mining on a commercial scale  began in 1898 with the Vermilion Forks Mining & Development Co.  Various other companies operated mines, but by 1950 Princeton coalmining operations ceased.  When Copper Mountain operations ended in 1957, this was a  serious blow to the Princeton economy, but with the opening of the  Hope-Princeton highway in Nov. 1949 the village became a busy  tourist centre during summer months. Besides the Princeton Brewery,  logging operations and sawmills help to maintain Princeton.  Modern Junior and High schools have been built. Five churches  serve the religious needs of the community. The new Bank of Commerce building was opened in 1954, and since then a new Post Office  has been built. The Tulameen hotel was closed in 1956: the Princeton  hotel has been enlarged.  (128) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  Village incorporation became effective on Sept. 11, 1951, with  I. Plecash first chairman. He was succeeded by Jim Norman, who  is still in office. Under his administration the village took over the  waterworks system. Mrs. E. Smith was first village clerk. She remained in office till July, 1958. (See The Story of Similkameen by  J. C. Goodfellow, printed by The Spotlight, Princeton,   1958).  TULAMEEN—In recent years Tulameen has become quite a  summer resort. Apart from tourists the population of the settlement  is estimated at 120. Its elevation is 2561'. It is situated on the CPR  (KVR), and is at the confluence of Tulameen River and Otter  Creek. Otter Lake is an expansion of the creek and is ZYa miles long,  a great attraction for summer visitors.  It was a point of call in HBC fur-trading days. A. C. Anderson  visited the place, then known as The Women's Camp, and afterwards  Otter Valley, in 1 846 when pioneering an all-red route for the HBC  brigade trail. In August, 1958, a cairn was unveiled to indicate  Tulameen's connection with the HBC and its brigade trail.  With the beginning of Coalmont in 1909 sawmill was started,  and logging and sawmills have been the mainstay of the settlement  since then.   Today Grant Squelch's sawmill is the main indtistry.  \^Jliver- K^Jsouoos  ALLENDALE LAKE—Okanagan Falls district: 55 acres before  damming, now 75 acres. An irrigation project, headed by Jack Allen,  was started here, but failed.  ALLEN'S LAKE—Kruger Mt., feeds Allen's Springs, south  side Richter pass.  After C. C. Allen, pre-emptor, 1920-24.  ANARCHIST MT.—Elevation approximately 5500 feet. Richard H. Sidley, J.P., customs officer, settled nearby, 1889. An Irishman of advanced political views, he was often called an anarchist and  finally relieved of his governmental posts. He was also first postmaster at Sidley, where P.O. opened Sept. 1895 and closed Sept. 1913.  ASBESTOS MINE—Six miles east of Okanagan Falls. Geo.  Manyard (Maynard?) claim; two or three flurries before 1914.  BALDY MOUNTAIN—7500 feet, 27 miles east of old Fair-  view.  (129) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  BLACK MOUNTAIN—Between Kruger Mt. and Similkameen  River.   Approximately 3500'.  BLUE LAKE—One mile north-east of Kilpoola, 50 acres.  Named for color at times. Contains small amount of Epsom Salts  and arsenic.  BOUNDARY LAKE—South end Kruger Mt. on International  boundary, three acres.  DEADMAN'S LAKE—\l/2 miles north of Osoyoos; overflow  from Okanagan River. So called because one of a party of miners,  bound for Cariboo, lost his life by becoming entangled in the weeds  in the lake, while attempting to retrieve ducks he had shot while the  main party had proceeded to the next creek to make camp. (Babe  Kruger, from information supplied his father, T. Kruger, by Indians.)  DUTTON CREEK—Also Hamilton—five miles long, enters  Vaseux Lake. After Wm. Dutton, pre-emptor of lot 467, 1898. His  son, Billy, drowned in Skaha Lake, July 31, 1900. Former name  Hamilton Creek after Andrew Hamilton, settler in 1900's.   (Parham.)  FAIRVIEW—Two miles south-west of Oliver. Named for the  fine view to the south and south-east. P.O. opened 1892, Thomas  Elliot, P.M. Closed 1926. Townsite plan registered by Wm. Alfred  Dier and Augustus A. D. Davidson, June 9,  1897.  FLUME CITY—(Parham Flat). East of Vaseux Lake. Irrigation project begun before 1914.  GRAVEYARD HILL—Originally main highway, now rural  mail route. West side, near head of Osoyoos Lake. Road swings round  pioneer graveyard and present cemetery. O.H.S. cairn, erected 1957,  marks site of first customs house, Osoyoos, 1861.  HAYNES CREEK—Enters Osoyoos Lake below "The Narrows." After John Carmichael Haynes (1831-88). An Irishman,  he came to B.C. in 1858; was police officer, customs officer, magistrate, assistant gold commissioner, government agent and county court  judge in Similkameen, Osoyoos, and Kootenay. Member Legislative  Council 1864-66. Rancher at Osoyoos, 1866-88, accumulating  22,000 acres.   ("Judge Haynes").  HESTER CREEK—Two miles long, enters Okanagan River  south of Oliver.   Named in  1893 by Emily Josephine  (Pittendrigh)  (130) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  Haynes (wife of Judge Haynes) after their daughter Hester Emily  (Mrs. R. B. White, Penticton). Also known as Garrison Creek (for  pre-emptor).  INITIAL GULCH—Just north of Haynes Creek; used as a cutoff on the cattle drives from Okanagan to the Boundary country. Val  Haynes, first to use it, carved his initials on a tree by the trail and afterwards everyone who used the trail did the same.  INKAMEEP CREEK—12 miles long; enters head of Osoyoos  Lake.   Indian name meaning "at the head of the lake."  JERRY JARVIS CREEK—North-east slope Kruger Mt. 2y2  miles long. Jerry Jarvis, cowboy, killed in- a quarrel with freighters  while camped here.  KEARNS CREEK—Meyer's Flat district. Enters east side Park  Rill. John Kearns, pre-emptor, also ran the "Fish House," afterwards  called the "Golden Gate," at Fairview Townsite.  KOBAU MT.—North of Richter Pass. Elevation 6175 feet.  The name appears on Dawson's map of 1877 and is evidently of German origin, but no plausible reason for same has been found. To  early settlers the south slope was known as Richter Mountain, the  north end as Old Timers' mountain, and the high central cone as The  Big Knoll. The Indians called the latter "Nice Top." Settlement on  Richter Mtn., with school and sawmill, 1914-20.   (OHS 19).  KRUGER MOUNTAIN—3880 feet. West of Osoyoos Lake.  After Theodore Kruger (1829-99), H.B. Co. store manager, Osoyoos,  1866-72, merchant at Osoyoos, 1873-97. Born in Hanover (then  ruled by George IV of England), mined on the Fraser and Similkameen, and also in the Cariboo*, kept store in Princeton before settling  in Osoyoos.  McCUDDY CREEK—Five miles long. Named for J. P. McCuddy, who ran a stopping house on the road to Camp McKinney.  Tributary of Inkameep Creek.  McINTYRE BLUFF—Six miles north of Oliver. After Peter  Mclntyre, Vaseux Lake farmer, who settled here in the 1880's. Came  from Eastern Canada overland to Cariboo mines, 1862. Indian fighter  in United States and pony express rider. He had a sawmill at the Bluff  for several years.  (131) The Okanagan Historical Society—7956*  MALONEY LAKE—Okanagan Falls district. After Maloney,  original owner of Lot 467, bought by A. Hamilton. (See Dutton  Creek). Maloney, a sailor of French and Irish parentage from Gaspe  Peninsula, pre-empted in 1884 and tried to grow potatoes without  irrigation. He failed, cooked for haying gangs for Thos. Ellis for  many years and finally returned to his place of origin at the age of  80, to live his few remaining months in sight and sound of the sea.  MATHESON CREEK—Into east side of Skaha Lake. John  Matheson, pre-emptor, worked for T. Ellis; made first planting of  apple trees here—100 trees, two of each of 50 varieties.  MEYER'S FLAT—2J_ miles north-west of Oliver. After Wm.  Peter Meyers, German settler, 1870's or 80's.  MICA CREEK—Four miles long.   West slope Anarchist Mt., into  Osoyoos Lake.  Deposits of mica on slopes of creek bed.  NINE MILE CREEK—Runs into Osoyoos Lake in U.S. Named  by Dewdney and Moberly when building Dewdney Trail. Where the  trail crossed the creek was just nine miles from "The Narrow"  Sooyos.    10 miles long.  OKANAGAN FALLS—See article in this Report. "Dogtown,"  southern end of Dog (Skaha) Lake, 12 miles south of Penticton. Subdivision plan registered by Okanagan Falls Townsite Co., Oct. 13,  1893.   P.O. opened Feb.  1899, John McLellan, P.M.  OLIVER—25 miles south of Penticton; after "Honest John"  Oliver (1856-1927), premier of B.C. 1918-27. The irrigation and  land settlement scheme known as Southern Okanagan Land Project  sponsored by the province, 1919-21. P.O. opened May 1st, 1921,  with Duncan Simpson as P.M. Incorporated as a village, Dec. 21,  1945.  OSOYOOS—14 miles south of Oliver. On Osoyoos Lake, an  expansion of Okanagan River at International boundary. Length in  B.C.—7 miles. From the Indian "soo-yoos"—"where two lakes come  together," "a shallow crossing," or "a sheet of water divided into two  by a narrow extension of land from opposite sides"—referring to the  shape of the lake. Laing tells of a legend that when Hon. Peter  O'Reilly, the Irish magistrate at Hope (appointed 1858) visited the  district he thought the name should be dignified by the addition of  "O," but Mrs. R. B. White of Penticton, daughter of Judge Haynes,  (132) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Sim-ilkameen  (133) The Okanagan Historical Society—795c?  thinks the "O" might have been added by her father. Indians say it  was added prior to white settlement. Shown as "Osoyoos" on Trutch  maps, 1866 and 1871. Still pronounced "Sooyoos" by Indians and  old-timers. Incorporated as a village, Jan. 14, 1946. (A similar  name-origin is "Tsuisus" Narrows, Mabel Lake (North Okanagan)  where that lake is almost cut in two.) Osoyoos P.O. opened April 1,  1884, with T. Kruger, P.M.  PARK RILL—Enters Okanagan River four miles south of  Vaseux Lake. On Trutch's Map, 1871, the stream is shown entering  "Chutes Lake" between Vaseux Lake and Osoyoos Lake. (Pare, meaning corral, may be origin.) Wm. Schoonover, who herded cattle on  the meadows around Chutes Lake in winter for J. C. Haynes, tells of  cabins in the vicinity and of a small settlement of people of French  origin, also hired to herd cattle, which may account for the French  names in this area.  REED CREEK—Named after "one-armed Reed" who with his  partner Ryan discovered gold.  Fairview district.  RICHTER CREEK—Flows south into U.S. two miles east of  Similkameen River.  RICHTER MOUNTAIN—4766 feet, between creek and river,  after Francis Xavier Richter, pioneer cattle rancher and fruit farmer.  Born in Bohemia, 1837; came to U.S., 1860; brought in a herd of  cattle in 1864 and pre-empted later. Had charge of H.B.C. pack  horses at Keremeos in the 1860's. Planted first apple trees in the  Similkameen Valley at Cawston, bringing them over Hope Trail. He  bought a ranch near Keremeos, 1895, and developed the first commercial orchard in Similkameen. Died at Victoria Dec. 29, 1910,  and buried at Keremeos.  SPOTTED LAKE—^2 mile north of Richter Pass and six miles  north of Osoyoos. 30 acres. Named for deposits of Epsom Salts.  Used by Indians for rheumatic conditions. Caused trouble to cattlemen  till fenced, as water was poisonous to cattle and horses. Salts used in  manufacture of explosives in World War I.  TESTALINDA CREEK—Two miles long; east slope of Old  Timer's Mt.; enters Okanagan River south of Oliver. Indian definition "ax cut"—probably from deep narrow canyon caused by cloud  burst.   Testalinda Ford—just south of mouth of Testalinda Creek.  (134) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  Used from earliest times by Indians, later by Fur Brigades and cattle  men till flood control built, 1957.  TIN HORN CREEK—2J_ miles long; enters Okanagan River  3j4 miles south of Oliver. The near-by Tin Horn mineral claim  was located by Lewis B. Prather on June 17, 1895 and crown-granted  to Tin Horn Quartz Mining Co., Ltd., after being assigned to it by  Wm. A. Dier and Augustus A. Davidson. A stamp mill was built in  1897 but was abandoned and sold,  1901.  WHITE LAKE—3|_ miles south-west of Okanagan Falls.  Fringed with alkali, hence name. P.O. opened 1895, with Hiram  Inglee, P.M.  Later closed.  WOLF TOWN—A flat above the junction of the Okanagan  Falls - McKinney - Fairview roads, where passengers and mail were  transferred for Fairview. So named for the large number of dens used  by wolves, which were numerous in the area at the time.  V*  enticton-i^ummerland  AENEAS LAKE—Head of the Marron River, west of Skaha  Lake; named after Little Aeneas, a wizened old Indian who lived  alone at the south end of the lake for many years and died in 1946,  aged over 100 years.  ALLEN GROVE—11 miles south-west of Penticton. Named by  Richard Lewis Allen, rancher here from 1905 to 1939. The first post  office in the district was at Green Mountain, the ranch of L. A. Clark,  about three miles up Sheep (now Shatford) Creek. Mrs. Allen took  over the post office in 1907 and it was renamed Allen Grove 1908.  ARAWANA—On the CPR nine miles north of Penticton.  Formerly called Naramata Siding. To avoid confusion in ticketing  that name was changed by railway officials in 1915 to Arawana, a  made-up name suggested by the name Naramata. Another suggested  origin is the title of the popular song "Aeeah Wannah."  CHUTE LAKE—CPR station 29 miles north-east of Penticton.  This name, formerly the name of Lequime Lake, comes from Chute  Creek, former name of Lequime Creek. Chute is French for "fall"  or "fast water." Chute Lake post office opened OcLjL6-_J_821,. Mrs.  Jessie Martin, postmistress.   Closed Oct.  31,   1923.  (135) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  ELLIS CREEK—15 miles long, enters Okanagan River south  of Penticton; named after Thomas Ellis, first settler in the Penticton  area, 1865; first postmaster, Penticton, Dec. 1st, 1889. A cattle baron,  he had more than 30,000 acres here and southward to Osoyoos. In  1905 he sold land and cattle (3750 head) to Southern Okanagan  Land Co. for $412,500.  GALLAGHER LAKE—]/A mile long; situated 2VA miles south  of Vaseux Lake; called after Patrick Gallagher, settler in 1890. He  died  in   1909.  KALEDEN—On highway 97 and Skaha Lake, nine miles south  of Penticton. From Greek "kalos" (beautiful) and "Eden.'K A camping ground of the Fur Brigades. In 1905 Jas. Ritchie of Summerland  employed F. H. Latimer, a civil engineer, to install an irrigation system and subdivide the land. By 1915 some 65,000 fruit trees had  been planted, but about the time they gave promise of returns 35,000  had to be abandoned, as the Development Co. was unable to raise  funds, due to depression and the war. Both the attractive hotel and  the new store suffered the same fate. However, since the early 1920's  Kaleden has been fully planted—nearly 600 acres.  The first frame building was finished in June, 1909—the Hatfield-Ritchie store. Most people lived in tents stretched over wooden  frames. Lake transportation was used. From 1892 to 1930 ten boats,  large and small, operated on Skaha Lake; the Miramichi was the first  and the CPR tug "York" the last.  The first school was conducted over Lapsley's store during the  winter of 1909-10 by Miss Olga Watson; when warmer weather  arrived a tent was used. Post office opened in 1911 with A. S. Hatfield  at postmaster.  MARRON RIVER—Seven miles long, enters Skaha Lake. Probably the "River of Wild Horses" mentioned by David Douglas, botanist 1833. Marron River is on the Trutch map, 1871. Marron is a  French word, one of its meanings is "domestic animal gone wild."  That name probably refers to the wild horses which, according to  Mrs. William Allen and Mr. F. M. Buckland, abounded hereabouts  in the early days. Marron Lake post office (named after a small lake  at the head of the river) opened July 16th, 1909; William Smythe  Parker, postmaster; later named Marron Valley; closed November  30th, 1933.  (136) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-SimMkameen  McLEAN CREEK—10 miles long, east side of Skaha Lake;  named after Roderick McLean who built the Hudson's Bay Post at  Keremeos in  1860 and afterwards farmed on the creek.  NARAMATA—Ten miles north of Penticton on the east shore  of Okanagan Lake. Name is Indian—"Smile of Manitou." Founded  by J. M. Robinson, 1907. Originally part of the Tom Ellis holdings,  the acreage was incorporated into the Okanagan Trust Co., and irrigation provided by dirt ditches till about 1909, when flumes were built.  Naramata Irrigation District was formed in 1917, and in the same  year the townsite was laid out, a school built and the post office opened.  W. R. Bartlett was postmaster from 1908 till his death in the early  1940's. The first settler was William Mitchell, who came from  Brandon in 1907. In 1911 a temporary packing house was set up on  the wharf and fruit shipped across the lake to Summerland Fruit Union.  See article in this report—"Naramata, Smile of Manitou."  NIGGER TOE MOUNTAIN—Between Penticton and Summerland. When, or by whom this name (unofficial) was given is not  on record. The origin seems to be a tragic affair which began on  Christmas Day, 1908, when three negroes, Charles Blair, cook, Arthur  Wilson, his assistant, and Arthur Chapman, waiter, all employed at  the Hotel Summerland, got lost in a snow storm while returning from  Mass at Penticton. Chapman and Blair were frozen to death, their  bodies being found the next morning near the foot of the mountain.  Wilson, the survivor, managed to reach Summerland. Officially the  mountain is unnamed.  NORTH NARAMATA—In 1911, Mr. J. M. Robinson, who  had previously acquired and subdivided 9 Mile Point and called it  Naramata, tried to start another settlement at Chute Creek and call  it North Naramata. I might say that this piece of land is situated  about one mile south of Paradise Ranch.  Mr. Robinson persuaded a few families to settle on this land.  Three brothers were among the first, Mr. Peter Roe, Mr. Fred Roe,  and Mr. Gerald Roe. Pete Roe had a family of four; his brothers  were bachelors. Other settlers were the Bushman and Davie families.  The plan did not work out and all settlers returned to live in Naramata  in 1912.  I do not know what became of the Bushmans and Davies but the  Roe brothers finally separated; Peter formed a steamboat company  and ran  a  ferry between Summerland and Naramta.    He also built  (137) The Okanagan Historical Society—19]58  an hotel in Naramata.   Afterwards he ran the first boat service  for  the Canadian National Railway between Kelowna and Penticton.  Fred Roe was the first liquor vendor in Penticton and I think  Gerald was in the insurance business.   They have all passed on now.  Story supplied by Capt. Weeks.  PARADISE RANCH—In 1902, Mr. Fred Anderson was looking after Mr. J. Gartrell's orchard at Trout Creek while he attended  the World's Fair at Buffalo. On his return he pre-empted a quarter  section of land on the east side of the lake about six miles north of  Naramata (then called 9 Mile Point), and named his holding "Paradise  Ranch." That winter he lived in a tent while he built a cabin, which  was completed the next year and his mother came out to live with him.  He built a wharf of logs and planted some fruit trees. In 1907 he  sold out to Mr. M. G. Wilson. Mr. Anderson stayed on at the ranch  for that winter at Mr. Wilson's request to teach him how to run  things as Mr. Wilson had no previous ranching experience. In 1908  Mr. Anderson moved to' Summerland, built a house and got married.  He worked for some time as a taxidermist, and later was in charge  of a Bird Sanctuary at Swan Lake, south of Okanagan Falls, finally  moving to Penticton where he is now enjoying life at the age of 96.  Paradise Ranch is the only orchard of any size between Naramata  and Okanagan Mission. "Matt" Wilson passed away a few years ago  and the Ranch is now operated by his son, Major Victor Wilson.  Story supplied by Capt. Weeks on information obtained from Mr.  Fred Anderson.  PENTICTON—The name derives from an Indian name "Pen-  Tak-Tin," meaning "A permanent abode., and a place where waters  _passj_y_" For many years before the white man invaded the peaceful  life, Penticton was the site of a large Indian village. The people were  not nomadic, but remained in their village, hunting, fishing and trading  with other tribes. But this happy way of life was not to last. The white  man came, first the Fur Traders, under the leadership of David Stuart  in 18j 1 and Alexander Ross in 1812. Both journeyed as far north as  Kamloops where a fort was established. By 1824 the Fur Brigade Trail  which passed just west of the Indian village, was in general use, the  Brigades travelling south in the spring with furs and north in the fall  with supplies.  (138) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  In 1865 a young Irishman passed through the Valley on his way to  the Kootenays, and, from notes in his diary, did not think much of the  place, but in 1866 he returned and took up land. Thus Thomas Ellis  became the first white settler of the City ofPenticton. Mr. Ellis gradually increased his holdings until his cattle ranch extended from Naramata almost to the border. In 1872 he was joined by Mrs. Ellis. Their  small log cabin was replaced by a gracious home which became the  centre of hospitality for the entire valley.  About 1905 the Southern Okanagan Land Co. was organized by  Shatford Brothers, as a limited liability company with capitalization  of $500,000, for the purpose of buying the Ellis holdings. The land  was surveyed by J. H. Latimer, adequate water supplies and storage  facilities assured, and in 1906 an attractive brochure published. Settlers  began to come in and orchards were planted. Penticton as a town came  into being.  Transportati on  The first transportation was on foot or horseback over the narrow  trails. Mail was carried by riders over the Hope trail from the coast, or  from towns below the border. Then as wagon roads were built came  the stages, to Keremeos, Fairview and Camp McKinney. From 1886  to 1936 a small fleet of passenger boats plied the lake from Okanagan  Landing to Penticton; the first, the Mary Victoria Greenhow, then  the Penticton, followed by the Aberdeen, the York, the Okanagan, and  finally the Sicamous. With the advent of the Greyhound buses, passenger travel became less and less by boat. The Sicamous made her last  run in 1936 and now rests on the shore at Penticton as a tourist attraction. Prior to the building of the railroad these boats unloaded freight  at Penticton where it was picked up by freight teams and distributed  to the mines from Hope to Midway. Remembered names of early  freighters are: the Brents, Gillespies and Fred Bassett. Livery men:  William Welby, Dick Weeks, Jack Digman, and Robt. Parmley. The  end was in sight for freight teams and stages. In 1912 work commenced on the Kettle Valley Railroad in the Penticton area and the  first passenger train arrived in 1915.  Incorporation  In December 1908 the Provincial Legislature passed the Act of  Incorporation for the Municipality of Penticton. The first reeve, A. H.  Wade; council, Sydney Hatch, Henry Murk, John Power, and L. C.  (139) The Okanagan Historical Society—-1958  Barnes.   In  1948 came incorporation as a city with Robt. Lyon first  mayor.  Board of Trade  Penticton Board of Trade came into existence in 1907 with J. R.  Mitchell, president. There were 46 charter members, two of whom  survive.  Stores  The first store was a trading post operated by Mr. Ellis near his  homestead. It was managed by his brother-in-law, A. H. Wade. Mr.  Wade later opened a store in part of the Penticton Hotel. James A.  Schubert was another pioneer storekeeper.  Churches  From his Mission at Kelowna, Father Charles John Felix Pandosy,  a priest of the Oblate Order, journeyed all over the Okanagan and  Similkameen, ministering to the Indians and the few white people. At  his direction in, or about, 1884 a church (or Sunday House as the Indians called it), was erected on the Penticton Reserve near the site of  Clark's sawmill. This building, of hand-hewn timbers, still stands and  has a special place in the history of this great and good man, for it was  at the home of Chief Francois on the Penticton Reserve, that Father  Pandosy breathed his last. A new church was built in 1911 and the old  building left desolate.  St. Anne's Roman Catholic Church was built in town in 1914.  Mr. Ellis built the first St. Saviour's Anglican Church near his  home in 1892. The first rector was Rev. Thomas Greene. ~ Later a  larger church was erected on Winnipeg Street and the chancel of the  small church moved to an adjoining position to form the Ellis Memorial Chapel.  First Presbyterian Church built at Main Street and Eckhardt Ave.  in 1906. The present St. Andrew's Church was built in 1927.  The United Church was built in 1928, and the Baptist in 1909.  This is now being torn down as a new modern building is in use on  Carmi Road.  Schools  A school was opened in 1903. School Board: A. H. Wade, J. A.  Nesbitt and Daniel White; teacher, Miss Chisholm. Pupils and teachers were moved from one makeshift building to another until, in 1907,  a three-room school was built at the Apex—junction of Main Street  and Fairview Road.   High School was established in 1911.  (140) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  Hotels  The first hotel was the "Penticton," built in 1892 overlooking the  lake on Vancouver Avenue. With the advent of the railroad the "Incola" was built. Other hotels now operating: "The Valley," known to  old-timers as "The B.C."; the "Three Gables," and the "Prince  Charles."  Medical  In 1907 Dr. R. B. White transferred his practice from Fairview  to Penticton,. InJ.908_he was joined by Dr. H. B. McGregor. Dr. C.  A. Jackson opened the first dental office in 1908. The first hospital was  opened by Miss Edith Hancock in 1910 and the Penticton General Hospital, built on a beautiful site overlooking the town, opened in 1916.  These quarters proving inadequate, a large hospital was built on Carmi  Road and the old building" converted to a lovely home for elderly  people.  Wars  At the outbreak of war in-1914 most of Penticton's youth enlisted in  the 102nd Rocky Mountain Rangers and the 54th Battalion. Many did  not return from the front. In 1922, by public subscription, a Cenotaph  was erected in the apex between Fairview Road and Main Street to the  memory of the 40 who did not return. In 1939, when war was again  declared, the young men once more flocked to- the colors and served in  every theatre of war. In 1946 the Cenotaph was moved to the Court  House grounds and the names of the 70 lost in the 2nd War added.  Industries  The_first fruit trees were planted by_Mr. Ellis, With the forming  of the Southern Okanagan Land Co. the bench lands were planted to  orchards and homes built; thus the need arose for lumber for homes and  apple boxes. Mr. A. G. Robertson had a small wood working plant on  Ellis Street and made the first apple boxes. S. C. Smith ran a sawmill  located on the north side of Naramata Point, and E. Bullock-Webster  had a mill on Carmi trail. These were followed by larger operations  of Penticton Sawmills and Clark's Mill. With the need for better  marketing and packing facilities for the fruit, co-operatives were formed and large packing plants built on Lakeshore employing many people.  Contracting, construction and building firms are in operation. The  beaches and highways are lined with motels and campsites, and every  effort is being made to' attract tourists.  No history of Penticton would be complete without mention of the  (141) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  "Penticton V's" who brought world-wide fame to the community by  winning the World Hockey Championship.  ROBINSON CREEK—Called after John Moore Robinson, who  founded Naramata in 1907.  SHATFORD CREEK—Formerly Sheep Creek, 8 miles long,  enters Shingle Creek west of Penticton. The Chief Geographer says  this is named after Walter Shatford, prominent business man in the  Osoyoos- Penticton area from 1890 to 1900. With his brother, Lytton Shatford, he had general stores in Fairview, Camp McKinney and  Hedley and in 1905 formed the Southern Okanagan Land Co., to  purchase and subdivide the Ellis estate and to develop the Penticton  fruit lands.  The creek is shown as "Snake River" on the Trutch map, 1871.  Mrs. William Allen said the Forestry Dept. maps showed it as Sheep  Creek up to the confluence of Clark Creek and thence as Boulder  Creek.  SHINGLE CREEK—16 miles long, enters Okanagan River at  Penticton. "Beaver River" in David Douglas Observations. "Riviere  aux Serpents" on Anderson Map, 1867. "Beaver Creek" on Trutch  Map of B.C., 1871. In early days Indians and whites used to cut  rough shingles from cedar trees along the creek—hence.the name.  SHUTTLEWORTH CREEK—15 miles long, enters Okanagan River south of Skaha Lake; named after Henry H. B. Shuttle-  worth, Similkameen Valley stock rancher and big game guide, who  pre-empted near Keremeos on June  18th,  1877.  SKAHA LAKE—IpA miles long; an expansion of the Okanagan River, 4 miles south of Okanagan Lake. "Lac du Chien" (Dog  Lake) on x4.nderson Map 1867. "Du Chien" Lake on Trutch Maps,'  1866 and 1871. Origin unknown. Later Dog Lake became the  official name. Changed in 193Q to "Skaha." to agree with the local  name, says the Chief Geographer. However local Indians say "Skaha"  is not their word for "Dog" but is that of the Shuswaps. The local  meaning of Skaha is "Horse."  SQUALLY POINT—A rocky exposed point on the east side of  Okanagan Lake at the great bend midway between Kelowna and the  foot of the Lake. In a cave here, according to Indian Legend, the  Lake's great sea serpent N'ha-a-itk (afterwards christened Ogopogo)  had its lair.   Here too the monster once  wrecked Chief Timbasket  (142) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  and his family while on a visit from their home far down the Okanagan River.  Mr. and Mrs. James Gartrell  SUMMERLAND—A district municipality ten miles from the  southern end and on the western shore of Okanagan Lake, comprising some 12,000 acres with 3500 acres irrigated and planted with  orchards. In a central position Giant's Head rises to an elevation of  2774 feet. The municipality contains the districts of Summerland,  West Summerland, Trout Creek, Crescent Beach, Peach Orchard,  Peach Valley, Prairie Valley and Garnett Valley. Silt cliffs rise from  the lake shore, and above them are benches and flats—Front Bench,  Hospital Hill, Blossom Bench, Victoria Gardens, Parkdale, Quin-  pools, Paradise, Siwash, and Jones Flats.  Trout Creek was shown on an 1827 Hudson's Bay Company  map. This district was marked "Prairie Nicola," as it was also on  a Trutch map of 1871. (Nicola was an Indian chief.) The Indians  later called it "Kil—Keremeos," which means "Two small stream  channels on a plain." The streams concerned are Aeneas and Prairie  creeks. The H.B. Co. fur brigade trail passed through Upper Trout  Creek district, Three Lake Valley and the top of Garnett Valley.  The district between Trout Creek and Deep Creek, that had been  reserved as common pasturage for the livestock of Indians and settlers, was available for purchase in 1886. Pre-emptions consisted of  320 acres. The first pre-emptors were Alex. McLennan (1886),  E. J. and W. H. Garnett, Duncan Woods and David Lloyd-Jones  (1887), J. and W. J. Gartrell (1887-90V The Gartrells were our  first settlers.   Price of these pre-emptions was $1 an acre.   In  1890,  (143) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  4000 acres was bought from the original pre-emptors for $25,000  by Barclay's Bank of London. The following year this land was  bought and sub-divided into orchard lots by J. M. Robinson for the  Summerland Development Company, |f, which Sir Thomas Shaughnessy was president. The first town, "Summerland," was situated  near the lake. Much of it was later destroyed by fire. In 1905  Crescent Beach W-as4;. sub-divided. Two years later James Ritchie  acquired 320 acres of Indian Reservation on Siwash Flat, that was  surrounded by. settlers' holdings and promoted West Summerland.  Municipal incorporation came in 1906, with J. M. Robinson as reeve  and J. S. Logie as municipal clerk. In 1910 ownership of the water  system was obtained; eleven dams provide water. Electrical power  purchased from West Kootenay Power Co. is re-sold.  Parks are under a Board of Park Commissioners (1951) which  also controls the Jubilee Arena (1956). The Dominion Experimental Station was established in 1914 above Trout Creek Canyon.  Continued expansion of laboratories and orchards provide services in  entomology, plant pathology, chemistry, horticulture, processing, animal husbandry and forage crops. The Dominion Fish Hatchery has  operated since 1929. The first churches were St. Peter's Anglican  (1898), Lakeside Methodist (1907), Baptist (1908), St. Stephen's  Anglican (1910), St. Andrew's Presbyterian (1910, United 1925),  the Japanese Hall ( 1924) and Roman Catholic ( 1926).  The educational history of Summerland begins with 1903, when  classes were conducted in a lakeside room with an enrolment of 15  pupils, K. S. Hogg in charge. In the following year a one-roomed  building on Hospital Hill enrolled 40 students. Small buildings took  care of the growing school population till 1919, when the present  MacDonald School (named for Sherley A. MacDonald, Principal,  1919-1956) was erected. A Junior - Senior High School was built  in 1940, and in 1958 the number of students in the consolidated  schools reached 1000. On Giant's Head Ritchie Hall of Okanagan  Baptist College was built in 1907 and affiliated with McMaster University. Further buildings on this site included Morton Hall (1910)  and a gymnasium. The College closed in 1915 and in 1931 the  buildings were purchased for use as "Mountain View Home." Ritchie  Hall was lost by fire in 1941, and eight years later the gymnasium  was bought for a "Youth Centre."  Cottage hospitals were in use 1908-14. In the latter year a ten-  bed hospital   was  erected  but  destroyed  by  fire,   1919.    The  present  (144) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  30-bed institution dates from  1921, a wing being added in  1947 and  a nurses' residence erected the same year.  The population of Summerland was 800 in 1908; by 1956 it had  reached 3843.  VASEUX LAKE—2,!/_ miles long, expansion of Okanagan  River, 3)4 miles south of Skaha Lake. "Vasiux Lake" on Trutch maps  1866, 1871. A mis-spelling of the French word "Vaseaux" meaning  muddy or miry. Descriptive of the Lake's muddy waters. Probably  named by French-Canadian fur traders.  Ccentral  anaqran  tT  ALVASTON—A post office in what is now Winfield. Opened  1909.   Closed 1919.  BEAR CREEK—Opposite Kelowna City. Called "Bear River"  by David Douglas the botanist. (Douglas Fir.) So recognized on  earliest maps. Name changed officially to "Lambly Creek" in 1922  after Charles Anderson Richardson Lambly, who pre-empted land  near Peachland and was government agent at several Okanagan sites.  BELGO—A fruit district adjoining Rutland on the south. The  Belgo-Canadian Fruit Lands Co. supplied irrigation and sold orchards.  First orchardists were R. J. Bury, C. R. Bull, R. M. Hart and A. K.  Loyd.   Grote Stirling (later M.P.) built Belgo House.  BENVOULIN—The area roughly betw-een Mission and Mill  Creeks south-east of Kelowna. The McDougall brothers pre-empted  the land later called "The Guisachan" in the early eighties, and J.  Christian held the property surrounding Benvoulin Church. North  of Christian, Wm. Smithson owned the land now partially occupied  by the school, which was erected in 1875 and later enlarged. In  1891 this territory was subdivided and sold. George G. MacKay of  Inverness, Scotland, purchased the Guisachan and other properties.  Acting as agent for Lord Aberdeen, Governor General, he turned the  former over to him. By 1895 a considerable number of apple and  pear trees had been planted. The church, built by H. W. Raymer in  1892, was supported for many years by the Presbyterians of Guelph,  Ont.   An hotel was erected in  1893, Dan Nicholson, proprietor.  It is commonly stated that the name refers to a Scottish mountain  or village, but in a letter to Mr.  E. W. Van Blaricom of Kelowna,  (145) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  dated Feb.  12,  1958, the City Librarian of Aberdeen, Scotland, says  "There is no Benvoulin in Scotland as far as we can find."  BOUCHERIE—Mountain   named   for   Isadore   Boucherie   who  lived here in the 1880's.  CAMP HEWITT—A large flat covering an area of about 15  acres at the base of Pincushion Mountain, immediately behind Peachland. It was the scene of an early mining venture. Prospect holes of  the Gladstone Mine still attract visitors, as does also the original log  house, now showing the ravages of time. R. J. Hogg purchased the  property later and developed the limestone out-cropping and made a  kiln and crusher. In many early homes in the district mortar was used,  made from this lime. He also built flumes and water boxes to irrigate  his pastures and fruit trees from Camp Hewitt spring.  EAST KELOWNA—A district of about 1700 acres lying on  bench land five miles east of the city. In 1904 the Kelowna Land  and Orchard Co. was formed by Messrs. T. W. Stirling, E. M.  Carruthers and W. R. Pooley, and the area called K.L.O. Benches  —upper and lower. When, however, the post office was authorized in  November, 1909, with E. C. Paynter in charge, it was named East  Kelowna and the term "benches" fell into disuse. Early settlers included Geo. and Stan Kirby, Joe Ball, J. E. Reekie, Messrs. Rusk  and Pritchard and the K.L.O. partners. Orchards were at first planted  with varieties proven successful in Ontario, beginning in 190.3. Later  Stirling and Pitcairn built a packing house on the lower bench, east  of the present store. W. R. Pooley had the first telephone on the  benches in 1906. By 1910 more water was needed and the Canyon  Creek Irrigation Co. was formed, concrete canals being installed  by Col. W. H. Moodie in the following year. The Provincial Government bought out the company in 1921. The first school opened  in 1911 with 8 pupils. There was no church till 1938, when St.  Mary's Anglican was built. The Community Hall was completed in  1929 but superseded by the present hall in 1940.  ECCLESTONE—An obsolete name for part of North Glenmore. Probably the site of Dry Valley School and later Pine Ridge  School (which had a trustee named Ecclestone). A school was conducted in this building (now demolished) by Reuben Nesbitt during  the school-year 1926-27.  ELLISON—A district north of Rutland.   In a letter written by  (146) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  Father Pandosy in 1859 a white family is mentioned as "living near  us." This reference might have been to the Parson brothers who  squatted at Duck Lake, 1858, and who sold out to Frederick Brent  in 1865. He in turn sold to G. W. Simpson, whose holdings were  purchased by the Postill Brothers about 1870. The area pre-empted  by Augustus Calmels in 1861 was also included in this district. An  Englishman named Lindley was another pioneer, and his land was  taken over by George Whelan, an employee of Eli Lequime, in 1873.  Mr. Whelan's "Cloverdale Ranch" ultimately became the present  Bulman Ranch. The district was named after Price Ellison (1852-  1932), stock man and grain grower, who was Provincial Minister  of Agriculture, 1910.  GELLATLY POINT—Named for F. or D. E. Gellatly, who  arrived in 1900. Shipped first car of potatoes to leave the Okanagan,  in 1897, for Kootenay mines, and "who did more to foster the vegetable growing industry than any other man who ever lived in the  Valley." Known in earlier days as "The Tomato King of the  Okanagan."  GEORGE PRINGLE HIGH SCHOOL, Westbank. Named  forF/O Rev. G. Pringle, B.A., (RCAF), Minister Westbank United  Church 1940-1.   Killed in flying operations,  1943.  GLENMORE—A district municipality adjoining Kelowna on  the north. Formerly known as Starvation Flats and Dry Valley, it is  now a thriving fruit area. An abortive attempt at farming was made  by Jesse Watson in 1886, when he pre-empted 640 acres and fenced  100. Beaten by drought, he left the district. In 1901 the Central  Okanagan Land and Orchard Co. was formed by Dr. W. H. Gaddes  and Messrs. J. W. Jones (later Provincial Minister of Finance), W.  E. Adams, J. N. Thompson and N. D. MacTavish. The company  supplied irrigation, and settlers, largely from the Ottawa Valley,  began to arrive. By 1912 the irrigation project was completed. The  name "Glenmore" was chosen by public competition in 1910. The  school was authorized in 1908, rural mail delivery in 1913, and incorporation came in 1922, A. R. Drysdale being the first reeve. He  was followed by E. W. Ferguson, G. Moubray, C. Henderson, S.  Pearson, A. Ritchie, G. C. Hume and P. Moubray. From 1926 all  school pupils were transported to Kelowna until elementary grades  were accommodated in Glenmore, 1950.  (147) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  GLENROSA— 1 V2 miles west of Westbank. Named by Hitchner Brothers from Kansas, about 1907. Original name "Glencoe."  Post office opened 1912 (L. D. Hitchner, P.M.). Closed 1933.  "Strang's Meadows" close by.  HARDY'S LAKE—For Harry Hardy, who worked on survey  for C.P.R. in Rockies. Ran pack train from Enderby to Granite  Creek. Pre-empted here in 1891. Moved later to Peachland, where  was active in community.  H.B.C. FUR BRIGADE CAIRN—Westbank. Unveiled by  Dorothy Hewlett Gellatly, Aug. 24, 1949. Marks Hudson's Bay  and North-West Fur Companies' Brigade route through the Okanagan, from 1811.  JOE RICH (E)—Named after a trapper and prospector who  settled here, 25 miles east of Kelowna, prior to 1900. First homesteader was Chris. Schram, from the State of Washington, 1893. Now  a cattle raising area.   Other early settlers: Preston 1905, Fazan 1908.  KELOWNA CITY—The original townsite of Kelowna was  staked out in 1887 by August Gillard, and included the area now  bounded by Bay, Richter and Abbott Streets and Mill Creek. Gillard,  who had travelled from Hope to the Okanagan with Father Pandosy,  occupied a "keekwillie house" or partially submerged dwelling, near  the creek at the south end of the present Ellis Street.  The name "Kelowna" was registered by Bernard Lequime in  1892. It is an anglicised form of the Indian word for "grizzly bear."  See O.H.S. Report of 1954 for the story of the origin of the name.  The Post Office (first Postmaster, Thomas Spence) and the first  school were both authorized in 1893, and from that year progress  was rapid. In the following year the boundaries of the infant settlement were extended to the south and east, and again in 1904. Also  in 1904 the Bank of Montreal, with H. G. Fisher, Manager, opened  its doors, and the pioneer physician, Dr. B. De F. Boyce, arrived from  Fairview. The same year saw the births of the first white children  to be born on the townsite—Bernard Raymer and (three w^eeks later)  Edith Haug. Dr. W. J. Knox and the pioneer dentist, Dr. W. J. N.  Shepherd, came this year, and Mr. R. H. Spedding, a prairie newspaper man, started the "Kelowna Clarion," which was purchased by  G. C. Rose the following year and re-named "The Kelowna Courier."  Incorporation was attained on May 4, 1905, with a population  of close to 600.   The first mayor was H. W. Raymer, a building con-  (148) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  Eli Lequime  tractor with several public buildings to his credit. He was the owner  of Raymer's Hall at the corner of Bernard Avenue and Water  Street, for many years the centre of social activities. The first council  consisted of Messrs. David Lloyd-Jones, D. W. Sutherland, E. R.  Bailey and C. S. Smith. Following is the list of mayors since incorporation: H. W. Raymer (1905-6), D. W. Sutherland (1907-8,  1910-11, 1917-1929), F. R. E. DeHart (1909), J. W. Jones (later  Provincial Minister of Finance) (1912-1916), D. H. Rattenbury  (1930-31), D. K. Gordon (1932-33), W. R. Trench (1934-35),  O. L. Jones (later M.P.) (1936-9), G. A. McKay (1940-44), J.  D. Pettigrew (1945-46), W. B. Hughes-Games (1947-51), J. J.  Ladd (1952-57). George H. Dunn has occupied the office of City  Clerk since 1908.  Mr. H. D. B. Lysons, who had operated a ferry on Okanagan  Lake in 1904, obtained a charter from the Provincial Government  in 1905 and made scheduled trips twice daily to and from Siwash  Point. Then Capt. L. A. Hayman took over the ferry service, operating his own boat till government ferries were inaugurated. These  continued till the bridge was opened on July 19, 1958.  (149) The Okanagan Historical Society—7956?  A bad fire in August, 1904, drew attention to the need for fire  protection, and a hand-pumped fire engine, "Broderic," formerly used  in San Francisco, was purchased from the city of Vernon. It was  returned to San Francisco as a museum piece by Mayor Hughes^Games  in 1947. A regular fire brigade was formed in 1909 with Max Jenkins as chief. Subsequent fire-chiefs were M. A. Alsgard, J. D. Pettigrew (1920-45), Claude Newby and Fred Gore. The last named  also held the position of Fire Marshal from 1929, retiring from both  offices in 1956. The present fire hall was built in 1925, extended in  1948 and again in 1952.  The Customs Office opened on Dec. 19, 1911, with J. L. Doyle  as the first sub-collector. It was "An Outport of Customs under the  survey of the Port of Revelstoke." Mr. A. D. Weddell was in charge  from 1913 till his retirement in 1957.  The original Kelowna General Hospital dates from April 1908,  the present building being erected in 1940 and the latest addition in  1952.  Lequime's General Store on Bernard Avenue (E. C. Weddell,  Manager) was a two-storey building, and the first school was conducted  by Mr. D. W. Sutherland in the upper storey in 1892. The first school  building was located on Mill Avenue North. Further developments  in school building took place as follows: A four roomed frame school  at the corner of Richter Street and Glenn Avenue (now "The Armoury") was erected in 1904, a six-room brick school on the opposite  corner of the same intersection in 1910 and a ten-room school with  auditorium two blocks south on Richter Street in 1913. DeHart  Avenue Primary School followed in 1928 and the central portion of  the Junior High the following year. Further elementary school accommodation was provided in 1948 (Graham St. and Raymer Ave.)  and in 1950 (Martin Ave.). In 1957 Gordon Rd. School was built  and four rooms added to Raymer Ave. School. The Senior High on  Harvey Ave. dates from 1950. Mr. David Chapman was chairman  of the School Board for 19 of his 21 consecutive years membership  of that body, and Mrs. A. T. Treadgold served on the Board for  21 years.  The City Park, comprising an area of about 41 acres, was purchased chiefly under By-law No. 54, 1909, for $30,000, and a further area of three-tenths of an acre acquired in 1923—the northern  section—for $3500.  In 1912 the Okanagan Telephone Co. purchased the system owned  (150) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  (151)  \ fSfllOT HIGH SCHOOL \Mm The Okanagan Historical Society—-1958  H. W. Raymer  by H.  Millie in Kelowna and thus added the city to its operations.  Dial telephones came into use on April 12, 1952.  The Okanagan Union Library was installed in premises at the  corner of Bernard Ave. and Bertram St. in June, 1936, and the  present modern building at Ellis and Queensway opened on January  18, 1955.  The Kelowna Club, with C. S. Smith as first president, started in  1904 and the Board of Trade was organized in May 1906 under  the leadership of D. W. Sutherland.  The oldest church building still in use is that of First Baptist on  Ellis Street. Dr. Boyce donated the land in 1906 and the church was  dedicated in 1908.   See O.H.S. Report, 1954.  Rev. Thos. Greene (later Archdeacon) was appointed Anglican  rector of Kelowna in 1897. Since 1894 he had paid monthly visits  from Penticton. A church was built on Mill Avenue, the lots being  given by the Lequime brothers. It was opened in 1895 and later used  by the Salvation Army. The present stone church at Richter St. and  Sutherland Ave. dates from  1913.   See O.H.S. Report,  1956.  The  Church  of  St.   Mary   Immaculate  on   Sutherland   Ave.   was  (152) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  opened about 1911 and enlarged in 1933. St. Joseph's Hall was built  in 1938.   See O.H.S. Report,!954.  The corner stone of the present First United Church bears the  date 1909. Although the union of the Methodist and Presbyterian  churches in Canada did not occur officially till 1925, the local congregations united in 1916. A Japanese mission of the United Church  on Harvey Ave. dates from  1920.   See O.H.S. Report,  1954.  The City offices were for many years located over a store at the  corner of Bernard Ave. and Pandosy St., but removed to the new  City Hall in January, 1950. The Provincial Government Building,  nearly opposite, was opened in 1955. The Post Office building dates  from 1937. An informal regatta was staged in 1906, and an organization for the purpose of making it an annual event came into being  in 1907.   See article on Museum on page 65.  The first hotel was the "Lakeview" on Abbott St. Built in 1 892,  Archie McDonald was in charge until James Bowes took over. Railway (CNR) communication with Vernon was inaugurated in the  spring of 1926.  McDOUGALL CREEK—West side Okanagan Lake. Named  for John McDougall, of Scottish and Indian blood, born at Fort  Garry. He drove H.B.C. pack trains on the old fur brigade trail  through the Okanagan before pre-empting at Okanagan Mission,  1861.  McKINLEY'S LANDING—About seven miles north of Kelowna on east side of Okanagan Lake.   Named for original settler.  MILL CREEK—Enters the lake at Kelowna; so named because  its water was used to run early flour and saw-mills.  MILLER RANCH—Situated just south of Greata Ranch. Preempted by James Cossar and planted in soft fruit. Purchased by W.  D. Miller, 1919. Now known as "Okanagan Park," it having been  purchased by the B.C. Forestry Dept. in 195 5 and transformed into  picnic grounds.  MISSION CREEK—Enters the lake near the southern boundary of Kelowna City. Near the mouth lies the site of Father Pandosy's Mission, hence the name. (See article on its restoration in this  report.) Accompanying Father Pandosy were Father Richard, William Pion and Cyprian and Theodore Laurence. Wm. Pion erected  the  first  house  apart  from  the  mission  buildings.    John   McDougall  (153) The Okanagan Historical Society—795c?  (see above) then built not far from the present Guisachan Ranch.  Mr. and Mrs. Eli Lequime followed; also J. Christian and Joseph  Bushman. John Casorso arrived in 1883 and at first worked for the  Mission priests.  OKANAGAN CENTRE—A fruit centre 15 miles north of  Kelowna near Winfield and on the eastern shore of Lake Okanagan.  Formerly part of the A. B. Knox holdings, the bench lands were purchased by the Maddock brothers in 1907. They laid out the town-  site in 1908. N. H. Caesar bought lots from them and built an  hotel. James Gleed (died 1958) was pioneer storekeeper and post  master. The school, authorized in 1911, was at first conducted in  the church.  OKANAGAN MISSION—Now connotes the area lying immediately south of Mission Creek. When Bernard Lequime's store and  post office was moved to Kelowna in 1906, J. H. Baillie opened a  new post office further south, near present location. Previously, in  1898, G. R. Thomson had planted the first orchard and built the  first large house. He was followed by W. D. Walker, B. E. Crichton and W. D. Hobson. The first school was organized in 1894,  being the second school in the Kelowna district. Harvey Watson  was in charge. The store, recently superseded, was built in 1908, and  St. Andrew's Church in 1911. Eldorado Arms Hotel dates from  1926 (Countess Bubna, owner of Eldorado Ranch (Postill) at that  time, was owner of the hotel.)  See "The History of Okanagan Mission; A Centennial Retrospect," by Mrs. T. B. Upton, 195 8.  OSCEOLA—Indian name for a townsite planned at the southwest end of Wood's Lake by C. Harvey of Kelowna. Later known  as "Petrie's."   Now "Lakeshore Inn."  PEACHLAND—A municipality 14 miles south of Kelowna on  the west side of the lake. Among the first settlers were the Lambly  brothers, Bob and Tom, who came from Enderby in the early eighties  and pre-empted land adjacent to Trepanier Creek. They raised cattle  and horses and planted peach trees—hence the name. J. M. Robinson,  the founder, arrived in 1888, as did Harry Hardy. Other early settlers were Donald Seaton, Thompson Elliot, Alex. Miller, Leon  McCall and Mrs. M. McDougald, post mistress in 1901. She was  succeeded by her son, Archie, and then by her daughter Candace, who  retired in   1955.   John Gummow planted  the first orchard.   W. A.  (154) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  Lang arrived at the turn of the century and was the first reeve, 1908,  with Hugh McDougall as clerk and Messrs. Callendar, Morrison,  McCall and Charlie Elliot, Councillors. The single roomed school,  built 1898, with Charlie Elliot as teacher, was superseded by the  present four roomed school in 1908. The Presbyterian Church (Rev.  C. W. Whyte first resident minister) was used by other denominations until they built or acquired their own churches. The Anglicans  purchased the original school in 1908. Renovated and furnished, it  is still in use as a church. The original Presbyterian Church, built in  1900, was later purchased for use as Municipal Offices in 1920. It  now houses the Regional Library as well. Eyre and Cutbill built a  large feed store in 1910, which was later used as a packing house  until 1939, when it was torn down and the present plant with cold  storage facilities, was erected.  PINE RIDGE—See Ecclestone.  POSTILL—C.N.R. freight station and ranch at the south end  of Duck Lake. Named for family who- purchased from Geo. W.  Simpson in 1872. In later years the ranch ("Eldorado") was owned  by Countess Bubna, who sold to Austin Taylor, the present owner.  POWERS CREEK—South of Westbank. Named for dynamic  North-West Company figure, later with H.B.C.  RAINBOW RANCHE—The first large acreage of fruit to be  planted in Okanagan Centre and Winfield district. The Barr brothers  got the first crown grant of the Rainbow in 1893 when the Commonage was thrown open. In 1896 they sold to N. H. Caesar, as they  wished to go to the Yukon to join the gold rush. In 1905 Mr. Caesar  sold to' F. Pow, who in the following year sold to J. E. MacAllister  and F. A. Hewer; the latter parted with his share to R. S. Dormer  and James Goldie in 1909. Irrigation was now available and the  ranch became a company—Rainbow Ranche, Ltd. The orchard was  subdivided and the first sales made in 1948.  ROSE VALLEY—West side of Okanagan Lake. For Hugh  Rose, member of B.C. police at the turn of the century.  RUTLAND—Formerly known as Ellison Flats, this area, due  east of Kelowna, was named for an Australian, John Rutland, who  farmed on the flats east of Mill Creek around the turn of the century. In 1906 a syndicate headed by Dr. W. H. Gaddes and Mr.  J. W. Jones acquired the land.   They added a piece of the Simpson  (155) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  Ranch and a block of land purchased from Price Ellison. An early  resident was Isadore Boucherie, who lived about a mile from the  present Rutland packing house. Other early settlers were Ira and  John McLure, Henry Rice, Jim Clarke, Prior Brown, Geo. White,  Henry Praether, John Dilworth and Alphonse Lefevre. Irrigation  was supplied by the Black Mountain Irrigation Co. in 1920, after  small systems had been in use since before 1900. Up to 1915 the  school district was known as Black Mountain (from the 4200' mountain in the neighborhood), but was then re-named "Rutland." It was  absorbed into the Central Okanagan United School District in 1945  and a year later became part of District 23. The post office was  authorized in 1908, the first postmaster being Dan McDonald, who  also built the first store.  SAUCIER CREEK—South-east of Kelowna, this creek was  named after Joseph Saucier, who came to the valley in 1885 and  married a daughter of Cyprian Laurence.    (See Mission Creek.)  SHANNON LAKE—Named by surveyor R. S. Pelly for Shannon Marshall, who> came to Westbank from Oregon and was West-  bank's first postmaster,  1902-8.  SOUTH KELOWNA—In 1909 the South Kelowna Land and  Orchard Co. bought 4000 acres lying south of East Kelowna and extending to Okanagan Mission. After selling about 300 acres they  were forced into liquidation by the 1914-18 war.  SUNNYSIDE RANCH—Westbank district. The name given to  Allison ranch overlooking Okanagan Lake in 1870's by Mrs. S. L.  Allison, wife of John Fall Allison, for whom Allison Pass on the  Hope-Princeton Highway is named.  TREPANIER—Three miles north of Peachland. Formerly referred to as "The New Townsite." The Peachland Townsite Co.  had this land surveyed into orchard and building sites. Among the  promoters of this project were W. A. Lang and C. W. Whyte. The  first orchards planted were those of Octavius Pope and Norman Davidson. Dr. Buchanan arrived soon after. A school was built in 1910,  Ben Gummow being the first teacher, followed by Bessie Seaton  (Mrs. E. Lawley of Oliver) and Miss Alice Elliott. The school  closed in 1927-8. A cement pipe plant operated here 1910-15, during the summer, supplying pipes to points in the valley. Trepanier  Bay Cottages now occupy the site of the old cement plant.    Among  (156) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  other early settlers were Billy Coldham, Jim Miller, W. McLaughlin, Kenny Tailyour, John and Albert Drought, Robert Huston, the  Greenslades, Hansen and Cousins. On early maps Trepanier reads  "Trepanege."  WESTBANK—Named by John Davidson in 1902, pioneer  who pre-empted in the district, 1892. Roads in Westbank and  Lakeview Heights V.L.A. project named for early explorers and  prominent figures include: Douglas—for Sir James, H.B.C, who became governor of B.C., Stuart, Ross, Ogden, Cox, Montigne for  early explorers of North-West and H.B. Fur Companies. Named for  pioneers are—Boucherie, Keefe, and Gellatly roads. For other pre-  emptors and fruit-growers—Hayman and Thacker roads. For more  recent comers—Bartley, Hudson and Stevens roads. Post Office opened  1902.   N. S. Marshall first P.M.  WEST SIDE-—Okanagan Lake. Wilson's Landing to Fintry.  Mrs. R. Allison writes: "Anyone living there prior to the First Great  War would recall life at that time as the happiest, most exciting and  delightfully carefree existence imaginable. No one had any responsibilities (or money). All were young. Many were English "public  school" boys, who took up pre-emptions. They built shacks, cleared  a bit of land, rode, fished, hunted and foregathered with friends and  neighbors. The S.S. Aberdeen or Okanagan called twice a week at  Nahun and Wilson's and sometimes at Reid's wharf. Nearly everyone had a boat of some kind. Few places were capable of becoming  ranches, but the Seeleys had hay fields and cattle. Eventually, one  property below Nahun was cultivated; this land was pre-empted in  1893 by N. H. Caesar and was known as Caesar's Landing. He sold  it to C. E. Woods, who returned to England in 1905. He left the  place to Mr. Caesar, who again sold it, this time to Archie Dundas.  Subsequent owners were W. Pease and the Leney brothers. H. Leney  planted an orchard but later went in for sheep. Among those who  settled on the west side in the early nineties were J. Brixton and  Messrs. Valentine, Wilson and Caesar. The majority of settlers  arrived between 1900 and 1910. After the first war the population  was greatly depleted.  WILSON'S LANDING—9 miles north of Kelowna on the  west side of the lake.  See "West Side" above.  WINFIELD—A district 14 miles north of Kelowna. First settler Thomas Wood,  who  arrived  about   1860  and  called   his  home  (157) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  "Winfield Lodge." Stock man and J.P., he gave his name to "Wood's  Lake." He sold out to N. H. Caesar in 1902. Rural mail delivery  was inaugurated here in 1909 (R.R. 1, Vernon) and Wood's Lake  School district in the same year. The present school dates from 1923  as a 2-room building and has been enlarged twice. Winfield Co-op  packing house was erected in 1922 and the B.C. Orchards packing  house in 1928. Churches were built in 1931 (Anglican), 1932  (United) and in 1948 (R.C.) See "Early Days of Winfield, B.C.,"  by Mrs. W. R. Powley, 1958.  Uernon  cJDistrict  B.X. DISTRICT—North-east of Vernon. The B.X. Ranch  was established in 18.60 bv F. J. Barnard, manager of B.C. Express  Co., to raise horses for the Company's stages, which ran to Kamloops,  Ashcroft, the Cariboo and the Mission. In 1892 the coming of the  railroad left him only the Ashcroft and Cariboo routes, and by 1915-17  motor transport put an end to the stages.  BLUE SPRINGS—(obsolete) A district nine miles east of  Lumby, named for a roadside spring which wore out a small basin  in the clay in which the water looked blue. Post office opened Oct.  1892, closed Feb. 1896.   Alex. MacDonald, postmaster.  BRENDA FALLS—At the outlet of Sugar Lake, the headwaters of Shuswap River. Canadian Hydro-Electric Co. built the  dam here in 1942 to raise the level of Sugar Lake.  BRUCE'S LANDING—One mile south of Ewing's. Named  for James Baxter Bruce. Also called "Wood Station" on account of  the fact that he cut firewood for the lake steamers. Post office opened  Feb. 1898 with Wm. Seivewright as P.M.; closed 1902 and transferred to Ewing's Landing.  CAESAR'S LANDING—Now known as Caesar's Point, is situated 1^4 miles south of Nahun, on the west side of Okanagan Lake.  Named for Henry Northcote Caesar, first settler, May 1893. He  later moved to Okanagan Centre, where he died in 1957, aged 92.  The Government wharf at Nahun was constructed at what was formerly called Caesar's Landing.  CAMAGNA—(obsolete) Site is 15 miles east of Lumby.   Named  (158) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  for postmaster.   P.O. opened Nov. 1909; closed April, 1919.  CARR'S LANDING—(Sunnywold) 5 miles north of Okanagan  Centre. From Andrew Carr, 1895. Post Office opened July, 1909  —Peter Sinclair postmaster. Closed July 1939. Carr planted apple,  pear and peach trees. School built 1896—the first south of Vernon  —a log building still standing. The Thorlakson family arrived 1900.  Jack Bailey, born 1896, has lived here continuously. Now known  as Sunnywold but most residents use old name.  CENTREVILLE—See Vernon.  CHERRY CREEK—15 miles east of Lumby. Named for local  creek, the scene of placed mining activity 1861-2. Post office opened  Nov. 1895 and closed Nov.  1899.   J. S. L. Hughes was postmaster.  CHERRYVILLE—Same site as Cherry Creek and Camagna.  Post office opened Oct. 1919 and closed April, 1947. Now R.R. 1,  Lumby.  COLDSTREAM—A municipality of about 18,000 acres in  White Valley south-west to Lake Kalamalka. Named after Lord  Aberdeen's ranch which he purchased from Col. Chas. F. Houghton  in 1893. Incorporated Dec. 1906, with W. C. Ricardo (Manager  Coldstream ranch) as reeve.  COMMONAGE—A range of land south-west of Vernon between Long (Kalamalka) and Okanagan Lakes. In 1876, 24,000  acres of land were set aside by the Federal government for pasturage  to be enjoyed by both whites and Indians in common—hence the name.  In 1889 a new agreement was reached by the Indian Reserve Commissioners and the Commissioner of Lands for B.C. that if the Dominion Government sanctioned the establishment of an Indian Reserve  on the west side of Okanagan Lake, the Indians would give up their  rights in the Commonage. In 1893 the land was then thrown open  for sale. Today the Commonage has a few dry farms at the southern  end, while the northern end is occupied by Vernon Military Camp  and Rifle Range.  CREIGHTON VALLEY—About 12 miles south-east of Lumby.  John Creighton settled here, 1884. Post office 1897-1917. W. H.  Phillips, postmaster.  EWING'S LANDING—West side of Lake Okanagan, 27  miles from Vernon.  At first called Morden's Landing.   Name changed  (159) The Okanagan Historical Society—A 958  in 1889 to Ewing's after Robert Leckie-Ewing, first postmaster till  his death in 1953. Post office opened sometime between Nov. 20,  1902 and Jan. 1, 1903.  FINTRY—Three miles south of Ewing's at the estuary of  Short's Creek. In 1877 it was called Biche Creek and later Short's  Creek after Capt. T. D. Shorts who in 1883 pre-empted land on the  creek and sold in the 90's to a member of the Dunsmuir family. Capt.  J. C. Dun-Waters bought from Major Audain, son-in-law of Ex-  Governor Dunsmuir and re-named the property "Fintry" after his  home in Scotland. He developed it into a large fruit and dairy ranch,  known for its Ayrshires. In 1938 Fairbridge Farm Schools acquired  the ranch, but sold to Perry and Prater of Yakima, Wash. It has  since changed hands. A post office was opened at Short's Creek and  named "Short's Point," May, 1905, Thomas A. Dundas, P.M. It  was closed and moved to Ewing's Dec. 1907.  FORGE VALLEY—Another name for Vernon. About 1878,  a blacksmith shop was built on the Price Ellison farm and some settlers called the district by this name, but it was not popular.  HILTON—Formerly called JAKEMAN after the first postmaster;   17 miles east of Lumby.   Name changed to Hilton,  1905.  KEDLESTON—A district north-east of B.X., 5 miles from  Vernon. Named by Wm. Simmons, an early settler, after a place in  Scotland. Other early arrivals were W. C. ("Tug") Wilson and  Mr. and Mrs. H. E. Hitchcock.  KILLINEY—At one time called "Sprouls Landing," a mile  north of Ewing's. Named by Harry Percy Hodges, who settled there  in 1903, after his home in Ireland.  LARKIN—8 miles north of Vernon; after Patrick Larkin, one  of the contractors who built the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway  in 1892.  LAVINGTON—The north-eastern end of Coldstream, about 10  miles east of Vernon. Named after Lavington Park, Petworth, England, by Sir James Buchanan who bought land here in the early 1900's.  He was interested in the Coldstream Ranch and the White Valley  Irrigation and Power Co. Post office opened Dec. 1911, with Norman  H. Moncreiff as postmaster.  (160) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  LUMBY—Previously known as White Valley, after Geo. LeBlanc, who mined with Peter Bisette in Cherry Creek district, 1876.  In 1889 Quinn Faulkner and Louis Morand laid out a township and  named it Lumby in honor of Moses Lumby, who settled there in 1870  and was later Vice-President of the Shuswap & Okanagan Railway  and Government Agent at Vernon, 1891-3. The first post office was  opened in 1889 and named "White VValley," with Peter Bissette as  postmaster. It was not till 1894 that the government changed the  name to "Lumby." The first store was built by Harry Seed in 1891  and the second by L. Morand in 1898. He also built the first hotel  (1891) which burned in a few months and was succeeded in the following year by "The Ramshorn." Incorporation as a village came  Dec. 20, 1955; N. R. Duke chairman of commissioners.  NAHUN—About seven miles south of Ewing's; named by the  first postmaster, Howard Bruce Kennard, 1905. At one time called  "Golden Gate" because packers on the H.B.C. Brigade trail would  barricade it here so that horses could not stray owing to the rocky  formation. Prior to the First World War some 40 odd people got  mail here; most went overseas and their families left the district.  OKANAGAN—At the head of the north arm, Okanagan Lake;  now known as O'Keefe's Ranch, the oldest in North Okanagan. The  first post office in the Okanagan Valley was opened here, Aug. 1872,  with Cornelius O'Keefe in charge. In Jan. 1912, it was moved 2  miles south to' Irish Creek (Ewan Grant, postmaster), and finally  closed in Jan. 1924.  OKANAGAN LANDING—On the east side of the north-east  arm of Okanagan Lake, five miles south-west of Vernon. First post  office opened Oct. 1898 (Mrs. M. Grant in charge.) In 1892 became  terminus Shuswap & Okanagan Railway. (Leased by C.P.R. Shipyards and ways built for steamers on lake. First passenger steamer  was the sternwheeler S.S. Aberdeen, built in 1892. In 1902 the S.S.  York was built, a small propeller-driven boat for towing barges. In  1906 the S.S. Okanagan was built for freight and passenger service.  OYAMA—Between Kalamalka and Wood's Lakes. Named for  Prince Iwao Oyama, Japanese commander-in-chief in Russo-Japanese  war, 1904.  Post office opened May, 1906, Henry H. Irvine in charge.  PRIESTS' VALLEY—About 1861 Catholic missionaries established a cabin on the bank of Long Lake Creek as a stopping place be-  (161) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  tween the Mission and Kamloops. In honor of Father Durieu, who  built the cabin, the valley extending from the head of Okanagan Lake  to where Vernon stands was named thus.  REISWIG—Seven miles east of Lumby; named for Geo. Reiswig, first postmaster. Post office May, 1904-Feb. 1913. Obsolete  name.  SHORT'S CREEK—See Fintry.  SHUSWAP FALLS—Situated 8 miles north-east of Lumby on  the road to Mabel Lake. In 1914a townsite was laid out for a power  project, by English capital, headed by W. C. Ricardo, and named  "Gatcombe" after his Gloucestershire home. Owing to the outbreak  of the First Great War the project was dropped. In 1927 the West  Canadian Hydro-Electric Corporation built a dam and power plant  at the falls, which was taken over by B.C. Power Commission in 1945.  SUGAR LAKE—24 miles north-east of Lumby. Prior to 1942,  a beautiful fishing lake, but in that year the level was raised 26 feet  by Canadian Hydro-Electric. Owing to war-time conditions none of  the timber on the foreshore was cut, with the result that the beauty  of the lake was sacrificed.  SUNNYWOLD—See Carr's Landing.  VERNON—From about 1876 to 1887 called "Centreville,"  "Forge Valley" and "Priests' Valley." The latter name was the most  popular and the government named the first post office "Priests' Valley."  In 1887 the name was changed to "Vernon" at the recommendation  of Mrs. Price Ellison, in honor of Forbes George Vernon, owner of  Coldstream Ranch and then Chief Commissioner of Lands for B.C.  Vernon's first settler was Luc Girouard, who had wandered into  the valley in 1860 from California. He built a cabin on the bank of  the creek leading to Okanagan Lake, and about a year later Father  Durieu built his cabin not far away—hence the name "Priests' Valley."  Girouard pre-empted Lot 71 in 1867, received his crown grant in  1887, and became the first postmaster for Priests' Valley. Amos  Delorier pre-empted Lot 72 in 1878 and received his crown grant  in 1883.   The City of Vernon now occupies Lots 71 and 72.  Price Ellison came to Priests' Valley in 1876 and farmed along  the valley towards Long Lake. Part of his holding is now Poison's  Park.   What remained of his original home was destroyed by fire in  (162) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  George Forbes Vernon  1957. In 1885 he married Miss Sophia C. Johnson, the first teacher  in Priests' Valley. He acquired considerable acreage, became well  known for his grain and cattle and was elected to the Provincial  Legislature in 1898; attained Cabinet rank in 1909, holding the office  of Commissioner of Lands—the last minister to hold that position;  Minister of Finance, 1910, and of Agriculture, 1913. W. F. Cameron built the first store in 1884 and was Vernon's first mayor, 1892.  E. J. Tronson and Chas. Brewer, who operated the first sawmill,  laid out the first townsite of Centreville.  The coming of the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway, 1892, gave  Vernon its start with a real-estate boom promoted by the Okanagan  Land and Development Co., formed in 1890 with G. G. MacKay  as president and manager, associated with J. A. Mara, F. S. Barnard  and F. G. Vernon.  On Dec. 30, 1892, Vernon became a city, with W. F. Cameron  as Mayor, with Aldermen James Lyons, A. G. Fuller, J. A. Schubert,  S. C. Smith and W. J. Armstrong. R. J. Davis was City Clerk; H.  R. Parke assessor; Chief Constable C. W. Ireland magistrate, and  H. Miller night constable and pound keeper. The population was  about 600.  Vernon w-as well supplied with hotels. In 1892 the Okanagan  Land Development Co. built the "Kalamalka," W. J. Meakin, manager. .At the same time the "Coldstream" was built, H. G. Muller,  (163) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  manager. There were also the "Vernon," the "Victoria" and the  "Okanagan." The latter burned in 1909 with the loss of eleven  lives, and the "Victoria" met a similar fate in 1950.  The first Vernon bank was a private one (1892)—Messrs. Wulff-  son & Berwicke-—G. A. Hankey, manager. It was followed a month  later by the Bank of Montreal, G. A. Henderson, manager. Messrs.  Wulffson & Berwicke soon discontinued banking and took over the  townsite company and carried on the real estate and insurance business later absorbed by G. A. Hankey and Co. W. F. Cameron opened  the first store in July, 1884, and was followed by W. R. Megaw in  1885. The Hudson's Bay Co. built in 1887, with A. G. Fuller as  manager; their present store dates from 1910. J. C. and Angus  Campbell had the first furniture and undertaking business. W. C.  Pound was the first furrier and taxidermist; much of his work may  now be seen in Vernon Museum.  Priests' Valley School District was established in 1883 with E. J.  Tronson, Alfred McNeil and Price Ellison as trustees. The first school  was built in 1884 by Angus McDonald for $625 and destroyed by  fire in March, 1885; it was replaced the same year. In 1893 a two-  storey brick school was built next to it on the Coldstream Road, now  highway 6. The large Elementary School on Mara Ave. dates from  1910, with later additions.  The first church built in Vernon was Presbyterian, 1892, Rev.  Paul Langille, Pastor. The following year the Methodists built, Rev.  Thomas Neville being Minister. All Saints' Anglican dates from  1893, with Rev. T. W. Outerbridge as rector. Catholics worshipped  in the church at O'Keefe's Ranch on the Kamloops Road till their  church was erected in 1894.   The present church dates from 1909.  The Vernon News is the pioneer newspaper of the Valley. Founded by A. K. Stewart and W. J. Harber in 1891, it changed ownership many times. Most notable editors were J. A. McKelvie, W. E.  McTaggart and W. S. Harris, who became Manager and Editor in  1925 and continued till his death in 1943, when his son, Frank R.,  took over.  The first medical practitioner was Dr. D. L. Breckingsale, who  arrived prior to 1890 but did not remain long. Next came Drs. Rein-  hard, Osborne Morris and G. Williams. Drs. Corrigan and K. C.  MacDonald were the first dentists. The first druggist was Richard N.  Taylor, who sold out to Alex. Muir in 1905. Vernon's first hospital  was organized by the City Council in 1897 in an old boarding-house  purchased from T. E. Crowell.   The first board of Directors had W.  (164) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  F. Cameron as president, H. F. Latimer as secretary and Mrs. W. E.  Pratt as first matron. The Jubilee Hospital on Mission Hill was built,  1909, Samuel Poison donating the site. Present building dates from  1948.  The city built its steam power-plant in 1902 and in 1913 the first  diesel engine was installed. In 1927 the city-owned utilities were  acquired by West Canadian Hydro Electric, which developed a 4000  h.p. plant at Shuswap Falls, 1927. Interconnection with West Kootenay Power and Light Co. was made in 1937. In 1945 its rights  were expropriated by the B.C. Power Commission.  Vernon Board of Trade was organized in 1897, with G. A.  Henderson as president, and the City of Vernon Board of Museum  and Archives came into being in  1954.    (G.  H. Melvin, chairman;  G. P. Bagnall, secretary-treasurer.) The museum was opened in  Dec. 1956.  The first volunteer Fire Brigade was organized in 1891 with G.  A. Henderson as chief. The equipment consisted of two hand-drawn  hose reels with 500 feet of hose. The present Fire Hall was built in  1907. It was not until 1934 that a_fire chief was paid, and not until  1943 that the city had a full-time fire chief.  In 1905 Vernon's first telephone switchboard was installed at the  back of Alex. Muir's drugstore. In April, 1905, the Okanagan Telephone Co. was incorporated by an act of the Provincial Legislature,  and its system was installed in Vernon, 1907.  The first commercial orchard was planted in the Coldstream Valley in 1892 by Lord Aberdeen, and the fruit industry became the main  one locally till about 1930, when it was surpassed by other industries.  ^L^nderbu-^Arrmstroncj  ARMSTRONG—(Aberdeen) 15 miles north of Vernon. Site  originally surrounded by water—hence called "The Island." Drained  in 1887 by William T. Hayhurst. Named for William Charles  Heaton-Armstrong, head of a firm of bankers and merchants of London, England. Population moved from Lansdowne when railroad  built through present city, 1892. Part of St. James' Anglican Church  was also moved. Post office opened July 1, 1892, with Daniel Rabbitt,  postmaster. The first teacher, Osborne McPherson, also grew the first  celery, 1903. The first store was that of Wood-Cargill (burned  1950V   Armstrong Hotel (Fletcher) also burned in 1933.   Saw mill  (165) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  established 1891. The first Chinese arrived 1906-7, increasing to 400  by 1914. The Annual Fall Fair (now Interior Provincial Exhibition)  was started in 1900, with Donald Matheson as first president. The  newspaper, "Advertiser," was established in May, 1902. Incorporation as a city came on March 26, 1913; James M. Wright was the  first mayor and A. J. Fifer city clerk. Mr. Wright was postmaster  for over 40 years; he died in 1939. Armstrong had the first consolidated elementary school in the interior, 1914. The cultivation of head  lettuce was started by A. Buckley in 1912; North Okanagan Creamery  Association was established in 1915 and the Co-operative Cheese Association organized in 1937. In front of the Recreation Centre building  stands a monument to Mrs. Catharine Schubert, the only woman member of the Overlanders' party of 1862.  ASHTON CREEK—5 miles long; enters Shuswap River about  5 miles east of Enderby. Named for Charles Ashton, shorthorn  rancher, who settled here in 1887. Also farmed at site of Armstrong,  1866-87.  BLURTON CREEK—(Sullivan) 8 miles long; enters Shuswap  River, y2 mile north of Mara. Named for Henry James Blurton,  settler, 1893, and first game warden of Shuswap district, 1910.  BONGARD CREEK—5 miles long; enters Shuswap River  south of Mara; after Edward Stanley Bongard, C.P.R. construction  worker, later conductor.  BRASH CREEK—5 miles long; enters Shuswap River east of  Enderby. Named for Thomas John Brash, settler about 1883. He  came on S.S. Red Star from Sicamous to Fortune's Landing and thence  by row boat.  COOKE CREEK—9 miles long; enters Shuswap River near  Hupel, between Enderby and Mabel Lake. Joseph Cooke pre-empted  at Ashton Creek, 1892.  DAVIS CREEK--East of Armstrong; named for pioneer who  lived close to where the creek flowed through level land. The city of  Armstrong derives its power from the fails on this creek.  ENDERBY—(Fortune's Landing; Lambly's Landing; Belvi-  dede.) Received name from a Mrs. Lawes of Enderby, Leicestershire, England. Jean Ingelow's poem, "The Brides of Enderby,"  also mentioned as possible origin.   23  miles north of Vernon.    Post  (166) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  Office opened Nov. 1, 1887, Oliver Harvey, P.M. First government  agent Thomas McK. Lambly, 1879-84; succeeded by Walter Dewdney. In 1885 the agency moved to Priests' Valley. City incorporation March 1, 1905; first mayor George Bell. First newspaper appeared May 18, 1904 (H. M. Walker). Graham Rosomon city clerk,  1905-1939, succeeded by Miss Hazel Rosomon (to 1957). Telephone  to Sicamous, 1890. St. George's Church celebrated its 60th anniversary in 1951.  A. L. Fortune lived here till his death July 5, 1915.  FALL  CREEK—5  miles long,  enters Shuswap River between  Enderby and Mabel Lake.  Named for waterfall, 400'.  FORTUNE CREEK—For Alexander Leslie Fortune; 14 miles  long, enters Shuswap River near Enderby.  GARDOM LAKE—1 mile long, y2 mile wide, drains into  Shuswap River south of Grindrod. John Williams Gardom, settler,  1893.   Basil Gardom, first policeman in Enderby.  GLANZIER CREEK—Tributary of Fortune Creek. John  Glanzier, settler, early 1890's.  GRINDROD—5 y2 miles north of Enderby. Named by the  C.P.R. for Edmund H. Grindrod, first telegraph inspector in B.C.,  1886-1910, when telegraph lines were being constructed in the Okanagan and Kootenay.  HARLAND CREEK—2y2 miles long; enters Fortune Creek  south of Enderby. Henry Harland pre-empted south of A. L. Fortune's original pre-emption,  1871.  HULLCAR—5 miles north-west of Armstrong. Named by Donald Matheson. A community centre and school for Deep Creek, Knob  Hill, Glenemma and the Canyon.  HUPEL—20 miles east of Enderby. After Herman Hupel, first  postmaster, Sept. 1910. He settled here in the 90's. P.O. closed Dec.  31, 1947.  KENDRY CREEK—(Christian). 3 miles long; enters Fortune  Creek north-east of Armstrong; named for William McKendry, who  obtained water diversion rights, 1906.  KINGFISHER CREEK—Near Enderby. So called because an  unnamed trapper there used to boast to new-comers of collecting  "kingfisher pelts" in the neighborhood.  (167) The Okanagan Historical Society—7 95c?  KNOB   HILL—The   first  high   knoll  at   the   foot   of   Swanson  Mountain, Armstrong.  LAMBERT CREEK—3 miles long;   enters Shuswap River a  mile north of Grindrod.    John Lambert settled here about l!  LANSDOWNE—3 miles north of Armstrong. When E. M.  Furstineau opened his hotel here in 1885 he called it Lansdowne Hotel  in honor of the then Governor-General. People called the locality  after the hotel instead of the post office, which was Spallumcheen.  George Murray settled here 1891 ; school also built, 1891.  MARA—12 miles south of Sicamous; after John Andrew Mara,  overlander, M.L.A. and M.P. Tom Gray pre-empted here, 1887.  Post office opened June 1, 1893, with S. Appleby, P.M. School  authorized  1896.  OTTER LAKE—4T/2 miles south of Armstrong; noted for  otter in the early days.  QUIN QUA QUILLICUM—A round hill south of Enderby;  latinized form of the aboriginal name. Another name—"Fortune's  Mountain," did not stick. Probably an Indian battle ground, as many  arrowheads found here.  REITER CREEK—4 miles long, enters Shuswap River south  of Sugar Lake.   After Gustov Reiter, pre-emptor, 1923.  RICARDO CREEK—Enters Shuswap River \y2 miles east of  Enderby; after William Crawley Ricardo, manager Coldstream  Ranch, 1895-1914.  ROUND PRAIRIE—("Schubert's Place") Between Lansdowne  and Swanson Mountain, north of Armstrong. A centre for Schuberts and Frank Youngs, whose properties adjoined in the early days.  School built, 1885; Thomas LeDuc first teacher. (O.H.S. Report,  1951).  SALTWELL CREEK—4 miles long; enters Gardom Creek  north of Enderby; after Ernest Saltwell, English settler about 1906.  SHUSWAP RIVER—116 miles long including expansions  (Mabel Lake 22 miles, Sugar Lake \]/2 miles). Enters Mara Lake.  Formerly called Spallumcheen; changed officially 1901.  (168) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  SICAMOUS—Formerly "Eagle River." Actually Eagle River  was across the lake and many houses were moved to present site.  SPALLUMCHEEN—The first interior rural municipality; incorporated July 21, 1892. Reeve Donald Graham (later M.L.A.),  Municipal clerk Henry Seydel. Robert Wood built a store in 1883.  School authorized in 1884, with D. Rabbitt as teacher. Post office  opened July, 1881; G. J. Wallace, postmaster; closed in 1908. Spelling various, e.g. Spallamucheen. Louis Dupen built a road from the  head of Okanagan Lake in 1873 at a cost of $925.  STEPNEY—Just north of Lansdowne and south of the Indian  Reserve.   Named for Sir Arthur Stepney.  <yVlembership <JL^ist  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  PATRON  Miss Annie Fenton, Enderby, B.C.  HONORARY LIFE MEMBER  Dr. Margaret Ormsby, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.  MEMBERS  Adam, E. L., 578 Rose Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Adams, W. E., North Kelowna, B.C.  Allison, Mrs. R., 301 West Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Armstrong, Mrs. Gertrude, Cawston.  Armstrong, J. C, Grand Forks.  Anderson, George, Box 769, E. 25th, Vancouver.  Anderson, Mr. G., 769 E. 25th, Vancouver.  Andrew, W. J., 2866 Bellevue Ave., W. Vancouver.  Andrews, George, 769 E. 25th, Vancouver.  Arnold, G., R.R. 1, Winfield, B.C.  Ashton, T. Mrs., Enderby.  * Bagnall, Guy P., 3317 Coldstream Ave., Vernon.  * Bagnall, George C, 10, 951 S. Hermosa Ave., Chicago 43, 111., U.S.A.  Bailey, J. M., Box 37, East Kelowna.  Baird, Mr. and Mrs. R. A., Enderby.  Bates, Mrs. T. W., Osoyoos, B.C.  Bearcroft, E. S., Penticton.  Becker, Mr. Eric, Osoyoos, B.C.  Bedford, J. W., 2021 Stirling Place, Kelowna.  Belli-Bivar, Mrs. Ethel, Box 45, Salmon Arm.  Benmore, G. C, 2059 Pendozi Street, Kelowna.  Bennett, Mrs. C. G., Penticton, B.C.  Berkley, Mrs. N., Rock Creek.  Berner, Mrs. A., 2500 26th St., Vernon.  Berryman, Mrs   D., Oliver.  Berryman, Mr. D., Oliver, B.C.  Beurich, W., Osoyoos, B.C.  * Bingley, Mrs. A., Coldstream Ranch, Vernon.  Blackburn, Mr. and Mrs. R., Enderby, B.C.  Blumenauer, A. H., Armstrong, B.C.  (169) The Okanagan Historical Society—795<?  Borthwick, Mrs. Stanley, Chinook Cover P.O., B.C.  * Boss, M. T., 455 E. 17th Ave., Vancouver, B.C.  Bowsher, A. P., 8th Floor Pacific Building, Calgary, Alta.  Bradburny, B., 3908 29th Ave., Vernon.  Brown, Mr. A. M., 3402 17th Ave., Vernon.  Brown, Mr. Ian, R.R. 1, Oliver, B.C.  Brown, Judge Wm. C, Okanogan, Washington, U.S.A.  Buckland, Chas. D., R.R. 2, Kelowna.  Buckland, D. S., Okanagan Mission, BC  Buckland, Jack, 1762 Gagnon Place, Kelowna.  Bull, Frank, 169 Granview, Penticton.  Bulman, W. T. J., R.R. 1, Kelowna.  Butler, L. G., R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Burtch, Mrs. Henry, Box 9, R.R. 2, Kelowna.  Caley, Hugh, R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Cameron, Mrs. D. R., 3001 41st Ave., Vernon.  Cameron, G. D., Box 86, Kelowna.  Cameron, J. D., Brunswick Street, Penticton.  Cameron, W. T., R.R. 3, Vernon, B.C.  Campbell, Mrs. D., 3204 33rd Ave., Vernon.  Campbell, Mrs. Ida K., 3306 25th St., Vernon.  Campbell, Miss Muriel E., 437 St. Paul St., Kamloops.  Canning, Mr. S., Penticton.  Campbell, R. G., 1697 59th Ave. W., Vancouver 14.  Carney, T. J., R.R. 1, Box 222, Kelowna.  Carpenter, Ron G., 1901 32nd Ave., Vernon.  Carruthers, E. M., 364 Bernard Ave., Kelowna.  Casarso, Anthony, Box 102, R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Casarso, Tony, Box 102, R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Casarso, Mrs. V., Oliver.  Cawston, Mrs. R. L., Miller Bay, Prince Rupert, Penticton.  * Chambers, Mr. E. J., Penticton, B.C.  Christensen, S. Parker, 2700 30th Ave., Vernon.  Christie, Mr. and Mrs. J. R., Okanagan Falls.  Clark, Mrs.  Cecil, 2503 23rd St., Vernon.  Clark, Mrs. C, Falkland.  Clarke, Dr. D. A., 1935 McDougall Ave., Kelowna.  Clement, Mrs. C. G., 2276 Speer St., Kelowna.  Clement, J. P., 1322 Walnut Street, Victoria.  Clement, Percy.  1332 Walnut St.,  Victoria.  Cochrane, Mrs. H., 836 Main St., Penticton.  Cohen. Mr., Keremeos, B.C.  Collett, H. C. S., Okanagan Mission, B.C.  Colthurst, R., 1630 Vernon Rd., Kelowna, B.C.  Corbett, Mrs. F. H., 995 E. 41st Ave., Vancouver 15.  Corbett, H. W., Kaleden, B.C.  Corbishley, Mr. Don., Oliver.  Corming, Steve, West Bench, Penticton.  Cousins, Mrs. F., 436 Cadder Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Cowan, Mr. H. F., Enderby, B.C.  Crawford, Elmer, 993 Harvey Ave., Kelowna.  Crook, Mr. W. H., Oliver.  Cross, Mrs. E., R.R. 3, Kelowna, B.C.  Crozier, Mrs. Ivan, 1801 32nd St., Vernon.  Crozier, Mrs. R., Armstrong, B.C.  Davis, M. Archer, Grand Forks.  Dawe, Arthur, Okanagan Mission. B.C.  Day, Mrs. M., 1836 Pendozi St., Kelowna.  De Lorme, Albert, 3505 Barnard Ave., Vernon.  Davidson, Alan H., Box 131, Westbank, B.C.  Dawson, Mr. E. A., Osoyoos.  (170) Membership Fist, Okanagan Historical Society  Deav, W., R.R. 1, Falkland.  Deering, A. J., R.R. 1, Armstrong, B.C.  Denison, Eric N., 3001 28th St., Vernon.  de Pfyffer, Robert, Court House, Revelstoke.  De Pourcq, Mr. J. E., 3408 34th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Deschamps, Fred L., 3004 30th Ave., Vernon.  Dewdney,  W. R. Mrs., 273 Scott Ave., Penticton.  Dixon, Earl, Armstrong.  Ditmars, W. C, 2535 S.W. Marine Drive, Vancouver.  Dickson, Mrs. G. H., Box 473, Dunville. Ont.  Duggan, T. D. C, Winfield, B.C.  Duncan, R., Enderby.  Dumont, Paul, Osoyoos.  Duncan, R., R.R., Penticton.  Edmiston, Mr. J. Reynolds, 2640 Broderick St., San Francisco, U.S.A.  Ellis, Miss Kathleen W., 268 Cambie St., Penticton.  Emanuele, Dr. H., 298 Argyle St., Penticton.  Embrey, Mrs. W., Box 64, Kelowna.  Estabrooks, O. L., 352 Main St., Penticton.  Estabrooks, R. H., 282 Eckhardt Ave., Penticton.  Evans, Mrs. Bob, 1157 Government St., Penticton.  Farmer, J. P., Enderby, B.C.  Faulkner, Mr. R., Tennis St., Penticton.  * Fenton, Miss Annie, Enderby.  * Fenton, Richard M., Enderby.  Fleming, Rev. E. S., Box 290, Campbell River.  Fillmore, D. C, 255 Lake Ave., Kelowna.  Finch, Gordon, 1880 Riverside Ave., Kelowna.  Fisher. Mrs. D. V., West Summerland.  Fitzgerald, Mrs. G. D., R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Found, Dr. N. P., 1806 Abbott St., Kelowna.  Fraser, R. A., 722 Lawson Ave., Kelowna.  Fraser, Major H., Okanagan Falls.  French, Mrs. Geo., Oliver.  Gahleman, Mr. F., Osoyoos.  Games, W. B. Hughes (dec), 1812 Marshall St., Kelowna.  Gemmill, W., 2000 34th St., Vernon.  Garner, Mrs. R. J., 401 Burnside Road E., Victoria.  Gellatly, Dorothy, Westbank.  Genn, Anthony, Glenshiel Hotel, 606 Douglas St., Victoria.  Gervers, J., R.R. 2, Kelowna.  Glen, Mr. W., Enderby, B.C.  * Godwin, Fred, 380 Wade St., Penticton.  Goldie, James, Okanagan Centre, B.C. :v.  Goodfellow, Rev. J. C, D.D., Box 187, Princeton, B.C.  Gordon, R. J., 258 Riverside Ave., Kelowna.  Gore, R. C, 511 Lawrence Ave., Kelowna.  Graf, W., Osoyoos.  Graham, G. G., Osoyoos.  Grant, James, Box 744, Vernon.  Gray, A. W., R.R. 2, Kelowna.  Greenwood, Terry, 1815 Maple St., Kelowna.  Gregory, Mrs. C, R.R., Armstrong.  Greig, Mrs. J. A., 2100 33rd St., Vernon.  Greyell, Cliff, 226 Windsor Ave., Penticton.  Griffiths, H. T., 540 Burrard St., Vancouver.  Guichon, L. P., Quilchena, B.C.  Gummel, Mrs. H., Osoyoos.  Hadow, R., Enderby.  Hales, F. C, 1069 Harvey Ave., Kelowna.  Hanson, Ivor, R.R. 1, Lumby.  (171) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  Hall, Robt. O., Oliver.  Hall, Mr. W., 3601 30th Ave., Vernon.  Harris, J. G., R.R. 1, Naramata Rd., Penticton.  Hartman, John, Box 142, R.R., Kelowna.  Hassard, Mrs. F., Box 561, Williams Lake.  Hassen, Mat, Armstrong.  Hatfield, Mr. A. S., Penticton.  Hatfield, Mr. Harley, Penticton.  Haug, Roy, 1746 Water St., Kelowna.  Hayhurst, Cliff, R.R., Armstrong.  Haynes, Val C, Oliver.  Hembling, O. W., R.R. 1, Oyama, B.C.  Hendrickson, Mrs. H., Enderby.  Herbert, G. D., 1684 Ethel St., Kelowna.  Hereron, Miss F., 579 Sutherland Ave., Kelowna.  Hewey, E. E., Chase, B.C.  Higgin, Noel, Summerland.  Hooper, J. L., Penticton.  Hopkins, Mrs. J. L., Armstrong.  Howrie, David, 2507 37th Ave., Vernon.  Hoy, Ben, 1902 Pendozi St., Kelowna.  * Hugh, Fabian, Cloverdale.  Hunter, Floyd, Wilson Ave., Armstrong.  Hunter, Mr. Ivan, Oliver.  Inkster, Dr. W. H., 39th Ave. East, Vernon.  Innis, Mrs. D. J., Keremeos.  Iversen, Mrs. A., Box 431, Oliver.  Jackson, Oliver, Box 64 A., R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Jamieson, Mrs. J., Armstrong.  Jamieson, Mr. W. H., Box 220, Penticton.  Johnson, A. E., R.R. 1, Enderby.  Johnson, Mrs. J. A., R.R. 1, Kelowna.  Johnson, Mr. and Mrs. N. S., Enderby.  Jones, Miss Phyllis, Oliver.  Jones, Mrs. W. Lloyd, 1449 Ethel St., Kelowna.  Kabella, S., Okanagan Mission, B.C.  Keating, H. K., Box 150, Peachland.  Kidston, Mrs. J. R., 3900 Pleasant Valley Rd., Vernon.  Kidston, Mrs. Jean W., 3900 P.V. Rd., Vernon.  King, Mrs. Ronald, Kaleden.  Kerry, L. L., 2188 Abbott St., Kelowna.  Kinloch, Mrs. D. F. B., R.R. 2, Vernon.  Kitto, Kenneth, 3502 33rd St., Vernon.  Kneller, Jabez, R.R. 4, Vernon.  Knight, Graham, 450 Ellis St., Penticton.  Knowles, Mrs. J. B., 879 Manhatten Drive, Kelowna.  Knox, Dr. W. J., 1855 Pendozi Street, Kelowna.  Lacey, Mrs. K., Box 144, Osoyoos.  Laidlaw, Mrs. A., 1008 London St., New Westminster.  Lamont, Mrs. T., R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Leathley, Len, 1483 Water St., Kelowna.  Lefroy, C. B., 3306 25th St., Vernon.  Leighton, Mr. R., R.R., Oliver.  Leslie. Mr. W. T., 400 Tenis St., Penticton.  Lincoln, Maurice, 3500 32nd St., Vernon.  Lindsey, Mrs. J., Rock Creek.  Lewis, Mr. Geo., Summerland, B.C.  Lowle, F. F. W., Skaha Lake, Penticton.  Lundy, Mrs. J. C, 878 Bernard Ave., Kelowna.  Mader, Leo, Box 65, Grand Forks.  McClelland, J., 421 Haynes Ave., Kelowna.  (172) Membership Fist, Okanagan Historical Society  McCuddy, Mr. Arthur, Oliver.  McCulloch, Capt. W. A. W., 1939 Abbott St., Kelowna.  McDonald, Mr. D., Armstrong.  McDonald, F. O., Oliver.  McDougal, Miss C, Peachland.  McDougall, Mrs. H. M., 1094 Lawson Ave., Kelowna.  McDougall, R. J., Sorrento, B.C.  McGie, Mr. Ross, Armstrong.  McGie, W. R., Camp No. 1, Field, B.C.  Prout, Mrs. J. W., 3914 32nd St., Vernon.  McKechnie, K. B., R.R., Armstrong.  McKenzie, Mrs. G., 455 Harvey Ave., Kelowna.  McKenzie, Rt. Rev. W. B., 839 Sutherland Ave., Kelowna.  McMahon, Mr. and Mrs. G. E., Enderby.  McMynn, Mr. D. J., Trail.  McWilliams, T. F., 463 Bernard Ave., Kelowna.  Manary, Sam R., Cawston.  Marshall, A. Mrs., Armstrong.  Martin, Mr. Stuart, R.R. 4, Vernon.  Matheson, A. S., 516 Harvey Ave., Kelowna.  Melvin, George H., 3400 21st Ave., Vernon.  Middleton, Mrs. Douglas, Okanagan Centre.  Midgley, Mr. T. N., Naramata Rd., R.R. 1, Penticton.  Miller, W. D., 2425 Abbott St., Kelowna.  Mills, Mrs. W. H., 626 2nd West, Owen Sound, Ont.  Mitchell, Mrs. J. H., R.R., Oliver.  Mitchell, Dr. Ross, 542 Corydon Ave., Winnipeg.  Morgan,  Granville, Trout  Creek,  Summerland.  Morrison, G. F., 644 Kingsway, Winnipeg.  Moss, Mrs. A., 2500 Abbott St., Kelowna.  Mowat, W. H., 590 Pender St., Vancouver.  Moyer, Dr. E. L., 3202 19th St., Vernon.  Munro, Mrs. K. K., Box 129, Kelowna.  Murmuses, Jeff, Kalamalka Hotel, Vernon.  Murray, Miss P., Armstrong.  Neid, J. J., Box 2, East Kelowna.  Nelson, Miss E. P., Keremeos.  Newby, Dr. C. D., 375 Bernard Ave., Kelowna.  Norman, E. A., Armstrong.  Norton, Mr. Eric, Oliver.  Nuttall, Mrs. W., Naramata.  Osborn, C. D., Coldstream Ranch, Vernon.  Osborne, John, 2270 Ottawa St., West Vancouver.  Palmer, Mrs. R. M., R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Patten, Mrs. C. J., Armstrong, B.C.  Patterson, Dr. L. A., 2806 W. King Edward, Vancouver.  Patterson, Mrs. A. L., Ste. 15, 1489 St. Paul St., Kelowna.  Peel, Mr. and Mrs. E. N., Enderby.  Peterman, A. N., Box 193, Oliver.  Peters, Mrs. S., Summerland.  Philpott, Gordon, 1211 Ethel St., Kelowna.  Piddocks, Mrs. J. L., Box 88, Kelowna.  Pidoborozny, Mr. and Mrs., Enderby.  Plunkett, Mr. S.,  Summerland.  Plunkett, Mrs. S., Summerland, B.C.  Prout, Mrs. J. W., 3914 32nd St., Vernon.  * Pound, Rev. Allan C, Horseshoe Bay.  Pawley, Hume, 1905 Corruthers St., Kelowna, B.C.  Powley, W. R., R.R. 1, Winfield, B.C.  Price, Mrs. Stan, R.R. 3, Armstrong.  Pringle, R. J., Enderby.  (173) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  Quigley, W. D., R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Quinn, Dr. F. H., 1975 McDougall Ave., Kelowna.  Reece, T. B. Mrs., Westbank.  Reekie, Miss Jeanetta M., 429 Park Ave., Kelowna.  * Reid, Miss E., 614 Martin St., Penticton.  Reid, Mrs. Gladys, 1807 Marshall St., Kelowna.  Renwick, H. A., 708 1449 Marpole Ave., Vancouver.  Renwick, Miss M. S., 987 Glenn Ave., Kelowna.  Retel, Mrs. P., R.R. 1, Kelowna.  Rickards, W., R.R., Kelowna.  Ritchie, Miss K., 2203 30th Ave., Vernon.  Roadhouse, W. T. L., 2042 Doryan Place, Kelowna.  Rorke, H. O., 624 Young St., Penticton.  Rose, G. C, per Okanagan Investments, Kelowna.  Rosoman, Miss Hazel, Enderby.  Ross, Dr. D. A., 1703 37th Ave., Vernon.  Scott, Doug E., 2805 24th St., Vernon.  Seath, R. W., 1934 McDougall Ave., Kelowna.  Seymour, S. P., 3111 Barnard Ave., Vernon.  Seymour, Mrs. S. P., 3111 Barnard Ave., Vernon.  Shannon, Mrs. R., Oliver, B.C.  Shaw, Mrs. J. D., Box 2290, R.R. 1, Penticton.  Shepherd, Ken, 2034 Pendozi St., Kelowna.  Shipard, Mrs. G., Osoyoos.  Shutner, C, Anglican Rectory, Oyama.  Sigalet, W. A., Box 456, Vernon.  Simpson, H. B., 176 Vimy Ave., Kelowna.  Simpson, Mr. N. V., R.R. 1, Oliver.  Simpson, Mrs. R. M., 808 Glenn Ave., Kelowna.  Simpson, Mrs. S. M., 2120 Abbott St., Kelowna.  Skipper, R. V., Box 34, Dewdney.  Smith, Mrs. Aird, 3101 39th Ave., Vernon.  Smith, George, Armstrong.  Smith, H. S. Harrison, 434 Bernard Ave., Kelowna.  Smith, J. A., 246 Lawrence Ave., Kelowna.  Smith, W. J., Armstrong.  Solly, I. H., c/o Bank of Montreal, Esquimalt.  South, Mrs. G. I., 603 Van Home Street, Penticton.  Sovereign, Dr. A. E., 3003 22nd St., Vernon.  Spear, W., Box 473, Kelowna, B.C.  Speechly, M. K., R.R. 2, Vernon.  Stadola, S., Osoyoos Times, Osoyoos.  Stephen, Mrs. W. G., 120 28th St., West Vancouver.  Stickland, Mr. and Mrs. Ed., Enderby.  Stuart, C. E., Box 666, R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Stubbs, Archie S., Okanagan Mission, B.C.  Sunderland, Mrs. E. J., R.R. 2, Vernon.  * Swift, A. A., 281 Haynes St., Penticton.  Tassie, Mr. Peter, Vernon.  Teasdale, J., Okanagan Falls, B.C.  Teece, Mr. and Mrs. H. A., Enderby.  Thomas, Mr. E., Okanagan Falls, B.C.  Thompson, Miss B., 446 Park Ave., Kelowna.  Thompson, Mrs. W. S., Box 1500, Kelowna.  Thornloe, Jr. F., East Kelowna.  Tilling, Rose M. Miss, 369 Bernard Ave., Kelowna.  Timberlake, Mrs. F., Armstrong.  Truswell, H. A., Box 272, Kelowna.  Tucker, Mrs. James, Tucker St., Arthur, Ont.  Turnbull, Mrs. A. D., 300 Kootenay Ave., Trail.  Turner. Miss Barbara, Vancouver Gen. Hospital Nurses Res., Rm. 801.  (174) An Historical Gazetteer of Okanagan-Similkameen  Turner, R. G., Box 1305, Rossland, B.C.  Turner, R. M. H., c/o H. Rennie, R.R. 1, Summerland.  Unwin-Simson, Col. D. C, 835 Bernard Ave., Kelowna.  Upton, Mrs. Primrose, Okanagan Mission.  Upton, Mrs. T. B., Box 10, Okanagan Mission.  Van Blaricom, E. W., Box 113, Kelowna.  Walburn, H. B., R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Walker, Mrs. W. D., Okanagan Mission, B.C.  Wallace, Mrs. B., R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Ward, A., R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Warren, Mrs. A. M., 854 Main St., Penticton.  Watson, Mrs. John, Tara, Ont.  Watt, Geo. M., Box 39, Okanagan Mission.  Watt, H. J., Enderby.  Weatherill, H. P., c/o Royal Bank, Vancouver, B.C.  Weddell, A. D., 274 Lake Ave., Kelowna.  Weatherly, G. S., Box 467, Revelstoke.  Weddell, Mrs. Cyril, Box 120, Kelowna.  Weddell, E. C, 1659 Pendozi St., Kelowna.  Weeks, E., Box 393, Kelowna.  * Weeks, G. A., Box 637, Revelstoke.  * Weeks, J. B., 614 Martin St., Penticton.  * Weeks, L. J., 3211 Kitchener St., Vancouver.  * Weeks, T. V., 233A 16th Ave., Calgary, Alta.  Whillis, R. H., 1749 Abbott St., Kelowna.  Whitaker, Mr. H., W. Summerland.  Whitaker Mrs H., W. Summerland.  * Whitaker, Mrs. H. H., Ellis St., Penticton.  White, Mr. Cull, 107 D. St. N.W., Ephrata, Wash., U.S.A.  White, Mrs. H. E., Skaha Lake. Penticton.  White, Ronald, 107 Battle St., Kamloops, B.C.  White, Dr. W. H. Bill, 417 Winnipeg St., Penticton.  Whitehead, Miss Fay, 970 Lav/son Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Whitehead, Miss W. J., 970 Lawson Ave., Kelowna.  Whitham, J. D., 1725 Pendozi St., Kelowna.  Whitham, J. Gordon, 1725 Pendozi St., Kelowna.  * Willis, Mrs. Mary, 3837 Cartier St., Vancouver.  Wilson, Dr. Wallace, 1386 Nicola St., Vancouver.  Wilmot, F. H., Large St., Vancouver.  Wilson, Jack, Tappen.  Wilson, J. L., 413 Patterson Ave., Kelowna.  Wilson, J. H. Mrs., Armstrong.  Winkles, Mrs. W. H., Armstrong.  Wood, E .0., 268 Bernard Ave., Kelowna.  Woodd, H. S., Enderby.  Woods, Mr. J. B., Okanagan Landing, B.C.  Woods, J. J., Saanichton, B.C.  Woods, Mrs. Ray, Box 235, Westbank.  Wright, C. C, Armstrong.  Young. Mrs. B. F., Armstrong.  Zoellner, Mrs. W. J., Box 55, Grand Forks, B.C.  UNIVERSITIES, SCHOOLS, MUNICIPALITIES AND OTHER PUBLIC  BODIES — ALSO COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS  Kelowna City  Club, Kelowna.  Lumby Elementary School, Lumby.  Victoria College, 3155 Richmond Rd., Victoria.  Fraser Valley Regional Library, Abbotsford, B.C.  Junior-Senior High School, School District 21, Armstrong.  Municipality of Spallumcheen, Armstrong.  Indiana University Library, Bloomington, Indiana, U.S.A.  Calgary Public Library, 624 9th Ave. S.W., Calgary.  Glenbow Foundation, Calgary, Alta.  (175) The Okanagan Historical Society—1958  The Newbury Library, Chicago 10, 111., U.S.A.  Eastern Washington College of Education,  Cheney, Wash., U.S.A.  (Hargreaves Library).  Secretary, School District 78, Enderby.  Historical Society of Montana, Helena, Montana, U.S.A.  * Kamloops Museum Association, Box 337, Kamloops.  Okanagan Regional Library, Queensway, Kelowna.  Okanagan Union Library, Kelowna.  Laurel Co-operative Union, 1304 Ellis St., Kelowna.  CKOV, 1490 Pendozi St., Kelowna.  Southern Similkameen P.T.A., Keremeos, B.C., c/o Mrs. G. V. Matties.  Secretary School District 16, Keremeos, B.C.  The State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., U.S.  R. A. and Lillian Davies, 3468 Melrose Ave., Montreal.  McGill University Library, Montreal, Quebec.  New York Public Lib., Acquisition Branch, 5th Ave. and 42nd St., N.Y.  Secretary School District 14, Oliver.  Parliamentary Librarian, Library of Parliament, Ottawa.  National Museum of Canada, Ottawa 4.  National Library, Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa.  Penticton  Herald,  Penticton.  CKOK, Penticton.  Jermyn Avenue Elementary School, School District 15, Penticton.  Carmi Ave. School, School District 15, Penticton.  Queen's Park Elementary School, School District  15, Penticton.  Public Library, 425 Brunswick St., Prince George.  State College of Washington Library, Technical Service Div., Pulman,  Washington, U.S.A., per F. W. Paxton Co., Inc., Boston, Mass., U.S.A.  Seattle Public Library, Seattle, Wash., U.S.A.  Spokane Public Library, South 10 Cedar, Spokane 4, Wash.  Gonzaga University, Spokane 2, Wash., U.S.A.  Andrew, Dr. F. W. (dec), Box 11, Summerland, B.C.  City of Tacoma Public Library, Tacoma, Wash.,  U.S.A.  Toronto Public Libraries,   College and St. George St., Toronto 2-B.  University of Toronto Library, Toronto 5.  Vancouver City Museum, Vancouver, B.C.  Vancouver City Archives, City Hall, Vancouver.  Christian Brothers, Vancouver College, W. 39th Ave. and Cartier St.,  Vancouver.  University of B.C. Library, Vancouver.  Holland America Line, 540 Burrard St., Vancouver 1.  Vancouver Library Board, Vancouver. f j  B.C. Directories Ltd., 2733 W. Broadway, Vancouver.  Vernon Club, Vernon.  CJIB, Radio Broadcasting Station, Vernon.  Central Public School, Vernon.  Secretary, School District 22, Vernon.  Vernon Junior High School Library, MacDonald Park, Vernon.  Provincial Library, Victoria.  Provincial Archives, Victoria.  Provincial Museum, Victoria.  Public Library Commission, Victoria.  Victoria Public Library. Victoria, B.C.  Librarian, Victoria College, 3155 Richmond Rd., Victoria.  Order Division, Library of Congress, Washington 25, D.C., U.S.A.  West Summerland High School, School District 77, West Summerland.  Hudson's Bay Co., Editor, The Beaver, Hudson's Bay House, Winnipeg.  St. Georges School, 3954 West 29th Ave., Vancouver, B.C.  N.B. Asterisk (*) indicates prepaid membership  Addresses given are in British Columbia unless otherwise stated.  (176)  \0$   \$  ^0  W 6" THE VERNON *^¬£*> NEWS L.

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