Okanagan Historical Society Reports

The twenty-seventh report of the Okanagan Historical Society 1963 Okanagan Historical Society 1963

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 mmmmBm DateP 3  R. ti (Reg) Atkinson Museum  785 MAIN STREET  PENTICTON, B.C.    V2A5E3  % S  m^^l5 S7/ c  ontents  Title Page  1  List of Illustrations      ...       .       .       .       .       .       .       . 3  Okanagan Reverie       ..       .       .       .       .       .       .       .       .       . 5  Notice of Annual Meeting  6  Officers and Directors of Okanagan Historical Society         .       . 7  Branch Officers  8  Minutes of the Annual Meeting  9  John Matthew, Rutland  21  Organizing the Similkameen Branch of the OHS  .       .       .       . 31  Reminiscences of Naramata        . 33  Spallumcheen Masonry Through 75 Years  36  Upper Keremeos and Ollala  46  Transportation by Road and Trail in the Okanagan Valley        . 50  The Oliver United Church 1921 to 1963      .       .       .       .       .58  Southern Valleys of British Columbia  65  The OHS Picnic at Fairview in 1963  '75  I Remember Penticton from 1900-1908  77  Vernon United Church         . 87  The Changing Economy of the Similkameen        .       .               . 94  Penticton Then and Now  99  George Muterer Watt—A Tribute  101  Driving Logs by River and Lake (1910)        ..... 103  The Reverend Philip Stocks  106  Armstrong's Fiftieth Anniversary  113  The Osoyoos Museum  116  Valentine Carmichael Hayner  117  Coldstream Ranch Goes Back One Hundred Years       .       .       . 119  Lawrence Guichon  124  Kelowna Board of Trade, 1913  127  Long-Time Valley Resident, Bertram E. Crichton, Dies      .       .130  Pioneer Days in the Similkameen  131  We Will Remember Them  136  Mrs. Maria MacDonald Active North Okanagan Pioneer    .       . 141  The Hoziers  143  Canada's Okanagan        .144  The Vale of Osoyoos  148  2 Early History of the Deep Creek District 149  Matilda Keogan Dalrymple .       .       .       .       .       .       .       .152  An Early Petition 153  A Tribute to a Pioneer Woman 155  Summerland Anecdotes        .158  A First Person Account of Early Days 164  Membership List       .      .      .166  asL^ist  of illustrations  Old Stage Coach at Keremeos    .       ,  4  John Matthew Rutland  20  Rutland Bench Looking Towards Black Mountain       ... 23  Grain Harvesting in Rutland  24  Blossom Scene in Santa Rosa Orchard  27  Sam Manery Holds Charter  32  On Vernon-Kelowna Road at Long Lake, B.C  53  Construction of Okanagan Centre South Road Near Camp 2      . 55  Construction of New Road Okanagan Centre, B.C.      .       .       . 56  Columbia Silt Banks Near Athalmer        .       .       .       .      'Ģ.       . 65  Terraced Penticton Silts, West Summerland  71  Remnant of a Silt Bank, Similkameen Valley     \  .       .       .       . 73  Old Fairview Camp  76  Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Nesbitt and Family  78  Grist Mill at Keremeos, Circa 1877  98  George Muterer Watt .100  Driving Logs by River and Lake (Map)  104  The Reverend Philip Stocks  106  Grave of the Rev. Philip Stocks  107  The Rev. and Mrs. Stocks at Stocksmoor  108  Before the Days of Mechanization on Coldstream Ranch    .       . 121  A Threshing Scene on Coldstream Ranch in 1910        .       .       . 123  Dr. Lawrence Guichon       .       .       .       ..       .       .       .       .125  Father Pandosy Church on the Penticton Indian Reserve      .       . 129  Bertram E. Crichton    .              .       .       ...       .       .       .130  3 Mr*  '.&#_  _c  en  C  ac  _c  "3  c  ro  S-Sffil!  >**,    *-  ::-rm:M  -4_____*Jk*v* ^  *i k'&l'v-  ■kCm'  o  ■f.  4  *4%  .    #*  * *     5  ;.  . ijy^f  - - *'( K^kayiacjavi    /v<  w  everie  By Janet Anderson  I look around  On friends I found  So many years ago;  Each kindly face,  Its strength, its grace  Its worth  I surely know.  In years bygone  We laboured on  With debts, and hopes, and fears.  We shared the pain,  The hard won gain,  The laughter, . . . and the tears.  And now we stand,  A goodly band,  All mellowed with the years.  Our work is done.  'Twas well begun  By us, the pioneers.  So let us raise  Our song of praise  For neighbours down the years:  Dear friends we knew,  So strong, so true,  Our Valley  pioneers! <J\otice of  4^/rnnual <~/Vleeting  of  <Jne  x^Jkanagan <Jvistorical <__5oc/efw  1964  Notice is hereby given that the Annual Meeting of  The Okanagan Historical Society  will be held on  ^Monday, <May  11 tit,   1964  in ARMSTRONG at 2:30 p.m.  BUSINESS  Presentation of Reports  Election of Officers  The meeting will be followed by the Society's  ANNUAL DINNER  <s\otices of <yVlotion  "That the Editorial Committee of the Parent body  be abolished and an Essay Committee be set up."  "That life members automatically become  members  of the Parent Body Executive."  6 V__y///cer_? and ^Directors  of the  y^Jkanagan <J~listorical <-__5oc/e£y  Honorary Patrons:  The Honorable FRANK RICHTER  His Honor, The Lieutenant-Governor of B.C.,  Honorable GEORGE RANDOLPH PEARKES, V.C., C.B., D.S.O., M.C.  The Honorable W. A. C. BENNETT, Premier of B.C.  Honorary Presidents: DR. MARGARET ORMSBY, H. C. S.  COLLETT,  MRS. HESTER WHITE, CAPT. J. B. WEEKS, DR. GOODFELLOW  President: GUY P. BAGNALL, 3317 Coldstream Ave., Vernon  Vice-Presidents: 1st, GEO. WATT; 2nd, MRS. E. J. LACEY,  Box  144, Osoyoos;  3rd, HAROLD COCHRANE  Secretary: HAROLD COCHRANE, 2006 28th Cresc., Vernon  Treasurer: MRS. HAROLD COCHRANE, 2006 28th Cresc., Vernon.  Editor: MAJOR HUGH PORTEOUS, Oliver, B.C.  Auditor: T. R. JENNER, 3204 32nd Street, Vernon  Directors: Armstrong—Hugh Caley.  Vernon—Bert Thorburn, Fred Harwood, A. E. Berry.  Kelowna—C. D. Cameron, D. S. Buckland, J. D. Whitham.  Penticton—H. A. Corbett, Capt. J. B. Weeks, Mrs. W. R. Dewdney.  Oliver-Osoyoos—Ivan Hunter.  Similkameen—S. R. Manery.  Directors at Large: Dr. D. A. Ross, Vernon; Ben Hoy, Kelowna;  Mrs. H. C. Whitaker, Summerland.  Editorial Committee:  Chairman—Major H. Porteous.  Armstrong—Mrs. W. H. Winkles.  Vernon—Mrs. M. Middleton, Mrs. G. P. Bagnall, Mrs. Matole Johnson.  Kelowna—C. D. Cameron, Mrs. D. Tutt, N. Pooley, W. R. Carruthers,  T. B. Upton, D. S. Buckland.  Penticton—Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, R. N. Atkinson, E. D. Sismey, Joe Harris.  Oliver-Osoyoos—Mrs. George French.  Similkameen—S. R. Manery, Mrs. Barbara Lawrence, Dr.  Goodfellow.  Secretary Essay Contest:  Mrs. G. P. Bagnall  7 JPjranch \^Jjji  cers  ARMSTRONG  President: JAMES JAMIESON.  Vice-President: HUGH CALEY.  Secretary-Treasurer: MRS. W. G. DODDS.  Editorial Committee: MRS. W. H. WINKLES.  VERNON  President: HAROLD COCHRANE, 2006 28th Crescent.  Vice-President: DR. D. A. ROSS, 1703 37th Avenue.  Secretary-Treasurer: ART SPENCE, R.R. 2, Vernon.  Directors: J. B. WOODS, MRS. I. CROZIER, MRS. D. GREIG, MRS. H.  COCHRANE,    BERT    THORBURN,    MRS.    BERT    THORBURN,  HARRY GORMAN, GUY BYRON JOHNSON.  Editorial  Committee:  MRS.  M.  MIDDLETON,  MRS.  G.  P.  BAGNALL,  MRS. MABLE JOHNSON.  Secretary of the Essay Competition: MRS. G. P. BAGNALL.  KELOWNA  President: N. R. C. POOLEY.  Vice-President: MRS. T. B. UPTON.  Secretary: MRS. D. TUTT.  Treasurer: J. J. CONROY.  Editorial Chairman: MRS. T. B. UPTON.  Directors: G. D. CAMERON, WILLIAM SPEAR, BEN HOY, DOUGLAS  S. BUCKLAND, W. T. J. BULMAN, W. R. CARRUTHERS, A. R.  CASORSO,    NEIL    HALLISEY,    GUY    DE   HART,    MICHAEL  PAINTER and the late G. M. WATT.  PENTICTON  President: VICTOR WILSON.  Vice-President: R. N. ATKINSON.  Secretary: MRS. W. R. DEWDNEY.  Treasurer: N. J. H. D'ARCY.  Directors: CAPT. J. B. WEEKS, H. W   CORBITT, MRS. R. B. WHITE,  MRS.  H.   C.  WHITAKER,   MRS.   C. G.   BENNETT,   MRS.  A.  M.  WARREN, MRS. H. V. DAVIS, J. G. HARRIS, MRS. W. NUTTALL,  H. R. HATFIELD, MRS. JAMES GAWNE, SR.  Editorial Committee:  MRS. W. R. DEWDNEY, MRS. A.  G.  SCHELL,  E. D. SISMEY.  OLIVER-OSOYOOS  President: MRS. N. V. SIMPSON, Oliver.  Vice-President: HARVEY ROSS, Oliver.  Secretary-Treasurer: MRS. E. J. LACEY, SR., Osoyoos.  Directors: MRS. GEORGE FRENCH, Oliver; GEORGE POLLOCK, Oliver;  ERIC BECKER, Osoyoos; MISS D. WATERMAN, Osoyoos.  SIMILKAMEEN  President: SAM MANERY, Cawston.  Vice-President, HERB CLARK, Keremeos.  Secretary-Treasurer: MRS. DOUGLAS PARSONS, Keremeos.  Executive:     MRS.    GLADYS    SWAN,     Cawston;     MRS.    BARBARA  LAWRENCE, Hedley; RICHARD CAWSTON, JR., Cawston.  Editorial   Committee:   SAM   MANERY,   MRS.   GEORGE  LAWRENCE,  REV. JOHN GOODFELLOW.  8 <yVlinutes of the ^Arnnual <yVleeting  The annual meeting of the Okanagan Historical Society was held  in the Women's Institue Hall, Cawston, Monday, May 13, 1963, at  2:45 p.m.  Prior to the meeting the Committee of Presidents met to consider  the recommendation that Mrs. Hester White and Mrs. Kate Lacey be  made life members of the Society. Moved by Mr. Pooley, seconded  by Mr. Wilson and carried, "That Mrs. Hester White and Mrs. Kate  Lacey be made life members."  The proposal was also put forth that Mrs. Vera Bennett be given  a gift in recognition of her years of exceptional work as secretary. The  purchase of a tray had already been made by the Penticton Branch.  Moved by Mr. Wilson, seconded by Mr. Pooley and carried, "That  the action of the President he accepted and the gift presented to Mrs.  Bennett."  The annual meeting was called to order by the President, Mr. G.  P. Bagnall, at 2:45.   Fifty members were present.  Minutes moved by Mr. Whitham and seconded by Mr. Cameron,  "That the Minutes as printed in the Annual Report No. 26 be adopted."  Carried.  The order of business was interrupted here in order to welcome  the new Similkameen Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society.  Moved by Mr. Pooley, seconded by Mr. Wilson, "That the Similkameen Branch be accepted into the Okanagan Historical Society, and  Mr. Manery be congratulated for the excellent and untiring effort in  organizing the Branch."   Carried.  A letter was read from Mrs. Bennett announcing her regret on  not being able to be present. The first meeting she had missed in about  10 years. She wished the meeting every success and offered to help in  any way possible.  PRESIDENT'S REPORT  Ladies and Gentlemen:  It has been a busy years for our Society:  Three special committees will report, the Speakers Committee of  three secured the kind offices of Mr. C. C. Kelley as guest speaker for  this evening's dinner meeting and the committee may be discharged.  The committee to view the round church at Peachland, of which  Mr. George Watt is chairman, will report, and the committee to look  into the costs of reproducing O.H.S. Reports Nos. 1, 2 and 3—Mr.  Don Whitham, Chairman, will report.  The 1963 Contest Committee has been very active—Mrs. Tutt,  9 Mrs. Dewdney, Mrs. French and Mrs. Bagnall—carried on under  somewhat adverse conditions and achieved a favorable result, they are  to be commended for their efforts. You will be asked to improve the  arrangements for the 1964 contest.  A recommendation will be put before you to abolish the Parent  Body Editorial Committee and to create a new office of Secretary of  Contests.  The President's Committee is now a reality and I think has  sparked a new interest in the management of society affairs. This  committee is comprised of the Branch Presidents along with the President of the parent body. It will lay certain recommendations before  you today.  I wish to pay tribute to our Editor, Mr. Hugh Porteous, for editing the Society's 26th Report. My opinion is this edition is among the  best the Society has turned out. Very favorable comments have reached  me to this effect, and I am pleased to announce that Mr. Porteous has  consented to edit our 27th Report, subject to the approval of this meeting.  I had been requested by the Oliver-Osoyoos Branch to give a letter of consent to the Branch proposal reference improvements to be  made at the old cemetery, in the Fairview area. I do not know whether  there will be a report on this matter because of the indisposition of Mrs.  Lacey, with whom I had correspondence.  It was a great privilege for me to attend and assist at the formation of a new Branch in the community of Cawston, April 22, 1963,  when 39 members were signed up: the name adopted is "Similkameen  Branch," and Sam Manery is Branch President. I only wish I could  have visited with all six of the Society's Branches to demonstrate my  sincere interest in their operation.  I wish to thank the officers of the parent body, the presidents and  officers of all Branches, the chairmen of the special committees, for  their encouraging  help and  wonderful   co-operation  throughout  my  year of office.  May 13, 1963.  REPORT OF EDITOR  Major Porteous said he hadn't prepared a written report, but said  he was sorry for any errors he might have made in Report No. 26. He  said he would edit Report No. 27, but would then step down. He appreciated working with the members, making new friends and meeting  old friends.  He thanked all members for their co-operation in getting in articles for the Reports. He had enough material for about 25 pages of  the 27th.  10 A recommendation was put forth by Don Whitham, seconded  by Mr. Watt, "That the galley proofs be sent to the local editorial  committees for checking."  SECRETARY'S REPORT—Nil  TREASURER'S REPORT  Statement of Receipts and Expenditures for Year Ending  April 30th, 1963  Receipts—  Sales of Memberships and Reports:  Vernon   $838.57  Kelowna   526.15  Penticton     277.80  Oliver-Osoyoos     242.70  Interest on Savings Account,  Bank of Montreal, Osoyoos           4.54   $1,889.76  Expenditures—  Cranna's Jewellery—  Engraving Shield (Essay Prize) $        1.15  Bank Service Charges   2.40  Express and Postage          32.33  Stationery          54.31  Secretary, Mrs. V. Bennett—Petty Cash         10.00  Printing 26th Report, Penticton Herald    1,673.50  (Includes $18.90 for cuts and $22.90  for  envelopes)   $1,773.69  Excess of Receipts over Expenditures   $    116.07  Bank Balances—  Total funds on deposit April 30, 1962 $ 777.06  Plus receipts over expenditures  116.07  $ 893.13  Vernon   $ 239.29  Kelowna     314.34  Penticton—$166.32 less O/s cheque $5.00___. 161.32  Oliver-Osoyoos   178.18  $   893.13  Hilda Cochrane  11 Statement of Reports as at April 30, 1963  No. 26 Reports Sold—  Vernon   .    163  Kelowna     184  Penticton  95  Oliver-Osoyoos   86  Armstrong   30  Total Sold      578  Reports On Hand—  No. 11    73  14       ... 38  15   ---     .__._. 109  16   _.   65  17    126  18 _____   45  19     12  20   145  21  ... 138  22  ____.__," 159  23   29  24   —  25     16  26    . 216  Total Reports on Hand    _._.   1,171  No. 27 Reports Prepaid        10  Amount received during year for sales of Reports previous  to No. 25, including four large orders $182.50  As usual there was considerable discussion as to where, how, ways  and means of extending the sale of our Memberships.  It was moved by Mr. Manery and seconded by Mrs. W. Dewdney  and carried, "That the Reports of the President, Editor and Treasurer  be adopted."  BRANCH REPORTS  Armstrong—  The Armstrong Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society, reorganized early last year, has engaged in a moderately active capacity  with four general meetings being held. Among speakers were Frank  Young, member of a pioneer Spallumcheen family, relating the story  of "Early Days at Lansdowne"; Harold Cochrane, Vernon, "The  Early Fur Trade in the Pacific Northwest"; J. Serra, Armstrong, who  spoke on the part played by Chinese growers in the early days of the  12 district, and Dr. D. A. Ross, Vernon, whose topic was "Salish Indians  of the Interior."  The rehabilitation of the pioneer Lansdowne Cemetery—a truly  historic spot—has been the chief centre of interest, and in this the Armstrong Teen Town has taken the initiative, a work party last fall  cleaning up the grounds. This youth group plans on extending their  work this spring and summer. Spallumcheen Municipal Council, in  conjunction with a committee from the Historical Society, is undertaking the erection of a suitable entrance sign at Lansdowne Cemetery.  The Society undertook sponsorship of the Essay Contest for Armstrong and Enderby areas, the one selected being sent forward for  judging in the Valley Contest.  Armstrong Branch is devoting its interests this year in connection  with the 50th Anniversary Celebration of the City of Armstrong.  Vice-President Hugh Caley has represented the Armstrong Branch  at Okanagan Historical Society executive meetings, also as director for  Armstrong-Enderby area.  Jas. E. Jamieson, President  Vernon—  We had four executive meetings which were well attended. Our  last meeting drew a full turnout.  We have discussed the possibility of cleaning up the cemetery on  Kamloops Road and we are endeavoring to locate the old metal sign  for Poison Park with the idea of repairing it and having it re-installed  at the park.  Mr. and Mrs. Bagnall and Mr. Cochrane went to Lumby on May  6 to present the prize of $10.00 to Master Tom Tull who won the  Essay Contest. This was presented by Mr. Bagnall at an assembly of  nearly 200 students.  Our annual meeting was April 1. We had a fair turnout considering there was a political meeting the same night with all candidates  on the platform.  Some of us also attended all the meetings called by the Armstrong  Branch.  We are considering holding a general meeting in Lumby in an  effort to create more interest in the sale of memberships and the recording of the History of Lumby and District.  Mr. R. P. Nelson was guest speaker at our annual meeting and  spoke on the Fur Brigade Trail. I would like to thank the members of  my executive for their full co-operation.  Art Spence, President  Kelowna—  The Kelowna Branch held four executive meetings in 1962.   No  13 special work was undertaken such as preserving old buildings or identifying special landmarks.  However, we did have one new departure. A public meeting was  arranged to hear Mr. Victor Wilson give an address on the story of  Camp McKinney. There was much more public interest in the local  history than we had anticipated and the library board where the meeting took place was crowded.  Mr. Wilson gave such an excellent address with slides that we  asked him to repeat the performance at our annual dinner. This function went off exceedingly well with 122 people present. Besides hearing the speaker and conducting the regular business of the Society we  also had the pleasure of awarding the local historical essay winner, Miss  Margaret McNeill, with a 10 dollar prize.  Our editorial department, under Mrs. T. B. Upton, turned in  over a dozen stories and sketches for Major Hugh Porteous to choose  from for the Annual Report. We were able to produce many more  illustrations than hitherto.  A departure from routine this year was increasing of the executive from around eight to 14. There is a wide interest in the affairs  of the Historical Society and it seems logical to encourage this by making it possible for more people to take an active part.  Nigel Pooley, President  Penticton—  The Penticton Branch had four general, one annual and 10 executive meetings and at all meetings the business part was kept brief to  allow the pleasure of hearing many very interesting speakers:  28 May, 1962—"Interior Salish," by Neville Barlee.  9 July, 1962—"Camp McKinney Revisited 1962," by Victor Wilson.  22 October, 1962—"Indian Pictographs," by Primrose Upton.  9 January, 1963—"A Visit to Art Centres of Europe," by Mayor  M. P. Finnerty.  10 April, 1963—"Trails and Roads," by Harley Hatfield.  Five members attended the executive council meeting in Penticton  on October 1, 1962, and three members attended in Kelowna on the  25th of March, 1963.  A meeting was held on the 22nd of April, 1963, at Cawston, when  four of our members were present to establish the Similkameen Branch.  At our annual meeting on the 10th of April, 1963, first prize went  to George Bryant, Grade VIII, Penticton Secondary School, for an excellent essay "The Proud Ones"—story of Okanagan Indians.  After four month's planning for a Pioneer's Reunion, we set up  a Pioneer's Booth in the arena during the Peach Festival, where over  14 400 old timers registered, renewed old acquaintances, and enjoyed seeing some pictures of the early days. For a full report see page 41 of  the 26th Report.  Many from Penticton attended Field Day at Camp McKinney on  June 10, 1962, having an enjoyable get-together at this historic mining  campsite.  Some pictograph slides were shown at the 4th of December, 1962,  Chamber of Commerce meeting. The president of the Penticton Branch  was named to work on the Mural Selection Committee for the Penticton Airport.  A committee is working with the Church and Parks Board to  make a recommendation for an historic marker for the Anglican Cemetery on the Fairview Road.  At the call of the Director of Adult Education, a series of eight  evening lectures was set up at the High School to run alternate Tuesdays, January to April.  To obviate too heavy a load on any one lecturer, we set up our  series to have different speakers for each lecture. The program proved  to be very successful as the continued attendance of some 40 people  will attest.  The Course outline and lecturers follows:  1. Glacial History of the Okanagan—Mr. Evan Cameron.  2. (a)  Forerunners of the American Indian—Mr. Neville Barlee.  (b)  Flora and Fauna of the Okanagan—Mr. Steve Cannings.  3. The Interior Salish—Mr. R. N. Atkinson.  4. Early Explorers of the Province—Mr. Victor Wilson.  5. The Fur Trade and Trails—Kathleen Dewdney.  6. Pioneers and Cattle Drives—Mr. Sam Manery, Mr. Gint Cawston  and Mrs. J. Burgess.  7. Penticton History—Ted Atkinson.  8. (a)   Origin of Places, Names in Penticton—Hazel Davis.  (b)   Points of Interest and How to Get There—Mr. Joe Harris.  The Penticton Branch has enjoyed a very successful year due to  the wonderful co-operation and hard work of its entire membership.  May I thank one and all  for such loyalty and dedication to a most  worthwhile public service.  Sincerely,  J. V. H. Wilson, President  Oliver and Osoyoos—  The Oliver-Osoyoos Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society  has not been very active the last year as far as meetings are concerned,  only the annual meeting and one executive meeting were held. One  hundred cards were mailed in December regarding the Reports.   Re-  15 sponse was good and, to date, 86 copies of the 26th Annual Report have  been sold by the Oliver-Osoyoos Branch. One member is paid up for  three years ahead and Hamen Splawn of the Yakima Historical Society,  who was guest speaker at the annual banquet at Osoyoos last year, has  asked to be put on the permanent mailing list. An order for 11 numbers of back issues has been received.  This local is still struggling with the Fairview Cemetery and the  Inkameep Church. However, the possibility of good progress with both  projects are in view. The parent body has agreed to sponsor our local  body which was necessary before further negotiations could be carried  out with the P.U.C. and a very encouraging letter from the Director,  Indian Advisory Act, has been received.  Fifty cards were mailed for the annual meeting and Mr. Becker  supplied postage for all cards and the response to this was also good.  Officers elected were: President, Mrs. N. V. Simpson, Oliver; vice-  president, H. Ross, Oliver; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. E. J. Lacey,  Osoyoos. Directors for Oliver, Mrs. G. French, G. Pollock, and for  Osoyoos, E. Becker, Miss D. Waterman. Films of Osoyoos and district of 20 to 25 years ago by H. Ross and L. Goodman were well received.  Mrs. Kate Lacey  Similkameen—  On the 22nd day of April last an organizational meeting was  held in Cawston for the purpose of forming a Similkameen Branch  of the Okanagan Historical Society.  The Officers were duly elected and much interest was shown,  there being fifty persons present.  At the moment we have forty paid up members and with their  support and co-operation I am quite confident we can make a success  of this venture.  Respectfully submitted,  S. R. Manery, President  Moved by Mr. Pooley, seconded by Mrs. White and carried:  "That the Branch Reports be accepted."  Special Committee  Mr. Whitham reported the committee was still working on the  possibility of having reprints made of Reports 1, 2, 3, or No. 6. If  the price was right, No. 6 might be the best to have reprinted.  Mr. Watt, reporting on the round Baptist Church at Peachland  said that though now owned by the Dept. of Highways it was still  being used as a Church, pending the building of a new Church. To  do anything with it would require the co-operation of the Dept. of  16 Highways and the town of Peachland. Thought it might be used as a  museum, which is out of our jurisdiction.  Moved by Mr. McDonald, seconded by Mr. Wilson: "That the  Report be received and the matter studied further." Mr. Victor Wilson  said the old Hotel at Sicamous would soon be up for sale for $1.00.  This could also be looked into.  Committee of Presidents  Moved  by   Mrs.   H.   Cochrane,   seconded   by   Major   Porteous:  "That the recommendations of the Committee be accepted and Mrs.  Hester White and Mrs. Kate Lacey be made life members and a gift  be presented to Mrs. Vera Bennett." Carried.  Essay Competition  We recommend that a contest committee be set up, for one year,  consisting of a Secretary to be selected at the Annual meeting. The  Secretary to be authorized to have necessary printing done, about 100  copies of the rules for the Essay contest, also 50 to 100 of the score  cards for the judges. The committee to be allowed to budget for the  expense of printing, postage and a certificate for the winner of the  Shield.  This contest committee to consist of one member from each  Branch. These members will collect the local essays and choose 3  judges to act independently. Judging to be done on essays by number  only.   (Names concealed.)  The winning essay of each Branch to be sent to the contest  secretary.  Three judges will be selected for the Okanagan Similkameen  Historical Challenge Shield at the Executive Council.  One judge from the South, one from the Centre and one from  the North, who will mark all the winning essays and send the marks  to the President. They will be opened in the presence of one or two  witnesses, then the marks of the 3 judges will be added up for each  essay and the average taken.  The eassy with the highest average will be the winner.  Luta A. Bagnall, Convener, Essay Contest  The President explained the procedure used to find the winning  essay contest. Master Gordon Dale of Enderby was the winner. Moved  by Mrs. Bagnall, seconded by Mrs. Dewdney and carried: "That the  President's action be endorsed."  Moved by Mr. McDonald, seconded by Mr. Wilson: "That a  secretary for the Essay Contest be chosen by the incoming executive."  Carried.  Moved by Mr. Whitham, seconded by Mr. Wilson: "That the  17 new Similkameen Branch be entitled to one director on the Parent  Body." Carried.  A motion by Mr. Cochrane: "That the Editorial Committee be  abolished" was ruled out of order, will require a Notice of Motion.  A motion by Mr. Cochrane: "That Life Members be automatically on the Executive" was also out of order, also needs a Notice of  Motion.  Moved by Mr. Cameron and seconded by Mr. Manery: "That  the executive endeavor to locate a secretary for the Parent Body."  Carried.  Moved by Mr. McDonald, seconded by Mr. Wilson: "That a  letter of thanks be sent each newspaper, the radios and CHBC-TV  for their assistance and co-operation." Carried.  Mr. Pooley extended an invitation to hold the next Annual  Meeting, May 11th, 1964, at 2:30 p.m. at Kelowna in the event  Armstrong did not wish to have one.  Mr. Wilson invited all present and their friends to attend a  picnic and field day at Fairview at noon, Sunday, June 2nd. Markers  would be put up to show the location of various buildings.  The meeting adjourned at 5:45, Harold Cochrane of Vernon  acting secretary.  At 6:30 members and friends sat down to a splendid banquet  in the Cawston Community Hall, about 150 were present. The President introduced the head table which was composed of the President  and Mrs. Bagnall, the Presidents of the Branches except Mr. Jamieson,  Mr. and Mrs. C. C. Kelley, Mrs. White, Mrs. Lacey, Mr. McDonald.  Mrs. Jim Sykes and Miss Ronda Miller then played some  selections on the piano.  The President then called on Mr. Whitham, who, with a few  well chosen words, bestowed Life Memberships on Mrs. Hester White  and Mrs. Kate Lacey. Mr. and Mrs. Shirley of Molson, Washington,  were introduced. Mrs. Dewdney was then asked to come to the head  table to receive, on behalf of Mrs. Bennett, a lovely silver tray,  suitably engraved. Mrs. H. Cochrane made the presentation, mentioning the wonderful job Mrs. Bennett had done, Mrs. Bagnall then  announced the winner of the Essay Contest and asked Mr. Tom  LeDuc to come forward to receive the scroll and shield on behalf of  the Armstrong Branch, who will took after the arrangement for  presentation to Gordon Dale of Enderby. Mrs. George French did  the honors.  Mr. Bagnall then called Mr. Sam Manery to come forward  and receive the charter for the new Branch, the first such charter to  18 be given.  Mr.  Frank McDonald  was then  asked  to  introduce  the  speaker of the evening, Mr. C. C. Kelley.  Mr. Kelley was born in Victoria, received his B.S.A. from the  University of Alberta, and, after post graduate study, spent a year as  assayer at the Trail Smelter. Mr. Kelley began the first systematic  soil classification to be undertaken in B.C. in 1931 in the Okanagan  Valley. He now covers the whole Province.  Mr. Kelley told us of the development of British Columbia, the  valleys, mountains, rivers, etc., going back to the Glacial period and  why some valleys are wide and flat while others are more narrow and  jagged. Since so little of our Province is suitable for Agriculture, he  deplored the fact that in many districts, the best lands are being subdivided and built on. He also spoke on the effect the various dams on  the Columbia system would have on the neighboring districts and the  Province. Most members became so absorbed they wished he could  have kept right on. Mr. Manery thanked the Speaker and the musicians.  All present enjoyed themselves, enjoyed making new friends,  meeting old friends and in being friendly.  Thanks to Sam Manery and his Executive, a very successful  meeting.  The President thanked the ladies for the lovely dinner.  Adjourned 8:45.  Harold Cochrane, Acting Secretary  19 John Matthew Rutland  20  ." -. ^jfohn <sVlatthew    r^utland  By Arthur W. Gray  In 1908, when residents of the Black Mountain District and  adjacent areas, petitioned Ottawa for a post office to be located in  Dan McDonald's new store (the first and only store in the district at  that time), their choice for a name had been "Black Mountain."  Alternatives given were Pine Grove, BelleVue, Ellison and Mount-  view, but all were by-passed and the name of "Rutland" given to it  instead. In a letter recently received from Ottawa, the P.O. Department advises that the postmaster designate, McDonald, had written  stating that many residents had since objected to "Black Mountain"  as a name not suggestive of a fruit growing district. The Department  also stated that "Rutland" was chosen on the recommendation of  Duncan Ross, the Liberal member of Parliament for Yale-Cariboo'  Riding at that time.  The name was not actually new to the area, for the pages of  the Kelowna Courier for several years previously contain references  to the "Rutland bench," the "Rutland Estate" and the "Rutland  Land Co." This all arose from the fact that a man named John  Rutland had at one time owned most of the cultivated land in the  district, had developed the first extensive irrigation system in the  area, and had planted the first commercial orchards there. A syndicate,  headed by D. W. Sutherland of Kelowna, had acquired the Rutland  Estate, and it is highly probable that the syndicate suggested the name  to Duncan Ross.  Who was this man Rutland? That was a question that confronted  the Rutland Centennial Committee in 1958, B.C.'s Centennial Year,  when a committee was set up to compile a history of the district. Some  facts were obtained, by dint of interviewing old-timers, but it was  a very meagre report that appeared in the "History of Rutland."  They found he came from Australia, lived here a few years, and  returned there, after installing irrigation and planting the first  orchards, and then selling out. Some pictures of Rutland and family  were obtained from former neighbours, and that was it! Even his  second name was wrong, being given as "Hope," which later turned  out to be a nickname given him by his wife (probably indicative of an  optimistic nature!). So completely unaware were most people of the  origin of the name "Rutland" that Ben Hardie, postmaster for 30  years, informed inquirers, quite positively, that it was named after  "the Duke of Rutland!" In an endeavour to obtain a more complete  background on John Rutland, contact has been made with people in  Australia, old files of the Kelowna Clarion, and Kelowna Courier  21 John Matthew Rutland  and Vernon News have been read, and Kamloops Land Registry  records searched. This resulted in obtaining a great amount of data,  and piecing together an authentic, and I hope, interesting story. With  no knowledge other than that John Rutland had come originally from  Warncoort, Victoria, and on his return to Australia had located in the  Kiewa valley, I wrote letters to the "Town Clerks" of Warncoort,  and of Wodonga (which was the only town in the vicinity of Kiewa  that I could see, but I addressed it to N.S.W. where it seemed to show  on my map of Australia! My letter to Warncoort was forwarded to  Colac, to a nephew William A. Rutland, and I had my first contact!  The letter to Wodonga was published in the "Border Morning Mail"  by the recipient, the Secretary of the "Shire" of Wodonga, Victoria,  namely Mr. H. Mck. Silke. The story, under the name "Calling all  Rutlands," was picked up and reprinted in the "Melbourne Herald."  The results were astounding! I received letters from Rutland and  relatives and associates of the Rutlands from many parts of the state  of Victoria. Further correspondence with some of these helpful persons  has enabled me to establish the details of Rutland's life in Australia.  John Matthew Rutland was born in the city of Ballarat in the  State of Victoria, on March 11th, 1864. Just thirteen years previous,  in 1851, that city itself had been born, as a result of big gold discoveries, and it is still a gold mining city. His father was William Rutland,  and his mother's maiden name was Elizabeth Olney. Rutland Sr.  became a highly successful fruit grower in the Warncoort district of  Victoria, about 45 miles south of Ballarat, and 35 miles west of  Geelong.  John Rutland worked on his father's orchard as a youth, and  when he grew up he planted an orchard of his own nearby, and in  partnership with a brother-in-law, John Prosser, further extended  his orchard holdings.  A story told about how the "Rokewood" apple was developed,  illustrates the fact that he was not just a grower of fruit, but a  horticulturist interested in new developments. While visiting relatives  at Rokewood Junction he noticed a seedling apple tree in fruit in a  Chinese market garden. Interested in the quality of the fruit, he tried  to persuade his father to buy the tree, take all the wood they wanted,  and destroy the balance. The cost would have been "fifty pounds,"  but his father would not agree. Later he was permitted to obtain some  of the wood from the tree, at a cost of five pounds. With this material  he eventually had a full orchard of the new variety, which he christened the "Rokewood," and it became a highly successful export apple.  On  May  5th,   1901, John  Rutland married Edith  Martin  of  22 John Matthew Rutland  Rutland Bench Looking Toward Black Mountain  Drysdale, near Geelong, the wedding taking place in the latter city.  Shortly after, they left on a long honeymoon trip that took them to  New Zealand, and then to America. On this continent they visited  fruit growing areas in California, Oregon, Washington, British  Columbia and Ontario. In the latter province they went to see Niagara  Falls. Many honeymooners have visited the Falls, but few came from  so far away, especially in those days.  Upon their return to Australia, Rutland sold his orchards to  another brother-in-law, Charles Prosser, and then returned immediately to America. He had long been an admirer of Luther Burbank,  who had gained world wide fame at that time as a hybridist, developing wondrous new varieties of fruits, flowers and vegetables. Rutland  took with him a letter of introduction which enabled him to meet  Burbank, and visit his experimental stations near Santa Rosa, in California. In his previous visit, in 1901, Rutland had been to the  Okanagan, and it was to this valley that he returned in the Spring of  1902. The Vernon News of May 8th, 1902, in the "Town and  District" column, reported as follows: "D. Rabbitt last week sold his  farm of 960 acres at Okanagan Mission to J. M. Rutland. Mr.  Rutland is an Australian who made a visit to the district last year, and  was so favourably impressed with it that he made several attempts to  secure land, without being able to get just what suited him. He went  back to Australia, but could not resist the desire to return to the  Okanagan, which he pronounces the finest country he has seen in any  part of the world."  23 John Matthew Rutland  Grain Harvesting in Rutland  A check at the Kamloops Registry office failed to establish the  exact location of all of the 960 acres, which was in 3 parcels of a  half-section each. One 320 acre block was the W*/2. Sec. 35 twp. 26,  which lies West of the Rutland Road from Reid's Corners to the  S.E. corner of the former Wm. Gay property, and extended West to  the Vernon Road, and crossed that road to include the property West  of Mill Creek on which the Kelowna Growers Exchange packinghouse now stands. It also included the buildings that went with the  farm, of which the house still stands, and is the present home of  Vincent A. Volk. A second 320 acre block was the E*/_.. Sec. 26 Twp.  26, starting diagonally across from the Gay's corner, and running  South to the present Rutland village corner, extending Eastward to  the foot of the hill. On this part the High School is located, and several  residential subdivisions. The 3rd block of 320 acres, from information  available, was the W*/_>. Sec. 25, just East of Sec. 26, and just dry  hillside range. The Kamloops Registry records showed that Dan  Rabbitt held no title to the E^. Sec. 26. The title was conveyed by  John Conroy and B. Lequime and the Parish Priest at the Mission,  trustees of the estate of Michael Hagen, who had willed it to the  Church. This is the same Michael Hagen who was editor of the  "Inland Sentinel" in the gold rush days at Yale, and then Kamloops.  He retired here in 1891, and lived in a log cabin at the foot of the  hill. An interesting story of a trip through the Okanagan by Hagen  in 1885 was reprinted in the O.H.S. 16th report of 1952. The Wl/2.  24 John Matthew Rutland  Sec. 35 was conveyed by Tom Hereron, as Trustee for Dan Rabbitt,  which  would seem to  confirm  a  report  that  Rabbitt had  made  an  assignment. The buildings on the property were not in good shape.  There was a two storey house, with a former saloon attached by a  passageway. The saloon had been damaged by fire, and Rutland tore  it down, and built a house for his foreman, J. Ferman "Frank" Bell,  with the lumber. Hay, grain, cattle and hogs were the mainstay of  the 960 acre estate, but Rutland soon turned to fruit growing.  He  brought in irrigation, and planted an orchard. He took water from  Mission Creek, about half a mile above the present East Kelowna-  Belgo bridge. The water was brought over the creek in a high flume,  and along the side of the bench above  the  Hollywood district,  by  ditch to the corner where the Rutland Welding Shop now stands.  This ditch is still in use, though the water is carried in an undeground  pipe  through  the  built-up  part  of Rutland  village.     Flumes  were  required here and there, and Rutland told a friend in Australia that  he used a "ton of nails" in building flumes on his system. There was  a secondary ditch going East to the foot of the hill and along to the  South from there. This served the first young orchards that Rutland  planted. The main canal eventually headed North to the Section line,  and crossed the road at Gay's, on to the W^2. Sec. 35 to serve that  part of his holdings. An interesting feature of the main ditch above  Hollywood is the fact that it looks as if it was running up hill. This  optical illusion is caused by the fact that there is a steady downward  slope to the North on the bench above, and the ditch starts out near  the bottom of the bench, and a mile or more  further along turns  eastward over the top edge of the bench. Many persons have refused  to believe that the water ran from South to North, and had to be  shown to be convinced. One Prairie farmer's wife, even after seeing  for herself, declared "Well, I've seen everything now!   I've seen a  country where water runs up hill!" A popular story is also told, that  John Rutland used a whiskey bottle, half filled with water, as a level  in laying out the system.  Rutland planted his first orchards on the extreme southern end of  his property, closest to the irrigation source, and late in 1904 Sam  Sproule and later his brother Robert, bought parts of the young  orchard. Others came along and acquired smaller parcels, including  C. T. Phipps, F. W. Sutcliffe, R. Clemenson and C. T. D. Russell.  In the early Spring of 1905 Rutland received such an attractive offer  from a Kelowna Syndicate for the balance of his holdings, and his  irrigation system that he agreed to sell. The price was not mentioned,  but the Kelowna Clarion of April 15th, tells us that "Mr. and Mrs.  25 John Matthew Rutland  John Rutland left for Santa Rosa, California, on Saturday. They  expect to remain there for two years, after which they will move to  Australia, their former home. Mr. and Mrs. Rutland have resided on  their farm, about 6 miles from Kelowna for the past three years, but  having sold out for a sum sufficient to make them independent for the  rest of their lives, they decided to take things easy for a time. They  leave a large circle of friends and acquaintances here who wish them  full enjoyment of life in the Sunny South." While resident in the  Okanagan, the Rutlands had an addition to the family, the "Clarion"  reporting this on August 25th, 1904, announcing that there had been  "born to Mr. and Mrs. John Rutland, a daughter." They named her  Elsie, and took back a little Canadian with them to the land "down  under."  The syndicate which purchased the Rutland estate was composed  of mostly the same men who, as the "Okanagan Fruit & Land Co."  had bought the A. B. Knox ranch in 1904, thereby doubling the area  of the Kelowna townsite, which was incorporated as a city in 1905.  They subdivided the Rutland property into 12 and 24 acre lots, and  registered a plan at Kamloops July 13th, 1905. Signatures on the plan  include D. W. Sutherland (destined to become Kelowna's perennial  Mayor), H. G. Stillingfleet, S. T. Elliott, R. Morrison and Sam L.  Long (surveyor). J. L. Doyle was the witness. At a later date J. E.  Reekie became associated with the property, and the sale of the land  and operation of the irrigation system appeared to be handled by the  "Rutland Land Co." In 1913 some 36 land owners on the estate were  issued conditional water licenses nos. 62 and 65, and the group operated  the irrigation system for many years as a sort of co-operative effort.  William Gay was secretary most of the time. In the meantime the  Central Okanagan Lands Co. had bought up most of the remaining  undeveloped land in the district, and put it under irrigation, and sold  off the property in ten and twenty acre lots. The Belgo Canadian Co.  developed the bench land to the South and East. Today the irrigation  systems are all amalgamated in the Black Mountain Irrigation District,  serving some 4,500 acres of land, forming the second largest irrigation  system in B.C.  In the meantime, the man who started all this, was on his way to  Santa Rosa. Here he worked with Burbank, and there is evidence that  the famous botanist took a liking to Rutland, for he named one of his  latest hybrids, a plumcot, after him, and the following year, when  Rutland returned to Australia, he took with him the exclusive rights  to the sale of a number of the Burbank products, including the  "Rutland  plumcot."   He  took  along buds  and  scions  to propagate  26 John Matthew Rutland  the new species. He took, also, another item he was interested in, a  spineless cactus, which he hoped to introduce into Australia for subsistence of cattle and sheep in dry areas. The next we hear of Rutland  is in a lengthy article published in the Kelowna Courier of Aug. 12th,  1909 headed "Former Kelownian Succeeds in Australia." The article  was taken from the "Melbourne Leader" and the Courier comments  "It is understood that Mr. J. Rutland made a considerable fortune  through his agency for the sale of Luther Burbank properties." The  article tells of his stay in Canada and the U.S.A. and Rutland is  quoted as saying that his five years' experience with irrigation in the  growing of fruit trees, provided the most valuable lessons he learned  in America. The article tells how he looked around the state of  Victoria for a location resembling that of Santa Rosa. In the Kiewa  River valley in the north, near the New South Wales border, he found  what he wanted, purchased some 900 acres, and cleared the red gum  and box trees from the bottom land, planted 90 acres of orchard, and  established a nursery. Most of the remainder of the land was used to  run cattle on. The "Leader" tells of a catalog of the new fruits that  Rutland had published, calling it a fine example of good printing and  colour reproduction. All this and many more details were reprinted  in full in the Courier.  Blossom Scene in Santa Rosa Orchard, Kiewa Valley, Australia.  Rutland called his new holdings in Kiewa "Santa Rosa," after  the California home of Luther Burbank. Here he worked, and experimented for the rest of his days. He introduced cold storage for his  fruit, in an era when little was known about it.  "Cool Stores" his  27 John Matthew Rutland  buildings were called, and evidence of his native ability is the fact  that he was "architect, quantity surveyor and clerk of the works"  himself, in their construction, the labour being done by his own men  employed on the place. This information comes from H. J. Davis, of  Glen Waverley, Victoria, who along with his own father, acted as  selling agents for the Rutland fruit crops from both Warncoort and  the Kiewa Valley. Rutland operated a portable sawmill to supply  needed lumber and boxes, and employed drivers, horses and vans to  transport fruit to railhead, at Huon in Victoria, or Albury in N.S.W.  (Australian railways had different gauge tracks in each State.) T. A.  Connors, of Yalourn, Victoria, whose father was foreman of Rutland's operations at Kiewa for many years, has supplied information  regarding the property. The original orchard was 50% plums, 40%  apples and 10 % pears, he states. Amongst the varieties were Jonathan,  Gravenstein, Rome Beauty, all familiar to the Okanagan; and King  Cole, Five Crown and King David, the latter a Burbank item. In  later years the Granny Smith and Red Delicious were added. Black  Walnut trees were planted around the farm as windbreaks, and some  of the wood was used for making gun stocks. Rutland donated many  of these trees to plant a Memorial Avenue for soldiers who died in the  1914-18 war.  The spineless cactus was experimented with. A dry paddock was  selected for planting, and sheep turned into it to graze later. It was  found that they could obtain sufficient moisture from the cactus to  enable them to live without additional water. This could have been  successful, Mr. Connors believes, but was abandoned because of  government opposition to the introduction of the cactus. Australia's  past experience with introductions from other lands has not been too  happy—mentioning only rabbits for one item. Rutland experimented  with tobacco with 20 acres planted at one time, but this did not prove  too satisfactory. In later years the tobacco industry has proved successful in a neighbouring valley, at Myrtle ford and Bright.  Rutland strove to make the property self-sufficient and self-  supporting. He developed a series of small dams on a creek, to provide  gravity irrigation, and installed a wooden pipeline to supply water  from a lower creek by pumping. All was not clear sailing, though, for  the Kiewa valley proved subject to hailstorms, fierce electric storms  and gusty winds, doing much damage to crops. The lower lands were  subject to flooding on occasion. During one of the worst floods Rutland  drove through flooded lands and rescued some people at night from a  partially submerged house, and brought them to his home where they  were cared for until the floods subsided.  28 John Matthew Rutland  In the mid twenties, the Rutland's daughter, Elsie, their only  child, was married to Brennan Johnson, who still resides in the area,  living at Staghorn Flat about 5 miles West of Kiewa. John Matthew  Rutland passed away at Albury, N.S.W. on July 2, 1927, at the age  of 63, from pneumonia and heart failure after a five week illness.  He was buried in Warncoort cemetery, Rev. V. R. Bradbury, Methodist minister, conducting the funeral service. His daughter Elsie did  not survive him very long, according to information from Miss E.  Martin, an 80 year old aunt, of Newport, Victoria. Elsie died at  Blue Mountain N.S.W. after 8 years of married life, before her first  child was born. Miss Martin also tells me of her last trip to Santa  Rosa to see her sister, Mrs. Rutland, on May 20th, 1943, only to find  that she had passed away in her sleep that morning.  Amongst other letters received is one from a niece of Mrs.  Rutland, Mrs. N. Dever of East Melbourne, who states that she had  been christened with water brought in a bottle from Niagara Falls by  the Rutlands, while on their honeymoon!  After Rutland's death the property was under the management  of W. H. Grant until the early 1940s, when it was abandoned as an  orchard, and sold to a Mr. S. Speirs, who operates a dairy farm on the  property. Most of the orchard has been grubbed out, and in the Kiewa  district (and also in the Warncoort district) fruit growing is restricted  to small orchards around farm homes. One outstanding feature of  that part of Australia today is the huge Hume Reservoir, a storage  dam on the upper part of the Murray River that is so large that it  shows as a fair sized lake in most ordinary maps of Australia.  Mr. Connors speaks of John Rutland as being a kindly man,  and one whose orchard and farm property were his great interest and  hobby. He tells of a large apple tree on the place on which Rutland  had grafted no fewer than twelve distinct varieties. H. J. Davis, who  had known Rutland most of his life, describes him as a very clever  man, and "nature's gentleman" a wonderful character for whom  "I had the greatest admiration and respect."  My first contact in Australia, Rutland's nephew, unfortunately  passed away early in 1963. His sister, Miss Florence Evelyn Rutland,  of Geelong, wrote me, and she tells of a visit to Kiewa, at harvest  time, when her uncle had 70 men engaged to harvest the Santa Rosa  plum crop. "I had never seen such wonderful growth," she writes,  "but within a fortnight of picking, a terrific hail storm swept down  'The Gap' and so damaged the crop that only 7 men were needed, and  the Rosella Jam factory bought the remnant of the crop."  Few people still resident in Rutland remember the family, but  29 John Matthew Rutland  Mrs. George Monford, who was their next door neighbour, remembers  them well. She describes Mr. Rutland as a big man, quiet and courteous. Mrs. Rutland she remembers as being lively and full of fun.  She remembers her calling her husband "Hope" all the time, and  thought it was his real name. Mrs. Monford was a Godparent of their  daughter Elsie. Mrs. A. L. Cross, who was formerly Mrs. J. Ferman  Bell, remembers them too, her husband having been Rutland's foreman. She has a number of pictures of the family in her possession, and  corresponded with Mrs. Rutland in California and Australia for a  time. Some who were youngsters back in those days can recall him.  One such is Max Robie, of Kelowna, who is the little boy in the  foreground of the picture of the Rutland house. He can remember  his father, later a fruit grower in Winfield, going out with Rutland  that morning and shooting a deer on the property.  Though John Rutland lived only slightly more than three years  in this district, his installation of the irrigation system, and his planting  of orchards was the beginning of the transformation of the area from  cattle raising, grain growing, and just plain range, into a fruit growing  area. While his stay was short, his impact upon the development was  long lasting. Today, the growing of fruit has spread to the slopes  and upper benches, and has to a large extent disappeared from the  lower levels, which is now broken up into small holdings, and residential subdivisions. What was called the Rutland bench 60 years ago,  is now called the "flats." Where Rutland planted his first orchards  a town is springing up with a domestic water system, modern fire  brigade and street lights. In the entire district over four thousand  people now reside.  30 \^Jraanizing the ^^iynilkameen J^jranch of  J he y^Jkanagan <J~listorical <^5ociety  By Mrs. George Lawrence  Fifty people gathered at the site of the first Hudson's Bay Post  in the Similkameen on May 13, 1963 to form the Similkameen  Branch of the Okanagan  Historical Society.  One hundred and three years ago, Francis Deschuquette, Factor  for The Hudson's Bay Post at Cawston viewed this same area in its  natural beauty. Beautiful mountains, an abundance of wild life  grazing on acres of bunch grass. This was to be the grain fields for  the Hudson's Bay Post. Today the grandchildren and great grandchildren of the early settlers were meeting to form a society to record  the history of the past 103 years.  To assist the local people in forming the branch society were--  Mr. Bagnall of Vernon, President of the Okanagan Historical Society,  Mr. and Mrs. Cochrane, Mrs. Hester White, Mrs. Dewdney, Mr. and  Mrs. Ed Lacey, Mr. Joe Harris, Mr. Vic Wilson and the late Mr.  George Watt, all members of the Society.  Chairman of the meeting, Mr. Sam Manery, spoke of the  objects of the society. The late Mr. Watt of Kelowna asked to read  Dr. Margaret Ormsby's tribute to the late Mr. Leonard Norris,  founder of the society. Mr. G. Bagnall was then introduced and  asked to handle the business session of the meeting.  The decision to form a branch was made and Mr. Sam Manery,  who for the past 75 years has been a resident of Cawston and one of  our pioneers, was elected President with a hearty applause of approval  from the meeting. Mr. Manery had worked hard for some time getting a branch society organized. Other members of the executive are  grandchildren of the pioneers of the Similkameen valley. Vice-  President, Mr. Herb Clark, grandson of the late Albert Clark who  had the first stopping house at the summit on the old Green Mountain  road. Secretary-treasurer, Mrs. Bert Parsons, granddaughter of the  late John Fall Allison, her mother being the first white child born in  Westbank, B.C. The three directors are Mr. Dick Cawston, grandson  of the late R. L. Cawston of which the town of Cawston was named.  Mrs. Gladys Swan, whose parents came to the valley in 1919. Mrs.  George Lawrence, granddaughter of the late Francis Xavier Richter,  pioneer of the Similkameen Valley. The Editorial Committee consists  of: Dr. J. Goodfellow, noted speaker and writer of Princeton, B.C.,  Mr. Sam Manery and Mrs. George Lawrence.  31 Organizing Similkameen Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society  Sam Manery Holds Charter Following Presentation by  President G. P. Bagnall.  Mr. Victor Wilson of Naramata gave a talk and showed slides  that told the enthralling story of the Camp McKinney mining operation which began in 1893. Mr. Wilson was warmly applauded by the  audience.  Mr. Frank McDonald of Oliver announced that C. C. Kelly,  chief of the Provincial Soils Survey Division would be guest speaker  at the Society's annual dinner to be held at Cawston on Monday, May  13th. His subject to be "The Three Southern Valleys of B.C. and the  Glacial History of the Similkameen Valley."  Mr. Bagnall gave an interesting talk of the aims of the Okanagan  Historical Society and hoped this new branch would work diligently  to preserve the history of the Similkameen Valley in articles and  stories so our pioneer history would not be lost to future generations.  The meeting was adjourned and refreshments were served by  Mr. Manery's daughters, Mrs. Ross Innis of Keremeos, Mrs. Ken  Harker of Cawston, Mrs. M. Cook of Penticton and Mrs. R. King  of Kaleden with Mrs. Wm. Ritchie of Cawston assisting.  32 r^eminiscences of <J\aramata  By Betty Clough  Like the baby fruit trees which her stepfather brought with him  from Michigan, pioneer Naramata resident, Mrs. Ruth Rounds, has  put her roots down firmly in the country of her adoption. She prefers  living in the Okanagan, because, as she says, "You meet people who  have come from all parts of the world, and have a broad outlook.  We're not too settled and ingrown yet in this country."  How did Ruth Rounds happen to come to the little town of  Naramata in 1910, only three years after its founding? Like a number  of other Naramata residents, she came by chance. In this case, chance  took the form of a Mrs. Gillespie, who happened to visit the little  community near Battle Creek, Michigan, where Ruth lived with her  mother and her stepfather, George Cook. Mrs. Gillespie's husband was  the right-hand man of J. M. Robinson, the founder and promoter of  Naramata. She painted such a glowing picture of life in the new  community, and of the future of the fruit-growing industry, that  she persuaded a number of the families, including the Cooks, to move  north.  It was in character for the Cooks to want to join the migration.  Mrs. Cook, Ruth's mother, was the former Estelle Lancaster, whose  family had pioneered for centuries. In 1720 they went to Pennsylvania from England, then moved to Michigan in 1860 on a "Lincoln  grant" of free land from President Lincoln. George Cook, Ruth's  stepfather, was the true pioneer type, able to turn his hand to anything.  In addition to having a general store, he was a good carpenter, owned  his own mill, and had a small orchard. Mrs. Rounds describes him  as a real individualist.  Mr. Cook went ahead to Naramata, where he built a house on  the lakefront, beside the present park. He took with him a whole boxcar full of furniture, tools, even baby trees, because he did not know  to what sort of country they were coming. Mrs. Cook and Ruth  followed him when Ruth had completed her year's teaching. They  travelled via the customary route: by C.P.R. to Sicamous, then Okanagan Landing, and finally, from the deck of the sternwheeler  "Okanagan," they had their first glimpse of their new home.  What they saw was a raw community. Tent-houses were the  order of the day for most people. Even J. M. Robinson, the founder  of the village, lived in a tent on the beach of the beautiful point  which the family still inhabits. The Robinsons had their houseboat,  the "Lily-of-the-Valley," however, and one or two two-storey houses  33 Reminiscences of Naramata  were pointing the way to a more developed town.  As the steamer drew into the large government wharf, which  was then located at the road allowance on the north-east side of the  Robinson property, its passengers were met with a friendly welcome,  for everyone turned out each night after supper to meet the boat and  greet any newcomers. Then, while they were waiting for the mail to  be sorted at the little post-office, they visited with neighbors from7 the  townsite and the benches.  A row of "squatty little buildings," as Mrs. Rounds calls them,  were spread out along the north-east shore of the point, beside the  wharf. These were the small hotel ("more of a boarding-house"),  Mr. Robinson's office, a pool room, the post office, and a boat factory.  For some reason they turned their back to the lake, and faced south,  perhaps because that was the direction in which the town was intended  to grow. After them, the Naramata Supply Store could be seen through  the trees a few hundred yards to the south, and some scattered homes.  The roads were only paths.  The Cooks' home for the next decade was made of boards,  nailed vertically to two-by-fours. This frame was lined on the inside  with building paper. The architectural principle was elementary: a  long rectangle held two bedrooms on one end, living-room in the  middle and kitchen on the other end. It had the advantage over a good  many other homes of having partitions made of boards instead of  paper. Also, for some reason it was warm. Later, Mr. Cook built a  rustic bridge over a little arm of Camp Creek, which in those days  flowed to the lake in several branches, and in that sheltered spot  Ruth kept a canoe, tied to a tree.  Although they were in a strange country, with predominantly  English ways, the new family felt at home almost right away. For  one thing, there were the other Michigan families, the J. H. Wells,  the H. P. Saltings, the F. H. Rounds, and the D. Walters. For  another, in the words of Mrs. Rounds:  "You no sooner got your things into the house, than Mrs.  Gillespie came to invite you to the Unity Club, which all the women  in the town belonged to. Almost the first thing she would say was:  'What can you do? Can you sing, can you recite, can you do any solo  dancing?' "  Mrs. Gillespie, it might be added, was the founder and president of the Entertainers' Club, and the social organizer of the town.  No doubt there was a great deal of work to be done, for Mr.  Cook bought property for an orchard on the east side of what is now  the highway to Penticton,  at a spot  opposite   Mr.  James  Gawne's  34 Reminiscences of Naramata  present home, and until the baby trees from Michigan could grow  and bear fruit, he had to earn what money he could from carpentering  and from growing potatoes and hay. Nevertheless, what his stepdaughter remembers is the fun they all had.  "It was all one big family," she says. "There were no cliques.  We had community dances, community dinners, and community  picnics up the lake in Mr. Robinson's houseboat. The Women's Unity  Club put on all the social events, and the Entertainers' Club, which  was run by Mrs. Gillespie, put on all the concerts. Later on, when  the railroad was being built, in 1912, we had lots of fun at the  dances because there were so many young men around, the surveyors,  I mean. The manual labourers were Austrians and Italians, and stayed  away from the town."  She recalls that the people of Naramata, while very friendly,  clung to the formalities, at least at first. At dances in the "Opera  House" some of the women wore beautiful evening gowns and long  kid gloves. Mrs. Hancock's gown came from Worth's, for instance.  The men wore tailcoats ("clawhammers") and would never think  of dancing with a lady without wearing a glove, or at least holding  a handkerchief in the hand which clasped her back, for fear of soiling  her dress.  Even the teas in the shacks and the tent houses were formal. Some  of the women had regular days for their "At Homes," and when  visiting left their calling cards. They wore large hats, as well as  gloves, and when the fashion happened to be "hobble" skirts, they  tripped along with mincing steps over the rough paths.  In 1920 the family moved from their shack on the waterfront  to the attractive frame house with the stone porch, close to the  Community Hall of today. There they lived in the winters, moving  each summer to a shack on the orchard, which Mr. Cook ran until  his death in 1938. After his death, Mrs. Cook lived with her daughter  until 1949, when she died.  Aside from one year when she returned to Michigan to teach,  Mrs. Rounds has spent all her adult life in Naramata. She married  here, and raised her son, Philip, who owns one of her father's  properties, an orchard on the south bench. Until he was old enough  to take over the running of the orchard she did the thinning and the  picking of the ten acres of young trees, supervised the itinerant labour,  and still found time to be very active in the Unity Club, the' United  Church, the Women's Institute and the Red Cross. Hers is one of the  three families still remaining in the district who have been continuous  members of the co-operative packing house since it was formed.  35 ^Spallumcheen <yVlasonru   J hrouah  *Sevent\i-five   yfears  By James E. Jamieson  History is a panorama punctuated by highlights that anchor and  blend the whole into a complete and fascinating story.  This year of our twentieth century—1963—Spallumcheen Lodge  has reached a significant milestone in the annuals of the Grand Lodge  of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of British Columbia.  Seventy-five years ago, in June of 1888, the Lodge was Instituted  at Lansdowne. Throughout the interveing years the Lodge and its  members have become a virtual historical biography of the community.  From the earliest pioneers when they formed a small and compact  settlement with Lansdowne the centre of population and communal  gathering place; later with the gravitation to the railway-inspired  townsite which became known as Armstrong; to present times—those  who constituted Spallumcheen Masonic Lodge have played prominent  roles in the progression—through prosperous and lean years—of this  North Okanagan community.  Only to the favored few are bestowed such talents as putting into  words the vital and precious facts of history. Such was the gift of our  late venerated Brother, Right Worshipful Brother Albert E. Sage. In  the printed report of the 72nd annual Communication (1943) of  the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of British Columbia, Rt. Wor.  Bro. Sage submitted a detailed and fascinating history of Spallumcheen Lodge spanning the years from the time of its Institution until  the aforementioned date (1943). The following is the text of his  historical account:  "Spallumcheen Lodge No. 13 is one of our older Lodges, having  been established in 1888—the fourth Lodge to be established after  the formation of Grand Lodge, and the first one to be located in a  rural area. Some might be superstitious enough to think such a number  was the harbinger of bad luck, but the Lodge has continued and prospered for over half a century, and has had no more bad luck than any  ordinary Lodge, under the same conditions. True it has been burned  out once, but compare its calamities with those of Union No. 9 at  New Westminster.  "Although an old Lodge, it is one which the average British  Columbia Freemason knows little, and that is a special reason why  its story should be placed on our records. Its determination to carry on  under many difficulties, and its success in giving to its members the  36 Spallumcheen Masonry Through Seventy-five Years  privilege of Masonic fellowship for so many years, is an incentive to  the members of other Lodges to do likewise.  "The beginning of the settlement and civilization in the North  Okanagan Valley was in 1866, when Alexander Leslie Fortune  squatted on and later developed a beautiful farm on the banks of  what was then known as the "Spallumcheen" River at what is now  known as Enderby. "Spallumcheen" is an Indian name meaning  "Beautiful Valley." The name of the river has been changed to  "Shuswap," but the old name has been perpetuated by the name of two  Indian Reserves, the rural municipality, and by the Masonic Lodge.  Mr. Fortune was later followed by Martin Furstineau, B. F. Young,  Augustus Schubert, Sr., Herman Witcher, and others. More settlers  came from time to time, so that by 1887 there was a considerable  population, some of whom were Freemasons. A Lodge had been  established at Kamloops, its nearest urban centre, some seventy miles to  the north and west, and was flourishing, due to the growth of the city  by reason of the construction of the C.P.R. The Episcopal clergyman  in charge was Rev. Darrell Hollett Webb Horlock, the first Worshipful Master of Kamloops Lodge No. 10, who at one time had been  Provincial Grand Senior Warden of Cornwall. With Rev. Mr. Horlock was associated as his assistant Rev. Canon William Cooper, also  an ardent member of the Craft, who at one time acted as Chaplain  of the Lodge. Later he was at Donald at the time Mountain Lodge  No. 11 was established, and then he came back to Kamloops.  "He does not seem to have held any fixed charge in the Spallumcheen district, but to have travelled there from time to time, holding  services for the benefit of those belonging to the Episcopal Church.  In the course of those visits he no doubt became acquainted with the  Freemasons in and around what was then called "Lansdowne."  "At a convenient point for travellers in the district a hotel had  been built in 1885 by E. M. Furstineau, who named it "The Lansdowne" in honor of Lord Lansdowne, then Governor-General of  Canada, and a small village of about 100 inhabitants had grown up  around it. In his visits to the Spallumcheen country, Canon Cooper  stopped there, and do doubt discussed with the Freemasons of the  settlement the question of the formation of a Masonic Lodge. The  Canon was a Freemason who always joined a Masonic Lodge if he  were in a place where one existed, and helped to form Lodges where  there were none. One difficulty which faced the brethren was to get a  capable man to take office as first Worshipful Master. They were  anxious to have a Lodge, but none of the local men were willing to  undertake the duties and  responsibilities of that office  at  the  first.  37 Spallumcheen Masonry Through Seventy-five Years  However, they finally induced the Canon to accept the office, although  it made it necessary for him to make special trips on horseback from  Kamloops to Lansdowne every month; trips which required two days  travel each way. Notwithstanding this he accepted the task and carried  on for a year, when he withdrew from the Lodge and left the other  members to carry on by themselves.  "Now for an account of the Lodge itself. Unfortunately the  original minute book of the Lodge has been lost, or destroyed by the  fire which consumed the Lodge Hall in its first years in Armstrong,  and much that we would like to know has been lost. A petition for a  dispensation was drawn up, signed by thirteen Freemasons, including  Wor. Bro. Sibree Clarke of Kamloops Lodge No. 10 (afterwards  Grand Master). The others were W. Bro. Cooper, who was to be the  first Worshipful Master; G. H. Rashdale was the first S.W.; John  Hamill, the first J.W.; with Robert Wood, Treasurer; Richard  Stuart Pelly, Secretary; Chas. A. R. Lambley, S.D.; Norman McLeod, J.D.; Frank Hassard, I.G.; and Cyrus Tilton, Tyler, as the  other officers of the Lodge.  "Besides the first officers the other signers were: Thomas LeDuc,  James Steele, Sibree Clarke, P.M. of Kamloops Lodge No. 10, and  Arthur P. Goldsmid, P.M. The dispensation was granted on June 20,  1888. The Grand Lodge met that year on the 23rd of that month,  and on the 25th the charter was authorized. Under these circumstances  it is clear that the Lodge was never formally instituted, or did any  work before the granting of the charter. No other Lodge in the  jurisdiction ever obtained a charter in so short a space of time.  "Let us take a glance at the fathers of this old Lodge. G. H.  Rashdale (Rashdall) was a young Englishman from Suffolk, who,  with G. R. Lawes built a large grist mill at Enderby in 1885. The  venture was not a success and Rashdale lost a small fortune. Later  he was Mining Recorder at Nelson, B.C., where he died on January  21, 1897, aged 31. John Hamill was an Irishman from Ballymena in  Antrim County, Ireland, a carpenter, where he had been a member  of a Masonic Lodge. He had a sash and door factory at Lansdowne.  "R. S. Pelly was a land surveyor, who had a farm near what is  now Armstrong. Chas. A. R. Lambley was from Quebec. He was  later Government Agent at Fairview. Norman McLeod was the  engineer in the Lawes and Rashdale grist mill. He later moved to  Vancouver. Frank Hassard was the son of Jason Hassard who came  from Brampton, Ontario, to Yale in 1880, where he was joined by  his family in  1881. They came to the Okanagan in  1883 and took  38 Spallumcheen Masonry Through Seventy-five Years  up land. Frank was then a full-grown man, for he was a member of  Beaver Lodge No. 234, G.R.C. at Clarksburg, Ontario. Cyrus Tilton  was from Pennsylvania, a veteran of five years' service in the Civil  War. He was probably born in New Hampshire. He had farmed in  several States, and came from Bloomington, Kansas, to Sumas, B.C.  He was a Freemason, but it has been impossible to ascertain the name,  location or number of his Lodge. He went from B.C. about 1906 to  California, but returned in 1911, and had a farm at Rose Hill, near  Kamloops, for some years. He returned to California, and died there  about 1924, at the age of 91. His son, Robert, is a fruit grower at  Trepanier, near Summerland. The story of Sibree Clarke has been told  by his son-in-law, E. Stuart Wood, in the Grand Lodge Report for  1937.  "Of the other members, Thomas LeDuc was a school teacher  in the district in early days, who married Rosanna Schubert, the first  white child born in the Interior. In those days the Grand Lodge published in its yearly report the names of affiliates during the past year.  In the report for 1889 appears the name of A. P. Goldsmid, giving  his Lodge as No. 1549, E.C., which is Abercorn Lodge, at Great  Stanmore, England. This is the only one of the affiliates to Spallumcheen Lodge to appear on the published lists. R.W. Bro. Leonard  Norris says he thinks Goldsmid was the H.B.C. storekeeper at Vernon,  but he is not sure. D. J. McDonald was the teacher in the Spallumcheen School, 1887 and 1888. James Steele was born at Colborne,  Ontario, on October 28, 1833. He was in business in Bowmanville  for many years. He was a brother of R. C. Steele, the founder of the  great Steele, Briggs Seed Co. Ltd., so well known in Canada. He  died in British Columbia.  "The Lodge took the Indian name for the district. This name  took some time to get in the present form, for R.W. Bro. Leonard  Norris of Miriam Lodge No. 20, the historian of the district, says that  in the Government records at Victoria between 1879 and 1884, it is  spelled in thirteen different ways by actual count. It had no trouble  in getting its charter, but there was plenty of it afterwards. There was  no hall in Lansdowne available, so they did the best they could and  fixed up the only room at their disposal, which was a loft over a  carpenter shop owned by Hamill and Pringle, and there they held  their first meetings. W. Bro. T. W. Fletcher, who lived in Lansdowne  at the time, and joined the Lodge there, is authority for saying it was  almost opposite the Lansdowne Hotel, and for this no rent was paid.  Later in the year this firm were the contractors for the erection of a  two-story building on a lot on the north side of the Lansdowne Hotel  39 Spallumcheen Masonry Through Seventy-five Years  about 100 feet from the street. The lower story was used by the owner  as a barber shop and residence, and the upper story was rented by the  Lodge as its meeting place. This was used by the Lodge until it moved  to Armstrong where .Bro. Robert Wood donated a lot to the Lodge  for a Masonic Hall. They needed regalia and jewels, of course, but  they did not have them, and there was no possible place where they  could buy or borrow them. Lansdowne was a long way freftn the  source of supply in those days. But the pioneers were ingenius in  making those things that were necessary, but could not be obtained  otherwise. The ladies of the settlement went to work and made the  Aprons. Mrs. Hassard and Mrs. Hamill made some of them and the  Hassard family still keeps one as a memento of those far-off days.  They commandeered the village tinsmith, W. J. Armstrong, and had  him cut the necessary jewels out of tin at a cost of $7.25. He later  became a member of the Lodge. With this array, and this meeting  place, the Lodge was duly constituted on July 14, 1888. It could not  be expected that the Grand Master, M.W. Bro. A. R. Milne of  Victoria, could come all the distance from the Coast, and the ride in  from Kamloops, to bring into existance a little Lodge so far in the  wilds, so Canon Cooper was commissioned to act for him, and he did  it and did it well, to the satisfaction of all concerned. When the Lodge  finally got into operation, it had, besides its officers, two Past Masters  and four Master Masons, thirteen in all, which matched its number  on the Grand Lodge Roll.  "As the founder and first Worshipful Master was an English  Freemason, the original ritual used was the English (Oxford) form.  An attempt was made in 1901 to change it to the Canadian work but  it failed by one vote. R.W. Bro. Thos. D. Whitehouse is authority for  the statement that the change from English (Oxford) work was made  during the term of office of Bro. J. W. Curry, who was Worshipful  Master, 1911-12, but no reference to such change has been found in  the minutes of the Grand Lodge Reports. He says that he remembers  it being discussed at length, and as what was actually being used was a  mixture of three different works, they decided to use the Canadian  work and have used it ever since.  "The list of members of the Lodge in the Grand Lodge Report  for 1893, covering the preceding year, shows that W. Bro. Canon  Cooper and Grand Master Sibree Clarke had been made Honorary  Members of the Lodge.  "The second Worshipful Master of the Lodge, 1889-90, was  John Hamill, the third, George H. Rashdale, 1890-91. Hamill was  again elected for the next two succeeding year, 1891-2 and 1892-3.  40 Spallumcheen Masonry Through Seventy-five Years  "In 1903-4, the year the Lodge was moved to Armstrong, and  in 1894-5 and 1896-7 the Worshipful Master was Clement F. Costerton. Wor. Bro. T. W. Fletcher says that Costerton and Hennington  were partners, and bought the stock of a small general store at Lansdowne owned by a Mr. Dodd. The firm later sold the remaining  stock to Wood and Rabbitt prior to 1897, and took up land two miles  west of Lansdowne on the back road leading to the town of Priest  Valley, now Vernon. In 1889 Hennington left the Valley and  Costerton moved to Enderby, where he remained until 1892 when he  removed to Vernon, and for many years carried on a business there as  an insurance and financial agent. He did a very large part of the  conveyancing in the North Okanagan for years and years, always in  long hand, and a very peculiar handwriting it was. He died at Vernon  on July 2, 1930, and was interred with Masonic honors jointly  arranged with Spallumcheen and Miriam Lodges, he having been an  Honorary Member of Miriam Lodge. R.W. Bro. A. E. Sage  conducted the service.  "He was undoubtedly one of the most valuable members Spallumcheen Lodge has ever had. He was one of the early Initiates at Lansdowne, and held his membership in the Lodge until his death. From  1892, when he moved to Vernon, to his death, he seldom missed his  attendance at the Lodge in Armstrong, making the trip, a matter of  15 miles, in the early days by horse and buggy in the later afternoon,  returning the next morning. He was D.D.G.M. in 1897. He was one  of the Trustees of Spallumcheen Lodge from about 1892 until his  death.  "There was only one Secretary in those early days, Bro. Richard  Stuart Pelly, who continued in office for twenty years. Bro. Robert  Wood was the perennial Treasurer. He was a native of Walpole  Township, Haldimand Co., Ontario, born in 1841. He came to the  Cariboo in 1862, but not being successful there came to the delta of  the Fraser and farmed there for a time. He was a brother of Mrs.  McCleery, the wife of one of the Delta pioneers. Later he went to  the Okanagan and operated a general store, at first about one mile  west of Lansdowne. This having burned down, in partnership with  Daniel Rabbitt, a school teacher, he carried on business in Lansdowne.  This store was afterwards moved to Armstrong and the firm became  Wood, Cargill Co. It is evident that he was among the first to see the  necessity of moving from the town, for he obtained the land on which  Armstrong now stands and laid out the townsite. A street there still  bears his name. Later Mr. Wood removed to Greenwood, where he  41 Spallumcheen Masonry Through Seventy-five Years  was interested in its early growth, and after its incorporation was its  Mayor for two terms.  "Then came a change in the affairs of the district which had the  effect of wiping out the settlement at Lansdowne and the formation of  a new centre of population at Armstrong, two and a half miles away.  A railway was constructed from Sicamous on the C.P.R. to Okapagan  Landing on Okanagan Lake. In 1887 a bonus of $200,000.00 had  been granted by the Provincial Government to the Shuswap & Okanagan Railway Company, a subsidiary of the C.P.R., for this purpose.  In 1890 this was altered to a guarantee of interest at 4 percent for  25 years on the estimated cost of the line. This railway was constructed  in 1892. While this was the means of opening one of the finest  agricultural districts in the Province, it by-passed Lansdowne, and the  residents, and the buildings also, removed, en bloc, to the new city.  The Lodge, of course, had to follow its members. Nothing is left of  old Lansdowne but its memories and the old cemetery.  "The Lodge moved to Armstrong in 1893 and a new Lodge  building erected there, on the East side of Okanagan Street some 75  feet North of the corner of that street and Railway Avenue. This was  used from September, 1893, to August, 1901. This was evidently  made possible by means of a loan from W. Bro. Costerton, for during  that period we find payments from time to time made to him as  "interest on mortgage."  "The Lodge started in Armstrong with 26 members, with W.  Bro. Costerton as Wor. Master. For a time there was a slight decrease  in membership. The Wor. Master in 1895-1896 was T. W. Fletcher,  who carried on a produce shipping business. He was a native of Bruce  County, Ontario, who came to British Columbia in 1887. His first  location was at Lansdowne, where he carried on a business as a builder.  During the construction of the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway he  worked in Enderby. In 1891 he built the Armstrong Hotel for Hugh  Keyes, the second building to be erected there. In 1889 he was living  in Lansdowne and in that year joined the Lodge and is now its Senior  Past Master living. Mrs. Fletcher was a daughter of Frank Hassard.  In 1906 he took his demit and came to reside in Vancouver, where  he has been prominent in business and municipal affairs.  "In 1897 the brethren were discouraged. Times were hard, and  the members were not prompt in paying dues. There was difficulty  in getting sufficient members present at meetings to carry on. So far did  this go that an amalgamation with Miriam Lodge was seriously  considered.  42 Spallumcheen Masonry Through Seventy-five Years  "In 1896-97 and again in 1906-07 Costerton was at the helm.  In 1897-98 Norman McLeod, whom we have met as a builder and  contractor, took his place. Membership was still at a low figure. In  1898-99, 1899-1900 and 1900-01 Bros. C. J. Becker, head miller at  the Okanagan Flour Mill, was in the Worshipful Master's chair.  There was little growth in membership although there was some  improvement in the last year. By this time the membership was thirty.  In 1901-02, Lawrence C. Walton, an Australian, was Wor. Master.  "It was in the summer of this year that the Lodge Hall was  burnt down, with the loss of all its contents, including the Porch Book  and the Charter. Probably it also included the first Minute Book. On  August 24, of this year, a meeting was held in the office of the Okanagan Flour Mill Co. to consider ways and means for building a new  Hall. In order to finance the work, Wor. Bro. Fletcher offered a loan  of $1,000.00 at 8 percent on condition that the building be one which  would cost $1,500.00. A loan of $250.00 was obtained from Grand  Lodge. The balance was made up by donations from the members. A  lot 33 feet in width was purchased for $275.00. The construction of  the building was pressed on with the least possible delay, and on  October 5 a meeting of the Lodge was held in it. The lower story was  leased to Ronald R. Burns, druggist, for five years at $15.00 per  month. Burns joined the Lodge in December. Wor. Bro. Walton left  Armstrong for Australia in December, 1901, and probably went to  South Africa to take part in the Boer War. Wor. Bro. Fletcher took  the Wor. Master's work in his stead. The Wor. Master for 1902-03  was Robert McQuarrie, the engineer at the Columbia Flour Mills  at Enderby. In 1901 the membership of the Lodge was 32, in 1903,  49. Since that date the Lodge has carried on in the usual way. After  1901 it grew to 52 in 1904, and remained nearly stationary until 1911  when it was 62. It kept a regular increase until in 1923 it reached  high-water mark of 84. Since then it has gradually decreased until in  1941 it was 59, the lowest since 1908. The probabilities are that there  will be an increase during the present year.  "In 1901 the Bird brothers joined the Lodge, John Bangham  Bird and Joseph Trigg Bird, the first by affiliation from Cascade  Lodge No. 12 at Vancouver. The other had been initiated into Freemasonry in 1873 in Hertford Lodge No. 403, E.C., at Hertford,  England, but had never advanced beyond the E.A. degree. After some  correspondence with his Mother Lodge, he received from Spallumcheen Lodge the F.C. degree as a member of it, was then allowed to  affiliate with the Spallumcheen Lodge and obtain the Master's degree.  The two lived some 12 miles or more from Armstrong, but though  43 Spallumcheen Masonry Through Seventy-five Years  advanced in years, nothing was able to prevent them from being  present at all stated Lodge meetings. The first became W. Master of  the Lodge in 1906.  "The Lodge has been fortunate in always having a competent  secretary, and the brethren have been wise in making no change except  when such change was forced upon them. The first to hold that office  was Bro. R. S. Pelly, who held office until 1908; the second was  Bro. Alfred E. Morgan, from that date until 1918; and the third,  R.W. Bro. Albert E. Sage, from 1918 to the present time (1943),  who also held office as D.D.G.M. of District No. 9 in 1929.  (This concludes the very excellent historical account of Spallumcheen Lodge written by R. W. Bro. A. E. Sage, and which appeared  in the 72nd Annual Communication of The Grand Lodge of British  Columbia in 1943.)  The late Rt. Wor. Bro. A. E. Sage continued in the office of  secretary until December 1946 when, due to ill health, he resigned,  the secretary's chair being taken for a short period in 1947 by Wor.  Bro. J. D. Armstrong. In 1948 the late Wor. Bro. J. E. Jamieson  was elected secretary and continued until his death in 1954; the  balance of that year his son, Wor. Bro. J. M. Jamieson fulfilling the  duties of acting-secretary. Wor. Bro. R. W. Hornby was elected in  1955 and is the present very capable secretary.  The late Rt. Wor. Bro. Sage was very generous in his interest  in the Lodge. Following his death he left a sizeable amount of money  as well as business shares to the Lodge. The Secretary's desk and chair  are part of the Lodge's furniture, purchased in memory of the Brother  who served so long and faithfully in that capacity.  Spallumcheen Lodge in its seventy-five years has a record of  57 Past Masters; a number of these served as Worshipful Master  in either consecutive terms or were re-elected for further terms.  The Lodge has been well represented throughout the three-  quarter century span in Grand Lodge circles, a total of eleven District  Deputy Grand Masters. These included Rt. Wor. Bro. John Hamill,  the only one of the Charter Member group; Rt. Wor. Bro. C. F.  Costerton; Rt. Wor. Bro. C. J. Becker; Rt. Wor. Bro. P. D.  VanKleeck; Rt. Wor. Bro. T. D. Whitehouse; Rt. Wor. Bro. A. E.  Sage; Rt. Wor. Bro. B. A. Thornton; Rt. Wor. Bro. Harvey Brown  (these have all passed to the Grand Lodge Above); the remaining  three, Rt. Wor. Bro. F. J. Becker, Rt. Wor. Bro. R. M. Ecclestone  and Rt. Wor. Bro. Floyd Hunter, are learned and active members of  Spallumcheen Lodge.  To the distinguished group of District Deputies above, affiliated  44 Spallumcheen Masonry Through Seventy-five Years  with the Lodge were Rt. Wor. Bro. Frederick H. Barnes, who joined  in the very early formative years, and who was widely known in the  Enderby area, passing away several years ago in Nova Scotia after  reaching the venerable age of 100; also the late Rt. Wor. Bro. W. F.  Youngblud, who served as D.D.G.M. in Saskatchewan, and upon  taking up residence in Armstrong affiliated and gave of his Masonic  learning, a number of years as Chaplain.  Family associations have formed an interesting part in the history  of Spallumcheen Lodge. The late Rt. Wor. Bro. C. J. Becker and his  son, Rt. Wor. Bro. F. J. Becker both served with distinction in the  D.D.G.M. capacity; another son, the late J. Becker was a long-time  member; and Rt. Wor. Bro. F. J. Becker's son, Wor. Bro. T. C.  Becker was Master in 1957. The Lodge's Inner Guard sword was  specially engraved and presented in memory of Rt. Wor. Bro. C. J.  Becker.  Another family with long connection is the Smith family, three  brothers—the late Wor. Bro. T. K. Smith (1908-09), Wor. Bro. W.  J. Smith (1910), and Wor. Bro. Geo. A. Smith (1915, 1930)  occupied the Master's chair; Wor. Bro. W. J. Smith's sons, Wor. Bro.  John B. Smith, Master in 1946, and Bro. W. L. Smith, present  Junior Deacon, complete the family tradition.  The present Secretary, Wor. Bro. R. W. Hornby, served as  Master in 1952, his late father, Wor. Bro. Wm. Hornby being Master  in 1928; and now the former's son, Bro. Eric W. Hornby occupies  the Lodge's junior chair as Steward.  Other father and son associations have been the late Wor. Bro.  Mat. Hassen (1941) and Wor. Bro. Mat. S. Hassen (1949); the late  Wor. Bro. J. E. Jamieson (1940), Wor. Bro. Jas. E. Jamieson  (1954), Wor. Bro. J. M. Jamieson (1960); the late Bro. R. J.  Fletcher and Wor. Bro. B. W. Fletcher, Immediate Past Master;  Bro. Thos. Clinton and his late father, Bro. Thos. Clinton, Sr., who  was Tyler of the Lodge at Lansdowne in 1891. Another family  group, the three brothers, Wor. Bro. Jas. W. Phillips, Bro. Thos.  Phillips and Bro. Alex Phillips.  Wor. Bro. F. J. Murray was the first native son to occupy the  Worshipful Master's chair (1929), he now resides at Salmon Arm.  Such is the story of Spallumcheen Lodge to date. Twenty-five  years hence, when the time arrives to celebrate the hundredth anniversary, it is hoped many brethren present on this occasion will be spared  to observe the centennial event; and preserve and carry on the good  work of their predecessors by practicing the precepts of the Craft down  through the ages.  45 C/ipper <J\eremeos and \^Jllala  By Winnifred Innis  My father, the late L. A. Clark, had been commissioned by M.  K. Rodgers of the Nickle Plate Mine to build a road from Penticton  to the mine to get mining machinery in. This was quite an undertaking  but he succeeded and liking the country around there, took up land,  built a house on the summit and moved the family there from Vernon  in 1900. He named it Green Mountain after his home in the Green  Mountains of Vermont.  The family consisted of my mother and brother, my sister and  myself. As we were on the road to the mines it wasn't long before  the freighters made it one of their regular stops, and when the next  year the Government built the Fish Lake road that connected with  the Horn Lake road that came in from Fairview and White Lake our  place became a regular stopping place. The second year we were  there, when Billy Cohen came by one day close to Christmas to say  there was to be a Christmas Concert at Upper Keremeos, it didn't  take me long to persuade my father to take us there as it was a lonely  life we had with no close neighbors. Our only neighbors were Louis  Goodchap, his aunt and her mother who died there and is buried on a  hill on their property.  To go to the Christmas concert meant staying overnight at the  Barcelo Hotel. Upper Keremeos at that time was on the flat below the  Cemetery and there was a hotel that had been built by Emanuel  Barcelo, although the Barcelos did not run it; a store and Post Office  belonging to George Kirby, who later built a hotel behind it. (This  was later moved to Lower Keremeos to become the Kirby Hotel.)  Sam McCurdy had a butcher shop and the land office was run by a Mr.  C. A. Stoess, a land surveyor and his helper, Frank Reynolds. Frank  Reynolds returned to England, but his brother Geoffry stayed on at  Ollala.  In 1900 the Innis boys, Dave, Jim and Bob had come from  Renfrew, Ont. with their mother and sisters and started a livery barn.  There were also several houses, one occupied by Mrs. J. Innis and  family; also there was a school which had been built before 1900 by  H. Conklin. Miss McDonald was the first teacher, followed by a  Mrs. Becam, a widow, who married Jack McDonald of Ollala; then  Rose Armstrong (Mrs. R. Carmichael). A Miss Ferguson was a  good teacher who taught the children good singing, and got up a  concert which was held in the Armstrong Hall at Lower Keremeos.  The Innis girls and the Richter girls took part in that concert.  46 Upper Keremeos and Ollala  At Ollala there were several mines being developed. The whole  countryside was swarming with prospectors and at Ollala they were  practically all bachelors. For a while the only women there were a  Mrs. McKay and Mrs. Chase—-later there was a Mrs. McDougal and  her sister Miss Harding who lived there and died there.  One New Year's the bachelors of Ollala gave a New Year's  Ball and invited the whole countryside. The music was supplied by  Joe Brent and Dick Bassett of Okanagan Falls and Henry Bassett did  the calling. From Okanagan Falls with four-horse team and bobsleigh came the Bassetts, Dick, Fred and Henry and their sister Ellen,  Mr. and Mrs. Joe Brent, Maggie and Daisy McLellen and Hazel  McKenzie; Fred Phelps brought his sisters, Carrie and Jessie by  sleigh over the Fairview summit which proved to be quite a strenuous  trip. The only girls living at Penticton at that time were the Ellis  girls. Perhaps the ball is best described in a poem written by Johnny  Kearns who was running the "Fish House" at Fairview at that time.  It was named the "Fish House" by the miners and cowboys because  fish was always served on Friday.  Ollala New  Year's Ball —  1903  James Riordan of Fenian Hall  Attended the Ball at Ollala Hall.  Now Jimmie is old and Jimmie is gay,  He danced with the girls till the break of day;  He swang those girls with feet so light  He swang them all to their heart's delight,  It's a treat I'm sure a Judge would decide.  Forbes and McDonald attended the door  While "His Honor" Brodhagen managed the floor,  Ford and the Widow were out in force,  Winnie and Dibbles were there of course.  The girls from the Falls were also on hand  Having come over with Bassett's band.  Next came the Fairview folks, so gay  Prathers too, were there with a sleigh.  Now I'll end my rhyme before it's too long,  You may say it in verse or say it in song  But of all the dancers in Ollala Hall  Our friend, Mr. Riordan, was king of them all.  The store and Post Office at Ollala were run by a Mr. Pritchard  and some of the bachelors there were Jimmie McDougal and his  uncle, Wm. McDougal; Jas Riordan, who had some very promising  47 Upper Keremeos and Ollala  claims on Apex. He was offered $50,000.00 for them, but said he  wouldn't sell unless he got $100,000.00 which he never got. There  was Danny and Archie McEachren, J. Northy, Wm. Forbes and  McMillen to name a few. The next year a Ball was given by the  McDougals in a log building that still stands there; the same music  and the same crowd were there. Alex Forde and Ezra Mills took up  land on the Fish Lake road but Ezra Mills moved to Lower Keremeos  in 1906.  In 1903 a Post Office was licensed at Green Mountain and I  was appointed Post Mistress. Before that we had to depend on anyone  going to Penticton to bring our mail. Then the bookkeeper at the  Nickle Plate used to ride in to Penticton every week and take the  mail in and bring our mail out.  There were many interesting parties that came through the  district in those days and most of them stayed at the Green Mountain  Stopping House. A Mr. Brewer, mine operator twice brought a  party from New York! some were women but mostly men, trying to  get them to invest their money in some of the claims. We heard afterwards that he had been arrested for misrepresenting the quotations.  One elderly man named Brown was quite an artist. The second  time the Brewer Party came they brought me a phonograph with 24  records. We sure kept that going a lot and I had a piano and learned  several pieces on it from the records.  (Note: In the 12th report of the O.H.S. there is quite an article  by Willard Ireland, mostly quotes from the Victoria Colonist of 1883  about a Mr. G. I. Brown, a noted American artist, who had put a  lot of the Interior of B.C. on canvas. This could have been the same  man.)  Then there was the elderly lady and her nephew who came out  from England two summers hunting a certain speciman of butterfly  which they found here. Once she walked all the way to the Nickle  Plate mine and back, about 15 miles each way.  In the fall of 1902 a Mr. Welby from Penticton started a stage  line from Penticton to Hedley, taking a day to go and a day to come  back. He changed horses at Green Mountain and the passengers had  lunch there. The stage line went on as far as Princeton, but with  another stage from Hedley.  Races and celebrations were held in the Upper town on May  24 and 25, the first night there would be a concert and the second  night, a dance in Richter's Hall. The Upper Town was on the flat  adjacent to the Cemetery and above the creek, but the water supply  came from the upper creek. This was Upper Keremeos. Where Harry  48 Upper Keremeos and Ollala  Tweddle had the Central Hotel and livery barn was Keremeos  Centre and where the present town is now known as Lower Keremeos  and the town became permanent there with the coming in of the  Railroad in  1907.  On June 27th, 1906, Dave Innis and I were married by Rev. A.  H. Cameron. The same year D. Innis moved the livery barn to Lower  Keremeos and built a house next to it, which we lived in for 45 years.  After the Railroad came Harry Tweedle, ran a bus from  Keremeos Centre to meet the train every day. The last time the Central Hotel was used was when the West Kootenay Company was  building its transmission line to Copper Mountain and the crew all  stayed at the hotel.  About 1907 a new school was built on the bench where the  present high school is now, and in 1907 the first church was built on  the same bench by the Rev. A. H. Cameron (Presbyterian), but was  also used by the Methodists. It was sold to the Pentecostal Assembly  after the new church was built on the present townsite.  Many changes have come over the years. Modern Highways  have replaced the old roads and trails, and modern garages and  parking lots have taken the place of the old horse barns. Very little is  left of the old Upper Keremeos or Keremeos Centre. Most of the old  crowd like the old buildings have gone, but those of us who are left  still have many happy memories of those "good old days" and many  good friends.  (T5^S)  Rolling hills and flats, covered with waving bunch grass, and  grazing thereon hundreds of horses, cattle and wild game; these were  among the early recollections of William Brent. Born at Okanagan  Mission in 1873, he could tell of deer and caribou, which abounded,  the small lakes and swamps were filled with ducks and geese, and the  fields were filled with flocks of prairie chicken, sandhills, cranes, and  birds of all kinds, too numerous to mention. His record is that the lakes  and creeks were filled with all kinds and sizes of trout, and also on the  land were many kinds and sizes of roots and herbs which were dried  by the natives for their winter living.  49 <Jransportation ku    J\~oad and   J rail  «Jm the \^Jkanagan    Ualleu  By George M. Watt  Editor's Note: Before he joined the Provincial Department of  Public Works in 1912, Mr. Watt constructed a road from Okanagan  Centre to Glenmore for Maddock Bros.  He also was in charge of construction of the Okanagan Valley  Land Company's extensive irrigation system at Okanagan Centre.  From 1912 to 1915 he was government road foreman in a  district which covered the area from six miles south of Vernon to  Ellison and included Okanagan Centre and the west side of Okanagan  Lake from Nahun to Westside opposite Kelowna.  The first written records of transportation were given in the  Hudson's Bay Records. From Fort Alexandria on the upper Fraser  River the bales of furs were loaded on the backs of horses, and  packed over a trail through the McLeese Lake canyon, and over the  high ridge down into the North Thompson River valley to Fort Kamloops, and from there over a trail which led through the hills via  Monte Lake. It came out near the head of Okanagan Lake. The  Okanagan Valley was followed wherever the going was the easiest—  sometimes close to the lake and river, and sometimes up in the hills,  wherever the best feed was found for the horses. The pack train  eventually landed at the confluence of the Okanagan and Columbia  Rivers, near the present town of Brewster in the State of Washington.  Here the furs were unloaded and shipped by water to London, England. So we find that trails were the first means of transportation over  land.  Soon after the Fraser Canyon road was constructed in 1859  and 1860 to reach the gold fields of the Cariboo, other branch roads  were built to enable early settlers to get supplies to their homesteads.  One of these branched away in the vicinity of the present Cache  Creek and went as far as Savona's Ferry at the western end of  Kamloops Lake and from here a steamboat operated as far as Fort  Kamloops. Soon after another road was built to enable settlers to get  into the Okanagan Valley. Later a road was constructed from Savona  to Kamloops, eliminating the boat trip. This road climbed high up in  the hills via Cherry Creek, and came down a long hill into Kamloops.  There was also an alternate route by which the traveller could continue his journey into the Okanagan Valley. This was to carry on by  boat up the South Thompson River into Shuswap Lake; then over this  50 Transportation By Road and Trail in the Okanagan Valley  lake to the mouth of the Shuswap River (where Sicamous is today);  then up this river to Lambly's Landing, where the present town of  Enderby is. This journey also included the water route through Mara  Lake. From Lambly's Landing a wagon road was built through by  Lansdowne and Otter Lake, and connected with the Kamloops wagon  road at the O'Keefe Ranch near the head of Okanagan Lake. From  here, if the traveller was on horseback, the old Hudson's Bay trail  was used to reach the southern end of the valley. There was also a trail  from O'Keefe's through Priest's Valley (where Vernon now is). This  trail followed Long and Wood Lakes, and on down to Okanagan  Mission, where a post office was established in 1872, with Eli Lequime  as Postmaster.  The first record of a wagon train passing through the Okanagan  Valley was when in 1858 the expedition of Palmer and Miller started  out with nine wagons with supplies that would be needed by the gold  miners from Walla-Walla, Wash., and after many hardships and  adventures finally managed to reach Fort Kamloops, where they were  able to sell all their goods and supplies and also the oxen and horses  which hauled the loaded wagons. One of the highlights of this  momentous journey was the crossing of Okanagan Lake, from the  vicinity of where Peachland now is, to mouth of Mission Creek. Rafts  were constructed, the wagons taken apart, and loaded on the 50 rafts  with all the supplies. The horses and oxen were driven back to Penticton, over the East side trail through Wild Horse Canyon—a very  bad trail at that time along the mountainside. It was so bad that Father  Pandosy with the help of his companions and Indians built a new trail  by way of Chute Lake.  The next record we have of pioneering in transportation was the  delivery of the mill stones, iron frames, and hopper ordered by Frederick Brent in the year 1871 from a firm in San Francisco, where the  shipment was loaded on a steamship and unloaded at Victoria. Here it  was reloaded onto a river steamboat, which delivered it to Yale. Here  it was loaded on a freight wagon, which hauled the shipment to  Cache Creek. The wagon left the Cariboo Road at this junction, and  was then driven to Savona over the newly constructed wagon road.  Again reloaded onto a river boat, it was taken to the east end of  Kamloops Lake and up the South Thompson River to Shuswap Lake;  across this lake to the mouth of the Shuswap River; then up the river  to Lambly's Landing (Fortune's Landing), where the town of  Enderby now is.  Here Fred Brent took over the shipment. Procuring the loan of a  home-made  wagon   (wooden  wheels)   Fred  drove  over  a  road   (a  51 Transportation By Road and Trail in the Okanagan Valley  wagon track hacked out of the bush for the most part), and finally  reached the shore of Okanagan Lake at the O'Keefe Ranch. Again  came the reloading—this time into a row boat. With the help of an  Indian (Nitasket) the mill stones were unloaded onto the beach near  where the town of Kelowna. is today. For the last lap of this eventful  journey a team and a stone boat were requisitioned, and the mill stones,  iron frame and hopper finally found their last resting place. The old  original mill building is still standing. A cairn was erected close by  to perpetuate the memory of Frederick Brent, and the Okanagan's  first flour mill of its kind. The grain was hauled mostly by pack horses  from Kamloops to the International Border at Osoyoos, and from the  Similkameen Valley. This cairn was dedicated on August 10, 1958.  We now arrive at the year 1875. The Cariboo gold rush was  practically over, and many of the miners (especially those who had not  struck it lucky) started looking for land. A number reached the North  Okanagan, and filed on quarter sections. The furthest south wagon  road was that built to O'Keefe's. Thus we find a petition reached the  Provincial Secretary's office in Victoria in January of this year requesting that a road be constructed from the head of Okanagan Lake to  the Mission Valley, and a bridge built over Mission Creek. The Government of that day acted promptly, and a contract was let to Phillip  Parke for $23,000 for a wagon road to be 18 feet wide, with a right-  of-way 30 feet wide through timber, for a distance of approx. 40  miles. This contract was finished that same year. The contract also  included the building of six bridges, and a great deal of cribbing and  rip-rap along the rock faces encountered. A number of miles of this  road is now buried under the present paved highway. As more and  more land was being taken up further and further South on both  sides of Okanagan Lake more and more wagon roads had to be constructed. A ferry came into operation from Kelowna to the West side,  making it possible for the settlers to cross the lake, and take up land  on the west side as far south as Penticton.  A post office was established at Lequime's store near the Father  Pandosy Mission in 1872. The mail came in from the South on horseback, but later with the completion of the wagon road, the B.X. Co.,  operating a stage line from Yale to Barkerville, were awarded a mail  contract from Cache Creek to the Mission. The mail for the South  was then carried on horseback by a son of Frederick Brent over the  Mission-Penticton trail.  The wagon road built by Phillip Parke carried the horse travel  for a number of years with very little betterment of any kind. Some  of the timbering had to be renewed, as also the bridges. It was a long,  52 Transportation By Road and Trail in the Okanagan Valley  On Vernon-Kelowna Road at Long Lake, B.C.  hard climb from Vernon up over the Commonage Mountain, and  down to the shore of Long Lake, where the horses were driven or  rode into the lake for a drink; then a lesser climb up onto a flat above  Wood Lake, and the long descent to the shore of Duck Lake. From  there to the Mission it was practically level all the way. The first  change to be made was in the early 1920's when a diversion was put  through, commencing at a point where Postill Station is now located,  and a road constructed in a nearly straight line to what is now Reid's  Corner. This reduced the distance from Vernon by two miles.  About this same time a trend towards building roads along lake  shores became evident. A start was made along the shore of Wood  Lake in 1909, when a rough track was graded out along the sand and  gravel. This was made possible by the digging of a canal through the  "Railroad"—a long, narrow strip of land dividing Long Lake from  Wood Lake. This canal was built by the Federal Government to  permit of navigation from the south end of Wood Lake to the North  end of Long Lake. Johnson & Carswell were then able to operate a  boat, the "Maud Allen" towing a barge, and also to tow the logs  cut along Wood Lake to their mill at the head of Long Lake.  When the waters of the two lakes reached their new level it was  found that Long Lake had risen 6 inches, and the waters of Wood  Lake had dropped 18 inches. This left a long strip of beach high and  dry. The winter of 1909-1910 a road crew were put to work with a  camp half way along the lakeshore. Drilling and blasting were carried  on through the winter, and a start made to build this diversion—the  larger rocks being hauled to the outer edge, and the finer rock laid on  top of the sand.  Not long after this diversion was completed a lake shore diversion  53 Transportation By Road and Trail in the Okanagan Valley  on a much larger scale was attempted when a new road was built along  the shore of Okanagan Lake from Peachland to Summerland. This  proved a very costly undertaking, and had in a short time to be  abandoned owing to the road being blocked by ever recurring slides.  However, the road along the shore to Penticton was completed, and  though there have been many slides, the road was not abandoned.  Much of the slide trouble was averted in later years by the making  of fills out in the lake, which were rock-faced to prevent the lake  waters from washing the fills away in storms.  The next road that had to be built was from Enderby to Sicamous. With the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1885,  mail was put off at Sicamous Junction for the Okanagan Valley. A  mail contract was let, and a mail stage operated from Sicamous to The  Mission via Lansdowne, Otter Lake, and O'Keefe's. The round trip  took 4 days. The above road was built along the east side of Mara  Lake.  More and more settlers were coming into the Okanagan Valley,  and the need for a railway branch line, and a steamboat on the lake  was ever increasing. Contracts were let and a start was made in 1890.  By the spring of 1892 the branch line was complete to Okanagan  Landing, some 5 miles south of Vernon. The "S.S. Aberdeen" had  been built, and was ready to make her maiden voyage down to the  south end of the lake at Penticton. This brought to an end the hauling  of mail by stage from Sicamous. It might be told here that while the  railway was under construction south from Sicamous along Mara  Lake that in many places the stage road was demolished, and often  the stage driver, Bob Hall, had to climb up some hill and down the  other side over a very rough tote road made by the contractors.  A number of settlers were taking up land close to the west side  of Okanagan Lake. A road was built branching off from the Kamloops road to Shorts Point or the Fintry ranch, as later known. This  was added to from time to time till it reached within a few miles  of Westside, opposite the townsite of Kelowna. During the fall and  winter of 1909-1910 a road was blasted out of the bluffs directly  opposite Kelowna. By the spring the road was graded out of the  hillside on either end. It was then possible to drive a team and wagon  from the ferry landing on the west side of Okanagan Lake to  O'Keefe's, where a junction was made with the Vernon-Kamloops  stage road.  Up to this time practically all roads had been built by the provincial Department of Public Works. 1905 and the next few years  saw the opening up of large tracts of mostly range land by private  54 Transportation By Road and Trail in the Okanagan Valley  Construction of Okanagan Centre South Road Near Camp 2  companies. These lands were surveyed into ten and twenty acre lots  for the purpose of growing fruit. To give access to these lots, roads  had to be built by the land companies.  One of the first to start in the northern end of the valley were  the Maddock Bros, at Okanagan Centre. A road from the Vernon-  Kelowna stage road at the top of the rise where the Rainbow Ranch  was located was rough graded down to the lake shore where a townsite  was laid out. By the following spring of 1907 the Maddock Bros  had a road built from the townsite along the beach south and up the'  long hill to the flats above—eventually contacting the Dry Vallev  road a short distance from the 19 mile post on the Vernon-Kelowna  road.  This road was taken over by the provincial government later. It is  still in use today, having been considerably widened  The next road to be built was from the 19 mile post along the  hillside to where the village of Winfield is today.  About this time another Land Company was formed to buy a  large tract of land on the east side of Wood Lake. A road was built  across "The Railroad" (as the spit of land dividing the two lakes was  known) up onto the benches and along the benches to the long hill  down to the Wood Ranch. This road continued in a westerly direction across the bottom land at the end of the lake and up to connect  with the new Vernon road ending at the south end of Wood Lake  With the opening to traffic of the road along the shore of Wood  Lake practically all traffic was diverted from the old stage road on  the hillside above. Incidentally this old first road is still being used by  the Okanagan Telephone Company, as their wires still follow along  this road.  55 Transportation By Road and Trail in the Okanagan Valley  Construction of New Road Okanagan Centre, B.C.  By 1909 came the first motor driven vehicles and the gradual  disappearance of the horse drawn buggies, democrats and wagons.  One of the first motor cars to be put in use commercially was the red  McLaughlin two-seater, with folding top. It was owned by William  Scott the mail carrier from Vernon to Kelowna. It first appeared in  the month of June but he had to go back to horses in the winter as  there was no snow clearance on the roads in those days. The next  cars to be seen on the roads were the "Model T" Fords. Gradually  there were fewer and fewer horses and more and more cars and trucks.  The transition from horses to motor power resulted in more  and more pressure being brought on the government to improve the  existing main roads.  The first main road to receive attention was the Vernon-  Kelowna road. In the fall of 1912 J. P. Burnyeat made a survey  along the mountain side overlooking Long Lake for a possible new  diversion to cut out the long 4 mile climb out of Vernon over the  Commonage Mountain. This survey was run through to where contact  was made with the old road seven and a half miles out of town. The  next spring the survey was carried to where the Amery Court is  today—the former Powley Ranch and orchard. From there to Oyama  the old road was followed and improved. When traffic reached  Oyama from the south a sharp turn had to be made and a climb up  to the old stage road where another sharp turn north had to be made.  In order to make a straight road and cut out these two bad turns a  diversion had to be made through Dr. Irwin's orchard. After considerable negotiation a right of way was secured and the road went right  through the middle of his seven year old orchard.  In the spring of 1913 crews were put to work on each end of  56 Transportation By Road and Trail in the Okanagan Valley  the new location working from the Vernon end and the Oyama end.  When completed the two gangs met not far from where the new  road crossed the old in the late fall. In the Victoria Colonist dated  Nov. 23rd, 1913 the following item of news appeared — dated  Vernon, the 22nd.  "By and through the efforts of Price Ellison, M.L.A.; G. A.|  Henderson, Vernon manager of the Bank of Montreal; Hamilton  Lang, Superintendent of roads and his assistant George M. Watt,  members of the Vernon Automobile Club were enabled to drive along  a new stretch of contour road cut into the hillside of Kalamalka  (Long) Lake to attend the opening ceremonies at which Judge  Swanson, G. A. Henderson, Hamilton Lang, Alderman W. H. Smith  and the Rev. Comyn Ching spoke. Mrs. Hamilton Lang broke a  bottle of wine on the rocks overlooking Okanagan Lake and declared  the new road open to traffic.  "To the company assembled it was pointed out that a new link  between Vernon and Kelowna had been made. Kelowna, working  northward had constructed six and a half miles of macadam road to  connect with Vernon on a scenic roadway which reveals new beauties  of lake, mountain, forest and orchard at every contour point of the  highway. It was remarked that the title 'Italy of Canada' was well  deserved since sunlight, clear skies, roses, petunias, mignonette, honey  suckle, sweet peas and carnations were visible. The highway will be a  great asset for tourist and travelling parties visiting the Okanagan  and is well and truly laid."  The car traffic was increasing and the public works department  faced a new problem—that of dust and washboard. After a certain  amount of experimenting it was decided to try out a section of the  Vernon-Kelowna road. The half mile section from where it branched  away from Bernard Avenue going east was selected. The road was  widened and graded up and machinery set up to mix sand and hot  tar which was then spread on the graded surface. It proved effective as  far as laying the dust but it was not long till holes began to appear  and it required a lot of maintenance. This was the beginning of our  present paved highways.  Several years later the first road of any length in the dry Interior  to be hard surfaced was the stretch from Kamloops to Tranquille  Sanatorium. It was done under the guidance of E. S. Jones the then  District Engineer stationed at Kamloops. As a beginning this was a  success. More and more experiments developed through the years,  until today we have our Trans-Canada Highway of which all Canadians should be justly proud.  57 <Jhe V__Jliver  ULnited \*^,hurch  1921 to 1963  By Mrs. Ethel Rossiter  The South Okanagan Lands Project developed from a dream  into a reality after the first World War.  The Hon. John Oliver, who was Premier of British Columbia at  that time is credited with being an enthusiastic supporter of the plan  to assist returned men of the province who were anxious to acquire  land on which to settle.  After all the necessary information had been accumulated and  studied, and after much debating it was finally decided that the most  promising land for the purpose was situated some 15 to 20 miles north  of the United States border at Osoyoos, B.C. This particular portion  of land was selected because of its outstanding geographical situation,  with a climate which would lend itself, among other things, to the  growing of tree fruits. The name chosen for the centre of operations  was Oliver, and the first things of course was the building of an  irrigation system which was to carry much needed water from the  lakes by syphons to the sage brush land.  Camps were set up and engineers, draughtsmen and workmen  put to work. From then on things really began to hum. Now, after  more than 40 years, the district which also includes Osoyoos has  become widely renowned for the excellence of its tree fruits.  This orcharding community has a fast growing population with  environs stretching north, south, east and west. Even the wildest  dreams of the planners have come true and what was once a desert  has been made to "Blossom like the Rose." Oliver and Osoyoos are  now flourishing villages with good schools, good stores, attractive  homes, and well attended churches where both young and old alike  may worship at the church of their choice. This preamble will serve  to introduce an account of an address I was asked to give at the 40th  Anniversary Celebration of the Oliver United Church of Canada on  December 8th, 1962 in the Auditorium of the South Okanagan High  School.  Our first minister was the Rev. Henry Feir, who, with his wife  Margaret and their son Douglas came to the South Okanagan from  Southern Manitoba.  Mr. Feir was appointed by the Mission Board of the Presbyterian Church of Canada and arrived in this part of the Valley in June  1921. His ministry was to cover the area from Okanagan Falls to the  United States border. The Pastoral Charge was to consist of Oliver  58 The Oliver United Church  as the central point with Okanagan Falls to the north, Osoyoos to  the south.  As there were no living quarters ready in Oliver, the Feirs lived  in Okanagan Falls until the Spring of 1922. By that time an Alladin  house had been erected in Oliver with everything being sent us  complete right down to the nails and paint. Some of the labourers  may have been a trifle amateurish but they were all certainly willing  workers, and I am quite sure appreciative of the Mission Boards  financial assistance—a three-fold gift—of a resident minister, a  manse, and a church to be erected a few months later.  During this period our services were held in various quarters—  Carl Collen's store, a small shed at the back of the Manse and the  school house to mention a few of them. As seating accommodation  was often scarce planks and boxes came in handy. The site of the  church was like the rest of the townsite, virtually a Rock Pile.  The traditional turning of the first sod for the new Church  building was duly recorded in the Fall of 1922, but one imagines  that the turning of the first rock would have been more to the point.  Work on the basement was started early in October of that year.  Heavy machinery as we know it now was nonexistent and the digging  was done with the aid of a scoop, a team of sturdy horses and a pair  of strong arms.  One day Mr. L. Bettison walking along a plank with a wheelbarrow containing cement inadvertently tipped it a little with the  result that some of the contents fell down on the foreman, Mr. Pete  Huckerby. However no real harm was done as those were the days  when men wore hats.  After the new church building was more or less complete, a  considerable amount of help went into the finishing touches. Among  the many helpers was our first Bank Manager, Mr. Jack Smith whose  prowess with a paint brush—especially on the roof was something  to behold.  The church was finally opened and dedicated in December and  the Manse piano had to be moved over to the building. This was quite  a feat for the piano was a heavy one and the moving was accomplished  by sheer man-power over uneven stony ground and up a flight of steps.  Whilst the congregation was waiting for the Rev. Dr. G. A.  Wilson and the Rev. Fergusson Miller to arrive from Penticton, Mr.  Steve Barritt played selections on the violin with Mrs. E. B. Rossiter  as accompanist. The two ministers were considerably delayed in getting  here and Mr. Barritt had played right through the selections he had  59 The Oliver United Church  brought with him and had just decided to start over again when luckily  our visiting pastors arrived.  At that time of course ours was the only church in the area so  the services were attended by members of various denominations, in  fact by anyone looking for a place to worship.  The original pews did splendid service. However there were one  or two seats in which the nails refused to stay down no matter how  often they were pounded, so that during those first years there were  times when small Sunday School boys sliding along the seats went  home with rips in their Sunday pants. One quite small boy was Alex  MacPherson.  The regular Sunday Services began with Osoyoos in the morning,  Okanagan Falls in the afternoon and Oliver in the evening, the idea  being that the minister could end his Sunday at home. Transportation,  both as regards roads and cars, especially during the winter months  was a problem for those folk living at a distance. It was nothing  unusual at an evening service to see the owner of a Ford, get up quietly  and go out of the crurch to see if the radiator of his car was still  unfrozen, the method employed being to use the crank and race the  engine to warm up Lizzie's innards, after which he would tiptoe back  to his seat.  Sometimes when I stand at my window facing north and look  down on Highway 97 and see the fine modern cars, the sleek Greyhound buses and the bright yellow painted school buses coming  round the bend in the road near the town, my mind goes back to the  time when a lovable mare named Queenie came trotting round that  same bend on Sunday evenings. Queenie was the motive power for the  MacNaughton 'Carryall' which arrived at the church loaded to the  gunwhales. Thumbing a ride was unknown and none was needed for  Queenie slowed up—with no help from her driver—for she never  passed a pedestrian on the West Lateral, being quite sure they were on  their way to church, and that there was plenty of room for all. The  amazing part of it was that Queenie worked on the ranch all week  but seemed to thoroughly enjoy her trot to church on Sunday evening.  On his way north each Sunday afternoon, Mr. Feir called for a  small brother and sister to drive them to church at Okanagan Falls.  On one particular afternoon, it was getting towards the end of the  sermon, when the small girl left her front seat and, trotting up to  the minister she tugged his coat and said in a very plaintive voice  "Are you nearly through Mr. Feir, I'm awful tired and I want to  go home." As the minister had nearly finished the Thirdly portion  60 The Oliver United Church  of his discourse, he looked down at her and ended with as few words  as possible knowing that the smiling congregation would understand  the situation.  The Ladies' Auxiliary of the Oliver Church held their first  meetings in the living room of the Manse. The kitchen was used as  a playroom and Miss Grace Mitchell—now Mrs. H. A. Lindquist of  Rossland, B.C.—was one of the Baby Sitters although the term baby  sitter was not in use at that time.  The Church was the rallying point for what was known as the  Community Club. This embraced concerts, plays, social affairs, and  in fact entertainment for both old and young. It was really surprising  to find how much talent there was available, and how much this part  of the Church's work was responsible for the good Fellowship that  prevailed.  An outstanding fact was that members of this club seemed to  come from all parts of the Globe.  All through the years our services have been helped by our choirs  which have always been exceptionally good. Our first choir leader was  Mrs. Feir who also presided at the piano. Two of our first soloists were  Mrs. H. Boone and Mrs. H. Edel (now Mrs. B. Leith).  Although electric light had been installed in the church, gasoline  lamps were the height of fashion in our homes, and when we went  out at night we carried our flash-lights as a matter of course. One  Sunday evening during the singing of the anthem, the church lights  went out. Nothing daunted, the choir sang on with the aid of flashlights  handed up to them as well as gasoline lamps hastily brought from the  basement. Fortunately for us the Oliver Superintendent of the West  Kootenay Power Co. was at the service, and in less time than it takes  to tell we could hear his car roaring off to see what was wrong. It  did not take very long for the lights to come on again and things  were back to normal.  Mr.Feir made many journeys in his "Ford"—known as the  Presbyterian Jitney—to take the sick to hospital in Penticton, and he  and Mrs. Feir seemed always on hand to welcome newcomers. They  were full servants of the church in the true sense of the word.  One of the outstanding events during the ten years of Mr. Feir's  ministry was the coming of CHURCH UNION. In June 1925, the  Oliver Pastoral Charge, which up to that time had been under the  Mission Board of the Presbyterian Church, joined the union of  Presbyterian,  Methodist and  Congregational churches,  and  took  its  61 The Oliver United Church  place within the new UNITED CHURCH OF CANADA.  The Rev. James Dewar followed Mr. Feir as pastor of this  Charge which then also included Sunday School at Testalinda. It was  on February 16th, 1932 that the Official Board elected Tom Nichol  as Recording Secretary. On Feb. 16th, 1943 Mr. Nichol was appointed  Secretary of the Committee of Stewards within the congregation and  he still holds both positions.  As time went on conditions were improving, but people still did  not have cars able to travel as quietly as they do now, and, owing to  the 'washboardy' state of the roads our cars rattling along appeared to  be travelling at a rate much faster than they really were. One Sunday  morning as the Rev. Mr. Dewar was driving south to Osoyoos for  11 o'clock service, a rancher standing near his gate remarked to a  neighbor as they heard and watched the minister's car go by in a cloud  of dust, "Well there goes the preacher to beat the Devil."  The Rev. R. Cribb was our minister from 1936 to 1942, and  when he and his family came to Oliver we were still a Missionary  Church and still receiving some financial aid from the Mission Board.  It was during his pastorate that we became self-supporting and began  in a small way to contribute to the Missionary and Maintenance Fund  of the United Crurch of Canada, for this fund had helped us when  our own church was started.  Mr. S. Redman's pastorate followed. He and his wife and son  Donald reached Oliver in September, 1942 having come from the  Fraser Valley. By that time other churches had been built in the district  for other denominations. Several Service Clubs were also in existence.  The minutes of our Church show many things, among them the  second world war and its effects on us; but the work of the churches  continued and the Sunday schools were well looked after.  One weekday evening, the Okanagan Falls Sunday school students had arranged to give a concert and quite a few Oliverites had  planned to attend. Mr. Redman's Aunt was a new arrival at the  Manse and she was looking forward to accompanying them. Towards  the end of the evening meal Mr. Redman turned to her and said  "Auntie, do have some more dessert." After some hesitation she shook  her head and replied slowly, "I think not, thank you, I might go to  sleep." It was then that the youngest member of the family spoke up.  "You won't go to sleep Auntie; I'm going to play 'Christians Awake'  on the trumpet."  At this point it might be interesting to recall some earlier history.  In 1903, the Rev. James Lang was Presbyterian missionary and Fair-  62 The Oliver United Church  view, B.C. was part of his territory. He began building a church  which was not completed until 1904. It was a sturdy building surmounted by a tall white steeple with a weather vane. The years passed  and things began to change considerably in Fairview. In the year  1929, 4 years after the uniting mission properties had passed into  the hands of the United Church of Canada, the Rev. H. Feir applied  for and received permission to have the Fairview church—no longer  in use, removed to Okanagan Falls. The building was in good  condition for taking apart; the windows were removed and the  resulting openings boarded up. After that a carefully calculated charge  of dynamite was set off inside the building. This loosened the nails  without damaging the interior. The moving of the knocked-down  building was done by truck and arrived safely at the 'Falls' where Mr.  Feir and his helpers were waiting to start work. The dedication service  was held in January of 1930. Both the United Church of Canada and  the Anglican Church congregations have been sharing the building  for many years. Now, a new modern and beautiful Anglican church  has been erected at Okanagan Falls and was dedicated on May 26th,  1963. Its location cannot fail to remind all of us of Psalm 121  "I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills."  After the second World war we experienced a gradual, and  then a much more rapid growth so that our Oliver church building  became much too small for our needs. There was considerable discussion regarding the erection of a completely new building but finally it  was decided that the plan to enlarge the existing church building  would cover the situation for the time being. In 1948 the reconstruction was started. Whilst this work was going on, the regular services  were held in the new Oliver theatre; Sunday School classes were  conducted in the day school, the Community hall and the Manse, and,  through the kindness of the Anglican Congregation Mr. Redman was  able to hold funerals and conduct weddings from the Oliver Anglican  Church.  On Sunday 31st, 1948 (October) the enlarged building was  re-opened and dedicated by the Rev. H. Telfer who was then  president of the B.C. Conference of the United Church of Canada.  The recorded minutes show that the larger building was a great help  to our work. In July 1950, the Rev. S. Pike of Peachland was called  by the congregation of the Pastoral Charge. Mr. Pike served the three  points for over ten years and during his ministry both Okanagan  Falls and Osoyoos Churches carried out major expansion programmes.  In January of 1956, the Committee of Stewards of the Oliver  63 The Oliver United Church  Church was able to report that the final payment had been made on  the bank loan. The borrowing of this loan had been made possible  because a number of the congregation had been willing to sign the  necessary notes, as security.  The Rev. Geo. D. Searcy with his family came from Lillooet,  B.C. on June 30th, 1960 at which time Mr. Searcy took over the  Pastoral Charge. At the present time all departments are very active  and the work of the Church is spiritually alive.  All six ministers have had splendid support from the ladies of  the congregations, and when financial difficulties arose the members  of the Boards would consult together and in most cases decide to ask  the ladies, both young and not so young, to help them and the ladies  came through splendidly with suppers, bazaars, home cooking, teas, etc.  Many Sunday School teachers have come and gone over the years  but their good influence has certainly not been lost.  Running through and underneath this skeleton history of more  than 40 years' work in our church covering the story of some of our  ups and downs, there is a spiritual meaning that must not be forgotten,  something which should spur us on, with God's help, to even greater  efforts in the future.  ^^m  Mrs. Bassett, who came to Okanagan Falls in 1898, says that  the Rev. James Lang, who built the Presbyterian Church at Fairview,  also held services at Okanagan Falls and alternated between the two  places travelling by stage.  In the winter he held a morning service in the front room of the  McLellan house. He lived in a small house close to Peach cliff which  he had bought from Neil McLean. He planted an orchard which  extended on both sides of the road, a few trees of which still remain.  The men working for him who planted the trees were Charlie Shuttle-  worth and Mrs. O'Keefe's husband. Tommie Shuttleworth drove a  team cultivating the orchard. He describes him as "a very fine man to  work for" and "an interesting man who told stories of early things."  His son, Hamilton Lang, who did not live at Fairview, was  sometimes at Okanagan Falls and Tommie had him up in the hills.  In a recent issue of the Vernon News in the news of forty years  ago it was noted that Hamilton Lang was chairman of a meeting  called in 1923 to organize Boy Scouts in Vernon.  64 ^Southern     Valleys of JPjritish \~^o/umkia  By C. C. Kelley  The major valley near the 49th parallel are the Upper Columbia  and Upper Kootenay in the Rocky Mountain Trench, the Kootenay  Lake Valley in the Purcell Trench, the southern part of the Columbia  Valley in the Selkirk Trench, the Kettle, Okanagan, Similkameen  and Lower Fraser valleys.  These valleys have a major role in the development of the  province. In them populations will concentrate and increase as resources  in surrounding mountainous areas are exploited. In some valleys the  populations may increase to an extent whereby the resources of the  valley bottoms, particularly agriculture, could be supplanted by  urbanization. The past has seen uneven development in the several  valleys. They will be described from east to west.  The Upper Columbia and Upper Kootenay Valleys* 2  The Upper Columbia River Valley extends from Canal Flat,  the head of Columbia River, to the Boat Encampment, where the  early fur brigades from the east and south stored river boats used as a  means of travel up and down the Columbia River.  The Kootenay River, which rises in the Rocky Mountains, enters  the Rocky Mountain Trench at Canal Flat, and flows southward,  crossing the border of Montana, and around the south end of the  Purcell Mountains, then across the 49th parallel again and into  Kootenay Lake.  David Thompson headed a party of the first white men to enter  the region in 1807. He came by way of the Blaeberry River (about  Columbia Silt Banks Near Athalmer  65 Southern Valleys of British Columbia  nine miles north of Golden) from Rocky Mountain House, and built  "Kootenae House" near Athalmer. This location was probably  selected to get the fur from the swamped flats of the Columbia River  north and south of Lake Windermere. He named Canal Flat Mac-  Gillivray's Portage, and the Kootenay, MacGillivray's River, after  his second in command.  Exploration for placer gold began in British Columbia in 1858,  and a strike was made in Wild Horse Creek in 1860. The mouth of  this creek is near Cranbrook on the east side of the Kootenay River.  The crossing was called Galbraith's Ferry and the settlement Wild  Horse. It became Fort Steele in 1888 after Col. Sam Steele arrived  with a detachment of mounted police from Fort McLeod, Alberta,  to settle a dispute between prospectors and local Indians. Fort Steele  declined after the construction of the Crowsnest Pass Railway in  1898, which neglected this community in favor of Joseph's Prairie  (Cranbrook), which was incorporated as a city in 1905.  Kimberley's existance is tied to the Sullivan Mine. The first  settlement was in 1892 and was known as Mark Creek Crossing. In  1896 it was renamed Kimberley after Kimberley in South Africa.  The rural and urban population of the Upper Kootenay River valley  between Canal Flat and Montana is about thirteen thousand.  In 1882 a C.P.R. construction camp at the junction of the  Kicking Horse and Columbia rivers was called "The Cache," afterwards Golden City, and in 1886 it was named Golden.  Steamboats operated on the Columbia River between Golden  and Canal Flat from 1886 to 1914. This mode of transport was made  obsolete by completion of the Kootenay Central Railway between  Cranbrook and Golden in 1913. The present population of the Upper  Columbia River valley is about six thousand.  Industries which developed since construction of the railways  are mining, ranching, lumbering and harvesting of Christmas trees.  Of these the Sullivan Mine is of chief importance. It is the main  support of Cranbrook, Kimberley, the Kettle Valley Railway and the  Trail Smelter. Until a few years ago it also supported the Crowsnest  Pass coal industry, but since then the smelter has converted to gas.  In general, development of the Upper Columbia and Upper  Kootenay valleys is still in the pioneer stage. Cattle ranching is the  main agricultural enterprise, and very little land is under cultivation.  However, there is a considerable potential for cultivated agriculture.  The climate is summer-dry and irrigation is necessary. About seven  thousand acres are under irrigation, with a total of about four hundred  thousand acres irrigable.  66 Southern Valleys of British Columbia  The Purcell Trench  The C.P.R. enters this valley at Beavermouth, and climbs the  western side to Rogers Pass. The northern part is drained by the  Beaver River, which enters the Columbia near Beavermouth, and  farther south the Duncan River drains the valley into Kootenay Lake.  There is agricultural settlement between Kootenay Lake and the  Panhandle of Idaho, partly on a large delta remnant on an upland,  and in part on dyked floodplains of the Kootenay River. The agricultural possibilities of the floodplains were of interest from the earliest  times, the first attempt at development being in 1886. The proposal  was a canal at MacGillivray's Portage, thereafter called Canal Flat,  and northward diversion of the Kootenay River freshet. By the time  the canal was built, an objection by the C.P.R. caused the government  to veto the project. The C.P.R. feared damage to the railway grade  north of Golden, if the diversion water got out of control.  In the first half of the 20th century, some forty thousand acres  of the Kootenay floodplains between Idaho and Kootenay Lake have  been dyked and farmed, chiefly for grain and hay. The upland around  Creston is an irrigated orchard district. Though the elevations are  higher than those in which tree fruits are produced in the Okanagan  Valley (2,200 to 2,400 feet as opposed to 1,800 feet maximum in  the Okanagan) tree fruits survive owing to milder winter extremes  and hot summers. The Camp Lister area south of Creston is devoted  chiefly to mixed farming without irrigation.  Aside from agriculture, the industries consist of mining and  lumbering. Kootenay Lake serves as a reservoir for a series of hydroelectric power plants on the Kootenay River between Nelson and  Castlegar. These installations are a part of the West Kootenay Power  and Light Co. generating system, which supplies the South Columbia,  Kettle, South Okanagan and Similkameen valleys.  The Selkirk  Trench  The Selkirk Trench lies between the Columbia and Monashee  Mountain systems on the west and the Selkirk Range on the east, from  the Boat Encampment to the American border. It is occupied by the  Columbia River, the Arrow Lakes and somewhat limited river  deposits along the valley sides. This region is of present interest, owing  to its potential for extensive power and industrial development.  Five damsites have been studied. These are at or near Mica Creek,  Downy Creek, Revelstoke Canyon, Castlegar and between Trail and  Columbia Gardens. The proposed Mica Creek dam, about fifteen miles  south of the Boat Encampment, is the most important and expensive.  Its reservoir would flood about one hundred and thirty-five miles of  67 Southern Valleys of British Columbia  the Rocky Mountain Trench, and store about fourteen million acre-  feet of water. It would control the downstream flow of the river.  Dams at Downy Creek, about forty miles upstream from Revelstoke,  and Revelstoke Canyon, about five miles upstream, would be run-of-  the-river dams. In combination, these three dams would generate  about 2.4 million horsepower.  A high dam on the 1,460 foot contour near Castlegar would put  the west and south boundaries of Revelstoke on the shoreline. It would  inundate about eighteen thousand acres of potentially arable land. If  cleared and cultivated, this amount of land could produce a net income  of about 1.8 million dollars annually, but the land is not needed for  agriculture at present. It could take fifty years or more before such  development is needed or achieved. In the meantime the land would  likely become subdivided and thus lost for agriculture.  As a reservoir, the revenue could be several times greater than  the yield for agriculture, and this could be made available in the near  future. Those who would like to see agricultural land conserved  regard inundation as a temporary alternative use, because flooded land  is not destroyed for agriculture. If at any time in the future, the land  is worth more for growing food than for storing water, the reservoir  could be drained and the land reclaimed. This would require an  enabling provision in the treaty with the United States.  Between Castlegar and Trail, urbanization is well advanced and  land is no longer available for agriculture. This section is the most  industrialized of the interior valleys. In future, urbanization will  extend toward Nelson in the Kootenay River valley, and into the  Slocan Valley.  The Kettle River Valley*  The Kettle Valley came to life in 1858, with the discovery of  placer gold in Rock Creek. Prospecting for minerals in bedrock began  around 1884 and continued thereafter. The Boundary District was  stimulated by the copper-gold find at Rossland in 1890. Between  1894 and 1903 Camp McKinney produced over a million in gold, and  the Greenwood locality became active. The Granby Smelter at Grand  Forks was built in 1899. The Greenwood and Boundary Falls smelters took shape in 1900. During the First World War the Boundary  District was the greatest copper producing area in the British Empire.  The smelters were abandoned in 1919, due to exhaustion of rich ore,  and a coal miner strike in the Crowsnest coalfield.  A necessary part of development in the Boundary District was  improvement of transportation. The earliest provision for crossing the  country was the Dewdney Trail, which was completed in 1865, and Southern Valleys of British Columbia  used until the railways came. In 1898 the Crowsnest Pass Railway  was completed from Fort McLeod, Alberta, to Kootenay Landing  on Kootenay Lake. At the same time the Kootenay and Columbia  Railway was built from Nelson to Robson. Both of these lines were  controlled by the C.P.R.  In 1897 F. A. Heintz completed the Columbia and Western  Railway from Robson to Trail. He also built a line from Trail to  Rossland, and established the smelter, which he called the Canadian  Smelting Works. He had a charter to build the Columbia and Western  between Robson and Midway, with a spur into Phoenix. But in 1897  he sold out to the C.P.R. The C.P.R. had acquired the Trail Smelter,  but for some years its operation was a problem. The C.P.R. completed  the Columbia and Western to Midway in 1899.  In 1905 the Great Northern Railway built a line across the  border at Laurier to Grand Forks and Phoenix. In the same year this  company started an ambitious project which was to end up at Victoria.  This was the Vancouver, Victoria and Eastern Railway. It was built  across the border at Midway, westward to Molson, where it recrossed  to Oroville (originally called Oro). The plan was to carry on up the  Similkameen Valley to Princeton, and from there to the coast. However, a charter beyond Princeton could not be obtained. In 1910 the  C.P.R. got a charter to build the Kettle Valley Railway from Midway  to Hope. This was completed in 1915.  The West Kootenay Power and Light Co. dates from 1897. In  that year it began work at Bonnington, and built a power line to Trail  and Rossland. In 1900 an English company built a plant at Kettle  Falls, under the name of Cascade Water, Light and Power Co., and  also built a power line to the Greenwood area. The Granby Smelter  and Grand Forks built a joint plant on the Granby River near its  efflux into the Kettle River. In 1907 the West Kootenay Power and  Light Co. took over the Cascade company, and since that time it has  served the southern valleys.  For mining and agriculture, legal rights to water were made  possible by the Gold Fields Act of 1859, enacted a year after the  formation of the Colony of British Columbia. Any person desiring a  right to protect his water supply could register a claim with the  nearest Gold Commissioner. The Water Act of 1909 not only provided for the establishment of a Chief Water Commissioner, later  known as a Comptroller of Water Rights, but also a board of enquiry  to study and decide priorities of early claims.  James McConnel, who located near Rock Creek, was the first Southern Valleys of British Columbia  settler to have a water right. It was dated March 7, 1875, and he  registered another right to use water from Morrisey Creek near Grand  Forks in 1883. W. H. Covert came to the Grand Forks area from  Fort Colville, Washington, in 1885, and obtained a water right on  Fourth of July Creek in 1887. In succeeding years agricultural settlement gradually increased.  In 1899 the Christian Community of Universal Brotherhood  obtained a water right on Hardy Creek, near Grand Forks, to irrigate  92 acres. This was the beginning of the Doukhobor influx, which did  not attain large proportions until 1908. After this date the greater  part of their activities were organized on a communal basis. The unit  of settlement was a village composed of two large community houses  for each 100 acres, surrounded by additional dwellings and farm  buildings. During the lifetime of Peter Verigin, communal endeavor  flourished, but its practice declined after his death in  1924.  The first attempt at large scale irrigation was by the Kettle Valley  Irrigation Fruitlands Co., an English organization. They acquired  about two thousand acres between Ingram Bridge and Rock Creek,  on the south side of the Kettle River. The water right was on Rock  Creek for 1,000 miner's inches, obtained in 1906. Water was diverted  from a dam situated about one-half mile upstream from the confluence of Rock Creek and the Kettle River. It was distributed by  means of flumes, ditches and pipes.  The land was in nine acre lots, with one to several lots to a  family. The settlers, retired British army people, were inexperienced  in agriculture. The orchards suffered from the severe climate and  inadequate irrigation. The unfavorable conditions for tree fruits, and  enlistment to serve in the First World War, started a decline which  led to abandonment of the project. Today little evidence remains to  indicate that this settlement ever existed.  Following the big development prior to 1919, the Kettle Valley  was dependent on pioneer agriculture and lumbering. It was depopulated, but gradually recovered population as new activities developed.  About eighty-two thousand acres are irrigable, of which 6,740 are  presently irrigated. Each year about two thousand five hundred cattle  are sent to market.  The Okanagan Valley  Requirements associated with the gold placer camps brought a  movement of livestock from the south; the first herd to cross the  border at Osoyoos (Sooyoos) was in 1858. From the opening of the  customs port of Osoyoos in November, 1861, to July, 1864, some  7,720 cattle, 5,378 horses, 1,371 sheep and 948 mules passed through  70 Southern Valleys of British Columbia  Terraced Penticton Silts, West Summerland  customs. These were mainly for use in the Fraser Valley and Cariboo  gold camps. Early ranchers in the Okanagan got their supply of stock  from the early cattle drives. By 1892 there were about twenty  thousand head of cattle on the southern ranges.  The Okanagan started as cattle country, with grain growing in  the north. After the turn of the century, the southern part was  developed for tree fruits. After the Second World War a third stage  of development began which threatens to supplant the tree fruits  industry as tree fruits supplanted ranching. This is urbanization without visible means of support.  Possessing as it does, the best climate in Canada, the Okanagan  is attracting large numbers of people with capital assets from less  favored parts of Canada. Since the area of supply is great, the valley  could attain a large population having an invisible income, which  would serve as a substitute for industry. In time urbanization could  replace agriculture and destroy the land for agriculture. An appro-  71 Southern Valleys of British Columbia  priate, though expensive alternative to the  loss of agricultural  land  would be to confine urbanization to nonarable land.  Only 104 years ago the only white men who saw the Okanagan  were personnel of fur brigades passing through. Today there probably  are 100,000 people in the valley and more on their way. With this  population as a base, in another 100 years the valley may be a human  ant-heap, with the only fruit trees in backyard gardens. It may well be  wondered if a majority of the present population is in favor of this  prospect.4  The Similkameen  Valley  Like the Kettle Valley, the Similkameen has a mining history.  Placer deposits were found along the Tulameen and Similkameen  rivers in the 1860s, and a rich strike was made in 1885. In 1891 the  valley was the most important producer of platinum in North America.  The Nickel Plate gold claim was staked in 1897, and in 1904 a  stamp mill was put into operation at Hedley. The mine operated between 1904 and 1931 with one stoppage while new ore was found. It  re-opened in 1934 and was abandoned a few years ago.  The Copper Mountain claims date from 1892, but production  did not commence until 1925. This mine, abandoned a few years ago,  produced 140 million pounds of copper, 36,000 ounces of gold and a  million ounces of silver between 1925 and 1944, with three years  production not reported.  The first coal discovery of importance was found around Princeton. Exploration began in 1901 and several companies operated until  the demand declined during the past decade.  Princeton was originally called Vermilion Forks after a deposit of  iron oxides nearby, from which the Indians obtained their supply.  Keremeos was named after an Indian tribe. The earliest water rights  for irrigation were applied for by Mrs. H. Tweedle of Keremeos in  1885, and by the estate of Thomas Daly in 1887. The estate of Frank  Richter got a water right on Shuttleworth Creek, a tributary of  Keremeos Creek, in  1889.  Results of a survey in 1955 indicated 10,240 acres under water  licences in the Similkameen Drainage Basin, and 6,194 acres were  irrigated. Between Hedley and the 49th parallel, 4,406 acres were  irrigated at that time. With the decline of mining in the area, agriculture, lumbering and the tourist trade have become the main activities.  The Lower Fraser Valley  Downstream from Hope, the Fraser Valley has become the main  industrial region of the province, and the area of the greater part of  72 Southern Valleys of British Columbia  Remnant of a Silt Bank, Similkameen Valley  73 Southern Valleys of British Columbia  its population. This concentration will continue to grow and spread,  at the expense of the agricultural land resource.  The floodplains of the Fraser have been dyked from Chilliwack  to tidewater, thus reclaiming the land, chiefly for agriculture, to the  extent of about forty percent. The remaining 60 percent of the job  of reclamation still lies in the future.  Though nearly all of the floodplain areas are under cultivation,  the general inadequacy of drainage limits soil productivity to somewhat  less than 50 percent of the potential. The improvement of land  drainage on a drainage district basis is the first job to be done, and  then the land should be irrigated to maintain production in the dry  months of July and August. When this has been accomplished the  crop yields would be more than double the present production per  acre,  and the dairy  herds could be  increased  accordingly.  REFERENCES  1 Kelley, C. C, and W. D. Holland. Soil Survey of the Upper  Columbia River Valley. Department of Agriculture, Kelowna, B.C.,  1961.  2 Kelley, C. C, and P. N. Sprout. Soil Survey of the Upper  Kootenay and Elk River Valleys. Department of Agriculture, Kelowna, B.C., 1956.  3 Sprout, P. N., and C. C. Kelley. Soil Survey of the Kettle River  Valley. Department of Agriculture, Kelowna, B.C. (Unpublished.)  4 Wilcox, J. C, and C. C. Kelley. Competition and compromise  in agriculture. Transactions of the Fourteenth British Columbia  Natural Resources Conference, Department of Recreation and Conservation, Victoria, B.C., 1962.  74 J he \^J.<J~L.tS.   j^icnic at   J-airview  Sn 1963  By K.  Lacey  The Penticton and Oliver-Osoyoos branches of the O.H.S.  joined forces to sponsor a picnic at the old Fairview Camp on June  2nd of this year, and through the generosity of Mr. and Mrs. Otto  Hess some 65 cars and about 200 people gathered in a small meadow  across from the remains of the old Moffat Saloon which was situated  near the top of the Gulch, and is about the only tangible relic of the  old Camp left. Due to the efforts of Mr. and Mrs. N. V. Simpson of  Oliver many of the old sites were marked thus giving the general  public a more comprehensive idea of what the old mining camp had  been like. In spite of a downpour of rain right after lunch most of  the cars took advantage of a guided tour around the old townsite.  Camp Fairview was originally discovered by Ryan and Reed,  but they only staked claims, gave the creek a name and travelled on—  to George Sheean and Fred Gwatkins should go the honors of the  first real discovery in 1887 of the Stemwinder, known as the discovery  claim. The Fairview camp covered a large territory. Evan Morris'  claim, the Wild Horse, located in 1891, on a ledge running east and  west extended over on to the Similkameen slope.  The original townsite straggled up the gulch to take advantage  of its proximity to the creek—the only water supply. At the mouth of  the Gulch was F. R. Kline's Golden Gate hotel and proceeding up the  gulch and interspersed with miner's cabins and mineral shafts were—  E. Morris' "Miner's Home" on the left, and on the right Burke and  Housinger's boarding house, then around a sharp corner was the stamp  mill and above it the company residence with Messrs. Atwood and  Reynolds as company representative and manager.  Close by was the residence of Dr. Boyd, the camp doctor and  adjoining him were the apartments of Forbes and Hind. Following  the main road up through the camp the next place is W. T. Thompson's large store, where a large and varied stock of prospectors' supplies  was always on hand. Then came several more cabins and the new  store of W. T. Shatford, opened in the summer of '92. More shafts  and tunnels and then Moffat's Saloon, surrounded by a cluster of  cabins, one of which belonged to a man named Mead, who had  purchased the Silver Crown claim from J. H. East and J. Simpson,  the original locaters. The Meades had the honor of having the first  white child, a girl, born in camp in 1891. At the top of the Gulch was  75 Okanagan Historical Picnic at Fairview in 1963  Old Fairview Camp  the store of the pioneer merchant, Thos. Elliot, "to provide the miner  in food and clothing."  With the buying up of most of the mineral claims by the  Stratheyre Mining Co., buildings and businesses moved down on to  the flat. Such businesses as Kearn's Fish House (afterwards the Golden  Gate), Love's Drug store, the Big Teepee hotel, the Government  house, an Anglican church, a school, Swinburnne's butcher shop,  Dalrymple's blacksmith shop, McDougall's Livery, McCuddy's store,  and telephone and post office. Quite a thriving town to have disappeared  so completely.  Many of those present had known Fairview when it was a booming settlement, and were happy to meet old friends and recall events  of those times.  o&^>  76 <__/    rKemember   j^enticton  'Jrom 1900- 1908  By Anne Nesbitt Burgess  My father, Joseph Alfred Nesbitt, was born in Quebec City,  Quebec, in 1851. As a young man he had a great hankering to go  west. His feet were really itchy so it wasn't long before he was on  his way. When he got as far as Fort Garry, which is now called  Winnipeg, the Riel Rebellion was on; so he joined forces there  with the Red River Expedition in 1870. When that was over he  still wanted to go further west, so in course of time he found himself  in a small settlement in British Columbia. At that time it didn't  have a name but is now known as Lumby. Why he went there I  do not know. It happened that a lassie had just arrived at this same  place from Scotland. It wasn't long before they met and were  married in 1894. My father had a job at this time selling fruit  trees up and down the Okanagan Valley. He was away from home  quite a bit and he wasn't satisfied, and in course of time there were  four children  in the  family.  About this time—1900—he was asked to take over the police  job in Penticton, so he gladly accepted. It wasn't long before we  were on our way in the late fall of that year. We came down the  lake on the little old "York". The "Aberdeen" was plying on  the lake at that time, but why we had to take the York I do not  recall.  There were just two families here ahead of us, outside of  the Ellis family who lived on the Ellis homestead which at that  time seemed so far out of Penticton; actually today it is only a  stone throw from the heart of Penticton, just a block or two southwest of  Main  on  Fairview  Road.  Mr. Smith, who was acting as C.P.R. Agent at that time lived  with his wife and family of three little girls in a cottage west of  the first C.P.R. wharf. Mr. Dan White and family lived in a  cottage on the hill a little south of the Smith home. Mr. White was  a blacksmith and his place of business was on the corner of Ellis  Street and what is now Front Street.  The Penticton Hotel overlooking the lake on the hill was the  busiest place in town. The bars were wide open in those days.  Freighters, miners and travellers all met there to quench their thirsts.  The hotel and store next door were owned by Mr. Ellis, our Cattle  King.  77 / Remember Penticton from 1900-1908  Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Nesbitt and family, William, b. Oct. 9, 1895; Annie, b.  Sept. 14, 1896; Alfred, b. Sept. 13, 1897; Margaret, b. Feb. 19, 1899;  John, b. Jan. 5, 1902.  Mr. A. H. Wade managed the store for Mr. Ellis. His home  was a neat little cottage south of the White residence and also on  the hill overlooking Ellis Street.   He was a bachelor at that time.  Mr. Welby had the horse stables and this was the centre of  the freight business. This was on the hill just east of the White  residence. Well do I remember those white covered wagons waiting  to be loaded and on their way.  Our home wasn't ready when we arrived in Penticton, so we  stayed with Mr. Smythe Parker, a bachelor who was then Chief  Magistrate. His home was a cottage on the site where the R. B.  White Clinic is today. Our home was on Ellis Street just south  of Mr. Wade's. My father bought thirteen lots here thinking that  this would be the main part of Penticton. This proved to be wrong  and poor little Ellis Street looked so forlorn and neglected a few  years later.  Mr. and Mrs. L. C. Barnes lived in a cottage a little northwest of our home. Jim Campbell and Harry Hilliard had homes  on either side of us. Mr. Atherton was the manager of the Penticton  Hotel and Jessie Phelps was the waitress there. Jim Schubert had  a general store opposite Dan White's blacksmith on Ellis Street.  He was a widower and had a son Bert. Mrs. Hood clerked in this  store. She had a daughter Florence. Their home was across Penticton  creek north of Parker's residence.    Outside of the Ellis family and  78 / Remember Penticton from 1900-1908  their cattlemen, this comprised the population  of  Penticton  at that  time.   About twenty seven people.  There was a wonderful community spirit here in those early  days. In sickness or trouble there was always a helping hand. We  would have the odd party at each other's homes, but that couldn't  come too often as we would wear out our welcomes as there were  so few of us. As there were no baby sitters, when Mama and Papa  went home, all the children would have to go as well. Sometimes  we would have a. spelling bee or a debate; a discussion and exchange  of books, and always we would wind up with a few games. Musical  chairs as I remember, seemed to be the most popular game. There  wasn't a piano or an organ, but someone would have a mouth organ  and we had an accordion which filled its purpose. It all helped to  spend many a delightful evening. Tea and cakes would be served  by the hostesses in turn.  In the Spring the hills would be dotted with flowers and  shrubs and many a study in nature did we have there. I believe our  parents knew the names of each flower and shrubs that grew on  those hills. Then in summer there was swimming and as we had  a boat we had a little boating. Then we would have the odd picnic.  Our favorite spot was on the beach about 200 yards east of the old  wharf. Fishing was a great sport in those days, but when we went  fishing in Penticton creek we didn't always take hook and line.  We would go equipped with rake and hoe, wash boiler and tub, and  as fast as our parents would rake in the fish, we children would toss  then into the containers. When we thought we had our winter supply  we would be on our way home. This may sound like a tall fish  story to some of you, but it is true. I was there. The fish were  the Kickanee coming up the streams to spawn; they were related  to the salmon and were delicious to eat. As years went by they  became more scarce, so the Government put on restrictions and we  had to use the gaff hook. Then later our hook and line. The  Indians never came under these restrictions. I do not believe there  are very many of these fish in the stream today.  Of course the fish had to be preserved as soon as possible after  the "catch" and Mother and Dad had various ways of doing this.  Some of those recipies I wish I had today. They were really delicious.  Dad put some of them down in a brine and Mother pickled some  in tomatoes and spices and various other ways.  The "Aberdeen" plied up and down the lake three times a week  between Okanagan Landing and Penticton, carrying freight and  the odd passenger.   It was a beautiful sight to see her coming in all  79 / Remember Penticton from 1900-1908  lit up. With a toot of the whistle and clanging of the bells, she  used to cause a surge of excitement through us all as she would glide  so gracefully to the old wharf to be tied up for the night. I believe  every one in town would go to "meet the boat" on its arrival. This  of course, was the horse and buggy days and some of the people  would come with their teams and tie them up along the road to the  dock. My father thought this was quite a traffic hazard and so he  tried to stop this practice. I wonder how he would handle the traffic  situation of today. Crossing the creek at Front and Ellis was a small  bridge that held against the spring floods, but the little foot bridge  on Ellis Street had to be replaced every year. It was made of several  huge boxes filled with rocks and placed at intervals in the creek,  then spanned with jittery long boards. I would never cross unless  some one would take my hand. I imagine the water was never too  deep there outside of the flood season, but then the bridge would  be washed away, so there wasn't much danger.  There was only one church here at this time, the little old  English church almost opposite the old Ellis homestead. Rev. Green  was the minister there when he was in town. He travelled and  held services in different parts of the Valley. We attended services  here a few times, but gave it up in time. It was a long dusty walk  over the freight roads and we were all very young at that time.  Also in winter the roads were either muddy or snow covered. At  one time my father thought he knew a short cut through the woods  but we became lost, so that spelled finish to our trips there.  In 1901 a couple of young chaps arrived who opened our first  real estate office here—a little building just north of L. C. Barnes'  residence. This real estate firm was run by Winkler and Moore.  Here we held our first church services in town, about once a month,  with  Rev.  White our Presbyterian  Minister.  In 1902 a new family arrived, the Roadhouse family. Now  we had high hopes of opening a school. But the Smith family moved  away. Mr. Smith was succeeded by Mr. Townley and Mr. and Mrs.  Townley didn't have a family. However, Mrs. Hood, whose daughter  was attending school elsewhere, promised that if we could get a  school started, her daughter would attend here, but even then that  wasn't enough to solve our problems, but by squeezing in my brother  Alf and Les Roadhouse, who were under school age, we finally  got our school opened in the fall of  1902.  We had to have an average attendance of eight to start a school.  That meant that ten had to answer the roll call. Mr. Roadhouse  and my father were the school trustees.   They selected a little cabin  80 / Remember Penticton from 1900-1908  on the brow of the hill opposite the Penticton Hotel, a tiny one room  affair. Miss Chisholm was our first teacher here. Our desks were  a plank nailed to the side wall, and our seats were a long bench also  made from a plank and placed to make it a little more comfortable.  This meant that we were never facing our teacher. Our only books  were the Primer and our writing book was a slate with a sponge  attached to a string and looped into the frame of the slate to wash  it off when necessary. Often there wasn't any water in the school  bucket to dampen the sponge, so we did the next best thing, and  that was to spit on the slate and even at times lick it with our tongues  . . . but germs or not we all survived and were a healthy bunch. This  surely would be frowned upon by the sanitary laws of today.  In 1903 the Taylor family arrived and also the Randolphs  with a school age daughter, Hazel. Also Bert Schubert joined our  ranks. This created another problem. Our school was far too small.  My father had just completed a dwelling on the corner of Ellis  Street and what is now Nanaimo, so it was decided that that would  be our next school. Miss Black then Miss Diamond, were our  teachers then. There was always a fast turn over of teachers at this  time. Social life was very dull for a young girl, with very little  recreation and no eligible young blades; so they looked for greener  pastures.  1904 saw a great change in our small community. Mr. Ellis  was contemplating to sell out to the S. O. Land Company, which  was under the guidance of the Shatford brothers. This meant a  change over from the cattletown as Penticton had been up to this  time. This of course, brought in more families—Martinsons, Richard-  sons, Hudons, Roberges and the Edes, and now another school problem  faced us. We had to seek a larger school now. This time a building  was erected on the west side of Guernsey's pond. We called it  "Turtle" pond as it seemed to be alive with turtles. Miss Carr was  our teacher now, then followed by Miss Ashworth, who was a sister  to Mrs. Townley. Soon she married Col. Herschmer, then Miss  -Munroe took her place. Here also we held our first church services  with Rev. Balderson, our first Methodist minister, and sometimes  replaced by the Presbyterian minister. It didn't matter in those days  what the denomination was as long as it was a church service and  everybody attended.  Here I would like to particularly mention the Hudon and  Roberge families. They were of French descent and at that time  could speak but very little English. Where they came from I do  not recall, but before the family arrived a priest got in touch with  81 / Remember Penticton from 1900-1908  my father who knew he could read and write French, and it was  arranged that they were to stay at our home until their's was ready  for occupancy. They had bought property over on what is now Main  Street on the west side in the 200 block. We couldn't imagine them  wanting to build so far away out of town, and at that time it was  such  a muddy  spot.  Mr. Hudon was a blacksmith and his shop bordered on Penticton  creek opposite what is now the Valley Hotel. Mrs. Hudon turned her  home into a boarding house which later became the Papulas Palace  Hotel. Mr. Roberge opened our first baking shop right next to the  Hudon's home. The Hudons had eight children and the Roberges  had three at that time. That meant there were twenty two people  housed in our four bedroom home for several days, but everything ran  along smoothly without any fuss or confusion.  People were now flocking into town from everywhere, and  houses and businesses were popping up all over, and this meant the  social life was changing too. Lodges and Clubs were organized.  Mr. and Mrs. McNeil who became our first dairy people, were  great community workers. Mrs. McNeil organized our first children's club, called the Band of Hope, a temperance club. It petered  out in a couple of years and then she organized the first troup of  Boy Scouts, then the Girl Guides. She also held classes for some of  the senior classes in her home—also she trained children for some  of our early concerts.  By 1905 our school was much too small, also our Sunday  services were overcrowded. The town was growing rapidly. Many  more families were coming into Penticton. Erauts, Hendersons,  Latimers, which all added to our school population. We were still  all in one room. That meant again we had to look for a larger  school, but when and where was the question. Finally in 1906 it  was decided a building near the corner of Martin and Eckhardt  would be our next move. It was a private dwelling. The living  room was to be used as one room and the kitchen as the other. Mr.  Fred Tupper, a brother of Charlie Tupper who was a member of Parliament here for a number of years, was our first school principal,  and Miss McKinley was the other teacher. It was a queer set up  as the kitchen was really to small and there wasn't enough room for  a stove which was badly needed in the winter, so a pot bellied affair  of a stove was attached to the ceiling and hung above the children's  heads, how it was stoked must have been a laughable task, but it  served its purpose and everyone was warm during school hours.  The old building by the pond was towed down to the corner  82 / Remember Penticton from 1900-1908  of Eckhardt and Main, additions added and that became our first  Presbyterian church, with Rev. James Hood our first minister. Rev.  Ferguson Miller succeeded Mr. Hood here and continued after the  churches were united.  The Methodists built their church two blocks north on the  same side of the street. Rev. Mr. Hibbert was the first minister  there. Mr. Hibbert later married Hazel Lancaster who was our  first music teacher. Mr. Hibbert was succeeded by the very popular  Rev. G. O. Fallis. He went overseas and was Chaplin in the army  in the First Great War.   I do not recall what battalion he was with.  The town was still growing rapidly. C. A. C. Steward built  a two story structure on the east side of Main in the 200 block.  The first floor was his place of business. He had a furniture store  here. Also the Post Office moved in here as well from a corner  in Shubert's store. The upper floor was used as a public hall. We  held our first public dances here and any public meetings, etc.  July 1st was the chief attraction of the year. The mornings  were donated to children's sports and some swimming and boating  races at the old C.P.R. Wharf. Then in the afternoon there were  bicycle races, but the chief attraction of all was the horse-racing—  Indian and whites would gather from everywhere, even as far away  as Oroville, which at that time seemed so far. It was a quaint and  picturesque sight to see those Indians decked out in all their gay  colors. They really made it a day, took their lunches and all their  kiddies and they would congregate in little huddles all over town.  July 1st became so popular that in time it was made a two day event.  Also in the summer we would have a wonderful Sunday School  picnic, all the churches combined. We all headed for "Dog Lake"  where the day was spent in games, races, etc. In the winter we would  have an ice carnival at the old pond. There would be prizes for  the best costumes, races and snap the whip.  Our school was very sadly overcrowded by this time and a much  bigger school was needed immediately, so this time we had our first  real school—a four roomed affair erected on the corner of Main  Street and Fairview Road in 1907. The first principal was Mr.  Barker with Mr. Tupper, Miss Yuill and Miss Laird as the other  teachers. This school still stands and I believe today is used as the  primary school.  In 1908 our village was incorporated with Mr. A. H. Wade our  first Reeve. Main Street was now the business section of town, leaving  Ellis right out of the picture altogether. Mr. Wade carried our first  mail from the old wharf to the Penticton Hotel in a small canvas  83 / Remember Penticton from 1900-1908  bag. There he sorted it in his corner of the hotel. Later he used a  wheel barrow to carry the mail, then horse and buggy. Now it comes  in trucks, buses and planes. That is the growth of the Post Office  over the years.  In those early days there wasn't a dairy. Lots of cows but they  were all for beef. We had to send to Kelowna for milk which had  to come down the lake and only three times a week. How Mother  ever got it to keep sweet I cannot recall. There were no basements  nor refrigerators but we dug a hole on the north side of the house  which seemed to help to serve for that time. We couldn't dig a  cellar as we would strike water after digging a couple of feet. We  were always in the path of the floods here. I recall one time Mr.  Wade awakened us about 2 a.m. banging and shouting and when  we go up our place was flooded with water. Dad had to carry us  two at a time down Ellis, then we walked to the Penticton Hotel to  seek refuge for the night. Mother wouldn't come with us, she  wanted to save her chickens and ducks. When Dad came back for  her he found her trying to save the ducks who were swimming  around having a whale of a time. She forgot all about the chickens  —I suppose she panicked.  I believe it was in 1906 a circus came to town. While here it  became broke, so they split up and left, but one of their members  lingered behind, a colorful character we called Nigger John. John  Norwood was his name. He was quite a baseball player and gave many  of the young boys here their first lesson in baseball. He later married  an Indian woman and the question arose as to where they were to  live—the council finally gave permission that they could live in  Penticton. Then again it was brought up in the council and finally  they had to move to the Indian Reserve.  Another colorful character was Apple Tree JoneS—better known  as Nigger Jones. He was always dry and carried his bottle with him  most of the time. On one of his binges he went for a boat ride. He  had on a big heavy fur overcoat which he wore most of the time.  Somehow the boat tipped over on him but he managed to get back  some how, soaken wet of course. He went home and changed, then  took all his clothes to Sam's Laundry, including the overcoat. Sam  laundered everything, then ironed it all, even the coat which really  now looked a mess—hair and all, but Mr. Jones still wore it after all  that experience.  When my youngest brother was born here in Penticton in 1902,  Dr. White could not be located, so two Indian women came and  stayed till after the baby was born and Mother was on her feet again.  84 / Remember Penticton from 1900-1908  When Dad died in 1931, some of these Indians followed his casket to  his grave. One of the finest tributes ever paid I thought.  There are few here know that I am an ex-convict—Yes, I was  locked up in Penticton jail many years ago. Most people would like  to keep this locked in their cupboards, but here I am more or less  bragging about it. My crime? Hide-and-go-seek. After a prisoner  left the jail it fell on my Dad to clean the place up and prepare  for another client. On one of these occasions Dad took us children  with him and left us outside to play while he went about his work.  We played hide-and-go-seek and I thought it would be smart to hide  in the jail. When my father was through here he locked the door  and started for home with the rest of the children. I was missed but  they thought I had gone home. When I didn't show up for supper  they became anxious and started looking. Soon the whole town was  looking for me. Some thought I might have fallen into Wade's pond  which was quite close to the jail. However, about dusk some one  passed the jail and noticed my face through the bars. I had paid my  fine in tears, so was released, but Dad never took us up there again.  When the S.O. Land Company took over in Penticton, they  brought in a bunch of Chinamen to work as labourers. This really set  off steam in town, so headed by some of the business men they were  chased up the lake and told not to come back. A charge was laid against  these business men, and four of their number were sentenced to two  months in prison. The Chinamen didn't come back. Whether they  were too frightened or what I cannot remember.  The Randolphs I believe had the first orchard on the bench. Then  B. A. Shatford near the middle bench. Two of his small daughters  died within a week of each other in 1907. It cast a gloom all over  town.  Our first street lights here were coal oil lamps, and it was the  policeman's duty to see that they were lit at night and put out in  early a.m. and I suppose he had also to see they were clean and filled  with oil as well.  Before concluding I would like again to bring in that historic  name of the Ellis's. Some people think of Mr. Ellis as a hard, shrewd  business man, but he had his kinder side too. When we arrived here  in late 1900, we had no provisions stored away for the winter. On  different occasions on going to our front gate we would find a bag  of potatoes or apples, and we knew the Ellis's had been there. They  never announced their presence, just tossed the bags over the fence  and were gone. I do not believe he singled us out any more than the  other few families. I believe we were all treated alike. Needless to  85 / Remember Penticton from 1900-1908  say they were greatly appreciated. Then at Christmas he would send  up his team and sleigh and pick up all the families of Penticton and  then we would be off to spend the rest of the day at the Old Ellis  Homestead. There would be a turkey dinner awaiting us, then a  Xmas tree laden with gifts, candy, nuts and oranges for all the children. There would be singing, carols and games, and then all too  soon, at the end of a very happy, exciting day, we would be bundled  off home again. This went on for several Xmases, 1900-1-2-3. It  couldn't have continued or there would have to be more than one  sleigh as the town was growing. However, after the S.O. Land Company took over, the Ellis's retired to Victoria, where they spent their  final days. The parents of those children are all gone as well, but  the children, for those of us who are left, old and gray like myself,  must still remember this Ellis family which helped to make our early  Xmases here so much happier in those first years of 1900.  I left Penticton in 1927 and when I returned a few years later  I was amazed at its growth. It didn't even look like the place just a  few years before, and I even became lost on its streets. A few times  I have taken the odd stroll down into the old part of town on Ellis  Street just by myself. I still see the house that Billy Blance built. Mr.  Blance clerked for Mr. Wade who had just built a store on the corner  of Front and Westminster, after Mr. Ellis sold out. Sam Kee's old  laundry was just south of those on Robinson Street. I found the little  old real estate office of Winkler and Moore, also the Barnes and  Wade homes. Harry Hilliard and Jim Campbell's abodes and our old  home as well as one or two other homes my father built well over  sixty years go. They are all there; their faces lifted and all renovated,  but I still recognize them and they seem to call out to me as I pass  by, and it all brings back my childhood days and so many happy  memories of so long ago.  I mentioned before we had a little boat—One Good Friday,  being a holiday, my Mother packed our picnic basket and told us we  could go on a picnic by ourselves, but we were to be home by six  o'clock. We started off, got into our little row boat which had just  sprung a leak. We rowed and baled all the way to Naramata, the  same route the steam boats took. After arriving in Naramata and  looking the town over, we ate our lunch and started back the same  way, and just got into Penticton as the Okanagan came in—so we  just rolled into shore with her wake. Why we were not drowned I  don't know . . . our guardian angel must have been with us. However,  we arrived home right on the dot of six—none of us were over ten  years old.  86 Uernon   LA-nited {-church  By Guy P. Bagnall  Editor's Note : The article that follows is the third in a series  of three articles telling the story of the United Church in Vernon.  The first of these articles dealt with the early history of the Presbyterian Church and is to be found on page 125 of the O.H.S. Report No.  17. The second similarly outlining the early history of the Methodist  Church up until the time of union in 1925} appeared in the 26th  Report.  In the following pages the reader will be told the history of the  present day United Church from that time.  Church Union between the Methodist, Congregational and  Presbyterian communions took place in 1925, and was suitably con-  sumated by observances at the various churches throughout Canada  and Newfoundland, but local union was something quite different,  which had to be worked out by local church outhorities. This was  the position at Vernon.  Here, were two churches which had each filled an important  place in the life of the community for about 25 years, families had  gone full cycle of the sacraments, births, marriages and deaths; and  there were strong attachments for the forms of service to which they  had become accustomed. There were two solutions to the problem:  One was to continue with the polity (form of constitution) of their  existing church; the other being to adopt the polity of The United  Church of Canada. As an important preliminary to local union, each  church adopted the polity of The United Church. This cleared the  way for discussions relative to local union. Meantime, St. Andrew's  Presbyterian Church changed its name to "St. Andrew's United  Church," and Vernon Methodist Church became "Central United  Church, Vernon, B.C."  Four years were to elapse before local union became a fact.  These were years of preparation—not unlike the time spent by a  couple contemplating matrimony. — However, it soon became apparent that if these 2 churches meant business, the subject would have  to be studied closely by a committee.  On February 4th, 1929, St. Andrew's United Church formally  communicated with Central United Church, expressing its approval,  in principal, of the amalgamation of the 2 local churches and asking,  if Central United Church were in agreement, that they would appoint  a committee of seven (7) to meet with a committee of like number  87 Vernon United Church  from St. Andrew's. The Central United did agree, and the lists of  the joint committee are given below,—  Presbyterian Methodist  Wm. Forrester, dec. G. P. Bagnall  N. R. Brown, dec. W. L. Pearson, dec.  J. T. Mutrie, dec. Thos. Hyland, dec.  John White, dec. Geo. Woods, dec.  C. Fulton, dec. A. B. Godfrey, dec.  H. K. Beairsto A. J. Stephenson, dec.  W. S. Harris, dec. A. S. Hurlburt, dec.  These names were consolidated to make the committee on local  union. W. S. Harris was elected chairman, A. B. Godfrey, deputy  chairman and G. P. Bagnall, secretary. The committee duly completed its task and its report was formally adopted by each congregation,  meeting in separate buildings, and then communicated by one body  to the other.  There were rejoicings. Integration was to begin at once. It was  not an easy program to follow. The two ministers would be continued  for a full year; they were expected to co-operate, and they did,  meanwhile the scores of changes—disturbing to some members—were  quietly carried out and the year passed all too quickly.  Then the time came to say goodby: Not just an ordinary "Good-  by." It was the end of a peculiar type of religious experience. A new  day had dawned, and the two ministers, now leaving, symbolized  for each congregation those very dear family ties and associations  which had grown up over the years.  Reverend G. G. Hacker, the former Methodist minister, and  Reverend T. J. S. Ferguson, the former Presbyterian minister, were  each presented with a beautiful historic scroll, signed by representatives of the United congregation. The scroll began in a somewhat  legal form with "Dominion of Canada, Dominion of Newfoundland, To Wit:" et. seq.  As these 2 men of God left to take up a torch in another field,  Vernon United welcomed to the pastorate,—  Reverend Jenkin H. Davies, B.A., LL.B., Ph.D. who remained  to serve his calling here for fifteen years. This seems the right place  to tell a little more about the committee on local union, because from  this vantage point it can be seen how efficiently their work had been  done. The success of local union committee from inception to  consumation, may in a very large measure be attributed to its chairman,  the late W. S. Harris. His candour, reasonableness, his thorough grasp  of   the   matter-in-hand,   and   his   amazing   friendliness   with   every  88 Vernon United Church  member of that committee worked wonders. Of course there were  divergent views—doctrinal, procedural, historical and sentimental.  Many a time it looked as though any agreement which had been  reached would be forthwith dissolved—but Mr. Harris held firm to  first principles, and at the last meeting had won all essential points.  The writer has been a member of many church committees but  never before a member of a committee where business acumen and  spiritual requirements were held in such perfect balance. Mr. W. S.  Harris completed a task which few men could equal in performance,  and Trinity United Church has every reason to hold his memory in  deep respect.  It is not the purpose of this digest to bring in current events,  important though these undoubtedly are, but we wish to pass onto  the kaleidoscope of church life as presented about the time of 1925-  1930, and even later. The great achievement of union, when the new  congregation, with the pooled resources of 2 churches, began to move  unitedly, problems mounted: A new church must be built, overcrowding of the Sunday School must be faced and remedied.  First the commodious assembly hall and Sunday Schol was built,  to be followed by the new church. These facilities have become a  living testimony to the faith of an energetic and far-seeing congregation. It was an immense undertaking but a more satisfying one could  not have been devised. The congregation was mobilized for the  effort. How can one select a name or even two as leaders in this  mighty program without causing offence to people who have right  of claim for recognition in the pages of history. I feel the choice  must be with the writer, and his responsibility as well, to introduce  the two who gave the congregation such brilliant leadership at this  period of its life—Messrs. Ralph T. Bulman and Harold K. Beairsto.  Early and late, often in disagreement, more frequently synchronized  as a team, but always jealous for the welfare of the church, they  labored assiduously, until the job had been finished and a temple,  worthy for the worship of Almighty God, stood erect in all its beauty,  transcending all previous efforts to meet the growing needs of church  life in the city of Vernon.  HISTORIC DATES  The Clergy:  Reverend Jenkin H. Davies, B.A., B.D., L.L.B., Ph.D., 1929-  1945  Reverend Gerald Payne, B.A., B.D., S.T.M., 1945-1952  Reverend George Affleck, B.A., 1952-1957  89 Vernon United Church  Reverend W. B. Roxborough, B.A., B.D. For 7 months supply,  1957-8  Reverend Arthur W. Dobson, B.A.,   1958- Continuing  Assistant Minister—Mr. James Ford,  1961- Continuing  STUDENT MINISTERS Originating at Vernon United Church:  Reverend Allan I. V. Dawe, B.A., Ordained 14th October, 1954  Reverend Thomas W.   Bulman,   B.A.,   D.D.,  Ordained  May,  1954  Reverend Harry Johannes Mullins, B.A., Ordained May, 1962  Reverend Gordon W. Brown, Ordained May, 1961  Reverend Donald F. Baldock, Ordained May, 1962  Building Program:  Construction of assembly hall and Sunday School began in 1949  after a sod turning ceremony in which the late W. C. Pound and  Howard Thornton, Jr. took part. When completed in 1950, at a cost  of $39,486.95, the dedication was conducted by Reverend E. D.  Braden, D.D., President of British Columbia United Church Conference, assisted by Dr. Switzer.  Construction of Vernon United Church was also initiated by a  sod turning ceremony, when Mrs. W. L. Pearson handled the spade.  This was on October 18th, 1953. At the corner stone laying event,  Hugh Ramsay was honored and Reverend Allan C. Pound, M.A.,  M.Th., participated. It will be recalled that Rev. Mr. Pound's father  had been present at the opening of both the first Presbyterian and  Methodist Churches in Vernon (1892). They were opened within  12 months of each other. The building of Vernon United Church  was completed, and an elaborate celebration took place. Numerous  clergy from outside points were present and participated in the proceedings. In 1961 a fire-proof vault was built to house the church  archives.  Property Value: Total value of church land and buildings now  stands at $339,150.38. There is a bonded debt of $23,700.00.  Organizations: This church is highly organized: there are 91 on  the membership roll of young people. It sponsors a troop of Boy Scouts,  Cubs, C.G.I.T., Camp Hurlburt, Sigma "C", Explorers' Group, and  a Couples' Club. The Women's Association has 13 units, formerly  known as circles. There are three choirs, the Chancel Choir for adults,  the Choristers Choir for boys and the Chorallers Choir for girls. A  Bursary fund was set up some years ago to assist student ministers  attending university. It has proved a veritable God-send at times.  There is a Memorial Committee to give guidance to all proposals  90 Vernon United Church  for gifts and memorials. This committee does much to conserve the  beauty of original design, as it appears in the interior of the church.  History tells us that where there has been no such provision, a church  tends to become a museum—something less than a consecrated place  of worship.  The church budget is in the range of $40,000.00 per annum.  Recent statistics record the membership at 652 Resident and 178  Non-resident, for a total of 830 members. The modern Sunday  School, led by Superintendent Stanley Dawe has five departments, 686  scholars and 115 teachers making a total of 801. Buses are used to  bring the children from a distance. Mr. G. S. Dawe has been identified  with Sunday School work for over fifty years.  A NEW NAME: The Vernon United Church after 33 years  decided to change its name. A congregational meeting was called and  the matter discussed. This was on Sunday, May 11, 1962, Reverend  A. W. Dobson presiding. When the benediction was pronounced it  supplicated a blessing on the new name, which had been adopted —  TRINITY UNITED CHURCH.  This church, with the new name, is "pressing forward." Champing at the bit, it cannot go back, it may not stand still, it is geared for  forward movement only, and destiny is calling. What a prospect!  It was John Wesley who coined the phrase "The world is my parish"  but the Apostle Paul seems to summarize the situation with even  greater precision: "Fogetting those things which are behind, and reaching forth unto those things which are before, I press toward the mark  for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus."  Much is behind, still more is before this Trinity United Church,  we will endeavor to summarize the information available, it will be  as official as we can make it, projected upon a stupendous screen—  because the backdrop is the world. Into this vortex of changing  elements, Trinity United Church has plunged, to become a part of a  vast organization, working round the clock, in the sweltering heat  of the tropics, upon the frozen tundras of the far north; among  savage people in Africa, and the civilized in Asia; inside bamboo,  iron and other curtains, where ever the night of darkness prevails, it  seeks to bring the gospel of light. It joins battle with the evil forces  which would break and crush the will of mankind to rise, shaking the  shackles of doom and despair, to embrace liberty, truth and justice. For  this task the church must prepare, we will tell of that too. Here we  91 Vernon United Church  would like to quote a  few lines from a mariner which  depict the  Churches need.  "Build me straight O worthy Master  Staunch and strong, a goodly vessel,  That shall laugh at all disaster  And with wave and whirlwind wrestle."  THE UNITED CHURCH OF CANADA  Designed, 37 years ago, for the integration of Christian faiths  in Canadian Churches . . .  Toleration: Introduced in the United Church Basis of Union,  has become a stepping stone to Co-operation . . .  Co-operation: Is now in general acceptance, with its full effect  being felt in the foreign Mission field and, to a lesser degree, in  the home churches in Canada . . .  The Ecumenical movement, built upon the spirit of co-operation  abroad, has led to a greater and more profound understanding of all  Christian faiths upon a world wide basis. This is progress. It is  history . . .  The United Church of Canada has a vast spread of activity at  home and abroad; its budget for 1960 was $7,250,000.00, with  supplementary estimates bringing the total to $10,000,000.00. Of  recent record, there are 3,286 ordained ministers in the U.C.C, of  this number 850 are on pension. The Church has 2,694 Pastoral  Charges and 6,192 Preaching Places:  There are 59 ordained Overseas Missionaries, 56 Chaplains with  Her Majesty's forces—Navy, Army and Airforce—49 are on full  time educational work, while 33 are engaged in administrative work  at United Church headquarters, Toronto.  In Angola (Portuguese West Africa) the U.C.C. participates  with the Council of Evangelical Churches in operation of 3 hospitals,  19 rural dispensaries, 1 "T.B." Sanitarium, 200 elementary schools,  1 secondary and 1 normal school, 3 girls' vocational schools and 1  theological college.  In India there are similar assignments for 69 Missionaris (29  evangelistic, 21 medical, 17 educational, 2 agricultural). In Japan,  Formosa, Hong Kong and Korea the work goes on. In Trinidad the  Partner Church is Presbyterian; new mission fields were opened up  recently in Central Africa and Brazil, South America. There is a  department for Overseas Relief: In addition gifts of clothing and  other supplies are distributed on the Home Mission field.  In  Canada  the   U.C.C.  operates  2   universities and   1   college  92 Vernon United Church  where degrees are granted: There are 8 theological colleges, 8 secondary schools, a training school for women and 4 lay leadership training  schools. The U.C.C. interest in education in Canada may be focussed  through statistics—702,000 pupils, 70,000 teachers, with 245,000  other persons receiving instruction with groups through-the-week.  The Home Mission field embraces a wide assortment of activities: Missionaries preach in 20 different languages. A fleet of Mission  boats serve on Atlantic and Pacific seaboards. Special work is carried  on among the Indians. The fall and rise of immigration through  Canadian ports of entry is scanned by padres, whose function it is  to meet the arriving immigrants and be of service to them.  Homes for senior citizens, for girls and unmarried mothers are  provided in a number of centres of population. In the province of  British Columbia there are 1 Indian residential school, 5 hospitals,  2 homes for senior citizens, 1 home for girls, 2 down-town institutional churches, 8 Oriental churches, 3 foreign language churches,  4 Mission boats, 13 Indian Missions, 1 Lay leadership training centre,  1 theological college; 211 pastoral charges, 545 Preaching Places,  378 Ministers.  This lengthy catalog is not included here to trumpet the magnitude of this church's commitments, nor to suggest that there is any  virtue in being a mammoth organization, but rather to make an  historic record—that it exists; that we have seen it in operation, that  it is a growth of our times. Very little of it existed one hundred  years ago and another reason for mentioning it—as a program of  past, present and future Christian effort—is to tell our readers that  this radiant picture is all a part of TRINITY UNITED CHURCH,  an integral part of its very life.  Sprung from the loins of our own people, cradled in the  Okanagan Valley and brought to maturity amid the beauties of a  land flowing with milk and honey, these early churches have  emerged as from a cocoon, to be assimilated by the larger organization  of the national church, a mighty colossus which never sleeps but  offers direction and inspiration as it reaches out to worship God,  to serve mankind, demonstrating the practice of the Seven Virtues  and resisting the vices, which retard or negative the exercise of  spiritual forces which, forever, must be in active conflict with evil.  This is history at its most inspiring best; and ours in a ring-side seat  to con the conflict, relentlessly drawing to a close.  93 <J he {—changing Osconomu of the  tSimilnameen  By Rev. J. C. Goodfellow  Editor's Note: What follows are the notes of an address to  British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers at their annual convention  held in Princeton in May of this year.  Legend tells us that long before the white man came to Similkameen it was called Eagle Valley, because eagles were plentiful, and  their feathers were an item of export. The only other item of export  in these early days was red ochre, of which there was a plentiful  supply. Indians came from far and near to trade for this red earth,  or paint, so that, on occasion, they could present themselves in the  approved fashion of the age in which they lived. Red paint was  exported for the use of men. Now it is imported for the use of women.  The paint was sold at Allison Flat, then called Yak-Tulameen, or the  place where red earth is sold. It was our first market-place.  The trails then, as the roads of today, were like the fingers of an  outstretched hand. An eagle looking down, as we look down today  from an aeroplane, would see the main trail east and west, now the  Hope-Princeton highway, the vital link in the southern transprovin-  cial road. North was the trail to Nicola, now the Princeton-Merritt-  Kamloops road. North-east was the trail to Peachland, and north-west  to Tulameen and Otter Valley. The trails the eagle saw are the roads  of today which we see when we fly from Hope to Penticton. The  country has changed, but not so much as have the people.  There is a wealth of history in local place-names. Tulameen,  for example, means "red earth." Tula means 'red,' and meen means  'earth.' This can be verified by Father Le Jeune's dictionaries of the  native tongues.  But there is no agreement as to the meaning of the sister-word  Similkameen. The ending is deceiving. It was put there by white  people who were reared south of the Scottish border, because they  could not pronounce the guttural Similkameugh. I collected a dozen  different meanings for this word, but none of them had enough  authority to bear investigation. Not to be baffled in my search for  Truth I visited old Charlie Squakin. He lived by the roadside a few  miles east of Hedley, and I felt sure he would settle the vexed question  once and for all. But all that he could tell me was that it was the  name of his people. They were so called because they lived in the  Similkameen Valley. The valley was named for the river, and beyond  that he could not go.  94 The Changing Economy of the Similkameen  Nine people out of ten will tell you that Kamloops means the  "meeting place of the waters," but I have yet to find anyone who can  tell me which part of the word means "meeting place." Those who  maintain that it is a French word meaning "wolf camp" have reason  for their contention. On the old Brigade Trail at Tulameen they had  the Camp des femmes, the women's camp. That was where the women  stayed when the braves went fighting, and where the braves stayed  when the women went berry-picking. And there were other camps  along the trail with French names.  About twenty miles north of Princeton, on the road to Merritt,  is Skye-blue Lodge. The "Skye" is spelled with an 'e.' I asked Mrs.  Anderson (it has changed hands since then) where they got the 'e'  and she said that her husband, when in the Fraser Valley, had a  herd of cattle from the Island of Skye in Scotland, and that gave  him the idea.  Then we have (or had) Blakeburn, the coalmine community  named for its two promoters, Blake Wilson and Paddy Burns. Paddy  Burns, one of the great cattle barons of Western Canada, was a man  of many interests.  Allison Lake is named for John Fall Allison, one of the early  cattlemen of our valley. Although not the first white man to visit  Similkameen, he was the first to come to stay. He came in 1859, and  died here in 1897. Mrs. Allison lived till 1937 when she died in her  93rd year. Their grandson Harold is one of the mainstays in the  local Cattle Growers Association.  And there is Richter Pass, named for the father of the provincial  Minister of Agriculture, the Hon. Frank Richter, who is with us  today. The father came to the Lower Similkameen Valley in 1860,  and was a true pioneer in every sense of the word.  These two names—Richter and Allison—suggest a theme I  would like to develop. (1) Our past history has to do with fur and  gold. Richter was connected with the fur trade. Allison was sent here  by Governor James Douglas to report on gold discoveries. Both were  cattlemen. In the mining field, gold was followed by coal and copper.  (II) The fur chapter in Similkameen history is ended. Gold, coal  and copper have ceased to be factors in our economy—at least for the  present. But out of the dead past have arisen factors which are the  main-stay of our present-day economy. From the fur-trade come  agriculture, fruit-farming and ranching—horses and cattle. From  mining has come the farming of our forests and the growth of our  tourist trade. (Ill) This will call for a word about the future, for  95 The Changing Economy of the Similkameen  our economy is still changing, and you are in a better position than I  am to play the prophet, and guess the shape of things to come.  I—THINGS PAST  First, we must glance at the past to get our bearings. This has to  do with the fur-trade, and with mining.  The Fur Trade  Fur trading in Similkameen is linked with international events.  The Hudson's Bay Company had amalgamated with the North West  Company in 1821. The international boundary award of 1846, setting  the line at the 49th parallel, made it imperative to discover all-red  routes from the Company fur-lands to the sea. A. C. Anderson was  appointed to pioneer a trail between Kamloops and Fort Langley, one  that would avoid the dangerous Fraser rapids, especially Hell's Gate.  The Brigade Trail ran from Hope to Tulameen, on to Nicola and  Kamloops.  Company posts across the line were moved to Keremeos in 1860,  and Frank Richter, senior, was the HBC man in charge of horses.  The Keremeos post was maintained for only twelve years, but Mr.  Richter stayed on in the land he had learned to love. He had acquired  extensive acreage, part of which is now occupied by the town of  Cawston, named for R. L. Cawston.  Mining  The other mainstay of early days was mining—gold, copper and  coal.  Some of the HBC servants decided that it was more profitable  to look for gold than hunt for furs. In the early 60's there was at  Blackfoot, beyond Allenby, a settlement of men who were making a  living by searching for and finding gold. The big gold strike was at  Granite Creek in 1885. Within a year of that date Granite Creek was  believed to be the third largest town in the province. The most  permanent settlement dependent on gold was at Hedley.  The search for gold brought to light the presence of coal, and  this gave rise to various communities, Blakeburn and Coalmont being  the best-known.  The discovery and mining of copper gave rise to Allenby and  Copper Mountain, both of which were thriving communities for many  years.  Princeton benefited from all these discoveries. Now, although  mining is a thing of the past in Similkameen, some of the communities  thus born continue to thrive. Hedley, Princeton, Coalmont and Tulameen continue to enjoy varying degrees of prosperity.  96 The Changing Economy o f the Similkameen  THINGS PRESENT  It is easy to see the significance of the past in the light of the  present.  The Hudson's Bay Company trading post at Keremeos lasted only  twelve years, but during these years important beginnings had been  made in agriculture, fruit growing and ranching. The fruit farms of  Keremeos and Cawston stem directly from HBC experiments. Mr.  Richter brought in and planted the first fruit trees.  The HBC men were especially interested in horses and cattle.  Without these they could not maintain their operations. This is the  origin of today's great ranches in Similkameen, and such names as  Richter, Allison, Sellers, Thomas, Coulthard, Thomas, Willis and  Currie rank high in the progress that has come to our valley.  The fur trading passed away, but the industries it gave rise to  are the mainstays of our present-day economy: agriculture, fruit  orchards and cattle raising.  Mining, too, has gone (at least, for the present), but before  passing it gave rise to community life, the harvest of the forests, and  the tourist trade. Had it not been for the growth of community life in  every part of our valley, there would have been little incentive for  ranchers to raise cattle. Everything is inter-dependent.  The cattle-raising industry as we know it today had its origin  in Mexico in 1521. Centuries later came the great cattle drives to  Texas, and from there to every part of the North-west. In Similkameen the story goes back to Keremeos in 1860. Today it is big business,  one of the mainstays of our economy. Francis Richter and John Fall  Allison never dreamed that the day would come when cattlemen from  all parts of our province would gather in Princeton to discuss ways  and means of improving their herds and their operations. The pioneers  builded better than they knew.  THINGS TO COME  We have spoken of things past and things present. A word  remains to be said about things to come. Mark Twain once said: "You  may have noticed that the less I know about a subject the more confidence I have, and the more new light I throw on it." I am no  prophet, and I am no Mark Twain, but I take it that you are gathered  in Princeton just because you are concerned about the future. I  cannot pretend to give you any guidance for the future, but I may  suggest some things that may help you in your deliberations.  I think that the modern mainstays of our economy in Similkameen—the forest harvest, the cattle industry and the tourist trade—  97 The Changing Economy of the Similkameen  may have a permanency that has been denied to fur trading and  mining. We have been able to accommodate ourselves to a changing  economy. But the factors that brought about this change will continue  to work, and if we are wise we shall take them into account. Once a  land is depleted of its minerals, mining is at an end. But that need not  apply to the products of the forest, the cattle business and the tourist  trade. We must seek to discover how to make these continuing assets.  First: the day of splendid isolation is over, both for nations and  for industries. Yet today, as always, too many cooks will spoil the  broth. Each unit must be under the guidance of one man or one group.  There is something vital in the principle of free enterprize that must  not be lost. It has its dangers, and these we must seek to avoid.  In the second place, there must be a measure of co-operation.  Most Canadians seem to prefer this to the principle of collectivization.  That seems to be the genius of our race—private enterprize and a  measure of co-operation, so that all might benefit from the experiences  of each. The 4 H Groups which are so active in our province are  simply the junior counterpart of adult co-operation. The fact that you  meet here today means that each is seeking to learn from all the rest.  There is one further step, and that is co-ordination. I am quite  sure that the Minister of Agriculture will throw a flood of light on  this. As individuals, as a group, you have to consider the Public on  one hand, and the Government on the other hand. Today you have  your public relations men. The cattle industry is big business, and  there will be ever-increasing problems of production, distribution and  marketing. You do well to gather together that you may review the  past, take stock of the present, and look to the future.  Grist Mill at Keremeos built by Mr. Barrington Price, circa 1877  98 n  enticton   Jhenand<J\c  ow  By Janet Anderson  See, where the twin lakes sleeping lay  Ringed in these golden sands;  And the river slow meandered  Through dreaming meadow lands;  Drowsing through countless turning years,  The changing seasons' round,  Through flood and fire and drought and storm,  Unmoved, unbroken ground!  Timeless no more, still sleeping lie  These lakes, blue depths serene;  But no more grows the untrodden grass  Where the violets bloomed unseen.  Blazed, bare, is the paleface trail;  His are the conquered skies;  And the print of the booted heel is deep  Where the harnessed river lies.  But listen! Some nights there are ghosts abroad  And the loon complaining wails,  As whispering moccasins single file  Seeking the long-lost trails;  Seeking the once-familiar haunts,  The bowstring broken, still;  While the phantom packhorse slowly fades  Away on the moonstruck hill.  Listen once more, when the moon rides high  And hushed is the city street;  When shadows people this lovely place  Where lake and river meet!  The winds are sighing a peaceful song;  Silent, the loon's harsh cry;  The Okanagan is changed indeed,  But its beauty cannot die.  99 George Muterer Watt  100 {-jeorae <yVluterer    Watt—-_-_^r   Jribute  By Primrose Upton  On July 29th, 1963, the Okanagan Historical Society lost one  of its staunchest supporters. George M. Watt (who would have been  82 on September 5th, 1963), died quietly at his home at Okanagan  Mission. This was at the home he had built himself for his retirement  after a busy, useful and interesting life. He built it of lumber salvaged from the old Bellevue Hotel annex in Okanagan Mission.  George Watt was born in Durham, England, the son of Mr. and  Mrs. George Watt (nee Marion Hall), and arrived at Penticton with  his parents in 1898. The other children were Ovington, Bert, Freda,  Archie. It was from Penticton to Greenwood that Mrs. Watt's  brother, Robert S. Hall, was running a freighting outfit. In 1900  and 1901 Mr. Hall also had the mail contract from Fairview to  Camp McKinney, and down in to Oroville, Washington (OHS 19th  report). Young George Watt worked on this freighting and mail  run in 1899, 1900 and 1901. "My run was from Fairview to Camp  McKinney three times a week, and to Oroville once a week." (OHS  26th report.)  Apparently the Watt family moved to Victoria either in 1902 or  1903, for George M. Watt in his article "282 Miles On a Bicycle"  (OHS 26th report), states, "I was living and working in Victoria the  summer of 1903 when I made the decision to travel to the Okanagan  Valley, where my uncle, Robert S. Hall, and his brother-in-law, had  bought a large acreage of range land in the Ellison District, nine  miles north of Kelowna. Here, I would like to mention, that four  years previously, 1899, I had ridden horseback over this trail in the  month of July, making the round trip."  Mr. Watt worked for a Vernon newspaper for a period. Then  he took on the job of road foreman, building the road up Duck Lake,  Wood Lake and past Oyama. He also worked on the irrigation construction for Winfield and Okanagan Centre. In 1913 he married  Lillian Caroline Geen, daughter of a pioneer Ellison family. In 1914  their son, Eric, was born at Winfield. The next year the family moved  to Buffalo Creek, east of 100 Mile House, where they ranched until  the fall of 1918. That year they moved to Soda Creek by freight  wagon. During this trek every farm house at which they visited or  stayed, had at least one case of the famous flu, but none of the Watt  family came down with it. The winter of 1919 Mr. Watt cut cord  101 George Muterer Watt—A Tribute  wood for the "BX," the last steamboat to ply the upper Fraser River  from Soda Creek to Prince George.  End of steel for the PGE in the spring of 1920 was just beyond  Williams Lake. Mr. Watt drove team and buggy with passengers to  Quesnel. Next year he bought a car, and continued carrying passengers. Dr. Gerald Baker, beloved physician of Quesnel, often had  Mr. Watt take him on house calls into remote country points. During  the 20's and 30's Mr. Watt was a road foreman, putting in the Cariboo Highway from Soda Creek to Quesnel. With the assistance of his  wife and son, he also operated his ranch down on the river at Soda  Creek.  The Watts returned to Kelowna in November, 1944, and bought  the B. E. Crichton property at Okanagan Mission. Here, with his  brother-in-law, Percy Geen, he put in a cherry orchard. Mrs. Watt  died in 1952, and that year Mr. Watt sold his interest, and built a  house at the corner of Barneby and Lakeshore Roads. He also had a  property in the hills south of Okanagan Mission, adjoining Hector  John's place. Here he loved to go to construct a small cabin, to put  up fence, and just to enjoy the peace and beauty of the hills. He was  an expert with an ax, and with gunpowder. He has removed several  large boulders in fields and orchards in the district. People have marvelled at his skill in reducing a boulder to rubble with no danger or  damage to buildings or power lines nearby.  Eric, the only child of Mr. and Mrs. George M. Watt, after  serving in the R.C.A.F. during the war, returned to the Cariboo, and  in 1951 married Gayle Harnden of Kersley. They have two children,  David and Loretta, and live at Williams Lake.  Keenly interested in the history of this province, George Watt  attended many of the celebrations during Centennial Year. He was a  Director of the Kelowna Branch, OHS, in 1955, 1956 and 1957.  In 1957 he was made President of the Kelowna Branch, a position  he held until 1960. Since then he has been on the executive of the  local branch, as well as being one of the Vice-Presidents of the Okanagan Historical Society.  Mr. Watt loved to talk to old timers of all ages. His interest in  the history and growth of this Province was extensive, and his knowledge accurate. He was a man whose slight build and quiet voice belied the fact that he had most successfully "bossed" road and construction gangs for many years. I like to think that he is typical of  the more trustworthy type of pioneer, who by hard work, honesty  and integrity, have made our wonderful Province what it is today.  102 tJDrivina <JL^oqs bu    reiver and<s>L~ahi  >$ <*~°ds °u  (1910)  By Gordon Dale  Editor's Note—The following is the prize winning  essay in the 1963 Essay Contest sponsored by the Okanagan  Historical Society to encourage the youth of the Valley to  seek out and record bits and pieces of the rich history of area  they call home. The writer of this essay is a Grade VIII  student at the Enderby Secondary School and the content of  his story was told him by one of the men he writes about.  River driving was the only way of transporting logs over long  distances from the forests to the sawmill in those early days.  The River Drives were very popular with all the people. To the  drivers, or "River Hogs" as they were often called, it meant wages  of three dollars a day, seven days a week and free board. To the young  boys in their teens it was a challenge; if they went through a drive it  was accepted as a sign of maturity. To the homesteaders it was an annual event to look forward to; it gave them a chance to sell their logs  and exchange news and gossip. To the men at the sawmills it meant a  steady job for the coming year. To the merchants it meant bills paid  on time.  The men, 35 in all, were hired by the A. N. Rogers Company  in Enderby and were placed under foremen Albert Johnston and Angus Woods. The men loaded the batteaus, tents, cooking supplies and  necessary tools on the wagons and started the three-day journey via  Vernon and Lumby to Cherryville which was the starting point.  Undecking the logs (rolling them into the river), was the next  undertaking. The crew worked 10 to 12 hours a day sweating with  their peavies. Dynamite, of course, was not used. A blast of it was  capable of destroying hundreds of logs. The logs when freed from  shore went down the river, shooting through canyons and rapids. The  men followed the logs down, pushing, prying and rolling the logs off  rocks, shoreline and other obstructions as far as a boom strung across  the river mouth at Mabel Lake, 23 miles away.  The main means of transportation during the drive was the "batteau." A batteau is a 22 foot boat pointed at both ends. These strongly  made boats were manned by six or eight men; a bow man, stern man,  and four or six oarsmen.  During the river part of the drive the headquarters of the men  103 Driving Logs by River and Lake (1910)  C(.£#«YV<«£  was a "cook wagon," which hauled all the food and equipment. At  some places, getting from the river to the wagon road at dusk was  difficult, with various back-channels which had to be traversed by foot.  As a result the men had to wade through water and swamps after a  hard day's work and repeat this to return to the boats and work the  next day.  After the 23 miles of the Upper Shuswap have been cleaned out  the men split up. Part of them would go round the lake to the Lower  Shuswap and undeck the logs found there. The rest of them would  take the boom across the lake.  The boom is closed and then hitched to the source of power, the  "headworks." The headworks consists of a large raft with a capstan  104 Driving Logs by River and Lake (1910)  mounted on it. The capstan is about six feet in diameter. Connected  to the centre of the capstan is a large sweep. Hitched to this sweep is  a horse who winches the boom up to the headworks. The anchor rope  is then placed on the capstan and winched aboard by a horse. The head-  works is then rowed forward by the oarsmen in the batteaus to the end  of the tow rope. The anchor is dropped and the winching repeated.  This slow but sure method was repeated until the 11 miles of lake  crossed. During the stretch across the lake the headquarters and cook  shack were transferred to the "Wannigan." The "Wannigan" is a  cook shack mounted on a stout barge.  We have now reached the final part of the trip, the Lower Shuswap, 24^2 miles of river along which are the treacherous Skookum  Chucks Rapids, now known as the "Chucks."  The logs were fed down the river. Along the stretch of Water  men were stationed at selected spots to prevent the logs from jamming.  After the logs were sent down the river the process of "rearing" began. Rearing is the term used to describe the method of following the  logs and rolling them off the rocks into the river. The Chucks had to  be portaged. From there on down towheads and jams were frequent.  Finally the logs were collected in a back channel at one of the Enderby  saw mills.  Eighteen million board feet of logs in all, the year's supply.  The drive was concluded by a two-day celebration; loggers, drivers, towns people, and saw mill employees participating.  However, no matter how inspiring it sounds, it was hard, slow,  dangerous work. There was always a chance of a storm, a log jam, or  of death. There was the cold, the wet, and the swarms of mosquitoes.  e^_^  Before the advent of the railway the mail was brought in in  summer by steamer from Sicamous to Enderby and from Enderby to  Lansdowne, Vernon, Okanagan Mission by stage; in winter from  Sicamous by stage all the way. Previous to the completion of the  C.P.R. main line, mail was brought from Kamloops to O'Keefe's by  stage and thence on to Priests Valley (Vernon) and Okanagan  Mission. Residents then north of O'Keefe's had to go to that point  for mail.  105 J he    r^everend   ^hilip ¬±Stock<  By Kathleen S. Dewdney      WS&9n  In a peaceful valley high in  the mountains overlooking Okanagan Lake is a solitary grave with  a tall white monument which  reads:  REV. PHILIP STOCKS  DIED JULY 31, 1916,  AGED 61 YEARS.  LORD REMEMBER ME  This mountain, Stocksmoor, fringing the western side of the  lake opposite Okanagan Centre, and the grave thereon, are closely  linked wth the early history of the Okanagan Valley.  The Reverend Philip Stocks, B.A., M.A., was born on November 7th, 1854, in London, England. He was the sixth son of Lumb  Stocks, R.A., Historical Line Engraver, whose steel engravings of  historical subjects hung in the Royal Academy. He was noted too for  his water-colors and oil-paintings.  The Rev. Stocks was educated in London, England, and received  his degree at Hertford College, Oxford. He was ordained at Peterborough Cathedral about 1885. For some years he was Vicar at  Great Bowden, Ketton and Twickenham; Rural Dean in Rutland;  Rector at Ridlington and at the "Church of the Resurrection" in  Brussels, Belgium.  He was a talented musician and frequently conducted choir  practice. In his parishes he implanted the joy of singing lovely church  music, and he encouraged young men to do hand-bell ringing and  sing carols outdoors during the Christmas season. It was said of him,  "Wherever he went he did good and left each place the better than  when he came."  Five children were born to the Rev. Stocks and his wife, the  former Miss Emily Frances Fisher: Lumb, Alfred Edward, Arthur  Michael Browning, Mary (May) Emily, and Ellen.  106 . The Reverend Philip Stocks  Grave of the Rev. Phillip stocks  His wife,  Emily,  died in Penticton on  Mav   1st    1Q4A a  *-. ssjia Kiss srysr  s>xteen gran children; and twenty-sevet great '^ZZ ^  Lake, TO," *I«T_^£\££« £ £33  and fiT     A   PITM:.  °f thC abUndan« of wild fowlf big gLe  and fish; and of the «row-or-sailing" boats' that could be b____-'t  McN _   f3  ($4°-00)   fr°m  M  client  boat-bui dT Ian  McNair, who hved on the lakeshore nearby '  years younger than his brother, canae _rom ^S__£fS £  in  _yu«. He sailed on the Fmi\rP« ..f t-_,i    j   r T .  tt-.r.r j   , impress ot  Ireland  from L veroool to  H^and thence by Canadian Pacific Railway across CaL. to  rowingYrXgr"SailinS" "Mt " °ne th3t C°Uld te ^ fM Cither  107 The Reverend Philip Stocks  The Rev. and Mrs. Stocks at Stocksmoor  Sicamous, B.C. From here he travelled down the Okanagan Valley  to Okanagan Landing where he took the S.S. Aberdeen to Nahun?  The brothers filed claims on adjoining pre-emptions on the west  side of Okanagan Lake almost opposite Okanagan Centre. These were  among the earliest recorded in that district.  Lumb came to Canada in 1910, and having inherited the artistic  talents of his grandfather, opened a photographic studio in Kelowna.  Later he moved to Penticton where his son, Jack, still carries on the  business. The name, Stocks, is synonymous, with excellence throughout  the Okanagan and Similkameen.  While the Rev. Stocks was vacationing with his wife in Scotland  in 1914, the World War broke out and he was not allowed to return  to his parish in the British section of Brussels. Failing health caused  by a weak heart decided him to go to his sons' homestead in Canada.  In the Autumn of 1914 the Rev. and Mrs. Stocks with teen-aged  daughter, Ellen (May had already gone), arrived by the S.S. Sicamous  2 Nahan Winock: An Indian name meaing "rock with child."  Nahan, "rock," was a large precipice near the wharf in the bay.  Winock, "child," was a small island across the lake, where the Indians  spent their honeymoon.  The Indians had moved away from Nahun before the Stocks'  arrival.  108 The Reverend Philip Stocks  at Kelowna. They brought little more than their clothes, the Rector's  vestments, and some precious books. They could not get their furniture  from Brussels, then occupied by the Germans. The American Ambassador in Brussels, who was a friend of the Rev. Stocks, took charge of  some of his cherished pieces of furniture during the war years. One  of these, a Grandfather's clock, is now in possession of his son,  Arthur in Penticton and still  faithfully tells the time.  Arthur has a letter from the U.S. Legation in Brussels, dated  January 20th, 1916, written to the Reverend Philip Stocks, Stocksmoor, Nahun, B.C., and signed by Brand Whitlock.  Arthur, who had gone to England and Belgium for a short time  in the winter of 1911-12, and while visiting his parents in the  Rectory at Brussels, met a friend of the family, Nurse Edith Cavell,  Matron of the Berkendael Medical Institute in Brussels.  It was largely because of  Brand  Whitlock's urgent  advice  in  1914 that Brussels did not resist the Germans, and thus escaped  devastation. His activities on behalf of Edith Cavell who had been  sentenced to death by a German court-martial for giving aid to  Allied soldiers were unavailing, and she was shot by a German firing  squad in 1915. "Mount Edith Cavell" in the Canadian Rockies was  named in her honor.  The Rector, his wife and daughters, spent the winter of 1914-  1915 in Kelowna. In the spring, upon the advice of the well-known  Dr. W. J. Knox, they moved to their sons' pre-emption where a  comfortable log cabin had been built for them on the mountain.  Over this mountain had travelled David Stuart and a few  companions of the John J. Astor Pacific Fur Company, the first white  men in this area, when exploring for furs in 1811. Thereafter, the  North West Company which absorbed the Astor Pacific Fur Company,  used the Okanagan  route  for several  years.  From 1826 to 1848 through the long, narrow valley above the  mountain, where a few years later the Stocks brothers built their  cabins, passed the well-trodden Fur Brigade Trail of the Hudson's  Bay Company with which the North West Company amalgamated  in 1821.  Over this trail travelled the picturesque brigade of the Hudson's  Bay Company, with the Factor wearing a tall beaver hat, a junior  officer or a missionary at his side, a kilted piper, sometimes as many as  three hundred pack horses with twenty packers, and occasionally some  of their families.  From Fort Alexandria to Fort Okanogan (Wash.) they brought  out valuable cargoes of furs gleaned from the  far-north reaches of  109 The Reverend Philip. Stocks  New Caledonia (now northern British Columbia and the Yukon) to  ocean-going vessels at the mouth of the Columbia River, and on the  return trip brought in provisions for their forts and trading goods for  barter with the Indians.  To reach the homestead the Stocks family travelled north on  the S.S. Sicamous from Kelowna to Nahun where there was a post  office and a small store, both in charge of H. B. Kenard. A steep  climb on horseback on a narrow, zig-zag pack trail led to a beautiful  valley almost  1,900  feet above the lake.  From 1908 to 1914 the pioneering brothers had cleared the land  and built their log cabins. A sparkling mountain stream ran through  the clearing. At the southern end of the valley where poplars flourished  was another stream where beavers thrived.  In the early days of the century visitors were few. Two well-  known personages of Okanagan Landing, B.C., were friends of the  Stocks family; Major Allan Brooks, D.S.O., writer, traveller,  naturalist, and painter; and James A. Munro, Chief Federal Migratory Bird Officer for the Western Provinces.  When the Rev. Stocks had his fatal heart attack, Mr. Munro  was visiting Stocksmoor. He helped Arthur make the coffin and he  attended the funeral.  The settlers who had taken up pre-emptions along the lake  were mostly young English bachelors, veterans of the Boer War.  On the outbreak of war in 1914 most enlisted at Vernon and their  land was deserted. Alfred joined up in 1914 and went overseas.  Before enlisting in June 1917 Arthur had taken the monument  up the hill. Weighing 280 pounds it was in two pieces, pedestal and  cross, one on each side of Buck, his sturdy, white-faced, buckskin  horse.  Life on the homestead was a new experience for the scholarly  Rector who had lived in tastefully furnished rectories, a Scottish  mansion, and was the incumbent in spacious, graceful churches of  finest architecture. From 1888 to 1897 he was Vicar of S. Mary-the-  Virgin, Ketton, Rutland.  Following is a short quotation from a detailed description of the  church at Ketton: "The remarkable similarity between the churches  of S. Mary-the-Virgin, Ketton, and S. Mary's Stamford, seems to  indicate a relationship. The 13th century towers are contemporary  (they were probably built by the same master-builder), and the capitals  and bases of the tower arch of S. Mary's, Stamford, are quite similar  to those at Ketton. The curious position of the door in the chancel  was the same—.  110 The Reverend Philip Stocks  "There is a delightful story that when Sir Walter Scott made  the journey along the Great North Road from London to Scotland  he always bared his head to the superb tower and spire of S. Mary's,  Stamford, as being the finest sight of the whole journey—.  "The development of Ketton Church is exactly similar to S.  Mary's, Stamford, but Ketton is of more slender proportions and of  a more feminine grace."  The Rector's sensitive and artistic nature still appreciated the  simple and healthy joys of the Canadian countryside. Alfred and  Arthur had built their parents a comfortable, roomy cabin of pine  logs with a double roof of pine logs, split and hewn with an adze and  broad-axe, covered with split cedar shakes.  The furnishings were few but sufficient for the family's needs.  An airtight heater and plenty of fir and cedar wood cut and hauled  to the cabin by Arthur kept them warm on the coldest days.  The Rector was contented sitting in his round-backed wooden  "Captain's chair" reading his books and papers or writing at his study  table illuminated with a coal-oil lamp. His energetic wife and helpmate was always close at hand doing the many household chores  required on a farm, or reading in her comfortable rocking chair.  His children enjoyed the freedom and social pleasures of country  life—going on hikes, picnics, or riding over the hills. Occasional  parties were held at the homes of the scattered settlers, then Arthur  played his portable harmonium, one youth played the violin and  another the banjo.  They cultivated the soil and planted a vegetable garden, strawberry plants, and black currant bushes. They had a cow and some  chickens. For fresh meat there were deer, blue and willow grouse;  fish; and kokanees (in season) were plentiful in the bay at Nahun.  Fruit could be obtained across the lake from the first orchards which  were easily reached by "row-or-sailing" boat.  The homestead now bore the proud name, "Stocksmoor."  Daily family prayers, grace at table, and Sunday services were  observed at Stocksmoor. Services were held on special occasions such  as Christmas, Easter and Thanksgiving.  After the Rector's arrival in Kelowna in 1914, the Rt. Rev.  Alexander J. Doull, Bishop of Kootenay, had authorized him to hold  services in the diocese.  In May 1915, he officiated at the wedding of his son, Lumb, to  Miss Marion (Bunny) Bourne of Twickenham, England, in St.  Michael's and All Angels' Church, Kelowna. At Stocksmoor in the  spring of 1916, in cassock and surplice, he officiated at the wedding  111 The Reverend Philip Stocks  of his daughter, Ellen, to George Moubray, a young man of the  district. Also, at Stocksmoor in June 1916 he baptised his first grandchild, Peter, son of Lumb and Bunny of Kelowna. Peter, then six  weeks old, had been taken in the arms of his mother and father up  the hill on horseback from Nahun.  The beauty of each season with its own gift gave joy and  comfort to the ailing Rector.  The miracle of spring's awakening—the fresh, bright greenness  everywhere, the bursting of buds, and the singing of nesting birds—  kept strong his faith.  The warm sunshine of summer encouraged him to take leisurely  walks to admire the beautiful wild flowers that carpeted the hillsides  and meadows—the tiger lillies, orchids, peavine, Indian Paint Brush,  lupines, and delphiniums.  The gorgeous red and gold leaves of autumn, the fruits of the  harvest, and the honking of Canada geese winging their wedge-shaped  flight southward for the winter drew forth his admiration. The eerie  howls of the coyotes echoing from the hills had a fascination all  their own.  A three-foot blanket of snow brought the quietude and rest of  winter days. Then he would read and write in the comfort of the  cabin.  The Rector sensing more than beauty in the handiwork of God  gave thanks for life itself and for the many blessings bestowed upon  mankind. He prayed earnestly that peace and goodwill might come  upon the world which was being ravaged so sadly by war.  On July 28th, 1916, a severe heart attack brought a hurried  visit from Dr. Knox who left his patients in Kelowna and spent a  whole day at the bedside of his friend. But, three days later the tired  heart ceased to beat and this sojourner in the sunny Okanagan found  his final resting place beside a fur brigade trail in a peaceful mountain  valley far from his native land.  The sorrowing family and a few friends of this saintly  messenger of God attended the funeral service which was conducted  by his son, Lumb, a lay reader. He was buried in his surplice and red  hood. The hymn was his favorite—"The King of Love my Shepherd  is."  Later, the Venerable Thomas Green, Archdeacon of the Okanagan, consecrated the grave and dedicated the white granite cross with  the silent prayer:  "LORD REMEMBER ME."  112 tZ/Qrmstrong s   fiftieth <Z^fnniversaru  By Jas. E. Jamieson  This year the City of Armstrong marked an important milestone  in its history. Fifty years ago on March 31, 1913, Letters Patent  were effected incorporating the City of Armstrong, thus formally  separating it from the Municipality of Spallumcheen. The first election  held in the newly incorporated city took place on April 19, 1913, and  the formal sitting of the first City Council was held April 23 of that  year.  But first, let us digress for a short while from the actual period  since incorporation, because the history of Armstrong dates much  further back than 1913, in fact, it goes back well before the turn of  the century. The reason for there being an Armstrong can be really  traced to the building of the S. & O. Railway as a transportation link  from Sicamous into the Okanagan Valley, then in its formative and  fast developing stage.  The pioneer townsite of Lansdowne had been in existence for  some years, and many naturally took it for granted Lansdowne would  become the logical location for a railway to pass through. There  seemed to be a general belief that the builders of the Sicamous and  Okanagan Railway wished to purchase land at Lansdowne for a  station and townsite, and that the necessary arrangements could not  be arrived at with a Mr. Cartwright who owned the Lansdowne  Hotel and adjacent lands. It later was reliably presumed that this  idea was wishful thinking on the part of residents at Lansdowne. The  fact was that construction costs would have been fantastic compared  with the costs of the line following Davis Creek and the level meadow  lands from Enderby.  The Railway interests wished the townsite at the Creamery  Corner or near Davis Creek and attempted negotiations with Mr.  Davis who owned the land at that time. Mr. Davis, it is understood,  wished the railway to purchase his entire farm while they wished to  lay out a townsite and give him part of the lots. Eventually the railway  people were able to make a better deal with Robert Wood for the  townsite that became Armstrong.  The town of Armstrong was founded by Robert Wood, Daniel  Rabbitt and E. C. Cargill, who traded under the name of E. C. Car-  gill Co., at Lansdowne.  The town was named after a Mr. Armstrong of London,  England, who purchased the bonds of the Shuswap and Okanagan  Railway.  113 Armstrong's Fiftieth Anniversary  The original townsite was surveyed by R. S. Pelly, P.L.S., and  every alternate lot was deeded by the E. C. Cargill Co. to Riley,  Paterson & Co., the builders of the railway. (Mr. Riley became a  Senator of the Dominion, and Mr. Paterson a Lt.-Governor of the  Province.)  Almost all the buildings and all the business houses of Lansdowne  were moved to Armstrong when the railway came into regular operation in 1892, and the residents of Lansdowne with but few exceptions  were the pioneers of Armstrong.  Taking the oath of office as first City of Armstrong Council,  April 23, 1913 were: Mayor: James M. Wright—brother-in-law of  pioneer Lansdowne school teacher and merchant, Daniel Rabbitt—  pioneer postmaster, secretary of Spallumcheen Municipality, and a  man whose record of public service both as a member of Council and  the School Board remains unique in this community.  Aldermen: James Leverington, merchant; Harry A. Fraser, school  teacher and farmer; T. K. Smith, sawmill owner; Frank C. Wolfenden, businessman; Albert E. Morgan, grocery proprietor. Mr. F.  C. Wolfenden was acting-clerk of the initial City Council.  James M. Wright served from 1913 to 1919 inclusive as Mayor;  again from 1930 to 1932 inclusive. Others serving as Mayor were: H.  A. Fraser (1920, 1921); J. Z. Parks (1922-24, 1925, 1926, 1927);  F. J. Murray (1928, 1929); E. Poole (1933, 1934-1935); F. L.  Sugden (1936, 1937); A. Adair (1938-1939, 1940-1942); J. H.  Wilson (1943-44-45-46); G. W. Game (1947 to 1955 inclusive);  J. Pothecary (1956 to 1961 inclusive); W. L. Smith (1962).  The 1963 Council, incumbent in the 50th Anniversary year is:  Mayor John M. Jamieson; Aldermen W. G. Gray, Herbert C.  Hoover, Wm. Parker, J. J. Keough, T. A. Moore, Chas. R.  Blumenauer; E. A. Green, Clerk.  Formal observation of the City of Armstrong's 50th anniversary  took place in conjunction with the 63rd annual Interior Provincial  Exhibition, September 12-14. A number of special events were held,  with Lt.-Governor G. R. Pearkes and Mrs. Pearkes honoured guests.  The city's civic banquet, held on September 13 in the Royal  Canadian Legion Hall was attended by close to eighty former Mayors  and Aldermen, as well as present Council members, their ladies, and  Lt.-Governor and Mrs. Pearkes.  Cutting the beautifully decorated anniversary cake (standing over  3 feet high and weighing 75 pounds) was Mrs. Charles Stewart,  eldest  daughter  of  the  late  James   M.   Wright,   Armstrong's  first  114 Armstrong's Fiftieth Anniversary  Mayor; lighting the candles was Mrs. W. S. Cooke, wife of former  alderman, the late Mr. Cooke.  Marking the anniversary occasion, Lt.-Governor Pearkes presented "Freeman of the City" scroll to William Joseph Smith, longtime resident, sawmill owner, former alderman and civic-minded  citizen. Mr. Smith was the fourth to be accorded the city's highest  civic honour. First "PVeeman" of the city of Armstrong was bestowed  on the late J. H. Wilson on May 11, 1953; Freeman George W.  Game was the second so honoured, on December 21, 1956; the third  being Freeman Albert E. Warner, on June 4, 1958.  The City of Armstrong, proud of its past fifty years as an incorporated corporation, launched its second half century with the most  ambitious civic project in its history—completion and successful operation of the first phase of what is hoped will soon be city-wide  sewerage.  The first municipal election in Spallumcheen was held in 1892.  Donald Graham was first reeve.  First election in the city of Armstorng was held on April 19,  1913.  First waterworks system was installed in Armstrong in  1902.  The first electric system in Armstrong was installed in 1904 by  a private company consisting of W. H. Keary, F. C. Wolfenden, T.  K. Smith, Joe McDonald and others and purchased by the municipality  for the residents of Armstrong in  1909.  The first public school opened in Armstrong in 1892 with O.  McPherson as principal.  The first mail was delivered in Armstrong on May 15, 1892  by mail car on the S. & O. Railway just completed.  The first flour mill was built in Armstrong in 1895. It was a  co-operative mill owned by farmers of the district with F. C. Wolfenden, secretary; C. J. Becker, chief miller; daily capacity 150 barrels.  It had the distinction of having installed the first bath tub in the  district, which was installed by subscription from fellows about town.  A regular line was the order on Saturday afternoons. When Joe Harrison, second miller, was burnt he was placed in this tub for two days to  alleviate his suffering but to no avail as he was too badly burned.  115 J he K^Jsouoos <yVli  w  useum  K. Lacey  With the opening of the Osoyoos Museum on June 15, 1963  tribute was paid to Osoyoos' historic past. Incorporated into the new  structure is half of the original Provincial Government building, generously donated to the Osoyoos Museum Society by Mr. and Mrs. J.  Handberg of Osoyoos.  This building, built entirely of hand-hewn logs, which had been  cut above Fairview and hauled to the river, where the building was  framed. The logs were then marked, dismantled, made into a raft  and rafted down the river and lake to a point opposite the present  school. The logs were then hauled up the hill and the building erected.  According to information from the late Babe Kruger, D. A. Carmichael and "Whispering" Joe McLellan had the contract to erect  this building.  Wm. McMynn was commissioned by C. A. R. Lambly, Government Agent, to move the records, supplies etc., from the Camp  McKinney office to Osoyoos by pack horse as there were no roads at  that time. While fording the Narrows at Osoyoos McMynn's horse  hit him in the forehead. He fell over, unconscious into the water  and never recovered. The C. deB. Greens kept house for Mr. Lambly  until his marriage to Hester Haynes, now Mrs. R. B. White of  Penticton and it was to this log building that Mrs. Lambly came as  a bride in 1897 and here a year later their son Wilfred Lambly was  born. The building served as Government office, magistrate's office,  two jail cells, constable's quarters and living quarters for the Agent.  The government office was moved to Fairview in 1899. After that  the log building served as school, for church service for the various  denominations, scout hall and dwelling.  In 1961 it was moved to its present location, next to the  Municipal building and under the winter works programme of 1962-  63 the present building was erected at a total cost to the taxpayer of  $4,237.00. Built of laminated 2x4s, with steel posts so that a second  storey can be added. At present the library has half the building  which has a total floor area of 1,500 sq. ft. The log building is  incorporated into the new structure, thus giving the effect of a museum  within a museum, and contains the pioneer articles and pictures.  A fine collection of local insects have been gathered and mounted  by F. Goertz; a collection of drawings by the children of the Inkameep  Reserve school, under Anthony Walsh, the Long collection of Indian  artifacts.  116 tf  Valentine *+-*armichael <J~Laune§  By K. Lacey  Valentine Carmichael Haynes was the first white child born in  Osoyoos, on December 21st, 1875. The eldest child of a family of  3 boys and 3 girls born to Judge J. C. Haynes and his wife, Emily  Josephine, who was a daughter of Captain George Pittendrigh, a  veteran of the Crimean war. It was necessary to bring in a mid-wife  from Ft. Colville, a good three days' ride away, the woman being  a Mrs. McDougall, a French half breed who was 75 years of age at  the time. The weather turned very cold and lots of snow came before  she was able to return home and she was forced to return to Ft.  Colville on snowshoes.  Judge Haynes was the first Collector of Customs at Osoyoos  (1861) and Gold Commissioner, appointed Magistrate 1864, and was  commissioned County Court Judge in 1886. He had arrived in Victoria  from County Cork, Ireland, in 1853 and joined the newly' formed  \ B.C. Police force. At the time that Val was born the Customs House  was situated just north of where the B.A. gas station is on Highway  • t  97. It burned to the ground during the winter of 1877-78.  Cowboying since he was 8 years old and at a time when the  large herds were being acquired in the lower Okanagan and Similkameen Valley. An estimated 20,000 head were running on these ranges  in 1890. The mild winters and lush river bottoms attracted the  cattlemen together with the markets springing up in the Boundary  mining camps and also at the Coast, where the cattle were driven over  the Hope Mts. to Ft. Hope, and then by boat down the river to New  Westminster and Victoria; Vancouver being a mere infant at that  time.  Val Haynes was returning from school at Victoria with his  father and half-brother, Fairfax,, when the Judge was stricken at  Allison's (Princeton) and died before help could be found. He died  on his birthday, July 6th, 1888, aged'56. The family returned to the  Old Country to finish the children's education and Val returned in  1893. He went to work for Thomas Ellis who had acquired the vast  Haynes estate; and when the Shatford Bros, bought out the Ellis  holdings in 1905, Val Haynes was made foreman and carried on as  such until the Shatfords sold out to the Government in 1919 and the  land was made over into a Soldiers' Settlement. Mr. Haynes acquired  the Garrison ranch and range, part of the Meadows and later the  Swan Lake (Vaseux) ranch together with the range on Kruger Mtn.  He was married to Elizabeth Runnels, whose mother had been  117 Valentine Carmichael Haynes  a sister to Nespelem George, one of the best known and highly  respected Indian Chiefs of the Northwest. Mrs. Haynes was a talented  woman, being well-known for her oil paintings and was called to  Washington, D.C. as interpreter on several occasions. She died in  1942. One daughter, Alice Thompson, several grandchildren and  three sisters survive.  Val Haynes had been active until a month before his death. It  was his habit for many years to wean the calves on Dec. 14, and on  Dec. 21st, his birthday, would drive the calves to the Swan Lake  Ranch. This last birthday, his 87th, was no exception—driving with  the help of some of his grandsons, some 200 calves a distance of about  twenty miles.  The last of the old-time cowboys, his familiar figure, either on  his horse or in his car which he still drove, will be greatly missed in  the Oliver-Osoyoos districts; and he will be remembered BIG,  where ever cattlemen gather. Never looking for glory of any kind,  he always saw to it that none of the old-timers, neither white or  Indian, ever needed help. His was the spirit of the old-time pioneers  and their kind will not come our way again.  He was an outstanding cattleman and cowboy. Although never  interested in competition or rodeos, nevertheless it would have been  hard to find his equal in roping in difficult places and under difficult  conditions. He was a keen judge of horses and cattle and was able to  carry on as a successful stockman and cattle man in a big way even  with the gradual encroachment of modern roads and smaller holdings.  He was a life member of the Oliver Elks, an honorary member of the  Oliver Fish and Game Club; and in 195 5 he was made Oliver's  Good Citizen of the Year.  So long, old Tillicum.  C~o^)  118 \*—*oldstream    rKanch {-joes J^ack  \^Jne <J~tundred    LA'ears  By Mary Kitcher  Courtesy The Vernon News  Coldstream Ranch, one of the best known in the whole Okanagan  Valley, had its beginnings 100 years ago.  It was in 1863 that the first settler, an Irishman, Captain Charles  Houghton, an officer of the 20th Regiment of Foot, came to British  Columbia to take up land under a military grant.  Previously gold had been discovered at Cherry Creek by William  Pion, and in 1864 Captain Houghton was commissioned by the  Colonial Government to make an exploratory trip to Cherry Creek,  to investigate a shorter route to the Columbia River. His two friends  who had come to the area with him, brothers Forbes and Charles  Vernon, mined for gold at Cherry Creek.  These three also pre-empted land between Okanagan Landing  and Priest Valley, now Vernon.  Having looked over the North Okanagan, and after having had  a pre-emption near Okanagan Lake disallowed, Captain Houghton  finally pre-empted the area five miles east of Priest Valley at "Cold  Springs"  later named Coldstream.  First Water Record  In May 1869, an exchange was effected with the Vernon  Brothers and the ranch became their property. Charles Vernon  acquired the first water record for power and irrigation in the  Okanagan and this was the second such license to be issued in the  whole of B.C.  ^Tn 1872, Forbes G. Vernon became sole owner of the Coldstream  Farm property and took great interest in improving the property and  stocking it with cattle and horses. He was active in district activities  and when Price Ellison, a famous oldtimer of Vernon, came to the  district he spent his first winter, 1876, with the Vernon brothers at  their Coldstream home.  During these early years there was great interest in Great  Britain, in this newly opened Okanagan Valley. One such interested  person was Lord Aberdeen, who in 1890 came to Kelowna district  and purchased 480 acres, calling his property "Guisachan" after his  home in Invermere.  Lord Aberdeen with his wife and daughter visited the Okanagan  in  1891  and he was greatly taken with the Coldstream property of  119 Coldstream Ranch Goes Back 100 Years  Forbes Vernon. In the autumn of 1891 he purchased the whole property consisting of some 13,261 acres. The price paid for this property  was 49,000 pounds and there were 2,000 head of cattle and 70  horses.  Subdivided Land  At this time, the residents of what is now Vernon, were complaining that the prosperity of the Valley had been held up by Forbes  Vernon who had refused to dispose of any of his Coldstream land in  small parcels. Lord Aberdeen's policy was just the opposite and he  sold off much land to individual purchasers. He also had large acreages planted to fruit trees and hops. Lady Aberdeen's brother, the  Honorable Coutts Majorbanks, was appointed ranch manager.  In 1893, Lord Aberdeen was appointed Governor-General of  Canada, and for the next five years the family enjoyed splendid  holidays at Coldstream. During these visits Lord and Lady Aberdeen  entered into community activities and enjoyed meeting their neighbors.  In 1893 Lord Aberdeen found it necessary to incorporate his  properties under the name of Coldstream Estate Company Limited  with shareholders from Great Britain. One of the chief of these was  James Buchanan later Sir James, and given the title of Lord Woolavington, who already owned property at Lavington.  W. C. Ricardo succeeded the Honorable Coutts Majorbanks as  manager in 1895, and he was responsible for great improvement, and  progress on the ranch. Hop growing increased and in those early days,  bands of Indian hop pickers from the Nicola Valley and also the Nez  Perce Indians from Washington, journeyed with their families for  the harvest.  Exchange System  They had a system of exchange of goods as payment for work  done, thus the—following entries are found in old ranch accounts:  Cultas Joe, goods $3.00, blankets $5.00; Old Annie of Penticton, flour, sugar, etc. $3.20; Millie, sugar, lard, etc. $1.25; Old  Man with Fur Cap, flour 25c; Squilacum (a cripple), flour $5.40;  Annie, fish 50c; Alex (long legs), $4.75; Ellen (old woman),  tenting $1.00; Lizzie, goods $1.15.  Many more orchards were planted at this time, and when Coldstream Municipality was formed, 1906, improvements were made to  develop an extensive domestic water system. The Coldstream Ranch  undertook to develop irrigation water supply and in 1907 the White  Valley Irrigation and Power Company was formed for the development of Aberdeen Lake, as a source of supply for the Grey and  South Canals for irrigation.  120 Coldstream Ranch Goes Back 100 Years  Before the Days of Mechanization on Coldstream Ranch  Beginning Of V.I.D.  This was the  beginning of what  is now popularly  known  as  the V.I.D.  The ranch was visited in 1909 by the High Commissioner Lord  Strathcona on his tour of Western Canada.  Great preparations were made at the ranch for the special visit.  He was driven to Coldstream by a prominent merchant of Vernon,  W. R. Megaw. While returning to Vernon, by way of Kalamalka  Lake, there was an accident which could have been serious. On a steep  hill near the lake the horses bolted, overturning the carriage and  throwing out the occupants. Mr. Megaw suffered a broken leg and  Lord Strathcona had a bruised right arm—which so bothered him that  in April 1910, he contacted Sir Wilfred Laurier — resigning his  position as commissioner as the injury to his arm prevented his using  a pen.  Manager from  1914 to 1918 was J. A. Pitcairn of Kelowna,  121 Coldstream Ranch Goes Back 100 Years  then F. Wollaston took over. He retired in 1939. Mr. Wollaston  was a bachelor, affectionately known as Fluffy, and always wore a  stetson.  Meanwhile, the Coldstream Estate Company was disincorporated  about 1920 and Sir James Buchanan became sole owner. In 1921 he  transferred all his property to his only daughter the Hon. Catherine  MacDonald-Buchanan. It continued under sole ownership until 1948  when Coldstream Ranch Limited was set up with a Board of Directors  in Canada responsible to the MacDonald-Buchanan Trustees in  England.  Cold Storage Built  Thomas P. Hill, manager in 1939, had been with the ranch  since 1914, and had been orchard foreman. In the late 1930's the  orchards were in full production and a cold storage and packing house  were erected on the property. Pickers used to come regularly from  Prairie points to help with the harvests, and were housed in bunk  houses on the ranch. Mr. Hill retired in 1953 although he is still on  the Board of Directors, and his place was taken by the present manager,  C. D. (Bill) Osborn.  The ranch has suffered losses to its orchards through killing  winter frost in 1949 and 1950, which decimated the orchards. Much  has been replanted and meanwhile emphasis today is on production of  potatoes and the raising of beef cattle, with dairying and hogs.  Today, the ranch consists of about 11,000 acres of the original  land and gives employment to a great many people.  In the days just before and after the First World War, many  young men came out to Canada and got their start on the ranch. In  fact there are many well known Vernon men who will tell you they  worked at the ranch at one time.  Two old-timers who stayed with the ranch were Andy Spence,  the blacksmith, and Frankie Louch.  Two OId-Timers  Andy came to the ranch in 1907, and worked there until his  death a few years ago. He was proud of his teams of horses in the  early days. He was fond of sports and had his own football and  cricket teams at the ranch at one time.  Mr. Louch (Frankie to his friends) is now retired but still lives  on the ranch. He came out in 1912, leaving to serve overseas in the  First World War, then coming back to work until his retirement.  Another long-time worker is present orchard foreman "Doc" Alderman. Doc also came out as a young man and has a long record of  service at the ranch.  122 Coldstream Ranch Goes Back 100 Years  A Threshing Scene on Coldstream Ranch in 1910  Gonetrz^To?::TM!;^on the ranch over ,he ^  wad of the __«_,t;:::: 2rre now.k;pt-  where twn  .,,11 ,-;TM u    • aluminum workshop,  0?TM^       mechan,cs ,ake care of the TMh'° ** "4  fill _ThT 'S ,n°W a krge "eW dai,7 and ** Peking house once  ££_££" ^ —• - » ^ *W and^  -i-,.8^ "a Se/°nd W°rld W" the ranch k- been the startin.  place ," Canada for many families from Europe. At the present W  many students from Vernon and district work ther durn. ,t  summer to help further their education g  %U  *. ^n^:,:;d0x^n:rm Ranch has -** "~  123 aJL^awrence {-juichon  By Kay Cronin  Editor's Note—The article that follows is an abridgement of one first appearing in the "Oblate News" in which  Kay Cronin paid tribute to a pioneer of B.C. Catholicism.  It is included in this report by the kind permission of the  author.  If ever a man could be described as one of Nature's gentlemen  it was surely Lawrence Guichon. A more wonderful person you  couldn't hope to meet in a month of Sundays. And when he died in  Holy Week at the age of 83, sadness struck sharply at the hearts of  many hundreds of British Columbians who counted him as their  friend. I was not privileged to meet Lawrence Guichon until his  declining years. That was in the fall of 1957 when I started researching for the book "Cross in the Wilderness," the story of the Oblate  pioneers of British Columbia. Then it was inevitable that I should  for Lawrence was a much beloved friend of the Oblate Fathers.  He was a pioneer extraordinary in B.C. It was men like Lawrence Guichon and his father, Joseph, before him, who helped the  pioneer Oblate Fathers tame the forbidding wilderness that was British Columbia a century ago and pave the way for Christian civilization.  The Guichons were pioneer ranchers and cattlemen at Quilchena  in the Nicola Valley, near Kamloops. Lawrence's parents came from  France and immigrated to B.C. as newlyweds. They settled first at  Keating, but when Lawrence was only a few months old they moved  to their permanent home in the Nicola Valley. The first part of the  journey was made by steamer and stage coach; the last 20 miles or so,  by horseback.  Lawrence Guichon's first contact with the Indian people, who  he eventually came to know and love and champion so well, was as a  tiny infant securely fastened by a shawl to the back of an Indian guide  during the last 20 miles of journey by horseback into the Nicola Valley  in 1879.  For three, coming on four, generations the Guichon family have  been loyal friends and benefactors of the Oblate Fathers in British  Columbia—from these very early days when the old Oblate pioneers,  trekking for months at a time on foot or by horseback on their  missionary journeys, would arrive exhausted and emaciated at the ever-  open door of the Guichon ranch at Quilchena, to modern times when  men  like   Lawrence   Guichon,   through  their  prayers and  sacrifices,  124 Lawrence Guichon  Dr. Lawrence Guichon  (Photo taken at Kamloops in 1958)  125 Lawrence Guichon  continue to give the Oblates so much encouragement and support in  their missionary work throughout B.C. So great indeed was Lawrence  Guichon's spirit of charity towards the Oblate Fathers that even my  work on their behalf was included in his magnanimity.  Right from our first meeting, when I was feeling so apprehensive about the awesome task of writing that book, I found myself  drawing strength and encouragement from this wonderful old gentleman who was always so kind to me, so interested in my work. We  first met at Kelowna, when plans were being made for the restoration  of Father Pandosy's mission as an Oblate Centennial Year project.  And I am sure that the eventual restoration of that mission, in which  Lawrence played such a large part, was one of the outstanding highlights of his whole life, so deeply was he attached to the memory of  those dauntless Oblate pioneers. Publication of the book in which  again he played a great part, especially in encouraging the author,  was obviously another highlight in his life.  Then came the time when old Mr. Guichon's health began to  fail badly. He was bedridden for months on end, and suffered considerably. Yet never once was there any hint of complaint, any change  in that bright-eyed, smiling greeting that was so intimate a part of  him. Unable to travel, he would write me little notes from time to  time. And, always, every line of them filled with encouragement and  assurance of his prayers. Even when he was too sick to hold a pen  in his hand, I would still receive those little notes, dictated to his nurse  or one of his family.  Often he would include a cheque with these notes. "I'm growing old and not able to get around as much as I used to," he would  write, "but knowing your work for the Oblates brings you into close  contact with many needy cases, please use the enclosed in any way you  wish." Those "needy cases" which have been helped through just this  one aspect of Lawrence Guichon's overall spirit of charity have ranged  from rescuing girls from the hazards of Skid Row to buying a pair of  shoes for a missionary who hadn't any.  During his lifetime Lawrence Guichon earned the respect and  admiration of people in all walks of life, from the most exalted to the  most humble. Certainly no words of mine could ever do him justice.  But on behalf of hundreds more whom I'm sure feel equally inadequate when it comes to paying him verbal tribute, I'd like at least to  put it on record that we most deeply mourn his passing.  126 <-J\elowna ^Tjoard of   Jrade 1913  By Art Gray  Editor's Note: The following outline of some of the activity  of the Kelwona Board of Trade fifty years ago is by the courtesy of  the Kelowna Courier.  The board of trade of Kelowna in the year 1913, was always a  prolific source of news for the Courier then, just as its counterpart of  today, now called the chamber of commerce, continues to be.  While the modern organization concerns itself mostly with tourist matters, hours of business, and publicity, the board of trade of 50  years ago found itself face to face with problems entirely new,  brought about by the fact that they were right in the middle of the  transition from the old horse and buggy days to the automobile era.  Almost every meeting of the board brought out some new evidence of  changing times. A late August issue of 1913 tells of a discussion that  took place regarding telephone service.  At the time the service did not include operation of the telephone  at night. There was agitation for extension to a 24-hour service, and  the Okanagan Telephone Co., had written to suggest that they would  comply, for an increase of $1 per month on business phone rentals.  President A. W. Bowser, of the board of trade, thought the shoe  was on the other foot, that the charge should be on residence phones,  as the business premises were mostly closed at night.  A suggestion of 5 cents per call for night-time was one idea  offered. Mayor Jones reported that Mr. Dobie, the telephone company  manager, had assured him they would keep a man on duty at nights.  Fire Risk  S. T. Elliott pointed out the possibility of heavy fire loss through  lack of prompt phone service at night. Another complaint was received  from the shippers over the lack of any teleprone at Okanagan Landing,  a great inconvenience in the shipping season, when all fruits and  vegetables were sent out from Kelowna, northward, by boat to the  Landing. The meeting voted to write to Mr. Dobie, and the secretary  W. Beaver Jones, was so instructed.  Another item discussed by the board of trade indicated the  changing times in regard to traffic. P. DuMoulin, manager of the  Bank of Montreal, submitted the opinion that speed limit signs should  be put up at the entrance to the city to warn strange "chauffeurs" to  observe the city bylaws regarding legal speed limits (10 miles per  hour). He also complained of drivers cutting corners on their right  at "Willits," instead of keeping well out on the left hand side (left  127 Kelowna Board of Trade 1913  hand driving was still the rule of the road in B.C. then.) H. C. S.  Collett came up with a unique suggestion, he thought that people who  drove cars should be made to hold out their hand on the side on which  they were going to turn. Another practice complained of was that of  leaving cars in front of public buildings, and also other places, such as  the Opera House, so that it was impossible for cars arriving to be  able to deposit their passengers in the sidewalk.  Bright Lights  On the car-driver's side, Mr. Hall complained that the city arc  lights were so placed that they dazzled him when driving. At the  instigation of Messrs. Pooley and Collett, a resolution was drawn up  on matters of traffic and street-lighting, asking the city council to  make, and enforce, new regulations.  Sam Elliott brought up the matter of inadequate postal facilities.  "With the coming of parcel post this next year," he contended, "the  situation will become desperate." R. B. Kerr moved, and DuMoulin  seconded, a resolution stating that "the present postal facilities were  inadequate, and the government be requested to erect a new post office  in Kelowna forthwith." ("Forthwith" proved to be matter of just  a quarter of a century later.) Another hot subject at that time was  "Settlers Road," and letters to the editor were appearing in the  Courier, and delegations waited upon the board of trade and city  council. The most publicized were the complaints of Bear Creek  settlers, and those of Black Mountain.  A letter from Frank Bastier outlined the plight of the former,  and one from C. K. L. Pyman voiced the demands for consideration  of the Black Mountain district. J. H. Kitson appeared before the  board of trade with a petition from the Bear Creek settlers. He stated  that he was the owner of land in the "Buckland Flat," and contended  that the roads were so poor and grades so bad that they could only  haul half-loads. R. B. Knowles, of the board of trade, supported him,  stating that he had made a trip into Bear Creek recently, with Mr.  Gillespie, inspector of pre-emptions, who was surprised at the large  extent of good land in the valley.  Road Money  On a motion by Mike Hereron, seconded by C. T. Rogerson, the  meeting voted to instruct the secretary to write to Hamilton Lang  and the government engineer, asking them to meet a committee of  the board of trade.  The Courier commented, editorially, claiming that "automobile  and lakeshore roads received most of the local road money" and that  128 Keloivna Board of Trade 1913  the larger part of the provincial road budget was "spent in the vicinity  of Victoria."  Rancher Pyman, of Black Mt. contended in his letter that "pre-  emptors were leaving the district because of lack of roads. Only the  main road receives attention."  He also stated that he twice received letters from Mr. Lang, road  superintendent, saying that "the matter will be looked into and in a  few days, with the road foreman Mr. Monford, I will come up and  inspect the proposed road."—but he never turned up. "Why should  he?" asked Pyman "there are no automobiles here, and the district  will never attract tourists."  Here we see the first manifestation of a controversy, brought  on by the expanding motor car traffic, and the beginning of tourism.  The main highways were the ultimate winners, of course. Even today  many back roads in the Valley are almost exactly as they were 50  years ago.  <=^^>  Father Pandosy Church on the Penticton Indian Reserve  129 JL^ong-time    Valley    fKesident, Jjertr  <-_!_'Ģ_ \*^richton, <=Li  am  les  By Primrose Upton  The Okanagan lost another  of its really old-timers on September 25, 1963, when Bertram  Edwin Crichton died in the Kelowna General Hospital at 96. He  had resided at Resthaven for a  number of years.  His wife, who predeceased  him in 1957, was Maud L. Mair,  daughter of Charles Mair, well  known Canadian Poet. They were  married in Mr. Mair's store in  1893. This store stood on Bernard  Avenue on the south side, near the  lake.  Mr. Crichton was born in Herefordshire, October 3, 1866 and  came to the Okanagan Valley in 1892 and purchased land at Benvoulin. He moved to Ellison and built a house on Mill Creek near  where the Rutland packinghouse now stands.  Moving back to Benvoulin, he farmed for a number of years  with his brother Alan. In 1903 he purchased two quarter sections at  Okanagan Mission, and in 1904 built a home which he sold in 1905  to W. E. Mitchell. In 1906 he built "Sylvan Heights," and sold this  later to H. T. T. Gore-Browne. For some years he lived at Fort Steele  and at Nanaimo, returning to the Okanagan in the early twenties,  building another house at Okanagan Mission. "Bert," as he was known  to his many friends, was an expert fly fisherman, and an excellent shot.  Mr. Crichton is survived by two sisters residing in England, seven  nieces, including Mrs. Austen Willett and Mrs. Clifford Renfrew of  Okanagan Mission. The funeral was held at St. Andrew's Church  with Rev. J. E. W. Snowden officiating. Burial followed in the St.  Andrew's Church Cemetery. Pallbearers were A. Willett, G. B.  Ford, A. F. Paitner, T. B. Upton and G. Goldsmith, all of Okanagan  Mission.  130 n  <=>L)aiis in the *Similhi  loneer <=<Jaus in the K—Jimilnameen  By Mrs. E. M. Daly  PREFACE  Little has been said of the old pioneer hospitality of the West,  when settlers were few and far between. Homes were thrown wide  open for any traveller. A meal or a bed was there for the asking,  in fact, it was deemed an insult to pass up a pioneer or settler without  passing the time of day.  Mrs. Daly was amply endowed with that spirit of hospitality,  everyone was welcome. A grizzly old miner with the fever and  lust for gold, an Indian, A Chinaman, men of the cloth, and frequently a bride and groom, always found a welcome at the Daly  Ranch.  In the old stage days when Pete Marsel drove the first mail stage  between Penticton and the Daly Ranch, Mrs. Daly was the Postmistress, she also ran a small store with the bare necessities of life,  like flour, bacon, sugar, salt and a few cooking utensils. All goods at  that time being packed in over the Hope trail.  She mentioned in her memoirs of a family who's house was badly  damaged in the great flood of 1894. There is reason to believe that  that family was the Manery's. This was a harrowing experience, one  morning in June of 1894 the family awoke to find a foot of water  in the house, necessitating a mad scramble to the attic. The water  continued to rise until it attained a depth of 4 feet. In the meantime  Mr. Manery constructed a raft and transported the family to the  shore a distance of approximately 400 yards, where they took up  residence in a root cellar recently excavated, there being no other  refuge for miles. It was their lot to live in this abode for six weeks,  as the water did not rise or fall for one month. The winter of 1893  and 1894 saw an exceedingly heavy snowfall, coupled with a very  cool spring held the snow back until hot weather in early June and  warm rains caused the worst flood of all time in B.C.  The Similkameen Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society is  indebted and grateful to Mrs. Wallace Knowles of Colorado Springs,  Colorado for the memoirs of her Aunt, Mrs. E. M. Daly.  Sam Manery  Many of you know that I came over the Hope Trail in August,  1885, the year of the Granite Creek Gold Rush. My husband had  bought the Barrington Price Place from Turner Beeton and Company,  Victoria. It was known as the Willows and the name was very  appropriate as there were a great many huge willows on the place.  131 Pioneer Days in the Similkameen  We had 2 children, the eldest a little girl whom we had the  misfortune to lose the next spring and a son Bill who was eleven  months old. Indians did the cooking and packing on the way over.  Most of the household effects and supplies for a store were sent across  earlier in the season.  That trip over the trail stands out as one of the most enjoyable  I ever took part in. It took us 6 days.  We forded the Tulameen River at Allison. Mrs. Allison was  very busy as they had a store which seemed to be full of miners. They  supplied beef to Granite Creek by pack horse. I was startled to see  some of the boys with six-shooters but strange to say there was no  bloodshed. I have seen and handled a poke containing $1,600. The  owner was Tommy Fay, a little old Irishman. He was never molested.  We had at the ranch, when we got there, another old Irishman by  the name of Tim Cox. Tim was invaluable, he had the finest garden  I ever saw, large drumhead cabbage, onions as large around as a saucer,  fine potatoes and beets, these were grown in the bottom alongside of  the creek without irrigation. He became very fond of the children  and was a splendid cook. I picked up a great many things from Tim,  amongst them was how to make salt rising bread in a Dutch oven in  the fireplace. He did not leave us until the following spring when he  could not resist the lure of the gold.  We brought with us a friend, an Irishman by the name of Jas.  Murphy who had a home at Union Bar just above Haig on the C.P.R.  Jim was most handy in helping to get settled, there were chairs to be  glued, dishes to unpack, the kitchen stove to be assembled, no small  job. I knew directly the stove was set up, Tim would say, "Now Mrs.  Daly it's your turn." I was very nervous trying to get a meal and  serving it when the men were standing around looking on, but Tim  was always handy telling me how to do things, he used to say. Put on  the cabbage early and lots of it and some pork or bacon in with it  which improves it and if there's any left it's nice warmed up. We hated  to have our friend Jim Murphy return over the trail. He had left it  as late as he possibly could; he was with us about 2 months.  Excepting Frank Surprise's property which Mr. Richter later  acquired, there was no fencing. We had about 15 acres fenced for a  pasture. There was a trail over the bench back of where the W. H.  Armstrong residence now stands and which led past some log buildings  which belonged to the Hudson's Bay Company. It was occupied that  first winter by Old Marsel the French Canadian grandfather of the  present Marsel family. He used to trap along Keremeos Creek which  was then a good trapping line.  132 Pioneer Days in the Similkameen  It is an error to say that the Hudson's Bay Company owned the  Grist mill or the house where Mr. Geo. Christie is now living.  Barrington Price kept a small store and owned forty acres up on the  bench toward J. J. Armstrong's, he had then a partner by the name  of Henry Nicholson. Price built the middle section, sometime afterwards. Mr. J. H. Coulthard of New Westminster bought both the  Hudson's Bay Co. and Price holdings. Mr. Coulthard added the wings  on the west and south.  The first grist mill was owing to the efforts of Manuel Barcelo  and was similar to a large coffee mill, then Mr. Price got in some  stones, and although not a fine flour, it answered well in a pinch. I  used it and it made a dark but very palatable bread. Mr. Coulthard  improved the mill and made a quantity of very good flour. Mr. R. C.  Armstrong was the miller, he was the father of Joe Armstrong. We  later got a fine flour from Enderby. We used to send pack trains to  Sprague, Wash., for flour.  I am often asked how our machinery was brought in. It was  taken apart at Hope and packed on aparajos which do not hurt the  horses' backs as pack saddles do. Sacks of flour which were reinforced  by gunny sacks were piled around the hubs. Axles and poles were  made into top packs. Some animals carried 300 lbs.; fractious ones  were led. All our packing was done by Indians and I must say they  gave good satisfaction.  I never saw luscious bunch grass until I came to Princeton. Beef  cattle that were pastured on it fattened in a short time and were in  great demand at the coast. As soon as we had made hay, we bought  several small bunches of cattle and some calves from William Terra-  basket for $10.00 per head. We always exchanged supplies for cattle,  and so had no bad debts.  Most of the lumber used was whip-sawed and the cabins were  made of logs. The lumber in our house including doors was whipsawed and the windows were home made. In whip-sawing, a pit is  dug and a contrivance is made to lay the log across the top. One  sawyer stands above, the other below in the pit and the saw is pulled  back and forth with a kind of vertical motion. The man in the pit  has decidedly the worst of it as the saw dust gets into his eyes. Later  a man started a sawmill at Joe Marsel's place.  I have often been asked why the little old schoolhouse was built  so far down the valley. Tenders were called for, for the erection of  a school house in July, 1891. Mr. Manery got the contract as he was  the only one who put in a tender. The amount was $700. The shed  133 Pioneer Days in the Similkameen  for the horses was added afterwards. My husband was the first  secretary.  The boundaries of that School District extended from R. C.  Armstrong's place at the bluff about 12 miles down the river to Mr.  Frank Richter's house, Mr. Richter having acquired Frank Surprise's  property. Hans Richter and Henry Barcelo then lived in the log  buildings near Willis' lambing sheds. Arthur Armstrong, the Manerys,  McCurdys, Cawstons, and my own children attended that school and  we were glad to have it, although that 6 mile ride each way on horse  back was very tiring. Hans boarded with the Cawstons and my son  Bill stayed with the McCurdys during the extremely bad weather.  Bill used to try and get home for the week ends.  The Lowes came up from New Westminster and lived at the  Willows for some time, then the Griffins (Mr. Griffin was a son-in-  law of Mr. Barcelo). The Lowes had a shallow well in the bottom,  as it got all the seepage. We decided to dig a well which was very  dangerous as it kept caving in. We dug 45 feet and then drove a point.  This well was many years afterward called the "Community Well."  We also dug an irrigation ditch and were the first to grow  alfalfa. As it was something of an experiment, the neighbors came  to see it and I well remember Mr. Richter coming up to see if it  had been frozen out. The ditch was surveyed with a wooden level.  An old Cariboo Chinaman dug the ditch. Everything took on a new  lease of life, after the ditch was completed. We had some trees that  we got from Mr. Murray down the Okanogan and on 2 occasions  we brought trees over the mountain from Layritz's nursery. Mr.  Price left 2 acacia trees upon leaving the Willows and these flourished  after the water was put on. They were then quite small. The largest  one is now 4 feet around at the base, the others I grew myself.  Help in the house was quite a problem. I had Indian girls and  women, of these old Mrs. Showdy was very good as also was Agnes  Qualachen. We had a good deal of alkali to contend with and the  former encouraged me by saying in a year of two it would be KLOSH  (alright).  The winters in the early days seemed much more severe to me  than the ones that we now have. I remember R. L. Cawston and  Manuel Barcelo looking for strays in November above our house, in  addition to over shoes their feet were wrapped with gunny sacks and  they were much warmer clad. The summers were hotter and the  rattlesnakes very numerous. You could not go to the garden without  seeing one or more; I did not like this much when they happened to  134 Pioneer Days in the Similkameen  be under a tomato or bean bush. I usually screamed; this brought the  youngsters with all sorts of implements as they knew mother had a  snake coiled up for them to do away with. The children coaxed me to  take them to Ringling Circus at Vancouver, so after much coaxing  and promises to be good and do most of the work we left via Hope  Trail. They had the time of their young lives, the boys came home to  roost every night and we saw them when they ran out of money. On  Our return trip Hans Richter met us on top of the summit and he  tells a story about me cooking a bannock and the hungry children  standing waiting and picking bits off the edge. By the time the bannock  was cooked there was nothing left of it. We camped at Angus  Lamont's that night. The whole of 9 mile flat was on fire. We had  rather a ticklish time manoevring through that burnt timber and  down to the Similkameen in the dark. Angus gave us a hearty welcome.  Emma his wife was quite a case, I believe Angus was her third husband. She had a splendid nose for John Barleycorn, she could smell  a bottle a mile off—so one day Angus decided not to take the bottle  home and buried it on the outskirts of his ranch and Lo! Emma found  it.  The life of a pioneer may seem strenuous. If I had my life to  live over again, I'd be a pioneer.  Alta nika wawa Klow-  howya Copa Mika Sogali Tyhee  guamson nanich Kopa Mika  Klowhowya.  Now I say goodbye to your  Saviour or (God) all the time,  see to your goodbye.  Q_-A_2  135 We    Will   r^emember   Jh  em  They have come; over the years put down their roots; they have  answered the call of the final trumpet. They have left their mark by  work well done. The empty cases are gone but the jewels remain as  torches to carry by those they left behind. We should not fail.  A George Watt Tribute — It was with a sense of personal grief  that I learned of the passing of George Watt, Vice-President of this  Society and I feel sure all members of the Okanagan Historial Society  who were acquainted with the late Mr. Watt will also feel, that in  his passing, they too have lost a very genuine friend.  Full of years, Mr. Watt has gone to his reward leaving behind  a warm glow of affection and esteem, by which he will be long  remembered and honored.  —Guy P. Bagnall, President, Okanagan Historical Society.  A. E. Berry died in England at the age of 73. The late Mr.  Berry left Vernon with Mrs. Berry in July of this year for an  extended visit to England. He arrived there on August 1 after a  cruise through the Caribbean.  The late Mr. Berry was among those members who did much to  advance the interests of this Society. A strong supporter of the local  Branch, he was also a regular attender at the Society's annual meetings  and dinners. He served in various offices and throughout the years his  place of business was rarely without a few copies of our most recent  Report. These were displayed in the office window and many citizens  made their annual pilgrimage there to renew their membership.  Mr. Berry has probably signed more O.H.S. checks than any  other officer. We think of a most kindly person when we think of  "Pinky" Berry—cheerful, on the dullest day he was cheerful. We  mourn his untimely passing and express our condolences with his wife  and daughter, who survive him. Vernon is a better city because Mr.  Berry lived and worked here. We shall miss him.  Lucy Marshall Whitehouse died in Salmon Arm November 29,  1962 in-her 89th year. Born at Pavilion September 16, 1873, she was  daughter of Mr. and Mrs. James Crozier. Family moved to Larkin in  1880. Mrs. Whitehouse received her education in original North  Okanagan school, a grannary on farm of Henry Ehmke, being a  member of select little group of early pioneer families—the Youngs,  Ehmkes, Croziers and Cummings—whose children made up the initial  students in Spallumcheen district. Their teacher was Daniel Rabbitt,  brother-in-law of late James M. Wright, Armstrong's first Mayor and  136 We Will Remember Them  pioneer postmaster. She married Thos. D. Whitehouse in 1910; he  pre-deceased her in 1956. Survived by only child, Mrs. Frances  Jorgensen, Salmon Arm; four grandchildren.  Vance Young, first male white child born in North Okanagan,  died in his 85th year on July 3. His parents, the late Mr. and Mrs.  Benjamin Franklin Young, established family farm near Lansdowne  in 1877. He was born following year, 1878. He attended first organized school in Spallumcheen area, established in 1883 with Daniel  Rabbitt teacher. Turn about, week by week, school was held in  granary on Henry Ehmke farm on Pleasant Valley, and next week  in granary on B. F. Young farm at Lansdowne. It continued for two  years until Round Prairie school was built two years later, Vance  Young becoming pupil there. He was noted breeder of purebred  Clydesdale horses; member IOOF; oldest active director of Interior  Provincial Exhibition, associated with it since its inception, being made  life member in 1962. Survived by wife, Annie MacLean Young;  brother, B. F. Joung, Jr.; sisters, Mrs. Lillian Henderson, Cino,  Calif., Mrs. May Pringle, Calgary.  Ada Glover, long-time resident of Armstrong, died in August  in her 93rd year. Born in New Westminster in May, 1871, she was  daughter of the youngest officer of the famous Royal Engineers, who  played such an historic role in the early development of this province.  She resided in Armstrong for past 57 years. She was honorary life  member of St. James' Anglican W.A. Her husband, Captain F. R.  Glover, former executive officer of B.C.E. in Vancouver, pre-deceased  her in 1937.  Edward Henry Naylor died in April at the age of 94. Born in  Cambridge England, he crossed the Atlantic at the age of 15 and  arrived in the North Okanagan in 1889 where it has been his home  ever since. His chief interest in life was farming and nothing delighted  him more than to relate stories of the bygone past in the Deep Creek  area. Surviving are his wife and son Harry at home, two daughters,  Miss Elsie in Victoria and Margaret, Mrs. D. W. Suttie of Oliver.  Archer Davis died in Grand Forks at the age of 61 as a result of  a highway accident. The late Mr. Davis was the son of Mr. and Mrs.  Jeff Davis. His father was one of the early merchants of Grand  Forks. He was educated at local schools and received his B.A. from the  University of Toronto. He studied law at the University of Alberta  at Edmonton where he received his degree.  During the war years he served with the Wartime Prices and  137 We Will Remember Them  Trade Board at various points in British Columbia. He was called to  the bar in Vancouver and came to Grand Forks to practice his profession in the 1940's.  He was active in practically every phase of civic and community  life. At the time of his passing he was President of the Boundary  Historical Society, a member of the board of the Boundary Hospital,  Warden of Holy Trinity Anglican Church, president of the Boundary  Concert Association, a board member of the Kootenay - Boundary  Citizen's Committee for Doukhobor Affairs, president of the Grand  Forks Duplicate Bridge Club. He was a member of the Yale Bar  Association and for many years had been an executive member of the  Board of Trade.  During his lifetime he was a committee member of practically  every organization in the community and gave unsparingly of his time  whenever called upon to do so.  Norman Graham Kincaid died in Penticton a week after his  return from Shaughnessy Hospital. The late Mr. Kincaid was for  many years active in the Canadian Legion, was presented with a life  membership after serving with the Penticton Branch and as zone  commander for the area. He served with the Little Black Devils and  was commissioned overseas during the First World War. He was born  in Manitoba 66 years ago. He played baseball and lacrosse in Kelowna  and for 15 years was on the Penticton baseball team. He was a  member of the Granite Club and the Penticton Lawn Bowling Club.  Mr. William John Rankin, an old time resident of Kelowna  passed away in Vancouver in his 94th year on Tuesday, December  25, 1962. Funeral service for the late Mr. Rankin was held from  Day's Chapel of Remembrance on Friday, December 28th at 2:30  p.m. Rev. E. H. Birdsall conducted the service. Interment was in the  Kelowna Cemetery. Surviving is one daughter, Edith (Mrs. J. L.  Marshall) of Vancouver, 7 grandchildren and 14 great grandchildren.  Two sons predeceased, Archie in October and Percy in November of  this year.  Edgar L. Greenside died in Kelowna in January. Born in  England, the late Mr. Greenside emigrated to Toronto in 1905. He  served overseas during the First World War and in 1920 came to  Kelowna where he was appointed secretary of the Occidental Fruit  Company which position he held until his retirement in 1955. He was  an active member of St. George's Lodge and a charter member of the  Kelowna Gyro Club.  138 We Will Remember Them  Alvah S. Matheson died in the Kelowna Hospital in May at the  age of 71. The late Mr. Matheson was born in Prince Edward Island  where he received his education. He came to British Columbia in 1910  and began his teaching career in Cheam in the Chilliwack Valley.  Coming to the Okanagan in 1918, he was for 10 years, principal of  the Penticton Elementary School and assisted in organizing the Okanagan Valley Teachers Federation. He was principal of the schools in  the university area in Vancouver from 1928-1936 and was one of  three Vancouver teachers to receive the King's Silver Jubilee Medal  and was a member of the senate of U.B.C. from 1942-1945. In  Kelowna he was an active member of many organizations.  Albert J. A. Reith died in Kelowna on June 24 at the age of 62.  The late Mr. Reith was born in Aberdeenshire, Scotland and came to  Kelowna in 1912. For 33 years he was employed at the Kelowna  Growers Exchange. Surviving are his wife Lillian, two daughters  Pamela and Mary, and one brother, George, all of Kelowna.  Mrs. Maggie St. Peters of Omak, Wn. passed away in Feb.,  1963 at the age of 93. As Margaret Keogan she had been born in the  Osoyoos district in 1869, the eldest daughter of Mike and Esther  Keogan, and was the last member of that family. Her sister, Mrs.  Matilda Dalrymple, had pre-deceased her about one year previously.  Her first husband, Mackie Ingram, died in 1912. She had been  one of the group of 12 men and 12 women who had pledged their  support to Father de Rouge at the Omak Mission.  George Archibald McDonald died in Penticton on August 24 at  the age of 81. The late Mr. McDonald was an old time stage driver  on the Penticton-Okanagan Falls and Fairview run. He is survived by  two sons, Donald in Vancouver and Lex in Penticton, and one sister  in Rochester, N.Y.  Mary Elizabeth Weeks died in Penticton September 27 at the  age of 90. A native of England, the late Mrs. Weeks lived in the  Penticton area for more than thirty years. She was a member of the  Eastern Star and the wife of one of Penticton's first councillors.  Surviving are two daughter, Mrs. A. L. Hilscher of Seattle and Mrs.  Alex. McDonald of Oliver, and one son, Richard W. of Brewster,  Wash., ten grandchildren and 11 great grandchildren.  Edward Raymond Pelly died on September 16th, 1963 at the  age of 73. Born in Holland, Manitoba, he received some of his schooling at St. John's College School in Winnipeg. After his family moved  139 We Will Remember Them  west to Armstrong, he entered the Bank of Montreal there in 1907.  He worked at many branches in British Columbia and the Prairie  provinces until his retirement in 1952, when he and his family  returned to Kelowna to live. He was an active worker for St. Michael  and All Angels' Anglican Church.  C. T. D. Russell who died on July 26, 1963 at the age of 84,  came out to the Okanagan Valley in 1905, and had a fruit ranch at  Rutland for many years. He was a veteran of the South African War.  In the early thirties he moved from Rutland to Glenmore, continuing  as an orchardist. He was an ardent golfer, and was made a life  member of the Kelowna Golf and Country Club.  Muriel Margaret (Daisy) Coubrough passed away at her residence in Kelowna on September 28, 1963 at the age of 75 years. Miss  Coughbrough had come out to the Okanagan in 1911, to her brother-  in-law and sister, Mr. and Mrs. C. R. Reid, who then lived at East  Kelowna. She has lived in Kelowna since 1911, and has been an  active worker for St. Michael and All Angels' Anglican Church.  Mary Godwin, a resident of the Okanagan for 71 years, passed  away in Penticton on February 19th, 1963, in her 78th year. Mrs.  Godwin, the former Mary Middleton, was born in Aberdeen, Scotland, and emigrated to Canada in 1892 when her parents came  directly to Vernon with their family of five.  After living in the Vernon area for 41 years, Mr. and Mrs.  Godwin moved to Penticton in 1933. Mr. Godwin passed away in  September, 1961. Surviving are two sons and two daughters.  ¬∞e^  In the early days before the railroad was completed, it took ten  hours on the steamer from Sicamous to Enderby, which was the head  of navigation. Meals were served aboard and the passengers knew all  the places and characters of the valley long before they met personally.  Capt. Cumming was in charge of the boat and his daughter is Mrs.  Myles MacDonald, who still lives here and is still quite active. Name  of the boat was the Red Star.  140 <JVlrs. <yVlaria <yVlac<=Ljonald  tzAfctive <y\lorth \^Jkanagan   pioneer  By Jas. E. Jamieson  Activity has been the keynote of one of the North Okanagan's  original pioneers, Mrs. Maria MacDonald. This year she maintained  her unique and singular record as the only person to have exhibited at  all sixty-three Armstrong Fall Fairs (Interior Provincial Exhibition)  —a truly outstanding achievement when one considers that Mrs. MacDonald is now in her eighty-eighth year.  Mrs. Miles MacDonald, born Maria Cumming, in November of  1875, at Granville, Quebec, she came to British Columbia at the age  of five. With her father and mother and a brother, she landed at  Victoria after the long voyage around Cape Horn.  The Canadian Pacific Railway was then being built, the Cumming family moved to Yale, living in a tent on Nicomen Island,  formerly occupied by surveyors for the CPR. There the Cummings  made their home for 19 months. Stories heard from those who had  visited the Okanagan Valley gave Mr. Cumming the urge to journey  into the Interior. By team and wagon the little family drove beside  the Fraser River, camping along the way and stopping at early settlements such as Spences Bridge, Lytton, Kamloops, Monte Creek and  Grand Prairie — now Westwold — finally arriving at the O'Keefe  Ranch area where they stopped and tented.  Mrs. MacDonald recalls many interesting incidents of that trek.  One such incident Mrs. MacDonald bears the visible evidence to this  very day. Near Kamloops a playful colt kicked up its heels and cut  her on the lower cheek. A man nearby took a chew of tobacco out of  his mouth instantly and laid it right into the open wound. Whatever  the healing powers of tobacco, the scar left today is only a thin line  resembling a fold in the cheek.  Mrs. MacDonald recalls seeing camel on the meadows of Grand  Prairie (Westwold). These were the creatures used for freighting  through the canyon in the early days and eventually left to roam in  the Westwold district.  The Cumming's wagon finally came to a stop near the O'Keefe  Ranch and the little Roman Catholic Church that still stands by the  highway to this day. The O'Keefe's invited the Cummings to their  home—a place where early days hospitality was traditional.  Pleasant Valley, a valley stretching between two mountain  ridges from just south of the city of Armstrong to Larkin, became  the home of the Cumming family. Mrs. MacDonald and her brother,  141 Mrs. Maria MacDonald—Active North Okanagan Pioneer  the late Hugh Cumming, attended the old log school situated near  what is the dip in the Pleasant Valley Road a couple of miles outside  Armstrong. There were nine pupils including the pioneer Young  family and the five Ehmke children. When the Inspector was due,  recalls Mrs. MacDonald, a tenth pupil was borrowed to make the  required ten, thus enabling the school to stay open. Classes were held  week about alternating from the Pleasant Valley log school, a converted granary on the Henry Ehmke farm, with a similar building  on the B. F. Young farm at Lansdowne being used the following  week. Daniel Rabbit, brother of the late Mrs. J. M. Wright, was the  first teacher.  During the summer Mrs. MacDonald's father, Captain Cumming, operated the steamer Red Star owned by the Rithetts Flour  Mill in Enderby. Though the Red Star was really for transporting  goods for Rithetts, it carried almost any freight and passengers  between Sicamous and Enderby. The landing was just below the  present bridge.  The Red Star made the trip up one day and back the next,  barring unforseen delays, as it inched and nosed its way in and around  river bends, stopping to refuel with wood at various spots on the river  bank.  Recounting girlhood days, Mrs. MacDonald recalls how she rode  horseback into Enderby staying overnight with friends, enabling her  father to ride the horse back home where he visited with his family  before returning to his duties as captain of the Red Star, Mrs.  MacDonald the next morning riding the horse back to their farm  home.  At that time the present city of Armstrong was just a piece of  land surrounded by water. This was ditched—quite a task, states Mrs.  MacDonald, with just manpower and horses.  When the railway built its branch line down the Okanagan  Valley, Mrs. Cumming boarded the surveyors, and later 24 men  working on its construction. This construction line started at Sicamous  and went as far as Okanagan Landing, where boats travelled Okanagan Lake to other settlements south as far as Penticton.  The year after the Cumming family arrived at Pleasant Valley  a young Scot named Miles MacDonald walked into the Valley from  Vancouver. Eventually Maria MacDonald became his wife, and  moved across Pleasant Valley to the house on MacDonald Road over  by the mountain that she has lived in for 66 years since her marriage.  Mr. MacDonald died some years ago. Mrs. MacDonald lives on in  the comfortable old house with her son-in-law and daughter, Mr. and  142 Mrs. Maria MacDonald—Active North Okanagan Pioneer  Mrs. Joe Erickson. This mother and daughter have never been parted.  Mrs. Charles Patten, the first child born in the North Okanagan,  still living in Armstrong, and Mrs. MacDonald have been inseparable  friends, bridesmaids at each other's weddings and still meet once a  week for tea unless something unavoidable prevents it—a lovely and  satisfying lifelong friendship.  One cannot help but think what a wonderful life this remarkably  youthful 88-year-old lady has led—from her alertness it is obvious it  has been an interesting, happy, useful and noble life.  J he <J~lc  oziers  By K. Lacey  With the passing of Leonard Hozier in St. Martin's Hospital,  Oliver, B.C. on Dec. 24^ 1962 another link with the pioneer past of  the Southern Interior was broken. Leonard Hozier was born at Vernon,  then Priest's Valley, 77 years ago. At that time, C. W. Hozier, his  father, was head cattleman at the Coldstream Ranch. A brother, the  eldest child in the family, died in July, 1885 and was the first interment in the old Vernon Cemetery. The ground was donated by Luc  Gerouard and E. J. Tronson collected the money from local settlers  to fence it. About 1894 or '95 C. W. Hozier pre-empted the ranch  that is now the F. Lawson ranch about 11 or 12 miles from Camp  McKinney on the old stage road between the Okanagan and the  Boundary country at that time. Over this road the freight teams and  wagons and passenger stages travelled and the Hoziers became a  "stopping place."  In August, 1896, the famous "Gold Brick Robbery" took place  when G. B. McAuley was robbed of three gold bricks just above the  Hozier place. He drove on to the Hoziers and young Leonard who  was II at the time was sent to the Camp to report the robbery while  McAuley continued on to Spokane.  Leonard and his two sisters went to stay with relatives at Kelowna for what schooling was available at that time. The school at  Camp McKinney being only intermittent.  After Camp McKinney folded Hozier sold his ranch to Bevan  Gore and moved over to the Fairview district. Here Leonard made  his home. He was an experienced trapper and prospector, a good  neighbor and a good friend to those he liked, no doubt inheriting his  keen instincts and quiet and unassuming ways from his Indian forbears. Few of his kind are left now and another colorful era is  drawing to a close.  143 \+-*anada9s \^Jh  anagan  By W. K. Dobson  Editor's Note: What follows is the context of an address  given by Mr. Dobson at an Irrigation Operators' Conference sponsored by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation in Boise, Idaho.  Travelling from British Columbia to Idaho, I noticed that we  passed through a lot of historical country. You see signs telling of  Lewis and Clarke, and the Oregon Trail, and so forth, and it made  me realize how little Canadians know of the colorful story of the  Western United States. It also made me think that probably the  people south of the 49th parallel know equally little about our story  north of the line.  Geographically the Okanagan Valley in Canada is a continuation  of the Okanogan Valley in Washington. It extends north from the  border for over 100 miles, until it meets the main line of the C.P.R.  The valley is very fertile, provided that there is sufficient water either  naturally or by irrigation to allow the land to produce. The climate  of the Canadian Okanagan varies from desert in the southern end to  almost humid in the north. Requiring extensive irrigation in the south  to produce crops, while at the north end little or no supplementary  water is required to produce good returns. The farming is varied,  producing fruit, vegetables, hay, livestock, and dairy produce, as well  as eggs, poultry, turkeys, etc.  Historically, British Columbia and the Western States started as  one area from Alaska to Mexico, jointly occupied by the United  States and Britain, and ruled by neither. There was free movement of  British and American interests up and down the area, as shown by  the names of the places, and their origins.  Ogden, in Utah, is named for a Canadian, Peter Skene Ogden, a  H.B.C. factor, who was one of the first men to arrive and roam this  area, and said to be the first to see Mt. Shasta.  The first White people known to have travelled the Okanagan  Valley in British Columbia were the fur traders from Astoria, in 1811.  The Pacific Fur Company organized by John Jacob Astor,  formed mostly of Canadians with promises of higher pay, established  Fort Astoria near the mouth of the Columbia after a trip around the  Horn from New York. The North West Fur Company of Canada  knew of this expedition's objects and had sent David Thompson to  forestall them. He, however, was more interested in mapping and  exploring, and wintered enroute at Boat Encampment at the top of  the Big Bend of the Columbia River in British Columbia. He finally  144 Canada's Okanagan  arrived at the mouth of the Columbia on July 15, 1811, to find  Astor's men already building a fort, for they had arrived on March  25, 1811. He started back a week later, accompanied by a party from  Fort Astoria who were going to build Fort Okanagan, his canoes  being lighter he travelled faster, and left David Stuart and the others  behind, after advising them that the mouth of the Okanagan River  would be a good site for a fort.  They reached the site of the new fort on July 31, eight days  from Astoria and about 700 miles, which is remarkable speed for  loaded canoes. As soon as the fort buildings were well under construction, David Stuart and another man set off up the Okanagan  with pack horses, to trade with the Indians. They continued north  far beyond the end of Okanagan Lake, and returned to Fort Okanagan in late March after being away for 188 days. That spring they  shipped out 2,500 beaver, which had cost them 12 cents a piece, and  were worth $7.50 a piece in Canton. The practice was for a ship to  leave New York loaded with goods for Astoria, collect the furs, and  take them to Canton where they were traded for the rich stuffs of  that country, and then return to New York for another trip.  The War of 1812 broke the Pacific Fur Company, and it was  bought out by the North West Company, and finally by the Hudson's  Bay Company, and Astoria was renamed Fort George. By a treaty  in 1814, it was returned to the Americans. But until 1846 when the  boundary dispute was finally settled Oregon and Washington were  under the control of the Canadians. The traffic up and down the  Okanagan Trail continued until this time, and was discontinued due  to the settling of the dispute over the Canadian-United States boundary, west of the Rocky Mountains.  With the loss of the Okanagan Trail, the need for another  route was urgent, and the Dewdney Trail became the means of access  to the Pacific. This was an all Canadian route parallelling the United  States border and over this route came many of our early settlers with  their wives and children, and eventually much of their heavy household  goods, including pianos, carried on the backs of horses and mules.  About this time, too, a number of hardy souls were about to make  history. Gold was being found in the Upper Fraser River country, at  a camp called Barkersville, and people were heading there from all  directions. An advertisement in Eastern and English papers told of the  easy overland route—via luxury liners from England, then by train to  St. Paul, and then by stagecoach the rest of the way, and all for 42  pounds, or about $200 those days. From St. Paul they got to Winnipeg,  145 Canada's Okanagan  and there they bought Red River Carts drawn by oxen which carried  them over anything by highways lined with staging hostels, until they  finally arrived at Edmonton, Alberta. Here, even the Red River carts  would not go. Still, not daunted these completely inexperienced  travellers sold their wagons and most of their oxen for horses to ride  and pack their belongings, and started out into the mountains where  there were not even trails. Their guides were anxious to get back as  winter was approaching in the mountains, so this party of adventurers  was dumped on the banks of the Fraser River in late August, and  left to its own devices as to their next step. Some of the more  cautious decided on the apparently easier route down the Thompson  River to Kamloops on foot. Among these was Augustus Schubert, his  wife and three children. She was expecting a fourth child when they  started out, but they expected to arrive in August, so everything  seemed fine. It was now September, and they were still hundreds of  miles from their destination on foot through almost impenetrable cedar  forests with dense underbrush. Finally, they could proceed no further  and took to rafts to reach their destination. Food ran out, time was  running out, when they finally reached the H.B.C. post of Kamloops,  and early the following morning their fourth child, a daughter was  born, the first White child to be born in the interior. The Schuberts'  descendants still live in the Okanagan Valley.  When the Schuberts and their party left the rest of the overlanders to go down the Thompson River, the rest went down the  Fraser. Among them was A. L. Fortune, who was to become another  Okanagan pioneer. These men, some 60 in number, completely  ignorant of the river, built rafts, 20 feet by 40 feet to glide down  the river to Quesnel, and the gold fields. All went well for a few  days and nights, and then they hit rapids. Rafts were overturned, food  and supplies lost, and strangely enough only two men. One of these  men in company with two others in a canoe arrived at the first of the  rapids, where they pulled ashore to lighten their canoe before they  attempted the hazardous journey. He scribbled a note and put it in the  pocket of his jacket which he left hanging on a bush. They then  attempted the rapids but overturned and this man was drowned. One  of his companions picked up his coat afterwards, when carrying the  rest of their goods down, and remembered the note which he read.  It said: "I was drowned today, attempting to shoot the rapids."  When the others reached Quesnel about mid-September, they  found the miners leaving the area for the winter because there was  neither gold nor jobs to tide them over. After several years of journeying and working in British Columbia, Mr. Fortune finally came to  146 Canada's Okanagan  settle in the Okanagan at Fortune's Landing, known now as Enderby.  Barkersville was the reason for the Schuberts and the Fortunes  settling in the Okanagan. It was also the reason for another quite  colorful character becoming associated with the history of Vernon,  and the Okanagan. This man was Frank Barnard, whose name still  lives in the main street of Vernon, Barnard Avenue. He started out  by carrying mail from Yale to Barkersville, 300 miles on his back  at $3 per letter.  It must have been a profitbale business, because it developed into  a pony express, and finally into a stagecoach line. In order to keep the  stage running he developed a ranch in the Okanagan, known as the  Barnard Express ranch, or BX Ranch, which is still in existence  today, under different ownership.  Following the Fur Brigade, and the miners, came the Priests, to  establish missions and aid the Indians. One of the best known through  the Okanagan was Father Pandosy, who was the first man to come to  live in the Valley. One of his followers was the first settler to take up  land. Father Pandosy was well known in the Yakima country for his  work with the Indians, and it was just after the Cayuse War when  he was suspected of being too friendly with the Yakimas, that he was  ordered to the Okanagan, where he labored for 30 years, and  established the first mission just south of Kelowna.  From 1860 on settlers came in from all directions, and the  valley began to take on some semblance of its present shape. The towns  of today were still barely villages. About this time the first grist mill  was established north of Kelowna. The stones for this mill came from  San Francisco by sea to Vancouver, then by river boat to Yale, and  over the Cariboo Road in freight wagons to Savona Ferry, then by  boat again up the Thompson River and through Shuswap Lake to  Fortune's Landing. Then by home-made cart with log wheels over  no road to Okanagan Lake, down this lake in a row boat for 50 miles,  and finally overland for 3 miles or so to their final resting place.  The roads were expanded after 1860 and later followed by the  railway in 1890. Shortly after its establishment, Lord Aberdeen, then  Governor General of Canada, came through on a tour of inspection  and was so impressed with the country that he bought the Coldstream  Ranch of some 13,000 acres as well as another tract a little further  south near Kelowna. His brother-in-law, the Honorable Coutss-  Marjoriebanks, was manager of the ranch for a few years, and was  a very colorful character, who had been a cowboy in Texas for  sometime before coming to Vernon. The stories of he and his horse  147 Canada's Okanagan  were many, varied, and sometimes lurid. He quite often would ride  his horse up on the veranda of the main hotel, and they say on one  occasion arrived under his horse, the saddle having slipped.  These characters are all gone now, along with the Nez Perce  Indians who used to come up to harvest the hops on the Coldstream  Ranch, and the country is now civilized for better or for worse. We  have our Aberdeen Lake, Barnard Avenue, Marjoriebanks Point,  Vidler Mountain, the Grey Canal, Ellison and Postill Lakes. They  are just names to most of our citizens today. I sometimes wonder if the  Schuberts of today even think of the overlanders and I think that we  in the West all tend to forget that until quite recently all the West was  one country free to the movement of Canadians and Americans and  jointly occupied by both. One link that still binds us in the North West  is the Columbia River which might have been our boundary if David  Thompson hadn't been so careful a map maker. We are both dependent  on its water for power and irrigation, and its full utilization is not in  the too distant future. But that is a different story.  J he    Vale of y^Jsou  oos  From the Hedley Gazette, January 10, 1905  In the Vale of Osoyoos when midnight is nigh  And the moon in her fulness rides radiant on high,  The stars' pearly twinkle, the lake's silver gleam,  The low-lying meadows, the broad winding stream,  The high rolling ranges surmounted by trees,  That scatter their frangrance with every breeze.  Oh where is the scene can with this one compare  In natural beauties so rich and so rare;  The lowing of cattle is herd on the hills,  The murmur of water from mountain-fed rills.  The scene with its peace and its grandeur so fill  The heart with contentment and joy, that it stills  The worries of life and the carping of care  In the Vale of Osoyoos so broad and so fair.  R. H. P.  148 <ZL*arlg <J~Listorg of the <JDeep \*-^reek  *JLjistrict  By E. H. Naylor  Editor's Note: The story that follows appeared first in the  Enderby Commoner. The writer E. H. Naylor has since then died.  The article is prefaced by remarks by Arnold Forbes of Deep Creek.  Mr. Forbes prefaced the story with the following remarks:  "Mr. Naylor is still hale and able to get through plenty of farm  work on the land he homesteaded in 1892. With Mrs. Naylor and son,  Harry, he lives quietly and likes nothing better than to discuss early  days. From such a clear mind, listening to such stories is a fascinating  experience. How the trees were felled across the building being erected  so the logs did not have to be raised; how the tea packages were melted  to get lead to make bullets; how Mr. Naylor, young and energetic  set out with five of such precious bullets to get venison for the family  —and brought back two deer.  "Mr. Naylor left his native East Anglia district, England, at the  age of fifteen and crossed the Atlantic, taking fourteen days and  plenty of discomfort in 1883. He worked in Eastern Canada for  'experience.' It was undoubtedly just that. Some could give the near  slavery another name.  "After coming to the North Okanagan area of B.C., he worked  with various people amongst whom was Major Anstey. This young  adventurer was one of a group of Englishmen who formed themselves  into an unofficial bodyguard for Prince Edward of Wales (later  King Edward Seventh) on a visit to the U.S.A. Major Anstey  remained in Canada settling on Anstey Arm of Shuswap Lake. That,  however, is another story.  "One must let Mr. Naylor's narrative speak for itself:  History of Deep Creek Related By E. H. Naylor  "That portion of land called Deep Creek, being West part of  Township 19, Range 9, West 6th Meridian was surveyed in 1887. It  being part of the railway belt, was held at $50.00 per acre, timber  rights reserved. The original timber was mostly destroyed by fire and  when I saw it in 1889 there were no settlers between the C.P.R. and  Hullcar, a strip of country some 20 miles long.  "In 1889 a Mr. P. Pickering, acting on the belief that it would  be opened for homesteading, built a cabin on the S.E. }4 Section 21.  This is now held by Mr. Barnes. The winter of 1889-90 I spent in  company with E. Pickering, son of the first settler, in this cabin. No  149 Early History of the Deep Creek District  one else lived in the district. We had no stove. Just a fire on the floor  and a hole in the roof to let the smoke out. The following year, E.  Pickering built cabins on the adjoining %. Sees, running West. That  summer, we cut hay on the meadows behind the Beaver Dams.  "In the Spring of 1891 Pickering decided to move his family  up so Mrs. Pickering and her three boys arrived. A daughter was left  behind. We built a house of logs 20 ft. by 30 ft. and opened up the  creek as far as the lake. Cleared off a piece of land and put in an  acre or so of garden which did fine.  "About August I left to obtain work to get some needed cash but  returned when winter closed in.  "In the Spring of 1892 we were joined by R. Best and C. Rhein-  quist. W. Truesdale came that Fall with A. Piper and A. Ross in  1893. I worked away from the Creek. In the Fall Pickering's moved  away. Their place being taken by Mr. Gardom who built the house  now held by Mr. Herzog. They, however, lived in the Pickering  house the winter 1893-4.  "In 1892, hearing that the area was to be opened for home-  steading, R. Best and I went to Kamloops to file on our places. The  Agent said that he had not been officially notified but agreed to take  our applications pending necessary authority. This he did and we  received word in about a month that applications were accepted. Thus  it is probable that we were the first in the district to have legal claim  to land. Prior to this all settlers had only been squatters. Pickering was  one who accepted payment for the improvements he had done. In 1894  Mr. Salt and family arrived from England and entered on the place  now held by Mr. J. C. Adams. He engaged B. Gardom and I to clear  a road to the top of the hill on his place, clear about three acres and  build a house. He stayed about two years and his house being burnt  he moved down to the river. The place being taken some years later by  Mr. Smiley.  "All access to the district up to that time had been a pack trail  cut by the surveyors and roughly widened by a few of us so we could  get up by sleigh, at a pinch.  "In 1894 we heard that a road was to be built and the land from  Hullcar was soon homesteaded. The road was started in May, 1894  with F. Heathcoat as foreman. Work was given to bonafide settlers.  "Shortly after the road started I was surprised by three men  coming from the north out of the bush. They said they were settlers  from Canoe Creek and were looking for an outlet to Enderby. They  identified themselves as Messrs. R. McDonald, F. McLeod and M.  Mitchell. I suggested that we go to Enderby and see what the residents  150 ftNTICTOH HIGH SCHOOL UHWfc  *• ■   -_i.. si^r  Early History of the Deep Creek District  there thought. Arriving in Enderby on foot I took them to see Mr. O.  Harvey who was the pioneer merchant of Enderby. He suggested a  petition to the government. He at once drafted a petition and took it  over to the flour mill where Mr. S. Gibbs, manager, and his staff signed  up. After dinner at the hotel we got practically every one in town to  sign. McDonald then took the petition to Salmon Arm. The result was  that a trail was constructed that Fall. Mr. McDonald was in charge  of the work.  "Thus the country was greatly opened up.  "On the completion of the road the settlers combined to clear  the creek. Later that same Fall it was opened as far as Davisons. The  surface of the meadow was too soft to bear the weight of a horse but  with ditching, in a few years we were growing crops.  "The following is a list of settlers, the first, starting at the  Hullcar end: T. Yetton, J. McTavish, H. Hill, W. Moore, R. Best,  B. Gardom, W. Gibbs, W. Truesdale, A. Hayhurst, R. Davison, H.  Naylor, E. H. Naylor, J. Gardom, I. Mclntyre, A. Piper, A. Ross,  W. Fortune, G. Salt, T. Sharpe, 1897; W. Garbutt, 1897; J. Gorle,  1901. Subsequent settlers for which I have no date, A. Tompkinson,  J. Herron, A. Shortreid, W. Truesdale. These are the names of the  original settlers of which none are left but R. Davison and self, E.  H. Naylor.  "Somewhat later: Looking back at the early settlers, some sold  out as soon as they got their titles. Others got busy to try and make  something out of it. It was slow, markets poor, and prices low but in  a few years quite a lot of timothy hay was being shipped out. A  number of cattle were produced, but as most were bachelors there was  no dairying. Mrs. Hill and Mrs. Stroulger who came in 1895, being  the only ones in that line.  "There was lots of wild fruit, but no one to process it. The first  buildings were logs to erect, which was an occasion for a bee. I think  I built the first frame barn in 1902. Hayhurst built a log frame the  same year. Mine was hewed timbers.  "My house was built in 1908 and soon the days of log cabins  was done.  "The first religious meeting was held at Mr. Jamieson's house,  Rev. Duncan Campbell officiating. Attendance was good and a  bi-monthly service was held and has been continued ever since.  "Mr. Jamieson arrived in 1907. About 1911 a school district was  formed and school was opened that Fall, with Miss Marie Greenwood  of Salmon Arm in charge. Classes were first held in a small building  on Mr. Davison's farm. Later they moved to a log cabin on what is  151 Early History of the Deep Creek District  now Mr. Ginn's place. In 1913 the present site was bought. On it was  a log house 20 ft. by 30 ft. where school was held until the present  one was built.  "As to who was the first settler in Deep Creek, I think it would  be a West Indian negro, known as "Prosper" who was there in 1889.  How long he had lived there I do not know. Henry Hill was living  there in 1892. I think he settled there about the same time as Pickering  did. I am not sure of the exact date, there being no road then we  did not get to that end of the creek often."  ^yVlatilda <Jveogan JLjalrgmple  By K. Lacey  Mrs. Dalrymple was a daughter of Michael Keogan, who was  at Rock Creek during the gold rush there. While at Rock Creek he had  taken an Indian woman, Esther, who was a granddaughter of Chief  Chil-chth-cha of the Nicola band and who was a son of Chief  N'Kwalo the elder. After leaving Rock Creek Keogan contracted to  make shakes for Judge Haynes for a new Customs house at Osoyoos.  He cut tamarac blocks and split the shakes by hand with a frow.  With a home made shaver Esther shaved the shakes into smooth  shingles. Judge Haynes paid $250.00 for them, paying Esther $150.00  of it for herself. At about the same time some people from Oregon  going to the Cariboo with a large herd of Durham heifers had to sell  15 for duty money. T. Kruger, who had bought them, offered Esther  the 15 head for $100.00 which she quickly accepted and from which,  in a few years, she had a large herd. The family was camped across  the river from where the town of Cawston now is, cutting rails for  the late F. X. Richter, when Matilda was born in February 1873.  Mike Keogan pre-empted the first homestead in the Okanagan  Falls area in 1873 which later became the Christie. While here  Keogan raised vegetables and grain. The grain was harvested by hand,  with a cradle, the sheaves tied by hand. A corral was floored with hand  hewn timbers and the sheaves lead criss-cross. As she grew older it  became Matilda's job to drive a team of horses round and round to  thresh the grain. The chaff was cleaned from it by throwing it in the  air on a windy day and letting the wind blow the chaff away.  Matilda Keogan and William Dalrymple were married in the  Courthouse at Osoyoos by the Government Agent, C. A. R. Lambly  on July 24, 1893; Rika Kruger and Duncan Carmichael, witnesses.  At one time Mrs. Dalrymple ran a blacksmith shop at Fairview, and  was considered one of the best blacksmiths in the valley.  152 -__->^rw <^*arlg   J^etitio  n  Editor's Note: The following petition was received in the  Provincial Secretary's office and stamp-dated January 26, 1875.  "To the Honorable Executive Council of British Columbia.  "The Petition of the undersigned residents of the Okanagan  District humbly sheweth:—  "That the present wagon road fails to meet the requirements of  the settlers, and from the fact of its termination 30 miles distant  from where the majority of the settlers reside, is of little use to the  section at large.  "That altho the settlers in Mission Valley pay taxes at the same  proportional rates as those living immediately upon the main road, no  money has ever been expended by the Govt, nor has any assistance  whatever been rendered by the Govt, towards roads, trails, bridges  or schools in that section.  "That the continuation of the present wagon road from the  head of Okanagan Lake to Mission Valley, and the construction of a  good bridge over Mission Creek would tend immediately towards the  further settlement of the section and would render available for  occupation a large area of good land suitable for agriculture and  grazing, and which, from its present isolation is comparatively useless.  "That altho Mission Valley has been created a School District  and Trustees appointed by the settlers as required by law, no steps  have been taken by the Govt, towards the construction of a school  house and consequently no school house exists.  "Your Petitions humbly pray the appropriation for this building  may be at least One Thousand Dollars, as it is found impossible to  construct a building suitable for the purpose and capable of accommodating the number of children for any less sum.  "Your petitioners humbly pray the appropriation for this building  road from the head of Okanagan Lake be continued to Mission Valley  next summer and that instructions may be issued for the building of  a suitable school house this winter in the Mission Valley and your  Petitioners as in duty bound will ever pray, etc., etc."  Eli Lequime William Postill  George Leblanc A. Y. Kirkpatrick  Jos. Christian William Smithson  Alfred Postill A. Gillard  L. Christian Jules Biondau  Edward  Postill F. Ortelan  Thomas Wood John Y. Phillips  153 An Early Petition  Jose U. Lemee  Wm. Dolinson  Theodore Lorance  Frederick Brent  John McDougall  C. C. Garifeel  J. M. Boudre  R. S. Cormack  Ch. Groundilier  C. W. Simpson  Ch. Pandosy  J. B. Mooir  Ch. Brewer  David McDougall  Chas. A. Vernon  E. J. Tronson  Forbes Geo. Vernon  A. L. Fortune  T. G. Christian  Luc. Girouard  A. McNeil  P. Denis  Ignace McDougall  Andrew Brown  Celestine Verney  George Whalen  J. Buchman  Thomas Jones  D. Versailles  J. Burdee  H. Larguen  Emanuel  Lawrance  CJL_^  154 <Z/Q   Jribute to a    pioneer    Woman  By Mary Gartrell Orr  How difficult it is to incorporate in a few paragraphs the adventures of a lifetime, but I am very grateful  for the  opportunity  to  write a few words in praise of Mary Gartrell, wife of Mr. James  Gartrell, pioneer settler of Summerland,  British  Columbia.     Mary  Gartrell was my name, too, until I married, but I am only a granddaughter—one of about 75 descendants of the brave little grandmother  after whom I was named. This, I think, must have been her motto:  "Be strong.  We are not here to play, to dream, to drift.  We have hard work to do and loads to lift,  Shun not the struggle, face it, 'tis God's gift."  Her life was truly one of service to her family, her country and  humanity.  It was in the spring of 1885 that Grandma and Granddad and  their two daughters and three sons bade farewell to all that was their  life in Stratford, Ontario and set out with a few necessities for the  Okanagan. They had heard from Grandma's brother, George Pike,  who was working at Cawston's Ranch, that this was a vast new land  full of opportunity. They came across the continent via the United  States, and north from Sprague, Washington by covered wagon and  horseback. The youngest, Fred, my father, only five years old, rode  most of the way on the front of the saddle with his mother. When  they came to the Columbia River the problem of how to get across  was solved by putting canoes under the wheels of the wagon to float  it across. The horses and cattle swam. The little company made their  way up to Penticton where Granddad worked for two years on the  Ellis Ranch and Grandma cooked for the ranch hands.  In 18.87 they moved to their pre-emption six miles north on the  wooded point at Trout Creek where Granddad and Grandma lived  all the rest of their lives—43 years. There they settled into the impressive quietness of an unpeopled land—the first'■family to live in  the district later named Summerland. At first Grandma was the only  white woman between Penticton and Vernon. Out of the wilderness  Grandma carved a home which became a mecca for all, famous for  its hospitality, and many a bachelor coming into this country with  nothing but youth, courage and ambition got his start with them. The  first nine years her home was a log cabin with a sod roof and earthen  floor which was swept with a broom made of birch twigs. There were  homemade candles for light or sometimes just grease in a pan with a  155 A Tribute to a Pioneer Woman  rag in it set alight. Coffee beans had to be roasted and then ground  by hand. Soap had to be made from ashes and waste fats. There was  a yeast crock started from hops they grew, to make the bread rise.  They had no furniture or implements. The daughters married early  and set up their own homes in Kelowna. The boys slept in the bunkhouse and when Reverend Greene came through about once a month  he slept there with them on straw ticks but in clean sheets. Trails had  to be made—Penticton to Fairview and Trout Creek to Penticton—  so Grandma went along, camped by the roadside and cooked for the  men. There were many rattlesnakes up on the hills where the trails  were being made and one day she rose from sitting on a potato sack  peeling potatoes and found a rattlesnake creeping away from under  her. The worst bugbear about the country, though, was the mosquitoes.  There were, many advantages—the acres of wood so useful for  making furniture, implements, tools, for fuel and fences and buildings. The logs for the barn, still a landmark, were originally cut for  a house but it was decided instead to wait and get some trees cut into  lumber at the mill at Kelowna. The new house was completed about  1896 and has been lived in by three generations of the family. There  was the lake for transportation. The climate was ideal. Fish and game  were plentiful. Whole hind quarters of venison would be cooked in  the oven. Grandma would take her .22 rifle, go out in the bush and  shoot half a dozen grouse for a meal. Barrels of fish (kickaninies)  would be salted down. There were wild raspberries and olallies  (Saskatoons). Later, white and red currants and gooseberry bushes  were brought from Okanagan Mission and planted. Later still, fruit  trees were planted, peaches started from peach stones, and apple trees  were purchased in Ontario. They established the first commercial  orchard in the Okanagan Valley. They had their own eggs, milk,  cream, butter, too, so didn't have to buy much. No corner grocery  in those days—supplies had to be brought in over a trail from Hope.  Flour, however, was obtained from Brent's flour mill at Okanagan  Mission. Grandma used to raise ducks, turkeys, chickens, geese. Dad  and Uncle George as boys used to ride over the hills looking for old  bones to take home and burn for lime for the chickens to help make  the eggshells. There were goose-plucking bees, the down being retained  for pillows and comforters; the fat rendered to grease for chest  colds and croup. And, oh, for a taste of that homemade cider, and  how good it made the mincemeat! Grandma had to make her own  vinegar from it, too. It is said she was famous for her speed in making  apple pies. Her aprons used to fascinate me—the outer apron was  often a coarse one soiled from some project but it could be whipped  156 A Tribute to a Pioneer Woma?i  off in a moment to display a clean, fine one underneath!  One of the disadvantages was medical aid—the nearest Doctor  was at Spokane at first. As women began to come into the country  Grandma used to go as far as Vernon to officiate at a birth. What a  relief it must have been to see her slight, capable figure coming into  sight on her riding horse!  Her fondness for helping people was extended also to animals.  Dad tells of a heifer being lost—no one could find it. But Grandma  did! It was wedged in tight between two clay cliff walls up in the  Zimmerman Gulch. She saved its life. Another time a sheep had fallen  over the bank and broken a leg. She put splints on it and it got well.  There were anxious times—the two youngest boys at nine and  six years, were sent by row boat to school at Okanagan Mission, then  later to Vernon. The oldest brother was helping Captain Shorts on the  lake. There were sad times—Billy died of typhoid fever. Later in  1905 Grandma also contracted the dread disease and on a wild winter's  night had to be wrapped up in blankets, roped around her on a cot  and carried down to the beach where they had to throw her on the  boat as it tossed in the waves. To make sure the boat would stop on  its way to Kelowna Fred had to ride horseback on Pilate to Penticton  to tell the Captain. At a nursing home in Kelowna Grandma was  nursed back to health and she returned home. Many active years  followed and she watched the community growing up around her. On  April 9, 1930 she passed away, aged 83, but still lives in the memory  of many.  May I, of this generation, pay tribute to such pioneering women  who formed the backbone in the building up of this country.  OtS^  157 K^ummerland tZ/^rnecdotes  By F. W. Andrew  Editor's Note : The four short pieces that follow are tales of  the early days in Summerland written by one who was often one of  the chief characters in many of the stories of human interest which  abound throughout the history of a developing community. The late  Dr. Andrew came to Summerland in the first decade of the century  and throughout his lifetime there he was a valued and beloved citizen  and friend. Competent as a physician he was also endowed with that  sense of humor which brightens a person's journey through life and  makes a good companion.  BOAT TRIPS  Old John was the genial butcher, but he was not an active  supporter of the W.C.T.U. He was past middle age when he married  a nurse of about the same age as his. When the couple arrived home,  the wife was wearing a brightly colored dress and an intricately  designed hat. "Dressed up like a Christmas Beef," was the way Old  Jack summed it up.  Life went along smoothly for some months until the wife  decided to visit some of her relatives in Kelowna. After a few days,  the life of single bliss began to pall on Jack. The only food he could  cook was meat, and plenty of it. He thought \l/2 lbs. of beefsteak was  a fair breakfast and a whole roast chicken, draped with slices of bacon,  a fair dinner. Then he announced his determination to go to Kelowna  and bring his wife back, for he felt he had suffered enough neglect.  So, after closing the butcher shop, he boarded the old sternwheeler, the  Okanagan, early in the morning. As soon as the boat pulled out, the  steward opened up the bar and Jack, proceeding to fortify himself  with Dutch courage, became the best patron aboard. By the time they  arrived at Kelowna, however, his courage failed him, so he remained  aboard and went to Okanagan Landing, the end of the northbound  trip, saying he would be in better shape when they returned, when he  planned to get off at Kelowna and tell that wife just where she got  off. However, his nerve failed him again, so he resumed his position  at the bar until he reached Summerland, where he disembarked. The  next day he boarded the boat again but, after several libations, he got  off at Kelowna. Feeling the need of still more support, he called in at  the bar of one of the hotels and remained there until the southbound  boat appeared when he took the return trip to Summerland. By that  time he was unable to eat at all and felt quite depressed, even to the  point of weeping. Someone must have telephoned his wife for she  returned the next evening.  She assumed her  wifely prerogative  to  158 Summerland Anecdotes  bawl him out for his evil behaviour and neglect of business after  which she proceeded to make him drink soup and coffee and nurse  him back to his normal condition.  Life went on placidly for about six months when the wife, after  exacting promises that he would be a good boy, again visited her  relatives in Kelowna. The promises were forgotten in a couple of  days, and after consuming a number of drinks he decided to go to  Kelowna and make his wife return. Again he over-trained in the  matter of courage on the boat and returned to Summerland alone.  Three trips to Kelowna were repeated at intervals with the same  result. Either the wife forgot that her place was with Jack, or else  Jack forgot how to batch and eat properly. On one return trip from  Kelowna, Jack decided he had not quite enough stamina and remained  on board the boat until it reached Naramata. That.gave him time to  imbibe a few more after which he returned to Summerland by a  private launch.  It was after one of these periods that I visited Jack in his rooms.  He was feeling quite blue and had not eaten for several days. So I  telephoned my wife to bring down a thermos of hot coffee and a few  sandwiches. He still had a bottle and a friend was present, helping  with its disposal.  That afternoon Helen, a friend of my wife who was also a  nurse, arrived for a visit. She had not been in the house a half hour  before old Frank Osier called, because as he said, he was always fond  of pretty nurses. Frank's big object in life was "liquidating the national  debt," but his behaviour was always that of a gentleman. When he  left, Helen said, "That man is drunk," to which my wife replied,  "Oh, no, that's just his normal condition." They prepared the coffee  and sandwiches and on their way down the street they were stopped by  Tom Kelly, who worked a mineral claim nearby and also played the  clarionette. But at times the monotony of life urged him to resort to  the "juice of the vine" and this time he was at the zenith of such an  urge. "Mrs. Andrew, you and the Doctor are the best friends I have,"  etc., he offered as the big tears rolled down his cheeks, but the ladies  disengaged themselves as quickly as they could, for they had to think  of Jack. After they delivered the coffee and sandwiches to the room  where Jack and his companion were, Helen stepped outside and began  to laugh, "Mrs. Andrew, you told me this was a dry town. I've been  here less than two hours and I've met four men, all as drunk as they  could be!"  THE ARCHDEACON  Back in  1917 a trip in a motor car of  100 miles or more was  159 Summerland Anecdotes  quite an adventure. There were several factors we had to contend with  that are practically absent today. First, was the fact that motor vehicles  were not as sturdily constructed as they are now, and second, there  were no paved highways to speak of except around the cities and larger  towns and then it was the custom in British Columbia to pass on the  left, as they do in Great Britain. Some of the roads were so sandy that  the Blue Book advised taking a roll of chicken wire to lay over the  sand. In wet weather one sometimes had to put on chains or get  stuck, while other roads had projecting sharp stones that might cause  a blow-out so it was customary to carry one or more large patches to  put inside the casing in case of such an accident. Very few cars had a  spare tire but they carried a patching outfit so punctures could be  repaired on the roadside. The smooth tires were inflated by a hand  pump—70 lbs. pressure—and very few garages had free air. Judging  from the liberal supply of tools that came with the car, the makers  rightly anticipated you were going to have trouble and you always did.  The Archdeacon had bought one of the first Chevrolets that were  manufactured and was quite proud of the job. He had never made a  trip of over 20 miles so, after a chat with Mr. C. C. A. and myself,  we thought it would be quite sporting to drive to Seattle or Portland.  He offered to take us in his car if we would split the expenses three  ways, to which we agreed.  So, one fine morning we started south and reached Oroville,  Wash, in time for lunch—a drive of about 60 miles. Then we went  on and, three miles south of Okanagan, we hit a pot-hole and broke  a spring. So we returned to Okanagan. The garage had a liberal supply  of springs and evidently they knew the wretched roads would send  them plenty of business, so we were soon fixed up and on our way.  We spent the night at Brewster, a little over 130 miles for the first  day.  The next morning we resumed the journey and nothing unusal  happened until we hit that sudden drop of the switch-back road of  Knapp's Hill, a few miles south of Chelan. When we reached the  bottom, the Archdeacon stopped the car and remarked, "It's a good  thing I came down in second for the brakes aren't working very well."  We looked under the car and there was one of the cables that operated  the brakes dragging on the ground like a broken garter. Mr. C. C. A.  expressed his disgust. When attempting to start the car, the starter  refused to work, so we cranked it. On reaching Wenatchee, the man  said the carbon brushes of the starting motor required new ones as the  old ones were burned out. After a late lunch we turned west towards  the dreaded Blewett Pass.  160 Summerland Anecdotes  None of us had ever seen a mountain road like that over the  Blewett. It was narrow, steep, with abrupt drops, frequent sharp turns  and there was no protecting parapet. I think we saw three wrecks that  had dropped over the side. We passed one car stalled for lack of  sufficient gas to feed the carburettor by gravity. There was a warning  sign cautioning drivers not to cut down trees to drag behind cars as a  brake. However, we drove slowly, passed the summit, and began a  cautious descent. When it began to get dark, it was found the lights  were too dim for travel, so after a brief huddle, we applied at a farm  house for a meal and shelter. It was very plain, the food and the beds,  but we were too tired to be fussy.  As this was a dairy farm, we were wakened about daylight and so  had an early start. When we reached Cle Elum we went to a garage  and were told that the armature in the charging unit was burned out  and that it would have to be re-wound or be replaced by a new one.  To save time we had a new one installed.  We had had several near collisions and warned the Archdeacon  that we were in Washington, not British Columbia, and should keep  to the right side of the road. But the habit of turning to the left was  strong. About three miles out of Cle Elum we met a large car, turned  to the left and had a head-on collision. The driver of the American  car was an Italian and, as we later found out, a former saloon keeper,  although at the time, Washington was nominally "dry." The language  he poured out was quite appropriate for the occasion, from his viewpoint. We had to admit responsibility and promised to have his car  repaired. So we turned back to Cle Elum and went to the garage again.  We had to wait over two days before repairs were completed, less one  front fender on the Chev. The cost was over $140.00. Mr. C. C. A.  was not pleased.  We left Cle Elum in the afternoon, crossed Snoquallmie Pass  and reached Seattle at night and in the fog. We got rooms at the  Butler Hotel, not a first class place, but we felt we ought to economize. There was a party in the room next to ours, a party at which  something stronger than Coke was being served in the dry state of  Washington. Sleep was impossible until we complained to the manager  at midnight. When he came and threatened to throw the whole bunch  out, we hear one lady plead, "You don't love me any more."  The next day we drove around the town and decided to drive to  Tacoma for dinner. It was an excellent meal. On returning to Seattle,  about half way, we heard a terrible clatter in the engine and the car  stopped. We waited helplessly until a returning taxi driver stopped to  see if he could help. He had a tow-rope and hauled us into Seattle. The  161 Summerland Anecdotes  next morning we were told at the garage that the crank-shaft was  broken and it would be three days before it would be repaired. Mr.  C. C. A. went home by rail. They had a system in that garage that  prevented restless owners from hanging around and asking useless  questions. They put the car on an elevator and lowered it to an underground workshop. When the engine was repaired and a new fender  replaced, the two of us headed north for Vancouver. We reached  there the next day and were nearly mired in the mud. We were broke,  too, but I cashed a cheque and came home by train. The Archdeacon  traded his wreck in on a Dodge. Neither Mr. C. C. A. nor myself ever  made any more trips with him.  LEMON EXTRACT  Domine Paul lived on the Reservation about twelve miles from  West Summerland. He was industrious at times. He raised enough  potatoes and corn for his family's use and supplemented this food by  fishing and hunting. His ability to earn cash, however, was limited to  cutting and selling firewood, for he was never known to take a job.  His wife sometimes made buckskin gloves which Domine tried to sell  at exhorbitant prices, but he always disposed of them, either for cash or  in trade. With the cash he bought a sack of flour, tea and sugar, unless  something less useful to the family caught his attention. The only  article of clothing he ever bought was a ten gallon hat—the rest  consisted of cast-offs obtained from a minister's wife.  Unfortunately for his family, Domine had acquired a deep  affection for firewater—anything with a kick. Straight liquor if he  could pay a white man enough, rubbing alcohol or lemon extract and  he was extremely cunning in getting others to break the law on his  behalf. Whenever some got into his possession, he lost no time in  consuming it. I have seen him take the top off a beer bottle with his  teeth—his teeth were perfect. As he did not try and did not care to  keep within the bounds of moderation, he frequently passed out.  Policemen do not look on such behaviour benevolently, so if they  found him, he was tucked away in the "Skookum House." And, as he  had no money to pay a fine, the magistrate usually sentenced him to  ten or twenty days. This did not annoy him very much but he lamented  there might not be any grub at home for his wife and kids.  One day in the fall, Domine brought a load of wood to town  and sold it. The day was chilly and windy and he decided he needed  something to warm him up. No, a cup of coffee wouldn't do. But who  could he get to buy him a bottle of lemon extract? Just then, the Archdeacon passed and Domine stopped him. "Would you please buy me  some lemon extract?" he asked. "It's a windy day and I can't leave my  162 Summerland Anecdotes  horses; my wife wants a large bottle so here's two dollars." The  Archdeacon was not very well versed with the law and therefore  agreed to make the purchase. He went to a nearby store and bought an  eight ounce bottle and remarked casually, "It's not often I do a favor  for an Indian, but old Domine couldn't leave his horses. "Give me  back that bottle," snapped the clerk. "Don't you know you can be  pinched and fined about $200 for supplying an Indian with an  intoxicant, They drink the stuff."  Tough luck, Domine.  BARTER  One day a bright, well-dressed young man called at my office  and introduced himself—I have forgotten the name—as a representative of the "Vernon News." He stated that the office of this newspaper  had been destroyed by fire and that the records of its subscribers were  lost and he was trying to reconstruct the list and the dates of expiration.  He had heard from other subscribers in town that I was numbered  among them, but as a greater portion of them were about a month  in arrears, I was probably among them, and he would be glad to  renew my subscription, three dollars a year.  I replied bluntly that I didn't want the paper as I knew very  few people in Vernon and wasn't particularly interested in the affairs  of that city.. He reassured me that they had good correspondents and  that there was always a good column of Summerland news. I told him  that was a pretty weak argument as we had our own "Summerland  Review" and further, if I wanted the paper, I would subscribe through  the local drugstore for I made it a principle to deal with those who  dealt with me.  "Well, Doctor, if I were taken sick here, you're the first person  I would call; now how about three dollars for the 'News'?" More of  the same stuff. His manner and persistence irritated me so I said,  "Here's as far as I'll go. I'll give you a good prescription for a cough  mixture, another for indigestion and another for a disease you never  should have if you're good and you can send me the paper."  The paper never came.  OU  163 4^At   J-irst   person 4^fccount of  ^sarfu <JLJa\is  Minnie MacQueen  It came about in this way, two members of our local Branch  were visiting Mrs. Minnie MacQueen at her home in Vernon with a  view to getting identification of persons in an old photograph when  without any prearrangement, the conversation turned back to the  earliest days of recorded history and we got a story, which is related  below:  I was seven years of age when I arrived at Sicamous in 1890.  My father William MacQueen and his sons James and William had  preceded mother and the young children and were employed on the  Patterson and Larkin contract, building the Sicamous and Okanagan  Railway; the contract was let in 1890 and finished in the summer of  1892.  Upon our arrival there was no place for us to live (at Sicamous),  The Red Star steamer plied between Kamloops and Enderby until the  railway was opened for traffic. A stage connected Sicamous and  Enderby. My father got a place for us 12 miles from Sicamous in  bush country. Later we moved to Enderby and lived on a pre-emption  2}/2 miles out of town. We were glad of this change because there  was a school at Enderby. We did not mind the walk of 2^/z miles.  Leaving school one day we passed several men sitting on a bench  outside the hotel. (We thought they were new arrivals and did not  know the country.) One of them said we had better be on the look-out  because two bears had passed that way a little while ago. We thought  they were kidding and did not take them seriously.  When we got out of town we saw the bear tracks, one on each  side of the road, so we sat down, took off our shoes and stockings,  tied the shoe laces together and hung the shoes around our necks. This  was so we could run faster in our bare feet. By now we were keyed up  but saw nothing more of the bears—except their tracks—and we made  home safely. Actually we were not scared.  When the railway construction was completed, the contractors  advised my father to go to Kelowna and start a blacksmith's shop  which he did on the present site of the Capitol News. The original  building was torn down in 1948. My mother and the rest of the family  came out from Gait, Ontario in the spring of 1890 and moved as the  railway proceeded and we all returned to Ontario except father in  the fall of 1891. James and William came out again in the spring of  1892 and mother and the rest of the family followed in September.  164 A First Person Account of Early Days  Our father had bought the right to a pre-emption 2)^ miles  down river from Enderby and settled the family there, but when the  snow got deep and too hard for us children to break trail to school at  Enderby, mother took us to Kelowna — where they lacked three  scholars to start a school. The names of the children were Tom,  Georgina and Minnie.  The school was started January 1893 in the hall above Lequime's  store with D. W. Sutherland as teacher. At that time there were only  Lequime's store and Chas. Mairs's store on one side of, what is now  Bernard Avenue, with Macqueen's blacksmith shop on the other side.  There were no houses, we lived above the shop, and nearly froze to  death, and the lake froze over from one end to the other and  temperatures went down to 40 below zero at times.  When the ice went out of the lake in April, mother took us back  to Enderby as there were enough new scholars to keep the Kelowna  school going. We returned in the late fall to stay. Many more people  had come into Kelowna since the C.P.R. had put the steamer Aberdeen  into service on the lake, July, 1893. The government had built a  school and the Raymer block was under construction. The Lakeview  Hotel was facing what is now the park. It was taken down years ago.  E. R. Bailey and George Munford opened the first butchers shop  in 1893. George Munford and George Bailey managed the shop and  Mr. Bailey was appointed post master. After Geo. Bailey's death the  shop was sold to Crowley & Downton. George Munford was appointed  manager of the Simpson ranch for Price Ellison. Dave Lloyd Jones  took over the sawmill from Lequime Brothers. When the Raymer  block was finished Rowcliffe & Lawson opened a grocery store in one  part and Wallace a drug store in the other part. There was a concert  hall above.  Church services were held in the school house at first, then in  Raymer Hall until each congregation had its own church. Good Friday  the school children would go on a picnic to the top of Knox Mountain  and the teacher, Mr. Sutherland, would give us candies to take with  us. When we came down we always played hide and seek at an old  wharf and shed on the water front.  The year of 1898 when we played there, we couldn't find my  brother Tom and Mel Bailey any place but eventually they came out  from under the old shed and Tom had a rusty rifle with a bayonet on  it. He took the bayonet off and soaked the gun in coal oil, to get the  rust off, then he got shells and used the gun. It had a terrific kick so  he fashioned a sling from a length of rope and in this way held the  gun  from jumping out of control.  165 i~/rlembership   JL^ist  PATRONS  Stuart, G. R., Fintry.  HONORARY LIFE MEMBERS  Goodfellow, Rev. J. C, D.D., Box 187, Princeton.  Marriage, F. T., 424 Park Ave., Kelowna.  Ormsby, Dr. Margaret, University of B.C., Vancouver.  Weeks, J. B. Capt., 614 Martin St., Penticton.  White, Mrs. R. B., Skaha Lake, Penticton.  MEMBERS  Abey, A. J., Osoyoos.  Adam, E. L., 1104 Kelview St., Kelowna.  Adams, W. E., 3020 Abbott St., Kelowna.  Avocate, Arthur, Keremeos.  Allen, Mrs. N. McD., Box 156, Penticton.  Amor, Mrs. Les, Oliver.  Amos, Ron, Oliver  Anderson, J. K., 286 Wade Ave., Penticton.  Anderson, Dr. W. J., 2302 Abbott St., Kelowna.  Andrew, W. J., 2866 Bellevue Ave., West Vancouver.  * Andrews, G. M., 769 E. 25th Ave., Vancouver.  Ansell, C. H., 2105 28th Crescent, Vernon.  Apsey, N., R.R. 1, Kelowna.  Argue, Mrs. E., Box 218, Oliver.  Armstrong, Mrs. G., Cawston.  Arnold, G. N., R.R. 1, Winfield.  Arnott, Mrs. W., 1110 Killarney St., Penticton.  Aylen, Mrs. Freda, 545 Rosemead Ave., Kelowna.  Bagnall, G. C, 10,951 S. Hermosa Ave., Chicago 43, Illinois.  Bagnall, G. P., 3317 Coldstream Ave., Vernon.  Bagnall, Mrs. Luta, 3317 Coldstream Ave., Vernon.  Balfour, Mrs. EL, Box 27, R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Ball, Miss Bertha, Box 10, Armstrong.  Ball, Mrs. L. J., Oliver.  Barlee, F. G., 900 Manhattan Drive, Kelowna.  Bates, Mrs. P., Osoyoos.  Beairsto, H. K., R.R. 4, Vernon  Bearcroft, E. S., 599 Eckhardt Ave., Penticton.  * Becker, John, 5788 Woodworth St., Burnaby.  Bedford, J. W., 2021 Stirling Place, Kelowna.  Beecroft, Mrs. Lucille, R.R. 1, Cawston.  Beecroft, Mrs. Mary, Cawston.  Belli-Bivar, Mrs. Ethel, Box 45, Salmon Arm.  Benmore, R. J. C, R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Bennett, Mrs C. G., Box 2278, R.R. 1, Penticton.  Bernau, H., Okanagan Centre.  Berner Mrs. A., 2500 26th St., Vernon.  Berry, A. E., 2401 26th St., Vernon.  Beurich, W., Osoyoos.  Bingley, Mrs. A., R.R. 2, Vernon.  Boone, H., R.R. 1, Oliver.  * Boss, M. T., 455 E. 17th Ave., Vancouver.  Boyd. M., 512 Boulevard N.W., Calgary, Alta.  Bristow, Mrs. C, 3614 30th Ave., Vernon.  Brown, J. A., Oliver.  Brydon, J. M., 1956 Pandosy St., Kelowna.  Buck, Mrs. Eleanor, 1240 Forestbrook Dr., Penticton.  166 Buckland, C. D., R.R. 2, Kelowna.  Buckland, D. S., Okanagan Mission.  Buckland, J. H., 1762 Gagnon St., Kelowna.  Bull, F., 169 Fairview Road, Penticton.  Bulman, W. T. J., Box 78, Okanagan Mission.  Burgess, J., 540 Papineau St., Penticton.  * Burridge, S. W., Box 394, Revelstoke.  Burtch, Brs. H. B., R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Byron-Johnson, R. G., R.R. 4, Vernon.  Cail, Mrs. M., Armstrong.  Cail, Mrs. R. E., 2901 23rd St., Vernon.  Caine, Mrs. H. L., 4356 Erwin Drive, West Vancouver.  Caley, Hugh, Box 520, Armstrong.  Cameron, G. D., Box 86, Kelowna.  Cameron, Mrs. G. D., Box 86, Kelowna.  Campbell, Mrs. D., 3204 33rd Ave., Vernon.  * Campbell, Miss Muriel, 437 St. Paul St., Kamloops.  Canning, S., West Bench, Penticton.  Carlson, Mrs. Phyllis, Oliver.  Carmichael, D. A., Box 365. Nelson.  Carney, Dr. J. J., Saturna.  Carney, T., Box 222, R.R. 2, Kelowna.  Carruthers, A. R., 727 Elliott Ave., Kelowna.  Carswell, Robert, 3411 35th Ave., Vernon.  Carter, C. J., 2600 15th St., Vernon.  Carter, Mrs. G., East Kelowna.  Cawston, A. H., Cawston.  * Casorso, Anthony, Box 102, R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Casorso, August M., 207 20th Ave., Vancouver.  Casorso, A. R., R.R. 1, Kelowna.  Casorso, Leo, 741 Saucier Ave., Kelowna.  Casorso, Victor, Oliver.  Cawston, Mrs. Verna, 2309 Trafalgar St., Vancouver 8.  Chambers, E. J., R.R., Lower Bench, Penticton.  Chase, Webster, C.B.C.R. Limon, Costa Rica.  Christensen, S. P., 2700 Barnard Ave., Vernon.  Cinnamon, N., Box 548, Kelowna.  Clark, Mrs. C, Falkland  Clark, H. G., Keremeos.  Clarke, Dr. D. A., 1935 McDougall St., Kelowna.  Clarke, G. B., Oliver.  Clarke, H., Keremeos.  Clarke, J. B. McM., Keremeos.  Clemens, M., Osoyoos.  Clement, Mrs. C. G., 2276 Speer St., Kelowna.  * Clement, J. P., 1322 Walnut St., Victoria.  Clements, W. E., 1246 Broughton St., Kelowna.  Clemson, D., Armstrong.  Clough, W. G, Naramata.  * Cochrane, Mrs. H. E., 2006 28th Crescent, Vernon.  * Cochrane, H. E., 2006 28th Crescent, Vernon.  Cohen, Jack, Cawston.  Collett, H. C. S., Box 9, Okanagan Mission.  Conroy, J. J., 2259 Aberdeen St., Kelowna.  Constable, F. L., 2267 Aberdeen St., Kelowna.  Cook, George, 1243 DeBeck Road, Penticton.  Cooper, R. K., 3000 31st Ave., Vernon.  Cohen, John, Cawston.  Coove, Mrs. N., 3122 Watt Road, Kelowna.  Membership List  167 Membership List  Cope, Cecil, Osoyoos.  Corbett, Mrs. F. H., 3113 Waverley St., Vancouver.  Corbett, H. W., Kaleden.  Corbishley, D., R.R. 1, Oliver.  Cordelle, D., Keremeos.  Corner, R. W., 1650 Bernard Ave., Kelowna.  Crooker, Fred. Keremeos.  Crozier. Mrs. D., Summerland.  Crozier, Mrs. I., 3902 29th Ave., Vernon.  Cumming, Mrs. Alec, Redlands Drive, Penticton.  D'Arcy, M. J. H., Box 2189, R.R. 1, Penticton.  Davidson, A. H., Box 131, Westbank.  Dawe, Miss Helen, 2226 York Ave., Vancouver.  Davidson, J. A., R.R. 2, Armstrong.  Davis, Mrs. C. E., 3142 Lakeshore Road, Kelowna.  Davis, Mrs. H. V., 526 Braid St., Penticton.  Dawe, Stanley, R.R. 3, Vernon.  Day, W. S., Box 25, R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Deeley, Ray, 6729 Heather St., Vancouver 14.  Deering, A. J., Falkland.  DeHart, Guy, 2668 Abbott St., Kelowna.  de Lautour, Mrs. Annie M., R.R. 1, Oliver.  Delcourt, F. V., 1835 Marshall St., Kelowna.  Dell, Miss R. A., Box 273, West Summerland.  DeMara, R. C, 1043 Harvey Ave., Kelowna.  Denison, E. N., Kelowna.  Deschamps. L. F.s 3004 Barnard Ave., Vernon.  Dewdney, Edgar, 1428 Balfour St., Penticton.  Dewdney, Mrs. W. R., 273 Scott Ave., Penticton.  Dignan, Mrs. W. J., Brentwood.  Dixon, H., Revelstoke.  Dobson, Rev. A. W., Vancouver.  * Doe, Ernest, Box 35, Salmon Arm.  Doyle, Most Rev. W. E., 813 Ward St., Nelson.  Dumont, Paul, Osoyoos.  Duncan, J., R.R. 5, Kelowna.  Duncan, R., R.R. 1, Penticton.  Duncan, W. A., 3302 26th St., Vernon.  Ede, W. H., R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Eden, Mrs. F., Campbell River.  Elliott, C. F., R.R. 1, Nelson.  Ellison, K., Oyama.  Emanuele, Dr. H., 626 Main St., Penticton.  Faulkner, R., 495 Tennis St., Penticton.  Fillmore, D. C, 1470 Water St., Kelowna.  Finnerty, M., 798 Latimer St., Penticton.  Fisher, Miss B., 3440 Peel St., Montreal, P.Q.  Fisher, Mrs. D. V., Trout Creek, Summerland.  Fisher, Jack. 16th Ave., Vancouver.  Fitzgerald, Mrs. G. D., R.R. 3, Kelowna.  * Fitzmaurice, Mrs. R., R.R. 2, Vernon.  Flack, Mrs. Vera, R.R. 2, Armstrong.  Fleming, Stuart, 2001 32nd St., Vernon.  Foote, R. J., 809 Bernard Ave., Kelowna.  Ford, Mrs. D., Armstrong.  Forsyth, D. J., Jr., Oliver.  Forsyth, Mrs. Nancy, Box 722. Oliver.  Francis, B., Box 67, Oliver.  Francis, D. E., Keremeos.  168 Membership List  Fraser, F. J., 2426 W. 4th Ave., Vancouver 9.  Fraser, R. A., 722 Lawson Ave., Kelowna.  French, Mrs. E. E., R.R. 2, Oliver.  Gamble, Mrs. J. A., Armstrong.  Graven, Ian, 2702 16th St., Vernon.  Gawne, Mrs. J., Naramata.  Geen, A. L., R.R. 2, Naramata.  Geen, P. H., R.R. 5, Kelowna.  Gellatly, Mrs. Dorothy, Box 77, Westbank.  Gervers, John, 2640 Bath St., Kelowna.  Gibbard, L. A., 465 Ellis St., Penticton.  Gimmell, Mrs. Lorraine, R.R. 1, Cawston.  Glover, Mrs. Fred, Armstrong.  Godwin, Mrs. M., Wade Ave., Penticton.  Godwin, W. L., Wade Ave., Penticton.  Goldie, James, Okanagan Centre.  Goodman, F. R., Osoyoos.  * Graham, G. G., Osoyoos.  Graham, J. B., Oyama.  Grant, James, Box 744, Vernon.  Gray, A. W., Box 274, Rutland.  Greening, B., R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Gregory, Mrs. C, R.R., Armstrong.  Gregory, V. E., R.R. 1, Osoyoos.  Griffiths, H. T., 480 Eastcot Rd., West Vancouver.  Greig, Mrs. J. A., 2100 33rd St., Vernon.  Hack, Mrs. F. W., R.R. 1, Oliver.  Hadow, R., R.R. 3, Salmon Arm.  Hales, F. C, 1069 Harvey Ave., Kelowna.  * Hall, John, 2062 Argyle Ave., West Vancouver.  Hall, R. O., Oliver.  Halliwell, Walter, 925 Coronation Ave., Kelowna.  Hamilton, W. D., R.R. 4, Vernon.  Hanbury, A. W., Osoyoos.  Harper, A. C, 3003 23rd St., Vernon.  Harper, Mrs. Walter, 7312 Roseberry Ave., Huntington Park, Calif.  Harris, Frank, 2801 23rd St., Vernon.  Harris, J. G., R.R. 1, Penticton.  Harwood, F. V., 3102 41st Ave., Vernon.  Hatfield, H. R., 687 Vancouver Ave., Penticton.  Haug, H. R., 1746 Water St., Kelowna.  Hayes, Mrs. Harry, R.R. 3, Armstrong.  Hayhurst, Clifford, R.R. 2, Armstrong.  * Hayman, L. A., 3556 Pt. Grey Road, Vancouver 8.  Haynes, V. C, Oliver.  Hayward, W., 3108 24th St., Vernon.  Herbert, G. D., 1684 Ethel St., Kelowna.  Higgin, C. N., West Summerland.  Hobson, H. R., R.R. 4, Kelowna.  * Hocking, Dr. H. J., 1427 West Cherry Crescent, Kelowna.  Holms, John, Box 23, R.R. 2, Vernon.  Hook, A., Oliver.  Hope, H., Armstrong.  Hopkins, Mrs. J. L., Armstrong.  Howard, C. S., Box 345, Oliver.  Howrie, David, 2507 37th Ave., Vernon.  Hoy, Ben, 1902 Pandosy St., Kelowna.  Hugh, Fabian, Cloverdale.  Hunter, E. B., Airport Road, Vernon.  169 Me?nbership List  Hunter, Floyd, Wilson Ave., Armstrong.  Hunter, I. J., Box 39, Oliver.  Hunter, J., Oliver.  Hurmeses, J., National Cafe, Vernon.  Husband, C. W., R.R. 2, Vernon.  Innis, Mrs. Jean, Keremeos.  Innis, Mrs. W., Keremeos.  Irwin, Mrs. R., R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Iverson, Mrs. R, R.R. 2, Oliver.  Jackson, Oliver, R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Jacques, George, R.R. 2, Vernon.  Jamieson, J. E., Box 130, Armstrong.  Johns, Miss N. E., R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Johnson, B. W., 1716 Pandosy St., Kelowna.  Jordan, Mrs. Mabel, 126 6th Ave., S.W., Calgary.  Josephy, Alvin, Jr., 551 Fifth Ave., New York 17.  * Kabella, Mrs. S., R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Kappel, E. S., 1261 Burnaby St., Vancouver 5.  Keating, H. K., 452 Birch Ave., Kelowna.  Kewano, M., Okanagan Centre.  Keyes, Margaret, Greenwood.  Kidston, J. R., 3900 Pleasant Valley Road, Vernon.  Kidston, Mrs. J. R., 3900 Pleasant Valley Road, Vernon.  Kinloch, Col. D. F. B., R.R. 2, Vernon.  Kinnard, Mrs. K. W., 2002 32nd Ave, Vernon.  Knight, Graham, 896 Fairview Road, Penticton.  Knowles, C. W., 2641 Abbott St., Kelowna.  Knox, Dr. W. J., 1855 Pandosy St., Kelowna.  Kohler, Mrs. Patricia, Cawston.  Kovich, Mrs. Gladys, Princeton.  Lacey, Mrs. K., Box 144, Osoyoos.  Laidlaw, Mrs. A., 1008 London St., New Westminster.  Lamont, Mrs. J., R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Landone, Mrs. R.R. 2, Armstrong.  Larsen, A. H. P., 3605 16th St., Vernon.  Latimer, G. B., 613 Martin St., Penticton.  Latrace, E. W., R.R. 3, Armstrong.  Lawrence, Mrs. B., Hedley.  Lea, G. B., 1345 Gordon Ave., West Vancouver.  Leathley, L. N., 1927 Knox Crescent, Kelowna.  Legg, Mrs. P., Box 751, Vernon.  LeDuc, Mrs. Fred, Armstrong.  Leighton, Mrs. L., Oliver.  Leinor, R., West Summerland.  Lincoln, M., 3332 Barnard Ave., Vernon.  Lindsay, Mrs. B., Osoyoos.  Lindsay, Mrs. J., Oliver.  Lloyd-Jones, Mrs. W., 523 Buckland Ave., Kelowna.  Logan, Harry, Box 13, Princeton.  Lowle, F. F. W., Skaha Lake, Penticton.  Loyd, A. K., 381 Glenwood Ave., Kelowna.  Loys, N. K., 450 Cadder Ave., Kelowna.  Lutener, Mrs. C. S., Masset.  Luthy, John, Oliver.  * Macorquodale, Mrs. D. F., Box 77, Georgetown, British Guiana.  Manery, S. R., Cawston.  Manning, W. F., 1015 Glengarry St., Kelowna.  Manuel, A., 984 Fairview Road, Penticton.  Marshall, Mrs. F., R.R. 3, Armstrong.  170 Membership List  Marshall, M. W., R.R. 2, Kelowna.  Massy, G. E., 81 High St., Victoria.  Megaw, W. E., 2401 32nd Ave., Vernon.  Meikle, Mrs. Agnes, 934 Bernard Ave., Kelowna.  Middery, Mrs. B., Okanagan Falls.  Middleton, Mrs. M., Vernon.  * Midgley, T., R.R. 1, Penticton.  Miles, F. A., 3301 35th Ave., Vernon.  Millar, Albert, Oliver.  Miller, Rev. A., 1330 Church St., Penticton.  Miller, A. E., 1330 Church St., Penticton.  Mitchell, Mrs. H. A., Naramata.  Mitchell, Mrs. J. H., R.R., Oliver.  Mitchell, W. A., 342 Lawrence Ave., Kelowna.  Mohr, Mrs. M., 2506 36th Ave., Vernon.  Moore, Eric, 501 Municipal Ave., Penticton.  Morgan, Mrs. G., R.R., West Summerland.  Morgan, H. G., R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Morrison, J. G., Rutland.  Munro, Finlay, 1701 Fairford Drive, Penticton.  Munro, Mrs. Finlay, 1701 Fairford Drive, Penticton.  Munro, Mrs. K. K., 556 Leon Ave., Kelowna.  Munson, Mrs. Ella, Box 25, Olds, Alta.  McAllister, J. L., Okanagan Landing.  McBride, D. A., R.R. 4, Vernon.  McCallum, J. B., c/o Bank of Montreal, New Westminster.  McClare, Harry, 1035 Bernard Ave., Kelowna.  McClelland, J. B., 3062 Watt Ave., Kelowna.  McCuddy, A. H., R.R. 2, Oliver.  McCulloch, Mrs. Ellen, 1939 Abbott St., Kelowna.  McDonald, Mrs. Colin, Oliver.  McDonald, Frank, Box 108, Oliver.  McDonald, G. A., 1274 Fairview Road, Penticton.  McDougall, Mrs. H, 1435 Ethel St., Kelowna.  McDougall, R. J., 1245 W  14th Ave., Vancouver 9.  McGibbon, A., Oliver.  McGie, W. R., Armstrong.  McGillivray, William, 2560 Bermuda Place, Victoria.  McGolderick, Andrew, Oliver.  * McGuire, Major M. V., R.R. 2, Vernon, B.C.  McKechnie, Craig, R.R. 2, Armstrong.  McKechnie, John, R.R. 3, Armstrong.  McKenzie, Ben, Vernon.  McKenzie, D. O., Suite 7, 545 Rosemead, Kelowna.  MacKenzie, K., R.R. 1, Cawston.  McKenzie, Most Rev. W. B., 923 Burdette Ave., Victoria.  McLure, H. R., R.R. 4, Kelowna.  McMynn, D. J., Trail.  MacNaughton, Mrs. George, Creston.  Neave, Mrs. M. C, Box 224, R.R. 2, Kelowna.  Neid, J. J., East Kelowna.  Neid, L. H., R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Nelson, Miss E. P., Keremeos.  Netherton, Dr. W. J., 657 Winnipeg St., Penticton.  Newstrom, Mrs. M. E'Äû Box 75, Oliver.  * Nichols, Mrs. C, Box 463, Hope.  Nutt, W. J., 295 Manor Park Drive, Penticton.  Nuttall, Mrs. W., Naramata.  Oatman, E. R., 459 Groves Ave., Kelowna.  171 Membership List  Ogilvie, H., Okanagan Centre.  Oliver, Mrs. Margaret, 106 Jonathan Drive, Penticton.  Oliver, W. J., 3112 21st Ave., Vernon.  Parkins, A., 7738 14th Ave., Burnaby.  Parson, M. J., RR. 4, Vernon.  Parsons, D., Keremeos.  Parsons, H. B., Oliver.  * Paterson, H. M., 6162 Granville St., Vancouver.  Patten, Mrs. C. J., Armstrong.  Patten, L. W., 2802 26th St., Vernon.  Patterson, Mrs. A. L., 1489 St. Paul St., Kelowna.  Paulson, E., R.R. 1, Cawston.  Pearson, Mrs. C. B., 3064 St. Ritas Ave., North Vancouver.  Perry, Miss F., 933 Harvey Ave., Kelowna.  Peterman, A. N., Box 195, Oliver.  Philpott, Gordon, 1211 Ethel St., Kelowna.  Phinney, J. R., 342 Norton St., Penticton.  Piddocks, J. L., R.R. 2, Anderson Road, Kelowna.  Pollock, George, Osoyoos.  Pooley, N. R. C, East Kelowna.  Porteous, Major H. A., Oliver.  Porteous, J. W., 165 Joseph St., Victoria.  Porter, Mrs. J., East Kelowna.  Postill, Miss E., 3307 15th St., S.W., Calgary.  Powell, Mrs. M., 981 Leon Ave., Kelowna.  Pound, Rev. Allan C, 1343 Haywood Ave., West Vancouver.  Powley, Hume, 1905 Carruthers St., Kelowna.  Powley, W. R, R.R. 1, Winfield.  Price, E. F., 2804 35th St., Vernon.  Price, H. A., 2231 W. 49th Ave., Vancouver 13.  Price, Mrs. S., R.R. 3, East Kelowna.  Pritchard, A. H., R.R. 2, Vernon.  Quigley, W. D., R.R. 5, Kelowna.  Quinn, Dr. F. A., 1975 McDougald Road, Kelowna.  Raymer, C. E. J., Box 203, Kelowna.  Reekie, Miss J., 429 Park Ave., Kelowna.  Reid, C. R, R.R. 3, Kelowna.  * Reid, Miss E., 614 Martin St., Penticton.  Reid, George, R.R. 3, Byrns Road, Kelowna.  Reid, Mrs. Gladys, 1807 Marshall St., Kelowna.  Reid, Mrs. W. H., R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Renwick, H. A., 1445 Marpile Ave., Vancouver 9.  Renwick, Miss M. S., 987 Lawrence Ave., Kelowna.  Richter, F. X., R.R., Cawston.  Ripley, A. C, Oliver.  Ritch, J., 962 Laurier Ave., Kelowna.  Ritchie, P., 1468 Dillon Road, Kelowna.  Ritchie, W. R, Cawston.  Roadhouse, W. T. L., 3142 Watt Road, Kelowna.  Robey, R., 1805 39th Ave., Vernon.  Robinson, A. H., 1606 34th Ave., S.W., Calgary.  Robinson, H. S., R.R .4, Kelowna.  Rorke, H. O., 624 Young St., Penticton.  Ross, Dr. D. A., 1705 37th Ave., Vernon.  Ross, D. H., 2103 25th Ave., Vernon.  Rutherford, Mrs. R. G., 1861 Bowes St., Kelowna.  Schell, Mrs. A., 1440 Manitoba St., Penticton.  Schubert, George, Westminster Ave., Penticton.  Schuss, R. J., 630 Udy Road, Richmond.  172 Membership List  * Seath, R. W., 1954 McDougall St., Kelowna.  Seaton, J. E., Seaton Road, Winfield.  Selig, Mrs. Frank, R.R. 1, Oliver.  Serra, J., Armstrong.  Seymour, S. P., 3111 Barnard Ave., Vernon.  Shannon, Mrs. E., Oliver.  Shannon, Mrs. R., Oliver.  Snaw, Mrs. vera, Armstrong.  Shayler, C, 1356 Mountain View St., Kelowna.  Sherlock, Mrs. E., R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Simmons, Mrs. M., R.R. 2, Oliver.  Simms, J. G., 3305 26th St., Vernon.  Simpson, N. V., R.R. 1, Oliver.  Simpson, Mrs. S. M., 2120 Abbott St., Kelowna.  Sinclair-Thompson, Mrs. W., Box 250, Kelowna.  Sismey, E. D., 1348 Government St., Penticton.  Skipper, R. V., Mission City.  Smith, Aird, 3101 39th Ave., Vernon.  Smith, A. J., R.R. 1, Kelowna.  Smith, Bruce, Osoyoos.  Smith, Mrs. C. L., 3910 Barnard Ave., Vernon.  Smith, R. R., 15,773 Columbia St., White Rock.  Solly, I. H., c/o Bank of Montreal, Esquimalt.  Sommerville, D., Oliver.  South, Mrs. G. P., 603 Van Home St., Penticton.  Sovereign, Rt. Rev. A. H., 2501 23rd St., Vernon.  Spear, Mrs. W., 1872 Glenmore Drive, Kelowna.  Spence, A., R.R. 2, Vernon.  * Splawn, Homer B., 101 Observation Drive, Yakima, Wash.  Stadola, S., Osoyoos.  Stafner, H. J., R.R. 3, Salmon Arm.  Stainer, Rev. John, Oliver.  Stevens, Miss Joan, DeHart Road, R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Stewart, D. H., 442 Royal Ave., Kelowna.  Steward, R. F. C, Oliver.  Stickland, Mrs. E., Box 429, Enderby.  Stocks, Mrs. A. M. B., R.R. 1, Penticton.  Stubbs, Mrs. A H., Okanagan Mission.  Stuart, C. E., Hewlett Road, R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Sutherland, J. J., Box 426, Enderby.  Swan, Mrs. Gladys, Cawston.  Swift, A. A., 281 Haynes St., Penticton.  Tait, Miss Doreen, West Summerland.  Tait, Eric, West Summerland.  Tassie, G. C, R.R. 2, Vernon.  Tassie, Peter, 2304 25th Ave., Vernon.  Taylor, C. H., R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Taylor, K. W., R.R. 5, Calgary.  Taylor, Dr. T. M. C, 1589 Western Crescent, Vancouver 8.  Thompson, Mrs. Alice, R.R. 1, Cawston.  Thompson, Gordon, Keremeos.  Thomson, J. S., R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Thorburn, H. J., R.R. 3, Vernon.  Thornlpe, F., Jr., East Kelowna.  Timberlake, Mrs. F., Armstrong.  Tinling, George, 3151 Lakeshore Road, Kelowna.  Titchmarsh, E. A., 250 Farrell St., Penticton.  Tomlin, E. V., R.R. 2, Oliver.  Truswell, H. A., Box 272, Kelowna.  173 Membership List  * Turnbull, Mrs. A. D., 18 Ritchie Ave., Trail.  Turner, R. G., Box 1305, Rossland.  Turner, R. M. H., West Summerland.  Tutt, Mrs. D., Box 184, R.R. 1, Kelowna.  * Upton, Mrs. T. B., Box 1, Okanagan Mission.  Uttke, Mrs. O. V., 3605 16th St., Vernon.  Van Blaricom, E. W., 409 Cedar Ave., Kelowna.  Van der Burg, Mrs. W., 1652 Fairview Road, Penticton.  Vickers, H. H, R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Viel, L. A., 3104 32nd St., Vernon.  Wade, G. C, 2316 W. 45th Ave., Vancouver.  Wakley, S. M., 3494 St. George St., North Vancouver.  Walburn, H. G., R.R. 5, Kelowna.  Walker, Mrs. W. D., Box 1, Okanagan Mission.  Walrod, C. R, 1644 Richter St., Kelowna.  Walters, Mrs. Mary, Keremeos.  Ward, Arthur, R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Ward, Edith A., Ste. 1A, 905 Chilco St., Vancouver 5.  Ward, H., R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Warren, Mrs. A. M., 854 Main St., Penticton.  Waterman, Miss D., Osoyoos.  Watt, Mrs. A. A., 966 Haywood Ave., Victoria.  Watt, E. G., Box 1075, Williams Lake.  Watt, G. M., Okanagan Mission.  Watt, O., Ill Mowell St., Chilliwack.  Weatherill, H. P., 2133 West 57th Ave., Vancouver 13.  Webb, H. V., 248 Bernard Ave., Kelowna.  Weddell, A. D., 290 Royal Ave., Kelowna.  Weddell, J. S., 667 Dawson St., Port Arthur.  Weddell, Mrs. M., Box 120, Rutland.  Weeks, E., Box 395, Kelowna.  * Weeks, G. A., Box 637, Revelstoke.  * Weeks, L. J., 3211 Kitchener St., Vancouver.  * Weeks, T., Sunnybrook, Alta.  Wegh, R., 1818 Glenmore Drive, Kelowna.  Welch, Miss N., Ste. 1, Belvedere Apartments, Kelowna.  Whillis, R., 1749 Abbott St., Kelowna.  Whipple, D., Creston.  Whitaker, H. C, R.R. 1, West Summerland.  Whitaker, Mrs. H. C, R.R. 1, West Summerland.  White, A. L., Box 258, Oliver.  White, Ronald, 107 Battle St., Kamloops.  Whitehead, W. J., Box 293, Rutland.  Whitham, J. D., Bluebird Road, Kelowna.  Whitham, J. G., 211 Kootenay Ave., Trail.  Whyte, Bryson, 2300 23rd Ave., Vernon.  Willetts, Mrs. A. J., RR. 4, Kelowna.  Willetts, Mrs. P. B., 1716 Pandosy St., Kelowna.  Willis, Mrs. H., 3837 Cartier St., Vancouver.  Willis, R. S., R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Willits, Dr. R., 563 Esquimalt Ave., West Vancouver.  Wilson, Miss C, 2508 Lawson Ave., North Vancouver.  Wilson, F. B., Oyama.  Wilson, Jack, Tappen.  Wilson, J. H. V., Naramata.  Wilson, Mrs. L. C, 249 Bernard Ave., Kelowna.  Wilson, S., R.R. 2, Oliver.  Wilton, Mrs. R. S., 872 Main St., Penticton.  Wind, Mrs. B., Box 794, Oliver.  174 Membership List  Winkles, Mrs. W. H., Armstrong.  Witt, J. A., 2031 Long St., Kelowna.  Wolsey, O. C, R.R. 4, Vernon.  * Woodd, H. S., 2914 West 29th Ave., Vancouver.  Woods, J. J., 703 Ardmore Drive, R.R. 1, Sidney.  Woodworth, J., 236 Poplar Point, Kelowna.  Worth, Mrs. Grace, 4917 27th St., Vernon.  Wright, C. W., North Vancouver.  Wright, W. G., Oliver.  Wylie, C, 2001 37th Ave., Vernon.  Young, Mrs. B. F., R.R. 3, Armstrong.  Young, Vance, Box 262, Armstrong.  Zoellner, Mrs. W. J., Box 55, Grand Forks.  Zoller, Mrs. J. L., 25 Riverwood Park, Toronto, Ont.  ORGANIZATIONS, SCHOOLS, LIBRARIES, COLLEGES, ETC.  B.C. Folklore Research, 950 Bidwell St., Vancouver.  Calgary Public Library, 624 9th Ave. S.W., Calgary, Alta.  Board of Museum and Archives, Vernon.  Co-op Book Centre, 125A Bermondsey Road, Toronto 16, Ont.  Eastern Washington College of Education, Cheney, Wash.  Fraser Valley Regional Library, Abbotsford.  Glenbow Foundation, Calgary, Alta.  Historical Society of Montana, Helena, Montana.  Kamloops Museum Association, Kamloops.  Kelowna Chamber of Commerce, Kelowna.  Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.  Laurel Co-operative Union. 1304 Ellis St., Kelowna.  Okanogan Historical Society, Omak, Wash.  McGill University Library, Montreal, P.Q.  Municipality of Spallumcheen, Armstrong.  Okanagan Broadcasters Ltd., Box 120, Kelowna.  Parliamentary Librarian, Ottawa, Ont.  Provincial Archives, Victoria.  Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa, Ont.  The Newberry Library, Chicago, Illinois.  New York Public Library, New York, N.Y.  Northwest Digest Ltd., Quesnel.  Provincial Library, Victoria.  Provincial Museum, Victoria.  Public Library, Kansas City, Missouri.  State College of Washington Library, Pullman, Wash.  The Royal Bank of Canada, Kelowna.  The Booknook, Penticton.  Public Library Commission, Victoria.  Seattle Public Library, Seattle, Wash.  Spokane Public Library, Spokane, Wash.  State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin,  Toronto Public Library, 214 College St., Toronto, Ont.  University of British Columbia Library, Vancouver.  University of Toronto Library, Toronto, Ont.  Victoria Public Library, Victoria.  Carmi Avenue School, Penticton.  George Elliot High School, Winfield.  Imaculata High School, Kelowna.  Senior High School, Penticton.  Queen's Park Elementary School, Penticton.  School District No. 16, Keremeos.  School District No. 22, Vernon.  School District No. 23, Kelowna.  175 Membership List  School District No. 78, Enderby.  Summerland High School, West Summerland.  School District No. 77, Summerland.  Jr.-Sr. High School, Armstrong.  South Okanagan High School, Oliver.  St. George's School, Vancouver.  Beairsto Elementary School, Vernon.  Junior High School, Vernon.  Public Library, Prince George.  Vancouver City Archives, Vancouver.  Vancouver Library Board, Vancouver.  Gonzaga University, Spokane.  Victoria College, Victoria.  * Westminster Abbey Ltd., Mission City.  * prepaid memberships.  Addresses given are B.C. unless otherwise noted.  '$&  4**%\*  S0^  00  %  f\_.  /1  ¬•  X05  176   ^ iy  #  *#^ 3 PRINTED BY THE VERNON NEWS LTD.

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