Okanagan Historical Society Reports

The twenty-fourth report of the Okanagan Historical Society 1960 Okanagan Historical Society 1969

Item Metadata


JSON: ohs-1.0132198.json
JSON-LD: ohs-1.0132198-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): ohs-1.0132198-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: ohs-1.0132198-rdf.json
Turtle: ohs-1.0132198-turtle.txt
N-Triples: ohs-1.0132198-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: ohs-1.0132198-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

 ^M, .CResi .A.^ison Museun  '< 785 MAIN STREET  _P| 'Ģai \lX>  V f~^ioneer      -families   <zAtttend  L/OHVCM^'on  Links with history are these three ladies, seen registering during the  1960 convention of the B.C. Historical Association at Penticton. All  three are descended from Okanagan pioneers. Seated is Miss Kathleen  Ellis, daughter of early rancher Tom Ellis, whose spread covered the  present site of Penticton. Standing at left is Mrs. A. H. Ellen Sovereign,  daughter of Vernon pioneer Price Ellison, together with Mrs. R. B. White,  daughter of Judge John Haynes.—Penticton Herald Photo.  R. N. (Reg) Atkinso;  785 AAA1N STREET  The Twenty-fourth Report  of the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  1960  J he Society was founded <^5eptember 4,   1925 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  Officers for 1960-61  Honorary Patrons:  His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor  The Honorable W. A. C. BENNETT  Honorary President: MR. 0. L. JONES, Kelowna  President: MR. FRANK MACDONALD, Oliver  Vice-Presidents: MR. G. M. WATT, Kelowna; MRS. E. J. LACEY, Osoyoos;  MRS. R. B. WHITE, Penticton  Secretary: MRS. V. E. BENNETT, Cor. Middle Bench and  Naramata Rd., Penticton  Treasurer: MRS. H. COCHRANE, Vernon  Editor: MR. F. T. MARRIAGE, Kelowna  Auditor: MR. JENNER, Vernon  Directors: North—Mr. G. P. Bagnall, Mr. A. E. Berry, Mr. Peter Tassie  Central—Mr. J. D. Whitham, Mr. Goldie, Dr. Quinn,  South—Mrs. H. Whitaker, Mr. E. J. Lacey, Capt. Weeks  Directors at Large: Mr. A. K. Loyd, Mr. H. Corbitt, Mr. H. Cochrane  Editorial Committee:  Mrs. D. Tutt, Mrs. M. Johnson, Mrs. W. R. Dewdney,  Mrs. M. Middleton, Mrs. I.  Crozier, Mrs. Pidorboronzy,  Dr. Goodfellow, Mr. F. L. Goodman, Mr. S. Manery  Plus Chairmen of Branch Editorial Committees  PENTICTON BRANCH OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS  President: MR. J. G. HARRIS.  First Vice-President: MR. R. N. ATKINSON.  Second Vice-President: MR. H. 0. RORKE.  Secretary: MRS. W. R. DEWDNEY.  Treasurer: CAPT. J. B. WEEKS.  Directors: MRS. R. B. WHITE, MRS. A. M. WARREN, MRS. H. DAVIS,  MRS. J. CRAWFORD, MRS. H. WHITAKER (Summerland), MRS.  WM. NUTTALL (Naramata), MRS. V. E. BENNETT, MR. H. W.  CORBITT (Kaleden). KELOWNA BRANCH OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS  President: MR. G. D. CAMERON.  Vice-President: MR. J. BEDFORD.  Secretary: MRS. D. TUTT.  Treasurer: MRS. A. L. KNOWLES.  Directors: MR. GEO. WATT, MRS. UPTON, MR. D. BUCKLAND, MR.  BEN HOY, MR. NIGEL POOLEY.  VERNON BRANCH OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS  President: MR. HAROLD COCHRANE, 2006 28th Ave., Vernon.  Vice-President: MR. D. HOWRIE, SR., 2507 37th Ave., Vernon.  Secretary-Treasurer: MR. R. G. BYRON JOHNSON, R.R. 4, Vernon.  Directors: MR. G. P. BAGNALL, MRS. M. MIDDLETON, MRS. I. CROZIER,  MR. F. V. HARWOOD, MR. WILFRED TROUILLER.  Editorial Committee: MRS. G. P. BAGNALL, MRS. WM. HURST.  OFFICERS OF OLIVER-OSOYOOS BRANCH, 1960-61  President: MRS. GEORGE FRENCH, Oliver, B.C.  Vice-President: MR. HOMER FALDING, Osoyoos.  Secretary-Treasurer: MRS. E. J. LACEY, Osoyoos.  Directors: Oliver—MR. A. J. PETERMAN, MR. IVAN HUNTER; Osoyoos  —MISS DOLLY WATERMAN, MR. E. J. LACEY.  15) LIST    OF    ILLUSTRATIONS  CVD  Pioneer Family Attend Convention Frontispiece  Princeton  Boulder Inscription  15  Entrance to Paul's Tomb      ............ 22  Charles DeBlois Green  31  Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Harwood  37  William  B.  Haynes  49  Joe Casorso  54  Map (Showing Location of St. Joseph's Mission)  60  John Ford Burne  62  Jack Kermode  73  Col. Steele, Lord Strathcona, Maj.-Gen. Macdonnell    .     .     .     . 76  Miss Doris Cordy  98  All   Hallows School  100  Lipsett  Group  Picture  106  Mr. and Mrs. John Kidston  107  J. Percy Clement  116 c  ontents  Title Page 3  Officers of Okanagan Historical Society 4 8. 5  List of Illustrations        6  Table of Contents 7  Notice of Annual Meeting 8  Minutes and Balance Sheet 9  Princeton Boulder Inscription 15  Paul's Tomb 22  Charles DeBlois Green 11  Joe  Harwood      37  F. H. Latimer 44  Early Fruit Inspector Gives Advice 46  William  Barrington  Haynes 49  Mother and Son—North Okanagan Pioneers 52  Joe   Casorso        54  St. Joseph's Jesuit Mission      59  John Ford Burne 62  The Contribution of the Engineer 67  Okanagan Reaps Rich Harvest      73  Early fruit Industry of the Kelowna District 78  John and  Marie Moser      84  Osoyoos - Fairview - Oliver Chronicles 87  The Cordy Family       . 99  All Hallows School, Yale, B.C 101  Catherine and Joseph  Dunne    105  Anna E. Kidston    107  We Will Remember Them    .     .     .   ' 109  Early Days in Kelowna 117  Pioneer Pays Visit to Lumb)      .     .     .     .167  Membership   List 169  (7) (8) <^/Viinutes and Jm)alance *S5heet  Annual Meeting of the Okanagan Historical Society, held in the  United Church Hall, Vernon, B.C., on Monday, May 16th, 1960,  at 2:00 p.m.  The meeting was called to order by the President, Dr. Ross, at  2:30 p.m.  Notice of meeting was read by the Secretary.  Dr. Ross explained that complete minutes of 1959 Annual Meeting are contained in the 23rd Report, and asked if it be the wish of  the members to have them read at this time.  Moved by Mr. Marriage, seconded by Mr. Whitham: "That  minutes of last Annual Meeting be taken as read."   Carried.  No business arising out of Minutes.  C orrespondence:  The Secretary read a letter from Mr. Bagnall, who, owing to illness, regretted that he would be unable to accept nomination for  President of O.H.S. The President and members expressed regret  and sympathy and a hope for Mr. Bagnall's speedy recovery.  A letter read from Dr. Margaret Ormsby regarding an award for  an Historical publication offered by the Canadian Historical Association. The Secretary advised, that, as there had not been time before  the deadline, to consult Directors, she had taken it upon herself to  nominate the 23rd Report of The Okanagan Historical Society.  Moved by Mr. Whitham, 2nd by Mr. Powley: "That Secretary's  action in submitting Report to the Canadian Historical Association for  award, be confirmed."   Carried.  The President called for a minute's silence in memory of members  and Pioneers who had passed away during the year.  Reports:  President's Report. Dr. Ross thanked the Directors and Officers  for their help and support during a difficult year. He. regretted that,  owing to pressure of work, he had been unable to attend all Annual  meetings, but had enjoyed conversations with officers of Branches.  Dr. Ross expressed concern over the lack of interest by the public in  the work of the Society, feeling that members should strive to stimulate interest and obtain more members, as only by this means could the  Society continue to function and to publish a yearly Report. In closing  Dr. Ross thanked Mr. Marriage for his excellent work as Editor, the  (9) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  Secretary and Treasurer for their efforts, and the Vernon Branch for  arranging the Annual meeting.  Treasurer's Report. In the absence of Mr. Bagnall the report was  given by Mrs. Bagnall and is appended to these minutes.  The Treasurer stated that all numbers of Reports from 1-13 with  the exception of No. 11 were out of print.  Secretary's Report. A meeting of Directors and Editorial committee was held in September 1959, the main topic of business being the  publishing of the 23rd Report. It was moved, 2nd and carried "That  the Vernon News Ltd. quotation be accepted."  The invitation of the Vernon Branch to hold the 1960 Annual  meeting in that city was accepted.  The letter from Dr. Ormsby re nominations in local History for  The Canadian Historical Association was referred to and mention  made of correspondence from the B.C. Historical Association regarding the Annual meeting of that body to be held in Penticton May  21st, 22nd, and 23rd. In closing the secretary thanked Mr. Fraser  for taking over the duties of secretary during her absence.  Moved by Mr. Cochrane, 2nd by Mr. Cameron: "That these  reports be adopted."   Carried.  Branch Reports:  Armstrong-Enderby. This Branch has been inactive and there  was no report.  Vernon. The Executive held three meetings with good attendance.  Efforts were made to stimulate sales of 23rd Report. Some copies  being sold through circulation of letters to potential members.  Two projects undertaken: 1. Collection of Community histories  which are now available to the public on the bookshelves of the Museum.  2. Collection of historic photographs relating to the North Okanagan  to be used in an illustrated history of the North Okanagan to be published in 1967.  One tape recording was made, an interview with Chief Pierre  Louis, who is an authority on the history of the Okanagan Tribe.  Little progress was made with Historic markers owing to lack of  money.  Report given by secretary Mr. Byron Johnson.  Kelowna Branch. Reported that lettering on plaque on Pandosy  Mission buildings being renewed and a collection of old farm implements being made.   The Annual meeting was held on April  27th,  (10) Minutes and Balance Sheet  1960, preceded by a dinner and election of officers.  The guest speaker  was Mrs. Roylance of Greenwood.  Penticton Branch. Report read by Mrs. Dewdney. Four directors  meetings were held and the Annual meeting on May 4th, 1960.  To follow up a suggestion made earlier, each director was given  the name of a Pioneer or Pioneer family, research to be conducted and  the story of person or family written and placed in the Branch Archives  and made available for the O.H.S. Reports.  In response to a request from the Federal Government, two names  were submitted as suitable for the new federal building.  At the Annual meeting a new project was discussed, a committee  appointed to investigate and report to a later meeting.  Oliver-Osoyoos. This Branch wras not very active during 1959, no  meetings being held. To try to remedy the situation a meeting was  held on March 28th, 1960, attended by Dr. Ross, President of O.H.S.  At the suggestion of Dr. Ross before the Annual meeting some 85  letters were sent out, Mr. Eric Becker showed his interest by undertaking to pay all postage. As a result the Annual meeting was well  attended and several new members being added to the Executive. The  Branch project for 1960, the restoration of the Fairview cemetery,  names of those buried there are being collected and it is hoped the project will be completed this year.  Moved by Mrs. Middleton, 2nd by Mrs. Crozier: "That the reports  be adopted."  Carried.  New Business:  Special Committees. Constitution and By-Laws. In the absence of  Mr. Bagnall this report was given by Mr. Watt, stating that a signed  copy of the Constitution and By-Laws with certificate of incorporation  under the Societies Act was on file with the Secretary and that copies  had been sent the President and Treasurer. Mr. Whitham suggested  that a copy be sent the secretary of each Branch. The secretary stated  that each Branch had received a copy of the original draft and that  there had only been one or two minor changes made since then.  Mr. Cameron asked a question as to cost of Constitution and incorporation. In the absence of the Treasurer this could not be answered.  Moved by Mrs. Bagnall, 2nd by Mr. Whitham: "That a letter  be written Mr. Kidston thanking him for his services."  Carried.  Moved by Mrs. Bagnall, 2nd by Mr. Byron Johnson: "That Sec-  (11) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  retary write Mh Jenner the Auditor, thanking him for his services."  Carried.  Moved by Mr. Whitham, 2nd by Mrs. Middleton: "That a letter  be written Mr. Bagnall on behalf of the members, thanking him for  his years of service to the Society, expressing regret at his indisposition  and a hope for his speedy recovery."  Carried.  Moved by Mr. Watt, 2nd by Mr. Powley: "That letters be written  Radio stations and the Press for services rendered and to the Vernon  Branch for arranging the Annual meeting and dinner."   Carried.  Moved by Mr. Cochrane, 2nd by Mr. Harwood. A recommendation "That the Annual meetings of all Branches be held one month  before the Parent Body Annual meeting."   Carried.  Moved by Mr. Cochrane, 2nd by Mr. Watt: "That a letter be  written the Minister of Education of the Province, recommending  that local history be taught in the schools and that, wherever a Report  is published this be used as a text book."  Mr. Marriage expressed a doubt that the Society would get very  far with the Department of Education and that it would be better to  work at a local level. After further discussion a vote was taken and  the motion carried.  Moved by Mr. Cochrane, 2nd by Mr. Watt: "That all material  for the Report should be submitted to the Branch Editorial chairman  before being sent to Editor."  Mr. Marriage stated that he had never had any dealings with  Branch chairmen other than Mrs. White and Mrs. Lacey, that many  members of Committees did not know they had been elected, and suggested that those whose names came up should be contacted and their  consent obtained before nomination.  An amendment moved by Mr. Cameron, 2nd by Mr. Powley:  "That the matter be left to the Directors and Editorial Committee."  The amendment carried.  Notice of change in Constitution, regarding number of Directors.  "That there be three from Vernon and district, three from Kelowna  and district, three from Penticton and district, one from Armstrong-  Enderby, one from Oliver-Osoyoos."  The question of increasing membership fee owing to increased cost  of printing the Report was brought up by Mr. Watt who stated he  would not be in favor of decreasing the size of the Report.  Mrs. Middleton suggested that a greater effort be made to obtain  (12) Minutes and Balance Sheet  Patrons who would make a gift of $10.00 or more. After somewhat  lengthy discussion and no solution of the problem, it was moved by  Mrs. Bagnall, 2nd by Mrs. Middleton: "That the membership fee be  kept at $2.50 but a greater effort be made to increase membership."  The motion carried with four votes against.  Election of Officers:  The President appointed Mr. Byron Johnson and Mrs. Knowles  to be scrutineers. There was a short discussion on the number to be  elected to the Editorial committee.  Moved by Mr. Harwood, 2nd by Mr. Cochrane: "That 15 be  elected."   Carried.  Moved hy Mr. Whitham, 2nd by Mr. Harwood: "That Chairmen  of Branch Editorial Committees be automatically on Parent Body  Editorial Committee."   Carried.  Mr. Whitham moved a vote of thanks to the retiring President.  Moved by Mr. Cameron, 2nd by Mr. Whitham: "That next Annual meeting be held in Penticton."   Carried.  Adjournment moved by Mr. Marriage at 5:15 p.m.  The meeting was followed by a dinner served by ladies of a  church group.  The President introduced guests at the head table including Mrs.  Lois Haggen, M.L.A., President of the B.C. Historical Association.  Two songs were sung by Mrs. Dorothy Garbutt.  The speaker, Mr. James Hume, editor of the Penticton Herald,  was introduced by Dr. Ross.  Mr. Hume's subject was "Pre-British History of the West Coast  of B.C.," and was most instructive and inspiring. In concluding Mr.  Hume stressed the need for young members.  Mr. Cochrane thanked the speaker.  Dr. Ross thanked the Executive of the Vernon Branch and Mrs.  Crozier and ladies of the church for the excellent dinner.  (13) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  Financial Report:  Statement of receipts and expenditures.—Year ending April 30th, 1960.  RECEIPTS:  Vernon (including Armstrong-Enderby)  $ 610.25  Kelowna   265.20  Penticton     203.20  Oliver-Osoyoos   92.50  Interest earned   .24   $1,171.39  EXPENDITURES:  Bank Charges          12.90  Office and Stationery         34.80  Postage and Express        20.00  Printing and publishing Report No. 23     1,231.43    1,299.13  Excess of expenditures over receipts   127.74  BANK ACCOUNTS:  Prior Balance   314.34  Less Expenditures over receipts   127.74  186.60  Present Balance—Vernon   43.63  Kelowna     68.89  Oliver-Osoyoos    28.38  Penticton   45.70  186.60  Total on hand $186.60  Certified correct.  Guy P. Bagnall, Treasurer Thos. R. Jenner, Auditor  (14) f^rinceton J^joulder inscription  Dr. J. C. Goodfellow  Lying on the floor at the rear end of the Princeton Billiard Hall  (of which the late Mr. R. F. Busche was proprietor till he died  earlier this year) at the Tulameen end of Bridge Street, is a river  boulder of exceptional interest because it carries an inscription which  so far has defied translation. None who have seen it can remember  anything just like it.  To the unpractised eye there is nothing unusual about the boulder  itself, just an ordinary boulder worn smooth by ages of river action.  Mr.   K.   C.   Fahrni,   who   was   Chief   Geologist   for   The   Granby  Mining, Smelting 8r Power Co. Ltd., at Copper Mountain, till operations closed there, described it as monzonite (a species of quartzless  granite) of a type he believed peculiar to Similkameen. It is flattish  on one side, so that it presents a receding face if placed on the flat  side. It measures twelve inches length-wise, and weighs about forty  pounds.  On the upper face is an inscription stretching eight inches with  black characters about an inch in height. They seem to be done in  Chinese ink. It is this inscription that makes the boulder of such  unusual interest.  Mrs. Busche tells that it was unearthed about the middle of September, 1959, while a ditch was being dug to accommodate a water  (15) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  pipe in the lane at the rear of her home on Allison sub-division.  Unfortunately, she was unable to tell the depth from which the  boulder had been dug, although it could not have been greater than  six feet. The inscription was not noticed till after the digging and  filling operation was complete. After the ditch was refilled, the  boulder remained on the surface. Rains had washed it clean. It was  then that Mrs. Busche noticed the strange inscription, and had the  boulder placed in the billiard hall where interested parties had an  opportunity to inspect it.  All agreed that the inscription had an "Oriental" look about it,  but local Chinese were puzzled, and suggested that it might be  Japanese. Remembering that Chinese is read from top to bottom, and  right to left, the stone was photographed lengthwise and upright,  though none could tell which was the right "up."  We quickly decided that the inscription was not made by our  native peoples. Similkameen is rich in pictographs, but between these  and the "characters" of the inscription there was nothing in common.  We looked through Garrick Mallery's monumental work on the Picture-Writing of the American Indians (Tenth Annual Report of the  Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution,  1888-89) and found nothing even faintly resembling the Princeton  boulder inscription. In spite of denials we still thought it had more  in common with Chinese than with "Indian." Being totally ignorant  of Chinese, the most we could affirm was that (to us) it had an  "Oriental" look.  There have been many attempts to establish Oriental penetration  of this part of the American continent long before the white man  came. The most intriguing story of all links the Chinese with the  Okanagan Valley centuries ago. In the spring of 1948 Rufus Woods,  publisher of the Wenatchee Daily World, made enquiries about a  reported Chinese inscription on the rocks at Skaha Lake. Mr. Woods  stated that this alleged Chinese inscription had been photographed by  Paul D. Donaldson nearly forty years before. The Chinese characters  were reported to belong to a period a thousand years ago. Mr. Woods  had received the following translation: "There are 80 of us. Many  have died from war ... It is getting warmer." (See article "Our  Unknown Ancestors" in OHS Report 15 (1951) pp 6-12).  Subsequent enquiries could find no trace of the said Mr. Donaldson, or anyone in South Okanagan who had ever seen or heard of the  Skaha Lake inscription. We have no idea who the interpreter might  (16) Princeton Boulder Inscription  have been. But when one learns from an honest source that an inscription did exist, that it was photographed, and interpreted, the  story is not to be lightly dismissed. Unfortunately, Mr. Woods died  in Toronto on May 30, 1950. One may be pardoned for wondering  if there were any connection between the Okanagan and Similkameen  inscriptions.  Appeals for Help  Help was sought in many quarters. Letters were addressed to the  Victoria, UBC and Vancouver museums, to the British Museum  (Oriental Section) and to the Washington Archaeological Society.  Wilson Duff, Curator of Anthropology, Provincial Museum,  replied (9 Nov. 1959) that he had been unable to solve the puzzle.  Chinese referred him to Japanese, and they in turn, referred him to  Koreans. He decided to send photograph and clipping to the UBC.  Thomas H. Ainsworth, Curator of the Vancouver City Museum,  (28 Oct. 1959) "guessed the inscription had Chinese characteristics,"  and suggested that picture and clipping be sent to the British Museum  Oriental Section. "There are some excellent Oriental scholars on the  staff, and it would provide them with a most interesting puzzle." In  a subsequent letter Mr. Ainsworth wrote: "A puzzling script is so intriguing that if the experts in the British Museum are baffled, in all  probability the authorities in other departments will attempt a solution."  The most determined effort to solve the mystery was made by  Mrs. Nelson, wife of Charles Nelson, President of the Washington  Archaeological Society.   In letter of 8 Nov. 1959 she writes:  Your picture and clipping have caused a lot of comment  and interest. This morning I had an appointment with Dr.  Fang K. Li at the University. He teaches Chinese, and does  research in all the Oriental languages. He was very intrigued  but did not recognize it as Oriental. We went through Sanskrit,  Korean, Chinese, Japanese and Island alphabets. Nothing came  close.  He suggested and made an appointment with Dr. Walter  Johnson of the Norse languages department for me, and I went  over and he again was very much interested, but it definitely was  not Runic in character.  Dr. Li says that Oriental paint or ink will withstand many  years of weathering, but vegetable dyes will not . . .  (17) The Okanagan Plistorical Society—1960  Not Oriental—Not Runic  So far, the results were all negative. According to Dr. Li, it was  not Oriental. According to Dr. Johnson, it was not Runic. If we  knew it were one or the other, we would have no hesitation in ruling  out Runic, for the simple reason we could not imagine a Runic inscription six feet below Similkameen soil.  Some years ago attempts were made by some to establish that  Runic inscriptions existed in the vicinity of Yale. High on a mountain side were discovered a series of lines grooved in the rock, and  some had no trouble in identifying these marks with Runic inscriptions. Others identified the lines with Og(h)am, the ancient British  and Irish alphabet of twenty characters, so named because of its supposed inventor. Such inscriptions are to be found in Scotland, Wales  and Ireland. According to Frederick Bodmer in The Loom of Language (pp. 61-63), this alphabet is pre-Christian, though probably not  older than the beginning of Roman occupation. Advocates of such  interpretations of marks found high on mountains near Yale did not  explain how such marks came to be where they found them. Some  were content to leave it an unsolved mystery. Others sought to account  for the incisions by bringing imagination to the aid of unrecorded history.  The mystery was finally solved by Thomas H. Ainsworth, curator  of the Vancouver City Museum (letter, 1 2 Nov. 1959):  Six years ago while endeavouring to file in geographical  areas some photographs of petroglyphs, I was puzzled about a  set of four which bore no inscription. These portrayed a series  of straight, deep lines, far different in design to the usual mixture of crudely drawn human and animal figures.  By a strange coincidence, while examining these prints, there  was an enquiry over the telephone as to whether we had any  photographs of rock carvings. Within a few minutes the enquirer was in the office and produced a set similar to that on my  desk, and I learned that these had been taken on the mountains  above Spuzzum in the Fraser Canyon.  With this as a clue, I found a cutting from the Province  of some twenty-five years earlier in which experts had declared  the characters to be either Runic or early Ogham. Regardless  of the belief that an inscription on a rock near Spokane was in  Runic, I have never thought the Norsemen to have penetrated so  far west; while an examination of the photograph of an Ogham  (18) Princeton Boulder Inscription  boundary stone taken by my son in Ireland showed no similarity  in the markings.  Shortly after this, Hal Griffin ran an article in the Tribune  in which the Spuzzum petroglyphs were again attributed to  Runic or Ogham.  Two months later, the mystery was solved, to my satisfaction at least, through the receipt of a Melbourne, Australia,  Museums publication, in which were shown a remarkably similar series of markings done as recently as the year 1900 by the  aborigines in sharpening their stone tools. In fact, one photograph was almost the exact counterpart of that taken at  Spuzzum.  Then came, as the natural sequence: why should people  climb a mountain to sharpen their tools? Upon making further  enquiries, however, I learned that a series of rock carvings covered a large adjacent area, and then the solution was clear. The  so-called Runic grooves were made in sharpening the tools for  use in making the petroglyphs.  And thus the ghosts of Runic and Ogham were finally laid to  rest. From the British Museum came this reply signed by G. M.  Meredith-Owens, Department of Oriental Printed Books and Manuscripts :  The boulder inscription has been examined by experts both  here and in the Department of Ethnography. None of them  can identify the script and the general opinion is that it is  neither Oriental nor American Indian. It seems to me that it  is fairly modern and is in a cryptic alphabet marking a claim or  giving a message for some person in the secret. With such a  short inscription as this, it would be well nigh impossible to  break the code.  This left us wondering whether it was an unknown script or an  unbroken code. If it were an unknown script it would merit the attention of the best minds in the country. If it remain an unbroken code,  it will still be a challenge to modern wise men. If other similar discoveries were made we might have some hope of solving the script  or breaking the code.  Might Be Korean  There the matter remained till January of this year when we received another letter  from Mr.  Wilson  Duff.    He  had received a  (19) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  reply from Dr. Wayne P. Suttles of the UBC Department of Anthropology, who reads and speaks Japanese, and is a student of other  Asiatic languages. Dr. Suttles had consulted Mr. Bomshik Chang  of the Mathematics Department, a Korean.  The  inscription  does seem  to be  written  in  the  Korean  Hangul or On-mun, an alphabet invented in 1446 A.D.   Mr.  Bomshik Chang has identified the first four groups of letters as  the syllables -chi-je-ri-ssi- but the last three are not legible in  the photograph.  These four syllables, however, do not mean anything in  Korean.   They may be a Korean translation of a non-Korean  word, but neither Chang nor I could think of any.   A better  photograph might reveal the rest of the inscription well enough  to make something out of it, but I would not be too hopeful.  I suppose it could be a transliteration of an Interior Salish word  or a proper noun.  Mr. Wilson Duff thought this an interesting lead (the first lead  of any kind) but not too satisfying. Following this, photographs of  the inscription were sent to Miss Ruth Saunders, R.N., a Princeton  girl who was Director of Nursing in the United Church hospital at  Wonju in Korea. She had a number of Korean scholars inspect the  photographs.   In letter dated 15 May, 1960, she replied:  They all seem to think that it might be Korean, but to have  it turn up there is hard to believe.  Miss Saunders was home on furlough this summer and visited  Princeton. With her she had a copy of Korean Grammar for Language  Students, by Allen D. Clark (1958), which states that the Korean  script in use today "is an ingenious system which was developed by  King Seijong about 1446 . . . The amazing thing is that, after  thousands of years of the use of only Chinese characters, King Seijong  and the scholars who worked with him should have caught the basic  idea that the vowel is the centre of all speech, and so developed the  system which we now use. . . . Properly speaking, it is a sort of  semi-syllabary, since the letters cannot be written one bv one, but  must be properly grouped to form syllables."  Miss Saunders had studied Korean intensively, but did not pretend  to be able to solve the inscription puzzle. The scholars she had consulted thought "it might be Korean." Mr. Bomshik Chang of UBC  was sufficiently convinced that it was Korean to suggest English  letters for the first four groups of letters.  (20) Princeton Boulder Inscription  This leads us to wonder why, if the inscription is Korean, it is so  difficult to identify. There are several possible answers to this question. It is well known that in Britain there are many ancient inscriptions (in English) which are hard to read. In the interpretation given  of the alleged Okanagan (Chinese?) inscription, there are gaps in  the story which could not be filled because the "letters" were, or had  become, illegible. Those who made them may have been ill after  much hunger and suffering. And they may not have been educated  men, masters of the brush, or whatever tool they used in making  the record. These considerations may also apply to the Princeton  boulder inscription. This may account for modern students finding  difficulty in recognizing it as Korean—if it is Korean.  We wish that the Okanagan inscription had been available for  comparison. Considering the unexpected finds that have been made  in Palestine, it may be more than mere wishful thinking to hope that  other finds, similar to the Princeton boulder inscription, may come to  light in Okanagan and Similkameen. Then comparisons could be  made.  Mrs. P. Baird of Duncan, B.C., after looking at pictures of the  inscription, and reviewing efforts to solve the mystery, said, "My guess  is that some Korean was here looking for gold, and that's where he's  buried.   It's his tombstone."   She may be right.  (21 f^aul s    Jomb  Gladys E. Herbert  When the first yellow bells, buttercups, purple soldier-caps and  other spring flowers commence to colour the Okanagan hillsides,  children and grown-ups alike seek Nature's most beautiful hide-outs.  One of the favorite hikes for the past fifty years, has been the Knox  The entrance door to Paul's tomb  Mountain  Trail to Paul's  Tomb,  until  recently  accessible  only  by-  foot-path or by water.  Nestled behind the smoothed face of a large mound is this strange  and unique concrete cave, about one hundred feet above Okanagan  Lake and some one hundred yards back from the water's edge. This  structure, literally gouged out of the hillside, was built in 1910 as a  (22) ;  Paul's Tomb  place for the interment of the Paul family, and is known as Paul's  Tomb. The preservation of the remains of his family in this way  was Rembler Paul's idea of how to pay lasting tribute to them. Between the Tomb and the Lake is a beautiful, log house, built by Mr.  Paul shortly after the Tomb was completed, as a summer home for  himself and his invalid wife.  DESCRIPTION OF THE TOMB: A vertical cut was made  through this huge mound, and an excavation made into the bank,  creating a cave about fifteen feet long, nine feet wide and seven feet  high. The ceiling was neatly rounded and the seven-foot measurement represents the height in the centre. The whole was lined with  concrete. The floor and ceiling of the vault are some sixteen inches  thick. There is a passage-way down the centre, with two concrete  shelves on either side, extending the full length of the interior. These  shelves are supported by cement pillars. Thus provision was made for  eight coffins. The smoothed face of the cave is a concrete wall, some  nine feet wide and ten feet high, arched at the top. A steel vault door  was fitted into this cement facade, similar to the door of a walk-in  bank vault. The Taylor Safe Works built the door and the combination lock. The tomb itself was built by Mr. George Patterson (now-  deceased), assisted by his son, James (Jim), who is a well-known  Kelowna resident. The area in front of the cave was levelled for  some twenty feet to permit easy access to the tomb.  Mrs. Paul was buried there in June, 1914. The obituary in the  Kelowna Courier of June 11, 1914, reads as follows: "An esteemed  resident of Kelowna passed away on Friday (June 5) in the person of  Mrs. E. G. Paul, wife of Mr. Rembler Paul. Although a sufferer  for the past nine years from that dread disease, cancer, she had reached  the advanced age of 83 years, having been born in 1831 at Toronto,  which was then known as York. She had resided here since May,  1905. The funeral was held at 2 P.M. on Sunday (June 7). Rev.  T. Greene officiated, and the body was taken thereafter by boat to  the family vault, situated on the lake shore about five miles north  of Kelowna."  Two years and five months later, Mr. Paul passed away. "The  Kelowna Courier and Okanagan Orchardist" of Thursday, November 23, 1916, published the following article under the caption:  "Rembler Paul Passes Away—Death of Well-known Resident." The  article continues as follows: "Kelowna lost one of its most notable  residents last Saturday, in the death of Rembler Paul who died at  (23) The Okanagan Historical Society—A 960  Edmonton, Alberta, where he had journeyed to spend the winter.  Although a man who lived very much to himself owing to his advanced age, yet amongst local residents, he had gained an almost  historic, renown, chiefly on account of his strong personality and his  financial interest in local business and property. The deceased was  born in the City of Montreal in the year 1831, and was the son of a  Veterinary Surgeon, who had gained a considerable reputation in the  City of Toronto where he is believed to have practised for a number  of years.  "Much of young Paul's boyhood was spent in Kingston, Ontario,  and it was in this city that he was apprenticed to the printing trade.  Finding the work too monotonous, however, and not at all to his  taste, the young lad ran away from home and commenced a wandering career in the west, being one of the first white men to visit much  of the country lying both east and west of the Rockies. He was  essentially of a roaming disposition, and an adventurer in every sense  of the word. After many years spent in prospecting, trapping and  mining, he finally settled down in Regina, Saskatchewan, where he  conducted a coal business for a number of years. While in Regina,  he bought large tracts of prairie land lying to the south of the city,  which he afterwards sold to incoming farmers. It was in Regina that  the greater part of his wealth was accumulated, and it was from  there, he afterwards moved to Kelowna in 1905. On June 5, 1914,  he received a great blow in the death of his wife.  "Fearing pulmonary trouble, the deceased decided to spend the  winter in Edmonton, to which place he travelled accompanied by his  housekeeper. It is believed that a slight attack of la grippe hastened  an end which was primarily the result of old age.  "Rembler Paul had only one child, Samuel G. Paul, who died  some time ago leaving three sons, Reggie, Robert and Lisle, of whom  the first and last are overseas with the *C.E.F., while Robert is well  known in the city here, having made his home with his grandfather.  "The body which arrived from Edmonton yesterday afternoon  will be interred in the family vault in the mountain-side at the estate,  about five miles up the lake from Kelowna. The funeral will be held  Friday morning at 10:30 when the service will be conducted by the  Venerable Archdeacon Thomas Greene."  Mr. George Cady, who had been entrusted with the combination  * C.E.F.—Canadian Expeditionary Force.  (24) Paul's Tomb  to the lock, opened the vault when Mr. Paul was buried. After the  service for Mr. Paul, the immediate friends opened Mrs. Paul's coffin.  The casket inside was made of copper with a small glass insert. Mrs.  Paul's body was perfectly preserved according to the testimony of  eyewitnesses, including Mr. Cady. Those attending the funeral went  by boat and the body was towed on the barge. The late Mr. J. B.  Knowles was one of those attending this funeral. After Mr. Paul's  burial, the Royal Trust Company of Vancouver, who were the  executors of the Paul Estate, changed the combination on the lock,  because they felt that George Cady might not be easily available if  it were necessary to have the door opened again. The lock is presently  in a damaged condition, the work of vandals. Flowers had been  planted and a nicely landscaped garden set out on the area in front  of the tomb, while the Pauls were still alive. They had made provision in the will that this be maintained after their decease, but nothing  further was ever done.  PROBLEMS OF BUILDING: Mr. Jim Patterson recalls some  of the difficulties encountered in the building of the tomb, the wharf  and the cottage. Materials for the building of the tomb had been  transported mostly by wagon and stoneboat over the Blair Road Hill  (now Glenmore Road). When they went as far as they could go  with horses, they slid the cement, boards, wire reinforcements, etc.,  down a shale gully to the place where the tomb stands. After the  tomb was completed, plans to go ahead with the wharf and cottage  were interrupted, as Mrs. Paul's ill health made it expedient for the  family to seek a warmer climate. She had been operated on for cancer  at the Mayo Brothers Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, and the Pauls  had been advised to go south.  George Cady relates that his earliest memories of Mr. and Mrs.  Paul extend back to the time when he was a lad, seven years old, and  the Pauls engaged a private railroad car, which they boarded at Okanagan Landing, and headed for Tucson, Arizona, where Mr. Paul  bought two houses. Cady's mother was Mrs. Paul's nurse, so her son  George and his dog were included in the entourage. They spent three  successive winters in Tucson. However, the Okanagan claimed their  stronger loyalty and they decided to return permanently to Kelowna.  In the summer of 1911, Mr. Paul built the wharf in the lovely  little cove near the tomb, so that materials could be brought in for the  cottage. Mr. Jim Patterson remembers his father, Mr. George Patterson, and his uncle, Mr. Jim Middleton, tearing down a log building  (25) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  that stood on the Paul property in Kelowna and taking the very splendid  logs up the lake on a barge. The logs were piled neatly near the site  of the house until the following summer, when the same two men,  with the addition of Mr. Charles G. Clement, built the cottage. George  Patterson was a special stone mason, and, with the aid of Mr. Clement,  they built the wonderful fireplace with stones brought from the lake-  shore below. Mr. Middleton did the carpentry work on the house,  and Mr. Clement did the plastering. Contractors viewing the work  today say that the house is in as good condition as the day it was built,  und the fireplace is a remarkable piece of stone masonry.  The Pease house, now owned by Mr. R. C. Gore, had been built  previously with materials brought up the lake in the same way, though  finished lumber, rather than logs, was used for it. This the Paul  cottage was the second house on that stretch of lake front immediately  north of the City of Kelowna.  It was a strange anomaly that the cottage that had been built with  such painstaking efforts for the Paul's summer home, was visited only  once by Mrs. Paul. She rode a saddle-horse, side saddle. Within a  year of this effort, she was laid to rest in the secluded tomb prepared  for her, in this lonely and romantic spot.  The cottage was kept up, however. Water was pumped from the  lake by a power pump, which had been brought there on a barge and  rolled up the bank on "block and cable." A caretaker took up residence  in this quiet spot. There was a good garden, and there still remains  the remnant of an orchard of apples, pears, etc.  Dr. and Mrs. Carol Tucker bought this property in 1926. Dr.  Tucker had been a medical officer on a troopship during the first World  War. He was not well, and wanted a quiet place to retire, so after  travelling around Western Canada, visiting resorts such as Banff and  Lake Louise, he and his wife came to the Okanagan Valley and found  the haven that seemed so admirably suited to their needs. The place  /as purchased from Mrs. Edith M. Hewitson, through the late Mr.  E. M. Carruthers. The Tuckers had also considered buying the Goldsmith property, south of Okanagan Mission, which was available for  purchase at this time, but the Paul property became their final choice.  The Tuckers came from Indiana in a beautiful "Cole" car, with  a negro chauffeur, who stayed with them there for the first winter.  The winter proved to be too severe for all concerned, so Dr. and  Mrs. Tucker kept a caretaker on the place during subsequent winters  and lived in San Diego, or went on world tours during that season of  (26) Paul's Tomb  the year. They would return each spring to their dream cottage. Mrs.  Tucker continued to divide her place of residence between San Diego,  various other world points, and the cottage, after her husband passed  away in 1939, until her own life ended in February 1959.  Mrs. Tucker furnished the cottage with many rare and beautiful  pieces. Quantities of Mexican glass, Navajo rugs and tapestries  adorned this lovely home. Many Kelowna residents will remember  the huge Mexican hats that hung on the outside wall, where the  verandah stretched across the front of the house. This property is  presently owned by Mr. C. W. (Bill) Knowles, who has modernized  the house in many ways.  THE PAUL PROPERTY IN KELOWNA: Rembler Paul  owned some eight acres of land in what is now down-town Kelowna.  This property extended from Bernard Avenue north to the present  site of the Okanagan Telephone Company building, and was bounded  on the east by Richter Street (then known as Cameron's Lane—a dead  end street) and on the west by the Rattenbury property. (At this time  the present Rattenbury house was a cottage owned by the father of  Mr. E. C. Weddell, who in turn had purchased it from Bernard  Lequime.) The original Scout Hall property was a part of this same  block of land, which was donated to the First Kelowna Scout Troop  by Mr. Charles McCarthy, who became the owner of the Paul tract  after Mr. Paul's death in 1916.  The large Paul residence is now an apartment house, and the little  room in the form of a cupola, which stands in the garden, was once  on top of the house and was George Cady's bedroom. The gardener's  house has long since been torn down, but the barn was moved and  made into a duplex house on Bertram Street.  Mr. Paul bought this property from Mr. Colin Simpson Smith,  who subsequently bought the house and ranch now owned by Mr.  Douglas S. Buckland. Mr. C. S. Smith lived on this ranch until he  died. Following Mr. Paul's death, Mr. Charles McCarthy bought  the Paul property from the estate of the late Rembler Paul, through  his executors, the Royal Trust Company of Vancouver. Mr. McCarthy  subdivided the property into lots on the plan registered as No. 2127.  These lots were further subdivided later into Plan No. 2167, and in  1931, the house in its spacious setting, became registered in the name  of Mrs. Ada McCarthy. In July 1943, the residence was purchased  by Mrs. Edith M. Granger, who in turn sold it to the present owner,  (27) The Okanagan Historical Society—I960  Mr. Merril D. Hughes, in 1956. The space now occupied by Grace  Baptist Church was, for many years, a part of the Paul's garden.  Both Mr. and Mrs. Paul were very fond of flowers and beautiful  shrubbery. They engaged a full-time gardener to care for the  grounds, both at the Kelowna house and at the site of the Tomb. Even  after Mrs. Paul's right arm was almost totally disabled, she would go  around the garden, picking roses with her left hand.  Rembler Paul was a short thick-set man, who always wore a full,  long, white beard, which he kept perfectly groomed. In his later years  he became quite deaf. As mentioned in the obituary, the Pauls came  to Kelowna from Regina, where Mr. Paul had owned and subdivided  a large section of that prairie city. He had been a veterinary surgeon  and perhaps his first love, after his family, were his horses. On the  trips to Tucson, the first place he would visit on arrival, would be the  livery barn, where he would obtain a good pacer. In Kelowna, he  would frequently be found at Lequime's store, or at the watering-  trough, in front of the present Royal Anne Hotel. He would often  go to Edmonton, and would buy as many as 1200 horses for rc-sa!e,  while there.  There were also chickens and cows around his place.  Most of the Paul Estate, however, consisted of money acquired  by his careful, shrewd trading on the stock market. He would buy  wheat "futures" in two-million-bushel lots, and seemed to have a  canny sense of when to sell it to good advantage. He also bought a  gold mine on the Monashee, some 60 miles from Vernon, out from  Lumby. This was known as the St. Paul Gold Mine. A gold brick  worth $2500 was recovered from 150 tons of quartz. The tunnel  into this mine went 1800 feet into the mountainside and a large mill  was brought from Tucson for extracting the metal. This mine was  sold to a group of Portland doctors for a handsome sum. Mr. Paul  was a good Conservative, and when he wanted a trail built to the  mine site, he received a favourable hearing.  This man had his own way of playing Santa Claus on Christmas  Eve. He would start out with team and wagon, loaded down with  turkeys and other Christmas fare, and make a tour of the town, leaving hampers at all the homes previously selected. Young George Cady  was often his helper in distributing these bounties, which were always  anonymous.  Mr. Paul was a strong, confident character, a severe disciplinarian,  especially whenever he would see anyone abusing an animal.   George  (28) Paul's Tomb  Cady relates how, on one occasion, Mr. Paul noticed a man passing  in front of his house, using a chain to urge a baulking horse to go  ahead. Paul had his own way of handling the man, and took charge  of the horse himself. With a little sound common sense and kindness,  he adjusted its shoe with a piece of wood and a hammer, and soon had  both horse and man on their way again. To young George, who spent  much time with this old man, the advice was given thus: "Never be  lazy, never be dirty—there is lots of water in this province." It is  implied that George belonged to the genus "Boy", who needed some  urging to take a bath! Mr. Paul gave George a Shetland pony when  he became old enough to handle it. This was later traded for one  hundred chickens.  To Mr. Average Citizen of fifty years ago in Kelowna, this  Rembler Paul was a wealthy man who drove a fine white horse with  a rubber-tired surrey. He had his office in his house, and his important  records were kept in gunny sacks. The first and last cheques he ever  wrote were found in this type of container, and over two million  dollars had gone through his hands. He loaned money in large volume  for certain local enterprises at 3^2 to 4 per cent. In his will, he left  both his gardener and Mrs. Cady $600 a year for life. His grandsons,  Reginald, Bert, Lyle and Percy (their father had died in Retina)  each received monthly allowances for life.  At the advanced age of 85 years, Mr. Paul went to Edmonton to  spend the winter with a former school chum, Mr. Gibb. He did not  live to see the winter, for he passed away November 23, 1916, and  was brought to Kelowna for burial in the "Tomb" which bears his  name.  There is a picture of Mr. Paul in the local museum. The shark's  mouth that stands in the Kelowna Museum was donated by Rembler  Paul and was brought here from San Diego.  The writer is indebted to the following persons for assistance in  writing this article.  1. Mrs. J. B. Knowles, who was a source of constant encouragement  in the project.  2. Mr. George Cady, who lived in the Paul household from the time  he was seven years old until he went to the University School for  Boys on Mount Tolmie, Victoria.  3. Mr. C. W. (Bill) Knowles, who made a tape recording of George  (29) The Okanagan Historical Society—-I960  Cady's conversation with Mrs. J. B. Knowles, Bill Knowles, Mr.  and Mrs. Gordon D. Herbert.  4.    Mr. James Patterson,  whose  father,  George  Patterson,  was the  stonemason and bricklayer who built the fireplace in the cottage  near Paul's Tomb.   Mr. George Patterson came to Kelowna in  1905, at about the same time as Rembler Paul.  Respectfully submitted to Mr. Fred Marriage, for use in the 1960  Report of the Okanagan Historical Society.  Erratum in Report 23, "The Provincial Government Agency in  Penticton".  We regret that the names of S. B. Hamilton, Clerk, and E. T.  Cope, Clerk, were omitted on page 7, line 8, from the list of the original  members of the office staff of the Provincial Government Agency in  Penticton. These names were included in the article Mrs. Dewdney  forwarded for publication in 1959.  (30) (*sharles <JL)e<Tjlois ^jreen, <$• £-~__C_*__>_  [Note by Mr. H. C. Whitaker of West Summerland.  Charles deB. Green obtained his commission as a Provincial Land  Surveyor in 1890 and was one of the first such to practice in South  Okanagan. At the present time Penticton Museum has 50 sets of  birds' eggs and 63 sets in nests, and also 3 stuffed birds—the remnant  of his collection.]  By Mrs. V. O. Bishop  Victoria, B.C., his daughter  He grew up in the big rectory which was built by his father, the  first rector of the parish of March, in Cambridgeshire, England.  Charles DeBlois Green, B.C.L.S.  Charles was the second son, born in 1863, at Presteign, Herefordshire, and educated at Stony-Stratford.  He refused a University education in order to follow his bent as  an ornithologist, in which branch of natural history he later became  well known as an authority in the scientific world. In 1879 he became  a pupil of Mr. Webb, in Worcester, who was his first instructor in  land surveying, and in whose home he met his future wife. Three  years later he took a  course of instruction  in  the office  of  a  Civil  (31) The Okanagan Historical Society-—A 960  Engineer in Nottingham, and while still a young man went to New  Zealand on a sailing ship, and climbed about the rigging in a way which  probably kept him in practice, during the six weeks of the voyage, for  his tree climbing later on, as a collector. He engaged in farming, and  thought it a lovely country. Returning to England, he married in  1887 Margaret E. Webb.  In 1888 he came to B.C., with his wife and first child, and settled  in Victoria, where he obtained his commission as a P.L.S. about eighteen  months later. It was a very hot summer, the cows were drinking out  of the open drains, and his baby died, among hundreds of others, of  Cholera Infantum. The second daughter was born in 1889, and five  years later, after doing survey work for the government on the Queen  Charlotte Islands, he moved up to the Okanagan. He spent the summer,  on the way, at Enderby as engineer on the location of the first C.P.R.  line to that place.  On first arriving in the Okanagan in 1894, he built a lean-to  attached to the Govt, office which was at Osoyoos then, and in charge  of Mr. Lambly. The only other house was that of the Krugers; it  was built of solid logs, whitewashed, and was the store and post-office  combined.  By next winter he had built three rooms of his own, five miles  north, at the head of Osoyoos lake, and was surveying mineral claims  on Kruger Mt. and the surrounding country.  Next year he moved the shack a mile north again, across The  Meadows from Val Haynes' cabin, and more in the middle of his  property. Another daughter was born in 1902 (Beatrice Wastie),  and a son (Vincent de Blois, three years later. The name "de Blois"  was used as a convenience to avoid mail going astray, and came in a  line of ancestry from the Seigneurs de Blois in France, long ago.  There was also an Irish strain, on his mother's side, from the family  of the Earls of Cremorne, and we used to laugh at his untidiness in  the house, and put it down to that, though he was always verv neat in  his dress, and with his collection and his work.  He did a lot of surveying at Camp McKinney in those days, and  at Greenwood, and Grand P'orks, riding away on Fanny, the beautiful  grey mare who was said to have been used at one time to carry the  geld brick that was stolen from Camp McKinney. She was a very  intelligent horse and when a gate was not opened for her before she  got tired of waiting, she would reach down and try to pull the bolt  out with her teeth.   She also had a fit of jealousy sometimes, and once  (32) Charles DeBlois Green, B.C.L.S.  began taking bites at the behind of a bay mare she considered a rival.  C. de B. made a mustard poultice and fastened it onto' the victim's  back with the hot side uppermost, and Fanny's next bite was the last  she tried.  His home life was a very happy one; he and his wife were devoted  to each other, and his home-comings after weeks of absence on survey  work, were always times of great family rejoicing. He whistled very  well and as one of the rare passers-by might also whistle, and raise  false hopes, he chose a special tune, known as his "home-coming tune"  which was "Drink, oh drink the pirate sherry" from "The Pirates of  Penzance." He loved the Gilbert and Sullivan, and many were the  tunes from that gay music that were whistled round the house, or to  cheer the children if they grew tired on the long tramps, when he would  "proclaim a holiday" and take them out shooting.  They were too far away for the children to attend any school, so  Mrs. Green taught them herself, and did it so well that when, in their  teens, two of them were sent for a short time to private schools, they  were ahead of their classes in many subjects. She would call them in  to their lessons at regular hours, first with an old station bell, and later  with a silver bosun's whistle Mr. Leir had given her.  It had not been usual, however, in her day, for girls to learn  Greek, so Mr. Green would teach her that in the evenings, when he  was at home, so that she might pass it on to the children.  They both read aloud to their children, some of his favorite of  the lighter authors being Anstey, W. W. Jacobs, Kipling, and Dickens;  the latter he could quote fluently, when pertinent to the occasion.  He was a crack shot with a shot-gun, and very seldom missed or  wounded, so that in season the family were seldom out of game, Blue  Grouse, Willow Grouse, Ducks, Hares, and Prairie Chicken all being  plentiful in those days. But though he killed he also preserved the  game, and kept down the Crows, Magpies and other vermin that robbed  nests in the spring. He considered it unsportsmanlike to use a rifle and  shoot a bird sitting, and never shot a deer again after an experience  in early days, when he shot five by mistake. He thought it was the  same deer that kept sticking its head up from behind a rock, and that  he had missed it again and again, but when it finally ceased to appear  and he went to see, he found it had been a different one each time,  and he had killed five.  He was surveying all one winter above Fairview, in the days of  "The Stemwinder" and the mines up the gulch,  when  Mr.   Russel  (33) The Okanagan Historical Society—'I960  was manager and Charlie Jones had "The Golden Gate Hotel", and  Mr. Mathias "The Big Teepee", later burnt down; W. Shatford kept  the general store. He would ride away on Fanny in the early morning, in his riding breeches and stetson hat and mackinaw coat, while  the family waved from the window; it was only eight miles away so  he came back at night.  The Nickel Plate mine was discovered by an old school friend of  his, Mr. Con Arundel, who with his companion, Mr. Wollaston, lived  that winter in a lean-to they had built against the big log stable.  In the spring of 1903 he bought 200 sheep from across the line,  and from the proceeds of the sale of lambs that autumn sent his eldest  daughter to "All Hallows", the private girls' school at Yale, but then  he decided another breed, rather than the Merinos, would stand up  better to the menace of the coyotes, and he "sold", his flock to a butcher  named Swinburn, who took them all across the line, with some cattle  he had "bought" from other people, and never paid anybody. Mr.  Green was always a very trusting person, and believed everyone to be  as honourable as himself, until it was too late. The daughter had to  come back from school.  In 1909 he was able to send his family to England to visit the  relations while he worked for the government up the coast at Shusharti,  and joined them in England that winter, coming back in the following spring.  In the winter of 1910 he took his family to Nanaimo for work  there, and did the same for the winter of 1911-12. In the summer of  1912 he was working for the government on Graham Island near  Masset, Rose Spit, and Tow hill.  In the winter of 1914-15 he came down to Victoria where he  enlisted in the 2nd C.M.R. at the same time as his son, but they were  a mounted troop at that time, and his real age became evident when  they had to spring on to their horses bare-backed, and he was turned  out. Not to be stopped, he realized his life-insurance and paid his own  way over to England, where he joined a group of volunteers who offered  their services to the French government in the capacity of Red Cross  ambulance drivers. It was known as the "Section Sanitaire Anglaise".  He served chiefly in the Vosges, and was awarded the Croix de Guerre  with silver star. A translation follows of part of the citation of award  in orders of the 1 5th Infantry Division of the 24th Feb. 1918, reading:  "A volunteer of great courage, who was always foremost under  difficult circumstances.   He has served through the campaign  of the  (34) Charles DeBlois Green, B.C.L.S.  Vosges, the Somme and Champagne, 1917. He made certain the  evacuation of wounded during the attack in Champagne of Feb. 13th,  both by day and night, over heavily shelled roads."  His own account of receiving the award, as written to his wife,  was given with his usual humour. "For sweeping the snow off the  paths, and decorating the 'Popote' with ivy for Christmas, the General  has seen fit to decorate me with the Croix de Guerre; he has just left  me blushing all over, under the bed."  The urge of the collector never left him. For several days he had  watched a magpie's nest in a tree a few hundred yards away, in the  line of continual shell-fire, and as branch after branch was stripped  off it he could hold back no longer, and earned the name of "the mad  Englishman" by finally going out, still under fire and collecting it.  One of the nests in his collection had a bit of blood-stained bandage  woven into it.  On returning to the Okanagan after the war, he decided to give  up surveying, as there were many younger men trying to get a start,  and he tried sheep again.  His wife and elder daughter had gone to Vancouver for the duration of the war in order to be more in touch with the news, and the  empty house in the Valley becoming a prey to tramps, rats and mice,  it was decided to have it burnt down, and settle permanently at the  summer place, which he named Elkhorn. It was the higher of two  lakes known then as "Twin lakes" or "Nippit lakes", where he finally  acquired about twelve hundred acres.  From then on his life became more and more of a struggle; his  second daughter came home, after an unfortunate marriage, with four  small children. The house had never been built for more than a summer place, and he had a continual fight with coyotes, and increasing  arthritis.  His cheerful courage never failed, his gallant spirit never let anything "get him down"; he tried putting up miles and miles of fencing  and when the coyotes learned to jump over it he went all round it  again with another wire. Then they started to dig under. As he  climbed painfully up the steep hillsides he only remarked cheerfully  that it was just a matter of taking a bit longer.  He passed away on August 12th, 1929, at the age of 66, while  on a short visit in Penticton, his death being quite sudden, and due to  heart failure.   He was survived by his widow, two daughters,  Mrs.  (35) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  E. F. St. A. Davies, and Mrs. C. C. Allen, and a son, Vincent de  Blois Green.  As a surveyor his work was accurate and conscientiously done. As  a man he was of great kindness of heart, generous by nature, and of  a cheerful spirit, which qualities, together with a cultivated mind and  ready wit, made him beloved by all who knew him.  His second daughter passed away in 1954, and his widow in  1957.  <J he    \^Jsouoos   <JDugout.      ___x^r   C correction  Contrary to the statement made in O.H.S. 23, it now appears that  the pine dug-out canoe discovered in the summer of 1959 at the bottom  of Osoyoos Lake was originally made 60 or 70 years ago (for $20) by-  Jack Neil of Richter Pass. Apparently Bill Richter took it to Osoyoos  Lake for duck hunting. After a short absence he returned to find it  gone. It had sunk and lay on the bottom until discovered by Paul Pier-  ron, Osoyoos skin diver. It was not used for the purpose mentioned in  O.H.S. 23.  Mr. and Mrs. George G. Reiswig, of Winfield, celebrated half a  century wed on April 22, 1960. The couple was married in Lacombe,  Alberta, in 1910. A few months later they came to the Reiswig family  farm, on Grandview Flats, near Armstrong. Shortly afterwards, Mr.  Reiswig started farming on his own in Armstrong, which he continued  to do until 1919, when they went to California for three years, moving  to the Peace River in 1922. The pair went to Winfield in 1937,  where they still reside, on the former property known as the "M. P.  Williams Ranch," now known as Woodsdale. In 1955, Mr. Reiswig  and his son, Delmar, bought the Buckerfield property, (the former  L & A Ranch), north of Vernon, and are actively engaged in farming  the largest ranch for many miles. Mr. and Mrs. Reiswig are devout  members of the Seventh Day Adventist Church; and both were born  in the United States.    They have five children.  (36) /foe <J~larwood  Mabel Johnson  Of Vernon's Joe Harwood, it could truthfully be said that he  lived to see the realization of a vision.  He died May 21st, 1950, at the age of 83.  This remarkable man, who left his mark, not only on his generation, but on his life and times, was a Barnardo boy, who came to  Canada from the Old Country under the wing of that famous English  institution when he was 12 years old. He had the barest minimum  of education. But, in adult-hood, he served on the Vernon School  Board for 28 years, was president of the B.C. School Trustees Asso-  J. H. Harwood  Mrs. Harwood  ciation, and vice-president of the Dominion-wide organization of  trustees. He died a life member of the provincial association. In the  1930's, he was named as B.C. school-trustee-delegate to a great rally  of educational authorities in San Francisco, attended by delegates from  54 nations. He took the conference by storm. His photograph, 4 columns wide, adorned the front page of the San Francisco Chronicle,  covering the event. "I had no education myself; that's the reason I  want to see today's children get one," he said, addressing 7,000 delegates.  (37) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  Mr. Harwood talked with one of Canada's governors-general,  lunched in England with a peer of the realm, reached the ear of a  duchess.  When Mr. Harwood was a boy, the word "under-privileged" was  not known, or used in the common vernacular. But under-privileged  youth was then, in fact, rampant. Mr. Harwood was one of the first  to realize that something must be done about it. His dream, his lodestar, was to see equal educational opportunities for all boys and girls—  not only for the rich and privileged, as was the case in 1867, when  he was born.  To understand "Joe," as he was universally known until he died,  the England of his boyhood must be considered. In it—the rich—were  very rich; by the same token, the poor—were very poor; and not only  poor, but down trodden and looked down upon.  There was no social legislation to take care of those sad people,  who literally and actually lived like the characters in a Dickens or  Thackeray novel.  There was no bridge, actual or intangible, between the rich and  poor. In the great dividing gulf struggled the millions of the so-called  "middle classes"; the working people; the tradesmen; the sad, struggling little men who strove to provide for their families with no minimum wage laws to help them.  Joe knew this was not right; in fact, he felt it was very wrong.  He envisioned equal opportunities for all children, be they rich, poor,  ' or middle-class.  In the vast, untamed land of Canada, to which he came as an  immigrant lad with his few belongings tied in a square cloth, and only  a shilling in his pocket when he landed, at the age of 12 years . . .  he lived to see this great social evolution take place.  In giant, well-equipped, adequately lighted and heated schools,  the Barnardo boy saw the sons and daughters of prosperous people,  some of whom stemmed from the British aristocracy, rub shoulders,  sharpen pencils and play games, also learn the three R's, with the children of penniless immigrants from other countries, who had come to  Canada to seek those very things for which Joe crusaded.  The  words  "delinquent,"   "under-privileged,"   and  the  like,   had  no place in Joe's vocabulary;  but he knew what they meant alright.  ,   Much is heard about youth leaders: Joe was one of the unsung  heroes who  pioneered  today's youth  movements,   because  he  wanted  (38) Joe Harwood  for all boys and girls, the opportunities of education, and training in  sports, the arts, music and the like.  Biographically now . . . Joe came to Canada in 1882. His signature then was the cross of illiteracy.  He worked near Brandon, Man., on a farm. He engaged in western railway construction; went to Calgary as a liveryman, and eventually, in 1893, arrived in Vernon.  This was a bare year after the city was incorporated. It was a little  western community in those days, with none of the amenities of civil--  ization. To the young city, Joe brought his bride, the late Mary  Bioletti. In Vernon, their family of five sons and two daughters were  born and grew up; and where some of them now live in prosperous  middle age. Mr. Harwood saw one of his sons, Fred, serve as an alderman for nearly 15 years, in the 1940's and 1950's in the city where  he was born, and where he was associated with his father in business.  At the age of 70, Joe went back to England. It was a big day for  him. His many friends rejoiced with him, for the railway station was  packed with well wishers when he set off on his long journey to a land  he had left 58 years previously.  Upon arrival in England, joe started a series of conferences  with people interested in emigration policies. He interviewed three  members of the British Cabinet. It was then that he was taken to  lunch by one of Britain's peers. His utterances reached the ears of a  duchess.  He visited all the Barnardo institutions; technical schools, industrial plants and agricultural areas. He asked everyone who would  listen to him to promote more schemes to send British youth to Canada.  Joe pointed to his destitute condition when he arrived in Canada,  landing with only a shilling (25 cents in the currency of that era),  couldn't sign his name, and with no training. He emphasized the educational facilities and other advantages placed at the disposal of British  and Canadian youths today. Joe used to say that he wished he could  live his life over again, so that he might enjoy, and profit by—the  advantages which accrue to beginning a new life in the 20th century.  "I've been working all my life to try to make things better," Joe  used to say.  Mr. Harwood was an individualist. He had the type of rugged,  kindly, frank personality not too often met. He felt everything keenly.  He uned to admonish boys and girls, many of them unknown to him,  (39) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  to go to school—to learn all they could—for as long as they could.  Joe could have been a prime minister, or a great leader. The  Crippled Children's Hospital in Vancouver is now a household word  in British Columbia. Joe was invited to Vancouver when the project  was being started, and he spoke in three crowded theatres the same  night.  For 20 years, he was a director of the Vernon Jubilee Hospital.  A school in Vernon perpetuates the name of this great champion  of children. And Joe wasn't like some others who came to Canada  to start a new life. He did not talk in a grandiose manner about the  land across the seas as "back home." Canada, to him, was "my country." But at the same time, he was intensely loyal. The writer of this  story remembers Mr. Harwood during World War Two, as wearing  a Union  Jack across his chest, as other men would wear a waistcoat.  As has been said, Joe served on the Vernon School Board for 28  consecutive years, which culminated when he was named president of  the B.C. School Trustees Association at Duncan in 1923. He was  given a golden key, emblematic of the freedom of that stronghold of  the British aristocracy, Duncan, Vancouver Island. For five years, he  served on the provincial executive, and in another term was vice-  president of the Dominion organization. Finally, he was made a life  member of the B.C. Trustees Association.  Until ill health forced a halt to his tireless energy, Joe was prominent in the work of the Elks Lodge, of which he was a charter, and  life, member.  Joe was a strong supporter of the Salvation Army, which was established in Vernon in 1906 through his efforts, and those of others. The  site on which the present Salvation Army Citadel now stands, on 32nd  Street and 31st Avenue (one of the choicest business properties now  in Vernon), was donated by Mr. Harwood. Even before coming to  Vernon from Calgary, Joe was a member of the Salvation Army, and  in the Alberta cit}' he became known as "Sunshine Joe." The vows  which sealed his marriage with Mary Bioletti were spoken in the Salvation Army barracks in Calgary; and they withstood the ups and  downs of more than 50 years. Their wedding trip to Innisfail, where  the bride's family lived, was taken via horse and buggy. On their  golden wedding, June 21, 1943, 30 members of the Harwood family  enjoyed a reunion; and more than 300 friends and fellow townspeople-  called at the Harwood home to offer congratulations.  In  the year  1898,  Joe  Harwood started in  business   for  himself  (40) Joe Harwood  with one horse and what was then known as a "rig." He built this  up to 50 horses. As Vernon grew and required dependable service  and change of methods in the transportation business, Joe Harwood  changed with the times, from horses, to horsepower. On July 15th,  1948, the independent and individual firm, "Joe Harwood, cartage,  movers, baggage and express," celebrated its 50th anniversary.  Joe Harwood was one of the builders of modern motor transport  in B.C. He used to say he launched his business with a "cheap cayuse  and democrat."   This grew to a fleet of 12 modern trucks.  There were just dirt trails in Vernon when Joe started in business.  Over these same trails, which are now wide, paved highways, the young  businessman packed in the immigrants, from the Old Country and  elsewhere—who arrived here to start life anew in the last great west—  to the crude shacks and dried range lands which were their first homes.  From this humble beginning, Joe saw develop some of the richest  and most profitable land in Canada; the intensively cultivated and  irrigated orchards which annually bear millions of boxes of soft fruits  and the apples for which the Okanagan is famous in the marts of the  world.  Nor did Harwoods' merely carry the effects of the young strangers.  He told of hauling crated treasures from the stately homes of England,  weighing up to two tons. Among their owners was the late Lord  Aberdeen, one time owner of Coldstream Ranch, and among Canada's  most revered governors-general.  One of Harwood's proudest records is the government mail contract, awarded in 1898. This was considered by the post office as a  50-year contract. In mere than 50 years, it was Joe Harwood's boast  that he never missed a mail dispatch. The first post office, a shack on  Vernon's Tronson Avenue, was built on the property still owned by  the Harwood family, and was the first depot to which the mail was  carried.  In 1903, Joe built a barn on the property they occupied (until they  sold the business in the 1950's to Chapman's, of Kelowna)—for four  teams. At this time, Mrs. Harwood was home-maker, wife, mother,  book-keeper. It is said she even drove a team when necessary. The  business continued on the up-grade, and in 1910 the family owned  and operated 40 head of horses.  During World War One, the horses gave way to motor trucks.  Harwood's owned the first truck to do hauling in Vernon. The firm  developed a storage and forwarding business.   In the early 1900's they  (41) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  commenced a daily jce delivery service. This was in the days when  electrically operated refrigerators were unknown.  Harwood's was associated with the life, times, and expansion of  Vernon as was perhaps no other business. They saw two generations  grow to manhood. They owed allegiance to five reigning monarchs.  They saw family circles in their home town depleted during three wars.  They weathered one of the greatest depressions known. "Nothing is  too heavy or too light" was their motto.  This was what The Vernon News had to say, editorially, on a beautiful day in May, 1950, when in other columns of the same issue, it  chronicled the death ovf Vernon's Joe Harwood:  "Joe Harwood ...,♦_ was perhaps Vernon's best known citizen over  a long period of time. He was not the wealthiest, or the poorest, the  most brilliant, or the dullest, the most charitable or the meanest.  "Joe Harwood was none of these things, good or bad. But he had  qualities which endeared him to Vernon, and Vernon to him, as few  other men. He was invariably cheerful, optimistic, friendly. He was  blessed with a vision of progress for his beloved Okanagan Valley  and of the essential goodness of his fellow men and women he had  never a doubt.  "To few men are given the gift of friendship in the degree he had.  He was on a first name basis with everyone, from the president of the  Canadian Pacific Railway, to the janitor at the schools, and equally at  home in the company of either.  "Joe Harwood was a pioneer. From the streets of London, he  came to the open spac.es of the young Canadian prairie and then on  west to the raw settlement of Vernon in the Okanagan. He made his  own way, and asked nothing of anyone. As Vernon grew, Joe Harwood grew and remained active, forceful and genial, long after the  span allotted to less fortunate men.  "The provision of education was Joe Harwood's greatest interest.  He was not hesitant in declaring that he was a self made man, and that  he wished for all Canadian children the opportunity of an education  which he himself had been denied. To this end, he was a tireless worker  and a valiant fighte,r.. In the field of education his greatest defeat  came when a school, building program was rejected by the ratepayers  a number of years ago, and his greatest satisfaction just "a few weeks  before his death, when one of Vernon's new schools was named in  his honor.  ,"In the story of-the Okanagan, Joe Harwood has written a page  (42) Joe Harwood  which will not be forgotten.   He lived a long time;  had a full and a  good life; and Vernon is a better place, because he was here. . . ."  The school which bears Joe's name: "The Harwood Elementary  School", was opened a month, almost to the day, before he died:  April 20th, 1950. It is a fully modern building with every convenience  for primary children. It has six attractively decorated classrooms with  a work-shop extension to each; two covered play areas, kitchen and  lunch room. The latter can be used as a music room, or for folk-  dancing when not in use as a lunch room. Auxiliary rooms include  an office, a staff room, and accommodation for the school nurse. Total  cost was $113,718.  Public opinion is a fickle quantity. In days of political upsets and  short term office-holders, a record like Joe's is remarkable. It indicated the appreciation of a people for the work of a faithful servant,  and affords ample proof that "the best that is in me" which Joe Harwood promised the cause of education, was a very good "best" indeed.  He sleeps beneath the pines in Vernon Cemetery, looking over the  city which he in fact, helped to build.  Vernon museum has received from Dr. D. A. Ross the original  document, dated 1874, appointing George Forbes Vernon as chief commissioner of lands and works and also some photographs of the Vernon  family. They were obtained from Mr. Vernon's daughter, Mrs.  Bernice Furber, who resides at "Vernon Manor" in Vancouver.  F. G. Vernon was born near Dublin in 1843 and came to B.C.  with his brother Charles in 1863. They took up land with Col.  Houghton, first M.L.A. for North Okanagan, and developed the Coldstream Ranch. Forbes Vernon later became sole owner of 1,300 acres  before the ranch was sold to Lord Aberdeen. He died in London in  1911.  It is interesting to note that there is a city in Normandy named  Vernon.  (43) <Jhe tJL^ate    J".  <J~l. <JL^atimer  V.£»8- &C..JCS.  The following statement is permanently recorded on a copper  plate embedded into a concrete pedestal, and located in the Triangle  Park within the Village of Oliver and on Highway 97—  TO COMMEMORATE THE WORK OF OUR  PIONEER ENGINEERS, AMONG THEM  F. H. LATIMER  ESPECIALLY FOR HIS WORK IN THE MAIN  IRRIGATION AND TOWNSITE DEVELOPMENTS  1905 to 1940 FROM PENTICTON TO OSOYOOS.  ERECTED BY THE ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL  ENGINEERS OF B.C. AND THE ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE OF CANADA B.C. BRANCHES.  F. H. Latimer was born in Kincardine, Ontario, on May 23, 1860.  He moved to Vancouver, B.C., from the East in 1890, going to Vernon in 1891 where he practiced surveying, engineering and assaying.  He was appointed Municipal Engineer for the City of Vernon and  also served as Irrigation Engineer for the Coldstream Ranch (then  one of the largest ranches in the whole of Canada) owned by Lord  Aberdeen. The original buildings are still in evidence and can be seen  from the main highway on Rattlesnake Point.  Mr. Latimer was later appointed engineer for Irrigation for the  village of Peachland, 1901 and 1902.  He carried out engineering work for the pioneer orchardist J. M.  Robinson of Summerland and Naramata and laid out the present irrigation system during 1902 to 1905.  He was next employed by a pioneer family, the Shatfords of the  South Okanagan Land Co. Ltd., who had bought the extensive Ellis  holdings extending from Penticton to the border, laying out the original subdivision of the Municipality of Penticton, also the extensive  irrigation systems on Ellis Creek and Penticton Creek, as well as the  storage dams on these same creeks. He later served as municipal engi-  need for Penticton when the Electric (Diesel) system and Domestic  Water systems were installed.  He served Penticton from 1905 to 1911.  From 1911 to 1918 he did engineering work in Kelowna. He  also laid out the townsites of Kaleden and West Summerland, and the  irrigation system  for Mr. Ritchie   (another pioneer orchardist).    He  (44) The F.ate F. H. Latimer, P.Eng., B.C.T^.S.  was called to Nelson to render valuable engineering service  for that  city.  In 1918 the Government of B.C. called him to Victoria as a consulting engineer in connection with the proposed Soldiers' Land Act  scheme for the South Okanagan. Early in the spring, 1919, he was  appointed Project Engineer and by 1923 he brought the Southern  Okanagan Lands Project to completion. From 1924 to 1935 he carried on private engineering practice from his Penticton office, retiring  in 1935. He was active in his orchard until his death in 1948. His  family consists of two sons, Gerald in Penticton and Chester in Washington, and two daughters, Frances of Penticton and Esther of  Vancouver.  F. H. Latimer justly deserves a place of distinction in the records  of the Okanagan Historical Society as one of our active pioneers, a  man of high moral character and a good citizen.  [Contributed by F. McDonald who had the privilege of being a  close friend of Mr. Latimer and his family for many years.]  It should have been stated at the time that the article "The Okanagan Ministry of the Late Rev. Dr. G. A. Wilson" which appeared  last year in O.H.S. Report 23, was Chapter 2 of an unpublished  biography of Dr. Wilson by Rev. J. C. Goodfellow and the late Rev.  William Stott.  A 1958 publication—"Abbot Extraordinary", by Peter F. Anson  (Faith Press, London) is a biography of Father Carlyle (1874-1955)  who from 1921 to 1930 lived at Bear Creek, across the lake from  Kelowna and ministered to Indians in many parts of the southern B.C.  interior.  A former English Benedictine abbot (Caldey), he dropped all titles  and insisted upon being called "Father."  (45: ^Z^rn  Clsarlu    /fruit <Jnspector Knives  <z4dVice, 1903  Mr. G. D. Cameron of the Guisachan Ranch, Kelowna, recently  handed the writer a cutting from "The Inverness Courier" of March  23, 1904, describing the farewell tendered his parents, Mr. and Mrs.  W. Cameron, on their departure from Edgeley, N.W.T., for the  Okanagan. The couple had emigrated in 1883 from Scotland to the  Qu'Appelle Valley, where Mr. Cameron was placed in charge of the  development of 20,000 acres of prairie land. This work accomplished,  he decided to move to Kelowna. For the information of the local  readers, the Inverness paper goes on as follows: "In connection with  the above, the following extracts from the impressions of an experienced farmer who recently made an extended trip through "Okanagan's Fair Valley", printed in the Armstrong (B.C.) Advertiser, will  be interesting. Provincial Fruit Inspector T Cunningham . . . believes, from present appearances, that the country from Sicamous to  Penticton will soon be one vast orchard. He states that he never saw  a better display of fruit than was shown at the first exhibition held at  Armstrong. The Vernon exhibition was also very good, the fruit  from Lord Aberdeen's Coldstream Ranch being simply marvellous.  Mr. Cunningham spent several days inspecting orchards at Kelowna,  including one at Okanagan Mission, where apple trees 45 years old  were found to be in perfect condition. These were purchased at  Olympia by the early missionaries and brought up the Columbia to  Okanagan Lake by canoe. The shipment of fruit from the Okanagan  has attained surprising proportions. Five car-loads, some 3000 boxes,  were on the steamer on which Mr. Cunningham travelled. One carload was billed for Glasgow, and the quality of these "Northern Spies"  is such that they will be an eye-opener to Britishers. Mr. Cunningham  reports that the demand for nursery stock greatly exceeds the supply.  Summerland alone will buy 60,000 trees, and other points in like  proportion. The irrigation scheme at Kamloops, now nearly completed, will require 100,000 trees at least. The fondest hopes of those  long identified with the industry are being realized and the days of  doubt and pessimism are ended."  Before Mr. Cameron left the Qu'Appelle Valley, the above-named  (46) An Early Fruit Inspector Gives Advice, 1903  fruit inspector wrote to him as follows:  Inspector of Fruit,  Kelowna, B.C.  Oct. 23, 1903.  W. C. Cameron, Esq.  Edgeley.  Dear Sir:  I am writing this from your western home. I have been inspecting your orchard and am very well pleased with the healthy condition  of the trees, which, although showing signs of neglect, are perfectly  healthy, have made satisfactory growth, and are ripening—the wood  better than expected.  I notice many blanks in the orchard; these, I presume, you will  fill with new trees next spring. There is sure to be a strong temptation  to plant trees of two or three years old. I would advise you to select  yearlings instead, which if of good quality and correct form will certainly overtake three-year-old trees within five years. You need to  head your trees low, certainly not higher than your knee; if they are  branches down to the ground all the better, and be very sure to keep  a central stem or leader. Many of these trees are faulty from having  the center cut out at planting. Don't repeat or permit others to repeat  this blunder.  The varieties which I would recommend are for winter Northern  Spy, Wagener, Spitzenberg, Grimes Golden and Jonathan. These are  all good, of excellent color; they pack and ship well. You have enough  other varieties now to make up a large assortment. I would advise you  not to risk much in Pears; the trees seem to be unhealthy in this locality. Cherries are surprisingly healthy and should be profitable. Morello  sold in coast markets at \2y2c at all seasons. We now ship them in  strawberry crates packed in one-pound baskets. They carry well to  Winnipeg and net $4 per 24-lb. crate. The best varieties are Olivet,  English Morello and Bell Magnifique. The trees do well at 18 to  20 feet apart.  I have advised your manager to do nothing in the way of cultivating the orchard till spring. This is a necessary precaution in order to  keep the trees perfectly dormant during the winter. I would just add  for your information that I expect hay to be scarce and high during  the winter and next spring.  It is now selling at $ 17 at Kelowna.  More  (47) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  than half the crop of the Okanagan is ruined.  Mrs. Cameron informs me that you contemplate bringing out a  number of head of stock. Unless they are of great value they will cost  all they are worth to carry over. Oats will also be high and of inferior  quality. Some 45,000 sacks have been lost on the Delta; all are of bad  color and will probably be musty. All this may assist you in deciding  what you should do in stock importation.  I hope to see you succeed here. The unfortunate place has not been  well handled. Many years ago Lord Aberdeen requested me to advise  him what to do with it. I suggested a butter dairy, swine, fruit and  substitution of Channel Island breeds of cattle for Shorthorns; since  then butter has advanced in price to 30-35c and live hogs to 6-7c, so  you see I was not far wrong in my foreview.  With very best wishes for your success, I am  Yours truly,  THOMAS CUNNINGHAM, Fruit Inspector.  F.T.M.  "Goodly heritage of the Okanagan Valley" is the title of a six-page  article in the Autumn 1960 issue of THE BEAVER, the Hudson  Bay Company's magazine published quarterly in Winnipeg. It deals  with the early history of Vernon, mentioning Cornelius O'Keefe, Luc  Girouard, Captain Shorts, William Scott the stage driver, Lord Aberdeen, Mr. and Mrs. Price Ellison, Mrs. William Brent, Mrs. DeBeck,  W. F. Cameron and others. Illustrations include two views of West  Vernon—one taken by Mr. Venables in 1894 and another taken in  1958—the B.X. coach and team (pre-1892), Vernon's first fire  brigade (1891), Mrs. Price Ellison, the early Jubilee Hospital (1897),  the steamer "Aberdeen", and an early automobile being assisted over a  rough road by a team of horses!  (48) ^William J$<  nam _# larrinaton  Hester E. White  <J~ia  w  nes  On the brow of a hill overlooking Osoyoos Lake, in a little place  set apart, we gathered to say farewell to Will. In the silence a loon  called from across the water, a gentle breeze stirred the scent of the  sage which wafted my thoughts back to childhood days at Osoyoos  where home life meant security and love, the out of doors his play  ground, on a horse freedom, the lake in  summer and winter his pleasure.  My first memory of Will was when  he was a verv little fellow and he came  strutting down the path from the house  to the lake, all dressed up and wearing a  miniature pair of top boots with very  fancy fronts. He came out on to the  plank where I was. Fearing that he  would fall I tried to persuade him to go  back to the shore but he fell into the  lake. Little waves washed over his face,  gurgling into his mouth, which I  thought was funny.  Indian Susap far out on the lake  with Fairfax and Val saw what had  happened, dived out of the boat, swam  and pulled the child out of the water,  held him up by his feet; water poured  out of the boots and his mouth as Susap  turned and ran to the house, where he  revived the child who was then placed  in a warm blanket. Every Christmas  Susap was rewarded with a new outfit  of clothes, boots, shirts, etc., for his saving of Will's life. Minor accidents such as falling out of the hay loft, picking up red hot bits of  metal from the forge where Johnny Pierre was shoeing a horse, getting his fingers crushed in the mangle when helping Matilda, seemed  to be his lot.  Will was to go into the Navy but the sudden untimely death of  his father dashed that hope.  Two years in Victoria were followed by four years at Beaconsfield  College in Plymouth, Devon, England; then back to Osoyoos in 1895.  (49)  W. B. Haynes The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  Rock Creek was next, where he became one of the Cowboys on the  cattle drives to Greenwood, Rossland and the Columbia River under  R. L. Cawston the Cattle King, wearing, his "Billy Cock Hat." The  cattle were made to swim the Columbia herded by Indians in canoes,  and turned over to Blake Wilson, Pat Burns' buyer.  Will could recount many an amusing story of the cattle drives.  One was of noon time on the bank of the Columbia when the cattle  were browsing, horses with bridles off feeding, cowboys lolling, waiting for "bacon, beans and bannock," when up the river came the  river boat. The Captain, on sighting the group, started blowing the  whistle. The cattle stampeded, the cowboys swore to high heaven;  Cawston, waving his billy cock hat tried to stop the whistle, but no!  The Captain kept the whistle going until past the scene. It took some  time to bridle and mount the horses and round up the cattle, and get  them across the river.  On the Sheep Creek Flat lay a dead mule; the cattle could smell  it and would panic, and there it lay all summer with the trails beaten  around it. The story: Two "greenhorn" prospectors leading a mule  sighted something and in a hurry tried to get the rifle out from the  pack on the mule. In the effort the gun went off and shot the "pard-  ner." In panic the other greenhorn turned round and shot the mule,  and then went for help. But one has to hear W^ill tell this story in his  gracious humorous way.  Will was appointed Constable, under the Provincial Police, to  Hedley about 1900, and while there became friendly with Edwards,  Shorty Dunn and Calhoun, Edwards especially as he took part in all  social affairs. The trio left and shortly after the train holdup at Ducks  it was revealed that they were the "Jack Miner Gang."  Jail accommodation was very limited at Hedley at that time, compelling Constable Haynes to tie some of the "inebriates" to a tree over  night and turn them loose in the morning.  On the 19th of April, 1904, Constable Haynes married Mary  Evelyn Hardie in Victoria. They later moved to Osoyoos and then to  Fairview, eventually buying an orchard at Oliver.  Constable Barry Haynes at Prince George is his son. Mrs. Ralph  Macintosh at Nelson is his daughter.  Will was a charming host and a most entertaining guest, always  a gentleman, endowed with a kind philosophy which endeared him to  many; he was a kind father and a good friend.  (50) William Barrington Haynes  We shall all miss Will Haynes.  Note an interesting item re Will Haynes on Page 118 in Okanagan  Historical Society Report No. Fourteen, 1950. Re Nez Perce Indian  Wilpokin.  Will was a very fine rider, loved his horse and enjoyed the friendly  trails of "the Osoyoos" mountain ranges where he gathered cattle for  the "roundups" in May and the cattle drives during the summer for  Rossland.  His first very important ride was from Osoyoos to Hope, one hundred and fifty miles, when only seven years old, on his own horse given  to him by Jack Cornell the Surveyor.  He and Val were a team at "branding time" and at all times when  the handling of cattle was so essential to the running of a cattle ranch.  To become an orchardist was not a fitting role for Will for when  he had beautiful peaches he received 25 cents a box; when his cantaloupes were ripe there was no sale f(5r them, his famous cherries would  be split with the rain just when ready to be picked, or blossoms killed  with late frost.  He was a good shot and enjoyed hunting and many friends from  far and near came for pheasants and ducks under his guidance, his  dog and his _run, for he knew their secret haunts.  Mr. C. R. Walrod, curator of Kelowna museum, Mr. E. W. Van-  Blaricom, and Mr. and Mrs. R. P. Walrod attended the opening on  August 27 of the Historical Museum on the site of Fort Okanogan in  the state of Washington. This museum tells the story of the fur trading days on the route of the Brigade Trail. The H.B. Co. abandoned  the fort in 1860 and moved its supplies into Canada.  Representatives of the Okanogan Historical Committee, the Hudson  Bay Co. and the British Government made preliminary speeches and  Chief Jim James, through an interpreter, delivered an address stressing  the (now) friendly co-operation of Indians and white residents. The  dedicatory address was given by AD. Rosselini, Governor of the state  of Washington.  After a tour of the museum some 4,000 persons attended a barbecue  in Brewster City Park.  (51) <yVlother and Oom—<J\orth   K^Jkanaaan  f/ioneers  Mrs. Frances Selwyn  My grandmother, Frances Coulson, was born at Stourbridge, Worcestershire, in 1845, and married John Blurton, who passed away in  1877. After being widowed she took training as a nurse in two London hospitals and became acquainted with Florence Nightingals, the  "Lady with a Lamp" of Longfellow's poem.  Her son (and my father) Henry Blurton, had been born in 1873  and at the age of sixteen emigrated to Calgary in the (then) Northwest Territories of Canada. There he became ill with rheumatic  fever in 1892. The doctor notified his mother that he was unlikely  to survive, and she immediately sailed for Canada to be at his bedside; only to find, upon her arrival, that the patient had recovered and  left for British Columbia.   She followed.  Grandmother got off the train at Armstrong and was taken to the  hotel at the old settlement of Lansdowne. Henry was surprised to  find her there when he arrived on his twice-a-month visit for mail  and provisions. She remained at the hotel when he walked the nineteen miles back to his camping ground where he lived in a tent. The  neighbours, far and near, came willingly to help him build a cabin  for his mother. Among them were Billy Kelly, Tom Smith, Billy  Black, a man named Jacobs and two women. When it was ready,  Grandmother, who was one of two of the first women in Salmon  Valley (the other being Mrs. Kelly), walked to her new home. It  was about 1 8 feet by 20 feet. The men laid a log floor and then cut  by hand the logs for the walls. These were notched out at the corners  to a good fit. The roof was made of poles laid lengthwise, covered  with overlapping fir boughs with sand on top to hold the heat in. The  whole was roofed with cedar shakes made by cutting a dry cedar tree  into blocks and then splitting these into shakes with a shake-throw.  The walls were chinked with moss found growing on the trees or on  moist rocks.  Grandmother learned how to make bannocks, sourdough bread,  cook deer meat (which was always in plentiful supply), wash clothes  and hang them over the stumps to dry. The Indians passing by on the  trail with their cayuses packing birch-bark baskets loaded with fish or  dried berries were a fearsome sight till she learned they were friendly.  They lived in their wigwams constructed of poles tied together at the  (52) Mother and Son—North Okanagan Pioneers  top. If it were a permanent camp or a winter one they covered these  with deer hides. Every camp had its sweat-bath house—a hole in the  ground. They would heat rocks, throw them into the hole and create  steam by adding water. Then they would climb in and, I believe,  cover the hole.   This was a cure-all.  In the spring of 1893—March—Grandmother married Mr. Dan  Jones, one of her many admirers, and moved to the Mara district. Her  son, Henry Blurton, also moved to the same district and homesteaded  there from 1899. He was a big game hunter and guide for several  years, being in the Lillooet and Chilcotin country as early as 1893.  He married in 1907 and has three daughters.  He was appointed Honorary Game Warden in 1908 and in 1910  was placed on permanent patrol work over a large district extending  south to the U.S. boundary. In 1914 he transferred to Lillooet during P.G.E. construction.   He resigned in 1916.  The Editor recently had an opportunity to peruse a copy of "B.C.  Fruit and Farm Magazine", the property of Mr. A. K. Loyd. It was  No. 2, Vol. 6, published in November, 1914, at 615 Yorkshire Building, Vancouver. (15c).  The Okanagan is represented by three articles—"Embryo Industries  in the Okanagan," "The Fertilisation of Apple Orchards" and "Alfalfa Mill opens at Enderby". There is also an editorial upon "Stimulating the Demand for Apples."  "News from Farmers' Institutes" includes a report of the work of  the Westbank Institute, then engaged in raising money to help the gallant Belgians in their struggle against the invader. A new item states  "Penticton has again added to its laurels, having been awarded first  honors for apples at the Irrigation Congress at Calgary. Kelowna came  second and Spokane third.  Advertisements include a full-page offering of groceries, drugs,  patent medicines and Dutch flowering bulbs by Woodward's Dept.  Stores, Ltd., corner Hastings and Abbott Streets, Vancouver; Layritz  Nurseries of Victoria, (Branch at Kelowna, B.C.) offer strictly first-  class stock of fruit trees, and Alfalfa Products Co. of Enderby asks  readers to "Use Alfalfa Meal." Smith, Davidson and Wright of  Vancouver advertise fruit wrapping paper, and the B.C. Manufacturing Co. of New Westminster "Fruit Packages."  The cover bears a picture of the delegates to a conference of the  Women's Institute of the Okanagan District.  (53) sjoe  C_____-<  asorso  Nigel Pooley  Mr. Joe Casorso, the Okanagan's first native born self made millionaire, died in Kelowna General Hospital in the spring of this year.  Others have come in from outside and made that kind of fortune  but Joe had the distinction of not only being born in Kelowna but of  making his fortune within ten miles of where he was born.  His achievement was remarkable because he had a very limited  education by present day standards and three quarters of his life was  spent when the economic climate of British Columbia and the Okanagan in particular was not favourable to making fortunes.  A previous Okanagan Historical Annual has recorded how John  Casorso, Joe's father, came out  from  Italy in   1880.    After  various  Mr. Joe Casorso, old time rancher in Okanagan, is sitting  on a full wool sack.  vicissitudes he eventually ended up working for the Fathers at Okanagan Mission for fifteen dollars a month. He stayed there for six  years and during this time his wife and three older children joined  him. He then acquired land on Mission Creek near the mission and  started farming. Joe was born at the Mission in 1886 and moved  with his family to the farm two years later.  There were eight sons and one daughter in the family and Joe's  first experience of what hard work and shrewd management can do  in the way of bringing financial success came as a result of the family's venture into growing onions. The missionary had a cow shed  which over the years had accumulated so much manure that scarcely  any animals could any longer get into it. Joe's elder brother Anthony  did most of the work in moving this colossal pile of manure from the  cow sheds to a six acre patch of their father's land about a mile away  (54) Joe Casorso  across the creek. (The cow shed, for the record, stood within a few  yards of where the Kelowna riding club now have their club house.)  The manured land produced such an impressive crop of onions that the  whole family continued with the enterprise over the next few years  with such success that their father became known as the Onion King  of Canada. For many years there hung in the C.P.R. station in Montreal a huge photograph of John Casorso in his buggy surveying a rich  field of sacked onions.  In 1910 Joe strayed briefly from farming into horse racing. A  well known race horse that had been travelling the circuit through the  southern states and California was in Vancouver with its owner. The  owner had recently married a minister's daughter and after the wedding she said to him, "Now either you are married to me or you are  married to that horse—you can't have us both." Joe fortuitously appeared on the scene at about this juncture and picked himself up a  valuable race horse for a nominal sum.  The horse caused a considerable stir among horse racing circles in  the Okanagan but in its first race at Penticton it made a very poor  showing. The star horse of Kelowna was an animal owned by Ike  Chamberlain and the week following the Penticton race a matched  race was arranged between this horse and Joe's for $1,000.00.  Joe's problem was that he had not got $1,000.00 cash to put up  for his side of the bet so he went into the Bank of Montreal at Kelowna  and persuaded the bank manager, Mr. Du Moulin, to loan him that  amount of the bank's money. In after years he sometimes wondered if  he wasn't the first and last man in the history of the Bank of Montreal  to borrow a thousand dollars to bet on a horse.  The horse won the race.  In spite of this early financial success, Joe could see that as a method  of making a fortune, horse racing had too much chance attached to it.  So he sold the horse.  His next venture was in the retail meat business. He tried to persuade his father that the family should set up a family butcher shop  and sell the farm livestock direct to the consumer. Old John Casorso  pointed out that the family knew nothing about the retail business and  would have nothing to do with it. However it so happened that practically all the meat consumed in the Kelowna area came from one  source and it was such inferior meat that all the citizens were complaining. Some three hundred Kelowna citizens promised their patronage if Casorso's would open a butcher shop.  With this kind of backing Casorso senior was persuaded to give  (55) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  his support and early in 1912 Joe again appeared in the office of the  manager of the Bank of Montreal. This time he asked for a loan of  $12,000.00.  After hearing his story, Mr. DuMoulin leaned across the desk and  in a tense voice said: "Joe, have you still got that race horse?"  Joe was able to assure him that he was completely out of race  horses and had no intention of buying any more. The $12,000.00  loan was arranged.  Some of Joe's foresight which became manifest as the years went  by shows up very clearly in this meat retailing enterprise. Instead of  renting a little shop space somewhere on the main street and trying  to get along on a shoestring they built a large two storey building and  included an ice plant in it. The ice plant was not just big enough to  keep the meat cool; it was big enough to keep every ice box in Kelowna  full and supplv all the ice for icing the railway cars that took fruit  out of Kelowna for the next twenty years. Half the top storey of the  building was almost immediately rented out to the provincial government for a court room and temporary jail, an arrangement that lasted  for thirty years. It so happened that there was a Liberal government  in at that time and the Casorsos were very strong Liberals.  When World War I broke out in 1914 the economic life of Kelowna practically came to a standstill. No new settlers came in and  a quarter of the male population of the area joined up to go overseas.  Had it not been for the whole hearted co-operation of the citizens of  Kelowna the Casorso Meat enterprise might have folded. Toward  the middle of the war things picked up. Heavy government buying  raised the price of meat and what with one thing and another by the  end of the war Casorso's meat market was on its feet and well established. The meat was no longer delivered to the customers by Claude  Newby on the back of a pony but in a magnificent two-wheel chariot  driven by Mr. Keevil, which simply flew around town behind a big  fast stepping bay. None of your old delivery vans with four wheels  and a roofed over seat with a driver half asleep on it for Joe; he liked  something fast and practical.  And the store itself, "Casorso's Meat Market." Where could you  find a more attractive place to buy your Christmas turkey?—There  they were, all hung up in a row along one wall with paper frills tied  around their feet and next door to them whole pigs hanging upside  down with paper frills around their necks. And the floor of this fine  shop all covered with inlaid marble so that it could easily be kept clean  and in case that wasn't clean enough it had inches of fine clean saw-  (56: Joe Casorso  dust spread over it every morning and swept out every night. What  a snug and attractive place it was on a snowy winter evening with its  imitation potted palms at the door, its soft sawdust carpet, its warm  lights and gleaming counters and gallant little Joe with the rest behind  the counter, passing out charming affable talk to the Kelowna housewives!  He was a genius at the retail business but it was too slow for him.  He wanted room to make bigger deals on his own, unhampered by  family participation. In the early twenties he turned the management of the Meat Market over to others and went after bigger game.  He first of all had a go at the vegetable business, no doubt with  his mind on the magic that had fallen on the family from onions in  his early youth. Nothing spectacular came of the vegetables and he  bought a sixteen acre apple orchard (for $8,000.00) in Rutland from  C. T. D. Russel. The trees were just coming into full bearing but  the place was run down from inter-cropping vegetables. It appealed  to Joe because it was within about a mile of a whopping big manure  pile on the Simpson ranch. He bought this for a nominal sum and  had it spread four inches deep over the whole sixteen acres of orchard.  The following year the orchard produced 12,000 boxes of apples  and the second year it produced 18,000 boxes and continued to bear  well as long as he had it.  His next venture was to buy the Belgo Land and Orchard Company, a hundred acres of orchard land with a thousand acres or so of  range land and hay. This hay and range land later became his Black  Mountain Cattle and Sheep ranch.  The first year he had it the Belgo Orchard did not produce any  apples at all. He built some corrals in the orchard and wintered 400  head of cattle he had acquired in Calgary at $27.00 a head and the  following fall the apple orchard produced at the rate of 800 boxes to  the acre and continued at this level until he eventually sold it.  His apple operation was unique in that he sold the crop himself.  His method was to load the apples loose in box cars and ship them down  to the prairies. He went along with the fruit and had the cars spotted  at small prairie towns. Joe would get off the train with a box of apples  under his arm and call at the local school and give each child an apple  and tell them to tell their parents that there was a car load of apples  at the siding. Next morning wagons and democrats and Bennett buggies from miles around would be assembled at the track. When Joe  had sold all they could carry away he moved on to the next town.  About 1933 when the fruit growers were able to have the provin-  (57) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  cial government bring in a Marketing Act that gave them control of  the shipment of fruit within the province, there was trouble. The act  was aimed at preventing price cutting by wholesalers and individuals,  such as ]oe. He decided to continue to sell his own fruit in his own  way and the growers decided to stop him. Feeling ran very high at  the time because it appeared that if Joe's first two cars of the season  got away the whole controlled marketing deal for that year and perhaps all time was washed up. Buyers all across Canada and independent shippers throughout the fruit industry were watching the  situation very closely. About five o'clock on a September evening the  two cars were due to move from the Rutland siding. Minutes before  the train began to move about three hundred growers assembled from  miles around and sat on the tracks. Tom Norris motored up to Kamloops and obtained a court injunction from the judge to prevent the  movement of the cars. The injunction was obtained and the cars did  not go out.  Joe carried his battle to the floor of the British Columbia Legislature and lost his case. Looking at the situation in retrospect it would  seem that this was something of a milestone in our economic and  social history. It gave the official stamp of approval to the suppression  of a type of rugged individualism that had in fact built the west. It  marked the end of an era—an era where the romantic, the adventurous and the hardy won fortunes or lost everything unhindered by public opinion. Government protection and the soft hand of legislative  paternalism might suit the rest of the country but Joe would have  nothing to do with it.  He sold all his orchards and got out of the fruit business altogether. The big two storey Belgo House, a pleasantly situated sort of  miniature country mansion among the orchards, looked as though it  might be a white elephant. Fortunately it had a twenty acre pond  at the back door. Joe stocked this pond with some large trout, thus  enhancing the attractiveness of the place by its proximity to excellent  trout fishing.   He sold the house.  Thereafter he concentrated his attention on developing his Black  Mountain cattle ranch and buying land. His wife, who died in 1946,  was a New Zealander. She persuaded him to go in for sheep and  sheep became one of his most profitable enterprises besides being the  one that gave him most enjoyment.  It would take a book to do justice to Joe Casorso. All that can  be added here is that some of the spirit that built the west died when  he died and something colourful that was worthwhile faded with him. <_5£. yfoseph*s yfesu.it <~/rli  ission  lne  OL  in the  K^Jkanagan  D. A. Ross  "In May 1847 I [Father John Nobili, Italian Jesuit Priest]  founded the first residence of St. Joseph among the Okinagans, two  days journey from Thompson's River, and resided there the following year with Father Goetz, given me as a companion . . ." (McGloin,  1953). In a letter written February 1, 1959, W. P. Schoenberg, S.J.,  Archivist at Crosby Library, Gonzaga University, Spokane, Washington, adds the following: ". . . they founded a mission called St. Joseph's  in August, 1846, on the shores of Lake Okanagan . . . The actual  date of mission construction beginnings was April 24, 1847. This  apparently was the priest's residence. Father Anthony Goetz did not  arrive till the last part of 1847 . . ."  My translation of information on the mission building kindly  sent by P. J. Teschitel, archivist of the Society of Jesus in Vatican  City, is as follows: ". . . the house was painted white; at the garden  entrance there was a cedar cross, 40 feet tall. The public path passed  a half mile from the building ... The residence existed only up to  1849, or perhaps only to November 1848. . . . ]it[ was constructed  at the end of Lac Ocanagan, by the Indians of the Grand Chief  Nocolas who wished to cede this very fine property. It was not the  southern end, for the lake facilitated his trips towards Colville: it  took three days to a locality on the Columbia River which was scarcely  a day from Colville. According to another letter the residence was  four or five days from Fort Langlay [sic], and to others, four or  five from Colville. Once Father Nobili noted on his letter the location of his residence—50° 40' latitude and 120° 8' longitude west of  Greenwich."  Archivist Teschitel noted also that "towards the 20th of May  1847, the day before Pentecost, the caravan of this Company [Hudson's Bay Co.] camped ... 3 miles from the Residence. They visited  the Father who was their friend and who left with them the following day, towards the South." The London archivist of the Hudson's  Bay Company in correspondence states that the records most likely to  contain information on this visit unfortunately have not been preserved.  The longitude for the location of the Mission given by Father  Nobili is obviously in error; this is substantiated by the Indians of the  Head of the Lake Reserve, for some of the older members of the band  (59) The Okanagan Historical Society—-1960  know the location of the Mission. The site is near Powers' house on  Bradley Creek. A tiny cemetery associated with the Mission is clearly  discernible, but there is no vestige of the building.   Pierre Louis, ex  Cross shows location of St. Joseph's Mission, 1846-48.  chief of the Okanagans, relates that the "blackrobes" brought a cow  with calf to the Mission;  it was increased to a "herd" in time.   The  (60) St. Joseph's Jesuit Mission in the Okanagan  priests had a presentable garden where the Indians state the first potatoes and beans in the Okanagan were grown.  Much against Father Nobili's wish, he was recalled from New  Caledonia and St. Joseph's was abandoned. McGloin (1953) quotes  the priest as follows, "Then I will not say for what motive, I was  with deep sorrow snatched away from my dear Indians, in the midst  of whom I had hoped to die, and called South to the residence of the  Flatheads." The Indians today believe that the Blackrobe may have  left because he had an incurable disease. It seems most likely that the  Jesuits withdrew because thev were temporarily unable to adequately  staff the Mission.  In 1851 Father Nobili founded California's Santa Clara College  where he died in 1856 at the age of 44.  Reference: McGloin, J. B. 1953. John Nobili, S.F. founder of California's Santa Clara College: the New Caledonia years, 1845-  184S.   B.C. Historical Quarterly 17:215-222.  Another link with Vernon's earlier years was severed on Thursday, January 21, with the death of Charles William Little of 2105  34th Street.  Mr. Little was born in London, England, on February 26, 1876.  He enlisted on the British Army at an early age and was a veteran of  the Boer War, serving with the 13th Hussars. Following his army  service he came to Canada in 1903.  In 1905 he married Sarah Hatton who had recently come out  from England to live in Chicago. Thev came to Vernon in that year  and first settled at Okanagan Landing, where Mr. Little worked at  his trade as a blacksmith at the CPR shipyards. He did much of the  ironwork on the old sternwheeler "Okanagan," and other boats there  and on the Arrow Lakes.  Leaving the CPR, Mr. Little, with his wife, took up residence  in Vernon where he was later employed at the Vernon Power House  as an attendant on the diesel electric plant.  In later life Mr. Little worked for many years at the Vernon  Fruit Union. Following the outbreak of World War II, he was  employed in the Salvation Army canteen at the Vernon Army Camp,  where he worked until his retirement. J-ohn    /ford <£j  urne  Mary E. Woods  My father, John Ford, or as he was popularly known to his Kelowna friends "John Fat" Burne, was borne in Aldermaston, Berkshire, England, in 1867, where his father was rector of the Church  of England.    At the tender age of nine, having rashly set fire to a  John Ford Burne  parishioner's haystack, he was sent off to a boarding school.   Later he  .went on to Haileybury where he finished his education.  When it was time to choose a profession Medicine was my father's  (62) John Ford Burne  choice, but as his uncle was a well known solicitor in Bath, his parents  decided young John should follow the same profession, and on graduation go into partnership with his uncle. However a few months of this  proved that uncle and nephew were not temperamentally suited.  The spirit of emigration was strong in England at that time so  John joined the large number of young men emigrating to Canada.  His idea was to be a farmer. Why, his parents and family could not  imagine, and after three months on a wheat farm in Manitoba, neither  could he, so he travelled west to Pincher Creek, Alberta, where he  practised law for a few years. From there on to Ymir, near Nelson,  B.C., in 1899.  While in Pincher Creek he met and became engaged to Adelaide  E. Whitney of Toronto. Miss Whitney, with her mother, had gone  to Fort McLeod to live near her sister, Mrs. Jack Cowdray, whose  husband had opened and was operating the first private bank there.  At that time there was a large detachment of the Northwest Mounted  Police stationed in Fort McLeod and banking proved to be a profitable business.  In 1899 my father and mother were married in Nelson, B.C.,  and for five years lived at Ymir, which was a mining town. However  the lake fell through into the mine and the mine was forced to close  down. Also' at Ymir at that time was Dr. Keller, father of General  Rodney Keller. Dr. Keller moved to Kelowna and immediately wrote  to "J. F." to bring his family, consisting at that time of his wife,  mother-in-law, son Holland, and two daughters, Amy and Mary, to  "God's Country."  So in 1903 the Burne family arrived in Kelowna, and my father  became the first solicitor to practise there, followed within the week  by another old timer, R. B. Kerr (who always looked as if he wore  corsets).  Kelowna was incorporated as a City Municipality in 1905 and  my father was the first Police Magistrate. Then in 1907 he was made  first Judge of the local Small Debts Court.  Irrigation was a "hot" subject in those days and many times in  our living room we children overheard loud disputes, with my father  trying to bring the feuding parties together "out of court."  Another memory of those days was the enormous piles of presents  given to us at Chinese New Year. Lovely little Chinese slippers for  my mother, who took size 8. Slippers also for my father who, for a  man, had  small  feet and  who until his death  always  wore  Chinese  (63) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  slippers for his house shoes. Other goodies were lichee nuts, a special  Chinese nut-toffee candy and many beautiful silks. The Chinese  respected my father greatly for his complete impartiality, and his  unfailing friendly attitude towards them. He had many good friends  among them until his death.  On first arriving in Kelowna my parents took up residence in what  later became the "Overwaitea Block" where Ethel, the last of the  family, was born. In 1 905 they moved into their own home, a large  red house on Burne Ave., which at that time seemed practically in the  country. In the spring the mud was appalling and we considered ourselves \ery up to date when wooden sidewalks were put in. There  they lived till after my father's death Dec. 13, 1938. This house is  still there with its red paint and is now run as a boarding house.  My father's first office was a very small building next the old  Royal Hotel and overlooking the Kelowna Park. As his business grew  he found he could no longer carry the position of Police Magistrate  as well, so in 1910 he resigned and Dr. B. F. Boyce succeeded him.  When Anthony Temple, another lawyer, arrived in Kelowna my  father set up a partnership with him, which continued till the latter's  death overseas in the 1914-18 war. When the McTavish and Whillis  block was built Burne and Temple moved in upstairs to much more  spacious quarters. In 1917 my father and Mr. E. C. Weddell went  into partnership together and that continued till 1929 when my father  again became Stipendiary Magistrate succeeding Mr. E. Weddell.  My father joined up with the army in 1916 but never saw active  service during the war. He was with the home forces guarding prisoners in the Internment Camp in Vernon. An amusing story is told of  him at this time. He was at Work Point Barracks in Victoria on an  Officers' Training Course. One day when on parade, which was in  charge of Sgt. Major Youngman, my father was giving orders to his  company, when Youngman with a louder roar than usual said "My  God!   Such a small voice from such a large man."  My father was intensely interested in all forms of public life and  in people generally. He rarely missed going to town on a Saturday  evening (when the stores stayed open till 9 p.m.) just to mix with  people and learn what was taking place. There were few organizations in Kelowna with which he wasn't associated in one form or  another, but his chief loves were the Kelowna Aquatic Association  and the Masonic Order.  He first joined the United Grand Lod_re of England when a Law  (64] John Ford Burne  Student in London: became a charter member of the Lodge at Pincher  Creek, Alberta; organized and became a charter member of the  Ymir Lodge where he was the Master for its first two years. He was  a charter member of St. George's Lodge, Kelowna, in 1905, being  Master in 1907, and later District Deputy Grand Master for the  Okanagan.  From the commencement of the Kelowna Aquatic Association he  was a keenly interested member and was on the Directorate from 1916  to 1929, being President in 1916, 21 and 22. The regatta was always  the highlight of the Association's summer activity, and was a gala day  in the Burne family with the whole family participating in one form  or another.  There are many trophies around our house owing to my father's  prowess in diving, plunging and swimming the breaststroke, but he  could never compete when the crawl stroke became the vogue. There  were many young boys of Kelowna who owed some of their diving  perfection to my father's coaching. Harry Andison of the Dominion  Entomological Service, told me he learned to dive with my father  before he could even swim. He would dive and my father would  pull him out of the water to try again. It was a disappointment to  "J. F." that none of his own family ever excelled at the art. As my  father was a very fat man and fond of the good things of life, the  summer was a time of tremendous preparation for the Regatta, with  dieting and much exercise. He found it easier to do physical jerks in  company so we four children were recruited to join the "keep fit class"  which has stood us in good stead ever since.  The Kelowna Club was another of my father's enthusiasms. There  he enjoyed many congenial hours with his friends and was President  in 1910 and 11.'  In politics "J. F." was an ardent Conservative and always found  time to work for "the cause." He had complete loyalty to the Party,  even when not in accord with some of the members. At one time he  was asked to run as member for the Federal House but felt he was not  sufficiently aggressive to do justice to his constituency. He said, however, if the party could persuade Grote Stirling to run he would back  him to the hilt. The South Okanagan thus obtained one of its best representatives and my father was happy in the supporting role. He was  never ambitious in a worldly way but was a tower of strength for his  integrity in public and private life.  In the early days there was great enthusiasm for putting on shows  (65) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  to raise money for many good causes and "J. F." was much in demand  as a skirt dancer. The costume for this was an extremely full skirt  with sticks sewn in, which the dancer used for twirling and whirling,  much as Sally Rand used her ostrich feathers. During one performance  of the dance my father tripped over his skirt and fell flat facing the  audience. To cover his embarrassment he stuck out his tongue at them,  pulled a few faces and leaped up to continue the dance, and was loudly  applauded for the novel act.  When cars found their way into Kelowna we became the owners  of a large Cadillac, which later was bought by the City Fire Department on account of its excellent engine. It was in use in that capacity  for many years.  My father had a few personal idiosyncrasies which made him very  much of a character. As a young man in London he was fond of taking  Turkish baths. There being no such things in Kelowna he substituted  by soaking in a boiling hot bath for a couple of hours with two large  scotch and sodas and an assortment of evil smelling pipes. Meanwhile  the family stoked the kitchen range violently to keep the boiler hot.  His broad brimmed Stetson hat formed a part of him. With this  hat, his large torso, small legs and feet and invariably a pipe in his  mouth he made an ideal subject for the caricaturist. On the other  hand, when travelling his friends could always spot him. Even when  visiting back in England in 1913 he wore his Stetson and when going  through a small village was stopped and asked where and when his  circus was being held.  As a rule his clothes were of the best quality but another favourite  article of attire was a mackinaw coat, which he even took to' Honolulu.  My mother tells a story of when they were in Honolulu and were  going one day to a very swank resort in the hills. To her mortification Dad insisted on wearing his Stetson and his mackinaw, so> they  set off scarcely speaking to each other. On arrival however, to her  surprise, they were showered with special attention. Dad chuckled  over this, and they discovered later the resort operators thought he was  a wealthy if eccentric cattle rancher.  :66\ <Jhe  ^-contribution or the £L*ngineer  Rt. Rev. A. H. Sovereign, M.A., D.D., F.R.G.S.    .  That truly great and noble soul, Lord Tweedsmuir, who left us  all too soon, in speaking at a session of the Engineering Institute of  Canada, said—"Your profession has always been the foundation of  every civilized society. You provide the physical basis which makes  government possible. Your profession must always be a matter of  expansion and pioneering, and therefore a living profession. You have  already great achievements to your credit; your trans-continental railways and your harnessing of water-power are among the miracles of  applied science. But the conquest of wild nature in Canada has only  begun.   The engineer is the empire-builder."  I wish to pay tribute to three great engineers in British Columbia  and to one in particular. The terms of Union in Canada included the  stipulation that a railroad should link the Atlantic and the Pacific.  Sir Sanford Fleming was placed in charge of the surveys and three  men, Messrs: John Trutch, Marcus Smith and H. J. Cambie, served  under him. The son of Marcus Smith, Mr. A. G. Smith, was treasurer of my church (St. Mark's) in Vancouver, and Mr. H. J. Cambie  was at the C.P.R. station when I first arrived in Vancouver on June  1st, 1906, to give me a western welcome.  Through the kindness of Mr. Gilbert Tassie, C.E., of Vernon,  I have before me a copy of the engineering reports of Sir Sanford  Fleming's engineers and explorers in their journeys from 1871 to  1876. I would mention that the hazardous character of their undertakings is amply but sadly manifested in the deaths of thirty-four men  in the discharge of duty during that time.  Here is a verbatim copy of the survey through the interior of B.C.,  as recorded by Marcus Smith, and I believe that this is the first engineering journey into the Okanagan through its western gates. It is  certainly worthy of a permanent place in our valuable records.  Examination of Passes Through the Cascade Mountains  From the River Fraser to the Similkameen  I (Marcus Smith) left Victoria on the 26th June, 1874, on a  journey through the districts in the southern part of the Province; at  Fort Hope I met Messrs. Trutch and Cambie, and received their  report of an examination of the Passes through the Cascade Mountains, between the Rivers Fraser and Similkameen.  They commenced at Fort Hope and followed up to the Nicolaume  (67) Valley, by the old waggon road, to Summit Lake, 12 miles; rising in  that distance 2,024 feet, or 169^/2 feet per mile. Thence they  descended by the Sumallow Valley to the River Skagit 10^4 miles,  falling about 24 feet per mile. The height of the last point is 1,900  feet above sea level.  They then followed up the main stream of the Skagit seven miles,  rising 90 feet per mile; thence up a tributary of that river to the  summit of Allison's Pass, 13 miles, rising 144 feet per mile. The  summit of the pass is 4,400 feet above sea level. A few hundred feet  beyond this, they struck the south branch of the River Similkameen  which flows on a south-easterly course. This line was considered impracticable for a railway; the party accordingly returned to the Coquihalla Valley and carefully examined all the principal streams flowing  into it on the east side, with the view of finding a way to the head  waters of the Tulameen—sometimes called the north branch of the  Similkameen—but without success. All the valleys in that direction  headed into high mountains, covered with deep snow; this was in the  last week of June. The main valley of the Coquihalla was then examined to see if it were practicable to get a uniform gradient throughout  from the Summit Lake to the River Fraser, and so avoid the worst  gradients in the survey of 1872. It is probable that this can be done,  giving a gradient of 100 feet per mile for 35 miles, but it would be  at the cost of excessively heavy works, including a great length of  tunnelling and massive snow-sheds, as a protection from the avalanches  of snow which roll down the steep sides of the valley, bringing with  them quantities of timber and loose rocks. But the pass is so rugged  that the magnitude of the works in the construction of a railway  through it can only be determined by a careful instrumental survey,  which it was not expedient to make at the time. Therefore, I instructed  Mr. Trutch to form a Division (V) and make an instrumental survey  from Fort Hope to Burrard Inlet, crossing the Fraser at the most  favourable place.  Journey from Fort Hope to the Valleys of the Similkameen,  Okanagan, and Others in the Southern Part of the Province  I (Marcus Smith) had a small pack train sent to me at Fort Hope,  and with this I commenced my journey on the 29th of June 1874.  Following the waggon road by the Nicolaume and Sumallow Valleys  to the River Skagit, I took the Grant Trail up the valley of the latter,  the slopes of which are in many places steep and rocky, to the summit  of the mountain, which the aneroid indicated to be 5,600 feet above  (68) The Contribution of the Engineer  sea level. There were still some patches of snow on the trail as we  crossed the brow of the mountain, but as we began to descend the  eastern slope, the ground was covered with wild flowers and thence  the descent was easy. After a pleasant ride down the Whipsaw Valley  we arrived on the evening of the 1st July at the Nine Mile Creek;  so called from its being the distance from Princeton at the confluence  of the two branches of the Similkameen. Here we had entered on the  bunch-grass country, and the slopes of the mountains, gently undulating and dotted with clumps of firs, presented the most charming landscape. As far as the eye could reach it looked like one immense deer  park. j  The valley of the south branch of the Similkameen as it issues  from the mountains, is narrow and tortuous, so that even if the Allison  Pass had been practicable there would have been a considerable quantity of heavy work in constructing the railway on the east side of the  mountains.  Princeton is now simply the ranche or farm of Messrs. Allison &  Hays, large stockraisers, but it was once laid out for a town when gold  was found on the tributaries of the Similkameen. I proceeded down  the Similkameen to near the boundary line; thence eastward by a pass  through the hills to Ossoyas Lake in the Okanagan Valley. The  Similkameen Valley is narrow and bounded by high hills, principally  of trap rock, bare in places; but wherever there is soil it produces a  luxuriant growth of bunch-grass. The valley is, in some places, a  mere canyon, in others it widens out from a few hundred yards to one  or two miles, in which there are flats on both sides of the river fit for  agriculture, but most of them would require irrigation. The river is  a clear rapid stream varying from 100 to 200 feet wide. Altitude at  Princeton 2,300 feet. About twenty miles below Princeton there is  an Indian reservation comprising several hundreds of acres, fenced  in, some of which is cultivated with potatoes and other vegetables; the  greater portion of it does not require irrigation.  Around Kereness, some forty miles below Princeton, lately a Hudson's Bay Company's Post, there is some fine grazing land; and just  below it a low wet flat several miles in length, and one to three miles  in breadth, some of which is occupied by white settlers. There is an  Indian village or camp at Kereness. Crossing the heights to Ossoyas  Lake there is fine bunch-grass. On the margin of the lake near the  boundary line, is the farm of Mr. Haynes, who is said to have over a  thousand head of horses and about two thousand head of cattle.   The  (69) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  valley here is one to three miles wide, including the benches at the  foot of the hills, but there is not much agricultural -land, as the benches  are arid, nor is there water near for irrigating them; there is, however,  rich grazing land even to the tops of the hills.  We arrived here on the 4th of July, rode up the trail on the west  side of the lake and river about ten miles, to a lateral stream called  Tea River, where we camped. The weather was very hot and the  mosquitoes ferocious and irrepressible. Altitude 1,500 feet above sea  level. Between Okanagan Lake and this point, the river, 100 to 150  feet wide and rather deep, flows through and connects a chain of small  lakes, nearly clue north and south; but the sides of the valley are very  irregular, rocky bluffs sometimes abutting on the water. The trail  leaves the main valley and traverses a series of parallel valleys and  basins all covered with the richest bunch-grass, till nearing the foot  of Okanagan Lake it re-enters the main valley, hugging the steep  sides of high sandy bluffs. Towards the end of our day's journey, we  reached the foot of the Lake, where, on the west side of the river,  there is an extensive low flat covered with willows and alders, which  I understand is an Indian reservation; on this there are a number of  neat substantial log houses. Here we crossed the river by a bridge lately  erected, and soon after passed the residence of Mr. Ellis, an extensive  stock raiser. This is the only white settlement we had seen since leaving the boundary line of Ossoyas Lake. About three miles further  on, we camped by a spring half a mile from the lake.  The slopes of the hills abut on Lake Okanagan in many rocky  bluffs, and the trail following the eastern shore was reported so rough  and miry that we took the trail leading over the mountain, which at  the summit is nearly 3,000 feet above the lake, and we found it a hard  day's travel of 30 miles to the Mission Valley where we camped not  far from the Roman Catholic Mission; most of the Indians were away  hunting or fishing, but Father Grandidier told us those under his charge  numbered about 400 souls. This is a very fine valley; the bottom, a  low flat of excellent agricultural land, extends four or five miles along  the Okanagan Lake, and is partially cultivated by white settlers for  several miles up; we saw excellent crops of wheat, oats, potatoes, etc.  Altitude of lake by aneroid, 1,120 feet above the sea level. The trail  follows up the valley, which takes a north-easterly direction for a few  miles; then it takes a course nearly due north and parallel to the Okanagan Lake. A chain of lakes extends through this valley, the largest of  which is about 17 miles long.    Portions of the bottom lands are fenced  (70) The Contribution of the Engineer  in for agriculture, and the slopes produce the most luxuriant bunch-  grass. There is a divide in the valley, and the outlet of these lakes is at  the north end of the largest of them, where the Coldstream Valley  comes in from the east. About four miles up the latter is the ranch of  Mr. Charles Vernon, which comprises a large extent of fine agricultural  and grazing land, partially timbered and a considerable portion of it  under cultivation; the adjoining hills are covered with the richest bunch-  grass.  July 9th—We were now about seventy miles from the foot of  Okanagan Lake, and ten miles from the head of it, which we reached  by a fine open valley of rich grazing land, so smooth that waggons and  buggies have been driven over the natural surface. Here Mr. F. J.  Barnard has a ranche on which a large number of horses are pastured.  From the head of Okanagan Lake there is a waggon road to Kamloops,'  over sixty miles distant, following the Salmon River to Grand Prairie,  thence by a narrow valley to the south branch of the River Thompson,  and down the left bank of the latter to Kamloops. About twenty miles  of this is through timbered lands; the rest being park-like rolling land  similar to that about Kamloops. The road, for miles together, is simply  a track on the natural surface of the ground, and there is no heayv excavation on any part of it. The most remarkable feature on the road is  Grand Prairie; a beautiful low basin among the hills, containing several  thousand acres, a great portion of which is fine agricultural land, on  which there are several settlers. I was informed that the depth of snow  rarely exceeds nine inches, and that 1,700 head of cattle have been  pastured there throughout the winter, and have come out fat in the  spring. There is a low valley running north-eastwards from the head  of Okanagan Lake connecting with Shuswap or Spillemeechene River.  Through this valley there is a chain of ponds and swamps so little above  the level of the lake and river at either end that a canoe has been taken  through from the one to the other. The distance is probably under  twenty miles, and a canal could be cut across at a very moderate cost,  which would form a link of navigation for small steamers which would  be over 300 miles in length, through the most fertile portions of this  district, viz. :—  From Savonna's Ferry on the Thompson River at the foot of Lake  Kamloops, up the latter and the Thompson River to Kamloops, from  which there would be a branch up the North Thompson to Clearwater,  75 miles. From Kamloops up the south branch of the Thompson, on  which there are many fine farms, to Lake Shuswap. Traversing the  latter to any point desired, we could then pass up the Spillemeechene  (71) The Okanagan Historical Society—^1960  River and through the canal to Lake Okanagan, thence to any point on  the same and down its outlet, as far as navigable, towards Ossoyas Lake.  With this, the rich district of Nicola Valley could be connected, at small  cost, by a good waggon road to Kamloops, there being already an excellent trail through a fine open bunch-grass country from the Nicola  Valley to the Similkameen; thus traversing and connecting some of the  fairest portions of British Columbia; those, too, which comprise the  grazing district par excellence.  NOTE:   Original  spellings  retained.  THE   BRITISH   COLUMBIA   HISTORICAL  ASSOCIATION  sZ/Qvinual <yVleeting   1961  The Prince Charles Motor Inn, Penticton  Mav 21,22 and 23  PROGRAM  Sunday, May 21:  2:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m. — Registration.  8:00 p.m. — 1. Okanagan History: Right Rev. A. H. Sovereign, D.D.  2. "Barkerville Historic Park": C. P. Lyons.  Sunday, May 22:  9:30 a.m. - 10:30 a.m. — 1. Reports on Branch Activities.  2. Report on Local History Groups in Canada: Dr. Margaret Ormsby.  10:30 a.m. - 12:30 p.m. — Church: or trip to the Dominion Radio Astro-  physical Observatory or Sightseeing.  1:00 p.m — Luncheon.  2:00 p.m. - 4:30 p.m. — 1   Cariboo History:  Alvin Johnson.  2. The Pattullo Regime, Neil Sutherland.  7:00 p.m. — Annual Dinner and President's Address.  Monday, May 23:  9:30 a.m. — Annual Business  Meeting,  followed  immediately  by  meetings of the outgoing and incoming Councils.  (72) ^Jkanagan     h^eaps     r^ich  <J~Larvest  -from    patriotic   d*Jeed oj  <_y Voted   C__Canadian  It is not given to every  man, whose fortune it is to  participate in a great historic  event, to also make a complete record of his experiences, gained first hand in  the performance of an exciting duty. But Jack Kermode did this while serving  as a trooper in the Lord  Strathcona's Horse, during  the South African war.  Jack was a man of happy-  temperament, a good mixer,  a keen soldier and he was  never without a wide circle  of loyal friends. Born in  Liverpool, England, May  11, 1870, he came to  Canada, a man in his early twenties, spent some time in Brandon,  Manitoba, from where he proceeded to Vernon in 1902, worked for the  late Price Ellison, M.P.P., married Marrion Young at Vernon, B.C., in  1910 and settled down in the very centre of this fruit growing district;  he remained a resident of Vernon till the time of his death, June 6th,  1954, and is survived by his widow.  On March 17th 1900 Jack answered the blare of trumpets when  he signed up with Lord Strathcona's Horse for service in South Africa.  In those far away days events moved rapidly, patriotism rose like an  incoming ocean tide, Lord Strathcona, who was then better known as  Sir Donald Smith throughout Canada, had offered to recruit, arm and  equip, mount and transport to South Africa a complete cavalry regiment.  This generous offer was promptly accepted by the British Government,  and Colonel Sam Steele, R.N.W.M.P. was appointed to command the  unit.  A better choice could not have been made.  The men were recruited in the four western provinces and North  West Territory.    Recruiting began February 5th and ended February  (73)  Jack Kermode The Okanagan Historical Society—19"60  11th, 1900. Embarkation took place at Halifax, March 16th and on  the 17th the S.S. Monterey sailed with 548 all ranks and 600 horses; 50  additional men followed later and 2 were signed on in South Africa.  No other reinforcements were sent out. The troopship arrived at Capetown April 10, 1900. The regiment moved to Natal, saw service in  Zululand; it next entered the Transvaal, where much fighting took  place. From Pretoria it moved north, sweeping a wide area of the  country. For a while the regiment operated out of Bloemfontein;  eventually it was withdrawn to the Cape—weary and war-torn after  nearly two years of incessant fighting.  The regiment suffered the following casualties: killed in action, 12  men; died of wounds or disease, 14; wounded, 24; 4 officers and 44  men were invalided home.  Lord Strathcona's Horse sailed from Capetown, pausing in England  on its way home to Canada. It was feted in London February 13th,  1 902, but Jack Kermode was not among his comrades for these festivities. He had entered hospital at Kroonstad in the Transvaal, suffering  from an African fever; from there he was transferred to hospital in  Bloemfontein and subsequently evacuated by hospital train for Capetown, where he embarked for home, still a sick man but convalescing  and now anxious to settle down and forget the turbulence of warfare.  This impelling desire brought him to Vernon where he entered the  service of the late Price Ellison, M.P.P. Later he took a lighter form  of employment but Vernon remained his home till the time of his death.  The events related here hold a special significance for the Okanagan  because soon after the conclusion of the Boer War (1899-1902) an  effort was made to organize the Okanagan Mounted Rifles at Vernon.  The movement was sponsored by local citizens, some of whom had  served in the South African war. The O.M.R. had a short existence, as  a broad militia reorganization obliterated the O.M.R., to give place to  the formation of the 30th British Columbia Horse. The 30th B.C.H.  achieved a fame of its own as a well trained and disciplined unit; in fact  it can be stated that the espirit de corps was so high that when another  change in name was mooted there were strong undertones of disapproval.  Mobilization for the Great War of 1914-1918 came with a shock.  The military was riot unprepared, telegrams bridged the distance between Vernon and Ottawa, the 30th B.C. Horse volunteered for service  overseas in 1914 and became the nucleus of 2nd C.M.R., with permission to carry the old regimental name on its shoulder flashes—wounded  pride was soothed-—and quickly those two mainstays of every effective  (74) Okanagan Reaps Rich Harvest from Patriotic Deed  regiment, good training and discipline, alerted every man to readiness  for action.  Mobilization proceeded with amazing purpose and despatch, and it  does one good to reflect upon the circumstances which placed this regiment in so favorable a position to meet the national "call to arms". One  should go back to the pioneer-patriotism of Lord Strathcona, to the  successful Canadian effort which he headed back in 1899-1902, an  effort which impinged itself upon the Okanagan regiment after the  fighting in South Africa had ended. Lord Strathcona's Horse became  associated with the 30th B.C.H. and supplied instructors and conducted  army schools within the organization of the local regiment.  Among those who came to instruct was Major A. C. Macdonell,  L.S.H., later to become Maior-General, a practical and brilliant officer  who brought the costly lessons of guerilla warfare, learned by him oir  the South African veldt, to the men of the Okanagan as they assembled  in the armouries at Penticton, Kelowna, Vernon, Armstrong and Kamloops. The name of Major Macdonell, L.S.H., wn'll be revered by all;  who knew him. Subsequently, he served in World War 1 and attained,  the rank of general. When we pay tribute to Lord Strathcona's Horse  we pay tribute to every officer and soldier who wore its uniform, not  the least among them Jack Kermode.  Contributed.  Lord Strathcona was a visitor to Vernon September 6, 1909  See O.H. Report No. 20, p. 94.  Mrs. Agnes Anne Whitaker of Penticton passed away on March  13, 1960, at the age of 81. She was born in Dundee, Scotland, and  came to Penticton from Yorkton, Sask., in the spring of 1905.  She was a director of the Penticton Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society, a charter member of the Women's Institute, a member of the I.O.D.E., and a Worthy Grand Matron of the Order of  the Eastern Star in B.C., and she was active in a number of other  women's and community organizations.  She is survived by three sons, Edwin Blair Smith of Vancouver,  Austin Lamont Smith and Lloyd Grenville Smith of Penticton; four  grandchildren; and three great grandchildren.  (75) <  z  o  o  <  c/_  D  0-  O  (76) LORD STRATHCONA AND MOUNT ROYAL 1820-1914  Canadian statesman and financier, born Forres, Scotland, August  6, 1820, Appointed junior clerk in Hudson's Bay Company 1838,  stationed at Hamilton Inlet, Labrador, for 18 years, for 10 years at  Hudson Bay, rose to become a chief factor. During Riel rebellion 1869  was sent to Fort Garry with wide powers from Canadian government  to quell the rising. In December 1870 went to Manitoba legislative  assembly and in 1871 was appointed Chief Commissioner for the North  West. In 1889 became Governor of H.B. Co. As Donald Smith, he  drove the last spike at Craigellachie of the first Canadian transcontinental railway. In 1896 he was appointed High Commissioner  for Canada in London, was made GCMG in 1897, raised to the peerage  and in 1919 made GCVO.    Died in London January 21,1914.  Encl. Brit.  COLONEL SAMUEL BENFIELD STEELE  Born Purbrook Co., Simcoe Ontario January 5, 1849 Apptd ensign  35th Regt 1866. Qualified Royal MIL School, Toronto, with H.M.  17th Regt.; served during Fenian Raids 1866 and with Col. Wolseley  ,n Red River Expedition," (Medal) 1870. Joined A Bty. RCA 1871.  Sept. 1873 joined RNWMP as troop Sgt.-Major. March to Rocky  Mts, 1874, Inspector 1878, Supt. 1885; Commissioner of Police, Etc.  On construction CPR through Rocky Mts, 1885 commanded Cavalry  and Scouts of Gen. Strange's column in N.W. Rebellion (Despatches  Medal with Clasp) Commanded D Div. RNWMP in an expedition  into Kootenay, B.C. to restore order; Commanded RNWMP post on  summits of White and Chilkoot Passes during Klondyke, 1898; Commanded RNWMP in Yukon, Commanded Lord Strathcona's Horse  throughout S. A. War. Brevet Colonel; Hon Lt. Col., in the army  C.B. (NOS) MVO Medal with three Clasps. Command of S.A.  Constabulary B Div. June 1901-1906. Hon Col. 1907. D.O.C. Mil  Dist No. 13 1907-1909; D.O.C. Mil Dist No. 10, 1909-1910. Since  commanded L.S. Horse (Royal Canadians). Apptd Hon ADC to Gov-  Gen 1909-1915. Commanded 2nd Can Contingent as Major General  1916. G.O.C. Shorncliffe area. Died London January 30, 1919,  KCMG 1917. Mil. Records, Ottawa  SIR ARCHIBALD CAMERON MACDONELL 1864-1941  RMC 1886 to RNWMP 1889 South African War. CMRs Capt.  to Lt. Col., Supt RNWMP 1903, Ld. Strathcona's Horse 1914. OC  7th Cdn. Inf. Brigade (Brig.-Gen.) 1917. OC 1 Cdn. Div., Maj.-  Gen. 1919-1925. Commandant RMC DSO 1901, CMG 1916, CB  1917 and KCB 1919. Retired as Lt.-Gen., died Kingston, Ont., Dec.  23, 1941. Mil. Records, Ottawa  (77) CZsar/u   /fruit <Jndustru of the <Jlelowna  <JDistrcct  J. Percy Clement  When the first white settlers came into that part of the Okanagan  now occupied by the thriving city of Kelowna and surrounding district  in the 1860s and 70s they found it a beautiful and pleasant land. It was  a land of sunshine and blue sky, mirrored in a dozen shining lakes, with  tall pine, fir and poplar trees, singly, or in groups, along the rolling hills.  Several streams from higher levels led into quiet meadows and shady-  woodland, to eventually empty into Okanagan Lake, and an atmosphere  of dreamlike serenity hung over the valley. For many centuries the  valley had lain like a slumbering giant, cradled by the sun-drenched  hills.'  It was near where the present Mission Creek empties into Okanagan  Lake that Father Pandosy, in 1860, established the Mission of the Immaculate Conception, the first white settlement in the valley. Here  he set out the first apple trees to be planted in the Okanagan.  Little did the early settlers dream of the wonderful destiny which  the future had in store for the district. For many years the principal  industry in what was then known as the Mission Valley, was raising  cattle and horses. Large herds found pasture on the sloping hills and  verdant bottoms and many head of sleek and fat cattle were herded over  the trail to the south end of the lake, then along the Dewdney Trail to  Hope and thence by boat down the Fraser River to market. As there  was no wagon road out of the valley, only produce for home consumption was grown.  However, by 1876 a road was built from the Mission to O'Keefe's  near the head of Okanagan Lake and later extended to Kamloops.  Then, when the Canadian Pacific Railway was completed from eastern  Canada, to tidewater at Vancouver in 1887, the Dewdney Trail ceased  to be the outlet for the valley, and herds of cattle were driven to Kamloops and thence by train to the coast. By 1892 the Shuswap and  Okanagan railway line was built from the main line at Sicamous to  Okanagan Landing, and the steamer Aberdeen put on the run from  there to Penticton, at the south end of the lake.  Most of the land in the district consisted of large holdings, running  from many hundreds to several thousand acres. In the years 1891-92  G. G. Mackay, a man of great energy and vision, from Vancouver, saw  the possibility of growing various fruits in the valley.    To this end he  (78) Early Fruit Industry of the Kelowna District  bought several ranches, which he surveyed into lots of twenty to forty  acres. Many of these plots were bought by people who planted them  mostly in apples, pears, plums and cherries. While waiting for their  orchards to reach bearing stage, many of the buyers planted small fruits  and various root crops between the trees. To meet the problem of disposing of these, a co-operative company, the Kelowna Shippers' Union,  was organized by growers in the valley, and a large warehouse and  wharf was built in 1896 on the lake-front, a short distance north of the  west end of Bernard Avenue. With subsequent development of rich  mines in the Kootenays to the east and the Boundary district to the south,  a market was found for produce of the Mission Valley. During the  transition period, the larger land owners still ran large herds of live stock  on extensive ranges, while at the same time devoting considerable acreage to the growing of hay, oats and barley.  This was pretty much the condition which prevailed in the valley  when I arrived in Kelowna on March 30, 1898. However, by this  time several fair sized orchards, set out in the early 1890s, were beginning to bear fruit. Principally among these were those of T. W. Stirling, J. L. Pridham, A. B. Knox, Samuel Ray and James Crozier, all  quite close to town. Several miles farther out in the valley some  orchards of smaller acreage were also coming into production.  The essentials for successful fruit culture are climate, soil and  water. The first two of these existed naturally in the Okanagan and  it was not until large irrigation systems to store and bring water to the  orchards that the last item was supplied.  One of the largest ventures in fruit growing was when over 100  acres, at the Guisachan, a short distance south of Kelowna, belonging to  the Earl of Aberdeen, was planted in apples, pears, plums, cherries and  small fruits in 1892. Unforunately, owing to poor management, all of  these had to be later pulled up and destroyed.  During the summers of 1898 to 1901, along with several other  youths, I worked at picking cherries, plums, apples and pears in the  Pridham and Stirling orchards. The former contained 40 acres, of  which 20 had been planted by George C. Rose in 1892, and was always  referred to as the Rose orchard. The Stirling orchard was 17 acres in  extent and consisted principally of apples, pears and plums. As an indication of the returns from Mr. Stirling's orchard, during six consecutive  years from 1903 to 1908, the value per acre amounted to just under  $500. We pickers were employed by the Kelowna Shippers' Union,  with Harry Chaplin in charge of the crew.   At that time, only men and  (79) The Okanagan Historical Society—A 960  youths worked in the orchards and packing house, no women or girls  being employed.  One day, while we were picking cherries, Mr. Pridham became worried that too many spurs were being pulled with the fruit, with the result, as he thought, there would be a small yield the following year. So  to obviate that, he bought a pair of scissors for each of us to cut the  stems, resulting in a very small quantity of cherries going to the packing  house. When Mr. Huffman, foreman for the Kelowna Shippers'  Union saw what was being done, he hurried out and succeeded in convincing Mr. Pridham that his fears were groundless; so we resumed  picking, as formerly.  Then as now, the heaviest crop in all of the orchards was apples.  At first a great many different varieties were grown, but most of them  were eliminated as they were found to be undesirable, for one reason or  another, and only those found most acceptable for the market, planted  in their places.  Shortly after the early cherries were picked the early apples were  beginning to ripen, so we gave our attention to them. To reach the  various fruits, we worked from wooden ladders, about seven or eight  feet high, as the trees at that time had not reached full maturity.  Ordinary tin pails were used to pick into and these were emptied into  orchard boxes, each with a capacity of about sixty pounds. These were  hauled by horse-drawn wagons to the packing house in town, where the  fruit was packed for shipping.  The packing tables were arranged along the north side of the second  floor of the Kelowna Shippers' Union packing house, next to the  windows These tables were constructed with small bays, where the  shipping boxes were set at an angle, facing the packers, with the apples or  other fruit piled on each side. For some time I was employed in this  department. During that early period there were no automatic sorting-  machines, with conveyor belts, and the selecting of the various sizes of  apples was done by hand. A couple of Chinese were also employed at  this work and a surprising thing was that they had a much better eye for  sizes than any of the whites engaged at the work.  When the boxes of apples were packed, the fruit stood a little above  the upper edges of the boxes, with the result that after one end of the lid  was nailed, it was very difficult to nail the other end. This difficulty  was overcome by a hand operated clamp, devised by my brother Charles,  who was working there at the time, and made by William McQueen, the  local blacksmith.    At first the shipping boxes contained 50 pounds, but  (80) Early Fruit Industry of the Kelowna District  in  1901 their size was reduced to 40 pounds, to correspond with those  used in the United States.  As the packing department was on the second floor of the warehouse, and the packed fruit had to be loaded on the steamer Aberdeen,  for transport to Okanagan Landing, a wooden ramp extended from  this floor to the wharf level. As eight or ten boxes of packed fruit were  loaded on a two-wheeled hand truck it was a somewhat ticklish job to  manoeuvre the load down the ramp. This was managed by lowering the  handles of the truck, and by pressing down on them, the metal legs  served as a brake, until the bottom of the ramp, at wharf level, was  reached, when they were lifted; so the load was balanced, and wheeled  to where it would be loaded on the steamer.  When a carload of apples or mixed fruit was loaded on the steamboat, it was taken to Okanagan Landing, where it was wheleed by hand  trucks into a box car, waiting on the siding. There the boxes were  stacked at both ends of the car, leaving a space of about a foot along  both sides and a larger one of about eight or ten feet in the centre, between the large sliding doors of the car, for ventilation. To prevent  shifting of the packed boxes, during transit to their destination, laths  and two-by-four timbers were used for braces. During the night, following loading, these cars were run to Revelstoke, where blocks of ice  were stacked in compartments at both ends of them, to prevent spoiling  of the fruit.  All of the fruit shipped from Kelowna, prior to 1909, was handled  in this manner. We learn from an item in the Kelowna Courier, of  October 28, of that year, that '"the Aberdeen, on Friday, brought down  the first cars to be used for loading here, this marking an epoch in the  shipping trade in Kelowna. The Aberdeen took four loaded cars north  on Monday and brought eight empties down yesterday (Wednesday),  and she will no doubt be kept busy until the rush of the shipping season  is over."  Early in the year 1901, Stirling and Pitcairn took over the defunct  Kelowna Shippers' Union, but confined the business to the handling of  fruit only. At that time they introduced the system of buying the fruit  on the trees and sending men out to do the picking, with the farmer  hauling the full orchard boxes to the company packing house. It was  in that year that the first straight car of apples was shipped from  Kelowna by this firm.  That same fall, they started a new industry, the evaporating of  primes, in a small wooden structure, a-few yards to the east of the large  (81) The Okanagan Historical Society—A960  building built earlier by the K.S.U. for a cigar factory and offices, now  the Mayfair Apartments. With Will Budden as assistant, I was put  in charge of this work, during the day shift of twelve hours including  Sundays, while R. D. Sullivan, usually called Sully or Bob, attended to  the night work.  In the summer of 1902, I was sent by the company to Vernon, to  look after the loading of the cars at Okanagan Landing. I stayed at the  Coldstream Hotel and on the mornings of Tuesday, Thursday and  Saturday, I went by train to the Landing, to attend to the work, and in  the evening rode back to Vernon. As a rule, only three carloads of fruit  were shipped per week, but I remember one weekend when two carloads  came up on the Afierdeen, which made four for that week.  The first commercial shipment of apples, from Kelowna to the  British market, was made when Stirling and Pitcairn shipped a carload consisting of five hundred boxes to Glasgow, from Montreal, in  November 1903. Arriving at its destination in splendid condition, it  was followed in later years by many such shipments.  The tonnage continued to increase and in a news item appearing in  the Kelowna Clarion of September 15, 1904, we are informed that  during the past week, Stirling and Pitcairn had shipped six carloads of  fruit to prairie points.  Some time shortly after the beginning of the century, Lawson and  Rowcliffe, local general merchants, were buying small lots of various  fruits from the farmers, which they shipped, principally to prairie points.  This branch of their business continued to grow and by 1904, they were  making very substantial shipments.  Another business, the Kelowna Farmers' Exchange, a co-operative  modelled after the former Kelowna Shippers' Union, dealers in fruit  and farm produce, under the management of O. D. Ranks, was started.  We read in the Clarion of November 3, 1 904, that during the month of  October they had shipped more produce than they did in July, August  and September combined. It is also learned that the materials for their  24 x 48 foot warehouse, later built along the south side of the CPR  wharf, had been assembled. When this building was completed, it put  the company in splendid shape to take care of greatly increased business,  during the following years. This co-operative was later succeeded by  the Kelowna Growers' Exchange.  An editorial in the Clarion of December 8, 1904, tells us that during the past summer and fall, the total shipments of fruit from Kelowna  amounted to forty-nine carloads, an increase of about seven carloads over  (82) Early Fruit Industry of the Kelowna District  the previous year. Stirling and Pitcairn were the largest shippers, sending out 300 tons of apples alone. Most of the fruit went to the prairies,  but shipments were made to Great Britain and Australia as well. Both  the Kelowna Farmers' Exchange and Lawson, Rowcliffe & Co. made  substantial shipments at this time.  We read in the Clarion of February 10, 1905 that Thomas Lawson  bought out the interests of George Rowcliffe and W. B. M. Calder,  in the business which continued as Thomas Lawson & Co., Ltd.  Mr. Rowcliffe took over the fruit packing end of the business,  which he continued to operate for many years. In the Clarion of July  20, 1905, he announced that he had formed connections with the best  markets in the North West (prairie provinces) and Kootenays, for the  handling of farm produce and was prepared to pay top market prices  for same.  It is interesting to note the following prices paid to farmers in  September 1905;—Apples lj^c; Pears 2c; Peaches 2^4c; Plums \y2c  per lb.  This pretty well covers the beginning of the fruit industry in the  Kelowna district. It is very doubtful whether anyone at that time envisioned the enormous development which was to take place during the  succeeding sixty years, when several thousand carloads of orchard products would be shipped in a single season.  Some Indian relics have been found on the Niskonlith Reserve,  near Chase. Isaac Willard, of the Niskonlith Indian Band, has taken  into Chase two stone figures, and a large, polished stone, believed to  have been used for cleaning hides.  One stone figure is of a grizzly bear, standing upright. It is about  3 inches tall, in fine workmanship, even displaying the teeth. The second figure is also of a bear.  The stone tool is thought to be made of jade. Similar tools in  smaller sizes, and other relics, have also been found recently.  (83) /fohn and <jVlarie <mVloser—(^ar/u  f/ioneers  Mary Evelyn Bearcroft  Some seventy-five years ago when Mara in the North Okanagan  was still a wilderness just as nature made it, and little changed by man  for there were very few settlers in that area, my father, John Moser,  pre-empted a homestead there.  Mara is situated twelve miles south of Sicamous and was named  after John Andrew Mara, overlander, M.L.A. and M.P.  There was neither road nor railway in those days; the only form of  transportation was by water (row boat) to Sicamous on the north and to  Enderby on the south via the Shuswap river and Mara Lake. The site  my father chose was near the southern tip of Mara Lake and he later  acquired considerable acreage along the east bank of the Shuswap, thus  having both river and lake frontage. All this land he cleared and continued to farm until 1910 when failing health forced him to give up  such arduous work, and while he had retired from farming he continued  to make Mara his home.  Since he and my mother were real pioneers in every sense, a little  early history of their lives and times might be of interest, for seeing  Mara as it is today, in 1960, one would find it hard to picture it as it  was in its early days. Now, Mara is quite a thriving community with a  superb highway passing through, and is on a branch line of the C.P.R.  which serves the Okanagan Valley between Kelowna and Sicamous.  Along the eastern shore of Mara Lake we find innumerable summer  homes and tourist resorts nestled among the trees. In fact, it is practically impossible today to find a few feet of lake frontage available for  purchase. Small wonder, for Mara Lake is so beautiful and provides  excellent fishing. Tourists return each year to holiday on its shores,  from points as far away as the southern United States. A far cry indeed  from that area as my father first saw it!  My father had come from Austria to work in the mines in the eastern United States but soon felt the urge to go west. The Canadian  Pacific Railway had just been completed and he heard rumors that in  the West lay a wonderful country waiting to be settled. He reached  Sicamous by rail and from there went out to look for the spot on which  he wished to settle. The land was dense forest and every foot had to be  cleared before it could be cultivated, but the soil was most fertile, and  (84) John and Marie Moser—Mara Pioneers  hay, vegetables and grain produced abundantly. Cherry, apple and plum  trees also did well.  Before the road was built to the south my father sold farm and  dairy products in Sicamous, transporting it by row boat, and bringing  back the necessary groceries on the return trip—always a two-day trip.  During the high water of 1894, when the lake almost reached the  doorstep, my father decided it was time to build a better house on higher  land out of reach of future flood waters, and this he did. The house  and barns of hand-hewn logs and shakes, although built over sixty years  ago, still stand and are occupied by the present owners of the farm—  the roofs still as straight as when they were put up—which speaks well  for the work of the builder, for he had no such tools as would be used  today.  In William Holiday's book "The Valley of Youth", in which he  wrote at some length about my parents and a "Stay" at their home, he  referred to my father as being "a good example of the experienced  settler, fortunate in having a good wife as helpmate—there were others  not so lucky."  My mother also came from Austria, arriving at Sicamous in 1889  where she and my father were married; then they left for their home  in the clearing via Mara Lake and row boat. One cannot help but wonder what her thoughts must have been during her first weeks in this new  land, so different from the town life she had previously known! At  first she was terrified of the Native Indians who appeared occasionally,  but she overcame that fear when she found they were indeed friendly—  in fact, over the years Chief Joe Nicholas of the Enderby Indian  Reserve often came just to visit and perhaps to buy some home baked  bread. He was a fine character and a real friend: to him my father  was "John" and my mother "Mary."  The sole member of her family from the old country whom  Mother had in Canada was her brother, John Glanzer, a successful  farmer in Armstrong for over forty years until the time of his death  there.  Soon, however, other families began to settle in the vicinity surrounding Mara, but since they were miles apart the visits were infrequent and if the women had not been kept so busy their lives could have  been very lonely. Some of Mara's earliest settlers, but who came after  my father and mother, were Mr. and Mrs. Tom Gray, Mr. and Mrs.  Van Hook, Mr. and Mrs. John Roitner, Mr. and Mrs. Builetto, Dave  Shannon and his sister who later became Mrs. George Little.    Miss  (85) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  Shannon was the first white woman to call on my mother and that  friendship lasted through the years. All these have long since passed  away, indeed of all the settlers who came to Mara even a few years  later than the above-mentioned, my Mother until she passed away on  November 2nd, 1959, at the age of 97, was the sole survivor, the last of  Mara's earliest pioneers.  My mother had a real part in building up the community, cooking  for the surveyors and railroad crews who were then building the line  from Sicamous to Okanagan Landing, nursing the sick and helping  with the farm work. Hardships were numerous, with floods, forest  fires and land slides, but she was never discouraged for long. Years  later, when asked what she would do with her life if she were younger,  she always replied that she would go farming again!  When my parents retired from the farm they built a home next to  where the Mara school house now stands. After my father's death in  1913, my mother continued to' live there alone until 1921 when she  bought a home on the west side, near the post office, store and depot,  thus being able to get her own mail, groceries etc. for she always preferred to be independent.  There in her beautiful hill-side garden she had many lovely shade  trees and a few fruit trees, and many a wedding bouquet and flowers  for funerals came from her garden, in return for which she had the  friendship of the community. Her kindness as a neighbor and untiring  interest in both church and community affairs endeared her to> all who  knew her.  Mr. H. M. Walker of the Enderby Commoner, on his last visit to  my mother wrote this—"As we walked out of the gate down the hill to  the car we heard the kindly voice of that wee little woman and her  'Goodbye' was a requiem of living peace".  My mother was given an "Old Timer's Certificate" by the City of  Vernon Diamond Jubilee Celebration committee in 1952 on which is  written, "This Certificate is to be a lasting memento of the part which  you have played in the development of the Valley".  Will there ever again be settlers with the courage and stamina of  the Okanagan's earliest pioneers?    One wonders!  Surviving John and Marie Moser are three children; Anna, a Judge  of the County Court in Cortez, Colorado; Jack, a retired C.P.R.  locomotive engineer residing in Lethbridge, Alberta; and Mary, residing in Penticton, as well as seven grandchildren and seven great grandchildren. The son and elder daughter, Mary, were the first white boy  and _rirl born in Mara.  (86) \^Jsouoos- /f air view-K^J liver \*-^hronicles  By K. Lacey  Continued from O.H.S. 22  In 1919 the British Columbia government under Premier John  Oliver and his Minister of Lands, Hon. T. D. Pattullo, bought out the  Shatford interests, the Southern Okanagan Land Co. whose lands extended from Vaseux Lake to the International Border and comprised  some 23,000 acres. About 8,000 acres of this land was irrigable, and  was to be served by a gravity irrigation canal stretching from a dam at  the outlet of Vaseux Lake near Mclntyre Bluff to the border, and  crossing the valley where the town of Oliver now stands. The town  was named after John Oliver.  The first sawmill in the district was run by the Provincial Government to supply trestles and forms for the ditch. This was later sold to  the Brophy Bros., who in turn sold to the Fairweather Lumber Company. In 1939 the Oliver Sawmills Ltd. purchased the entire business  and assets of the Fairweather Lumber Co. This has developed into one  of the chief industries of the district.  First choice for a townsite was across the river where the Engineers'  Camp was. In 1920, through the efforts of the Engineers and public  subscription, an Athletic Hail was built which became Oliver's Community Hall. It was officially opened May 2nd, 1921, and still serves  Oliver as such.  In 1921 the Vaseux Lake Dam and Syphon across the river was  formally opened, the syphon being considered one of the outstanding  pieces of engineering work of that time—78 inches in diameter so that  the men would work inside it. There were sixty miles of laterals,  flumes and pumping areas.  The first lot sold in this new project was to D. P. Simpson on March  4th, 1921, followed by F. W. Nesbitt and C. Leighton. George Mabee,  John Burns and Guy P. Bagnall bought the first lots south of town.  These men all bought trees and planted out orchards the same year.  Fhey formed the Oliver Produce Association with H. Earle the first  president and joined with the Oliver Co-operative Association in 1923.  Their first warehouse was built in 1924.  The first store in the district was at the Engineers' Camp across  the river. Later it was moved across to Main Street and became the  S.O. Supply Company with A. J. McPherson in charge. The first  building on Main Street was put up by a Mr. Muggeridge where the  present Government office is and was the land sales office.    The first  (87) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  Post Office was opened May 21, 1921, D. P. Simpson, Postmaster.  The first store on Main Street wras built where White's Pharmacy now  stands by J. K. Anderson. He sold it to Mr. and Mrs. W. B. Griffin  who opened a feed store and later sold groceries also. Anderson and  C. D. Collen built a grocery store across the street next to the Oliver  Hotel. However in a few months Anderson sold his share to Collen  and built another store where the Okanagan Telephone Offices were  and ran a grocery business there for man}- years. In 1921 Harry Fair-  weather was running a hotel in Queensboro, just outside New Westminster. He dismantled it, loaded it on flatcars, every last board and lath,  and shipped it to Oliver. As Penticton was the nearest railroad it would  have to be hauled to Oliver by truck. With the help of three or four  men he reassembled it at Oliver to become the Oliver Hotel. R. W.  Smith, Oliver's pioneer druggist, was the first guest in the hotel and  he had to go in through the window as the doors had not yet been put  in! Mr. Smith opened the drug store in May 1922. In 1926 T. W.  Hall bought the hotel and ran it until he retired in 1948. In 1936 it  was redecorated and modernized in order to become licenced premises.  Other names and places well-known on Main Street in those days  were—Dr. G. W. Kearney, Frank Elliot's Restaurant, Billy Raincock's  butcher shop, Mrs. Hill's Cafe; Lawrence and Ede had the first hardware store and sold it to Victor P'airweather in 1922. There was Jack  Warren's Bakery, Foster's Confectionery where on hot days Dr. Kearney's English setter would take a nickel in his mouth, cross the street,  and wait till someone opened the door; then he would slip in and get  himself an ice cream cone! There was Elmer Johnson's garage next to  J. K. Anderson's, Tait and Fitz-Patrick, real estate, the Canadian Bank  of Commerce, (J. D .Smith, manager), Charlie Jones's butcher shop.  Mr. and Mrs. Pugsley had a cafe. Tom Roe, a carpenter on the ditch,  built and owned the first house on the townsite and afterwards was the  first Liquor Vendor and the first Liquor store was in the north half of  what is now Tuck's Cafe. In the south half R. B. Thompson had a  real estate business and Mrs. Thompson sold stationery, knick knacks  and patent medicines. Dowrn stairs in what was known as "The Grotto",  ice cream was sold.  In 1921 Rev. H. Feir was sent by the Presbyterian Church to establish missions at Okanagan Falls and Oliver. He lived at the Falls until  the Manse was built in Oliver. The first church service and communion was held in Collen's store (still unfinished), then in a temporary-  building that later housed Mr. Feir's cow and afterwards served as  <_-ara_^e and woodshed.  :88) Osoyoos - Fairview - Oliver Chronicles  A survey of fish and game at that time shows that in 1920 there  were more mule deer in the hills than now and more white deer in the  bottoms and along the river. The trumpeter swans were more numerous,  some wintering on Vaseux Lake every winter. Pheasants had been  imported during the first World War and had thrived well and were  quite plentiful. The Burrowing Owls, small Mexican rabbits, Salamanders and Blue Tailed Lizards were often seen and Rattlesnakes, Blue  Racers and Bullsnakes were common sights. There were more Willow  and Blue Grouse too and at that time there were heavy runs of salmon  direct from the Columbia River that included Sockeye, Dog and Spring.  Kokanies (Kickaninnies) were plentiful in the fall.  May 24, 1923 was a Red Letter day in Oliver's past. On that day  the first train arrived in Oliver and was greeted with fitting ceremonies,  and the first May Day Celebrations were held. Alberta Wilson (Mrs.  Henry Phelps) was the first May Queen. Her school mate, Queenie  Peck, performed the crowning. That summer the first cantaloupes  were put on the market and the response was so good that 44 car loads  were put on the market the next season. There were large plantings of  ground crops in the Oliver area at that time between the rows of young  trees, that is—tomatoes, cantaloupes, watermelons, etc.   In August of  1923 Dr. H. H. Heal opened the first Dentist's office. The first  Oliver Golf Club was also formed in that year, and the first members  were A. J. McPherson, R. Simpson, E. W. Mutch, John Marr, H.  Porteous, G. Hill Wilson, and H. Earle.  In March of 1924 a joint meeting of representatives of British  Columbia and Northern Washington towns was held and the Cariboo  Trail Association was formed shortly afterwards.    On September 3,  1924 the Oliver Board of Trade put on a free cantaloupe feed on  Main Street to honor the members of the Union of British Columbia  Municipalities in convention in Penticton at that time. In 1924, Les  Smithers came to Oliver and opened the first gas station next to where  White's Pharmacy is. This building was made of logs from the old  church at Camp McKinney, and were hauled down by Ralph Overton  and his partner.  The last resident police stationed at Fairview was William Lakeland  and he was succeeded by Constable D. A. McDonald in 1923. However, he resided in Fairview for a year before the present police house  was built in 1924, when he moved in there. He was also the first officer  to don the uniform evolved for the British Columbia Provincial Police,  about 1930.    He later became a private detective, and died in North  (89) The Okanagan Historical Society—A 960  Vancouver. He was followed by Constable Meadow, later promoted  to Corporal. He retired and resided in Oliver, and was later appointed  Stipendiary Magistrate at Osoyoos. G. A. McAndrews, later absorbed  into the R.C.M.P., attained the rank of Staff Sergeant, retired and is  now living at Prince George. R. E. Sheill, now retired, is Police Magistrate at Cranbrook. He was in charge at Oliver at the start of World  War II. W. B. Stewart came to Oliver with a lot of seniority, was  transferred to Keremeos where he retired. Later he became Stipendiary  Magistrate there. He retired from that post in 1959 and died shortly  afterwards. Nels Winegarden, still in the war years, transferred to  Powell River, left the force when the R.C.M.P. took over, is now  retired. F. E. Nelson, an exceedingly capable officer, was transferred  to Grand Forks and promoted to Corporal, absorbed by the R.C.M.P.,  promoted to Sergeant and moved to< Trail and then to Cloverdale as  Staff Sergeant. R. J. Jennings was at Oliver when the R.C.M.P. took  over on August 15, 1950. He had a long service with B.C.P.P., went  to Penticton as Corporal with the R.C.M.P. and is Police Magistrate  there now.  Other R. C. M.P. officers at Oliver were Constable A. Baker, now-  Corporal; I. G. Thorsteinson (now Corporal at Ft. St. John);  Corporal M. W. MaGuire, still at Oliver.  April 1938—"Francis Baptiste has again won a Bronze Star at the  Royal Drawing Society Exhibition at London, England. His painting  "Indian Boys In Training" was one of two outstanding pictures which  were taken to Buckingham Palace. The King and Queen thought the  painting very interesting. Last year this boy won a silver star and this  is the second time he has won a bronze award.  Johnnie Stalkia, aged twelve, was also awarded a bronze star for his  duckskin picture of an Indian boy with a group of wild birds and  animals of the Okanagan. Other children of the Inkameep school were  also successful in winning in other sections—all first class—Francis  Baptiste, 18 years, Mary Baptiste, 15 years, Frank Stalkia, 10 years,  Edith Kruger, 8 years, Elizabeth Stalkia, 7 years, Bertha Baptiste, 7  years. (From the Oliver Echo, April 13,  1938).  "Two 1st prizes, a 2nd, and 5 ribbons for excellent work were  awarded to the women of the Inkameep Reserve at the Annual Canadian Handicrafts Guilds Exhibition at Montreal recently.  Mrs. John Baptiste got a first prize for a beaded buckskin dress  which took two years to complete. Mrs. Felix Stalkia won the other  first prize with a silk work picture portraying a young boy painting a  (90) Osoyoos - Fairview - Oliver Chronicles  rock picture as one of his tests of courage. Mrs. A. Atkins awarded her  a second prize with her silk work study of an Indian spearing fish. The  five ribbons were won by Mrs. N. Baptiste, Mrs. J. Baptiste, Mrs. E.  Baptiste, Mrs. J. Kruger and Mrs. E. Stalkia." (From the Oliver  Echo, December 8, 1937).  Mr. Anthony Walsh was teacher at the Inkameep school at that  time and achieved outstanding success with both the children and parents.  The first Scout and Cub troops were organized in Oliver in 1932;  the first Scoutmaster was the late P. C. Coates, followed by Bert Hall,  who in turn was succeeded by J. H. Mitchell who held that position for  many years. The First Cubmaster was Lance Tayler. The girl guides  were organized in 1934-35.  During the 30's activities slowed down because of the hard times.  A lot of road work was done with relief crews and one of the major  tasks done with relief work was the removal of a famous land mark,  the Overhanging Rock at Vaseux Lake. With automobile and truck  traffic increasing very rapidly this corner was becoming hazardous and  high loads were not able to pass underneath.  In 1934 St. Paul's Lutheran Church was built, Rev. A. Krahenbil  in charge. He was the first Lutheran pastor in the South Okanagan,  serving Oliver and six other communities besides, until 1945, when  he was transferred to* Chicago. The call of the Okanagan was too  strong and he returned in 1956.  In 1935 a small boom in mining was noted with the reopening of  the Morning Star at Fairview and the Dividend at Osoyoos. The present  building of the Canadian Bank of Commerce was built that year. The  Home Cash Grocery (Berne Pickering) was offering Ontario cheese  20c per lb., Kellogg's Corn Flakes, 3 pkgs for 25c, pink salmon 1 lc per  tin. The Co-op Exchange was selling Five Roses Flour at $3.15 per  98 lb sack and at the Star Meat Market, fresh salmon was 25c per lb.  Collen's Department store's mid-summer sale offered bathing suits  $1.89—$2.95 ; silk hose 2 pr. for 89c; pastel colored silk dresses $2.79;  men's blue denim overalls, 89c, workshirts 79c, wool socks 19c, and  work shoes $2.69. Fairweather's hardware was selling 1 gal. thermos  jugs $2.25; galvanized wash boilers $1.55; big preserving kettles .98c  and a gasoline camp stove for $7.50. Paving (black-top) from the  Border to Oliver was completed that year.  In 1937 the Oliver-Osoyoos Hospital Society was formed to raise  funds for a much-needed hospital. When sufficient money had been  raised, together with a Government grant, a building was started at  (91) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  Oliver and on November 29, 1942 St. Martin's Hospital, under the  capable supervision of the Sisters of St. Ann, was officially opened. On  November 30th the first patient, Mrs. J. Barnay, gave birth to a son,  Martin Barnay.  On May 16, 1935 an historic event took place in the Oliver-Osoyoos  area. Colonel Pragnall, escorted by five red-coated R. CM.P. officers  representing His Majesty King George VI, came to the Inkameep  Reservation to present to Chief Baptiste George a silver Jubilee Medal.  Mr. Coleman, the Indian Agent, was present, as was Magistrate G. F.  Guernsey of Penticton, who had been for many years with the North  West Mounted Police as that body was originally known, and other  interested persons.  "The old chief, nearing ninety, and his wife, Cecile, were very  proud that day. Baptiste was not an hereditary chief, but Cecile was the  daughter of the previous chief, Gregoir, and at his death in 1907 Baptiste had been appointed chief. He had been a loyal and generous citizen  and during the first World War had been presented with a Union Jack  for his generous subscriptions for Liberty Bonds. He was a good  farmer and cattleman and his reservation was upheld as a model one.  On behalf of the "TYHEE GEORGE" Colonel Pragnall had  come to present the Silver Jubilee Medal to the old Chief. He stood  very straight and tall while the Colonel pinned the medal on and then  saluted him—the only Indian in Canada to receive this medal. Colonel  Pragnall then presented a Jubilee medal to Dr. R. B. White of Penticton, who after graduating from McGill had come to Fairview where  he had ministered to Indian and white alike; the medal was "for long  and faithful service to the state." For many years the Indians had  called him their "white brother"; now with the dual ceremony performed he was a "blood brother" of the Chief.  The Chief then came forward and through his son, Narcisse, who  acted as interpreter, spoke fittingly for the occasion, standing straight  and tall despite his many years, his large black hat in his left hand, gesturing with his right. His kind are s:one, we will never see them more  —truly one of nature's noblemen". (O.H.S. Report No. 21, 1957—  pages 21-22.)  Mr. J. H. Mitchell, the present Magistrate at Oliver was appointed  to that post on October 16, 1930. At that time he was the youngest  magistrate in British Columbia, and this year (1960) will have had 30  years continuous service in the same post, which will also be a record.  In 1928 it was felt there was an urgent need for a district nurse  192) Osoyoos - Fairview - Oliver Chronicles  and through the efforts of the late Grote Stirling, M.P. and Major  Fraser of Okanagan Falls, a nurse was appointed. Miss Martha  Twiddy, a graduate of the Peterborough General Hospital, with a certificate in Public Health nursing and a member of the Victorian Order  of Nurses, volunteered for the appointment. Stationed at Oliver, this  meant travelling north to Okanagan Falls and south to Osoyoos, west  to the almost deserted town of Fairview and east to the Inkameep Indian  Reserve, where at that time there were about 150 Indians living. A car  was supplied her but it meant travelling over roads that were little more  than trails and even the main roads at that time were dusty, full of  chuck holes and washboards. On call 24 hours a day, the nurse's duties  included besides nursing, maternity cases and the Public Health work in  the schools, T.B. and Child Welfare, a rather phenomenal task for a  young woman from the city. Two years later Miss Twiddy was followed by Miss Kitteringham and in turn by Miss Isobel Craig (Mrs.  Tom Nichol), Miss Mahon (Mrs. McFarland, Naramata), Miss Anne  Hall, Miss Lucy Crafter (Mrs. F. W. Hack), Miss Pliska (Mrs.  Fletcher). In 1934 Major Fraser built a small clinic in Oliver in memory of his mother. After using her bedroom for office work and the  clothes closet for baby scales and other equipment this was indeed a red  letter day for these hard working women. Miss Mahon was the nurse  in charge when the clinic was opened. In 1945 the V.O.N, was succeeded by a public health nurse supplied by the Department of Public  Health. '  With the establishment of a church in Oliver by a Presbyterian  minister, Mr. H. Feir, services were held in the school twice monthly.  Mr. Feir's means of transportation was a Model T Ford which he called  his "Presbyterian Jitney". It had hard tires and the washboard roads  of those days did not add to the comfort of the good man and his wife,  who always accompanied him. A portable organ was carried in the  back seat at which Mrs. Feir officiated. There was pioneering in 20's  and the 30's as well as in the 1800's. In 1932 a new school room was  built on what is now Main Street and the church services were held there  until the Community Hall was available. In 1931 the first women's  organization was formed, the W.A. to the United Church, some of  the Protestant churches having united by then. The Pentecostal adherents took over the old school until the erection of their own church,  made possible by the purchase of one of the government tobacco sheds.  Rev. A. Grieve was the first pastor. However the German Baptists  with a small following had the honor of building the first church in  1936—Rev. H. Rumpel, pastor.   They were followed soon after by the  (93) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  Catholics in 1937 who built a hall and church combined, Father A. L.  Mclntyre in charge. Father Cullinan was the first missionary priest  in Osoyoos. Mass was said in the home of Mr. and Mrs. Atherton for  two or three years before. In 1938-39 the United Church was built.  In 1948 the Lutheran Church was built. In 1949 St. Christopher's  Anglican Church was built; previous to that services had been held  in the United church or the Community Hall, whichever was available. The first service was held in the basement January 1, 1950,  and the first service in the new church was a confirmation service, April  16, 1950. Bishop Clark officiating. As St. Christopher is the patron  saint of travellers and as Osoyoos is situated on the crossroads of highways 97 and 3 Bishop Clark in naming the church felt it was fitting to  remember the travellers of our highways thus. About the same time the  Jehovah Witnesses acquired a building for their church.  Continued growth of the district necessitated further school accommodation and in 1932 a one room building was erected, quickly followed by a second, a third and a fourth room, later added to by two rooms  from the abandoned Testalinda school. On May 12, 1951 a 13 room  Elementary School was opened and in 1955 four more class rooms,  Home economics and industrial arts rooms and gymnasium-auditorium  were added with an enrollment in 1957-58 of 522 pupils and an additional 1 1 5 at the Oliver High.  The first building on the new townsite (not yet opened) was the  Osoyoos Co-Operative packing house, erected in 1932 at a cost of  $1,200.00 which has grown to become a structure worth more than a  quarter million dollars. In 1946 the privately-owned McLean and  FitzPatrick house was opened and in 1947 the second co-operative  organization built the Monashee packing house. Both of these houses  have had extensive and costly improvements added to their buildings and  cold storage plants since.  In 1934 a Community Hall approximately 70x90 feet, costing  $5,000.00, to provide a place for sports, recreation and meetings was  built under the supervision of Harvey Boone of Oliver. The funds for  the building were raised by subscriptions, volunteer labor and by dances,  concerts, teas, etc., and over the years has proved that the farsightedness  of the citizens of that time was not too optimistic. It has weathered  many financial storms and reorganizing but it is still one of the most  valuable assets of the Community.  In 1936 a small sawmill was started on the east side of the lake  where numerous motels are now located. N. W. Barnett, who had  been running a mill at Sidley, moved it down there; the next year Jorde  (94) Osoyoos - Fairview - Oliver Chronicles  Bros, of Greenwood took it over; two or three years later they moved it  to Peanut Lake and in 1945 it was purchased by the Osoyoos Sawmills,  Ltd. At that time it had a capacity of from 12,000 - 15,000 B.F. per  day. In 1946 it burned down but was rebuilt and two years later was  moved to a site on the west shore of Osoyoos Lake. In 1950 extensive  improvements, including change over from diesel to electricity, stepped  production up over 100 percent of the capacity of the original plant.  However, another fire, in 1959, together with the increasing scarcity  of available timber, caused the share holders to sell to the Oliver Sawmills Company and the mill is now closed down.  Increasing pressure was being put on the government in 1934 to  open up the new townsite which had been reserved in the original survey  for the Southern Okanagan Lands Project. In 1935 the survey was  started and in 1937 the first lots were put on the market. The first  was bought by Albert English and he was also the first to move on to  the new townsite from the old one. He opened a cafe and confectionery, garage and auto court. Walter Spencer bought the garage shortly  after. George Carlson opened the first general store in 1938 and sold  the same year to K. Samol who joined the Red and White chain. He  also built a 13 room hotel with licenced premises and coffee shop which  was opened that same year. He sold the next year to Nat Bell of Vancouver who in turn sold to Harry Little of Burns Lake and in 1945 he,  Little, sold to J. C. Armstrong. One year later Armstrong sold to  Yesep and Stokes and in 1947 Stokes sold his share back to Armstrong.  In 1950 a new wing was added, giving 28 fully modern rooms and in  195 5 the first cocktail lounge, the Bamboo Room, a new coffee shop  and dining room and air conditioning in the beer parlor gave Osoyoos  one of the most modern and up-to-date hostelries in the Interior. W.  Yusep is now the sole owner. In 1948 the Santos Hotel was opened:  it includes housekeeping rooms.  The Osoyoos Evaporator Company was formed in 1935. H. P.  Mahler was in charge and P. D. Huxley ran the operation successfully  until in 1945 fire destroyed the plant. As the Tree Fruit Board could  not give assurance of sufficient apples to carry on the company did not  rebuild. Also in 1938 A. W. Gilmour of Gilmour Flour Mills, Kamloops, in company with George Hannington, started a small grist mill to  produce whole wheat flour and breakfast cereal. In 1939 they sold  out to Eric Lohlein of Bridesville and it is now known as Lohlein and  Gyles, Flour Feed and Farm Machinery.  Dawson and Plaskett had the first hauling and transfer business  :95) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  with offices on the new townsite before it was opened.  The Osoyoos Mines, in the foothills west of Osoyoos have had an  interesting career. Discovered by Jack and George Bowerman of  Oroville, Washington, in the 1890's, it was worked intermittently for  years. In 1908 Paul Mcdermott and Arthur Madden worked it for  some months and again in 1917 Charlie Antonsone and another man  from Oroville, worked it on a percentage basis for the Frank Syndicate  of New York. Hand-picking it, they averaged $800.00 a carload, but  missed a solid block of rich ore by inches; this was located later by diamond drills. Frank was the father of the boy killed by Leopold and  Loeb in Chicago about 1920 "for a thrill". In 1931 Professor J. O.  Howells of Calgary became interested in the property. A syndicate  was formed of 7 Calgary citizens known as the Northern Syndicate and  included R. B. Bennett, former Premier of Canada, Pat Burns of  Burns Meat Packing Co. and John I. McFarlane of the Canadian  Wheat Board, and in 1933 preliminary operations were commenced.  New machinery was brought in and the West Kootenay Power and  Light Co. ran a power line to the mine in 1936. At the height of operations some 65 men were employed. Extensive diamond drilling was  carried on and a cyanide plant was installed to recover the ore from the  tailings. The first gold brick was shipped in 1938, weighing 283/4 lbs.  Gold being worth $30.00 an ounce at that time, the brick was valued at  $11;000.00. The concentrates were hauled by Dawson and Plaskett  by truck to the Haynes siding, 4 miles south of Oliver, and shipped by  C.P.R. to Tacoma, Wash., to the smelter there. This mine was a big  factor in the early development of Osoyoos. At the height of operation  the payroll there averaged as high as $8,500.00 per month. Many of  the miners purchased orchard land and with the help of their families  raised tomatoes, cantaloupes, melons, etc. between rows of young trees.  After the mine closed most of them stayed with their orchards. Unfortunately the gold-bearing quartz became exhausted and on March 1,  1 940 the mine closed for good. The machinery and buildings were  dismantled and sold.  Constable L. Newington was the first R.C.M.P. officer stationed  at Osoyoos when the first detachment was opened there in 1939; he  was assisted through the war years by Constable Wallace Ireton. Constable Newington was later transferred to Alberta where he rose to the  rank of Staff Sergeant and is now out of the service. Constable M.  Marcus was the first B.C.P.P. at Osoyoos. He succeeded Constable  Newington, was taken over by the R.C.M.P., promoted to Corporal,  transferred to Dawson Creek, promoted to Staff Sergeant and is now  (96) Osoyoos - Fairview - Oliver Chronicles  at Kamloops. Constable Newington was followed by Cpl. Ken Bond,  Cpl. Wm. Wallace, (now Staff Sergeant at Chilliwack,) Constable  Al Quinn from the B.C.P.P., appointed Corporal at Osoyoos; transferred to Grand Forks as Sergeant. The present officer in charge is  Cpl. Zorn from North Vancouver.  In 1940 McNaughton's Canners, Ltd., was formed and operated on  what is now 1 st Avenue until 1944, but as there was no room to expand  there the cannery was moved north of the sawmill and alongside the  railroad. A new company was formed with authorized capital of  $100,000.00 and a 400 percent increase in capacity. However the  plant found itself unable to operate and in 1956 sold out to York Farms  (Canada Packers). They put in considerable improvements, and it was  their only fruit processing plant in Western Canada. Their volume  output was reduced so much because of low-priced American fruit and  tomatoes on the Canadian market that they, too, were forced to suspend  operations. William Hocksteiner and Harvey Ross were the first  butchers in the new townsite. In 1942 Ross decided to go ranching and  Hocksteiner carried on under the name of "Pioneer Meat Market" and  although "Bill" is not with us any more the family still carry on the  business which now also includes an up-to-date locker plant, meat curing  and sausage business.  In 1940 the first Board of Trade was formed, H. C. Dawson,  president, and Victor Samol, secretary-treasurer. Over the years the  Board of Trade has been instrumental in bringing about many improvements and has accomplished numerous developments that have resulted  in the progress and growth of Osoyoos both in the town and rural areas.  Such things as increased fire protection, railway service and the lowering  oi differentia] freight rates, the first policeman, the first doctor, paving  of Main Street and farm roads, trees on Main Street, the International  View Point, electrical power, Christmas Light-up, signs and pamphlets  advertising Osoyoos were all projects the Board of Trade sponsored or  worked for.  To be continued.  (97) Miss Doris Cordy  !98) ^r~  J he  **—*>ordy    J-amilg — ^yVliss <=Ljori  oris  K—^ordg  Mrs. H. C. Whitaker  "No handicraftsman's art can with our art compare;  We potters make our pots for what we potters are."  Charles Cordy came from Suffolk, England, in 1903. He helped  with the survey of orchard lands in the Summerland district. His  wife and three little daughters, Mabel, Doris and Joan, came in 1904.  They made their home in the lower Jones Flat district under what  is still known as Cordy Hill. Later they were to receive visitors  there from all parts of Canada.  A great deal of latent talent was displayed by local people working with the Summerland Art League. Their Log Cabin Studio was  formally opened by Mr. J. W. Jones, M.P.P., in June, 1922. The  clay of the near-by cliffs, with a small amount from Medicine Hat  added, made a "slip" excellent for pottery making.  The gifted Cordy family worked at this skill for many years.  Miniature life-like animals, graceful vases, bowls with Indian design,  and beautifully coloured and glazed articles give pleasure in many  homes here and throughout Canada. There is a display of this unique  and excellent work in the Penticton Museum. It has also been shown  upon request at the Canadian National Exhibition and at a display of  handicrafts in Montreal.  With the passing of Joan, wife of Noel Higgin, last Easter, we  were bereaved of the last member of this talented and hospitable  family.   Summerland is richer for their sojourn there.  (99) (100) ^zMll <Jlallows School,     bfa/e, JlJ. C^_  Mrs. V. E. Bennett  At first glance, this story of All Hallows School may seem out  of place in an Okanagan History, nevertheless the school is a part of  the history of British Columbia; then too, the training received there  by the many mothers and grandmothers, living in the Okanagan, who  attended the school, has contributed largely to the educational and  cultural development of all Valley towns. The school buildings are  no more; before many years have passed there will be no one left  to remember; so, humbly I dedicate this short history to the Sisters  and teachers of All Hallows, and to the happy life we led there.  The story begins as Bishop Sillitoe travelled through the small  towns along the Fraser River, before, and during construction of the  C.P.R. He was much concerned for the welfare of the Indian girls  on the Reserves; no provision had been made by the Government for  training or education which would fit them to cope with the new way  of life brought about by the coming of the White Man. On one of  his trips to England, the Bishop visited the All Hallows Sisterhood  convent at Ditchingham; he was much impressed by the dedicated  lives of the Sisters and the high standard of education provided in  their school.  After his return to British Columbia, still worried over conditions  on the Indian Reserves, he wrote to the Mother Superior of the English convent asking if two or three Sisters could come out West to  establish a school for Indian girls. Consent was immediately given,  the little town of Yale was chosen as a suitable site, and in 1884 two  Sisters, Sister Amy and Sister Alice, arrived there.  The account of the difficult journey is a story in itself and must  wait for a future time. But we can picture their arrival; two women,  used to the peaceful surroundings of their English convent, what they  must have suffered! They had their first glimpse of Yale, the little  village on the banks of the mighty river, rugged mountains towering  all around, the straggling street and shabby wooden buildings, mostly  saloons, for they arrived during the construction of the C.P.R.  They were probably cheered by the sight of the little Church,  built by the Royal Engineers in 1859 and consecrated in 1860. Next  to it the small cottage which was to be their home and a day school  for Indian girls. Quite soon the Sisters realized that, if they had  facilities   for  boarding  the  girls,  they   could   reach   farther   Reserves  (101) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  and make greater progress in training and education. With the completion of the railroad the large house built by Mr. Andrew Onderdonk, contractor, situated about ^4 of a mile west of the town,  became available and was acquired by the Sisters and a number of  native girls taken in as boarders.  A short time later, Bishop Sillitoe again came to the Sisters with  a problem. Parents in isolated areas of his Diocese frequently consulted him regarding the education of their daughters. Would the  Sisters help. The response was, as usual, immediate; two wings were  added to the Onderdonk house, one containing dormitories, schoolrooms, etc., for the Indian girls, and the other a refectory, dormitory,  playroom and bathrooms for the white girls, a cottage at the gates  was adapted as a schoolroom and the stable rebuilt as a Chapel. And  so, in 1890, All Hallows School for girls became a reality. 40-50  girls wrere accommodated; they came from all over B.C., from the  Cariboo, the Kootenays, the coastal towns and even from the Yukon.  The educational standard was of the highest; qualified teachers  prepared pupils for matriculation, for music examinations, art, sewing  and other subjects..  For twenty-five years the school flourished and became famous.  On their Canadian tour, the Duke and Duchess of York (later King  George and Queen Mary) had their train stop at the gates of the  school, their interest due to the fact that their Sandringham home was  near the mother Convent. The Duke and Duchess walked up the  driveway between rows of white and Indian girls, who were singing  the school song and waving branches of maple leaves. They chatted  for a time with the Sisters and signed the guest book before leaving.  After the First War, as the population of the Province increased  and other boarding schools were opened, parents probably thought the  larger centres could offer greater advantages for their children. The  attendance fell off, the Indian Department moved the Indian school  to Lytton, so, finally in 1920, it was with regret decided to close the  school and the Sisters returned to England.  Now all that remains of the buildings is a rubble-filled cellar; the  huge maple tree by the gate and the acacias which lined the fence  are still there. As we drive along the highway we can look down and  still see things as they were. We see the gardens, hear the bell tolling  for Prime and Vespers, the long line of girls in their white veils,  joined by Indian girls in blue with red pinafores and caps wending  (102) All Hallows School, Yale, B.C.  their way to the beautiful Chapel. We remember the platform over  "the brook" where in summer the younger pupils did lessons and  which in winter was flooded for skating. A few yards east were the  playing fields with tennis courts, fruit trees and wonderful big rocks  round which small girls played house.  All that is gone, but to show we still remember, a year or so ago  all "old girls" were contacted and asked to contribute to a memorial  of some kind to the Sisters who sacrificed so much. Contributions  poured in. The committee decided that, there being nothing to mark  where the school had been, it would be best to place a plaque in the  old Church. There being more than enough money a pair of brass  Altar vases were purchased and suitably inscribed.  On June 10th, 1960, about 125 "girls" including 8 of the Indian  pupils, converged on Yale. The village had not seen so much excitement since the gold rush. By bus and by car they came from all parts  of the Province to assemble by the Church of St. John the Divine.  Such a laughing and chattering and cries of "who were you." and  "do you remember:" with perhaps a hint of sadness, for even in happy  memories there is sorrow for days which can never be again. At 2:30  P.IVJ. all chatter was hushed as we entered the Church. Bishop Gower,  the Vicar, and visiting clergy conducted a short but beautiful service  during which the Bishop dedicated the vases and consecrated the plaque  to the memory of  Sister Alice Sister Amy  Sister Althea Sister Agatha  Sister Elizabeth Ann Sister Margaret  Sister Constance Sister Lousia  Sister Mabel Sister Eileen  Sister Elizabeth Margaret  After the service a delicious tea was served in the Community  Hall, more reminiscing and talk and at about 6:00 P.M. many weary  mothers and grandmothers departed for home, secure in the knowledge  that All Hallows School will never be entirely forgotten.  (103) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  Wording of the plaque  "THIS PLAQUE COMMEMORATES THE WORK AND  DEVOTION OF THE SISTERS OF THE COMMUNITY OF  ALL HALLOWS, DITCHINGHAM, ENGLAND, WHO  CAME TO YALE, B.C., AT THE INVITATION OF THE  RIGHT REVEREND A. W. SILLITOE, FIRST BISHOP  OF THE DIOCESE OF NEW WESTMINSTER.  THE SISTERS BEGAN PAROCHIAL MISSION WORK  AMONG THE INDIAN PEOPLE IN 1884; AN INDIAN  MISSION SCHOOL FOR GIRLS IN 1885; AND  ALL HALLOWS CANADIAN SCHOOL IN 1890.  THE SCHOOLS, LOCATED yA OF A MILE WEST OF THIS  CHURCH, WERE CLOSED LATER.  THE SISTERS  RETURNED TO ENGLAND IN 1920."  104) v Catherine and /foseph <sLjunne  Mrs. H. Cochrane  Among the early pioneers of the North Okanagan were Catherine  and Joseph Dunne. Catherine Gannon was born in the County of  Kildare, Ireland, on March 7th, 1853, one of three daughters. Their  mother died while still a young woman and after Catherine had completed her education in a convent she returned home to keep house for  her father. Later she went to London, England, and worked as a  seamstress for three or four years, then returned to Ireland. In the  spring of 1881 she left Ireland to come to Canada to marry Joseph  Dunne, travelling by way of New York in order to visit her father's  brother, where she stayed for several months before travelling to  Yale, B.C., to be married.  Joseph Dunne was born in Kilkenny, Ireland, August 15th, 1846,  the youngest of a family of four sons and a daughter. When quite  a young man he decided to seek his fortune in Australia and accordingly went to Brisbane to work for his brother, Andrew, for several  years. He then decided to go to New Zealand and after a year there  took passage on a sailing ship bound for San Francisco by way of  Cape Horn. After working at different jobs and in different places  for several years he heard of the Canadian Pacific Railway line being  built and he therefore travelled to the Fraser Canyon and obtained a  job with the construction company near Yale.  On September 19th, 1881, at Yale, B.C., he was married to Catherine Gannon, the ceremony being performed by Rev. Father LeJeune.  About two years after their marriage he again decided to move on to  new fields and in 1883 took up a pre-emption at Larkin, B.C. By this  time Catherine and Joseph had two daughters, Mary, born near Yale  in 1882 (Mrs. MacDonald), and Margaret (Mrs. Cochrane), born  at Emory Bar in 1883. Three sons were born to them while living  at Larkin. Of the three, only Fintan survived, the other two dying  in infancy. Another daughter, Catherine (Mrs. LeDuc), was also  born at Larkin.  Joseph Dunne worked away from home a considerable part of  the time, leaving Catherine to look after the farm and their young  children. A band of Indians used to camp near the Dunne farm and  sometimes when her husband was away from home Catherine would  be afraid and take the children and hide in the bush near their home.  Water for the family had to be hauled a considerable distance up a  steep bank and that task was one that the children had to perform as  (105) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  soon as they were old enough to carry pails of water. We can hardly  picture, familiar as we are with all the conveniences of modern living,  the difficulties encountered by the early settlers in their every-day lives  with no running'water, no electricity, and in case of illness no doctor.  When Fintan Dunne was about six years of age he had a severe illness  and was taken to Victoria to Dr. Helmeken for treatment. For  ordinary illnesses there were only the neighbours to call upon for  assistance.  Catherine and Joseph Dunne lived on the home farm for many-  years, followed by their son, Fintan, who farmed the land until a  few years ago when he moved closer to Armstrong.  Catherine Dunne died on 27th December 1924, and Joseph Dunne  on 17th March 1929. They were both buried near the Roman Catholic Church on the O'Keefe property. Of their children only two  daughters survive, Mrs. Margaret Cochrane of Vernon and Mrs.  Catherine LeDuc of Otter Lake Road, near Armstrong.  Front row, left to right: Mrs. Lipsett, first Director of B.C. Women's  Institute. Mr. G. H. Bulyea, first Lieut.-Governor of Alberta, 1905.  (Brother of Mrs. Lipsett). Mrs. Bulyea.  Back row, left to right: Dr. R. C. Lipsett, pioneer of Peachland, Naramata  and Summerland. Brother of Mrs. J. M. Robinson. Mrs. J. M. Robinson. Mr. J. M. Robinson, promoter of Okanagan districts and  Peachland mines.  (106) tz/rnna £L*uphemia <J\,idi  An Appreciation by J. R. Kidston  My mother's life, which covered the period 1866 to 1960, can  be divided into five phases.  The first was as a child and girl brought up in Glasgow and  Stirling, the daughter of Richard Cunliffe, a ship-builder and shipowner, and his wife Euphemia Lang. The second was as a young  married woman in India, where my father was in business as a life  insurance manager. Neither of these phases are of particular interest  for the purpose of this article for the Okanagan Historical Society  Anna E. Kidston  John Kidston  Report, but they are essential to the understanding of the subsequent  phases.  The third phase started with my mother's arrival in Vernon in  1904. She was then of a type not uncommon in the Okanagan in  the first quarter of this century—the wives of Scottish, English and  Irish gentry who had come to the Valley on the assurances of the  Agent-General for British Columbia in London that all a man needed  was enough money to buy his land, plant his orchard and live on for  ten years when  his orchard  would  be producing tremendous  crops  (107) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  and he would be in clover for life. So my mother settled down in  Coldstream in a large'house on Long Lake, having paused long enough  in Vernon to see the house built and for me to be born. Naturally,  her life at that time followed the pattern to which she was accustomed,  and she ran her house complete with cook, nurse and gardener, and  enjoyed life enormously. The house, known as "Miktow", was open  to all and sundry, particularly to the young men from the old country  with no homes who were pressed to make Miktow their headquarters.  I can remember frofn my earliest days the house being alive with  guests, especially on Sundays when open house was kept.  In ten years the orchards were bearing and, as predicted by the  Agent-General, were producing tremendous crops. However, contrary to his predictions, the returns at best no more than met the cost  of production, and the money had by then run out. Also, there was  a war on. This was the beginning of phase four. By now there was  no cook in the kitchen, or gardener in the garden, but although when  she came to Vernon my mother was a complete stranger to kitchen  stove, laundry tub and shovel, she now found herself a better cook  than the cook and more green-thumbed than the gardener. Miktow  continued without apparent change, and certainly with no diminution  of visitors. My mother had by this time adopted the cows as her own,  and was dairy-maid and butter maker as well as cook and housekeeper.  And she continued to enjoy life stupendously.  In 1932 my father died, and I look on this as the beginning of  the final phase, which was to last for twenty-eight years. By this  time my brother had taken over the management of the orchard, but  an orchard in the thirties was almost a liability. So my mother turned  Miktow into a Guest House, and ran it for four years until it was  bought by the late Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Bishop in 1935. For the next  few years until the beginning of the Second War she kept house first  for my brother and then for me, and when war broke out she moved  to Victoria.  Following the end of the war, my mother moved into a small  apartment in Vernon. Here she continued her flair for hospitality by  entertaining her young grandchildren and their friends. For many  years she was a familiar sight trudging along Pleasant Valley Road  to visit friends, or accompanied by numerous small fry, heading for  the gravel pit where she had set up a golf course.  When my mother finally had to admit that she was getting too  old to live alone, she stayed first with my sister in Coldstream, then  with another daughter in Victoria.  (108) Anna E up hernia Kidston  My mother had a happy life. The main reason was that she had  little interest in material things, but was deeply interested in people and  had a host of friends, both old and new, with whom she kept in touch  till the end. The other reason was that she refused to become set  in her ways and was able to see the point of view of each rising generation, and to adapt herself to the changing outlook on life of the  human race over nearly a century. When well on in years she decided  it was time she learned to drive a car, and learn she did—in a sort  of way, and much to the danger of all on the roads, especially when  she and her life-long friend Mrs. W. McGee Armstrong would set  off for Vancouver over the then far from perfect highway. Her  driving career ended, much to the relief of her family, with a collision with a cow, and a firm stand by the family that she was a  menace on the road: "Ridiculous nonsense".  Finally the strain of keeping up with events and people became  too much even for her stout heart, and after a very short illness she  died on 2nd February 1960.  \AJe     Will    riemember    J hem  George Carlile Benmore died in Kelowna on March 1, 1960, at the  age of 87. Coming to the Okanagan from England 58 years ago, he  was active in the fruit industry for many years. His widow and two  sons survive. His name was long associated with the production of Gilbert and Sullivan operas—H.M.S. Pinafore in 1906, The Pirates of  Penzance in the following year, and then Patience. Going to Summer-  land in 1924 he formed the original "Summerland Players" club,  which, with a choral group, still operates. In addition to Pinafore and  The Pirates, this organization performed The Gondoliers and The  Yeoman of the Guard.  He was one of the most enthusiastic workers in the early regattas,  and took part in the rowing competitions. He was made a life member  of Little Theatre when that group was organized in 1949.  Alexander D. Broomfield, who died in Princeton, June 1960, at  the age of 81, came to this province in 1897 to operate a livery stable at  Phoenix, and six years later engaged in freighting at Midway. He also  drove the stage between Greenwood and Camp McKinney. He moved  to Princeton in 1906 and built the hotel there in 1912, operating it till  1945.  He leaves a son in Princeton and a daughter in Savona.  Mr. W. C. Hitchner, in partnership with his brother, entered the  real estate field in Kelowna in 1904.    Five years later the pair estab-  (109) The Okanagan Historical Society—A960  lished a lumber company at what was later to become Westbank. They  later (1929) farmed at High River, Alberta. Mr. Hitchner died in  Phoenix, Arizona, on December 8, 1959 in his 75th year.  A pioneer B.C. merchant died in Shaughnessy Hospital in the  person of William Albert Wagenhauser, formerly of Princeton. As  long ago as 1910 he owned stores in Penticton and Princeton. He  served as president of Princeton Board of Trade and of the Associated  Boards of Trade of the area in the 1930's. He was also president of  the Princeton branch of the Canadian Legion and chairman of the  Blakeburn Relief Fund after the mining disaster. During the Second  World War he was employed by Vancouver Civil Defence.  One of Penticton's oldest pioneers died in hospital in that city at  the age of 92. He was John Perkins Parrott, a resident of the valley for  64 years, for he arrived in Peachland in 1896. He married in Vernon  but moved to Penticton as foreman for Tom Ellis. Later he joined  the municipal water department and was in charge of road and creek  maintenance for 21 years till retirement. His widow, one son and six  daughters survive.  The Kelowna Courier of May 20, 1960, states—"A man who  brought his family from Oregon to Westbank by covered wagon, John  Abbott Bailey, died recently at Vernon in his 95th year.  The old "Goldie" house occupied by the Baileys on their arrival at  Hall's Landing, as Westbank was then known, still stands. Born in  Kansas, December 7, 1865, John Bailey travelled by covered wagon  to Oregon when he was eight. In 1885 he married Emma Jane Pentecost and 10 years later, with their three children, they set out for the  Okanagan, arriving at Hall's Landing early in December, one of the  first half-dozen families in that west-side district. Three children were  born there. Pre-empting land, Mr. Bailey built a home, later known  as the "Faulkner place", and worked as a carpenter and stonemason  around Kelowna. In 1910 he cut the stone for the building of St.  Michael and All Angels' Church at Kelowna. He also installed an  irrigation system at Fintry. The family moved to Winfield in 1904,  and Mr. Bailey later saw service in World War I in France. Returning  home, he lost a leg in a logging accident at South Kelowna, but continued his trade of carpentry, to which he now added shoe-repairing,  living at Falkland, where in 1935 he drew the plans for and supervised  the building of the Community Hall.  Mrs. Bailey pre-deceased in 1944; a son and daughter also predeceased, leaving five sons and three daughters, 39 grandchildren, 100  great-grandchildren and four great-great grandchildren.  (110) We Will Remember Them  Joseph Casorso died in February 19, 1960, aged 75, at Kelowna.  The son of John Casorso, he was born in the original Father Pandosy  Mission, where his father was employed by the priest before he acquired  land of his own. He played a major part in the construction and management of the Casorso Block on Bernard Avenue, built in 1913, and  in 1930 he purchased orchards and other properties to the extent of  about 8,000 acres. He operated an orchard and packinghouse business  until 1934 when he entered the sheep and cattle business. His late  residence in Joe Rich stands on part of his original holdings, much of  which has been subdivided and disposed of. At present his land extends  into the Black Mountain district and Gallagher Flats area, plus additional ranges in the Westbank and Winfield districts.  He leaves seven brothers. His father and mother died in 1921 and  1932 respectively and his sister in 1939. His wife, Ethel, whom he  married in 1934, pre-deceased in 1946.  An old-timer of Vernon passed away on September 12, 1960, in the  person of Mr. Fred Cooper. He was 84 less a few days, having been  born at Hamilton, Ont., on September 26, 1876. He came to Vernon  in 1897 to work for W. T. Shatford in his general store on Barnard  Avenue. In 1904 he bought out Mr. Shatford and built a store next  door for the sale of groceries. This he later sold to T. O'Keefe, but  carried on a grocery business in the old store, retiring in 1951. His wife  pre-deceased in 1957. Three sons and a daughter survive, including  Robert of Vernon.  The death occurred in Armstrong Hospital on August 31 this year  of a pioneer of Sugar Lake, William Jacob Fraser, at the age of 88. His  early years were spent in Iowa, but he arrived in Revelstoke in 1897,  and after a period of trap line and similar work in that area, settled at  Sugar Lake, his home for many years. He built Fraser Lodge at the  upper end of the lake. He was staying at the Okanagan Hotel in Vernon  the night it burned to the ground, and assisted in rousing the sleeping  guests. He sold his property in 1954 and moved to Okanagan Landing,  but made frequent trips to his old haunts at Sugar Lake. Two nieces  survive, both in Vernon.  The Vancouver Province reported on June 9, 1960, that Alan  Muirhead, 64, bachelor and World War I veteran, died in his sleep at  Ewing's Landing, where he first located in 1910.  Old timers of Keremeos will recall George Kirby, who arrived  there in 1898 and built and operated a general store in the Upper Town-  site, and also the Keremeos Hotel when the Great Northern Railway  laid its tracks in the valley.  He moved to the United States in 1917 and  111 The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  died in Spokane, Wash., at the age of 93. Three daughters reside in  Oliver, Osoyoos and Keremoes respectively.  A long and full life ended on May 3, 1960 for Frederick Charles  Warner, a resident of the valley for 69 years, chiefly at Shuswap Falls.  A native of Birmingham, England, he arrived in Vancouver soon after  the great fire. After 55 years of farming he retired to Okanagan  Landing Road. He was 92 at the time of his death. Four daughters  and two sons reside in Vernon.    Another daughter lives at Oyama.  Robert Allison, 89, veteran of the Klondike Gold Rush and a longtime fruit grower of Oyama, passed away on August 1 7. Born in  Ireland, he came to Canada in 1892, working at first near Brandon,  Manitoba. He then came west to Victoria, where he was present at  the funeral of Judge Begbie. Next he proceeded to the Klondike byway of the Stikine River, and carried the mail from Dawson to White-  horse by dog team and by horse sleigh. Later he lived in the Cariboo,  mining around Quesnel and Barkerville. In 1907 he settled on the east  side of Woods Lake, where he planted 30 acres of fruit trees. Six  years later he married Dorothea Coward and established a home in what  was by this time known as Oyama. Kelowna became their home in  1952, when Mr. Allison became incapacitated due to a leg injury and  near-blindness. Mrs. Allison has contributed much to the work of  O.H.S.  Airs. Louis Campbell-Brown, one of Vernon's most revered residents, died at the end of April, 1960 at the age of 97. Authoress, artist,  missionary, and founder of a college in China, Mrs. Campbell-Brown  made her last visit to China in 1939. Born in Scotland, as a young  woman she went to China with her late husband, Rev. Colin Campbell-  Brown, for the Presbyterian Church. They were stationed in a village  near Amoy, where their three children were born. It was there that  Mrs. Campbell-Brown established the Chuar Chow Westminster, which  today graduates more than 1,000 doctors, lawyers, educators, artists and  technicians yearly. The family came to Canada in the year 1911, and  made their home at Amory Ranch, near Oyama.  During the subsequent years, Mrs. Campbell-Brown regularly  walked five miles to attend, and sometimes conduct, United Church  services in Oyama. In China, she had walked three times as far in a  day in the course of her missionary duties, sometimes dodging bullets  fired by Chinese bandits. In 1939, at the age of 75, she returned to  China despite the newer military regime. When she returned, she  wrote a book "China Revisited." A son, Dr. Hugh Campbell-Brown,  of Okanagan Landing survives, also a daughter at Cobble Hill, V.I.  (112) We Will Remember Them  Alwyn Douglas Weddell, son of Kelowna pioneer E. Weddell,  passed away on July 11, 1960 at the age of 65. He had retired three  years earlier from the post of Collector of Customs at Kelowna, a post  he had held since 1913. He served overseas in the First World War  and re-enlisted in the second. At one time prominent in Masonic circles,  he was master of St. George's Lodge of Freemasons in 1939. He leaves  his widow, two sons and a daughter. Mr. E. C. Weddell, Q.C, city  solicitor of Kelowna, is a brother.  Elisha (Lish) R. Bailey, Kelowna postmaster for 24 years, passed  away October 31, 1955, in the Kelowna Hospital.  Mr. Bailey was born in Clarksburg, Ont. in 1890 and came to  Kelowna with his parents at the age of two. After graduating from  high school he joined the staff of the Clarion (predecessor of the  Courier), published by R. H. Spedding. Later he took a position with  the B.C. Printing and Lithographing Company of Vancouver. In 1910  he returned to Kelowna, to work in the post office, where his father,  E. R. Bailey, was postmaster.  In 1915 Mr. Bailey went overseas with the field artillery of the  B.C. Horse. He was wounded five days before the signing of the  armistice on November 11, 1918. Returning to Kelowna he again  entered the postal department, and took the position of postmaster, in  1931, upon the death of his father. He continued in this capacity until  two months prior to his death, when he was sidelined by illness.  Mr. Bailey was past master of St. George's Masonic Lodge, a post  he held in 1926. He was a past district deputy of district 9; past principal of Royal Arch Masons and a member of the Scottish Rite.  Mr. Bailey was president of the Kelowna Gyro Club, in 1934.  Possessed of a cheerful disposition and pleasing personality, he made  many friends during the years.  Besides his wife, Lena, he was survived by one son, Milton, at home;  two daughters, Jean (Mrs. Douglas Moulton), of Kelowna, Frances  (Mrs. Ken Blair), of North Vancouver; four grandchildren, one  brother Mel Bailey, of East Kelowna, and three sisters, Mrs. P. B. Willits, Kelowna; Mrs. G. Monford, of Rutland and Mrs. Retta Crowley of Chilliwack.  Arthur Horace Raymer, son of Kelowna's first mayor, died in  Burnaby General Hospital, on Monday, December 3, 1956.  Mr. Raymer was on a visit to Vancouver, when he suffered a stroke,  and had been in hospital about three weeks prior to his passing.  He was born at Shoal Lake, Man., in 1880, and came to the valley  with his father when he was ten years of age, and later worked with his  (113) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  father, in helping to build a number of public and private buildings in  Kelowna and district.  His wife Edith, pre-deceased him about five years earlier. He is  survived by three sons, Thomas of Prince George, Harry and Arthur of  Kelowna, and one daughter Hilda (Mrs. W. Sinclair Thomson) of  Okanagan Mission, 12 grand-children, two brothers and four sisters.  Philip DuMoulin who was manager of the first bank in Kelowna,  passed away on November 10, 1956 in Kelowna General Hospital, at  the age of 88.  Mr. DuMoulin was one of the most active community-minded  men in the city. He helped form the Kelowna Aquatic Association,  becoming its first vice-president, and he also helped organize the Kelowna Board of Trade, serving as its first president. He was also a charter  member of the Kelowna Club and its first president, and also first president of the Kelowna Hospital Society, serving several years on the  directorate. He was also largely responsible for the formation of the  Boy Scouts Association, in the Kelowna area, and served as its president.  For many years he was on the committee of St. Michael and All Angels'  Church.  Mr. DuMoulin was a sports enthusiast and helped organize the  Kelowna Golf Club, of which he was first president. He was also  president of the football club and the Okanagan lacrosse association,  and a keen supporter of hockey, the latter being, at that time, played  solely on outdoor rinks, usually some distance from the city.  He was born October 31, 1868 in Montreal, the son of the late Rt.  Rev. John Philip DuMoulin, Bishop of Niagara and Mrs. Frances  Mary DuMoulin (nee Brough), and was educated at Trinity College  School, Port Hope, Ont. In 1887 he joined the Bank of Montreal in  Toronto, and served in various capacities with it at Ottawa, New Westminster, New Denver, Victoria and Nelson, before coming to Kelowna  in 1905.  Besides his wife, Amy, he leaves three sons and one daughter: Philip  Anthony, London, Ont.; Leonard St. Martin and Robert Theodore,  both of Vancouver, and Anne of Winnipeg. Also left are seven grandchildren; one brother, Septimus Stuart DuMoulin, Hamilton, Ont., and  two sisters—Mrs. Alder Bliss, Kelowna, and Mrs. F. H. Brewin,  Coburg, Ont.  (114)  J. PERCY CLEMENT  The writer of the article, 'Early Days of Kelowna and District',  J. Percy Clement, was born on August 16, 1880 at Portage la Prairie,  Manitoba, the second youngest in a family of six. His boyhood was  spent on a farm, four miles east of Treherne, Man., where he went to  a small one-room school, a short distance from his father's farm. Later  he attended high school in Treherne, where his favorite subjects were  history and literature.  On March 30, 1898 Mr. Clement arrived in Kelowna with his  parents, where in 1900 he opened the first book and stationery store,  which he operated until 1907 when he sold the business. In 1908 he  settled in Vancouver, where he married. His wife passed away in 1951.  In 1952 he retired to Victoria, where he now resides. A married  daughter and two grand-children live in adjoining Saanich.  During Mr. Clement's ten years residence in Kelowna he gathered  much information from old timers still living in the district. Since  moving to Victoria he has spent much time in the provincial archives,  checking old records and newspapers, for items of interest concerning  the early history of Kelowna and district. C^ar/w oDags in <JveU  owna  Continued from 1959 Report.  [ Last year's instalment of this article concluded with an account of  the first annual exhibition of the Agricultural and Trades Association  of Okanagan Mission, September 25, 1896, held in Raymer's Hall and  also in a building a few doors west.  In the latter was a splendid showing of roots, vegetables and butter,  with special prizes for bread, while Messrs. Collins and Holman had a  very fine exhibit of locally grown tobacco, which received very favorable comments.]  In the afternoon the great attraction was a lacrosse match between  Vernon and Kelowna. As the Vernon team arrived with one man short,  Kelowna also withdrew a man, leaving each team with eleven players,  :irranged as follows; —  Kelowna  }. Porrier.  C. A. S. Atwood.  Frank Small.  M. J. Curts.  Neil Thompson.  W. R. Barlee.  Harvey Watson.  Goal  Point  Cover Point  1st  Defence  2nd Defence  3rd Defence  Centre  3rd Home  2nd Home  1st Home  Outside   Home  Inside Home  Vernon  W.  J.  Poole.  G. G. Henderson.  G.   Haverty.  W.   B.   Fleming.  G. A. Wilson/  M. Holland.  F. Smith.  J. Harris.  H. Bell.  R. B. Bell.  A. Birnie.  Leon Gillard.  Dr. B. F. Boyce.  Frank PVaser.  George Bailey.  The game started at 3:45 p.m. with W. O'Laughlin of Winnipeg  acting as referee. It was quite apparent that the Kelowna team had  done a lot of practising, since the match on August 28 last. The ball  passed in rapid succession from one Kelowna player to another and in  a few minutes M. J. Curts scored a goal with a long shot. In spite of  Vernon's stubborn defence, the game ended with a score of three to  nothing, in Kelowna's favor. In the evening, the visiting team was  treated to a splendid dinner, at the Lake View Hotel.  A very interesting concert, under the auspices of the Kelowna Band,  was held in the evening of the fair. The hall was packed to the doors  and a very fine program was thoroughly enjoyed. Songs by Rev.  Thomas Greene, Mr. Kerby, Miss Ablett and Miss Nicolle were loudly  applauded.     Mrs. Shaw appeared in a Swedish peasant costume and  (117) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  sang a couple of songs in that language, and was warmly applauded. A  bright little farce, "Two Flats and a Sharp" in which Mrs. Atwood,  Miss Bloomfield and G. Fitzmaurice acted their parts well, ended the  program. The day's festivities closed with a dance in Lequime's Hall,  which was kept up until well on into the morning, with all present  thoroughly enjoying themselves.  On Thursday, October 15, Kelowna's Lacrosse Club journeyed to  Vernon, to meet the Vernon team in a match, which concluded the series  for the year. Both teams worked hard and the game was an exciting  one throughout. The lineup of players was very much the same as  during the match played at Kelowna on September 25 last. Apparently  the Vernon boys had been doing some strenuous practicing since then,  as they succeeded in scoring 3 goals in fairly quick succession. Then  Kelowna managed to score, and at quitting time, the score stood at 3 to 1,  in favor of Vernon. The season's playing showed that the teams were  pretty evenly matched. The players of both clubs started planning for  the 1897 season, and it was hoped that by then, both Armstrong and  Enderby, would form clubs.  We read in the Vernon News of November 26, 1896, that Lord  and Lady Aberdeen had recently paid a visit to their ranch, the Guisachan, in the valley.  It was decided, at a meeting of interested citizens, that the town of  Kelowna should have a public library of some sort. Alex Dunn, Presbyterian student preacher succeeded in collecting quite a sum of money  to start with, and Lord Aberdeen promised to send a box of books.  Under date of December 24, 1896, we learn that the library has been  opened in the Post Office, with E. R. Bailey in charge. A very nice  selection of books, although small, covered a wide range of history,  biography, travel, fiction, etc. A membership of $1.00 per year was  charged, and the library was well patronized. It is very interesting to  read the list of early library members, which has been preserved, as follows;—Thomas Blair, Rev. R. Boyle, Dr. B. F. Boyce, M. J. Curts,  D. W. Crowley, Miss Crozier, A. Gray, Rev. T. Greene, Mr. Hall,  W. Haug, A. L. Hinkson, L. Holman, James Houston, A. B. Knox,  A. Lefevre, Dr. Lipsett, H. B. D. Lysons, David Lloyd-Jones, Mr.  Mellish, T. J. McLellan, H. W. Raymer, J. L. Pridham, H. S. Rose,  C. S. Smith, H. Watson, E. Weddell, E. Wollaston.  During the fall, the Kelowna Shippers' Union established a pork  packing plant, under the management of Capt. Nicolle. The slaughtering and preparing of the hogs for curing, was done on the lake shore,  (118) Early Days in Kelowna  north of the sawmill, about where the C.P.R. office now stands. Here  was located equipment for heating water, a scalding trough and heavy  tables, where the hogs were cleaned. From there they were transported  to the building on Bernard Ave. formerly occupied by Charles Mair's  general store. Back of this building stood the smoke house, where hams  and bacon were turned out.  On December 24, a Christmas tree entertainment for the children  was held in Raymer's Hall, at which the local band rendered several  selections and Miss Nicolle, Mr. Wright and D. W. Crowley sang.  Balance of the program consisting of songs, recitations etc. was provided by the children. The part of Santa Claus was taken by E. R.  Bailey, in his usual happy manner and in a few minutes the tree was  stripped of presents, which were handed to the delighted little ones.  A concert was held on the evening of December 30, but unfortunately was not a success financially, as there were many vacant seats in  the hall. The first part of the program consisting of music was well  rendered by Miss Nicolle, Messrs Atwood, Barneby, Crowley and  Kerby, whose songs were greatly enjoyed. Messrs Hine and Kerby  sang exceptionally well and were encored several times. Miss Abblet  took the part of a fisher girl, in a charming manner. The second part  of the program, consisting of a farce, "The Dentist's Clerk" was well  played, but according to a press report, "the play itself was very weak  and far from elevating in its moral tone." The last sentence seemed  to be the signal for a lengthy argument by letter writers, as to what  could be considered unfit in plays to be shown on the stage.  Mr. and Mrs. T. W. Stirling left town on the last day of the year  for England, and plan on returning in March or April.  The last night of the old year and the arrival of the new was celebrated in town by a bachelor's ball. Eighteen couples were present, and  all thoroughly enjoyed the excellent supper, good music and the spendid  condition of the dance floor.  On the night of January 1, 1897, a crowd of happy young people  was treated to a social evening by Mr. and Mrs. Morrison at the Guisachan. As most of them had been to the dance of the night before, the  party dispersed early.  Messrs Collins and Holman reported that their crop of tobacco,  harvested last fall, was of a splendid quality, and prospects for the successful cultivation of 'the weed' in the valley appeared very bright.  We read in the Vernon News of January 14, 1897, that H. B. D.  Lysons has returned from his old home in England, after about a year's  absence, and is looking well after his recent illness.  (119) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  According to the same paper, we learn that Louis Ledger built a  barber shop and billiard room, adjoining the implement warehouse, on  the east side. The billiard table installed by him was the one brought  in from Hope on pack horses, many years before, by Eli Lequime.  Sometime during January, the 'skookum house' or jail, which for  years had stood on the old Frederick Brent ranch, a few miles out in  the valley, was moved to a more convenient location, on the south side of  Bernard Avenue, just west of Ellis Street.  During the early part of the year, Messrs Curts and Blair were busy-  building a parsonage, on Bernard Avenue, next to Dr. Boyce's residence,  for Rev. Thomas Greene, recently appointed rector of St. Michael and  All Angels' Anglican Church.  We read in the Vernon News that John Collins entertained a number of his friends, at a dance in Raymer's Hall, on February 26.  We also note in the same paper, that Ed Wright has bought the  house and lot recently occupied by John Fletcher, who has moved into  that formerly occupied by W. M. McKissock, who left his job as foreman in Lequime's sawmill.  A very successful band concert was held in Raymer's Hall on  March 2.  The program consisted of two parts, as follows; —  Part 1  'Beta' by Kelowna Band.  Quickstep  Shadow Pantomime  Overture  Solo  Banjo Solo  Quartette  Solo  Solo  Quartette  Solo  Reverie  by Kelowna Band.  by A. G. Lewis.  by Dan Gallagher.  'Thoughts of Twilight'  by A .G. Lewis.  by G. Kerby.  'Songs My Mother Sang.'  by A. G. Lewis.  Part 2  Farce—'Freezing a Mother-in-Law.'  Mr. Watnuff by G. Fitzmaurice)  Ferdinand Swift by E. M. Carruthers.  Walter Leatherland by H. B. Barnbey.  Mrs. Whatnuff by Mrs. Weddell.  Emily (her daughter) by Miss Bailey.  (120) Early Days in Kelowna  The shadow pantomime was cleverly performed by D. W. Crowley,  H. B. Barneby, E. M. Carrurthers and Tom McQueen. The scene  represented life on a South Sea Island and showed how the missionary  furnished a delightful repast for the cannibal chief—by substitution.  Mr. Lewis' singing proved very popular. The selections by the  band were well played. 'Freezing a Mother-in-Law' was an excellent  farce and well rendered. G. Fitzmaurice played the hen-pecked old  man and E. M. Carruthers, as the sanguine yet scape-goat nephew who  invented a mixture which, when injected into one ear, would suspend  animation by 'freezing' and another liquid, when poured into the other  ear, 'thawed' the individual back to life again. Both played their parts  to perfection. Mrs. Weddell, as the frozen mother-in-law, showed  considerable nerve, and after her recovery, she acted the enraged, yet  triumphant Mrs. Whatnuff, in a very realistic manner. The audience  was delighted with the performance.  In the March 18, 1897 issue of the Vernon News, we read that the  property of the Roman Catholic Church at the Mission was sold  privately in Vancouver, to a Belgian Syndicate. The church retained  only a few acres surrounding the Mission. The balance disposed of  consisted of over 2,000 acres of agricultural and range land, with 150  head of stock.   The price received was said to be $37,000.  About the middle of March, George Brandon, for several years  leader and instructor of the local band, left Kelowna for Fort Steele.  At a meeting of the band, Dan Gallagher was chosen as the new leader.  In preparation for the coming season, the Lacrosse Club, at a meeting in March, elected the following officers;—President, C. A. S.  Atwood; Vice-president, R. R. Lowe; Captain, D. W. Crowley; Sec-  treas., M. J. Curts.   Colors chosen, white.    Membership fee, $1.00.  Early in April, Alex Dunn, a very popular student preacher of the  Presbyterian church at Benvoulin, left for Manitoba College, to continue his studies.  The Vernon News of April 8, 1897, contained a notice of dissolution of partnership, existing between Collins and Holman, tobacco  growers, by mutual consent. Mr. Collins was to continue the business,  he having assumed all liabilities and to whom all accounts were to be  paid.  On Monday morning May 24, the first lacrosse match of the season  was played between the Vernon and Kelowna Clubs, on local grounds.  The day was perfect, with a brilliant sun in a cloudless sky. At 10:30  a.m. the teams were lined up by A. C. Strachan, referee.  (121) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  In the line-up we notice several new players have appeared, in both  teams. In the Kelowna team, Dr. Boyce, who found his medical practice required most of his attention, and W. R. Barlee, were replaced by  Dan Gallagher and Stanley Ray.  The Vernon team had arrived with one man short, so M. J. Curts  of the local team withdrew, leaving both teams even. For the first  while, the ball sailed back and forth, from one end of the field to the  other, in rapid succession. However, after about ten minutes of play,  Hugh Bell of the Vernon team, scored a goal. In spite of the local boys  putting up a strong defence, Charlie Wintemute scored for Vernon,  within another half hour. Then the Kelowna boys really went to  work and in less than half an hour, Frank Fraser scored a goal, and was  followed in a few minutes by Harvey Watson doing the same. During  the ten minutes still remaining, both teams worked very hard, but  without scoring, so the game ended in a tie. During the game the very  best of good feeling prevailed and after it was over, the two clubs went  to the Lake View Hotel, where the local club entertained the visiting  team to a dinner.  About the end of May, George Smith, student preacher, who was  in charge of the mission field for the Methodist church at Kelowna and  surrounding district left to take over his new appointment at Golden.  On June 22, 1897, Vernon held a celebration in honor of Queen  Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, and one of the main sports events was a  lacrosse match, between Kelowna and Vernon. The players lined up  pretty much as during the match of May 24. The two teams were  very evenly matched and only one goal was scored, and that by Vernon.  According to a news report, "the game was hotly contested, with no  rough play and it was pronounced by the spectators, as the prettiest game  of lacrosse ever played in the interior." The writer was recently informed by Frank Fraser that it was not as clean as reported in the press,  as he sustained three cracked ribs and a broken collar bone, during the  game.  On Wednesday, July 1, the Benvoulin and South Okanagan schools  held a joint picnic at Priest's Landing, a pretty beach on Okanagan  Lake, about three miles south of Kelowna. The weather was a little  unsettled and the occasional sprinkle fell, but not enough to dampen the  spirits of the large gathering of children and parents. A splendid dinner  was provided by the ladies, after which the sports of the day were proceeded with, under the supervision of Messrs E. F. Healy and A. C.  Strachan.  (122) Early Days in Kelowna  The first sports event was a boat race between crews from each  school, in which the Benvoulin boys won. A football game then followed, to be won by South Okanagan with a score of 1 to 0. In a game  of 'nobbies', a boy's imitation of lacrosse, the score was 2 to 0, in South  Okanagan's favor. During the afternoon there were various running  and jumping contests for boys and girls, in different age groups, all of  which were keenly contested. The picnic broke up about 7:30 p.m.,  with hearty cheers for the Benvoulin school, the South Okanagan school  and the Queen. Everyone left the grounds well pleased with the day's  events.  On Saturday, September 4, the Kelowna Cricket Club, captained by  A. H. Crichton, went to Vernon for a match. In spite of neither club  having had any practice during the summer, the game was a spirited one.  Walter D'Aeth captained the Vernon eleven, and with two innings,  scored 107 runs. Kelowna's two innings chalked up 127 runs, making  them the winner by 20 runs.  Kelowna's Second Annual Exhibition, which opened on Wednesday, September 22, 1897, was held on the second floor of the Kelowna  Shippers' Union warehouse, on the lake front. The show lasted two  days, and the attendance was good. The quality of the fruits, vegetables  and grains, was excellent, but unfortunately the quantity was less than  the previous year. Thomas Earle of Lytton, President of the Provincial  Fruit Growers' Association, exclaimed upon viewing the fruit exhibit,  "Look at that fruit! Did you ever see any better apples? I never did.  They cannot be beaten in America. See those peaches! They are good  enough to show in any exhibition in the world."  Among prize takers in the fruit class were found such well known  names as Pridham, McLennan, Munson, Gartrell, Knox, Conklin,  Whelan, Crozier and Haug. George Whelan showed a box of dried  prunes, which he had prepared. He also showed a fine lot of quinces,  from his orchard. Alex McLennan had a wonderful showing of large  luscious peaches, grown on his place across the lake from Kelowna. A  dozen of the heaviest apples, weighing about 12 ounces each, came from  the orchard of A. B. Knox. Immense pumpkins, squash, turnips, mangolds, carrots, beets, melons, citrons, cucumbers, onions and tomatoes,  made up the vegetable section.  There was a splendid showing of hand-made articles, such as shirts,  socks, slippers, counterpanes, embroidery, painting on silk, drawn work  etc. The art section contained several very fine oils, water colors,  sketches and pencil drawings.  (123) The Okanagan Historical Society-—1960  The exhibit of home-made bread, butter, cheese, preserved fruit,  jams and jellies made one's mouth water. A fine lot of honey, the  product of D. W. Sutherland's hives, received special mention.  A very fine collection of hand-made horse shoes, hammered out  and shaped on his anvil, without using a file, was the product of the local  blacksmith, William McQueen.  A nice lot of tobacco and home-made cigars, shown by John Collins,  attracted quite a lot of attention and many favorable comments.  Outside the building, live stock and poultry of many kinds were  exhibited.  A lacrosse team came down from Vernon, but on account of the  races being held in the afternoon and the rush and confusion attending  the fair, a match with the local team was called off. Although there  were many horse races, they mostly proved very tame, with the exception of two events, the hurdle and cowboy races, which were very exciting and well worth seeing.  On the first night of the exhibition a very entertaining concert, in  aid of the English Church, was held. Miss Ireland, of Vernon, sang  several songs and rendered a piano solo, which were greatly appreciated. C. A. S. Atwood gave a splendid song, which was much enjoyed. Holman Brown, said to be champion banjoist of England, was  received with enthusiasm by the audience. He sang several negro melodies in costume, which were loudly applauded. Miss Nicolle's songs,  although she was suffering from a cold, were well received. G. Kerby's  comic songs, as usual, were enthusiastically applauded.  We read that one of the prominent ranchers in the valley, Alfred  Postill, passed away on September 26, at the age of 45: he had lived in  the district for 25 years. He was survived by his mother, a brother  William, his wife and five children.  The Vernon News of October 14, 1897, contains the following; —  "The Kelowna Shippers' Union has developed into one of the most progressive and energetic business concerns in the interior. Large quantities of produce shipped this year to Kootenay mining camps has had  the effect of distributing a very considerable amount of cash among the  farmers of the Mission Valley. The Union is devoting much of its  attention, this year, to the curing of bacon and are purchasing a large  number of hogs throughout the district. Capt. Nicolle has charge of  this branch of the business."  We learn that five carloads of produce were shipped on  the S.S.  (124) Early Days in Kelowna  Aberdeen, from Kelowna, in one day. It was quite common for two  or three carloads to be loaded at one time, but this was a record up to  that time.  On Friday, October 29, the Vernon News had the misfortune to be  burned out. None of the staff were present, as they were all at their  new building, in preparation to moving the following day. The loss  was complete as nothing was saved. Publication was resumed December  2, 1897.  A new school in the Mission Valley, called the Black Mountain  School, was opened on November 1, 1897, with a good attendance. F. J.  Watson received the appointment as teacher.  About this time David Lloyd-Jones became a partner with Bernard  Lequime in the sawmill, and the buvness for several years thereafter  was conducted under the firm name of Lequime and Lloyd-Jones.  During the winter of 1897-98 several logging camps were busy-  getting out logs for the sawmill. We are informed that those of  Mr. Brent and Messrs. Nicholson and Sander have each succeeded  in cutting almost 500,000 feet of timber. The latter were working  south of Rocky Point, where the trees grow close to the lake and  require  very  little  hauling.  The Kelowna Dramatic Society gave a splendid entertainment  in Raymer's Hall, in aid of the English Church, toward the end of  January, 1898. The Vernon News of Feb. 3, gives a very full account  of the performance as follows: "The curtain rose at 8:00 o'clock  to the well-known farce of 'Ici on Parle Francais', after which a  varied selection of songs and instrumental music was given. The  entertainment closed with the far-famed farce of 'Box and Cox'.  All parts were well carried out, in the former play, Miss Mair's  'Anna Maria' making a decided hit. Miss Birnie as 'Mrs. Spriggins'  ably filled the part of the stately descendant of the 'Fritz-Pontonvilles'.  Miss Thomson made an excellent 'Mrs. Rattan' and Miss M. Thomson a most attractive 'Angelina', doing more than justice to a weak  part. Geo. Fitzmaurice's 'Spriggins', was as usual, par excellence,  and Geo. Kerby as the heavy 'Major' and E. M. Carruthers as the  love-stricken 'Victor', both very creditably carried out their parts.  "The Rev. Thos. Greene sang the 'Old Brigade', which was  deservedly encored. The 'Dandy Colored Coon', sung by Mr. Kerby  in costume, was most enthusiastically encored, and J. J. Stubbs' violin  solos were one of the most pleasing features of the evening.  "After a short  interval  the curtain   rose  on  the   farce,  'Box and  (125) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  Cox'. The appreciation of Miss Mair's acting as 'Mrs. Bounceri, was  shown by the loud applause of the audience; and Mr. Fitzmaurice's  make up as 'Box', aided by his natural facial capabilities, added greatly  to the success of the piece. The part of 'Cox', taken by E. M. Carruthers, lost none of its zest by his acting. Performers all were recalled at the close of the plavs and the loud applause clearly showed  the appreciation of the audience.  "The success of this entertainment was greatly due to the excellent stage-management of Mr. Philip Spicer."  The same performance was shown in Vernon, by the Kelowna  entertainers, on the evening of Feb. 6, in aid of the Vernon Jubilee  Hospital. The sum of $25.25 was turned over to the directors of  the hospital.  On Monday, Feb. 7, 1898, a very popular young man, George  Bailey, son of Mr. and Mrs. E. R. Bailey, passed away, several hours  after being accidentally shot. He was a member of the local band  and the Kelowna Lacrosse Club, and his passing cast a gloom over  the whole town.  Arthur Day, of Trout Creek, was appointed foreman of Lequime's  ranch at the Mission and moved with his family into the large house  there, in late February.  A very successful and pleasant ball was given by the bachelors  on Monday, Feb. 21, in Lequime's Hall.  As reported in the Vernon News of March 3, the C.P.R. decided  to make Kelowna a billing station, as 100 carloads of produce had  been shipped from there during the past year.  The same issue informs us that: "Mr. Collins has been able to  induce the Kelowna Shippers' Union to take up the manufacture of  cigars." In a later issue we learn that while C. A. S. Atwood, secretary of the company, was at the Coast, he arranged for a first-class  cigar maker to act as foreman for the factory.  Jas. Houston and two of his sisters arrived from the Old Country, by the boat on Monday, March 28, 1898. Mr. Houston bought  land from the G. G. Mackay estate, adjoining T. W. Stirling's holding, and H. W. Raymer built him a residence on the property.  During the last week of March, A. B. Knox shipped eight carloads of hay from the wharf on his property.  Also, during this time, Frank Fraser shipped a carload of horses  to Vancouver, for the Klondike trade. He accompanied the shipment  as far as the coast city.  (126) Early Days in Kelowna  Somewhere near the end of March, Philip Spicer bought eight  acres of land at the south-east corner of Richter St. and Gaston Ave.  adjoining the exhibition grounds, and let the contract to H. W. Raymer, for a five room house. Upon the resignation of C. A. S. Atwood  as secretary of the Kelowna Shippers' Union, Mr. Spicer was hired to  fill that position.  For the first couple of years following the laying out of the town-  site, Kelowna experienced a mild boom. After this short period of  activity, the town settled into the doldrums, and remained for several  years in a more or less lethargic condition. Few new settlers arrived,  and little building was done. This unfortunate state was the result  (jf a depression throughout the whole country. By 1897 and 98,  many valley orchards, planted 5 and 6 years earlier, were bearing  well, but prices of fruit and other farm products were so low that  they frequently did not meet the cost of production. This condition  prevailed until several years of the twentieth century had passed. By  that time, increased population in towns and cities of the prairie provinces and British Columbia, brought wider markets and better prices.  As a result of these, Kelowna and the surrounding district developed  new vigor, and a greater degree of prosperity followed.  This brings us to the end of March, 1898, the time of the writer's  arrival in Kelowna. An account of the following years, to the end  of incorporation year, was published in the Golden Jubilee Issue of  the Courier, on May 5, 1955.  Early on the morning of March 29, 1898, my father, brother  Ernest, my junior by two years, and I, left Vernon for Kelowna.  Father handled the reins of the horses, hauling our wagon loaded  with a quantity of household effects. We also were taking along a  milking cow and a yearling heifer. These latter, Ernest and I took  turns in doing our best to keep from wandering off the road. The  first four miles out of Vernon the road climbed steadily up through  what was known as the Commonage; then there was a fairly long  stretch of crooked and descending roadway until we reached the level  of Long (Kalamalka) Lake. We followed along south, not far  from the lake shore, past "the railroad" and Wood Lake. It was very  slow travelling and it was nightfall by the time we had reached the  neighborhood of the Postill ranch and realizing it was impossible to  reach Kelowna before many hours, we prepared to spend the night  there.   So unhitching our team, we tied them and the two cows to a  (127) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  rail fence, well supplied with a hale of hay, brought along for that  purpose. Taking several blankets, we climbed the fence and made  our bed beside one of Postill's hay stacks. The night was beautiful,  with only a slight tang in the air. We were all dog tired and it seemed  only a few minutes until day was breaking and the sun peeping over  the mountains to the east.  Soon we were off again, taking the short cut road through "Dry  Valley". We soon learned that this little valley was well named, as  it was for the greater part arid and desolate and we passed several  abandoned homesites, consisting of weather-beaten, dilapidated buildings and sagging rail fences. It was a dreary contrast to the main valley we had left only a few hours before. As our little caravan moved  along, a cloud of dust filled the air. Little did we know that in a  few years this area, with water piped from a distance, would develop  into the luxuriant and beautiful district of Glenmore. At long last,  after several weary hours of dusty travel, we reached the top of an  elevation in the road and what a different view presented itself! A  wide level area spread before us and off to the west lay Lake Okanagan shimmering in the sunlight, with a backdrop of wooded mountain. On the eastern side of the lake nearest to us, we could discern  a number of houses scattered about, while a larger building with a  tall smokestack lay a little to the north and at the lake's shore. This  was my first sight of Kelowna, where I was to spend the following  ten  happy years.  After passing, on our left, the charming small ranch of James  Crozier, we arrived at the locality known as the "Five Bridges",  so named because the main Kelowna - Vernon road required that number of bridges, within the space of a few hundred yards, to cross  meandering Mill Creek. After quenching our thirst and that of uor  animals in the stream, we followed the road westward, passing the  Rose and Pridham orchards on our right and that of Samuel Ray on  the left. Coming to a right turn in the road at the A. B. Knox large  ranch we proceeded north for about a quarter of a mile to Bernard  Avenue. (This was at that time the only road running east and west  between Mill Creek and Knox Mountain.) From there it was a  straight road of a mile and we were in Kelowna about mid-dav of  March 30, 1  We moved into a long, one storey frame building, originally built  for a  liven-  stable,   but  never used   for that purpose,   facing  south,  (128) Early Days in Kelowna  between Abbott and Water Streets, at about 242 Lawrence Ave.,  where Taylor, Pearson & Carson (B.C.) Ltd., are now. Ernest Evans  and Frank Small occupied one end of this buliding, while we moved  into the other. The following day, brother Ernest returned to Vernon, to continue his schooling. Mother and several members of our  family had remained in Vernon, when we three left there.  So father and I, to our mutual distaste, settled down to the routine  of preparing meals and other household affairs. Mother, with the  assistance of two grown-up daughters, had always attended to these  matters, and I having only recently passed my seventeenth birthday,  had never had any experience whatever along this line. I won't even  concede that father could do very much better.  Father had been down to Kelowna, a week before we made the  journey, and secured a job with H. W. Raymer, Contractor and  Builder, to help build a house for P. Spicer and one for Jas. Houston.  He arranged for me to start work in the sawmill, operated by  Lequime and Lloyd-Jones. As I had only recently finished my schooling, this was my first real job, and I naturally felt a little nervous.  However, father assured me that David Lloyd-Jones, who was to be  my boss, seemed co be a very fine man. I learned later, that, when  father interviewed Mr. Lloyd-Jones, he remarked that I might make  ome mistakes, and that he did not want him to swear at me, if I did.  Mr. Lloyd-Jones replied, "Oh no, I won't swear at him." During  the three or four months I worked for him, and the many years I  knew him afterwards, I never heard David Lloyd-Jones use a swear  word, or saw him lose his temper; he was a perfect gentleman at all  times. He attended to the production end of the business, while  Bernard Lequime took care of the office work.  Well, father and I did not do very well with our housekeeping,  and we were in grave danger of suffering from the effects of malnutrition, so one day he said, "I am going to Vernon to see whether  mother will come down to look after us." He was gone two days,  and our worries were over for mother returned with him, and a  possible tragedy was averted.  One day, I was given the job of moving a large pile of lumber,  from the landward end of the sawmill wharf, about fifty feet, to  the far end, in preparation to its being loaded on to the S.S. Penticton,  moored there. After several hours, I had almost finished this task  and after depositing the boards I was carrying, I turned about, when  suddenly, the outer end of the wharf crashed into the water.   The  (129) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  pile of lumber fell towards me, striking the backs of my legs. Struggling upwards among the falling timbers, I reached dry land, with  no more damage to myself than a couple of very wet feet. I was told  that I must have had a rabbit's foot or horseshoe in my pocket, or  possibly both, to escape serious injury or possible drowning.  When the school holidays began, brother Ernest came down from  Vernon and got work in the Kelowna Shippers' Union packing house,  sorting onions and potatoes. My sister Mabel and brother Wm. J.  who had passed their teacher's examinations, took Normal School  training and secured schools.  People today may wonder what Kelowna of those early years was  like. It was just a sleepy little village of less than one hundred inhabitants. The streets were dirt and gravel roads, which after a rain  were, to say the least, very muddy, while during most of the year,  were the source of clouds of dust whenever a wagon passed along.  There was then very little to indicate that in a few years the place  would develop into the thriving city of modern stores, beautiful homes  and busy industries of today.  At that time there were only two ways of getting into town from  the north, one by boat from Okanagan Landing and the other by a  very rough road from Vernon, forty miles distant. A horse-drawn  stage, operated by Gifford E. Thomson, came south on Tuesdays,  Thursdays and Saturdays, returning to Vernon on alternate days,  with the exception of Sundays. In addition to mail, the stage carried  passengers, bundles of merchandise and farm produce. The journey-  each way required about five hours, sometimes much longer, depending on the weather and the number of parcels picked up or delivered.  For carrying the mail, Mr. Thomson was paid $600 per year, and  he supplied horses and wagon.  The steamer Aberdeen, in charge of Capt. Lindquist (succeeded  by Capt. Williams the following June and Capt. Estabrooke in  November), left Okanagan Landing, where it connected with the  CPR train from Sicamous, on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays,  continuing on to Penticton, at the south end of the lake, where it  remained overnight. The return trip was made on the following  days. It carried passengers, mail, express and freight. If there were  few stops the run from Okanagan Landing to Kelowna was made in  about two and a half hours. This vessel, a stern wheeler, flat bottomed craft, 146 feet long, exclusive of the stern wheel box, with  beam of 29  feet including guards, had been  launched at Okanagan  (130) Early Days in Kelowna  Landing on May 22, 1893. At various places along the lake, where  no wharfs existed, and being of shallow draft, it nosed up on the  sandy beach, to discharge or take on passengers or freight.  A trip on this boat in those days was a very pleasant one. The  upper deck contained a spacious lounge, a large dining saloon, where  excellent meals were served, a number of staterooms and purser's  office, the latter in charge of Ira Cutler at the time. Aft on the same  deck was located the ladies' cabin. A promenade deck, protected by a  hand railing, completely encircled this section of the boat and in fine  weather was greatly enjoyed by passengers. For thirsty travellers a  small locker, in care of the purser, contained a variety of liquors. It  was never opened except between ports, and then only by request of  passengers. Twin engines drove the great paddle wheel and were  located aft on the lower or main deck and were in charge of Richard  C. Hawes. The kitchen and crew quarters, with bunks for eight men,  wash rooms and toilets, were also on this deck, while freight, express  and mail was stowed in the forward part.  The CPR wharf, freight shed and office was located on the lake  front, at the foot of Bernard Avenue. During the year 1897, one  hundred carloads of produce had been shipped from Kelowna, via  the steamer Aberdeen, so the company decided to make it a billing  station, and H. S. Scadding, their agent at Penticton, was transferred  to the new office in March, 1898.  For some time after my arrival, the post office occupied a small  frame building at the east end of the wharf, with E. R. Bailey in  charge. In addition to caring for the mail, he was acting CPR agent,  prior to the arrival of Mr. Scadding. Later in the year, Mr. Bailey  moved the post office to his own building, on the south side of Bernard  Avenue, about midway between Abbott and Water Streets.  A little to the north of the CPR freight shed and backing on the  waterfront, stood a large warehouse, belonging to the Kelowna Shippers' Union and used by them for packing, storing and shipping farm  produce. A very short distance east of this building, on the north side  of Bernard Avenue, the company had, a few years earlier, installed  a weigh scales, where farmers weighed their loads of produce.  To the north, along the waterfront, about where the Kelowna  Museum is now, stood the saw and planing mill of Lequime and  Lloyd-Jones. Great piles of lumber covered a wide area and extended  right to Bernard Avenue. Just beyond the mill, to the north, was  located a building, originally built as a mill worker's boarding house,  (131) The Okanagan Historical Society—-1960  but at that time used as a sash and door factory, by the sawmill. To  haul booms of logs to their mill and deliver lumber to various customers along the lake, Lequime and Lloyd-Jones employed the S.S. Penticton, whcih had seen many years service on the lake, prior to its  purchase by them.  Farther along the lake front, about where the CPR depot now  stands, was the equipment used by the Kelowna Shippers' Union, for  slaughtering hogs, used in their pork curing department. At the point  where Manhattan Drive is now, there had been built a warehouse  and wharf, where the steamer Aberdeen occasionally called to load  hay, grain or live stock, from the A. B. Knox ranch, for shipment  to outside points. This ranch occupied all of the property east of  Richter Street to the Vernon road and north to and including Knox  Mountain, named for him.  Returning to Bernard Avenue, we find, a little to the east of  Water Street and facing south, McQueen's blacksmith shop, with living quarters above, occupied by the proprietor and his family. These  were the only business places to the north of Bernard Avenue at that  time.  Now, going back to the waterfront again, there extended from  the end of Bernard Avenue, south along the lake to the mouth of  Mill Creek and facing Abbott Street, on the east, a stretch of wild,  undeveloped land consisting of a rough mixture of sand, stunted grass,  swamp and bush. This has since been developed into the beautiful  City of Kelowna Park. About where the Aquatic Buildings are, at  that time stood a small, rough, frame building, with a narrow pier,  extending a short distance into the lake. This had been formerly-  used as a boat landing and warehouse by Lequime Bros., but by 1898  with an addition of a spring-board at the end and a board wall on  the north side, served as a men's bathing house. There was no mixed  bathing then, and the male swimmers disported themselves in the  nude.  Facing this, on the north-east corner of Abbott Street and Lawrence Avenue, stood the Lake View Hotel, owned and operated by  Archie McDonald. He was a man of quite large dimensions, particularly at his waist line. Besides a number of regular boarders, he  catered to the travelling public and his place was always pretty well  filled, especially during the summer. He was very popular with everyone and operated a very fine dining room, while the thirsty ones were  taken care of in a well-conducted bar.  (132) Early Days in Kelowna  At the corner of Abbott Street, where the May fair Apartments  are now, there stood a small cottage, occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Cal.  Blackwood. The next building to the east on Bernard Avenue, was  Lequime Bros. & Co., the only retail store in town, at that time. It  carried a well diversified stock of general merchandise and catered  to the needs of a large area, from the west side of the lake to far up  and down the Mission valley. Mr. E. Weddell, with a competent  staff, managed the store. Entered from an outside stairway and occupying the entire upper floor, was a hall, used for church services,  lodge meetings, dances, etc.  On the eastern side of this building was a fifty foot vacant lot,  while the following property was occupied by a two storey frame  building, with living quarters at the rear and a couple of sleeping  rooms above. The front portion of the main floor was occupied by  Lequime and Lloyd-Jones' sawmill office and farm implement warehouse. Next door to the east was a barber shop and billiard room,  operated, mostly in the evenings, by Louis Ledger, who worked during the daytime in the sawmill.  Then came another vacant lot, followed by the Bailey Building,  the downstairs containing a butcher shop, operated for some time by  E. R. Bailey who with his family occupied the upstairs. Early in  April shortly after my arrival, this business was bought by Messrs.  Crowley and Downton, who operated it for several years. The next  lot was vacant, while alongside, to the east, stood a two storey frame  building, occupied several years earlier by Chas. Mair's General Store,  which with a smoke house at the rear was used by the Kelowna Shippers' Union as a pork curing plant. Here under the supervision of  Capt. Nicolle, was turned out a fine quality of hams, bacon and lard.  Next was a vacant lot, while a large two storey frame building,  owned by H. W. Raymer, a local contractor and builder, occupied  the south-west corner of Bernard Avenue and Water Street. The upstairs contained a large unfinished hall, while the main floor, also unfinished, was planned for stores. Shortly after my arrival, Sam Goey  (Chinese) opened a restaurant in the western portion of the ground  floor. However, as Kelowna had not yet reached the stage where a  business of this type could operate successfully, it closed up early in  the following year.  The entire block on Bernard Avenue, from Water Street to Pandosy, consisted of vacant lots, while the. only building in the next  block, between Pandosy and Ellis Streets, was the small  frame court  (133) The Okanagan Historical Society—-I960  house and jail.   Richard Lowe was Provincial Constable at the time.  Continuing east along Bernard Avenue, there stood between Ellis  and Richter Streets, several small cottages, one occupied by Rev. Thos.  Greene, one by Dr. B. F. Boyce and another by C. A. S. Atwood,  secretary of the Kelowna Shippers' Union. On the north side of  Bernard Avenue, across from Dr. Boyce's, stood the homes of David  Lloyd-Jones and E. Weddell. Turning north along Ellis Street, we  find on the eastern side, the homes of Sam. Luxton, H. W. Raymer,  D. W. Sutherland, teacher of the public school, and J. T. McLellan,  foreman and sawyer of the sawmill. Across Ellis Street, on the west  side, was the home of John Fletcher, engineer of the sawmill. Between this house and Gaston Avenue there was a low, rambling and  somewhat dilapidated frame structure, occupied sometime later by  Mrs. Favel and family.  With the exception of the houses mentioned, on the north side of  Bernard Avenue and along Ellis Street, the balance of the area bounded  by Richter Street on the east and Gaston Avenue on the north, was  mostly undeveloped acreage between the lake front and Richter  Street. The Exhibition Grounds, with a half mile race track, occupied quite a large area, bounded by Gaston Avenue, Richter Street  and Bay Avenue. For many years, the exhibition building stood facing south, at what was then the northern terminus of Ellis Street.  Later, this building was moved a short distance east on Gaston Avenue.  When the holding of the annual fall fair was discontinued, this  building was used for various purposes and finally burned down. Ellis  Street was extended to its present northern terminus, when the exhibition building was moved. To the west of the Exhibition Grounds,  Messrs. Crowley and Downton held a block of sixteen acres, under  lease from E. R. Bailey, which they used for pasture and slaughter  yard, in connection with their butcher business.  At that time there was only one church in town, the Anglican,  St. Michael and All Angels', at the north-east corner of Mill Avenue  (now Queensway) and Pandosy Street, of which Rev. Thos. Greene  was rector. Also on Mill Avenue, to the east of the church, stood  the Kelowna Public School, a one storey wooden building. Bernard  Lequime's house occupied a lot near the corner of Mill Avenue and  Water Street. Mr. Scadding moved into another nearby, when he  assumed charge of the CPR office. The property from Mill Avenue  to Bernard Avenue and extending from McQueen's blacksmith shop  to Ellis Street, was vacant and used as a lacrosse and football practice field, by the young men of town.  (134) Early Days in Kelowna  With the exception of the buildings mentioned before, on the  south side of Bernard Avenue, the entire area between it and Eli  Avenue (now Harvey) was completelv vacant, and used sometimes  for the practice of lacrosse. xAlong the south side of Eli Avenue and  backing on Mill Creek (now Kelowna Creek), stood a number of  private dwellings. At the intersection of Ellis and Eli stood Capt.  Nicolle's house, manager of the pork curing department of the Kelowna Shippers' Union. To the west on the same street, were homes  of Richard Lowe, Provincial Constable, G. F. Budden, Wm. Haug,  stone mason and plasterer, and John Curts, builder and contractor.  Then farther west, near Abbott Street, was located the local Chinatown. All of the Chinese here, as elsewhere at the time, wore their  hair long and braided in a queue, sometimes hanging down their back,  but mostly coiled around their heads. One of the highlights of this  Oriental quarter was the celebration of Chinese New Year. It was  quite common, at that time, to see thousands of fire crackers, hanging  in long streamers down the fronts of their houses, being set off, and  it looked as though the whole of Chinatown was going up in flames.  It was said that one local Chinese set off one million crackers in celebration of the new year. The whole event was quite spectacular, and  something to remember.  On the east side of Abbott Street, a little south of Lawrence  Avenue, stood a small house, occupied by Thos. Smith, foreman of  the sash and door department of the sawmill.  Just east of Abbott Street, on the south side of Lawrence, was a  large livery and feed stable, built several years before by Leon  Lequime, but in early 1898, taken over by Crowley and Downton.  Then on the north side of Lawrence, about where the building now  occupied by Taylor, Pearson & Carson (B.C.) Ltd. at 242 Lawrence,  there was a long one storey frame building. This is the building mentioned earlier in this article, as the one father and I moved into. During the summer of 1898, my parents, brother Ernest and I lived here,  moving in the autumn, into quarters at the rear of Lequime and Lloyd-  Jones' office, mentioned before. Besides the various homes mentioned,  there were a number of small shacks, scattered about town, occupied  by single young men.  In the foregoing account, I have endeavored to correctly locate  the various businesses and homes of the town in early 1898. To turn  the pages of the book of memory of over sixty years and find a clear  and easy record, is a very difficult task. Many of the pictures and  much of the story is blurred by the passage of time, with the result  (135) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  that errors are liable to creep in.   However, I can safely say that this  record is very close to being complete and accurate.  Kelowna, at that time, occupied a much smaller area than at  present. The western boundary was Okanagan Lake, the north, Bay  Avenue, the east Richter Street, while the south was Mill Creek. The  only bridge over this creek was a wooden one, at Pandosy Street.  With the exception of a rough road running south from this bridge,  there was nothing but dense woods in this district. During those years,  deer were frequently met with, and sometimes shot, in this area, now  occupied by some of the city's finest homes.  One of the principal places of employment, from spring to fall,  was the sawmill, where about fifteen men were employed. It usually  shut down when winter arrived and remained closed until the following spring. It produced both rough and dressed lumber and the daily  cut was around fifteen to twenty thousand board feet. This is where  I got my first job, starting in April, 1898, and working four or five  months. We put in ten hours per day, from seven in the morning  until six in the evening, for six days; no Saturdays off then. My  wage, which was standard for a youth, was $1.10 per day. The men  inside the mill and outside lumber yard, received from $2.00 to $2.50  per day. I understood at the time that the sawyer was paid $4.00 per  day. He, however, was responsible for keeping the mill machinery  in order and often put in eleven or twelve hours. These were standard wages and hours, at that time, but of course the cost of living  was in proportion.  Early in April, shortly after my arrival, the Cosgrove Company,  a travelling troupe of entertainers, put on a show for three nights, in  Raymer's Hall. It followed the usual lines of old time vaudeville,  very popular at that time, and consisted of singing, comedy acts, step  dancing, instrumentals, acrobatics, etc. The Cosgroves were very  popular throughout the West and continued playing the small towns,  for several years.  Early in June, Price Ellison of Vernon received the nomination  for the Government Party, for the District of East Yale. At that  time the Provincial Legislature was not divided on party lines, as  now; there was just the Government Party and the Opposition. Later  in the month a political meeting was held in Raymer's Hall, at which  Price Ellison was supported on the platform by J. A. McKelvie, editor  of the Vernon News. Donald Graham, the sitting member and belonging to the Opposition Party, was also on the platform.   Mr. Mc-  (136) Early Days in Kelowna  Kelvie was a very fluent speaker, possessed a very confident manner,  and showed great fondness for the grandiloquent phrase. In referring  to the new Legislative Buildings just recently completed, he called  them "that memorable pile". Price spoke for only a couple of minutes and wound up by saying that he was sorry he could not talk very  well, as he lacked the experience, but after sitting in the Legislature  as representative of East Yale, he would then be able to make a better  speech. The result of the election, held later, was that he was elected,  by a substantial majority. I heard him speak several times in the succeeding years and he was able to talk for an hour or more, with the  words rolling out in rapid and orderly succession.  During summer and fall, I worked in the orchards and packing  house, for the Kelowna Shippers' Union, at one dollar per day, of  ten hours. This company was organized several years before and  shipped, for some months of 1898, an average of one car load of  produce per day, to the Kootenays and points along the main line of  the CPR, as far as Winnipeg.  Besides the growing of tree fruits, vegetables, hay, wheat and  oats in the district, the culture of tobacco had been experimented with.  Some of the leaf was made into cigars at Vancouver and these proved  so successful that the Kelowna Shippers' Union decided to start a factory for their manufacture. So in July, 1898, it opened in a small  building near their packing house, with a staff of five, under the fore-  manship of Wm. Wolz, from the Coast. Three brands were produced,  "Kelowna Specials", "Flo_- de Kelowna", and "Home Production",  all packed in attractively labelled boxes of fifties. A market was developed in the mining towns of the Kootenay and Boundary districts;  and it looked for a time as though tobacco would become one of the  major crops of the valley. Several farmers planted considerable acreage and many drying sheds were built in the district.  The curing of pork was discontinued by the company about this  time, but shipments of live hogs were made by them for some time  afterwards. No other new businesses were opened in Kelowna this  year.  Prior to 1898 the annual Fall Fair had been held up town but a  new commodious building had been built and the dates of Sept. 20  and 21 were set for holding the Exhibition. However, rain started the  night before and continued at intervals most of the two days. The  exhibits were very good in all classes; but the weather no doubt greatly  reduced the attendance and prevented most of the outside sporting  events.  137: The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  A large shipment of beef cattle was made when A. B. Knox sent  sixty-four head to the Kootenays.  Early in November, on Capt. Estabrooke's second trip on the  steamer Aberdeen, the wind blew so fiercely that the captain found it  impossible to make a landing at Kelowna wharf. For some time he  anchored the boat close in to the high bank at Siwash Point, but as  the wind continued to blow with almost hurricane force, he continued  on to Penticton.  In December word came to Kelowna of the death of Eli Lequime  at San Francisco, where he had been living for several years, in retirement.  There have been several statements in print, that Knox Presbyterian Church, on Bernard Avenue at Richter Street, was built in 1897,  but I can say definitely, it was not there, when I arrived in March  1898. In checking the files of the Vernon News, I found the following item dated Nov. 10, 1898: "A handsome new Presbyterian Church  is now under construction at Kelowna, Messrs. Blair and Curts having  the contract, and owing to the hard rustling of Rev. R. Boyle, the  missionary in charge, it will be opened free of debt." Another item  under date of Dec. 29, 1898, was as follows: "The new Presbyterian  Church at Kelowna was opened on Sunday last (Dec. 25) with appropriate services, a large congregation being in attendance both morning  and evening.  The missionary, Mr. R. Boyle, preached at both services."  This brings my story to the end of 1898.  The year 1899 was one of considerable activity in Kelowna. In  January, Cal. Blackwood moved his cottage from the corner of Bernard Avenue and Abbott Street to the south side of Lawrence Avenue,  between Water and Pandosy Streets. Later he built a large livery and  feed stable, which is still standing, at the south-east corner of Lawrence and Water Streets. For several days during the same month,  Mr. Blackwood was busy with two teams, hauling rock from the quarry  to the lot he had just moved his house from, for the foundation of the  new cigar factory to be erected there for the Kelowna Shippers' Union.  H. W. Raymer was awarded the contract to build a two storey  frame building, with a frontage of 100 feet. Wm. Haug handled  the sub-contract for the stone foundation, lathing and plastering. The  building was completed by April 1899 and the cigar factory moved  there, with a staff increased from five to ten. (This building was several years later faced with cement blocks and is now the Mayfair  Apartments.)   J. J. Stubbs secured the job of travelling salesman for  (138) Early Days in Kelowna  the Kelowna Shippers' Union and made several trips to the Kootenay  and Boundary country, in their interests. In February, Richard Lowe,  having resigned the position of Provincial Constable, succeeded Mr.  Stubbs. Several months later, he left the company, and Frank Fraser  took over the job.  The post of Provincial Constable was taken over by Hugh S. Rose,  who retained the position for many years.  The winter of 1898-99 was unusually severe and early in February, thick ice covered the lake, from about the mouth of Mill Creek  to Penticton. For several days the steamer Aberdeen was unable to  proceed farther south than Kelowna, but with the advent of mild  weather, the ice barrier was broken and communication with lower  sections of the lake resumed.  About this time, Alex. Gammie built a couple of small shops, on  the south side of Bernard Avenue, a short distance east of Water Street,  where he opened the first furniture store in town. As an indication of  the haphazard manner in which business was often conducted in those  days, Alex, continued at his job as salesman with Lequime Bros, and  if anybody wanted to buy some furniture they would go to where he  was employed. In case he was busy with a customer there, the prospective furniture buyer would wait until Alex, was free and they  would both proceed to the furniture store, which of course was kept  locked in the meantime. When the customer had got the piece of  furniture he wanted, the store door was again locked and Alex, went  back to his job at Lequime's. Alex. Gammie later sold the business to  D. W. Sutherland and Mr. Hepburn, who operated under the name,  Kelowna Furniture Co. Later, Mr. Sutherland bought Mr. Hepburn's  interest in the business.  When warmer weather came, roads in town and district were in  a frightful state, largely as a result of the heavy winter frost, and it  was practically impossible to do any heavy teaming. However, after  a lot of gravelling and with the arrival of summer, conditions were  much improved.  Early in March, the steamer Aberdeen was fitted out with electric  lights, which was a very great improvement over the gas lighting heretofore used.  A friend of our family for many years, Isaiah Mawhinney, came  from Manitoba and stopped at our place for a couple of weeks. He  was so charmed with the Okanagan valley that he decided to move  his family out here.   The result was that he bought 35 acres from J.  (139) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  T. Davies, as well as the Dell property at Benvoulin. Later he bought  the farms of F. J. Watson and Carruthers & Ellis.  During the spring, the CPR repaired their old wharf and extended  it to join one just built by the K.S.U. to the west of their packing house.  In May, Thos. Lawson and Geo. Rowcliffe, from Shoal Lake,  Manitoba, opened a General Store in the Raymer Building, at the  south-west corner of Bernard Avenue and Water Street (now  Meikle's). Here they carried a splendid stock of Dry Goods, Clothing, Boots and Shoes, Groceries, etc. During the following years they  built up a very fine business.  Later in the summer, Kelowna's first drug store was started by H.  E. Wallis, in the Raymer Building, in the premises recently vacated  by Sam Goev's Restaurant.  W. J. Armstrong from Midway and formerly of Vernon, opened  the town's first Sheet Metal and Tinsmith Shop in August, in the  Gammie Building. He remained in business about two years, when  he moved to Armstrong, B.C.  About the same time, R. Whittaker and Son opened a Butcher  Shop on Bernard Avenue, east of Lequime and Lloyd-Jones' mill office,  v here Louis Ledger formerly had his barber shop and billiard room.  However, in May of the following year, he sold to Bawtinheimer and  Robinson.  Near this time, Lequime and Lloyd-Jones suffered a severe loss,  when their sawmill was completely destroyed by fire. It was only by  hard work, on the part of citizens manning a couple of bucket lines  from the lake, that most of the lumber was saved. Construction of a  new mill was started on the same site, in a few days, and with new  machinery installed, was in operation in a couple of months time.  Kelowna golfing enthusiasts got together and on August 26, held  a tournament, with the following players taking part: W. D. Walker,  A. Gammie, H. S. Rose, Dr. Carruthers, M. P. Empey, P. Spicer, C.  Nicholson, A. Gray, J. Houston, T. W. Stirling, E. R. Bailey, E.  Weddell, H. Stillingfleet, A. McDonald, and H. E. Wallis. Unfortunately the ground was very wet and no high scores were made;  Dr. Carruthers won quite easily.  To accommodate new employees of the K.S.U., T. W. Stirling  built a couple of cottages, near the Anglican Church, during the  summer.  In September, C. A. S. Atwood resigned as secretary of the K.S.U.  and took up residence in  Greenwood as representative of Smith and  (140) Early Days in Kelowna  McLeod's Sash and Door Factory of Vernon. P. Spicer succeeded  Mr. Atwood as secretary of the K.S.U.  Bawtinheimer and Burtch started a restaurant upstairs, in the  Raymer Building, but closed up after a few months.  A. B. Knox shipped out three carloads of beef cattle to the Kootenays in the fall.  At a meeting of the Agricultural and Trades Association of Kelowna, the following officers were elected: C. S. Smith, President;  T. W. Stirling, Vice-President; D. W. Sutherland, Sec'y.; Directors,  A. B. Knox, E. R. Bailey, A. Day, S. Ray, J. Crozier, R. Lambly,  J. Brown, A. McLennan, B. Lequime, Dr. Boyce and J. Morrison.  For several months, beginning early in the year, my mother had  operated a small bakery in her kitchen and the business grew to such  proportions, that larger premises were required. So' my father, W. C.  Clement, built a house with a small store in front, on the west side of  Water Street, cornering on the lane, just south of where the Geo. A.  Meikle Ltd. store now stands. A steel oven was installed in the fall  and Kelowna's first commercial bakery was launched. As it was practically impossible to get a steady, year-round job, it was arranged for  me to try my hand at baking. Under my mother's training, I soon  learned something of the art, and carried on that trade for nearly  three years.  Our bakery business continued to expand, until we were shipping  bread as far away as Vernon.  So ends the year 1899.  In spite of the low wages received during the time I had worked  at the sawmill and fruit picking and packing, I was able to save a little  money. As there was more room in the store than the bakery business  required, I put in a small stock of confectionery, fruit and local cigars,  early in the year 1900. Shortly afterwards, I added a few dollars  worth of bicycle sundries and secured an agency for the Canada Cycle  and Motor Company bicycles. This proved very successful and I sold  quite a number of them in the town and valley. Later in the fall, I  put in a small stock of stationery, books, toys and fancy goods. As  there was no newspaper in town then, and to attract trade for these  lines, I had printed a number of hand-bills, which I mailed to residents  of the town and valley. (At that time I knew everyone in the district).  This was the first stationery and bookstore in Kelowna.  In March of that year, Rev. R. Boyle, in charge of the Presbyterian Church during the past year, was transferred to Ashcroft and  (141) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  was succeeded by Rev. P. D. Muir. J. J. Stubbs became organist in  the church, while D. W. Crowley was chosen leader of the choir.  Towards the end of April, Dr. and Mrs. Boyce returned from a  four month sojourn in the East, during which time the doctor took a  post-graduate course in Montreal hospitals. While he was away, Dr.  Drier looked after his patients.  Sometime around May or June, John Dilworth, a son-in-law of  Isaiah Mawhinney, arrived from Manitoba, and bought the J. T.  Davies ranch, the former Frederick Brent property.  Early in July, I happened to be on the CPR wharf, when Leon  Gillard pulled in his boat, with a very large trout which he had just  caught. It was the largest ever heard of being taken in the lake up  to that time and scaled just over twenty-nine pounds.  Owing to great activity in the development of the mines in the  Boundary District, at Fairview, Camp McKinney, Grand Forks and  Greenwood, several large shipments of dynamite went down on the  steamer Aberdeen. As this explosive could not be transported on the  same boat as regular travellers, it was necessary to make special trips  on Sundays.  In July the home of Mr. and Mrs. Thos. Lawson was saddened  by the loss of Gordon, their only child, after a brief illness. Shortly  afterwards Mr. and Mrs. Lawson left on a visit to Ontario.  Having recently passed his mate's examination, Jos. B. Weeks,  of the Aberdeen, was transferred to that position on the steamer Slocan  of Kootenay Lake in October. He later returned to the Okanagan,  to become mate of the Aberdeen and spent many years later as Captain  of CPR steamers on Okanagan Lake.  The Fall Fair at Kelowna was again unfortunate in hitting wet  weather. The exhibits were excellent, but outside events were more  or less a flop on account of the weather.  An exhibit was sent to the New Westminster Fall Fair, under the  management of Harry Chaplain, and it carried off first prize for district, of $250.00. The Kelowna Shippers' Union secured second prize  of $100.00 for their splendid showing of tobacco and cigars. Considering that these prizes were won in competition with many older  districts, it was a wonderful achievement and a great advertisement  for Kelowna and surrounding district.  The building on Bernard Avenue, formerly used by the K.S.U.  for the curing of pork, was bought by A. B. Knox.  In the fall, a number of shade trees were planted, in front of the  (142) Early Days in Kelowna  Lake View Hotel and the K.S.U. building on Abbott Street. These  added much to the attractiveness of the place and in later years were  often mentioned by people disembarking from the boat, as it docked  then at the foot of Bernard Avenue.  One night about the end of October, Provincial Constable Hugh  Rose was out searching for a Mr. Smithson, accused of horse stealing,  and meeting a mounted man on the trail in the darkness, ordered him  to stop. Instead of doing so, the man, putting spurs to his horse, kept  going. Rose warned the suspect, that he would shoot, and the fellow  paying no attention, Hugh fired over the man's head. As he still failed  to heed the challenge, the Constable tried to hit the horse's legs with  another shot, but the bullet hit the man below the knee. Overtaking  the fugitive, Rose discovered it was A. McDougall, who, thinking he  was being held up, had tried to escape. Fortunately, the wound being  only a slight one, McDougall made a quick and complete recovery.  Sometime in November, Fred Theriault opened a shoe and harness  repair shop on Bernard Avenue, near Pandosy Street. He seemed to  be a harmless old fellow who frequently indulged too freely in alcoholic beverages. However, about four years later, after a new fall  of snow, footprints were traced from a break-in at Lequime's store,  to his shop where he lived, and a quantity of stolen goods belonging  to various merchants was found. At the Vernon Fall Assizes Theriault  was found guilty and sent to Kamloops jail for two years. This was  an isolated case, as there were practically no cases of this nature in  Kelowna, during those early years.  In December, S. F. O'Kell, student preacher in charge of the  Methodist Church at Benvoulin and Kelowna, took up residence in  town.  All fall large quantities of produce were being hauled into town,  for shipment to Kootenay and prairie points. It was quite common to  see ten to fifteen heavily laden wagons in line at one time coming down  Bernard Avenue. Everything was hauled by horses then, as automobiles  and motor trucks had not come into use.  During the year 1900, several families arrived in town and a  number of new houses were built.  On Monday, January 24, 1901, the steamer Aberdeen arrived  with her flag at half mast. As Kelowna had no telegraph or telephone  connection with the outside world, this was the first news we had of  Queen Victoria's death.  Gifford E. Thomson, who had been running a stage and carrying  (143) The Okanagan Historical Society—-I960  the mail between Kelowna and Vernon since October 1893, resigned  his job as mail carrier on March 31, 1901. Wm. Scott, manager of  the Postill ranch, was awarded the contract at a salary of $600 per  year. Bill, as he was popularly called, possessed quite an extensive  vocabulary of the type usually referred to as picturesque. I made several trips with him and had an opportunity of listening to his colorful  language.  At this time there were quite a number of dogs in Kelowna poisoned  by some unknown person, who was never apprehended, although almost  everyone has their suspicions of who was responsible.  In April, G. A. Thompson completed a fine two storey building  on the southeast corner of Bernard Avenue and Water Street, and  opened Kelowna's first harness and saddlery shop there.  J. J. Stubbs opened a restaurant in the Thompson Block and occupied the upstairs as a dwelling and rooms to rent. He erected a large  sign, "Lancashire House" on top of the building and it stood there  for several years.  Early in April, Cecil Nicholson and Wm. Brent, who had served  in the South African war, returned home. It was a day of much rejoicing and the two were given a rousing welcome. Unfortunately,  two others who also served in the war, H. C. Stillingfleet and Ed.  Hayward, did not arrive at the same time, but came separately, several  weeks later. Another young man, by the name of Begg, also from  Kelowna, was killed in battle in South Africa. All of these men had  joined the Strathcona Horse, a mounted regiment completely equipped  by Lord Strathcona. Bernard Avenue was gaily decorated and a huge  arch, covered with evergreens, flags and bunting, had been erected a  short distance from the CPR dock. They were each handed a two  foot long key to the town, made by Wm. McQueen, local blacksmith.  On behalf of the citizens, D. W. Sutherland made the presentation,  at the same time welcoming the two men home. Then, Cecil and  Billy were hoisted into a buggy, with Archie McDonald and John  Brown, the two biggest men present, at the shafts. Everyone who  could, put a hand to the vehicle and away they went, through the arch  and up Bernard Avenue, while everyone cheered. It was an event long  remembered by those present.  Cecil Nicholson was appointed Provincial Constable at Camp McKinney, a mining town in the Boundary District at the time, but unfortunately passed away from an attack of typhoid fever the following August.   Wm. (Billy) Brent then received the appointment.  (144) Early Days in Kelowna  In May, Mgr. Eummelon's property at the Okanagan Mission was  sold to Fasciaux and Gruyelle. (This was part of the old Catholic  Mission property).  In June, Rev. Geo. Smith succeeded S. F. O'Kell, as minister of  the Methodist Church in Kelowna. He had charge of the church as  a missionary, about four years ago and thinks there is no place like  Kelowna and the surrounding valley. Upon his return he was an  ordained minister, the first of that denomination to be stationed here.  Messrs. Stirling and Pitcairn took over the business of the Kelowna  Shippers' Union, but confined it principally to the packing and shipping  of fruit. During this period the first shipments of fruit in carload lots  were made. To correspond with those used by U.S.A. packers, the size  of apple boxes was changed from fifty to forty pounds. All fall, they  had a large force of pickers working in the orchards of the district and  the fruit was hauled to their packing house. Two or three carloads  of fruit went out, via the steamer Aberdeen, each week and the packing house with a much enlarged staff was about the busiest place in  town. At this time the firm bought the fruit on the trees and attended  to the picking of it. The company started another new industry, the  evaporating of prunes, and a product of high quality was turned out.  As I required more capital to enlarge my stock, my mother and  father looked after the bakery business, while I went to work for  Stirling and Pitcairn, in the orchards and packing house. Also, when  the prune drier started, I was put in charge there, where with an  assistant, Will Budden, I handled the work during the day shift. I  was paid $1.50 per day of twelve, hours, and $3.00 for Sundays. In  this way I was able to add considerable to my capital. R. D. (Bob)  Sullivan handled the work during the night shift of twelve hours.  Late in the year H. E. Wallis moved his drug business from the  Raymer Building to his new store at the south-west corner of Bernard Avenue and Pandosy Street. It was a two storey building and a  splendid addition to Kelowna's business section.  In September, Mrs. W. McQueen who, with her husband and  family, had lived in Kelowna for the past nine years, passed away.  During the Fall Fair held about the middle of September, the  weather was the best that could be desired and everything went off  splendidly. A. B. Knox had a magnificent showing of the produce of  his farm and carried off first prize. John Casorso received second prize  for his showing. The outside sporting events consisting mainly of  horse races, drew large crowds.  (145) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  S. T. (Sam) Elliott, who worked during the past summer on the  Telegraph Creek to Hazelton section of the Dawson telegraph line,  took over the blacksmith shop at Benvoulin.  H. W. Raymer and family were saddened by the death of Harry  their second son, from typhoid fever, at the age of eighteen years.  Samuel Ray sold his fine fruit farm, just east of the A. B. Knox  ranch on the Vernon road, to H. E. C. Harris, and John Conlin  bought the Cameron property, near Benvoulin. Mr. Ray and family  moved into town for the winter.  In January 1902, the new twin screw, steel hulled, steamer York,  for some time under construction by the CPR at Okanagan Landing,  was launched, to replace the Aberdeen, while the latter was undergoing an extensive overhaul. It had a ninety foot keel with a sixteen  foot beam and made her first regular run down the lake, towards the  end of February.  For the hunting enthusiasts, a shipment of live quail was brought  in by M. P. Empey on February 26 and turned loose, south of Mill  Creek. This was the first introduction of these splendid game birds  to the valley and for the next few years were protected by law.  In March L. A. Keller, M.D., returned from England, with his  wife and son Rodney, moving into his recently built cottage on the  north-west corner of Bernard Avenue and Pandosy Street. Here for  many years he continued to practise his profession.  Also in March, the cigar factory of the Kelowna Shippers' Union  closed and the cigar makers left town. This was a serious blow to  Kelowna, as these men, on piece work, were making as much as $20.00  to $24.00 per week, which was spent mostly in town. At that time  one dollar would purchase as much as five does today.  About this time, W. B. M. Calder arrived and bought the eight  acres and cottage of P. Spicer, at the south-west corner of Richter and  Gaston.  An old timer, Alphonse Lefevre, passed away at the age of sixty  years, at his home in the valley.  As there was no hospital in Kelowna, Walter D'Aeth who was  taken down by an attack of diphtheria was isolated in the Kelowna  lock-up.   Fortunately the case was a mild one and he soon recovered.  Early in May, J. H. Rutland from Australia bought the 960 acre  farm of D. Rabbit in the valley.  R. Lambly sold his ranch in the valley to Mrs. A. Postill and  moved to Red Deer, Alberta.  (146) Early Days in Kelowna  On May 24, the S.S. Aberdeen was back on her regular run and  made the trip from Okanagan Landing to Kelowna, in a little over  an hour and forty minutes, considerably better than before her overhaul.  Kelowna's school population had increased to such an extent that  a second teacher, Miss H. P. Williams, was engaged. D. W. Sutherland, Principal, later resigned to enter the real estate and insurance  business and the position was taken by R. G. Gordon, who shortly  afterwards left and was succeeded by Alex. Smith. At this time, first  division teachers received a salary of $60.00 per month, while those  in charge of second division were paid $50.00 per month.  Bernard Lequime sold his interest in the sawmill to David Lloyd-  Jones, who continued to operate the business under his own name.  Mr. Lequime, who with T. W. Stirling, owned most of the vacant  lots in town, disposed of his share to Dr. B. F. Boyce. A large portion, principally the section extending from the sawmill property north  to Gaston Avenue, bounded on the west by Okanagan Lake and on  the east by Ellis Street, was turned back from building lots to acreage, by consent of the Provincial Land Registry Office. This was a  far-sighted arrangement, as it later provided ample room for industries to locate there.  Shortly after midnight of August 15, the sawmill whistle screamed  into the silent night, while the Anglican Church bell rang loudly.  This was a signal for fire and all able bodied men hurried from their  homes, to see the whole town lighted by the lurid flames of Lloyd-  Jones' sawmill on fire. There being no other means of combatting  the fire, we formed a couple of bucket lines. These extended from  the lake to as near to the blaze as possible, considering the tremendous  heat, and pails of water were passed from man to man. Fortunately  there was no wind and by strenuous effort the entire stock of lumber  was saved, although the mill, valued at $8,000.00, was a total loss.  Mr. Lloyd-Jones in a letter printed in the Vernon News, thanking the  citizens for putting up such a splendid fight, stated that, "considering  there was not a distance of fifty feet from the mill to the lumber,  it is wonderful how it was managed."  In October, Archie McDonald sold the Lake View Hotel, to Mrs.  E. J. Newsome, late of the Kalamalka Hotel of Vernon.  Louis Holman, an extensive grower of tobacco at Okanagan Mission, made a trip to the East, where he was successful in marketing a  carload of the product. During the following years several other  large shipments were made to the same market.  (147) The Okanagan Historical Society—-I960  In November, a new steamboat, the "Kelowna", eighty feet long  and eighteen-foot beam, with the engine of the old "Penticton", was  launched by David Lloyd-Jones. It was used to haul log booms to his  recently rebuilt mill and deliver lumber to various points along the  lake. The hulk of the Penticton was pulled onto the beach south of  the men's bathing house, where it was set on fire by some unknown  person and completely destroyed, a few years later.  Early in the summer of 1902, I bought the western twenty-two  feet of a lot on Bernard Avenue, now occupied by the Empress Theatre  and next to where Capozzi's Grocery is at present, for $120.00. My  father and I began construction of a building on the property. When  it was completed, I went to work again for Stirling and Pitcairn, in  their packing house. Requiring someone to look after the loading of  cars at Okanagan Landing, I was offered the job. For a couple of  month:, I lived at the Coldstream Hotel, Vernon, and three times a  week I rode down on the morning train to Okanagan Landing. The  ca>es of fruit were trucked from the Aberdeen, into the freight car  and my work was to stack them, leaving an air space all around and  when the car was loaded, I had to nail two-by-fours across the open  space in the centre and brace the piles so there would be no danger  of their falling. For this work I received $75.00 per month and  board, which was very good wages at that time. On this job I was  able to save practically the whole total, which helped me to no small  extent to buy ^more stock for my store. Early in December, I moved  my stock from my old store on Water Street.  I had arranged living quarters above the store which were rented  by Chas. Shayler and family. Here he carried on his trade of cigar  making and turned out a very fine brand, which found a ready market.  W. A. Hunter, a first rate baker, from Manitoba, had during the  summer, opened a bake shop in the Raymer Building, in premises  formerly occupied by H. E. Wallis's Drug Store. By this time, my  book and stationer}' business had developed to the stage where it required  all of my attention, so our bakery was closed.  During the year, several new orchards were planted in the valley  and all fall heavy shipments of fruit continued to go out to Kootenay  and prairie points. Several families had been added to Kelowna's  population and a number of new houses were built. With new money  being invested in the town and district and everyone employed, business had been very good and was steadily improving.  This brings us to the end of 1902.  (148) Early Days in Kelowna  In February 1903, Rev. C. L. Foote, from Clinton, arrived and  took charge of the Presbyterian Church, succeeding Rev. P. D. Muir.  During the same month, at a special meeting in Raymer's Hall,  a new organization, "The Taxpayers' League of the Okanagan Mission Valley", was formed, with C. S. Smith, President; John Dilworth, Vice-President, and Graham Gorrie, Sec.-Treasurer, for the  ensuing year. Executive elected: Fruit Industry—Messrs. T. W. Stirling, J. L. Pridham, John Rutland and S. Long. Farming—Messrs.  A. B. Knox, B. Crichton and Arthur Day. Business and General—  Messrs. T. W. Lawson, H. W. Raymer, D. W. Sutherland and D.  W. Crowley. Objects were as follows: "To promote an intelligent  interest in all matters of a public nature, carrying out any act or acts  that may be passed by that body for the furthering of the interests of  the province and of this locality in particular. To give such information as is possible to visitors or intending settlers as will promote the  agriculture, business and trading interests of our district. To encourage the establishment of industries in our midst, of whatever nature  desirable and expedient for the upbuilding of our industrial and commercial interests, and to do such other things as are necessary, or as  the executive may deem expedient to promote the objects of the association."  Kelowna sustained a heavy loss on Monday, March 30, and it was  feared, at one time, that the whole of the business section of the town  would be destroyed. At about 3:30 in the morning, the lower part of  the Raymer Building, occupied by Lawson and Rowcliffe, General  Merchants, was seen to be on fire. With no adequate fire fighting  equipment, the flames spread rapidly to W. A. Hunter's bakery, in the  same building. In less than a half hour, the whole building was ablaze.  By this time, practically everyone was at the scene. Soon the upper  floor crashed down, to be followed a few minutes later by the roof.  Very fortunately, there was no wind.  A space of about thirty feet separated my building from the Raymer Block and it was hoped that the fire could be checked there. To  that end, barrels of water were hauled from the lake, about two hundred yards distant, and a hand pump from the sawmill used; but it  was soon apparent that this could not be done. In about three quarters  of an hour from the first appearance of the fire, the roof of my building burst into flame. In the meantime, assisted by a number of friends,  most of my stock was carried across Bernard Avenue and deposited  on the sawmill property.   This merchandise I packed into several large  (149) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  wooden cases which Wm. McQueen stored for me in his blacksmith  shop, for several months, free of charge.  The Knox Building, about thirty feet to the west of mine and  the Thompson Building, on the corner of Bernard Avenue and Water  Street, caught fire several times, but suffered little damage.  As reported in the Vernon News of April 2, 1903, the losses were  as follows:  Raymer Bldg.   Loss $  6,000.00 Insurance $2,000.00  Lawson and ^Rowcliffe ___._.     "      $14,000.00 "           $8,000.00  W. A. Hunter      "      $1,000.00 "               none  J. P. Clement       "      $   1,750.00 "          $1,250.00  C. Shayler     "      $1,000.00 "               none  Lawson and Rowcliffe secured premises in the Knox Building and  with the arrival of new stock from the Coast, were doing business  there a week later. H. W. Raymer started construction of a new  building and I let the contract for a new store. During the early part  of the summer, I worked for M. J. Curts, helping to build a couple  of houses and barns in the country. Later I worked for Stirling and  Pitcairn mostly in their packing house. (At that time no women or  girls were employed in the orchards or packing house.)  Up to about this time, services of the Methodist Church had been  held in Raymer's Hall. Under the pastorate of Rev. Geo. Smith, a  church was built on Pandosy Street, at the corner of Lawrence Avenue.  In June 1903, Rev. J. W. Bowering, late of Vernon, was transferred  to Kelowna to succeed Rev. Geo. Smith.  Early in the summer, a sudden rise in temperature in the mountains resulted in streams emptying more water into the lake than could  be carried out by Okanagan River, at the south end. The lake rose  to a level with the CPR wharf and Mill Creek poured a huge volume  of water into town, until it reached as much as two feet in parts of  Bernard Avenue.  When the flood was at its highest in June, a very distressing accident occurred, when Rev. C. L. Foote, Presbyterian Minister in  charge of congregations at Kelowna and Okanagan Mission, was  accidentally drowned in an irrigation ditch.  To contest the Provincial election, in the interests of the Liberal  party, T. W. Stirling received the nomination. Price Ellison of Vernon, who had represented the district for some years, was the Conservative candidate.   He was a very popular man and difficult to defeat,  (150) Early Days in Kelowna  with the result that when voting took place on Oct. 31, he was declared the winning candidate.  Kelowna got its first resident lawyer when John F. Burne, from  Nelson, opened a law office there.  During several months L. Christien had been running the Benvoulin Hotel, but in June Dan Nicholson resumed management. It  had recently been thoroughly renovated and painted. Much new furniture had been installed and it was said to be one of the best small  hostelries in the province.  In August, Robert Munson, who for some time had operated a  stage line between Kelowna and Vernon in opposition to the mail  stage of Wm. Scott, sold out to Walter Pritchard.  Throughout the summer, business was very active and labor was  scarce. Men were being paid as high as $2.00 per day of ten hours  and hard to get at that.  In midsummer, Messrs. Crowley and Downton, butchers and livery stable operators, dissolved partnership and Ernest Wilkinson and  Geo. Packer joined Mr. Crowley in a new firm, D. W. Crowley and  Co. Mr. Downton opened a new butcher shop on Bernard Avenue,  a few days later.  Early in the year, Messrs. Gammie and Gordon opened a general store in town, but in October the partnership was dissolved with  Mr. Gammie continuing the business under his own name. Mr.  Gammie was later joined by O. W. M. Hughes.  A special feature of the Kelowna Fall Fair held Sept. 16-17,  was a competition for two silver cups by owners of yachts and sailing  boats.  To fill the vacancy created by the death of Rev. C. L. Foote,  Rev. W. B. Bremner took over the ministry of the Knox Presbyterian  Church in Kelowna.  In November, B. E. Crichton sold his ranch in the valley to T.  S. Berger from Regina, for $8000.  In the fall, Carruthers and Pooley, local real estate agents, closed  a deal with Lequime Bros, for the purchase of their ranch at Okanagan Mission, by the Kelowna Land and Orchard Company, a group  of Kelowna business men. This was one of the largest properties  in the valley and the purchasers went ahead subdividing it and constructing a dam across Canyon Creek, to supply water for both  domestic and irrigation purposes.  (151) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  In November 1903, Dr. W. J. Knox arrived from the East and  commenced practice. During the temporary absence of Dr. B. F.  Boyce from town, his patients were taken care of by Dr. Knox (and  now fifty-seven years later the good doctor is still practicing his profession.)  About this time, a new drug store was opened in the Boyce Bldg.  a few feet west of Lequime's store on Bernard Avenue, by Boyce and  Willits.  The first commercial shipment of apples from Kelowna to the  British market was made by Stirling and Pitcairn in the fall. The  lot consisted of five hundred boxes each containing forty pounds net  and was packed in the company's local warehouse. It was made up  of Spies, Baldwins and Canada Reds and many of them were wrapped  in paper, before boxing. Most of the Spies were from the orchard  of J. L. Pridham, while the other varieties were grown by T. W.  Stirling. The consignment reached Montreal and was loaded on board  the "S.S. Hungarian" early in November and shipped to Glasgow,  where it opened up in splendid condition. This was the forerunner of  many such shipments, made in later years. Messrs. Stirling and Pitcairn deserved great credit for their initiative in pioneering this work.  Several attempts had been made during the past years to establish  a barber shop in Kelowna, but on account of insufficient business they  were forced to close. Population of town and district was rapidly increasing, so in December 1903, John Bouch from Vernon opened a  first class establishment which he operated for several years.  My new building was completed early in the same month, so I  moved in my goods saved from the fire of the preceding March. Several new lines were added, consisting of Eastman's Kodaks and photographic sundries, fishing tackle, souvenirs, sporting goods, tobaccos and  smokers' sundries. About the same time I disposed of my bicycle supplies and Canada Cycle and Motor Company agency to S. T. Elliott,  who had left Benvoulin and opened a blacksmith shop on the northeast corner of Bernard Avenue and Pandosy Street.  During the fall, Messrs. Lawson and Rowcliffe made heavy shipments of fruit to prairie points. As their store in the new Raymer  Building was then ready for occupancy, they moved from the Knox  Building. At the same time W. B. M. Calder, who had a thorough  knowledge of the drygoods business, joined them and the business was  carried on under the name Lawson Rowcliffe and Co., Ltd.  Father traded the property on Water Street to Mr. Calder for his  (152) Early Days in Kelowna  eight acres and cottage at the corner of Richter and Gaston and we  moved there.  Also in December, a new company, the Okanagan Valley and  Kootenay Land Co. (later changed to the Okanagan Fruit and Land  Co.) consisting of Jos. Glenn, F. R. E. D'Hart and several local men  bought the A. B. Knox ranch, adjoining town, which they subdivided  and put on the market. This proved very successful and a great many  new settlers came into the district and many new homes were built  and business improved to> a very great extent.  This brings us to the end of 1903.  In March 1904, H. C. Cooper from Vernon bought the saddlery  and harness business operated by G. A. Thompson during the past  three years, in his building at the south-east corner of Bernard Avenue  and Water Street. Mr. Thompson sold the building to W. C. Blackwood, father of Cal. Blackwood, who had arrived recently in town.  Mr. Blackwood took over the restaurant and rooms from J. J. Stubbs,  and operated them foi several months. However, when his new residence farther east on Bernard Avenue was completed in December,  he and family moved there and Mr. and Mrs. Thos. Allan took over  the restaurant and rooms. This building stood until 1952, when it  was torn down to make room for the Woolworth Store, at present  occupying the site.  Kelowna lost one of its pioneers when Wm. McQueen, blacksmith,  who came to the valley in the early nineties, died toward the end of  March.  In May, A. B. Knox who had sold his ranch a few months earlier  to a local syndicate, sold his entire herd of cattle to Thos. Ellis, for  P. Burns & Co. of Calgary.  Business continued very active and to accommodate increased  trade, Mrs. Newsome arranged with T. E. Crowell, contractor of  Vernon, to build a large addition to the Lake View Hotel.  In June R. H. Spedding of Manitou, Manitoba, arrived and announced his intention of starting a newspaper in Kelowna. He bought  the Gordon Building, recently built on the vacant lot west of the  Bailey Building, on Bernard Avenue. The first issue of the Kelowna  Clarion, a small but newsy weekly, appeared on July 28, 1904. Mr.  Spedding took charge of the business end while his son Harry, a first  rate printer, attended to the job printing department and the mechanical production of the paper. Wm. J. Clement filled the editorial post.  The paper was well patronized by the local business people and always  appeared well filled with advertising.  (153) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  Business concerns who advertised in Vol. 1, No. 1, of the Clarion  were as follows: Lequime Bros. & Co., Lawson, Rowcliffe & Co.,  and Gammie & Co., all general merchants; Okanagan Fruit and Land  Co. Ltd.; Carruthers and Pooley, real estate and insurance; S. T.  Elliott, blacksmith and agricultural implements; J. F. Burne, solicitor  and notary public; Wm. Haug, brick work, stone mason and plasterer;  Kelowna Shaving Parlors, J. Bouch, Prop.; Kelowna Restaurant, C.  Blackwood, Prop.; H. W. Raymer, and John Curts, both building  contractors; Kelowna Farmers' Exchange, O. D. Ranks, Manager,  fruits and vegetables; Kelowna Meat Market, John Downton, Prop.;  D. W. Crowley and Co., butchers, livery and feed stables; Kelowna  Saw Mill Co., D. Lloyd-Jones, Prop.; H. C. Cooper, harness and  saddlery; Geo. Verey, watch maker and jeweller; J. P. Clement,  bookseller and stationer; Kelowna Furniture Co., Mission Valley Livery and Feed Stable, C. Blackwood, Prop.; Kelowna Hardware Store,  D. Leckie, Prop.; Wallis Drug Store; W. A. Hunter, baker and confectioner; and Boyce and Willits Prescription Druggists. The only  new ad. to appear in the second issue of the Clarion, was T. McKin-  ley's, Farms for Sale.  During the summer, the Kelowna Land and Orchard Co. completed a new road, from the Pandosy Street bridge over Mill Creek,  through the old Lequime estate to Mission Creek. All of their recently  surveyed acre lots just south of Mill Creek were sold and a number  of new homes built. Among these were an eight room house built by  J. J. Stubbs and one for £. M. Carruthers, the latter when completed  being one of the handsomest and most up-to-date in Kelowna.  In July George A. Meikle of Manitou, Manitoba, arrived in  Kelowna. George accepted a position with Lawson, Rowcliffe & Co.  later to become manager of the business.  A small boy, George Dixon, while fishing off the wharf, fell into  the water and was pulled out by John Leslie. Later on the same day  while swimming in the lake, Leslie was overcome and would have  drowned but for the timely arrival of E. M. Carruthers and O. D.  Ranks. Ted had to dive three times to recover Leslie, who was lying  on the lake bottom in several feet of water. After twenty minutes  of artificial respiration Leslie regained consciousness and was soon  none the worse for the experience.  On August 5, Mr. and Mrs. Whelan, long residents of the valley,  left with their family for a visit to relatives at Barnet, England, returning in the following November.  (154) Early Days in Kelowna  On August 11, a large advertisement appeared in the Clarion, announcing the opening of an office by D. W. Sutherland and H. C.  Stillingfleet as Notaries Public and dealing in Land Sales and general  insurance.  During the same month, H. B. D. Lysons built a large boat house,  north of the sawmill, for the purpose of building and renting small  boats.  On August 16 at about 10 P.M. a fire broke out in a warehouse  on the CPR wharf, which for a time threatened the whole dock area.  However, a bucket brigade was soon organized and after a couple of  hours strenuous work the fire was extinguished. The roof of the building was completely destroyed and the wharf damaged, but strange to  report, the contents consisting of baled hay, were saved.  Jas. M. Bowes of Silverton leased the Lake View Hotel from Mrs.  Newsome, taking possession on August 25. Jim was very popular with  the travelling public and continued to operate a first class establishment for several years. Later in the same year he erected a windmill  to pump water from the lake and also installed an acetylene gas plant  to light the hotel.  In the same month the Okanagan Fruit and Land Co., managed  by F. R. E. D'Hart, opened three new streets parallel with and north  of Bernard Avenue, in the recently acquired Knox estate, thereby  opening up a large tract of land for settlement.  Also in August, David Leckie completed a fine new cement building, with stone front on Bernard Avenue, between the Knox and  Bailey Buildings. Here he opened Kelowna's first hardware store.  This is now the Bennett Hardware Co.  On September 20, Alex. Gammie, one of the town's most popular  merchants, died and the general store business was taken over by his  partner, O. W. M. Hughes.  Miss Curtis opened up a complete line of fall millinery during  the month, in premises above the Clarion office.  Also in September, Frank M. Buckland bought Geo. Packer's interest in the D. W. Crowley and Co. business.  Up until now, the town's only means of fighting fires was by  hastily organized bucket brigades, so an old hand operated pumping  engine, one of the first used by San Francisco, was bought from Vernon. A number of shallow wells were dug at strategic points in the  business section to supply the necessary water.   To be better prepared,  (155) The Okanagan Historical Society—-I960  a fire brigade was formed, with S. T. Elliott as chief and Ed. El-  worthy assistant.  In September, H. H. Millie from Carman, Manitoba, opened a  jewellery store and watch repair business in the Raymer Building.  About the same time, a certificate of incorporation was issued to  the Kelowna Club, "a society for social intercourse, mutual helpfulness, mental and moral improvement, rational recreation and the promotion of good fellowship among its members." A contract for erection of a club building on Pandosy was awarded to H. W. Raymer.  At a well attended meeting of citizens, it was decided to proceed  with incorporation of Kelowna as a city. In this connection, John F.  Burne, barrister, made a trip to Kamloops and completed a search in  the Land Registry Office there to ascertain the property owners of  Kelowna.  During three months of the summer, land consisting of acreage  and building lots in Kelowna and adjacent district to the value of  $125,000 was sold.  A meeting of the Kelowna Amateur Orchestra was held at which  the following officers were elected: H. S. Rose, Chairman; D. W.  Crowley, Sec.-Treasurer; J. J. Stubbs, Conductor, and L. Holman,  A. E. Barneby, J. J. Stubbs, H. S. Rose and D. W. Crowley Managing Committee.  Messrs. Lequime Bros, had, a few months earlier, moved their  old store and contents to the vacant lot immediately east of where it  had stood for several years. On the vacated property a new store of  stone construction was built, Wm. Haug doing all of the masonry and  plastering. It was forty feet wide by sixty feet deep, with handsome  plate glass show windows and the interior fittings were equal to any  in the large stores of the Coast cities. Toward the end of October,  they moved their stock from the old building to the new, with E.  Weddell as manager and Ernest Wilkinson, Frank Fraser and Ed.  Elworthy as assistants.  Another blacksmith shop, making three for the town, was opened  in October, by Chas. Heintz of Vernon. Rome Rice who had been  working for him in Vernon was assistant in the new shop.  Up until now all banking business had to be transacted in Vernon,  with the Bank of Montreal, the only bank there, but a great improvement came when that bank opened a branch in the new Leckie Building on November 1. H. G. Fisher from Greenwood was appointed  manager, with H. Deane and R. Dundas as assistants.  (156) Early Days in Kelowna  During the same month, A. W. Lee, route agent for the Dominion  Express Co. (in 1926 changed to Canadian Pacific Express Co.)  opened branch money order offices in Boyce and Willits' Drug Store  and my Stationery and Book Store. These offices proved a great convenience to the public.  Also in November, H. C. Cooper moved his harness business from  the Blackwood Block to the old Lequime store recently vacated by  them.  R. Morrison of Boissevain, Manitoba, accompanied by his wife,  daughter Kathleen and Miss Frank, arrived in Kelowna early in the  same month. When the town was incorporated as a city the following year, Mr. Morrison, who had many years of experience as municipal clerk in Manitoba, was appointed Kelowna's first City Clerk.  For several months Miss Leslie operated a dressmaking shop in  an upstairs room in the Raymer Building.  On November 28, a new school of four rooms all on the ground  floor, on Richter Street south of the Presbyterian Church, was occupied  for the first time with Thos. Henderson as Principal. The second  and third rooms were taught by Mrs. H. P. Fraser and Miss F. Black.  Later Wm. J. Clement and Miss Pringle taught these two divisions.  About this time, the firm name of Boyce and Willits was changed  to P. B. Willits and Co.  Up to now, the Clarion presses had been operated by man power,  so a gasoline engine was installed, much to the relief of the pressmen.  Shortly before the end of the year, Frank Bawtinheimer took over  the Kelowna Meat Market from J. Downton who went to Summer-  land and opened a shop there.  In December, the Hon. Richard McBride, Premier of the Province, accompanied by his secretary and Price Ellison, the member for  the district, paid a visit to Kelowna. This was the Premier's first visit  to this part of the valley and he was greatly impressed with the development taking place.  Around the middle of the same month, Jos. Glenn and Jas. Harvey, from Indian Head, Sask., and both interested in the Okanagan  Fruit and Land Co., arrived in Kelowna to make their home here.  In the same month, a telephone line was strung, connecting D.  W. Crowley & Co.'s livery stable and butcher shop with the residence  of Frank Buckland, a partner in the firm.  The past year was the most successful one in the history of Kel-  (157) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  owna, up to that time. During the summer and fall, a total of forty-  nine carloads of fruit were shipped from the town, an increase of  about seven carloads over the previous year. Two large ranches had  been split up into small holdings and placed on the market—the A. B.  Knox, by the Okanagan Fruit and Land Co., and the Lequime, by  the Kelowna Land and Orchard Co. Many newcomers from the East  arrived and settled in the town and vicinity and over forty new buildings, exclusive of barns and other outhouses, were built during the year.  This ends the year 1904.  Early in January 1905, Rev. J. W. Bowering resigned as pastor  of the Methodist Church, which position he had filled for the past  year and a half, and was succeeded by Rev. Andrew Henderson of  Manitou, Manitoba.  During the same month, Miss Eva S. Reekie, a graduate of Moul-  ton College and Toronto Conservatory of Music, opened a studio at  the corner of Water Street and Lawrence Avenue, for teaching Pianoforte, Theory and Vocal.  Also in January, Geo. Verey closed his jewellery shop and watch  repair business and Herman Brown opened a shoe repair shop in the  vacated store.  At the Kelowna Public School, Thos. Henderson the Principal,  received severe hand burns in putting out a fire which ignited a little  girl's dress, when she stood too close to a stove. He was off work for  a couple of weeks, but fortunately the girl was not seriously burned.  On January 27, the government telephone line, which had been  under construction since the previous summer, was opened to the public with a message from Mayor H. G. Muller of Vernon, to the citizens of Kelowna. The local office was installed in H. E. Wallis'  Drug Store, with rates set at twenty-five cents for the first five minutes  and ten cents for each subsequent five minutes. This was Kelowna's  first contact by wire with outside points. However, there were several objections to the telephone line, mainly lack of secrecy. As a  result of a public meeting held on Feb. 2 in Raymer's Hall, a petition  requesting establishment of a telegraph line in conjunction with the  telephone, was forwarded to the Dominion Government. A short  time later, the telephone office was moved from the H. E. Wallis Drug  Store to H. H. Millie's watch repair shop and telegraph instruments  installed, Mr. Millie being a competent operator.  Chas. Shayler,  who had operated a small  cigar  factory  in  Kel-  (158) Early Days in Kelowna  owna, passed on and the business was continued by Mrs. Shayler, with  E. R. Louden in charge.  Early in February, Frank W. Fraser bought D. W. Sutherland's  interest in the real estate firm of Sutherland and Stillingfleet and the  new company operated under the name Stillingfleet and Fraser.  About the same time, S. T. Elliott and R. Morrison built a warehouse near Mr. Elliott's Blacksmith Shop, where they carried a large  stock of farm machinery.  On February 10, Thos. Lawson bought the interests of Geo. Rowcliffe and W. B. M. Calder in the firm of Lawson Rowcliffe & Co.  Ltd. and continued the business under the name Thos. Lawson & Co.  Ltd. Mr. Rowcliffe took over the fruit packing end of the business,  which he continued to operate for many years.  Toward the end of the same month, W. A. Hunter bought the  A. B. Knox Bldg. and moved his bakery business from the Raymer  Bldg. to the newly acquired premises.  On February 28, all of Kelowna's merchants signed an agreement  to close their respective stores every night at 6 P.M. except Saturdays  and nights preceding holidays, commencing March 15, 1905. They  further agreed to close every Thursday at 12:30 P.M. from April  1 to OctM, 1905.  Signed: Lequime Bros. & Co., D. Leckie, Thos. Lawson & Co.  Ltd., P. B. Willits & Co., Kelowna Furniture Co., H. E. Wallis,  Kelowna Meat Market, J. P. Clement, D. W. Crowley & Co., H.  C. Cooper, O. W. M. Hughes, H. H. Millie.  These were the only retail stores in Kelowna in March 1905.  In March, the old homestead of Eli Lequime, taken up in 1866  and comprising eighty-three acres, was sold to Messrs. Sinclair and  Allen, by the Kelowna Land and Orchard Co., for $12,000.  Early in March, John Collins opened a Real Estate, Insurance  and General Commission Agent's Office, in the K.S.U.  Building.  In the same month, Harry A Cleve from Slocan City opened a  tailoring establishment in the upstairs of Raymer's Building and  shortly afterwards moved to the W. C. Clement Block on Water  Street.  In the March 23 issue of the Clarion appeared an advertisement  dated Feb. 27, 1905, of a petition to the Provincial Legislature, for  incorporation of Kelowna as a city, signed by the following: H. W.  Raymer, Chas. Burtch, Thos. Lawson, R. H. Spedding, E. W. Wilkinson, J. P. Clement, D. W. Crowley, F. R. E. D'Hart.  (159) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  This petition was taken to Victoria by H. W. Raymer for approval  by the Legislature.  To provide a recreation ground close to the centre of town, a  space was cleared in the park, opposite the Lake View Hotel.  Towards the end of the month, Mrs. Tutcher, from Sandon,  opened a millinery store in W. A. Hunter's Building.  Earlier in the year a small private hospital was opened by Mrs.  Brown.  The new two storey Kelowna Club's building on Pandosy Street,  under construction since the preceding September by H. W. Raymer,  was formally opened the end of March. It contained nicely furnished  quarters, with, among other features, a reading room well supplied  with magazines and newspapers.  About the end of March, Philip DuMoulin arrived from Nelson,  to assume management of the Kelowna branch of the Bank of Montreal, and his position in the bank there was taken over by H. G. Fisher,  who had ably filled the position here since its opening.  Due to greatly increased business the S.S. Aberdeen was unable to  handle it all, so in April the CPR put the S.S. York and a large scow  in service. It was used chiefly for hauling freight, leaving passengers,  express and mail to the "Aberdeen". Depending on the quantity of  freight, two or three trips per week were made. Joseph B. Weeks,  mate of the "Aberdeen", was appointed Captain of the "York."  Early in April, O. W. M. Hughes moved his stock of general  merchandise to premises vacated by H. C. Cooper in the Blackwood  Block. After about three months in this location, Mr. Hughes made  an assignment for the benefit of his creditors and the stock was disposed of by Sheriff H. O. Vale of Vernon.  The Kelowna Farmers' Exchange, a co-operative organization  under the management of O. D. Ranks, had been started a short while  earlier and to accommodate their fast growing business began construction of a new warehouse, twenty-five by forty-eight feet, on the  lake front near the CPR wharf, for packing and shipping produce of  the district.  In April Jas. Bowes bought the K.S.U. Building for $4500, with  the intention of using the upper floors as an annex to the Lake View  Hotel.   The deal was put through by Stillingfleet and Fraser.  Towards the end of the same month, W. B. M. Calder opened a  Dry Goods,  Gents' Furnishings,  Clothing,  Boots and Shoes business  (160) Early Days in Kelowna  in the Raymer Building, where he continued to' do business for several years.  Also about this time, E. R. Bailey moved the Post Office from  temporary quarters in the Boyce Building, back to his own premises,  which had been undergoing alterations for the purpose.  Late in the month of April, John H. Rutland, having sold his  large ranch, left for Santa Rosa, California, where he planned on  making his home. A local syndicate had bought the Rutland property  and several other ranches in the same neighborhood and brought water  by ditch from Mission Creek for irrigation purposes. This proved very  successful and very shortly many new homes were built on the ten  or twenty acre blocks into which it had been subdivided. The same  was true of the Lequime bench, which in less than a year had been  transformed from cattle range to beautiful small farms, with splendid roads and irrigation facilities.  Dr. Boyce refitted and painted the room from which the Post Office  moved and opened his office there early in May.  A new industry was started by Jackman and Harvey when they  opened a brick yard near Knox Mountain. Work was begun on May  3 with a staff of six and a fine quality of brick was turned out, which  met with a ready sale locally and at points along the lake.  A large ad. appeared in the Clarion on May 11, proclaiming the  incorporation of the City of Kelowna, under date of May 4,  1905.  A meeting called by E. W. Wilkinson, Returning Officer, for  nomination of Mayor and five Aldermen, was held in the school house  on May 15 and the following were nominated: Mayor, H. W. Raymer, Aldermen, D. W. Sutherland, S. T. Elliott, C. S. Smith, E. R.  Bailey, D. Lloyd-Jones. No other names being proposed, the Returning Officer declared the foregoing elected.  At later council meetings the following appointments were made:  City Clerk, R. Morrison; Assessor, G. A. Thompson; Constable, G.  F. Budden;  Pound Keeper, C. Blackwood.  In May a number of gasoline pleasure boats arrived for D. Leckie,  B. E. Crichton, L. A. Hayman, Chas. Harvey, Jas. Bowes, and F.  R. E. D'Hart. With these, in addition to a number of sailing craft  already in service, as well as a splendid bathing beach, the town was  beginning to develop a water-sports' consciousness. This in later years  led to the "Kelowna Regatta" which now ranks as one of the finest  shows of its kind in Canada.  161 The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  Towards theend of May, Collett Bros, bought Crowley and Co.'s  Livery and Feed Stables.  A recent arrival from Carman, Manitoba, W. B. Cowe opened  Kelowna's first Photographic Studio, in premises adjoining the Kelowna Furniture Co., but on account of financial difficulties in connection with his property in Carman, he was forced to close and return  to that town.  In June 8 issue of the Clarion, a new firm of Clarke and Newson  advertised as Contractors and Jobbers, Buildings moved and Fences a  Specialty.  A Shoe Repair Business was opened by G. A. Thompson, in H.  C. Cooper's Harness Shop.  About the middle of June, a cylinder press was installed by the  Clarion.  Later in the month, Chas. Harvey opened a Civil Engineering,  Surveying and Consulting Engineer's office.  A short while earlier W. R. Pooley had bought the building formerly occupied by Lequime and Lloyd-Jones as an implement warehouse, on Bernard Avenue a short distance east of Lequime Bros. &  Co.'s General Store (this was the building in which Riley and Donald  carried on business of farm implements, about twelve years earlier).  Here E. Hitchcock installed a bake oven and opened a Bakery and  Confectionery towards the end of June, at the same time serving light  meals and refreshments in connection, with his business.  E. R. Bailey sold the sixteen acre block which had been under lease  to Crowley & Co. to that firm late in June.  An editorial in the Clarion of June 29, lists the following: Population of Kelowna about six hundred. Places of business—sawmill,  brickyard, three fruit packing and shipping firms, one hotel and another under construction, three general stores, one drygoods, one hardware, one furniture, one bookstore, two drug stores, one harness and  saddlery, two shoemakers, one paint shop, one jewellery store, two  bakeries, two meat markets, one millinery, one dressmaking establishment, one tailor shop, one blacksmith shop, one barber shop, several  contractors and builders, a number of real estate offices, a branch of  the Bank of Montreal, two livery stables, one boat builder and livery,  a four roomed school with two teachers and a third to be added next  term, three churches, Presbyterian, Anglican and Methodist, a number  of fraternal societies and a private hospital.  Two new businesses opened in the Clarion Block in July—S. H.  (162) Early Days in Kelowna  Grant's Barber Shop and C. C. Josselyn's Flour and Feed Store.  Sam Lee announced in the Clarion of July 20 that he had opened  a new laundry near Chung Kee's store on Eli (Harvey) Avenue and  that his washing and ironing was well done and delivered to patrons.  Shortly after the middle of the month, the CPR sent carpenters  to repair their wharf, which had been partially destroyed by fire a  year earlier. As well as replacing the damaged portion, the south end  was double planked and a new warehouse built to the left of the  main entrance to the wharf.  During the same month a tragedy by drowning was averted by  the quick thinking and acting of Harvey Small. Arthur Henderson,  the young son of Rev. A. Henderson, the Methodist Minister, was  fishing from the CPR wharf and accidentally fell into the lake. Eddie  Thompson's shouts brought several people running to the scene, among  them Harvey who diving in brought the boy to the surface. Making  his way towards shore, hampered by his own heavy clothing and the  boy, he became nearly exhausted, whereupon Chas. Quinn and O. D.  Ranks leaped in to assist the two. Dr. Boyce soon arrived with a boat  and the four were safely brought to shore. Very fortunately none of  them were seriously affected by the incident.  The latter part of the month, Wm. Scott, operator of the mail  stage line between Kelowna and Vernon, replaced his horse drawn  vehicle by an automobile. He made an initial run on Sunday, July  23, covering the route in three hours, and I think this was the first  automobile to enter Kelowna. At that time with only rough gravel  roads and no garages or auto repair shops it was quite an ordeal to  drive any great distance. If anything went wrong the driver just had  to do the best he could to get his car going again.  About four o'clock on the morning of July 25, a cry of "Fire"  brought citizens to the scene at the rear of Leckie's Hardware. A pile  of empty oil barrels and other material was blazing fiercely. Flames  were dangerously near a warehouse, but a bucket brigade using water  from a nearby well soon extinguished them. If the fire had not been  discovered when it was, the entire business block might have been  wiped out.  At a race meeting held in Raymer's Hall early in August, with  Frank Fraser in the chair, it was decided to hold a Race Meet and  Regatta on Friday, Sept. 8.  The following committee to supervise the horse racing part of  the programme,  was appointed:  Messrs.   Bowes,  Stillingfleet,   Pooley  (163) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  and Mappin. Messrs. Lysons, Stirling and DuMoulin were chosen to  look after the water sports.  In the same month an addition of fifteen rooms to the Lake View  Hotel  was completed.  August 3 issue of the Clarion announced a change of editors when  P. B. Pelly, former proprietor of the Echo of Swan Lake, Manitoba,  succeeded W. J. Clement who held the position during the past year.  A meeting was held in the office of Carruthers and Pooley, on  August 15, to consider ways and means of establishing a cottage hospital. Several suitable sites had been offered and considerable sums  of money promised. Messrs. E. Weddell, D. Lloyd-Jones and T.  W. Stirling agreed to act as provisional directors. Later in the year  the City Council voted $500.00 towards the project.  Near the end of the month, P. B. Willits and Co. moved their  drug business from the Boyce Building to premises recently bought  from H. E. Wallis, at the south-west corner of Bernard Avenue and  Pandosy Street. They built a large addition and opened there one of  the best equipped dispensaries in the Province of British Columbia.  At this time G. A. McKay who in after years took a very active part  in the affairs of Kelowna, accepted a position in Willits & Co.  J. B. Knowles, who a few weeks earlier had opened a jewellery  store on Bernard Avenue immediately west of the Clarion office,  moved into the premises in the Boyce Building just vacated by Willits  & Co. Here he opened up a splendid showing of jewellery, watches  and clocks.  Geo. Rowcliffe, who found his fruit packing and shipping business expanding, moved into the store which Mr. Knowles just left.  A new hotel, the Palace, where the Royal Anne now stands, had  been under construction for several months and was now ready for  occupancy. It was a handsome three storey structure, built for the  owner, John W. Milligan, by T. E. Crowell of Vernon. The first  floor contained a large dining room, bar and office, while the upper  two storeys consisted of nicely furnished bedrooms. Mr. Milligan  was granted a license for the sale of alcoholic beverages, at the end  of August, and opened the place for business.  The Dominion Government telephone line had been extended to  connect Vernon, Kamloops, Nicola, Princeton, Hedley and Penticton. To complete the circuit connecting the Okanagan and Nicola  Valleys, the government decided to run a line from Kelowna to Penticton.   Soundings were made in September of Okanagan Lake at its  (164) Early Days in Kelowna.  narrowest point, from the mouth of Mill Creek to the west side, with  the object of laying a cable. The poles were set, the wires strung,  cable laid and connections completed in the Kelowna office by noon  April 12 of the following year, when it was opened to the public.  Early in October 1905, Miss Christine Melsome opened a studio  in town for the teaching of music.  Near the end of the same month, a new butcher shop was opened  in the Blackwood Block by Ball Bros.  In the Clarion of Oct. 26, P. B. Pelly announced his severance  as editor of the paper, which had just been sold by R. H. Spedding  to Geo. C. Rose, who changed the name to "The Kelowna Courier  and Okanagan Orchardist." Mr. Rose continued to operate the paper  until 1938, when he sold out to R. P. MacLean, the present managing editor.  Early in November, Dr. J. W. Nelson Shepherd, a graduate of  the North Pacific Dental College, opened a dental office in the K.S.U.  Block.  About the same time, C. G. Clement advertised in the Courier  that he had opened a factory for the manufacture of cement building  blocks and was ready to do all kinds of cement, stone and brick work.  Some time later, Mr. Clement bought the brick making plant of  Jackman and Harvey. In connection with his cement work he laid  the first cement sidewalks in Kelowna.  To fill the vacancy in the Presbyterian Church, as a result of Rev.  W. B. Bremner's resignation early in the summer, Rev. A. W. K.  Herdman accepted a call and was inducted as pastor on Wednesday,  Nov. 29.  For some time agitation had been going on for a ferry to connect  Kelowna with a rapidly growing settlement on the west side of the  lake. Earlier in the year, the Provincial Government voted a subsidy  of $1000.00 per year, to run for three years and tenders were called.  In this connection, a contract for construction of a ferry wharf at  McLennan's Landing directly opposite Kelowna, was awarded to  Jas. Silver of Peachland. H. B. D. Lysons built the ferry boat and  his tender was accepted. The craft, christened "Skookum", was thirty  feet long, with a beam of six feet six inches and depth of two feet.  It was driven by a seven horsepower Truscott engine, giving a speed  of eight to ten miles per hour and had a seating capacity of twenty  passengers. It began operation on April 2 of the following year and  made two round trips per day.   Geo. C. Rose of the Courier was the  (165) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  first passenger and the trip was made in twelve minutes from wharf  to wharf. Mr. Lysons held the franchise for a little over a year, when  he sold to L. A. Hayman who operated the subsidized ferry until  February 21, 1927. On that date the Provincial Government took  over the service, with the launching at Kelowna of a new craft, the  "Kelowna-Westbank", which provided accommodation for a number of passengers and space for sixteen automobiles. Mr. Hayman  was appointed Captain, a post which he occupied for many years  thereafter. One ferry, however, was found unequal to the task so  in after years it was necessary to operate three larger boats, "The  Lequime", "Pendozi" and "Lloyd-Jones". These in time also proved  inadequate so a floating span bridge was built and opened in 1958 to  accommodate a greatly increased traffic.  During those early years some of the smaller businesses, like old  soldiers, "just faded away." Regarding my Book and Stationery business, I carried on very profitably for several years further and in 1907  sold out to W. M. (Billy) Crawford.  For many years after my arrival, cement sidewalks or paved streets  had not been laid to take the place of narrow plank walks, or dusty  gravelled roads, prevailing then. There was no electricity for lighting and power, no piped water supply, nor sewerage system during  those early years. The Canadian National Railway had not yet been  built from Kamloops to Kelowna. A city and district-wide telephone  service had not been established, and the radio, television and motion  picture theatre were yet to come. Neither had the automobile, motor  truck, or airplane been developed. All of these things now taken more  or less for granted, which help to make living more comfortable,  interesting and pleasant, came at a later date. Now fifty-three years  after incorporation, Kelowna takes its place as one of the finest small  cities of Canada.  I have in the foregoing endeavored to give a complete and accurate account of all businesses established and changes taking place from  early 1898 to the end of 1905. Kelowna in those years grew from a  tiny village to become an incorporated city and had assumed quite a  metropolitan atmosphere. The adjacent country-side had developed  to a corresponding degree.  Besides the businesses mentioned there were other activities, consisting of cultural and social, as well as various sports and amusements; but as Kipling often said, "That is another story."  So now, I have come to the end of my story, "Early Days of  Kelowna."  166; The Okanagan Historical Society—A960  pioneer    j-amilu <jVlevnber    f^aus     Visit to azL^uvnbu  By Mrs. Jean Willems  LUMBY, May 30—Sister Mary Barbara, who as Malvina Bessette attended Lumby's first school class in 1893, was here again last  week.  Sister Mary Barbara spent five days in Lumby renewing old acquaintances and visiting with her sister, Mrs. Wilfred Quesnel. While  in Lumby, she stayed at the home of Mrs. Verle Moore.  She recalled attending the first school house which was situated  near the present cemetery and next to the Old Roman Catholic  Church. Her teacher was Tom Norris, who died this year. She  attended this school for three years but upon the death of her parents,  her family was split and she was sent to St. Ann's Academy in New  Westminster, B.C.  She is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Pete Bessette who used to  live in the family home, built where Parkey Derry lives now. The  barn on this property is the same one that was built by the Bessette  family.  The house was destroyed by fire around 1922.  Sister Mary Barbara said she could remember Lumby when it  was a "frontier" town with "one street." On this one street was  Morand's Hotel and McElinay's Store. She said the house now owned  by Mrs. Nellie Inglis was always called the "store between the bridges"  and she thought it was the oldest house in town.  In those days the people were occupied with farming although the  water-wheel sawmill which was built by Tom and Pete Bessette was  taken over by Napoleon Bessette and his father. This sawmill was  situated on the property that is now owned by Bill Skermer.  After her formal education, she entered St. Ann's Academy in  Victoria and in 1902 became a Nun in the Roman Catholic Church.  She taught school for a few years and then decided to enter St. Joseph's  Hospital School of Nursing. In 1911 she was presented with her  diploma. From 1912 to 1941 she was a nursing sister in St. Ann's  Hospital in Juneau, Alaska.  She came to Lumby from St. Martin's Hospital in Oliver, B.C.,  and as she is now retired, she will take up residence in the Mount  Angela Home for Elderly Sisters which is being opened in Victoria.  She is pleased that she will be in Victoria because this year is the  60th anniversary of St. Joseph's Hospital School of Nursing  (167)  <-/VLembership <JL~-ist  THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL SOCIETY  PATRONS  Fenton, Miss Annie, Enderby.  Gray, Mrs. Kathleen, Mara, B.C.  Macorquodale, Mrs. D. F., Box 77, Georgetown, British Guiana, South  A.m pries.  Stuart, C. E., R.R. 3, Kelowna, B.C.  HONORARY LIFE MEMBERS  Dr. Margaret Ormsby, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.  Rev. J. C. Goodfellow, D.D., Box 187, Princeton.  Capt. J. B. Weeks, 614 Martin St., Penticton.  MEMBERS  Adam, E. L., 578 Rose Ave., Kelowna.  Anderson, G. K, 558 Rose Ave., Kelowna.  Andrew, W. J., 2866 Bellevue Ave., West Vancouver.  Andrews, George, 769 E. 25th, Vancouver.  Arnold, G. N., R.R. 1, Winfield.  Badgley, Mrs. Edna, Box 88, Okanagan Falls.  :: Bagnall, G. P., 3317 Coldstream Ave., Vernon.  * Bagnall, George C, 10, 951 S. Hermosa Ave., Chicago 43, Illinois, U.S.A.  Bawtenheimer, Mrs. S. J., c/o Mrs. Mohr, Vernon.  Bedford, J. W., 2021 Stirling Place, Kelowna.  Belli-Bivar, Mrs. Ethel, Box 45, Salmon Arm.  Benmore, Mrs. George, 2059 Pandozi St., Kelowna.  Bennett, Mrs. C. G., Box 2278, R.R. 1, Penticton.  Berner, Mrs. A., 2500 26th St., Vernon.  Berry, A. E., 2401 26th St., Vernon.  Beurich, W., Osoyoos.  Billard, Mrs. Vera, Okanagan Landing.  Bingley, Mrs. A., Coldstream Ranch, Vernon.  Blackburn, R., Enderby.  Boss, M. T., 455 E. 17th Ave., Vancouver.  * Bovey, A. M., The Gravel Pit, Vernon.  Bowsher, A. P., R.R. 3, Calgary.  Bristow, Mrs. C, 3614 30th Ave., Vernon.  Brown, Judge Wm. C, Box 123, Okanogan, Washington, U.S.A.  Buckland, Chas. D., R.R. 2, Kelowna.  Buckland, D. S., Okanagan Mission.  Bull, Frank, 169 Grandview St., Penticton.  Bulman, W. T. J., R.R. 2, Kelowna.  Burtch, Mrs. H. B., Box 9, R.R. 2, Kelowna.  Butler, Mrs. L. G., East Kelowna.  Cail, Mrs. E., R.R. 3, Armstrong.  Caley, Hugh, R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Cameron, G. D., Box 86, Kelowna.  Cameron, J. D., 343 Brunswick St., Penticton.  Cameron, J. J., 22 Hanover, San Francisco 12, U.S.A.  Campbell, Mrs. D., 3204 33rd Ave., Vernon.  Campbell, Mrs. Ida K., 3306 25th St., Vernon.  Campbell, J. R., 3900 25th St., Vernon.  Carew, N. J., 3405 27th St., Vernon.  Carmichael, Mrs. A., 1805 32nd St., Vernon.  Carney, T. J., Box 222, R.R. 1, Kelowna.  Casorso, Anthony, Box 102, R.R. 4, Kelowna.  (169) The Okanagan Historical Society—1960  Casorso, Mrs. V., Oliver.  Cawston, Mrs. Verna, Penticton.  Chambers, E. J., Lower Bench, Penticton.  Chichester, B., Box 41, Rutland.  Christensen, S. P., 2700 30th Ave., Vernon.  Christie, J. P., Okanagan Falls.  Clark, Mrs. C, Falkland.  Clement, Mrs. C. G., 2276 Speer St., Kelowna.  Clement, J. P., 1332 Walnut St., Victoria.  * Cochrane, H. E., 2006 28th Cresc, Vernon.  * Cochrane, Mrs. H. E., 2006 28th Cresc, Vernon.  Cohen, Jack, Keremeos.  Collett, H. C. S., Box 9, Okanagan Mission.  Conroy, M. J., 2605 24th St., Vernon.  Cooper, R. K, 3009 31st Ave., Vernon.  Cooper, W., Penticton.  Cope, Cecil, Osoyoos.  Corbett, H. W., Kaleden.  Corner, John, R.R. 4, Vernon.  Corner, R. W., R.R. 1, Kelowna.  Coursier, Dr. H. L.; 1910 28th Cresc, Vernon.  Craster, R. G., 2200 34th St., Vernon.  Crozier, Mrs. Ivan, 1801 32nd St., Vernon.  Davidson, Alan H., Box 131, Westbank.  Davidson, R. A., Okanagan Landing.  Davies, R. A. and Lillian (Davies Book Shop), 3468 Melrose Ave., Mon  treal, P.Q.  Davis, Mrs. H. V., 526 Braid St., Penticton.  Davis, Mrs. J. H., Box 190, Fruitvale.  Davis, J., Rossland.  Davis, Archer, Grand Forks.  Dawe, Miss Helen, 3104 E. 27th Ave., Vancouver.  Day, F. J., Box 418, Kelowna.  DeBeck, Mrs. M. K., 3505 Pleasant Valley Road. Vernon.  Deering, A. J., R.R. 1, Falkland.  Denison, Eric N., 3001 28th St., Vernon.  Deschamps, L. Fred, 3004 30th Ave., Vernon.  Dewdney, Edgar, 1428 Balfour St., Penticton, B.C.  Dewdney, Mrs. W. R., 273 Scott Ave., Penticton.  Doe, Ernest, P.O. Box 35, Salmon Arm.  Dumont, Paul, Osoyoos.  Duncan, Reg., Penticton.  Eby, Dr. J. E., 2905 30th Ave., Vernon.  Ellis, Miss K. W., 268 Cambie St., Penticton.  Estabrooks, O. L., 352 Main St., Penticton.  Estabrooks, R. H., 382 Eckhardt Ave., Penticton.  Evans, Mrs. W. R., 1157 Government St., Penticton.  Fenton, R. M., Enderby.  Fillmore, D. C, 1470 Water St., Kelowna.  Fisher, Mrs. D. V., R.R. 1, West Summerland.  Fitzgerald, Mrs. G. D., R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Fleming, Stuart A., 2001 Schubert Ave., Vernon.  Flintoft, Mrs. A. H., 954 Manhattan Drive, Kelowna.  Fraser, F. J., 5226 Cambie St., Vancouver.  Fraser, Major H. N., Okanagan Falls.  Fraser, R. A., 722 Lawson Ave., Kelowna.  French, Mrs. George, Oliver.  Gabel, C. A., Okanagan Centre.  Gartrell, F. R., R.R., Summerland.  Gellatly, Mrs. Dorothy, R.R. 1, Westbank.  170) Membership List, Okanagan Historical Society  Godwin, Fred, 380 Wade Ave., Penticton.  Godwin, Mrs. J., 380 Wade Ave., Penticton.  Goldie, James, Okanagan Centre.  Gordon, R. J., 258 Riverside Ave., Kelowna.  Gorman, Harry, 3503 30th Ave., Vernon.  Graf, W., Osoyoos.  Graham, G. G., Osoyoos.  Grant, James, Box 744, Vernon.  * Gray, W., Osoyoos.  Greenside, E. L., 1758 Ellis St., Kelowna.  Gregory, Mrs. C, R.R., Armstrong.  Griffiths, H. T., 540 Burrard St., Vancouver.  Guidi, R., Oliver.  Guichon, L. P., Quilchena.  Hack, Mrs. F. W., R.R., Oliver.  Hadow, R., Enderby.  Hall, R. O., Oliver.  Hall, W., 3601 30th Ave., Vernon.  Hamilton, W. D., R.R. 4, Vernon.  Hanson, Ivor, R.R. 1, Lumby.  Hardy, Mrs. A. H., Vancouver.  Harris, Mrs. C. H., R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Harris, Frank, The Vernon News, Vernon.  Harris, J. G., R.R. 1, Penticton.  Hassen, Mat., Armstrong.  Hatfield, A. S., Fairview Road, Penticton.  Haug, Roy, 1746 Water Street, Kelowna.  Hayhurst, C, R.R., Armstrong.  Harwood, F. V., 3102 41st Ave., Vernon.  Hales, F. C, 1069 Harvey Ave., Kelowna.  Hayman, L. A., 3556 Pt. Grey Road, Vancouver.  Haynes, V. C, Oliver.  Hayward, W., 3108 24th St., Vernon.  Henderson, E. A., Apt. 4, 815 Linden Ave., Victoria.  Hewer, E. E., Box 144, Kamloops.  Higgin, Noel, West Summerland.  Hopkins, Mrs. J. L., Armstrong.  Hopping, G. R., 2203 17th B. St., S.W., Calgary, Alta.  Howlett, A. W., 2404 25th St., Vernon.  Howrie, David, 2507 37th Ave., Vernon.  Hoy, Ben, 1902 Pandosy St.; Kelowna.  Hugh, Fabian, Cloverdale.  Humphrey, Mrs. L. S., 3802 25th Ave., Vernon.  Hunter, Floyd, Wilson Ave., Armstrong.  Hunter, Ivan, Box 397, Oliver.  Hurmuses, Jeff, Kalamalka Hotel, Vernon.  Hutton, L. A., 144 Kenilworth St., Ottawa, Ont.  Inkster, Dr. W. H., 3303 31st St., Vernon.  Irwin, Rev. H. M., 7092 Jubilee St., S. Burnaby.  Iverson, Mrs. A., 1965 Pandosy St., Kelowna.  Jackson, Mrs. O., Box 64A, R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Job F., Enderby.  Byron-Johnson, R. G., R.R. 4, Vernon.  * Johnston, H. W., 469 Woodruff Ave., Penticton  Johnston, Mrs. M. M., 469 Woodruff Ave., Penticton.  Jones, Mrs. W. Lloyd, 1449 Ethel St., Kelowna.  Kabella, Mrs. S., R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Keating, H. K., 452 Birch Ave., Kelowna.  Kerry, L. L., 2188 Abbott St., Kelowna.  Kidston, J. R., 3900 Pleasant Valley Road, Vernon.  (171) The Okanagan Historical Society—-I960  Knowles, C. W., 2641 North St., Kelowna.  Knowles, Mrs. J. B., 879 Manhattan Drive, Kelowna.  Kneller, J., R.R. 4, Vernon.  Knight, G., 450 Ellis St., Penticton.  Lacey, Mrs. K, Box 144, Osoyoos.  Lamont, Mrs. J., R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Lea, G. B., 1345 Gordon Ave., West Vancouver.  Lefroy, C. B., 3306 25th St., Vernon.  Lethebe, Mrs. B., Osoyoos.  Lincoln, M., 3500 32nd St., Vernon.  Lindahl, Mrs. E., 1943 Abbott St., Kelowna.  Lindahl, Mrs. P., 2247 Woodlawn, Kelowna.  Lindsay, Mrs. B., Osoyoos.  Lowle, F. F. W., Skaha Lake, Penticton.  * Lutener, Mrs. C. S., Box 635, Grand Forks.  * McClelland, J. B., 990 Richter St., Kelowna.  McCulloch, Mrs. V., 1500 39th Ave., Vernon.  McCulloch, Capt. W. A. W., 1939 Abbott St., Kelowna.  McDonald, F. O., Oliver.  McDougall, R. J., Sorrento.  McGie, W. Ross, Armstrong.  McGuire, M. V., Kalamalka Lake, Vernon.  McMynn, D. J., Trail.  Macfarlane, Hon. Mr. Justice, Supreme Court, Victoria.  McKenzie, Rt. Rev. W. B., 1759 Carrick St., Victoria.  Manery, S. R., Cawston.  Marriage, F. T., 424 Park Ave., Kelowna.  Marshall, H., R.R., Winfield.  Martin, W. A., 3208 17th St., Vernon.  Massey, G. E., 81 High St., Victoria.  Middleton, Mrs. M.. Oyama.  Miles, F. A., Box 444, Vernon.  Mitchell, Miss J. B., 1716 Pandozy Manor, Kelowna.  Mitchell, Mrs. J. H., R.R., Oliver.  Mohr, Mrs. M., 2506 36th Ave., Vernon.  Morgan, G., Trout Creek, R.R. 1, West Summerland.  Moss, Mrs. A., 2500 Abbott St., Kelowna.  Munro, F., 1701 Fairford Ave., Penticton.  Murray, Miss P., Armstrong.  Nelson, Miss E. P., Keremeos.  Netherton, Dr. W. J., 657 Winnipeg St., Penticton.  Nuttall, Mrs. W., Naramata.  Oliver, W. J., 3112 21st Ave., Vernon.  Osborne, J., 2270 Ottawa St., West Vancouver.  Patten, Mrs. C. J., Armstrong.  Patterson, Mrs. A. L., 15, 1489 St. Paul St., Kelowna.  Peterman, A. N., Box 193, Oliver.  Pettigrew, Mrs. J. D., 1961 Abbott St., Kelowna.  Phillips, Dr. J. H.. 2107 27th Ave., Vernon.  Philpott, G., 1211 Ethel St., Kelowna.  Piddocks, Mrs. J. L., R.R. 2, Anderson Road, Kelowna. <  Poole, D. F., Thacker Drive, Westbank.  Pooley, Mrs. I. G., 1944 Abbott St., Kelowna.  Pooley, Mrs. R. G., 1944 Abbott St., Kelowna.  Popham, R. E., 1950 37th Ave., Vernon.  ":: Pound, Rev. Allan C, 1343 Haywood Ave., West Vancouver. 1  Powley, H., 1905 Carruthers St., Kelowna.  Powley, W. R., R.R. 1, Winfield.  (172) Membership List, Okanagan Historical Society  Quesnel, E., 2905 24th St., Vernon.  Quigley, W. D., R.R. 5, Kelowna.  Quinn, Dr. F. H., 1975 McDougall Ave., Kelowna.  ¬a Reid, Miss E., 614 Martin St., Penticton.  Reed, H. S., 2401 25th Ave., Vernon.  Reid, G., 6460 Gladstone St., Vancouver.  Reid, Mrs. Gladys, 1807 Marshall St., Kelowna.  Renwick, H. A., 1445 Marpole Ave., Vancouver 9.  Richards, J., 1923 Pandosy St., Kelowna.  Robbins, F., Aberdeen, Wash., U.S.A.  Rorke, H. O., 624 Young St., Penticton.  Ross, Dr. D. A., 1703 37th Ave., Vernon.  Ross, Mrs. D. H., 2103 25th Ave., Vernon.  Roylance, Mrs. M. J., Greenwood.  Ross, Lt. Gov. Frank, Government House, Victoria.  Seath, R. W., 1934 McDougall Ave., Kelowna.  Seaton, J. E., Seaton Road, Winfield.  Seymour, S. P., 3111 Barnard Ave., Vernon.  Shannon, Mrs. R., Oliver.  Sharpe, Mrs. K. E., Vancouver.  Sharpe, Mrs. T. A., Salmon Arm.  Shaw, Mrs. J. D., Box 2290, R.R. 1, Penticton.  Shore, Mrs. Lila, 3400 18th Ave., Vernon.  Simms, J. G., 3303 26th St., Vernon.  Simpson, H. B., 176 Vimy Ave., Kelowna.  Simpson, Mrs. R. M., 808 Glenn Ave., Kelowna.  Simpson, N. V., R.R. 1, Oliver.  Simpson, Mrs. S. M., 2120 Abbott St., Kelowna.  Simson, Col. D. C, 835 Bernard Ave., Kelowna.  Sismey, E. D., 1348 Government St., Penticton.  Skipper, R. V., Box 34, Dewdney.  Smith, George, Armstrong.  Smith, H. S. Harrison, 272 Strathcona Ave., Kelowna.  Smith, R. D. H., 822% Fort St., Victoria.  Smith, W. J. Armstrong.  Solly, I. H., c/o Bank of Montreal, Esquimalt.  * South, Mrs. G., 603 Van Horne St., Penticton.  Sovereign, Rt. Rev. A. H., 2501 23rd St., Vernon.  Speedily, M. K, R.R. 2, Vernon.  Stadola, S., Osoyoos Times, Osoyoos.  Stubbs, Mrs. A. H., Okanagan Mission.  * Sunderland, Mrs. E. J., 3305 22nd St., Vernon.  Swift, A. A., 281 Haynes St., Penticton.  Tapley, Miss, Redcliffe Hotel, Redcliffe, Alta.  Tassie, G. C, R.R. 2, Vernon.  Tassie, P., 2304 25th Ave., Vernon.  Taylor, C. H., R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Taylor, R. S., West Bench, Penticton.  Teasdale, J., Okanagan Falls.  Thomas, M. E., Okanagan Falls.  Thompson, Miss A. B.. 446 Park Ave., Kelowna.  Thorburn, H. J., R.R. 3, Vernon.  Thorlakson, Ben, Okanagan Centre.  Thornloe, F. Jr., East Kelowna.  Truswell, H. A., Box 222, Kelowna.  Turner, R. G., Box 1305, Rossland.  Turner, R. M. H., R.R. 1, Summerland.  Tutt, Mrs. D., Box 184, R.R. 1, Kelowna.  Upton, Mrs. T. B., Okanagan Mission.  Van Blaricom, E. W., Box 113, Kelowna.  (173) The Okanagan Historical Society—-I960  Walburn, H. G., R.R. 5, Kelowna.  Walker, Mrs. W. D., Walker Road, Okanagan Mission.  Wallace, Mrs. J., R.R. 4, Kelowna.  Ward, A., R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Ward, H., R.R. 3, Kelowna.  Warren, Mrs. A. M., 854 Main St., Penticton.  Watson, N., 866 Leon Ave., Kelowna.  Watt, G. M., Okanagan Mission.  Weatherill, H. P., c/o Royal Bank of Canada, Vancouver.  Weddell, A. D., 274 Lake Ave., Kelowna.  Weddell, Mrs. C, Box 120, Rutland.  Weeks, E., Box 393, Kelowna.  * Weeks, G. A., Box 637, Revelstoke.  * Weeks, L. J., 3211 Kitchener St., Vancouver.  * Weeks, T. V., 582 Edmund Heights, Calgary, Alta.  Whipple, D., Osoyoos.  White, Mrs. R. B., Skaha Lake, Penticton.  White, R., 107 Battle St., Kamloops.  Whitaker, Mrs. H. C, West Summerland.  Whitaker, H. O, West Summerland.  Whitehead, W. J., 970 Lawson Ave., Kelowna.  * Whitham, J. D., 1725 Pandosy St., Kelowna.  Whyte, Bryson, 2300 23rd Ave., Vernon.  Willis, Mrs. H., 3837 Cartier St., Vancouver  Willits, Mrs. P. B., 1716 Pandosy St.. Kelowna.  Wilson, J., Tappen.  Winkles, Mrs. W. H., Armstrong.  Woods. J. B., Okanagan Landing.  Woodd, H. S., c/o Bank of Montreal, Enderby.  Woods, J. J., Saanichton.  Worth, Mrs. Grace, 4917 27th St., Vernon.  Wyatt, T. W., 342 Lake Ave., Kelowna.  Young, Mrs. B. F., Armstrong.  Zoellner, Mrs. W. J., Box 55, Grand Forks.  GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS,   UNIVERSITIES,   SCHOOLS,  MUNICIPALITIES,  OTHER PUBLIC BODIES,  AND  COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS  Parliamentary Librarian, Library of Parliament, Ottawa.  National Library, Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa.  The Library, National Museum of Canada, Ottawa.  Provincial Archives, Victoria.  Provincial Library, Victoria.  Public Library Commission, Victoria.  Provincial Museum, Victoria.  Okanagan Museum and Archives, 1644 Richter St., Kelowna.  City of Vernon, Board of Museum and Archives, Vernon.  Vancouver Library Board, Vancouver.  Okanagan Regional Library, 480 Queensway, Kelowna.  Kamloops Museum Association, Box 337, Kamloops.  Fraser Valley Regional Library, Abbotsford.  Vancouver City Archives, City Hall, Vancouver.  Victoria Public Library, Victoria.  Glenbow Foundation, Calgary, Alta.  Toronto Public Libraries, 214 College St., Toronto 2-B, Ont.  St. George's School, 3954 W. 29th Ave., Vancouver.  McGill University Library, Montreal, P.Q.  University of Toronto Library, Toronto 5, Ont.  (174; Membership List, Okanagan Historical Society  Seattle Public Library, Seattle, Wash., U.S.A.  Eastern Washington College of Education, Cheney, Wash., U.S.A.  * Tacoma Public Library, 1102 S. Tacoma Ave., Tacoma, Wash., U.S.A.  Spokane Public Library, South 10 Cedar, Spokane 4, Wash., U.S.A.  State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 816 State St., Madison, Wis., U.S.A.  New York Public Library, 5th Ave. & 42nd St., New York 18, NY., U.S.A.  Library of Congress, Washington 25, D.C., U.S.A.  State College of Washington Library, Pullman, Wash., U.S.A.  Historical Society of Montana, Helena, Montana, U.S.A.  The Newbury Library, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.  CJIB Radio Station, Vernon.  CKOK Radio Station, Penticton.  Vernon Club, Vernon.  Penticton Herald, Penticton.  Central Elementary School, Vernon.  School District No. 22, Vernon.  Junior-Senior High School, Armstrong.  School District 78, Enderby.  Summerland High School, West Summerland.  School District 77, Summerland.  Queen's Park Elementary School, Penticton.  Carmi Avenue School, Penticton.  Lumby Elementary School, Lumby.  Gonzaga University, Spokane 2, Wash., U.S.A.  B.C. Directories Lid., 2733 West Broadway, Vancouver.  Laurel Co-operative Union, 1304 Ellis St., Kelowna.  CKOV Radio Station, 1490 Pandosy St., Kelowna.  The Wayside Press, 3011 31st Ave., Vernon.  Public Library, 9th and Locust Sts., Kansas City, Mo., U.S.A.  Southern Similkameen P.T.A., Keremeos.  School District 16, Keremeos.  Municipality of Spallumcheen, Armstrong.  Book Nook, Penticton.  The Canadian Bank of Commerce, Vernon.  Vernon Junior High School, Vernon.  Consolidated Press, Toronto, Ont.  University of British Columbia Library, Vancouver.  Kelowna City Club, Kelowna.  Victoria College, 3155 Richmond Road, Victoria.  Calgary Public Library, 624 9th Ave. S.W., Calgary, Alta.  *—Prepaid Membership  Addresses given are B.C. unless otherwise stated  (175)   PRINTED  BY THE VERNON  NEWS LTD.


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items