Okanagan Historical Society Reports

The eighteenth report of the Okanagan Historical Society 1954 Okanagan Historical Society 1954

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 The Eighteenth Report  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  T  Founded September 4, 1923  Vt>  H£&«<« <«- «<• <<<-^r# Date Due r N (Reg) Atkm-nn Museum  785 MAIN STREET  PENTICTON, B.C    V2A5E3  T/ry,  £6/  The Eighteenth Report  of the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  1954  *   /£3.f  G  Pounded September 4, 1925  Aerial view of Kelowna, 1954, looking toward Westbank and ferry  landing.  it  JHfncroit HIGH SCHOOL LIBRARY (^iziLtLn^ FROM OUR HONORARY PRESIDENT  O. L. JONES, M.P.  513 Bernard Avenue,  Kelowna, B.C.,  August 28, 1954  To the Members of  The Okanagan Historical Society:  Your Association is to be congratulated for its splendid work in  recording the history of the Okanagan, while it can be verified by  living persons.  Too often in the past, history has been written on the basis of  legends, folklore and surmises which could be entirely incorrect.  Our valley is rich in historical events that should be properly identified and recorded for future generations.  The history of our Okanagan Indian Bands alone, makes interesting study and should be properly recorded before it is too late.  All this work is only possible when the public are willing to  support the efforts of your Association. I now appeal to them to  render this encouragement in a tangible way, so that you may carry  on the valuable work so efficiently begun.  Yours sincerely,  O. L. JONES, M.P. hszUnc}¬± FROM THE MAYOR OF KELOWNA  J. J. LADD, Mayor  I wish on behalf of the citizens of Kelowna to commend the  Okanagan Historical Society for their efforts in preserving records  covering the lives and activities of our pioneers and early settlers,  through the columns of their annual Reports.  Starting in a small way in 1925 by a few historically minded  and faithful members, throughout the Okanagan, Similkameen and  Spallumcheen Valleys, it has grown in interest and volume until  today it is one of Canada's outstanding historical publications.  We are happy to learn this year's Report is to feature the fiftieth  Anniversary of Kelowna's Incorporation 1905, which is being celebrated by our citizens this coming year.  Wishing you every success in the continuation of this good  work.  J. J. LADD, Mayor. Contents  Foreward :  5  Salute by an Oldtimer by Marjorie Pentland  6  "The Pioneer" by Isabel E. Mackay  12  Pendozi or Pandosy:   a note on spelling  15  The Lakes of the Okanagan Valley by James C. Agnew   ... 17  Layer Cake Hill by C. C. Kelley and J. G. John  21  Food and Medicines of the Okanakanes by Louise Gabriel      .       . 24  An Indian Historian by M. A. Kenny  30  Ogopogo  by Noel  Robinson  33  Some Archaeological Notes on Kelowna Area  by  Warren  G.  Caldwell  35  The First Steamboat on Okanagan Lake by Leonard Norris   .      . 39  On Okanagan Lake in 1888 by Hester E. White      .... 42  The Shuswap & Okanagan Railway by Geo. H. Morkill   ... 47  First Penticton  Settler  51  The First Commercial Orchard in Okanagan by F. W. Andrew     . 53  Old Man Kelowna by F. T. Marriage  59  Arthur Day—Pioneer by Georgine Maisonville  61  First White Girl born in Okanagan by Mrs. A. Gatien      ... 66  Kelowna: Commercial and Social by F. M. Buckland      ... 69  Origins of Kelowna Street Names by J. B. Knowles      ... 93  Kelowna's First School Teacher by Dorothea Allison      ... 98  School Expansion in Kelowna by F. T. Marriage      .... 102  Kelowna's First Mayor by Hazel McDougall      ..... 104  History of Okanagan Telephone Co. by M. J. Conroy      .       .       . 106  Early Telephone Subscribers by H. R. Denison  109  Kelowna Amusements in Early Days by G. C. Benmore   .      .      . Ill  Early Days at Okanagan Mission by Mrs. R. Lambly     .      .       . 115  Kelowna Roman Catholic Church History by Frank Quinn .      . 117  Bishop Sillitoe's Osoyoos Visit by H. H. Gowen      .... 121  Kelowna United Church History by J. C. Goodfellow      .       .      . *"124  First Baptist Church by Jeanetta Reekie  127  Enderby Oldtimer Honoured  129  Kaleden's First Settlers by Harry Corbitt  130  "Similkameen"  by  Gordon  Stace Smith  132  "In the Kootenays"  133  Outline History of Similkameen by J. C. Goodfellow      .       .      . 135  Recent Books mentioning Okanagan  156  "In Memoriam" ,      . 159  Parent Society and Branch Reports        . 162  Membership List  166  Index by Terna Cawston  173 Foreword  Discussing the Eighteenth Report of the Okanagan Historical Society, the directors suggested that the editorial committee include articles from the Third Annual Report of the Okanagan Historical and  Natural History Society, published in 1929, and throughout this present  Report referred to in footnotes simply as OHS.3(1929); also that the  membership list be included, and that special reference be made to the  Golden Jubilee of the founding of the City of Kelowna.  Articles selected from the Third Report have special reference  to Kelowna. They are scattered throughout the Report in subject sequence. On page 34 of the 1929 Report, under "Editorial Notes," James  C. Agnew wrote:  "A movement is under way to have the Historic Sites and  Monuments Board of Canada mark in a fitting manner the  discovery of Okanagan Lake and the establishment of the  trade route through the interior which did so much towards  opening up the country and was such an important factor  when the boundary question came to be settled in 1846."  This objective of the Society was realized on August 24, 1949,  when the Westbank cairn was unveiled. On that occasion the Historic  Sites and Monuments Board of Canada was represented by Dr. W. N.  Sage, and Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby gave an address on "The Significance of the Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail," which was printed in OHS.  13, pp. 29-37.  In the 1952 Report an index to the volume took the place of the  membership list. The indexes, prepared by Mrs. R. L. Cawston, have  greatly enhanced the value of this and succeeding Reports. But the  directors felt that the membership list gave to the Reports a personal  touch, which they wished to see revived. The 1954 list has been prepared with great care by the treasurer, W. R. Pepper of Vernon. It is  desired that any errors which may have crept in be reported to the  secretary so that they will not be repeated in subsequent Reports. The  names of some who have purchased Reports may not have been reported so that there may be omissions. We are anxious to have a complete, up-to-date membership list, and seek your co-operation.  In securing articles relative to Kelowna, President J. B. Knowles,  and Mrs. Dorothea Allison, convener of the Kelowna editorial committee, have been especially helpful. Next year Kelowna will mark  the fiftieth anniversary of its incorporation, and it is possible that the  1955 Report will have further reference to this special event. We are  indebted to the late F. M. Buckland for much of the Kelowna history  which appears in this Report. The passing years make us more aware  of our debt to him.  It would not be possible to name here all who have helped in the  preparation of this Report, but the editor feels that special mention  should be made of J. B. Knowles and Mrs. D. Allison of Kelowna, Mrs.  R. L. Cawston (assistant editor), and Mrs. R. B. White of Penticton, and  R. J. McDougall of Sorrento.  "Help us to save the things that go;  We are the gleaners after time."  —J.G. Salute By An Oldtimer1  Marjorie Pentland  Mrs. Allison tells me that reminiscences of old times will be  welcomed by the Okanagan Historical Society. I only wish that the  glow which gilds my memories of the Okanagan district as I first  saw it when I was ten and a half—63 years ago—could throw light  on any point of interest now. My mother, Lady Aberdeen, recorded  her Canadian travels of 1890 and 1891 in letters sent home to her  Onward and Ufward magazine. They were illustrated with her  snapshots and sketches and published later as a small book: Through  Canada with a Kodak. Barely two years after George Eastman had  invented his cameras and roll films, my mother ordered a No. 4  Kodak to hold 100 exposures and a No. 1 to hold 50. A young man  brought them from Regent Street to Dollis Hill and I well remember the sight of my mother and Mr. Gladstone poring over the mysterious black boxes, and being instructed how to pull the string and  press the button.  That was in the summer of 1890 when, after an illness due to  overwork, my mother was ordered by her doctor to go away from  home claims. The whole family of us went to stay at Hamilton,  Ont., and from there my parents took a trip West.   Next autumn  l This "Salute by an Oldtimer" was sent to Mrs. Dorothea Allison,  Kelowna, B.C., by Lady Pentland, who wrote, 25 November, 1953:  "Lady Stokes has kindly come round to tell me of your letter; and  it is indeed the greatest pleasure to hear news of "The Okanagan,"  and of your interest in collecting records of the early days. . . ."  Mrs. Allison writes, 5 June, 1954: "... I never had direct contact  with Lady Pentland, as she and her husband, who was Governor  of Madras, were in England, or in the hills, when I visited my  sister and brother-in-law (Judge Mackay) in Madras, when I was  a girl. And when she, Lady Pentland, and her daughter visited  the Okanagan in 1929 I was away in England. As to her writing  of her experiences to me: my husband was the first fruit grower  on the East side of Wood Lake in 1907. When he retired and we  moved to Kelowna, a year or so ago, I wrote to my Aunt (Lady  Stokes) telling her about the life here, and as she was lunching  with her friend, Lady Pentland, she evidently retailed the information. Lady Pentland was immensely interested saying she had  such happy memories of her early days here. It occurred to me  how interesting it would be if she would write down her impressions—the impressions of the small daughter of one of the Governors General of Canada." Salute By An Oldtimer  they had to go to the U.S.A., in order to pave the way for an Irish  Home Industries exhibit at the Chicago World's Fair of 1893. I  expected to be left at home in the schoolroom, the little boys being  in the nursery and my elder brother at school. In August, as usual,  we went to stay with my mother's parents, Lord and Lady Tweed-  mouth, at their Highland home, Guisachan, Inverness-shire. One  evening my mother asked me: "Which would you rather: stay here  with Grannie or come with Father and me?" How surprising to  be given the choice, how hard to choose. For Guisachan was my  fairyland, with its mountains and waterfalls, its beautiful pictures  and books which my grandfather used to show me in the house, its  beautiful ponies which I mounted at the front door under his watchful eye. But after a moment I said, "I would like to go with you."  Grandpapa thought it extraordinary that his daughter mint not only  gallivant off to America, but drag around a small girl too. Probably  he forgot that he himself had given her the lead to go West. He was  then the oldest of the Hudson's Bay Company "Gentlemen Adventurers and Fur Traders," and one of those with the largest number  of shares. He had settled one of his sons, Archie, on the huge Rock-  ing-Chair Ranch in Texas; another, Coutts Marjoribanks, on the  Horse-Shoe Ranch in North Dakota. But Coutts was not prospering  there, and while my mother travelled through Canada in 1890, she  kept looking out for a new opening to suit him.  She wrote in her journal: "We were met at Vancouver by an  old friend, Mr. George Grant Mackay. He engineered the roads  and many other jobs at Guisachan for mv father. But two years  ago he found that land at home was getting to be a bad business, and  lost a good deal. So he came out here where money has doubled in  his hands. He took us to see some farms which might do for Couttsy,  out on the banks of the Fraser. They look very snug, only the land  there has become very expensive, 50-60 dollars an acre. But he told  us of another district 21 hours from Vancouver now being opened  up by a branch railway to Vernon on Lake Okanagan. Thirty miles  down the lake is a farm now belonging to the McDougalls, a half-  breed family; 480 acres, a nice house, 70 head of cattle, horses and  implements. Wheat, fruit and hops will grow. There is splendid  sport on the hills, Lord Elphinstone has a fishing place near by, and  Mr. Vernon, Commissioner of Works for the Province, has a ranch  of 13,000 acres. There is a Presbyterian church, and an R.C. one,  so it is quite different from the wilds of Dakota. The place can be  bought for 10,000 dollars; Mr. Mackay is confident that in a few  7 The Okanagan Historical Society-—1954  years it would sell for double, or four times that. He has proved  himself so wise that we feel safe; Lord Aberdeen has commissioned  him to buy the place and we shall put Coutts there as manager."  The ranch was christened after my mother's old home Guisachan. (The name is a Gaelic word meaning "Place of the Firs";  at the original Guisachan in Strathglass stood some of the finest old  pines of the ancient Caledonian Forest). My uncle was installed as  manager and met us at Sicamous when we arrived there on 13th of  October 1891. Next morning we left for Vernon in the first passenger train (a special chartered by my father) to creep and bump  along the new line still under construction. Piled and packed in the  open trucks were not only goods but men glad of a ride to the first  agricultural fair held at Vernon. At the show we met many leading people, like Mr. Dewdney, Mr. Lumby, Mr. Price Ellison M.P.,  and Mr. Girouard, the first settler of 30 years before. Real and  proud settlers we too felt ourselves when among the splendid display  of apples and squashes we found several 1st prizes won by Guisachan  Ranch. The problem was how to get there. Captain Shorts and his  ship the S.S. Penticton had no intention of starting until after the  all-night dance at the Fair. Luckily Mr. Leo Lequime came to the  rescue with a tiny, antiquated launch in which for four hours under  a brilliant moon we puffed down Lake Okanagan. While my mother  and uncle were deep in discussion over apples my father and I made  the night ring with a selection of songs, such as "Weel may the  boatie row, and better may she speed." Around midnight we climbed  on to the small Mission jetty, walked up the road for about a mile,  then through a gate into a tall dark forest. As we came out at the  further side of the wood, we saw hills—at their foot meadow-land,  and in the middle of the meadows a low white shape—our dream  house. We knocked, the door opened a chink to show the rifle of  Eustace Smith, assistant manager, and my uncle's dogs, growling till  joyfully they answered their master's voice. Next morning the sun  shone upon a fine gold Japanese paper with which my uncle had  covered the livingroom walls, upon trees in their orange and scarlet  fall colours, upon the sparkling lake.  For me each day brought fresh adventure. On Pinto or Charlie,  long-tailed Indian cayuses, I rode beside Uncle Coutts on his big  blue roan horse Aleck; I accompanied my father when he went to  hunt bear, to shoot prairie chicken, to wait for wild geese. My  mother wrote, sketched, photographed, free from the cares of a big  household.   The Chinese cook, Foo, produced excellent meals un- Salute By An Oldtimer  aided except for Willy, an Indian boy who came on his pony to  clean shoes and sweep up Foo's rubbish. My father's valet and my  mother's maid made themselves useful as usual. In a letter to her  father my mother wrote: "Here I am on the verandah of Guisachan,  B.C., with hills around more like the Guisachan than any we have  seen in Canada. We are absolutely enchanted with the place; we  have enjoyed a more real holiday here than ever before, and it must  be remarkably healthy for I have never had the vestige of a headache and we are all furiously hungry. But I must not weary you  with enthusiasm about our new home, to which we meditate retiring  when the Revolution comes off at home. A. says he will enjoy possessing this much more than a big estate like Haddo. And he has  every reason to believe that he has made a capital bargain. Our  nearest neighbour, Mr. Munson, has 1/3 of an acre planted with  24 apple trees. Last year after his children, men and 14 lodgers  had lived off apples till they were tired of them, he sold 250 dollars  worth (£50) at 4 cents a lb., so you can calculate what our 200  acres of apple-trees will bring in when they bear, in four years. We  are also going in for pears, plums, cherries, and small fruits which  will bear in the second year. We are not going to risk travel for  perishable small fruit, so A. has decided to put up a jam factory;  please rack your head for advertisements wherewith to compete with  Keiller and Crosse & Blackwell."  On the front seat of the waggon I sat sandwiched between my  mother and father when he drove the farm team, the foal frisking  alongside, for us to visit neighbours or attend Sunday morning service at the schoolhouse. Outside it many waggons, buggies and saddle-  horses stood hitched to snake fences under the bright trees, their  owners standing around talking. Old Mrs. Postill, who had driven  in from their ranch 16 miles away, told us that she had been the  first white woman to settle in the district in 1874. On Sunday evening my parents always liked to assemble those around for informal  worship and singing. So it was at Guisachan; among those present  were Father Marzial and Father de Vriendt from the Brotherhood  at Okanagan Mission. Father Pandozy who founded the Mission  for the Indians, had died just a few months earlier. On another  evening everyone was invited to a concert and "social."*  The little Scots firs which we had brought from the Guisachan  nursery were planted with hopeful ceremony. Later, as they did not  flourish, they were replaced by a native kind.  In that Indian summer The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  sunshine the whole valley seemed a land of promise; before my  father left he had bought Mr. Vernon's large Coldstream Ranch  too. At once he went ahead planting part of it in big fruit orchards  and hop-yards, and selling off the be:>t ground in lots to small growers. Thus he was advised he could best help to set up the new fruit  industry; I believe that he was called the "Father of the Dry Belt."  The expense of laying out and irrigating, however, brought him  losses instead of profits; in 1906 Coldstream was turned into a  company and in 1920 sold outright to Lord Woolavington.  In 1893 my father was appointed Governor General of Canada  so for the following five years we enjoyed splendid holidays at  Coldstream. Vernon women formed a Local Council of Women  and supported the Victorian Order of Nurses; the 1st V.O.N, hospital in B.C. was started by Mrs. Keen at Kaslo. In 1915-16, during their tour through the U.S.A. to collect funds for the Irish  Health Association, my parents revisited Vernon. They had the  pleasure of seeing Ivercraig, the fine house built by Coutts Marjoribanks, by then happily married, on a site overlooking Long Lake,  as Lake Kalamalka was called in my day. My parents had often  planned a lodge for themselves near that beautiful spot; after they  had taken Sir William Van Home to see the place, he sent them a  design for their house drawn by himself. As a gift for them he  commissioned a Canadian painter, J. Y. Hammond, to' make an oil  landscape painting at Coldstream; it now hangs at my old home,  Haddo House, Aberdeenshire.  In 1929 my son and daughter and I visited the happy hunting  ground of my childhood, and found that under the care of Mr. and  Mrs. Paddy Cameron, still more charm was being added to Guisachan. Mrs. Cameron, a keen gardener, showed us her beautiful  garden, where grew an iris descended from one of my mother's  planting. A skilled musician also, Mrs. Cameron was making the  house a centre of music; the well-known violinist Isolde Menges  had lately come to play at a concert there. Of course to my parents  it gave particular pleasure to hear that their successors at Guisachan  had origins in Inverness-shire and Angus and had given the place a  name for its garden and its music. I told them, too, how we had  enjoyed the same Okanagan sunshine as ever; the same welcome  from many friends, such as the Hon. Mrs. Coutts Marjoribanks, my  uncle's widow, at Summerland; her daughter and son-in-law Ishbel  and Allen Surtees at Okanagan Mission; Mr. and Mrs. Crawley  Ricardo at Lavington; Mr. Francis Wollaston at Coldstream;  Mr.  10 Salute By An Oldtimer  and Mrs. Alers Hankey at Vernon; Mr. and Mrs. Frank Rayburn,  with whom we stayed at their lovely Juniper Ranch, Oyama. On  14th August our kind friend the Lieutenant-Governor of B.C., His  Honour, the Hon. R. Randolph Bruce, came to Kelowna to attend  the Regatta and from the grandstand we all watched a lively programme of events. Mr. Bruce accompanied us back to the Eldorado  Arms for the night. "Let's be venturesome," he said, and in spite  of his bad sight, led the way out to the end of the pier, SO' that we  might admire the lake in moonlight, just as I had seen it first long  before.  On May 19th, 1938, the 45th annual meeting of the National  Council of Women of Canada was held at Vancouver, and was  opened with a broadcast by my mother, aged 81, speaking from  Aberdeen 5,000 miles away. She was delighted to receive a cable  from the meeting saying that her voice had been heard perfectly.  After her death in 1939 I began to compile a memoir {A Bonnie  Fechter> published 1952).* When among her papers I came across  this cable message I sent it to Major J. S. Matthews, V.D., City  Archives, Vancouver, who with such vigilant devotion searches out,  preserves, and passes on to public interest any item about people or  events that is part of local history. He has taken infinite pains to  give me information on points in connection with the memoir, and  in other thoughtful ways keeps my daughter, Miss Sinclair, and me  in touch with British Columbia. Mr. A. K. Loyd, Kelowna, Mrs.  Edwin Smith, Grindrod, are among others who have supplied us  with news.  In our flower border here grow many plants brought to us by  our friend Lady Stokes from her renowned garden at Ockham  Mill, Ripley, close by. Now to her niece, Mrs. Allison, I send from  Surrey this sprig of remembrance for the Okanagan Valley.  Marjorie Pentland.  * Clarke Irwin Co. Ltd., Toronto, $5.00.  // The Pioneer"1  Isabel Ecclestone Mackay  Shall I go on,  Or rest from wandering here? —  The moving sun invites  And, in the clear  Long light, the distant ways come near-  Shall I go on?  Here may be home,  For home is surely where  Love kindles on the hearth—  However bare  The cot where children gather, there  May rise a home.  The land cries "stay!"  It shows a cabin door  Set wide to rolling fields  Whose hidden store  Will yield all man need struggle  for-  If one should stay.  Fear whispers "wait!"  But hope bestirs her wings  And lifts them toward the hills;  A gay breeze brings  Scents of far places and strange things-  Ah!   who would wait?  Who knows what dreams  Those rocky barriers shield?  Gold!  not the gold of sun  l "The Pioneer" was received by Mrs. R. L. Cawston from J. H.  Wilson, Armstrong, B.C., who writes, July 11, 1953: "I was fortunate in having access to a copy of The Armstrong Advertiser  of July, 1927, which contained a full report of the unveiling of  the Schubert Memorial, as well as the poem which I have pleasure  in sending."  12 The Pioneer*  Or gold of field,  But gold, soft gold that men may wield  To shining dreams!  What shall  I say  To children's eager eyes  That search the dimming trail  And all that lies  Beyond, so wondrous in surmise,  What can I say?  If I fail now  Women more brave will take  My place upon the trail  And I shall wake  To loss for sullen safety's sake,  If I fail now!  Come-—let us go!  The horses pant and strain  And settle to their task—  Give me the rein!  I shall not look behind again—  Come—let us go!  The start is made.  Across the burnt out grass  Strange shadows bend to watch  Our wagons pass;  The sky is like a cap of brass—  The start is made!  How slow they turn,  Those lurching wagon wheels—  Bright danger is more swift,  And at our heels  A stealthier foe, lean famine, steals  How slow they turn!  But see— a sign!  Twin peaks, like clouds astray,  High, high against the blue—  Oh, what are they?  13 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  Surely they mean God passed this way  And set a sign?  We enter in  And oh, the land is fair,  Virgin and wild and lovely  Past compare;  Our thirst we quench in wine-sweet air  And enter in!  Shall we find gold?  Gold in the rippled sand,  Gold in the creviced rock,  Gold in the land?  Ah, though it gleam not in our hand,  We shall find gold.  For this is home—  No more the westering sun  Shall lure us ever on  To lands unwon—  As birds that rest when flight is done  We have come home!  /^  "Of the necessary qualifications John (Oliver) possessed an  unusual number. He was gifted with a fluency of speech and readiness of wit capable of meeting any attack. He was fearless and  determined, but his strength was humanized by the emotional touch  of pity and sympathy. He was pugnacious but kind. He was big  enough to keep his head firmly among temptations for social display, and in the hours of his greatest triumphs he remained just  plain. John. Above all, there burned within him an unquenchable  flame of sincerity that nothing could dim. He was sure he was right  and went ahead."—James Morton in Honest John Oliver} p. 161.  14 Pendozi or Pandosy:  A Note On Spelling  The late F. M. Buckland insisted that the name of the first  Roman Catholic priest to stay in Okanagan Valley should be spelled  PANDOSY, and not PENDOZI, as is so often used. To prove his  point, Mr. Buckland was always ready to produce an original signature of Father Pandosy. Ferry boat and street named in his honour  have the spelling Pendozi. How this form of the word originated  we do not know, but are inclined to believe that there must have been  some good reason for it. It has received official sanction, and has  become accepted in many quarters.  However, those who insist that the correct spelling is Pandosy  can produce supporting evidence in the form of original signatures.  We are not aware of any signature "Pendozi." No doubt it would  be a complicated legal business to have the correct spelling established, but we are concerned to place on record authority for the  t* Ul<^K(.ik«)t-lUua  ■/UL  Photostatic copy of signature used by Father Pandosy, O.M.I., taken  from original in Monastery at Kitsilano.  15 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  form used by the Okanagan Historical Society in its annual Reports.  In sending photostat copy of signature, Mrs. Georgina Maisonville  writes:  "The photostat copy of Father Pandosy's signature was  taken from a Baptismal Register, beginning in 1860, now  kept at St. Augustine's Roman Catholic Rectory, 2015  West 8th Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.  "Father Pandosy's name was Charles John Felix Pandosy, but quite frequently he signed himself Charles Marie  Pandosy. When signing he used Mie. for Marie and Cls.  for Charles, reversing them and signing Mie. Cls, Pandosy O.M.I."  The Rev. George M. Grant was secretary to the Sanford Fleming's expedition through Canada in 1872. In his book, Ocean to  Ocean, Dr. Grant tells this story: "They had just unpacked the  horses for the noon meal, when a Shuswap Indian rode up, with a  note for Fleming from one of the Canadian Pacific survey engineers, Walter Moberly, who had been ordered to meet him at Jasper  House, but had been delayed. Valad spoke to the Indian in Cree,  and Beaupre in French, but he was from the Pacific side, and only  shook his head. Then Brown addressed him in the Chinook jargon,  and he answered at once. Asked if his party had enough food, he  replied, uOh! hy-iu, muck a muck I Hy-iu iktahs!" (Lots of grub!  Lots of good things! )" The story is retold by Lawrence J. Burpee  in On The Old Athabaska Trail (Toronto, 1926).  16 The Lakes of the Okanagan  Valley1  James C. Agnew, C.E.  The Report of the Department of Geology for 1877-8 contains  some observations by Dr. G. M. Dawson relating to some of the  physical features of the lakes in this valley which are of interest.  We are offering no apology for quoting so copiously from Dr. Dawson's Report. In the first place he is a very high authority on such  matters, and again, his descriptions and explanations are delightfully  clear and lucid.  "Osoyoos Lake is nine miles in length, and averages probably  one mile in width. It is said to' be deep, but is remarkably divided  near its centre by two spits or bars. The northern of these is at the  Custom House, and so nearly divides the lake that a small bridge  has been built across the gap (at the west side). The second spit  is about a mile farther south, and has also a narrow channel cutting  through it, in this instance near the east side. The spits are quite  different in character from fans previously described, several of  which may be seen in other parts of the valley, but always in evident  relation to entering streams, which these are not. The material as  far as can be seen, is chiefly fine gravel and sand, and the surfaces of  the spits do not rise far above the water level. It can scarcely be  supposed that these are moraines as the material would probably be  coarser in that case. I am inclined to refer them to the conflicting  action of waves originating at different ends of the lake, under the  influence of currents of air drawing through valleys differently  placed with regard to the direction of its axes."  Elsewhere he explains a fan as the debris brought down by  streams and deposited in the bottom of a valley, in the form of a  delta cr fan.  Continuing he says: "The upper end of Duchien Lake (Dog  Lake) is about a mile and a half in width, and is separated from  the lower end of Great Okanagan Lake by what appears  from a  l Reprinted from OHS.3(1929), pp. 22-24.  17 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  height, to be a broad strip of land, occupying the valley-bottom for  a distance of three and a half miles. It is found, however, on further examination, that the lakes are really divided by two large  coalesced flat fans, probably of subaqueous origin, and formed by  the important streams here entering from opposite sides—one on the  Indian reserve (Sheep Creek on the west) and the other at Penticton (Penticton Creek). Duchien and the lower end of Okanagan  Lake are fringed with terraces along the shore which on the upper  end of the former are quite narrow and interrupted from time to  time by rocky bluffs. The material of these terraces is, for the most  part, a white silt, but near the North west end of Duchien Lake is  replaced by a fine white sand, in beds generally an inch or two in  thickness, and sometimes as thin as paper. These are often observed  to be in bread undulating curves, indicative of current structure.  The banks are hard enough to form vertical or nearly vertical faces,  in which layers slightly hardened by ferruginous cement are sometimes seen."  "The so called "clay bluffs" at Summerland are very noticeable  from the Lake. They are about two hundred feet high and extend  for about two miles along the Lake shore north of Trout Creek.  South of Trout Creek they appear again and extend for a considerable distance, but are not so high.  "Okanagan Lake has a total length of about sixty-nine miles  with an average width of nearly two miles which is maintained  with considerable regularity. It occupies one of the great troughlike valleys common in this country, and though much larger, in  its width and mode of formation, closely resembles Kamloops Lake.  "The Mission settlement occupies a large flat formed by the  detritus brought down by the stream known as Mission Creek. This  flat does not extend far into the lake as many fans and deltas do, but  fills what at one time must have been an extensive bay.  "Opposite the Mission at the 'Narrows' the bottom formed by  the subaqueous extension of the Mission fan or delta, it is said,  can be seen all the way across and is probably not in any place deeper  than twenty or thirty feet. On the west shore at this place are two  remarkable acute triangular points of sandy material. These are not  in connection with any entering streams, but are pretty evidently the  result of the convergence of waves originating in differently-trending reaches of the lake. They are of the same nature but not so well  developed as the spits in Osoyoos Lake."  18 The Lakes of the Okanagan Valley  It may be worth noting that at this place the Indians say that  on approaching it a man in a canoe is seen, but on coming up to the  place the man and canoe have disappeared. They offer no explanation, but insist that this is so. This may be a mirage, but on the  other hand what the Indians say may be founded on an optical illusion created by the conflict between the opposing air and wave currents which are responsible for the creation of the two spits. It  would be well for some of our members who are living in the  vicinity to bear the matter in mind, it is not important, but it would  be interesting to know if there is any connection.between the two.  The Mission is connected with Kamloops by a good wagon road  which however does not follow the shore of Okanagan Lake, but a  parallel valley which lies a few miles east of it occupied by smaller  lakes. The first or southern lake is called Duck Lake. The second  generally known as Long Lake is thirteen and a half miles in total  length, but is almost completely divided four miles from its southern  end by a very narrow traverse strip known as 'The Railway'. This is  supported in the centre by a little rock mass, but otherwise resembles  the spits in Osoyoos Lake. The southern end of Long Lake is  separately distinguished as 'Primwash Lake' on Trutch's map.  "Long Lake has an average breadth of over three-quarters of a  mile, and appears to be very deep, a shallow border of variable width  fringing its shores, which drops suddenly at its outer edge to deep  water. It was at first supposed that the flat submerged border, well  marked in the lakes above mentioned, but also seen frequently elsewhere, implied a comparatively recent rise in the lake waters. It  would appear however that it is really due to the distribution, by the  movement of the waters of the lake itself, of debris from the shore.  At a depth so great as to render the surface movement inappreciable  the material forms a steep talus sloping down to the deeper portion  of the lake bottom. Thus when the lake is wide and the force of  the waves great, the shallow border is proportionately increased.  This feature has important bearing on the formation of lakes generally, and explains several circumstances connected with those  lying in the valleys of the interior."  It is regrettable that the depth of the different lakes in the Okanagan Valley had not been ascertained and the character of the bottoms known at the time Dr. Dawson was making the Geological  Survey as we might have had from him further comment of interest.   It is surprising how little we know of our lakes.  19 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  The writer in 1911 surveyed a cross-section of Okanagan Lakes  in two places, for the telephone cable, one off the park at Kelowna,  and one between Carr's Landing and Fintry. At Kelowna the distance surveyed was 4500 feet. The profile developed showed that  for a distance of 1500 feet out from the west shore the greatest  depth reached was 34 feet. From this point east to within 1300  feet from the east side, the bottom curves down to a depth of 165  feet, and at 200 feet from the Kelowna shore the depth was 43  feet. The soundings made here would indicate that the lake bottom  had been raised by the breaking down of the land on the Indian  Reserve on the west. This intrusion extends for 1500 feet into  the lake. On the east side the intrusion of the material brought down  by Mission Creek extends for 1300 feet over the lake bottom.  The distance surveyed between Carr's Landing and Fintry was  10,100 feet, and the deepest spot found, 538 feet, was about half  way across. The soundings would indicate too that the washings  from Shorts' Creek extend along the lake bottom for a distance of  2000 feet. From there for about one mile the bottom was a whitish  clay, then mud, sand and gravel on to Carr's Landing. These are  the only cross sections O'f this lake ever surveyed as far as we are  aware. It is remarkable that the stretch of clay above mentioned,  appeared to be clear of mud or sediment of any kind, the sinker when  it reached the bottom stopped suddenly as if it had encountered a  hard surface.  Okanagan Lake has no doubt great depths, and I should look  for the deepest spots off Squally Point, between Bear Creek and  Kelowna and off Whiteman's Creek. C. D. Simms reports that he  failed to reach the bottom of Long Lake with a line 600 feet long  at a point off Cousins' Bay. Even a few individual soundings of  this sort made by our members from time to time would be valuable. Swan Lake, north of Vernon, presents some unusual features  which we hope to deal with in another Report.  The Department of Indian Affairs gives, for 1892, the number  of Indians in the Okanagan Agency as 852. These were distributed  in thirteen bands. The religious census of the Agency listed 46  Protestants, 736 Roman Catholics and 90 pagans.  20 Layer Cake Hill  We are indebted to C. C. Kelley of Kelowna for the following paragraphs from the annual report of the Geological Survey of  1877-78, in which Dr. G. M. Dawson described the Mission settlement, the gold workings and a hill containing overlapped flows of  basalt bordering Mission Creek.   The paragraphs which follow Dr.  Dawson's record are by J.  G. John of Natal, B.C., a  recent   visitor  to   the   area  described.—Editor.  C. C. Kelley  Of the area in the vicinity of Kelowna Dr. Dawson wrote that "the Mission  settlement occupies a large  flat formed by detritus  brought down by the  stream known as Mission  Creek. The flat area does  not extend far into the  lake, as many fans and  stream deltas do, but fills  what at one time must have  been an extensive bay. The  total area of arable land  must be about six square  miles, of which most is already taken up. With irrigation, crops of all sorts,  including beans equal to  those  of  Lillooet,   can  be  grown. A considerable portion of the land is under cultivation, with  fine looking crops.  "The settlement dates from about eighteen years back and now  consists of seventeen  families in  all,  mostly  half-breeds speaking  Steep cliff of overlapped flows of basalt.  Lower Mission Creek Canyon. The Kelowna locality  in  1887.   (C.  C.  Kelley)  21 The Okanagan Historical Society~1954  French. The farm buildings are in some cases substantial, there is  a school with about twenty scholars and a church and mission buildings under two French priests.  "Rich gold placers were at one time worked on Mission Creek,  and although not now yielding largely, still employ a few men. The  locality worked is situated about seven miles from the mouth of the  stream, where it is found issuing from a narrow, rocky gorge, into  a wider valley. Some years ago mining was carried on in the bed of  the Creek, and very good pay got for a time in a reach about half  a mile below the gorge above mentioned. Two or three ounces of  gold were obtained per day to the hand in some instances. No remunerative ground was found above the gorge or canyon.  "The mining now in progress is on the lowest bench or river  flat, the pay-dirt in McDougall's claim being a cement or gravel  consolidated by calcareous matter, which is probably local in origin.  This rests upon a bedrock which the miners call a rotten slate, but  which is really a dark-coloured bed of Tertiary formation, which  here overlaps the older rocks. The gravel of the flat rests on the  Tertiary beds, which a little farther from the canyon become yellowish, and paler in tint, but are all fine-grained clays or shales. The  pay-dirt in McDougall's claim is about three feet thick, and has  been stripped of eight feet of useless gravel. It was wheeled in  barrows to the river, about twenty yards, and washed in two lengths  of boxes, though all the gold is coarse, it is stopped for the most part  on the first riffle.  "The rocks seen in the canyon are gneissic, of the character of  those so extensively developed east of the south end of Okanagan  Lake. About a quarter of a mile from the lower end of the canyon  they are regularly arranged, but lower down are cut by faults and  traversed by quartz veins. At the lower end of the canyon the Tertiary deposits overlap these rocks, as above noted.  "Gold has been found in the gravels resting on the surface of  the old rocks, but in irregular pockets formed by the uneven hollows into which they are worn. It is not until these gravels are  found spreading more widely, and in thicker masses over the Tertiary beds, that the richer gold deposits occur. Had the lower bed of  the Tertiary been a water formed conglomerate, instead of having  the character above described, it would probably form a rich gold-  bearing horizon. Such water-worn materials marking the courses of  streams of pre-Tertiary age must occur in many places throughout  22 Layer Cake Hill  the gold bearing districts, and though now difficult to find, may  probably, if discovered, yield rich returns.  "The richest deposits of Mission Creek have doubtless been already worked, but it is not impossible that some of them would pay  working again, or that some of the higher benches might yield  profitable returns by the hydraulic method.  "On Mission Creek, about three quarters of a mile below the  mining camp, a cliff estimated at 350 feet in height, is built up of  overlapped flows of basalt, each from twelve to fifteen feet in  thickness and wonderfully regular. Twenty-four such layers were  counted, and there are probably eight or ten more in the face of the  hill. The material is much alike throughout, and many layers are  finely columnar. The whole mass dips away from the stream at an  angle of about fifteen degrees, and is seen to be underlain by thirty  feet or more of yellowish sandstone of ordinary sedimentary origin."  J. G. John  About eight miles east of the fruit centre of Kelowna is a geological quirk of Nature, which is less well-known than it deserves  to be. It borders the historic Mission Creek, where gold was found  by prospectors during the latter half of last century. Among others,  George E. Winkler and Arthur Dawson prospected in the area. In  a letter to the late Harry D. Barnes of Hedley, Mr. Winkler of Victoria wrote that the only name he ever heard applied to this feature  was "Layer Cake Hill."  Layer Cake Hill is a striking formation of laminar, basalt horizons, and is in complete contrast with the surrounding countryside.  Viewed from the top of the south bank of Mission Creek, at a point  about three-quarters of a mile below the old mining camp, the hill  presents an inspiring sight. From the 2000 feet base level, skirted by  the creek, rises first a steep buttress of slide material. Rising to a  height of about 350 feet above the valley floor, are nearly vertical  cliffs of overlapping basalt. Each layer is fairly regular and is between 12 and 15 feet in thickness. The writer counted 32 such  layers, but many more, no doubt, lie beneath the slide.  Dr. Dawson notes that the material is much alike throughout,  and many layers are finely columnar. Perhaps the best time of day  to view this awesome remnant of a less tranquil time is the hour of  sunset. The rich, red rays of fading sunlight bring out in sharp  contrast the patterned ruggedness of this sleeping giant.  It seems strange to me that Kelowna has not emphasized this  phenomenon as a tourist attraction.  23 Food and Medicines of the  Okanakanes  Louise Gabriel  (As compiled by Hester E. White)  My people, the native Canadians of the  Okanakane (Okanagan)  Tribe, inhabited this  lovely valley from north  of the Okanagan Lake  to south of the river of  the same name, a distance of about two hundred miles.  This valley was ours,  to roam at will its length  and breadth. It was our  privilege to enjoy its  beauty and to partake of  its bounty. We lived a  natural, carefree,  wholesome    life,    very  close to Mother Earth.   We possessed the secret to her  treasure-  trove, that furnished our every physical, mental and spiritual need.  All through our history the Okanakanes were known as the  most generous and kind-hearted people. From Yakima north, when  a famine came to them, the natives came to the Okanakanes for help.  One of the biggest canoes to ever glide over the Okanagan Lake  was given, six generations ago, to Chief Halka-wan-Cheen in trade  for hunting and berry-picking. The dug-out canoe was about eighteen feet long and five feet wide and at each end was a huge carving  of Na-ha-ha-itkh (Ogopogo), the water-god.  The chief was very pleased with this gift, so he invited the  Yakimas to stay all winter and on into the next summer for the  hunting and berry-picking.  Mrs. Louise Gabriel, Penticton.  24 Food and NLedicines of the Okanakanes  Long before Sa-ma (the white man) set foot on Tee-khwhat  (Okanagan Lake) shore, there was plenty of game of all kinds.  Papa-lat-cha (elk) was the most plentiful. Elk made their home  on Sa-ya (Deep Creek) hill and were chased down into the lake  by our trained dogs, long since extinct. They were much like the  Alaskan huskies, yellow in colour, tails curled up. Because the elk  were very fast in the water there would be five or six paddlers to a  canoe and a hunter with bow and arrows. The elk lowest in the  water would be the fattest, so it was the target.  We had a variety of animals, fish and birds to use for food as  the seasons came. We made broth from meat and fish, and dried  leaves from different plants to be steeped for drinking. We ate  berries both fresh and dried, mushrooms and nuts. There were many  kinds of roots to eat, but most of them had to be cooked.  Preparing for Winter, As It Was Done Long Ago  Always the state of the weather has been most important to our  people. We learned the language of Nature from necessity, for to  us it often meant life or death. A long, cold winter must be foreseen and prepared for. Nature gives more generously of her foods  when a long winter is to follow. These are the signs that warn us.  Se-kah-ka (birds) flock in Lah-lah-ten (August), the chokecherry  month instead of Skl-wis-ten (September), the salmon month. Cok-  cho-ya (squirrels) store more kip-wha (nuts) than usual. The sa-  aneou (muskrat) make houses on the banks of the se-tek-wha (river)  instead of nests or lodges in the water.  Late summer is a busy time for everyone as food is gathered and  stored. Se-mah-meem (women) pick the kol-kol-eo-wam (berries)  and dig the wi-tchm (roots) to store in the ula-keen, a pit lined with  ke-lee-lo (bark) and kha-ma (pine-needles). The latter keep away  mice.  The first root to be dug is speet-lum (rock-rose), which has many  uses. It is dug with a peecha, a long stick made from wa-wa-hilp  (syringa).   All roots are dug the same way.  Most kinds of roots have to be cooked before drying. These  are skwin-kwin-em, ina-chaka (wild potatoes), stlo-kum (wild carrots), ha-leo-whah and ukee-ukups (wild onions), sta-cheen (tiger-  lily), speet-lum and sunflower.  A cooking-pit is dug and lined with hot rocks, then a layer of  skook-welp (rosebush branches) to prevent roots from burning.  The  25 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  (peeled if speet-lum), washed roots are put in the pit and another  layer of skook-welp, then de-kwah-lep (timber grass) and finally  lok-la (earth) are added. A hole is made in the top and see-colkh  (water) is poured in to make s'hool (steam) from the hot rocks to  cook these roots. Some roots were cooked overnight. When cooked  the roots were put in the sun to dry out on to-ook-tan (tule) mats.  Sku-lep (Indian bread) is cooked the same way. This is made  of the long hair-like moss which hangs from fir trees on mook-way-  ut (high) mountains. The moss was cleaned and covered with spe-a-  kaluk (dried berries) to sweeten and flavour it. It was placed between tule mats before covering it. When done the sku-lep was  cut in pieces and dried.  The (se-yah) berries used for food are olallies (service or Saskatoon berry), sa-ho-isam (soap ollalies), me-chak-wah (black caps),  la-la (raspberry), in-tet-melps (gooseberry), sta-helk (huckleberry)  and many others. Berries were picked in pina (birch bark basket) and  then dried on to-ook-tan mats.  Now it is time for the women to get their sen-wel-chaten (racks)  ready to dry the kak-welt'h (fish) and sle-a-kho (meat). Their fish  are kinds of salmon, ho-mena, tan-ya and skil-u-is; also spokaleetz,  (fresh water ling), kikanee, and koot-e-wan (eels).  Skul-kult-meo (men) get ready for the pia-hem (hunting) by  making their cho-kweek (bows) and cha-kalen (arrows) of who-  wa-hialp (syringa). The tina (bowstring) is sinew taken from the  kas-hum (back) of the animal. The bows are tipped with sta-hina  (flint) and the other end has feathers.  Then the men have their kweel-sten (sweat-house) to be clean  so the sla-cheenem (deer) will not get their ska-yowh (scent) even  if they are close to them.  It is built beside water.  The kweel-sten is made from a framework of bent sticks with  their ends stuck firmly into the earth to make a round little house  like an igloo. This is covered with bark and packed earth, except for  a small opening. Inside, it has kwayl-chen (fir boughs) on the  ground and a little skloo-eestan (pit) is dug and hot rocks are put  into it. The men bathe in the cold water, then go into the kweel-  sten and pull a chip-teen-tin (covering) over the door. They pour  water on the hot rocks to make steam, then they rub with clean grass  to remove the slo-weet (soil) from their bodies. Any callouses are  rubbed off with a smooth stone. After the sweat-house they bathe in  the cold water again.  26 Food and hPedicines of the Okanakanes  Then they go to hunt the sla-cheenem (deer), the papa-latcha  (elk), the st'chemell-cha (mountain sheep), ka-low-na (grizzly  bear), and skem-heest (black and brown bears). Sunflower leaves  are used to wipe out the insides of the deer.  When the meat is brought in the people all eat some. Then the  women prepare the rest of it for winter. Some portions are cut in  strips and dried in the ha-ow (sun). Others are cut in bigger pieces  and che-keel-cha (cooked) over a willow fire. When cooked and  dried the meat can be ka-oom-chen (stored) with other foods and  it will keep all winter long and not spoil.  Next comes the h'wee-koom (tanning) of the s'e-pee (hides).  First they ai-i-kam (scrape) the kap-ka-in-ten (hair) off the skins  with a sk'rom-a-1'xt (bone) taken from the t'kem-aks-tin (leg) of  a deer. The hair is washed off in clean water and the skins are  stretched and laced on poles like a loom. When a hide is dry it is  taken off and en'p'l-keecha (smoked) over a fire of dry yah-kway  (rotted wood). Then it is soaked in warm water full of the st'm-  ken (cooked brains) of the animal. Now it is laced back to the  frame.   Bear-skins were stretched and used for rugs.  The women have a so-whey-whey-sten (smooth rock) tied on  the end of a stick, which they work and scrape all over the skin to  soften it. When dry it is taken off and smoked again. It is soft and  pliable now and ready to make into si-see-pe-hen (moccasins) and  clothing. A stone nik-emen (knife) is used to cut the skins. Thread  was made of sinew. Needles were fine bones taken from a deer-  leg.  A special needle was made from the leg-bone of a swan.  For fishing, the men used long poles of kak'st (jack-pine), which  are peeled and scraped, then held over a pitch fire to blacken them.  The fish would see light poles in the water and be frightened away.  Fish-hooks shaped like an arrow point from shool-ken (flint) and  bone ones shaped like a crochet hook are wrapped tightly at the fastening ends with buckskin. Boiling pitch is daubed on to tighten and  harden so the hooks will not come off in the water. A short piece of  spee-chen (Indian hemp) fastens the hooks—sometimes three—to  the pile. The fish are cleaned and dried on racks. The chief fishing-  place was at Okanagan Falls. Spokaleetz (ling) were caught in  Osoyoos Lake in the first sunny days of February.  When the weather grew cold, our people moved from their  to-ook-ten-elook (tule tepees) to their kocha (winter underground  lodges).   These are round holes like'a cellar with poles put up for  27 The Okanagan Plistorical Society—1954  a roof, with an opening at the top. Mats made from willows and  tules are laid on, then fir boughs, then earth. Entrance is made on  a ladder-like pole leading down into the lodge. The branches are  trimmed and shortened to a few inches for steps.  After the lodge is finished and all the families are moved in,  the men go to set their traps to catch the smaller animals. These  are stone-ha (beaver), ha-whil (fox), spep-e-lena (rabbit), s'an-en-  heo (muskrat), wap-ap-hun (lynx), mink, chal-chen (martin),  raccoon and all the fur-bearing animals.  The sen-ha-choos (trap) is made of a pole four feet long, heavy  and weighted at one end. A small stick with the meala (bait) on it  is balanced at the other end. When the animal grabs the bait, the  pole hits it on the head. The larger animals were snared on their  trails with nooses of spee-chen (Indian hemp). This spee-chen was  very valuable for trading with other tribes.  Okanakane Medicine  Today we have to go to the drug stores for our m'reem-sten  (medicine) and we pay as much as you do. Before the sa-ma came  to our valley and disrupted our natural way of living, we had to provide ourselves with shelter, clothing, coverings, weapons, tools, dishes, foods and our medicines. We were a healthy race, our men were  athletic and strong.  For every illness there was a cure nearby and we knew how to  make tonics, salves, antiseptics and hot drinks. We bathed often and  our kweel-sten (sweat-house) was for health and spirit as well as  cleanliness. Kula-meen (cottonwood ashes) was like soap for our  buckskin clothing. For hair-washing we went to Spotted Lake near  Richter Mountain or White Lake nearer home. Baskets of this clay  or mud were carried home to use for washing.  These are a few of our medicines:  (1) Baby Care—We picked the soft, white filling from kwis-  kwas-kin (bullrushes, not tules), and used it for absorbent cotton.  It was packed around the babies for clothing and diapers. After  babies were weaned from the breast they were given se-yah (berry)  juices and the long sku-leep moss from the trees was melted into a  syrup, something like Karo syrup. This was good for them. If a  baby had enow-k'cheen (sore mouth), tk-tk-1-emp (wild strawberry  leaves) were baked and crushed into a powder and dusted into the  baby's mouth.  This is soothing and healing.  28 Food and NLedicines of the Okanakanes  (2) Stik-tik-ch'welp (red willow) is used for irritated skin,  bruises, rashes, toothache, and for steaming sore throats. It is the best  for infection and blood-poisoned cuts.  (3) Spring tonics were brewed from the evergreens, ch'k-ialp  (fir), mar-eelp (spruce), ch'kwelwh (balsam), poo-neelp (juniper)  and sj-ar-sil-malwh (Oregon Grape). Roots of the Oregon Grape  were cleaned and boiled with ka-ka-leext (sarsaparilla). This is the  best blood tonic.  (4) For bad colds we used the different kinds of papa-1'm'lkh  (sage-brush) steeped. Dried fish-heads were boiled and the broth  taken for colds. Too-wah-tee-wah (mint) leaves are brewed like  tea and this takes fever from the body.  (5) For a laxative we use so-ho-sameelp (soap olallie branches)  boiled. This is a mild remedy. A strong laxative is ha-hala-hoops  (rattlesnake weed) brewed like tea.  (6) There are two kinds of ha-you (wild parsnips). The one  that grows on the side-hills is the one we used for medicine. It makes  a good poultice on open wounds and for soreness in broken bones.  The swamp-parsnip is poisonous.  (7) We have plants like onions. They are ha-leo-whah and  ukee-ukups. The bulbs are mashed and put on poison ivy sores.  (8) For internal hemorrhage and diarrhoea we steeped the inner  bark of stik-stik-chu-welp (thornbush) and drank the tea.  Nature has a cure for every illness and many of these medicines  are still used today in the homes of our people.  Kelowna Lakeshore, 1905. Taken from old C.P.R. Wharf, looking toward  present  Aquatic  buildings.   Original  Lequime  wharf  and  warehouse,  centre.  29 An Indian Historian  M. A. Kenny  In the interior of British Columbia one occasionally comes upon  a spot so near to Nature's heart, so unspoiled by modernism as to  suggest the almost primeval.  In such a place, near Keremeos, in the early thirties, I came unexpectedly upon Michelle, then an old man. His natural reserve was  partly broken down when he learned that I could converse with him  in Chinook, though he was perfectly capable of making himself  understood in English. Then followed our discovery that in the  long ago days he, too, had lived in the Nicola Valley. More than  fifty years before, he had known a pioneer family there. As a young  man, he had hauled logs for Thomas Woodward. From memories  of them we progressed to discussing old tillicums of the Shulus Reserve on Ten-Mile Creek, near Merritt.  It was a picturesque encampment—the Shulus—as I remember  it, with its diversified styles of architecture, ranging from circular  mat tepees and keekwillies to the mud-roofed log huts, these with  stretched deerskins tacked on their outside walls. My father's good  friend, Tou-de-la-kin, was the aristocrat of his tribe and lived in  a house of lumber. The boards for this were sawn at a water-power  mill further down the creek. The mill was built by the first settlers  at Lower Nicola, the Woodwards (my family), who came there  in 1871.  Michelle and I spoke of our friends, many of whom were now  gone. He told me that his mother (Mary) was now 113 years old  and lived with him at his lodge. The Indians' method of keeping  the family record is more reliable than most people suppose. It is  kept by means of a notched stick. We sometimes refer to "a child  of five summers," but the Indians count time by winters, or as they  say, "Col' snass." In this language (Chinook) rain is "snass," snow  is "col' snass." Probably, old Mary had more notches to her credit  than any other native Canadian and still had a wonderful memory,  full of the lore and legend of her people.  Upon learning of my love for Indian stories Michelle exclaimed,  30 An Indian Historian  "I got 'em, I got book. I let you see for three days." Then he made  a quick motion as if clasping the book to his breast and said gravely,  "I no give, I no sell. One Indian make it, he (she) give me. He  say no let go, all time keep in house."  When I reassured him that he was quite right in refusing to  part with his book, he reiterated his offer of a three days' loan, and  urged me to come that evening to his camp for it.  The little book, of which one third was still intact, was bereft  of its covers and yellowed with age. It had been both beheaded and  curtailed to a serious extent, but the middle was practically all there.  Leaving all regrets behind me, I absorbed the contents, grateful that  each narrative was complete in itself and in no way dependent upon  what came before or after.  It was indeed a rare find.  As I examined and copied, I found that they were the true expression of the Indian mind, the work of a full-blood native girl who  had learned to read and write. It was unhampered by the phraseology of the paleface writer and, thus, no significances of the narratives were lost.  Perhaps the most interesting account of all dealt with the arrival  at Lytton, B.C., of the discoverer of the Fraser River. Lytton is at  the junction of the Fraser and Thompson rivers.  Kwolin'an means "birch bark canoe," a term the natives applied  to Simon Fraser's party.   I will quote verbatim from the little book.  "Simon Fraser's Visit to Lytton, 1808. Related by Wa'xtkoa of  Spences Bridge.  "When Kwolin'an came to Lytton, Tcexe'x was chief of the  Spences Bridge Band. He v/as a prominent chief and a great orator.  He had one eye. He never practised as a Shaman, but was more  powerful than most Shamans are. I am directly descended from him.  He had a large family and was an elderly man when the whites came  to Lytton.  "It was midsummer. The berries were just ripe in the river  valley and many of the tribe were assembled at Botani, digging  roots and playing games.  "Some Thompson River men who had been up at La Fontaine  on horseback came back quickly with the news of the approach of  these people.  "Tcexe'x was at Botani with others from Spences Bridge. He  hurried down to Lytton and was there when the whites arrived. The  31 The Okanagan Historical Society-—1954  chief of the whites we called "Sun."   We did not then know his  name.  "Several chiefs made speeches to him, but Tcexe'x made the  greatest speech. His speech so pleased Sun that he gave him a present of a large silver brooch (or some such similar ornament) which  he had on his person.  "On special occasions Tcexe'x used to wear this attached to his  hair in front or on the front of his head. When I was a girl I saw  it worn by his sons. One of his sons inherited it; on his death his  brother inherited it; on his death his brother obtained it. It was  probably buried with the th'rd brother"who had it, as it disappeared  about the time of his death.  "The last named died at Lytton as an elderly man, and his body  was buried on the north side of the Thompson River at Drynoch,  about seven miles below Spences Bridge."  (NOTE—In writing the above narrative, the Indian writer  has designated the various places by their present names. It will,  however, be understood that these events took place when British  Columbia's mountains and valleys were known only by their Indian  names.—M.A.K.)  "The stream of social life into which I was born has almost  petered out. With it had disappeared to a great degree the atmosphere in which I was reared, with its sense of responsibility for the  advantages enjoyed, of the paramount duty of serving others, of  self-control and reticence, of dignified endurance of reverses, of  respect for authority and law, of cheerful self-sacrifice, and of  dogged perseverance to gain desired ends."—Alice Ravenhill in  Memoirs of an Educational Pioneer (J. M. Dent and Sons (Canada)  Limited, Toronto and Vancouver, 1951), p. 222.  32 Ogopogo  Noel Robinson  The mere mention of Ogopogo—at any rate in any B.C. community, except, perhaps, Kelowna—is responsible either for a raising  of the eyebrows and a smile of incredulity, or of the comment, "Do  you think that such a monster really lives in the Okanagan Lake?"  This was very apparent among the thousands of spectators witnessing the procession through the streets of Vancouver inaugurating the  Pacific National Exhibition of 1954 when they saw a' counterfeit  presentation of "Ogo" upon an enormous scale staged on a very fine  float by which Kelowna was represented on that occasion.  Legendary or actual though the creature may be, it must be admitted that Kelowna, in particular, has achieved, through the medium of publicity accorded Ogo, almost as great notoriety as it has  through the medium of its famed Regatta, for this leviathan now  runs a close second to the real, or mythical Loch Ness monster of  Scotland about which a book has been written. Of course there is  one difference, rather a major one, between the environment in  which the respective manifestations have been witnessed, for whereas  the Okanagan is an inland lake (of large proportions, it is true)  Loch Ness, though largely landlocked, is connected with the sea, a  medium in which colossal living organisms exist.  The writer of these notes has had the opportunity of reading a  most artistically produced, and fairly lengthy pamphlet published by  The Kelowna Courier in 1952, the pages of which are devoted to a  detailed account of most of the evidence that has been up to the  near present assembled in confirmation of the existence of such a  creature.   It is entitled OGO—-His Story.  Yet here in this pamphlet we have the visual evidence of one  Squadron Leader Bruce Millar who, driving along the Naramata  Road with Mrs. Millar one Sunday evening, saw Ogopogo in the  lake below them. They stopped their car and watched him for some  time, stopping other passing cars. They described him as a "lithe,  sinewy monster about 75 feet in length with a coiled back. Periodically his progress would be halted as he lay quietly in the water,  33  PENTICTON HIGH SCHOOL LIBRAE The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  head well raised and surveying the lake with calm dignity. Then  his tail would rise, there would be a splash and he would weigh  anchor." This is only one of many manifestations of Ogo recorded  in this booklet as having taken place over a period of years.  Indeed the Vancouver writer of these notes about Ogo has a  friend, a young woman of very balanced mind, and by no means  given to flights of imagination, a talented nurse trained in St. Paul's  hospital at Vancouver. She has given a most realistic and detailed  description of how she and three companions who were sitting on  the shore of Okanagan Lake saw Ogo about a hundred yards off  shore, and watched him for ten minutes as he moved along through  the water disporting himself.  In view of all this cloud of witnesses who testify to the corporeal presence of Ogo, and no doubt there is an equal cloud in  relation to the Loch Ness monster, it is strange that none of them  ever appear to have been accompanied by a camera which, fortunately, the author of Kon-Tiki and his companions were provided  with when they encountered their oceanic monsters.  Wasn't it Hamlet who remarked, "There are more things in  heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamed of in your philosophy"?  "What makes the securing of this early day data without delay  SO' urgent is that a great deal of this ancient history is locked up in  the memories of a group of old timers, the ranks of which are  being rapidly thinned by the grim reaper. Then another reason that  presents itself is the fact that as these old peregrinating historians  advance in years their memories play pranks on them. It has been  found that with each time they relate some particular incident they  enlarge upon it, until finally the true original story has been distorted beyond recognition."—Fred J. Smyth in Tales of the Kootenays (Cranbrook, 1937).  34 Some Archaeological Notes On  Kelowna Area  Warren W. Caldwell1  The Okanagan Valley is a new and a vigorous country. Kelowna will be fifty years old next year but before Kelowna and her  sister cities were the ranches, the mines and the fur brigades. With  them our written history begins, but before them lies a vast reach of  time about which we know relatively little, a time during which the  Okanagan Valley was the home and the graveyard of unnumbered  peoples, aboriginals called historically, the Okanagan Indians.  Concerning the fur brigades, the mines, and the founding fathers there are written documents aplenty. Concerning the aboriginal  inhabitants the documents are few and of an entirely different order.  The ancestral Okanagan can be known only from his tools, his  manufactures, and of course, remnants of his own body preserved  in the ground. The written documents, the letters, the diaries and  business records lie within the province of the Historian. The artifacts of the Indian lie within the experience of the Archaeologist.  Both Historian and Archaeologist are reconstructors of history but  each relies upon different sorts of data.  The written history of Kelowna is extensive, as this Annual  Report can attest. The pre-white history of the area, however, is  only now beginning to be written.  Aboriginally, the whole of the northern Okanagan country lies  within the area designated by ethnologists (and latterly by archaeologists) as the Plateau. The term Plateau is not used in a strict  topographical sense but rather refers to a body of technological  knowledge, social practice and belief which characterized the Indians  of a large portion of the intermountain region.  Kelowna, considered as an  integral portion  of the  aboriginal  i Mr. Caldwell, student in Archaeology and Anthropology, took his  B.A. degree in 1947, and M.A. in 1949 at Stanford University; and  is a candidate for Ph.D. at the University of Washington. He has  conducted field researches in the Gulf of Georgia, California, British Columbia, and currently at the Dalles of the Columbia River,  Washington.  35 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  Northern Plateau culture area, does not seem to have been a populous  region. The low lacustrine flat which gives shape to the physiography of Kelowna has not produced evidence of its pre-white inhabitants to the degree noted from many less naturally endowed  areas. Contrarily, the peripheries, the low, rough, hilly spurs overlooking the deltic developments of the several streams of the Kelowna drainage have produced substantial evidence of human habitation. The early inhabitants seem to have gravitated toward high  ground. Perhaps the lowland areas, which have latterly been lake  bottom, were too uncertain for primitive man. He did not want to  get his feet wet.  Ethnographically, the house types reported for the Indians of  the northern Plateau took several forms. Most characteristically,  however, they appeared as a shallow, circular pit over which was  erected a superstructure of light timbers supporting a covering of  matting or turf. This is the familiar Kikwili pit noted frequently  by early inhabitants. The historic descriptions are largely confirmed  via remains situated near Vernon, Gellatly and numerous other  places around the borders of the Okanagan Valley lakes.  At Kelowna, however, a unique and hitherto unreported type  of house is found. On a low ridge overlooking Sawmill Creek is a  series of house pits following entirely the usual pattern as to shape  and dimension but, interestingly, lined with large river cobbles which  are carried above the surface as a low encircling wall. Similar  structures have been noted from Gellatly, Richter.Pass (where they  have been called Hudson's Bay Co. storage pits) and more recently  from as far south as the Dalles of the Columbia River. Such stone  remains are incidentally recognized in the scientific literature of  Anthropology. They are, however, usually described as cache pits  for the storage of aboriginal food supplies. Several of the Kelowna  pits may have functioned in such a manner, but others are undeniably houses. Casual excavations have produced numerous basalt  artifacts in the form of knives, scrapers, and points, and in one  instance, a copper war club. The exact cultural relationship of the  stone house is as yet obscure but the arti factual assemblage suggests  relative recency.  Information regarding aboriginal burial patterns in the central  Lake Okanagan area is abundant but data specific to Kelowna is  slight. The most characteristic form is perhaps the "Oyama" pattern  (from Lake Kalamalka) which is based upon interment in a shallow  36 Some Archaeological Notes on Kelowna Area  dug grave. Frequently included funerary "furniture" is extensive.  Finely polished pestles, steatite pipes and in some instances, serpentine  or jadeite adze blades have been recovered. Such burials seem characteristic of the northern and eastern portions of the Lake Okanagan  area, with Kelowna forming perhaps the southeasternmost extremity.  I would like to suggest the strong probability that several different  things are involved in what is superficially a single burial pattern.  All such burials are not related in form or period; they do not fit  into the same continuum of development or into the same time  sequence. The elaborate grave goods of a burial from Okanagan  Centre differ radically from those found at Oyama, yet the form  of burial, simple earth interment, appears to be the same. Unfortunately, not enough scientific digging has been done to disentangle  the problem.  Numerous parallels can be drawn between these simple interments of the Okanagan region and similar forms in other areas of  the Plateau. Typologically related types occur south, at least to the  Columbia where they appear to be late prehistoric. Although not  recorded for the immediate Kelowna vicinity, other varieties of  burial, some of great formal complexity, have been noted in the  Lakes area.2 The cedar cist burials of Skaha Lake and Osoyoos and  the cairn structures of Similkameen all have their counterparts south  of the international border. They are noted at least as far east as  the Snake River country and to the Columbia in the south.  Concerning the physical remains, the conformation of the people who latterly inhabited the Kelowna region, very little is as yet  known. Sequences of skeletal material are as yet too scanty to permit of the statistical treatment necessary to place them in their  proper position relative to the northwest culture area.  Burial procedure, the actual treatment of the body, has included  extended burial in our western European sense, flexed burial in which  the knees are drawn tightly to the chest, and south of Kelowna,  cremation. Extended burial currently is of interest in terms of the  considerable age attributable to such a mode of disposition in southeastern Washington and Central California.  It seems then, that logically the question thus follows: how old  is aboriginal man in the Kelowna area? In suggesting an answer I  must emphasize a consideration patent in the foregoing presentation.  2 Atkinson, R. N., ''Burial Grounds of the Okanagan Indians," OHS  lfi (1952), pp. 5-12.  37 The Okanagan Historical Society—A 954  Archaeologically Kelowna participates in the general prehistoric  backgrounds of the Plateau culture area. Currently most evidences  indicate relative recency, yet those evidences may be deceptive. Post  European data is often easy to identify as a result of the early and  widespread diffusion of the white-man's trade goods. Pre-European  artifacts present a more difficult problem; often there is apparent  no inherent quality enabling them to be ranked either in a temporal  or typological sequence. Thus as it stands today, much of the Kelowna material seems to be recent, on the order of 200 years, but,  there is much more which is older, perhaps much older, but which  is currently hanging in time. It is only in the light of intensive  scientific excavation that valid cultural-temporal sequences can be  established and the mid-lake area be placed properly in terms of the  broad pattern of Northwest prehistory.  Kelowna Football Team, 1908  Top row, left—G. H. E. Hudson; John I. Daties; Dr. Frank Quinn.  Centre—Norman Lloyd; Harry A. Davies; H. A. Whillis; Robert Butt.  Bo torn—Ch-irles Quinn; -- WcLey; Douglas Llcyd; W'lliam S "holes;  Donald Barker.  38 The First Steamboat On  Okanagan Lake1  L. Norris  In his dispatch to the Home Government of the 16th July, 1861,  Governor Douglas said he proposed, with a view of opening up the  country and facilitating transportation, to have a steamboat placed  on Shuswap Lake, and, also, one on Okanagan Lake with a wagon  road connecting the two lakes.  The wagon road from Ashcroft to Savona's Ferry was completed and a steamboat placed on Shuswap Lake in 1 866. The wagon  road from the head of Okanagan Lake to Spallumcheen prairie was  built in 1873, but it was not until the 21st April, 1 886, just twenty  years after a steamboat was placed on Shuswap Lake, that the shores  of Okanagan Lake first echoed to the whistle of a steamer. This  important undertaking was not the work of the Government nor  was it subsidized or assisted in any way by the Government, but was  due wholly to the initiative and enterprise of two men, Captain T.  D. Shorts and Thomas Greenhow.  The vessel was the "Mary Victoria Greenhow": length of keel  32 ft., beam 5 ft., and driven by a two H.P. coal-oil burning engine  manufactured in Rochester, N.Y. She was built at the head of  Okanagan Lake by Hamil and Pringle of Lansdowne. Quite a  number of persons were at the launching of her, among others  Hamil and Pringle, the builders, E. M. Furstineau, William Lawrence, B. F. Young and Robert Wood, and the trial trip was made  to Fall Creek where the party was royally entertained by Captain  Shorts. When she started on her first trip to Penticton she was carrying five tons of freight and five passengers and towing another  boat.  Prior to this date Captain Shorts had been, for some years,  freight ng on the Lake with a rowboat, and he boasted, according  to the newspaper accounts of the time, that he was so used to the  oars he could row all day without feeling any fatigue. It was Dr.  I. W. Po.vell. ( f Victoria who, having made a trip down the Lake  l Rei;r n.ed _rom OHS.3(1929), pp. 24-26.  39 The Okanagan Historical Society~1954  with Shorts in the rowboat, advised the purchase of this particular  engine which was then a new departure in marine engines, and extensively advertised in the magazines of that day. The advertisements usually contained a cut showing this coal-oil-burning  engine propelling a light skiff over the placid waters of a lake with  apparently, a gay pleasure party on board consisting of two handsome youths in straw hats and one girl with a red parasol. The  engine was probably equal to such work, but when the same engine  was placed in a large heavy boat, wide of beam and loaded down  with freight, the consumption of coal-oil per mile was increased  enormously.  Shorts started out on the trip with a barrel of coal-oil, but before  he reached Penticton the supply was exhausted, and he was then con-  ' fronted with a problem with which he was by nature well fitted to  cope for he had a ready wit and a most persuasive tongue. Besides,  everyone liked Shorts. The result was that when the "Mary Victoria  Greenhow" got back to the head of the Lake, the settlers had all gone  back to candles. There wasn't a tin of coal-oil left on the Lake.  Shorts hastened to impart the afflicting intelligence to his partner.  "Tom Greenhow," he shouted as soon as he saw him, "Tom Greenhow, we are a busted institution, that's what's the matter, we are  ruined; one more trip like that and we are a financial wreck," and  it was well on into the night before he got through telling his partner, with that wealth of detail the Captain loved, of all that happened to him on that memorable trip. The late Thomas Greenhow  was blessed with a keen sense of humour, and if he lost money on  the venture he appeared to get lots of fun out of it. In after years  he could never tell of Shorts' trip down the Lake when he ran short  of coal-oil, without going into roars of laughter.  The progress of the boat down the Lake was, nevertheless, hailed  with enthusiasm by the settlers who realized what it would mean to  them to have a steamer on the Lake making regular trips, and when  she reached Penticton something of a demonstration was staged and  a salute of 21 guns fired in honour of the event—shot guns, of  course, they had no cannon.  The "Mary Victoria Greenhow" was burned to the water's edge  afterwards as she lay on the beach at Kelowna. The engine was salvaged and placed later on in the second steamboat built by Captain  Shorts to ply on the waters of Okanagan Lake.   The new boat, the  40 The First Steamboat on Okanagan Lake  "Jubilee," was launched at Okanagan Landing on the 22nd Sept.,  1887.  The late Captain T. D. Shorts was in some ways a remarkable  man, and very likeable—always genial and friendly. He was noted  for his rugged honesty, and also, for a certain sturdy independence  and self-reliance which never deserted him. Like only too many of  the pioneers of the Okanagan Valley, towards the close of his life he  had lost most of his money and was in straitened circumstances and  for some years before his death he lived alone in a cabin at Hope.  The people of Hope were friendly to him and helped him about as  much as they were permitted, but when their well-meant offers of  assistance savored as he thought, too much of charity, they were declined, and sometimes with a directness of speech that was rather  disconcerting. Enterprising and optimistic all his life, he eagerly  pursued the fortune which he believed awaited him just around the  corner, and being of a sanguine disposition he was never unduly depressed by a bit of bad luck or misfortune. When things went wrong  with him, as they occasionally did, he usually passed it off with:  "Boys, if we only had as good foresight as we have hind sight, we  would raise hell, wouldn't we?" and that was the last heard of it.  Despite his slight eccentricities, of speech and otherwise, the late  Thomas Dolman Shorts—to give him his full name—was a man  of character and real worth, a true pioneer. He was born on the  14th June, 1837, and died at Hope on the 9th Feb., 1921, aged 83.  The record of his death in Victoria gives the place of his birth as  "Adolphuston, Canada."  "The first herd of cattle recorded as having crossed the border  at Osoyoos was one in charge of the famous United States General,  Joel Palmer in 1858. The Palmer expedition was organized in  Portland, Oregon, and consisted of a party of 36 men bound for  the Fraser River via the inland route."—The Story of Osoyoos, by  George J. Fraser (Penticton, 1953), p. 193.  41 On Okanagan Lake In 1888  FOUR DAYS IN CAPTAIN SHORTS' BOAT  Hester E. White  Of the many thousands who travel in the Okanagan Valley today,  enjoying the safety and comfort of motor cars and buses on paved  roads, the latest in Convair planes and stream-lined passenger trains,  few can imagine the difficulties of travelling in the early pioneer days  —hence my story.  When my mother and her little family left our treasured home  at Osoyoos on the first of October, 1888, it was a sad leaving, for  my father (J. C. Haynes) had died suddenly at Allison's Ranch at  Princeton on the 6th of July. There were six of us—Val (13),  Hester (11), Will (9), Irene (8), Sherman (6) and Susan, one  year old.  My grandfather, Captain George Pittendrigh, had come in from  New Westminster and had advised Mother to move to Victoria.  Mrs. Tom Ellis, who had just made a trip in from the Coast to  Penticton, wrote Mother suggesting that she wait until the unbearable heat and dust had subsided. So, weeks later, Grandfather,  Fairfax Haynes (step-brother), Mother and her sister, Connie (later  Mrs. Frank York), with Matilda Kruger, our nurse and dear friend,  to help us, commenced the journey.  William Jones, who was now temporarily in charge of the  Customs Office at Osoyoos, accompanied us as far as Testalinda  Creek, where we made camp that first night. The second night we  camped at Prather's Lake and the following day reached Penticton.  Here we had a memorable visit of twelve days at the Ellis home,  but Grandfather and Fairfax boarded the S.S. Penticton and went  on ahead to Vernon and we would join them there.  Then began the trip which has been a vivid memory to me all  these years. We left in the early morning of October 15. Mr. Ellis  drove the team which trotted along at a fast pace through the  meadow to the beach at the south end of Okanagan Lake. The air  was crisp and cool, birds sang, cattle and horses grazed on either  side of the road. Newly weaned calves in the calf-pasture bawled  for a breakfast they would not get.  42 On Okanagan Lake in 1888  Soon we were at the lake and there nosed onto the sand was  Captain Shorts' "boat", mentioned by Bishop Sillitoe in his records  dated April, 1888, as a "rowboat into which Capt. -Shorts had put an  engine. The crew was one boy, Leon, who was mate, pilot, cook,  etc."  Because we had enjoyed previous trips on the Fraser River boats  between Hope and New Westminster it was a disappointment to  think we must travel the seventy miles to the Head of the Lake in  this miserable little craft. The Mary Victoria Greenhow collected  many suitable nicknames in her day.1 Captain Shorts in overalls and  jacket, a peaked cap over one eye, was smoking a very strong corncob  pipe—held to one side of his mouth. All this and his tobacco-stained  beard made him a typical "Pop-eye, the sailor-man".  The roustabout was Clement Vachie, who was now loading  luggage, camp equipment, etc. on to a scow drawn up beside the  boat.  Harry Tilliard and a 'ty-hee' (boss) Chinaman were passengers  and, together with Captain Shorts and Vachie, occupied the stern of  the boat. With the engine in the centre, little space was left to  accommodate Mother, Connie, Matilda and six children in the bow,  on each side of which was a narrow seat. Wood was piled near the  very small engine. A canvas was spread over the top of the boat to  shelter us.  The kitchen-box containing a cooked ham, some cold chickens,  which had their heads shot off the day before, part of a sack of  potatoes and, no doubt, bread, butter, etc. was put on board. That  was the day's rations, for we expected to be but one day on the boat.  With a toot of the whistle, much noise and much smell as the  M.V.G. was backing out into the blue sparkling waters of the lake,  Tom Ellis shouted, "Will you make the head of the lake tonight,  Captain?" and the answer was, "Sure thing!" He was much too  optimistic for we had a head wind, and with a heavy load and a  bulky scow in tow we had to tie up that evening at what is now  Crescent Beach. Camp was made and we settled down for the night.  I have often tried to> imagine how alone my mother must have  felt—her children so young, her surroundings and company so  strange. Matilda would be her comfort for she had been with us for  1 Captain Dolman Shorts launched the Mary Victoria Greenhow, the  first steamboat on Okanagan Lake, on April 21, 1886. See OHS.13  (1949), p. 55; OHS.5(1931), pp. 5ff. The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  ten years, accompanying us many times over the Hope Trail. But my  father2 was sadly missed, for in camp wherever we were he had been  the last to turn in and the first one up in the morning. He gave orders  for the day to the Indian helpers, fires would be lighted in front of  our tents and the tent-flaps would be thrown back to let in warmth  as they were aired . . .  We were off early next morning and were thankful to arrive  safely that night at the Lambly Ranch beach. Only by the Grace of  God had we survived a heavy squall round Squally Point, when  waves washed over the boat and the engine stopped. The Captain,  not very sea-worthy at that moment, was pushed aside by Tilliard,  who discovered that the boiler was nearly dry. It was leaking badly  and it was told how oatmeal had been thrown in to plug the leak.  At the height of this gale, when all was so tense, Mother said  to us, "Why, this is Irene's birthday! And she is eight." Then she  told us how our family had come down this very lake in a rowboat  in December, eight years before. Tom Lambly and an Indian had  rowed the boat, that it had taken them four days from O'Keefe's to  Ellis' beach, camping ashore each night. "Irene was just six weeks  old, Will was eighteen months and Hester three-and-a-half." She  told us how she had bathed the baby near the front of the tent, with  a big fire outside, and how they had to ride forty miles to OsoyOos  after leaving Ellis's (Penticton). "We arrived there on the twenty-  first of December and that night a blizzard came in from the  north."  We had great difficulty landing in the storm, but fires were soon  lighted to warm us and dry out our clothes and bedding. Clement  Vachie disappeared into the woods and everyone rejoiced when he  came back with a year-old buck over his shoulder. For our kitchen-  box now contained only potatoes—slim pickings for thirteen hungry  passengers.  After we had our supper, no doubt of venison liver and those  potatoes, we were sitting around the camp-fire when out of the dark  and into the fire-light walked Bob and Mrs. Lambly. They were  living on the ranch at Trepanier Creek. Mother was delighted to see  2 J. C. Haynes was drowned in the Similkameen River.  On July 11 John H. Bromley (father of Mrs. Eliza Frampton,  Hedley) and a Swede named 'Anderson' brought the body of  Mr. Haynes down the Similkameen River in a dug-out canoe.  A wagon met them at the river-bend opposite Richter Pass and  burial took place at Osoyoos.  44 On Okanagan Lake in 1888  our old friends. Bob wanted to know why we had come up on the  Mary Victoria Greenhow when the Penticton, owned by Gillis and  Riley, was making regular trips up and down the lake.  Mother laughingly said, "We certainly know that, for it has  swirled past us three or four times, blowing the whistle and the  Mary Victoria Greenhow would answer with a 'toot-toot'; the wash  from their boat would make ours rock and toss, much to our discomfort and the younger ones' fear."  He, too, recalled that time in 1880, when the Haynes family  had arrived at Enderby from Salmon Arm in an Indian canoe. They  had come by stage from New Westminster via the Cariboo Road.  The children were very tired and fretting, especially the baby, and  he was afraid to beg them to stay for fear of the weather changing.  So he had driven them in a wagon to the head of the lake and they  had gone down the lake in a rowboat.  Next morning the Penticton passed us again and we were  surprised to see Theodore Kruger3 and his eldest daughter, Dora,  waving from the deck. The Krugers were our only neighbours  at Osoyoos.  That night we beached at the Mission on the east side of the  lake. We were greatly surprised and pleased to have Father Pandosy  and one of his lay-brothers visit our camp to bring Mother fruit,  vegetables and other gifts. Fr. Pandosy had often been a visitor to  our home in Osoyoos.  The fourth day was our last in the miserable little boat when  we arrived at the head of the lake. Forbes George Vernon sent Jim  Kerr to meet us with a hack, and we drove to the Vernon Hote] to  stay overnight.  (Mother bought me a coat, the only one available. It was two-  tone, brown in colour, too large, wore forever and was detested.)  Both Forbes and Charles Vernon, old friends of my father,  called on us that night. Annie Cameron, daughter of Joe Christien,  writes of "meeting Mrs. Haynes, Captain Pittendrigh and Fairfax  Haynes in Vernon in 1888, when they were on their way to the  Coast."  Early on the morning of the twentieth, we were put on the  four-horse stage, bound for Ducks, a fifty-odd mile drive. Horses  would be changed every twelve miles or so. As the stage drove up  3T. Kruger, customs officer.  See OHS.17(1953), p. 55.  45 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  to the different stopping-places, fresh teams would be standing ready  to replace the tired ones. The stage-driver did not leave his seat.  Of course Val and Will were interested in the horses and soon  discovered that one horse had a broken wind, and now had a tube in  his throat, which caused a strange whistle when the horse became  winded. Another horse had been 'creased'—in other words— shot  (nicked) just below the mane. It had been running with a band of  wild horses and, to capture it, was creased, which would topple it  over long enough to allow a rope to be put around its neck.  We had two little passengers which, so far, have not been  mentioned—two squirrels which had been caged at the Ellis ranch.  They had a store of wheat, oats, corn and pine-nuts in the corner of  the cage.  As we drove along one squirrel escaped. Rather than separate  the pair, the driver stopped the stage and Val put the open cage high  up in a tree and left it.  Weary and tired we arrived at Ducks where Mr. Hewitt Bostock4 and Mr. Hopkins very hospitably offered us the use of their  cabin, for there was no train until 2 a.m. After supper we children  were put to bed in the 'bachelor bunks' to sleep until 1 a.m. We were  then going by lantern light to the C.P.R. station.  It was a very small structure and after we all crowded into it  were told that a tea-train had been wrecked up the line. Our train  would be late so the station-master put more coal in the little potbellied stove. We settled down as best we could and he related stories  of train accidents which did not appeal to his listeners.  At 5 a.m. there was a shrill whistle and out of the dark the huge  engine roared into the station. We walked through Colonist and  other cars to the rear Pullman, past sprawling, sleeping passengers.  There were no vestibules in cars in those days; one had to be helped  over the couplings.  Arriving at Vancouver that evening, we went aboard Captain  John Irving's Islander. We stayed at the Driard in Victoria until we  moved into Joe McKay's house on Belcher Street.  4 Mr. Hewitt Bostock was a graduate from Trinity College, Cambridge, and was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn. He came to  B.C. in 1888 and bought a ranch at Monte Creek from Jacob Duck  (who later leased the'new Adelphi Hotel at Grande Prairie, now  Westwold). Mr. Bostock was, first, with the Victoria Colonist,  then launched the Vancouver Province in 1894. He was elected  Liberal member for Yale-Cariboo in 1896 and later, under the  King government, became Speaker of the Senate. Three of his  daughters still reside at Monte Creek Ranch.—From B.C.H.  Quarterly, April, 1946.  46 The Shuswap & Okanagan Railway  Company1  George H. Morkill  The Canadian Pacific Railway was completed in 1885, and on  the 2nd June, 1886, 'the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway Company  was incorporated by an Act of the Dominion Government. The  shareholders of the Company were: J. A. Mara, James Reid of  Quesnel, Frank S. Barnard, R. P. Rithet, Thomas Earle, J. H.  Turner, D. M. Eberts, F. G. Vernon, Moses Lumby and Dr. E.  B. Hannington.  On the 7th April, 1887, the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway  Subsidy Act was passed by the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia whereby the Company was granted a subsidy of $4000 per  mile—not to exceed in all $200,000—on condition that the Company would build a railway from Sicamous to some point on Okanagan Lake of the gauge and standard of the C.P.R., the road to be  completed and in running order within three years of the coming  into force of the Act. This Act was brought into force by a proclamation dated the 15th Nov. 1887 and published in the B.C. Gazette.  The following year, on the 28th April, 1888, this Subsidy Act was  amended and the time for the completion of the road extended from  three to five years.  After the passage of these three Acts one would naturally think  that no one would attempt to revive the old scheme of building a  canal from Enderby to the Lake which had been adversely reported  on by the Dominion Government Engineer, Mr. Hamlin. But such  was not the case. The late Captain T. D. Shorts, the pioneer navigator on Okanagan Lake, undeterred by this thunder-roll of Acts  of Parliament, had a notice, dated 16th Jan. 1889, inserted in the  B.C. Gazette in which the public was given notice that an application would be made at the ensuing session of the Legislature, for  an Act incorporating a Company to build the canal. Captain Shorts  asked for no subsidy or assistance of any kind from the Government;  all he asked for was the right to build the canal, and run boats on it  1 Reprinted from OHS 3 (1929), pp. 10-12.  47 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  with the exclusive right of levying and collecting tolls thereon for  a period of ten years. Nothing further however was heard of the  application.  On the 2nd of May of the same year, 1889, the Dominion Government passed an Act granting a subsidy to each of 35 railways in  Canada; most of them got $3200 per mile and the amounts range  from $30,000 to $375,000. The S.&O. Railway is included in the  list and is down for $3200 per mile—not to exceed in all $163,000,  the mileage being computed at 51 miles. On the 26th of May in the  following year, 1890, the Provincial Government passed an Act  which cancelled its two former Acts and brought into force a tri-  party agreement.  Under this three-party agreement the S.&O. Railway was to  secure title to the right-of-way and all necessary lands and to build  a railway of the standard and gauge (4 ft., 8^ in.) of the C.P.R.,  from Sicamous to the Lake, a computed distance of 51.3 miles; to  lease the road on completion to the C.P.Ry. for a term of 25 years,  to assign to the Provincial Government the subsidy of $3200 per  mile from the Dominion Government, and to hand over to the B.C.  Government the 40 per cent, of the gross earnings of the road which  it was to receive from the C.P.Ry. as rental. The C.P.Ry. was to  equip the road with rolling stock and operate and maintain it for 25  years and pay to the S.&O. Ry. 40 per cent of the gross earnings.  The Government of B.C. on its part guaranteed the payment of 4  per cent, interest on the bonds of the road for 25 years, the amount  not to exceed $1,250,000 or the actual cost of construction whichever should be the less amount. It was further stipulated that if the  40 per cent, of the gross earnings of the road was not sufficient to  meet the interest on the bonds the deficit was to be and remain a debt  due from the S.&O. Railway Company to the Government until the  latter was fully recouped for everything it paid out under the guarantee.  The Act and the agreement under it were not to' come into  force until (1) both were ratified by an Act of the Dominion Government or (2) the S.&O. Ry. Co. put up with the Provincial Government sufficient security to indemnify it for any loss sustained under the guarantee.  Presumably the security was put up, for the ratifying Act was  not passed until the 10th July, 1891. In the meantime the work of  construction was commenced sometime in August, 1890, and by the  48 The Shuswap & Okanagan Railway  12th May, 1892, the rails were laid through to Okanagan Landing.  Captain Shorts' plan for utilizing the waterways was simple and  inexpensive. He intended to dig a ditch about a mile and a half  long so as to connect Davis Creek with O'Keefe Creek. This would  give a continuous water way from Okanagan Lake to Enderby, and  in the bed of this water way he intended to lay a chain from end to  end, and for motive power to use a scow with a steam-driven drum  in front so arranged that the drum would pick up and drop the  chain as it passed along. It. is very questionable whether this was  practicable, but Shorts often discussed its feasibility with his friends  in the winter of 1889.  The present railway station at Enderby was built for and run  as a hotel by the Lambly Bros. The Railway Co. bought it and used  it for their headquarters during the construction of the road and it  was in this building that Mr. and Mrs. George Riley, Mr. and Mrs.  T. W. Paterson and Mr. and Mrs. W. R. Smith lived for about two  and a half years.  Patrick Larkin, of St. Catharines, Ont., and T. W. Paterson had  the contract for the construction of the road. Larkin was seldom on  the ground. Paterson was the principal man; he was a very capable  man and knew how everything should be done and how to do it.  It was he who had the route changed and the bridge built over the  mouth of the lagoon at Mara Lake, thereby saving a lot of very  expensive rock work.  The chief engineer was C. E. Perry and under him were Mr.  McKay and C. DeB. Green. The writer was chief accountant and  the two walking bosses were George Murdock and W. R. Smith.  George Riley did most of the bargaining with the settlers for the  right-of-way and usually acted as paymaster. His brother Thomas  Riley, for about a year, was stationed at Sicamous and acted as forwarding agent.  During the construction of the road this valley was a busy place.  The villages along the line were being built up, and building material  of all kinds was in demand. There was lots of freight to be hauled  in from Sicamous in winter and from Enderby in summer, consequently horses, hay and oats were in demand, and everyone had work  and everyone had money.  For some years after the C.P.R. took over the road there was  not much freight to haul or passengers to carry, and the road bed  was neglected and fell into disrepair.  Three times a week on Mon-  49 The Okanagan Historical Society—A 954  day, Wednesday and Friday, a freight train with a passenger coach  attached, left Sicamous and made its way to Okanagan Landing,  and the next day after the arrival of the boat from Penticton it retraced its course, carefully picking its way over the dilapidated roadway to Sicamous. With a service so poor and shabby there were many  complaints, and of course comparisons were bound to be made and  people sometimes wondered if they would not have been as well off  on one of Shorts' mud scows with a trace chain down the middle  of the creek, but with increased business the service improved.  Although the C.P.R. did not take over the road until 1893, their  first lease for 25 years is dated from 1890. They secured a second  lease of the road on the 1st July, 1925, for nine hundred and ninety-  nine years. Under its present lease it guarantees interest at 4 per  cent, on all bonds outstanding against the road and undertook to pay  to the Government of B.C. the loss the Government sustained in  guaranteeing the interest on the first bond issue of $1,250,000. The  deficit amounted to approximately $388,000. The present bonded indebtedness against the road, according to Poor's Railroad Manual,  1928, is $33,000 per mile, or, roughly $1,683,000. There are a lot  of things still to be cleared up in connection with the history of this  road, and we intend to pursue the subject further in our next Report.  The right-of-way of the road is registered in Kamloops in the  name of the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway Company.  In Indians of Canada (Ottawa, 1932) Diamond Jenness states  that the Interior Salish Indians, the largest nation in the interior of  British Columbia, "differed in customs, dialects, and even physical  appearance from the Salish-speaking Indians of the coast. They  were divided into five tribes that were often hostile to one another."  These tribes were the Lillooet, the Thompsons, the Okanagans, the  Lake Indians of the Arrow lakes and upper Columbia River, and  the Shuswaps (p. 351).  50 First Penticton Settler1  Eighty-nine years ago Penticton's first white settler, Tom  Ellis, first laid eyes on this land between the lakes. It was at dusk  when he arrived and his diary records that he had sufficient light to  look around the place that was to become his home for his last forty  years. He wasn't impressed with the flats and the arid benches  but he stayed.  Recollections of the early days of Penticton and district were  recalled for Kiwanians at their noon luncheon last week by "one  who was there," Miss Kathleen Ellis, second white girl to be born  in Penticton.  She told of her father who came here May 25, 1865, with a  partner from Ireland. The partner soon departed for his homeland  but Tom Ellis put down his roots and a "fierce affection" grew up  in him for the place that was to become the City of Penticton.  Kathleen Ellis was born here in 1887. She recalled the hardships of those early years which, as she spoke, seemed to be born out  of the great distances to be travelled. Supplies were ordered once a  year and brought in with great difficulty, she said. The nearest doctor was many days ride away and conditions of travel were often  hazardous, Miss Ellis continued.  Severe accidents often occurred and the decision to summon  the doctor was a matter of no little concern. Of necessity Miss  Ellis' mother became doctor and nurse in the little ranch home.  "Next to the family Bible, the big medical book was of prime importance," she said.  Tom Ellis' diary often spoke of the unbroken solitude facing  the pioneers and he referred to its depressing effect on their lives.  "The early days were often very uneventful," said Miss Ellis, "and  for that reason travellers were most welcome." They stayed at the  Ellis ranch—there never was any question of that—and the news  of the outside world was eagerly awaited.  Once the ranch was established here the Ellis family ate exceedingly well and the speaker remarked that the pigs and chickens were  l Reprinted from The Penticton Herald, Wednesday, June 2, 1954.  51  PENTICTONJIGHSCHOOL LIBRARY The Okanagan Historical Society—-1954  fed fruit and vegetables that would be of acceptable quality on any  table by today's standards.  Although now in poor repair, the first house to be built in Penticton still stands. It was constructed by J. R. Brown, on Ellis  Street, the speaker disclosed.  KELOWNA MAYORS SINCE INCORPORATION 1905  Raymer, H. W  1905-06  Sutherland, D. W.,  1907, 8,  10,  11,  17-29  DeHart, F. R. E  1909  Jones, J. W  1912-16  Rattenbury, D. W  1930-31  Gordon, D. K  1932-33  Trench, W. R  1934-35  Jones, O. L  1936-39  McKay, G. A  1940-44  Pettigrew, J. D  1945-46  Hughes-Games, W. B  1947-51  Ladd, J. J  1952—  "Who knows, for instance, that long before Victoria and New  Westminster had been called into existence, the province had been  settled in a way, and had possessed a regular capital—at Stuart Lake  —whence a representative of our own race ruled over reds and  whites? Not one in a thousand Canadians or even British Columbians."—The Rev. Father A. G. Morice, O.M.I.  "So long as mountains stand, so long as rivers run down to the  sea, so long as grass grows green, so long as the sun rises in the east  and sets in the west, I will be with you . . . my people." Chief  Seattle by Eva Greenslit Anderson (The Caxton Printers, Ltd.,  Caldwell, Idaho, 1950), p. 334.  52 The First Commercial Orchard  In Okanagan Valley  F. W. Andrew  When the name "Okanagan" is mentioned in any part of Canada, (and in many parts of the U.S.A.), the idea of fruit immediately comes to mind. A visitor to the Okanagan Valley notices the  great number of freight trains from Sicamous to Kelowna, even to  Mr. and Mrs. James Gartrell, first white settlers at what is now known  as Trout Creek Point.  Osoyoos, all loaded with fruit, soft fruit in the summer and apples  during the fall, winter, and tapering off in the spring. In all the  cities and towns of this Valley, the visitor will find canneries, fruit  processing plants and box factories that supply the containers in  which to ship these products. The visitor will be told that the  Okanagan Valley was originally a cattle raising country, so what  wrought the great change in the industries of this fair valley? The  visitor will pause in his lunch which probably includes a Bulman  tomato juice cocktail and canned peaches or apple pie. The story  of James Gartrell provides a large part of the answer.  James Gartrell was born on February 22, 1847, and was raised  at Stratford, Ontario.   He married Mary Pike and the couple had  53 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  five children.   The eldest was Mary Jane who later married Arthui  Day of Trout Creek and later of Kelowna.   A son of theirs is Dr.  L. A. Day who now  HHHHHHHJI practises   dentistry   at  West Summerland.  The second daughter,  Edith Ellen, married  David Lloyd - Jones  after whom Jones  Flat was named.  They too moved to  Kelowna where  Workshop erected by Mr. James Gartrell 1889.        Lloyd-Jones took over  the sawmill operated  by Lequime Brothers and formed the Kelowna Sawmill Company.  The third child was William Jerves, who later died of typhoid fever  after he had jointly taken up a pre-emption with his father. The  fourth was George Norman, who until recently lived in Summer-  land before moving to Vancouver. The youngest, Frederick R., went  into the dairy business at Trout Creek. After selling out he retired  and is now living on the old homestead.  James first heard of the Okanagan Valley through a brother-in-  law. He was looking for a location where he could improve his condition, and as cattle raising was the chief industry of the Valley, the  reports of the new country appealed to him. With his entire family,  he came by rail to Sprague, Washington, which is not far from  Spokane, and thence by covered wagon to Penticton. They crossed  the Columbia River by means of canoes under the wheels of the  wagon, and compared with the roads of today, it must have been a  rough and difficult trip. This was in 1885 before Washington was  admitted to statehood. At Penticton, he got a job with Tom Ellis  who ran large herds of cattle and some horses.  Tom Ellis came to the southern part of the Okanagan Valley  in 1865. He bought large tracts of Provincial land between the  Penticton Indian Reserve on the west and what is now Naramata  on the east, extending to the international boundary. He owned the  entire area with the exception of a few pre-emptions at Okanagan  Falls, Mclntyres and Sooyos (Osoyoos) where Judge Haynes had  his home. He was unable to buy any part of the land between  Trout Creek and Trepanier Creek near Peachland, as that had been  reserved as a common pasturage for whites and Indians.  54 The First Commercial Orchard in Okanagan Valley  Jim Gartrell, as he was generally called, in riding around the  country had noted the fine land, then closely timbered, at the delta  of Trout Creek and was anxious to take up a pre-emption there.  Through an error at the recording office in Vernon, a number of  pre-emptions in the present area of Summerland had already been  recorded. Jim Gartrell and his neighbour, Dune. Woods, both  recorded pre-emptions on Trout Creek point in 1887. On January  10, 1889, the B.C. Gazette published the following:—  "Notice is hereby given that three months from  the date hereof, the tract of land situated on ,  the west side of Okanagan Lake, Yale District,  between Trepanier River and Trout River,  which was formerly set apart as a pasturage in  common for Indians and white settlers will be  thrown open for pre-emption but not for sale."  While some of the pre-emptions already recorded were abandoned, most of them were cancelled and re-recorded. Dune Woods  recorded his pre-emption in 1889, while Jim Gartrell with his  eldest son recorded the pre-emption P.R. 538 in 1890, and on  account of this delay he nearly lost his pre-emption rights. He and  his boys had already constructed a log cabin large enough to house  the whole family of seven, a hewn log barn which is still standing  and a shop which was removed just a few years ago. In spite of his  apparently gruff voice, all. visitors were welcome to a meal and a  bed in that era of traditional hospitality.  He proceeded to clear some of his land, and besides a vegetable  garden and a patch of grain, he planted some apple trees brought  from Ontario and Washington. On a subsequent trip to Ontario,  he brought more fruit trees, and another fact should be noted:—  he brought the first angle worms to the district for which many  fishermen are grateful. A trapper sent him some peach stones from  Washington and he got others from Okanagan Falls. When these  seedlings produced fruit, it was readily sold in Vernon and some of  the mining camps.  The deer were fond of the shoots of the fruit trees and made  frequent raids on his orchard, so his boys shot deer to their hearts'  content. George told me he kept count until he had killed 300.  As the meat from these animals could not be consumed, it was cooked  and fed to the hogs. George and Fred continued to be good hunters,  and until recently shot game in various parts of British Columbia.  55 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  There was a flock of large beautiful trumpeter swans on Okanagan Lake and sometimes on Skaha Lake. Before they were protected, Jim shot an excellent specimen and had it mounted. Then  about 1920, it was noted that the birds were slowing up as though  they were paralyzed. One that died was sent to Victoria for examination. Many lead pellets were found in the crop. These had been  dropped in the shore water by hunters or those shooting at clay  pigeons and were swallowed by the swans when hunting for food.  They all died of lead poisoning and became extinct on these lakes.  There are about 1000 trumpeter swans in all Canada (Maclean's  Magazine, Dec. 1, 1952) and although carefully protected, they  seem to be on their way out like the passenger pigeon and the bison.  Jim Gartrell and Dune Woods could see that fruit trees and  crops could not flourish in a climate that had only about 10^2  inches of precipitation annually, so> they proceeded to build a rough  dam of logs and boulders on that part of Trout Creek where it  emerges from a canyon. By periodical flooding, that land was assured of better crops. Ellis used a similar method of crude irrigation in a small way but Gartrell was the first to irrigate a fruit orchard in this Valley. The Coldstream orchards were not set out  until 1892. Other pre-emptions had been taken up in the neighbourhood but the holders were not so successful in obtaining irrigation  water as Gartrell and Woods held the first water records on Trout  Creek.  More of the surrounding land was pre-empted. George N. Barclay whose father was a member of the English banking firm of  the same name bought out the holdings of the Lloyd-Jones family  and induced a number of young Englishmen to emigrate to these  parts and learn ranching—for a fee. His home was established on  Prairie Creek near West Summerland and is still standing. A trail  up the "sand hill" and along the foot of Giant's Head mountain  connected the ranches of Gartrell and Barclay. At a point midway  between the two places, Barclay gave a small parcel of land for a  church. In 1898, St. Peter's Church was erected. The late Archdeacon Thomas Greene of Kelowna held services there once a  month. The church was burned about ten years later and the land  is now known as the Anglican Cemetery. Jim told me that he and  others walked around the land three times when the Bishop consecrated and dedicated it.  George and Fred Gartrell went to school in Vernon and Kelowna.   Once George got homesick and wanted to see his mother.  56- The First Commercial Orchard in Okanagan Valley  He secured a horse and rode home all alone. After three small  schools had been opened in the present Municipality of Summer-  land, another temporary school was opened on J. R. Brown's property adjoining that of Gartrell and this was followed by a new  frame building near by. This was closed in 1911 after all the  other schools were consolidated. This was a success and the system  is now in general use in this Province.  A post office named "Gartrell" was opened in 1910 at Trout  Creek Point with S. F. Sharpe as Postmaster. This, with another  Post Office "Balcomo" in the Prairie Valley, was closed in 1914  when rural mail delivery was inaugurated.  The Gartrells never had any trouble with the Indians. Reservation of the latter extended from Trout Creek to Penticton and  beyond Shingle Creek to the west. They had plenty of game and  do not think much of the game regulations of today. The whole  Gartrell family spoke Chinook, the lingua franca that is fast  dying out.  I first met Jim Gartrell in Kelowna during the races in 1908,  where I was doing locum tenens work for Dr. W. J. Knox who was  taking a post-graduate course in surgery. Jim was wearing carpet  slippers at the time. He asked for a loan of two dollars, saying that  Dr. Knox often helped him out. I let him have the two dollars  with some hesitation but the next time I saw him, he repaid the loan.  I afterwards learned that he was meticulous about money matters.  His orchard was producing larger crops. In the late '90's and  early 1900's, Fred often took a wagon load of fruit and vegetables  and slowly hauled them to Camp McKinney, Fairview and Greenwood where the customers were glad to' get them and paid good  prices. These sales averaged about $25.00 once a week and if you  care to> look up old newspaper files you will find that that amount  of money bought far more goods in the "Gay Nineties" than it  does today. Other ranches had a few trees to supply their own requirements but it seems to me that the Gartrell ranch was the first  in the Okanagan Valley to grow fruit commercially.  When more orchards in the Summerland district were planted  and began to bear modest crops there was no local packinghouse to  look after their wants, so the firm of Stirling and Pitcairn Ltd., of  Kelowna, sent in men to make an offer for the crop on the trees.  When a deal had been made, they picked the crop, packed and shipped  it and the growers, including Gartrell, had none of the headaches  57 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  that growers since have experienced. The practice was discontinued  in 1909.  When J. M. Robinson and associates bought out the Barclay  holdings and other pre-emptions to form the Summerland Development Co. Ltd., of which Sir Thomas Shaughnessy was president,  Jim did not sell. Just before, a "Windy" Young who had found a  seam of coal on Paradise Flat tried to start a town on the Gartrell  property but the scheme fell through.  When the transition was made from cattle raising to fruit  raising, Jim Gartrell and his wife were the first to welcome the  orchardists. They had seen the whole fruit growing district of Summerland develop from a drab range land to a land of orchards and  happy homes. The orchards now give employment, directly and  indirectly, to over three thousand people and produce an annual  average income of 2 million dollars (Bank of Montreal estimate).  It must have been with much satisfaction that he viewed these  facts in retrospect.   He died on July 26, 1930.  "In checking the names "Mclntyre Bluff" and "Gallagher  Lake," that you mentioned, I note a prominent mountain overlooking Vaseaux Lake, as yet unnamed in our records. Referring to the  enclosed map, I have marked this feature "Mount Keogan," with  the suggestion that this would be a fitting memorial to Mike Keogan,  being in closer association with Mclntyre Bluff and Gallagher Lake,  thus allowing the mountain west of Okanagan Falls to bear the  name "Mount Hawthorne." (Letter, August 21, 1953, to Mrs. R.  B. White, Penticton, B.C., from W. H. Hutchinson, Chief—Geographic Division, and B.C. Representative—Canadian Board on  Geographical Names.) We note that the 1953 provincial Gazetteer  gives spelling of Vaseaux as Vaseux. How long will it take old-  timers to get used to this—if they ever do?  58 Old Man Kelowna  F. T. Marriage  August Gillard came to  the Okanagan from California in 1862, travelling from  Hope with Father Pandosy.  Born in the Department de  Doubs, France, he became a  man of powerful physique  and a reddish complexion. Attracted by news of the gold  strike, he sailed from Marseilles to California in 1850,  at the age of 25. A blacksmith  by trade, he worked for the  gold miners at sharpening  picks and shovels, prospecting  on the side, apparently without much success.  Ten years later, tidings  of the Fraser River gold excitement reached Gillard, and  he sailed northward on a  Spanish ship. After a brush  with the Coast Indians near  the mouth of the river, he  located at Boston Bar, where  he had some success with a  mining claim. But an unfortunate occurrence compelled him  to move on. One day an Indian attempted to shoot his (Gillard's) partner, whereupon he killed the man with a blow of  his fist. Gillard deemed it expedient to disappear from Boston Bar  and joined Father Pandosy's party at Hope, bound for the new  Mission in the Okanagan.  On arrival here he worked at ranching and clearing land, finally  staking out 320 acres extending  from what is now Richter Street  *J¬a&.. Han  AUGUST GILLARD  59 The Okanagan Historical Society—195 4  in Kelowna to Lake Okanagan. He built himself a "keekwillie  house," partly underground, near the present foot bridge at the  south end of Ellis Street.  The name of August Gillard is closely connected with the story  of the origin of the name "Kelowna." The late Frank Buckland  in his book Ogopogo's Vigil says on this point: "It is told that some  Indians passing this cabin one winter day when the ground was  covered with snow, saw smoke coming from the rudely built chimney and stopped to investgate what sort of person lived there. Gillard, upon hearing the chatter outside his dwelling, came crawling  up from his dugout in much the same manner as a bear might do.  This thought must have struck the Indians, for upon seeing his  reddish whiskers and rough manner, they called to one another  "Kim-ach-touch," meaning in their language "Brown Bear." Laughing at their joke, the Indians continued to call Gillard or his dwelling place "Kim-ach-touch." The settlers in the Valley on hearing  that the Indians had given Gillard the name of "Brown Bear," followed their example and referred to the old Grizzly Killer in those  terms and the name stuck. But when the population increased through  the arrival of more settlers it was felt that the name was too awkward for permanent use, and in 1892 the name "Kelowna," meaning "grizzly bear," was decided upon."  Gillard died in 1898, aged 73. About 1930 the last vestiges  of his former dwelling were demolished when Ellis Street was  graded at its southern end.  In his chapter on "The Shuswap Conspiracy, 1846" Hubert  Howe Bancroft writes: "Seven tribes traded at this post (Fort Victoria on Vancouver Island) when it was first built, namely the  gentle Atnah, the lively Kootenai, the chivalrous Okanagan, the  surly Similkameen, the fierce, vindictive Teet, the treacherous Nicou-  tamuch, besides the always hospitable and friendly Kamloop." (History of British Columbia, published in San Francisco, 1887, chapter  8, page 134).  60 Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Day,  wedding photo taken at  Kamloops.  Arthur Day... Pioneer  Georgina Maisonville  The Basin of the Great Salt Lake in Utah provided the setting  for the opening years of this story. The real history of that vast  agricultural and mineral state began with the coming of the members of the Church of Latter Day Saints usually called the Mormons.  Led by Brigham Young, they had come in July, 1847, after almost  inconceivable difficulties, to settle along the shores of a small river,  now called City Creek, which afforded the only relief from the  desert. Within a few days after their arrival they ploughed large  tracts of land and diverted water from the creek to make gardens.  Like the Okanagan, the soil there is fertile and needs only water  to produce good crops.  Previous inhabitants of this country had been, of course, the  Indians. They gave trouble to the white settlers from time to time  •—the last major Indian war was the Black Hawk war, which lasted  from 1862 to 1868. As protection from unfriendly natives, the  white men travelled through this country in fairly large parties.  Mr. Day's father had been a captain in the Mexican wars and acted  as guide to fifty men who wished to go- from Missouri to California.  Mr. Day, Sr., was a Mormon, and this land appealed to him so that  61  PEMTICTOM HIGH SCHOOL LIBJMft The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  he took up a homestead and planted an orchard at Pleasant Valley,  about 140 miles south of Salt Lake City. Into' this locale and among  these industrious people, inspired by their religion, Arthur Day was  born in 1862. He was born to his father's second wife, and of  these two families, he is now the sole survivor.  These were the days of the Pony Express, which, from 1860  until the coming of the railroad in 1869, gave a semi-weekly serv-  * ice from Washington, D.C., to California, linking Salt Lake City  with both the east and west. With the riders of the Pony Express  still in mind it is not surprising that when he was seventeen, Arthur  Day struck out to find still greener valleys.  Going on horseback, shooting game and otherwise living off the  country, stopping to' work for a while to earn money so that he  could continue his journey, this ride from Salt Lake City by horseback to Seattle seems to' us some seventy-five years later, to have been  fantastically adventurous. After working in Montana for six  weeks, the travelling companion he fell in with there very nearly got  them into serious difficulty. Several Indians came along and wanted  a card game. Mr. Day's friend, however, was too clever for the  natives, and when the Indians had lost heavily, they had to have  revenge. They stampeded a herd of wild horses to where the tame  ponies were tied with ropes to the sage brush. Trying to avoid the  stampede, Mr. Day's friend fell into a patch of prickly pears, uncomfortable, but not a matter of life or death. After trailing the  mark of the rope in the sand for some three or four days, they  finally caught their horses and made a hurried departure from that  part of the state.  About twenty miles from Seattle, near Renton, is the coal mining town of Newcastle, and there Arthur Day worked in the mines  until the next spring. He had left Salt Lake City in May and a  year later he bought a rowboat to take him from Seattle to' New  Westminster. He tried salmon fishing for a time, and then went  up the Fraser River to work* for a year with the C.P.R. In 1884  he came to what is now Penticton, and for seven years was ranch  foreman for Tom Ellis.  One year later, in 1885, a family came to the Ellis ranch from  Mt. Pleasant, Ontario. A strange coincidence that Mr. Day had  come from a place of the same name in Utah. James Gartrell  brought his wife and children by train to a town called Sprague,  near Spokane. There he obtained horses and wagons for the journey  62 Arthur Day—Pioneer  up the Columbia River. When they reached the river the wagons  were leaded onto canoes, the Indians taking charge of them, placing  one canoe under each wheel of the wagon. The current of the river  carried them over a mile down stream before a landing could be  made. This experience was not the least exciting for the family on  their journey, nor was it the least dangerous. The Indians stole  some of the horses and wagons and Mrs. Gartrell came to the Ellis  ranch riding horseback, holding her youngest son Fred in front of  her on the saddle. She cooked for the men on the ranch for a time  while her husband helped with the cattle on the Ellis ranch. Later,  in 1889, he pre-empted 320 acres of land at Trout Creek Point,  where he remained until his death in July, 1930. His wife had  passerd away in April of that same year and his daughter, Mrs. David  Lloyd Jones of Kelowna, a fortnight before.  During the years that Mr. Day remained in Penticton he helped  to build the first wharf there for Mr. Ellis, a little east of the  present C.P.R. wharf and built on piers. At about the same  time David Lloyd Jones built the first wharf in Summerland, about  where the fish hatchery is now. This was a time when the gold fields  not having proved too lucrative, the miners were looking around for  land on which to settle more permanently. They resented the large  holdings of the cattle men and fist fights and gun battles were increasingly common. Mr. Day was sent at one time to warn off, at  the point of a gun, a persistent squatter, Jim Grant, who had taken  up 360 acres where the Keremeos trail divides and was part of the  Ellis holding. These would-be settlers took up their case with the  government, with the result that Judge Reilly was sent to Vernon  to decide whether the land should be commons, Indian reserve or  thrown open for pre-emption. The last course was decided upon.  The Indian reserve was to be from Trout Creek to about what is  now Kaleden, and up to Sheep Creek. There was also a small reserve  at West Summerland at the entrance to Garnet Valley.  The land office records in Victoria show that James Gartrell  pre-empted 320 acres on the 13th April, 1889—surveyed in May  1891. Mr. Day had at first ten acres, and later 29 acres adjoining  the Gartrell place. Both moved up to Trout Creek in 1891. The  house which Mr. Day built there was the first frame building to  be erected in Summerland and is still standing. George Barclay,  the Lloyd Jones' and Gartrells all had log houses. Mr. Day had  Captain Shorts bring the lumber down from Kelowna and leave it  63 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  on the north side of the point. The house was built by Will and  David Lloyd Jones. Mr. Day also had a pre-emption at Shingle  Creek, near Frank Buckland's property, which he sold later to Mr.  Turner.  Mr. Gartrell sent his sons, George and Fred, up to the school  at Benvoulin. The two daughters went to school in Vernon. Arthur  Day married the eldest daughter, and David Lloyd Jones married  her sister. Miss Gartrell worked for a time at the home of Ned  Woods at the Coldstream Ranch. When Mr. Day came north to  be married he came in a rowboat from Penticton to Kelowna. He  had made this trip once before, covering the distance in eight hours,  when he had to deliver a message that had to do with the boat and  Lord Aberdeen. Wishing to be married by the Rev. Henry Irwin  (Father Pat) Mr. Day and his bride to be, drove to Kamloops.  Father Pat was away, and for two weeks until his return, Miss  Gartrell visited at the home of Canon Cooper while Mr. Day stayed  at an hotel.  The picture of Mr. Day's house was taken by Mr. Preston in  1 892. Photography had come to the valley in the early 90's. The  author of the book The Valley of Youth—Mr. Holliday, also travelled through the valley taking pictures. Many of his photographs  are still extant in spite of a fire which destroyed most of his early  plates. The famous western character, Kootenai Brown, tells us  that in 1866 he had his first sight of Fort Garry and while there,  he sat for a tintype photo and was told that it was the first ever taken  at the fort. The man with the camera was a Swedish fellow, named  Olsen, from St. Paul, who had walked from one army post to another in Dakota and finally arrived at Fort Garry. This first portrait was only twenty-five years or SO' previous to the time of Mr.  Preston and Mr. Holliday. How grateful we are to these men with  their cameras who visualized for us the places and peoples of those  early times.  There were eight children born to the Days. Mrs. Day passed  away in 1904, shortly after the birth of her youngest son. One son,  Norman, was accidentally shot. Of the four remaining sons, George  and Fred are in Kelowna, Lloyd is in Summerland, and Will is a  banker in California—the daughters have all passed away. Mr. Day  married Mrs. Toucher of Kelowna in 1907, and after her death in  1928, he was married in 1932 to Miss Margaret Turnbull, who had  been associated with the Kelowna Creamery.   Mr. Day had moved  64 Arthur Day—Pioneer  up to Kelowna in 1900, and for many years was associated with  David and Will Lloyd Jones in the sawmill and logging business.  An orchard which he planted was turned over to his son, Fred, after  his return from overseas, and is now being managed by Mr. Day's  grandson, Ernest.  From the purple deserts of Utah to the grayish green of the Okanagan hillsides, the trail was long and difficult. Now, however, on  the shore of the lake, at the outskirts of Kelowna, in a comfortable  modern home, Mr. and Mrs. Day live in quiet contentment. The  days of venturing into unknown regions, facing dangers that could  not be foreseen, and conditions difficult to surmount, are over. There  is nothing more adventurous now than watching over his newly  planted fruit trees, In his ninety-second year, tall and surprisingly  straight and vigorous for his years, the still handsome face reflects  his fine and purposeful character. Many are the stories told in the  Valley of his kindness and generosity. Arthur Day belonged to the  generation to whom the task had been assigned of laying the foundations of our country. Their industry, courage, vision and self-sacrifice had earned the respect and esteem of all who will follow after.  To Arthur Day—Pioneer—we pay this humble tribute.  We regret to have to record that Mr. Day died after a short illness on Thursday, September 2, 1954.—Ed.  "In the story of every land there is a twilight period, before the  dawn, in which fact and fiction are intertwined, where fiction may  masquerade as fact and fact appear as fiction. This borderland is an  interesting realm; and perhaps largely so because it is difficult to  decide what part, if any, lies within the domain of history." Opening paragraph of Judge F. W. Howay's British Columbia, The  Making of a Province (Toronto, 1928).  65 First White Girl Born In Okanagan  (The story of Mrs. Annie Cameron as told to her daughter, Mrs.  A. J. Gatien of Kamloops, with whom she now lives).  The first white girl born in the Okanagan was Annie Christian,  born April 25, 1870, at The Mission/three miles south of Kelowna,  to Joseph Christian and Annie Curran. As her mother died eleven  hours after giving birth to the baby, she was nursed for six weeks by  an Indian woman and her father had to go down Penticton way and  purchase a cow to provide milk for the baby. She was taken care of  by Mrs. Frank Young, the former Annie Mackin, and Mrs. Louis  Christian, the former Celina Quesnel.  •^[rriong her reminiscences are these: All travelling was done on  horseback in the early days. Supplies were brought in by mule train  as far as Penticton, then by raft from Penticton to Kelowna and  Vernon. The only occasion she remembers of the Indians being  hostile was hearing of an Indian putting a rope about Father Pandosy's neck to hang him and his being rescued in time by friendly  Indians. (Mother was about six or seven years old when this happened.) She recalls than in 1875 she travelled to Cherry Creek  silver mines with her uncle and aunt, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas  Christian. She sat on a pillow in front of her uncle's saddle and her  aunt rode another horse. /The uncle was killed at Cherry Creek by a  cave-in and was buried near there. Indians took word of the tragedy  to J. Christian who came to get her and her aunt. For the trip home  to The Mission she had to be strapped to her saddle and they saw a  grizzly bear.  Her father did not allow her to start school until she was eleven  years of age as the teacher was always a man. The Indians did not  attend school in those days but the half-breeds did and when she first  started school the only other white child of the eleven pupils was a  boy named Leon Lequime. For two years she went to this school  which was two and one-half miles north of Okanagan Mission on  the Vernon road.. The first lady teacher at the school was Miss  Coughlin.  When her father first came  west he came by sailing vessel,  66 First White Girl Born in Okanagan  crossed the isthmus of Panama and up the west coast to Victoria.  There was no Panama Canal then of course and the passengers were  carried across the isthmus by negro coolies. Two of these passengers  / were Sisters of St. Ann on whom he always called whenever he visited Victoria and when they were told of his baby daughter they  said, "When she is big enough bring her here for us to look after."  So it was that in June 1883, when she was thirteen years of  age, she went to Victoria to attend St. Ann's Academy. Her father  took her as far as Yale by horse and buggy and mother recollects  that the buggy was pulled by three horses, one of them being a leader.  The road was just a trail to Vernon but was a wagon road from  there to Yale. They carried their own food and a tent to sleep in  for the trip from The Mission to Yale required twelve days and  the only stopping place on the way was Boston Bar. From Yale she  went by river boat to- New Westminster where she stayed overnight  and from there she proceeded to Victoria on the steamer Yosemite.  She remained in Victoria for two years before coming home for a  holiday.  When she came home for her first holiday in 1885 she travelled  as far as Yale by boat and from Yale to' Savona on the new railway.  As the railroad was not; completed at that time, not till that fall, she  came from Savona to Kamloops by steamboat. This part of the trip  was made at night and she had to go to bed and the negro porter had  a hard time to awaken her. The remainder of her journey from  Kamloops to The Mission was made by stage coach and the driver  was Alex MacDonnell whom you know as the-f-ermer owner of the  BX Ranch at Vernon. Her return trip to school in the fall was  made by railway.  While in Victoria she took piano and vocal lessons and was planning on entering St. Joseph's Hospital to train for a nurse but came  home in the fall of 1886 to go east to visit her parents' relatives in  Quebec. Sisters she liked were Sister Mary Loretta, Sister Mary  Angell and Sister Mary Providence (Superior). Her chum at school  was Miss Katie Burns whose father kept the American Hotel in  Victoria. On her return from school in 1886 she travelled by train  aftd^rernembers the fare from New Westminster to Kamloops was  twenty-one dollars with meals extra. \She has reason to remember  that-the-mea-ls-were extra because the sisters had bought her ticket  and had not given her any extra money but there was- a priest on the  train_w_hom she-knew, a Father Fey, and he paid for her meals.  -—V\JL jflW^LtJ The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  Thtr trip to Quebec was begun by a drive to Sicamous and an  overnight stop there. She travelled on the new railway and was seven  days on the train. They had sleepers and the accommodation was  very good as-Mr.-YoungJ__3__Lgiyen the porter a tip amounting to a  dollar a day. She remembers it was very windy on the prairie and  that at almost every station at which they stopped there were Indians  in brightly colored striped blankets and she remembers one in a  feathered head dress. The Indians were selling polished buffalo  horns, to' be used as hat racks, for one dollar. In Quebec, she stayed  with aunts and uncles in St. Anacet, Huntington County. Although  she had studied French at school she had not learned to' speak it, but  as she had to speak French or nothing in Quebec, by the time she  came home she could speak it very well.  She was married to John Duncan Cameron on October 8, 1888,  by Father Carion O.M.I. At first they lived in Vernon but in 1890  went back to The Mission to her father. Then until 1895 they lived  at Lansdowne between Armstrong and Enderby. From Lansdowne  they moved to Salmon Arm where they built the first hotel and operated it until 1901. At that time they moved out to farm in the  valley on nine acres of cleared land and seventy acres of timber.  There had been a saw mill on the place but, it had been torn down.  They rented the farm in 1919 and moved to Brighouse, Lulu Island,  where they lived until 1923, then returned to the farm until 1938.  At that time they retired to live in Salmon Arm city. Her husband  died in 1946 but she continued to live in Salmon Arm until 1949 at  which time she moved to live with her daughter Mrs. A. J. Gatien,  449 St. Paul Street, Kamloops.  Mr. and Mrs. Cameron had eleven children, eight of whom are  living: Lillian, Mrs. E. Timpany, Salmon Arm; Charlotte, Mrs. A.  J. Reader, Salmon Arm; James J., San Francisco, Calif.; John  Lester, Sicamous; Florence, Mrs. A. J. Gatien, Kamloops; Marion,  Mrs. J. W. Brault, San Francisco, Calif.; Russell, Salmon Arm;  Bernadette, Mrs. G. Kennedy, Kamloops.  Joseph Christian, the late Mrs. Cameron's father, brought the  first coal-oil lamp into the Okanagan.  68 Kelowna: Commercial and Social  F. M. Buckland  In the early 1890's times were hard, with a very limited market  available for farm produce such as women and children were responsible for. Some small farms were planted out to vegetables,  berries and small fruit. Larger places had milch cows, flocks of turkeys, ducks and chickens. They had butter, eggs and poultry to sell  or trade for groceries, etc., to the local storekeeper, who, in turn,  had to find a market on the outside. The family who could supply  the hotel, or better still, the S.S. Aberdeen larder, were indeed fortunate, even when they had to wait sixty days for payment, while  their bill went through the C.P.R. books in the usual way. It was  cash eventually, perhaps 8 or 10c a dozen for eggs; and 15c per lb.  for butter, and corresponding values for fresh milk and vegetables.  Conditions were bad, practically no money in the Mission Valley  and no market for the produce of the newly planted small farms,  while over in the mining country around Slocan Lake things were  booming. The Kootenay Country which imported its entire food  supply could easily absorb all our surplus produce.    So what could  Bernard Avenue, Kelowna, 1906., looking east from Palace Hotel. The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  farmers and ranchers do to get their crops to that market, was the  question of the time.  A meeting was called at Benvoulin Schoolhouse by Alf. Postill  to discuss this problem. That day, in the fall of 1893, the first Cooperative Association to be formed in the Okanagan Valley was  brought into being. A collection was taken up amounting to $160.00  to defray expenses for four delegates to visit Sandon and arrange for  a market, if possible. The delegates were Howard Dell, Mark Howard, John Casorso, and R. S. Hall. Armed with $40.00 each, and  authority to do business, these Mission Valley farmers travelled into  the Slocan Country by way of Revelstoke and the Arrow Lakes,  Arriving in Sandon, they rented a small 10' x 12' log cabin  at $10 per month and stowed away their baggage while they had a  look around and decided where to locate a warehouse, if that were  possible. The C.P.R. was building into Sandon at the time, and  Superintendent Marpole's special train was on the track. Mr. Hall  introduced himself to Mr. Marpole and explained that he and his  company represented a group of farmers in the Okanagan Valley  who were anxious to get into this market. They wanted a warehouse  on C.P.R. tracks, as that was the only way of shipping from Kelowna. At a second interview the delegates were asked if they had  selected a suitable place for their warehouse requirements. They  pointed out a location which would suit their purpose, but were told  it had been chosen for station buildings. Had they a second choice?  They had. It was across a ravine. This was granted and the site  proved very satisfactory.  With the railroad siding on one hand, and the road to the mines  on the other, these Okanagan Mission farmers dug a cellar 20' x  60' and traded vegetables and horse feed for lumber. Here they  erected a feed house over the cellar and started business. Bob Hall  was left in charge, while Mr. E. R. Bailey acted as Secretary, and  attended to the shipping of fruit, vegetables, oats and hay at the  Kelowna end.  At Kelowna a warehouse was built on the lakeshore beside the  C.P.R. wharf, Block 51. This packing house with vegetable cellar  underneath and a smokehouse alongside was later operated by the  Kelowna Shippers Union until 1900, when Stirling and Pitcairn took  over the assets of that company and used the upper part of the building for their Fruit Packing Plant.  -  70 Kelowna: Commercial and Social  The Lequime Store, 1900.  The first exhibition of farm products of the Okanagan Mission  Valley district was displayed in this building in the fall of 1896.  Hogs grown in large numbers by the dry farmers in the vicinity of  Kelowna were marketed on the hoof and slaughtered at the "Pig-  aloo" on the lake front, where the present power house now stands.  The pork when dressed was processed into hams and bacon, dry-  salted in large vats and eventually smoked with birch wood and hung  to cure in the basement of the packing house. This local product  was marketed successfully at the mines and lumber camps throughout the country. Captain Nicols, whose home was at the east end  of Eli Avenue, was in charge of this meat packing plant, which  operated for several years, eliminating to a great extent the long  overland drives necessarily made by the swine herds in the past  decade, and giving employment to several people.  About this stage in our development, 1894, John Collins arrived  from England with capital to invest in a new country. Louis Holman, an American from Wisconsin, with a knowledge of tobacco  culture, had come into the Valley earlier. Getting together, these  men started a plantation at the Mission across the road from Lequime's blacksmith shop and beside the mill. A successful crop was  harvested and the following year, C. S. Smith, who had arrived in  71 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  the Okanagan from the West Indies, made further contribution to  the tobacco plantation experiment, when he interested himself by  investing his money in the industry. That year more ground was  planted with the result that sufficient tobacco leaf was grown and  cured to warrant a small cigar factory, which operated for several  years. Here and there around the Mission tobacco barns were built  to house the green leaf harvested in early September. There the  leafed stalks were left to hang and dry until a mild spell in January  allowed it to be handled and stripped. This gave winter work to  those in need of employment, and for some years the tobacco industry looked as though it would become the main business of the Mission Valley.  With the Kelowna Shippers Union organized, a building was  erected by 1896 at the corner of Abbott and Bernard, Block 12,  designed with offices on the ground floor, and a cigar factory in the  upper storey. There cigar makers were put to work as soon as the  crop of tobacco leaf had been cured, stripped and made into hands.  It took three grades and varieties of tobacco leaf to build a good  cigar—a core, a filler, and the wrapper—all of which were produced and processed in the fields and barns around Kelowna. Mission planters claimed there were elements in this soil essential for  the production of good cigar tobacco, and the manufacturers produced a smoke which, when properly cured, rolled and seasoned, was  a delight to the connoisseur. Burley, Havana, and Sumatra leaf grew  well and worked up nicely.  Extracted from an advertisement issued in the 1890's are the  following observations: "The K.S.U. is to a certain extent the offspring of an older association working on co-operative plans founded  in 1895, for the purpose of handling all kinds of farm and garden  produce under the guidance of Messrs. Stirling and Crozier. After  a time it was found desirable, in order to gain more favourable shipping terms, and to meet the rising demands in the Kootenay for  farm produce, to reorganize and work on a different system; the  result—incorporation of K.S.U., 1896, with a capital in 1898 of  $8,000.00. The directors and shareholders are all men deeply interested in the prosperity of the district, since they are either property holders, farmers or merchants. The Managing Director, Mr.  C. S. Smith, and the Secretary, Mr. C. A. S. Atwood, are thorough  and up-to-date business men, whose whole time and attention are  given to the business of the Company."  72 Kelowna: Commercial and Social  The following statement was kindly supplied by Mr. C. S. Smith  at that time. "The largely increased volume of trade during the  six months ending March, 1898, when $20,000.00 was actually  paid out in the purchase of produce, in wages, and for the erection  of warehouses, etc., proves that the object for which the company  was formed has been carried out, and the circulation of this money  is found to advantageously affect the district; and the establishment  of such industries as pork-packing and cigar-making must add to the  prosperity of the Valley. The latter business has just been taken in  hand by the Company under the superintendence of a highly skilled  manager. Tobacco growing was first undertaken by Mr. Collins  in 1894. In this year he entered into an arrangement with Mr. Holman, who thoroughly understands the cultivation of the plant. The  quality of the leaf was so good that Mr. Holman advised Mr. Collins to plant more extensively the following year. The result was  better than anticipated, so he continued expending more capital, and  though no market presented itself, they did not lose hope of ultimate success, which is now, we trust, about to be realized. Samples  of the leaf and cigars were submitted to experts, who, one and all,  have given highly favourable reports. Messrs. Collins and Holman  deserve the thanks of the community for introducing an industry  which is found to add considerably to the monetary welfare of the  Valley."  The substantial office building of the Kelowna Shippers Union,  with cigar factory above, stands to the present day in Block 12,  Plan 462, as the Edinburgh Apartments.  Lequime's original sawmill had a capacity of 28,000 board feet  per day's cut, and employed a number of men. It burned down with  considerable lumber loss in 1899. Both rough and finished lumber  was cut, and found a ready market in the mining camps of Camp  McKinney and Fairview. The mill was rebuilt a few yards further north of the first location, where it operated for six years, until  it was again burned to the ground in 1906. Again it was moved,  farther north along the beach, where the new Civic Centre and  gardens will be laid out.  A booklet, ornamented with a crest showing a Grizzly Bear's  head in a circle, was issued and circulated by the Agricultural and  Trades Association of the Okanagan Mission Valley, 1898, and  announces: "This Association was formed in 1894 to encourage and  foster the agricultural and trading interests of the Okanagan Mission  73 The Okanagan Historical Society—A 954  Valley. In the above year Messrs. Bailey, George Rose, Atwood,  Raymer and Crozier, recognizing the valuable aid such a society  would be in bringing the farming and trading interests into closer  relationship, summoned meetings which were held at regular intervals. At these reunions papers bearing upon subjects of vital importance to the community were read, and discussions carried on.  Thus, by degrees, the Association grew and prospered. In the following year of 1895 Mr. Stirling suggested the formation of the  first Shippers Union for marketing farm and garden produce. This,  in its turn, was superseded by the present prosperous Kelowna Shippers Union, of which mention has just been made. It will thus be  seen that to the A. & T.A. is due in a marked degree the origin and  development of our present satisfactory condition. Messrs. Raymer,  President; Stirling, Vice-President; and Watson, Secretary, are thoroughly practical men, under whose guidance the Society is bound to  go ahead. Their last venture is to purchase land—Lots 44 and 45,  Map 462, north of Gaston Avenue—for the erection of exhibition  buildings, etc., which will be ready for the Fall Show. This Annual Exhibition of the resources of the district is under the direct  control of the A. & T.A., which, from the first, has been responsible for the highly creditable show."  A regulation half mile race track was laid out in the exhibition  ground with a ball ground in the infield for lacrosse, football and  baseball.   It was also used for polo practice.  Another source of entertainment was under the direction of  Mr. E. R. Bailey, who had charge of the "Kelowna Lending Library," which had on its shelves a good supply of works of history,  biography and fiction.  Rev. Father Carion was in charge of the Mission Ranch in  1896, when that property was sold or traded for mineral shares or  a mine to Father Eumelin, who goes down in history as the last of  the farmer priests to operate Rural Lot 133, and adjoining lands.  Some 2,000 acres had been acquired through the forty years of  Oblate Management. This property supported five hundred cattle  and about thirty head of horses, which were raised for use on the  ranch. Some five hundred tons of hay was grown and fed on the  farm. Wheat, oats, barley and vegetables cultivated for the use of  the Mission had a surplus which supplied other local needs. Usually  two lay brothers were attached to the place as superintendent and  foreman.   They were responsible  for the care of the stock, and  74 Kelowna: Commercial and Social  hired and fired the help needed for the different seasons. Eight or  ten extra men were usually required for haying and grain harvest.  When Father Eumelin came to Okanagan Mission he brought  with him his mother and sister, and installed a foreman, or overseer,  for the estate. Fr. Eumelin bought the Saucier and Nicholson property of 80 acres, a block now owned by the Casorso family, and  added this to the farm. Here he had a tobacco barn built by Contractor Raymer, and Mr. John Casorso was put in charge of this  larger venture in tobacco culture. Tobacco was grown there for  several years under the direction of Louis Holman, who had the responsibility of the grading and curing.  The cigar leaf when cured and ready for the factory was sold  in Kelowna and Vernon, where it was molded into a cigar of good  grade and quality. The Mission Ranch at that time had a full  complement of farm equipment necessary for a place that size, and  had produced good crops for forty years, watered from the immediate vicinity of Mission Creek. Good buildings and fences had  been erected over this period of time, so, what with hogs, poultry  and garden truck, an independent living was possible to those who  operated in this way. But Fr. Eumelin was not a farmer, and as the  parish gradually filled with new people coming to the country, it  became necessary to spend more time with his congregation. Therefore, in 1902, the Mission Ranch was sold to Gruell and Fascioux  for $35,000, with the exception of the Saucier and Nicholson block,  which was bought by John Casorso for $5,000 in 1903. The new  owner carried on the O.M. brand until he in turn sold out to the  South Kelowna Land Company some years later.  Kelowna's population was gradually increasing, and not altogether by migration from other parts of the world, either, it seems.  In 1894 the first white child born on the Townsite was a son to  Mr. and Mrs. H. W. Raymer. He was called Bernard. This event  was followed within a month by the arrival of a daughter at the  home of Mr. and Mrs. Haug. They called their child, Edith, and  she was the first white girl born in Kelowna.  On the south side of Bernard Avenue, from Abbott street to  Pendozi Street, hitching posts ornamented the edge of a six-foot  plank walk, while the north side presented a public scales, where  loads of hay, vegetables, cattle, hogs and sheep were weighed at  25c a ticket. Further along, on both sides of the street, the substantial homes had lawns and flower gardens, with vegetable plots  75 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  in the rear. Houses were painted and outbuildings whitewashed.  A picket fence bordering the sidewalk was broken by a garden gate,  as well as a carriage gate and driveway which led to the rear. There  a stable with loft housed the family driving horse and buggy, while  a roothouse, woodshed and icehouse occupied space near the kitchen  door. A well with pump, or a drive point and pump, provided water  at no great depth. Gravelled paths would lead from a front door  through well clipped lawns and brilliant flower beds as Kelowna  residents were already taking a pride in their town. Across the four-  plank sidewalk some of the homes boasted of a hitching rail and  a mounting block—appointments necessary in a country where so  many equestrians took their pleasure in the saddle, or driving a buggy.  The last of these convenient "horse blocks" to be used stood in front  of the Doctor's, the Rectory, and one or two other residences.  The "mounting block" was made, in some instances, by cutting  steps, about three in number, in a great log of wood, which was set  on end to stand about 30 inches high. This, when climbed, would  allow a lady attired in a long riding habit to place her foot in the  stirrup and her knee over the horn of a side saddle without any  effort, when her horse was led alongside. The mounting block  eliminated the usual assistance rendered by a gentleman friend or  groom, who otherwise would give the fair rider a "leg up." Elderly  gentlemen also often found it a convenience, especially if they used  the English type of saddle tree.  Milch cows, and work horses, were often turned loose to graze  and nibble at grass along the street sides and vacant lots. This  helped to keep an overgrowth of grass and weeds under control at  a minimum of expense, even though some of the more fastidious  townsfolk objected to animal droppings scattered along the plank  walks.  Pack horses were in great demand during the Klondike Gold  Rush, 1898-9. This was an opportunity for some of our ranch  hands and cowboys to make a few dollars and clear the ranges of  useless cayuse bands which occupied grass country that beef could  use. Some of the wild horses that roamed in the rough country back  of Squally Point were rounded up, branded, driven out of the Valley and sold for pack animals. Perhaps these small horses could  carry 150 pounds at a load, and if they survived one or two trips  before their bones were left to bleach on the "Trail of '98," they  would pay for the investment, which would be about $5.00 per  76 Kelowna: Commercial and Social  head, and their transportation to the scene of operations. Many of  these poor creatures were so exhausted by the time they were run  down and roped, that when the roundup was over, they were despatched on the spot. Others with more stamina, and perhaps caught  with less exertion, were shipped out, but they must have been a sorry  lot of cayuses when they reached their destination.  The reception and welcome home of two Boer war veterans  took place February 1901, when Sergeant William Brent, a native  son, and Cecil Nicholson, who had served with the Strathcona Horse,  returned to Kelowna from Africa. Our town people had erected  an arch for the occasion, which they decorated and trimmed with  cedar boughs, flags and bunting. The Arch was set up on Bernard  Avenue in front of Lequime's Store. When the Aberdeen arrived  at the dock all the available inhabitants of the town and district were  there to' meet it. First, the Reception Committee, represented by  D. W. Sutherland, presented each returned man with a Key to the  City. The Key, an iron bar two feet long with a turned handle at  one end, and a three by four inch tongue at the other, had been made  by McQueen, the blacksmith, for the occasion. Then Billy and  Cecil were hoisted into a buggy and wheeled under the Arch of  Triumph, with Archie McDonald of the Lakeview, and John  Brown, a rancher, both big heavy men, in the shafts. Cheering  crowds made up of business, professional and ranch people, pushed  the vehicle and followed along the street. It was a great reception  and the memory remains with our old-timers to the present day.  No doubt the Lakeview Bar did a roaring business that afternoon  and evening.  Cecil Nicholson was the son of a trained concert singer by profession, who had married her pianist, a Mr. Spicer. They lived near  the Exhibition Grounds at that time. Ed Hayward, Bert Hall and  Harold Stillingfleet also served with the Strathcona Horse, but were  not on hand for this great event.  Although vegetables, hay, grain and some fruit had been shipped  to mining towns and other outside points, it was not until 1901 that  the first straight car of apples was packed, loaded and shipped from  the Okanagan Valley. That year Stirling and Pitcairn, who had  taken over the defunct K.S.U. fruit warehouse on Bernard Avenue,  assembled some seven hundred boxes of apples at Okanagan Landing.  These were loaded and braced in a box car which was billed to a  prairie point. This was the first attempt at big business.  Mr. Stirling,  77 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  who had come to Kelowna in 1893 and planted the Bankhead Orchard, went east in the early part of November, 1901, to make sale  contacts as far east as Winnipeg. Apple boxes were of slightly different dimensions from the standard box used today, and contained  what was known as the "square pack," which allowed different  sized apples in the setup. This first carload had been gathered from  different parts of the Okanagan, reaching from Trout Creek Flats  to the Mission Valley plantings on several old ranches, as far north  as Duck Lake. Much of the packing was done in the orchard, and  the few boxes delivered to Kelowna each day were loaded on the  Aberdeen and transferred to the Landing. It is told by one of the  railway men who witnessed the loading trip after trip, as the steamer  delivered a few boxes at a time, that it took two weeks to assemble  this first car of apples.  That was the beginning of an industry in the Okanagan Valley  and the Province of British Columbia, which fifty years later yielded  approximately 9,000,000 boxes of fruit from an estimated 25,000  acres; aggregating in cash some Thirty Million Dollars.  Mr. Hoffman was Stirling and Pitcairn's packing foreman in  1900-1, and Chas. Clement, who is still with us, acted as packing  foreman 1902-3, when he superintended the packing and wrapping  of the first Export Car. In 1903 this fruit firm packed two cars of  apples, one of which was wrapped in paper. It was an experimental  shipment and was watched with interest by those responsible. The  condition of the fruit on arrival at Glasgow after a long rail haul  and ocean voyage determined which was the better method of packing—wrapped or unwrapped.  Lawson and Rowcliffe had their grocery store on the corner of  Bernard Avenue and Water Street, with an assembly place for local  soft fruit and vegetables in the Mair's Building, where Ernest Clement held a position as fruit packer in the final days of the K.S.U.  Clement worked at a single bench with a home made lidding press,  and no such equipment as a box hatchet or a nail stripper. Sorting,  lidding and marking were all done by one person, who, when the  packs were complete, trundled them across the street to the Steamboat  Landing in a hand barrow, to ship as freight or express in small lots,  as the market absorbed them.  By 1904 Wilson Henry, a California fruit man, had charge of  the packing end of the fruit industry with Stirling and Pitcairn. It  was he who introduced the American type of apple box now in use;  78 Kelowna: Commercial and Social  also the first box hatchet and the first nail stripper to be used here,  and it was considered that an honour had been conferred when one  of the men under his supervision was allowed to use these tools.  Horses hitched to farm wagons, equipped with two and three  ton springs, hauled fruit to the packing house and cultivated the  orchards with plow and drag harrow. At that time in our history a  handworked spray pump here and there was all the equipment a  rancher had to fight the ever increasing encroachment of fruit pests  and bugs. These were no doubt introduced by the series of large  plantings continually extending where irrigation was available in  the country.  It was not all work for the early citizens of Kelowna. They  enjoyed sports as well. Skating on Whittop's pond, Bankhead and  the Creek mouth, was a winter pastime enjoyed then by the young  folks much more than it is today. Perhaps the winters were colder  and the seasons longer. Dancing parties and the production of concerts and theatricals, such as "Charlie's Aunt", filled the winter  evenings for those with talent for the stage. Lacrosse was the summer  game, and rivalry was keen between Kelowna, Vernon and Armstrong, with interchange of games throughout the season. Cricket  was also popular with Old Country men, and polo was successfully  played by those who could afford the time and ponies.  A brass band under the direction of J. J. Stubbs played on public  holidays and at the Agricultural Exhibition, where an increasing  variety of crops was displayed, and where a sports program of athletic  events, or horse-racing took place, weather permitting. A field of  twelve or more running ponies would break from the starter's wire,  and make the half mile course in 52 or 53, coming down the home  stretch almost in a bunch. This caused as much excitement for the  spectators, who knew all the horses and their riders, who were  neighbours and friends, as though they had been watching a Woodbine or the Derby. Of course fishing, swimming and deer stalking  all had their adherents as they have today. The roarin' game "fra  the Land o' Cakes" was played on a frozen slough beside the creek,  on the west side of Abbott Street. Scotsmen and Eastern Canadians  used in some cases "stones" made from blocks of wood weighted with  iron; and there are reputed to be several sets submerged in the mud  under the driveway, because of a sudden thaw and overflow that let  them through the ice, where they had been carelessly left by the  players.  79 The Okanagan Flistorical Society—-1954  Another sport in which they engaged in the early fall was a  "Turkey Shoot". There contestants matched their marksmanship  with a rifle or shotgun. The winner received a live turkey for his  skill or luck. With a shotgun at sixty yards the person who placed  the most shot pellets through a three-inch circular piece of paper  fastened to a plank was the winner, while the rifle man who could  come closest to the centre of a two-inch bullseye on the rifle target  took the prize. On one occasion Mr. E. Weddell, manager of  Lequime Bros, and Company, was taking part in a shooting match.  He was a good shot and placed his 30-30 bullet in the bullseye a  little to one side. While the spectators were congratulating Mr.  Weddell and admiring his shot, Joe Brent, who was runner-up in  the contest, picked up a carpet tack and stuck it in the centre of the  bullseye, boasting he could drive it through with a bullet at the same  distance. This he did with one shot, winning the match and the  turkey.  Unfortunately for some of our early citizens too much time was  wasted at cards, -such as poker, blackjack, and other games of chance.  Those who became gamblers, in several cases, lost all they had.  A poker game was in progress almost any time a fellow wished  to sit in at the old Lakeview, with a tinhorn called Tommy, who  was always ready to play—morning, afternoon or evening. It was  during one morning session that the local minister walked in on the  gang and said, "Boys, I want your attention for a moment." The  game stopped as the players listened respectfully to the preacher, as  he told them of an accident that had occurred farther up the Valley.  A stump rancher, not in very good financial circumstances, had  broken a leg. He had a wife and children, and as the family depended on his wages earned in the hay fields, they were going to be  in poor shape to' go into the winter, and would need some assistance.  "So," continued the parson, "I am out to collect some money for  their benefit and thought this would be a good place to start the  contributions."  The poker players had leaned back in their chairs, as they  listened with sympathy. There was $16, in the pot. A hand had  just been dealt and the cards were laying face down on the table.  The tinhorn gambler, Tommy, arose immediately to the occasion  and, picking up the $16, said 'Here, Your Reverence, take the whole  pot—that should start you off all right." The minister accepted the  gamblers'  money,  and,  thanking the  boys,  took  his  leave  as  the  80 Kelowna: Commercial and Social  players picked up their cards to commence another game. Then the  fun began: "Of all the dirty, lowdown tricks ever played on me,"  shouted an elderly, gray-bearded player. "You are a hell of a philanthropist, giving away my money the way you done!" and he displayed  a hand which would have lifted the jackpot had the play proceeded.  "I won't say whether or nor I had a peek at my cards," confessed the tinhorn, when he told the story years after, "but the old  boy never forgave me, and wouldn't speak to me for a year, because  he had been denied the opportunity of presenting the parson with  the donation."  Heavy snow and a quick run-off caused considerable discomfort  in 1903, when spring flood water rushed down our creeks to the  Lake. At that time there was no control of creekhead waters as there  is today; no dams to hold back and conserve irrigation water for the  late summer when creeks went dry. So May and June saw great  floods roaring down Mission Creek to break the bank above Benvoulin school house, and by way of Mill Creek come rushing down  to inundate a great part of what is now the City of Kelowna. To  make matters worse, the mouth of the Okanagan River at Penticton  was choked with uprooted trees and other debris until the Lake was  raised many feet above the usual high level. So, with high lake level  and overloaded creeks, Kelowna was under water in many places.  In the north water floated the three-plank sidewalk on the east side  of Ellis Street. Lake water reached into the business section as far  as Blocks 17 and 18, and most of the parkland was submerged.  South of the Creek on Pendozi Street water stood ankle deep for  half a mile or more. On Abbott Street and the lower end of Bernard  Avenue raised sidewalks reached from the flooded C.P.R. dock to  the Lakeview Hotel where the Lake lay two feet deep. East to  Water Street it was possible to navigate a rowboat or canoe along  the store fronts, or tie up in at the Post Office in Block 12. Those  who stepped off the raised planking would go to the knee in water,  as was the case on several occasions. Creek water flowed through  the Knox farm lands and spread over many acres of land west of  Richter Street, as it made its way to the Lake. There was a repetition  of this condition in 1904, but not quite as bad. Public pressure  brought to bear in Victoria had the mouth of the Okanagan River  cleared, allowing a freer run-off. Many bridges had been washed  away, and ranchers came to town over a trail along the cemetery  benches.  81 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  Cattle ranching was still the big industry in our Valley at the  turn of the Century. Herds running from a few hundred to two  and three thousands ranged the hills in summer and fed in the  fenced-in meadows during the winter. The first of the larger cattle  men to break his holdings was A. B. Knox. Knox had sold an acre  of land in 1897 to D. Lloyd-Jones, on the north corner of the  Bernard Avenue extension through the Knox property. The opposite  corner was donated to the Presbyterian Church, which was, like the  Benvoulin Church, a Mission fostered by the Guelph organization.  Knox was a good rancher with seventeen hundred cattle, and a  hundred or more horses, when he sold out his land holding near  Kelowna to a syndicate consisting of Joseph Glenn, F. R. E. DeHart,  James Harvey of Indian Head, Saskatchewan, and D. W. Sutherland  of Kelowna, for $75,000. The property was surveyed into lots  ranging in size from one hundred feet frontage, with 120 foot  depth on Bernard Avenue, to one, two and five-acre lots further  back, with Ethel Street running through the middle of the subdivision, north and south. Kelowna had by this time 640 acres of  land surveyed into lots, and they were picked up at reasonable prices  by newcomers from the Prairie Provinces, some of whom thought  it a nice place to retire—two acres with a cow and garden. Mr. Knox  then sold his horses and herd of cattle to big ranchers in the Nicola,  and was at that time considered quite a rich man.  Many new homes were built the following year to accommodate  the ever-increasing population of the town. With ten or a dozen  dwellings under construction at one time, there was every appearance  of a miniature boom. Three-plank sidewalks served the residential  district and those who wished to attend church, or go visiting after  dark, carried a stable lantern to light the way and keep one from  stepping into mud puddles in the dark.  For fellowship and economic reasons, the various Protestant  followings in the Valley were more or less united in their church  work and services; but as population increased they broke apart to  form their own selected groups. Mount View Methodist Church  was dedicated by the Rev. J. H. Wright of Vernon, 1903. The  building was bought from Charles Mair and moved from his farm  property at Benvoulin to the farm of John Dilworth a mile further  north on the Mission Road. They placed the little frame church just  north of Dry Creek, where it remained for several years. It was  again  moved to  Rutland north  of the present school when  that  82 Kelowna: Commercial and Social  centre was established in  1906. The building burned down some  years later. Rev. J. P. Hicks officiated as the first minister, 1903.  The Methodists of Kelowna bestirred themselves and built their  first church on the southwest corner of Block 14, Pendozi and  Lawrence. Rev. Geo. E. Smith who was in the district as a probationer in the early days, was the first ordained Methodist Minister  stationed at Kelowna. The new frame church built in 1903 had  seating capacity for 140, and a comfortable Parsonage was added  in 1905.  Bernard Lequime, who was head of the family by this time,  sold their 6,743 acres to T. W. Stirling and W. R. Pooley for  $65,000 on the 14th of March, 1904. Mr. Graves of the Douglas  Lake Cattle Company bought their large herd of cattle, excepting  fifty cows with calf which were sold locally. The horses were sold  to Mr. John Buckland, of Thornhill, Manitoba, who took East with  him a little pack mule, last of the train which had freighed over  Hope Mountain for so many years. This mule had been sold off the  ranch several times, but such was his fondness for the Okanagan,  that no matter where he was taken—Fraser Valley, Cariboo, or on  his last trip, East Kootenay—he "hightailed" it for home at the first  opportunity, leaving his new owner miles behind. When last heard  of, he was breaking prairie sod in a four-mule team near Coronation,  Alberta. At that time Lequime's stock brand, the figure "4" burned  on the left shoulder of a horse and right hip of a cow, so long  familiar to stock men in the Valley, now disappeared from the range.  That year the townsite was again enlarged. A half-section of  the Lequime property south of Mill Creek and Richter Street, extending to the east and the Lake, was surveyed into various sized  lots, mostly acreage, and Pendozi Street was extended as it is today.  A bridge was thrown over the Creek and the great Cottonwood trees  which covered the right of way were felled to build a corduroy road  for the first 400 feet, which at that time was covered with water.  The corduroy was then decked with 3" plank, 16 feet wide, which  allowed for the passing of horses and vehicles without danger of  bogging down, or of broken bones until higher ground was reached.  Rye grass lands and cultivated hay meadows to the south, and east as  far as Mission Creek, were divided into ten and twenty acre lots,  which were readily bought up. A bridge was built over Mission  Creek, serving the bench land of the Kelowna Land and Orchard  Company. When irrigation was supplied to the benches, they were  83 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  soon planted out to orchards to keep company with one planted by  S. T. Long on the bank of Mission Creek a year or two earlier.  The first dwelling house across the Creek built on the corner of  Park and Pendozi by J. J. Stubbs was followed by S. T. Elliott's  cottage. J. F. Burne, Attorney and Solicitor, erected a home on high  ground in the bush on Burne Avenue.  Further school accommodation was needed and a second room  was opened in the Court House in Bernard Avenue which served  until a large frame four-roomed school was built on the corner of  Richter and Glenn Avenue.  Okanagan Mission Post Office at Lequime's Store still served  the settlers at the old site, but was shortly moved to its present position  on the lakeshore several miles south of Mission Creek.  A return wire strung from Bankhead Ranch house to Stirling  and Pitcairn's Packing House, with a battery telephone at each end,  was followed by a similar connection between Dr. Boyce's home and  P. B. Willitt's Drug Store. Then in Block 12. D. W. Crowley  Company Limited placed a line between their butcher shop,  stables and the Crowley and Buckland residences. The following  year H. H, Millie offered to assemble these several lines at a homemade switchboard placed in his watch repair shop in Block 14, and  when this was done Miss Mamie McCurdy officiated as our first  telephone operator at that new central. Two or three more private  lines were set up in the course of time. Then finally Mr. Millie  turned over his switchboard and goodwill, together with his patrons'  lines and phones, to the Okanagan Telephone Company when it  was formed.  H. B. D. Lysons had a boat building shop on the beach north  of the Sawmill, where he turned out small rowing and sailing craft.  It was he who operated the first power driven ferry plying between  Kelowna wharf and Siwash Point, 1904, with a 27-foot gasboat  towing a small barge. By 1905 Mr. Lysons had a charter from the  Provincial Government to operate on a schedule. The "Skookum,"  a 30-foot gas engined boat was launched, and handled an 18 x 40  foot scow alongside for horses, wagons or cattle. Two runs per day  were made—9 a.m. and 4 p.m., weather permitting. For this service  the traveller paid 25c per person and $1.00 per head for livestock  or a vehicle. On the west side Siwash Point was abandoned as a  landing place for the present site. In August, 1904, a bad fire threat-  84 Kelowna: Commercial and Social  ened to destroy the C.P.R. warehouses and Stirling and Pitcairn's  packinghouse. A load of baled hay on the dock became ignited by  some careless smoker, no doubt. It was a day when Kelowna citizens  One of the three Kelowna-Westbank Perries.  and their neighbours were enjoying a programme of planned water  sports—one of our very early regattas.  Events such as swimming, diving, single and double rowing races  in home made flatbottomed boats held the attention of man, women  and children during the afternoon. The most exciting moment  occurred while the S.S. Aberdeen lay at the wharf about 4 p.m. At  that time one of our local characters, a remittance man, walked out  on the extreme stern of the big boat and after drawing the attention  of the crowd, dived from the top of the great paddle wheel cover  with all his clothes and boots on. In the early evening of the same  day a boxing match between Billy Newman and Marshall was arranged to take place in the men's bathing house. The building was  originally Lequime's storehouse and stood on the beach some hundred  yards west of the present promenade entrance to the Park, alongside  where the hulk of the old S.S. Penticton lay beached at the time. As  85 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  dusk fell, the sporting fraternity gathered at the old shack which  was lighted by a couple of stable lanterns held aloft by interested  onlookers, and the half-fuddled contestants opened the fray without  any preliminaries or introductions, and commenced to belt one another with all they had. This was soon stopped by friends and  supporters. Then a timekeeper, a referee and two seconds were  appointed, and the first round opened in earnest, when the cry of  "fire, fire, fire!" broke over the assembly who rushed out into the  late dusk to see flames breaking through the night. Everybody gathered helplessly around the fire until Lequime's store was opened and  a quantity of galvanized buckets and tin pails handed out to willing  fire fighters, who formed a bucket brigade. One man in the Lake  filled paid after pail of water to be passed up the line from hand to  hand by the chain of volunteer firemen, and the water was splashed  on the flames. After a fierce struggle the fire was quenched with  only slight damage to the roof of one of the freight sheds.  A fire menace such as this gave great concern to those who had  their life savings invested in the town. No protection but buckets and  manpower! It wouldn't do. So Kelowna business men bargained for  the Old San Francisco fire engine "Brodric," which had seen service  in California as early as 1 850, and had come north from one frontier  town to another until it landed in Vernon, and was again out of use  because of a water system recently installed. A subscription was  taken up among those in Kelowna who were most interested, and  the old hand-pumped fire engine with 400 feet of 3J/2 inch hose  and a long leather suction intake was purchased from the City of  Vernon for $400. There was great excitement the afternoon the  "Brodric" arrived on the forward main deck of the Aberdeen, and  when the deck hands had delivered it on the wharf it was seized  by a crowd of bystanders, Sam Elliott in the lead. With its old bell  clanging wildly for right of way, our first Fire Engine made its  initial run up Bernard Avenue, much to the disgust of the Station  Agent who followed the procession on the run, waving a Waybill  in his hand and calling out to those in front to "Bring it back, the  freight hasn't been paid." In view of the fact that the townspeople  had saved the C.P.R. property from destruction a few weeks before,  it is a question if the freight ever was paid.  The Kelowna Club was organized in 1904 and a Charter  obtained August 4th of that year, with C. S. Smith as the first President. The Charter read as follows: "In the matter of The Ben-  86 Kelowna: Commercial and Social  evolent Societies Act, and amended acts, we, the undersigned, declare  that we are desirous of being incorporated under the name and for  the objects hereinafter set forth, under the provisions of the Benevolent Societies Act and Amending Acts which name and objects  are as follows:  1. The intended corporation name of the Society is "The Kelowna  Club."  2. The objects of the society are social intercourse, mutual helpfulness, mental and moral improvement, rational recreation and  the promotion of good fellowship among members.  3. The names of those who are to be the first trustees or managing  officers are J. L. Pridham, C. S. Smith, H. E. Wallis, H. W.  Raymer, H. S. Rose, D. W. Sutherland, H. S. Stillingfleet, G.  W. Mappen, A. H. Crichton, who may from among themselves  appoint a President, a Vice-President, and Secretary-Treasurer,  and they shall hold office until a General Meeting of the Society,  which shall be called in one year from the date hereof, to elect  new trustees or managing officers, and the retiring Trustees or  Managing Officers shall be eligible for re-election.  The successors of the said Trustees or Managing Officers shall  be elected at the times and in the manner provided by the bylaws of  the Society. The Society shall have a common seal of such design  as may be chosen by the Trustees or Managing Officers. In testimony  whereof we have made and signed these presents this twelfth day of  August A.D. 1904. Signed in the presence of Walter R. Pooley,  Notary Public, Pro. B.C. Filed in duplicate the 30th day of August,  1904.  S. Y. Wooten  Registrar General."  The Club began with a room on the ground floor of the K.S.U.  building, which was furnished as a reading room with a desk and  table for writing and a few easy chairs for relaxation. Here the  Club remained until a later location on Leon Avenue between  Pendozi and Ellis was selected and a substantial building erected,  with lawn tennis courts and a bowling green as time progressed.  "Benvoulin Schoolhouse" was first mentioned as such in the  Okanagan School District Minutes, June 27, 1896. Benvoulin was  again mentioned in two or three succeeding Minutes, but always as  87 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  "The Schoolhouse," while the "Okanagan School District" continued to be referred as such, to the last page and Meeting, 1906,  when the trustees met in Kelowna, December 19, in special session.  The Annual Meeting called for June 25, 1904, had the three  trustees, J. Dilworth, W. R. Barlee, and E. L. Conkling in attendance, but no election of trustees was held, as no voters appeared  at the Meeting. At a special Meeting held January 21st, 1905, the  election took place by unanimous vote.  Another Motion by George E. Boyer, seconded by J. Dilworth,  stated that, in the opinion of the Meeting, the present school building is totally unfit as a schoolhouse, and that the health of the  children attending is endangered thereby- The Motion was carried.  Moved by W. R. Barlee and seconded by A. Hardy that in the  opinion of the Meeting a new schoolhouse is absolutely necessary  and we hereby pray the Government to build one. Carried. It was  also resolved that the School Board request the teacher to keep the  school hours more punctual. Voters present at the Meeting: J. Dilworth, W. R. Barlee, E. L. Conkling, Geo. E. Boyer, John Con-  lin, A. Patterson, A. Reid, T. G. Spear, I. Mawhiney Jr., A.  Hardy, W. A. Scott, J. E. Lyttle, and W. A. Peterman.  So the little log building passes, after doing service as a school for  thirty years and a dwelling house ten years before that. It was  demolished to make way for the present structure and is now almost  forgotten.  When the Coronation of King George VI was celebrated in  Kelowna in 1937 one of the floats in the pageantry parade represented the first school in the Okanagan, and it was roofed with some  of the original shakes taken from this first school building. When  the old log school house was razed a number of the best shakes were  piled up in the yard for light stove wood. Thirty years later some  few remaining were used in pageantry.  What became of the children who attended school here five  decades ago? Several are still with us at this writing. One was hung  for murder in the State of Washington; two or three are successful  business men and ranchers; while one became a distinguished educator known and acclaimed across Canada.  Who were the men who officiated as Trustees from time to  time? We have had Catholic and Protestant, French, Scottish, Italian, English, German, and Irish mingling and deliberating to advance education in this young.country.   English Public School boys Kelowna: Commercial and Social  and men from old country universities exchanged ideas with men  who attended a little Red School House in Huron or Bruce, while  the habitant from Quebec, representing the Oldest Canada, left us  examples of Goose Quill Copperplate, beautifully lined and shaded.  They managed the school finances at a time when a dollar was worth  one hundred cents, and one could buy things with a cent in those days.  These people all played a part in developing educational consciousness in the rising generations who would take their rightful  places in the next few decades. The little calf bound account book,  with its first page entry by Angus McKenzie, October 26, 1875,  closes with the statement on its last page: "Audited and found correct."   George R. Binger, July 6, 1909.  R. H. Spedding, an enterprising prairie newspaper man, was  among the many at that time who were looking to the mountains for  an easier climate in which to live. Mr. Spedding had edited country newspapers in two or three small towns in Manitoba and on visiting Kelowna saw an opportunity to ply his trade as printer and publisher in this fast growing town. So the "Kelowna Clarion" made  its first issue to the public August 14, 1904. It was a 14 x 20 inch  five column page, printed on a gasoline driven commercial press.  The inside sheets of the Kelowna Clarion contained principally advertising matter, and week-old news, printed in Winnipeg. When  this partly printed weekly arrived in Kelowna it was folded and  folded again to allow the other four pages to contact the press block  with town news and advertising, one at a time. The following year  G. C. Rose took over the paper and changed the name to Kelowna  Courier.  A branch of the Bank of Montreal was opened in the Leckie  Building, Block 13, November 1st, 1904, with H. G. Fisher in  charge. For some time before this convenience was established banking was done in Vernon, with no telegraph or telephone connections  between the towns. It was not to be wondered at that people carried  their money around with them, and on making a purchase, pulled  out a roll of bills, sometimes tied with binder twine, to liquidate  their debt, or more often say, "Charge it," with the result that such  firms as Lequime's presented their store bills once a year, when the  crop was harvested and sold, or when the cattle buyers came to the  Valley.  J. S. Reekie, lately from Manitoba, with D. W. Sutherland  acquired the Rabbit property and resold it almost immediately to Dr.  89 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  W. H. Gaddes, J. W. Jones and others forming a company, which  had bought up Mr. Rutland's grain farm on the flats east of Mill  Creek, as well as a piece of the Simpson Ranch, and a block owned  by Price Ellison. Consolidating these properties, which were later  subdivided, they called the district "Rutland" for the Australian  who had come to the Okanagan some years previous and worked a  400 acre ranch he had bought.  As these lands had been dry farmed the new owners immediately prepared to instal an irrigation system by improving ditches already  attempted at Eight Mile and Mission Creeks. This was one of the  earlier efforts to water central valley lands, which was finally accomplished by the Black Mountain Irrigation Company.  Starvation Flats of the early cattle days was known by 1905  as Dry Valley, and some ten ranchers made their homes in that district and were dry farming. Hundreds of acres were under the plow  and sown to fall wheat and other grains. At the southern end we  find Robert Munson with 320 acres partly cultivated. The wagon  road from Kelowna ran through this place and, skirting the western  side of the Valley, passed by Thomas Murray's 160 acres and John  Morrison's 320. Beyond that Alex Gordon operated 640 with the  Lawrence Brothers' 160, and the Eckelsons' 480 at the north end.  To the east Robert McKay had 160, which took in McKay Lake,  and along the eastern ridge James Murray cultivated 400 acres of  his 480. Robert Goldie had an 80-acre strip between that and John  Dilworth's 750 acres at the southern end of the east side.  This great expanse of arable land needed water, and there were  men in the country with vision and ability to see what irrigation  would accomplish in the way of making homes for Eastern families  who wished to move to a milder climate and establish themselves  where they might expect to live a more comfortable life. So again  we find Dr. W. H. Gaddes, J. W. Jones, and others interesting  themselves in a possible irrigation system for Dry Valley. At first  they had prospected Eight Mile Creek, hoping to conserve enough  spring flood water in some place at the head waters of that Creek to  siphon over the hill in summer. With the aid and advice of Dave  McDougall this back country was investigated without success.  Dave McDougall, a native son who had lived at the Mission  most of his life, and had trapped and hunted in the hills for years,  advised and insisted that the head waters of Mill Creek was the  logical place for an irrigation dam, where water could be stored and  90 Kelowna: Commercial and Social  siphoned across the Valley to land where it was needed. In the  meantime the proposition was discussed with the Dry Valley farmers, and a ninety day option to purchase was secured on all the land.  Then Dr. Gaddes and McDougall with two swampers spent two days  tramping over the country now covered by Beaver Lake. On the  way out, as they came down the hill, they met one of the settlers on  a horse, all steamed up, going in to stake the country and take any  advantage he might get by prior right. The staking was done, but  the Department of Lands at Victoria refused his claim, and eventually a dam was built, and a 32 inch steel siphon laid on top of the  ground across the Valley, which delivered the stored water on Dry  Valley lands by 1908. The property was divided into 20-acre lots  which were sold to Eastern people who built houses and planted orchards. As the name "Dry Valley" would hardly inspire confidence  in a country sold in 20-acre lots for orchard, the Central Okanagan  Lands and Orchard Company offered a cash prize of $100.00 for  a more suitable name for the newly irrigated valley. The John  Morrison farm had been named and known as Glenmore at an  earlier date, so Mrs. Morrison submitted the name "Glenmore."  Among the several other persons who offered names for the little  valley was Mrs. A. R. Walker, an elderly lady who resided on Ethel  Street with her husband. Mrs. Walker also suggested the name  "Glenmore," which was accepted, so the prize was divided, each  lady getting $50.00.  There were times when great developments were considered and  accomplished in a much quicker manner than these we have just  recounted, if you can believe the story told by an oldtimer who had  inherited the Irish wit.  Three or four dry farmers in the Main Valley once met at the.  home of one of the number to discuss the possibilities of bringing  water down to their farms from Eight-Mile Creek. During the  evening several bottles of Irish whiskey were consumed, and the  story is that after an all night session, they had the whole scheme  planned, and, if they had had one more bottle, the water would have  been down on their farms by morning.  The Charter of Incorporation of the City of Kelowna is dated  May 4, 1905. This was the result of a petition for incorporation  presented to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council by some 229 qualified voters. Business and professional men of Kelowna wisely considered the advantages the community would gain if self-controlled.  91 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  The Charter provides that the Council should consist of a Mayor and  five aldermen, nominations for these offices to be held at the School-  house on May 15, 1905, at 12 o'clock noon and the polling if any  on May 22nd, 1905, E. W. Wilkinson being appointed as Returning Officer. According to the Minute Book, the first meeting of the  Council was held in the Schoolhouse on May 20, 1905, the members  of the Council present being Mayor H. W. Raymer and Aldermen  D. Lloyd-Jones, E. R. Bailey, C. S. Smith and D. W. Sutherland.  Minutes of the Council Meeting of the City of Kelowna  The new Council of the City of Kelowna met in the School-  house on the 20th day of May, 1905. The members present were  Mayor H. W. Raymer, Aldermen D. Lloyd-Jones, E. R. Bailey,  C. S. Smith, D. W. Sutherland. After taking the declarations of  office and qualifications, they took their seats at the Council board  with the Mayor in the Chair. The following committees were appointed—Finance, Sutherland, Lloyd-Jones and Elliott; Health,  Smith, Sutherland and Bailey; Works, Lloyd-Jones, Elliott and  Bailey.  Moved by Aldermen Sutherland and Smith that the Municipal  Council of the City of Kelowna enact as follows:  That the said Council shall appoint a Clerk, Treasurer and Collector.  That the said offices be held by one person at an annual salary of  $300.00.  That the said officer furnish bond to the City for the sum of  $1,000.00.  The said Bylaw was read a first and second time. It was moved  by E. R. Bailey and seconded by Lloyd-Jones that the Mayor be  authorized to advertise in the Clarion for a City Clerk, Treasurer,  and Collector.  Carried.  Moved by E. R. Bailey, seconded by C. S. Smith that D. W.  Sutherland be authorized to get quotations on a'Seal and set of Books  for the City.   Carried.  Moved by Sutherland, seconded by Smith that the Works Committee be authorized to make all necessary repairs to the sidewalks.  Carried.  Moved by Sutherland, seconded by Smith, That the Mayor send  the Government a list of the names of the Aldermen, with a request  that licensed commissioners be appointed.  (signed)    H. W. Raymer,  Mayor.  92 Origins of Kelowna Street  Names  J. B. Knowles  (In the list of street names the following symbols are used: A for  avenue, B for boulevard, C for crescent, D for drive, P for place,  R for road, and S  for street).  ABBOTT S: named for H. B. Abbott, C.E., superintendent of  C.P.R., 1887-96.  BAILLIE A: after Geo. H. Baillie, vice-president of C.P.R.  Pacific division.  BATH S: after Alfred Bath, C.N.R. engineer, barge service.  BAY A: after Bay, daughter of F. R. E. DeHart.  BEACH A: located between Abbott Street and Okanagan Lake.  BERNARD A: after eldest son of Eli Lequime, Okanagan Mission.  BERTRAM S: after J. D. Bertram, owner of adjacent property.  BIRCH A: after John Birch, dairyman.  BORDEN A: after Hon. R. L. Borden, Premier of Canada, 1911-  20.  BOWES S: after James Bowes, proprietor of Lakeview Hotel.  BOYCE C: after Dr. B. F. Boyce, Kelowna's first medical doctor,  1894.  BROADWAY A: named by Grand Trunk Land Co., Winnipeg.  BURNE A: after J. F. Burne, first solicitor to open office in Kelowna.  BUCKLAND A: after F. M. Buckland, fruit grower, shipper,  historian.  CADDER A: after residence of T. W. Stirling, Pendozi Street.  CAMBRIDGE A: named by Grand Trunk Land Co., Winnipeg.  CARRUTHERS S: after E. M. Carruthers, joint owner of subdivision.  CAWSTON A: named for Richard Lowe Cawston.  93 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  CEDAR A: cedar trees on avenue.  CENTRAL A: named by Grand Trunk Land Co., Winnipeg.  CHAPMAN A: after David Chapman, former School Board  Chairman.  CHERRY S: named by Grand Trunk Land Co., Winnipeg.  CHRISTLETON A: named by Captain Temple.  CLEMENT A: named for William C. Clement and family, owners of adjacent property.  COPELAND P: after R. A. Copeland, former owner of property.  CORONATION A: in honour of H.M. King George V, crowned  in 1911.  CROWLEY A: after D. Crowley, early cattle dealer and butcher.  DeHART A: after F. R. E. DeHart, Mayor of Kelowna,  1909.  DORYAN A: after G. L. Dore and Howard Ryan, owners of  adjacent property.  DILLON S: after George Dillon, owner of adjacent property.  DOYLE A: after James L. Doyle, Kelowna's first assessor and collector of customs.  ELLIOTT A: named for Samuel T. Elliott, car and implement  dealer.  ELLIS S: after Thomas Ellis, J.P., cattleman, Penticton.  ETHEL S: after Ethel, daughter of Joseph Glenn.  FRANCIS A: after Arthur Francis, rancher.  FULLER A: after William S. Fuller, owner of adjacent property.  GAGNON P: after S. M. Qagnon, owner of adjacent property.  GASTON A: second son of Eli Lequime.  GLENMORE R: dividing road between Glenmore and Kelowna.  GLENN A: after Joseph Glenn, owner of adjacent property.  GLENWOOD A: named by T. W. Stirling.  GRAHAM S: after James Graham, retired.  GRENFELL A: named by R. A. Copeland after his home town  in Saskatchewan.  GROVES A: after Kelowna civil engineer.  GUY S: after son of F. R. E. DeHart.  HARVEY A: after James Harvey, senior.  HAYNES A: after district pioneer, John Haynes.  94 Origins of Kelowna Street Names  Three comparative photos of Bernard Avenue, Kelowna.  1894.  1905.  1954.  95 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  KINGSWAY: named by Grand Trunk Land Co., Winnipeg.  KNOX C: after Dr. W. J. Knox.  LAKE A: named by E. R. Bailey in 1906.  LAURIER A: for Sir Wilfred Laurier, Prime Minister of Canada,  1896-1911.  LAWRENCE A: after Cyprian Lawrence, who came to district  with Father Pandosy.  LAWSON A: after Thomas W. Lawson, early merchant.  LEON A: after youngest son of Eli Lequime.  LONG S: after Samuel Long, C.E., provincial land surveyor.  McKAY A: after G. A. McKay, druggist; mayor of Kelowna  1940-44.  McDOUGALL S: after W. H. H. McDougall, grower and fruit  exporter.  McTAVISH A: after N. D. McTavish, owner of adjacent property.  MANHATTAN D: after Manhattan, New York, by F. R. E.  DeHart.  MAPLE S: maple trees.  MARSHALL S: after William J. Marshall, owner of adjacent  property.  MARTIN A: after Cornelius Martin, owner of adjacent property.  QUEENSWAY: named for Queen Elizabeth II.  MORRISON A: after Robert  Morrison, senior,  Kelowna's first  city clerk.  NEWSOM A: after J. R. Newsom, owner of adjacent property.  NORTH S: believed named by Dr. B. F. Boyce.  OKANAGAN B: named by Grand Trunk Land Co., Winnipeg.  OSPREY A: named by Grand Trunk Land Co., Winnipeg.  OXFORD S: named by Grand Trunk Land Co., Winnipeg.  PARK A: so named because park-like. Kelowna Land & Orchard  Co., Map 348.  PATTERSON A: after  George  Patterson,  who purchased  first  lot in sub-division.  PENDOZI S: after Father Pandosy, O.M.I.  RICHTER S: after Frank Richter, H.B.C. packer, and cattleman,  Keremeos.  96 Origins of Kelowna Street Names  RIVERSIDE A: parallels Mill Creek: Kelowna Land & Orchard  Co.  ROANOKE A: named by Grand Trunk Land Co., Winnipeg.  ROSEMEAD A: named by G. C. Rose, owner of sub-division.  ROWCLIFFE A: named after Geo. Rowcliffe, fruit shipper and  founder of Rowcliffe Canning Co.  ROYAL A: shown on plan 535, August 17, 1908.  SELKIRK S: named by Grand Trunk Land Co., Winnipeg.  SMITH A: after Colin Smith, associated with Kelowna Shippers  Union, and early tobacco growing.  ST.  PAUL S: after  Rembler  Paul,  retired,   owner  of  adjacent  property.  SPEER S: after William Speer, real estate and insurance, 1905-08.  STOCKWELL A: after J. C. Stockwell, auctioneer, owner of adjacent property.  STRATHCONA A: after Lord Strathcona.  SUTHERLAND A: after D. W. Sutherland, mayor of Kelowna,  1907-08-10-11, 1917-29.  VALENTINE A: named by Grand Trunk Land Co., Winnipeg.  VAUGHN A: after R. C. Vaughn, president C.N. railways.  VERNON R: dividing line between Kelowna and Glenmore.  VICKERS A: named by Grand Trunk Land Co., Winnipeg.  VIMY A: after Vimy Ridge, France.  WARDLAW A: after Thomas Wardlaw, senior, and sons, Thomas and James.  WEDDELL P: after Edwin Weddell, manager of Lequime Bros.  stores,  WATER S: parallels water (Okanagan Lake).  WATSON A: after Harvey Watson, first school teacher in district  south of Mission Creek.  WILLOW A: for willow trees in district.  WILSON A: after Duncan Wilson, owner of adjacent property.  WOLSELEY A: named by J. N. Thomson, after his home town  in Saskatchewan.  97 Kelowna's First School Teacher  Dorothea Allison  At a time when we are  fast losing touch with our  early settlers, it is of historical  importance to contact those  who remember them and were  influenced by their character  and example. The first school  must surely be one of the  most important "Firsts" in  the birth of a city, and this  honour belongs to Daniel  Wilbur Sutherland who was  born June 24, 1865, in Earl-  town, a village near Truro,  N.S. His parents were of  Highland Scottish descent.  Young Daniel attended the  small Earltown school until  the age of sixteen when he  went out teaching to earn  enough to further his education at Pictou Academy. From Pictou he travelled west to Port  Moody, B.C., the then C.P.R. terminus, as the line to Vancouver  was not yet completed. He taught in various schools, both in New  Westminster and around the Fraser Valley, pre-empting land at the  same time in the Matsqui area and running a store to supplement  his salary. To add to the load of duties, which to this generation  appears already heavy, he became a Notary Public and Justice of  the Peace.  Romance also came into his life at this period in the person of  Mabel May Coghlan, one of his first pupils, a brown haired, blue  eyed girl and fast growing up. Miss Coghlan was born in Ontario,  coming as a little girl to Portland in 1883 by U.S.A. Railroad, from  there to New Westminster by boat and on by river boat to Fort  D. W.  Sutherland, Kelowna's  first  school teacher.  98 Kelowna's First School Teacher  Langley.   Daniel W. Sutherland and Mabel  May Coghlan were  married in 1891.  After teaching for six years in the Fraser Valley, Mr. Sutherland  came to the Okanagan in February 1892, arriving by train in Vernon, and travelling by saddle horse to Kelowna in deep snow. Mrs.  Sutherland followed in August, with a sister who taught school in  Vernon and later became Mrs. Knight.  The townsite of Kelowna  had as yet no school. Lequime's store stood on the site  of the present Government  office at the foot of Bernard  Avenue; over this store was a  large room, approximately 30  feet long by 24 feet wide,  with an outside stair leading to  it—warmed by a wood stove  and used for meetings and  dances. In this room Kelowna's first school was opened  with 29 pupils, and Daniel  Wilbur Sutherland installed as  first teacher. Names of the  children attending were . . .  Bailey 3, Blackburn 3, Dolman 3, Bjarnson 3, Laxton 2,  Mair 2, McQueen 3, Nichol  1, Favell 4, Helgison 1, Raymer 4. Mr. Sutherland's own  children later attended and so  it   came   about   he   had   the  unique experience of teaching both his wife and his children. Though  copy books and slates were both in use, slates were more generally  used. Water was carried by a bucket from the lake for drinking and  other purposes.  The children liked and respected their teacher, a tall square-  shouldered man, and looked up to him as children will when they  discover a teacher who knows how to handle them, for Mr. Sutherland, though an easy-tempered man, was also a strict disciplinarian.  After school was held in Lequime's for some months, a school  building was completed on the site of the present Civic Centre, near  Lequime Bros. Co. original store,  Kelowna. Mr. E. C. Weddell, manager, central figure. First Public-  School was opened in hall above,  1.892, with D. W. Sutherland teacher.  99 The Okanagan Historical Society—-1954  the corner of Ellis and Queensway, (Block 19, Map 462). It was  in this building that a small boy of six years called Bud (E. C. Weddell, Q.C, Kelowna) remembers the high windows preventing him  from looking out, and the rubber strap hanging on the door—not  often used, for Mr. Sutherland, though strict, was also just and  kindly. Bud remembers very vividly the softer side of his teacher's  character, for he was one day presented with a watch.  Kelowna had no telegraphic communication with the outside  world, and the latest news would travel down the lake by means of  the officers in the stern-wheeler, Aberdeen. News had been coming  down this way of Queen Victoria's illness. As the boat pulled in on  January 22, 1901, Mr. Sutherland put his head out of the high window and noticed the ship's flag at half-mast. The pupils remember  him turning with a pale face and announcing to a hushed school,  "The Queen is dead." It may be interesting to digress upon that  same solemn hush that descended at intervals all around the Globe  wherever flew the Union Jack, as though the peoples of the Empire  and Dominions were aware not only of the passing of a great Queen,  but of the end of a great and peaceful era. The writer's husband  experienced the same solemn hush when he was carrying mail down  the Yukon. A Sergeant pushed open the door, made the same announcement, used the same words. The solemnity of the moment,  however, ended for Kelowna's first school children when Mr. Sutherland dismissed the school for the remainder of the day.  As the number of pupils rapidly increased, the Government building, along with the jail, was moved in from outside of Kelowna and  placed on the south side of Bernard Avenue between what are now  Ellis and Pendozi streets. Miss Williams was engaged as second  teacher for the junior grades.  Later she became Mrs, Frank Fraser.  After school hours Mr. Sutherland held court in the school  room as Justice of the Peace. To augment his salary, he occupied  himself with land conveyance and also became Kelowna's first jeweller. He was a strict Presbyterian and organized the first Sunday  School. To add to his activities, he became partner in a furniture  store, still carried on by his son George, under the name of Kelowna  Furniture Co. Ltd. He also became the first Insurance Agent. Although so deeply interested in school, church and civic affairs, Mr.  Sutherland's hobby was agriculture. He dealt extensively in real  estate in association with other business men, the A. B. Knox, Kelowna, property and acreage of the Rutland Estate.  WO Kelowna's First School Teoxher  The Sutherlands' first living quarters were erected immediately  north of the present Telephone office on St. Paul Street, and still  stands. The rye grass growing all around was so tall that Mrs.  Sutherland could just see her husband's head moving through as he  came from school. The two Ben Davis apple trees planted in front  of the house in 1892 are able and bearing today.  Although this article deals mainly with Mr. Sutherland as Kelowna's first teacher, it may also be related that this versatile character, besides being first Justice of the Peace, first Notary Public, first  Insurance Agent, and first jeweller, was in addition to all this Mayor  for 17 years and Alderman for several more, and a past Grand  Master of the Masonic Order in British Columbia. He died in  1931, aged 66. Mrs. Sutherland still lives in Kelowna, and is in  her 85th year. One son was lost in the First World War. One son,  George, two daughters and six grandchildren survive him.  Mrs. Robert Munson (nee Eliza Jane Manery), d. 1909, was  the first white woman to live in the Kelowna district. She provided  butter, cream and eggs for the Aberdeen and the Okanagan. She  named Bethel Church at Benvoulin. See R. 17, p. 133. A son,  Robert, died at Kelowna in 1952. A daughter, Mrs. F. A. (Elizabeth) McKinnon, now of Penticton, was the first white girl to be  born at Benvoulin.  "I once greeted their Chief in Chinook—the trading jargon used  since early days by the old Hudson's Bay Company in its dealings  with all western Indians. I knew but few words or phrases of this  "language," and the Chief made me feel very small as he replied in  a very grand manner: 'Good morning, sir'."—H. J. Parham in A  Nature Lover in British Columbia, p. 43.  101 School Expansion in Kelowna  F. T. Marriage  The period 1925-1950 saw a great increase in population, and  expansion of school facilities in Kelowna. In 1925 there were only  three school buildings within the city limits: by 1950 there were  eight. The old High School, built in 1910, a six-roomed brick structure at the corner of Glenn Avenue and Richter Street, was staffed  in 1925 by only three academic and one agriculture teachers, while  across the street the frame building now known as "The Armoury"  housed three elementary classes and a "home economics" centre.  This building dates from 1904. Two blocks south on Richter  Street the "Old Public School," now the Central Elementary  School, had been erected in 1913, and provided ten classrooms  and an auditorium. Manual Training, as the Practical Arts was  then styled, was taught by W. C. Mitchell in a hall on Glenn  Avenue. This had been built by Mr. Mitchell and his pupils about  1924, and is now the Women's Institute Hall.  By 1927 the Public School at Richter and DeHart was crowded  beyond its capacity, three classes being accommodated in basements.  The following year saw the opening of the DeHart Avenue Primary  School on the school grounds, and the four classrooms thus provided  relieved the congestion for a short time. In 1929 the central portion  of the Junior High School was built. Besides affording more classroom space, the structure took care of the Home Economics and  Industrial Arts departments. The frame structures on Glenn Avenue  were abandoned as far as education was concerned. At first the  Junior High School was merely an extension of the Public School,  accommodating grades seven and eight, but the following year saw  the establishment of the standard Junior High School organization  (grades 7, 8 and 9), although the principal remained in charge of  the lower grades as well. This arrangement continued until 1936,  when separate principals were appointed.  It was not long before additions to the Junior High building  became imperative.   The school took its present form in  1939, on  102 School Expansion in Kelowna  completion of an addition to the north end, the south end having  been added previously to afford two more classrooms and a library-  study hall. The north addition, comprising a commercial department,  laboratory, lunch room, office and several classrooms, was now taken  over by the Senior High School grades, and the old High School  building utilized by elementary classes under the title of The Junior  Elementary School. When other elementary schools were built this  name was changed to Glenn Avenue School.  After 1945 the schoolpopulation increased rapidly. All buildings became congested. Grades 7 to 13 were still accommodated  in the Junior High School under very difficult conditions, while elementary grades spilled over into the Women's Institute Hall, Bethel  Baptist Church Hall, the Anglican Parish Hall and the school auditorium. Occasionally double shift classes were operated, two classes  occupying the same room at different times of the day. By 1949 the  elementary pupils had almost doubled in number since their school  was organized in 1936, and now numbered nearly 1200.  Due to the implementation of the Cameron Report on Education in British Columbia, in 1946 the school board was merged in  the newly created District 23, which included the territory between  Peachland and Oyama. Mention should be made of the long periods  of public service in the former city school board by Mrs. A. T.  Treadgold, who served for 21 years, and Dave Chapman, chairman  of the board for 19 of his 21 consecutive years' activity in educational work. The late N. D. MacTavish was city school board secretary from 1912 to 1938.  During the period 1948 to 1950, four new buildings were added  to the educational facilities already existing in the city. Graham  Street Primary School at the corner of Coronation Avenue, and  Raymer Avenue Primary School on South Richter Street, now took  care of the rapidly growing population in the north and south parts  of the city, while the Senior High School students were housed in  their new building fronting on Harvey Avenue. Present facilities  were completed with the opening of the four-roomed elementary  school on Graham Street at Martin Avenue in September, 1950.  At the beginning of the period under review the city employed  20 teachers. By 1950 the staff numbered 75. Present indications are  that in the near future more accommodation may be necessary—  probably an addition to the north wing of the Junior High School,  and provision for primary grades in the Manhattan-Knox Mountain  district, and in the south Pendozi area.  103 Kelowna's First Mayor  Hazel McDougall  The first mayor of Kelowna was Henry William  (Harry) Raymer. He was born  1853 in Walsingham, Norfolk  County, Ontario, but his boyhood, public and high school  days were passed in Woodstock, Ontario. When still a  very young man he went to  work in Chicago and was  there in 1871 when that city  was destroyed by fire. He  stayed only a short time and  turned north to' Canada again.  He drove with a team of oxen  to Shoal Lake, Manitoba,  where he engaged in farming  and contracting. Later he  came to Lethbridge, Alberta,  and then moved farther west,  arriving at Vernon on a work train during thq construction of the  Shuswap & Okanagan Railway branch line to Okanagan Landing.  Subsequently he moved, with his family, in 1892 to what is now  Kelowna. They arrived by boat, and his daughter Pearl (Mrs. C.  Dain) writes: "The boat was so small that my mother did not  want to get on it.  Our goods were brought down on a raft."  As a contractor and builder Mr. Raymer was responsible for the  erection of many buildings in Kelowna and surrounding districts,  some of which still stand, among them the Presbyterian Church, now  known as the First United Church; the brick High School, corner  of Glenn Avenue and Richter Street, and the Bank of Montreal  residence on Pendozi Street. The woodwork of the present Anglican  Church was constructed under his supervision, and in the surround-  H. W. Raymer, Kelowna's First  Mayor, 1905-06.  104 Kelowna's First Mayor  ing districts, the T. W. Stirling house at Bankhead, Presbyterian  Church at Benvoulin, and the Dunwater home at Fintry.  On the corner of Bernard Avenue and Water Street Mr. Raymer built and owned a large block known as the "Raymer Block  occupied below by Thomas Lawson, Rowcliffe Bros, and others.  Above was loc_fted the Opera House and Dance Hall, for many  years the centre of Kelowna's social activities. This was twice destroyed by fire and twice rebuilt.  Though engaged in the building trade, Mr. Raymer realized  that the economy of the district was based on agriculture and he  made every effort to further the interests of the farming people. He  was an enthusiastic supporter of the Agricultural Association and was  its president on several occasions. He was also president of the  Farmers' Institute.  When Kelowna was incorporated in 1905 as a city, he was  elected mayor, and served on the Council for several terms, where  it was recognized that the welfare of the city and district was his  primary concern. He was a Justice of the Peace, served on the Police Commission and License Board. It-would" take a long list to  mention all the--movements and enterprises with which Jre-"was  identified.  Mr. Raymer was not only interested in the serious side of community affairs but took an active interest in the cultural and recreational development. He was one of those who encouraged and  contributed to the Kelowna Aquatic project and the reserving of a  site for this purpose in the City Park. We read in a program dated  Saturday, March 2, 1895, "Kelowna Minstrels—Interlocutor—  Harry Raymer." It was he who built, owned and managed Kelowna's first opera house, thus providing the means of bringing entertainment to the community.  The late Rev. Alexander Dunn paid him the following tribute  —"As a pioneer he has been a familiar land-mark of the city for a  quarter of a century and has always in high and good spirit shared  its varying fortunes. As a man he was marked by many of the characteristics that we associate with a gentleman of the old school. He  was quiet and unassuming, upright and straightforward in his dealings, and so far as I know, strove to wear the white flower of a  good life.  We could wish there were many more like him."  105 History of Okanagan Telephone  Company  M. J. Conroy1  The Okanagan Telephone Company was incorporated by an Act  of Parliament (Chapter 55) dated April 25, 1907, on the petition  of Edgar Bloomfield, Richard Coupland Spinks and George Cornelius Van Home, for the purpose of constructing, equipping, maintaining and operating a telephone system throughout the County of  Yale in the Province of British Columbia.  The files of the Company give very little information regarding the operation before 1907, but it is known that telephone exchanges at Vernon, Armstrong and Enderby were being operated for  some time prior to that year. In 1910 the Company extended its  system to Salmon Arm, where a local exchange was installed and  toll line connecting Salmon Arm with Enderby, Armstrong and  Vernon was constructed.  In 1911 new central office equipment was installed in permanent exchange buildings in Vernon, Armstrong and Enderby. In the  same year the urban distribution systems at these exchanges were reconstructed and modernized.  Early in 1912 the Company purchased the Lake Shore Telephone  Company Limited with exchanges at Peachland, Summerland and  Penticton. In February of the same year the telephone system at  Kelowna was purchased from H. Millie, and a long distance line  was constructed between Vernon and Penticton. With this new line  installed the Company could now make connections between any  stations in the system between Salmon Arm and Penticton.  Before the end of 1913 modern toll line construction had been  completed in all the Company's exchanges with the exception of  Summerland. West Summerland was rapidly developing into a  thriving community, brought about by the construction of the Kettle  Valley Railroad in that district. The Company was at a loss to know  which townsite, Lower Summerland or West Summerland, would  l Superintendent of the Okanagan Telephone Company.  106 History of Okanagan Telephone Co.  develop sufficiently to warrant the ultimate location of the telephone  central office and for this reason reconstruction at Summerland was  delayed for an indefinite period, much to the displeasure of the  municipal officers who requested that the exchange be established  in the older district. This disagreement resulted in the Municipality  installing its own telephone system and the district was lost to the  Company's operation in 1914.  In 1914 the exchange at Naramata was replaced with local exchange service from Penticton. Likewise in 1919 Lumby's exchange  was replaced with local service from Vernon.  In 1921 the rates and tariffs of the Company were revised and  Schedule 13 was approved by the Provincial Government, under  Order-in-Council No. 12194 on September 29. The rates and  tariffs of the Company under this schedule were in force almost  thirty years when revised in 1950. The present rates were established in 1952.  Service connections in all exchanges were steadily increasing and  the full capacity of the Vernon switchboard was in consequence insufficient to meet the demand. In 1921 the Vernon exchange building was considerably enlarged and a new switchboard installed  changing the area from a magneto to common battery operation.  New common battery switchboards were also installed at Kelowna  and in 1927 a similar change was effected in Penticton.  In 1929 the parent company purchased Summerland Telephone  Company Limited and in the same year the Solar Telephones Limited of Revelstoke. By these purchases the exchanges at Summer-  land and Revelstoke came under the control of the Company but  the two subsidiaries retained their Corporate existences until Summerland went into voluntary liquidation on June 30, 1950, and  Solar Telephones followed suit on June 12, 1951. On these dates  Okanagan Telephone Company took over all assets of the subsidiary  companies and assumed all their liabilities.  In 1940 a new central office building was constructed in Salmon  Arm, with modern common battery equipment installed. Also, in  October, 1941, the Revelstoke system was changed from magneto  to common battery operation and complete new central office equipment installed. With these changes the conversion of the Company's  entire system to common battery was completed. After consideration  it was decided that the cost of dial equipment was not yet justified  on any portion of the system where changes were under consideration  and the whole system was therefore manually operated.  107 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  In 1947 the late Sterling Ross, one of the most competent telephone engineers in Canada, was assigned to survey our system. He  brought down a most comprehensive report wherein he recommended  installation of automatic equipment throughout the system. His recommendations were adopted by the Company and a conversion to  dial program was completed as follows:  Westbank, December 15, 1948 Winfield ...... October 4, 1951  Peachland July 12, 1949 Sicamous ...._. March 13, 1952  Armstrong July 25, 1949 Kelowna April 12, 1952  Lumby November 17, 1949 Penticton, September 13, 1952  Summerland ____ March 7, 1950 Kaleden __ December 18, 1952  Oyama October 2, 1951 Vernon   March 7, 1953  At the moment 11 of 15 exchanges are dial operated. Over  85% of the more than 17,000 Company's subscribers are served  by dial.  "It is only within recent years that David Thompson has come  into his own and received the appreciation he deserved. In 1922 a  memorial fort was opened at Windermere Lake on the site which  he had first selected for his Kootenay House."—Winifred M. Stevens in Builders of the West (Toronto, 1929), p. 203.  "The Lake," an opera based on the legend of Naaitka (Ogopogo) in the pioneer days of Mrs. Susan L. Allison, was broadcast  over CBC last March. Libretto was written by the poet Dorothy  Livesay and elaborated into a four part chamber opera by the Vancouver composer Barbara Pentland.  108 Early Telephone Subscribers  of the Okanagan  H. R. Denison  The Okanagan Telephone Company have been most helpful in  providing information regarding the early telephone systems in the  Valley, and it was from their 1911 list of Vernon subscribers that  I drafted my list of the first fifty installations. Later, I located a  1909 Valley list which enabled me to make a few corrections. However, I am doubtful about numbers 9, 18 and 21, which possibly  were originally held by W. F. Cameron (R), W. C. Martin (R),  H. W. Knight (O) or Captain Vidler (R).  1. W. R. Megaw (O)  2. M. J. O'Brian (R)  3. F. Billings (R)  4. G. A. Hankey (R)  5. G. A. Henderson (R)  6. Judge Spinks (R)  7. C. F. Costerton (R)  8. W. R. Megaw (R)  9. J. Vallance (R)  10. C.P.R. Station  11. Ed. Simmons (Constable)  12. Coldstream Hotel  13. Dr. Gerald Williams  14. Power House  15. MacKenzie & Martin  16. Jam Factory  17. Dr. C. W. Corrigan  18. Neil & Cryderman  19. City Hall  20. C.P.R. Telegraph  21. Palace Livery  22. Dr. O. Morris  23. F. Billings (O); (possibly  26. Price Ellison (Ranch)  27. Price Ellison (R)  28. C.P.R. Freight  29. R. E. Berry, Drugs (O)  30. C. B. L. Lefroy (O)  31. S. C. Smith (R)  32.  33.  34. Vernon News  35. Vernon Hardware  36. Cooper & Christian (possibly W. T. Shatford)  37. F. S. Reynolds  38. Bank of Montreal  39. C. F. Costerton (O)  40. Joe Harwood (O)  41. Jubilee Hospital  42. Victoria Hotel  43. Prov. Govt. Office  44. Hudson's Bay Co.  45. Dr. O. Morris (R)  46. W. F. Cameron Store  47. Vernon Hotel  109 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  Cochrane & Billings) 48.  Captain A. C. Carew  24. Kalamalka Hotel 49.  M. J. O'Brian (O)  25. G. A. Hankey (O) 50.  H. W. Knight (R)  The 1909 Directory gives S. A. Muir as agent for the Okanagan  Telephone Company Limited, and H. H. Millie as the proprietor  of the KELOWNA local exchange, with the following first 25  subscribers:  1.  D. Leckie (R)  14.  Lawson & Co.  2.  Dr. Gaddes (O)  15.  Dr. Boyce (O&R)  3.  Bank of Montreal  16.  Lakeview Hotel  4.  Dr. W. J. Knox (O)  17.  S. T. Elliott (R)  5.  Kelowna Land & O. Co.  18.  A. D. Burnette (R)  6.  Stirling & Pitcairn  19.  Willits & Co,  7.  Kelowna Club  20.  Collett Bros. (O)  8.  Bankhead Ranch  21.  Kelowna Saw Mill  9.  P. DuMoulin  22.  Lequime Bros. (O)  10.  C.P.R. Station  23.  11.  F. M. Buckland  24.  R. Davy (R)  12.  Crowley & Co.  25.  C. Blackwood (R)  13.  Peachland, Summerland and Penticton also had local systems,  and 1909 Directory shows the Valley exchanges to have the following number of subscribers: Vernon 175, Kelowna 115, Summer-  land 77, Penticton 40 and Peachland 14.  In 1909 Armstrong had a small local system with J. M. Wright  as agent. Enderby and Lumby were connected to the Vernon exchange for long distance calls. J. Mowat was the Enderby agent,  and E. L. Morand the agent at Lumby.  "No intelligent person will be content to live anywhere without  acquiring some knowledge of the history of his habitat: of the town  and country in which his lot is cast."—T. A. Rickard in Foreword  to Historic Backgrounds of British Columbia  (Vancouver,  1948).  no Kelowna Amusements in Early Days  G. C. Benmore  Since the turn of the century, and quite a space before, Kelowna,  along with other settlements in the Okanagan Valley, took a keen  interest and enjoyment in music, both vocal and instrumental, and  there did not seem to be any dearth of talent both instrumental and  vocal.  As far back as 1895 we find a record of the giving of a minstrel  show in the Raymer Hall (which was the theatre and concert hall  of those days) with the following cast:  SATURDAY 2nd MARCH 1895  KELOWNA MINSTRELS  COMPANY—H. Raymer, Interlocutor  END MEN—P.  A. Gallagher,  H.  C. Stillingfleet,  J. Ralston,  H. E. Barneby  CIRCLE—J. T. Davies, R. Gibbs, G. Murray, D. Bannerman,  F. Ellis, D. W. Crowley, W. Barlee, E. M. Carruthers,  R. Scadding.  H. Raymer was evidently the first interlocutor, afterwards becoming the first Mayor of Kelowna.  The Overture was played by the Kelowna Band after which  the following items:—  PART I  CHORUS COMPANY  Song and Chorus Sunny South  End Song Departed  Song and Chorus The Moon Behind the Hill  End Song I Kissed Her Under the Parlor Stairs  Song and Chorus Linger Longer Lou  End Song Johnny Get Your Gun  Song and Chorus Virginia Rosebud  End Song Dem Golden Slippers  111 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  PART II  Overture Kelowna Band  Banjo Duet Crowley and Gallagher  Character Song H. C. Stillingfleet  "See Me Dance the Polka"  A Scene from Life No performers' names given  Song J. T. Davies  Banjo Solo Dan Gallagher  Song D. W. Crowley  The whole concluding with the Roaring Farce   '  "Love in a Collar Box"  God Save the Queen.  As at the time of this array of talent there was no press in the  district, we are unable to quote any authoritative comments, yet  we can imagine the pleasure it gave to the sparse population of those  times.  In the year 1900 we find an entertainment given under the auspices of the "Kelowna Band Association" during the South African  War to raise funds on behalf of the "Absent-minded Beggar." The  first half of this programme was a concert—vocal and instrumental,  and the second portion was by the Kelowna Negro Minstrel Company.  An interesting item was a song by Rev. Thomas Greene, "Boys  of the Old Brigade," while W. D. Walker sang "The Road to  Mandalay," and H. C. Stillingfleet gave "The Soldiers of the  Queen."  From this time on for many years there was an active and capable thirty-five piece orchestra which in conjunction with the vocal  talent of the town gave a series of concerts each season, as many as  three per year.  About 1905 a company known as the I. D. K. Pierrots came  into existence and gave some first class entertainments along the  usual vocal and farcical lines recognized as Pierrot Shows.  At first there was some wonder as to the meaning of I. D. K.  Members of the cast on being questioned would reply "I don't  know," the interrogator would say "What do you mean, you are  a member, are you not, what does it mean?"   The reply was an  emphatic  "I don't  know."  ,  In the  Spring <  >f 1907  a sacred  cantata  "Queen  Esther"  was  ren-  112  - Kelowna Amusements in Early Days  dered by the combined choral and orchestral groups. It was successful  and touched off the spark which led to the production in 1908 of  Gilbert and Sullivan's "H.M.S. Pinafore," an ambitious undertaking, considering all things. However, it received great commendation both at home and in Penticton and Vernon to which neighbouring towns it was taken.  The Penticton Herald of May 2, 1908, notes editorially: "Comments upon the play, the scenery or the music are unnecessary. The  expressions heard on everv hand at the conclusion of the performance comprise sufficient comment: 'Fine', 'Good', 'Very Good',  'The acting shows finish', 'The best I have seen in Canada', 'That  Company might travel all over Canada and the United States', were  a few of the notes of appreciation."  The Kelozvna Courier of April 23, 1908, noted the performance as follows: "It is difficult to find language adequate to express  the appreciation of the splendid performance of Gilbert and Sullivan's sprightly opera given by Kelowna amateurs on Tuesday night.  It was far and away the best amateur production staged in Kelowna,  and of the professional companies that have performed here the  Roscians only are comparable for dramatic excellence, while they  may be regarded as being equalled in singing and surpassed altogether in costumes and scenic effects. The combined efforts of the  choral and. orchestral societies produced a harmonious whole and  the orchestra was at all times in happy unison with the libretto."  The performance was given in aid of the hospital.  In 1909 "The Pirates of Penzance" was successfully produced  and met with the same acclaim in Kelowna and neighbouring towns.  Production of the "Mikado" in 1910 added greatly to the fame  of the Musical and Dramatic Society and brought to light the wonderful asset the society had in their scenic artist Edgar McKie. Of  this the Courier reports:—"The rising of the curtain revealed a  beautiful stage setting, the side scenes and flies representing cherry  blossoms held highly in esteem in Japan, while the back was a most  realistic representation of a Japanese archway, the trellised walls on  either side crowned with a red tile roof. The contrast of light and  shade on the archway and doors was so cleverly brought out that it  was difficult to believe that they were the result of brushwork and  the carvings stood out as though in relief."  A humorous incident in connection with this scenery occurred  when the opera was produced in Vernon.   The manager of a tour-  113 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  ing company who were playing Vernon the following night dropped  in to see the amateurs. He appeared amazed with the scenery and  was very insistent to know where we got it from. On being told it  was the work of a local fruit grower he became annoyed. "Don't  give me that stuff," he barked, "that's no farmer's work—that man  could make a fortune in New York." He was mollified when it  was explained to him the painter was actually growing fruit at East  Kelowna having had to come out here for the sake of his health.  In addition to entertainments of various kinds by different groups  and clubs the Musical and Dramatic for quite a few years put on  an opera, amongst them Gilbert and Sullivan's "Iolanthe," "The  Gondoliers" (1922), "Yeomen of the Guard," "Patience," "Les  Cloches de Corneville," and "San Toy."  W. S. Penley's screaming farce "Charley's Aunt" was taken on  a tour of valley towns, Penticton, Summerland, Vernon, Armstrong  and Enderby, and played twice in Kelowna.  These activities cover the period 1895 to 1923. The writer  being absent from Kelowna for five years from that date must leave  the more up to date items to others.  114 Early Days at Okanagan Mission  Mrs. Robert Lambly  The Postill family came from Yorkshire, England, to Ontario,  and from there to British Columbia in 1872. The family then consisted of my father, Edward Postill, my mother and three sons,  Alfred, William and Edward. The same year, 1872, my brother  Alfred and T. McK. Lambly, who had come out with us, went to  the Okanagan Valley. They bought what was afterwards known as  the Postill Ranch from Simpson. There was at the time some sort  of a partnership agreement between them, but in the Autumn they  returned to New Westminster, and Mr. Lambly opened a book store  on Columbia Street, which he kept until 1877 when he sold out to  W. H. Keary, who is now City Clerk in New Westminster. In  1873 we moved to the ranch at the south end of Postill Lake, this  was some time in the Spring or early Summer of that year. I remember we were all packed up and ready to start and were living  for a few days at a boarding house kept by Mrs. Keary, when A. L.  Fortune arrived. He was then on his way east to bring Mrs.  Fortune out.  When we arrived at Kamloops my father became ill. B. F.  Young of Armstrong was then driving the stage between Kamloops  and Okanagan Mission. A stretcher was improvised on the stage  for my father and we continued the journey, but when we arrived  at Priest's Valley my father became worse and he died there. We  brought the body to the ranch which he owned but was destined  never to see and buried it there—a sad home-coming for us, his  children, and for our mother.  A short distance across the meadow from the railway station  on a small mound there is a small plot of enclosed land and in it  my father and two brothers, Alfred and Edward, are buried. On  the monument of dressed Aberdeen granite which stands at the head  of my father's grave the following inscription may be read:  115 Early Days at Okanagan Mission  Sacred to the  Memory of  Edward Postill  Died  April   1873  Aged 52 years.  My brother Edward died 5th December, 1889, aged 32 years,  and my brother Alfred died on the 26th September, 1897, aged  45 years.  As a girl I remember visiting the Allisons when they lived across  the Lake at Westbank and remember hearing Mrs. Allison tell of  the unidentified creature in the lake which the Indians call Naitaka.  She wrote a poem about it 53 years ago. My brother Alfred saw it  once. The Customs House at Osoyoos was burned down in 1878,  and Mr. Haynes, the Collector, the same year built his own house  on the east side of Osoyoos Lake. The lumber for his house was  cut at our saw mill on the Postill Ranch. My brother was engaged  in building the lumber into a raft to be rowed down the lake when  the Naitaka rose out of the water a short distance away.  I remember also visiting our school while it was kept by our  first teacher, Angus McKenzie. The first trustees were: William  Smithson, Frederick Brent and Joseph Christien. W. Smithson became insane in 1881 and his name was dropped from the list of  trustees and Alphonse Lefevre took his place, and curiously enough  the Secretary-Treasurer of the School Board, Joseph Christien, himself, went to school during the winter of 1876, no doubt to make  up for time wasted in his youth.  l Reprinted from OHS 3 (1929), pp. 21-22.  116 Kelowna Roman Catholic Church  History  Frank Quinn  Following the death of Father Pandosy in February 1891, the  work of the Mission was continued under Father Marchal, Superior, and Father Pierre Richard who,, the previous year, had returned  to the Mission from St. Eugene in the Kootenay district.  In 1896 Bishop Dantonville at New Westminster decided to  sell all the Mission property, retaining only the church-site and  some land around the Mission buildings. The purchaser of this  land, about 2,000 acres, known as the "Priest's Ranch," was Rev.  Father Eumelin, and at the change of ownership the priests and lay  brothers, Brother Joe and Brother Felix, who had managed the  ranch, departed from the Mission. Father Eumelin later brought  his parents and his brother and sister to live at the big ranch house,  and engaged a foreman to manage his ranch. Here he lived and  officiated as the Mission priest until 1902 when he sold the land to  Messrs. Gruell and Fascioux, and left the district.  For the next few years the Mission church was visited only  periodically by priests from Vernon, Fathers Palmer, Roy and  Garon. The population of this district was increasing, and once  again a resident priest was sent to the Mission. This was Rev.  Francis Verbeke, a native of Belgium, who arrived there November 8, 1908. Father Verbeke soon realized that Kelowna, recently  incorporated as a City, had supplanted the Mission as a business  centre, and counselled the purchase of a church-site near the new  city. The present location on Sutherland Avenue was procured.  With much faith and courage, but little financial backing, the small  congregation cleared the site of heavy timber and an attractive frame  church, sixty feet by thirty-six, was erected and opened about 1911.  In lieu of a rectory the zealous priest had a two room cabin built,  which served as his residence until 1927. The entire church property of the original foundation of Father Pandosy was disposed of  and thus ended the Mission of the Okanagan—although the name  was borrowed and given to a more recent settlement by the lakeshore.  117 The Okanagan Historical Society-—A954  For the following nineteen years Father Verbeke had charge of  the Kelowna Parish and, with horse and buggy transportation, attended the outlying district.  By 1927 Rutland had sufficient Catholic population to warrant  the building of a church there. This was served from Kelowna until  1930, when Rev. P. Jansen was appointed Parish Priest of Rutland.  Father Jansen now is in charge of Winfield.  By 1930 advancing years and the many labours of a rapidly  growing congregation compelled Father Verbeke to tender his resignation; but not before he had, by great personal sacrifice, been able  to have a suitable and well ordered Rectory built in 1927. His life  was one of sacrifice and devotion to priestly duty.  In July 1930, Rev. A. L. Mclntyre was appointed to take charge  of the Parish, which he guided with great zeal and success until  August 1931. Father Mclntyre's priestly life had been spent as a  travelling missionary, and he found the organized and established  life of Kelowna Parish too restricting, and asked the Archbishop to  grant him a return again to the mission field.  By 1931 the Okanagan was rapidly growing in importance, so  that Archbishop Duke saw fit to name Kelowna as the seat of a new  Deanery and appointed Very Rev. W. B. McKenzie—then Pastor of  Holy Rosary Cathedral—as Rural Dean of the Okanagan Valley  and Pastor of Kelowna. Father McKenzie assumed his duties at  Kelowna in October 1931. His congregation numbered one hundred and twenty-three families.  In 1933 an addition of thirty feet was added to the Church and  a large Sacristy; also central heating and a new lighting system  installed.  In 1936 an Ecclesiastical division was made and Kelowna Parish has greatly expanded under the new Diocese of Nelson. In 1938  a large Parish Hall was built, a stucco building ninety feet by forty  with full cement basement. It was no longer possible for one priest  to take care of the spiritual needs of Kelowna Parish, so the Bishop  of Nelson appointed an assistant priest, Rev. W. J. Harrison, to  Kelowna.  Negotiations had been proceeding for several years to have  teaching sisters come to the parish, and in the autumn of 1938, the  Sisters of Charity of Halifax opened a kindergarten.  This order of Nuns stemmed from a New York community  founded in 1849 by Mother Elizabeth Ann Seton and established  later in Halifax.  118 Kelowna Roman Catholic Church History  Sister Gertrude Marie (Superior), Sister Evelyn Marie and Sister  Mary Buede were a little awed by the wild and mountainous country where they alighted at McCulloch in the early morning hours,  but they will always gratefully remember the warm and hospitable  reception they were given by the Parish. Father McKenzie moved  out and gave them the Rectory for their first home.  Their initial activities consisted of catechetical instruction, social  services, music and dramatics. In 1940 they moved to a bungalow  formerly owned by George McKenzie and here they opened a kindergarten for nine children and took four pupils for music. Choir  practice was also held. The whole place was warmed by only one  wood stove—improvements and increased accommodation were badly  needed so enlargements were begun. The Sisters themselves would  sometimes help the workmen to hasten the job.  By 1940 pupils from grade one to four inclusive were accepted  and the school from that time developed rapidly. In 1946 St. Joseph's Parish Hall had to be used for grades four, five and six, while  a small house close to the Convenj: now accommodated grades one,  two and three, the kindergarten remaining in the Convent as at first.  In 1949 there were 123 pupils up to grade eight in St. Joseph's  hall and it was becoming very inconvenient as the hall was often  required for meetings and social functions, and so in 1950 a new  school was built at the back of the church and Home Economics  was added to the curriculum.  In September 1953 there were 182 pupils attending in grades  one" to eight, and thirty kindergarten children, with Mother Elizabeth Ann as Superior and music teacher. At the time of writing  (August 1954) over 200 children have registered and the building  is bursting at the seams.  In 1949 a signal honour was bestowed upon the Parish, and  upon its Pastor, in that His Holiness, Pope Pius XII had named  Father McKenzie as a Domestic Prelate with the title of "Monsignor."  The solemn ceremony of investiture in the purple robes of a  Monsignor was carried out by His Excellency Most Rev. Bishop  Johnson D.D., assisted by Rt. Rev. A. K. Mclntyre V.G. P.A. of  Rossland, B.C., in the presence of a very large gathering of the  clergy and the faithful.  Monsignor McKenzie has been very ably assisted in parish work  through the years of growth, by the Rev. Fathers Harrison, Martin,  119 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  Schreiber, Driscoll, Trainor, Maglio, and Cunningham. Not to be  forgotten is the willing cheerful help of the different parish organizations: The Knights of Columbus, The Catholic Women's League,  and the Catholic Youth Organization. He has witnessed a most  gratifying development of Catholic parish life. The growth of his  congregation from one hundred and twenty-three families (about  three hundred and fifty souls) upon his arrival in 1931, to seventeen  hundred souls in 1954, a five-fold increase, has resulted in Immaculate Conception Parish, Kelowna, becoming the largest parish  in the Diocese of Nelson.  The immediate work of the future must necessarily be the erection of a large permanent structure to replace the enlarged church  originally built in the first years of the century.  It has been suggested that such a monument would serve to mark  fittingly the centenary of the first Mass offered here by that beloved  missionary, Father Pandosy; and to mark also the fiftieth anniversary  of the coming of Father Verbeke.  I gratefully acknowledge the information given me by Monsignor McKenzie and Anthony Casorso.  St. George's Anglican Church, Enderby, B.C., in September  1953 dedicated a memorial lych gate at an impressive ceremony conducted by Bishop A. H. Sovereign, the clergy of St. George's, and  the I.O.D.E. The gate is dedicated to the memory of King  George VI.  120 Bishop Sillitoe's Osoyoos Visit  In her article on "General Sherman at Osoyoos," Mrs. R.  B. White tells of a visit to Osoyoos made by Bishop Sillitoe in  1883 (OHS. 15, pp. Hff.). The following account of an earlier  visit is taken from H. H. Gowen's Life of Bishop Sillitoe.i The  chapter title is "A Trip Into the Osoyoos Country, September-  October, 1880. (pp. 20ff.)  "The Bishop left New Westminster on September 8th by  steamer, accompanied by Mrs, Sillitoe, George the Indian, and  "Punch" of the genus Equus.  "At Hope a landing was made, and an agreement with the Indians for Antoine and five horses at $4.50 a day, and Susap and  one horse at $1.50 a day. In spite of rain the stay at Hope was  busily occupied in buying stores, paying visits, administering baptism,  and recovering strayed horses.  "On Friday the cavalcade started at 7:45 a.m., the Bishop, Mrs.  Sillitoe, George, Antoine, and Susap riding, and accompanying them  three packhorses carrying luggage. Twenty-four miles were accomplished during the day—a good distance considering the rain and  soft roads. Then came camping out. The night was cold and  frosty, and the beds hard to those inexperienced in their use. They  are made of twigs of fir or cedar, in the spreading of which the  Indians are adepts. If skilfully laid, they form a very easy, springy  bed, but woe betide the unfortunate traveller who tries to sleep on  a brush bed not scientifically spread.  "Next day, Saturday, Mrs. Sillitoe describes the journey thus—  'Our way was a narrow trail round the mountain side,  and there were some frightful places to cross. 'Punch'  jumped beautifully with me over a tree lying across the  road fully three feet in diameter. It was amusing to see  the pack-horses get over. They managed by jumping to  get their forelegs over, and were then quite at fault;  finally, with their hind legs they scrambled over like cats.'  1 The full title of this book is Church Work in British Columbia,  Being a Memoir of the Episcopate of Acton Windeyer Sillitoe, D.D.,  D.C.L., First Bishop of New Westminster, by the Rev. Herbert  H. Gowen, F.R.G.S., Author of "The Paradise of the Pacific," etc.,  etc.   (Longmans, Green, and Co., London, 1899).  121 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  "Groves of young fir trees, through which rippled beautiful  trout streams, tracts of burnt timber, forests full of grouse, and,  moreover, infested with myriads of caterpillars—then the open  country at 2 p.m. After this came the descent through a bleached  forest full of grasshoppers, and at last the halt was made at Powder  Camp, where the night's camp was made.  "On Sunday, after a hunt for the horses and a bath in the creek,  service was held in camp, and the day's rest was a welcome preparation for the toil yet to come.  "Next day for several hours a very rough country was experienced, but the labour received its recompense when the party entered  upon a beautiful open and undulating country like an English park,  with this difference, that white pines took the place of the ancestral  oaks.  In the middle a great herd of cattle was encountered.  "Similkameen came in sight during the afternoon from a high  bluff overlooking the river, and, after one hour's descent, the river  was reached, only to find the bridge broken. Camp was made on  the level plateau at 5 p.m.  "On Tuesday twenty-six miles were traversed by Five Mile  Creek, through the canyon, past Indian ranches, over the forks of  the stream to a camping-place 2200 feet above the sea. Wednesday's  experience was a similar one, ending in a breezy night, during which  the would-be sleepers could only watch the straining cords of the  tent and wait for the day. On Thursday two divides were crossed,  and the first sight was obtained of Osoyoos Lake (790 feet above  the sea). Here a welcome rest awaited the travellers, and a hearty  reception. On the following Sunday everybody in Osoyoos attended  the services.  "The Bishop observes that the soil here was apparently barren,  but with sufficient irrigation it seemed capable of producing anything.  Potatoes were seen weighing three and four pounds each, and garden  turnips twenty-seven inches round, while melons and tomatoes ripened freely in the open air.  "On Wednesday, September 22nd, Osoyoos was left behind for  Penticton, along a good trail across the mountains, with copses in the  hollows of the hills, and small lakes full of wild fowl. Rain fell  all day, and after twenty-two miles' travelling, even a bad camp,  wet, hard, and without brush as it was, proved very welcome.  "The Bishop reached Penticton on Thursday, September 23rd,  a promising settlement on low land separating Okanagan Lake from  122 Bishop Sillitoe's Osoyoos Visit  Dog Lake. The approach was through a marsh, where the horses  sank to their knees in mud. Once arrived, however, troubles were  for a while at an end, and the Indian train was dismissed and sent  back to Hope. . . ."  Abbott  Street  foot  bridge,   1907,   showing  Mill   Creek before  diversion, Kelowna.  123 Kelowna United Church History  Rev. William Stott included Kelowna in his history of "The  Presbyterian Church in North and Central Okanagan," which appeared in the first, and was reprinted in the seventeenth Report of  the Okanagan Historical Society.  Kelowna United Church history includes (I) Presbyterian and  (II) Methodist work prior to 1916; (III) Union Church 1916-  1925; and (IV) United Church 1925-.  I.—Presbyterian: Originally, Kelowna was a "point" in a  large area served by Rev. Paul Langill from Vernon, 1890-1894.  Rev. G. A. Wilson followed Rev. Mr. Langill at Vernon, 1894-  1899, and for a time had oversight of the whole territory. Kelowna  and Benvoulin united to form a student field, 1894-1897; then an  ordained field till 1912, in which year Benvoulin was separated.  J. L. Millar was the first to give student supply, serving during the  summer of 1894, by which time the population of Kelowna numbered 250. Services were held every Sunday in Kelowna school,  and at Benvoulin on alternate Sundays, the Methodist Church also  giving service. Succeeding students were: G. S. Reid 1894, Mr.  McKay 1895, J. H. Wallace and Alex Dunn 1896, A. C. Strachan  and G. Mason 1897, then Revs. R. Boyle 1898-1899, C. Foote  1903, and A. W. K. Herdman 1905-1912, in which year Benvoulin  was separated. Knox Church, Kelowna, then became an independent  charge with Rev. A. Dunn in charge till 1916.  II.—Methodist: Methodist work, too, was originally supervised  from points at north end of lake: Revs. J. P. Hicks, T. Neville.  Beginnings were at Benvoulin. Early ministers were Revs. J. P.  Hicks 1893, D. W. Scott and G. E. Smith 1895, W. E. Moody  1897, and G. E. Smith for a second term.  "Rev. George E. Smith arrived on this field as a probationer in  the early days and was the first ordained minister stationed at Kelowna. To his ability and judgement the prosperity of the church was  due. A new frame church, seating 140, was built in 1903, and a  splendid parsonage was added in 1905. The church was enlarged in  1908 during the pastorate of Rev. J. H. Wright."1  l Letter from Rev. Dr. J. H. White.  124 Kelowna United Church History  This last event was noted in The Kelowna Courier, 16 Jan.  1908: "The reopening for services of the Methodist Church, to  which an addition has been made at a cost of $1700, was celebrated  by a supper in Mr. C. Josselyn's store, and a public meeting in the  church on January 13th. Mr. Price Ellison, M.L.A., of Vernon,  occupied the chair at the public meeting. . . . To rise from a weak  mission into a self-supporting church, to give nearly $600 for mission work in other parts, and to pay for a $1700 extension, all in  eight months, was no small achievement, he declared."  III.—Union: In 1916 Kelowna became one of the first Union  charges in this province. The vote for the larger union of three  churches in Canada (Presbyterian, Methodist and Congregationalist)  had been favourable in 1912, and at the close of Rev. A. Dunn's  ministry at Knox Church, when Benvoulin was separated, the Methodist and Presbyterian congregations in Kelowna united their forces  under the leadership of Rev. E. Braden, Methodist, who remained  in charge till 1923. (From then till his death in 23 Jan. 1950, Dr.  Braden served Ryerson Church, Vancouver). Rev. A. McLurg  (Presbyterian) was called to Kelowna in 1923. Thus the Union  Church had first a Methodist, then a Presbyterian minister. The  next was to be a former Congregationalist.  IV.—United: When Mr. McLurg resigned in 1926, a call  was accepted by Rev. A. McMinn of Victoria, during whose ministry the spacious church school hall was built, and opened 13 May,  1929. Succeeding ministers have been: Revs. W. W. McPherson  1933-1943, M. W. Lees 1943-1949, E. E. Baskier 1949-1951,  and R. S. Leitch 1951-.  The old Methodist church at 1561 Pendozi was taken down  in 1947. It had been condemned some years earlier (See: Penticton  Herald, 2 8 August, 1947).  Japanese: Dr. S. S. Osterhout commenced the Kelowna Japanese mission under Methodist auspices in 1920, when K. Shimizu was  appointed student supply. It is situated at the corner of Harvey  Avenue and Water Street, and has church hall and Sunday School  room, with manse upstairs. Sunday School was begun by Rev. T.  Harano. He was followed by I. Ikemori and Revs. I. Taira and  K. Sato.  Rev. Y. Yoshioka was appointed to the field in May, 1929. In  1952 Mr. Yoshioka estimated the Japanese population in Okanagan  125 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  j  as: Vernon 500, Okanagan Centre 100, Kelowna 600, Westbank  150, West Summerland 100, and Penticton 30. During the Second  World War, after the Japanese came into it, many of the B.C. coast  Japanese were settled at Tashme, near Hope, and Mr. Yoshioka included these in his periodic rounds of visitation. Rev. J. Kabayama  was appointed to succeed Mr. Yoshioka in 1953.  126 First Baptist Church  Jeanetta Reekie  Prior to 1905 several Baptist families had settled in and around  Kelowna. Some services had been held but there had been no definite attempt at organization of a Baptist Church. However, on  November 13th, 1905, a meeting was held to discuss forming a  church. This was decided upon and a call to act as pastor was extended to Rev. H. P. Thorpe of Elgin, Manitoba. Arrangements  were made to hold church and Sunday school services in Raymers  Hall. Rev. Mr. Thorpe arrived in Kelowna January 8, 1906, and  his first service was held January 21.  On April 8, a church was duly organized and called First Baptist Church. The first deacons were: H. P. MacEwan, John E.  Reekie and George Patterson. J. B. Knowles was appointed clerk,  James S. Reekie treasurer and C. G. Clement Sunday School Superintendent.  Plans were made for procuring a building lot, and on October  10, the building committee reported that Dr. B. F. Boyce had offered  to donate a lot on the east side of Ellis Street. This offer was gratefully accepted and a short time later the adjoining lot was purchased.  The corner stone of the church was laid by Rev. P. H. MacEwan on July 23, 1907. The building was of concrete blocks made  by C. G. Clement, who also did the plastering. The masonry work  was done by George Patterson. Both these men were charter members.  The pulpit and chairs were given by Mrs. Alfred Postill in memory of her husband who had died in 1897 and was buried on their  ranch, a short distance from the present Postill railway station. The  bible for the pulpit was given by Rev. and Mrs. Thorpe. Beautiful  linen cloths for the communion table were made and given by Mrs.  Allan Wilson. All these appointments are still in use.  The church building was dedicated in 1908, (Jan. 26). It was  estimated that the building and the furnishings cost $2800. The  building was often crowded and plans were made for enlarging, but  127 The Okanagan Flistorical Society—1954  it was not until 1926 that work was begun on the brick annex.  During the years 1926-27 the church went through a troublous  time which ended by some members withdrawing from the fellowship.  Serving the church since its founding have been the following  ministers: Revs. H. P. Thorpe, D. J. Welsh, A. Bennett, R. G.  Edwards, J. S. Pirie, A. D. J. Milton, D. J. Rowland, H. P. Humphreys, D. McNabb, A. Cursons, R. Lamb, J. J. Smithson and  B. A. Wingblade.  A number of men carried on the work for short periods between  pastorates. As student pastors were Revs. C. H. Bentall, Frank Patch  and Allan Harbor.  128 Enderby Oldtimer Honoured  Fred Barnes, age 96, was made a Freeman of the City of Enderby this spring before leaving for the Maritimes where he will  live with his nephew and niece, Mr. and Mrs. C. Carter. He was  born in Baie Verte, New Brunswick, came to Winnipeg in 1879,  and to Okanagan in 1899.  A contractor, Mr. Barnes built the first mill in Enderby, installed the machinery, and later managed it for Smith & McLeod.  Enderby was incorporated as a city on March 1, 1905, with George  Bell its first mayor. Although Mr. Barnes was an opponent of incorporation, he was elected an alderman in 1906, made a police commissioner in 1918, and was mayor for 1919-1921. He was appointed Justice of the Peace by Sir Richard McBride, and held that  title for fifty years.  Playground on property Mr. Barnes donated to the city years  ago for this purpose was named Barnes Playground by Enderby  Lions last year.  At the age of 88 Mr. Barnes built a home for himself and his  sister, the late Mrs. C. Waugh, who had kept house for him since  his wife died in 1936.   Mrs, Waugh passed away last December.  Mr. Barnes paid tribute to his early colleague, Graham Rosoman,  first city clerk of Enderby, an office which he held for forty years.  Mr. Rosoman, who attended the ceremony honouring Mr. Barnes,  is now 93 years of age.   He was Enderby's first Freeman.  129 Kaleden's First Settlers  Harry Corbitt  The first two years of Kaleden's development have been recorded  only briefly in our Reports. (See OHS.13 and 15). In a letter documenting Kaleden's 'Ģfirsts' Mr. Harry Corbitt writes:  "The first house in Kaleden was built and owned by O. E. Tom-  lin, who brought his family to live there in the summer of 1909.  He also had a livery barn with a good business in teaming. The second house to be built was an attractive bungalow occupied by Frank  Harrison and family. Mr. Harrison was a great fisherman and could  be seen out on the lake in his boat from early spring to late fall.  "R. S. Conklin, of Penticton, and his son-in-law, E. J. Chambers, purchased and planted fruit lots in 1909. Both these fruit  growers took very keen interest in Penticton civic affairs. Mr. Conklin was Reeve for three years and Mr. Chambers was Reeve for four  years. He was also president and general manager of the Associated  Growers for many years.  "During the early summer of 1909, Arthur Seaman Hatfield  and family moved down from Summerland. They lived in a small  shack until their house was built in 1910. Mr. Hatfield bought a  half interest in James Ritchie's general store, took charge and acted  as timekeeper as long as construction lasted. Early in 1910 the store  was sold to D. D. Lapsley. Mr. Hatfield's parents, Captain and  Mrs. Charles Hatfield, moved from Summerland to Kaleden in  late summer of 1909. The Captain, in charge of the motor-boat  Kaleden, hauled supplies from the head of Skaha Lake, including all  the pipe used for the irrigation system.  "That winter Jim Harrison and I took a horticultural course  at Washington State College. On our return we went into partnership with Seaman Hatfield, who by then had the first post-office and  a real-estate business. Harrison and I took a contract to plant and  care for 27000 fruit trees. About a year later the partnership was  broken up. Harrison eventually went into sheep-raising. Hatfield  drove the mail-stage and in 1915 moved to Penticton. There he  started a trucking business which was the beginning of the present  130 Kaleden's First Settlers  Interior Contracting Company. I continued to look after the orchards.  "During the winter of 1909-10, we had to go down three times  a week to Okanagan Falls for our mail. As the lake was frozen over  most of the trips were made on skates. There were always plenty  of volunteers, the post-office being located in the hotel.  "In 1910 more homes were built. The new residents were J. C.  Findlay, T. C. Preston, Robert Melville, Herb Baker, N. K. Simpson and W. P. Simpson. The latter was for many years road-foreman for the Kaleden District.  "The first school was opened in January, 1910, with Miss Olga  Watson as teacher. The trustees were A. S. Hatfield as secretary,  T. C. Preston and myself.  "A comparison of transportation facilities in 1910 with those of  1953 is interesting. 1910: Several miles of pipe used for the Kaleden irrigation came from Vancouver. First, these pipes were hauled  from the foundry to the railroad cars that brought them to Okanagan Landing. They were transferred to the steamer Aberdeen,  freighted down the lake and unloaded on the C.P.R. wharf at Penticton. By team-drawn lumber wagons with racks they were hauled  to the north end of Skaha Lake and dumped on the beach. From  there a motor-boat towed them on a scow to Kaleden beach where  they were reloaded for the last time on wagons and hauled to their  destination. 1953: An order phoned to Vancouver at noon has the  pipes arriving by truck the following morning, or a large order will  reach you by train in forty-eight hours."  131 Similkameen"  Gordon Stace Smith  To-night the wind runs high, and like a clown  Among the drifting clouds the moon laughs down.  Wild are the etchings the horizons show  Of rugged firs and ragged hills of snow;  Unchanged, or almost, since the Redman's days—  If ever Redman trod these pathless ways.  Deep from my aerie yawns a dark ravine  Where seaward tumbles the wild Similkameen.  And, winter-covered, towers a mountain giant—  White in the moonlight, awe-full and defiant.  What do the birds know of this lonely sky  In the sweet Summer, in the mid-July?  Do humming-birds here build their downy nest?  What insects for the Entomologist  Play in the light or in the cool leaves hide?  What herbs and grasses grow on the hillside,  And does a world of wild flowers blush unseen? —  O, to see again in Summer's dress this calling  Similkameen!  132 In The Kootenays"  The poem "Similkameen" is taken from In the Kootenays, and  Other Verses, by Gordon Stace Smith. It was first published by the  Mitre Press, London, England, in 1930.  Our Canadian West is not without her poets. Nor do they lack  inspiration. The Spirit of the Mountains has found interpreters in  verse and prose. Life, Land and Literature are indebted to each  other.  The son of John Stace Smith and Jean Horsburg Grant, Gordon  was born in Beausejour, Manitoba, in October, 1886, and received  his elementary education in British Columbia schools. In April,  1914, he was married to Miss Elizabeth Martin. He has been a  frequent contributor to the press, verses, lyrics and nature poems  appearing under his name.  Mr. Smith's home is in Creston, B.C., but following the mining  profession, as he did for many years, he has covered the greater part  of Canada, crossed the line at many points, and visited Australia.  Life has been one long wanderfahre. His father had the same roving instinct, was one of the pioneer settlers of Salmon Arm, and  later moved to Kootenay. But wherever Gordon wandered his  thoughts were ever centred in and around his Creston home, and  the Kootenay district.  Besides a keen interest in most things, Mr. Smith has had two  hobbies—if poetry can be included as a hobby. One would hardly  suspect that the big-framed, broad-faced man who followed the  mining game was an entomologist, and a poet of a high order. It  was my privilege to accompany him on several journeys over the  Cascades in search of insect life. I was not interested in Coleoftera  as much as in the man. Out on the hills one learns to know a companion intimately.  Life is a joyous thing. The real man journeys with a swing  along life's highway.   It is full of interest.   There is always the  Perhaps the mind of the man is revealed best of all in the printed  page. His verse revolves around three themes: the joy, mystery and  couraee of life.  133 Similkameen"  wonder of what awaits around the bend. Fellow-travellers bring a  message from the past. They speak of the future. And the sun by  day, and the clouds ever-changing. Stars shine in the night sky. All  these are compensation enough for the thorns, and rough places along  the way.  There is always the wind on the heath.  Gordon never ceased to marvel at the mystery of life—the wonder of it all. The scepticisms of youth give place to wonder and  awe. These come very near to worship. The realities of life contrast strangely with our dreams, and make the poet ask "God of the  Greatness, have we angered Thee?"  Life demands courage—heart. Optimism does not refuse to  face the cold, hard facts of life. Nor does it stop at the Unknown  —here or hereafter. In "Dice and Death" life faces the uncertain,  the unknown, with quiet calm. Almost there is an echo of stoicism:  "Life I have loved you, and I love you yet. . . ." There is something of the joy, mystery and courage of life in the poem "Similkameen."—J.G.  134 Outline History of Similkameen  J. C. Goodfellow  The main strands of Similkameen history since 1846 have been  concerned with the fur trade, the search for gold, stock raising and  farming, mining, transportation and the growth of community life.  Each of these local strands has been linked with a parallel strand in  provincial or dominion history: the fur trade with the Hudson's  Bay Company; the search for gold with the Royal Engineers; stock  raising and farming with "the winning of the West"; mining with  the "making of a province"; transportation with highways, railways  and airways, and community life with the growth of national consciousness.  Before tracing these six strands, we must learn something about  the land, and about the native peoples who first called it "Similka-  meugh."  The original name has been forced into the same phonetic groove  as Tulameen by the white people of the valley in much the same  way as Kitsilaho, in Vancouver, has been made to rhyme with Capilano. Father Le Jeune, in a letter dated Kamloops, September 9,  1927, gives "Tsemel-ka-meh" as a word descriptive of the people,  or the land in which they lived. Teit gives the meaning as "Eagle  People," said to be so named because eagles were plentiful in the  valley, and their tail feathers were an item of export. Tulameen  means "red earth" but there is no sufficient authority for any of the  numerous meanings that have been assigned to the word Similkameen.  I.—A GOODLY LAND  Similkameen covers a variable area according as it refers to  provincial, or dominion electoral or mining divisions. "It includes  the country from the Okanagan Valley to the Hope Mountains, and  from the International Boundary northward for a distance of about  45 miles." In making his survey of Tulameen, Camsell selected  Princeton as his headquarters, being the most central point. He describes it as lying "in the angle formed by the junction of the Tulameen River with the south fork of the Similkameen River, and is  thirty-one and a half miles in a direction north of the International  Boundary."  135 Outline History of Similkameen  It is a land of creeks and rivers, bench lands and table lands,  rolling hills, valleys and mountains. The elevation of Princeton is  about 2111 feet. The whole district is rich in mineral deposits, and  these have been responsible for the trend of human activity since the  red man held undisputed sway.  The country is well wooded. The traveller on the trail during  the summer months is constantly delighted with the profusion of  wild flowers. Lupin and paintbrush, sunflower and fireweed give  vivid touches of colour, and from the last week in June till the  middle of July the rhododendrons are at their best on either side of  the highway just beyond where it overlooks the Skagit and Sumallo  valleys. Ernest Waterman noted the increase in bird life since gardening became popular.  There is abundance of wild-animal life in the hills and the  whole area between the Hope-Princeton Highway and the old Dewdney Trail has been set aside as a game reserve. Streams and lakes  are well-stocked with fish. Rattlesnakes are seldom found west of  Keremeos. Gordon Stace Smith, now resident in Creston, B.C., has  catalogued the insect life of the valley. Mrs. Hugh Hunter kept  complete weather records from 1901 till her death in June, 1942.  The valley is in a dry belt. The climate is invigorating. A "goodly  land" is Similkameen.  Its history since white men came to the valley may be taken as  beginning with the year 1846. In that year (June 15) the Oregon  Treaty was signed, setting the 49th parallel as the International  Boundary. In that year also Alexander Caulfield Anderson, in the  service of the Hudson's Bay Company, made a survey from Kamloops to Fort Langley, going by way of Harrison Lake, and returning by way of Hope and Nicola Lake. This date, 1846, may be  taken also as marking the beginning of the end of the red man's  dominion in Similkameen.  IL—BEFORE THE WHITE MAN CAME  The natives of the valley were a border people: that is to say,  they were a buffer tribe between the Thompsons and the Okanagans.  The main divisions of the Indians in our province are Tsimshian,  Haida, Dene, Nootkan, Kwakiutl, Kootenay and Salish. This last  group is divided into Coast and Interior. The Interior Salish have  four distinct dialects: Shuswap, Lillooet, Thompson and Okanagan.  According to Hill-Tout, the Okanagans had ten encampments. The  Similkameens were drawn partly from these, and partly from the  136 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  Thompsons, with various unrecorded intrusions from elsewhere.  The homes of the Similkameens were of two types. The summer shelter was the tipi. In winter, all resorted to the semi-underground keekwillies. Remains of these are common in the valley.  The Similkameens were not behind other Indians in their ability to  fashion implements of peace and war out of stone and other materials. Those made of bone, wood, leather and vegetable fibres were  perishable, but stone hammers and arrowheads are found frequently.  In the making of homes, the manufacture of implements and  the building of canoes, the Indians revealed considerable ingenuity.  The Indian bow was one of the masterpieces of early craftsmanship.  Indian rock paintings are common. Some are crude, some are elaborate, all are interesting. Students call them pictographs because  they are painted on rocks, whereas petroglyphs are carved in rock.  There are few petroglyphs in the southern interior of our province,  but pictographs are common, especially in Similkameen. They are  found chiefly along the old road between Princeton and Keremeos,  which followed closely the original river trail. Boulders, bluffs, rock  faces and canyons were all made to serve the painters of early days  who left a message intended for the many who would follow.  It is not possible to assign dates to these pictures. The oldest Indians believe they were made by their parents when they were young.  Ashnola Mary (Narcisse), who died May 24, 1944, aged 110 years,  said they had been there as long as she remembered. The red ochre  used for paint has a time-defying quality which helps to make dating  difficult.  There are large deposits of this red ochre in the Tulameen and  Similkameen valleys, and before the white man invaded these parts  Indians came long distances to trade for red paint. Allison Flat  was formerly known as Yak-Tulameen, or "the place where the  red earth was sold." It was the first market place in the valley.  Some of the paintings have to do with tribal rites and initiation ceremonies; some are guides for hunters, traders and travellers; others  are historical records.  Religious belief in a multitude of spirits, good and evil, explains  many of their customs. The medicine man was a real power, for  good or evil, or both. Witchcraft was practised until comparatively  recent times. Superstitions centred around the rainstone, the witch-  stone, the ghost stone, the fire stone, the leapstone, the lovestone, and  around monsters inhabiting land and lake.   The rainstone, when  137 Outline History of Similkameen  prayed to, caused rain to fall. The firestone caused smoke by day  and fire by night, and the ghoststone was a centre of votive offerings.  The lovestone, and strange monsters, were objects of local legend.  The fragments of local history that have come down to us are  insufficient to suggest the pattern of the whole. War and peace seem  to have alternated with monotonous regularity. In 1912 the late  Mrs. S. L. Allison wrote of the coming of a band of Chilcotins  "about 150 years ago." These intruders could neither defeat the  natives, nor be overcome by them. Diamond Jenness (Indians of  Canada, p. 351) records that at the end of the 18th century there  was "a small Athapaskan-speaking tribe wedged in among these five  Salishan tribes, which occupied the valley of the Nicola River and  part of the valley of Similkameen. Early in the 19th century the  Thompson River Indians absorbed it so completely that only a few  legends, and a small vocabulary of names, bear witness to its former  existence."  Mrs. J. Armstrong, of Keremeos, tells of Charlie Yakumtikum,  who died in 1930 at a ripe old age. At the time of his birth, an  Indian war was in progress. The North Okanagans were on the  warpath. They slaughtered many Indians at the south end of Okanagan Lake. These lived where Penticton is now, but the battle took  place a little to the north and west of the townsite. The North  Okanagans then determined to go west and attack the Similkameens.  These, all unsuspecting and unprepared, were surprised at Susap  Creek. Great slaughter followed. Few escaped. One fled to the  south end of Palmer Lake, gave warning that the North Okanagans  were on the warpath, and that they were fast approaching. The  Loomis went out in strength to meet the invaders. One party of the  Loomis scaled the heights around Palmer Lake, and for a time  remained concealed. The North Okanagans advanced to meet the  oncoming Loomis. Then the Loomis came down from the heights  and attacked in the rear. Again, there was great slaughter. The  invaders were wiped out, and their bodies thrown into the lake.  "Then we get even," was Yakumtikum's comment on the whole  affair. Charlie knew of all this only by hearsay. His mother was  one of the few who escaped the massacre at Susap Creek, and had  fled to give the Loomis warning. She returned to Similkameen by  way of Fairview and Princeton. Here, three weeks later, Charlie  Yakumtikum was born.  With the coming of the white man, tribal warfare died out.  138 Outline History of Similkameen  III.—WHEN FUR WAS KING  One day Dr. Gordon Wride of Hedley, and the writer, paid a  visit to Ashnola Mary, sister of the late Ashnola John, who' was one  of the colourful figures of local history. Mary was believed to be  well over a hundred years old, but we could discover no clue to her  exact age. Speaking through an interpreter, we asked if she could  remember the coming of the first white man. She had no recollection  of this, but we felt sure we were talking with one who had lived  in these parts before "modern" history began. So far as we know, the  first white men to visit the valley were connected with the fur trade.  Their reason for coming is plain; it is more difficult to trace their  explorations. The establishing of a trading post marks the beginning  of Keremeos history.  The Oregon Treaty award had been anticipated by Hudson's  Bay Company officials when they moved their headquarters from the  Columbia River to Vancouver Island in 1843. The award was announced in 1846. Thereafter it became imperative that new routes  be discovered within British territory from the northern mainland  to the coast.  The Columbia River route had to be abandoned.  This is a convenient place to insert a note anent boundary and  geological surveys. Ashnola Mary remembered well the men who  came to survey the land following the Oregon Treaty of 1846.  Lieutenant Wilson, secretary to the British Boundary Commission,  notes in his diary under date August 14, 1860, fording the Similkameen above Keremeos, and passing "the wooden cross erected over  the graves of our three men who were drowned when Haig crossed  over."  H. Bauerman, geologist to' the North American Boundary Commission, did geological work in the southern portion of Similkameen  1859-61, when the boundary line was being defined. His report was  not printed till 1884. Bauerman explored along the Hope and Pasay-  ten trails. This latter trail, between the Roche and the Ashnola rivers, long abandoned, has recently been made passable. Reference is  made to Chinamen on the Similkameen carrying on placer mining at  that time.  Dr. G. M. Dawson covered much of the same ground in 1877,  and again in 1878. This was the last work done by the Geological  Survey Department till Charles Camsell made his survey in 1906.  In 1901 W. F. Robertson, Provincial Mineralogist, examined and  reported on Princeton and Copper Mountain districts. In 1901 the  International Boundary Survey Commission commenced a topograph-  139 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  ical map of the boundary belt. Dr. R. A. Daly was Canadian geologist to this. Commission. Subsequent work is recorded by Camsell  in his reports on Hedley and Tulameen, issued in 1910 and 1913  respectively.  Before the Boundary Survey Commission commenced its work  in 1859 the Hudson's Bay Company discovered routes to the coast  within British territory. Even before this, Alexander Ross of the  Pacific (Astor) Fur Company had visited Similkameen. Early in  January, 1813, Ross left Kamloops for Fort Okanogan and made  the journey by way of Similkameen. After incredible hardships in  the dead of winter, Ross and his party descended from the high  lands on the north side of the Similkameen River, and came to the  valley at a point not far west of Keremeos. After remaining a day  at an Indian camp, getting information about the country, and procuring furs, Ross continued his journey, "following the Sa-milk-a-  meigh River, got to Oakinaken at the forks; thence we travelled  almost day and night till the 24th of January, when we reached  home again."  From Archibald McDonald's 1827 map of the Thompson River  one would gather that Similkameen was not unknown to' the early  traders. But A. C. Anderson, chief geographer for the Hudson's  Bay Company, is the first white man to explore Similkameen, who  has left records sufficiently clear to be followed today. With his  headquarters at Kamloops, he spent several years seeking the most  feasible route to the coast. His explorations covered the headwaters  of the Similkameen, Coldwater and Coquihalla rivers, and he opened  up several trails through the mountains. The one still known as the  Brigade Trail was one of two trails between Hope and Nicola.  One followed the Coquihalla and Coldwater rivers. The Brigade  Trail crossed Manson, Lodestone and Jackson mountains, and zigzagged down to Otter Valley. It was on this trail that Chief Trader  Paul Fraser met his death by a falling tree, as we learn in a letter  from Chief Trader Donald Manson to Chief Factor James Douglas, dated "Campment de Chev(reuil), 29th July, 1855." The  site of the grave on Manson Mountain was discovered by Walter  Jameson (Junior) and Harry Squakim in the fall of 1935.  These trails are in the western portion of Similkameen. Another trail, explored by Anderson, led eastward to the Okanagan.  This crosses the mountains through the Nicolum and Skagit valleys,  follows the Whipsaw to Similkameen, and continues east past Kere-  140 Outline History of Similkameen  meos. Originally, it may have been an Indian trail, and how far  Anderson followed it we do not know.  In the spring of 1860 the Hudson's Bay Company pre-empted  land at Keremeos, and Francois Deschiquette was placed in charge.  He was succeeded by Roderick McLean in 1863. McLean had been  an axeman with the Boundary Survey Commission, and by 1863-64  had completed the post erected at Keremeos. Indians assisted in  horse raising, and McLean made many journeys with packhorses  among the Indians who traded furs for goods supplied by the  Company.  When Jason O. Allard was ordered to report at Fort Sheppard  in the summer of 1866 he went from Fort Yale to Fort Hope there  to join the pack train for the interior. At Hope Allard met McLean  who was preparing the outfit of fifty mules for the long journey  to Fort Sheppard. On this occasion McLean, though stationed at  Keremeos, was to go right through. Frank Richter was at the  Similkameen post, where the Company bred horses. Furs collected  by McLean were baled, and shipped by packtrain to Fort Hope,  and thence by river boat to New Westminster, then to Victoria, and  thence to London, England. In 1866 a Mr. Tait came from the  coast to succeed McLean. He was the last factor stationed at Keremeos. He is reported to have made the trip from Hope in one day.  Before many years, the post was closed. The Company building  stood till 1914. The house belonging to the W. H. Armstrong  estate stood almost on the exact site of this vanished landmark.  IV.—THE SEARCH FOR GOLD  The search for gold begins a new chapter in Similkameen history, and brings into the picture Governor James Douglas, Richard  Clement Moody and some of his Royal Engineers. Many of the  Hudson's Bay Company employees found the search for gold more  profitable than the fur trade. Gold had been discovered in the interior of the province in the early fifties. In 1858 miners began  to arrive from the south, where the excitement of 1849 in California had died down. On their way to the Fraser diggings, or  later to Cariboo, the majority came to Victoria, then crossed over  to the mainland. Others came by the Columbia River route, following the Okanagan Lake, thence overland to the diggings. Many  who followed this latter route diverged up the Similkameen, where  gold had been discovered.  In 1858 John Fall Allison came to Victoria, and for a time  141 The Okanagan Historical Society—A 954  worked on the Fraser. The results proved disappointing. Returning to Victoria, he was asked by Governor Douglas to cross the  Hope Mountains and investigate reports of rich placer ground by  Hudson's Bay Company employees at Tulameen, then known as  the north fork of the Similkameen. Unknown to him at the time,  Allison and his Indian guide followed the south fork, and found  rich prospects at a number of points, About a mile east of the  forks he met J. McDougall and family camped on a high bench,  which they were working profitably.  The following year, 1859, Allison returned, path-finding and  prospecting. That fall there was quite a rush to Similkameen. Many  came from California, and a number of Chinamen were among  the newcomers. Rumours of Spaniards, or Mexicans, who prospected  the mountains even before this first rush, cannot be traced but should  be recorded.  Gold had been discovered at Rock Creek in October, 1859, by  Adam Beam, while travelling from Colville to Similkameen. Within a year more than 500 miners were camped on the creek. Douglas  was anxious that a trail should be pushed through from Hope to  the Rock Creek diggings by way of Similkameen. The part played  by the Royal Engineers was confined to the years 1859-61, and  consisted chiefly of exploration, road making and surveying.  The main body of Engineers arrived at Esquimalt in April,  1859. That summer Lieutenant A. R. Lempriere explored from  Hope up the Coquihalla; and in the fall (September-October)  Lieutenant H. Spencer Palmer made a notable journey from Hope,  following the whole length of the Tulameen, and continuing east  to Colville. In his report, dated November 29, 1859, he states that  the junction of the north and south Similkameen "is named Vermilion Forks, from the existence in its neighbourhood of a red clay  ochre, from which the Indians manufacture paint."  Others combined trail making and mapping with exploration.  In 1860 Sgt. McColl located a trail as far east as the Punch Bowl.  This followed (in part) the Anderson trail (The Allison or Yates  trail was to the south). Later in the year Edgar Dewdney and  Walter Moberly constructed a trail through to Rock Creek, keeping south of the Punch Bowl. In 1861 it was determined to build  a wagon road from Hope to Rock Creek. In charge of this undertaking was Captain J. M. Grant whom Judge Howay described as  "the greatest roadbuilder of them all." This road was completed  as far as 25 miles east of Hope.   A dispute arose over tolls proposed  142 Outline History of Similkameen  by Governor Douglas. Money was scarce. More promising discoveries lured miners elsewhere, with the result that roadbuilding  was stopped, and the existing trail widened. Three separate parties  worked on the trail, under Sgt. L. F. Bonson, Cpl. William Hall  and Sgt. J. Murphy.  The survey of the original site of Princeton was carried out  in October, 1860, by Sgt. McColl, R.E., under instructions from  Douglas, who visited the valley that fall. The name of Princeton  was chosen in honour of the Prince of Wales (afterwards Edward  VII, known to History as "the Peacemaker"), who had visited  Eastern Canada earlier in the year. The townsite surveyed was over  a mile east of the present village, and was on the north side of  the river, below Graveyard Creek. Until 1923 survey monuments  were still standing. Col. Moody, Captain Luard, Sgt. McColl,  Sgt. Lindsay and others worked on the survey. It must be clearly  understood that no town was ever built on the site originally surveyed. The origin and growth of the present Princeton will be  discussed in the section on community growth. The engineers named  above pre-empted land in the vicinity, and are remembered in such  place names as Moody's Prairie, and Luard's Lake.  William Robinson of Defiance Camp, 22 miles east of Hope  (across the river from the present highway, but on the old trail),  prizes an R.E. pick; and the late A. E. Raab treasured a little  sundial made by one of the Royal Engineers. Other R.E. picks  have been discovered between Hope and Defiance Camp. But the  best memorial of all to the skill and enduring work of the Royal  Engineers is the stretch of road they constructed from Hope east  in 1861.  The earliest community formed by gold-seekers was at Blackfoot on the south fork of the Similkameen (now regarded as the  main stream), about six miles southwest of the Princeton of today,  and two miles above Allenby. In 1861 the flat and its immediate  neighbourhood contained forty houses, including miners' cabins.  For many years this remained one of the ghost towns of the interior.  Then it became not even a memory. In September, 1935, the site  was relocated, and identified with Kruger's Bar. According to the  late James Jameson, iron spikes in a river boulder indicated until  recently where a bridge had crossed to the store and hotel on the  south side of the river. Theodore Kruger, who gave his name to  the place, was born in Hanover in 1829, and came to British Col-  143 The Okanagan Historical Society—A 954  umbia in 1856. Like Mr. Allison, who arrived in 1858, he tried  mining on the Fraser before coming to Similkameen. In 1866 he  moved to Osoyoos as store manager for the Hudson's Bay Company.  A larger community sprang up at Granite Creek in 1885. This  was at the mouth of the creek, where it enters the right bank of the  Tulameen, 12 miles west of Princeton. W. H. Holmes, recalling  his arrival there in 1885, tells that it was "full of life, and every  hundred feet on the river was a wooden wheel, all turning to a  different tune." The rush was started by the discovery of a gold  nugget by cowboy John Chance. Within a few months, a tent-  town covered the flat near the mouth of the creek. By the end of  October 62 companies had creek claims, averaging 300 feet each.  From July 5 to October 31 gold to the value of $90,000 was reported. In December Henry Nicholson (mining recorder) estimated the population as 600 whites and 300 Chinese. Tents were  soon replaced by log buildings. In January, 1886, G. C. Tunstall  (gold commissioner) reported forty homes, six saloons and hotels,  and seven stores. The peak production was in 1886 when gold and  platinum to the value of $193,000 was taken, chiefly from Granite  Creek. By 1900 Granite Creek was another ghost town. Hugh  Hunter, who had been appointed mining recorder in August, 1889,  was in March 1900 moved to Princeton as Government Agent.  Gold reported represented only a part of what was actually  taken. Chinese were regarded as the worst offenders in not reporting full amounts taken.  The search for gold has continued with varying success since  1886, and during the last decade there has been increased activity.  The search for gold has been an important factor in the development of the valley.  V.—STOCK RAISING, FARMING AND FRUIT  Those who settled on the land were among those who helped  to add the west to the rest of the dominion. The late Mrs. S. L.  Allison said that the early settlers were always loyal to the British  connection. Though gold lured many prospectors and adventurers,  many of whom left for other parts, ranching and farming attracted  comparatively few, but most of them remained.  John Fall Allison, pioneer settler, was born in England in  1825. His father was house surgeon in Leeds Infirmary. The  family moved to Illinois, U.S.A., in 1837. As a young man John  went overland to California in 1849, and in 1858 came to Victoria.  144 Outline History of Similkameen  On the advice of Governor Douglas, Mr. Allison explored the  Similkameen Valley, prospecting for gold, and mapping trails. He  was appointed Justice of the Peace in 1876, assistant gold commissioner in 1885, and became one of the best-known cattlemen in  the whole valley. He died in October, 1897, and was buried at  the base of Castle Rock.  Mrs. Allison was born on August 18, 1845, in Colombo, Ceylon, where her father, Stratton Moir, was a tea planter. Susan  Louisa, his youngest daughter, was sent to England for her education. Mr. Moir died, and later his widow married a Mr. Glennay.  In 1860 the family came to British Columbia, arriving in Hope  on Susan's birthday. Four years later, her sister was married to  Edgar Dewdney, and for a time Susan was the only white girl in  Hope. Here she met Mr. Allison to whom she was married in  September, 1868. Soon after they crossed the Hope Trail, and  made their home just below the forks of the Tulameen and  Similkameen rivers, a little east of Princeton. With the exception of some years in the Okanagan Valley, Mrs, Allison remained in Similkameen till 1928, when she went to Vancouver to  reside. She died on February 1, 1937, and was buried in the Allison cemetery at the base of Castle Rock, two miles east of Princeton. Her reminiscences appeared in Vancouver and Princeton newspapers. She had a keen insight into the native mind, and embodied  local history and legend in fifty,pages of verse, published under  the title of In-cow-mas-ket by the Scroll Publishing Company,  Chicago, 1900.   Stratton Moir was her pen name.  As stock raising declined towards the end of last century, farming and fruit growing grew in importance till today they are the  main stay of the lower valley, of which Keremeos and Cawston are  centres. Keremeos is said to mean "wind channel in the mountains."  The name is descriptive. The town of today lies not far from the  river, and the sage brush slopes beyond the orchard lands are often  swept by the winds that course through the valley.  The rolling, bunchgrass hills made an ideal range. The Hudson's Bay Company servants were quick to see its possibilities. There  was always a ready local market for packhorses, and a market for  cattle at the coast. Lieutenant Wilson writes in his diary, August  14, 1860: "We travelled up the much talked of valley of the  Similkameen . . . the finest part of the valley was occupied this  spring by the Hudson's Bay Company and we found a Canadian  145 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  half-breed in charge; he had some cows and a large number of  oxen so that we had a good drink of milk, a thing not to be despised  in this part of the world."  Frank Richter, after whom Richter's Pass is named, was one  of the earliest cattlemen in the valley. He came to Lower Similkameen in 1860, and settled on what was afterwards known as the  Cawston property. He sold out to Richard Lowe Cawston, from  whom the town of Cawston derives its name (OHS. 13, p. 109),  and Mrs. William H. (Ella) Lowe in 1884. Other well-known  cattlemen in early days were Frank Suprement (better known as  Surprise), Manuel Barcelo, Jack Knowles, Louis Marsel, J. Coulthard, W. J. Manery and Dan McCurdy. Cattle were wintered  on the hills, and late in summer were driven in thousands along the  trail to Hope, then shipped to New Westminster. During mining  boom days in the Kootenay country, cattle were driven there. No  cattle are driven over the Hope Trail now. Instead, thousands of  sheep are taken to graze around the summits overlooking the headwaters of Whipsaw Creek.  Stock raising still has its place in the valley, but it has long  been exceeded in importance by farming and fruit growing. The  continuation of the above quotation from Lieutenant Wilson's diary  records the beginning of farming in the Keremeos district.  "The Canadian had just gathered in his harvest; the wheat,  the first grown in the valley, looked very well, as also did the  potatoes and other vegetables."  Barcelo was a Mexican who arrived in the early sixties, and  took up the first homestead near what is now Cawston. He brought  from across the line many horses for packing. Mrs. Allison gives  him credit for establishing the first flour mill in the valley—"a  primitive affair, like a gigantic coffee mill."  When Barrington Price and Henry Nicholson arrived in 1876  they saw the need for a flour mill, and erected one on Keremeos  Creek. The building is still a landmark, though the mill has long  ceased to operate. The land on which it stood cornered on Hudson's  Bay property. Both were acquired by J. O. Coulthard, who arrived  in 1886. By the time Mr. Coulthard sold out in 1903 he had nearly  2000 acres. This included the site of Keremeos. The. original site  was at Keremeos Centre, near the Tweddle ranch. During railway construction days the present site was laid out, near the river,  and easily served by the Great Northern railway. Land settlement  was promoted, and an irrigation system installed.   The  first fruit  146 Outline History of Similkameen  cannery was started in 1907. Cawston is four miles southeast of  Keremeos, and Olalla four miles north. This last-named place  was named by W. C. McDougall, and is a centre of ranching and  prospecting.  The Keremeos Columns park, 720 acres, was set aside as a  park in August, 1931.  VI.—MINING  In a more direct way than fur trading, gold seeking or stock  raising, mining has contributed to the "making of a province."  Half a dozen communities in the valley owe their existence to  mining: Hedley and Nickel Plate to gold mining; Allenby and  Copper Mountain to copper mining; Blakeburn and Coalmont to  coal mining. Princeton has been associated with all of these—gold,  copper, coal.  Hedley is the largest settlement in Similkameen dependent on  gold mining (See: "The Nickel Plate Mine," by Harry D. Barnes,  OHS. 15 (1951), pp. 96-109). Placer mining, which began at the  mouth of Twentymile Creek in the early sixties, was soon exhausted.  The period of lode mining began in 1896. George Allison and  Jim Riordan had staked three claims for Edgar Dewdney in 1894,  and one had been recorded by J. Coulthard. These four, however,  were allowed to lapse.  Peter Scott located the Rollo in 1897, and three claims the following year. That same August (1897) Albert Jacobson and C.  Johnson (two Swedes who had been grubstaked by W. Y. Williams  of Phoenix) located two claims; and four were staked by F. I.  Wollaston and C. H. Arundel. Samples from these last claims  came to the notice of M. K. Rodgers, who represented the mining  interests of Marcus Daly of Butte, Montana. At the time, Rodgers  was on his way to the Cassiar district. He cancelled his sailing from  Victoria, and next morning started out for Similkameen. The first  samples to be assayed carried values so high that Rodgers suspected  salting. With this in mind, he returned by himself and resampled  the properties. The results were equally promising. With the bonding of the group, permanent work was started in January, 1899.  In October, 1902, a tramway was constructed, flume work undertaken, and the erection of a stamp mill and cyanide plant commenced. Milling of ore began in May, 1904. By the time that the  Nickel Plate holdings of the Daly estate were sold on August 12,  147 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  1909, to the Exploration Syndicate of New York, over two and one-  half millions in gold had been taken.  During the First World War, and again during the Depression,  operations were suspended. Since then a number of other companies  have entered the field, chief among them being the Kelowna Exploration and Hedley Mascot. Although Hedley townsite was not  laid out till 1899, when the Hackney Hotel was built, settlement  had begun in 1898 with the building of a road house. The population in 1930 was 500, and since then it has fluctuated. The town  was named for R. R. Hedley, a surveyor, and friend of Peter Scott  who located the Rollo claim in 1897.  Copper mining has employed as many men in the valley as gold  mining. Copper has been found at many points—Copper Mountain,  Kennedy Mountain, Hope Trail, etc.—but only at Copper Mountain has large scale production taken place. Allison had noted copper on the Hope Road in 1859, and later located claims in the vicinity. Kennedy Mountain was named for a prospector who passed  away in 1933. Hugh Kennedy belonged to the Robert Dick and  Thomas Edward type made famous by Samuel Smiles. His shack  was little more than a place to keep fossils and curios of every kind.  Kennedy and Hugh McDiarmid located in 1897; E. E. Burr and  L. H. Jones in 1898; and George Allison staked the Red Buck  in 1899.  Copper Mountain is ten miles south of Princeton, and is reached  by a 12-mile-long road. There is also a branch line of the Kettle  Valley Railway running south along the Similkameen to the primary crushing plant. The railway passes through the mill site at  Allenby, 5.5 miles south of Princeton, and continues 7.7 miles to  the base of Copper Mountain.  The discovery of Copper Mountain ore goes back to 1888, according to the story told by James Jameson, Senior. One day he  and his father were out hunting. Presently a deer presented a target,  and both father and son fired. As they approached the place where  their prize lay, the deer jumped to its feet, bounded into the woods,  and was not seen again. While the son was lamenting this misfortune the father interested himself in some outcroppings of copper which revealed themselves just where the deer had fallen.  Jamson made known his discovery to R. A. Brown, who came in  periodically to buy furs. He staked the Sunset in 1895. Between  that date and 1900 a great many claims were staked during a mild  prospecting   boom.    Emil  Voight's   camp   was   located   1898-99.  148 Outline History of Similkameen  Thereafter little work was done till 1905, when the B.C. Copper  took options on a number of claims, including the Sunset, and diamond drill work was done. The results were not encouraging, the  low-grade ore being too highly siliceous to be smelted direct, and  unresponsive to water concentration.  The B.C. Copper Company returned to the Mountain in 1911,  and in 1913 started to develop the Sunset and Princess camps. Ore  treatment difficulties had been solved by the discovery of a new  process. The railway branch line from Princeton was surveyed by  Pardoe Wilson in 1914, and railway construction commenced two  years later. A power contract was arranged with the West Kootenay  Power Company in 1916. The expense entailed necessitated the  formation of a new company, the Canada Copper Company.  Progress was retarded through labour troubles, and the shipping  of ore to the mill did not begin till October 18, 1920. Then the  war price of copper dropped to 13 cents, and the mill was closed  on December 9, 1920.  The Allenby Copper Company was incorporated in 1923, and  work was continued till the end of the year. In 1925 it was taken  over by The Granby Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co., Ltd.,  and with the rise in copper prices Copper Mountain was a thriving  community till the fall of 1930. Once again the falling price of  copper made necessary suspension of operations. They were not  resumed till the winter of 1936, when A. S. Baillie became superintendent, and afterwards president of the company. To his vision,  courage and ability was due the reopening of the mine, and its successful development. The site for the power plant at Princeton was  acquired in December, 1936. Excavation commenced on January  2, 1937, was serving power by April, 1937, and fully completed  by July, 1938. On March 1, 1951, L. T. Postle succeeded Mr.  Baillie as general manager, and since then the increase of machinery  for strip-mining has made possible greater production with fewer  men. The price of copper remains high. Since 1925 the prosperity  of the valley has reflected the rise and fall of copper prices.  Coal is sometimes referred to as "black diamonds," and platinum as "white gold." In 1858 J. F. Allison had discovered coal  on the right bank of the Similkameen just above the forks. This  outcropping attracted early settlers who mined their own coal, and  hauled it over the ice on sleighs to their homes. Princeton and  Coalmont became the two centres of coal mining in Similkameen.  Princeton coal area covers 24 square miles.   The seam near the  149 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  forks proved to be 24 feet thick, and was the first to be developed  in the area. In October, 1897, the Vermilion Forks Mining & Development Company located four square miles, which included the  site of Princeton, which site was then a ranch owned by S. D.  Sands, later son-in-law of J. F. Allison. The following spring this  company began developing the coal seam. In the absence of rail  facilities large scale development was not possible, but from 1898-  1910 local demand and that of Hedley were supplied.  With the coming of the Great Northern railway in 1910 the  company resolved itself into the Princeton Coal and Lands Company, which continued operations till' 1923. By this time the daily  output was 200 tons, and 120 men were employed. The mine was  taken over by the Princeton, B.C. Collieries Ltd., in 1923, but had  to be abandoned a year afterwards, internal fires making operational  costs too high. Since then it has belonged to the Princeton Properties Ltd.  Many companies have operated in various parts of the valley  since then. The Tulameen Valley Coal Company began in 1924,  and continued for ten years. C. Hunter and B. Bowen located this  seam. They trucked coal into Princeton, and thus secured money  for further development work. By the end of 1924 they had sold  1075 tons.   After 1927 the output was 200 tons daily.  The Lynden Coal Mines Ltd. (at Nine Mile) began in 1927,  Pleasant Valley (W. R. Wilson) in 1928, and Black Diamond  in 1935.  Present operating mines are Tulameen Collieries and Taylor  Burson Coal Company. Mining on a small scale has been resumed  this year at Blakeburn.  Twelve miles northwest of Princeton is Coalmont, which had  a population of 250 in 1930. Today it is considerably less. It was  the railway "port" for Blakeburn. Coal had been discovered in  Collins' Gulch by W. A. Davis in 1894, and by Bonthrong in  1909. Prospecting was continued by the Columbia Coal and Coke  Company, 1910-12; and by the McAvoy Trust Company 1913-15.  The Coalmont Collieries took charge in 1917. Transportation of  coal from Blakeburn to Coalmont was by team, then truck, till  aerial tramway was installed in the fall of 1920. The Great Northern railway arrived at Coalmont in 1911. Coalmont was so  named because of the belief that there was a mountain of coal  which could be stripped, and operated by steam shovels.   Blakeburn  150 Outline History of Similkameen  was named for W. J. Blake Wilson and P. Burns, two company  directors.  The worst mining disaster in Similkameen, and one of the worst  in the province, happened at Blakeburn, on Wednesday, August 13,  1930, when 45 miners lost their lives following an explosion at  No. 4 mine. This was the beginning of the end of coal mining  at Blakeburn.  VII.—TRANSPORTATION  The development of any country is largely a matter of transportation. This has always been, and continues to be, one of Sim-  ilkameen's problems. A progressive survey is indicated by the five  headings—waterways,  pathways,  highways,   railways and airways.  The Similkameen is of little value for transport. Even the  Indians did not trust themselves to frail canoes: they preferred the  sturdy dugouts. When Douglas arrived at Keremeos on September  21, 1860, he "decided that supplies . . . could be taken down the  Similkameen River by boat. By this route supplies of English goods  might be brought into the country." The wish must have been  father to the thought. The truth is that neither in 1860, nor at  any time since, has the river been suitable for this purpose. It is  difficult to understand Douglas's "decisions."  The earliest pathways were deer trails and Indian trails. Wherever they could, the fur traders and gold seekers made use of these.  In addition, they blazed many new trails. Many of these have already been noted.  "Highways" is the title of an unfinished chapter in local history.  The earliest road from east to west was made by Richter for the  purpose of bringing in lumber. In stage coach days, until 1900, the  road to Princeton from Nicola branched off at Aspen Grove (then  known as Dodd's), and followed round by Otter Flat to Granite  Creek. The Royal Engineers in 1861 constructed 25 miles of road  from Hope in the direction of Princeton. This is now included in  the Hope-Princeton highway. If we take Princeton as a centre the  present Similkameen roads are like the fingers on an outstretched  hand: west to Hope and Fraser Valley; northwest to Coalmont,  Tulameen and Brookmere; north to Merritt and Kamloops; northeast to Osprey Lake and Peachland; and east to Hedley, Keremeos  and Penticton (OHS. 13, p. 51).  The road to Peachland by way of Osprey Lake is marked on  McDonald's map  (1827) as "Indian Road."   This road was re-  151  fENT/CTON HIGH SCHOOL LIBRARy The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  opened by J. F. Allison in 1874. On May 28, 1931, F. M. Buck-  land and party drove the first car over this road (OHS. 13, pp. 45-  50). It is still in a primitive condition most of the way. The road  to Nickel Plate, winding up hill from near Chuchuawa (a few  miles east of Hedley) was opened on May 24, 1937. Before then  the only road was from a point on Green Mountain Road to the  mine. The Hope-Princeton highway was officially opened on  November 2, 1949.  Mrs. P. Bird (formerly Miss Jessie Ewart) has contributed an  interesting chapter on local history during stage coach days, when  in 1907 W. E. Welby advertised "A beautiful drive over the best  of roads. Fast stock, and the best of drivers." Stopping places and  road houses between Jim Wallace's hotel and the Jackson House in  Princeton, and the old Penticton Hotel, were Goldsbury's, the Hackney House at Hedley, Bradshaw's, the Kirby Hotel at Keremeos,  and Clark's at Green Mountain (OHS.7, pp. 21-24).  In recent years the iron horse has displaced old dobbin, and the  Greyhound has taken the place of the stage coach. A number of  surveys had been made long before railway construction was begun  by the Great Northern and Canadian Pacific railways. There was  considerable rivalry between these two companies, The local section  of the Great Northern was dubbed the "Jimhillkameen." It was, of  course, part of the route which James Hill had planned from Spokane, Washington, to Vancouver, B.C. This would have given his  transcontinental line three western forks: one down the Columbia  to Portland, one almost due west to Seattle, and the third northwest to Vancouver, B.C. In building branch lines north into Canadian territory he may have anticipated the Canadian Pacific Railway  Company building south, and tapping trade in Washington.  The section under review was built by the Victoria, Vancouver  & Eastern Railway and Navigation Company, a subsidiary of the  Great Northern. From Keremeos to Princeton (41 miles) was completed in 1909, and commenced operating on December 23rd of  that year. During 1910 the line was extended to Coalmont and  Tulameen. Grading from Princeton to Tulameen was under way  in 1911, and in the fall track was laid between Princeton and Coalmont. This section, however, was not placed in operation till  May 1, 1912.  After various arrangements had been made with the Great  Northern, the Canadian Pacific Railway commenced construction  152 Outline History of Similkameen  of the Kettle Valley railway in 1914. Track laying was completed  by April 21, 1915, and on Friday, April 23, Mrs. Griffiths, wife of  Rev. G. D. Griffiths, had the honour of driving in the last spike.  Regular service was begun on May 31, 1915. The Penticton  Herald issued a special, twenty page edition marking the event.  With the resumption of operations at Copper Mountain late in  1936, and the opening of the Hope-Princeton on November 2, 1949,  Greyhound stages began operating, and linking valley towns with  points east and west.  Regular airway service is not yet an accomplished fact, but  Princeton has an emergency field, and sufficient progress has been  made to remind one of Teit's description of Similkameen as the  "valley of eagle people." First planes appeared here in 1929. The  airport was begun in December, 1932, and completed in May, 1933.  Beacon towers were erected in 1937. Weather reports are broadcast  daily, and T.C.A. planes cross the valley on flights east and west.  Diesel units have replaced the steam engine on the Kettle Valley  railway. Motels, camping grounds and picnic grounds along modern  highways have helped to multiply tourist traffic. The railway train,  the aeroplane and the automobile are all at the service of the travelling public.  VIIL—COMMUNITIES  Notice has already been taken of most of the communities in  the valley. In this last section we confine ourselves to "phantom"  cities (cities which never were, as compared with ghost towns, which  have been but are not), and to the origin and growth of Princeton.  The phantom cities are Allison, Ashnola, Similkameen and  East Princeton. The Ashnola townsite was surveyed in 1905 by D.  R. Young, who organized the Similkameen Valley Coal Company.  In 1900 Similkameen City was widely advertised as "the mining  and commercial centre of the whole Similkameen." It was promoted by Frank Bailey. His dream was not realized. Instead, there  grew up the town of Hedley. Allison townsite was sponsored by  Edgar Dewdney, but the town at the forks (Princeton) continued  to grow in spite of this rival.  People used to smile when they learned that the little church  at East Princeton (which was sold and taken down during World  War II) was on the corner of "Seventh Avenue and Portland  Street." The church (Methodist) was built in 1912 and designed  as the religious centre of a town  which  was to grow  around a  153 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  cement factory. A huge plant was actually built. It brought nothing  but grief to speculators.  The town of Princeton began in 1897, when the site was secured from S. D. Sands by the Vermilion Forks Mining and Development Company. Sands had already had a few lots surveyed by  R. H. Lee near the Tulameen bridge, and this was the nucleus from  which the present town has grown. With the surveying of a larger  area between the forks there was in 1897 a mild real estate flurry.  The first hotels were built in 1898 by Jim Wallace and John Henry  Jackson. By 1900 there were, in addition, two livery stables, two  butcher shops, two blacksmith shops, two laundries, three sawmills,  a restaurant, assay and Government offices, real estate and survey  offices. Besides visiting ministers, there was a doctor, a lawyer, a  newspaper, and a growing number of homes. In 1930 the population was 1000. The 1951 census figure was 2200. Population today  is estimated to be over 2500.  On Saturday, April 28, 1951, by a large majority, Princeton  voted for incorporation. First commissioners for the village were:  Isaac Plecash, Winston Pilling, George Gurr, Albert Bloom and  Jim Berryman. That fall Similkameen was visited by His Honour,  Clarence Wallace, Lieutenant-Governor of the province. With the  coming of trade winds, Princeton has taken its place as the centre  of Similkameen, and one of the busiest towns of the interior of  British Columbia.  Modern Junior and High schools have been built. Three  churches serve the religious needs of the population. The latest  store to be built is the Overwaitea. A new building for the Princeton branch of The Canadian Bank of Commerce is being erected  on Bridge Street. Land has been purchased for new Post Office.  The Capitol Theatre is being widened and remodelled to accommodate the latest type of moving pictures. The Princeton Hotel  has been enlarged, and there are half a dozen automobile garages  and repair shops. Village roads have been hard-surfaced, and many  of them now have concrete sidewalks. The Princeton of today is  a modern, thriving community.  The actual date of incorporation was September 11, 1951. Mr.  Plecash was elected first chairman of the village commission, an  office which he still holds. At the first meeting of the interim board,  on September 24, 1951, Mrs. Elizabeth Smith was appointed village clerk, treasurer and assessor. The interim commissioners were  confirmed in office by the December, 1951, election.  154 Outline History of Similkameen  With the coming of the railways and Diesel-drawn trains, the  automobile and the Greyhound, aeroplanes, telephones and radios,  there is no longer the feeling of isolation which many felt here  before the Great Wars. The prospector in his cabin on the hills has  his radio, and is in touch with the outside world. Similkameen has  become a part of Canada in more than a geographical or political  sense, and a long history focusses itself in Princeton. The people  of the valley look forward to greater things to be. At the same  time, they do not forget those who have contributed to what we  enjoy today—the Native peoples, fur traders, Royal Engineers, prospectors, miners, farmers, ranchers, merchants, lawyers, doctors,  school teachers and missionaries.  155 Recent Books Mentioning  Okanagan  Soil Survey of the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys British  Columbia by C. C. Kelley and R. H. Spilsbury. Report No. 3 of  British Columbia Survey, issued by the British Columbia Department  of Agriculture in co-operation with Experimental Farms Service,  Dominion Department of Agriculture (Ottawa, 1949).  The introduction to this well-documented, scholarly survey tells  that "Taken as a whole, the Okanagan district is noteworthy for the  diversity of its natural resources. The northern section produces  grain, dairy products, pork, poultry, and vegetables, together with  some fruit. In the south, a great variety of fruits and vegetables are  grown in addition to dairy products for local use, and the variation  of climate promotes a north and south movement of food supplies  for local consumption at different seasons of the year.  "In the surrounding mountain region are grazing areas for cattle and sheep, with the valley as the base for winter feeding. This  resource partly supplies the Okanagan district with beef and mutton.  The mountain district is also the catchment basin from which the  irrigation and domestic water is obtained. At elevations up to 6,000  feet, the water from melting snow is stored in dammed lakes and  meadows for use during the growing season. . . .  "Most of the mountain area is covered with timber, now being  exploited for wood products and fuel. With conservation, this resource is extensive enough to ensure a continuous supply. . . .  "The soil map is published in 4 sheets covering the Okanagan  Valley, together with a few side valleys and the southern part of  the Similkameen Valley. The maps show the location and extent of  the different soil types and their average surface textures. The soils  located on the maps are differentiated by symbols and colours which  are explained in the legend."  History and development of the area begins with the "fur traders  who made their way into the region from the south in 1811." (p.  16). The book is well-illustrated, amply supplied with charts and  diagrams, and has a list of references on page 88.  156 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  The Story of Osoyoos, September 1811 to December 1952 by  Geo. J. Fraser (The Penticton Herald, 1953).  In his Foreword Mr. Fraser tells us that "This story of the  early days in Osoyoos, together with a history of more recent events  is dedicated to the citizens of Osoyoos, its primary object being to  provide a dependable record of past events and to present a fair picture of life as enjoyed or endured by that small group of unforgettable pioneers who for many years shared, with Indians only, life  in this favored sun-kissed valley."  Mr. Fraser first saw Osoyoos in 1910, and has lived through, and  taken part in, much of the story he records. In compiling this record he acknowledges generous assistance from the Provincial Archives, the Okanagan Historical Society Reports, and a number of  oldtimers: Mrs. R. B. White, Val C. and W. B. Haynes, Theodore  "Babe" Kruger and Mrs. E. Lacey, senior.  The book is divided into five parts: Fur Trading era 1811-1861;  Ranching era 1861-1920; era of evolution of ranching to horticulture; Osoyoos village 1920 to 1952; and incidents pertinent to  Osoyoos and district. Within these divisions Mr. Fraser chronicles  an amazing amount of history.  Mr. Fraser has an interesting chapter on Rev. Henry Irwin, better known as "Father Pat," and thinks it surprising "that the great  story of his life and work has not been recorded by some admiring  parishioner." As a matter of fact this was done by Mrs. Jerome  Mercier in Father Pat, A Hero of the Far West, published in England in 1911.  In recording the story of Osoyoos and district Mr. Fraser has  rendered a real service to all who are interested in the history of  our province.  Gazetteer of Canada: BRITISH COLUMBIA, published by  authority of the Canadian Board on Geographical Names; manuscript prepared by the Department of Lands and Forests, British  Columbia. Pp. 641, price $1.00 (Ottawa, 1953).  The Geographical Gazetteer of British Columbia, 1930, published by the Department of Lands, Victoria, B.C., has been the  authority on provincial place names for over twenty years. It had  291 pages. The new Gazetteer has 641 pages, but the increased size  of type accounts for the difference in number of pages. It is one  of a series being issued by the Dominion Government.  157 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  W. E. Ireland, Provincial Librarian, contributes an introduction  on provincial history and development, in which he writes:  Indian place-names are one of the precious heritages  of our province.  Not only are they usually pleasantly musical (although admittedly there are some that cannot be so  described), but invariably they describe with peculiar aptness the geographic feature to which they are applied.   For  example Osoyoos, or "Soyoos" as it was originally called,  is derived from an Indian term meaning "where the two  lakes come together," surely a perfect description of the  narrows formed by the headlands which almost cut the  lake in two.   Hundreds of similarly appropriate names are  to be found on the maps of our province, (p. ix).  The area of Okanagan Lake is given as 136, and Shuswap Lake  123 square miles.    Populations  (Ninth Census of Canada   1951)  of Okanagan cities are: Armstrong  1126, Enderby 877, Kelowna  8517, Penticton 10,548, Salmon Arm 1201, Vernon 7822; villages:  Oliver  1000,  Osoyoos  899.   Population of Princeton, not incorporated at time of 1951 census, is estimated at 2200.   Populations  of Districts are: Salmon Arm 2389, Spallumcheen 1936, Summer-  land 3569.  158 In Memoriam  //  After every engagement in warfare the roll is called. The names  of those who do not answer are "writ in remembrance." Those who  survive determine to keep faith with those for whom the trumpets  sounded, and silently dedicate themselves to the unfinished tasks for  which men live, and die. So it is in the Christian warfare. A number of our pioneers have heard the Master's "Well done," and  entered into their rest and reward. We hold their names in grateful  remembrance, and give God thanks for their testimony among us.  JAMES WILLIAM JONES: Mr. Jones died in Victoria on May  2, 1954. He is remembered as the originator of payroll deductions  of income tax. In the provincial parliament he was minister of  finance and industry from 1930 to 1933.  Mr. Jones was born in Ontario in 1869, received his early education at Uxbridge and Port Perry, and came to British Columbia,  and settled in Kelowna, and in 1912 to 1917 was elected mayor.  He is survived by his wife and three daughters.  J. W. B. (JIM) BROWNE: The founder of the first commercial  radio station in Okanagan Valley, Mr. Browne died last May in his  seventieth year. He founded CKOV in 1931. He was born at  Stoke-on-Trent, England. At an early age he served in the Boer  war and was invalided home.  Later, he served in Hong Kong.  In 1925-27, during a severe illness, he became interested in radio  and served as program organizer for the amateur station IOAY, operated by Kelowna City Clerk George Dunn. In 1931 Mr. Dunn  relinquished his amateur licence, making it possible for CKOV to  come into being.  NAPOLEON BESSETTE, 83, who used to boast that he was the  first man to swing an axe in Lumby, died last August, after 5 5 years  residence in Lumby. Born in Ruxton Pond, N.B., Mr. Bessette  came west in 1899. He travelled as far as Sicamous by train, then  continued by horse and cart to White Valley, now known as Lumby.  In 1900 he married Josephine LeBlanc, who came from St. Anicet,  Quebec.  159 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  With his sons, Cleophas and Arthur, Mr. Bessette operated sawmills for many years, and moved to Kamloops in 1942. He is survived by his wife, two sons and five daughters.  DAVID JOHN INNIS, of Keremeos, died in January of this year.  He was born in Cobden, Ontario, in 1876; came to Crowsnest, B.C.,  in 1898, and moved to the "old town" of Keremeos in 1900. With  the coming of the Great Northern railway, Mr. Innis, in 1906,  moved his livery and freight business to the present town. That same  year (1906) Mr. Innis married Miss Winifred May Clarke, whose  parents, Mr. and Mrs. Gerald Clarke, ranched on the Green Mountain road. With the coming of the automobile, Mr. Innis operated  a garage, and represented the Shell Oil Company. He was active in  community service, and with his passing Keremeos lost one of its  most-respected citizens.  MRS. S. ELLISON: Mrs. Ellison would have been 97 in August,  1954: she died in July. She was one of the earliest settlers in Okanagan, and the woman who gave Vernon its name. Mrs. Ellison was  the widow of the Hon. Price Ellison, one of B.C.'s early cabinet  members, who died in 1932.  Born in Peoria, Illinois, August 28, 1857, she came to Okanagan in 1884, and was first school teacher in Vernon district. In  December of that year she was married to Price Ellison. She is survived by four sons and three daughters.  R. L. (DICK) CAWSTON: Richard Lowe Cawston was one of  four sons born to pioneer parents in Lower Similkameen. The eldest, John Pearson, who died in 1936, was the first white child born  in Keremeos. The third, George Beauchamp, lost his life in World  War One. The fourth, Alfred Hamilton ("Gint"), lives at Cawston. The sons did not know that they were pioneering: they simply  grew up in a land they loved, and learned all the lore of the valley  in which they lived. In the family home they were brought up in  the best traditions of the Old Land, whence their grandparents had  come.   Their parents came here from Ontario.  Dick grew up on the ranch, and except for a few school years  in Ontario, spent his life in Similkameen and Okanagan valleys.  Both Mr. and Mrs. R. L. Cawston took a lively interest in the work  of the Okanagan Historical Society, and were among its most valued  160 In Memoriam  members. Mrs. Cawston continues her active interest in the work  Besides his widow, and one brother, Mr. Cawston is survived by a  son, Richard, at Hope; and a daughter, Marjorie May, in Australia.  Mr. Cawston died in Penticton in March.  JOHN E. JAMIESON: Mr. Jamieson, who passed away on July  14, in his 75th year, was vice-president of the Armstrong branch of  the Okanagan Historical Society. He was one of the best-known  weekly newspaper men in the province. A native of Scotland, he  was born at New Deer, Aberdeenshire, in 1879. He was only four  years old when his parents came to Canada, living first at Iroquois,  Ontario, and afterwards at Brandon, Manitoba.  Following the printing trade, Mr. Jamieson published several  papers in prairie towns before coming to Armstrong in 1927 as editor of the Armstrong Advertiser. A man of many interests, he was  active in community, lodge and church circles. He is survived by his  wife, and three sons.  JOHN URE: Following a heart attack, Mr. Ure died in Penticton hospital on July 12, 1954. Born in Scotland, he came to* Canada  34 years ago. He was a well-known orchardist and cattleman, and  lived at Kaleden for thirty years.  ALFRED E. ALLISON: Although the townsite of Princeton had  been surveyed by the Royal Engineers in September, 1860, there was  really no Princeton when Alfred Edward Allison was born in Similkameen on May 28, 1883. With others of the family he grew up  on the farm, and learned to know the ways of the land, and the  secrets of Nature. As a young man he was employed by the B.C.  Forestry Service. He served overseas in the First World War, and  was severely wounded. He was the last surviving son of the pioneer  family of Similkameen.  161 Parent Society and Branch Reports  The 1954 annual meeting of the Okanagan Historical Society  was held in Kelowna on June 2, with President J. B. Knowles in  the chair. The most urgent item of business was the resignation of  Dr. M. A. Ormsby as editor of the Society's Reports. This had been  received with deep regret at a Directors' meeting on April 21. Dr.  Ormsby had been Editor-in-chief since the Society was reorganized  following the death of Leonard Norris on April 18, 1945. Mr.  Norris founded the Society on September 4, 1925. "He loved this  Okanagan, and was its fond Historian." The first Report edited by  Dr. Ormsby was OHS. 12 (1948). It had 224 pages and was printed  by the Penticton Herald. Perhaps the outstanding article in this Report was "Okanagan Place Names, their Origin and Meaning," by  the late A. G. Harvey. In 1947 Mr. Harvey published Douglas of  the Fir, A Biography of David Douglas, Botanist, a book which is  regarded as the definitive Life of the great explorer. Our province  suffered a great loss when Mr. Harvey died on January 12, 1950.  The next five Reports were also edited by Dr. Ormsby, then  pressure of other duties compelled her to offer her resignation. The  wording of her letter made it clear that she had not arrived at this  decision lightly, and the Directors felt that they had no alternative  but to accept with deep regret. During the years she held this office  branch societies of the parent body came into being, membership increased, the high standard of the 1948 Report was maintained, and  circulation rose to around 600 copies. Mrs. R. L. Cawston of Penticton acted, and continues to act, as assistant editor. She has been  responsible for many articles, and for the Report index, which has  added so much to the value of each volume.  Although it was a labour of love, Dr. Ormsby's work was not  taken for granted, and at their April meeting the Directors determined to show their appreciation in some way. It was decided to  present specially bound copies of the six Reports Dr. Ormsby had  edited, also to recommend to the general membership that she be  made a Life Member of the Society.  It had been hoped to present these bound volumes at the annual  meeting, but Dr. Ormsby was attending in Winnipeg a meeting of  162 Parent Society and BrancJi Reports  the Canadian Historical Association, of which she is a director. But  at the banquet which followed the annual meeting the presentation  was made to her mother on behalf of her daughter. The suggestion  that Dr. Ormsby be made a Life Member found ready acceptance.  This was moved and seconded by Don Whitham of Kelowna and  G. Bagnall of Vernon, and unanimously carried by a standing vote.  In his presidential report Mr. Knowles made reference to increasing interest in historical matters, and paid a fitting tribute to all  who had worked with him during the year in the interests of the  Society. Special reference was made to The Story of Osoyoos, published by George J. Fraser.  W. R. Pepper, Vernon, distributed copies of the treasurer's report, which showed cash in bank, and number of Reports on hand.  The thanks of the Society was tendered to Mr. Pepper for his lucid  report; also to H. R. Denison, Vernon, for his work as treasurer in  former years.  Speaking for "Publications" Mrs, Georgina Maisonville said:  "The 18th Report is now in preparation and it is hoped that it will  be published early this fall. It will consist of articles from the Third  Report, and material largely about Kelowna. This next year will  mark not only the thirtieth year of the founding of this Society, but  also the fiftieth year of the incorporation of Kelowna. . . ."  Branches  Mr. Wilson was not present to speak for Armstrong, but it was  reported that the branch there is well-established, and making sure,  if not rapid, progress.  R. C. Gore, president of Kelowna branch, had good progress  to report. A successful annual dinner had been held by the group,  they had a "live" editorial committee, and efforts were being continued to have preserved the old Mission sites.  Speaking for Penticton, J. Harris said the branch was greatly  honoured when the parent Society held its annual meeting on board  the S.S. Sicamous there in 1953. During Penticton Peach Festival  efforts were made to provide a meeting place for Oldtimers. A history of Penticton and district had been supplied at the request of  City Council; and R. N. Atkinson had prepared a similar sketch for  the Ladies' Auxiliary to the Canadian Legion to appear in booklet to  be presented those attending convention. A general meeting had been  addressed by D. A. McGregor, past president of the B.C.H.A., his  subject being "Peter Skene Ogden, Hunter, Trapper and Explorer."  163 The Okanagan Historical Society-—195 4  The resignation of Miss Kathleen Ellis as secretary of the branch  had been accepted with regret.  On December 1, 1953, the Oliver-Osoyoos branch held its  annual meeting in Lakeview Cafe, Osoyoos. F. L. Goodman presided. There were 28 present. Officers were elected for ensuing  year. Local membership was set at fifty cents. Addresses had been  given by Mrs. R. B. White, A. S. Hatfield and Babe Kruger; and  during the year papers were read by N. V. Simpson on "The first  white men in the Okanagan Valley," and by Mrs. Lacey on "The  Hudson's Bay Trail."  G. Bagnall spoke en behalf of the Vernon branch. He thought  it was still difficult to get the branch to function as he would like.  Business  An important resolution was submitted by J. G. Harris and Mrs.  White, Penticton: "Whereas historic sites are fast becoming lost to  our knowledge, be it resolved: that each branch of the O.H.S. be  responsible for the marking of at least one historic site each year,  in the vicinity of the said branch." This drew much favourable comment, and was adopted unanimously.  Following the lead given in a letter from Dr. M. A. Ormsby,  it was agreed that we affiliate with the B.C. and Canadian historical  associations.  Mrs. Bennett referred to plan to mark site of the Tom Ellis  home in Penticton.  Mr. Bagnall of Vernon noted that streets there had been numbered; but he felt that in some cases a plaque should indicate former  name, so that names of pioneers would be remembered.  H. C. S. Collett intimated that site of original Mission buildings  near Kelowna had changed hands: he was hopeful that something  could be done to preserve the original buildings. Mrs, Walker said  that Kelowna Roman Catholic church included the nucleus of the  original Mission church building. Mrs. R. B. White made fitting  reference to the death of Mrs. Alfred Postill, who was 89 years old.  Election of Officers  Officers for 1954-55 were then elected, and list is found on inside, front cover-page.  The secretary agreed to act as editor for the  1954 Report, No. 18.  164 Parent Society and Branch Reports  Annual Banquet  There was a large attendance at the banquet in the Royal Anne  Hotel, following the annual meeting. Mr. Knowles was in the  chair. Guest speakers were Mrs. Louise Gabriel, and Mrs. Maggie  Victor, of Penticton, both introduced by Mrs. R. B. White. Mrs.  Gabriel read an excellent paper on Indian medicines, etc., and Don  Whitham made a tape recording of the address.  In The Kelowna Courier, Thursday, June 10, 1954, is an excellent photograph of "Mrs. G. L. Ormsby, of Vernon, accepting a  presentation on behalf of her daughter, Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby,  from J. B. Knowles, president of the Okanagan Historical Society,  at the annual meeting.  "Dr. Ormsby, whose editorship has made it possible for the  Society to issue annual reports, is a professor in history at UBC,  president of the Vancouver branch of the B.C. Historical Association, and past-president and member of the council of the B.C. Historical Society. She is also a director of the Canadian Historical Association, and last week attended the convention in Winnipeg, therefore being unable to receive personally her gift from the Okanagan  Historical Society of cloth-bound copies of the last six reports, all  of which she edited.  "Owing to her wider sphere of activities, particularly in the historical field, Dr. Ormsby has resigned her editorship of the Okanagan Historical Society's reports. Accepting with deep regret, the  Society is sure, however, of her continued interest and help in this  work."  Editorial Note—In Mrs. White's story "On Okanagan Lake  in 1888" are some statements relative to dates and boat names which  seem to be at variance with what others have written on the subject  in previous Reports. This was brought to the editor's attention too  late to effect any changes if such were necessary, but the story is so  vivid a record that its value is not lost by any changes that might have  been made. These will be referred to in a subsequent Report.—  Editor.  165 MEMBERSHIP LIST  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  1954  PATRONS  (Donations of $10.00 or more.)  W. E. Adams;  Mrs. Mary E. Allen C.B.E.;  N. H. Caesar;  Mrs. Annie  Cameron; Miss Annie Fenton;  B. T. Haverfield;  W. J. Smith;  G. R.  Stuart; Col. D. C. Simson.  (Donations of other amounts.)  Capt. A. W. McCullough; Copper Mountain Miner's Union.  MEMBERS  (As at August 1st, 1954.)  * Adams, W. E., 1998 Abbott St., Kelowna, B.C.  Albret, Miss, Osoyoos, B.C.  * Allen, Mrs. Mary E., C.B.E., 2303 Lawson Ave., West Vancouver, B.C.  Allen, Mrs. M. V., Box 1104, Quesnel, B.C.  Anderson, Dr. W. F., 2302 Abbott St., Kelowna, B.C.  Angus, Mrs. H., 229 Bernard Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  * Andrew, Dr. F. W., Summerland, B.C.  Ansell, C, 2400 39th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Armstrong, Mrs. G., Cawston, B.C.  Armstrong, Harry B., 10305 108th St., Edmonton, Alta.  Bagnall, G. P., 3332 Barnard Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Barr, Dr. H. P., 383 Ellis St., Penticton, B.C.  Benmore, G. C, 2059 Pendozi St., Kelowna, B.C.  Bennett, Mrs. C. G., The Bench, Penticton, B.C.  Bentley, E., Summerland, B.C.  Berner, Mrs. A., 2500 26th St., Vernon, B.C.  * Bingley, A., Coldstream, B.C.  Bishop, J. A., R.R. 2, Coldstream, B.C.  Bloomfield, C. E., R.R. 2, Kelowna, B.C.  Blumenauer, A. H., Armstrong, B.C.  * Boss, M. T., 455 East 17th Ave., Vancouver, B.C.  Bristow, C. A., 3614 Barnard Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Brock, Mrs.  Britten,  3 Frere  Rd.,  Parktown W.,  Johannesberg,   S.  Africa.  Broomfield, A. D., Princeton, B.C.  Brown, Florence, Box 301, Kelowna, B.C.  * Brown, Judge W. C, Okanogan, Washington.  Brown, Mrs. Chris., 690 Lakeshore Drive, Penticton, B.C.  * Browne, Adolphe, 2803 Schubert Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Bryant, Mrs. D.. Box 239, Ladysmith, B.C.  Buckland, C. D., R.R. 2, Kelowna, B.C.  Buckland, D. S., Okanagan Mission, B.C.  * Busch, Mrs. Kaleden, 3009 31st Ave., Vernon, B.C.  * Cameron, Mrs. Annie, 449 Paul St., Kamloops, B.C.  Cameron, G. D., Box 86, Kelowna. B,C.  Cameron, J. D., 343 Brunswick St., Penticton, B.C.  Campbell-Brown, Dr., Okanagan Landing, B.C.  Campbell, Burt R., Box 175, Kamloops, B.C.  Campbell, Miss Ida, 3306 25th St., Vernon, B.C.  * Campbell, D. H., R.R. 2, Kamloops, B.C.  Carney, Thomas, R.R. 1, Kelowna, B.C.  Carpenter, G. R., 2111 33rd St., Vernon, B.C.  166 Membership List  Carruthers, E. M., 364 Bernard Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  * Casorso, Anthony, R.R. 2, Kelowna, B.C.  Casorso, Joseph, R.R. 3, Kelowna, B.C.  * Caesar, N. H., Okanagan Centre, B.C.  Cawston, Mrs. A. H., Cawston, B.C.  Cawston, Mrs. R. L., Westbridge, B.C.  * Chambers, E. J., Box 188, The Bench, Penticton, B.C.  Chapman, E. P., R.R. 3, Kelowna, B.C.  Chichester, B., Rutland, B.C.  Christenson, Mrs. 0., R.R. 3, Armstrong, B.C.  Cleland, E. H., The Bench, Penticton, B.C.  Clement, C. G., 2276 Speer St., Kelowna, B.C.  Cochrane, Harold, 836 Main St., Penticton, B.C.  Cohen, Penticton, B.C.  Coldhurst, Capt. Bowen, Penticton, B.C.  Collett, H. C. S., Okanagan Mission, B.C.  * Colley, James R., Kamloops, B.C.  Colquhoun, Judge M. M., 235 Lakeshore Rd., Penticton, B.C.  Comber, Harry, Armstrong, B.C.  * Coots, Mrs. J., Coalmont, B.C.  Cools, Mrs. Joseph, Okanagan Centre, B.C.  Cooper, Fred, 3104 26th St., Vernon, B.C.  Cooper, W., 897 Winnipeg St., Penticton, B.C.  Cousins, E. B., 3006 31st St., Vernon, B.C.  Corbitt, H. W., Kaleden, B.C.  Corlett, Mrs. R., City Museum, Vancouver, B.C.  Corrie, James, Princeton, B.C.  Costley, A. M., Middle Bench, Penticton, B.C.  Coursier, Dr. H. L., 2403 23rd Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Crossley, F. I., Okanagan Mission, B.C.  Crozier, R., Armstrong, B.C.  Crawford, Mrs. E. W.. Vancouver, B.C.  Currie, G. W., R.R. 1, Kelowna, B.C.  Davidson, R. A., 2604 26th St., Vernon, B.C.  Davidson, A. H., Westbank, B.C.  Deering, A. H., Armstrong, B.C.  Dendy, Darcy, R.R. 2, Kelowna, B.C.  Denison, H. R., Box 747, Vernon, B.C.  Denison, N. L., Lumby, B.C.  DePfyffer, Robert, 1961 Abbott St., Kelowna, B.C.  Deschamps, A., 3004 30th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Dewdney, W. R., 237 Scott Rd., Penticton, B.C.  Dixon, Mrs. Earl, Armstrong, B.C.  * Dickson, Mrs. G. H., Dunnville, Ont.  * Ditmars, W. C, 2535 S.W. Marine Dr., Vancouver, B.C.  Dobson, W. K., R.R. 2, Vernon, B.C.  Doughty, Col. E., Penticton, B.C.  Drosses, Nick, Penticton, B.C.  Duncan, R. H., The Bench, Penticton, B.C.  Duncan, Robert, R.R., Armstrong, B.C.  Estabrooks, Capt. O. L., 352 Main St., Penticton, B.C.  Elliott, C. G., 11409 96th St., Edmonton, Alta.  Ellis, Miss K., 862 Cambie Ave., Penticton, B.C.  Emanuele, Dr. H., 639 Martin St., Penticton, B.C.  Embray, William, Box 64, Kelowna, B.C.  Farlton, F., Penticton, B.C.  Faulkner, R., 495 Tennis Ave., Penticton, B.C.  Felker, C. P., 2300 45th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Fenton, Miss Annie, R.R. 1, Enderby, B.C.  Ferguson, E. W., 621 Elliott Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  167 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  Fillmore, D. C, 1470 Water St., Kelowna, B.C.  Finch, Gordon, 1880 Riverside Drive, Kelowna, B.C.  Fisher, Miss S., Armstrong, B.C.  Fisher, H. C, Shuswap Falls, B.C.  Fitzgerald, G. D., R.R. 3, Kelowna, B.C.  Fitzmaurice, R., 3104 Barnard Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Fraser, Major Hugh, Okanagan Falls, B.C.  French, William Dr., 242 Victoria St., Kamloops, B.C.  Garner, Mrs. R., 2801 Blackwood St., Victoria, B.C.  Goldie, James, Okanagan Centre, B.C.  Goodfellow, Rev. J. C, Princeton, B.C.  Gordon, R. K., Naramata Rd., Penticton, B.C.  Gordon, C. B., 545 Transit Rd., Victoria, B.C.  Gore, R. G., 1536 Ellis Street, Kelowna, B.C.  Gray, L. S., 3606 27th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Greenside, E. L., 1758 Ellis S,t, Kelowna, B.C.  Greenwood, T., 1815 Maple St., Kelowna, B.C.  Gregory, Mrs. D., R.R., Armstrong, B.C.  Guernsey, C, West Summerland, B.C.  Hack, Mr., Oliver, B.C.  Guichon, L. P., Quilchena, B.C.  Haines, C. E... R.R. 2, Vernon, B.C.  Hales, F. C, 1069 Harvey Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Hall, Mrs. R. O., Oliver, B.C.  Hamilton-Watts, Mrs. C, 2600-25th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Harris, F. R., Box 700, Vernon, B.C.  Harris, Gordon, Massett, B.C.  Harwood, F. V., 3102 41st Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Hassen, Mat, Armstrong, B.C.  Hatfield, A. S., 864 Fairview Rd., Penticton, B.C.  Haverfield, B. T.. Okanagan Mission, B.C.  Hayes, N. A., R.R. 3, Armstrong, B.C.  Hayhurst, Mrs. W. T., Armstrong, B.C.  Heal, Ronald, Armstrong, B.C.  Hereron, Miss Frances, 280 Bernard Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Heighway, J. G., Lumby, B.C.  Hewlett, E. E., R.R. 3, Kelowna. B.C.  Herbert, G. D., 1684 Ethel St., Kelowna, B.C.  Hermuses, Jeff, National Cafe, Vernon, B.C.  Hewer, E. E., Chase, B.C.  Hoare, E. W., 605 Elliott Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Hooper, J. L., 211 Norton St., Penticton, B.C.  Howrie, D., 2507 37th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Hopkins, Mrs. J. L., Box 271, Armstrong, B.C.  Hudson, J. D., Box 423, Coulee Dam, Wash., U.S.A.  Hutton, L. A., 144 Kennilworth St., Ottawa, Ont.  Hutton, L. A. B., Room 103, 140 Wellington St., Ottawa 4, Ont.  Innis, W., Keremeos, B.C.  Jamieson, J. E., Armstrong, B.C.  Jefferson, Mrs. L., Big Lake Ranch P.O., B.C.  Jenkins, J. L., Princeton, B.C.  Johnson, H. N., 469 Woodruff Ave., Penticton, B.C.  Jones, W. Lloyd, 1449 Ethel St., Kelowna, B.C.  Keating, H. K., Peachland, B.C.  Kerr, R. B., Okanagan Mission, B.C.  Kerry, L. L., 324 Bernard Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Kidson, Mrs. J. R., 3900 P.V., Vernon, B.C.  Kinloch, Mrs. D., Coldstream, B.C.  Knight, Graham, 450 Ellis St., Penticton, B.C.  168 Membership List  Kneller, Jabez, BX, Vernon, B.C.  * Knowles, J. B., 874 Manhattan Drive, Kelowna, B.C.  * Laurel Co-operative Union, 1304 Ellis St., Kelowna, B.C.  Laidlaw, J. B., 729 Martin St., Penticton, B.C.  Lamont, Mrs. Gwen, Okanagan Mission, B.C.  Lane, W. T., 751 Granville St., Vancouver, B.C.  Latimer, G. B., 613 Martin St., Penticton, B.C.  Lee, T. W., Box 940, Vernon, B.C.  Lefroy, C. B. L., 3306 25th St., Vernon, B.C.  Lewis, George, 230 East Keith Road, North Vancouver, B.C.  * Leslie, W. T., Wade and Tennis, Penticton, B.C.  Lincoln, Mrs. M. A, 3500 32nd St., Vernon, B.C.  * Logan, H., 6750 MacDonald St., Vancouver, B.C.  Lowle, F. W., Skaha Rd., Penticton, B.C.  Lamb, Dr. W. Kaye, Crescent Heights, Ottawa, Ont.  MacCorquodale, Mrs. D. F., Beverly Avenue, Montreal, P.Q.  Madison, W. W., Trail, B.C.  Maisonville, Mrs. Georgina, Suite 1, Belvedere Apts., Kelowna, B.C.  Manery, S. R., Cawston, B.C.  Marriage, F. T., 424 Park Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Marshall, Arthur, Armstrong, B.C.  Marshall, Miss E., 116 Avalon Apts., Bernard Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Massey, G. E., Dept. Public Works, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Marks, G., Pendozi Manor, Pendozi St., Kelowna, B.C.  Matchett, W. J., 942 Wilson Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  * Melville, J. K., 555 Burrard St., Vancouver 1, B.C.  Mewburn, T. C, 1989 Abbott St., Kelowna, B.C.  Middleton, Mrs. M., Jade Bay, Oyama, B.C.  * Midgely, T., The Bench, Penticton, B.C.  Miles, F. A., 3301 35th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  * Moll, Mrs. H. M., Box 356, Chapman Camp, B.C.  Moore, Mrs. Terry, Armstrong, B.C.  * Morley, H. B., Masonic Temple, Martin St., Penticton, B.C.  Morrison, C. F., 528 Kingsway, Winnipeg, Man.  Moyer, Dr. E. L., 3009 31st Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Moss, A., 2500 Abbott St., Kelowna, B.C.  Moss, Mrs. S., 790 DeHart Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Murchison, E. A., 1781 Abbott St., Kelowna, B.C.  Murray, Mrs. P., Armstrong, B.C.  Munroe, K. K., 727 Elliott, Kelowna, B.C.  McClelland, J. B., 421 Haynes Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  * McCullough, Capt. Avard INT., 1939 Abbott St., Kelowna, B.C.  McCullough, Mrs. J., 1500 39th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  McDonald Frank,  Vancouver Ave.,   Penticton,  B.C.  McDonell, P., 3914 W. 30th, Vancouver, B.C.  McDonell, Mrs. Geo., Box 223, Kelowna, B.C.  McDougall, R. J., Sorrento, B.C.  McDougald, Miss C, Peachland, B.C.  * McDougall, Hazel, 1094 Lawson Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  * McGill, Wilson A., 387 Bernard Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  McGregor, D. A., Vancouver Province, Vancouver 3, B.C.  * McGuire, M. V., Orchardleigh Lodge, Coldstream, B.C.  * McKelvie, B. A., Rural Box 142, Cobble Hill, B.C.  * McKenzie, Right Rev. Father, 839 Sutherland Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  McLarty, Dr. H. R., Summerland, B.C.  McMurtry, Dr. T. S. G., 3007 Tronson Ave., Vernon, B.C.  McMynn, D. J., Trail, B.C.  McPhail, J. A., 642 Grenfell Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  MacPherson, J. M., C.P.R. Freight, Winnipeg, Man.  169 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  McMahon, G. E., Enderby, B.C.  Neilson, A. S., 4000 Mara St., Vernon, B.C.  Nelson, Miss E. P., Keremeos, B.C.  * Netherton, Dr. W. J., 757 Winnipeg St., Penticton, B.C.  * Norman, E. A., Armstrong, B.C.  Norris, T. A., Lumby, B.C.  Nuttall, Mrs. W., Naramata, B.C.  Noyes, Mrs. A. J., Naramata, B.C.  Oliver, W. J., 3112 21st Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Ormsby, George, R.R. 2, Coldstream, B.C.  Ormsby, Dr. Margaret, Dept. of History, U.B.C, Vancouver 8, B.C.  Oakley, Mrs. K.  Palmer, Mr. G. B.  Parmley, Dr. J. R., 45 Wade St., Penticton, B.C.  Patten, Mrs. C. J., Armstrong, B.C.  Patterson, A. L., 512 Buckland Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Philpott, Gordon, 1307 St. Paul St., Kelowna, B.C.  Powley, W. R., R.R. 1, Kelowna, B.C.  Quesnel, Earl, Jr. High School, Vernon, B.C.  * Quinn, Dr. F., 1975 McDougall St., Kelowna, B.C.  Raikes, R. F., 298 Cambie St., Penticton, B.C.  Reid, Miss EL, 614 Martin St., Penticton, B.C.  Reid, C. E., Okanagan Mission, B.C.  Reid, Mrs. Gladys, 1807 Marshall St., Kelowna, B. C.  Reid, H. S., 2401 25th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Renwick, H. A., 1485 W. 13th St., Vancouver, B.C.  Renwick, Miss M., 987 Glenn Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  '   Riddell, W. W., 386 Haynes St., Penticton, B.C.  Roadhouse, W. T. L., 504 Buckland St., Kelowna, B.C.  Roost, F. H., 2405 West 51st St., Vancouver, B.C.  Rorke, H. O., 624 Young St., Penticton, B.C.  Ross, Mrs. Helen, 2010 32nd Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Rotherham, E. J., Princeton, B.C.  Runnals, Rev. F. E., D.D., 483 Stevenson Highway, R.R. 1, Stevenson,  B.C.  Sage, W. N., Dept. of History, U.B.C, Vancouver 8, B.C.  Seath, R. W., 1934 McDougall Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Seymour, S. P., 3100 Tronson Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Shannon, Mrs. R., Oliver, B.C.  Shaw, N., Penticton, B.C  Shields, W. J., Vernon St., Lumby, B.C.  Shklov, Dr. N., 3003 31st St., Vernon, B.C.  Sidney, Gordon, Armstrong, B.C.  Sigalet, W. A., 3007 32nd St., Vernon, B.C.  Simms, J. D., 3303 26th St., Vernon, B.C.  Simpkins, C. E., Armstrong, B.C  Simpson, Mrs. S. M., 2020 Abbott St., Kelowna, B.C  * Simson, D. C, 835 Bernard Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Simpson, H. B., 176 Vimey Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Smith, W. J., Armstrong, B.C.  Smith, George, Armstrong, B.C.  Smith, J. A., 246 Lawrence Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Solly, I. H., Summerland, B.C.  South, Mrs. I., 600 Haywood St., Penticton, B.C.  * South, Mrs. G., Van Home St., Penticton, B.C  Sterling, S. P., 2505 24th St., Vernon, B.C.  Stickland, Mrs. E., Box 1877, Enderby, B.C.  Stiel, W. M., 2136 Abbott St., Kelowna, B.C.  Stirling, Capt. M. G., 1747 Shirley Ave., Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A.  170 Membership List  Stirling, R., 419 Royal Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  * Stuart, G. R., Fintry, B.C  * Sunderland, E. J., R.R. 2, Vernon, B.C.  Swift, A. A., 281 Haynes Ave., Penticton, B.C.  Taite, Mrs. H. B., Kalavista Subdivision, Vernon, B.C.  Tassie, G. C, R.R. 2, Coldstream, B.C.  Tandale, T., 373 Lake Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Taylor, Dave,    Princeton, B.C.  * Tessman, Mrs. F. B., Keremeos, B.C.  Thomas, Mrs. T., Armstrong, B.C.  Thomas, Ed., Okanagan Falls, B.C.  Thomas, J. M., Okanagan Falls, B.C.  Thomas, Miss, Okanagan Falls, B.C.  Thomas, G. R., St. Paul St., Kamloops, B.C.  Thompson, Mrs. W. S.,  Kelowna, B.C.  Tilling Rose, Miss, 369 Bernard Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Tingley, W. D., Box 106, R.R. 3, Kelowna, B.C.  Thornton, Howard, 1500 32nd Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Topham-Brown, Miss J., 2003 37th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Torrent, Henry, Lumby, B.C.  Tripp, L. E., 2905 26th St., Vernon, B.C.  Truswell, Mrs. H. A., Box 232, Kelowna, B.C.  Turnbull, A. R., Rossland, B.C.  Turner, R. G., Rossland, B.C.  * Walker, Mrs. D. M., Okanagan Mission, B.C.  * Walburn, H. G., Box 123, RR. 3, Kelowna, B.C.  Wallace, Mrs. B., RR. 4, Kelowna, B.C.  * Warner, Miss Alice, 4201 P.V. Rd., Vernon, B.C.  Warren, Mrs. A. M., 854 Main St., Penticton, B.C.  Waters, Mrs. J. C Dun, Okanagan Mission, B.C.  Watt, Geo M., Box 39, Okanagan Mission, B.C.  Webster, Charles, Armstrong, B.C.  * Weatherill, H. O., 2000 37th Ave., Vernon, B.C  Weatherill, H. P., Royal Bank Building, Vancouver, B.C.  Weddell, Mrs. Reg., 578 Cadder Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Weddell, A. D., 274 Lake Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Weeks, Capt. J. B., 614 Martin St., Penticton, B.C  * Weeks, E., Box 393, Kelowna, B.C.  Weeks, G. A., Revelstoke, B.C.  Weeks, L., Vancouver, B.C.  Weeks, R. S., 880 Manhattan Drive, Kelowna, B.C.  Weeks, T. V., 235 N.W. 16th Ave., Calgary, Alberta.  Weir, James, 1538 Matthews Ave., Vancouver 9, B.C.  * Whitaker, Mrs. G. L., Jones Flat, Summerland, B.C.  Whitaker, Mrs. A. A., 177 Abbott St., Penticton, B.C.  White, H. E. Mrs., Penticton, B.C.  White, R. V., Skaha Lake Road, Penticton, B.C.  White, Dr. W. H., 383 Ellis Street, Penticton, B.C.  * White, Ronald, 107 Battle St., Kamloops, B.C.  * White, Cull A., Quincy, Wash., U.S.A.  Whitehead, W. J., 340 Harvey Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Whitham, J. D., 1725 Pendozi St., Kelowna, B.C.  Whillis, R., 1749 Abbott St., Kelowna, B.C.  Wilde, A. C, 3307 26th St., Vernon, B.C.  Willits, Mrs. P. B., 1716 Pendozi St., Kelowna, B.C.  Willis, Mrs. H., 3857 Cartier St., Vancouver, B.C.  Wilson, Jack, Tappan, B.C.  Wilson, Major V., Paradise Ranch, Naramata, B.C.  Wilson, J. H., Armstrong, B. C  Woodd, A. B., 1997 Pendozi St., Kelowna, B.C.  171 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  Wood, E. 0., 268 Bernard Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Young, Mrs. B. F., Armstrong, B.C.  PUBLIC   LIBRARIES  Fraser Valley Union Library, Abbotsford, B.C.  Library of Parliament, Ottawa, Ont.  Provincial Public Library, Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C  Seattle Public Library, Seattle 4, Washington, U.SA.  Spokane Public Library, Spokane 4, Wash., U.S.A.  Tacoma Public Library, Tacoma, Wash., U.S.A.  The Book Nook, 348 Martin St., Penticton, B.C.  Vernon Book Shop & Library, 2903 30th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Toronto Public Library, College & George Sts., Toronto, Ont.  Victoria Public Library, Victoria, B.C.  Vancouver Public Library, Hastings & Main, Vancouver, B.C.  UNIVERSITIES  Department of History, U.B.C, Vancouver 8, B.C.  Hargreaves Library, Eastern Wash. Coll. of Education, Cheney, Wash.  Indiana University Library, Bloomington, Indiana, U.S.A.  University of B.C. Library, Vancouver 8, B.C.  University of Toronto Library, Toronto, Ont.  Univ. of Washington Library, Seattle 8, Wash., U.S.A.  Redpath Library, McGill University, Montreal, P.Q.  SCHOOLS  Vernon Junior High School, McDonald Park, Vernon, B.C.  Armstrong Elementary School, Armstrong, B.C.  Enderby Schools, Enderby, B.C.  Penticton School Board, Penticton, B.C  Summerland Elementary School, Summerland, B.C  Keremeos School Board, Keremeos, B.C.  HISTORICAL SOCIETIES  City Museum, Vancouver 4, B.C.  American Historical Society, Worcester, Mass., U.S.A.  Department of Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada.  Historical Society of Montana, Helena, Montana.  Kamloops Museum Association, Box 175, Kamloops, B.C.  Provincial Archives, Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C  State of Wisconsin Historical Society, 818 State St., Madison, Wis.  Vancouver City Archives, City Hall, Vancouver, B.C.  OTHERS  Lumby and District Women's Institute, Lumby, B.C.  C.B.C Library, Box 6000, Montreal, P.Q.  Parent Teachers' Assoc, Keremeos, B.C.  Vernon City Club, Vernon, B.C.  Vernon News, Vernon, B.C.  CKOK, Penticton, B.C.  Copper Mountain Miner's Union, Copper Mountain, B.C.  172 INDEX  Aberdeen, Lord (Lady), 6, 11, 44.  Agnew, Jas. C, 17.  Allison(s), 42, 108, 116, 138, 141, 144,  145, 148, 149, 152, 161.  Allison, Dorothea, 6, 98.  Allenby, 143, 147, 148.  Andrew, F. W., 53.  Archives, 11.  Armstrong (town), 106, 110, 115.  Ashcroft, 39.  Ashnola, 139, 153.  Associations (Land, Agric, etc.), 57,  58, 70-78, 83, 91, 97, 105, 130, 154.  Aviation, 153.  Banks, 89, 104, 154.  Barnes, Fred, 129.  Benmore, G. C, 111.  Benvoulin, 64, 70, 82, 87, 101.  Bessette, N., 159.  Blakeburn, 147, 150, 151.  Books, Titles of: A Bonnie Fechter  (Aberdeen), 11; A Nature Lover in  British Columbia (Parham), 101;  British Columbia, the Making of a  Province (Howay). 65; Builders of  the West (Stevens), 108; Chief  Seattle (Anderson), 52; Church  Work in British Columbia (Sillitoe) , 121; Douglas of the Fir (Harvey), 162; Father Pat, A Hero of  the Far West (Mercier), 157; Gazetteer of Canada, 157; Geographical Gazetteer of British Columbia,  157; Historic Backgrounds of British Columbia (Rickard), 110; History of British Columbia (Bancroft), 60; Honest John Oliver  (Morton), 14; In-cow-mas-ket  (Moir-Allison), 145; In the Kootenays and Other Verses (Smith),  133: Indians of Canada (Jenness),  50, 138; Memoirs of an Educational  Pioneer (Ravenhill), 32; Ogo—His  Story (Kelowna Courier), 33; Ogopogo's Vigil (Buckland), 60; Ocean  to Ocean (Grant), 16; On the Old  Athabaska Trail (Burpee), 16;  Tales of the Kootenays (Smyth),  34; The Story of Osoyoos (Fraser),  41, 157; The Valley of Youth (Holliday), 64; Through Canada With  a Kodak (Aberdeen), 6; Soil Survey of the Ok. and Sim. Valleys,  B.C. (Kelly & Spillsbury), 156.  Bostock, Hewitt, 46.  Boston Bar, 59, 67.  Braden, Rev. E., 125.  Brent(s), 77, 80, 116.  Bromley, John H., 44.  Brown, J. R., 52, 57.  Browne ("Jim"), 159.  Bruce, Hon. H., 11.  Buckland, F. M., 15, 64, 69, 93, 152.  BX Dist., 67.  Caldwell, Warren W., 35.  Cameras, 6, 64.  Cameron, Annie, 45, 66.  Can. Nat. Rly., 93, 97.  Can. Pac. Rly., 46, 47, 49, 50, 62, 63,  70, 93, 98, 152.  Canal, 47.  Canoe, 19, 24, 44, 45, 54, 63, 151.  Carload, 77.  Cattle, 7, 41, 53, 54, 74, 76, 82-84, 94,  122, 146, 156.  Cawston (s), 93, 146, 160, 162.  Cawston (town), 145-147.  Cemetery, 56, 81.  Census, 20, 154, 158.  Cherry Creek, 66.  Chinese, 8, 43, 139, 142, 144.  Chinook Gang.), 16, 30.  Christien(s), 45, 66, 116.  Churches  (Prot.), 7, 56, 82, 83, 101,  104, 124-128, 153.  Churches  (R.C.), 7,  15, 22, 117-120,  164.  CKOV, 159.  Clubs, 86, 87.  Coal, 58, 62, 149-151.  Coalmont, 147, 149-150, 152.  Coldstream Dist., 10, 56.  Columbia River, 35, 36, 50, 54, 63, 139,  141.  Copper, 147-149.  Copper Mt., 139, 147-149, 153.  Corbett, Harry, 130.  Coulthard, J. O., 146, 147.  Customs  (House & Officers), 17, 42,  45.  Day, Arthur, 54, 61-65.  Dawson, Dr. G. M., 17, 21, 139.  Denison, H. R., 109, 163.  Dewdney,  Sir Edgar,  142,  145,  147,  153.  Doctors (medical), 39, 47, 54, 57, 90,  93, 96, 109, 110, 127.  Douglas, Gov., 39, 140, 151.  Duck Jacob, 46.  Duck Lake, 19, 78.  Ducks (town), 45, 46.  Election, 46.  Ellis, Kathleen, 51.  Ellis, Thos., 42, 54, 62, 94, 164.  Ellison, Price (or Mrs.), 48, 109, 125,  160.  173 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  Enderby, 45, 47, 49, 106, 110. 129.  Fairs, 8, 71.  Farming, 7, 21, 69, 71, 74, 90, 122, 144,  156.  Fauna, 25-29, 55, 66.  Fires, 40, 73, 83, 84, 86, 105 116.  Fire-engine, 86.  Firsts: Aeroplane, 153; Angle-worms,  55; Auto-'trip, 152; Box-making,  79; Camera, 6; Cannery, 147; Carload, 77 Cattle, 41; Church, 83, 117,  127; Commercial orchard, 53;  Commissioners (Princeton), 154;  Co-op. Ass'n., 70; Doctor, 93; Fairs,  8, 71; Ferry, 84; Fire-engine, 86;  Frame bldg., 63; Freeman, 129;  Fruit-grower, 6; Gristmill, 146;  Hotel, 68, 154; House, 52, 84, 130;  Ins. Agent, 100; Irrigation, 56;  Jeweller, 100; Lamp, 68; Mayor,  104; Mill, 129; Minister, 83, 124;  Newspaper, 89; O.H.S. Report, 162;  Opera House, 105; Priest, 15; Radio Station, 159; Sawmill, 30, 73;  School, 70, 99, 131; Settlers, 8, 30,  51, 130; Steamboat, 39, 43; Sunday  School, 100; Teacher, 66, 97, 98,  116, 131, 160; Telephone cable, 20;  Tintype, 64; Tobacco, 72; Train, 8;  Trustees, 116; V.O.N. Hospital, 10;  Water records, 56; Wharf, 29, 63;  White child, 75; White girl, 66, 75,  101; White man, 139, 140, 164;  White woman, 9, 101.  Fish, 26, 27, 62, 136.  Floods, 81.  Flora, 25-29.  Flourmills (grist), 146.  Fortune, A. L., 115.  Fraser, Geo., 41, 157.  Fraser, Sir Simon, 31.  Freighting, 39, 49, 160.  Fruit-growing, 6, 9, 10, 53-58, 65, 77,  78, 101, 130, 144-147.  Fur trade, 135, 139-144, 157.  Gabriel, Louise, 24, 165.  Game (wild), 8, 25, 55, 56, 122.  Gartrell, Jas. (or Mrs.), 53-58, 62-64.  Gatien, Mrs. A. J., 66, 68.  Gellatly, 36.  Geological strata, 17-26.  Gillard, August, 59-60.  Girouard, Luc, 8.  Glenmore, 91.  Goodfellow, Rev. J. C, 135.  Gold, 22, 23, 59, 76, 141-144, 147.  Govt. Agents, 7, 144.  Grain, 7, 74, 83, 90, 146, 156.  Grande Prairie, 46.  Granite Creek, 144, 151.  Great North. Rly., 146, 150, 152, 160.  Green, C. de B., 49.  Greene, Rev. Thos., 56, 112.  Greenhow, T., 39, 40.  Grindrod, 11.  Guisachan Ranch, 8.  Harvey, A. G., 162.  Hatfield, A. S., 130, 131.  Haynes, John C, 42, 44, 94, 116.  Hedley, 44, 140, 147, 150, 153.  Hope, 41, 43, 59, 121 126, 136, 140, 143,  145, 146.  Hope-Princeton, Hwy., 136, 151, 153.  Hope Trail, 44, 83, 136, 145.  Horses,  7, 49, 54, 62,  76,  82-84,  121,  141.  Hospitals, 10, 67.  Hotels, 45, 46, 49, 67, 68, 80, 148, 152,  154, 165.  Hudson's Bay Co., 5, 7, 36, 96, 139,  141, 144, 145, 164.  Incorporation, 3, 91, 105, 106, 149, 154,  163.  Indians, 16, 20, 24-32, 35-38, 44, 50,  54, 57, 60, 61, 63, 66, 68, 121, 136-  138, 151, 158, 165.  Indian pictographs, 137.  Indian Reserve, 18, 20, 30, 54, 55, 57,  63.  Indian War, 138.  Innis, D. J., 160.  International Boundary, 54, 135.  Irrigation, 56, 79, 90, 130, 131, 156.  Irwin, Rev. H. J. (Fr. Pat), 64, 157.  Jamieson, J. E., 161.  Japanese, 125, 126.  John, J. G., 21, 23.  Jones, O. L., 2.  Jones, W. J., 159.  Jubilee, 5.  Justice of Peace, 98, 100, 105, 129, 145.  Kazlo, 10.  Kelowna, 1-5, 11, 20-23, 33-40, 52, 57,  60, 64, 66, 69-108, 110-114, 117-120,  123-126, 159, 162.  Kenny, M. A., 30.  Kettle Valley Rly., 106, 148, 149, 153.  Knowles, J. B., 5, 93, 127, 162.  Kokanee (fish), 26.  Kootenay Dist., 34, 69, 133.  Kootnai Brown, 64.  Kruger, T., 45, 143.  Ladd, J. J., 3, 52.  Lacey, Mrs. E., 164.  Lambly(s), 44, 49, 115.  Lambly, Mrs. R., 115.  Lansdowne, 39, 68.  Larkin, 49.  Layer-Cake Hill, 21-23.  LeJeune, Fr., 135.  Lequime (s), 8, 66, 80, 83, 89, 93, 94,  96.  174 Index  Lillooet, 21.  Lloyd-Jones, 54, 56, 63, 92.  Long Lake, 10, 19, 20.  Lumby, 107, 110, 159.  Lytton, 31.  MacKay, Geo. G., 7, 49.  MacKay, Isabel E., 12.  Mail service, 57, 131.  Maisonville, Georgina, 16, 61, 163.  Map, 19, 96, 140, 151, 156.  Marjoribanks, Coutts, 7, 10.  Marriage, F. T., 59, 102.  Mayors, 3, 52, 92, 97, 101, 104, 159.  McDougall(s), 7, 22, 90, 142.  McDougall, Hazel, 104.  Memorial (sites), 5, 12, 58, 120, 164.  Merritt, 30.  Mill Creek, 81, 83, 90.  Mining camps, 23, 57, 66, 73, 147-155.  Mining claims, 22, 139, 147, 148.  Missionaries, 9, 16, 22, 52, 67, 68, 74  117-120.  Mission Creek, 18, 20-23, 75, 83, 81  91.  Moberly, W., 16, 142.  Morkill, G, 47.  Mormons, 61.  Mountains (Peaks), 28, 56, 58, 140,  148.  Mules, 66, 83, 141.  Munson, Robt. (or Mrs.), 9, 90, 101.  Naramata, 33, 54, 107.  Newspapers: Armstrong Advertiser,  12, 161; B.C. Gazette, 47, 55; Kelowna Clarion, 89; Kelowna Courier, 33, 89, 113, 125, 165; MacLean's  Magazine, 56; Penticton Herald,  51, 113, 125, 153, 157, 162; Vancouver Province, 46; Victoria Colonist, 46.  New Westminster, 43, 62, 67, 98, 121,  141, 146.  Nicholson, H., 144, 146.  Nickel Plate, 147, 148, 152.  Norris, L., 39, 162.  Ogopogo (Na-ha-ha-itkh), 24, 33,  108, 116.  Okanagan Falls, 27, 54, 58, 131.  Ok. Hist. Soc, 5, 161-165.  Okanagan Lake, 5, 7, 17, 20, 24, 33,  39, 49, 56, 122, 138, 158.  Okanagan Landing, 41, 49, 50, 77, 131.  Okanagan Mission, 8, 9, 18, 19, 59, 66,  71, 75, 115, 117, 164.  Okanagan River, 81.  Ok. Telephone Co., 84, 106-110.  Okanagan Valley, 17, 35, 53, 54, 59,  77, 78, 108, 118, 156.  O'Keefe (s), 44.  Olalla, 147.  Ormsby, Dr. M. A., 5, 162, 165.  Osoyoos (Sooyoos), 37, 41, 42, 44, 45,  54, 118, 121, 144, 157, 158.  Osoyoos Lake. 17, 27, 122.  Oyama, 37, 108.  Palmer Expedition, 41, 142.  Panama Canal, 67.  Pandosy, Fr., 9, 15, 45, 59, 66, 96, 117.  Peachland, 54, 106, 110.  Penticton, 39, 42, 50, 51, 54, 62-64, 66,  81, 106, 110, 122, 130, 138, 161.  Pentland, Lady M., 6.  Pioneers (listed), 8, 10. 11, 23, 38, 39,  47, 49, 58,  68, 70-99,  109-115,  127,  130, 146, 148, 151, 152, 154, 157, 159-  161.  Place-names, 58, 60, 90, 91, 143, 144,  146, 148, 150, 157, 158, 162.  Plateau, The, 35-38.  Pony Express, 62.  Postill (s), 9, 62, 70, 115, 127, 164.  Post-office, 57, 84, 131, 154.  Pre-emptions, 54, 55, 58, 63, 64.  Price, Barrington, 146.  Prices, 9, 48, 50, 57, 67, 69, 75, 76, 84.  Princeton, 42, 135-137, 143, 149, 150,  152, 154, 161.  Quesnel, Celina, 66.  Quinn, Frank, 38, 117.  Raymer, H. W., 52, 74, 75, 92,  104,  105, 111.  Records, 56.  Recreation (sports), 8, 10, 11, 38, 57,  69-92, 105, 111-114, 119.  Reekie, Jeanetta, 127.  Regatta, 11, 85.  Richter, F. X., 96, 141, 151.  Richter Pass, 36, 44.  Robinson, J. M., 58.  Robinson, Noel, 33.  Rock Creek, 142.  Rosoman, Graham, 129.  Ross, Alex., 140.  Rowboat, 39, 45, 62, 64.  Royal Engineers, 141-143, 151-161.  Rutland, 82, 90, 118.  Salmon Arm, 45, 68, 106.  Savona, 39, 67.  Sawmills, 30, 54, 65, 68, 73, 84, 154.  Schools  (or teachers), 9, 22, 57, 64,  66, 67, 70, 82, 84, 87, 88, 97, 99, 100,  102-104, 116, 118, 119, 131, 154, 160.  Schubert (s), 12.  Sheep, 130, 146, 156.  Shingle Creek, 57, 64.  Shorts, Capt. T. D., 8, 39-44, 47, 49,  63.  Shuswap Dist., 39, 158.  Shuswap  &  Okanagan Rly.,  47-50,  104.  Skaha   (Dog)   Lake,  17, 37, 56,  123,  131.  175 The Okanagan Historical Society—1954  "Skookum," the, 84.  Sicamous (town), 48, 50, 68, 108.  Sillitoe (Bishop), 43, 121-123.  Silver, 66.  Similkameen River, 44, 139, 140, 143,  151.  Similkameen Valley, 37, 122, 135-156.  Simms, C. D., 20.  Smith, Mrs. E. ("Andy"), 154.  Smith, Gordon Stace, 132-134, 136.  Spallumcheen, 39.  Sports (see Recreation)  S.S. Aberdeen, 69, 77, 78, 85, 86, 100,  101, 131.  S.S. Islander, 46.  S.S. Jubilee, 41.  S.S. Mary V. Greenhow, 39, 43.  S.S. Okanagan, 101.  S.S. Penticton, 8, 42, 45, 85.  S.S. Sicamous, 48, 50, 163.  S.S. Yosemite, 67.  Stage-driving, 45, 67, 115, 151, 152.  Street names, 81, 93-97.  Stuart Lake, 52.  Summerland, 10, 18, 55, 57, 63, 106,  110, 130.  Sutherland, D. W., 52, 82, 89, 92, 97,  98, 101.  Swans, 56.  Swan Lake, 20.  Thompson, David, 108.  Tobacco, 71-75.  Trading-posts, 60, 139, 141.  Trails, 5, 63, 67, 122, 137, 139, 140, 142,  143, 151, 164.  Trepanier 44, 54.  Trout Creek, 18, 54, 63, 78.  Tulameen, 135, 140, 144, 152.  Ure, John, 161.  Vachie (Vachet), C, 43, 44.  Vancouver, 11, 98, 108, 131.  Van Home, Sir Wm., 10.  Vermilion Forks, 142.  Vernon (Bros.), 10, 45.  Vernon  (City), 7, 20, 36, 64, 66, 86,  89, 99, 104, 106, 109, 110, 160.  Victoria, 46, 67.  V.O. Nurses, 10.  Wagons, 9, 39, 54, 57, 62, 79, 84, 131.  Westbank, 1, 5, 108 116.  White Hester E. 24, 42.  White Lake, 28.  White Valley, 159.  Woods, Duncan, 55.  Yale, 67.  Young, B. F., 115.  •r  /  176  ^   s  cfi  C/'  3f HE VERNON NEWS LTD.  L   _  -


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