Okanagan Historical Society Reports

The nineteenth report of the Okanagan Historical Society 1955 Okanagan Historical Society 1955

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Array The Nineteenth Report  OF THE  0&a*tafa*t *i¬•i&t<nical Society  1955  Founded September 4,  1925  Aerial view of Enderby, 1955 This volume is dedicated  to the memory of  JAMES BACON KNOWLES  Who was born in Windsor, Nova Scotia in 1880;  and died in Kelowna, B.C., on Sunday, 6 February, 1955  Mr. Knowles was President of the  .  Okanagan Historical Society  1949 - 1955 parried £. J(nowte5: Pretident,   1949-1955  Mr. Knowles, president of the Okanagan Historical Society  from 1949 to 1955, died at his lakeside home in Kelowna on  Sunday morning, 6 February/ 1955. His passing was not preceded by any period of illness. He was in his usual robust health  to the end. Death came during sleep. In his passing the  Society has sustained a great loss, but his example of devoted  service will remain an inspiration. He was succeeded as president by J. D. Whitham of Kelowna at the annual meeting of  the Society in Vernon on 5th May.  lames Bacon Knowles was born in Windsor, Nova Scotia,  in 1880. Coming to Okanagan, he established a jewellry store  in Kelowna in 1905 . This he continued till 1938, when he entered into partnership with the Thompson Brothers of Okanagan  Mission in the celery and lettuce growing business. Mr Knowles  retired in 1947.  A man of many parts, and many interests, Mr. Knowles  was a charter member of the Kelowna Board of Trade, a member of the Kelowna Aquatic Association and Rotary Club; a  past master of St. George's Masonic lodge (1921); and member  of City Council 1918-1928, during which time he was chairman  of the parks committee ,and largely responsible for the development of the City Park. The family was identified with the membership of First United Church, Kelowna, from which funeral  services, conducted by Rev. R. S. Leitch, were held. Mr. Leitch  paid a fitting tribute to his life and work. Iuterment was in the  family plot, Kelowna cemetery.  In recent years Mr. Knowles' chief interests were in the  Kelowna Museum Association, and the Okanagan Historical  Society, of which he was president at the time of his death. In  me interests of the Society both Mr. and Mrs. Knowles did an  amazing amount of work, and visited all the branches from time  to time.  A very gracious personality, Mr. Knowles as president had  the knack of getting things done in a way that commended itself  to all the members.   Drawing from wide experience, he was al- James B. Knowles: President, 1949 - 1955  ways wise in counsel, and was blessed with co-ordinating and  administrative gifts. These combined to make him a rare president. Above all, he loved the work of the Society. Sometimes  decisions were hard to make, and offices hard io fill. At such  time he was conscious of a sense of guidance that gave him inward strength. He will be kindly remembered by all who knew  him, and his memory will help to keep alive and flourishing  the Society which was so much part of himself. £  tent5  on ten  Title Page, Photograph of Enderby   1  Dedication      2  Tribute to | B. Knowles   3  Foreword      6  Sir James Douglas, W. N. Sage  9  A tribute to the Native Race, T. H. Ainsworth  18  Enderby Incorporated in 1905, Mrs. M. Pidoboiozny  19  Enderby's Mayors    23  Early Days in Enderby, Reg Haddow  24  Enderby In Early Days of Incorporation, Mrs. Harry Preston 30  Enderby United Church History  35  Salmon Arm Municipal Jubilee Address, E. C. Turner  39  Oliver's Tenth Birthday    42  Richter Mountain Settlement, Katie Lacey  46  Early Penticton, Reg. Atkinson  :  51  Penticton's First Youth Movement, Reg. Atkinson    60  Peachland, Summerland, Naramata F. W. Andrew    62  From Shetland to Okanagan, Dorothea M. Walker  73  The Story of Libraries in the Okanagan,  Muriel Page Ffoulkes    76  Dry Valley School, Geo. F. Stirling   85  North Okanagan Memories, S. R. Bowell   87  W. D. Walker, D. M. Walker  93  Pioneering, R. S. Hall 1  99  The Craster Family, Guy P. Bagnall   116  The Hitchcocks of Vernon, Mabel Johnson    120  A. Deschamps Came to Vernon In 1891, Mabel Johnson .. 123  Henry Torrent, Mabel Johnson   125  . Books and Papers Mentioning Okanagan  128  Early Shipping, R. J. McDougall    133  Parent Society and Branch Reports  137  "Their Name Liveth For Evermore," Mabel Johnson  142  "We Will Remember Them" (In Memoriam)  145  Membership  List     157 ^roreword  Although there is reason to believe that the Eighteenth  Report was well received, we have not been tempted to rest on  the oars. He was a wise artist who said that his best picture  was the next one. Constant effort is necessary to maintain  standards set by previous Reports. This is as it should be. In  a letter to a friend Sir Hubert Herkomer wrote that "dissatisfaction is the crown of all art." We are not easily satisfied. We  are grateful for continued help from established sources, and  increasing help from new sources. These give us hope of  progress.  As in former years, we have losses to record. Our president,  Mr. James B. Knowles, died in Kelowna, on 6 February, 1955.  He had guided the Society since 1949. The present Report is  dedicated to his memory. Mrs. Georgina Logie Maisonville  died in her Kelowna home on 8 March, 1955. She had been an  active member of the Society's directorate for many years, and  a frequent contributor to its annual reports. In the "In  Memoriam" section are brief notices of other pioneers and  oldtimers, of whose passing we have been advised.  We have had losses of another kind also. Some have left  the district, and are no longer available for such ready help  as they were wont to give. For example, Mrs. R. L. Cawston  will be teaching an Indian school at Quatsino on Vancouver  Island. As assistant editor in former years, she read proofs,  wrote articles and prepared the Report index. Because she is  no longer to hand, the present Report must appear without  benefit of index. We can only hope that this loss will be made  good in coming years.  Fortunately, there are some gains that help to preserve the  balance. Mrs. D. Allison of Kelowna, and Mrs. R. B. White of  Penticton, continue to take an active interest in the work of the  editorial committee. Mr. and Mrs. Guy P. Bagnall, and Mrs.  Mabel Johnson of Vernon, have been unfailing in help. There  has been no call without adequate response. They are responsible also for a number of new names that appear as contri- Foreword  butors. The place of assistant editor has been ably filled by  Mr. R. J. McDougall of Sorrento, whose unrivalled knowledge of  local history, and all the details of shepherding a Report  through the press, has helped so much.  A number of Okanagan cities have observed anniversaries  this year. Salmon Arm municipality was proclaimed on 15  May, 1905, though the city of Salmon Arm was not incorporated  till 12 March, 1912. Enderby on 1 March, and Kelowna on 4  May, marked their golden jubilee of incorporation. As a city,  Oliver will be ten years old on the last day of December of  this year. Much of last year's Report was devoted to Kelowna;  much of this year's Report will deal with Salmon Arm and Enderby. Next year Summerland will observe its golden jubilee,  and already committees are at work preparing for the celebration. In connection with their anniversaries, the Kelowna  Courier, Enderby Commoner and the Salmon Arm Observer  issued splendid souvenir editions. The Kelowna Courier Ltd.  presented the Society with a handsomely-bound copy of its  Golden Jubilee issue, May 2nd. and May 5th., 1955.  At the annual meeting in May, this year, at Vernon, Dr.  W. N. Sage paid tribute to the Society, saying that the Okanagan Historical Society was one of the largest, English-speaking, historical societies in Canada.    Later during the annual  meeting A. E. Berry pointed out that some names had been  omitted from the printed membership list in OHS. 18.   Following  discussion, it was agreed that every effort should be made to  have   the   printed   membership   include   all   members,   with  addresses.   This Mr. Bagnall has tried to do.   To achieve this  end he has spared no labour.    Those receiving reports, who  discover any error in name, initials, or address, or if their name  is omitted, will render a service if they notify Mr. Guy P. Bag-  . nail, 3317 Coldstream Avenue, Vernon, B.C. Only in this way  can a complete and correct membership list be compiled. We  invite your co-operation.  It was decided also that the names of Patrons, (or those who  donate to the Society the sum of $10, or more, to further its work)  should appear not only at the head of the list but also in the  body of the printed membership. We are happy to learn that  new names have been added to the list of Patrons. This promises Foreword  well for the future work of the Society.  A word about the spelling of place-names: in spite of local  preference, we feel that we have no option but to adopt spelling  in the Gazetteer of Canada: British Columbia (Ottawa, 1953).  To be consistent, we must use the spelling "Pendozi", when we  are referring to a street name in Kelowna, and not "Pandosy,"  which we are prepared to believe is correct. Strange to say,  the word "Pendozi" (or "Pandosy") does not appear in the  Gazetteer. This means that apart from the street name in Kelowna, and the lake ferry-boat name, there is no place-name to  honour Father Pandosy, O.M.I.  For help and encouragement thanks are due, also, to President J. D. Whitham of Kelowna, who has proved himself a  worthy successor in office. He commands the respect and willing loyalty of us all.   —J.G. «-3tV   /ranted   esDouaia  las  Walter N. Sage  Sir James Douglas, K.C.B., (1803-1877), has been termed the  Father of British Columbia. He holds almost a unique place in  British overseas history in that he is one of the very few fur  traders if not actually the only one, who became a colonial  governor. As a matter of fact he was governor not of one but  of two British colonies on the Northwest Pacific coast, Vancouver  Island and British Columbia. He had received no special training for his position as a colonial governor. He had not attended  an English public school nor was he a member of an Oxford  or a Cambridge college. He had come up the hard way and had  learned about men and affairs as an apprentice clerk and subsequently as a commissioned officer in the fur trade and not as  a clerk in the service of the British Colonial Office.  It was,  however, not a bad preparation for a colonial governor who  was called upon to deal with the Indians of the Northwest coast  and also with the hordes of gold seekers who arrived at Victoria,  Walter Noble Sage, B.A.   (Toronto), M.A.  .(Oxford),   Ph.D.   (Toronto),  became   assistant  professor, University of  British  Columbia,  in  1918, associate professor in 1921, head of the  Department of History in 1923-1953.    In 1953  he was named Professor Emeritus of History,  and special lecturer in History from 1953-1955.  Dr. Sage was born at London, Ontario, and  educated   at  the   London   Collegiate  InstrfaJroeB  Dr W N  Sage       1900-1904, 1905-19$M Magdalen College School,  Oxford, England, 1904-1905; University of Toronto 1906-1910; Balliol College, Oxford, 1910-1913; University of Toronto 1922-1925.    He has been  a member  of the Canadian Social  Science Research Council since 1941, and of the Historic Sites &  Monuments Board of Canada since 1943.  During World War I, he enlised in England as private in the  Oxford and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry in August, 1914; and  served with Queen's University Contingent, C.O.T.C. 1915-17. In  1915 he was married to Miss Nelda Mackinnon of Calgary. They  have one son and one daughter.  Dr. Sage is a member of many learned societies, has done much  research work in Canadian history, and is the author of many articles, pamphlets and books, among the best-known of which are  Sir James Douglas and British Columbia (1930), British Columbia  and the United States (1942), The Story of Canada (a textbook, in  collaboration with G. M. Wrong and Chester Martin,1929).  1. Address delivered by Dr. W. N. Sage, at the annual meeting of  the Okanagan Historical Society in Vernon on May 5, 1955. Sir James Douglas  V.I., and the Fraser River digging in the hectic spring and summer of 1858.  There has been always a certain obscurity about the date  and place of birth of James Douglas. Some members of the  Douglas family have claimed that Sir James was born in Lanarkshire, Scotland, but the common tradition is that his birthplace was in Demerara, British Guiana. Dr. W. Kaye Lamb,  Dominion Archivist and National Librarian of Canada, in a valuable article in the British Columbia Historical Quarterly for  19531 has shed new light on this obscure subject. According to  Dr. Lamb, John Douglas Jr., 1772-1840, the father of Sir James,  was a merchant of Glasgow who about 1800 went to Demerara  on business. While there "he formed an attachment which  resulted in a family of at least three children — two sons and  a daughter." The name of James Douglas' mother is not known,  but Mrs. Arthur Bushby, daughter of Sir James and Lady Douglas, who claimed that her father was born in Scotland, sent me  information that her grandmother's maiden name was Ritchie  She did not ,apparently, know her Christian name. John Tod in  his manuscript History ol New Caledonia and the North West  Coast, preserved in the Provincial Archives at Victoria, B.C.,  stated that James Douglas' mother was Creole, or native born.  It is often claimed that Sir James was a mulatto, or that his  mother was a mulatto. The only statement which backs this up  occurs in a letter of Letitia Hargrove written in 1842 that Douglas was "a mulatto son of the renowned Mrs. Douglass of Glasgow."2 Dr. Lamb remarks that "Mrs. Hargrove scarcely knew  Douglas himself and her evidence is very far from being conclusive."3 A few years ago an article appeared in MacLean's  Magazine entitled "The Mulatto King of British Columbia" but  the author was unable to quote any other authority than Mrs.  Hargrove. Sir George Simpson called Douglas a Scotch West  Indian but he gave no hint of mixed blood. The bust of Sir  James Douglas preserved in the Provincial Archives at Victoria,  B.C. possibly exhibits some mulatto traits, but the subject is too  1. W. Kaye Lamb, "Some notes on the Douglas Family", British  Columbia Historical Quarterly, Jan.-Apr. 1953, (Victoria, B.C.  Queen's Printer 1954) pp. 41-51.  2. Margaret Arnett MacLeod, ed. The Letters of Letitia Hargrave,  Toronto, The Champlain Society, 1947, p. 132.  3. Lamb, loc. cit. p. 43  10 Sir James Douglas  Sir James Douglas  Photo courtesy Provincial Archives  obscure to admit of a final answer. A Creole did not usually  have mixed blood. The term was applicable to anyone born m  an overseas European colony. The term "Creole" seems to have  been used in Louisiana much as that of "habitant" was employed in New France. A well-known French dictionary defines  "Creole" as "a person of pure white race born in the colonies."4  This rather long discussion of Douglas' birth and the possibility  of his having had mulatto blood has been necessary because  legends die hard. Probably the old Scottish verdict of "not  proven" covers the case better than anything else. On one  point, however, we now can be sure. Dr. Lamb has shown  without a doubt, that John Douglas was married in Glasgow on  January 14, 1809 to Miss Jessie Hamilton of Greenock. James  Douglas' mother, to employ a term commonly used in the fur  4. Nouveau Petit Larousse Hlustre, Paris, 1937, p. 252.  11 Sir James Douglas  trade, was John Douglas' "country wife." This fact may explain  the difficulties which I encountered over thirty years ago when  I was attempting to get information from members of the Douglas family regarding Sir James' mother.  Young James Douglas obtained his early schooling in  Lanark, Scotland, and possibly also at Chester in England.  His French tutor was an emigre and James seems to have been  an apt pupil. In 1818 his brother, Alexander Douglas, entered  the service of the North West Company and in 1819 James followed suit. He left Liverpool on May 7 on board the Matthews  and arrived at Quebec, after a seven weeks' voyage, on June  28. The winter of 1819-20 he spent at Fort William, the depot of  the North West Company, on Lake Superior. In 1820 he was  sent inland to He a la Crosse in what is now northern Saskatchewan. He remained at He a la Crosse until 1825 when he was  transferred west of the Rqckies to New Caledonia. During Douglas' stay at He a la Crosse the union of the North West and Hudson's Bay Companies took place in 1821 and young James began his long career as a Hudson's Bay Company man. His  brother Alexander, in 1824, left the company's service for which  he seemed none too well fitted. In the summer of 1825 James  Douglas was in charge of Fort Vermilion, Peace River, and in  the autumn crossed the mountains.  For five years Douglas remained in New Caledonia, spending most of his time at Fort St. James, Stuart Lake. As early as  1826 he had attracted the favourable attention of Chief Factor  William Connolly who was in charge of the district. He accompanied Connolly and the brigade in 1826 from Fort St. James  to Fort Vancouver, the recently established post on the Columbia and returned in the autumn. The next year, 1827, Douglas  established a new post for the company at Bear Lake, also  known as Connolly's Lake, in the country of the Sekani tribe.  The winter of 1827-28 he spent at Fort St. James. Apparently  he was dissatisfied at his slow rate of progress in the company's  service and gave notice of his intention to retire when his three-  year contract ran out in the summer of 1828. He did not retire  but renewed his contract on more favourable terms. By this time  Douglas had found his life's partner in the person of Amelia  Connolly, daughter of William and Suzanne Connolly. In an old  account book,  now preserved in the Provincial  Archives at  12 Sir James Douglas  Victoria, Douglas made the following simple entry, "1828, April  27, Married." In 1837, at Fort Vancouver, James and Amelia  Douglas were formally married by the rites of the Church of  England by the Reverend Herbert Beaver, chaplain to the Honourable Hudson's Bay Company. In 1828 there was no clergyman of any religious denomination stationed at Fort St. James.  Twice during that eventful year, 1828, Douglas was attacked by  the Carrier Indians, once at Fort St. James and on the other occasion at Fraser Lake. He had, apparently, not yet learned to  keep his fiery temper under rigid control, but he profited from  these bitter experiences and ever afterwards seems to have  known how to deal with the red men. The "tumult with Indians,"  as Douglas terms it in his notes in the old account book, occurred on August 6, 1828 when Connolly was absent with the brigade for the Columbia. On September 17 of that year Governoi  George Simpson arrived at Fort St. James on his way from York  Factory on Hudson Bay to Fort Vancouver on the Columbia  River. As Connolly was still away it fell to the lot of James  Douglas to welcome Governor Simpson and his party. Connolly  arrived back that afternoon, so that Douglas' moment of glory  was brief indeed.  The Minutes of the Council of the Northern Department of  Rupert's Land for 1829 contain the following resolution:  "That C. F. Connolly be directed to take the necessary  measures to forward James Douglas, clerk to the Columbia,  with the utmost expedition after, the receipt of this instruction  as that Gentleman is appointed to the Office of Accountant at  Fort Vancouver."5' Connolly had, without doubt, suggested this  transfer to Simpson because of the hatred which the Carriers  seemed to bear to Douglas.6  A new day dawned for James Douglas on the Columbia.  From 1830 to 1846 his superior officer was Dr. John McLoughlin,  "the Father of Oregon." This eminent Irish-Scottish-French-Canadian did much for Douglas who rapidly became his alter ego.  5. R. H. Fleming, ed. Minutes of Council, 1821-1831, Toronto, The  Champlain Society, 1940, p. 241, and also London, Hudson's Bay  Record Society, 1940. (H.B. Co. Series III).  6. E. E. Rich ed. McLoughlin's Fort Vancouver Letters, Third Series,  Toronto, The Champlain Society, 1944, App. B. p. 312, and also London, Hudson's Bay Record Society, 1944 (H.B. Co. Series VII).  13 Sir James Douglas  The two were really very dissimilar. McLoughlin was a Celt  who possessed a fairly large amount of French-Canadian blood,  and who maintained to the full the semi-feudal splendour of a  Hudson's Bay chief factor. James Douglas was basically a  Lowland Scot, canny, industrious, enjoying the privileges of  office, but always careful not to excite the enmity or envy of  his superior officers. Dr. McLoughlin disliked Governor Simpson  and took very few pains to conceal the fact. Sir George Simpson  on his part, was very critical of McLoughlin and did not trust  his judgment. As the years passed the breach between these  two giants of the fur trade steadily widened and finally resulted  in McLoughlin's resignation in 1845. It was quite typical of  James Douglas that he quarrelled with neither Simpson nor  McLoughlin but continued to enjoy the respect and confidence  of both. When McLoughlin took a year's furlough in 1838-39  and went to England, James Douglas was placed in charge of  Fort Vancouver and acquitted himself extremely well. In 1834  the Council of the Northern Department recommended Douglas'  promotion to the commissioned office of chief trader and five  years later to the exalted rank of chief factor. By 1840 James  Douglas was one of the lords of the fur trade. He had had a  hard fight for recognition but he had found it on the Columbia.  It was during his stay at Fort Vancouver that Douglas first  encountered the incoming American missionaries and settlers.  In the early 1840's "the covered waggons creaked the plains  across "bringing the American settlers to Oregon and on May 2,  1843 the provisional government was proclaimed at Champoeg  on the Willamette River "until the United States of America  extend their jurisdiction over us." In 1845 McLoughlin and  Douglas agreed that the Hudson's Bay Company should join  in with the Provincial government provided that certain conditions which they named were met. The Oregon Treaty of 1846  settled the boundary question, but it also rang the death knell for  the Hudson's Bay Company south of this newly formed International Boundary.  Already in 1842, acting under orders from the Council of  the Northern Department of Rupert's Land, James Douglas had  chosen a site for a new depot for the Hudson's Bay Company  on Vancouver Island and in the spring of 1843 he superintended  14 Sir James Douglas  the construction of Fort Victoria. In spite of American claims that  the 49th parallel be the boundary to the Pacific Ocean, Great  Britain retained all of Vancouver Island. James Douglas had  chosen the site well and the Hudson's Bay Company had used  all its influence with the British government.  In 1849 Douglas moved his wife and family from Fort Vancouver to Fort Victoria. During the same year the Hudson's Bay  Company obtained a royal grant of the newly formed colony  of Vancouver Island. A royal governor, Richard Blanshard,  arrived in March, 1850 and officially proclaimed the new colony.  He found, however, that Chief Factor James Douglas was the  real ruler of the island and in 1851 the royal governor departed  leaving Douglas as senior member of the Council of Vancouver  Island. The British government bowed to the inevitable and appointed James Douglas the second governor of Vancouver. Island. Douglas was able to combine quite satisfactorily the duties  of chief factor and governor. The colony did not progress very  rapidly. As Judge Howay once drily remarked: "It was not intended that it should." A gold flurry in the Queen Charlottes  in 1852 resulted in Douglas receiving a commission as lieutenant-governor of the Queen Charlotte Islands, and in his first  attempts to manage a gold rush. In 1856 as the result of the  orders of the Colonial Office in London, Douglas reread his  commission and instructions and summoned a legislative assembly, the first assembly in British North America west of the  Great Lakes.  The great gold rush of 1858 to Fraser River was Douglas'  great testing time. He had his plans ready and as the nearest  British official and also as a chief factor of the Hudson's Bay  Company he did what he could to curb the incoming gold  miners. He had seen the Americans take over Oregon and he  was determined that they should not have the new gold fields  north of the International Boundary. He wrote lengthy despatches to the Colonial Office in London, and fortunately for all concerned these despatches were read and acted upon. Douglas  made mistakes, especially when he tried to uphold the monopoly  of the Hudson's Bay Company, but fortunately for him, and for  British Columbia, a new Secretary of State for the colonies took  office in June, 1858 in the person of the well-known novelist,  Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton.  L  15 Sir James Douglas  Lytton saw at once that a new colony, completely separated from the Hudson's Bay Company, should be established  right away on the mainland. He therefore prepared legislation  for the colony of New Caledonia. Fortunately, he consulted Her  Majesty Quen Victoria who suggested that the name of the  colony be British Columbia. Lytton offered Douglas the governorship of British Columbia provided that he divested himself of  all his interests in and connections with the Hudson's Bay  Company and its subsidiary the Puget Sound Agricultural Company. Douglas agreed to these terms and the Imperial Act of  August 2, 1858, created the Crown Colony of British Columbia.  With characteristic thoroughness Lytton sent out a special detachment of the Royal Engineers under the command of Colonel  R. C. Moody who was given a dormant commission as lieutenant-governor and an active appointment as Commissioner of  Lands and Works of British Columbia. The Royal Engineers  were to assist in the opening up of the new gold colony. To  Colonel Moody fell the task of choosing the site for the capital  of British Columbia. In 1859 he picked New Westminster. Once  again Her Majesty kindly furnished the name. Lytton also sent  out Judge Matthew Baillie Begbie to take charge of the legal  problems of the new colony. It was also a fortunate selection.  James Douglas was governor of both colonies from 1858  to his retirement in 1864. He lived in Victoria and very seldom  visited the mainland. He -was sworn in by Judge Begbie at Fort  Langley in the rain on November 19, 1858, and he lived in  New Westminster for a brief period in 1864. Governor Douglas  and Colonel Moody did not agree well together, but Douglas  had a real admiration for Judge Begbie. Lytton also sent out  some valuable officials especially Chartres Brew who helped  to form the first police force in British Columbia, and later was  a magistrate in Cariboo.  Although his commission and instructions empowered him  to summon a legislature in British Columbia, they also allowed  him to legislate by proclamation and to keep control of the  government in his own hands. It was probably wise that Douglas was given these enormous powers especially when it is  remembered how very unstable and fluctuating a mining population is. As New Westminster and the other towns on Fraser  16  J Sir James Douglas  River and in Cariboo grew and prospered in the early 1860's,  demands for representative institutions became louder and  louder, and petition after petition was forwarded to London.  At length the ColonialJMffice ordered Douglas to summon a  legislative council composed of officials, magistrates and certain elected representatives. The Legislative Council of British  Columbia met in 1864 at New Westminster just before Sir  James Douglas — he had been knighted in 1863 — retired from  office.  Douglas was a "king of roads." The greatest, of course,  was the Cariboo Road built between 1862 and 1865 and connecting Yale at the head of navigation on Fraser River with  Barkerville, the centre of the Cariboo gold fields. But Douglas  also planned, although he could not build, a waggon road  crossing British Columbia from the coast to the Kootenays.  After he retired in 1864 Sir James Douglas visited the  British Isles, France, Spain and Italy. He returned in 1865 and  settled down quietly at James Bay, Victoria, V.I. He took no  active part in politics, but privately he was known to express  his feelings. During the years he had amassed a fair amount  of property, most of it farm land in the vicinity of Victoria which  he had purchased at the up-set price of £1.0.0 per acre. It was  a thoroughly legitimate real estate venture, but Sir James was  Lowland Scot enough to reap a rich harvest. When he died on  August 2, 1877, he was probably by far the richest man in  British Columbia.  During the last six years of his life Sir James Douglas was  technically a Canadian. No doubt he felt some interest and  possibly a certain loyalty to the Canadian Dominion, but he  was at heart a Vancouver Islander and a British Columbian.  He had played a mighty role on a small stage during the formative years of our province. If his steady hand had not been  on the helm of the ship of state it is quite possible that British  Columbia might now be the State of Columbia and that Canada would not have reached the Pacific.  Study the past if you would divine the future. — Confucius.  17 ^t   —Jrlbute   —Jo   ^Jhe    I {atlue  Thomas H. Ainsworth1  They climbed our early ships and marvelled then  At all the tawdry things we brought lor trade;  And seeing them as neolithic men,  We set them in a lower human grade.  And through this old disparity of race,  We owe to them encouragement to reach  The disconcerting measure of our pace,  And jointly share the 'Progress that we preach.  How did they fare before our traders came  With guns and beads and cloth of gaudy hue?  A thousand years their pattern was the same,  They still recall the plenitude they .knew.  Here in a timeless age they made their tools,  Oi stone with stone to shape the giant trees  For nets to catch the teeming salmon schools,—   !  Canoes to hunt the whale through stormy seas.  They dug the shellfish from the tidal bay,  In forests dark they stalked the leaping deer;  They met the lurking dangers night or day,  Conditioned by a code to have no fear.  The trophies that we show attest our skill,  The deadly highpower rille gave us dare;  Yet with the bow and barb they made their kill,  And put to rout the cougar and the bear.  In days of old above our castle moats,  When banners made the deeds of valour known,  The Native Race whose signs adorned their boats,  Showed pride of Clan the equal oi our own.  And now throughout the world their crafts are shown:  The fabrics that they wove from wool and bark,  In what they carved from stone and wood and bone,  Their genius of old has left its mark.  1. Thomas H. Ainsworth, F.R.S.A., F.R.A.I., is secretary of the  (Vancouver) Art, Historical and Scientific Association, and curator  of Vancouver City Museum. Mr. Ainsworth takes every opportunity to imbue the members of our Native Race, particularly the  younger generation, with a sense of pride in their past achievements, for when a race is conscious of its traditions it assumes a  dignity which brings recognition.  18 C^nderbu   incorporated   Jsn   1905  M. Pidoborozny  Even in primeval times the site of Enderby must have  appeared to be a place to stay, rather than country to be  passed through. The cliffs that rise across the river; the river  itself, that turns sharply there and with a branching slough  makes a junction of waters and the valley that, approached  from the north becomes suddenly wider, all make the place a  natural meeting place for men.   It is accessible.  The first white settlers found this to be the case. River traffic  from Sicamous to Mara and Enderby, and the stage routes  through Westwold to Kamloops fed the movement of settlers  into the south of the valley; but to Enderby fell the rightful  honour of being the first settlement. As a city it has now been  here for fifty years, a distinction it shares in the Shuswap and  Okanagan with Salmon Arm and Kelowna.  Incorporation, on March 1, 1905, was accomplished amid  lively dispute as to the wisdom of the action. The first mayor,  George Bell, and his council, Messrs. Evans, Kenney, Bradley,  Sharpe and Smith, had no simple task. The total receipts of  the city for the first year were just under $2,700, and an alert  citizenry were demanding a waterworks system. Water was at  that time sold and delivered by the barrel, and there was no  agreement as to the best way to bring water in. Fred Barnes,  (now living in retirement at Debert, N.S., at the age of 97) then  headed those who opposed incorporation, as he deemed the  settlement too small to assume civic responsibility. At the same  time he set an example in co-operation once the city was formed and he became an alderman on the second council and,  later, was third mayor of the city. In 1906 the waterworks  system was put in by the city which issued debentures for  $20,000 for this purpose.  Graham Rosoman was engaged at the first council meeting  in April, 1905, as city clerk and collector, an office he held until  August, 1939, when he was succeeded by his daughter Miss  Hazel Rosoman, the present incumbent.   To this gentleman and  19 Enderby Incorporated In 1905  his daughter whom he trained  for her position, the city owes  much for the continuity in management and the background  of knowledge of the city that  both have given with devoted  service.  Graham Rosoman  Photo  Courtesy  The Enderby Commoner  In 1904 the pioneer newspaperman H. M. Walker founded the Edenograph, the city's  first newspaper which he sold  in 1905 to Fraser Brothers who  continued the publication as  The Enderby Progress until  1907. They in turn sold it to  Mr. Walker whose interest in  Enderby had never flagged. At  first Walker's Weekly, then  during the years of World War  I The Okanagan Commoner  (serving Armstrong as well, and published by Carey  Bros.) and then as The Enderby Commoner, the paper reflected  Mr. Walker's lively and fearless jornalistic ability. This gave  the Commoner a strong place in the1 development of the town  and its character. Mr. Walker (1871-1944) sold his paper in  1941 to F. S. Rouleau and under succeeding owners it still continues. At the time of writing there is every possibility that its  earlier issues may be preserved on microfilm, as the Provincial  Archivist is now seriously considering this step.  The Bank of Montreal, still the city's only bank, was  established in 1905. In 1905 the city also had the. services of  the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway which had succeeded  the riverboat Red Star as the city's best means of transportation. The Red Star (master, Captain D. G. Cumming, Engineer  George Folkard) was a paddle steamer plying the Spallumcheen (now Shuswap) River from Sicamous to Enderby, and  her hulk is now on the riverbottom at Enderby, not far from her  former mooring place. The Columbia Flouring Mills, thriving in  1905 as it had for many years, was the reason for the Red Star.  20 Enderby Incorporated In 1905  R. P. Rithet, who purchased the mill from its builder Mr. Rashdale, had the boat put in commission in order to carry out flour,  "Moffat's Best," named for the manager. The old steamer was,  however, long out of use when Enderby was incorporated, as  the railway took over her duties of passenger and freight carrier  in the late 1880's.  A two room school served the town in 1905, and the assistant to the principal, H. McDonald, was Miss M. V. Beattie.  Enderby's first major school building since 1915 (The Fortune  School) was completed in 1954 and was named the M. V.  Beattie School in honour of this lady's lifetime of service which  ended with her retirement in Kamloops • where she now lives.  A Roman Catholic mission church (later destroyed by  lightning) was the first church in. Enderby, and was situated  just south of town near the Indian graveyard. A. L. Fortune  (1831-1915), a staunch Presbyterian and the first settler in the  district, shared amicably with the priests the task of teaching  Christianity to the Indians. The Presbyterian Church (now St.  Andrew's United Church) was built in 1906. A monument to  Mr. Fortune, the first Presbyterian elder in the Okanagan,  stands upon the church grounds. (The date of his birth on this  monument is given as 1831 although some records: have it as  1830). Of Mr. Fortune himself, enough has been written to  make repetition unnecessary ,but his history as a member of  the Overlanders and his arrival as first settler in Enderby in  1866, his subsequent success as a farmer and his energetic  attention to the spiritual welfare of the place, all merit remembrance, and must be included in any story of Enderby. At the  time of the city's incorporation he was one of the most prosperous farmers in the district.  St. George's Anglican Church, the oldest church in the  valley remaining on its original site (St. James's in Armstrong is  older, but was moved from Lansdowne) was in 1905 served by  ■ Rev. F. V. Venables. Rev. A. E. Roberts was Methodist minister  at that time, and Rev. D. Campbell was, in 1905, the Presbyterian minister.  Dr. J. E. Bentley, to be succeeded next year by Dr. Verner,  was physician to the town and in 1907 Dr. H. W. Keith began  the twenty-six years of service that makes his name well-loved  21 Enderby Incorporated In 1905  in Enderby to this day. Both Enderby Lodge No. 40, A.F. &  A.M. and Eureka Lodge No. 50, I.O.O.F. were founded in  Enderby in 1905, and the Knights of Pythias Lodge No. 35  received its charter on December 29th, 1904.  Industry at the time of incorporation included the Enderby  brick yard which provided brick for all the older brick buildings  in Enderby including the City Hall (built 1909). Logging and  dairy farming, which continue of paramount importance, were  also well established.  The years that have followed have been the natural outgrowth of these beginnings. The farrrSgr area has been increased by a notable dewappment of the area between Enderby and Mabel Lake, with the older farms in the main part of  the valley living up to their early promise. Two world wars and  the depression halted the town's growth as they halted that of  other towns.  Since World War II the city has again prospered. Besides  the new school, the city has a new and modern hospital. The  old King Edward Hotel, which was destroyed by fire, has been  replaced by the new Enderby Hotel. There is an up-to-date  movie-house, The Monarch, built by the late K. Samol. The  Lions Club has given the city a new Health Centre building,  and a community swimming pool at Barnes Playground (named for Fred Barnes who donated the site). The United Church  has a new and modern manse, the Fraternal Societies Hall is  jointly owned by Masonic and Oddfellows Lodges, there is a  new C.P.R. station, and an impressive array of new buildings  for both business and residential purposes: all of this built since  the war, and indicating an active community that looks backward proudly and looks forward with confidence.  Give me room! Give me air! cries the man who has been  in the wilds; the man who knows, whose eyes have looked  over vast territories and become accustomed to the glare of  the sun and the snow, whose blood glows at the touch of the  breeze, whose heart gladdens at the cry of the wild.—Canada,  The Land of Hope, by E. Eay Elkington (London, 1910).  22 C^nderbu 5     ///<  V  \auor6  1905-1910—*George Bell.  1911-1913—*John L. Ruttan.  1913-1914—Fred H. Barnes.  1915 —* Samuel Poison.  1915-1916-1918—*Frank B. Dill.  1918 (from May 3)—Acting Mayor *Richard J. Coltart.  1919-1921—Fred H. Barnes.  1921-1922—*George H. Smedley.  1922 (from June 28)—Acting Mayor *R. J. Coltart.,  1923 —* Samuel Poison.  1924 —*James F. Johnson.  1925-1944—*Charles Hawkins.  1944-1946—Geo. E. McMahon.  1947-1949—W. H. Logan.  1949 to (from Sept. 2) 1955—N. S. Johnson.  * Deceased.  Enderby's First Mayor  George Bell  Photo courtesy  The Enderby Commoner  Enderby's Present Mayor  N. S. Johnson  Photo courtesy  The Enderby Commoner  23 Carlu    oDaud   *~rn   C^nderbu  Reg Hadow  If I were asked what has changed most during the fifty-two  years I have lived in this district—my reply would be—the  roads. It is difficult for the present generation who now travel  for the most part on broad straight hard-surfaced highways to  realize what the roads were like fifty years ago. Many of the  main roads were in reality little better than trails. So narrow  in some places that a buggy or wagon had difficulty in passing  each other. None of the roads were gravelled with the result  that in summer the dust on the surface was inches deep. In the  fall and spring owing to the deep ruts the roads were almost-  impassable especially when they were frozen. If there had been  any wind it was always advisable to bring along an axe and  crosscut saw as there were frequently trees blown down and  lying across the roads. The making and repairing of the roads  was mostly done by farmers who gladly took the opportunity of  working off their taxes. The road gang usually consisted of a  road foreman, maybe half a dozen men with axes, cant hooks,  saws, etc.; a team and scraper and a powder man whose job  it was to blow out the stumps. I always noticed when the going  got really tough the road got correspondingly narrower.  I took up a homestead in the fall of 1903 situated about half  way between Salmon Arm and Enderby, about a mile back  from the main road. Like many other bachelor homesteaders I  think my original idea was to have a shack I could den up in  Priceless Asset—Youth And Optimism  Looking back on those youthful days I often wonder how  we youngsters had the colossal nerve to take up our bush  homesteads with the intention of eventually converting them  into a home and a farm. We must have realized to a great  extent what we were letting ourselves in for. But I think one  thing appealed to all of us—we were our own bosses working  on our own land.    We also had that priceless asset—youth  1. Reprinted from the Enderby Commoner, July 1, 1955,  Golden  Jubilee anniversary issue.  24 Early Days In Enderby  and the optimism and energy that goes with it. Of course there  were no bull-dozers then. All the land clearing had to be done  yard by yard by hand labour. First of all we had to hack a  road into the homestead. Then get out logs for a cabin; make  shakes for the roof; dig a well and later start clearing land; put  up a barn, woodshed, implement shed; split cedar logs for rails  and fencing—all of which took years to accomplish.  Until the advent of the motor vehicles and modern farm  machinery the whole tempo of time was perceptibly slower  than it is today. If one met a neighbour when driving to town  the two buggies would draw up alongside each other and  ^S^|ed to exchange the latest gossip and news of the district.  There was no unnecessary rush on our local train either. I  recollect one day in 1903 when I was at Armstrong waiting  for the train to take me back to Enderby. On the arrival of the  train, about half a dozen men got off and made a bee line for  the bar-room. A few minutes later the train continued on its  journey north leaving the thirsty gang behind. Some one must  have notified them the train had gone. They all ran to the  station yelling and waving their hats. But by that time the  train had travelled a considerable distance along the line. I  can only suppose that some member of the train crew saw in  the distance the gesticulating men and notified the engine  driver. Anyway gradually the train came to a stop and then  slowly backed down the line to Armstrong, picked up the happy  gang and proceeded on its way.  Before Motoring Days—Walking Was Vogue  Before the days of motoring we all used our legs to an  extent that must sound incredible to the modern generation.  We were all great walkers. I remember walking from my  homestead to Armstrong and on another occasion to Notch Hill.  In those days nobody thought a jaunt like that unusual. I  recollect my reason for walking to Notch Hill and Armstrong  was to save the price of a railway ticket. We homesteaders  were invariably hard up and quite frequently flat broke.  Fifty years ago any man who was ready to work and  rough it could start on a homestead almost on the proverbial  shoe string. The material for his building (logs) he could get  off his place.   Also the roofing—shakes.    All the buildings on  25 Early Days In Enderby  farms were erected with the help of neighbours. That was called  a "Bee", which I understand is an ancient Saxon word meaning  "a gathering together"—and that's just what it was, a gathering  together of one's neighbours who rallied round on the appointed  day armed with axes, saws, peevies, cant hooks, etc. No  machinery was used, often not even a team. All the logs were  man handled. It was astonishing what a lot of work could be  accomplished and how quickly a building went up. I've been  present at many "bees" at Deep Creek, Grandview, at farms  along the river and elsewhere. I think it's a remarkable fact  that in spite of men working for hours in unaccustomed positions with sharp axes—hoisting by hand heavy logs to considerable heights—working on roofs, etc., I never saw or heard  of a single accident or mishap. The neighbours gave their help  free and they were jolly or sociable affairs, and all the time the  building was going up there was much talking, laughter and  swapping of jokes and reminiscences.  In some respects I think Enderby is a quieter place  (socially) than it was in the old days. In those times there were  far more entertainments and sociable gatherings than there are  today. In winter there were numerous dances, private as well as  public. The first (public) dance I went to was held in a large  room that I think eventually became Fred Barnes' workshop.  When that was no longer available, a hall in the upper storey of  the Bell Block—recently burned down—came into use for  dances, political meetings, etc. There were also concerts and  plays staged by local talent. Also there were numerous private  dances out in the country given by Mr. and Mrs. Stroulger  (senior), Mr. and Mrs. Henry Greyell (in Enderby), Mr. and Mrs.  Pounds, Mr. and Mrs. Salt and Mr. and Mrs. H. Waby. They  were all real homey and enjoyable little gatherings at which  "a good time was had by all." The music was supplied by  gramophone, a violin or in any emergency a mouth organ  filled in very well.  Social Life Full In Early Days  Mr. and Mrs. But chart got up skating parties on a large  slough (now drained and under cultivation) situated not far from  Grindrod.   They were a great success and very enjoyable.   In  latter years Mrs. Livingstone—whom many of you will remem-  26 Early Days In Enderby  ber—got up Reviews which were staged at the K.P. Hall. Mrs.  Livingstone had a decided talent for organizing that form of  entertainment. The shows she put on would have done credit  to a city much larger than Enderby. All the talent was local  and under her able direction the acting, dances, costumes and  scenery were excellent.  Going to a dance or some other festivity in the winter was  a very different affair to what it is today. There was no such  thing as a quick trip in a comfortable well-heated car. Going  to a dance wasn't so bad even if one did travel behind a horse  in an open cutter. It was the trip back in the early hours of the  morning, perhaps in sub zero weather, that often amounted to  a feat of endurance. I remember one occasion arriving home  so paralyzed with cold I had considerable difficulty unhitching  and unharnessing my team and vowing in. the future I would  cut out all night gaieties. In less than a week I was on the  road again to another "hop."  I hope I haven't given the idea that we oldtimers spent  most of oun time enjoying ourselves at some form of festivity.  There are elderly folks in this district now who in years gone  by had a long, hard and grim struggle to feed and clothe their  families. In 1905 there were none of the numerous government  gratuities that nowadays help to tide over hard times; no old  age pensions, children's allowance, hospital and unemployment insurance, etc. Farm produce brought very small returns  and sometimes we could not sell our goods at any price. If  we worked out to bring in a little cash, the wages we received  were a mere fraction of what they are today. On the other  hand, of course, everything we bought was considerably cheaper than it is today. But all the same, the going was pretty  tough at times. To the young folks of today our mode of plain  and simple living with its long hours of work would be intolerable. Yet taking it all in all we were a happy and contented  lot.  Here's a little incident I recollect that was either a sample  of the free and easy ways of the early days or perhaps a joke  played by some of the boys on a neighbour. One day in the  summer of 1906 I was riding along the Deep Creek Road.  Passing a one room shack, I noticed a bit of paper with writing  27 Early Days In Enderby  on it tacked to the door. Curiosity made me dismount and  investigate. The door was locked and no one around. Apparently the owner of the shack had got into some trouble with  the law. The local provincial policeman had driven out to Deep  Creek to arrest and bring the man back with him to Enderby.  But the wanted man was not at home. So, the "cop" had left a  polite note attached to the door requesting the wanted man to  come to Enderby and give himself up, as the policeman explained—He didn't want the trouble of making another trip  to Deep Creek.  Warm Tribute To Pioneer Women  No reference to the early days would be complete without  a warm tribute to the pioneer women of half a century ago.  They were wonderful and deserve just as much credit as the  men in helping to develop this district. They endured hardship,  loneliness and long hours of monotonous work with none of the  numerous labour saving gadgets that are now considered necessities in almost every house today. In spite of living under  trying and difficult conditions somehow they made the interior  of the rough log shacks of the pioneer farms into comfortable  and attractive homes and frequently helped considerably with  the out-door work. It was my privilege and good fortune to  know a number of those pioneer women. I shall always remember them as courageous, hospitable and kind-hearted.  Recently I had a pleasant chat with my old friend Harry  Naylor (Senior) of Deep Creek who came to the Okanagan in  1889—sixty-six years ago. It is difficult to realize what an  empty and sparsely-settled country it was in those days. Harry  got off the train at Sicamous. The only way to travel south was  by steamer up the river, which made the trip every other day.  However, Harry decided to walk- to Enderby—a distance of 25  miles which he accomplished in one day with a 30-pound  pack on his shoulder. (Remember I mentioned previously that  the oldtimers were good foot sloggers). The fact that impressed  me most was Harry's remark that during the whole twenty-five  mile journey from Sicamous to Enderby, he only passed two  houses! One at Mara and the other a shack situated on the  property now owned by John May. . I often think what a pity  it is that some one with a gift for writing can't take the time and  28 Early Days In Enderby  trouble to jot down the recollections of the few remaining pioneers who have so many interesting and stirring memories of the  rugged days previous to 1905.  Finally—What of the girls of fifty years ago—the ones we  youngsters used to meet at the picnics and socials—the "lovelies" we danced and skated with? Tempus fugit—time flies  and the majority of you are now greyhaired grandmothers.  But don't let that worry you "girls." Believe me you are all—  yes, everyone of you—just as charming today as you were in  those brave old days of long ago!  The fur brigades and the miners' pack trains have long  since given way, first to the steamboats and railways, then  later, when rough trails developed into smooth highways, to  motorized and high-speed traffic, and all of these carry the  products of mine, forest and farm to the markets of the world.  The old-time adventurous and thrilling days of exploration, fur  trading and placer mining are gone and with them has perished something that will never live again.—Clara Graham in  Fur and Gold in the Kootenavs (Vancouver, 1945). Compare  with this Mildred Cable in The Gobi Desert (London, 1942), p.301:  "They can conquer the desert spaces and shatter its silences,  but they can never capture its magic charm, and those who  have been disciplined and instructed by its austerity still find  that the elusive spirit of the desert can call them at will, to roam  again in the Gobi that once was."  It is to live twice, when we enjoy the recollections of our  former life—Martial.  Rich as we are in biography, a well-written life is almost  as rare as a well-spent one; and there are certainly many more  men whose history deserves to be recorded than persons able  and willing to furnish the record. — Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881)  29 C^nderbu   ^rn    C^arlu    &Dau5    \-Jlf  m  itU  rncorporauon  Mrs. Harry Preston  I arrived in Enderby in 1906 with my young son who was  11 months old, after a long journey from Lancashire, England.  Mr. Preston, who came to Enderby in 1905, met us at the station.  The train at that time ran from Sicamous to Vernon one day  and back the next. It was very slow and did not always run  on schedule.  The roads were just wagon trails, very muddy in the  spring and hard to find in the winter time. There were no snow  plows, the first sleigh or cutter out broke the trail. If they met  anyone on foot it was the pedestrian who stepped out in the  snow to let the sleigh or wagon pass, for fear it would spill its  load if it got off the road. When people ventured out after dark  they all carried storm lanterns. Without the landmarks we  have today it was very easy to get lost during winter storms.  We seemed to have a lot more snow in those years and the  river used to freeze over all the time. All the farmers put up  their own ice. They cut most of it near Miss Cox's present  property and stored it in their own sawdust shed. We were  closer to our North Enderby neighbours then, because we could  cross on the ice. I remember walking across the river where  Palmers now live to attend parties at Mrs. Currie's home (she  lives in Vernon now) and also at Miss Queenie Parks' home. It  was not unusual for young folk to skate from Mara to Enderby.  At this time Enderby had the small station; two hotels, the  King Edward and the Enderby Hotel better known as the Webb  Wright Hotel); one butcher store; a livery barn; the Trading  Post, where you bought everything from a pen to harness; a  drug store; three grocery stores with no deliveries; a furniture  store; jewelry store; two restaurants; a two-room school; a bank;  a small post office: a brick yard; a sawmill that hired about two  1. Reprinted from the Enderby Commoner, July 1, 1955,  Golden  Jubilee anniversary issue.  30 Enderby In Early Days Of Incorporation  hundred workers (a good portion of them were Chinese,  Japanese and Hindus); two blacksmith shops; a boarding house  for mill workers; and three churches, Anglican, Methodist and  Presbyterian. We had a doctor but the nearest hospital was  at Vernon.  When loggers came in from the bush the town was very  busy and very noisy. They handed their pay cheques over to  the proprietor to keep for their board and all the drinks they  needed which were plenty. When it was all spent they would  go back to work again to make more; this was the kind of life  they liked.  Enderby made a name for herself in those days and was  definitely on the map. The farmers went in for fruit growing  and Enderby, believe it or not, took quite a few prizes, including  the Banksian Medal. They also took the highest award for  dessert apples at the Royal Horticultural Show in London,  England, and their potatoes the highest award at the Dry Farming Congress at Lethbridge.  In later years the bottom fell out of the market for apples.  After the expense of pruning, spraying and buying boxes the  farmers were billed for handling and storing of apples they  could not sell. The fruit trees were removed to make room for  grain and alfalfa which paid better.  One could get pork from the farmers at five and ten cents  a pound, quarters of beef at five cents a pound for front quarters, and seven cents for hind quarters; chickens ready to go in  the oven at thirty-five cents; eggs, ten cents and butter twenty.  Farmers' wives thought they were lucky to get a bit of cash as  most things were traded. Wheat was one dollar for a hundred  pound sack. We once bought a ton of potatoes for four dollars.  'It was cheap feed for the pigs.  Wages were twenty-five cents an hour and you worked  ten hours a day from six in the morning until six at night. My  husband worked for Fred Barnes when he first came here and  they were kept very busy building houses. It seems we were  able to put up better meals on the table in those days than we  can now earning ten or twelve dollars a day.  31 Enderby In Early Days Ol Incorporation  We Triad no cars, no theatres or dance halls to go to for  entertainment. All the fun was your own making and people  visited their neighbours more and were always ready to give  a helping hand in time of sickness, to dig a well, feed a threshing crew, build a barn or join in a quilting bee.  Everyone was in bed between eight and nine for they had  to be up at four-thirty or five in the morning.  On Sundays, most families went to church as that was the  only time some of them got off the farm, to meet one another.  Church committees raised money for the churches by having  concerts and plays and people gave more generously than they  do now under the present system.  They were just starting to do the ditching from Brash Creek  to Enderby to bring a water system into Enderby when I came.  The Chinese came to your door selling two coal oil cans full  of water for twenty-five cents or fifty cents a barrel from tho  river. The water was precious and we used it for as many  chores as possible, often bathing baby, washing clothes and  scrubbing the floor before throwing it out.  When water did arrive in the main part of town most  people had only a standpipe in their yard. Those who could  afford plumbing in their homes had only cold water pipes for  some time.  Historic Fire Is Recalled  On May 3, 1909, a terrible bush fire started from a spark  from a freight train. It had been a hot dry summer and a wind  fanned the grass into a blaze on the Fenton farm. From there  it got a good start in a field of old cedar logs, travelled to the  Stroulger farm burning a big new barn; jumped the river and  travelled on to Grindrod, burning Mr. Knapp's entire farm and  animals; then on to Mara, burning homes, barns, animals, crops  and fences as it went.  Because of the suddenness of the fire and the swiftness and  uncertainty of its course the farmers were left to fight their fires  alone. As news could only travel by word of mouth in those  days, it was not until the following day that Enderby knew of  Mora's misfortune.  The Postmistress of Mara, Mrs. Rosoman, was an invalid at  32 Enderby In Early Days Oi Incorporation  that time and was carried to a boat with a couple of blankets,  minutes before her home and all contents of the post office were  destroyed by fire. She spent the night in the boat, unable to  return to land and with nothing to return to when she did.  Three bridges were burned and many homes were lost with  all contents on each side of the river. The Enderby sawmill  closed down so the men could fight fire. It was coming into  the railway tracks by our place and my neighbour, Mr. Waby,  kept his horse and buggy beside the house ready to take his  wife out of danger. For days the fire kept breaking out again  until the Lord took a hand and sent rain and lots of it.  First Great War Then Depression  In 1914 war broke out and people seemed to have more  money. When the men came home again they began to buy  property and fix up their homes. Many purchased homes  under the Soldiers Settlement Board but found out later they  could not make them pay, and gave them up.  Enderby settled into a depression, common at this time  across the contry. The mill closed down and houses went back  to the city for unpaid taxes. Many homes were bought for almost nothing and moved off to farms. Many people moved  away.  It took another war to bring Enderby back to what it is  today. People built more costly and modern homes, also more  stores. Thanks to the late Mr. Samol, Enderby got its first  theatre. Sawmills began' to operate again making more work  for the men. We now have lots of new schoolrooms for the  young people and a chance to give them higher education  which was very expensive and difficult to get, years ago, when  parents had to send them out of town.  Just a few words on travel by air. I recall when it was a  most radical idea and no one could believe it would reach the  grand scale it has today to bring medical help, mail and luxury  travel to our door-steps. Now we have jet planes and atomic  bombs to make our heads swirl.  Would Not Care To Turn Clock Back  In summing up the difference between now and former  33 Enderby In Early Days Ol Incorporation  days I would say we used to have more social fellowship, because we used to seek and make our own amusement. In the  modern age there are so many things to do and so many places  to go, and not enough time to do them all.  Personally, I would not care to turn the clock back fifty  years and be a pioneer again. I have no desire to return to the  wash board, tin tubs and flat irons. Give me more modem  appliances and lots of them, say I, an old timer. Memories of  our families growing up and pleasant friendships are our treasures of the past.  Things without remedy  should be  with regard;  what  is  done is done.—Shakespeare.  Stirred up with high hopes of living to be brave men and  worthy patriots, dear to God, and famous to all ages.—Milton.  I used to go to my room at night and lie and think of the  old days when there were buffalo and plenty of animals everywhere. At that time there were a lot of old men, and it was  nice to be around. . . . Then I would think of what my grandfather used to tell me when I was a small child. He said that  some day the white men would be everywhere on the plains.  I did not believe him. He said that some day they would drive  all the animals away; they would put up fences everywhere,  and the Indian would have to camp in one place all the time.  I did not believe him. But now I was beginning to realize that  everything my grandfather had said was coming true—and I  wondered if he could see it.—Long Lance (New York, 1928),  p.277.  34 C^nderbu     ignited   L^hurch   ^rristorv.  When Enderby was incorporated as a city on the first of  March, 1905, George Bell was elected first mayor. He was a  prominent worker in the Methodist Church. Of course, the post  office had been in operation since November 1, 1887, with  Oliver Harvey as postmaster. As early as 1885 the townsite  was called Belvidere; and before that Lambly's or Steamboat  Landing, and Spallumcheen, its Indian name. From the earliest days of settlement the Church played an important part.  Here we are concerned with the Presbyterian, Methodist and  United Church histories of Enderby and district.  PRESBYTERIAN  There are six divisions in the Presbyterian story. After the  first two, these correspond with the increasing importance of  Enderby as a centre, and consequent decrease in area served  by its ministers till it became a charge in its own right. Until  1911 it was part of the Spallumcheen field (Armstrong north to  Sicamous).   This was true also of the Methodist Church.  I, (1862-1875) The first division we date from the arrival  of Alexander Leslie Fortune, who came to British Columbia with  the Overlanders of '62. He finally located on the bank of the  Spallumcheen River, as the Shuswap was called till 1901,  alongside the Indian reserve. He was by nature a missionary,  taught the Indians about the Great Spirit, and conducted open  air Sunday school among their children, with the tacit support  of the Roman Catholic priests. He was joined by Mrs. Fortune  in 1874.  II. — (1875-1886) During these years Endear enjoyed  occasional visits from Rev. George Murray and Rev. John  Chisholm. Mr. Murray, of the Church of Scotland, had arrived  in Nicola in 1875, and a church was built there the following  year. In 1884 Mr. Chisholm was asked to survey the territory  between Nicola and the Rockies. One result was that at  its March meeting in 1886 the Presbyterian Home Mission Board  received a request for a missionary from "certain settlers in  the Spallumcheen Valley."  35 Enderby United Church History  III. — (1886-1889) The request was granted, and Rev. J. A.  Jaffary appointed to serve North Okanagan, which included  Enderby, Falkland, Glenemma, Vernon, Lumby, Okanagan  Centre, Benvoulin, Kelowna and Rock Creek, thus including  middle and south Okanagan as well. In The Presbyterian  Record, January, 1911, Mrs. Jaffary gives dates of arrival and  departure as July 15, 1886 and May 15, 1889. Mr. and Mrs.  Jaffary remained three years, teaching, preaching and visiting  the scattered ranchers. Cattle raising was the main industry  of those days, when peavine and vetch grew up to the horse's  stirrups, and there were no fences.  IV. — (1889-1907) During this period the field was reduced  to  include only Enderby,  Armstrong,  Salmon  Arm  (Hullcar),  Falkland and Glenemma.   The work was maintained by Revs.  John Knox Wright, 1889-96; T. G. McLeod (who came with his  bride) 1896-1902; and Duncan Campbell, who was inducted in  1902.    As a result of a canvass made by J. K. Wright, Rev.  Paul F. Langill arrived in 1890 to look after the rest of the field,  with headquarters at Priests Valley (Vernon).   Church Assembly  minutes (1891, appendix) note progress made at Enderby, and  that railway spur is being built from the main line south to the  head of Okanagan Lake.   The settlement at Lansdowne; hitherto mission headquarters, was moved three miles to Armstrong,  new townsite on railway.  Services at Enderby were originally held in a small, plank  building, situated on right-of-way for railway. During construction of the railway it was bought by T. W. Patterson, and  removed for a section house. Thereafter, for a time, services  were held in a frame building afterwards used as a residence.  A new church, costing $1500, was erected in 1906 on a  corner in the centre of Enderby. The manse at Enderby having  been burned down in 1892, a new one was built at Armstrong  during the ministry of Rev. T. G. McLeod. The same pastorate  saw the erection of Zion Church at Armstrong in 1891. Rev.  Duncan Campbell served from 1902-1913.  V. — (1907-1911) In 1907 the field was still further reduced  in area, Rev. V. Akitt being appointed to Falkland and Glenemma, two points now on CNR (Kamloops to Kelowna branch).  36 Enderby United Church History  VI. — (1911-1925) Enderby became an independent charge  in 1911, Rev. Peter Henderson going to Armstrong, and Rev.  Duncan Campbell remaining in Enderby. Two notable ministries followed: Revs. J. A. Dow 1913-1920, and J. V. Stott 1920-  1925.   This brings us to the time of Church Union.  METHODIST  Now we must review parallel progress in the Methodist  Church.    Outstanding dates in this history are the years 1887,  1891, 1911 and 1925.  Rev.  James Turner had been ordained and stationed at  New Westminster in 1873, and at Burrard Inlet the following  year.    Later, he became known as "The Minister of the Interior."    In 1875 he was appointed to Nicola, where he remained  five years, including Enderby and adjacent "points" in his far-  flung charge.   He went to Cariboo in 1880.   Rev. J. W. Patterson  was stationed at "Spallumcheen" May 1,  1884-April 30,  1886.  Rev. J. P. Hicks was appointed to the field in 1891, with headquarters at Enderby, of which place he was the first resident  Methodist minister.   At that time the railway spur was not completed, so the journey was made (in part) by the river steamei  Red Star, belonging to the B & K mill then operating at Enderby.  Mr. Hicks preached his first Enderby sermon in the Presbyterian  Church on Sunday, June 3, 1891; and in a hall at Lansdowne  that evening. He remained till 1893, touching practically every  point in Okanagan. Rev. W. D. Misener arrived in 1893, and  stayed till 1896, during which time the Methodist church was  built (1894).    Succeeding pastorates till  1911, when Armstrong  became   a   separate   Methodist  charge,   were   (with   dates   of  beginnings) Revs: W. Lashley Hall 1896, R. N. Powell 1899, R.  J. Mclntyre 1901, A. E. Roberts 1902, A. N. Miller 1905, W. A.  Gifford 1908-1910 in which year the new brick church was opened, W. A. Gifford (1908) who resigned to accept the vice-princip-  alship of Columbian College, C. F. Connor 1910-1911.  1911-1924, Enderby as a separate Methodist charge: Revs.  R. D. Hall appointed in 1911; J. G. Brown 1912, J. W. Hedley  1914, J. I. Beatty 1915, E. C. Curry May-December 1916; during  the next few years supply came from Armstrong (J. Wesley  Miller) then came J. G. Gibson, 1920-1921, during which time  church debt was wiped out, and use of drill hall secured for  37 Enderby United Church History  young people's work.   Thereafter, till 1925, "To be supplied."  UNITED CHURCH  At the time of local union in 1925, the Presbyterian and  Methodist churches were represented by Revs. J. L. King and  R. D. Hall. Mr. Hall resigned through illness, and Mr. King  remained till 1929, when he was succeeded by Rev. J. A. Dow.  In 1934 Rev. J. C. Thomson accepted a call. In addition to  Enderby, he served Ashton Creek and Hullcar.  The longest pastorate was that of Rev. J. A. Dow, twelve  years. In 1924 a monument was erected to the memory of  Alexander Leslie Fortune at St. Andrew's Church in Enderby.  Rev. J. A. Leslie was appointed to the charge in 1938;  followed by Revs. J. L. King as supply in 1940, W. J. Selder  1941, C. G. McKenzie 1946, Gilbert C. Johnson 1950, and the  present minister, Rev. Hugh M. Irwin, M.A., in 1953.  On August 2, 1951, the new St. Andrew's manse was  dedicated by Rev. F. E. Runnalls, President of Conference. In  a letter dated October 10, 1951, Rev. G. C. Johnson stated: "Mr.  R. Blackburn who was in charge of the building operation handed over the keys to Mr. Mack, and expressed his satisfaction  at seeing the completion of a job well done, and his appreciation to the many who had helped with the job ... A beautiful  candle lighting ceremony of dedication concluded the service  . . . The building was erected in three months at a cost of  $11,000."  ". . . In pioneer countries hospitality is a necessity of life,  not to the travellers alone but to the settlers. A visitor is a  friend, he brings news, good or bad, which is bread to the  hungry minds in lonely places. A real friend who comes to  the house is a heavenly messenger who brings the panis  angelorum."—Out of Africa by Karen Blixen (Putnam, London,  1937) p. 169.  38 Salmon ^Arrm   I/funlctpatAubilee ^fddre65 '  i  E. C. Turner  As Reeve of this splendid Municipality of Salmon Arm in  its golden anniversary year, it is my great privilege and pleasure to extend congratulations to all its residents on the attainment of this important milestone. This I do with the utmost  sincerity because I recall most vividly much of the progress  that has been made during the past 50 years.  Fifty years — it makes one stop and reflect, doesn't it?  Much the same as when a fellow reaches his 21st birthday. I  recall my father telling me about the first years of this district.  There.must have been hard work at times to achieve what has  been achieved, but people are inclined to remember best the  humorous incidents.  I recall my father telling of the wood-burning CPR locomotives in those days and how they used to stack wood in two-  foot lengths where the oil and gasoline tanks are now located  across the tracks. It was a bit of a prize to get a CPR contract  for about 100 cords at $2.00 a cord in those days.  Most of the land was then in bush, of course. My father  had 90 acres and he and Nels Eckland had slashed about 10  acres each during the winter ready for burning the following  summer. They got more than they bargained for! No sooner  had they set fire to the slashing than a sudden gale blew up  and the fire spread east just past the present Skelton water  tank, south as far as Merton Hill and north near Leech Hill.  Everybody available fought fire. There were no fire permits  then, quite different from today. This was in 1897 or '98 before  the municipality was incorporated. My father said his provincial taxes came to $2 a year, and he thought things were really  getting expensive when they went up to $5.  One thing strikes me about the general attitude of the  people then, and that was the way they took time out to enjoy  themselves.    On one occasion Dad and some friends went to  1. Reprinted from the Salmon Arm Observer, May 26, 1955.  39 Salmon Arm Municipal Jubilee Address  | Shuswap station, the other side of Chase, to help someone they  knew celebrate his birthday. When they got there they learned  someone else would have a birthday in a week's time so they  just stayed over. Then they used to go hunting on the Larch  Hills for grouse in August, something you can't do now. They  also went prospecting in the summer on Mount Bastion and  Mount Ida.  People really did turn out to exercise their right to vote then.  There used to be a good sized sawmill, on the lake right below  the present Kault Hill lookout point, and Dad said the fellows  in the camp used to walk into the one polling station that was  used for provincial and Dominion voting.  My father and a fellow just out from England lived in a  cabin where W. J. Reader's house is now located. I remember  him telling of their coming back to the cabin and finding a  skunk had taken over. Dad's friend insisted on shooting the  skunk with a shotgun and what with the skunk reciprocating,  not to mention hitting the scarce crockery, they had to leave  the place.  Along about 1913-14 my father was secretary of the Farmers' Institute and he was custodian of the stumping powder as  the Institutes do now. Stumping powder was just coming into  general use then and he recalled that the noise of blasting out  in the Valley was considerable some days. In August, 1914,  when war was declared Dad had two carloads of stumping  powder and part of a car of dynamite on hand. He said he  couldn't sleep at night for fear someone would set it off.  Automobile A Novelty  I remember the July 1 celebration in 1914.    It was on the  CPR grounds by Front street.   One of the outstanding attractions  for the children was a free automobile ride out in the Valley.   A  car was somewhat of a novelty then.  We first went to school where the present City Hall stands.  About 1917 the school caught fire and burned to the ground.  When the fire broke out someone in charge took the pupils over  to the CPR station. We were pretty annoyed at not being  permitted to attend the burning. Then later when we were  moved into the United church a fire started in the basement.  40 Salmon Arm Municipal Jubilee Address  Not much damage except our school books were soakde.  Quite  a year for fire.  May Day celebrations were held on the old City Hall  grounds, next to where the Anglican Church is now. The old  city hall was the first school. It served as school, city hall and  jail. The jail was in the school room section and the city hall  was in the lean-to at the rear. If there was someone in the jail,  usually on Mondays, then we got the day off.  School classes were held in various places at that time, in  the Orange Hall (beside Rivers dairy); Presbyterian church  (across from present City Hall); United church, Baptist church  (same location); Finnish hall (Legion hall); and the building  where C. D. Munro's office is now.  First Water Line  I recall the water pipe line to town going through Dad's  place about 1913 or 14. It was dug by hand.   I remember the  wagon loads of pipe going up the hill for the Broadview water  line.   Ed. and Ivor Peterson took a contract to dig that line by  hand.   It's hard to realize these things now in this machine age.  Speaking  of  machinery,   I  remember when the  municipality  bought a gas-engined road roller, about 8 or 10 tons I think.  The day it was being unloaded from the railway flat car we  kids went down to watch at recess time.   When we got back  Jack Chambers, our prinicpal, caught us getting in late and  gave us "what for." I believe the roller was broken up for scrap  just before the second war.  After the second war events moved quickly and this area,  in keeping with most communities in B.C., expanded, and  continues to face the problems that go with it. As I turn my  thoughts to the future it is with the great hope that Providence  - will spare mankind so that we can realize the tremendous possibilities of development in this beautiful setting of lakes and  mountains.  I desire no future that will break the ties of the past.—  George Eliot.  41 ^Jhe    Ulllaae  {~sf K^iluer 5 ^Jenth d5irthdau  In "Okanagan Place Names" (OHS.12,p.215) A. G. Harvey  noted that "Oliver is 25 miles south of Penticton. Rugged  'Honest John' Oliver (1856-1927) was premier of B.C. (1918-1927)  when the province carried out the irrigation and land settlement  here. "South Okanagan Lands Project," 1919-1921. Post Office  opened May 1, 1921, Duncan Simpson postmaster. "The Corporation of the Village of Oliver" was incorporated December  31, 1945."  Oliver, B.C., April, 1921.  Land Sales Office shown in upper left of picture.  Photo courtesy of Vancouver Museum.  We have permission to reprint the following paragraphs  from an article on 'Oliver, B.C." which appeared in Museum  and Art Notes (vol.V,No.2,pp.40 ff.June, 1930), issued by the  Art, Historical and Scientific Asociation of Vancouver, B.C., T.  H. Ainsworth, who is secretary of the Asociation and curator  of the Vancouver City museum, has also made available the  accompanying cuts.  The first sale of orchard land was made on 4 March, 1921,  to D. P. Simpson.   This land was two miles north of the town-  42 The Village Of Oliver's Tenth Birthday  site, which was formally opened in the spring of 1920.  Oliver was named after the late John Oliver, when he was  premier of this province. Those in charge of the irrigation project were responsible for suggesting the name.   As far as can  Pioneer days in Oliver  Photo courtesy Vancouver Museum  be learned, 'Honest John' was not consulted in the matter, and  he was not anxious that his name be perpetuated in this way.  Yet the choice was a happy one, and has commended itself to  the public. But the name was not without a rival. One suggestion was Inkaneep, the name of the nearby Indian reserve.  It was claimed that this name had a greater commercial value,  and that it would have a more distinctive 'ring' when applied to  cantaloupes. But Oliver it was to be, and Oliver it is.  In 1930 the population of Oliver was between six- and  seven hundred. The 1953 Gazetteer gives the village population as 1000. The district population, of course, is much larger.  The Oliver project dam is immediately behind the old Mclntyre  home. The inscription is "1920". Honourable T. D. Pattullo,  Minister of Lands. E. A. Cleveland, Consulting Engineer." The  ditch runs from here south.  43 The Village Of Oliver's Tenth Birthday  Oliver, B.C., in 1930  Photo courtesy Vancouver Museum  When the project began, Government officials in charge  lived east of the river. There, too, was the first store. The first  building on the townsite was the office of Mr. Moggridge, land  sales agent. This was on the site of the present lands office.  West of the main street now are churches, school, hospital, residential section.  The first store on the townsite was owned by J. K. Anderson. In the early years of Oliver's history Dr. G. H. Kearney  looked after the medical needs of the community. He was  an eccentric genius, who loved fishing and hunting and photography.  The pioneer minister was Rev. Harry Feir of the Presbyterian, afterwards United Church, who has left this record:  "The first service in Oliver townsite was held in a new  building being erected for a store by C. D. Collen, on the second  Sunday of July, 1921. The lumber and shavings were lying  about the floor, and, across the street, a big five-ton truck was  engaged in hauling another store building into its site. This  44 The Village Of Oliver's Tenth Birthday  one was the property of A. J. McPherson. The second service  was held in the same place. For several weeks after that an  old building that had been used as a government office was  the place of worship. Half that building afterwards became  the doctor's office.  "In the meantime lots for a church and manse had been  selected; and the minister, with the assistance of Gordon Hall,  Bert Byers, Ashton and Wright (boys from the camp) put up a  garage-church. This served for both church and school for  three months. The first teacher (Mr. Price) was an Oxford  graduate. A second schoolroom was provided alongside the  other building by hauling a tar-papered shack onto the ground.  In this, Miss McRory held sway over a growing number of  children.  "On January 1, 1922, a new school building was opened,'  and church services were held in this. The church manse,  built during the winter, was occupied by the minister and his  family in April, 1922, their residence from July 1st of the previous year having been at Okanagan Falls. The first sod of  ground for the new church was turned on October 2, 1922.  The opening took place on December 3, Rev. Dr. George A.  Wilson and Rev. J. Fergusson Millar officiating. The organ was  donated by Charles G. Peter of St. John's congregation, Vancouver. This was a great, forward step in the life of the young  and growing community. Mr. Feir continued as minister till  1931, and was followed by Revs. James Dewar, R. E. Cribb in  1936, S. V. H. Redman in 1942, and S. Pike in 1950. (Rev. Stanley  V. H. Redman died in Vancouver on Monday, 29 August, 1955).  Other churches in Oliver and district have also made  notable progress. Present-day churches, schools and hospital  are among the finest of any community of comparable size.  Rawlings, Wyo.-(AP)—Numbers of rare trumpeter swans,  nearing extinction, have been depleted by one. One of the  huge birds hit a refining company power line near Sinclair,  Wyo., and was killed. The swans have an average wing span  of eight feet.  45 f\ichter    fIIfountain   Settle  lemeni  Katie Lacey  Between the Similkameen and Okanagan valleys, and  north of Richter Pass, is a high mountain extending east and  west at the southern end, with a high tree-clad ridge running  north towards Fairview and surmounted by a cone shaped  peak. On the map it is shown as Mt. Kobau, elevation 6,175  ft. Kobau is a word of German origin, but with no apparent  reason for its application. There is no evidence to show who  named it.   It is so named on Dawson's map of 1877.  Indian pictographs near Vaseux Lake  Photo courtesy Vancouver Museum  46 Richter Mountain Settlement  However, to the early settlers of the district the southern  end, extending east and west is known as "Richter Mountain",  the northern end as "Old Timer's Mountain;" and the high cone  in the middle as the "Big Knoll." The Indians called it "Nice  Top."  Jacob Swartz took up the first homestead in this district  sometime around the 1880's, owning the original homestead  that later became known as the Richter Lower Ranch. The  late Frank Richter built a sizable cattle ranch out of it and he  and his sons ran several hundred head of cattle there and on  the surrounding ranges.  In 1914 land on Richter Mountain was thrown open for  pre-emptions and before long there was a small settlement  there, although the roads were almost inaccessible. The soil  was not too good and the dry years had started to come back,  and it was only, a few years before it was all back to range  as it should have been.  Mr. and Mrs. Harry Gray and small daughter Barbara were  the first settlers there. At the time of their marriage a few  years previously, Harry Gray had been tending bar for Dick  Sidley at the Mountain View Hotel at Sidley and Mrs. Gray and  her sister, daughters of Mr. and Mrs. C. Knight, early settlers  of the Molson district, also worked there. After homesteading  on Anarchist Mountain they took up the first homestead on  Richter Mountain in the fall of 1914.  Mrs. Gray tells of living in a tent for four months; herself  and Barbara being alone for as long as two weeks at a time;  large herds of cattle around them at all times, her only protection a .22 rifle: and for months on end never seeing a white  woman, only an occasional rider or passing Indians.  The next spring several familes moved in: Mr. and Mrs.  Harry Walker, Mr. and Mrs. Edward Hobbs and seven children  and Edward Hobbs' brother Hank, all from the State of Washington. The Hobbs hauled in machinery and set up a small  sawmill. There was a local demand for their lumber for a  short time.  Jasper Sharp, his daughter, Mrs. Tyson, with four children,  and another daughter and son-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. Al. Smith  47 Richter Mountain Settlement  and three children; all from Texas somehow found their way  there and took up land. There were now about 12 children of  school age and application was made for a school. A one  room building was erected by volunteer labor and furnished  with home made seats and desks. A Miss Morrow was the first  teacher. She boarded with Mrs. Gray. The second year a  : young fellow named Richards from Vancouver taught, but when  one of the parents thought he was paying too much attention to  one of his pupils he was sent packing and the school closed  down. Later, some of the seats and desks from this school were  used in the first school in Osoyoos until more desks were available.  Early in 1915 Harry  Gray took sick. Zeb Parrish,  who was foreman at the  Lower Ranch at the time,  and another man, went up  and brought him down to  the ranch in a spring wagon,  but he was too sick to go  farther and died shortly af  ter. The same year Parrish  and Mrs. Gray were married  and in 1916 Mrs. Parrish  gave birth to a son. One  room of the old log courthouse at Osoyoos was fixed  for a temporary maternity  ward   and   the   baby   was  born there. A few weeks lot-  Mrs. Jessie Parrish g Mrs_ Harry Walker# also  from Richter Mountain came here to have her baby. Dr. Effner  of Oroville was the attending physician and Mrs. Germyn, wife  of the Osoyoos Customs Officer was the nurse for both cases.  The courthouse latter became the first Osoyoos school.  In 1917 the Parrishes moved away and in 1921 Zeb Parrish  was killed in a logging accident near Kettle Falls. Shortly  after this, Mrs. Parrish moved to Everett, Washington, and has  resided there ever since. Richter Mountain Settlement  Other settlers on the Mountain were Andy Hamilton who,  after proving up his pre-emption, sold out and went to Olds,  Alberta, where he "cowboyed" for Pat Burns for many years.  Jasper Sharp sold his place to Dave Orr who now resides near  Oliver. Another was Harry Hanson an expert with a broad axe.  He later married and brought his new wife up there where they  lived till about 1924. Harry Stevens had homesteaded on  Swartz Creek.   By 1920 most of the families had left.  In 1916, Frank Thomas, an Englishman, who had spent  much time at sea on sailing vessels, took up a homestead and  is still living there in a comfortable cabin; the only one of all the  settlers there to stay on, although he has not raised crops for  several years.  Frank Thomas, Richter Mountain  A few years ago as Osoyoos was settled, a group of young  people formed a club known as the Skyline Ski Club. The  open slopes on Richter Mountain and around the Big Knoll were  ideal Ski Country and for the most part of winter the snow is  ideal for this fascinating sport. To Frank Thomas spending his  long winters alone on his homestead this was indeed an adventure. Holidays and week-ends when the snow is suitable,  some of the group hike to Frank's. A warm fire and hot coffee  are always available and he makes every effort for their comfort in return for the enjoyable company the group gives him  whenever they come his way. It has become a ritual with him  that whenever he knows that any of the skiiers are coming up  49 Richter Mountain Settlement  he sends aloft the Union Jack on a stout flag pole that stands  beside his cabin, and it is indeed a welcome sight, a gesture of  good friendship, always looked for by the members of the  club as they round the turn of the hill and Frank's cabin comes  into view.  At the foot of the eastern end of Richter Mountain is a lake  known as Spotted Lake. It is about thirty acres in area. The  peculiar formation of white rings, caused by large deposits  of epsom salts, gives the lake its name. It gave considerable  trouble to the early cattlemen as the water was poisonous to  cattle and horses, and many were lost before the lake was  fenced.  In the early days this lake was used extensively by the  Indians, who would spend much time soaking themselves in  the chemically-rich mud and warming in the blazing sun, the  high percentage of epsom salts giving relief to arthritic and  rheumatic sufferers.  During the first world war American interests mined the  lake for the salts which were used in the manufacture of explosives. A large gang of Chinamen skimmed off the salts into  barrows, which were wheeled ashore on planks. Then it was  loaded into trucks and taken to Oroville, Washington, and from  there shipped east.  At the present time Osoyoos sawmills are doing extensive  logging on this mountain. There is also near the. lake at the top  a small sawmill owned by V. Swensen. The Forestry Department has a lookout station on top of Big Knoll. There is a  good jeep road to the top, a sharp contrast to the scarcely  passable roads with which the first settlers had to contend.  The remains of great and good men, like Elijah's mantle,  ought to be gathered up and preserved by their survivors;  that as their works follow them in the reward of them, they  may stay behind in their benefit.—Matthew Henry.  50 C^arlu   f^enticton  Reg. Atkinson  The following article has reference to Penticton prior to  its incorporation as a district municipality.1  The first residents of the district were probably members  of the Okanagan tribe of the Pacific Northwest Interior Salish  Indians. Their main village, which they called Pen-tek-tan,  was located on the east bank of the Okanagan River, and  extended from the present site of Penticton Sawmills to the  Fairview Road bridge. This property is now occupied by two  sawmills, the C.P.R. yards, the West Kootenay Power & Light  Company and several fuel yards.  Archaeological research has estabished that this site accommodated the largest concentration of population in the Okanagan Valley, exceeded only by some of the villages on the  Thompson River, Shuswap Lake and the Wenatchee area to the  south. The choice was logical being midway in the valley's  chain of lakes which provided easy transportation by dugout ..  canoes and rafts in summer and, over the ice in winter. The  river at this point consisted of a half-mile stretch of gravel  shoals providing easy fording. The campsite was well-sheltered, fuel was abundant, and game and wildlife abounded.  Materials for the manufacture of weapons, baskets, ropes and  garments were close to hand. Its geographic position made it  a central rendezvous for the Indian, much as it is for our  people today.  The   most-accepted   translation   of   the   word   Pen-tek-tan2  1. The first townsite plan was filed November 15, 1892; a more  extensive plan July 31, 1905. "The Corporation of the District of  Penticton" was incorporated January 1, 1909; first reeve Alfred H.  Wade; it became a city May 10, 1948, first mayor Robert Lyon  (OHS.12(1948)P.216).  2. There seems to be little agreement about the meaning of Indian  place names. A. G. Harvey (OHS.12(1948) P.217) states that the  name Penticton is "from the Indian name Pente-hik-ton, 'ever' or  'forever' referring to the constant steady flow of the Okanagan  River out of the lake," The dictionary of Okanagan Indian words  prepared by Mrs. Louis Gabrielle for Mrs. R. B. White gives 'Te  pentik" as meaning always, or eternal. Mr. Atkinson assumes that  this may refer to the Indian encampment as well as to the constant  flow of water from the lake. The basic idea seems to, be that of  continuity — Editor.  51 Early Penticton  means "a permanent abode," and to this may be added "where  waters pass by." Information is meagre regarding the arrival  of the first white man in the district but it is established that  Alexander Ross, then in the employ of the John Jacob Astor fur  company, passed through the valley in 1810-11, accompanied  by a Roman Catholic priest. Ross later served for many years  with the Hudson's Bay Company. It is not known whether any  members of the Lewis-Clark expedition, who reached the Pacific  coast in November, 1805, ever reached a point this far north.  Father Pandosy commenced missionary work here in 1861,  and in-1866 Thomas Ellis, an Irishman, arrived in the district  and established a homesite on what is now the Kyle subdivision on Windsor Avenue, less than half a mile from the Indian  village.  Apparently the new settler won the confidence of the  Indians as they lived side by side for eleven years until the  reservation was established by the Dominion Government on  November 24, 1877, leaving all the land on the east side of  Okanagan River in Mr. Ellis's possession with the exception of  a hundred yard strip which was reserved for Indian fishing  privileges. The first survey commenced in 1889, and became  known as Penticton Indian Reserve No. 1. Reserve No. 2 did  not come into existence until the South Okanagan Land Company developed its subdivision, and resulted from a Norde  which included the hundred yards of river frontage previously  held as a fishing ground by the local band.  From this small beginning Mr. Ellis' ranch steadily expanded till his holding extended from north of Nine Mile Point (Naramata) to the International Boundary, a distance of nearly 56  miles.  He established his home close to the lush meadows on a  small off-shoot from Penticton Creek which then flowed due west  and emptied into the Okanagan River near the present site of  the C.P.R. bridge. The homestead site is now the present site  of the Kyle subdivision, Windsor Avenue. The cattle driven in  from Oregon rapidly increased and grazed on the virgin  benchgrass, and so developed a fine quality of beef. Marketing must have been a problem at the beginning, but fortune  smiled on Mr. Ellis for as his herd increased so did the markets.  52 Early Penticton  The building of the C.P.R. and a succession of mining booms at  Rock Creek, Rossland, Camp McKinney and Fairview all  provided outlets.  During this period Ellis reqlized the necessity of increased  hay tonnage, and set to work building an irrigation system by  diverting water from Penticton and Ellis creeks into a series of  open canals which fanned out and watered the upper and drier  portions of the flats. At that time Ellis Creek hugged the base of  the Munson flat escarpment and emptied into the north-east  corner of Skaha Lake.3 The present course was then an overflow during spring freshet which would have been weakened.  by the Ellis diversions. In order to further conserve winter feed  a rail drift fence was built across the main bench from Penticton Creek to Naramata which closely followed the course  of the present upper bench to Naramata.  As the herds increased and the property developed, this  industrious Irishman thought also of his family's comfort, and  the homestead gradually increased in size and beauty till  when taken over by the Southern Okanagan Land Company in  1905 it covered many acres. The south wall of the large, two-  storey, grey home was almost covered with grape vines. Fine  lawns were surrounded by neat, picket fences, and many fine  evergreens, only one of which survives. In front, a row of blackthorns gave shelter to horses when tied to the hitching rail  which ran parallel to the thorn trees. The orchard between the  home and what is now Scott Road contained many varieties  3. Mr. Atkinson would prefer to use the former name Dog Lake,  which he believes was preferred by the Society to Skaha Lake,  which was adopted by the Canadian Board on Geographic Names,  and appears in the Gazetteer of Canada; British Columbia,p.521  (Ottawa, 1953) as name of station, creek and lake. It is claimed  by those who opposed the change that the former name was already  well-established, and that Skaha is not a local Indian word.  ' The change was made in 1930.  On Anderson's map, 1867, the name appears as L.du Chien; and as  Du Chien L. on Trutch maps, 1866 and 1871 (OHS.12,p.220). In  A Nature Lover in British Columbia (London, 1937),p.40, H. J.  Parham maintained the lake should have had the euphonious name  "Chokowapee," the local Indian name for dog. He believes that  Skaha is the Shuswap word for dog. We have not been able to  find this word in Father LeJeune's Studies in Shuswap (Kamloops,  1925). Mrs. L. Gabrielle gives the Okanagan Indian word as  kik-wap, which is clearly the word given by Mr. Parham. The  Chinook is kahmooks, from which the place-name Comox is derived.  —Editor.  53 Early Penticton  then popular — Red Astrachan apples, Russets, Greenings,  Ben Davis, Napoleon and Ribston pippins. The first trees were  set out in 1872. Approaching the ranch from Fairview Road  a maze of wintering sheds and corrals met the eye. Nearer the  ranch house stood two roothouses. A meat house and dairy  spanned the creek, and a square log 3101*6 at which Indians  and whites traded.  All this could not be cared for single-handed. For many  years Mr. Ellis depended on Indian help, but as the district was  settled white men gradually took over much of the responsible  duties. Contact with the coast was maintained by horse travel  and packtrain by way of Allison Pass and Dewdney Trail; with  the north, by way of Okanagan Mission and Priest's Valley  (Vernon).  In August, 1890, the C.P.R. commenced construction of a  spur line from Sicamous to Okanagan Landing, and on its  completion in 1892 purchased the boat then operated on Okanagan Lake by Lequime and inaugurated a boat service between Okanagan Landing and Penticton. This brought new  prosperity and more settlers, some of whom pre-empted remaining, unsettled properties wherever there were a few acres of  tillable soil and a trace of water for irrigation. Among the early  pre-empters were a Mr. Randolph on the Upper Bench, James  Campbell, John Strutt, M. C. Kendall, John Kearns and Colin  Rankin.  The discovery of the Lake Shore Mine half a mile north  east of the town about 1890 excited many local prospectors  who staked claims on Campbell Mountain, which soon became  covered with glory holes all of which proved worthless. The  last man to operate was Jack Rice, who continued to work a  claim on Penticton Creek until 1914.  Boat service made a wharf necessary, and this was built  by the Dominion Government at the present site of the C.N.R.  dock. Later, a private dock was built by Henry Murk, formerly  of Vernon. This dock was located east of the present C.P.R.  dock and near the Penticton Co-operative Growers' packing  plant on lakeshore.  The road from the Government wharf crossed Ellis Street  54 Early Penticton  to where the medical clinic now stands and thence in a general direction to the Ellis homestead. The first road out of  town continued from the homestead and forded the river at the  Indian village now at the west end of Huth Avenue. The road  to Keremeos climbed the sand hill behind the Indian Roman  Catholic church and followed the benches on the south side  of Shingle Creek. The Summerland road climbed the sand hill  to the north of the present Indian village, and followed a  northerly course across the west bench to Trout Creek. Mr.  Ellis also maintained a road to Skaha Lake. This road crossed  Ellis Creek a little east of Fairford Drive bridge and continued  in a southerly direction midway between the present highway  and the Okanagan River.  Soon after regular boat service was established, an engineer named Holbrook was engaged by a Trust company to survey what is now known as the Old Townsite. The area set  aside did not seriously affect the Ellis holdings as it took in  only that portion of the present city which is bounded on the  west by Ellis Street to Wade Avenue, thence east to the present  C.P.R. grade, and included the undulating lower bench overlooking the lake. The Penticton Townsite Company Ltd. was  incorporated on September 7, 1892, with headquarters in Vancouver, and capital stock $100,000. Penticton's first hotel was  built on the rise overlooking the dock. Joe Thurber was its first  proprietor. A livery barn was built on the opposite corner immediately south of what is now Van Home and Vancouver  Avenue. Henry Wright was its first operator. The first court  house stood opposite this barn. On the completion of the hotel,  A. H. Wade, who had arrived from Ireland to join his brother-  in-law Tom Ellis, opened a store in the hotel and also handled  the mail.  The year 1892 also saw the erection of Penticton's first  'Protestant church. A gift from Mr. Ellis to the community, it  stood on the site of the St. Saviour's cemetery on Fairview  Street opposite the Ellis homestead. The Rev. Thomas Greene,  afterwards Archdeacon Greene, was the first rector. A vicarage was built on the property now occupied by the medical  clinic. This house became the first office of the South Okanagan  Land Company, and, later, the home of Dr. and Mrs. R. B.  White. The Rev. Henry Irwin, familiarly known as "Father Pat",  55 Early Penticton  a well-known Anglican minister in the Boundary Country,  often took services at St. Saviour's. The original part of this  church is now the chapel of St. Saviour's on Winnipeg Street.  During the 1890's the Boundary Country hummed with  mining activity. New camps and towns sprang up. Vast sums  of money from the United States, Eastern Canada and Great  Britain poured into the district to float hundreds of companies  registered at Victoria. Great demands were made on transportation for mining equipment and supplies of all kinds. Stage  lines and horse-drawn freight wagons clogged the newly built  roads and taxed facilities to the limit.   !  The public clamoured for the construction of a railroad.  There were a number of companies operating railways in the  Kootenays, and one of these, the Columbia & Western, proposed a line which would run from Greenwood to Camp McKinney, twenty miles east of Oliver, then down to Vaseux Lake  and north through Okanagan Falls to Penticton, reaching  there along the eastern shore of Skaha Lake. McKenzie & Mann  were the contractors, and they excavated several small sections  of grade within the city limits. A portion of the present grade  on Main Street south was originally C & W grade. One short  section remains on the north side of Okanagan Avenue. They  also built a grade on what is now Front Street (formerly Smith  Street) which would have connected with the Government  wharf. After the railway company abandoned this project, and  lost the franchise, the Front Street grade was adopted as a  base line for the second townsite, thus creating the awkward  angles we now have in that part of the city.  By 1900 British Columbia was attracting attention as an  agricultural province, and the interior was being promoted as  suitable for the production of tree fruits. At the north end of  the valley, Lord Aberdeen's Coldstream ranch had already  reached the productive stage, and James Gartrell of Trout  Creek Point won several high awards at the Royal Horticultural Society show in London, England.  It was only a matter of time before attention would be  focussed on the Ellis estate. Messrs. Pelly and Hill were the  first to Have an option on the estate, but they allowed the option to lapse. Among the young business men who had drifted  56 Early Penticton  west to the bustling mining camps were the Shatford brothers,  Walter T. and Lytton W. from Annapolis Valley in Nova Scotia.  They had been successful in general store business at Slocan  City, Vernon, Camp McKinney and Fairview. They were given  an option by Mr. Ellis, and the South Okanagan Land Company was formed in 1905 with a strong slate of directors and  shareholders.  Work commenced soon after on plans for the subdivision  of that portion of the estate which could be supplied by gravity  irrigation water from Penticton and Ellis creeks. The services  of J. H. Latimer, B.C.L.S., then living at Vernon, were obtained  to take charge of surveying the townsite and bench lands. His  first problem was to lay out the irrigation systems. After locating on both creeks adequate storage sites, the points of diversion were selected from which the main, flumes and ditches  branched out at the edge of the foothills, thus establishing the  eastern boundaries of the development. It is noteworthy that  the first storage dam on Penticton Creek is still in use, and the  original diversion sites and high level system remain in their  original locations.  The laying out of the irrigation system in the rural area  had a definite effect on the ultimate plan of roads as all parts  o* the system were above ground and followed the grade, contours. Under modern methods of planning irrigation systems  and road building a much more practical plan of division could  be designed. When the Penticton Creek diversion, designed to  take care of the main bench, reached Four Mile Creek (Turn-  bull) the grade had dropped sufficiently to render it impractical  to continue farther north and thus this became the northerly  boundary. Naramata area was sold to the company's vice-  president, J. M. Robinson, who developed it separately.  Owing to the precipitous nature of the canyon wall in  Ellis Creek the construction of the diversion dam at a higher  level was prohibitive, thus preventing the inclusion of some  valuable acreage at either end of the Ellis Creek system. A  second system of flumes, fed by Ellis Creek, and known as  the north lateral, was installed to supply the properties located  on the fringe of the business section of the townsite. Irrigation  was supplied to all portions as far west as Moose Jaw Street  57 Early Penticton  and north to the lake on the west side of town. Original water  tolls were $2.50 per acre on the flats, and $3 per acre on the  benches. The estimated cost of all installations was $150,000.  The company was naturally intent on revenue from its  investment in addition to the sale of land and sought complete  coverage of all agricultural property. As a result, many acres  of subirrigated land on the flats, and other properties possessing natural supplies, were furnished with outlets. This led to  many complications.  During the building of the irrigation system company officials were busy with an extensive advertising campaign, and  published an illustrated brochure entitled "The Land of Sunshine, Fruit and Flowers". This pamphlet contained recommendations from many leading agriculturists including one from R.  M. Palmer, Provincial Fruit Commissioner and father of the  late R. C. Palmer, superintendent of the Dominion Experimental  Station at Summerland.  Many of the early purchasers did not take up residence  here but preferred to enter into an agreement with the company  to plant the property and have it cared for by contract. B. A.  Shatford was in charge of this work.  The winter of 1908-1909 was very severe. The planting on  the flats suffered heavily, particularly on Penticton Avenue,  Calgary and west of Fairview Road. Many of these young orchards were abandoned and later became subdivisions.  The population at the turn of the century was approximately 50. By 1907 it was 500.  From 1910 to 1912 many of the early-bearing varieties of  tree fruits came into production, and quicker transportation  became imperative. Plans were commenced for the location of  the Kettle Valley railway with Penticton as a divisional point.  After months of location work, during which every effort was  made to obtain a suitable grade in the vicinity of the Carmi  Road, the present site was agreed on, with the result that the  right-of-way cut through streets and private property on the  flats, split orchard lands in two, disrupted irrigation systems  and disfigured the townsite.  58 Early Penticton  The first packing sheds and fruit processing plants were  built close to the original dock. This was suitable to the packing  house operator and to the grower who delivered his crop on  horse-drawn vehicles. As most of the crop was hauled down  Vancouver Avenue, the distance was shorter. As tonnage increased, the investment in packing houses and equipment increased till today we find a large portion of what should be  public foreshore occupied by industrial enterprises.  The lack of early town planning has left a marked blemish  on a city with unrivalled natural features, and as the years ad*  vance the cost of rectifying these mistakes will become greater.  History is valuable to future generations and is perishable  unless placed on record when it is comparatively fresh. . . . Our  country is fast outgrowing the pioneering stage. Every week,  old-timers go to their last reward, in many cases taking with  them precious information relative to the early days.—Mrs. Kate  Johnson in Pioneer Days of Nakusp and the Arrow Lakes  (Nakusp, 1951).  In his introduction to Mrs. Johnson's book, Herbert W. Her-  ridge has this paragraph: "The record of a country's history is  not only the record of great and grand events. While the acts  of kings and governments provide the great brush strokes on  the canvas of human experience, it is the details of the lives of  ordinary people and day to day events that complete the  picture and give it meaning. Too often it is these details, so  fundamental to the life of a nation, which go unwritten and be-  . come lost in the mists of time."  The true past departs not; no truth or goodness realized by  man ever dies, or can die; but all is still here, and, recognized  or not, lives and works through endless changes.—Carlyle.  59 f-^enticton 5   ^jrlrst    Mouth    iv(c  lovement  Reg Atkinson  The first effort to organize the teen-age boys of Penticton  and district had its beginning in 1907, and became known as  the Penticton Boys' Club under the charge of Mrs. Hector McNeil whose husband operated a small dairy. To augment their  income Mrs. McNeil tutored a small class of pupils prior to the  opening of a high school class here. Not being blessed with  a family of her own, Mrs. McNeil took a keen interest in the  children of the community, particularly teen-age boys.  The club house the first couple of years was a large, one-  room shack on Ellis Street, on property now occupied by the  Clark Lumber Co. yard. Later, larger premises were obtained  in the Barnes hall farther north on the same street.  Meetings were held on Friday evenings, and opened with  a prayer, reciting of a pledge, and then followed games, competitions, mock trials and other entertainment. The popularity  of the club could be judged by its membership, which was  practically 100 percent of all the eligible boys in the town. In  summer everyone was expected to go to camp, and an annual  dinner was held each winter.  While the club's enthusiasm was still keen Lord Baden  Powell organized the Boy Scouts in England, and soon after,  the movement spread to Canada. A proposal that the club apply for affiliation was put to the membership, and after much  discussion, and not a little reluctance, it was decided an application be made on behalf of Penticton. Soon after authorization came through Penticton had the inception of its first troop,  Boy Scouts.  Mrs. McNeil continued to take an active part, assisting  Harry Pitman who became the first scout master. On the outbreak of the first Great War practically every senior scout, and  those who had outgrown the scouts, enlisted for service, including Mr. McNeil who was much younger than his wife.  Mrs. McNeil followed her husband overseas and took up  60 Penticton's First Youth Movement  residence in Putney, England. Through untiring efforts she  succeeded in making contact with practically every former  member of the boys' club and scouts. She kept open house for  all of them, met trains, arranged for boys to meet one another  when home on leave, and kept a remarkable record of their  exploits.  Her husband went to France with the Canadian artillery,  and was severely wounded. After his discharge from hospital  they returned to Canada, but both died soon after. Mrs. McNeil  was dearly beloved by all her boys.  Believe it or not—"Yes, he was a wonderfully well-trained  dog; he knew as much as a Christian, and would do any mortal  thing I told him. I remember one night someone left the door  open, and I said, 'Shot, shut the door.' So he went and banged  it to; but the latch wouldn't catch and it flew open again. I  told him again to shut it and the same thing happened, so I  said very angrily, 'Now, shut that door!' And he bounced up  from the rug where he had laid himself down and just stood  up against the door to keep it closed, turned the key with his  teeth, and then threw it down close to me, with a look that said  as plainly as words, 'There, d  you, I hope that'll satisfy  you.' By heavens, it's just the solid truth and divil a word  of a lie I'm telling you."—B.C. 1887—A Ramble in British Columbia by J. A. Lees and W. J. Clutterbuck (Longmans, Green &  Co., London, 1892) pp.207-8.  "When a man who has done something exceedingly crazy  is under discussion you will hear the phrase: Tl a vu le Chevre  d'Or!    He has seen the Golden Goat!'  "And there are hundreds who have seen him . . . and never  since have they been the same again. The habitual things of  life are nothing to them any more. They run tremendous risks,  or they sit quietly and let life go by like a purling river."—The  Golden Goat, by Donn Byrne, quoted by R. M. Patterson in The  Dangerous River, p.79 (George Allen & Unwin Ltd., London,  1954).  61 f^eacniand, Summerland and    11 aramata  F. W. Andrew  John Moore Robinson, who played an important part in the  development of Okanagan, was born in Wellington County,  Ontario, on December 30, 1855, and was of Irish descent. As a  young man, after studying at Lockport, New York, and St.  Catherines, he moved to the prairies, and taught school for  seven years. Then he turned to newspaper work. In 1883 he  acquired the Tribune of Portage la Prairie, Manitoba. To this  he added the Portage Review in 1884. In June, 1886, he founded  the Brandon Times. He became Grand Master of the Orange  Lodge in Manitoba in 1886-7-8 and was elected to represent  Woodlands in the Manitoba legislature.  During his stay in Brandon he made a  trip to Okanagan in 1888. His attention was  turned to British Columbia where he heard  the call of gold. In the early 1890's there  were several mining camps in British Columbia including that of Rossland. He examined  these carefully but his attention was drawn  more to the west. The diamond drill was not  extensively used for prospecting in those  J. M. Robinson days, mining engineers often made mistakes  when directing operations, so if "gold is where you find it", the  advice of those in the spirit world would seem to be as dependable as any other. Not overlooking this possibility, a company  was formed for the purpose of prospecting for gold in the selected region which extended north-east of Princeton to Camp Hewitt, near the present site of Peachland. The officers of this company were: president, J. M. Robinson; directors: W. J. Robinson  'Ģ and A. T. Robinson, R. C. Lipsett, D. H. Watson and a Mr. Anderson, a clairvoyant. The president, "J. M." as he was usually called, went to the prairie to sell stock in this new company, and as  a result several families moved to the new district at Camp  Hewitt, close to the edge of the Okanagan.  On Trepanier Creek, adjacent to the site of the prospecting,  was the ranch of the Lambly brothers. This was primarily given  to the raising of cattle  and horses but it had a few  acres  62 Peachland, Summerland and Naramata  planted with peaches. Isolated plantings of peaches, either as  seedlings or brought as nursery stock, had been recorded by  James Gartrell of Trout Creek and probably at Okanagan  Falls. One day J. M. had a meal at this ranch and ate some of  the peaches, then at their peak of maturity.  He then had an inspiration that changed the lives of some  thousands of people. As the Niagara Peninsula was the only  district in Canada where peaches had been grown successfully  on a commercial scale, other parts had to import them either  from California or take them over the long haul from Ontario.  And if peaches could grow at this latitude, he reasoned, other  fruits such as apples, pears, cherries, plums and grapes could  also be grown profitably. The prospect of establishing an extensive fruit business was attractive and compelling.  While J. M.'s trip to the prairie prompted many enquiries  about mining there were, nevertheless, a number of inquiries  about peaches. On March 4, 1898, Dan Seaton and Thompson  Elliott came to look the district over and build homes for their  families and those whoi were to follow shortly, for on May 6,  1898, the first carload of settlers and their effects arrived. Seaton  and Elliott were joined by Alex Miller, Leon McCall and others.  On that first carload brought by the S.S Aberdeen were J. M.  Robinson, his wife and children, Mrs. M. E. McDougald, J. M.'s  sister and five children, Mr .and Mrs. Huston and two children,  followed by R. C. Lipsett and his wife.  A post office, named "Peachland" at the request of Mr.  Robinson, was opened in. December, 1898, with D. H. Watson  in charge. He was succeeded in 1901 by Mrs. M. E. McDougald, then by her son, Archie, then by her daughter Candace;  then by H. Birkelund in January 1953. For a number of years  this office handled the business of the government telegraph  and long distance line serving the valley as well as the local  telephone calls. A sidelight shows how the value of the dollar  has changed. A contract dated March 1, 1901, provided for the  conveyance of the mail, 6 days per week from the C.P.R. wharf  to the Peachland office, 200 yards, at $50 per annum.  After seeing and eating the peaches that grew on the  Lambly ranch and realizing the wealth to be gathered from  other fruits grown under similar conditions,  J.  M. bought the  63 Peachland, Summerland and Naramata  Hewitt pre-emption and also that of Harry Hardy. These he  subdivided into fruit lots of 10 acres in size and offered them  for sale at $100.00 per acre through the Peachland Townsite  Co. Ltd. In the name of this company he obtained water rights  for the land on Deep Creek, using ditches at first to distribute  the water. Later, when a dam was constructed, the Peachland  Townsite Co. agreed to supply irrigation water at a yearly rate  of $10 to $25 for a 10 acre orchard — another glimpse of the  changing dollar.  The Peachland Townsite Co. Ltd. was incorporated in 1898  by the following: J. M. Robinson, Peachland, promoter of companies; J. B. Somerset, Winnipeg, of the Winnipeg Free Press;  C. J. Jamieson, Winnipeg, doctor; W. J. Robinson, Vernon,  broker; D. H. Watson, Peachland, express agent and clerk.  J. M. Robinson was elected president.  In 1899 John Gummow (father of the late Reeve Ben Gum-  mow) who had bought a ten acre fruit lot from the Peachland  Townsite Co. through J. M., came to the young settlement and  planted the first orchard in Peachland, that is the first after the  fruit trees originally planted on the Lambly ranch at the mouth  of Trepanier Creek. Dan Seaton and Thompson Elliott also  bought fruit lots and soon Peachland was off to a good start.  Hugh McDougall, father of R. J. McDougall, for many years  publisher of The Penticton Herald and one-time reeve of Penticton, came from Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan in 1902 and established a sawmill and store on the lakeshore between the  village and Deep Creek. W. A. Lang operated a store in the  village and later, with associates, established a mill up Trepanier Creek. Eventually these enterprises were amalgamated,  under the name of the Peachland Trading Co., stock in which  was held by Messrs. McDougall, Lang, Robinson and others.  Some of the other early residents who made substantia]  contribution to the progress of the little community fifty or more  years ago were: Rev. C. W. Whyte, R. J. Hogg, the Pope  Brothers, the Miller Brothers, Alex Miller (no relation) Aikins  Brothers, Leon McCall, A. D. Ferguson, M. N. Morrison, P. N.  Dorland, J. L. Silver, Hugh Williams, Wm. Coldham, Grant  Lang,  Hamilton Lang,  J. L.  Vicary,  Elliott Brothers,  Jim and  64 Peachland, Summerland and Naramata  Charlie, George Keyes, J. Michaels, Messrs. Clarence and  Hardy. The last named was one of the real old timers of B.C.  who lived at Peachland to a good old age.  By 1908 the one room school was unable to accommodate  the pupils, so a four-room school was erected, but this in a few  years was unable to take care of the growing classes. In 1909,  the Municipality of Peachland was incorporated with the following officers: Reeve W. A. Lang; Councillors, L. D. McCall,  M. N. Morrison, C. G. Elliott and F. Callander.  The progress of the wide-awake municipality is recorded1  by Frank Haskins in the Penticton Herald, March 7, 1946. The  population was then over 500. The municipality owned its own  electric light and power plant, but the irrigation district was  separate from the municipality and had 600 acres under irrigation. In 1945, it shipped a half million boxes of fruit of which  52,000 were apples and 201,000 were peaches. It looked as  though Peachland was a well chosen name.  The turn in the fortune of those prospecting for gold reminded one of the old fable in which a man left a piece of land to  his sons with instructions to hunt for gold on it. They dug the  land and turned it over thoroughly but found no gold. But the  crops they afterwards planted yielded far more than ever before, and then the sons understood what the old man meant —  that gold is not so much a matter of lucky prospecting as a result of hard work and thrift.  Mr. Robinson and his associates surveyed the progress of  Peachland after it was firmly established and they had the  satisfaction of feeling that they had accomplished something  worthwhile. The money lost in prospecting for gold promised  to be more than offset by the profits from selling orchard land  and fruit growing.  The new settlers were optimistic. One factor was the anticipated demand for their fruit by the growing population of this  Canadian North-west, and another was the prospect of even  more settlers. Comparatively close at hand were people who  had grown tired of the long, cold winters on the prairie. The  1. OHS. 12 (1948), p. 217; OHS. 15 (1951), p. 86.  Rev. Frank Haskins. Penticton Herald, March 7,  1946.  Penticton  Herald, June 10, 1937; Mrs. B. Gummow, Mrs. Gwen Robinson.  65 Peachland, Summerland and Naramata  speculation in Peachland had been profitable. So, could it  not be repeated? Modern methods of high pressure advertising  and courtesy trips for demonstration had not been developed  so M. Robinson had to feel his way carefully.  He noted that the northern part of the Okanagan Valley  was largely occupied by those engaged in mixed farming,  while the southern part, with the exception of a few pre-emptions, was principally a cattle country.  J. M. thought the undeveloped bench land of the Trout  Creek district offered a promise of land that could be developed  into another and larger fruit growing area. The soils and dim-  'ñ† ate were similar to those of Peachland. He covered the district  carefully on horseback and made enquiries from the scattered  settlers. Once he noticed a wild peach tree growing near the  present Summerland reservoir. It apparently had sprouted  from a peach stone that George Gartrell had cast aside from his  lunch. He had worked for George N. Barclay who had water  rights on Trout Creek and was building a dam on the north  side of the creek for storage purposes. J. M. was convinced  that if peaches could grow some 700 feet above the lake level,  peaches and other fruits would do well on the whole of the  Trout Creek bench land.  To develop such a scheme required more capital than he  had at hand. However, he obtained the interest of George A.  Henderson, manager of the Vernon branch of the Bank of  Montreal, who in turn presented the proposition to Sir Thomas  Shaughnessy, the President of the C.P.R. The latter viewed it  favorably, thereby assuring J. M. of sufficient working and development capital.  In 1902, the Barclay holdings, including most of the Summerland benches were bought and the Summerland Development Co. Ltd. was incorporated with the following as directors:  Sir Thomas Shaughnessy, George A. Henderson, J. M. Robinson, H. J. Cambie and T. Kilpatrick. Sir Thomas Shaughnessy  was elected president and J. M. Robinson as managing director.  With the purhase of marginal pre-emptions practically all of the  present municipality of Summerland was included. The exceptions were a few pre-emptions in the narrow Garnett Valley,  the Gartrell and Woods pre-emptions in Trout Creek point and  66 Peachland, Summerland and Naramata  a small Indian Reserve at West Summerland, still often called  Siwash Flat.  A townsite was laid out on the lakeshore but the abrupt,  overhanging cliffs limited it in size. A post office was built  there, the first postmaster being F. S. Moule. Surveyors were  soon busy laying out roads and sub-dividing the land with  fruit lots, usually'10 acres in size. An irrigation system, supplied  by Trout Creek, was installed with an ample reservoir which  insured a fairly even flow of water. The townsite of Summer-  land had a domestic system of spring water and also a number of fire hydrants. The Summerland Hotel was erected, a  good frame building with about 20 rooms at first and it set a  good table.   It had a billiard room but no bar.  J. M.'s own home overlooking the townsite was named  "Buena Vista" and at that time was considered to be-of good  material and well built. In 1904 the Summerland Supply Co.  was incorporated for the sale of general merchandise with the  following directors: J. M. Robinson, R. H. Agur, James Ritchie,  T. J. Smith and H. C. Mellor. The upper floors of their store were  finished as a good auditorium, "Empire Hall," and was used  by travelling shows and for social purposes.  In February, 1903, a school district was formed that took  in the whole municipality of Summerland and J. M. was elected one of the trustees. On December 1, 1906, the district municipality of Summerland was incorporated and in the elections  held on January 1, 1907, the following were elected: Reeve J.  M. Robinson, Councillors: James Ritchie, J. R. Brown, R. H.  Agur and C. J. Thomson. J. L. Logie was appointed clerk of the  new municipality.  In 1906, the main building of Okanagan College was er-  rected under the sponsorship of Brandon College, a Baptist organization. The college was opened the next year with Dr.  Everett W. Sawyer as principal. It was then possible to give  a secondary education to local students. The old college is  now under the control of the Mountain View Home and cares  for a number of aged and disabled persons.  As the population of Summerland was steadily growing,  it was necessary to maintain its communications with outside  67 Peachland, Summerland and Naramatc  points. In 1907, the Lakeshore Telephone Co. was formed.  It was a one-wire magneto system (provocative of much bad  temper). It covered the Municipality of Summerland and then  branches were constructed in Penticton and Peachland, while a  government owned line gave these towns connection with  other points in the valley. By 1906, the S.S. Aberdeen was found  incapable of handling the increased traffic in freight and passengers, with her three times a week service, so the C.P.R. built  and launched the larger and faster S.S. Okanagan, which made  the round trip, Penticton to Okanagan Landing (near Vernon)  each week day. Business continued to increase and another  sternwheeler, the still larger S.S. Sicamous was launched in  1914 with Captain G. L. Estabrooks in command. The roads  were becoming modernized. Motor vehicles for both freight and  passengers were giving satisfactory service. 'Consequently in  recent years there was little left for the Sicamous to do. Aftei  the dismantling of the engines the vessel was finally sold foi  a nominal sum to the Gyros of Penticton, where it was moored  on the beach and used as a place of entertainment.  During a provincial election, a certain young aspirant for  the seat in the Okanagan constituency had more faith in oratory than in logic. He referred to the traffic on the lake "on  whose placid bosom ply the keels of commerce". J. M. was  content to give the credit to the freight barges of the C.P.R. and  C.N.R. in such plain language that his party won the seat.  The Bank of Montreal which had to some extent sired the  development of Summerland established a sub-branch on the  east side of Shaughnessy Avenue with E. B. May in charge,  and assisted by Holmes Walker and Charles Kerr. In a year or  so this was made a regular branch. In August, 1908, the Review  Publishing Co. was incorporated with J. F. Watkins as manager  and Rev. A. T. Robinson as editor of the Weekly Review. This  was well written and reflected the opinions of that period.  It had been realized for some time that none of the established Experimental Farms were able to give much help to  irrigated crops and dry farming. Mr. Robinson, with U. C. Mel-  lor representing the Summerland Board of Trade maintained  the pressure on the local M.P., the Hon Martin Burrell, until in  1914 a portion of the Indian Reserve south of Trout Creek was  68 Peachland, Summerland and Naramata  set aside for the purpose of establishing an Experimental Station. That this has been a success no one can question. Many  agricultural problems, some of world importance, have been  solved here. Later, laboratories for Plant Pathology and Entomology were erected on the same ground, and both have added lustre to the achievements of the Summerland Experimental  Station.  In 1923 there was some extremely cold weather and many  of the water pipes in Summerland were frozen. J. M.'s home  was built on a small hillside overlooking Summerland. As he  was then living in Naramata, the house was occupied by his  brother, W. J. Robinson and family. Down at the lakeside a  store operated by Simpson and Gowans caught fire. There  was quite a wind blowing from this fire towards the Robinson  house which was soon set afire by the sparks. With no water  available the shingled roof was soon ablaze. The willing  neighbours who attempted to save, if only a part of the con-,  tents, were soon throwing framed pictures and mirrors out of  the windows and were very carefully carrying clothes and  bedding down stairs.  J. M. was a well educated man and a good public speaker.  He and Mrs. Robinson were anxious that their large family  would be well educated. The eldest daughter, Gwen, attended  Moulton College, Toronto, and later graduated from the Torontc  General Hospital in nursing. Kathleen, too, graduated in  nursing in Vancouver. Gladys and Marguerite also received  good general educations, while Dorothy, the youngest, graduated in physical training at McGill University. The sons Will,  Jack and Campbell, graduated in Arts at McMaster University  (then in Toronto); later, Jack graduated in law at Osgoode Hall,  Toronto; while Will graduated in medicine at Toronto University. Private practice did not appeal to him so he specialized  in Pathology, and eventually became Pathologist to the Torontc  General Hospital and head of the Department of Pathology at  the University. 'ñ† He made two trips to Germany in order to  study the teaching of Pathology. In Toronto, his laboratory  was in the same building as that of Sir Frederick Banting, and  the two became fast friends.  About 1905 Mr. Robinson Sr. became interested in another  69 Peachland, Summerland and Naramata  tract that showed possibilities of being developed into orchard  land. The benchland on the east side of Lake Okanagan and  north of Penticton and just opposite Summerland was owned  by Tom Ellis, who had operated a large cattle ranch that extended, with a few breaks to the international boundary. A  cursory survey from Four Mile Creek to Chute Creek included  about 12,000 acres, a large part of which could be brought  under irrigation and. devoted to fruit growing.  J. M. incorporated the Okanagan Trust Co. in order to raise  the necessary capital and Ellis was protected as he received  a portion of all receipts from the sale of fruit lots.  Irrigation from Naramata Creek would apparently provide  ample water without which the land was useless for fruit growing. A townsite was laid out on a point that rose gradually  and overlooked the lake. In 1905 a post office was opened in  this townsite with J. S. iJJEilespie in charge, but he was soon  succeeded by Harry Mulford. In 1908 W. R. Bartlett was appointed postmaster and held the position for many years until  J. E. T. Warrington was given the post.  The name Naramata was chosen by Mr. Robinson after  other names had been considered, viz, East Summerland and  Brighton Beach. Narramattah, when simplified, became Naramata and was derived from a medium in the spirit-world whose  name was said to mean Smile of Manitou. Other researchers  claim the name means Place of Water and was derived from  the native Australian language (OHS. 12 (1948) p. 212). A store,  the Naramata Supply Co., handling general merchandise was  opened the same year, and a small school was opened the next  year. Mr. Robinson, D. H. Watson and others made trips to  the prairie, selling fruit lots and arranging for the subsequent  planting. The first settlers from outside include Bulman Brothers of Winnipeg and later of Vernon, Somerset Aikins and his  son Carroll, 'J. S. and Mrs. Gillespie, the Manchester Brothers,  Mr. and Mrs. Rounds from Michigan, Captain and Mrs. Lan-  quedoc from Quebec, T. H. Rayner, D. I. Walters, R. H. King  and others.  Transportation was no easy matter and Naramata depended almost entirely on the C.P.R. stemwheelers. J. M. had  a good power boat and also a house-boat that could be towed  70 Peachland, Summerland and Naramata  to various points for anchorage. But the power boat was J. M.'s  personal convenience and made no regular trips. The government called for tenders for a ferry to operate between Summerland and Naramata. In 1908, C. Noel Higgin obtained a  charter for the 30 foot Mallard to make two trips daily. At the  end of 1908 the Okanagan Boat Co. was incorporated with the  following as chief shareholders: J. M. Robinson, Ned Bentley  and C. N. Higgin. Then they operated the Maud Moore and  besides the two daily ferry trips they ran chartered trips to  Penticton and Kelowna. In 1911 the boat company was sold  to Peter Roe. With "other members of the Roe family including  his brothers Fred and Gerald he operated the Skookum and the  Trepanier in ferry service across the lake for a number of years.  Captain Languedoc, a former deep sea captain was associated  with them. The Roe family, which included the Pushmans,  Davies, Noyes and Hughes of Naramata and the Grays of  West Summerland represented quite an influx in their own  right. Some of them were responsible for the erection of the  Syndica Hotel at Naramata. It functioned briefly during Kettle  Valley railway construction days. J. M. on his own account  erected a hotel on the lakeshore but it, like the Syndica, eventually became a family home. In later years it was operated  as a school.  With the improvement of the road between Naramata and  Penticton and the advent of motor traffic, the trade between  Summerland and Naramata gradually faded and the cross-  lake boat service ceased. Peter Roe then interested himself in  a boat service for the Canadian National which had entered  the valley to compete with the C.P.R.  J. M. had great faith in the curative properties of the dry  climate of the Okanagan and following the trend of many  private hospitals in the U.S.A., he conceived the idea of open-  'ing a sanitorium in Naramata and he persuaded his brother-  in-law, Dr. W. C. McKechnie, to join him in the venture. A  foundation was laid for the intended building. Then Dr. McKechnie withdrew and moved to Vancouver, and the idea was  dropped.  In the early days, in 1909 and 1910, J. M. arranged for a  regatta to be held at Naramata.   That was before the Kelowna  71 Peachland, Summerland and Naramata  Regatta became big business. But he got a big crowd with  many dignitaries in attendance, including the Provincial Premier, Sir Richard McBride.  On October 18, 1910, the S.S. Okanagan with a party of  C.P.R. officials including Sir Thomas (afterwards Lord) Shaughnessy, Wm. White, vice-president of the C.P.R., R. B. Angus, C.  H. Hosmer, Chief Engineer Switzer, Captain Gore and Superintendent Kilpatrick, made a tour of inspection. Mr. Robinson  was presented with Sir Thomas' personal cheque, of no mean  figure, in appreciation of his work in founding Peachland, Summerland and Naramata.  In 1919 H.R.H. Edward, Prince of Wales, toured the valley  on the S.S. Okanagan. He attended a ball in Penticton and  danced with Gladys and Marguerite, two of J. M.'s daughters.  Among the other girls who danced with him was a Penticton  girl, good looking but a little short on manners. At the end of  the dance, she called across the floor to a companion, "Hey  Charlie, come here. I want you to meet the Prince."  J. M. Robinson was a man of magnetism and enthusiasm.  He had no need to subscribe to the teachings of Dale Carnegie  in order to win friends or influence people. He sold a fruit lot  to Sir Thomas Shaughnessy, also one to Sir Edmund Osier, the  financier, io Sir Edward Clouston, the president of the Bank of  Montreal, Count Dentice, Senator Kirkhoffer, Hon. William Hes-  peler, and other influential persons, and further, saw that those  lots were planted to the varieties popular in that day. The  newcomers who began to pour in were said to be "hand picked"  by J. M. and included many well-educated people.  After a long illness, Mr. Robinson died at his Naramata  home on February 23, 1934 in his 80th year.  John Moore Robinson was a super real estate agent. He  brought more settlers to the valley than anyone else. He  stimulated interest in the soft fruit industry and saw it develop  from practically nothing to one of the leading industries of  British Columbia, even of Canada.  So sad, so fresh, the days that are no more.—Tennyson.  72 ZJ-rom   Shetland   ZJo   \Jkt  tanaaan  Dorothea Mary Walker  My father, Gifford R. Thomson, was born at Uyea, Shetland, on April 8, 1848. At an early age he sailed before the  mast, and after seeing much of the world landed in South  Africa in 1870. The Kimberley diamond mines were then in  full swing. In partnership with the Hon. William Bligh, Mr.  Thomson went into the business of buying diamonds, and both  amassed a small fortune.  Returning to Shetland, Mr. Thomson became the proud  owner of Lochend, a beautiful estate which had always been  to him Naboth's vinyard. He married Harriet Matilde, eldest  daughter of John Inkster of South Hall, Shetland, in 1876. At  Lochend most of their family were born.  Life was pleasant at Lochend. It was a sportsman's paradise: sailing, fishing andl shooting he enjoyed to the full. But  much of his fortune was lost in speculation; the time came,  when he could no longer afford to live at Lochend, and he  determined to return to Kimberley, where he hoped to make  a second fortune. But South Africa was closed to immigration  at the time, so Mr. Thomson determined to come with his family  to Canada. As a sailor he had visited Nova Scotia several  times, and remembered the apple orchards there. When the  family arrived in Halifax, he had already made up his mind  to be an orchardist.  In Halifax my father was persuaded to go west. Fruit  growing was being started in Okanagan. Lord Aberdeen's  ventures at Coldstream and Guisachan had given the growing  industry much publicity.  We landed at Okanagan Mission, our destination, in May,  1891. Rails had been laid from Sicamous 'to Vernon, but as  yet there were no regular trains. The railway carriage in  which we came to Vernon was like an old bus, two seats of  yellow, slatted wood facing each other the length of the car.  . We were then taken to Okanagan Landing in democrats.  73 From Shetland To Okanagan  We came to what is now Kelowna in an old tub of a boat,  very small, which nearly sank in a storm which lashed the lake  that night. There was no Kelowna, no building, no wharf. We  were taken from the steamer to the shore in a rowboat. I remember Dave Lloyd-Jones carried my brother Jack, then a  small boy, ashore from the boat.  During the first fruit-growing boom my father bought uncleared land at $60 an acre from G. G. Mackay. After building  a house and clearing land, my father planted fruit trees only  to see them die a few years later after making a very rapid  growth. Water was too near the surface, just as it was at  Guisachan where 200 acres of fruit trees had been planted.  Before the orchard died he acquired a piece of lakeshore south  of the Roman Catholic mission. Part of this is now known as  "The Meadows." This was all uncleared land. Expenses were  heavy, and no revenue was coming in, so he got the job for a  time of driving the mail, three trips a week, between Okanagan  Mission and Vernon. On this new property he built a second  house. It had to be big to accommodate his large family. He  sold it in 1904, and a few years later J. H. Baillie turned it into  a hotel, the Bellevue. This well-known landmark was pulled  down in 1954.  Life was often grim in these early days. Father had rented  Bryn Mawr (later Allan Crichton's place) till his house on the  Benvoulin property was ready. We arrived in May. The place  was infested with bedbugs, and we quickly moved to an unfinished house with neither doors nor windows. Aggressive  mosquitoes appeared in clouds. Finances got so low that he  was forced to sell, one at a time, his jealously-guarded hoard  of Kimberley diamonds to Birks of Montreal. He gave me two  which I sent to Spinks of London, England, to be set into rings.  The last straw was reached when the brooch he had given  to his wife as a wedding present had to be sold. It was anchored by a heavy gold chain to go around the neck, and inset  at the back of the brooch with a photograph of G.R.T. The  reason Mr. Lequime bought it was that the centre of the brooch  was a large diamond of the finest water, which he wanted to  have set in a ring for his wife. With that diamond my father  got his start in cattle.  74 From Shetland To Okanagan  Years later, Mrs. Greene, wife of Archdeacon Greene, asked me to come down to the rectory as she was having to tea  a guest who wanted to see me. I rode down. There at the  rectory was Mrs. Gaston Lequime wearing a ring (claw setting)  that took my breath away — it was the diamond ring out of my  mother's brooch. Mrs. Lequime gravely handed me back the  large and elaborate oval brooch (minus the diamond), and  asked me if I thought mother would care to have it back  again.   I wonder where it is now?  75 OL   Stoy    OfJOLari*  Jn   Oke  yJhanaaan  Mrs. Muriel Page Ffoulkes, Regional Librarian  I \ ."fre Y?U in favor of your municipality (or rural school  district, as the case may be) becoming part of a union library  district to be formed under the provisions of the Public Libraries Act?" was a question that all residents of the Okanagan  from Revelstoke to Hedley, and from those living around the  Shuswap Lake to Osoyoos, were asked to answer when they  went to the polls in December 1935. The answer was "Yes" in  all but three of the 60 places where the vote was taken. Hedley and Revelstoke felt that they were too far distant from  the Okanagan to participate and Penticton was quite satisfied  with the Public Library Association that was well. established  in the town, and did not want a change.  There had been public library associations in other centres in the valley; Salmon Arm, Armstrong and Spallumcheen,  Enderby and Vernon in the north; Penticton, Peachland, Naramata,  Keremeos  to  the south;  there may even have been  more, but Kelowna had never had a public library service.  One reads in the article by the late F. M. Buckland .in the Okanagan Historical Report of 1954 that, "Mr. E. R. Bailey had  charge of Kelowna Lending Library, which had on its shelves  a  good  supply  of works  of history,  biography and fiction"  (p. 74). This would be in the '90's, and I dare say that something of the kind was available at all times. But when the Union Library was first mooted ,there were only one or two commercial lending libraries in the local drug and book stores in  Kelowna. It happened in almost every case that by 1934 and  1935 these little Public Library Associations were at the end  of their tether, either for lack of personnel to look after them,  or, which is more likely, lack of funds to keep up a modern  book stock. So when Dr. Helen G. Stewart, member of the Public  Library Commission  and  past chief librarian of Victoria  Public Library,  came  into  the  valley fresh from  more than  four years in the Fraser Valley, where she had been expen-  76 The Story Of Libraries In The Okanagan  menting on the best type of library service for rural areas  such as the B.C. valleys, she found the time was ripe for a  change. As we have seen, the decision to try a more modern  and economical service, whereby a union of districts was formed to contribute into a single fund to supply an equal service  to all, was agreed upon.  Dr. Helen Stewart had spent all that year interesting  people of the Okanagan, the Kootenay, and Vancouver Island  districts in a union library service. At the end of the year two  districts had voted for the service, but the Kootenays were  not geographically suitable for such a service and still do not  have one. The first thing Dr. Stewart had to do to form this  new library district in the Okanagan was to- arrange for a library board. Each organized district in the union must appoint  a ratepayer from the district to represent them, and a member must also be appointed by the rural areas, one member  for every 1,000 of population. The first meeting of the Board  was called early in the year. Those present were:  Armstrong, C. W. Holliday; Spallumcheen, B. A. Holliday;  Coldstream, Reeve E. J. Sunderland; Glenmore, Reeve G. C.  Hume; Kelowna, Mayor O. L. Jones; Kelowna district, A. B.  Wood; Peachland, Mrs. A. D. McKay; Salmon Arm City,  Aid. R. W. Glasgow; 'Salmon Arm Munic, D. H. Leech; Salmon Arm District, Edward Beatty; Summerland, Reeve W. R.  Powell; Vernon, Mayor E. W. D. Prowse; Keremeos, Mrs. K. E.  Clarke; Oliver, F. L. Goodman; Oyama District, J. F. Anderson; Rutland, A. McMurray; Sicamous District, R. M. Fenton;  Enderby City, C .E. Richards, member by courtesy.  Their first duties were: 1. Decide where the headquarters.  was to be. 2. Draw up a budget. 3. To appoint a librarian.  On the first matter, when the vote on headquarters was taken,  'one deciding vote was cast for Kelowna. The budget, after  much consideration, was presented by Mayor Prowse, of Vernon, who was chairman of finance, and called for the expenditure of $11,125. Appointing a librarian also took some consideration. After exhausting all the possibilities near home,  it was finally decided to ask Muriel Page, a librarian from the  Toronto Public Library, to fill the post. She accepted and was  in the Okanagan by the end of March, 1936.  77 The Story Of Libraries In The Okanagan  Now the real work began, and many problems reared  their ugly heads. Dr. Stewart was due to leave in April. No  other staff had been appointed, no new books boeks had been  ordered, no van had been bought. It would not have been so  difficult had the public not been expecting an immediate library  service. But they were. Their own little Library Associations  had closed down as agreed upon when coming into the newly formed district; the books" had been sorted and pooled, and  here it was April and no books to read, in spite of the fact  that taxation for library purposes had already started, at the  per capita rate of 40 cents as had been agreed.  This rate did not leave enough margin for necessary expenses. There was not enough money for books, and the van  was not even on the budget as it was hoped that some large-  hearted person would donate one. So in many ways the  Library got off to a poor start. Vernon, Armstrong and Salmon  Arm all had branches opened in April and May, but the only  books on the shelves were a hotch-potch of the old books that  had been in the valley when the library took over, mixed  with a few of the new books that had been purchased by the  Carnegie Demonstration the year before, all of which had  been left with the Okanagan Union Library. The new librarian  did not know the country or the location of any of the 56 places  that were to be served. She could not drive a car or use a  typewriter. Her present quarters were in Vernon and she must  find suitable ones in Kelowna as that city had been the choice  of the Board for the headquarters. There were none to be  found, so she must draw plans for a suitable building, to be  built on a site owned by Orange Hall Company at the corner  of Bertram and Bernard. This company started to build early  in April and a rent of $40 a month was agreed upon. But most  important of all, she must start the books rolling in. Orders  were sent for the basic books a library should have, for a  basic children's collection, for new best sellers, for modern  non-fiction. When the crates began to arrive, each book must  be processed, classified, catalogued, pasted and stamped before allocating it to one of the branches. Miss Hope Hodges,  a trained librarian from Ewing's Landing, had by this time  come on the staff, and A. E. Akenhead of Ladysmith, V.I., who  had been assisting Dr.  Stewart with the Demonstration was The Story Of Libraries In The Okanagan  allowed by the Carnegie Foundation to stay on for two months  to teach the librarian to drive and learn to know the district.  On April 24th, the temporary headquarters in Vernon  where Dr. Stewart had been working was thrown open to the  Vernon public. The first day 85 persons registered and 151  books were circulated. This meant that every day we had to  deal with the public as well as try to order books and carry  on the work of organizing a new district, all in one small  room. It was not until May 30th, that the Vernon branch was  opened in what had been the old jail. This branch was in the  capable hands of Mrs. Spencer, who had been Vernon librarian under the old set-up. The branch in Salmon Arm had  been opened on May 16, and on May 23, the Armstrong branch  was opened with V. T. Pellett in charge. On June 1st, headquarters was moved from Vernon to Kelowna. Though the  building was far from ready, enough space was available  for typing to be done and there were shelves ready for books.  On June 22nd, Kelowna branch was formally opened by O. L.  Jones, who borrowed the first book. Miss Hodges, Miss Meg  Gore, Miss Adelaide Atkinson and Miss Nancy Stiell were  assisting that day and, with the exception of Miss Hodges,  these librarians are still on headquarters staff. The Kelowna  local committee then consisted of M. Frederickson, principal  of the Junior High School, T. R. Hall, School Inspector, Mrs.  J. A. S. Tilley, Mrs. H. W. Arbuckle, Mrs. S. M. Simpson and  Mrs. T. F. McWilliams. The ladies of this committee served  tea on the opening day to what seemed like more than half  the Kelowna population. About 500 people registered that day  and 362 books were circulated. The above-mentioned committee became known as the Pasting Ladies in library circiiles.  Every Tuesday evening they came faithfully to paste labels  and pockets into the new books. They had the joy of handling  -all the new books and putting their names down for all the  ones they liked best, and we had the great satisfaction of  knowing that all this routine work was being done without taking the precious time of a somewhat harassed staff of three.  To join Miss Hodges, Miss Adelaide Atkinson had come back  to her native B.C. from the Toronto Public Library where she  had been on the staff ever since graduating from the Toronto  Library School.  Miss  Gore did not  join the staff for another  79 The Story Oi Libraries In The Okanagan  year, and Miss Stiell only occasionally did some typing — she  had not yet taken her library training. By the end of that first  year there was a staff of three trained librarians, a total book  stock of 13,000, and a circulation of 86,500. Forty-two branches  were in operation, with 8,400 people registered readers. Total  disbursements had been $10,797.19, and there was $144.49 in  the bank to start 1937.  But the library service was not giving satisfaction, no  question about that. There were not nearly. enough books to  go round. The van did not make enough visits, and some of the  larger places which had previously small libraries of their  own began to compare the advantages of these small libraries  with those of the larger system. The old system did not serve  so great a membership and could not offer a trained staff,  but at least the few people who wanted to read and were willing to pay the small membership for doing so could get the  books they wanted without having to wait so long for them.  The arrangement under the Act was that all units voting to  come into the Library District must continue membership for  three years, but after that time they might withdraw upon  holding a plebiscite. To make a long unhappy story short,  five large communities and four small ones took another vote  and decided to withdraw. These were Vernon, Coldstream,  Armstrong, Spallumcheen, Salmon Arm District, Hillcrest, Sicamous. Eagle Valley and Mara. All but Vernon are now back  in the Library District. This was a great blow to the still new  •and struggling library. The budget was down to $8,000. The  per capita rate was now 43 cents. Expenses were cut in every  direction possible. The service was continued and gradually  started to grow again until in 1946, the consolidation of school  districts in B.C. brought new legislation into use. The ruling  was that where the majority of school districts in a consolidation were already a part of the Library District, then all members of the new district must become part of the Library Dis-  rict, and where the majority did not belong to a library district, then the whole district must not receive library service.  This caused great confusion at first, and many meetings were  held all over the district. The final settlement, however, was  in the library's favour, and at the end of the year there was  a  larger area covered  than  ever before.    Both  Hedley  and The Story Of Libraries In The Okanagan  Penticton were now brought into the library district. In 1947,  the population served was 44,544, as against 23,384 in 1946,  and the budget, at a 50 cent per capita rate, called for an expenditure of $25,800. There were nine on the staff at headquarters and 47 branch custodians. Ever since that time,  the library has continued to grow, slowly but surely. The headquarters building in Kelowna became overcrowded in every  way — no room for needed staff, no room to house the book  stock, no room to give an adequate service to the outlying  districts. In 1953, the Board started to talk of a new building.  In 1954, it became an accepted fact that a $50,000 building  was to be put up. The City of Kelowna donated a valuable  corner on its civic centre property and donated $25,000 toward the building of the Kelowna branch, which was still  to be a part of the headquarters. The Government of B.C.  made a grant of $12,500, half of the cost of the headquarters.  The Okanagan Regional Library bore the cost of the other  half. Plans were drawn, contracts awarded., and the building  started in August, 1954. The people of Kelowna formed a  group of Friends of the Library and raised over $1,500 towards the furnishing of the Kelowna branch. The Kelowna  and District Art Group had been holding their meetings in  the old library for some years. To show their appreciation,  they presented the new library with tack-boards for the Board  Room, thus making it possible for about forty or fifty pictures  to be hung for exhibit. They also presented a cover to protect the beautiful oak table which the chairman, W. B. Hughes-  Games, had presented to the library. The Lions Club of Kelowna also donated a table for use in the main circulating  room. There is not space here to mention all the furnishings  purchased with money collected by the Friends, but all has  been greatly appreciated. The building was open for business  on January 18, 1955, but was not officially opened until April  15th, when Hon. W. A. C. Bennett, Premier of the Province,  cut the ribbon and declared the building open, after which  the Hon. Ray Williston, Minister #of Education, cut the ribbon  across the entrance into headquarters, declaring it open, and  Mayor J. J. Ladd opened the Kelowna branch in the same way  It is interesting to note that the new library, on the corner  of Queensway and Ellis streets, occupies the site of the first  81 The Story Of Libraries In The Okanagan  Kelowna school. This is fitting, as it is the function of a library to continue for its community the service started in school  Here citizens may add to knowledge gained in school and  widen horizons first glimpsed from a class-room desk.  From its first start in 1936, when the library service was  given to a population of 26,000, and the budget figure was  $10,000, the Okanagan Regional Library, as it is now called,  has more than doubled its sphere of interest. In 1955, the  population served is 70,095. The per capita rate of 75 cents,  with assistance from the Provincial Government and other  sources, brings in a revenue of $68,380.00; staff at headquarters  numbers 12. A total book stock of 62,145 volumes serves a  total registration of 22,000 borrowers. There are 111 deposits of  books, some large, some small, throughout the district. The  quality of the reading has always been high in the Okanagan,  and it continues to maintain its high standards. The library  not only brings books to people, it is fast becoming a cultural  centre for the community. Films are available to all who have  projection facilities. Art exhibits are always to be found in  the Board room.  The Kelowna Arts Council, the Kelowna Film Council,  the Kelowna and District Art Group, hold their regular meetings in the Board room. It is the dream of the Library Board  that in time the Kelowna building will expand so that it may  have permanent club rooms and workshops for all those interested in the arts, letters and humanities.  The work with the boys and girls has grown in every way  since the early days. Then, there was an occasional story  over the air — CKOV has always been generous with its facilities — the occasional visit to the schools, and some classes  were brought to the library. These things were done by the  regional librarian, who stole the odd moment from her other  duties to remember that once long ago in Toronto she had  been a chidren's librarian. Now, there is Miss Eva Webb, a  trained children's librarian, and she has a full-time assistant  and part-time page assistant at the busiest times. She has  a well-equipped children's room in the Kelowna branch and  she uses the Board Room for story hours and visiting classes.  She has permentant collections of books in some of the schools  82 The Story Of Libraries In The Okanagan  and circulating ones in many more. She makes frequent  visits to schools, addresses P.T.A.'s and other groups. This  is a most rewarding side of the library work, and it is with  great satisfaction that such progress is reported.  The Okanagan Regional Library has been fortunate in  its staff. The fact that so many have continued with the library  through all its ups and downs has made for special interest  in its growth and a pride in its achievements as well as a desire  to see that the standards are maintained in the future. Mention should also be made of Mrs. Cecile Royle who, from 1937  until her death in 1951, was the much beloved head of the  Kelowna branch.  Before drawing these brief reminiscences to a close, it is  fitting that mention be made of the three chairmen of the Board  who have done so much to keep the library always forward  in the eyes of the people. O. L. Jones was chairman of the first  Board and remained in that position for the first twelve years.  When he left the Valley for the House of Commons in Ottawa,  his vice-chairman, Mrs. F. J. Foot took his place for two years,  and for the last five years, W. B. Hughes-Games, has been  the guiding light in library affairs. It is due to their knowledge  of the people they represent, their ability in building for the  future and to the way in which they have given advice and  encouragement to the staff, that the library has achieved what  it has in its first two decades.  NOTE BY MRS. D. ALLISON  After reading Mrs. Ffoulkes' excellent account of our Okanagan regional library it will be interesting to delve a little further  into the past, and find how people in the early days collected and  distributed their reading matter. Mrs. Ffoulkes, quoting F. M.  EpMland (OHS.18.pp.69ff), tells that "E. R. Billy had charge of  Kelowna lending library, which had on its shelves a good supply  of works of history, biography and fiction." These shelves were  put up in the back of the post office, and the first books were  donated by Lady Aberdeen in 1903. One of the daughters of the  postmaster (E. R. Bailey) acted as librarian. In the years following good commercial lending libraries were opened by Willits Drug  and Book Store, Spurriers Sporting Goods store, and Morrison's  Book Store.  In outlying districts the Women's Institutes were mainly responsible for providing library facilities. At Okanagan Centre,  for example, the Institute voted money to buy books, and appointed  83 The Story Of Libraries In The Okanagan  a librarian. Members also donated books to form a library. At one  time, as many as 556 books were in circulation, and books were  exchanged with other Institutes that had libraries. The book cupboard was kept in the Presbyterian church, which was also used as  a school room, and since pulled down. This continued till 1936 when  Okanagan Centre joined the Union Library.  Reading in the "History of Oyama", which won a first award  in the Tweedsmuir village history contest of 1951, we learn that  the Women's Institute realized its plans, for a library as early as  February 22, 1915, with Miss G. Heddle its first librarian. In 1924,  the Women's Institute formed the Book of the Month club, and  also arranged for an exchange of books with other libraries. In  j_9_36, the people of Oyama voted themselves into the Union library,  and are ardent supporters of this wider scheme.  84 eUJru     Ualieu   School  GEORGE F. STIRLING  In 1908 an Assisted School was organized in the Glenmore  district which was then known as Dry Valley. It would have  been difficult at that time for anyone to have given the exact  latitude and longitude of the school, because the two surveys  from north and south did not meet, and the surveyors were  making a re-survey of the district. The Hon. Price Ellison had  tried to purchase some 800 acres a few years before, but the  matter was tied up pending the survey. They were busy on  that job when I was appointed teacher at the new school. My  wife and I were living in a tent in the Eccleston bush, as my  application for a pre-emption was also tied up. 'Ģ  The school stood in the jackpines just off the Dry Valley  Road and about ten miles north of Kelowna. The development  in later years of the fruit-growing industry had made such a  change in the appearance of the country, that when I visited  the district thirty years later I could not find the location of the  school, or the jackpines, or the old road. Orchards had replaced the jackpines and many new roads criss-crossed in  every direction. It must, however, have been somewhat near  the Eccleston Slough.  There were, if I remember rightly, about thirteen or fifteen  children on the roll with seven different grades. I tried a few  years ago to find out from the Education Department the names  of the children, but I was informed by the then deputy-minister  that they had no records of the s'chool, and suggested that they  may have been taken over by Rutland, or Kelowna. I wondered  -if they had any record in the Finance Department of my monthly cheque of $60, but I let the matter drop. There were children  in the school named McKinley, Bowers, Eccleston and a few  Indian children, and some others whose names I have forgotten.  As there was no school for miles around, some of the children had been brought up without any schooling whatever.  One boy, aged 16, could' neither read nor write nor count. I  85 Dry Valley School  bought a saddle pony from him for $40 and he could not count  the money which I gave him, but said his brother would count  it when he went home. This boy was chewing tobacco when  he came to school and struggling over such difficulties as  "Sam can run" in the first reader. Another boy, aged 13, found  it impossible to make the figure 3. He always curled it the  wrong way round like a capital "E". But although some of  the scholars were not very apt in reading, writing and arithmetic, they were well informed on all that pertained to nature  in their surroundings. They knew the habits and haunts of  the wild animals and birds, and their tracks in the snow. If I  had mail to be taken to Kelowna, one boy would go and see  if Mr. so-and-so had gone to town. Democrat, buggy, wagon oi  horseman, he knew them all and the habits of their owners.  The Indians in the district were very friendly to us as we  were living under canvas, bringing us occasionally a duck, or  goose, and on one occasion we had half a deer from them.  That was during the hardest winter known in the Okanagan for  many years. The deer froze solid so that I had to saw the  meat, and the saw-dust made excellent saw-dust soup. I have  lost track of the children who attended the school in those  days. What the school did for them it would be hard to tell,  but my own education was considerably advanced while teaching at that little Dry Valley School during 1909 and 1910.  86 iforth    \_skanaaan    Vvle  laan    f v gem on ed  S. R. Bowell1  In my Okanagan days nobody thought of diaries or records, so all I have to depend on is memory. My family came  to British Columbia from Newfoundland, where my grandparents settled, around 1800. They were English and Irish. My  father, Robert Bowell2 was brought up a fisherman, but his  brother John3 became a Methodist minister, and was sent to  British Columbia as a missionary. He sent back such glowing  reports of the great new country beside the Pacific Ocean that  Robert decided to leave the codfish of the Grand Banks, the  seals of the ice floes and the dog teams of Labrador, and seek  his fortune in British Columbia.  John (the Rev. J. P. Bowell) arranged a job for him as  captain of a river steamboat running from Tranquille on Kamloops Lake to Enderby on the banks of the Spallumcheen (now  the Shuswap) River. He left St. John's, Newfoundland ,sometime  in 1883, travelling by boat to Boston, Mass., thence by train to  San Francisco, then by boat to New Westminster. From here he  travelled by river boat and wagon trail to Tranquille where he  1. Stephen Robert Bowell: born at Nicola on 2 July, 1884. Lived in  Okanagan from 1885 (or 1886?) to August, 1909; New Westminster  1909-1915; Vancouver 1915-1925; Edmonton, Alberta 1925-1929; Nelson 1929-1937; Vancouver 1937 to present.    For thirteen years he  .worked for Burns & Co. as egg grader and foreman; and was  Dominion Government poultry inspector for 25 years, retiplng in  1949. In August, 1909, he married Miss Charlotte Johnson. Of this  union were born two daughters and two sons: Lyla (Mrs. B.  Skodje, Burnaby); Bonnie (Mrs. O. Tupper, Vancouver); Gordon,  Queen's University Rhodes Scholar in 1941, held the rank of Major  in World War II, and was awarded the M.B.E. He did post-graduaapa  work at Harvard, and is now general manager of Canadian White  Pine Co. Ltd., Vancouver. His brother Stephen graduated B.Sc.  (U.B.C.) and is now chemical engineer, synthetic rubber specialist,  Glidden Paint Co., Cleveland, Ohio.  2. Robert Bowell's father was for 25 years a soldier in the British  Army.  3. Rev. John Perry Bowell was born at St. John's, Newfoundland,  in 1851, and died at New Westminster, B.C., on June 6, 1926. He  was appointed to the Methodist charge of Nicola, his first field in  the British Columbia Conference, in 1883, and to Maple Bay in  1887.   He would be in Nicola to the end of June, 1887.  87 North Okanagan Memories  took up his duties with William Fortune, the boat owner.4  His engagement, however, was short-lived. One Saturday  night he tied up at Tranquille .On Sunday morning Mr. Fortune  wanted the boat loaded. Dad was a staunch Methodist and  refused to work on Sunday. When the boat owner insisted, Dad  packed his dunnage and walked ashore. He moved to Nicola5  where his brother John was stationed, and there I was born on  July 2, 1884. I had been preceded by two children, and was  followed by five, making a family of eight, of whom six are  still living.6  My parents stayed in Nicola till late in 1885, or early in  1886. They moved to the Okanagan, buying a half section of  wild land, four miles northwest of what is now the city of Armstrong, from William Powell. Our neighbours were C. C. Tilton,  an American; Alex Crawford, an Ontario Scot, Aaron Ford, another Scott and Big Bill Richardson, a towering, black bearded  Irishman who was a staunch and progressive Orangeman with  a special fondness for the "Ould Crathur."  Big Bill had a team of the most beautiful dapple grey  horses I have ever seen. Nobody but Bill could handle them.  He would drive to Lansdowne, where he would drink to the  health of King William, and then start out for home. Just how he  navigated the twisting, rutted wagon trail across Wallace's Flat,  down Deep Creek canyon, and up the long slope home, only  Tommy and Johnny (the greys) and the guardian spirit of all  over-enthusiastic Orangemen will ever know. But make it he  would, and come charging up the lane at a dead gallop, roaring out all the Orange songs he knew. Dad, himself a good  4. William Fortune was a native of Yorkshire, England, came to  Canada in 1857, and was employed as a tanner at St. David's, Ontario. Coming to British Columbia, he entered the service of the  HBC at Kamloops, and later settled at Tranquille. He built the  Lady Dufferin in 1878, operating between Savona and Spallumcheen  settlements. Married Jane McWha at Lytton. Sold their Tranquille property to the B.C. Tuberculosis Society as site for sani-  torium. Mr. Fortune died at Kamloops. December 1, 1914. (The  Overlanders of '62 by Mark Sweeten Wade, M.D.; Memoir No. IX,  Archives of British Columbia, 1931, p. 161).  5. Revs. James Turner and George Murray began Methodist and  Presbyterian work in Nicola Valley in 1875.  6. Mary, Will, Stephen, Emma, Walter, Frank, Alice and George.  Emma and Frank are dead. North Okanagan Memories  Orangeman, would generally hear Bill coming, open the gate,  unhitch and unharness the foaming greys, and put Bill to bed.  Lansdowne7 was the hub of the North Valley in those days.  There was the hotel, run by an enormously stout individual  named Cartwright; Wood & Rabbits general store; Harry  Schneider's blacksmith shop; and the Presbyterian Church. The  minister, Rev. John Knox Wright,8 was a real, old Covenanter,  and many the time I have been jarred awake by the thud of  his fist on the pulpit. There was also Wallace the magistrate,  and a pioneer wheat rancher, and Frank Young. Later, the  Marshalls and the Heards moved in, occupying farms to the  south and east of the village. The land, a heavy clay, was rich  but difficult to work. The doctor, a German named Offerhaus,9  set broken bones, stitched up axe and knife cuts, and generally  ministered to the health of the community. He did not have to  work too hard as a rule, for we were a pretty healthy lot.  Our farm was lightly timbered, the north quarter with a fine  stand of ponderosa pine, and the south quarter dotted * with  mountain fir. The pine was a godsend for Dad, who at that  time had no logging equipment, sold it on the stump to Patten's  mill. He also worked at the mill, and thus got a start in the new  country. In the middle of the south quarter occurred an extensive outcrop of crystal marble, and on the north quarter the  outcropping was grey granite. To Dad these were merely rocks  till one day a prospector named Pickering dropped in on his  7. Lansdowne, formerly Spallumcheen post office, north of Armstrong, named after Lansdowne hotel of E. M. Furstineau (or  Furstenau) pioneer farmer of 1874. The hotel, opened July 1,  1885, was named in honour of the Governor General, Lord Lansdowne (See OHS. 6, p. 138; OHS. 12, p. 209).  8. Rev. J. K. Wright served the district from 1889-1896, when he  responded to a call from Cooke's church, Chilliwack, B.C. He died  in Vancouver in February, 1925.  9. Dr. E. J. Offerhaus was probably the first medical man to practice in Okanagan. He was a native of Holland, and registered in  1883. He lived at Lansdowne and after the completion of the  Shuswap and Okanagan railway covered the Armstrong and Enderby areas (Dr. F. W. Andrew in OHS. 12, p. 137). Guy P. Bagnall  in letter 8 August, 1955, sends this further note: "Dr. Offerhaus  was employed by the Department of Indian Affairs. He was married and had a son and a daughter. The son moved from the district. The daughter, who was a school teacher, married a Mr.  Wilson at Kamloops. Mrs. Offerhaus died of T.B., probably at  Kamloops, and Dr. Offerhaus returned to Holland about the year  1915, where he died a few years later."  89 North Okanagan Memories  way south from the Cariboo goldfields. I do not know his initials, or anything else about him. If this seems strange, please  remember that in those days questions were not asked. More  than one of those enjoying our hospitality had good reason foi  visiting the Okanagan. The little town of Oroville, just south of  the border, rejoiced in the reputation of being the "hottest" town  in North America. It was ideally situated for the outlaw fraternity, being only an hour's ride from "across the line," and safe  from pursuit.  But to get back to Pickering: Dad was clearing land, and in  the process had made a log-pile bonfire. The visitor picked up  a couple of pieces of dull grey stone by the path, and tossed  them into the fire. The pile burned for a week or so. When the  ashes had cooled he kicked the stones out onto the path, and  called Dad to bring some water, which he poured on the stones.  After a few minutes they started to hiss and bubble till they  were reduced to powder. The crystal marble had turned into  lime. Thus was born an industry which furnished lime for the  buildings of the valley during the period of its first development. For twenty years we conducted the business using the  marble for lime, the granite for kilns, and the fir timber for fuel.  We sold in 1908 to people whose ignorance of the process  promptly ruined the industry.  Of the human flotsam and jetsam drifting up and down  the valley during this period, some drifted to the land and took  root. Of these, two, Sam, Gray and George Paton, are worthy  of note, for both were pioneers in what eventually became the  biggest business of the valley. Sam settled on a place that had  about ten acres open to south and east, and sheltered on the  northwest by a range of hills, thus furnishing an ideal location  for fruit. And well I remember his luscious cherries and plums,  and the biggest black currants I have ever seen or hope to see.  He peddled his fruit through the valley, as also did our neighbour Tilton, who specialized in strawberries.  George Paton operated the first commercial apple orchard in  the north valley, and there was one tree from which the boys  could pick the fruit. I can taste those Red Astrachans yet.  I attended Round Prairie school,10 and came under the  10. Round Prairie school: see article OHS. 16 (1952) pp. 69 94. On  p. 94 Steve Bowell is in photograph of school group.  90 North Okanagan Memories  tutelage of' its three teachers: Thomas. LeDuc, Miss Martha J.  Norris and H. A. Fraser.11 Of the two first mentioned I remember very little, but to Harry Fraser I owe the groundings of  my education; and more than that, the example of a clean-  living, sensible, patient gentleman.  My father being a deeply religious man soon turned his  attention to the religious needs of the community. Shortly after  the school was built he organized a Sunday School, which he  conducted till he left the district. He was also instrumental in  getting the Methodists to establish a preaching service, and  later to build the church which still stands at the crossroads on  the hill. In this respect he stands with Alexander Leslie  Fortune12 of Enderby, and Donald Matheson of Hullcar,13 as an  outstanding pioneer in the religious life of North Okanagan .  When Dad came to the valley mixed farming was unheard  of. First, there was no market, and, secondly, the valley was  regarded only as grazing land, where the cattlemen reigned  supreme. Beginning at Armstrong and running south the ranchers were: Tronson, O'Keefe & Greenhow, Postill Brothers,  Casorso Brothers and Tom Ellis. North from Armstrong were  the smaller holdings, and it was here that the real agricultural  development had its inception. The grist mill at Patten's, and another started at Enderby, created a market for wheat, and for  11. Harry Archibald Fraser had lived in Armstrong since 1891.  His death is reported in OHS. 16 (1952), p. 70. He was 81 years  old.   In 1897 he married Catherine Honora Schubert.  12. See OHS. 15 (1951): "A. L. Fortune's Autobiography," by Dr.  M. A. Ormsby, pp. 25-40.  13. Donald Matheson was born ' at Ploeton, Ross-shire, Scotland.  He came to Canada in 1872, and was for a time captain on the  Great Lakes. He came to Lulu Island, B.C., and worked on the  Fitzgerald McLeary farm. He walked to Okanagan Valley and  pre-empted land at Hullcar in 1878. In 1884, at the home of Mr.  and Mrs. A. L. Fortune, he was married to Ruth Rollinson of  Bradford, England. To them were born two sons and one daughter: Daniel Crawford, who died 14 December, 1907; Kenneth James,  retired and now living at Vernon; and Sarah Bethia, now Mrs.  A. L. Patchett of Quesnel. Donald Matheson died at Hullcar on  28 November, 1914. Mrs. Matheson died there in July, 1941, aged 87.  Mr. Matheson served on the first council of the Spallumcheen  municipality, and was first reeve of Spallumcheen after its secession from Armstrong city. He was also president of the first  local agricultural society, and active member of the Farmers' Institute, and a staunch elder in Enderby Presbyterian church (note  supplied by G. P. Bagnall).  91 North Okanagan Memories  many years this was the main crop. However, with the constant  cropping to cereals the soil became exhausted and choked with  weeds. Fortunately, about this time mining developments in the  Kootenays, and in Similkameen, resulted in the rise of towns —  Nelson, Kaslo, Sandon, Greenwood,14 Rossland and Phoenix.  These towns required fruit and vegetables as well as beef and  flour, thus providing markets for the produce of mixed farming.  When this market petered out, the influx of population into the  valley took up some of the slack, and the initiative of such men  as William McNair, Tom Fletcher and others, started a marketing system which now extends round the world.  We left the valley in 1908, after sharing its ups and downs  for 24 years. Although this is nearly fifty years ago, I still regard  Armstrong as my home town, and take a peculiar pleasure in  revisiting old scenes, and old friends. If these rambling reminiscences give any pleasure, or add anything to the historical lore  of our beloved province, I shall feel amply repaid.  14.   Greenwood,  named  for  pioneer  Okanagan  merchant  named  Wood.  92 W.   2).    Wall  Dorothea M. Walker  W. D. Walker  A link with the "Old-Timer" days was  broken when, on June 2, 1953, William Dalziel  Walker, only son of W. T. Walker of Oxford,  England, died after a lingering illness. He  was born at Morecombe, Lancashire, England, and was educated at St. Edward's, Oxford.  He was given no choice as to what career he would follow.  From his earliest youth he was brought up and educated with  the fixed idea of taking Holy Orders, to fill a rich living belonging to his grandfather on his estate at Catterall Hall, Giggles-  wick, Yorkshire.  At the age of nineteen he refused to go into the Church,  to the great disappointment of his father, and grandfather. After  many years of the study of Latin and Greek and the classics  he was ill fitted to earn a practical living. His father in desperation suggested, "How about trying to farm in the colonies?"  Unfortunately, Mr. Walker  knew no one in the colonies (a  few relatives in India were in  military service) but they did  know a man who had a brother farming in Keremeos, B.C.  This was the Dean of Ely,  whose brother, Edward Bullock-Webster, had been farming for some years in Similkameen.  Interviews were arranged  with' the Dean, letters were  written to his brother, and before long an arrangement  was made whereby young.  William was to go to Edward  Bullock-Webster   as   a   farm Mr. and Mrs. W. D. Walker  93 W. D. Walker  pupil for a year.  He arrived at Penticton on August 8, 1894, attired in heavy  tweed Norfolk jacket, and matching heavy cloth cap, on a blistering day, and was met by Mr. Bullock-Webster with a spring-  less wagon. Two days on the journey to Keremeos, over impossible roads, convinced him this was not green Oxford with  its cricket, boating and other pleasures.  At the end of eighteen months with Mr. Bullock-Webster,  his father sent him a sum of money with which to buy land  to farm on his own. He was persuaded to put this money into  shares in the Fairview Mines (then booming) and into a Fair-  view townsite lot, on which he paid taxes for years and finally  lost it.  It was during his stay in the lower country that he was so  kindly befriended by the Rev. Thomas Greene and his wife—  a friendship that lasted the rest of their lives. In 1893 Tom Ellis,  the cattle king, had built a small church in Penticton and Mr.  Greene was appointed to this living. He took services at the  outlying settlements such as Keremeos, and at Trout Creek  where George Barclay had built a small church. In 1894  Kelowna, then a tiny settlement, was added to his charge.  Distances were great, roads impossible, and in 1897 the parish  was sub-divided. Mr. Greene chose Kelowna as his parish for  the rest of his life, but whether in Penticton or Kelowna Mr.  Greene's vicarage was a second home to W. D. Walker for  over 40 years.  In 1901 W. D. Walker had the good fortune, in partnership  with his old friend W. D. Hobson, to buy from the Roman Catholic priests, that fine piece of land on the lakeshore at Okanagan Mission. They divided it between them tossing a "quarter"  as to who would have which half. W. D. Walker got the part he  wanted (it had the most creeks on it) and proceeded at once to  clear the heavily timbered land. So heavy was the timber that  he had Crawford's sawmill set on the site where the Okanagan  Mission Community Hall now stands, which acre he gave a few  years later as ground for a tennis court. Near the site of the  sawmill he had Alec Bernard build him his first two-roomed  bachelor shack. And early in 1904 he had Johnny Curts build  his first house, now known as the "Middlemass".  94 W. D. Walker  In October 1904 he married Dorothea Mary, eldest daughter  of Mr. and Mrs. Gifford R. Thomson of Okanagan Mission. In  those early days a new home was "open house." The Mission  seemed to be alive with young men, nice boys with public  school education, a love of sport, and not too great a love for  hard work! It seemed to me in our new house we seldom ate  a meal alone — any hands on the place (and we usually had  one or two people working) stopped at 10:30 a.m. for tea. The  same happened at 4 p.m., and usually there would be an impromptu "party" — everybody in working clothes .  Living was cheap — can you picture the days when bacon  was ten cents a pound, bread (unwrapped and not always  clean in delivery) three loaves for twenty-five cents, and the  best of whiskey $1.00 a bottle?  W. D. Walker proceeded to put in first ten, then a further  seven acres of orchard. How he loved that orchard! I found  to my dismay that W. D. had the tails of his shirts torn off  (and they were good English shirts with long tails). "What on  earth has happened to those shirts?" I asked. "Well, you seen  was the unabashed reply, "a couple of the young trees had  broken branches and I needed something with which to bind  them."  Meanwhile land clearing went on apace. But in spite of  hard work, life in those days seemed leisurely. Dances were  great fun, especially the private ones, and "believe it or not"  in those earliest days, "full dress clothes" for men and women  was de rigueur. Picnics, riding parties (everyone had a saddle  horse), paper chases and coyote hunts were popular. Landowners like Billy Barlee bred fine saddle horses. Polo was one  of the leading games, and we had some fine riders here —  none better than Billy Barlee. (This game became almost extinct here when all the young men went to the war of 1914-18).  The first sports club in the valley was organized in our  house by W. D. Walker and Alec Bell (then a farm pupil), in  1907; and cricket, football, and tennis became popular. In 1907  W. D. was made captain of the first Okanagan Mission cricket  team, and this continued for seven and a half years. Allan  Crichton was captain of the Kelowna team and it never seemed  any trouble to get up a match.  95 W. D. Walker  On one occasion years before the church was built here, a  church service had been arranged at Okanagan Mission,  this service to be in our house. I had not been told about it.  W. D. (acting as Rector's warden) had evidently forgotten  about it, and also forgotten to post a notice at the little local  store. A cricket match had been arranged between Kelowna  and Okanagan Mission. The ground was that bit of property  just below what is now Hall Bros, store. The Rev. Thomas  Greene arrived at the house to take service. Hurriedly I sent a  message to the cricket ground to W.D. A council of war was  held by the team and it was decided that the two captains,  Allan Crichton, and W. D. Walker, should approach Mr. Greene  with a request to put off the service. This they did with a good  deal of diffidence and trepidation. A clergyman less kindly  would have risen in righteous wrath at such a suggestion—not  so Mr. Greene. He looked at the two men, shook his head, and  sadly said "I could forgive it if the men making this request  were not two of my staunchest churchmen — and one of them  my Rector's warden." The cricket match was put off, not the  service, and Mr. Greene had a big congregation that Sunday.  Among our greatest pleasures was having Mr. and Mrs.  Greene and family camping on our lake-shore. Year after year  they came — to our great delight. It was the only holiday, to  which a parson's meagre stipend ran. Luckily all the Greene  family liked camping.  The fall of 1902 was perfect camping weather, but the 1903  camping began under anything but pleasant circumstances.  Mr. Greene's only means of transportation was his large row-  boat The Colleen. This was loaded with two tents, bedding,  clothes, dishes, pots and pans, food, and a camp-stove, besides  Mr. and Mrs. Greene and five young children. After embarking at Kelowna, a terrible storm of wind and rain arose, and  the party were alarmingly late in arriving at W.D.'s lakeshore.  He had a roaring campfire ready for them. At this time W.D.  had no wharf and landing was difficult. Once safely ashore  they and all their belongings were put under some dense trees  for shelter, while Mr. Greene and W.D. (heads covered in cowls  of gunny sacks) proceeded to put up the tents, and the tin stove.  No need to dwell on the discomforts of that night! But next  morning W.D. arrived at the camp with a wagon load of build-  96 W. D. Walker  ing lumber. He and Mr. Greene got busy and put up a two-  roomed shack which Mr. Greene christened "Parson's  Pleasure."  W.D. put up another and larger camp in 1905 for ourselves,  two or three hundred feet from the Green's camp, and here  nearly every autumn evening we joined forces around a great  camp fire. Sunday afternoon was a great day for visitors to  arrive. They came from far and near, usually to tea, and often  some stayed to supper. By pooling our resources we managed  somehow. Dr. and Mrs. Boyce often brought a boiled ham,  someone else a few loaves of bread, someone a cake. What  happy times we had  In 1913 W.D. sold his house (Middlemass) and 10 acres of  orchard to Dr. Wansbrough-Jones; and had the two lakeshore  camps joined together, renovated, and added to; and here, after  nearly a year's holiday in England, we returned to live.  Always a keen orchardist, Mr. Walker became interested  in the organization and marketing of fruit. From 1932 to 1945 he  was a member of the Dominion Fruit Board. His opinions were  considered valuable, for in 1946 he was sent by B.C. Tree Fruits  Ltd. to the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, to demonstrate the  Okanagan method of packing and handling apples.  For 33 years he was a trustee at Okanagan Mission school.  There was plenty of hard work attendant to this position in the  old days, work which now is looked after by the School District.  Many times did he light the fires in the winter, and many times  was he out with team and plough to clear the snow!  W.D. was very keen about water sports, and he took an  active interest in the Aquatic Club from the time of its inception.  He was, with J. F. Burne, one of the best divers in the valley,  until he had to give it up due to a "football knee," acquired at  school in England, which handicapped him in many games  such as tennis and football. He judged the diving at the  Kelowna Regatta until within two years of his death. He taught  many young people in the district to swim and dive. Many  were the hours spent walking up and down the wharf, boat-  hook in hand. The boathook held a saddle girth in which was  an aspiring swimmer, gently and firmly being given confidence  to take the first strokes. He was interested also in track and field  97 W. D. Walker  sports, and for many years was a familiar figure at the inter-  school meets.  Perhaps the work that was most outstanding in his life  was his work for his church. It was a labour of love. It meant  plenty of hard work, especially in the earlier years.  We had a service at least once, sometimes twice, a month.  The Archdeacon had to be fetched from Kelowna. The drive  from Kelowna for many years lay (after leaving what is now  Bernard Ave.) between Guisachan and Pridham's place, and  Allan Crichton's ranch and on to the Benvoulin Hotel; from  there on south, past the Roman Catholic mission, and over the  swamp road in all its various stages of being cobbled up to  make it passable, and on to W.D.'s house. In bad weather it  was all a horse or team could do to pull a buggy or a democrat  through the mire. W.D. would drive to Kelowna for the Archdeacon on Saturday afternoon, and we had the great pleasure  of having him as our guest for part of the week-end.  On Sunday morning W.D. would hitch up the buggy and  drive to church to see that it was really warm. (Even today, in  1955 we have no furnace heat in St. Andrew's). Then back home  to milk several cows and do the rest of the chores, and then  back to church with the Archdeacon, sometimes at 8 a.m.,  sometimes for Matins.  After luncheon he would drive the Archdeacon back to  Kelowna. For many years ,and until he felt that younger men  should be doing the work, he was the Archdeacon's very able  warden, and this meant never missing a service.  As his old friend, H. V. (Paddy) Acland wrote in a touching  tribute to his memory, printed in the Courier of July, 1953:  "The attributes we will remember most were his kindness  and happiness. Coupled with a wonderful sense of humor was  his ability to see good in everything. I think we can quote  DuBose Heyward to finish the account of a good and kind citizen of Okanagan Mission:  "Compassionate the mountains rise,  Dim with the wistful dimness of old eyes,  That, having looked on life, time out of mind,  Know that the simple gift of being kind  :-W      Is greater than all wisdom of the wise."  98 f loneerlna  Robert S. Hall1  as told to  His Daughter, Gladys  I was 21 years of age in March, 1882, healthy and ambitious. Coming from a line of English yeoman, who had tilled  the soil of Plawsworth in the County of Durham, England, for  many generations, it was natural that I should be interested  in the land. About that time my attention was directed to the  reports of twelve tenant-farmers who had been invited to  Western Canada by the Canadian Government the previous  year to inspect the agricultural possibilities of the newly-  opened prairie land west of the Red River. With pamphlets  and addresses these reports were spread throughout Great  Britain by the twelve Argonauts, who had travelled half-way  around the world to spy out the promised land with its crops  of golden wheat.  As a result, the imaginations of many young and middle-  aged Britishers were excited. They were anxious and eager  to better their station in life, and to cast their lot with others  who had immigrated to Canada in previous years.  I was living in Manchester at the time and, influenced by  the prospect of free land in a new country, I, along with three  other Manchester boys, booked passage on the S.S. Polynesian  in April, arriving in Winnipeg by way of Montreal, Chicago  and Emerson in May. Within a few days of my arrival in  the young prairie capital, I obtained a job on the farm at  Bumside, west of Portage la Prairie, owned by Kenneth McKenzie, M.P. The acreage of this farm had been determined  by a boundary which McKenzie was able to plough around in  one day. While working on this, farm I became friendly with  a man named Alfred Cole. We stayed there until after harvest.  Cole and I were not long in finding another job in a sawmill  at Morris, south of Winnipeg. Here we worked until the following spring.  1. Robert S. Hall died on September 25, 1935.  99 Pioneering  Hearing of a country opening up on the northwest border  of the then small province of Manitoba, Cole and I took the  main line train to Whitewood. From there we headed north  for the York Colony, with our blankets on our backs, following  a trail left by three settlers with their ox team a few days  earlier. Upon our arrival at the banks of the Qu'Appelle River,  we found the river swollen by spring freshets, and a settler by  the name of Ben Boak waiting for lumber to build a ferry. He  had already stretched a cable across the river, but by some  mischance only one of the pulleys needed to operate the ferry  had been shipped in. So until another one arrived he advised  us to stay with him and help to build the scow. This we were  very reluctant to do because of a shortage of food.  The following day, however, two Canadians arrived in  camp and, declaring they would not be stopped by a little  thing like a river in flood, set to work with their axes and built  a raft. They then attached it to the single pulley on the cable  and sent it out across the river. On reaching mid-river the raft  turned upside down, and then continued on to the other side.  First one and then the other Canadian tried to ride this treacherous contraption, with the same result each time. On reaching  mid-stream, the raft turned completely over with its passenger  frantically striving to keep on the upper side. My turn came  next, for I had determined to push on to our destination at all  costs. After stripping to the "buff", and tying my clothes in a  bundle, with my English lever watch bound to the back of my  head in a handkerchief to keep it dry, if possible, I boarded  the makeshift ferry and started across with the same result—  the raft turned upside down in the middle of the river, while I  had to scramble on top, with everything I possessed soaked.  Even the precious watch was full of water when I finally  reached the other bank.  Cole refused to follow, so while our clothes were drying in  the sun and wind ,we three walked along the riverside to  where the banks were sufficiently narrow to allow Boak and  Cole to throw "bannocks" across the water to us. With that  meagre supply of food in our possession, we dressed and  started out to follow the tracks of the three wagons that had  crossed in low water some days before.   That night we camped  100 Pioneering  in a thicket of oak scrub, with a good fire for company. Soon  after it grew dark we were startled to hear something crunching  through the bush. It turned out to be a very hungry Indian,  who told us he had had nothing to eat for two days, and  proved it by eating up all of-our grub he could stuff into himself.    This left us shorter still.  In a day and a half, travelling without food, we reached  the White Swan River, where the Meredith brothers from Toronto had built a cabin the year before. This place was eventually the townsite of Yorkton, named for their home city. It  was first named York City. At this place we were able to get  really filled up on fish, potatoes and bannock; also a needed  rest. Two days later Cole turned up with Ephraim Boak, who  was in charge of an immigrant train going as far as the Wallace settlement. After a week of prospecting around this parklike country, Cole and I decided to locate some six miles east,  and filed on Section 24, Range 26, Tp. 3. That summer we  broke up land and erected buildings on our homesteads to  comply with government regulations. With many other  homesteaders we helped to establish civilization in that section of the prairie, which has since become famous for mixed  farming. In the four years we were holding down our claims,  and proving up our homesteads, we were frozen out twice and  had only half a crop the other two seasons. We also experienced two prairie fires.  There was little or no money in the country. Wheat sold  for 30 to 40 cents a bushel; oats, 25 cents a sack, and dressed  hogs brought 5 cents a pound in trade.  During the time we were homesteading, we found ourselves embroiled in the Second Riel Rebellion. The half-breeds  and Indians around us became very restless. Scattered settlers, with their women and children, congregated at the York  Farmers stone mill for mutual protection. A company of 100  volunteers was formed, with military drill under a sergeant-  major who, with a hundred rifles, had been sent up from  Ottawa. Soldiers and settlers joined in constructing a stockade  for protection of the white population, but on its completion,  the volunteers were the ones who occupied the fortifications,  much to the disgust and alarm of the settlers, who were left  101 Pioneering  outside. When this volunteer company was formed we felt  that either Cole or myself should join up. We talked it over  and finally it fell to the lot of Cole to be the soldier, while I held  a lonesome and jumpy job, stalking around through the bush'  with a dog and a pig and gun for company, and keeping an  eye on our cattle in the field for fear they would be run off by  the rebels.  One day a wagon train of settlers from Wallace came by  our place on their way to Armstrong Lake, where fortifications  of some kind had been built. They begged me to join them,  pointing out what my position would be, all alone in the bush,  if the farm was raided and the stock stolen. However, I decided to stay with the homesteads and take my chances, and  by good fortune was not molested. After the Rebellion died  down, my partner, Alfred Cole, was married to an English girl  (who came out to him from home) at Moosomin on the C.P.R.  The crop failure of 1886 left me so disgusted with that part  of Saskatchewan that I decided to look farther afield, hoping  to find a better country. Travelling to Brandon, I obtained a  work-pass on the C.P.R. to go to the mountains, where snowsheds were being constructed, but on reaching the Bow River  in Alberta, I started work there. This river was on the rampage.  A sawmill company was bringing logs down, and these  jammed against the centre piling of two bridges on the railway,  taking them out. My job was to help clear the jam, and to  assist in transporting passengers and mail by hand car between the two bridges, over a three-mile stretch of track, parts  of it hanging in midair across the river. This was a hazardous  ride over treacherous track that was undermined in places,  causing many and varied reactions from our passengers. I  remember one starry night quite well. We had on board  several Salvation Army people bound for Vancouver. As we  rolled down a long grade on the hand cars towards the shaky  bridge and rushing river, those lassies sang hymns, and sent  up a prayer that they sincerely hoped would be heard. While  here I met and talked to a dark lame man, whom I afterwards  came to know as Bill Postill.  During the month I worked on the Bow River section I  met a man called Alec Mclntyre, who hailed from the  Jim  102 Pioneering  River, in North Dakota. He, too, had been trying to farm there,  but got dried out year after year. So he, like myself, was looking for a better country. Alec and I decided to take a day at  Banff Springs, but while there got separated in some way, and  when we again met he had news for me. Said he: "I met a  man a while ago who come from a valley in B.C. where they  grow good crops of wheat and have large herds of cattle, with  a very good climate." He had forgotten the name of the valley, and the name of the station to get off at, but remembered  it was about half-way between Banff and Vancouver. Starting  west the next day, the conductor on the train told us that  Craigellachie was half-way point, but he said it was only a  siding. He advised us to go on to Sicamous, where a small  steamboat connected with the train three times a week, bringing flour from somewhere south, and he figured there must be  a settlement down that way. He advised us to stop off at  Sicamous, where we did. The train pulled out, leaving us gaping at the mountains on the one side and the lake on the other.  With the exception of a small shed of a stationhouse, that was  all in sight.  'Well, boys, going around to the hotel?" a cheery voice  said in our rear. Thus we made the acquaintance of Col.  Forrester, of Chinese fame, from whom afterwards I heard  many yarns of the Boxer Rebellion. Under the Colonel's guidance we found a snug little hotel nestling under the mountain,  and on the way there he told us of the south. 'Oh, you will  have to wait here until the day after tomorrow," said he, "for  the Red Star would not wait. She makes three trips a week  with flour from the Enderby mill. There is a boat and fishing  tackle.   You might as well take it easy till she returns."  In our endeavor to fill in the time the following day we  discovered that a gang had just started work on a wagon road  along the west side of Mara Lake to contact Enderby by road  with the railway. This was the road which I was destined  afterwards to travel many times with Her Majesty's mails—for  Good Queen Victoria was then our Sovereign—and where I  had many varied experiences.  Right on schedule Captain Cumming and the Red Star  made their appearance, and the day following we climbed on  103 Pioneering  deck, navigating the shallow waters of the Spallumcheen River,  arriving at Enderby in time for supper. The first men we met  on arrival here were Bob and Tom Lambly, who then owned  the Enderby Hotel, and who were both on the verandah to welcome the cheechakos from the East. Supper over, we decided  to "hoof it" the nine miles to Lansdowne, then the metropolis  of the valley, and got there in time to make the acquaintance  of "Mine Host Wallace."  Now the Lansdowne of that day should really have a descriptive chapter to itself, but in this short memoir I must only  relate a few of the features which struck me most favorably.  George Wallace, I was informed, was an American who originally, with his wife, had ridden on horseback from California,  heading in the first place for Rock Creek gold diggings; then  coming on north to settle eventually near the crossroads, where  the village of Lansdowne was built, and 'which was named  after the then Governor-General.  George Wallace was a typical Westerner, who was not  afraid to have "many irons" in the fire at one time. In addition to his farming operations he owned and ran the hotel, was  postmaster, blacksmith, J.P. and constable, and was generally  considered to be mayor and corporation also. In addition to  the above, the village boasted a general store run by Wood &  Rabitt; the carpenter shop of Pringle 6. Hamill, and a doctor  named Offerhaus.  Obtaining a bedroom over the bar room, we were scarcely  into bed before George Wallace came to enquire if we could  go to work in the morning. Jack O'Shea was starting up his  threshing machine at Harry Swanson's and was short-handed.  Telling him we were tired, but would wander down there after  breakfast, we prepared to go to sleep, but soon found out that  we had calculated without our host, for that bar room was  occupied by the noisiest bunch of rustics who could possibly get  together anywhere. The noise below, however, might have  been endured for George's liquor was gradually getting the  best of them, but we soon found out that we had company  upstairs also, and lots of them. This was too much for one  night so grabbing our blankets we made for the hayloft over  the horse stable behind, and were soon out of our troubles.   A  304 Pioneering  good breakfast made us feel fit, so we headed for the Swanson  ranch.  Coming out of the bush onto Round Prairie we could see  the threshing machine at work, so we made a beeline across  the Schubert ranch for it.    Arriving at the fence between the  two ranches we were amazed to see a Chinaman running towards us and a man after him.   The latter proved to be Swanson, who apparently was running the Chinaman off the place.  The  Chinaman  would turn  and  shake his  fist  at  Swanson,  saying, "Me savvy you, Swanson; me heap savvy you a long  time"; and Swanson, stopping his fit of laughter, would make  another run for him, and so they kept going.   It appeared that  he was Swanson's cook, but owing to the crew being short-  handed, Swanson had ordered him onto the straw stack until  our arrival.   This was too much for the Chinaman, who nearly  got buried.    In those days the Chinamen were only employed  as cooks and laundrymen.  Jack O'Shea and Amos Hill were having trouble with their  mill. It was new, the sieves would not clean the grain and  two or three days were lost getting it going. Of course, the  new mill was the talk of the valley, and Webb Wright had been  saying things derogatory; consequently when O'Shea and  Wright met at the Lansdowne hotel one night there was trouble.  "Now we cannot have any fighting in here," said Wallace,  J.P., and mounted a bench outside and held aloft the lamp to  give them a chance. The scrap was short and decisive. O'Shea  was long in the reach and Webb had a bushy beard, which  proved his undoing, and he took it all back on demand, and  stood the drinks.  While working for O'Shea, Alec Mclntyre and I got acquainted with most of the farmers of the Spallumcheen.Valley.  We were three and a half days at the Lumby ranch, and put  through forty tons a day. On Knob Hill we had a fine time at  George Paton's melon patch, and there inspected the first commercial orchard planted in the valley. The trees were then  quite young, and I never learned how they did afterwards. Mrs.  McCraney in Pleasant Valley outdid herself cooking for the  boys; so much so that the work went very slowly after dinner.  She had been a cook on the west end of the C.P.R. during con-  105 Pioneering  struction and took pride in showing us what she could do.  I stayed with Donald Graham that winter, 1887-88. On  Christmas Day we had some fine deer shooting, quite near the  buildings.   We got five between us out of quite a large herd.  It was there, too, that I first met Father Pat, who held a  service at the Pleasant Valley school on Sunday, and the following day I was quite amused when he showed me how to  ride a bucking horse and then rode away on it. In after years  Father Pat (Rev. Henry Irwin) and I got to be good friends,  when we were both making Fairview our headquarters. (Fair-  view is a ghost town now.) Many a time he put himself out to  do me a good turn.  In February, 1888, spring arrived, and I was so well  pleased with the mild winter and general conditions I had met,  that I decided to go back to the Yorkton district, sell out my  holdings there, and make the Okanagan my future home. This  I did, starting in February and getting back just as harvest was  beginning. Alf. Cole returned with me as far as Sicamous.  Here I got off, and he went on through to the coast, taking with  him my trunk, which I never saw again. Donald Matheson  was short-handed up in Salmon River valley so I went to help  him stack his grain and here for the second time I met "Big  Bill" Richardson. Bill had a team of grey horses, fat and trim,  which took most of his attention. He was hauling sheaves  with a high wagon and a short wagon rack, whereas the low  truck of Mateson's, which I was using, had a long flat rack  and held a big load. Bill was tall and strong, and completed  an outfit ideal for topping off the stacks. But, alas, here he  struck, and it was up to me to do the topping off, or Bill would  have gone home with his little beauties and left us to finish  the job. Donald Matheson was just the kind of man I would  not see stuck if I could help it. Rather quiet and easy going,  with a kind heart and a good word for all, he was trustworthy  and respected by all his neighbours. Long may his name be  remembered.  My old travelling companion, Alec Mclntyre, had brought  his wife from Dakota and was living in a log house on the  back road, east of where the town of Armstrong now stands.  He  and   I   took   several  contracts  that  winter,   clearing  and  106 Pioneering  stumping land for Bob Mills, Jake Laws and Mose Lever which  has since become so valuable for growing celery. It was then  a swamp covered with willow brush. The future site of the  town of Armstrong was known as "The Island". This was  surrounded by the swamp. The only building on "The Island"  at that time was an old log corral.  We were busy, too, that winter feeding cattle for Hon.  George Forbes Vernon, of the Coldstream Ranch. He had 400  head on Bill Meighan's place, Pleasant Valley. For three weeks  in January the mercury registered very steadily around thirty  degrees below zero. It was cold work getting up at 5:30 a.m.  to kick up the weak ones out of the snow and prevent them  freezing. Bill Meighan, an old Cariboo freighter, was busy  hauling wheat to the Enderby mill, then owned by a young  Englishman named Rashleigh. Bill had a long sleigh, made  locally, which had to be properly balanced. It was great to  see Bill start up his string of six horses when the long sleigh  was frozen down those frosty mornings. He was another "Long  Bill", who always had a yarn to spin, and I well remember  how he would string his long legs in front of you as you tried  to get away before he had finished.  With the spring of 1889 came the great Siwash Creek mining excitement, west from Vernon on the west side of Okanagan  Lake. The Discovery claim had been located and worked the  year before the valley got the fever. Centreville in Priest's  Valley was being quickly deserted. One day a chap borrowed my broncho to go up "The Creek" and I, jokingly, said  to him as he rode off, 'Stake me a claim." Now, although I  had promised myself never to be led by a gold craze, I  found myself the owner of a claim, recorded with Govt. Agent  Dewdney at Vernon, not far above the Discovery claim, and  the creek staked off from the Indian Reserve far up into the  hills. The four "Discovery" men were making $20 a day per  man and it was tempting. I joined a company holding eight  claims. 'We had among us some old miners from the Cariboo  and the Couer d'Alene diggings, who installed flumes, water  wheel and China pump. Bill Meighan, of Pleasant Valley,  who was busy freighting into the new town of Vernon at the  time, held an interest.    Price Ellison also was interested, and  107 Pioneering  packed in our supplies once a week. We dug to bedrock and  found gold, but not in sufficient quantities to make our fortunes.  The pay dirt finally petered out in the fall and that was the  finish.  When we closed down Price Ellison asked me what I had  in view for the winter. He took me to his home place, where  I commenced drilling fall wheat. Later on he offered me the  job of driving the mail stage from Vernon to Sicamous and  return; also Vernon to Mission. (There was then no Kelowna.)  I took over from Ollie Vale on January 1, 1891. This new job  found me driving a three-seated democrat behind four horses,  with a schedule that started north from Vernon every Monday  morning, covering the 51 miles by way of Otter Lake to Sicamous, changing horses at Enderby. Tuesdays I returned to  Vernon, where I changed horses again, and drove the 35 miles  to Okanagan Mission (not the present Okanagan Mission) on  the Wednesday. Returned to Vernon on Thursday, north to  Enderby and Sicamous on Friday, then back to Vernon Saturday, where I laid over Sunday.  This made a drive of about 280 miles a week, sometimes  over roads so bad that it taxed the strength and courage of the  best horses, tugging long hours through mud and slush in the  winter months; in the summer there was the heat and dust.  Passengers were charged ten cents per mile, and extra for  excess baggage.    Express ranged from 25 cents up.  About this time Captain Shorts was building a steamboat  on Okanagan Lake. One of Price Ellison's instructions was to  assist this 'venture of Captain Shorts' by picking him up and  giving him a free ride, as the Captain had .considerable running around to do. This order I tried to carry out, but on one  occasion, when he was waiting for me on the side of the road  around eight o'clock at night in the dark and the mud, with a  bundle of old iron he had gathered in the Spallumcheen Valley, I was forced to refuse to take on this load of iron. The  four horses were loaded to the limit and it was two o'clock in  the morning before I finally arrived with the mail at the Vernon  P.O., where L. Girouard was postmaster. This P.O. was a  bare room with desk, table or shelf. Instead of letter boxes,  Girouard had a system of using the cracks between the floor  108 Pioneering  boards to hold the letters and papers. When a citizen called  for his mail, he was asked to go and pick it out for himself  from the crack in the floor that was assigned to him.  Passenger traffic was heavy at times. During the construction of the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway, there was  plenty of trouble on the road along Mara Lake. This section  was being continually blown up, as the railway right-of-way  was located where the government had built the wagon road.  When the road was blocked by a big slide horses, mail, express and passengers had to be conveyed over a spur of the  mountain, and the railway contractors supplied a democrat  without springs (buckboard) on the opposite side of the slide,  which did duty as far as Sicamous. When winter'came and I  could use sleighs it was better going, for then I could drive  on the ice.  One morning I had occasion to leave Vernon very early  on the trip north, in order to catch the boat at Enderby, and  was worrying because I had neglected to notify Mr. O'Keefe,  who was postmaster at Okanagan (O'Keefe's Ranch). I expected to have to pull him out of bed to get the mail ready for  me, but when I rattled down the hill and drew up in front of  his house, where the postoffice was located, at the unearthly  hour of four o'clock, there stood Cornie O'Keefe at the door  picking his teeth. "You are a little early this morning, aren't  you?" was his only comment.  During the summer months, when the Red Star II was plying between Enderby and Sicamous with flour one way and  merchandise on return trip, I would leave my outfit at Enderby  and board the steamboat with the mail and express, and any  passengers there might be. This was the cause of a great  deal of friction between Captain Cumming and me. He was  an Irishman with a cranky disposition, who had formerly navigated the Lachine rapids in Eastern Canada. Captain Cumming resented any delay caused by my having to transfer  mail and express from the station at Sicamous to the boat landing after the eastbound train arrived from Vancouver at 8  a.m. Mr. Appleby, the station agent, had the contract to deliver the mail to the postoffice, where letters and papers were  sorted.  Then I took them to the  steamboat as soon as they  109 Pioneering  were made ready by Mr. Jordan, the postmaster. There were  delays, especially when the train was late. Captain Cumming  threatened to pull out and leave me on several occasions.  Finally one morning he did so, just as I arrived at the landing  with the first sack of letters and was about to return for the  parcels and express. It was 8:30 when the Red Star snorted  out into the river, leaving Her Majesty's mail and mail carrier  stranded on the wharf, with the sympathetic citizens of Sicamous, headed by Col. Forrester, wanting to know what I was  going to do about it. I told the Colonel I was going to get the  mail through and that I wanted to borrow his boat and hire a  man to help me row to Shannon's, the half-way house at the  upper end of Mara Lake.  With the mail and express aboard the boat, we bucked a  strong wind that kept us hugging the shore all the way up the  lake to Dave Shannon's. After hearing my story, Dave said I  could lock the mail in his bedroom, where it would be safe.  The boatman returned with Col. Forrester's boat and Dave  rowed me across the river, where I procured a saddle horse  and rode on to Enderby. Getting my outfit, I started back to  Shannon's, loaded up my mail and express and drove back  to Enderby, arriving just as the Red Star was puffing up to  the Landing.  Oliver Harvey was postmaster and storekeeper and a good  friend of mine. Some of the boys around the villages wanted  me to "put a head on" Captain Cumming for the scurvy trick  he had played on me. However, I figured my job was to get  the mail through, so after supper I hitched up again and drove  through to Vernon. There I told Price Ellison of the way things  had gone, which did not seem to trouble him very much, as he  intimated that we would have to settle our own differences.  The following Monday, when I arrived in Enderby, Captain  Cumming was very grumpy and made certain remarks which  I very much resented, so I told him to shut up or I would dump  him in the lake. He then immediately went to the office of Mr.  Gibbs, who was manager of the milling company and a J.P.  Because of the threat I had made Captain Cumming laid a  complaint against me and wanted me bound over to keep the  peace.    I went before the, magistrate and told my side of the  110 Pioneering  story, admitting that I had threatened the Captain and was  only sorry that I had not carried it out; that I was responsible  for Her Majesty's mail and wished to fulfill my obligation as  best I could. I then wanted to know what support to expect  from the Enderby Milling Co., owners of the Red Star. Without  any hesitation, Mr. Gibbs told me that I was to have the use of  the steamboat, and for both of us to get out of his office and  not bother him again. Although I travelled many more trips  on the Red Star, Captain Cumming never spoke to me again.  It was a long pull up the four-mile hill out of Vernon south  to the top of the Commonage hill, and from the top it was hard  on the brakes until the shore of Long Lake was reached near  Rattlesnake Point. In winter we took to the ice, crossing that  long strip of sand and gravel known then as "The Railroad",  and on over Wood Lake and through Tom Wood's meadows  to the Postill Ranch.  On one trip in 1891 Father Pandosy was a passenger. I  had a bad cold at the time and was coughing in such a manner it worried the good Father. "When we arrive in Vernon I  shall get you something for that cough," he remarked more  than once. I was very busy with the mail and parcels on  reaching Vernon and had forgotten his promise. Not so Father  Pandosy. He hunted me up, handing me a goose quill that  was filled with camphor, together with a good chunk of that  commodity to have for refills.  "You keep that in your mouth and breathe the quill, and  you will soon be better," he said. Then he told me of his  treating an Indian woman. This woman was threatened with  tuberculosis, having a dreadful cough. Father Pandosy had  given her a goose quill and a generous supply of camphor on  which to draw, with instructions how to use it. This Indian  woman, thinking that if a small dose would reliev her cough,  a large one would sure be "heap big better." So she chewed  the whole piece down at once, with the result that she became  violently ill and delirious to such an extent that the Father  thought she would never recover. However, she did, and as  Father Pandosy pointed out at the time, it was not long until  she presented her husband with twins!  In the fall of 1890 I hauled a huge load of deer skins from  111 Pioneering  the head of Okanagan Lake to Ducks Station on the C.P.R.  for Price Ellison. Deer at that time were so plentiful that they  were being shot on the range to save the grass. On my way  back I met Leon Lequime of Round Lake (west of Armstrong)  riding a relay of horses to Kamloops for a doctor. His brother  Gaston had been badly injured at the Boucherie place that  day. He had been cutting out cattle on the flats near the  present Rutland cannery when a long-homed steer charged  at old man Boucherie, who was on foot. Gaston jumped his  horse into the steer thinking to shoulder the "critter" off. The  impact of horse and steer was so hard and sudden the jar  dislocated some of the vertebrae of the rider's spine, causing  his death within a few hours, long before his brother was halfway to Kamloops.  Bernard Lequime was the postmaster at Okanagan Mission at this time. Once a week it was my good fortune to  .occupy one of the beds that his mother was so proud of at their  stopping place. Mrs. Lequime made the mattress herself out  of wool, and they were perhaps the most comfortable appointments around the place. Mails were re-sorted at the  Mission P.O. Those for the south were carried by Joseph Brent  on pack-horse or on snowshoes, according to the season of  the year.  I drove stage for Price Ellision for a year and a half and  then decided to settle on the land again. About that time,  1891, the Smithson Estate (where the Benvoulin school now is)  was subdivided and sold at auction by the executor, Mr. Cochrane, of Vernon. Mr. Ellison and Mr. Cameron arranged to  attend the sale, which took place on the property. I was  anxious to get hold of some good farm land, so suggested that  Mr. Ellison should bid for me, as it was impossible for me to  get down the valley that day. He obtained Lots 17 and 18,  right opposite the school. He got the first lot for $36 an acre,  but the second lot was run up to $75 by some of the neighbours  around, who did not know Price Ellison was bidding for me.  I farmed there for several years, during the time that G. G.  Mackay was interesting Lord Aberdeen in Okanagan lands.  At that time a large quantity of small fruits and berries was  being planted in this section with the understanding that we  112 Pioneering  would have a jam factory. Later this factory was built at  Vernon, where there were no small fruits to jam, while we  who had the fruit were left without a means of processing it  or a proper method of transportation to the factory, so the  scheme ended in a "fizzle."  I was married on September 28, 1893, to Sarah Louise  Manery, from Gray County, Ontario. Times were bad and  we had no markets for our produce. There was practically  no money in the valley, while over in the mining country  around Slocan Lake things were booming. What could we  do to get our crops on that market? A meeting was called at  the Benvoulin schoolhouse by Alf. Postill to discuss this pressing problem. That day the first co-operative association in  the valley was formed. A collection was taken up, amounting  to $100, to defray the expenses of four delegates to visit Sandon and arrange for a market if possible. The delegates  chosen were Howard Dell, Mark Howard, John Casorso and  myself.  Armed with $40  each and authority to do business, we  travelled to Sandon via Revelstoke and the Arrow Lakes by  train and steamboat.   Arriving at Sandon, we rented a ten-by-  twelve-foot log cabin at $10 a month and stored our effects  while we looked around, deciding we would locate a site for  a warehouse.    The C.P.R. was building into Sandon at that  time and Superintendent Marpole's special was on the track.  Introducing myself to Mr. Marpole, I told him we were representing a group of farmers in the Okanagan Valley who were  anxious to get the market in the Slocan section for their produce.  Also that we wanted a warehouse on the C.P.R. tracks, as that  was our only way of shipping from Kelowna.    Mr. Marpole  told me to see him again before he pulled out, being very  busy at the time deciding upon a station site.    Later I interviewed him again and was asked just what we wanted, and  if we had selected a place suitable for our requirements. Pointing out a location that would suit our purpose, we were told  that it had been chosen for the station buildings.    Had we a  second choice?    We had—it was across a ravine.    This was  granted us and proved very satisfactory.    The railway siding  lay in front of the site and the road to the mines lay on the  other side.    There, we dug a cellar 20x60 feet, trading vege-  113 Pioneering  tables and horsefeed for lumber.    We erected a feed house  over the cellar and started business.  I was left in charge at Sandon, while E. R. Bailey, father  of Kelowna's present postmaster, acted as secretary, and  attended to the shipping of fruit, vegetables, hay and oats at  the Kelowna end. I remained in charge at Sandon for the  co-operative association, known as the Kelowna Shippers'  Union, until the summer of 1894, living in a cabin, part office,  part bunkhouse, which I had erected beside the warehouse.  My wife being in poor health, I decided to return to Kelowna. My wife passed away in 1896, leaving me with a daughter,  Ethel, now of Sacramento, California. The following year,  1897, I sold my holdings to Bert Crichton (still living at the  present Okanagan Mission) and moved to Penticton, where I  operated a freight outfit from that place to Greenwood in the  boundary country. All freight came to Penticton on the C.P.R.  steamboat Aberdeen, under Captain Estabrooks, at that time,  and had to be hauled by teams of horses and wagons to the  mines in the Boundary country, via Okanagan Falls, Camp  McKinney (now another ghost town) and Rock Creek. Greenwood was then in the heyday of its existence, with Robert  Wood, one of the prominent business men of that town, and  his activities in evidence everywhere. A freighter received  two-and-a-half cents a pound for his load—it was a one-way  haul.  After two seasons with the freight wagons I applied for  the mail contract between Penticton and Oroville, Washington.  Jones and Gourlay, of Fairvi/ew, had held this contract, but  because my tender was $25 lower, and I had as sureties such  men as Price Ellison and Tom Ellis, I was awarded the contract. Jones and Gourlay continued their stage line for about  a year between Fairview and Penticton and were hard opposition. They had a barn at the top end of Myers Flat, where  they changed horses, while I drove my four-horse team right  through. Because I had to wait around for mail and express  in the mornings at Penticton, my opposition was able to get  away much earlier with their passengers, but I usually caught  up with them, taking their dust until we reached their half-way  barn and drew in to change horses.    Then I would whip up  114 Pioneering  and get the road and hold it the rest of the way to Fairview,  after many a race across Myers Flat, to land my passengers  and mail into the then booming camp of Fairview ahead of  my opposition, much to their chagrin. From Fairview to the  border town of Oroville I drove a two-horse and democrat  outfit, calling at the Canadian Customs at Osoyoos and again  at the American Customs one mile out of Oroville.  I held this mail contract four years. In 1900 and 1901 I  also had a mail contract between Fairview and Camp McKinney. I moved to Fairview in 1899 and made that place my  headquarters. At this time I was married again, August 23,  1899, to Mary Ann Manery in Vernon. Of this marriage were  two children: Robert, now living in Oliver, and Gladys, now  .living in Kelowna. I lived at Fairview till 1902, after which I  returned to Kelowna, the mining boom being over.  Next I went into partnership with Frank Conkling, my  brother-in-law, and we bought 1760 acres N. and S. of Scotty  Creek in the Ellison district. Frank had thirty-odd head of  cattle on his Benvoulin place and I brought 35 head of horses,  harness and running gear up from Fairview, and that was our  start. The Scotty Creek property, known as the Christian  range, had been cut up into twenty and forty-acre lots by the  G. G. MacKay Estate, and was the last of their holdings in the  valley to be disposed of. For one lot of forty acres we had to  pay $5 an acre and for the balance $3.50. We operated this  property as a cattle ranch and also grew a quantity of grain,  had a good garden and Frank planted a small orchard. We  sold out in 1907 to the Ideal Land Co.  Kelowna real estate was booming at that time, so I bought  a five-acre block on Pendozi Street and built a house. Later I  bought a forty-acre block of timbered land just across the  K.L.O. bridge over Mission Creek. This I had cleared and, selling out the Pendozi Street property, moved onto the forty acres,  after building a house, which became my home from then on.  Here I am now able to enjoy surfaced roads, telephone  and electric light, having decided that I have done enough  "pioneering" in the Western Country for one man in the last  fifty years.    (Robert S. Hall died September 25, 1935.)  115 ^Jhe   L^radter   ^jramllu  Guy P. Bagnall  The history of British Columbia is of comparatively recent  origin, and that of Okanagan even more so. The historic milestones are few in number and spaced not far apart. Prior to  the Indian a great gap in knowledge about the people who  lived here still confronts us, but the gap is being slowly closed.  The Indian is a milestone, but the Indian has no written history.  Legend there is in abundance, but of authentic and dated record there is none.  Next comes the advent of the Fur Brigade with its pack  trains, strategic forts and the extensive use of inland waterways.  Then come the white settlers, many of whom are well remembered by those who write these stories. With them came an  evolution of occupation: stock raising on a large scale, followed by mixed farming and fruit culture, with irrigation.  Among early settlers, though- not among the first, came  Edmund S. Craster, -who was born in Alnwick, Northumberland, England. At the age of sixteen he migrated to the United  States of America and settled in Idaho. In 1904 he returned  to England and married Alice O. Wilson. In May of that year  they left Liverpool for Canada. Arriving in British Columbia  in 1905, the Crasters bought a team and buggy and drove from  Ashcroft to the Chilcotin country.  Mrs. Craster recalls the breath-taking scenery, the colourful Indians, the famous stage-coaches drawn by magnificent  horses, covered wagons drawn by oxen, and the back-aching  roads of those early times; but every moment was filled with  beauty and happiness.  Adventures began immediately. "Our first memory," she  said, 'is of a typical British Columbia scene. We were driving  along the banks of the Chilcotin River and thousands of salmon  were attempting to jump the rapids to their spawning grounds.  It was a never-to-be-forgotten picture of flashing silver, golden,  sunshine, angry boiling water, and the excited and vociferous  116 The Craster Family  activity of the Indians, male, female and papooses, insuring  their winter supply of fish .The whole activities were taking  place very deep in the earth, and our climb down the gorge  was rewarded with sixty salmon, later enjoyed after smoking  and salting. I wanted to stay and get something in paints to  have a permanent record of that scene, but time would not  permit. We continued our journey and, unfortunately, our  buggy wheel heated when crossing the Fraser bridge. We  slept on the buggy seat that night with horse blankets for  covers.    It was two below zero.  B.C. Express, Ashcroft to Cariboo, 1889  "Coming down country we recrossed the Fraser on a raft  near the Gang ranch. Here the river is narrow and a seething  cauldron, but we made the crossing. In 1906 we drove from  Chilcotin to the Okanagan Valley in the same* buggy, and  with the same faithful team of horses. Here we decided to  settle and bought a farm."  Continuing her story, Mrs. Craster said that fruit growing  was then in its infancy. "We planted an orchard, but later'  pulled out the trees, having discovered that if you paid your  store bills you could not sell fruit to the storekeeper.    Appar-  117 The Craster Family  ently the custom was that only those who owed bills could  trade in their fruit. This was long before co-operative marketing was adopted.  "Deciding against fruit farming, we considered raising  horses, but finally settled on cows. We started our dairy farm  with one cow. We searched the country far and wide, and  eventually bought six pure-bred Jersey cows from Mrs. C. K.  Stanton at Oroville, Washington. Later, I bought some cows  from Mrs. Knudt Knutson of Kruger Mountain. Mrs. Ed. Lacey  of Osoyoos was also a buyer of stock from Mrs. Knutson."  Ox team on way to Parkerville in boom days  After nearly fifty years' experience with Jersey cows, Mrs.  Craster pays a tribute to the breed. They are (she says) active  and agile, they can take full advantage of the infinite variety  of titbits (roses included) that grow on the cared-for ranges.  They seem to prefer this feed to bitten-over, dull, flat fields,  although they, too, are necessary.  Mrs. Craster is now retired and lives in Vernon in a snug  little  home  where  she  is   surrounded  by  her  numerous   oil  118 The Craster Family  paintings and mementos of earlier days on the ranch. Her  paintings breathe the atmosphere of the out-of-doors. Each  horse and each dog is affectionately remembered by name.  An artist must be able to draw, and Mrs. Craster's pen-and-ink  sketches, shown only to intimate friends, reveal grace of contour and line in work of a high order.  Edmund S. Craster, her husband, died in 1930. He was a  man of many parts and devoted to his wife and family. Of  their family of seven, four survive: James in Montreal, Charles  in Victoria, Amy and Dick in Vernon. Thirty years ago a  nephew, Jock Craster, visited the family in Vernon. Recently,  he was knighted by the Queen for his many benefactions and  public services. The late Miss Anna Townsend Wilson, R.N.,  a sister of Mrs. Craster, was for many years on the staff of  the Vernon Jubilee Hospital.  In The Golden Land, The True Story of British Settlers in  Canada (Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1911), Arthur E. Copping  has a chapter on "Fruit Growing in B.C." (pp. 125-142) and the  only reference to Okanagan is contained in a single sentence:  "Kelowna pitied Kaslo; the glorious Kootenays seemed positively sorry for the Okanagan Valley" (p. 138). Apparently, Mr.  Copping did not visit Okanagan!!!  Canada, with subtitle "A Study of Cool Continental Environments and their effect on British and French Settlement," by  Griffith Taylor (Methuen & Co., Ltd., London, 1947), is a scholarly  book which will amply repay close reading. In giving altitudes of railway stations between Hope and Crowsnest Pass,  Dr. Taylor gives Princeton as 1120. This, of course, should be  2120. There are some interesting paragraphs on "The Origin  of the River Terraces" (pp. 184-5), with special reference to the  Okanagan Valley. On page 184 are sketches illustrating various theories as to the origin of the terraces or benches. Dr.  Taylor was in the Antarctic in 1910-11-12, and was "much  struck by the "lateral moats" which bounded all the larger  glaciers."  119 LVLe   MltckcocL    Of   Ve,  'ernon  Mabel Johnson  When Mrs. Bessie Hitchcock, of Vernon, and her husband,  the late Henry Ernest Hitchcock, came to Canada from England  in 1906, they brought with them a boundless enthusiasm—an  unfailing sense of humour—a knowledge of how to please the  "inner man" and a recipe for the hard, peppermint-flavoured  candy—or should we say "sweets"?—so loved by Britishers,  called "bullseyes." They learned the process in England and  Mrs. Hitchcock says they turned out tons of this one type of  candy, for sale all over the Interior.  Born in the lovely county of Somerset, not far from Shakespeare's land, Mr. and Mrs. Hitchcock came to the Okanagan  first when this century was only six years old.  The couple settled first in Kelowna, where they opened a  confectioner's shop, that being their business. They specialized  in such British mouth-watering delicacies as Genoa cake, Melton Mowbray pork pies and pastries. The Hitchcocks' stay in  Kelowna was brief, and after a short period in Vancouver,  they came to Vernon, where they opened the city's first confectioner's shop and tea room in what is now the 3100 block  Barnard Avenue.  There they would serve afternoon tea, English style, with  plenty of "hot water for the pot." They built up a clientele  which drew all the Coldstream residents—then as British as  their own countryside. The Hitchcocks' ice cream attracted a  large number of customers, and Mrs. Hitchcock now likes to  recall that many a young man would walk or ride horseback  for miles on Saturday nights just to eat a dish of the Hitchcocks' ice cream. Their premises were also a weekend rendezvous for district farmers, mainly Old Country boys. In those  days, too, the Vernon City Band would give concerts in a bandstand on Barnard and 32nd Street, where the Hudson's Bay  store now stands, when the Hitchcocks would supply huge  quantities of ice cream to the bandsmen and audience.  120 The Hitchcocks Of Vernon  "Those were the days," said 86-year-old Mrs. Hitchcock.  From the manner in which she tells of life in the city's early  days, perhaps those were indeed "the days."  Mrs. Hitchcock recalls the grand opening of the Hudson's  Bay Company's new Vernon store back in 1912, when she and  her husband catered on the two opening days for the continuous stream of visitors who came from far and near to see the  magnificent display of merchandise. On the evening of the  second day H. T. Lockyer, company manager for the province,  presided at a staff dinner, for which the Hitchcocks did the  catering.  In 1916, Mr. and Mrs. Hitchcock sold their business to  Walter Rolston, of Vernon, and went to Kedleston, where they  operated a mixed farm. Kedleston is only five miles from  Vernon postoffice, but it was, and still is, an intensely rural,  but beautiful area, and from some elevations three lakes can  be seen: Swan, Kalamalka and Okanagan lakes. As is usual  in country districts, the school house was the centre of community  life.  Mr. Hitchcock soon became a leader in the settlement. He  organized church services, Christmas entertainments for the  children and dances. The late Rt. Rev. A. J. Doull, first Anglican  Bishop of Kootenay Diocese, conducted Church of England  worship in Kedleston school house.  The 25 families who lived in Kedleston at that time included Mrs. William Morley, now of Vernon, and her late husband; also Archie McGregor, truly a "character", according to  Mrs. Hitchcock, who likes to recall his penchant for a certain  Stetson hat, which he wore, winter and summer, on any and  all occasions.  Mr. Hitchcock was the Vernon News correspondent for  Kedleston for 35 years, and although he collected and "wrote  up" the day-to-day happenings which now are a record of the  life and times of the community, it was always Mrs. Hitchcock  to whom the cheques were made out, she now recalls.  But it is to the confectionery business and tea room that  Mrs. Hitchcock pins her recollections. She remembers a convention when she and her husband were asked to cater for  121 The Hitchcocks Of Vernon  300 people in the old Vernon Skating Rink, since destroyed by  fire. However, only 210 actually "sat down", but, nothing  daunted, the left-over stuffed and roasted chickens prepared  for the feast were sold for fifty cents each. Cover charge for  the banquet was $1.25. Other organizations were catered to  by the energetic Hitchcocks, who brought to the new land their  skill in the culinary arts.  Mrs. Hitchcock still has her sense of humor and her Old  Country accent. She has but one relative in the world — a  blind sister-in-law in England.  She recalled for the purpose of this story how, even after  they moved to Kedleston, they still made the "bullseyes" so  loved by the homesick Englishmen, who would meditate on  the old world and the advantages of the new—as they thoughtfully savoured the British "sweets", the striped and flavourful  bullseyes.  Mrs. Hitchcock likes to think she has many good friends  who remember her and her husband who died in 1954; of  their early days in Vernon and Kedleston, and of their contribution to the young communities — "when we were very  young."  Paul Kane's paintings were a wonder to the Indians. They  thought the Great Spirit helped him to make them, and they  would put their hands over their faces and look at them through  their fingers, which was the way they always looked at those  whom the Great Spirit had taken to the Happy Hunting Ground.  They thought he must be a great medicine-man to make such  pictures, and he was very glad that they had that idea, for it  meant that his sketches would be safe among them. — E. L.  Marsh in Where the Buffalo Roamed (Toronto, 1908), p.123.  122 -^Tiphonde   oDedchampd   i^ame  ZJo     Vernon   ^rn   1891  Mabel Johnson  When 83-year-old Alphonse Deschamps, a resident of  Lumby, Vernon and Oyama for the past 64 years, was asked  as to what he attributed his longevity and good health, he answered, guardedly: "Well, it wasn't through sitting around!"  Mr. Deschamps was born 60 miles west of Montreal in a  French-speaking community. His father, the late John B. Deschamps, came to the Okanagan and to Lumby ahead of his  family in the year 1887, working first at the old Victoria Hotel  in Vernon.  In those days ranch "hands" were paid $25 a month. They  worked from 5 a.m. to 10 p.m. and "no questions asked or answered." This salary was amongst the first money that the  young Alphonse earned in the Okanagan, where he was to  spend the remainder of his days. At hay making time, Alphonse worked for Pete Bessette at Lumby, and there wages  were a little higher: $1.50 a day.  He later went to Harris Creek, trading a horse and saddle  for a 160-acre preemption. He built a shack with mud roof  and floor and farmed there for a time, after which his father  offered to do a "trade." Said Deschamps Senior: "I'll take  over your mortgage and 160 acres and you can have all I've  got."   Alphonse then went to farm on his father's acres.  In the year 1897, about the time that Queen Victoria was  celebrating her Diamond Jubilee, Alphonse was married to  Mrs. Ethie Bloom, of Lumby, the mother of Charlie Bloom. The  ceremony took place in the Coldstream Hotel, Vernon. Three  other couples said "I do" at the same time, but Mr. Deschamps  does not now recall who they were. "Wish I had a picture  though," he said.  To have 120 tons of hay in his barn gave Alphonse a  good feeling a few summers later.   A far-seeing bank manager  123 Alphonse Deschamps Came To Vernon In 1891  in Vernon advised him to expand his operations and raise cattle, offering to finance the venture. This he did. Alphonse  got some calves, "raised" them, and re-sold them at $40 each.  He recalls that the late Mr. Tronson bought 20 of them. In three  years the bank manager was repaid, and Mr. Deschamps now  ukes to recall that he owed no man anything.  By this time, Mrs. Deschamps was making 200 to 300  pounds of butter a week. No help was to be found. Not strong,  she soon became ill, so Alphonse sold the farm to Paul Trudel  and moved to Vernon, where he earned a living by driving a  taxi. He had two children, Clifford, and a daughter, now Mrs.  A. Turner, of Penticton. Clifford took up wireless and telegraphy.  But the family felt the town was not for them and decided  to go back to the land. They bought John Irvine's 22-acre  farm in Oyama, of which 12 acres was in fruit and 10 in pasture. The first Mrs. Deschamps died inl933. However, Alphonse and his family carried on, and soon Alphonse had  bought the Oyama store for his son, Clifford. This proved a  great success, with an annual turnover of $50,000 a year.  Things began to look up; crops were good and prices fair  for   fruit.  While in Oyama, Mr. Deschamps remarried, this time to  Mrs. Emma Getty. In 1946 they sold the orchard and came to  Vernon, where they now live a life of quiet retirement in a  comfortable house with chestnut trees on the boulevard.  Dollars don't grow on trees, Mr. Deschamps remarked  recently. He likes to philosophize and believes that today's  young people could learn many lessons from the pioneer ways  and down to earth living of their forebears. His advice to anyone starting life is not to be afraid of work, and "don't sit  around."  Mr. Deschamps enjoys good health, and on his 83rd birthday, May 27, 1955, took another driving test. He is proud of  his record. He loves the valley. He enjoys looking backward  and regrets  nothing.  124 ^Jwenru   ^Jorrent  MABEL JOHNSON  Henry Torrent, well-known North Okanagan lumberman,  is now enjoying retirement in the Kalavista subdivision at  Kalamalka Lake, finding time to do all the things for which  he had no opportunity during his busy life.  Mr. Torrent is a native of Switzerland, that lovely, prosperous little country. He has inherited the industrious qualities of  his forebears. When Mr. Torrent set sail for Canada at the  age of 19, in 1906, he could not speak one word of English. He  was an accomplished linguist, speaking German, Italian and  French (there is no official Swiss language), but English was a  foreign tongue. It is indicative of his tenacity of character that  he obtained a book of fundamental English on the boat and  spent most of his time during the passage mastering the essentials, which would be "open sesame" to a new life in a new  country.  He stayed in Ontario for a short time, but came to the  North Okanagan in 1907, when he obtained employment with  the A. R. Rogers Lumber Company in Enderby. Mr .Torrent  said this was one of the biggest sawmill companies in the  Interior at that time. He recalls the "log drives" from Sugar  Lake on the lovely Shuswap, and how they "boomed" at the  river's mouth.  Once the logs had reached the lake they were placed in  a sack boom, which was then- closed, and sent on its way  across the lake. A team was used to give the boom a circular  movement, which carried it away from the shoreline; the wind  then propelled the boom across the lake to its destination on  the far side. It was an economical method, as no mechanical  means were used for propulsion, but there was delay at times  125 Henry Torrent  waiting for a favourable breeze.1  Mr. Torrent went to Mabel Lake during 1907 and then to  Lumby, where he worked with Louis Christien and Victor  Muller, pioneers of the logging industry. He then took up a  pre-emption, three years later going to Enderby and Mabel  Lake.  Into the life of Henry Torrent are woven colourful contacts  with other pioneers, all of which combine to make the warp  and woof of his generation. Some of his early associates were  in the Enderby-Hupel-Mabel Lake area. When the passenger  and freight stage serving that trinity of communities ceased  operation on February 28, 1953, it ended a public service of  almost 50 years' duration, in which Mr. Torrent played a  large part.  It is necessary to look back to the year 1913, when Mike  Hupel,2 the frst settler in the Hupel distict and for whom the  post office was named, sold his ranch, stage and post office to  James Baird, now Sir James Baird, Bart., of England, and a  Mr. Monteith. The latter only stayed in the valley, however,  for a few months. Mr. Baird operated the ranch and business  until war broke out in 1914, when he left for England. Then  Henry Torrent and a Fred Kemp operated the business for  short periods until it was taken over by John Dale.  Jim Baird, now Sir James, and Lady Baird, stayed in the  Okanagan a year or so and, on their return to England, sold  out to Major Taylor, who with a Captain Symonds took pos-  1. In a letter accompanying the above article Guy P. Bagnall (Vernon, 17 August, 1955) writes: "I think the idea of sailing their  booms across the lake under their own power (or, more correctly,  without mechanical aid) may stand alone in the province. Can you  picture a team rotating these booms from shore and then trusting  the wind to carry them across the lake?  "I think the idea must have originated in the mind of an Indian  of whom many were employed at the mill. They did many things  in circles (as the natives in Africa do, even to building their  houses). One has only to think back to early times when attacks  were made on covered wagons: the Indians whooped around in an  ever-narrowing circle—for the kill.   Anyhow, the idea worked."  2. Hupel is 20 miles east of Enderby; named after Herman (Mike)  Hupel, an American of German descent who settled here in the  1890's, and was first postmaster, September 1, 1910. Cross-eyed,  but with a genial smile, Mike was a good neighbor and well liked.  Postoffice closed December 31, 1947.—See: OHS.6(1935) p. 145; and  A. G. Harvey in OHS.12(1948) p.206.  126 Henry Torrent  session of the business and property in 1920.  In 1922, Sir James, then a widower, again purchased  Hupel, this time in partnership with William Petch, a British  automobile manufacturer, and Dave Todd, a "gentleman-of-  leisure." A year or so later, "Bill" Petch was in sole possession. He soon married, but his wife did not care for Hupel,  and the outcome of these changes was that the Hupel post  office and stage passed to Henry Torrent.  A few years later the Hupel post office went to a Mrs.  Bell, postmistress for 15 years, and the stage was successfully  operated by Mr. Torrent. In this way, he got to know every  man, woman and child on the route—and they became friendly  with the quiet, but genial and friendly man who brought the  mail and numerous bundles and packages, and sometimes  passengers, to that scenic part of the Okanagan.  Along about 1929, Henry Torrent pulled up stakes and  went to Clearwater, where he cut poles, and five years later  started a tie camp. In 1936 he opened a pole yard in Lumby  and another at Irish Creek. At this time he launched into  business in a big way. Soon ties and poles were shipped  from his own spur in Lumby all over North America, the major  portion going to the United States. He operated simply under  the name of "Henry Torrent, Lumby."  To the knowlegeable, that name indicated a flourishing  business with top quality products.  Mr. Torrent retired in 1951. He then bought 15 acres at  Kalamalka Lake, near Vernon, where he now resides in happy  retirement with Mrs. Torrent.  Mr. Torrent has  made  a noteworthy contribution to the  . economy in the northern end of the Okanagan Valley.   He not  only worked long and hard himself, but was in the position ot  hiring labor to fell and cut the timber which is the best for  poles and ties from the Lumby district.  They've seen the ups and downs of life, as is inevitable,  but stayed right on. Mr. and Mrs. Torrent will keep "right on  to the end of the road."  127 dSoohd   ^Arnd f-^aperi    I //«  Ol  ipers    i v lenuonina  anaaan  With the exception of the Fortune papers, which are still  in typescript form, our references to Okanagan have been  found mainly in pamphlets, reports and newspapers.  Records of Pioneer A. L. Fortune. O.H.S. members who  attended the annual meeting in Vernon last May and visited  the Vernon museum housed in the Junior High school, were  privileged to see the original manuscripts of the Alexander  Leslie Fortune diaries. These have all been typed and are at  present on loan to our Society. In all, there are 2800 lines  (foolscap), making about 35,000 words. There are seven sections, dealing with personal history; first, second and third  overland expeditions to Edmonton; "Records," 1903; Lillooet to  Spallumcheen; Edmonton to Bella Coola. Arrangements for  publication of the Records will be made by the City of Vernon  Board of Museum & Archives, of which George Melvin is chairman, and Guy P. Bagnall secretary-treasurer.  Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon, or Indian Trade Language  of the North Pacific Coast, published by T. N. Hibben & Co.,  Victoria, B.C., 1899. This pamphlet of 36 pages is also "on  loan" through the kindness of L. L. Kerry, of Kelowna.  The sub-title indicates the true origin of Chinook. Robie  L. Reid had an article on "The Chinook Jargon and British  Columbia" in The British Columbia Historical Quarterly (hereafter BCHQ) for January, 1942 (vol.6,No.l); and F. W. Howay  had a long article on "The Origin of the Chinook Jargon" in  BCHQ, vol. 6, No. 4 (October, 1942). In her article on "The  Chinook Jargon" in OHS.10 (1943), pp.125-129, Dorothy Hewlett  Gellatly makes reference to Dr. Reid's article.  Dr. Reid notes that, with the coming of new settlers Chinook  gradually dropped into disuse, "until now no one remembers  it except the few old pioneers." He gives another reason. "The  younger Indians were growing up in a country in which English was being spoken all around them. They began to feel  that the speaking of Chinook, either to them or by them, was a  128 Books And Papers Mentioning Okanagan  badge of inferiority. They would not address anyone in Chinook, and if addressed in the jargon they replied in English."  In OHS. 18, p. 101, is a quotation from H. J. Parham's A Nature  Lover in British Columbia illustrating this.  "I once greeted their chief in' Chinook—the trading jargon  used since early days by the old Hudson's Bay Company in  its dealings with all western Indians. I knew but few words  or phrases of this 'language' and the Chief made me feel very  small as he replied in a very grand manner: 'Good morning,  sir'."  Judge Howay was concerned to refute the claims that "the  jargon existed as an inter-tribal medium of communication long  before the advent of the whites" as stated in the Handbook of  American Indians (Washington, 1911), and Edward Harper  Thomas' contention that it was fostered by a prehistoric slave  trade between the Chinooks and the Nootkans. Howay leaves  little room for doubt that the Chinook jargon was evolved by  the maritime traders.  The Chinook jargon was drawn from a number of coast  Indian languages (Chinookan, Salish, Wakashan, Kwakiutl,  etc.), with other words of French and English origin. In OHS. 10",  Mrs. Gellatly's article was followed by the Lord's Prayer in  Chinook. This version was taken from Oregon Trade Language or Chinook Jargon by Horatio Hale (London, 1890), which  listed 393 Chinook words.  The dictionary published by Hibben & Co. in 1899 also  includes the Lord's prayer in Chinook, but there are considerable differences between the two versions.  Many of the words in the jargon were very expressive, and  not without beauty. Perhaps some of the oldtimers among our  readers would prepare a list of Chinook words that have  survival value.  Journal of an Exploring Tour Beyond the Rocky Mountains  by the Rev. Samuel Parker (Ithaca, New York, second edition,  1840). This rare volume from the library of the late J. B.'Knowles  tells of a journey made in the interest of missionary endeavour  in the years 1835-1837. It includes a description of the geography,  geology, climate, productions of the country,  and the  129 Books And Papers Mentioning Okanagan  number, manners and customs of the natives, with a map of  Oregon Territory. In the appendix are word lists of Chinook, Nez  Perce, Klicatat, and Calapooa. The various languages are distinct from each other. The appendix is of peculiar interest to  the student of Indian languages. Apart from the list of Chinook  words ,there is little in the volume to relate it to Okanagan.  A Tree Grows in Vernon - - The History of All Saints'  Parish, Vernon, B.C., by the Rt. Rev. A. H. Sovereign, D.D.,  written on the occasion of the Diamond Jubilee of the parish,  1893-1953. This is an excellent record of church life and work.  It is a work of art as well as a congregational record. The story  unfolds itself under the chapter headings: 1. The Soil, 1800-  1880; 2. The sowing of the seed, 1881-1892; 3. The Sapling grows,  1893-1906; 4. The Tree is planted, 1907-1930; 5. The Tree burns  but is not consumed, 1931-1948; 6. The Diamond Jubilee, 1948-  1953. In a concluding note, the rector, Rev. Lorin A. C. Smith,  writes: "The booklet you have just read is the work of the Right  Reverend A. H. Sovereign, M.A., D.D., formerly Bishop of Athabasca and since 1950 a resident in this Parish of All Saints',  Vernon, where in an earlier day he had married Ellen Ellison."  Anthropology in British Columbia, No. 4, 1953-54 (British  Columbia Provincial Museum, Department of Education, Victoria, B.C.), edited by Wilson Duff. This contains much pertaining  to Okanagan. Warren W. Caldwell, who contributed an article  to our 18th Report, is author of "An Archeological Survey of the  Okanagan and Similkameen valleys of British Columbia," pp.  10-25, a most important article to those interested in the subject.  It deals with habitation sites, burial patterns, artifacts and pictographs, and has an adequate bibliography.  Norman H. Lerman tells of "An Okanagan Winter Dance"  (pp.35-6) in a paper prepared under the auspices of the Agnes  Anderson Fund of the University of Washington.  Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology  Report for ihe Year 1954 (Province of British Columbia, Department of Education: printed by authority of the Legislative Assembly; Victoria, B.C., 1955). Dr. Clifford Carl, museum director,  has been frequent visitor to Okanagan and Similkameen, and  some previous reports tell of field work in these areas. But last  year Dr. Carl and members of his staff did field work in other  130 Books And Papers Mentioning Okanagan  areas, so the 1954 report has little to say about Okanagan.  Both the (Vancouver) Sun and Province have carried a  number of articles during the year dealing with Okanagan.  Mr. Bagnall sent a copy of the 8-page section of the 1912  Vernon News special holiday number, dealing with "Enderby,  Its Present and Its Future." It contains a number of remarkable  photographs by G. H. E. Hudson of Kelowna, especially a panoramic view of Enderby in 1912. The picture is two pages wide  (37 Vi" x 9"). The leading article, by H. M. Walker, tells of the  growth and possibilities of Enderby. F. V. Moffet writes of its  present and future, and Rev. Duncan Campbell deals with its  "Social side." Graham Rosoman reviews "Civic improvement  and Affairs," and other writers deal with various phases of  local industry. One story gives thirteen reasons "Why you  should come to Enderby." The first reason given is: "Because  Enderby has never been boomed, therefore you can buy at  reasonable prices and be sure of doubling your money."  The. Kelowna Courier: Golden Jubilee Issue, May 2 and  May 5, 1955. A handsomely-bound copy was presented by the  Publisher to the Society. The Jubilee issue was quickly sold out.  Thirteen thousand copies were issued, and even this did not  meet the demand. In the historical section, pre-incorporation  days are reviewed by J. Percy Clement, the only living person  of those who signed Kelowna's petition for incorporation in 1905.  This is only one of many authoritative articles dealing with the  history of Kelowna. The whole issue is profusely illustrated, and  will remain the source from which future historians will draw.  It has 88 pages. The issue must have been long in preparation,  and the result is a triumph of organization. It will remain for a  long time the best history of Kelowna and district.  Enderby Commoner Golden Jubilee, 50 Years of Progress,  July 1, 1955. A. L. Fortune was the first settler in North Okanagan, and it is fitting that a front-page tribute should be paid to  him in the Jubilee issue of the Enderby Commoner. On the same  page G. A. Neve recalls an early journey to Enderby in 1893.  On page 3 we have photographs of George Bell, Enderby's first  mayor, and N. S. Johnson, Enderby's present mayor; Graham  Rosoman, first Freeman of Enderby City, and of his daughter  Miss Hazel Rosoman, city clerk. We acknowledge with gratitude  131 Books And Papers Mentioning Okanagan  permission to reprint two articles from this issue — those by  Reg. Haddow and Mrs. Harry Preston. Among other photographs are one of Mrs. Preston's first Enderby home on the  Mabel Lake Road, and one of the Red Star, early paddle-wheeler which served the district in the late 1880's.  Salmon Arm Observer, May 26, 1955. A headline suggesting Past and Present appears on the front page of this issue,  commemorating the 50th anniversary of incorporation of Salmon  Arm municipality — "Ox Cart hit by automobile after parade."  The issue has over forty photographs of historical value. The  supplement contains a condensed history of Salmon Arm written by Ernest Doe, and other valuable stories pertaining to the  history of the district. A few years ago Mr. Doe published the  History of Salmon Arm, 1885-1912. It was printed by the Salmon  Arm Observer, and is easily the best-documented history of any  community in our province. Extracts from this appeared in  OHS.14Q950) pp.64-76.  132 C^arlu   Shipplna   \^Jn   Lyhanaaan   oLahi  R. J. McDougall  The interesting story by Hester E. White in the Eighteenth  Report (1954) of a trip up Okanagan Lake by boat in very  early days must have brought nostalgic memories to the real  old-timesr. In Mrs. White's account of that voyage—first day  to Crescent Beach from Penticton, second day to Trepanier  Creek (Lambly ranch beach), third day to Okanagan Mission,  fourth day to head of lake—she gives the date of setting off as  October 15, 1888, and the boat as Captain T. D. Shorts' Mary  Victoria  Greenhow.  As there is occasionally some confusion about the identity  of early day craft on Okanagan Lake, and dates of their operations, the following references, gleaned from various articles  contributed to the various reports of the Okanagan Historical  Society, may be of value.  Mrs. White says in her account that her grandfather had  proceeded up the lake on the S.S. Penticton a few days before  her own departure with her mother and other children of the  family. She mentions that the Penh'cton was owned by Gillis  & Riley. Leonard Norris, first editor of the Reports, states in  Report 3 (1929) that the Mary Victoria Greenhow, Captain  Shorts' first steamboat on the lake, was launched April 21,  1886, just twenty years after the first steamboat on Shuswap  Lake. Her advent was due to Captain Shorts and Thomas  Greenhow. She was 32 feet long and was run by a coal oil  burner. Captain Shorts could never keep enough oil on board  to maintain fuel supply and as a consequence had to call on  - almost every settler along the lake for help. The MVG was  burned, apparently in the autumn of 1886. At all events, the  engine from her, according to Mr. Norris' account, was placed  in Captain Shorts' second boat, the Jubilee, which was launched  at Okanagan Landing on September 22, 1887. Captain J. B.  Weeks, long in steamer operation on Okanagan Lake, a former president of the Okanagan Historical Society and now  resident in Penticton, wrote interestingly of lake boats in the  133 Early Shipping On Okanagan Lake  Fifth Report (1931), reprinted in the Sixth Report (1935). He  mentions that Captain Shorts in the early eighties went up  and down the lake in a rowboat which he called the Ruth  Shorts.  Captain Weeks gives the launching of the Mary Victoria  Greenhow as being in the spring of 1886, and he declares that  this boat was damaged by fire in the fall of that same year,  being converted into a wood burner. The thirty-foot Jubilee,  with the MVG engine (but not the boiler) was launched in 1887.  She was frozen in at Okanagan Landing in December, 1889,  and in the following spring her engine and boiler were put in  a barge which was dubbed the City of Vernon.  In April, 1890, says Captain Weeks, a new boat built for  Captain Shorts and Tom Ellis was started at Okanagan Landing. She was called the Penticton and was finished in September, 1890. Her length was 70 feet. She was sold in 1892  to Leon Lequime, operated in 1893 by Thomas Riley and associates, then used for several years by the Kelowna Sawmill  Co. Ltd., to be succeeded by the Kelowna about 1902.  Another early boat on the lake was the little sternwheeler  Fairview, 55 feet in length, owned by M. E. Cousens, chief  engineer of the Aberdeen. She entered the scene in 1894 and  was to be used on the river between Penticton and Skaha  Lake, and on down to Okanagan Falls. She was burned at  Okanagan Landing in 1897.  The C.P.R. sternwheeler Aberdeen, 146 feet, was launched  at Okanagan Landing on May 3, 1893. The screw steamer  York appeared in 1905, the sternwheeler Okanagan in 1907 and  the Sicamous in 1914. Since then there have been quite a  number of commercial craft, chiefly tugboats and ferries.  Captain Angus Campbell in Report 5 (1931) tells of the  two "Red Stars." Red Star number one, a screw-steamer 33  feet in length, was built in Victoria in 1887. She sank in the  Spallumcheen River the following year. This boat had been  designed for use on that river but apparently drew too much  water for the varying depths. The machinery was taken out  of her and the hull, purchased by Dow & Gillis, was hauled  overland in  1889  from Enderby to the head of the  lake  at  134 Early Shipping On Okanagan Lake  O'Keefe's. At Okanagan Landing the boat was lengthened  by 20 feet and new machinery was installed. After general  service on the lake she was sold to the Lequime brothers in  1891. Due to some bailiff trouble, the machinery was removed  and subsequently suffered damage in a warehouse fire. Sale  was made to Captain Angus Campbell.and Mr. Cousens, and  in May, 1894, hull and machinery were taken to Okanagan  Landing for re-installation. In July, 1895, the boat was removed  to Revelstoke on two flatcars, thence to Robson on Arrow Lake,  and finally by flatcar to Nelson.  Red Star number two, a sternwheeler of flat bottom scow  type, had meantime been placed on service on the Spallumcheen (Shuswap River) and gave good service during the  building of the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway (C.P.R. branch  line from Sicamous to Okanagan Landing), 1890-1892.  An interesting sidelight about Captain Shorts, who, as  Captain Weeks observes, made some money with his rowboat  but lost it all steamboating, is that once he planned to connect  Okanagan Lake with Shuswap Lake by canal. This was  back in 1889. He planned to dig a ditch about a mile and a  half long to connect Davis Creek with O'Keefe Creek at the  head of the west arm of Okanagan Lake. This would' give a  continuous waterway from Okanagan Lake to the Spallumcheen (Shuswap) River at Enderby, thence through Mara Lake  to Shuswap Lake. The doughty captain believed that it would  be feasible to lay a chain from end to end in the ditch, and for  motive power to utilize a scow with steam-driven drum in front  so arranged that the drum would pick up and drop the chain  as it went along.  The coming of the railway branch line put an end to this  dream of a canal connecting the two lakes, although at one  time the federal and provincial governments were said to have  listened sympathetically to the general plan of a canal between the two water systems, the Columbia and the Fraser. A  steamer trip from Okanagan Falls to Savona through Skaha,  Okanagan, Shuswap and Kamloops lakes would have made  an interesting voayge for those times, and even today.  135 Early Shipping On Okanagan Lake  Mr. McDougall adds the following notes to the above  article:  The dates of historians do not always agree. Mrs. White  writes of going up in the/MVG in the fall of 1888, and being  passed by the Penticton, operated by someone competing with  Shorts.   The MVG, she says, was burning wood.  The other writers indicate that the MVG was originally a  coal oil burner, launched in 1886, damaged by fire the same  year, then converted into a wood burner. But apparently she  was not operating in 1887 as Shorts had built the Jubilee that  year as his second boat, using the MVG engine. The Jubilee  was slightly smaller than the MVG.  The Penticton referred to by Mrs. White, did not come on  the scene until 1890. She was also a Shorts boat, not operated  by rivals.  The first Red Star, another craft of those early days, does  not seem to have entered Okanagan waters till 1889, although  she operated earlier than that on the Shuswap River. She was  a sizable boat.  It is a little difficult to determine what craft were really  involved in Mrs. White's trip. It is apparent that the MVG was  converted, or was being converted, in the fall of 1886, or soon  thereafter, from a coal oil to a wood burner. Mrs. White says  it was a little wood burner she voyaged on. Yet Shorts had the  Jubilee going in 1887, and she had the MVG engine, though  not the boiler. Apparently the MVG was out of business after  the fall of 1886.  And the earliest other craft which might be called a rival  would be the Red Star of Dow & Gillis, coming in 1889. Yet  Mrs. White should certainly know the date of her father's death,  which would fix the time of her trip up the lake. If she said  1889 I would think the boats would be the Jubilee and the larger  Red Star. It is clear that the bigger boat which passed Mrs.  White on the lake when she was in Shorts' craft could not have  been the Penticton, because that was also a Shorts boat and  did not appear till  1890.  136 f-^arent  Socletu   and   (/branch   r\eportd  Five branches of the Okanagan Historical Society were  represented at its annual meeting in the United Church hail,  Vernon, on Wednesday afternoon, 5 May, 1955, beginning at  2:30 p.m. The following places were represented: Osoyoos,  Princeton, Penticton, Summerland, Kelowna (and district),  Oyama, Armstrong, Enderby, Vernon (and district), Vancouver,  Sorrento, Okanagan Centre, Winfield, Okanagan Mission, Salmon Arm. Nearly fifty were present. J. D. Whitham, of Kelowna, was in the chair.  Full minutes of the 1954 annual meeting, held in Kelowna,  were on the table, but as a digest had been included in the  1954 Report (OHS. 18), it was agreed, at the suggestion of Mr.  Whitham, that the' minutes be taken as read.  Business arising out of the minutes had to do with the  Penticton resolution (OHS.18,p.l64) urging that at least one historic site be marked each year by local branches. Mr. Whitham  suggested that discussion be delayed till after the arrival of  Dr. Walter N. Sage, who, being a member of the Dominion  Historic Sites and Monuments Board, could speak with authority on this subject.  Mr. Whitham then spoke of heavy losses sustained by the  Society in the passing of a number of its members, special  reference being made to our late president, Mr. J. B. Knowles,  and Mrs. Georgina Maisonville, of Kelowna; and Mr. J. E.  Jamieson, of Armstrong, who had been vice-president of the  branch there. All present were asked to stand for one minute's  silence in tribute to those named, and others who had passed  away during the year.  By this time Dr. Sage had arrived, and was asked to speak  with reference to historic sites.  Dr. Sage paid a glowing tribute to the Okanagan Historical Society, saying it was one of the largest English-speaking historical societies in Canada, and that it was integrated  with  provincial  and  national  bodies.    The  Board  which he  137 Paren. Society and Branch Reports  represented had very strict rules regarding marking of historical sites. It had to do with "firsts" in Canada, and with  figures and events of national importance. On May 11, for  example, a plaque would be unveiled in Victoria to the memory of Emily Carr.  Speaking of "firsts" he told of the Model T cars, and that  in early 'days when one filled his tank with gas at Osoyoos to  drive over Anarchist Mountain, he was given a four-gallon  can of water. After this had been used, the driver would then  leave it on the roadway, and the first driver coming west was  honour-bound to pick it up and deliver it at Osoyoos. That,  Dr. Sage maintained, was history.  REPORTS OF OFFICERS  In presenting the presidential report, Mr. Whitham made  fitting reference to the great loss sustained by the Society when  Mr. James B. Knowles died on Sunday, 6 February, 1955. Mr.  Whitham thanked all who had helped to maintain the work,  making special reference to Enderby, which had recently  united with the Armstrong branch.  The treasurer's statement, covering the year ending March  31, 1955, was presented by Guy P. Bagnall, of Vernon. He had  accepted the office when W. R. Pepper, of Vernon, was forced  to resign through pressure of other duties. The statement presented showed receipts of $1581.61, and expenditures of $510.66,  leaving a balance of $1070.95 in four banks—Vernon, Kelowna,  Osoyoos and Penticton. The cost of printing the 1954 Report,  and cuts for same, was $1059.97. Mr. Bagnall said that "since  31st March (1955) cost of printing and distributing Reports had  been paid in full, leaving a small balance to our credit in each  of the four bank accounts. Thus we have entered the new  fiscal year in a sound position." The president voiced the  mind of the meeting when he expressed deep gratitude to Mr.  Bagnall for his work as treasurer. The thanks of the Society  were extended also to T. R. Jenner of Vernon for his work  as auditor.  The secretary, as editor of the 1954 Report, expressed his  gratitude for help given by Mrs. R. B. White, Mrs. R. L. Cawston,  Mrs. D.  Allison,  R. J. McDougall and others.    He hoped the  138 Parent Society and Branch Reports  1955 Report would be out early in the autumn of the year.  BRANCH REPORTS  VERNON: A reorganization meeting of the Vernon branch  was held on November 30, 1954, with the late J. B. Knowles,  president of the Society, in attendance. Guy P. Bagnall acted  as chairman and Geo. E. Falconer as secretary. The meeting  was addressed by Ernie Bremer, member of the provincial  advisory committee on Indian affairs. Alderman Fred Harwood was elected branch chairman, with A. E. Berry, J.P., vice-  president, and Mr. Falconer, secretary.  Mrs. L. A. Bagnall was named convener .of the local editorial committee, and a number of articles were prepared by  Mrs. Mabel Johnson for the Society Reports. Regular executive meetings were held in preparation for the Society's annual meeting at Vernon.  PENTICTON: A successful year was reported by the Penticton  branch. In July, 1954, Mrs. R. B. White attended a meeting of  the B.C. Historical Association at Yale. In September the  branch was represented by Mrs. White and Mrs. R. L. Cawston  at a meeting of the Boundary Historical Association at Midway,  where an historical plaque was dedicated. The branch had  been asked by the B.C. Forestry Department to name picnic  sites on the Summerland Road, and suggested Pyramid Point,  Sorimpt (after Indian chief) and Kickinee Point.  At a general meeting in October Mrs. J. B. Innes of Keremeos had spoken on Green Mountain Road and Copper Mountain, and Miss Frances Atkinson told of her trip to the United  Nations.  At the annual meeting on April 28 there were 45 present,  and officers for the ensuing year were chosen. At this meeting Mrs. White recalled early days in Greenwood, Midway and  Osoyoos, and Hector Whitaker, of Summerland, told of Cariboo  and Okanagan trails when he worked with surveyors for the  Grand Trunk Pacific Railway on the Yellowhead to Prince  Rupert route.  KELOWNA: The Kelowna report was signed by Anne Fitzgerald, president.   The annual meeting of the Kelowna branch  139 Parent Society and Branch Reports  was held on December 2, 1954. There was a good attendance.  The guest speaker was Captain Charles Cates, president of  the B.C. Historical Association, who spoke on "Early Sailing on  the Pacific Coast."  "I am very glad to report that at last the old Mission buildings seem to be saved from destruction. Recently these have  been purchased from the owner by Rev. Father O'Grady of  Montreal, representing one of the Roman Catholic societies, and  we understand that shortly they will be put into more presentable appearance and the grounds cleaned up. Two buildings  were purchased along with about two acres of ground, so this  historical spot will be saved for posterity, which is one of the  projects we have been working on for years."  The passing of Mr. Knowles and Mrs. Maisonville was  keenly felt by the group. Report 18 sales had been good. "At  the end of March, 1955, we had a stock of 175 reports. Since  then we have disposed of practically all of the Eighteenth  reports and have received a further supply of fifty books."  OLIVER-OSOYOOS: Speaking for the Oliver-Osoyoos branch,  Mrs. E. Lacey told of June meeting at which F. Goertz, well-  known naturalist, spoke on the habits of some sub-tropical  species of plant, insect and reptile life in the Osoyoos district.  In July the branch, with Mr. and Mrs. Goertz, entertained 33  members of the Vancouver Natural History Society, of which  Mr. Goertz is a member. Election of officers was held on April  29. Papers received during the year included "The Story oi  the Overlanders" by B. A. McKelvie, "The Life of Peter Mclntyre" and "My Life at Osoyoos" by Mrs. C. Kruger.  The annual meeting was well attended and plans were  discussed to mark the site of the first Customs house in the  district in 1862.  ARMSTRONG-ENDERBY: R. B. Blackburn had been elected  president of the newly-formed Armstrong-Enderby branch, with  J. H. Wilson, former president of the Armstrong branch, vice-  pesident, and Mrs. M. Pidoboronzy, secretary.  BUSINESS  Certain   resolutions  introduced   by   Penticton   anent   the  140 Parent Society and Branch Reports  printing of the next Report were referred to the executive for  consideration. A. E. Berry pointed out that some names had  been omitted from the printed membership list in OHS. 18. R.  J. McDougall said that those buying Reports for the first time  would not have their names in the list until the following year's  Report.  Election of officers for the ensuing year followed, and the  resultant slate appears on inside cover page of Report; as do  lists of branch officers.  After discussion, it was moved by Mrs. Marriage, seconded  by G. Fitzgerald, that secretary be empowered to employ such  stenographic help as might be necessary.    (Carried.)  The thanks of the Society were extended to Valley newspapers for publicity; to Rev. G .A. Affleck for excellent arrangements and accommodation for the annual meeting; to Mr.  Jenner for his work as auditor, and to officers and committee  conveners. On motion of C. E. Bentley, congratulations were  extended to the cities of Kelowna and Enderby on the occasion of their fiftieth anniversaries.  Armstrong was voted as place of next annual meeting, the  date being left to the executive to arrange.  Following the afternoon session, members were invited to  visit the Junior High school, where Vernon museum specimens  were housed. The oroginal manuscripts of the A. L. Fortune  Overland Expedition diaries were on view. Birds, mammals,  Indian artifacts, etc.    E. A. Quesnel acted as guide.  Before supper was served at 6:30 many had an opportunity to enjoy an organ recital by Mrs. Gaunt-Stevenson,  A.R.C.M., in the United Church. At the banquet held in the  'Church hall 122 guests were present. Mr. Whitham called on  the Rt. Rev. A. H. Sovereign to invoke the divine blessing.  The main address of the evening was delivered by Dr.  Walter N .Sage, whose subject was "Sir James Douglas: Father  of British Columbia," to whom Dr. Sage gave the credit for  our province remaining British. The address was greatly appreciated. Both Dr. and Mrs. Sage were guests of the Society  at its annual meeting.  141 uermore  ^Jhelr    I fame   cJLlveth   ^ror   Of  Mabel Johnson  In the sacred and cloistered precincts of the sanctuary in  All Saints' Anglican Church, Vernon, stand the Queen's Colours  and the colours of the Second Canadian Mounted Rifles, deposited there on April 24, 1955, for safekeeping in perpetuity.  About fifty of the original enlistees in the regiment stood  mutely and reverently at attention when Rev. Charles E. Reeve,  rector of All Saints', consecrated the new set of colours, to replace the original banners, destroyed when the former church  was burned to the ground on September 8, 1931.  "We dedicate and set apart this flag . . . that it may be a  sign of our duty towards our Queen, country and regiment, in  the sight of God and all men," said Mr. Reeve, laying the colours on the altar. In the color party were Major Michael V.  McGuire, Major H. R. Denison and Major T. Godfrey, and presenting the colours was Colonel G. C. Johnston, of Sidney, Vancouver Island.  The pilgrimage was pathetic in its poignancy, led by the  colonel, turned 80 years of age. The greying veterans came  from all over B.C. In their heyday, they left the farm, orchard  and town to serve in World War One under the banner of first  the British Columbia Horse and then the Second Canadian  Mounted Rifles.  It was particularly fitting that they brought the battle silks  to be housed in All Saints', Vernon, for it was in Vernon that  the Whizzbangs mobilized on August 10, 1914, as the 30th B.C.  Horse. In December, 1914, the name of the regiment was  changed to the 2nd C.M.R. The men took part of their training  at the Willows Camp, Victoria, where they were joined by the  Independent Squadron, and the regiment formed. They went  overseas in 1915 and to France later that year as a cavalry  unit, changing to infantry in December,  1915.  Colonel Johnston was officer in command of the regiment  when it was demobilized in 1919.  142 Their Name Liveth For Evermore"  The history of the regiment goes back to 1908, when,  through the efforts of E. Copley-Thompson, the late Hon. Price  Ellison and J. A. McKelvie, an independent squadron known as  "B" Squadron, Canadian Mounted Rifles, was formed in Vernon.  In 1910 authority was granted to form a cavalry regiment  in Vernon, to be known as the 30th B.C. Horse, and command  of the unit was given to the late Lieut.-Col. C. L. Bott. This  regiment, with headquarters in Vernon, consisted of "A" Squadron from Lumby and Coldstream; "B" Squadron from Vernon  and "C" Squadron from Armstrong and Enderby. Later "D"  Squadron was formed, taking in Penticton and Kelowna as far  north as Winfield.  At the outbreak of war in 1914, the 30th B.C. Horse was  mobilized, which amalgamated, as has been said above, with  the independent squadron of horse in Victoria to form an overseas unit—the 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles. As infantry, the  2nd C.M.R.'s fought to the end of the war, returning to Canada  in   1919.  The name of the regiment was subsequently changed to  the 1st B.C. Mounted Rifles (about 1920) and then the British  Columbia Dragoons. After the outbreak of World War Two,  the 5th Canadian Motorcycle Regiment was formed from the  B.C. Dragoons; and, in 1941, the unit was again redesignated,  becoming the 9th Armored Regiment (B.C.D.).  When the regiment embarked for overseas in 1915, then  the 2nd C.M.R.'s, there were 34 officers and 883 other ranks.  A total of 4500 men passed through the regiment and fought  in France and Flanders. Of these, 685 were killed in action or  died of wounds.  Decorations for bravery and distinguished service numbered 214, including a Victoria Cross. Also won were five  D.S.O.'s and one bar, 34 Military Crosses and four bars, 22  Distinguished Conduct Medals, one bar to the D.C.M., 130 Military Medals, five bars and one second bar to the Military  Medal, seven Croix de Guerre (France), three Croix de Guerre  (Belgium) and 28 mentioned in dispatches.  The battle silks have a purple background on which 10  battle honours are emblazoned in green and gold.  143 Their Name Liveth For Evermore"  Treasured in All Saints' Memorial Chapel are fragments  of the original flag, rescued from the fire which destroyed the  building.  The new colours are insured against fire by a special and  separate policy.  "We who outmastered death and all its fears are one great  army still," wrote Canon Scott, much-loved Canadian Army  Chaplain in World War One.  At the service of dedication of the battle silks of the 2nd  Canadian Mounted Rifles, the spectator knew what the padre  meant.  The oldest member of the 2nd C.M.R.'s still living is A. J.  Fisher, of Haney, aged 83. Mr. Fisher made the trip to the  Okanagan for the 21st annual Whizzbang reunion on June 5,  when John "Paddy" Hill, of Lavington, was elected president.  The 1956 reunion of the "Whizzbangs" will be held in Vernon.  144 lA/e    VUlll  iKemember   ^Jh  em  At each annual meeting of our Society we pause in the  day's occupation that we might pay a simple and fitting tribute  to the memory of pioneers and others who have finished the  work God gave them to do, and have entered into their rest  and reward since last we met. We do not think of them as  dead, but as having heard the trumpet sound for them, and  crossed the narrow sea that divides this life from the life to  come. Strong in this conviction, we mourn not as those who  have no such faith. They do not die who are lovingly remembered.  The notices that follow are only a few of all that might be  included. They are only those that have been brought to our  notice. To all who have been bereaved by the passing of  loved ones, we extend our deepest sympathy. We pray that  God will comfort them, as only He can, and that in the midst  of sorrow the everlasting light will shine more brightly.  MRS. GEORGINA MAISONVILLE: For many years resident  \   in   Okanagan   Valley,   Mrs.  |   Georgina   Logie   Maisonville  passed away at her Kelowna  home on Tuesday, March 8,  3_ffift___. 1955. She had been an active  i'\sLJak   illli^ member  of  the  Society's  di  rectorate and a frequent con-  ^11*  ^M**^: ■   1_W^ -■'>■■        tributor to its annual reports.  W '^BP^i^ The fourth member of the  gifted Logie family, Georgie,  as she was familiarly known  in her youth, had with other  members of the family left  Gladstone, Manitoba, for Okanagan, and selected a home-  site in the Jones Flat district of  Summerland   commanding   a  unique view of the lake. Early  Mrs. Georgina Maisonville studies were directed by Miss  Minnie Smith, then in charge of the first school in the district, a  145 We Will Remember Them"  little east of the present Summerland hospital. Georgie soon displayed more than average talent which led her to Okanagan  College and McMaster University, which awarded her B.A.  degree.  During this formative period Miss Logie was active in social  life, and gave freely of her musical and other talents. Like her  equally gifted brother, Jack, she loved the outdoor life, and was  a keen student of Indian lore. Her hobbies included music,  needlework, coin collecting, local history and painting, which  gave scope for her creative talents and brought her great happiness.   She was a member of the Kelowna Art Group.  Miss Logie was married to Campbell Robinson; and in 1937  to Oliver Maisonville, lighthouse keeper. A lifelong student, she  gathered together a valuable private library. Mrs. Maisonville  taught school in various centres, including Rutland, where for  eight years she was also librarian and girls' counsellor, for  which she was peculiarly fitted by her gracious personality and  gifts of understanding.  Funeral services were conducted by Rev. J. A. Petrie; interment was in Peach Orchard cemetery, Summerland. She  is survived by one daughter, one son, one brother and one  sister. In her passing, our Society and all who knew her suffered a great loss. (Alex Steven)  CLEMENT BOND SMITH: Member of a pioneer Vernon  family which settled in that city more than 60 years ago, died  in Vernon Jubilee Hospital on May 1, 1955. The family came  to Vernon in 1888 when Mr. Smith was only two years old. He  was born in Deloraine, -Man. His father, the late S. C. Smith,  operated a large lumber mill and factory in Vernon for many  years.  Mr. Smith had resided in Vernon for 64 years, with the  exception of the decade from 1929 to 1939. During that time he  was in business in Wenatchee, Wash., when he operated a  fruit brokerage concern.  Prior to moving to Washington, he was associated with  his father in the S. C. Smith Lumber Company, and upon returning to Vernon, managed the business until it was sold in  1940 and renamed the Pioneer Sash and Door Company. Mr.  146 We Will Remember Them"  Smith was representative in Vernon and district for the Sun  Life Assurance Company since that time. He was a member  of the Masonic Order, and affiliated with the Miriam and Kalamalka lodges and the Okanagan Chapter, Royal Arch. Other  interests included sports and he was a keen hockey fan.  Surviving are his widow, one daughter, Mrs. B. A. Sugden,  both of Vernon; and two sons, Beverly Smith, of Lebanon, Oregon, and Dr. H. B. Smith, of Vernon. Mr. Smith was one of a  family of six children. He was predeceased by two brothers.  (Mabel Johnson)  MRS. EDITH JANE MILLS, 81, a resident of Armstrong for  the past 45 years, died in Armstrong at the end of May, 1955.  Born in Dover, Kent, England, Mrs. Mills took an active part  in community life and served as president of the Armstrong  Women's Institute for 19 years. She retired in 1954, when she  was made an honorary life member of that organization. Mrs.  Mills was also a member of the Rebekah Lodge and the Ladies'  Auxiliary to the Canadian Legion.  She is survived by six children: Daughters, Ruby at home;  Mrs. Pearl Henderson, Kelowna; Mrs. Jessie Duxbury, Mrs.  Bonnie Beech, of Vancouver; and sons, John and Ernest, of  Armstrong. (Mabel Johnson)  THOMAS LOVE: Funeral service under Masonic auspices  were held for Mr. Love in Salmon Arm. He died in Vancouver  on May 1, 1955. Thomas Alfred Love was born at Stanton,  Ontario, in 1884, and educated in Toronto. He came to Grand  Forks, B.C., in 1911. A member of the provincial Legislative  Assembly for eight years, he represented Grand Forks-Greenwood and was deputy speaker in the last Coalition government.  Mr. Love was widely known as the editor and publisher  of the Grand Forks Gazette. From 1936 to 1937 he was president of B.C. Municipalities. A member of many boards and  organizations, he was for a time secretary of the Salmon Arm  Chamber of Commerce, and he organized the Shuswap Tourist  Bureau Association. He is survived by his wife, one son and  three daughters.  MRS.   MARGARET   DALE:   Summerland's   oldest   pioneer,  147 We Will Remember Them"  Mrs. Dale, age 90, died in June, 1955. She had lived in Summerland since 1906. She took an active interest in community  and church life, and was for forty years organist of the Summerland Baptist Church. On June 24, 1954, friends gathered  to do her honour on her 90th birthday. Her husband died in  1926. An only son, George, was killed in the first World War.  Her daughter, Ruth, is a teacher in the MacDonald elementary  school.  MRS. A. E. JOHNSTON: Mrs. Johnston was the second  daughter and fourth child born to Mr. and Mrs. John Fall Allison, pioneer settlers of Similkameen. Her father came to Similkameen in 1858, and her mother in 1867. Their second daughter, named for her mother, Susan Louisa, was born January  22, 1874, and died May 1 ,1955. She had survived her husband  just over five years. They were married in 1902 and of this  union two daughters and one son were born.  Albert Everest Johnston was born in Van Buren, Arkansas,  May 13, 1870, and died in Vancouver, B.C., April 21, 1950. He  was in Yukon during the gold rush which began in 1898; drove  stage in the Cariboo for a time, and was Princeton district road  foreman from 1934 to 1942. Thereafter he retired to his farm at  Wolfe Creek.  Mrs. Johnston was born at Westbank, then called Sunnyside, the first white child to be born there.  MRS. MARGARET WOOD: Mrs. Margaret Jennie Wood  died in Salmon Arm hospital in November, 1954, less than a  month after she had celebrated her 90th birthday. Mrs. Wood  was born at Selby, Ontario, in 1864, and came with her parents to Victoria, B.C., in 1878. Her father, O. D. Sweet, taught  school in Victoria before moving to the mainland, where he  was one of the early reeves of Richmond. Miss Sweet taught  in the first school in the district. In 1885 she was married to  Rev. James Alexander Wood, Methodist minister.  Mr. Wood Was born in 1855 of Scottish parents who had  migrated to Ohio, U.S.A., in 1852. Soon after their son was  born, the parents moved to Peterborough, Ontario. Here the  boy grew to manhood, inured to habits of frugality and toil on  a bush farm.    Although brought up a Presbyterian, he deter-  148 We Will Remember Them"  mined to enter the Methodist ministry, and in 1879 was sent as  a probationer to the York River Mission, where he laboured for  two years with marked success. After brief periods at Thurlow  and Stirling in Ontario, in 1882 he volunteered for British Columbia, where men were urgently needed. His theological  course being incomplete, he received special ordination, was  stationed at Bella Bella Indian Mission, and completed his  course by private study. Under the itinerant system he served  at Maple Bay, Delta, 1885-87; Clinton, Richmond, 1890-93; Vernon, 1893-95; Revelstoke, Kaslo, Kamloops, Salmon Arm, 1902-  1906; Sidney, Victoria West and Armstrong. In 1906 he was  elected president of the Conference.  Owing to failing health, Mr. Wood was compelled to superannuate in 1916. On December 14 of that year, while he and  Mrs. Wood were visiting friends in Armstrong, he passed away.  Mrs. Wood and her family became successful fruit growers in  the district.   She is survived by six sons and two daughters.  GEORGE A. MEIKLE: Resident in Kelowna for 51 years,  Mr. Meikle died on January 7, 1955, age 73. Mr. Meikle was a  member of the city council for fifteen years, a former president  of the Kelowna Board of Trade and a past president of the  Aquatic Association. For many years he operated a large  departmental store which still bears his name, G. A. Meikle  Ltd.   He is survived by his wife, three sons and two daughters.  CHARLES F. TREVOR-BULKLEY: Born in Richmond, Surrey,  England, in 1873, Mr. Trevor-Bulkley was soldier, sailor, plantation manager before coming to Canada in 1910. He had been  decorated by Queen Victoria for service in the Boer and Zulu  wars, and managed tea plantations in South Africa and sugar  plantations in Australia. After coming to B.C. as real estate  agent, he enlisted in World War I, and saw service with the  172nd Battalion in France.  After the war he took up forestry, then orchard growing  near Salmon Arm, and helped to establish the fox fur industry  in this province. He retired in 1935. He died in Vancouver in  December, 1954.  MRS. ROSOMAN: In October, 1954, Mrs. Adele Rosoman  died in Armstrong.    She was in her 68th year.    Born in Hun-  149 We Will Remember Them"  gary, Mrs. Rosoman came to Canada as a girl and settled in  Winnipeg, where for a time she acted as interpreter for the  Danish consulate. In 1903 she came to Mara, B.C., and in 1904  married Bernard Rosoman, who died earlier in 1954. They  made their home in Armstrong district for many years. Both  Mr. and Mrs. Rosoman were well known in North Okanagan.  J. R. FREEZE: James Russell Freeze, resident in Armstrong  district nearly fifty years, died at Salmon Arm in January, 1955.  He was born at Moncton, New Brunswick, in 1879, and came  to Armstrong in 1909, later moving to Salmon Arm, where he  farmed for forty years.  During that time he served for 25 years as director and  vice-president of the North Okanagan Creamery Association.  He saw service in two wars—the Boer War and World War I.  He is survived by his wife, one son and four daughters.  HARRY F. CHAPIN: Mr. Chapin died in Vernon hospital  in March, 1955. He was 74 years old. Born in Portage la  Prairie, he later moved to Hartney, Manitoba, and was associated with his father in the retail lumber business. In 1908 he  moved to Vancouver, where he was engaged in the cartage  and grocery business for eleven years.  Mr. Chapin in 1911 bought out the Alsgard confectionery  and tea room on Bernard Avenue, Kelowna, thereafter operating the Chapin restaurant for 31 years, and retiring in 1950.  He was an early president of the Cariboo Trail Association,  past-president of the Canadian Club, Kelowna; a member of  the Elks and Masonic lodges, and an active member of Kelowna  First United Church. Mr. Chapin was also prominent in Rotary,  one of the early directors of the Kelowna Golf and Country  Club and a member of the Retail Merchants' Association and  the Kelowna Board of Trade.  Besides his widow, he is survived by two daughters and  one son, Malcolm, who is with the R.C.A.F. at Edmonton.  HERBERT BERRYMAN: Mr. Berryman, age 66, editor of the  Oliver Chronicle, which he founded in 1937, died in Tranquille  Sanitarium. He was born in Hampshire, England, had been  in Canada since he was 17, and was well known in Okanagan.  150 We Will Remember Them"  MRS. JACQUES: When Mrs. Annie Reeve Jacques, widow  of F. B. Jacques, died in Vernon on May 11, 1955, her passing  marked the closing of an era. She had been a resident of that  city for the past 64 years.  Born in Orillia, Ont., on September 5, 1863, Mrs. Jacques  was in her 92nd year. Her British parents, who came from  near London, England, had been in Canada only a matter of  weeks when their daughter was born.  The late F. B. Jacques, whose home was in Alberta, had  gone to Eastern Canada to serve his apprenticeship as a watchmaker ,and while there met Miss Annie Reeve. In due course,  Mr. Jacques returned to Alberta to set up a watch repairing  establishment in Calgary, and there he was joined by his  bride-elect. The couple were married in 1889 by the groom's  father, Rev. George Jacques, a Methodist minister with a charge  in Calgary.  Later that year, Mr. Jacques came to the Okanagan and  decided to settle in Enderby, joined shortly afterwards by his  wife. She was met in Sicamous by her husband, and the  couple continued to Enderby in the old Shuswap River steamer,  the Red Star. The trip took about 10 hours. It was midsummer  and the craft became stuck several times on sandbars.  Mr. Jacques established the jewelry, watch repairing and  gift business which still bears his name in Vernon, first in Enderby, when it consisted of watch repairs for C.P.R. construction crews.  When steel for the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway was  laid as far as Vernon, the Jacques family left Enderby to make  their home in that city in 1891, a year before incorporation. Here  Mr. Jacques became watch inspector for the C.P.R. and re-  .mained as such until his death, which occurred while on holiday in California in 1938.  Of a retiring nature and a lover of her home and family,  Mrs. Jacques had always been interested in plants; her garden  and horticultural pursuits generally. She was intensely hospitable and had a large circle of friends, who meant much to  her during her later years. When Vernon celebrated its Diamond Jubilee in 1952, Mrs. Jacques was among the honored  151 Their Names Liveth For Evermore"  guests at the huge pioneers' banquet.  Mrs. Jacques was the eldest of a family of seven, and the  last survivor of the Reeve family.  There were three clSaren. Mrs. Jacques' eldest daughter,  Mrs. W. T. Gebbie, died in 1916. Surviving is one son, George,  of Vernon; a daughter, Mrs. E. Dickson, of Kamloops; four grandchildren, of whom Mrs. Harry Gorman, of Vernon, is one; two  step-grandsons and eight great-grandchildren.  Rev. C. E. Reeve conducted the last rites and Mrs. Jacques,  almost the last of Vernon's earliest residents, was laid at rest  in Vernon cemetery.   (Mabel Johnson)  A. E. HOMEWOOD: Born near London, England, 95 years  ago, Albert E. Homewood, of Rutland, died on May 6, 1955.  Coming to Canada when he was 35 years old, Mr. Homewood  was engaged in the upholstering business in Kelowna before  moving to Rutland about fifteen years ago. His birthday was  on the same day as the late Prime Minister Mackenzie King,  and they frequently exchanged letters. Mrs. Homewood died  ten years ago, as did two of his children. He is survived by  five daughters and three sons.  MRS. ALICE E. JOWETT: When she died at Kelowna on  March 11, 1955, Mrs. Jowett was in her 102nd year. Born Alice  Elizabeth Smith at Bradford, Yorkshire, England, on November  5, 1853, she married there and brought three children to Vancouver in 1889. In 1897 she went to Trout Lake, where she  bought the hotel during the mining boom in the Kootenays.  Mrs. Jowett had her first airplane ride after she was 90 years  old.    She is survived by two daughters.  C. W. HOLLIDAY: We learned with deep regret of the  death in Victoria on July 18, 1955, of Charles William Holliday.  Besides his wife, he is survived by two daughters: Miss Molly  Holliday and Mrs. W. Storey, both of Vancouver.  Mr. Holliday will be remembered as the author of The  Valley of Youth, published by The Caxton Printers, Ltd., in 1948,  and reviewed in OHS.13Q949), pp.186-188. Mr. Holliday was  born in London, England, in 1870.   In 1886 he went to sea, and  152 We Will Remember Them"  after a few years before the mast, came to Victoria. Before  long he moved to Okanagan. Here he found the land of his  dreams. It was for him "The Valley of Youth" and here he  made his home for the next fifty years. He took up painting  as a hobby and later as a profession. He and his wife, the  former Elizabeth Harding, moved to Victoria in 1937. (H. R.  Denison)  GEORGE C. ROSE: The following tribute is taken from The  Kelowna Courier, February 7, 1955: "On Friday, February 4,  there died in Kelowna a man who in his early days contributed  much to the City of Kelowna and the Central Okanagan, George  C. Rose, publisher of the Kelowna Courier from 1905 to 1938.  He had been in ill health for a number of years.  "Mr. Rose in 1892 planted the first commercial orchard in  the Okanagan Valley on 20 acres of what is now known as the  Pridham property on the Vernon Road.  "He was instrumental in the organization of the Kelowna  Board of Trade in 1896 and was its first secretary and second  president.  "He was the influence behind the formation of the Kelowna  Aquatic Club and was its first president.  "He played a substantial part, through his editorials, in  assisting fruit growers along the road to co-operative marketing  and the formation of the one-desk selling deal.  "For many years he was a sort of unofficial adviser to  members of the city council and other civic organizations.  "He was an extremely able journalist, as the files of this  newspaper can. demonstrate, and was acknowledged to have  one of the best commands of the English language in Western  Canada.  "But, despite his great contribution to his beloved Kelowna,  he was comparatively unknown. He was of a retiring nature  and never sought the limelight himself. Indeed, he literally  evaded it. He was content to work and contribute and let  others have the glory."  George Christian Rose was born on July 8, 1872, at Latham,  153 We Will Remember Them"  Parish of Moneydie, Perthshire, Scotland, the youngest son of  George Rose and of Christina MacDuff Latham Rose, of Inverness, Scotland. Together with E. M. Carruthers, he came to  Canada, arriving at Vancouver early in June, 1891. After two  months in Vancouver he came to Okanagan and here he remained. "Mr. Rose never married. His interesting life was  lightened by his love of the Okanagan Valley and Kelowna in  particular, his faith in the fruit industry, and his desire to make  people realize, as he did, that Kelowna was a beautiful place  in which to live."  JOHN BRENT: A veteran of two wars, John Brent, aged 79,  died in Vancouver on August 20, 1955. His father, Frederick,  followed the Mission fathers into Okanaagn and operated the  first flour mill in the district (OHS.6,p.27). John Brent served  with the Strathcona Horse in the Boer War and with the Canadian Mounted Rifles in World War I. He is survived by a  daughter, Mrs. Anna Meeres of Dawson Creek, and a son,  Thomas, of Williams Lake, and one sister, Mrs. C. Renshaw,  of Kaleden.  FRED H. BASSETT: After a long illness, Mr. Bassett died  in Penticton hospital on August 25, 1955. He was 77 years old.  The well-known business man who started what was known  as Bassett's Delivery in 1908, and which later became Bassett's  Transfer when motor vehicles replaced horse-drawn freighters,  was a true pioneer. Born in Weston, Oregon, he went with  his family to Costa Rica. They moved to Okanagan Falls in  1897, completing the jouney by wagon from Waneta.  The three brothers in the family were expert horsemen,  and for many years were freighting in South Okanagan, Similkameen and Boundary districts. Mr. Bassett was loved and  trusted by Indians and whites alike.  HUGH MAIR LAING: Born in Ontario 86 years ago, Mr.  Laing had lived in this province for sixty years, the last 25 in  Oliver. He died July 21, 1955. Until illness overtook him, he  took a lively interest in valley history and current affairs.  154 We Will Remember Them"  R. A. FYFE MOORE: Robert Alexander Fyfe Moore, 91,  died in Vernon on June 29, 1955. Mr. Moore arrived in Okanagan in 1898. He lived first in Peachland, then moved to Penticton, where he lived -for 35 years. He is survived by his wife,  two daughters and one son. His widow is a daughter of the  late John Gummow, of Peachland.  MATTHEW HASSEN, SR.: The $55,000 Hassen Memorial  Hall on the Armstrong exhibition grounds was named in honor  of Matthew Hassen, Senior, who died this summer. Mr. Hassen  was manager and secretary-treasurer of the Interior Provincial  Exhibition, better known as the Armstrong Fair, taking over its  management in 1914 from Donald Matheson. He made a fine  contribution to the agricultural progress of the B.C. Interior  throughout his long connection with farm fairs and the sales of  livestock.  B. R. CAMPBELL: After a lengthy illness, Mr. Campbell  died in Kamloops on Tuesday, September 13, 1955. He was  a past-president of the British Columbia Historical Association,  a valued member of the directorate of the Okanagan Historical  Society and one of the originators of the Kamloops museum.  At the annual meeting of the O.H.S. in Kelowna in May, 1950,  Mr. Campbell, as president of the B.C.H.A., addressed the  gathering, speaking in reminiscent vein, telling of work done  in Kamloops by the Historical and Museum groups, and urging  greater co-operation between local and provincial associations.  He contributed valuable articles to our O.H.S. reports.  Burton Roy Campbell had a life long interest in provincial  history. He first came to Kamloops in 1891. For nearly sixty  years he was a member of the International Typographical  Union and was Linotype operator for the Kamloops Sentinel  for over forty years. Between 1903 and 1922 he worked for the  Revelstoke Review and Vernon News.  Mr. Campbell is survived by his widow, four daughters and  three sons, one of whom, Leslie V., is publisher of the Castlegar  News.  HERBERT R. DENISON: On Thursday, 27 October, 1955,  funeral services were held for Major Denispn, age 67, who died  155 We Will Remember Them"  in Vernon after a brief illness. Born in Calgary, he came to  North Okanagan in 1891, and had resided in Vernon and district for 64 years.  Major Denison served in two world wars, took an active  interest in the Boy Scouts movement; and was a valued member  of the Okanagan Historical Society, of which he was treasurer  for a number of years. He is survived by his widow; a son,  Eric, of Smithers; two daughters: Enid at home, and Mrs. Stuart  Whyte of Vancouver; two sisters: Mrs. W. A. Nisbett of Summerland, and Mrs. Dimitre Schock of Wilson Landing; and a  brother Norman of Creighton Valley.  Briiish Columbia for Settlers—Its Mines, Trades and Agriculture, by Francis MacNab (London, 1898), devotes one chapter  to Vernon and another to Kelowna and Coldstream (pp. 244-267).  On page 246 Mr. MacNab records: "I reached Vernon early on  the 31st of July, and having deposited my luggage at the Kalamalka hotel, I lost no time in going to see Mr. Henderson, of  the Bank of Montreal, who afterwards accompanied me to the  government office to see Mr. Norris." Mr. MacNab had pleasant memories of Okanagan; not so of New Westminster, which  he describes as "a second-rate little town with a vile inn." "All  night the inhabitants sang songs in the street, and as I was  dressing the next morning I saw a dray and two horses drive  into a plate-glass window. Fortunately, this accident seemed  to wind up the proceedings, as people became so quiet that I  believe most of them went to bed" (p.215). That was in 1897.  No reason is given for the celebration. Could it have been the  diamond jubilee of Queen Victoria's reign?  There is something alluring about fruit growing. Townspeople who wish to try their hand at farming select an orchard  or garden for their operations. Cultivation and caring for trees  appeals to men and women who wish to live and work in the  country, but have no special love for livestock.—The Times Book  ol Canada (London, 1920), p.74.  156 Kyhanaaan   ^rtldtorlcai   Societu  jg-.B. — All postal addresses given in the Membership List are in  the province of British Columbia, unless otherwise indicated.  PATRONS  W. E. Adams, 1998 Abbott St., Kelowna  Mrs. Mary E. Allen, C.B.E., 2303 Lawson Ave., W. Vancouver, B.C.  N. H. Caesar, Okanagan Centre  B. T. Haverfield, Okanagan Mission  Mrs. D. F. McCorquodale, 84 Beverly Ave., Montreal, P.Q.  Robert W. Seath, 1934 McDougall Ave., Kelowna  Colonel D. C. Unwin Simpson, 835 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  HONORARY LIFE MEMBER  Dr. Margaret Ormsby, University of British Columbia, Vancouver  MEMBERS  Adams, W. E., 1998 Abbott St., Kelowna  Aldredge, E., Box 67, Penticton  Allen, Mrs. M. V., Box 15, Quesnel  "Allison, Mrs. D., 301 West Ave., Kelowna  Anderson, Dr. W. F., 463 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  Andrew, W. J., 2866 Bellevue Ave., West Vancouver  Andrew, Dr. F. W., Summerland  Ansell, Chas., 2400 39th Ave., Vernon  Archibald, J. R., Seyifpjur St., Kamloops  "Atchison, Mrs. C. S., 1807 Marshall St., Kelowna  Atkinson, Reg., Box 525, 162 Okanagan Ave., Penticton  *Bagnall, Guy P., 3317 Coldstream Ave., Vernon  'Bagnall,  Geo. C, 5538 Ingleside Ave.,  Chicago, 37, Illinois, U.S.  Bailey, J. M., East Kelowna  Bailey, E. R., 516 Lawrence Ave., Kelowna  Bailey, Harold, East Kelowna  Ball, Louis J., Box 28, Oliver  Barrett,   Geo.,   1749  Abbott  St.,   Kelowna  Barr-Hall, Mrs. Ste. 503, Hycroft Towers Apt., 1445 Marpole St.  Vancouver  Bartholomew, H. D., Box 466, Vernon  Bates,  Mrs.  P., Osoyoos  Belli-Bivar, Mrs. Ethel, Box 45, Salmon Arm  Benmore, G. C, 2059 Pendozi St., Kelowna  Bennett, Mrs. C. G, R.R. 1, Box 2278, Penticton  Bentley, C. E., Summerland  Berner, Mrs. A., 2500 26th  St.,  Vernon  Berry, Albert E., 2401 26th St., Vernon  Beurish, W., Osoyoos  Beveridge, G. K., 2000 32nd St., Vernon  Billard, Mrs. V. M.,  Okanagan Landing  Bingley, A., Coldstream, Vernon  Blackburn, R. B., Enderby  Blackie, Mrs. A., 2617 North St., Kelowna  Blumenauer, A. H. Jr., Armstrong  Bolton, Mrs. G. W., 1126 Kilwinning St., Penticton  Book Nook, Penticton  Boone, H., R.R. 1,  Oliver  *Boss, M. T., 455 E. 17th Ave., Vancouver  Bowsher, A. P., Calivin P.O., Calgary, Alta.  Bowsher, Miss, 1461 Ellis St., Kelowna  Brent, F. J., Hedley  157 Okanagan Historical Society  Broomfield, A. D., Princeton  Bristow,  C.  A.,  3614 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Brown, Wm. C, Courtway Bldg., Okanogan, Wash., U.S.A.  Brown, E. C, Can. Bank of Commerce, Vernon  Brown, Miss J. Topham, Box 433, Vernon  Brown, Mrs. A. E., Oliver  Brown, Mrs. L. E., Rock Creek  Browne, Adolphe, 2803 Schubert St., Vernon  Brydon, J. M., 1956 Pendozi St., Kelowna  Buckland, C. J., R.R. 2, Kelowna  Buckland, D. S., Okanagan Mission  Bull, Capt. E. R., Okanagan Mission  Bearcroft, E. S. 599 Argyle St., Penticton  Busch, Mrs. G., Kaleden  Butler, Mrs. L. G., East Kelowna  *Caesar, N. H., Okanagan Centre  Cameron, Mrs. Annie, 449 Paul St., Kamloops  Cameron, G. D., Box 86, Kelowna  Cameron, J. D., Penticton  *Campbell, Mrs. B. R., Box 175, Kamloops  Campbell, D. H., R.R. 2 .Kelowna  Campbell, Mrs. Ida, 3306 25th St., Vernon  Campbell-Brown, Dr. H., 3009 Tronson Ave., Vernon  Carney, Thos., Box 222, R.R. 1, Kelowna  Carpenter, G. R., 1901 Schubert Ave., Vernon  Carruthers, E. M., Raymond Apts., Pendozi St., Kelowna  Carter, T. R:, East Kelowna  Casorso, Victor, Oliver  Casorso, Leona, 1942 Pendozi St., Kelowna  Casorso, Jos., R.R. 3, Kelowna  Casorso, A., R.R. 4, Kelowna  Casorso, Anthony, R.R. 2, Kelowna  Cates, Capt. C. E., North Vancouver  Cawston, Mrs. V., 7062 Montgomery St., Vancouver  *Chambers, E. J., Penticton  Chapin, H. Russ, Box 94, Kelowna  Chichester, R., Box 41, Rutland  Christenson, S. P., 2700 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Clark, D. A., 300 Queensway, Kelowna  Clark, Mrs. Clare, c/o Mr. Earl Clark, Gen. Del. Courtenay, VI  Clark, J. C, 628 Morrison Ave., Kelowna  Clements, Les, R.R. 1, Winfield  Clements, W. E., Peachland  Clement, C. G, 2276 Speer St., Kelowna  Clement, J. Percy, 1322 Walnut St., Victoria  Cochrane, Harold, 836 Main St., Penticton  Collett, H. G. S., Box 52, Okanagan Mission  Clement  J. P., 1925 Burrard St., Vancouver  Colley, James R.,  Kamloops  Conroy, M. J., 2605 24th St., Vernon  Cooper, Fred, 3104 26th St., Vernon  £Z°?er^E- W' A" 897 Winnipeg St., Penticton  Cools, Mrs. Vera, Okanagan Centre  Coots, Mrs. J., Coalmont  ^Corbitt, H. W., Box 2, Kaleden  *Corrie, James, Princeton  Coursier, Dr. H. L., Box 1019, Vernon  Crozier, Mrs. R., Armstrong  Currie, Gordon W., R.R. l, Kelowna  Clement, C. G, 2276 Speer St., Kelowna  Colquhoun, Judge M. M., 524 Lakeshore Dr., Penticton  158 Okanagan Historical Society  Davidson, D. A., 3203 Pleasant Valley Rd., Vernon  Davidson, Allan, Box 131, Westbank  Dunsdon, H., R.R. 1, Summerland  Dawson, E. R., Osoyoos  Day, Mrs. M.,  R.R. Kelowna  Day, Mrs. N, 1610 Pendozi St., Kelowna  :De Beck, Mrs. H. C, 3505 Pleasant Valley Rd., Vernon  Deering, A. J., R.R. 1, Armstrong  *Deschamps,   Fred,   Vernon  Deschamps, Alphonse, 3415 28tb Ave., Vernon  DeVavo, Mrs., Lumby  De Pfyffer, Robert, 1961 Abbott St., Kelowna  Dewdney, W. R., Penticton  Dicks, W, Armstrong  Dickson, Mrs. G. H., Dunville, Ontario  Ditmars, W. C, 2535 S.W. Marine Dr., Vancouver  Dixon, Mrs. Earl, Armstrong  Dobson, W. Ken, R.R. 2, Vernon  Dormer, R. S., Newburn, Berks, England  Duggan, Mrs. T. D. O., R.R. 1, Winfield  Duncan, R. J., Armstrong  Duncan, Reg., Penticton  Du Moulin, Phillip, Royal Anne Hotel, Kelowna  Dun Waters, Mrs. J. C, Okanagan Mission  Ernst, Mrs. A., Osoyoos  Estabrooks, R. H., Penticton  Estabrooks, O. L., Penticton  Emanuele,  Dr.  H.,  PejjSlicton  Ellis, Dr. K. W., 268 Cambies St., Penticton  Faulkner, Ronnie, Penticton  Felker, C. P., 2300 45th Ave., Vernon  Ferguson, E. W., 621 Elliott Ave., Kelowna  Ffoulkes, Mrs. Muriel, Queensway, Kelowna  Fillmore, D. C, 1470 Water St., Kelowna  Fisher, H. C, Shuswap Falls  Fisher, Mrs. S., Armstrong  Fisher, Mrs. D. V., Summerland  Fitch, W., 211-744 West Hastings, Vancouver  Fitzgerald, G. D., R.R. 3, Kelowna  Fitzmaurice, Lt. Col. R., Box 757, Vernon  Forbes, Mrs. Elizabeth, 843 Newport Ave., Victoria  Fitzgerald, Mrs. G. D., R.R. 3, Kelowna  Found, Dr. N. P., 1806 Abbott St.,-Kelowna  Fraser, R. F., 722 Lawson Ave., Kelowna  Fraser, IM^br Hugh, Okanagan Falls  Fraser, George, R.R. 1, Osoyoos  Fraser, Mrs. D., Osoyoos  Freding, Hans, Princeton  French, Dr. Wm., Drawer 120, Kamloops  Gaddes, Dr. W. H., Ste. 11, Pendozi Manor, Kelowna  Gale, Miss Nancy, 234 Beach Ave., Kelowna  Garner, Mrs. R. J., 2801 Blackwood St., Victoria.  Gartrell, Fred R., R.R. 1, Summerland  Gellatley, Mrs. D., Westbank  Genn, Anthony, Glenshield Hotel, Victoria  Gervers, J., R.R. 2, Kelowna  Gibson, Mrs. Florence, 1544 W. 68th Ave., Vancouver  Gillis, Mres D. I., R.R. 1, Armstrong  Gleed, Miss E., Oliver  Goldie, ;^p.,  Okanagan  Centre  Goldie, I^ms. Jessie R., Okanagan Centre  159 Okanagan Historical Society  Goodchild, Roly, Box 1510, Kelowna  Goodfellow, Dr. J. C, Box 60, Princeton  Goodfellow,  Eric, Box  196,  Princeton  Goodman,  F. L.,  Osoyoos  Gordon, C. B., 545 Transit Rd., Victoria  Gordon, R. K., Penticton  *Gore, R. C, 1536 Ellis St., Kelowna  Graf, Walter,  Osoyoos  Graham, Mrs. R. T., Box 80, East Kelowna  Graham, G. G., Oliver  Grant, John W., Union College, Vancouver, 8  Gray, L. S., 3607 27th Ave., Vernon  *Greenside, E. L., 1758 Ellis St., Kelowna  Greenwood, Terry, 1815 Maple St., Kelowna  Gregory, Mrs. C, R.R. Armstrong  Guernsey, C. F. M., c/o B. of Montreal, West Summerland  Guichon, L. P., Quilchena  Hack, Mrs. F. W., Oliver  Haines, C. E., R.R. 2, Vernon  Haines, Mrs. Pearl, Rock Creek  Hales, F. C, 1069 Harver Ave., Kelowna  Hall, Wm., 3601 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Hall, Robt., Box 26, Oliver  Hamilton-Watts, Mrs. C, 2600 25th Ave., Vernon  Hanbury, A. W., Osoyoos  Harris, Mrs. Ellen, 6360 Larch St., Vancouver  Harris, J. G., Naramata Road, Penticton  Harwood, Fred V., 3102 41st Ave., Vernon  Haselham, Miss Ann, 731 Martin St., Kelowna  Hatfield, A. S., Penticton  Hatfield, H. R., Penticton  Haug, Roy, 1746 Water St., Kelowna  Haverfield, B. T., Okanagan Mission  Hayes, Newman, R.R. Armstrong  Hayhurst, Mrs. W. T., R.R. 2, Armstrong  Hayman, L. A., 7162 Beechwood, Vancouver  Heighway, J. G., Lumby  Henderson, Mrs. J. D., 1890 Ethel St., Kelowna  Henry, D. W., R.R. 2, Kelowna  Hereron, Miss M. F., 28(Mpernard Ave., Kelowna  *Hewer, E. E., Box 140, Chase  Hewlett, E. E., R.R. 3, Kelowna  Herbert, Gordon D., 435 Barnard Ave., Kelowna  Hicks, Dr. A. R., Princeton  Hill, Mrs. R., Lulu Island, Vancouver  Hopkins, Mrs. J. L., Armstrong  Hooper, J. L., Penticton  Howlett, A. W, Royal Bank, Vernon  Howrie, Dave Sr., 2507 37th Ave., Vernon  Hoy, Ben,  1902 Pendozi St., Kelowna  Hughes, Mrs. T. S., 2185 Abbott St., Kelowna  Hughes, Mrs. Audrey, 2340 Pendozi St., Kelowna  Hughes-Games, W. B., 1812 Marshall St., Kelowna  Hutton, L. A. B., Joint Liaison Officer, Room 103, 140 Wellington  St., Ottawa 4, Ontario  Hurmuses, Jeff, Kalamalka Hotel, Vernon  Innis, Mrs. Winnifred C, Box 30, Keremeos  Jackson, Art., 1536 Ellis St., Kelowna  Jackson, Oliver, Box 64, R.R. 3, Kelowna  Jamieson, Mrs. J. E., Armstrong  Jamieson, W. H., Box 222, Penticton  160 Okanagan Historical Society  Jenkins, J. L., Princeton  John,  John G., Natal  Johnston, W. A.,  Quesnel  Jones, W. Lloyd, 1449 Ethel St., Kelowna  Jones, Miss Phillis, Oliver  *Kabelda, S., Okanagan Mission  Keating, H., Box 150, Peachland  Kelly, C. C, 246 Lawrence Ave., Kelowna  Kerr,  R. B.,  Okanagan Mission  *Kerry, L. L., 324 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  Kinlock, Mrs. D. F. B., R.R. 2, Vernon  Kneller, Jabez, R.R. 4, Vernon  Knight, Graham, Penticton  Knowles, Mrs. J. B., 874 Manhattan Dr., Kelowna  Knowles, C. W., Box 9, Kelowna  I Krenn, Rupert, R.R. 1, Kelowna  Kujath, Rev. A., 729 Stockwell Ave., Kelowna  Lacey, Mrs. E. J., Osoyoos  *Lamb, Dr. W. Kaye, Public Archives, Ottawa, Ont.  Lamont, Mrs. J.,  R.R. 4,  Kelowna  Lane, W. T., 4438 Marguerite St., Vancouver  Leary, W. O., Oyama  Lefroy, C. B. L., 3306 25th St., Vernon  Lenard, Dr. C, 3407 W. 34th Ave., Vancouver  Leslie, W. T., Wade & Tennis Sts., Penticton  Ley, R. W., Box 940, Vernon  Lincoln, Mrs. M. A., 3500 32nd St., Vernon  Lindsay, Mrs. B., Osoyoos  Lightly, Mrs. N. H., R.R. 1, Westbank  Logan,  Harry,  6750  MacDonald  St.,  Vancouver  Lowle, F. F., Penticton  'ñ†JgE|un-Johnston, D., 3637 Cedar Cr., Vancouver  Macfarlane, Mr. Justice D., Supreme Court, Victoria  MacLean, A. P., 1580 Water St., Kelowna  McCallum, J. B., Bank of Montreal, Vernon  McCuddy, A., Oliver  McCMland, J. B., 421 Haynes, Kelowna  McCrum, Archie,  Princeton  McCulloch, Mrs. J., 1500 39th Ave., Vernon  McDonald, Frank, Penticton  McCullough, Capt. Avard N, 1939 Abbott St., Kelowna  McDonald, Geo. A., 1274 Fairview Rd., Penticton  McDougall, R. J., Sorrento  McDougall, Hazel, 1094 Lawson Ave., Kelowna  McDougald, Miss C, Peachland  McGuire, M. V., Board of Trade Office, Vernon  McHugh, Wm., Osyoos  McKelvie, B. A., Box 142 Cobble Hill, Vancouver Island  McGill, Wilson A., 387 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  McKay, G. A., 1694 Pendozi St., Kelowna  McKenzie, Mrs. John, Box 99, Calgary  McKenzie, Rt. Rev. Fr., 839 Sutherland Ave., Kelowna  * McLarty, Dr. H. R., Summerland  *McMahon, G. E., Enderby  McMaster, Mrs. G, 1761 Richter St., Kelowna  McMynn, J. D., 14 Murray Drive, Trail  McMurtry, Dr. T. G. S., 3009 Tronson Ave., Vernon  McWilliams, Mrs. T. F., 2072 Abbott St., Kelowna  Marriage, F. T., 424 Park Ave., Kelowna  Marshall, L. E., R.R. 1, Kelowna  Marshall, Arthur, Armstrong  161 Okanagan Historical Society  Marshall, Miss E., Ste. 116, Avalon Apts., Kelowna  Marjorie, Lady   Pentland,   2   Green  Lane,   West  Clandon,   near  Guildford, Sussex, England  Martin, S., R.R. 4, Vernon  Mason, Jack, 1926 West 18th Ave., Vancouver  Massy,  Geo. E., Canoe  'Meek, Monty, R.R. 1, Gibsons, B.C.  Meikle, Mrs. Agnes, 556 Leon Ave., Kelowna  Melville, J. K, 556 Burrard St., Vancouver  Melvin, Gm., 3400 21st Ave., Vernon  Middleton, Mrs. M. S., Jade Bay, Oyama  Midgley, T. N., The Bench, Penticton  Miles, F. A., Box 444, Vernon  |MI_Iar, A., Oliver  Mitchell, Miss J. B., 1489 St. Paul St., Kelowna  Mohr, Mrs. W., Vernon  Moll, Mrs. H. M., Box 356, Chapman Camp, B.C.  Morgan, Granville, Trout Creek  "Morley, H. B., Masonic Temple, Martin St., Penticton  Morrison, G. FM528 Kingsway, Winnipeg, Man.  Morrison,  J.  A.,   541  Sutherland Ave.,   Kelowna  Moss, Mrs. E. A., 790 Dehart Ave., Kelowna  ||l!§die, Col. W. H., Apt. 3, Belvedere Apts., St. Paul St., Kelowna  Moyer,  Dr. E. L., 3009 Tronson Ave., Vernon  Munn, H., Summerland  Munro, Finlay,  Penticton  Munro, K. K, 727 Elliott St., Kelowna  Murray, Miss P., Armstrong  Nelson, Miss E. P., Keremeos  Netherton, Dr. W. J., 757 Winnipeg St., Penticton  Newby, Dr. D. C, 375 Bernard Ave.,  Kelowna  Newton, L. V., Penticton  NicolMn, P. J., 2495 Abbott St., Kelowna  Norman, Jim, Princeton  Norman, E. A., Armstrong  Noyes;£Mrs. A. J., Naramata  Nuttall, Mrs. W. T., Naramata  O'Grady, Rev. Fr. Fergus, 443 Daly Ave., Ottawa, Ont.  Patten, Mrs. C. J., Armstrong  'Patterson, Mrs. A. L., Ste. 15, 1489 St. Paul St., Kelowna  Patterson, Miss L. M., 455 Harvey St., Kelowna  Peterman, Arthur N., Oliver  Pettman, H. A., Penticton  Phillips, W. H., 2602 24th St., Vernon  Phillpott, Gordon, 1307 St. Paul St., Kelowna  Pooley, Mrs. J. G, 1944 Abbott St., Kelowna  Pooley, Nigel, East Kelowna  Porter, George, East Kelowna  Powley, W. R., RR1, Kelowna  Quinn, Dr. F., 1975 McDougall St., Kelowna  Rankin, Percy, RR1, Kelowna  Reece, Mrs. T. B., Westbank  "Reed, H. S., 2401 25th Ave., Vernon  Reid, Miss E., 614 Martin St., Penticton  Reid, C. R., Okanagan Mission  'Reid, Mrs. Gladys, 1807 Marshall St., Kelowna  Reid, Miss E., Penticton  Reith, Miss W. H., Penticton  Reekie, Miss Jeanette, 429 Park Ave., Kelowna  Renwick, Miss R., 987 Glen Ave., Kelowna  Renwick, R. A., 708-1445 Marpole Ave., Vancouver  162 Okanagan Historical Society  Richards, Joe, 430 Patterson Ave., Kelowna  Riddell, W., Penticton  Ritchie, C. E., Oliver  Roadhouse, W. T. L., 504 Buckland Ave., Kelowna  Roberts, John, Penticton  Rorke,   H.   O.,   Penticton  Ross, Mrs. D. A., 2000 Schubert Ave., Vernon  Rottaker, Mrs. H., RR4, Vernon  Runnalls, D. D., Rev. F. E., 483 Steveston Highway, Steveston, B.C.  Ruth, Miss W. R.. Penticton  *Sage, Dr. W. N., U.B.C, Vancouver.  Scott, Reg., The Pharmacy, Hope, B.C.  Shannon, Mrs. R., Oliver  Sheppard, Ken, 2034 Pendozi St., Kelowna  Sidney,  Gordon,  RR2,  Armstrong  Sidney, George, Armstrong  Sigalet, W. A., 3007 32nd St., Vernon  Simpkins, G, 1876 Ethel St., Kelowna  Simms, J. G, 3302 26th St., Vernon  Simpson, D. C, 835 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  Simpson, N. V., Oliver  Simpson, Miss N. R., 440 Morning Canyon Rd., Corona, Del Mar,  California,   U.S.  'Simpson, Mr. and Mrs. S. M., 2120 Abbott St., Kelowna  Simpson, Col. D. C. Unwin, 834 Bernard Ave. ,Kelowna  Smith, G. Stace, Box 357, Creston  Smith, J. A., 246 Lawrence Ave., Kelowna  Smith, Harrison, 434 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  Smith, W. J., Armstrong  Solly, I. J., West Summerland  South, Mrs. G, Van Home St., Peipeton  Sovereign, Rt. Rev. A. H., 2501 23rd St., Vernon  Strang, Mrs. G. W., East Kelowna  Stuart, G. R., Fintry  Stubbs, R. A., 2802 24th St., Vernon  Stubbs, A. H., Okanagan Mission  Sunderland, Mrs. E. J., Rl|| Vernon  Sutherland, Mrs. D. W., 1489 St. Paul St., Kelowna  Swift, A. A., Penticton  Thorn, W. A., 1800 26th St., Vernon  "Thomas, E., Okanagan Falls  Thompson, Miss A. B., Box 44, Okanagan Mission  Thorneloe, Francis Jr., East Kelowna  Tilling,, Miss R., 369 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  "Torrent, Henry, RR2, Vernon  Tripp, Leighton E., 2905 26th St., Vernon  Turnbull,  Mrs.  G.  D., 300 Kootenay Ave.,  Trail  Turner, R. G, Box 1305, Rossland  Upton, Mrs. T. B., Box 10, Okanagan Mission  Walburn, H. G, Box 123, RR3,  Kelowna  "Walker, Mrs. W. D., Okanagan Mission  Walker, Mrs. D. M., Okanagan Mission  Wallace, Mrs. B., RR4, Kelowna  "Warner, Miss Alice I., 4201 Pleasant Valley Rd., Vernon  Warren, Mrs. Arthur M.,  854 Main St.,  Penticton  Waterman, Miss D., Osoyoos  Watt, G. M., Box 39, Okanagan Mission  -''Weatherill, H. O., 2000 37th Ave., Vernon  Weatherill, H. P., 2133 West 57th Ave., Vancouver  Weddell, A. D., 27 Lake Ave., Kelowna  Weddell, Mrs. R. N, Osoyoos  163 Okanagan Historical Society  "Weeks, Capt. J. B., 614 Martin St., Penticton  Weeks, E., Box 393 Kelowna  "Weeks, G. A., Box 637, Revelstoke  "Weeks, L. J., 341 Kitchener St., Vancouver  "Weeks, T. V., 235 16th Ave. N.W. Calgary, Alta.  Whillis, R'Äû 1749 Abbott St., Kelowna  Willits, Mrs. P. B., 1761 Pendozi St., Kelowna  Victoria Public Library, Victoria  White, G. M., Enderby  White, Ronald, 107 Battle St., Kamloops  White, Cull A., Quincy, Washington, U.S.A.  Whitaker, Mrs. H., Summerland  "Whitaker, Mrs. A. A., Penticton  Whitehead, W. J., 340 Harvey Ave., Kelowna  "Whitham, J. D., 1725 Pendozi St., Kelowna  Willis, Mrs. Mary, 3837 Cartier.St., Vancouver  Williams, Harry L., Quilchena  Wilson, Jack, Tappen  Winkler, W. H., Armstrong  Wood, H. S., 1953 Knox Crescent, Kelowna  Wood, E. O., 268 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  Woodhouse, A., 3105 32nd St., Vernon  Woodward, Mrs. Jesse, Grand Forks  Young, Mrs. P. L., 28125 Walnot, Hillsboro, Oregon, U.S.A.  Young, Arthur, Armstrong  Young, Mrs. B. F., Armstrong  Zoellner, Mrs. W. J., Box 55, Grand Forks  PRESS AND RADIO  "Philpott,  Elmore,  Vancouver Sun,  Vancouver  "McGregor, D. A., Vancouver Province, Vancouver  Armstrong Advertiser, Armstrong  Kelowna Courier, Kelowna  F. W. Faxon Co., Inc., Boston, Mass., U.S.A.  C.K.O.K., Penticton  C.K.O.V., Kelowna  Okanagan Broadcasters Ltd., Kelowna  Canadian Broadcasting Corp., Library, Ottawa, Ontario  C.J.I.B., Vernon  Daily Times, Victoria  Vernon Bookshop and Library, Vernon  UNIVERSITIES, LIBRARIES, SCHOOLS and MUSEUMS, ETC.  Duff Wilson, Provincial Museum, Victoria  Gonzaga University, Spokane, Washington, U.S.A.  Historical Society of Montana, Helena, Montana, U.S.A.  Vancouver City Museum, Vancouver  Seattle Public Library, Seattle, Wash., U.S.A.  Dept. of Public Archives, Ottawa, Ont.  Caldwell, Warren W., Dept. of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash., U.S.A.  Kamloops Museum Assn., Box 337, Kamloops  State of Wisconsin Historical Society, 816 State Street, Madison,  Wisconsin, U.S.A.  White, Mrs. H. E., R.R. Box 845, Penticton  Fraser Valley Regional Library, Abbotsford  Library of Canada, Ottawa, Ont.  McGill University, Montreal, P.Q.  Toronto Public Library, Toronto, Ont.  "City of Vancouver Archives, Vancouver  Provincial Archives, Victoria  Hargreaves Library, Eastern Washington Collegt of Education,  Cheney, Wash., U.S.A.  164 Okanagan Historical Society  City of Tacoma Public Library, Tacoma, Wash., U.S.A.  University of Washington, Seattle, Wash., U.S.A.  Extension Librarian, Public Library Commission, Victoria  Public Library Commission, Victoria  MacDonald Elementary School, West Summerland  Enderby School District No. 78, Enderby  Penticton School District, No. 15, Penticton  Vernon  Elementary  Schools,  Vernon  Armstrong-Spallumcheen School District,  No. 21,  Armstrong  Vernon Junior High  School, MacDonald  Park,  Vernon  Kelowna School District. No. 23, Kelowna  Leechman,  Dr. Douglas,  Director,  Western Canadiana,  Glenbow  Foundation, Calgary, Alberta  Keremeos School District, No. 16, Keremeos  OTHER  CORPORATE  BODIES  Armstrong City Council, Armstrong  Kelowna City Club, Kelowna  Spallumcheen Municipality, Armstrong  Vernon City Club, Vernon  Laurel Cooperative Union, Kelowna  Copper Mountain Miners' Union, Copper Mountain  FOOTNOTE: An asterisk in front of a subscriber's name indicates  subscription has been paid in advance, thus ensuring  prompt delivery of the Report when printed.  165 

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