Okanagan Historical Society Reports

The fourteenth report of the Okanagan Historical Society 1950 Okanagan Historical Society 1950

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 The Fourteenth Report  of the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  1950  *«r^*^  Founded September 4,1925  The Fourteenth Report  of the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  1950  Editor  DR.   MARGARET  A.   ORMSBY  Acting-Editor, 1950  MRS. R. L. CAWSTON  Founded September J/., 1925 THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  OFFICERS FOR 1950-51  Honorary Patron: His Honor, The Lieut.-Governor of British Columbia  Honorary President: Hon. Grote Stirling, P.C, Kelowna, B.C.  President: J. B. Knowles, Kelowna, B.C.  First Vice-President:  Dr. F. W. Andrew, Summerland.  B.C.  Second Vice-President: Mrs. R. B. White, Penticton,  B.C.  Treasurer: Major H. R. Denison, Vernon, B.C.  Auditor: A. E. Berry, Vernon, B.C.  Secretary: Rev. Dr. J. C. Goodfellow, Princeton, B.C.  Editor: Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby, Vancouver, B.C.  Acting-Editor,  1950:  Mrs. R. L. Cawston  Editorial Committee  Dr. M. A. Ormsby  (convener)  Mrs. R. B. White Mrs. R. L. Cawston  R.  J.  McDougall Mrs.  D.  Gellatly  F. M. Buckland Rev.  J.   C.  Goodfellow  Directors  Nine elected from North, Middle and South Okanagan—three each, for  three, two and one year respectively.  One Year Two Years Three Years  NORTH: G. C. Tassie J. G. Simms Burt R. Campbell  Vernon,  B.C. Vernon, B.C. Kamloops,   B.C.  MIDDLE: Mrs. D. Gellatly Jas.  Goldie F. M. Buckland  Westbank,   B.C. Ok.  Centre Kelowna, B.C.  SOUTH: G. J. Rowland H. D. Barnes Capt. J. B. Weeks  Penticton, B.C. Hedley,   B.C. Penticton, B.C.  Additional—Mrs. G. Maisonville, A. K. Loyd, Kelowna B.C.;  J. H. Wilson, Armstrong; F. L. Goodman, Osoyoos, B.C.  Branch Societies  PENTICTON  President: Mrs. R. B. White  Vice-President: Mrs. R. L. Cawston  Secretary: H. E. Cochrane Treasurer: Capt. J. B. Weeks  Directors: W. T. Leslie, R. G. Duncan, Mrs. H. H. Whitaker  KELOWNA  President: H. C. S. Collett  Vice-President: J. B. Knowles Secretary-Treasurer: L. L. Kerry  Directors: Mrs. D. Gellatly, W. R. Powley, E. M. Carruthers  VERNON  President: J. G. Simms  Secretary-Treasurer: H. R. Denison  Directors: G. E. McMahon, J. G. Heighway, B. R. Campbell  OLIVER-OSOYOOS  President: F. L. Goodman  Vice-President: Geo. J. Fraser Secretary-Treasurer: A. Kalten  Directors: N. V. Simpson, Dr. N. J. Ball, L. J. Ball,  Mr. and Mrs. Albert Millar  ARMSTRONG  President: J. H. Wilson  Vice-President: A. E. Sage Secretary-Treasurer: Arthur Marshall  Directors:  J. E. Jamieson, Mrs. Myles MacDonald,  Charles LeDuc,  Arthur Young, H. Fraser  2 Contents  Page  Our First Report and Aim of Society 4  Editor's   Foreword       5  First   Presidential   Address      7  Gleaner's After Time 8  Father  Pat, by  George  J.  Fraser         9  Interior Provincial Exhibition, by Mat Hassen and J. E.  Jamieson    17  A Trailsman  of the  Similkameen,  by J.  C.  Goodfellow 21  Kamloops,  Gateway to  Okanagan,  by  B.  R.  Campbell 23  Peon,  by  F. M.  Buckland 35  Dr. R. B. White, An Appreciation, by F. W. Andrew 45  Grande Prairie,  by  E.   E.  Hewer 49  The Story of the Three Watson Brothers, by Edith Raymer    ...    57  Salmon  Arm, by  Ernest Doe 64  An Early Settler Takes Up Land, by the late T. H.  Butters    ...    77  Romance of a Road, by Verna B. Cawston 88  Development of South-East Kelowna, by H. C. S. Collett 94  Tom and Mina Ellis, by Kathleen W. Ellis     98  The Nez Perce Indians, by E. V. de Lautour 110  Nez Perce Indians Hop Picking, by Patrick Bennett   ....... 119  Mrs. John Fall Allison, by Alice Allison Wright 123  Reminiscences of the Old Days, by Mrs. H. A. Fraser  129  The Peach Orchard, by Georgina Maisonville 135  Karl   (Charles) - Richter 140  So   Long.   Buckshot,   by   Katie   Lacey 141  The Soft Fruit Industry, by F. W. Andrew 143  Gillard   Wedding 151  Dominick, by E. V. de Lautour 153  Okanagan Cattleman's Parting Salutation 155  Recent Books, Mentioning the Okanagan 156  List  of Members  159  For List of Illustrations, see page  171 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  Our First Report  The First Report of the Okanagan Historical Society, issued  in September, 1926, was soon sold out. So many requests have  been received for this and other early reports, and there are  now so few copies available, that it is planned to reprint early  articles in future reports.  Mr. L. Norris was responsible for publication of the first ten  reports. The Eleventh was already completed and on the press,  when Mr. Norris died on April 18, 1945. Following his death,  the Eleventh Report was issued by the Society. It contained a  portrait of Mr. Norris, with the legend, "He loved this Okanagan Valley, and was its fond Historian," and was prefaced  by a fine 'Appreciation" by Dr. M. A. Ormsby.  Thereafter, some reorganization of the Society was necessary. No one person seemed to be able to carry the burden  which Mr. Norris had shouldered so long. Early reports had  appeared periodically, the first ten being issued at intervals over  a period of twenty years.  Since 1946 reports have been issued annually. These have  found much acceptance, and it is the desire of the Society to  give its members a report each year. The Fourteenth Report  marks the 25th anniversary of the founding of the Society.  —T.C.G.  Aim of Society  The aim of the Society is to create and foster interest in  local history and subjects of scientific interest; to locate and  mark historic sites and other objects or points of interest; to  obtain and preserve the early history of the Okanagan and  contiguous districts, also historical documents, photographs  and life sketches of pioneers; and to give these matters such  publicity as may be possible through the local press and Society  publications. Foreword  The Fourteenth Report of the Okanagan Historical Society  is an anniversary number which marks twenty-five years' activity in preserving material related to the historical development of the Valley. It includes articles dealing with the life  and work of pioneer settlers, and particularly of those persons  who helped to found the Society and who worked for its success during its early years.  The memory of these men and women was further honoured at the anniversary dinner which was held at Vernon on  September 8. The dinner also offered an opportunity to review  the steady progress the Society has made in the first quarter-  century of its existence.  The most encouraging sign of vitality during the year was  the formation at Armstrong of the fifth local branch.  Much of the work on this year's annual Report was done  by the Editorial Committee under the leadership of Mrs. R. L.  Cawston. Mrs. Cawston assumed the responsibility of acting  as Editor while the Editor was in Europe. She performed all  those duties which are normally carried out by an editor,  selecting material, checking and revising it, and preparing it  for the printer. The Editor's work for this Report has been  confined to reading proofs and making a few suggestions.  As the Society enters its twenty-sixth year, it is the hope  of all members that the interest in preserving knowledge of  our early beginnings and of our progress which has been manifested in the past, will still continue.  THE EDITOR. THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY- 1950  THE LATE LEONARD NORRIS THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  First Presidential Address  On page four of the First Report is the first presidential  report presented by Mr. Leonard Norris:  Gentlemen—We have good reason for being satisfied with the progress we have made during the past twelve months.  Our investigations are now well under way, and we have already  succeeded in saving from probable loss or destruction a vast amount of  data relating to the history of the Okanagan Valley and its development  since the arrival of the first white settlers; and this, as you are aware,  was one of the principal objects we had in view when the Society was  formed.  In dealing with the history of the Okanagan Valley, all history relating to British Columbia comes within our purview and is open to us  for investigation. We are, however, more particularly interested in the  history of this portion of the Province; and in the penetration of the  interior of British Columbia from the Columbia River north, by the  fur traders and missionaries, during the first half of the last century, and  in such evidence as we have of the presence here of white invaders  irom the south, prior to that period.  The field here for observation in the study of Natural History is  wide. The intrusion of the North Sonoran Zone where it crosses the  international boundary line at Osoyoos, introduces into the southern  interior of this Province certain plants, animals, birds and reptiles found  nowhere else in the Dominion.  Some subjects have been introduced in the Report which have not  been very fully dealt with. We hope to be able to deal with them more exhaustively in future reports. For this reason our members are earnestly  requested to send in with as little delay as possible, any facts or data  they may be in possession of to the Secretary. It is only by securing  information from all possible sources, and then by comparison and deduction, that it is possible to reach that degree of accuracy which is so  desirable in dealing with matters of local history.  If, in pursuing our investigations, we succeed in making the Okanagan Valley—with its past romantic history, its peculiar flora and fauna and  its many natural attractions—better known to our own people, the people  of Victoria, Vancouver and elsewhere in the Province, one of the chief  ends of the Society will be attained. THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  Gleaners After Time  The Okanagan Historical Society was founded by the late  Mr. Leonard Norris at Vernon, B.C., on September 4, 1925.  At the time of his death on April 18, 1945, the Eleventh Report  was in the printer's hands. Captain J. B. Weeks of Penticton  was president of the Society, and he called a special meeting of  directors to consider publication of the Report, and the future  of the Society. At this meeting in the Royal Anne Hotel, Kelowna, on May 2, 1946, directors were elected to represent the  various sections of the Okanagan Valley.  At a special meeting in Kelowna on July 26, 1946, with  Captain Weeks in the chair, an Editorial Committee was appointed: Dr. M. A. Ormsby (convener), G. C. Tassie, S. Fleming, (Vernon) ; Mrs. D. Gellatly, Westbank; Mrs. R. B. White,  Penticton; Dr. F. W. Andrew, Summerland; and Burt R.  Campbell, Kamloops. The Twelfth Report appeared in 1948,  and the Thirteenth in  1949.  The Penticton branch was formed at a meeting held in  the home of Captain Weeks on February 19, 1948. Mrs. R. B.  White was elected president, R. J. McDougall secretary, with  W. T. Leslie, Reg. Duncan and H. E. Cochrane directors.  The Kelowna branch was organized on February 26th,  1948, with F. M. Buckland and J. B. Knowles president and  vice-president, and L. L. Kerry, secretary.  A corresponding branch was formed at Vernon with J. G.  Simms and G. C. Tassie president and vice-president, and H. R.  Denison secretary.  The next branch to be formed was Oliver-Osoyoos, organized at Osoyoos on June 22, 1949, with F. L. Goodman president. George Fraser vice-president, and A. Kalten secretary-  treasurer. The youngest branch, Armstrong, was organized  March 23, 1950. J. H. Wilson was chosen president with A. E.  Sage vice president, Arthur Marshall secretary, Directors J. E.  Jamieson, Mrs. M. MacDonald, Charles LeDuc, Arthur Young  and H. A. Fraser. Father Pat  GEORGE J. FRASER  So much has been told and written of the achievements of  Father Pat and of the success and popularity of his unorthodox methods that it seems surprising that the great story of  his life and work has not been recorded by some admiring  parishioner, who had been intimately associated with him during the years of his ministry.  Here we shall endeavor briefly to paint a picture, typical of the man, together with the tragic story of his passing and  to quote a few of the glowing tributes paid to his memory by  a host of friends. The material has been gleaned from newspaper articles and clippings on file in the Provincial Archives  at Victoria.  Following the visits of Bishop Sillitoe, of New Westminster, to the valley in 1880 and 1882, Father Pat was the next  missionary (of which the writer has found record) to cover  this territory. It can surely well be said of him—as has been  said—that he was one of the most striking and romantic figures  of his time. Mrs. R. B. White in one of her historical articles  refers to him as, "'the famous Father Pat." Without question  he was a most remarkable man, first, because of a life enshrined with noble needs and, secondly, because of his most  unorthodox missionary methods. He was frequently reprimanded by his Bishop, who deplored his lack of church dignity and convention, but Father Pat could not be influenced to  change his ways.  His real name was Henry Irwin but somehow in the early  days of his ministry he wras dubbed Father Pat and the sobriquet remained with him through life. It has been said that it  was so commonplace for him to be addressed as "Father Pat" THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  that comparatively few people ever heard his real name.  He was born of Irish parentage in Wicklow, Ireland in  1859 and thus he was Irish by both blood and birth and, reputedly, he was endowed with a generous share of the wit  characteristic of his race. He chose the ministry for his life's  work and following graduation at Oxford he accepted appointment as curate in an Anglican parish in England.  The English parish apparently did not provide sufficient  scope for a man of Irwin's activity and spirit. He longed for  more of the outdoor life than was possible within the confines  of his parish and, visualizing the possibilities of mission work  in the great open spaces of the Canadian West, he sought an  appointment in British Columbia. In this he was successful,  being sent out to serve under Bishop Sillitoe, whose diocese  of New Westminster included all of the southern part of the  mainland of British Columbia.  Father Pat was first stationed at Donald where a big construction camp in the building of the C.P.R. main line was  located. Here he found just such a job as he longed for. a job  among working men on the outposts of civilization. He was  soon popular with the men of the camp as he mingled with  them as one of themselves and with that close association he  was given opportunity of influencing them toward the better  things of life.  In 1890 he married Francis Stuart Innes, daughter of J. H.  Innes, Superintendent of Esquimalt Naval Yard. Their married  life was a most happy one but unfortunately a very brief one.  Within a year Father Pat suffered the terrible blow of a double  bereavement as his beloved wife and a new-born babe passed  away. The tragic event caused deep gloom over the whole  territory where the young people were known and greatly  esteemed, and Father Pat in an effort, in some measure, to forget his sorrow took up his great humanitarian work with  renewed vigor.  Where there was need Father Pat was there if humanly  10 Father Pat  possible. It is told of him that on one occasion, when he was in  Revelstoke, a railway employee there lost his life when caught  by a snowslide, so Father Pat secured a sled and shovel and  went out to the scene of the tragedy. He dug the body out of  its snow tomb, tied it on the sled and returned with it to Revelstoke. The trip had taken over two days.  How the heart of that widow must have welled with gratitude as she saw the body of her late husband get a Christian  burial rather than to have it left on the mountain side, subject  to the ravages of the forests' wild life as the snow disappeared in the spring. With Father Pat it was simply the fulfilment  of a call to duty.  At a miner's cabin on the Fraser, Father Pat called one  day when making a round of visits. He found the miner alone,  sick and without food. After making the man as comfortable  as possible under the circumstances, Father Pat hastened to  Lytton, some miles distant but the nearest point where supplies were available. Reaching the town he walked into a hotel  bar-room where a group of men were seated round a table playing poker. He told them of the sick miner and asked them if  they would help. They opened the jack-pot and gave him the  stake of about twenty dollars. With that money Father Pat  bought the needed supplies and, with the pack on his back,  tramped back to the miner's cabin.  For many years Father Pat was stationed at Rossland,  from which point he made periodic visits to the Kettle River,  Boundary districts and, occasionally, getting as far as the Okanagan. When in Greenwood on one such visit, news came that  Theodore Kruger, well-known old-timer of Osoyoos, was sick.  That was enough. Father Pat saddled his horse and was off on  that arduous trip of over fifty miles of mountain trails. He arrived in time to administer the last rites of the church and to  give consolation to the dying man.  At Rossland, his congregation provided him with comfortable living-quarters in the basement of the church. Finding a  11 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  family in much need of a home he prevailed on them to move  in to his pleasant domicile while he moved out to a small lumber shack which, he maintained, was all that he needed.  Much to the disappointment of his friends Father Pat had  little regard for dress and would quite unconcernedly wear  clothes that were distinctly shabby. Friends in the old country  frequently sent him clothing, but he would give away any  surplus over actual need. On one occasion some of his Rossland friends bought him a coat, as the one he was wearing was  getting greenish with age and a bit frayed in places. For a time  he wore the new coat, but eventually returned to wearing the  old one. Answering a query about it, he said he had given the  new coat to a man who had none, adding that he could not have  given him the old one.  One of Father Pat's major difficulties in his mission fields  was to find suitable places in which to hold worship and it was  not unusual for him, under the circumstances, to hold service  in a hotel bar-room. Ordinarily he found the hotel proprietors  ready to close business to make way for him. On one such occasion, service was being held in the bar-room of one, Gorman  West, on the Kettle River. After an opening prayer, Father Pat  announced a hymn and, on a portable organ that he carried  with him, he played the tune without a voice responding. Addressing Gorman West, Father Pat said, "Gorman, you beggar,  you will have to start this hymn. "Father Pat," said Gorman,  "if I start it every man here will walk out on you." "Then for  Heaven's sake don't do it," said Father Pat, as he proceeded  with the service without the hymn.  In his college days Father Pat had been an adept boxer and  oddly enough it served him well on the mission field at times.  In a saloon at Fairview, a rough character was blaspheming  God and Father Pat. Father Pat went up to him and told him  that he could blaspheme him if he wanted to, but that he must  quit blaspheming God. A fistic battle ensued, during which the  ruffian was knocked unconscious.  Kneeling by the prostrate  12 Father Pat  body Father Pat asked God's forgiveness that he had not first  warned the man that he was an adept boxer.  On another occasion, when on his way to visit a sick man,  he was accosted by three toughs who told him that it was a  doctor, not a parson, the man needed, and with their horses they  endeavored to block his way. He quickly knocked two of them  from their mounts and proceeded on his way. The villains waylaid him when returning from his visit, presumably with the  idea of beating him up. Father Pat asked for fair play saying  that he would take them one at a time. The men agreed, doubtless anticipating that the preacher would be an easy mark.  Father Pat quickly despatched two of them. The third man  chose not to wait for his opportunity.  The  popularity  of  Father   Pat   was    well    demonstrated  at Greenwood when, one Saturday nig-ht, he was guest of honor  at a smoker, where a host of his friends gathered. An admirer  of a poetical turn of mind proposed the following toast.  "Here's a health to you dear Father Pat,  You're a Priest and a man and a' that,  You share in our sorrows and shoulder our cares,  But no troubles you borrow, no cassock you wear,  You partake of our joys, here's health and good cheer,  Sure,  you're   one   of   the   boys,   may   you   never   lack  'backy or beer!"  The following morning there was a record attendance at  the church service and a bumper collection was received.  For a considerable number of years Father Pat had served  his church at Rossland. Pie had seen the place .grow from a  bbom-day gold-mining-camp to a well-developed city but, notwithstanding that he was greatly esteemed by his congregation  and by all classes of citizens, the day came when he asked for  a change. He felt an urge to get back to a frontier life and his  Bishop responded by sending him to Fairview in the Okanagan where a gold mining-boom was fast developing. Great  mixer that he was, he soon became a familiar and popular figure  13 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  in the new camp. From a story told by the late R. H. Parkinson, well-known pioneer land-surveyor, of the southern Okanagan. the popularity of Father Pat with the common man is  easily understood. The boys had turned out in force to the Sunday morning service and Father Pat had responded by playing  football with them in the afternoon. It was a hot day and when  the game was over, the boys made their way to the hotel, anticipating quenching their thirst with a glass of beer. The hotel-  keeper had gone for a drive, but he had left the key of the bar  with Father Pat, who cheerfully opened up while the boys  slaked their thirst.  In common with gold mining-camps in the Okanagan, the  Fairview camp proved a disappointment. Immense bodies of ore  were uncovered, but of a grade that could not profitably be  mined with such methods of treatment as were in use at that  time. So, one after another of the claims, on which high hopes  of wealth had been founded, were abandoned until the last of  the miners of the erstwhile rip-roarin' camp had rolled his  blankets and departed.  The strenuous life Father Pat had led in serving his far-  flung mission fields was now taking toll of his strength and, as  the Fairview Mission was to be discontinued, his Bishop prevailed on him to plan a visit to his old home and to take a  complete rest. As soon as necessary arrangements could be  made. Father Pat was on his way. Near Montreal he got off the  train, presumably for a bracing breath of fresh air. For some  reason, never explained, he missed getting on again. The next  morning a farmer driving into town noticed a man shuffling  along by the roadside, seemingly in trouble and he stopped to  offer assistance.  It was Father Pat, who said that his legs were numb and  that he would like to be taken to a doctor, which the farmer  kindly did. The doctor quickly saw that it was a case for a  hospital and, at Father Pat's wish, he was taken to Notre Dame  Hospital, Montreal. At the hospital he gave his name as John  14 Father Pat  Henry, no fixed address, and nothing more could the nurses  get from him. Examination disclosed that his legs and feet  were badly frozen. His shoes had to be cut from his feet. It is  believed that he had walked until exhausted and then sitting  down to rest had fallen asleep, all unconscious of the danger  lurking in the biting air. There was nothing that could be done  to save his life.  It was just a matter of doing all possible to alleviate pain  while waiting for the final call.  The sisters soon realized that the new patient was no ordinary individual, but an intellectual of brilliant mind and most  heroic in his terrible suffering. Tears would gather in the sisters' eyes as they realized the agony he was enduring without  complaint. Those tears were believed to have caused the sick  man more concern than did his pain.  Knowing that the end was near, the sisters pleaded with  him to reveal his identity, but they pleaded in vain. Finally, his  medical attendant, Dr. Kingston, persuaded him of the need  of his identity being made known, but it was only given after  the doctor solemnly promised it would not be revealed till  after the end had come.  It is believed that Father Pat's reason for withholding his  identity was so that his church and friends would not be worrying over him.  As soon as his death was published, there was an immediate call from New Westminster for the body to be shipped  there, which was done, and the final resting-place of the famous  missionary is in the Sapperton cemetery beside the graves of  his wife and child. The date of his death was January 13, 1902.  Tributes to his memory were legion and came from friends  in every walk of life. None was more eloquent than that received from the sisters of Notre Dame, who had become fondly  attached to him during the few days they ministered to him,  weeping as they admired the heroic spirit with which he endured his suffering and his cheerful resignation to the  cruel  15 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  fate that had overtaken him.  From the late R. E. Gosnell of Victoria, B.C., who had lived  in the Boundary country during the mining-boom days and,  as a parishioner, had intimately known Father Pat and his  work came the following tribute :  "In religion, as far as human sympathies are concerned,  he was neither Jew nor Gentile, Arian nor Athanasian, Catholic nor Protestant, High Church nor Low Church. Saint nor  Sinner. Not speaking in the academic sense, he possessed all  the humanities. Hungry and he fed them, sick and he visited  them, homeless and he sheltered them, distressed and he comforted them, dying, he was at their bedside praying for them.  His supplications were in the spirit that all understood and to  which all divinities bended an ear. Such was Father Pat as a  Christian missionary."  An Anonymous Tribute  Stirring the pages of forgotten years,  Brings back a cherished name, once blown about  These western hills. The keen, old eyes of men.  Gray pioneers, grew softer at the  sound  And lips made mute by years of loneliness,  Present with  pride,  the  deeds  of  Father  Pat.  They knew him.  A  monument  erected  to  his  memory  at  Rossland,   B.C.,  bears the following inscription :  IN MEMORIAM  He who would write an epitaph for thee  And do it well, must first begin to be.  Such as thou wert. For none can truly  Know thy worth, thy life,  But he who liveth so.  One of the finest tributes made to the memory of Father  Pat was the erection of a memorial church by his old congregation in Rossland, years after he had left there. It was consecrated October 10, 1910.  16 The Interior Provincial  Exhibition  MAT. HASSEN and JAS. E. JAMIESON  Agriculture with all its divergent phases is the main economy of our great Okanagan Valley; its products far-famed  throughout the world. This fertile interior valley of British  Columbia stretches from the main line, of the Canadian Pacific  Railway at Sicamous to the International Boundary at Osoyoos.  Its variety of productiveness ranges from intensified fruitgrowing in the south, and extending northward to farming of  mixed variety in Vernon districts and the "dairy bowl" centering- around Armstrong, which completes the agricultural cycle.  From earliest pioneer days the destiny of the Okanagan  Valley has been linked with agriculture, and the hardy settlers  in North Okanagan, at the turn of the century, envisioned the  need of an annual fair where products could be exhibited and  competitive merits compared, with a view to increased production and excellence.  To the old timers we owe a debt of gratitude for their foresight—the little Fall Fair instituted in 1900 at Armstrong has  developed through the years into one of Canada's finest agricultural shows. Its progress and expansion over the past half-  century are indicative of the Valley's stupendous growth, and.  as such, the Interior Provincial Exhibition has played a noteworthy part in the development from a settlers' wilderness into  what has been aptly termed, "The Garden of Eden of British  Columbia".  This year, 1950, the Interior Provincial Exhibition is cele-  17 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  brating its Jubilee Anniversary—fifty years of continual showing, growth and expansion. It will go down in history as an outstanding milestone in the agricultural annals of the Okanagan  Valley. Extensive preparations have been geared to making it  the pinnacle of any preceding exhibition. And in doing so the  memory of the hardy pioneers still lingers in the minds of  many, for had it not been for them the permanent roots so  firmly planted would have wilted and faded as countless other  similar enterprises have passed from the scene.  These old timers played an outstanding part in the agricultural development of the Okanagan, but, perhaps, those living  in the northern part of the Valley contributed something that  has been of untold benefit to the whole Interior of the province  when they started the small Fall Fair in 1900. The late Donald  Matheson, president for fourteen years and L.W. Patten, secretary, together with a handful of other interested men, exhibited  products, grown around Armstrong, in a small hall in the back  of a store on Main Street. This initial effort kept growing till  they secured some grounds and added live stock to their show  which was then known as the Armstrong and Spallumcheen  Agricultural Society. For some time the stock was tied to a rail  and the produce shown in a hall that was built on the grounds.  As time went on barns were built to accommodate the exhibits  which in those days were largely heavy horses for which the  district was famous. Later, as cattle became numerous, other  buildings were erected, and eventually the show branched out  with sheep, hogs and poultry—important divisions of the Fair.  Today, while the Exhibition is still predominantly agricultural, with products of field and orchard taking an important  place, large sections are devoted to household arts and women's  fancy work and fine arts, plus particular emphasis on the encouragement of Junior Farmers where hundreds of "future  farmers" compete in specially selected classes and events.  This list of presidents is an interesting chronology of men  who played and are playing highly important roles in the agri-  18 The Interior Provincial Exhibition  cultural life of the Okanagan Valley. They follow (those marked * deceased):  ♦Donald Matheson  ,  1900-1914  *Henry   Hawkins     1915-1919  ♦James  McCallan   1920-1922  ♦John Cross   1923  ♦Charles Hardy   1924-1926  William Hornby   1927-1928  ♦Percy French   1929-1930  R.  M.  Ecclestone  .'. 1931-1932  *F. B. Cossitt  .._  1933-1938  . *T.  Wadsworth   1939-1940  B. A. Thornton  1941-1943  Frank Choveaux   1944-1946  Fred  Murray  1947-1948  *E. A. Rendell   1949-to June  H. D. McCallan ....  1950-from June  It is interesting to note that the present president is the  son of the third president, the late James McCallan, noteworthy  in the fact that generation upon generation is following in the  footsteps of the early pioneers.  During Mr. Matheson's presidency Mat. Hassen (who succeeded Frank Wolfenden), was appointed secretary of the So-  cietv and he has served in that capacity and as secretary-  manager since then. The Fair has literally grown up with Mr.  Hassen as its central cog and its present high level is due to  his organizational genius, evident throughout his thirty-five  years of office.  Along about 1920 the organization had grown to such an  extent that more buildings were erected and the name changed  to "North Okanagan Fall Fair." In 1930 the buildings were  taken down, more land was acquired and new modern buildings were erected. The name was changed to "Interior Provin-  19 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  cial  Exhibition  Association",  which  this  year  is  celebrating  the Golden Jubilee of its inception.  Along with Mr. Matheson there was a loyal band of pioneers who helped build and maintain the show. Amongst those  early settlers might be mentioned B. F. Young, C. Crozier, R.  Wood, H. East, Geo. Heggie, M. MacDonald, W. P. Horsley,  H. A. Fraser, Geo. Murray, J. B. Bird, Donald Graham, H.  Hawkins, E. Chambers, Alex. Reid, A. W. Hunter, W. Pringle,  J. Pringle, A. McQuarrie, F. Poole, J. Cass, F. Winters, J.  Thompson, A. Schubert, G. Lynn, D. Martin, H. Logan, S. McCallum, J. C. Hopkins, W. T. Hayhurst, C. W. Burton, F. Hassard, B. A. Thornton, D. Child and many other later arrivals.  They have been towers of strength in bringing the show to its  widely recognized high standard of perfection and usefulness.  On the Remains of an Old Dugout Canoe  Found at Skaha Lake, 1910  What hands had fashioned you  In a day long past,  And gave you shape and beauty  To be a thing of life  Upon the dimpled sea,  And drove you with quick strokes  Along its liquid way?  You  might  have  been  The ark of Pharoah's daughter  So old you look with ages' slow decay.  Why did your masters forsake the water?  Did Cortez' horses lead them then astray?  Or a forefather of the Ogopogo  Cause you to lie forsaken in the bay?  —A. S. HATFIELD, Penticton, B.C.  20 A Trailsman of The  Similkameen  Willard Albert Davis  JOHN C. GOODFELLOW  "Call me Podunk," he said. I did not address him as  "Mister Davis" again. That was in 1927, and from then till his  death in 1943 our acquaintance ripened into friendship. He  crossed the Great Divide on August 30, 1943. He had been in  failing health for some time, but preferred the rugged life of  the hills to hospital comforts, and only when he felt that the  end could not be long delayed did he consent to accept the care  and comfort of a modern hospital.  Evert in old age his frame suggested the rugged strength of  younger days and his twinkling eyes, rosy cheeks and white  beard told of a patriach who feared God, and nothing else. He  was known to all in Similkameen as. "Podunk". His name was a  household word and already his memory has become a legend  in these parts.  In 1926 he gained wide fame when he found Nurse War-  burton who had been lost in the Hope hills for six weeks. For  his persistence in search, after others had given up, he was  presented with a medal by Premier John Oliver.  Willard Albert Davis was born in Louisville, Kentucky,  November 21, 1859, the third of four children born to Oliver  Perry Davis and his wife Susan Evelyn Chase. The father, who  21 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY--1950  WILLARD ALBERT  DAVIS  22 A Trailsman of the Similkameen  was of Welsh origin, was born at Mormon, Illinois. As a young  man he became a locomotive engineer, and later owned flour  mills and a sawmill. During the Cariboo gold rush, the father  spent seventeen months of the early sixties in British Columbia. A daughter, Letitia, died before Willard was born and a  brother, John Thomas, was killed when only fifteen years old.  A younger brother, named for his father, is the only surviving  member of the family.  As a boy, Willard went to school in Civil Bend, Union  County, South Dakota, about seven miles from Elk Point. With  the family, he left here in April, 1875 and went to Minnehaha  County, where his father had two flour mills and a sawmill.  The flour mill had been built in 1872. Podunk's early occupations included farming, barbering, blacksmithing and cow-  punching. His father used to laugh at him when he didn't like  barbering because it was too dirty, and then he became a  blacksmith, which trade he followed periodically for the rest  of his life.  In 1879 he crossed the plains to Cheyenne, Wyoming, driving cattle from Oregon to the plains and travelling by the  South Pass, or Old California Trail. The journey was made  memorable by a skirmish with Indians who had stolen some  horses.  That same year, 1887, Mr. Davis came to British Columbia  and settled first at Yale. For a time he cobbled shoes, then he  worked on the section gang. Later, he ran the Canyon Plouse  Hotel, which was afterwards run by Mrs. Reevesbec.  Podunk's first trip to the Tulameen Valley was in 1887,  arriving at Boulder Creek at the west end of Otter Lake on  October 19. His father had an interest in the Siwash Creek property and put in the first stamp mill. That same year Podunk  made his first trip across the Hope-Princeton Trail, arriving at  Hope on November 11. Thereafter, he belonged to Similkameen. He played many parts in its history and exploration, road  23 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY'-1950  building, mining and prospecting, blacksmithing and ranching.  It was my privilege to make two notable journeys with  this intrepid explorer. In each case we were bent on re-discovering the old Hudson's Bay Trail. The first section of the trail  we explored in 1937 led up and over Jackson Mountain, and on  in the direction of Lodestone Mountain. Mr. Davis was then  in his 78th year, but his chief concern was that I might break  an ankle and he would have to pack me out. We had some  difficulty in crossing the Tulameen beyond Otter Flat on which  the village of Tulameen is situated, but once on the other side  we picked our way along the tree-covered flat that lies between  the base of the mountain and the south bank of the river. It  was in the fall of the year. Cottonwood trees with their yellow  leaves presented a fine contrast with the evergreen firs and  spruce and pine.  Before long we turned south towards the mountain, which  looked formidable enough. Climbing was hard, for as yet we  were on no trail, and there were numerous windfalls. We had  our first rest about an hour before noon. Through the tree tops  we could see Otter Lake to our left; and the valley below—  yellow, green and gold, threaded by a ribbon of blue—with  mountains rising on the far side presented tree-lined ridges  against a blue sky. The morning mists had passed away and  the day promised to be comfortably warm.  Soon after our first rest we came upon the old trail at a  point where it switch-backed. Podunk had no doubt we were on  the original trail. I asked just how he knew. Presently we came  to a stump from which a piece of wood projected, forming a  triangle with the trail. Here was the answer to my question. It  was a little scheme that the Brigade men had to keep the horses  from rubbing their packs against the tree. This section of the  trail soon petered out, and we did not hit it again till we reached the 4,535-foot summit.  After another rest, we went down the south side of the  24 A Trailsman of the Similkameen  mountain in the direction of Lodestone and came to Cedar  Creek, which we followed to our starting point. We had .located  such sections of the trail as may still be seen, and noted the  general direction it took from Jackson summit west.  Our. second journey in search of the trail was more eventful, and more strenuous. This was in June, 1938. We passed  the night at Blakeburn and got an early start. On the trail to  Lodestone the silence was broken by a passing aeroplane. We  reached the summit, 6,600 feet, before noon and were able to  look down on Jackson Mountain to the north, where the Brigade Trail zig-zagged down to Otter Flat.  Lodestone Lake is a beautiful sheet of water surrounded by  fir and spruce. Beyond the lake is a fine picture of snow-  covered peaks. The ground was boggy with melting snow. We  rested at the Brigade Camp. Nearby meadows provided splendid feed for horses. Our trail lay through swampy ground and  soon we were in thick brush and deep snow. For a time there  was no sign of any trail, but at length we picked it up and followed over plateau pastures, with gem-like lakes. The trail was  hard to follow, leading through melting snows and over deep  snow patches. Late that evening we passed twin lakes, and  saw the trail leading almost to the distant height of land,  where was another lake surrounded by marshy ground. Here  was clear evidence of the former "road." One could easily picture the Brigade going up the long approach to the summit.  Then followed a fairly flat stretch and we came to the edge  of a deep valley, at the bottom of which Podunk pointed out  Bobby Stevenson's so-called Lost Mine. We camped at Placer  Creek, beside the relics of labour lost. We had been able to  follow the trail so far, but heavy haze and clouds of smoke  darkened the way we hoped to follow next day.  It was a most exhausting day. During the forenoon we  had only one glimpse of the old trail. Fire had been over the  country, and for the most part we were climbing over wind-  25 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  falls and dead trees. Wre looked in vain for blazes. We rested  on a slope which dipped sharply to the Tulameen, running  north and south. WTe could see where Podunk Creek joined the  river. To the right of this point is a sandy, triangular patch  rising from the bank. There is a draw behind this, with trees  at the upper end, where the Brigade Trail ran. This is the  Guards. Formerly there were three cabins here, but now not  even the foundations can be seen. We struggled over windfalls  till we came to the Guards. Ploughing through willow brush  we came to the crossing, but the river here was impassable.  Mosquitoes and thick underbrush conspired against us. Some  distance above Podunk Creek we crossed the Tulameen. The  water was cold and swift, and came over our knees. Fortunately  there was a dead tree across the creek and we crossed without  mishap. Round a hill, then we came to grassy plains, which my  guide called the Guards Meadows. We were glad to rest, and  found shelter from the noon day sun under a clump of spruce  trees.  The afternoon was spent in climbing a steep mountain  side, and sliding along wherever we could find a foothold.  Rests became longer and more frequent, till we camped for the  night. It was the night of the longest day in the year. To the  south and west were billowing clouds of smoke, and next morning the wind blew in our direction. We hoped for the best.  Before noon we had climbed to the 6,000-foot level, and  were in deep snow, where there was no chance of locating any  trails. We spotted one big grizzly, which came quite close to  us; and saw "red snow"—a long streak a yard wide and a quarter mile long. It was soon evident that we would not be able  to go through the forest fire raging to the west. There was no  alternative but to strike north in the direction of the Bedded  Range, with its splendid peaks, and make for home by Tulameen.  From his long and intimate knowledge of the country, Mr.  26 A Trailsman of the Similkameen  Davis was able to supplement the details we had seen, so that  the trail could be reconstructed on the map. It appears on the  provincial Department of Lands map, 4Q, issued in March,  1939.  *    *    *  Just as on these mountain trails, Podunk looked forward  to his final journey without fear. Before he died he said, "I've  had a good time. Life owes me nothing." Princeton paused to  pay a fitting tribute to the memory of a brave soul, a man who  had pioneered many trails and who sat on his horse like a king.  Mrs. Price Ellison, pioneer of the North Okanagan, celebrated her 93rd birthday at her Vernon home on August 28.  She was one of the first white women to make a home in the  district, coming 66 years ago. Her husband, the late Price Ellison, one time Minister of Agriculture in the Provincial Government owned much of the land now comprising the city of  Vernon. A story of his life appeared in the 12th Report.  The Penticton Herald, of September 14, 1950, carried a  story retelling some early clay experiences in that community of  Jack Ayres. A man of 78, Mr. Ayres came to Penticton 53  years ago and thus has witnessed the great development in the  southern part of the Okanagan. He remarked in his interview  that the time was when he could walk down the street and call  everyone he met by a first name. Now he can go about town  for nearly a whole day meeting very few persons he knows.  Mr. Avers came to Canada in his twenties. For some time he  was employed by Tom Ellis, the early day "cattle king" of the  south. One of his liveliest recollections is that of the arrival  of the first automobile in Penticton. That was only about  forty years ago.  27 Kamloops - - Gateway To  The Okanagan  BURT R. CAMPBELL  Looking back over the years one is struck by the close  connections which have existed between Kamloops and the  Okanagan. These date back to the days of the Hudson's Bay  Company Caledonian Brigade, 1821-1847, and beyond, now fittingly commemorated by the cairn unveiled at Westbank. August 24, 1949.  Kamloops during the days of the Brigade Trail was important not only as the wintering quarters of the horses but as  a distributing point of supplies for residents of the interior of  the province. Hudson's Bay maps show that leaving Kamloops  in spring, the Brigade headed northwestward to Alexandria, a  distance of 160 miles, where furs from Fort St. James were  picked up. A return was then made via Kamloops to Fort Okanogan on the Columbia River (340 miles) where the cargo was  transferred to boats bound for Fort George (now Astoria) and  —from 1825-1847—to Vancouver (Washington). Leaving Fort  Okanogan, the horse brigade laden with trading supplies, proceeded northward to Fort St. James (480 miles) and returned  to Kamloops in the fall (300 miles). With Kamloops as headquarters, the pack-train thus' covered a distance of 1,280 miles  during the summer season (mileage figures shown above are  taken from a Hudson's Bay Company map in Kamloops Museum).  During the early fur-trading period there were but few-  settlers in either Okanagan Valley or the Kamloops district.  28 Kamloops—Gateway to the Okanagan  It may be said that arrival of "The Overlanders" in 1862. supplemented by pioneers coming by other routes, really saw the  opening and development of the Kamloops area. Arrival of the  Augustus Schubert family brought to the district its first white  baby, Rose Schubert, born October 14, 1862, the morning after  arrival of the party. With this branch of the Overlander Party  also came William Fortune who settled at Tranquille on the  site now occupied by the sanatorium. Here he built in 1868 the  first flour mill in the vicinity, having, as partner for a short  time, James Mcintosh.  Another Overlander who took a prominent part in development of Kamloops was John Andrew Mara. He was associated with James Mcintosh in Shuswap Milling Company  (lumber and flour mill built in 1878), the Mara & Wilson store,  was a steamboat operator, and with the coming of the C.P.R.,  became a member of the townsite company then formed. He  was a member of the Provincial Legislature 1871 to 1886, first  representing Kootenay then Yale. He also served at Ottawa  from 1887 to 1896 when he was defeated by Hewitt Bostock in  the Yale-Cariboo-Kootenay election. George C. (Judge) Tun-  stall, also of that party, served for years as government agent  at Kamloops prior to his death in 1911. Brock McQueen farmed  on the west side of North Thompson.  The Overlanders also contributed to the Okanagan such  men as Alexander L. Fortune of the Enderby district and Peter  Mclntyre of Skaha (Dog) Lake district. In 1884 the Schuberts  after residing at Lillooet and Cache Creek became lifelong residents near Armstrong. Descendants of Stephen Redgrave,  early sheriff at Golden, included Harold Redgrave who with his  family long lived in Vernon.  Alex. Fortune, a native of the province of Quebec and no  relative of William Fortune, as a young man studied for the  ministry but due to ill-health was advised to seek outside employment. Reading of the finding of gold in the Cariboo and  29 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  also at Edmonton, he soon after marriage headed westward.  He was not of the party which came down the North Thompson but continued with other gold-seekers via Fraser River to  Fort George and Quesnel. From there he went to Bella Coola  and Victoria, returned to the Cariboo, then took part in the  French Creek (Big Bend) gold rush of 1865-1866. It was in  June of the latter year that he established a home on the Spallumcheen River at what became Enderby in later years. There  he and his wife were real hospitable pioneers. There he died  July 5, 1915.  The arrival of Mrs. Fortune in August 1874, as related by  herself to Mabel Durham, a Vancouver Province writer, in  1918 makes a real romantic story. She had awaited twelve  years the return of her gold-seeking husband to escort her from  Ontario to her new home in Spallumcheen. The journey was  made by way of the United States to San Francisco by train, by  boat to Victoria and again to Yale, then wagon to Savona. Here  she was taken aboard a little flag-bedecked boat and on inquiry  as to the reason of the decorations was told by the captain, "We  have a person of note on board." Asked who, he replied, "The  first white woman to go into Spallumcheen."  How lonely must have been the life of this young woman  is shown by her statement that the first lady visitors, hearing of  her presence, came in November. These were from Grand  Prairie—Miss Kilpatrick, who became Mrs. Pringle, and Miss  Pringle, afterwards Mrs. Newland. Mrs. Fortune added: "After  that I saw no other white woman until the next May, when a  little party from Kamloops, about all the white women that  were living there then, came to see me, travelling by boat as I  had come in." Mrs. Fortune passed away in November, 1930.  While a somewhat lengthy reference has been made to  members of the Overlander Party, it should not be inferred that  they alone were responsible for the early development. There  were many who came, either in small groups or singly, to share  30 Kamloops—Gateway to the Okanagan  go full credit for their achievement. The point is that the 1860's  saw the opening of this section of the province.  Introduction of postal facilities proved an important link,  the first post offices being established at Savona and Seymour  in 1866. These were operated by arrangement with LI.B.C.  officials. Kamloops office was opened May 5, 1870. and one at  in the pioneer work of opening a new country. To those must be  added Duck & Pringle's (now Monte Creek) on June 13 of the  same year. According to the late J. B. Leighton it was not, however, until the following year that the B.C. Express Company inaugurated a mail service from Cache Creek to the head of Okanagan Lake (O'Keefe's). Until building of the Savona-Kamloops  road in 1875 this was handled on horseback, stages being introduced on completion of the road. Among early stage drivers  were Frank Bird and Frank Young, the latter to become a resident of Armstrong district. Mr. Leighton credited Moses Lumby (then a resident of what is now Pritchard but later of the  Stepney Ranch at Enderby and afterward government agent at  Vernon prior to his death in 1893), with carrying mail in a  rowboat from Savona to Seymour 1867-1871, making his own  charges.  Mr. Leighton held the last contract for stage mail from  1881 until put out of business by completion of the C.P.R. in  1885. His route was via Duck & Pringle's (Monte Creek), then  up the creek across the valley from the highway of today and  on to Grand Prairie. This called for service from Cache Creek  to Okanagan Mission with delivery to Kamloops semi-weekly  and to Okanagan points weekly. After making a trip or two  he found traffic did not warrant use of a stage coach beyond  O'Keefe's, so the mail was taken by horseback from there onward. Two of his stage drivers were such well-known Okana-  ganites as Alex. Macdonnell, later of BX Ranch, and James  A. Schubert who became one of Vernon's first aldermen in  1893. With discontinuance of the Cache Creek-Okanagan service,   Mr.   Schubert  bought  part  of  the   Leighton   equipment  31 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  and operated a service from Sicamous until building of the-  S. & O. monopolized the traffic road-bed.  Steamboats had considerable to do with relationship of  the Okanagan and Kamloops, from where these mostly operated.- First was the Marten built by the Hudson's Bay Company on the Shuswap Lake where Chase now is located. This  was intended chiefly to carry supplies to Seymour Arm destined  for Big Bend miners, but as that gold rush did not last long  there- does not seem-to be record of the boat continuing long in  service.  The year 1878 found rival boat interests in the field with  J. A. Mara and associates launching the Spall'unicheen. in August at Kamloops, and William Fortune of Tranquille completing the Lady Dufferin in December. The Mara company expanded with the building in 1880 of the Peerless, prize boat of  their fleet, and of the Kamloops and Skuzzy in 1885. Unlike  the others, the Lady Duffervn was a side-wheeler. While all,  perhaps served Okanaganites in delivery of supplies bought in  either Kamloops or Victoria, it is said that the Spallinncheeu,  being of light draught, was best suited to the Spallumcheen  River run to Enderby of today. Okanagan grain also made  cargo for processing at Kamloops and, possibly, also at the  mill of Mr. Fortune at Tranquille. Soon after the coming of  the C.P.R. the Mara boats were docked along the South Thompson (in Riverside Park area of today) until dismantled or  burned. Mention is sometimes made of a boat called the fled  Star. The writer knows but little of that boat but was recently  told there is a photo of it in Armstrong- City Council Chamber.  Long after the coming the of C.P.R., Kamloops merchants  were still reaching out for the Okanagan business. Two firms  who went far abroad for trade were E. G. Prior, implements,  and E. C. Davison, harness and saddlery. Both merchants found  a ready demand for their wares in those stock-raising days.  First Kamloops man to become interested in the prospects for  the Okanagan was W. R. Megaw, who had opened a store in  32 Kamloops—Gateway to the Okanagan  1884. The following year (1885) he founded at Priest's Valley  (Vernon) a store, a business at first small but which became in after years one of departmental store proportions.  J. Ogden Grahame, Hudson's Bay manager in Kamloops, was  among the early ones to investigate the business possibilities  of the Okanagan and this led to the opening of a branch of his  company's store in Vernon in 1887. J. C. Campbell, formerly  for a time with Gordon Bros, furniture, with his brother, Angus  Campbell, in 1892 founded Campbell Bros, furniture store in  the Schubert Block, Vernon. R. C. Mitchell transferred his tailoring shop to Vernon in 1892 but died soon after, his trade  being taken over by A. E. Cooke. His widow then opened a  millinery store which was continued until her marriage to W.  H. Lawrence of Wright & Lawrence, livery and transfer.  Professional men also were attracted to the Okanagan.  William Ward Spink, who in 1884 hung out his shingle as a  Kamloops barrister and solicitor, became county court judge  in 1889 and moved to Vernon. W. M. Cochrane, another barrister and solicitor, changed quarters to Vernon in 1891 and  founded the business which in after years was carried on by  his son-in-law. Fred Billings, and his son, Arthur O. Cochrane,  under the firm name of Billings & Cochrane. J. P. Burnyeat.  civil engineer and surveyor, was another to hear the call to  Vernon where he joined with J. A. Coryell in the partnership  known as Coryell & Burnyeat, who surveyed much of the Okanagan lands. Dr. Chipp also transferred practice from Kamloops to Vernon. And to Vernon in the building boom of 1891  went C. H. Archibald, bricklayer and plastering contractor, who  had been in Kamloops from 1886.  The year 1893 found H. C. Cooper, a former E. C. Davison employee, opening a harness shop in Vernon which eventually became Okanagan Saddlery. A. J. Venn, a former Kamloops postmaster, telegrapher and farmer, about the same time  opened a boot and shoe store in Vernon and became postmaster  from December, 1894, until April, 1898. Early in this century  33 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1050  a branch of the Prior implement house was opened in Vernon  with David Power, an employee of the Kamloops store, in  charge. This business was disposed of to F. S. Reynolds in  1908.  So it will be seen that Kamloops throughout the years has  been closely allied with the Okanagan. In the latter days of  World War I, a stage line was inaugurated between Kamloops  and Vernon and after various owners it is now a part of the  Greyhound Stage Lines, a great improvement on the H.B.C  Brigade, and Kamloops still continues as a gateway to the far-  famed fruit-growing valley.  Kelowna Courier of August 31, 1950, contained an account  of the reunion at Rutland of the Fleming' family. Six sisters,  four brothers and 39 grandchildren and great grandchildren  gathered for the occasion. The reunion plan was launched  through a letter circulating in the family and called The Flamingo. It was started 22 years ago and involved the writing of  900 personal letters from one to another, which, in the aggregate travelled three-quarters of a million miles. These letters  make a volume of 200 pages. The Flemings were old time residents of the Valley and many relatives still reside here.  34 Peon  F.  M.  BUCKLAND  "'Peon" is a tantalizing surname that has filtered down  through the pages of Okanagan history from the very earliest  days of our records. Who was this "Peon", "Pion", "Peone" so  closely associated with the fur traders, miners and early land  settlers in our Valley?  The name "Peon" is referred to by Ross Cox, McGillivray,  Thane and Company, Governor Simpson, Land and Mining  Registrars and Colonial Police Officers. Several scattered families living in the Okanagan at the present time claim they are  descendants of a "Peon". All this background and information  covers a period of some one hundred and forty years.  James A. Teit and Franz Boas refer to a Peon on several  occasions, and they class Louis Pion as a French Canadian  when writing about "Okanagan" Indians in the Forty-fifth  Annual Report of the Smithsonion Institute, Washington, D.C.,  1927-28.  But the family say, "No". The first Peon, a man of some  distinction, came to the Okanagan from a tropical country. And  here is what historical research has turned up. We have no  documentary evidence to support this theory, but when Louis  XVI of France sent M. de Leprouse to the Sandwich Islands,  where he arrived on May, 1786, contacts made with the native  nobility could have resulted in one of his bodyguard—a foot  soldier, "Peon"—marrying a native girl and naming a baby  boy "Louis" in honour of the French King. This would give us  35 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  a Louis Peon, who later in life gave further recognition to  distinguished Frenchmen when he adopted the name "Bonaparte", and had the same tattooed on his arm.  If this contention is correct, our Louis Peon would just  be in his prime at about twenty-five years of age and ready for  the adventure which John Jacob Astor's fur-traders had to  offer when they visited the Islands in 1811-12. He may, in all  probability, have been a family man himself by then. Ross Cox,  who visited Owhyee about that time, tells of attending a royal  function where he met several native chiefs. Each displayed an  arm tattooed with the name of some famous English, French  or American personage, including a "Washington" and a  "Bonaparte".  These young Sandwich Islanders considered the tattooed  names a mark of honour and distinction and preferred, in many  cases, to be known by the adopted appellation which added to  their dignity.  This, without a doubt, establishes a Kanaka "Bonaparte".  There were some sixteen Sandwich Islanders on the ship,  Be&ver, which carried Ross Cox to the Columbia, and a short  time before this the Tonquin had delivered fifteen of them.  Twenty of these Kanakas came to the Okanagan in 1812. Six  were under the management of Ross Cox and three of them,  known respectively as Washington, Caesar and Bonaparte,  wintered at the Fort with him. He refers to them in letters  which he wrote Trader McGillivray and said, "My household  troops merely consist of Bonaparte, Washington and Caesar,  my three Owhyee Generals".  Cox further remarks about their names, which represented  men he had always admired, and suggests that—because of the  thieving, rascally natives he was surrounded by and had to do  trading with—these Islanders, for whom he expressed sympathy, would (like the desert rose) be appreciated under any  other name.  It had been a hard winter and Cox continued his remarks,  36 Peon  "Poor fellows, they are not adapted for these latitudes and I  heartily wish they were home in their own sweet islands and  sporting in the blue sunlit ocean that surrounds them."  It is more than likely that these subjects of King Ka-  mehamcha, who had been rented out ("black-birded") to the  Fur Companies would, as sun-worshipers and sun-seekers, continually refer to their native land and the "Haleakala" (House  of the Sun) with a longing and admiration which was contagious. Ross Cox left as much reliable information regarding the  Columbia and Okanagan as did others, but we. today, must  read between the lines on occasion—due to carelessness on the  part of persons who transcribe these stories—if we wish to get  a correct picture of what those old-timers wished'.to leave us  Although Cox refers -to a dozen or more white men in and  around the Upper Columbia and Okanagan, there is no mention  of a Frenchman named "Pion", and we failed to find a Pion  spoken of by Dawson, who also left us valuable records of the  fur trade days here.  It is reasonable to suppose at this date that indentured  Kanakas would be in their twenties when brought to America  for the fur trade. If so, our Louis Pion no doubt would have  followed the example set by French Canadians, Scotsmen and  others he mingled with, by taking a native woman to wife and  establishing his first family in the lower Colville, or Spokane  country. The descendants of that branch, which produced a  William Peon, are with us today and claim that Bonaparte  Creek and Mountain, just south of the International line in  Okanogan, were named for their great-grandfather Louis Peon.  Louis Pion is reported to have wintered with Montigne at  a rendezvous near the head of Okanagan Lake, 1814-15. There  he met and associated with the head chief of the Okanagan  Tribe, "Huistesmetxe" (walking grizzly bear), a son, grandson  and a great-grandson of prominent Indians who were, accord-  37 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  ing to James  A.  Teit  and   Franz  Boas,  all  hereditary  Head  Chiefs of the Okanagan tribe.  This Indian, born about 1780, died in 1865. Lie had been  given the name "Nicolas" by the fur-traders and had his headquarters at Douglas Lake. The natives pronounced his name  "N-Kwola". a name which is perpetuated at Penticton's waterfront hotel "Incola".  He had married twelve wives in his day and one of his  daughters, Mary "Sukomelk", married a Pion from the Colville  country. Louis Pion, no doubt.  In our opinion we can hold Louis Pion responsible for  the introduction of Kanaka words from his island home, and  for applying to one of his children or his family the name Kalamalka (a name the next generation carried as a surname).  The first Kalamalka was known as a good hunter and  brave man who shot a great grizzly bear at close quarters and  danced over its still quivering body, to the amazement of the  other hunters.  He had four wives but gave them all up reluctantly to  marry a young sixteen-year-old Klootchman and become a  Christian, according to the rules of the "Black Gowns".  A son of his, old Paul Kalamalka of Shingle Creek, who  had been born at the head of the Lake and who claimed to have  seen eighty snows or more by 1916, could not, when asked,  describe what the name meant. It didn't stand for anything as  far as he knew—just his father's name.  In a letter dated April 4th, 1949, Margaret Titcomb, Librarian at the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii,  tells us our Kalamalka is probably "Kalamaleka", the Sun of  America. She suggests, "Perhaps some Hawaiian liked a family  there so well that he called them 'Kalamaleka'—Ka (the) la  (sun) Meleka (America)." This data was furnished by Mrs.  Mary K. Pukui, Hawaiian translator at Bishop Museum, and  so we can thank Louis Pion for handing down a name for one  38 Peon  of the most beautiful lakes on the Continent of North America,  Lake Kalamalka, Okanagan Valley.  Governor George Simpson of the Hudson's Bay Company  refers to a Louis Pion in letters reproduced in "Minutes of  Council" of the Northern Department of Ruperts Land. On  page 452, there is an article under the caption: Pion (Peon)  Louis, which states, "He entered the services of the North West  Company as a labourer in 1813, and appears always to have  been stationed west of the Rocky Mountains." (Peon was taken  over from the Pacific Fur Company). "He was retained by the  Hudson's Bay Company after the coalition in 1821, and was  considered in 1823 as a good linguist, tolerable trader; but no  clerk ; useful in the Columbia, but not likely to remain on his  present terms." Continuing, the article informs us, "In 1824,  Simpson entered into a protracted correspondence with McGillivray, Thane and Company over terms of a re-engagement  of Pion, who goes down this year with his family from the  Columbia. Was a useful man in that country and if he wishes  to return you will be pleased to engage him for a term of three  or five years in the capacity of linguist or interpreter for the  Company's services, generally at wages not exceeding forty,  to forty-five pounds, with goods at fifty per cent on price cost.  These terms are better than those of his last engagement on  account of the low prices at which he will receive his supplies.  If he accepts of them he may be sent up by the canoes of next  season, but his family can on no consideration be allowed to  accompany him."  So Pion goes down from the Columbia in the year 1824,  not up over the mountains from the Columbia, which would  be the route if he travelled to Canada. How long the visit lasted is not recorded and there is no record of his Okanagan  family accompanying him. By 1825, Simpson, having acquired  more information, wrote, "Louis Pion was a very handy fellow  in making chairs, ladders, work-boxes, etc., etc., and his extreme obsequiousness contrived to ingratiate himself with his  39 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1050  Bourgeois. He likewise was a tolerable linguist at Okanagan  and Thompson Rivers, but useful in no other way, and in extending my limits to forty or forty-five pounds, I had put the  very highest estimate on his services under any circumstances."  Incidentally, there is a second Creek known as "Bonaparte  Creek" which flows into the Thompson River. And why  shouldn't he be a good woodworker when many of his countrymen were noted for their sandalwood trade with China and  Europe in those days?  Twenty-four years later in 1854, according to a brochure  written by the late D. Nelson, the Allard family at Fort Langley associated with Kanakas whose names were Nahu, Nahy,  Josepa, Mayo and Peon Peon. Mr. Nelson told us in conversation that Peon Peon was related to the King of the Hawaiian  Islands, and had been sent to this country to report on the  conditions and treatment which his brother-in-law's subjects  were experiencing in the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company.  By this time a son of Louis Pion, born in Colville Country,  would have reached manhood, and according to native custom,  would have had several changes of name before he passed the  age of puberty to be called "William Peon" which would be  about the time William IV ascended the British Throne.  In his early manhood William Peon worked for the Hudson's Bay Company as guide, packer and linguist. He married  Julie, one of Chief Nicolas' many daughters, who was evidently a half-sister to Mary, one of his father's wives.  When the mining boom started in 1858, William Peon was  packing for miners who were coming north by the Inside Passage, and was one of those attacked at the Massacre of McLaughlin Canyon in Washington Territory in July of that  year. Peon, fighting for his life and running from boulder to  boulder and bush to bush, eventually swam the river when  night came and escaped, though he was badly wounded. It was  a scalp wound that, even after it healed, left a scar so broad  40 Peon  and deep one could lay his finger in the furrow, plowed by a  hostile bullet across the top of his head.  A year later we hear of William Peon packing in the Oblate Missionary, Fr. Pandosy, and his retinue from Fort Colville to L'Anse au Sable.  Next we hear he took a pack-train of food and clothing  into a village of Nicola Indians, who were starving in the dead  of winter. This was for the Government of that day and, according to family tradition. Queen Victoria gave him a square  mile of land in recognition of his services. This grant was  supposed to cover what is now most of the City of Kelowna.  However, there is no record of this, unless we take for granted  and into consideration the entry made by W. G. Cox at Rock  Creek, when he wrote in 1861, "June 4. Indian Reserve staked  off at Sable d'Epinette, Okanagan Lake." This might well take  in the block of land between Mill Creek and Knox Mountain,  where Kelowna is today. Was it here that the Peon family  made their headquarters for a year or so? Just north of a  creek commonly known as Peon Creek? Where hundreds of  acres of open grass and hay land lay open for his pack animals?  This would include the sandy point, known to the Indians as  Ntklak (or thorn bushes and big pine tree), a mile along the  lakeshore toward the mountain. Was William Peon responsible  for the naming of these wintering grounds, "Sable d'Epinette"?  And did the Victoria authorities have a stake driven at the  mouth of the creek to represent the southwest corner of this  square mile of Indian Reserve for Peon (a gesture which may  have been resented by the other settlers and missionaries already in the L'Anse au Sable Valley, who would wish to keep  the district intact for white families only) ? Peon and his sons  staked out land claims in the usual way a little later. Was the  proposed Reserve then thrown open, to be staked by Blondeau  and  Gillard a year later? These are pertinent questions  any  41 THE   OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY - 1950  historical research student might well look into and report  in his findings.  What is recorded, however, reads thus: "W. G. Cox, Magistrate, Rock Creek, B.C., registered No. 18, June 13, 1861. William Peon recorded his rural claim situated on the east bank of  Lake Okanagan about three and a half miles northwest of the  mouth of River L'Anse au Sable. The claim contains 160 acres  and is well watered by a creek which runs directly into the  Lake. Running from stake to stake 900 yards, thence east 800  yards, thence south 900 yards, thence to the point of commencement 800 yards. This claim includes the creek commonly known  as Pion Creek (as per map)".  Peon built himself a house on the high ground just north  of Mill Creek and the present highway, making it his home for  several years. It was considered the finest house in the Mission  Valley at that time and was referred to as such in a Government report of 1862. The building afterwards burned to the  ground, but stories of wild orgies which took place in the vicinity are still remembered. This tall, good-looking half-breed, who  lived on top of the hill south of where Bernard Avenue is today, was accused of tearing the scalp off an inoffensive Indian  by grabbing the braids of hair that hung down each side of  the man's face, and giving them such a jerk that it split the  native's scalp open. For this or some other crime, William Peon  was outlawed by Judge Haynes, so he left the country until  his troubles blew over, or were partly forgotten. He went  south to his old stamping-grounds and the story goes that he  left a deed for his land in a box that was left in charge of a  neighbour. After an absence of some years, he returned to find  his trunk had been broken open and the deeds stolen. With  another man in possession of his land grant, who had a deed  from a third party, -who produced a deed signed by William  Pion, it seemed hopeless to get his property again out of such  a tangle. William Peon, who declared he was unable to sign  his name, was, with August  Camels, a witness for the first  42 Peon  marriage solemnized at Okanagan Mission when Francois Ourtoland and Catherine, an Indian woman, were joined in holy  matrimony on November 18th, 1861. He was also directly  associated with the mining excitement of the early sixties, and  is credited with the discovery of the Mission Creek placer  production in 1861. This gold-bearing gravel, which lay in the  Creek bottom at Gallagher's Canyon, was examined by Adam  Bean, the discoverer of Rock Creek gold mines in 1859, and  he reported that Peon's claim was producing four dollars a  day per man. William Peon is also spoken of as one who opened the Cherry Creek ground the following year, but without  the same satisfactory results.  Two of his sons, Gideon and Bazil Peon, staked out land  claims just before and just after their father recorded his on  June 13th, 1861. Gideon's was dated April 13th and Bazil's  June 30th, 1861. These properties were directly east of where  Kelowna is today.  Baptist Peon, another son, at a later date had a land  claim a little north-east of the present Rutland schools, where  he kept milch cows and farmed. He was, as far as can be ascertained, the last of the Peons .to leave the Okanagan Lake  country and return to the district where he was born on the  Colville Reserve, or near Spokane, where Peon Prairie is named  for the family.  Some sixty years later, a grand-daughter of William Peon  came to Kelowna from south of the border to see where her  grandsire's land-holdings had been so many years before. She  and a great-grandson of Louis Peon, who lives across the lake  from Kelowna on the west side at the present day, have supplied some of the details for this "Peon", "Pion", "Peone"  saga.  Shakespeare's Romeo asks: "WThat's in a Name ?"  43 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  DR. R. B. WHITE  44 Dr. R. B. White  An Appreciation  F. W. ANDREW, M.D.  Penticton's outstanding citizen and physician was of Scottish descent. His grandfather, Peter White, came to Canada  from Edinburgh in 1812. He settled in the upper Ottawa Valley  where he engaged in lumbering and established the town of  Pembroke. His father, W. R. White, K.C., was a prominent  lawyer in the same town and acted as solicitor for the C.P.R.  An uncle was at one time Speaker in the House of Commons  and a cousin is a Member of the Senate.  Reginald Brant White was born in 1875. Lie attended  McGill University and received his M.D. and CM. degrees in  1896. For a short period he was in the medical service of the  C.P.R. on the Schrieber Division and in 1897 he registered in  British Columbia. He took over the medical contract with the  mines at Fairview that Dr. B. F. Boyce had relinquished when  he moved to Kelowna. Private practice called him to all parts  of the South Okanagan Valley, trips on horseback being made  to Osoyoos, Greenwood and Keremeos. When the mines at  Fairview began to peter out, he often visited a new mining district, Camp McKinney, some eighteen miles to the east and  then settled there. Mounted on a good horse, in fair or foul weather, with saddlebags containing drugs and dressings, he was  a common sight on the trail. Disregarding the hour of day or  night or the nature of the disease or accident, he never hesitated  to answer a call. In 1901 he received his appointment as  coroner.  In  1902, production at  Camp  McKinney fell off rapidly  45 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  when a fault was encountered. So he moved to the village of  Penticton, a dusty spot with some small buildings, a few of  which still remain on Front Street and northern Ellis Street.  There he opened an office. He was also asked to assume the  medical care of the Indians in the South Okanagan of the Penticton. Inkameep and Ashnola Reserves  In 1908 he married Mrs. Hester Emily Lambly. a native  born daughter of Judge J. C. Llaynes of Osoyoos, and the}- had  two sons. Dr. W. H. (Bill) White and R. V (Jack) White, of  Howard and White Motors. In the same year he took Dr. Herbert McGregor into partnership and they practised together  for three years.  The Kettle Valley Railway began construction in 1911. Dr.  Ker of Vancouver and Dr. White, together, had the medical  contract for the construction of the division that included Penticton. When the road was ready for service in 1915, Dr. White  received the medical contract for the same division. This frequently necessitated dangerous trips on a speeder to the scenes  of illness or injur}-. On one of these trips he was injured, but  continued until the patient was found and brought to Penticton. Then the doctor himself had to enter the hospital for treatment of his fractured ribs.  From 1920, several young doctors had the benefit of Dr.  White's advice and experience as junior partners. They were  successively: Dr. J. A. Affleck, Dr. A. P. Proctor Jr., and Dr.  G. C. Paine. In 1933 he was joined by Dr. J. R. Parmley, and  in 1938 by his son. Bill. The three, with Dr. T. F. Parmley, dentist, erected and opened the Clinic Building at Wade Avenue  and Ellis Street. As the practice increased. Dr. H. P. Barr and  Dr. J. J. Gibson were taken into partnership.  In May, 1935, at a small gathering, but in a unique ceremony. Dr. White and Chief Narcisse of Inkameep Reserve were  presented with the King George V Silver Jubilee medals. The  chief said this made them "blood brothers" and that the doctor  46 Dr.  R. B. White, An Appreciation  had all the rights and respect that were due the chief.  Many C.P.R. officials were numbered- among Dr. White's  close friends. Among them could be mentioned J. J. Warren,  at one. time president of the Kettle Valley Railway before its  absorption into the C.P.R.: Andrew McCulloch, chief engin-  at Nelson before he became president; C. A. Cotterell, vice-  president of the Pacific region ; Capt. G. L. Estabrooks, Capt.  G. Robertson and Capt, J. B. Weeks, of the Okanagan Lake  boat service.  On October 20, 1942, every employee of the Kettle Valley  division who could attend, as well as a number of old friends,  gathered at the Hotel Incola to tender Dr. White a dinner on  the occasion of his birthday. After a number of eulogistic  speeches, he was presented with a gold wrist watch from the  employees of the division, and Mrs. White received a bouquet  of flowers. One speaker remarked, "Dr. White knows more and  says less about what is going on among railroad men than any  other man."  In October, 1946, he went to Montreal to attend a re-union  of the class of 1896 of McGill University. He thoroughly enjoyed meeting his old class-mates, but there was a sad side to  it. After a period of fifty years, he was one of thirty-two survivors of a graduating class of ninetv-one.  On January 18, 1948, a large number of citizens gathered  at the Capitol Theatre for the purpose of naming Penticton's  first "Good Citizen." Rev. W. S. Beames, the chairman, re  marked, "We decided to look back over the years. The name  to head the scroll which is to hang in the Municipal Hall, we  decided, should be that of a man whose contribution to Penticton lies in the achievements of the past. Plaving- made that  decision, the committee had no trouble in choosing a man who.  perhaps, brought many of you into the world, Dr. R. B. White."  Acting Reeve J. W. Johnson spoke with sincerity as he brieflv  reviewed the doctor's life, and he then presented him with an  inscribed silver tray. The applause from the standing audience  47 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  caused the building to vibrate, and then they sang, "For He's a  Jolly Good Fellow." A peculiar thing about this meeting was  that the doctor had tried to avoid attending it.  While keeping abreast with all welfare movements, he  steadily refused to accept public office. The only exception to  this was when he was persuaded to serve on the Council of the  B.C. College of Physicians and Surgeons for several terms, and  once he was president of the Council.  Dr. White was slowly aging and spent less time in his office as the younger members of the firm assumed more responsibility. He had spent more years in active practice than any  other member of his profession in the province and, besides.,  he was the oldest coroner. The longer one knew this man, the  more one found to admire in his character. He had an exceptional faculty for keeping alive old friendships with the railway  men, the fruit-growers, cattlemen, old miners and prospectors,  and the Indians, and frequently he went out of his way to hunt  up an old friend. It has been said that every time he bought  gasoline he went to a different station and thus kept in touch  with all the attendants.  Last March he sustained extensive burns from which he  succumbed on May 2, 1950. His death cast a pall over the city  and that part of the province that had known him in the early  days. On the afternoon of his funeral, all the stores and business  establishments closed voluntarily as a spontaneous token of  respect. St. Saviour's Anglican Church was packed. The Mayor  and the entire Council, representatives from the Board of Trade  and other organizations, as wTell as persons from the whole  Valley and other parts of the province, were in attendance to  pay their last tribute. There was no standing room and many  who were unable to gain admittance crowded outside the doors.  There were floral tributes by the hundreds, many of which  included one or more roses, his favorite flower. An unselfish  character such as his will be pleasantly recalled by his friends  and associates long, long into the future.  48 Grande Prairie  (Westwold, B.C.)  E. E.  HEWER  The history of our community goes well back over a hundred years. We do not intend to cover it completely, nor in  literary style in this short account. We will try to set forth, in  some sort of order, a meagre account of the events as we have  been able to ascertain them. To do the job well would take  some weeks of thorough preparation and a greater gift of expression than the writer possesses. It is hoped that someone  more able will complete this most interesting task; and if this  iittle story should result in a complete and authoritative history  being compiled in the near future, this writer will be amply  repaid.  We assume that two legendary Frenchmen gave the valley  its original name—Grande Prairie". That name appears on a  map compiled in 1832. A crumbling cabin found years later by  the early settlers may have been their home.  Another cabin, perhaps even earlier (before 1821), was  situated at the east end of the valley (Bulman's range) and  was used by men employed to winter pack horses here by the  fur companies. Travellers along the old "Brigade trail" from  Astoria to Kamloops would stop and rest there in the .early  1820's. Astor's men, led by David Stuart, passed through the  valley in 1811 on their way to build a fort at Kamloops.  First land records go back to 1864. On January 23 of that  year three claims were recorded in the Kamloops Land Registry  Office in the names of John Grieve, Roger Moore and Edward  49 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  Grove. Moore and Grove sold their holdings to Henry Ingram  on November 2, 1865. Grieve did not complete title to his lot  and it was later taken up by Ingram (1868). In 1868 land was  also pre-empted in the valley by John Wilson and David Blair.  In the following year Patrick Duffy pre-empted 160 acres.  Much of the land in these lots is now included in the Bulman  and Clemitson ranches. Ingram was one of a syndicate that  brought camels into B.C. to be used in the packing to the gold  fields. After this venture failed several of the hated camels were  brought to Grande Prairie where they became a great nuisance  to horsemen and ranchers. I was told there were six here in  1877 and another pioneer remembers there were only two left  in 1885. The last was shot probably the following year. John  Wilson, "the cattle king of B.C.", was the first to put up hay in  the district.  Subsequent to B.C. joining with Canada in 1871, Ave have  the entry into the valley of several pioneer families. In 1873  John Pringle and his partner, Andrew Kirkpatrick (1874), took  up most of the north side of what is now Westwold. In 1877  Joseph Thatcher Jones pre-empted land south of the Pringle  lot. It is most interesting to note that we have fourth generation (in one case fifth) descendants in our schools today of five  of these original families.  John Pringle married his partner's sister, Jane Kirkpatrick,  who was the first white woman to live on the Prairie. Mrs.  J. T. Jones was the second and Andrew Kirkpatrick's wife the  third. The Pringle's eldest daughter, Annie, was the first white  child born here.  The original Wilson home is part, I believe, of the home  now owned by Mrs. Willard. This may be the oldest building  in the valley. The Ingram house burned down in 1944 and the  original Jones home was destroyed some years before. The old  Pringle house was a few yards east of the present house in  which Alex. Pringle and his family live. The original Kirkpatrick home is the east end of Jim  Lackenby's house.  It was  50 Grande Prairie (Westwold, B.C.)  built in 1882, we believe, and was for many years a well known  stopping place.  The first post office was at Kirkpatrick's, the mail being  brought by the stage driver on his regular trips from Spallumcheen to Kamloops. It was later taken over by R. M. Clemitson and held by his wife for some years after his death. H.  Gurnsey, who purchased the Frank Jones property, was postmaster for a short while. A second post office was opened by  Walter Homfray in his hotel and for some time the district had  two distinct post offices. (The original one was Grande Prairie  and the one at the hotel took the name of Adelphi.) The last  Grande Prairie postmaster neglected to have the original name  transferred to the newer post office and the valley lost its  cherished name of "Grande Prairie". In September of 1926 the  name was officially changed to "Westwold".  The first stage driver remembered is Jim Schubert.  Pigs, cattle and hay were the chief revenue producers of  the first settlers. Pigs and cattle were driven to Duck's (Monte  Creek) to be shipped to eager markets.  The school district of Grande Prairie was created on July  21, 1886. In 1888 the school was organized and the original  building erected on a little flat near Ingram Creek about two  miles east of the present school site. Miss Julia M. Bradley  (now Mrs. Owen Batchelor) was the first teacher appointed.  She taught until Christmas. There were twenty pupils in  attendance during the first year. School was in session 203^  days out of the prescribed 211 days with an average daily attendance of nearly fifteen—a very commendable record! Miss  Bradley boarded with Frank Jones and received a salary of  $60.00 a month. Pupils who attended the first year were David  Currie, Ellen Currie, Jessie Currie, Archie Ferguson, Maggie  Ferguson, Aggie Smith, Louise Smith, Marcus Smith, Jessie  Clemitson, Tottie Clemitson, Annie Pringle, Martha Pringle,  Mary  Pringle,  Thomas  Pringle,   Maggie  Kirkpatrick,  Jennie  51 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  Kirkpatrick, Annie Ingram, Joseph Greaves, Peter Greaves  and Dolly Clemes.  The first school board consisted of trustees R. M. Clemitson, who acted as secretary, J. Currie and C. J. Homfray. Lloyd  Todrick is the present representative.  The present school buildings include the "new" school  (1938), the "old" school built in 1903 by Joe St. Laurent and  a front room of the old Frank Jones residence built about  1900. Plans are under way to build a modern four room school  in the immediate future.  The second teacher was Miss Annie Creelman who stayed  until June of 1890. Miss Cora Watson (now Mrs. F. Jones) was  the third, followed by Robt. H. Carscadden from 1891-93 and  Miss Alice Hay (now Mrs. A. K. Goldsmith) in September of  the same year.  The present enrolment is seventy-one in Grade I to X.  There are three teachers, Mr. V. David being principal.  The old Adelphi Hotel, the present home of the McLeods,  was built in 1894 by Walter U. Homfray. A new hotel, known  as the Pylewell Hotel, was built in 1913 by G. C. Whitaker.  This was burned down on April 28, 1943. Westwold is at present without hotel facilities.  Frank Jones is generally considered to have been the first  store-keeper although another store was operated by Fuller-  ton on the Kirkpatrick property. Mrs. Clemes also sold groceries at her house on what is now the Becker place. Walter  Homfray opened a store in the east end of the Adelphi Hotel  soon after it was built. This business was at one time operated  by Edward Hoole. Robinson's store was begun in 1912 by Mr.  Hoole in the front portion of the present building. Mr. Hoole  was also postmaster from 1909 until his death in 1945. Mr.  W. E. Robinson is the present postmaster. The post office is in  the store. Another store at the west end was opened by Dolly  Clemes some years ago, and is now the property of C. E.  Goode (The Home Grocery).  52 Grande Prairie (Westwold, B.C.)  Tom Knight, who was connected with the store at the  hotel, owned the first car in the district (1909).  Frank Jones was the first Justice of the Peace, followed  by George Butler. Leslie Pearse was appointed in 1909 and still  holds that office in the community.  A laundry operated by a Chinese called Sing was located  across the road from the Kirkpatrick house.  First water rights were recorded by John Pringle on July  13, 1877, and by A. J. Kirkpatrick on June 19, 1886.  Mention should also be made of Dan Angus, who was the  one man Department of Public Works. With his wheel barrow,  pick and shovel he kept the roads "in shape" from one end of  the district to the other. He camped on the road all summer  accompanied by a very large dog for a constant companion.  In the early days sports and entertainments were where  and when you made them. Many dances were held in private  homes. Picnic were held during the hot summers. Walter Homfray organized a racing-meet which was held on a fine  oval track behind his hotel. Many fine horses were brought in  for these events. Whites and Indians came by the hundreds  from miles around. There was plenty of colour, flags and gay  dresses, plenty of excitement—a gala time was had by young  and old. The hotel ran wide open day and night and the Dominion's birthday was boisterously celebrated. A Klootchman's  race was a feature of most of the meets. At least two major  meets were held—probably 1900 and 1901—and it seems that  minor meets were held for several years.  Polo had its beginning in 1898 when Hamilton Gibb organized a club here. In 1899 Grande Prairie sent its first team  to Kamloops and was defeated by a score of 2-1. Players on  that team were Walter Homfray, George Harding, Jack Kane  and Frank Gordon. This sport won Grande Prairie much renown throughout the entire province. The Roper Cup was held  53 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  by them for many years. It is now in the possession of Alex.  Pringle, a member of many early teams.  Tennis was a favourite game from about 1905 to the early  20's. There were several fine private courts in the district.  Cricket and football had short seasons of popularity. Baseball has been played for a good many years. A few paper  chases were held on horseback and for a few years the Brockle-  hurst hounds were used to hunt in the district.  Westwold had a telephone exchange of its own at one  time. First central was in Hoole's store in 1918, then it was  moved to Hoole's other house in charge of Mrs. Britton. Later  it was moved to the Bob Teagle house (now C. R. Green's)  across the road.  The first sawmill in operation in the district was one of the  "upright variety" fondly referred to as "Old Muley". It was  owned by Jim Clemes and located on the present Becker place.  A more "modern" one was set up a few years later a little  farther west and operated by Hunter from Nicola. In clearing  their land the early settlers burned much fine timber—it had  no value to them and was simply piled and burned to make way  for farms and homes.  A molybdenite deposit is known to exist in the hills south  west of Westwold but the ore is of low grade and cannot be  profitably mined.  A land scheme, known as the Grande Prairie Orchards,  bought up about half the available land in the district about  1910. This venture failed completely and most of the land reverted to the original owners a few years later.  About 1900 a community hall was erected which served  the entire community for quite a few years. It is now a cow  barn. Its kitchen was used as a schoolroom in 1903.  The present hall was begun in 1939 and much credit is due  to those who have contributed labour, material and cash. It is  not completed yet but has been in use nearly every evening  throughout the last several months.  54 Grande Prairie (Westwold, B.C.)  Preliminary surveys for the branch line of the C.N.R.  through the district were made by Mackenzie & Mann prior  to World War I. Construction started in 1919 and the first  passenger train (Galloping Goose) was able to make its bumpy  way from Kamloops to the Okanagan early in 1926.  During construction the district had a hospital. Drs. Pett-  raan and Manning were the medical staff, ably assisted by Miss  Turnbull as nurse.  The only established church in the district is the Church  of England. First services were held in 1879 by the Rev. J. B.  Good, probably in the living-room of the original Jones' home.  The first funeral was that of Henry Ingram on April 1, 1879,  the burial office being read by Mr. J. T. Jones. The first baptisms held at Grande Prairie were for the children of Mr. and  Mrs. R. M. Clemitson. The first recorded marriage was that of  Ernest T. W. Pearse and Mary Roper on June 23, 1885. Rev.  G. H. Butler, the first appointed vicar of the parish, held his  first service in the schoolhouse on Sunday, January 12, 1896.  In 1898 a committee recommended the building of the  church. Frank Jones gave one acre of land for a burial ground  and the church was built on that acre. The first service was held  in the new building on Sunday, October 16, 1898. The Ven.  E. S. W. Pentreath, assisted by Rev. G. H. Butler, officiated.  The Grande Prairie War Memorial in the centre of the  path, from the church door to the gate, was dedicated June 30,  1920.  A branch of the Women's Auxiliary was formed in September of 1938 with Mrs. Lackenby elected as first president.  The induction of Rev. C. W. Kirksey (now Canon), the  present vicar, took place in the Parish Church of St. Luke,  Westwold, on Sunday, October 9, 1938. His Lordship, Bishop  Adams, officiated and preached.  The farmers of the district organized a Farmers' Institute  on February 1, 1938. Their first meeting was held in the Pyle-  well Hotel. Officers elected were R. W. Butler, president; Har-  55 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  old Culling, secretary-treasurer, and Leslie Pearse, vice-  president. They had a membership of eighteen the first year.  There are twenty at present.  A Women's Institute was organized on February 28, 1948,  with Mrs. Rod Jones as first president.  In the morning of May 20, 1948 the community was honoured by a visit from Their Excellencies, Viscount and Lady  Alexander, the Governor General of Canada and his wife. After  a few days' visit in Kamloops and district the party motored to  Vernon. A stop of about twenty minutes was made at the  primary school where Rev. C. W. Kirksey introduced the distinguished couple to the assembled members of the community.  His Excellency gave the children of the district a holiday.  The original tracts of land have been more or less subdivided. The government has purchased considerable land and  resold it to veterans of this last war. These new families will  undoubtedly play an increasingly larger part in the valley's  future.  Progress is essential—improved roads, extended rural electrification, new schools, a more adequate water conservation  and distribution system, and the provision of recreation facilities for the youth of the community are items that will require  the attention and co-operation of the residents in the immediate  future.  In conclusion, we are very grateful to those who have  assisted, and let us remember that there are quite a few other  families who were in every sense "pioneers". They also serve,  and as you recall them you may ascribe to each the credit that  is due.  56 The Story of the Three  Watson Brothers  EDITH RAYMER  This article has to do with three brothers, Jesse, Fred and  Harvey Watson, sons of a prominent and successful fruit  grower, of Dixie, Ontario, suburb of west-end Toronto. These  brothers   became   pioneer   settlers   in   the   Okanagan   Valley,  Jesse in 1886, Fred in 1890  and Harvey in 1893. I came  to the Valley in 1891, and  am familiar with the facts  relating to the last named  brother. The particulars relative to the older brothers  were supplied to me by Mr.  Harvey Watson, the only  survivor, who now lives retired in Vancouver.  In 1886 Jesse pre-empted  640 acres in Dry Valley,  otherwise known in those  days as Starvation Valley  and Death Valley, and now  known as Glenmore, one of  the    most    prosperous    dis-  HARVEY   WATSON tricts   in   the   whole   0kana.  gan. Jesse was possessed of a powerful frame and a tremendous  will to work. In an incredibly short time he built a log house  57 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  and outbuildings and fenced 100 acres. For the fence he used  heavy jack pine logs built one on another five feet high. This  had to be sturdily constructed to keep out herds of range cattle.  He then went East to claim his bride, Hannah Congdon, of  Islington, Ontario.  He very soon learned by hard experience that excessive  drought and an over supply of alkali were more than a match  for all his hard labor and he gave up in despair. After living  in the United States and Ontario for a time he came back to  the Okanagan and settled in Pleasant Valley, near Armstrong,  where they lived for about twenty years.  It is interesting to note that their nine children have all.  done well. Orville, the eldest, owned two large drug stores in  Toronto and lectured in the University in that city. Norman  is employed by the United States government in California.  Russell is vice-president of The First U.S. Bank of Portland.  Howard is assistant engineer of the City of Vancouver. Gordon,  the youngest, is foreman in a large fish-packing plant, at Vancouver. The four girls are all happily married, living at the  coast. Hannah Watson, at eighty-six, is still hale and hearty,  living with a daughter at Victoria.  Fred Watson, captivated by the glowing accounts of the  Valley sent East by Jesse, arrived in 1890 and immediately  took over the Benvoulin School, which was the first public school  in the Valley. He owned a five-acre plot opposite the school,  where he grew a variety of crops including hops and tobacco.  He went East and married Lena Davis of Aurora, Ontario.  In 1899 he received the appointment of Principal of Fernie's  first public school, which position he held for many years. They  later moved to Hamilton, Ontario, where they spent their remaining days.  Harvey, the youngest, came to the Valley as a youth of  nineteen. He farmed for a time, but with indifferent success,  and he soon decided to go back to teaching. Teachers were then  paid a salary of $720.00 per year, which  seemed a princely  58 The Story of the Watson Brothers  sum compared to the $300.00 he had been paid in Ontario.  Even in those days Ontario certificates were not honored by  the B.C. Education Department and in June, 1894, he took his  examination in Kamloops, standing second in the list. The  Department of Education in Victoria could offer little assistance in securing a school for the young teacher, as all vacancies  were filled. They informed him, however, that if he could organize a new school district where one was needed, and could  provide necessary accommodation temporarily the Department  would pay the teacher's salary.  Mr. Watson knew there was a large, sparsely settled area  south of Mission Creek that had no school facilities and he began to investigate its possibilities. He soon learned  that my mother, Mrs. W. T.  Small, had been in correspondence with the Department of Education for some  time about this matter.  There were four in our family of school age and we lived too far from any school  to attend. An old log house,  long, deserted, on the old  The Old Mission Schoolhouse Fred   Gillard   property   was  suggested as a makeshift for a school house.  All the settlers who had families were quickly rounded up  and on a sunny afternoon a meeting was held at the old shack.  Families represented were Small, Casorso, Berard, Crawford.  Dickson and Smith. The question was, could they fix up that  old decrepit cabin and provide all the school equipment necessary without outside help? The answer was a determined "yes"  from every individual present. None were carpenters with the  exception of my father, Mr. Small, who was partially blind. All  59 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  £  60 The Story of the Watson Brothers  had hammers and saws, however, and they went at it with a  will to succeed.  The work was apportioned and things began to hum. The  roof and chimney were repaired, uneven floors levelled, chinks  , between the logs were filled with mud, doors and windows appeared, rough desks and seats took shape, blackboards were  made and homey touches were added by the ladies. In a couple  of weeks the school was open for business and we started with  an enrolment of eighteen.  Following is the list of names of the first pupils at Okanagan Mission School during the year 1894:—  Josephine Berard, Joseph Berard, Henry Berard, Fred Berard, Matilda Berard, Edith Small, Edwin Small, George Small,  Harold Small, Joseph Casorso, Tony Casorso, Caroline Casorso, Charlie Casorso, Louie Casorso, Peter Casorso, Leo Casorso,  Felix Casorso, Robert Crawford, Alex. Crawford, Ada Smith.  The little school, which started under such adverse circumstances, prospered surprisingly and Inspector David Wilson expressed amazement on each visit. In a very short time  he persuaded the government to build us a new school near  the old site. Some years later this was succeeded by the erection of a three-room school some distance farther south. This  was recently burned down and a much larger one is now being  built.  Mr. Watson left the Valley in 1900, following his brother,  Fred7 to Fernie. There he purchased an interest in the Fernie  Free Press, which paper he edited until he went to Vancouver  in 1907. In Fernie he married Ethel Church of Almonte, Ontario.  At the Coast he engaged in the real estate business from which  he retired four years ago. His wife passed on twelve years ago.  Two married daughters live in Vancouver.  Mr. Watson paid a leisurely visit to the Okanagan in June  of this year, exactly half a century after his departure. He expressed amazement at the marvellous changes the intervening  years   had wrought.   Practically  all  the  old  landmarks  were  61 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  wiped out but he took particular pains to locate the old log  schoolhouse. He received a hearty welcome from his old pupils,  many of whom are now grandparents. A get-together party  was arranged by Joe Casorso and held at his palatial residence  in the Belgo district. Mr. Wratson exhibited to the gathering a  lot of pictures enlarged from snap shots taken in the old days.  Among them was the one reproduced herewith showing nine  boys on one horse, and which we have labelled "The First  School Jitney". Five of the Casorso boys used to ride on this  horse to school.  Mr. Watson will, I am sure, pardon me for repeating a story  he told on himself while here this summer, although he says his  face gets red every time he thinks of it. The Education Department, after the lapse of all these years will doubtless overlook  any violations of the School Act. One morning while passing  the Catholic Church on his way to school he decided on the  spur of the moment to attend a funeral, the deceased being a  relative of one of the trustees. It was nearly eleven a.m. when  he reached the school. He found that all the pupils, with the  exception of two little girls, had gone to the lake to spend the  day, no notice having been given that the teacher would be late.  Mr. Watson spent the day at the school and at the usual time  left on his horse to go home. When he got past the first knoll  he waited and soon he saw the bunch wending their way back  to the school to get their books. He returned on the gallop and  caught them all red-handed. He lined them up and gave  each a sound licking. The Casorso boys tell an interesting sequel. When they arrived home and complained of the arbitrary  action of the teacher their dad gave each a more severe  thrashing. John Casorso, like most of the other parents, thought  that Mr. Wratson, in his dealings with his pupils, could do no  wrong.  I remember when I was about fifteen I decided to quit  school and stay home to help my mother. She was in very  poor health and was unable to cope with the house work inci-  62 The Story of the Watson Brothers  dental to a large family. When I told Mr. Watson of my decision  he appeared quite annoyed as I was doing well with my studies.  I said to him, "Mr. Watson, you have been teaching us about  our duty to our parents. Now, don't you think it is my duty to  stay home when my mother needs me so badly?" He said,  "You win."  Mr. Watson still thinks this is the garden spot of Canada  and he hopes to make more frequent visits in the future.  Membership  Membership is open to all individuals, or groups, interested in the objects of the Society. Annual membership dues are  $2.50. This amount entitles one to voting privileges at local  and parent body meetings and to the annual report just as soon  as it is printed.  There are five branch organizations—Vernon, Kelowna,  Penticton, Oliver-Osoyoos  and Armstrong.  The 1950 reports is the Fourteenth.  A man who long ago taught school in Black Mountain  district near Kelowna, and in Kelowna itself, who later edited  the Kelowna Clarion and following this the Penticton Press,  died in West Summerland on August 18, 1950. He was William  James Clement. In his latter years he lived at Osprey Lake.  The late Mr. Clement came to B.C. in 1898. His period of ownership of the Penticton Press, which he founded as the first  newspaper in that city, was from 1906 to 1910. It was renamed  The Penticton Herald upon being purchased by the Shatford  interests.  63 Salmon Arm  More Than Half a Century Ago  Taken from History of Salmon Arm,  1885-1912, by Ernest Doe  Salmon Arm is one of the comparatively recent settlements  in the interior of British Columbia. Many of the surrounding  points were settled, though sparsely, earlier than the Salmon  Arm immediate locality. The Spallumcheen valley, Coldstream  valley and Grande Prairie were partially settled in the  seventies and a wagon road connected the Okanagan with  Kamloops.  The name "Salmon Arm" has evidently been applied  to the south-west arm of the Shuswap Lake because of the  large runs of salmon up the creeks emptying into the lake.  Many of the old-timers can remember years when salmon could,  without difficulty, be pulled out of the creeks by a pitchfork.  Salmon were gathered up by the settlers and used as fertilizer.  Indeed, coyotes during the winter would dig up and eat the  highly odoriferous fish.  Probably the first map to record the district is the "Map  of the North-West Territory of the Province of Canada" compiled for the North-West Company in 1813-1814 by David  Thompson. Although the Salmon Arm of the Shuswap Lake is  not shown, Salmon River is indicated on the map as Salmon  Rivulet, but instead of emptying into Shuswap, turns south and  generally follows the valley of the Spallumcheen and Shuswap  River into the Upper Arrow Lake at latitude approximately 50¬∞  30'. Even when this error was corrected in later maps, the  creek entering the Arrow Lake at that point was called the  64 Salmon Arm—More Than Half a Century Ago  Salmon River, although now shown on the more recent maps  as Pinxton Creek.  Salmon Arm is situated in the centre of a triangle whose  sides are the old communication routes used before the advent  of the railway. A stern wheel steamer of light draught made  irregular trips from Kamloops up the South Thompson, Little  Shuswap Lake, the Shuswap Lake to Cinnemousin Narrows  (first side of the triangle) ; to Shickmouse (Sicamous) Narrows  into the Spallumcheen or Mara Arm and about twenty miles  upstream. The Spallumcheen valley completed the second side  of the triang-le to the head of the Okanagan. The third side was  a wagon road to Kamloops through the valley to Salmon River,  Grande Prairie valley, and Monte Creek, to the Thompson  River and west to Kamloops.  Not until the sparsely timbered lands, suitable for agriculture, of these open valleys had been taken up was there any  inroad into the more densely forested sections, and of these  the most promising was the low-lying land at the extremity of  the Salmon Arm. The name given by the Indians to the head  of the arm was Shi-whoots-i-matl meaning many soap berries.  In 1863, William Peon discovered gold on the left bank  of the Spallumcheen. In the succeeding years the creeks emptying into the Shuswap and its arms were well prospected, yielding as much as five dollars a day although in 1865 the spotlight  turned to the Big Bend area of the Columbia River.  In the previous year, Governor Seymour had sent out  George Turner to discover a road to the Kootenay. Although  Turner did not reach the Kootenays, running short of provisions, he did touch the Columbia at a point not far from Dalles  des Morts and there his party panned the bars and obtained  from two to five cents a pan. His party were, then, the pioneers  of the Big Bend mining area.  The route to this region lay by way of the Shuswap Lake  up Seymour Arm to Seymour and overland by trail to the  Columbia. In 1865 and 1866 this route was very populous, but  65 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  it is only of interest here to note that two results of the Big  Bend excitement were the foundation of tre village and construction, in 1866, of the Marten, by the Hudson's Bay Co., the  first boat to ply the waters of the Shuswap. In April, 1866,  Seymour composed about twenty buildings, but with the collapse of gold mining on the Columbia, the village rapidly  dwindled and despite attempts to revive the "ghost-town," its  fortunes remain, at the present, at a very low ebb.  Failure of the gold mines did not, however, deal a deathblow to shipping, for with the increased settlement and growth  of agriculture, other steamers appeared on the lake. In 1878,  the Lady Dufferin, built by William Fortune, carried the produce of the farmers in the Spallumcheen valley to market at  Kamloops. With the construction of the C.P.R. the steamers  lost some trade but little of the lake shore is served by the  railway, and water transportation is still a necessity for the  settlers along the northern and eastern borders of the Shuswap.  Accounts of the exploration of the Salmon Arm before the  advent of the C.P.R. are rare, but one may be found in  "Blazing the Trail through the Rockies" by N. Robinson. In  1871, Walter Moberly, returning from exploration in the Rockies, to Kamloops, chose to make his way along the south shore  of the Salmon Arm.  I was anxious to examine a gap in the low range of hills  between the Salmon Arm and the main or easterly arm of the  Shuswap Lake that I had noticed when first exploring through  the lake in the year 1865. This gap, now known as Notch Hill,  would, if practicable for railway construction, much lessen the  distance that a line for a railway would otherwise have to take  to reach Shuswap Lake.  Directing the members of my party to remain on the shore  while I tried to cross Salmon Arm on the rather rotten ice to  see if it was strong enough for them with their packs, which  contained all the plans, profiles, field books, etc., connected with  the exploratory survey so far made by me, and the loss of which  would have been a serious calamity, I started on my adventurous  trip.  When about half way across the arm, I fell through the ice,  66 Salmon Arm—More Than Half a Century Ago  and, being encumbered with rather heavy clothing, I had a long  and hard struggle to save my life. When nearly exhausted and  benumbed by the ice-cold water, by spreading my snow-shoes  under my body in order to cover as large an area of the rotten ice  as possible, and thus prevent its breaking under the weight of my  body, I managed at last to scramble out and reach the shore  where my Indians were.  We pursued our way along the south shore and when we  were at a point opposite Notch Hill we found the arm clear of  ice and made a raft and crossed to the southerly end of the  Notch . . .  The crossing was probably made from a spot between  Canoe and Engineer's Point.  Salmon Arm was once a paradise for hunters. Game, fowl  and fish were plentiful. Although settlement of the district was  long in coming, many must have been those attracted by  these ideal conditions. There is no evidence of a permanent  Indian settlement similar to any along the banks of the South  Thompson, but no doubt the country drew the wandering Indians. In 1882 there was a settlement of these natives extending  along the higher ridges from Sandy Point to the mouth of Salmon River.  Since the beginning of this reservation there have been  three chiefs : Leon, Narcisse, and Big William, the present incumbent. Indians were numerous at the head of the Okanagan  Lake and at Shuswap. Legend has it that these Indians battled  among themselves for control of the salmon. One fight took  place around the little lake near the Hospital. These battles  must have taken place long ago, probably before the fur-traders  entered the country, for there are no records by them of these  events.  The Indians wandered through the country from Shuswap  to the Okanagan, trapping and hunting, living on game, fish  and berries, Even in 1887, Indians with their squaws, long  muzzle-loading rifles, their canoes piled high with furs, made  their way to the Hudson's Bay Co: outposts. While the main  67 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  post was  at  Kamloops,  there  were   outposts   at   Kault   and  Chase.  Construction of the C.P.R. was the impetus to the settlement of Salmon Arm. The route followed by the gold miners  making their way to the mines on the Big Bend of the Columbia lay to the north, along Shuswap Lake into Seymour Arm.  to the settlement of Seymour, which was the point of departure  for the gold mines. Another way to the Columbia not used until the surveys and construction of the railway was up Eagle  River from its mouth at Shickmouse Narrows, through the Gold  Mountains by means of Eagle Pass, which was discovered by  Walter Moberly in 1865. None of the routes touched Salmon  Arm and but for the railway this district would have been  much slower in its development.  The thirteen months from the middle of August of 1884  must have been a period of activity. From that time the solitude of the practically unknown Salmon Arm was more and  more frequently broken as the railway gradually approached  and finally passed on to Eagle Pass. In August:  The steamer "Peerless" was chartered on Monday last to  meet Mr. Van Home and party at Savona and take them to  Eagle Pass. The boat arrived here at 3 p.m. with the following  gentlemen, Mr. Van Home, Hon. J. W. Trutch, Messrs. A. Onderdonk, H. J. Cambie, A. B. Rogers, S. P Reed, Marcus Smith,  C.E., M. J. Haney, and Mr. Bovill . . .  The party left at 5 a.m. on Tuesday and examined the shore  line to Sic-a-moos Narrows, from thence to Salmon River, and  from there to Eagle Pass, where they remained for the night.  Mr. Van Home was agreeably surprised to find the country so  favorable generally for railway construction and is satisfied that  the line will be completed inside of sixteen months.  It is only possible to indicate the approximate dates when  the location of the railway, clearing of the right-of-way, and  laying of the tracks were in progress at Salmon Arm. That the  location of the line at Salmon Arm was completed in Septem-  68 Salmon Arm—More Than Half a Century Ago  ber can be deduced from the following paragraph contained in  The Pnland Sentinel.  MAJOR ROGER'S PARTY—Mr. Stevenson started with his  force in April at the Columbia river, and has reached to within  about twelve miles of Eagle Pass landing. Mr. Robert's party  has completed from Shickmouse Narrows to Summit between  Salmon River and the Southeast arm of the upper lake. Mr.  Watson's party, as heretofore noted, is about 30 miles east from  Kamloops. About 20 miles remain to complete the entire location of the railway line from here to the Columbia. Three parties are in the field, and the work will be finished in a short  time.  The contract for the clearing of the "Right of Way" from  Kamloops to Eagle Pass was given to Messrs. McGillivary  and Little. The sub-contract for the laying of the railway was  awarded to T. F. Sinclair & Tappan for that portion.of the line  commencing at a point 36 miles east of Kamloops and continuing for the next 28 miles, although a portion of this contract  was taken over by "Messrs. McMillan & Clark." It is fairly certain, however, that the portion of the railway at Salmon Arm  was completed by Sinclair & Tappan as in October The Pnland  Sentinel recorded that "Mr. Sinclair has a camp at Salmon  River preparing to do some Company work".  During- the winter the clearing of the right-of-way was  pushed to a conclusion and though not completed in January,  yet The Pnland Sentinel reported:  Messrs. James McCaully and A. C. Murchison left 2nd Crossing of the Columbia river, east end of E. Pass, 22nd inst., and  drove a double team to Kamloops, arriving here Sunday.  They report snow about 2% ft. deep coming across Eagle  Pass, road well broken, and was the first team to cross from  E. P. Landing to Salmon river Arm, and continued along the  Right of Way, travelling without difficulty. At the tunnel work,  and right of way clearing, as well as timber and tie cutting, men  were noticed quite busy.  In April it was reported that there was still snow two or  three feet deep on the Summit, but it was fast disappearing.  69 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  The ice in the Lakes was rotten and the scows would soon be  running.  During the summer there was a regular boat service on the  lakes, which was entirely apart from the service of the "Skuz-  zy" used in carrying rails and supplies to the required points  along the lakeshore, as witness the following advertisements in  The Pnland Sentinel:  "Peerless," "Kamloops," and "Spallumcheen," carrying her  Majesty's Mail are making Regular Trips between Savona, Kamloops, Eagle Pass, Sicamouse Narrows and Salmon Arm.  The "Peerless" will leave Savona for Kamloops every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday at 3 a.m. Will leave Kamloops every  Monday at 7 a.m. for Eagle Pass—connecting with the Steamer  "Spallumcheen" for Lambley's and Fortune's Landings, Spallumcheen.  Returning will leave Eagle Pass for Kamloops every Tuesday  and Saturday at 3 a.m., and Kamloops for Savona every Tuesday,  Thursday and Sunday at 3 p.m.—making close connection with  the Trains for Port Moody.  The Steamer "Kamloops" will make one trip a week between  Savona and the head of Salmon Arm calling at all the Railway  Camps. Particulars and date of leaving will be given at the  Office.  J.  A.  MARA.  Kamloops, May 28, 1885.  Tracks arrived at Kamloops in July and the first train  arrived there on Saturday, July 11, 1885. After a delay in waiting for more rails tracklaying commenced once again eastward  on July 27, and reached Salmon Arm some time in the first  week of September, 1885.  There has always been the belief that eventually the C.P.R.  would bridge the lake from Engineer's Point to Sunnybrae instead of continuing round the lake shore. This belief influenced  T. H. Hatherly and his-son, the first settlers in the district, 1885,  when they homesteaded at Sunnybrae on the site of the present  Mobley place. Other settlers filtered in, taking up land in the  valley. Some stayed to farm but others merely made the district  70 Salmon Arm—More Than Half a Century Ago  a place of temporary residence. Among the latter was "Dutch  Charlie" who during construction days started a brewery and  gambling house. After a man was killed in the place authorities closed the establishment and the owner disappeared.  The place was subsequently "squatted" by William Wallace, who sold the place in the spring of 1890 for $1,200 and  the newcomer parted with it in the fall to Charles McGuire  for $1,500. This, the N.E. yA Section 14, Township 20, Range  9, was the first city subdivision and was part of the territory  incorporated into the city of Salmon Arm.  Two other settlers who with William Wallace homesteaded most of the present site of the city were H. C. Fraser and  William Miller. It was on the property of the former that, according to an account of early Salmon Arm history contained  in the Quarter Century Commemorative Number of The Inland  Sentinel, May 29, 1905, that  In 1885 a German, whose name is given as Swordfighter,  built the first habitation erected there by a white man and in  the year following, the cabin was enlarged by H. C. Fraser, . . .  In the fall of 1890, a petition was circulated asking the  Government to establish a Post Office in Salmon Arm. The  first local postal service commenced in November in the shack  just above the present P. A. Ruth's residence. Previous to this  time all mail was handed to the baggage man of the C.P.R.  trains who posted it at either Kamloops or Sicamous and  brought back mail from either of these two places. December  saw the removal of the Post Office to larger and better quarters,  the present G. E. Ratcliff home. In this building was operated  the first store by Charles McGuire, who was both merchant  and postmaster.  The valley was the first section of the district to be surveyed for settlement in 1887 by J. McLatchie, although the Indian  Reservation was laid out a little previously. The other surveys  were: Canoe Creek, Silver Creek, South Canoe and Gleneden,  by J. D. A. Fitzpatrick, 1893; J. Vicars, 1895; J. E. Ross, 1901,  1903, 1905, 1907.  71 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  At first the settlers were not allowed to homestead but  had squatters' rights, but this was soon remedied.  The first white man to settle in the valley west of the  C.P.R. station was A. J. Hedgman, in 1888. At that time the  town site was completely covered with dense bush with only  the right-of-way for the railway cut through. The railway  engines were small wood-burners with the wide-top smoke  stacks. Sometimes the station yards contained as much as a  thousand cords of two foot wood. A water pump was situated  west of the present station at the river bank to supply the  engines.  In 1890 the Provincial Government sent in a road foreman  to build a road from the valley to the station and also a bridge  over the Salmon River with the authority to spend up to $500.  The workers were paid $2.00 per day of ten hours. The road  was not quite finished but the settlers voluntarily built the uncompleted portion with corduroy.  The road from Hedgman's Corner to H. McLeod's was  constructed the next year and the Gleneden road in 1896. The  Shuswap Sheet Map of the Geological Survey of Canada, 1898,  shows the Gleneden Road but the road turned in to meet the  railway near the bank of the Salmon River. The map also shows  the foothill road which must have been made before the cut  from Hedgman's Corner to H. McLeod's or at the same time.  The Foothill Road, instead of passing through the swamp as it  does today, turned opposite Mrs. J. D. McGuire's home to the  left through W. H. Snell's property, following the rise of land  through the L. A. Daggett properties.  The Old Enderby Road was voluntarily built from J.  Haney's property to Gardner's Lake in 1896 by a group of  settlers which included Fred McLeod and his father, William  McLeod, D. S. Mitchell, Dan Stewart, J. Lund, Dean Barrett,  C. MacVicar, J. D. McGuire and others. The settlers were at  the time anxious to get feed from the flour mill at Enderby and  gave their services freely. J. D. McGuire recalled that to fetch  72 Salmon Arm—More Than Half a Century Ago  flour from Enderby, he would start with wagon and team at  four o'clock in the morning and not get back until late at night  with his load.  The road to Kamloops was by the old Skimiken trail via  Shuswap. Settlers either took this road or went by train, although it was possible to travel via Silver Creek, along a trail  connecting with the wagon road running from Vernon, through  Grande Prairie to Kamloops.  In order to bring the land under cultivation, the settlers  were required to clear most of it. Some of the logs were used  in building homes but much of the timber found its way to  sawmills. A sawmill was established at Tappen Siding by Gen-  elle Brothers, which had a daily capacity of 50,000 feet. In  November, 1894, this mill site was abandoned for one at  Kault.  In the late nineties and the early 1900's the Columbia River  Lumber Company was largely engaged in logging in this district. The country east of Salmon Arm was one of its "timber  limits" and even today the district around Broadview is occasionally referred to as "The Limit."  Of the smaller mills, one was started by J. Clements on the  Palmer Ranch. This was subsequently purchased in September,  1893, by Richard Davis (who homesteaded the J. D. Cameron  farm in 1890) and Frank Mclntyre. Brayden and Johnston in  1901 established a sawmill on the banks of the Salmon River  where it cuts through the Valley Road. The bridge at that point  has long been designated as the "Mill Bridge." In the Fall of  1904 the company constructed a new mill on the same site.  In 1890 an order for fruit trees was placed with a salesman for the L. L. May and Co., St. Paul, Minnesota. The trees  arrived the next spring from Walla Walla, Washington. The  honor of planting the first apple tree, a Duchess Oldenburg,  in the district, goes to C. B. Harris and J. D. McGuire, on the  land above the G. E. Ratcliff house. Most of the trees in the  order were planted in the valley. The settlers did not favor the  73 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  higher bench lands, believing that irrigation was essential.  Eventually they discovered that apple trees would not thrive  in the bottom lands and trees died out. The varieties of apples  popular then were: Yellow Transparents, Wealthies. Golden  Russets, Alexanders, Ben Davis, and Belle Flowers. Other  fruits were Ponds Seedling Plums, Yellow and Green Gages,  Italian Prunes, Keifers and Bartlett Pears. C. B. Harris planted a large quantity of strawberry plants which grew successfully on his farm, for some time owned by P. Owens. In the  valley, dairying gradually superseded fruit-growing.  By 1893 the scattered settlement had reached a communal  stage whereby a new spirit of civic betterment began to make  itself felt. Possibly as a result of this desire to advertise itself  and the urge for more companionship, we have more details of  life in Salmon Arm in the nineties.  In one of the first "Salmon Arm Notes" to The Inland  Sentinel we have this delightful item:  Wanted—Twenty-seven marriageable young ladies to pay a  visit to Salmon Arm. None need apply who do not want to take  a rancher.  Two months later this was followed by:  Mr. F. W. McGregor, of Fairview ranch, Salmon Arm, late of  the SENTINEL staff, is erecting a handsome residence. Mr. McGregor intends to take unto himself a wife. It is pleasing to  know that the advertisement issued in the SENTINEL a short  time back is producing such fruit. And still there's more to  follow.  Notice the last sentence.  In August of 1890 the small community had grown large  enough for a school; the following year a second general store  was started by T. Shaw, and population was then estimated at  200 persons. In 1893 a Justice of the Peace was appointed and  A. J. Palmer was the first person to hold that position in Salmon Arm. An interesting picture is painted in a general way of  Salmon Arm as it was in February, 1894, by the writer of the  74 Salmon Arm—Mere Than Half a Century Ago  "Salmon Arm Notes." From the account can be seen the strong  sense of churchliness which prevails to the present day.  With reference to the general condition of the valley, things  are improving. We have a school house situated two miles from  the station, provided with an excellent teacher in the person  of J. Irwin, formerly of Nicola Valley. There is a saw and planing  mill owned by Messrs. Davis & Mclntyre, where lumber can be  sawed at the low figure of $4.50 per 1,000 feet. We have a wagon  road extending four miles west from the station, and from the  south a branch line runs south to the mountain and then angles  for about eight miles in a southwesterly direction. At the end of  this road there is a trail 12 miles long, which connects Salmon  Arm valley with Okanagan. Although a great deal of land along  these roads is taken up there is a large tract of the best land  yet to be settled. The principal industry is the raising of vegetables, for which there is an excellent market. There is also  quite a quantity of milk sold from here all along the line of  railway.  We have a resident minister here of the Methodist church,  and services are held twice each Sunday in the valley, which are  generally well attended. It is a matter of great regret that there  are some of the settlers who are scarcely ever seen at either of the  services, though the places are nicely warmed and lighted and  bibles and hymn books provided. If some of those who so seldom  come out to meet with us will only manage to be regular in their  attendance we are sure they will receive a hearty welcome from  both  people  and  minister.  The year 1894 was one of notable incidents, for then occurred the "flood" and disastrous fire.  The spring was both early and hot and the lake level rose  very high. Although it is not possible to say accurately what  proportion of the valley was flooded owing to much of the land  being neither cleared nor drained, about half the valley was  under water. The railway track from the Indian Reserve to  D. Sinclair's farm was covered with water. The track then was  a little lower and the fires in the small wood-burning engines  were extinguished at every attempt to get through. Passengers had to be transferred from train to train. A. J. Palmer,  75 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  who shipped milk to Kamloops, was forced to take it by boat  to Slough Bridge (C.P.R.) in order to place it on the train.  The land at the back of the present Montebello Hotel was  under water. It was necessary to use a boat to reach the "Red  Barn," north of the C.P.R., built the previous year.  A note in The Pnland Sentinel stated :  Salmon Arm crops are in a very precarious condition owing  to the spring freshets; nearly the whole of the valley is flooded.  Several of the settlers had to leave their homes last week. Mr  James D. Gordon's bridge was washed away, and the government  bridge, on the road to Mr. Thos. Shaw's ranch, is expected to go  shortly. The roads are flooded and the bridges, culverts, etc., are  all afloat. It is impossible to get along with a team.  A disastrous fire started July 7th, on Mount Ida, and des-  stroyed valuable timber covering the area from the J. Bolton  (now T. Hobbs) to the J. Allan (now M. J. McLean) properties. J. Raby s cabin W. Shaw's home, farm buildings and  fences were completely destroyed and only one house, that of  S. J. Rumball, was saved.  That was 5    years aero.  The funeral of Chief Narcisse Baptiste George was held  on Inkameep 'Reserve on October 16. Chief George was a  member of the grand council of the North American Brotherhood and active in the B.C. Council of Indians in which he  supported the campaign for recognition of Indian land rights.  Like his grandfather and father, he was a successful cattleman,  helping to carry on the type of ranching which was first established in the Okanagan Valley. According to a report appearing  in the press, in 1947 he had 600 head of Herefords running on  200 acres of land in the South Okanasfan.  76 An Early Settler Takes Up  Land  By the late T. H. BUTTERS  After working in the coal mines of Vancouver Island, I  went to Victoria early in 1892 and had a talk with some of the  officials and then to New Westminster where I expected to  meet a chum. I went into a shoemaker's shop to get a shoe  repaired. The shoemaker was an old man who had been a miner  in early days. He told me of Priest's Valley and Cherry Creek,  and it was quite a treat to talk to him as I had not met any  placer miners lately. In May, 1892, I took the train for Vernon.  On the train I met a young fellow, Stanley Kirby, who had  worked in the Union Club in Victoria and knew Moses Lumby,  the Government Agent in Vernon. We got to Sicamous and  while waiting there met a man from the East who was taking  a carload of apple trees, a lot of Northern Spies, for the Coldstream Ranch. He thought he could employ us in the planting,  but we shied from that. We travelled down to Enderby and  then passed on to Vernon, amid country which is very beautiful  in May. It was quite a lively town with the railroad just in  but not yet completed. Harry Mcintosh took us to his .hotel,  the Vernon, a nice place at the lower end of the town. He told  us the Victoria Hotel was headquarters for White Valley  people and the Coldstream for newcomers. We went around,  saw a Hudson's Bay store and thought of fur-trading. At the  Coldstream Hotel my host, Muller, seemed quite in keeping. We  visited the Victoria Hotel also; Tronson was the proprietor, a  77 THE   OKAN AC AN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  fine looking man with a beard. Vernon seemed to be a pleasant,  pretty town among the ranges.  We went to the Government Office. Leonard Norris was  the policeman and seemed to be in charge and doing- the work.  He was very courteous and said Mr. Lumby would be in shortly. There was one other man there (Tunstall. I think, was his  name), the Assessor and Tax Collector. Lumby came in: he  was rather pompous but recognized Stanley, and advised us to  go up to the Shuswap River where there was good land, mentioning another place in White Valley which could be taken  up. Then he gave us a letter to Fred Finlaison at Shuswap  Falls. Nowr Stanley and I were travelling together but there  was no idea of partnership. We were free to drop one another  any day. We were both about the same age and with the same  object in view.  That evening we went out and listened and talked. Next  morning we determined to get a horse each. Stanley went up  town while I walked toward the Landing. On the edge of town  I saw a man ploughing the soil which looked rich and black.  I talked to him of the soil and crops grown, then talked of his  horses and of my wanting one. He told me Captain Shorts had  a good cayuse for sale so I held the plow until we reached the  other end and then walked down the railroad to Okanagan  Landing and found Shorts. We bargained for the horse. I was  to pay $30 if it suited. He got a man to ride up the range side  and bring it in. I gave him two dollars for doing" this for it took  him about half an hour. I went in and had dinner with Shorts  and his wife, a very intelligent woman. We talked of the country and Cap Shorts wanted to sell me a pre-emption on a point  down the lake. He said a house on the place was worth $600  and would sell everything for $600, but I did not fancy having  to row a boat to get there and there was no other way to get  out. After dinner they lent me a saddle and I rode back to  Vernon. Stanley was at the hotel. He had bought a very good  horse from an Indian for $25. The bartender had some saddles  78 An Early Settler Takes Up Land  so we bought one apiece from him and then went for a ride  toward O'Keefes. We met a group of riders coming' in so turned and had a little racing. We got the worst of it. but it was  jolly.  Next morning we started for the Shuswap-—two young  men without a care, with money and good health, looking forward with confidence. We rode past the Coldstream Ranch,  along a road shaded by big trees. At Smith and Mitchell's we  saw a cart with high sides and front coming towards us. As  we got closer, Stanley said "It's Captain Vidler". We stopped  and the Captain gave us an invitation to go and stay at his  place on Harris Creek. It seems that Stanley had met him in  the Club at Victoria. We had now passed the divide at Nelson's  and were on the Fraser River watershed. The timber in the  bottoms got bigger, and the country higher up on the ranges  greener and we were in White Valley. We turned north on a  side road to see a man called Andy Carr whom Mr. Lumby had  advised us to see, as he could show us a vacant pre-emption.  He was not pleased to see us and got rid of us as soon as possible without giving us any information. We rode back to the  main road and went on to the White Valley Post Office, kept  by Peter Bessette. Stanley had brought a little camp cook affair from Victoria, and after putting hobbles on the horses we  had dinner by the Catholic Church where the Creighton Valley  Road branched off.  Afterward, we went up the rang-e for the horses and looked  at the Valley—a rich looking valley of meadows and forest,  the range knee deep in bunch grass. Very few people were  in it. We got our horses and soon left the main road, turning to  the left through big Bull Pines, a beautiful park-like place over  the ridge into a denser timber and came to where a man was  chopping. He was a big man and a fine axe-man named Rollins,  "Long Bill" was the name he went by. We told him of some  deer we had seen a few minutes before and he said deer were  plentiful and that he could shoot all he wanted from the door  79  i THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  .  of the cabin. We walked to the cabin facing a small lake about  half a mile square, Rollins Lake, and had quite a talk about the  country. He was very sociable—not like Carr. The noise from  the water fowl was deafening at times. They seemed to be innumerable and of all kinds. Bill told us they were not disturbed and as we walked down to look at them they paid little  attention to us.  We mounted our horses, passed a pre-emption called McLean's, crossed a desolate burn, rode for two miles in timber  to a bluff where we could see Bessette Creek and the Shuswap  Valley, then down a gulch to Fred Finlaison's, in the Valley at  the mouth of Bessette Creek. We gave Fred Mr. Lumby's letter and were made welcome in bachelor style. Fred had a good  log cabin and a small slashing, having been there but a short  time.  Next morning the three of us crossed Bessette Creek, went  up the range and then down a trapper's trail on the west side  of the Shuswap River, passing some carcasses of deer which  Fred said were poisoned, after being shot, as wolf bait. The  Shuswap Valley seemed rich land with fine timber on it, easy  to get out by way of the river. We crossed the river to the east  side and frightened some wild geese nesting in the driftwood  piles on the river islands. We staked two pre-emptions and on  the way back got some goose eggs, carried them carefully back,  and found them bad. That evening a squawman, Tom Slack, a  big Irishman, called at Fred's. He had staked some big meadows up in Squaw Valley and was cutting a trail in and  invited us to stay at his camp and look over the country.  We got ready to go to Vernon the next morning and Fred  told us McLean would be down soon for supplies and we could  send up anything we wished with him. On reaching Vernon  Mr. Lumby told Stanley there was one place at the Mission  vacant and gave him a letter to the Road Foreman, who would  show it to him. I recorded one pre-emption and Stanley left for  80 An Early Settler Takes Up Land  the Mission and I waited for him. He took the place but after  the Shuswap it seemed a dry place.  I went to Cameron's store. He seemed to do a lot of business with the Indians and it was quite interesting. I purchased  quite an outfit and then went up to Finlaison's and met V. L.  E. Miller and his brother, who had camped at the Falls. When  my stuff came, Fred and I packed a horse load to my preemption, where I camped beside a little stream, a pretty place  to camp. I could, look over the pre-emption and see small meadows and timber. I picked a place to build and felled some trees  on a knoll beside the river close to the meadows.  The river was rising and in two days the meadows were  lakes and when I considered I had a river to cross to get anywhere, the place did not seem worth while, so I hung up my  stuff in the trees and took my rifle and found Slack's trail. I  made a nice trip along it, saw lots of game and reached his  camp at noon. It was a typical Indian camp with a fire in the  middle and two lean-to's—one on each side. I found Tom and  his squaw and a boy of eight years had one side of the fire.  Mowise's squaw and her mother were there. Mowise, an Indian,  was at Mabel Lake just over the hill, fishing. For dinner we  had stewed grouse boiled with flour, tea sweetened with syrup,  and bread made by mixing flour with a little salt into a thick  dough and baked by standing on edge against a rock in front  of the fire.  The next morning I took my rifle, went out to the range,  then along the height of land to where T could see Mabel Lake,  and over the Shuswap into Trinity Valley. There was beautiful timber everywhere, a nice lake, with natural meadowrs in  many places. I came back to the range and sat down looking  over the Valley. Beside some little firs not ten feet away, a  deer came around the bushes but turned sharply off when it  saw me. Seventeen deer did the same in a few minutes. On the  way back to camp I saw deer everywhere; I had not seen one  in the morning. Mowise returned in the evening with a lot of  81 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  fish from three to four pounds or more in weight. One of the  women cleaned a small one and started to cook it. I said to  Tom, "It seems small for this crowd". He said, "They will  do it their own way anyway." We had a piece of fish each, some  tea and bread; then another fish was cooked and eaten. It was  quite late before we got through our feast.  The next day being Saturday, I helped to make a trail as  on Sunday Tom wanted me to go to the Peak with him. He said  that we might see Sakakoos, a grizzly bear—very old and cunning so the Indians said. I started making a good trail, cutting  everything out of the way. Tom's squaw, Ellen, came along  in a little while and said, "No good to make trail that way."  "How shall I do it?" I asked her. She said, "You cut some  logs and leave some; we all follow and do a little. When the  last one comes, not much to do; go along quick—that is Indian  way." So I followed Tom, with the two women next and Mowise last. That evening Mowise got the boy on the opposite  side of the fire from where I sat and told him stories in the  Indian language. I asked Tom to interpret as he spoke Indian  as well as Chinook. Mowise was telling the boy of the ocean  and ships with sails, and was "choo-chooing" like a steamer;  it was very interesting.  On Sunday Tom and I took our rifles and went up and  looked at his meadows and land in the Valley. The tips of the  grass were frozen so I did not care for the land there. I went  up to the Peak but did not see any bear which was just as well  for I found out Tom was a poor shot. On the way back Tom  showed me how to dig Siwash potatoes, small bulbs which grew  wild and seemed quite palatable. We sat on the hillside and  looked over meadows made by the beaver damming the creek,  a creek full of small trout, the Peak in front covered with bunch  grass, and the timbered slope of Peak Mountain Plateau beyond and a cleft in the mountains leading to Sugar Lake to  the right of the peak. We talked, not of the country we were  in, but of the rural part of England where Tom had lived after  82 An Early Settler Takes Up Land  leaving home in Ireland, and of the ports he had been in as a  sailor, some of which, I had visited. Of all the scenes he had  seen, he said nothing appealed to him like the English ones.  We went back to camp, and camping in the Indian way is very  comfortable and cheery, or it seemed so to me. I left Tom next  morning and never saw him again, though I saw Ellen several  times and Mowise once.  I went back to my pre-emption; the river had risen higher  and the bottom land was flooded. I had noticed the country  from the mouth of Bessette Creek to White Valley ranges on  the north side of Bessette Creek. There was no road or trail  through it but it was a nice looking country so I thought it best  to look it over. I went up river and crossed the Shuswap at the  lower end of the Falls, where a bull pine tree had lodged during the previous year right opposite V. L. E. Miller's camp. I  stopped at the camp and talked of the country, and got to Fred  Finlaison's, in the afternoon.  I went to catch my horse which was hobbled and feeding  below the cabin. He had gone up over the bluff and about a  mile away up stream turned down again to a clearing of  "Beaver Jack's" (A. J. Woodward). Jack helped to catch him  and we talked of the climate and country. He said he had been  unable to cross the river with his pack horses a couple of years  before so had gone up Bessette Creek to a nice little range and  stream and by the time the river had fallen was so pleased with  the situation that he had settled there. Jack was a famous trapper of beaver and hunter on the plains, of buffalo. He was born  in Ohio and had hunted and trapped from his youth. He was  about 45 years old when I met him. I took the horse back and  saddled him and went to White Valley Post Office (Peter Bessette's) for the mail. The first letter Mrs. Bessette gave was a  rax notice $4 due. I asked Mrs. Bessette how the Tax Collector knew I was there. She laughed and said I must have been  in the Government Office, I took the mail for all people living  Finlaison's way.  83 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  The country looked fine in the evening, fertile and full of  game, with waterfowl on Rollins Lake. The next morning, Fred  W'arner dropped in and said he had a pre-empton about five  miles away toward White Valley, so we rode through the  timber to it. It was a nice place with a small cabin on it, a very  fine range north of it with bunch grass up to your knees, lots  of blue grouse and deer on it, and willow grouse and fool hens  in the bottoms. There was a good lot of bottom land with fine  timber on it, so we agreed to a partnership—he to work on it,  and I to go to the mines and look after the money part. On riding back to Finlaison's, Finlaison showed us his partnership  agreement with his brother Charlie along the same lines.  That evening (Saturday evening) we rode up to Bill Rollins and met a lot of settlers. One was from Vernon, Driscoll  by name, the harness maker at Megaw's. He had a worthless  pre-emption on the Flat, but we all united in praising his house  which some of them had built for him during the winter.  Everyone was optimistic and had such a number of ideas. Most  of them were settled on the Flat, close by, and had come for  mail. There was no white woman from the Cherry Creek Road,  north of Mabel Lake. A great deal of interest was taken in the  building of a house by Mr. Cartwright who had a pre-emption  nearby and was moving up with his family from Vernon.  Sunday we looked around the valley and on Monday Fred  Warner and I went to Vernon and had a lawyer draw up a  partnership agreement for us. Next day I returned to the Coast  to work in the mines and Fred Warner went to the pre-emption.  Lfelt settled now, and getting a letter monthly from the ranch  kept me in touch with what was going on in the valley. In  October, 1893, I got married to a Miss Tippet, of Nanoose Bay.  We had met on July 1st and I was soon a frequent visitor at  her father's farm at Nanoose, about twelve miles from where  I worked, and in less than four months wre were married.  In 1894, about May, Fred wrote me about Trinity Valley.  I had looked over the Valley from the range at Squaw Valley.  84 An Early Settler Takes Up Land  It looked high and heavily timbered, but Fred said there were  more meadows than in White Valley and the Coast papers  were putting in news of a new valley just found. In July I  came up to Vernon.  Vernon seemed much the same, and riding out through the  Coldstream and into White Valley it looked good to see fine  crops. I overtook Fred Warner and Finlaison with some cattle  they were taking to the Shuswap range. I found a road had  been built by Louis Christian from Lumby, as the village had  been named at the junction of the roads in White Valley, to  the Shuswap Falls, passing right through our place. We drove  the cattle to the range and I went down to get a drink at the  Falls and saw a little pot hole in the rock. I got an old shovel  and panned out some colors, there was gold but not much. We  went to Finlaison's for tea. Finlaison had married a Miss Cartwright and it was quite different from bachelor days and very  pleasant.  Next day we went over the ranch and I went up on the  range and looked over the country. I had intended to go into  Trinity Valley, but Finlaison and Warner said that the whole  valley was on fire so I could not see the meadows in Trinity.  That evening we talked over the situation. It did not appear that any returns could be expected for some time off the  Bessette Creek place, though a lot had been spent. Fred thought  the Trinity Valley meadow he had secured was far more valuable than the other place. Next day we went to Vernon. Fred  pre-empted the Trinity Valley meadow and I took over the  Bessette pre-emption and returned to the Coast. About Christmas time Fred got married to Miss Cartwright. In January,  1895, he wrote me that there was danger of my pre-emption being jumped, so I wrote to the Government Agent, Mr. Leonard  Norris, and got a leave of absence for four months. Mr. Norris had become Government Agent on the death of Moses  Lumby, and a better man could not be found, having ability,  good  judgment,   absolute  fairness  and  a  sympathetic  know-  85 THE   OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  ledge of the difficulties and wants of the Valley. This I say,  after knowing him for thirty-four years and being road foreman under him for a few years.  In May, 1895. I brought my family and brother-in-law,  John Tippet, up to Vernon. Fred Warner met us, and I dissolved partnership, he taking Trinity Valley meadow. I stayed  for a week end then returned to the mines. That summer John  Tippet slashed thirty acres and in the fall they all returned to  the Coast. The next Spring I returned to the ranch with my  wife and two children and put in a very pleasant summer. We  had for neighbors, Mr. and Mrs. Pratt and family, two Derbys  and Mr. and Mrs. Livingstone. All were sociable, nice people,  in the same position as ourselves, having a little clearing each  and hope for the future. I fixed up our two log cabins, joining  them together, cleared a garden spot and then worked clearing  the bottom lands.  I would go to the range for a deer in the evening and my  wife could tell where I was by the deer going up the range  like a flock of sheep. There were hundreds of them in a little  bottom close to the cabin. My wife could go out and shoot two  or three grouse in a few minutes; we wasted no game. It was  a curious thing that some of the neighbors could shoot the head  off a grouse and yet could not hit a deer even at 50 yards; so I  killed a deer and divided it up among us so that none spoiled.  Large wild strawberries grew along the foot of the range and  made nice preserves. Oregon grapes and chokecherries made  nice jelly and wild raspberries were plentiful. Olallies made  nice pies and in September there were ducks on the creek and  salmon of many kinds, while we caught trout in the summer.  It was a lovely country, park-like around the ranges with big  bull pines; fine timber everywhere, but on the range untouched.  In the summer I would go to the top of the range for a deer  very early in the morning- and could see smoke coming up  from little clearings here and there, and off to the south-east the  Cherry Creek Pinnacles. It was a new country, unscarred by  86 An Early Settler Takes Up Land  lumbering operation, full of wild life; money was the one thing  wanting. Out in the main valley hay was grown and cattle  were kept. Toward Vernon wheat was grown and pigs put on  the stubble. In our part we were not producing, so when September, 1896, came and I had proved up on my pre-emption it  was necessary to go to the mines again though I was very sorry  to leave. So, letting contracts to clear the land and fence it in.  we went back to the Coast.  Listed Contents of First Annual Report of  Okanagan Historical Society, September 10, 1925.  (35 Pages)  1. A Unique Faunal Area in Southern B.C  by Max H. Ruhmann  2. The Bison in the Okanagan Valley   by Max H. Ruhmann  3. Kelowna—Its Name   by F. M. Buckland  4. Mr. and Mrs.  Eli Lequime   by F. M. Buckland  5. Establishment   of   Okanagan   Mission     by F. M. Buckland  6. Settlement at L'Anse Au Sable    by F. M. Buckland  7. The Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail   by F. M. Buckland  8. The Hope Trail   by F. M. Buckland  9. Some Notable Men in the Okanagan Valley  by F. M. Buckland  10. The First Wagons in the Okanagan Valley   by F. M. Buckland  11. Dawson's Map of 1887   by H. J. Burton  12. The Placer Mines on Cherry and Mission Creeks .. by H. J. Burton  13. Glacial Erratic in  Coldstream  Valley    by A. H. Lang  14. Pot-holes at Shuswap Falls   by A. H. Lang  15. The First Stone Grist Mill   by Joseph Brent  16. Okanagagn and Shuswap Canal  17. The Presbyterian Church in the North and Central Okanagan  —by Rev. Wm. Stott  18. Humour in the Okanagan   by L. Norris  19. The Townsite of Vernon, B.C  by L. Norris  20. A Whalebone Found on Okanagan Lake   by L. Norris  21. The Boundary Line   by L. Norris  22. Mussel Shells  by L. Norris  23. Overland Expedition of 1862   by L. Norris  24. Place-names, Their Significance  25. Dates   (1792-1892)  87 The Romance of a Road  VERNA B. CAWSTON  It is November 2, 1949. On the summit of Allison Pass in  British Columbia's Cascade Mountains the strains of "O,  Canada" rise in the frosty air. Thousands of men and women  stand on the sunlit roadway on each side of an evergreen-arched  barrier. They include old-timers and well-wishers. Cabinet  Ministers from Victoria, engineers and contractors, Mayors  and delegations from Canadian cities, and neighbours from  across the Border.  Premier Johnson unlocks the "golden" gates at the barrier  and they are flung wide. Charlie Bonnevier, who is presented as the oldest old-timer to  the waiting throng, marches  proudly through the gateway.  "Fifty-four years I've waited  for this day!" he exclaims.  Camera bulbs flash and everyone cheers and most of them  turn to greet him as an old  friend.  Long   queues   of   motorists  CHARLIE BONNEVIER  from the Fraser Valley, Hope and Coastal cities are free to  forge ahead to meet and pass those hundreds of cars which  have made the journey from the Kootenays, Similkameen and  Okanagan Valleys, from the Provinces and the United States.  88 The Romance of a Road  It is the day for which British Columbians have waited for  more than a hundred years. We have just witnessed the official  opening of the eighty-three mile Hope-Princeton Highway. It is  no longer the "missing link" in Interior road history.  There are so many reasons for rejoicing. First, perhaps, is  that travelling time from the fruit belt to Vancouver is cut in  half. Second, farmers and orchardists from hitherto unserviced  areas will have a dollar-saving outlet for their produce. Third,  a paradise of fishing, hunting, camping and skiing grounds is  now accessible from east and west. Fourth, development of untapped mineral and forest resources will be encouraged. Fifth,  tourists from other provinces, who have long grumbled at our  arduous travelling conditions, are now assured of an itinerary  ideal in every way. Sixth, increased traffic means increased  business. These are the major blessings and the minor ones  will multiply as time goes on.  The story of the Hope-Princeton road is much more than  an average cross-section of road-building activity. Its chapters  team with unique data and figures that are peculiarly its own.  Where else will you find an eighty-three mile road that has  taken one hundred and three years to reach completion? Less  than one mile per chronological year! In 1860 it cost the government $380 per mile, which amount was partly reimbursed by  a poundage toll in 1861-62. In 1949 it is a $12,000,000 paved  highway with its original scenic values unchanged. The natural  splendour of primeval forests tiered to the skyline, blue-  shadowed river canyons, snow-filled creeks and Alpine meadows are all "for free".  This is a road which began as a series of Indian trails long  before Captain Cook, Mackenzie, Fraser and Thompson won  their laurels as explorers of this most westerly province.  Through the primitive centuries it served as an outlet in peace  and war for the Smileqamux and Okanagan tribes of the southeastern hinterland and the Utamqt and Coast Salish of the  north and west.  89 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  Now it is Highway Number 3 on your road map. At long-  last it takes its place as a vital link in the Southern Transpro-  vincial Highway, which in turn, where it touches Hope, will  join the Trans-Canada Highway—that impressive Coast-to-  Coast artery of transportation still under construction.  ;jc        ^:        ^c        %  It was the Hudson Bay Company which began it, and the  famous road to Hope has run parallel with British Columbia history ever since. True, its inception was only a tentative ink-  drawn plan born of necessity in 1846. That was the year of the  Oregon Treaty which settled, once and for all, the boundary  question between Canada and United States.  After that date the Columbia River was no longer preferred as a water highway by Her Majesty's servants, since it  now meant travelling through rival territory. Naturally, the  new headquarters at Fort Victoria must find new channels of  communication with their fur-trading outposts in the interior  of B.C.  They sent a party of five men under Alexander C. Anderson to explore and report on favourable routes of travel which  would give access to these posts (especially Fort Kamloops)  from Fort Langley. History states that the Indians were very  hostile in their attempts to deflect Anderson from his purpose.  However, he persisted and his charted results (in part) show  a twenty-five mile stretch east and south of Hope which is  incorporated in the highway of today.  For the ensuing ten years, any intimation of a direct trade  route servicing the Similkameen Valley remained where it began—on paper.  Then during the latter part of 1857, the Company officials  suddenly awoke to the fact that a source of wealth other than  prime furs had been revealed. From October 6 to the end of  the year, 300 ounces of gold (at eleven dollars per ounce) were  acquired by their agents on the Thompson and Fraser Rivers.  The news spread rapidly and in a few months a tidal wave of  90 The Romance of a Road  some 30,000 prospectors was surging in from all points of the  compass.  Great credit is due Governor Sir James Douglas for his  consistent control of the situation. He kept in touch with each  new strike and acted promptly to preserve law and order.  In 1858 the Similkameen River was added to the roster of  gold-bearing sands. Inevitably the urgency for access by trail  —from Hope to the interior valleys and points south—became  apparent.  And now, a further list of famous names begins to infiltrate  the highway's history.  John Fall Allison, for whom the Pass is named, in 1858  was asked by Douglas to locate a more direct route than the  existing Indian trails. This he did and, though his choice was  neglected in later years in favour of several alternative surveys,  it has today resumed its rightful place. The Stevens survey in  in 1922 may be thanked for this honour. Allison Pass (they  reported), with its altitude of 4,400 feet, has the easiest grade  and the least snowfall of any other considered route. (John  Allison was the first settler to take up land in the district of  Princeton, now noted for its mining and range lands.)  Rock Creek gold strike enters the picture in 1860 and the  Royal Engineers, under Colonel R. C. Moody, take over. First,  Sgt. McColl, then Walter Moberly (in 1864 made Assistant  Surveyor-General) and Edgar Dewdney (brother-in-law of Allison and in 1894 Lieut.-Governor of B.C.) are responsible for  the well-built Dewdney Trail. It followed the Anderson plan  closely, then branched north toward the Tulameen River. In  1861 Captain J. M. Grant and his sappers made a good road out  of this trail from Hope to Skagit Bluffs.  In the years that followed, this vital project waxed and  waned with successive governments. Its promised completion  became a chronic plank in the platform of each embryo statesman.  World War I cut  short a worthwhile  advance  from  the  91 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  Princeton terminal of construction. World War II gave it a  definite impetus when it laid out Japanese labour camps at strategic points from Hope to Princeton.  The year 1945 saw the demise of wishful thinking when  contracts with W. C. Arnott and E. Anderson were sanctioned.  They found the job rough, tough and full of unforeseen crises.  But today the charm, comfort and utility of our highway make  full compensation.  In the eighty-three-mile stretch between Hope and Princeton there are no towns or settlements. Several tourist camps  are open for business, with more to follow. A Forestry Park  Service Chalet on Cambie Flats is in the development stage.  It will have eating and sleeping accommodation, and provide  guide-conducted tours over the many notable trails in that  area. At Mile 36 a maintenance depot houses a startling variety  of machines designed to keep the road open to year-round  traffic.  Forty-seven of those scenic miles practically bisects Manning National Park and Game Reserve. Steps are being taken  to ensure that all fire-arms will be officially sealed upon entering the park. And that is a reasonable gesture. Hundreds of  elk and deer roam the parklands. They have become so accustomed to men and machinery that they are entitled to the nth  degree of protection. This legal safe-guarding extends, also, to  the park's flowers, grouse, eagles, bear, goats, beaver and its  fascinating variety of lesser wild-life. You MAY fish in season.  *    *    *    *  And so, today we turned another page in Canada's history.  We are grateful to those who made it possible. Theirs is an  imposing list. The Indian hunters and trappers, the fur-traders  and prospectors, the surveyors and cattle-drivers, the mail-  carriers and irailsmen, the statesmen and road-builders have  given fact and colour to the scroll.  We know, too, that the scenic grandeur viewed from mountain trails, the magic in camping by still lake waters and flash-  92 The Romance of a Road  ing streams, the vast sweeps of timbered skyline and bunch  grass slopes are just as captivating as they were a century ago.  Today, the Hope-Princeton Highway has opened up a new  era of pleasure and prosperity. It is the inevitable triumph for  which the first trail blaze was made.  1950: Since its official opening, the Hope-Princeton Highway has more than proved its worth. Last winter, after the  disastrous snowfall in late December, it was our only source of  communication with the outside world.  The following changes have been made this year within  Manning Park boundaries: The name, Mud Lake Summit  (4,203 ft.), between the south fork of Sunday Creek and Dead  Horse Creek, has been officially changed to Sunday Creek Summit. Certain Crown-granted property has been withdrawn  from the original park acreage. The boundaries of the area, so  withdrawn, follow the south side of Copper Creek to the  height of land and continue along same to the south end of lot  902 (now known as Towers' Tourist Camp), thence to Similkameen River and north to Copper Creek.  Not many of our readers may know that General W. T.  Sherman, with a military escort of sixty men, passed through  the Okanagan on their way to Hope in 1883. The log of that  journey, kept by an aide-de-camp, has been incorporated into  an interesting story by Mrs. Hester E. White, Penticton. This  article will be available for our next Report.  93 The Development of the  District of South-east Kelowna  H. C. S. COLLETT  This district is situated five miles east and south of the  town of Kelowna on what is commonly known as the benches,  and comprises a cultivated area today of 2,700 acres, chiefly  planted in orchard.  The original idea was conceived by Mr. E. M. Carruthers.  who came here from Scotland in 1892 and was in the .employ  of the Lequime brothers in the early days. The Lequimes  came, to the district in 1860 and in the course of time acquired  a considerable area of land, extending from the East Kelowna  Bench down into the present townsite, which was used chiefly  as cattle pasture and haylands. In the year 1897, Mr. Carruthers was employed by the Lequimes as patrol man on their  irrigation ditch running out of Canyon Creek to convey water  to the hayfields on the upper bench. He discovered that there  was a half-section of land, described as the West half of Section  11, Township 26, that had been taken up by two brothers,  George and Stan Kirby. The following winter, whilst in Vancouver, Mr. Carruthers happened to meet Stan, who was very  anxious to sell his quarter of the half-section. He finally sold  to Mr. Carruthers for $250.00 shortly after Mr. Sam Long came  here from Rossland. Mr. Long was a Civil Engineer and he  bought the other quarter from George Kirby. Then he and  Carruthers built an irrigation ditch from Canyon Creek to  carry enough water for themselves. In 1899 Mr. Long planted  some of the first fruit trees in the district.  94 The Development of the District of South-East Kelowna  In 1902, Mr. W. R. Pooley arrived here from England and  he and Mr. Carruthers went into the real estate and insurance  business. They opened an office on Bernard Avenue in a  building commonly known as the Kelowna Shippers' Union  Building, opposite the old C.P.R. wharf. They managed to gain  the interest of Mr. T. W. Stirling, then owner of the Bankhead  Orchard, in the possibilities of growing fruit in the East Kelowna district. Between them they formed the Kelowna Land  & Orchard Company in 1904 and bought all the Lequime estate.  The land was then subdivided into lots ranging from one to  forty acres, roads were constructed from Mill Creek in town  right through to East Kelowna. Irrigation water was supplied  irom the Lequime ditch for the bench lands from Canyon Creek,  the lower lands receiving water from Mission Creek. These  lands were put on the market, many new settlers coming in  Irom the Old Country and the Prairie provinces. By 1908 a  considerable acreage was planted in orchard, chiefly apples of  the varieties that had proven successful in Ontario, such as  Northern Spy, Spitzenberg, Wagner, Ontario, etc., most of  which proved to be undesirable in this country and were ultimately pulled out and replaced by more profitable varieties.  In 1910 it became apparent that the supply of irrigation  water was insufficient, there being considerable loss from seepage through the old dirt ditch. A more permanent and greater  supply was necessary. With this object in view the Kelowna  Land & Orchard Company formed a subsidiary company called  the Canyon Creek Irrigation Company, with Col. W. H.  Moodie, C.E., in charge of construction. A new concrete canal  was built to carry fifty cubic feet per second, and a storage  reservoir and dam were constructed at the headwaters of Canyon Creek (situated at the foot of Little White Mountain).  This, together with the natural flow of the creek, was considered to be an ample supply.  In 1909 the South Kelowna Land Company was former!  by some of those interested in the Kelowna Land & Orchard  95 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  Company. They bought all the lands lying south of the East  Kelowna district, extending to Okanagan Mission. These comprised an area of 4,000 acres. To supply irrigation water for  this, the South Kelowna Irrigation Company was formed. They  constructed a well-designed distribution system with concrete  pipes laid underground, and a large storage reservoir to contain 6,500 acre feet, situated at the headwaters of Hydraulic  Creek at McCulloch (twenty-five miles east of Kelowna). Four  dams and two large syphons were built to carry the water  across Hydraulic and Canyon Creeks, together with a concrete  canal four and on-half miles in length, designed to carrv  seventy-five cubic feet per second to the distribution system.  These works were completed in 1913 and the South Kelowna  Irrigation Company prepared to put the lands on the market  and sold about 300 acres, but when the war broke out in 1914  it became impossible to sell land, thereby cutting off their  source of revenue which finally forced them into liquidation  In 1917 the East Kelowna growers required a further supply of irrigation water, their supply being augmented by turning an additional amount from the South Kelowna Irrigation  Company from the syphon crossing Canyon Creek. This satisfied their requirements for the time being but there was no  guarantee that this arrangement would be permanent. In 1921,  after a considerable number of meetings, the Provincial Government came into the picture and bought out the systems of both  the Canyon Creek Irrigation Company and the South Kelowna  Irrigation Company, for the sum of $220,000.00. This sum was  far below the cost of construction. The South-East Kelowna  Irrigation District was then formed and took over from the  Companies in 1922. It operated under a manager and a board  of trustees consisting of five growers. The members of the  first Board were T. W. Stirling, J. E. Reekie, George Allan,  T. L. Gillespie and R. M. Hart, with Mr. Jones-Evans as manager and Mr. H. B. Everard as secretary.  Under the new arrangement the growers had agreed to  96 The Development of the District of South-East Kelowna  make an annual repayment to the Government covering a period  of twenty years and to operate and maintain the systems in  good repair. But to do this, the cost rose sharply from $6.00 per  acre, as charged by the companies to $18.00 per acre, which  was more than the growers could afford to pay out of the low  returns being received for their fruit. Finally, after many delegations to Victoria, a permanent settlement was made in 1938  whereby the Government agreed to reduce the annual payment  to the sum of $4.00 per acre per annum, with a renewal reserve  fund,being set up to provide for the replacement of worn-out  structures over a period of years. This charge varies in accordance with the renewal requirements and ranges from $3.50 to  $9.00 per acre in some years. There is also a toll charge for the  quantity of water used by each grower, which varies in accordance with the. type of soil. This charge ranges from 75^ to  $1.25 per acre foot. The 1938 agreement spread the period of  repayment over thirty years. This has proved quite satisfactory  to all concerned as the systems have been greatly improved by  the replacement of permanent constructions with either concrete or steel flumes, and it is anticipated that the final repayment will be made in 1968.  The original settlers who pioneered in the fruit industry  should be remembered, as the growers of today are greatly indebted to them. They were Sam Long, Fitzgerald, MacKenzie,  the Lloyd brothers, Dart, Reekie, the Smith brothers, Mansfield,  Gillespie. Gilmour. Pyman. Leader, Taylor, Hart. Errington,  Marshall, Shaw, Spencer, Seddon. Aitkens, Rose, Hill, Salvage, etc. These men created one of the most successful fruitgrowing districts throughout the Okanagan. Many have passed  on or sold out. Left today to carry on are Dick Smith, the sous  of Mr. Fitzgerald, and Mr. W. R. Pooley. They are on their original holdings still and reaping the benefit of their forebears'  industry. Long may they carry on the good work.  97 Tom and Mina Ellis  (Notes on their lives written by KATHLEEN W. ELLIS)  It is unfortunate that little has been recorded of pioneer  days in western Canada by those who actually lived in them.  Doubtless, the builders of history in those days had little time  to spend in writing their experiences, picturesque as they may  seem, especially when viewed in retrospect. In any event, it falls  to the lot of later generations to piece together what information is available in scant records and living memories.  To choose those whose contributions in any age merit special mention is always difficullt. However, with Penticton is  inevitably associated the name of Tom Ellis, as he was known  through the Vallev. In "The Romance of British Columbia,"  written by Arthur Ansley, it is recorded that: "Tom Ellis it  was who in 1874 planted the first orchard in the Okanagan Valley, who in 1890 built the first steamboat, "The Penticton",  which plied the Okanagan Lake (Capt. T. D. Shorts being its  first master), and who in 1892 located and partly developed  the site of Penticton".  It might have been added that Tom Ellis was one of the  two first white settlers in Penticton in 1865-66, the first storekeeper, and first postmaster officially appointed in 1889 and  one of the first magistrates in the valley. He also built Penticton's first Protestant church, now known as The Memorial  Chapel, and part of St. Saviour's church in Penticton—a lot of  "firsts'" for one man.  The old timers had much in common, especially in respect  to the qualities which enabled them to carry on. They were  98 Tom and Mina Ellis  TOM ELLIS AND HIS BRIDE,  1872  99 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  f  ___   ..,.- m  1   Q  O £ M  CO       -J u  Ee) R K c  te-l "-1 CO  TJ  cd  00  _3^fa  Ox,    [J Tom and Mina Ellis  stalwart in mind and body, most of them rugged individualists,  possessed of vision and courage, the milk of human kindness,  and personal integrity upon which business of the early days  was based. Agreements were made by word of mouth and were  more binding than the most formidable legal documents of  today and executed with less time and cost. My father had all  these qualifications together with a stern sense of justice, colored  of course, by his own judgment. Obstacles and opposition were  challenges which he welcomed. He drove hard bargains and  kept them, but lent and gave freely to those he felt were in real  need. He often helped people who were in trouble, but always  with the proviso that no one must know of this "weakness".  There is a diary in the provincial archives in which Tom  Ellis made daily entries for his first nine months in Canada.  These came to an abrupt end on October 30, 1865. The story of  his life from then on is recorded only in the memories of those  who knew him.  In the diary, facts are stated in the briefest way possible,  such as: Sailed from Southampton for British Columbia on the  Royal Indian Mail Steamer, "Shannon", on January 17, 1865  and arrived in Victoria on March 10, where snow was lying  deep". No mention is made of the journey of almost two months  duration. We know that this venture was financed by money  borrowed from his father, all of which was repaid.  One pictures the early days as ones of thrilling experiences.  However, as far as the diary takes us into its confidence, there  was much that was monotonous and frustrating, as well as  challenging, in those days.  My father commented frequently upon exposure to all sorts  of weather, upon being tormented by mosquitoes, and on the  long periods of weary waiting for the bare necessities of life in  order to carry on. There were long treks over unbroken trails,  wading in snow from 1 to l/2 feet deep. A journey on foot  from Hope to Princeton was accomplished in five days. The  rough mountainous country between Princeton and the Oka-  101    v THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  nagan Mission had to be traversed at a time when it was known  that the Indians were congregating at the head of the lake—  then the home of Charles and Forbes Vernon, after whom the  town of Vernon was named later.  Apparently horses and cattle were scarce, and the price  high, most of them being brought in from Oregon. Tom Ellis'  first venture in horse dealing was the purchase of a horse for  $70. Regarding this he comments: "I was afterwards advised  that I had paid far too much for it." No doubt he had.  The greatest of all trials seems to have been the long  periods of solitude, as one or other of the party returned for  lood or to undertake some special mission. This is indicated in  the following entries which appear in the Ellis diary:  August 11, 1865 (Somewhere in the Kootenays) : "I am  now in the employ of the Government in charge of stores while  the Kootenay trail is being made. Have been alone for ten days  and am so tired of this solitude, with nothing to do. I would  not mind so much if I had a good book to read. The mosquitoes  are so bad, bothering me the whole time. They even make it  impossible to sit anywhere in comfort." August 19: "I am thinking a good deal of home (Ireland) today, as I do most days,  especially when I am here and alone. It was this day last year  that we had such a jolly dance at Leskanore" etc.—the lonely  yearnings of this young immigrant to the new world. My father  used to tell us of a later experience when he did not speak to  a white person for three months. No wonder that in after years  he was a peculiarly silent man, never using two words where  one would do. However, his words were effectively chosen,  especially when his ire was raised!  In this record of Tom Ellis' first year in Canada, frequent  reference is made to the contacts with men whose names have  been passed down in history and who were already engaged in  the development of the country. These included Mr. Peter  O'Reilly, afterwards Judge O'Reilly, a friend of the family in  Ireland and one to whom my father brought a letter of intro-  102 Tom and Mina Ellis  103 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  duction; the Honourable Edgar Dewdney who subsequently  became Lieutenant Governor of the North West Territories and  then of British Columbia. According to diary entries he it was  who blazed many of the trails in the interior. Mention is made  also of Sir Matthew Bailey Begbie, Judge Haynes. Mr. Allison  and others.  lEom Ellis did not stay long in the employ of the Government.' Together with Andy MacFarlane, a partner of those  early days who came out with him from Ireland and in a few  years returned there, he turned his mind to stock raising. Mention is made of the .purchase of a band of heifers, seven in number. His first venture in agriculture apparently began with the  growing of a patch of potatoes near the Haynes estate at  Osoyoos. Several anxious visits to this patch are recorded.  May 25, 1865 it is stated: "We got as far as Penticton today. I had a good look at the place but did not like it although  everyone says that it is a very good place for wintering cattle."  So it was not love at first sight which influenced Tom Ellis  to return the next year to make his home in Penticton. True  to form he kept his objective in sight and made his decisions  accordingly. He grew to love Penticton with a fierce and possessive affection as its possibilities unfolded before him. His ownership was unchallenged for many years. Trespassers were summarily dealt with, although visitors were always welcome. Two  uninvited persons once, without permission, pitched their tents  in "the meadows" (now part of the town of Penticton). A  primitive form of justice speedily overtook them when their  camp was raided and upset and the ducks which they had  shot were removed as booty. In distress, these "visitors" appeared next day to present a letter of introduction and their  tale of woe to my father. Forthwith they enjoyed a week's hospitality in the Ellis household .although I do not recall that the  ducks were served!  Like most men, my father did not go far without the aid  of a woman, one who was truly his companion and helpmate  104 Tom and Mina Ellis  for the thirty-nine years of their married life. Together they  faced hardships and sorrows and disappointments, as well as  years of happiness and satisfaction. In 1872, Tom Ellis brought  his gay and lovely wile from Ireland to a two-roomed cabin in  Penticton, complete in all respects—except for the roof. However, before the winter winds blew this was in place. This  cabin eventually grew into the Ellis homestead, which afforded  shelter and hospitality to all travellers until Penticton could  boast other and more pretentious accommodation.  Here in Penticton, for many years far removed from medical and other aid, my parents brought up their family. Distances  which no longer exist with modern conveyances were real obstacles in the early days. On one occasion my mother did not  speak to a white woman for nine months. However, there was  no monotony for her. The babies came in regular succession  at two year intervals, with the exception of my two brothers  who were separated by one year only. The rest were girls—  seven of them. If this caused any disappointment to my parents  they never showed it. In fact my father was inordinately proud  of "my girls". He frequently boasted that they were as good  cowboys as the best and there was keen competition to serve  in this capacity and to ride after the cattle over the benches and  hills throughout the valley, where orchards now flourish.  In the earlier days the family vacation took the form of a  trip over the Hope Mountain on horseback to provide for the  safe arrival of the new baby. This usually took place in New  Westminster, although three of us were born in Penticton, my  father officiating as doctor, nurse and midwife, with the help  of an Indian woman.  The Indians at first naturally resentful and distrustful of a  white man encroaching on their domains, soon became fast  friends and allies. Work both indoors and without could not  have been carried on without their help; the best gave this  cheerfully for seventy-five cents a day.  The   Indians   learned   from   my  parents,   as   well   as  the  105 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  priests, how to improve their homes and mode of living. In  trouble they instinctively turned to Tom Ellis for advice and  assistance. On one occasion an Indian sought on a murder  charge and for whose capture rewards were offered, gave himself up to my father in order to be ensured of justice at least.  Steps were taken to obtain adequate representation for him  when tried.  My mother prescribed for the illnesses of the Indians and  others, being guided by a large volume known as "The Doctor's  Book". Our medicine chest grew with practice and the family.  When my father broke his leg, my mother diagnosed and set  it according to direction in The Doctor's Book. Physicians reported later that a perfect union resulted.  Nursery governesses and later the resident clergymen helped with the education of the children, who eventually one by  one went to schools in England. Two major tragedies in the  family were an accident while driving a short distance from  Kamloops and the death of my brother who was killed at the  early age of twenty-one when breaking a horse. As the result  of the first, in which eight members of the family were injured,  my mother and sister were hospitalized in Victoria for nearly  nine months. I was a child when both these occurred, but can  well remember that my brother's death was a permanent sorrow  in our home.  Religion and politics (the latter in the more worthy interpretation) were of almost equal importance in my father's life.  He was conservative to the point of resisting any change until  most thoroughly convinced of its value. To convince Tom Ellis  was no easy task. It would be strange indeed if the wide powers  and responsibilities he carried had not made him somewhat of  an autocrat, both at home and abroad. Clergy of all denominations were family friends and invited to hold service in the  little church, until such time as a resident clergyman was  appointed. My father then built the Parsonage, later the home  of Dr. and Mrs. R. B. White. This was the first house erected  106 Tom and Mina Ellis  A MEETING OF THREE PIONEERS  Left  to  right—Tom  Ellis   (reclining),   Hon.   Edgar  Dewdney,   E.   J  Tronson, Vernon. Picture taken on Mr. Dewdney's farm at Sooke   BC  in 1908.  107 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  between the town of Penticton and the ranch house. The latter  stood within what is now the new Fairview Subdivision. A  large juniper tree alone survives to mark the exact spot.  Like most early settlers, Tom Ellis worked unremittingly.  The ranch itself was a home for the family and left largely to  the management of tried and trusted foremen. Large gangs of  men were employed during the haying season. My father's attention was centred on the raising of cattle. His herd of seven  heifers grew and multiplied, as did his early investment in land.  Ranches at Osoyoos, Okanagan Falls and the Mission were  added, with grazing rights covering vast areas. He was in the  saddle at all hours and slept in the hills when necessary. However, he seldom failed to make home for the week-end and as  tar as possible Sunday was a day of rest with his family.  Exposure and hardships took their toll later in my father's  life, when he walked only with the aid of crutches. He rode  long after he was unable to mount a horse in the usual way  and even then chose horses that less skilful riders avoided.  The concluding years of Tom Ellis' colourful life were  spent in Victoria, where he retired from cattle raising in 1905,  but enjoyed many other interests not the least of which was the  multiplication and growth of his grandchildren. The last years  of his life were overshadowed by the very sudden death of my  mother at the comparatively early age of sixty-three. My father  met this great sorrow with fortitude, as he had done all others,  but those near to him knew that the light went out of his life  with her passing. The World War, too, and the early reverses  in it, were shocking disillusionments to him and his generation.  However, his interest in living and in his family responsibilities  continued until his own call came on February 1, 1918.  Only those nearest to us know the best, as well as the  worst, that is in us. There was a lot of the best in Tom Ellis.  His memory is perpetuated in the creek, school and street  named after him in Penticton, but more vividly in the minds  and hearts of those who knew him as a generous and loving  108 Tom and Mina Ellis  husband and father. Very fitting is the verse which appears on  the window dedicated to his memory in the Memorial Chapel,  of which he was the builder:  1.    "Get thee out of thy country, and from  thy kindred,  and from thy father's house unto the land that I will  *   show thee" . . .  Ages later and in a far distant land, Tom Ellis, the eldest  son in a family of seventeen children, when only nineteen years  of a_re. heard and answered this same call.  1.    Genesis XII, 1.  The Boys on the Horse  A picture of "The First School Jitney" for Okanagan Mission school, appears on Page 60. It may be of interest to many  to learn the identity of the young riders—nine on one horse.  They were, reading from the horse's head—Alex Casorso, Fred  Berard, Leo Casorso, Joseph Casorso, George Small, Joseph  Berard, Henry Berard, Harold Small and Peter Casorso.  ARTICLES TO APPEAR IN FUTURE REPORTS  Nickel Plate Mine   Harry Barnes  History of Rutland-Black Mountain Schools   H. W. Hobbs  Pioneer Days in Peachland   J. P. Parrot  109 The Nez Perce Indians  E. V. de LAUTOUR  The history of these Indians travelling from Nespelem  on the Columbia River in Washington to the Coldstream  Ranch at Vernon, for the seasonal work of "hop-picking", is  interesting in itself to those who remember seeing them as they  passed up and down the Valley.  The first we of the Ranch knew of the Indians was the  unexpected arrival of some forty or so. They called at the  Ranch office and asked for permission to set up camp and go  to work for us. They may. or may not, have come over the line  into Canada as "visitors". However, they had arrived in all  their picturesque costumes and we were glad of their help. They  kept together in the camp, selected the ground carefully where  they put up their large teepees in regimental fashion and made  all the necessary arrangements as to sanitation and garbage  disposal. (Here I might note that before the season was over  we found that their camps were moved every few weeks to  fresh ground.) These fine, clean, well-dressed people certainly  knew how to pick hops. For a number of years they had done  this work in Southern Washington. We found all this out as  the years went by.  At first they were very uncommunicative and pretended  they could not talk English. You would ask a question in  English and the Chief would say. "Llalo Kumtucks Boston-  man wau-wau hyas Kloshe mika wau-wau Chinook." They  talked to the Shuswaps, Nicolas, Thompsons and the Coast  Indians in the same jargon—though they used "the Moses"  talk to the local Okanagans. Chinook was quite OK for us, as  110 The  Nez  Perce  Indians  almost everyone used it more or less in those days, even the  Chinaman.  At the close of the first season's work they came to the  Ranch office and asked that if their work had been satisfactory  would we send a man down to their Fourth of July celebration in any year we needed them for work in the hops. At that  date they had all their friends and relations together, and definite arrangements could be made as to picking dates and the  number of pickers needed.  (NOTE—Hop-picking- generally started during the first  week of September.)  I am not sure which year the above visit occurred, but it  was close to the beginning- of the present century.  About 1904 I made the trip down to the Columbia, by  saddle horse, via Omak Lake and thence to Nespelem. Made  a deal with one of their important men—by name, Charlie  Wilpoken (sounded softly)—to meet them at the Boundary  and bond them through and to arrange an escort from Osoyoos  to Vernon.  Before this was done we had made arrangments with  Ottawa to allow these workers to come into Canada. Ottawa's  main provision was that their horses were to be counted at the  line and that we put up a bond to guarantee the same number  would be returned on their leaving Canada. We saw to it that  this was done. It may be said here that they showed a fine  business streak re these horses. There would be a number of  splendid saddle horses well broken and trained; these could  be sold, for what was then good money, at around forty-five  to one hundred dollars, each according to their customers. Then  enough five and ten dollar cayuses were picked up from the  Blacktown Indians to keep their official and bonded number  intact for their return to the South.  The number of pickers varied in different years, but would  average about one hundred. Wilpoken was always in charge of  details and received one dollar per head for selecting them,  111 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  besides an honorary bonus for his supervision of his flock. His  wife and young daughter between them would also make about  three dollars a day, picking.  What might almost be called a cavalcade, particularly from  Osoyoos north, was always, well-organized. There were mostly  saddle horses and a few hacks, as these people kept well together, allowed no stragglers in passing through the little settlements of Peachland, Kelowna or Penticton. If supplies were  needed a few persons were selected to buy for the camp as a  whole. When putting up camp the teepees were always lined  up like army tents. When camped they had a regular guard  in charge. They also brought a few young men as hunters. For  these last we were able to get a "visitors' permit" to shoot  game in British Columbia.  Each year the arrangments had to be made for the current  year. Llence, if we saw we should need the help from Nespelem,  we had to begin thinking fast about the middle of June, because there were other preliminary trips to be made to the  Thompson and Fraser Rivers and to the Nicolas. Okanagan  and Similkameen Indians were a very small item in the hop  camp. Very few from Penticton, Inkameep or the Similkameen  ever came, and those who did were only looking for a holiday, in most cases. There were a few excellent pickers from  the head of the Lake. However, though no local pickers were  ever refused work, they were not encouraged to apply, mainly  because they knew too many people locally and many liked  to visit rather than work. Those from a distance, like Nicola  or Lillooet, came to work and make a stake towards the forthcoming winter. Those from Nespelem definitely came for several reasons: They "Hyiu tikki King George illahie". They were  "skookum tum-tum" about "King George men" whom they  considered an honest people. The old leaders considered  "Boston-man hyiu cultas" because he had not played the game  after these unconquered people had made a treaty with some  general who evidently had no power or ability and whose lies  112 The Nez Perce Indians  had never, even now, been forgiven.  Here I might say I regret that the stories some of the old  men told me had not been noted down at the time—particularly  of one nick-named "old McLeod", a magnificent type, big, and  straight as an arrow. He had been one of those real warriors  who had slipped north across the Rockies and through Montana to Fort McLeod to volunteer and assist the British during  the North-West Rebellion.  These Indians from Nespelem also came up, not only to  see British Columbia, but for our woollen goods—more about  this anon.  Finding the making of the preliminary arrangements by  saddle horse and so forth far too slow, I finally took to the  train, i.e. Vernon to Seattle, thence by G.N.R. to Adrian where  a local farmers train crossed overhead. This local went out via  Coulee City and Almira to Davenport through Wilbur. I got  off at Almira. This train arrived very early in the morning,  generally well before seven a.m. I waited until an eating place,  of sorts, opened for some breakfast and then at once got the  mail stage to Nespelem. After a long morning drive (heat and  dust tremendous) we arrived at the top of the hills looking  down into the Columbia River valley and river—at this point  called Tipso—well named because one felt one had not far to  go before tipping over into the canyon below. We lunched  here, then started down. Finally when we began to notice the  sun getting low the stage zig zagged down to the river at a  barren point called Barry, where the Columbia looked to be a  mile wide. The ferry here was a small scow operated on a  cable by the river's current.  I can still see that swift river, always very high at that  time of year. Everything was floating down: uprooted trees,  remnants of log jams on which might be broken boats, parts  of cabins or lumber shacks, etc., etc. We wondered all the time  what would happen should the scow be fouled and apparently  only the well-rusted cable was between ourselves and King-  113 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  dom Come. However, we finally got to the other side and in  due course arrived, by dark, at the eating place in Nespelem,  where one could always manage to get a good clean bed. If  not too many passengers had been on the stage one would not  be forced to "double up" for the night.  The next day being the great holiday of July 4 I attended  the celebration. That was some show. Special permits had been  given concessionaires for the various things that go with celebrations. At that, many of these were operated by the Indians  themselves. But, the main things were the horse races, powwows and Hal-a-Hal games. All the horses appeared to be good  and provided interesting races. Even some of the Klooch races  were good and sometimes funny; nevertheless these Belles  could ride and curiously enough these women riders were not  always young. Many elder ones were in the race for the fun,  and sometimes they were not light-weights either.    .  Meanwhile Wilpoken would circulate among his friends—  some of whom were from Colville, some from old Fort Spokane and even Walla Walla. He would then introduce some  eight or ten men to me, saying, "This one has five pickers. This  one ten," and so on.  At that time the date was made to meet them at Osoyoos,  (where I would have the necessary business details arranged),  on or about August 30th or September 1st, as the picking would  be starting from September 3rd to 7th. One year it rained so  much that they did not arrive at Osoyoos at all, because they  were still trying to get their hay in. So that year all our trips  and trouble had to be charged to profit and loss.  Many people from Vernon to the border remember seeing  these Indians both coming and returning. They noted their  costumes, manners, horses, etc. They never got into any trouble  with provincial or municipal authorities and wherever they  camped they left no trash behind.  Getting these people up to Vernon sometimes caused a  funny situation. For instance, on one occasion, it was neces-  114 The Nez Perce Indians  sary to send an inexperienced man to the Boundary to check  them in. The young man sent knew little of trails, nor could  he talk Chinook. I think the young braves had lots of fun at  his expense. He was a very nice chap, but very, very helpless.  At Penticton the Indians put most of their women and children on the boat and the men rode over the hills, taking with  them the spare horses, riding to Kelowna on much the same  trail that the West Kootenay Power and Light line covers now.  Well! the young man slept in the Penticton Hotel and when  morning came found he had NO Indians. The boat was gone.  It had left about 6 or 6.30 a.m. The Indians had entirely disappeared. He was very distracted. Where were they all? Someone  told him that about daylight the Indians had taken off over the  range east of the townsite. "Oh dear, oh dear! The poor fellows  will be lost!" The young man got really wild about this time  and lit out over the hills trying to track them. He then got  lost in the timber around Shute Lake or thereabouts. However,  he struggled on until he "found" himself. We never could get  the full details of how he actually got back to Vernon. All I  ever knew was that the Indians were in camp and settled down  ready for work several days BEFORE their "escort" turned up!  We asked him, once, how he lost his contacts and why, having  attended to the formalities at Osoyoos, he had not then taken  the boat at Penticton and come back to let us know how many  pickers were coming. "Oh!" he said, "I had to keep in contact  with them all the time. Those were my instructions when I  left." He continued "I even climbed trees trying to locate them  and to see where I was and also to get my direction!"  At one Fall Fair in Vernon these Nez Perce Indians put on  quite a display. Men, women and children were all in regalia.  Everything was done to entertain the whites, dancing, a pow-  pow, etc. They picked up some money, too, with horses entered in some of the races. One year they brought up a racehorse which was good, but they had no jockey whose weight  would allow him to ride according to the Race Committee  rules. They finally found a man who could almost make the  115 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  weight, without the saddle. After a lot of wrangling, it was  agreed that he should ride bareback. He just put a light cloth  and surcingle on the horse. The race started—the horses were  bunched at the half-way—then their horse simply flew through  them into the lead and was at the finish, lengths and lengths  ahead of the field.  What amused me was the Indians and the bookies. Our  friends took no chances on that score. They had plenty of  money, so had bet quite heavily and had been given "long  odds", as no bookie could imagine a horse winning with a bareback rider. So as soon as the horse got in front, a couple of  big husky young braves were posted at each of the bookies (two  offices) front and back exits and all the other exits to the track  and grandstand. These men stayed at their points of observation until all bets were fully paid. It was a day the bookies never  forgot.  These Indians always had money. Possibly some sort of  Treaty money, as they always had a number of twenty-dollar  gold pieces each, their own and those of their relatives and  friends who had not come with them to B.C. This money was  brought up for the purpose of getting Hudson's Bay blankets  and other woollen goods in Canada, that at that time, were too  costly in their own country, even, perhaps, not procurable.  After picking-time and the "pay off," with their earnings  and their gold, they spent several thousand dollars at the  Vernon Hudson's Bay store, all on good materials. After their  first year or two, Charlie Simms, the manager in Vernon, used  to get blankets and stroud by the bale, ordered from Glasgow  by boat via Victoria. He would take the order before the Indians  went home, for delivery the next season. Charlie knew they  wanted good material and that none could be too high class  for these cash customers. And we must not forget that Charlie  could also tell all kinds of stories in Chinook to keep his customers in a good humour, as he well knew that an Indian who  was "skookum tum-tum" was a good spender.  116 The Nez Perce Indians  I think hop-picking ceased in Vernon after 1912. That  was the last year that I made the Nespelem trip. The hops were  being replaced by apples and, too, I was in other business after  that year.  Latterly, when going through Nespelem en route to Coulee  Dam or Spokane, I have not had a chance to look around but  I do not see any more long Hair Men. Males and females always  had their hair done in two long braids. This really used to  appear to suit their particular type, especially the men. It did  not in any way detract from their dignity, but added to their  general appearance, and made them distinct from the B.C.  Indians.  About the time of their last trip to British Columbia, I  believe Wilpokin collapsed when returning south, but I have  no particulars in this. July, 1912, was the last I had anything  to do with Indians in any way. I do not know who met them at  the Boundary even that year, as I was out of Vernon and on  the prairies a great deal, and was fast losing my Indian contacts.  Here is an explanation of some of the terms used:  Kloochman—Female.  Nothing to do with  the term "Squaw-  man".  Stroud—After the British manufacturing town of that name,  and a trade name for heavy, strong woollen material, used  by the British Army for red, green and navy blue coats,  etc.  Hyas Kloshe—Klosh being good; Hyas being big; combined  could be better.  Hyiu—much  great,  many.  Tikki—Thing you like or want.  Skookum—Big, strong, good, etc.  Tum-tum—Think.  King George—British. (King George of the Boston Tea Party).  King George Man—Canadian or Englishman.  Boston Man—Yankee or American in general.  Illahie—Town, home or land.  117 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  Cultas—Bad. Generally no good.  Mika—You.  Nika—Me or I.  Yaka—They.  Kumtuks—Understand.  Wau-wau—Talk.  E. V. de LAUTOUR.  The Indians had, of course, no written language and the  spelling variations, used by us can be unlimited. The spelling of  these Chinook words is as shown in the Dictionary of Chinook  jargon, published by T. N. Hibben & Co.  NOTE—Referring- to the Nez Perce Wilpokin or Wil-  pockin. who is supposed to have collapsed when returning  south from the Coldstream, perhaps he was the Nez Perce who  was found dead under the hitching-post outside Kruger's stopping-place at Osoyoos. The McDonalds were running the hotel  at the time. Will Haynes. who was constable at Osoyoos,  phoned Dr. R. B. White, Coroner at Penticton, telling him this  Nez Perce Indian had been found dead. The Doctor asked, "Is  he dead?" Will Haynes replied, "He's stiff." The Doctor said,  "Bury him". So in spite of the wires being hot between Ottawa,  Washington and the Indian Department, the Indians took the  bod}' in a boat across the lake to the east side, and buried it on  the hill just below the obelisk on the boundary line.  118 Nez Perce Indians  Hop Picking at Vernon  PATRICK BENNETT  In the late summer of 1912, I was asked by Mr. Ricardo,  manager of the Coldstream Ranch at Vernon where I was employed, to go down to the United States border in order to convoy a band of Nez Perce Indians. They were treking up from  Idaho and entering British Columbia to pick hops at the Coldstream Ranch. I started out in the early morning on a horse  bought from Felix Casorso, of Kelowna, and reached Penticton  that night—no mean feat for a horse. The next night I spent at  Camp Fairview, a small mining camp on the hillside west of  Oliver. The next morning I rode to Osoyoos and the Nez Perce  arrived that day.  The Canadian Customs officer, Mr. D. Coristine, stated  that I would have to wait until he had received word from  Ottawa that a $25,000 bond had been.posted there. This was to  ensure the return to the U.S.A. of the several hundred horses  that the Nez Perce were bringing- with them. The burning  question was, how was he to know that they were the same  horses? At that time, the Coldstream Ranch branded a number  on the nigh forefoot of each of their horses, just below the  "coronet". I pointed this out to him on the horse which I was  riding and he produced a small brand marked E-R. (Or was it  G-R?) I told the Nez Perce chief, through the interpreter, that  his horses would have to be branded in this manner. It caused  quite a lot of consternation among the tribe, but it was eventually agreed to and the branding was done.  Still no word from Ottawa re the $25,000 bond. The Indians  were running out of food, so they asked permission to hunt. I  119 Nez Perce Indians Hop Picking at Vernon  could not permit them to hunt deer but told them they could try  to get rabbits. After hunting all day from horseback, the hunters came in with one jack-rabbit! That night came word that  the Indians could enter Canada, so we prepared to move first  thing in the morning.  I must describe these Indians, as the Nez Perces at that  time were about the finest example of the Plains Indian in  existence. The men stood well over six feet in their moccasins,  wore their hair in two long braids, usually one over each  shoulder. They lived in teepees and wore buckskin clothing,  blankets, etc. There was not a half-breed in the whole tribe.  Fine-looking people, both the men and women. They brought  their whole families along and travelled on horseback, in democrats and wagons, in which their teepees and other belongings were carried.  In a very orderly manner we broke camp early in the  morning. The women did the work, the men cared for the  horses. In no time at all we were strung along the road for  five miles or more, keeping on the move most of the day and  stopping for a bite to eat only at noon. That evening we camped at Trout Creek, just south of Summerland. The horses were  held in a pasture, camp was made quickly and, luckily, the kik-  ininnies (kokanees) were running in the creek. The bucks  strung their nets across the creek while the women made camp.  In a short time we were enjoying fried kikininnies.  Early next morning we were headed for Westbank (opposite Kelowna) where two ferries were operating at the time.  The regular ferry was operated by Mr. Hayman, who later had  the Government ferry. The second ferry was run by an Englishman, Captain Hanky. As I had been told to get the best price  for the crossing, and his was the lowest, Captain Hanky met us  at the landing at 7 a.m. with his small craft, which had a scow  on each side. It was run onto the beach, planks were put out  from the scows and the loading of Indians, horses, wagons and  their belongings began. By this time Indians were really piling  120 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY-1950  up on the beach. We unloaded on the Park Beach and this work  kept up all day, until 6 p.m. they were all across.  As they came off the scows, I had strung them along  Lawrence Avenue on both sides of the road facing north. When  all were ashore they stretched from the park along the length  of the street.  I had made arrangments with Mr. Wollaston, who managed the Belgo-Canadian Fruit Lands Co. for the Indians to  camp out on their open range above the old Vernon road in  Ellison. Off we started and were soon pouring through the gate  and making camp. Mr. Wollaston had warned me that there  was little feed on this range and he was right. As soon as the  horses were turned loose, they fanned out and headed south  looking for feed. It looked as if they might have to go to Idaho  to get it.  After talking to the Chief about the next day's trek to the  ranch, starting time, etc., I rode down to Mike Hereron's  ranch, below us, to spend the night. Mike had to assist me off  my horse, "Mac", as I had contracted rheumatism.  Next morning I thanked Mr. and Mrs. Hereron for their  wonderful hospitality and at 7 a.m. rode up the hill to pick up  my charges. I hoped to complete our trip back to the ranch that  day. On arrival at the Indian camp I found all the equipment  and teepees had been struck, packed on the wagons and democrats and were ready to move off. But there were no horses,  except those held in camp for the riders to round up the main  band. The riders were searching then and it was not until 10.30  a.m. that we would see the horses coming over the hill from  the south. On questioning the wranglers, I learned that the hungry horses had travelled through several fences until they  came to a number of haystacks inside a fence. They broke that  down and proceeded to have the first good feed they had had  in several days. The riders assured me that they had repaired  all the fences as they returned. I hope that the Coldstream paid  for the hay.  We got underway and arrived at 6 p.m. at the ranch where  121 Nez Perce Indians Hop Picking at Vernon  the Indians were to make their home for the next two or three  months. Their teepees were erected in rows similar to an army  camp. After a good meal they soon settled down for the night,  but not before their usual evening ceremony was performed  at sundown. Stepping out from their teepees and looking- to the  west, they prayed to their God.  The Nez Perces were the most picturesque people one  could meet. They withstood all efforts made by the white people  to undermine their moral standards. These standards were of  the highest, for they knew the difference between right and  wrong, and had the intestinal fortitude to uphold what they  thought was right. To see these people on parade at State  social functions, such as the time the Duke of Connaught (a  Governor-General of Canada) visited the ranch, was to behold  a sight never-to-be-forgotten. The meeting of the Duke with  the Chief was full of dignity and mutual respect. The regalia  of the Nez Perce tribe, on this occasion, was something to compare with, or even surpass, the opening of Britain's Parliament  and Lord Mayor's Day in London.  These people left a lasting impression on me. I wonder  how they are faring now. We could have learned a lot from  them; instead, we brushed them aside. Times have changed  since that short time ago. Three days hard travelling, it was  then, from Osoyoos to Coldstream Ranch—125 miles. Are we  better off today? I doubt it. People have changed a great deal,  too. They never locked their doors then, and had a code that  was lived up to by everyone—or else! Prairie chicken covered  the ranch in large coveys and every thicket was full of grouse.  Deer, of course, thrived along the hillsides. This was (and is)  some country.    NOTE—The Nez Perce Indians fought with Sitting Bull  against Custer at what is known as "Custer's last stand". They  are the last American tribe of Indians to be on a reservation.  This trip recorded above was also the last time they came to  Canada.  122 Mrs. John Fall Allison  ALICE ALLISON  WRIGHT  Many years ago, on August 14, 1844, to be exact, in the city  oi" Colombo, Ceylon, Susan Louisa Moir was born. She was  destined for a long life-span of adventure in a far country, a  newly-discovered land of perennial forests, primitive people  and uncharted mountain trails. She was to know the loneliness  of pioneering, the friendship of peer and rancher, and the pleasure of enjoying, with her children, nature at her prolific best.  At least fifteen years were to elapse before she was to come  to British Columbia. Her father died before she reached her  fourth birthday and her mother moved to England. Until she  was fourteen Susan attended a private school in London, and  was taught—as all girls of her situation were—the fine art of  being a lady. There was nothing in her curriculum about patching- overalls, cleaning brook-trout, bandaging mangled fingers  and killing rattlesnakes—all of which situations she must cope  with before she was well into her twenties.  She left England with her mother (now Mrs. Glennie),  step-father and family in the summer of 1860. Their passage  took them by way of the Royal Mail route. It was a slow and  complicated procedure. After the ocean voyage on a steamship,  they crossed the isthmus of Panama on a very primitive train.  Susan's most vivid memory of this part of the journey was the  hundreds of alligators crawling beside the tracks. They took  ship to San Francisco and Portland, changed ships there and on  to Victoria—very glad that the tiring travel of many weeks was  over. Their household goods went by sailing vessel around the  123 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  Horn. A piano they brought with them is now in the museum at  Vancouver.  Mr. and Mrs. Glennie had letters of introduction to Governor Douglas, who gave them much useful information about the  new land and advised them to go to Hope, B.C. It was then a  flourishing little town, with good pre-emption land in the  vicinity. The famous steamship, Beaver1 took the family up  the Fraser to Hope.  A few years prior to the arrival of the Glennie family, a  young medical student from Leeds Infirmary, England, had  arrived in British Columbia (via California) to take part in  whatever exploration and adventures should present themselves. He was John Fall Allison, who, in 1858, was sent by  Governor Douglas to locate a new trail from Hope into the  Similkameen Valley. He was so taken with the open country  east of the junctions of the Similkameen and Tulameen rivers  that he returned the following year and pre-empted large blocks  of land there.  It was while on a business trip to Hope that he met Susan  Moir and in June, 1868, they were married.  Their honeymoon trip to their new home was indeed a  novel one. She was the first white woman to ride over the Hope  trail.2 She rode side-saddle, wearing her long riding-habit  which looped up to a button on the side, as was the prevalent  style. At one point where the narrow trail emerged from a  canyon on to a small plateau, she was astonished to see rhododendrons blooming in gorgeous profusion. These were plants  she had seen only in the cultivated gardens of England. The  Hope-Princeton highway of today runs through these same  rhododendron flats.  On their arrival at Similkameen3 (then known as Allison's  and, later, Princeton), Mrs. Allison found her new home to be  much like an old-time hunting-lodge. It was a rough-hewn log  house, but its five rooms were high-ceilinged and spacious. Deer  heads decorated the walls, and tanned hides of deer, bear and  124 Mrs. John Fall Allison  buffalo4 covered the plank floors. The large fireplaces of cobblestones and clay were reminiscent of the Scottish Highlands,  where she had spent many summer holidays.  This building, was, at this time, to be their temporary  home, as Mr. Allison had previously established a large ranch  at Sunnyside (now Westbank). His partner, Mr. Hayes, lived  there the year round. The ranch was stocked with purebred  Shorthorn Durham cattle. These were wintered at Sunnyside  and driven to the Princeton bunchgrass ranges in May of each  year, remaining until late autumn.  Susan Allison was the first white woman to live on the  west side of Okanagan Valley and moved to her Sunnyside  home between 1870 and '71. She and Mrs. Eli Lequime. who  lived across the lake at the Mission, were the only white women  at that time, in the entire Valley.  For several years Mrs. Allison accompanied her husband  on his cattle drives from Sunnyside to Princeton. Her last trip  of this nature came to a necessitated halt at the Hudson's Bay  Fort at Keremeos. Here, her fourth child, Beatrice Jane, was  born. She and her four children remained as guests at the Fort  for some months. After that time a new log house was built at  Sunnyside. The shell of it is still standing, minus the  kitchen.  Twice a year the beef cattle were driven over the Hope  mountains to the market at New Westminster. There would be  several other business trips each year for supplies, etc. Then  Mrs. Allison would be alone with her children for weeks at a  time.  At first, the solitude and strangeness of this vast, new  country, the uncommunicative Indians, the almost daily emergencies, that had to be met were conditions that could easily  have appalled her. But knowing that resourcefulness and self-  reliance are the first laws of survival, she soon learned to accept  and value her experience. To her, the beauty, novelty and adventure of it all compensated for the hardships and privations.  125 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  It was fortunate that she had so many interests and hobbies : astronomy, geology, botany, a stud}' of Indian life and  her writing. Besides her many duties, she found time to write  poetry, essays and articles—a fine contribution to Canadian  literature—occasionally using the pen-name of Stratton Moir.  She learned much Indian folk-lore which she re-narrated  in blank verse. But first she had to win the confidence of these  reticent people. A few were kindly disposed from their first  meeting. Others were, in turn, hostile, suspicious, aloof, then  friendly. Mrs. Allison won them over by minding her own  affairs and being impartially kind and courteous to them.  She collected and pressed wild flowers and medicinal plants  in a large book, designating their Indian and botanical names  and remedial values. (This book was later taken to Ireland.)  She was keenly interested in the statistics and events of  her district. Following are excerpts from a notebook kept by  Mrs. Allison in the early '70's :  "Settlers few. Lequimes came to the Mission across the  lake in 1860 or '61. Kept a good trading-post, also cattle and  horses. Mrs. Lequime was mother, doctor, nurse, and never  seemed to tire. Eli kindly and good-natured. They have three  children "  "Fathers Pandozy and Richard and Brother Surel established the Mission on the left bank of the lake about 1859-60.  good, kindly men. At the time we went, they had a good,  young orchard."  "1874—A few more settlers are coming to the Valley. Mr.  O'Keefe and Mr. Greenhow, Mr. and Mrs. Postill, but to the  opposite side of the lake. I have heard of other newcomers that  I do not know personally."  "Visitors few but interesting—Joe McKay, Peter O'Reilly,  Professor Dawson, Father Pandozy."  Mrs. Allison and Mrs. Lequime, though fast friends, were  seldom able to visit. There was the lake to be crossed and  only rowboats as a conveyance for themselves and their small  126 Mrs. John Fall Allison  children. In most seasons the lake deserved its Indian name of  "the lake of treacherous waters".  In 1874, Mrs. Thomas Ellis arrived as a bride from Ireland.  Her husband's fruit and cattle ranch occupied the valley between Okanagan and Skaha Lakes, now subdivided into the city  of Penticton. Mrs. Allison was delighted to have another white  woman within visiting distance. From Sunnyside to Trout  Creek was a comfortable day's ride for her, the balance of the  trip  being completed the following forenoon.  Of their fourteen children, eight were born at Sunnyside.  There was never a doctor or nurse, only some Indian woman  and Mr. Allison in attendance at the births. His early medical  training stood him in good stead when necessity compelled him  to deliver his own children.  In May, 1880. much to Mrs. Allison's sorrow, it became  expedient to leave her beloved Sunnyside and move to Princeton.  The above commentary is a brief outline of Susan Moir  Allison's life up to that year. It cannot be concluded without  mentioning her outstanding sense of honour which permeated  all her personal life and business dealings. Many a battle she  fought (with her pen),with the powers-that-be for justice to  the Indians. Mr. K. Lamb, former Archivist in Victoria, has  noted the government preservation of many eloquent, forceful  letters she had written on their behalf. With her apperception,  refinement and indomitable courage, Mrs. Allison was well-  suited to meet the exigencies of pioneer life. Her kindly interest  in her fellow-man was active up to the time of her passing, at  ninety-two years of age, on February 1, 1937.  FOOTNOTES  S. S. Beaver—the first steam vessel to be used on the North Pacific  coast, built in 1834-35, on the Thames, London, for the Hudson's Bay  Company, at a cost of $125,000.  Marsden—Earlier   that   year,   Mrs.   Marsden   walked   over   the   trail.  127 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  She was terrified at its narrowness and refused to ride. The Indians  in the party carried her effects, which included a rocking-chair and  a dozen chickens. She found the land of Similkameen too wild and  left within a short time.  Princeton—Sometime between 1860-70, one of the Royal Engineers,  the Hon. Maurice Portman, surveyed that land north-east of where  the present site of Princeton is located. He called this north-east  portion Princeton, in honour of the Prince of Wales, (later King  Edward VII). For some years afterward, people still used the name  of Similkameen.  Buffalo—The Blackfeet Indians traded with the Okanagans, exchanging buffalo skins for food, etc.  25th ANNIVERSARY REPORT  Another page of Okanagan history was recorded on September 8th last, when the Okanagan Historical Society marked  the twenty-fifth Anniversary of its founding, Sepembter 4th,  1925, at a dinner held at the Vernon Legion Hall. Seventy-five  members and visitors representing districts from Kamloops to  Princeton were in attendance.  After Chairman J. B. Knowles' words of welcome, G. C.  Tassie, Vernon, gave a resume covering the life of the founder  of the Society, the late Leonard Norris, Vernon. Dr. John C.  Goodfellow, Princeton, Secretary of the Society, spoke on the  "Romance of the Similkameen." Burt R. Campbell, Kamloops,  President of the British Columbia Historical Association, reviewed the historical and museum activities throughout the  Province.  Following the signing of attendance register, each member  was introduced to the assembly, and his or her district named.  In this way a spirit of friendliness pervaded the meeting, reminiscent of the early days of the Okanagan pioneers. An original  copy of Report No. 1 under date of September 10th, 1926 was  on display. Three of the 61 original members were present at  this Silver Anniversary. These were G. C. Tassie, Vernon; F.  M. Buckland, Kelowna, and H. J. Blurton, Enderby. Gathering  closed with the singing of Auld Lang Syne.  128 Reminiscences of the Old  Days  Mrs. H. A. FRASER  My parents, Mr. and Mrs. Augustus Schubert, were early  settlers in Manitoba before coming farther West. Rathfriland,  Ireland, was the birthplace of my mother. She was Miss Catherine O'Hare and was born on April 23, 1835. Father was  born March 7. 1824, in Saxony, Germany.  They were married in United States and a few years later  moved to Manitoba, where they bought a farm right in the  heart of what is now Winnipeg. At that time the Indians were  not all friendly and mother never felt safe. Two years later  when the Overland Expedition party was being made up to  come to British Columbia, my parents decided to join them.  They then had three children, Augustus, Mary and James.  The party of about 150 came overland from Fort Garry to  Kamloops, travelling by oxcart and horseback. Needless to relate, it was a very dangerous and difficult journey. Their route  lay throug-h the Pass where the C.N.R. now runs from Edmonton to Kamloops. It was several months before they arrived at  their destination, on October 14, 1862. That same day my sister,  Rose, was born.  The family remained all winter at the Hudson's Bay store  and in the spring of '63 they moved to Lillooet. That fall, father  decided to go to Cariboo to mine. At that time people had the  gold fever and were greatly excited over each new find. Father  never became lucky. What he took out he usually put back into  129 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  the mine hoping to find wealth. At intervals he would come  home to Lillooet, but he would again return to his mining.  In 1870, January 6, my brother, Charles, was born, making  five children for mother to care for. In 1872, January 18, I arrived, choosing a cold time to come and, when a few days old,  developed whooping-cough, which was prevalent in the village.  In those days a new baby was inspected by everyone, which  explains my misfortune. I became a great nuisance, keeping  everyone up all night and working all day. The lady who was  attending my mother and me told me in after years she often  thought I had choked to death and sometimes wished I had.  But I surprised them all by staying very much alive. She always  called me her girl. I guess she forgave me for causing so much  trouble, for it wasn't my fault.  We remained at Lillooet until 1887. The Government had  built a boarding and day school for both boys and girls at  Cache Creek. Mr. George Perry was sent to ask mother if she  would act as matron and house-mother for the girls (about  eighty). She gladly accepted the offer, taking with her my  brother, age seven, and myself, age five. My other brothers  and sisters were in various places earning for themselves.  The school-building was a grand place. We remained there  for six years. The pupils came from as far away as New Westminster, Nicola Valley, Kamloops, Lillooet, Cariboo, Clinton  and Hat Creek. Many families living on farms around Cache  Creek preferred their children to board at the school. It really  was a splendid training as well as an education for those boys  and girls. A few years after we left, the school was dismantled  and all the material sold by the government.  When I look back on my stay at that school, I think it was  marvellous how smoothly it was run. No disturbances of any  kind and all the girls loved my mother. I had no more freedom  than any other girl; in fact I got more correction than most  and probably deserved it.  Our entertainment was very simple. We had music and  130 Reminiscences of the Old Days  every evening we marched into the large dining-room and sang.  Miss Laurence was the pianist and now, as I think of it, I consider that she had a great deal of patience. Some of us would  be out of tune and time, but we enjoyed it all.  Every Saturday we went hill-climbing, for the eminences  really were hills, not mountains. Sunday service was held in the  schoolroom, attended by both girls and boys and a schoolteacher. We had school lessons in the very large schoolroom,  boys and girls together; but playgrounds and living-quarters  were separate. The schoolmaster had control of the boys.  We had regular hours for everything—music, study, getting up, meals and going to bed. After all the girls had gathered in the dormitory, mother would wait till we were ready for  bed and knelt to say prayers. All the beds were in white  some single, some larger. I must admit that I sometimes looked  around and it was quite a nice sight to see the girls all kneeling in their white nightdresses. Then mother would see that  we were all comfortable and say. good-night. I have never forgotten that part of bur life; it made a great impression on me.  In the meantime, Mr. A. L. Fortune, another Overlander,  who came with the Schuberts, had settled in the Spallumcheen  near Enderby. He, too, had been up in the Cariboo but, not making any success of mining and not liking the rough life, he  came here. He advised father to leave Cariboo and come to  Spallumcheen to take up a farm. So, in the year of 1879, he  came and settled at Round Prairie, now the home of Dr. McKechnie.  On June 28, 1883, mother gave up her position at the  school and, with my brother and me, came to our new home.  We left Cache Creek at 4 p.m. by stage, with Mr. Alex. McDonald as driver. The first night we stayed at Savona, the  second at Kamloops, and the third night at Grand Prairie, now  called Westwold. Then on July 1 we arrived at O'Keefe's in  time for dinner. At 3 p.m. we started for Round Prairie. I began  to think we were surely entering a wilderness. I had never be-  121 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  fore seen so many trees, as Cache Creek was in the dry belt  with lots of sage brush and prickly pears. Finally. I said, "I  see the roof of a house". Mr. McDonald said that it was a straw-  stack. Of course I didn't know what a strawstack was. He said  that our house would not be that big, that it was quite small.  Sure enough, when we got to the farm and I saw what a small  house it was, I wondered where we would sleep. I had never  seen such a small house. After living for six years in a large  school, I was very lonely and missed my many friends. I found  the silence almost unbearable, but I do believe that being alone  drew mother and me into closer intimacy.  Mr. and Mrs. Frank Young's children were our nearest  playmates. I had known Mrs. Young before she was married  and remember their wedding at Cache Creek. May Young,  now Mrs. Pringle, was born there, in the same home where  her parents were married. I became a constant friend of Arthur  and Vance and I loved their mother. Occasionally, Mr. Young  would yell at us youngsters but we got used to that and paid  little attention.  Across the valley in Pleasant Valley lived Mr. and Mrs.  Crozier, and their children, Lucy and Roddy, whom we had  known in Lillooet. Lucy was born there, Roddy at Pavillion.  Lucy is now Mrs. Whitehouse. We were very good friends but  in those days the distance was so great. We travelled in wagons,  the wheels of which were made from logs. It was a very uncomfortable way to travel and I usually landed home with a  sick headache. Mother had no desire to go as she felt she had  done her share of such rough journeying. Sometimes we went  by horseback. What a difference today! Automobiles and their  grandeur, aeroplanes, beautiful ships. How I enjoy the modern  machinery. At one time the horses did all the heavy work. Now  when I see them having a truck ride I feel they are enjoying  modern ways of getting from place to place, too.  When I left Cache Creek, I had thought, "How fine! No  more school or study." But I soon longed for school and was  132 Reminiscences of the Old Day.  delighted to learn that one was in prospect. Mr. Dan Rabbit  was the first teacher in the building loaned by Mr. Young.  There were not enough children to make the required average  as the school was too far from some of the homes. So, on alternate weeks the pupils attended school in a building on Emke's  farm at Pleasant Valley. Some of us were able to go to both  schools. After a time, as more settlers moved in, a school was  opened at Round Prairie. Recently, Mrs. Steele Fisher made a  painting of that log building and it is truly beautiful. The surrounding trees make a suitable background.  In 1897, April 15, Mr. Fraser and I were married. We made  our home at Armstrong- in the same house where we are living  now. We celebrated our Golden Wedding anniversary in 1947,  and were grateful to the many friends who called on us that  day. We have one daughter, Mrs. Donald MacDonald, and two  grandchildren, Norman and Jeanette. They live about two miles  from us.  I, Catherine, am the only surviving member of the Schubert family. Mary died in 1880, father in 1910, mother in 1918,  Charlie in 1936, James in 1938, Rose in 1942, and Augustus  (Gus) in 1946. I have travelled across Canada from coast to  coast and have been as far south as San Diego, but I have  never seen any place that I would choose in preference to the  Okanagan. I love it best. We will remain here and travel  right on together to the end of the road, God willing.  133 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  (D  O  C   o  co pq is  _H     CU   CO  CO   M   -  o  re  l-\    OS  IS     0rn  < **"!*  o  C  >»  3 a  a  <H    CO  O   <-i  W)  OJ  o  So  MX!  _^  CD  o  134 The Peach Orchard  Summerland  GEORGINA MAISONVILLE  Harrow, England, that ancient town of learning centred  around the famous old school for boys, was the birthplace of  many of our original Okanagan settlers. Like the crusaders of the  Middle Ages these more modern adventurers went—not to the  east, but to the west—to Canada. In the late 1880's and early  '90's, western Canada was still thought of in terms of grizzly  bears and savage Indians and the promise of adventure with,  possibly, wealth, drew many young men to the Valley of  Youth—to the Trout Creek district (now Summerland) and  the vicinity of the "Peach Orchard".  The Okanagan Valley Highway No. 5, on its route from  Kelowna to Penticton, goes through West Summerland. The  town is situated on a wide flat hemmed in by mountains. Giant's  Head, Conklin and Rattlesnake mountains. Leaving the flat,  the highway continues winding down a long hillside beside the  small stream Aeneas, named after a local Indian chief, Aeneas  Pierre, of the early days. Aeneas Creek is bordered in spring  time with the lovely fragrant syringa bushes, a beautiful sight  with the hillsides beyond splashed with golden sunflowers.  Where the road nears the lake there is a park-like spot known  as "The Peach Orchard" and only a few people, now-a-days,  know how it got its name.  The level open space on which the town of West Summer-  land stands was known formerly as Siwash Flat for the reason  that the Indians had a small reservation there, along the borders of the stream, and found it a pleasant place to camp. This  135 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  reservation was later taken over by Mr. James Ritchie along  with the property of the Garnett brothers (after whom Garnett  Valley was named). He called the townsite Parkdale. but later  changed the name to West Summerland. The adjoining property had been bought by George Nigel Barclay from Alex.  McLennan, who was one of the first of the pre-emptors in the  district. This property extended from Giant's Head up to the  reservoir in Prairie Valley. Later, in 1894, Mr. Barclay purchased the David Lloyd-Jones property, from the old English  Church yard to Crescent Beach, and included what is still  known as Jones' Flat.  Among the young men who came, in the late 1880's and  early 1890's, to Trout Creek district were many whose names  are familiar to Valley residents. Bob Faulder, R. Deans, Harry  and Jim Dunsdon, Granville Morgan, Monty Kendall and  others. Granville Morgan, who still resides not far from the  banks of Trout Creek, arrived in Vernon via C.P.R. in March,  1893. in one of the severest winters ever known in the Valley.  The lake was frozen over and no transportation was immediately available, so he decided to walk to Kelowna. After trudging-  through the snow for many hours without seeing a human being, he came upon s sleigh track on Long Lake which he followed. About four o'clock in the afternoon he met a man on  horseback who told him that if he followed the track it would  bring him to the Postill ranch. He was received there with  hospitality and in the morning he rode into Kelowna on a load  of hay. He stayed at the Lakeview Hotel (in later days called  the Mayfair Hotel and recently torn down). After several days  the lake thawed out and he was able to hire a rowboat from a  half-breed who rowed him across to Westbank. This same half-  breed also rented, for five dollars, a horse to take him to Trout  Creek. As they rode along they saw cattle by the roadside  dying of starvation, also deer by the hundreds. This was a novel  sight to a young Englishman and he got off his horse so often  to chase the deer that the half-breed threatened to turn around  136 The   Peach   Orchard—Summerland  and take the horses back to Westbank. After arriving in Trout  Creek district, he stayed for two or three weeks with the David  Lloyd-Jones family and then went to work for Jim Gartrell and  later worked with George Barclay.  George Barclay was one of the largest landowners in the  district at that time, having recently bought out the holding of  David Lloyd-Jones who moved to Kelowna. In 1892 Mr. Barclay built a log house just under the shadow of the Giant's  Head. After a trip to England in 1894 to raise funds for the  purchase of the Lloyd-Jones property, he moved the Lloyd-  Jones home over in front of his own house. His own house was  about 12x14, had only a dirt floor, but with improvements became a substantial, comfortable home which is still used as a  dwelling today, some sixty years later. It is now a duplex and  is to be seen on the station road near the Baptist Church. The  house was lived in by J. M. Robinson and his family when the  Summerland Development Company bought the Barclay  property. Later it was taken over by Mr. Jim Ritchie, who in  1906 brought his bride from Manitoba to live there.  In the year 1890, there were not many settlers in the  southern part of the Valley; Tom Ellis at Penticton, Jim Gartrell, Arthur Day and Duncan Woods, to mention a few of those  best known.  The story is told that, when the decision was made to  throw open for pre-emption some of the land which had formerly been cattle range, Duncan Woods heard that the registry  would be open in Vernon on a certain morning. He walked all  day and all night from Trout Creek to Vernon, arriving on the  doorstep of the Court-house in good time to be the first to enter  his pre-emption claim on Trout Creek Point. Later in the  morning, when others intent on the same mission, arriving by  less strenuous means of locomotion, found he had outwitted  them, there were many dire threats. He remained secure in his  possession, however, and only in 1930 did he consent to subdivide his holdings there.  137 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  The story is also told, that after Mr. Barclay had disposed  of his holdings, he had about 700 head of cattle. These were  driven up the lake and on to Kamloops. About six miles south  of Fintry there is a narrow defile known as the Golden Gate.  The cowboys toiled all day driving the animals through this  gorge. In the evening, worn out with the struggle, the men  lay down on the beach and fell sound asleep. In the morning  they wakened to find that the cattle had all wandered back  through the gap and were well on their way south again.  There was plenty of hard work in those early days hewing  a livelihood out of a new country, but with all the hardships  they found time to enjoy life too. They danced in each others'  homes to the fiddle, accordion or mouth organ, anything that  would make a tune. They laughed with and at each other.  They laughed at the industrious little woman who liked to get  up bright and early on Monday mornings and do her washing  on the back porch. She could be heard a long way off as she  rubbed the soapy clothes up and down on the wash board,  keeping time to "Sweet Beulah Land". They got up concerts  and on one memorable occasion the concert was held in a tent.  The chairman was seated on the very insecure stage with not  much room for the chorus or the chairman's chair. Little by  little he kept edging his chair nearer to the edge of the stage,  where he could get a better view of the Floradora beauties, until  over he went head first into the sawdust along the front of  the stage. They organized riding trips into the hills, usually on  cayuses newly brought in from the range. One party just out  from England organized a fishing trip into the hills. They managed to stow away everything on the pack horses except two  enormous pails of strawberry jam which were left over. They  couldn't possibly go away without strawberry jam for their  toast so they slung the two pails, like John Gilpin's wine bottles,  by a wire across the broncho's back. They started off but the  cayuse didn't like the rider perched on the top or the buckets  of jam. He started to kick; the rider fell off and the tops of the  138 The  Peach   Orchard—Summerland  jam pails flew away. In and out among the rest of the riders  he went running and bucking, sloshing everything and everyone most generously with strawberry jam.  Jim Gartrell had been experimenting for some time with  peaches and apples with considerable success, so, in 1893,  George Barclay decided to plant a peach orchard. The miners  at Fairview and Camp McKinney were only too willing to pay  a good price for fresh fruit. The site chosen for the orchard  comprised about an acre between what is now the George Gartrell home, near the lake on the highway, and the Charles home.  About one hundred trees were purchased from a nursery near  Oroville, U.S.A. Granville Morgan and Bob Faulder cut cotton-wood logs for the fence not far from the present day C.P.R.  wharf. There was no road so they dragged them to the top of  the hill and rolled them down. They built a Russell fence—the  idea for which had been introduced from Ontario by Arthur  Pike, a brother of Mrs. Jim Gartrell. Even a Russell fence,  however, could not keep out the deer. There was a great deal of  difficulty, also, in irrigation of the Peach Orchard so that the  trees soon died out. Only the name remains to remind us of  one more worthwhile adventure.  139 Karl (Charlie) Richter  Karl Richter, more familiarly known as Charlie and "Buckshot", was the eldest son of Francis Xavier Richter and Lucy  Richter, of Keremeos, B.C. Charlie was born in Lower Similkameen, December 24, 1869, and died April 25, 1949. He is  buried in the family plot at Keremeos. In 1900 he married Ada  Loudon and they had one daughter, Bertha. Both have predeceased him. In 1930, he married Julia, widow of the late  Joseph Marsel.  In the early part of the century, Charlie and Kit Summers  owned a butcher shop in Princeton. Charlie, later, moved to  Hedley, where he operated a similar business. In 1903 he sold  out to Jack Edmonds and George (Tenas) Cawston. From  there he went to Osoyoos and ran a hotel (Kruger stopping-  place) there for several years.  During the terrific blizzard in the winter of 1906-07, he  kept the hotel inmates alive by killing jackrabbits for food.  Their only other sustenance for a few days was liquor and  frozen potatoes. The late Edward Bullock-Webster, of Keremeos, was marooned there on this occasion and used to tell  how he tried, on three consecutive days, to battle through the  storm to Fairview on his favourite buckskin horse. Each time  he was forced to turn back.  Charlie Richter and his brothers, (Will, Joe, Ed, Hans),  were well-known throughout the country from Rossland to  Hope, where they drove cattle for the local ranchers. Charlie,  particularly, favoured racehorses, and his pet racer. Dandy,  was as locally noted as his master. Charlie was, also, an expert  140 Karl (Charlie) Richter  at building Russell and "A" fences. In running the line, it is  said that his eye was as true as an engineer's instrument.  As a superlative naturalist, hunter and guide, he was in  frequent demand for survery and hunting parties. Mr. R. H.  Pooley, Speaker of the House in Victoria for a great many  years, was one of his regular customers.  When Graham Island was topographically surveyed by  Chas. de B. Greene, Charlie was retained as chief guide. This  island is the refuge of the famous wild herd of Shorthorn cattle  and Charlie, of course, was able to supply steaks for his party.  His life was most colourful and adventure-filled and,  happily, he had the great gift of relating his experiences so  that the- listener, too, lived through every moment of the telling. His passing leaves an unfilled niche in local history. His  friends were legion and one of these, Mrs. Ed. Lacey, has written for us a farewell memorial.  So Long, Buckshot!  (Written on the day after his funeral)  KATIE LACEY  Yesterday in Keremeos we said, "Good-bye" to an old  friend—a man who had many friends, as the crowds who followed him to his last rest testified. The warm spring sun shone  down on the quiet Similkameen Valley where he had been born  eighty years before and whose every nook and trail he knew  so well. Only the passing of an oldtimer, such as he, could have  brought out the kind of people who filled the little church and  overflowed to the street beyond. Truly it was a cross-section of  the early life of the district in that simple gathering.  Old and young, they were his friends and all faces reflected  their sorrow. There were fine business suits and the last word  in spring styles and there were faded cotton shirts and patched  jeans; coats and shawls that had lost track of style these many  141 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  years; beaded buckskin and gaudy handkerchiefs. All present  had come to pay their last respects to a tillicum who always had  a kind word for everyone, and who was at home with them no  matter what their walk in life.  And on that last ride to the small cemetery that nestles at  the edge of the range he loved so well, where many more of  these oldtimers sleep, and over a road he had travelled with  his saddle-horses throughout the years, even the familiar trees  along the way seemed to be nodding a kind farewell. In the  long procession there were big cars and small cars, 1949 and  1929 cars (some even older), following him to his final resting-  place.  Around the family plot we gathered—his old friends and  new, hunting and fishing friends, town and country friends,  Indian friends and white friends. And, so, we said, "Good-bye"  to "Buckshot". May he find good hunting and many beaver  where he has gone.  September in the Okanagan Hills  September in the Okanagan Hills:  I sit and feast on food almost divine.  Contemptuous of all earth's famous grills,  For Nature's luscious bill-of-fare is mine.  I dine on rainbow trout, and breast of grouse,  I drink where living water springs and spills,  I sleep, secure as in my Father's House—  He made September and the Okanagan hills.  D. E. HATT.  142 The Soft Fruit Industry  F. W. ANDREW  The soft fruits are appreciated by practically everyone and  there are several reasons for this. They can all be eaten raw,  they are full of luscious juice rich in vitamins and minerals,  their season is shorter than that of apples, pears and the citrus  fruits, and, because suitable soil and climate in Canada are  limited, they are regarded as a semi-luxury. They can all be  canned. A few can be dried—apricots, peaches and prunes—but  this has not been found to be commercially successful in the  Okanagan Valley. Strangely, our soft fruits are seldom featured  on the tables of our hotels and restaurants. They do not lend  themselves readily to the making of beverage juices, although  the Summerland Experimental Station has produced a palatable apricot nectar. Many householders now make use of  frozen food lockers to freeze peaches, cherries, berries, etc., instead of canning them.  Peaches were first planted in this Valley at Osoyoos in  1879. They were imported from Washington (then) Territory  and were shortly followed by cherries and plums. In the  eighties, peaches were growing at Okanagan Falls. Mr. G. N.  Gartrell states that his father obtained some of these and planted the stones on his ranch at Trout Creek Point. In the nineties,  he sold the fruit of these seedlings in Vernon at twenty-five  cents per pound. He also planted cherries and plums.  J. M. Robinson and associates, after a mining venture  failed, ate some seedling peaches on the Lambly ranch, just  south of Trepanier Creek. He then had an inspiration. "Why  not grow more peaches here, grow them in commercial quan-  143 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  tities ? Canada can grow peaches only in the Niagara peninsula,  and western Canadians must have them shipped over a long  haul or import them from California. And if we can grow  peaches, why not apricots, plums, cherries and grapes?" So  he formed a company, bought the land known now as Peachland, sub-divided it into 5 and 10 acre lots and installed an  irrigation svstem. These lots were planted with all the fruits  of the temperate zone. As the trees were nursery stock, the  fruit was better than that of the seedlings, and through trial  and error, the better varieties predominated.  In 1903, Summerland was sub-divided into fruit lots, generally 10 acres in size, and besides apples and pears, all varieties  of soft fruit were planted and on a larger scale than in Peachland. The Penticton and Naramata areas were planted a little  later. In 1908, the Kaleden district was sub-divided and a large  portion was planted to soft fruit. There were no other major  plantings until the Oliver district was opened up after the First  World Wrar, primarily to make homes for veterans. Keremeos  began to plant soft fruit at about the same time, although a few  orchards had been planted previously. At Oliver, it was found  that the soft fruit matured 10 to 14 days earlier than at Penticton and Summerland, a fact that gave them an advantag-e  of earlier market prices. As the Oliver district improved, the  Osoyoos area was similarly developed until now it is practically  a continuous orchard from Oliver to the international boundary.  It is true that some peaches and apricots grow in the northern  half of the Okanagan Valley, but the crops are more uncertain  than in the southern half. Cherries, plums and prunes can be  grown commercially throughout the whole Valley.  While grapes are really a soft fruit, they are not usually  included in that group because they have seeds instead of a  stone. The first grapes were planted at Okanagan Mission  in the early sixties. Grapes are now grown throughout the  whole valley, and every Italian family has a good vineyard.  Each family (of the older ones) requires from 100 to 200 gal-  144 The Soft Fruit Industry  Ions of wine per year as it takes the place of tea and coffee.  They use the fermented juice only and add no sugar. Large  crops of grapes are grown around Kelowna. The Calona Wines  Limited market the following wines: White Grape, Red Grape,  Red Dry Port, Muscatel, French Vermouth, Italian Vermouth,  Champagne and Sparkling Burgundy as well as two kinds of  Sacramental wine.  The peaches first shipped included the following varieties:  Alexandra, Belle of Georgia, Crawford, Elberta, Hale's Early,  Triumph, Northern Rose and Yellow St. John. Some of these  were not good shippers and were eliminated, and in 1949 the  varieties shipped included the following: J. H. Hale, Rochester, Vedette, Valiant, Veteran, Elberta, Fisher, Jubilee, Glamor  and a lesser number of many others. Two new varieties of much  promise are the Redhaven and Spotlight. They are semi-  freestone, ship well and are good canners. The 1949 peach crop  amounted to 1,830.000 packages. According- to figures released  by Ottawa in 1935, Canadians were eating annually the same  weight of turkey as of peaches. That is probably not true today  if we remember the price we had to pay for turkey last Christmas, and the greatly increased consumption of canned peaches.  The city of Penticton is doing more than its share to boost the  popularity of our peaches. For the last three years it has been  holding a three-day Peach Festival which facilitates the sale  of peaches by the case to the public.  When it comes to apricots, the south Okanagan has a  monopoly, for they cannot be grown commercially in any other  part of Canada. At first it was difficult to sell "cots" to the  public which had only known the dried California product.  Now, there is a ready market for the fruit to be eaten raw, and  for home and commercial canning. The principal varieties shipped are Wenatchee Moorpark, Blenheim, Tilton. Royal, Perfection and Kaleden. In 1949, over a half million packages were  shipped. The returns to the growers from apricots and peaches  in the same year were $2,762,579 (B.C. Tree Fruits Ltd, 1949  145 The  Peach   Orchard—Summerland  Report).  Plums do well throughout the Valley. There are numerous  varieties but the principal ones are: Burbank, Yellow Egg.  Damson, Peach Plum, Green Gage, Bradshaw and Pond's  Seedling. The only prunes grown commercially are of the Italian variety. The 1949 returns for plums and nectarines were  $150,897 and for prunes $816,021.  The first cherries planted included such varieties as Morello, Whiteheart, Oxheart, Royal Anne, Governor Wood, Olivet  and Black Tartarian. Later the Bing and Lambert captured  the market, although the others continued to be grown both  for processing and for pollenizing. The Van cherry, originated at  the Summerland Experimental Station, is growing in popularity. Besides having a good flavour and being a good shipper  and canner, it is less liable to split after June rains than other  varieties. The 1949 returns for cherries were $923,186.  The rapid increase in the value of processed and canned  soft fruit can be seen in part by the following figures, as supplied by ihe Provincial Department of Agriculture:  1922  $     51,230  1948      1,316,075  In 1913 the Dominion Department of Agriculture began  experiments in Summerland with pre-cooling soft fruit before  handling and shipping, and this was found to improve the keeping qualities. Cold storage has been in common use since 1923  and this permits a more orderly marketing, especially if the  market is glutted or the weather unfavourable.  In the early days of soft fruit, it was packed by the individual growers and the results were anything but uniform. It  was difficult to sell in Vancouver, markets with such packing,  in competition with Washington growers who offered a better  pack and a reasonable certainty of delivery. Sales were made  by individual growers, frequently by express, until the packing  houses grew in the volume of their business. One bizarre  method existed for a time when the firm of Stirling and Pit-  146 The Soft Fruit Industry  cairn of Kelowna would survey an orchard, offer a price for  the whole crop and would then send in their own pickers and  packers. Such methods were short-lived and could not compete  with the co-operative methods that have since developed.  The depression of 1922 hit the fruit growing industry very  hard. The orchards were producing larger crops and prices were  dropping. After a shipper filled his private orders, there was  nothing to prevent him from shipping the balance of his fruit  to brokers on consignment, and they, in turn, sold it to the  wholesalers regardless of the costs of the growers, the packers  and of transportation. Judging from the prices the consumer  sometimes had to pay, there was a strong suspicion of collusion between the brokers and wholesalers. Lack of cold storage  favoured the quick release of soft fruit which frequently glutted the market. Sometimes a grower received nothing for his  fruit or he might get a "red ink" bill to cover packing and shipping charges. There had been some attempts at co-operation.  Representatives from the various fruit districts had formed the  Okanagan United Growers (O.U.G.), but this organization was  unable to handle the catastrophe of 1922 and went into liquidation.  The broker-wholesaler combination had pushed the growers around enough to make them do some hard thinking. Evidently there had to be stronger co-operation in order to deal  with established evils. After many meetings and much discussion, the majority of the growers formed co-operative associations in the various districts, and representatives from these  associations formed the Associated Growers of B.C. Ltd. At  the request of the organized growers, the B.C. Legislature,  under the guidance of the. late Dr. K. C. MacDonald of Vernon,  passed a Natural Products Marketing Act which prevented  cutthroat selling within the Province. American soft fruit matured before the Canadian product, and when the American  crop was large, the surplus was dumped on our market. Our  fruit, especially peaches, was forced to meet their prices which  147 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  were frequently below the cost of production in Canada. So  the Dominion Government was induced to pass an Antidumping Act. The wholesalers circumvented this until it was  enforced more efficiently. The proceeds from the sale of the  different varieties were pooled in order to prevent one district  taking a temporary advantage of the market. Better packing  and better inspection were demanded, and the shipment of unpopular varieties was discouraged, so that claims and rebates  might be reduced to a minimum.  The Associated Growers naturally met with opposition  from their old enemies. In the depression of 1929 and the early  thirties, every means that the distributors could devise was  used to force the prices still lower. Any effort to fix minimum  prices was complicated by secret rebates granted by some shippers. Some of the more advanced thinkers contended that there  would be no real control over the market until all sales were  mside through a single office and that control could exist only  if there was a contract between the grower, the packing house  and the sales agency. So, in 1939, the B.C. Tree Fruits Limited  was formed to act as the sole selling agency and a three-year  agreement was prepared for the three parties to sign. This solution seem to have been satisfactory for the contracts have been  renewed regularly since then.  Cold storage has greatly increased throughout the Valley  in the last ten or twelve years, and this gives the consumer of  soft fruit a slightly longer season. Canning companies now operate in all Okanagan towns and in Keremeos, and they take a  large percentage of soft fruit if it is up to their required  standards. Canning prevents the market from being swamped  and rupplies the public with a good food product throughout  the year. The canning companies turn out such an excellent and  uniform product these days that it is a question whether it is  profitable to can fruit at home if the fruit and the sugar have  to be purchased retail. It should be remembered that the companies are permitted to  sell three grades  of  canned goods:  148 The Soft Fruit Industry  Standard, Choice and Fancy.  Scientific advertising is also proving to be of value in the  distribution of our soft fruit. The necessity of a liberal proportion of fruit in our diet is being stressed, and the consumer is  being educated to the proper season for each variety, and the  various methods of serving it. While some consumers complain about the high cost of fruit in the more distant parts of  the country, others are ready to prove that for health reasons  they cannot afford to do without it.  In 1932 a company that has undergone many changes and  is now known at the Sunoka Fruit Products Limited was formed in Summerland to process glaced cherries. F. E. Atkinson,  of the Summerland Experimental Station, an authority on  fruit canning and processing, guided their early efforts until  they produced large quantities of this type of cherry which  was marketed under the wholesaler's name. There are two  methods of processing cherries at home that are interesting  and not expensive—namely, cherry-olives and maraschino  cherries.  There is room for several improvements in the marketing  of soft fruit. First, a cheaper package. The steady increase in  the cost of wooden box material may make it necessary to use  corrugated board or plastic containers. Second, sale to tourists.  It should be made easy for visitors to purchase a small amount  of fruit for immediate consumption or to order it by the case  to be shipped to their homes or to their friends. Third, the  fruit should be shipped as close to full maturity as possible,  in order to bring the best flavour. This will require quick transportation and instructions to the retailer in the use of cold  display cases.  The picture of the soft fruit industry has been considerably  altered by the record breaking sub-zero weather of January  and February, 1950. As Okanagan Lake was frozen over, the  benches did not experience the mollifying effect of open water,  and the result was that many trees were killed outright while  149 THE   OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  others were so reduced in vitality that it may require a year or  longer to determine the full damage. Apricots and peaches  suffered about 95c/( loss of crop; cherries and plums to a lesser  degree. Where dead trees have to be replaced, the very best  varieties will be planted, and it may average ten years before  they come into full production. The hopes of affluence for the  fruit grower are at present rather dim, but he is a persistent  man, and will see that eventually the public will enjoy his  soft fruit.  150 Gillard Golden Wedding  On August 6, 1950, Mr. and Mrs. Leon Gillard of South  East Kelowna celebrated their golden wedding, recalling memories of "horse and buggy" days in 1900 when they drove  to Lumby to be married by Father Roy.  Both Mr. and Mrs. Gillard (nee Berard) are members of pioneer families of  the Kelowna district.  August Gillard preempted, in 1862, land which  later became the first Kelowna townsite. Twenty  years later his brother Cyril,  father of Leon, came from  France by way of New  York, San Francisco, Victoria, Hope and the Okanagan pack-trail. Leon, then  nine years old, still remembers the journey over the  Hope Mountains — the first  three days on foot and the  rest of the way with Lequime's pack-train.  Cyril Gillard's original  pre-emption, made in the  early eighties, was across  the road from the site now  occupied by the Okanagan  Mission Community Hall.  MR. AND MRS. LEON GILLARD The family acquired Other  and MRS. ALEC BERARD (seated).     land     in     the     district    and  151 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  moved later to the property in South Kelowna where  Leon Gillard still resides. The Berard family came  to the valley from Winnipeg in 1888. They made the journey  from Kamloops in three days, which was considered good time  for wagon travel. They stayed for a time at John McDougall's,  noAv the Guisachan farm, and later at August Gillard's original  home site, property now bounded by Pendozi and Ellis Streets,  Mill Creek and Harvey Ave. in the city of Kelowna. Alex.  Berard pre-empted land at Okanagan Mission in 1891.  Both the Gillard and Berard families were among some  35 or 40 original settlers wdio farmed the area extending from  Duck Lake to Okanagan Mission before the founding of the  present townsite of Kelowna. Both families are listed among  those attending the school at Okanagan Mission opened in  1894.  Of all those who attended the anniversary gathering, only  real pioneers of more than 40 years residence were privileged  to have their names inscribed on the gift—a silver tray. Also  honored at the gathering was the bride's mother—Mrs. Alec  Berard.  It is from the reminiscences of these early settlers that we  are able to reconstruct the history of the Okanagan Valley.  —C.E.M.  Acknowledgment to Mr. F. M. Buckland and Mrs. W. Spear.  152 Dominick  E. V. deLAUTOUR  Dominick, sometimes called Dominee, lived on Reserve No.  9, which lies to the East of Westbank townsite. He was there  in the '90's when I staked 320 acres along Power's Creek.  Being of the curious type, he naturally wanted to find out  what a stranger was doing out there a few miles from the  Reserve. That was when I first met him. He thought all white-  men packed something on their hip, so when we met he was  very friendly and told lots of funny stories about my few future  neighbours, etc. To his sorrow, he found that his host never  had the hard stuff around.  Because he knew so many  things and places and could  use several languages, besides considerable English  and French, many of his  native friends and neighbours held him in awe. For  myself I'm convinced he was  the first Short Wave apparatus in B.C., or else psychic.  One morning he came galloping up to my place in  great excitement,— "By gol-  lies, Dillidor, I hear big  noise, all same mountain  fall down!" "What?" we  said. "Nowickta, nowickata,  sure, all same WHAM-M,  big noise!" Honestly we  thought he had been drink-  DOMINICK  -Photo by Stocks, Penticton  But, that same afternoon the  Marshall boys and myself  153 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY-1950  rowed over to Kelowna for our mail and when the "Aberdeen"  pulled in, the first thing Purser McDonald told everybody on  the wharf was: "That town of Frank is wiped out, the mountain  fell on them!"  Again, a few years later, exactly the same thing happened,  but this time Dominick was more excited about a "big long  time noise!" and when we got to where (by this time) there  was a phone connection, it was the San Francisco earthquake  and fire!  I have always wanted to put these on record, and to Do-  minick's credit. Whether a stranger will believe these strange  facts or not, they are true statements, nevertheless.  Dominick and his wife were seldom apart in their old  age. They drove everywhere in their old buggy. She was completely blind for many years. The last person who told me  about him was the late Tom Hatton, who said that he had put  up Dominick and his wife on their last trip to the Rock Creek  country. He also told me that the old couple turned up regularly every few years. Tom remarked about Dominick's devotion to his wife, how he nursed her, and never left her alone.  This would have been in 1922.  A few years ago Stocks' Studio in Penticton had an enlarged picture of Dominick in their window labelled, "An Indian  Chief". Dominick was a chief all the same in many ways, even  if picture takers and tourists make them all "Chiefs"!  "Dominick" could be the heading for many more short  notes and stories. His doings, tricks and the funny things he  sometimes caused to happen. But the above anecdotes are his  introduction to those who never came to know him and a refresher to those who did.  154 Okanagan Cattleman's Parting Salutation  Okanagan Cattleman's Parting Salutation  A cattle man when parting with a friend never told him  to take care of himself. He told him not to get lost or as it was  usually put: "Well, so long, don't get more than a mile from  home without a bell on."  Pray do not roam  Far from your home  Never more than a mile  Without a bell ■  Tied under your chin  With a thong or a buckstring  Securely and well  There to tinkle and ring.  Then if you fail to keep on the trail  And wander bewildered and lost  On the ranges wide where terrors abide  And stumble alone over cactus and stone,  Through the scrub and the brush  Where the wild winds rush  With a whimper and moan  And freeze and chill to the bone.  And the skies are dark overhead  And the heart is stricken and filled  With a vast nameless dread  Your friends will surely come  Led by the bell  And rope and take you home.  On the range there's magic  In the tinkle of a bell.  —LEONARD NORRIS.  155 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY--1950  Recent Books Mentioning The  Okanagan  FREE GOLD, THE STORY OF CANADIAN MINING,  by Arnold Hoffman (Rinehart & Co., Inc., New York, 1947),  has little to say about Okanagan, but a brief reference to Similkameen on pp. 49-50:  "The search for gold in the Similkameen area culminated in the discovery of copper deposits on Copper Mountain, later acquired by Granby.  Operations here were conducted with such efficiency that what appeared  to be an impossibly low-grade ore was treated at profit. Granby methods  have since become classic, and Granby men, trained in achieving low  costs, have filtered throughout the mining industry."  MEMOIRS OF ANGUS DAVIS, running serially in the  Western Miner (Vancouver, B.C.) has a chapter on Camp  McKinney in the May, 1950, issue pp. 35 ff. The author gives  the story as told him by the late Sam Larsen. Apart from a  touch of "wild west" atmosphere, the story adds nothing to the  record of Camp McKinney prepared by Mrs. R. B. White for  the 13th O.H.S. Report (1949). Mr. Davis's story was born of  "a trip just for curiosity's sake and to have a look around."  "SKYLINE PASSAGE" is the title of a lively article by  Margaret Vollmer in the August, 1950, issue of the RAILROAD MAGAZINE. The article is well illustrated with photographs, a map and a picture of Andrew McCulloch. The story  makes a welcome addition to the article by Ruth Macorquodale  on "Andrew McCulloch and the Kettle Valley Railway" in the  13th O.H.S. Report.  *    *    *  One of the most attractive and best illustrated guides we  have seen, carries the title KELOWNA, BRITISH COLUMBIA, compiled and published in August, 1949 by The Kelowna  Courier Ltd. The book is divided into three parts: How we  live; How we play; and How we work. Acknowledgement is  156 Recent Books  made of the co-operation of the Ribelin Photo  Studio which  furnished many of the pictures for the book.  * *    *  Another booklet issued by the same Company is OGOPOGO, HIS STORY, by "r.p.m.", which appeared in THE KELOWNA COURIER. Although the booklet carries no date,  it was printed subsequent to July 16, 1949, the latest recorded  date in the story of Ogopogo's appearance. The Friday, following the above date, "Ogo's footprints" were reported:  "On the morning of Friday, July 22nd, the young son of H. Faulkner,  proprietor of the Sunny Beach Auto Camp, ran into the house and reported that there were big footprints on the beach. It was not till an hour  and a half later that Mr. Faulkner, at the youngster's insistence, went  to the beach. There he found two quite clear, and four other not so  clear, marks in the sand. Youngsters had been playing and some of  the impressions had been disturbed."  Printed by THE PENTICTON HERALD is a souvenir  folder of CANADA'S OKANAGAN VALLEY, with numerous  illustrations, and a fine pictorial map.  * *    *  British Columbia Government Travel Bureau has issued a  tourists' guide "British Columbia Presents the Hope-Princeton  Highway". It consists of a map in colours, photographs of Hope  and Princeton, and beauty spots along the highway, and a  description of Manning Park, through which the highway runs.  A NATURE LOVER IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, by  H. J. Parham. (London, H. F. & G. Witherby, Ltd. 1937.)  292 pp.  In spite of its wider title, obviously designed for Old  Country people, this book deals exclusively with the Southern  Okanagan, and is therefore of interest to members of the Okanagan Historical Society. While in no sense an historical work,  it does furnish a picture of life in the vicinity of Vaseux Lake,  (Parham's spelling) in the early years of the century.  157 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  After a varied career which brought him to Fairview in  the nineties, Mr. Parham erected his tent about a mile from  the home of Peter Mclntyre at the foot of Mclntyre's Bluff.  This was in 1905. The book is a tribute to the charm of the  Okanagan, for except for short interludes in Southern California and the South Seas, the valley has been the author's  home ever since.  The work is mainly a description of the life of an English  family in this characteristic Okanagan setting. There are, however, many references to historical matters, and the early days  in Fairview and Oliver are treated at length. "Father Pat" is  introduced in a five-page section, with several good stories concerning- that remarkable man, then labouring in his last parish  (Fairview). There is an excellent chapter on the Indians, in  which allusion is made to the unique work of Anthony Walsh,  the teacher of Indian Day schools at the head of Okanagan  Lake and later at Inkameep, who revived Indian arts and crafts  with much success.  The chapters on wild life are particularly good, and dog  lovers will appreciate the many good stories of "Banjo."  The volume contains 22 illustrations in black and white,  including two drawings of Okanagan birds by Major Allan  Brooks, and also two reproductions of the work of Francis  Baptiste, the Inkameep pupil of Mr. Walsh, who won fame at  the London Exhibition of the Royal Drawing Society. Many of  the illustrations are photographs of the district, the work of  the late Mr. L. Stocks of Penticton.  A map of the country, from Bear Creek to Oroville, is  provided inside the cover, and the book concludes with four  appendices, dealing respectively with Okanagan mammals, fish,  flora and birds, each prepared in consultation with an expert  in each field. An index is also provided.  Anyone interested in the history of the Southern Okanagan  will find this a useful companion volume to the various year  books of our historical society. —F.T.M.  158 Membership List  Okanagan Historical Society—1950  PATRONS  H. D. Barnes, Melville H. C. Beaven, N. H. Caesar, Hugh Dalton, Douglas  Dewar, Capt. O. L. Estabrooks, James Goldie, J. G. Heighway, A. P.  Home, Mrs. D. F. Macorquodale, A. W. Nisbet, W. R. Powell, W. J.  Shields, Mrs. Bernice Steenbock, G. R. Stuart, T. V. Weeks, J. H. Wilson,  Kelowna Courier Ltd., S. M. Simpson.  MEMBERS  Acland.Peter, 2700 North St., Kelowna  * Adams, Most Rev. W. R., 2703-23rd St., Vernon  Adams, W. E., 1998 Abbott St., Kelowna  * Adams, Service, Peach Orchard, Summerland  * Allan, Mrs. Mary E., Okanagan Mission  * Allison, Mrs. Dorothea, R.R.l, Oyama  Anderson,  Geo.,   Copper  Mountain  * Andrew, Dr. F. W., Summerland  * Andrew, J. W., 2866 Belleview Ave., West Vancouver  Angus, Miss G. W., 1414 St. Paul St., Kelowna  American Antiquarian Society,  Worchester, Mass., U.S.A.  * Asmussen, Mrs. Lillian, 2337-8th Ave., Vancouver  Atkinson, O. P.  * Bailey, Michael, Robin Orchards, Myrtle, Ont.  * Baird, G. D., Box 234, Revelstoke  Ball, Dr. N. J., Oliver  Ball, L. J., Oliver  Barker, C. W., Kindersley, Sask.  Barber, H. J., Chilliwack  * Baines, E. G., "The Grosvenor", Vancouver  * Barnes, H. D., Hedley  Bartholomew, H. G, 2703-32nd St., Vernon  Barr, Dr. H. P., 556 Lakeshore Rd., Penticton  Barton, Mrs. Marjorie, Oliver  Bates, Mrs. P. W., Osoyoos  * Barr-Hall, E., Princeton  Baverstock, W., Dept. Agriculture, Court House, Vernon  Bailey, Jean  * Browne, J. W. B., CKOV, Kelowna  * Bailey, E. R., 516 Lawrence Ave., Kelowna  * Beaven, Melville, H. C, Box 1065. Vernon  * Bearisto, H. K., 1800 Schubert Ave., Vernon  Beeston, C. G, 435 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  * Bennett, Mrs. C. G, The Bench, Penticton  Bell, Norman L., 3405-26th St., Vernon  * Benmore, G. C, 2059 Pendozi St., Kelowna  Beurick, Walter, Osoyoos  Berry, A. E., 2401-26th St., Vernon  159 THE   OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  * Berner, A., Box 610, Vernon  * Berner,Mrs. A., Box 610, Vernon  Best, Dr. E., 2604-24th St., Vernon  Bettner, Rudolph, Box 78, Nanaimo  Beveridge, G. K., 2000-32nd St., Vernon  Betts, Mrs. Wallace D., Port McNeil, B.C.  Beesom, G. J., Hope  Beachcroft, Mrs. E. C, Box 537, Revelstoke  * Bingley, A., Coldstream Ranch, Vernon  Bishop, John A., Coldstream, Vernon  Billard, Mrs. Vern, Okanagan Landing  Black, Dr. D. M., 2198 Pendozi St., Kelowna  * Bloomfield, A. D., Princeton  * Boss, M. T., 455-E-17th Ave., Vancouver  * Bomford, W. E., Naramata Road, Penticton  Bocne, H., Oliver  * Bowsfield, Mrs. F. O, 336 Main St., Penticton  Bristow, C. A., 3610 Barnard Ave., Vernon  Brooks, Mrs. Allan, North Pender Island  Browne A., 2803 Schubert Ave., Vernon  Brown, J. A., Westbank  Brown, N. G., Nickle Plate  Brown, Miss Jessie Topham, 1602-39th Ave., Vernon  * Brent, F. J., Hedley  * Buckland, Frank M., 1489 St. Paul St., Kelowna  Buckland, Miss Frances, 1934 Berryman St.. Berkeley, Cal.  Buckland, C. D., R.R. 2, Kelowna  Bull, Cpt. C. R., Okanagan Mission  Bulman, T. R., 2502-23rd Ave., Vernon  Butler, L. G., R.R. 3, Kelowna  * Busch, Mrs.  Geo., Kaleden  * Burkholder, F., R.R. 1, Glenmore, Kelowna  Byron-Johnson, Mrs. R. G, Fintry  Barlee, W. R., Okanagan Mission  * Caesar, N. H., Okanagan Centre  Colquhoun, Judge M. M., 325 Lakeshore Rd., Penticton  * Campbell,  Burt R.,  Box  175,  Kamloops  Campbell-Brown, Dr. Hugh, Okanagan Landing  Casorso, Anthony,  R.R.  2,  Kelowna  * Casorso, Joseph, R.R. 3, Kelowna  * Cameron, J. D., 343 Brunswick St., Penticton  Carswell, Robert, 3301-26th St., Vernon  * Cawston, R. L., Orchard Ave., Penticton  * Cawston, A. H., Cawston  * Cardinal, E. C. R., Skaha Rd., Penticton  Carney, Tom, R.R. 1, Kelowna  Cameron. G. D.. Box 86, Kelowna  Carruthers, E. M., 1694 Pendozi St., Kelowna  Chapin, H. F., 1694 Pendozi St., Kelowna  * Chapman, Mrs. E. P., R. R. 3, Vernon  * Chambers, E. J., The Bench, R.R. 1, Penticton  Charles, J. B., Box 66, Summerland  * Charles, Vernon, Summerland  ::- Chichester, Bert, Rutland  160 Membership   List  Charters, C. V., c/o Conservator, Brampton, Ont.  * Chade, Vernon, 5th Ave., Vernon  * Central Technical Library, Trail Smelter, Trail, B.C.  Clarke, Mrs. P. L., Beaverdell  Clements, W. E., Peachland  Clarke, Mrs. F. W., Westbank  Clarke, Mrs. Clara, Falkland  Clement, C. G, 2276 Speer St., Kelowna  Clarke. Mrs. Clara, Falkland  * Cochrane, Harold, 836 Main St., Penticton  * Cochrane, M. B., 2103-39th Ave., Vernon  * Coe, J., The Bench, Penticton  * Colley, J. R., Box 249, Kamloops  * Collett, H. C. S.,  Okanagan Mission  Cooke, Professor A. C, Dept. of History UBC, Vancouver  Cools, Joseph, Okanagan Centre  * Corrie, James Princeton  * Corbitt, H. W., Kaleden  Cousens, Miss Joyce, 3308-W-37th Ave., Vancouver  Costley, Mrs. A. M., Box 229, Penticton  Coursier, Dr. H. L., 2403-23rd St., Vernon  * Cowan, H. F., Enderby  Compean, H., Osoyoos  Coombes, C. W., 3311 Schubert Ave., Vernon  Coots, Mrs. J., Coalmont  Coates, R. J., Oliver  Coates, L. P., Osoyoos  Cull, R. H., 3303-20A St, Vernon  * Cuthbert, W. A., Armstrong  * Dalton, Hugh, Can. Manuf. Assoc, Marine Bldg, Vancouver  Davidson, R. A, 3600 P.V. Road, Vernon  Dawson, E. R, Osoyoos  - Denison, H. R, Box 747, Vernon  Denison, N. L, R.R. 1, Lumby  * Deschamps, F, 3004 Barnard Ave, Vernon  * Dewar, Douglas, Kaleden  * Dewdney, W. R, 237 Scott Road, Penticton  Dickson, Mrs. G. H, Dunnville, Ont.  * Ditmars, W. C, 2535 S.W. Marine, Vancouver  Dobson. W. K, R.R. 3, Vernon  Drew, Thos, 3600-30th Ave, Vernon  Dunaway, Fred, Westbank  * Dunsdon, Harry, R.R. 1, Summerland  * Duncan , R. H, Middle Bench, Penticton  Dwyer, Miss Melva, 172 Battle St, Kamloops  * Estabrooks, O. L, 352 Main St, Penticton  Eglebert, R, 204 Linden Ave, Victoria  Elliott, Ger. A, 253 Sutherland Ave, Kelowna  Elliot, R. H, Box 274, Revelstoke  * Ellis, Miss Kathleen, 862 Cambie St, Penticton  * Emmanuele, Dr. H, 639 Main St, Penticton  Enderby School, c/o Mrs. J. A. Thomas, Enderby  * Ewart, C. B, 1124 Killarney St, Penticton  Fallow, H. J, 3011-35th Ave.. Vernon  161 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL   SOCIETY—1950  * Faulkner, R., 495 Tennis St., Penticton  Felker, C. P, 2300-45th Ave, Vernon  Fenton, Miss A, R. R. 1, Enderby  Fenton, Richard, R.R. 1, Enderby  Fenske, A, 715 King St, Cloverdale  Fearman. F. W, 837 Hastings St, Vancouver  * Ffoulkes, Mrs. M, 594 Bernard Ave, Kelowna  Fifer, R. F, Vernon  Fields, Mrs. S. A, Osoyoos  * Fillmore, D. C, 255 Lake Ave, Kelowna  * Fisher, H. C, Shuswap Falls, Lumby  Fitzmaurice, Raymond, 3104 Barnard Ave, Vernon  Fitzgerald, G. D, R.R. 3, Kelowna  Fitzgerald, Mrs. G. D, R.R. 3, Kelowna  Flatt, T. N, Monte Lake  Flather, A, 1115-E-26th Ave, Vancouver  Fosberry, W. C. W, West Summerland  Fosbrooke, H. J, 3803 P.V. Road, Vernon  * Fraser, Mayor Hugh, Okanagan Falls  Fraser, Geo, Osoyoos  Fraser, D. P, Osoyoos  Fraser, J, R.R. 1, Osoyoos  * Fraser, R, 722 Lawson Ave, Kelowna  * Fraser, Mrs. E. M, 722 Lawson Ave, Kelowna  Fraser, J. K, Hedley  French, Francis H, Hedley  French, Percy E, 2301-35th Ave, Vernon (deceased)  French, D. L, Box 302, Vernon  Fulton, Miss A, 2901-23rd St, Vernon  Gartrell, G. W, Peach Orchard, Summerland  Genn, A .L, R.R. 1, Kelowna  Gellatly, Mrs. David, Westbank  * Gemmill, Wm, R.R. 1, Lumby  * Genn, Anthony, 1009 Richardson St, Victoria  Gibson, S. G, 1760 Emerson St, Victoria  Gillespie, Noel A, 2052 Inglewood Ave, West Vancouver  * Godwin, Mrs. M, Wade Ave, Penticton  Goodman, Major E. L., Osoyoos  Gould, Edgar, Box 62, West Summerland  Goldsbury, Mrs. Reg, 120 Vernon St, Nelson  Godfrey, A, 3112, R.R. 1, Victoria  Godwin, J. W, Sidney  * Goldie, James, Rainbow Ranch, Okanagan Centre  * Goodfellow, Dr. J. C, Box 60, Princeton  * Gordon, C. B, 545 Transit Road, Oak Bay, Victoria  Griffiths, Geo. W, 2501 Schubert Ave, Vernon  Grant, Mrs. Mary J, 3403 Mara St, Vernon  Grant, H. A, 737 College Ave, Menlo Park, Cal, U.S.A.  Gray, A. A, R.R. 2, Vernon  Gray, A. Earl, Sechelt  Gray, C, 2386 Richter St, Kelowna  * Gray, L. Stewart, 3606-27th Ave, Vernon  * Green, A. L, R.R. 1, Kelowna  * Gregory, Mrs. D, R.R. Armstrong  162 Membership List  Graham, Summerland  * Guernsey, C. F. M, 1047 Southgate St, Victoria  Guischon, P. L, Quilchena  Haines, C. E, R.R. 2, Vernon  Hamilton-Watts, Mrs. C, 2600-25th Ave, Vernon  * Harris, F. R, Box 700, Vernon  * Harris, Gordon, 645 Martin St, Penticton  Harvey, A. G, 556-W-18th Ave, Vancouver (deceased)  * Harwood, Joe, 3107 Dewdney St, Vernon (deceased)  * Hatfield, A. S, 864 Fairview Rd, Penticton  * Hatfield, H. R, 618 Vancouver Ave, Penticton  Haugh, Roy, 1476 Water St, Kelowna  Haverfield, B. T, Okanagan Mission  Hayden, C. A, 2904-26th St, Vernon  Hayhurst, A. E, 3310 Schubert Ave, Vernon  Hayman, R. M, 1536 Ellis St, Kelowna  Hayman, Capt. L. A, 4654-W-12th Ave, Vancouver  * Hambley, Mrs. P, Copper Mountain  Hales, F. N, Armstrong  * Haines, C. E, R.R. 2, Vernon  * Harrison, J. F, Armstrong  *' Hann, Francis M, 3775 W. Marine Drive, Vancouver  Heggie, George, Box 1397, Vernon  * Heighway, J. G, Lumby  Henderson, Charles, 357 Victoria St, Kamloops  Herbert, G D, 1681 Ethel St, Kelowna  * Hewer, E. E, Westwold  Hill, T. P, Coldstream Ranch, Vernon  * Higgin, C. Noel, R.R. 1, Summerland  Higgin. C. L, 1010 Laurier Ave, Kelowna  * Holliday, C. W, 1449 Fort St, Victoria  * Hooper, J. L, 543 Martin St, Penticton  * Hope, John, 319 Martin St, Penticton  * Home, A. P, 4025 Granville St, Vancouver  Horton, R. B, 1552 E. Pender St, Vancouver  * Howrie, David, 2507-37th Ave, Vernon  Howard, J. R, 496 Main St, Penticton  Hopkins, Mrs. J. L, Box 271, Armstrong  Horn, Mrs. J. H, Okanagan Mission  * Hornby, C. A, Summerland  Hugh-Jones, P. G, 1387 Haywood Ave, West Vancouver  Hughes, J. W, 806 Bernard Ave., Kelowna  * Hurmuses, Jeff, National Cafe, Vernon  Hulton, L. A. B, 144 K, Ottawa  Hunter, Joan A, Okanagan Centre  Hunter, A. W, 2938 W. 29th Ave, Vancouver  Hobson, H. R, R.R. 4, Kelowna  Hayden, E. L, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  * Jenkins, Mrs. H. H, 310-2nd Ave, Nelson  * Jenkins, J. L, Princeton  Jennens, J. M, 434 Glenwood Ave, Kelowna  Johnson, Mrs. Patricia, Ladner  * Jones, Miss Phyllis, Box 33, Oliver  Kabella, S, Okanagan Mission  163 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  Kappel, Frank B, Salmon Arm  * Kay, A. E, 368 Ellis St., Penticton  * Kerry, L. L, 324 Bernard Ave, Kelowna  Keith, Mrs. M. B, 2001 Schubert Ave, Vernon  Kermode, Jack, 4002-31st St, Vernon  Kidston, Mrs. John. R.R. 2, Vernon  * Kidston, J. R, 3900 P.V. Road, Vernon  Kinloch, D. F. B, R.R. 2, Vernon  King, Capt. C. A, Osoyoos  Knight, Graham, 450 Ellis St, Penticton  * Knowles, J. B, 874 Manhattan Dr, Kelowna  Knox, Dr. J. W, 1850 Pendozi St, Kelowna  Keys, T. S, Kamloops  Kelowna Club, 414 Leon Ave, Kelowna  * Lamb, Dr. Kaye, The Curator, 7 Crescent Heights. Ottawa, Ont.  Lantz, L. A, 3403 Mara St, Vernon  Lantz, Mrs. Marion, Enderby  Lambley, Charles, Metaline Falle, Wash, U.S.A.  Latimer, G. B, 613 Martin St, Penticton  Lamont, Mrs. Gwen, Okanagan Mission  Lane, P. W, 4438 Marguerite Ave, Vancouver  Lacey, Mrs, Osoyoos.  Laxton, A, Bank of Montreal, Vernon  Laidlaw, J. B, 724 Martin St, Penticton  Leathley, Leonard, 1493 Water St, Kelowna  * Lefroy, C. B. L, 3306-25th St., Vernon  * Leslie, W. T.. Wade & Tennis, Penticton  * Letts, Mrs. H, 294 Vancouver St, Penticton  * Letts, R. H, 370 Woodruff Ave, Penticton  Lewers, G. D, 2500 Barnard Ave, Vernon  Ley, Robert, Fraser Valley Union Lib, Abbotsford  Leonard, Dr. C, Osoyoos  Le Due, C, R.R. Armstrong  Liddell, S. A, R.R. 1, Summerland  Little, John, 235 Conklin Ave, Penticton  Lloyd, Mrs. Norman B, 451 Irwin St, Nanaimo  Lloyd-Jones, W, 1449 Ethel St, Kelowna  Lloyd-Jones, A, 1449 Ethel St, Kelowna  * Loyd, A. K, 450 Cadder Ave, Kelowna  * Lodge, Mrs. F. J, Creston, B.C.  Loman, Miss J, R.R. 1, Kelowna  Loney, Mrs. Edward, c/o V. Loney, R.R. 1, White Rock  * Loyd, Mrs. H. F, Vancouver  Lund, Mrs. G, Oliver  Laurel Co-operative Union, 1304 Ellis St, Kelowna  * Mackie, H. F, R.R. 2, Vernon  * Macorquodale, Mrs. D. F, 1270 Regent St., Montreal  Maisonville, Mrs. Georgina, 731 Martin St.. Kelowna  Martin, S. J, 3103 Pleasant Valley Rd, Vernon  Manery, S. R, Cawston  * Mathison, Dr. R. F, 1972 Abbott St, Kelowna  * Matthews, Major J. B, City Archives, Vancouver  Marshall, Arthur Armstrong  Marshall, Miss Erna, 558 Buckland Ave, Kelowna  164 Membership List  * Melville, Jack, Home Oil Distrib, 555 Burrard St, Vancouver  Menzies, T. P. O,  City Archives, Vancouver  Megaw, W.* E, 2401  Schubert Ave, Vernon  Mepham, A, 1606 Richter St, Kelowna  * Miles, Fred, Coldstream Ranch, Vernon  * Midgley, T, The Bench, Penticton, Box 2151, R.R.  Miller, Mrs. Daisy, Oliver  Mitchell, Miss J. B, 10 Belvedere Apts, Kelowna  * Morley, H. B, Board of Trade Bldg, Penticton  * Morrow, C. W. (MLA) 3001-31st St, Vernon  Monteith, J. I, 486 Cadder Ave, Kelowna  Munro, J. A, Okanagan Landing  * Munro, K. K, 549 Sutherland Ave, Kelowna  Munn, Dr. W. H. B, Summerland  Murdoch, Prof. D, Dept. of Maths, U.B.C, Vancouver  Murray, Fred J, Armstrong  * McAstocker, T. H, 45 Edna Ave, Penticton  McCulloch, J, 1500-39th Ave, Vernon  McDougall, R. J, Sorrento  * McDonald, Geo. A, 1274 Fairview Rd, Penticton  McCandless,   K.   G,  c/o  Pemberton  Insur.   418  Howe   St,   Vancouver  McDougall, W. H. H, 115 Lake Ave, Kelowna (deceased)  MacFarlane, Justice A. D, Law Courts, Victoria  McGill, Wilson, 1850 Maple St, Kelowna  MacGinnis E, 85 Cambridge St, Victoria  * McGuire, Mrs. M. V, Orchardleigh, R.R. 2, Vernon  McGregor, W. G, 503 Ellis St, Penticton  McGonigle, F,  Hedley  * McKay, Alex, Box 471, Peachland  * McKelvie, B. A, LaFortune Rd, Cobble Hill, V.I.  McKenzie, C. C, 2832-W.-36th St., Vancouver  * McKee, R. A, 816 Sutherland Ave, Kelowna  * McLarty, Dr. H. R, Summerland  McKenzie, Rev. Father W, 39 Sutherland Ave, Kelowna  * McLellan, Mrs. H, 415 Woodruff Ave, Penticton  * McMahon, G. E.. Enderby  * McMynn, J. D, 75 Penticton Ave, Penticton  McTaggart, Mrs. W. D, 1803-39th Ave, Vernon  Marriage, F. T, 424 Park Ave, Kelowna  * Marshall, L. E, R.R. 1, Kelowna  MacDonald, S. A, Summerland  MacDonald, Frank, The Bench, Penticton  Marshall, Miss Erma, 558 Buckland Ave, Kelowna  * Neil, R. W, 2509-26th St, Vernon  Nelson, Miss Betty, Keremeos  * Netherton, Dr. J. W, 157 Winnipeg St, Penticton  Newton, L. V, 453 Martin St, Penticton  Newman, Romaine A, Box 369, Kamloops  * Nisbet, A. W, Summerland  * Nichol, C. W, 695 Victoria Dr, Penticton  * Norris, T. G, Bank of Nova Scotia Bldg, 602-W.-Hastings, Vancouver  Nuyens, E. C, Okanagan Centre  O'Brian, P. D, Three Gables, Penticton  O'Hara, Mrs. Daisy, Osoyoos  165 THE  OKANAGAN   HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  * Okanagan Union Library, Penticton  * Olds, C. H, Box 264, Prince George  Oliver, W. J, 1801-32nd St, Vernon  * Owen, W. J, 527 Ellis St, Penticton  Openshaw, E, Sr, 20th St, Vernon  Ormsby, George, R.R.2, Vernon  Ormsby, Dr. Margaret O, R.R. 2, Vernon  * Okanagan Union Library, 594 Bernard Ave, Kelowna  Parkinson, R. F, 1850 Abbott St, Kelowna  * Parham, H. J, Whyte St, Penticton  * Parmley, Dr. J. R, 510 Vancouver St, Penticton  Patten, Mrs. Charles, Armstrong  Paynter, H. O, Westbank  * Palmer, Mrs. F. M, 406 Main St, Penticton  Parkin, A. H, 2154 Belmouth St, New Westminster  * Patterson, A. L, 512 Buckland Ave, Kelowna  Perley, Rev. D. M, 706 Rose Ave, Kelowna  * Pooley, Nigel, Box 70, E. Kelowna  * Powell, W. R, Prairie Valley, Summerland  Powell River News, 260 Marine Ave, Westview  Pritchard, Mrs. M. G, Westbank  Proctor, W. G, Mable Lake, Lumby  Prowse, Dr. E. W, 3602-32nd St, Vernon  Dept. Public Archives, Ottawa  Poole, E, 1888 Marshall St, Kelowna  Powley, W. R, R.R. 1, Kelowna  Raymer, Mrs. E, Box 458, Kelowna  Raymer, Gerald, Summerland  Reece, Adrian, Westbank  Reece, Nelson, Westbank  Reece, Mrs. T. B, Westbank  * Reid, Miss E, 614 Martin St, Penticton  Reith, Miss H, 642 Hayward St, Penticton  Riley, L, Westbank  Ritchie, C, Oliver  Robison, D. J, Delcliffe, Okanagan Landing  Rogers, Mrs. A, Long Lake, Vernon  Rose, G. C, R.R. 3, Kelowna  Ross, Mrs. D. H, 8 Hampton Court, 560-18th St, W. Vancouver  * Ross, Mrs. D. H, 630-2nd Ave, Kamloops  * Rooke, H. O, 624 Young St, Penticton  * Ross, G. M, c/o C.P.R, Tadanac, B.C.  Rottacker, Mrs. Henry, Okanagan Landing  * Rowberry, A. H, Sardis  * Rowland, G. J, 948 Fairview Rd, Penticton  Roadhouse, W. A, Penticton (Naramata Road)  * Robinson, Mrs. Earl, 207 Seymour St, Kamloops  * Rotherhouse, E. J, Princeton  * Runnals, Rev. F. E, Armstrong  Russell, Mrs. A, 32 Coldstream St, Vernon  Royal Anne Hotel, Kelowna, B.C.  * Sage, A. E, Armstrong  Sage, Dr. W. N.. Dept. of History, U.B.C, Vancouver  Schroter, Bernard H, 2705-18th St, Vernon  166 Membership List  * Schubert, Mrs. A. E, Tulameen  Schubert, Trevor E, Box 422, Vernon  Seaton, Wm. V, 3601 Mara St, Vernon  * Shannon, Mrs. Robert, Oliver  Shatford, S. A, 1800-33rd St, Vernon  * Shields, W. J, Shields & Co, Lumby  * Sigalet, W. A, 3902-31st St, Vernon  Simms, J. D, 3303-26th St, Vernon  Simpson, Mrs. A. M, 272 Glenn Ave, Kelowna  Simpson, H. B, 176 Vimy Ave, Kelowna  Simpson, Mrs. S. M, 2120 Abbott St, Kelowna  Simpson, S. M, 2120 Abbott St, Kelowna  Simpson, N. V, Oliver  Smith, W. J, Becker St, Armstrong  Smith, J. A, 602 Bay St,  Kelowna  Smith, J. D, 1476 Water St, Kelowna  Snider, C. H, 1700-28th Ave, Vernon  * Solly, Mrs. D. O. A, Summerland  * Sonnerman,  Mrs.  E.  W,  Altadena  Apts,  608   Stephens  St,   Spokane,  Wash, U.S.A.  * South, Mrs. G. S, 600 Haywood St, Penticton  Speer, Mrs. W, 547 Lawrence Ave, Kelowna  * Steenbock, Mrs. Bernie, Box 71, Olive, Cal, U.S.A.  * Sterling, P. S, 2505-24th St, Vernon  * Stirling, Hon. Grote, 606 Burne Ave, Kelowna  * Spyer, Sidney, 2502-25th St, Vernon  Steuart, Miss D. K, 737 Alexander Ave, Penticton  * Stuart, G. R, Fintry  Stubbs, A. H, Okanagan Mission  * Suddaby, P.O. Box 534, Duncan, B.C.  Swift, A. A, 281 Haynes Ave.. Penticton  Stiell, W. M, 2136 Abbott St, Kelowna  * Taite, H. B, Long Lake, Vernon  * Taraton, Fred, 600 Winnipeg St, Penticton  Tassie, G. C, R.R. 2, Vernon  * Taylor, David, Princeton  Taylor, G. A, Box 211, Princeton  Thomas, G. R, 812 Winnipeg St, Penticton  Thompsett, Mrs. H, 1869 Lulie St, Oak Bay, Victoria  Thornton, H. P, 1500 Schubert Ave, Vernon  * Tinkiss, Miss R. I, c/o A. E. Lefroy, Vernon  Toronto Pub. Libraries, College & George Sts, Toronto  Torrent, Henry, Lumby  * Tripp, Leighton E, 2905 26th St, Vernon  Truswell, Mrs. H. A, Box 232, Kelowna  * Tucker, Douglas, C.P.R, S.S. Okanagan, Kelowna  Turnbull, L. G, 2801 Mara St, Vernon  Tupper, C. H., 230 Orchard Ave, Penticton  Van Ackeran, H. J, Okanagan Centre  * Vanderburg, Dr. W. A, Summerland  * Verey, C. G, C.P.R. Tug,, Kelowna  Walburn, H. G, R.R. 3, Kelowna  * Warner, Miss Alice, 4201 P.V. Road, Vernon  Watt, William C, Barriere, B.C.  167 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  Wakefield, W. H, Bank of Montreal, 396 Hastings St, W, Vancouver  Watson, H. G, 318 West 19th Ave, Vancouver  (deceased)  * Watt, Geo. M, Box 39, Okanagan Mission  * Weatherill, H. O, 2000-37th Ave, Vernon  * Weeks, Capt. J. B, 614 Martin St, Penticton  * Weeks, J. L, 489 Tennis St, Penticton  * Weeks. T. V.. 235-N.W. 16th Ave, Calgary, Alta.  Weddell, R. N,  Osoyoos  White, John, 2205 Barnard Ave, Vernon  * White, Ronald E, 107 Battle St, Kamloops  * Whitaker, Mrs. H. H, 177 Abbott St, Penticton  Whitham, Miss Dorothy J, 1725 Pendozi St, Kelowna  Whitham, D. J, 1725 Pendozi St, Kelowna  * White, Dr. W. H, 45 Wade- St, Penticton  * White, Mrs. H. E, Skaha Lake, Penticton  Whyte, Stuart G, 3101 Kensington St, Penticton  Winston, J. W, Huntingdon  Williams, F, R.R. 1, Kelowna  * Wilson, Jack Tappen  Wise, Robt, 3383 Kingsway, Vancouver  Willits, Mrs. Carrie, Belvedere Apts, Kelowna  * Wilcox, Dr. J. C, Exp. Farm, Summerland  Williamson, Geo. J.. 3701 Barnard Ave, Vernon  Willis, Mrs. H. A, 3857 Cartier St, Vancouver  * Wilson, J. H, J. H. Wilson Ltd, Armstrong, Box 160  Winkles, Mrs. W. H, R.R, Armsmmtrong  Wollaston, F. E. R, Vancouver Club, Vancouver  Wolsey, Mrs. Janet K, Okanagan Landing  Wyllie, Robt, 1220 Homer St, Vancouver  Young, B. Frank, Otter Lake Rd, Armstrong  Young, T. C, Box 86, Jasper, Alta.  PUBLIC LIBRARIES  * New York Library, 5th Ave. & 42nd Ave, New York, N.Y, U.S.A.  Okanagan Union Library, 594 Bernard Ave, Kelowna  Provincial Library, Parliament Buildings, Victoria  * Seattle Public Library, Seattle 4, Wash., U.S.A.  Spokane Public Library, Spokane 9, Wash, U.S.A.  * Toronto Public Library, College & St. George St, Toronto  Vancouver Public Library, Vancouver  Vernon Public Library, Vernon  Victoria Public Library, Victoria  * The Book Nook, 348 Main St, Penticton  Fraser Valley Union Library, Abbotsford  Open Shelf Library,  Public Lib.  Comm,  Parliament Bldgs,  Victoria  UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES  Indiana University Library, Bloomington, Indiana, U.S.A.  ::- Redpath Library, McGill University, 3459 McTavish St, Montreal, P.Q.  * University of British Columbia, Library, Point Grey, Vancouver  University of Toronto Library, Toronto 5, Ont.  University of Washington Library, Seattle 5, Wash, U.S.A.  168 Membership List  SCHOOL LIBRARIES  Armstrong Elementary School, Armstrong  Greater Victoria School Board, Dist. No. 16, Victoria  Penticton School Board, Dist.  15, Penticton  Queen Elizabeth School, 16th Ave. and Camosun St., Vancouver  Vernon Elementary School, Mara St, Vernon  Vernon High School, Poison Park, Vernon  Summerland Elementary School, c/o S. A. MacDonald, Summerland  HISTORICAL SOCIETIES, MUSEUMS AND ARCHIVES  Historical Society of Montana, Helena, Montana, U.S.A.  Kamloops Museum Association, Box 175, Kamloops  Provincial Archives, Victoria  State of Wisconsin Historical Society, 816 State St, Madison, Wise, USA  Vancouver City Archives, Vancouver  Dept. Public Archives, Ottawa  OTHERS  Kalten Studios, Oliver  Kelowna Courier, 1580 Water St, Kelowna  Radio Station CKOV, Radio Building, Kelowna  LeBlond Studios, 2123 Barnard Ave, Vernon  Vernon Club  NOTE:  Indicates that payment of $2.50 has been made for 1950 Membership  (14th Report) to provide funds for publishing. A number have  made donations in additions to membership dues. Patrons are those  who have sent cheques of $10.00 or more during 1949 or 1950. If you  have paid your 1950 Membership and there is no * in front of your  name please notify H. R. Denison, Box 747, Vernon, B.C, immediately, advising date and method of payment and to whom made.  169 THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY—1950  170  The Okanagan Valley and Adjoining Areas Illustrations in this Report  Leonard   Norris ,    .     6  Podunk    Davis 22  Dr.   R.   B.   White     44  Harvey  Watson 57  The   Old   Mission   School  House 59  The   First   School   Jitney     .    60  Charlie  Bonnevier     .    88  Tom Ellis and His Bride, 1872 99  Original Ellis Homestead 100  Ellis   Home   of   1894  103  A Meeting  of Three  Pioneers  107  Early View of Siwash Flat 134  Gillard Golden Wedding 151  Dominick 153  171   o  PRINTED   BY   THE    KELOWNA   COURIER


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