Okanagan Historical Society Reports

The twenty-first report of the Okanagan Historical Society 1957 Okanagan Historical Society 1957

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Array The Twenty-first Report  »ftL  OKANAGAN  HTSTORTrAT  JL JJLvJ JL V/AVi.\jl J_LJL_/  1957  »•  IJounJtJi SeptemLr 4,   192S  ■ Date Due 9 K-'  j/sAxs  S^X^C  Wlf\  V  R. N. (Reg) Atkinson Museum  785 MAIN STREET  PENTICTON, B.G    V2A5E3  The Twenty-first Report  of ike  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  1957  2-  j-ounded September 4,   1925  ^o    -3<¬∞^ THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  Officers for 1957-58  Honorary Patrons:  His Honor, The Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia  His Honor, Mr. W. A. C. Bennett, Premier of British Columbia  Honorary President: Mr. 0. L. Jones, M.P., Kelowna  President: Mr. J. D. Whitham, 1725 Pendozi Street, Kelowna  Vice-Presidents:  Mr. F. V. Harwood. Vernon; Mr. R. Blackburn, Armstrong-Enderby;  Mrs. R. B. White, Penticton  Secretary: Mrs. Vera Bennett, R.R. 1, Box 2278, Penticton  Treasurer: Mr. G. P. Bagnall, 3317 Coldstream Ave., Vernon  Editor: Dr. J. C. Goodfellow, D.D., Princeton  Auditor: Mr. Jenner, Vernon  Editorial Committee:  Mrs. G. P. Bagnall, Vernon  Mrs. I. Crozier, Vernon  Mrs. R. B. White, Penticton  Mrs. D. Allison, Kelowna  Mrs. M. Middleton, Oyama  Mrs. Gellatly, Westbank  Mrs. E. Lacey, Osoyoos  Mr. H. W. Corbitt, Kaleden  Dr. F. Quinn, Kelowna  Mr. F. T. Marriage, Kelowna  Mr. S. Manery, Cawston  Dr. J. C. Goodfellow, D.D., Princeton  Mr. R. J. McDougall, Sorrento  NORTH:  Mr. J. G. Simms  Vernon  CENTRAL:  Dr. F. Quinn  Kelowna  SOUTH:  Mr. H. Cochrane  Penticton  DlRECTORS-AT-LARGE:  Mr. H. W. Corbitt  Kaleden  Directors:  Mr. J. Jamieson  Armstrong-Enderby  Mrs. D. Gellatly  Westbank  Capt. J. B. Weeks  Penticton  Mr. A. K. Loyd  Kelowna  Mr. A. E. Berry  Vernon  Mr. J. Goldie  Okanagan Centre  Mr. G. F. Fraser  Osoyoos  Mr. R. J. McDougall  Sorrento Officers and Directors: Oliver-Osoyoos Branch  President:   Mr. A. McGibbon, Oliver  Vice-President:   Mr. D. Whipple, Osoyoos  Secretary-Treasurer:   Mrs. E. Lacey, Osoyoos  Directors:   E. Lacey, C. Cope, Osoyoos; F. McDonald, A. McCuddy, Oliver  Officers and Directors of Penticton Branch  President:   Mr. J. G. Harris, Naramata Road  1st Vice-Pres.: Mr. H. Corbitt, Kaleden  2nd Vice-Pres.: Mrs. H. Whitaker, West Summerland  Treasurer:   Capt. J. B. Weeks, 614 Martin St.  Secretary:   Mrs. Vera Bennett, R.R. 1, Box 2278  Directors: Mrs. R. B. White, Skaha Lake; Mrs. H. H. Whittaker, Ellis  Street; Mrs. Geo. Broderick, Fairford Drive; Mrs. A. Warren, 854  Main St.; Mrs. Bearcroft, 599 Eckhardt Ave. West; Mr. H. Cochrane,  836 Main St.  Officers and Directors:   Kelowna Branch  President:   Mr. G. M. Watt  Vice-Pres.:   Mr. F. T. Marriage  Secretary-Treasurer:   Mr. L. L. Kerry  Directors: Mrs. G. D. Fitzgerald, Mrs. W. Spear, Mr. H. C. S. Collett,  Mr. J. McLellan, Mr. C. W. Knowles  Officers and Directors:   Vernon Branch  President:   Fred Harwood Vice-President:   A. E. Berry  Secretary-Treasurer:   J. R. Kidston  Directors:   Guy Bagnall;  Mrs. M. Middleton, Oyama;  Mrs. I. Crozier;  Dave Howrie  Editorial  Members of  Executive:    Mrs.  Luta A.  Bagnall,  Mrs.  Mabel  Johnson  Officers and Directors:   Armstrong-Enderby Branch  President:   R. Blackburn, Enderby  Secretary-Treasurer:   Mrs. M. Pidoborozny, Enderby  Directors:   E. McMahon, H. Cowan, H. Logan, Armstrong. E. A. Norman,  Mrs. R. Crozier, Mrs. H. Winkles, Mrs. C. J. Patten, James Jamieson,  A. Marshall.  Editorial Committee:   H. S. Woodd cJL^ist or illustrations  Sketch of Osoyoos Custom House  7  Unveiling of Plaque at Osoyoos  8  E. J. Lacey, Will Allyn and Frank MacDonald    ...... 9  Val Haynes, Mrs. Parkinson and Mrs. H. E. White    .... 10  The Plaque Inscription  10  Group at Inkaneep Presentation  22  Portrait—Morrice S. Middleton  28  Half-way House on Stage Route  34  Scott's Mail Stage .37  Holland-American Line S.S. "Duivendyk"  46  Drag  Hounds—Vernon  53  Steamer "Sicamous"          61  Portraits—Mr. and Mrs. A. L. Fortune      ....... 69  Alex. Leslie Fortune—Memorial      .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    . 82  Map of the Dewdney Trail  129 foreword  The present Report has been prepared under  difficulties. Sickness and absence on the part  of those responsible for its production have created complications. Under these circumstances Mr.  F. T. Marriage of Kelowna has played an indispensable part, and we are grateful to him for his  timely help.'  We feel that any excellence the Report may  have should be attributed to Mr. Marriage; and  that any shortcomings should be blamed on the  retiring editor. —/. G.  Since going to press, we have learned with  deep regret of the passing of F. W. Andrew,  M.D., of Summerland, a long time member of  the Society and the contributor of an article in  this issue. c  ontents  Title  Page  Officers  Table of Contents  List of Illustrations  Foreword  Notice of Annual Meeting  Historical Cairn at Osoyoos  McCuddy's  Presentation of Chief Baptiste George by Hester E. White  Summerland Fish Hatchery by Dr. F. W. Andrew  Life of Morrice S. Middleton by Margaret Campbell Middleton  Vernon-Kelowna Stage Half-Way House by W. R. Powley  Place Names    Sarah Jane Newton by Mabel Johnson  Okanagan Enchantment by Lilian Vosper Plunkett  Mr. and Mrs. Harry Whitaker by Mabel Johnson  Vernon Chronicles by Guy P. Bagnall  H. H. Stevens by Guy P. Bagnall  The Drag Hounds by Mavis Huston Cameron  Do You Remember by R. Hadow  Last Trip of Steamer Sicamous by Guy P. Bagnall  Farewell to Steamer "Sicamous" by Kate Seymour  Enderby's Native Daughter by Mabel Johnson  Mrs. Myles MacDonald by Mabel Johnson  A Short Story    The Overlanders by F. J. Marriage  The Fleming Family by Everett S. Fleming  Vernon - 1897 by Albert M. Bovey  Osoyoos - Fairview - Oliver Chronicles by Mrs. E. J. Lacey  Short Story   Okanagan Bookshelf       ....  Short Story   Summerland Experimental Farm  Obituaries—We Will Remember Them  Obituary—Frank Hassard, Contributed  The Dewtney Trail ....  Celebration In 1887 by Thomas Stevenson  Lavington Store Fire by Mabel Johnson  "Okanagan Arc"   Notice of Annual Meeting for 1958  Report of Annual Meeting, 1957 .  Membership List   1  2  3  4  5  6  7  11  19  23  27  34  40  41  45  47  48  51  53  58  61  62  63  66  68  69  83  92  93  99  100  101  102  103  107  108  109  111  113  115  116  121 LA.nvQil <yVlcmorial   plaaue  K^Jsouoos K^^ustoms *^ite  on  The unveiling of a historic monument to commemorate the  erection of the first Customs House at Osoyoos in 1861 took place at  the site on Sunday, July 7th, 1957, in the presence of one hundred  or more people. The sun shone with brilliance on the waters of  Osoyoos Lake nearby and turned one's thoughts backward to colonial days, when pounds sterling were the currency, when the Colonial Office in London appointed the Custom's officers, and the flags  which now draped the stone cairn—the Union Jack and the British  Ensign—were official and without challenge in the land.  To regulate commerce between this country and the United  States and to establish law, order and justice, Judge Haynes was  appointed first Colonial Officer. On Sunday his son, Bill Haynes,  and Babe Kruger, the son of another Colonial Officer, Theodore  Kruger, drew aside the historic flags which had screened from view  the beautiful bronze plaque donated by the Government of the Province of British Columbia.  9 f. $(.£<****  Sketch of Early Custom House at Osoyoos  1 From The Vernon Ncivs, 11 July, 1957. The Okanagan Historical Society ~1957  The cairn, now unveiled, was dedicated by Right Rev. Bishop  Frederick Stanford, retired Anglican prelate, who lives at Oliver.  Mr. McGibbon, master of ceremonies, brought Mr. Heskith to  the platform and he presented greetings from the Osoyoos Village  Commission. He was followed by Mr. Carter with greetings from  the village of Oliver.  Perley Simpson, well known customs official presently doing  duty at the spacious port of entry as we know it today, was presented  but declined to make a speech.  Mrs. R. B. White received an ovation when she had told of the  cycles of fortune through which she had passed since her arrival in  the Okanagan.  Frank Richter, MLA, another speaker, told of his parents arriving at Osoyoos in 1864, when they paid a cattle tax of 25 cents  per head on crossing the border.  W^^TZZm  Unveiling the Plaque at Osoyoos Custom House Cairn —  Babe Kruger and Will Haynes officiating.  The international aspect of the occasion was attested by the presence of a lawyer who spoke foj the Yakima Historical Society. J. D.  Whitham, president Okanagan Historical Society, expressed his gratitude to the members of the Osoyoos branch and their friends, who,  over a period of two years, had carried on the necessary negotiations Unveil Memorial Plaque  which had led to the accomplishment of this event. He paid high  tribute to Mrs. Ed. Lacey of Osoyoos, who had sparked the movement to mark this site.  Guy P. Bagnall, treasurer of the society, presented the greetings  of the Enderby-Armstrong branch, stating that R. Blackburn had  hoped to attend but was unable to do so; Another greeting came  from Aid. Fred Harwood, president of the Vernon branch, who also  was unable to be present.  Mr. Bagnall stated events such as the one they had just participated in was an indication of the work which the Okanagan Historical Society had been doing since its inception in 1925, and would continue to do. He stated some 20 annual reports had been published,  between the covers of which would be found more authentic information about the Okanagan than in any other publication. Its  500 members were constantly at work, recording current history  and researching upon the past, he said.  Following is the text of the inscription which appears on the  plaque:  At Osoyoos Cairn — Left to Right: E. J. Lacey, Will Allyn,  Frank 0. McDonald  OSOYOOS CUSTOM HOUSE On this site the first Colonial Custom I louse in the Okanagan Valley was erected in 1861,  John Carmichael Haynes in charge.   Following discovery of gold.  9 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957    in British Columbia in 1858 the old Fur Trade brigade trail, which  passes nearby, became one of the routes to the old Cariboo used by  the gold seekers.  At Osoyoos Cairn — Left to Right:  Val Haynes,      Mrs. Parkinson,      Mrs. H. E. White,      Will Haynes  Custom House Plaque at Osoyoos  10 Katie Lacey  John P. McCuddy was born in 1855, at Kenilworth, Ontario.  When he was 14, his family moved to Chicago where, as he reached  manhood, he became interested in bridge building, contracting in  this business in the U.S. for a few years.  Returning to his native country, he took on contracts with the  C.P.R., then building across Canada. Starting along the shores of  Lake Superior, he took contracts across the prairies and through the  mountains to the shores of the West Coast. Crossing the plains they  found it necessary several times to make a circle of their wagons  and fight off Indian attacks. While working in the Sicamous area  McCuddy took a trip down the Okanagan Valley to see what the  country was like, and made up his mind that he would go back  there to live some day.  With the completion of the C.P.R. he returned to the States,  where he engaged in the construction of several irrigation canals.  He constructed the Bear River irrigation Canal at Salt Lake City,  and several others in Colorado, New Mexico and Idaho.  While working on the New York canal at Boise, Idaho, he  met and married Miss Sarah Jane Taylor on December 25th, 1890.  Born m Manti, Utah, February 10, 1866, Mrs. McCuddy's  life was filled with the events of those who lived on the frontier.  Her family lived in a white stone house at Marysville, Utah, which  was later destroyed by an earthquake. Her father was an Indian  Scout for the U.S. Government, and was awarded the United  States Medal of Merit for his services when the Piute and Navajo  Indian lands were being opened up for settlement. He always wore  a red shirt and rode a white horse. During the eight years he was a  scout he was never wounded. One day he failed to return. Other  members of the expedition brought in his red shirt, but no trace  was ever found of him or his horse.  Mrs. McCuddy was then only 2 years old and there was a younger  sister. Her mother was forced to seek employment and travelled by stage with the two small girls to pick cotton. On a steep  hill the doubletrees broke, and the stage hurtled backwards down  the hill towards the Little Virgin River. The driver and other  passengers jumped, but the young mother could not get out with the  two small girls. On the very brink of the river the stage stopped  up against a large stump.  11 The Okanagan Historical Society-—4957  When Mrs. McCuddy was six, her mother married a cattleman named Van Buren. Soon after this the government bought  the ranch for a dam site and the family moved to Aurora, Oregon.  At the age of fourteen Mrs. McCuddy left home to do housework and care for children while she continued her schooling,  later going to Normal. At her first school she had to walk several  miles each day, armed with a pitchfork, through cougar-infested  woods. During six years of teaching she became proficient as an  elocutionist. By the time of her marriage she had acquired her  first-class teaching certificate.  When the contract on the canal at Boise was completed the young  couple moved to Spokane, where McCuddy took a contract for the  Great Northern Railway, then building into Seattle. Moving with  the construction crews, and living in tents, the McCuddys moved  as far west as Wenatchee where, while working on the bridge  across the Columbia River, Mr. McCuddy had the misfortune to  get his leg crushed. A son, Arthur, was born at this time, both parents being in the same hospital at Portland, Oregon at the same time.  When McCuddy was able to leave hospital, construction on  the railroad had stopped. There was a financial panic in the States  at that time. McCuddy left most of his equipment at Wenatchee  and moved to Oroville, Washington, where they opened a store,  and Mr. McCuddy became the second postmaster in Oroville. The  large amount of equipment left at Wenatchee gradually disappeared.  In 1893 they moved to Okanagan Falls by way of Fairview,  entering Canada through the Customs at Osoyoos on July 12th,  according to the Customs day book, T. Kruger Collector. They  brought in with them a considerable amount of merchandise, the  stock from the store in Oroville.  Had Store In Tent  For a short time the McCuddys operated a store in a tent at  Okanagan Falls. But the mining boom had commenced at Fairview,  McKinney and in the Boundry country. Supplies for new claims  were being packed in on horses over rough trails. The government had crews surveying a new road to Grand Forks, which would  eventually link up with Marcus. Work had commenced on a road  along the east side of Vaseux Lake south to join with the road from  Fairview and McKinney, J. Schubert in charge. McCuddy was  quick to see the possibilities ahead, and as he had long been wanting  a ranch of his own he staked a pre-emption along the McKinney  12 McCuddy's  trail. The road crew constructing the new road were camped at the  same location, and one of the crew decided he wanted the same  place, but fortunately McCuddy got to Osoyoos and recorded his  claim with the Government Agent C. A. R. Lambly two days before  the other fellow.  On their first trip to the new ranch they took a large supply of  groceries which they piled up on the ground, covered with a tarp,  and put a fence around them while they went out for more supplies.  There was a large encampment of Indians nearby, and when they  returned, two weeks later, the Indians were still there, and not one  single thing was missing.  Everything for the house which was to be a stopping place,  flooring, windows, nails, building paper, hardware, in fact almost  everything but the logs, were bought from Megaw's at Vernon and  shipped down Okanagan Lake to Penticton, from there by boat and  scow down the Okanagan River and Skaha Lake to Okanagan Falls.  The road around Vaseux Lake was not completed at that time.  There were two difficult humps that could only be negotiated by  empty wagons. For several years an old seafaring captain named  Maloney had been with McCuddy. Taking two wagons and teams  he and Maloney went to the Falls and loaded up the freight and  hauled it all down to the head of Vaseux Lake where they made a  large raft, loaded everything on it and poled it down the lake,  Maloney was in his element on the water and insisted on being the  Captain with McCuddy the crew. Half way down the lake a terrific  wind storm came up theatening to pile the raft up on the rocks.  Maloney, an excitable character at any time, was tearing up and  down the raft, swearing and issuing orders to the "crew" to "keep  poling and keep away from the rocks" till McCuddy had thought  the joke had gone far enough and told him he had better become  part of the crew too — and so they were able to make a safe landing at the foot of the lake. Returning on foot for the teams and  wagons and they loaded up again and proceeded to the ranch.  With the launching of the Aberdeen on Okanagan Lake and  the Jessie on Skaha Lake that hauled a scow of sorts from Penticton, and the completion of the new road to the Boundary country,  Okanagan Falls became the jumping off place for the freight teams  unless there was ice on the lake, and it became a hive of activity.  William Snodgrass, who had come from La Grand, Oregon,  brought in a complete sawmill.   He had the first freight teams on  13 The Okanagan Historical Society—-1957  the new haul and also the contract to haul mail and passengers to  Grand Forks. He also owned the boat, the Jessie, which was sold after  a few years and replaced by the Greenwood. This one later burned.  Snodgrass also had a stopping place and a store at the Falls. In 1897  Jim Bassett, together with his four half-brothers, Dick, Top, Fred  and Henry, came from Rossland to make their headquarters at the  Falls and were followed in the same year by Bob Myerhoff and  Charlie Snyder from the Boundary country. Charlie Snyder hauled  the first load of ore into the smelter at Trail from the LeRoi mine  at Rossland, hauling with sleighs, and dumped the ore on the ground.  Other freighters hauling from Okanagan Falls were Jim Bell who  brought his outfit in from Ashcroft; Harvey and Bill Garrison j  Dune Gillis who drove four mules and who took up a ranch across  from Rock Creek when the freighting gave out. Joe Cody and  Curley Wells were two of Myerhoff's drivers. There were also  Joe Brent and his son Ferdie, and Terry Mortimer who rolled his  load over one of the sandhills and had to build a new grade to get  his outfit out and which is still known as Mortimer's grade; and  Cayuse Bill, so-called because he had six small horses and two wagons;  and Harry Rose, who in 1890-91 had a contract to build the first  bridge at Osoyoos over which wagons could pass, and later had a  picture show at Princeton. Unfortunately, practically all the stage  line records at McCuddy were lost when the house was destroyed  by fire in 1924, and many familiar names were lost with the records.  Such names as Cade or Kade, Phil Stanier, Frank Johnson, are  mentioned in the one account book saved. Others well-known were  Billy Armstrong, Curtis, Bob Hale, who took over the contract from  Snodgrass; and Andy Kirkland, who was killed when his team  went over the bank coming down Jolly Jack hill, to mention a few  of those intrepid characters to whom residents of the present  day owe so much.  The Life of a Teamster  In spite of the heavy loads, long hours and bad roads, that  took their toll of man and beast, there was a certain romance to the  lives of these people. The speed and endurance of the many teams  on the road meant profit or loss to the freighters and stage drivers,  and for the most part, these men kept their horses in the finest condition, sleek and well-groomed. They took a pride in their harnesses which were kept well-oiled and repaired, decorated with  brightly colored celluloid rings and trimmings; a row of bells was  14 McCuddy's  attached to the collar of each horse and the merry jingle would give  warning to other travellers of the approach of the heavy wagons.  William Snodgrass had brought two Concord stages in with  him and one of these was on the McKinney run, and it possessed  a horn hung on the side of the stage. The driver would pick  it up and blow periodically, to let travellers know the stage was  coming.   It served as a warning as did the freighters' bells.  While the mines were running at McKinney all the freight,  mail and passengers for the Boundary country went by way of McCuddy. Some nights the fourteen-room house was filled to overflowing and the owners would be forced to spend the night in their  chairs; and the huge barns had more than a hundred horses in them.  After the road was ^completed around .Vaseux Lake the mail for  Fairview came IS^vVayAlf Grace Lake, now known as Mud Lake,  a small lake about a half-mile south of Gallagher Lake where the  main stage road went by. The stage would be met at Wolf-town,  where the freighters used to camp, and the mail and passengers for  Fairview would be transferred; sometimes it would be only a  saddle horse that met them. At high water the road around Grace  Lake (? ) would be well under water and sometimes there would be  as much as four feet of water on the road around Vaseux Lake.  Close by the McCuddy stopping place was a large sawmill,  owned by C. Tillman, that supplied lumber to the new camp and  employed as many as 35 men besides many engaged in hauling the  lumber, some of which was hauled as far away as Hedley. Tillman  later moved to Fairview and then to Hedley.  Usually the gold bricks from the Cariboo Mine at Camp  McKinney went out by way of McCuddy. J. Monaghan always  used a light rig and team, and would drive up to McCuddy's put  his team away, and go in for supper, leaving his suitcase and the  bricks, which would be in sacks, lying in the bottom of the rig in  plain sight. After supper he and McCuddy would go out and bring  in the suitcase and the sacks, which they would have to pack as  though there was little weight in them. These sacks they would  drop under a table somewhere in full view, and Monaghan would  take his suitcase and go up to bed. In the morning he would gather  up his sacks and be on his way and no one ever got wise to the fact  that this was the month's clean-up going out. The only time the  gold went out the Rock Creek way was the time that McAulay was  robbed of the three bricks.  15 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  Early  day  "Contractors"  At one time there were some contractors who contracted to put  up barns and warehouses from Penticton to Grand Forks. They  were very fast workers; would take a stack of boards or timbers and  saw them off with a cross-cut saw and didn't bother to put too  many braces in. By the time they got to Grand Forks word came  through from Penticton that the buildings there were starting  to fall down. They had built a couple of barns for McCuddy, and  a warehouse for the Bassetts at McCuddy, as they used to change  their loads from wagons to sleighs there in the winter time. John  McCuddy heard about the other buildings falling down and managed to get his barns braced in time to save them but the Bassett warehouse fell down, and they were out a lot of money on the deal. The  contractors got across the line before anyone could catch up with  them.   One of the barns at McCuddy had four rows of stalls in it.  Much of the freight in those days were large barrels of beer.  Often the freighters would knock a hoop up on a keg, bore a hole  in the barrel and take what they wanted, plug the hole up again and  knock the hoop back in place. There was also a bar at the McCuddy  place. John McCuddy was a big strong man, and if any of the  customers got too quarrelsome or abusive he would pick them up by  the collar, knock their heads together and throw them out. There  was a bunk house behind the big house which was often full too.  One night when it was full, one of the men awoke in the night with  the feeling something was wrong. Waking some of his companions,  they proceeded to wake the rest of the men and found that one,  known only as "Red" was dead. Dr. R. B. White was summoned  from Fairview, he pronounced death from natural causes. A coffin  was made of rough boards and "Red" was buried on the ranch. No  trace was ever found of who he was.  Henry Main, who had a drug store in Penticton for several years,  once walked from Penticton to Marcus, rolling a wheel ahead of  him, by which he measured the number of miles between points.  The mileage was as follows. — Penticton - Okanagan Falls 14 m;  Camp McKinney 36 m; Rock Creek 17 m; Midway 12 m; Boundary Falls 5 m; Anaconda 2-half m; Greenwood 1-half m; Carson  14 m; Grand Forks 4 m; Marcus 42 m; Total 148 miles. The  mileage was marked on the trees along the way.  The day book, stage account, from July 1899 to the end of  July 1900, gives such items as—Meals 35c; bed 50c; 1 bottle beer  50c; horse feed,  1 horse 50c, team $1.00;  stall 1 horse 25c, team  16 McCuddy's  50c (this was because some outfits carried their own feed); shoeing  1 foot 60c. Apart from the stage account there appears such names  as—Al and Fred Swinburne, butchers from Fairview, Jas Hunter,  Mackey, Barnie, J. T. Williams, blacksmith, J. A. Monteith,  Joseph Cook, Palmer-1 flask 75c, 1 bottle $1.25, Fadden, Van Ash,  Fred Gillanders, Walter Gillespie, Ed Coteau, Wm. Dalrymple and  Venner, Police Constable.  Records show that the McCuddy post office, J. McCuddy,  postmaster was in operation from November 1, 1900 to September  30,  1901.  Dealing with a Cattle Buyer  By 1905 Camp McKinney was almost a thing of the past and  the freight wagons and stages were seeking newer and more prosperous trails. By this time the McCuddys had accumulated a large  herd of sheep and cattle, and one fall McCuddy rode to Greenwood  to dispose of the surplus stock. Greenwood had a big population by  then, and so did Phoenix. McCuddy made a deal with one cattle  buyer to dispose of all the animals at a set price. He returned to  the ranch and gathered the sheep and cattle and drove them by way  of Kettle Valley. When they were as far as Midway, McCuddy  rode in to Greenwood to tell his buyer the cattle were coming.  Figuring he had McCuddy at a disadvantage, he told him he could  only give him so much, a price much less than previously agreed  upon. McCuddy told the buyer O.K. and returned to Midway where  he rented the Naden ranch, and bought a big barn full of hay. Hiring a butcher he butchered so many sheep and cattle a week and  peddled them to the stores and hotels in Greenwood and Phoenix.  It wasn't long before the cattle buyer was around offering McCuddy  more than his original offer, but McCuddy was making more  money as it was and refused his offer, selling all the sheep and cattle  at a good profit. Arthur McCuddy tells of walking to school at  Boundary Falls that winter through two or three feet of snow, and  when they returned to the Okanagan the ground was bare, scarcely any snow having fallen all winter.  Mrs. McCuddy was a very tiny woman and her husband, who  was well over six feet, weighed about 256 lbs. They were a striking couple, both very active and hard workers. Yet Mrs. McCuddy  kept an active mind, alert to the beauties of nature with which she  was surrounded at McCuddy, and found time to study botany by  means of a correspondence course so that she might better enjoy  the flowers that covered the slopes of Mt. Baldy.   One winter ac-  17 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  companied by her son, Arthur, she returned across the line to Normal  for a refresher course, specializing in botany. When the McCuddys  first settled on the ranch, and for several years after, black wolves,  cougar, lynx and bear were plentiful. However, deer were scarce  but there were numerous bands of wild horses roaming the hills.  Blue grouse were also  plentiful.  When John McCuddy was about 18, he was brakeman on a  cotton train running between Chicago and New Orleans. Here  he listened to the negroes singing, and learned their songs. Once  there were several negroes working on the railroad near Midway  and McCuddy was camped across the river from them. They sang  as they worked, and when they stopped, much to their surprise,  McCuddy took up the song. They continued singing back and forth  across the river till some of them got curious to see who it was. They  got a boat and rowed across the river.  In 1905 Mrs. McCuddy opened a store in Fairview, and in 1908  she took over the Post Office and Telephone service there. At that  time there were three lines running into Fairview; one from  Princeton, one from Penticton, and one from Oroville, Washington. There were three telephones in Fairview; one at the store,  one at the hotel and one at the Government office.  Mr. McCuddy still carried on the activities at the ranch, but  with the coming of the Southern Okanagan Irrigation Project  and the centre of business activities moving to the new town of  Oliver, the store at Fairview was closed and the Post Office and  Telephone taken over at Oliver, and in 1921 Mrs. McCuddy  moved back to the  ranch.  Their son, Arthur McCuddy, took up land in Oliver and here  Mrs. McCuddy made her home after the death of Mr. McCuddy  in   1937.   Mrs.  McCuddy passed away in   1941.  18 presentation of the *-3//ver  ^jubilee <s Vie da I to \^*nief  JPjaptiste bu C^o/.    pragnall  Hester E. White1  It had rained the day before, so it was one of those soft, quiet  overcast mornings, no wind, and just a slight chill in the air. We  left Penticton at nine o'clock in the morning so as to be in time  for the presentation at eleven. As we motored south the thirty miles  to Oliver one could drink in the beauty of the Okanagan. We  climbed the hill, skirting Skaha Lake, and the mountains, clothed  in lovely blue, and as free as one's faith should be, were reflected  in the glistening water of the lake. Orchards on the far hillside  were gardens of blossoms.  At Okanagan Falls we crossed a bridge over the Okanagan  River. It is built above the falls, and one misses the beauty of the  latter. Going east we pass through the small settlement, and turning south are soon overlooking Vaseux Lake, noted for its flock of  Trumpeter swans, now sadly small. Mclntyre Bluff, standing  guard at the south end of the lake, comes into view. The road hugs  the cliff on the east side of the lake, the waters skirting the road on  the right and we make many sharp turns, passing under an overhanging rock. As we leave the lake one notices Old Bill Schoonover's  cabin on the right. He passed on a few years ago, after living in  the country for many years. He was over eighty when he received  the Humane Society's Medal for swimming to the rescue of, and  saving from drowning, a woman who had driven her car off the  road into forty feet of water. Then we are overshadowed by  Mclntyre's Bluff, of which an old Indian legend is told in many  versions, concerning an attempted raid by the Shuswap Indians on  the Okanagans. On occasional days the shadow or painting of a  horse with rider is seen near the top of the bluff. Indians say this  is a painting, but it may be a shadow cast at times.  Old Pete Mclntyre lived under the shadow of this mighty rock  for years.   One of the Overland Brigade of 1862, he took up land  l This article was written by Mrs. White on 16 May, 1935, describing  events on that date.  19 'The Okanagan Plistorical Society—A957  here and had the first sawmill of the district. Leaving this shadowed  land, we pass over the concrete ditch which carries water to the many  acres of fruit at Oliver, named for John Oliver, former Premier  of British Columbia. Oliver, a promising little country town, and  famous for its cantaloupes, we leave behind, cross the Okanagan  River again and going east climb onto the benches (rolling hills)  covered with sage brush and greasewood, which is now in bloom.  We climb again, and looking back, can see the Okanagan River  winding its way to the south, through the Haynes meadows, and on  into Osoyoos Lake (once spelled Sooyoos). Looking north we see  Mclntyre's Bluff still standing guard. Old Fairview could be seen  to the west, at the foot of the mountain, a few shacks remain to  tell the tale of man's search for gold in the early days. Mining has  been revived at the Morning Star, the Old Stemwinder, Susie, and  Dominion properties, but they only recall the days of excitement  and stir of '97. With memories crowding my mind, we have topped  the hill and enter the little swale towards Inkaneep Creek.  We pass an Indian leading a chestnut stallion, tossing his silver  mane, and the horses one has known pass in vision, and one sees  them again. What the horse underwent to develop this country!  Pack horses, cow ponies, horses tailing saddle-horses, and then hitched  together in teams, two horse, four horse, up to sixteen horse teams,  straining at their traces to haul stages, with passengers and wagons  loaded with heavy machines to the mines at Camp McKinney, the  road to which we have just passed at the foot of the hill—all this  in flash of memory.  Then we met an Indian woman on a horse, driving a cow, a  yearling calf, and a new calf, so she was not going to the presentation, much to our surprise. The remains of the first Indian  Church, to the left as we enter the village, bring to mind the  names of the early priests, Father Pandozy, Father de Rouge, Father  Marshall and Father Le Jeune, who taught and set an example of  true Christianity. Father de Rouge preached in Indian and taught  the Indians to sing and pray in their own language. An organ and  bell were given to this little old church by Mrs. Haynes, Judge  Haynes' wife. The new church, a frame building, is like many one  sees through the country today. We crossed Inkaneep Creek, and  were soon at the schoolhouse, where Mr. Walsh is taking such a  great interest in instructing the children, imparting the three r's and  doing his best, as well, to revive the Indian handicrafts. Opposite  the school, across the road is the Council House   for  the  Indians.  20 Presentation to Chief Baptiste George  Now it is a white frame house, but in the days before the white  man the Council House was made like a teepee, and the covering  was a matting made of tules or bullrushes, sewn together with  threads of silver willow. A number of the younger Indians of the  Reservation had gathered; the absence of the older ones was noticeable. An old Indian on crutches was Yankin, in the old days; now  known as Susap, he was also Sillitoe, after Bishop Sillitoe whom he  had brought over the Dewdney Trail from Hope to Osoyoos in  1881 with Mrs. Sillitoe, and mentioned in the Bishop's memoirs. A  pet fawn was very much the centre of the picture; cars were  arriving with Col. Pragnall and his escort of five R.C.M.P. officers,  their red coats adding much to the colour of the scene. Mr. Coleman,  the Indian Agent and Magistrate George F. Guernsey were noted.  Mr. Guernsey was for many years with the old North West Mounted  Police, predecessors of the R.C.M.P. of today, and at Fort  Qu'Appelle, but now a resident of Penticton for a quarter of a  century.  Then appeared Chief Baptiste, and his wife Cecile, whose  father was Chief Gregoir, who preceded Baptiste as ruler. The  Chief always wears a large black hat, with a very large flat brim  and a high crown. He is nearly ninety now, but is marvelously preserved, and has a very keen mind. During the war, when liberty  bonds were sold, Chief Baptiste was a very generous subscriber, so  much so that the Government presented him with a Union Jack  because of his loyalty. He became Chief in 1907, and has always  won and held the respect of the Indians and of the Whites. His  example of thrift as a farmer and a cattle owner has done much  to make the reservation upheld by the Indian Agent as a model one.  Cameras were very much in evidence as at last Colonel Pragnall,  together with his escort stood before the group, and through an  interpreter made the presentation on behalf of the King, the "Tyhee  George," pinning the medal on the old chief, and then saluting  him. The officer then presented a Jubilee medal to Dr. R. B.  White, "for long and faithful service to the state." Dr. White  came from the East, after graduating from McGill, to Fairview in  1897, and has given his best to Indian and white alike. For many  years a "white brother" to the Indian, he will now be considered a  "blood brother" of the Old Chief, because of the dual ceremony.  Dr. White would ride miles on horseback to relieve the sick and  suffering. After the presentation, the Chief came forward and  with his son Narcisse as interpreter, told his people how the Indian  21 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  had been taught to till the soil and raise cattle, which had enabled  them to make a living. They would have been a wild, bad people,  but for the good work the Indian Agents had done. After many  congratulations, and hand-shakings with many Tilicums (friends)  we left feeling we had been indeed honoured to be present when  the only INDIAN IN CANADA had been the recipient of the  SILVER JUBILEE MEDAL. Perhaps never again will one have  the opportunity to see an old Indian talk as Chief Baptiste did, in  Indian, holding his large black hat in his left hand and gesticulating  with his right. He was indeed a noble figure, and one whose natural  ways and ideals were not shattered when he came in contact with  the white man. It is sad to see the noble, natural grace of the old  time Indian pass.  *%  tHire t'tC».c  its* M/iSdr-:  Group at Inkaneep Presentation of Jubilee Medal  22 <Jne <^tdmmerland   J~ish <J~tatcneru  F. W. Andrew, M.D.  The study of fish life, including the care of the eggs and rearing of the young is included in the science of Ichthyology, a  clumsy Greek word that hardly anyone uses if they can avoid it.  The principal game fish of British Columbia (in fresh water) is  the Kamloops trout. It is found in practically all of its lakes  and larger streams and for this there are several reasons. Spawning takes place naturally, there is plenty of food and there are  few enemies. Besides, this variety is a valuable addition to our  diet as to most people our trout has a pleasant flavour. It supports  a popular hobby and if some business appointments are not kept,  look for a "gone fishing" sign on the office door.  It is difficult to say whether the native fish were on the increase  or decrease when the white man came. The native Indian in  common with his white brother probably exaggerated the size of  his catch when there were no witnesses to support his claim. What  is it that causes otherwise respectable people to unblushingly stretch  the truth when speaking of fish? They had no regulations regarding open and closed seasons. As long as the number of fishermen did not relatively increase there was no scarcity of fish.  The early settlers in the Okanagan valley were beginning to  appreciate the fertility of the soil but suspected that normal precipitation did not supply sufficient moisture in order to yield the  best results. This frequently necessitated the damming of streams  at a higher level, or the outlet of some lakes, so that water could  be delivered by gravity. After diverting the water, the original  stream (or lake) contained less water but it also concentrated such  enemies of fish life if any were present. Our lakes were by no  means inexhaustible and in a few years would become so depleted  that a great source of food supply for our present inhabitants and  incoming settlers would become  destroyed.  The white man sometimes used worms on a hook as a bait or  if the season was suitable, he used grasshoppers. He seldom used  nets. But as a general rule he seemed to find trolling more successful. Hooks for trolling were of various designs and each had its  advocates. The Indian attached a hook or even two or three of them  to a piece of tin,  twisted in  order to give it a  life-like  twirl  as  23 The Okanagan Historical Society-—1957  it was towed by a canoe or row-boat. He seemed to catch as  many as a white man with his fancy lures. The Indian claimed  that trolling from a row-boat was superior to trolling from a boat  with an outboard motor—there was less noise and finer adjustment  could be made in speed.  As more settlers came to the Okanagan Valley, more people  tried their luck at fishing. The spawning grounds high along  the creek were less available to the fish and there were more people  trying to catch these fish. Under these conditions it was no wonder  that fish for sport and food began to' diminish.  There seemed to be two methods of meeting the changed conditions. First to declare a limit on the number of fish that might  be taken, and second, to improve the breeding of the young fish.  The fish hatchery seemed to be the logical answer.  In 1929, George N. Gartrell saw the possibilities of a fish  hatchery in Summerland, one reason being that strong healthy  eggs could be obtained in Penask Lake, not far distant, and that  a steady supply of spring water in large amounts was available.  At Summerland the water from this spring was sufficient to operate a Pelton water-wheel that supplied light (and some power) to  Summerland and the adjacent territory. But occasionally the  power would go off without notice and this would be fatal to  fry and young fish. About this time the West Kootenay Power  and Light Company extended their operations to take care of  Summerland and the surrounding district SO' the Pelton wheel became  obsolete   {told by  Granville Morgan).  Hatchery workers choose a lake that contains a good number  of healthy fish in the streams that feed the lake. In the spawning  season, they strip the female fish of eggs and fertilize them with the  males and deposit them in the hatchery. There they lay in a wire  basket under a steady stream of fresh water. The progress from there  depends (within limits) on the temperature of the water. By  following certain formulae, the hatchery workers can foretell when  the eggs will hatch. Two dark spots appear on the eggs which  become the eyes. The "eyed" eggs may now be shipped to other  streams and lakes or in special boxes to other hatcheries, both in  B.C. and other countries. In 1955 the Game Department shipped  eggs to Greece, Colorado, California, Oregon and Wisconsin, as  well as other states and provinces. Most of the eggs, however,  are kept at the hatchery and are permitted to hatch.  Immediately   on   hatching,   the   young   fish   drop   through   the  24 The Summerland Fish Hatchery  basket screens to the bottom of the trough. Still attached to them  is the yolk sac. The young fish lie on the bottom until the sac is  absorbed. The fish then "swim up" and are ready to be transported  as  fry to the  lakes where they are  required.  The small fish (fry) are fed eight times a day, at first on a  ration of equal parts of ground pork and beef liver. To this is  added a small portion of salmon viscera, then salt, yeast and vitamins. An interesting new substance with which Summerland  Hatchery is experimenting is a dried sea-weed called Agit-Kelp which  comes from Norway. Preliminary research has shown a considerable increase in growth and adds to our economical knowledge  of fish  values.  In the spring of the following year, approximately eight  months from birth the young fish or fingerlings, as they are now called, attain a length of four to seven inches. They are then released  into the various waters. This operation is accomplished with an  aerating tank which is placed on a truck. The tank has two small  pumps which constantly keep the water in motion, sucking it up  and putting it back again in a fine spray. In the droplet condition the water is enabled to give up carbon-dioxide and replace it  with oxygen. Failure of the pumps for ten minutes would result  in the complete loss of the fish carried. If the water is well agitated by other means, the loss is not complete.  It is claimed by some that only pure water should be used  wrhen dealing with food, directly or indirectly. Just what is pure  water? Various salines are picked up by contact with the soil in  small amounts. An analysis of the Summerland water shows the  following are included — compounds of Iodine, Calcium, Magnesium and Fluorine. The presence of Iodine helps to prevent the  incidence of goitre, Calcium and Magnesium cause hardness in the  water, while Fluorine, present V2 part to one million, helps to prevent softening and loss of the early teeth (the dentists tell us). A  fish growing in such water is bound to absorb many of these. Gas  is absorbed, especially oxygen and carbon dioxide and they are  essential to the life of a fish. Lakes, or other water, help to nourish  the fish when it appears to be drinking, which is a method of obtaining oxygen. Besides gases and solids, most water of long standing has an organic content, rather complex in its composition, but it  helps to nourish fish and is known as plankton.  While our  hatcheries are largely  devoted to the  hatching and  25 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  rearing of Kamloops trout, efforts have been directed towards other  fish. The Speckled Brook Trout has received some attention, but  it has not been universally successful. In such streams that are  favorable, they produce a palatable fish and provide a good fight.  Recently a new diet has been tried on the fish. It is a commercial preparation and has been successfully used at all ages, a  gain of 30 per cent being recorded, and we shall likely hear more  of this diet before long. Under the older system the annual loss  was 15 per cent.  Mrs. A. W. Vanderburgh of the Summerland Review has supplied much of the preceding information.  Editors Note:  The above article was received for publication only a few days  before Dr. Andrew's death. He was a valued contributor to our  reports for many years. An obituary will appear in the 1958 Report.  A PRACTICAL JOKE WHICH FAILED  Mr. Wm. Lloyd-Jones had always been popular with the young  people in the community of his town, Kelowna; he enjoyed a good,  prank and had been in more than one 'round town, so when the  time rolled around for him to get married, his associates—boys  and girls—determined the event should not escape their attention.  They decided to assemble on the wharf on the day when Mr. Lloyd-  Jones must take the steamer "Okanagan" and be on his way out  to marry the finest girl in all the world; they would be on the  wharf with a whole hatful of tricks for the going-away ceremony. Getting wind of their intentions, Mr. Lloyd-Jones planned  a more peaceful departure, even if it had to be less dignified, and  acting on the suggestion of his cousin, David Lloyd-Jones, he  secreted himself in an empty trunk at the Kelowna Sawmill office  and was taken to the wharf, wheeled aboard the steamer and  stacked with the other baggage on the lower deck. The stately  vessel pulled out into deep water and headed north. It was then  the pranksters had the tables turned upon them—and fears that  he had missed the boat dispelled—for upon the topmost deck stood  the object of their attentions, waving them a fond farewell, throwing candies to the crowd and providing cigars for his friends.  The incident related above took place at Kelowna in September  1909. Mr. W. Lloyd-Jones was married to Miss Naomi Brisbin at  Red Deer, Alberta on September 15, 1909. — Contributed  26 <JVlorrice *^mitn ^/Vliddleton  1883-1950  District Horticulturist for the Okanagan Valley and Kootenay  Districts, 1909- 1948.  Margaret   Campbell   Middleton  (Mrs. Morrice S. Middleton)  On the tenth day of June, 1892, there arrived in Vernon, an  eight year old Scots lad, wearing kilts, who was destined to make an  extensive contribution to the development of agriculture in British  Columbia through his work in the advancement and perfection of  production throughout the province.  Morrice Smith Middleton was born in Aberdeenshire, Scotland,  May 24, 1883; and at the age of eight, came with his family to the  Coldstream Ranch, then owned by the Governor General of Canada,  Lord Aberdeen, one of the largest ranches in the Okanagan Valley.  The Middletons had lived near Lord Aberdeen's estate in Scotland, and had come to this valley on June 10, 1892, where Mr.  Middleton, Morrice's father, had accepted the position of supervising head of the dairy branch of the famous ranch. Two years  later, in 1894, Mr. Middleton was granted the privilege of choosing  and buying a portion of the property. This was the first subdivision  made at that time, and there they built the traditional pioneer log  home, and named it "Midmar." They planted an orchard and  carried on the practice of farming for many years during which  time they built a large brick home, now the home of William A.  Middleton, also a well known authority in Agriculture.  From "Midmar" Morrice, as he was affectionately called by  all who knew him, attended public school in Vernon, following  which he entered the Guelph Agricultural College, and in 1909 he  graduated with his BSA from the University of Toronto. While  attending the Guelph College he was a member of the A.O.C.  Rugby team, and took part in landscape and garden projects.  Morrice grew up with the agricultural industry in the Okanagan. His love of working with the soil was undoubtedly an inheritance reaching back generations.   One of his cherished treasures,  27 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  given to him by his mother, was a bronze medal from the "Highland Agricultural Society of Scotland" presented to his uncle, Morrice  Smith, dated "1848, in appreciation of the benefits which as a  great improver of ploughing he conferred on Aberdeenshire."  Taking part in Exhibitions was a "must" in Morrice's life. As  early as 1906 he made an entry of apples in the Provincial Exhibition and was presented with the silver medal inscribed, "Awarded  to M. S. Middleton, Vernon, B.C. winner of most prizes in apples,  Provincial Exhibition  1906."  Morrice S. Middleton 1883—1950  In 1909 Morrice took his first post with the B.C. Department  of Agriculture as District Horticulturist with offices in Nelson, B.C.,  covering a large District in the Kootenays. Transportation at that  time was difficult. True, the stern-wheelers Minto, Moyie, Kokanee,  Kuskanook and Nasookin ran up and down the-lakes but there was  no ferry, and due to having to meet schedules, much of the work had  28 Life of M. S. Middleton  to be reached by row-boat. This, however, resulted in lifelong  friendships as when holding pruning classes or other work among  the growers, he was privileged to enjoy their hospitality, and got to  know them very well. One of these was the Gilroy home at Willow  Point near Nelson. More distant work took him to Robson, Grand  Forks, Creston, Edgewood on the Arrow Lakes, and many other  places.  Morrice continued his work in the Kootenays until 1917 when  he was asked by the Premier, The Hon. John Oliver, to accept the  position of Provincial Horticulturist in Victoria. While in Victoria  he compiled several publications on agricultural practices such as  pruning, irrigation, top-working of trees etc. However, he preferred  working in closer touch with production therefore he resigned in  1919 and returned to his home in the Coldstream to take over the  management of "Midmar" as well as an adjoining ranch of his  own consisting of hay and range land and at that time, run in conjunction with "Midmar." Both places were under irrigation, and  fruit, vegetables, grain and forage crops were grown. Also a purebred herd of dairy cattle and Berkshire pigs and poultry were kept.  In 1921 on the first day of June Morrice and I were married  from my home in Armstrong, and we began a most interesting and  worthwhile life in a new home built on a knoll which overlooked  a large portion of the B.X. and Coldstream districts, afterwards  known as "Bonnyview." Incidentally, Morrice's mother always referred to our home as "the wee housie." Landscaping and planting  of trees etc. was carried on endlessly there and "Bonnyview" grew  to be a most attractive place.  The following year ( 1922) on a beautiful May morning Morrice  filled his car with spring flowers and hurried to the Vernon Jubilee  Hospital, turning over in his mind the names William, George and  others but was greeted by Janet Catherine who favoured him with  a contented yawn, to which he reacted with an unusually low bow.  He compromised later, however, when she was ready to enter  University, by insisting that she take up Agriculture. Her ultimate  aim was Art and to excel in art she must study nature in all forms.  Janet is now Mrs. J. M. Churchill, known across the continent for  her original serigraphs and watercolours.  Between 1919 and 1924 Morrice was always on call whenever  need arose for his expert services. He was a kind man, tireless,  friendly and an able agriculturist who was never known to refuse  an appeal for help. At this time he became one of the trustees of the  29 The Okanagan Historical Society—7957  Vernon Irrigation District, on which he served for five years.  In 1924 a change was being made in the Vernon office of the  Department of Agriculture and Morrice rejoined the services as  District Horticulturist for the Okanagan Valley, and for many years  the home farming was carried on, under supervision, by married  couples who occupied a house nearby, built for that purpose, together with seasonal help.  On Research for C.M.S.  In the late 20's the Department granted Morrice absence so  that he could be free to do some important research for The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co. of Canada, at Trail. This resulted in an extensive survey regarding smelter fume damage to  orchards in the vicinity of Trail. Following this he was called by  the Canada Research Council to investigate and report on alleged  damage to horticulture in the State of Washington, after which he  gave evidence at the International Boundary Commission Hearing  at Washington  D.C.  One of the major achievements for the Okanagan Valley fruit  industry was Morrice's work as chairman of a committee which in  the late 20's sought to reduce the number of fruit varieties grown  in the valley. This resulted in the selection of nine favoured  varieties plus one optional for each district, and in 1927 he began a  drive to get these into commercial production.  The establishment of Junior Farm Clubs, now called 4-H clubs,  was a project especially interesting to Morrice, and he gave generously of his time and experience towards assisting with the organization of several clubs throughout the valley. These varied from  calf, sheep, swine, poultry etc. to potato clubs. A large portion of  this work was done evenings and week-ends, due to pressure of farm  work, but Morrice was always on hand for advice and assistance  whether for Field Days, Fairs or Exhibitions. One of his dreams  was a Junior Farmers Agricultural School, and he made a concentrated effort, later forwarded to the Hon. Frank Putman, Minister  of Agriculture, to promote interest in the establishment of an Agricultural College in the Okanagan. His suggestion for location was  Armstrong, where the Interior Fall Exhibition was held annually,  or at the Coldstream Ranch, between Vernon and Lumby, which  was more central. Further, the Coldstream Ranch was practically a  complete school set-Up, equipped to start immediately. About $125,-  000.00 had been invested in the buildings alone. Water and electric  light system, and ample dormitory and kitchen  facilities, had been  30 Life of M. S. Middleton  recently improved by the  Department of National  Defence  Drill  School which had its headquarters at the Ranch for some time.  Morrice's last association with the Junior Clubs was in 1947,  when he was privileged to pilot the winners of the valley judging  teams, with other similar groups, across Canada to the Royal Winter  Exhibition in Toronto, where they excelled in efficiency and conduct.  For a period between 1932 and 1934 Morrice Middleton's  services were withdrawn from the B.C. Department of Agriculture.  At that time he made a survey of growers he thought would be interested in growing grain with intention of entry in a World's Grain  Exhibition and Conference due to be held in Regina 1932 or 1933.  This was a most difficult time. All Canada was in the depths of a  depression. Returns for produce were practically nil if saleable at all.  Morrice was forced to dispense with all farm help. With the Regina  Exhibition in mind he began preparing the soil, and planting special  seed and improving it. Needless to say this was a daylight-till-dark  undertaking, entailing endless planning, cleaning, choosing the superior seed for replanting, and finally harvesting of many plots, most  of which had to be flailed.  World Seed Champions  During January and February of 1933 the Dining-room at  Bonnyview was transformed into a sort of granary, with table and  treadle-machine in constant use, occasionally well into the night.  Friends formed themselves into a miniature Bee and came to help  in any way possible, with the result that in March a half ton of grain,  made up of twenty-nine entries, was shipped to Regina from Bonnyview for exhibition and competition. All this proved to be a most  rewarding project, for in July, when the World's Grain Exhibition  and Conference was opened and judging completed, Morrice Middleton's name was written on nineteen of the twenty-nine exhibits  entered. Four of these were World Championships. No other individual, or Province came near this record. Later on he won the  Tolmie Challenge Trophy for B.C. Exhibitor, scoring the highest  aggregate number of points in the World's grain show classes, British Columbia Winter Fair, Vancouver, and three consecutive years  at the Chicago Grain Shows.  In 1932 the Okanagan fruit industry fell to a very low level  and Morrice was appointed chairman of a five-man Commission  to re-organize the local fruit industry. Many meetings were  held throughout the Valley and a combined study of the situation  carried through until the fall of  1933 when a movement headed  31 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  by the slogan "A cent a pound or on the ground" took place. The  situation gathered momentum to the point where a group of growers  in the southern end of the valley carried out the boast to congregate on the railroad track and prevent a train with shipments of fruit  from leaving the valley. From this revolt, and the untiring efforts  of many vitally interested in the fruit industry, came the present day  Central Selling Agency known as "Tree Fruits Ltd.", with its head  office in Kelowna.  In 1934 Morrice again joined the Department of Agriculture  as District Agriculturalist for the Okanagan Valley, and continued  in that position until retirement  from office  in   1948.  During war years Morrice faced many situations which necessitated long hours and wise judgment, but always with a unique sense  of humor which never failed him. It was said of him, "He was one  of the main constructors in building the Federal-Provincial relationship in agricultural services that has become a model for the whole  of  Canada."  We were members of Vernon United Church, transferring our  membership to Oyama United Church in 1948. Morrice was a  member of the Rotary Club of Vernon, and Vernon Vice-chairman  of the Canadian Institute of the Blind. He served a term of office  for the Vernon Canadian Club as President, was a member of the  Canadian Seed Growers association, the Society of Technical Agriculture, and the Agricultural Institute of Canada, as well as several  clubs connected with horticulture in the Okanagan Valley.  The Ideal Host  True to pioneer tradition, Morrice was a most generous host. His  home was at all times open to those who wished to come and many  of his colleagues and others availed themselves of his hospitality.  The annual opening day of the pheasant shooting season was always  a day of diversion at "Bonnyview" on which "the boys" of the Department and others came with their wives, and hunting dogs, if any.  They were all excellent shots and usually had their limit of birds  before the tea hour, always a happy occasion for all of us.  In October of 1947, due to pressure of work and difficulty  regarding farm help, "Bonnyviewr" was sold to a Prairie farmer with  a large family of boys, and shortly after Morrice bought the Despard  orchard situated on the south-shore of beautiful Kalamalka Lake,  a location he had always thought perfect, and the orchard, then in  full bearing, filled his eye.  32 Life of M. S. Middleton  The original cottage was torn down and a suitable home built,  including a large room leading directly from the front entrance  to be used as an office, where Morrice looked forward to carrying on  his work privately in an advisory capacity following retirement two  years hence.  The view here, with its extraordinary colours in Kalamalka,  suggested the naming of our home, and "the Despard Place" became  known as "Jade Bay," now known as "Middleton's Gallery, Jade  Bay." Incidentally, the name Jade Bay was seemingly an innovation, as the Telephone Company, when getting out their next  Directory, attached our specific location on all other places in the  neighborhood, thereby causing endless confusion.  In June, 1948 Morrice retired from the Department, and although not enjoying his usual robust health, he had a most satisfactory  and happy time landscaping and planning many changes. He also  made a thorough survey of the different varieties of fruits in the  orchard and placed an extensive entry in the Interior Exhibition at  Amstrong in 1948 and 1949, and though his health was steadily  failing, he was always "over the top." Then, during the "freeze-  up" which resulted in heavy orchard losses, on Sunday evening, January 22nd, of 1950, Morrice passed away.  Morrice Middleton enjoyed forty years of association with the  growers of his much loved country in the study and improvement of  production, and whatever he did in the interests of better production  was done without thought of personal praise or profit. He was highly  esteemed by his colleagues, old and young; respected and greatly  loved by all. His public life was without blemish. Added to all  this, possibly most worthy of record, he was a grand man to live with.  33 J he     Uernon-<Jvelowna *^5taai  ry <J~io  JfCJf.  wau <_y Louse  W. R. Powley  It was 1904 when I found myself proprietor of the Vernon-  Kelowna Stage House. S. Hillyard, his sister Annie and myself  landed in Vernon after homesteading in Yellow Grass, Saskatchewan, with the gorgeous idea of making our fortunes in growing  fruit, while living in  "God's Country".  "Breezie" Lee and "Windy" Young were the wide-awake  real estaters in those days, and "Breezie" took us in tow. After  showing us the Mission Hill subdivision, the Lumby district and the  Creighton Valley, we were shown a hay ranch, a drained lake I  believe, where Indians had three bears hanging up to be skinned. In  my memories I think one or more were grizzlies. We were not  impressed, and then "Breezie" drove us down to the south end of  the most beautiful lake I had ever seen, Long Lake. It was a lovely  day, he had a good team, the lake was a mirror, and "our hearts were  young and gay".  We bought the two properties at the 11 and 12 mile posts, Mark  Howard's and George McCauley's, both bachelors.  I took the Howard property, which carried a one room log shack  and rough lean-to (built by Frank Bovette) and it was the Half  Way House for His Majesty's mail. Here, 11 miles from Vernon,  after coming over the hump, was considered half the effort for the  horses. Here they were changed, and driver and passengers were  fed.  The Half-Way House on Vernon-Kelowna  Stage Route — 1904  34 Vernon-Kelowna Stage Half-way House  I did not want this "Half Way" business, but the driver of the  stage, Walter Pritchard, (who later gave his name to Pritchard  Station, east of Kamloops) persuaded me to carry on, as there was  no other place available.  Pritchard always kept three horses at the Half Way House, a  team for changing and an extra horse in case of trouble, such as one  going lame. One never knew till the stage arrived how many  mouths there would be to feed. The table must be set, and food  cooked ready to serve. The horses must be fed ahead, cleaned, and  harnessed so that there would be no delay when the stage arrived.  Pritchard's stage at that time was a very heavy democrat, with three  seats, sitting six comfortably. The Stage went south to Mission and  Kelowna on Monday, returning on Tuesday and so on through the  week, stopping to change horses and "dinner" at the Half Way  House. The tableware consisted of blue-gray enamel plates, steel  knives and forks, plain white cups and saucers. The "meal" consisted  nearly always of roast beef, baked potatoes, pudding and fruit,  bread and butter and tea. There being no refrigeration, and no  knowledge of how many to cater for, the waste was great. The beef  came on the stage from Dave Crowley of Kelowna, and was always  wrapped in cheese cloth—Walter Pritchard was a silent partner in  the business at that time so I always got top quality meat! The bread  and groceries came chiefly from W. F. Cameron, Vernon, from  whom I got a bill every three or four months. The milk came by  stage every second day from John Conroy, of Ellison, and butter  from Mrs. Thorlakson of the Commonage. The price of this meal  at that time was twenty-five cents.  Mark Howard, from whom I bought the property, stayed with  me for some weeks. He came from Oregon, I believe, and loved  to show an old 44 Winchester with notches on the stock, which he  claimed accounted for Redskins he had made to "bite the dust".  He was good evening entertainment.  There were a few apple trees, which are still alive on the Raws-  thorn property—I never knew the name of these apples—and there  were a few peach trees coming into bearing, and a few sour cherries.  Included with the ranch of 314 acres was one lame pony, several  hens, and one collie dog which had the faculty of opening the thumb-  latch door after banging for permission, but I never could teach  him to close the door.  In a short time Mark went down to see his old cronies the  Prathers and the Rices of Black Mountain district, but first he went  35 The Okanagan Historical Society—-1957  to Megaw's of Vernon, and bought himself a "store" suit of clothes,  a white shirt and celluloid collar and black tie, new boots and hat.  He had been gone some time when he arrived back at the Half Way  House. When it came time to retire I noticed that his shirt was  a bit "off colour" and Mark said, "Gosh, it's good to get the —  thing off!" He had not been able to take it off before because he  did not know how to undo his tie which I had done for him on his  leaving. Later, when I became acquainted with the Prathers, they  told me that Mark had told them gleefully how he had "baited the  ranch with a few peach trees and had got his sucker". He afterwards  took up 140 acres north-east of Sunnywold on the Commonage, and  farmed for several years. He was a good type of the frontiersmen of that day. He had bought the Half Way House from Frank  JBovette,  who later lived and died in  Kelowna.  ... At the time of my coming to the "Railroad", now Oyama, there  were very few people there. On the west side were Fred Gillard,  John Lloyd and his family of two daughters and two sons. Sam  Young and his brother lived on the second peninsula which Sam later  sold to E. Trask. On the east side lived a remittance man, a parson's  son named J. Hayton who about 1910 went to Australia, and was  afterwards reported to be a local magistrate. The greater portion of  the east side of Wood Lake was the cattle range of the Winfield  Ranch, belonging to pioneer Thomas Wood, who lived at the south  end of the lake which was named for him.  Dr. Irvine had bought 40 acres of land from F. Gillard and  built a small house and planted an orchard in 1905, as had S. Hill-  yard and myself.  Pritchard drove the stage for a year or two before going to  Pritchard to farm. He was followed by Michael Healy, who had  at that time a livery stable in Vernon, close to where Nolan's Drug  Store now stands. The first day Mick was very late for lunch. He  arrived with a lovely smile, a rose in his buttonhole, his best clothes,  and a "jug" beside him. I helped him off the stage and changed  horses, and as there were no passengers, helped him on the stage  again and with fresh horses away he went. He was a dear old soul,  but somehow he only lasted a few days. My memory is rather hazy  as to who drove for a time, but I think the Munsons were next,  Sam mostly driving.  36 Vernon-Kelowna Stage Half-way House  Soon after this, William  Scott, of vivid memories, became  stage driver. He used a covered  top democrat instead of the former open wagon, and the sides  were rolled up in summer or let  down according to the weather.  But before continuing I have a  few green memories of Pritch-  ard's days. I remember one  time being asked to drive the  stage on to Vernon, as Walter  Wanted   to   attend   an   auction Scott's  Mail  Sta¬ße ~  1997  sale, so, to oblige, I drove. There were three salesmen and bags as  passengers and cargo, and I was to collect $2.50, so Pritchard told  me, which I did amid blue clouds of profanity. I found out afterwards that the regular fare from Kelowna to Vernon was $2.00,  and they naturally thought I was "soaking" them.  It was an unwritten law in those days, as far as I was concerned,  hot to charge farmers or their families for meals in passing back or  forward. One day in autumn a lady and her daughter were on the  south-bound stage. After the meal, as I was going out to hitch up the  fresh team, they tried to tender pay for their meal, to which I gave  usual reply the farmers or ranchers were always welcome. I found  out from Walter Pritchard that they were a farmer's wife and  daughter who had been up on Silver Star Mountain gathering  huckleberries. After the stage and passengers had gone I went back  into the Shack to tidy up, and in the middle of the table there were  a half-gallon and a quart jar of huckleberries. On the return trip  next day I asked Walter who the berry pickers were, and he said,  "Oh, they were John Casorso's wife and daughter, of Okanagan  Mission'*.  Another incident I remember; I was coming north from Kelowna  with Pritchard, when passing George Whelan's ranch I could see  a grey horse and buggy leaving the buildings with persons waving,  and calling at the top of their voices. We drew attention of Walter  to them, but Walter was not in the best humor that day, and he ignored them. However, with much plying of whip and voice, George  Whelan caught up to where he could not be ignored and Walter  had to pull up, in some surprise at seeing and hearing them, the  stage made so much noise he could not hear very well.  I believe Mr.  37 The Okanagan Historical Society—-1957  and Mrs. Whelan were on their way to Vernon to arrange for a  trip to the Old Country.  I never remember William Scott having a gentle, well behaved  team while he drove the Long Lake "Half-way" horses—Consequently, one day a passenger arrived breathlessly at the Half Way House to  tell me that the stage team had run away, and half killed the driver.  The team had bolted out of control just north of Whiskey Spring,  near the top of the grade coming from the lake shore road near  Rattlesnake Point, about two and a half miles north of the Half  Way  House.  I cannot remember the name of this passenger, but I remember  he came from Armstrong. He told me that Scott was badly hurt,  and wanted me to take the mail, though the stage was badly wrecked,  the team out of commission, and the harness cut to pieces. This all  happened when the team left the road on a sharp bend on the hill.  It was a steep hillside at this point and brush saved the outfit from  rolling hundreds of feet to the lake below. P'ortunately, the passengers were not hurt to any extent, and they had carried Scott to a  log shack built by Price Ellison in a draw about a mile north of  Rattlesnake Point. I had the only telephone between south Vernon  and the Postill Ranch, so was able to call Dr. Morris, who came  out with team and democrat, and after making Scott as comfortable  as possible, took him to the Vernon Hospital, where he recovered.  At that time I had no team or rig of any sort, only a saddle horse,  and there were only two teams in the Railroad, as the settlement  was called in those days. The Lloyd brothers owned one team and  Dr. Irvine the other, and these were two miles south of the Half  Way House. So I hurried over to Lloyd's to find they had gone up  to the Commonage with their team and harness, but they had a  democrat available. I went on to Dr. Irvine's and noted they had a  team harnessed in the barn as I passed to the house. After a little  palaver I took their team of work horses, picked up Lloyd's democrat  and drove up to the wreck above the Nine Mile post, loaded on the  Kelowna and Mission mail and started on my way. By this time it  was getting toward dusk and threatening rain. It was pitch dark and  some rain was falling before I got very far down to the Christian  Ranch, and it was a very slow trip with farm horses. I skipped the  trip into the Mission that night and arrived in Kelowna after 11 p.m.  —Mr. E. Bailey was standing outside his Post Office door waiting  for me, and I always had a warm spot in my heart for him ever  after.  The Post Office at that time was near where the "Chez Louis"  38 Vernon-Kelowna Stage Half-way House  is now, in a wooden building with a peaked gable facing the street.  The next morning, picking up the mail but no passengers, I made  the missed trip to the Mission Post Office, near where Mr. Chamberlain's house now is, and back to the Half Way House, where a relieving outfit from Vernon took charge of the mails. The Munsons  of Benvoulin, then drove for Scott until he  recovered.  In those days many men with blankets roamed the roads, and  I never to my memory turned anyone hungry away. Among them  I remember one night when it was half raining, half snowing, a  half-breed came in on foot. I noted he was very pale, and after  his supper we were yarning when I asked him why he was so pale:  Had he been in hospital? "Oh no", he said. He had just got out of  Kamloops jail for stealing a horse. I can remember many such incidents belonging to' that period; and they were good times!  I had for some time been trying to persuade Scott to find another  stopping place, and he finally got Valentine to build a stopping-place  where there was a good spring on the hill half a mile or more above  the present main road 97, and directly west of the Woodsdale Road.  Valentine was soon followed by W. W. Robinson, but it was not  long before Scott changed over to a bright red, brass-trimmed  McLaughlin motor stage. This car had a varied life and was a mixed  blessing. It was at one time badly smashed in an upset about a mile  north of Rattlesnake Point, my wife's father being one of the pas-  engers, and I have a post card picture taken of the mishap. For a  number of years the motor stage was laid up for the winter months.  The roads were very narrow and hilly, besides not being snow-plowed  in those days. Scott's next motor stage was "Lizzie", a Model T  Ford, which, owing to Scott's illness, was driven by a German till  the start of the First World War, when, probably fearing internment, he mysteriously disappeared. He was followed by Jack Wyatt  who drove till the route was divided, with Winfield having its own  rural route, and Oyama the same.  When John Wyatt ceased driving for the Winfield district he  was presented with a purse at an evening entertainment in his honour.  He still has the mail route from Kelowna as far as the Eldorado  Ranch.  Scott was a picturesque and very lovable character, and many  of the old timers were saddened at his passing.  Mr. Scott died in May 1916. That same month Jack Wyatt  started driving for himself on the Vernon-Kelowna route. In 1931  Mr. Wyatt started the Kelowna to Winfield stage.  39 The Okanagan Historical Society—195\  The old stage in my day carried mail in individual sacks for the  farmers along the road. Here is a list, as far as I can remember, from  North to South: Sweet, Sexsmith, Bovee, Bailey, Powley, Gillard,  Lloyd, Irvine, Hayton, Young, Ensore, Railroad Post Office, Caesar,  Edwards, Williams, Chatterton, Wilson, Woollen, Postill, Swall-  well, Whelan, Christian, Mike Hereron, Conroy, Tom Hereron,  Bob Hall, Simpson, Goldie, Bell, Rutland. Farther south of Kelowna I think residents collected their mail in Kelowna. I paid $10  or $12 a year for mail service with the individual mail bag. It was  a matter for private arrangement with the mail carrier.  place   <y\a  BLURTON CREEK — This name was adopted by the Canadian  Board on Geographical Names, Ottawa, on 3rd November,  1932 for a feature at location 50°-41' - 119°-03\ Blurton  Creek flows NW into Shuswap River near mouth, Kamloops district.  VIDLER CREEK — This name was adopted by the Canadian  Board on Geographical Names on 1st March, 1956, for  a feature at location 50°-10' - 118°-54'. Vidler Creek  flows W. into Harris Creek, S. of Creighton Creek,  Osoyoos  district.  VIDLER MOUNTAIN — The Board advises it has no information on this name in its records. However, the name  Vidler Ridge was adopted 1st March, 1956, for a feature at  location 50°-52' - 118°-25'. This feature is E. of Sugar  Lake, N. of Outlet Creek, Osoyoos district. Vidler  Ridge is within the Monashee Mountains.  Many of our readers will recall that Blurton Creek was named  for Henry James Blurton—gamewarden, prospector, hunter and  poet; and Vidler Creek and Vidler Ridge were named for (Captain)  Albert Vidler, long time resident of the North Okanagan, an out-  of-doors man and an artist. Both of these names have appeared in  earlier issues of the  Society's  reports.  40 y^Juama    j^ioneer     lAJrote  jroerns, iS^tories     When      4~arnt  <J~ioMez*work <JDone  Mabel Johnson  Besides being the Birthday of a Holy Child, December 25th is  the natal day of Mrs. Sarah Jane Newton, now in her late eighties.  Mrs. Newton and her late husband, Walter Newton, were married  on January 25th, 1892. Mr. Newton lived to mark their diamond  wedding, which coincided with Vernon's Diamond Jubilee year.  Mr. and Mrs. Newton were residents of Oyama from 1908  until 1944, when they came to Vernon to retire, and where Mrs.  Newton still lives. However, her sunset years are unnaturally darkened, due to failing eyesight.  By a quirk of fate, Mrs. Newton, who is a descendant of the  beautiful story-book character, "Dorothy Vernon of Haddon Hall",  which is actually located in Derbyshire, England, had as her maiden  name "Vernon", the name given to the city with which she has been  so closely connected for many years.  Mrs. Newton was born in Bolsover Parish, Derbyshire, England.  After farming at Stan free, Derbyshire, where Mr. Newton was born,  the couple, with Mr. Newton's brother, James, decided to come to  Canada.  How they made this district their home is just another in the too-  infrequently recorded sagas of the pioneers.  Mrs. Newton likes to recall that in December, 1905, they  decided to homestead in Canada, having sold their farm a year previously.  Her husband and his brother James one day watched a liner pull  out of Liverpool docks for Canada. That gave them travelling  "fever". Mrs. Newton was not too intrigued with the prospects of  pulling up roots. Besides, she had a parrot, named "Joe", to whom  she was devoted. But when the male Newtons discovered that five  shillings would pay for Joe's passage, that altered the situation.  They sailed on December 5th, 1905, from Liverpool on the  "Majestic" - young, and filled with optimism.    The captain was  41 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  later master of the  ill-fated "Titanic", and went down  with  that  gallant ship in 1912.  The trip to New York took 10 days. The harbor was blocked  with ice—and the temperature, zero.  The Newtons decided to go to Seattle, where Mrs. Newton's  uncle was a judge. There they received a warm welcome three days  before Christmas, 1905, arriving with parrot and 1,000 pounds of  baggage.  They went to Vancouver in the spring of 1906, but did not  like that city.  A large, red dot in the guidebook being designated "Sicamous,"  they bought tickets for that destination, only to find that the railway  station then constituted the "town". They boarded the next train  which was the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway branch line, for Vernon.   There they were befriended by the mayor, all hotels being full.  The owner of Shorts' Point, now Fintry, gave the Newton Brothers work planting 100 acres to fruit trees. (During the past decades, the orchards at Fintry were famed for their luscious fruit.  Many of the trees have now been pulled out, following frost damage  to some—to make way for hay and pasture lands.) Mr. and Mrs.  Newton slept in a tent, the first time the latter had "roughed it"  to that extent. After a bear had rifled their provisions, the couple  decided to pull out and they left brother James to plant the rest of  the orchard.  How they moved to Calgary, later going to High River, where  they built their own cottage, paid $105. for a cook stove; how Mrs.  Newton's hair was often frozen to the pillow in the morning, are only  a few highlights of the first years in a new country.  That was in 1906 - 07, when Mrs. Newton's parents decided  to come out to Canada to visit the couple. As there was no accommodation for them in the High River cottage, and as they had decided  to leave Alberta in any case, Mrs. Newton met her father, then aged  79; and her mother, aged 69, in Calgary, and took them to the home  of Judge Vernon in Seattle.  How the uncle offered Mr. and Mrs. Newton lots at $50  each in Seattle; and how they increased in value in a matter of  months to $1,000 each, and how the Newtons were nervous of investing was another chapter in their experiences.  In 1908 Mr. Newton came to the Okanagan and bought 10 acres  of fruitlands, just put on the market—at Oyama, on the east side of  42 Oyama Pioneer  Wood Lake.  There was then only one other house in that now prosperous  community.  Brother James Newton went ahead and built a small shack, and  planted 10 acres in potatoes. The Newton couple followed in August 1908. Having checked their baggage to "Vernon", how it went  to "Mount Vernon" instead, and how for 10 days the Newtons'  slept on potato sacks on the ground, with no covering, was yet another  incident in their colorful past.  Incidentally, parrot Joe had died, and had been replaced in the  Newton menage by a green parrot, of American citizenship.  Within a month the Newton cottage was built in Oyama. They  bought more land. Others arrived and invested in the newly opened  up orchard property, and the Newton family arranged with the  new purchasers, some of whom did not want to settle there, to plant  the land to trees and work the property.  Mrs. Newton recalls there was a boat service in those days on  Kalamalka Lake which operated three times weekly. They came to  Vernon twice a year for supplies.  In due course, the railway came. A new road was made above  the lake, and roads built on the east side for the orchards. A small  log school held eight pupils, soon replaced by a larger building, and  then by a fine structure which included a high school.  In Mrs. Newton's early years in Oyama, a Community Hall  was built; the Women's Institute organized. The few housewives  there were in Oyama in those days, rose early, did their housework,  fed poultry, made butter, washed separators, left the men's lunch,  walked three miles to the hall to attend meetings. Through similar  good management and organization, many of them packed apples  either on their own ranches, or at the packing houses.  When brother James Newton paid his way to England in World  War.One to join the Imperial Army, Mr. and Mrs. Newton, with  the help of one boy, cared for 100 acres.  For the first time, Mrs. Newton worked on the land, raised  poultry; made 20 pounds of butter weekly, which fetched top prices.  She wrote an article entitled: "Butter-Making on the Farm", to  help inexperienced newcomers. She also wrote several published  articles on farming and poultry raising.  Mrs. Newton recalls that during the uncertain years which beset  the fruit industry in those days, they received 10 cents a box, or even  "red ink" for their apples. But they lived well notwithstanding,  because they produced everything they needed, except flour, sugar,  tea, clothing and a few minor articles.  43 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  Parrot Joe was a worker, too. He pulled weeds in the garden with  his beak, and learned to distinguish them from plants.  Both the Newtons come of large families. Mr. Newton was  one of a family of eight; his wife is one of nine boys and girls,  some of whom are still living. A brother, well in his eighties, lives  in Ontario. Another is a practising architect and civil engineer, and,  until very recently, was occupied in rebuilding Gosport, damaged by  bombs in World War Two. However, Mr. and Mrs. Newton had  no children.  The lives of the couple were colorful, even in the Old Country,  where tallow and wax candles were the only lights used in Mrs.  Newton's childhood. "We thought it wonderful when we had our  first lamp. It burned paraffin oil. It had a shade. Something out of  the ordinary in those days. Before that we used to read by firelight,  as it gave a better light than one candle", she reminisced.  Hardships sharpened Mrs. Newton's latent talents. She has had  more than 100 poems published. She is also the author of short  stories and magazine articles, and has had two songs set to music,  of which recordings were made.  Even this year, this wonderful pioneer woman, with failing  sight, won a competition over Radio Station CJIB.  Graham Rosoman, a freeman of Enderby, celebrated his 96th  birthday last March at his home. He still holds the honorary post  of city supervisor and attended all council meetings up until his  94th birthday, when he was awarded a long-service medal by the  city. He was the first city clerk of Enderby, serving in that  capacity from 1905 to 1939. He also served as police magistrate  from 1907 to 1944, and stipendiary magistrate for Yale county.  Mrs. Osborn Morris, one of Vernon's earliest pioneers, recently  celebrated her 90th birthday. She is the widow of Dr. Osborn  Morris, and has lived in Vernon for 60 years, coming to the  Okanagan from New Westminster.  44 \^Jhanagan C^nchantment1  Lilian Vosper Plunkett  In the coldest days of winter when the orchards are at rest,  Comes the time in Okanagan that the out-door folk love best,  From the shores of Kalamalka—from Penticton's wide-spread sands—  Song and shout of many skaters who through the Valley lands  Far up steeply sloping hillsides see the skier skim and leap  Rising birdlike, swiftly, surely landing where the snow lies deep;  While all through the northern valley jingling sleighs run to and fro  Over snow packed mountain roadways where a motor dare not go.  Listen!   Now there is a stirring and a whispering in the hills  There's a murmuring and a gurgling from a thousand creeks and rills.  High above, triumphant honking, bid us lift expectant eyes  Where the wild goose leads his harem* honeymooning through the  skies.  Oh, but it would fill a volume could I tell you everything  Of the Okanagan Valley in the summer and the spring;  Of the song of precious water, racing madly through the flume;  And the brief, breath-taking beauty of the trees in bridal bloom;  Of the burnished sunflower draping fields and hills in cloth of gold;  Of the chick-a-dee and redwing, noisy flicker, robin bold;  Of the bluebird piping love songs as the sun sinks in the west,  From the rosy froth of peach bloom where his wee mate keeps her nest.  Of the Shape, elusive, secret, going his mysterious way,  Up and down the lake's broad bosom—on what errand, who> can say?  He was here before the white man: whence he comes or where he  goes—  Fish or serpent, spirit or demon, no one in the Valley knows.  l These verses have an interesting history. G. P. Bagnall of Vernon  writes: "They were written by a Summerland lady, and several  years ago were presented to Captain J. P. Dekker of the Holland  American Line. More recently, the Captain gave them to Mrs. G.  P. Bagnall as the steamer Duivendyk passed from the Panama  Canal into the Caribbean Sea, in July, 1953. Thus they have returned to whence they had come, after many voyages between Vancouver and Antwerp."  The photograph of the S.S. Duivendyk appears through the  courtesy of the Holland American Line.  45 The Okanagan Plistorical Society—7957  When the apples round and rosy, in the autumn's cooler days  Roll from pickers' bags to boxes piled along the orchard ways;  In October and November—when the year is at the fall.  Then in Sunny Okanagan comes the fairest time of all.  Ah, the beauty of the autumn, it eludes both brush and pen  (Beware the soft enchantment of the lovely Valley then).  If yen come to Okanagan when the summer's on the wane  There is but one chance in fifty of your going out again.  * Poetic license Re. Canada goose has a single mate. — Ed.  f               '  '<B-'|^Bte^^9l*-#*   ,.     ..g  -'^"7-t^^^? - *" * S_nll__i            *   ^Bfnl  H___ **                  "**^  i&S-_____________M__________f  S.S. Duivendyk -— Holland American Line  Publication of a historical book featuring stories of the colorful  pioneer days of Grand Forks is the main project of the Boundary  Historical Society just now. The book is being edited by Archer  Davis and Ted Reynolds of Grand Forks and Mrs. J. Roylance  of Greenwood. Another project—the setting up of an historical  museum for the Boundary District—is being considered.  46 <Mr. cnJ Jttrs.  "WlxUtcL  >f 4z/trmstrong     (AJed 50   ^a  er,  ears  Mabel Johnson  Mr. and Mrs. Harry Whittaker, who have been residents of  Armstrong for almost half a century, celebrated their golden wedding on December 1st, 1956.  The couple was married in the parish church of Cheltenham,  in England, in 1906. At that time, Mr. Whittaker was engaged in  the wholesale dry goods business, while his wife, the former Jennie  Waite, was the daughter of a well known English school inspector,  Mr. John Waite.  In 1910, the young couple, with their two year old son, Foster,  came to Canada, going first to Vernon, and later to Armstrong, where  they took up residence two miles from the town at Rosedale Ranch.  At that time, most of the land was under virgin forest, and the  Whittakers, like so many of the pioneers, had to clear their own land  and build their home, farm buildings and fences, from their own  logs.  They became noted sheep breeders, and later went in for purebred Jersey cattle. One of their cows, "Pretoria Oxford Janet"  won great acclaim when she set a world record for milk and  butter production.  In 1946 the Whittakers retired from active farming, and now  live in a modern bungalow overlooking the land they cleared and  planted so many years ago.  Their elder son, Foster, farms the land adjacent to Rosedale  Ranch. Their younger son, John, is proprietor of the well known  fishing resort at Lac Le Juene, near Kamloops. There are five  grandchildren.  Mrs. Whittaker has for many years, been an active member of  St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, Armstrong, where she still is  organist. She has many hobbies, ranging from gardening and painting, to spinning the wool which she knits into Indian sweaters.  Mr. Whittaker, who fought in the Boer War, still attends meetings of the Boer War Veterans' Association. Although 84, he is  very active, and may often be found helping his sons about the  farm or fishing resort.  On the occasion of their golden wedding, Mr. and Mrs. Whittaker were "at home" to a large circle of friends from all over  the Okanagan Valley.  47 Vernon  \—chronicle  tronicies  Guy P. Bagnall  The Old Vernon Cemetery,  Kamloops Road  This old cemetery takes one back to the pre-incorporation days  of Vernon and although outside the City boundaries, it is now owned  by the City: It is about 150 feet by 150 feet in size and is closed for  further interment. Many of Vernon's earliest citizens are buried here.  The first burial was that of C. W. Hozier's eldest boy, next was  Hugh Armstrong who was followed by Alexander Vance, Mrs. Alfred McNeill, and Mike Barden, who died a violent death. A visit to  this sacred plot is always of interest for names and dates have become  obscured and indeed several headboards are completely rotted; a few  headstones are in a good state of preservation but the majority are in  a sad state of disrepair. We listed some of the names, which are readable:—A. E. Lindquist, Angus McDonald, Luc Girouard, Dewdney,  W. F. Cameron, John Dewdney, Elizabeth Livingstone, R. McDougall, G. G. Mitchell, J. C. Hipp and Alice Wood. Several shade  trees help to hide the ravages of time and scattered throughout the  enclosure there are flowers, which show through in spring and tell  of the loving care which was once bestowed upon the last resting  place of many an honoured citizen. Every so often someone in the  community tells us this little sacred spot deserves a better treatment.  Back in 1894 the subject was brought to the attention of the City  Council, when the grounds were cleaned up and the fence repaired,  but no restoration work was undertaken: Now, on the threshold of the  provincial Centennial Year, there are those among us who would like  the City Council once again to turn their attention to the resting-  place of our "Old Timers" and do there a permanent job of restoration and improvement.  It is one of Vernon's own historic sites.  Luc Girouard donated the land for the cemetery, when a public  subscription was raised to cover the cost of improvement, this occurred  in 1885. Mr. Leonard Norris, a former president of this Society was  present at the first funeral. Ref. O.H.S. Report 3, Page 34.  .    FIRST VERNON CITY COUNCIL, ELECTED 1892  W. F. Cameron,   Mayor  S. C. Smith, J. A. Schubert, James Lyons, A. G. Fuller,  ...      R. J. Davies, City Clerk  and W. J. Armstrong - Aldermen  48 Vernon Chronicles  VERNON CIVIC ARENA COMMISSION - First Appointments  Incorporated December 10th, 1937  K. W. Kinnard, Chairman (1937 -)  E. B. Townrow, H. B. Monk, William Darroch, James Edwards  v;, Members  VERNON TOWN PLANNING COMMISSION  '■*'.. - Established 1946  r.      Guy P. Bagnall, Chairman (1946 - 1956)  H. H. Evans, Frank Valair, Sr., C. W. Gaunt Stevenson,  A. E. Berry, J.P., J. T. Mutrie and 3 Ex Officio Members  Note: the number of exofficio members has since been increased to 4.  VERNON  RECREATION COMMISSION  Established   1956  Howard Thornton, Chairman  F. N. McMechan, W. E. Nixon, William Pagan, Members; in addition to which the Vernon City Council, the Vernon Town Planning  Commission and the Vernon Board of School Trustees (School District 22) each send one member Representative to the Commission.  VERNON  ZONING  APPEAL   BOARD  Established 1956  Guy P. Bagnall, Chairman  A. C. Wilde and P. Nevill-Smith, Members  CITY OF VERNON BOARD OF MUSEUM  &  ARCHIVES  Established 1954  George H. Melvin, Chairman  David Howrie, Sr., Guy P. Bagnall, Earl Quesnel, Dr. D. A. Ross,  Directors.  Ex officio:  One Alderman appointed by the City Council and the  City Clerk.  NORTH OKANAGAN ELECTORAL  DISTRICT  List of Elected Members, Since its Creation in 1915  "Constitution Act" Chapter 14,  1915  Sept.  14th,  1916 — General Election - K. C. Macdonald, Liberal  Dec. 1st, 1920 - General Election - K. C. Macdonald, Liberal  June 20th, 1924 - General Election - K. C. Macdonald, Liberal  Sept. 24th, 1924 - By-Election - A. O, Cochrane, Conservative  June 9th, 1927 - By-Election - W. F. Kennedy, Conservative    _.'/'  July 18th, 1928 - General Election - W. F. Kennedy, Conservative  June 2nd, 1930 - By-Election - George Heggie," Conservative    n ■ '  49 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  Nov. 2nd, 1933 - General Election - K. C. Macdonald, Liberal  June 1st, 1937 - General Election - K. C. Macdonald, Liberal  Oct. 31st, 1941 - General Election - K. C. Macdonald, Liberal  Oct. 25th, 1945 - General Election - K. C. Macdonald, Coalition  Dec. 19th, 1945 - By-Election - C. W. Morrow, Coalition  June 15th, 1949 - General Election - C. W. Morrow, Coalition  June 12th, 1952 - General Election - L. H. Shantz, Social Credit  June 9th, 1953 - General Election - L. H. Shantz, Social Credit  Sept. 19th, 1956 - General Election - L. H. Shantz, Social Credit  EXPANSION  OF  ACREAGE   UNDER   IRRIGATION  IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  During the Post-War Period, following World War 1939 - 1945  As a post-war project and to care for the influx of population into  this area, which had already taken place, and had created a demand  for more irrigated land, the government undertook the survey of some  five sites, as suitable for the purpose.   It was the Dominion-Provincial  Co-ordinating Committee on Land Reclamation in British Columbia  which undertook this survey, and Mr. F. McCallum of Kamloops,  Secretary to the Committee has furnished me with the following information :  Five areas were surveyed and four of these have been developed  for rehabilitation of veterans from World Wars I and II through  the Veteran's Land Act Administration:  (1) Cawston: - Fairview Heights Irrigation District,  - 624 acres -  57 twelve acre farms  (2) Penticton:- Penticton West Bench Irrigation District  - 205 acres - 94 small holdings (1.6 acre minimum)  - In addition to these, which have been fully settled, an  extension to this project is to be made in 1957, which  will provide an additional 67 small holdings on approximately  100 acres of irrigable land.  (3) Westbank:- Lakeview Irrigation District  - 1,100 acres - 70 twelve-acre farms  - 53 small holdings (1.6 acre minimum)  (4) Kelowna:- Bankhead Subdivision  - 58  one-acre  small  holdings.  It may be noted that all of these projects, with the exception of the  Penticton Extension, may be considered as fully settled. The Grand-  view Flats Project, near Vernon—the fifth in the series—has not  been proceeded with.  50    •   •«■!   - k  %    r^v.v. .*    > •   • interview with the <J~Lon¬a  <J~L. <Jl. *^tevens,    jr-C <., JL^JL^JLj.  Guy P. Bagnall  The name of Harry H. Stevens is prominent in the annals of  Canadian history. His recent visit to Vernon revived stirring memories  in the minds of those who knew Harry in the halcyon days of long  ago.  H. H. Stevens, born in Bristol, England, on December 8, 1878,  was the son of Richard Harvey Stevens, who died in 1894, and was  buried in Vernon cemetery. The family had emigrated to Canada,  and came to Vernon from Peterborough, Ontario. Young Harry's  education, begun in England, was continued in Ontario.  Dr. Stevens recalled the vigour of early days in the West. "A  man worked or perished." Hard times were not cushioned with  social welfare benefits, such as unemployment insurance. Of course,  Harry went to work. He drove a delivery for W. R. Megaw, and  later for R. W. Neil, with whom he maintained an intimate friendship until Mr. Neil's death a few years ago. Mr. Neil was one of  Vernon's finest citizens.  Active Service Abroad  One of Harry's earliest Vernon associates was Gary Clark.  Gary's sister, Winnifred, is now resident in Keremeos. His father  was a railroad contractor, and built a section of the Kettle Valley  Railway out of Penticton. In 1899 Harry and Gary enlisted in the  United States army. They served in the Philippines, and in 1900 in  China during the Boxer Rebellion.  Before long, Harry was promoted to be assistant superintendent  of transport. He remembers loading 37 men in the Philippines for  return to the United States. They were termed "Benovines," or,  as we would say today, Alcoholics. The sight of these unfortunate  men climbing the gang plank for embarkation home left a lasting  impression on Harry's mind, and ever since then he has been a  staunch temperance advocate. He recalled that he is a member of  the Vancouver Alcoholic Foundation, and that there are 30,000  alcoholics in this province.  Business Career  In Vancouver H. H. Stevens was for some years an accountant,  broker  and  bookkeeper,  and  in   1906  became  secretary  and  chief  51 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  accountant of the Dominion Trust Company of Vancouver. In  addition to this he took an active interest in public affairs, being  elected alderman in 1910, and serving as chairman of the health  committee. Thus he laid the groundwork for the greater service  he was yet to perform.  Career in Politics  In 1911 he was elected to the Dominion Parliament. A staunch  Conservative, he campaigned to defeat Reciprocity which was the  great issue of the election. In 1921 he was appointed minister of  Trade and Commerce, in 1926 minister of Customs and Revenue,  and from 1950-1955 again served as minister of Trade and Commerce. In 1950 he visited Bristol, England; and was a member of  the Imperial Conference, the chief function of which was to hammer out on a hot anvil those Freedoms which have made our Commonwealth great, and are cherished by British subjects everywhere.  Mr. Stevens was a member of the Imperial Economic Conference  held in Ottawa in 1952 when trade agreements were negotiated  between the various members of the Commonwealth. As a cabinet  minister he became a member of the Queen's Privy Council for  Canada, a title he retains for life—P.C.  In 1905 Mr. Stevens married Miss Gertrude M. Glover of  Vernon, a sister of the late Alderman John Glover, building contractor and merchant. They have two sons and two daughters:  Rev. Francis H. Stevens, B.D., of Erskine United Church, Toronto:  Douglas, who is with an engineering firm in Vancouver: Mrs. James  Lovick, whose husband is with a national advertising agency; and  Patricia (Mrs. Cliff. Collidge).  In his younger days Dr. Stevens found recreation in horseback  riding. He was a member of the Methodist Church, and since  Church Union in 1925, has been identified with The United Church  of Canada. For many years he was prominent in fraternal associations: Freemasons, Orangemen, Sons of England. A man of many interests, he has made a lasting contribution to the welfare of our  province and nation. He is still a forceful speaker, and during the  federal election campaign in 1957 addressed a public meeting in  Vernon in support of the Conservative candidate Stuart Fleming.  At that time Harry Stevens, with his charming wife, were happy to  meet with many they had known for years. All united in wishing  for them many years of happy usefulness.  52 Vernon and District Drag Hounds.   Centre: The Master, W. T. ("Jock")  Cameron.  Whippers-in: Bob Tate, left; Anne Chambres, right.  Typical Okanagan hunt country.  'rag <^s vounas  Mavis Huston Cameron1  The rolling hills of the Okanagan against their scenic backdrop of  glistening lakes and forest-clad mountains formed an ideal setting for  the exhilarating sport of Drag Hunting, introduced to Western Canada in 1934 by the enterprising Vernon and District Riding Club. To  the uninitiated this unusual type of hunt consists of riding to hounds -  not on the scent of a live fox as generally practised elsewhere - but  on an artificially-laid scent which has been dragged over a course laid  prior to the hunt. It is believed that with the exception of a hunt once  formed at Winnipeg and soon disbanded, Vernon's was the only  organized hunt club west of Ontario. Nor has any other western club  had the money or the energy required to organize such a hunt since the  dissolution of Vernon's, necessitated by World War II.  The Riding Club, under the presidency of Major P. J. Locke, was  formed in 1932, largely through the initiative of W. T. "Jock"  Cameron and Leslie Macdonell who gained the co-operation of the  man who originally introduced polo to the Prairie Provinces, Captain  E. M. Wilmot. It was the latter's efforts as the club's first secretary  that gave the undertaking its impetus. The actual re-organization into the Vernon and District Drag Hounds   came about when   F. H.  l Author's note: A great deal of credit for this article is due my  father-in-law, W. T. "Jock" Cameron, whose modesty I've been compelled to over-ride in places, but whose assistance has been invaluable.  53 The Okanagan Historical Society—7957  "Tommy" Wilmot, son of the principal founder, was able to secure  three couple of Fox Hounds from the Golden Bridge Hunt in New  York State. Tommy, himself, became first Master and Huntsman in  charge of everything from supervising feeding hounds to assigning  someone to lay the drag. He was assisted by whippers-in, Bert Ellison  and Captain Jack Stamer.  With an ever-increasing following of ardent horsemen, the  acquisition of more hounds and the diversity of ideal courses available  the club became a thriving success in short order. As membership was  not restricted to Vernon, many came from outside points and had representation on the club executive; T. Wadsworth for Kelowna, Colonel E. Poole for Armstrong, and later, F. H. Wilmot for Falkland.  Such interest was evinced in Kelowna that on two occasions Vernon  transported its hunt to that region. One particularly keen Kelowna  member, Colonel Harry Angle, endeavoured whenever possible to attend the hunts in Vernon.  Through the course of breeding and the gift of two bitches, offspring imported from Lady Curre's Pack in Wales, Vernon's hound  pack turned into a good working lot. Another gift which helped the  growing pack came about through F. S. Francis, a cousin of Mrs. P.  J. Locke of the Vernon club, who> was able to secure two fine dog  hounds through the Blackmore Vale Hunt in England, bringing the  new pack to the satisfying total of eleven couples. While there were  not enough hounds to start with, climate and condition? proved so  conducive to their raising that eventually the surplus was being sold to  cougar hunters.  The sport in the Okanagan took the form of drag-hunting because  of the shortage of wild foxes and the prevalence of wire fences  throughout the farm lands. A wily fox could have given the horsemen far too many an obstacle and probably many serious tumbles by  the clever device of doubling back and forth through a number of  these fences. The use of a simulated fox odour overcame the first  shortage, and a course laid prior to the hunt solved the fence problem,  along with the simple expedient of 'chicken-coop' jumps - a special  wooden structure from about three to three feet six inches in height  placed in advance over the barbed-wire where required.  The preparation of the scent for the hunt was a science in itself.  Strips of flannel, previously soaked in a special preparation, were  tied to the links of a short chain in order to hold the scent to the  ground, then towed on a cord from horseback. The master sent someone out before the hunt to 'lay the drag', and a number of times it was  54 The Drag Hounds  the author's husband, Don Cameron, who received a dollar for his  vital services, a goodly sum to a junior horseman!  The scent first used as a drag was basically aniseed, rather unsatisfactory for it had to be laid too shortly before the hunt, and in one  instance the pack caught up with the drag-layer at the first check, the  point at which the drag was raised, carried a few hundred yards and  put down in a different direction to make hounds hunt to pick up the  line again. With this first preparation weather conditions had to be  just right to hold the scent, and often a bottle o<f scent, carefully wrapped in a sturdy military canteen, had to be taken along to freshen up  the drag.  Fortunately Vernon's club got 'wind' of an amazing new recipe  from India which reads as follows: ten ounces of fox water, two  handfuls dry fox dung, tiny dash of turpentine to help make the scent  volatile, a wine glass of kerosene, and enough rape seed oil to fill a  whiskey bottle. The original read 'bear', but 'fox' was used as more  readily available from fox farms. This provided enough for at least  three drags of seven or eight miles. Its great advantage was that the  scent could be laid the day before the hunt.  As one of Vernon's former hunt masters, "Jock" Cameron states  it: "The new scent had a terrific stench and hounds which had run  more or less mute with the old scent now gave wonderful music."  Not only did hounds give better tongue, but upon reaching the spot  where the drag was laid, they took off with such enthusiasm that it  took 'blazes' out of any horses, just ridden week-ends, to keep up with  them!  Vernon's drags were usually from about three to seven miles.  Some of the favourite courses were from the Coldstream Ranch to  Cozens Bay on Kalamalka Lake, from Swan Lake through the Anderson Range and Indian Reserve, and from the old airport south  through the Commonage toward Kelowna to Rose's range. An understanding was established prior to the hunt with land-owners of property to be crossed so that harmony existed between farmers and club.  The club, as far as environment and finances would allow, followed the traditions of hunts in Britain. A meeting place was appointed and from there the followers would trek off to the point  where hounds were laid on the scent. A colorful sight it was; the  master and whips in their green hunting coats, adorned with gold  collars and buttons, black hunting caps bobbing in the wake of the  flashing whites, blacks and tans of the pack. The dusty semi-arid condition of Okanagan range country discouraged   use of   the   original  55 The Okanagan Plistorical Society—1957  white hunting jackets. The spirit of the hunt was in no way diminished through the lack of a live fox, as often tasty morsels of meat were  scattered in a large circle at the end of the drag to reward the pack.  Frequently the followers received their reward in the form of a refreshing cup of tea at some member's home, the Vernon equivalent of  the old country pre-hunt stirrup-cup.  The Okanagan hunts enjoyed a relatively long season but adjourned through the colder winter months and during the more intense heat  of July and August. One hunt was held as late as December 7th. The  drag hunts were usually reserved for Sundays, but coyotes were hunted on exercise days during the week.  A well-disciplined club they were, too, as noted by a former secretary of the Hong Kong Hunt, Captain T. B. J. "Nobby" Clarke, who  was favourably impressed with this feature when he was one of the  field on several occasions. A great deal of credit for the organization  and control evident in the Okanagan hunt was due to "Tommy"  Wilmot. The club regretted the loss of Mr. Wilmot who moved to  Falkland, but were fortunate in having as member, W. T. "Jock"  Cameron, well-schooled in the art of horsemanship by his father,  Major-General D. R. Cameron, Commandant of the Royal Military  College at Kingston. "Jock" was appointed Master in Wilmot's stead  and hunted the pack with the assistance of Anne Chambres and Bob  Tate when the original whippers-in were unable to turn out.  One contributing factor to the smooth working organization of the  V. & D. Drag Hounds was the efficiency of its secretaries, among  them Miss Sheila Simmonds, Noel Gillespie and Corporal J. A. J.  Illington of the R.C.M.P.  Leigh Hughes, during his term as secretary in 1939, arranged  as diversion for a Kinsman Convention, an organized drag hunt  which turned out to be an entertaining diversion for all concerned.  Many visiting Kinsmen who participated were complete novices at  riding, and a few were further hampered by a super-abundance of  convention spirit. More than one saddle came in empty, its late  occupant left sitting in a wayside creek or straddling a robust clump  of Okanagan bush! It can happily be said of this as well as all  other Vernon hunts, no serious tumbles ever occurred.  The V. & D. Drag Hounds, as such they were most commonly  known, did not restrict their activities to hunting but gained renown  for a fine annual gymkhana, participation in the annual celebration  of Vernon Days, and their Boxing Day Ball, one of the more  "posh" affairs in the interior city.   Indeed, the lists of regular club  56 The Drag Hounds  followers and associates, numbering over eighty some seasons, reads  like a miniature "Who's Who" of many of the oldest and finest  families in the Okanagan.  It was no lack O'f enthusiasm that caused the hunt to close, for  the fields averaged fifteen to twenty, and when the Okanagan's  own cavalry regiment, the British Columbia Dragoons, was in camp  in Vernon, the number of followers at times increased to as many  as fifty or more. So many club supporters rallied to their country's  call, either in the services or other war activities, that it was regretfully decided in 1940 to abandon temporarily the drag hunt, although it did continue as a straight riding club under the presidency  of E. A. Rendell.  In many of the hearts of former members there lingers the  fond hope that at some not too distant date they will again hear the  baying of hounds and the staccato notes of the Huntsman's horn  heralding the start of another hunt through the beautiful Okanagan countryside.  57 <JDo     sJfou    rCemember   J-irst  JL^ocal ^-^ars:  Reg Hadow1  Much has been said and written lately of the early days in this  Valley, but I do not remember seeing any remarks about the first cars  that appeared in this district. As I remember them the majority were  T Model Fords of the original type. I am aware that the mere mention of the T Model invokes a broad smile. In reality the Ford was a  wonderful little car and gave splendid service in the days when roads  were rough and the going tough. It was the simplicity of the engine  that made it so adapted to hard usage. A neat little booklet went with  every car explaining in simple and non-technical language what to do  when engine trouble cropped up. With its aid my wife and I were able  to do most of the minor repairs ourselves. The Fords of that day were  very light. The wheels (spokes and rims) were made of wood and  the tires the old fashioned narrow type. When my wife was out alone  and had a puncture she had no difficulty in jacking up the car, putting  1 In letter dated "Enderby, June 4, 1957" Mr. Hadow gives some  details of his interesting life: "I was born in 1880 at Manchester,  England, and received most of my education at Sherborne school,  Dorset. I came out to Canada in 1899 about six months before the  commencement of the Boer War. For the first three years I stayed  with my Aunt and cousin who owned a horse and cattle ranch in  the foothills of southern Alberta, situated 30 miles west of High  River, which was the nearest connection with the railway and  civilization. It was a magnificent stock country in those days; a  rolling, park-like country with miles and miles of open range. One  could ride all day and hardly ever see a habitation. No roads anywhere—just old buffalo trails meandering over the prairie and  always the glorious snow-capped Rockies in the far distance to the  west. I am so glad I lived in a section of Canada that saw really  the last of the old ranching days.  "Eventually my Aunt and cousin sold their ranch to the Prince  of Wales, as he was known then. During my time in Alberta I read  such glowing accounts of the Okanagan Valley I made up my mind  to go there, though I did not know a soul in B.C. My first summer  I worked on the Coldstream Ranch at Vernon, and in winters at  logging camps. In 1903 I took up a homestead situated about halfway between Enderby and Salmon Arm. I spent 42 years convert-  the forest into a farm and a home.  "We had no bulldozer, or any of the wonderful labour-and-time-  saving machinery of today. .But I had the priceless asset of youth,  and all the energy, strength and optimism that goes with it. In  spite of the slow progress and back-breaking work, those were, for  the most part, happy days. But the inevitable happened. Old age  caught up with me. I sold my farm, and am now retired, and  living in Enderby."  58 Do  You Remember?  on the spare tire and chains if necessary. Not many women I imagine  could do the same with the heavy wheels of the modern car. Fortunately the old Fords were built with a generous allowance of clearance  as we sometimes had to drive over boulders and stumps.  The equipment of the road gangs was so primitive in those  pioneering days that road making was largely a matter of following  the lines of least resistance. In consequence many of the grades were  much steeper than would be tolerated on our modern highways. On  the type of Ford which we owned there was a system of braking which  will sound incredible today. To save the brake linings we invariably  negotiated a sharp incline with the gears in reverse with the result that  the car travelled at a safe speed down the steepest hills with no ill effects.  It was a standard method of braking in that type of car.  The first cars to appear in this district were not hailed with universal enthusiasm - in fact they were regarded as an infernal nuisance.  The majority of horses were terrified of them. To be suddenly confronted by an oncoming car on a narrow road when driving a high  strung nervous team panic stricken at their first sight of a car, was to  say the least of it a trying experience for the driver.  On one occasion an elderly couple were driving along the Deep  Creek road on turning a sharp corner met one of those "new fangled  contraptions" as they often called them in those days. The old lady  gave a yell of dismay and thinking her last moment had come took a  flying leap out of the buggy and landed on a heap of rocks and gravel  - with disastrous results to her hands and knees.  Nowadays the horse is out of date and seldom employed. But old  timers remember them with gratitude and affection. What useful,  lovable help-mates they were and how helpless we would have been  on our rugged bush farms without their assistance. I wonder how  many acres of what is today rich farm land producing heavy crops  were cleared many years ago largely with the patient, willing labour  of our horses. They were, of course, our only means of transportation.  Riding and driving was the order of the day. Any of you young  folks who have never ridden a galloping horse going all out have  missed an exhilarating and thrilling experience that nothing on wheels  can ever give you - that is providing you and your steed don't part  company en route.  The present generation would regard driving behind a team and  buggy as an unbearably slow and boring experience. In reality it was  quite a pleasant way of travelling. There was every opportunity to  enjoy the beauty of our delightful valley.   Many times when driving  59 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  along the winding wooded trails with nothing to disturb one except  the rhythmic clip-clop of the horse's hooves, I was reminded of those  lovely little country lanes that are one of the most charming features  of English rural scenery.  When I came to this district fifty-two years ago there was nothing  like the volume of traffic on the roads that there is today. We were  able to take liberties when travelling that if practiced now-a-days  would be nothing short of suicidal. I remember one lady drove an  old very quiet horse and used to read a book whilst driving to town.  I knew a young bachelor farmer who lived out in the country.  In the winter he attended most of the dances. Before starting on the  long drive to some festivity he made sure he had an ample supply of  rugs, robes and cushions. Before leaving on the return trip - usually  in the early hours of the morning - he carefully wrapped himself up  in all his rugs. Then when his team had settled down to a steady gait  and were headed in the homeward direction, he made himself thoroughly comfortable - and went to sleep. My friend assured me he  never woke up until the team came to a stop at his barn and always  arrived home without any mishap.  Time has a mellowing influence on our memories and we old-  timers unconsciously look back on the past through rose tinted glasses.  Then the rough spots appear smooth and happy memories predominate. Actually I doubt if any of us really want to go back to1 conditions as they were in 1905. But with the advent of the combustion  engine and all the marvellous improvements, innovations and labour-  saving machinery of today, we old stagers realize with a tinge of  regret that the simple, quiet, contented and unhurried way of life of  fifty years ago has vanished and gone forever.  A permit was issued in April, 1957, for the demolition of the  oldest building in West Summerland. It was the first home of the  50 year old realty firm established by James Ritchie.  60 <sL^ast    <J rip of th*  Si  tearner  >6 £-"*  <3/  icantous  Guy P. Bagnall  The passing of the C.P.R. stern wheel steamers which plied  the Okanagan Lake brought to many travellers a pang of regret for  they had come to enjoy their comfort and dependability. The queen  of the fleet was the steamer "Sicamous" launched July 1914, and  decommissioned 1936, and eventually sold to a Penticton Club for  a nominal sum, which undertook to tow the vessel from Okanagan  Landing to the South end of the lake, where she was reconditioned  for a new life in community service.   August 27th, 1951.  We are happy to publish the poem written by Kate Seymour  and join her in good wishes to the steamer "Sicamous" in her new  role.  The "Sicamous"  This steamer was prefabricated in Port Arthur in 1913, and  assembled at Okanagan Landing in 1914. It was launched and  put into service in July 1914, made its last regular passenger  trip on January 5th, 1935, and was retired from service in July  1949. It was turned over to the City of Penticton on August 27th  1951.  61 The Okanagan Historical Society—-1957  jj-arewell  to  t^tectmer     «___!>i  IC«WOM«  I saw you slip along the ways,  'Mid cheers I saw you go.  A queenly sight all dres'd in white  From stern wheel to your bow.  I watch'd you come  and  go each  day  As children we would call  To happy tourists on your deck,  Who'd   greetings   for   us   all.  The  mem'ries  of  the  trips  we  had  As you were young and gay—  When   joy   and   laughter   filled   your   halls,  A palace of your day.  The  time  has flown,  yo're  growing  old,  Your hull has turned to grey  While  standing  there  so  many  years  And   seasons   pass   away.  But now the tears are in my eyes:  I see you slowly go.  No cheers or celebrating now,  A small boat holds the tow.  You seem as if you'd  like  to stay  And end your  days right here,  With  mem'ries  of the  by-gone  life  And thoughts of former years.  I hoped you'd never have to go  And start your life again;  And what is left of that old pier  Your resting place remain.  I know you'll miss your many friends:  You  wish  them   fond  adieu.  Farewell  to Steamer  Sicamous,  Your friends will miss you, too.  — Kate Seymour  62 Csnderbu s <S\ alive dLjaughter <£j rings  <J\onor lo her <J~lonte    <Jown  Mabel Johnson  Vernon, B.C., July 22—  Municipal affairs are more than a way of life for soft spoken,  poised, smiling, middle-aged Hazel Rosoman, of Enderby.  They are a challenge and a life work.  The native daughter of the 52-year-old city of less than 1,000  people is listed in Enderby's annual financial statement and auditor's  report as "city clerk, treasurer, collector and assessor."  And the «xcellence of this report has brought to Hazel Rosoman  the coveted and hard-to-come-by Certificate of Conformance awarded by the Municipal Finance Officers' Association of the United  States and Canada, which is the highest recognition in existence in  North  America.  Two cities only in British Columbia were recipients of the  award: Enderby for its financial statement and auditor's report for  the year ended December 31, 1955; and Victoria, for the same  report for the same year. The awards were announced in a 1957  " issue of the Municipal Finance News Letter, published by the  M.F.O.A.  Fifty-three governmental units have now received M.F.O.A.  National! Committee on Governmental Accounting Certificates  of Conformance for annual financial reports. This includes three  states and territories; three counties; six special districts; 10 Canadian   municipalities,   and   31   United   States   municipalities.  Reports are judged according to standards for financial reporting established in a publication of the N.C.G.A., "Municipal Accounting and Auditing."  Miss Rosoman and Agnes Dunnigan, city clerk of Merritt, are  the only two municipal clerks in the city municipalities of British  Columbia,   who  are  women.  Miss Rosoman comes by her knowledge of municipal affairs  honestly. Her father, 96-year-old Graham Rosoman, first Freeman  of the city of Enderby, and its first and only city clerk until he was  succeeded by his daughter in 1939, has a unique record of service.  63 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  When Enderby was incorporated as a city in 1905, Mr. Rosoman accepted the position of city clerk, in which he continued until  August, 1939, when he was appointed city supervisor, an honorary position which he still holds. He is on* the city's payroll at a  nominal salary of $1  annually.  On April 10th, 1948, the city council held its one thousandth  meeting since incorporation, and Mr. Rosoman's outstanding record  was of attendance at every one of those meetings. ,r..|  When the then Governor General of Canada, Lord Alexander of  Tunis was in the Okanagan Valley about that time, Lady Alexander presented Mr. Rosoman with a chain and medallion in  recognition of his singular faithful service, and his loyalty to his  adopted city and his post. He also received Enderby's golden jubilee medal  in   1955.  When Mr. Rosoman and the late Mrs. Rosoman came to  Enderby in 1893 from London, England, they liked what they  saw. Enderby-—located on the Shuswap River, so called from Jean  Ingledews' "The High Tide on the Coast of Lincolnshire," (which  told the story of a crumbling sea wall and a rush of water up the  Landis River which flooded the meadows of 'Enderby') a gathering  of early settlers decided that "Enderby" should be the name of  the settlement which, prior to that time, had been called "Lambly's  Landing" on the Shuswap.  Hazel remembers when, as a little girl, water was carried to  her home from the river. In fact, she recalls one Ed Smith who,  with his water cart and tank drawn by Clydesdales Jim and Bob, sold  water to her parents and other early settlers.  By the time 1911 rolled around, Hazel "started to help father."  While still in her 'teens, she began, in this fashion, her career, which  for all of her adult life, has been devoted to the city of Enderby.  She is a home town girl who stayed there.   She grew up with, and  grew into, the positions she now holds.  For many years, Hazel did indeed "help father.".  She helped him gratis. For this, in the accepted fashion of  Old Country people of that era, was her "apprenticeship," and  unpaid.  In 1918 following her "honorary" post, she was made assistant to her father, who, until that time, was the only holder of  municipal appointments. When he retired in 1939, his daughter  stepped into his well-worn shoes.  64 Enderby's Native Daughter  Fellow citizens and others state that the Rosomans, father and  daughter, are experts in municipal law.  Hazel is a devoted member of the Anglican Church. In the  picturesque house of worship known as St. George's Enderby, she  was baptized, confirmed, and sang, with her mother, in the choir.  She was president for some time of the Sanctuary Guild.  She and her aged father now live in a white house, which has been  their home for many years. Two-stories, in a square of lawn, it  also breathes the atmosphere of 50 years ago, with its elaborate  curlecues and carved balcony. Because of her father's age, Miss  Rosoman must curtail many of her spare-time activities, as devoted  a daughter, as she has been a servant to her community.  Along with every other city and municipality in B.C., costs  have increased in Enderby as elsewhere. The total estimated expenditure for School District 78, for 1957, (in which Enderby is  located,)   is  $205,358.   Enderby  must find  $19,594.  of this sum.  In 1956, Enderby's budget was $76,550. Last year current taxes collected were 94 per cent; including arrears the whole tax collection came to 104 per cent of the current levy for 1956.  The Rosoman's have served collectively under 15 mayors, of  whom 10 have passed on. Assessed value for taxation in 1956 was  $145,402 for land; improvements—for school and general purposes, $957,433; for school only $22,084; with exemptions of  land,  $17,139  and  improvements,   $334,408.  With her father to care for—with her job which she loves, and  with her creed: "We are not here to make money, but here to serve,"  Haze] Rosoman is a busy woman, and a happy woman.  "Enderby," she says, "is a gracious, kindly little place. It is  'Our Town' and our home."  Editor's Note:  As we go to press, we learn that Miss Hazel Rosoman will resign  at the end of 1957 from her post as Enderby City Clerk. Her retirement brings to a close 52 years of civic administration—first by  Graham Rosoman; and later by his daughter, Hazel. Mr. Rosoman  asked to be relieved of his duties as city supervisor, due to his  advancing years.  65 <Mrs. JttyLs JHac^bonJJ  ^^frmstrong    pioneer  Mabel Johnson  An unbroken period of residence in one community—Armstrong,  B.C., for 74 of her 82 years, is the record of Quebec-born Mrs.  Myles MacDonald, brought to the North Okanagan by her Irish  parents via covered wagon and river boat in 1883 at the age of eight.  Brisk, spry, smartly dressed and neatly groomed—living in  the log house on the homestead to which she was brought as a bride,  Mrs. MacDonald has looked across the narrow valley to her girlhood home of Eagle Rock, for 59 years.  For every one of these 59 years without once missing, Mrs. MacDonald has exhibited at local fairs, bringing home literally hundreds of prize ribbons and awards.  She is the only exhibitor to have entered the Interior Provincial Exhibition at Armstrong every year since its inception in 1900.  Before that, she exhibited the products of her garden, kitchen and  spare time at the old Agricultural Fair in Vernon, some 14 miles  south.  This year (1957) among other awards, Mrs. MacDonald  placed first for her light and dark fruit cakes; second for bread.  "My light cake was sold before it was made," she said, explaining  that an old friend, year by year, buys her celebrated golden textured  fruit loaf.  At the 1957 fair, between 40 and 50 prizes were taken by  Mrs. MacDonald and her daughter, Mrs. Flora Erickson, brought  up in the family tradition. "Flora shows everything but her old man,"  laughed Mrs. MacDonald. Jam, preserves, vegetables, a bale of  hay, grain, ducks and African violets were just a few of the exhibits which came from the MacDonald-Erickson household.  Fifty-nine years in one house is a long time—no wonder Mrs.  MacDonald refuses to leave it. Her three children were born there.  Now her daughter. Flora, and husband, Joe Erickson, and family  live with her.  Born Maria Cummings, Mrs. MacDonald came to British  Columbia with her parents on a slow and difficult journey.  Her father had operated a boat on the Mississippi River, and,  wanting to see the west, came to Victoria, B.C., by way of the Cape  of   Good   Hope.    He   later   obtained   employment   at   Yale,   B.C.,  66 Armstrong Pioneer  working on the C.P.R., and moved along as the railway advanced,  bringing his family to Nicomen, near what is now Spences Bridge.  Mr. Cummings, tiring of railway work, bought a team and  wagon, and came to the Okanagan Valley, homesteading at Eagle  Rock, near Armstrong.  He obtained employment with an Enderby flour firm, operating  a boat, called the "Red Star" on the Spallumcheen River, now  the Shuswap River. Captain Cummings ran the boat from Enderby  perhaps 25  miles.  Maria Cummings met her husband when she was nine years  old. Myles MacDonald was then 25. He had come to the Armstrong district in 1884, one year after the Cummings' family.  They were married in 1898.  More than 50 years ago, Mrs. MacDonald won 12 fruit trees  as a prize at the Vernon Agricultural Fair for her collection of  jam and jelly. These trees were planted in front of the MacDonald  home, and became the basis of a beautiful orchard, and fruit from  these same trees subsequently won more prizes at local fairs.  This pioneer woman looks back at the first exhibitions in Armstrong, with the late Donald Matheson its first president. The first  fall fair in 1900 was held in a hall which later burned down. The  exhibition was then held in the Recreation Hall, which gave way  in 1956 to the handsome Hassen Memorial Hall, built to honor the  late Mat Hassen, for many years its manager-secretary and driving  spirit.  The method followed by Mrs. MacDonald, and her daughter  Flora, is simple. Starting each season with strawberries from the  homestead garden, the choicest berries are put in a jar "for the  fair." Then there is strawberry jam, followed by raspberries-—canned, in jam and jelly. A promising vegetable marrow is saved for  the fair; a little extra pains taken with a bale of hay; an African  violet which looks thriving is entered; as well as a pair of socks  knit from some good wool; and of course, the fruit cakes—light  and dark—made from recipes which have stood the test of many years  and  many  competitive  methods  and   mixtures.  Mrs. MacDonald has two sons; Donald MacDonald, the Reeve  of Spallumcheen—a neighboring municipality to Armstrong, and  Neil MacDonald, traffic agent in Kamloops, B.C., for the T.C.A.  and C.P.A. Reeve MacDonald married the grand-daughter of Mrs.  Catherine Schubert, one of the "Overlanders."  Winters? — Winters in the old days were nothing.   They are  67 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  just as bad now, Mrs. MacDonald declares. Times have not  changed the weather, although she admits that perhaps life was a  little more difficult; when they made their own tallow candles;  smoked their own bacons and hams; baked the bread; washed  clothes on a board—in fact, did everything the hard way.  Mrs. MacDonald looks back on her full and busy life, which  despite its inevitable ups and downs, including the death of her  husband 26 years ago—but finds it has been rich and good.  She was asked whether she did not find it as well to retire  early? "Me? Go to bed early? I should say not—I just go to bed  anytime—I like to go to dances!" she said.  Mrs. MacDonald is a member of the Zion United Church, and  one of its most ardent and faithful workers. She was also honored  recently with a life membership in the Interior Provincial Exhibition. "Every year I say: Well, this is the last fair—but I still go  on—" she said.  <Z^r Cohort t^toru  The late W. C. Pound who lived in the Okanagan for over  sixty years and was widely known for his taxidermy, took a deep  interest in the wild life which had its habitat in these parts.  At one time he acquired a black bear cub—it was probably a  month or even six weeks old—which he took to his home where  his small children would play with it by the hour. The little  fellow would soon tire at the play and then he would stretch his  wee paws out front, his head resting on them and his nose down  under; in this position he looked like a ball of fur, with two ears  protruding.  One day some friends were giving a child's birthday party  at a big home on Pleasant Valley Road and a request was made for  the little bear to attend, so he could help amuse the children. The  cub entered into all the hilarity and fun of the occasion but, in  time, he eluded their attention and made off on his own; he entered  a neighbors house through an open window and next discovered  the pantry and in the pantry a supply of jam, getting his nose  firmly stuck in one of the sealers of jam.  In time he was located but to get little bear and jam jar  separated called for the united effort of many people and much  bear back talk. By the time bear junior arrived home he had  established no mean record as an entertainer of both children  and adults.  68 J he  y^Jverlandt  ers  Mr. and Mrs. A. L. Fortune  EDMONTON   TO   BELLA   COOLA  (Continued from  1956 Report)  Being the Reminiscences of The Overlanders trek  18—■?  by A. L. Fortune, written about  1903.     Edited by  F.   T.    MARRIAGE  The course of the river valley ran south-west for some hours  before we saw the Indians. We could see mountains some distance  south, but not in the north. There is much comparatively level  country in the northern bend of the Fraser and on the north side. In  later years we learned that several large streams empty into it, for  some of the Peace River miners went up one of them a certain distance, made a short portage, and boated down one of the tributaries  of the Peace. It is possible that the Grand Trunk Pacific line may  use the route up the Peace River and pass near the north bend of  the Fraser. When that happens, home seekers may cover all that  table-land with clover, stock and hives of industry. There may be  69 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  summer frosts, but when the land is cleared and drained, they may  not be as bad as at Edmonton. We passed here about Sept. 9th, and  the trees showed no sign of frost.  The water was running more swiftly now than we had seen  it since leaving the dreaded canyon. On we glided, faster and faster. The banks were now higher, with boulders and gravel in them.  Soon we saw boulders in the water. The captain stood at his post,  watching closely, and issuing his commands; - "Ho boys! Watch  those boulders! Keep to the right! Pull harder! The water is sucking  us into danger! Good ! You did well. See! Another bad spot now -  with all your might - again to the right!" All hands pulled for  dear life. So for nearly two hours we glided over swift water among  rocks often so near the surface as to threaten tearing our raft to  pieces. Never was pilot more faithful and attentive than our noble  William Sellars, who steered us through that unknown channel and  down those long and terrible rapids. His men were inspired by his  bravery and worked like heroes for life and loved ones. If the  water had been a foot lower it is almost certain that we would have  come to grief. It was providential that we found the water at this  stage.  After a storm comes a calm, and we found a fine river below  the rapids. The current was fast enough, the channel was wide,  and there were no dangerous rocks. Now we had lowlands with  giant Cottonwood trees, so we inferred that both the climate and soil  were better. The mountains in the north and west were out of sight,  but we could see what we supposed to be the Cariboo Range in the  south-east. We landed where there was grass for the stock near a  fine cottonwood forest, and passed an interesting evening, talking  about the future and the letters we would send home, if we did not  return soon. Some said, "Bah! Who talks of returning after all our  privations and hardships? We will surely try to get some Cariboo  gold before we leave B.C." Some of the family men thought they  should never have left home. "What is gold?" said they. "What are  riches compared with happiness? Is it the path of duty to risk our  lives as we have today? Think of all the narrow escapes we have  had. Look at the loss of friend Robertson. What grief to his friends  and parents when they hear of his death! How many more may be  lost before we get through?" Some spoke that night as if they would  soon return heme. After our hard work soon came refreshing sleep.  Next morning Mr. Wattie said, "Now, boys, how far are we  from Fort George?" After some talk someone, I think it may have  70 The  Overlanders  been Joe White, said, "I think we shall be at Fort George today,  if we are not lost in some canyon or long rapids." The stock was  placed on the raft, and we resumed our journey. So fast flowed  the river and so free was it from snags and boulders that we must  have run about 20 miles in three hours. Soon we saw another river  flowing in from the north, its water very clear compared with the  Fraser. Then in a few minutes our raft was tied to a stump and all  hands climbed up the bank and stood on bench land beside the H.B.  Co. trading post - Fort George.  Funeral of an Overlander  Mr. McKenzie met us and told us that young Pattison had died  the previous night after much suffering. He had caught cold by his  wetting at the first bad canyon. We waited for the funeral. There  being no boards, a small canoe was split up and shaped into a coffin.  We had a short service and then committed to his last resting-place  young Eustace Pattison from England. He was modest and refined  in manner, not assertive nor abtrusive, and did not make many acquaintances. As to his religious faith, we were not informed. I believe his companions communicated with his friends in England.  We now knew of two of our party who had gone to their long home.  The head of the trading-post here, whose name was William  Charles, was absent, and another was in charge. To the north and  west the country appeared nearly level. We did not see much of it,  but did not consider the flat near the buildings rich land. Little  timber except brush was in sight. The clear water we saw on near-  ing the forest was the Stuart River, which seemed nearly as large as the  Fraser; the two rivers seemed to flow together for several miles  before the waters mingled. We were told that the river was very  dangerous and that we would have to run through two fearful  canyons. The man in charge said there was no possibility of using  rafts. We might drop a boat down with a rope, but we could not  keep passengers and cargo in it; these would have to be portaged.  Some Indians and half-breeds were consulted, and all advised us  not to attempt running with the raft. We held counsel for many  hours, and at last concluded to hire some Indians with two canoes  to come down to the first canyon with us and be ready to pick up  what men they could if our raft were wrecked.  So the day after the funeral we all got ready with the raft and  two canoes for our journey to the land of gold. The river was not  so wide, but swifter; the banks were getting higher and the country  mcie thickly wooded. The weather was pleasant and the air full of  71 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  vigour, giving buoyancy to our nerves and spirits. We had little  trouble guiding the raft. When we neared the bad part of the river  we sent two men ahead in a canoe with the Indians to survey and  bring back a report. We found a wide enough channel on the left  side, away from dangerous rocks on the right, but we could also  see heavy falls over which it was probable we would have to jump  our raft. The Indians were placed with their canoes on the east bank,  instructed to watch our fate, and, if we were wrecked, to come and  do what they could to save as many as possible. Captain Sellars and  two others arranged matters with them and then came back to where  the raft was moored; they told us what they saw and what they  thought we should do. Quite a number of the men decided to walk  over the rocks and hills rather than risk their lives. I think about ten  volunteered to stay with the raft and hold the stock.  Through   the   Canyon  Some of us made silent supplication to God for guidance and  protection. Our raft floated easily and slowly, giving us a good  opportunity to swing her well away from the dangerous rocks on  the right side. Our speed then increased and we glided between  eddies. Now, with a leap over the fall, our raft dipped under water as  the front plunged over. I saw the Indians throw up their arms with  a sad moan as if we were all gone. But in a moment we were past  the fall and floating safely down river with the speed of a racehorse. We soon lost sight of the Indians. While under water we  had our stock and men swimming and all our stuff wet, but every  man held by a rope and the stock also tied. Arthur Anderson lost his  hold on his rope, but someone caught him as he was washed off the  raft. Our canoe that was lashed to the raft made a complete somersault and, of course, filled with water. We breathed hard and  thanked God for our preservation in so wild a danger. On we  went as if running a toboggan down a long and steep incline. We  were wet, but not drowned. As soon as possible we moored the  raft and waited for the people who were coming by land. We got  all on board and proceeded, as we thought that the raft was the  safest mode of journeying down the river.  We camped some forty miles from Fort George, a much happier  crowd than we were the day before. We slept or passed the night  building castles in the air, and then had a breakfast of pemmican,  buffalo tallow and Red River black flour, hoping that more palatable  fare would be found at Quesnelle Mouth. All boarded the good  raft with misgiving, however, as to the dreaded second canyon.   It  72 The   Overlanders  was a charming September day, which was a decided help to health,  strength and courage.  Again we passed mountains and high banks, with very little low  land or wooded benches on either side of the river during most of the  day. The river was swift and exciting. In a sudden bend where there  was a mud slide from the mountains there were trees and roots in the  water near the bank. Our raft almost struck them because of  eddies holding it for a time. The current sent us by that place, but  as we had to make a sudden turn around a point to the left we again  got into trouble with more trees in the water. But we got past that  slide and hoped to meet no more like it.  Chinese on the River bars  We thought we saw human beings on the bars in the distance,  and when we neared them we saw that they were Chinese busy at  their winches. On landing we gave them a surprise, but settled  their doubts by showing that we were travelling to Cariboo. Mr.  Wattie questioned them as to their earnings, and one replied, "Oh  some days one dollar: some four bits, some six bits, one day long  time two dollars." About six of them sat around a dish of rice and  bacon soup, which they shoved into their mouths with chop sticks  instead of spoons. We had never seen specimens of that wonderful  people before, except Mr. Wattie, who had been in California some  years previously. He asked them how far it was to Quesnelle  River and was told "maybe 20 miles." They were a wonder to us  with their chop sticks, pigtails and yellow skins. They were smaller  too, than we were.  Now again the raft was in the swift water. The mountains  seemed higher and closer, and we rightly judged that danger was  near. With two men at each oar we glided down a long straight  course till a rock appeared in the river. There seemed to be more  water on the left side, and we worked hard to keep the raft from  going straight over the rock. We must have been ten minutes or  more at this before we came to it, but in spite of all our efforts, the  right side of the raft went over it but did not touch it. There was  so much force in the water that it climbed over the rock several feet  deep. Thus the left side of the raft was low down while the right  was carried high. So terrible was our speed that we seemed to fly  like a railway train. We soon left that dreaded rock behind and  were none the worse for our fears. We had no more striking events  before we moored our raft in a small eddy near the village of  Quesnelle Mouth.   Here we all set to work getting our stock off  73 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  and all our baggage up to a camping place not far from the stores,  hotels and cabins.  So we were safely landed in Cariboo. But we soon learned that  several thousands had gone in during the summer and that the great  majority had left, disgusted with the country, and with themselves  for giving heed to newspaper reports. That evening a number of men  with their blankets on their backs and their clothes torn and patched,  arrived from Williams Creek without money or prospects. They  had plenty to say about Cariboo. They did acknowledge that a few  had found rich ground, but, said they, it was all grabbed by a few,  and a poor man had no show. We arrived here Sept. 13, I think,  eleven days from Tete Juane Cache.  During the years that engineers were seeking a route for the  C.P.R., some parties were surveying up and down that same river in  boats, and they often marvelled at our successful trip. They could  not understand how it was possible for us to have come through  without being wrecked and lost. They declared that the river was not  safe even for flat bottomed boats of three to five tons burden. In  some cases the cargoes were packed on men's backs in the more  dangerous places.  The whole company showed a spirit of good order although the  law of the land could not punish evil-doers. The only discord we  saw was a fist-fight between two young men over food. We grieved  to see it.  On the Monday morning we started early and found the climb  to the table-land long but not difficult. In places the timber was  thick, but there was much grassland with scattered trees. In other  places we saw mostly thick and small black pine. We passed over  several small streams, by lakes and considerable marsh land. Most  of the men had sufficient food, except two, who bought flour  from me - 20 lbs. for $20.00. I told them that if it was cheaper at  Quesnelle Mouth I would return them the difference. (We found  it worth only $50. per 100 lbs. there, and so the first time I met  one of these men I returned him $10.) All provisions were costly at  Quesnelle Mouth.  There a Mr. Barron was selling provisions. He had come  through from Bentinck Arm with a pack train of some 30 horses  and mules. They had made two trips already, and had gone to the  Arm for a third load. Mr. Barron was agent for a San Francisco  firm which shipped provisions and horses to Victoria and thence by  the Hudson's Bay Co. steamer Labouchere to Bentinck Arm. The  74 The   Overlanders  cargo was carried 30 miles up river by Indians and thence by trail  to Fort Alexandria. In many places there was thick timber to work  through; in others there was steep climbing over slides, besides  many small bridges to construct.  Very few of our overland party felt like going into Cariboo, even  after getting so near to it. We were all tired of travelling and not many  had enough money to provide for the trip to Victoria to lay in a stock  of food for the winter. The great bulk of our party started on foot  over the travelled trail by the Fraser Valley, while others joined in  the work of road building below Clinton towards Lytton. The horses,  mules, and oxen went with them, serving to pack blankets and food.  James Wattie and I took the ox that I had bought from a Mr. Gunn  on Red River, to carry our outfit to Cariboo. We left William Wattie at Quesnelle Mouth. We thought we might benefit from personal  knowledge of the mining country, and thought we should see it, as we  were within 60 miles of Williams Creek.  Encounter with the Camels  So we got everything ready, said goodbye to those who were  going down country, and struck out for Cottonwood way-house. Our  ox followed us like a pet, quite satisfied to be near us. We met pack-  trains returning from the mines, and travellers returning badly disappointed. But the greatest bugaboo was a train of camels, the sight  of which struck terror into our ox. We had to retreat and hide from  them till they had gone past. Men with pack trains complained so  much about them stampeding that the Government ordered them  off the route.  The trail had been much travelled and was very miry in places,  but we made about 15 miles a day. When we reached the summit  of Bald Mountain we found an extensive stretch of beautiful grassy  land, and near the north end a couple of men in charge of some  cattle. We left our ox in their charge and carried our stuff on our  backs into Williams Creek.  The mining centre was Richfield, on the west bank of the creek  about half a mile up stream from Black Jack tunnel. Near the canyon the famous Steel and Abbott claims, and others, were taking  out rich pay, and several claims above the town were proving to be  rich. Many men left with a good pile in the winter of '63 - '64. In  September while we were there Mrs. Cameron was very sick, and she  died that fall. Mr. Wattie thought we should not try to winter at  the mines in case the supply of provisions should fail before spring.  There was a large supply of liquor but the necessities of life were  75 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  not plentiful.    However,  beef   was  not  scarce,   and  sold   at   25c  a  pound for a time.  We only stayed eight days, and about September 27th, we left  in a snowstorm, and after a search found our ox on Bald Mountain.  Next day we found some other men, lower down the mountain,  making for a more hospitable region. Our return to Quesnelle Mouth  was accomplished in a day less than it took us going to the mines, and  was uneventful. We were not fatigued, but our ox's feet became very  tender through travelling over so much gravel and rocks. On reaching the Quesnelle we found some of the Toronto party who had  arrived there after us by the river. Mr. Joslin reminded us of a Mr.  Carpenter, who lost his corpulent size at Fort Garry; he was now  decently slim. The St. Catherines and Ottawa parties had also arrived,  and most of them pushed down country. I think there were only  three of the whole party who ventured to winter in Cariboo. We  thought the road to Yale too long for our ox's feet, so we resolved  to try the route from Alexandria to Bentinck Arm. We made a  small raft with two sweeps, put the ox and our stuff on board, and  floated down some forty miles of passable river. W"e made one  mistake as to the channel and got into shallow water, but had little  trouble. On the east bank we saw a bed of coal burning on the  surface. There was some poor coal there and also above Quesnelle.  Our raft was sold for firewood to people at Alexandria. We crossed the river (the ox swam) and rested on Sabbath at the Hudson's  Bay post.  Here we heard an Anglican Church minister preach.  The Chilcotin River, where we crossed, was shallow, wide, and  swift. About half-way to Bentinck Arm we passed Puntze Lake,  where we saw some fairly good land. Trout fishing was good in  some of the larger streams, and we frequently had grouse and duck.  Not having much ammunition, we used it sparingly. We saw little  sign of big game, for the country was not inviting to deer or elk.  Our provisions were dwindling so low that we put ourselves on short  allowance one day, and got a duck with our last charge of shot.  That night, thank God, we camped with a pack-train which was  going to Quesnelle. We bought flour, bacon, tea and beans, and  thought we had enough to last until we should reach Boat Encampment on the Bella Coola River. We found the man in charge of the  pack-train and his helpers fine men to meet and deal with, and very  considerate towards us. In fact they were natural gentlemen who  must have inherited dispositions from good homes.  We were strang-  76 The   Overlanders  ers to them, yet they were anxious that we should benefit from their  knowledge of the route.  They described suitable camping places, short cuts, dangerous  places, Indian bands that might bother (or interest) us, and in other  ways tried to make us happy and command our esteem and confidences. In contrast, we soon had an experience of the opposite kind,  for three gentlemen presently arrived in camp. One was a civil  engineer and the others may have been casual companions or assistants. We were not long in finding out that some men go to college  and come out asses. This man had occasion to show off his superior  knowledge in the course of our conversation in camp; his style was  cutting and humiliating. Our Mr. Wattie felt insulted, and made  our "well-bred" college engineer understand the fact. We feared  a challenge with pistols for a time. We cut him out of the conversation, nor did he look for parting salutations in the morning. (He  was the first and only crank we met in all our travels except drunken  Indians at Fort Rupert.) So we got our good ox ready with his  pack, and, grateful for supplies of food, bade the packers and the  rest, farewell.  We left for the west and they for the east.  It may have been thirty or more miles west of Puntzi Lake that  we saw men making hay on a large swamp or beaver meadow. They  had contracted to put up a quantity of hay for the Barron pack-train  which was to winter there if possible. The two men were Mr. Linn  from Western Ontario, and a companion. We bargained with them  to winter our ox. They were reasonable in their charge, but could  not guarantee that it would survive. We felt sure that we could do  no better and so parted with poor Brindle with the sorrow one feels  at losing a true and faithful companion, a trusting and obedient  helper in all difficulties. If I could possibly have that noble ox's  head and horns in the hall of our home I would not part from it  while I live.  A few days after our arrival at Bella Coola a party of Cariboo  miners, hungry and dreading starvation, found the ox. They killed  it and dried the meat over a fire so that it would be lighter to carry.  Mr. Linn protested against the killing on our account, but the  hungry men told him they were sure that when the owners of the ox  knew that it was necessary, in order to save human life, they would  excuse the liberty. They left $85 for us, which we received 20  months later from some men who had been on the look-out for us.  I felt very sore at this final parting, and did not care much for the  men who had killed my faithful pet.  77 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  After we parted from the hay-makers and the ox, we followed  a trail westward (Here the manuscript breaks off.)  Lillooet to Spallumcheen 1865 - 67  About the time that our Canadian statesmen resolved that all the  provinces belonging to Great Britain north of the U.S.A. should be  united and called the Dominion of Canada, A. L. Fortune and Mark  Wallis of St. Thomas started making a home and cultivating the  first farm in the Spallumcheen Valley, 23 miles south of Sicamous  and 22 miles north of Vernon. Captain Houghton and the Vernon  brothers at Coldstream (Aberdeen estate) were there three years before us and were our nearest neighbors, Messrs. O'Keefe, Greenhow and Thomas Wood reached the head of Lake Okanagan that  summer, each with a herd of cattle bought in Oregon that spring.  We took an Indian and his wife and young child with us from  Lillooet. "Big Louis" had considerable experience working in pack-  trains, and proved a worthy helper with the stock, and a good companion later when we travelled by canoe from Kamloops Lake to  Spallumcheen. When travelling by land or water we often met  different tribes of Indians, and I found most of them to have good  feelings toward the Roman Catholic missionaries. Some Indians  sang hymns and led in the prayers of the Roman Church, especially  those addressed to the Virgin and the Saints. In many cases they  seemed more loving to the Son of the Virgin.  Lillooet is a favourite place on the bank of the Fraser where  Seton Lake valley and benches add to the width of the Fraser valley.  In early years much gold was found in the benches and low bars of  the river near this town - hence its importance. The Indians learned  to profit from the bars by using a simple machine called a rocker.  The place is favoured by water coming from the mountains in flumes  and ditches, but is still not sufficient to irrigate all the land suitable  for fruit, vegetables or cereals. In the early days barley sold for  25c a pound. The climate is dry, warm, and healthy. The mountains  are high in places but not well wooded.  Crossing the main river near the town (about 45 miles north of  Lytton), we took the wagon road to Clinton enroute for the Cariboo  gold mines. The first six miles to the mountain is not attractive,  being rough, dry, and rocky. But here Lorenzo from Italy secured  a good sized farm and had success with a fine irrigation system.  This was in the early 60's. I do not remember any homes or farms  between there and the 21 mile house, except some that were on benches  rather high above the river, irrigated by creeks.   The benches are of  78 The  Overlanders  sand and boulders, seemingly adapted to fruit farming. From 21  mile house we took a trail going east through Marble Canyon, where  two lakes occupy the space between the sheer precipitous mountains  of finely colored marble. This helps to add interest to water views  when the rock is in sight at the bottom. Wallis, my companion, and  an Indian lad (nephew to Big Louis) left us to hunt, and later provided us with a lot of fat blue grouse for supper. They were alert  hunters and increased our provisions in this way till we reached the  wagon road near Bonaparte River. This valley was settled since  1859 by a few men.  Mr. McLean, who had an Indian wife and a half-breed family  owned the land near the mouth of Hat Creek. He was a fearless  man and noted as a good guide for explorers. I have heard much  that was good about him. He was last heard of in the Chilcotin,  where he led the police in hunting up Indians guilty of murder and  jailbreaking. They were caught, but Mr. McLean was killed by a  rifle shot.  We followed the wagon road to the north of Back (? ) Creek,  which flows into the Bonaparte River. Here a road leading east to  Kamloops Lake was constructed in 1865. For three oi more miles  it passes through a fine stretch of prairie farming land where lived  Mr. Semlin, for several years our M. P. at Victoria. East of him  was a successful American farmer, Mr. Terryau. (?) On the south  side of the Thompson River were a few fine farming benches.  Among the settlers I knew a Scotsman named Charley Perry, who  was much esteemed by his neighbours.  We came across wild sweet brier at "eight mile creek" and a nice  talking son of Uncle Sam's land living with one of the maids of the  forest (or rather a maid of the dry belt, for the timber is mostly on  the mountains). Some ten miles east we crossed Dead Man's Creek,  a large stream emptying into the Thompson two miles from Savona's Ferry, where Kamloops Lake enters that river. Here Messrs.  Morton and Hathaway, with a third man, supplied milk to the Cariboo  miners during the summer. They were all fine men. They also  killed foxes by poisoning them, and showed me one black and several fine silver-grey specimens. A Mr. Roberts was living at the  ferry in 1866-7. We bought a canoe, put all our stuff in it, and  sent it with Mr. Wallis, two pack horses and our two oxen, over the  ferry.  To the Kamloops Country  There was no wagon road past the ferry, but they had no dif-  79 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  ficulty in following the trail. We hurried in our canoe up Kamloops  Lake. It is 18 miles to Tranquille, where the river enters the lake and  where William Fortune1 and his lady made their mark in fruit  farming and milling wheat flour, lumbering, and running a steamboat. In later years Lady Dufferin conducted a sanitarium there  with success, in co-operation with a Kamloops doctor. The river  from the Cariboo empties into the South Thompson at Kamloops.  Here at Tranquille Mr. Charles Cooney, of Irish parentage, and an  early owner of pack-trains, made his home west of Mr. Fortune's  farm. He soon became a prosperous farmer and stock-man, as well  as a very successful fruit-grower. For several years he sold me  packages of large juicy red apples that pleased all who tasted them.  He married a half-breed girl from Fort George, who recognised  me as one of the overlanders who buried a companion there in September, 1862. Mr. Cooney and his wife made a fine home, lived  happily and raised a large family. They may still be living in Kamloops, showing new-comers the wisdom of a quiet and useful life.  Before the advent of the Hudson's Bay Company and the missionaries, they were in continual dread of the feuds and wars of the  Indians, who made slaves of conquered bands, feasting on them and  supplying their harems with the women. (Even in my time some  thought it right to have a plurality of wives.)  Kamloops was an important Indian centre. St. Paul was chief  of his noted tribe. He figured in the minds of many Indians as one  of the wisest and best of Indian notables. A certain young Englishman, having fallen in love with a daughter of the chief, wrote  glowing letters to his mother in England regarding the probability  of her becoming mother-in-law to a Kamloops princess! It is understood that she was much elated at the prospect!  Thirty-six miles east of Kamloops there was an Indian band,  mostly Shuswaps, and six miles further east another small band.  There is another considerable band at the head of Shuswap Lake.  We camped here and rested all day, for it was Sabbath. Mrs. Louis'  twin sister lived here with her husband and child. They showed me  much kindness, for Louis and his wife had given me a good reputation. In fact, they prepared the Indians along our route to count on  Mr. Fortune as one who loved God the Father and His Son Jesus  Christ.  On the Monday we started early, and poling up the swift two-  mile river, we started paddling up the great Shuswap Lake - 30 miles  to Cape Horn and thence 14 miles south to Sicamous.   Here was a  80 The   Overlanders  small Indian band engaged in fishing and hunting. None objected  to my coming into their country, as Louis had sounded my praises.  All travellers, as well as tried pioneers, dread the mosquitoes of  Sicamous as a blood-robbing pest, especially in June. The fish caught  near the outlet of Eagle River are good and abundant in early  summer. They are mostly deep lake trout and silver trout, with white-  fish and a species of eel. Salmon while running are easily trapped  or speared, but do not care for fly or bait.  We were now in waters I had travelled in June, 1866. We rested well this last night, it being too early in the season for the bloodsuckers' company. When here in '66 I looked up Eagle Valley and  thought of it as the possible route of the first trans-continental  railway. While we were in Cariboo we discussed the probable route  and thought it might go from Sicamous to' the Columbia and round  the Big Bend if they failed to find a pass through the Selkirks. In  the late 50's the good George Brown wrote some fine leaders in  the Toronto Globe showing the wisdom and necessity of an outlet  to the Pacific to checkmate the alarming loss of young Canadians  to the U.S.A., but knowledge of the possible routes through the  mountains was very limited. Now again I took another look, and  hoped that Sicamous would yet be noted for more than mosquitoes.  Leaving camp we paddled over Mara Lake to the mouth of our  home river, ten miles with no bad winds to bring fear to us. This  river is navigable for stern-wheelers, and flows through a wooded  valley with dense stands of choice fir, cedar, spruce, birch and white  pine. We felt sure we had left the dry belt. The thought of being  the first settler in this-lovely country filled me with gratitude to God  for preventing me from settling anywhere until He had brought  me into this valley, so pure and free from the follies of the world.  With these thoughts in mind I reached the site of the city of  Enderby. Here for two miles a fine forest had burned, but the  second growth showed what vitality there was in the land. We  landed our canoe and effects on the prairie side of the river near the  spot where we have made our home since 1867.  I thought there was an opening for mission work among the  Indians. So far they had been instructed in Roman Catholic doctrines and practices. I could not speak their language, and had too  much work on my farm and in the house to qualify myself to teach  ignorant savages. To carry on the work we got a promising boy to  live with us in late harvest time. His example proved to be a good  influence over a  few  other Indians, who saw a chance to benefit  81 The Okanagan Historical Society—A957  Itli    .  . mm'-.-;;rm--mscm■■:.■:':  t-:tr{H$ii>  Spa fisi r !iii«K -i«t mm. t%mm.  k  Memorial at Enderby United Church Grounds  for A. L. Fortune, founder and first elder of Enderby Church  by the wages paid. We were always honest in our dealings with  them, and treated the sick with such remedies as we knew to be safe.  The women and children worked with us at digging and pitting  potatoes and so we became better known to them. On Christmas  Eve, 1867, we invited all in Spallumcheen (22 all told) to a feast  in our log house. We had cooked game and beef, with vegetables,  dried fruit (2 kinds), good bread and tea with sugar but no milk.  The bread was cooked in two "gold pans" buried under hot coals  and ashes. The guests sat on the floor and had to do without knives  and forks. In due time the fragments were gathered and the tin  dishes put to one side. I called for order and sang a hymn. Then  they sang one learned from the priest and also others, which pleased  everyone. I then tried to give them some impression of the importance of civilization and the benefits to be derived from cultivating  the land. I measured some of the men and showed how little they  differed in stature and natural ability from untrained white men,  and also what education could do for both whites and Indians. I  compared their custom of making drudges of their wives with the  loving consideration of white men in their homes. Big Louis was  my interpreter. When they left they all shook hands with me. The  two babies put their right hands in ours and their mothers thanked  us kindly for our advice.  82 J he    J-leming    J~amilu  Everett S. Fleming  Campbell River, B.C.  (A brief review of Fifty years)  Fifty years ago, that is in 1907, the Okanagan was merely a  name, a somewhat illusory and mystical name to me and my nine  brothers and sisters in Saskatchewan. It began to take concrete form  later in the season when snatches of news filtered back to us. It  became the focus of our most ardent dreams on June 23rd when  my father, Wm. H. Fleming, returned from an excursion to  Kelowna.  The reasons were not far to seek.  The winter of 1906-7 was reputedly one of the longest, coldest and most stormy that the prairies had known. The spring was  so cold that my father had had to wear fur coat and mitts while  riding the seed drill putting in the grain. At the same time,  exciting news came from an uncle, Bob Copeland, George Thompson, J. W. Jones and other old friends and acquantances from  Grenfell, Sask., concerning the fabulous Okanagan valley. These  reports, blending fact with fancy, came to us with shocking force  in  view   of  the  late,   cold  spring  in   Saskatchewan.  The upshot was that Dad joined the trek of eager land seekers  who made the excusion in early June. I understand that they were  loaded into democrats with enthusiastic salesmen and given a quick  tour of the orchards near Kelowna, and a visit to the Rutland benches.  At that time the creek bottoms, along Mill Creek and Mission  creek, were occupied by a few old-time ranchers, but the stoney  flat and most of the upper Rutland benches were in the condition  they had known for perhaps a million years!  The effect of the sudden transition from bleak prairies with  the unusually late spring to the verdant productivity of the Okanagan  was irresistible. The land sold in ten and twenty acre plots like so  many hot cakes. In the scramble, Dad purchased twenty acres in  the middle of the stoney flat about one half mile east of the Vernon  road. The price? $150.00 per acre. It turned out to be one of  the stoniest of the stoney portions. To this day it has never  repaid the owners for the money that has been sunk in it.  However,  83 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  it did provide an outlet for youthful energies later on. But that is  another story.  After the whirlwind visit to Kelowna which was then a straggling village which had managed to incorporate a couple of years  previously, Dad returned to Summerberry, Sask. He returned on  the 23rd of June to find that the leaves had not yet burst forth on  the poplar and willow trees near our home. I believe he thought  he had made a wise choice in buying a stake out West. Like the  Hebrew scouts of old, he returned bearing gifts—a sample of the  fruit of that promised land. When he opened a basketful of Royal  Anne cherries—something I suppose we had never seen before, he  needed no words to persuade us all that we were wasting our time  on the plains.  It is difficult to realize what a thrilling sight those cherries were  to a fruit-starved family in mid-summer with no green thing showing. My sister, Joy, was so thrilled with the handful that fell to her  that she took the little clusters, draped them over her ears, and wore  them for days as her very first ear rings. They were much too nice  to eat.  That fall after another crop of frozen wheat—the seventh in  succession, had been harvested, my eldest brother Lome headed for  Kelowna. He found employment there, (I believe in a little cigar-  making plant). His brief letters added to the severe case of apple  fever which we had already developed. As further evidence of the  fabulous nature of the country someone sent us a box full of apples.  I believe they were grown on the trees of the late George Thompson,  just outside the city limits. This box contained some of the largest  apples I have ever seen. My youthful fancy may have exaggerated the  size, but it seems to me now that the bottom row looked like small  pumpkins.   What they tasted like I wouldn't know.  All things considered there was no question about what we would  do. The die was cast. We would sell out and move West. It meant  a real venture for Dad to sell out, lock-stock-and-barrel and to head  out into a strange way of life with a family of ten—the youngest  of whom was hardly ready for school. He had twenty-five years  experience on the prairie. He owned three quarters of good farm  land, with good buildings; about thirty horses, as many cattle, and  a big threshing outfit. He was well set. But what is the use of  material surroundings and equipment if the heart is elsewhere?  Futhermore how can a man resist the importunities of a family of ten?  Sometime during the winter Lome returned home to assist in The Fleming Family  preparing for the auction sale early in March. Two carloads of  settlers effects were reserved, and with these Lome and John embarked for the sunny Okanagan. The rest of us travelled by tourist  coach and arrived some days ahead of the freight cars. I should say  here that my eldest sister, Pearl, (Mrs. Frank Pow) was married  in August 1907 so did not travel with us at that time. They came  later, and now reside in Vernon. (Lome is now living in Victoria,  and John is at Whalley, B.C.)  I do not know just how the arrangements were made so quickly  after our arrival in Kelowna but by the 15th of March we found  ourselves on the way to what was to be our future home. In someway Dad had arranged to rent the Dilworth Ranch for one year,  from the late Mr. John Dilworth. This extended from Dry  Creek about three miles east of town to where it joined the Lefevre  Ranch, where the Drive-in Theatre now stands.  This is one of the oldest ranches in the country. Close to one  hundred years ago Joseph Brent settled there—after having tried  locations further up the valley; he settled there because of the  excellent garden soil, the creek and the wide-open range. I understand he purchased 2100 acres there for one dollar an acre. We  rented just the low land, leaving the range for the Dilworth stock.  The whole place was in hay—aside from a few acres of cultivated  land near the buildings. If my recollections are correct we seemed  to spend the entire summer putting up hay. It was a very hot summer and my job was to drive the "derrick horse." I would like to  know how many miles I walked on that job that summer.  Besides the extraordinary field of onions that we grew directly  in front of the house the place was noted for two or three things.  First of all, the ranch house itself was built of squared log construction. Mr. Brent engaged a certain Mr. McPhee to do the work.  His work stands as firmly now as it did when erected near a century  ago. (It has been sided with lumber for more than half of that  time. It is presently occupied by Mr. and Mrs. John Gervers who  have been there since 1925 when dad and mother moved to New  Westminster, B.C.) Just west of the house stands an historic  building. It is the original grist mill of the valley. The machinery,  I understand, was packed in over the Hope-Princeton trail and was  operated by an over-shot waterwheel. This mill was built by Mr.  Brent and operated for a number of years. The machinery was all  in place when we came there fifty years ago, but the water wheel  85 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  and   flume   had   fallen   into   disrepair.    We   later   transformed   the  mill into a horse barn.  The feature of the old ranch that I liked best was the orchard.  Here was an ideal family orchard with fruit of various kinds. One  of the younger members of Joseph Brent's family, John, who is  now nearing ninety years of age, told me that his mother planted  these trees from seedlings. In any event there were some of the most  tasty and diversified of apples one could wish to find for family  use. I shall never forget the two trees that we called "Striped Ast-  rachan." Literally one could, and we did, eat pounds of these at a  time with no ill effect whatever. One old stalwart is still ekeing  out a precarious living—and bearing a few luscious apples every  season. Would that it could be preserved. If the full truth were  told one of the chief reasons for my frequent summer visits to the  Okanagan in early August is that I may sample once more the apples  from that veteran which is struggling desperately to attain the  century   mark.  Following our first year, Dad managed to purchase the original  home of Mr. Dilworth along with eighty-seven acres of land. Leslie Dilworth took over the southern part of the ranch, and the  range. His younger brother, Ira, elected an academic career and has  since made a great place for himself in the cultural life of Canada.  The ranch as a whole lay in the Benvoulin school district, so to  the Benvoulin school four of us walked every day. The older five  were finished with school so that left me as the eldest to lead Joy  (Mrs. W. D. Quigley of Rutland), Elwood, (now of Saskatoon,  Sask.) and Amy, (Mrs. Harold Timmins of Toronto) to tramp  the dusty roadway to and from the school. Although there were  few, if any, cars to bother us at that time, there was still plenty  of dust and heat. I think Elva, (Mrs. I. J. Newman of Glenmore)  did not start school until we began attending Rutland school the  next year.  Very soon after we got settled on the Ranch wedding bells  began to ring. Lome found the lady of his choice within a mile  or so of home, while Lillian's fiancee came from the old home town  in Saskatchewan. She became Mrs. Albert Barber and returned to  Summerberry with her husband. Lome took over the southern 20  acres of the ranch (presently owned by Mr. Jack Powick). His bride  was Miss Carrie (Tot) Dilworth, a cousin of the folk from whom  we bought the ranch. (A few years later my sister, Ida, married  Percy Dilworth, a brother of Carrie).  For a number of years  Dad made a journey to Saskatchewan  86 The Fleming Family  every fall to run the threshing outfit and to look after the crop on  the rented farm. This meant that the rest of us had to take care  of harvesting the onions and other crops on the ranch. This cut  into my school program badly. As a consequence I was out of school  every fall and made poor headway. If I remember correctly I was  thrust into grade VIII when I began school in Benvoulin, and was  completely at sea for the next four years until I managed to get  through to high school.  It was touch and go whether I should begin high school. But  while I did not care much for school at that time I asked a number  of friends what they thought about the whole thing. With one  accord they exclaimed—"If you have a chance to go to school,  you'd better go—only wish I had." I resolved to try it. So I attended Kelowna High School in the days of transition.  I began by walking four miles to the old Public School building  on Glenn Ave. Then I managed a dilapidated bicycle, and later a  saddle horse and a driving outfit in my final year when Elwood attended with me. But our school room varied. We moved from the  old frame school (now the armories) to a couple of old office buildings further down town (I have forgotten the exact location) ; finally  we moved with our two teachers, Principal L. V. Rogers and Miss  Elizabeth McNaughton, to the spacious brick school on Glenn Ave.,  and Richter St. These two carried the entire curriculum for all  three years of high school work. We all owe them more than we  can ever say or repay.  During this time the family carried on the work on the ranch,  and in the community. Dad was forward looking and community  minded. One of his first ventures was to get together with a handful of other newcomers and remove the old Methodist church  building that stood on a fraction of Dilworth property near Dry  Creek. They obtained a new site in the growing section of Rutland  and rebuilt the small frame structure on the present site of the United  Church in Rutland. That became our church home. Mother was  president of the Ladies Aid Society; Ada was head of the Epworth  League. The rest of us attended Sunday School and church regularly—first by means of democrat, and then through the agency  of an old McLaughlin Buick car—about 1912 vintage. It roared  like the bulls of Bashan and when being cranked had a kick like an  army mule.  Not long after our arrival dad became a school trustee. He was  chairman of that board when the first Superior school was erected  87 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  on the Rutland road. Prior to that the old school which had been  built by the pioneers stood about half a mile south of the Rutland  store. After we arrived in the valley the new school (now a dress  shop) was built, and when it became over-crowded the little old  school was moved from the original site to a position on the new  school grounds. It was in this old building I completed my studies in  grade VIII.  Although I had missed about three months of school each year in  public school that was all changed when I entered high school. I  lost only three half days in three years of high school, although it  meant walking, or riding horseback in winter that dipped as low as  20 below zero. I graduated with about fifteen other students in  1915. That fall I borrowed money and went to Normal school in  Vancouver. At Christmastime the money (a whole hundred dollars),  was spent, so I left Normal and found a job teaching school. I landed  in Coalmont early in January '16 in 30 below zero. I taught school  during that critical year, first at Coalmont, then at Wycliffe. By  the end of the year the war situation was so bad that I resigned my  school in order to enlist.  My oldest brother Lome was already in France with the Canadian Forestry Corps. My youngest brother, Elwood was just 18. He  went to Kelowna on his birthday to enlist. As I had fallen arches  they would not accept me for any branch of the service except the  Medical Corps. We signed on together and shipped to Kamloops.  There a further medical check sent me home and took Elwood on to  Vancouver, and within a very few weeks overseas. John was married  by this time to Mae Fitzpatrick and they were farming in Alberta.  Ida was also married and away from home. That left the three  younger sisters, Joy, Amy and Elva at home with our parents. They  turned to and made perfectly good farmerettes. Upon my rejection  for military service I returned to the ranch where I worked for  private's pay during the summer and my board in the winter months.  In the spring of '18 when the need for food was at its height we  turned our attention away from the stoney northern side of the  farm to the heavy meadow land to the south of the buildings, We  planted this in potatoes. Due to a very dry spring the seed almost  perished before they sprouted. But once started they grew amazingly. I have never heard of such potatoes elsewhere. Bushels of  them weighed four and five pounds apiece. Two monsters weighed  six and a half, and seven and a quarter pounds respectively. They  were Dakota Reds and went to the dehydrater that fall. The Fleming Family  Elwood returned from overseas in the spring of '19. We worked  together that summer. In September I left for Vancouver to attend  U.B.C. to study for the ministry; a seven years course. Later in the  fall dad contracted pleuro-pneumonia and barely survived the ordeal—before the days of oxygen tents and pennicilin. It sapped his  vitality. Although he lived for another 26 years his vigour and stamina were gone. He bought a house on Bernard Ave. and went to  live in town. John took over the management of the ranch. Elwood  worked along with him. The girls were all with the parents in town.  Joy and then Amy took a turn at working in Fumerton's store.  When I returned in the spring of '20 from my first year at  'Varsity I worked for a time in the fruit packing plant, The Growers  Exchange, then worked on survey to McCulloch; helped fence  the new railroad right-of-way through the old ranch property, and  then with Elwood decided to head for the harvest fields of Alberta.  I returned to 'Varsity a month late; Elwood went on to Saskatchewan.  He entered into general store business with brother-in-law A. W.  Barber.  In the meantime Joy was married to Wrn. Quigley and settled  in Hollywood section of Rutland. They are still on the same place.  They raised a family of five and now have many grandchildren.  The summer of '21 I went again to Alberta, this time to teach  a summer school near Stettler. While there I visited brother Lome  who was running a grain elevator at Red Willow, Alta. He was  divorced from his first wife soon afterwards and later married  Doris Oaks.   They have eight children with many grandchildren.  Time would fail to tell of all the movements of the various  members of the family. Suffice to say that Amy studied commercial  and music (she was the singer of the family) at Columbian College  in New Westminster. I completed my Arts course in U.B.C. and  preached for a summer each at Enderby, Esquimalt, and Jedburg,  Sask. Elva and Elwood were both married about this time; the former  to Ivor Newman, a prominent fruit rancher in Glenmore; and the  latter to Thelma Robinson of Wolseley,  Sask.  From Jedburg I elected to go to Toronto for the completion of  my theological course, graduating in '26 with a Bachelor of Divinity degree. Having worked my way through seven years of college  without incurring any debt I borrowed money for a three month's  trip through Europe. With two college mates we sailed by cattle  boat to Manchester, England and made our way as far as Rome and  Naples before returning to a mission field in the Kootenay at Moyie.  89 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  By this time Dad had sold the ranch to Mr. John Gervers and  he moved with mother to New Westminster. My eldest sister, Pearl,  had settled with her husband, Frank Pow, at Winfield, where their  son, Ernie, is still road foreman. They now live retired beside  their daughter, Mrs. H. Worth, on the BX ranch at Vernon. During this time Ida and Percy Dilworth with their young family  were farming at Three Hills, Alta. She later returned to the  valley and lived for some years on the original twenty acres  which Dad had purchased in 1907. It had changed hands a number  of times in the interval. She is now nursing in Portland, Ore.  John was farming at Duhamel, Alta., and Amy was busy winning  a gold medal in Toronto Conservatory of Music. She later taught  there for some years. About the same time, in the fall of '27, I  went east to take post graduate studies at Union Theological Seminary New York. I received my Master's degree in Theology  there. Directly afterwards I returned west to become the most  northerly minister in the United Church. I was stationed in Dawson  City, Y.T. Two years later I was married to Gladys MacKeen  Iseman. We were settled forthwith at Burns Lake where for four  years we faced depression, drought, and pioneer conditions. In '34  we were called to Salmon Arm, where our son, Bill, was born a  year later. (He is now the proud father of an infant son of his own.)  John returned from his farming venture in Alberta in 1932 to  settle and remain at New Westminster. By this time Elwood was  employed at Moosomin by the Provincial government. After he  represented the family in the war from '39 - '45 he was transferred to Saskatoon as Bursar in the School for the Deaf. Amy  married a lawyer, Mr. Harold Timmins and remained in Toronto.  In '38 we were transferred to Ocean Falls, B.C. and in '42 to  Ladysmith on Vancouver Island. Following four years there we  were called to Sidney. After prolonged illness Gladys passed away  in June 1951. My parents had both pre-deceased her in 1946 at  the prime age of 84 and 86 years. Following six years of service  at Sidney I was called to Whalley, B.C. and in 1956 transferred  to  Campbell   River.  The prairie farm had been sold about thirty years previously  but was never paid for. Instead of having a competence for declining years—before the days of pensions, the latter years of  my parents were made difficult by financial worries. Ironically  enough a check for a few hundred dollars as a quit-claim settlement was received on the day of mother's  funeral.   Dad survived  90 The Fleming Family  her by five months; then he too crossed the Great Divide. They had  enjoyed sixty-one years of life together and had the joy of seeing  their entire family of ten assemble around the family board for  their Diamond wedding. That was in October, 1944. They had  both been born and raised in Grey County, Ont., settled the windswept plains in '83, and pulled their weight in every way possible  in every community where they lived. Their immediate descendants now number over 130. The original family of ten is still  intact, though scattered from Vancouver Island to Toronto. A  series of family re-unions have been held during the last twenty  years at which it has been a prime requirement that each and all  of the original ten should be present. The most recent one was  held in the Valley with the old Ranch as focal point in August, 1956.  Some sixty-four members of the clan were present on that occasion  when we chartered a coach on the C.N.R. to transport us from  Kelowna to a whistle stop down by the old Mill stream.  Just in passing, there is an interesting side light on local names.  Mission Creek which flows through the original Mission obviously  derives its name from that mission. In a similar manner the creek  that provided power to operate the first major industrial project  in the Okanagan, the Brent Flour Mill, was just as obviously called the Mill  Creek.  One final word; fifty years sounds like a long time. But it  has gone all too quickly leaving many changes. More are in the  making. What the next half century will bring no man can predict.  But given the spirit of adventure, of independence, of the willingness to work not only for individual gain but for the welfare  of the community, given these things which some, at least, of the  pioneers had in abundance, the future can be one of bright promise.  When my pioneering parents passed on there was not much in  the way of material goods to be shared. But they had given the  intangibles, which far outlast the financial, in unstinted measure  to family and friend.   This heritage remains through the years.  *S*VN*N*%**N«»',W^^^.^-^-^-#^^^«*^WV  91 %  ernon  1897  Albert M. Bovey  June 22nd, 1897, was the day of Queen Victoria's Diamond  Jubilee. The Coldstream Ranch got busy that morning. We put  up a new flagpole on the lawn in front of Lord Aberdeen's Ranch  House, the biggest in the Upper Country. As none of us had had  any experience at such a job, it was quite a business. However,  under the watchful eye of Mr. Ricardo, we got it up. Then, up  went the flag, and cheers for the Queen and for Lord and Lady  Aberdeen. After that we were invited to> help ourselves to some  very  welcome refreshments that  were  awaiting us.  George Armstrong, the Mayor of Vernon, had received a telegram from the Queen, to be read from the Court House steps at  2 p.m. All the pioneers were there, a splendid type the like of  which  will never again  be seen  on this planet.  It was a public holiday, and a big crowd had gathered. There  was a great silence as our genial mayor stepped out of the Court  House and read the telegram. Then we gave roaring cheers for  Her Majesty and the Royal Family. By and by all moved to an  open space between 30th Street and the Price Ellison Ranch house,  where neighbor met neighbor and friend met friend. There  is a picture of the great crowd on page 45 of the Vernon Jubilee  Souvenir   Book,   1952.  That summer some very rich ore had been discovered on the  "Ridge" between O'Keefe's Ranch House and Rattlesnake Point.  Prospectors were busy. The Morning Glory Company were building a Stamp Mill on the main lake just around the point. There  were rumors around town of an assay of $46,000 per ton from  the Sarah claim. In the window of the lawyer's office just down  "The Street" from the Hudson's Bay was a mason jar full of ore  from "The Sarah," said to be worth a fortune.  I found an outcrop of rich stuff one Sunday, but on measuring  to find out where to put my stakes I found that the place was  already staked and recorded. Harry Muller, landlord of the Coldstream Hotel, bought a number of claims.  92 \^Jsouoos— jj~airview— v_>Vr  \—*hronicl<  iver  xronicies  1858—1958  Mrs. E. J. Lacey  The period 1858—1868 saw much activity in the "Sooyoos"  area. Following the Cayuse Indian wars the Fur Brigade Trail had  seen but little use, but with the discovery of gold on the Fraser,  (1858) and at Rock Creek and in the Similkameen (1859), and also  the Wild Horse strike on the Kootenays (1863), it again came into  use and new trails were built. The first wagon train to go over the  Okanagan Trail to Kamloops was that of the famous Oregon  pioneer, Joel Palmer, in August, 1858. The train consisted of  nine wagons with three or four yoke of oxen each. This expedition  followed the Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail up the east side of  Osoyoos Lake.  The Fur Brigades that had travelled north and south now  came from the east from Fort Shepherd and Fort Colville by way  of Sooyoos Lake, and by way of Fort Okanagan up the Similkameen to Fort Hope, until 1862, when the North American Boundary Commission Survey (1858—1862) was completed. The Hudson's Bay Company then moved all their forts north of the  boundary line and posts were established at Keremeos (1862) and  Sooyoos   (1866).  The Colonial Government ordered a Customs station built at  the head of Sooyoos Lake in the fall of 1861, with J. C. Haynes  in charge. During the year 1862, 9,285 head of horses, cattle and  sheep entered the new Crown Colony of B.C. at this point, and a  total of over 2,200 pounds collected. During the same period  Dewdney and Moberly were commissioned to build the famous  Dewdney Trail from Fort Hope to the Wild Horse Creek mines,  crossing at the "Narrows" at Sooyoos and giving it the importance  of a junction on the trails.  W. G. Cox had been appointed first Gold Commissioner and  Justice of the Peace for the Rock Creek—Similkameen area in  1860. Two years later he was transferred elsewhere and Haynes  was put in full charge as well as being Collector of Customs. In  1864 Haynes was appointed to the Legislative Council of B.C. and in  93 The Okanagan Historical Society—7957  1866 he was made the first County Court Judge for this area. He  was also responsible for the maintenance of roads and trails. The  Customs post was moved in 1865 from the head of the lake to  a point half a mile west of the Narrows "to command all trails."  S. T. Marshall received the contract for $750. which included  additions to the building. Also at this time the first bridge was  built across the Narrows by John Utz and Ben McDonald. It was  barely five feet wide, and had loose rails which could be removed  at  high   water.  First pre-emptions recorded were; G. W. Simpson, May 18,  1867; W. H. Lowe, same date, both at Sooyoos. (O.H.S. 3rd Report. )  In 1860 the Oblate Fathers established a mission on the east  side of Okanagan Lake. They travelled up and down the valley  among the Indians by way of the east side of the lake by what was  known as the "Priests' Trail." What little mail there was in those  days was delivered over this same trail. In 1865 Haynes re-established  the boundaries of the Indian reserves.  The Okanagan Indians, a branch of the Interior Salish, claimed  the Okanagan Valley from four miles north of Okanagan Lake to  four miles below the mouth of Okanagan River, by fishing rights,  and east to the Columbia. They hunted and fished over this area  under their wise and able chief, Tonasket. They gathered in large  numbers at times on the flats on the east side of the Narrows at Sooyoos to fish and hold potlatches, races and games. Sometimes as many  as 3000 thus assembled. With the establishment of the boundary  line in 1862, Tonasket and a good many of his people went across  the Line to form the Colville Reserve, and Chief Gregoire became head of the local Indians on the Inkaneep Reserve at the head  of Osooyoos Lake. The Hudson's Bay post, Sooyoos House, opened  in 1866, was in charge of Theodore Kruger.  1868—1878  Judge Haynes married Charlotte Moresby at Fort Hope in 1868,  and brought her over the Hope Trail to her new home at Sooyoos,  where she was the only white woman for many miles and for  several years. A son, Fairfax, was born at New Westminster, February 10, 1872, but it cost Mrs. Haynes her life and she passed  away on May 5th. In 1872 the Hudson's Bay closed their post  and sold it to Barrington Price. Theodore Kruger married at  Victoria in 1873 and brought his bride to Sooyoos, and in the  same year  bought out  Price  and  established  a  trading  post  which  94 Osoyoos—Fairview—Oliver Chronicle  he operated till 1897. Previous to the Hudson's Bay establishment,  the only trading post in the southern area had been Okanagan  Smith's at the foot of Sooyoos Lake in American territory.  Pre-emptions recorded were:- J. C. Haynes, August 1, 1869, and  J. C. Haynes, August 1, 1870. In partnership with W. H. Lowe,  Haynes acquired some 22,000 acres of land and built up a large  herd of cattle and horses. In 1874 Lowe's cousin, R. L. Cawston,  came from Ontario to Sooyoos and was foreman for the Haynes  ranch for a period of ten years.  Judge Haynes married Emily J. Pittendrigh in January, 1875,  and on December 21, 1875, a son, Valentine Carmichael, was born,  the first white child to be born at Sooyoos. A daughter, Dora, was  born to the Krugers twelve days later. In April, 1878, the Customs  Office burned and the Haynes were forced to seek shelter with the  Krugers until the jail, which had not burned, was made habitable.  However, Haynes immediately set about building a permanent home  on the east side of the lake.  1878—1888  Bishop Sillitoe and his wife visited Sooyoos in 1879 and again  in 1883. General Sherman of the U.S. Army with an escort of  mounted men passed through Sooyoos on his way to the Pacific  coast.  The first teachers in the district were governesses to the Haynes  children, the Misses Deasy, Phipps and Jenns of Victoria, and  Miss Hunter, just out from England. The new Haynes house  was finished and the family moved in about 1882. It was a ten-room  house of hewed timbers, the lumber for which had been cut at Postill's Mill near Okanagan Mission and rafted down to Okanagan  Falls,   There it was portaged and then rafted the rest of the way.  In 1888, the Judge was returning from a business trip to the  coast accompanied by his sons, Fairfax and Val, who were returning  from school. At the Allison Ranch, near Princeton, he was suddenly taken ill, and before Dr. Chipps could arrive from Nicola,  passed away.   The body was brought to the home ranch for burial.  Haynes and Kruger had both set out large gardens and planted  apple and peach trees. They relied on Indian and Chinese labor to  pack water from the lake in cans for the first irrigation in the  district.  In 1887 Fred Gwatkins and George Sheenan staked the Stem-  winder at Fairview, some 15 miles north of Sooyoos, to be known  later as Discovery claim.   Kruger built himself a seven-room house  95 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  with verandahs all round it, and it became one of the very few stopping places in the valley. The first post office at Sooyoos was opened  on April  1,  1884, with T. Kruger as postmaster.  1888—1918  In 1891 a Mr. May, stationery manufacturer from New York,  staked G. H. Bowerman and Ben Anderson of Oroville, working  the first claims on the Dividend mine in the foothills of Kruger  Mountain just west of Osoyoos. In 1892 the government ordered  C. A. R. Lambly to move the mining recording office from Camp  McKinney to Osoyoos. As there was no road into the camp Lambly  hired Thomas McMynn of Meyers Creek to move the office equipment and records with his pack horses. Crossing at the Narrows,  one of the horses missed the bridge and swam across. McMynn went  into the water after it. The horse, rather excitable, threw up his  head, striking McMynn on the head and causing him to fall off  into the water. Although help was at hand, McMynn never recovered consciousness. He was a brother to W. G. McMynn, Government Agent at Greenwood and at Golden, one-time Superintendent of Provincial Police and afterwards Superintendent at  Oakalla Prison Farm. The Government building was just west of  the Kruger Hotel and consisted of two cells, courtroom and  living quarters. Lambly married Hester Haynes in 1897. She  was the eldest daughter of Judge Haynes. They made their home  at the Osoyoos Government House until the office was moved to  Fairview in 1898. He was also Government Agent and Stipendiary  Magistrate. J. R. Brown was the assessor. W. H. Jones of Grand  Forks acted as Collector of Customs for a year after Haynes' death  till Kruger was appointed. The latter held the post till he died in  1899. By this time Gregoire had died and Baptiste had become  chief at Inkaneep. Constables at Osoyoos during this period were:  Hawtrey, Ralph Deans, Louis Cuppage, Rupert Venner, Fred  Elkins and W. B. Haynes.  The Great Northern Railroad was planning on building into  the area. J. J. Hill and Kennedy of that company, G. B. Martin  (Minister of Public Works), Father Pat, the beloved Anglican  Padre of the Boundary, were a few of the notables of that time to  visit Osoyoos.   In  1895 T. Ellis acquired the Haynes estate.  But if Osoyoos were quiet, Fairview was the reverse, for it was  booming. Familiar were the names of many of the claims: The  Stemwinder, Morning Star, Evening Star, Joe Dandy, Brown Bear,  Tin Horn, Smuggler,  Wide West,  August,  Wild Horse,  Rattler,  96 Osoyoos—Fairview—Oliver Chronicle  Black Diamond and the Wynn M. They bring to mind names  familiar in many of the camps: Steve Mangott, Harry Rose, Denny  McEachern and his brother Archie, H. Mankin, Dune Carmichael,  Harry Simpson, George Wilkinson, Joe Bromley and J. Atwood.  During the twenty years the Fairview Camp ran a good deal of  ore was produced and the settlement grew rapidly. To begin with,  the buildings were strung along the gulch, with claims and shafts  here and there. F. R. Kline's "Golden Gate," a two storey log  building, was at the bottom of the gulch, and the Evan Morris  "Miner's Rest" a short way up. Stores owned by W. T. Thompson  and W. T. Shatford were encountered as one climbed. Then there  was Moffat's Saloon, and at the top, Tommy Elliot's Store. In 1897  the Fairview Gold Mining Co. took over the Stemwinder and new  capital flowed into the camp. This company built the "Big  Teepee," a three-storey hotel on the flat below the gulch, and made  a start on the townsite. Some of the stores were moved down to the  flat and new ones were built, one belonging to J. Schubert. Bassett  Bros', freight teams were kept busy hauling freight and new machinery to the camp. At one time there were five mills running—the  Tinhorn, Smuggler, Joe Dandy, Statheyre and Stemwinder.  During the years Fairview was active, there were, in addition  to the stores already mentioned, the following; J. McCuddy, Sum-  merville, D. McDougal, Swinbourne Bros,, T. Powers, Love's  Drug store and H. McGuffie, who had bought the Shatford store.  J. McCuddy also had the Post Office.  In 1902 the "Big Teepee" burned to the ground and several  persons lost their lives, including the manager, P. Mathias. Next  year one of the livery stables also burned, and with it 30 head of  horses.  Between the years 1900 and 1910 the church records gave the  following list of families. Mr. and Mrs. Parkinson and 3 children;  Mr. and Mrs. S. D. Hine and family; Mr. and Mrs. C. Lambly and  family; Mr. and Mrs, J. R. Brown and 3 children; Mr. and Mrs.  W. B. Haynes and one child; Mr. and Mrs. D. Corestine and 4  children; Mr. and Mrs. F. B. Boone and six children; Mr. and  Mrs. S. T. Rayburn and 4 children; Mr. and Mrs. R. Russell  (Manager Fairview mines) and 2 children; H. Lee and Dr. R. B.  White. (Dr. Boyce had been the first doctor in camp but had  moved to Kelowna just before Dr. White came.) Mr. and Mrs. C.  Jones and 3 children; Mr. and Mrs. A. Phelps and 7 children;  Mr. and Mrs. Burnell and 2 children; Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Malone  97 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  and 6 children; Mr. and Mrs. H. Garrison and 8 children; Mr. and  Mrs. J. Campbell and 7 children; Mr. and Mrs. D. A. Carmichael  and 3 children; Mr. and Mrs. D. M. McDougal and 2 children;  Mr. and Mrs. W. Dalrymple and 3 children; Mr. and Mrs. Joe  Graham and one child; C. De B. Greens and 3 children. Other  names in camp were Alan Lodwick, Dan Braithwaite, Neil Campbell, Donald McLeod, John Burnett, and the Sinclair family. Also  J. Howse, R. S. Paddy Atkin, T. W. Townley, the Madden Brothers, D. Boeing, Sandy McAulay, the J. Adamson family, J. Nicol  J. Kearns (who ran the "Fish House") and his family, and many  others. In time the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co. acquired most of the ground around Fairview and used the quartz  which contained silica, needed as a flux in Trail smelter.  When the Fairview camp first started, the only road to it was  by way of White Lake and Meyers Flat, and then to Camp McKinney and Rock Creek by way of Wolf Town and McCuddy's.  About 1893 the road around Vaseaux Lake to Wolf Town was  completed. There was also a road, of sorts, known as the Reservation Road, that went through the Inkaneep reserve, down the east  side of Osoyoos Lake and by way of Nine Mile and Meyers Creek  to Rock Creek, and south of Osoyoos Lake. A road from Fairview  to Oroville was made about this time, too, although there was  very little at Oroville till after 1900. Some of the stage drivers  of that time were; Spud Dyer, Bob Hall, his nephew George Watt,  and J. Nesbitt. Arnott and Hines at Okanagan Falls ran a stage,  as did the Bassetts.  In 1905 Shatford Bros, bought most of the T. Ellis property  and established the Southern Okanagan Land Co. The following  year Leslie Hill of Nelson bought 1100 acres from Ellis between  the Indian reserve and the border, including the home buildings  of the Haynes estate, and the next year planted about 40 acres to  fruit trees.   This was the first commercial orchard in the district.  With the death of Kruger in 1899, Chas. Pittendrigh acted as  collector of Customs until J. Love was appointed in 1902. He  retired in 1905 and was followed by Dr. D. Corestine until May,  1914, when he was succeeded by Dr. G. S. Jermyn.  Settlers were trickling in, taking up pre-emptions on Kruger  Mountain to the west and on Anarchist Mountain to the east. In  1914 A. S. Hatfield bought the stage line from Penticton to Oroville  and used a model T Ford on the run. Some work was done at the  Dividend mine in 1908 when Paul McDermott and Arthur Madden  98 Osoyoos—Fairview—Oliver Chronicle  worked there and again in 1917 when C. Antonson and another man  from Oroville worked it on a percentage basis for the Frank's  Syndicate of New York. Hand-picking it, they averaged $800 a^t««r.  Frank was the father of the boy killed by Leopold and Loeb about  1920. In 1910 the first road over Anarchist Mountain was built,  from Sidley to Osoyoos.  <_5^r  *^hort  *^toru  Many pages of Canadian history have been written by employees  of the Hudson's Bay Company, but among these priceless records  you will not find any mention of the following very human  incident.  Charles D. Simms, at the time, was manager of the Vernon  store; the yearly statements had to be made out and forwarded to  the Company's head office and at this time all accounts receivable  were subject to critical examination. One customer owed a considerable bill, all efforts to collect proving futile. However,  English is one language and Chinese another, it was just impossible  to explain the variants of English to the Chinese—This was the  problem confronting Mr. Simms.  Securing from the nearby court house a blue form, foolscap in  size, as used by persons wishing to get their name on the voters'  list, Mr. Simms, writing in a bold hand, set forth the name of the  delinquent debtor and the amount he owed. With native flourish  he commented on the remoteness of the grace of God in the  Highlands of Scotland and went on to assure the debtor that his  name would be Dennis, and not that given herein and hereon, if the  amount of the said bill was not paid before the full moon appeared.  He then appended the names of several of Vernon's long departed citizens and at the lower left hand corner of this alarming  document appended a flaming red seal, one which he had carefully  removed from a bottle of imported whiskey (or was it rum). This  document was then taken into teeming Chinatown and nailed to the  door of the debtor.  A crowd of Orientals gathered and much was said in Chinese.  Within two hours the debt was paid in full and the Chinese, politely,  asked Mr. Simms to remove the notice. This he did, after he had  counted in the money and shaken hands all 'round. There was a  glamour to doing business in the early days.  99 \^Jhanagan ^TjoohsheiT  BEAR CLAW RANCH (Vantage Press, New York, 1956) by  Freda Sellers, is described as a "romantic novel of the West." It is  the story of three generations. It traces the consequences of misguided passions and ambitions from mother to daughter to son—  and on to the ultimate unfolding of a lasting love.  The background for the action is the authentically depicted  ranch life of Wyoming. Here is the excitment of the spring roundup, the exhilaration of camping out under the stars, all the wide  breadth of outdoor life. In Bear Claw Ranch are portrayed Cherry  Robson, city bred, socially ambitious, and a widow; her daughter  Sadie, who inherits a cattle ranch, and runs it successfully; and John  Ramsay whom Sadie marries, and their son Ronald.  This is Mrs. Sellers' first novel. She writes with intimate  knowledge of her subject, having lived many years in Similkameen  Valley, taking an active part in running a Hereford cattle ranch,  branding, gentling, helping in the roundups.  Mrs. Sellers was born in Iceland and educated there by private  teachers and at boarding schools. Coming to Canada just before  World War I, she attended Manitoba Agricultural College, where  she met her future husband. The book is dedicated to their six  daughters: Verna, Clare, Brenda, Mona, Norma and Anne.  "Have you ever," asks Mrs. Sellers, "ridden behind a bunch  of cattle hour after hour? The day is cold, the sky overhead is  covered with dark angry clouds, and flakes carried by the north  winds slash at your face. Sometimes the storm almost turns the  rugged, white-faced cattle back, but they plug along, one behind  the other in the foot or two of snow, and you plug along behind,  too, leading your old,  faithful horse."  MILESTONES IN OGOPOGO LAND in which many  wonders of the land of Ogopogo and sunshine are revealed, by C. P.  Lyons (The Evergreen Press, Limited, 1957). The book is well  illustrated with maps and drawings, and is the best guide the tourist  will find for Okanagan and Similkameen. It is a worthy successor  to his Milestones on the Mighty Fraser, published by J. M. Dent  & Sons (Canada) Limited, in 1950.  100 Okanagan Bookshelf — Reviews  Mr. Lyons was born near Regina in 1915, and in 1919 came  with his parents to live in Penticton. Since 1940 he has made his  home in Victoria. As a member of the Parks Division of the  British Columbia Forest Service, Mr. Lyons has had ample opportunity  for  exploring this province.  The author acknowledges with gratitude, help from many  sources. In his preface he writes: "Fortunate indeed is the author  who, confronted with the pitfalls and puzzles of the kaleidoscope  of history, finds almost everything he wishes for recorded by a  historical society. Such being the case my heartfelt thanks go out to  the Okanagan Historical Society, its editors, members and contributors."  BRITISH COLUMBIA ATLAS OF RESOURCES: prepared  under the direction of the B.C. Natural Resources Conference. The  book is divided into three parts: geographical, resources, and map  indices. Okanagan receives its full share of attention. In the  introduction, Premier W. A. C. Bennett writes: "In 1958 the province of British Columbia will celebrate its centenary. In preparation for this great event what could be more fitting or rewarding  than to regard and review the course of development and use of  the magnificent heritage in which we in British Columbia have  been blessed."  <_5-^f O«oi*f O^oi*w  William Scott operated the stage between Vernon and Kelowna  and was known far and wide for his explosive and expressive  manner of speech and which he employed to keep the mail running  on time, and without interruption.  One winter's day, when the snow was piled high; a single  track between the banks was clear and formed his only right-of-  way—Scott met a cutter coming  from the opposite direction.  Stopping his team of prancing horses, a head and shoulders  leaned out to the side of the cutter and announced—"I am Lord  Aberdeen and I want to get by"—Undaunted, William Scott  leaned to the side of his stage and announced—"I am William  Scott, driving Her Majesty's Mail, and I have the right-of-way."  The Governor General of Canada pulled his team into the  snow bank and allowed William Scott and Her Majesty's Mail to  go through.  101 *^5uwiwierland ^experimental    J~arm  The Okanagan Valley has been served by the Summerland Experimental Farm since it was established in 1914. There are 40  other farms of a like nature across Canada, none of them doing  exactly the same work as is carried on at Summerland. The general  purpose of the Farm is to conduct research on tree fruits, vegetables, forage crops and animal husbandry, in order that Agriculture  in the Okanagan and other interior B.C. valleys may be maintained  at a high level of production.  The "beaches" upon which the Farm is situated, typical of the  Okanagan fruit growing area, are believed to be old beaches  formed when the level of the lake receded and changed its direction  of flow from north to south. The annual average rainfall is 10.94  inches with 1,954 hours of sunshine. The range of temperature  recorded varies from 104 degrees F. to -22 degrees F.  A vast amount of research is carried on in most phases of agriculture, with emphasis on horticultural problems—and there have  been plenty—tests in relation to climate, local soil conditions, irrigation, live stock, grains and grasses, and control of pests; these  are routine; there have been experiments with processing of fruits,  vegetables and their products.  The farm has been fortunate in the appointment of experts  to head up its research work,— Dr. H. R. McLarty 1921 to 1956,  Dr. M. F. Welsh 1956 to date who have been in charge of plant  pathology; and Dr. J. Marshall from 1947 to date, in charge of  entomology, since the transfer of that department from Vernon.  The superintendents of this farm have been well known to orchard-  ists throughout the length of the Okanagan Valley for their kindly  and cooperative assistance, and in a much wider field they have  made their names known for their individual contributions to the  cause  of  science.  From a modest commencement the staff has expanded to 14  engaged in research, technical men 26 and labour 27. The total  acreage of the farm is 681 with 175 under irrigation. There are  extensive greenhouses. The grounds have been landscaped. The  superintendents appointed are as follows:-  R. H. Helmer— 1914 -  1923  W. T. Hunter — 1923 -  1932  Dr. R. C. Palmer — 1932 -  1953  Dr. T. H. Anstey — 1953 - Continuing.  102 \AJe     Will    r^emember    J h  em  For the notices that follow we are indebted to many sources.  We hold these names in grateful remembrance. With the passing  of pioneers, and others who have laboured long in Okanagan  Valley, we all feel a sense of personal loss. Our lives have been  enriched by the fellowship of kindred souls. Perhaps the best tribute we can pay them is to seek to cultivate in our own hearts the virtues  which made them beloved by all who knew them. To them, the  sunset was not merely the close of another day, but the promise  of a brighter tomorrow in a fairer land. We will remember  them. "Long life to the hearts still beating, and peace to the hearts  at rest."  Mrs. Eva K. Nagle of Penticton, age 88, died suddenly in North  Vancouver on December 20, 1956. A native of Poland, Mrs.  Nagle came to Penticton in 1911, with her husband Edmonton  Nagle Nagle, from Fort Resolution, where he was a fur trader.  Mr. Nagle died in 1929, and a son, Sarsfield, died in 1954. Surviving are one son and three daughters. For 18 years Mr. Nagle  operated a fruit orchard in Penticton.  Harold Ernest Fairweather: Funeral services for Mr. Fair-  weather were held in St. Edward's Anglican Church, Oliver. He  died on Tuesday, 15th January, 1957, and was buried in Fairview  cemetery. Born in England in 1881, Mr. Fairweather came to  Canada in 1897, and in 1900 went to the Yukon. Among his  cherished memories was meeting Robert Service there. After  several years at Harrison, New Westminster and Chilliwack, he  moved to Oliver where he built the Oliver hotel. In 1925 he  bought the old government mill on Camp McKinney Road, and  re-erected it in Oliver. For four years it was operated as the  Fairweather Lumber Company, then in 1929 incorporated as the  Oliver Sawmills Limited.  Chief Michele Jack, age 94, died in Penticton hospital on  3rd November, 1956. He was born on Christmas day, 1861. Just  before his birth, W. G. Cox and J. C. Haynes were instructed  by  the  colonial  office  to lay  out  Indian   reserves.    Chief   Michele  103 The Okanagan Historical Society—7957  Jack remembered Father Pandosy, and the building of the log  church which today stands near the home of the present chief of the  Penticton Indian band, Jack Alec.  Chief Michele Jack became chief in 1909, and was succeeded  by Gideon Eneas about forty years later. Interment was in the  Sunday Creek cemetery near the Reserve Church.  Mrs. Mary E. Thynne, wife of the late Jack Thynne, died in  hospital near her childhood home of Pelly, Saskatchewan on 21st  January, 1957. She was one of the last pioneers of Nicola, Tulameen and Similkameen valleys. The daughter of William Link-  later, HBC factor in Fort Garry, she moved with the family to  Fort Pelly when the Bay post was opened there, and lived through  the stirring days of the Louis Riel rebellion.  At the age of sixteen, she married John Granville Thynne, a  Cornishman. They settled on a homestead near Yorkton, Saskatchewan and in 1887 came west to Nicola, and afterwards to Otter  Valley, where they ran a stopping place for many years. Mr.  Thynne was one of those instrumental in having the road built  from Nicola to Princeton. He died in November, 1943, after  which date  Mrs.  Thynne resided in  Penticton.  Mrs. Mary Tupper, age 81, was buried in Vernon, on 4th  February, 1957. Her husband, who died before her, was Edmund  Perry Chapman, a high court judge in the Indian civil service. Her  father was one of those appointed to determine the boundary between Canada and the United States of America. Her grandfather  was Sir Charles Tupper, one of the fathers of Confederation.  Mrs. E. H. Frampton, of Hedley, B.C., died as a result of a  fire which destroyed the house in which she was living on 15th  of January, 1957. She was born between Princeton and Hedley on  11th August, 1888. Her father, John Hatton Bromley, came to  Similkameen from Ontario, and married Mary Kathrine Lorenzetto  of Hope, B.C. Eliza Ann, born of this union, was baptized by  Father Pat. When she was 21 she was married to R. J. Edmonds by  Rev. Thcrburn Conn of the Presbyterian Church. After Mr.  Edmonds died she married Ernest Haymand Frampton (a widower)  on November, 19th, 1949. Mr. Frampton died a few years ago.  After her death, the whole community paused to pay a simple  tribute to the memory of Mrs. Frampton.  104 We Will Remember Them"  Mrs. Edith Fort: Mrs. Fort died on 6th February, 1957, and  funeral services were held from St. John's Anglican Church,  Victoria. She was the widow of Dr. Charles Leyland Fort, a London  physician and surgeon. They came to Canada in 1912, and purchased what is now known as the Palfrey Ranch in the Coldstream.  Later they moved to Penticton, where they resided till 1937 when  Dr. Fort died. Mrs. Fort moved to' Kelowna, and then, in 1947, to  Vernon.  Carl Oscar Matson: Mr. Matson had almost completed four  years as mayor of Penticton when he died on 4th March, 1957, in  his 69th year. Born in Sweden, he came to Canada as a young  man, and worked as farmer and carpenter. He came to Penticton  in 1925, and worked as carpenter and contractor, and later took  an active part in many fields of endeavour. Among his many  interests was the Okanagan Historical Society. He is survived by  Mrs. Matson.  Mrs. J. A. Schubert: A link with Okanagan and Similkameen  pioneer history was broken with the passing of Mrs. Elizabeth  Aramson Schubert in Oliver on 5th March, 1957. She was 85 years  old at the time of her death. Mrs. Schubert was born in Lewisham,  England, and came to Canada early this century, and was governess for the Carew family in Vernon for about two years. In 1902  she was married to James_Aoigusr Schubert of Penticton, where he  ran a store. In 1903 they moved to Hedley, and stayed there till  1914, when they moved to Tulameen to run store and post office  there. Mr. Schubert died in 1938, and Mrs. Schubert continued  the business in Tulameen till 1954, when she went to live with her  daughter, Mrs. Ivan Hunter, in Oliver. Of the six children  born to Mr. and Mrs. Schubert, three are still living.  Mrs. John Ramsay: Funeral services were held on March 4th,  1957, for Mrs. Ramsay, who had lived in Vernon since 1910. Born  11th January, 1882, she came to Canada in 1908, and, after two  years in Winnipeg, to Vernon in 1910. Mr. and Mrs. Ramsay  celebrated their golden wedding anniversary in April, 1954. Mrs.  Ramsay was active in church and community work. She is survived by her husband, one son and one daughter.  Mrs. Byron-Johnson: Mrs. Byron-Johnson was born Emma  Jones on 17th April, 1892, in Regina. As a small child she was  taken  to  the  Blood  Indian  Agency  near  Fort  McLeod,  Alberta,  105 The Okanagan Historical Society—7957  where her father was agricultural instructor to the Indians. The  family moved later to Gleichen, Alberta. Before her marriage  in 1939 to Richard Guy Byron-Johnson, she was a reporter in the  Alberta Legislature. The couple moved to Okanagan in 1936,  and established a home near Fintry, later moving to Okanagan  Landing.  Mrs. Byron took a keen and active interest in the folk lore  and art of the North American Indians. For a time she was acting curator of the Vernon Museum.   She died on 12th August, 1957.  Mrs. Frank Hassard: Funeral services were held in Enderby for  Mrs. Agnes Melissa Hassard, age 86, who died in September, 1957.  Mr. Hassard died in 1951. Mrs. Hassard was a descendant of a  United Empire Loyalist family which immigrated to the Niagara  Peninsula in   1783.  Mr. and Mrs. Hassard were married in Ontario in 1891, and  in 1892 Mrs. Hassard joined her husband on the farm he had  acquired near Enderby. In 1937 they moved to Vernon. They are  survived by fifteen of the eighteen children born to them.  Sherman Haynes: Another link with the past was broken with  the death in San Diego, California, of Sherman Haynes, age 74,  youngest son of Judge and Mrs. J. C. Haynes who came to Osoyoos  in 1862. Sherman Haynes was born in New Westminster, and named  for General W. T. Sherman who in the fall of 1883 passed through  Osoyoos on his way to Victoria. Sherman was educated at Beacon-  sfield College, Plymouth, England, and at Gonzaga University,  Spokane.  As president of the Alaska Gold Company, he resided 73 miles  north of Nome, Alaska. He moved south to Mexicala where he  operated a night club; then a few years later to San Diego where  "Sherman's" and the "Show Boat" grew famous under his catering  and management. He is survived by his widow; two brothers: Val  and Will of Oliver, B.C.; and three sisters: Hester, Mrs. R. B.  White, Penticton; Irene, Mrs. B. Parkinson, Kelowna; and Susan,  Mrs. R. Gardom of Vancouver.  The Osoyoos Times, August 1st, 1957, records the death of  Tom Hulton on 26th July, exactly a week after the passing of Robert Henry Plaskett. Mr. Hulton was born in England and came  to Canada 66 years ago. For the past 23 years he had lived in  Osoyoos where he was engaged in fruit farming.  106 y^Jbituaru  j-rank <Jlassard 1868—1951  FRANK HASSARD was born in Ontario, July 3rd, l!  where his father was the owner of a hotel. His father died in 1871,  leaving his wife and four children. His mother of Irish descent  was born in Canada.  Her family came from Philadelphia.  As a young lad Mr. Hassard worked for the Massey Harris  Company, an experience which stood him in good stead when he  ran his large farm later. He also gained farming experience on the  farm at Brampton—purchased by his mother after the  father died.  In 1888 he came west and bought a small farm some miles  south of the farm he later owned. Later he sold this and returned  east. He married Agnes Ostrander in 1891. In the meantime his  mother and two of her children had come west and bought property  where the  Hassard ranch was later located.  After several years Mr. Hassard purchased the farm and these  520 acres became the home of Mrs. Hassard who came west to join  Mr. Hassard in  1892 with their eldest child Eva.  Mr. Hassard brought west, horses, stock and machinery, including a threshing machine. The start was hardest but through the  years the ranch became a show place. Modern buildings, a large  brick house, and a well managed farm brought many people to look  and to marvel—also to work, as large crews were needed to harvest  the crops in those days—when modern short cuts were unknown.  There was a large family of 7 boys and 11 girls, one of the daughters  dying in infancy.  In 1937 Mr. Hassard sold the farm and moved to Vernon. He  died on January 21st, 1951, and was buried in the family plot  in the Enderby cemetery. A true pioneer of the Okanagan. There  is little fear of the pioneer name dying out as there are 7 grandsons  bearing the Hassard name. — Contributed  107 J he <JDewdneu    J rail  We are pleased to present herewith historic data in connection  with the construction of the Dewdney Trail furnished to us through  the kindness of Mr. Willard E. Ireland, Provincial Librarian and  Achivist, Victoria, B.C., also a map—specially prepared—showing  the route of the Trail. Before addressing Mr. Ireland we made  many contacts with persons, whom we thought would have knowledge about this important trail and were surprised to discover how  few people are in possession of such information: Writing under  date of September 30th, 1957, Mr. Ireland states,—  "Under separate cover I am sending you a portion of a modern map showing marked on it the route of the Dewdney Trail,  which I hope will be satisfactory for your purposes —  "This trail was begun in 1860 by Edgar Dewdney and  Walter Moberly to meet the requirements of a wagon road  to the Kootenay country. It was financed by the Colonial Government under Governor Douglas but only a portion of it was  completed as a wagon road and the remainder to Princeton was  continued as a trail, the alteration being due to a lack of support from the residents at Hope. In 1865 the trail was continued on by Dewdney and completed through to Wild Horse  Creek by September at a cost of $74,000.00. It was named  after the principal contractor, Edgar Dewdney. Generally  speaking, the route does fairly closely follow that used by  Highway 97. As nearly as can be determined the population  of the Province at that time was approximately 6,000."  "Dewdney was a civil engineer born in Devonshire, England,  in 1835. He came to B.C. in 1859 and served in various capacities as a surveyor but held no official government position  until 1869, when he was elected to the B.C. Legislative Council.  In 1872 he was elected to one of the Federal seats for B.C.  In 1879 he was appointed Indian Commissioner and in 1881  Lieutenant-Governor of the Northwest Territories. From  August 1888 to October 1892 he was minister of the Interior in  the Federal Government.  "From 1892 to 1897 he was Lieutenant-Governor of  British Columbia. He died at Victoria August 8,  1916."  108 {-celebration in  188/  This Old-Timers' Celebration which was held at Priest Valley,  now called Vernon, was the outcome of a matched horse race between Alfred Postill, of the Postill Ranch, and Louis Bursie, from  the Reserve at the head of the Lake. The race was to be run at  Priest Valley on the 24th of May. At that time, I was riding for the  Postill Ranch, and helped to train Roney, their race horse. In a  mile race we felt we had a sure winner. On the 24th of May, Alf,  Bill and Ted Postill, Charlie Simms and I, leading our race horse,  Roney, rode into Priest Valley, stopping at the new Victoria Hotel.  Bursie with his race horse, Mountain Chief, had arrived before us,  and also a good following of Indians from the Reserve. Then,  like the gathering of the clans, from the valleys and the hills, the  old-timers came riding in to see the race. There were Bob Lambly,  Frank Young, Tom Clinton, Connie O'Keefe, Alex McDonell,  Pete Basett, the Connells, Christians, Dick Neil, Ned Woods, Goldie,  Leon Lequime, Tom Woods, Captain Shorts, Fred Barnes, Leonard  Norris, Tronson, Price Ellison, Cameron, and many others. They  were milling around the race horses, shaking hands and chatting  and selecting and betting on the outcome of the race. Excitement  ran high as the betting proceeded, and to show my confidence in  Roney I had bet most my winter's wages on him before I realized  it, and hurrying out of the ring I ran into an Indian wanting to  bet his nice little Appalouse stock horse on Mountain Chief, I took  a fancy to Appalouse and tried to swap my saddle horse for him. No  go. But, eyeing my new double rigged Cheyenne saddle, he said,  "Bet horse against saddle." Off came the saddle and slapping it on  Appalouse, we tied him to a tree, "winner take all."  We then rode down the old road to the Landing where Tronson,  Chief Paul and Price Ellison were judges, and Fred Barnes and  Connie O'Keefe had stepped off the mile and were ready to start  the horses. After the usual jockeying before the start, they were  off head and head. At the quarter Mountain Chief led by four  lengths, Bursie "laying on the quirt": Postill lying low on Roney,  making no move. At the half, Bursie in the lead by six lengths,  still whipping: Postill, hand riding Roney now. At the three-quarters,  Bursie in the lead by three lengths; Postill riding hard and gaining.  In  the stretch,  Bursie leading one length,  both  riding hard;   and  109 The Okanagan Historical Society—7957  the Indians closing in from behind and from the sides, shooting in  the air. On they came, both riders, now laying on the quirt, as  over the finishing line they went; Roney in the lead by—half a  length; and swinging up on my horse, I rode back to the hotel  to admire my new Appalouse stock horse. What a thrill! There  were more matched races as the afternoon passed away for side bets,  starting from Price Ellison's corral on the White Valley Road  (now the Coldstream Road) and finishing at the hotel. There was  also a foot race between a fast stepping Indian, called Cultus Jim,  and Charlie Simms, for a side bet of a dollar, against a pair of  beaded gauntlets, which Charlie coveted and won.  After supper we moved the furniture out of the hotel dining  room and Joe Brant, sitting in a chair on a table, tuned his fiddle.  Pete Gooding called, "All join hands and circle to the left." The  dance was on. Then, in the grey dawn of another day, with the  sound of the hoarse voice of the caller and fast dancing feet and  laughter and familiar "Whoopee" of the fast swinging, high-stepping  old-timer still doing his stuff, we swung up on our broncs and with  a farewell "Whoopee" headed over the old Mission Trail for the  Ranch. —Tom Stevenson.  * Apalouse or appalouse; pronounced—apa-lou-se, meaning white  horse, or may refer to a special breed of stock horse, termed appa-  lachians.  110 d*^avington <^tore oUestroued bu    J/ire  Mabel  Johnson  When fire destroyed an old landmark at Lavington on September 24th, 1956, a building steeped in half a century of community living became a heap of ashes and charred ruins.  It was the original White Valley store; the first store between  Lumby and Vernon, a distance of 14 miles; started in 1911 by a  youthful Scotsman, Norman Moncrief, who bought a large hay  barn nearby owned by Allan Gaunt.  Besides being the store and Post Office, the building was also  the centre of social and community life.  Associated with Norman Moncrief in the early days of the  White Valley store and post office were Mr. and Mrs. Richard  Blankley; and it is to the latter, Violet Blankley, that the writer is  indebted for this information.  In 1916, Norman Moncrief, then a major serving overseas in  World War One, was wounded in action, and subsequently died  in a Rouen hospital. His name is engraved on the stone cairn built  at the Lavington Store to honour those of the district who gave  their lives. Present at its unveiling in 1919, was Edward, Duke of  Windsor; then Prince of Wales, later Britain's King.  The mail arrived three times a week when the post office was  first installed at the old store. John Genier and Thomas Christien  were the postmen using a team and democrat. In zero weather they  would bring passengers into the general emporium to get warm by  the fire, and have a "cup of tea" in the good old British tradition  brought to Lavington by the Blankleys.  An annual gathering at the store became traditional at Christmas when all the bachelors for miles around turned out for Christmas dinner and a social evening.  At the store a "mounting block" was erected for the use of  ladies when mounting their saddle horses; and the horses were  ridden "side saddle," with the fair equestriennes attired in riding  habits - again in good old British style.  Ill The Okanagan Historical Society—7957  A club room for a group of young men who organized into  the "White Valley Club" was made from a hayloft in the original  barn, where a dance floor was laid and a piano installed for dances.  Mr. and Mrs, Dick Blankley came to Lavington in 1910. The  store was always a stopping place for travellers, and Mrs. Blankley  now remembers that she has brewed and served literally thousands  of cups of tea for their refreshment.  The old store was known as "halfway house" between Vernon  and Lumby in the early days. Mail carriers used to bring the much-  longed-for "letters from home", as well as the mail order catalogues, known as the "Ranchers Bible".  Mr. Blankley was acting postmaster from 1911 until 1925 when  he took over permanently, retiring in 1952 after more than 25 years  with the mail. He and his wife now live in retirement about a  quarter of a mile from their old home; where daffodils nod in  springtime beneath the budding birches.  At the time of the fire, the building was owned by Mr. Blank-  ley's successor, G. E. Wiley, who had built a new store near the  site of the former building. Two young families lost their all in the  blaze, when loss was estimated at $6,500. No one was in the building at the time of the fire.  As long as Mr. and Mrs. Blankley live, memories will remain  green of those old days which were indeed "good". But when they  pass on, these reminiscences will fade into the dim eras of the past.  112 \^skanacran ^z/rr  W  *rc  Many people in the North Okanagan have looked with wonder  and amazement at the, so-called, "Okanagan Arc" yet few have  recorded the date and circumstance of their observation, and the related facts are soon forgotten. In this issue we record the observations  of three citizens of Vernon and we trust others will contribute still  further data so that our knowledge of the phenomena may be placed  upon a broader basis and a satisfactory explanation emerge.  Mr. P. Nevill-Smith, until recently Building Inspector for the  City of Vernon, recalls seeing the "Okanagan Arc" in the year 1951.  It was in the evening, and the observation was made from the veranda  of a home in the Veterans' sub-division, which lies to the east of the  city. He states he is a little doubtful about this, but he thinks he first  noticed the "Arc" stretching from the east to the western horizon—  not unlike a rainbow, except that it lacked color; it was a balmy  evening in May or June. The "Arc" moved in a southerly direction,  still maintaining its conformation, although diminishing in size until  eventually it faded from view.  Another City employee, Mr. Jim Griffin, saw the "Okanagan  Arc" from his home at Okanagan Landing, and from his description  of it we judge that he was directly below the "Arc" at the time of  his observation. He states, he saw a very bright band of light sweeping  up above him and across the lake to the top of the mountain there.  It was so brilliant that the area was lit up. To him, he said, it had  the appearance of a powerful search light. Many questions with  which we plied Mr. Griffin could not be answered, and as time  flits by the answers become still more obscure. This observation was  made in the fall of 1943.  The writer submits his own observation which was in 1948 and  about 10:30 p.m. It was the fall of the year, when in company with  the late W. C. Pound, I had a view of the bow from end to end.  The east end appeared to rest in the Wellington orchard, above  Okanagan Landing, and the west end of the bow reached an  indeterminate point of the west side of Okanagan lake, but it looked  to be where Six Mile Creek or Whiteman's Creek entered the lake—  or even south of there, certainly not north.  That the bow terminated at or near these points I feel confident  113 The Okanagan Historical Society—-1957  as I could see the back-drop of the mountains as I looked through  the bow, which was thin and vapory, when it had a material  background.  Of course, being a layman in such matters, I could not estimate  the height of the bow, or Arc, above the waters of Okanagan Lake,  but it did span the lake. The span was not unlike the span of a rainbow, I thought it was not arched so high at the centre, but I could  have been mistaken; the colour was an ivory white, and my impression is that here was a combination setting of Moon, mist and  vapour all closely associated with Okanagan Lake. Even the near-by  mountains may have contributed to what we saw that evening—in  part terrestial and in part celestial. If the terminals have been  correctly stated it would indicate a distance between ends of five to  six miles.  This observation was made from a point at the north end of  32nd Street, Vernon. — Guy P. Bagnall  114 NOTICE OF  ANNUAL MEETING  1958  NOTICE is hereby given that the Annual Meeting of the OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  will be held on May 14th, 1958, in the Community  Hall Osoyoos, B.C., at the hour of 2:30 in the afternoon.  BUSINESS  - Presentation  of  Reports  - Election of Officers  - General Business  To be followed by the Society's Annual Dinner,  tickets for which may be obtained from Members of  the Society's Branches, or from any of the Officers —  J. D. Whitham, President, 1725 Pendozi St, Kelowna  Mrs. Vera Bennett, Sec-Treas.,  Box 2278, R.R.   1,  Penticton  Guy  P.   Bagnall,   Treas,    3317   Coldstream   Ave.,  Vernon.  115 <2r4nnual ^Srleeting or *^ocietu  Minutes of the Annual Meeting of The Okanagan Historical  Society, held on board the S.S. Sicamous, Penticton, on Wednesday,  May 15th, 1957.  About 60 members present.  The  President,  M.  J.  D.  Whitham  presiding.  The Call to Meeting read by the Secretary.  The President stated that minutes of the last Annual Meeting  were printed in the 20th Report, and asked if it would be the desire  of the meeting to have the minutes read.  Moved by Mr. Goldie, Okanagan Centre; 2nd. by Capt. Weeks,  Penticton. "That the minutes be adopted." Carried.  REPORTS—  President's Report — Mr. Whitham stated that 1956-57 had  been a very successful year for the Society. Greater interest shown  by the Branches and a considerable increase in membership, a greater  demand for the Report, particularly from schools and Universities,  this interest in the Report being largely due to the excellent work  of the Editorial Committees in securing and compiling material.  On May 2nd Mr. Bagnall journeyed to Revelstoke to take part  in a reception tendered the Prime Minister and presented Mr. St.  Laurant with a copy of the 20th Report.  At this point the President drew; the attention of members to  the increased cost, of printing and publishing of the Report, this  year $2.25 per copy. While an increase in membership fee would  be regrettable, serious consideration must be given to the problem of  financing.  As evidence of increased interest in Historical matters, several  Branches have erected Markers on Historic sites.  The Greenwood Boundary Society have made great progress,  have set their boundary Bridesville to Christina Lake, and are hoping to publish a Report this year.  In conclusion Mr. Whitham thanked the officers and committees  for their work and support.  116 Treasurer's Report — Mr. Bagnall noted that contacting Libraries and Universities re. purchase of Reports had definitely paid  off, and also mentioned increased cost of printing. Financial report  appended.  The Secretary appealed to Branch Secretaries to answer letters etc.  Moved by Mr. Watt, Kelowna, 2nd by Mrs. Marriage, Kelowna  "That these reports be adopted." Carried.  Branch Reports—  Armstrong-Enderby — No written report. Mr. Blackburn stated  that interest and membership had grown.  Kelowna — This Branch also noted increased interest and membership and described as the main accomplishment the reclaiming  and marking of land and buildings of the old Father Pendozi  Mission, giving credit to the Oblate Fathers for assistance. The  Kelowna Branch is also endeavoring to have the names of Old  Timers commemorated in the naming of roads they built.  Oliver-Osoyoos — Efforts of this Branch have been directed  to the erection of a Cairn to mark the site of the first Customs  House. This is nearly ready and wall be unveiled shortly. All  labour has been voluntary and cost of material only $41.50.  Penticton — A project for which this Branch has worked for  many years is about to be realized. A Museum will shortly be  opened in the lower deck of the Sicamous, thanks being due to the  City Council for an allotment of $5000.00 for this purpose and  to the Gyro Club for use of the premises. The placing of more  Historic Markers is also under consideration.  Vernon —i No Report.  Resolutions —  A resolution from the Penticton Branch was read by the Secretary. Moved by Mr. H. Cochrane, 2nd by Mrs. Broderick:  "That the Executive of the Okanagan Historical Society set  a date for the Annual Meeting prior to the publication of the  Report, and that a "Notice of Meeting" be printed and inserted  in each Report. Thus eliminating cost of postage and work  involved in sending out notices."  777 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  Mrs. Bennett spoke to the resolution, explaining that postage  on notices amounted to about $7.00 and four hours work involved in  addressing.  After some discussion it was moved by Mr. Bagnall, Vernon, 2nd  by Mr. Cochrane, Penticton; "That the resolution be adopted. Method etc. be left to the Editorial Committee and directors." Carried.  Election of Officers —  With only one contest, for that of 2nd Vice-President, the  following officers were elected.  Honorary Patrons: His Honor, The Lieut-Governor of B.C.;  His Honor W. A. C. Bennett, Premier of B.C.  Honorary President: O. L. Jones, M.P., Kelowna.  President: Mr. J. D. Whitham, 1725 Pendozi Street, Kelowna.  Vice-Presidents: F. V. Harwood, Vernon; R. Blackburn, Enderby;  Mrs. R.  B.  White,  Penticton.  Secretary: Mrs. Vera Bennett, R.R. 1, Box 2278, Penticton.  Treasurer: Mr. G. P. Bagnall, 3317 Coldstream Ave., Vernon.  Editor: Rev. J. C. Goodfellow, D.D., Princeton.  Assist. Editor: Mr.  R. J. McDougall, Sorrento.  Auditor: Mr. Jenner, Vernon.  Editorial Committee: Mrs. G. P. Bagnall, Vernon; Mrs. I. Crozier, Vernon; Mrs. R. B. White, Penticton; Mrs. D. Allison, Kelowna; Mrs. M. Middleton, Oyama; Mrs. Gellatly, Westbank; Mrs. H. Whitaker, Summerland; Mrs.  E. Lacey, Osoyoos; Mr. H. Corbitt, Kaledon; Dr. Quin,  Kelowna; Mr. F. T. Marriage, Kelowna; Mr. S. Manery,  Cawston; Dr. J. C. Goodfellow, Princeton; Mr. R. J.  McDougall, Sorrento.  Directors: North - Mr. J. G. Simms, Vernon; Mr. Jamison, Armstrong-Enderby. Central - Mrs. D. Gellatly, Westbank.  South - Mr. H. Cochrane, Penticton.  Directors at large: Mr. H. Corbitt, Kaledon; Mr. A. K. Lloyd,  Kelowna;  Mr. R. J. McDougall, Sorrento.  Business from the floor —  Mr. Watt of Kelowna; That if possible, Reports be in the  hands of Branches well before Christmas.  Mr. Bagnall, Vernon; That contributors have articles in by end  of June.  775- Mrs. Allison, Kelowna; That at meeting of Editorial Committee and Directors held on March 29th. It was suggested that Dr.  Goodfellow issue directive to Chairmen of Editorial Committees as to  how many pages and type of Historical articles to be submitted for  Centennial No.  Mr. Watt, Kelowna; That information on early days be obtained from Old Timers immediately and that this information and  old records be collected and placed in safekeeping.  The President suggested that Chairman of Editorial Committees gather all information and file same.  Proposed by Mrs. Bagnall, Vernon: "That the Okanagan Historical Society set up a Bursary from which to offer a prize of  $10.00 in each school district within  the  Okanagan,   for the  best essay in competition, on the subject "The principal lessons  to be learned from 100 years of Okanagan History."  Mrs. Bagnall stated that she is willing to offer $10.00 for the  Vernon  school  district.    Mr.   Blackburn  of  Enderby  thought  that  this  idea  would   increase   interest   in   local   History   among   young  people and that it should  become an  Okanagan  Historical  Society  project. :  The President proposed that area Histories be collected and a  trophy given by the Parent body for the best from local winners.  This in addition to the $10.00 to be given by each Branch.  Speaking in favor of the idea were, Mr. Harris, Penticton, and  Mrs. Lacey, Osoyoos.  After some discussion it was moved by Mr. Harwood, Vernon,  2nd by Mr. Lacey, Osoyoos: "That Branches offer Bursary  of $10.00 for each school district for best essay, subject "The  principal lessons to be learned from 100 years of Okanagan  History." The parent body to give trophy for the best essay  selected from local winners." Carried.  Printing of 21st Report; This to be left to Editorial Committee and Directors.  Annual Meeting 1958 —  Moved by Mr. Watt, Kelowna, 2nd by Dr. Quinn, Kelowna,  "That the  Annual  Meeting   for   1958   be  held  in   Osoyoos-  Oliver.   If this cannot be arranged, meeting to be held in Kelowna." Carried.  119 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  Vote of thanks to Newspapers and Radio stations; moved by  Mr. Bagnall, 2nd by Mr. Watt. Carried.  Mr. Watt moved vote of thanks to Mrs. Bennett. Dr. Quin  moved vote of thanks to Mr. Bagnall. Mr. Blackburn moved vote  of thanks to the President.  Adjournment moved by Mr. Pauley at 4:50 p.m.  Dinner for members and friends was held on the S.S. Sicamous  at 6 p.m. After the singing of "O Canada" Grace was said by Rev.  Irwin of Enderby. Following the dinner, the President introduced  distinguished   guests.  The Mayor, Charles Oliver, welcomed the guests and mentioned that the City Council of Penticton, thought so much of the  preservation of History, that they had voted the sum of $5000.00  to establish a Museum.  Mr. O. L. Jones, M.P. stated that we who live now provide  future History, and should live and work that future generations  can look back with admiration.  Mrs. Bergstrome, Mrs. Boothe of Summerland, accompanied  by Mrs. Fudge sang several songs of the Gay 90's.  The speaker of the evening, Right Reverend A. H. Sovereign,  M.A., D.D., F.R.G.S., retired Bishop of Athabasca, was introduced  by Mr. Bagnall. Bishop Sovereign gave a most interesting and informative address, describing the 300 years of History which pre-  ceeded the 100 years we will soon celebrate. The speaker was  thanked by Mr. Harris, President of the Penticton Branch.  Mr. Harwood of Vernon thanked the Penticton Branch for  a most enjoyable evening.  Proceedings closed with the singing of "The Queen."  — Vera  E. Bennett, Secretary.  ^WV*AAArt/WVWWS^V>A/*  '■-V'..(             .     .i   i"  : \   n f  120 ^yVlembership <=L^ist  y^Jtictnagan <J~listorical P^ocietu  PATRONS  R. W. Seath, 1934 McDougall Ave., Kelwona, B.C.  George R. Stuart, Fintry, B.C.  Miss Muriel Campbell, 437 St. Paul St., Kamloops, B.C.  HONORARY LIFE MEMBER  Dr. Margaret Ormsby, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.  MEMBERS  Adam, E. L., 578 Rose Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Albrecht, Edgar, Osoyoos, B.C.  Allison, Mrs. R.? 301 West Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Alexander, S., R.R. 4, Kelowna, B.C.  Almond, H., 477 Royal Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Andrew, W. J., 2866 Bellevue Ave., West Vancouver, B.C.  Andrew, Dr. F. W., Box 11, Summerland, B.C.  Andrews, George, 769 E 25th, Vancouver, B.C.  Arnold, G., R.R. 1, Winfield, B.C.  Ashton, Mr. and Mrs., Enderby, B.C.  Atkinson, Miss S., Box 531, Revelstoke, B.C.  * Bagnall, Geo. C, 10,951 S. Hermosa Ave., Chicago 43, Illinios  * Bagnall, Guy P., 3317 Coldstream Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Bailey, H. L., Box 37, East Kelowna, B.C.  Baird, Mr. and Mrs. R., Enderby, B.C.  Bartholomew,  H.  D.,  2304  39th  Ave,  Vernon,  B.C.  Bates, Mrs. P. W., Osoyoos, B.C.  Bearcroft, E. S., Penticton, B.C.  Bell, N. F., 736 Elliott Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Belli-Bivar, Mrs. Ethel, Box 45, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Benmore, C. C, 2059 Pendozi St., Kelowna, B.C.  Bennett, Mrs. V., Box 2278, R.R. 1, Penticton, B.C.  Bennett, R. C. G., Oakville, Ont.  Bergren, Mrs. M. Box 260, Lake  Cowichan,  B.C.  Berkeley,  Mr.,  Rock  Creek,  B.C.  Berner, Mrs. A., 2500 26th St., Vernon, B.C.  Beurich,  W.,  Osoyoos,  B.C.  Beveridge, G. K., 2006, 30th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Bingley, Mrs., Coldstream Ranch,  Vernon, B.C.  Blackburn, Mr. and Mrs. R., Enderby, B.C.  Blumenauer, A. H., Armstrong, B.C.  Borthwick, Mrs. Freda, Chinook Cove, B.C.  *Boss, M. T., 455E, 17th Ave., Vancouver, B.C.  Bovey, Mr., The Gravel Pit, Vernon, B.C.  * Bowsher, A. P., R.R. 3, Calgary, Alta.  Bubar, Mr. and Mrs. C, Mara, B.C.  Brown, Judge Wm. C, Okanogan, Wash., U.S.A.  Brown, A. M., 3402 17th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Buckland, C. D., R.R. 2, Kelowna, B.C.  Buckland, D. S., Okanagan Mission, B.C.  Bull,  Frank,   Penticton,   B.C.  Burtch,  Mrs.  Henry, Box 9,  R.R.  2,  Kelowna,  B.C.  121 The Okanagan Historical Society—7957  Caley, Hugh, R.R. 4, Kelowna, B.C.  Cameron, Mrs. A., 449 St. Paul St., Kamloops, B.C.  Cameron, G. D., Box 86, Kelowna, B.C.  Cameron, J. D., Brunswick St., Penticton, B.C.  Campbell, Mrs. D., 3204 33rd Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Campbell, Mrs. Ida K., 3306 25th St., Vernon, B.C.  * Campbell, Miss Muriel E., 437 St. Paul St., Kamloops, B.C.  Campbell, R. G., 1697 59th Ave. W., Vancouver 14, B.C.  Carlson, Mrs. Phillis, R.R.,  Oliver, B.C.  Carney, T. J., R.R.  1, Kelowna, B.C.  Carpenter, Ron,  1901 32nd Ave., Vernon,  B.C.  Carruthers, E. M., 364 Bernard Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  * Casorso, Anthony, R.R. 4, Kelowna, B.C.  Cawston, Mrs. V., Miller Bay Hospital, Prince Rupert, B.C.  * Chambers,   E.   J.   Penticton,   B.C.  Christensen, S. Parker, 2700 30th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Christie, Mrs. J. R., Okanagan Falls, B.C.  Clark,  Mrs.  C.  Falkland,  B.C.  Clarke, Dr. D. A., 1935 McDougall Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Clement, C. R.R.  2,  Kelowna, B.C.  Clement, Mrs. C. T., 2276 Speer St., Kelowna, B.C.  Clement,  Les,  Winfield,  B.C.  * Clement, L. Percy,  1322 Walnut St., Victoria, B.C.  Coates,  Mrs.  P.,  R.R.,  Osoyoos,  B.C.  * Cochrane,  M.H.,  836  Main  St.,  Penticton,  B.C.  Collett,   H.C.S.,   Okanagan   Mission,   B.C.  Cooper,   W.,  Penticton,   B.C.  Corbitt, H. W., Kaleden, B.C.  Corbishley,  D.,  Oliver,  B.C.  Cowan, H. F., Enderby, B.C.  Creveling,  Mrs.  Freda,  Box  113,  Methow,  Wash.,  USA.  Crozier, Mrs. Ivan, 1801 32nd St., Vernon, B.C.  Crozier, Mrs.  R.,  Armstrong,  B.C.  Davidson, Alan H, Box 131, Westbank, B.C.  Dawe,  A.,  Okanagan  Mission,  B.C.  Day, Mrs. M.,  1836 Pendozi St., Kelowna, B.C.  Deering, A.J., R.R. 1, Armstrong, B.C.  De  Pfyffer,  Robert,  Revelstoke,   B.C.  De Lorme, Albert, 3505 Barnard Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Denison, Eric N., 3001 28th St., Vernon, B.C.  Dewdney, Edgar, 428 Balfour St., Penticton, B.C.  Dewdney, Mrs. W. R., 273 Scott Ave., Penticton, B.C.  Dicks,  J.,  Armstrong,  B.C.  Dickson, Mrs.  G. H., Box 473, Dunville,  Ont.  * Ditmars, W. C, 7535 S.W. Marine Dr. Vancouver, B.C.  Dixon,   Earl,   Armstrong,   B.C.  Dumont,   Paul,   Osoyoos,   B.C.  Duncan, James, R.R. 3, Kelowna, B.C.  Duncan,   R.,   R.R.,   Penticton,   B.C.  Duncan, R., Enderby,  B.C.  DunWaters, Mrs. J. C, Okanagan Mission, B.C.  Easton, Mrs. S. J., R.R. 2, 725 Piedmont Dr., Royal Oak, V.I., B.C.  Eastern Washington College of Education (Hargreaves Library)  Cheney, Wash., USA.  Edy, L.E., 730 Rose Ave.,  Kelowna,  B.C.  Ellis, Miss Kathleen, 268 Cambie St., Penticton, B.C.  Emanuele, Dr. H., 298 Argyle St., Penticton, B.C.  Erickson, Miss F. M., 1156 Clements St., North Vancouver, B.C.  Estabrooks, R. H.. 282 Eckhardt Ave., Penticton, B.C.  Estabrooks, O. L., 352 Main St., Penticton, B.C.  Evans,  Miss.  Penticton,  B.C.  Evans,  H.  H.,  3811  Barnard  Ave.,  Vernon,   B.C.  122 Fabian,   Hugh,   Cloverdale,   B.C.  Farmer, J. P., Enderby, B.C.  Fenten, Miss Annie, Enderby, B.C.  Fisher, Mrs. D. V., West Summerland, B.C.  Fitzgerald, Mrs. G. D., R.R. 3, Kelowna, B.C.  Fitzmaurice, R.,  Kalamalka  Lake,  Vernon,  B.C.  Fleming, S., 2001 32nd Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Flitton Ralf, 403  Conklin St., Penticton,  B.C.  Found, Dr. N. P., 1806 Abbott St., Kelowna, B.C.  Deschamps,   Fred,   Kalamalka   Hotel,   Vernon,   B.C.  Franz, Mrs. Lee, Riverside, Washington, USA.  * Fraser, Major H., Okanagan Falls, B.C.  Fraser, R. A., 722 Lawson Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Freeman, R. M., 592 Guernsey St., Penticton, B.C.  * Garner, Mrs. R. J., 301 Burnside Rd., Victoria, B.C.  Garvin, Mrs. Ian, 2702 16th St., Vernon, B.C.  * Genn, Anthony, Glenshiel Hotel, 606 Douglas St., Victoria, B.C.  Gervers, J., R.R.  2,  Kelowna,  B.C.  Gibson,  T.  M.,  R.R. 2, Vernon,  B.C.  Gillis, Miss V. L, R.R. 1, Falkland, B.C.  Godwin, Fred, 380 Wade St., Penticton, B.C.  Goldie,  James,   Okanagan  Centre,  B.C.  Goldsbury, Mrs. M., 120 Vernon St., Nelson, B.C.  Gordon, R. J., 258 Riverside Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Gorman, Harry, c|o C.J.I.B., Vernon, B.C.  Goodfellow, Rev. J.C.,  DD, Box  187,  Princeton,  B.C.  Graf,  Walter,   Osoyoos,  B.C.  Graham, Glen C, Osoyoos, B.C.  Grant, James, Box 744, Vernon, B.C.  Greenside, E. L., 1758 Ellis St., Kelowna, B.C.  Gregory, Mrs. C, R.R., Armstrong, B.C.  Greyell, Cliff, 226 Windsor Ave., Penticton, B.C.  Griffiths, H. T., 540 Burrard St., Vancouver, B.C.  Groves, Mrs. Myra, cfo CJIB, Vernon, B.C.  Guichon, L. P., Quilchena, B.C.  Hadow,   R.,   Enderby,   B.C.  Haines, Chas., R.R. 2, Vernon, B.C.  Hales, F. C, 1069 Harvey Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Hall, Robt.  O.,  Oliver, B.C.  Halushka, Miss E.,  Oliver, B.C.  Hamilton, Wm. D., R.R.  4,  Vernon, B.C.  Hamilton-Watts, Mrs. C, 2600 25th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Harris, Frank, Vernon News, Vernon,  B.C.  Harris,  J.  G.,  R.R.  Penticton,  B.C.  Harrison-Smith, H. S., 434 Bernard Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Hartman, John, Box 142, R.R. 3, Kelowna, B.C.  Harwood, Fred V., 3102 41st Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Hassen,  Matt,  Armstrong,  B.C.  Haug, Roy,  1746 Water St.,  Kelowna,  B.C.  * Hewer, E. E.,  Chase,  B.C.  Higgin,  Noel,   Summerland,  B.C.  Hill,  J.,  Enderby,  B.C.  Hayes,   Newman,   Armstrong,   B.C.  Hayhurst,  Cliff,  R.R.,  Armstrong,   B.C.  Hayward, Frank, 1460 W. 49th Ave., Vancouver, B.C.  Hendrickson,  Mrs. H.,  Enderby, B.C.  Heighway, Jack, (d), West End Apts., Vernon, B.C.  Hayward, W.,  Oyama,  B.C.  Herbert, G. D., 1684 Ethel St., Kelowna, B.C.  Hesketh,  Mrs.   Freda,   Osoyoos,   B.C.  Hewlett, E. E., East Kelowna, B.C.  123 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  Hooper, J. L., Penticton, B.C.  Hopkins, Mrs. J. L., Armstrong, B.C.  Howe, James, Box 452, Williams Lake, B.C.  Howlett, A. W., 2404 25th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Howrie, David, 2507 37th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Hoy, Ben,  1902 Pendozi St., Kelowna,  B.C.  Hunter, Floyd, Wilson Ave., Armstrong, B.C.  Inkster, Dr. W. H., 39th Ave. E., Vernon, B.C.  Innis,  Mrs.  D.   J.,  Keremeos,   B.C.  Iversen, Mrs. A., Box 431, Oliver, B.C.  Jackson, O., Box 64A R.R. 3, Kelowna, B.C.  Jacques, George, 3122 Barnard Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Jameson, W. H., Box 220, Penticton, B.C.  Jamieson, Mrs. J. E., Armstrong, B.C.  Johnson, Mr. and Mrs. N. S., Enderby, B.C.  Johnson, Mrs. J. A., R.R. 1, Kelowna, B.C.  Jones, Miss Phyllis, Oliver, B.C.  Kabella,  S.  Okanagan  Mission,  B.C.  Keating, H. K., Box 150, Peachland, B.C.  Kelley,  C.  C,  Court House,  Kelowna,  B.C.  Kerry, L. L., 2188 Abbott St. Kelowna, B.C.  Kidston, Mrs. Jean W., 3900 P.V. Road, Vernon, B.C.  Kidston, J. R., 3900 P.V. Road, Vernon, B.C.  * Kneller,  Jabez,  R.R.  4,  Vernon,  B.C.  Knight, Graham, Penticton, B.C.  Knowles, Mrs. J. B., 879 Manhattan Drive, Kelowna, B.C.  Knox, Dr. W. J., 1855 Pendozi St., Kelowna, B.C.  Lacey, Mrs. E. J., Box 144, Osoyoos, B.C.  Ladner, Leon J., Vancouver, B.C.  Laidlaw, Mrs. A., 1008 London St., New Westminster, B.C.  Lamont, Mrs.  Owen,  Okanagan  Mission,  B.C.  Lefroy,  C.B.,  3306  25th  St.,   Vernon,   B.C.  Lincoln, M. A., 3500 32nd St., Vernon, B.C.  Lindsay, Mrs. B., Osoyoos, B.C.  Lindsay, Mrs. J., Rock Creek, B.C.  Lloyd, Jones A., 1449 Ethel St., Kelowna, B.C.  Logie,   G.   E.,  West  Summerland,  B.C.  Lowle, F. F. W., Skaha Lake, Penticton, B.C.  Lundy, Mrs. J. C, 878 Bernard Ave.,  Kelowna,  B.C.  McAstocker,  Miss   M.,   Penticton,  B.C.  McBride, D.A., R.R. 4, Vernon, B.C.  McCallum, J. B., 1603, 39th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  * McClelland,  J.  421  Haynes  Ave.,   Kelowna,   B.C.  McCuddy,  A.   Oliver,   B.C.  McCulloch, Mrs. Vera, 1500, 39th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  McCulloch, Capt. A. W., 1939 Abbott St., Kelowna, B.C.  McDonald, Mrs. G. A., 1274 Fairview Rd., Penticton, B.C.  McDonald, F.  O.,  Oliver,  B.C.  McDougald, J. M., Box 267, Summerland, B.C.  McDougald, Miss C, Peachland, B.C.  McDougall, Mrs.. D.,  1094 Lawson Ave.,  Kelowna,  B.C.  McDougall,  R.  J.,  Sorrento,  B.C.  McGibbon,   Alec,  R.R.   1,   Oliver,   B.C.  McGuire, M. V., R.R. 2, Vernon, B.C.  McKechnie,  K.  B.,  R.R.,   Armstron,   B.C.  McKenzie, Mrs. N. R., Apt. 3, 455 Harvey Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  McLeod, Wm.,  Osoyoos, B.C.  McLounie, Mrs. Colin, R.R. 2, Vernon, B.C.  McMahan, Mr. and Mrs. G. E., Enderby, B.C.  McNaughton,   F.   C,   Oliver,   B.C.  * Macfarlane, Hon. Mr. Justice, Supreme Court, Victoria, B.C.  124 Macorquodale, Mrs. D. F., 84 Beverley Ave., Montreal, Que.  Mall, Mrs. H. H., Chapman's Camp, B.C.  Manery, Sam R., Cawston, B.C.  Marriage, F. T., 424 Park Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Marshall,   Mrs.   A.,   Armstrong,   B.C.  Masey, G. E., Dept. of Highways, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Matheson, A. S., 516 Harvey Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Melvin, George H, 3400, 21st Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Middleton, Mrs. M., Jadebay, Oyama, B.C.  Middleton, Mrs. Douglas, Okanagan Centre, B.C.  Midgley, T. N., R.R., Penticton, B.C.  Miller, Mrs. Daisy Box 2, R.R. 1, Oliver, B.C.  Mitchell, Dr. Ross, 524 Croydon Ave., Winnipeg, Man.  * Mitchell, Mrs.  J. H., R.R.,  Oliver  Monk, J. S., 3508, 30th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Morgan, Granville, R.R., Summerland, B.C.  Morrison, G. F., 644 Kingsway, Winnipeg, Man.  Moss, A., 2500 Abbott St., Kelowna, B.C.  Moyer, E. L. Dr., 3302, 19th St., Vernon, B.C.  Mugford, E., Box 161, Rutland, B.C.  Munro, Mrs. K. K., Box 129, Kelowna, B.C.  Murray, F. J.,  Salmon  Arm, B.C.  Murray, Miss P., Armstrong, B.C.  Munro, Finlay, 1701 Fairford Ave., Penticton, B.C.  Murrell, Mrs. W. J., Box 20, East Kelowna, B.C.  Naylor, Harry Sr., R.R. 1, Deep Creek, B.C.  Neil, W. Russell, R.R. 2, Vernon, B.C.  Nelson, Miss E.P., Keremeos, B.C.  Netherton, Dr. W. J., Winnipeg St., Penticton, B.C.  Norman, E. A.,  Armstrong,  B.C.  Nuttall, Mrs. W., Naramata,  B.C.  Oliver, W. J., 3112, 21st Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Ormsby,  George,  R.R.  2,  Vernon,  B.C.  Osborne, John, 2270 Ottawa St., West Vancouver, B.C.  Parsons. Michael, Box 372, Vernon, B.C.  Patchett, Mrs. A. L., Quesnel, B.C.  Patten, Mrs. C. J., Armstrong, B.C.  Patten, Mrs. J. C, Enderby, B.C.  Patterson, Mrs. A. L., Ste. 15, 1489 St Paul St., Kelowna, B.C.  Patterson, Miss L. M., 453 Harvey St., Kelowna, B.C.  Peel, Mr. and Mrs. E. N., Enderby, B.C.  Peter, Mrs. S., Summerland, B.C.  * Peterman, A. N., Box 193, Oliver, B.C.  Philpott,  G.,  1211 Ethel St.,  Kelowna, B.C.  Piddocks, Mrs. J. L., Box 88 R.R. 1, Kelowna, B.C.  Pideborozny, Mr. and Mrs., Enderby, B.C.  Pooley, N., East Kelowna, B.C.  Porter,  Mrs. George, East Kelowna,  B.C.  * Pound, Rev. Allan C, M.Th., Horseshoe Bay, B.C.  Powley, W. R., R.R. 1, Winfield, B.C.  Price, Mrs. Stan, R.R. Armstrong, B.C.  Pringle, R. J., Enderby, B.C.  Quesnel, Earl, 2905, 24th St., Vernon, B.C.  * Quinn, Dr. F. H., 1975 McDougall Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Reed, H., 2401, 25th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Reekie, Miss Jennetta, 429 Park Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  * Reid, Miss E., 614 Martin St., Penticton,  B.C.  Rennie, W. H., 533A Bernard Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Renwick, H. A., 708, 1445 Marpole Ave., Vancouver, B.C.  Renwick, Miss M., 987 Glen Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  125 The Okanagan Historical Society—A957  Ritchie,  Miss,  West   Summerland,   B.C.  Roadhouse, W. T. L., 2042 Doryan Place, Kelowna, B.C.  Rolston, W. J., 3100, 34th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Rorke, H. O., Penticton, B.C.  Roseman, Miss Hazel, Enderbey, B.C.  Ross, Dr. D. A., 1703, 37th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Ross, D. EL, 2000, 32nd St., Vernon, B.C.  Saudner, R., Osoyoos, B.C.  Saudner, R., Osoyoos, B.C.  School District 23, 599 Harvey Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  * Seath, R. W., 1934 McDougall Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Seeley, Mrs. H., Harwood Ave., Vancouver, B.C.  Shannon, Mrs. R., Oliver, B.C.  Shaw, Mrs. J. D., Box 2290, R.R. 1, Penticton, B.C.  Shuttleworth, Mrs. B., Osoyoos, B.C.  Simmons, Mrs. D., R.R., Oliver, B.C.  Simpson, N. V., 1449 Manitoba St., Penticton, B.C.  Simpson, H. B., 176 Vimy Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Simpson, Mrs. R. M., 808 Glenn Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Simpson, Mrs. S. M., 2120 Abbott St., Kelowna, B.C.  Skipper, R. V., Box 34, Dewdney, B.C.  Smith, Mrs. Aird, 3101, 39th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Smith,  George, Armstrong, B.C.  Smith, J. A., Court House, Kelowna, B.C.  * Smith, W. J., Armstrong, B.C.  Sondner, F. M., Grand Forks, B.C.  Solly, I. H., West Summerland, B.C.  South, Mrs. G., Penticton, B.C.  Sovereign, Rt. Rev. Bishop A., P.V. Road, Vernon, B.C.  Speechly, M. K., R.R. 2, Vernon, B.C.  Stadola,   S.,   Osoyoos,   B.C.  Stephen, Mrs. W. G., 120, 20th St., West Vancouver, B.C.  Stewart, C. E., Box 666, Kelowna, B.C.  Stickland, Mr. and Mrs. Ed., Enderby, B.C.  Stuart, G. R., Fintry Ranch, Ewing's Landing, B.C.  * Sunderland, Mrs. E. J., R.R. 2, Vernon, B.C.  Tassie, G. C, R.R. 2, Vernon, B.C.  Taylor, J.D., 387 Bernard Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Teasdale, J., Okanagan Falls, B.C.  Teece, Mr. and Mrs. H. A., Enderby, B.C.  Thomas, E., Okanagan Falls, B.C.  Thomas, Mrs. John M.,  Okanagan Falls, B.C.  Thompson, Mrs. A. B., 446 Park Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Thornlee, Jr., F., East Kelowna, B.C.  Tilling, Miss Rose M., 369 Bernard Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Timberlake, Mrs. F., Armstrong, B.C.  Torrent, Henry, R.R. 2, Vernon, B.C.  Truswell, H. A., Box 272, Kelowna, B.C.  Tull, Mrs. Alleyne, Box 158, Lumby, B.C.  Turner, Miss Barbara, General Hospital, Vancouver, B.C.  Turner, R. G., Box 1305, Rossland, B.C.  Turner, R. M. H., c|o H. Rennie, R.R. 1, Summerland, B.C.  Unwin-Simson, Col. D. C, 835 Bernard Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Upton, Mrs. T. B., Box 10, Okanagan Mission, B.C.  Vanderberg, Mrs., West Summerland, B.C.  Viel, L. A., R.R. 4, Vernon, B.C.  Vincent,  Mrs. Pearl,  Chesaw, Wash,  USA.  Walburn, H. G., R.R. 3, Kelowna, B.C.  Wallace, Mrs. Barbara, Davis Riding Stables R.R. 4, Kelowna, B.C.  Walker, Mrs. D. M., Okanagan Mission, B.C.  126 Ward, A., R.R. 3, Kelowna, B.C.  Warn, S. H, 2400, 23rd Ave., Vernon, B.C.  Warren,  Mrs. G.  M., Penticton, B.C.  Watt, H. J., Enderby, B.C.  Watt, Geo. M., Okanagan Mission, B.C.  * Weatherill, H. P., Royal Bank, Vancouver, B.C.  Weatherly, G. S., Box 467, Revelstoke, B.C.  Weddell, A. D., 274 Lake Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Weddell, R., Osoyoos, B.C.  Weddell, E. C, 1659 Pendozi St., Kelowna, B.C.  Weddell, Mrs. Mary, Box 120 Rutland, B.C.  Weeks, E., Box 393, Kelowna, B.C.  * Weeks, G. A., Box 637, Revelstoke, B.C.  * Weeks, J. B., 614 Martin St., Penticton, B.C.  * Weeks, L. J., 3211 Kitchener St., Vancouver, B.C.  * Weeks, T. V, 235A 16th Ave., Calgary, Alta.  Whipple,  D.,  Osoyoos,  B.C.  Whitaker, Mr. and Mrs. H., West Summerland, B.C.  * Whitaker, Mrs. H. H., Penticton, B.C.  White, Dr. Bill, 417 Winnipeg St., Penticton,  B.C.  * White, Ronald, 107 Battle St., Kamloops, B.C.  White, Mrs. John, cjo Lindsay & Kidston, Vernon, B.C.  White, Mrs. H. E., Skaha Lake, Penticton, B.C.  Whitehead, W. J., 439 Osprey Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Whitehead, Wm., 970 Lawson Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Whitehead, Mrs. Fay, 970 Lawson Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  * Whitham, J. D., 1725 Pendozi St., Kelowna, B.C.  * Whitehouse, Mrs. T., cjo Mrs. Jorgenson, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Whitham, J. Gordon,  1725 Pendozi St., Kelowna, B.C.  Williston, Hon. Ray, Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C.  * Willis, Mrs. Mary, 3837 Cartier St., Vancouver, B.C.  Willits, Mrs. P. B., Pendozi Manor, 1716 Pendozi St., Kelowna, B.C.  Wills, Mrs. Loyda, Lumby, B.C.  * Wilson, Jack, Tappen, B.C.  Wilson, J. H., Armstrong, B.C.  Wilson, J. L., 413 Patterson Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Wilson, Dr. Wallace, 1386 Nicola St., Vancouver, B.C.  Winkles, Mrs. W. H., Armstrong, B.C.  Wood, E. O., 268 Bernard Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  Wood, H. S., Enderby, B.C.  Wright, C. C, Armstrong, B.C.  Young, Mrs. B. F., Armstrong, B.C.  Zoellner, Mrs. W. J., Box 55, Grand Forks, B.C.  UNIVERSITIES, SCHOOLS MUNICIPALITIES AND OTHER PUBLIC  BODIES — ALSO COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS  McGill University Library, Montreal, Que.  University of British Columbia Library, Vancouver, B.C.  University of Toronto Library, Toronto,  Ont.  Gonzaga University Library, Spokane, Washington, USA.  State College of Washington Public Library, Technical Service Div«  sion, Pullman, Washington 25, USA.  Indiana University Library, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.  Vancouver College, W39th Ave. & Cartier St., Vancouver, B.C.  * Historical Society of Montana, Helena, Montana, USA.  The State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 816 State St., Madison,  Wisconsin, USA.  Library of Congress, Order Division, Washington 25, D.C., USA.  Library of Parliament, Parliamentary Librarian, Ottawa, Ont.  Seattle Public Library, Seattle, Wash., USA.  City of Tacoma Public Library, Tacoma, Wash., USA.  127 The Okanagan Historical Society—1957  Provincial Archives,  Victoria,  B.C.  Vancouver City Archives, City Hall, Vancouver, B.C.  Okanagan Regional Library, Queensway, Kelowna, B.C.  Vancouver Library Board, Vancouver, B.C.  Vancouver City Museum, Vancouver, B.C.  Spokane Public Library, South 10 Cedar, Spokane 4, Wash, USA.  Victoria Public Library, Victoria, B.C.  Provincial  Museum,   Victoria,   B.C.  Public Library, 425 Brunswick St., Prince George, B.C.  Calgary Public Library, Calgary, Alto.  Public Library Commission, Victoria, B.C.  Provincial Library, Victoria, B.C.  * Kamloops Museum Association, Box 337, Kamloops, B.C.  Fraser Valley Regional Library, Abbotsford, B.C.  Toronto Public Libraries, 214 College St., Toronto 2, Ont.  British Columbia Historical Society, Mrs. A. D. Turnbull, 300 Kootenay  Ave., Trail, B.C.  Glenbow Foundation, Calgary, Alta.  B.C. Directories Ltd., 2733 West Broadway, Vancouver, B.C.  St. George's School, 3954 West 29th Ave., Vancouver, B.C.  Southern Similkameen P.T.A., Keremeos, B.C.  Laurel Co-operative Union, 1304 Ellis St., Kelowna, B.C.  Hudson's Bay Company, Editor, The Beaver, Hudson's Bay House,  Winnipeg, Man.  City of Armstrong, Armstrong, B.C.  Municipality of  Spallumcheen,  Armstrong,  B.C.  New York Public Library, Acquisition Branch, 5th Ave. & 42nd St.,  New York, N.Y., USA.  The Vernon Club, Vernon, B.C.  C.K.O.V. Radio Station, 1490 Pendozi St., Kelowna, B.C.  C.J.I.B.  Radio  Station,   Vernon,   B.C.  C.K.O.K. Radio Station, Penticton, B.C.  The Penticton Herald, Penticton, B.C.  Kelowna Courier, 1580 Water St., Kelowna, B.C.  The Book Nook, Penticton, B.C.  Melville, Jack K., Home Oil Distributors, 555 Burrard St., Vancouver.  School District 16, Secretary, Keremeos, B.C.  School District 15, Queen's Park Elementary School, Penticton, B.C.  School District 15, Carmi Ave. School, Penticton, B.C.  School District 15, Jermyn Ave. Elementary School, Penticton, B.C.  School District 23, 599 Harvey Ave., Kelowna, B.C.  School District 23, Kelowna Junior High 1766 Richter St., Kelowna.  Copper Mountain Elementary School, Copper Mountain, B.C.  School District  14,  Secretary,  Oliver,  B.C.  West Summerland High School, S.D. 77, West Summerland, B.C.  School District 78, Secretary, Enderby, B.C.  School District 22, Secretary, Vernon, B.C.  Lumby Elementary School, S.D. 22, Principal, Lumby, B.C.  Vernon Junior High School Library, S.D. 22, McDonald Park, Vernon  R. A. & Lillian Davies, 4559 Harwood Ave., Montreal, Que.  The Newbury Library, Chicago 10, 111., USA.  Public Library Commission, Branch Librarian, Prince George, B.C.  Charles Bloom Junior-High School, S.D. 22, Lumby, B.C.  * Armstrong Junior-Senior School, S.D. 21, Armstrong, B.C.  The G. Rose Collection, cjo Okanagan Investments Ltd., Kelowna, B.C.  N. B. — * indicates prepaid membership.  »•\•WN«'W^^y\^-/^^^».^^^^**V^l/^/,  128  r<V,  RONQ  \  SfiR_1     "    y~      %  »•"  T"-A ■  X  *;  t           --*•  r_" h  Sf-|\  /-¥  .  1 t^  _-?j-X'C  '\'  *:•-»  ---V,*-  rs:o  ,- —^fcatt-^i.-r'  rr «^  TSKT i«v_ v'r-  .%  -£fs ■?■■  Ai  Xrm  fch i*m%&  ^J*^  '&**"  _. • "*^s  \ J.  m  m-  ,->  #  _#  V\>"  <V\  r/m  PEWD/VEY,  * C Z-M j__S__  /^-; ■w   .  '»   i  m  3&P-  a_t/  //V  tf>   1  V  ,#>  a  p  #V  "... rHE vernon aSfSSSc- news ltd.


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