Okanagan Historical Society Reports

The sixthteenth report of the Okanagan Historical Society 1952 Okanagan Historical Society 1952

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 7%g Sixteenth ^efcont*  of the  /9S2  Founded September 4, 1925 'Ģ THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  OFFICERS 01 1952-53  Honorary Patron: His Honour, The Lieutenant-Governor of B.C.  Honorary President: Hon. Grote Stirling, P.C, Kelowna, B.C.  President: Mr. J. B. Knowles, Kelowna, B.C.  First Vice-President: Mr. D. J. Whitham, Kelowna, B.C.  Second Vice-President: Mrs. R. B. White, Penticton, B.C.  Secretary: Rev. J. C. Goodfellow, Princeton, B.C.  Treasurer: W. R. Pepper, Vernon, B.C.  Auditor: (To be appointed)  Editor: Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby, Vancouver, B.C.  Assistant Editor: Mrs. R. L. Cawston, Penticton, B.C.  Dr. M. A. Ormsby  Mrs. R. L. Cawston  Mrs. D. Gellatly  Editorial Committee  Mrs. R. B. White  Mr. R. J. McDougall  Mr. F. M. Buckland  Rev. J. C. Goodfellow  Directors  Mr. Frank Quinn  Mr. J. H. Wilson  Mr. Geo. J. Fraser  Nine elected from North, Middle and South Okanagan; three each; for  three,  two  and  one  years  respectively;   together with  three  or  more  members at large, as elected.  NORTH:  Burt  R.  Campbell,   G. C. Tassie,  Kamloops, B.C.  J. G. Simms,  Vernon, B.C.  MIDDLE:  Jas. Goldie,  Okanagan  Centre, B.C  SOUTH:  Geo. J. Fraser,  Osoyoos, B.C.  Additional:  Mrs. G. Maisonville, Vancouver  Miss K. Ellis, Penticton  Mr. J. H. Wilson, Armstrong  F. M. Buckland,  Kelowna, B.C.  Capt. J. B. Weeks,  Penticton, B.C.  Vernon, B.C.  Mrs. D.  Gellatly  Westbank, B.C.  G. J. Rowland,  Penticton,  B.C.  Mr. A. K. Loyd, Kelowna  Mr. F. L. Goodman, Osoyoos.  Branch Societies  ARMSTRONG:  President: J. H. Wilson Vice-President: J. E. Jamieson  Secretary-Treasurer: Arthur Marshall  Directors: Mrs. Myles MacDonald, Mrs. D. G. Crozier, Arthur Young  KELOWNA:  President: H. C. Collett Vice-President: J. B. Knowles  Secretary-Treasurer: L. L. Kerry  Directors: Mrs. D. Gellatly, Mrs. G. D. Fitzgerald, Mrs. Maisonville,  Nigel    Pooley,    E.    M.    Carruthers,    F.    M.    Buckland,  J. D. Whitham  PENTICTON:  President: Reg. Atkinson Vice-President: 1. R. L. Cawston  2. H. Cochrane  Secretary: Miss Kathleen Ellis Treasurer: Capt. J. B. Weeks  Directors:   Mrs.  R.   B.   White,   H.   H.   Whitaker,   Hugh   Cleland,  Dr. W. Netherton  OLIVER-OSOYOOS:  President: F. L. Goodman Vice-President: Geo. J. Fraser  Secretary-Treasurer:   A.  Kalten  Directors: Mr. and Mrs. Albert Millar, N. V. Simpson. Dr. N. J. Ball,  L. J. Ball  VERNON:  President: S. J. Martin Secretary-Treasurer: George Falconer  Directors: G. E. McMahon, A. E. Berry, B. R. Campbell PENTICTON (R.N. Atkinson) MUSEUM  785 MAIN STREET  PENTICTON, B.C.   V2A5E3  J%£ Sixtemt& ^eft&i€~  of the  mm  HISTORICAL  Editor  MARGARET A. ORMSBY  1952  Founded September 4, 1925  Copyright 1952 Foreword     4  Burial Grounds of the Okanagan Indians, R. N. Atkinson . . 5  When the Coyote Changed the Lives of the  Valley Indians, Isabel C. MacNaughton    13  A Trip Through Okanagan Valley in 1888, Michael Hagan 15  Charlotte Haynes, Hester E. White   37  Vernon's Diamond Jubilee, Burt R. Campbell   45  Early Community Activities at Vernon, Violet Sunderland . 65  Two Vernon "Firsts", Major J. S. Matthews, VD  69  William Maurice Cochrane, Harold Cochrane  71  Lansdowne and Armstrong,  1891-1892,Mrs. George Murray 74  Armstrong Sixty Years Ago, Agnes Fisher   82  Round Prairie School Becomes a Shrine,  Rev. j. C. Goodlellow   89  Lumby — 1893 — First Impressions, T. A. Norris  95  Early Settlers of Salmon River Valley, Edith M. Aitken .... 100  The Mara Fire, Beryl Pido   108  Anarchist Mountain Settlements, Katie Lacey   112  A Pioneer Okanagan Industry, Dorothy J. Whitham  118  Farms and Enterprises in the North Okanagan,  Ronald Rupert Heal     121  The First Carlot to Leave the Okanagan,  Dorothy Hewlett Gellatly     128  Airfields in the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys  Anne   Richard     129  Recent Books Mentioning the Okanagan    132  William C. Young's Report on Cherry Creek,  Margaret A. Ormsby    136  An Appreciation, Frank H. French    143  Index      145 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  Archaeological Map of the Interior Plateau  8  Charlotte   Haynes     39  lohn Carmichael Haynes     40  Fairfax Moresby Haynes    :  43  Moses Lumby    45  George Grant Mackay   46  The First Government Office in Vernon  48  W. F. Cameron's First Store   50  Vernon School in  1889     52  The Old Lyon's  House     56  Vernon Hose Team    62  Mrs.  W. F.  Cameron  62  Vernon's First Hospital Staff   63  W. F. Cameron  64  Vernon's First Cricket Eleven    67  Mr. and Mrs. George Murray  74  First General Store in Armstrong  86  Round Prairie School Group   94  Three Early Photos of Lumby  96  Emma P. Sweet     102  Pupils at Glenemma School  ,  105  Sketch of the Brent Mill   118  The  Brent Brand     120  The Okanagan Valley and Adjoining Areas   Back Cover FOfttWOi  The Sixteenth Report of the Okanagan Historical Society is  produced in the year of the celebration of the Diamond Jubilee  of the founding of the City of Vernon and of the Municipality  of Spallumcheen. For this reason, a large portion of the Report  deals with the early history of the northern end of the Valley.  Part of the Report again consists of reminiscences. Since  the last Report appeared, three of its contributors, Charles  LeDuc, Harry D. Barnes and Baroness Herry have died, and  their deaths have reminded us of the urgency of recording  information which is in the memory of our early settlers, but  of which there is little written record.  This year, for the first time, we have a contribution  from a high school student. The inclusion of her article, will we  hope, set an example to other high school students and  encourage teachers to stimulate an interest in the collection of  historical information.  Once again, this Report represents a cooperative effort.  The branch directors and the assistant editor have worked  effectively and purposefully to assist the editor. Mrs. Cawston  has, in addition to her other duties, undertaken the preparation  of an index, and for this year, it is inserted in place of a  membership list.  The  Editor. OF Tl  By R. N. Atkinson  Our earliest local residents, known as "Okanagans" were  only a branch of the much larger Salishan family which inhabited a large portion of the central plateau of southern  British Columbia and central Washington State. One branch  of the family occupied part of the southern end of Vancouver  Island.  The grave sites of these first inhabitants provide a wonderful opportunity to study and investigate their habits. Today  there is little visible evidence left to reward the casual wanderer  or student who may seek to locate the last resting place of a  Salishan warrior or his family. The first thing to do is to find  where he lived, since with the limited means of transportation  at their disposal, the aborigines were not likely to transport  remains far.  The sites most commonly selected for burial have been  found on small promontories and sand dunes overlooking our  lakes and rivers. The choice of such a site depended upon the  nature of the soil and the season of the year. Favorite sites,  particularly where there was sand, were used again and  again as the centuries passed.  The old-fashioned farmer with his horse or oxen was long  recognized as the greatest recoverer of ancient weapons and  relics. Unfortunately with the rapid advance of civilization in  this area, many of the old graveyards have been erased by road  builders. Wherever possible, it is the policy of an engineer  to seek a water level grade, and in doing this there is every  likelihood that he will disturb whatever graves are located in  the vicinity. Road building is accomplished with the aid of  heavy mechanical equipment and the bulldozer man, whether  he is interested in archaeology or not, has little opportunity to  detect or avoid these early burials. The mechanical man will  lose more in a day than the farmer could unearth in a lifetime,  and bones and ashes, and too frequently priceless artifacts,  go down the grade to become road fill or ballast. The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  The grave marker most commonly used has been found to  consist of a heap of rock or rubble contiguous to the area, of no  special shape but usually of a size large enough to require the  strength of a fairly strong man to lift and carry it to the site,  and sometimes big enough to fill a modern large wagon box  or light truck. The pile is usually well settled into the ground  and overgrown with the plants and trees of the surrounding  area. For this reason, it does not excite the curiosity of the  farmer or workman, and as he goes about his work of clearing  the land or erecting a dwelling, he may remove the rocks.  The last chance of the grave being found is then gone. This  would not happen if the worker were sufficiently observant  to note that rocks were not common in the immediate vicinity.  Sometimes a stout post or pole was erected immediately above  the grave. Very likely this was the established rule for shale-  slide burials. Since the area is lacking in hardwoods of any  large dimensions, the softer species of wood were often used,  and in the course of time the posts made of these disappeared  through the ravages of dry rot. As the years pass, grave sites  in shale slides are gradually being covered deeper by the  constant movement of the slides.  Let us imagine this area as it was when the first explorers  and Roman Catholic missionaries visited it. It was devoid of  roads, boundaries, farms, irrigation systems, or diversions and  dredged rivers and large tracts had not been denuded of their  forest growth. The aborigines had to be resourceful to maintain  their frugal life. During their wanderings in pursuit of foods  and weapon materials, and in bartering with neighbouring  tribes, they spent considerable periods of time on the trail. On  these excursions, death must have taken members of the tribe,  and throughout the country there are isolated graves, most of  which will never be located. While it would seem logical that  the number of graves should indicate the size of the population  of the area, the facts, that all graves cannot be found and that  the arid nature of the area causes a rapid deterioration of bone,  prevent us from having an accurate idea of the number of  aborigines who were once here.  The Okanagan race does not appear to have had any  ritual or order of burial. Remains are found facing in all  directions. They lacked digging tools, other than slabs of  wood or thin stones, and the graves which have been opened  6 Burial Grounds oi Okanagan Indians  are extremely small in their dimensions. The body was  usually trussed up or deposited in a cramped or sitting position,  perhaps not more than two feet below the surface. Because  of the lack of tools, burial at the favorite promontories or sand  dunes could only take place when there was no frost in the  ground. This seems to be the chief reason why shale slides  were also used. There sufficient material could be removed  by hand so that a shallow grave could be obtained, and then  a larger quantity could be dislodged from above, and the burial  completed.  Graves have been found which give evidence of being  lined with shakes which undoubtedly are of cedar. In some  instances graves have been found containing remains which  show charring by fire. In one case, the body appeared to have  been partially cremated after having been placed in a shake-  lined hole. Another buried in a similar receptacle apparently  was charred before burial. Others not charred produced considerable quantities of charcoal, probably as the result of fire  being used to thaw the frozen ground slightly. There appears  to ha no evidence of tree burials as practised in some parts  of the plains, nor of "house" burials as used by some tribes to  the west and north.  It was common, but not universal practice, to bury artifacts  with the departed. In a grave examined in a sand dune at  Skaha Lake, the remains of a beaver and of a small dog were  unearthed with the human remains. The Indians of the interior  plateau are known to have raised a small white dog with long  fine hair which was woven into highly prized blankets. The  dog is now extinct, but is depicted in Paul Kane's paintings.  These are among the most interesting graves which have  been examined. The location of the burial ground at Osoyoos  is on the right side of the road as one approaches the bridge  which spans the narrows on Osoyoos Lake, immediately  opposite the old Hudson's Bay property and on land formerly  owned by the Richter family. Although a few graves were  exhumed years ago, it was not until three years ago when the  land was sub-divided and a series of short roads graded with  the aid of a bulldozer, that the main.group was encountered.  The workmen employed on the job estimated that in all forty  graves were disturbed. Before their presence was detected, a  large number of fine artifacts had become road fill.    Those The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  Archaeological Map of the Interior Plateau  by R. N. Atkinson  8 Burial Grounds of Okanagan Indians  recovered are now housed in the Osoyoos High School and  represent a small but comprehensive collection of exceptionally  old specimens. If these graves were marked, the evidence  was removed by early settlers on the property!  At Gallagher Lake, five miles north of Oliver and close to  the main highway, seven graves are located on a narrow,  rocky ridge, buried in a straight line. All are marked with  large heaps of rock and one has produced a bull pine tree  which is approximately one hundred years old; another has a  large clump of saskatoon bushes growing among the rocks.  Personal belongings. removed included shell ornaments and a  metal dagger, indicating that the burials were semi-modern,  taking place after the arrival of the first traders.  On the west side of Vaseux Lake and near the southern  end, a number of graves were uncovered during the construction of the Kettle Valley railroad grade. Five of the number  had elongated skulls, characteristic of coastal tribes. No doubt  these men had met death in a skirmish with the local tribe.  At Okanagan Falls only a few isolated graves have ever  been located. This is surprising in view of the fact that at this  point occurred one of the largest concentrations of natives each  year for the annual salmon run below the falls. The same is  true of White Lake. Evidence in the vicinity of the springs at this  site indicates that large numbers made an annual trek there  each spring for the purpose of harvesting "speetlum", the root  of the rock rose (Lewisia Redivia Pursh), and yellow ochre which  is abundant in that area. The former was dried and used as a  winter food.   The ochre formed the base for a paint.  The culture of the interior Salish shows little variation  between Clinton, British Columbia, and Wenatchee, Washington, and is practically bordered by the Fraser to the north and  the Columbia to the south. This places Penticton almost at the  centre of their realm, and after considering its geographic  position, and the fact that it is located at one end of the largest  lake in the area and with Okanagan River flowing through a  heavily wooded tract of land which afforded excellent winter  shelter, it is not surprising that we find one of the largest  Indian camps on the Canadian side of the international border.  In addition to salmon, Okanagan River provided a heavy run  of kokanee and some ling from Skaha Lake.    Penticton Creek, The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  Four Mile and Trout Creek produced a large harvest of trout  in the spring and kokanee in the fall. The rocky shoals on the  sides of Okanagan Lake ran heavy with Rocky Mountain white-  fish each fall. The valley between the lakes teemed with white-  tail deer, the surrounding hills with Mule deer and Big-Horn  sheep, and the climate was moderate and fuel plentiful. With,  all these advantages, the population expanded to such an  extent that this location might be classed as a village. The  main concentration was from the present site of the Penticton  Sawmills to the mouth of Ellis Creek, and extending backward  from the eastern shore of Okanagan River to a depth of two  hundred yards. Unfortunately, the greater portion of the village  is now covered with industrial plants, i.e., Penticton Sawmills,  the Canadian Pacific Railway roundhouse and yards, a fuel  yard, the West Kootenay Power and Light Sub-station and  Clarke's Sawmill.  Throughout the entire area between the two lakes and on  both sides of the river, there is ample evidence that lesser  camps were established and occupied over a long period of  time.  Here we find more graves, but strangely enough they are  practically all located a distance of two and one half miles  away on the sandy escarpment at the northwest corner of  Skaha Lake. How many were buried there will never be  known as the sand is constantly shifting and today large dunes  are forming above the greater portion of the buriel ground.  This site has produced many of the finest artifacts found in the  district.  Immediately opposite the main village on the extreme  south end of the Penticton west bench and overlooking Shingle  Creek, there is another Indian burial place. This is located in  a sandy, shallow ravine and was probably in use when the  first Roman Catholic priests arrived, as remains of shake coffins  with square-sided nails mixed with stone implements could be  found until a few years ago.  It is not usual to find human remains within a campsite.  Some years ago, however, while plowing in the most prolific  part of the village seeking relics, I turned up two skulls both  of which were in a good state of preservation. Further investigation did not yield any other parts of a human skeleton and  10 Burial Grounds of Okanagan Indians  so far I have been unsuccessful in obtaining a satisfactory  explanation for their presence there. Some years later I  recovered the remains of a small child which had been uncovered during excavation by one of the industrial firms mentioned above. It was accompanied by several hundred small  sections of a tubular shell (Pacific Dentalium) or tooth shell  which was highly prized and used as ornaments and often  threaded and used as a necklace. Another skeleton was  unearthed by workmen not long ago behind the Canadian  Pacific Railway roundhouse while they were engaged in the  construction of a waste oil tank. This, undoubtedly, was the  remains of an Indian. Other graves have been located on the  small promontories above the old road leading away from  the local Indian reservation and which overlooks the airport.  In the Similkameen, Indian graves have been located at  Cawston, Keremeos, Ashnola and Princeton. Near Cawston,  the grave of a youngster was examined which was located in  a rock crevice or tomb and marked by a single shaft of  saskatoon wood. This proved to be semi-modern. This area  offers a splendid opportunity for the relic hunter as here is  found one of the few deposits of Steatite (Soapstone) in British  Columbia, from which the original smoking pipe was fashioned.  Its presence must have attracted tribesmen from great distances.  The absence of sand dunes in the Similkameen Valley  leads one to believe that the many great shale slides were used  the year round in that vicinity.  When the present road to Summerland along the shoreline  of Okanagan Lake was constructed, a number of graves were  recognized but as none of the workmen had a flare for archaeology, they were left undisturbed and today remain below the  surface of the highway. Another road gang engaged in the  construction of a new road above the present site of the Summerland Co-operative packing house were startled one morning to find they were filling their fresnol - scrapers with human  skeletons. Some fine specimens of relics were hastily recovered  and then the work proceeded. It is impossible to determine how  many were buried in this site.  Proceeding north there is little evidence of any permanent  camps  until  we reach  Westbank  and  Gellatly's,   Manhattan  1.1, The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  beach, Kelowna, Caesar's Landing and Irish Creek at the Head  of the Lake. Every point and sheltered bench, however, has  been occupied at one time or another.  Throughout the remainder of the area, including Nicola  Valley, North Okanagan and Kamloops, there is no apparent  cultural change. The mode of living, artifacts and method of  burial remain the same, but as we proceed further west and  reach the Fraser at Lytton, the coastal influence is noticeable.  Major J. S. Matthews, V.D., City Archivist, Vancouver, has  received the following letter from the Lady Pentland, D.B.E.,  daughter of Lord and Lady Aberdeen, acknowledging his gift  of a copy of the Fifteenth Report.  Mayor House  Albury  Guildford  Surrey  25th August,   1952.  Dear Major Matthews:  How very kind of you to send me the book about  the Okanagan and Coldstream. I have read it all with  the greatest interest, as you may imagine, and it is  very pleasant that younger people should trouble to  record facts about those days; which must seem so  remote to them though so vivid to one's self. I have  just found the enclosed sketch done of apples at Coldstream when I was about 14. You see I signed it "M.  A. H. G." as, in those days, my family used the  surname Hamilton-Gordon, because of marriages with  the Duke of Abercorn's family by my great-grandfather,  the fourth Earl of Aberdeen, Prime Minister, 1852-1855,  but then my father dropped the Hamilton and kept to  plain Gordon.  Yours sincerely,  Marjorie Pentland.  "Coldstream Apples, 1896" is a pretty water color 10" by  14", of six rosy apples on a small branch with leaves.  A life of her father, written by the Lady Pentland and  entitled A Bonnie Fechter, is being published by B. T. Batsford  Limited, 4 Fitzhardinge St., London, W.l, and will be priced at  21/.  12 WHEN THE COYOTF CflANGLD THE LIVFS OF THE VALLEY INDIANS  As told by Josephine Shuttleworth to  Isabel C. MacNaughton  In the days of long ago when the coyote was a young man,  when he settled down, he brought the salmon from the great  blue waters of the Pacific up the Columbia River.  He came as far as Omak, where he fed all the people with  a great salmon feast. There he met a lovely maiden whose  hand he requested in marriage. He was refused, so the next  day he gathered his salmon together and continued on his  journey.  At Osoyoos he saw another band encamped. With a gift of  fine salmon he asked that one of their maidens be given him,  but the people scoffed at his offer. Once more he gathered his  salmon together and went on up the river.  At Okanagan Falls the river swept over great rocks with a  voice of thunder and a spray as white as the wild cherry  blossoms.   The waterfall was far too high for the fish to leap.  The coyote made camp with the people there, and again  he tried to barter his salmon for an attractive maiden.  Angry at being met with a third refusal, he decided to go  farther north. One morning when all the men were out hunting  and all the women were picking berries he started to make the  falls lower so that his salmon might swim on to the lake.  Working as hard as he could, he tore down the rocks till the  great waterfall was hardly more than a rapid, as it has  remained to this day.  The coyote was a queer chap in those times, even as he is  in these. He cauld never bear to have anyone see him working.  When one of the returning berry-pickers caught sight of him  he stopped digging.  'I go back from whence I came," he said, "with my  salmon." As he took them down the river, other fish darted  from every pool.  "I leave you only the poor fish for ever after," he called  back to them.    And to this day, though you fish from sunrise  13 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  till sunset in the river below the falls, you are unlikely to get  even a nibble from any fish but carp or sucker.  The coyote left his spear leaning against a rocky cliff near  the northern end of Vaseux Lake, on the western side, where  you may see it, if you care to look.  At Keller, the coyote again made unsuccessful proposals of  marriage. He told the people that because they had refused  him, they would never be able to cure their fish.  "Each year when the salmon run," he informed them, "you  may hold a great feast, but none will keep for the months of  winter." And every year at Keller during the last week in May  and the first week in June they still keep the Feast of the  Salmon, and to this day they cannot cure them.  The coyote took the salmon on below the falls at Colvile,  where you can yet go down in the proper season to catch all  the fish you desire. There he married a cheerful, maiden and  was happy among her people. Working together, they caught  and dried salmon enough for a long winter.  Before many moons, however, the coyote began to watch  the travelers passing through the valley, and to look with  longing on the far blue mountains. He told his bride that he  was going to leave her. She wished to go with him, and her  •father came and told the coyote he must take her.  "It is not so," the coyote replied. "I shall desert her, and  what I do now shall be done in days after."  So saying, he went on his way.  Mrs. Greene, widow of the Venerable Archdeacon Thomas  Greene, died in Kelowna on September 10, 1952. Archdeacon  Greene served as Anglican priest in the Kootenay Diocese for  over 40 years, first going to Penticton to the church on the Ellis  ranch, then to Camp McKinney, Keremeos and Okanagan Falls,  and when his parish was subdivided in 1897, made Kelowna  his permanent home. Through this long period of service, Mrs.  Greene was his helpmeet and is affectionately remembered for  her good works.  14 A TRIP THROUGH DUANAGAN VALLEy IN 18  When the steamer Okanagan made its maiden voyage on  Okanagan Lake in July, 1888, it carried as passenger Michael  Hagan, founder of the Inland Sentinel. Hagan travelled from  the head of the lake to Penticton, stopping at Okanagan Mission  en route, and after his return visited the Cherry Creek district  where there was still considerable mining activity. His impressions of the Valley are contained in a series of articles  which he wrote for the Colonist. Although the cattle industry  was at its height, he noted an interest in fruit-raising and the  favourable opinion he formed of the potentialities of the Okanagan Mission district apparently influenced him to take up  land there. He moved to Okanagan Mission around 1891 and  it was there that he died in December, 1896, at the age of 65.  When Hagan followed the railway west in 1879, he was  described in the Colonist as "an old and experienced journalist".  Before his departure from the east, he had been editor and  proprietor of the Thunder Bay Sentinel. On December 16, 1879,  the Colonist reported that he had purchased a plant and that  he intended to proceed either to Emory or to Kamloops to issue  a weekly newspaper. Early in 1880 a firm of real estate dealers  in Victoria, taking advantage of the commencement of railway  construction at Yale, laid out a townsite at Emory Bar which  they advertised as the western terminus of the Canadian Pacific  Railway. The first building completed at Emory Bar housed  -lagan's Inland Sentinel.1 The paper was moved to Yale or-.  October 20, and as railway construction proceeded, it moved  again. On July 31, 1884, it commenced publication at Kamloops. At this time there was no paper published in the Okanagan Valley, and consequently the Inland Sentinel contained  much Valley news.  Hagan sold his paper to H. McCutcheon & Company on  September 2, 1886. He was then appointed to the position of  superintendent of the Indian Industrial School at Kamloops.  This position he held for some five years. Then he moved to  1. Burt R. Campbell, "The Inland Sentinel", Tenth Report, 54-63.  15 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  Okanagan Mission.  These are the articles which he wrote for the Colonist in  1888:  OKANAGON CORRESPONDENCE  Past and Present — Steam Upon Okanagon Lake  —Progress of the District — Past Neglect —  Homes for Settlers, Etc.  A quarter of a century ago the Okanagon (sic) country was  well-known as the great cattle route from Washington Territory  and Oregon to Cariboo and other centers of attraction. At that  time a noble class of enterprising, venturesome men were to be  found scattered through the mining districts of the Pacific Coast,  especially where mining camps were then established in  Cariboo, Big Bend, etc. Prize essays were issued by Rev. R. C.  G. Brown, M.A.1, A. C. Anderson, LP.2, and others; yet we find  very little recorded respecting the portion of country in the  region of Okanagon Lake. In later years we have Capt. M. W.  Chittenden's "Guide" for British Columbia, and a government  pamphlet, "Information for Emigrants" coming to British Columbia. Comparatively little is said about the Okanagon-Osoyoos  route across to the American frontier. While Rev. Mr. Brown  would make Okanagon Lake seventy miles, Capt. Chittenden  gives "about eighty miles in length;" it is probable that seventy-  five miles is nearer the distance. No doubt a correct measurement will settle the dispute ere long.  The waters of Okanagon Lake have never been in demand  for navigable purposes; the liability to stormy weather for  canoeing caused the natives and white people to prefei  travelling by trail either upon the east or west side, and well  beaten tracks were followed by stockmen and travellers.  However, a new departure has taken place, and the first steam  used upon the lake was to propel Capt. Shorts' little steamer  in 1886. Last season his boat was accidentally burned and a  larger and better one—Phoenix-like—started with the opening  of navigation this year. An accident to his boat delays Capt.  Shorts at present, but he expects to resume in a short time and  1. R. C. Lundin Brown, British Columbia, an Essay. New Westminster ,1863  2. A. C. Anderson, The Dominion at the West. A brief description of the  province of British Columbia, its climate and resources, Victoria,  1872.  16 A TRIP THROUGH OKANAGAN VALLEY IN 1888  enjoy the laurels of the  Pioneer Steamboat Man  upon Okanagon Lake. A few months since three young and  enterprising men — Alex Porteous, Allen Gillies and Roland  Ronald McDonald—formed a co-partnership to place a steamer  upon Okanagon Lake. Having purchased the hull of the "Red  Starr" (sic) from the Enderby Mill Co., they let a contract to  Messrs. Pringle & Hamill, of Lansdowne, to remove to the head  of the lake and rebuild, making an addition of twenty feet. In the  meantime the boiler and engine were ordered from the celebrated manufacturers of Brantford, Ont., Messrs. Waterous (sic)  & Co. In due time a boat fifty feet long and twelve feet wide was  launched, and the boiler, 16 horse power, and engine, marine  make, were brought from the CP. Railway to the boat and put  in place. All was ready by July 19th, and Mr. Jno. Hamill, of  the firm named, had the satisfaction of finding the new steamer  "Okanagon" sit like a duck upon the water and the machinery  work to order. Says an old proverb, "If you can't be ruled by  the rudder you will be ruined by the rock." In this case the  steering is reliable. Thursday, 19th instant, at 10 a.m., the  "Okanagon" was ready for the first regular trip; besides half  a dozen persons there were several tons of freight on board.  Before leaving for enjoyment along the lake we would say-  that the head of the lake is shaped half round, like a horse shoe,  and width a few miles across; the warehouse and wharf is  about a quarter of a mile down to deep water. The Indian  reserve contains several thousand acres at and about the head  of the lake; some of the land being of a superior quality and a  number of Indian families are apparently well settled, having  stock, farm implements, etc., and at this point is a church, under  the charge of the Mission Fathers, who visit their charge from  time to time and attend to spiritual wants. Council House is  also located close by, where business meetings are held and  Indian agent McKay and other interested parties put in an  appearance from time to time and eloquent "powwows" take  place and  The Calumet is Smoked.  A mile or so to the north are the homes of Messrs. Cornelius  O'Keefe and Thomas Greenhow—pioneers in the locality. We  believe that it  is  a little  over twenty-one years  since  these  17 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  gentlemen met Thos. Wood, J.P., in Oregon, and formed a lasting  friendship. They all had reached this country from the east in  the early days of the gold excitement, had. been operators at  Cariboo, Big Bend and other camps. Having been reasonably  successful as gold-seekers and traders they were of one mind  respecting the climate and advantages of settling down in the  interior of this favored country. Ontario had no attractions for  Mr. O'Keefe, neither had Newfoundland for Mr. Wood, and as  to Mr. Greenhow the fair roses of England were left behind.  Like the much wandering Ulysses they were tired, and here in  British Columbia fain would they rest, nor let the unexplored  waste tempt them farther. Accordingly they purchased, each  for himself, a quantity of cattle for stock raising purposes, and  uniting in one band drove toward the north, crossing Washington Territory and proceeding along the trail to the west of Lake  Okanagon. Finally, after a pleasant trip for days, they reached  the head of the lake and mutually concluded to stick their  respective stakes; the three lived together, and their stock,  gradually increasing, pastured upon  The Extensive Ranges  in the vicinity of the pioneer cabin. Half a dozen years brought  increase for care and industry, and Mr. Wood conceived the  idea of dividing the band for the benefit of the stock. He soon  decided to remove to the range at the foot of Long Lake, where  he now resides and has one of the best ranges extant and a  large band of stock. He may be classed among the "best fixed"  in the line of his business, and his Winfield Retreat is often  enjoyed by numerous friends.  Messrs. O'Keefe and Graham (Greenhow) preserved their  first location and from year to year have purchased large  additions to their respective properties, and are now among the  largest land owners in the inland country, while their large  bands of stock roam over thousands of acres of pasture land.  They cultivate grain in many fields. Upon their ranches may  be seen the latest improvements in agricultural implements,  steam threshers, etc., and they have also, an excellent grist mill.  The residence of Mr. O'Keefe is one of the finest in the country,  and is furnished regardless of expense, blessed with a worthy  partner and large family, well earned happiness is now experienced  and often  participated  in  by  acquaintances.    Mr.  18 A TRIP THROUGH OKANAGAN VALLEY IN 1  Greenhow has not as yet built his new residence but has a  comfortable and pleasant home and is surrounded by a devoted  partner and children and friends, making the visitor satisfied  with his lot for the time being. Both these pioneers are recognized as land-marks in the district where they live, and their  prosperity gives general pleasure. Having said so much about  the settlers at the head of the lake, we now propose proceeding  with our narrative of the trip down to Penticton; but before  doing so would say that the scenery is very attractive around  the head of the lake.  M. Hagan.  Spallumcheen, B.C., July 20th, 1888.  (Victoria, Colonist, August 12,  1888.)  OKANAGON CORRESPONDENCE  Past and Present — Steam Upon Okanagon Lake  —Progress of the District — Past Neglect  —Homes for Settlers, Etc.  (continued.)  The toot, toot of the whistle gave notice of the steamer's  departure, and as the day was bright and calm the Okanagon  caused the silvery spray to sparkle as the bow ploughed the  beautiful water that bore her upon its bosom. To our right for  six miles was to be seen a fairly cultivated Indian reserve,  where something of a village exists. Skirting the beach were  to be seen poplars, willows, etc., but overhead "the curling  smoke told the wigwam (cabin) was near." A few miles from  the lake and back of the reserve, a number of pre-emptions  have been entered recently. Although the rest of the members  of the steam boat company have taken up claims; we learn  there are openings for other settlers. One party meeting a bear,  named his place "Bear Ranch". Game is plentiful. Some  seven or eight miles down to the left (after passing more Indian  reserve(s) we reached the point at the arm turning toward  Vernon, (formerly known as Priest's Valley), the distance to  the landing being about two miles, and about an equal distance  by road to the town. The valley near the landing is owned  by Messrs. Bronson (Tronson) & Brewer, C. O'Keefe, Greenhow  and Gerwar, (Girouard), and the property is valuable. The  government building and property displays the excellent taste  19 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  oi Officer Dewdney and adds greatly to the improvement of  Vernon. Mr. Cameron's store, as well as that of the Hudson's  Bay Company, keeps large stocks of superior goods, and the  hotels kept by Messrs. Christian and Eastwood, furnish the  necessary accommodation to travelers. Mr. Fred. Barnes'  cabinet shop and Mr. Moran's (Morand's), carpenter shop prove  a convenience to patrons. The school is under the care of Mr.  Hanna, who gives, we learned, good satisfaction. The village  blacksmiths are Messrs. Snyder and Henry Shultz. The place  has also a barber, Mr. Peter Watson, and a surveyor's office—  Mr. Corzell, (Coryell), attentive to all orders in his line of  business. Near by, Price Ellison has a fine property and  with his family evidently enjoys life. The Lyons Bros, reside  a few miles off, and Mr. Vernon and other old timers have  extensive ranches up White Valley, Cold Stream, etc.  Steaming   past   Vernon  the   landscape   riveted   attention.  The banks gradually ascend until mountainous regions appear.  Sugar Loaf Peak  is in view, and a short distance from Fallbrook Ranch, owned  by Capt. Shorts, is to be seen the mountain now known as  the Sleeping Beaver; also the Hamill Peak. For a considerable  distance down the west shore presents a rough appearance.  Upon the east side a few miles below the left arm is Picnic  Point, a delightful landing for a party seeking enjoyment. Close  by are the Two Sisters, two small islands. A couple of miles  further is another island of a non-producing character. While  at the arm the lake is some miles wide, so it continues more or  less, until a little narrowed at the Wood-Pottill (Postill) Landing,  where is a good shipping place. The stock range is extensive  al' the location and, altogether, the sightseeing is grand. The  next attraction was Bear Creek, west side, and here some fifty  or more acres are at the edge of the water, while the mountains  are numerous. Having upon one occasion followed the creek  up for a few miles to the mining location we can speak from  knowledge about climbing "the rugged edges." However, we  learn that about seven miles back is a large range for cattle,  and the present season over a thousand head, driven from the  Mission around the lake, are grazing and doing well. Running  south from Bear Creek along the west side of the lake is another  Indian Reserve, extending for miles; only a small part utilized,  20 A TRIP THROUGH OKANAGAN VALLEY IN 1888  as game is p(l)enty and the wants of the natives are thus supplied. Reaching Knox's Point, upon the east side, the steamer  rounded to the ranch and made a landing at the warehouse of  Mr. Knox. The distance from the head of the lake is said to be  forty-two miles, and the time made was eight miles an hour.  This being a trial trip it was not deemed advisable to give a  full head of steam; if necessary an average of ten miles an  hour could have been made. Mr. Knox has an excellent ranch,  and has a warehouse and driving shed for his own convenience.  At present he has 120 tons of wheat in the storehouse intended  for shipping to Enderby; but there is a delay just now.  The Mission Valley  has long been recognized as one of the best settlements in the  province; some 12,000 acres are occupied by over a score of  settlers, some of them very enterprising, and others getting along  as fast as circumstances will permit. Attention is turning to  fruit raising, and the prospect is good the present year for a fair  yield in apples at the Mission, at Messrs. Lequiemes (sic) and  Christians, while Mr. Knox and others have a good promise in  their new orchards. Unfortunately many of the trees set out  last season had been injured by the frost in crossing the  Rockies and proved a failure.  Having taken on board two tons of flour for Messrs. Le-  quieme (sic) and Co. to go to Rock Creek over the pack tail at the  foot of the lake, the boat again started. Nearly opposite the  Mission, width across probably four miles, is the Armstrong  and Phillips ranch, where the former lost his rifle in a quarrel  with the latter—a rifle going off and causing death—the last  named was tried at Kamloops in 1886 and acquitted, the jury  looking upon the shooting as accidental. The place is now  owned by Mr. Clem, who keep(s) a number of cattle and is  doing fairly. An Indian reserve adjoins to the south, where  some industrious Indians reside. Eight miles ahead, west side,  is what was known of late as the "Bill lenkins Ranch," now  owned by Messrs. Lambley & Young, of Spallumcheen. The  ranch is a good one and a large band of horses are pastured  there. The location is noted as being a good hunting ground;  deer in particular are in abundance. Last fall large numbers  were slaughtered and taken up the lake by Capt. Shorts' boat.  East side of the lake, a few miles in advance, is a point of rocks  21 Tile Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  known as  Rattlesnake Point  a small island in front, the shore not very inviting, but the huge  mountains reaching to the water and bathing their feet ,as it  were, in the cooling waters of the clear lake upon which our  little steamer glides along. Shortly appeared on the west side  Cargyle & Go's landing. This place has a warehouse which  was erected at the time the firm named were shipping supplies  to Granite Creek. Convenient are openings in the mountains,  and trails leading to the ranches owned by Messrs. Jones,  Gardner, Snyder, McClellan, &c. We learned that the settlement presents attractions, and other parties are likely to seek  and find homes. Cyouse (sic) mountains extend along for some  miles and again openings are presented. At Trout Creek, west  side, a flat extends along the foot of the range to the lake. Here  is a good wood landing and the boat, at times, stops to get a  supply. Not far away is the Cargyle <S Co's ranch, at present,  we believe, held by Mr. Geo. Barclay, a young Englishman,  who looks upon his British Columbia home as a paradise, and  is prospering.  A few miles to the south of Trout Creek is an extensive  flat, down to the water's edge, and this is the claim of Messrs.  Duncan Wood and fames Gartell. (sic). With a little more  clearing the property will be valuable. In the hands of industrious men, like the owners, enterprise will make "gardens oi  the wild". From the lake now could be seen to the west the  Similkameen mountains, partly covered by snow. We were  reminded that Rev. Mr. Brown, in his Essay upon British Columbia, page 19, printed in 1863, refers "to the scene as "a vast  sea of mountains." This was long before the Hon. Mr. Blake  used the phrase.   Verily:  "Bounteous  nature  loves  all  lands;  Beauty wanders everywhere,  Footprints leaves on many strands,  But her home is surely there." — M. Hagan  Spallumcheen, B.C., Tuly 20th, 1888.  (Victoria, Colonist, August 12, 1888.  OKANAGON CORRESPONDENCE  Past and Present — Steam Upon Okanagon Lake  —Progress of the District — Past Neglect  —Homes for Settlers, Etc.  22 A TRIP THROUGH OKANAGAN VALLEY IN-1888  (Concluded)  The next eight miles, west side, is what was, and still is,  a portion of a public range, but is not so recognized by our  government. Yet the lower part is adjoining the Indian reserve,  and bands of horses and cattle find pasture. The east side of  the lake for half a dozen miles or more, and around the foot of  the lake, is the private property of Mr. Ellis. He has resided  there for many years as a stock raiser, and now counts upon  immense stretches of territory, and places the number of his  stock, we are told, at over 2,000. His residence is a comfortable  one, and his outbuildings numerous. At the time of our arrival,  both Mr. Ellis and his wife and family were absent at Victoria.  Mr. Arthur Day, his foreman, politely furnished us with information respecting trails, etc. The orchard at the house presents  a variety of apple trees, peach and plum trees, green gages,  cherries, etc. While at this place we noticed an enormous hay  stack, said to be 200 tons; it was stated that from 550 to 600 tons  a year of hay is put up. Numerous stacks were visible, and  work was going forward.  A short distance to the west the waters of the lake enter  and pass along the Okanagon river, not sufficient for navigation. Upon the west side is another Indian Reserve, and we  understood a goodly number of the natives are settled in the  district, some of them said to be comfortably to do. The Mission  Fathers have charge of their spiritual welfare, and Mr. Morand  of Vernon, is building a church for the Indians, who are reported  of a better class, and  Ahead of Many White Settlers  in their habits, morality, etc. We made inquiry respecting  openings for settlement in Similkameen and Osoyoos, but  nothing definite could be ascertained. Generally speaking  large ranchers and those in their employ are reticent about  giving information. More is thought about keeping cattle ranges  than an increase of settlers. However, we are satisfied that an  increase of settlers will find good openings by a little searching.  The trails opened by prospectors will lead to discoveries, and  now with steam upon the Okanagon Lake the difficulty of  travel is lessened. In early days a wagon was packed over the  trail on the west side of the lake; recently four adventurous  men came from Washington Territory with a span of horses and  23 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  a light wagon; by occasional packing they were enabled to  pass over the trail from Rock Creek, and, also, the trail between  Penticton and Okanagon Mission. The four men then continued  their route to Kamloops.  We would here remark that the lake is somewhat crooked,  it being difficult to see more than six or eight miles ahead in  any part of the distance; the width varies from one to four  miles running north and south. Storms are seldom severe as  the mountains prevent heavy weather upon the water.  Returning to the mission on the evening of the 20th we bade  good-bye to our friends and stopped over on business for a  few days.    Having heretofore gone at some length into  The Early History  of the Mission settlement we must omit particularizing now;  suffice it to say that thirty years ago the Indians alone in all  their freedom held sway. The Mission had an humble beginning, but Providence has blessed the good Fathers' labors, and  to-day pleasant sights are to be seen; a beautiful church, comfortable residence, a good ranch well stocked, and a garden  without a rival in the inland country. Mr. E. Lequime and  family had overcome many difficulties and now are wealthy.  Mr. Joseph Christian, another old timer, possesses wide fields,  bands of stock, and a comfortable home. The same may be  said of Mr. D. Nicholson, George Lefever, John Knox and others  in the valley. Mr. Brant, (Brent), LP.,, came at an early day,  and in addition to raising a large family, now settling around  him, his enterprise has accumulated a valuable property. Mr.  John Conroy is adding to his gains and likely to be soon among  the independent men of the district. Stopping over night at the  comfortable home of the Potill (Postill) Bros., we had an opportunity to take a good look at their extensive ranch, &c. The  great improvement during the past year has greatly added to  the residence of this entertaining family, and now the house  not only appears attractive to the view, but also confers comfort  upon all within. Here we have another proof of what a united  enterprising and industrious family can accomplish. Their  stock, notwithstanding the extent, is well cared for as the large  quantity of hay being stacked argues, and with a granary full  of grain, no fear need be had of a hard winter at any time.  We must say that it gives us pleasure in our rambles to find  24 A TRIP THROUGH OKANAGAN VALLEY IN 1  gay and happy homes for old and young throughout our land.  In this case good judgment secured the property and each year  adds to the progress.    It is  Pleasant to See  those near and dear to each other live in peace and comfort  until the end of their days. It may not be uninteresting to your  readers to refer to a subject not much thought of these years.  A few years since a person with an inquisitive turn of mind  looked into the geological strata along the banks of the lake,  and at the Mission valley and formed an opinion that caused  research. Finally information was had that an aged Indian  who had seen nearly a century, recollected when the water of  Okanagon lake stood at least eighteen feet higher than at  present. This inundated what is now known as the Mission  valley. It is quite evident from the old Indian's recollection and  statements made by his father, that where the numerous ranches  of the Mission are, were once the bed of arms of the lake. It  is known that the current of the lake is slow, and therefore the  rise of 18 feet of water would in all probability have placed the  bottom land across Spallumcheen to Shuswap Lake under  water, and it is reasonable to think that not much over a hundred  years since strange sights were to be seen in this inland country.  We cannot say whether canoes or dugouts passed from where  is now known as the Thompson river, near Kamloops, to the  Columbia river by way of Okanagon lake and river. Probably  when the water volume was reduced it was both by the course  mentioned as well as the opening by the now Fraser river. We  have reasons for this opinion; space will not permit our dwelling  upon the subject further to-day. Another time with your permission,  the  reminiscences,  &c,  may be  resumed.  M. Hagan  Spallumcheen, B.C., Tuly 26th, 1888.  (Victoria, Colonist, August 14, 1888.)  OKANAGON CORRESPONDENCE  From Head of Lake to Cherry Creek — Notes by  The Way — Early Mining and Present Work.  Leaving Spallumcheen on the 25th ult, we continued our  journey from the well known and extensive ranches of Messrs.  O'Keefe  and  Greenhow toward  Vernon  (formerly known  as  25 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  Priest's Valley). The miles of land at the north and west side  of Swan Lake belong to these gentlemen. Notwithstanding their  immense fields each year adds to their fencing, Mr. O'Keefe  is breaking ground convenient to the lake, and adjoining the  Spallumcheen and Okanagon Railway survey. The length of  furrow being plowed is about a mile and a half; the land looks  of a dark color and is evidently rich soil. What has been heretofore a sort of public common is likely to be soon considerably  used as a range belt. To the' east of the Lake (Swan Lake)  (about three miles long by half a mile in width) is located the  property of Messrs. Lyons Bros. Their crops this season have  been a. liberal yield. Near the south end of the Lake, west side,  resides Mr. Lawson, who is engaged in farming and stock  raising.  Having driven seven miles we reach Vernon, where, as  reported somewhat at length in our last correspondence, reside  a goodly number of people, engaged in different kinds of  business. Vernon is principally noted as the seat of the  government office, under Squire Dewdney, and for the enterprize of the citizens, and especially the choice fruit of Postmaster  Girouard attracts attention. Looking forward to be the terminus  of the S. & O. Railway, the ambitious little burgh is possessed  of high notions, even if not at present possessed of extensive  estate. The south road out of the village leads to Long Lake,  Mission Valley, etc., and presents a variety of grand scenery,  but the pleasure to the view is lessened by an uphill route of  over three miles before reaching the summit to get a fine view  of "the valley that lies smiling before them," rather to the west  and behind as one goes southward. Away to the right is the  celebrated, winter range of Mr. C. O'Keefe, formerly the property  of Col. Houghton.  Our course being to Cherry Creek, we traveled eastward,  passing the valuable range of Mr. Price Ellison, and the turn in  the road leading to the highly prized stock range of the B.X.  Company, Messrs. Barnard, Tingley & Co., owners. Not having  reached this range we cannot particularize; but learned the  band of horses is one of the best in the Province. To our left  lay the Walker ranch, at present occupied by Mr. Robt. Goldie,  as Mr. W. is still at Banff out of health, but we are pleased to  learn of his improvement, and he is expected back ere long.  Off to the right, near the head of Long Lake, is the Hoosier  26 A TRIP THROUGH OKANAGAN VALLEY IN 1888  ranch, which was not open to our view from the highway. A  few miles from town we come to the west end of  The Vernon Ranch  Upon the south side of the road a rail fence stretched along,  while along the north side posts had been placed and top  poles extended, preparatory to the barbed wire to be extended  for a long distance. The surface in the locality is a good deal  up and down hill, and "richness" of soil does not appear to be  a prevailing feature in the immediate neighborhood. However,  good grazing patches are numerous in the locality. Passing a  piece of woodland enclosure we feast our eyes upon a cluster  of houses, cabins, barns, sheds, etc., some of the older appearing to have been erected at an early day when time may have  been considered precious. Suffice it to say that size and  regularity could hardly have been a ruling passion. We are  happy to chronicle that in the latter days a great change for the  better has taken place. Yet the recollection of those days cause  the juvenile cabins to yet encumber the ground, reminding one  of Ike Marble's Reveries of a Bachelor retiring from his city  life occasionally to his log cabin upon the boundary of civilization; he enjoyed perfect freedom poked his fire, and none  to stir it after him, ran his cane through his window and banged  his cat and no wife to scold or children to cry. Thus did Ike feel  at home, enjoying himself hugely. Mr. Vernon in 1863, with his  friend, Colonel Haughton (Houghton), and other companions,  felt the days of his youth pass rapidly. Later years produced  a more comfortable residence and out buildings, and family  anxieties divided his attention. True, with a beloved wife and  cheerful friend, he enjoyed his happy home in the new world.  A few brief years removed the partner1, of his pleasures and  cares, and since death had claimed another shining mark, Mr.  Vernon spent the greater part of his time in Victoria, where his  duties as a member of the Government (Hon. Commissioner of  Lands and Works) occupy a full share of his attention. We  found a young man named Arthur Keefe upon the premises and  interviewing him received courteous and intelligent answers to  our questions. The ranch is called "Cold Spring" (Stream) from  the fact that a fine clear spring of running water passes through  the yard back of the pleasant residence.   The scenery is grand,  1. Mrs. Forbes G. Vernon died in Victoria on March 29, 1885, aged 30  years.  .   27 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  and what would appear like fantastic freaks of nature are  visible along the mountain sides. Near by is a projecting  rock,1, cropping out of a field as a small island sometimes  r(i)ses out of a noble stream, and upon the top rests what  resembles a big boulder; how it came to balance itself so nicely  no man knoweth. The theory of floating icebergs in the long  ago gives no relief in this particular case. Giants Causeway  stories and wonderful fairy tales since the time of Macbeth's  witches throw no light upon the pedestal boulder referred to,  and as we are not posted in aboriginal lore -we decline to  speculate, presuming each reader' may have preconceived  notions. While at Mr. Vernon's the Vermonter's argument occurred to our mind. During the late American war it was noticed  that the soldiers from Vermont were remarkably tall, and the  reason assigned by a son of that mountainous state was that  the children grew extraordinarily "talth" by looking up to the  tops of the numerous mountains. Did this "down east" notion  hold good there ought to be some very "tall specimens" in the  vicinity of Mount Vernon. Soon a change will be made at Mr.  Vernon's home, for we learned Mr. Ned Wood, lately in charge  of the B.X. ranch, is about to have charge, and his good humor  and that of his accomplished lady will spread sunshine around  a residence noted of late for loneliness.  Proceeding up the valley road for some three miles further,  with the Cold Spring (sic) range upon either hand, and noticing  extensive fields guarded by wire fencing stretches, in some  places two wires, in others three and poles upon top, we arrived  Mr. George Keefer's Ranch  and home, where his family have resided for years. Mr. K.  numbers a good many fine stacks and counts a fair sized band  of stock. His narrative of pioneer days and difficulties prove  that "all is not gold that glitters." Want of school accommodation, as well as not having a mailroute, causes him occasionally  to think his life has not fallen upon pleasant places, notwithstanding worldly prosperity. In his case, as in others, it is  hoped time will work wonders. Still up the valley, a mile or  two onward, is the ranch last season purchased by Mr. Ned  Wood from Mr. Lambert, gone, we learn, to Washington Territory —■ not intending to return. The property appears to  1. Arthur H. Lang, "Glacial Erratic in Coldstream Valley, First Report, 18  28 A TRIP THROUGH OKANAGAN VALLEY IN 1  advantage, and now a new residence is being erected, thus  proving that changes are sometimes for the better. Mr. Geo.  McCauly is possessed of a ranch adjoining, that may some  day prove valuable property.  (Signed) M. Hagan  (Victoria, Colonist, September 13, 1888.)  OKANAGON CORRESPONDENCE  From Head of Lake to Cherry Creek — Notes by  The Way — Early Mining and Present Work  (Continued)  A few miles further along, a narrow road, leading along  a wide hill to the north and a creek and swamp to the south  side. The sam'e description of timber and scrubby brush is  found on most of the route; the fir predominates, while cedar,  birch, cottonwood, willows and small brush make up the total  of the wood kind. We are now in sight of the Power's cabin,  where a mountain spring dances across the road and often  refreshes the weary traveler and his animals. The property  now belongs to Mr. Robert Goldie, who has had considerable  fencing done last spring around the meadow portion of the  ranch. We had now reached the home of the McDonald  (MacDonell) Bros., (John, an old Cariboo man, and "Alec," once  a famous whip upon the mail line between Kamloops and the  Mission.) Being 20 miles from Vernon and at the last stopping  place west of Cherry Creek—17 miles ahead to the east—we  concluded to accept the hospitality of our friends and soon our  team was in the commodious stables of  BLUE SPRING RANCH.  Messrs. McDonalds are pleasantly situated—a comfortable  house, a No. 1 ranch and a fair start in stock. Hay is secured  from the prairie part of the ranch for their horses and some 20  head of cattle kind; there were also fowls, hogs, etc., to be seen  thus arguing that these new settlers understand what farming  is, or should be. A good garden adds to the home comfort.  The valley is pleasant, but oh! those mountains! The one now  named by the writer McDonald Peak is round-headed and like  a tall bully, raises its head over thirteen thousand feet high,  and can be seen many miles away; when snow-covered it is  29 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  said to be a grand sight, one to be admired by lovers of the  picturesque. Having spent a pleasant night and enjoyed the  cool repose after an extra warm day, next morning we resumed  our journey. Adjoining the McDonald ranch is one belonging  to Mr. Lawson, of Vernon; considerable fencing has been done  around a prairie upon the claim.  We were informed that the 17 miles before us was of a  rough character, and this we found as we moved forward  along the trail, politely named a government road. Talk about  the loop line upon the C.P.R.; the Cherry Creek route presents  horse shoe turns; double loops, down grades, up steep climbs  and skirting ragged edges. However, we had confidence in  our team of mares and buckboard and resolutely proceeded.  Coming in sight of the Spallumcheen river four miles upon our  morning's journey, we reined up and gazed at the canyon  below us and rapid stream over a gravelly bed. No doubt  in high water a large body of water flows from the fountain to  the mouth of this river. The timber in view did not look as of  much value; in fact the whole country has been badly over-run  by fires at different times, and now the white and grey rocks  expose their variegated colours. Winding around a crooked  point the road descends again into low land, where cedar of  larger growth abounds. Some day a ranch will be located  there, and "nature's wild" changed for the benefit of man.  The road leads over a bed of sand and gravel, the forest being  of small sized trees, apparently of no value, except required  in coming time for log cabin building or fencing. After a few-  hours drive over a lonesome road, we crossed what is known  as Eight Mile creek, that is the distance from Cherry Creek; a  good bridge is stretched over; at present water is only about  eighteen inches deep.  Shortly after leaving the bridge, where we stopped to water  our horses, we were ascending a winding hill, when the two  young colts that were travelling in advance of us suddenly  stopped and appeared agitated; being in a narrow part of the  road and no chance to turn out, and thinking perhaps some  person with animals was approaching, we plied the whip and  upon turning an elbow in the road we saw forty or fifty rods  before us in the road, a large black bear, evidently cogitating  about disputing the right-of-way with our colts and team. We  intuitively felt for our revolver and glanced at the position of  30 A TRIP THROUGH OKANAGAN VALLEY IN 1  the axe in the buck-board. (The numerous fallen trees at times  to be met with upon new roads requires parties to be in possession of an axe.) However, his bearship concluded to move  on and our colts fell behind as our team hastened up the road,  and the last we saw of the would-be interrupter was as we  reached the top of the hill, where we felt  A Feeling of Relief  to find the warpath had been abandoned. It is said that the  soldier upon entering a battle feels a peculiar sensation which  disappears after the action commences; be this as it may, we  admit that little excitement passed over us as we first beheld the  bear obstructing the narrow passage, and did not feel anxious  to leave our team to follow into the wilderness. Your correspondent was not in that humor.  We soon arrived at an open field and removing the bars  that crossed the highway entered upon the ranch of Mr. Peter  Thibadeux (Thibideau), who removed there from Spallumcheen  a few years since. He has a log house, barn and a good  stretch of fencing to regulate his stock; he puts in part of his  time teaming up supplies to the miners. His neighbor, Mr.  Frank Schafer, lives a mile to the north, where he is ranching  it, and raises grain, potatoes and gardens. Contingent to the  mining interest and upon the brow of the hill, is the thriving  home of Mr. lohn Morrison, who with his wife and daughter,  have a healthy and pleasant summer residence. After a brief  rest we started afoot to visit the mining camp. The canyon of  Cherry Creek is deep and rugged, and the trail down it steep.  Reaching the bottom, we find a rapid flow of water, and approaching the work we met the present force (Mr. Morrison  having gone to his ranch for a few days), consisting of Messrs.  Fred Walling, J. M. Hollingsworth and D. Buchanan. The  company is organized as the "Hidden Treasure," with Mr. Chase  for president, Mr. Morrison, superintendent; Messrs. D. Buchanan, Robt. McDougal (sic) and Robt. L. Lee, directors. The  company hold the "Hidden Treasure" and another claim six  miles up the creek, the latter placer diggings. The creek runs  from the south direction and empties into the Shurwap (sic) to  the north; the name taken from wild cherry trees along the  banks. The "Hidden Treasure" is down about sixty-five feet,  and is producing silver and gold bearing ore—a ton recently  31 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  taken by team to Enderby to be shipped to San Francisco to  be tested, will make known the yield of precious metals. Heretofore various assays gave as many different reports. This  mine has a history. The first known of the Cherry Creek region  as a mining center, was in 1861, when Mr. L. Girouard, now  postmaster at Vernon, while out prospecting, discovered good  placer diggings there, and soon after found the lead still worked.  In '63 Col. Hauton (Houghton), Messrs. Landwight (Landevoight)  and Worth (Wirth), of Hope, both now dead, and others, worked  for a time the claim. At one time Messrs. F. J, Barnard and D.  Chisholm, M.P., were connected with the claim. Expenses  heavy and returns light caused a cessation of the work. In  1877 Major Campbell, a Mr. Torrance and others proceeded for  a time with the sinking of a shaft close by the first effort. Yield  not satisfactory and work hung up. So far a good many  thousand dollars had been spent to little purpose; this did not  dampen the ardor of the "Hidden Treasure Company", and  the work goes forward and it is to be hoped with reward for  enterprise and labor.  (Signed) M. Hagan  (Victoria, Colonist, September 19, 1888)  OKANAGON CORRESPONDENCE  From Head of Lake to Cherry Creek — Notes by  The Way — Early Mining and Present Work.  (Continued)  Another company, consisting of Messrs. John Merritt, Robt.  Kerr, P. Beset (Peter Bessette) and Brown & Co., are drifting and  have made over 400 feet with limited yield, but well-developed  hopes for a bonanza. In the meantime all the years from 1861,  more or less,  Placer Diggings  have been working and at present about 20 Chinamen are  busy with their peculiar contrivances for mining. The gushing  stream furnishes an abundant supply of water for sluicing. It  is believed John is doing well as he plods away and cultivates  the little garden patches along the banks. The only store is  kept by a Chinaman, who exhibits considerable enterprise and  shrewdness in his mercantile pursuits. As stated, white settlers  are few, and Mr. Merritt's ranch may be recognized as the best  32 A TRIP THROUGH OKANAGAN VALLEY IN 1888  in the locality—his grain, hay and potatoes argue what can be  done where there is a will and a way.  The government work of road building goes on, and Mr.  Louis Christian, who has a gang of some half dozen men, informed us he had cleared and opened about five miles the  present season. This will give a wagon road, soon to the  mountain where John Mclntyre has made discoveries. The  company numbers Messrs. Mclntyre, F. G. Vernon, L. W. Riskie  and Silas Field. The last location is called the Monashee  Mountain mine, and is claimed to be rich, a consummation  devoutly to be wished for. The intention of the road building  is to reach Kettle river, 20 miles to the south of Cherry Creek.  In addition to the mining interests it is held that the country  will be benefitted by new settlers, who will have a roadway to  get in and out. No doubt a few years will witness considerable  travel across to and from the Kettle river country. We may here  remark that fur-bearing animals are reported to be plentiful,  and the sportsman can find a paradise there—game from cariboo to martens. Every year adds to the interest felt in that  region, and a short time is likely to cause indifferent trails to  be changed into passable wagon roads. Numerous lakes and  rivers are said to be extant. Recently a party of seven were  five days in cutting their way 18 miles to reach a given point.  Such is bushwhacking in that locality. Did space permit  numerous incidents might be given of adventures of miners  and timber seekers.  While viewing the old stumping grounds of Cherry Creek,  we beheld many dilapidated looking cabins, and observed the  ruins of the place where  A Brutal Murder  was committed in 1882. An aged Scotchman named Enoch  Duwar (Dewar) was the victim; he, having been seized with the  spirit of many of his countrymen, left his native land for  California, where he engaged in mining for a time; the mining  fever in British Columbia in early days coaxed him to find his  way into Yale district, and habits that have proved fatal to too  many in this country reduced his means, when he concluded  to retire from mining and settle upon a ranche (sic) at what is  now White Valley (heretofore alluded to), and as an agent for  Mr. Thos. K. Gambley (Lambly), government officer of  Spallumcheen and Okanagan at the time, Mr. Duwar (sic) went  33 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  to Cherry Creek to collect the taxes from the miners; he received,  it is understood, about $30, and having an acquaintance a noted  Chinaman, familiarly known as "Smart Alec", it is believed  went to his cabin for dinner. Dewar (sic) not returning to Mr.  Gambley's (sic) office, some surprise was felt, and after a time  suspicion strengthened that some mishap had befallen him. A  party was sent to try and find him, and inquiry brought out that  he had been seen to enter Smart Alec's cabin, and upon looking  for the Chinaman he, too, was missing and had not been seen  for some time. His cabin was found locked, and when an  entrance was forced an offensive odor raised from the floor;  raising the boards it was discovered that Duwar had been  buried there. Mr. Gambley (sic) held a coroner's inquest, the  evidence convinced the miners that a foul murder had been  perpetrated; the head was cut open, as with an axe, struck  behind. The opinion held was, that while the unfortunate man  was at his dinner (his hat was found uninjured) the wily  Chinaman struck the treacherous blow, secured the money  collected, placed the body under the floor, placed a little dirt  over it, tried to cover up his tracks, locked his cabin and left  for Washington Territory. Mr. Price Ellison was furnished with  a warrant and started after him, but after a fruitless search as  far, we learn, as Spokane Falls, returned, not getting the  slightest clue as to his whereabouts. And so the mystery  continued until last spring, when the bones of a Chinaman  were found not far from Cherry Creek. Some think that was the  end of "Smart Alec". Duwar's (sic) remains were buried in the  grave made under the floor, and now the roof of the cabin  caved in and altogether the spot is a forbidding-looking place.  Poor Duwar (sic), he was a genial man, deserving a better fate;  yet this Pacific province has records of many untimely ends of  adventurous sons of the Old World, as well as not a few of the  neighboring Republic and the Dominion.  Making inquiry respecting locations heard about we were  informed that Sugar Lake, 12 miles to the north of Cherry Creek,  got its name in a singular manner. The lake is fifteen miles  long by two in breadth. At the time Col. Harton's (Houghton's)  party was prospecting, an animal carrying a package of sugar  got too deep in the water and the wet caused the sugar to  dissolve, hence the name of the lake. The dose was rather on  the   homeopathic   principle,   and   the   abundance   of   fish   to  34 A TRIP THROUGH OKANAGAN VALLEY IN 1  participate may have had difficulty to note the effect of the  accident. We could not hear much encouragement as to  houses for settlers in the Sugar Lake district, but learned a fair  supply of timber is comeatable. Not far from where the  Shuswap river empties into the Spallumcheen is the prized white  pine belt, secured for the Chicago company that purpose  erecting a first-class steam saw mill at Sicamous the present  fall and winter, and get out  Several Million Feet of Logs  before spring, to be floated down during high water next season.  Should this enterprise be pushed forward as expected, a good  deal of employment will be given and money circulated in this  district. While tying up land by monopolists is a curse to any  country, prosecuting improvements either in valley or forest  confers a benefit.  Returning by the same (and only) road in the Cherry Creek  neighborhood, we again passed along the 17 miles to  MacDonald (sic) Bros, without seeing a person and scarcely an  animal or bird upon the way. Enjoying refreshment provided  by Mrs. D. MacDonald and feeding our horses, we concluded  to reach five miles further in the cool of the evening, and put  for the night at Mr. P. Beset's (sic). With kind regards to our  MacDonald friends we are again on the highway, and had not  proceeded over a half mile when once again startled — not  this time, however, by a black bear, but that persevering,  irrepressible sewing machine man. We hardly expected, upon  the boundary of civilization, to meet a team with a load of  Singer's sewing machines, but such it was; and Mr. Stevenson  inquired of us if there was not a married man in advance a  short distance. He evidently believes the sewing machine  should precede the cradle and governs himself accordingly.  As he moved toward the two McDonald brothers, never did a  man of his calling look more pleasant in a sultry evening in the  "long month of August," as the sun was sinking behind the  western hills, as he journeyed, as did the wise men of old,  toward the east. Meeting Mr. Spence we learned the trip was a  business success and the outlook for the line of travel pleased  him.  We would like to have dwelt upon incidents of our journey,  yet we fear that we have already trespassed, and must conclude  35 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  by making good a promise to urge upon the government to  furnish a mail service to the Cherry Creek route. Just think of it,  no mail is sent into that direction past Vernon. Nearly forty  miles of quite a population without a mail service. The paltry  expense should not stop in the way. Curtail expenditure, if  necessary, in some of the leakages and remove the cause of  complaint in this particular. Schools and mail accommodation  go a long way to encourage settlers to go in and possess  the land. When reforms take place and some of the big  ranches are divided up, and the outrages perpetrated by  permitting the absentee obstructionists, a better day will dawn  for this country, and we know of no section more in want of the  "good time coming" than the route we have briefly described.  It is not our purpose to "paint the lily" or "gild fine gold," but  firmly believe that with the construction of the Spallumcheen  and Okanagon railway, and a market opened up, the fine,  natural resources of the Cold Springs, White Valley, Blue  Springs, etc., will more than double the population and produce  extraordinary yields of grain, fruit, etc.  M. HAGAN.  (Victoria, Colonist, September 26,  1888.)  One of the most ardent promoters of the fruit industry, died  in Vernon during the past year. Paul Joseph Marie LeGuen,  who was born in Brittany in 1884, came to Canada in 1909. He  spent a short time in Alberta and Saskatchewan, and in 1911  arrived in Vernon with Andre Monchicourt of Paris, secretary of  the company which had bought the tract of 290 acres now  known as Vernon Orchards. Mr. LeGuen became managing  director of the company, and retained his post as director until  1946 when his health failed. He planted and brought into  production some 250 acres of fruit trees in this period. He also  served on the executive of fruit organizations: he was president  of the Vernon local of the B.C.F.G.A. for some years; a director  of the Vernon Fruit Union in 1923, again from 1926 until 1946;  president of the Vernon Fruit Union from 1937 until 1944; a  director of the Associated Growers of British Columbia from 1934  until 1937, and vice-president from 1938 until 1945.  36 By Hester E. White  Much praise is due and should be given to the pioneer  women of the interior, who, with undaunted courage, left the  comfort and security of established homes and travelled by  sailing boat and over pack-trail to ranches in the west. In these  outposts they laid the foundation of home and family life. Their  homes became sanctuaries for weary travellers who were  greeted with the true spirit of hospitality and kindness and  offered sustenance and rest.  The only contact of the early settlers in the Okanagan and  Similkameen Valleys with civilization was by the pack-  horse express which brought mail at long intervals. The source  of supply was the Hudson's Bay Company, but goods bought  from it were expensive because they were brought in by packtrain. The only mode of travel was by the "cow-pony-express".  The ranches were widely scattered, and although life-long  friendships were formed among the ranchers, the women put in  many long and lonely days. Worse still, in times of travail,  they had no medical or nursing care.  Among the pioneer women I knew and at whose homes I  visited were the following: Mrs. Allison, the first white woman  to settle at Princeton, who as a young and delicate bride had  experienced the rigors of travelling the trail; Mrs. Daly, whose  music, played on the piano that came over the trail, charmed  her family and many visitors; Mrs. Cawston, who left her home  at Sebringville, Ontario, and travelled from Colville, Washington to Osoyoos on horseback over "the little mountain trail":  Mrs. Coulthard who lived at the old Hudson's Bay Company's  post at Keremeos; Mrs. Manery and Mrs. McCurdy of the lower  Similkameen; Mrs. Kruger, Bavarian by birth, who at the age of  sixteen came to live at the Hudson's Bay Company's store at  Osoyoos; Mrs. Ellis who came out from Ireland in 1872 to grace  the first home at Penticton; and Mrs. Frank Richter (now Mrs.  Tweddle), who came from the United States to Boundary Valley  when she was a young woman.  37 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  There is, however, one pioneer woman who, although her  life was short, had the distinction of being the first white woman  to live at Osoyoos (then Sooyoos). When she arrived in the  autumn of 1868, there was not another white woman within a  radius of 100 miles.  Charlotte Moresby, who became the first wife of John Carmichael Haynes, was born in London, England in 1850, the  youngest daughter of William Moresby, an English barrister.  Her father was the younger brother of Sir Fairfax Moresby,  G.C.B., K.M.T., D.C.L., Admiral of the Fleet. Her mother, Anne  Smith, was the daughter of Naval Officer Smith. After living  for two years in Hong Kong, William Moresby and his family  returned to England, only to leave soon again, on Tune 18, 1861,  for Vancouver Island. The sailing ship Pruth, in which she  travelled was under the command of Captain Thomas Meary,  and under charter to the Hudson's Bay Company. After a  voyage of 183 days around the Horn, the Pruth put into Victoria  on December 18, 1861.  William Moresby died soon after the family's arrival, and  Mrs. Moresby and the children were thrown upon their own  resources. In 1862, Mrs. Moresby took charge of the "Church  School" at New Westminster, succeeding Miss foyce who had  returned to England.   There she taught for many years.  Her elder daughter, Annie, soon married E. Howard Sanders,  Assistant Gold Commissioner and Magistrate at Yale. The  marriage ceremony was performed at Hope, and at it Mrs.  Allison's piano was played. Mrs. Allison later made reference  to the wedding: "We arrived in British Columbia in August,  1860, and the piano arrived in December, 1860. The dear old  piano was taken from the steamboat landing in Captain Irving's  boat to Hope, thence by oxcart over a rough road to Hopelands,  where we lived, and great was the rejoicing when it arrived.  Many a good musical evening we had that winter. When  ludge Sanders and Annie Moresby were married, it was again  taken over the rough road through snags and stumps for a  distance of two miles on an oxcart for this and many other  festive occasions, to serve the same joyful purpose."  1  1. Judge Sanders returned to England shortly after his wife's death. Their  only son, G. E. Sanders, joined the Northwest Mounted Police and was  stationed at Regina. After twenty-seven years' service, he retired with  the rank of Colonel in 1911. For the next twenty-one years, he was  police magistrate at Calgary.  38 Charlotte Haynes  William Moresby, the only son in the Moresby family, was  born in London in 1847, taken by his parents to Hong Kong while  he was still a lad, and sent home to England to attend a school  in Essex in 1857. Although he was only fourteen when he  arrived in Victoria, young William was articled to a Mr. Denis  and began to read law. The lure of gold took him to Cariboo.  There he met with little success, and in 1868 he joined the police  force. Subsequently he became governor of the provincial  gaol, and in 1895, warden of the penitentiary. His wife, Mary  Anne Edwards, a native of Kent, England, whom he married in  1875, had come to British Columbia in 1859 and attended the  Church School under Miss loyce.2  The third child in the Moresby family, Charlotte, was only  eleven years old when she arrived in British Columbia. She  probably attended her mother's school. At least we know, that  by 1867, she was a charming young woman,  for in his New Year's day letter to Haynes,  Judge O'Reilly made reference to her. "Of  course you will have heard," he wrote, "that  H. E. (His Excellency) has arrived from England with Mrs. Seymour (a nice English lady,  very quiet and reserved, but not particularly  good looking). They live much more within  themselves at Government House than before  H.E. was married. They gave their first ball  at Government House, Victoria, on December 11th, a tremendous  crush, for which reason the dancing was not successful; since  then they gave a dance here (New Westminster) which went off  well. I must not forget to tell you that Charlotte was present  on both occasions, looking as charming as ever, and though  she appeared to enjoy herself to the utmost from a little  conversation I had with her, I venture to say that she .is constant  to you. If it were otherwise you may be sure I would let you  know.    She went in company with Sanders and his wife."  The following year, on September 26, 1868, Charlotte was  married at Fort Hope by Rev. W. E. Hayman to ludge Haynes.  The Sanders accompanied her from their home at Yale to Hope  for the ceremony.    Immediately after it, Judge Haynes and his  2. William Moresby died in 1895, respected by all. He had four children,  one .of whom, William Charles Moresby of Victoria, is a member of the  firm of Moresby and O'Reilly.  39 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  eighteen-year-old bride left for Osoyoos over the 150 mile trail.  The season was late, and there was the danger that the pass  might become snowbound at any time. The pack-train was in  the charge of Chief Tenasket, and the camps were made as  ,    -»»-w.: comfortable as possible for the bride.  At Osoyoos, Charlotte made her home in  ^ m the   bachelor   quarters   of   the   Government  Building. They were crude and inadequate  since they consisted of one fair-sized main  room with a large fireplace, two small bedrooms, one of which was occupied by Constable W. H. Lowe, a leanto kitchen, and on  Carinichael the north side of the building, a quard-room  Haynes office, off which were two cells with barred  in 1865 windows  and  strong  doors.    With  the help  of Edward, the handy Indian, Charlotte had soon created a  homelike atmosphere. In two large pack boxes, loaded on an  extra pack horse, she had brought curtains, personal requirements and other requisites for home comfort.  Matilda Kruger described Charlotte at this time as "a  beautiful woman with golden hair, blue eyes and a pink and  white complexion, and a perfect figure, tall and graceful. She  was a perfect rider, her saddle cm Irish hunting saddle. She  was the first woman to live at Sooyoos after the Indian War,  and the first to have a 'stand sewing machine'." Matilda was  capable of judging Charlotte's horsemanship, since she herself  rode beautifully, either astride or side-saddle. Another judge  was Susap, the well known Indian of Inkameep, who died in  1949 at the age of 106. He often told of Charlotte riding a.  golden buckskin horse, with a cream main and tail, and described how her hair would come unfastened and stream out  over the. back of the horse when she galloped over the range.  Although Charlotte was many miles from her family and  girlhood friends, her life was interesting for all travellers—  government officials, miners or settlers—going to and from  Wild Horse Creek or Nicola or Cariboo, called at the Customs  House to report or to obtain information. Edgar Dewdney,  Walter Moberly, fudge Vowell and ludge O'Reilly, as well as  the constables were regular visitors. When she was not  travelling with her husband, her life assumed a certain routine.  The larder had to be well stocked to provide food for unexpected  40 Charlotte Haynes  visitors and the prisoners in gaol. Supplies of game and fish  were obtained from the Indians, and other goods obtained from  "Sooyoos House", the Hudson's Bay store under Theodore  Kruger's charge at Osoyoos. The post was located close to the  place where the war between the Okanagans and Shuswaps  was fought and not far from the Indian graves on the south  side of the hill. Charlotte must have spent many an hour  chatting with Mr. Kruger at the post, watching the Indians bring  in furs to trade for vividly coloured woollen shawls and silk  handkerchiefs. She would see them bring in silver and red  fox, and the rare black fox, which was worth $60 to $75 in trade.  And she would watch them use stick and stones as counters.  Sometimes she would see gatherings of the Indians on the flat  where her husband later built his home on the east side of the  lake.   There the Indians held their races, games and potlatches.  In the summer of 1870, Judge Haynes was asked to resume  his duties at Wild Horse Creek. Charlotte was unable to  accompany him, and he tried to persuade Miss Annie Mackin,  a niece of Mrs. Joseph Christien, who had arrived-at Okanagan  Mission from St. Anicet, Quebec, the year before, to go to  Osoyoos. The Christiens were probably known to the Haynes,  since on their journey from San Francisco, to the Dalles, and  then northward, they had probably stopped at the Customs  House. When Miss Mackin arrived at the Haynes' home, she  had with her the infant daughter of the Christiens, since Mrs.  Christien had died at the child's birth. Later, in 1876, Miss  Mackin married B. F. Young, a pioneer settler in the Armstrong  district.  Haynes was not very happy at Wild Horse Creek. On  October 16, 1870, he wrote to his wife, reporting his arrival with  his spaniel and his horses, and declaring, "Unless I receive;  very strict orders to the contrary, I will leave for Sooyoos the  beginning of next month. There is scarcely anything to do in  the office only one Country Court case. I am anxiously awaiting letters from you. I have now written four letters to you."  Later in the month, he wrote, "If I can manage it I will leave  this confounded place. It is probable that I will have to go  to Victoria with the Government Money. If you wish I will  take you with me via Kamloops. McKay and I have arranged  to travel home together and to avoid trail riding as much as  possible, we intend to ride as far as Kootenay Lake, take a  41 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  canoe to Fort Shepherd and on to the mouth of the Okanagan  River, Fosters Place, about 60 miles from Sooyoos.3 I don't wish  to have this mentioned to anyone as I will have Government  money with me and people are always talking of robbing the  Government escort going from this place. If I had you with  me I would remain here, rather than undertake the trip down  and back next season, should they order me here."  Charlotte, however, remained at home, and did not go  on the trip.  Her husband, after carrying out his duties at the capital,  called on his mother-in-law. This visit is reported in a letter  from her mother to Charlotte, dated March 3,  1871.  "My Dear Charlotte.  J. C. has been dining with me, and has just gone xu  give me time to scribble a few lines to you, as he intends  to start early tomorrow; poor fellow, I fear he will have a  rough journey; but I am so glad I have had an opportunity  of knowing him more intimately, and shall feel more contented and happy as I am sure he is a kind indulgent  husband to you, the kind way in which he spoke of you,  quite won my heart. I would have been delighted if you  could have accompanied him down, but that was impossible  at this season, and as you are going to Kootenay, it is  not likely that we shall meet this year, which is a great  disappointment to me, but your duty is to go with your  husband, and wherever you go may God's blessing attend  you both. J. C. told me how much you had improved in  appearance, and I picture to myself what a swell you will  be with all the fine things he has taken you up. I have  had two bodices made at Mrs. Kirkwood's for you, which  I think very pretty, but the skirts were packed up and I did  not see them. lohn says they are very handsome, and the  jewelry is very chaste and elegant, how thankful you must  be, that you have not only a good husband, but one who  can give you position and comfort. And now my darling  child do be advised by me and study to fit yourself for  that position; you can easily spare one hour a day and if  I were you I would fix an hour daily for study, and nothing  3. Foster's Trading Place was two miles north of the mouth of Okanogan  River. As late as 1886, Foster was said to be the only white man between  Yakima and the Boundary Line.  42 Charlotte Haynes  but sickness should interfere; now do for the sake of those  who love you, try, and John will help you, and I must also  beg that you will write to me oftener, only fancy you not  writing me a line by John. You will get all the news from  your dear beloved, he will tell you of Mrs. Pritchard's  marriage. This place is very dull and I spend many hours  alone. Nellie McCall sleeps with me, and attends school.  I have 25 pupils. J. C. did not forget me at Victoria, he  brought me a very handsome black silk dress, which was  just the thing that I often wished for, but never had the  means to get it, it was very kind of him, and I assure you  quite an agreeable surprise. I must now say goodbye and  may God bless you and your husband, and send him safely  back to you, is the sincere prayer of your affectionate  mother,  A. Moresby  Remember me to Miss Mackin and Mr. Lowe."  It is evident from her husband's and her mother's letters  that Charlotte did not enjoy writing letters!  When in 1871 Haynes received instructions to return to  Kootenay, Charlotte accompanied him on the long ride. They  passed through Colvile in July. In his book, Rocks and Rivers  of British Columbia, Walter Moberly mentions visiting them in  September of the same year.  At the end of the season they rode through to the coast.  They probably called at the Customs House at Sooyoos on their  500 mile ride. Haynes had purchased Ince Cottage from fudge  Crease at New Westminster, and there they spent the winter.  Haynes returned to Kootenay in the spring of 1872. His wife  had remained at New Westminster, and it was there on February 10, that she gave birth to a son whom  she named Fairfax Moresby in honour of his  great-uncle, Sir Fairfax Moresby. The birth  of the child cost Charlotte her life, and she  died on May 5. fudge Haynes knew nothing  of his loss until a traveller at Wild Horse  Creek handed him a newspaper which con-  , r: tained the notice of his wife's death. Until  Haynes he   was   relieved   in   his   duties   by   fudge  in 1886 Vowell, he was unable to leave for the coast.  43 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  The child, Fairfax Moresby Haynes, was cared for by his  grandmother at New Westminster during his childhood. Later  he attended Rev. Percy lenn's school at St. John's Rectory, Victoria. He spent his holidays at Osoyoos. He was tall and  slight, fair in complexion and fine looking, When he drove  cattle on the Haynes Ranch, he liked a gay horse, and always  wore white chaps. In 1890, he went to his cousin, Colonel  G. E. Sanders, at Regina, with the intention of joining the  Northwest Mounted Police, but the discipline did not appeal to  him. A too kind and over-indulgent grandmother, and the  experience of his childhood had left him with a too great love  of freedom. In 1896, he pre-empted an island off the south  coast of Vancouver Island, and there he remained until his  death.  At least two churches in the Okanagan Valley celebrated  their Diamond Jubilees during the year. Bethel Presbyterian  Church at Benvoulin was the first Protestant church in the  central Okanagan district. Rev. Paul F. Langille received the  encouragement of Lord and Lady Aberdeen for the project,  and George Grant Mackay presented the land for the building  site. The labor was largely volunteer. The first trustees were  J. Watson, Robert Munson and lames Crozier. Mrs. Munson  chose the name of the church. The church was assisted in the  early years by a loan from the Presbyterian building fund and  by support from the Presbyterian Church at Guelph, Ontario.  Rev. Paul F. Langille was the first minister. He wrote that  "The regular services on Sunday were Benvoulin in the morning,  Postill's ranch in the afternoon and Vernon in the evening.  Kelowna was simply squeezed in when possible." The church-  joined the United Church of Canada by resolution in 1926, and  is now known as Benvoulin United Church. The congregation  of Vernon United Church celebrated in November the sixtieth  anniversary of the founding of St. Andrew's Presbyterian  Church and the Vernon Methodist Church. The churches were  united in 1925.  During the three-day celebration of Spallumcheen's  Diamond Jubilee, the first school in the North Okanagan, Round  Prairie School, 1885-1893 was dedicated to the honour of  pioneers who attended it by the Rev. Dr. J. C. Goodfellow.  .      44 VERNON'S DIAMOND JUHILEE  By Burt R. Campbell  Vernon, this year celebrating its Diamond Jubilee, * has a  record out of the ordinary. Before 1892, it had been only a  sleepy little cow-town. Tronson and Brewer had ambitiously  laid out a townsite (Centreville) in 1885, but few new residents  had arrived to buy townsites. The completion of the Shuswap &  Okanagan Railway transformed Priests' Valley into the City of  Vernon. There was a real  estate boom, promoted by a  new and energetic townsite  company and with tri-weekly  train service, there was a  change in agricultural production from cattle and horse  raising and grain-growing to  the cultivation of fruit crops.  Largely due to the energy  of G. G. Mackay, townsite  boomer, and Moses Lumby,  Government Agent and active  promoter of the Shuswap and  Okanagan Railway, steps  were taken in 1892 to have  Vernon incorporated. There  was a good-natured rivalry  between Vernon and Kamloops at the time and the  people   of  each  town  hoped  Moses Lumby  Second government agent in Vernon  from  1891 until  1893, in whose  honour Lumby was named.  that theirs would be the first to be incorporated. Kamloops had  a good claim to be first, since it dated to fur-trading days and  the establishment of a post in 1812; Vernon could only boast  1. Some of the material which earlier appeared in an article by Mr.  Campbell, "The City of Vernon, the first year of incorporation", in the  Eighth Report, 27-33, is included in this article. Mr. Campbell first visited Vernon during exhibition time in 1892. In April, 1893, he joined the  staff of the Vernon News, then published by George G. Henderson and  Ainsley Megraw. After the management changed in November, he was  displaced and during the early months of 1894, attended the Vernon  school under the princip<ilship of H. J. Hoidge.  45 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  that the first preemptions had been taken out in the sixties.  As it turned out, the incorporation of Vernon preceded that of  Kamloops by a few months. The notice to apply for incorporation, signed by Robert McDougall, Gideon Milligan, J. A.  Schubert and W. J. Armstrong, was gazetted on October 17, and  Letters Patent, providing for incorporation were issued in  Victoria on December 30, 1892. Assent to the application to  incorporate Kamloops was given on April 19, 1893. The limits of  the territory incorporated into the City of Vernon are described  as W. y2 Sec. 2, S. i/2 and N.E. V4 Sec. 3, Tp. 8, lots 74 and 75,  and that part of Lot 71 lying within Sec. 33 and that part of Lot 66  lying within the SW. h\ Sec. 33, Sec. 34 and NW. V. Sec. 35,  Tp. 9, Osoyoos District. The area originally incorporated was  3.12 square miles.  Until incorporation, the public officials were Walter  Dewdney, Government Agent from 1885 until his death on  January 24, 1892, his successor, Moses Lumby, J. A. Monteith,  Constable and Assessor, and Leonard Norris, Constable and  Clerk. There were now, however, to be civic officials. lanuary  21, 1893, was nomination day for the first election. The duties  of the returning officer, W. M. Cochrane, were not onerous since  all the officers were chosen by acclamation.    W. F. Cameron  '    was     elected     Mayor,     and  lames Lyons, A. G. Fuller, J.  A. Schubert, S. C. Smith and  W.   J.   Armstrong,   Aldermen.  S   In R.   J.   Davies   was   appointed  City  Clerk,  H.  R.   Parke,  As-  Wm sessor  and  Chief  Constable,  C. W.  Ireland, Police Magistrate,   and   H.   Millar,   Night  M Constable and Pound Keeper.  ,^-ff- In Tune, Millar was dismissed  for partiality in enforcing the  Pound bylaw, and A. C.  Buchanan was appointed in  his place. The city offices  were upstairs in the Schubert  Block.  George   Grant  Mackay The    ^^    °ut    of    the  in i89i townsite  of  Vernon  was  the  46 VERNON'S DIAMOND JUBILEE  work of the Okanagan Land and Development Company. This  company was founded in 1890 with G. G. Mackay of Vancouver  as president and manager, and J. A. Mara, F. S. Barnard and F.  G. Vernon as members of the syndicate. In addition to putting  town lots on the market, the company undertook to build two  large hotels, the Coldstream and the Kalamalka, to instal a  system of waterworks, and to publish a newspaper, the Vernon  News. It was largely through the efforts of Mackay that Lord  Aberdeen purchased the Coldstream Ranch. Mackay died on  New Year's Eve, 1893, and Moses Lumby, who had also taken  an active part to have the city incorporated, died on October 22  of the same year.  Settlement at Vernon in 1892, was centered on the flat  which is still the business section. The residential district most  favoured was on the north side of Schubert Street.2 Fuller Street  was the northern boundary of this section; all the land beyond  was covered with bush. Only a trail passed through it to S. C  Smith's and A. P. Clerin's mill and sash-and-door factory. There  was no Seventh Street highway, so traffic going north went by  way of Barnard Avenue west and the Kamloops Road. From  Fourteenth Street eastward to the BX line at Sherbourne Street,  and again on Mission Hill, the town was bounded by the wheat  fields of Price Ellison. At that time he was one of the largest  grain growers in British Columbia. West of Girouard Creek  was the farm of Luc Girouard, the first postmaster. Only two  winding trails went through the bush which extended from  Mara Avenue to Pleasant Valley Road.  Although there were only scattered business firms and  homes in the village, there had been considerable building  activity during 1892. The following buildings were either under  construction   or  had   been   completed:   Kalamalka   Hotel   (first  2. The original street names have been retained in this article. Since  most of them have been replaced, it may be of help to the reader to  have the modern identification. Sherbourne St. has become 15th  Avenue; Monteith, 27th Avenue; Dewdney, 29th Avenue; Barnard Avenue  is sometimes referred to as 30th Avenue; Tronson as 31st Avenue;  Schubert as 32nd Avenue; Langille as 33rd Avenue; Fuller as 34th  Avenue and Swift as 45th Avenue. Mara Avenue is alternatively known  as 27th Street; Girouard as 35th Street; Knight as 38th Street; 7th  Street as 32nd Street; 8th Street as 30th Street; Maple Street as 20th  Street; 14th Street as 23rd Street; 12th Street as 25th Street; 11th  Street as 26th Street; Leishman Street as 29th Street; Vance as 33rd  Street, and Mission as 34th Street. On this subject, see Stuart J. Martin,  "Vernon Street-Names", Thirteenth Report, 156-161.  47 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  The First Government Office in Vernon  contract) $16,000; G. G. Mackay, two residences, Barnard  Avenue, $5000; T. E. Crowell, residence, Mara Avenue, $2,500;  W. M. Cochrane, residence, Mara Avenue, $3000; J. A. Coryell,  cottage, Schubert Street, $1,200; T. Milne, two cottages, Schubert  Street, $2,000; F. H. Latimer, residence, Langille Street, $2,500;  Court House, Coldstream Street, $8,000; Gilmour's Block,  Barnard Avenue, $5,000; H. J. Hoidge, residence, Mission Street,  $1,500; Presbyterian Church, Mara Avenue, $2,500; T. W. Sulley,  three cottages, Seventh Street, $4,000; Church of England,  Tronson Street, $2,000; Wulffsohn & Bewicke's Bank, Barnard  Avenue, $4,000; Jam Factory, Mason Street, $3,000; F. A.  Meyers, residence, Pleasant Valley Road, $4,000; E. C.  Thompson, residence, Pleasant Valley Road, $2,000; F.  McGowen residence, Pleasant Valley Road, $2,000; C. H.  Archibald, residence, Pleasant Valley Road, $1,500; Edwin  Harris, residence, Schubert Street, $800. Total cost of construction  in Vernon and vicinity during that year was estimated at  $125,000.  The building contractors and carpenters in Vernon at this  time included Thomas E. Crowell, W. F. Cameron, Thomas  Milne, F. H. Barnes, Louis Morand, J, J. Hull, Edward Harris, J.  J. Holland, Robert Carswell, J. Carswell, D. Gellatly, W. A.  Cryderman,  S.  T.  Eliot,  George Cartwright,  S.  P.  French,  Jr., Vernon's Diamond Jubilee  T. R. French, Thomas Weeks, E. Blythe, William Drury, T. W.  Sully, J. McKinnon, Robert Fraser, Hugh Bell and John R. Smith.  R. B. Bell was the only architect. Among the masons, plasterers  and helpers were C. H. Archibald, John Highman, John Mitchell,  John Brown, John Thomas, David Thomas, Andrew Baird,  Gilbert Brown, "Big Tom" a negro, and Joseph Dawson. The  lathers were Joseph Salter, George Spinks and William  Cartwright, and the painters, George Mabee, Gilph Mabee and  Fred Evans.  Building materials came from various places. Most of the  lumber used to build the Kalamalka and the Coldstream Hotels  was imported from the coast, and was brought up Spallumcheen  River on the Red Star to Enderby. H. W. Wright and Walter H.  Lawrence had the contract to haul it from there to Vernon.  Near Vernon, bricks were made in the brickyard operated on  Coldstream Road by f. W. Bailey. C. H. Archibald had a lime  kiln at the foot of the bluff of rock behind the old cemetery on  the Kamloops Road, and he and John Brown secured sand for  use in their work as plasterers from the six-acre triangular V  between Pleasant Valley Roads and Pine Street.  Among the men in business in Vernon in 1893 was W. R.  Megaw, who had built his first store at the corner of Mission and  Coldstream Streets in 1885. By 1893, this had become a harness  shop, and was under the charge of E. Driscoll. A new brick  building had been constructed on the corner of Barnard Avenue  and Mission Street. There J. A. McKelvie was manager, M.  Davison accountant, and Ralph Smailes, D. L Stewart and W. R.  Robertson, clerks. McKelvie left Megaw's employ in the  autumn of 1893, and was succeeded as manager by Smailes.  Farther west on Barnard Avenue, the Hudson's Bay Company  occupied the store built in 1887. A. G. Fuller was manager,  and C. D. Simms, his assistant. T. E. Crowell built the new brick  store for the Company in 1893. In a large two-storey frame  building opposite the Vernon Hotel, W. F. Cameron kept a  general store. The upper storey was used as a public hall, and  for a time, as a schoolroom. In the building later occupied by  F. C. Cooper, W. T. Shatford kept a stock of groceries and men's  clothing. His clerks were S. A. Shatford and Arthur K. W.  Cosens. On the site of what is now the Royal Bank, the Martin  brothers, lames, William and John, had a hardware store. W.  J. Armstrong had another hardware store in the premises later  49 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  W. F. Cameron's First Store  Built in 1886 when Vernon was still Priests' Valley.   It was replaced by  a   finer   and   larger   store   on   the  same   site.  occupied by Kwong Hing Lung & Co. (today the G & M General  Store). Leslie Birnie was the tinsmith there. In the west half  of the Schubert Block, lohn C. and Angus Campbell had a  furniture store. They were also undertakers. F. H. Barnes and  Louis Morand also carried a small stock of furniture. Their  place of business was opposite the Government Offices, the  old white cottage on Coldstream Street. W. C. Pound had a  furrier and taxidermist business in the store next to the present  Bank of Montreal on Barnard Avenue. Next to his store, Miss  Helen Riley had a millinery shop. Her sister, who worked in  the shop, later became Mrs. S. A. Shatford. There were two  book stores, one owned by Saul L. and Frank Smith, and the  other by A. C. Cann who sold his business to the Smith brothers  in 1893.  Other businesses included the tailoring shops of A. E.  Cooke and of J. E. Matheson, the boot and shoe store of A. J:  Venn, the drug store of Richard N. Taylor, the jewelry store of  F. B. Jacques, the fruit and confectionery store of Francis H.  French, and the barbershops of Henry Mark on Barnard Avenue  50 Vernon's Diamond Jubilee  and of Porter Watson on Coldstream Street, opposite the Victoria  Hotel. Henry W. Knight had a butcher shop on Barnard Avenue  next to Megaw's store, and John McKinnon had another on  Coldstream Street in the premises later occupied by A. C.  McCulloch. A. D. Worgan had a photographer's studio on  Seventh Street, and C. W. Holliday had one on Barnard Avenue.  R. Ochener operated the Spring Brewery at the junction of  Mission Street and Okanagan Lake Road.  The professional men in Vernon in 1893 included lawyers,  physicians and civil engineers. Among the lawyers were W.  M. Cochrane, whose son, Walter B. Cochrane, was articled to  him as a student; Frank McGowen and C. W. Ireland. Fred  Billings joined Cochrane's firm in 1893. The medical men  included Dr. D. L. Beckingsale, Dr. W. Reinhard and Dr. John  Chipp. Dr. Chipp died on August 15, 1893, and later in the  year Dr. O. Morris arrived. Soon after Dr. Gerald H. Williams  came. The civil engineers were J. A. Coryell and J. P. Burnyeat,  F. H. Latimer and Forbes M. Kirby.  The first bank in Vernon was a private bank opened by  Wulffsohn and Bewicke of Vancouver in October, 1892. G. A.  Hankey was the manager of this bank, and S. G. Robbins,  accountant. In November, the Bank of Montreal opened in the  Schubert Block. G. A. Henderson was manager, W. L. Germaine  accountant and William Richards, janitor. Wulffsohn and  Bewicke soon discontinued their banking business, and took  over the agency of the townsite company. They carried on  a general real estate and insurance business which was later  absorbed by G. A. Hankey & Co. The first real estate agent in  the town was C. F. Costerton.  There were five hotels in Vernon in 1893: the Kalamalka  and the Coldstream built by the townsite company; the Victoria  Hotel owned by E. J. Tronson; the Vernon on Barnard Avenue,  leased by Harry Macintosh; and the Okanagan, on the corner  of Vance and Barnard Avenue, owned by Gideon Milligan.  The Okanagan was destroyed by fire in 1909 with the loss of  eleven lives. W. I. Meakin operated the Kalamalka Hotel in  1893, and H. G. Muller the Coldstream. In addition to the five  hotels, there was also a boarding house on the corner of  Schubert and Mission Streets, kept by Daniel Buchanan.  The livery business was an important one in those days,  51 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  and engaged in it were H. W. Wright and Walter H. Lawrence  who established the business later carried on by R. W. Neil and  Carlos Cryderman; Daniel Gallagher and Thomas Stevenson  who had the Palace Livery barn on Tronson Street; T. W.  Fletcher on Mason Street and Leo and Edward Simmons on  Vance Street. The teamsters included Robert Perry, Thomas  Glendenning, Denis Healy, Dan Healy, Edward Mortimer,  Thomas Robinson and Reuben Swift. There were two wagon  makers doing business: Aaron John on Mission Street and A.  J. McMillan on Tronson Street. In addition to Megaw's harness  shop, there was the one opened by H. C. Cooper in 1893 across  the street from the post-office. There were two blacksmith  shops — one on Mission Street in the premises later occupied  by Norman Bell, which was operated by A. Birnie, and the one  in the building later occupied by D. J. McKay, and now by the  Chesterfield Shop, on Tronson Street, operated by Henry Shultz.  Vernon School in 1889  The school was located on Coldstream Street.  Vernon gained a new school in 1893 and a number of  church buildings. The third school to be constructed, the brick  school on Coldstream Street near the old one-room school house,  was opened during the year. There was also a private school,  conducted by F. Adrian Meyers in his home at the corner of  Pine Street and Pleasant Valley Road.  The first church, the Presbyterian Church, was opened in  February, 1892, with the pastor, Rev. Paul F. Langille in charge.  52 Vernon's Diamond Jubilee  The Methodist Church was opened on Tronson Street on May 21,  1893. Up until this time, the congregation had made use of the  Presbyterian Church. The first Methodist minister, Rev. Thomas  Neville, was succeeded by Rev. J. A. Wood on June 1, 1893.  The first resident Anglican clergyman, Rev. T. W. Outerbridge,  arrived in 1893. Vernon had been part of the Anglican  Missionary district centered in Kamloops from 1884 until 1887,  and then had been served by Rev. A. Shildrick who had his  headquarters at Spallumcheen and who held services in the old  school house, and then by Rev. Thomas Greene and Rev. Henry  Irwin, "Father Pat", at that time stationed at Kamloops. The first  Anglican Church, built in 1893, stood on the northwest corner of  Tronson and Wheitham Streets. During the incumbency of  Rev. J. H. Lambert, a new site on Mara Avenue was purchased  from the townsite company. The tower bell in All Saints'  Church which was opened in 1906 was presented by old timers  whose help had been solicited by E. }. Tronson. This building  was destroyed by fire in 1931. There was still no Catholic  Church in Vernon. The white congregation met in the church on  the O'Keefe Ranch on the Kamloops Road. There the Rev.  Father Roy was priest. The first Catholic Church was on Fuller  Street, just west of Seventh Street. The present church on Mara  Avenue, dedicated to St. fames, was opened in 1909. In addition to these religious groups, the Salvation Army was, and had  been, active since 1889.  One of the community efforts which aroused great interest  was the fall fair. 3 The first exhibition of the Okanagan and  Spallumcheen Agricultural Society was held October 15, 1891,  in the Kalamalka Hotel while it was still under construction.  It was opened by Lord Aberdeen, who was reported in the  Inland Sentinel^ as stating in his speech that "The opening of  the exhibition was coupled with another event of great interest  to the surrounding community—the arrival of the first passenger  train at Vernon. He was happy to be one of the passengers  as he was determined to be in time for the exhibition." In 1892,  the second fair was held in the Columbia Flour Mills which  stood next to the Vernon Hotel. The third, which was held in  the same place, was opened by Lord Aberdeen, who, with Lady  3. See F. W. Laing, "Okanagan Fall Fairs", and Burt R. Campbell, "Commentary on Okanagan Fall Fairs in the Thirteenth Report, 162-169.  4. Burt R. Campbell, "The Inland Sentinel", Tenth Report, 62.  53 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  Aberdeen, had arrived by train that day. The race track close  to the Kamloops Road was opened in 1893, and the following  year, 1894, an Exhibition Building was constructed on the rocky  bluff nearby. Until its burning in 1913, fairs were held fairly  regularly here.  1893 was also the year when the fraternal societies made  their appearance. Vernon Valley Lodge, No. 20, I.O.O.F.,  installed its officers in January. They included J. A. McKelvie,  N.G.; F. B. Jacques, V.G.; W. C. Pound, R.S.; J. C. Campbell,  P.S.; T. E. Crowell, Treasurer; Rev. P. F. Langille, Chaplain;  William Drury, Conductor; }. F. McCall, W.; S. C. Smith, R.S.S.;  O. J. Vail, L.S.S.; J. Piercy, R.S.N.G.; W. J. Armstrong, L.S.N.G.;  R. Lowe, R.S.V.G.; F. H. Barnes, L.S.V.G.; S. T. Eliott, I.G.; A.  McGillivary, O.G. The dispensation for Miriam Lodge A.F. &  A.M., No. 20 was issued on May 3, 1893, and the first meeting  was held on May 27. The warrant was issued on July 3 and the  lodge was duly constituted on July 29. The officers were  Ainsley Megraw, W.M., J. A. Venn, S.W., J. P. Burnyeat, J.W.;  W. Reinhard, Treasurer, and W. L. Germaine, Secretary. Steps  were taken in 1893 to form a lodge of the Knights of Pythias,  but it was not until January 24, 1894, that Coldstream Lodge  No. 18 was instituted. The charter members were W. T. Shatford,  C.C.; Alex. Muir, V.C.; William Sivewright, O.; A. McAuley,  M. of W.; D. J. Buchanan, M. of W.; E. F. Mortimer, M. of F.;  Ed. Goulet, I. W. Bailey, J. P. Burnyeat, W. T. Cameron; J. A.  Coryell, C. E. Costerton, Angus Campbell, B. F. Davies, J. A.  Downie, A. Grant, D. A. Harding, W. H. Lawrence, L. Lequime,  B. Lequime, E. L. Morand, O. Morris, H. J. Murk, A. McGillivray,  S. B. O'Neal, R. Ochener, D. Sinclair, Thomas Riley and H. D.  Tann.  The townspeople were kept informed of meetings and other  activities by the Vernon News, the first newspaper in the Valley,  which had been started by A. K. Stuart and W. J. Harber in  1891. The paper changed hands in 1892 when it was sold to  Ainsley Megraw of Paisley, Ontario, and again in 1893 when  it was bought by Price Ellison. J. A. McKelvie, a New  Brunswicker, who had been in the Valley since 1888, was made  editor in 1893. This position he was to hold, with the exception  of one short interval, until his election to the federal parliament  in 1920.  54 Vernon's Diamond Jubilee  Vernon's population in 1893 probably did not exceed 600.  A walk through the residential section at that time would have  revealed how scattered the homes were. Starting from the  north and proceeding southward, one would have seen the  following homes: on Seventh Street between Fuller and Langille,  those of William Martin, A. Birnie and C. H. Archibald on the  east side, and of S. C. Smith on the northwest corner; on  Langille, between Seventh and Vance, those of A. G. Fuller on  the north side, F. H. Latimer on the south side and E. Harris on  the corner facing Vance; on Schubert Street from Mission Street  eastward on the north side to Eighth, Dan Buchanan's boarding  house, and the homes of George Mabee, W. C. Pound, S. P.  French, Sr., Thomas Milne, J. F. McCall, A. G. Fuller, J. P.  Burnyeat, C. F. Costerton, G. G. Henderson and f. A. Schubert—  there was nothing on the south side of the street; on Tronson  Street between Vance and Seventh on the north side, the  bachelor home of J. A. McKelvie, and the bakery and residence  of J. A. Mohr; on Coldstream Street eastward from Girouard  Creek to Mission Street, the home of Mrs. Walter Dewdney, the  bachelor quarters of Moses Lumby and fudge W. W. Spinks in  the original Court House building on the south side of the street,  the home of Louis Morand and F. H. Barnes on the north side  of the street, and those of Louis Christien and Dr. W. Reinhard  to the east of Victoria Hotel; on Mission Street, the homes of  Aaron Johnson and Henry Schultz, and of H. J. Hoidge near the  railway and of J. Monteith and Ed. Discroll across the track. The  ranch home and buildings of Price Ellison were on the  Coldstream Road adjoining what is now Poison Park. The  residence and orchard were on the upper side of the road. On  the corner of Mara Avenue and Barnard Avenue was the home  of Ed. Goulet, the Shuswap and Okanagan railway agent. His  assistant, Mike Sullivan, lived upstairs in the station. On the  corner where the Court House now stands, Thomas Crowell  had two houses. One of these he occupied, and the  Presbyterian minister, Rev. Paul F. Langille, rented the other.  Farther along Mara Avenue was the home of W. M. Cochrane  on the northwest corner of Schubert Street. On the northeast  corner of Twelfth Street was the home of the Cartwrights, and  to the south on Eleventh Street, near Pleasant Valley Road, the  home of J. McKinnon. W. J. Harber had a house on the corner  of Schubert Street and Pleasant Valley Road.    It was long  55 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  afterward the home of the McKelvies. Across the corner  northwestward was the first home of C. E. Mohr. He built a  larger house the next year. To the west of Pleasant Valley  Road and south of Pine Street was a block of land with a small  house which was occupied by Robert Parrett. The private school  of F. A. Meyer was on the corner of Maple Street. A  considerable distance farther out were the homes of F.  McGowen and E. Copley Thompson. C. H. Archibald and John  Brown also built houses in this neighborhood during the winter  of 1892.  The Old Lyons' House, The First House Built on Pleasant Valley Road  The photograph was taken by the late E. J. Sunderland in 1897 when  the house was  occupied  by the  late  Captain D.  P.  Sutherland  and  family.  Several fine residences were built on Pleasant Valley Road  north of Schubert Street during 1893. Among them were those  of R. McNair (later for many years the home of Fred Billings),  W. R. Megaw, Ralph Smailes (later the home of C. F. Costerton),  and Judge W. W. Spinks (now the home of Mrs. Price Ellison).  The bush between the Smailes' house and the Spinks' was full  of springs so a fair-sized bridge was constructed on Pleasant  Valley Road to accommodate traffic. The Lyons Estate, which  extended between Pleasant Valley Road and Mara Avenue was  divided and put on the market for sale in ten-acre lots about  this time. The house on Pleasant Valley Road which for years  was occupied by the family of Thomas Richmond was built by  R. I. Davies, the first City Clerk, during 1893.  Settlement had started on the west side of Maple Street in  56 Vernon's Diamond Jubilee  1893. Some of the timber and brush had been cleared, but the  street was not yet graded and there was only a trail winding  around stumps. A. McNaughton, a bachelor from Manitoba  had acquired a block of land bounded by Maple, Elm, Mara  Avenue and Pine Street, and he operated a wood business  while the property was being cleared. On the northwest corner  of the block, another Manitoban, John Stuckey with his wife and  young son, Alfred, and his brother, Fred, had settled and built a  log house. Some distance to the north on Maple, Robert Fraser,  another bachelor, made his home. The families of Thomas  Philips, Joseph Fuller, lames F. McCall and Thomas Weeks  settled nearby. Some of these had moved from the downtown  area. Hidden in the timber to the north of Elm was the cabin  of John Holland, a part-time city employee. In 1894 Thomas  Milne built a house on the west side of Maple Street and moved  his family from Schubert Street. In the same year, John Thomas,  plasterer, built the first residence on the east side of the street at  the corner where the connecting link was later made with  Pleasant Valley Road. His family arrived from the Coast that  summer. Looking back, one wonders why a district so distant  from the business section became so popular at this time.  Probably the larger and cheaper lots with sub-irrigation for  gardens, made an appeal.  Other houses built in 1893 included those of David Gellatly  opposite the brick school on Coldstream Road, A. Birnie at the  corner of Mission and Schubert Streets, Captain A. C. Carew  near the corner of Mara Avenue and North Street; and the  Gibbs family, whose boarding house was to become Vernon's  first hospital.  It was in 1893 or 1894 that a small group of Icelanders came  from Winnipeg to take up land close to Long Lake Creek. It  is believed that members of the Thorlakson family were in this  group..  The lack of an adequate water supply was long a drawback  to home-building. In the downtown area, the ditch which  drained springs to the east and northeast served as a supply.  Before the installation of a water system, water was supplied by  wooden flumes to wooden tanks which were placed on Barnard  Avenue. Here the people could fill their buckets. The Medical  Health Officer had reason to complain that a menace to health  57 The Okanagan Historical Society— 1952  was created by animals drinking from the open tanks. Some  of the people obtained their water from wells. On some of the  higher levels, it was necessary to have considerable depth  of well, and even when water was found, there still remained  the problem of pumping it out. Sometimes tread-wheels served  to supply power, and in other cases hydraulic rams were  worked from springs on lower levels nearby.  The first waterworks bylaw, No. 47, was passed on Tune  12, 1899. It provided for the installation of a waterworks system  with gravity feed from BX Creek and a small reservoir at the  upper end of Pine Street. This system went into operation in  the spring of 1900. It served the needs of the people for a time,  but around 1904, the town expanded when larger land holdings  of the district were subdivided and more people took up  residence. It was not until 1908, however, that serious  consideration was given to the problem. While R. W. Timmins  was mayor in 1908 and 1909 three important civic utilities were  projected. These were the introduction of the sewerage  extension of the waterworks, the storage system and the building of a new school (the Central School).  Under the chairmanship of Alderman H. W. Knight, the  Council made plans in 1908 to instal a sewerage system. Some  of the members protested that the waterworks system should  first be extended. Alderman Knight rebuked them with the  remark that "some people prefer vegetables to health" ■— a  reference to the fact that much domestic water was being used  to irrigate gardens. The installation of the system was  supervised by Gait & Smith, local civil engineers. Evidently  good progress was made since they reported to the City Council  at the first meeting in 1909, that 1550 feet of 15 and 12 inch  sewerage pipe had been laid. The work was carried to  completion that year. The new system was subjected to a  severe test the following February, however, when there was  a sudden runoff of water from the hills. The new pipes were  unable to handle the flow in the downtown section, and store  basements were flooded. There was also excitement when a  small bridge at the junction of Coldstream and Kalamalka  Roads was washed out. The cement viaduct on Long Lake  Creek had been installed late the previous autumn, but the  false work under it had not been removed.   The floating debris  58 Vernon's Diamond Jubilee  now   threatened   to   stall   and   make   a   dam   of   the   viaduct.  Volunteer help was recruited to remove the false work.  It was customary in those days to hold pre-civil election  meetings to hear reports of the city officials, and to hear the  views of those who were candidates for municipal office. Two  such meetings were held during the winter of 1908-09. The  first, held in the Oddfellows' hall during a severe cold spell, was  poorly attended. Most of the discussion centred in school  matters. The meeting was adjourned for a few nights, and was  then held in Ellison's Opera House. This building, originally  a warehouse, stood next the railway on the east side of Barnard  Avenue. This meeting was well attended, and at it School  Trustees T. J. Cummiskey and lohn Highman outlined plans  for a new $30,000 school. There then followed a lengthy  discussion on waterworks improvement. Alderman Andy  Leishman reported on an examination he had made of the  Kedleston district with a view to building a dam to be fed from  streams above. His scheme included the laying of new pipes  from the dam to a reservoir. Alderman Knight suggested the  installation of a motor pumping system at Long Lake Creek.  Price Ellison offered to instal a water system that would give  an unlimited water supply, and agreed to reduce the power  rates by 25 % . He proposed piping water from Kalamalka Lake  to a storage basin on his property. Eventually, the Council  decided to adopt the plan of Alderman Leishman. The supply  for the dam was increased by a connection made with Vance  Creek. The city still did not have a permanent engineer or  superintendent. lames Oliver was in charge of the waterworks  system for years. When he died in the autumn of 1911 after  a short illness, the plans that he carried in his head were lost.  Soon afterward, J. G. Knight became city superintendent and  for the first time some plans were put on paper.  A bylaw setting aside an amount of $75,000 had made  possible the extensions that were undertaken in 1909. A like.  sum was appropriated again in 1913 when further improvements were undertaken. No further step was taken until 1931  when it was decided to supplement the gravity system by  installing a system to pump water from Kalamalka Lake. Rights  were obtained from the government to do this and a beginning  was made at building a pumping plant and a new reservoir  on Mission Hill.   The new system was further enlarged in 1934,  59 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  and during the winters of 1934-5, 1935-6 and 1936-7 the work  helped to solve the unemployment problem in Vernon. The  new reservoir went into use in July, 1937.  By the turn of the century, steps had been taken to provide  the town with electric light service. The first provision for this  was in bylaw No. 39, for the amount of $12,000, passed on  August 16,1897. Progress of installation was slow, and bylaw  No. 66, making further provision for $13,000 was passed on  September 26, 1902. A minute of Council of December 8, 1902,  ordered the acetylene lights used on the streets to be taken  down. The steam plant which commenced to operate on  December 29, 1902, remained in service until 1913 when the  first diesel engine was installed. Both of these plants were  located on the property now owned by the B.C. Power  Commission on 35th Avenue. The city-owned utilities were  acquired in 1927 by a private corporation, the West Canadian  Hydro Electric Corporation Ltd., which developed a 4000  horse-power hydro-electric plant at Shuswap Falls in 1929.  This company modernized and expanded the distribution  system, making interconnection with the West Kootenay Power  and Light Company in 1937. Its rights were expropriated in  1945 by the publicly-owned B.C. Power Commission.  The supplying of electricity was a real boon to industry. At  first there were some inconveniences, since the original steam  plant was in charge of one man, W. F. Cook, who had only one  assistant to do installations and outside work. When these  men were working outside, they were inclined to forget that  while daylight might prevail outside, it was semi-dark indoors.  Even in a small plant, electric power did wonders. Take, for  example, the Vernon News which is now equipped with motors  and electric pots for heating linotype metal. When the first  linotype was installed in August, 1906, with W. B. Hilliard as  operator, the metal was heated by an unsatisfactory coal oil  burner. For power, there was a water motor, the waste from  which drained into an unused well. When this filled because of  insufficient seepage, the plant had to shut down. At times,  the presses used water, but there was also a gasoline engine  to fall back on. The writer of this article took charge of the  linotype in December, 1907. He soon made a change to  gasoline  under  pressure   for  heating  the   metal   and  had   a  60 Vernon's Diamond Jubilee  connection made with the gasoline engine. In August, 1909,  the Vernon News office was moved from the corner of Barnard  Avenue and Seventh Street where the Royal Bank was later  built to the basement of the Ellison building. The water motor  was continued in use on the linotype and sewer connection was  available. With this set-up, there could be developed as much  speed as was desired. A minor difficulty now developed,  however. During dry spells, the city put into use a horse-drawn  street sprinkler. Each time the equipment was filled on Seventh  Street, the pressure became almost nil. An auxiliary hollow-  wire, gasoline-lighting system was connected with the heating  system on the machine, but its use was seldom necessary  since the electric lighting was sufficient. Continuous power  became available in the course of time.  By 1910, Vernon had good telephone service. This had  long been desired. An early attempt had been made to connect  the Coldstream Ranch and the town by telephone, but this had  been unsuccessful. In 1902, the Ranch again proposed putting  a wire into town in the expectation that 20 or 25 business firms  would seek connections. The real commencement of telephone  communication, however, came in April, 1905 when the  provincial legislature passed an act incorporating the  Okanagan Telephone Company. It started with a capital of  $50,000. Its system was installed at Vernon in 1907. At first  there were 200 subscribers, but by 1910 it was necessary to  instal a cable system for 600 phones. The Company purchased  the Armstrong exchange in January 1911, the Enderby soon  after and in 1912 those of Salmon Arm, Peachland, Naramata,  Penticton and Kelowna. The Vernon-Lumby line was finished  in 1913. The Summerland and Revelstoke telephone companies  were purchased in 1929. A large expansion program was  undertaken after the Second World War.  In addition to having good telephone service, as well as  an adequate supply of water and of electricity, the townspeople  also had protection from fire. Steps to organize a volunteer  fire brigade were taken in 1891. G. G. Henderson became fire  chief that year and equipment, consisting of two hand-drawn  hose reels, carrying 500 feet of hose, was acquired. One of  these reels was kept at the corner of Pleasant Valley Road and  the other at the City Hall. The construction of the present Fire  Hall was commenced after T. E. Crowell became chief in 1903,  61 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  ''-'■■;  Vernon Hcse Team  and the original fire alarm system was installed at this time.  The first piece of motorized equipment, a Broderick No. 1  handpump which had been sold by the city of San Francisco  to the town of Yale in 1882, was also acquired. A few years  later, in 1913, a Seagrave hose and chemical truck were  purchased.    It was not until  1934 that a fire chief was paid,   ::SHHm     and   not   until   1943   that   the  town   had   a   full-time   paid  chief.  1909 was the year when  the "new" Vernon fubilee  Hospital was opened. It was  on Mission Hill on a site donated by Samuel Poison, and  formerly part of the Ellison  homestead, and its construction was made possible by a  grant of $25,000 from the McBride government, another of  $15,000 by the city, and by  the directors raising $10,000.  The building of the hospital  was really a community effort. When the city was in-  Mrs. W. F. Cameron corporated, there was no hos-  Founder of Vernon's first hospital      pitcd   closer   than   Kamloops.  62 Vernon's Diamond Jubilee  Vernon's First Hospital Staff  Dr. O. Morris is in the center of the group.  Mrs. W. F. Cameron was largely instrumental in arousing interest in the project of a city-supported hospital She canvassed the  city and solicited help from persons throughout the Valley, and  finally collected $1,200 which she turned over to the City  Council on condition that a hospital board be organized. In  1897, jubilee year, the first board of directors, headed by W. F.  Cameron as president and H. F. Latimer as secretary, came into  existence. G. A. Henderson became president the following  year and was still president when the new hospital on Mission  Hill was built. In 1897 an old boarding house was bought from  T. E. Crowell and Mrs. W. E. Pratt was appointed first matron.  Lady Aberdeen soon secured the services of two nurses of the  Victorian Order which she had organized. The Women's  Council, later organized as the Women's Hospital Board,  guaranteed part of the expenses of the nurses. By 1907, plans  had to be made for the construction of the 50-bed hospital which  has only recently been superseded.  Vernon grew rapidly in the years between 1909 and 1912.  This growth was reflected in the need to build a new school.  The cornerstone of the $45,000 Central School was laid by  Price Ellison on September 9, 1909. A number of fine new  buildings made their appearance in  1911  and  1912.    Among  63 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  them were the new Hudson's Bay Company's store, the Federal  Building, the Canadian Pacific Railway station and the Y.M.C.A.  building. A new Court House, costing some $200,000, was  commenced in 1911 and completed in 1914. There was a real  estate boom at this time, and the people of Vernon talked of  obtaining the services of a publicity commissioner, but the  expense proved too great. New sub-divisions, including the  Girouard and the Mission Hill and the Lakeview districts, were  incorporated within the limits of the city. The supplying of this  new territory with public-utility services was a big undertaking,  and while the Girouard and Mission Hill districts went ahead,  it was not until soldier-housing development after Warld War II,  that the Lakeview section made much of a showing.  These, from 1892 until 1912, were Vernon's formative years.  The city expanded and filled up in the next forty years, but  by 1912 its physical pattern was evident and the spirit of the  people was reflected in community projects. Vernon had been  the first city to be incorporated in the Valley and its early  growth was more rapid than that of any other center. By 1912  the interests of the people were the interests of townspeople,  rather than the interests of frontiersmen.  MAYORS OF THE CITY OF VERNON  1893  W.  F.  Cameron  1894- 5  J.M. Martin  1896  F. Adrian Meyer  1897  W. J. Armstrong  1898  W.  T.  Shatford  1899  A. C. Carew   -   W. Megaw  1900- 1  W. R. Megaw  1902  G. A. Hankey  1903- 4  A. C. Carew  1905- 6  H. G. Muller  1907  W. R. Megaw  1908  R. W. Timmins  1909  M. V. Allen  1910-11  H. W. Husband  1912  M. J.  O'Brien  1913  J. T. Mutrie  1914-16  W. H. Smith  1917-19  S. A. Shatford  1920  R.  Fitzmaurice  1921-23  C.  F.  Costerton  1924-25  J. S. Galbraith  1926-31  L. L.  Stewart  1932-37  S. W. Prowse  1938-40  H. Bowman  1941-43  A.C.Wilde   -  D. Howrie  1945-48  D. Howrie  W. F.  Cameron  1949-51  T. R. B. Adams  irst Mayor of Vernon  1952  A. C. Wilde  64 EARLY COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES AT VERNON  By Violet Sunderland  Vernon Jubilee Hospital, standing today high on Mission  Hill with a glorious view of Silver Star Mountain in the distance  and the peaceful city with Poison's Park in the foreground,  makes one realize what perseverance can achieve. Today  the people of Vernon have a modern, well-furnished hospital  containing a good operating theatre; in the early nineties there  was no hospital until a diptheria epidemic struck the town and  it became imperative to find some place to nurse the victims.  Two small cottages opposite the Park school and close to the  railway track were acquired, and two members of the Victorian  Order of Nurses, Miss Moss and Miss Parnell, were brought in.  A small band of women, led by Mrs. W. F. Cameron felt that a  hospital was a necessity, and that something must be done to  provide one without delay. The city fathers were approached,  a' subscription fund was started, and money was raised by  holding dances, teas, tableaux, waxwork shows and theatricals.  When a sufficient amount of money was in hand, a search was  made for a sufficiently large building that would not be too  expensive to purchase. One was eventually found — a house  which had been built as a boarding-house on Ellison Street. It  had a large verandah and livingrooms on the ground floor, with  numerous rooms upstairs. The maternity ward and the nurses'  home were adjacent to it. The first matron, Miss Henderson,  and the head nurse, Miss Woodland, with little additional help,  made a good start.  One of the early cases brought to Dr. Osborne Morris at  the hospital was an Indian boy whose squaw had brought him  by train from Sicamous. Lone-handed she had rescued the boy  from a grizzly bear, but by the time she got him to Vernon  septic poisoning had set in, with fatal results.  Dr. Morris traveled throughout the northern end of the  Valley. With his spanking pair of horses, he drove day and  night in all weather, over roads that were little better than  cattle trails. Mrs. Morris often accompanied him, and both  proved good friends to those in trouble and sickness.  65 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  In ten years' time it became necessary to build a second  hospital. When the foundation stone of the second Jubilee  Hospital was laid in 1909, Hon. Price Ellison stated the pleasure  it gave him to officiate at the ceremony since he had always  hoped that a hospital would stand on the site of his old homestead. The matron, Miss Panton, did not approve of the plans of  the new hospital. She pointed out that the building's layout  would make nursing difficult and the running of the hospital  expensive. Her objections proved later to have merit. After  World War II a third and larger Jubilee Hospital was built.  In the early days there was a small reading-room on a  side road just off the Mission Hill road. It was a boon to old men  and to those who had been ill. There was some furniture and  a box stove in it, and playing cards and newspapers were  provided. I remember raising funds for it by arranging a dance  about 1901. It was in use until a public reading-room was  opened above the City Hall.  There was much interest in the nineties in the almost annual  visits of Lord and Lady Aberdeen to Coldstream Ranch. On  one occasion they gave a dance in the Jam Factory, then a new  and rather picturesque building near the railway track beyond  S. C. Smith's mill. Lady Aberdeen organized a branch of the  Women's Council, and."at homes" were held in Cameron's Hall.  These affairs were usually held late in the autumn when the  roads were seas of mud. All who lived on Pleasant Valley Road  were thankful that they could ride to them in Joe Harwood's  vehicle. It was something like a covered wagon, having a tarpaulin top, hard side seats and lanterns swinging fore and aft.  There were many dances in those days. At the annual  Hospital Ball, there was a sit-down supper of ham, turkey, trifle,  cake, jellies, etc. All the food was donated. There was also  an annual Bachelors' Dance. Sometimes there .was so much  left over from the sit-down supper at this dance, that another  was held the next night so that it would be used. Everyone wore  formal evening dress at these dances, so there was added  excitement of sending to London for new frocks.  In addition to the formal dances, there were domino dances,  fancy dress dances and variety entertainments. The costumes  for these were home-made. We must not forget the "musical  evenings", for nearly every one sang or played the piano.  66 Early Community Activities at Vernon  In good weather, the chief pastime was riding. It was  possible to get a decent, spirited horse for $75 or less. Tennis  was also popular. The first tennis club was formed when a  single court was opened on the lawn of the Kalamalka Hotel.  Saturday was the red-letter day of the week since all the country  members drove in to town to play tennis. On this day, the  women members of the Club provided tea. When the Country  Club was completed in 1910 it became a new centre of social  activity.  Vernon's First Cricket Eleven  Taken at Victoria in 1908 during the first Coast tour.    Left to right,  back row: unidentified person, Messrs. Ward, Holland, Morrell, Hubble.  Front   row:   Williams,   Swift,   Hubble,   Raymond,   E.   J.   Sunderland,  captain, Mildmay, Clayton.  As far as sports are concerned, cricket had been played  since 1891 when the first match was held on Girouard's farm.  Vernon's first eleven consisted of seven cricketers and four baseball players, one of whom was an American. Matches were  later played in the field behind what is now known as the  National Hotel. The Vernon Club's first trip to the coast was  in 1908. A badminton club was formed in 1908, largely through  the efforts of W. C. Morris. Until the Country Club was opened  and badminton courts laid out on its second floor, games were  sometimes played in one of the Coldstream Ranch's packing  houses which W. C. Ricardo made available and on the top  67 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  floor of the building where the City Club now is located. In  addition to these activities, the settlers spent much time in the  summer canoeing and boating and holding picnics, and the  winter, ice-skating. Sometimes in the winter, trotting races  were held on the ice at Swan Lake and on Kalamalka Lake.  Sport was wonderful in the early days, and game plentiful.  In all the grain fields there were prairie chicken in great coveys,  and on most hills, blue and willow grouse. There were no  restrictions as to the daily bag. In all the lakes there was good  fishing.  By 1910 two private clubs had made their appearance.  One was the Ranchman's Club, formed in 1909 so that ranchers  would have a meeting place in town. Out of this developed  the Vernon City Club. The other was the Country Club, still  in existence today.  J. T. Mutrie, a resident of Vernon for more than 40 years,  died in March, 1952 at the age of 77. The son of Col. John  Mutrie, a member of the Ontario legislature for a while, Mr.  Mutrie was born near Guelph, Ontario and came west as a  young man. With his brother, Major R. J. Mutrie, he moved to  Vernon in 1907 from Edmonton, to form a real estate and  insurance business. This business was later purchased by  F. B. Cossitt, who had served as accountant for the firm. Mr.  Mutrie took an active part in co-operative fruit grower organizations. He was president for several years of the Okanagan  United Gowers, the forerunner of the Associated Growers and  a member of the board of directors of the Vernon Fruit Union.  He served as president of the Canadian Horticultural Council  and represented the fruit and vegetable industry on the  Canadian Advisory Tariff Board. After serving as alderman  for two years, he became mayor of Vernon in 1913. His long  interest in civic affairs was recognized by the Vernon Board of  Trade which made him a life member.  Mrs. R. P. Rithet, whose husband was connected with early  business ventures in the Spallumcheen, and particularly with  flour milling, died in Victoria in April, 1952, in her 100th year.  68 TWO VERNON TIRSTS"  By Major J. S. Matthews, V.D.  Years ago, about 1910, I was the sole travelling representative of the Imperial Oil Company in British Columbia, and  their only employee in the Interior. I did many things, among  other things erecting the first storage tanks for petroleum oils at  Kelowna, Penticton, Princeton, Merritt, Salmon Arm, Ashcroft  and Kamloops. They were ll'6"x20' upright tanks, and went in  pairs, one for coal oil and one for gasoline. The first storage  tanks for petroleum oils in the Interior were at Vernon and I do  not know who put them up. Automobiles were just 'coming in',  and we sold gasoline in steel barrels and also in four gallon  cans, two cans to a case. There was no bulk filling, and there  were no service-stations."  The head office of the Imperial Oil Company was at that  time at Winnipeg, and sometimes it issued orders that we, on  the ground, did not approve. We were instructed that the  kerosene business at Vernon warranted the use of a tank  wagon, and that it would make the supplying of coal oil to  farmers and others cheaper than delivery in cans. We knew  that the proposal was foolish and that the people in Vernon  were turning more and more to electric light. Anyway, the  tank wagon was sent from some place on the prairies to Vernon.  I had to put it into operation. I think that Neil & Cryderman  dragged it around, on sleigh runners in winter when coal oil  was most used. A little bulk oil was sold to grocery and  hardware stores, but not much. What became of the tank  wagon I do not know, since I went off when war broke out,  but this was the first tank wagon in the interior of British  Columbia.  Another memory I have is of a conversation I had one  summer evening on the verandah of the Kalamalka Hotel with  Alderman W. H. Smith. He told me that the electric light  situation was poor. At the power house up the C.P.R. track by  the flour mill, a huge pile of cordwood was stacked in readiness  for winter, but Alderman Smith said that it was becoming more  and more difficult to get cordwood.    It was too expensive to  69 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  import coal from the Coast, and hydro-electric power was  beyond the wildest dreams.  I had been reading about the ship Zeelandia (or Zealandia),  a Danish ship, which I think, was the first ship in the world to  be powered with a diesel engine. I told Mr. Smith that a firm  in Liverpool made internal combustion engines and that they  exploded almost any kind of cheap oil. Darkness came, and  we parted.  About six months later I was again in Vernon. To my great  surprise I found that the city had purchased a diesel engine, it  had been installed, and, I am almost positive, an old friend of  mine, a Mr. Excell, was in charge as engineer. The engine  had been named "W. H. Smith No. 1". That engine was the  first diesel engine in British Columbia. I forget which city got  the next: I think it was Kelowna, then Penticton, and then  Salmon Arm. Vernon later got a second engine. I have always  claimed that my conversation on the verandah of the Kalamalka  with Mr. Smith was responsible for the installation of the first  diesel engine in the Interior. I saw it working, as I was  frequently in the engine room, near the track, as I passed on  my way to the Imperial Oil warehouse.  Harry Archibald Fraser, who had lived in the Armstrong  district since 1891, died during the year at the age of 81. Mr.  Fraser served as alderman on the first council in 1913, and was  mayor in 1920 and 1921. He served on the school board, was  a life member of the Armstrong and Spallumcheen Board of  Trade, and served as an elder of the Presbyterian and United  Churches for 40 years. In 1897, he married Catherine Honora  Schubert.  William George Proctor, who operated the stage between  Lumby and Mabel Lake for more than 40 years, died in March,  1952. A native of Lancashire, England, Mr. Proctor came to  British Columbia in 1892, and traveled by pack-horse through  the Cariboo and Kamloops country looking for good land. He  finally made his way to Mabel Lake. He was appointed  postmaster in 1903 and continued to hold the position until 1948.  He was also the original district weather station operator in that  area.  70 E  By Harold Cochrane  My grandfather, William Maurice Cochrane, was born in  1844 in Whitby, Ontario. There he received his education and  his training for the law profession. After his marriage in 1866  to Miss Addie A. Gallagher, they resided first at Whitby and  then at Port Perry. In 1880 my grandfather decided to move to  Minneapolis, and there he was joined in six months by his wife  and seven young children. After a short time in Minneapolis,  they moved to Moorhead, Minnesota, where they remained for  four years. In 1885, the family moved back to Minneapolis, but  the law profession there was over-crowded, and my grandfather, hearing about British Columbia from an acquaintance,  decided to try his luck there. In 1886 he and his young son,  Maurice, (my father), traveled across the United States to California, up the Coast to New Westminster, where they were soon  joined by the rest of the family, and in the following year to  Kamloops where my grandfather opened a law office. During  the 1891 railway boom in Vernon, he opened a law office there.  His business grew so rapidly that in the following year he took  in a young man from Whitby, Fred Billings, as partner. This  young lawyer later married my aunt, Maud Cochrane.  My grandfather had now decided to make his permanent  home in Vernon, and in 1892 he had a fine home built on the  northeast corner of Mara Avenue and Schubert Street. At that  time it was the most northerly house on Mara Avenue. It is  now used as the Anglican Rectory. The house was completed  late in 1892 and in 1893 the family moved over from Kamloops.  Two of the sons were already living in Vernon. The eldest  daughter, Kate, who had married Sheriff A. G. Pemberton in  1888, remained in Kamloops.  My grandfather took a prominent part in public affairs in  Vernon in the early days. He took the District Census in 1891,  and had some trouble in obtaining census figures from the many  Indians at the head of Okanagan Lake. When a meeting was  called in the school-house in Vernon in May, 1892, to decide  whether the town should be incorporated as a city or a district  71 The Okanagan Historical Society —J 952  municipality formed, my grandfather was chosen chairman of  the committee set up to study the matter. The committee held  meetings during the summer and finally decided to favor incorporation. The necessary papers were drawn up in December,  1892. When the first elections were held in January, 1893, my  grandfather acted as returning officer.  This interest in public affairs continued until my grandfather's untimely death on October 16, 1900, after an illness of  only a few days. His death was a shock to the whole community, and it was said that no kinder-hearted man ever lived, and  that he was the author of hundreds of charitable and kindly  actions of which he made no parade. The funeral cortege was  one of the largest that had proceeded to the Vernon Cemetery,  and the pall-bearers were Price Ellison, W. R. Megaw, G. A.  Henderson, W. F. Cameron, J. A. McKelvie and A. Macdonald.  In addition to his widow, he was survived by seven children:  Kate, wife of Sheriff Pemberton of Kamloops; Walter, who was  practicing law at Phoenix at the time of his father's death;  Maud, wife of Fred Billings, partner in the law firm of Cochrane  & Billings; Maurice, my father; Nora, wife of fudge Cayley of  Grand Forks; Arthur, who became a lawyer and was to represent the North Okanagan in the Legislative Assembly; Frank,  the last surviving member of the family who resides in  Vancouver.  My father, Maurice Bothwell Cochrane, with his two  younger brothers, Arthur and Frank, attended school in Kamloops in the late eighties and early nineties. They were pupils  of E. Stuart Wood. After my father moved to Vernon in 1892,  he was a pupil of Mr. Hoidge and had as school-mates Burt  Campbell, now of Kamloops, George and Fred Gartrell of  Summerland, and Amelia Cartwright (Mrs. C. I. Chapman of  Penticton).  For a while my father farmed at Larkin. On November 20,  1901, he married a Larkin girl, Margaret Dunne, daughter of  Joseph Dunne, who had arrived in the North Okanagan in 1883.  In the early 1900's he was an active member of the Vernon Rifle  Club, taking part in many competitions and winning several  prizes. He was also a member of the Vernon Volunteer Fire  Department when the equipment was horse-drawn. He was  employed as Government Road Foreman for a time, and in  72 William Maurice Cochrane  later years by the City of Vernon.  My father died on September 9, 1950. He is survived by  two sons, Maurice of Yakima, Harold of Penticton; two daughters, Josephine, (Mrs. A. H. Ball of Vernon) and Frances (Mrs.  DeLaura of Penticton); as well as his wife and by his brother,  Frank, of Vancouver.  The phenomenon known as the Okanagan Arc was  seen in Lumby and Armstrong about 1 a.m. on August 31. The  sky was perfectly clear, and there was a bright moon. The  band of white light spanned the sky and lasted less than an  hour.  An old-time resident of Armstrong, Mrs. D. G. Crozier has  in her possession the first unofficial airmail letter to a private  citizen of British Columbia. It was dropped in Armstrong on  June 28, 1919, when Captains Hoy and Dixon made the first  flight across British Columbia in a Canadian Curtiss J.N. 40x5 —  90 horsepower airplane. The letter reads in part: "This is  brought to you through the kindness of Captain Hoy in his  Canadian Curtiss J.N. 40x5 — 90 h.p. Aeroplane. He landed  here in Chilliwack at 10 to 8 P.M. after a successful flight from  Vancouver, B.C., in about 50 minutes . . ."  Baroness Herry, widow of Harold Eugene Chislain, second  Baron Herry, died in Vernon in January, 1952.- Baron and  Baroness Herry came to Vernon from Belgium in 1912, and  belonged to the group of Belgians who had extensive orchards  in the BX district. Baroness Herry was well known as an artist  and as a poet. Some of her poems have appeared in the  Okanagan Historical Society Reports.  At the annual meeting of the Oliver-Osoyoos branch of the  Society in the autumn of 1951, a portrait of Judge John  Carmichael Haynes was presented to the Village of Osoyoos  by Val. Haynes. Other members of the family present were  Mrs. R. B. White of Penticton, Will Haynes of Oliver and Mrs.  I. Parkinson of Kelowna.  \  73 As written by Mrs. George Murray in 1941  My husband, George Murray, arrived in Lansdowne on  March 17, 1891, having traveled by train from Ontario to  Sicamous and the balance of the distance by sleigh and on foot.  He had been forced to give up farming in Ontario due to a  serious accident, which totally disabled him for a year. Both  legs had been practically severed by a mower. On April 25  of the same year I arrived with four small children and my  niece. The trip from Woodstock, Ontario, to Sicamous, took  eight days. Three of those days we were held up by both  mud-slides and snow-slides — part of the time at Kicking Horse  Pass, where rails were torn up and all wires were down. We  had moved on only a half-hour when a fresh slide occurred.  My husband spent an anxious time waiting for us at Sicamous.  We left that point at 9 A.M. on the little Red Star boat which  was run by Captain Cummings, arriving at Enderby nine hours  later at 6 P.M. There, we all  climbed aboard the freight  wagon driven by Mr. lohn  Pringle, finally reaching Lansdowne at 9 P.M., a weary  family.  We lived in the Anglican  rectory which had never before been occupied. It was  here that Fred was born in  1891. It was just next to the  cemetery, on the other side  of which camped the Indians.  I must confess that I felt quite  timid at first when they passed in droves to potlatches at  the Head of the Lake and  Enderby. The lizards were  thick above the house among  the stones.    One day I heard  Mr.   and   Mrs.   George   Murray  74 Lansdowne and Armstrong, 1891A 892  Will screaming. I ran out through the kitchen to find a huge  lizard between twelve and fifteen inches long, running too close  for comfort.    It hissed and fought as I killed it with a club.  There were between forty and fifty residents in Lansdowne  including children. The school was opened when we arrived  with three children of school age. Miss McCrae, who later  married David Wright, was the first teacher and a very fine  person.  My husband opened a little shop of fruit and confections.  He made his own taffy, pulling it over a large hook. He also  brought into the Valley the first fruit, shipped by Oppenheimer,  Vancouver. I remember the apricots which were the first I  had seen as they were not grown in Ontario at that.time. He  brought in the first maple syrup and honey from Woodstock,  Ontario — also clarified cider. The Patten boys drove in every  Saturday night to buy fruit and candy for their mother. Later,  he added groceries and was made postmaster with the post-  office being in one end of the store. This office was handed  him by Mr. Wallace, the first postmaster ■— who had a large  farm which kept him busy.  ' Mr. Harry Schneider was our first caller, followed by his  two sisters and Mrs. Hamill with Bobby and Aggie. Everyone  was very nice.  Messrs. Hamill and MacLeod owned a sash and door  factory; Harry Schneider operated a blacksmith shop; W. L  Armstrong had a tin and plumbing shop; Charlie Addison a  shoe shop; Rabbit and Wood the general store. Mr. Cartwright  owned the hotel and also had a large farm opposite B. F. Young,  lohn Pringle ran the freight wagon; Rev. Knox Wright was the  Presbyterian minister, followed by Rev. T. G. McLeod, a fine  man and excellent preacher. All services were held in the  Hall, as were all concerts, dances, etc. Doctor Offerhaus was  the family doctor with Mrs. Frane acting as nurse. I don't  recall what the Seed family did but they moved their house in  to Armstrong where it still stands on Wood Avenue.  Doctor Offerhaus had the first buggy, a two-wheeled gig.  Mr. Cartwright had the first one-horse carriage and Charlie  Addison got a new buggy with sporty yellow wheels which  was the envy of all. He stabled his pony in our barn, in return  for which he would loan us his horse and buggy — or horse  75 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  and cutter — as the season demanded. I will never forget  our first drive to Armstrong by horse and cutter in late winter,  very early in the spring of '92. The country was a fairyland  with trees arched across the road heavily laden with snow  under a bright sun — the fences and stumps piled high with  white snow, there being no wind in those days to blow it off.  Oddly enough, we had expected a green Christmas but when  we awakened on Xmas morning, we had between eight and  ten inches of snow, which was a delight not only to the children.  It was the most beautiful winter I ever experienced.  I believe that Mr. and Mrs. George Lynn and Mr. and Mrs.  John Pringle were married in Lansdowne prior to 1891 but the  first wedding I really knew of was the marriage of Doctor  Offerhaus and Miss Choquet. Osborne MacPherson and  William Holtby built the doctor's house in 1891. My husband,  with a helper, dug the cellar —■ a pickaxe being used for the  operation. This was his first work of that nature done by my  husband since his accident. Later, he built the snake fence  along by the Cartwright farm to the top of Jake Laur's hill with  no help.   Part of it still stands at the top of fake Laur's hill.  The first funeral in Lansdowne was, I think, that of a young  English boy who had been killed by a horse at Enderby. I  watched it from our house and felt badly for his people who  were so far away. There were graves of two or three Chinese  in the cemetery before that.  Mr. Fortune used to hold what he called a "gathering of  the schools". The hall held the crowd that came from far and  near. Very good talent was shown. Harry Barrett had a  beautiful voice and sang "They Have All Dispersed and  Wandered Far Away." Doctor Offerhaus sang "Rocked in the  Cradle of the Deep"; Mr. LeDuc and Mr. Fortune also gave  addresses. The children did their part too, Lee Patten with  another boy, sang Mr. Fortune's favorite song, "A Boy's Best  Friend is His, Mother."  One incident that I remember had to do with our water  supply. There was only one well in Lansdowne near the hotel,  from which water was drawn by a windlass. Will and Holmes,  aged 9 and 7 respectively, had a little express wagon in which  were set two five-gallon coal oil tins. It was their job to bring  in the daily supply of water.   One day they came home without  76 Lansdowne and Armstrong, 1891-1892  it. A cowboy, fimmie Day, had been riding a rough bronco  on a bet. The horse reared, bucked and rolled on him but  couldn't throw him. It finally made a dash for the well, fimmie  grabbed the roof over the well and pulled himself out of the  saddle but the horse plunged eighty feet to its death. A special  windlass was built to remove it and there was no water for  anyone for two days.  Horses and cattle were left out on the ranges all winter.  Horses survived but when the cattle were brought in, in the  spring, they would stagger to the well, crazed from starvation  and thirst, although they still had enough spirit to chase anyone  in sight. It was not an uncommon sight in spring to see dead  cattle strewn along the ranges, starved and frozen.  On March 4, 1892 we moved from Lansdowne to Armstrong.  The town was at first named Aberdeen after Lord Aberdeen  but was changed to Armstrong after a C.P.R. man. I The only  available house was a boarding house which had been thrown  up to house the workmen who were building other buildings.  Aside from this, there were only a couple of shacks in the town.  We boarded some of the men until our own home was built,  and moved our little store down from Lansdowne, carrying on  the same business. Finally we added meat but allowed the  post office to go to the "Big Store" as it was called where Jim  Wright was a clerk.    I remember they all wore big hats.  The first church service in Armstrong was held in our home  by Reverend Thompson, a Methodist minister, from Kamloops.  We had the first organ so all choir practice and musical  evenings were held at our place.  The Saw-mill was built early in 1892 and the C.P.R. station  was built on the corner. Mr. Lorimer, the first C.P.R. agent  moved in with his family. The Shuswap and Okanagan came  in three times a week. Mr. Crawford built a store. T. W.  Fletcher erected the hotel which Mr. Keys took over and on  October 21, 1893, it burned down. All the boarders came to  our place for breakfast. Our two boys, Will and Holmes, 10  and 8 years of age, walked through the bush to Round Prairie,  to school. Often the coyotes would follow. Once, a bear ran  up a tree where the Hassard home now stands. The boys ran  home to get somebody to shoot it.   Of course it had gone before  1. This common misconception has been corrected.    See A. G. Harvey,  "The Place Name 'Armstrong'," Thirteenth Report, 153-155.  77 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  anyone could get there. Frank Wolfenden, Jim Wright and J.  Poole were clearing land down by the crossing and got between  the mother bear and her cubs. The mother bear rushed for Mr.  Poole, who fortunately, was a great sprinter. He ran, leaped,  caught a limb of a tree and pulled himself up just as she  reached the tree trunk. There were many bears and mountain  lions. I remember Tom Leduc driving around town with a large  cougar which he had shot.  In 1897 the flour mill caught fire about midnight, presumably caused by the explosion of a lantern which the night-  watchman, Mr. Harrison, carried. He was badly burned. Dr.  Reinhart of Vernon attended him but he died before morning.  In 1899 or 1900 the entire north side of the railroad was burned  early in the morning. There was no water to speak of, so nothing much could be done. There was one well on the  corner. We had a drive force pump driven down—the first  pump in Armstrong, so the boys carried wet blankets to save  the buildings. The freight-shed just across the track from us  was burning so we had everything from the house carried outside.    Others did likewise.  The first doctor in Armstrong was Dr. McLaren, a McGill  graduate, a fine and clever man. When the ditch was opened  along the meadow, there was an epidemic of typhoid. The  doctor kept going without rest until he was taken ill. He died  quite suddenly. Dr. Morris of Vernon filled the gap, driving  from Vernon, a distance of fifteen miles, over very bad roads  at times—in good or bad weather—to attend the sick. He was  a very kind and able man. Old and young liked him. Dr.  Van Kleeck came in about 1900 and practiced until his death  in 1929. He was a splendid doctor and a fine public-spirited  man, liked by everyone.  There was only one road into Armstrong •— a corduroy,  built from the Otter Lake road. When the railroad was built,  people walked the tracks.    There were no sidewalks then.  There was a lot of cattle stealing off the ranges in those  days. Some of the hides were found with brands on. Three  of the guilty skipped the country, one with handcuffs on. On  one occasion, the policeman had a cattle thief in a buggy. The  fellow was allowed to drive. It happened to be his own pony,  so he gave the "Indian yell", threw the reins over the dash  78 Lansdowne and Armstrong, 1891-1892  board and jumped into the bush.    He never was found.  Many were the real friends we made in those days as we  helped each other. There were the Schuberts, Amos Hills, McPhersons, McLeods, Wolfendens, Barnards, Beckers, Gordons,  Schneiders, Hamills, Mathesons, Patchetts, Croziers, McDonalds,  Levers, Hallams, Ehmkes, Pattens, McNairs and many others.  In later years, Mrs. A. Schubert moved in from the country  and lived next door to us. How we all loved her and her stories  as she recalled her experiences as she journeyed over the  mountains before the railroad was built.  Most of those early pioneers have passed but their names  will long be remembered in the Okanagan Valley.  EDITOR'S NOTE — The following additional information is  added   by   Mrs.   Murray's   daughter,   Margaret,   Mrs.   Morrice  Middleton:  "Other than ours, there were  only two houses  in  Armstrong when we arrived.   George Patchett and family lived  where the Chinese laundry now is and Sandy Grant with his  family lived where  the  Phillips  &  Whitehouse  grocery now  stands.    There was a wee butcher shop where the egg pool  now operates which was carried on by Tom Williamson, lack  Patchett, Bob Seed and Tommy Glendenning.    None of these  men bothered to stay in their place of business if it suited them  to be elsewhere, so they left the day book on the counter, a  quarter of beef on the block where people cut their own meat,  weighed it and marked it down on their own page.    Hearts,  tongues, and livers were not considered worth selling but were  thrown in with the purchase. Seldom did we hear of dimes or  nickels. Practically the only change at that time was two-bits,  four-bits, six-bits and dollars.    It took genuine courage to ask  for a dime's worth of candy. The following year (1893) father  built his own house with practically no help and later it became  the city market. He brought in the first carload of beef cattle from  Alberta and took the first carload of horses (cayuses) to Ontario  for sale.    About this time the cottage schoolhouse was built.  We were especially fortunate in having Mr. Osborne McPherson  for our teacher.   He was a grand example for us.   Saturday was  a day to look forward to, for on Saturday, the country pioneers  came to town.   Occasionally, Mr. and Mrs. Fortune would drive  through on their way to see Mrs. Greenhow at the Head of the  Lake.   Father always made our home "open" on Saturday and  79 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  I remember that once we prepared dinner for 24 visitors."  Another daughter, Mrs. lean Thayer writes of her parents'  contribution  to  the  community:  "Dad passed away very suddenly in November, 1936, and  mother passed away eleven years later, in July 1947, after a  long illness.  "No one could have contributed more towards the building  of a community than they, with a zeal and enthusiasm which  could not be surpassed.  "Mother was always eager to help the needy and sick and  although she was more than busy at home with a large family  to feed and care for, she found time for church work and all  community affairs. She and dad were instrumental in the  building of the first Presbyterian Manse in Armstrong. They  both took a keen interest in public affairs of Canada in general  and British Columbia and the Okanagan Valley in particular.  Mother's pride and joy was her home and garden. Her flowers  were shared with all who had none of their own.  "I remember how many wanderers —• and the Indians with  their papooses, came to our door. Not one was turned away  hungry — nor was a stray animal. Thus we had more than  our share of cats and dogs. We had a number of fine horses,  too, which both she and dad loved to ride and drive. And I  remember, too, how many a child was sent home from the meat  market which dad operated, with a special piece of meat tucked  in just for him or her.  "Dad was vitally interested in the progress of the community  and Valley. I recall how he worked for a swimming pool when  we were small. How happy he would be to know that we have  one now. He was also interested in all sports — the Sunday  School picnic excursions to Kelowna—the skating rink, etc. and  encouraged us to take part in all healthy exercise. He, I  believe, was responsible for our first water-works system. The  first dam at the power house was, I believe, called "The Murray  Dam."  "Rev. William Stott, who was our minister for a number of  years, wrote to my father, in 1927, stating that our church was  in debt to the extent of $1,500. No one seemed to be much  interested. Finally dad volunteered to try to have the debt  wiped off.   So he, along with Mr. Stott as driver, canvassed the  80 Lansdowne and Armstrong, 1891-1892  country. Mr. Stott states that dad decided just how much each  farmer should contribute before reaching his farm. In June,  1927, the obligation was met and the notes burned. The only  part dad didn't enjoy on that occasion was being brought to  the platform in the church hall.  "Although mother and dad frequently spoke of Ontario,  neither of them for one moment regretted their decision to  pioneer in this Okanagan Valley, and undoubtedly, they left  their imprint for the betterment of the community."  Attention has been called to an error in Report XV, 201, re  the naming of Pickering Street, Penticton. The following data  has been supplied by Mrs. J. Meldrum and W. Mutch, of  Penticton:  Pickering Street was named after Peter Pickering, who  came to Penticton in 1906. This street, unnamed before 1911,  was originally a wagon road following Penticton Creek and  was used as a shortcut from Eckhardt Avenue to Wade Avenue  (formerly Fairview Avenue) Mr. Pickering owned the land on  both sides of Eckhardt Avenue from Penticton Creek to the foot  of the benchland. He lived in the old house which stands at  the foot of the hospital hill, east of the road. He and his son  owned the present site of this (old) hospital and later sold it to  the  Hospital  Board.  Mr. Pickering died in Penticton in 1937, his wife, Elizabeth,  having predeceased him by some thirty years. A daugther,  Mrs. Weir (Diantha), died in 1911. His son, Nelson, resides  in Victoria.  81 ARMSTRONG SIXTY YEARS AGO  By Agnes Fisher  Armstrong was a very young town sixty years ago, in its  babyhood. Families had moved down from Lansdowne when  the railroad came this way.  At the east end of our street, Patterson Avenue, the  Anglican Church had been moved down from Lansdowne.  This church, I believe, was the first Protestant church to be  built in the Valley. My father, Mr. John Hamill, built it in  Lansdowne in the 1880's.  Next door to the Anglican church, the McPherson family  lived. Mr. Osborne McPherson had come to Lansdowne in the  year 1891. He came by way of Sicamous to Enderby on the  river boat Red Star. Walking from Enderby it seemed far to  Lansdowne and he thought he was lost. As he neared the  bend of the road into Lansdowne he sat down under a large  pine tree by the roadside and flipped a coin as to whether he  went on or turned back. The coin said to go on, and he was  but a few steps further on when Lansdowne came into sight.  Mr. McPherson sat for teacher's exams at Kamloops in July  of that year, and when the town moved to Armstrong, he  became the first teacher here. School was held in a small  frame building on Wood Avenue. The dwelling is now part of  Mrs. Crowe's home. Among the first pupils of the school were  the Meighans. Mae Meighan afterward became supervisor of  schools for Lewis County in Washington.  Mr. McPherson was a fine man and a good teacher. He  was very fond of .music and we looked forward to our half  hour of singing in school each day. He was helpful, too, in  the affairs of the town. He played in the town band. When  the Presbyterian, now the United Church, was being built he  gave freely of his time after school hours to assist in building  it. He sang in the Presbyterian choir. How well I remember  one Sunday morning when there was a special service in the  church, and Mr. McPherson was among the members in the  choir.   Mr. Lee Patten, now Dr. Patten of Chilliwack, was sing-  82 Armstrong 60 Years Ago  ing a solo "Hosanna in the Highest", when Mr. McPherson's  little scottie dog walked up the aisle of the church. As Lee  reached the high notes the dog started to howl and the louder  and higher Lee sang the louder the dog howled. Suddenly  Lee stopped singing, and turning to Mr. McPherson said in a  voice you could hear all over the church, "Mac take that   dog out of here.    I can't compete with him."  As the attendance in school increased, plans were made  for a larger school. Mr. McPherson had 76 pupils enrolled  before a second school room was put in use. The second room  was, for awhile, in the Masonic Hall, where the Terminal Motor  Garage now stands. When this hall later burned down, school  was held in the Methodist Church on Patterson Avenue until  what is now the high school was built. This was a one-storey  building then, the upper storey being added later. Miss Nellie  McDonald was the second teacher.  It was Mr. McPherson who grew the first celery in  Armstrong. He sent back east for the seed and grew it in the  meadows back of his home. He made gifts of it to the boat on  the Arrow Lakes and other places. Mr. Burnett was the first to  ship it from here on a commercial basis.  Next door to the McPhersons the Keyes lived for awhile.  Mr. Keyes ran the Armstrong Hotel then. Later Roland and  John Hill and their sister Jane lived here for many years.  When the Wolfendens came to Armstrong, they built their  home next door to Hills. This is now the home of Mr. J. H.  Wilson. The next dwelling up the street was that of Hugh  Wood. He was a nephew, I believe, of Mr. Robert Wood of  Wood, Cargil Company, the first general store in the town.  Hugh Wood owned considerable land back of his home  reaching up to what is now the T. K. Smith property. Mr. Tom  Cumming was overseer of this estate for many years.  The Hamills lived next door to the Woods. My father had  come to the Valley in the early eighties and settled in the Deep  Creek district. He had a small machine shop but when Lansdowne started up, he moved, going into partnership with Mr.  John Pringle in a wheelwright and machine shop at Lansdowne.  Shortly after this he drove by horse and buggy to Kamloops to  meet Miss Agnes Diamond, who arrived by Canadian Pacific  Railway from Belfast, Ireland.   They were married in Kamloops  83 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  and drove back to Lansdowne, the trip taking three days.  Stopovers were made at Grande Prairie, now Westwold, and  at the Crawford farm in Knob Hill. Three of our family were  born in Lansdowne, Robert of Wells; Agnes, Mrs. Steele Fisher  of Armstrong; and Beatrice, Mrs. John Crookston of Victoria.  Later, in Armstrong, Florence, Mrs. George Speirs of Vancouver;  and Violet were born. lohn was born in Ireland when the  family went there on a visit. The old home is still at Lansdowne  on the B. F. Young property.  My father and Norman McLeod opened up the first furniture  store in the town. It was located where the George Smith  Hardware store now stands. With the store was a sash-and-  door factory where they made most of the furniture they sold.  When Mr. McLeod moved to Vernon, Mr. Ireland took over  his partnership.    Later this building was burned down.  Across from our home was the Methodist church. Services  of both Presbyterian and Methodist Churches were held here  until the Presbyterian Church was built. At Christmas time each  year a concert was held in this church with a very large tree  and Santa Claus as the main attraction and on the tree was a  gift for every child in the town. There were no other buildings  on this side of the street until you reached the corner of Patterson  and Okanagan Streets. The church was in the center of the  street. Empty lots were on either side, and many were the  games of cricket and foot ball played on these lots, especially  on those going down towards the Anglican Church. It was  the sport grounds of the town in those days.  Farther up the street on the residential side, was a livery  barn. It is still standing there. It was then owned by George  Murray. At the end of the street the Irelands lived. Mrs.  Ireland was very musical and on Saturday afternoons we  children, the McPhersons, the Patchetts, Murrays and ourselves  would often gather around Mrs. Ireland at the organ and she  would teach us to sing hymns. Her daughters, Eva and Aldyth  would join in the singing. I can't remember if Corina Fraser  was with us or not. I do remember the home made bread and  jam we always had in the kitchen afterwards.  George Patchett's family lived across from Irelands at the  corner of Okanagan and Patterson Avenue. Annie Patchett  was the first girl to be born in Armstrong. Across from Ireland's Armstrong 60 Years Ago  house there was a small shop which in the early days was  Tom Williamson's butcher shop. When a customer wanted  meat and Tom was not about, he would cut off a piece of meat,  wrap it up and charge himself for it in the book on the counter.  Try doing that these days!  Amos Hill's dwelling was where the Wolfenden Block now  stands. Here was the best pump-water in town, or so the  neighbors said. The different families living nearby hauled  water from it. On this same property there was a cattle corral.  The Hill boys, Dave and lohn, were very fond of horses and  many a colt was broken to ride in this corral. Mrs. Hill was  a kindly person and was always there to help if called upon in  case of illness or when the help was needed.  Across the street, the Sandy Grants lived. Mrs. Grant kept  a candy and confectionery store here I believe. Harry Schneider  had a blacksmith shop in this part of town. Up the street from  this was the Armstrong Hotel. Mr. T. W. Fletcher built this hotel  and it is still in use. He married Miss Elizabeth Hassard. At  the corner, where the Mat Hassen Block is now, Mr. Mose Levar  built, I am told, the first building in Armstrong. It was a small  shop, later being moved to form part of the Hope Bakery. The  Levars lived on the hill back of town near where Mr. Otto  Lane now lives. I have heard Mr. Levar tell of the time he  fed cattle where the Armstrong Hotel now stands. One very  cold winter he had to set the dogs chasing the cattle to keep  them eating.    That was one of those cold winters of years ago.  Mr. E. C. Watson had the first skating rink in the town. It  was in a barn on his place (across from the present hospital).  To flood this rink he had to pump the water from a well and  carry it in buckets. One cold night when he was pouring the  water out of a bucket on to the ice he discovered, on attempting  to move, that his shoes were frozen to the ice. So he climbed  out of his shoes, walked in his stocking feet to the house and  got a kettle of hot water which he took back and poured on  the rink to loosen his shoes.  The Canadian Pacific Railway station in those days sat  across from where Mat Hassen's Block is now. Mr. Lorimer  was the first agent here. I can remember an evening when  the families of the town gathered in the waiting room of the  station, to hear our first "Talking Machine" which Mrs. Lorimer  85 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  had brought in. It had a large horn attached and had tubular  discs in place of the platter ones of the present date. To us, it  was so very amazing to hear music and voices from that  machine!  George Murray owned and ran a butcher shop farther  down this front street, Railroad Avenue. Next to the shop was  the Murray home. They had a large family, but if a neighbor  was ill, or needed help, Mrs. Murray was right there to give  a helping hand. She made a wonderful nurse and was never  too busy with her own large family but that she could spare  time to help others. Bakings of bread, buns, pies or cakes, often  found their way into the needy home from Mrs. Murray's  kitchen.    She, too, was a wonderful pioneer.  Next door to the Murrays lived the McLeods. I cannot  remember them so well as I was small when they went to  Vernon to live.  Most of the business section of the town was on Railroad  Avenue on the other side from the station. Wood, Cargil and  Company's store was located at the corner of Okanagan and  Railroad  streets,   'catty-corner'  from  the  station.     This  was  a  general store, where  they sold groceries, dry  goods, hardware and  most anything that was  needed in the country at  the time. They also  owned the sawmill, now  the Smith Sawmill. The  staff in the store consisted of Al Morgan, George  Smith, Dave Wright and  my father, manager.  Hardy, Wright and  Company later built  across from the Wood,  Cargil and Company,  where the Smith Hardware store is now. Their  store was later set on  fire by a demented man  called   Eagle,   and  was  First General Store in Armstrong  "The Big Store"  Wood, Cargil & Co.  86 Armstrong 60 Years Ago  burned to the ground.  The lim Wrights lived across the town on Wood Avenue.  Mr. Wright was Municipal Clerk and our postmaster for many  years and afterwards became the first Mayor of the City of  Armstrong.  After the Flour Mill started up, the Becker family came to  Armstrong. The Holtby, Schneider and the Becker families lived  on Railway Avenue west of the business section. At the end  of the street lived the Wallaces. They had a boarding house  here for quite a number of years.  Another family that the Flour Mill brought into the country  was the Gordons but I cannot remember where in town they  lived.  In the Flour Mill there was installed a bath tub, the first  in the town, installed by subscriptions from the fellows about  town. A regular line-up was the order on Saturday afternoons.  Lots of hot water too!  The McGees came a little later, and lived across from the  school on Wood Avenue. Mrs. McGee is still living, at the age  of 96 years. She, too, was one of those neighbors who gladly  gave a helping hand when needed.  The Harry Frasers lived across from the Presbyterian  Church. They were one of-the earliest families in Armstrong,  and a very esteemed family. Mr. Fraser taught school in the  early days.    Mrs. Fraser was Miss Norah Schubert.  This is as I remember the town in the early days. There  were other, families and buildings but these I have told about  stand out in my .memory.  On July 19 and 21 of this year the Municipality of  Spallumcheen celebrated its Golden Jubilee. It was a very  happy and momentous occasion especially for the 'Old  Timers'. It brought back to town for the occasion, Mae Meighan  (Mrs. Pershing) and lessie Meighan (Mrs. Royce). The Crozier  boys were here too, as also quite a number of the Bowell family.  In the early days these families lived out in the country. Annie  Patchett (Mrs. Wm. White) was here, and also her brother Art.  Patchett with his wife, the former Sarah Matheson.  Dave Wright's twp daughters, Beth (Mrs. Sears of Nanton,  Albert) and Florence, (Mrs. Burge of Calgary) were here with  their brother Walter of Calgary.    We surely did enjoy their  87 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  visit. While she was here, Beth told me the history of her  people: Mary Harriet McRae (Minnie) came to Victoria in 1889  with her mother and sister from Glengary, Ontario. After  teaching a year at Metchosin, V.I., she went to the Okanagan  on the recommendation of Mr. A. L. Fortune. She taught at  Enderby, boarding with Mrs. Lambly, and then at Lansdowne,  boarding with Hamills and part of the time at A. L. Fortune's.  On October 26, 1891, she married David Annan Wright. They  had three children, all of whom are living in Alberta: Mrs. S. S.  Sears of Nanton, Mr. Walter M. Wright of DeWinton, and Mrs.  C. E. Burge of Calgary. David Wright died in 1917 and Mary  Wright in 1951. Mr. Wright had come from London, Ontario  in 1890 with his mother, two brothers and two sisters, two of  whom are still living, Mrs. Annie Jordan of Toronto, and Mrs.  J, E. Matheson of Vancouver. One of his brothers was Rev.  John Knox Wright, who at one time was stationed at Lansdowne.  Four teachers, including Mary McRae came down the  Okanagan by boat in August, 1890. Mary went to Enderby, and  the others to Vernon, Kelowna and Penticton. There had been  another teacher at Enderby before Mary McRae. The other  woman teacher, Miss Norris went to Vernon and the two men  went farther south. David Wright and Mr. Bell had a store in  Enderby. Then he homesteaded and pre-empted land two  miles out of Armstrong and was with the Wood, Cargill store  until he moved to Alberta in 1908.  It is believed that John Knox Wright came to Lansdowne  in 1887. He and his family had been in Trinidad for four and  a half years but they returned to Canada on account of Mrs.  Wright's health. He liked it in the west and had his family  move to British Columbia. They took up land near Armstrong  and David bought a place near them after he came in 1890  or '91. He went to work with Will Paton in a general store, the  only one then, in the Lansdowne district. Will Paton later  married David's youngest sister, Annie.  Charles LeDuc, son of Thomas LeDuc, the first teacher at  the Round Prairie school, died in February, 1952. Mr. LeDuc  was born at Cache Creek on December 7, 1882, and had lived  in the Armstrong district since 1883.  88 Dedication address on Saturday, July 19, 1952,  by Rev. J. C. Goodfellow  In the Old Testament we read, "Remove not the ancient  landmark, which thy fathers have set" (Proverbs 22:28). In  Bunyan's pilgrim's Progress Great-heart said of Mr. Fearing  that he loved much to see ancient things, and to be pondering  them in his mind. Not that he desired to live in the past, but  that he sought to keep alive the lessons of history, and apply  them to the present, knowing full well that "no future is safe  where the past is forgotten." More than once in our generation  we have learned to our cost, in men, money and material, that  we cannot afford to forget the past. And if to-day we call to  mind the days and years that are gone, it is not that we would  go back to these times, but in order that we might keep alive  the spirit of the pioneers which made settlement and progress  possible in these parts. We are concerned about the present.  We have an eye to the future, to the shape of things to come.  When the great Scottish writer, Hugh Miller, told the story  of his life, he chose for its title My Schools and Schoolmasters.  That is the subject many of you have in mind today. The  school we dedicate as a memorial to our pioneers was built in  the summer of 1885. It was the first school in the district, just  as Spallumcheen was the first rural municipality in the interior  of our province, dating back, as it does, to July 21, 1892. Some  of those who built the school, and founded the municipality,  were members of the Overland Expedition of 1862. Ten years  before that date — 1852 ■— just a hundred years ago, the city  of Victoria was surveyed. Anticipating the award of the  Boundary Commission in 1846, Hudson's Bay Company officials  had selected the site, and in 1843 moved their headquarters  from the mouth of the Columbia to the southern tip of Vancouver  Island, where Fort Victoria was erected.  Queen Victoria ascended the throne of the Empire in 1837.  The crown colony of Vancouver Island was proclaimed in 1850,  1. Reprinted from Armstrong Advertiser, July 24, 1952.  89 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  and the mainland became a separate colony on November 19,  1858, with lames Douglas, former Hudson's Bay Company chief  factor, as governor. The two colonies were united in 1866.  When the Overlanders came west in 1862, civil war was raging  across the line. It lasted from 1861 until 1865. It was fought  on the principle that no nation can remain half slave and half  free.  These dates give the setting in time for the events we  remember today: the Overlanders of 1862, incorporation in 1892,  and the building of the first school in Spallumcheen in 1885.  These three events are parts of the story we have in mind today.  WESTWARD HO!  We need refer to the Overlanders, only, as the story  concerns Okanagan.  Most of those who formed the Overland Expedition of 1862  came from the eastern provinces of Ontario and Quebec. Some  came from across the line, notably the Schuberts. They  assembled at Fort Garry, and on the June 2, 1862, left for White  Horse Plains, where they organized in bands for the long trek  west. There were 96 carts, and every morning an early start  was made when the command rang out, "Every man to his ox."  The party did not reach the crown colony of British Columbia  till the fall of the year.  The part of the story I like to linger on tells of leaving  Edmonton, and, two days later, arriving at Lake St. Ann's.  Here they met Father Lacombe, and enjoyed the luxury of new  potatoes; and here the factor, Colin Fraser, a true Highland  Scot, played the bagpipes for them. Here, too, they changed  their carts for pack horses, and not many days hence had their  first glimpse of the Rocky Mountains. The best, and the worst,  was yet to come.  The members of the expedition had been lured west by  prospects of gold. They had not hesitated to sacrifice present  comfort for future gain. That is one mark of prospector and  pioneer alike. They were the foot-soldiers of civilization on  the march. They had in mind the Promised Land, and were  inspired by dreams of Golden Cariboo.  Here we must pause to see the part played by gold in the  development of our province.    In the late fifties the search for  90 Round Prairie School Becomes a Shrine  gold became more profitable than the hunt for furs.   The Fraser  River and Similkameen preceded Cariboo in importance.  Ten years after the excitement of 1849 in California,  thousands of prospectors headed north to the British colony. A  company of Royal Engineers from England arrived in 1858 to  help Douglas maintain law and order, and to assist in the  development of the mainland colony.  Gold had been discovered in Similkameen in 1858, and at  Rock Creek in 1859. In September, 1860, Douglas visited the  diggings at Rock Creek, where the so-called war had broken out  because many prospectors refused to take out licences. Douglas  returned by way of Similkameen, where Royal Engineers were  busy constructing a way through the mountains. They followed,  in part, the trail that had been pioneered by A. C. Anderson  for the Hudson's Bay Company following the Boundary award  of 1846. They desired an all-red route from the northern  hinterland to the Pacific, one that would avoid the dangerous  stretches of the Fraser River.  At Rock Creek Douglas appointed Robert ("Bobby")  Stevenson as customs officer. He had been a member of Captain  Collins' expedition from Washington to Similkameen, and  arrived at Rock Creek in June, 1860. He was a big man, big  enough to command respect. The Indians had a name for  him: he was the man who knew no fear. He sat on his horse  like a king. But before long Bobby was attracted north by the  growing fame of Cariboo. He became a partner of Cariboo  Cameron, and was in Cariboo when some of the Overlanders  arrived.   He and Jim Schubert were to become life-long friends.  It goes without saying that although fortunes were made  and lost in Cariboo, many were disappointed in their search  for gold. But just as the hunt for furs gave place to the search  for gold, many prospectors became settlers and farmers. They  found wealth in the soil, and many of our communities were  pioneered by such prospectors. Some of them came to North  Okanagan, and we hold their names in grateful remembrance.  They were inspired by vision, and the toil of years helped to  give reality to their dreams. Now they rest from their labours,  but their dreams have come true, and much that we enjoy today  we owe to them. "Long life to the hearts still beating, and peace  to the hearts at rest."  91 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  SPALLUMCHEEN INCORPORATED  This brings us to talk of Spallumcheen, its pioneers,  incorporation and progress.  Vernon, as well as Spallumcheen, is celebrating its  Diamond Jubilee. The earliest Vernon claims were recorded by  Forbes George Vernon and Charles Frederick Houghton, each  of whom recorded a pre-emption on October 30, 1862. The  first to take up permanent occupation within the bounds of the  present townsite was Luc Girouard in 1867, although Charles A.  Vernon had previously recorded the same land, but had not  completed title.  The best-known names in Spallumcheen are Fortune and  Schubert.  Alexander Leslie Fortune was the first permanent settler  in the district. After arriving with the Overlanders he had gone  on to Victoria, then travelled Kootenay and Cariboo. Along  with lohn Malcolm, Thomas Dunne and John B. Burns, he arrived  in the valley on June 14, 1866. All had been Overlanders and  were still in search for gold. Each of them staked a pre-emption  of 160 acres. Later, they went to Lytton to record their claims,  but were told they would have to apply to J. C. Haynes at  Osoyoos. Permission was granted, but apparently Malcolm  and Dunne left the district soon after, as the land south of  Fortune's was recorded in 1868 by Mark Wallis, another  member of the Overland Expedition.  Mr. Fortune was rightly regarded as the Father of  Presbyterianism in North Okanagan. He was the friend of all,  native and newcomer alike. Later, he conducted a Sunday  School for native and white children. In this he was assisted  by Mrs. Fortune, the first white woman to locate on the  Spallumcheen. Mrs. Fortune survived her husband who died  on July 5, 1915.  Mr. and Mrs. Augustus Schubert came with the Overlanders  in 1862. They had three children: Augustus, lames and Mary.  Soon after reaching Kamloops a daughter was born, and they  called her Rose, the first white child born in the interior of  British Columbia. They did not acquire land in Spallumcheen  till 1877. This was because Mr. Schubert mined in Cariboo  for eleven years, and rejoined his family at Lillooet in 1874.  Augustus Schubert, Ir., took up parcels of land in 1881 and  92 Round Prairie School Becomes a Shrine  1884 east of his father's original claim. These were afterwards  owned, in part, by Dr. W. B. McKechnie and son.  fames Schubert also took up land. He used to drive stage  from Kamloops to Okanagan Lake, and changed horses at  Round Prairie, where the family had settled. Jim afterwards  moved to the south end of the lake, and later to Tulameen,  where he ran a store. He was a mere infant when he came  with the Overlanders in 1862. He related to me how Peter  Mclntyre took him on his back and swam across the  Saskatchewan River.   This, I think, was his earliest recollection.  After mining in Cariboo, and prospecting in the Mackenzie  River district, Peter Mclntyre crossed to the United States of  America, where he became Indian fighter and pony express  guard. In the early eighties he returned to British Columbia,  and settled near Vaseux Lake, where his sister, Mrs. Mackenzie,  kept house for him. When he died in 1925 at the age of 91, Jim  Schubert was one of the pall-bearers at the funeral. Jim died on  March 17, 1938, and was buried at Tulameen.  The original Spallumcheen post-office was opened July 1,  1881, with G. J. Wallace postmaster. The district was  incorporated on July 21, 1892, with Donald Graham first reeve.  The post office at Armstrong was opened on July 1, 1892. With  the coming of the railway, Armstrong become the centre of the  district. Since then, the centre and district have grown in  importance. You have a number of industries, times are good,  and future prospects bright.  SCHOOL DAYS  Both the Fortunes and the Schuberts had much to do with  the school we dedicate today. In last year's Report of the  Okanagan Historical Society is an article about this school by  the late Charles LeDuc. In the summer of 1885 the farmers held  a bee, and placed the logs in position. An acre of land had  been donated by Augustus Schubert for a school site, and he  and his son completed the building with rough lumber from  Patten's Mill at Deep Creek, and finishing lumber from  Kamloops.    The desks were built by Harry Barrett.  On the first Board of school trustees were Robert Bowell,  Augustus Schubert and Cyrus Tilton. Thomas LeDuc was first  school teacher. He was followed by Miss Martha J. Norris,  sister of the late Leonard Norris, in Tune, 1888; and by H. A.  93 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  Fraser in 1892.   The school was closed the following year. The  new school at Lansdowne had begun in 1891.  Mr. Fortune is remembered for organizing the annual  "Gathering of the Schools," a united gathering which included  Enderby, Lansdowne, Pleasant Valley and Round Prairie. The  last of these gatherings was held in Armstrong.  Mr. LeDuc tells us also that in the school at Round Prairie  were held the first regular church services in the district, beginning with Rev. }. A. Jaffary in July, 1886.  HITHERTO — HENCEFORTH  It is small wonder, then, that all who knew the school  should desire to see it preserved. In it are enshrined many  memories, grave and gay, which are still cherished.  It will continue to be a place of usefulness, and for this we  are grateful. It will be a symbol of the spirit of the pioneers, a  spirit which we need to-day.  Round Prairie School Group  Present at the dedication ceremony on Saturday, July 19, were pupils  who attended the old Round Prairie School. From left to right,  standing are: Mrs. Arthur Young, Steve Bowell, Arthur Young, Robert  Tilton. Seated, left to right: Frank Young, Mrs. I. Wilson (Maggie  Swanson), Mrs. John Bell, Mrs. Mary Smith, Floyd Hunter, Mrs.  Agnes Leduc, Vance Young.  94 LUMflY -1893 - EIRSTIMPRE  By T. A. Norris  As a lad, even in the calf-love days, my reading was mostly  yarns of hunting and fishing, fames Fenimore Cooper's five  books, following the life of Natty Bumpo from his youth as  'Deerslayer', to his death on the prairies, in the 'Prairie', fighting  famished wolves and no less savage grizzly bears, toasting  deer and caribou steaks on a spit before an open fire; all were  my meat! How I loved those tales and longed to live them!  And my chance came!  Lumby was but a spot in the midst of a 'forest primeval',  hewn for a home by the hand of man, when I first opened my  eyes in it one Sunday morning in 1893. I had dressed quietly,  so as not to disturb my sleeping companion, and had stepped  out onto the piazza over the veranda of the old Ram's Horn  Hotel. Mallard, teal and widgeon, flock after flock, were  winging up through the alders that hid the dam and millpond,  hieing on their way to the small and larger lakes to the south  and east and north. The larger lakes and some of the smaller  you know, but many of the small ones have since disappeared.  Smoke rising from four chimneys was the only sign of human  life. A coyote was tearing around through the bunchgrass  and snowball bushes on Bessette Hill, yapping-up the blue-  grouse and, no doubt, occasionally killing one. I could hear  him plainly but could not see him. I later learned his ways.  Up the road, beyond the old sawmill flume — the ditch still  shows on the Shields and Chisholm lots — a lynx went bobbing,  head up, tail down; tail up, head down. And, I had been told,  the woods swarmed with deer and bear, and the lakes, rivers  and creeks teemed with trout and salmon in the fall!  Right then, on the old Ram's Horn piazza, a gangling,  youthful pedagogue from the east decided to meet the Board of  School Trustees after church that morning. I had walked in  from Benvoulin where I had been staying with my friend, Fred  Watson, the schoolmaster. Only a short time before I had  written examinations at Kamloops to qualify as a schoolmaster,  too, although it had been my intention when I left my home at  95 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  Boulton Village, 25 miles north of Toronto, to stay in the west  only long enough to earn money to permit me to study  engineering at the university. The result of this meeting,  however,   was   that   I   stayed   in   Lumby   until   the   Klondike  Three Early Photos of Lumby by C. W. Holliday  Lumby in 1893  The first schoolmaster, T. A. Norris with school children in front of  the first school  Ram's Horn Hotel  96 Lumby—1893—First Impressions  goldrush, and the first school in the district was duly opened  without pomp or ceremony four weeks after my interview. It  was first known as the White Valley school. Seven years later,  Lumby had gained sufficiently in importance to have a school  of its own.  My school children came by horse and saddle school-bus  and on shanks' two-feet mare from Creighton Valley, Blue  Springs and Shuswap Falls in the east, from Jones Flat and  Dewar Meadows in the west, and from north and south, across  the full width of White Valley. Virile, because of their pioneer  parentage, studious because of their intense desire to learn,  rugged at play like the surrounding hills, it was a pleasure to  teach them, to mark their acts and to reflect upon the motives  that prompted them.  The parents of the children, many of them French-Canadian,  had come from eastern Canada by ox-cart and canoe, across  the boundless prairies and down the rushing, rolling river-  canyons. Some of the parents came from the British Isles, and  had traveled around the Horn to Puget Sound or the Fraser  River and then by stage, pack-train and river-boat to the grassy  hills and fir-clad slopes of White Valley. They, and their  bachelor friends and neighbors, were fine people, cheerful and  generous with their wholehearted hospitality.  The piazza of the old Ram's Horn was an open, railed  platform, supported by the posts of the verandah, which ran  along the south side of the hotel building, facing Vernon Street.  Its elevation above the narrow roadway was some twelve feet.  From this vantage point, all of Lumby, in its natal year, was  plainly visible — that tiny group of homes amidst miles of surrounding forest. Tall firs and pines, at short distance, walled off  from view the open beaver-meadows, one day to become  mixed-farming lands.  Four smoking chimneys to the west provided warmth and  cheer to the first completed building, the bachelor home of  Joseph Nesbitt. It stood on the present site of Nap's Cafe, on  the area now occupied by the south 12 feet of the poolroom  section. It was a one-storey, 12'x22', two-roomed dwelling, with  walls and floor of rough boards, shake roof and stove-pipe  chimney. The rafters were lined part way to the peak, with  boards on tarpaper and ceiled across.    The half-gables were  97 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  open to the breezes, and the loft formed a stamping-ground and  storage place for pack rats.  Across Vernon Street, 80 feet south and 100 feet west of  the hotel, was the home of Cleophas Quesnel, his wife Josephine  (nee Christien) and their little daughter Rose. Theirs was a  12'x28' frame, iy2 storey building, occupied, but not yet quite  completed. It later became the home of Mrs. F. N. Morand,  and was only recently destroyed by fire. Cleophas Quesnel  was a sturdy, square-shouldered, upright man, with a cheery  word and smile for all.  A blacksmith-shop-and-dwelling-house stood directly south  from the hotel on the site now occupied by Martin's Meat  Market. The dwelling part of the building has now disappeared,  but the blacksmith shop is on the property of J. W. doe)  Christien, just over the south boundary of William Shumka's  lot. Smithy Sutherland was a Prince Edward Island covenanter  who went to battle with a ten pound welding hammer in one  hand and a Bible in the other.  The hotel was quite an imposing structure in comparison  with its three neighboring and humble domiciles. It was a  two-storey, frame building, on concrete foundation and with  brick chimneys. The outside walls were finished in rustic  siding, nicely painted — the work was still going on — the  inside walls were plastered. The dimensions were 48 feet  fronting on Vernon Street and 28 feet facing Shuswap Avenue.  Upstairs were halls, sitting-room and seven bedrooms. On the  lower floor were parlor, bedroom, dining-room, kitchen,  entrance-hall, large public-room with pool and card tables, a  small office and a bar-room. Out back was a large woodshed  with storage space above, a long, open drive-shed and a good  stable. The whole made the Ram's Horn Hotel a fine  establishment. It was situated on the corner where all the hotels  have been built. Its site was thirteen feet east, on to Shuswap  Avenue, of the present Lumby Hotel.  I sat down to breakfast that Sunday morning with Mr. and  Mrs. Morand and Fred Watson of Okanagan Mission, my  travelling companion. At the next table were Edward Kitchen,  sometimes known as 'Cranky Ed' and sometimes as 'Mr. Parlor'  —depending on his humor—lohn Hamilton, 'Gentleman Jack',  a tall erect, old Confederate soldier — with long gray-white  98 Lumby—1893—First Impressions  beard — and that tough old Scottie, Ewan Campbell. At their  table a heated debate was going on on the subject of driving  bulls (oxen), each story-teller claiming mastership. Some of the  words used you can read in the Bible ■— but it seemed to me  that they were being uttered with too much emphasis. No one  was the least perturbed, even although a member of the fair  sex was present, and f was soon able to enjoy my ham and  eggs.  The meaning of the name "Penticton" appeared in Report  XII, 216, as being "ever" or "forever" and has been given  various interpretations in tourist pamphlets, etc. According to  Gideon Eneas and (Mrs.) Louise Gabriel, of the Penticton Indian  Reserve, it is a formalized contraction of an Okanagan Indian  phrase meaning "the place where the people stay all the year  round."  Many other Indian bands used to find it necessary to  migrate as the seasons changed, in order to live where there  was adequate fishing or game or berries — all seasonal  provisions against hunger. Open water was a vital necessity  during the winter. Luckily, Penticton district had all these  requirements and so the Penticton band had a permanent home.  (Contributed by V. B. Cawston)  Hugh O'Brien Cumming, son of Captain Cumming, skipper  of the Red Star, the first boat on the Spallumcheen River, died  in Vancouver on September 30,  1951.  99 EARLY SETTLERS Of SALMON RIVER VALLEY  By Edith M. Aitken  Salmon River rises in the hills southwest of Westwold and  travels underground, except at freshet, for four miles. It flows  through Falkland, Glenemma, Schweb's Bridge, and down the  valley to empty into Shuswap Lake at Salmon Arm. It gets  its name from the heavy run of salmon which, prior to the Hell's  Gate rockslide, colored the water red as they migrated to their  spawning grounds. The first roads through the valley were a  poor trail from Kamloops to Priests' Valley and an Indian trail  from Chase through the hills to the Head of the Lake.  The first settlers came in a few years before the Shuswap  & Okanagan Railway was built. In the spring of 1884, Mr. and  Mrs. Henry Currie with their three eldest children, David, Ellen  (Mrs. J. G. Jones), and Jessie (Mrs. T. J. O'Neill) homesteaded the  Spinks place. The little creek on the farm is still called "Currie  Creek". In 1886, they took up what was later called the "old  Pearse place", and there they erected a three-room log cabin  and a large barn. A third daughter, Maggie, was born on the  Spinks place, and a son Harry was born in 1887 on the Pearse  place. Many years later, Harry returned to the place of his  birth to be manager of the Salmon River Land Company.  In 1888, Mrs. Currie's brother, Alex. Ferguson brought his  wife and three children, Archie, Maggie and Willie from  Ontario. They visited with the Curries for a few months while  their house was being constructed at Westwold. The year the  Fergusons arrived, the first school house at Westwold, with Miss  Julia Bradley in charge, was opened. The three older Currie  children and Archie Ferguson drove the three miles to school  in a primitive contraption. Its two wheels were thick slabs sawn  from the end of a large log, whittled down to size, and centered  with a hole burned with hot iron to accommodate the axle. A  rough box was fixed between the wheels, a board served as a  seat, shafts of a sort were attached, and a balky old horse  called "Chinaman" was fastened with a makeshift harness between the shafts. This mode of transportation sufficed for three  months until a buggy and single harness arrived.    The Currie  '100 Early Settlers of Salmon River Valley  family moved to Westwold in 1889.    There Milton and Violet  were born.    In 1897 they moved again, this time to Kamloops.  When the Curries lived 'ñ† at Westwold, Frank Munger was  the Currie's neighbor on the west, and L. R. Pearse, who lived  where the Falkland station is now located was their neighbor  on the east.  The original settlers of Slahalkan (Falkland) were two sets  of twins, Stanley and Leslie Pearse, and Jack and Bert Pearse.  Stanley and Leslie settled in 1885 on what is now the townsite  of Falkland. Soon after, their brothers purchased the Currie  place, now the lower half of the Wilmot farm. Still another  brother, Ernest, lived on the Spinks' farm. Stanley and Leslie  later settled at Westwold. Soon after the turn of the century,  an English syndicate, the Salmon River Land Company,  purchased much of the Pearse land. lack and Bert Pearse again  purchased property in and near Falkland, and were to spend  many years at Willow Springs Farm.  Leslie Pearse describes the first Department of Public Works  in the district as consisting of Dan Angus, who accompanied by  his dog, started each spring with his wheelbarrow, pick and  shovel to fill holes and widen the narrow road. The work took  him the whole season, and he was nicknamed "Annual  Dangus".  Another early settler was Col. Faulkland Warren, V.C.,  D.S.O., K.C.M.G., in whose honor Falkland was named. Col.  Warren was an officer in the Royal Horse Artillery who had  campaigned chiefly in India. His son Victor had come into the  valley before him, and opened a store in Falkland. Colonel  Warren decided to pioneer with his sons William and Charles,  and in 1893, Mrs. Warren and their three daughters joined the  rest of the family at Falkland.  East of the Warren's farm, Tom Smith homesteaded. His  family of five boys, Tom, John, Henry and Walter, and daughter  Agnes (Mrs. Walter Johnson of Enderby) walked five miles to  Glenemma Hall to get their schooling. Logging in the district  started when Charles Schweb started to cut logs for Tom Smith.  These were driven down the river to Salmon Arm. Schweb  later received $2.50 a thousand for cutting logs on the W.  Simpson homestead for the Columbia River Logging Company.  In her diary, Emma Sweet lists the settlers living in the  10.L The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  Valley, from west to east, at the beginning of 1893 as follows:  the Pearse brothers, Colonel Warren, Thomas Smith and his  brother Andy, later postmaster at Ducks who was killed by a  train at the station in 1912, William Kelly, Billy Black, John  Bell, L. P. Jacobs, who sold his homestead rights to Alex.  Ferguson, William Bell, J. Ward, who sold his farm to E. Y.  Gillis, Jack Delisle, W. J. Simpson, Kenneth Sweet, John  McKenzie, Harry McLeod, Louis Gilsoul, veteran of the Civil  War and father-in-law of Charles Schweb, and lohn Bell who  married Lucy Ashton of Enderby and whose farm was later  sold by the Munsells to the Manitoba Gypsum Company.  It was their friendship with the Pearses which led Kenneth  Sweet and his wife to leave Lulu Island and move to the interior.  They travelled from Sicamous     __  ...  to Armstrong over the newly  completed Shuswap & Okanagan Railway, bringing with  them a number of blood  horses which they planned  to raise on the luscious grass.  The winter proved to be too  cold, and all but two of the  horses died the first winter.  At the time that the Sweets  settled on their homestead,  July 1, 1893, the nearest post-  offices were at O'Keefe's and  Hullcar. A petition was circulated asking for the establishment of a post-office at  their house, and a neighbor  John C. McKenzie, without the  knowledge of the Sweets,  wrote to the authorities in Ottawa suggesting that the post office be named "Glenemma",  after the valley or glen and Emma, the Christian name of Mrs.  Sweet. Thus the name Glenemma became attached to the post-  office, school and electoral district. The children in the Sweet  family are Stanley, who now lives in Mara, Reginald in Falkland and Virgie (Mrs. Fred Downer), who lives in Vernon.  Lack of a post-office at Falkland was also an inconvenience  Emma  P.   Sweet  After whom Glenemma was named  102 Early Settlers of Salmon River Valley  to the settlers there. For those living east of the Sweet's, the  closest was at Hullcar, and for those on the west, the closest was  Adelphi (Westwold). A horseback rider would sometimes get a  week's mail and bring it down to Falkland and place it in a  large, general mail-box which was tacked to a tree. Since this  system was not very satisfactory or safe, Colonel Warren  suggested to Mrs. William Bell that she handle the mail. She  had recently arrived from Germany and still found the English  language difficult. She hesitated about assuming the  responsibility of running a post-office . To test her ability to  understand English, Colonel Warren wrote a jumble of words  similar to this, "Mrwilliambell" and asked the young woman  what she would do if she received a letter addressed like this.  After studying the scrawl for a few minutes, she exclaimed, "I  don't know but my husband's name is in it"!. The Colonel said  that would do and if she needed any help to come to him. So  the first Falkland post-office was opened on January 1, 1898.  The Warrens, Smiths and Bells took turns, once a week, in  hauling in the mail.  In the meantime the valley was gradually filling up.  William Kelly and his wife Mary arrived early in the nineties.  Mrs. Kelly had taken training in a Montreal hospital and was  the only local nurse. Her patients were chiefly maternity cases  and her charge was one dollar a day. She nursed several  cases of diptheria in the Hullcar district. William Bell, his father  and his brother lohn had worked on the construction of the  Shuswap & Okanagan Railway, and after they settled in the  valley, they were joined by their sister Annie (Mrs. Frank Fretz  of Revelstoke), whose son now farms part of the old homestead.  In 1895, Alex Ferguson and his family moved from Westwold  to the Jacobs' homestead at Glenemma. He installed the first  windmill irrigation system in Salmon Valley. A daughter  Margaret married E. Y. Gillis in 1901, and a son William  married a daughter of L. J. Botting, one of the valley's first  teachers. Near Schweb's Bridge, Bill Endall had taken up land  some years before 1889. The Voolroths and the Mitchells came  into the valley in 1890. Soon afterwards, my father, fabez  Kneller, came to visit his friend Harry Blurton in 1892. A.  Hadley took over the Blurton and Allan homestead. Louis  Gilsoul, with his son-in-law, Charles Schweb, came from Fargo,  North Dakota, in  1892.    Mrs.  Schweb lived for some time at  103 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  Hullcar before moving in 1895 to the farm at the bridge. Several  members of the family still live in the valley: Charlie at the  bridge, Walter and Rose at Silver Creek, May (Mrs. W. Taylor)  at Monte Lake, and Pearl (Mrs. Alex. Pringle) at Westwold. Two  Welshmen, Ed. and Bert Morgan who worked for Price Ellison  when my father did, were influenced by him to come to the  valley. They had the first store, later operated by Mr.  Chamberlain and then by A. J. Heywood, and now their  property is owned by J. R. Freeze and E. N. Needoba.  As they became more numerous, the settlers took steps to  provide for community activities. At a meeting held in 1900, it  was decided to build a community hall which could be used  as a place of worship and for gatherings. Gordon French  donated an acre of land for the project, and others gave logs  or provided labour. Kenneth Sweet was more or less the  "strawboss" of the building-bee and his family provided a  good many free meals for the workers. The Inland Sentinel  described the opening of the hall in these words: "On March 9th  the official opening of the Glenemma Hall took place. The  long-looked for event, the opening of this new public hall, in  spite of the bad roads was a complete success. For days the  people had been busily engaged in putting the finishing touches  to the building and by eight o'clock in the evening the hall was  comfortably filled with residents from the surrounding districts,  Vernon, Armstrong, Enderby, Grande Prairie, Paxton Valley,  and other nearby points. The programme opened with Donald  Matheson of Hullcar as chairman which he admirably filled.  Mr. and Mrs. Knapp of Armstrong played many musical  selections during the evening on the violin and organ, the  latter another added attraction purchased for the hall. Miss  Maggie Ferguson recited 'The Organ Builder's Wife'. Mr.  Sweet's sister from Vernon, Mrs. Vermilyea, a talented singer,  delighted her audience with such songs as 'Jock of Hazeldean'  and Within a Mile of Edinboro Town' and others. Albert Evans  of Armstrong sang 'In the Klondike Vale', 'Bonnie Dundee', and  'Come under my Plaidie'. Mrs. K. Sweet and F. Snyder gave a  comical sketch confessing their faults. In proclaiming their  first programme ended, Mr. Matheson expressed his pleasure  and praise regarding their public spirit for providing such a  fine building for the good of the community. Mr. W. Simpson of  Falkland moved a vote of thanks to the chairman.    The hall  104 Early Settlers of Salmon River Valley  was cleared and dancing continued until break of day. Mrs.  Mitchell and other ladies provided an abundance of provisions  for the inner man. Messrs. lack and Bert Pearse, twin brothers  of Falkland, kindly donated an ample supply of hay for the  horses."  The following Sunday, a church service was held in the  hall by Rev. M. Powell of Enderby, who also christened four  children — two children of Mr. and Mrs. A. Allen, one of Mr.  and Mrs. J. Bell and one of Mr. and Mrs. A. Hadley. The  Methodist minister from Chase, Mr. Kenny, later rode in to hold  services. My mother, Mrs. Rose Kneller and Mrs. Sweet were  the first Sunday School teachers. Rev. Mr. Stewart also rode  from Chase on horseback every two weeks to hold services.  The alternate week he rode to Blue River. We had also a  succession of students from Methodist and Presbyterian  colleges: Messrs. McMurty, Martin, L. C. Beetham, and I. L.  Hughes and for 14 years Rev. Mr. Akitt from Knob Hill continued  the work.  School was opened in the new Glenemma Hall in October,  Pupils at Glenemma School in 1907 when E. Y. Gillis was Teacher  Left to right, back row:Alice Ferguson, John Funk, Reggie Sweet, Billy  Funk, Billy Bell.   Middle row: Ruby and Ellie Ferguson, Leonard Funk,  Kenny Bell,  Henry  Smith.    Front row:   Agnes  Smith,  Minnie Funk  Mary Bell, Virginia Sweet   (holding slate).  105 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  1900. E. Y. Gillis, who came from Sydney, Nova Scotia, and  boarded at the Ferguson home, was the first school teacher.  His first pupils were Tommy Smith, Kitty Ashton, Bertie  Ferguson, Pearl Ferguson (Mrs. George Maundrell of Victoria),  Alice Ferguson (Mrs. Lou Brydon of Falkland), Hannah Brewer,  Nellie Bird (Mrs. lim Grenton of Armstrong), Jimmy and Walter  Allan, nephews of Nellie Bird, Hannah Schweb (Mrs. Harry  McLeod, now in New Zealand), Charles Schweb, Ir., Rose  Schweb, lim Sinclair, and Stanley and Reginald Sweet. Mr.  Gillis, in addition to being school teacher, was called on to do  a great deal of legal work, and he was one of the first Justices  of the Peace in the district.  In January, 1901, the settlers formed a group similar to a  Farmers' Institute. It was called "The Salmon River Valley  Association, Number Four". J. C. McKenzie was elected  president, W. G. Simpson, secretary-treasurer, and A. Ferguson,  J. Kneller and H. Morgan, working committee. This group of  farmers was instrumental in getting the river cleared for  log-drives, and inducing the government to build a road from  Schweb's Bridge to Salmon Arm and widening the road to  Vernon.  By 1908 there were more settlers in the valley, and another  school called the Salmon Valley School was opened near  Schweb's Bridge. Miss Charlotte Hayes of Larkin was the first  teacher. She, and Miss Edith Murray of Cowichan who was  the second teacher at Glenemma Hall, were still in their teens  and fresh from high school. They were allowed to undertake  a year's "practice teaching" before entering Normal School.  During the winter months they boarded near their school, but  when spring came they batched in a tent near our house. Each  morning they walked their separate ways to their schools, both  two and a half miles away.  Among the settlers who came in during this period and  whose children swelled the school population were the  following: lohn Smith and his family who came from Vernon  early in the century, John Winslow and his family of Armstrong  who traded with the Bird family to take over their homestead,  George Wilson and family, and William Wilson and family.  Many of the children of these families still reside in the valley.  Of the Smith family, William lives in Armstrong, Annie (Mrs. ].  106 Early Settlers of Salmon River Valley  O'Neil) in Lumby, Harry in Lavington, Lizzie (Mrs. Charles  Schweb) and Mary (Mrs. Felix Henschke) in Vernon, and Nellie  (Mrs. Elsom), Charlie and Eddie in Glenemma. Other settlers  who should be mentioned are Gordon French, the strong man,  who was a helpful neighbour when a horse or cow was stuck  in a boghole; Tom McEachney from the Selkirk settlement, one  of the local characters, and a better friend than foe, who was  often called upon to doctor sick animals, Bill Stickney who drove  in from the Commonage with his brothers and sisters in 1900,  my cousin, W. R. Hoath, who arrived in 1905 from Kent,  England, and L. C. Beetham, a graduate of Cambridge  University, who stayed at my parents' home for several years,  and who wrote poetry, and was as my mother said, a square  peg in a round hole.  William }. Simpson, a carpenter by trade, settled on the  homestead now farmed by Harvey Bailey. His property was  later sold to J. R. Spear, manager of the Manitoba Gypsum  Company. After this he and his wife (Alma Fuller of Vernon)  with their eight children moved to Vernon where Simpson built  several of the houses still in use on Mara Avenue.  The gypsum claim at Falkland early aroused interest  among the settlers. Fifty years ago, Frank Martin took three  claims on the mountain, one claim for his father, another for  his wife Grace, and one for himself. Not realizing the value of  the claims, they dropped them. In 1905, Charles Parker of  Kamloops visited Falkland and inspected the mountain. Later,  Colonel Warren and Simpson, among others, grubstaked Fred  Hamer, a miner, to do a little assessment work. When the  Manitoba Gypsum Company purchased the claims on the  mountain, the manager, I. R. Spear insisted on outright purchase  instead of payment by the tonnage as Colonel Warren had  hoped.  These were the main developments in Salmon River Valley  down to 1907.  107 TRE MARA EIRE,  By Beryl Pido  On Monday, May 3, 1909, the country between North  Enderby and Mara was swept by a disastrous fire. The following account in Walker's Weekly and Enderby Press of May 6,  describes vividly the manner in which pioneers had to face  difficulties alone:  "Early Monday morning many smouldering bush fires  that had been smoking for days, were fanned into life by a stiff  wind blowing from the south. Little alarm was felt, for the fires  were at a safe distance from the bush. But by noon the wind  had increased in velocity, and was the strongest that ever has  been felt here.  "About noon, Mr. A. H. Duncan, whose farm lies two miles  north of Enderby, on the east side of the river, drove to Enderby.  He noticed the fire, at that time two miles to the west of him and  on the opposite side of the river. It veered in every direction.  The fire caught in the bush and started northeast. It jumped  the river and swept the east bank and lightly-wooded plateau.  The Duncan place was burned over, Mr. Duncan losing everything: home, contents, barn, sheds, implements, feed, a valuable  mare, chickens, cows, etc.  "Driven by the wind, the fire jumped the clearing, river and  stream as if they were not there. The new barn of A. D. Stroulger  was quickly consumed, with 20 tons of hay; also lumber for  a new house, and all out-buildings.  "W. Monk, E. B. Huffman, the Mack Brothers, C. S. Handcock, R. Waddell, all lost heavily in cordwood, ties, fencing,  etc., but saved their buildings.  "D. McManus lost everything but his house. Pigs, chickens,  outbuildings, barn and implements, together with three tons of  hay and a ton of oats, just hauled into the barn.  "J. Emeny lost fences and a barn. J. Lambert lost a stable  and contents, where was also stored the personal effects and  household goods of Gerald Neve.  "On the west side of the river J. Knapp lost a herd of seven  108 The Mara Fire, 1909  cows, stampeded in the bush and burned there; also chickens,  outbuildings, house and household effects, in short, everything  but the clothes he wore, a team of horses and the old black cat.  He hauled his wagon into the field to save it but it, too, was  burned. Here also Mr. Seymour lost a team and outfit in the  bush. Mr. Dickie lost every building on the place; so also did  Mr. Peacock.  "These settlers were on the west side of the river. On the  east side the fire swept on to Mara, burning three bridges  enroute. By this time it had gained terrific fury and jumped  from point to point, sometimes half a mile separating. Sheets  of flame and balls of fire were carried by the wind with awful  speed;- and the heat and smoke in the path of the holocaust  were suffocating.  "The flames leaped the river and took the big hayshed,  barn and outbuildings of Jas. Bell; then jumped his hay fields  and swept down upon the buildings of Geo. Little, every one of  which, with contents, was consumed. Chas. Little's barns, half  a mile away were next to go..  "A. Robertson, on the river shore adjoining the Bell farm,  lost his cabin and contents. E. Bennett lost his home and outbuildings.   Thos. Gray lost his implement shed and implements.  "The Mill and machinery of the Rothsay Lumber Co., and  a portion of the lumber in the yard were destroyed, and it was  only by hard fighting by the section hands that Mara Bridge  and Mara Station were saved.  "The home of Mrs. Rosoman, the aged postmistress, was  swept away without a moment's notice. Mrs. Rosoman is an  invalid and she was carried hurriedly to the river shore and  covered with blankets. The blankets and the clothes she wore  were the only things saved. The mails, and everything in  connection with the post office were consumed.  "Harry Blurton lost a barn; S. Patula's house and outbuildings were completely wiped out; Wm. Cadden lost hayshed  and fences, and Wm. Witala lost hayshed and implements.  "It is impossible to estimate the losses at this time. Jas.  Bell is the only one who carried any insurance on the property  destroyed so far as we have been able to learn. His loss was  $2500, insurance $300. The creditors of the Rothsay Lumber  Company will lose everything in the destruction  of the  mill  109 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  property.    It carried no insurance.    The fire also swept over  the company's limits, doing much damage.  "The loss to Mrs. Rosoman is estimated at $3000.  "It is impossible for the personal property loss, and the  loss in buildings, implement and livestock to come much under  $35,000, and the destruction of timber in the area swept over,  together with the fences is beyond computation at this time.  "Mr. S. Poison, who recently purchased the lumber in the  Rothsay company yards, visited the scene of the fire Wednesday morning. He reports that about half of the lumber was  saved.  "The unfortunate thing about the fire was the suddenness  of the coming and the uncertainty of its course. Every man had  to fight alone and in many cases for hours unaided. Indeed,  the people of Enderby did not learn of the serious nature of the  blaze until late Monday night, and knew nothing of Mara's  misfortune until Tuesday morning. Manager Stevens of the  lumber mill sent a wagon load to fight the fire at 10 o'clock  Monday night. Mr. Harvey and Mr. Taylor headed another  party, but there was no general response to the call for help,  because so few heard of it.  "Stories of the heroism and fortitude of the men fighting  single-handed for hours at a time are many. Frank Hassard  fought the blaze at his place from 6 a.m. until 11 p.m., without  a bite to eat and alone. But he saved his buildings. W. Monk  fought 24 hours without rest and he is temporarily blind from  the heat and smoke. D. McManus fought for hours for his  home from behind a fir tree which was charred black. The  clothes he wore fell to pieces when he took them off. A wet  blanket was his only salvation."  In his account Mr. Walker stated that from the Mack place  to Mara there was not a line fence standing and in some places  fences were completely destroyed. This he pointed out, in an  open range country, and at that season, was a very serious  matter. He said, "If the farmers are to have any crops, they  must get them in, and if the crops are to be protected from  roaming herds the fences must be built. The farmers touched  by the fire are not able to plant and care for the crops, rebuild  cabins and homes and replace fences all at one time.    And  110 The Mara Fire, 1909  very few are in a position to hire it done . . . Assistance must  come from some quarter, and the government seems to be the  proper source."  A considerable amount of government aid was forthcoming  to these people. Mr. Fred Barnes, LP., acted as adjustor in  settling the amounts of claims to be paid by the government and  this, he recalls, was a task of singular difficulty. So many  personal papers and records were burned, and so few people  had, in any case, anything like an inventory of their possessions  that the establishment of value of the property destroyed was  a complicated matter.  The present scene of the fire is a prosperous pastoral  district surrounded by wooded areas showing no sign of the  disaster. Many of the families whose names appear in the old  newspaper account of the fire are still represented among the  residents there.  A golden wedding anniversary, celebrated in Princeton on  October 22, 1952, forged another link in the pioneer history of  that town in the Similkameen Valley. Honored on that occasion  were Mr. and Mrs. Herbert H. Thomas. The couple had been  married in Vancouver fifty years before, the bride being Grace  Allison, daughter of John Falls Allison, 1 who first came to  Princeton (then Vermillion Forks) in 1858, and for whom Allison  Pass is named. After their wedding the couple set out for  Princeton on horseback, camping out in snow on the summit  for a slightly chilly honeymoon. But they have ever since  occupied a warm place in the hearts of their many friends,  and have played a major part in the expanding chronicle of  the area.  1. See Report XIV, 91 and 124.  Ill ANARCHIST MOUNTAIN SETTLEMENTS  By Katie Lacey  The new paved highway from Osoyoos over Anarchist  Mountain passes through some of the finest scenery that British  Columbia has to offer. As travelers leave the valley floor, lush  with orchards and ground crops, they glimpse from the benches  desertlike country. A few miles farther, sand and sagebrush,  cactus and greasewood are left behind, and green and shady  rangss watered by springs and creeks are reached. Here and  there are tall trees and a wealth of wild flowers, as well as  abundant grass and wild life. Parklike vistas open, and to the  west the Cascades rise tier on tier. A few miles farther along,  there is beautiful farming country which reaches in places to  the summits of the rolling mountains. Grainfields and summer  fallow, pastures and patches of evergreens, give the countryside  a crazy-quilt effect. These "sidehill ranches" seem almost to  stand on end.  This is a large district. Haynes Mountain extends from  Osoyoos to Nine Mile Creek, 1 Anarchist Mountain from Nine  Mile Creek to Johnson Creek, and the region known as Rock  Creek from Johnson Creek to Kettle River.  The rich strikes at Camp McKinney attracted settlers to the  region. At the forks of Nine Mile Creek, almost on the  international boundary line, R. (Dick) G. Sidley who came from  Ontario and whose brother was professor of English at McGill  University took up a homestead in 1885. He gave Anarchist  Mountain its name, and established the first post office. He  also became the first Customs Officer on the Mountain, and the  first Justice of the Peace. A wagon road was cut a distance of  eight miles through the timber from Camp McKinney to Sidley  in 1893. It was through the Sidley port of entry and over this  road that Monahan and King brought in the ten stamp mill for  the Cariboo mine at Camp McKinney.  The   Dewdney  Trail  which  Edgar   Dewdney  had  blazed  1. Nine Mile Creek obtains its name from the fact that it was nine miles  from Osoyoos by way of the Dewdney Trail to the place where the trail  crossed the creek.  112 Anarchist Mountain Settlements  over the Hope Mountains and over Haynes Mountain and  Anarchist Mountain to the gold diggings on Wild Horse Creek  was still the only recognized route of transportation. The trail  wound around the hill on the south side of Anarchist Mountain,  sometimes on the Canadian side of the Boundary and  sometimes on the American side, depending on the grade. At  the time of the Rock Creek gold rush, Chinamen used to pack  in supplies over the Dewdney Trail. Once they were waylaid  on American territory and their supplies taken from them. After  this experience they made a new trail over the mountain on the  Canadian side.   This trail was known as China Road.  Charles W. Coss with his wife and three children arrived  at Anarchist Mountain in 1894. At Lynden, Washington, they  had heard that there was good farming country on the mountain  which could be pre-empted. Coss and his brother-in-law,  Johnston, drove several head of cattle in over the Dewdney  Trail. Mrs. Coss, holding her baby in her arms, rode horseback  over the trail, and the two small children rode another horse.  On their way, they heard of the fat cattle which were being  driven to the Coast market.  Dave McBride was already in the Sidley district when lim  Kehoe and Zeb Kirby arrived in 1898. Chester Charlton came  in 1899, and in the next few years Bill Acres, the Cudworth  family, the Graham family, the Higginbottom family, the Kelsey  family, the Moriarity family, and Tedrow, Arkinsinger, Goodyear, Letts, Steve Johnson and Martin Kirby arrived.  Manning Cudworth came in the spring of 1895 from Lynden,  Washington. That fall he returned to Lynden to get his family.  They traveled by train to Okanagan Landing, and from there  by horseback to Osoyoos and on to Anarchist Mountain. They  settled just a mile north east from the farm of Charles Coss.  Manning Cudworth obtained the contract to bring the mail to  Sidley from Midway three times a week. He had one horse and  a buckboard. He traveled by way of the Hee-Hee stone and  Myers Creek down to Rock Creek and along the Kettle River to  Midway. The return journey he made the following day.  Chester Charlton carried the mail from Sidley to Camp  McKinney on a saddle-horse three times a week.  It was possible to take wagons by way of Nine Mile Creek  to Oroville, where Okanagan Smith still had a trading post at  113 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  his ranch. The wagon trail branched off from the creek, and  crossed what was sometimes known as Hayward's Flats, and  then crossed into Canada again. It was not until 1910 that the  road was built from Osoyoos to Bridesville. Chester Charlton  tells of a trip he and Saul Hamilton made to bring two four-horse  loads of oats from Sidley to the farm of C. deB. Green, on the  west side of the Meadows. They left Sidley early in the  morning, followed the wagon trail down Nine Mile Creek,  crossed Hayward Flats to Inkameep Creek, and went on to the  Shatford ranch where there was a bridge. This distance to this  point was about 20 miles. There was a steep pull in heavy  sand after the crossing of Inkameep Creek, and halfway up, the  stretchers broke and the leaders ran away. After rounding  them up, the men had to walk back to Peter Stelkia's farm and  get repairs for the harness. When they were ready to start the  wheelers had developed cold shoulders and refused to move.  It was another hour before they were finally able to get rolling.  They crossed the bridge at the Meadows and made Green's  just before midnight. Today, this trip takes about 45 minutes  by car.  Saul Hamilton's father was one of the original placer  miners in the Rock Creek district. In 1904 he staked White's  Bar on Rock Creek, and in a short time took out $40,000 in gold.  The first school in the Sidley District was built about 1898.  Classes were held in a log cabin near the Coss's while the  school house was built. The school stood on a little hill west  of the farm, on land donated by Mr. Coss. When it burned  down two or three years later, it was immediately rebuilt. The  first three teachers were Miss Blake, who came from Bristol,  England, Miss Sprague, and Albert Letts, brother of William  Letts. Miss Blake after teaching for three years, married Jim  McMynn, a rancher of Kettle Valley. Their son, Gordon  McMynn, ran as Progressive-Conservative candidate for Grand  Forks-Greenwood riding in the last provincial election.  Around 1900, Si (or Cy) Woods took up-a ranch on the fourth  crossing of Haynes Creek. He built a good sized cabin and  barn, put in a crop and a garden with a strawberry patch. He  was later joined by his brother. Their place came to be known  as "Ideal Ranch", since they were always saying that when  their timber was cleared off, it would be an "ideal ranch". Giles'  Camp was later located at about the same place.  1.1.4 Anarchist Mountain Settlements  Several rich strikes had already been made in the  Nighthawk district and around Loomis when the Great Northern  Railway was building through to Oroville in 1906. Sidley by  this time had a store and dance hall, as well as a blacksmith  shop and a hotel with a saloon. His store was run by W. ].  Sinclair in 1907, and his hotel by Phil and Lena Bedard. The  First of July was always celebrated at the "Mountain View  Hotel." Two Spokane contractors who had the contract to  supply timbers for the bridges, culverts and trestles for the Great  Northern Railway bought Sidley's store and some of his land.  These Porter brothers, brought in their own sawmill and set It up  at Sidley alongside the right-of-way. This settlement, consisting  of sawmill, store, hotel and other buildings, was located at the  place where Robert Lehman's ranch now is. The Porter brothers,  who owned some 20,000 acres of land, ran the mill for almost  20 years. They raised their own horses and used them in  logging. After the Great Northern started running, they built  a planermill on the American side of the boundary. There  was a heavy duty on dressed lumber at this time, so they sawed  their lumber on the Canadian side, and using a belt chute,  shoved it across the tracks to the planer on the American side.  There it was made into dressed lumber, loaded on cars at the  mill, and shipped to Spokane where it brought high prices. The  belt chute had to be removed every time the train ran.  Before the coming of the railroad, there was a stopping-  place at the place where William Patterson now has his ranch.  It was built by an elderly man by the name of Gillespie. There  was a good-sized building with a large dining-room and kitchen  downstairs and ten bedrooms upstairs. Across the road, a  large barn accommodated travelers' horses. A man by the  name of Miller rented this place after Gillespie's death, and  later married Mrs. Gillespie. Chester Charlton tells of riding up  the road in 1918. The hotel was on fire, and Miller was  engaged in throwing from the upstairs windows straw  mattresses which were already burning. At the same time, his  new suit with $125 in the pockets was left to burn. Later Miller  recovered the value of the silver, about $40, although it had all  melted and run together.  Bridesville was first known as Maud. This was the name  given by the postmaster, Hozie Edwards, in honor of his wife.  In 1907 Chester Charlton bought the store which Tom Hanson  115 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  had built, and Hanson moved to Rock Creek where he opened  another store. About the same time, a customs office was  opened at Bridesville. Jim Kerr was the first Customs Officer.  He stayed only six months until he was transferred to Midway.  His successor, Alan Eddy, remained until the office was closed  about 15 years ago. The first permanent station agent was  William English, a young Englishman. He was the first person  to be buried in the present Bridesville cemetery.  About 1910 Dave McBride built part of the Bridesville hotel.  He brought the bar down from the "Bucket of Blood" at Camp  McKinney and installed it in his hotel. The "Bucket of Blood"  obtained its name from the fact that there was supposed to have  been a fight in it every night. The bar was built of local  tamarac, the front of whipsawed lumber, and the top was a  handhewn timber which had been planed down and polished.  McBride, in a few years' time, added the dance hall on the  northern end of the building, and opened more rooms upstairs.  The town took its name, Bridesville, from his.  Immediately south of Bridesville is what is now known as  Rock Mountain. Originally it was known as One-Eyed  Mountain because the first three settlers, DeLanders, Bozarth  and Wilder, were all one-eyed. DeLanders gained local fame  because he never changed his overalls, and when he got a  new pair, he pulled them over the others. He was known to  have had as many as seven pairs on at one time. Bozarth,  although an old man, had the real pioneer spirit, and was  always in search of new land. He made several trips into  the north country, one summer going as far north as Buckley  Valley. On one trip he took along Don Alden, who is still a  resident of the Rock Creek district. Later Bozarth homesteaded  in the Peace River country.  The first school in the Bridesville district was on One-Eyed  Mountain. It was built on Joe Johnson's ranch about the year  1902. In 1906 it was moved down the hill to Jim Kelly's ranch.  It was located just above the place where Jim Ritchie had the  sawmill, the remains of which can still be seen.  During the building of the railroad through the Anarchist  Mountain district, there was little excitement. In 1905, however,  there was one bad accident, a gang of 40 Italians was drilling  a rock cut in the canyon, near the place where William Hatton  has his ranch.   They drilled into a charge which had not gone  116 Anarchist Mountain Settlements  off, and seven of them were killed.  Chester Charlton was the first breeder of registered  Herefords in British Columbia. In October, 1919, where an  auction sale was held at his home ranch at Bridesville, his  cattle brought the highest price received up to that time at a  private sale in Canada, or on the Pacific coast on both sides  of the line. The average price, including that for calves, was  $375, and the highest price for a cow was $825. The buyers  were chiefly Americans, and the sale totaled over $20,000.  Today the miners have disappeared from Anarchist  Mountain, and farming and logging have become mechanized.  The loneliness and privations of early ranch life are gone, and  the automobile, telephone, radio and airplane have shortened  distances.  Copies of our early Reports are rapidly increasing in value.  Many inquiries for complete sets and individual copies have  been received from Libraries, Universities and private sources  across the continent. Our Treasurer has no copies of the first  six Reports for sale. Anyone willing to supply one or more of  the first ten Reports is asked to notify our Secretary. Prices will  be quoted on request. Copies of Reports IX, XII, XIII, XIV,  XV and XVI are available.  The Westbank Good Citizen Award for 1951 was presented  to Mrs. David Gellatly, who has resided in that district since  1910. Mrs. Gellatly is a member of the O.H.S. Editorial committee and is a welcome contributor to the Report.  117 By Dorothy J. Whitham  Four and one-half miles north of Kelowna on the Vernon  Road is the farm of Mr. and Mrs. John Gervers. Today, to the  motorist passing by, it represents a typical Okanagan rural  dwelling. However, on this land is to be found a link with the  past — an important chapter of Okanagan history.  Down the lane, past the Gervers home, stands an old  wooden structure. Close inspection reveals that the thick beams  within are dovetailed and pegged and that the roof is composed  of "shakes" — long since replaced in modern day building by  shingles of various compositions. Parts of what appear to be  an old flume lie forgotten behind the old building.  Yet, just over eighty years ago, this site was the scene  of bustling activity. Here was the pre-emption of Frederick  Brent, and here too, was a thriving Okanagan industry. For, in  the 1870's Brent's Mill and Brent's Family Flour were well-known  in the valley.  As his son, Joseph Brent,  has related, I the first stone  grist mill was brought to the  Okanagan from San Francisco about the year 1871.  By water to Fort Yale, by  freight team from there to  Savona's Ferry, by water  again to Fortune's Landing  (now Enderby) — and hence  by wagon via Round Prairie  and O'Keefe's on Okanagan  Lake. Here the stones were  transferred to a rowboat for  the final leg of their journey  down Okanagan Lake and  finally to the Brent Mill.  Sketch   of   the   Brent   Mill  by J. Gervers  1   "The  First   Stone   Grist  Mill",   The   Sixth  Report  of  the   Okanagan  Historical Society, Wrigley Printing Co. Ltd., Vancouver, 1936, 27.  118 A Pioneer Okanagan Industry  Water, taken by flume from near-by Mill Creek, dropped  onto an undershot wheel to provide the power for these stones  to grind wheat. From the resulting grist, three grades of flour  were milled. From Keremeos and Osoyoos north to the Head  of the Lake, the farmers would bring their wheat here to be  milled.  Often, a number of such growers would converge on the  mill, camp on the surrounding land or in the limited bunkhouse  space, waiting their turn. This "taking the grain to be milled,"  we can well imagine, could provide an excuse for a family  outing — if not an annual vacation.  The usual toll taken by Brent for such milling was one-  third the grist. However, Mr. F. M. Buckland in his work,  "Ogopogo's Vigil",2 tells a very interesting story with regard  to this toll. Apparently one of the ranchers was dissatisfied with  the percentage Brent took for milling. He claimed one-third  was too much. In fact, he stated that one-half was quite enough.  And, as Mr. Buckland so aptly states, "So the miller, going on  the theory that the customer is always right, let him have his  way." 3  From the time the ice left Mill Creek in the spring until  well into November, the mill was in operation. In a rush time,  it could grind out a ton in 24 hours. The quality of wheat so  handled is shown in a further account of Mr. Buckland's. 4 He  tells how Frederick Brent sent a sample of the Okanagan wheat  to a world fair at Antwerp, Belgium. It won a diploma which  was duly sent back here, another laurel won by Okanagan  produce.  Since these days the old mill, relegated to a barn, has had  several different owners. After the Brents, came J. T. Davies,  from all accounts an erratic Englishman, who utilized the  homestead as a hunting lodge, papering its walls with sheets  from the current English dailies. Then lohn Dilworth owned  the property for a time, putting siding and plaster over Davies'  newspapers. In 1906, the Fleming family moved into the Brent  homestead.     They  lived  there  until   1925,   when  the  present  2 Buckland, F. M., Ogopogo's Vigil, mimeographed, copyright June 1948,  41.  3 Loc. cit.  4 Ibid, 54.  119 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  owner, Mr. J. Gervers, bought  the property.  Since the days of the  Brents, many changes have  taken place on their land.  However, the old mill building stands for all to see. The  old mill stones together with  the mill picks were in the  possession of Mr. F. M. Buck-  land, who has since had  them placed in the Okanagan Museum at Kelowna. Part  of the Mill water wheel is used by Mr. Gervers as a small  lawn  table.    The  oak  gavel  now used by the Kelowna Board of Trade was once a part  of the mill bolter.  These all remain as reminders of the history of our valley.  Indeed, inside on the wooden planks of the old mill building itself, is imprinted still the distinctive brand of Frederick Brent,  designating the Brent Mills, Family Flour—a pioneer Okanagan  Industry.  The Brent Brand  Still visible on the wall of the old  mill  Charlie Bonnevier, remembered by the thousands who saw  him as 'Old-timer' at the official opening of the Hope-Princeton  Highway, died in Princeton in October.  He was born in Suit, Sweden, in 1866 and built his first  Princeton cabin in 1896. He was best known as a great trail  builder and owner of the Red Star Mine below Towers' Camp.  His partner, 'Belgie' Powell, died in 1940.  120 FARMS AND ENTERPRISES IN TRE NORTR  By Ronald Rupert Heal  The early farmers 1 hardly anticipated the agricultural  development which has taken place in the North Okanagan.  They grew wheat and raised cattle, gradually supplementing  and augmenting these activities with hog, vegetable, dairy,  fruit, poultry and seed enterprises. Specialization was related  to prevailing economic conditions, and educational facilities  such as fairs and calf clubs were the result of, and not the  cause of, the introduction of new practices.  Hog raising was one of the first enterprises. In the sixties  A. L. Fortune produced bacon for the miners of Big Bend. Hog  raising was complementary to wheat raising since the hogs  were turned out on the wheat fields after the grain was gathered.  The grain, shattered in the fields during harvesting was gleaned  by the swine, which later in the autumn were "finished off" by  being fed potatoes, carrots and mangolds. This easy and efficient method of fattening hogs is still used on some of the farms  in this district.  There was a ready market for hogs. In addition to supplying miners, the farmers sold bacon at Kamloops. Many bills  were paid at the Hudson's Bay Company's store there with  bacon which sold at an average of 15c a pound. In the eighties  the price dropped to 5 and to 4% cents a pound. The expanded  market offered by the railway construction gangs compensated,  however, for the price drop. The hogs were sometimes shipped  by scow from Enderby to Kamloops, but more often, were driven  on foot. Philip Girod of Armstrong is reported to have driven  a band to Lytton during the days of railroad construction. Later  it became customary to collect the marketable hogs annually  and drive them in a band through the Grand Prairie gap to  Kamloops, a distance of 72 miles from Armstrong.  Signs of orderly marketing developed in  1889-90 when E.  1. The material in this article is based on a chapter from a graduating  essay for the Bachelor of Science of Agriculture degree, "Agricultural  Development in the North Okanagan", University of British Columbia,  1947.  121 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  C. Ccrrgill and Company sent monthly a carlot of 80 to 85 hogs  to the Vancouver and Victoria markets. These animal's were  collected around the district and fed on the Company's ranch  near Armstrong before shipment. This business was carried  on until 1897 when a divergence to hay and vegetable production was caused by the good prices offered for those  commodities in the Kootenay mines. Hog production has  generally increased through the years. In recent times the  large packing companies have had buyer-representatives in  the district and most of the marketing is done through them.  The war years, bringing an increased demand on the export  and domestic markets, led to a jump in production.  An advertisement inserted by A. L. Fortune in the Inland  Sentinel on March 24, 1888, throws some light on agricultural  conditions in the northern part of the Valley at that time:  "Whiskey galore to catch the gold diggers and the dear  boys who are coming, coming, coming, coming far and  near to drink it, but all hungry for a choice beef steak and  sweet pork chop for grain fed steers and for fat hogs.  Send your butchers here. Genuine cream will help the  coffee and real milk is good for children.  "Gentle milch cows are for sale here. Stage drivers,  cowboys, and gentlemen riders with steeds sleek and very  fast striders. Oats will strengthen horses and shorten roads.  You may find feed oats and seed oats here. There are two  kind, White Sovereign and White Maine oats."2  More and more attention was being paid to grain-growing  since there was a demand for livestock feed and for flour. In  the nineties the Spallumcheen Valley was dotted with wheat-  ranches.  Mixed farming became popular at the turn of the century,  when the demand in the Kootenay mines for vegetables, fruit,  and eggs led to higher prices. T. W. Fletcher of Armstrong  was one of the first to take advantage of these prices, and he  exported fruit, vegetables, hay and grain to the Boundary and  Kootenay mines and later to the Northwest Territories. His  business grew rapidly from 5 carloads in 1899 to 200 in 1903.  Natural climatic and soil factors favoured vegetable culture,  and potato,  cabbage  and celery crops  were  of  particularly  2. Quoted by Burt R. Campbell, "The Inland Sentinel", Tenth Report, 58.  122 Farms and Enterprises in the North Okanagan  fine quality.  The demand for fruit, and a real estate boom led to the  planting of orchards about this time. Most of these were sold at  enhanced prices to settlers from the prairies, and in time most  of the fruit trees were uprooted, since orchards as far north as  this could not compete with those in the south. Furthermore,  the land on which they were planted was adapted to vegetable  and wheat production. At one time, much of Grandview Bench  was planted in fruit trees, but today there are only about 100  acres of productive orchard left in the Armstrong and Enderby  districts.  Celery was first grown experimentally in Armstrong in  1903. It proved to be of excellent quality, and by 1909 there  were many Chinese and a few white growers specializing in  its production. Celery entails more work and more gardening  skill than most crops since rust develops if there is excessive  moisture on the leaves. It can be grown successfully if it has  a rich soil and sub-irrigation. These conditions prevail on the  bottom lands around Armstrong. The rich muck land used is  just south of the watershed divide and because the drop to  Okanagan Lake from this point is low, the run-off is slow and  much water travels just below the surface of the land through  the "flats".  The first Chinese gardeners came to Armstrong in 1906 or  1907. There were 400 in the district by 1914. To a large extent,  they operated on the bottom lands and grew the celery,, lettuce  and potatoes produced there. Today there are only about 60  Chinese, living in little shacks or in the Chinese quarter of the  city, renting their land, and contracting their crops with the  shippers who supply them with seed and fertilizer.  In World War I, when root vegetables of all kinds and,  especially, potatoes were urgently needed to supply the troops,  celery production slumped. After the war, however, there was  increased production. About 100 acres, or one-third of the  bottom land cultivated by the Chinese was devoted to celery  production, and approximately 1000 tons of celery were shipped  annually. About 50 per cent of this was shipped in straight  carlots. The most remunerative market is in Western Canada,  but freight charges to prairie markets can give locally grown  celery an advantage.    Furthermore, since  1932, Kelowna has  123 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  competed successfully in the celery trade. Armstrong's acreage,  consequently, has gradually decreased until now only 50 or  60 acres are being grown annually.  Potatoes were another important crop in the early years of  the century. In 1909, 139 carloads were shipped from Armstrong, and this quantity increased during the succeeding years.  During the first World War about 400 acres of potatoes were  grown, the high lands yielding an average of 8 tons an acre,  and the low lands often yielding as high as 16 tons. Peak production was reached during World War II, but with the  development of dairying, much of the land formerly devoted to  tuber and vegetable culture was seeded to alfalfa. Today-  potato yields are only about one half what they were 30 years  ago although more modern methods are being adopted and  certified seed used.  Head lettuce was introduced into the Armstrong district  by A. Buckley in 1912. For several years its culture was largely  experimental. It is a difficult crop to grow as it requires plenty  of moisture and sunshine at just the right time. If conditions  are unfavourable, it will not head. Early success was experienced, and by 1925 carlots were successfully shipped. The  trade has developed so that today Armstrong is as well known  for its lettuce as it was in former years for its celery. For a  number of years lettuce acreage has been around 110 acres,  and the average yield an acre is 300 crates. The productivity  of the bottom lands in spite of intensive cropping for 30 years  has been maintained.  One of the most important enterprises in the North Okanagan at the present time is dairying. This has gradually  developed into an important industry. Although there was a  shortage of fresh milk and of butter in the early days, farmers  could earn money more easily by wheat-growing and by raising  vegetables, than by establishing dairy herds. They also considered that climatic conditions were far from ideal, since there  was a long, cold winter and a long period of summer drought.  The first creamery was established in Armstrong in 1902  by the Okanagan Creamery Co-operative Association. It had  a capacity for handling the milk from 100D cows. The creamery  was not successful. At Lumby, a creamery with a capacity for  the milk of 300 cows was opened in   1905, and it operated  124 Farms and Enterprises in the North Okanagan  successfully for 5 years. In 1910, however, the price of hay  went up and the farmers gave up their herds and sold their  hay. The creamery had to shut down. The North Okanagan  Creamery Association was organized at Armstrong in 1915.  Its first directors included G. Skyrum, of Grindrod, R. J. Coltart  of Enderby, Charles Hardy, J. F. Moor and C. J. Patten of Armstrong. The company carried on successfully for many years.  A number of new creameries started in the twenties after fruit  prices fell and more farmers turned to dairying. The most  important of these was the Okanagan Valley Co-operative  Creamery Association which in 1927 moved its Armstrong plant  to Vernon, and in 1929 its Enderby plant to Vernon. By 1945,  the Association, which by that time had amalgamated with  other concerns, had 1,256 farmer members each of whom had  subscribed to five qualifying shares of a par value of $1 each.  The Association worked to educate the farmers to produce high  quality products and received the support and assistance of  both the provincial and federal Departments of Agriculture in  this program. Regular cow testing is carried out; high quality  dairy sires are distributed in the area; and artificial breeding  demonstrations organized. In 1944, the first Artificial Breeding  Association in British Columbia was opened in Enderby, and  given financial assistance by the Creamery Association. A  continuous campaign has been carried on to encourage the  growing of hybrid corn for ensilage. In addition to these steps  to improve dairying, the Association has encouraged the improvement of farm living conditions, conducted a continuous  farm safety campaign, and organized the North Okanagan  Rural Electrification Committee to bring electric power to 1415  farms which are without it.  A new dairying enterprise started in 1937 when the Armstrong -Co-operative Cheese Association was formed. There  were some difficulties in curing the cheese at first, but these  were eventually solved. In the director's report of 1946, Mr.  A. E. Sage stated: "After nine years of operation, starting from  scratch and with inadequate capital, it is gratifying to know  that we now have the largest annual output of cheese in  Canada west of the Great Lakes with the possible exception of  one factory in Southern Alberta. We are now fully financed  and on the road to more success."  Another co-operative  marketing  organization  centered  at  125 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  Armstrong is the Okanagan Egg Producers' Association which  has a. modern plant for the handling of eggs and table poultry.  In the course of time, as shifts in agricultural production  and practices have taken place, educational programs have  been partly responsible. The Farmers' Institutes, organized  after the act was passed in 1897, the Junior Farmers' Clubs, and  the stimulus of the local exhibition have all had some effect.  Perhaps the development of the Armstrong fair has been the  most influential.  At first the Spallumcheen farmers showed their horses at  the Vernon exhibition. Then, in the early years of this century,  the Armstrong and Spallumcheen Agricultural Society organized  a little fair at the back of a store, where the Medical-Dental  building now stands. Later, some of the citizens bought 10 acres  of land, and on these sports and exhibition grounds were laid  out and annual shows held. In 1914 Mat Hassen was appointed  to the position he still holds, of secretary-manager. At first  vegetables, fruit, horses and grade cattle were exhibited. As  the years passed, horses became less important and the cattle  exhibits increased. To accommodate the cattle, the horse barns  along Otter Lake road were utilized. This group of buildings  burned down about 1924. More land was then purchased and  new barns were erected. In 1930, the show became the  Interior Provincial Exhibition, and in 1938 the buildings were  extended. They are now large enough to accommodate nearly  300 head of cattle, 200 swine, 200 sheep, 150 horses and 300  poultry. ■ There is also space for horticultural exhibits. Over  the years, the exhibits of heavy horses have decreased, and  those of light horses, registered beef cattle and registered  dairy cattle have increased.  In addition to the stimulus provided by the Fair, the farmers  in the North Okanagan have benefitted from the work done  under the sponsorship of the federal Department of Agriculture  at the Illustration Station on Dr. W. B. McKechnie's farm. One  of the objects of the station has been to demonstrate the advantage of a systematic rotation of crops. In addition, experimental  plots have been planted to determine the smut resistant properties of wheat varieties and to find the oat and barley strains  best adapted to conditions in the district.  War-time demands have also influenced agricultural enterprises.    British Columbia entered the field of vegetable seed  126 Farms and Enterprises in the North Okanagan  production during World War I when there was a shortage of  seeds. W. T. Hayhurst was probably one of the first farmers  to grow seeds for commercial purposes. Post-war competition  forced the British Columbia product off the market and a permanent industry was not established until the thirties. At that  time, J. T. Mutrie of Vernon developed a strain of Yellow Globe  Danvers onion that found an almost world-wide market. In  Armstrong, O. M. Lane and R. G. Thomson began growing seed  in 1935 but had difficulty in finding markets until 1938 when a  reasonable amount of seed began to move. When World War  II cut off European production, the industry was again stimulated. Fortunately, there was a reasonable amount of registered  seed available for stock seed, and in spite of increased production quality was maintained on most varieties. Seeds grown  commercially in the North Okanagan today include beet, carrot,  onion, lettuce, mangold, parsnip and radish. All these do well  on loams or sandy loams, but only onions, parsnips and carrots  are suited to heavy clay.  An offshoot of seed production is the pea processing plant  which was opened at Armstrong in 1937. The B.C. Pea Growers  Limited opened a plant after trial acreages harvested in 1936  which proved that commercial pea growing was feasible in the  North Okanagan. At the present time about 2000 acres a year  are sown to peas, and the special product of the plant is garden  pea seed.  A fairly recent enterprise is the dehydrating plant on the  L. and A. Ranch in southern Spallumcheen which was opened  by Buckerfields' Limited of Vancouver in 1943. The factory-  processes the ranch's alfalfa, cereals and grasses, marketing  the product as "Vitagrass". The dehydration process is based  on one evolved during World War I in Great Britain. Experimentation there proved that a process could be developed by  which fresh grass, four to six inches high, could be dried rapidly  so as to preserve its nutrients and its colour.  The variety of these agricultural enterprises indicates the  response that farmers have had to make to changing economic  conditions, new methods of land utilization, and to educational  programs. They have natural advantages in soil and climate,  but they must adapt their crops to meet the demands of the  market and make the best use they can of the land.  .127 TRE EIRST CARLOT TO LEAVE TRE  By Dorothy Hewlett Gellatly  1897 — and the first carload of produce to leave the  Okanagan ready for shipment to the mining towns of Kootenay.  1897 — and the embarrassing discovery that no freight rates  covering carload shipments OUT of the Okanagan, existed!  The solution? A hurried, even frantic exchange of telegrams  between the local agent and the head office of the Canadian  Pacific Railway and the setting of a rate not particularly  satisfactory to the shipper, based on the difference between  the price of potatoes per ton in the Okanagan, and the price per  ton of the same commodity at the car's destination, Nelson.  The grower of that first car of produce, which happened to  be potatoes, was the late D. E. Gellatly, who farmed Shorts  Point (Fintry) from 1895 until 1899, and who in 1900 moved his  family and stock to Powers Flat (Gellatly), and of whom the  Okanagan Historical Report VI, 149, says, "GELLATLY. This  place was named after D. E. Gellatly, who did more to  encourage and foster the industry of growing vegetables for  shipment elsewhere than any other man who ever lived in the  (Okanagan) Valley. He was the first to ship vegetables into  the mines of the Kootenay, and was known as the 'Tomato King  of the Okanagan.'  Originally from Dundee, the late Mr. Gellatly emigrated to  Northern Ontario in 1883. Coming west ten years later, he lived  in Vernon for two years before moving to Shorts Point, ten miles  south of Okanagan Landing. In 1900 he and his family drove  down the trail to Powers Flat, which they cleared and farmed.  In 1905 he built the largest greenhouse in the interior, the  glass for which was ordered from Europe and brought round the  Horn. This greenhouse measured 53x250 feet. On the day  before seeding was to commence the following spring, a veritable gale arose and the building collapsed, a total wreck. More  glass was ordered, and by the spring of 1907 the house was  once more ready for the seedlings. This greenhouse stood  until it was dismantled following the death of Mr. Gellatly in  1922.  128 AIRflELDS IN TRE ORANAGAN AND SIMILRAMEEN VALLEYS  By Anne Richard  Wide, flat areas of land, improved, asphalted, developed,  or merely maintained as open ground, have been important  ever since the birth of aviation. In the valleys of Canada's  west, where mountains have made level ground scarce, airfields  are considered important as emergency landing places as well  as regular stopping points on the routes of commercial and  private aircraft.  The city of Vernon developed the first airport in the  Okanagan Valley. In 1929, Alderman E. W. Prowse gave notice  of motion for a bylaw appropriating $4500 for the purchase and  improvement of an aviation field. Mr. Elvin Dickson purchased  the bond issue. South of the town, on Mission Hill, the city  obtained 130 acres. The licence was applied for on February  10, 1930, and granted by the Department of Air Transport when  two runways, each 300 feet wide and over 2000 feet long, were  graded, boundary markers placed, wind socks and landing  circle installed and pole hazards painted. Through the efforts  of Alderman A. C. Wilde and the assistance of Hon. K. C.  MacDonald, M.L.A., the Department of Public Works authorized  the change in the location of the south highway, which before  this had created a hazard.  In 1931, a committee, consisting of H. R. Denison, George  Jacques, Alderman A. B. Townrow, Alderman A. C. Wilde,  Fred Galbraith and L. Dunsmore worked out the plans for an  air show. This, the first to be held in the interior, was also the  largest and best. The dates were set for September 30 and  October 1, but the show was such a success that it was extended  until October 4.  In addition to the first long distance air race in British  Columbia — from Vancouver to Vernon — the air show also  included closed races, balloon bursting, formation flying,  bombing, dogfighting, dead stick landings and parachute  jumps. Among the pilots in attendance was Nick B. Mainer of  Spokane, flying a Ford Tri-Motor plane. Mr. Mainer was later  killed   during   a   mercy   flight   north   of   Lethbridge.     Others  129 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  attending were Mr. and Mrs. Roy Schreck of Spokane, in a  Buhl Air Sedan; L. R. Kurtzer of Seattle, who won the long  distance race in an Aero Marine Monoplane; Gordon McKenzie  of Vancouver, in a Fairchild; Bill Fletcher of San Francisco, in  a Lockheed Vega; Ted Morris of Seattle, in a Great Lakes  Trainer; A. Paulsen in a Stinson; and Squadron Leader E. A.  MacLeod and Flight Lieutenant A. D'Niveille in R.C.A.F. Flying-  Boats. The Aero Club of British Columbia was represented by  A. Wilson, L Drew, J. Wright, A. Fairweather, Bill Bolton, Tom  Jones and many other pilots from Vancouver. At one time 19  planes had assembled on the field.  Application was made on September 22, 1931 to have the  Vernon airport declared a customs port of entry. This recognition  was duly granted. For a number of years, Blakeley Air Services  of Windermere operated a flying school under instructor L.  Dunsmore. At the beginning of World War II, the Department  of National Defence bought the airport property, and Vernon  was without an airfield for several years. Then, on lune 15,  1946, the Council was authorized to purchase land near  Okanagan Landing. This property was drained, a runway of  3000 feet long was developed, markers installed, and Vernon  again had an airport.  Aircraft en route to attend the Vernon Airport opening in  1931 had refuelled on the Indian Reserve across the Thompson  River from Kamloops. Not long afterwards, Rattlesnake Field  was partially developed and an air show in which 12 airplanes  participated was held in 1933. This field was later planted to  tomatoes, and Kamloops was left without an airfield. During  World War II the federal government developed the airport,  turning it over to the city of Kamloops for operation and  maintenance. The recent establishment of a licenced seaplane  harbor has put an end to the practice of tying up aircraft in front  of the city park.  The original airport of Grand Forks was a farmer's field.  This was one of British Columbia's first airports. The present  grass runway is slightly south of the first strip. Although the  airport is licenced, it is not in good condition.  The turf runway of Ellison Field, north of Kelowna was  established after World War II by the city of Kelowna. Prior to  that, in the early thirties, a field was operated at Rutland by a  private individual, and is now run by Mr. and Mrs. K. A. Eutin.  130 Airfields in the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys  Ellison Field is ideally located and with proper maintenance  will serve the city well. Facilities for seaplane traffic have been  provided aong the city's lakeshore frontage.  About 1936 the federal government developed an emergency airport by the federal government. Before this time, a  farmer's field was used. The airfield at Princeton is used for  refuelling and as a holding place for pilots awaiting improvement in the weather.  With a radio range service and night flying facilities, the  Penticton Airport, situated south of the Indian Reserve at Skaha  Lake, is capable of handling most modern commercial aircraft.  In the early thirties, what is now Queen's Pork was suggested  as a likely spot for an airport. Only a few light planes landed  there at that time, but these undertook to give passengers a  "joy-ride" for a few minutes' duration at a rate of $15 a flight.  The municipal council argued the pros and cons of the Queen's  Park location, and it was decided finally that it was too close to  one side of the valley. During the administration of Reeve W.  G. Wilkins in 1937, negotiations were commenced with the  Indians and the Indian Department to obtain the land on which  the present airfield is located. This central position is the least  dangerous location, since it is not too close to mountains and  hills. When the plot of land was acquired, through the  assistance of the Indian Agent, it was discovered that it was  swampy. Since it lacked funds to put in drainage, the council  sent Councillor W. L Johnson to Ottawa to interest the federal  government in the airstrip. Mr. Johnson interviewed every  western member of parliament and many senators. All  promised help. The Minister of Transport, Honourable C. D.  Howe gave his attention to the matter. The fact that the location was good, that it was on the radio beam, and that it was  a customs port of entry, won a grant of $75,000 for development  of the airport. In the end, the federal government undertook  .he entire development, and spent something like $1,000,000 on  it. About 1944, the South Okanagan Flying Club was established..    Mr. Carl Agers gave instruction in aviation.  The excellence of the Penticton Airport tends to divert  traffic from the Oliver Airport. Seaplanes use either Okanagan  Lake or Skaha Lake, according to the direction of the wind.  In a remarkably short time, aviation has made strides in  the interior of British Columbia, and there are now a number of  airfields to be maintained and used.  131 RECENT ROOKS MENTIONING TRE ORANAGAN  Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology  Report for the Year 1951 (Victoria, 1952) has an article on the  "Status of Birds and Mammals of the Osoyoos Area in May,  1951," by C. J. Guiguet, of the Provincial Museum. The following  paragraphs indicate the scope of the article:  "On May 22nd, 1951, a Museum party took to the  field in the Osoyoos and Anarchist Mountain region  of Southern British Columbia. The party, led by Dr. G.  C. Carl, included George Hardy, Museum botanist, and  myself. Camp was established on the east side of  Osoyoos Lake, from which point the surrounding  orchard lands, sage flats, mountain slopes, marshes,  and lakes were visited. The party remained in. the  area until June 2nd, returning to Vancouver on June 3rd  after a one-day trip into some small unnamed sloughs  north-east of Kelowna.  "The object of an expedition to this much worked  area was primarily to obtain movies and specimens of  the indigenous plants and animals, and to record existing conditions regarding these creatures with a view of  co-ordinating    data    which    have    previously    been  gathered in this unique and interesting dry belt.    The  information   at   present   remains   buried   in   separate  papers, field-notes, and collections.    A very real need  exists for a published co-ordinated treatise of the area.  "The topography, climate, and flora of the Osoyoos  arid region need not be elaborated here, nor do those  of the dry forest which we visited on Anarchist Mountain.     Adequate   descriptions   may   be   found   in   the  preface of Provincial Museum Special Publication No.  2,   entitled  "A Review  of the  Bird  Fauna  of  British  Columbia," by Munro and Cowan, 1947."  In the Western Miner (Vancouver,  August,   1952)  "Sourdough" notes the passing of a man who was often declared to  be the poet laureate of the prospecting fraternity, Henry fames  "Harry" Blurton of Enderby, B.C. Harry died in Vancouver on  July 12, 1952.  132 Recent Books Mentioning Okanagan  "Prospector, trapper and big game guide, Harry  was known ... as the owner of a number of promising  mining properties, including the Skookum and Jumbo  groups, both situated in the Okanagan Lake area . . .  Born in Stourbridge, England, 79 years ago, Harry  came to Canada in 1889 and lived most of his life  prospecting in the Okanagan area . . . An accomplished poet, who once published a book of poems entitled  "Rhymes of a Mountain Man," Harry wrote a poem in  April, 1948, entitled "An Epitaph," which appears in  the Western Miner, p. 48.  Report of Minister of Mines, British Columbia, 1951 (Victoria,  1952). Contains various references to mining in Okanagan and  Similkameen. Of particular interest is the report on Talc claims  about three miles northeast of Armstrong. The Barbara-Ann  and Sonny claims were recorded in 1946 and surveyed in June,  1951. "While the survey was in progress, talc was discovered  south of Kendry Creek, so the Bluff claim was located southwest  of and adjoining the two original claims .  "The talc is found as discontinuous lenses and as  part of an altered peridotite sill in quartz-mica schist  'Ģ  mapped   by   Jones   as   part   of   the   Precambrian   or  Palaeozoic Salmon Arm formation." (p. A 229).  There are also reports of coal and copper mines in  Similkameen.  Princeton Rotary Club issues to members a mimeographed  monthly called The Copper Kettle, "where we boil down the  News and Views in the City where Copper is King."  Through the kindness of Mr. Cull White of Coulee Dam,  Washington, some OHS members have had opportunity to read  "Uncle Dan" Drumheller Tells Thrills of Western Trails in 1854  (Inland-American Printing Co., Spokane, Wn., 1925). Daniel  Montgomery Drumheller was born on a plantation near Gallatin  in Sumner country, 26 miles from Nashville, Tenn., March 25,  1840. Some of his adventures brought him north of the  Canadian border to British Columbia.  Capilano Creek, Discovery of Source, 1890, a publication  of the City Archives, Vancouver, 1952, contains information  concerning George Grant Mackay, written by his son-in-law,  A. P. Home.    The author states (p. 23):  133 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  "George Grant Mackay, my father-in-law, came to  Vancouver in 1888 or 1889 from Oban and Inverness in  the Highlands of Scotland. He had great ideas for this  country; was very fond of scenery, and one day he  went up the Capilano Creek with somebody, and the  result was he took up a piece of property where the  suspension bridge was afterwards built. He had a  couple of Scotsmen build him a home there, and it was  built on a point just above the suspension bridge where  the creek bends round a bluff. He built the house on  this headland with a verandah at both ends so that he  could sit out on them, and look either up or down the  creek at the beautiful river and forest scene. Then Otto  Semisch, who bought his place, put up the suspension  bridge . . . He was one of the first Park Commissioners  of Vancouver. He was a great friend of Mayor David  Oppenheimer, but the ideas of both men were usually  twenty or more years in the future."  An article by Ann Briley, "Hiram F. Smith, First Settler  of Okanogan County", Pacific Northwest Quarterly, Vol. 43,  No. 3, July, 1952, contains much interesting information about  "Okanagan Smith". Miss Briley has also had a series of  historical articles in the Penticton Herald. "Old Keremeos Grist  Mill, Relic of Pioneer Times" which appeared in the issue of  October 1, 1952, is accompanied by a picture of the log house  which housed the mill built in 1877 by Barrington Price.  The (London) Times Weekly Review, April 24, 1952,  contained a photograph of the Sicamous "in retirement" at  Penticton.  The B.C. Magazine section of the Vancouver Province of  July 20, 1952 contained an article on Vernon by Eric Ramsden,  "60 Years a City", as well as a photograph of Forbes George  Vernon, after whom Vernon was named, and a short biographical sketch of Vernon by B. A. McKelvie. Vernon, in addition  to being one of the first residents in the North Okanagan, and  the owner of the Coldstream Ranch, had a long career in public  life. Entering the legislature in 1875, he became commissioner  of lands and works in 1876, and retained the office until 1878.  He later held the same post from 1887 until 1894, and in 1895  went to London as B.C. Agent General, remaining there until  1899.   He died in London in 1911 at the oge of 68.  134 Recent Books Mentioning Okanagan  The Vernon News published a Jubilee supplement on July  10, 1952, and the Armstrong Advertiser published special issues  on July 17 and July 24 in honor of Spallumcheen's Jubilee.  A souvenir booklet, Vernon's Diamond Jubilee, 1892A852,  contains historical articles, drawn largely from material  appearing in the Okanagan Historical Society Reports.  A great many of the original names of our early settlements  and stopping-places have been replaced by the familiar ones  which we know today. Only casual and occasional references  by the old-timers bring them to our attention. Following is a  brief list of important centres, bracketed with the names by  which they were formerly known:  Vernon — (Forge Valley, Centreville, Priests' Valley,  Commonage).  Armstrong ■— (Aberdeen).  Enderby — (Fortune's Landing, Lambly's Landing, Belvidere, Spallumcheen).  Kelowna — (L'Anse au Sable, Sandy Cove, Nor-kwa-stin,  Okanagan Mission).  Westwold — (Adelphi, Grande Prairie).       '  .Round Prairie — (Schuberts' Place).  Princeton — (Vermillion Forks, Allison, Prince Town).  Rutland — (Ellison Flats).  135 WILLIAM C. YOUNG'S RERORT ON CRERRy CREER  By Margaret A. Ormsby  On instructions from Governor fames Douglas, Constable  William C. Young left the Customs House at Osoyoos in the  autumn of 1863 to investigate the mining developments at  Cherry Creek on the watershed of the Fraser and Columbia  River systems. Since the summer of 1861, Douglas had been  anxious to obtain full information about the region, for the rush  to Rock Creek in the fall of 1859, the activity at Mission Creek  near Okanagan Lake in the summer of 1861, the discovery of  gold at Bear Creek on the east side of Okanagan Lake in 1861,  and the activity around Fort Shepherd, had led him to hold a  theory that there existed "a vast auriferous ridge of watershed  extending from Rock Creek to Fort George and dividing the  Columbia from the waters of the Fraser River." 1 This belief  caused Douglas to consider a plan for laying out a townsite  twenty miles below Lake Kamloops on the Thompson River to  serve as a mining depot. To improve accessibility of the new  mines, and to supply the miners from Fraser River instead of  Oregon, he proposed employing stern-wheel boats between the  new townsite and the "further extremity of Shouswap Lake",  and in addition to building a good road between Shuswap Lake  and Okanagan Lake to use steamboats on Okanagan Lake so  that provisions could be brought in by way of Hope and  Similkameen. In the summer of 1862, William George Cox laid  out a government reserve of ten square miles at the northern  end of Okanagan Lake. The projected road was to pass  through this reserve. Cox had intended to travel from this  point to Columbia River, but shortage of supplies and difficulties  of travel forced him to turn back.  In November, 1863, a Mr. Clements arrived at Osoyoos on  his way to Walla. Walla. Haynes reported to Douglas that  Clements had examined about six miles of Cherry Creek and  found "prospects" of from two to six cents to each man, and  that the gold was coarse and similar to that found at Rock  Creek.    Clements had found three men making ten dollars a  1. Papers Relative to the Affairs of British Columbia, Part IV, London,  1862, 55-56.  136 William C. Young's Report on Cherry Creek  day with rockers, and it was his intention to return with cattle for  the mines the following spring. Another American reported ten  men at work, making ten dollars a day each, and there were  sighs that mining would be carried on more extensively in  the spring. 2 William Pion, the discoverer of the mines was said  to have done well, and the Indian "Narcisse" was thought to  have taken out $150 in gold from the mouth of the Creek.  Haynes, knowing Douglas's interest, consequently sent Young  to make a full report.  Young's report, although it contained a note of confidence,  was not sufficiently encouraging for the implementation of  Douglas's plan. In fact, when the two miners, I. McConnell and  F. Sanderson returned from Cherry Creek, they told Haynes  that they had prospected the Creek for ten miles and could  not find anything to indicate that the mines were even average.  They tried once again, in January, 1864, but had no further luck,  and by that time Woods & Co. and Kendall & Co. were making  only one dollar a day. 3 Haynes himself started out for the  mines in March, but was told by one of the Vernon brothers  that there was then no activity at Cherry Creek. 4  Young's report, however, is one of the earliest descriptions  of conditions at Okanagan Mission during its early years, and  likewise contains a picture of a mining camp on what was  supposed to be the eve of a rush.  Shimilkomeen  Customs Station  12   December,   1863.  Dear Sir,  I beg to report my arrival from the Shuswap country on  the   10th.  inst  (whither  I  proceeded  in  compliance  with  your  instructions of the 23rd. ult.) together with a brief account of my •  trip.  I left this Station on the 25th. Novr. in company with four  miners two of them intending to winter there and prospect the  country and six horses loaded with provisions.  The trail between here and the Catholic Mission is good  with  one  exception — at  the  first  bend  of the  Great  Lake,  2. John C. Haynes to W. A. G. Young, November 30, 1863, Haynes Papers,  Provincial Archives, F 739/17.  3. Haynes to Young, January 9, 1864, Haynes Papers P740/1.  4. Haynes to Arthur N. Birch, March 20, 1864, Haynes Papers P740/6.  137 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  between Penticton (Ind. Reservn.) and the Mission, for about  ten miles the trail is of the worst description — passing over a  succession of rocky spurs — from one to five hundred feet above  the Lake. Not a stick appears to have been cut nor the slightest  improvement attempted on this trail since I last was over it  three years since.  Arrived at the Mission Settlement on the 28th.—weather  warm and pleasant and the country free from snow. The cabins,  barns, fences, and haystacks in every direction give the country  a pleasant appearance, after travelling the dreary mountain  trails.  The Catholic Mission buildings are new and very neat.  The settlers houses are generally of the smallest and poorest  description. Wm. Pion's and J. McDougall's are good well  built houses and at present the best in the settlement. The  improvements yet made on the land are very small, and for  want of a home market and more particularly for want of a  good flour mill, the farmers have not attempted to raise more  than sufficient«produce for their own immediate use. As a  general thing their means are very small. There is a fine range  for stock round the settlement but they own very few horses  and meat cattle.  The land though not of first quality appears to produce  abundantly — all crops have been very good this past season  and that without any aid from irrigation.  I was informed by the Revd. Father Richards of the Mission  that the total produce this year is not less than  Wheat 1000 bushels  Barley and Oats 200 bushels  Potatoes 2000 bushels  they have a few hogs and sheep.    Saw some good tobacco of  their own growing, also several small fields of fall wheat very  well put in and looking excellent.  The priests have a school* for the children of the settlers —  On my return found the Rev. Mr. Richards in a neat schoolroom  teaching five or six children to read and write. All instruction  is given in this school in the French language.  With a good flour mill here and mines in the vicinity —  this will doubtless yet become one of the best of our agricultural  1. Selections from this report appeared in the Second Report, 23-25 and  the Sixth Report, 57-60.  138 William C. Young's Report on Cherry Creek  settlements in this Colony as men of better means and greater  energy would soon supersede the present settlers who are  principally French and half-breeds.  From the Mission the trail passes through a valley running  in a N.E. direction — about ten miles from the Mission reached  Lake Chelootsoos a fine lake about fifteen miles in length. The  trail along this lake is good but hilly. The outlet of this lake is  at the north end.  From the foot of this lake our trail now joined by the  Kamloops trail passes through a fine valley to the Eastward  which course it generally keeps to the Shuswap River which  is about eighteen miles from this point.  In this valley the grass is good and the soil in some parts  appears to be of excellent quality. The trail gradually ascends  for about eight or ten miles when the summit of a low divide is  reached from the east side of which the waters run towards the  Shuswap River.    (8 inches snow on this divide).  About eight miles from the river and about twenty four  miles from the mining camp on Cherry Creek — Hy. Wend  tavern keeper from Hope has taken up 320 acres of land, and  is building a house of entertainment.  For about five miles on this side of the Shuswap River the  country is densely wooded, and the trail most difficult from the  thick growth of young trees and the immense quantity of fallen  timber which blocks up the trail every few yards.  On reaching the river a stream nearly as large as the  Shimilkomeen River, we at once crossed it. From this ford to  the second crossing about ten miles the trail is very bad and  much obstructed by fallen timber, and is at this season of the  year slippery and dangerous.  While on this side of the river the timber is mostly burned  and dead — the mountain sides on the west side of the river  are covered with a dense living forest.  A trail could easily be made on that side from a point  below H. Wends farm which would not only be much nearer,  than the present trail, but would entirely avoid the present  useless crossings of the Shuswap River.  Above the second crossing the Shuswap Riv. takes a great  bend to the N.E. from the volume of water in the river here —  it must either be of great length or have numerous tributaries.  139 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  From the last ford the trail keeps Eastward up a large creek  which empties into the Shuswap River near here, and which is  called by some the East fork of Shuswap — by others and more  correctly Shuswap Creek.  We had to camp about two miles above this — which is  the last place on this side of the diggings where animals can  get a bite of grass, about six inches of snow here.  Found two miners Brown and Leigh camped here, had been  working with sluices on Cherry Creek — could not make two  dollars a day, were leaving the creek disappointed.  From this camping place the country becomes densely  wooded. About four miles from its mouth we crossed Shuswap  Creek, just above the junction of Cherry Creek which flows into  it from the S.W.  We followed an old Indian trail which runs up the east  side of Cherry Creek, and has been made barely passable for  animals by the packers who have gone in — and who have  also blazed the trees through the timber.  About two miles from the mouth of the Creek came to the  house of Dashiells and Calhoun — and found two men building  another by its side. The country is still here and as far as it has  been penetrated above one unbroken forest — and most difficult  to travel through the fallen timber and thick growth of young  trees.  Kendall, McDonald & Co. of four men have a cabin on the  steep hill side just below this — three of them were in the creek  rocking — had only just commenced — they said they had  three cent dirt, and expected to make three or four dollars a day  to the hand, were not yet down to the bed rock. This claim joins  the upper end of the Indian Narcisse's claim who has left it for  the present, he is reported to have made from six to ten dollars a  day.  We prospected several pans of dirt in Kendall's claim and  had a great many light scaly colors of gold in each pan — but  certainly not a half of three cents. Without testing a prospect of  this gold by weighing it — its value would certainly be  overestimated by a stranger — a so-called five cent prospect  dwindles in the scales to one cent or less.  The claims of Wm. Pion and Louis the so-called discoverers,  who reported to me that they made ninety-three dollars in four  140 William C. Young's Report on Cherry Creek  days with the rocker — are about a mile above this. Since they  left for the Mission several parties of newcomers have worked in  their claims for a few days but could not make half wages —  All men here deny that the coarse gold shown by Pion as  Shuswap gold ever came out of this creek as there is nothing  here like it.  The only other house that of Woods and foe Hawk traders  — is near this — they have but a small stock of provisions —  flour at 40 cents — beef 25 cts. sugar 75 cts. tobacco $5 lb.  Met Cameron & Co. three men leaving the Creek, on the  strength of the prospects they obtained on the surface — they  built a cabin — made sluices and got to work — but could not'  make two dollars a day — on the bed rock and near it — the  pay was not as good as on the surface — as one of them  described the gold "it took a yeast powder box of the light stuff  to make an ounce".  I found only twelve men in all on the Creek, and although  the weather was warm and pleasant little or no mining was  being done — half of these men are traders.  Woods and five other men on a prospecting trip up the  Creek and had taken two weeks provisions with them — it was  their express intention to follow up the creek to its source if  possible. I should have much liked to have remained until their  return — but could not on account of the starving condition of  my horses. — Messrs. McConnell and Sanderson who accompanied me and remained to prospect — will send down a report  of their success as soon as possible.  There appears to be two different kinds of gold found in  this Creek, one description and by far the most plentiful is  composed of light flat scaly particles —■ resembling fragments  of dentists leaf gold again a small quantity of coarse gold mixed  with the other has been found some pieces weighing as much  as fifty and seventy five cents — which leads some to suppose  that coarse gold will be found higher up the Creek or on some  of the tributaries or gulches running into it.  Up to the present time very little is really known of this  Creek — not much prospecting having yet been done outside of  the camp — but one thing is certain — that the accounts which  have appeared in the newspapers, have been grossly exaggerated — and in most cases quite unfounded.  I cannot find a claim nor a man that, knows of a claim on  141 The Okanagan Historical Society —1952  Cherry Creek that will certainly pay half an ounce a day to the  hand — the most of the men there do not seem to know where  to go to work to earn five dollars a day —  Several of the miners here think that paying diggings exist  both on Shuswap Ck. and the Shuswap River; on a bar on the  latter Hy. Wend reports having found four cents to the pan.  The appearance of these and indeed of all the streams in the  vicinity is very favorable for gold. Quartz is said to be  abundant in the streams.  The miners held a meeting some time since and in the  absence of an officer to record claims appointed one Louis  Venner Recorder — and a fee of one dollar for each claim  recorded — the cash thus received by him, to be handed over to  the first Govt, officer sent. Claims thus recorded to lay over  until the first of May next. I hear that upwards of twenty claims  are thus recorded. I did not see this gentleman as he was  away on the prospecting party.  Cherry Creek must be about a short distance from the head  waters of Rock Creek. A miner in our party last summer,  travelled up Kettle River, by a passable Indian trail for a  distance of forty miles above the mouth of Rock Creek which  must have been within a few miles of the highest point of the  dividing ridge between the head waters of Kettle River, and  the waters flowing northward towards the Shuswap.  In conclusion I think from all that I have seen and heard  the best that can honestly be said of this as a mining country  to be is this — that from the prospects already obtained with so  little search in such a difficult place to prospect as Cherry Creek  — this part of the country presents a most encouraging field for  those able and willing to thoroughly explore and prospect in it  the coming season. Nearly all here seem sanguine and  confident that what has already been found will yet lead to  the discovery of good mines. But, it cannot be said that up to  the present time — good diggings are yet found — as has been  represented — and those rushing in to the Shuswap Country  the coming spring in the expectation of finding good diggings  ready, to their hand, will most certainly be grievously disappointed.  Your most obedient servant  lohn C. Haynes Esq. I have the honor to be  D.D.C. Dear Sir  Sooyoos Lake. WILLIAM C. YOUNG.  142 RARRY D. RARNES  By Frank H. French  A long-time resident of Hedley, Harry Dunford Barnes, died  in Kelowna on lune 22, 1952. He had many friends in the  Southern Interior, and I know I speak for them as well as myself  in writing this tribute to his memory.  "Harry and I were born within a few miles of the same  place in England. We arrived in the Okanagan Valley within  a few days of each other, and later settled in Hedley in the  spring of the same year.  "Harry was born at Crewkerne, Langford Village, England,  and migrated to Ontario. He arrived in the new city of  Vancouver during the summer of 1890. There he worked,  clearing land and doing odd jobs until the following spring  when the Okanagan Valley was beginning to attract attention  because of the building of the Shuswap and Okanagan  Railway. He arrived in Vernon about May 20, 1891, and first  went to work for W. R. Megaw who was preparing to open  his big department store. Before very long he left this job and  went to work at the brickyard about a mile east of Vernon on  the Lumby road.  "During the summer of 1892, he worked on the ranches of  the Postill brothers and Thomas Wood. While there, he helped  to construct the first private telephone line in the interior of the  province. This line connected the homes of Alfred Postill,  William Postill and Thomas Wood, and was about five miles  long. The Grand Forks and Greenwood mining boom started  while he was working at the Postill ranch. Harry bought a  saddle horse and a pack-horse and was off to the mines. There  he stayed for eight or nine years. In 1901 he first came to the  Similkameen Valley on a prospecting trip. The following year  he settled permanently there, and until the last year of his life,  Hedley was his home.  "He began work at the Nickel Plate mine soon after his  arrival in the camp. He was in charge of the warehouse and  the timekeeper's office at the mill, and later became purchasing  agent as well.   He carried on these duties until the Hedley Gold  143 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  Mining Company disposed of the mine and plant. He was  highly respected by all who had dealings with him and by  all who were associated with him in public or social affairs.  He worked for the welfare of the community, and was one of  the promoters of the Hedley Hospital. He spent much time in  his later years compiling data and preparing historical articles,  many of which are familiar to the members of the Okanagan  Historical Society."  Walter William Wolfenden, known as the "Father of  Lacrosse in the Okanagan Valley", died early in 1952 at the  age of 75. Mr. Wolfenden was credited with having introduced  the game into the Okanagan Valley, forming the Armstrong  Lacrosse Club, and sponsoring similar clubs at Vernon and  Kelowna. After taking part in the Klondike gold rush, he came  to Armstrong in 1902 to open a stationery store, and remained  there until 1910 when he moved to Vancouver.  Capt. Joseph Weeks is in possession of a map of the  original townsite of Okanagan Falls, made in 1894. A photo of  the map has been made and will be available for a future  Report.  fames J. Hull, principal organizer and first Chief of the  Vernon Volunteer Fire Brigade, died at the age of 82 years in  1934. The new hook and ladder truck purchased that year,  made its first trip, when bearing his coffin, it led the funeral  cortege. During the Brigade's incipient year (1891) it was  headed by a Captain, G. G. Henderson, but in 1899-a chief in  the person of J. J. Hull was placed in command. — B.C. Fire  Chiefs' Diamond Jubilee Booklet, published 1951.  144 Aberdeen (town), 77, 135  Aberdeen, Lord (Lady), 12, 44, 47,  53, 63, 66, 77  Adelphi, 103, 135  Aitken, Edith M.,  100  Allison(s), 37, 38,  111  Allison Pass, 111  Anarchist Mt.,  112-117,  132  Angus, Dan,  101  Archives,  12,  133,  137  Armstrong (town), 41, 61, 70, 73,  75, 77, 80, 82, 94, 102, 106, 121,  123-127, 132-135,  144  Armstrong Advertiser, 89, 135  Armstrong, W. J., 46, 49, 54, 64  Artifacts, 5, 10, 12  Ashcroft, 69  Ashnola,  11  Associations & Societies (Agric),  36,  53,  68,  124-129  Automobiles, 69  Aviation,   73,   129-131  Banks, 48, 49, 51, 61  Barnes, Fred, 20, 48, 50, 54, 111  Barnes, Harry D., 143  B.C. Power Comm., 60  Benvoulin, 44, 95  Bessette, Peter, 32  Blue Springs, 29, 36, 97  Blurton,  Harry J.,   103,  109,  132  Bonnevier, Chas., 120  Books, Titles of: British Columbia,  an Essay of, 16, 22; Chittendon's  Guide of B.C., 16; My Schools  and School Masters, 89; Ogopogo's  Vigil, 119; Reveries of a Bachelor, 27; Rhymes of a Mountain  Man, 133; Review of Bird Fauna  of B.C., 132; Rocks & Rivers of  B.C., 43: The Dominion at the  West, 16  Brent (s),   118  Brent  Brand,  120  Bridesville, 114, 115  Briley, Miss Ann, 134  Buckerfield's Ltd., 127  "Bucket  of Blood",  116  Buckland, F. M., 119, 120  Buckley Valley, 116  B.X. District, 26, 28, 73  Caesar's Landing,  12  Cameron, Mrs. W. F., 62, 65  Cameron,  W.  F.,  49, 72  Campbell, Burt R., 15, 45, 53, 72, 122  Camp  McKinney,   14,   112,   113,  116  Can. Pac. Rly., 10, 15, 17, 64, 77, 83,  85  Canoe, 16, 25, 42  Cargill (Wood) & Co., 22, 83, 86,  88,   122  Carl, Dr. G. C, 132  Carloads, 79, 124, 128  Cattle, 15, 18, 20, 21, 23, 29, 45, 77,  78, 85, 113, 117, 121, 126, 138  Cawston  (town), 11  Cawston, Mrs. R. L. (M.A.), 37  Cawston, V.  B., 99  Cemetery,   49,   72,   74,   76,   116  Census, 71  Centreville,  45,   135  Charlton,   Chester,   113,   115,   117  Cheese, 125  Cherry Creek, 15, 29, 30, 136-142  Chinese, 32, 34,  76, 79,  113.  123  Christien(s)  20, 21, 24, 33, 41, 98  Churches, 14, 17, 24, 44, 48, 52, 53,  70,  77,  81,  82,  84  Clergy, 16, 53, 75, 88, 105  Clubs,   66-68,   72,   121,   126,   131,   144  Cochrane,  Harold, 71  Cochrane, Maurice and William, 46,  48,  51,  71,  72  Coldstream District, 12, 20, 27, 47,  66,  134  Columbia River Logging Co., 101  Commonage,  107,  135  Copper,  133  Cosens, Arthur, K. W., 49  Coss, Chas. W., 113, 114  Coulthard, Mrs. J. H, 37  Cox,   Wm.   Geo.,   136  Crease, Judge, 43  Crozier, James, 44, 79  Crozier, Mrs. D. G., 73  Cummings,  Capt.,  74, 99  Customs Officer(s), 40, 41, 43, 9l,  112,  116,   136,  137  Daly, Mrs. Thos.  (E. M.), 37  Denison, H. R., 129  Dentalium Shells, 11  Dewar,   Enoch,   33  Dewdney, Sir Edgar, 40, 112  Dewdney, Walter, 46 (See Govt.  Agents)  Doctors, Medical: Beckingsale, D.  L., 51; Chip, John, 51; McKechnie, W. B., 93; McLaren, 78; Morris, Osborne, 51, 63, 65, 78; Offerhaus, 75, 76; Reinhard, W., 51,  54, 78; Van Kleeck, 78; Williams,  G. H, 51  Drumheller, Daniel, M., 133  Election, 46, 72, 114  Electric power, 60, 69, 125  Ellis Creek, 10  Ellison Field, 130, 131  Ellison, Price, 20, 26, 34, 47, 54, 59,  63,  66,  72,  104  Ellis,  Mrs.  T.,  37  Ellis, Thomas, 23  Emory Bar, 15  Enderby, 21, 32, 49, 74, 76, 82, 88,  94. 101, 108, 110, 121, 123, 125, 132,  135  Epidemic,  65, 78,  103  Fairs, 53,  121,  126  Falkland, 100, 101, 107  Fauna, 7,  10,  13, 21, 30, 33, 41, 65,  .145 The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  74, 77, 78, 95, 97, 132  Fires,  16,  51,  53,  54, 77,  78, 83, 86,  98, 108, 114, 115, 126  Fire Brigade, 61, 72, 144  Firsts: Air letter, 73; Airport, 129;  Air-race, 129; Art Breeding Assn.,  125; Bank, 51; Boat, 99; Buggy,  75; Carloads, 79, 128; Celery, 123; i  Church, 44, 52, 53, 77, 82; City;  clerk, 56; City incorporation, 64;  Council, 70; Council meeting, 58;  C.P.R. Agent, 14, 85; Creamery,  124; Cricket eleven, 67; Customs  Office, 112, 116; Dam, 80; Doctor,  78; Diesel, 60, 70; Election, 46,  72; Explorers, 6: Fire engine, 62;  Fruit, 75; Funeral, 76, 116; Girl  born (A.), 84; Hospital, 57, 62;  Hotel, 47; House, 56, 97, 134;  Justice of Peace, 106, 112; Manse,  80; Matron, 63, 65; Mayor, 64, 87;  Minister, 44; Municipality, 89;  Newspaper, 54; Organ, 77; Park  Comm., 134; Postmaster, 47, 75;  Post-office, 93, 112; Pre-emption,  46; Pump, 78; Real estate agent,  51; Reeve, 93; Reg. Herefords, 117;  Residents, 92; Rink, 85; Schools,  44, 89, 97, 100, 106, 114, 116; Sew.  machine, 40; Station agent, 115;  Steamship, 16; Stone grist-mill,  118; Storage tank, 69; Stores, 49,  83-86, 88, 104; Talking machine,  85; Tank-wagon, 69; Teachers, 75,  82, 88, 96, 106, 114; Tennis Club,  67; Train, 53; Trustee, 44; Water  system, 58, 80; Wedding, 76;  White child, 92; White woman, 92;  Windmill,  103.  Fisher, Agnes, 82, 84  Fleming, 119  Flora, 9,  19, 29, 30, 31, 35, 97,  112,  116,  132  Flourmills  (grist), 18, 53, 68, 69, 78,  87,   118,   134,   138  Forge Valley, 135  Fortune, A. L., 76, 79, 92, 121, 122  Fortune, Mrs.,  79, 92  Fortune's  Landing,  118  Fraser, H. A., 70, 87, 94  Fraternities,  54  Freighting, 52, 74, 118  French, Frank H, 50, 143  Fruit-raising,  15, 21, 23, 36, 68, 73,  112,  114,   121,  123,  132  Game   (wild),  19, 21, 33, 41, 68, 95,  99,   133  Gallagher Lake, 9  Gartrell (s), 22, 72  Gellatly, David, 48, 57, 128  Gellatly,  Dorothy H.,   117,  128  Geological strata, 25, 28, 133  Gervers,  John,   118,   120  Girod,  Phillip,   121  Girouard, Luc, 19, 26, 32, 47, 92  Glenemma, 100, 102, 104  Gold,   18,  31,  90,  91,   113,   114,   136,  137,   140-144  Goldie, Robert, 26, 29  Goodfellow, Rev. J. C, 44, 89  Government Agents, 20,  26, 27, 33,  38, 45, 46  Grain, 18, 21, 24, 31, 33, 45, 47, 112,  119,  121,  138  Grand Forks, 130, 143  Grande Prairie, 84, 104, 135  Granite   Creek,   22  Great Northern Rly., 115, 116  Green, Archdeacon Thomas,  14,  53  Green, Mrs., 14  Green, C. de B.,  114  Greenhow, Thomas, 17, 18, 19, 25  Greenhow, Mrs. 79  Greenhouse, 128  Greenwood,   143  Guiget, C. J., 132  Gypsum,   107  Hagan, Michael, 15  Harvey, A. G., 77  Hassen, Mat, 85, 126  Hayhurst, W. T., 127  Haynes, Charlotte, 37-44  Haynes, Fairfax, 43, 44  Haynes, Judge J. C, 38, 73, 92, 137  Head of the Lake, 12, 17, 18, 21, 29,  74,   79,   100,   119  Heal, Ronald,  121  Hedley, 143, 144  Hedley Gold Mining Co., 143  Hee-hee Stone, 113  Herry,   Baroness,   73  Hidden Treasures Co., 31  Hope, 32, 38,  136,  139  Hope-Princeton Highway, 120  Horn, the, 38, 97, 128  Horses, 23, 26, 41, 45, 65, 67, 70, 77  80,  85, 90,  102,  105,  113,  115,  118,  126, 137, 138, 143  Hospitals,  57,  62, 65,  66, 81, 85,  144  Hotels:  Armstrong,  83, 85;  Bridesville,    116;    Coldstream,    49,    51;  Kalamalka, 47, 49, 51; Lumby, 98;  Mountain   View,   115;   Okanagan,  51;   Ram's  Horn, 95,  98;   Vernon,  49,  51;   Victoria,  51;   also  77,  115  Houghton, Col. C. F., 26, 27, 32, 34,  92  Hudson's Bay Co., 7, 20, 37, 38, 49,  64, 89, 91, 121  Hull, J. J., 48,  144  Hullcar, 102-104  Icelanders, 57  Imperial Oil Co., 69  Incorporation, 46, 72, 93  Indians, 7, 13, 24, 25, 40, 41, 65, 71,  74, 80, 99, 131  Indian Agents, 17, 131  Indian campsites, 9, 10, 11, 99  Indian Church, 23  Indian dog, 7  Indian gravesites, 5-12, 41  Indian school, 15  Indian, "Narcisse", 137, 140  Indian  Reserves,   11,   17,   19-21,  99,  130  Inkam(n)eep, 40,  114  Inland Sentinel,  15, 53,  104,  122  Interior Prov. Exhibition, 126  International   Boundary,   9,   42,  91,  113,  115.  122  Irwin, Rev. H. J.  (Father Pat), 53  Jaffary, Rev. J. A., 94  146 t  1  Index  B                               Jubilee, Churches' Diamond, 44  Murray Dam,  80  Jubilee, Spallumcheen Diamond,  44,  Murray,  Geo.,  74,  84,  86  i.7,  92,   135  Murray,  Mrs.   Geo.,  74  Jubilee,   Vernon   Diamond,   45,  92,  Museum,  120,  132  135  Mutrie, J. T., 64, 68  Justice of Peace, 18, 106, 111, 11.  Naramata, 61  Kalamalka Lake, 59, 68  New Westminster, 38, 39  Kamloops,  12, 21, 24, 25, 29, 41,  45,  Nickel  Plate,   143  53,  69,  70,  71,  77,  83,  92,  93,  100,  Norris, Leonard, 46, 93  101,   107,   121,   130,   139  Norris, Martha. 88, 93  Kane, Paul, 7  Norris, T. A., 95  Kelowna,  12,   14,  44,  61,  69,  70,  73,  Okanagan Arc, 73  80,  118, 120,  123,  130, 132, 135,  144  Okanagan Falls, 9, 13, 14, 144  Keremeos,  11,  14,  119,  134  Okanagan Lake,  11,  15,  16, 25, 118,  Kerr, Robert, 32  123,  131,  133,  136  Kettle River, 33, 112, 113, 142  Okanagan   Land   Development   Co.,  Kneller, Jabez, 103, 106  47  Knox,  John,  24  Okanagan Mission, 15, 20, 21, 24, 25,  Knox's Point, 21  41, 98,  138  Kokanee, 9,  10  Okanagan River, 9, 23, 25  Kootenay, 14, 41, 43, 92, 122, 128  "Okanagan" Smith, 113, 134  Kruger, Theodore, 41  Okanagan,  S.S.,   15,   17  Kruger, Mrs. T., 37  Okanagan Telephone Co., 61  Lacey, Katie,  112  Okanagan Valley, 12,  15, 37, 44, 79,  Lambly, 21, 33  90,  118,   119,   128,   133,  143,  144  Lang, Arthur H., 28  O'Keefe(s), 17-19, 25, 26, 102, 118  Langille, Rev. Paul, 44, 52, 54  Oliver, 9, 73, 131  Lansdowne,  17. 74, 82, 83, 88, 94  One-eyed  Mountain,   116  L'Anse au Sable, 135  Oppenheimer, 75,  134  Larkin, 72, 106  O'Reilly, Judge, 40  ^                             Leduc,  Charles,  88,  93  Organ, 84,  104  ■                             LeGuen, Paul J. M., 36  Ormsby, Margaret A., 136  ■                               Lequime(s), 21, 24, 54  Osoyoos,   7.   13,   23,   37,   73,   92,   112,  W                              Ling, 9  119, 132, 136  I                                 Logging, 35, 101, 106, 115, 117  Overlanders,  89, 90,  92  ■                               Long Lake, 18, 26  Pacific Dentaliu_n, 11  K                              Lowe, Const. William H, 40  Patchett, Annie, 84  Lumby   (town), 73, 124, 143  Patten(s), 75, 76, 79, 82, 88, 93, 125  Lumby, Moses, 45, 46, 47, 95-99  Peachland,  61  Lytton,  12, 92,  121  Pearse brothers,  101,  105  Mackay,   George   Grant,  44-48,  L33,  Penticton,  9,   14,   15,  24,  61,  69,  70,  134  72,   73,   81,  99,   131,   134,   138  MacNaughton, Isabel C, 13  Penticton   Herald,   134  I                                   Mail service, 28, 29, 36, 37, 103,  113  Pentland, Lady Marjorie, 12  Manery, Mrs. W. J., 37  Piano, 38  Manitoba  Gypsum  Co.,  102,  107  Pickering Street, 81  Mara   (town),   102,   108  Pido, Bervl, 108  Mara, J. A., 47  Pion, William, 137, 138, 140  Matthews, Major J. S., 12, 69  Pioneers   (listed):  Anarchist Moun  Mayors,  Vernon,  64  tain,  112-117;   Armstrong,  79,  82-  McCurdy, Mrs. Dan., 37  88;    Cherry    Creek,    31,    138-142;  Mclntyre,  Peter,  93  Coldstream,    28;     Kelowna,    24;  McKelvie, J. A., 49, 54, 72, 134  Lansdowne. 75: Lumby, 98; Mara,  McPherson,  Osborne,  76,  79, 82,  83  108-111-  Mill Creek, 119;  Salmon  Megaw, W. R., 49, 52, 64, 72, 143  River Valley, 100-107; Vernon, 20,  Megraw, Ainsley, 45, 54  26, 46-73  Merritt,   (town), 69  Pleasant Valley, 94  Merritt, John, 32  Pony-express. 337, 93  Midway, 113, 116  Postill's Landing, 20  Mill Creek, 119  Postmaster,  26,   32,   70,  87,  93,   102,  Mines, 32, 33, 120, 122, 133, 137, 143  115  Missionaries, 6, 17, 23, 24, 138  Postmistress, 109  Mission Creek,  136  Post-office. 77. 93,  102,  103  Mission Hill, 47, 59, 62, 65, 129  Potlach, 41, 74  Mission Valley, 21, 25  Pre-emption, 19, 46, 92, 118  Mixed farming 45, 121, 122  Price, Barrington, 134  Moberly, Walter, 40, 43  Priest's Valley, 19, 26, 45, 100  ^.                            Monashee Mine, 33  Princeton,   10,  37,  69,  111,  120,  131,  ■1                           Moresby, Mrs. Wm., 38  135  ■f                            Mountain Peaks. 20, 22, 29, 33,  65,  Proctor. W. G., 70  I       """  14  "Pruth",     38  17   __• The Okanagan Historical Society — 1952  Queen's Park,  131  Quesnel, Cleophas, 98  Ramsden, Eric, 134  "Red Star", 17, 49, 74, 82, 99  Red Star Mine, 120  Richard, Anne,  129  Richard, Fr., 138  Richter, 7, 37  Rithet, Mrs. R. P., 68  Rock Creek, 21, 24, 91, 113, 114, 116,  136,   142  Rosoman,  Mrs.,   109  Round   Prairie,   44,   77,   89,   93,   94,  118, 135  Royal Engineers, 91  Rutland,  130, 135  Salishan,   5  Salmon, 9, 13, 95, 100  Salmon Arm, 61, 69, 70, 100, 133  Salmon River Land Co.,  100  Salmon River Valley, 100-107  Salvation Army, 53  Sanders, Judge E. H, 38  Savona's Ferry, 118  Sawmills,   10,   17, 35, 47,  77,  86, 93,  109,  115  Schools, 9, 20, 38, 39, 44, 52, 56, 59,  63, 76. 77, 79, 82, 88, 89, 93, 94, 97,  100, 105, 106, 114, 116  Schubert(s), 46 55, 70, 79, 90-93  Seed Growing, 121, 126, 127  "Shakes", 7,  10,  118  Shatford, 49, 50, 54, 64, 114  Shorts,  Capt T.  D.,  16, 20, 21  Shorts  Point   (Fintry),  128  Shuswap Lake, 25, 31, 136  Shuswap & Okanagan Rly., 26, 36,  45, 77,  100,  102, 143  Shuswap  River,  35,   139,   142  Shuttleworth, Josephine, 13  Sicamous  (town), 35, 65, 74, 82, 102  Sicamous, S.S.,  134  Sidley,  112,  115  Sidley, R. G., 112  Silver, 31, 115  Similkameen Valley,  11, 23, 37, 91,  111,   129,  133,  136,  143  Simms,  Charles  D.,  49  Singer S. Machine, 35  Skaha Lake (Dog), 7, 9, 10, 131  "Smart Alec", 34  Soapstone  (steatite), 11  Sooyoos,  38,  42,  43,   142  Spallumcheen  River,  30,  35,  49, 99  Spallumcheen Valley, 21, 25, 31, 53,  68, 70, 87, 89, 92,  122,  126,  127  Spinks (Judge W. W.), 55, 56, 100  Sports,  67,  80,  84,  144  Stage-driving, 70, 93, 97  Stelkia, Peter, 114  Stevenson, "Bobby", 91  Stott, Rev.  William, 80  Streets, Vernon original, 47  Sugar  Lake,  34  Summerland,  11, 61, 72  Sunderland, Violet, 65  Susap,   40  Swan  Lake,  26,  68  Sweet,  Emma  P.,  101,   102  Swift, Reuben, 52  Teachers, 38, 75, 79, 83, 88, 93, 95, 96,  100, 103, 105, 106, 138  Tenasket, Chief, 40  Trading-post, 37, 41, 42, 45  Trails,   18,   22-24,   40,   41,   100,   112-  114,  120, 137, 139, 140, 142  Tronson, E. J.,  19, 45, 53  Trout,   10,  95  Trout Creek,  10, 22  Tulameen, 93  Utilities, Vernon, 60  Vancouver,  12, 73, 75,  122,  127, 130,  133,  134,  143  Vaseux Lake, 9,  14, 93  Vermillion Forks, 11, 135  Vernon (City), 19, 23, 25, 26, 36, 44-  73,   78,  84,  92,   102,   106,   107,   125,  128-130,   134,   135,   143,   144  Vernon brothers, 27, 33, 47, 92, 134  137  Vernon News, 45, 47, 54, 60, 61, 135  Victoria   (City),   15,  27,   39,   41,   81,  89,   122,   133  Victoria Colonist, 15  Victorian   Order   of   Nurses,   63,   85  "Vitagrass",   127  Vowel, Judge, 40  Wagon, 23, 52, 114, 118  Walker's  Weekly  &  Enderby Press,  108  Wallis, Mark, 92  Warren, Col. Faulkland, 101, 107  Water   system,   57,   58,   76,   85,   103  Weeks, Capt. J. B., 144  Westbank,  11, 117  West Kootenay Power & Light Co.,  10, 60  Western    Canadian    Hydro-Electric  Co., 60  Western Miner, 132  Westwold, 84,  100,  103,  135  White, Cull, 133  Whitefish,  10  White, Hester E. (Mrs. R. B.), 37, 73  White Lake, 9  White Valley    ,  20,  33, 36, 97  Whitham, Dorothy J., 118  Wild Horse Creek, 40, 41, 113  Winfield, 18  Wirth, 32  Wolfenden (s), 79, 83, 85,  114  Wood, Duncan, 22  Wood, Thomas   (J.P.), 18  Yale, 15, 33, 38, 118  Yellow Globe Danvers,  127  Y.M.C.A.,  64  Young, B. F., 21, 41, 75, 84  Young,   Const.  Wm.   C,   136  Zealandia, 70  148 The Okanagan Valley and Adjoining Areas PENTICTON  HERALD s^HH^

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