Okanagan Historical Society Reports

The eleventh report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society 1945

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Array R. N. (Reg) Atkinson Museum  785 AAAIN STREET  PENTCTON.B.C   V2A5E3  THE ELEVENTH REPORT  OF THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  OF  VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA  1945  Founded 4th September, 1925 0  P'Äûho  ,10 R. N. (Reg) Atkinson Museta  785 MAIN STREET  PENTICTON, B.C.    V2A5E3  THE ELEVENTH REPORT  OF THE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  OF  VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA  1945  Founded 4th September, 1925  Introduction  The Okanagan Historical Society has suffered a  great loss in the death of Mr. Leonard Norris, who acted  as Secretary and Treasurer since he organised the  Society in 1925. He was a man of sterling qualities  and respected by everyone who, like myself, had known  him and enjoyed his friendship for nearly fifty years.  The tribute to his memory by Miss Ormsby, is  really a zvord picture of his life in the Okanagan Valley.  As a recorder of Okanagan History, some of our  readers have at times considered he went a little far  afield in some of his artciles by writing what appeared  to be British Columbia or Canadian History.  When we read these written by him let us make  ourselves believe that his intention was to convey this  knowledge to those of us who may not have interested  ourselves enough to read it elsewhere, and try to  appreciate the worth of the work this generous gentleman did for us.  J. B. WEEKS, President. Contents  PAGE  Appreciation—Margaret A.  Ormsby  15  Our Future Flag—L. Norris  20  Big Game Conditions in British Columbia—Allen Brooks    . 25  The Falling Leaves—Alfretta M. Crosier      ...... 28  The Okanagan Arc—L. Norris  30  Lord Dufferin's Visit to British Columbia—L. Norris    ... 35  The Quarrel Between The Governor General and The  Prime Minister,  1876—Margaret A.  Ormsby      ... 49  Canada's Manifest Destiny—Marjorie M. Jenkins      ... 56  Eli Lequime—Dorothy Hewlett Gellatly  59  Glacial Erratic on the Coldstream—Dorothy Hewlett Gellatly 62  Callender Station—Elsie Foote  63  Okanagan's First Fire Engine—F. W. Laing  66  The S. R. I. A. C.—L. Norris     . 71  First White Child Born in the Okanagan  —Clinton A. S. Atwood  75  An Old Whale Bone—A. E. Sage     ......... 77  Phosphorescent Wood—L. Norris .79  Canada's Future—L. Norris     .  80  The Capital of British Columbia—L. Norris  99  Ross Cox on the "Oakinagan"—Frank Haskins      .... 105  Notes and  Comments        112  Renaissance—Grace Hewlett  114 THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  OF  VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA  President  Joseph  B. Weeks  First  Vice-President  Mrs. Dorothy Gellatly  Editor  G. C. Tassie  Auditor  A. E. Berry  Librarian  James  G   Simms  Second Vice-President  A. E. Sage  Assistant Editor  Elsie Foote  Secretary  Rev. J. C. Goodfellow  Treasurer  H. R. Dennison  Directors  Dr. F. W. Andrew  Arthur K. W. Cosens  Burt R. Campbell  W. R. Dewdney  George Fraser  James Goldie  W. T. Hayhurst  Dr. W. J. Knox  James C. Agnew  L. L. Kerry  George A. Meeres  Grant Lang  H. B. D. Lysons  Harry D. Barnes  W. F. Kennedy  Fred. J. Murray  Arthur Young  W. A. Rhodes  Dr. H.  Campbell-Brown  List of Members  Adams, Most Rev. Archbishop  W.  R  Vernon  Agnew, James C  Vernon  Andrew, Dr. F. W.  Summerland  Andrews, Thomas   Armstrong  Anderson, George   Vernon  Armstrong, W. L  Prince Rupert  Armstrong, Harry B. Edmonton, Alta.  Atkinson,  W.   S   Vernon  Atwood, C A. S  Grand Forks  Bagnall,  Guy  P  Vernon  Bailey, E. R Kelowna  Baird, G. D  Revelstoke  Barber, A. H  Vernon  Barnes, Harry D.   Hedley  Barrat, G. A   Kelowna  Batten, Mrs. M. B  Vernon  Bartholomew,   H.   G   Vernon  Baynes, E. G., Grosvenor  Hotel —  Vancouver  Bearisto,   H.   K    Vernon  Beaven, M. H. C  Vernon  Becker, J.  C   Armstrong  Beddome, J. B.  Vernon  Berry, A. E  Vernon  Beveridge, Garvin   Vernon  Biggin,  Bernard  Vancouver  Bishop,  John  A   Vernon  Bloom, C. D  Lumby  Blurton, Harry J  Enderby  Boyne, Frank   Vernon  Boyce, Dr. B. F  Kelowna  Bowes, Miss Minnie   Vancouver  Bowen, N .. Vernon  Brooks, Major Allen Ok. Landing  Brooks, Mrs. Allen   Ok. Landing  Brown,   G.   D   Kamloops  Brown,   R.   P    Penticton  Browne, Dolph   Vernon  Buckland,   F.   M   Kelowna  Bulman, T. R  Vernon  Bull, Capt. C. R  Rutland  Caesar,   N.   H    Ok.   Landing  Calder,  Judge  F.  Ashcroft  Campbell, Leslie   Trail  Campbell,   Douglas      Vernon  Campbell,  Burt R   Kamloops  Campbell, Roy C  Penticton  Campbell, Leslie V  Trail  Campbell-Brown, Dr. H  Vernon  Cameron, J. D Penticton  Canadian Legion   Kelowna  Carter,  George M  Vernon  Casorso,  Anthony     Kelowna  Casorso, Joseph  _  Kelowna  Catt, Hugh C  Lumby  Cavers,  Miss Annie    Vancouver  Chapin, H. F  Kelowna  Chapman,   Mrs.  M.  T   Vernon  Chapman, David   Kelowna  Chambers,   E.  J   Vernon  Clark,  R.  L  Vernon  Clarke, Everard   Vernon  Claassen,   Peter D   Vernon  Clemitson,   T.   R    Westwold  Cochrane, Maurice  Vernon  Cochrane, Harold   Penticton  Collett, H. C. S  Kelowna  Coleman, James Vancouver  Collins,   Austin   F    Vernon  Colly,  J.   R   Kamloops  Coombs, C. W  Vernon  Cooper, Percy   New Westminster  Cooper, Fred   Vernon  Cools, Joseph  Vernon  Cosens, Arthur K. W Vancouver  Cousier, Dr. H. L Vernon  Curry,  C  .N  Vernon  Craig, H. V  Kelowna  Crozier, Mrs. Ivan Vernon  Cryderman,  W.  A   Vernon  Cull, R. H  Vernon  Cuthbert, W. A  Armstrong  Davidson,  R.  A   Vernon  Dawson, Mrs. Helen   Vancouver  Deeks,   W.  H   Vernon  DeLorme, Mrs. B Vernon  Denison,   H.   R    Vernon  Denison,  N.  L   Lumby  Deschamps,  Alphonse     Oyama  Deschamps, Frederick  Vernon  Dewdney, W.  R   Penticton  Dewdney,  Edgar  E.  L    Nelson  Dickson,  Peter   Vernon  Dickson, Mrs. W. J  Armstrong  Ditmars, W. C Vancouver  Downing, A. G  Vernon  Dunsden, Harry,   Summerland  Duncan, Mrs. Margaret —.—. Vernon Dunkley, G. W  Armstrong  Dunne,   Fintan       Armstrong  Dwyer, Miss M Kamloops  Ellison, Miss Elizabeth Vernon  Elliott,   R.   H    Revelstoke  Elliott,   George,   R.   R.   1,   Kelowna  Estabrook, Otto   Penticton  Everett, Dr. H. S., Ph.D., .... Chicago  Fallow,   H.  F   Vernon  Fay, Mrs. G. C  Esquimalt  Fifer, A. J  Armstrong  Finlaison,  C. W    Lumby  Finlayson, Mrs. P. R  Vernon  Fitzmaurice, R  Vernon  Fleming, Arch  Vernon  Foote, Mrs. Elsie   Vernon  Foote, Horace G  Vernon  Forester, J. H. W  Vancouver  Forbes, Mrs. C. J  Victoria  Foulkes,   Mrs.  Guy     Kelowna  .Fox, Gordon   Vernon  French,   Percy,     Vernon  Fraser,  George J   Osoyoos  Fullford, Charles   Vernon  Galbraith,   Fred    Vernon  Gardom, Basil   Dewdney  Gellatly,   David,       Westbank  Gellatly,  Mrs.  David   Westbank  Genn, Anthony   Victoria  George,   G.   T    Kaleden  Gibson,   S.   R    Princeton  Gibson, Rev. H. C. B  Vernon  Gibson, George   Ok.  Centre  Goldie, James   Ok. Centre  Goldie, John   Victoria  Goodfellow, Rev. John C, Princeton  Gordon,   D.  K   Kelowna  Gore, Mrs. S. M  Kelowna  Gray, Angus A  Fintry  Greyell, W. D., Alderman, Vancouver  Griffin, Charles   Vernon  Griffin, Mrs. James Jr Vernon  Griffiths,  G. W   Vernon  Guichon, Lawrence   Nicola  Gurney,   W.   H    Kamloops  Gummow, Mrs. S. E  Peachland  Hall, William   Vernon  Hamber, Hon. Eric W Vancouver  Hammond, H. J  Vernon  Hamilton,  Mrs.  S  Vernon  Handcock,  Claude  S   Grindrod  Harwood, Joseph   Vernon  Harris, Joseph     Penticton  Harrison, Frank   Armstrong  Hardy,  Henry     Peachland  Harvey, A. G  Vancouver  Harvey,  Dr. J.  E   Vernon  Haskins, Rev. Frank, M.A.   _  Summerland  Hassard, Frank   Vernon  Hassen,  Matt Armstrong  Haug,  Roy     Kelowna  Haugan, Dr. R  Armstrong  Haverfield, B. T  Ok. Mission  Hawkes, A. McL  Los Angeles  Hayward, Mel ford Vernon  Hayhurst, W. T Armstrong  Hayhurst, Arthur   Vernon  Hayman,  L. A   Kelowna  Hayden,   Charles       Vernon  Heggie, G. R  Vernon  Heighway,  J.   G    Lumby  Hembling, 0. W  Oyamaa  Herbert, Gordon  S  Kelowna  Hewlett, Miss Grace   Westbank  Higgins, C. Noel  Summerlannd  Higgins, J. C _ Vancouver  Holliday, C. W  Victoria  Hope,   John       Penticton  Hopkins, J. L  Armstrong  Home, A. P Vancouver  Howrie,  David    Vernon  Howe, A. T Vernon  Hoy, Ben   Kelowna  Hudson, Fred'k A Mara  Hunt, Mrs. Stan  Vernon  Hunter, Ivan   Ok.  Centre  Hunter, Willis   Armstrong  Hurt, Charles   Vernon  Hutchison, Mrs. W. R  Enderby  Husband, Col. H. R Vernon  Inglis, Mrs, D. W Lumby  Ireland, C.   Armstrong  Irving, Dr.  R. W ... Kamloops  Jack, Mrs. Lucy   Hamilton, Ont.  Jackson, Dr. W. A  Lavington  Jackson, George   Salmon Arm  Jacques,  G.  F   Vernort  Jamieson, J.  E  Armstrong  Jenkins, Miss M _ Edmonton, Alta,  Jenkinson,   C.   H   Armstrong  Johnson, Cecil  Vernori  Johnson, E. R  Vernon  Johnson, George W. ~  Summerland Johnson, Miss Gladys      Commonage,   Vernon  Jones, O. L  Kelowna  Jones, J. W  Victoria  Kamloops Museum  Kamloops  Kappel,   Frank       Sicamous  Kelowna Courier, The   Kelowna  Kelly,   C.   C    Kelowna  Kent,   A.   J    Vernon  Kennedy, W. F Victoria  King-Baker, Mrs. V  Enderby  Kinnard,   K.   W   Vernon  Kerr, R. D Grand Forks  Kerry, L. L  Kelowna  Kerby, Mrs. Ida E  Vancouver  Knox, Dr. W. J  Kelowna  Kneller,   Jabez       Armstrong  Lamb, Dr. W. Kaye   Vancouver  Lantz,  L. A  Vernon  Lanceley, E. J  Vernon  Lang,  Grant    Peachland  Lang, Dr. Arthur H  Ottawa  Laing, F. W  Victoria  Larnie, John M  Vancouver  Latimer, Gerald   Penticton  Leathley, Leonard    Kelowna  Leathley, Miss Doris   Kelowna  LeBourdais,   Louis       Quesnel  Lefroy, C. B  Vernon  LeGuen,   P.  J.  M   Vernon  Leslie, W. T  Penticton  Lett,  Rev.  A.  R   Oyama  Lewis, F. A  Kelowna  Ley, R. W  Vernon  Lloyd, Miss M. H  Oyama  Lockwood, E. N  Vernon  Little,  Mrs. Arthur   Vernon  Liddle,   S.   A    Summerland  Lodge, Mrs. F. J  Keremeos  Love, Rev. R. J  Armstrong  Macdonald, Neil K Vernon  Mackie, H. F  Vernon  Mackay, F  Vernon  Maitland, Hon. R. L  Victoria  Mann,  Miss  C.  A   Vernon  Mann, A. J Summerland  Martin, Stuart Vernon  Martin, Thomas   Vernon  Mackay, F  Vernon  Marshall, G. H  Armstrong  Mattock, E  Vernon  Mathews, Major J. S  Vancouver  Mawhinney,  R.  H  Vernon  Meeres, G. A  Vernon  Mehling, Mrs. P  Vernon  Megaw, W. E  Vernon  Meyers,   R.   T    Vancouver  Milne,  Miss  Helen  M   Vernon  Middleton, Maurice   Vernon  Mills, William _ Commonage, Vernon  Monk, H. B  Vernon  Montfort, G  Vernon  Montague, Mrs. J. E  Vernon  Moore, Samuel   Vancouver  Morley,   William     Vernon  Murphy, James F  Enderby  Munro, J. B  Victoria  Murray, Fred J  Armstrong  McBride,   D.  A   Vernon  McCall, James   Calgary, Alta.  McCluskey, J. W  Vernon  McCulloch, A. C  Kamloops  McDonell, Lawrence  Vernon  McEachern, Dr. J. W  Winnipeg  McGinn, Charles   Vancouver  McKay, George    Kelowna  McKay, Mrs. A Peachland  McKelvie, Bruce A  Cobble Hill  McKim, A. S  Salmon Arm  McNair,   David      Kelowna  McNair,  Mrs.  D   Kelowna  McNair, Melvin   Armstrong  McNaughton, Mrs. George, Quesnel  McRae, Miss Catherine .... Penticton  McWilliams, T. F  Kelowna  Napier, Col. R. Ross   Victoria  Neill,   R.   W    Vernon  Neill, W. R  Vernon  Nelson, Miss B  Summerland  Nicklin,  F.  H  Vernon  Noble, M. D  Armstrong  Noble,   C.   G   Armstrong  Norman, E. A  Armstrong  Norris, Leonard   Vernon  Norris., T. A  Vernon  Nuttall,   W.   T    Naramata  Okanagan Society R. I. A. C.      Oliver  Oliver,  W.  J   Vernon  O'Neill, John   Lumby  Ormsby, Dr. Margaret A., Vancouver  Ormsby, Miss Catherine .... Kingston  Palmer, R. E  Summerland  Parker, William   Armstrong Parham,  H. J   Penticton  Patterson,   A.   L    Kelowna  Patten, Mrs. Charles   Armstrong  Patten, L. W  Vernon  Pearce, Dr. J. A  Victoria  Pearse, Mrs. F. R  Vernon  Pearcy, G. P  Kelowna  Peel, E.  N   Enderby  Pegg,   L.   Kern    Vancouver  Pelly, Mrs. C. H  Victoria  Penrice,   J    Vancouver  Peters,  W  Vernon  Pettman, Dr. F. E  Vernon  Piper, Harry   Vernon  Pope, C. A Victoria  Pout, Harry   Vancouver  Pound,  W.   C    Vernon  Powley,  W.  R   Kelowna  Pringle,  J.   F    Calgary  Pringle, Mrs. James G  Armstrong  Prickard, A. G. R  Oyama  Procter, W. G  Mabel Lake  Reader, J. H  Vernon  Reid, Miss E  Penticton  Reith,  Miss  H.  W   Armstrong  Rendell,  E.  A   Vernon  Richards, Mrs. Elsie    New Westminster  Richards,  C. E  Enderby  Robison,   Delbert   J    Vernon  Robison,  Miss  Priscilla   Vernon  Robertson, Thomas   Vernon  Robertson,   W.   H    Vernon  Rogers, A  Vernon  Rolston,,   W.   J    Vernon  Rourke, W. R  Vernon  Ross,   H.   G    Kelowna  Rosoman, Graham    Enderby  Rowland, G. J Penticton  Russell, Perley  Vernon  Sage,   A.   E Armstrong  Schubert, Mrs. A. E  Tulameen  Seymour, S. P  Vernon  Sharpe, Mrs. G. P  Salmon Arm  Sharpe, A. E  Salmon Arm  Shatford, S. A  Vernon  Shaw,  W.  W   Heffly  Creek  Shephard,   Charles       Armstrong  Shields, W. J  Lumby  Sigalet, W. A  Vernon  Simms, James G  Vernon  Simms, Mrs. J. G Vernon  Simmons, John   Vernon  Simmons,  Fred  '.... Vernon  Simpson,  S. M  Kelowna  Simpson, Mrs. S. M  Kelowna  Sinclair,   G.   F    Summerland  Skelton,   E.  M Armstrong  Smith,   W.   H    Armstrong  Smith.  G.  A  Armstrong  Smith,   Franklin   Sr    Vernon  Smith,  Mrs.  M.  M '. Armstrong  Smith, A. R  Vernon  Smith,   Saul   L    Vancouver  Smith,  Arthur ....  New  Westminster  Somerset,  Harold     Armstrong  Sonnerman, Mrs. E. W   Spokane  Spyer,   S    Vernon  Stark, James Vernon  Sterling,  P.  S   Vernon  Stirling,   Hon.   Grote       Kelowna  Stirling,   Mrs.   G    Kelowna  Stevenson, S. W. Gaunt   Vernon  Stewart, Miss Charlotte   Victoria  Stuart,  Miss  Charlotte   Victoria  Stuart, George R  Fintry  Taite,  H.  B  Vernon  Tassie, G. C  Vernon  Taylor, Mrs. Paul   Vernon  Taylor,   J.   N    Vernon  Taylor,   E.   W    Princeton  Theed,   R.   F    Summerland  Thibaudeau,   R.   J    Vancouver  Thorborn, John   Vernon  Thorlaksen, Ben, Commonage, Vernon  Toombs, A. E  Vernon  Tripp,   Leighton   E    Vernon  Tupper,   C   H Penticton  Tyrer,  A.   S   Vancouver  Valair,   Frank       Vernon  Vernon Board of Trade   Vernon  Vernon Club  :  Vernon  Waites,   K.   A    Vancouver  Walmsley, Miss  Doris,  Los Angeles  Walsh, Anthony  Oliver  Walburn, H. O  Kelowna  Walker,  H.  M   Enderby  Walker, P  Victoria  Ward, Francis B Victoria  Warren, W. A. A   Falkland  Ward,   Raymond      Lumby  Warner,   Fred    Lumby  Watkin, J. H Vernon  Watkin, Mrs. J. H  Vernon  Watts, Mrs. C. H Vernon Weatherill,   H.   O    Vernon  Weddell,   E.   C   Kelowna  Weeks,  T. V   Hardistry,  Alta.  Weeks,   J.   B    Penticton  West,  J.   G    Vernon  Weston, C. T  Vernon  White,  John      Vernon  White, Ronald E  Kamloops  White, Mrs. R. B  Penticton  Whitehouse, T. D  Armstrong  Whyte,   Bryson   McK    Vernon  Wigg, Mrs. A. M  Vernon  Witt,  W.  V    Kelowna  Wilcox, J.   C    Summerland  Wilson,   A    Armstrong  Wilson, Miss E  Vancouver  Wilson, J. H  Armstrong  Williams,  G.  F   Hollyburn  Williams, Dr.. M. Y., Ph.D.      Vancouver  Wilkie, Otawy New Westminster  Winkler,  George  E   Victoria  Winkles, Mrs. W. H  Armstrong  Whitham, J. D Kelowna  Witte, W. V   Victoria  Wollaston, F. E. R  Vancouver  Wolsley, A. G  Ottawa  Wooliams,   J    Summerland  Woods, J.  J    Saanichton  Woods, Jack   Vernon  Woods,   Leonard       Armstrong  Wood, Angus   Lumby  Worth, Mrs. Harry   Lumby  Young,   Arthur       Armstrong  Young, Vance   Armstrong  Young, Frank   Armstrong  Archives  Vernon,   Vancouver,   Ottawa  Universities  McGill, Toronto, Indiana, British  Columbia, Washington, Stanford,  California.  Public Libraries  Victoria City, Vancouver, New  Westminster, Vernon, Nelson.  Prince Rupert, Armstrong, Kelowna, Revelstoke, Hamilton,  Seattle, New York, Toronto,  Spokane,   House   of   Commons.  Public Schools  Lavington, Mabel Lake, Ashton  Creek, Armstrong, Hilton, Keremeos, Westwold, Sicamous, Salmon Arm, Peachland, Kamloops,  Grindrod, Enderby, Mara, West  Summerland, Lumby, Penticton,  Kelowna,   Vernon.  Historical Societies  Montana, Minnesota, Similkameen. LEONARD NORRIS  'he loved this Okanagan Valley, and was its fond Historian " APPRECIATION  With the death of Mr. Leonard Norris on April 18th, 1945,  the Okanagan Historical Society suffered a great blow, for it lost  its founder and its mentor. The Society was started in Vernon on  September 4th, 1925, after Mr. Norris had injected into a group  of his townsmen and old friends some of the enthusiasm he had  for the study of local history. It was he who did most of the  hard work in the Society and assumed the responsibility of seeing  that sufficient material was collected so that the Reports were  issued regularly. He persuaded pioneers in the Valley to write  their reminiscences, revised and edited articles submitted to him,  did research in topics in the wider field of British Columbia history,  encouraged young historians and scientists to write for the Reports,  made arrangements with the publishers, did the proof-reading and-  arranged for the distribution of the Reports. His was the spirit  that breathed life into the activities of the Society, and there  could be no better memorial to him that this Report which represents the work of his last years.  It is unfortunate and sad that more is not known of the  life of a man who served the province of British Columbia well  and who helped to fill in the pages of British Columbia History.  Long before he was known as an historian, Mr. Norris had won for  himself a reputation as an outstanding public official. But he was  the last to draw attention to the quality of his work or to expect  credit or thanks for it. Those who worked with him knew that  he was a man of fine fibre, representing many of the qualities  which he admired most in the Okanagan pioneer, but they discovered little about his background or his experiences. Occasionally  he would be reminded of past events which he considered amusing  or ridiculous, and then he would recount them with delicacy and  discernment.   He never retailed gossip or slander, he was kindly 16 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  and appreciative in speaking of others—although he could be indignant about injustices or wrong-doings—and he always understated his own accomplishments.  The early years of Mr. Norris' life were spent in Ontario.  He was born on a farm near Brampton in 1865, not far from the  land now occupied by the Dale Nurseries. He was nine years of  age when his family moved to Langley Prairie, and a young man  of seventeen when he first came to the Okanagan Valley in 1882.  From the first he found delight in the natural charm of the Okanagan, and he always spoke with warmth of the beauty of the bunch-  grass hills and of the lakes that reflected it. Some of his feeling  he expressed in poems which he wrote in his later life.  At first he had no intention of settling in the Okanagan  Valley, but he came to admire the qualities of the pioneer settlers  and to appreciate the hospitality he found in their homes. He  worked first on ranches in the Lumby District, then in December,  1887, he decided to pre-empt land in the vicinity of Round Lake,  just off the Vernon-Kamloops Road. Thoreau's philosophy and  way of life appealed to him, and he was convinced that in farming  a small piece of land and in living close to nature, personal happiness could be attained. But as events turned out, he was to live  a different kind of life.  He had hardly taken up his land, when he was asked to  be Provincial Police Constable at Lansdowne. He was reluctant,  but was (finally persuaded when he was promised that the appointment would be temporary, and that he would soon be replaced.  Once he had entered public service, he found it difficult to break  away—new duties and responsibilities were pressed on him, and he  was soon embarked on a career as a public servant. In July,  1890, he was asked to become Collector of the Provincial Revenue  Tax, and after the death of Moses Lumby, he was appointed in  October, 1893, Government Agent at Vernon. He was the third  man to hold this office, and he established what will probably  become a record for long tenure. When he retired in 1926, he had  served thirty-three years as Government Agent.  Old-timers will recall the enthusiasm Mr. Norris had for SOCIETY OF VERNON. BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 17  his work and the thoroughness with which he carried it out. They  can tell amusing stories of his pursuit of fugitives, while he was  still Police Constable, and how on occasion he was outwitted.  They know the respect he had for individual worth, and how little  real crime he thought existed in mining settlements or in other  parts of the Valley. He had a very strong sense of justice, as  persons who were sometimes hailed into the Magistrate's court can  testify, and he was very much in favour of having misunderstandings settled in private and without outside intervention. One  of his favourite stories was the chase after Smart Alec, following  the murder in the Cherry Creek mining field, but this must have  taken place while he was still a farm-hand in the Lumby district  and before he had responsibility for bringing criminals to justice.  As Police Constable, his duties sometimes took him as far north  as Enderby and sometimes as far south as Penticton, so he came  to know settlers throughout the whole length of the Okanagan  Valley.  After 1890, he was more closely identified with people in  the Vernon district. He knew Vernon before it was incorporated  in 1892, while it was still called "Priest's Valley", and he lived to  see it grow from a settlement of four or five scattered houses to  its present size of six or seven thousand. More than any other man,  he had his finger upon the pulse of life in the community. For he  was not only Magistrate, but Collector of Land and other taxes,  Registrar of the County Court and District Registrar of the Supreme Court, Registrar of Voters, Judge of the Small Debts  Court, Official Administrator, and Registrar of Vital Statistics.  He must have known something of the private affairs of almost  every individual, but he was never known to betray a confidence  or to give out information which might cause unhappiness. Whatever knowledge came to him, he regarded it in a purely impersonal  and objective light—except in one respect. Although he believed  that every person should stand on his own feet, he could not remain  unconcerned when there was suffering. More than one family  experienced the bounty of his generous nature and found it difficult 18 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  to express adequate thanks, for Mr. Norris was not one to look for  returns or to want public acknowledgement of his good works.  During his lifetime, Mr. Norris saw the character of farming change in the Okanagan Valley. After the coming of the  railroad, the cattle ranches were broken up and fruit farming  started. He was keenly interested in the experiments in co-operative marketing and in the technical improvements which were  made in the growing of fruit. He took pride in these changes, yet  always felt that more attention should be paid to producing fruit  at lower cost for the benefit of the prairie farmer. He thought, too,  that a high degree of specialization might embarrass the farmer  in times of depression, and he had a nostalgic fondness for mixed  farming which he had known in Ontario and in his early days  in the Okanagan.  His chief interest, however, lay in recording the events of  the past so that they would become known to the new settlers  in the Valley and to those who knew little of the romance of the  early days of the interior of British Columbia. He turned his attention to this work after his retirement from office. He had already  read widely in the field of Canadian and British Columbia history,  and now he did research at the Provincial Archives and in the  Provincial Library at Victoria, and started to write. While he  was primarily interested in writing the history of the Okanagan  Valley, his horizon was by no means limited to this study. For  one thing, he decided to acquire some knowledge of the French  language, and to perfect his grasp, he subscribed to newspapers  published in Quebec, and bought phonograph records to hear the  spoken word. He had an excellent library of historical works,  but he also read poetry and collected phonograph records. During  these years, he indulged in all the pleasures which go with the  cultivation of a fine mind. As a result he had a remarkable fund  of knowledge and the ability to inspire others with his enthusiasm  for great works of literature and music.  As an historian, he made a very real contribution to our  knowledge of local history, and his work won acknowledgement SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 19  and acclaim in the east as well as in the west. Its great appeal, of  course, was to the people of the Okanagan Valley, for here were  recorded the stories of the early settlers, the adventures and vicissitudes of their arduous lives. The spirit that permeates all his  writings, reflects something of the quality of the man himself—for  he reveals his kindly feeling towards his fellow men, his high moral  standards, his patience with and amusement at human foibles, and  his great sincerity. It was typical of him that he should have  preferred to write of the exploits and achievements of others,  rather than of his own important work as one of the real founders  of the Okanagan Valley. We can count that as our great loss,  for his character as revealed in his life and work would have held  inspiration for many.  —MARGARET A. ORMSBY THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  OF  I  VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA  Our Future Flag  Our Premier, Hon. Mr. McKenzie King, is reported in the  Press to have promised Canadians a national flag after the war  is over, and he has suggested that it should be the flag our boys  are now fighting under, in Europe. It is something to know that  we are to have a national flag, but serious consideration should be  given the matter before it is finally decided as to what the flag  shall be.  The present Canadian Flag was suitable to use in Canada while  we were a Colony and it is the flag which should have been flown  over all Provincial Buildings for the past seventy years, but, now  that we are an independent nation with our own King and our  own Parliament, it is no longer suitable or adequate. The Canadian  Flag consists of the red ensign with the Union Jack on the upper  corner next the pole with the Canadian Coat of Arms on the fly.  The Union Jack is, within the British Commonwealth of Nations  while on Canadian soil, a foreign flag and our present Coat of SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 21  Arms is out of date and unsuitable.  Our Coat of Arms was assigned to Canada by a Royal Proclamation dated 21st. November 1921. It is signed by G. Ambrose  Lee, Norry King of Arms, and issued from the Herald's College,  London, on the 24th January, 1923. It must therefore be accepted as correct according to the Science of Heraldry. . There are  about twenty emblems in use. The more prominent are the Lion  and Unicorn supporting two standards on which are two flags,  the Union Jack which is the flag of the United Kingdom and the  other the blue flag of France, while under the Bourbon kings, with  the three fleur-des-lys. The Lion appears in five different places.  In three he is so elongated as to suggest a German dachshund and in  another place he is holding a tiny maple leaf in his paw. Below  is a large collection of floral emblems, the Rose, the Shamrock,  the Thistle, and the Fleur-des-lys, and at the bottom, apparently  added as an afterthought, three tiny maple leaves. The Beaver  of our streams, the Buffalo of our plains, the Wapiti and Big Horn  of our mountains and the sheaf of wheat, so suggestive of our  prairies, are all omitted. There is nothing to remind a Canadian,  when looking at it, that he has before him the Coat of Arms of his  own country, except the three tiny maple leaves. The Herald's  College of London, and the Norry King of Arms, might have  done better for us than they did even if we were, at the time,  only a colony. We should have a Herald's College at Ottawa.  Since it is inevitable that Canada, within a few years, will  become the greatest, richest and most populous and powerful  member of the British Commonwealth of Nations, we should  have an all Canadian Flag, and Mr. King would be well advised,  before deciding what, our flag shall be, to appoint a commission  to thoroughly investigate the subject and advise the Government.  One shudders to think of the flood of impassioned oratory  that will be let loose if the matter comes up for settlement and  debate on the floor of the House at Ottawa, without any previous  investigation or preparation. The English will take it that the  Union Jack will be retained while the French will expect the 22 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  flag of France to be recognized in some way. The result will be  that the two parties will be driven farther apart than they are  now and the differences between the French-speaking and the  English-speaking sections will become more acute than it is. This  is something we cannot afford. Canada cannot afford to have  anything happen which will further antagonize the two sections.  The next ten years will be critical ones in the life of the Canadian  Nation. The outlook for unity among the people of Canada is, at  present, anything but reassuring.  The Commission might be constituted along the lines of the  Sirois Commission that did such good work a few years ago. The  Herald's college at Ottawa could be made up of men drawn from  the Universities. The Royal Geographic Board at Ottawa is doing  good work in its own field, and a Canadian Herald's College would,  no doubt, be equally successful in the work it would do. The  Government would then have a body of competent men to advise  them whenever questions relating to our flag and Coat of Arms  come up for consideration.  It should be borne in mind that the French-Canadians have  as much right to expect the flag of France to be added as the  English have to expect that the Union Jack will be retained. The  French-Canadians are the largest racial group, constituting as they  do 30.27% of the population, whilst the English make up only  25.80%.  The French were here first. From 1534 when Jacques Cartier  took possession of the country on behalf of his king, Francis I,  King of France, until the Peace of Paris in 1763 following the  capture of Quebec on the 13th. September, 1759, for 229 years  Canada was a French country. From 1763 to the Statute of  Westminster in 1931 for 172 years it was English, and since 1931  for 13 years it has been neither French nor English but Canadian,  an independent kingdom and a dual language country. On one day  at least since the Statute of Westminster the Government of  Canada functioned normally, viz, on May 20, 1943. On that day the  King of Canada took his place on the throne of Canada and in th¬ß SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 23  presence of his Canadian Ministers, assented to Acts passed by his  Canadian Parliament.  With the increasing speed, comfort and safety of travelling  by air it may soon become the established custom for our King to  open and prorogue the Parliament of Canada. And whatever  changes the future may bring we know we can depend on our  King. He at least will not let the nation down, no matter who else  may be remiss. He, like his father before him, is a man of character and integrity who will always discharge his duty faithfully  towards the people of Canada. We are very fortunate in this respect, he is a splendid man.  The nations of the British Commonwealth of Nations are  united by a common allegience to the Crown. The Crown therefore  becomes the emblem of the United Nations and it should appear  on the National Flag of Canada, especially as Canada is bound to  become the most important nation in the Commonwealth,—"the  chief among equals". For this reason the flag of Canada today  would be unsuitable. The Governments of Canada, both Provincial and the Dominion have banished the Canadian Flag from  within the confines of Canada. Nowhere is it authorized to be  flown within Canada, although it is authorized to be flown elsewhere, and now that it is out it should be left out.  Care should be taken to plan for the future. It would be a  great misfortune if the Government should go off at half cock  now and adopt a flag which may, in a few years, become an object  of derision.  The Native Sons of Canada have suggested the Crown in  white on a large Maple Leaf in gold on a blue ground to replace  the Union Jack on the Red Ensign with the coat of arms in the  fly eliminated. This would be a suitable flag since it would be an  all Canadian flag, bearing the emblem of the Commonwealth of  Nations, and still retaining the Red Ensign which has its associations, and it should meet the wishes and aspirations of all true  Canadians, 24 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  The advice of those who would add the flags of European  countries to the flag of Canada should be accepted with caution.  No true Canadian would feel at home living under a hybrid flag.  A Canadian national flag with the Crown omitted would be an  anomaly—something contrary to what might be logically and  reasonably expected. The Government should proceed cautiously.  Canadians should not be asked to accept either a hybred flag or  a double barrelled national anthem. Our flag should be all Canadian and God Save The King should be our sole and only  anthem as a British nation. Europe has the past, the future is  Canada s.  L.   NORRIS SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 25  Early Big Game Conditions In The Interior  Of British Columbia  It is generally accepted as a fundamental fact, that before the  advent of civilization and the general use of fire arms, big game  was abundant in all regions.  Factual evidence pertaining to British Columbia, especially  to its interior, would indicate that actually there is a far larger  population of big game, especially of horned ruminants, at the  present time than ever existed before the white man, with his  killing weapons, invaded the area.  One has only to read the records of the first explorers and  fur traders to realize that over the greater portion of the Province,  large animals, with the probable exception of bears, were exceptionally scarce in contrast to the regions east of the Rocky  Mountains where they were so plentiful.  Alexander MacKenzie in 1793 was only once able to procure  deer from the time he crossed the mountains at the Peace River  pass until he reached the Coast range, yet he had two special  hunters to provide his party with game.  Robert Campbell, of the Hudson's Bay Company, in the  period around 1835 found an utter dearth of game both large  and small in the Liard river district and had to abandon the posts  he had established, several of his party dying of starvation. War-  burton Pike in the winter of 1889 in an attempt to reach Fort  McLeod from Fort St. John, was unable to find any game and  his party nearly perished.  Yet in this entire region big game is now abundant and no  properly equipped party would have any difficulty in supporting  themselves on the country.  The conditions in the Okanagan region one hundred years ago 26 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  might be described as follows: Elk once numerous in suitable  regions, had been reduced to the point of extermination by the  aboriginal inhabitants with their primative weapons. White-tailed  deer existed locally in small numbers but were perpetually harassed,  especially in years of heavy snow fall. Sheep and Goats could be  found in the mountains in greater numbers that at the present  time, protected by the rugged nature of their habitat.  Cariboo were common at high elevations but local and migratory, evacuating the region for the Selkirk mountains to the east  each Fall. They could be killed in numbers when snow conditions  allowed the Indians to overtake them on snow shoes. Their hides  provided the greater part of the buckskin used by the Indians at  that time, Moose were known to the Shuswaps and Lilloet tribes  by name only, they had been exterminated leaving no trace, very  different from the elk the bones and horns of which were in  evidence in many localities.  Bears and wolves were plentiful and mostly unmolested as  nearly all the Indian tribes had superstitions regarding these  animals, they may have even profited by their ravages over other  big game. Throughout the Interior the aborigines were mostly  dependent on fish, in years when salmon were scarce starvation  was rife especially when this condition coincided with a low level  of the rabbit cycle.  About 1870 the invasion of the mule deer from the south  commenced. John Kest Lord, naturalist to the Boundary Survey  in 1856 and subsequent years, mentions the killing of two Mule  deer in the Similkameen valley by an Indian, the only evidence  he had of their presence there then.  W. F. Cameron, the early trader of Vernon, mentioned to  the writer that prior to 1880, the killing of a Mule deer anywhere  in the region was a notable event. Soon after this however they  commenced to drift across the International Boundary in increasing  numbers and by 1885 they were abundant. In their wake came the  cougar and an increase of coyotes, SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 27  The phenominal increase of moose commenced toward the  close of the 19th. century, prior to which they were almost unknown anywhere in B.C. south of latitude 56. By 1910 they were  well established in the Cariboo district, in recent years they have extended their range to the salt water in the west and south to the  Kamloops and Shuswap districts. Another moose invasion came  into the Province from the south-east (Flathead river) and the  two invasions linked up in the neighborhood of Kinbasket lake  about 1919.  We can look forward with every confidence to a perpetuation  of our big game under our present game laws as long as we hold  their natural enemies in check. The difficulties to be encountered  will for the most part be where large predators destroy domestic  stock and ruminants of the deer tribe interfere with agriculture  and orchard operations. These problems must be dealt with as  they arise with a judicious balance of the claims of the stockman  and the orchardist on the one hand and the sportsman and nature-  lover on the other.  ALLEN BROOKS 28        ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  The Falling Leaves  An unusual sight was witnessed in Vernon on Sunday.  Oct. 31st. of last year, 1943. All the leaves on the deciduous trees  fell off in one day. We had from the 22nd. to the 29th. a spell  of weather that was cold for that season of year with some rain  and practically no sunshine followed by two days of norma^ sunshine. The two days of normal sunshine—eight and a half hours  on Saturday and seven and a half hours on Sunday— seems to  have had just that ripening effect on the leaves that their own  weight was sufficient to detatch them from the tree.  The table given below was furnished me by Franklin Smith  Sr. who for 20 years has kept the meteorological records, for the  Dominion Government, in Vernon. The figures cover the period  of ten days from the 22nd. to the 31st. inclusive.  x. temp.  Min. temp.  Precipitation  Sunshine  48  35  0.44  0.0  45  37  0.04  0.0  40  36  0.25  0.0  49  39  0.25  0.0  48  38  0.1  45  39  0.0  43  39  0.0  47  39  0.17  0.0  48  31  0.11  8.4  42  25  7.5  These figures give an average maximum temperature of 44.9  and an average minimum temperature of 36.8, a difference of only  8.1 degrees between the day and night temperatures which is very  unusual. And during those ten days there was very little wind and  on Sunday the 31st. none. At 8.30 a.m. on Sunday there was a  movement of the air of one mile per hour which would be im- SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 29  perceptible and at 5.30 p.m. there wTas no movement at all, a dead  calm.  There was no noticeable drop of leaves on Saturday, but  evidently Sunday's sunshine completed the ripening process commenced on Saturday and the second day's sunshine left the  leaves unable to hold on any longer and they fell. It is estimated  that ninety per cent of the leaves on the deciduous trees in Vernon  fell that day between 9 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. They were lying inches  deep on the sidewalks all over the city.  I passed through the park twice that day and what I saw was  remarkable and strange. It was Sunday and not a sound to be  heard. There was not a breath of air stirring and all the trees  stood as motionless as if they were carved put of stone, and at  the same time a constant shower of falling leaves was going on all  over the Dark. In fact it was a bit weird and uncanny. It did not  seem natural.  It is very unusual for us to have a spell of weather of ten days  with an average difference of only 8.1 degrees between the night  and day temperatures nor is it usual to have eight days with only  six minutes sunshine followed by two days with an aggregate of  nearly sixteen hours of sunshine. When these two extraordinary  climatic conditions coincide with the season when the leaves are  due to fall they bring about a combination which must occur only  at long intervals—perhaps not once in a hundred years.  ALFRETTA  M.  CROZIER 30        ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  The Okanagan Arc  This phenomenon is observed, more often than elsewhere,  within an area which may be described as bounded by a line from  Victoria north, thence due east to Calgary, then south to Lethbridge and the Boundary Line, thence westward to the point of  commencement at Victoria. Perhaps it is seen here ten times to  once elsewhere, and naturally it has become known as the Okanagan  Arc.  An effort is now being made to collect sufficient data relating thereto to enable our scientists to determine the cause of  this elusive mystery. Two circular letters were sent out this year  one calling for volunteer observers and another giving instructions  to those who had volunteered their services. Both are reproduced  below.  After the first letter was sent out important observations have  been reported. The first one was from H. J. Blurton of Enderby  who with Leon Gillard saw it from Gillard's house on Mission  Creek on the night of April 11, 1943. It lasted over an hour. They  lined it up with a certain object and then after the lapse of some  time on examining it again, they found it had drifted slightly to  the south. This is the first authentic report we have had that the  Arc drifts. Again Capt. E. N. Senior reported that he saw it  while making his rounds on military duty at three a.m. from  Vernon some time in the month of May of this year. Unfortunately  we cannot give the date more closely. But this is the first report we  have had of it being seen at this advanced hour of the night.  Again H. J. Parham of Penticton reports; "Okanagan Arc was  seen from Penticton at 12 midnight on the night of August, 1944.  A perfect white arc with one base beyond the Shingle Creek valley  and the other (east) back of the De Riske ranch 3 or 4 miles south  of the head of Dog Lake. Watchers standing at the base of Kruger  Hill a little N. W. of the C. P. R. wharf on Dog Lake. Clear bright   . -. _._.m SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 31  moon which was inside the Arc approx. S. S. E." The observers  were Mrs. Joyce Lair a well known and respected lady who has  lived for some years in Penticton, and a companion.  The following is taken from the Vernon News of June 9,  1892:—"A very peculiar phenomenon resembling the northern  lights in the eastern sky was an intense source of wonder to the  people of Vernon on Thursday night. Various theories were expressed as to what it could be but the opinion that it must have  been the electric light of Kaslo City or Nelson shining on the  snows of the Selkirks found general credence."  Dr. Pearce is interested and through our member Hon. Grote  Stirling, the Dominion Astronomer at Ottawa, Dr. R. Meldrum,  has also become interested. He too has written offering his services  and assistance. It is now up to us, to the people of the Okanagan  Valley, to embrace every opportunity to take observations until  we have so much evidence collected, and data acquired as will  enable our scientists to determine the cause of the phenomenon.  First Letter  Vernon, B.C.,  22nd. March, 1944.  Dear Sir,  Very little is known about that remarkable phenomenon  known as the Okanagan Arc which appears in the sky from time  to time over British Columbia. It has been seen many times in the  past and by hundreds of people, but no one seems to pay much  attention to it, and the reports that have been made of what was  seen are so vague and hazy as to be valueless for scientific purposes.  Almost the only observations reported which are of any value are  the reports of what Ainsley Megraw saw at Hedley in 1898 and  Sir James Douglas saw at Victoria in 1843.  An effort is now being made to secure the services of volunteer  observers, and we hope through their efforts to secure sufficient  data to enable our scientists to determine with some degree of 32 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  certainty, the cause of the phenomenon. Fortunately Dr. J. A.  Pearce. Director of the Astrophysical Observatory at Victoria, is  interested, and we could not have a better man. One of the most  important points to be settled is its height above the earth's surface,  and Dr. Pearce approves of the plan of having simultaneous observations made at different latitudes.  If the height of the Arc, at any one appearance of it, above  the southern horizon were ascertained from any two of the following places, viz, Armstrong, Vernon, Kelowna, Penticton and  Osoyoos, its height above the earth could be easily calculated since  the distance north and south between these points is well known.  And continuing in his letter to us of the 12th. Feb., 1944, Dr.  Pearce says:—  The best method is to observe the relation of the Arc with  respect to the Stars, noting of course the place of observation, the  date, and the time to the nearest minute. If the observer noted that  the upper portion of the Arc passed through a particular constellation, such as the Pleidaes or the Corona, the crown or coincided with a particular star, say Arcturus or Deneb, it would be  easy to accurately compute its observed altitude, and from two or  more observations find its height.  Your observers should know the principal constellations. If.  they would give the right ascension and declination of the Maximum Portion of the Arc, it would be just as helpful as observing  the band with instruments such as transits. I enclose six sets of  star maps which may be helpful to the members of your association.  If you desire more sets kindly advise me."  To those who have no transit and are not familiar with the  constellations in the northern heavens there still remains the method  of measuring the distance the Arc is above the southern horizon  in degrees by means of a carpenter's level and a two-foot rule,  a method the accuracy of which is vouched for by Trautwine's  Engineers' Pocket-book.  In using them adjust the level until the bubble is in the middle SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH-COLUMBIA—1945 33  of the glass, then open the rule and lay it on the level so that while  one arm is resting on the level the other is pointing to the apex  of the Arc. Then measure the distance between the inside corners  on the ends. Such measurements give the following results:  Spread in inches  Degrees  Minutes  9  44  03  10  49  15  11  54  34  12  60  00  13  65  35  14  71  22  One observation may not be valuable, but a multitude of observations would be very valuable. The more observations made the  more valuable each one becomes. In every case after the lapse of  some time before the Arc fades out, a second observation should  be made so as to check up on any tendency the Arc may have to  drift. All observations should be reported to the undersigned.  Your services as an observer are earnestly solicited. This  phenomenon is attracting more attention in recent years than it  did in the past, and as it appears more frequently here than elsewhere it is properly named the Okanagan Arc. It is only reasonable  to expect the people of this valley to take a special interest in it.  If you will agree to act as a volunteer observer, please notify  the undersigned, and further instructions will be sent you. In the  meantime should you see it please notify as many of your neighbours as possible by telephone.  Leonard Norris  Secretary-Treasurer  Okanagan Historical Society  Address  Box 897  Vernon, B.C. 34 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  Second Letter  Dear Sir: October 10th, 1944.  Permit me on behalf of the Okanagan Historical Society,  to thank you for volunteering your services to take observations  when the Okanagan Arc appears in the sky in your vicinity.  Your duty as such will be to follow the instructions given in  the circular letter of the 22nd of March, last, a copy of which was  sent you at the time; and above all communicate with your fellow  volunteer observers, and alarm your neighbours over the telephone,  when you see it in the sky. All expenses incurred in using long  distance telephone will cheerfully be borne by this Society. Please  send in your report to the Secretary-Treasurer at Vernon.  Your fellow volunteers are:—Fred H. Hudson, Mara; Harry  J. Blurton and Eli Waterson, Enderby; A. E. Sage and A. J. Fifer,  Armstrong; C. W. Finlaison, Lumby; Dr. W. Jackson, Lavington; James C. Agnew, G. C. Tassie, John White, Capt. E. N.  Senior, Dr. H. Campbell-Brown, John Kennedy and W. E. Megaw,  Vernon; F. T. Marriage, Henry Burtch, Dr. B. F. Boyce and L. L.  Kerry, Kelowna; Major Allen Brooks, Okanagan Landing; Bertram Chichester, Rutland; G. F. Elliott and W. R. Powley, Winfield; J. B. Weeks, H. J. Parhami, Frank Gillingham, Frank B.  Latimer, Penticton; Harry D. Barnes, Hedley; D. F. Fraser and  J. O. Howells, Osoyoos.  Dr. Pearce particularly stresses the following points, viz : (1)  the place of observation. (2) the day of the month and year. (3)  the time of the observation to the nearest minute. (4) the duration  of the phenomenon, how long the Arc was visible. (5) the compass  bearing as closely as possible. (6) the presence of light haze or  clouds or associated meteorogical conditions. In addition to these  there is the very important point of ascertaining, from two different latitudes at the same moment, its height above the southern  horizon. Again thanking you.  Yours faithfully,  Leonard Norris, Secretary-Treasurer,  Okanagan Historical Society.  Vernon, B.C., (P.O. Box 897) SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 35  Lord Dufferin's Visit To British Columbia  In 1874 Lord Carnarvon, who was Secretary of State for the  Colonies at the time, under the pretext that Canada had broken  her engagement with British Columbia over the building of the  railway, tried to have the Island Railway built. He failed and  now in 1876 Lord Dufferin, the Governor General, decided to visit  British Columbia and attempt to succeed where the other had failed.  The vice regal party left Ottawa on the 31st July, and on  the return journey they reached Toronto on the 8th October. From  Toronto Lady Dufferin went on to Montreal while Lord Dufferin  went to Philadelphia to attend the Centennial Exhibition. He did  not reach Ottawa until October 23rd. The expenses of the trip  exceeded $17,000. (1)  The Governor General had been in communication with Lord  Carnarvon and the latter was anxious that Lord Dufferin should  visit British Columbia. It is remarkable how concerned these two  English statesmen were over the alleged discontent existing in  British Columbia, and the possibility of British Columbia seceding  from the confederation. The welfare of the people of British  Columbia never received so much attention from the Governor  General and the Secretary of State for the Colonies before or since.  England had practically handed over San Juan Island to the  United States at the time the Treaty of Washington was concluded in 1871,—no doubt traded it for some other consideration  during the negotiations preceding the signing of the Treaty. If the  only coaling station the British Navy had on the Pacific was endangered thereby, the defect could be remedied, at least in part,  by having the Island Railway built as part of the Pacific Railway.  But five years had elapsed since the signing of the Treaty and  the railway was not built yet. In the meantime the United States  Government had a survey of San Juan Island, and in case war 36        ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  broke out between England and the United States, which in those  days was something that neither nation ever lost sight of, heavy  guns would be mounted on the bluff overlooking Haro Strait which  is only six miles wide, and the naval station at Esquimalt would  be cut off from the coal mines at Nanaimo. The Island Railway  would probably have been built by Sir John A. Macdonald had he  remained in power and it would have been built by Alexander  Mackenzie in 1875 had it not been for the inept blundering of Lord  Carnarvon.  Now in 1876 Lord Dufferin was to proceed to British Columbia to soothe the seething discontent of the people by having the  Island Railway built at Canada's expense.  When the vice regal party reached the Pacific Coast, they  were travelling on the Union and Central Pacific Railway reaching  Oakland on the Bay of San Francisco, the terminus of the road,  on the 8th of August. They were there met by a party of three,  viz, Captain Chatfield, in command of H.M.S. Amethyst, Mr.  Brooker, the British Consul, and Mr. G. A. Walkem, at one time  Premier of British Columbia, who had arrived in San Francisco  from Victoria, a few days previously. The party of three welcomed the Governor General and his party on their arrival on  the Pacific Coast and escorted them across the Bay to their hotel,  the Palace Hotel, in San Francisco. (2)  A few days later they left San Francisco on the Amethyst  with Captain Chatfield in command and arrived at Esquimalt on  the 15th August. If an invitation was extended to Mr. Walkem to  join the vice regal party and return to Victoria on the Amethyst,  the invitation was not accepted.  On the following day the 16th., Lord and Lady Dufferin  made their entry into Victoria, the Capital of the Province. It was  a gala day for the people of the city and surrounding country.  It was the first time a Governor General had visited the Province  and all the world and his wife turned out to welcome them. There  was much band music and the flying of flags; but one untoward SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 37  incident happened which is thus described by the historian, R. E.  Gosnell:—  "There were many triumphal arches which bore various  patriotic and welcoming devices, erected, be it said, at very great  expense, but on of the arches paraded the legend in bold letters  'Carnarvon Terms or Separation'. This arch spanned Fort Street  at the intersection of Broad, and had been erected by private  citizens independently of the Celebration Committee. Lord Dufferin, who had been appraised of the arch, with ready wit suggested  that if the S in separation were changed to an R he would pass  under it. Obviously as the representative of the Sovereign and the  'tie that binds' he could not officially recognize what was suggestive of a disloyal alternative, and he stated that if it were left  unaltered he would take another street. The Committee refused to  give way when the vice regal carriage reached Fort Street, it  left the procession and drove to and up Broughton to Douglas and  back to Fort Street regaining the procession there. As the carriage  left the route at Fort Street several extremists attempted to turn  the horses heads and Lord Dufferin, who was hooted, was on the  point of alighting, but the attempt was not persisted in. Had it been,  it is altogether likely that Lord Dufferin would have declined to  accept further hospitality, and left the city without carrying out  the object of his visit.  It is said that Lord Dufferin was deeply incensed at the  conduct of the Victoria populace, and not without good reason.  In the interests of Victoria and the Island such a display of  temper was ill timed". (3)  Altogether it was a regrettable incident, and the responsibility  for it rested squarely on the shoulders of the Mayor and Aldermen.  No matter by whom the arch was erected, the streets were under  the control of the city council, and they had the authority to  order its removal. After all he was the Governor General of  Canada, and for the time being the guest of the city, and when  he expressed a wish that the arch should be removed, that wish  should have been, at once and without hesitation, complied with, 38 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  And he should have been provided with an escort even if it were  only a single mounted policeman. It was an affront to the people  of Canada that their Governor General and his Lady should have  been thus publicly insulted and humiliated by having their horses'  heads seized and an effort made to force them to pass under the  objectionable arch. Perhaps in no other city in the Dominion could  such an incident have happened.  Nor did Lord Dufferin act with discretion. As long as he  was Governor General of Canada he might have been more careful of his personal dignity. He should have refused to start until  the arch was removed and he was furnished with an escort. But  probably he foresaw that he could use his flight down the side  street effectively in his speeches later on, which he did. But he did  not foresee that before he would be allowed to leave the procession  a struggle would ensue. It angered him, but he himself was to  blame. One cannot imagine Alexander MacKenzie or Sir James  Douglas getting mixed up with two or three toughs on a street  corner, on an occasion of this kind, and galloping his horses along  three sides of a city block to rejoin the procession.  A public meeting of the people of Victoria was held on the  21st of August, and an address was presented to his Excellency;  but as it contained the same disloyal sentiment—Carnarvon terms  or separation—he refused to accept it.  After his arrival in Victoria Lord Dufferin was indefatigable  in his efforts to meet as many people of all classes as possible and,  after taking part in many fetes and listening to many addresses,  he and Lady Dufferin again went on board the Amethyst at Esquimalt for a trip up the north coast as far as Fort Simpson.  In the meantime Lady Dufferin had found the climate of  Victoria trying. She wrote, "August 17th. There is a bright sun  but a cold wind, it seems to me a trying climate, and the many  changes of temperature and food and the long journey have rather  knocked me up". (4) If she had found it trying in August when it  is warm and the temperature equable, one wonders how the lady  would have fared had she lived through December and the winter SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 39  months when it is windy and chilly.  From Nanaimo, Lord Dufferin telegraphed to the Premier,  Alexander MacKenzie, asking him to consent to have an arrangement made for the settlement of the dispute by the appointment of  two representatives for British Columbia and two from the Dominion, under the auspices of Lord Carnarvon. (5)  No good end could have been attained by submitting the  matter to Lord Carnarvon. The Premier had refused once before  to accept his proffered services, and Carnarvon in persisting with  his alleged arbitration, had succeeded in leaving the whole question  more involved and complicated than ever. Any agreement or settlement would be worthless unless it received the consent of Parliament, and the Premier knew better than Lord Dufferin or Lord  Carnarvon how far Parliament would go in voting money for this  unnecessary railway. Lord Dufferin should have respected the  constitution and refrained from interfering. As it was he placed  Mr. MacKenzie in the awkward position of having to refuse the  request of the Governor General or of being remiss in his duty.  On their return journey they reached New Westminster on  the 13th. September. Here he was presented with an address signed  by Hon. E. Brown, President of the Executive Council, J. Cunningham, M.P., W. J. Armstrong, M.L.A., A. R. Dickson, M.L.A.,  T. R. Mclnnes and many others. In the address, among other  things it was said:—"The people of this district are unanimous in  the feeling of pleasure with which they regard the setting aside of  the proposition known as the Carnarvon Terms, confidently hoping  that a new proposition will be more beneficial to the interests of the  Province and the Dominion generally".  Here we have something directly at variance with the prevailing and expressed sentiments of the people of Victoria where  the Carnarvon Club with the slogan, "Carnarvon Terms or Separation", had been formed. During Dufferin's visit the Carnarvon  Terms were very much in the public eye and very much discussed,  yet the man who, more than any other, was responsible for them,  and without whose efforts they would probably never have been 40        ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  heard of, G. A. Walkem, remained in San Francisco, inactive. In  1874 he had travelled from Victoria to London and, after an absence of eight months returned with the Carnarvon Terms. In 1876  he travelled from Victoria to Oakland to greet the vice regal  party and escort them to their hotel in San Francisco, and that  was as far as he got.  The next day after their arrival in New Westminster, they  started on a trip into the interior of the Province as far as  Kamloops and on the trip they were warmly welcomed everywhere.  The people were sincerely glad to see them. It was a good thing  for the people to be visited thus by their Governor General. It  created a good feeling. It revived their loyalty and confidence in  the Government and reassured them of their future. His mere  presence among them was of benefit to the country. After his return to Victoria he made his famous speech on the 20th. September  in which he said :—  . "The mountains which have proved our stumbling block, were  your mountains and in your territory, and however an imperial  observer might sympathize with you in the miscarriage of the two  time terms of the compact, one of which, namely, as to the commencement of the line in two years from 1871—has failed, and the  other of which, namely, its completion in ten years—must fail—it is  impossible to forget that you yourselves are by no means without  responsibility for such a result". (6)  He had come out to British Columbia to soothe the resentment  and discontent of the people, and to encourage them and reassure  them of the future, he told them that Canada had broken the  first part of the bargain and would be sure to break the second.  He also made a strong appeal, to the people of Victoria,  especially, not to secede but to remain within the confederation:—  "Great Britain would of course retain Esquimalt as a naval  station on this coast as she has retained Halifax as a naval station  on the other, and as a constituency of some 100 (sic) persons  would not be able to supply the material for a Parliamentary  Government, Vancouver and its inhabitants, who are now influential SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 41  by reason of their intelligence rather than by their numbers,  would be ruled as Jamaica, Malta, Gibraltar and Heligoland are  ruled, through the instrumentality of some naval or other officer".  Here his Lordship was wasting his time. Neither the people  of Vancouver Island nor any other part of British Columbia had  the slightest intention of withdrawing from the Confederation.  Before Confederation business was depressed, the revenue was  falling off, families were leaving and the white population was  declining. In sheer desperation the people were turning to the  possible construction of a wagon road across the Rockies to connect with the prairies, a road that would cost as much as did the  Cariboo road, and, if built, might do little to increase the revenue  of the Colony. F. W. Howay, the historian, thus describes conditions :—  "The failure of the Big Bend mines cast a gloom over the  country and also over Vancouver Island. Cariboo was declining,  slowly it is true, but none the less steadily. Its gold production  was large, but its mines gave employment to very few. Big Bend  had been fondly regarded as the salvation of surface mining, the  kind momentarily at least, to build up a community. The whole  country suffering from depression, had nevertheless entered upon  large engagements on the strength of its likely returns, and disaster stared it in the face". (7)  Such were conditions prior to confederation, and now in 1876  everything was changed. The Colony now was a Province of the  Dominion, and the construction of the railway was assured, settlers  were coming in with their families and settling on the land in  anticipation of its completion, confidence was restored, and business  conditions vastly improved, and when Lord Dufferin implored the  people not to slip back into the slough of despond out of which  they had been lifted by confederation, he was only wasting his  time. They knew more about that than he did.  He also said:—"Well, I have learned with regret that there  is a widespread conviction in this country that Mr. MacKenzie had  surreptitiously secured the defeat of his own measure in the Upper 42 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  House (procured the defeat of the Island Railway Bill in the  Senate). Had Mr. MacKenzie dealt so treacherously by Lord  Carnarvon, by the representative of his sovereign in this country,  or by you, he would have been guilty of a most atrocious act, of  which I trust no public man in Canada, or any other British Colony,  could be capable. I tell you in the most emphatic terms and I  pledge my honour on the point, that Mr. MacKenzie was not guilty  of any such base and deceitful conduct—had I thought him guilty  of it, either he would cease to be Prime. Minister or I would have  left the country".  In the first place there was no wide spread conviction in  British Columbia or elsewhere, that Mr. MacKenzie had connived  at the defeat of the Bill. Neither in the press of British Columbia  nor in the press of. eastern Canada, nor in the Parliamentary debates will there be found any proof of this assertion. When Lord  Dufferin made the assertion that there was a wide spread conviction that Mr. MacKenzie had brought about the defeat of the  Bill in the Senate, he made a statement that was contrary to the  facts.  But admitting for a moment that he had done so, where would  the offence be atrocious or otherwise, and wherein would he have  been wrong in doing so? When a Bill is introduced as a Government measure, the Government has a right to withdraw it at  any time before it becomes law. This is the common practice in  England. The Bill involved the expenditure of a large amount of  money, and after its introduction, if anything transpired which  convinced the Ministry that its passage would be inimical to the  public interest, it would be not only the privilege but the duty  of the Prime Minister to suppress it, and the Prime Minister would  be responsible to Parliament and not to the Governor General.  By what process of reasoning Lord Dufferin found that had  Mr. MacKenzie done so he would have dealt treacherously with  Lord Carnarvon, is not clear. Mr. MacKenzie owed no duty to Lord  Carnarvon and was under no obligation to him whatever.  One or two of the Senators who had been appointed by Mac- SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 43  Kenzie had voted against the Bill, but the people of British  Columbia had been told precisely why it was defeated. (8) Mr.  MacKenzie was never suspected of having connived at its rejection and his conduct required no defence at the hands of Lord  Dufferin who a few days previously had counselled and solicited  him to be gravely remiss in his duty as Premier. Mr. MacKenzie  was a man whose honour and integrity was above suspicion, and  had he sent a different reply to the telegram from Nanaimo he  might have saved himself from being humiliated by having his  conduct publicly defended by Lord Dufferin.  It was through no feeling of friendliness towards Mr. MacKenzie that he introduced this imagined "wide spread conviction"  into his speech and then warmly defended the Premier. By doing  so he adroitly took Mr. MacKenzie out of the class of men whose  honour and integrity was above suspicion and placed him in the  class of men whose conduct was open to suspicion and whose  actions required defence and explanation. Such oratorical shadow-  boxing, engaged in for the purpose of lowering the Premier in the  estimation of the people was unworthy of a Governor General. The  whole incident reeks of European diplomacy.  When Lord Dufferin returned to the east an interview took  place between the two men at which the subject of the Island  Railway was discussed, and during the interview Lord Dufferin  became so insulting and abusive that Mr. MacKenzie practically  threatened to resign. He told Lord Dufferin that if his methods  did not meet with his Lordship's approval, he was ready at once  to retire, and Lord Dufferin could get setae one else to conduct  the Government. (9)  During the decade following the inclusion of Manitoba and  British Columbia, the Canadian Premier had many and great difficulties to contend with. Those were difficult and critical years  while the new nation, the Dominion, was struggling to its feet.  During those years he had a right to expect and receive the  support and co-operation of the Secretary of State for the Colonies  and the Governor General. But, instead of receiving their support 44 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  and co-operation, his difficulties were increased enormously by  their unwarranted interference with the domestic affairs of the  country and their indifference to its vital needs.  Had Lord Carnarvon, in 1874, frankly appealed to the people  of Canada and explained that, with the loss of San Juan Island,  it was necessary to connect the coal mines at Nanaimo with the  naval station at Esquimalt and, had he asked to have that bit  of railway built in connection with the main line, they would have  responded. Canadians have never been backward when an appeal  was made to their patriotism. In 1874 they had not forgotten (nor  did they forget for many years after) the 10 men killed and 36  wounded at the battle of Ridgeway on the 2nd June, 1866 (10)  and the loss of property of over a million dollars (for which they  never received a dollar in the way of compensation) caused by  the Fenian Raids.  The appeal would have had a good effect in British Columbia.  In 1869 the people were bewildered. They could not tell, from the  attitude of the English Government and the tone of the English  press, whether they were wanted within the British Empire at all,  or if they were not expected to get out and shift for themselves and  become part of the United States, if they so wished. Now in  1874 they were an integral part of the Dominion as one of the  Provinces, and if they had been asked to make a contribution  of land towards uniting the coal mines and naval station with  a railway (which they afterwards did to the tune of 2,110,000  acres, which at one dollar per acre was just about enough to build  the road without any cash subsidy), they would have responded.  They would have felt that they, too, were contributing something  towards the general welfare, that they could no longer be regarded  as a negligible quantity and as something of a nuisance as they had  been in 1869. It was a great mistake on the part of the English  Government, when in 1874, they did not make a frank appeal to  the people of Canada. They might have had the road for the asking.  When work stopped at Esquimalt in 1873, the Government of  Brtish Columbia advanced the unwarranted claim that the Dom- SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 45  inion had thereby broken her engagement; therefore the best way  to have the railway built would be to stir up so much trouble and  discontent among the people of British Columbia that the Dominion would be forced to build it. All that was required was a  little diplomacy in handling the situation and the road would be  secured. This seems to have been the reasoning of Lord Carnarvon and Lord Dufferin, and the result was disastrous.  The sum total of the accomplishments of these two English  statesmen, backed up as they were by the London Times and a  large section of the English press, was to delay the construction  of the Island Railway for ten years, increase enormously the  difficulties of the Canadian Government, retard the normal progress of the country and to tarnish the fair name of Canada by  fastening onto her the stigma of a broken engagement,—a grave,  a very serious wrong. Somehow one finds their devious methods  more easily forgivable than their want of insight and understanding as statesmen.  Lord Dufferin told the people of British Columbia that  Canada had broken the first part of the bargain and would be  sure to break the second. But he did not tell them that Sir John  A. MacDonald considered the work at Esquimalt was a sufficient  commencement of construction and that Canada was under no  obligation to continue the work after a commencement had been  made, nor that Canada had raised the rate of the taxation by three  millions a year to meet the cost of the surveys nor that Mr. MacKenzie, in correspondence with Lord Carnarvon, had raised the  question as to whether Canada had broken the compact, and that  Lord Carnarvon had side-stepped the issue. He never even hinted  that there might be two sides to the question and that the bargain  might not have been broken. In fact his whole speech was designed and well calculated to create and arouse a feeling of discontent and dissatisfaction among the people of the Province.  That he was not successful speaks well for the intelligence of the  people of British Columbia.  When Lord Dufferin declared and pronounced that Canada 46        ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  had broken the engagement, he exceeded his duty as Governor  General and usurped that of the Supreme Court.  F. W. Howay, the historian, in referring to the conditions in  British Columbia at the time of Lord Dufferin's visit, says:—  "During their brief visit, they (Lord and Lady Dufferin) had won  the good will and respect of the people of the Province notwithstanding that their hearts were filled to overflowing with anger  and disappointment at the treatment the Province had received  from the Government of Canada". (11)  William Leggo, who wrote the history of Lord Dufferin's  administration in Canada, says:—"They chafed like a chained  tiger. Entrapped, as they believed themselves to be, by Mr. MacKenzie's policy, they now fancied their captors laughing at their  cries for justice, and jeering at their efforts to escape. The Province was in a ferment". (12)  This is good, this picture of the people of British Columbia  chafing like chained tigers at being trapped and unable to break  loose and writhing under the jeers and base, sardonic laughter of  Alexander MacKenzie. But perhaps he had as much reason for  saying what he did as F. W. Howay had.  On page 449 of his book, quoted above, Leggo says:—  "It may safely be said that there was no real intention to  secede held by any portion of the people. This threat may be  looked upon as but a very srtong mode of expressing disappointment and may be likened to the threats of Nova Scotia that she  would appeal to the United States. In neither case was the threat  serious". And so, perhaps, the tiger with his paw caught in the  trap, the object of MacKenzie's unholy laughter, was not worrying  so very much about it after all.  There are those who hold that Lord Dufferin's visit did not  change public opinion in British Columbia very much. When he  told them that Canada had broken her engagement, his words fell  upon ears accustomed to the sound, and criticism of the Dominion  Government was to them an old tune. They had heard it before. SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 47  The people were naturally disappointed when work at Esquimalt  stopped and, while they were quite ready at every opportunity to  belabour the Government with abuse and accuse them of bad faith,  they knew that the surveys were being pushed vigourously, that  the taxes had been raised by three millions and that in the end the  road would be built.  Lord Dufferin on his visit to British Columbia might have  accomplished much. He might have done a great deal of good had  he been candid with the people, and adhered to the facts. As it  was he,—talented, suave, the trained European diplomat,—must  have left the Province with a feeling of frustration and failure.  He must have realized that there was no deep seated discontent  among the people and that he had under estimated their intelligence.  In the meantime G. A. Walkem remained in San Francisco  where no doubt he had time to reflect on how successful he had  been in settling the differences between the Province and the  Dominion:—"Happily the grave differences which at one time  threatened to create a serious breach between the Dominion and  her Western Province are now matters of the past. For my  part I trust I may hereafter have cause to look back with satisfaction upon the settlement that has just been effected, and to  reflect with sincere pleasure that, under your Excellency's direction, it fell to my lot in 1874 to be instrumental in promoting the  welfare and advancement of the Province". (13)  While in San Francisco for a few days before their departure  on the return journey, the vice regal party were handsomely entertained by the people of the City. If Mr. G. A. Walkem met the  Amethyst on its arrival and again escorted them to their Hotel,"  Lady Dufferin makes no mention of it.  L. NORRIS  (1) Relations between British Columbia and the Dominion of Canada—Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby—p. 254.  (2) My Canadian Journal—Lady Dufferin—p. 246. 48        ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  (3) Histroy of British Columbia—E. O. S. Schole field and R. E.  Gosnell— Part 11, p. 89.  (4) My Canadian Journal—Lady Dufferin—p. 253.  (5) Relation Between British Columbia and the Dominion of Canada—Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby—p. 254.  (6) Histroy of the Administration of the Earl of Dufferin it-  Canada—William Leggo—p.455.  (7) History of British Columbia—F. W. Howay and E. O. S.  Scholefie1d—-p.242.  (8) "Copies of the (Victoria) Standard containing it (the assertion  by Mr. Beaven that the Terms of Union had not been altered) reached  Ottawa on the eve of the very day on which the vote was to be taken in  the Senate on the Island Railway Bill. 'I find' exclaimed Senator Penny,  'that Mr. MacKenzie had stated in the House of Commons, that the Terms  of Union with British Columbia had been altered and that the railway is  given in conpensation therefor, and I find by this paper that the Premier  and the Chief Commissioner of that Province have stated in its House that  the terms have not been altered. Believing that a trap has been set for  Canada, I must vote against the Bill'. The Bill was lost by a majority of  three"—Victoria Colonist, September 3rd, 1875.  (9) Relations between British Columbia and the Dominion of Canada—Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby—p. 264.  (10) Troublous Times in Canada—Captain John A. MacDonald, 1910  —p. 52.  11) British Columbia—F. W. Howay and E. O. S. Schole field—  Vol. II, p.384.  (12 History of the Administration of the Earl of Dufferin in Canada  —William Leggo—p.449.  (13) Concluding paragraph of Walkem's Report to the Legislature  —Sessional Papers, 1875—p.489. SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 49  The Quarrel Between The Governor-  General And The Prime Minister, 1876  (i)  The year 1876 was a critical year for Prime Minister Alexander MacKenzie. As the country continued to suffer the effects  of the first depression since Confederation, provinces put forward  their demands for "better terms". The most disaffected province  was British Columbia. There, particularly among the people of  Vancouver Island, loud-voiced complaints were raised that the  federal government had^ not prosecuted actively the work on the  transcontinental railway and that there was no prospect of the  line being completed within the ten years limit provided for by the  Terms of Union. It is true that MacKenzie had offered to compensate the province if it would extend the time limit, but his overture  had failed to conciliate opinion in British Columbia. Furthermore,  it had almost led to disaster for the Liberal party, for one wing of  it, led by Edward Blake, was violently opposed to further concessions being made to the western province. When MacKenzie  realized the strength of this element, he decided to pacify Blake by  inviting him to rejoin the cabinet. He succeeded in getting his reentry only on the distinct understanding that the rate of taxation  would not be raised for railway construction, and that the offer  to construct the Esquimalt and Nanaimo line in addition to the  main line would be dropped. (2) This compromise satisfied neither  British Columbia nor the Colonial Office which had been keeping a  vigilant eye on the negotiations. To improve relations between the  province and the Dominion, the Colonial Secretary suggested that  Lord Dufferin undertake a mission to British Columbia with the  express purpose of allaying discontent there.  Neither Blake nor MacKenzie was enthusiastic about the  plan. Both objected to entering into any arrangement which might  seem to be inspired by the Imperial Office and to reflect indirectly 50 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  on their efforts to settle amicably a domestic dispute. They were  careful to tell Lord Dufferin that he could not go as "an imperial  agent" and that he had no authority to arrange a settlement.  Lord Dufferin visited British Columbia in August and September, 1876. While he was in the province, he became convinced  that the controversy must be settled and he suggested to MacKenzie  that another effort be made under Lord Carnarvon's auspices. (3)  When he returned to the East, he continued to press the Colonial  Secretary's services, and he urged Blake to tell British Columbia  the federal government had miscalculated the means available for  railway construction and that it would seek to modify the original  obligation. (4) These suggestions were enough to arouse the anger  of both Blake and MacKenzie. Blake was insistent that the  Governor-General should not go beyond his constitutional powers  and try to influence the government's policy; MacKenzie was determined that the settlement should now be arranged in Canada.  On November 16th, 1876, MacKenzie was summoned to  Rideau Hall for an interview. He has recorded the discussion  which followed. It is of interest because of the light it throws on  the relationship between Prime Minister and Governor-General  and because of the constitutional issues involved. The Governor-  General informed MacKenzie that he was sending to Lord Carnarvon a report on his mission to British Columbia and was incorporating his views on the controversy. In response to a question,  MacKenzie said he had consulted with his colleagues and they  were agreed that there was no further action to be taken by  them to satisfy British Columbia. Lord Dufferin then attacked the  government's policy, accusing it of changing the tenor of the  compromise offered to British Columbia by the wording of an  order-in-council of September, 1875. He also complained about the  entry into the cabinet of ministers who were unfriendly to British  Columbia. MacKenzie's memorandum continues:  Lord D. then said we were not using (sic) Lord Carnarvon  well and that he (Lord D.) felt his own honour involved.  I replied to his angry remark that Lord Carnarvon should SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 51  not have pressed his interference upon us that I always  regretted even the partial reference to him: that in a  great country like this it was not well for Colonial  Secretaries to be too ready in interfering with questions  bearing on Imperial interests. I further remarked that I  was unable to see how his (Lord D's) honour had been  touched that we were responsible for the Acts of the  government not him that he had nothing to do with it  except as a constitutional governor and that we had to be  responsible to the people of Canada and no one else. I  said that if we made any mistake it was in allowing (sic)  anything to be said and done beyond the strict line of  constitutional action. That I never would consent to make  another mistake of the kind by agaiin appearing before  Lord Carnarvon as a judge as he (Lord D.) wished but  that I was quite willing at once to retire and let him find  some one else who might suit his views better to conduct  the Government. Lord Dufferin thereupon told me he had  no such desire that he knew I had done all I could do in  the cause ....      (5)  The anger of both men soon subsided. MacKenzie agreed to read  over the minutes which the Governor-General was preparing to  send to Carnarvon and to discuss it later. When he again suggested retirement, Dufferin replied, "My dear MacKenzie. You  know I want nothing of the kind and that I desire to support your  Government, and if it were otherwise, that I could not help myself". He again urged the Prime Minister to send a delegate to  London to discuss some further proposition with Lord Carnarvon,  and MacKenzie promised to consider the suggestion, but stated  that he saw no prospect of coming to an understanding at present.  On November 18, MacKenzie received a letter from Lord  Dufferin, who stated that he "had not felt at all satisfied" with the  interview and felt that MacKenzie had acted "in a less conciliatory  spirit than he had anticipated". Blake and MacKenzie waited on the  Governor-General in the afternoon. Both took strong exception 52 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  to the despatch he wanted to send to Lord Carnarvon. MacKenzie  told him that  such a paper ought not to be sent to the Colonial Office  that it dealt with matters which had been, were now, and  would be in the future subjects of controversy between  the two political parties: that His Lordship's language  could be quoted by our opponents in favour of their course  and against ours while it would be very difficult for us  as his advisers to attack the document and yet that must  either be done or we would suffer a great injustice. I further stated that the impression we had gathered from the  reading of the paper was that it would be regarded as a  defence of the late Government's policy and a condemnation of ours in offering terms of compensation to British  Columbia. . . . He then commenced a general and excited  discussion of what was involved in his writing such a paper.  Mr. Blake replied pointing out what he had done when he  . left for Columbia when it was quite understood that he  should not, and could not, have any mission from the  Dominion Government, or any ambassadorial functions  even as an Imperial Officer which might conflict with his  Vice Regal duties here and that his visit therefore was  strictly a progress as Governor. Mr. Blake pointed out that  the greater portion of his paper was inconsistent with the  only position he held as Governor General and a very small  portion indeed could be called a private report to Lord  Carnarvon of what information he had gleaned in the  country, this latter subject being the only legitimate portion  of the paper. A long and painful discussion ensued on the  construction and meaning of Minutes of Council regarding  Columbian Railway disputes, especially those of Sept. 1874,  Sept. 1875 and March 1876. His Excellency was pleased  to characterize the passages regarding or relating to the  Parliamentary resolution concerning the non-increase of  taxation and the compensation to be covered by the construction of the Island Railway in very strong terms. SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 S3  He said they were deceitful and most disgraceful and  that if he had understood them he would have refused his  assent and protected Lord Carnarvon from occupying  false ground. I again told him that in my judgment the  Minutes of Council would only bear one meaning, that  we surely did not propose to build the Railway for nothing,  the something required was therefore such time as was  required and that there was no dispute in 1874 as to what  that was. I told him we had so far rigidly observed the  Carnarvon Terms all except the building of the Railway  from Nanaimo to Esquimalt. That every person must have  known that particular item required the assent of Parliament. That this assent could not be forced from the  Senate and having failed we had at once proposed as a  substitute a money payment which we agreed to propose  to Parliament if they assented. His Lordship then said that  we had [not] tried to carry the Senate, that the management of it by members of the Government in the Senate  was miserable and disgraceful and, that we had not organized a proper Whip, and that a member recentlly named  by us had voted against it ... . After a lengthy discussion  chiefly with Mr. Blake in which His Excellency reverted  over and over again to the same topic, he turned to me and  in a very excited tone said, "I call upon you to answer this  question. I have a right to call upon you as Prime Minister  to answer me now and I insist upon an answer. I call upon  you to tell me distinctly what you meant by 'compensation  for delays' in your Minutes referring to the Island Railway".  I replied that I had no objection to answer any  question properly put but that he had no right in a verbal  discussion to demand an answer in such a manner. I said  that if he desired any information to write down what  he wanted and I would of course furnish it. He then admitted that I was right. I told him that I thought the  Minutes and context in the other papers was quite clear as 54        ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  to the compensation. His Lordship after this scene spoke  more calmly and I embraced the opportunity to tell [him]  that Lord Carnarvon and he must remember that Canada  was not a Crown Colony (or a Colony at all in the ordinary  acceptation of the term) that 4,000,000 of people with a  Government responsible to the people only could not and  would not be dealt with as small communities, had been  sometimes dealt with: that we were capable of managing  our own affairs and the country would insist on doing it  and that no government could survive who would attempt  even at the instance of a Colonial Secretary to trifle with  Parliamentary decisions.  His Lordship said he admitted that. In a few minutes  he asked me if we took the ground that the construction of  the Island Railway or the substituted money payment was  a general compensation. I said it was. He at once sprang  to his feet and in a very violent tone said "Well after that,  there is no use having any further discussion. I feel  ashamed of it". Mr. Blake and I at once took our hats  and moved towards the door when he stopped us and said  "Dont let us quarrel about (sic), sit down again and let  us discuss it quietly and dont mind what has happened".  We accordingly sat down but nothing further of any  moment occurred and very soon he remarked that it was  probably useless to discuss the matter further then. To  this we assented. He then shook hands with both and said  to me "I hope MacKenzie you wont mind what has happened tonight. I was too hasty but meant no ill". I replied  "It is all between ourselves", and the interview terminated. (6)  The incident closed with MacKenzie and Blake winning a  victory by preventing the Governor-General from sending to London the memorandum commenting so unfavourably on the course  of action pursued by the ministry. Lord Dufferin's private views  found no expression in the official despatch which eventually was SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 55  sent, and Lord Carnarvon's subsequent reply to the appeal from  British Columbia, urged the province to be reasonable and to accept the money compensation already proferred it. From this point  neither Lord Carnarvon nor Lord Dufferin made any attempt to  extend services to the disputants, and British Columbia received  no encouragement for its claims. The power of the Dominion was  in the ascendant.  As far as the personal relations between the men are concerned, Lord Dufferin very shortly recommended that MacKenzie  and Blake be the recipients of imperial honours. Both decllined.  MacKenzie was satisfied with salvaging the Liberal party and he  was too modest to accept personal attention. Blake had achieved  his primary objectives—he had prevented extravagant generosity  towards British Columbia and he had forced the Governor-General  to abide by constitutional principles. He was satisfied with the  measure of his success and began to talk of giving up the post of  Minister of Justice.  MARGARET A. ORMSBY  (1) The material in this article is extraced from a dissertion submitted  to the faculty of Bryn Mawr College on "The Relations Between British  Columbia and the Domion of Canada, 1871-1885".  (2) Blake to MacKenzie, May 18, 1875, Public Archives of Canada  —MacKenzie Letter Book II, 314-5, Copy.  (3) He also wrote to MacKenzie from Toronto on October 9, 1876,  making a similar sugestion—MacKenzie Letter Book II, 713-6, Copy.  (4) Dufferin to Blake, November 2, 1876, University of Toronto  Library—Blake Papers, Vol.  15.  (5) Memorandum on conversation with Lord Dufferin on British  Columbia affairs, on November 16 and 18, respectively—MaacKenzie Letter  Book II, 779.  (6) Ibid., 786-791. Excerpts from MacKenzie's memorandum have  already been published by Professor J. A. Maxwell in his article, "Lord  Dufferin and the Diffciulties with British Columbia, 1874-1877".—Canadian  Historical Review, XII, 364-389, 56 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  Canada's Manifest Destiny  The first day of July, 1867, is Canada's natal day. On that day  the four provinces, Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova  Scotia, were united under one government and a new nation, the  Canadian nation, was born."  Its population then was probably about three milllions with a  revenue of about $16,000,000. We were small in numbers and poor  but we grew rapidly. In 1870 Prince Rupert's Land was acquired  from the Hudson's Bay Company by purchase, in 1871 British  Columbia entered the confederation and Prince Edward Island in  1873 and in 1878 the Imperial Government surrendered to Canada  all the British possessions in North America except Newfoundland.  In 1867 the area of Canada was 661,248 square miles, in 1878 it  was 3,684,723, an area about 3% larger than the (continental)  United States and Alaska combined and about 2% smaller than the  continent of Europe.  In modern times no other nation acquired such a vast territory in such a short time. Nor was any of it acquired by the  sword; it was all acquired by peaceful and honourable means, by  purchase and treaty. Nor were the original inhabitants, the Indians,  ignored. All over Canada, except in British Columbia, the rights of  the Indians to the soil was acquired by treaty.  Nor did our ancestors, the men of seventy years ago, prove to  be unworthy of their great opportunities. In those days they were  united in their faith in the future of Canada. They believed in  its future, in the purchase of Prince Rupert's Land and the acquisition of British Columbia and in the railway to the Pacific. With  a population of less than one half of the population of New York  city in 1940 and with a revenue considerably less than half the  present day revenue of British Columbia they committed themselves in 1871 to one of the greatest railway building undertakings  the world has ever seen, SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 57  Wrhen they undertook to build the railway in 1871 no one  was quite certain that a railway could be built across the Rocky  Mountains within Canadian territory, but they had faith in themselves, and they had faith in the future of their country and were  willing to take a chance, and they were successful. They built the  railway according to contract and finished it a year and three  months ahead of time. The claim that Canada broke her engagement with British Columbia over the building of the railway was  never more that a political fiction. If the facts and figures relating  thereto are taken into account they prove and proye up to the hilt  that Canada kept her engagement.  When the first transcontinental railway across the Rocky  Mountains was finished on April 28, 1869, the people of the  United States were proud of their accomplishment, and quite  justly so. They had conquered the Rocky Mountains that formidable barrier that split their country into two sections. It was a  splendid achievement. But had they built a railway 25,520 miles  long and crossed the Rockies ten times it would have been no more  than what we did when their wealth and population are taken into  consideration. Always they had ten times the wealth and ten times  the population that we had.  The first transcontinental railway in the United States was the  Union and Central Railway extending from Omaha to San Francisco Bay a distance of 1775 miles.. The first railway across the  Rocky Mountains in Canada was the Canadian Pacific Railway  from Bonville Station near Lake Nipissing (the original Callander  Station mentioned in the Act) to Port Moody a distance 2,520  miles. This gigantic undertaking was carried out within the first  twenty years of the life of the new Canadian nation.  In 1871 our revenue was $19,335,561, and seventy years later  it was $872,169,645. In 1871 our population was 3,689,257 and  seventy years later, in 1941, it was 11,505,655 and increase of  311.88% and since 311.88% of 3,689,257 is 35,886,955, it follows  that if the population continues to increase in the future as it has  in the past, and there is no reason to suppose that it will not con- 58 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  tinue to so increase, Canada in 66 years from now will have a population of nearly thirty-six millions. When that time arrives, and  there are many thousands of our people who will live to see the  day, we shall then only be getting well under way because we have  a country capable of sustaining ten times as many and more.  The newspaper Le Canada of Montreal, in its issue of Feb.  25, 1944, thus reports what Rev. W. R. Inge, of St. Paul's Cathedral, London, (Dean Inge) recently said in a speech before the  Ruskin Society:—  "Je crois, dit le T. R. Dr. Inge, que nous sommes au terme de  l'episode de notre histoire ou nous avons ete une nation grande et  riche, et que nous retomberons graduellement a l'etat ou se trouvat  l'Angleterre pre-indusrielle avec une population de 20,000,000 se  composant principalement d'agricultueurs faisant un travail sain  a l'air libre et un certain nombre de petits artisans dan les villes.  Que cela nous plaise ou non c'est tout droit a cela que nous allons."  Which may be translated:—I believe that the time when England was a rich and powerful nation has passed away and that we  will gradually sink to the level of preindustrial England with a  population of 20,000,000 principally agriculturists living a healthy  life in the open air with some artisans in the towns. Whether this  pleases us or not it is to this we are coming.  Every true Canadian will hope and pray sincerely that the  reverend gentleman, some times referred to as the Gloomy Dean,  is wrong in his predictions. It would be a calamity to Canada and  to every nation of the Commonwealth if England should recede  from her present position; but with the coming years Canada is  bound eventually to outstrip England in wealth and population.  If the Canadians of today are true to themselves, are loyal  to their own country, if they prove themselves to be worthy successors to the men of '67, Canada is bound to become a groat,  a powerful and wealthy nation, the hope and main stay of the  Commonwealth, the "first among equals". This is Canada's manifest destiny.  MARJORIE M. JENKINS SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 59  Eli Lequime  The late Bernard Lequime wrote a sketch of his life for the  benefit of his grandchildren. A copy of it is now in the possession  of C. A. S. Atwood of Grand Forks. The subjoined extract from  it is here given for the reason that it supplements what is said about  his father by Leon Lequime in his article "Mr. and Mrs. Lequime"  which appeared in our Fifth Report and by Bernard Lequime in  his article "Over the Penticton Trail" in our Seventh Report:—  "My father, Eli Lequime, was born at Bordeaux, France, on  Dec. 2nd, 1811, during the French Imperial reign of Napoleon  Bonaparte. Of his parents little is known except that they died  before he reached his teens. An uncle, Anton Lequime. who was  engaged in the wine business, took him to raise. He lived with his  uncle until he was fourteen years of age when he, for reasons unknown, ran away from home and went to sea, shipping as a cabin  boy on a windjammer. During the next twenty-seven years he sailed the seven seas making four complete trips around the world  and visiting every important port known in those days.  In 1852 the ship upon which he was a seaman entered the  port of San Francisco. At that time the gold rush was at its peak,  and he deserted his ship to seek his fortune in the gold fields  where he spent two years with only moderate success.  At the outbreak of the Crimean war in 1854 he returned to  France and joined the French army, going to the Crimea during  the latter part of the same year. Of his adventures during the war  little is known except that he fought at the battle of Sebastopole  and was among the army of 6,000 that saved the British from being  annihilated at the battle of Inkerman. He fought under Marshal  Pelissier and came through the war without being wounded.  Upon his return to France at the close of the war, on going  from Marseilles to Bordeaux, he met Marie Louise Atabagoeth 60        ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  who later became his wife in California.  As it was his ambition to return to America, a short time  later he set sail for this country reaching San Francisco early in  1856. He started the first French hand laundry where he was later  joined by Marie Louise Atabagoeth to whom he was married, and  her sister Ann. A short time later they sold out the laundry and  went to Marysville, Ca., where he opened a saloon.  On April, 30th, 1857, their first child (Bernard) was born.  They remained at Marysville until the spring of 1859, when rumours began to drift in of a gold strike in British Columbia. They  then decided to go to the new mining country and selling out the  saloon business they set out for San Francisco where they took  passage on the steamer "G. W. Elder" for the north coast. It  took five days to reach Victoria where they took passage for the  mainland and landed at Sapperton, now known as New Westminster. From there they went to Fort Hope. There they spent the  summer and winter in mining on Strawberry Island in the Fraser  River. While they were at Hope at second child was born and  christened Gaston.  —DOROTHY HEWLETT GELLATLY SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945  61  U  m 62        ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  Glacial Erratic On The Coldstream Ranch  On page 150B of the Report of Progress of the Geological  Survey of Canada forr 1877-78, published at Ottawa, Dr. G. M.  Dawson in his report on the geology of the southern interior of the  Province, makes this reference to the glacial erratic on the Coldstream Ranch:—  "The most remarkable erratic noted is one which rests on the  glaciated surface of a small rounded hill which stands in the centre  of the valley near Coldstream. This boulder is twenty-two feet  long by sixteen and a half wide.and eighteen feet high. It is yellowish, highly calcereous and interstratified with layers of felspatic  and quartzose materials, all the beds being much contorted. The  rock on which the erratic stands is quite different in appearance  from it."  This rock was examined by Dr. Arthur H. Lang in 1926 and  his report thereon appears on page 18 of the First Report of the  Okanagan Historical Society. When it was examined by Dr.  Dawson its content amounted to 6,534 cubic feet, but when Dr.  Lang examined it in 1926 it had a volume of 3,024 cubic feet only.  The illustration which appears on another page is taken from the  plate which accompanied Dr. Dawson's Report. That part of the  rock with the small tree growing out of the top is the portion that  was tumbled down the hill when the rock was struck by lightning  on the 6th July, 1916, as related by Adam Grant on page 87 of our  Sixth Report.  The Provincial Government have since reserved this rock and  it now bears a neat bronze plate with the inscription:  "NOTICE  All Historic Objects in this vicinity have been placed  under the protection  of the  Historic  Objects  Act  of  British Columbia and any interference with the same is  subject to penalty".  DOROTHY HEWLETT GELLATLY SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 63  Callander Station  The contract between the Dominion Government and the  Syndicate for the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway is  dated October 21st, 1880, and was given effect to by an Act respecting the Canadian Pacific Railway assented to February 15th,  1881. The contract appears in the schedule of the Act and section  1 of the schedule reads in part as follows:— "the eastern section  shall comprise that part of the Canadian Pacific Railway to be  constructed extending from the Western terminus of the Canada  Central Railway near the East end of Lake Nipissing, known as  Callander Station, to a point . . . ." But there is no Callander  Station on the C. P. R., and to have the matter cleared up we  applied to the C. P. R. authorities at Montreal. The Librarian  of the Company very kindly cleared up the mystery for us. Mrs.  J. M. Armstrong, in her letter to us of November 23rd, 1944,  says:—  "Your query concerning Callander Station was answered by  our Right of Way and Lease Department. Their records show  that the name of the station was changed to Bonfield somewhere  around 1900. This was the eastern terminus of the main line referred to in the Act of February 15th, 1881. The original mileages  of the line are as follows:  Callander to Port Arthur, built by C. P. R. 651 miles  Port Arthur to Winnipeg, built by Dominion  Government 431 miles  Winnipeg to Savona Ferry, built by C. P. R.     1,257 miles  Savona Ferry to Port Moody, built by Dominion  Government 213 miles  2,552 miles  We now know that the old original trunk line of the C. P. R. 64 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  had its eastern terminus at Bonfield and its western terminus at  Port Moody, that its length is 2,552 miles, and that the Callander  Station on the Canadian National Railway, the home of the Dionne  Quintuplets, and the Callander Station mentioned in the Act of  February 15th, 1881, are two different places.  ELSIE FOOTE SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945  65  rt  G  O  b__  rt  C  'So  fe 66 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  Okanagan's First Fire Engine  The photographic reproduction on another page is worthy of  note in a magazine devoted to historic matters as the machine  referred to played an important part in two of the now flourishing  commercial centres of the Okanagan Valley.  In a somewhat recent issue of the Kelowna Courier, under the  "forty years ago" column, appeared the following, copied from an  issue of August 25th, 1904:—  "The fire engine in use in Vernon before waterworks were  installed there, has been purchased for use in Kelowna in case of  a fire. It is a hand engine requiring twenty men for its operation,  and it is said to be in good condition. It throws a powerful stream  and will be a great improvement on the present volunteer bucket  brigade. It will doubtless serve a good purpose until such time as  a system of waterworks can be established here".  The publisher of the present day added an editorial note,  giving the origin of the fire engine, and intimated that it was a man-  killer. It was further stated that it is now in the City Park in  Kelowna "sadly shorn of its original glories of shining brass".  That reference was to the absence of the metal plate showing the  name of the maker and the date of manufacture.  The snap-shot, from which the photographic reproduction  has been made, is the property of the Kamloops Museum and was  obtained as a loan for illustration purposes. In this connection  it might be mentioned that the organization of the Kamloops  Museum is, at present, a single individual, Mr. Burt R. Campbell,  who is in attendance at the building upon the weekly occasions  when it is open for visitors. Mr. Campbell is one of the pioneer  members of the printing trade in the interior of the Province, having been employed in the early nineties at Kamloops, Vernon, and  Revelstoke.  The snap-shot was taken by Mr. G. D. Brown, also SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 67  of Kamloops, when on a visit to the Okanagan some years ago.  It is a matter of regret that the machine has not been preserved intact, but the present generation, accustomed to modern  conveniences, can form an idea of what it was to man this relic  of by-gone days, which required husky men of strength, energy  and resolution. L. Norris says that he remembers taking his turn  on the handle-bars along with R. N. Taylor, Billy Gibbs, R. W.  Neil, Saul and Franklin Smith, Robert Carswell, W. A. Cryderman, W. C. Pound and others to work the pump at the fire on the  night of August- 8th, 1895, when W. R. Megaw's stable opposite  the Victoria Hotel in Vernon and Porter Watson's barber shop  were burnt down.  Writing on October 4th, 1944, Mrs. Leonard Richards of  Kelowna, says the care taker of the Park at Kelowna who has  held his present position for the past thirty-one years, remembers  the name of the maker as shown on the brass plate. It was William  Worth, and he thinks the date was 1840. L. L. Kerry of Kelowna,  wrote to say that this old engine was used at the time of the big  fire in San Francisco in 1852.  It seems to be generally conceded that the name of the engine  was the "Broderick", on account of the crew which manned it in  San Francisco.  Stewart Edward White, in his novel "Grey Dawn", describes  the engine and a description of it also appeared in McLean's Magazine of September 15th, 1940. In the article in MacLean's, the  statement is made that the engine, being replaced by better equipment, was sold to New Westminister and later sent to Yale. This  is, however, not correct. It came direct from San Francisco to Yale  in 1882, as shown later in this article. The engine purchased by  New Westminster in 1863 was still there at the time of the great  fire in 1893. The arrival of the engine in Vernon elicited the following comment from the Vernon News in its issue of August  23rd, 1894:—  "The long looked for fire engine arrived from Yale by Mon- 68 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  day's train and was at once subjected to the most minute inspection  by a large and apparently interested crowd of spectators. It was  the general verdict that the city had secured a bargain in the  machine and apparatus and the hose reel alone, was pronounced  by competent judges to be worth considerably more than the price  paid for the whole outfit".  In view of the circumstances, mentioned later, under which  the residents of Yale originally purchased the machine, a search  was instituted to ascertain who had assumed the right to sell the  engine to the City of Vernon. On this subject the minutes of the  Vernon City Council threw light, as it was shown there that on  July 16th, 1894, the sale was made by the Government, through  its agent at Yale, at the price of $100 for "Engine, Hose, Nozzles  and Hose Carts".  Following further the installation of fire equipment at Vernon,  information has been obtained from Mr. Burt R. Campbell, to  whom reference has already been made, that a Hook and Ladder  Wagon was added to the equipment in September, 1894. The wood  work was done by A. J. McMullen and the wagon was ironed by  A. Birnie. The Vernon News of September 27th, 1894, shows that  the vehicle was exceedingly light of draught and was furnished  with eight ladders.  A fire-bell was installed at Vernon in August, 1895, on a  tower 25 feet high. The bell was forty-two inches in diameter  and weighed a thousand pounds.  Following the statement in the Vernon News that the engine  was obtained from Yale, files of the Inland Sentinal, then published  at Emery's Bar and later at Yale, show that in 1880 and 1881,  fires at Yale gave the community incentives for the acquisition  of a fire engine.  On September 15th, 1881, the Inland Sentinal (of Yale) contained an appeal to the public of British Columbia, which was forwarded to New Westminister, Victoria, Cariboo and other places.  It cited that owing to the late disastrous fires it was found impos- SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 69  sible to raise sufficient funds locally to procure a fire engine. The  petition was signed by Joseph W. Burr, Captain of the Hook and  Ladder Company, John E. Insley, Wm. Gibbs, Wm. Thrift and  was dated September 2nd, 1881.  To this appeal the Amateur Dramatic Association of Victoria  responded, through Mayor J. H. Turner, with a donation of  $107.75, being the proceeds of an entertainment given by the  Society in aid of the Yale Relief Fund.  From Reid and Hudson of Quesnelle, came a donation of $10.  The proceeds of a Ball were $93. and the committee reported  through an advertisement, subscriptions of $571. An explanation  was made by the Committee that the Railway employees had not  been included in the list as they desired to present a "C. P. R.  Purse".  With money coming in for purchase of an engine, the next  problem was to get the machine. At a meeting of the Fire Department, it was reported that no reply had been received from  San Francisco respecting a fire engine. In desperation it was decided to telegraph both to San Francisco and Portland, but no  better luck was experienced and at a subsequent meeting it was  decided to communicate with Messrs. Welch & Rithet of Victoria  to see if they could procure an engine.  Four months later a letter was received from these agents,  stating that the 'fire engine, hose cart and 500 feet of hose had  left San Francisco. Upon arrival at Victoria, bad news was conveyed to Yale that the Government had refused to pass the equipment as duty free. The amount of the duty was $250 and it was  stated in Yale that the amount could not be raised there as the  people had been drained to the meet the payment of $1,050, but  that as soon as possible the engine would be brought to Yale. In  connection with these charges for duty it was claimed that a  visiting politician from Ottawa had promised to see that the  charges would be waived but the officials in British Columbia had 70 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  no notification to that effect.  Late in the following month (April, 1882) the Sentinal recorded the fact that the Fire Engine, Hose Cart and Hoses had  arrived. From the wording of the news item, it can be inferred  that the engine was not new, but that the Hose Cart and Hose were  new. Concerning the engine, the statement was made that it was  a "substantial kind", and that it had "doubtless done good work  in its day". As the machine had been purchased in San Francisco  the statement of the Kelowna Courier that it was reputedly San  Francisco's first fire pump, may have been quite correct.  After the construction of the C. P. R. line through the mountains and the diversion of traffic, from Yale by the Cariboo Road,  business was naturally affected, and, as already stated, sale of the  fire engine and other equipment was made by the Government to  the City of Vernon.  It would be wrong to suppose that the fire engine imported  at Yale was the first of its kind in British Columbia. The facts  are that both Victoria and New Westminster had machines in  operation for many before Yale secured its machine. The Victoria  Gazette of July 29th, 1858, records the arrival there of a couple  of .fire engines. The tests were made within the stockade of the  fort and the water was supplied from a well.  The machine at New Westminster arrived in April, 1863, and  to help in the celebration of the event, twenty-eight members of the  Deluge and Tiger Brigades of Victoria joined with their brethren  of New Westminster.  F. W. LAING SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 71  The S.R.I. A. C.  The Okanagan Society for the revival of Indian Arts and  Crafts is doing an excellent work, especially in calling attention to  the fact that the North American Indians of Canada are a superior  people. Too often they are classed by ignorant people with such  races as the Japanese, Chinese, Negros and Hindus. These are  inferior races, while the North American Indian is the equal intellectually of the Anglo Saxon, and they have, as Mrs. William  Brent points out on page 122 of our Sixth Report, qualities which  the Anglo Saxon does not posess.  When the comparatively small number of the men in Canada  of mixed Indian blood is taken into consideration there is no class  of men who have proved themselves to be more capable than they'.  As legislators, scientists, civil servants and teachers they excel.  Some of the young Indians have produced work that is highly esteemed by European art connoisseurs, and this without any training  or instruction whatever. The future Canadian race will be all the  stronger physically and intellectually for the inclusion of the Indians. It would be a great loss to Canada if these people died out  and became extinct.  The people of British Columbia should be particularly interested in the Indians because about one fourth of them live in this  province, and again this is the only province in the Dominion in  which the rights of the Indians have never been extinguished by  treaty. Lord Dufferin called attention to this latter fact in his  speech in Victoria on the 20th September, 1876.  He said:—  "Now we must all admit that the condition of the Indian question in British Columbia is not satisfactory. Most unfortunately  as I think, there has been an initial error ever since Sir James  Douglas quitted office, in the government neglecting to recognize  what is known as the Indian Title. In Canada that has always been 72 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  done; no Government whether Provincial or Central, has failed to  acknowledge that the title to the land existed in the Indian tribes  and communities that hunted or wandered over them. Before we  touch an acre we make a treaty with the Chiefs representing the  bands we are dealing with and having agreed upon and paid the  stipulated price, oftentime arrived at after a great deal of haggling and difficulty, we enter into possession, but not until then do we  consider that we are entitled to deal with an acre.  But in British Columbia, except in a few places, where, under  the jurisdiction of the Hudson's Bay Company or the auspices  of Sir James Douglas, a similar practice has been adopted, the  Provincial Government has always assumed that the fee simple in  as well as the sovereignty over the land, resided in the Queen.  Now I consider that our fellow Indian subjects are entitled to  exactly the same rights under the law as are possessed by the white  population, and if an Indian can prove a prescriptive right of way  to a fishing station, or a right of any other kind, that that right  should no more be ignored than if it was a white man".  Perhaps it is rather late in the day now to remedy this fault,  but the Provincial Government could make it up to the Indians in  other ways if they wished to do so. It is true that under the law  at present the Indians are wards of the Dominion and the Dominion Government by law should bear all expenses incurred in advancing the welfare of the Indians. But the public health and sanitation are two things which come under the control of the provinces.  Today hundreds of young Indians die of tuberculosis and this  would not be the case if the Indians were living under more sanitary conditions than they are. The loss of these young people is  a distinct loss to the nation, and if our Provincial Government  were to undertake to remedy present conditions they would have  ample legal sanction for doing so.  Lord Dufferin also noticed how quickly the Indians respond  to education and how readily they adapt themselves to the amenities of civilized life.   He said;— "I have now seen them in all SOCIETY OF.VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 73  phases of their existence from the half naked savage, perched like  a bird of prey in a red blanket upon a rock, trying to catch his  miserable dinner of fish, to the neat Indian maiden in Mr. Duncan's  school at Metlahkatlah, as modest and as well. dressed as any  clergyman's daughter in an English Parish, or the shrewd horse-  riding Siwash of the Thompson Valley, with his racers in training  for the Ashcroft stakes, and as proud of his stockyard as a British  squire". ■>-■■■-.■   •  Now why should not all Indian girls be brought up under the  same conditions as were the few in the schools he mentions ? There  is nothing standing in the way of this being done except" the apathy  and indifference of the two governments.  The Indian Act should be revised and the education of the  Indians in British Columbia taken over by the Provincial Government. The Indian children should be sent to the graded schools and  the girls instructed by a teacher of Home Economics, and both  girls and boys given some instruction in both of the official languages of Canada. We admit the Negro, the Hindu and the Japanese to our public schools, but exclude the Indian, one of the most  valuable ethnological assets we have.  The Indians of British Columbia have been neglected for too  long, and too much praise cannot be given to this band of disinterested and intelligent men and women at Oliver for the splendid  work they are doing. The officers of the Society are: A. Millar,  President; B. Webber, Vice-President; Mrs. A. •Miller, Secretary;  Mrs. E. Parham, Recording Secretary and Mrs. S. M. Worsfold,  Treasurer. -  During.the past year the Society has issued a.pamphlet of  twenty pages, containing approximately 12,000 words with the  appropriate and suggestive title "Native Canadians". It is a plea  for the rehabilitation of them and is a comprehensive and excellent  presentation of the case for the Indians. This work should be in  the hands of every voter in the Dominion. It cannot be adequately  reviewed here, but the following is taken from page nine;— 74 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  "We learn from the Indian Affairs Report that there were in  1939. 118,378 Indians in Canada and on them we spent $5,004,165,  i.e., $42.28 each. This total covers administration, the Indian  Agencies, reserves and trusts, all medical care and welfare, all  education (including $1,393,393.00 in grants to residential schools)  a few very small items for grants to exhibitions, statutary Indians  annuities and pensions. All this is covered by $42.28 per person  per year, and of this amount approximately seven per cent is absorbed by cost of administration.  We note there were 17,281 children in school (275 day, 78  residential and 10 combined). Although the census of 1919 gives  26,390 Indians between the ages of seven and sixteen, apparently  only two-thirds are in any kind of school at all, and as we have  already pointed out, the majority are in the lower grades".  Between two stools the Indian has fallen. Between the Dom-.  inion which has the control of all Indian affairs and the Provincial Governments which have the control of education, sanitation  and the public health, our Indians are neglected. We are wasting  and destroying our Indian tribes and this is a terrible mistake.  Every Indian that is saved by so much the Canadian nation is  strengthened whereas the orientals within our borders, the unass-  imilables are a detriment.  It is perhaps too late now to do much for the older Indians  but the children should be rescued from the conditions under which  they are now living and given a chance in life. They should not be  condemned irrevocably to the hard narrow and unprofitable life  that most of their parents now lead.  We hope some day some of our Canadian historians who  have the opportunity to do so, will ascertain how many men of  mixed Indian blood, have in Canada within the past, say, fifty  years, filled the office of Premier, Minister, Deputy Minister, Head  of a Department or teacher in a University. If this were done  the figures would probably come as a complete surprise to people.  It would put the Indian question on a new footing.  Roughly, one SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 75  man in a hundred in Canada is an Indian and the number of half  and quarter breeds is probably much less, yet it is astonishing how  many of them have risen to prominence. There is no race so readily  assimilable with the Anglo Saxon as the North American Indians.  In this as in some other things Canada is a fortunate nation.  Instead of having a race of inferior aboriginals to look after who  would be a detriment and injury to the nation, we have a superior  race or intellectual men and women.  L. NORRIS  r'Sfej.F5?-^.^^.  First White Child Born in the Okanagan  The claim is sometimes made that Kamloops is the birth place  of the first white child born in the interior of British Columbia,  but the claim is not well founded. The distinction should go to  the Okanagan Valley. The late Mrs. Rose Swanson, the first white  child born at Kamloops, was born on October 14th, 1862, whereas  the late Gaston Lequime, the third son of the late Mr. and Mrs.  Lequime, the first white child born in the interior of British Columbia, was born in December, 1861, at Okanagan Mission.  CLINTON A. S. ATWOOD 76 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  An Old Whale Bone found in Okanagan Lake SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 77  An Old Whale Bone  On another page is an illustration of an old whale bone found  in Okanagan Lake, on the east shore, south of Kelowna, by the late  Captain T. D. Shorts, about sixty-two or sixty-three years ago.  The illustration is from a photograph by Dr. H. Campbell-Brown  of Vernon.  It will be of interest to know that this old bone, after many  vicissitudes, has at last found sanctuary in the University of British  Columbia. For some time after it was found, it lay on the verandah  of the old white cottage on Coldstream Street, which was the first  Government Agent's office in Vernon. From the verandah it was  taken to the woodshed of the late W. F. Cameron, where it was  occasionally used as a block on which to split kindling. In November, 1914, it was placed in the vault of the new Courthouse, and  for two or three years it was kept in a garage in Vernon, and  finally on the 11th February, 1944, it was sent to the U. B. C. and  it is now in the capable hands of Dr. M. Y. Williams, head of the  Department of Geology.  Dr. Williams submitted it to Dr. I. McT. Cowan, head of the  Department of Zoology, for the purposes of identification and  having its probable antiquity determined, and Dr. Cowan, in his  letter to us of 1st November last, says:—  "I have examined the whale bone sent in by you with very  considerable interest. I am not able to identify it with surety to  species, but it would seem to be of the family Balaenopteidae,  widespread throughout the world at the present time and of very  considerable geological antiquity".  After pointing out that it has been many millions of years,  long before the Ice Age and long before the establishment of the  present valley, since salt water .was present in the area now forming  the Okanagan Valley, Dr. Cowan concludes by saying:—  "The point I am trying to make is that the naturally recurring  remains of any whale previously existing in the area when it was 78 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  a sea bottom, would have been buried in soil for many million  years. It would probably be subjected to the erosive action of glaciers and would certainly show in its bone substance some traces of  these forces. Material of this sort universally has the somewhat  porous bone saturated with the finer material from the soil in which  it was buried and there is no trace of this in the present specimen.  Our opinion then, is that this bone reached the Okanagan Valley in  recent times by human agency".  And, so, that is that. For fifty years we have entertained the  hope that our scientists would admit that this old bone was a relic  of the time long gone by when the gay and festive Balaenopteridae  and others of that ilk, roamed and disported themselves over what  is now the Okanagan Valley, and it is with some disappointment  that we now learn that this is not so. There is always something  slightly diabolical in the reasoning of a scientist. He marshalls  all the facts and then proceeds to build them up in front of you  like a stone wall with no loop hole or weak spot or chance to break  through.  However the mystery still remains. If it was brought into  the Okanagan Valley by human agency, then by whom, and how,  and when, and why? Again when they brought it into the valley  why did they throw it into the lake, and especially on the east side  south of Kelowna, the most rugged and least frequented bit of  shore line on the lake?  The understanding with Dr. Williams is that the bone will  remain in the University for an indefinite period, but should a  proper Museum be established in the valley at any time, it will, on  the request of the Okanagan Historical Society, be brought back  here where it really belongs. A short history of the finding of the  bone appears on page 38 of our Sixth Report.  The Okanagan Historical Society is under a great obligation  to Dr. Williams and Dr. Cowan for their courtesy, and for the  interest they have shown in the old bone and the trouble they have  taken.  A. E. SAGE SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 79  Phosphorescent Wood  Decaying wood will sometimes emit a phosphorescent light;  but I do not know that it is seen very often. My first and only  experience of it was in the spring of 1889. I had acquired the  Lawrence meadow about a mile east of Lansdowne and had just  moved onto it. There was a bridge about twenty feet long over a  gulch on the place which had been covered by rails split out of  small firs so that each rail on one side still retained the bark. Some  of the rails were broken and to make it safe for a team to cross, I  had to lift them and lay them closer together and in places put in  new ones. The covering had been down for some years, and the  bark was sufficiently decayed to cause it to drop off when the rails  were disturbed.  I finished the work on a Saturday and that evening I went to  Lansdowne. The night was quite dark when I returned on foot  about eleven o'clock, and I was surprised on coming to the bridge  to find it sprinkled from end to end with luminous points of light.  Each bit of broken bark left on the bridge was phosphorescent.  To me it was an interesting sight. I took some of the larger pieces  into the cabin and after I had found a newspaper I blew out the  lamp, and although the cabin was pitch dark, I could still read the  newspaper by holding a bit of the luminous bark within two or  three inches of it. The light emitted was a white light without  perceptible color or heat. Perhaps others in the Okanagan Valley  have observed this phenomenon, the phosphorescent light given off  by decaying wood?  L. NORRIS ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  Canada's Future  Unfortunately for the future of Canada there are now existing grave differences between the English-speaking and the  French-speaking sections of our people. It is the result of the two  sections not being aquainted with each other and not understanding  each other. If the two sections knew each other better there would  not be the existing dislike of, and hostility to, each other that is  so harmful to our country.  The recent rise of the Bloc Populaire in Quebec is suggestive.  We do not know if it will ever amount to much as a political party,  but it is an indication of the discontent and unrest now existing  among the people there. Again following the rise of this new party  the disclosures made recently by Senator Bouchard, in the senate,  of conditions in Quebec, are startling, and when both are considered they should cause every true Canadian profound disquietude  and anxiety.  Present conditions cannot endure for long and a change may  be imminent. If a better understanding is not reached between  the two sections, disaster may follow and the French Canadians  may leave the Dominion. It is nonsense to say that Quebec can be  forced to remain as one of the provinces. It rests with them alone  to say whether they shall remain or leave. The people of the South  of Ireland did not win their freedom on the field of battle; if the  people of Quebec go on strike what can anyone do but give, in to  them. Today we are headed apparently straight for the rocks  and national ship wreck. With a republic in realty if not in^name,  in Quebec, and the country split in two, our future as a nation will  be ruined.  For many years the people of Ireland had been asking for  home rule, and the English were opposed to it. Finally a Home  Rule Bill was passed by the English Government in 1893. It was  a very moderate concession.   The general administration of the SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 81  business of the country was vested in an Executive appointed by  a local Parliament, but the collection of most of the taxes was retained by Downing Street. Moderate as it was, it would then have  been accepted by the people of Ireland as sufficient, and had it been  granted Ireland today would be a united prosperous country, loyal  to the British connection and a strength to the Commonwealth.  But the Bill was rejected in the House of Lords, and a long  contest ensued which became very bitter towards the end, and both  sides were guilty of unjustifiable acts of cruelty, and ultimately it  was the English Government that had to yield and ask the Irish  to accept a measure of self government such as the Irish never  dreamed of aspiring to in 1893:— "The Sinn Feiners were right  in their estimate of the morale of the Coalition Government, and  at last, hat in hand, the offer of peace came from Lloyd George  himself. The Truce was declared, the government of the country  was handed over to the Sinn Fein, and, to use the words of the  victor's proclamation, 'Dublin Castle surrendered at 2.30 this day  to the Irish Forces". (1) Home Rule was conceded to the Irish in  December, 192Q.  It would take little to conciliate the people of Quebec today  but let us beware of the demands of tomorrow. If we imitate the  English in giving nothing until we have to, we may yet have to  imitate the English in approaching them hat in hand, with an offer  of a complete surrender. Present conditions will not improve of  themselves, par la forces des choses, without exertion on our part,  and steps should be taken to lay the foundation for the removal,  once and for all, of the differences now separating the two sections,  And those differences can be removed. There is no insurmountable  obstacle in the way. We are not separated by race and religion  as we have been so often told. It is one of language, and in a very  minor degree of culture.  We are not separated by religion. Both sections profess the  Christian religion, and there is not much difference in the creeds  of the various branches of the Christian Church. After several  attempts have failed, the union was finally consummated, in 1925, 82        ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  of the Presbyterian, Methodist aand Congregational churches, and  they are now known as the United Church of Canada. In 1920,  what is known as the Lambeth Conference was held. At it representatives of the Catholic and English Churches, tried to bring  about a union of the two. The attempts failed, although "conversations" were carried on between the two for some months. But  because that attempt failed it does not necessarily follow that  the two churches will not yet be united. In England, including the  Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, the two churches are of  about equal strength. The Encylopedia Brittanica, 14th Edition,  gives the number of persons who are admitted to full membership  in the two as: Church of England, 2,294,00; Catholic Church,  1,930,000.  We have been told so often that we are divided by race and  religion that we have come to believe it. Our Governor Generals  have been particularly assiduous in preaching this doctrine. Some  of them could not make one speech without introducing the cliche,  "two races and two religions". Divide and rule sometimes means  divide and ruin. Again we have been told that Canada broke her  engagement with British Columbia over the building of the railway and that we lost San Juan Island and most of the Islands  in the Gulf, through the ambiguous wording of the Treaty of  1846, and none of these things are so. In the past we have been  the victims of much interested and anti-Canadian propaganda. It  is time we learned to stand upon our own feet and think for ourselves instead of docibly taking our cue from others. We have  been in leading strings quite long enough. The fault is not in  our stars, but in ourselves that there is no healthy national life in  Canada. 'Ģ  It might be urged that as the French Canadians are in the  minority constituting as they do only 30.27 per cent, of the population, they should learn English. But the French Canadians are  high spirited and intelligent and they know well that if they adopted  both languages without a counter move of the same kind in the  English-speaking provinces, English would soon be the only Ian- SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 83  guage in use. Now we have no more right to ask the French  Canadians to adopt English than we have to ask the English to  give up their language and have French the only language in  Canada. Both are official languages and both are here to stay and  to this we must make up our minds. The only solution, therefore,  of the problem now confronting the nation is the adoption of both.  Nor would it be to the advantage of the Canadian nation and the  future welfare of her people, if either one was abandoned.  The level of education and instruction among the masses of  the people in Canada is steadily rising, from year to year, and it  will continue to rise. It has crept up an amazing distance during the  past fifty years. Our system of education is also steadily improving,  especially in our common schools, and there is nothing fantastic  in the idea of all boys and girls being able to speak both of the  official languages of their native country. The Indian mother carefully instructs her children in the proper use of the Indian language, and the same children learn English in the schools. Hence  all Indian children are bi-lingual, while the white children know  one language only. It is just as easy for a child to grow up accustomed to using two languages as one.  Today eighty per cent, of our population are descendents of  the English, Irish, Scottish and Norman French races, the best  racial stocks in the world. There are none better. We cannot have  too many immigrants of the kind. They should be made very welcome when they land on our shores. They are infinitely superior  to many we have had in recent years from the south-east of Europe,  many of whom have a strong admixture of Tartar or Mongolian  blood in them, and are inferior people. Intellectually they are  inferior to our North American Indians. Our experience in recent  years, with the Doukhobors should teach us a lesson. We should  seek immigrants from the north of Europe and not from the southeast. The Swedes, Norwegians and other Nordics make splendid  settlers and we cannot have too many of them. We should not  allow our country to be used as a mere dumping ground for the  inferior races and misfits of Europe and for the unassimilables 84 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  of Asia, the Chinese, Japanese, Hindus, and others. Canada's destiny calls for something better than that. The quality of the immigrants admitted is of more importance than the number. The  admission of a large number of Asiatic unassimilables would be  a mistake. They would only be a source of weakness—a running  sore in the side of the nation. We cannot admit them without  injury to ourselves, and while we are under no obligation towards  them whatever we are in duty bound to protect our own country  and our own people.  The immigrants from the British Isles arrive on our shores  with their opinions already formed. They are acquainted with the  problems of their own country and are apt to think that a course  of action which is good for one member of the Commonwealth  should be good for another. They forget that each nation has its  own peculiar problems which are different from any other country's. They understand the split between the Norman French of  Quebec and the Norman French English of Ontario as one of race  and religion, and as for the difference in language their remedy  is quite simple,—do away with the French and have English only  in use, and their persistance in advocating this remedy is doing  much today to prevent the introduction of the only possible solution,  the adoption of both.  They should reserve their judgment until they understand the  situation. The best informed in England know too little about  Canada and her problems to interfere usefully in her affairs. The  two languages is not a misfortune, but potentially a great advantage, and the French Canadians may yet preserve for us one of  the greatest boons we have inherited. They may prevent us from  becoming a nation in which English only is in use and inducing us  to become what by law we should be, a bi-lingual people with  the two noblest languages in current use.  The men from the British Isles have one trait in common,  the regard and love they manifest for their native land, and one  cannot but admire them for it.    It is natural.    There must be SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 85  something sub-normal in a man who has no regard for his own  country. In fact the real worth and virtue of a nation can be  pretty accurately gauged by the patriotism of its people. No people  have a more profound attachment to their native land than  Scotchmen, and no country of its size (it had a population in 1931  of less than five millions) has left a more indelable mark on western civilization than Scotland.  These men come from a country which has a coat of arms  and on that coat of arms there are two mottos and both are in  French (Honi soit qui mat y pense and Dieu et mon droit) and  their King to this day in assenting to Bills does so in the French  tongue, reminders of the time when England was part of France  and the French ruled England, yet when they arrive in Canada and  see a French word on a postage stamp, a word which has the same  legal right to be there as the English word, they are astonished  and many of them rush into print, as the files of the dailies on the  coast will amply show. They sign their letters Anglo-Canadian or  Scotch-Canadian, as the case may be, and indignantly demand:  "Is this an English country?" The reply is, of course, no, this  not an English country. It is part French and part English, and the  French were here first, a dual language country, something Canadians fondly believe is better than either French or English.  The newly arrived cannot do better for their own, their native  land, than by casting in their lot unreservedly with the land of  their adoption, and help to build up in Canada a strong, united  and prosperous nation. The stronger Canada becomes the better  it is for the United Kingdom, and conversely the more prosperous  the United Kingdom becomes the better it is for Canada. The  greater prosperity of any one member of the Commonwealth, the  better it is for every other member of it, and one cannot fail  without injury to the others.  One of our Governor Generals (but he was an exception)  John Buchan, the novelist (Lord Tweedmuir) said: "A Canadian's first loyalty is not to the British Commonwealth of Nations, 86 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  but to Canada and Canada's King, and those who deny this are  doing, to my mind, a great disservice to the Commonwealth". (2)  These words should be shouted from the house tops throughout the length and breadth of Canada and cried through the streets  of our cities. If the newly arrived immigrants fail in loyalty to  Canada, they fail in their duty to the Commonwealth. A Scotchman in Canada cannot be true to Scotland if he fails in loyalty to  Canada.  These men would also be well advised to remember that when  they meet a French Canadian they meet an equal, their equal  mentally, morally, intellectually and culturally. Man for man a  French Canadian is of more worth to the nation than an immigrant no matter what country he may come from. It takes two  generations to make Canadians of Englishmen whereas the French  Canadian is one already made. He is one hundred per cent. Canadian and can always be depended on to be loyal to his native land.  About fifty or sixty years ago there was a small settlement of  French Canadians at Lumby, sixteen miles east of Vernon. Most  of them knew some English, but French was the language spoken  in the house and the weekly newspaper came from Quebec. Later  on there came into the valley a fair sprinkling of English, Irish  and Scottish so that the four so called races were pretty evenly  represented. W7ith the French children, French was the language  of the home and English of the schools and they were bi-lingual.  Today in and around Lumby there is not a vestage of difference between the children of French parents and the others. Race-  and religion no longer count. On an occasion such as a wedding  or a funeral all attend the church, be it catholic or protestant, and  the catholic priest is well liked and respected the same as any other  clergyman. And somehow the social conditions there seem to be  all the better for the presence of the French Canadian element.  Perhaps it is because the people are more Canadian and more SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 87  united. That constant undertone that is so noticeable where settlers from the British Isles do congregate, of disparagement of  everything Canadian, is not so marked. The French Canadian  never offends in this way. What is Canadian is good enough for  him. And the same conditions which now subsist in and around  Lumby would prevail in every other part of the Dominion if all  Canadians when they meet could converse freely with each other  in either one of the two official languages of their own country.  All that is required is for the two sections to become acquainted.  Forty-two per cent of the people in Canada are Catholics,  and this proportion has remained fairly constant for the past  seventy years. It is strange the prejudice some Protestants  have against the Catholic Church. They regard that Church as a  menace to the civil and religious liberties of the people. Their  fears are quite groundless. The catholic church never did and  never will do Canada any harm. Nor need the protestants of  Ontario be concerned over conditions in Quebec. If the Church  becomes too oppressive the people of Quebec are quite capable  of asserting their rights and liberties, both religious and civil,  without any assistance from the outside, as the history of Quebec  for the past seventy-five years amply proves.  Those who lived in British Columbia in the late 70's will  remember the Mechanic's Institutes. There was one in New  Westminster and others in Moodyville and Victoria and probably  one in Nanaimo. The principal object of this institution was to  furnish its members with a free library and a free reading room.  With the opening of the large free libraries which we have today,  the Mechanic's Institutes, after serving their purpose, and a  very good purpose it was, gradually fell into disuse. But many  old-timers will still, no doubt, retain kindly recollections of the  old Mechanic's Institute, the only library they had in those days.  About the same time they had a somewhat similar institution  in Quebec.  It was known as the Institut Canadien,  Its object was 88 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  to furnish its members with a library and a free reading room.  It was secular and not under the control of the catholic church  and the members selected their own books, and for these reasons  Bishop Bourget of Montreal was opposed to it. Bishop Bourget  was an exception to the general run of the Gallican bishops of  Quebec. He was an ultramontane, and it was he who established  the order of Jesuits in Quebec. In 1869 he placed the Institut  Canadien under the ban of the church and barred its members  from the sacraments of the church. Wilfred Laurier was born  November 20th, 1841, and as a young man, he and Joseph Guibord,  a printer, belonged to the Institut in Montreal. They considered  the action of the Bishop high handed, arbitrary and uncalled for,  and they and the majority of the members refused to submit to the  mandate of the church. Guibord died the same year, November  18th, 1869, and permission to bury his body in the consecrated  ground of the catholic cemetery in Montreal was refused. A long  contest ensued in the courts and finally the Bishop was beaten.  Six years later, on November 16th, 1875, Guibord was buried in  the plot in the catholic cemetery which he had bought and paid  for before his death. A large concourse of people lined the streets  on the day of his funeral and the troops were called out to preserve  order.  But when Sir Wilfred Laurier died February 17th, 1919, no  objection was raised to his body being buried in consecrated  ground although he had never recanted, and, presumably, was  still under the ban of the church. Nor was it necesary to call  out the troops to keep order at his funeral. By that time, 1919,  the whole trouble had pretty well blown over and had been forgotten, and Quebec had gone Liberal in the meantime  But if it was forgotten in 1919 it was not forgotten in 1877.  In that year Laurier entered the Liberal government at Ottawa  as minister of Interal Revenue, and when he went back to his  constituency, Drummond-Arthabasca, for re-election, he was defeated. The priests had it in for him. "He was a friend of  Guibord" was the battle cry of his opponents,   After that a long SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 89  contest ensued between the Liberal party (Quebec at that time  was mostly Conservative) led by Laurier on the one hand and the  ultramontane priests led by Bishop Bourget on the other which  lasted some ten or twelve years. During those years election after  election was annulled by Catholic Judges on the ground that there  had been undue influence and intimidation by the priests. In the  end the priests had to desist, and now we hear no more of priests  taking an active part in the elections in Quebec. During the contest  Laurier and the Liberal party had the backing of the Vatican. (3)  There is one phase of Canadian history which would stand  investigation, namely, the attitude of the Vatican towards the  church in Canada and the relationship existing between the two.  Neither in the Guibord case nor when the priests advanced the  claim that they had a right to take an active part in the elections,  did the ultramontane Bishop Bourget and the Jesuits receive assistance from the Vatican. Apparently the Pope has never interfered  unduly with the Gallican church in Canada. Eventually it was the  Pope who prohibited the priests from taking an active part in the  elections in Quebec.  The Quebec Act of 1774 secured for the French in Quebec  the free exercise of the Roman Catholic religion, subject to the  King's supremacy. Naturally, the catholic church in Canada has  never questioned the supremacy of the King since it is an offshoot  of the Gallican church of France, a church that for centuries has  upheld and maintained the Gallican liberties.  It would be very unfair to judge the whole body of the Catholic church in Canada by what a few extremists may say or do,  just as it would be unfair to judge the Protestant churches by  the unguarded utterances of some of their clergymen.  The Catholic church in Canada is an offshoot of the Gallican  catholic church in France, a church that has maintained its civil  and religious rights and liberties for centuries. What is known as  the Gallican Liberties were claimed and asserted by the Bishops  and clergy of France in 1682.  These were, (1) that the temporal 90 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  sovereignty of kings is independent of the pope; (2) that a general  council is above the pope; (3)that the ancient liberties of the Gallican church are sacred; (4) that the infallible teaching authority  of the church belongs to pope and bishops jointly. These were  repealed at one time but they were the essential principal of the  concordat between Napoleon and the Pope of 1801, and in the following year they were incorporated in the laws of France and so  for over a century the church in France had its rights and liberties  guaranteed by statute. The Gallican church of France has always  been different from the church in Italy and Spain. Its goverance  and teachings have never been ultramontane.  The Jesuits represent the extreme ultramontane element in  the Catholic church. They hold that the pope is the supreme  authority and above all governments and churches. In every country in which they have taken root they have laboured to establish  a theocracy, a government of the church alone, with all authority  vested in it. If they had their will, Canada today would be governed by the Catholic church. They have never been able to establish a theocracy in any country they have been in; but they  have succeeded in having themselves expelled, at one time or another, from pretty nearly every civilized country in the world, and  at one time they were surpressed by the pope. While they may be  troublesome in Quebec, they are not dangrous since they constitute  only a very small minority of the catholics of Canada. Sir Wilfred  Laurier once said that the last gun fired in defence of the British  connection would be fired by a French Canadian, and we may yet  see the last Jesuit expelled from Canada fired out by a French  catholic.  A nation or a people changes slowly. The policy of a church  or of a state may change over night without affecting the people  much. As Carlyle has pointed out, at the time of the French revolution after the King had been put to death, the people on the  morrow found, rather to their surprise, that France was still  France. Their intimate daily lives went on as usual although their  King had been guillotined.   The people of France were no more SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 91  atheistic after the revolution than they were before; their government was weak and vicious and the church worldly and oppressive, and they rejected both. Any real change in a people, in their  beliefs and prejudices, their standard of morality and code of  honour, their appreciation of what is best in life, and their hopes  and aspirations for the future, is of slow growth.  But a nation does change. The Quebec of today is not the  same as the Quebec of seventy-five years ago. The level of education and instruction, there as elsewhere, is steadily rising and  the people are becoming better informed and more enlightened.  Nor will the Quebec of fifty years hence be the same as the Quebec  of today. By the time fifty more years roll by the two churches may  be united and the two languages in common use.  There will never be any unity and real national life in Canada  until the people of the two most important provinces, Ontario and  Quebec speak the same language. As long as they speak a different language, suspicions, jealousies and misunderstandings will  arise which the extremists in the churches and the party politicians  will exploit for their own selfish ends to the harm and detriment  of the people. The French Canadians believe their language and  religion are menaced by the Protestants, while the Orangemen of  Ontario in fancy see the Inquisition and the auto-de-fe established  in Toronto. And so it goes. Each is quite ready to believe the worst  of the other, no matter how bad it may be. It is all so futile and  absurd. Such conditions would soon pass if they spoke the same  language. They would then, become acquainted, and learn to like  and esteem each other. The present state of suspicion and mistrust  would soon give away to one of friendliness and confidence. Lord  Durham, over a hundred years ago, pointed out how easy it was  to create misunderstandings between the people of Ontario and  Quebec when neither could hear more than one side of the question. (4)  There is nothing wrong with the Catholic church in Quebec  and nothing to be afraid of. The troubles of past years were  caused by a few extremists, ultramontanes and Jesuits, but they 92 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  are so few in number they are not a menace, and with the coming  years of progress and enlightenment they will soon fade out of  the picture. Quebec will never be governed by the Catholic church.  The catholics of Quebec will see to it themselves that their civil  rights and liberties are preserved. In the meantime there are a  whole lot of people in Canada who might join that church and  become good catholics without it hurting the country a bit.  We are not divided by religion and we are not divided by race.  After the battle of Hastings, October 14th, 1066, and until 1205,  England was part of France. The population of England, at the  time of the invasion, is estimated at 2,000,000, and during the  reign of William the Conqueror, it is estimated that one fourth  of the population was exterminated, and that 200,000 Norman  French settled in England. French was the language used in the  English Parliament down to some time between 1350 and 1400,  and in the House of Lords until 1480. Again in later years, there  was wave after wave of French protestants, the Huguenots, settled in England, being driven out of France. So that today the  English are a mixed lot, a fusion of Anglos, Saxons, Jutes, Danes  and Norman French with the Norman French element probably  predominating. There is probably less racial difference between  the Norman French of Quebec and the English than there is  between the English and the Celts of Scotland and Ireland. But  as all three, the English, Scottish and Irish, speak the same language, the slight racial difference is never noticed. How different  it would be if each spoke a language of its own and different  from the other two. They would be taken and would regard  themselves as being three different nations, and differences would  arise which do not now exist. The Welsh are English but they are  not Anglo-Saxon. They are Celts and a bi-lingual people. Every  Welshman speaks Welsh as well as English, and because he speaks  English he is accepted as English the same as the Irishman or the  Scotchman.  Does anyone for a moment think there would be the good SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 93  understanding and friendship which now exists between the people  of Canada and the people of the United States if the people south  of the boundary line spoke only, say, Spanish, and a Canadian  could talk to an American only through an interpreter. We know  there would not. Had the same language not been in common use  misunderstandings would have arisen between the two and the  boundary line would have been fortified long ago. Prince Bismark  once said that the greatest political fact of modern time was "the  inherited and paramount fact that North America speaks English".  That astute German statesman recognized the fact that as the two  spoke the same language, there would always be an Anglo-American community of ideas and interests which would render war  between the two improbable, and, in case of a clash of arms in  Europe, would tell powerfully in favour of England. The history of the past thirty-five years has verified his estimate.  The handful of extremists in Quebec are a nuisance, but they  are not as harmul to the country as the treason of our provincial  governments. The constitution placed both languages on an even  footing, and unfortunately, as it has turned out, the control of  education was left in the hands of the provincial governments,  and they, instead of loyally accepting the constitution and living  up to it by implementing the law as in duty bound, have sabotaged  the constitution. In the English-speaking provinces French has  been banished from the schools and in Quebec no English is taught.  The result of their disloyalty has been to split the nation into two  antagonistic groups. In this country their is no real unity, no real  national spirit. We have the population and the wealth, but we  are not making that progress as a nation that we should be making.  Our natural development is obstructed by the disloyalty, want of  foresight and of patriotic enterprise of the provincial governments.  They refuse to admit that we have two languages in Canada.  It is very important that the provincial governments should  recognize the fact that we have in Canada two official languages.  It is not to the credit of any native born English-speaking Can- 94        ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  adian that he should know no French. We know, of course, that  the people of Canada cannot be made bi-lingual over night, nor even  in a few years without an enormous expenditure of time and  money. But while it cannot be done in a few years, it can be  accomplished in the course of years with little extra trouble or  expense.  When a boy first enters school he should be told that we have  two official languages in Canada and that, as a future Canadian  citizen, he should acquire as much knowledge of both as he can.  For four or five years at least he should be given the task of translating selected French books into English with the help of a  dictionary. By so doing when he comes to leave school he will have  acquired a very considerable French vocabulary, a large number  of French words and their equivalent in English, and he will be  familiar with the French printed page. His knowledge of French  grammar will not count for so much as his familiarity with the  language. It will no longer be strange and unusual to him. He will  also have acquired, or will of himself be able to acquire, in after  years, what is mentioned in the Calendar of the B. C. University as  "a reading knowledge of French".  Had this practice been adopted in British Columbia twenty  years ago, there would be today in this province thousands of the  more intelligent men and women (and the others would not count  for much in any case) who would have each their own small  collection of the best French authors which would secure for them  an escape and an hour's quiet enjoyment from time to time. And  had it been introduced in 1871 when British Columbia first entered  confederation, by now the people of the province would be practically bi-lingual. Once French is introduced into the home, the  children will soon pick it up.  All children cannot be sent to school until they are proficient  in French. But all children can be made acquainted with it so that SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 95  they can, of themselves, learn to speak and write it correctly, if  they are so inclined. But the door is shut on the children, they  are not given a chance. "They are shut out alike from the beauty  of the French language, the brilliancy of French literature, the  graces of the French character, and any knowledge of the contribution made by France to the common treasure of civilization" (5)  All educated Englishmen can speak French. They do considerable  travelling to the continent and find they cannot get on without it.  And why should our boys and girls not be given the same advantage.  It would cost nothing.  The English-speaking majority should take the first step in  introducing the second language into the common schools. If the  French take the first step it may look like coersion, as if they, being  in the minority, were being forced to do so, but if the English  take the first step it could be regarded as a generous gesture. If  the English approach the French in a friendly spirit and treat  them generously, the French will respond. The French Canadians  have never been unreasonable. E. Turcotte, editor of Le Canada of  Montreal, recently said:— "Meet the French Canadian no more  than half way and he will be surprisingly co-operative". And no  truer word was ever said of the French Canadians.  When the Treaty with the Boers was concluded in 1902, both  Dutch and English were made official languages in South Africa,  and in 1942, forty years afterwards, 67 per cent, of the people of  South Africa spoke both languages. The French and English of  Quebec and Ontario have been under the same government since  1841 and now after a lapse of over one hundred years, less than  13 per cent, speak both French and English. These conditions  cannot be accounted for without assuming that during the past  one hundred years there has grown up in the English-speaking  provinces a settled dislike for, and hostility to, the French language, and a similar spirit in Quebec of hostility to the English.  In British Columbia, French is not even mentioned in the 96        ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  common schools. Among the hundreds of newspapers and periodicals taken in the large public libraries in the coast cities, there is  not one in the French language, and scarcely a book to be had. No  French word or phrase ever appears in the newspapers and it is  barred from the Legislature.  The blackout is just about complete.  It is time we had a new deal in Canada. It is time we recognized the fact that our failure to respect the constitution has  brought us to the brink of national shipwreck.. We cannot go on  as we are. We must accept the constitution or go to pieces. And  in the new departure why should British Columbia not take the  lead. We have never been backward in the past in introducing new  legislation to meet our changing needs. For reasons easy to understand, in the past the four western provinces have been very  much influenced by the trend of political thought in Ontario, which  is the most important province. But it is not necessary for us to  follow that province too blindly. We know there is something,  sometimes vaguely referred to as "the Ontario mind", something  very self-centred and very sure of itself and very narrow and  limited, and not at all admirable. It is not necessary that the four  western provinces should stand idly by and let the old silly quarrel  between protestant Ontario and catholic Quebec wreck the nation.  The treachery of the provinces in betraying the trust placed in  their keeping by the B. N. A. Act has built a stone wall across  the road Canada must follow if she is to achieve her manifest destiny, if she is to become what she should be, one of the greatest  and most enlightened nations of the world. To remove that obstacle  and get rid of it once and for all, should be the objective and aim  of every Canadian. No Canadian can discharge his duty as fully  and completely as he should towards his native land without some  knowledge of both of its official languages. All native born Canadians should strive to acquire as much of the two languages as he  can, and to insist that French shall be introduced into the common  schools in the English-speaking provinces and English into the  common schools of Quebec.  Because our Provincial Governments SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 97  have been at fault in the past is no reason why present conditions  should be allowed to continue. Our legislation may be out of  date and our Legislators slow and unenterprising, but that is no  reason why the rising generation, the children of today, should  not be given a fair chance in life. They are as capable of learning  two languages as the Indian children. With the introduction of  the second language in the schools, it would soon find its way into  .the home, and we should soon become a bi-lingual people. We  would then no longer be a house divided against itself.  The future of a country is not determined by the natural advantages its people enjoy, but by the interest of the individual in  its government, and the probity and integrity with which he discharges his duties as a citizen. It is the duty of every true Canadian to strive to prove that we have not degenerated since 1870,  and that we are still capable of rising equal to our opportunities.  We should strive for unity. If we were united nationally, there  are almost no heights to which we might not aspire. We have everything necessary, and a splendid oportunity to become one of the  greatest and most enlightened nations in the world. Eighty per  cent, of our people are of the best racial stocks in the world, and  we have no large block of unassimilables in our midst as they  have in the United States. We have the third largest country in  the world, Russia and China (6) only being larger, a fertile soil,  capable of sustaining many millions, and a range of natural resources so wide and varied that we can be, industrially, a self contained nation. We have everything but the two things most necessary, namely, unity and a national spirit.  L. NORRIS  (1) Memories Wise and Otherwise—by Sir Henry Robinson, Commissioner of the Local Government Board in Ireland at the time of the  Sinn Fein Distrubances—p. 322.  (2) Canada Looks Abroad—by R. A. MacKay, and E. B. Rogers,  p. VII, 98 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  (3) Canada; America's Problem—by John MacCormac, p. 166.  (4) Lord Durham's Report on the affairs of British North America,  London, 1839, p. 25:— "The difference of language produces misconceptions  yet more fatal even than those which it occasions with respect to opinions.  It aggravates the national animosities by representing all the events of the  day in utterly different lights. The political misrepresentation of facts is  one of the incidents of a free press in every free country, but in nations in  which all speak the same language, those who receive a misrepresentation  from one side have generally some means of learning the truth from the other.  In Lower Canada where the French and English papers represent adverse  opinions and where no large portion of the community can read both languages with ease, those who receive misrepresentations are rarely able to  avail themselves of the means of correction. It is difficult to perceive the  perseverity with which misrepresentations are habitually made and the gross  delusions which find currency among the people; they thus live in a world  of misconceptions in which each party is set against the other not only by  diversity of feelings and opinions, but by an actual belief in an utterly  different set of facts".  (5) Goldwin Smith in Canada and the Canadian Question—p. 216.  (6) Canada; America's Problem by John MacCormac—p. 215. SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 99  The Capital of British Columbia  It was on the 10th March, 1850, that Richard Blanshard  reached Victoria, and on the following day, he landed and read  his commission as Governor of the Crown Colony of Vancouver  Island. This was the first time any one representing the British  Crown landed on the Pacific Coast. Some claim that this is British Columbia's natal day and it is usually observed as such, in some  way, by the people of Victoria.  On the 2nd August, 1858, an Act was passed by the Imperial  Government creating the Crown Colony of British Columbia, and  the Act came into force on the reading of the proclamation at Fort  Langley on the 19th November of the same year, when James  Douglas was sworn in as Governor and Matthew B. Begbie as  Chief Justice. The Act further provided that the colony of Vancouver might become incorporated with British Columbia on a  motion of the two Houses, approved by the Queen. For eight  years, from 1858 to 1866, there were two colonies, each with its  own Governor, and eventually, its own Legislative Council. F. W.  Howay in his History of British of Columbia (1914) refers to the  19th November, 1858, as "the natal day of British Columbia".  The Imperial Government apparently for reasons of its own  passed an Act uniting the two colonies. The Act was brought into  force by the reading of the proclamation by the Sheriff at Victoria  on the 19th November, 1866, and by the Sheriff at New Westminster on the same day. The provision contained in the Act  which created the crown colony, whereby Vancouver Island might  be incorporated with British Columbia by a resolution of the two  Legislative Councils, was not resorted to, and probably it never  would have been for the reason that the mainland was strongly  opposed to the union.  At the time of the union, Frederick Seymour was Governor of  British Columbia and Arthur E. Kennedy was Governor of Van- 100       ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  couver Island. Governor Seymour remained as Governor of the  united colonies of British Columbia, with New Westminster as the  capital, and the tariff of British Columbia was extended to Vancouver Island, while Kennedy returned to England.  Shortly after the union was consummated an agitation was  started to have the capital moved to Victoria. Finally on the 2nd  April, 1868, on the motion of G. A. Walkem, who represented  Cariboo at the time and was later premier of the Province, the  Legislative Council at New Westminster decided by a vote, 13 to  8, to ask for the change.  Governor Seymour was a weak man. Before the union he had  been able to get along with his Legislative Council without friction,  but after the union the relations betwen the two were not always  harmonious. It was against his own personal judgment that he  made the recommendation to the Home Government. He probably  felt that it would be hopeless to try to work in harmony with his  Legislative Council if he opposed their wishes and refused to recommend the change. He concluded his dispatch to the Secretary of  State for the Colonies with the following remark:— "I well know  that I have secured but temporary tranquility. In my own heart  I must allow there was a feeling in favour of the manly, respectable, loyal and enterprising community on the banks of the  Fraser".  In a previous letter to the Secretary of State, dated 18th  December, 1867, he had also expressed his opinion on the same  subject:— "As regards the practical question connected with the  seat of Government for British Columbia, I would observe that  I never saw a community more politically excitable and tempest-  torn than that of Victoria. Your Grace's predecessor will have  had too great knowledge of the mode in which matters were conducted under the legislative constitution of Vancouver Island.  Under that at present existing they are quieter, but I do not  think that the Council would be as much able to do their duty to  the community at large while sitting in the feverish political atmos- SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 101  phere of Victoria as if deliberating in the less troubled town of  New Westminster".  It was rather unfair to the people of New Westminster. The  people of Vancouver Island insisted on the union which the people  of the mainland did not want, and having secured the union, they  might very well have left the capital where it was. The proclamation naming Victoria the capital was read at New Westminster on  the 25th May, 1868. F. W. Howay in commenting on the situation  says:— "The inhabitants of New Westminster felt deeply aggrieved by this decision. They had invested in the town on the  strength of its selection as the capital. For Imperial reasons and  against the expressed wish of the mainland, the union had been  forced upon them and now, as a result, the capital had been removed at a time of great financial stringency. They were simply  ruined without compensation. A feeling of unfair treatment, of  deliberate injustice long remained". (1)  In Europe, where all parts of a country were more or less  inhabited at the time the capital was located, its location is near  the centre as witness the location of London, Moscow, Paris,  Berlin, Vienna and other capitals. Sir E. B. Lytton, the Secretary  of State, in a letter to Sir James Douglas, suggested that it might  be found better to have the capital nearer to he centre of British  Columbia than New Westminster, and suggested in this connection  the Fountain, a place some sixty miles north and east of Lytton.  But instead of conforming to the rule of having the capital  centrally located, British Columbia's capital, by the change, was  moved to the south-west, and as far away in that direction as it  could possibly get from the geographical centre of the colony. It  is in the Pacific ocean, on the extreme south-west tip of Vancouver Island, and far to the south of the forty-ninth parallel, and it  cannot be reached by rail or automobile.  The capital having been removed to Victoria, the next step  taken was to guard against its possible removal again. They had  the votes in 1895 as they had in 1868, and in that year an Act 102       ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  was passed authorizing the expenditure of $600,000.00 in erecting new parliament buildings. In those days this was a very large  sum when compared with the yearly revenues and expenditures  of the Province, nor were the new buildings particularly needed at  the time, but it was generally conceded at the time that this was  done to "anchor the capital at Victoria".  "The buildings were completed in 1897, and were formally  opened by the session of the Legistlature in 1898. The total cost  was given on 24th February, 1898, as; Land, $56,206.00; Buildings,  $822,111.00; Furniture, $35,343.00; retaining wall, cost of removing old buildings and levelling ground, $21,368.00; additional  work, $46,331.00; total, $981,359.00". (2)  When the character of the building is taken into account, the  cost, less than a million, does not seem excessive. It is probably  the most beautiful public building in Canada. There is something  about it, so spacious, graceful and harmonious, so well balanced  and complete that it is a joy to behold. Serenity seems to be the  key note of the design. It is regrettable that the trees around it  are not removed so as to allow the whole facade to be taken in at  a glance from the water front. To build a beautiful building and  then hide it behind trees is always a mistake, and they have done  this in Victoria. Trees can be grown anywhere. The people of  British Columbia got good value for their money. WThen the capital  is moved to the mainland, the people could do no better than have  it duplicated.  The census for 1941 gives the poulation of British Columbia  as 817,861, hence it follows that just about half of the population  live within fifty miles of the former capital, New Westminster.  The tendency in modern times in administering the affairs of a  country, is to centralize. The business of the country is more and  more managed directly from the capital. With the passing years  the expense and inconvenience of having the capital at Victoria  will be more sensibly felt and in the end the change will be made.  The only means of reaching the capital now, from the mainland, is by steamer twice a day, a freight and passenger boat usually SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 103  loaded down to the gunwales and steaming at about fifteen miles  an hour. It takes more than five hours to make the eighty miles  between Vancouver and Victoria. In other words a resident of  Vancouver to visit the capital, has to make a sea voyage of over  ten hours on a boat usually over-crowded and over-heated with  the weather at times so rough that the passengers are sea sick, with  no adequate provision made for such a contingency.  If present conditions were improved by putting on larger and  faster boats, there would still remain the break between travel by  land and by sea. When a resident in the interior wishes to visit  the capital, he drives to Vancouver and when he arrives there he  has to store his car, then wait for the departure of the boat, once  in the forenoon and again at midnight. He then has to find his  way to the ticket office and after traversing those long corridors  carrying his hand baggage, he finally reaches the steamer, and after  it gets started, he finds himself faced with five hours of inaction  and discomfort. If he could complete the journey by auto, the extra  eighty miles would be a trifling matter, he could do them in an  hour and fifteen or twenty minutes without leaving his seat. Conditions are such that it is imperative that the capial should be  brought back to the mainland.  Assuming that the number of people in and around Victoria  who would have to travel by sea to the mainland, if the capital  was moved, is about fifty or sixty thousand, it follows that the  proportion of the poulation who would be benefited by the change  compared to those who would be inconvenienced thereby, would be  as ten to one. It would be unfair to the people of Victoria to take  it for granted that they would seriously object to the change, if  the existing conditions were fairly placed before them. The change  will make no difference to the people of the northern portion of  Vancouver Island.  The newspapers of Vancouver report that the new C. N. R.  Hotel cost the Dominion Government over five millions, for the  building and furniture. At the time it was built there were the  Hotel Vancouver (C. P. R.), the Grosvenor, the Georgia and other 104      ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  first class hotels, and the new building was no more wanted than  a fifth wheel on a waggon. If the Dominion Government could  afford five millions for an unnecessary building, the Provincial  Government should be able to afford one million for the new  parliament buildings.  The war has taught us how necessary it is that in times of  peace we should prepare for the defence of our own coasts. It  is very necessary that a military college, a centre for the training  of men for the three arms of the service, the Navy, the Army,  and the Air, should be established and maintained on the Pacific coast. Victoria would be an ideal place for it. When the  capital was taken away from New Westminster, it just about  ruined the people there, but if the present parliament buildings  were converted into a military college, the people of Victoria would  probably benefit financially thereby.  L. NORRIS  (1) British Columbia—byF. W. Howay and E. O. S. Scholefield, p. 250  (2) Ibid, p. 491. SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 105  Ross Cox on the "Oakinagan"  "Adventures on the Columbia, including the narrative of a  residence of six years on the western side of the Rocky Mountains,  among the various tribes of Indians hitherto unknown: together  witha journey across the American continent".  The above is a title of two volumes by Ross Cox, which were  published by Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley, New Burlington  Street, London, in 1831.  It is unfortunate that this very readable book is out of print.  The following extracts from this work will have particular interest  for Okanagan readers, since Ross Cox gives an account of adventures which were encountered by the furtraders in the early  days of Fort Okanagan.  Trader McGillivray's Letter describes Oakinagan of February,  1814. (Cox's book contains this letter from the man in charge of  Fort Okanagan)  "This is a horribly dull place. Here I have been since you parted from us, perfectly solus. My men are half Canadians and half  Sandwich Islanders. The library is wretched, and no chance of my  own books till next year, when the Athabasca men cross the mountains. If you, or my friends at Spokane, do not send me a few volumes, I shall absolutely die of ennui. The Indians here are in-  contestably the most indolent rascals I have ever met; and I assure  you it requires no small degree of authority, with the few men I  have, to keep them in order. Montignier left me on the 23rd of  December to proceed to Mr. McDonald at Kamloops. On his way  he was attacked by the Indians at Oakinagan Lake, and robbed  of a number of his horses. The natives in that quarter seem to  entertain no great friendship for us, as this is not their first attempt 106      ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  to trespass on our good-nature. My two Canadians were out hunting at the period of the robbery, and the whole of my household  troops merely consisted of Bonaparte, Washington, and Caesar!  (The individuals bearing these formidable names were merely  three unsophisticated natives of the Sandwich Islands). Great  names, you will say, but I must confess, that much as I think of  the two great moderns, and highly as I respect the memory of  the immortal Julius, among these thieving scoundrels 'a rose by any  other name, thou would smell as sweet! The snow is between  two and three feet deep, and my trio of Owhyee generals find a  sensible difference between such hyperborean weather and the pleasing sunshine of their own tropical paradise. Poor fellows! They  are not adapted for these latitudes, and I heartily wish they were  at home in their own sweet islands, and sporting in the 'blue summer ocean' that surrounds them.  I have not yet made a pack of beaver. The lazy Indians won't  work; and as for the emperor, president, and dictator, they know  as much about trapping as the monks of La Trappe. I have hitherto principally subsisted on horseflesh. I cannot say it agrees with  me, for it nearly produced a dysentry. I have had plenty of pork,  rice, arrow-root, flour, taro-root, tea, and coffee; no sugar. With  such a variety of bonnes choses you will say I ought not to complain ; but want of society has destroyed my relish for luxuries, and  the only articles I taste about par are souchong and molasses. What  a contrast between the manner I spent last year and this ! In the first  with all the pride of a newly-created subaltern, occasionally fighting  the Yankee, 'a lad mode du pays'; and anon sporting my silver  wings before some admiring paysanne along the frontiers. Then  what a glorious winter in Montreal, with captured Jonathans, triumphant Britons, astonished Indians, gaping habitants, agitated  beauties; balls, routs, dinners, suppers, parades, drum beating,  colours flying, with all the other pride, pomp, and circumstance of  glorious war! And here I am, with a shivering guard of poor  islanders, buried in snow, sipping molasses, smoking tobacco, and  masticating horse-flesh! But I am sick of the contrast/' SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 107  The Rebuilding of Fort Okanagan, described by Ross Cox.  1816. On the 16th of April, we took our departure for the  interior. Our party consisted of sixty-eight men, including officers.  Few Indians were on the banks of the river, and they conducted  themselves peaceably. We arrived at Oakinagan on the 30th, from  whence Mr. John George M'Tavish, accompanied by Messrs. La  Rocque, Henry and a party of Canadians, set off for the purpose  of proceeding across the mountains to Fort William, the great  central depot of the interior on the east side.  Mr. Ross, who had been for the last two years in charge of  Oakinagan, was, by a new arrangement, detained this year at Fort  George as one of the staff clerks, and I was elected a commandant  of the former place .... A sufficient number of men were  left with me for all purposes of hunting, trading, and defence; but,  for the first time since I entered the country, I found myself without a colleague or a companion.  I had a long summer,before me; it is the most idle season of  the year; and it was intended to rebuild and fortify Oakinagan  during the vacation, I lost no time in setting my men to work.  The immediate vicinity is poorly furnished with timber, and  our wood cutters were obliged to proceed up the river in search  of that necessary article, which was floated down in rafts. We  also derived considerable assistance from the immense quantities  of drift wood which were intercepted in its descent from the  Columbia by the great bend which that river takes above Oakinagan. "Many hands make light work"; and our men used such  despatch, that before the month of September we had erected a new  dwelling house for the person in charge, containing four excellent  rooms and a large dining hall, two good houses for the men, and  a spacious store for the furs and merchandise, to which was attached a shop for trading with the natives. The whole was surrounded by strong palisades fifteen feet high and flanked by two  bastions. Each bastion had, in its lower story, a light brass four-  pounder, and in the upper, loop holes were left for the use of  musketry." 108       ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  Life of Early Okanagan Fur Traders.  "Our living consisted of salmon, horse, wild fowl, grouse, and  small deer, with tea and coffee; but without the usual adjuncts  of milk, bread, or butter. However, we looked upon these articles  as excellent fare, and in point of living therefore, had no cause of  complaint throughout the summer   Owing to the intense heat the men were obliged to leave off  work every day at eleven, and did not resume until between two  and three in the afternoon, by which period the burning influence  of the sun began to decline.  The mosquitoes seldom annoyed us at mid-day; but when we  wished to enjoy the refreshing coolness of a morning or evening's  walk, they fastened on us with their infernal stings  ....  The annoyance during meals was worse. We were obliged  to have an iron post at each end of the table, filled with saw-dust  or rotten wood, which substance, when ignited, produced a quantity  of thick smoke. It effectually drove them away, but it was a desperate remedy   The horses suffered severely from these insects and the  horse flies   The point of land upon which the fort is built is formed by  the junction of the Oakinagan River with the Columbia. The  rattlesnakes were very numerous about the place where the men  were cutting timber. I have seen some of our Canadians eat them  repeatedly."  Ross Cox experiences lonely winter in Oakinagan, 1816-1817.  "I passed five weary months at Oakinagan without a friend to  converse with, and the severity of the season debarred me from  the exercise of field sports, which during the summer partially  relieved the unsocial tedium of my existence. Tea and tobacco  were my only luxuries; and my pipe was my pot companion. Dried SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 109  salmon was our principle article of food, with a bit of lean deer,  with which the natives occasionally supplied us like angels' visits  few and far between.  Our horses were too few and too poor for the kettle; and  scarcely a week elapsed that one did not fall a victim to the  villianous wolves, which infested the snow-covered plains   ....  Toward the latter end of March, 1817, the other wintering  parties joined us at Oakinagan, from whence we all proceeded to  Fort George, which we reached on the 3rd of April."  (Cox relates that during this winter the sinapoils Indians  stole ten of their horses and that the Okanagan chief gave him men  to pursue the thieves and recover their horses. When Cox found  that hunger was the motive of the robbery, he did not have the  wrong doers punished.) (Unlike McGillivray, the author has a  word of praise for Okanagan Indians).  Climate and Situation of Okanagan Praised by Furtrader.  "The climate of Oakinagan is highly salubrious. We have for  weeks together observed the blue expanse of heaven, unobscured  by a single cloud. Rain, too, is very uncommon; but heavy dews  fall during the night. Several dreadful whirlwinds ocurred during  the summer  ....  The situation of Oakinagan is admirably adapted for a trading town. With a fertile soil, a healthy climate, horses in abundance  for land carriage, an opening to the sea by the Columbia, and a  communication to the interior by it and the Oakinagan, the rivers  well stocked with fish; the natives quiet and friendly; it will in  my opinion be selected as a spot pre-eminently calculated for the  site of a town when civilization (which is at present so rapidly  migrating towards the westward) crosses the Rocky Mountains  and the reaches of the Columbia.  The natives of Oakinagan are an honest, quiet tribe. They  do not muster more than two hundred warriors; but as they were 110       ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  friendly with neighboring tribes they were not interested in the  arts of war."  The above paper containing excerpts from Ross Cox's book  was prepared by me and I wish to acknowledge the courtesy of  the Dominion Government Librarian and of the Honorable Grote  Stirling in making this rare book available to me while on a visit  to Ottawa, for the purpose of providing members of the Okanagan  Historical  Society with the above historical data.  FRANK HASKINS SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945  111  J*  Camel in the Okanagan. 112      ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  Notes and Comments  The verses, which have appeared from time to time in our  Reports, have been collected and published in pamphlet form  under the title "Songs of the Okanagan". The poetry may not be  up to much, but they are a local product and constitute an addition  to the literature relating to the Okanagan Valley. Price: four for  one dollar or single copy, thirty-five cents.  During the past year we have lost by death no less than sixteen of our members, viz, Oliver Bonneville, Max H. Ruhman,  Leslie Y. Birnie, R. L. Learmouth, Ancil Roy Hillier, Judge F.  W. Howay, N. D. McTavish, S. M. Gore, Donald Graham, Col.  M. V. Allen, Mrs. E. J. Swalwell, Dr. R. E. McKechnie, David  Lloyd-Jones, H. M. Walker, Thomas N. Hayes, and James R.  Kinghorn.  The Provincial Archives in Victoria took five copies of each  of our first six Reports and these copies should now be on the  shelves in the Archives, but four each of the first five and one of  the sixth, making twenty-one copies in all are now missing. These  twenty-one copies cost the Government $22.00, and we would, now  that copies of our early Reports are becoming so scarce, gladly pay  the Government $32.00 for them if we could get them back. A  competent person should be put in charge and such needless waste  of Government property eliminated.  On another page is the picture of a camel. This is the only  camel that ever came into the Okanagan Valley and is the one  that Alexander, a brother of Chillihitse, the Indian Chief at Nicola, SOCIETY OF VERNON, BRITISH COLUMBIA—1945 113  got in trade for a mule. He brought it to the Indian Reserve at  the Head of Okanagan Lake, and for a while it was at Round  Lake, and later he took it to Nicola, where it had to be shot. The  last one that came into British Columbia was killed in 1896, as  related by W. T. Hayhurst on page 244 of our Sixth Report. It  was unfortunate that one of these camels was not mounted and  placed on exhibition in the Provincial Museum in Victoria.  Copies of our early Reports are becoming scarce. As far as  is known there are now only twenty-three complete sets in existence, including the two belonging to this Society. The owners of  complete sets are:— Frank Boyne, G. C. Tassie, Mrs. L, E. Tripp,  A. E. Berry, and S. P. Seymour, Vernon; H. C. S. Collett, J. D.  Whitham, W. R. Powley, and J. C. West, Kelowna; J. B. Munro  and W. F. Kennedy, Victoria; Otto Esterbrook, Penticton; Rev.  John C. Goodfellow, Princeton; Graham Rosoman, Enderby; The  Public Library and the University, Vancouver; The Dominion  Archives and the Library of Parliament, Ottawa; University of  Washington, Seattle; University of California, Berkley; Stanford  University, Palo Alta, Cal.; McGill University, Montreal, and  Toronto University, Toronto. It would be interesting to know if  there are others and who owns them. The Provincial Archives at  this date should have five complete sets, but instead of five they  have none. 114       ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL  Renaissance  A thousand dusks fell softly to their rest,  The light of myriad dawns crept up the sky  Before these rugged pines in silence dressed.  Rough arms of welcome to the passerby.  An ancient monarch crumbles here to dust,  His giant roots upraised to seek the air.  An aged druid, gnarled hands upthrust  In ceremonial rites of wordless prayer.  Time, on his loom of passing years, has plied  His subtil art to spread a carpet here;  Till scattering threads in pattern free and wide,  He bade this grassy tapestry appear.  Today, impearled with silence of the past,  Awaits in hush the days that are to be;  And breathlessly the heedless hours slip fast,  And melt like rain drops falling out at sea.  The mystic harmony has healed my heart;  I must be gone for there is much to do.  The sapling knows his day and plays his part,  Each has his own—and mine is waiting me.  GRACE HEWLETT    KELOWNA   PRINTING  COMPANY

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