Okanagan Historical Society Reports

The seventh report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society Apr 25, 1937

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 R. N. (Reg) Atkinson Museunr  785 MAIN STREET  mi  i=3  L.I11M  THE  SEVENTH   RET7)RT  of the  Okanagan Historical Society  Vernon, B* C  1 937  Price   $ 1*00  {Founded 1925) r fO  1-  PENTICTON MUSEUM 8s ARCHIVES  PENTICTON,  B.C.  TO  THE   NAITAKA,  OR   OGOPOGO,  IN OKANAGAN LAKE  Sara Jean McKay  Last of a race primeval, while men are sleeping,  Do you not laugh that they would tame you to their wills;  You who hold through all years in your royal keeping  The strange elusive secrets of the silent hills?  Weird monarch, safe in your domain, should your laughter  Shake the hill silence with echos as of thunder,  We sh.dl know you laugh because the years hereafter  Will but keep your kingdom safer still from plunder.  Lord of crystal clean and sanded halls of lake blue;  When potlatch fires burned and the Redman's songs were sung,  Know you, fools even then did not believe in you;  You who were old in wisdom when the hills were young.  Let scientists map the stars, and proudly swagger,  And hoast of their achievements and of knowledge wide;  They will never find the proper kind of dagger  To probe your secret — or to pierce your armoured hide. ON THE WEST KETTLE RIVER ROAD  George E. Winkler  This is the old log stopping place  Where Gorman W est held sway;  Abandoned now, and gone to waste  Since Gorman passed away.  And here the ancient dining room,  Where hungry men were fed;  And in this bar they looked upon  The wine when it was red.  And heard the man who sat apart,  And sang familiar lays;  The old, old songs that touched the heart,  Recalling bygone days.  And when the singer's song was done,  All took up the refrain,  And in full-throated unison  They roared it out again.  And Father Pat within this room,  With Irish wit enticed,  Many a mining man to come  And hear the words of Christ.  The peaceful flowing river winds  The stately spruces through;  And few remain of olden times  That Gorman's hostel knew  A motor road new interests vest,  And strangers go their ways;  But Father Pat and Gorman West  Belong to other days. THE SEVENTH REPORT  of the  Okanagan Historical Society  of  Vernon,   British Columbia  President  Leonard Norris  Editor  J.   C.   Agnew,   C. E.  Auditor  G.    G.    Tassie,  C. E.  Vice-President  F. M.  Buckland  Assistant Editor  H. M. Walker  Secretary-Treasurer  Max H. Ruhman  Directors  Rev. John Goodfellow, W. T. Hayhurst, F. H. Barnes, Frederick  J. Murray, A. E. Sage, Joseph Child, Mrs. Angus Wood, A. E. Berry,  M. P. Williams, James Goldie, Grant Lang, T. Finley McWilliams,  D. Lloyd-Jones, L. L. Kerry, Joseph B. Weeks, Burt R. Campbell,  Dr. F. W. Andrew,   T. G. Norris  Founded 4th September, 1925.  April 25th, 1937 Vernon, B.C. _. List of Members  Allen, M. V. Nelson  Bagnall, Guy P.    -  Bailey, E. R.    -  Ball,  F. J.  C.    -  Baldwin, C. W. A  Baldwin, Dr. S. G.  Barrett, Harry   -  Barraclough, W.  Barton, C. W.    -    -  Barnes,   Stanley  Barnes, F. H.    -    -  Bartholomew, H. G  Barrat, G. A.    -    -  Beddome, J. R.    -  Beech, Dr. A.  - -   -   Vernon  - -    Kelowna  - -    Vancouver  - -    Kefwona  - -   -   Vernon  Port Dover, Ont.  - -    Nanaimo  - -    -    Kelowna  Vernon  - -    Enderby  -    Vernon  - Kelowna  • - Vernon  Salmon Arm  Bell, James    ------    Mara  Bloom, CD. Vernon  Blurton, H. J. - - - - Vernon  Bennett, Alex Jr. - - - Kelowna  Bowes, James - - - Salmon Arm  Boyce, Dr. B. F. - - - Kelowna  Boyce, Mrs. B. F. - - - Kelowna  Boyne, Frank - - - . Vernon  Brown, Geo. E. - - - Kelowna  Brown, Dr. H. Campbell - Vernon  Brown, George I). - - Kamloops  Brooks, Major Allen - Ok. Landing  Brooks, Mrs. Marjorie - Ok. Landing  Buckell, E. R. - - - Salmon Arm  Buckland, D. S. - - - Kelowna  Bulman, T. R. - - - - Vernon  Bullock-Webster, W. H. - Victoria  Burne, J. F.   -   -   -   -   -   Kelowna  Cameron, J. D.    -    ■  Cameron, J. D.    -    -  Campbell, Burt R.    -  Campbell,  John    -  Carpenter, James    -  Carruthers, E. M.   -  Casorso, Leo    -    -    •  Casorso, Joseph    -  Catchcart, H.    -    -  Caesar, N. H.   -   -   -  Chambers, E. J.   -   -  Chapman, David    -  Chapin, H. F.    -   -  Cheyne, Robert    -    ■  Clark, L. R.    -   -    -  Clemiston, T. J.   -   -  Clement, Edwin   -   -  Coleman,  James    -  Cooper, Frederick   -  Cools, Joseph   -   -   -  Corrington, Dr. C. W.  Cossitt, F. B.   -   -   -  Cosens, Arthur K. W.  Costerton,  John    -  Kelowna  - Penticton  - Kamloops  Vernon  - -    Vernon  - Kelowna  Kelowna  - Kelowna  - Victoria  - Ok. Centre  - -   Vernon  - Kelowna  - Kelowna  - Kelowna  - -   Vernon  Westholme  - Peachland  Vernon  - -   Vernon  Ok. Landine  - -   Vernon  - -   Vernon  - Vancouver  -    Vernon  Costerton, Martin    - - Revelstoke  Crozier,  Ivan    -    - - -    \ernon  Cunlilt'e, Major    -    - - -    Vernon  Curry, Miss  Lila    - - -    Vernon  Dalgliesh, R. L. - - - Kelowna  Davidson, John    -    -    -    Westbank  Deeks, W. H. Vernon  DeMara, Mrs. A. H. - - Kelowna  Denison, R. H.    -    -    -    -    Vernon  DeWiele, B. Vernon  Dewdney, E. Nelson  Dewdney, W. R. - - Penticton  Dilworth, Leslie - - - Kelowna  Dunsden, Harry - - Summerland  Duncan, Mrs. Margaret    -    Vernon  Edwards, James G. - - - Vernon  Ellis, Miss J. E.   -   -   -   -   London  Emory, W. Kelowna  Estabrooks, Otto, - - - Penticton  Evans, H. H. Vernon  Fallow, H. J. Vernon  Faulder, E. R. - - - Summerland  Fenton, Miss Annie - - Enderby  Fifer, A. J. - - - - Armstrong  Finlaison, Charles - Shuswap Falls  Fisher, E. Kamloops  Fitzmaurice, R. - - - - Vernon  Fleming, Archibald, - - - Vernon  Fleming, John C. - - Penticton  Fox, Harry S. - - - - Duncan  Fraser, J. A. - - - Prince Rupert  Fraser, Mrs. Elspeth - Kelowna  Fraser, Mrs. H. A. - - Armstrong  Fraser,  George    -    -    -    Osoyoos  Galbraith, Horace - - - Vernon  Gardom, Basil - - - Vancouver  Gellatly, Mrs. Dorothy - Westbank  Genn, Anthony - - - Victoria  Gibson, G. M. - - - - Ok. Centre  Gleed, J. A. - - - - Ok. Centre  Gore, S. M. - - - - - Kelowna  Gowan, Miss Mary - - Peachland  Graham, T. W.    -   -   -   -   Vernon  Gray, A. W. Rutland  Groves, Ernest - - - Armstrong  Gummow, Mrs. B. F.   -   Peachland  Haldane, W. H. M. -    -   Victoria  Hammond, H. J.    - -    -    Vernon  Hamilton, Mrs. S. H. -   -   Vernon  Hankey, G. A.    -    - -    -   Vernon  Hankey, Mrs. G. A. -    -    Vernon  Handcock. Claude S. - - Grindrod  Harris, W. S.   -   -   -   -   -   Vernon  Harwood, Joseph    - -   -   Vernon s  The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  Harvey, Dr. J. E. - - - Vernon  Harding, Henry - - - Armstrong  Hassen,  Matt    -    -    -    Armstrong  Haug, Roy Kelowna  Haverille, B. T. - - Ok. Mission  Hayhurst, W. T. - - - Armstrong  Hayhurst, Miss E. N. - Armstrong  Hayhurst, J. W. - - - Armstrong  Hayhurst, A. E. - - - Vernon  Hayman, Mrs. Gwen - Naramata  Hayes, Thomas N. - - - Larkin  Heighway, John - - - Lumby  Helmer. R. H. - - - - - Milner  Hembling, O. B. - - - - Oyama  Henderson, G. A. - - - Victoria  Herbert. Gordon - - - Kelowna  Hewitson, H. J.   -   -   -   -   Kelowna  Hill, T. P. Vernon  Holliday, C. W. - - - Armstrong  Hopping, Ralph   -   -   -   -   Vernon  Horn, J. Ok. Mission  Hunter John   -   -   -   -   Armstrong  Howe, A. T. Vernon  Howse, A. E. - - - - Princeton  Howay, Judge F. W., New Westm'ster  Hoy, Ben Kelowna  Jacques, George - - - - Vernon  Jamieson, J. E. - - - Armstrong  Johnson, Mrs. G. A. - - Duncan  Johnson, Cecil - - - - Vernon  Jones,  J.  W.    -    -    -    -    Victoria  Kennedy, W. F.   -   -  Kent, A. J.    -    -    -  Kennard, H. B.   -   -  Kerr, R. D.   -   -   -  Kerry, L. L.    -    -  King-Baker, S. J.    -  Knox, Dr. W. J.   -   -  Lamb, Dr. W. Kaye  Lang, Dr. Arthur H.  Fang, Grant    -   -   -  Lang,  Hamilton  Landon, G. L.   -   -  Fantz, L. A.    -    -    -  Larnie, John M. -  Larson. S. T.    -    -  Leathley, John   -   -  Lequime, Bernard   -  Leslie. Mrs. S.   -   -  Ley, R. W.    -   -   -  Lindsay, Gordon   -  Little, C. W.   -   -  Lloyd-Jones, David  Llovd-Jones, W.    -  Llovd, A. E.    -    -  Lloyd, W. E.   -   -  Llovd, Miss M. H.  Logie, J. W. S.   -   -  Lysons, H. B. D.   -  - -   Victoria  - -    Vernon  - -   Vernon  Grand Forks  - -    Kelowna  - -   Enderby  - -   Kelowna  - -   Victoria  - Vancouver  - Peachland  Vernon  Grand Forks  - -   Vernon  Vancouver  - Greenwood  - -   Kelowna  - -   Kelowna  - Ok. Landing  - -   Vernon  - -   -   Vernon  - -   Vernon  - -   Kelowna  - -    Kelowna  -,    -    Rutland  'ñ†   -   Kamloops  - -    Oyama  -   -   Victoria  - Ok. Mission  Macdonald, Neil - - Ocean Falls  Macdonald, J. S. - - - Victoria  Macdonald, A. W. - - Vancouver  Marshall, G. - - - Ok. Centre  Martin, Mrs. Stuart - - Vernon  Matheson, Dr. R.   -   -   -   Kelowna  Megaw, Earle Vernon  Mitchell, Charles - - Armstrong  Monk, H. B. - - - - - Vernon  Morkill, George H.    -   -   -   Vernon  Morley, W. Vernon  Morrow, G. H. S. - - - Kelowna  Morrison, W. B. - - - Vancouver  Mwirden, S. H. - - - - Kelowna  Munro, Bert   -   -   -   -   Grand Forks  Munro, J. B. Victoria  Murray, Thomas   -    -   -    Kelowna  McAdam, W. A. - - - - London  McArthur, Miss Aena - Vancouver  McGusty, R. M. - - - - Vernon  McKelvie, Bruce A. - - Victoria  McKenzie, George - - Kelowna  McKenzie, W. D. - - - Vernon  McKay, Miss Sara Jean - Victoria  McNair, David    -    -    -    -    Vernon  Naoier, Col. R. Ross - - Victoria  Neil, Richard W. - - - Vernon  Norris, T. G. - - - - Victoria  Norris, Miss M. J. - Langley Prairie  Ootmar, Dr. G. A. - - Kelowna  Ormsby, Miss Margaret A. - Vernon  Owen, Walter   -   New Westminster  Palmer, R. C. - - - Summerland  Parkinson, R. F. - - - Kelowna  Paterson, D. C. - - - Kelowna  Patterson, Miss L. - - Kelowna  Percy, James - - - - Vernon  Poole, Mrs. F. E. - - Armstrong  Pope, C. A. - - - - - Victoria  Pout, Harry ----- Vernon  Pound, W. C. - - - - - Vernon  Powers, David    -    -    -    Kamloops  Powley, K. Kelowna  Pringle, J. F. - - - - Calgary  Prowse, E. W.    -    -   -    -    Vernon  Rattenbury, D. H. - - - Kelowna  Reekie, John E. - - - Kelowna  Reid, Charles - - - - Vernon  Richards, Leonard - - Kelowna  Robison, Delbert J. - - Vernon  Robertson, W. H. - - - Vernon  Robertson, Thomas - - - Vernon  Roberts, John R. - - - - Vernon  Roberts, 0. P.    -    -    -    -    Vernon  Rogers, A. Vernon  Rolston, W. J. - - - - Vernon  Rose, George C.   -   -   -   -   Kelowna  Ross, G. M. -   Field  Rosoman, Graham   -   -   - Enderbv Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937  Sauder, I. V. Vernon  Schubert, James A. - - Tulameen  Schubert, Augustus - Armstrong  Seaton, Miss Bessie - - - Vernon  Seymour, S. P. - - - - Vernon  Shatford, S. A. - - - - Vernon  Shatford, W. T. - - Moravia, Cal.  Shields, William - - - - Lumby  Sigalet, Andrew - - - Mabel Lake  Simms, James - - - - Vernon  Simmons, John - - - - Vernon  Skelton, J. W. - - - - Enderby  Smith, Alexander - - - Vernon  Smith. W. J. - - - Armstrong  Stephen, J. F. - - - - Ovama  Stirling. Hon. Grote - - Kelowna  Stubbs. R. H. - - - Ok. Mission  Spurrier, J. P. - - - - Kelowna  Swanson, Mrs. H.    -    -    Armstrong  Taite, H. B. Vernon  Thorn, A. Vernon  Thompson, J. H. - - - Kelowna  Thompson, W. H. - - Ok. Centre  Thornloe, F. - - - - Kelowna  Toombs, A. E. - - - - Vernon  Trench, W. R. - - - Kelowna  Tripp, L. E. Vernon  Walsh, Anthonv    -  Warner, Miss Alice  Warner, Fred  Weatherill. H. 0.  Weddell, E. C.   -  Weddell, A. D.   -   •  Wentworth, Miss    ■  West, J.    -   -  '-   -  Weidart, Miss E. M.  •    -    Oliver  - Vernon  - Lumby  - Vernon  - Kelowna  - Kelowna  Ok. Centre  - Vernon  Penticton  White, Dr. R. B.   -  White. Ronald E.    -  White, John    -    -    -  Whvte, Bryson McK.  Whitehead, G.    -    -  Whitham, J. D.    -  Wiglesworth, J.   -   -  Wilson.  J.  Williams, Hugh    -  Williamson, Mrs. Gla  Willis, H. A.    -      -  Wills,  F.  J.    -    -  Wilcox, J. C.    -   -  Wilde,  A.  E.    -    -  Winkler, George E.  Witt, Walter O.    -  Wood, Jack    -    -    -  Wollaston, F. E. R.  Young, Vance - -  Young, Arthur - -  Young, Frank   -   -   -  dys  Penticton  Kamloops  - Vernon  - Vernon  Vernon  Kelowna  Armstrong  Armstrong  Penticton  - Vernon  Kelowna  Kelowna  Summerland  Vernon  -    Victoria  -    Kelowna  - Vernon  -   -   Vernon  Armstrong  Armstrong  Armstrong  Universities: Oregon, Washington, British Columbia.  Public Libraries: Calvary, Vancouver, Victoria, New York City,  and Spokane, Wash.  Schools: Kelowna, 5; Vernon, 5;  Penticton, 4: Summerland, 3: Lumby, 2; Armstrong, 2; and Cherry-  viPe, Shuswap Falls. Creighton  Valley, Mabel Lake, Hilton, Trinity  Vfillev, Oliver, Mara, Peachland.  Coldstream, Winfield. Rutland.  Keremeos, Enderby, Oyama and  Okanagan Centre, one each. 10  The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  Princeton Place Names  Rev. John C. Goodfellow  A Paper read before the SimilKameen   Historical   Association,  July 26th, 1936.  There are few studies more tion they give is delightfully vague,  delightful, or more profitable, than For the rest we have a choice of  Ihe place names of our Province, j Yellowa earth, Waters' meet, Swift  In this paper I propose to confine I water, Muddy water, etc.  myself to the place names of j One thing is certain—the affinity  Princeton. The wealth of history j between Similkameen and Tula-  locked up in such names is a meen suggested by the common  worthy reward of patient research. I ending is quite misleading. There  There   are  seven   names  of  par-1 is  no such  affinity in the original  licular interest to all who live in  Princeton. Two of these names are  of Indian origin. We turn to the  two Indian names first which, of  course, are Similkameen and Tulameen.  I. Similkameen. There is no  agreement as to the meaning of  Similkameen. We know it as the  name of our valley which, as old  Charley Squakin used to say, was  called after the river which flows  through it. It has many variations  in spelling and pronunciation, and  the meanings attached to it are  varied.  Moberly writes "Shemilkomean"  in his Rocks and Rivers of British  Columbia, (p. 34). In The Mission  Field—a monthly record of the  proceedings of the Society for the  propagation of the Gosoel at home  and abroad (London, 1870; Vol.XV,  p. 239)—we find the name spelled  as if it were two words:  "And what shall I say of poor  Ouonilquali, the blind chief of  Simil Kameen? He is one who regards himself in the light of Barti-  meus of old and, being led by the  hand, has come all the way from  Nicholas to follow^ Jesus . . . ."  Local Indians pronounce the last  syllable as in the Scotch word  "enough". In The Similkameen  Star for 23rd Nov., 1910, we find  the amusing variation "Jimhilka-  meen".  The meanings given for the word  are as varied as the spellings.  According to Teit and Father Le  Jeune it is a word descrintive either  of the people or of the land in  which they lived. We have no one  alive to-day so well qualified to  interpret the word, yet the defini-  words. The endings have been  forced into the same phonetic  groove by the white people of the  valley.  It is quite likely the Indians had  a definite name for the site we now  call Princeton. It was not Similkameen. More likely it was a word  signifying "the forks of the rivers".  In the early sixties the Tulameen  was also known as the North Similkameen. The north and south  branches took the name Similkameen.  II. Tulameen. There is no such  ambiguity about the word Tulameen. This sister-word looks pleasant to the eye and sounds musical  to the ear. White men to-day pronounce the word in a sharp, crisp,  business-like way, but only to those  who linger on the word—giving the  old Indian values to the long syllables—does it suggest anything of  the past glories of a passing (?)  race. Listen to the Redman echoing the syllables of the word, mark  the rise and fall, mark the cadence  of the voice, and one almost believes that the hills and valleys  have given something of their rise  and fall to the melodious pronunciation of the word. Moreover, Tulameen is the custodian of history  and art. She guards her secrets  jealouslv, and only the oatient  wooer can win the knowledge she  has to bestow. She is older than  we might expect, and her mind is  a veritable treasure house. Dame  rumor has so read many contradictory tales. We must proceed  cautiously.  Mrs. S. L. Allison was the second  white woman to visit our valley,  and the first to remain.    She came Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937  11  here in the sixties. I called to see  her one morning, and, in the course  of conversation, asked the meaning  of the Indian word Tulameen.  "Well," she said, "my husband came  here in 1858. He knew Douglas,  : n<! the Hudson's Bay people. He  learned from them — and they  should know. Tulameen means  'red earth'. The Indians used to  Let this at Sam Pierce's Bluff. With  llus red earth or red ochre, they  smeared their faces, and made pictures on the rocks. It was very  highly valued, and the Blackfoot  Indians and the Kootenays came  long ways here to trade for the  red earth. They traded blankets,  and beadwork, and other things for  this red paint. This place (th*» Allison home on Allison flat in 1887)  was then called Yak-Tulameen,  which simply means 'the place  where red earth was sold'. It was  the market place."  This answer suggested both history and art to my mind. I asked  what she meant by "our" Indians,  and learned that in early days (a  very elastic phrase) numbers of  Chileotins had come here. Presumably they had come to trade, but  remained to fight. War and Commerce often go hand in hand down  the long avenue of history. It was  a bitter fight. Many were killed but  the newcomers held their own.  They could not be dislodged. They  had come to stay. Arrowheads frequently plowed up confirm the tradition. One has only to close one's  eves, recall that Tulameen means  "red earth," "red paint", and the  imagination will do much to recreate the oast, when Might was  Right, and the Redman's word was  law—before the coming of the  white man.  We have learned this much about  the olace names of Princeton—that  the flat now known as Allison's flat  was known to the Indians as YnV.  Tul^meen, or "the place where red  earth was sold."  TIL Red Earth. We now come  to our English names. We need not  be surprised to learn that the earliest name we have been able to discover is Redearth, or Red Earth  Forks. This is simply an English  translation of the Indian word  Tulameen.    Sam Pierce's Bluff, re  ferred to by Mrs. Allison, is a large  outcropping of red ochre between  Princeton and Coalmont. We can  trace the name on early maps, and  in early literature.  I am indebted to Major G. G. Aitken for this first reference: "An  item of mapping interest is the map  'B.C. Vancouver Island, J. Arrow-  smith, 1859—Routes and Communications with Gold Reaches of  Fraser' chiefly compiled from  routes of A. C. Anderson and Mr.  McKay. Redearth appears in the  position of Princeton. Black mountain is shown 30 miles north-westward of Redearth. Blackey's camp  is shewn about 23 miles east of  Black mountain, and on a route  which is named 'Blackey's Portage  to Fort Hope'. Blackey's camp is  depicted about seven miles north of  'Encampment des Femmes'. The  outline is so sketchy to what we  know now that Blackey's portage  intersects a section of what may be  read to be Tulameen river." (Letter  19, 7, 1935).  Governor Douglas also mentions  Red Earth Forks in an early report  to the Colonial Secretary.  Another reference to this name  is to be found in a little book called  The Rocks and Rivers of British  Columbia. It was written by Walter Moberlv C.E., and printed in  London, England, in 1885. The  copy I possess was given me by  Denys Nelson, Who was particularly  interested in the place names Of  the Lower Fraser vallev. In chanter XIII (.pp. 33. ff.) Mr. Moberlv  tells us that in the spring of I860  he visited New Westminster and  "entered into a contract, in partnership with Edgar Dewdney, to  build a trail from Fort Hone on the  Fraser River to Shemilkomean River on the east side of the Cascade  Range of mountains, to reach the  gold diggings on the latter river,  where gold of a very fine duality  had been discovered." Meeting  with a severe accident he was laid  up for some *days in a miserable  swamp. His only companion was an  Indian boy. During the night a  panther tried to get into the house  where Moberly lav sick. When Mo-  berly's work on the trail was drawing to a close he went to "Shemil- 12  The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  komean to sell some surplus stores  lo tne miners there".  Moberly tells us that he started  "at the persuasion of a person who  had opened a nouse at the Red  Earth Forks of the Shemilkomean  and who had stayed a day or two  at one of my camps, ueparting in  great good humor as I had given  him a small keg of m^T oest H. B.  Company's rum. I reached the  mining camp and went to my  friend's house six miles further on,  where I made the acquaintance of  one of the first Gold Commissioners  of British Columbia. We passed a  pleasant evening, drank several  glasses of the rum I had given the  proprietor of the house and consumed some fresh eggs. On leaving in the morning I was at a loss  to know whether to offer to pay for  my night's entertainment or not, as  I was an invited guest. However,  I suggested in a delicate manner  that in such a country it was necessary to pay. My landlord, my supposed host, without hesitation produced a small slate with my bill  already made out: meals 2 dollars  50 cents each; drinks, 50 cents  each; the confounded eggs 1 dollar  apiece, and 75 cents per pound for  the barley for my horse. I paid the  bill and jumped on my horse vowing it would be some time before I  accepted another invitation or enjoyed the luxury of fresh eggs."  Apart from the story itself which  is worth retelling, there are three  points to notice in this question.  First, the mining camp. Later on  in our story we shall come back to  it. But there was a mining camp  six miles distant (in a westerly  direction) from the forks of the  river. The second point to note is  that Moberly tells us that his host  had opened a house at the Red  Earth Forks. This is definitely one  of the names for the site now  known as Princeton. Lastly, at the  Red Earth Forks Moberly made the  acquaintance of one of the first  Gold Commissioners of British Columbia. This was in the fall of  1860.  The Gold Commissioner referred  to was P. O'Reillv who was stationed at Hope in 1860. He was the  nearest Gold Commissioner to Sim  ilkameen. Under him were W. G.  Cox at Bock Creek and J. C. Haynes  as Revenue Collector, also staticned  at Rock Creek in 1860. We Know  tdai Mr. John Fall Allison was also  a Gold Commissioner, but his appointment as such did not take  place until 1885, the year Mr. Mo-  berly's book was published in England. We shall have occasion to refer again to the mining camp, six  miles west of Red Eart Forks. Meanwhile we turn to the fourth name.  IV. Allison. Before thinking of  Allison as a place name let us recall  briefly the story of the man whose  name has become a household word  in our valley.  John Fall Allison was born at  Leeds, England, in 1825. At that  lime his father was house surgeon  to the Leed's infirmary. The son's  education was begun at Leeds, but  in 1837, at the age of twelve, he  came to the United States, settling  in Illinois where his education was  continued. In 1849 he answered  the call of the West, and joined the  gold diggers in California. The  journey was made by Panama, and  Mr. Allison remained in California  until 1858. By this time the gold  excitement in California had died  down. The centre of attraction  was now British Columbia. Mr. Allison was 33 years old when, in  the language of today, he "followed the birds to Victoria". He arrived armed with introductions to  Governor Douglas by whom he was  sent to prospect the Similkameen  and Tulameen for gold. Meeting  with success he returned to Victoria, and the following year came  back to Similkameen. Here he continued to stay even when most of  the miners had been lured away by  the more promising discoveries in  Cariboo.  Governor Douglas employed him  to work out the shortest route  across the Hope mountains, and to  locate and construct what is now  known as the Allison trail. This  dore he entered into partnership  with an American named Hayes,  buying a band of Durham cattle and  settling down as a stock raiser. In  1867, the year of Confederation, he  was married to Miss S. L. Moir,  youngest daughter of Stratton Moir, Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937  13  Ceylon. In 1876 he was appointed  J. P., and in 1885 Gold Commissioner. In October 1897, he died in his  72nd   year.  This bare outline gives little idea  of how much Mr. Allison contributed to the life and development of  our valley, but it must serve as an  introduction to this section of our  study of the place names of Princeton.  The valley of the Similkameen is  a land of light and shade. There is  seldom fog in the valley, but the  winters are long and often severe.  Nature has a delightful wav of  striking a balance. Life is full of  compensations. Wherever winters  are severe hearts are warm. When  the struggle for existence is hard  the finer qualities of the human  heart seem to thrive. Friendshin  and courage often take firmest root  in stony soil.  The old timers in these parts  had an interesting way of marking  distances. Mr. Allison, as we have  noted, was one of the earliest settlers here. Now he sleeps with  others of his family at the base of  a little mountain, known locallv as  Castle Rock. In early days Allison  had often sat on the summit of this  height. Looking west he wrould see  the Similkameen and Tulameen  come together. In the forks of the  two rivers is the Princeton of to-  dav. Looking east the united  streams, under the name of Similkameen, wind their way between narrowing heights. It is a glorious  panorama this vnllev of the Similkameen. How truly the home of ttm  Alhson vallev became the centre of  this valley is evidenced by the fact  that even today distances are still  determined as from this first centre  of modern civilization in our valley. The creeks east of Princeton  are still called, One Mile, Five Mile.  Twenty Mile, because the nlace  where they joined the Similkameen  was that number of miles from the  original Allison home. And the  the roads following these creeks are  known respectively, as One Mile  road. Five Mile road.  There is no doubt that before the  present townsite of Princeton was  established Allison was used as a  place name just as much as Prince  ton. Thomas Ehvyn, Deputy Provincial Secretary, in the eighties,  was sent into Granite Creek to report on the gold discoveries. In the  Annual Report of the B.C. Department of Mines, 1886, o. 492, Mr. Elwyn writes: "This stream (Granite  Creek) is a tributary of the Tulameen or north fork of the Similkameen, and flows into that river on  its right bank, about 12 miles above  its junction with the south Similkameen at Princeton—perhaps better  known as the Vermillion Forks, or  still better as Allison's."  Thus it would seem that not only  was there a townsite east of us  known as Allison, but even the  present site of Princeton—the  Forks—was formerly definitely  known as Allison. When we come  to sum up the place names of today  and see how they keep in remembrance the pioneers of old, we shall  have more to say about Allison. For  the present, let us turn to the name  Vermilion Forks which in 1885,  was more familiar than Princeton,  and only less popular than Allison.  V. Vermil(l)ion. The questions  that naturally suggest themselves  regarding the word Vermilion are  bv whom, when, and why was the  place so named. Strictly speaking,  our study does not call for any digression into the origin of the word  itself, but this is so interesting that  a reference to it may ne appreciated. Tt is interesting to learn from  the Oxford Dictionary thnt the  word means "brilliant red", and  was originally given to a pigment  of that color. The old French  word, vermillion, was born of the  Latin, vermiolus, the diminutive of  vermis, which means a worm. The  particular little worm from which  the brilliant red pigment was derived was the kermes insect. The name  of this insect leads us still farther  afield. It. is derived from the Arabic and Persian word, duirmiz. The  insect referred to was the pregnant  female, which was formerly taken  for a berry. It fed on the kermes  oak, an ever-green oak of southern  Europe and northern Africa. From  the dried bodies of these insects  was made the dye. bright red in  color, which we call vermilion.  The word today is usually spelled 1.  The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  with one T. In Douglas's Diary for  1860, concerning his visit to this  part of the Interior, we find the  word spelled with two "l's". Both  spellings are given in the U. S.  Handbook of Indians (Vol. 2, p.  882). It has, however, become customary to use only one "1".  I have not been able to discover  by whom the name was first suggested. E. Waterman of Princeton, and  W. C. McDougall of Olalla, both  have recounted local legends accounting for the name.  According to E. Waterman credit  for the name is given to Dr. G. M.  Dawson. Looking up the Tulameen  one evening he saw the red bluffs  bathed in the light of the setting  sun, and the name Vermilion suggested itself to him.  But W. C. McDougall has always  understood that the name was suggested by the sun's reflection on  Old Red Too—the massive landmark behind Wolf Creek, which we  know today as Agate mountain. He  quoted Allison as his authority, but  agreed with E. Waterman's story so  far as Dawson was responsible for  the name. Anyone who has seen  the setting sun shining on Agate  mountain will have no difficulty in  believing it might have been responsible for the name Vermilion.  When we consider the matter in  the light of chronology Dawson is  definitely ruled out as the originator of this place name. Dawson's  earliest Reports are dated 1877-78.  Governor Douglas, in 1860. makes  frequent mention in his Diary, of  Vermillion or Vermillion Forks. In  the map made bv the Roval Engineers, dated 24th Nov. 1859. the  place is. marked. Vermillion Forks.  Maior G. G. Aitken has supplied a  transcript of the page titles of the  original "Survey of Princeton, etc."  The survey was made in October  1860, and Vermillion Forks is mentioned a number of times in the  field book of Sergeant W. MeColl.  In 1859 Lieut. H. Spencer Palmer.  R.E..- explored as far east as Fort  Colville, and made a report which  is dated 29th Nov. 1859. Here  Palmer states that "the iunction of  the two rivers is named Vermillion  Forks from the existence in its  neighborhood   of   a   red   clay   or  ochre from which the Indians manufacture paint." From this we may  safely conclude that the place was  so named in 1859 and that Dr. Dawson had nothing to do with the  naming of it. In September 1851  James Douglas was appointed Governor of Vancouver Island. His  commission arrived in November  of that year (Sage p. 171). In a  very early report to the Colonial  Secretary, Douglas mentions Red  Jtarth Forks. We seem to have no  such early mention of Vermilion.  When Mr. Sands, son-in-law of J. F.  Allison, sold his land (now the site  of Princeton) to the Company  which was formed to plot out and  sell the new townsite, it took the  name of The Vermillion Forks Mining and Development Companv.  That was in October, 1897.  VI. Blackfoot. We come now to  a name which seems to have disappeared from human ken, Blackfoot.  The only place of that name recorded in the Geographical Gazetteer of British Columbia—1930 is  the name of a creek in the Kootenay  country. One day this summer E.  E. Burr asked me where Ruby City  was. I suggested that he meant  Ruby Creek, but he was quite emphatic that it was Rubv City, and  that it was in the vicinity of the  Similkameen valley. Then he told  me it was one of the ghost towns  of our Province, and that it h»d  once existed near Nighthawk. All  trace of it seems to have disappeared.   It is hardly a memory now.  In mv turn I asked Mr. Burr  where Blackfoot was, telling him  that a place of that name had existed six miles from Princeton, and  that it had forty houses including  miners' cabins. He said he had  never heard of the place. Neither  hpr» I until a week before when my  curiosity was aroused by the following paragraph cooied from an  early issue of the British Colonist,  and sent to me by W. A. Newcombe  of Victoria.  "Pnnceton (laid out by order of  the Governor last fall) seven miles  below Blackfoot is almost deserted.  Blackfoot Flat and its immediate  neighbourhood contains 40 houses  including miners' cabins."  Later, Miss M. Wolfenden of the Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937  15  Provincial Archives Dept. sent me  this further reference, taken from  ihe Colonist of the 14th. Sept. 1865:  "Great stampede of miners to the  Blackfoot   mines The   gold  region is said to extend from the  creeks and tributaries."  I could not discover a single person in Princeton who had ever  heard of the place. The nearest  approach to such person was Bob  Jameson, who scratched his head  and said, "I seem to have heard that  name before."  My first clue came from E. Waterman who said that it must have  been at Kruger's bar. This is not  far from Bob Jameson's house. The  only place he knew that suggested  the name was Black mountain, but  that was too far away.  My next clue came from Mrs. R.  B. White, Penticton. She was able  to produce a bill headed "Blackfoot  flat, May 6th, 1861." This bill was  addressed to Marshall & Co., and  was from Theodore Kruger. Now  here the two names were brought  together, Blackfoot and Kruger's  bar. This, then, was the mine that  Walter Moberly had in mind when  he spoke of "his friend's house" six  miles further on, at the Bed Earth  Forks of th° Similkameen. Curiously enough the first item on the bib  is  "1   Bttl  Rum    $3.00."    Later  another bottle of rum is recorded-  I  Bttl  Rum   (sinking a shaft,  good  prosnect)    83.00.     Still  later,  1 Bttle Rum (house raising) $2.50  Items such as these are interspersed  w'th items of candles, butter, coffee, etc.  Wondering how this place came  to be named Blackfoot, I remembered that Mrs. Allison had said that  Blackfoot Indians had come to  trade at Yak-Tulameen ^or red  paint, but this fact may not have  accounted for the origin of the  name. In a sense Blackfoot cannot  be included as a Princeton name.  but it seems to have been the very  first community of any size in our  whole neighbourhood. As such it  should not be forgotten. It is also  worthv of note that Kruger is often  quoted as having settled at Princeton. Tp the oldtimers the two may  have been synonymous.  VTT. Princeton. The last, and  best known, name with wdiich we  are concerned is Princeton. Here  is a paragraph which I prepared  for the Princeton Star in March,  1932:  "Who named it? Princeton was  named in honour of Edward Prince  of Wales, afterwards King Edward  VII. As Prince of Wales he visited  Canada, and the eastern states of  the American Union, in 1860. The  story of this tour is contained in an  ample book, printed by John Lovell  in Montreal in 1890. The full title  of this volume, 'by a British Canadian' is 'The Tour of H.R.H. the  Prince of Wales through British  America and the United States'. At  the time of the Prince's visit, British Columbia was not part of Canada. It remained a Crown Colony  till 20th July, 1871. The original  townsite was surveyed by the Royal  Engineers under Col. Richard Clement Moody, in the early sixties.  Governor Douglas is given credit  for the selection of the name. In the  early days it was spelled, Prince-  town. These statements regarding  the name are part of local tradition.  The Provincial Archives have been  ransacked in vain for documentary  proofs. But we shall continue to  cherish our connection with Edward the 'Peace-maker'."  In the above paragraph there is  little to change. The date of the  original survey, given as "the early  sixties" should be altered to read,  Oct. 1860. And it should be clearly  noted that the Prince of Wales  comes into the picture only because  the townsite was named in his  honour in the same year in which  he visited Canada. The only living  l;nk Princeton has with the visit of  EdwTard, Prince of Wales, to Canada in 1860 is Mr. A. E. Howse. He  still rememhers being taken to see  the proceedings on the occasion of  the Prince's visit. He was only five  years old at the time, when in  Grimsby, Ontario, his uncle Jacob  Reamer hoisted the little Albert  Edwrard on his shoulder so that he  misht get a good view of the Prince.  We do not know who was responsible for suggesting the name: local  tradition gives the credit to Governor Douglas, and it is quite likelv  that this is correct. But we cannot  poipt to anv definite source as authority for this. 10  The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  In Sir James Douglas and British  Columbia, by Dr. W. N. Sage (Toronto, 1930) we have extracts from  the Governor's Diary covering his  visit to the Similkameen in 1860.  The journey to Rock Creek was  made from Victoria via Hope, Yale,  Lytton, Nicola and Keremeos: "The  return journey was made by way  of Vermillion Forks along wmat  Douglas characterizes as a 'good  road, fine grassy plains' . . .The  next day, Oct. 2, Douglas instructs  Sergeant McColl, R.E., 'to continue  the road to Vermillion Forks or as  far as requisite, and to act in all  other respect under the instructions  issued to him by Col. Moody.' He  was also to 'mark out the lower  townsite at Vermillion Forks and  to push on over the watershed without delay before winter sets in'."  (pp. 318-319).  The original townsite was about  a mile east of the present townsite.  and was about a mile and a quarter  square. Its eastern boundary was  the Allison creek; its western, a line  running from Swan Lake to the  River. When the present townsite  was surveyed and mapped out into  lots, the name, Princeton, was finally adopted.  With the exception of Red Earth  and Blackfoot all the names we  have reviewed are perpetuated in  some connection. Similkameen re-  mams the name of the river and  valley as well as a political division.  Until a few years ago when it was  burned down, we had the Similkameen   Hotel.     And   our   Historical  Association is called the Similkameen. Mrs. Allison has been our  Honorary President since it began  in April, 1932.  Tulameen is also well remembered. Besides being the name of the  river, it is the name of one of the  Princeton hotels, a coal company,  and also the name of a settlement  a few miles west of Coalmont. The  lake at that point is often called  Tulameen although its official name  is Otter Lake.  Allison, too, has given its name  to a railway station on the Great  Northern Railway only a few miles  east of Princeton. The flat formerly known as Yak-Tulameen is  known today as Allison's Flat. The  Allison Trail and the Allison Pass  have been much in evidence these  days since the construction of the  road between Princeton and Hone  has been commenced. Then we  have Allison Creek which is the  official name for the creek usually  known as One Mile Creek, and formerly as Hunter's Creek or Graveyard Creek.  Vermilion was the name of the  company formed to develop Princeton and Vermilion is one of its  principal streets, and the Vermilion  caves still have a peculiar interest  to all who are interested in our  local history.  Princeton is reminiscent of the  "early days", of the Roval visit to  Canada in 1860, and of Sir James  Douglas and Col. Moody, and of the  Royal Engineers. Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937  17  Over the Penticton Trail  Bernard Lequime  When my parents first came to  British Columbia in 1858 we lived  for a time on Strawberry Island,  an island in the Fraser River about  half way between Hope and Yale.  In the spring of 1861 they travelled  over the Hope trail to Rock Creek  which was then booming. They  were on their way to the Wild  Horse Creek mines, but Rock Creek  was flourishing and the prospects  for it seemed so bright my father  decided to cast in his lot with the  camp.  I was born at Jamestown, California, on the 30th April, 1857, and  I was therefore a little over three  years old when we reached Rock  (.reek, and I had a younger brother.  There was also a little girl in the  camp, Mary Mansfield, a daughter  of one of the miners. The camp  was unfortunate for my brother  and me. He was drowned in a  miner's ditch and I was kidnapped  by the Indians.  Naturally we three children were  great favourites with the miners;  they would do anything for us and  were always ready to play with us.  My mother never insisted on keeping me close to the house, but allowed me considerable freedom in  playing around. She knew when I  was with the miners I was safe.  When the Indian carried me off she  did not miss me for a while, but  when she gave the alarm the miners  dropped their tools. The Indian  came from some place near Chee-  saw across the Boundary line. He  was well known to my parents as  he had often been to our store. He  always took great notice of me and  was always ready to play with me.  They suspected him at once, and  the miners formed themselves into  a posse and followed him. They  rescued me and the Indian was  never seen or heard of afterwards.  If the law now in force in the  United States which decrees death  as the punishment for kidnapping  was enforced on that occasion, the  miners said nothing about it.  In the spring of 1861 the miners  began to desert Bock Creek, and  ny father and Joseph Christian decided to go to Cariboo. On the trail  between Penticton and the Mission  we met Father Pandosy who recommended my father to settle at the  Mission and start a trading post  with the Indians. And on my father  saying that he would not like to  settle with his family near so many  Indians, and that he would not stay  if Joseph Christian went on to  Cariboo, Father Pandosy replied  that he thought he had some influence with Christian and that he  would speak to him. I believe it  was on the recommendation of  Father Pandosy that my father and  Joseph Christian decided to stay  instead of going on to Cariboo.  It is strange how impressions  received in childhood's hour will  remain with one through life. When  we came over the trail I was a little  over four years old and of the  journey I remember but two things  and of these I have to this day a  clear-cut, distinct recollection—  the appearance of Father Pandosy  when we met him, and of the cow  I was being carried on. Father  Pandosy had a long beard and was  bald-headed and dressed in a suit  of buck skin, and was mounted, and  had no hat. The sun was shining  on his bald head and I suppose it  fascinated me. As for the cow, I  knew her as I knew my own father's face. She was roan colored  and had short stubbv horns. Strange  to say I saw one at the Mission recently which reminded me of her  very much.  Even in 1861 there was quite a  settlement at Okanagan Mission,  among others, Father Pandosy,  Father Richards, Brother Vernaine,  Theodore Lawrence, Suprient Lawrence, Francois Ortoland, John  McDougall, William and Gideon  Peon, and in 1862, August Calmel  and Chaprius and Victor Barre.  John McDougall, the founder of the  McDougall family, was then running a branch store at what is now  the Guisachan Ranch for the Hud- 18  The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  son's Bay Company under Chief  bactor McLean who wTas then at  Keremeos. I knew William Peon,  the discoverer of placer gold on  Cherry Creek.  In 1861 the priests had a grist  mill near the Mission. It was not  much bigger than a coffe mill and  was operated by a sweep with a  horse attached. The bolting cloth  was coarse and let a lot of the  shorts or middling through and the  flour was brown in color. This  mill was operated for some years  after our arrival.  In his letter to Father D'Herbomez of the 9th Oct. 1859, Father  Pandosy mentions some grape vines  he was going to bring in and  plant, and then, he said, they would  be able to sing:  "C'est  surtout  a Pabri  du  vent  Qu'il se chauffe au soleil levant  C'est une vine."  But if any such grape vines were  brought in I never saw or heard of  them.  The apple trees the priests first  planted grew to be enormous trees.  They have since been removed,  when, and by whom, I do not remember. The trees there now bearing the small under-sized apples  must be of a subsequent planting.  When we first came to the Mission we had no way of telling the  time. Clocks were not articles of  furniture the miners packed over  the trail. My father had followed  the sea for many years and had  some knowledge of navigation and  he soon improvised a sundial. By  setting up two stakes in a line with  the polar star he obtained the direction of true north and south, and  he then staked out with some degree of accuracy no doubt, the  hours on the ground from six to  twelve and from twelve to six so  that we could always tell the time  as long as the sun was shining.  I remember the late Mrs. B. F.  Young very well when she was living with her uncle and aunt. Mr.  and Mrs. Joseph Christien. There  was also a Frank Christien who  lived with Joseph for a time. Some  of his descendents are now living  on Kettle River.  The incident of the Indian attacking my father with a knife, as  related on page seven of our first  Report, is quite true. My father  saved himself by out-speeding the  Indian to the house and shutting  the door. When the door was slam  med-to it caught the Indian's arm  and held it fast, and my father  shouted to my mother for the axe-  to cut the arm off, but my mother's  softer counsels prevailed—it would  cause further trouble with the Indians, she said. W. G.' Cox, the  Gold Commissioner, in passing  through, always stopped at our  place, and on my father telling him  of the attack his advice was: "Mr.  Lequime, if anything like that happens again be sure to get in the  first shot, and it will be all right"  . . . there would be no lengthy and  troublesome legal investigation  over it. When the whites first arrived the Indians were opposed to  their settlement on the land, and  some of them were very bitter  about it  Some time after this two Indians  came into the house during my father's absence, and made themselves quite at home.  There was a large trunk setting  alongside the fireplace in which -we  kept our most precious possessions.  The Indian- after standing in front  of the fire for some time, asked my  mother to open it, which she refused to do. Not liking the demeanor of the Indians my mother told  me to go to the Lawrence house,  about half a mile away, and tell  the men to come over at once. The  Indians when they saw the men  coming decamped, but that night  they returned and after pounding  at the door and demanding to be  admitted they tried to get in at  the window. My mother drew the  sixshooter which my father had  left with her, and when they appeared at the window, she told  them that when she counted three  she wyould fire. They did not wait.  That was the only time my mother  was molested by the Indians while  my father was absent.  For three and a half vears—  1869-1873—1 went to school in New  Westminster. Among my school  mates w-ere Captain John Irvine  who died recently, W. H. Keary,  Thomas Fraser York and Alexander McClure of Sumas, Alexander  and  Donald  McLean  of  Pitt  Mea- Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937  19  (lows, and Tilman and St. John  Herring. The Herring brothers  lived across the river at what was  then known as Brownville, and  they brought milk across every  morning and delivered it to their  customers before coming to school.  For two years I lived in Victoria  learning carpentering, and while  so employed I worked on Judge  Begbie's house which was then be-  ins built.  In 1877 Phil. Parkes built the  waggon road from Priest Valley to  the Mission. There was a man  named John Birmingham who had  a sub-contract under Parkes, and  when the road was finished this  man, Birmingham, built the first  Mission Creek bridge. His foreman  on the bridge was named Curvreau  who later was foreman on the  Coldstream. I knew him well and  followed him and worked on the  ranch for six months.  It is very noticeable how fast  the wild sunflowers are dying out.  At one time they grew in profusion.  There was one place in particular,  on the north side of the Coldstream  valley commencing about opposite  to the place where the buildings  now stand and running up the val-  lev towards the old Kieffer place,  which every year in early summer  was a blaze of color, the soft golden yellow of the sunflowers  blending harmoniously with the  dark green of the new bunch grass.  The smell of the sunflowers and  the bunch grass was peculiar. It  was like the fragrance of fresh  meadow grass with a wild acrid  tang added. It was very noticeable  as one rode along. There w7as a  horse thief from Oregon in the valley for a while and he always said  Okanagan was the great land of  sunshine, sunflowers and sons of  b hs.  Our stone grist mill was built in  1887. The turbine wheel which  drove the mill and the upper stone  rotated on the same shaft. While  the mill was being built there was  considerable discussion among our  neighbors as to whether the power  would be sufficient. The fall was  only eight feet clear and some said  the fall was not enough, but the  ditch and short flume which delivered the water to the wheel was  five feet wide by four deep so that  the large volume of water com pen-  sated for the short fall and we always had lots of power.  We brought the mill in over a  very narrow and rough road between Enderby and Sicamous. It  was the first year the road was  opened. I went out for the mill in  June, 1887, with two four-horse  teams and three or four men. In  mv team I had two stallions and  some of the horses had not been  broken in to work very long and  it was a hard team to handle. On  my waggon there was no proper  brake, only an improvised one rigged up with a rope wound around  a log with a spoke in it. I drove  and Joe Bishop, who at one time  was very well known around the  Mission, tended brake.  In coming home all went well  until after we crossed the divide  south of Vernon when, in going  down a hill, the horses began to  travel pretty fast, and Joe Bishop  instead of sticking to his post got  scared and jumped. With the brake  released any chance I had of controlling the team vanished and they  ran away. Fortunately at the foot  of the hill I managed to switch  them off the road and run them up  a steep slope and bring> them to a  standstill. When I looked around  for Joe Bishop to tell him what I  thought of him, he was on the road  to Mission and travelling fast. He  did not wait to hear what I had to  say to him and it was just as well  for him that he did not. He should  not have jumped and left me in  the lurch as he did. I never saw  Joe Bishop after that day.  When Norman McDonald who  was driving the second team came  up he said in a soft, drawling way  he had of speaking, "You know,  Bernard, people have been saying  you would not have fall enough  for this mill of your's. but when I  saw your team running away I  thought for sure, you would soon  have more fall for it than you  would know what to do with." Such  was life in those days.  We Lequime boys in choosing  our wives, stuck pretty closelv to  the pioneers. My youngest brother,  Leon, was married on the 5th.  April,    1893,    at    the    church    at 2C  The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  O'Keefe's, by Father Walsh to Miss  Delphine Christien, the eldest  daughter of Louis Christien and a  niece of Joseph Christien who came  over the Penticton trail in 1861  with my father. My next brother  Gaston was married in 1885 to  Marie Louise Gillard, a niece of  August Gillard who settled at the  Mission in 1862, and I was married  in San Francisco, Cal., on the 21st  Sep. 1892, to Miss Margaret Dow-  ling. Mrs. Lequime was born in  San Francisco, and is a daughter  of James Dowling, a native of Dublin, Ireland, who came to California in 1852, and was in the vanguard  of the miners when they first  reached Cariboo in 1859, where he  mined for several years.  The first church, a log building,  and the first grist mill was built at  the Mission in 1861, and the second  church in 1886. On the Lequime  ranch the house was built in 1872,  and the store in 1875. Last summer (1936) I went over the ground  again and marked the sites of these  buildings, and the sites w^ere afterwards surveyed by G. C. Tassie,  C.E., of Vernon, who tied up the  surveys with Government survey  posts in the vicinity. He also made  a very good map of part of the old  Mission property and of part of the  Lequime ranch, showing the location of the sites. A copv of the map  was given to the Okanagan Historical Society, and another will be  deposited in the Okanagan Museum  at Kelowna.  I left Okanagan Mission to live at  Kelowna in 1895. My brother Gaston died from injuries received  while riding after cattle in 1889,  and Leon died at Lewiston, Idaho,  on the 15th April, 1935.  On page 202 of our Sixth Report  Judith N. Pope gives 1857 as the  date of the founding of Okanagan  Mission, while in our First Report  F. M. Buckland gives 1859 as the  date. The founding of the Mission  would relate back to the date on  which the Church first decreed  that a Mission should be established. But after it so decreed considerable time would necessarily  elapse in arranging for men and  money to carry out the project.  The Mission would be founded before it would be a going concern,  as it wrere. As far as I am aware  both dates are correct, The Mission was probably founded in 1857  but the necessary buildings were  not erected and the Mission was  not established until 1859. There  is a distinction between founding  and establishing. Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937  21  1 he Welby Stage Coach  Jessie Ewart Bird, B. A.  Pioneers and oldtimcrs Li the  Similkameen and Okanagan Valleys  will know that Princeton and Penticton have onlv been connected by  a road since after 1900. The Welby  stage coach, now owned by the  Similkameen Historical Association,  is well known to many of them.  They all remember its owner, Mr.  W. E. Welby, and any trip travelled  in the coach between Penticton and  Princeton is vivid in their memories.  The story of this coach, the  events leading up to its need, the  vivid personality of its owner, the  roads of the Similkameen, the years  of active use of the coach, its gradual disuse, its abandonment ana rehabilitation is a fascinating one,  and one that has been a privilege  and pleasure to study and discuss.  The heartfelt thanks of the writer  must be expressed to the oldtimers  of Princeton, Hedley, Keremeos and  Penticton who so freely gave their  lime and reminiscences to assist her  in finding the material.  In 1898 a well known mining  engineer, Mr. M. K. Rogers, during  a visit to a mining exhibition in  Victoria, noticed some very interesting gold ore samples. Instead of  going to Alaska as he had intended,  he went to Hedley and examined  the claims on which this ore had  been found, and as a result of his.  examination, in 1899 work "was begun on the now famous Nickel Plate  Mine. At this time Princeton was  connected with the outside world  bv a stage coach line from Soences  Bridge via Nicola and Granite  Creek. The southern part of the  valley was reached by a trail which  was used by pack trains and ranchers who brought their cattle to  the higher lands for summer pasture. The definite discovery of gold  and the consequent influx of people made a connecting road between Penticton, Keremeos, Hedley  and Princeton a necessity. During  1899 and early 1900 a road was  built from Penticton through Keremeos   and   to   Hedley,   and    after  This mining boom, when Hedley  grew with amazing rapidity, necessitated a regular mail route and  express service, but it was not until  1903 that tenders for a bi-weekly  mail contract were called for. The  contract from Princeton to Hedley  was awarded to Mr. Fred Revely,  (who was killed in January 1937 in  a motor accident in Vancouver)  and from Hedlev to Penticton to  Mr. W. E. Welby."  On the strength of this contract  Mr. Welby bought the L. C. Barnes  Livery Barn in Penticton and used  it as his headquarters, At first he  used a democrat on the route, but  as the volume of business increased he invested in a coach. There  is a note in the Hedley Gazette,  April 6th, 1905: "Fred Baker came  in on Saturday with a brand new  Concord, which has been placed  on the Penticton - Hedley stage  route. The quality is all right, but  it is a little out on the score of frequency. So fine a rig should be  seen oftener than twice a week.  Proprietor Welby fs bound to keep  abreast of the times."  This coach was built by Henderson & Sons of Stockton, Calif., and  according to Mr. T. Roadhouse,  who was manager for Mr. Welby  for a number of years, it came  brand new, direct from Stockton in  1905 and was used only on the  Penticton - Hedley route and later  through to Princeton. As the coach  has the letters "U.S. Mail" on its  sides, it has been presumed by  some that it was used for that purpose on the other side of the line.  It is doubtful if this was the case,  ac the Similkameen Historical Association has a letter from the  Stockton Chamber of Commerce  stating that coaches similar to this  tvpe were manufactured up to  about 1903 or 1904, and it would  appear that this particular coach  was built as a regular type then  being sold to the U.S. Government  for use in carrying the mails. This  coach is a thoroughbrace model  and the only one of this type used  much delay, was finally completed  between   Penticton   and  Princeton,  to Princeton in the fall of 1901.     I An article called "When Life and '}•>  The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  Death rode West" describes them  thus: "It is swung on leather straps  attached to "C" springs front and  rear—and are claimed to be the  easiest riding overland stages ever  invented." It is a covered model  with rolled up doors or shutters,  seats six in the cab, and the driver  and one or two others on top; has  a boot front and back, both of  which are used for mail and baggage—and the power required to  draw it—four horses.  This thoroughbrace model wras  a well known sight on the road  between Penticton and Hedley from  1905 to 1913. Here is a day's schedule, the rate being $7.00 Penticton  to Hedley one way. Leaving Penticton at 7 a.m. it arrived at Clark's  on the Green Mountain Road for  lunch and change of horses, in  Keremeos from 4 to 5 p.m., and  again changing horses and it reached Hedley between 8 and ".) p.m.  This was the schedule spring, summer, autumn and winter, at first  twice a week and later three times,  and it carried, according to Mr.  Welby's advertisement in the Hed-  Ipij Gazette,  "Boyal Mail, Passengers and  Express"  The first few years were the golden ones for our stage. During this  time it carried to Penticton the  gold bricks from the Nickel Plate  Mine. These bricks were about  5 by 14 inches, and were packed in  a wooden box. This box was put  in sacks with the ore and taken  through as ore samples. The sacks  were placed in the front boot and  often Mr. Rogers rode on top beside the driver. Mr. George Rid-  dell of Hedley told me the driver*  never knew when this gold brick  was going to be sent out. Only once  did the carrying of this brick require an armed guard and this  when there was a rumour of a  pending hold-up. On this occasion  four armed men were placed in  front.and two behind.  The stage was not always business bound; on such special festive days as the Queen's Birthday  or Dominion Day, it extended its  journey to Princeton with a load of  merrymakers. The fare for the  round trip from Hedley to Princeton was $5.00.   It is easy to imagine  the coach with its four horses gayly  decked with ribbons, driver on top  of the front boot, flanked by a passenger or two and a full coach  bowding quickly along the road and  over the hill into town, its arrival  announced by the blare of a bugle.  This bugle is the best remembered  part of the coach and was a true  touch of old England and most satisfying to Mr. Welby. It was later used on a rural mail route in  Penticton and is now in the possession of Mrs. A. H. Wade.  It was not only an ornament; it  had its use during the hot and  dusty summer months. Mrs. Tweddle of Keremeos told me that often  when the coach was coming down  the long hill at Green Mountain,  the passengers would see a cloud  of dust near the bottom and not  know if it were a freighter or a  herd of cattle, the driver would  blow a mighty blast on the bugle,  and if the dust was caused by a  teamster, he would pull his wagon  to one side and give the coach the  right of way, while it would entail  a long and dusty manoeuvre to pass  cattle.  Mr.    Welby's    advertisement    of  1907 reads:  "A  beautiful   drive   over   the   best  of roads.  Fast stock and the best of drivers,"  No doubt he was quite correct  about his stock, drivers and the  beauty of the road but all old timers who remember the stage and  the trip are most emphatic about  the condition of the road, and according to their stories it was far  from "the best of roads". Mr.  Roadhouse very graphically described the Green Mountain road  which consisted of miles of steep  pitches and downhill grades and  wound over the too of a mountain.  In winter the trip was through  snow, in spring through mud and  in summer the dust was everywhere and many an old timer told  me tales of dusty, bump trips.  In soite of the condition of the  road, in searching the pages of the  Similkameen Star and the Hedley  Gazette there were few records of  accidents. One incident reported  in the Hedley Gazette on December  7th. 1905, reads as follows:  "Welby stage broke dowm on Sat- Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937  23  urday between Olalla and Keremeos. As the stage was going  through some of the short pitches  on the road the tongue broke. The  resourcefulness of Driver McKenzie was, however, equal to the occasion and lashing the broken  tongue together with sundry ropes,  he arrived safely in Keremeos."—  and it goes on to say "after speedy  driving between Keremeos and  Hedley the stage was only two  hours late into Hedley."  However, the following incidents  though not stories of Mr. W'elby's  coach, will illustrate some of the  trials and troubles of the road. The  first, referring to Mr. Revely's  stage is dated July 6th, 1995, in the  Hedley Gazette—"Princeton stage  was late on Monday. On making  enquiries the cause was learned—  a mishap on the way. One of the  hind wheels came off and allowed  the axle to plow through a mud-  hole. When the passengers had  scrambled out they resolved themselves into a committee of ways  and means. The axle was cleaned,  the wheel put on again, but on a  dry axle—what was to be done?  There was no dwelling within  miles; the driver was in despair,  the male passengers had gone their  limit, Avhen a lady passenger came  to the rescue and produced the  thing necessary—a lubricant—this  she fished out of her travelling bag  in the shape of a bottle of castor  oil and all went merry as a marriage bell. Castor oil is an old  standby—good alike for babies and  stages—God  bless the  ladies."  The other happened on the Nicola route and is from the Similkameen Star Local and Personals,  March 21st. 1903: "Mr. Silverthorn  returned from the Coast on last  week's stage, at least as far as Otter Canyon, when the stage got  stalled in a snowslide. Mine host  of the Hotel Jackson found walking poor between that place and J.  Thynne's, a distance of nine miles.  Mr. Silverthorn finally arrived here  Wednesday on the top of a load of  hay after spending nearly a week  on the road between this place and  Nicola Lake. Such is life in the  far West."  And here are some of the questions   curious   and   interested   pas  sengers asked of the driver. "Are  your horses skittish? What size is  the axle? Are there no highwaymen along the route?" Similar to  those questions asked the bus-driver today, thpugh, of course, applying to a different type of vehicle.  From 1905 onwards a branch of  the Great Northern Railway, the  V. V. and E. (Vancouver, Victoria  and Eastern) wras being built into  British Columbia via Oroville,  Chopaka, Keremeos and Hedley to  Princeton. It was completed to  Keremeos in 1907 and to Princelon  about 1914. Mr. Welby still ran  his stage line but after 1908 mail  was carried only from Penticton to  Keremeos, the Great Northern having the charter from Keremeos to  Hedley. Gradually the competition of* the train and the advent of  the motor car signalled the end of  the career of the stage coach. By  1911, old timers remember that  cars, or more accurately, one or  two cars were being used as jitneys  to Penticton and the period from  1911 to 1913 seemed to have been  one of gradual decline both for  Mr. Welby and the coach. It has  been extremely difficult to find any  exact data concerning these years.  Mr. Welby still owned his livery  stable in Penticton and the coach  was housed in the barn and possibly used occasionally. In 1913  this stable was burned and Mr.  Welby lost much of his equipment  and several head of stock. This  fire put an end to his stage line.  The Concord was one of the few  pieces of equipment saved from  the fire, and in 1914 it was bought  bv a Mr. Adams and driven to  Princeton. For a period of six  months to a year he used it on the  Princeton-Copper Mountain route.  But a stage coach was no longer efficient and the motor car definitely  showed that the era of the coach  was finished forever in this country.  Mr. Adams sold the stage line to  Mr. Frank Buckless in 1916 and the  coach passed into his hands along  with other effects. Now, as far as  Mr. Buckless was concerned, the  coach was an out-moded and outworn contrivance, almost a liability, and something that was continually in the way, so it was left 24  The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  outside to the mercy of the elements. The coach was returned to  the limelight during Richter's Rodeo in 1917, when Mr. A. D. (Cowboy) Kean made a film of the  countryside around Princeton. It  was used in a number of scenes  and Mrs. Elizabeth Daly of Keremeos and Mr. Jim Wallace (deceased) of Princeton rode in the  coach and played the part of the  pioneers of the story. These two  were also pioneers in their own  right as both had come to the Similkameen valley many years before.  After this exciting event the  coach was forgotten and it stood  in a shed behind the F. P. Cook  Estate store, to be remembered  only on occasions of hilarity and  deviltry. Once or twice, drawn  by exuberant guests, it conveyed a  bride and groom through the  streets of Princeton, but mostly it  lay a prey to the hands of vandals  and small boys on Hallowe'en.  But it's fate was not to deteriorate and gradually crumble into oblivion. Princeton had the good  fortune to have called to the pulpit of the United Church, Rev.  John Goodfellow, a person of great  capability and keenly interested in  British Columbia history. He saw  it and enquired about its story and  began to find ways and means of  preserving it. In 1931 through his  instigation, the Similkameen Historical Association was formed  and one of its first acquisitions was  the coach which was presented to  the association by Mr. Perley Russell,   manager   of  the   F.   P.   Cook  Estate. It was then renovated and  repainted in colours as near the  original as possible.  Its first appearance after the renovation was on the occasion of  the Silver Jubilee of King George  V. It was driven in a parade by  Mr. W. A. (Podunk) Davis, who  says he is a mere chee-chako who  came to the Similkameen in '85.  Its passengers were Mr. and Mrs.  A. E. Howse, old timers of the Nicola and Similkameen Valleys,  dressed in the fashions of the  1900's. Needless to say, the coach  and its occupants were the objects  of much admiration and favorable  comment.  Shortly after the Jubilee celebration destruction again menaced the  coach when the arena in which it  was housed was entirely demolished by fire. Fortunately it was saved and now has found another temporary shelter. It is the ambition  of the Similkameen Historical As>-  sociation to erect a suitable structure to serve as a permanent home  for the coach and also to act as a  museum for its pictures, manuscripts and relics of past years in  the  Similkameen.  Thus Mr. Welby's coach, which  was used during the last decade  of coaching in British Columbia,  and did much to assist in the opening up and developing of the Hedley and Princeton districts, has at  last arrived to sanctuary and care  -—truly a museum piece of much  value and interest, at last protected  from a society that did not realize  its historical significance.  "■is* Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937  Why the Okanagan Is a Dry Belt  George  W.  Johnson  Although this valley is generally  referred to as "the dry belt of British Columbia", precipitation is by  no means evenly distributed. It is  heavier in the north end, diminishes towards the south as will be  seen from the following averages  of yearly precipitation taken over  a number of years. In calculating  precipitation, 10 inches of snow  is regarded as equivalent to one  inch of rainfall. Vernon 15.54  inches; Kelowna 11.50 inches;  Summerland 9.72 inches; Penticton 10.64 inches and Oliver 7.94  inches. Fairly central in the limits covered by these north and  south boundaries is Summerland,  and as meteorological observations  have been taken at the Dominion  Experimental Station over a period of twenty years, we will take  this as the point of our investigation.  A glance at a topographical map  of the Okanagan valley will show  that it is surrounded on all sides  by mountains and high plateaus.  The Lake itself is 1130 fe^t above  the sea. Those hi ah altitudes to  the west of the Valley are of particular significance as it is from  the west that a large proportion of  the moisture-bearing clouds approach the valley. Meteorologists  tell us that the majority of the  storms that approach the southern  part of British Columbia originate  in the Pacific Ocean, generally to  the south of Japan where the polar  continental air currents from Asia  come in contact with tropical maritime air from the warm Japanese  current and Ihe resulting disturbance causes storms which ultimate-  Iv strike our continent.  Cloud formation is the firs* stage  in the production of rainfall and  it is necessary here to digress bripf-  lv to show how this is brought  about. Cloud is formed bv the condensation of the invisible water  vapour present in the atmosphere  into the form of small liouid drops.  To bring this about air must be  cooled to below the dew point.  The only process in nature that is  capable of giving rise to sufficient  condensation to produce an appreciable amount of rainfall is that  involved in the cooling caused by  a transfer of air from low to high  levels. The principal causes for  the rise of air are the meeting of  currents with different temperatures, when the colder, being the  heaVier, thrusts itself under the  warmer and lifts it up, and the  passage of air currents from lower  to higher levels on the earth's surface.  As we know, air always contains  moisture in the form of invisible  vapour, and the amount of water  which can be carried before the  air reaches saturation, varies with  the temperature. Warm air is capable of carrying more moisture  than cold air. At 60° F. there may  be as much as 5.8 grains per cubic  foot of air, whereas at 40° F. the  air may contain 2.9 grains only.  Therefore if a cubic foot of saturated air at 60° F. is cooled to 40°  F.. 2. 9 grains of water will be condensed on the dust particles floating in the air and appear as fog  or cloud. At the lowTer levels, provided no heat is supplied from ar.  independent source, air cools approximately at the rate of 1° for  each 180 feet of rise, and conversely heats at 1° for each 180 feet  of fall; this rise and fall being quite  independent of the path the air  may take.  As we have said most of the  storms which reach this section of  British Columbia originate in 'he  Pacific Ocean, and in imagination  we will endeavour to trace a unit  of air, say, a cubic foot, from the  neighbourhood of the Philippine  Islands in its course across the  ocean to its destination in the  southern interior of British Columbia. When it leaves the tropical regions just north of the equator, it is picked up by a good stiff  breeze and carried many miles in  the prevailing winds in a northerly  direction. As it approaches Japan  it turns almost due east. We will  assume that the temperature of this 26  The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  cubic foot of air is 60° F. When it  started out it was comparatively  dry, but as it passed over the ocean  it soon sucked up moisture and approached saturation which as we  have seen would be a content of  5.8 grains of invisible moisture. In  its course across the ocean it encountered various obstacles, shed  a little moisture here, picked up a  little ihere, eventually reaching our  coast cooled slightly by land  breezes but still carrying its quota  of moisture. On striking the mainland, it encounters a further shock.  Land surfaces are generally cooler  than water surfaces, and as it  passes over Vancouver it sheds a  little moisture. It continues up  the Fraser valley still shedding  moisture until it reaches the mountains in the Hope and Coquihalla  districts. Here it is forced up the  mountain sides to an altitude of  from five to seven thousand feet.  A plateau of about this height continues for several miles. The once  moisture-laden atmosphere at 60°  F., by the simple process of rising  and thereby expanding, has been  cooled off to, say, 20° F., at which  temperature a cubic foot of air can  only carry 1. 23 grains of water in  the form of invisible vapour. The  balance has been disposed of in the  form of cloud, rain, hail, snow,  dew or some form of precipitation. As already stated, the temperature falls' at the rate of approximately 1° F. for every 180  feet of rise in the lower levels, and  conversely rises as it comes down  to sea level. Thus, it will readily  be seen, in crossing this plateau  the air will be depleted of a great  deal of its moisture.  By the time the eastern slopes of  this plateau are reached the atmosphere, although perhaps still  carrying moisture almost to the  point of saturation for the higher  altitudes, begins gradually to descend. In the process of descending it becomes heated by compression, and thereby capable of carrying more moisture. There is a  slight dip in the neighborhood of  Princeton, but it is not until Osprey  Lake (3606) is reached that the  real descent begins. From this  point there is a gradual fail to  Okanagan Lake (1130 ft.). The  complete journey down these eastern slopes involves a fall of nearly 5000 ft. a rise in temperature of  about 30°, so that we now have an  air temperature of 50°, capable of  carrying nearly four grains of water, and the atmosphere instead of  shedding moisture, is taking it up  by the process of evaporation, and  this current of air which we have  traced for so many thousands: of  miles across the ocean, that might  have done so much for us in bringing us copious and refreshing  showers to revive and repftenish  the earth, wdien it does reach our  valley it comes down out of the  hills like a marauder and robber  licking up every bit of moisture  going and carrying it off.  These are the simpler and more  obvious factors which account for  our light rainfalls and cloudless  days. There are, of course, many  others, each .contributing to the  ultimate result, but these are a subject more for the meteorologist  !than for a paper such as this. Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937  27  The Manson Mountain Grave  Rev. John C. Goodfellow  In the fall of 1935 Walter Jameson of Princeton, and Harrv Squa-  kin of Chu-chu-a-waa (the Indian  village near Hedley) reported the  discovery of a grave . on Manson  mountain. At the time there was  some doubt regarding the name of  the man commemorated by the  lonely headstone, but it was known  that about the middle of the last  century, one of the Hudson's Bay  Company servants had been killed  by a falling tree, somewhere along  the old Brigade Trail where it  crosses Manson mountain. This  mountain is south of Pierre river,  east of Hope, and in the Yale District. The site of the grave is  marked by a rock standing upright.  On the brigade trail trees have  grown up and are now "thicker  around than a telegraph pole" to  use  Harry  Squakin's  description.  In answer to an inquiry, the  Editor of The Beaver, says Douglas  McKay, communicated with the  Archives Department of the Hudson's Bay Company, and received  fhe following reply from London,  England.  Extract from letter from Chief  Factor James Douglas, to William  G. Smith, Secretary of the Hudson's  Bay Company in London, dated,  Victoria, 7th August, 1855.  "This moment, as the 'Otter' is  starting for San Francisco letters  have   arrived    from    Langley,   an  nouncing the death of Chief Trader Fraser at 'Campment de Chev-  ruil'. A tree fell on him, and he  survived the accident only about  an hour, and never spoke.  "The other particulars of that  melancholy event, by which the  Company has lost a zealous and  devoted servant and his colleagues  a warm hearted friend, will be  gathered from Chief Trader (Donald) Manson's letter, which is herewith transmitted . . . ."  Letter from Chief Trader Donald Manson to Chief Factor James  Douglas, dated 'Campment de Chiv'  29th   July, 1855.  "I have this moment (1 p.m.) arrived here from the Quaquyalhi  where I left Mr. McLean, at 6 a.m.  this morning, with our Brigade—  I am now very, very sorry to inform you of the death of our old  and worthy friend Mr. C(hief) Trader Paul Fraser, poor Gentleman  he only survived the blow about  an hour, and during that time he  never spoke. I shall see the body  interred and arranged as well as  our means admit, and bring the  Kamloops Brigade on with me to  that place where I shall leave Mr.  C(hief) Trader McLean in charge  until further instructions from the  Board.—On reaching Kamloops T  shall have his papers collected and  sealed  up  immediately N.R.  He  died   yesterdav  about   6  p.m."  — (H.B.C. Archives A. 11/56.) 28  The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  Municipalities  Max H. Ruhman  The following is a list of all  municipalities incorporated in the  Okanagan Valley, with the dates  of incorporation and the names of  the first Mayors and Aldermen, or  Keeves and Councillors as the case  may be, and the names of the first  City or Municipal Clerks.  City of Enderby. Incorporated  March 1st, 1905. Mayor, George  Bell. Aldermen: Robert P. Bradley, Joseph W. Evans, Noah H.  Kenny, George R. Sharpe and Edward T. Smith. City Clerk, Graham Rosoman who still holds the  position, and is also Police Magistrate for the City, and Stipendary  Magistrate for the District.  City of Armstrong. Incorporated  March 26th, 1913. Mayor, James M.  Wright. Aldermen: F. C. Wolfenden, T. K. Smith, A. E. Morgan, J.  Leveripgton, H. A. Fraser. City  Clerk, A. J. Fifer, who still retains  the position.  City of Vernon. Incorporated  Dec. 30th, 1892. Mayor, W7. F.  Cameron. Aldermen: S. C. Smith,  J. A. Schubert, James Lyons, A. G.  Fuller and W. J. Armstrong. City  Clerk, R. J. Davies.  City of Kelowna. Incorporated  May 4th, 1905. Mayor, Henry Wil-  lam Raymer. Aldermen: Elisha Re-  seau Bailey, David Lloyd-Jones,  Colin  S. Smith, Daniel Wilber Su  therland,     Simon   Tackett   Elliott.  City Clerk, Robert Morrison.  District of Spallumcheen. Incorporated July 21st, 1892. Reeve, Donald Graham. Councillors: Robert  WTood, John A. Cameron, Thomas  N. Hayes, and Donald Matheson.  Municipal Clerk, Henry Seydel.  District of Coldstream. Incorporated Dec. 21st, 1906. Reeve, W.  C. Ricardo. Councillors: R. Gillespie, J. L. Webster, B. C. S. Turner,  and John Kidston. Municipal Clerk.  A. T. Kirkpatrick.  District of Peachland. Incorporated January 1st, 1909. Reeve," W.  A. Lang. Councillors: S. F. Callen-  der, M. N. Morrison, L. D. McCall,  C. G. Elliott. Municipal Clerk, H.  McDougall. The first meeting of  the Municipal Council was held in  the Orange Hall on the 1st. Feb.,  1909.  District of Summerland. Incorporated Dec. 1st, 1906. Reeve J. M.  Robinson. Councillors: R. H. Agur,  James Ritchie, J. R. Brown and C.  J. Thomson. Municipal Clerk, J. L.  Logie. The first meeting of the  Municipal Council was held on Jan  21st. 1907.  District of Penticton. Incorporated Dec. 31st, 1908. Reeve, A. H.  Wade. Councillors: L. C. Barnes,  Sydney Hatch, Henry Murk and  John Power. Municipal Clerk,  Charles "Were. The first meeting of  the Municipal Council was held in  the Court House on Feb. 1st, 1909. Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937  29  Canada Kept Faith  L. Norris  In the year 1868 the colony of  British Columbia was not prosperous. The output of gold from  Cariboo had been declining for  some years, and the discovery of  placer gold on the Big Bend of the  Columbia River in 1865, which at  one time had raised expectations so  high, proved to be something of a  flash in the pan.  To improve conditions the Government turned its attention towards securing closer connection  with eastern Canada, and in 1868  J. W. Trutch who was then Chief  Commissioner of Lands and Works  for the Colony, laid before the  Government a plan for building a  road across the Rockies. The pro-  proposed waggon road was to be  of the same character and width as  the road from Yale to Cariboo. A  branch of the Cariboo road had  been, built into Savona, and  Trutch's estimate of the distance  and cost of the proposed road from  Savona to the mouth of the Brazeau River by way of Yellowhead  Pass, was 515 miles and $1,050,000,  and in his reports he added: "From  the mouth of the Brazeau River  there is good steamboat navigation  to Fort Garry with the exception  of one spot at the Great Rapids, 12  miles upstream from the mouth of  the Saskatchewan."  In the meantime conditions in  eastern Canada were changing rapidly. The confederation of the  eastern provinces took place in  1867, and bv a Deed of Surrender  dated the 30th Nov. 1869, the octopus-like hold of the Hudson's Bay  Company on what is now the three  prairie provinces had been broken,  and Sir John A. Macdonald, who  was then in power, was preparing  to carry into execution his plan for  connecting the whole of British  North America with a railway from  sea to sea.  His overtures to the colonists of  British Columbia to enter the Canadian confederation as a province in  1869, were welcomed if not with  the desperation of a drowning man  clutching at a straw, at least with  the relief a swimmer in difficulties  feels when he clutches the side of  a substantial raft.  The delegates appointed to represent the Colony in settling the  terms on which the new province  was to enter confederation were  J. W. Trutch. Dr. J. S. Helmcken  and Dr. R. W. W. Carroll. They  left Victoria on the 10th Mav,  1870.  When they returned the terms  upon which the Colony would be  admitted to Confederation were so  liberal that when they came before  the Legislative Assembly for ratification they were accepted unanimously, in fact with a unanimity  that to some seemed almost indecent. The Victoria Colonist thus  desribes the scene in its issue of  the 19th Jan. 1870: "Our Legislature yesterday presented a strange  study. Just think of it. A Legislature created we might say for the  express purpose of deciding the  great question of confederation  giving a unanimous vote in silence,  save only what was said by the  mover and seconder. A little opposition would have been preferable to a silence which was scarcely becoming."  When the Bill came before the  House of Commons at Ottawa there  was no unseemly unanimity manifested. The opposition fought the  measure tooth and nail, led by Alexander Mackenzie who declared that  it was an insane bargain impossible  of accomplishment, and that Canada had been betrayed. The section  of the Act over which the controversy raged the fiercest was the  raihvay clause which reads:  "H The Government of the Dominion undertakes to secure the  commencement simultaneously, within two years of the date of the  Union of a Railway from the Pacific towards the Rock Mountains, 30  The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  and from such point as may be  settled, east of the Rock Mountains,  towards the Pacific, to connect the  sea board of British Columbia with  the Railway system of Canada, and  further to secure the completion of  such Railway within ten years  from the date of Union."  The Bill finally passed on the 1st  April, 1871, but only with the majority the Government usually had,  greatly reduced. The Railway clause  was later modified by a Resolution  of the House of Commons and by  a speech made by J. W. Trutch.  The Resolution was passed on the  11th April, 1871, and reads: "That  the Railway referred to in the address to Her Magesty concerning  the union of British Columbia with  Canada, adopted by this House on  Saturday, 1st April, instant, should  be constructed and worked by private enterprise and not by the Dominion Government, and that the  public aid to be given to secure  that undertaking should consist of  such liberal grants of land, such  subsidy in money or other aid not  increasing the present rate of taxation, as the Parliament of Canada  shall hereafter determine."  This Resolution virtually made  the building of the road contingent  on Canada being able to build it  without increasing the rate of taxation.  Mr. Trutch's speech was made at  a banquet in Ottawa, on the 10th  April, in the presence of every  member of the Cabinet except Sir  John A. Macdonald who was in  Washington at the time. He was  then the accredited Agent at Ottawa, of the Colonial Government.  He said, among other things:  "When he came to Ottawa with his  co-delegates last year they entered  into a computation with the Privy  Council as to the cost and time it  would take to build the line, and  they came to the conclusion that it  could be built in ten years. If they  had said twelve or eighteen years,  that time would have been accepted  with equal readiness, as all that  was understood was that the line  should be built as soon as possible." (B. C. Sess. Papers, 1875,  page 618).  These words cannot be taken as  the   utterance   of  an   irresponsible  man spoken casually and wnthout  particular import. The time, the  place and the circumstances indicate that his words were well considered, and that the speaker in  giving utterance to them must have  realized that what he was saying  would have, should at any time a  difference of opinion arise as to  the proper interpretation of the  Terms of Union, an important bearing on what the two parties really  meant when they w7ere agreed on,  especially the Railway clause.  One of the other delegates, Dr.  Carroll, who was made a Senator  made a speech in the Senate on the  6th April, 1875, wdiich is thus reported in Hansard: "Hon. Mr. Carroll said as one of the negotiators  of the first treaty (Terms of Union)  with Canada he understood it to  mean that the Dominion should  commence the survey, locate the  line and construct the Pacific Railway as soon as was compatible  with its resources, but in order that  the clause (Railway clause) should  not be too vague, we put in a term  of years."  The Union became effective on  the 20th July, 1871, and the same  day a party of Dominion Government engineers left Victoria bound  for Tete Jaune Cache. When the  Report of the Chief Engineer, Sandford Fleming, was given to the  public the following spring, it was  then known that the route from  Tete Jaune Cache westward was  found to be impracticable, and that  a very good route was found from  Tete Jaune Cache to the head waters of the North Thompson.  Everything now pointed to the  route which Trutch had selected  for his waggon road in 1868, and  now followed by the Canadian National Railway, being adopted. The  Yellowhead Pass is less than four  thousand feet (3746) above sea  level with exceptionally easy approaches to the summit from both  east and west, and on the 2nd  April, 1872, it was adopted as the  pass for the Railway through the  Rockies. There were no engineering difficulties from the prairies to  the sea except in the Fraser River  | Canyon above Yale, and that those  difficulties could be surmounted  1 was   amply   demonstrated   by   the Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937  31  building   of   the   Cariboo   waggon  road.  In the speech from the throne in  the local House this reference was  made to the Railway. "The Dominion Government has also prosecuted the preliminary survey of the  Canadian Pacific Railway with such  energy and success that if any doubt  ever existed as to the certainty of  Ihe work of construction being undertaken within the time limit  in the Terms of Union it can now  be no longer entertained." (17th  Dec, 1872).  Early in 1873 everyone anticipated the early selection of the ¥*>_-  lowhead - Burrard Inlet route, the  commencement of construction  within the two years, and the completion of the Railway within the  ten years tentatively mentioned in  the Railwav clause. And then came,  like a bolt from the blue, the Order-  in-Council of the 7th June, 1873,  naming Esquimalt as the terminus.  An untoward event had happened  in the fall of 1872. something not  contemplated when the Terms of  Union were framed, the importance  of which seems to be strangely  overlooked.  The award of the German Emner.  or of the 21st Oct., 1872, gave San  Jnan Island to the United States.  This meant that if war broke on1  between the United States and  Great Britain, all shipping bv th"  usual route between Esrmimalt and  Victoria and the terminus of the  Railway, if located on Burrard Inlet, would be intercepted, and al1  ships bound for the open sea, even  vessels carrying coal from Nanaimo to the naval base at Esquimalt,  would have to proceed around the  north end of Vancouver Island. It  was a serious matter. The Victoria  Colonist in its issue of the 10th  Dec. 1872, refers to the award of  the German Emperor as "the transfer of the kev of British Columbia  to the United States."  War with the United States was  not then the remote possibilitv that  it is today. The relations between  the two countries were being continually strained, and neither nation ever lost sight of the possibilitv of war, in dealing with the  other.  Sir John  A. Macdonald  had  al  ways looked upon his pet scheme  of a transcontinental Railway as  something which would not only  help to bind the different parts of  British North America together, but  also as an Imperial Highway which  would serve to bind the different  parts of the British Empire together as well and. help to consolidate  and conserve it. And now he was  confronted with the possibility, on  a certain contingency arising, of  seeing this Imperial Highway terminate in something like a cul-de-  sac in the hands of the enemy.  The Chief Engineer, Sandford  Fleming, estimated the cost of  building the line from Fort Will'am  to Port Moody at $60,000,000. Had  the Railway been built through to  Esquimalt it wrould have had to be  taken to Bute Inlet, the Gulf of  Georgia bridged at Seymour Narrows, and then carried down the  east coast of Vancouver Island at  an additional expense of at least  ^O.000.000 more. It is very unlikely that Macdonald ever serions-  lv contemplated build'ng the Railway to Esouimalt. The Government at Ottawa was nonplussed  for the time beins. Th** Americans  had been awarded Son Juan Island,  and had the rock bluffs commanding the narrow neck of watpr which  separates it from the mainland of  Vancouver    Island    surveved.    and  Ii"rl cf>nr«rl a PO'lt. an^ ^adonald  countered bv naming Fsonimalt as  the terminus of the Railway. Tt was  tit for tat and honors for the time  being were easy, but the Canadian  Government was far from finding  a satisfactory solution of the grave  problem which confronted it.  A careful examination of the  facts will make it clear that Burrard Inlet would have been adopted as the terminus in 1873 instead  of Esquimalt. had it not been for  lhe loss of San Juan Island.  In after years when Macdonald  was in power again he saw to it  that at least the naval base at Esquimalt was linked up by a railway  wffh the coal mines at Nanaimo.  The people on the Island were then  content; they considered they were  compensated for the delay in build-  in " the Railway.  The two years within which  work was to be commenced was up 32  The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  on the 19th July, 1873, and on that  day work was commenced at Esquimalt. What was done is thus described in the Victoria Colonist of  the 20th July: "The terminus of  the Canadian Railways was located  yesterday. It is at the northeast  corner of the fence which surrounds the Admiral's residence at  Thetis Cove and is marked by one  of the posts of the fence on which  is written 'CP. R. S. July 19th.  1873'. Mr. Smith with his force cut  a broad trail through the brush and  saplings for a distance of several  hundred yards driving stakes at  short intervals. No sod was turned  except by some of the visitors by  way of a lark, and we learn that a  telegram was received from Ottawa in the morning that the commencement of the location survey  on or before the 20th July, is considered as keeping the terms of the  Treaty of Union". The work was  continued for two days after the  19th. We do not know how much  was accomplished but evidently  (here was enough to constitute a  legal commencement.  The law is the same for a rail  way as it is for a house, and all the  authorities seem to agree as to what  is a legal commencement. Broadly  it means that if the commencement  is made with the bona fide intention of completing the structure  and the work is prosecuted afterwards with reasonable diligence, it  is enough if the surface of the  ground is disturbed, and changed  sufficient to show the nature and  character of the work in hand.  In Words and Phrases Judicially  Defined a standard American work,  the following passage appears on  page 1286: "Work done in the  breaking of the ground for a cellar  is the commencement of a building  because it must have changed the  appearance of the ground so as to  show the nature of the work. A  statute giving a Mechanic's Lien  priority of a Mortgage recorded  after the 'commencement of the  building' means the first labour  done on the ground which is made  the foundation of the building, the  effect of which is apparent, such  as the beginning to dig the foundation or work of like description  which everyone can readily recog  nize  as the  commencement  of  the  building."  The American and English Encyclopedia of Law on page 314, Vol. 3  says: "Commencement of a building is the first labour done on the  ground which is made the foundation of the building, and to form  part of the work similar and neces-  sary  tor its construction."  In Halsbury's Laws of England  page 1052, this rule is also laid  down: "Written agreements must  also be construed with reference to  any particular customs and usages  applicable to the circumstances of  the case."  In dealing with contracts on the  Intercolonial Railway, the commencement of the location survey  was always considered by the Dominion Government as the commencement of construction. So  that technically and according to  the customs and usages applicable  to the case, the work done at Esquimalt on the 19th July, and subsequent days, constituted a valid and  legal commencement of construction.  But the advantage gained by a  valid and legal commencement of  construction may be forfeited by  interruption of the work or failure  to prosecute it with reasonable diligence. The authority above emoted,  Words and Phrases Judicially Defined, in reference to the same subject elsewhere says: "But such  work must be done with an intention and purpose then formed to  continue such work to the completion of the building, and work done  on the ground without any design  or purpose to construct a building  at the time and which is intermit-  tant is not sufficient."  In this case there could be no  auestion raised of the intention of  the Government. From the time the  Bill was passed on the 1st April.  1871, onward, the people of Canada  were behind the proiect and were  determined to have the road built.  Both parties were agreed on this,  and the people cheerfully, in the  face of the Besolution passed on  the 11th April, 1871, consented to  an increase of fifteen per cent in  the general rate of taxation to meet  the expenses incurred. Nor was  there any interruption of the work. Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937  33  From the time the survey party left  Victoria on the 20th July, 1871,  until the last spike was driven on  the 7th Nov. 1885, the Government  never ceased in forwarding the  project. There were not two projects, two Railways. There was one  Railway only and its construction  went on without interruption until  it was completed.  It might be contended of course  that while the trifling amount ot  work done at Esquimalt in July,  1873, might at the time have been  a valid and legal commencement of  construction, when the work of actual construction was resumed at  Yale in 1880 it could not be regarded seriously as the commencement of the construction of a transcontinental railway, after the lapse  of seven years when the elements  had pretty well obliterated all  traces of the work.  But to render this argument  sound it would be necessary to  show that time was of the essence  of the contract which it was not.  When time is not of the essence of  the contract and the structure is  not finished within the time mentioned in the written agreement.  the contract is not cancelled. It  still remains a subsisting contract,  and the aggrieved party has his  remedy in an application to the  Court for specific performance of  contract and for damages, and the  contractor is entitled to a settlement on an equitable basis. But if  time is of the essence of the contract and the structure is not finished within the time mentioned in  the written agreement, the contract  ceases to exist, and the contractor  is not entitled to a settlement on an  equitable basis.  In this case where time is not of  the essence of the contract it is difficult to see how what was once a  legal and valid commencement of  work should lose its status as such  through the mere lapse of time  while the contract remained a subsisting contract.  The law on the subject is quite  clear:  Law Dictionary, C. S. West, a  standard work, says: "When a contract limits time for the performance of an act, the promissor has  the  right of performing it within  a reasonable time after the date  unless it appears that performance  within the time was intended to be  of the essence of the contract."  Chitty on Contracts,, page 458:  "Unless a different intention appears from the terms of the contract, stipulations as to the time of  payment are not deemed to be of  the essence of the contract."  And in the Western Weekly Reports, Vol. 1, page 1922, Hayden vs.  Rudd. "In equity as a rule time will  not be regarded as of the essence  of the contract unless it affirmatively appears that the parties regarded time as an essential element of  their bargain."  In any case the contract between  the two governments, insofar as  it implied or required a continuation of the work of construction at  Esquimalt was null and void as  being adverse to the public interest.  The situation was this: The plans  of the Dominion Government had  been upset by the loss of San Juan  Island. There were three places  available as a terminus, Burrard  Inlet, Bute Inlet and Esquimalt. The  Government did not know then, and  could not know, which was the  most suitable. Under the circumstances, to have spent several hundred thousand dollars at Esquimalt  only to find later that some other  place was the most suitable for the  terminus of the Railway, and that  the money spent at Esquimalt was  wasted, would have been an act of  culpable recklessness without justification or legal sanction.  "Any agreement which tends to  be injurious to the public or against  the public good is void, as being  contrary to public policy" is the  way the rule is laid down on page  304. volume 7, of Halsbury's I^aws  of England.  Work was discontinued at Esquimalt three davs after it commenced  and on the 26th July. 1873, a stiff  note was sent from Victoria to Ottawa protesting against the nonfulfillment of the Railway clause  bv the Dominion Government. To  contend that the Provincial Government was right in its interpretation of the Railway clause  would be to argue that a contractor who had spent several hundred  dollars in excavating the cellar for 4  The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  a house, if he went for one day to  the quarry for stone would find on  his return that the contract was  broken, that he was a tresspasser on  the premises and, unable to collect  pay for the work he had done. The  Provincial Government always interpreted the Railway clause as if it  expressly stipulated that time was  of the essence of the contract and  the commencement of construction  should be followed thereafter by a  vigorous prosecution of the work  with the number of men employed  and the expenditure of money commensurate with the magnitude of  the undertaking. Neither of these  two provision are in the Railway  clause, yet the Provincial Government always interpreted it as if  they were.  If the Provincial Government  honestly believed that time was of  the essence of the contract and that  the agreement was broken when  the work at Esquimalt stopped,  its interpretation of the Railway  clause wTas so widely different from  that of the Dominion Government  that there was virtually no bargain,  no agreement.  Canadian Encyclopedic Digest,  Vol. 2, page 842: "Consensus ad  idem, For a contract to come into  being the minds of the two parties  must meet in one and the same intention, and if it be clear that there  has been no consensus what might  have been written or said becomes  immaterial. If one of the parties  intends to contract in one set of  terms and the other intends to contract in another set of terms, there  is no contract unless the circumstances are such as to preclude one  of the parties from denying that he  agreed to the terms of the other."  Leake on Contracts, page 2. "A  consensus ad idem is a prime essential to the validity of a contract,  and if one party has not agreed to  all the terms there is no contract."  But in this case there was no  impairment of the contract through  want of a full understanding,  through one party thinking in one  set of terms and the other in  another set of terms. Both were  thinking of the same thing and  both agreed to the same thing as  will be shewn.  Sir John A. Macdonald resigned  on Nov. 5th, 1873, and Alexander  Mackenzie, the leader of the opposition, after forming a Ministry,  went to the country, and during the  ensuing election campaign he repeated what he had said in the  House of Commons, viz., that in  undertaking to commence work  within two years and to complete  the Railway in ten years the Conservative Government had acted  with insane recklessness, and he  pointed triumphantly to the fact  that the Tories themselves were unable to carry out what they had  undertaken to do.  From the time Mackenzie took  office onward there was complete  agreement between the two Governments, both agreed that the Dominion Government had failed in its  engagement. But because the two  Governments—the debtor and the  creditor—agreed that the bargain  had been broken, the one for the  purpose of making political capital  out of the situation, and the other  for the purpose of extorting compensation, it did not necessarily  followr that such was the case, that  Ihe bargain had been broken.  Had there been the intervention  of a third-party interest both Gov-  erments would soon have found  that what they had mutually agreed  to was immaterial, that the question  wrould have to be dealt with on its  merits, and that they had no case.  The Railway clause does not set  forth or embody what the Dominion Government undertook to do,  because the Bill which includes the  Railway clause was not passed by  fhe House of Commons until after  .he leader of the Government assured the House that the Resolution  making the building of the Railway  rdependent upon Canada being able  to build it without increasing the  rate of taxation, would be introduced and passed later. The Bill  passed, but with the majority the  Government usually commanded  greatly reduced, the presumption  therefore is that if this assurance  had not been given the Bill would  have been defeated. British Columbia entertiB^Wt no protest  against the Resolution, which entirely altered the import and meaning of the Railway clause, being  introduced    and    passed    by    the Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937  35  House, nor did British Columbia  repudiate ihe speech of her accredited agent, J. W. Trutch, or offer any  explanation. The presumption,  therefore is that the Province at  that lime, acquiesced in both, in  making the building of the Bailway  contingent upon the Dominion Government being able to build it without increasing the rate of taxation  and without time being of the essence of the contract.  The Bill was passed on the 1st  April, and the Resolution on the  11th April, 1871, and in the interval, on the lOlh April, in the presence of the Dominion Ministers.  Trutch made his speech in which  he said "all that was understood  was that the line should be built as  soon as possible."  Now bearing in mind the Resolution of the 11th April, and what  it implies, and having regard to the  frank admission of the accredited  agent of British Columbia, made in  the presence of the Dominion Ministers the day before, any claim  which might be set up that there  was a misunderstanding, that the  two parties were thinking each in  a different set of terms from the  other, or that the Dominion Government was bound to do more  than complete the Bailway within  a reasonable time, would fall to the  ground and with it the claim implied by British Columbia that time  was of the essence of the contract,  and that when work was stopped at  Esquimalt the agreement was broken. British Columbia never had  an equitable claim against the Dominion for delay in the construction of the road. No lawyer could  take such a case into court, and  expect to succeed. If he did be  would find himself blocked at  every point.  In the spring of 1874 the Dominion Government commissioned  J. D. Edgar to proceed to Victoria  and make a new bargain with the  Provincial Government, a new  agreement. He was authorized to  ask the Province to agree to an extension of the time within which  the Railwav should be completed,  from 1881 to 1890 and to offer to  build the Railway from Esquimalt  to Nanaimo as compensation for  the extension of time.    There was  no necessity for making this offer.  Canada was never bound to complete the road by July 20th, 1881.  Two of the three delegates representing the Provincial Government  when the Terms of Union were settled, admitted in the most public-  manner that all that Canada had  agreed to do was to complete the  Railway "as soon as possible" or  "as soon as was compatible with  her resources" and that the ten  years mentioned in the Railway  clause was inserted tentatively as  without some term of years, any  term, being mentioned the clause  would be too vague. Nevertheless  it suited the Dominion Government  to fall in line with the Provincial  Government's interpretation of the  Railwav clause.  When negotiations fell through  and. G. A. Walkem, the Provincial  Premier, was preparing to go to  London to lay his shadowy grievances "at the foot of the throne",  Lord Carnarvon, who was Secretary of State for the Colonies at  the time, in a letter to the Governor  General, Lord Dufferin. dated 18th  June, 1874, offered to act as arbitrator between the two' Governments, but expressly stipulated that  he would do so only if the two  Governments agreed beforehand to  accept his decision.  Had Lord Carnarvon faced the  facts frankly and with an open  mind he woidd. at least, have insisted on the question being submitted  to the Supreme Court, and a decision secured first before meddling  with it.  Rritish Columbia agreed to accent Lord Carnarvon's decision,  whatever it might be, and the following dispatch was sent from Victoria to London on the 3rd Aug..  1874: "Colonial Secretary. London.  Upon advice of Responsible Ministers I accept on behalf of Rritish  Columbia arbitration offered in  your dispatch to Lord Dufferin 18th  June. Acknowledge receipt, J. W.  Trutch.   Lieutenant-Governor."  Mackenzie, on behalf of the Dominion Government, flatlv refused  to be so bound. Nevertheless the  arbitration proceedings went for  ward, and when the award was  handed out. Mackenzie who had refused to be bound by it, willingly 36  The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  accepted it, while Walkem, the  Provincial Premier, refused to accept it.  When the offer was made  through Edgar to build the Island  Railway it was clearly understood  by all parties that it was in compensation to the people of British  Columbia for the delay, for the extension of time within which the  Railway should be completed. But  Lord Carnarvon in his award, while  he makes provision for the extension of time and the completion of  the Railway in 1890, and for the  building of the Island Railway,  makes no mention of compensation  thus leaving the whole question  open.  Had he added a single sentence  to his award clearly stipulating that  before it would be binding on either party it would first have to be  accented by a vote of the Parliament of Canada and by a vote in  the Legislative Assembly in Victoria, and that when the Island Railway was built all claims the Province might have against the Dominion for any delay would be  extinguished, it would have cleared  up much. But he did not do this  and the consequence was that his  award when it was handed out,  instead of bringing the two Governments into agreement, proved to be  a document which was well calculated to, and did, drive the two  parties farther apart than ever and  left the whole matter more embroiled than it was before. A man in  Lord Carnarvon's position might be  expected to act with more prudence  and foresight than he did. It was  this defect in the Carnarvon Terms,  in not more clearly defining what  would be expected of both parties,  that led to the rejection bv the  Senate of the Esauimalt and Nanaimo Railway bill later on.  No one to this day knows what  the Carnarvon Terms mean. The  subject was frequently debated in  the House of Commons. On the 5th  and 20th March. 1875, they were  at it hammer and tongs, some contending that the Island Railway  was for compensation to the people  of British Columbia and other refusing to concede the point. The  Carnarvon Terms were never binding on the Dominion Government.  Mackenzie accepted them as far as  he was able to, but the Bill giving  effect to them was rejected by the  Parliament of Canada. There are  not two Parliaments in Canada.  The B.N.A. Act is quite clear on that  point: "There shall be an Upper  House to be known as the Senate  and the House of Commons". Any  Bill that does not pass in both  Houses is rejected by the Parliament of Canada.  When Walkem was on his way  back from England he stayed over  at Ottawa and had an interview  with Premier Mackenzie. The Dominion Premier was very cordial  and friendly. He seemed to think  that all differences between the two  Governments had been adjusted  and that they were now in agreement, and he assured Walkem that  the Dominion Government would  accept the Carnarvon Terms, and  that the Island Railway would be  built with the least possible delay,  and these facts were communicated  to the Government at Victoria in a  telegram by Walkem. Mackenzie  appears to have frankly accepted  the Carnarvon Terms and was prepared to adhere to them, and was  much disappointed when the Bill  for the construction of the Island  Railway was thrown out by the  Senate.  Had Walkem accepted the Carnarvon Terms with the same frankness and loyalty, the people of British Columbia would have had their  Island Railway built then instead  of having to wait for ten years  longer for it.  But Mackenzie made the same  mistake that Carnarvon did, he did  not have it clearly stipulated and  understood that when the Island  Railway was built it would be accepted by the people of British Columbia in full satisfaction of all  claims the Province might have  against the Dominion. Both seem  to have taken this for granted. Evidently thev did not know their  Walkem. It was this oversight on  the part of these two men which  shaped the policy of the Provincial  Government.  When the Carnarvon Terms came  up for consideration in the Legislative Assembly in Victoria, the  Premier,  G. A. Walkem, promptly Society of Vernon, British Columria—1937  3.7  shifted his ground and declared  that there had been no arbitration  and no award, only "friendly intervention", and his Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, Mr.  Beaven, assured the House that  nothing had been changed and that  the Terms of Union had not been  altered.  It seems extraordinary that the  Dominion Government was prepared to contribute a very large sum,  at that time when the resources of  the country were so limited, towards a project involving an expenditure of about two millions,  for the purpose of compensating  the Province for the delay in building the Railway, without first having it clearly understood, and stipulated that the Province would  accept this enormous sacrifice in  satisfaction of its claims, and would  agree to the extension of time asked  for.  It was Senator Dickey who called  attention to the blunder the Government was making in committing itself irrevocably to the building of the Island Railway, and leaving the Government at Victoria free  to regard it not as compensation  but as part of the mainline of the  Canadian Pacific, and free to still  pester the Home Government with  their groundless claims.  It was probably his speech made  on the 6th April, 1875, that killed  the Island Railwav Bill. It is thus  reported in oart in Hansard: "He  maintained that it was not a treaty  a« the Chief Commissioner of Lands  and Works of the British Columbia  Government (Mr. Beaven) slated in  the Legislature on the 10th March  last, on the occasion of Mr. Walkem  laving on the table the report of his  mission to England, in reply to a  member 'Now, if hon. members will  read the reports they will find that  no arbitration or legislation took  place upon them and that the old  terms (with Canada) remain intact'. He made use of these words  again 'Although the British Columbia Government had preserved the  terms intact'. That was the viewT  of British Columbians of what was  called here a new treaty. Under  these circumstances he did not see  how this Government was justified  in   putting  this  heavy  expense  on  the Dominion for what his hon.  friend (Mr. Carroll) had truly called a local work."  The Senate in rejecting the Bill  for once justified its existence.  When Alexander Mackenzie  found himself balked in his efforts  to bestow upon the Province compensation to which it was not entitled, he turned his attention to  continuing the surveys for three  years at an expense of nearly three  million dollars thus proving by  spirit level and chain what everyone already pretty well knew, viz.  that no other route offered so many  advantages as the Burrard Inlet  route, and, incidentally, what an  insane bargain the Tories had  made.  In 1876 Lord Dufferin, the Governor General, visited the Province,  and in his speech at Victoria on the  20th Sept. he said in reference to  the Railway: "The terms of that  treaty (the Terms of Union) were  that Canada undertook to secure  within two years of the date of  the union the simultaneous commencement at either end of a railway which was to connect the seaboard of British Columbia with the  railway system of the Dominion,  and that such railway was to be  commenced within two years of  the date of the Union in 1871. We  are now in 1876. Five years have  elapsed and the work of construction even at one end can be said  to have only just begun. Undoubtedly under these circumstances  everyone must allow that Canada  has failed to fulfil her treaty obligations towards this Province."  (Victoria Colonist, 21st Sep. 1876).  Whether the circumlocution was  intentional or not, he intended his  hearers to understand that Canada  had broken her engagement.  On the date on which the speech  was made the Dominion Government had legally and according tc  the customs and usages applicable  to the case, commenced the construction of the Railway on the Pacific coast, had raised the general  rate of taxation fifteen per cent to  meet the expenses incurred bv  building the Railway, something it  was expressly exempted from bv  the Resolution of lltb April. 1871.  and  had  then  four years  and  ten 38  The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  months within which to complete  the road within the ten years mentioned tentatively in the Railway  clause, and it was a well known  fact that the first transcontinental  railway built in the United States  —the railway connecting Omaha  with the Pacific—had been built in  less than four years.  If there is one rule more generally adhered to than another in  English Colonial law it is that the  Governor of a Colony that has responsible Government, shall not take  sides in party politics. Notwithstanding anything he said to the  contrary, Lord Dufferin descended  into the arena of party politics, espoused the wrong side, and in his  speech made statements inconsistent  with the facts and, in so doing,  maligned the country whose Governor General he then was, and tarnished and blackened the fair name  of Canada.  When the last spike was driven  on the first transcontinental railway built in the United States, on  the 28tb April, 1869, (Bancroft)  the Americans wrere very proud of  the accomplishment, of their railway 1775 miles long, and quite  justly so. It was a splendid achievement. But when the building of  Canada's first transcontinental railway is mentioned—a railwav 2500  miles long, and built by Canada  with a population of only about one  tenth of the United States, and one  tenth of her wealth—it arouses little enthusiasm in the breast of the  average British Columbian. It reminds him of the Carnarvon Terms  and the Pacific Scandal, and these  he is apt to interpret, the Carnarvon Terms as meaning that Canada  inveigled British Columbia into  joining the Confederation by promising to build the railway and then  refusing to do until she was more  or less coerced into keeping her  engagement by the Home Government; and the Pacific Scandal as  meaning that Sir John A. Macdonald and his colleagues narrowly escaped having to go to jail for the  theft of public funds.  Canada broke no engagement,  and the Carnarvon Terms never  amounted to more than an abortive  and rather stupid blunder on the  part of Lord Carnarvon, and there  was nothing in the Pacific Scandal.  In 1871 Sir John A. Macdonald and  his colleagues did no more than  what every Government in Canada  is doing today, and what every  Government has done since Confederation, and what every Government in England has been doing  for a thousand years past, viz., accept contributions from their  friends towards a fund for defraying legitimate election expenses.  Whether it is right or not for a  political party when in power to  accept such contributions from  men with whom the Government  then has business relations, is a  question we leave to casuists to decide. We are here dealing with  the facts.  It is time Canadians aroused  themselves and insisted on the facts  being admitted and acknowledged.  Canada has lain too long under the  unjust imputation of having broken  her engagement with British Columbia.  Amid all the welter of confusion  and misunderstanding created by  the blundering ineptness of Carnarvon, Dufferin and Mackenzie, and  the shifty dishonesty of Walkem,  the man who stands head and shoulders above them all is Sir John A.  Macdonald. His honesty, his frankness and. candor in confronting  facts, and his common sense, mark  him out as a man apart, a man in a  class by himself. There are two  men—Macdonald and Douglas—of  whom British Columbians may well  be proud.  Obviously, the subject cannot be  dealt with clearly and adequately  in an article of this length. It is  intended rather as a serious challenge to anyone to show that Canada broke her agreement with British Columbia over the building of  the Railway. Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937  39  The Log Cabin at Summerland  J. W. S. Logie  In the winter of 1921-22 the  officials of the Labor Party in Summerland were confronted with the  fact that many of their members  were unemployed and in dire need  of the necessities of life. The problem of seasonal occupation is always a pressing one in an agricultural country and the casual worker is the first to suffer. The field  of co-operative effort was thoroughly canvassed and it was decided  that the establishment of cottage  industry, or some form of handicraft, offered the easiest solution  to the problem.  It was then found that a high  standard of artistry was essential  if the product was to command a  ready sale, and a branch of the B.  C. Art League was organized to coordinate design and color schemes  and to supervise all manufacture  undertaken oy the group. A sales  room was the next step and the  Log Cabin seemed most fitting for  a Western environment. Sceptics  said that there were no artists in  the community and no funds available, so the problem was thrown  back to the Labor Party where it  originated. The members thought  that community effort would solve  the difficulty so a bee was organized  and in one day sufficient logs were  cut to erect a log cabin.  The neighborhood was combed  for specimens of variou's handicrafts, a great deal of unknown talent was discovered and the Log  Cabin, as headquarters of the Art  League, was officially opened on  June 1st, 1922, by Mr. J. W. Jones,  M. P. P.  The next step was to discover  branches of handicraft which  would be most suitable for the district, and to secure capable teachers. During the next few months  experiments with the local clays  were carried on and, although experts in Ottawa said that our clay  banks were not suitable for pottery  making, we decided to try it anyway and found that with special  treatment a first class product  could be obtained.  Miss Mary Young who was at  that time conducting art pottery in  Banff wras engaged as teacher and  classes were opened in connection  with the night school in March,  1923. The mixing and preparation  of the clay was first taught and the  moulding of bowls and other vessels by hand followed in due  course. We were told that it would  take seven years to learn the use  of the potter's wheel but some of  our workers learned to be quite  proficient in half as many months.  A kiln was purchased in collaboration with the school board and with  wheels made from old Ford parts  we were prepared to take up the  manufacture of pottery in earnest.  Miss Young returned in November  of that year to install the kiln and  give instruction in glazing.  The group specialized in two  types of pottery— the glazed, and  an Indian motive finished in the  natural color of the baked clay  prepared to make it waterproof.  Special mention should be made of  the very artistic work turned out  bv Miss Doris Cordy, Miss Marion  Cartwright, Mrs. Cordy, Mrs. Iverson, Mrs. Croil and others who developed a talent bordering on genius in the beauty and finish of their  product. A professional potter who  had spent his whole life in the industry visited the Log Cabin the  following year and said that in his  whole experience he had never  seen anything to approach the artistry of the product with such a  short period of training. Which  only goes to prove the contention  of the writer that in every home  there is latent talent which only  needs training and encouragement  to bring about the most surprising  results.  Miss Cordy is still producing pottery on a commercial basis, and a  visit to her home will prove interesting and instructive.  Basketry was the next handicraft  to be taken up, and Mrs. Armstrong  of Keremeos supervised the manufacture of many interesting designs  in   raffia,  pine   needles   and 40  The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  reed. Then a spinning wheel and  loom were acquired and experimentation begun with local wools  and other fabrics. Mr. Amundson  of Faulder contributed some clever  specimens of wood carving and the  development of other crafts was  planned  as  opportunity  offered.  The entire venture was on a cooperative basis, the main object being to furnish a lucrative employment to the fruit growers and casual workers who were forced to be  idle during the winter months. The  idea is by no means new as it furnishes the bulk of the income of  the agricultural sections of Europe,  the reputed prosperity of the Scandinavian countries being due to the  fact that the peasants and working  classes are to a great extent self-  supporting and able to make their  own clothing and most of the  household utensils needed in their  daily life.  A district like the Okanagan,  with no large-scale industry, could  add very greatly to the income of  Ihe Valley by making use of cottage industry for the manufacture  of articles for home consumption  and for sale to tourists who will  come into the country in increasing numbers as time goes on. When  the movement at Summerland was  being organized the writer made  the statement that the time would  come when the farmer could no  longer buy the products of the factory and would be compelled to  rely more on the things which he  could make for himself and his  family. This is not with the idea of  rationalising a condition of scarcity in the midst of plenty but, apart  from the cultural value which is  incalculable, we have here the  foundation of a new type of indus  try which we are told is to be based  in the future on production for use.  Summerland was by no means  the only district where cottage industry was being fostered as it  could be found in all sections of  the Valley, mainly sponsored by  the various Women's Institutes who  conducted training classes and organized exhibitions and sales. The  crying need today is just the same  as we found it in Summerland sixteen years ago, and that is for an  organization such as the Art League  wThich can supervise the manufacture of such articles as are found  io have the most ready sale and who  can place them on sale in the centres of population and where the  tourist traffic is heavy enough to  warrant it. The Island Weavers  of Esquimalt have had to import  weavers from Scotland and cannot  begin to supply the demand for  their handwoven materials.  In 1927 the writer was given the  privilege by the Dominion Government of building Log Cabins on  the Cariboo Highway in order to  exhibit ana sell the products of  Summerland and of other places in  the Okanagan. His health broke  down and he was compelled to  abandon the entire project and  leave for California. The plan is  still entirely feasible, but should be  carried out under Government subsidy and patronage until the undertaking can become self-supporting.  Some form of co-operative society  is indicated and should receive the  consideration of Women's Institutes, Service Clubs and all those  wdio are interested in the future  development of th Okanagan. The  main portion of the history of the  development of Cottage Industry in  the Okanagan still has to be  written. Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937  41  The Gold Brick Robbery  at Camp McKinney  Arthur K. W. Cosens  The "Cariboo Mine" at Camp  McKinney of which Robert Jaffray  was president, George B. McAulay,  managing director, and Joseph P.  Keane, superintendent, was a paying proposition from the grass  roots down. James Monahan of  Spokane was also a director of the  Company and very instrumental in  getting it under way after purchasing the property from the first  owners, McKinney and Rice.  Monahan brought in the first unit  of the stamp mill from the State of  Washington,    hauling   it    in   with  teams, and passing the customs at  Osoyoos.    It was said that he presented  a check for the amount of  the   duty which  was  accepted  by  Theodore  Kruger,  Customs  Officer,  although it lacked a signature, and  that bv the time it  again  reached  Monahan   with   a   request   that   he  remedy this oversight the mill was  running and producing enough bullion to meet all requirements.   This  story  was  currently accepted,  but  truth compels me to add that it was  with   the   consent   of   the   Deputy  Minister of Customs at Ottawa that  the mill was brought in and erected  before the duty was paid.    In the  year  1896 the  Camp  was  running  very smoothly.   The stamp mill was  pounding awray incessantly day and  night with only a cessation of the  noise  from the  falling stamps  for  a short time twice a month during  the time the "clean up" was in progress.   After the amalgam had been  retorte.d, the  quicksilver being retained,  the  gold bricks  of  an  approximate   value   of   $30,000   per  month were ready for shipment to  the mint at San Francisco by express   from   the   nearest   railway  which was at Marcus at one time,  and later at Midway, after the advent of the railway to that point.  A certain amount of caution was  usually taken when the bricks left  Camp.    Sometimes  I  have  known  them thrown  into the jockey box  of one of the wagons hauling con  centrates or tailings to the railhead  for shipment to the smelter at Tacoma. In this case the wagon  would be met at its destination by  one of the officials or trusted employees of the Company, the brick  extracted and shipped, sometimes  without the driver of the wagon  knowing that he had been its custodian at all.  At other times it would be hidden in a sack of concentrates and  the same procedure followed.  Then again it would be taken by  the Superintendent on horseback,  or driving a buckboard and followed by an armed employee a hundred yards or so behind.  The morning of the robbery in  August, 1896, Geo. B. McAulay, who  had been spending a few days in  Camp and was returning to Spokane, left Camp at 7 a.m., driving a  buckboard and had the proceeds of  the last clean up with him. some  $14,000 in the form of three bricks,  the value of the smallest brick being §1.600. About two miles from  Camp on the road lo Rock Creek he  was ordered by a masked man who  stepped from the woods with leveled rifle, to throw out the bullion  and "keep going". McAulay obeyed until he reached the ranch of  C. W. Hozier some eight or ten  miles farther on. Here he enlisted  the services of Hozier's son, Leonard, a boy of some twelve years of  age, to ride to McKinney and noti-  fv us of the happening. Leonard  reached the Camp store which was  •n charge of the writer about ten  o'clock—no time was lost in informing J. P. Keans the Superintendent, of the occurrence.  There was one person in the  store besides the writer wdien Leonard arrived with the news—standing with his back to the stove—one  Matt Roderick. It seemed to the  writer that a slight smile passed  over Roderick's face when Leonard  imparted his message.  Camp McKinney at that time was 42  The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  what was known as a "One Man  Camp", that is to say, that "The  Cariboo McKinney Mining and Milling Co. Ltd." was the only company  operating and the only employer  of labor—therefore a miner who  worked for wages, or a laborer, had  really no chance there unless he  was acceptable to the management  of the Cariboo McKinney Mining  and Milling Co. Ltd. The rest of  the population was composed of  claim owners and old time prospectors with interests, or a stake  in the country.  There was, besides the boarding  house and store which was quite a  popular place for the men to "hang  around" when not on shift—especially those who did not drink—  a saloon run by Hughie Cameron.  The Camp later boasted no less  than five saloons.  On being informed of the holdup the Superintendent called out a  number of the men and a thorough  search of the woods in the vicinity  was made, however, without result,  nor was at that time the slightest  suspicion attached to anyone. Local amateur Pinkertons were entirely at a loss and that the robbery  had been committed by one of their  own men was certainly farthest  from their thoughts.  Matt Roderick, who hailed from  Tacoma, Wash., had been employed  by the Company as a miner for  some time. He was a very reticent,  quiet man, very well built, of medium height, and neither drank nor  smoked, but he was an inveterate  gambler. Every pay day he would  get his cheque cashed, pay his bills  at the store and immediately get  into a poker game where he would  usually stay until broke—sometimes  over a period of two or three days  —ignoring the time he was due to  go on shift. He lived in a cabin on  the outskirts of the Camp and at  the time of the robbery was laid  off—ostensibly being sick. The writer remembers that he was looking  extremely pale, and owing to his  indisposition there was nothing unusual for him to be in the store at  10 a.m. on the morning of the robbery. Some days later he stated  that he had better go home to Tacoma and would return when he  felt better—he had had  the usual  gambling reverses and I believe was  assisted financially by some of the  boys to enable him to go home. The  stage left at 7 a.m. Roderick climbed aboard sitting next to the driver  in the front seat. He had with him  a roll of blankets (it wras customary, and I might say, a sign of respectability for a man to travel with  his own blankets in those days).  Just as the stage was leaving Keane  appeared, and Roderick said to him.  "Will it be allright for me to come  back to work when I feel better,  Joe?" Keane replied, "You needn't  bother coming back, Matt." Hearing this conversation I took it that  Roderick's work had not been satisfactory and that Keane did not want  him again for that reason. Being a  "One Man Camp" this prevented  Roderick returning in the ordinary  way, and accounts for the way in  which he eventually did return. But  there was not the slightest suspicion attached to Roderick at that  time.  The management enlisted the services of a detective agency in the  State of Washington. First thing  they did was to check up on the  movements of the few individuals  wrho had left Camp since the robbery—among them. Matt Roderick.  They found that shortly after his  return home he was paying up taxes  on some property which had been  considerably in arrears, and generally soenaing money freely. This  naturally threw suspicion upon him  and his movements were continually watched. Soon it became apparent that he was preparing for  a journey. The supposition was  that he had brought out the small  $1,600 brick with him, concealed  in his blankets, and"disposed of it  and intended to return for the two  larger bricks, which he would  orobablv have cached in the vicinity of his cabin. The Camp was  notified that Roderick was headed  north and instructed to keep a close  look out for him. It was also ascertained that he had purchased a  fine iron grey saddle horse from  the Sheriff in Conconelly, Wash.,  and that it would be his means Of  transportation.  There were two roads leading  into Camp McKinney, from the  south and southwest, one from An- Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937  43  archist Mountain, known as the  Sidley Road, the other, from the  Okanagan, known as the Fairview  Road. These roads converged  about two miles from Camp. At  this point of vantage an Indian, one  Alexine from Inkanip, selected for  his intelligence and woodcraft, was  stationed with instructions to notify the Superintendent of the approach of anyone unknown to him  coining toward the Camp after  dark.  On the evening of October 26,  1896, at about ten o'clock the writer  had just closed the store and adjourned to Hughie Cameron's saloon, and was watching the various  card games. Two provincial constables, Louis V. Cuppage and  Deane were present, also J. P.  Keane, when a knock came at the  door. It was Alexine with a request to speak to J. P. Keane. The  message was, "He is coming". We  left the saloon hurriedly for the  store where the writer at their request provided the constables with  six-shooters. The store always had  quite an arsenal as many of the  miners from the States often carried guns and in Canada left them  with the storekeepers for safe  keeping. It was an absolutely pitch  black, dark night. Keane, who was  a very alert man of very quick action was on his way, followed by  Thomas Graham, before the constables had finished selecting their  weapons.  Less than a mile from Camp,  Keane overtook Roderick walking  in the same direction leading his  horse. As he was upon him almost  before he realized it owing to the  darkness, he accosted him, "Is that  you, Matt?" Roderick whirled  around, involuntarily the muzzle of  the rifle which Roderick was carrying in the crook of his arm was  raised. Keane thought he intended  to shoot and quick as a flash discharged his own gun. Roderick  fell dead, shot through the heart.  Upon examination Roderick's rifle  was found to have a piece of rag in  the muzzle and the six-shooter  found in his pocket was quite rusty  He had evidently just taken them  from their hiding place and was  proceeding towards the place  where the bricks were hidden. The  body was removed to the Company  office. The following day Dr. Jakes  from Greenwood, coroner for the  district, arrived and held an inquest, the following jury being empanelled:  Henry Nicholson, foreman; A. Atwood, W. H. Blick, George Bennett,  V. R. Swanson, and A. Cosens.  The bullet from Keane's gun had  entered Roderick's body just below the left nipple and was just  under the unbroken skin in the  back. Dr. Jakes removed the bullet  with a hair pin.  Roderick had left the Camp  broke, but on the body about $100  in cash was found, and under his  coat a canvas harness with two  pockets, one under each armpit,  of just the right size to accommodate the two larger gold bricks. The  jury's verdict was "justifiable homicide". There was not the slightest  doubt as to the guilt of Roderick.  It was most unfortunate that  Keane's precipitate action prevented the capture of Roderick as he  might easily have been trailed to  the hiding place of the bricks and  been taken together with the swag.  As it is the bricks were never  found—they still await someone to  stumble upon them in the jack  pines at Camp McKinney.  Keane was tried for manslaughter at the Spring Assizes the following year in Vernon, Monday. June  14, 1897, with Chief Justice McCall  presiding. A. G. Smith, Deputy-  Attorney-General, prosecuted. The  defense was conducted by Mr. Cas-  sidy and J. P. McLeod. of Greenwood. The sentence was one day's  imprisonment, which had already  been served. 4 1  The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  Mrs. T. A. Norris  Mrs. Angus W'ood  The death occurred on the 21st  Oct., 1936, of Mrs. T. A. Norris, al  Lumby where she had resided for  a long time.  She was a pioneer and the daughter of pioneers, the daughter of Mr.  and Mrs. Louis Christien, and a  niece of Joseph Christien who came  over the Penticton Trail with Eli  Lequime in 1861, and settled at  Okanagan Mission. The Christien  brothers, seven in number, played  an important part in the early development of this valley.  She left to mourn her loss her  husband and mother, two sons,  Louis and Charles; two daughters,  Mrs. C. W. Wills of Vernon, and  Mrs. E. R. Pierce of Lumby; a brother, Charles J. Christien of Lumby,  and two sisters, Mrs. David W. Wilson of Rossland and Mrs. Leon Lequime of Lewiston, Idaho, then on  a visit at Lumby. There were also  four grandchildren. The maiden  name of her mother, now Mrs. Oliver Bonneville of Lumby, was Se-  lina Quesnel, one of five sisters, all  of whom were pioneers of this  Province.  Mrs. Norris was born at St. Anicet  Quebec, on the 14th Nov., 1882,  where her parents lived for a short  time, coming to Okanagan with  them in 1887, and she was married  in her father's house in Vernon on  the 26th Feb., 1900, by Rev. Mr.  Muir, to Thomas Alfred Norris, the  first school teacher in White Valley.  It was intended at first that the  funeral should be a private one,  with only the relatives and a few  intimate friends present, but the  large number in attendance of  friends and acquaintances, from  Vernon, Armstrong, Kamloops and  Lumby,   and  the  large  number  of  floral tributes bore testimony to  the respect and esteem in which  she was held. The funeral service  was conducted at the house by the  Rev. J. Brisco, the resident Anglican  clergyman, interment taking place  in the cemetery on the hill side  above White Valley, about a mile  east of Lumby.  There is perhaps no more beautiful spot in Okanagan than White  Valley and on this occasion it was  at its best. The valley was bathed  in the warm autumn sunlight of  a perfect afternoon while the variegated colors of the forest trees  lighted up and rendered beautiful  the slopes of the surrounding hills.  It was a fitting setting, so calm and  peaceful, for the sad ceremony of  laying to rest one who all her life  adhered so closely to the Christian  precepts of unselfishness, charity  and devotion to duty. She was a  devoted wife and mother, her whole  life being given up to her family.  Always tactful and helpful, and  friendly in her demeanor, few wilh-  in the circle of their acquaintances  had a proportion so large of warm  and sincere friends.  Many of the old-timers, as many  as were here at the time, will remember very well the bright, vivacious little girl, dark-haired and  dark-eyed, Edna, the youngest of  the Christien children, going to  school in Priest's Valley forty-five  and forty-six years ago who was  such a general favourite and in  whom so many were interested.  And now we have laid to rest the  matron, the mother and grandmother, and another link with the  past—a link rendered beautiful by  the tender memories which cling  about it has been broken by the  death of Edna Mary Norris.  k_ Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937  45  NOTES AND COMMENTS  We have now proof that the  Aurora is audible without going  outside of Vernon for it. It was  heard here, quite distinctly, at  11.55 p.m. on the night of June 18th,  1936, by Douglas Kermode, of Vernon, a credible and reliable witness,  during an unusually brilliant display of the Aurora. Mr. Kermode  describes the sound as "shwoo,  shwoo" or like distant waves receding over a pebbly beach.  At last a start has been made towards solving an important problem. In his article in this Report.  George W. Johnson, of the Dominion Experimental Station at Summerland, has done good woik in  tracing the course of a unit of air  on its journey from the Philippine  Islands to the interior of British  Columbia. Further investigation  along these lines will no doubt in  the end, give us the explanation of  the intrusion of the Upper Sonoran  Life Zone into British Columbia at  Osoyoos.  *    *    *    *  Cosens Bay. Among Okanagan  place names this one is of interest.  It is the name of a large bay at the  north end of Kalamalka Lake, bordering on the Coldstream Ranch,  and named after Cornelius Cosens.  Mr. Cosens was born in Sussex,  England, in 1837. He came to the  Okanagan Valley in 1893 with his  two sons, Arthur K. W., and Spencer, and was joined later bv his  eldest son Sidney Cornelius. He  died in Vancouver in 1930, at the  ripe old age of 93 years. Arthur  Cosens is now a well known business man in Vancouver. Sidney  owns and operates a fruit ranch  near Kelowna, and Spencer died  some years ago in the Chilcotin  country where he was cattle ranching. ,    ,    ,    .  In 1935 a survey of our lakes was  made for the Pacific Biological  Station of the Dominion Government, at Nanaimo, B.C. A report  of the findings will be published  later on. In the meantime the Director, Dr. W. A. Clemens, has released certain particulars relating  to ihe maximum depths ascertained  and the oxygen content of the waters of our lakes which are interesting.  Okanagan Lake. Depth 760 feet,  between Carr's Landing and Nahun.  The bottom water remains very  cold throughout the year and the  percentage of oxygen is high, even  near the bottom of the lake.  Kalamalka Lake. Depth, 425 feet.  Temperature and oxygen conditions  similar to Okanagan Lake.  Duck Lake. Depth, 16 feet. There  is some drop in oxygen in the bottom.  Beaver Lake. Depth, 79 feet.  There is little oxygen below 25 feet.  Chute Lake. Depth, 46 feet. The  bottom waters of Chute Lake seemed to be absolutely devoid of oxygen.  The Gosnell Fossil. In July, 1931,  a fossil Sea Urchin was found by  Bichard M. W. Gosnell, a boy then  of about ten years of age, on the  shore of Loon Lake, a lake of about  250 acres in extent, lying about  half way between Enderby and  Salmon Arm and about two miles  west of the Enderby-Salmon Arm  road. It is generally conceded that  the sedimentary rocks of the Okanagan Valley are of fresh water origin rather than of salt water origin,  and the finding of this salt water  fossil is of more than ordinary  interest.  About a month after the finding  of it two affidavits were prepared  by R. R. Earle, K.C., of Vernon, and  signed by Richard Gosnell, the boy  who found it, and by W. B. Gosnell,  the boy's father, on whose farm the  fossil wras found and who knew of  the finding of it, thus establishing  the time, the place and the circumstances under which it was found.  It was then sent to Dr. M. Y. Williams, Professor of Palaeontology  at the 'University in Vancouver. B.C.  Dr. Williams in his letfer to this  Society, of the 23rd  Oct. 1931. savs:  "I have now gone into the matter  of the fossil Sea Urchin more f__.lv  and find it is most closely indenti-  fied with a form found in Germany,  genus Ismidaster. oossiblv specie*-:  Tulai. It is very different from most  forms found in America and as the  Cretaceous rocks to which the  German form belongs have never  been recognized near your locality  it  causes  me to wonder how  this 16  The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  specimen could have been carried  where it was found, unless, by  chance, it had been dropped by  some one who brought it from the  Old Country. I am informed that  German immigrants to this country  have frequently carried such specimens as luck stones, and as this  does not show the slightest wear,  such as beach gravel usually acquires. I am extremely doubtful of  its local origin."  It is possible that it was dropped  by some one. but any one who has  visited Loon Lake and has seen its  surroundings and its isolated situa  lion will recognize how improbable such a contingency is. In the  meantime we can only wait and see  if other fossils of the same kind are  found there. We are under an obligation to Dr. Williams for his  courtesy and for the time he spent  and for the trouble he took over  this fossil.  The New B. C. Quarterly. The  first number of the British Columbia  Historical Quarterly appeared in  January last. It is a pamphlet of  some 68 pages containing much interesting Information about early-  days on the Coast. The Editor is  Dr. W. Kaye Lamb, Provincial Librarian and Archivist, and the Advisory Board consists of Be v. John  C. Goodfellow. Princeton; Judge F.  W. Howay, New Westminster; Dr.  T. A. Rickard, Victoria, and Dr. W  N. Sage of the University of British  Columbia.  It is printed by the King's Printer  and is the official organ of the British Columbia Historical Association, the principal historical association of ihe Province, and as  the Association has not published a  Beport since 1929, the need for  some publication of this kind was  becoming more sensibly felt frcm  year io year.  Among other papers there is an  interesting article by Dr. Lamb dealing with the letters written by Sir  James Douglas to his daughter  while she was at school in England; a bit of excellent work by  Judge F. W. Howay in clearing up  the history of shipping and saw  milling on Burrard Inlet between  the years 1863 and 1870- and an  interesting paper by Dr. SJage deal  ing with Peter Skene Ogden's,  Notes on Western Caledonia. Dr.  Sage has also reviewed our Sixth  neport at some length. His review  is kindy and appreciative, and he  ends it with: "A word should be  added regarding the poems which  are placed at the beginning and  end of the Report. They breath  the spirit of the frontier and portray those characters of the cattle-  range, the cowboy and the tenderfoot."  We hope the members of the  Okanagan Historical Society will  support this new Quarterly. The  names on its advisory board and  that of its editor are a sufficient  guarantee of its future excellence.  The regular subscription is $2.00  per year, but all members of the  British Columbia Historical Association receive it free.  The Okanagan Museum and Archives Association of Kelowna B.C.  is incorporated and was registered  in the Office of the Registrar of  Joint Stock Companies in Victoria  on the 2nd Dec, 1936, under the  "Societies Act". Its operations  will be chiefly carried on in the  territory now covered by the  Okanagan Historical Society, viz.;  those portions of the Province  drained by the three rivers, the  Similkameen, Okanagan and Spallumcheen. The Directors as registered are: David Chapman, O. L.  Jones, A. E. Henderson, J. W7. N.  Shepherd, S. M. Simpson, E. R.  Bailey, and E. C. Weddell, all of  Kelowna.  Among other objects the aim of  the new Association is "to collect,  purchase, secure, catalogue, index  and preserve all relics, books,  maps, documents, papers, photographs, and things of historical  value, specimens of rocks, ores and  fossils, specimens of Indian wrork  and craftmanship, human and animal bones of more than usual interest, and specimens of the plants  and trees indigenous to the Province of British Columbia."  It would be hard to over-estimate  the importance of the work here  outlined, or its cultural, educational and historical value to the people in the Okanagan Valley.  The Association in its appeal to Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937  47  the public for support has pertinently observed: "Numerous articles and records of historical value have been lost or destroyed  through lack of a Museum, and a  responsible body to arrange for  their collection and safe keeping.  Throughout the Okanagan Valley  there are still many collections and  records which will meet a similar  fate unless some steps are taken  for the proper housing and preservation of them."  We hope the public will support  this movement in a manner commensurate with its importance. The  names on the Board of Directors  are sufficient guarantee that the affairs of the Association will be  managed with efficiency. The new  Association will have the hearty  support and close co-operation of  the Okanagan Historical Society in  helping them to carry out their  splendid undertaking.  For over eleven years the principal officers of this Society, the  President, Vice-President, Editor  and Secretary-Treasurer, have stuck  to their posts. They are now beginning to display some of the  staying qualities of some of the  old-time pre-emptors who lived on  their claims for forty and fifty  years. Perhaps the fact that so  many of the decent, intelligent people of the Okanagan Valley would  be disappointed if the work thev  are now doing were stopped or interrupted, has confirmed them in  their determination to see it  through as at first outlined. During  those eleven years the utmost unanimity and concord has prevailed  among our members and officers, at  least on one point, viz, that the affairs of the Society were badly  managed. All our members though;  so, and so expressed themselves,  and all the officers from the President down, agreed with them. But  for all that we have accomplished  something.  Until the publication of our  Reports no one knew anvthing  about the past history of the Okanagan Valley, and there was no information to be had, at least, no  information that was readilv available. The new arrival in ihe valley, avid of information about its  past history, and the tourist passing through, had to pick up as best  he could what information he could  get, and often from some miner or  prospector who delighted in the  time-honoured pastime of "stuffin'  a towerist" or from some garrulous  old timer* whose sense of any obligation hie was under to speak the  truth, was blunted by his eagerness  to please and amuse his visitors.  Hence much that was currently accepted as facts had its origin in  stories that were fantastic, absurd  or misleading. To some extent we  have remedied those conditions.  The Canadian Historical Review  of the University of Toronto in a  recent issue in reviewing our last  Report says: "The Okanagan Historical Society was founded in the  city of Vernon, B.C., in 1925. During the past ten years six reports  have been issued dealing with  every phase of the history and territory of the Okanagan Valley. The  Sixth Report, for 1935, has recently  been received by the Review and  it is listed in our bibliography relating tp Canada. The society deserves to be congratulated on the  excellent work of historical research that it is doing in the Okanagan area."  John Ridington, the Librarian at  the University of B.C., in a letter  to our Editor, says: "The Library  is indeed glad to receive this interesting work of more than three  hundred pages. It is the repository  of a vast amount of miscellaneous  and interesting information. I  know of no part of Canada in  which this work is done more effectively—and certainly there is no  part of British Columbia where the  work is done as well."  And Dr. W. N. Sage in the British  Columbia Historical Quarterly, says  "The Society was organized in Vernon in 1925. Its object has been to  record the history of the Okanagan  Valley, although it has never ceased  to be interested in the history of  the Province as a whole. The present Report shows how the Society  is accomplishing its purpose. It is  a storehouse of information."  This is what we have accomplished and it is on this we rest.  the    end. 48 The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  AT THE BALL  At a cowboy dance a notice was usually tacked up  above the piano which read, "Please don't shoot the  pianist.   He is doing his best.''  If shooting1 is done, have a care,  Don't shoot the man pounding the keyes;  His playing makes everyone swear,  Although he is anxious to please.  It is fun, and never a crime,  For a guest to draw and to shoot  In marking a change in the time,  The heel off another man's boot.  But if a man flashes his gun,  And, blazing away without care,  Hits some one and breaks up the fun,  The guests will not like it—beware.  When all the bright lights in the room  Are shot out, they'll pick upon you  For plunging the place into gloom*  And their aim is deadly and true.  And the ladies you think so dear  And sweet, with a pistol can hit  Four bits at full fifty yards clear,  And smiling, think nothing of it.  Then treat them to bunch-grass cocktails.  Meaning rye whiskey and water,  If the time or melody fails—  Join in their fun and their laughter.  Go slow, and don't try to be smart;  Don't splinter his backbone and chest,  And break up the dance, have a heart—  The fellow is doing his best. Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937 49  ON OKANAGAN LAKE  A creature strange swims in the Lake;  A harmless thing and goggle-eyed,  With sheep-like head, and scaly hide,  And leaving ripples in its wake.  Its name and nature no one knows;  But suddenly it comes and goes,  A visit brief and void of harm;  And then about its size and form  Men argue, and becoming warm,  Dispute, and almost come to blows,  And every day the wonder grows—  A creature strange.  The cowboy wonders more and more,  At what he never saw before,  And greets it with wild whoops and yells;  And then the strangest tales he tells  In camp, of how it made great swells  That broke in waves along the shore,  And of its size, its snorts, and roar—  A creature strange. 50 The Seventh Report of the Okanagan Historical  THE APPLE HARVEST  Under a soft and cloudless sky  The scented mild autumnal breeze  Gently kisses in passing by  The teeming fruitful apple trees;  And on the apple-scented gale,  From hapless tillers of the soil,  There comes a sad despairing wail,  The cry of unrequited toil.  While purring motors speed their way,  Bearing the blessed earth's increase;  The owner views with grim dismay  The mounting costs of gas and grease,  And scans his tires with anxious dread  Because full well he knows he stands  Only a jump or two ahead  Of service at the Sheriff's hands.  And merry maids a lovely band,  To pick the fruit upon the trees,  Trip through the orchards pail in hand,  In skimpy skirts that show the knees;  They work and sing the livelong day,  Although they're meanly housed and fed;  And wonder if they'll have to pay  For straw they borrowed for a bed.  While all this store of nature's wealth,  Soon at the rate of one a day,  Will bring to each one perfect health  And keep the vile M.D. at bay;  From far and near a sullen roar  Comes from an ill-used race of men,  It is the growers waxing sore,  The price of fruit has dropped again. Society of Vernon, British Columbia—1937 51  I HAVE BEEN IN SIMILKAMEEN  i have been in Similkameen  With the bunch grass growing green,  And the wild rose blushing red  By the lupin's azure head;  Blossoms basking in the sun  Where the sparkling waters run,  With the hill tops mounting high,  Pile on pile into the sky;  Saw the wonders of the Lord,  Read the import of His word,  Graved by fire and earthquake shocks  On the battlemented rocks;  Formed when first the earth was made  And its deep foundations laid;  Primal masses foiflded bent  By a hand omnipotent;  And I walk as one apart,  With a humble, chastened heart,  By the things that I have seen—  I have been in Similkameen.   rH£ WALKER  PRESS F/_/_»;  ENDERBY, B.C.

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