Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Second annual report of the Okanagan Historical and Natural History Society Okanagan Historical Society May 31, 1975

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Array R. N. (Bey) Atkinson Museum  785 MAIN STREET  PENTICTON, B.C,   V2A 5E3  SECOND  Annual Report  OF THE  Okanagan Historical and  Natural History Society  VERNON,  B.C.  Second Printing May 1975  9th September, 1927  Price $1.00  Copyright applied for  Okanagan Historical and Natural  History Society  Honorary President  Price Ellison  President  Leonard Norris  First Vice-Pres.  Charles D. Simms  Second Vice-Pres.  F. M. Buckland  Third Vice-Pres.  J> S. Galbraith  Editor  James C. Agnew  Sec.-Treas.  M. H. Ruhmann  Councillors  M.   S.   Middleton,   Allen    Brooks,   George   Gartrell,  Thomas G. Norris, Joseph  Brent, John W. S. Logie,  Rev. W. Stott, G. C. Tassie  Charter Members  John S. Galbraith, Charles D. Simms, M. H. Ruhman,  L. Norris, William   Brent,   H.  Lang, F. W. Rolston,  W.   C.   Pound,   Guy    BagnaH     Thomas    Robertson,  A. G. woolsey, James C. Agnew Names of Members  Agnew, James C., Vernon  Allison, Mrs. S. L., Princeton  Andrews, George M., Enderby  Ballard, A. A. Kelowna  Barnes, F. H., Enderby  Barnes, Stanley, Vernon  Bentley, N., Summerland —-  Bernie, L. Y., Medicine Hat, Sask.  Berry, A. E., Vernon  Bessette, Eugene, Lumby  Bloom, C. D. Lumby  Blurton, H., Mara  Bonneau, Casimir, Lumby  Brent, William, Vernon  Buckland, F. M., Kelowna  Buckland, J. H., Kelowna  Buckland, C. W., Kelowna  Butters, T. H., Lumby  Bagnall, Guy, Vernon  Campbell, Bert. R., Kamloops  Campbell, John, Vernon  Cameron, J. D., Salmon Arm  Cargill, C, Naramata        -—  Carroll, Rev. Father, Vernon  Catt, H. C, Lumby  Cawston, Mrs. R. L., Keremeos  Cayley, Judge, Vancouver  Chapman, David, Kelowna  Chisholm, R. J. Lumby  Coghland, Miss M., Vernon  Connor, Mrs. H., Penticton   —  Collett, H. C. S., Kelowna  Cooper, Frederick, Vernon  Copeland, R. A., Lumby  Costerton, C. F., Vernon  Crease, Mrs. H. H., Summerland *■  Cummins, A. P., Vernon  Cathcart, H., Victoria  Cree, Mrs. Muriel, Victoria  Dalgleish, R. L., Kelowna  Davis, F. G., Kelowna  Dobie, George, Vernon  Earle, Mrs. R. R., Vernon  Eastham, J. W., Vancouver  Edwards, J. G., Vernon  Estabrooks, Capt. O. L., Penticton ■  Evans, Mrs. J. W., Armstrong  Fellingham, Mrs., Lumby  Finlaison, F., Lumby  Finlayson, P. R., Ok. Landing  Finlayson, P. A., Vernon  Fitzmaurice, R., Vernon  Ford, Aaron, Armstrong  Fraser, Mrs. H. A., Armstrong  Frazan, R. Kelowna  Erench, J. G, Vernon  Galbraith, J. S., Vernon  Gardom, Basil, Lake Louise, Alta.  Gartrell, George, Summerland   .—  Giles, A. Waring, Vernon  Gillard, F., Kelowna  Godfrey, A. B., Vernon  Goulding, J. C, Oyama  Graham, T. Vernon  Graham, Donald, Armstrong  Harmon, T., Vernon  Harvey, Oliver, Vancouver  Hayes, W. H., Summerland  Hedley, E. L., Nelson  Heggie, Hugh, Vernon  Heighway, J., Lumby  Helmer, R. E., Nicola  Henderson, J. A., Oyama  Hey, Leonard, Vernon  Higgs, H. L., Vernon  Hill, Mrs. Wallace, Kelowna  Hogg, R. S., Summerland      ——  Hopkins, James, Armstrong  Hopping, George, Vernon  Hosie, John, Victoria  Howse, A. E. Princeton  Jackson, Walter, Lumby  Jacques, F. B., Vernon  Jenkins, Miss M., High River, Alta.  Johnson, Mrs. Cecil, Vernon  Johnson, Mrs. G. A., Courtney  Jones, J. W., Kelowna  Keary, W. H., New Westminster  Kempton. A. F., Lumby  Kennard, H. B., Ok. Centre  Kennedy, W. F. Vernon  Kerr, James, Penticton   Kerr, Robert, Midway  Knowles, W. R., Lumby  Lang, Hamilton, Vernon  LangstafF, J. J., Vernon  Larnie, John, West Vancouver  Larsen, S. T., Victoria  Lee, H., Lumby  Leathley, J., Kelowna Lloyd, Miss Ruth, Vernon  Logie, J. W. S., Lummerland  —  Lloyd-Jones, David, Kelowna  Lord, A. E., Kelowna  Loyd, A. K., Rutland  Lewers, R., Kelowna  Lees, C. W., Ottawa  McCaw, R. D., Victoria  McCluskey, J. W., Vernon  Macdonald, J. C, Victoria  McDonald, Myles, Armstrong  McKay, Mrs. I. E., Vancouver  McKay, John, Enderby  McKenzie, Mrs. Hector, Vancouver  McGinnis, E. O., Kelowna  McMynn, W. G., New Westminster  Meakes, Miss L., Vernon  Middleton, M. S., Vernon  Milne, Miss H. E., Victoria  Morand, Mrs. Louis, Lurrby  Morkill, George H., Vernon  Morley, William, Vernon  Mowat, J. J., Vernon  Mutrie, J. T., Vernon  Nalder, R. L., Kelowna  Napier, Col. R. Ross, Vernon  Neil, R. W., Vernon  Nelson, Denys, Fort Langley  Norris, Miss K., Langley Prairie  Norris, L., Vernon  Norris, T. A., Lumby  Norris, T. G., Kelowna  Owen, Walter, Vancouver  Paradis, Miss J., Summerland  —-  Parks, J. Z., Armstrong  Patton, L. W., Armstrong  Peters, William, Ok. Landing  Pope, C. A., Victoria  Postill, A. L., Nelson  Postill, Mrs. Eleanor, Vancouver  Pound, Rev. A. N. C, Lillooet  Pound, W. C, Vernon  Pout, Henry, Vernon  Pringle, J. F., Lacombe, Alta.  Patterson, George, Kelowna  Powley, W. R., Winfield  Quebec, Morris, Vernon  Quesnel, Cleophas, Lumby  Richards, Mrs. Leonard, Vernon  Richmond, Thos., Vernon  Robertson, Thomas, Vernon  Robertson, W. H., Victoria  Robison, Miss P., Vernon  Roland, C. F., Vernon  Rolston, F. W., Vernon  Ruhmann, M. H., Vernon  Scubert, James A., Tulameen  Shields, W. J., Lumby  Simmons, John, Vernon  Simms, C. D., Vernon  Smith, W., Vernon  Spencer, Frank, Vernon  Spinks, W. Ward, Victoria  Stark, Adam, Summerland   Stott, Rev. W., Armstrong  Swanson, Judge, Kamloops  Svenson, Miss, Kelowna  Small, Miss Byrde, Kelowna  Simonin, Leo., Kelowna  Smith, Miss Simpson, Ok. Mission  Saucier, Mrs. J., Ok. Mission  Tait, John, Summerland       ——  Tassie, G. C, Vernon  Toombs, A., Vernon  Tronson, George, Vernon  Tuck, D. C, Vernon  Watkins, Joseph, Vernon  Watts, E. D., Vernon  White, Mrs. R. B., Penticton —  Whithem, James D., Kelowna  Wilson, Rev. G. A., Vancouver  Wilson, W. S., Vernon  White, J. L., Victoria  Willits, P. B., Kelowna  Whillis, R., Kelowna  Webster, A. E., Kelowna  Weddell, E., Kelowna  Wollaston, F. E. R., Vernon  Woods, George, Vernon  Woods, Thomas, Ok. Landing  Woods, Mrs. Agnes, Lumby  Woodward, A. J., San Deigo, Cal.  Woolsey, A. G., Vernon The President's Address  Gentlemen,  We have reached the end of another  successfull year during which much  good work has been done, and our  Society has become better organized  and more firmly established.  Now that the automobile road has  been opened up to the coast we may  expect to see tourists passing through  this valley in increasing numbers from  year to year, and among these we hope  to see many of our own people,—the  people of Vancouver. New Westminister, Victoria and elsewhere in the  Province. With the coming of the  tourists and visitors avid of information, many questions relating to this  part of the Province will, no doubt,  be asked; and in view of these conditions it is some satisfaction to us to  know that a start at least has been  made at the work of drawing aside the  veil which hangs over the past history  of our valley, of ascertaining the origin  and meaning of our place names and  of directing attention to such natural  objects of special interest as we may  have here. Nor have we any reason  to be ashamed of the nakedness of the  land in these respects.  It would as you know, facilitate our  work   very  much   if  regular   meetings  could be held, but the men and women  actively engaged in it are scattered all  j over this vast district, and to assemble  ! for open discussion, ordinarily so desir-  I  able  and  profitable,  would  entail  too  !  much   expense.     Our   yearly   Reports  j are therefore not only a summary of  the  year's   accomplishments,  but   our  I chief  means   of  inter   communication  j as well, and this for the present seems  [ to be unavoidable.  The attention of our members is  ! called to the appeal made by our  | Secretary, Mr. Ruhmann, for close cooperation in compiling check lists of  our Flora and Fauna. Since plants,  animals, birds and reptiles are found  here which can be found no where else  in Canada, no other Na.ural History  Society is so favourably situated foi  making yearly additions to the known  Flora and Fauna of the Dominion.  This great privilege however, imposes  a duty, and this Society would be very  remiss if it neglected the work outlined by our Secretary; but of this  there is probably little danger for we  have among our members men and  women who are particularly well  qualified for this work.  Ne-Hi-La-Kin  A Legend of the Okanagan Indians Written Fifty-two years ago.  MRS. S. L. ALLISON  The winter had set in with unusual  rigor. Snow, lay deep on the ground,  covering the herbs and grass with a  spotless mantle. TSe extreme cold  had bound the great Lake in icy fetters, and the deep snow had driven  the deer down from the mountain?)  into the valley, and in their wake had  come wolves and coyotes innumerable.  The deer, though plentiful, were  thin and poor, and the Indians while  capturing many could make use of only  a few by reason of their thinness; but  the love of hunting is so strong, in the  Indian breast that the young men  could not refrain from needless slaughter, and amongst the eager hunters  none were so reckless as Ne-hi-la-kin.  The icy crust, that had formed on the  incumbent snow and cut like a keen  knife the legs of the hunted deer as  they bounded through it. was not  harder nor colder than his heart.    He  hunted for joy of killing, and killed  for the pleasure of destruction.  The old men well knowing the consequences of indiscriminate slaughter,  counselled the younger members of  the tribe to refrain from killing game  they could not eat, and so offending  the Great Giver of good gifts. The  young men with the exception of Ne-  hi-la-kin bowed in submission to their  leaders. Ne-hi-la-kin though he spoke  not listened with cold glittering eye  and scornfully curled lip, when the  a°ed Hapkin warned the youths that-,  if they abused the good gifts of the  Great Father, some dire punishment  would follow; and earnestly besought  them to think what the sufferings of  the tribe would be should a scarcety of  game result from their recklessness.  Moonlight is beautiful at all times,  but in the winter it is transcendently  beautiful.   See how the flood of silver light breaks over the dark mountain  tops, illrmens the lofty pines, and  darting downwards dances on the  frozen glassy Lake: all is silver where  the moonbeams play, elsewhere all is  .'ark and drear; surely there is enchantment in the moonlight. Look at  the phantom shadows of the rocking  pines, how ghastly they appear as  they flicker over the sparkling  frost, each crystal glistening like a  precious gem. A soft, sweet stillness  seems to wrao the whole earth; it even  penetrates the heart of man. causing  him to lift his eyes to the heavens  above where the moon is just rising  from behind the rugged mountain  peaks and lo! the great Orion stands  ready to combat with the firev eved  Taurus. The deep red glitter of Alde-  baran is surely reflected in the heart  of Ne-hi-la-kin. though all around him  is cold and still. His heart is burning  within him, and as he strains the saddle girth of Supp?l-line he scarce  notices his fingers adhere to the icy  iron ring. Why should that grumbling  old Hapkin grudge him his sport;—, if  puisbment befel him would Hapkin  feel it? Was it worse to slaughter half-  starved deer in the winter and end  their sufferings than to trap beaver, in  Summer, when they were enjoying  life?  Ne-hi-la-kin frowned, shook his  head, and urged forward his horse towards a wooded slope where he dismounted and tied his horse to the  limb of a tree; then stealing along  with his eyes fixed on the untrodden  snow, he soon discovered the tracks of  a herd of deer. Keeping sheltered by  the long shadows of the trees, he  eagerly followed. A crisp rustling soon  warned him to halt and examine his  rifle. The sound came nearer and.  as his eyes sought the direction from  whence it came, he became aware of  a large herd of deer. The leader, a  stately buck, advanced close to where  he. Ne-hi-la-kin. stood, its eyes fixed  on him and the expression of its face  was almost human. Ne-hi-la-kin  raised his rifle but before he could put  his finger on the trigger, a strange  giddiness seized him. he could hear the  sound of mocking laughter ringing in  his ears. His rifle fell from his trembling  hands. He reeled forward stretching  out his hands to save himself. He  lighted not on his hands but on his  feet— hoofs. Lo! his strong sinewy  arms,   and   long   slender   fingers,   had  ■  undergone   a   strange   transformation.  j They were no longer human, they were  j  the  limbs  of  a  deer—.  his  body   too  I  had changed, he was no longer a man  j  among   men  but  a  deer  belonging   to  the herd he had seen.    With the change  of body came a change of spirit.   The  once fiery, fearless man looked timidly  around him, the very wind that now  moaned   through   the   boughs   startled  him, and dim fears of hunters haunted him. his bewildered brain   was dazed.   Then a sound of horror fell on his  ears,   like   the   sound   of   a   man   in  anguish and misery.    The whole herd  seemed to recognize the cry and with  a   bound   started   towards   the   stately  buck,  their  leader.    The  buck  threw  back his antlered head with a proud  air  and  putting  himself  in  the lead,  bounded onward followed by the whole  herd.    Ne-hi-la-kin  tried  to keep  up  with them and although his trembling  heart beat loudly, he still managed to  follow them far behind. The cry comes  nearer and nearer, the hunter is now  hunted.   Again that frightful howl and  Ne-hi-la-kin turning   his   head   could  descry a large band of wolves rapidly  gaining on him.   Forward bounded the  unfortunate Ne-hi-la-kin in hopes   of  catching  up  with  the  herd,  his  eyes  stared,   his   tongue   lolled   out   of   his  mouth, foam gathered around his lips,  his   flanks   heaved,   and   he   plunged  wildly   over   the   crusted   snow,    now  breaking    through     and    cutting    his  slender   legs,   now   stumbling   in   his  haste.    Nearer  and  nearer  came  the  wolves he could almost feel their burning breath as they pressed closer   and  closer,  snapping  at   his  haunches.     A  large black wolf now plunged his fierce  fangs into  the deer's legs, another is  springing at his throat, a rush and  the  whole pack is on him. struggling, fighting,  tearing  at his  throat.    Ne-hi-la-  kir's   brain   swims,   darkness  decehds.  then it slowly clears off. and he finds  *bat the wolves have left him and are  devouring something close to where he  is lying.    He looks cautiously around,  the wolves are tearing and wrangling  over a large deer    While he looks on a  strange desire seizes him. he longs to  jcin   the   bloody banquet     He springs  to his feet, shakes himself,  he is not  himself not a man nor a deer, but   a  wolf.    A wolf with a ravenous desire  for blood    He darts forward amongst  the  mob of  fighting, snarling  wolves,  and  begins tearing and  bolting down  morsels of  the slaughtered  deer.    He  sees  that another wolf has succeeded 8  in tearing off a rib and in a moment  he is on him, and they tumble over  and over in a giddy whirl of combat,  biting and tearing each other, making the hair fly in every direction  whilst a third wolf daringly thrusts  his nose under him and snatches the  bone of contention. The banquet of  blood is ended, gorged and weary the  wolves disappear some to seek respose  and some to search for more prey. Ne-  hi-la-kin would fain have sought shelter in a clump of bushes, but as he  crawled thither bitten and mangled  from his fight, a large eagle that hac  been circling in the sky swooped down  on him and, burying its long cruel  talons deep into the back of the unfortunate animal, began to tear off  morsels of skin and flesh. In vain the  tortured wolf sought to dislodge the  tormenting fiend on its back. The  eagle continued to tear at the quivering flesh until the liver was exposed,  then the eagle made a fierce and fatal  stroke with its beak.  Ne-hi-la-kin felt his spirit rise from  torture and enter the eagle. Then  came another change of disposition—  a   desire   to   rise   and   mount   to   the  heavens and soar nearer the glorious  sun. He relinquished his hold of the  mangled carcass. He flapped his  broad wings and rose gradually circling upwards, he went no man knows  whether.  The friends of Ne-hi-la-kin finding  he did not return went in search of  him. They tracked his horse to the  tree where it was tied. There they  found his horse and the tracks of his  moccasins which they followed until  they found his rifle lying on the  ground, where he had dropped it; then  his tracks became those of a deer.  Still they followed; the deer tracks  ended and those of a wolf took their  place. Then they saw a large eagle  which flew away when they came to  the spot there were no longer any  tracks—nothing but the wide expanse  of spotless snow. And from that time  on Ne-hi-la-kin was seen no more on  the Lake nor by the river, nor was his  voice a°ain heard in the chase. He  had vanished and become part of that  silence—that awful silence, that sits  uron the hills and shrouds the mountains.  The Big Men of the Mountains  A Legend of the Okanagan Indians Written Fifty-two Years Ago.  MRS.  S.   L. ALLISON  On the shore of the beautiful Okanagan Lake, Torouskin encamped. The  Summer was well advanced, and with  the great heat of the long, long days,  a dead calm set in. The lake that had  so recently been so rough and tempestuous now shone still and placed as a  mirror, reflecting the surounding  mountains and groves of vine maple,  and cotton wood, that fringed its margin. The white swan floated magesti-  cnlly on the smooth surface, the loon,  uttering her sad wailing cry, dived  into the depths of the beautiful Lake,  in the cloudless sky above circled the  Osprey.  Near Torouskin's camp the snow  born Look-look-shouie emptied its icy  waters into the great bottomless Lake.  The Look-look-shouie like the lake  into which it flowed, has undergone a  remarkable change since the Summer  set in; the deep dark torrent that had  raged so furiously had now dwindled  into a small pellucid stream alive with  Kik-e-ninnies. Torouskin's aged grand  ! sire lay stretched on the upper bank  of the Look-look-shouie, smoking QUI-  ' shettle-men in a small pipe of dark  green stone, and watching the antics  i of Torouskin's children as they splashed about in the clear, cold stream en-  I deavouring to catch the bright denizens of the water.    As the venerable  j old man gazed, he recalled the days of  ; his own childhood. So absorbed was  the old man in his dreams that he  never noticed the approach of his  grandson until he felt the touch of  Torouskin's hand on his shoulder  "Wherefore dost thou gaze so earnestly  at the stream father of my father?"  "My thoughts" replied the old man,  "were back in the days of my childhood when I too was young; then  would my mother take me by the hand  and swinging a basket over my shoulder, lead me forth up the stream to my  father's fish trap. There we would  fill our basket with the shining kik-e-  ninnies.     Sometimes   we   would   stray  ; into the silent woods and gather ripe berries until we grew weary, then  flinging ourselves down on the soft  moss watch a family of skunks frisking about catching large brown beetles.  Oft I would stand on my mother's  shoulder and thrusting my hand into  a hole in a dead tree, draw forth from  its rest a young sparrow hawk. Day  by day would I watch the down little  balls until their eyes were opened, then  would I take one home. Ah! How  fondly did I treasure my little pet till  it found wings and flew off leaving me  mourining. Thus hath it been all the  davs of my life, all that was loved, all  that was treasured, hath gone—, even  as that much loved bird. Youth,  strength, everything I prized has departed and I remain useless, helpless"  "Nay. say not so, my father" said  Torouskin tenderly "for thy wisdom  remaineth. Who so esteemed in counsel as thou art? even now I was about  to ask thine aid in weaving osier  baskets such as my father used to  catch tbese fish, even as thou and thy  father caught them of old."  The old man soothed with these  wcrds. smiled with pleasure. Torouskin summoning his children started off  to cut willows in a grove near the Lake  shore; but bright-eyed Minat-coe  lingered and taking her grandfather  by the hand led him out to gather  bundles of wild hemp the filaments of  which her deft fingers would twist into strong twine, to bind the osier  baskets with.  Happy was the group which sat on  the shore of the great Lake weaving  the  long pliant osiers into  a trap or  conical    basket.     The   old   man   sat  smoking, or instructing    the    younger  members of his  family.     "Ke-kewas"  < grandfather>   said   the  lively  Minat-  coe. "what if it should happen to my  father even as it happened unto thee,  when thou wert young?   when the big  Men came down from their caves, allured by the abundance of fish"   "Jest  not,  my  child"  replied  the  old  man  fondly    stroking    Minat-coe's    glossy I  head "for once they took him, hardly j  would he escape."   "Tell us about the  Big  Men,  Ke-ke-was"  cried  everyone i  in a breath.   The old man shook his J  head.    "Tell me. Ke-ke-was" persisted |  Minat-coe, coaxingly, and the old man J  slowly filling his pipe began thus:  "In the days that are gone I hunted  in the mountains alone and fearless. I  Game of all kinds was plentiful   and  every night I returned to our camp my  9  horse heavily laden, at last my father  and mother grew weary of meat, and  longed for the bright trout that frequent these waters. My father went  up the stream a day's journey from  our encampment, and built a Fish trap  similar to the one we are making  now. When he had finished, he put  me in charge of it. I visited it daily,  every morning. I went at sun rise and  returned with fish enough for all our  tribe. Suddenly the supply of fish  ceased. Day after day I went but  found nothing in the trap. Thinking  it must have been robbed I resolved to  watch, so taking my blanket with me  one night, I lay down by the trap. The  moon had not risen, and the night was  dark and cloudy. All night I watched  but no one came near the trap. Towards morning I fell fast asleep and  soon I began to have troubled dreams.  I heard a shrill shrieking whistle as  of the north wind, and my senses were  oppressed by a vile, suffocating Oder.  Suddenly I woke to a consciousness  of being lifted from off the ground.  Upward I was lifted until I found myself on a level with a monstrous face.  I was too frightened to observe much  for a huge pair of jaws opened, and  emitted a laugh that sounded like  thunder. I expected every moment to  be put into that huge mouth and devoured; but the great creature in  whose hands I was. stooped down and  lifted up my blanket which had fallen  to the ground, and wrapping it carefully around me, placed me in the  bosom of the goat skin shirt he wore. j.  struggled until I got my head into the  air for there was a fearful smell of  garlic about this huge creature that  nearly chocked me.  Soon he began to whistle, it was the  same sound I had heard in my sleep  and thought it was the north wind.  Tbe Big Man calmly filled a basket  with fish out of my trap, then, slinging it onto his shoulders, began to as-  c"r»d the mountain still whistling with  all his might. Once he stopped and  taking me out of his breast he took a  fish and tried to cram it down my  throat, but seeing me choke he desisted, and putting me once more in his  bosom went on his way whistling.  Peeping out of the bosom of his  shirt I saw we were in a huge cave.  It was dark save for the red glow of  some smouldering embers at the  farther end. Throwing a few twigs on  the embers, the Big Man blew them  until   with   a   sharp  crackling  sound 10  they began to blaze, then I saw how  vast a cave we were in. It was somewhat low for its size, and from the  rcof hung garlic, meat and herbs.  Taking me out of his shirt the Big  Man tied me with a rope by the leg  to a log that lay near the fire. There  he stood looking at me, and then for  the first time I had a good look at him.  Thou knowest Toropskin that I was  ever esteemed a laree man, but standing by the Big Man my head was  scarce level with his knees. His boav  was covered with garments of goat  skin and was white, and he had a long  bushy beard that hung down to his  waist. After taking a long look at me  he went to a dark corner of the cave  and presently returned with an armful of soft furs which he threw on the  ground at my feet and signed me to  lie down. He next began to string fish  on a long slender willow which he  hung in front of the fire. I watched  his movement with fear and curiosity;  soon I heard a shrieking whistle outside of the cave. At first it seemed  distant, then it came nearer and soon  it ceased, and with a loud trampling  noise another Big Man entered tnt  cave. He had evidenly been hunting  for he carried three fine does supported by their necks from his belt as t_r~>~i  Torouskin would hang a grouse. Pulling them from his belt he threw them  on the ground and advancing squatted  down beside the Big Man who had  taken me, and they began to converse  in voices like thunder. As I watched  the two Big Men I was struck with the  mild kindly look on their big faces.  Presently my captor came to me and  loosing the strong rope that held me  took me over to the fire light for his  companion to look at. The other Big  Man after examining me closely burst  into a fit of laughter in which his  companion joined. Then he seated me  on his knee while his friend took the  fish from before the fire and they began to eat their evening meal. They  gave me a portion and seemed much  amused to see me eat. Suddenly one  of the Big Men gave a howl of pain,  and moaning, held out his hand for his  friend to look at. The other Big Man  examined it tenderly and big tears of  sympathy streamed down his cheeks.  Standing on his knee I could see that  a fish bone had run into his thumb  and as their fingers were altogether too  clumsy to remove it I seized the bone  in my teeth and pulled it out. The  Big Man smiled, looked grateful   and  soon dried his tears. I afterwards  found that these Big Men were extremely sensitive to pain, the least  hurt would make them cry and moan.  After they had eaten their supper  my captor rose and rolling a large  stcne to the mouth of the cave blocked  the entrance, then he took me and  laid me on my bed of skins, carefully  tucked me in.  The fire died down and the cave  grew dark, then I heard the most horrible sounds which I felt could only be  the snores of these men. Long, long  was I kept by my kindly captor. In  vain I tried to escape but they watched me too closely. Every day I went  out in the fisherman's shirt until the  run of fish was over Every day the  hunter came back laden with game.  When they left me alone they always  left me securely tied. They treated me  with the greatest kindness and were  affectionate with each other, but they  would rever let me go free and my  heart grew sad. and I longed to see my  own people once more. I watched  unceasingly for a chance to escape, and  a. last one night I observed a ray of  light stealing in between the rock ana  the entrance. I rose softly and founa  a crack left open through which the  moonlight was streaming; it was large  enough for me to force my way  through. As soon as I was outside of  the cave I ran with all my might. I  cared not whether as long as I was  free. For months I wandered living  on roots and berries, and at last I  struck the head waters of the Look-  look-shouie and following down stream  I found my father's camp.  How my father and mother rejoiced  to see me again. But even now as the  winter approaches I ciread _o hear the  shrill shrieking whistle of the north  wind as it rises in gusts and sweeps  over the great Lake, for in it I hear  the whistle of the Big Men."  "Ke-ke-was" cried Minat-coe when  the old man had finished his story  "are the Big Men spirits? do they die  even as we die?" "Who can tell my  child, no one knows. There are  strange things in these mountains."  Next morning Torouskin went up the  stream and built a dam and set a trap  which he visited daily, and always returned with an abundance of fish. One  day he returned empty-handed and in  terror. At first he refused to tell the  cause of his fear but when pressed by  the old man, he told the following  story: I went to the fish trap as usual this  morning and after I had gathered the  fish into the basket and was about  to return I heard a shrieking whistle!  Nearer and nearer it came. I hid in  the long grass trembling and waited  and waited. Then with a heavy tramp  that shook the earth, a man of monstrous size came whistling along. His  face was turned upwards watching a  large white swan. He passed close to  me  and  I  quaked  lest  his huge  foot  11  should crush me; he never heeded me.  but went on gazing after the swan  and so passed my hiding place, whistling. A strong smell of garlic filled the  air around. When he had, passed my  hiding place I crept out and came  borne as fast as I could run regardless  of my fish. Never will I doubt the  wisdom and truth of the aged for as  thou sayest Ke-ke-was, there are many  strange things in these mountains."  The Flora and Fauna of the Okanagan  MAX H. RUHMAN  The territory from Sicamous to  Osoyoos at the International Boundary, known as the Okanagan Valley,  has within its boundaries very varied  climatic conditions, embracing as it  does part of the upper Sonoran Zone  at the south, blending into the Transition Zone and reaching the Canadian  Zone at its higher elevations.  The average rainfall varies from  eight inches at Osoyoos to twenty  inches at the northern end of the Valley; the temperature also varies  greatly, reaching a maximum of 115  degrees F. at Osoyoos and a minimum  of minus 35 degrees F. at the northern  end of the Valley.  Such great variations in rainfall and  |  temperature not only affect  the production  of specialized  crops, but  also \  the  natural  distribution  of our Flora  j  and Fauna.  With the exception of the larger  mammals, birds and trees, no maintained effort has been made to study  the Flora and Fauna of the Okanagan.  From time to time collectors have  passed through the Valley and the  collected material has been recorded  through various scientific publications which, however, are seldom seen  by the average interested person. Our  Valley, on the whole, and particularly  the southern end. is still practically  virgin territory for the collector, and  much unrecorded material may still be  collected.  It has been proposed that the Okanagan Historical and Natural History  Society prepare a check-list of the  Flora and Fauna of this territory. Such  an undertaking can only be made possible by the close' co-operation of all  the members and other interested  persons; much work must be done  and many years must lapse before a  comprehensive check-list can be compiled. A start has been made, and  time alone will tell how comprehensive  a check-list can be built up, and how  quickly. The executive of the Okanagan Historical and Natural History  Society appeals to its members, and  other interested persons, to aid in the  compilation of a comprehensive checklist of all orders of our Flora and  Fauna. If interested persons will notify their desire to help to the Secretary,  he will endeavor to assist them in  every way possible with instructions on  the best methods of collecting, preparing and shipping specimens for determination.  Indian Picture Writing  J. C. AGNEW  In many places throughout the  Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys  Indian Picture Writings have been  found. Some of these pictographs  have been photographed and copies  have been  sent  to  the  Archaeological  Branch    of    the    Geological    Survey  Division at Ottawa.  Mr. Harlan I. Smith, the Archaeologist, has acknowledged receipt of the  photos and drawing sent, and would be  glad to get particulars of further dis- 12  coveries of these writtings, or rock  carvings. Any reader who should get  to know of any specimens of old Indian  Art should communicate with the Secretary of this Society, and steps will  be taken to record them, as they may  be of historical value in Archaeological Research.  Pictographs are often found on  smooth cliff or rock faces which were  selected for protection from the  weather; and Indian relics are sometimes found beneath the ground surface. Only the other day a fine specimen of Indian Carving on deer horn  was found while excavating at  Kelowna.  Mr. Harlan I. Smith in replying to a  question regarding the meaning of the  pictographs sent him says, "I am unable to tell you anything definite about  what the pictures mean. James Teit,  in his publication on the Thompson  River Indians and some of the  neighbouring tribes, has referred to  similar pictographs being conventional  representations of the things seen during puberty ceremonials; but unless an  Indian is there to point out just what  each figure represents, most of them  seem to be rather too much conventionalized for us to determine."  It is hoped that the next Annual Report will deal with this interesting  subject more fully.  Record of the First Marriage Solemnized at  Okanagan Mission  By Kindness of Rev. Father Lajeune, of Kamloops.  Le dix huit Novembre mil-huit cent  soixante un, apres la publication de  deux bans de cariage entre Francois  Ourtoland. de nation francaise, et do-  micilie en cette mission, fils majeur de  Guillaume Ourtoland et de Elizabeth  Grant d'une part, et Catherine suav-  agesse de Wallamet, veuve majeure de  Pierre Patirvan. aussi de cette mission,  d'autre part, Ayant accorde aux parties  dispense d'une ban en virtu de pou-  voirs a nous confere par Monseigneur  M Demers, eveque de 1'Ile Vancouver  en date du 16 Avril 1861, et ne s-etant  decouvert aucum empechement, nous  Pretre Oblat de Marie Immaculee  desservant le Mission de l'Immaculee  Conception de Okanagan, avons recu  leur consesentement de mariage en  presence de Auguste Calmels sossigne  et de William Pion qui a declae ne  savoir signer  P. Durien.,  A. Calmels. O. M. I.  Translation.  The 18th, November, 1861, after two  publications of the banns of marriage,  between Farancois Ourtoland, of  French origin domociled at this Mission, of lawful age, son of William  Ourtoland and Elizabeth Grant, of the  one part, and Catherine, Indian woman  of Wallamet, of lawful age, widow of  pierre Patirvan, also of this Mission,  of the other part, and having granted  dispensation to the two parties of one  publication by virtue of the powers  conferred on us by Mgr. M. Demers,  Bishop of Vancouver Island, dated  16th April, 1861, and having found no  impedement, we, Priest Oblate of Mary  Immaculate, serving the Mission of the  Immaculate Conception of Okanagan,  have received their consent (compact) of marriage in the presence of  Auguste Calmels, undersigned, and  William Pion who has declared that he  is unable to sign  P. Durien,,  A. Calmels. O. M. I.  Note. The above copy of this marriage record has been reproduced as  nearly as could be done without proper French type.    Ed.  Father Pandosy, O.M.I.  DENYS NELSON  Charles John Felix Adolph. known in  religion as Charles Marie and throughout the   Okanagan   Valley   as   Father  Pandosy, was born on November 21st,  1P24 at Margerdies. near to Marseilles,  the  famous sea-port on  the southern 13  Coast of France. A typical village  of Province. His home was surrounded by green orchards, and set amidst  olive covered hills overlooking the blue  Mediterranean sea, the home of classical culture and civilization.  His was a land owning family, but  dwelling as he did by the side of the  sea, it was inevitable that a desire for  wander should possess the lad at an  early age who first wished to join the  navy. One of his brothers became an  off.cer in the French army and died  in the Piedmont campaign. Young  Pandosy next wanted to be a missionary, or else to be a chaplin in the army.  To some extent this wish was fulfilled  in both ways in the far distant future.  Whilst a student at the College  Bourbon near Aries, Charles decided  to enter the Oblate Juniorat of Notre  Dame de Lumineres then recently established by R. M. deMazenod. founder of the "Missionary Oblates of Mary  Immaculate", known to all British  Columbians today as the O. M. I.  During his clasiscpl studies the boy  won distinction, carrying away prizes  in Latin composition and French literature. In 1843 he went to the Novitiate of Notre Dame de L'osier in the  Diocese of Grenoble, which he describes  as being a "perfect paradise." Here  he took the final vows before the  Founder, Bishop de Mazenod himself,  being then twenty-one years of age.  During the years that he was studying for the priesthood, the northwest coast of America was becoming  gradually opened for settlement. It  was changing from an almost unknown country given up to the Indians  and fUr-traders. to a land of promise.  By 1840, Missions, both Catholic and  Protestant, had been established on  the Columbia river; and within a few  more years the Archdiocese of Oregon  City had been erected with the Mos.  Rev. F. M. Blanchet as the head. He  had under him his brother, the Rev.  A. M. A. Blanchet. a canon of Montreal  in Canada, as Bishop of Walla Walla,  and the Rev. Modeste Demers as  Bishop of Vancouver's Island. Consecrated in Montreal on September  27. 1846, the Bishop of Walla Walla  sought the aid of Bishop de Mazenod  for his diocese, and the Founder felt  constrained to send out a band of his  Missionary Oblates to their new  spheres of labour.  For this arduous task five members  of    the    congregation    were    selected.  only one of whom, at that time, was  ordained a priest. This was the Rev.  Pascal Ricard, then Superior of the  House at Lumineres, who was to become the Superior of the little band.  With him were Georges Blanchet aged  28. E. C. Chirouse. aged 26 and Charles  Pandosy aged 23, together with a lay  brother Celestin Verney.  The party left La havre for New  York and the Oregon Territory at the  beginning of February 1847, sailing on  the "Zuric." At St. Louis they were  met by the Bishop of Walla Walla and  his companions in whose company they  made the remainder of the tedious  journey across the plains and mountains that then divided them from  their destination. They reached Kansas City on May 1st., and there they  joined a caravan arriving at Fort Hall  in the early part of August. Discomfort and hardship was the lot of all  who travelled thus; but Pandosy,  throuhtout the long journey kept his  cheerful disposition, and delighted his  companions with the brilliance of his  singing. His voice was pleasant and  sympathetic, and possessed of a remarkable characteristic, which enabled the singer to change from tenor  to bass at will.  On arriving at Fort Hall, as it was  apparent that the wagons could not  reach Fort Walla Walla before the end  of September, the Bishop and a few  companions went on ahead to prepare  lodgings and provisions for the winter.  Pandosy remained with the wagons,  and reached his destination on October  the 4th.  The object of the Oblates being to  evangelize the Indians, they started  the work at once, selecting the Yakima  Indians as their field of labour. Their  first Mission was that of St. Rose,  which was situated in the lower valley of the Yakima river. While this  might be a suitable site for the Indians,  it was hardly so for the Oblates, since  wood was scarce and had to be rafted  down the river, the Indians offering no  assistance. While the Oblates were  hard at work here, the Bishop and his  colleauges were drawn into the terrible  affair known as the "Whitman Massacre," wherein, at the end of November 1847, the Cayuse Indians turned upon the protestant mission ai  Waiilaptu and murdered Dr. Marcus  Whitman, his wife, and some eleven  other white people, and making many  more prisoners. This precipitated the  Cayuse war which dragged on for two 14  and a half years, the Provisional Government sending out volunteers to  avenge the murders.  Seeing that a crisis was at hand,  the Bishop decided to ordain at least  two of his Oblates, and sending for  Messrs. Chirouse and Pandosy raised  them through the various orders of  sub-deacon, and deacon, to the priesthood, within eight days. These sacraments were conferred upon them in  the house within the Fort that was  used for chapel, dining room, recreation room and dormotory combined.  They were at that time so poorly  equipped that it was necessary to borrow a white night gown from Mr. Mc-  Bean, the manager of the Fort, to  serve as an alb.  On January the 8th, 1848, a few  hours after the last ceremony, the  Bishop and one colleague left the fort,  which was temporarily abandoned,  about an hour before the arrival of a  band of Indians who had come to intercept their flight. Father Pandosy,  as he must now be called, returned to  his Indians where he, with the other  Oblates, induced the Yakimas to remain neutral and refuse to join the  Cayuses in their war against the  whites.  The Oblates spent their time in establishing a new mission called "The  Immaculate Conception" on the Mas-  satas creek. For the rest of this year  tbey had to dwell very quietly with  their converts and do but little active  work, owing to the prohibition of the  Agent. Mr. Lee, who refused to allow  any denomination to erect buildings  until the arrival of the regular troops.  Kamiakin "the last hero of the  Yakimas" as he is called by A. J.  Splawn, became a firm friend of the  two priests and gave them his protection. " During the winter of 1848-9,  of Kamiakin, while Padrosy stayed  with the chief's Father-in-law, Ow-hi,  until a son of the latter threatened  to kill the "black gown," whereupon  Ow-hi took Pandosy away to the Selah  Chirouse lived under the protection  valley and other safer places among  his own people.  In the spring of 1849 Pandosy and  Chirouse built the mission of St.  Joseph at Saralpes; but this, in common with several other missions, was  ot a temporary character only, and  abandoned before many years had  passed. In 1851 Pandosy was joined  by   Father D'Herbomez,  and they  re-  ,  mained  together  for  three years.    In  j   1852  Chirouse was transferred to   the  j Cayuse   Indians   and   Pandosy   moveo  j the Mission of St. Joseph to the better  |  known   site   of    the    Ahtanum   River.  | Here he was near the home camp of  j  Kamiakin,  and  it was  here  that   the  ! two priests. Pandosy and D'Herbomez,  !  were visited by Theodore Winthrop, a  | visit of which he gives a description in  j his    booke,     "The    Canoe    and    The  I  Saddle".   It was here again that Pan-  j dosy   and   Kamiakin   received   a   visit  from Lieut.  G. B. McLellan,  the En-  j gineer,  who had come to explore the  country  in the  interests  of the  Northern Pacific Railway.    The result of  \ the interview left Kamiakin much depressed,  and  henceforth  the seeds  of  revolt against the white settler   were  firmly implanted in the hearts of the  Indians.    Before   this,   however,  Pandosy had had to write a letter full of  warning   to   Father   Mesplie   at   The  Dalles, describing the state of unrest in  which the Indians were living. Father  Mesplie   showed   the   letter   to   Major  Alvord of the Fourth Infantry, who In  return reported it to his superior officer, for which he was rebuked as an  alarmist.  It  was in   1854  that Kamiakin   received   an   invitation   from   the  newly  arrived Governor, I. I. Stevens, to arrange  a  conference   to  talk  over  the  purchase of the Indian's land. He went  as was he wont, to consult his friend,  Fr. Pandosy, who warned him that it  was  impossible to stop the  march of  the   white   settler   who   had   come    to  stay.   "I have lived many years among  you" said the priest "and I have learned to love you.   I cannot advise or help  you, I wish I could".   Kamiakim signed the Treaty of Walla Walla in 1855,  I to which Pandosy and Chirouse were  witnesses; but it was the calm before  the storm.    In September the  Agent,  A. J. Bolon, was murdered while Pandosy  was  at  Olympia  informing   the  :  acting  Governor,  Mason,   that  Kami-  ■ akin was out of hand and stirring up  j the Indians against the white settlers.  War broke out now on all sides,   and  both    regular    troops   and   volunteers  j  went  out against the  foe.    After  the  repulse of Major Haller, Major Raines-  took the field, and by the middle   of  November had taken possession of the  ' Mission  of St. Joseph, on the Ahtanum.  I where Kamiakin had his home.     The  I place was found abandoned, and while  the volunteers   were   digging   for   po-  1 tatoes in   the   Father's   garden,   they uncovered a keg of powder, which to  their heated imagination proved his  complicity with the Indians in their  warfare. At once the Mission buildings  were destroyed, being burned to the  rreund.  Meanwhile Fandosy had been hurried away by the retreating Indians  from whom he eventually escaped,  making his way through the forest to  the Kettle Falls where the Jesuit  Fathers made him welcome. Here he  stayed until the middle 1856 when he  was invited by Col. Wright to join his  camp and act a. interpreter. The Indians who were willing to abide by  Pandosy's teachings were admitted to  a state of neutrality, and Pandosy  himself remained with them and also  with the troops acting, as had always  been his ambition, as chaplin to the  army forces. He seems to have spent  the winter of 1850-7 in this way, and  the following winter at the "'Old Mission" of the Coeur d'Alenes where  music, written by his hand, is still phe-  served by Father Post S. J. In June  1858, he was back with the Jesuits at  Colville and thence was transferred to  Esquimalt whither the new head quarters of the Oblates had been moved in  the fall of 1857. It was quite clear that  the Yakima Missions would have to  be abandoned, and this took place on  March 28th, 1859. Pandosy was now  free to start work anew in the newly  created colony of British Columbia.  Here was a new field for labour towards which the Oblates had been  casting longing eyes lor years past. In  the Spring of 1859 Father Pandosy  went to Colville, for it was of no use to  try to pass the Cascade Mountains  while the snow lay deep on them.  Father Pierre Richard and Brother  Surel went about the same time to  Fort Hope, there to await the arrival  of Pandosy with horses and supplies  from the Jesuits at Colville. These  never came for the h_u~*est was not yet  in. Father Richard in his turn took  up the task of provisioning the little  party, and. crossing the mountains, arrived at Fort Thompson at the time  that Lieut. Mayne was there, as is recorded in his book: "Four years in  British Columbia nnd Vancouver's  Island". Here with the help of Lolo  St. Paul, the noted Indian Chief. Fr.  Richard procured eleven horses for 15  piastres each with these he returned to  Fort Hope, having first written to  Pandosy bidding him join him at  Kamloops.    Furnishing  Brother Surel  15  with the means of transport. Richard  returned to Kamloops and then, without waiting for Pandosy, went on  through Grand Prairie and the Vernon  district exploring for a site for the new  mission. Pandosy on his part on receipt of the news from Richard, made  up a party consisting of Cyprian Lawrence, a French Canadian, and his native wife Theresa, a Flathead Indian  who. being devoted to Fr. Pandosy. had  resolved to face exile with him, with  William Pion. brother to Baptiste Pion  of Pion's Prairie near Spokane, grandfather of Mr. Derrickson who resides at  Westbank today.  These made their way up the Okanagan Valley, having crossed the line  near Midway—by way of the present  town of Oliver, and thence to White  Lake. Here the Brigade Trail was left  and the party took another path to the  Indian village below Penticton where  they were met by the Chief Francois  who died on June 10th. 1908, "aged  108. Here, too, was his daughter who  married McLean, the Hudson's Bay  man at Keremeos, and still lives a respected resident near Okanagan Falls.  It, was here that the lives of the party  was threatened by Capot Blanc—as  recounted by Mr. Buckland in the last  Report. Capot Blanc,—uncle to Theresa, debated warmly the wisdom of allowing these would-be settlers to enter,  and advised their destruction. Later  he became a Christian, dying at an  advanced age at Okanagan Mission.  Travelling up the eastern side of  Lake Okanagan, through the Grand  Canyon with its strange paintings, the  carty met Fr. Richard at L'Anse au  Sable, a name applied to the whole  of the fertile valley where Kelowna  now stands. At the south end of Duck  Lake they established their Mission,  writing to Fr. D'Herbomez at Esquimalt on the 9th Oct., 1859, to announce  their selection of the previous day.  Mr. Buckland's investigations lead to  the supposition that they remained  here until the following year when the  site proved too damp and unsuited to  Fr. Pandosy's rheumatism, and they  removed to a site about half way between Dry Creek and Simpson's ranch.  Gold, however, was found about this  time at a spot lower down the valley,  and they moved again to be nearer the  scene of activity; hence the name "Mission Creek."  It was at Mission Creek that they  stayed as long as the doors of the  "Mission  of the  Immaculate  Concep-. 16  tion" remained open, and this was the  first permanent settlement in the Okanagan Valley, and here, between the  Boundary Line and Kamloops. was the  first place of worship, the first school  and the first burial place.   Henceforth  Father Pandosy was to work in British     lowna.  Columbia.    The   first   chapter   in   his  career was closed.  Acknowledgements are due to Rev.  Fr. Lardon, O.M.I, of New Westminster; Rev. Fr. J. Delannoy of Belling-  ham, and Mr. Frank Buvkland of Ke-  Settlement at L'Anse au Sable  F. M. BUCKLAND  The hard winter of 1859-60 had a  further bearing on the history of the  Okanagan Valley, and we find Wm.  Pion, the pack-master, taking his pack-  horses, loaded with food and supplies,  to the upper Nicola Valley for the  Hudson's Bay Company. Fighting his  way through deep snow and intense  cold, in the dead of winter, he helped  to stave off the starvation that threatened a band of Indians there.  This branch of the Nicola tribe had  not been fortunate enough to participate in the bounteous distributions of  their chief, Chilahichan, who had  gathered up a band of one hundred and  fifty of his own horses, and drove them  from camp to camp through his country, leaving a few at each village to be  slaughtered for food. In this way he  tried to save his people from starvation.  For the part Wm. Pion played in this  undertaking, the Colonial Government  gave him scrip for a square mile of  land. This scrip he located at Anse au  Sable just east of the present limits of  the City of Kelowna. There he built  for himself the first house of any pretentions ever erected in the valley,  building it on the low ridge that runs  south through the 640 acres Queen Victoria had given him for his enterprise. The house was built of logs  and whip-sawed lumber; and it was  an out-standing feature in the district,  commanding a fine position, close to  timber and the creek, overlooking the  flats where Kelowna is to-day. An  ideal place like this, where he could  winter his pack-horses and where there  was an abundance of feed and water,  assured him of fat stock in the Spring  when he took the trails again.  The opening of the Mission trail to  the south brought many travellers up  the east side of the Valley and saved  them the necessity of crossing the Lake  from Siwash Point, where there was  ;.n Indian village of considerable size  on the old Brigade Trail. This village  was called Tsin-stik-op-tin, and the  excatvations for the old fire pits that  formed the centre of the lodges, can  still be seen. If you are lucky you may  find an old flint arrow head or a  smoothing stone as you walk up the  path that leads to the higher range  past the pits that are all that remain  of the Rancherie that acknowledged  Pantherhead as its chief.  In the sixties travellers on foot crossed by paddling a dug-out canoe or on  a raft made by lashing two or three  logs together. If mounted the horse  swam the mile of water, towed by a  lead rope from the canoe or raft.  Sometimes a horse while in mid lake  would disappear, and the drowning  would be attributed to the presence of  that ferocious Lake Demon, N' ha-a-it-  a-ka, recently named "Ogopogo". This  monster all Indians firmly believed in,  and supposed it lived in a cave at  Squally Point near the Island below  Kelowna. This part of the Lake the  supertitious Indians avoided as much  as possible, and offered animal sacrifices to appease the demon, and secure  a safe voyage, if it was found necessary to pass that way. So the east  trail was used more and more as the  settlers arrived and the miners moved up and down.  John McDougall who had visited  these parts since the early forties, had  retired from the service of the Hudson's Bay Company. Born at Fort Garry in 1827, and married at Fort Kamloops, this man decided to settle here  after spending twenty years in coming  and going with the pack trains. He  staked his land where the Guichachan  ranch is, and started trading for furs  with the Indians, living there at the  head of his clan for many years, his  family gaining a high reputation as  skilled guides and trappers, that has  lasted to the present time. To illustrate the family pride; a story is told ore of the younger generation who replied, when asked if he was a half  breed, 'No Sir. I'm a McDougall".  August Calmell and his partner.  Chapee, two French Canadians from  Oregon, had settled on the north side  of Dry Creek, and gathered a small  band of cattle, only to lose most of  them for want of feed in the winter of  1863-4. though they used scrapers  drawn by horses to clear off the snow  that the starving cattle might get to  the grass. They then went in for sheep  which they drove up from Oregon,  and Clamell embraced the opportunity  cf bringing back a white wife with him.  A mile farther north on the N'co-quil-  tack, or stream of warm water, as Mill  Creek was called, Busheie, another  miner, staked a land claim near the  Rancherie of an Indian named. N'Ske-  use, close to Rutland Siding. There he  started farming, a id it was this man  and his help who. .vhen clearing land  for a garden, came upon the ruins of  what had once been a large shelter,  built of cedar logs which had been  trimed and cut with iron axes. Although the cedar was buried in from  four to six inches of loam and earth  and was in a badly decayed condition  with large trees growing where the  structure once stood, the logs still  showed the marks of European tools.  This ruin was forty by eighty feet in  size, and it was thought at the time  that it had probably been built to  shelter mounted men and their horses.  Its situation precludes us from thinking it was built by the servants of the  Hudson's Bay Company or any of the  fur traders, while its size, the precision  with which the logs were squared, and  the evident care taken in its construction, would lead one to suppose it was  built by a Military Expedition of some  sort rather than by some band of adventurers pushing on to an elusive  Eladorado. It is just possible that this  was the work of the Spaniards during  the time, prior to 1821. when they were  in undisputed possession of California,  and were at the same time, trying to  make good their claim to the region to  the north of it. This ruin was situated  under the "Little hill well exposed to  the rising sun" that the Priests had  written of in their first letter from  Anse au Sable.  North of this we hear of Lindley who  had come down from the mines with a  poke full of geld, worth a thousand  dollars or more but it would not buy  him food.    Provisions were so hard to  17  .  get that he was starving when he rode  j into an Indian's camp where he was  1  f"d and resting when other miners on  I  their way north met him and traded  ! flour and bacon for his horses.    Afoot  | he decided to stay in the valley, and  taking an Indian girl  for a wife  was  maried at the Mission, and squatted in  the Ellison district where he attempted  to grow grain and vegetables.   His first  crop was frozen in July, and completely  spoiled.    The next year the grasshop-  I pers were so bad they cleaned him out.  j so giving up farming he move away.  Other miners were not so fortunate  as Lindley for we hear of two that were  waylaid on the Lake shore just north  of kelowna and robbed of the gold they  bad won by privation and hardships in  Cariboo.    They were on their way to  the outside  when  they  were attacked  by an Indian near Knox Point.    One  man was killed and the other, though  badly wounded in the leg, managed to  escape by swimming the Lake to Bear  Creek where he was cared for by other  Indians.    The  gold  dust  and nuggets  that were carried in a moose hide poke,  was  hidden  by  the  murderer  at  the  foot of a white rock that he marked  with certain signs.    But he never returned to dig up the treasure. This was  the  death  bed  confession  of  an  old  Indian that was overheard by another  old Indian called Enoch who kept the  secret for years.  When Father Pandosy returned from  Hope where he had gone for mail and  supplies in 1862, he was accompanied  by August Gillard and his partner  Jules Blondeaux, Francis Ortoland.  and others who wished to settle in the  country. Ortoland staked a farm at  Benvolin and married the Flathead  woman, the widow of the Yakama  Indian who came into the country  with Father Pandosy. Gillard and  Blondeaux staked out the six hundred acres of land that is now the  City of Kelowna, and because they  played that important part in our  history. I shall attempt to give a short  sketch of the adventures which led up  to that event. They were both from  the Department of de Doubs, France,  where Gillard was born in 1825, and  where he lived until he was 25 years of  age, growing into a tall powerful man  of reddish complexion. There he  learned the trade of a blacksmith. In  1850 he and his partner with hundreds  of other Frenchmen, sailed for California, enticed by the news of the  gold discoveries of that period.    Sail- 18  ing from Marsailles they landed at the  f i iden Gate after a voyage of six  months, on October the 20th. of that  year. At first Gillard worked at his  trade, sharpening picks and sho/els  for the miners. After a time he took  to prosnecting on his own account with  varying success, and meeting with  many adventures. On one occasion  while out shooting ducks, he came  across an enormous California grizzly  bear—said to weigh 1700 pounds.  Leading his gun with slugs he went  after it. and blazing away with the  old muzzle loader, he wounded the  bear badly. The grizzly turned on  Gillard who took refuge up a tree, but  it, had received its death wound and  a+'ter shuffling off a short distance,  died. This adventure gave Gillard a  reputation as a bear killer that clung  to him through life. After spending  ten years in California he came north  to the Fraser River in 1860. They  sailed in a Spanish ship that landed  them at the mouth of the Fraser River  where Gillard and two Spaniards had  a set to with the Indians, although  they had been warned by a Priest not  to cross the river. One of his companions was killed in the row. Leaving that part of the country, he went  up the river with his partner and located on Boston Bar where they worked a claim with success. One day an  Indian attempted to shoot Blondeaux  who was working at the bottom of the  shaft. Gillard came back to the  windlass as the Indian was pointing  his gun to get a shot at the trapped  Frenchman, and striking him with his  fist killed him instantly. They immediately buried the remains in the  dump to avoid detection, and decided  to leave Boston Bar before the affan  became known to the natives who were  iHinting for their companion throughout, the camp. On reaching Hope they  met Father Pandosy and hearing of  his new Mission and settlement they  started for the Okanagan with the pack  train.  Arriving at the Mission, Gillard first  worked for Calmell while Blondeaux  panned the creeks for gold. Then  tame a Sunday when Gillard was on  a tramp over the benches and down  lo the Lake. He had his gun on his  arm. and the ducks on the sloughs were  his objective. Crossing the drumlins  on Pion's place he came to the great  open flat. It was well covered with  -rass and walking over this piece of  country he decided to stake a farm for  himself and one for his partner of 320  acres each. Blondeaux joined the Pion  property on the east with his western  boundary on Richter Street. Gillard  claimed from Richter Street to the  Lake, both properties reaching from  Bay Avenue on the north to Mill  Creek on the south. Gillard then built  himself a "keehwilly" house, part under  ground and part above, at the south  end of Ellis Street on the east side.  The cabin was a very poor affair,  small and smoky, with a mud roof and  no floor, door or window. It had a  chimney built on a cross pole about  four feot from the ground. The pole  was directly across the bunk where one  would bump his head if he was not  careful, as was the case with Fred.  Gillard on the one and only night he  staved in his uncle's cabin.  In 1863 times were very hard with  disappointed miners coming out of the  mountains and prospectors and trappers roaming the hills for a grub  stake. Blondeaux continued to work  the creek beds while his partner held  down the ranch, gathering together a  few horses and cattle that brought but  little in the way of money. They did  however supply a meat diet to go with  the roots and herbs gathered from the  meager gardens, the woods and hills.  Small plots of grain were planted, and  the wheat boiled or ground in a machine of the coffee mill type to make  flour. In this manner the early settlers lived off the country, thanks in  many cases to the loyalty and knowledge of their Indian wives who substituted the food of their own people  when there was little or no supplies  from, the outside. At the Mission  Father Pandosy and Father Richard  were joined by other priests including  one Father Hetue who died that year  and was the first priest to be buried in  the old catholic cemetery, to be joined by Father Gendre and Father Pandosy as time went on.  Joseph Christian, who had worked  with pick and shovel on the Cariboo  Road, was tending bar in Victoria  when he met Father Pandosy. Hearing of the new settlement in the Okanagan he decided to throw in his lot  with the farmers, and came in with  the Priest's pack trnin. He pre-empted  tend east of McDougall's, and north of  Lequime's. Here he farmed for a  great many years, planting an orchard  that still bears good fruit, and has  produced apples that took the first  prize at the World's Fair competition. To Joseph Christian and his wife, was  born the first white child in the valley,  now Mrs. J. D. Cameron, of Salmon  Arm.  Frederick Brent arrived in the Valley to settle in 1865. He came by way  of Fort Colville where he had received  his discharge from the U. S. Cavalry.  He had been a scout from 1885 on,  and had acted as an escort to the miners on their way through Washington  Territory, taking part in the stirring  times of 1858, and the Indian troubles  or that period, and riding with  his troop as far north in B.C. as White  Lake on the old Brigade Trail. He  worked for a short time with "Okanagan" Smith at Osoyoos, then coming to the Mission bought out the Parson Bros, who lived at the end of Duck  Lake. He lived at Duck Lake for five  years, erecting new buildings, and  packed on the backs of horses, whipsawed lumber fi .m the Railroad as  Ojama was then called. Brent sold  this property to George W. Simpson  and moved farther south where he  bcught a farm from August Calmell  and his partner Chapee, north of Dry  Creek, taking possession on the 1st  May, 1870. He farmed this property  for thirty years, and erected the first  stone grist mill between the Columbia  and the Thompson rivers. He also  brought the first fanning mill into the  valley which for years was in great demand among his neighbours.  George W. Simpson was born in  Philiadelphia. U.S.A., the son of a  Presbyterian Minister who had emigrated to that country from Scotland.  California had called young Simpson  west, and the Fraser bars north, and  he arrived in Victoria in 1859. He was  associated with the Harper Bros, and  followed their herds into the country  from Oregon to Chilcotin, and was the  first man to introduce breeding cattle  into our valley. He made his first home  with Luc Girouard in Priest Valley  and later bought F. Brent's place at  Duck Lake in 1870 where he operated  a cattle ranch and an iron flour mill  run by a water wheel, on a nearby  creek, installed by Brent. This mill  was later moved to the Simpson ranch,  and a sawmill was built by the Postill  Bros, on the site. This saw mill was  run by the same water power, and in  consequence the creek was called Mill  Creek. After selling his Duck Lake  property to the Postill Bros, he moved  farther south onto what is now known  as the Simpson Ranch where he farm-  19  ed for a number of years. He always  used oxen as draft animals instead of  horses until his sons grew up and introduced different methods. Simpson  was known as a studious man, and a  well-worn Bible which he carried over  rough trails and into rough camps  marked him as a reader.  The herds of cattle, bands of horses  and droves of hogs increased. Fields  for hay. grain and vegetables were  fenced, and better houses and stables  erected. The wives and mothers continued to cook in the open fire-place  using a big iron pot with a heavy lid.  that was burried in the hot ashes;  this they called a Dutch Oven. Tin  plates, tin eups. broad bladed knives  and three-pronged forks were the  usual table appointments, while the  rude farm equipment was made with  an axe. a draw knife and an auger.  They had wagons the wheels of which  were sawn from the trunk of a big  tree, and attached to rough hewn  axles with wooden pins, and having  hubs and boxings that were the only  parts brought in from the outside.  Wooden beam plows were made with  iron shares attached. A harrow was  made from the wide crotch of a tree  with wooden or iron teeth driven  through it. Sleighs, ox-yokes, pack-  saddles, chairs, bunks and benches  were all worked out of wood by the  handy axe men of that day. They  whip-sawed the lumber and dove-tailed the comers of the houses in the  settlement. Social events in the form  of dances broke the monotony of the  winter work of wood chopping and cattle  feeding. On these occasions the young  people would dance until dawn, following the intricate figures of the square  dances then so popular, to the tune of  "Money Musk", "Soldier's Joy" or  "Turkey in the Straw", played by  Joseph Brent who was usually the  fiddler. The young people carried on  their love affairs as they did the world  over.  In 1872 we had our first post office.  Okanagan Mission, with Eli Lequime  as Postmaster. The mails were brought  up the Cariboo Road, then to Kamloops and Okeefe's at the Head of the  Lake. From Okeefe's to the Mission  the mail was carried by Charles Law-  son, on horse back. He would make  the trip in an afternoon, and come  galloping along shouting at the top of  his voice as he approached a ranch  house, to prepare them for the great  event, the monthly mail.    The Brents 20  had the contract from the Mission to  Penticton. and the Shuttleworths from  Penticton to the Boundary. Joseph j  Brent when asked why he was always i  dressed in his best when carrying the |  mail, replied that he had a horror of j  being found dead on the trail with his |  old clothes on, and with the mail.  The stockmen of those days made a  practice of burning off the ranges from |  time to time, as the Indians had done I  before them.    By  doing so they kept  down the scrub pine and fir, and de-  veloped  better  pasture  for  the  game,  and  the ever increasing  herds which j  were the mainstay of the country. The  Government of later days spent large  sums of money in fighting forest fires, :  and  seems   anxious  to  allow  our   hill  sides and mountain tops to grow up in ;  a jungle of jack pine and scrub where  the  bunch grass  once  flourished,  and j  was said to wave  in the wind like a j  field of wheat.  The Chinese had by now penetrated  the country, and one of them. May  Long Gue, was for a time, mining on  Mission Creek. Lum Lock who has  been living in this Valley since 1868  was then a young boy doing chores  around the ranch houses. His greatest  anxjety was to keep his que attached  to his head, for the cow boys of that  date had peculiar ideas about amusements. It behooved all Chinamen to  carry a staff when moving from place  to place, to ward off the lariat rope  that was sure to descend upon their  shoulders when they became the butt  of cow-boy humour. "Cow boy him  heap quick, him thloe lope, him  catchum Chinaman. Chinaman cally  long stick, swish, Chinaman catchee  ltpe. Cow boy no cotchee me" is the  way Lum Lock explained the operation  to me.  The Postills were at Duck Lake,  Whelan a few miles farther down,  Simpson south of that and Campbell  on the Rutland side with Busherie,  Brent, Smithson, Pion, Blondeaux and  Gillard as you follow the creek to the  Lake. On the west side of the Lake  Otement Vacher was on Bear Creek,  John Phillips and Hugh Armstrong  were on the Allison place. Charles D,  Simms had staked Westbank and William Powers held as a pre-emption  what is now the Gellatley place.  As a rule the settlers were a good  natured lot of men, and got along together well. There is a story told of a  Co vernment Road Foreman who  u a veiled to Priest's Valley to get from  the Government Agent the wages due  to the men who had worked for him  that Summer. He obtained the money;  but a poker game at the Victoria Hotel  took his fancy, and after loseing his  own wages he staked the money belonging to the other men hoping to retrieve his losses. A week passed, and  the road gang at the Mission became  anxious, and they sent one of the men  to Priest's Valley to find out what had  become of the Boss. The Foreman  was found, dead broke, and trying to  muster up enough courage to go back  and tell the sad tale. This had to be  done sooner or later. When the circumstances and the provocations were  fully explained to the gang they decided that there was nothing else their  Foreman could have done, and besides  it must have been a mighty good  game anyway.  Gambling, horse racing and drinking were pastimes which some of the  settlers indulged in to their undoing  as was the case of August Gillard with  his four hundred head of cattle, fifty  horses, and three hundred and twenty  acres of land. Losing it all he died  in poverty in 1898, without fulfilling the wishes of his old sweetheart in France, who wrote him saying  that they would "finish their days together if it is as you say in your pleadings".  Blondeaux sold ou. and returned to  France. Pion returned to the Mission  after a prolonged visit to Spokane to  find his property in the possession of  others, and for a time he kept a dairy  herd and grew potatoes at the springs  on the benches above Rutland. In  1883 A. B. Knox bought the Blondeaux  property from Arthur Best, and farmed  it successfully until he sold it to the  Company who cut it into town lots  and added it to the townsite.  For many years Father Pandosy was  the outstanding figure at Okanagan  Mission. Baptising, marrying, burying,  and teaching; healing the sick in mind  and body, and trying to raise the moral  standard of the Indians and hold the  whites from debasement and evil. Such  was his life. With graying beard he  continued to go bare headed and bare  footed in Summer. Travelling the  mountain trails as his spiritual medical  duties called him. For thirty years he  attended to the ills of the body, cultivated the minds, and pleaded for the  spiritual development of his flock. He  sometimes taught the natives and  young children by means of coloured prints depicting the Bible stories he  preached about. Some of these pictures are yet to be seen pasted on the  walls of the old buildings, now owned  by Dr. De Pfyffre.  A story is told of a visit he made to  •an Indian lodge where a Chief lay ill.  The relatives in desperation had reverted to paganism and had called in  a Shaman of their own. The native  medicine man used all the tricks of  his calling to no avail. Again they  turned to the new teachings and called in Father Pandosy who scolded the  family for thus going back to pagan  customs. He did what he could for  the sick man, and tried to prepare him  for the future life he was about to enter. Taking one of these pictures that  represented hell, with all the demons  and devils looking their fiercest he  pinned it to the wall of the tent where  the sick Indian ctuld view the future  home he would occ py if he didn't hold  to the Christian faith. The sick Chief  gazed at the picture, and realizing the  awful future that was in store for him,  jumped from his couch and with a wild  yell, disappeared into the brush where  he was found some time later and  brought back to stage a speedy recovery, and live for many years a good  Christian.  Early in 1901, Father Pandosy received a call from the Similkameen.  The snow lay deep and soft in the  mountains   when   he   started   on   his  21  journey with Donald McLean, from  Okanagan Falls. Thvy reached Keremeos where the Priest married a  couple from Princeton who met him  there. But Father Pandosy had caught  a severe cold from exposure and fatigue on the way over. The wet snow-  had chilled him to the bone, and the  hardship on the journey was too much  for him. McLean begged him to remain at Keremeos; but Pandosy insisted on returning. When they  reached Penticton he was taken seriously ill. Chief Francois took him to  his cabin where everything was done  to relieve his sufferings; but in a few  hours the venerable Priest expired in  the arms of his old Indian friend. Mr.  Thomas Ellis was notified and he had  the body taken in state on the S. S.  Penticton to the Mission where it  was laid away in the little graveyard  beside the Church where he had laboured so long and faithfully. It was  with sincere regret that the settlers  turned out that winter day to pay their  last respects to one who was loved and  honoured by all. regardless of faith or  creed.  Although his grave is not marked by  slab or monument, and no one knows  its exact location, the name, Pandosy,  will remain with us as long as we have  our streets. But that seems hardly  enough for one who played such an  outstanding part in the early history  of this settlement.  Okanagan School  F.  M. BUCKLAND  The two Gazette notices establishing  the Okanagan and Nicola School Districts are both dated July 31st, 1874.  When the Okanagan School District  was established its boundaries were defined as follows:— commencing at a  post at the mouth of Mission Creek,  thence running north along the Lake  shore for a distance of five miles,  thence easterly for five miles, thence  sctitherly to Mission Creek, thence  westerly to the point of commencement.  The Government had given William  Smithson $750.00 for his dwelling house  for a school, and he had donated one  acre for a site; but it would appear  that the building was purchased and  the school District decided upon some  time before they could secure the ser  vices of a teacher, because the Superintendent of Education in his Report  for the year ending 30th June, 1875,  remarked that this commodious school  room and teacher's residence was waiting an occupant. He adds further that  a teacher from California was expected in to take charge of the school.  The expected teacher from California turned up later on in the person  of Angus McKenzie of Pictou County,  Nova Sco.HTi. who came walking into  the valley with his blankets and a  bundle of school books on his back. His  credentials which entitled him to a  temporary certificate enabling him to  commence teaching at once, consisted  of a First Class Teachers Certificate  issued by the State of Kansas. It was  not until the 20th Dec.  1875 that he 22  was engaged at a salary of $60.00 per  month. Besides his salary he had his  his meat, milk, butter and eggs, and  his fire wood supplied free by the settlers. Boys and girls from Similkameen. Okanagan Falls and the upper  end of the Valley attended the school,  living with the different ranchers and  returning home during the holidays.  Shy and backward children we are told,  were often treated to a big slice of  bread and syrup to gain their confidence. The Trustees were William  Smithson, Frederick Brent and Joseph  Christian (as Secreary-Treasurer) and  the furniture consisted of five maps  and a blackboard. During the next  year the school was visited by the  Priests from the Mission and by Alfred  Postil. William Postil, Miss Lucy Postil, (now Mrs. Robert Lambly), J.  Herman. James Lee, John McDougall.  J. Phillips and Mrs. T. Christian (afterwards Mrs. Peter Bessette). Besides  these the three trustees visited the  school officially on three occasions, and  during the following year there were  about the same number of visitors. In  fact for years the school seems to have  been something of a centre in the  social life of the community.  Mr. McKenzie continued to teach  until 1878 when, in October. Miss M.  Coughlan (a sister of Mrs. Green-  how's) was engaged. She taught until 1882. In 1881 W. Simthson's name  was dropped from the list of Trustees  and Alphonse Lefevre took his place.  From July to October 1882 the school  remained without a teacher, the salary  offered of $50.00 per month not being  sufficient inducement to any one to  accept the post. But in October of  that year R. S. Hanna, now a well  known dentist in Vancouver, was appointed at a salary of $60.00 per month.  He was at the time, book-keeper at the  Brunette Sawmills at Sapperton,  owned by Messrs. DeBeck Bros. &  Kennedy. He missed the stage at Yale  and he too. walked in carrying, if not  his blankets, at least a fairly large  valise.  When Mrs. Ellison resigned the  Priest Valley school in 1885 she was  succeeded by Mr. Hanna, who in turn  was succeded at the Okanagan School  by Thomas Leduc who at one time  taught at the Round Prairie School.  After Mr. Leduc came Fred. J. Watson  who taught, at the Okanagan school  f<>r several years.  Mr. McKenzie appears to have been  a successful teacher, and his work is  highly spoken of in the reports of the  Superintendent of Education. In his  Report for 1877, the Superintendent  says in part:— "The school in this  District (Okanagan) was visited on the  21st. May, when all the children on  the Register, 21, were in attendance.  The results achieved since the opening of the school have been so remarkably satisfactory in all respects, that  it is difficult to speak too highly of  the work accomplished. Children who,  eighteen months before, were utterly  ignorant of the simplest rudiments,  and unable to speak a word of English,  had advanced so rapidly as to be able,  when the school was visited, to read  fluently and clearly in the fourth  reader. The examination in grammar,  geography and arithmetic was em-  minently creditable to teacher and  pupils, and must have still further increased the confidence and esteem  which the parents entertained for their  conscientious and hard-working teacher. The discipline was excellent and  the scholars evidently took a hearty  interest in their work. The settlers in  rhc Mission Valley have every reason  to congratulate themselves on their  good fortune is securing so successful  an educator as the gentleman in charge  of this school."  Those who knew McKenzie intimately say he was a big man standing  well over six feet, and that he wore his  whiskers a la Abraham Lincoln, and  had one wall-eye which he always  partly closed when looking at anything intently. He was a gentle,  kindly man, but withal one not to be  trifled with if his temper was up. He  afterwards taught school at Hope and  Langley Prairie, and elsewhere on the  Lower Fraser and he was well liked  wherever he went. He was just the  kind of a man who being appointed to  a remote country school, with no  thought of his own advancement and  with no ulterior object in view, would  turn to the work he had in hand with  diligence and understanding, and give  to the task of educating the children  intrusted to his charge, the best that  was in him.  Sometimes when the congregation  gathered at the little country school  house and the Minister failed to keep  the appointment, as it occasionally  happened in those remote early days,  Mr. McKenzie would take the service  himself, and always very acceptably.  Men like him are the salt of the earth 23  Erosion Pillar Near Falkland  A. H. LANG  A very fine erosion pillar, or hoodoo,  is situated at Pillar Lake, on the road  between Falkland and Chase. There  is a good road right to the Lake, the  distance from Vernon being about  twenty-five miles, and the trip is well  worth while.  These pillars are quite common, but  that is the only one known to the writer,  in the Okanagan. There are several  not far from Kamloops, but in any  case it is seldom one is found as perfect  as the one at Pillar Lake. It is about  ninety feet in height and ten feet in  diameter at the base. It is composed  of glacial drift that has been cemented into hardpan. and is capped   by   a  large rock which is responsible for its  formation.  During the Ice Age the glaciers filled  the valleys with great moraines. The  valley at Pillar Lake was filled in this  way to the height of the pillar. Then  a large flat rock which had been carried along frozen in the glacier, was  melted out, along with the moraine;  or a second advance of the ice may  have placed the rock where it is. Ever  since that time the rain has played  its part in washing this over-burden  into the streams, but the rock has protected the material below it so that the  pillar has been left standing, getting a  little higher each year.  Okanagan Polling  Division  (Name)  (Residence)  (Occupation)  Bessil, Peter (Bessette?)  Mission Valley  Farmer  Blondeau, Jules  Do  Do  Fursteneau, E. M.  Spallumcheen  Do  Ganfell, Dorset  Okanagan  Labourer  Herman, John Adam  Mission Valley  Farmer  Lambert, Stephen  Do  Do  Lawrence, Theodore  Do  Do  McDougall, John  Do  Do  McMillan, Charles  Do  Do  Postil, Alfred  Do  Do  Wersal, Louis  Do  Carpenter  6th. Aug. 1874.  Charles  A.  Ver  non, J. P.,  Collector.  Note. British Columbia decided to  enter the Dominion as a Province in  1870. Accordingly terms of union were  agreed to and passed by the Legislative  Council in Victoria on the 19th. Jan.  1871 and a Constitution Act on the  14th. February. These were ratified  by an Act passed at Ottawa on the 1st  of April of that year. An election was  held in the Fall fo 1871 to elect members to the new Provincial Parliament  to sit in Victoria at which Robert  Smith. James Robinson and Chas. A.  Semlin were returned as the three  members for Yale District. We were  unsuccessful in trying to secure a copy  of the voters' list for Okanagan which  was used at the election in 1871. The  earliest we could get was the one for  1874 which probably does not vary  much from the one used in 1871.   (Ed.)  W. C. Young's Report on Mines on Cherry Creek  MRS. ANGUS WOOD  Tn November, 1863, J. C. Haynes,  Collector of Customs at Osoyoos, sent  W. C. Young in to Cherry. Creek to report on the mines there. Mr. Young  was  a   constable,   and,   at   the   time.  was in charge of the Customs House  on the Similkameen River. His Report  is very exhaustive, and too long to  give in full. The portions eliminated  by me, however, are only those parts 24  of it which deal mostly with the physical features of the country through  which the traveller passed, the state  of the trails, the weather, etc. The  original Report is in the Archives in  Victoria:  "Shimilkomeen  (sic),  Customs Station,  12th Dec. 1863.  Dear Sir,  I beg to report my arrival from the  Shuswap country on the 10th instant.  I left this Station on the 25h. Nov. in  company with four miners, two of  them intending to winter there and  prospect the country, and six horses  laden with provisions. The trail from  here to the Catholic Mission is good  with one exception—, at the first bend  of the great Lake between Penticton  and the Mission for about ten miles  the trail is of the worst description,  passing over a sucession of rock spurs  from 100 to 500 feet above the Lake.  Arrived at the Mission on the  28th.—, weather warm and pleasant  and the country free from snow. The  cabins, barns, fences, hay stacks in  every direction give the country a  pleasant appearance after travelling  the dreary mountain trails.  The Catholic Mission Buildings are  new and very neat. The settlers'  houses are generally of tre smallest  and poorest description. W. Pion's and  J. McDougall's are good well built houses  and the best in the settlement. The  land though not of the best quality,  appears to produce abundantly; all  crops have been very good this past  season and that without any aid from  irrigation. I saw some very good tobacco of their own growing.  I was informed by the Rev. Father  Richards of the Mission that the total  produce this year is not less than:  Wheat     1000 Bushels  Barley      200       do  Potatoes 2000       do  The Priests have a school for the  children of the settlers. On my return  found the Rev. Mr. Richards in a neat  school room teaching five or six children to read and write. All instructions is given in this school in the  French language.  From the Mission the trail passes  through a valley running in a N. E.  direction; ten miles from the Mission  reached Lake Chelootsoos, a fine lake  about fifteen miles long. The trail  along this Lake is good but hilly; the  out let of this Lake is at the North  end.  From the foot of this Lake our trail  now joined by the Kamloops trail,  passes through a fiV*s valley to the  Eastward which course it generally  keeps to the Shuswap River which is  about 13 miles from this point (end of  Long Lake).  About eight miles from the river  and about 24 from the Mining Camp  on Cherry Creek. Hy Wend, tavern  keeper from Hope, has taken up 320  acres of land and is building a house  of entertainment.  On reaching the river, a stream  nearly as large as the Shimilkomeen  River, we at once crossed it. From  this ford to the second crossing, about  ten miles, the trail which is principally along steep hill sides, is very bad.  A trail could easily be made on that  side (the west side of Shuswap River)  from a point below Hy. Wend's farm  which would not only be much nearer  than the present trail, but would avoid  the present useless crossings of the  Shuswap River.  About two miles from the mouth of  the Creek (Cherry Creek) came to the  house of Dashills and Colhoun and  found two men building another by its  side. The country is still here (sic)  and as far as it has been penetrated  above, one unbroken forest most difficult to travel through. Kendall.  McDouyall & Co., hafe a cabin on the  steep hill side just below this. Three  of them were in the creek working,—  had only just commernced—, they said  they had three cent dirt, and expected  to make three or four dollars per day  to the hand—, were not yet down to  bed rock. This claim joins the upper  end of the Indian Narciss's claim who  had left for the present; he is reported to have made form six to ten dollars  a day.  We prospected several pans of the  dirt in Kendall's claim and had a great  many light scaly colours of gold in  each pan, but certainly not a half of  three cents. Without testing a prospect of this sort by weighting it, its  value would certainly be over estimated by a stranger. A so called five cent  prospect dwindles in the scales to one  cent or less.  The claim of Wm. Pion and Louis,  the so called discoverers, who reported  to me that they had made ninety three  dollars in four davs with a rocker, are about one mile above this. Since they  left for the Mission, several parties of  new comers have worked in their claim  for a few days, but could not make  half wages. All men here deny that  the coarse gold shown by Pion as  Shuswap gold, ever came out of this  claim as there is nothing here like it.  The only other house, that of Woods  and Joe Hawks, traders, is near this.  They have but a small stock of provisions—. flour at 40 cents; beef, 25;  sugar, 75 cents and tobacco $5.00 per  pound.  Met Cameron & Co.—three men—  leaving the Creek. On the strength of  the prospects they obtained on the  surface, they built a cabin, made  sluices and got to work, but could not  make two dollars a day on the bed  rock, and near it the pay was not so  good as on the surface. As one of them  described the gold "It took an yeast  powder box full o. the light stuff to  make an ounce."  I found only twelve men on the  Creek, and although the weather was  warm and pleasant, little or no mining was being done. Half of these  men are traders.  There appears to be two different  kinds of gold found in this Creek. One  description, and by far the most plentiful, is composed of light, flat, scaly  particles, resembling fragments of  dentist's leaf gold. A small quantity  of coarse gold mixed with the other,  has been found; some pieces weighing  as much as fifty cents and seventy five  cents which leads some to suppose that  coarse gold will be found higher upon  the Creek, or on some of its tributaries.  I cannot find a claim, nor a man  that knows of a claim, on Cherry  Creek, that will certainly pay half an  ounce a day to the hand. The most of  the men there do not seem to know  where to go to work to earn five dollars  a day. Several of the miners here seem  to think that paying diggings exist  both on Shuswap Creek and on Shuswap River—. on the latter Hy. Wend  reports having found four cents to the  pan. The appearance of these, and  indeed of all the streams in the vicinity, is very favourable for gold.  The miners held a meeting some  time since and in the absence of an  officer to record claims, appointed one  Louis Venner, Recorder, and a fee of  one dollar for each claim recorded; the  25  cash thus received by him to be handed over to the first Government Officer sent in. Claims thus recorded to  lay over until the first of May, next. I  hear that upwards of twenty claims  were thus recorded. I did not see  this gentleman as he was away on a  prospecting trip.  In conclusion I think, from all that  I have seen and heard, the best that  can honestly be said of this as a mining country, to be thus: That from  the prospects already obtained with so  little searching in such a difficult place  to prospect as Cherry Creek, this part  of the country presents a most encouraging field for those able and willing to thoroughly explore and prospect in it the coming season. Nearly  all here seem sanguine and confident  that what has already been found will  yet lead to the discovery of good  mines. But it cannot be said that up  to the present good diggings are found,  as has been represented.  I have the honour to be  Dear Sir,  Your most obedient servant,  Wm. C. Young."  John C. Haynes, Esq.,  D. C. C. Sooyoos (sic) Lake.  There is one statement made by Mr.  Young in his Report which is rather  obscure. In one place he says:— "The  country is still here." He may have  intended by that to indicate a condition of absolute quiet and stillness, a  condition which frequently exists in  the mountains in this country. As the  late Judge Vowell once said to a friend  as they were walking along the trail  near Lumby, some years ago. "My;  How quiet and still it is, not a sound. I  have often noticed this in the mountains in British Columbia, everything  is so still and quiet, you can hear your  ears ring." It is probably this arresting stillness and quiet of the mountains that Mr. Young refers to when  he makes the rather naive statement,  "The country is still here."  In a letter to the Colonial Secretary, dated 30th Nov. 1863, J. C. Haynes  mentions William Pion as the discoverer of the mines on Cherry Creek.  We hope some of our members will  be able to locate the site of the house  of entertainment built by Hy. Wend,  the tavern keeper from Hope. It was  certainly the first hotel, and probably  the first house of any kind, built anywhere near the vicinity of Lumby. 26  Claudet's Report on Silver Mine at Cherry Creek  CHARLES  In 1867 Governor Seymour sent the  Superintendent of the Assay Office in  Victoria. F. G. Claudet, to Cherry  Creek to report on the silver mine  there which for years had been attracting considerable attention throughout  the Province. Mr. Claudet's Report is  dated the 5th Sept.. 1867, and the following are extracts from it.  "The Cherry Creek Silver Mining  Company's claim is situated about  seven miles above the confluence of  that Creek with the Spellmacheen River (alias Shuswap) and is about w  miles in a south-east direction from  the Head of Okanagan Lake.  "The Company's grant consists of half  a square mile of land equally apportioned on either side of the Creek  which has a general direction of west  (Mag.)  "Silver ore was first discovered about  four years ago at low water on the  west bank of the Creek where there is  an out crop of slate dipping at an  angle of about 45 degrees south and  apparently an east and west direction.  "About 700 lbs. of good ore was taken out of this place and smelted in San  Francisco; but as the deposit gradually became exhausted it was decided to  run a tunnel into the slate which  crops out just above the spot which  had yielded the ore. . . . The tunnel  was drifted about 20 feet through tal-  cose and clay slate permeated with different quartz   veins   of   various   sizes.  "These veins are what are termed  'segregate veins' and differ from true  veins by running parallel with the  cleavage plains. These veins contain  more or less silver ore disseminated  through them; but practically they are  of no value as the ore is too insignificant in amount.  "After this tunnel was abandoned a  D-  SIMMS  considerable time elapsed before any  more workings were undertaken. Last  Spring at low water, another out-crop  was discovered in the bed of the creel-  on the north side of the reef which  projects above the present level of  the water, the ore taken out three years  ago having been extracted from the  south side of the reef.  "From this second out-crop about  two tons of good ore have been obtained, and are packed ready for shipment to San Francisco.  "This place was abandoned (I was  told) on account of the water r.sing  and impeding the mining operations:  but I cannot understand that reason  being sufficient in itself to explain the  abandoning of a rich deposit of ore.  "When the working of this deposit  was impeded by the rising of the water  in the creek, it was decided to sink a  shaft, and run a tunnel to attack the  lode underground. The shaft is 30  feet and the tunnel has been carried  24 feet, and runs magnetic north.  "I was informed by the foreman of  the Company that at low water he  had seen a quartz vein which runs  longetudinally with the bed of the  creek for 200 or 300 yards and that it  contained silver. I obtained- specimens from about 200 yards lower down  the creek than the mine, but on examination found that they were not argentiferous.  "From the facts just mentioned it  would appear that an extraordinarily  rich "pocket" of ore was discovered in  the bed of the creek, and that segregate veins containing ore permeate the  slate: but beyond that nothing definite is known.  "In connection with this Report I  append the result of some assays made  by me of silver ore taken at different  times from the Cherry Creek Mine:  No. 1  No. 2  No. 3  No. 4  Silver  1035 oz.  1388  oz.  1591   oz.  1250 oz  Gold  Trace  1 oz.  6 dwt.  Trace."  The Priest's House  MRS.  VVILLJAM  BRHNT  In our last Report, in an article "The j Priest's house) was burnt down many  Townsite of Vernon" the following pas- years ago. It is said to have stood  sage   occurs: -   "The   old   cabin    (the     across Long La'ie Creek, about op,:o- 27  site the old mill house on the Tronson property. If the exact spot can  be located it should be marked."  I quite agree with the suggestion that  the site should be marked if it can be  located: and at one time the Priest's  house may have stood across the creek  from the old mill house, but if so. it  was destroyed or removed before my  time. At one time the house the  Priests used as a stopping place could  be plainly seen from Girouard's cabin,  the first post office, when it stood on  the side of the Priest's Valley—Kam-  lcops stage road. I remember the cabins very well, and so does my husband,  Mr. Brent, and several others whom I  know. There were two cabins standing in the form of a "T" near to each  other, but detached.  The course followed by Swan Lake  Creek for a considerable distance  south of Barnard venue, was remarkably straight for a small stream, but at  one place, partly on Lake Drive and  partly on the property now owned by  Mrs. Hultman, Lot 60. Map 324, it  turned to the west, and after describing an almost complete half circle  within a distance of about 180 feet, it  resumed its course towards the Lake.  This was before the cut was made and  the channel straightened. The survey of the cut was made by Mr. J. C.  Agnew. P.L.S.. and the old channel  filled in. The old channel is still plainly discernable. It is the bend the creek  made at this point which makes it so  easy to identify the place where the  two cabins stood.  They stood a few feet south of Lake  Drive and near the north-west corner  of Lot 53, Map 324. When our Society  becomes a little stronger financially 1  hope a stone will be placed there to  mark the spot as it is a site of considerable historical importance, and can  be identified with certainty.  The Priest's Valley School  MRS.  WILLIAM BRENT  The Priest's Valley School District  was established by Gazette notice, dated the 23rd. May, 1883, with E. J. Tronson, Alfred McNeil and Price Ellison  as Trustees. The District embraced  Townships 6, 8, and 9.  The first school house was built in  1884 at a cost of $625.00 by Angus McDonald who was accidentially killed  the following Summer while engaged  in the erection of a log barn on the  B. X: Ranch. It stood just about  where the two cottages, owned by Mrs.  Laura Shultz now stand on Lots 8  and 9, Block 5, Map 327C south of  Long Lake Creek and east of the old  Mission Road. School was opened on  22nd. Oct. of the same year with  Miss Sophia C. Johnson (now Mrs.  Price Ellison) as teacher, and with the  following names on the School Roll, as  nearly as I can recollect: Helen. George  and Edward Tronson; Susan. William  and Rebecca McNeil; Christine, Albert  and Oscar Anderson: Edward and  Maria Houghton, and Christine and  Gepree Brewer.  Fate decreed however, that we were not  to enjoy our new school house, of  which we were all rather proud, for  very long; it was burnt down the following March.   We were all inside   at  i  the time, busy with our lessons. George  I Tronson was the first to notice it,  and I shall never forget the look   of  j dismay and astonishment on that boy's  face when he first realized that the  school house was on fire. It did not  show below the ceiling and at first we  did not believe him, but we soon found  that it was only too true. The children were not panicky, but went to  work and quickly removed everything  movable outside to a place of safety,  then the elder boys turned to and removed the sashes from the four windows, and saved them as well. They  tried to get the door off its hinges but  failed, and it too went up in smoke.  For a time, until the new school  house was built, school was kept in the  Lock-up which then stood in Mr. Amos  Delorier's field just west of where Mr.  Price Ellison's old farm house now  stands. The room in the Lock-up was  too small and we were cramped for  room, but our fondness for our teacher  went far towards making us forget the  discomfort of our surroundings. We  were very fond of her. she was very  painstaking, kind and sympathetic, and  | we made good progress with our studies.  | Those were, indeed, happy days for me.  I was then Maria Houghton. The second school was built on the  spot where the brick High School now  stands on Coldstream Road, by E. L.  Morand for $500.00, and while it was  under construction Tronson and Brewer's saw mill was located on the bank  of Long Lake Creek in what is now the  Park, quite close to the school. This  second school was a better and smarter looking building than the first one  although it cost less, but when the first  one was built the lumber had to be  hauled from Postill's saw mill on  Deep Creek, Spallumcheen, or from  O'Keefe's. I am not sure which and  this may account for the difference in  the cost of the two buildings.  When Mrs. Ellison resigned in June,  1885, she was succeeded by Mr. R. S.  Hanna who was then teaching at the  Okanagan School at the Mission.  More people were coming into the  country all the time, and the new  school house proved to be a great boon  to the community. Nearly every Sunday some of the protestant ministers—  Rev. Mr. Sherldrick, Rev. Mr. Jaffray  or Rev. Mr. Langille— held service in  it, and during the week it was often  the scene of a social gathering of some  sort. I remember a play put on one  night by the school children which I  thought was funny. The girls were inclined to giggle over it, but the boys  were in deadly earnest and went about  the business of the play with portent-  I ious gravity.   When they got confused  !  or missed their lines  they  would ap-  | proach each other in the middle of the  i stage and after a long whispered con-  |  versation as to how it should go, they  !  would back up and with owl-like sol-  ! emnity resume the dialogue.   I do not  ;   remember   the   name   of   the   play   or  ;  what it was all about, but the climax  j appeared to be reached when the hero  j   (Walter Dewdney)   got into a dispute  with   the   heroine   (Christine   Ander-  j son) over the posesssion of a pair   of  ! pants.    In the  struggle which ensued  | the trousers were split in two. and both  returned in triumph each bearing off  one half of the garment. The girls taking  part  in   the   play   always  referred  to  this   garment   as   " trowserloons"   or  "pantaloons."  The name "Priest's Valley" was  changed to "Vernon" on May 16th..  1888. Mr. Hanna remained in charge  of the Vernon School until 1890 when  he was succeeded by William Sive-  wright.  The brick building now used as a  High School on the Coldstream Road  was built by the late T. E. Crowell in  1893 for $5087.00, and the second schooi  house we had was sold to Mr. Price  Ellison who moved it off the school lot  and converted it into a cottage dwelling. It stands just east of the school  premises and is owned and occupied by  Mr. William Inkster.  The Schubert Memorial  L. NORRIS  On the 1st. of July, last, at Armstrong in the presence of a large concourse of people, Mr. Donald Graham  unveiled a monument erected to the  memory of the late Mrs. Augustus  Schubert. The monument which is ol  granite, undressed, cost $650.00 and  stands by the side of the road just inside the boundaries of the Consolidated School grounds. The inscription on  the bronze plate attached to the stone  reads as follows:  In honour of  Catherine  Schubert  who in company with her  husband and three small children  was a member of the hazardous  overland Expedition of  1862  across the Canadian Rockies  to Kamloops  A brave and notable pioneer  Erected by her friends  and admirers  throughout British Columbia  At the unveiling a poem written for  the occasion by Mrs. Isabel Ecclestone  Mackay, was read by Miss Mary Anderson.  The Schuberts and the party witn  which they travelled, arrived at Kamloops on the 11th. Oct., 1862, and then-  arrival was reported to His Excellency,  the Governor, in the following letter,  the original of wiiich is in the Archvies  in Victoria. This letter was written by  W. G. Cox the Magistrate in charge of  the district at Kamloops. to the Colonial  Secretary William A. G. Young, at New-  Westminster. Sir,  Kamaloops (sic),  21st. Oct. 1862  ?  I have the honour to report for the  information of the Governor the arrival at Kamaloops via overland route,  of thirty emigrants from Canada, in-  29  eluding a white woman and four children.  I have the honour to be.  Sir,  Your most humble and obedient servant,  Geo. W. Cox.  W. A. G. Young. Esq.  The Cruise of the Tonquin  L. NORRIS  When John Jacob Astor of New  York, decided to open up and develop  the fur trade on the Columbia River,  he organized the Pacific Fur Company  with a capital of $200,000.00 divided into 100 shares of $2,000.00 each, and  sent out two expeditions—one overland  and one around Cape Horn, on the  ship, the Tonquin.  Perhaps no ente prise of the kind  was ever launched mder more favourable conditions or with brighter prospects. The country was at peace; the  territory drained by the Columbia and  its tributaries was unworked by any  other fur company, and was enormously rich in all kinds of peltries. It is  known that for every dollar they gave  the Indians in trade goods for furs,  they sometimes received $100.00 when  the same skins came to be sold on the  market in Canton where there was a  steady demand for all the skins they  could produce.  This enterprise is of interest to us  because had it been successful the  claims of the American Government to  this part of British Columbia would  have been made so much stronger that  this Okanagan Valley would have been  lo^-t to the British. Had it been the Pacific Fur Company which developed  the fur trade on the Columbia and  opened up and maintained the great  trade route through the interior of what  is now British Columbia instead of the  North West and Hudson's Bay Companies, when the boundary question came  up for settlement in 1846—whatever the  ultimate destiny of Vancouver Island or  even New Calidonia might have been—  the right of the American Government  to the country south of Shuswap Lake  wrould have been so strong that it  would probably, never have been questioned.    And Astor nearly succeeded.  When the Tonquin, a ship of 300 tons  and mounting 12 guns, left New York  she had 55 souls    on   board—Captaki  Thorne and his crew. 22 men in all,  and 33 others—servants of the Company whose active duties did not commence until they reached the Columbia. Ross refers to them as. passengers. Among these passengers were  three partners in the Company—Duncan McDougall, David Stuart and Alexander McKay. Duncan McDougall was  to be in charge on the Columbia until  the arrival of Wilson P. Hunt who was  leader of the overland expedition. It  was Duncan McDougall who signed  away the Astor interests to the North  West Company, and whose strict fidelity to Mr. Astor has sometimes been  questioned. David Stuart was the man  who founded Kamloops in 1813 and  Alexander McKay was supercargo. This  Alexander McKay was with Sir Alexander McKenzie when the latter reached the Pacific, overland, on the 22nd.  July, 1793. He had a son on board who  is said to be the Tom. McKay who  blazed the H.B. Brigade trail from Fort  Okanagan to Kamloops in 1824. TTiext.  was also a Mr. Lewis on board, the  ship's clerk. This Mr. Lewis was related to the Tunstalls, a very old and  well known Quebec family. Some of  the Tunstalls came to British Columbia, and were prominent men in early  days. Gabriel Franchere and Alexander Ross also came out as apprentices  to the Company. Franchere afterwards wrote an acocunt of the voyage, and Ross wrote two books—, "Adventures on the Oregon or Columbia  River" published in 1849 and "The  Fur Traders of the Far West" published in 1855. Mr. F. M. Buckland has  copies of the first editions of these  books which are now very rare.  Captain Thorne had received his instructions direct from Mr. Astor, and  was therefore in supreme command of  the ship and her crew.  There were also five mechanics and  fourteen Canadian Voyageurs on board. 30  Mr. Astor was particularly proud of his  Canadians. Eight of them had come  down the Hudson River in a canoe,  and quite a crowd had gathered to  watch the landing. When two of them  picked up the canoe capable of carrying two tons of freight, and tripped off  with it to a place of safety the onlookers were astonsihed and Mr. Astor was  delighted. "Six Americans could not  do" he said 'what these two brawny  fellows have done", and McKav offered to bet ten to one against all comers in a three mile boat race: and perhaps the Canadians themselves were  not backward in proclaiming their  own merits.  The Canadians when engaged in  their regular work of traversing the  wilderness and trading with the Indians always gave a good account of  themselves, and were among the best  men in the expedition. Ross calls them  the most expert and venturesome can-  oemen in the world: but they did not  show to advantage as deeo water sailors. No sooner was the shin out in the  open than they wrere prostrated with  sea sickness. All day long they sat  huddled in groups about the deck with  their blankets drawn over their shoulders and wearing their night caps, their  groans rising in unison when the shin  slid down a wave into the trough of  the sea. Captain Thorne despised  them.  On the second day out a seriou&  quarrel took place between Mr. McKay  and the Captain over the accommodation on board allotted the five mechanics; the Captain had sent them to  the forecastle with the common sailors.  This was in clear violation of the written agreement they had with the Company, and they objected. Mr. McKay  supported them in their contention  and even threatened to resort to force  rather than see this injustice done to  his men. The Captain wheeled. "As  long as I as Captain of my own ship"  he said "I will blow the brains out of  the first man who refuses to obey my  orders", and from that on the mechanics were ruled with a rod of iron.  Not only had thev to share the forecastle with the sailors, bid they had to  take their turn with them day and  night in working tlv siiin. The bad  blood engendered by this quarrel  spi'-ad. and soon the whole ship was  divided into two hostile factions—,  the Captain and the crew against the  passengers, and this ill feeling continued throughout ihe voyage.  The passengers were not as consid-  i erate as they might have been. They  | were mostly a lot of young fellows, and  ' cooped up on board the ship as thev  were with nothing to do, they probab-  | ly found the time passing slowly, and  | were hard to please. They thought the  Captain was tyrannical and overbear-  j ing. The food did not suit them. Thev  suggested that the ship's stores should  be broached to improve the table, and  the Caotain's refusal to do so was considered another grievance, and soon  they found their chief amusement on board in baiting the Captain,  in purnoselv doing things to anno.v  him. The Captain on the other hand,  who had been trained in the Navy, and  is described as a martinet of a choleric  temner. was never satisfied with anything or anyone. He found fault with  everyone even his own officers whom  he repeatedly punished. He was excessively annoyd by the questions the  passengers persisted in asking, and it  angered him to see the young men  spend so much time writing up their  diaries—. scribbling he called it. In  his letters to Mr. Astor he savs that the  whole lot of them were behaving like  a lot of men out on a picnic. Soon the  passengers found a new means of annoying the Captain. Whenever he was  present those who could do so always  conversed in Gaelic or French, neither  of which he understood. Even when  their conversation had nothing to do  with the Captain, whenever a laugh  followed a remark, the sidelong glances thev bestowed on him. made him  think he was the subject of all their remarks and the butt of all their jests.  This alwavs had the desired effect of  throwing the Captain into a sullen rage  without leaving him anything about  which he could complain.  On the 7th Dec. they called in at the  Falkland Islands to replenish the water supply. The passengers gladly availed themselves of the oonortunitv to go  on shore to shoot wild fowl which were  very numerous, and to explore. One  dav the Captain went on shore to  shoot. Almost as soon as he landed  he saw a wild goose on the beach. Ap-  proaching it clothed in all (he di"u<r\  of the quarter deck, lie took careful  aim and fired. In fact he shot it twice  before he killed it, and then when he  went to pick it up he found it had  been tied bv the leg to a stone with a  niece of string, and the passengers  from the shin were standing some distance off. watching him and laughing at him. This angered him and he at  once returned to the ship. Captain  Thorne shot no more game on tnt  Falkland Islands for that afternoon he  hoisted the sails and bore away without giving the men on shore any warning whatever. There were then on the  Island. McDougall, McKay and Stuart,  the three partners, and Alexander Ross  and five others—, nine in all, and the  cnly boat they had was big enough for  only half the number. The risk was  great but they had to take it or be left  behind, and it was only after six hours  cf strenuous rowing that they were  able to come up with the ship. Even  then their situation was perilous owing to the darkness and the high sea  running; there was danger of the boat  being swamped or smashed against the  side of the ship. In writing of this incident Ross says: "That the Captain's  intention was to leave us behind, there  is not the least doubt". Thorne lays  the blame on the wind. In his letters to  Mr. Astor he says the expedition would  be better off without these men, but  the wind failed him and he was unable  to leave these unprofitable servants behind—, marooned on a desert island.  In another place Ross says that Robert  Stuart (David Stuart's son) who was on  board at the time, drew a pistol and  forced the Captain to lay to. but this  is imorobable. There was a gale blowing up at the time which later on  caused the ship to be laid to under  shortened sail for six hours, and the  real facts probably are that the men  in the boat had ventured so far from the  shore and the weather was so rough,  and the night so dark that Thorne  found the alternative on his hands of  either picking the men up. or being  held later on responsible for their  deaths.  On reading the accounts given of  this voyage one is amazed at the conduct of these men. The Captain and  the three partners might well have  utilized the six months duration of the  vovage in creating something of an  espirit de crops among the rank and  file, and a sentiment of loyalty to the  Comnany. The ultimate success of  the Expedition should have been kept  in view as the great, the supreme object to be attained, and this sentiment might well have been insisted  on and fostered in every way. As it  was their conduct was such that it  must have robbed the men under them  of any respect they had for their leaders or confidence  in  their  judgment.  31  It amused the passengerss to inveigle  the Captain into wasting two shots on  a captive goose, and he in turn would  get even with them if he wrecked the  Expedition in doing so. The rest of  the voyage was marred by acts of  tyranny and cruelty on the part of the  Captain, and by frequent quarrels between him and the partners, on one  occasion felling ran so high that pistols were drawn.  They called in at the Sandwich Islands where they added a number of  Kanakas to the crew. Some of the  sailors got into trouble there for being  tardy in getting back to the ship. Two  of them overstayed their leave fifteen  minutes, and for this they were tied  up and flogged, and put in irons. A  third more unfortunate could not llnu  a boat on the beach and did not reach  the ship until sun rise. The Captain  happened to be pacing the deck at trie  time. He did not wait for the sailor  to come on board but lowered himself  into the boat, beat the lad up unmercifully, threw him into the sea and  threatened him with death if he ever  came on board again. In describing  this incident Ross says:— "During this  scene no one interfered for the Captain in his frantic fits of passion, was  capable of going any length, and would  rather have destroyed the expedition,  the ship, and every one aboard, than  be thwarted in what he considered his  nautical duties".  At last on the 22nd. March, 1811, after a voyage of six and a half months,  they arrived off the mouth of the Columbia. The weather was rough and  from the ship they could see the surf  running high—, huge waves rolling  and breaking over the Bar, a series of  sand banks extending for five or six  miles across the mouth of the river.  The same day at one o'clock the Captain ordered the first mate to take the  soundings necessary to locate a channel deep enough for the ship; but the  only crew he would give him was an  old Frenchman and three inexperienced lads—two carters from La Chine  and a barber from Montreal. The  mate objected to this inadequate crew  and to the size of the boat which was  too small, and his objections were  warmly backed up by the partners but  as usual the Captain was obdurate.  "Mr. Fox" he said "if you are afraid  of water you should have stayed at  Boston" and walked off. After that  there was no choice left for the mate,  he had to go; but he realized how im- 32  possible it was for such a boat to survive in the heavy sea then running.  Sorrowfully he took leave of his  friends, shaking each in turn by  the hand. "My uncle was drowned  here not many years ago and I am  now going to lay my bones with his",  he said, and lowered himself into the  boat. In a little while they could see  from the deck that the small boat had  hoisted a signal of distress, but the  Captain bore away and left them to  their fate. They were never seen or  heard of  afterwards.  On the 25th. March, the third mate.  Mr. Aitkens, was ordered out in the  pinnace with four men. When they  had found three and a half fathoms,  the depth agreed upon, they hoisted a  signal and the ship bore down on  them; but. although the ship was moving at about three knots only, and  passed within sixty yards of the pinnace, no effort was made to pick it up  or throw the men a line. Consternation prevailed on board when they  realized that the pinnace was to be  left behind. The Captain as usual was  deaf to all protests or appeals and held  on his way. The ship struck heavily  two or three times, but finally the  winds and waves bumped her over the  bar into deep water. In the meantime  the situation of the men in the small  boat was desperate; the breakers were  pounding heavily over the bar and  along the shore rendering any attempt  to follow the ship or land on the  beach, equally hazardous. They first  tried to overtake the ship but failed,  and then they attempted to land on  the beach, and in the attempt three of  them including the mate, were drowned, and the other two were picked up  the next morning nearly dead from  exhaustion and exposure.  From the accounts given of the circumstances by Franchere and Ross—  the only reliable account we have—it  would appear that there was no adequate reason whatever why Captain  Thorne should have followed the extraordinary course he did on these two  occasions and which resulted in the  loss of eight men; but he appears to  have been in a particularly sullen and  morose temper about this time, and  when the safety of his men was in  question, he was indifferent and even  reckless. Four months previous to  this lime the partners were in the  habit of holding long conversation in  G •••lie in his presence, and making  hi      believe he was  the subject of all  their consultations. Apparently the  Gaelic was too much for the Captain.  It raised a suspicion in his mind  which later on. especially after the  ship left the Sandwich Islands according to Ross, became a settled conviction that the partners were plotting  against him, and that they intended  to depose him and put in one of the  mates in charge of the ship. He mentions his suspicions to Mr. Astor in  one of his letters, but apparently he  was not perturbed over the matter nor  afraid that the partners would succeed  in their designs against him. Whether  his mistrust of the partners influenced  in any way his actions after the ship  reached the bar of the Columbia River, we do not know, but if it was his  intention to get rid of his officers he  was successful for when the Tonquin  left Astoria for the voyage up the  north-west coast, the second mate was  deposed and left behind and the other  two were drowned.  The ship left Astoria on the 1st. of  June and crossed the Bar on the 5th,  and 24 days afterwards, according to  the Indians' reckoning, she blew up. It  appears they anchored off what is  now Clayoquot on Vancouver Island,  and commenced to trade with the Indians. One day there was trouble ?*.-  tween one of the Chiefs and Captain  Thorne. and the Indians bitterly resented the indignities offered their  Chief on that occasion—, one account  says that the Chief was kept locked up  on board all night, and another account says that the Captain kicked  him over the side of the ship. Two  days later, the last day the Captain  intended to stay there, and while the  sailors were getting the ship ready to  sail, the Indians came on board in large  numbers to trade and appeared to be  particularly friendly. The Captain  thinking he had humbled them was  unusually affable and even made them  some small presents; but when the order  was given to clear the ship of the Indians, the Indians seized the weapons which up to that time they had  kept concealed and fell upon the crew.  It was all over in five minutes. McKay  was the first to fall. Lewis was stabbed in the back and fell down the  companionway. Thorne fought like a  demon and with a clasp knife, his only  weapon, killed two Indians and wounded several before he fell. When the  fight started there were seven sailors  in the rigging. They saw that their  only chance to escape was to gain the room where the fire arms were kept.  They slid down to the deck and made  a dash for it, three were killed but the  others were successful, and opening a  brisk fire on the Indians soon cleared the  ship of them. The next day while  there were a large number of Indians  on board, the ship blew up. During  the night after the fight the four sailors escaped in a row boat, but afterwards they were catpured by the Indians and tortured to death.  In reference to the destruction of the  ship Mr. M. M. Quaife. Editor of the  "Lakeside Classics" in a foot note appended to page 179 of Ross' "Adventures on the Oregon". Edition of 1923.  very justly observes:— "Whether the  explosion on the Tonquin was inci-  dential or accidential. and if the former by whom intended, will never certainly be known. The narratives of  Franchere and Ross supply our totai  knowledge of the affair, and these  are based on the uncertain and more  or less conflicting reports of the natives". Lewis' relative or kinsman  the late J. C. Tunstall who for years  was Government Assessor in Vernon,  always said that Lewis fired his pistol  into the powder magazine: that he was  wcunded but not killed when he fell  33  down the companionway. and that the  four sailors wanted him to leave the  ship that night with them but he could  not do so on account of his wounds.  Appparently this is the version of the  story accepted by Washington Irvine  who on page 166 of his "Astoria" says:  "On the voyage out he (Lewis) had expressed a presentiment that he should  die by his own hand, thinking it  highly probable that he should be engaged in some contest with the natives,  and being resolved in case of extremity, to commit suicide rather than be  taken prisoner. He now (in consultation with the four sailors) declared  his intention to remain on board the  ship until daylight, to decoy as many  savages on board as possible, then set  fire to the powder magazine, and terminate his life by a signal act of ven-  gence". Irvine tells the story with so  much detail as to suggest the narrative of an eye witness, but Mr. Quaife's  observation above quoted, is correct.  The loss of the Tonquin was a crippling blow to the Astor Enterprise, and  went farther towards bringing about  its collapse than any other single factor; but want of space forbids going  into the matter further for the present.  Some Place Names  L. NORRIS  Enderby. When steamboats began  to ply on Shuswap Lake it was not  long before they found their way up  the Spallumcheen River. The head of  steamboat navigation on the Spallumcheen River for years, was Furtune's  ranch; it was there that freierht for  down Okanagan Lake was unloaded,  and the place soon became known as  Fortune's Landing. Shortly after the  Lambly brothers arrived in the late  70's tney built a large warehouse for  the purpose of storing the wheat hauled in during the winter for shipment  by steamers to Kamloops during high  water in the Spallumcheen. This warehouse stood south of the west end of  the bridge over the Spallumcheen. and  just about where the big saw mill of  the Okanagan Lumber Company, stood.  It was for years a prominent object on  the sky line of the future city, ana  served a useful purpose. Part of it  was boarded off and used by T. McKle  Lambly. the Government Agent, as an  office, until 1884 when he was succeeded by Walter Dewdney. Another part  of it was partitioned off into living  rooms which were occupied by Mr. and  Mrs. Robert Lambly (now living at  Glenmore) for years after their marriage, and it was here their three chil-  | dren were born.  Naturally   the    place    soon   became  j known as Lambly's Landing, but the  official name seems to have been Belvidere.   For instance, the road running  | north towards Sicamous is referred to  1 in the Government records for years in  as the Belvidere Road, and further,  the following notice appeared in the  B. C. Gazette of the 29th. Jan. 1885:—  "Notice is hereby given that the Lots into which the Government Reserve is divided, now designated Belvidere. will  be offered for sale at Public Auction,  at the office of Walter Dewdney, Esq.,  Government Agent, at Spallumcheen  on Saturday the 14th. Feb.. 1885 at 2  p.m.   (sgd)   W   Smythe.   Chief  Com- 34  missioner of Lands and Works". So  that this name, said to have been first  suggested by Mrs. Robert Lambly. was  fairly well established in 1887. the  year the big grist mill was built by  Rashdale and Lawes.  It is not quite clear who suggested  it, but when the post office was opened  on the 1st. Nov., 1887 with Oliver Harvey as Post Master, it was called Enderby. and this name soon superseded Belvidere as a name for the village. Both names are foreign and  neither one has any local historic import., ine one means a neautiiui view  ynd all wno have read Jean Ingelow s  poem "High Tide on the Coast oi  Lincolnshire" will remember the other,  and the lines:—  Play uppe. play uppe, O Boston bells  Ply all your changes, all your swells  Play uppe. 'The  Brides of  Enderby.'  Spallumcheen. For years this word  was written as a word of four syllables, and until quite recent years one  sometimes heard it prounounced as such  by some of the early settlers, viz, Spill-  a-ma-cheen. Professor Hill-Tout, no  mean authority, says it was the name  of one of the ten permanent camps or  villages of the Salish Indians in this  part of British Columbia, extending  from Spallumcheen (Enderby) on the  north to Osoyoos on the south, and  that it means a flat rim or edge of a  river.  The first time it was used in its present form, as far as my observations extend, was in the Gazette notice, dated  the 8th. May, 1884, establishing the  Spallumcheen School District. It would  be interesting to know when the  change was first made, and who suggested it. During the five years immediately preceding the date of the  Gazette notice above referred to, it is  spelled in thirteen different ways, by  actual count, in the Government records in Victoria. Sometimes it has  one "1" and sometimes two while "a",  "e" and "i" are used indifferently for  the first as well as for the second  vowell, and sometimes the termination is "cheen" and sometimes  "chene"—, but always as a word of four  syllables.  When the post office was opened on  the 1st. May. 1881, with George J.  Wallace as Post Master, the name was,  Spallamucheen—. the old word of four  syllables, but a few years later it was  changed, and the form of the word now  used was adopted. Mr. Wallace resigned on the 1st. July. 1894 and was succeeded by W. B. Patton who in turn  resigned on the 1st. April, 1896. From  that date until the office was closed ou  the 20th. July. 1908. Dr. E. J. Offerhaus was the Post Master. When it  was first opened it was kept in Mr.  Wallace's house, situated a short distance west of the village of Lansdowne. but a few years later it was  moved into the village, and for years  it was kept in a small frame building  standing with its end to the road,  about half way between the junction of  the two roads and the gravel pit. Henc_-  there was the anomaly of the village  being called Lansdowne and the post  office, Spallumcheen.  Professor Hill-Tout gives his interpretation of the word, and his spelling  of it (phonetic, no doubt, after the Indian pronunciation) in the following  paragraph.— "SpalEm'tcin. Flat rim  or edge (of River) Cf. 'nk'Emtcin, rim  or edge." The ' here stands for a  gutteral sound or click, and the capital "E" is scarcely sounded, the emphasis being on the next succeeding  letter.  It was I think, an excellent choice  of a name for the Municipality, and  the School District. In its present  form it is not particularly uncouth in  the printed page, and it is native to  the country.  Lansdowne. When E. M. Furstineau  opened his new hotel on the 1st. of July.  1885, he called it the "Lansdowne Hotel" in honour of the Governor General. Perhaps one of the reasons why  people persisted in calling the village  which gradually grew up around the  hotel at the junction of the two roads.  Lansdowne, after the hotel instead of,  Spallumcheen, after the post office,  was because the people in the valley at  that time, especially those living down  Okanagan Lake, usually used the term.  Spallumcheen, to designate the whole  region lying between Okeefe's and Enderby.  Larkin. Called after Patrick Larkin,  a well known contractor of St. Catherine, Ontario, who was especially active in the construction of important  public works in British Columbia. He  was a member of the firm of Bell, Larkin & Paterson; Larkin & Connelly,  and Larkin & Paterson which, respectively, built the Esquimalt & Nanaimo  Railway, the first Dry Dock at Esquimalt, and the Shuswap & Okanagan  Railway. Glenemma. When Mr. and Mrs.  Kenneth Sweet, with their infant son,  Stanley, moved onto the homestead  they new occupy in Salmon River Valley on the 12th. July, 1893, they had to  get their mail from either Okeefe's or  Grand Prairie. On a petition being  circulated and sent to the authorities  at Ottawa which was backed up by J.  A. Mara M.P. a post office was opened  in their house on the 1st. Aug.. 1895.  Unknown to Mr. and Mrs. Sweet, a  neighbour, J. C. McKenzie, wrote to the  35  Department and suggested that the  new post office should be called, Glenemma. in honour of Mrs. Sweet, and  his suggestion was adopted. Mrs. Sweet,  before she was married, was Miss  Emma Phoebe Denyes, and although  the post office was closed on the 31st.  Dec. 1922, the name is perpetuated in  the Glenemma Community Hall and  the Glenemma School District. This  post office was kept by the following  persons, in turn, viz,  Kenneth Sweet  George Mitchell  R. E. Morgan  L. J. Botting  E V. Chambers  W. A. Peterie  1st. August 1895  1st. June. 1901  9th. March. 1904  1st. Nov., 1910  1st. June. 1912  1st.    May,   1913  to 1st. June, 1901  to 9th. March. 1904  to 1st. Nov. 1910  1st. June, 1912  1st.   May,     1913  to  to  to   31st.    Dec,    1922  Commonage. The area of land south  of Vernon usually called the, Commonage, extends east and west, from Okanagan Lake to Long Lake, and from a  line running along the north boundary  of Sections 16, 17 and 18, Tp. 9. on the  north, to a line running through the  middle of Sections 21 and 22, Tp. 20, on  the south. It embraces, roughly, 24,000  acres.  This land was at one time, reserved  from pre-emption or purchase for the  purpose of a perpetual pasturage, to be  enjoyed by the Indians and whites in  common; hence the name. The award  or recommendation establishing this  reserve, is dated the 8th. May, 1876, and  is signed by the three Indian Reserve  Commissioners, viz, a. Cameron, Dominion Commissioner; Archibald Mc-  Kinley, Commissioner for British Columbia, and G. M. Sproat, Joint Commissioner.  In 1889 a new agreement was reached  between the two Governments. In a letter, dated the 24th. Jan. of that year,  addressed to the Chief Commissioner of  Lands & Works for British Columbia.  P. O'Reilly, Indian Reserve Commissioner, laid before him the proposal  of the Dominion Government which  was that if the Provincial Government would sanction the establishment of the Indian Reserve on the  west side of Okanagan Lake, the Dominion Government would relinquish  the rights of the Indians to the pasture lands held in common in Okan-  atran District, and this was agreed to.  When the rights of the Indians ceased,  the only incumbrance on the land was  removed, and the Provincial Government were free to do what they liked  with it.  Hence it was that the Commonage  was surveyed into quarter Sections by  Coryell & Burnyeat in 1893 and the  subdivisions were offered for sale at  auction at the Court House, Vernon  on Oct. 12th of that year, without any  notice appearing in the B. C. Gazette  cancelling the previous reserve. After  the auction sale, the unsold portions  were thrown open for pre-emption or  purchase.  Trepanier Creek. All the maps  shewing Okanagan Lake which were  published for about twenty years, from  1858 to 1878, have the creek which enters the Lake just north of Peachland  now known as Trepanier Creek, marked as, Jaques Creek, and the creek  south of Peachland now known as  Deep Creek, as, Trepanier Creek.  These two names have probably  some connection with two incidents in  the life of Alexander Ross, related by  him. In his "Adventures on the Oregon or Columbia River", page 207, he  says:— "One evening the fuel being  damp we were unable to kindle a fire.  In this predicament I called on Jacques  to give me a little powder, a customary thing in such cases; but instead of  handing me a little, or taking a little  out in his hand, the wise Jacques, uncorking his horn began to pour it out  on the heated coals. It instantly exploded, blowing all Up oetore it. sending Jacques himself sprawling six feet  from where he stood, and myself nearly as far, both for some time stunned  and senseless, while the fire was completely extinguished."  On this occasion Ross had been on a  visit to David Stuart at Kamloops,  and was then on his way back to the  mouth of the Okanagan River. He had 36  reached Kamloops on the last day of  1812, and after staying with Stuart for  five days he decided in returning to  take a nearer and more direct route  through the mountains for the purpose of exploring a part of the country he had not seen. Fortunately  neither of them were seriously injured  by the explosion of the powder flash,  and the next day they reached a pleasant valley which soon brought them to  the Similkameen River. (He calls it  the "Sa-milk-a-meigh" River). It is  therefore very probable that on the  night the powder flask blew up they  were somewhere in the vicinity of the  head water of these two creeks. In  the maps the word is, Jaques, but in  Ross' narrative. Edition of 1849, the  word is. Jacques.  The other incident is related in his  book "The Fur Traders of the Far  West". It would appear that Ross was  invited by the Indians to join them in  a bear hunt. They had good sport for  two or three days and the hunt was  successful; but on the third day an  Indian Chief was attacked by a wounded bear and severely injured. Ross  says of his condition:— "The sight of  the Chief was appalling; the scalp was  torn from the crown of his head to his  eyebrows; he was insensible and for a  time we thought him dead, but after a  short interval his pulse began to beat,  and he gradually showed signs of animation". And continuing his narrative on page 165, he says.— "The Chief  remained for three days speechless. In  cutting off the scalp and dressing the  wound, we found the skull, according  to our imperfect knowledge of anatomy, fractured in two or three places;  and at the end of eight days, I extracted a bone measuring two inches long,  of an oblong form, and another about  an inch square, with several smaller  pieces, all from the crown of the head.  The wound however, gradually closed  up and healed, except a small spot  about the size of an English shilling.  In fifteen days, by the aid of Indian  medicine. Ife was able to walk about,  and at the end of six weeks after he  got wounded, he was on hosre back  again at the chase".  We do not know exactly where this  incident took place. We can only  gather from his narrative that he was  then Chief Trader for the North West  Fur Company at their post "at the She  Whaps" (Kamloops); that he had returned from a trip he had made to  the foot of the Rocky   Mountains  by  way of the region lying between the  Thompson and Fraser rivers, to his  headquarters on the 29th. Sep.. 1817. It  was shortly after this that he was invited to the bear hunt. There were 73  in the party all told. He savs also,  that after the start was made (presumably from Kamloops) they travelled for ten miles before they commenced to hunt, and that then they broke  up into small detached parties to sweep  the mountains for bears. He gives no  indication of the probable distance  they travelled, nor the direction they  took. So that it is impossible to sav  where they were when the Indian Chief  was mauled by the bear. The word.  Trepanier, however is suggestive.  The word, trepan, is both French and  English. It is spelled in the same wav  and has the same meaning in both  languages. The form of the word. Trepanier, would suggest the French substantive derived from the verb, meaning one who performs the surgical operation of cutting out and removing a  piece of bone, usually from the skull,  or the instrument made use of in pei-  forming the operation, but I have not  been able to find this word in any dictionary I have been able to consult,  French or English. Clifton & Gri-  maux's French-English Dictionary gives the French substantive derived from  the verb as "Trepanateur" while Webster's International Dictionary and The  Century Dictionary give the English  equivalent as "Trepanner". Both words  mean one who performs the operation  of trepanning. Trepanier is therefore  probably a corruption of either, Trepanateur, or, Trepanner, as Jaques is  probably a corruption of the original  name, Jacques.  It may be worth noting that in J.  W. Trutch's map of 1877 the bench  above Peachland is marked as the  "Trapanage". The word, trapan, is also a word that is spelled in the same  way and has the same meaning in  French as in English—, to trap, to  catch with a snare or other device. The  form of the word, Trapanage, would  therefore suggest the place or region  where trapping is carried on. analogous  to the French, voisinage, the English  commonage, pasturage, etc. But here  again is a word I cannot find in any  dictionary. French or English.  It may also be worth noting that  these two words placed so near each  other, in Trutch's map, though derived, according to some authoriti.s.  from root words   widely   different   in meaning have in a secondary and bad  sense, the same meaning—, to cheat,  to mislead, to betray, and this is  so in French as well as in English. It appears these two words  were in more or less common use  in the eighteenth century and later, and they were sometimes used by  the   Theologians.     One   would   occa-  37  sionally accuse the other of trying to  "trepan" or "trapan" the people by  preaching false doctrines.  We hope some of our more erudite  members will pursue this subject further. In the meantime one wonders why  the old historic names, Jaques Creek,  was ever discarded for the present  banal term Deep Creek.  The Rise and Fall of Rock Creek  L.  NORRIS  Governor Douglas visited the mining  ramp on Rock Creek in September,  1860, and in his dispatch to the Home  Government, dated the 24th. October,  he says that gold was discovered on  Rock Creek in October. 1859, by a Canadian, Adam Beam, when travelling  from Colville to Similkameen; that  Beam visited the place in December  cf that year but did not start work until the 7th. May, 1860, and that in six  weeks he cleaned up $977.00. The Governor further says that there were then  (Oct., 1860) about five hundred miners  congregated in and around Rock Creek  and at another place on the Colville  (Kettle) River about ten miles further down (mouth of Boundary Creek).  When gold was discovered on the  Fraser River in 1858 there was a great  influx of miners by sea into British  Columbia; the first ship load landed at  Victoria on the 25th. April of that  year, but all the miners who flocked  into Rock Creek, after Beam's discovery became known, did not come  from the coast. Among the first to arrive there were miners who had been  prospecting on the streams in American territory just across the Boundary  Line. With the decline of placer mining in California the miners, naturally pushed further afield and by 1860  they had pretty well penetrated Oregon and Washington Territory. For  instance, the late Charles Deitz of  Greenwood, always boasted that he  was nlacer mining in British Columbia  in 1857. He had been with a party of  prospectors on the Pend d'Oreille River, and they had followed the stream  down to its mouth where it empties  into the Columbia just north of the  Boundary Line. In Rock Creek camp  the aliens always predominated. When  a census of the camp was taken on the  14th. April, 1861, it was found that  there  were   only   seven   British   sub  jects in camp as against 116 foreigners.  Rock Creek must have been a fine  little mining town in 1860. And it is  surprising how optimistic the businessmen were. They seemed to think the  mines were a permanency, and that the  creek would give perennial employment to a large number of men. The  Gold Commissioner, Mr. Cox, too, seems  to have caught something of the same  spirit.  William George Cox was the Magistrate in charge of the District at Kamloops in 1859.    In the Spring of 1860  the Governor sent him into Rock Creek  to look after the collection of the Customs duties there, and when Governor  Douglas visited the camp in September, he appointed Cox Gold Commissioner.    Mr. Cox was a fine man    in  many  ways,  and  an  efficient  officer  j who was always ready    to    boost   the  ; camp, and report things in a favour-  t able   light  even  when  communicating  ' with the Governor.   He believed firm-  j ly  that  there  would  soon be  a large  increase in the    population    of    Rock  Creek with a corresponding increase in  the revenue flowing   into the Government  coffers.    With  this  in  view he  had   an   iron   safe,   weighing   about  twelve hundred pounds packed in from  the Dalles, on the Columbia.    In  the  meantime he borrowed £240 from some  cattle  drovers  to   keep   the   Government's business running smoothly.  In November when the final clean-up  was made it was ascertained that $83,-  000.00 in gold had been taken out of the  creek by 20 individual miners and small  companies of miners. In addition to  this, considerable gold had been taken  out by miners who had left the camp  with out disclosing what they had  made. The camp then consisted of  twenty three houses and stores of  good size, some of them erected at  considerable expense, besides a num- 38  ber of huts and cabins; and the people  were anxiously waiting for the Governor to make some move towards  having the townsite surveyed. The  town also boasted a large billiard  saloon which. Mr. Cox said, added  greatly to the good appearance of the  town.  On the 20th. Nov., 1860, Mr. Cox reported that "five sections of agricultural land have been pre-empted and  partly plowed". This clearly implies  that a large acreage had been broken  and brought under the plough. He  probably meant that five pre-emption  claims had been staked and some land  plowed, because on the 14th. April.  1861. he reported that five persons had  recorded land with him, viz, Father  Richards, J. C. Larame, W. G. Cox.  Gideon Pion and J. C. Haynes.  Late in 1860 Mr. Cox had plans prepared for a Government building  which was constructed by Leatherman  & Co. and finished about the first of  April, 1861, at a cost of £285. 12. The  Customs house on the Similkameen  River was built in the fall of 1860,  and the one at Osoyoos about one year  later, the latter cost £109.  The prices of provisions in the camp  in 1860 were: Flour 20 cents per  pound; Bacon, 50 cents; Lard, 50;  Sugar, 40; Coffee, 50; Beans, 50;  Onions. 25: Potatoes, 22; Dried Apples, 40; Rice 30; Tea, $1.25; Candles,  $1.00 and Butter, none. And labourers were getting $4.00 per day without  board.  Up to the end of 1860 everything  had gone well with the camp at Rock  Creek. Strangely enough, however, the  first cause for anxiety to those whose  interests were directly bound up in  Rock Creek, was the discovery of gold  on Mission Creek. At first the report  of the new discovery attracted little  attention; but by the middle of Feb.,  1861. more than one party had gone  out to investigate for themselves, one  party led by Adam Beam. When Beam  and his party returned they reported  to Mr. Cox what they had observed.  They handed some gold to Mr. Cox  which they said, they had obtained  from a claim where the owner. William Pion, was making $4.00 per day  with a rocker, and continuing their  report they said:— We prospected  nine streams all tributaries of the  Lake, and found gold in each, averaging from three to ninety cents to  the pan; the ground was frozen and  much    impeded    our   work.    We    are  quite satisfied of the richness of these  streams, and shall as soon as possible,  dispose of our claims on Rock Creek,  and leave for that section of the country where a miner can grow his ro-  tatoes and other vegetables, besides  keep his cow". Tdyllic conditions  truly, for a mining camp.  Mr. Cox in commenting on this report in his letter to the Colonial Secretary, dated 1st. March, 1861, says:—  I have been particular in quoting the  above as Mr. Beam, the discoverer of  Rock Creek, is universally acknowledged as a good and sure prospector.  I have not made the above statement  public as it would only tend to bad  results at present. The miners in this  neighbourhood who are heavily burdened with debt would be easily coaxed off, and the mines now in a preparatory condition for being wrorked  abandoned. Improvements going forward on buildings and farms would be  checked. Townlots would be almost  unsaleable, and the expected revenue  seriously interfered with". And again  in his letter of the 27th. April, he  says:— "Tomorrow about twelve miners leave for the Okanagan gold fields.  If the miners are only of an ordinary  nature, the climate and soil are of a  sufficiently attractive nature to cause  miners to settle there. Much money  has been expended in jimproving  buildings here and some good lumber  houses have been erected, but the  expected stampedes to Okanagan has  thrown a dismal feeling over the  owners of such property".  About this time Cox sent in a sketch  plan showing the relative position of  Okanagan Lake and Mission Creek,  which is wonderfully correct for that  day. It shows the new gold fields as  lying north of Mission Creek and nea^  to the place where Harry Mills founu  the Bison bones in 1919. Mission  Creek is not shown as Mission Creek,  but under its old name of Riviere de  L'Anse au Sable.  The interest which this new find  created on the outside was out of all  proportion to the importance of the  discovery itself, and soon there was a  steamboat under construction af  Osoyoos to ply between the Columbia'  River, and the mines on Mission  Creek. There is not much information to be gleaned about this boat  Cox in his letter of the 16th. Feb..  1861. says:— "Should these mines  (the mines on Mission Creek) prove  rich   and   extensive,   small   boats   will ply between there and the Dalles. One  is already being built by Mr. Gray".  And again on the 8th. April, in a post  script:— "The boat constructed and  intended for use on the Lake. I have  seen. She is from end to end eighty-  five feet, and will be worked by steam."  There is also a letter published in the  "British Columbian" at New Westminster, of the 22nd. March. 1861, in  which the writer says:— "New $8.00  diergings have been found on the Okanagan. Cap't. Gray's steamer to run  from Priest Rapids (on the Columbia) to Okanaean Lake, is completed  with the exception of putting in the  machinery".  We do not know how they expected  to get this boat, which was from end  to end eighty-five feet, and worked by  steam, up Okanagan Falls: but that  this attempt at steam navigation was  taken seriously bv the Governor is  evinced by the full and carefully considered instruction sent to Mr. Cox.  He was instructed among other things  to see that the boat called and obtained a clearance from the Customs  House at Osoyoos, each time she entered or departed from British territory.  Another cause for anxiety to the  people of Rock Creek was the amount  of credit extended by the traders to  the miners at Rock Creek and Ten  Mile Camp (Boundary Creek) com-  nuted by Cox in March, 1861, at $16,-  000.00. This was a serious matter. Cox  in his letter of the 10th. July, says:—  "Rock Creek I regret to say has not  prospered as anticipated, the y.ason  is advancing and still no immigration.  Miners heavily burdened with debts  contracted recklessly during the late  winter, escaping, flying to the Nez  Perces country—the traders disheartened refuse credit to good men who  cannot produce the cash, and without  provisions cannot work their claims—  in fact things have the appearance of  general bankruptcy".  With all the bad luck they had at  Rock Creek, it was a surprisingly quiet  and orderly camp. Cox repeatedly refers to this in his letters. He reports  that there was no drunkeness, no  fighting and no brawling among the  men. The American miners who came  overland to Rock Creek were generally speaking, a pretty decent lot of  men. Men who live for years in a  mining camp where there is no constituted authority—. no village police-  39  man to keep order, soon learn to secure for themselves some degree of  comfort and quiet by exerting themselves, each individually, in discountenancing any disorder or want of  decorum in the camp. It is true,  drinking and gambling went on, but  these in themselves are harmless  amusements. Apparently during the  16 months that Cox was in charge of  the camp, he reported only one crime  as having been committed in Rock  Creek mining camp. A man was  guilty of theft and was run out of  the camp. Cox declining to send him  to jail on account of the expense. This  crime list when the number of men—  ranging from 125 to perhaps 300 or  400 occassionally—and the duration of  the camp are considered, would hardly discredit a Sunday School picnic.  But a serious crime was committed  near  the   camp;   an  Indian  killed   a  whiteman.    It would appear from the  confession   of   the   Indian—made   afterwards to his friends and communicated by them to the whites—the two  foregathered at  the First Crossing of  Rock Creek, about six miles from its  mouth where the  camp was situated.  The whiteman, a  Frenchman, cooked  supper for  both,  and  they lay  down  for the night in a nearby vacant cabin.  During the night the Indian got up,  ! and because he  (the  Indian)   "had a  bad heart", as he said, he stole   the  knife   from   under   the   Frenchman's  head and stabbed him to death with  it.    This was a serious matter, and a  difficult matter for a man   in   Cox's  position to deal with:  the crime was  confessed.    He might, of course, have  improvised    a    gallows    and   hired   a  hangman, but there was no Judge or  | jury to try the man; and to have tak-  | en the   culprit   and   the   witnesses   to  i New Westminster to keep them there  j until the next ensuing   assizes   would  i  have  been   expensive,   and   it   is   just  possible  that Mr.  Cox  did  not  have  ; very much money by him at the time.  Usually in an emergency. Cox's decision was swift and his actions were  promot; but in this case it is remarkable how much time he lost in consid-  j ering, very carefully no doubt, the  whole matter under its various aspects, without doing anything. In the  meantime the miners caught the Indian and hanged him, and when the  report of the lynching reached the  outside it was probably taken as further proof of the lawlessness prevailing 40  among   the  foreigners  in  the  mining  camps of British Columbia.  Cox left Rock Creek on the 15th.  Nov.. 1861. having seen the last party  of miners leave the camp for Mission  Creek on the 10th. and for a time the  camp was deserted. It is true that  mining was carried on there intermit-  tingly for forty years afterwards, but  for a time it was a deserted mining  camp. The Government office was  closed, the iron safe that weighed  about 1200 pounds had been packed  over to Osoyoos, and the large Billiard  Saloon, the glory and ornament of  Rock Creek, stood silent and deserted;  and with the Exodus from Rock Creek  to Mission Creek went two who afterwards became prominent men in the  community there—, Joseph Christian  and Eli Lequime.  When Governor Douglas got back to  Hope after his visit to Rock Creek, he  wrote a letter from there dated 3rd  Oct., 1860, to the Colonial Secretary  in which, after commenting on the  peace and good order prevailing in the  mining camps, he says that he had  then been in the saddle for 21 days.  He also says, that on the following  day (Oct. 4th) J. C. Haynes, who was  then a constable under Saunders at  Hope, would leave Hope for Rock  Creek to assist with the collection of  the revenues there.  John Carmichael Haynes was never  located for any length of time at Rock  Creek. When the new Customs House  on the Similkameen River was completed in Dec, 1860, he moved into it,  and a year later, when the Customs  House at Osoyoos was finished, he  moved over there where he remained  as Collector of Customs, first under  the Colonial Government and later  under the Dominion Government, until his death in 1888. He was succeeded by Theodore Kruger.  It is worth noting that in all the  letters written about this time, and in  the newspapers, the name, Osoyoos, is  always written, Sooyoos; Similkameen,  Shimilkomees; and Kamloops, Kamaloops; Okanagan was then invariably spelled as it is to-*iy. Shuswap  usually follows the modern form of the  word although it sometimes appears  as, Shouswap. Kettle River was then  called, Colville River; Dog Lake, Lake  Duchien, Princeton, Vermilion Forks,  and Long Lake (near Vernon),  Chelootsoos Lake. It is curious too,  how often such men as Cox, Haynes  and others when mentioning Okanagan Lake refer to it as "great" Okanagan Lake.  Alexander Ross in his "Adventures  on the Oregon or Columbia River,"  published in 1849, writes these names,  thus: Oakinackin, (Okanagan), She  Whaps (Shuswap), Cumcloups (Kamloops), and Sa-milk-a-meigh (Sililka-  meen). In this book is the first written record we have of the word, Kamloops.  Do any of our members know what  became of that iron safe which  weighed about twelve hundred pounds?  It must be above ground somewhere.  Cox in his letters refers to a place  on Okanagan Lake which he sometimes calls "Sel d'Epinette' and sometimes "Sable d'Epinette". Apparently  it is near the Mission because in his  letter of the 9th. Aug., 1862 he says:—  "I left Sel d'Epinette, Okanagan Lake,  on the 17th. ultimo for the purpose of  exploring the road (sic) between that  point and the Columbia River". In a  sketch which was enclosed with another letter of about the same date he  shows two trails only between Okanagan Lake and the Columbia River-  one up Mission Creek and one by way  of Cherry Creek. Do any of our members know where this place is?  A Characteristic Letter  Shimilkomeen   (sic),  24th. Aug., 1862.  Sir,  When lately visiting the settlers at  the Okanagan Lake, I gathered the  following information which I have  the honour to convey to the Governor:  There are five occupied farms of 160  acres each. There are 130 acres of  cultivated ground of which 68 represent cereals. There are two substantial and excellent dwelling houses, and  material on the premises for a third.  The settlers are composed of Canadians, Frenchmen and half breeds,  and are all Roman Catholics, and I am  sorry to add, paupers, comparatively  speaking, they have not enough funds  amongst them to have a flour mill  constructed; this is discouraging as  their wheat crops look very promising.  I have the honour to be  Sir, ?  Your most humble and obedient servant  W. G. Cox.  W. A. G. Young, Esq.,  Colonial Secretary. 41  The Cherry Creek Silver Mining Company, Ltd.  G. C.  For many years there has been a  story often told, of a very rich ledge  of silver ore which was discovered on  Cherry Creek, worked for a while and  then lost. In fact the story has become something of a tradition, and the  rediscovery of this lost ledge has been  the hope and dream of many a prospector.  Shortly after silver ore was discovered on Cherry Creek, the Silver Mine  there became famous. It was frequently referred to in the newspapers  in Oregon and all over British Columbia. For instance, the "Cariboo  Sentinel" published in Camerontown,  Cariboo, in its issue of the 14th. June,  1866, while labouring under a misapprehension of the facts, has this to  say of the Company formed to work  the mine:—"The Government of British Columbia has granted this Company 18 square miles for silver mining  purposes. How generous our Government is with its mineral lands. Only  think of the monopoly by one Company of 18 square miles of what is  supposed to be a rich mineral district.  If such a policy is persevered in,  what will become of the bone and  sinew of the country, the poor but  honest miner, in a few years hence",  etc., and then some. It was in fact  one of the most famous mines in the  Province. Nor is this surprising; tnc  ore was enormously rich. It was probably discovered shortly after the miners first reached Cherry Creek in 1863,  but we do not know by whom nor who  owned it up to 1866. We hope however to be able to clear up the mystery  later on.  The Cherry Creek Silver Mining  Company, Limited, was registered with  the Registrar of Joint Stock Companies in Victoria, where the original Articles of Incorporation may be seen,  on the 9th. July, 1866. The canital  stock of the Company was $150,000.00,  divided into 3000 shares of $50.00 each.  the shareholders took to themselves  1125 shares and offered the balance of  1875 shares for sale at $50.00 a share.  By a resolution dated the 26th. Jan.,  1867, the Secretary of the Company,  George Deitz, was authorized to attach the seal of the Company to an  agreement between the Company and  the Government wherby the Company  became the Lessee of 320 acres of land  for mining purposes to be worked un-  TASSIE  der   certain   conditions   and   restrictions.  The names of the shareholders in  the Company are: V. Kopp, George  Deitz, George Landevoight, W. H.  Sutton, Clement F. Co-nwall James  Robinson, W. J. Sanders. John G.  Wirth, Hugh Nelson. William H. Dell,  Luc Girouard. Donald Chisholm and  F. D. Morrision (?) Nearly all these  were prominent business and mining  men. Donald Chisholm was afterwards M. P. for New Westminster.  Nelson and Cornwall later held each  in turn, the office of Lt.-Governor,  Deitz was Nelson's partner when they  sold out their Cariboo Express business to F. J. Barnard, and Kopp and  Landevoight were two prominent mining men at the time.  When Capt. Houghton was sent in  by the Government to explore for a  pass between Cherry Creek and the  Columbia River in 1865, he reported  that Luc Girouard was then (in April)  in charge of the Silver Mine.  Charles A. Vernon. Mining Recorder, in his report for 1877 has this to  say of the lost ledge:— "The old  quartz excitement of Cherry Creek has  again been revived by the discovery of  a quartz ledge on the opposite side of  the Creek to that where the old Cherry Creek Silver Mining Co. formerly  worked. It will be remembered, this  Company expended some $15 000.00 or  $20,000.00 in seeking and endeavouring to trace a vein of ore which they  had discovered on the surface but unfortunately after prospecting for nearly two years at great expense had to  abandon the work without having obtained any permanent results. Claims  have now been located by Campbell  and Bessitt and others, and these men  are confident of having struck a continuation of the same ledge as that on  which the original Company worked".  On the 11th. June, 1875, a notice appeared in the B. C. Gazette in which  the Cherry Creek Silver Mining Co.  were given notice that the Government intended to cancel the agreement of the 26th. July, 1867, for failure on the part of the Company to  carry out the terms of the agreement.  This notice was doubtless followed by  cancellation of the Lease, and one  more B C. Mining Co. starting out under favourable auspices, went to the  bone-yard. 42  Dates  1859    Construction of the old Parliament Buildings in Victoria commenced.  1864 Frank Richter arrives at Similkameen.    John F. Allison appointed J. P.  1865 First Game Act passed.  1872 Charles A. Vernon appointed J. P. First election for a member for Ottawa  (2nd. Sep.) Capt. Houghton elected. Henry Nicholson and Barrington  Price arrive on the Similkameen.  1873 Road built from Head of the Lake to Spallumcheen Prairie. Contractors-  Louis Dupens & Co.   Contract price, $925.00.  1874 John Jane surveyed 14.000 acres in the vicinity of Priest's Valley. Coldstream and Swan Lake.  1875 Fortune's Bridge near Fortune's ranch built by John Lavon for $900.00.  Length of bridge 382 feet.  1876 Charles A. Vernon appointed Mining Recorder.  1877 Moses Lumby. A. L. Fortune and William Smithson appointed Justices of  the Peace. Flour mill built on the Similkameen by Barrington Price. Road  built from Girouard's to Coldstream by Lawson and Lawrence. Contract  price, $650.00.   Mission Dam and Bridge built by Charles Brewer for $721.00.  1879 T. McK. Lambly appointed Gov't Agent at Belvidere (Enderby). The appointment to run from 18th. Nov., 1878.  1881 Charles Levasseur arrives at Okanagan Mission.  1882 R. C. Church at Okanagan Mission built. Postill Bros, saw mill built at  Deep Creek, Spallumcheen. Aeneas Dewar after whom the Dewar (Dure)  Meadows were named, killed by Chinamen on Cherry Creek.  1883 George Murdock pre-empted 320 acres at Eagle Pass (Sicamous).  1884 Walter Dewdney appointed Government Agent vice T. McK. Lambly.  1885 New placer diggings found on Granite Creek by John Chance with W.  Kenkins and T. Curry, James Steele appoined J. P. John F. Allison appointed Gold Commissioner for Similkameen District. First Government  Offices built at Priest's Valley by Crawford and Hamil. Contract price,  $2,229.00.   C. F. Costerton and William Owen arrive in Spallumcheen.  1886 Donald Graham appointed J. P. Thomas Gray and George Little arrive  at Mara. Hugh Armstrong shot by John Phillips at the Allison ranch  opposite Kelowna at 6 a.m. Sunday, March 28th.  1887 Road built from Bessette's Bridge to Cherry Creek, 21 miles. F. Walker,  Foreman. Lock-up at Lansdowne built by Pringle and Hamil for $389.99.  William T. Hayhurst and Thomas Yetton arrive in Spallumcheen.. Alexander Vance, first manager of the B. X. Ranch, killed by a fall from a  horse (June). First Mineral Claims staked at Camp McKinney by McKinney, Rice, Burnham and Lefevre.   E. J. Tronson appointed J. P.  1889 Lock-up at Okanagan Mission built on Brent's ranch by L. W. Patten for  $440.00.  1890 George H. Morkill arrives at Enderby.  (


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