Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Fourth annual report of the Okanagan Historical and Natural History Society Okanagan Historical Society May 31, 1975

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Array _«-TO«-R».-^W_IMM^  Fourth  Annual Report  OF THE  Okanagan Historical and  Natural  History  Society  VERNON, B.C  S £ C O N D     PR f/V <lf\l Cr  9th September, 1930  Price |£00  P*rcft^\^^  \£  N^S^^v^  Okanagan Historical  and  Natural History Society  HONORARY PRESIDENT  Price Ellison  PRESIDENT  Leonard  Norris  FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT  Charles D. Simms  SECOND VICE-PRESIDENT  F. M. Buckland  THIRD VICE-PRESIDENT  J. S. Galbraith  EDITOR  James C. Agnew  SECRETARY-TREASURER  Max H. Rhumann  DIRECTORS  M. S. Middleton, Allen Brooks, George N. Gartell,  Thos. G. Norris, Joseph Brent, G. C. Tassie,  Donald Graham,   H. M. Walker. List of Members  Agnew, James C, Vernon  Andrew, George, Enderby  Andrews, Dr. F. W., Summerland  Anstey, Arthur, Vancouver  Atkinson, W. S., Vernon  Barratt, G. A., Kelowna  Barnes, F. H., Enderby  Baldwin, Dr. G. S., Vernon  Ball, F. C. J., Vancouver  Barnes, Stanley, Vernon  Bernie, Leslie Y., Medicine Hat  Bearistow, H. K., Vernon  Beattie, H. F., Vernon  Berry, A. E., Vancouver  Beddome, J3., Vernon  Bailey, E. R., Kelowna  Black, F. M., Kelowna  Billings, Audrey, Kamloops  ' Bigland, Miss C, Vernon  Bloom, C. D., Lumby  Brent, William, Lavington  Brestow, H., Summerland  Briard, John E., Vernon  Brooks, Allen, Ok. Landing  Bulman, Thomas, Vernon  Buckland, Frank, Kelowna  Buckell, E. R., Salmon Arm  Bume, J. F., Kelowna  Bullock-Webster, W. H., Victoria  Burtch, Henry, Kelowna  Boyne, Frank, Vernon  Bonavla, W. J., Victoria  Campbell, Bert. R., Kamloops  Campbell, John, Vernon  Caesar, N. H., Ok. Centre  Caruthers, E. M., Kelowna  Carswell, Robert, Kamloops  Casorso, Joseph, Kelowna  Casorso, John, Ok. Mission  Catt, H. C, Lumby  Chisholm, R. S., Lumby  Clarke, L. R., Vernon  Cochrane-, Maurice, Vernon  Coombs, H. P., Vernon  Cooper, F. D., Summerland  Cooper, Frederick, Vernon  Collett, H. C. S., Ok. Mission  Corrigan, Dr. C. W., Vernon  Copeland, R. H., Lumby  Coleman, James, Vernon  Curtis, Richard, Vernon  Dalgleish, R. L., Kelowna  Dalrymple, W., Oliver  Deeks. W. H., Vernon  Denison, R. H., Vernon  Dent, Dr. C. S., Vernon  DeHart, F. R. E., Kelowna  Dewdney, W. R., Penticton  Dilworth, Leslie, Kelowna  Downing, W. G., Vernon  Dobie, George, Vernon  Dunne, Fintan, Armstrong  Duncan, Mrs. M., Vernon  Earle, R. R., Vernon  Eastham, J. W., Vancouver  Edgar, Joseph, Vernon  Elliott, S. T., Kelowna  Edwards, James G., Vernon  Estabrooks, Otto, Penticton  Ferguson, Rev. T. J. S., Nelson  Fitzmaurice, R., Vernon  Finlayapn, Fred, Shuswap Falls  Flfer, A. J., Armstrong  French, Percy E., Vernon  Fraser, Finlay, Hedley  Freeman, Stephen, Lavington  Foote, H. B., Vernon  Fulton, Clarence, Vernon  Galbraith, Horace, Vernon  Galbraith, J. 8., Vernon  Gartrell, George N., Summerland  Giles, A. Waring, Vernon  Goldie, Robert, Vernon Goldie, James, Okanagan Centre  Goodfellow, Rev. John, Princeton  Godfrey, A., Vernon  Grote, Benjamin, Brampton  Graham, Donald, Armstrong  Grant, Adam, Vernon  Guy, G. P., Vernon  Hankey, G. A., Vernon  Hamilton, Mrs. S. H., Vernon  Harding, Henry, Armstrong  Hayhurst, W. T., Armstrong  Hawkins, Chas., Enderby  Harvey, Oliver, Vancouver  Handcock, Claude S., Grindrod  Hassen, Mat,, Armstrong  Harmer, Thomas, Vernon  Harris, W. S., Vernon  Hayman, Leonard, Kelowna  Hayes, Thomas, Armstrong  Heggie, Hugh A., Vernon  Heggie, George, Vernon  Hey, Leonard, Vernon  Herbert, Gordon D'Äû Vernon  Henderson, E., Coldstream  Helmer, R. H., Nicola  Heighway, J., Lumby  Herdsman, James, Vernon  Hill, T., Coldstream  Howe, A. T., Coldstream  Howse, A. E., Princeton  Hutchison, George, Calgary  Irving, Dr. W-, Oyama  Jackson, C. H., Kelowna  Jackson, H. W., Lumby  Jamieson, J. E., Armstrong  Jones, Hon. J. W., Kelowna  Johnson, Mrs. G. A., Courtenay  Johnson, Mrs. Cecil, Vernon  Kenyon, Mrs. A. H., Ewings  Kennedy, W. F., Victoria  Kerr, R. D., Midway  Kearns, C. F., Salmon Arm  Kennard, H. B., Okanagan Centre  Keary, W. H., New Westminster  Kempton, A. F., Vernon  Knowles, W. R., Whltevale  Knowles, J. W., Kelowna  Knox, Dr. W. J., Kelowna  Kruger, Mrs. C, Penticton  Langstaff, J., Vernon  Lang, Hamilton, Vernon  Lang, Grant, Peachland.  Lambly, Robert, Kelowna  Leduc, Thomas, Armstrong  Lee, J. H., Vernon  Lefroy, C. B. L., Vernon  Ley, R. W., Vernon  Lloyd-Jones, D., Kelowna  Lloyd-Jones, W., Brantford  Lloyd, Miss M. H., Oyama  Lindsay, Gordon, Vernon  Lyson, H. B. D., Kelowna  Mangott, Stephen, Fairview  McDonald, J. C, Victoria  McDonald, G. A. B., Penticton  Megaw, Earl, Vernon  Meighan, Miss Z. M., Tacoma, Wash.  Meikle, George, Kelowna  Milne, Miss H. M., Vancouver  Mowat, J. J., Vernon  Morkell, George, Vernon  Morley, William, Vernon  Morley, H. B., Penticton  Morrow, C. W., Vernon  Morgan,  Granville,  Summerland  Moffat, J. J., Vernon  Mutrie, J. T., Vernon  Murray, Thomas, Kelowna  Middleton, Maurice S., Vernon  McBride, D. A., Vernon  McCluskey, J. W., Vernon  McDougall, R. J., Penticton  MteGusty, R. M., Vernon  McKelvie, Bruce, Victoria  McKenzie, Hon. W. A., Penticton  McKenzie, W. G., Vernon  McKenzie, George, Kelowna  MteMynn, C. G., Mincaster  McDonell, Leslie, Vernon  McDonald, S. A., Summerland  McWilliams, T. F., Kelowna  Oatmar, Dr. G. A., Kelowna  Ormsby, Miss M. A., Vernon  Owen, Walter, New Westminster  Parkhurst, C, Vernon  Pethick, G. H,, Vernon  Perry, Mrs. R. R., Armstrong  Piper, H., Vernon Pound, W. C, Vernon  Pound, Rev. A. N. C, Lilloet  Postill, Mrs. E. A., Vancouver  Pout, H., Vernon  Pope, C. A., Victoria  Powley, W. R., Winfield  Power, John, Penticton  Prowse, Dr. E. W., Vernon  Rankin, Alexander, Vernon  Richmond, Hector, Vernon  Ricardo, W. C., Coldstream  Richards, Leonard, Kelowna  Robinson, Dell, Vernon  Robertson, Thomas, Vernon  Robertson, W. H., Victoria  Robinson, J. M!., Naramata  Robison, Miss P., Vernon  Rogers, A., Vernon  Rolston, W. J., Vernon  Rourke, W. R., Vernon  Rose, George S., Kelowna  Rosoman, Graham, Enderby  Rhumann, Max H., Vernon  Sage, A. E., Armstrong  Sauder, I. V., Vernon  Schubert, Augustus, Armstrong  Schubert, James A., Tulameen  Seymour, S. P., Vernon  Shatford, W. T., Vernon  Simms, James G., Vernon  Simmons, J. F., Vernon  Simmons, John, Vernon  Shields, W., Lumby  Smith, W. H., Vernon  Smith, J. Forsythe, London  Smith, A., Vernon  Smith, T. K., Armstrong  Smith, Miss V. S., Okanagan Mission  Spencer, Frank, Vernon  Spinks, Judge W. W., Victoria  Stewart, L. L., Vernon  Stark, Adam, Summerland  Stewart, C. A. C, Oliver  Stirling, Grote, Kelowna  Sutherland, W. D., Kelowna  Swanson, Judge J. D., Kamloops  Tassie, G. C, Vernon  Trench,  W.  R.,  Kelowna  Tuck, D. C, Vernon  Tripp, L. E., Vernon  Venables, E. P., Vernon  Walker, H. M., Enderby  Watkins, Joseph, Vernon  Warner, F. C, Lumby  Webster,  J. L., Coldstream  Weddle, A. D., Kelowna  Whitehead, G., Vernon  Whitham, J. D., Kelowna  Wilde, A. C, Vernon  Wilson, W. S., Vernon  Wilmot, Capt. E. M., Vernon  Wilcox, J. C, Salmon Arm  Wiglesworth, J. R., Armstrong  Williams, M. P., Winfield  Weeks, Joseph, Okanagan Landing  deWolf, F. G., Vernon  Wollaston, F. R. E., Coldstream  Wood, Mrs. Angus, Lumby  Worth, Harry, Trinity Valley  Young, B. F., Armstrong Early Days in Priest's Valley  R.   D.  KERR  I came to Priest's Valley from Kamloops in November 1885. That same  fall the old white cottage standing  next to the school off Coldstream  street and the Victoria Hotel were  built, and W. R. Megaw who is now  keeping store in Vernon, and was then  keeping a store in Kamloops, had built  a store across the street from the Victoria Hotel on the corner now occupied by the cement-block wall, and I  came in to take charge of it.  I remember very well Priest's Valley  as it was in those days with its few  houses scattered among the pine trees,  its waggon trails for streets, and its  population of miners, cowboys, ranch  hands, trappers, Indians and half  breeds with the Victoria Hotel the  centre of all social life.  Society in Priest's Valley in those  days was "raw, rude and democratic,"  and usually wore long-legged boots  with the pant legs stuffed into the  tops of them, and chewed tobacco but  they were a fine lot of fellows for all  that.  It was in 1888 when I was working  with John Merritt on a tunnel which  he and his associates were running in  to tap the old bed of Cherry Creek  that Frank Schiffer came to us  and said he had found the bones of a  man. Merritt was incredulous as he  knew of no one lost or missing, and  said the bones must be those of a  deer. However we went to see. The  trail from the mines to White Valley  then ran through John Merritt's  meadow, now Lot 236, and at a place  about 100 yards north of where the  trail entered the meadow, we found  the bones.   An examination   of   them  convinced us that they were the bones  of a Chinaman. We found bits of  clothing scattered about, and remnants of a Chinese jumper with loops  of tape instead of button holes, such  as Chinamen wear. He must have  lain down with his back to a mound;  the soil there was red, and although  the bones were scattered about, the  marks left by his legs and body were  plain to be seen on the ground. Between where the knees had been we  found a one-ounce strychnine bottle  with a small amount of strychnine in  it. There was also the exuviae of  maggots lying about showing plainly  that while the bones had been there  for some time they were not ancient  bones by any means.  I do not know when John Merritt  first came to Cherry Creek but he was  there in 1882 when Dewar was killed,  and knew all the men on the Creek.  Chinese and whites, and as he could  account for them all we were both  convinced that we had found the  bones of Smart Aleck who killed Dewar. It might seem strange to some  that Smart Aleck should have had a  bottle of strychnine with him under  the circumstances; but in those days  no miner's kit was complete without  a flask of quicksilver to catch the fine  gold on the riffles, and a bottle of  strychnine wherewith to abate the  nuisance of wild animals which became very destructive around a camp  left unguarded while the miner was  at work on the creek. In those days  quicksilver, strychnine, overalls and  tobacco all lay on the same shelf in  the small country stores. We were  no more surprised to find the strych- nine bottle than if we had found a  pocket knife.  It might be asked too why should  Smart Aleck commit suicide while he  still had a good chance to escape if he  were in his right senses; but that is  just the point. That Smart Aleck was  insane or partly insane, when he killed  Dewar and then committed suicide, is  the more probable explanation of this  sordid and horrible episode. No adequate motive was ever shewn why he  should have murdered Dewar. The  only reason suggested was that which  appeared in the Victoria "Colonist,"  viz: that some mining ground was in  dispute between him and some other  Chinamen, and that he was afraid, if  it came to trial, that Dewar would  prove an adverse witness; but this appears to be far-fetched. Had active  litigation been going on over a very  rich claim, there would be a motive  in getting rid of an adverse witness,  but in this case the litigation had not  commenced, and besides, if all the  mining ground on Cherry Creek had  been put up for auction at the time,  it would not have sold for more than  a few hundred dollars.  We gathered up the bones and  brought them in and handed them  over to the Government Agent, W.  Dewdney. B. F. Young, of Armstrong,  has a photograph taken of Price Ellison as he was about to start on his  trip to Spokane to look for Smart  Aleck, with his whiskers and hair  dyed black. When he returned without him the neighbors said, "Smart  Aleck was too smart for Price, all  right." But if we were correct in our  surmise, it is no wonder Ellison failed  in his quest.  In 1887 I was on a survey party. T.  S. Gore, of Victoria, a brother of W. S.  Gore who for so many years was Deputy Commissioner of Lands and  Works, was in charge. The party besides Mi*. Gore consisted of myself,  Frederick Finlaison now living at  Shuswap Falls, Thomas Armstrong  who was living for a time on Siwash  Creek, and later had a pre-emption  near George Lynn's at Salmon River.  He was said to be a nephew of Rev.  James Turner, the well-known Methodist missionary; William Woodward  (Gassy Bill) who at one time was a  waiter in the Victoria Hotel; Frederick Welling who was Christopher  Main's partner, and Mike Barden who  was married to a cousin of William  Rollings after whom Rollings wa3  named. Alfred McNeill was in charge  of the pack horses.  The party was sent out to survey a  waggon road from White Valley to  Kettle River and any agricultural  land there might be along the route.  We started at the Coldstream upper  meadows and ran through to Kettle  River, and surveyed a considerable  area into sections at Cherry Creek.  We then came back to our starting  point and surveyed a lot of land in  the vicinity. F. Finlaison and I were  the chainmen, and I had to keep  a book showing the distances, etc. I  had never done work of this sort before, but Mr. Gore showed me how to  sketch in the low and high hills, and  show the gulches and streams and the  distances between, and I soon became  an expert at the work, or thought I  was. I wonder where that book is now.  One thing I shall never forget and  that is the awful kick the yellow-  jackets had, and we were constantly  running into them. The weather was  hot and the work hard, but we got  along somehow, and the evenings  around the campflre were very enjoyable.  William Woodward was a good cook  and on one occasion he regaled us with  roast porcupine; but he was a tireless  talker. I remember one evening In  particular. He had been telling us of  some baked beans he was preparing  for our breakfast the next morning,  and after supper he put the beans to  bake with all the solemnity and attention to minute details of a High  Priest performing a religious rite. He  dug a hole in the ground and put  some cinders in it and placed the pot  on them. He then heaped cinders all  around and over the pot which had a  lid and then sprinkled some earth aver the cinders and patted and smoothed the whole with the shovel, and as  he worked he talked.  According to him there were very  few men in the world who knew how  to bake beans, and he was one of  them: it was a gift and if you did not  have it you could never acquire it;  you had to be born to it like a negro  witch-doctor or a poet, and that if the  beans were properly baked a latent  flavor was released which converted  them from a common-place dish into  food fit for the   immortal   gods.   In tact he did make us believe before we  went to bed, that we would have  something good for breakfast. And as  we lay and rested, the moon slowly  rose up from behind Camel's Hump  mountain and transformed the mountains around us into a scene of surpassing beauty.  It was during one of those strange  spells of absolute quiet and stillness  which occur in the mountains here  occasionally, when there is not a  sound to be heard nor a breath of air  stirring, and every tree and leaf and  branch stands as motionless as if  carved out of stone. And as the moon  rose it lit up one side of each peak  and threw the other into deeper shadow, and in places where the slope was  exactly right it caught the tops of the  trees and tipped each individual tree  with silver until the forest looked like  an army of spearmen marching up the  mountain side. In places the delicate  shades of light against the darker  background were very beautiful. And  over It all poured the moonlight, soft-  tened and mellowed by the warm summer haze which hung in the air—a  light different to the moonlight of a  winter night or when the sky is washed clean after rain. In daylight it  was a common-place scene, but that  night it was elfin-like in its delicate  blendings of light and shade. Those  mountains never looked the same to  me afterwards. It was good to be  there. And it was good too, when  the time came to turn in and stretch  out and wriggle close to the warm dry  air beneath us, and experience that  delicious sense of rest and relaxation  which only healthy young people can  feel and they only when they are very  tired after a hard day's work.  And still Gassy Bill talked on about  his beans, and was telling us for perhaps the tenth time, how a Montana  Senator had once praised them, and  how sick it made the other cook—it  made him look like thirty cents—and  so on until sleep, the magician and  weaver of strange dreams, intervened.  It would be idle to tell of the strange  fancies which floated through one's  head as it lay pillowed on the bunch-  grass sod that night, and of the hills  and valleys and whole mountain ranges of Boston baked beans, all smoking  and steaming in the moonlight, but we  were sorely disappointed when we got  up the next morning and found that  one of Peter Bessette's hogs had raided the camp and had tumbled the pot  with the beans down the bank and was  eating them.  One day probably about the 15th of  August we were running a line north  past Rolling's Lake and were working  about half way up the mcijntain side  and about a quarter of a milt; ^outh of  Andrew Derby's house which -tands  on the right of the road as you ^«?s  from the west over the bridge **  Thomas Butter's ranch, when a tree  fell on Mike Barden and killed him.  As soon as the accident happened  Gore sent to camp for a blanket and  with it and two poles we made a  stretcher, and four of us carried the  injured man out to the road, Mr. Gore  going on before picking out the best  route for us to follow. When we got  him to the road he was still alive. We  did what we could for him and then  started to carry him to Besette's  ranch, but by the time we reached the  boundary of Bessette's ranch he was  dead. When we reached Bessette's I  got a horse and came in to Priest's  Valley to tell William Rollings of the  death of his relative. He was buried  in the old cemetery, and W. Dewdney  read the funeral service at the grave.  As I recollect the events, the first  body to be buried In the cemetery was  that of C.W. Hozier's eldest boy. The  next was Hugh Armstrong who was  shot by John Phillips at Westbank.  T. D. Shorts brought the body up the  Lake in a row boat and he and L.  Norris brought it from Okanagan  Landing to the cemetery with a team.  Phillips was tried at the Kamloops assizes for murder, but acquitted on the  grounds of self defence. He later  moved to Bonaparte Creek in Washington where I once met him. He died  since. The next to go was Alexander  Vance who was soon followed by Mrs.  Alfred McNeill, and Mike Barden wa3  fifth.  Alexander Vance was a quiet, unassuming man, and very much respected by his neighbors. It was always  said that he was the first manager of  the B-X. Ranch near Vernon, but not  very much is known about him. The  following account of his death is taken from the Inland Sentinel of June  11, 1887: "Mr. Alexander Vance, a  resident of Priest Valley for nearly  thirty years went riding on horse  back last Tuesday, June 8th, and his 8  body was found soon afterwards, about  two miles from his home. It is not  known exactly what happened, but  the neck was broken when the body  was fond." He had gone out to round  up some horses and it was supposed  that his horse had fallen with him.  No inquest was held as such was  deemed unnecessary.  He was living at the time of his  death on what is now known as Lot 31  in the townsite of Vernon, just south  of Carew street where it joins the  Pleasant Valley road, and Alfred McNeill and his wife were living with  him. His old stable is still standing.  William (Hoodlum) Smith was married to Alfred McNeill's eldest daughter, Susan.  The funeral services were held in  the house and were conducted by Rev.  J. A. Jaffrey, the first resident Presbyterian minister in Spallumcheen.  Among those present were E. J. Tronson, Luc Girouard, Price Ellison, C. W.  Hozier, John Pringle from Grand  Prairie, Samuel Lyons, Amos Delauri-  er, Louis Bercier, William Smith, L.  Norris and Peter Bessette. The attendance was small and the surroundings rude; the only flowers on the  coffin were the wild rose which was  then in bloom, but no funeral service  could be conducted with greater decorum. Everything was done decently, quietly and reverently, and in these  circumstances the simple funeral service   became   solemn   and  impressive.  His will is dated the 28th of March,  1883, and is witnessed by G. J. Wallace and Alfred McNeill, and John  Pringle of Grand Prairie was appointed sole executor. All his property was  left to his two sisters, Lucy B. Powell  of Cincinati, Ohio, and Harriett Vance  of Anna, Illinois.  We do not know the date of his arrival in the Okanagan Valley. Judge  F. W. Howay, in his History of British  Columbia,    says:    "In 1864 Forbes G.  Vernon and his brother Charles Vernon whose names are indissoluably connected with the development of the  Okanagan, began mining on Cherry  Creek, but soon recognizing the inherent value of the land and its possibilities, took up about 1000 acres—  the celebrated Coldstream Ranch—  and entered largely into farming and  stock raising. About the same time  F. J. Barnard and associates in Barnard's Express obtained the B.X.  ranch, some four miles from Vernon,  for the purpose of raising horses for  their express business. In 1868 Mr.  Stephen Tingley, the practical man of  the Company, went to New Mexico  and brought up overland about 400  head of horses to stock the ranch." It  is probable that Vance came into the  country with Stephen Tingley, and remained in charge of the horses, but  we are not sure of this.  Alexander Vance was not manager  of the B.X. ranch at the time of his  death. He resigned in 1885, and E. H.  Woods who was with the Douglas Lake  Cattle Company in Nicola, took his  place. In 1888, the year J. C. Haynes  died, his son-in-law, C. W. Hozier, was  manager of the Coldstream Ranch. He  resigned in May or June of that year,  and was succeeded by E. H. Woods  who in turn was succeeded by R. McCluskey as manager of the B.X. ranch.  I remember the late Thomas McMynn very well, whose death was  mentioned in our last report by Mrs.  Chrestenza Kruger. He was buried at  Meyers Creek, and about a mile and a  half away, across the valley of Meyers  Creek to the east, his grave stone may  be seen from Myncaster station on the  Great Northern Railway.  The Rev. J. A. Jaffray afterwards  left the ministery. He was appointed  Provincial Librarian and Archivist of  Alberta on October 16, 1921 which appointment he held until his death on  April  28th of this year.  An Old Flintlock  FREDERICK C. WARNER  In 1912 my two sons, Tom and Joe,  found an old flintlock gun in the  bank of the Shuswap river where it  runs through my farm. It was found  six feet below the level of the land with  the barrel sticking into the bank, and  the stock protruding, and under one  foot of water. The river bank at that  place is steep, and it was found directly under fhe roots of a spruce tree 9  14 to 16 inches in diameter. The place  Is on the east or right bank of the  river about a mile and a half down  stream from the spot marked "Fish  Trap" on Dawson's map of 1877, below the Falls. How it got there is a  mystery.  The gun itself is quite a light p flair.  The barrel at the muzzle end where it  is round, measures five-eights of an  inch, outside measurement, and at the  stock where it is hexagonal or six-sided, it is one inch. The barrel is 27 V2  inches long, and the total length three  feet eight inches. The wooden stock  through decay is reduced to about  half its former size. It is very much  rusted and no date or maker's name  can be seen, but some indication of  the date and make might be discovered if it were scoured clean. The flint  was still in the lock, fastened in with  a bit of canvas. Fastened with two  screw nails to the stock on the side  opposite to the hammer, is a brass  plate six inches long by half an inch  wide which is well preserved and not  much rusted. It apparently served no  useful purpose, but was purely ornamental. On the plate there is the  figure of a snake four inches long. The  snake is engraved with its mouth wide  open and a long tongue protruding,  tipped with the curious, broad, flat  barbs which are seen so often in representations of the Great Dragon of  China. The manner in which the head  and neck is coiled back over the body  and the large scales also suggest  Chinese art.  Since the gun was found it has been  the subject of much discussion, and  many theories have been advanced to  account for its being found where it  was, some of them fanciful and farfetched.  It has been suggested that it may  have been left on the bank of the river, and the wearing away of the bank  at that point by the current which is  always changing the course of the river more or less, followed by a further  deposit of sediment or mud would  leave it where it was found some six  feet below the level of the land. If so  it must have been there for many  years as the size of the spruce stump  plainly shows.  It is more than likely it was lost out  of an overturned canoe in some mishap on the river, probably by some of  the early miners or prospectors.   Per  haps by some poor fellow who lost his  life hereabouts, and possibly by some  young chap from the East who made  the long journey to this land of gold  with the intentions of wresting sufficient wealth from the bosom of the  earth to lift the burden from the  shoulders of an ageing father, and  bringH^ the blessings of ease and comfort to a silver-haired mother in her  declining years, and had his life snuffed out in one of those fatal accidents  which were all too common in the lives of the early prospectors. Or, perhaps, taken with a sudden illness in  his lonely tent without a hand to render the least assistance during the  long watches of the night, or a voice  to whisper a word of hope and comfort, he sank into that dreamless sleep  that knows no waking, his body to become a prey to the wild beasts of the  hills and every vestige of his camp obliterated by the elements. Who  knows? Since the old flint-lock cannot speak it will probably never be  known how it came to be lost.  Then again it may have belonged to  Hy. Wend, the enterprising tavern-  keeper from Hope. We know he was  prospecting on the Shuswap for he  told W. C. Young who was sent in to  report on he mines at Cherry Creek  in 1863, that he had found gold on the  river.  There is some gold to be found  near Shuswap Falls, but very little.  What is much more in evidence is iron  pyrites, or possibly mica, and sometimes stretches of the river bed present an interesting spectacle with millions of particles of this stuff shining  in the wet sands like so much virgin  gold, suggesting wealth beyond the  dreams of avarice.  Hy. Wend must have been a confirmed optimist or he would never  have built an hotel for the accommodation of the miners going in and out  of Cherry Creek when there were  only about twenty men on the creek,  all told, and it has been suggested that  he never found any gold on the Shuswap. What he saw was this mica and  he thought it was gold, and in the excitement of the moment he forgot  where he had laid his gun.  We know very little about this man.  He flits for a moment across the page  of Okanagan history and then disappears, we know not where. But he was  at least, an enterprising chap, and to 10  him belongs the credit of building the  first house anywhere in the vicinity.  And while we are on the subject we  would like to suggest to those who will  have the naming of our highways, and  those who will have the naming of the  new streets in the future city of Lumby, that Wend or Hywend would be a  suitable name for a street or road.  The fish traps on the Shuswap and  Spallumcheen rivers were quite elaborate affairs, and the building of one  involved an enormous amount of labour on the part of the Indians. They  were constructed by driving a row of  stakes or poles into the river bottom  clear across the stream, and so close  together that a salmon could not get  through. These stakes inclined down  stream, and along the tops Which were  left about two feet above the water, a  horizontal pole was placed, each stake  being firmly lashed to it with bark of  some sort. Below this row of stakes  other poles or stakes for props, were  driven at intervals inclining upstream, and these too were firmly  lashed to the horizontal pole, the two  rows meeting at an angle of about 45  degrees or more. It was below this  barrier of stakes that the real traps  were placed. They were also constructed by driving a series of poles  into the river bed, and they were cunningly devised and so arranged that  when a salmon reached   the   barrier  and began swimming back and forth  seeking an opening, he was apt to  enter one of them and once he was in  he could never find his way out again.  Immense numbers of salmon were  taken this way.  The last oije of these fish traps on  either the Shuswap or Spallumcheen  was built on the Spallumcheen near  A. L. Fortune's ranch in the fall of  1892, and was destroyed by the Provincial Police. When the police went  to remove it they pushed a canoe a-  long the trap and as they passed each  prop they cut the lashings. Soon the  whole row of stakes from one side of  the river to the other, began to sway  back and forth in the current, and  finally it all went under together and  was carried away, much to the chagrin  of the Indians.  In connection with the fish trap  at the foot of Shuswap Falls, some of  the older Indians tell a story of the  Kootenay Indians attacking the Shuswaps. The Kootenays were coming  down the river in canoes to attack the  Shuswaps, but knowing nothing of the  falls, or if they knew, not realizing  how dangerous they were, their canoes  were wrecked, and in the morning  when the Shuswaps visited the trap  they found the bodies of their enemies  floating against the trap. Only one  man escaped alive.  The Discovery of Gold on Granite  Creek  JAMES M. LYNCH  In our second Report the statement  appears that John Chance, William  Jenkins and Thomas Curry were the  discoverers of the placer mines on  Granite Creek in 1885.  This statement is misleading. The  real discoverers were William Briggs,  Mike Sullivan and John Bromley. They  found coarse gold on Granite Creek in  the fall of 1884, but were driven out by  high water caused by the fall rains.  These men showed the gold they  found to John F. Allison who had a  store at Allison below Princeton, and  told him they would be back to stake  claims in the spring. Allison on the  strength of their report, had a large  supply of goods packed in for his store  in anticipation of a rush to the newly  discovered mines. During the winter  of 1884-5 John Chance, William Jenkins, Thomas Curry, Wililam McCain  and Harry Hobbs were camped at Allison's ranch and heard of the discovery, Briggs, Bromley and Sullivan  came out to Hope over the Dewdney  trail in the fall of 1884 and there met  Joseph Bromley. These four men  worked in one of Onderdonk's logging  camps   during   the   winter of 1884-5, 11  and went to Granite Creek in the  spring of 1885 as early as it was safe  to venture with horses over the Hope  summit.  I was railroading on the Onderdonk  contract at the time, and stationed at  Hope and saw them pack their horses  and leave. The other three men however, beat them to it and recorded the  discovery claim, but Briggs, Sullivan  and Jack Bromely were the real discoverers. Through the courtesy of L.  A. Dodd, Gold Commissioner at  Princeton, a copy of the record of the  discovery claim is here given:  "Record No. 41  1000 feet Discovery Creek Claim situated on a tributary of the Tulameen  River named by discoverers Granite  Creek, the said Creek flowing into the  Tulameen from the south about 12  miles above Princeton; this discovery  claim is located about a mile above the  mouth of the stream. This claim extends from the lower stake upstream  900 feet a space of 100 feet more or  less is left vacant (hard smooth bedrock) an additional 100 feet above  vacant spot allowed to make the 1000  feet.  Wm. Jenkins  20466  J. M. Chance  20465  Thos. Curry  4093  E. M. Allison  20479  This application was mislaid during  my absence. Should have been entered before No. 39.  July 8th,  1885.  J. F. Allison."  James Corrigan kept the hotel at  Hope and Ts familiar with the facts  as mentioned above. He is now living  at Hedley, B. C.  I left Hope in August 1885 for Granite Creek, but being a tenderfoot and  late in getting in did not locate a  claim. I did however, secure a contract for, and built a bridge over the  Tulameen River, near Princeton. I  put in the winter of 1885-6 at Princeton and as I talked with all the parties mentioned above I know the facts.  John F. Allison was gazetted as Assistant Gold Commissioner for the  Rock Creek Mining Division on the 9th  April, 1885.  William Briggs left Granite Creek  with about $30,000.00 and went to East  ern  Canada.   John Chance    died    at  Republic, Washington, a pauper and a  charge on the county.   Thomas Curry  fell dead while on his way to work to  the   Sally   mine    at    Beaverdel. B.C.  Mike Sullivan was at Greenwood a few  years ago, but I have since lost track  of him.   The Bromley brothers are all  dead except William who has a farm  at Chilliwack. W. Jenkins when he was  in on Granite Creek   was   something  of a bully, and carried an ivory-handled revolver with four notches filed in  it.   After   he   left  Granite  Creek  he  took up land on the west side of Okanagan Lake, above Peachland.   B. F.  Young of Armstrong bought him out  for  $900.00.   He    then    recorded    320  acres at the mouth of Meyers Creek.  His  Record is No. 638  and   is   dated  5th July,  1888.   He   thus    became    a  neighbor   of   John  J. Ingraham   who  had a ranch where the bridge on the  Government road crosses Kettle River  about  half  way  between  Rock  Creek  and Midway, still   called   Ingraham's  Bridge.   There    was    bad   blood    between  them,  and  as  they  were  both  hot-headed  gentlemen  from  Virginia,  the    neighbors    anticipated      serious  trouble, but before the quarrel reached a climax,  Jenkins sold out to John  R. Jackson   who    was    afterwards    a  member of the B.C. Legislature, and  moved   to   just  across  the  Boundary  line from Grand Forks.   It  was  here  at  Lafleur's  blacksmith shop that he  got  into  trouble with  a  man  named  Daily.   Daily's real name was said to  be King, and he was reported  to   be  something of an outlaw and had been  run   out   of the Couer d'Alene mines  by    the    State    Police.   In  the fight  which   followed    Jenkins killed Daily,  and then turned his gun on Ben Shaw  who happened to be with Daily at the  time but had nothing to do with the  quarrel,   and  wounded   him   severely.  There  was no coroner's inquest held  for the reason there was no coroner to  hold one, but the consensus of opinion in the country  at  the   time   was  that Daily needed killing, but the attack on Shaw, who was a decent man,  was  unjustifiable.   It  appeared for a  time that the U.S. authorities would  take no action in the matter, and E.  Spraggett, now living in Grand Forks  and Abe Overton who was a friend of  Ben  Shaw,  took   the   law into their  hands.   They went across the boundary line and   arrested    Jenkins    and 12  brought him across to the Canadian  side, and later handed him over to  the U.S. authofities. He was later  tried,  not  for  killing  Daily,    but   for  wounding Shaw, and convicted and  sentenced, some say to 15 years and  some say for life, in the penitentiary.  In any case he died in prison.  The Rise and Fall of Grist Milling  in the Okanagan Valley  DONALD   GRAHAM  In 1877 the Vernon Bros, had a grist  mill on the Coldstream Ranch. This  mill was typical of two others which  were at a later date in operation in  the Valley. One of these was on the  Tronson and Brewer ranch south of  Vernon and one at the head of Okan-  gan Lake, owned by O'Keefe and  Greenhow. The part of it which  ground the grain was steel and consisted of a corrugated cylinder some  ten inches long and some five inches  in diameter which fitted into a corrugated casing. Both were slightly  tapering, and by advancing or withdrawing the cylinder the mill could be  made to grind fine or coarse. This  part of the mill did not weigh much,  and it with an iron bar for a shaft, a  belt and a few yards of bolt cloth  was all that had to be imported, the  rest of the mill being contructed on  the spot. These mills may have varied somewhat in size and construction,  but they were all on the same general  principle, and all three were driven  by water power.  Out of a ton of wheat these mills  made about 900 pounds of flour of  which excellent bread was made, although a close examiantion of the  flour always disclosed a speck of bran  it it. The modern roller mill will  make from 1400 to 1500 pounds of  flour out of the same quantity of  wheat.  There were no fanning mills in the  country at the time and the wheat was  poured into the hopper as it came  from the threshing machine, but as  the wheat was clean that made little  difference to the quality of the flour.  One year, however, in 1884, there was  some smut in the wheat in Spallumcheen, and some odd looking flour  was   made   from   it.   In color it was  quite blue. The next year O'Keefe  and Greenhow put a smut extractor  in their mill.  Vincent Duteau at one time had a  grist mill at Lavington, and Luc Girouard had another on his place, but  beyond the fact that both were driven  by water power, we know little about  them.  Prior to the introduction of the mills  above mentioned, the settlers ground  their wheat in coffee mills and used  it unbolted; thus anticipating by a  whole generation Dr. Graham and his  whole wheat bread which we were assured at one time, would bring about  the physical regeneration of mankind.  L. W. Patten was the first to install  proper facilities for cleaning wheat in  a grist mill in the northern end of  the valley. In 1882 Alfred Postill built  a saw mill on Deep Creek near the  farm now owned by Frederick Murray,  and Patten who had some knowledge  of grist milling, built a grist mill  alongside of it, under an agreement  with Postill whereby Patten was to  have the use of the water power at  night and when not required for running the saw mill. The arrangement  worked out first-rate. This mill was a  more pretentious and up-to-date mill  than any in this part of the valley up  to that date.  When the mill was up it was found  that the arrival of the stones would  be delayed as they had been shipped  around Cape Horn, and Patten applied to A. L. Fortune for a loan of  his mill. This mill was a small affair  and worked by hand. It had two  handles, and two men working ten  hours could turn out about 50 lbs. of  flour. It was used in Patten's mill  for several months, and proved to be  capable    of    making  50  lbs. of flour 13  per hour, when It was worked to its  full capacity and without any relaxation.  A new era dawned on grist milling  here when Rashdale and Lawes built  their roller mill at Enderby, the head  of navigation on the Spallumcheen.  G. R. Lawes was an experienced English miller and G. H. Rashdale had  some capital. The prospects of the  new Company appeared to be bright  for conditions in the Valley were favorable to the enterprise, but almost  immediately after the mill was built  the two partners found themselves in  financial difficulties. They commenced to grind in the fall of 1887, and  during the winter of 1888 they had the  flour hauled in sleighs to Sicamous.  In 1888 they got some backing from  the Bank of British Columbia, and  for a time the farmers were paid for  their wheat with notes on the bank;  but when the bank withdrew its support, the partners were forced into liquidation.  The site of the mill was ten acres  on the bank of the river and it is now  shewn on the plan of the townsite of  Enderby as Plan B1070. The changes  in the ownership of this land give  some indication of the vicissitudes  through which the business went. The  following particulars were obtained  from the Land Registry at Kamloops:  12th June, 1883.—Crown grant to  Robert Lambly.  29th Oct. 1886.—Conveyance by deed  —R. Lambly to Rashdale and Lawes.  6th Sept. 1887.—Mortgage to secure  $21,000.00 at 9% % — Rashdale and  Lawes to J. D. Pemberton.  14th Aug. 1888.—Conveyance by deed  for the benefit of their creditors—  Rashdale and Lawes to J. Nicholles  and A. C. Flumerfelt.  22nd Sept. 1888. — Assignment of  mortgage—J. D. Pemberton to R. P.  Rithet.  29th Sept. 1888.—Assignment of equity of redemption—J. Nicholles and A.  C. Flumerfelt to R. P. Rithet.  20th June, 1902. — Conveyance by  deed—R. P. Rithet to R. P. Rithet and  Company.  9th July, 1903.—Conveyance by deed  R. P. Rithet to the Columbia Flouring  Mills Company.  The managers of the mill were successively, G. R. Lawes, Samuel Gibbs,  Frederick   Appleton    and    Frank    V.  Moffatt,  now of  Seattle.  After R. P. Rithet took over the  management, the mill was run to the  general satisfaction of the farmers for  some years, but gradually the farmers  became convinced that they were not  getting enough for their wheat considering the price of flour, and this  feeling was brought to a climax in  1895 when the price of wheat was reduced to $16.00 per ton or 48 cents  per bushel. A meeting was accordingly held at Armstrong for the purpose  of organizing a company to build and  operate a mill as a co-operative concern. The Company was registered on  the 27th September, 1895 as the Okanagan Flouring Mills Company, Limited. The capital stock was $60,000.00  divided into 600 shares of $100.00 each,  and the registered shareholders were  C. O'Keefe, Donald Graham, Donald  Matheson, Mark Hill and Daniel Rabbitt.  The whole country was ripe for the  change. A very enthusiastic meeting  was held in Armstrong, when the  whole atter was gone into carefully,  and declared to be quite feasible, and  it was decided that the mill should  be a co-operative concern. Committees were formed for the purpose of  canvasssing the Valley for shareholders with instructions to report back  at the earliest possible date. When  the reports of the Committees were  gone into it was found that 223 shares  had been taken which was materially  added to later, for a memorandum in  the office of the Registrar of Joint  Stock Companies, Victoria, shows that  on the 31st August, 1898 there were 88  shareholders who held among them  271 shares on which $21,297.43 had  been paid. A committee was then appointed to interview the Municipal  Council and ascertain what help might  be obtained from them. John Hamill  was Reeve at the time. The Committee was received very courteously,  which, perhaps, is not surprising since  every farmer in the Municipality with  the exception of three were shareholders, and nearly all the business men  also. The request was made that a  grant of $20,000,00 should be granted  towards forwarding the enterprise. After going into the matter thoroughly  it was decided that the Municipal Act  would not permit of a grant, but that  the amount asked for could be loaned towards the carrying out of the enterprise. It is not necessary to go further into the matter than to state  that the late T. E. Crowell of Vernon,  received the contract for the erection  of the mill building, and that T. W.  Fletcher of Armstrong (who has lately been stirring up police matters In  Vancouver) received a contract for the  erection of the elevator. Goldie and  McCulloch of Gait, Ontario, received  the contract for the machinery and  the installing thereof. By the middle  of July, 1896, the mill was finished and  in running order, and a vote of thanks  was passed to the directors for the expeditious manner in which the mill  was completed. The Board of Directors at the time were: M. Hill, C.  O'Keefe, D. Graham, D. Rabbitt, D.  Matheson and P. Ellison.  Among the first lot of shareholders  appear the names of Lord Aberdeen  and the late Senator Hewett Bostock.  Over seventy shareholders answered  their names at the first roll call. That  the enterprise was justified at the  time is amply proven by the fact that  the crops of 1896 and 1897 realized  $5.00 per ton more than the bid of  Rithet and Company of $16.00 per ton.  The price paid the farmers was $18.00  per ton which was further supplemented by a bonus of $3.00 per ton on all  wheat delivered during the years '96  and '97. I do not recall the price  paid in 1898, but a bonus of 50 cents  per ton was paid on it at a later date.  This was the last bonus paid by the  Company. Being a co-operative concern, the idea was brought forward  and carried, that in future the price  paid for wheat should be the full  market value thereof, no provision being made for a sinking fund. This  policy was followed with the the result which, to say the least, was "running pretty close to the wind." The  Company was however quite successful  for about ten years. It branched out  in several ways which might be considered as being for the benefit of its  shareholders. It became agents for  farm machinery which was sold to its  sareholders at from ten to fifteen per  cent less than it could be bought from  other dealers; bought coal oil at wholesale prices; sold bran and shorts at  most reasonable prices; crushed grain  cheaply; rented sacks for wheat at  $2.00 per hundred which were afterwards used as containers for bran and  shorts; and made arrangements with  the Bank of Montreal under which  when the farmers' notes passed  through the hands of the Company,  the money would be loaned at 7% instead of the usual 8%.  The Indians also benefited, the  Company actually doing more for  them than the Dominion Government  has ever done. The Indians raised  chiefly Red Fife wheat which the Company needed for mixing with the softer winter wheats. So they were encouraged in every way to produce  it, and supplied with machinery,  etc. The result being that when the  Company eventually got into trouble  $10,000.00 of uncollectable Indian debts  were found on the books.  Sometime about 1900 the "writing  might have been seen on the wall"  when E. C. Clouston, General Manager of the Bank of Montreal, passed  through on a tour of inspection. At  that time we bororwed up to $60,000.00  annually from the Bank of Montreal.  He therefore inspected the premises  pretty thoroughly, questioned the  Secretary-Manager on all phases of  the business, and seemed to be in  doubt as if he hardly knew how to  look at it. On leaving he said: "Well,  from what I can see and from what  you say you are doing, you are doing  as well here as an other 100-bbl. mill  in the Dominion of Canada." Even  then we were beginning to feel the  competition of the Prairie provinces,  and it was becoming keener every  year, although the Flour Milling industry was still young.  The Calgary Grain Inspecting Area  was created in 1905 and up to August  1906, 1140 cars of grain were inspected,  and of this amount 60 per cent was  barley and oats which found a market in B.C. The wheat was all used by  three small flour mills—the Calgary  Milling Company, the Western Milling  Company, and the Columbia Milling  Company of Enderby; and the Inspector might have added a fourth small  mill at Armstrong, B.C. He furthermore stated in his report that there  was no western export of flour from  Calgary. So the the competition we  were feeling so keenly evidently came  from points farther east. But it was  the competition of the very large  roller mills on the prairies which eventually put the roller mills in the Ok- anagan Valley out of business, just as  they in turn had previously put the  smaller mills in the Valley out of commission.  During the year 1906 an audit of  the books of the Okanagan Flouring  Mills Company showed a very large  percentage of uncollectable debts,  so much so, indeed, that the Company was declared to be insolvent,  and at a meeting held in Armstrong on the 11th December, 1906,  it was decided to wind up the affairs  of the Company. By the 1st June,  1908 the affairs of the Company were  fully wound up as shewn by the affidavit of the liquidator, F. T. Jackson,  and at a meeting of the shareholders  held on the 21st July, 1908, the accounts of the liquidator were passed  and confirmed.  The true state of the Company came  as a complete surprise to the Directors, and possibly to the Secretary-  Manager, F. C. Wolfenden as well, as  he was very optimistic as to the amount which could be collected, and of  the future of the Company. The Manager of the Bank of Montreal came to  Armstrong, accompanied by a lawyer,  to settle the matter in some way. After  a good deal of controversy, they refused point blank to hold the shareholders responsible. They had the  names of the Directors on the notes  and intended to look to them for payment. The offer they made was that  should the five Directors pay to the  Bank the sum of $35,000 ($7,000 each)  within one year, they would be given all  the time they required to settle up the  affairs of the Company. In the meantime the late F. T. Jackson would be  15  placed In charge as receiver. The  Directors sought the advice of Joe  Martin of Vancouver in the matter.  "Accept the Bank's offer. You will  find it a very difficult business to collect anything from the shareholders,"  was his advice. So the $35,000.00 was  paid to the Bank in due course.  The mill was started again as a new  Company, this time under the management of M. McKay of Salmon Arm.  Realizing that the Company was not  in the most promising position, the  Directors put the mill property in the  hands of some real estate men in Winnipeg for sale. A year or two later  one of the Directors waited on them  to ascertain what prospects there  were for the sale of the porperty. Before answering they went to the safe  and took out a bundle of papers five  or six inches in depth, which they said  represented mill properties which  they were commissioned to sell, ranging in capacity from 50 to 500 barrels.  "It is the most difficult property to  dispose of we carry. The day of the  small mill is gone," they said, and put  the sheaf back into the safe.  The further the Directors looked into the matter the blacker the prospects seemed, and eventually they traded the mill property off for shares in  a biscuit manufacturing plant in Vancouver which failed in April 1912, and  the five Directors lost about $12,000  each.  There are other aspects of grist  milling in the Okanagan Valley which  we hope to go into in our next Report,  but for the present the matter must  rest in abeyance.  Shuswap and Okanagan Railway  GEORGE H. MORKILL  (Continued from last report)  The Act of the Dominion Government passed on 2nd June, 1886, incorporating the Shuswap and Okanagan  Railway company, fixed the authorized capital stock of the company at  $750,000 divided into 7500 shares of  $100 each. The same Act also provided that before a Board of Directors  could be elected, $75,000 in the capital  stock of the company must be subscribed and ten per   cent   bona   fide  paid thereon. So that $7,500.00 was all  the cash which had to be actually put  up before the new company could enter upon its functions of building a  railway from Sicamous to Okanagan  Landing.  The mileage of the road is not given the same in all the Acts relating  to it. Poor's Railroad Manuel is, however, regarded as an authority on all  matters relating to   railways,   and   It 16  gives the mileage at 51.3, and it also  places the bonded indebtedness at  $33,000 per mile. Accepting these figures as being correct the total bonded  indebtedness is therefore $1,692,900,  and not $1,683,000 as given in our last  Report, which was worked out for  slightly less mileage. The same authority, Poor's Railroad Manuel, says  that of the 7500 shares mentioned  above, the C.P.R. owns 7410. It would  be interesting to know who owns the  other  90.  The total assessed value of the road  at the present time, as assessed by the  assessors for the three cities of Vernon,  Armstrong and Enderby, and the District Municipality of Spalumcheen,  and the Provincial Assessor for the  extra-municipal territory between  Sicamous and Okanagan Landing is  $533,845, which is just about $10,406  per mile, or less than one third of the  mortgage against the road—its bonded indebtedness—and less than one  fourth of its rateable value if it were  assessed on the same principal on  which farming lands in the valley are  assessed and having regard to the  actual cost of construction and its  earning capacity as a going concern.  Since it was built the road has  shewn a steady increase in its earning  capacity. During the 18 years between 1893-4andl911-12 40 per cent of  its gross earnings increased from $8,-  703.12 in 1893-4 to $62,367.28 in 1911-  12, and during the past eighteen years  its earning capacity must have increased enormously.  Under the provisions of the "Shuswap and Okanagan Railway Guarantee  Act 1890" the S. and O. Ry., Co., paid  the interest on the bonds to the end  of 1892. After that year they paid no  interest on the bonds; they paid 40%  of the gross earnings of the road into  the Government and the Government  paid the interest on the bonds, and  this arrangement lasted for 21 years—  from 1892 until 1913. The interest had  to be paid in London, and this arrangement involved exchange and  commissions.  In 1908 the beginning of the fiscal  year was changed from July 1 to April  1, and the year 1908-9 given in the list  of payments by the Company and by  the Government given below, is for  nine months only. These figures are  taken from the Public Accounts of the  Province and while they do not show  all the money transaction which took  place between the Company and the  Government, they show the steadily  increasing earning capacity of the  road. Table A shows the 40% of the  gross earnings of the road which was  paid into the Government and Table  B shows the sums paid out by the  Government from year to year as interest on the bonds.  Year a b  1892-3  $    14,805.44  $    75,393.17  1893-4  8,700.12  52,198.38  1894-5  8,495.38  50,406.73  1895-6  9,074.87  50,574.18  1896-7  10,146.16  50,140.80  1897-8  12,464.82  51,238.08  1898-9  13.993.18  50.624.16  1899-00  14,382.91  50,497.68  1900-1  14,729.02  50,651.19  1901-2  14,743.26  50,228.40  1902-3  19,571.66  50,816.94  1903-4  21,896.27  50,139.15  1904-5  24,021.40  51,238.71  1905-6  28,400.34  50,202.90  1906-7  33,726.39  51,202.50  1907-8  36,301.34  50,190.15  1908-9  27,202.40  26,113.80  1909-10  44,308.45  50,253.90  1910-11  56,325.55  52,158.24  1911-12  62,367,28  50,619.32  1912-13  401,111.81  25,088.70  Total  876,768.05  1,039,977.08  Balance  163,209.03  $1,039,977.08  $1,039,977.08  We do not understand the large  sum of $401,111,81 paid in, in 1912-13.  If it was intended to reimburse the  Government in full there seems to be  a balance still of $163,209.03 coming to  the Government.  When the first issue of bonds of $1,-  250,000, was sold they realized between  $1,083,000 and $1,084,000 so that there  was a difference between the par value of the bonds on which interest had  to be paid, and what the Company  got for them of at least $166,000.  They were sold to a man named  Armstrong, a financial man from London, England, who made a trip out to  the Okanagan Valley to look into conditions before buying them. While  here he was told that one of the stations on the line would be named after  him, and the station picked on was  Armstrong. But the owners of the  townsite,  Robert   Wood    and    Daniel 17  Rabbitt, had named the town, Aberdeen, so that for a while the town was  Aberdeen, and the station, Armstrong.  However, when the new post office  was opened on July 1, 1892, with Daniel Rabbitt as postmaster, the name was  Armstrong, and that settled the question.  The history of this road will be continued in our next Report, but want of  space forbids going on with it at present.  The First Directory of British Columbia  MARGARET A. ORMSBY, B.A.  It has been our good fortune to have  had access to the first directory of  British Columbia. This Directory of  the year 1882, was published by R. T.  Williams, the pioneer bookbinder of  Victoria.  A. E. Howse of Princeton, who owns  this copy, collected the data for the  Okanagan Valley, including Rock  Creek, Similkameen and Grand Prairie. Preceding the list of names there  are some four pages, closely printed,  of descriptions of different parts of  the Valley by Mr. Howse; the state of  the roads, transportation facilities,  and generally, conditions as he found  them.  He mentions the proposed canal in  the following paragraph:  "A survey is to be made this year  for a proposed canal between the head  of Okanagan Lake and Spallumcheen  River. As a large portion is already  navigable, it is more than probable  that a canal will be constructed to  connect the adjacent waters. Taking  this for granted, there will be no more  favorable section for immigrants than  this."  There is another paragraph which  will bear quoting as it bears out what  every candid historian will admit, viz.,  that the first settlers in this Valley,  miners and farmers, were a pretty  decent lot: "The residents generally  are most hospitable, and ever ready to  do each other a mutual service. The  inviting appearance of all the residences, and the kindly greeting which  awaits him, makes the stranger at  home."  And for doing this work Mr. Howse,  who we should say is a particularly  capable man and well qualified for  the work, received only $75.00.  Near the back of the Directory is a  list of dates and important events  which happened in the Province, beginning with the year 1871, the year of  confederation. From this list we learn  that the first Dominion flag was received by Dr. I. W. Powell of Victoria  on the 16th June, 1871.  We learn too, that on the 14th May,  1877 the first lot of thoroughbred stock  was brought into the Province from  eastern Canada by J. Steele, viz., 10  Shorthorns, eight purebred Leicester  and Cotswold sheep and three hogs. It  would be interesting to know if this  was the same lot of thoroughbred  stock which James Steele and his  brothers Thomas and William had, in  later years, in Salmon River valley.  They were there in 1882. Can any of  our members enlighten us on this  point?  We also learn that on the 7th December, 1879, John Ussher, Government  Agent at Nicola, and J. Kelly were  shot, and that on the 31st January,  1881, Allen McLean, Charles McLean,  Archibald McLean and Alexander  Hare were hanged for the crime at  New Westminster. And that the largest nugget of gold ever found in B.C.  was found on McDame's Creek, Cassiar, and valued at $1300.00  The following list of names are here  given as taken from the Directory:  OKANAGAN  (P.O.  Address,  Okanagan  and Okanagan Mission).  Andrews, Joseph, farmer. Priest  Valley.  Bercier, Louis, herder, Priest Valley.  Best, Arthur, farmer.  Brent, Frederick, farmer and mill  owner.  Brent, Joseph, farmer.  Brent, Louis, farmer. 18  Okanagan—Continued  Brewer, Charles, farmer and mill  owner, Priest Valley.  Bucherie,  Isadore, farmer and  stock raiser.  Cain, William, laborer.  Campbell, Roland, farmer  Casey, James, laborer, Priest Valley.  Christian,  Charles,  laborer.  Christian, Joseph, farmer and  stock raiser.  Christian, Louis, farmer, Priest  Valley.  Clark, W. H., farmer.  Daily, Stephen, laborer.  Daly, John, laborer, Coldstream.  Delaurier,  Amos,  farmer, Priest  Valley.  Dewar, Aneas, farmer.  Donley, George, laborer.  Duteau, Vincent, farmer,  Coldstream.  Ellis, Thomas, J. P., farmer, stock  raiser and trader, Penticton.  Ellison,  Price, farmer, Priest Valley.  Fulton,  James,  farmer.  Gillard, Augustus, farmer and  stock raiser, Mission.  Girouard, Sue, farmer and stock  raiser, Priest Valley.  Greenhow, Thomas, farmer, stock  raiser and trader.  Herbert, Octave, farmer and  stock raiser.  Heywood, John, miner, Mission.  Johns,  Joseph,  farmer,  Coldstream  Valley.  Jones, David, carpenter, Mission.  Jones, Thomas, farmer, Mission.  Jones, William, carpenter, Mission.  Keefer, George, farmer,  Coldstream Valley.  Keogan, Michael, farmer and stock  raiser, Dog Lake.  Kopp, V., miner, Dog Lake.  Lambert, Stephen, laborer, Priest  Valley.  Lawrence, Charles, carpenter, Mission.  Lawrence, Joseph, laborer, Mission.  Lawson, Charles, farmer, Priest  Valley.  Lafevere, Alphonse, farmer.  Leman,  Frank,  farmer.  Lequime, Barnard, farmer.  Lequime, Eli, trader, hotel keeper  and postmaster.  Lequime, Gaston, farmer, Mission.  Lumby, Moses, J. P.  Lyons,  James,  farmer,  Priest Valley.  McAdamson,  Donald, miner,  Coldstream Valley.  McCauley, George, farmer,  Coldstream Valley.  McDugal, Alexander, farmer, Mission.  McDugal, David, farmer, Mission.  McDugal, E., farmer, Mission.  McDugal,  John,  farmer,  Mission.  Mclnnes, John, farmer, Mission.  McKenzie,  John,  laborer, Coldstream  Valley.  McNeil, Alfred,  herder,  Priest Valley.  Moore, J. B., farmer, Mission.  Nicholson, Daniel, blacksmith, Mission.  O'Keefe, Cornelius, farmer, stock raiser, trader and postmaster.  Ortolan, Francois, farmer, Mission.  Postill, Alfred, farmer, stock raiser,  and mill owner, Mission.  Postill, Edward, farmer, stock raiser,  and mill owner, Mission.  Postill, William, farmer, stock raiser,  and mill owner, Mission.  Powers, John, laborer, Coldstream  Valley.  Seymour, George, laborer.  Simpson,  George,  farmer,  Mission.  Smith, William, laborer, Priest Valley.  Thibedau, Peter, farmer.  Tronson, E. J., farmer, stock raiser  and mill owner, Priest Valley.  Vance, Alexander, stock raiser,  Priest Valley.  Vernon, Forbes George, farmer and  stock raiser, Coldstream Valley.  Verselle,   Louis,  Laborer,  Mission.  Walker, George, farmer, Coldstream.  Walters, John, laborer.  Whelan, George, farmer and stock  raiser,  Mission.  Williams,  James,  farmer.  Wood, Thomas, J. P., stock raiser,  Winfield  Lodge,  Mission.  SPALLUMCHEEN  (P.O.   Address,  Spallumcheen).  Ashton, Charles, farmer.  Bailey, William, farmer.  Barrett, James, carpenter.  Bennett, Frederick, farmer.  Clinton, Thomas, farmer.  Crozier, Charles, farmer.  Crozier, James, farmer.  Empchke, Henry,  farmer.  Fortune, A. L., farmer.  Furtineau, E. M., farmer.  Graham, Donald, farmer.  Harland, Henry, farmer, Okanagan.  Herman, J. A., farmer, Okanagan.  Hozier, C. W., farmer, Okanagan.  Hutchinson,   M.,   farmer,   Okanagan.  James, Thomas, farmer.  Jirod, Philip, farmer.  Knox, Hugh, laborer.  Lambley, Robert, farmer.  Lambley, T. McK., Government Agent  and farmer. 19  Spallumcheen—Continued  Lawrence, William, farmer.  Lind, George, farmer.  Lamby,   Mioses,   farmer.  Mathewson, Donald, farmer.  Micherie, William, farmer, P.O. Okanagan  Mission.  Moffatt, Robert, carpenter.  Murray,  William,  farmer.  Nelson, George, farmer.  Nelson, Thomas, laborer.  Parkinson, George, farmer.  Powell, William, farmer.  Rich, Joseph, farmer.  Richardson, William, farmer.  Shubert, Augustus, Sr., farmer.  Shubert, Augustus, Jr., farmer.  Siddle, Ira, farmer.  Steele, James, farmer and stock raiser.  Steele, Thomas, farmer.  Steele, William, farmer.  Swanson, Henry, farmer.  Thompson, J., farmer.  Thorn, Edward, farmer.  Thornton, John, farmer.  Tilton, J. C, farmer.  Wallace, George W., blacksmith and  postmaster.  Wilke, Carol, farmer.  Witcher,  Harman,  farmer.  Young, Frank, farmer.  GRAND PRAIRIE  (P.O. Address, Duck and Pringle's).  Campbell, Louis, farmer.  Clemitson, R. M., farmer.  Duck, J., farmer.  Hutchinson, Jas., laborer.  Hutchinson, Jno., farmer.  Jones, Frank C, farmer.  Jones, J. T., farmer.  Jones, W. J., farmer.  Jones, W. H., farmer.  Kirkpatrick, Andrew, farmer.  Martin, George B., M.P.P., farmer  Pringle, John, farmer.  Pemberton, A. G., farmer.  Ross,  James, farmer.  Todd, Robert, farmer.  Williams, E. C, Kamloops.  SIMILKAMEEN  (P.O. Address, via Hope).  Allison, John F. J. P., stock raiser  and trader, Princeton.  Barcelo, Manuel, stock raiser and  farmer,  Keremeos.  Cawson, R. L., stock raiser and  farmer, Osooyos.  Cole, Thomas, stock raiser, Keremeos.  Curry, Thomas, trader, Osoyoos.  Cox, Timothy, Keremeos.  Gallagher,  Joseph, packer, Kettle  River.  Haynes, J. C, customs officer and  stock raiser, Osoyoos.  Ingraham, J. J., farmer. Kettle River.  Kruger, Theodore, trader and hotel  keeper,   Osoyoos.  McBride, J.J., farmer, Kettle River.  McCauley,  Joseph,  Keremeos.  McConnel, James, farmer, Kettle  River.  Nicholson, Henry, farmer, Kettle River.  Price, B., trader, Keremeos.  Price, F., farmer, Keremeos.  Richter, F. X., stock raiser  Roar,  Samuel, blacksmith, Keremeos.  Swartz,   O.,   laborer,   Keremeos.  Ah, Lam, trader, Rock Creek.  Ah, She, trader, Rock Creek.  Ah, Yet, trader, Rock Creek.  Successful Pre-emptors  MARGARET  A.  ORMSBY,  B.A.  An examination of the books in the  Vernon Land Office shows there are  now living in this district, seven men  who have lived continuously for more  than forty years on land pre-empted  by them.  This we consider a very creditable  record for these men. There must be  something admirable in the character  of a man who could take up a piece  of waste land and continue to live on  it for so many years, and by industry  and intelligently directed effort, convert it into a valuable property. Each  of them, having selected his location  was content to pursue the even tenor  of his way through good times and  bad, through good and evil report, until he made a beautiful and valuable  homestead of it. And we are happy  to say they are all successful men.  It was men like these who, in years  gone by, made Canada what it is, and  it is men like these who are of real 20  worth in a community. None of them  had much money, and some of them  none at all, when they staked their  claims; but they were intelligent, industrious men, and independent, and  willing to make their own way without  assistance from the Government or  anyone else.  There are still millions of acres of  fertile land to be homesteaded or preempted in Canada and the achievements of these men should be an object lesson to so many healthy young  men now travelling the highways  seeking employment with no place of  their own and no home.  Below is given   a   list   showing the  names, place of residence, and dates  of location.  B. F. Young, Armstrong, June 1, 1877  Thomas N. Hayes, Larkin, Apr. 4, 1884  Casimlr Bonneau, Lumby, July 15,1884  Myles McDonald, Armstrong,  Sept. 22, 1884  John Casorso, Okanagan Mission,  Nov. 18, 1884  Henry Harding, Armstrong,  Oct. 20,  1885  James Gartrell, Summeralnd,  June 3, 1887  NOTE.—Since the above was written  two of these   men   have   died,   James  Gartrell on 26th July last, and Myles  McDonald on the 29th July.   Ed.  The So-called Okanagan Arc  EL  J.  Since the publicatiofftjf our  Report we have been able to secure  some more information about this  rather remarkable phenomenon, but  not much. They apparently know  nothing about it in the Department of  Meteorology of the United States nor  do they know anything, apparently,  about it in the Department of Meteorology for Canada, beyond the fact  that its occurrence in 1908 was reported, as the two following letters  show:  United States Dept. of Agriculture,  Weather Bureau, Washington,  July  5,   1928  Mr. Leonard Norris,  Vernon,  B.C.  Sir:  Your communication of the 19th  June, giving an account of certain  peculiar lights seen in your city, has  been received.  I am sorry to say that we are unable to say what they were though we  know of nothing else nearly so probable as a form of the aurora.  Let me assure you that you were  not imposing on us at all in writing  to us at length about this phenomenon, but on the contrary doing us an  especial  kindness.  Respectfully,  C. F. Marvin, Chief of Bureau.  C. AGNEW, C.E.  last  Meteorological  Office,  Toronto, Canada, Dec. 28, 1929.  Dear Sir:  In reply to your letter of the ninth  December, I received your letter and  enclosure of the 13th August, and regret that it has not been possible to  go into the matter thoroughly. We  have no work on the distribution of  the Chinook Wind, except a short one  by the late Director, Sir Frederick  Stupart, a copy of which I am enclosing.  With regard to the light seen in the  sky from time to time, it would appear  to be an aurora from the description  given of it in the Hedley Gazette. It  was seen in a good many places—Summerland, Bella Coola, Big Creek (Upper Fraser Valley) on the night of the  18th August 1908. No doubt it is the  same phenomenon that you have seen  from time to time.  Yours truly,  J.   Patterson,  Director.  Hector Richmond, Junior Entomologist at the Court House, Vernon, was  the first to give us information of its  appearance in Alberta. He and a  companion saw it on the night of the  9th Sept. 1929. The entry in his diary  reads: "Had a strange phenomenon  this evening, a bright arch stretched  from horizon to horizon. It looked  like a bright searchlight."   They were 21  then about 30 miles south of Edson on  the C. N. Ry., in the foothills of the  Rockies. The time was between 10:30  and 11:30, and the moon was down.  It was uniform in width from end to  end. He describes it as being a pearl  arch.  Sergeant A. G. Birch, of the North  West Mounted Police, now stationed  at Vanderhoof, in his letter to this  Society, says: "I have seen this light  on two occasions, once in Similkameen in August 1928, and also on returning from Sugar Lake in July 1927.  On neither occasion was there any  sign of the Northern Lights, and this  fact impressed me as being peculiar,  and made the phenomenon mare puzzling.  "The light was very luminous in  appearance and apparently emitting  a phosphorescent glow, and was entirely different in appearance and  action to the Northern Lights. The  description given in the Hedley Gazette, comparing it to the rays of a  searchlight with the exception of the  rays not tapering, but maintaining a  uniform width, describes the phenomenon exactly."  Those who saw it as it was in 1908  and 1916 will readily understand Hector Richmond when he describes it as  being like a pearl arch, and Sergeant  Birch when he says it appeared to  emit a phosphorescent glow.  It has been slow work, acquiring  data relating to this light; one of the  chief drawbacks has been the want  of books of reference. In fact when  we commenced our Investigations we  could find nothing here bearing on the  subject except the Encyclopedia Bri-  tannica and Burdock's Blood Bitters  Almanac for 1927. Both are first rate  as far as they go, only they don't go  very far. It is surprising too, how few  people in the Valley have seen it considering the frequency of its occurrence. The people in the Okanagan  Valley seem to lead such regular lives  that they are all in bed by eleven  o'clock, and there is no one abroad at  that hour but the constable or, perhaps, someone going for the doctor.  J. Duff of Sidney, a member of the  Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, has written making the following  suggestion: "In place of taking an  altitude it might be more convenient  to  note  the  time and mention what  prominent stars are on, or close to, the  arc; repeating this an hour later to  see if any apparent shifting occurred.  Long distance phone might be used to  stir up other observers to do the same."  This suggestion has so much to commend it that we hope our members  will act on it the next time it occurs,  and it will occur again no doubt;  those who eee it should use the long  distance phone and give notice to  others. Any reasonable expense incurred will be cheerfully borne by the  Society. If the moon is due to rise  soon after, the exact time of its appearance should be noted. Our attempts to fix the time of the rising of  the moon by the Nautical Almanac,  and by other means has not been very  satisfactory owing to the difference between local and mean time, and to the  interference of the mountain tops  with the mean horizon.  The fact is that at the present time  we are not properly organized for carrying on such work, but we hope soon  to be.  James Douglas mentions having  seen a band of light somewhat similar  to the band of light seen so often in  the Okanagan, when he was building  the first fort at Victoria in 1843. The  entry in his diary of the 17th March  of that year, reads: "Saw a luminous  streak in the heavens this evening  which lasted from dusk until nine  o'clock when the moon rose and obscured it. Its highest altitude was at  Betelguix in Orion, due south from  the position we occupied at the time  of its appearance and extended from  thence in a continuous line to the  southwest point of the horizon forming  an arc of about 90 degrees. At Betelguix its breadth was . . arcs . . and it  diminished gradually towards the  southwest horizon. We cannot account for this phenomenon, unless we  may suppose it is produced by the reflection of the waters in the straits of  De Fuca, although it is difficult to account for its existence on any such  principle.   It was also seen last night.''  It is not very clear what he means  by the above statement. James Douglas was a poor diarist. His diaries are  hard to understand. One commentator in referring to the diary from  which the above extract is taken, says  "it is one of the most exasperating  documents   I   have ever read."   It is 22  fairly clear that what he saw was a  streak of light which ran in a general  southeast and northwest direction,  otherwise he would not have associated it with the reflection from the  waters of the Strait of Jaun de Fuca.  If we take what he says literally—  that the star Betelguse was then due  south of where he stood and that the  luminous streak extended from the  star to the southwest point of the  horizon—it would then be running at  right angles to the Strait, and with the  two thus running in totally different  directions, there would be no mental  suggestion connecting them. We shall  probably never know exactly what it  was he saw on that occasion.  In our last report we expressed the  opinion that the explanation of this  phenomenon will be found in a proper understanding of the topography  of the country to the south of us, and  of the effect produced by the prevailing winds from the southwest, and we  have no reason so far, to alter our  opinion. F. W. Godsal of Victoria, is  our authority for saying the Chinook  wind blows over Victoria. In his article on the Chinook Wind which appeared in the Calgary Herald on 28th  January 1928, he says: "Victoria at the  south end of Vancouver Island also  enjoys a Chinook effect, caused by the  Olympic mountains in the State of  Washington to the southwest . . .  the Chinook affects only the extreme  south end of Vancouver Island, and  the coast of Washington opposite."  Bancroft in his History of British  Columbia, page 98, refers, in a light  vein, to the luminous streak seen by  Douglas, he says:  "The 17th, Friday; was it their lucky  or unlucky day? Was that luminous  streak which lingered in the heavens  after the day went out, shining brightly there until the moon came up and  frightened it away; was the sign por-  tentious of good or ill to this beginning? And did it speak to the savage  or the civilized? For five consecutive  nights it did not fail to make its appearance, and was the wonder of the  time."  And the author of another well-  known History of British Columbia,  takes Bancroft to task for his flippancy and gibes at Douglas, in this  manner:  "Bancroft, in recording this incident, seems equally at a loss to account for the phenomenon. If that  author, who never lost an opportunity  to sneer at the men who laid the  foundations of British Columbia, had  taken the trouble to examine the astronomical records of that period, he  would have found that the 'luminous  streak' was the great comet of 1843,  which was visible from the Northwest  Coast on the 27th February, and for  seven weeks afterwards. This comet  was the brightest of the century up to  that time, and was one of the largest  ever observed. Its tail was said to be  one hundred and sixty million miles  long," etc.  As if a man like Douglas could possibly mistake the comet of 1843 for  anything else but what it was.  Shorts Creek  MAX H. RUHMANN  At a meeting of the Society held at  Vernon, June 24th last, the following  resolution was passed:  "That our Secretary be instructed  to make application to the Geographic Board of Canada to have the creek  flowing into Okanagan Lake on the  west side, through Lot 686, officially  named Shorts Creek in honor of the  late Captain T. D. Shorts, and  That while we deprecate needless  meddling   with   place-names   and   be-  live it is best to leave to time and circumstances the settling of all such  matters, we consider there are special  reasons for making this request, viz.:  (1) Captain Shorts was the first  settler to pre-empt land on the creek,  his record being dated 23rd July, 1883.  (2) In 1886 he and T. Greenhow  built the first steamer on Okanagan  Lake, and Captain Shorts was master  of her.  (3) This stream has been known as 23  Shorts Creek for over thirty years and  is shewn as such on all Government  maps.  (4) That it is only fitting and right  the name the stream now bears should  be confirmed officially so as to prevent Interference with it in years to  come."  The application was made and in  due course we received the following  acknowledgment of it:  Geographic Board of Canada  Ottawa, Ont., 4th July, 1930  Dear Sir:  I have received your letter of the  25th ultimo and accompanying Resolution of the Okanagan Historical and  Natural History Society relative to the  name Shorts Creek, Okanagan Lake.  The matter came before the Board  at its regular monthly meeting yesterday, when it was pointed out that  while the Creek had an earlier name,  Biche Creek, as on Dawson's Map of  the Southern Interior of British Columbia   published    by    the   Geological  Survey in 1877, the name was submitted to and considered acceptable by  the Board a few years ago.  While the Board does not generally  publish decision regarding small features, it was decided yesterday, in the  circumstances, to formally approve the  name Shorts Qreek. for publication.  If the Society's records contain any  information as to the applicability of  the name Biche River, I should be  glad if you will let me hear from you.  Yours faithfully.  R. Douglas, Secretary.  Max H. Ruhmann, Esq.,  Sec.-Treas. of the Okanagan  Historical and Natural History  Society, Vernon, B.C.  It is some satisfaction to us to know  that the name has now been formally  passed for publication by the Geographic Board, and thus placed beyond  any interference, as far as such may  be done.  The Name Kelowna  MRS. WILLIAM BRENT  There seems to be some confusion as  to the meaning and character of this  word. My knowledge of it leads me to  think that while it is an Indian word  it is not an Indian place-name; it  does not belong to the same class as  Spallumcheen, Penticton, Osoyoos and  other well-known Indian place-names  which have been in use by the Indians  from time immemorial.  I left the Okanagan Valley to go to  live with my father, Col. Houghton in  Montreal in 1893. About a year before  I left I was living with my cousin,  Mrs. D. Nicholson, at Okanagan Mission, and going to school. One Sunday afternoon in May or June 1892,  Bernard Lequime came to Nicholson's  house, and among other things he told  us he was trying to find a suitable  name for his new townsite on the  lakeshore. Frederick Watson, the  school teacher, was there at the time,  and all present took part in the discussion which followed. Bernard Lequime told us of the name, Kim-ach-  touch which the Indians had given  August Gillard. He seemed to be impressed with it, but thought it would  seem awkward and uncouth to those not  acquainted with the Indian language.  The name Kelowna was then brought  up, and nearly all present thought it  would be a more suitable name. The  pronunciation of it was also discussed,  and various methods of spelling were  suggested so as to preserve the Indian  pronunciation in which as J. W. S.  Logie says, the 'o' is sounded as in  'now', 'allow', etc. For some years  around Kelowna it was always pronounced, this way, but latterly use and  custom has changed it to its present  pronunciation with the 'o' as is 'snow',  'go', etc.  From what I saw and heard that  afternoon I am satisfied that F. M.  Buckland is quite right when he says  August Gillard was primarily responsible for the name, and that the name  would have been Kin-ach-touch (I  would   pronounce   this word Kum-a- 24  stoose) had not Kim-ach-touch seemed uncouth and awkward to the  whites.  The Indians never named a place by  calling it after an animal. Following  the mode of life they did, such a custom would have been confusing and inconvenient.  Kelowna means grizzly bear; Skum-  hist means black bear. Quill means red  in the Indian language and Quill-  skum-hist means brown bear. Kim-  ach-touch or Kum-a-stoose means  bear's  face,  and  this was  the  name  given August Gillard by the Indians.  There are peculiarities in the Indian  language which are sometimes hard  to explain. It is not surprising that  both Bernard Lequime and F. M.  Buckland thought the name meant  brown bear, because, if questioned regarding the meaning of the name, the  Indians would disclose the fact that  what they had in mind when they bestowed the name on him, was the face  of a brown bear. The name however,  cannot be more closely translated  than as "bearface."  The Indians of the Okanagan Valley  MRS.  WILLIAM BRENT  When the Indians of the Okanagan  Valley were discovered by the white  men in 1811, they were not debased  savages nor sunk in superstition, and  there is much to be said in favor of  the view held by many, that they were  a people who at one time had probably attained to a higher degree  of civilization than they enjoyed at  the beginning of the last century.  They were not idolaters: they did not  worship idols. Their religious tenets  were simple; they belived in good and  bad spirits and believed it was necessary to propitiate both. Their principal religious ceremony consisted of the  Chief calling his people around him in  solemn conclave, and then taking the  peace pipe, he blew three whiffs of  smoke towards the four points of the  compass, and three towards the  heavens, in salutation of the invisible  and invincible powers beyond. While  this ceremony and their religious tenets may have been crude and elementary, there was nothing in either revolting to the finer feelings and instincts of the human heart.  These Indians did not burn witches  at the stake as did the Puritans of  New England, and such horrors as the  auto de fe of the early Christian  church, and the modern abomination  of birth control, were alike unknown to  them.  It is true that when a marriage was  contracted the property consideration  passed from the bridegroom to the  father of the bride; but women were  not bought and sold as chattels as In  many eastern countries. Nor was the  property consideration the only preliminary; the consent of the two families had to be obtained. A marriage  was looked on as an important matter  which might affect the honour and  standing of the tribe, of the family.  And here as elsewhere the story of  true love did not always run smoothly;  sometimes one of the families would  withdraw the consent they had given  or the young people might change  their minds, and the bad blood thus  engendered might involve the whole  tribe and fierce fighting take place over  the alleged insult or injury or for the  possession of some dusky Helen of  Troy.  In 1811 these people did not live in  fortified villages and raise grain as did  the ancient Hochelagans. It was not  necessary for them to plant corn because they had an abundant supply of  food in the fish and game and the edible roots and berries of the country  and their mobility—the ease with  which they could move from place to  place—probably served them better in  case of attack than a fortification.  Alexander Ross in his book "Adventures on the Oregon or Columbian  River" has this so say of the Okanagan  Indians: "The men lead an active life  —between hunting, fishing and making  canoes, they are always employed. Nor  are the women less busy—curing fish,  drying meat and collecting roots and  firewood—with their family and domestic affairs, their whole time is occupied 25  and indeed they may be said to serve  in the double capacity of wife and  slave. They have in general an engaging sweetness, are good housewives,  modest in their demeanor, affectionate  and chaste, and strongly attached to  their husbands and family. Each family is ruled by the joint authority or  will of the husband and wife, but more  particularly the latter." When this  was written in 1849, Ross had been  married for a considerable time to an  Okanagan Indian woman and we may  naturally suppose he would write more  favorably of them than some other  white man; but what he says is, in the  main, probably true.  Their social organization was loose,  so lcose as to border on anarchy.  Each family was a law unto itself; and  while a kind of nominal authority was  given to the Chiefs by these self-governing families, the authority and privileges of the Chief were strictly limited. They tolerated no dominate caste,  and they refused to be priest-ridden.  The outstanding trait in the character  of these men, was their independence  and love of personal freedom. They  would not submit to authority.  With the white man, what his neighbor thinks is a matter of first concern  to him, because he knows that what  is only public opinion today, tomorrow  may crystalize and become a law  which he will be forced to obey. No  such consideration weighed with the  Indian; always he knew he was free to  do as he liked, and what his neighbor  thought or did not think, was a matter  of complete indifference to him. The  white man, ruled by the majority and  therefore more or less always under  the thumb of authority of some sort,  may, as compared with the Indian, be  more prone to take his opinions ready-  made and follow the crowd, instead of  standing on his own feet and thinking  for himself.  The rigors of the life they followed  tended in a marked manner, to weed  out from among them, the weak, the  vicious, and the incapable, so that today the average Indian, in mental endowment and acumen, is quite the  equal of the average white man; it  would be strange if this were not so.  The want of anything like an adequate  education is however, a tremendous  drawback to the Indian. The coming  of the white man was not an unmixed  blessing to him; but the white man has  to the credit side of his account with  the Indians, two things at least—the  schools and the inestimable boon of  Christianity.  We have not the exact figures, but  the latest authority we have been able  to consult, shows that, in Canada,  roughly one man in a hundred is an  Indian. So that the number of men  of mixed Indian and white blood in  this country must be small as compared with the total population. Yet  when we consider the number of these  men who have become prominent as  legislators, teachers, members of the  learned profession, and in the Civil  Service, the number is astonishingly  great. They seem to possess a certain  mental aloofness, a freedom and independence of judgment which makes  them different from the whites, pure  blood; and these qualities make for  leadership among men. The half breed  will either live entirely to himself, or,  if he takes part in community life at  all, he is apt to forge to the front.  These men are in a sense "well-born."  They on one side of the house at least,  have descended from a race of men  who for many generations never knew  what it was to receive a command  from another and feel that they were  under compulsion and bound to obey  that command. Always they were free  men, and, they say, blood will tell.  This is an aspect of Canadian history which seems to have been strangely overlooked, viz., the natural aptitude  of men of mixed Indian and white  blood, for public office, and for leadership, as demonstrated in the history of  Canada during the past hundred years.  When we see an Indian and notice  his casual style of clothing himself,  and his want of personal cleanliness,  we are apt to grin; but, a few generations back, and the difference in manners and customs between the whites  and the Indians was not perhaps so  very marked as it is today. R. L.  Stevenson, in his Essay on John Knox,  in comparing the manners and customs of that date with the manners and  customs of the age in which he lived,  says: "We could not let those great  folks of old into our drawing rooms.  Queen Elizabeth would positively not  be eligible  for a house maid."  Perhaps nothing illustrates more  clearly the extent to which the whites  have  admitted    the    North American 26  Indian to an equal footing wth themselves, while refusing a similar recognition of the negro and the oriental,  than what took place in Washington  some time after the inauguration of  President Hoover. The President's  wife, Mrs. Hoover, gave a tea and sent  an invitation to Mrs. DePriest who  was the wife of a member of the United States Congress, the representative  from Chicago. The DePriests were  negroes; and at once a storm of dissent and protest swept over the United  States, and much discussion followed  in the press and on the plaform. This  simple act of official courtesy was  looked on in some quarters as striking  at the very foundations of society;  and in some of the State Legislatures  in the South, it was the subject of  Resolutions, and many speeches were  made denouncing the action of Mrs.  Hoover as fraught with evil and dangerous to the future welfare of the na  tion. In fact, the discussion was so  widespread and warm that a new term  was invented, "depriestism," meaning,  the social recognition of the negro,  and it was so much in use that for a  time it seemed likely we would have a  new word added to the English language.  And all the while this unholy row  was going on over the invitation to an  afternoon tea, extended by Mrs. Hoover to the chocolate-colored lady froni  Chicago, who "came early, stayed late,  and seemed to enjoy herself," Charles  Curtis, the Vice-President, was reported in the newspapers as being proud  of his Indian blood, and proud of the  fact that as a boy, he was brought up  with the tribe of Indians to which his  grandmother, who was a half-breed  Kaw Indian, belonged.  Yet this fact elicited no unfavorable  comment whatever.  Belvidere Townsite  FREDERICK H.  BARNES  The Government Reserve at Enderby containing 14 acres and known as  Lot 149, was subdivided and the subdivision lots offered for sale at auction  by Walter Dewdney, Government  Agent, at Enderby. on the 14th February, 1885. The place was then known  as Belvidere.  Either at the auction sale or shortly  after, all the lots in the townsite were  purchased by Robert and T. McK.  Lambly except one, Lot 9, which was  bought by their brother-in-law, Alfred  Postill. Lot 149 was divided into 20  lots of an average of .7 acres each,  and the price at which they were sold  was $100.00 per acre or $70.00 per lot.  Fortunately we have been able to secure from the Lands Department, Victoria, a blueprint of this ancient  townsite, through the good offices of  the Deputy Minister, H Cathcart. This  blueprint, drawn to a scale of two  chains to the inch, has the slough  which runs along the front of the lots  and leading up towards Fortune's  ranch, marked "Line of proposed canal  to Okanagan Lake." The lots are numbered from north to south, and the  north boundary of Lot 1 is the centre  of Cliff Street.  This blueprint shows the location of  the big wheat shed built by the Lambly Bros., and of Robert Lambly's  house and stable. The warehouse is in  Lot 3 close to the river bank, and Robert Lambley's house and stable are on  Lot 2.  Since the blueprint was received Oliver Harvey has marked on it the approximate location of his store which  was Enderby's first post office. The  store stood on Lot 4 near its northern  boundary and not far from the river  bank. This building was built for H.  F. Keefer by Hamill and Pringle in  the fall of 1885 under instructions from  Oliver Harvey. H. F. Keefer was a  successful sub-contractor on the C.P.R.  during its construction, and was a  cousin of George A. Keefer, one of the  divisional engineers. H. F. Keefer at  that time had a number of stores a-  long the line of construction on the  C.P.R. Later Oliver Harvey and W. B.  Bailey bought out the Keefer stores.  The old wagon road ran in front of  Harvey's store, between it and the river bank, and west of the big wheat  shed where the steamboats landed. 27  The Brides of Enderby  ZILLAH MAY MEIGHAN  In his history of British Columbia,  Judge F. W. Howay tells us that the  city of Enderby owes its name to a  unique circumstance. At a gathering  at the home of George R. Lawes, who  with Mr. Rashdale built the roller  flour mill at Enderby, a well-known  poem by Jean Ingelow was read and  discussed, and the suggestion was then  made that Enderby should be adopted  as the name of the place instead of  Belvidere and that the suggestion met  with instant approval.  When the Enderby postoffice was  opened on the 1st November, 1887 with  Oliver Harvey as postmaster, some of  those who had not been present at  this literary meeting naturally inquired where the name came from, what it  meant, and who suggested it. We were  told to read Jean Ingelow's poem  "High Tide on the Coast of Lincolnshire," and we should then know all  about it.  The high tide mentioned in the  poem is something which actually occurred; but the poem viewed as a  purely historical narrative, has its  weak points.  According to the poem, long ago  when any danger threatened the town  of Boston, in Lincolnshire, the alarm  was given by ringing the church bells.  The tune they played was always "The  Brides of Enderby," so that this tune  when played on the church bells, always threw the town into a turmoil of  excitement, and sent men hurrying  home from the fields, pale with fear  and apprehension.  One Saturday evening in the summer of 1571 while the men were still  at work in the fields and the women  were in the pastures driving home the  cows to be milked, the bells suddenly  clashed out their dreadful warning  peal; and the people were amazed.  Everything seemed to be secure and  peaceful. There was no armed force  attacking the town, no conflagration  raging, no insurrection, nor were pirate ships attacking the place from the  sea; but a very high tide was creeping  in spreading death and devastation  abroad in the land. The poem in part  reads as follows:  The old mayor climbed the belfrey tower  The ringers rang by two, by three  "Pull as as you never pulled before  Good ringers pull your best," quothe he.  "Play uppe, play uppe, O Boston bells  Ply all your changes, all your swells  Play uppe The Brides of Enderby."  Then some looked up into the sky  And all  along where Lindis flows  To where the goodly vessels lie  And   where   the   lordly   steeple   shows  They sayed,  "And why should this thing be  What danger lowers by land or sea?"  They ring the tune of Enderby.  "For evil news from Mabelthorp  Of pyrate galleys, warping down  For shippes ashore beyond the scorpe  They have not spared to wake the town  But while the west bin red to see  And storms be nonne and pyrates flee  Why ring the Brides of Enderby?" 28  We sometimes wondered too, on  reading the poem, why the people of  Boston selected this particular tune,  and what sort of dames these ladies  were, fhese Brides of Enderby, whose  grace and beauty were celebrated in  song, and later on—when people knew  more about them, no doubt— men,  when they heard the tune, turned pale  and shook with fear. It appears however that they, like the Furies and  Mrs. Gamp's friend, Mrs. Harris, are  purely mythical. One of our members, J. Forsythe Smith, Dominion  Fruit Trade Commissioner, London,  wrote direct to the authorities of the  city of Boston, and their reply in part  reads as follows:  "In reply to your inquiry. about the  word 'Enderby,' there are three small  villages between Spilbury and Horncastle: Bag Endergy, Mavis Enderby  and Wood Enderby. Jean Ingelow  wrote some years ago in reply to a  similar inquiry, that the 'Brides of  Enderby' were purely her own imagination. I believe a tune to fit the words  was written at a later date, but was  never played on the bells of Boston  Church."  Whatever may be said of the merits  of the poem as a whole, there can be  no question of the music and charm  of those three lines—the lines which  suggest the clash and rhythm of the  bells:  Play uppe, play uppe, O Boston bells  Ply all your changes, all your swells  Play uppe the Brides of Enderby.  Ogopogo  W.   H.  BRIMBLECOMBE  The question has frequently been  asked: How, when and why Ogopogo?  The orgiin of the application of this  name to the unidentified creature  sometimes seen in Okanagan Lake, is  simple.  In Vernon there has been since the  War, an organization of amateurs,  who, under title of "The Kalamalka Players," have raised several  thousand dollars for charitable purposes. In one of their "Folly" performances, the writer sang the Ogopogo song originally created by Davy  Burnaby of the "Co-Optimists." Perhaps a word is necessary here, as to  who the "Co-Optimists" are.  for many years the late Mr. Pelliss-  ier was, with his "Follies," looked upon in London, England, as furnishing  to the lovers of musical and light  comedy, much the same type of refined humor that "Punch" affords its  readers. After the Great War, it may  be said, his mantle fell on Davy Burnaby, who with his company of Co-Optimists, soon captivated England and  now hold a wide and most enviable  reputation. A programme presented by  them is the epitome of good taste and  good fun.  Some months afterwards, on the  23rd August, 1926, to be exact, a luncheon for the Vancouver Board of Trade  was given at the Kalamalka Hotel by  the Vernon Rotary Club and the Vernon Board of Trade. L. M. Richardson  of Vernon, presided, and the writer was  asked to sing. As it had been well received on the former ocassion, he decided to sing the Ogopogo song again.  At the time there was considerable  talk about the mysterious creature in  Okanagan Lake, and the possibilities  of making a little fun were recognized;  indeed the Secretary of the Kalamalka  Players, H. F. Beattie, who was ex-  Secretary of the Vernon Board of  Trade, wrote a parody of the original  for local use.  On the occasion of this lunchean,  the name and tune caught on, and the  guests left the Kalamalka Hotel to  spread the fame of Ogopogo far and  wide. Recently some of the coast  newspapers have been using the word  as a common noun to designate any  unidentified creature in any of the  lakes in the interior of B.C. So that  we are now in a fair way of having a  new word added to the English language.  On one occasion, near Peachland,  it was swimming along parallel to the  lake shore and not far from it. The  late J. L. Logie of Okanagan Centre  happened to be on the road at the  time and saw it, and he chased it for  some distance. It was then rushing  through the water   at   a   tremendous speed and he was on the road in his  automobile, and chased after it along  the road which at that place follows  the lake shore. The report of this chase  with an automobile after making the  rounds of the B.C. newspapers, event-  29  ually found its way into the columns  of "Punch." After that, of course, no  one could say the Ogopogo of the Okanagan Lake was not famous.  The song as written by Davy Burnaby ran thus:  "One fine day in Hindustan, I met a funny little man  With googly eyes and lantern jaws;  with a new silk  hat and some old plus-fours  When 1 said to that quaint old chap: Why do you carry  that big steel trap  That butterfly net and that old gun?   He replied,  Listen here my son.  'I'm looking for the Ogopogo. The funny little Ogopogo.  His mother was an earwig, his father was a snail  I'm going to put a little bit of salt on his tail  I want to find the Ogopogo, while  he's playing  on his old banjo  The Lord Mayor of London, the Lord Mayor of London  The Lord Mayor of London wants  To put him in the Lord Mayor's show.'"  And the parody by H. F. Beattie:  "Oh!   Vancouver Board of Trade  Gird up your loins;  be not dismayed  Crusaders stalwart from the coast  Fill each his glass, and hear Vernon's toast  Ante-deluvian or B.C.  A monster you may chance to see  A d~ sight more up-to-date you will say  Join the  chorus  with a  Hip-Hooray  I'm looking for the Ogopogo  The bunny-hugging Ogopogo  His mother was a  mutton *   and his father  was   a   whale  I'm going to put a little bit of salt on his tail  I'm  looking for  the  Ogopogo  As told me by Harwood   (Joe)  The  Lieutenant-Governor  The Lieutenant-Governor  The   Lieutenant-Governor   wants  To put him in the B.C. show."  * An allusion doubtless to the statement sometimes made  that the creature has a head like a sheep.  The Audibility of the Aurora  L. NORRIS  The peculiar sound emitted by the  Aurora has been heard recently on  Shuswap Lake. Should any of our  members hear this sound we should  be very much obliged if they will report it to us, and report it as fully as  possible. If the truth were known it  would probably be found that the  Aurora is always accompanied by a  sound, but it is so faint that the observer has to be very close to it to  hear it. 30  In fact until comparatively recent  years, the reality of this phenomenon  has been questioned. For instance,  the Encycl. Britt. 11th Edition, in its  article on the Aurora Borealis or Northern Lights, says: "Whether auroral  displays are ever accompanied by a  characteristic sound is a disputed  question." It then proceeds to quote  Captain H. P. Dawson who was in  charge of the British Polar station at  Fort Rae in 1882-3, who says: "The Indians and Voyageurs of the Hudson's  Bay Company who often pass their  nights in the open, say that it (the  sound) is not uncommon .... there  can be no doubt that a distinct sound  does occasionally accompany certain  displays of the Aurora."  In the November number of the  Journal of the Royal Astronomical  Society of Canada. 1929, the following  quotation is taken from P. H. Gosse's  "The Canadian Naturalist," 1840, page  47: "I have never heard any sound  accompanying the Aurora Borealis,  though I have seen very many, and  some splendid ones, and though I have  often eagerly and intently listened;  yet I cannot doubt the fact for I have  beer? assured by persons of undoubted  veracity that they have distinctly  heard an accompanying sound, though  exceedingly rarely. Some of these individuals could not be suspected of  having taken the idea from books. It  has been described to me as being like  the rustling of a silk flag in a si__art  breeze. These were all heard in Newfoundland where it is much more common than in this country (Province of  Quebec)."  In the next number of the Journal,  the one for December 1929, the following letter from W. H. Harrison of Linden Avenue, Victoria, appears: "In the  Journal for November, I read with  much interest your quotation from the  book "The Canadian Naturalist," in  connection with the remarks made by  H. P. Goss on the possibility of hearing the Aurora Borealis. I have seen  many very brilliant displays of the  Aurora Borealis in Eastern Canada,  the Central West, and Northern Alberta, but on only one occasion did I  hear a sound. About 25 years ago at  Sackville. New Brunswick, on a still,  frosty night, as I watched the lights  running across the sky, I heard very  distinctly a rustling or crackling  sound.   I listened very carefully as up  to that time I did not know that such  a sound was ever heard. On looking  the matter up in my encyclopedia, I  found that on rare occasions the Aurora Borealis made a sound such a3 I  have described, and shortly afterwards  I found reference to the same matter  in Wordsworth's poem, entitled "The  Complaint of a Forsaken Indian Woman." The poem referred to contains  the following lines:  In sleep I heard the northern gleam  The stars they were among my  dreams  In rustling conflict through the skies  I heard, I saw the flashes drive.  On the other hand Dr. W. J. Humphreys, Ph. D., in his "Physics of the  Air" (New York, 1929, 2nd Edition.)  a standard work, gives a long list of  sounds which may be classed as  meteorological and concludes in this  manner: "the sizzle of St. Elmo's fire,  the faint crackle of the constant  stream of feeble electric discharges  from mast tips or other points thus  strangely illuminated; the swish of  the aurora, due apparently to auto  suggestion, and hence, wholly subjunctive; and, of course, many more.  But the explanation of all are easy, if  not immediately obvious, and hence  their further listing is quite unnecessary."  He certainly takes an easy way of  accounting for the sound made by the  Northern Lights; he leaves us to infer  that it is only auto suggestion. It  would be strange if all those who  thought they heard it were victims of  auto suggestion, and the sounds they  thought they heard sound like the  swishing of a whip, the swishing of a  silk flag, etc., were wholly "subjunctive." It is just possible that Dr.  Humphreys is a bit too incredulous.  The Encyclopedia Brittanica is our  authority for saying that it is now  generally conceded that the Aurora  Borealis represents some form of electric discharge; if so, why stumble at  the sound. Most electric discharges  are accompanied by a sound, from the  St. Elmo's fire to which Dr. Humphreys refers, to the clap of thunder  with which we are all familiar.  C. A. Pope, of Victoria, says he lived for some years at Deloraine, Manitoba, and while there he and others  heard it quite often.   He was surprised 31  to learn that the phenomenon was ever questioned.  If some of our scientists would leave  their books and get out onto the plains  of Manitoba where they would have a  chance to hear this sound, they, with  the help of the telephone and the  microphone, might in a short time be  able to tell us more than we know now  of the nature and cause of the Aurora  Borealis.  Some Place Names  L.   NORRIS  Blue Springs. The postoffice at this  place was opened on the 1st October,  1892 with Alexander McDonell as postmaster, and closed on the 1st February,  1896 at which time Alexander McDonell was still postmaster.  When the writer saw the spring on  the side of the road in 1884 it was several feet across and several feet deep  and the water which was clear as  crystal, was tinted a beautiful emerald  blue. It was impossible to say whether  the colouring matter was in the water  or had been deposited by time on the  bottom and sides. A close analysis  of the water even now might disclose  what it was that coloured it. In recent years the little basin which the  spring had formed was destroyed, and  the water is now brought down to the  road in a small trough which empties  into a large horse trough on the side  of the road. There is now no suggestion of any blue colour to be seen in  the water; but anyone seeing the  spring as it was in 1884 would know at  once why the place came to be known  as Blue  Springs.  Creighton Valley. The postoffice at  this place was opened on the 1st  March, 1897 with W. H. Phillips as  postmaster who was followed in turn  by H. Hutchinson on the 1st June,  1902, A. Barb on the 1st May, 1905 and  J. F. Wilson on the 1st July, 1905 who  remained in charge of it until it was  closed on the 1st June, 1917. Creighton Valley was named after John  Creighton, the first settler there.  John Creighton was unmistably  Irish. He was an old British soldier  who had fought in the Crimean war  and served through the Indian mutiny, and was in receipt of a pension  from the British government. He came  into the Valley in 1884, and after recording several different pieces of land  he pre-empted on the 4th October,  1889 what is known as Lot 142 and  this is the land he held as a pre-emption claim when he died on the 10th  July, 1890. The "Inland Sentinel"  published in Kamloops, refers to his  death in its issue of the 19th July,  1890: "Vernon has lost one of its old  pioneers in the death of John Creighton. He had been ailing for some time.  He had many friends in the community, and will be greatly missed." His  death was not registered.  He was a fine man in many ways.  He had his own soldier's code of  honour which he lived up to strictly  and was always ready to do a kind  act to assist a neighbor, and despite  his rather peppery temper was well  liked by his acquaintances. He played  skillfully on the flute and was always  ready to play when asked, and on  many an evening the crowd in the  bar-room of the Victoria Hotel was  kept quiet and decorous by the music  he discoursed. In this connection Jack  sometimes told a story on himself. It  was while he was still a soldier. The  Colonel of his regiment had sent for  him and ordered him to play. Under  the particular circumstances Jack considered it an imposition and was angry.  The result was that as long as he  was in the Colonel's presence he played only one tune, over and over, and  that tune went to the words:  Go to the devil and shake yourself  And when you come home behave  yourself.  "That," Jack used to say, "Cost me  ten days in the guard house."  It was in the bar-room of the old  Vernon Hotel one Sunday morning in  June 1887. George Warren who was  in charge of the hotel had gone off to  Spallumcheen and left Jack Creighton 32  in charge. The bar-rooms in those  days were kept open all Sunday, and  all Sunday night for that matter. The  usual crowd was sitting around smoking and chatting when a highly-respected resident of Priest's Valley entered and looking around inquired  "Where's Warren?" and then Jack  spoke up, "George Warren," he said,  "has gone to Spillymechane and he  left rnj_JLa charge, and he tould me to  give'credit\@to anyone, and nayther I  wunt." The aforesaid highly respected citizen flushed up—he was not looking for credit at the bar, he was looking for George Warren—but knowing  with whom he had to deal he went  out without saying anything, and that  evening a friend was able to assure  George Warren in the Lansdowne Hotel that he need not worry over what  was going on in Vernon; that the man  he had left in charge would obey orders.  Jack Creighton was not a fighting  man, he was not big enough for that,  but he had a tongue to be dreaded. He  could raise a blister in fewer words  than any of them.  George Warren was a nephew of  Capt. J. D. Warren of Victoria, who  with J. and A. Boscowitz at one time  owned the S. S. Sardonyx which at  one time ran between Victoria and San  Francisco. George Warren was purser on the Sardonyx until his health  failed, and he came to the Okanagan  Valley. During the winter of 1886-7  he lived at the Coldstream ranch  Creighton's estate was sworn under  $300.00 and W. Dewdney, the Government Agent was appointed administrator. After Dewdney's death the  estate was taken over by F. J. Fulton  of Kamloops who wrote a letter to  Moses Lumby who was then Government Agent at Vernon, in which he  said there would probably be a residue  sufficient to erect a stone at the grave,  and asking to be advised as to what  would be a suitable epitaph to have  engraved on the stone. Lumby knew  nothing about Creighton and handed  the letter over to the Provincial Constable who suggested the following:  Sacred to the memory  of  John Creighton  A brave British Soldier  Who fought in the battles of  Inkerman  Balaklava  and  Alma  And served through the  Indian Mutiny  Cannon to right of him  Cannon to left of him  Cannon in front of him  Volleyed and  thundered.  Stormed at with shot and shell  Boldly he fought and well  Now he's dead and gone to; well  Of such is the kingdom of heaven  Requiescat in pace  Good old  Jack Creighton  The suggestion was stupid and unseemly, nor was any stone erected at  the grave.  John Creighton while he lived in  this Valley bore a name unsullied by  any dishonourable act, and he had to  his credit a whole life spent directly  in the service of his country, upholding its honour on many a battlefield—  a splendid record—and it is gratifying  to us to know that his name will be  perpetuated in Creighton Valley.  Otherwise he, like many another good  man who had served his country well  and faithfully, would soon be forgotten—buried in a grave unmarked by  any monumental stone, his only epitaph the passing jest of a vacant and  irreverent mind.  Monashee. Do any of our members  know where this name came from and  what it means? The range of mountains west of the Arrow Lakes and the  Columbia River has heretofore been  called the Gold Range and this is the  name given it by Dr. Dawson in his  report of 1877. The term, Monashee,  was, locally, usually applied to the  mountain to the north of the mineral  claims staked by Mclntyre and Riske.  The Geographic Board of Canada has  however, re-named this range, and it  is now officially known as the "Monashee Mountains," and is shewn as such  on the map accompanying their sixteenth report, issued in 1919. 33  Robson and Begbie  L.   NORRIS  In November 1862, Judge Begbie, later Sir Matthew Baillie Begbie, was  judge of the Supreme Court of British  Columbia, and John Robson, later Hon.  John Robson, Premier of British Columbia, was publishing a newspaper  called the "British Columbian" at New  Westminster which was then the capital of the Colony.  On Wednesday, Nov. 26th, 1863, the  following letter appeared in the British  Columbian:  "Sir: There is an old proverb about  closing the stable door, etc., its verification may be seen in the late circular  issued by the Government. I know,  the Magistrates know, the public know,  that a constable in Elwyn's office was  working two claims during his term of  office, and that he only held his position while the success of those claims  was doubtful. Others in that office  held not alone one claim, but many;  and it is said the virtuous Elwyn  will look upon this circular as a most  precious vehicle of resignation.  That the Chief Justice signed the  cheque assuring Ttavis of his pay is  well known, and as there are more  ways of killing a cat, etc., why it is  just possible that His Honour may receive dividends without purchasing a  certificate.  What is the difference between a  good mining claim and a desirable  pre-emption claim.  If Judge Begbie could accept twenty  acres of land from Dud Moreland, and  if the said Moreland could on appeal,  to the said Judge, procure a certificate  of improvement in opposition to the  will of the resident Magistrate, why he,  the said Judge, can hold a claim, or  twenty, and feel no qualms of conscience withal. The fact is, sir, that  much of the action of official residents  in Cariboo, was a burlesque on the  majesty of British law. Constables  whose poverty was conspicuous previous to their entering Cariboo, could  on a merely nominal salary venture on  an outlay of risk from which prudent  men of means would shrink. The  superior of these men, so far from discountenancing, set the example of  venality.   Thus officers   and   officials  became creatures of interests and tha  instruments of all who had prospects  to offer in exchange. I blame not the  needy for this, but the Government  who appointed and sustained them.  There are men in this Colony, and in  the Magisterial corps too, above reproach. It is the interest of every executive to appoint such men, with salaries at least approximating their necessities. Let the officers of these men  be men of character also, and let us  hear no more of needy spendthrifts  being placed in positions of responsibility merely to make a raise. I cannot conclude this without advertising  to the most abortive efforts of the  Chief Justice and the Magisterial corps  of Cariboo in the matter of gambling. The chink, chink of the gambling  table—the curses of its devotees—nay  even the dead victims of its fury, told  with startling vividness its horrors.  Yet no hand arrested its course, no official power denounced its presence.  It may be proper, it is surely easy, to  scathe a poor wretch on whom the  verdict of 'guilty' has just fallen; but  it would cause us to see in our Chief  Justice a nearer approach to the fearless dignity of the British Bench, did  he arrest the vitality of crime by the  destruction of its cause.  (Sgd.) "A"  New Westminster, Nov. 7th, 1863."  The Assizes were due to open on  Monday the 31st, and if Robson held  the letter over and published it on the  eve of the opening of the Assizes,  thinking some results would thereby  follow its publication, he was not mistaken for the Judge had him hailed Into court and sent him to Jail..  The Judge's explanation of how he  came to own the land, is rather involved—Robson in his paper called it a  rigmarole — but he made one point  quite clear, viz., that he had not received the land as a gift, but had  bought it from a man named Cox, and  that he paid ten shillings per acre for  it Such being the case, the letter was  clearly false and libelous, and Robson  was properly punished.  From the newspaper reports, it is  not quite clear exactly what happened  in Court   on   Tuesday   morning,    the 34  morning on which Robson was sent to  jail, but whatever it was it had the effect of thoroughly arousing the people  of New Westminster, and that night  the largest public meeting that had ever been held in the city, was held in  the fire hall, at which many speeches  were made, all denouncing the Judge  and upholding Robson, and a committee of the more responsible citizens was  appointed to bring the matter to the  attention of the Home Government  and have it investigated.  The committee consisted of H. Hold-  brook, W. E. Ccrmack, J. A. R. Homer,  R. Coxon, P. Smith, John Ramage and  W. J. Armstrong. The last named was  later Hon. W. J. Armstrong, Provincial  Secretary, and is the father of Mrs.  (Dr.) Morris, now living in Vernon.  Robson was sent to jail on Tuesday  morning and on the following Friday  morning he appeared in Court and  submitted the following apology and  was discharged.  "May it please your Lordship:  "The communication signed 'A'  which appeared in the British Columbian of the 26th ultimo, was published in the .ordinary course of business, and was only cursorily glanced  —over by me before it was handed to  the compositor, and I was not aware  that anything it contained could be  construed into contempt of Court,  otherwise it would not have been inserted in that paper.  Your Lordship stated on the Bench  that you paid ten shillings per acre  for the land which the communication  implied you accepted as a gift; consequently the communication contained a statement not warranted by facts;  and I have to express my regret and  offer my apology for allowing such  statement to be published in the said  British Columbian newspaper. I am,  My Lord,  Your Lordship's humble servant,  JOHN ROBSON.  New Westminster Jail, Dec. 5th, 1862."  The people of New Westminster were  inclined to look upon Robson as something of a martyr; and he seems to  have rather stressed what he had to  suffer while he was locked up. The  first paragraph of his famous editorial  "A Voice from the Dungeon" reads  thus :  "Fellow   Colonists:   We   greet   you  from our dungeon. Startled by the  wild shrieks of a dying maniac on the  one hand and the clanking of the  murderer's chains on the other, while  the foul and scant atmosphere of our  cell, loaded with noxious effluvia from  the filthy dens occupied by lunatics,  renders life almost intolerable. Our  readers will overlook any incoherency  or want of connected thought in our  writings."  When this fuss blew over the sky remained clear for a few days, but not  for long, for on the 13th December, the  two following letters were printed in  the British Columbian:  "Dear Sir: I hope you will pardon my  presumption in appearing in your columns. I feel it a duty I owe to the  freedom of speech and the liberty of  the press to raise my voice and wield  my pen against the shackles of one  and the gag of the other and use both  against trickery, jobbery and highhanded tyranny, let it be found either  among the humbler classes or those in  authority. This much then is my excuse for appearing before your readers; and I at once ask the question:  have aliens the right to preempt land and purchase and sell  the same? I answer; no they have  no such right according to the Preemption Consolidation Act 1861, clause  3. What grounds had O'Reilly to refuse giving a certificate of improvements to Cox and Wade? I answer  two. First they being aliens and consequently could not hold land, and secondly the piece of land in question  being a site of a proposed town (see  the 3rd clause). Who was the pre-  emptor of said piece of land? Dud  Moreland. Had he a right to sell that  land to Cox and Wade? No. He being an alien could not pre-empt land,  and second having no certificate of  improvements could not sell according  to clause 15, viz., 'No interest in any  plot of land shall be capable of passing to a purchaser unless the vendor  shall have such certificate of improvement as aforesaid.' Did Moreland sell  that land to Cox and Wade? He did.  Did Cox and Wade sell twenty-two  acres to Judge Begbie, he setting his  own price? They did. Had they a  legal right to that land? No. Did  they get a title? The did. By what  law did they get that title? I cannot find any law giving them a right  to such title.   By whose authority did 35  they obtain a title? By the order of  Judge Begbie to Mr. O'Reilly. Who is  Judge Begbie? He is the Supreme  Judge of the law courts of British  Columbia sent out here with authority  of the Queen to administer laws in  righteousness and mercy, and to uphold the dignity of the Bench; in a  word to enforce and defend the law,  striking terror into the hearts of all  evil-doers, and commanding the universal praise of all those who do well.  Has he answered that end? No. He  has palpably failed.  Libertas.  New Westminster, Dec. 12th, 1862."  "Sir: The paragraph in my former  letter (and for the publicaton of  which you were sent into prison)  was the result of a conversation  held with one of the principals  therein mentioned. I met Moreland at  Williams Lake, who complained to me  of the Colonist accusing him of parcelling out his land at Cottonwood into town lots and disposing of it as  such. He further stated that while he  had not sold any portion of his land,  he had given twenty acres of it to  Judge Begbie. Knowing that the land  was valuable because of its position as  a possible townsite, I remarked, "For  Government purposes I presume?"  "No," he said, "For his own personal  use." I then said, "Is this the land  for which O'Reilly refused a certificate, but which was subsequently  granted on appeal to Begbie?" "Certainly," was the answer, "and I intend  to sue O'Reilly for damages when  Begbie comes down." The matter of  this conversation was repeated and re-  repeated by Moreland who seemed to  look upon the alleged transaction as  nothing more than a kindness worthily bestowed and gratefully accepted.  The antecedents of our Chief Justice  had prepared me for your imprisonment. My only surprise is that he  ended there. But Sir, the monsters  of society have their uses, and the  man who dared in a British Colony,  to consign an innocent publisher to  prison will be the synonym of Jeffries  in malice and of Bomba in infamy.  The age of fossilism is past.  (Sgd.) 'A"  New Westminster, Dec. 12th, 1862."  After the publication of these two letters there was but one of two courses open to Begbie—either to send Robson to  jail or resign. But he did neither, and  Robson rejoicing in his liberty proceed straightway to take it out of the  Judge. For months afterwards the  British Columbian reeked with invective directed against him. The public was told that the Supreme Court  was foul and required cleansing, that  the offense of contempt of this Court  was no longer possible, and that the  dismissal of Begbie was a sine qua  non. It also said that the Judge bore  on his forehead the brand AN UNJUST JUDGE which could NEVER be  erased, and that Begbie could never  regain the confidence of the people.  In fact, there was little a newspaper  could say against a Judge which the  British Columbian did not say against  Begbie, and say with variations.  The law as it then stood permitted  a pre-emptor once he obtained his  certificate of improvement, to sell his  land, and the Crown Grant would  then be issued to the purchaser.  It seems only too clear that in this  case the Judge was guilty of a grave  dereliction of duty. It was a grave  offence against decency and the duty  of a Judge to be interested in the  land in any way either by gift or purchase, when questions relating to the  title to it were before him in  his capacity of Judge. His decision  too when it was handed down, was a  decision which, prima facie, would be  hard to justify. Moreover, the Government did not pay him his salary to  enable him to visit the cabins of  pre-emptors whose title to their land  was of doubtful validity, and thus put  himself in the way of being offered  land for nothing, or next to nothing.  He was not paid for that.  On the 28th March, 1863, the British  Columbian contained the following  item of news: "Judicial Chickamen—  The Str. Flying Dutchman, arrived  Sunday, bringing 60 passengers among  who was ex-Gold Commissioner Elwyn  who, dame rumor saith, has in charge  $8,000.00 being the winter proceeds of  Judge Begbie's share in the Barker  claim. We would advise Judge Begbie to follow Mr. Elwyn's example and  become  an  'honest'  miner."  This is the Mr. Elwyn mentioned in  the first letter signed "A." He was  Gold Commissioner in Cariboo, and  when the circular (letter) also mentioned in the    same    communication, 36.  was issued, it left him the alternative  of either giving up his interests in the  mines or resigning his office. He resigned, and he is here held up as an  example worthy of emulation by the  Judge.  Things in the Colony must have  been in a bad way when their only  Judge had sunk so low that he was  unable to pervent attacks of this sort  from being made on him in the  public press. Fortunately, at the time,  the men in the Colony were, with a  few exceptions, a particularly decent,  law-abiding, fine lot of men.  Under it all Begbie took no action  and entered no word of protest, nor  did any of his friends take up the cudgels on his behalf until Dud Moreland  rushed to his rescue with the following letter which was printed in the  Victora Colonist on the 17th March,  1863:  "Editor, British Colonist:  Sir: In your number of the 9th instant, I observed an article accusing  me of bribing Judge Begbie and of  Judge Begbie receiving said bribe.  This I declare to be false. Judge Begbie came to my house prior to my applying for a certificate.    My   partner  and myself of our own free will gave  Judge Begbie twenty acres of land on  Cottonwood River which land was  suitable for the purpose he required  of it. Six weeks after the gift I applied to Judge O'Reilly (not Judge  Begbie) for a certificate for my farm;  he refused it on the grounds that he  thought the Government intended to  reserve the land. On the law being  made clear to him he immediately  granted the certificate. I send this for  the purpose of clearing Judge Begbie  from all accusations on that score. I  have a perfect right to give Judge Begbie or any other person, any part of  my property in British Columbia when  I see fit to do so.  (Sgd.)   D. C. Moreland.  Cottonwood, Dec. 26th, 1862."  Agnes C. Laut in her book, "The  Cariboo Trail," has this to say of Begbie: "In private life he was fond of  music, art and literature; but in public life he was autocratic as a czar and  sternly righteous as  a prophet."  It would be interesting to hear from  the prophets, and have their opinion.  He may have been a man of an autocratic and imperious temper, but in  this case he seems to have taken his  licking lying down.  Editorial Notes  J. C. AGNEW, C. E.  Several minor errors inadvertenly  crept into our last Report whicji we  now hasten to correct: The Bay in  Long Lake is Cosens Bay, no "Cousin's  Bay." C. D. Simms did not arrive in  the Valley until 1887, and Myncaster  station is on the Great Northern Railway and not on the Kettle Valley Ry.  Also in the fourth line from the bottom of the article on the Cherry Creek  Mines, the word is "registered," not  "incorporated."  The iron safe brought into Rock  Creek by W. G. Cox in 1860 was quite  a modern affair. It had at one time  a dial and a cross-bar handle for  shooting the bolts. The body of the  safe is 2 ft., 9 in. high and it stood on  castors which, with the feet in which  they were set, raised it another 7 in.  In width it is 2 ft., 6 in. by 2 ft., 1 in.  deep. They must have lost the combination at one time for the dial and  handle were knocked off, and a hasp  and staple riveted on so that it could  be fastened with a padlock. The  hasp has since been knocked off. The  frame is constructed of iron bars about  three and a half inches wide by about  5-8 of an inch thick. The outer walls  and lining are of thin sheet iron, and  the space between of about 4 in. is  filled with some sort of morter or  cement, white and friable. The last  time they gained access to the interior  of it, they evidently threw it down and  pounded a hole through the bottom  with a sledge hammer, which was  probably not hard to do owing to the  thinness of the iron sheets. As a  burglar-proof safe it was a joke. It  is now lying on the upper Keremeos  townsite. 37  Through the kindness of John Hosie,  Provincial Librarian and Archivist,  we have been furnished with a certified copy of the diary kept by James  Douglas, while he was building the  first fort at Victoria, with explanatory  notes attached. It is a curious and  interesting document and well worth  perusal. The copy has been filed with  our Secretary, and may be seen by  anyone interested in such things, at  any time.  In   our   last   Report mention    was  made of a movement to have the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of  Canada, erect a monument to commemorate the establishment of the  great trade route through the Okanagan Valley from the Columbia River  to the far north. The project has not  been dropped. Unfortunately we encountered a difficutly we did not foresee, and until this difficutly is overcome the matter will have to rest In  abeyance.  THE   END  The Armstrong Advertiser Press L___  'ĢC-^  


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