Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Third annual report of the Okanagan Historical and Natural History Society Okanagan Historical Society May 31, 1975

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 R.N. (Reg) Atkinson Museum  785 Main Street  Penticton, B.C.                            THIRD  Annual Report  OF THE                                                                          Okanagan Historical and  Natural History Society  VERNON, RC.  Second Printing May 1975    9th September, 1929                         1    Price $1.00    R. N. (Reg) Atkinson Museum   785 MAIN STREET                                        PENTICTON, B.C.    V2A5E3 'Ñ¢n Page  Col.  Line  19  2  24  24  1  3  28  1  7  28  2  8  28  2  63  32  2  35  Okanagan Historical  and Natural History Society  Honorary President President  Price Ellison Leonard Norris  First Vice-Pres. Second Vice-Pres  Charles D. Simms F. M. Buckland  Editor Sec.-Treas.  James C. Agnew Max H. Ruhmann  Councillors  M. S. Middleton, Allan Brooks, George N. Gartrell,  Thos. G. Norris, Joseph Brent, John W. S. Logie,  G.   C.   Tassie,   Donald   Graham,   P.   B.   Willits,  H. M. Walker  Honorary Members  Allison, Mrs. S. L., Vancouver, B.C.  Anderson, J. R., Victoria, B.C.  ERRATA  Should  read   "triumphs  and  tragedies"  not  "triumphs  of tragedies."  The word is "talus" not "talis."  The word is "course" not "source."  The word is "psychology" not "physhology."  Should be "dates" not "dated."  This line  should  read;   "Princeton)   as,  Prince  town,  although" and not as printed. N  ames  of Members  Agnew, James C, Vernon  Andrews, George  M.,  Enderby  Ballard, A. A., Kelowna  Barnes, F. H., Enderby  Barnes, Stanley, Vernon  Barton, R. A., Penticton  Bentley,  N., Summerland  Bernie', L. Y., Medicine Hat  Berry, A. E., Vernon  Beddome, J.  B., Vernon  Billings, Aubrey, Vancouver  Bloom, C. D., Lumby  Blurton, H., Mara  Bonneau, Casimir, Lumby  Brent,  William,  Vernon  Brent, Joseph,  Sheep Creek  Brown, N. R., Vernon  Buckland, F. M., Kelowna  Buckland, J. H., Kelowna  Buckland, C. W., Kelowna  Butters, T. H., Lumby  Bulman, T., Vernon  Butler, E. R., Summerland  Bucknell, E.  R., Vernon  Bagnall, Guy, G. P., Vernon  Campbell, Bert. R., Kamloops  Campbell, John, Vernon  Campbell, H. B., Vernon  Carswell,   Robert,   Kamloops  Cameron, J. D., Salmon Arm  Catt, H. C, Lumby  Cayley, S. H., Vancouver  Chapman,   David,   Kelowna  Chisholm, R. ]., Lumby  Connor, Mrs. H., Penticton  Collett, H. C. S., Kelowna  Cooper, Frederick,  Vernon  Copeland, R. A., Lumby  Costerton, C. F., Vernon  Crease, Mrs., H. H., Summerl'd.  Cathcart, H., Victoria  Carmichael,  Duncan, Fairview  Cochrane,  Maurice, Vernon  Coltart, R. J., Enderby  Cryderman, Carlos R., Vernon  Dalgleish, R. L., Kelowna  Davis, F.  G.,  Kelowna  Denison, R. H., Vernon  Dobie, George, Vernon  Downing, W. G., Vernon  Dryden, W. M., Summerland  Earle, R. R., Vernon  Earle, H., Oliver  Eastham, J. W., Vancouver  Edwards, J. G., Vernon  Estabrooks, O. L., Penticton  Evans, Mrs., Lumby  Fenton, Miss A., Enderby  Fifer, A. J., Armstrong  Finlaison, Fred'k., Shuswap Falls  Finlayson, P. R., Vernon  Fitzmaurice, R., Vernon  Fraser, Finley, Keremeos  French, J. G., Vernon  French, P. E., Vernon  Frazan, R., Kelowna  Ford, Aaron, Armstrong  Fulton, Clarence, Vernon  Caesar, N. H., Okanagan Centre  Galbraith, Horace W., Vernon  Galbraith, J. S., Vernon  Gaube, Otto,  Penticton  Gardom, Basil, Lake Louise  Gartrell, George N. Summerland  Granger, M. E., Vancouver  Grant, Adam, Vernon  Graham,   Donald,   Armstrong  Graham, T.,  Vernon  Giles, A. Waring, Vernon  Godfrey, A. B., Vernon  Goodfellow,   Rev.  ].,  Princeton  Goldie, James,  Ok.  Centre  Goulding, G. C, Regina  Greenhowe, Mrs. E., Los Angeles  Harmon, T.,  Vernon  Hall, J. Z., Armstrong Harvey, Oliver, Vancouver  Hayes,  W.   H.,  Summerland  Hamilton, Mrs. S. H., Vernon  Hayman, L.  A.,  Kelowna  Hayhurst,  William,  Armstrong  Harding,   Henry,   Armstrong  Hedley, E. L., Nelson  Heggie, Hugh, Vernon  Heighway, J., Lumby  Helmer, R. H., Nicola  Henderson, J. A., Oyama  Hey, Leonard, Vernon  Herbert, Gordon D., Vernon  Hill,  Mrs. Wallace, Kelowna  Hogg, K. S., Vancouver  Hopping,  Ralph,  Vernon  Hopping, George, Vernon  Hopkins, James, Armstrong  Howes, A. E., Princeton  Irvine, Dr. W. H., Oyama  Jameson,  J.  E.,  Armstrong  Jackson,  Walter,  Lumby  Jacques, F. B., Vernon  Johnson, Mrs. Cecil, Vernon  Johnson, Mrs. G. A., Courtney  Jones, J. W., Kelowna  Keary, W. H., New Westminster  Kempton, A. F., Vernon  Kennard, H. B., Ok. Centre  Kennedy, W. F., Vernon  Kerr, James, Penticton  Kerr, Robert, Midway  Kenyon, Mrs. A., Ewing's Ldg.  Kearns, C. F., Salmon Arm  Knowles, W. R., Lumby  Kruger, Mrs. C, Meyers Flat  Lang,  Hamilton,  Vernon  Lang, A. H., Vernon  Lang,   Grant,   Peachland  Langstaff, J. J., Vernon  Larsen, S. T., Victoria  Leishman, Andrew, Vernon  Lee, H., Lumby  Leathley, J., Kelowna  Lewers, R., Kelowna  Logie, J. L., Okanagan Centre  Logie, J. W. S., Summerland  Lloyd-Jones,  David,  Kelowna  Lloyd,  Miss M. H., Oyama  Lord, A. R., Kelowna  Loyd, A.  K.,  Rutland  McAuley, Alexander, Kamloops  MacDonald,  S.  A.,  Summerland  Macdonald, J. C. Victoria  McCaw,  R.  D., Victoria  McDonald, Miles, Armstrong  A4cKenzie, W. G., Vernon  McKelvie,  Bruce, Victoria  McCluskey, J. W., Vernon  McKay,  John,  Enderby  McKenzie,  Mrs.   A.,  Vancouver  McGinnes,  E.   O.,  Kelowna  "Mangott, Stephen, Fairview  Matheson,   Kenneth,   Armstrong  Middleton, M. S., Vernon  Milne,  Miss H.  E.,  Victoria  Mills, Harry, Kelowna  Morgan,   Granville,   Summerl'd.  Morand, Mrs. Louis, Lumby  Morkill,   G.   H.,  Vernon  Morley,   William,  Vernon  Mowat, J. J.,  Vernon  Mutrie, James T., Vernon  Murray,   Frederick,   Armstrong  Nalder, R. L., Kelowna  Napier, R. Ross, Victoria  Neil, R. W., Vernon  Norris, Tomas A., Lumby  Norris, T.  G.,  Kelowna  Norris, L., Vernon  O'Keefe, Frederick, Vernon  Ormsby, Miss M. A., Vernon  Owen, Walter, Vancouver  Paradis,  Miss J., Summerland  Parks, J. Z., Armstrong  Patten, L. W., Armstrong  Patterson,   George,   Kelowna  Pierce, W., Calgary  Perry, Mrs. R. R. Armstrong  Pope, C. A., Victoria  Postill, A. L., Nelson  Postill, Mrs. E., Vancouver Pound, Rev. A. N. C, Lillooet  Pound,  W.  C,  Vernon  Pout,   Henry,   Vernon  Pringle,  J.  F.,  Lacombe  Powley,  W.  R., Winfield  Quebec, Morris, Saskatoon  Richards, Mrs. Leonard, Vernon  Ricardo,  W. C, Vernon  Rogers, A., Vernon  Robinson, J. M., Naramata  Rosoman,  Graham,  Enderby  Robertson, Thomas, Vernon  Robertson, W. H., Victoria  Robison,  Miss P.,  Vernon  Roland, C. F., Winnipeg  Rolston,  F.  W., Vernon  Ruhmann, M. H., Vernon  Ryan, A., London  Sage, A. E., Armstrong  Saucier, Mrs. J., Kelowna  Shields, W. J., Lumby  Simms,   C.   D.,  Vernon  Simms, J. D., Verno n  Schubert, James A., Princeton  Schubert,   Augustus,   Armstrong  Simmons, John F., Vernon  Simonin, Leo, Kelowna  Seymour, S. P., Vernon  Small,   Miss   Byrde,   Kelowna  Smith,  W.,  Vernon  Smith, Miss S., Ok. Mission  Smith,  T.  K., Armstrong  Spencer, Frank,  Vernon  Spinks, W.  Ward, Victoria  Stark, Adam, Summerland  Stewart, L. L., Vernon  Sutherland, D. W., Kelowna  Swanson, J. D., Kamloops  Svenson, Miss, Kelowna  Tait,  John,  Summerland  Tassie, G. G., Vernon  Taylor,   David,   Princeton  Toombs, H., Vernon  Tuck,  D.  C, Vernon  Walker, H. M., Enderby  Watkin, J. H., Vernon  Webster, A. E., Kelowna  Webster, J. L., Vernon  Weddell, E. C, Kelowna  White, J. L., Victoria  Whitham, J. D., Kelowna  Whillis,   R.,  Kelowna  Wilson, W. S., Vernon  Willits, P. B., Kelowna  Wilcox, J. C, Salmon Arm  Wilson,  John,  Armstrong  Wollaston, F.  E. R., Vernon  Woods, George, Vernon  Woods, Mrs. Angus, Lumby  Woolsey, A.  G., Vernon  Verrall, H. C. H., Vancouver Early Days at Osoyoos  MRS.   CHRESTENZA   KRUGER  When my husband the late Theodore Kruger, and I first came to Osoyoos we were always taken for Germans, I suppose on account of the  name, but as a matter of fact neither  of us ever owed allegiance to any  German potentate or State. Mr. Kruger was born in 18 29 in Hanover,  while it still belonged to the British  Crown: In later years in order to  have his status authoritatively settled, he made application for naturalization in the regular manner. When  the application came up for hearing  before Judge Begbie, the Judge decided that Mr. Kruger was then, and  had always been, a British Subject.  I was born in Schelswig-Holstein  in 1857 while it still belonged to  Denmark. My father was a bookbinder and publisher in rather a  large way, and he, rather than  change his allegiance, sold out and  went to Denmark. Two of my sisters  to save their property took the oath  of allegiance to the Germans, but I  never did.  Mr. Kruger came to British Columbia in 1858, and on his arrival he  secured two large war canoes from  the Indians and engaged in transporting freight and passengers from  Victoria to the Fraser River. The  next year he sold out and engaged in  mining on the Fraser River, and the  next year, 1860, he was mining in  Cariboo. From that date until 1866  he was variously engaged. For a  while he was mining at Boston Bar  on the Fraser and later on he mined  for a while on the Similkameen, and  finally opened a store at Princeton.  In 1866 he was hired by the Hudson's  Bay Company to manage their store  at Osoyoos. Roderick Finlaison was  then Chief Factor at Victoria. In  1871 he was transferred to Kamloops and the following year the Company sold their stores at Osoyoos,  Colville, Kootenay and Keremeos.  Barrington Price bought the store at  Osoyoos, and the following year,  1873, Mr. Kruger bought it from him.  That was the year we were married.  We were married in the old Driard  Hotel in Victoria, now the David  Spencer Departmental Stores. I was  then only sixteen.  My husband and I spent many  happy days at Osoyoos. It is a pretty  place and I always liked it. The people in the country were always neighborly and friendly and loyal to their  friends, and the time passed happily  with us. There was always enough  going forward to keep one interested  in the affairs of the country and if  our mail only arrived at long intervals it was all the more appreciated  Avhen it did arrive.  The first Customs House at Osoyoos was built in 1861 and was situated at the north end of Osoyoos  Lake on the west side. The situation  was not very suitable however and  it was moved onto the bench about  half a mile west of where the building stands, which is now used as a  school. J. C. Haynes was the Collector of Customs and his letters  which are on file in the Archives in  Victoria show that he called for tenders for the work of moving the building. There were two bids, one made  by James Sauser for $800.00 and one  by S. T. Marshall for $750.00. On the  14th May, 1865, Marshall's tender  was accepted and by the 25th Sept.  1865, the work was completed and  the contractor paid off.  Our house and store stood on the  Lake shore near where the Government Bridge now stands. One day in  April, 1878, we noticed the Customs  House on fire. Mr. Kruger jumped  on a horse and galloped over to assist, and arrived just about the time  when the Haynes family became  aware of the fire. The iron safe  which Cox brought into Rock Creek  in 1860 was in the house and Haynes  was much concerned about it as it  held a lot of money and all his valuable papers. The safe weighed about  1200 lbs., but my husband soon solved the problem. He was a big man  standing over six feet and weighed  about 290 lbs., and so crash, crash,  crash, he tumbled the safe end over  end out through the door to a place  of safety. Fortunately the joists and  flooring held. The same summer  Haynes built a house for himself  which is still standing on the east  side of the Lake about a mile and a  half south of the Government Bridge. Mr. Haynes lived in this house until  his death in 1888, and the Customs  Office was in one room of the house.  In 1883 there was trouble on the  American side with the Nez Perces  Indians, and General Sherman was  sent in with a troop of cavalry to  quell any disturbance which might  arise and also to report on conditions  in the country. The U. S. Government had in mind at one time the  erection of a fort at Oroville. Their  Headquarters were at or near Okanagan Smith's ranch south of the  boundary line, and while they were  there we saw a good deal of the General and his staff at our place. Bishop Sillitoe of New Westminster also  visited Osoyoos about this time, and  one Sunday evening he held service  at the General's Headquarters. There  was no building in which to hold the  service so the soldiers constructed a  sort of booth with the branches of  trees (and an altar) the entrance to  which was an arch, and for seats they  had long rows of sacks of oats. I  shall never forget that service. It  was a calm clear evening in August.  While the bishop read the Church of  England Service the soldiers, about  250 of them, stood reverently grouped around the booth. They joined in  the singing and some of them sang  beautifully and at the offertory one  of them sang a solo. It was very  beautiful and I am sure it made  an impression on all present at the  service. Advantage was taken of the  presence of the Bishop to have a  number of children baptised—twelve  in all, and among them my two boys,  Theodore and August.  General Sherman was a very modest unassuming man and permitted  a degree of familiarity on the part  of his Staff Officers which a lesser  man would perhaps have found inconvenient. Sometimes one of his  Staff would casually ask the General  for a match well knowing that he had  none, for the General did not drink  or smoke. This went on for some  time until one day he bought a box  of matches in the store, remarking  to my husband at the time "I'll be  ready for them now." Needless to  say they did not find themselves  short of matches after that. He was  greatly taken with my two boys,  Theodore was then about six months  old.  General   William   Tecumseh   Sher  man, to give him his full name was  a very gentlemanly man, very courteous and considerate of others, and  I could understand his men being so  devoted to him; but I was amazed  when he was introduced to me by one  of his Staff, to find in this world-famous General—one of the foremost  soldiers in the world—a quiet unassuming man dressed in a long straw-  coloured ulster reaching nearly to his  heels. Of course the weather was  dry and hot at the time and the roads  dusty, but he wore this old ulster  nearly all the time he was at Osoyoos.  My husband had been given as a  wedding present by a friend who  brought them out from Germany, the  portraits of Prince Bismark, Field  Marshall Von Moltke and the then  Crown Prince, the present Kaiser's  father. There was a striking resemblance between General Sherman and  the Field Marshal. The three pictures were hanging on the walls of  the sitting room when General Sherman came in. He immediately noticed them, and went on to tell how  during the Franco-Prussian war of  1870, he had been with the German  General Staff before Sedan and for a  while saw these three men almost  daily, and that they were very friendly with him. He also said that on  more than one occasion he had been  taken for the German Field Marshal  —which he certainly would not have  been had he then been wearing the  old straw-coloured duster he. wore  around Osoyoos.  He had come in from Coeur d'Alene, and from Osoyoos he went over  *he trail with an escort of about 25  men to Hope where he was met and  entertained by Andrew Onderdonk  who was then building a section of  the C. P. R. at Yale. The escort returned to Osoyoos over the trail and  the General went to Victoria from  Hope on the steamer "Western  Slope." He stayed at the Driard Hotel and after calling on Lt.-Governor  Cornwall on the 21st Aug. 1883, he  embarked at Esquimault on the U.S.  Navy vessel the "Walcott" for Port  Townsend. General Miles was on his  staff, and Judge Gray of the U. S.  Supreme Court and a Mr. Saurin, a  representative of the British Embassy at Washington, were also of  the party. Needless to say we at  Osoyoos  were   all   sorry   to   see   the s  General go.   He retired the following  year and died in 1891.  We came to live at Osoyoos in  IS73, and kept the store there until  1897. In 1887 we built the house at  the bridge. Haynes died in 1888, and  a Mr. Jones from Grand Forks was  acting Collector for one year when  my husband was appointed and remained Collector until his death in  1899. R. L. Cawston came to B. C.  in 1874 and was married in 1885.  William Peter Meyers was a German  and at one time owned the Okanagan  Smith ranch south of the boundary  line, but lost it through not being a  United States citizen. Some say  Smith took it away from him. Meyers  Flat where I am now living with my  two . sons, was called after him. I  never saw, of course, anything of the  steam boat Captain Grey, built in  1861 to run from the Columbia to  the mines on Mission Creek; it had  disappeared long before my time, but  I have often heard people speak of it  and joke about it. The old grist mill  built by Barrington Price in 1877 is  still standing at Keremeos.  One afternoon I was sitting on the  verandah of our house. Down below  at the bridge Thomas McMynn was  trying to get a pack train of some  six or seven horses to take the bridge  and was having some difficulty with  them. This was on the 28th June  1892. The Government had ordered  C. A. R. Lambly, the Mining Recorder at Camp McKinney to move his  office over to Osoyoos. There was no  road into the camp at that time and  Lambly had sent over to Meyers  Creek and got Thomas McMynn to  come with his pack horses and transport the office belongings to Osoyoos.  When they got near our place Lambly  rode on ahead and left McMynn to  follow up with the horses. My recollection of what happened is this: All  the horses took the bridge but one.  It took to the water and McMynn  rode in after it. The horse he was  riding was not well broken, and he  was using a severe bit. By some  means the reins were jerked, and the  horse throwing back its head struck  McMynn a blow on the forehead.  When the accident happened he was  quite close to the bridge and had almost crossed the ford. As soon as I  saw him slide off the horse I gave  the alarm and the men rushed down  and got him out of the water without  much delay, but he never recovered  consciousness. The blow must have  been severe for the forehead was  black and blue in death. This Thomas  McMynn was a brother of William  Graham McMynn, who was Government Agent later on at Greenwood  and Golden and at one time Superintendent of Provincial Police and is  now the Superintendent of the Okalla  Prison Farm. The two brothers came  to B. C. in 1884—Thomas from the  old home, Glenvernoch, on the river  Cree, near Newton Stewart, Scotland,  and W. G. from London, England,  where he had been employed as a  clerk with Moffatt & Co. Tea Merchants. Myncaster a station on the  K. V. Railway is called after them.  It seemed to me a terrible thing  to see the life of this bright active  young man thus snuffed out so suddenly and so casually. It brought  home to us again in a striking manner how true it is that in the midst  of life we are in death.  Lambly lived at Osoyoos until  1898 when the Government offices  were built at Fairview, when he was  moved there and lived there until his  death on the 29th Jan. 1907. He  came from Megantic, Quebec, and was  53 years old when he died.  W. H. Lowe was a Constable under  J. C. Haynes, on the Similkameen.  In 1872 he went back to Stratford,  Ontario, to be married. The day before the wedding was to have taken  place he was standing on the Railway  platform chatting to some friends  until the train started. He sprang to  catch the train, but slipped and fell  under the wheels and had both arms  taken off—one above the elbow and  one below. His fiancee to her eternal honor be it said, married him  three days afterwards, and installing  herself as nurse in the sick room,  nursed him back to health. The following year, 1873, the Government  appointed him Collector of Customs  at New Westminster which office he  held until 1880 when he was succeeded by the late J. S. Clute who has  recently died. Lowe returned to  Keremeos and died there the following year, 1881. R. L. Cawston was  his nephew.  These are some of my recollections  hastily thrown together, but want of  space forbids extending them for the  present, or even relating them as  fully as they might be. 10  The Shuswap and Okanagan Railway  Company  GEORGE  H.  MORKILL  The Canadian Pacific Railway was  completed in 1885, and on the 2nd  June, 1886 the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway Company was incorporated by an Act of the Dominion Government. The shareholders of the  Company were, J. A. Mara, James  Reid of Quesnel, Frank S. Barnard,  R. P. Rithet, Thomas Earle, J. H.  Turner, D. M. Eberts, F. G. Vernon,  Moses Lumby and Dr. E. B. Hanning-  ton.  On the 7th April, 1887 the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway Subsidy  Act was passed by the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia whereby  the Company was granted a subsidy  of $4000.00 per mile—not to exceed,  in all, $200,000.00, on condition  that the Company would build a railway from Sicamous to some point on  Okanagan Lake of the guage and  standard of the C. P. R-, the road to  be completed and in running order  within three years of the coming  into force of the Act. This Act was  brought into force by a proclamation  dated the 15th Nov. 1887 and published in the B. C. Gazette. The following year, on the 28th April, 1888,  this Subsidy Act was amended and  the time for the completion of the  road extended from three to five  years.  After the passage of these three  Acts one would naturally think that  no one would attempt to revive the  old scheme of building a canal from  Enderby to the Lake which had been  adversely reported on by the Dominion Government Engineer, Mr. Hamlin. But such was not the case. The  late Captain T. D. Shorts, the pioneer navigator on Okanagan Lake,  undeterred by this thunder-roll of  Acts of Parliament, had a notice,  dated 16th Jan. 1889 inserted in the  B. C. Gazette in which the public  was given notice that an application  would be made at the ensuing Session of the Legislature, for an Act  incorporating a Company to build  the canal. Captain Shorts asked for  no subsidy or assistance of any kind  from the Government; all he asked  for was the right to build the canal  and run boats on it with the exclusive right of levying and collecting  tolls thereon for a period of ten  years. Nothing further however was  heard  of  the  application.  On the 2nd of May of the same  year, 1889, the Dominion Government passed an Act granting a subsidy to each of 35-railways in Canada; most of them got $3200.00 per  mile and the amounts range from  $30,000.00 to $375,000.00. The S.  & O. Railway is included in the list  and is down for $3200.00 per mile—  not to exceed in all $163,000.00, the  mileage being computed at 51 miles.  On the 26th of May in the following  year, 1890, the Provincial Government passed an Act which cancelled  its two former Acts and brought into  force a tri-party agreement.  Under this three-party agreement  the S. & O. Railway was to secure  title to the right-of-way and all necessary lands and to build a railway  of the standard and guage (4 ft.,  8% in.) of the C.P.R., from Sicamous to the Lake, a computed distance of 51.3 miles; to lease the road  on completion to the C. P. Ry. for a  term of 25 years, to assign to the  Provincial Government the subsidy  of $3200.00 per mile from the Dominion Government, and to hand  over to the B. C. Government the  40 per cent, of the gross earnings of  the road which it was to receive from  the C. P. Ry. as rental. The C. P.  Ry. was to equip the road with rolling stock and operate and maintain  it for 25 years and pay to the S. &  O. Ry. 40 per cent, of the gross earn^  ings. The Government of B. C. on its  part guaranteed the payment of 4  per cent, interest on the bonds of  the road for 25 years, the amount  not to exceed $1,250,000.00 or the  actual cost of construction which  ever should be the less amount. It  was further stipulated that if the  40 per cent, of the gross earnings of 11  the road was not sufficient to meet  the interest on the bonds the deficit  was to be and remain a debt due  from the S. & O. Railway Company  to the Government until the latter  was fully recouped for everything it  paid out under the guarantee.  This Act and the agreement under it were not to come into force  until (1) both were ratified by an  Act of the Dominion Government or  (2) the S. & O. Ry. Co. put up with  the Provincial Government sufficient  security to indemnify it for any loss  sustained  under the guarantee.  Presumably the security was put  up, for the ratifying Act was not  passed until the 10th July, 1891.  In the meantime the work of construction was commenced sometime  in August, 1890, and by the 12th  May, 1892, the rails were laid  through  to Okanagan Landing.  Captain Shorts' plan for utilizing  the waterways was simple and inexpensive. He intended to dig a ditch  about a mile and a half long so as  to connect Davis Creek with O'Keefe  Creek. This would give a continuous water way from Okanagan Lake  to Enderby, and in the bed of this  water way he intended to lay a chain  from end to end and, for motive power to use a scow with a steam-  driven drum in front so arranged  that the drum would pick up and  drop the chain as it passed along.  It is very questionable whether this  was practicable, but Shorts often discussed its feasibility with his friends  in the winter of 1889.  The present railway station at  Enderby was built for and run as  a hotel by the Lambly Bros. The  Railway Co. bought it and used it  for their headquarters during the  construction of the road and it was  in this building that Mr. and Mrs.  George Riley, Mr. and Mrs. T. W.  Paterson and Mr. and Mrs. W. R.  Smith lived for about two and a  half years.  Patrick Larkin, of St. Catherine,  Ont., and T. W. Patterson had the  contract for the construction of the  road. Larkin was seldom on the  ground. Paterson was the principal  man; he was a very capable  man and knew how everything  should be done and how to do it.  It was he who had the route changed  and the bridge built over the mouth  of the lagoon at Mara Lake thereby  saving a lot of very expensive rock-  work.  The chief engineer was C. E.  Perry and under him were Mr. McKay and C. DeB. Green. The writer  was chief accountant and the two  walking bosses were George Mur-  dock and W. R. Smith. George Riley  did most of the bargaining with the  settlers for the right-of-way and usually acted as paymaster. His brother Thomas Riley, for about a year,  was stationed at Sicamous and acted  as forwarding agent.  During the construction of the  road this valley was a busy place.  The villages along the line were being built up, and building material  of all kinds was in demand. There  was lots of freight to be hauled in  from Sicamous in winter and from  Enderby in summer, consequently  horses, hay and oats were in demand, and everyone had work and  everyone had money.  For some years after the C. P. R.  took over the road there was not  much freight to haul or passengers  to carry, and the road bed was neglected and fell into disrepair. Three  times a week on Monday, Wednesday  and Friday, a freight train with a  passenger coach attached, left Sicamous and made its way to Okanagan  Landing, and the next day after the  arrival of the boat from Penticton  it retraced its course, carefully picking its way over the dilapidated  roadway to Sicamous. With a service so poor and shabby there were  many complaints, and of course comparisons were bound to be made and  people sometime wondered if they  would not have been as well off on  one of Shorts' mud scows with a  trace chain down the middle of the  creek, but with increased business  the service improved.  Although the C. P. R. did not take  over the road until 1893, their first  lease for 25 years is dated from  1890. They secured a second lease  of the road on the 1st July, 1925  for nine hundred and ninety-nine  years. Under its present lease it  guarantees interest at 4 per cent, on  all bonds outstanding against the  road and undertook to pay to the  Government of B. C. the loss the  Government sustained in guaranteeing the interest on the first bond  issue of $1,250,000.00. The deficit  amounted   to   approximately   $388,- 12  000.00. The present bonded indebtedness against the road, according  to Poor's Railroad Manuel, 1928, is  $33,000.00 per mile, or, roughly  $1,683,000.00. There are a lot of  things still to be cleared up in connection with the history of this road,  and we intend to pursue the subject  further in our next Report.  The right-of-way of the road is  registered in Kamloops in the name  of the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway Company.  The Cherry Creek Mines  MRS.  ANGUS  WOOD  In our last Report we published  a report on the mines on Cherry  Creek by Const. Wm. C. Young in  which he said that he found only  about twelve men on the creek, half  of whom were traders and all about  ready to leave. There were others  however who took a more optimistic  view of conditions on Cherry Creek  than Const. Young as witness the  following taken from the issue of  the "British Columbian" of the 21st  Nov. 1863:—  "Mr. Penny, of Lytton, came down  by the "Reliance" last night. He  has just returned from a tour of inspection through the Shuswap country. He says 'The principal mining  is on Cherry Creek, a stream about  the size of Antler Creek (in the Cariboo), which empties into Shuswap  River.' Mr. Penny showed us a prospect of $2.75 which he himself obtained from ten buckets about nine  miles above its mouth. Charles Kendall has the contract from Government for the construction of two  bridges over the Shuswap River, one  at the lower ford and one at the  upper. He is to receive the tolls for  two years when the government takes  them over at half cost. Mr. Penny  says that at least 200 men will  winter there. When he left there  was neither frost nor snow, and he  describes the country as being the  most beautiful in the colony. So  level and open is much of it that  several carriages may be driven  abreast for miles. From Savannah's  (Savona's) Ferry, 18 miles from the  Bounaparte, to within a few miles  of Cherry Creek, a distance of 150  miles, is navigable for steamers, being almost still water. Preparations  are now in progress for placing a  steamer on that route in the Spring.  Packers are wintering their animals  within  fifty miles of  the  mines,  so  mild  is the  climate."  And it appears the mines on Cherry Creek did turn out better than  one would expect after reading  Const. Young's report for the following appeared in the "British Columbian" of the 9th July, 1864: "A  gentleman engaged in the packing  business came over from the Kootenay country via Shuswap. In passing  through the Shuswap country he  called at Cherry Creek and examined the mines. There were three  Companies at work. One claim was  paying $20.00 a day to the hand—  none less than $10.00. The water  was still high and it was expected  that as it fell, richer pay would be  obtained."  It is difficult to get authentic and  accurate information as to what did  happen on Cherry Creek during the  four or five years following the discovery of gold in 1863. Sometimes  the mines appear to have yielded lots  of gold and at other times they were  almost deserted by the miners. Our  chief source of information is odd  letters and the files of old newspapers. There was no annual Report  by the Gold Commissioner, duly  printed by the Government, in those  days. The old newspapers appear to  be strangely silent as to what took  place on Cherry Creek during the  last four or five months of 1864, but  we are reasonably sure the two  bridges were not built. The first  steam boat on Shuswap Lake was  the "Martin," a boat of 100 tons  burden and 90 horse power, built  by the Hudson's Bay Company, not  for the trade between Savona's  Ferry and Shuswap Falls, but for  the trade between Savona's Ferry  and the little town of Seymour on  the  shore  of  Seymour Arm  at  the 13  end of the trail into the Big Bend  mines. She was launched on the 5th  May, 1866—the year of the Big  Bend excitement and the year A. L.  Fortune staked his ranch at Enderby.  Dr. G. M. Dawson has this to say  in his Geological Report for 1877-8  regarding the wide open spaces at  Cherry Creek which so captivated  the fancy of Mr. Penny and suggested the Roman chariot races: "Above  the mouths of Ferry and Cherry  Creeks and extending up the latter  as far as the mines, is a considerable area of flat or undulating land  the occurrence of which among the  western- mountains of the Gold  Range is rather remarkable. The  general elevation of the country is  about 2,250 feet, and much of it may  be considered as a terrace-flat at this  elevation.   Its area is probably about  twelve square miles and it may at  some time be occupied by farms notwithstanding its proximity to the  higher mountains of the range, which  may render it more liable to summer frosts than its elevation would  lead one to suppose."  The Cherry Creek Silver Mining  Co. and the Shuswap Silver Mining  Co. both had leases on Cherry Creek.  The two leases lay side by side and  were -both surveyed by P. Leech in  August or September, 1867 for the  Government. The Government charged each Company about $140.00 for  making the survey. J. A. R. Homer  of New Westminster was the Secretary or Agent for the Shuswap Silver Mining Co., but as It was apparently not incorporated we have been  unable to learn much about It. We  hope however to be able to follow it  up in our next Report.  Early Days at Enderby  ROBERT   LAMBLY  I walked into the Okanagan valley  over the Hope Trail in the Summer  of 1876 in company with the late  William Swalwell who was a cousin  of the Postill brothers. The same  year I pre-empted what is now the  site of the city of Enderby. The following year my brother Thomas  McKie Lambly sold out his bookstore in New Westminster and joined nie. In the following year, 1878,  he was appointed Assistant Commissioner of Lands and Works for the  Okanagan Polling Division in place  of Charles A. Vernon who had resigned, and in the same year we  built a large freight shed on the  river bank, part of which was boarded off and used as an office by my  brother. The lumber for the freight  shed was brought up from Kamloops  by steam boat, but the shingles were  made locally. In 1884 my brother  was appointed Chief Licence Inspector for Yale District under a Dominion Statute and resigned the offices  he held under the Provincial Government and his place was taken  by. the late Walter Dewdney.  I remember the incident of Coyote Louis very well. There had been  trouble between the American authorities   and   the   Nez   Pierces   In  dians across the line, and this had  a marked effect on the attitude of  the Indians here towards the whites;  they became restive and cheeky.  William Lloyd-Jones a brother of  David Lloyd-Jones, of Kelowna, was  sent onto the Indian Reserve at the  head of Okanagan Lake to serve a  summons on Coyote Louis for some  breach of the law. The Indians  promptly made him a prisoner and  fined him $100.00 for trespassing on  the Reserve. Lloyd-Jones had no  money and so he induced them to  accept an order for the money. He  had no pen or pencil and had to use  burnt matches. By using the charred  end of a burnt match he succeeded  in blackening and scratching the paper sufficiently to make out something that could be read as an order  on the Government Agent (T. McK.  Lambly) for $100.00, and the Indians let him go. Needless to say  the order was not honored by the  Government Agent. This incident  coupled with the general demeanor  of the Indians caused considerable  anxiety among the whites, and the  settlers assembled in some force at  O'Keefe's armed with rifles.  The Public Accounts for the year  1881-2 show that the following men 14  were paid for their services on that  occasion. These sums were all  charged to the Vote for Special Constables, and I presume these men  were all sworn in as such:  J.   Shaver   $  6.00  J. Hutchinson       3.00  W.  P.  Swalwell        3.00  Edward  Thorne        6.00  E.   M.   Furstineau         3.00  T.  McK.  Lambly     81.25  W. L. Jones    18.00  William Lawrence  ._.    6.00  Henry Seydel      3.00  Dan Nicholson        3.00  Alfred   Postill         6.00  Price   Ellison         9.00  Mat. Hutchinson       6.00  George   Parkinson         6.00  C. W.  Roberts       3.00  Louis   Bercier         6.00  They were paid at the rate of $3.00  per day for services rendered in arresting Coyote Louis.  A very distressing accident happened on Herman Witcher's ranch  near Lansdowne on Monday, 9th Oct.  1880. They were threshing wheat  and Herman Witchers got his arm  caught in the gearing of the threshing machine and torn off above the  elbow. The arm was terribly lacerated and torn, and to save his life  it was necessary to amputate the  arm above the elbow. As a lad I had  travelled around considerably with  a cousin of mine, a practicing surgeon in the east, assisting him with  his surgical cases. Consequently I  had something of a reputation as an  amateur surgeon and bone-setter,  and they sent for me and insisted  that I should undertake the operation as there was no doctor nearer  than the coast. It was a desperate  case and I had no tools but a pocket  knife and a meat saw, and even the  meat saw had to be sharpened before it could be used. By dint of  tying up everything I found that  was not muscle or flesh I succeeded  in catching up the arteries and stopping the flow of blood. The agony  which Mr. Witchers endured must  have been terrible, but he bore it  all with a stoical courage and endurance beyond praise. The operation was performed without a anaesthetic and the only ligature I  had was cotton thread, and a small  quantity of carbolic acid for an antiseptic. Despite these disadvantages  the operation was successful and Mr.  Witchei's   made  a   good   recovery.  The news of the accident spread  and soon sympathizing neighbours  flocked in. Among those present  were Henry Seydel who assib.od me  in the operation, Moses Lumby, Preston Bennett, A. L. Fortune, Henry  Emctke, George J. Wallace, William  Lawrene, Augustus Schubert Sr., E.  M. Furstineau and others whose  names I have forgotten.  About such an incident stories  were, of course, bound to be told.  One was that the men on the ranch  who had been anxiously watching  the arm began to have grave misgivings as to the outcome. They  pointed out that the arm was turning black and showed plainly that  "mortification had set in" and that  Witchers was bound to die, and in  order to test it they approached him  quietly while he was asleep and jabbed a pin into the arm to see if he  could feel anything. And when  Witchers who was a large powerful  man, sprang off the bed swearing  like a trooper and tried to brain one  of them with a chair, their hearts  were comforted. Their fears were  allayed and they knew then he would  get better.  The arm did show undue discoloration for some time owing to  the muscles being torn and displaced  and I believe a needle was used on  one occasion to test its condition, but  the rest of the story is a pure embellishment. Besides, Herman Witchers was not addicted to the use of  profane language.  There has been some discussion  as to the date of this accident, but  in the Victoria "Colonist" issued on  Sunday the 23rd Oct. 1880, there is  a letter from a correspondent in  Spallumcheen, dated 14th Oct. in  which the writer says the accident  happened on the previous Monday.  This being so and counting back the  days of the week and month it will  be found that it happened on Monday,  9th Oct.  1880.  The same correspondent makes it  quite clear that the operation saved  Mr. Witchers' life.  Aeneas Dewar, alter whom the  "Dure" meadows just east of Lavington were called, held this land as  a pre-emption claim and each Summer was engaged in packing supplies in to the miners on Cherry  Creek.   In July, 1882 my brother, T. McK. Lambly, who was then Government Agent at Enderby?, commissioned him to collect, while he was  in on the Creek, the Poll Tax from  the Chinamen there.  When he did not return from his  trip inquiries began to be made. The  first thing which aroused suspicion  that all was not right was when his  saddle horse was found. The saddle  was under the horse's belly as if it  had turned and thrown the rider:  but the saddle was cinched tight  showing plainly that it had been  placed that way purposely. At once  an organized search party was formed and a thorough search of the  camp began. It was found that he  had visited all the cabins of the  Chinamen and that the last cabin he  entered was that of Smart Aleck, a  Chinaman. While the search was going on Smart Aleck disappeared  leaving everything in his cabin just  as it was and without even stopping  to clean up his sluice boxes, a very  unusual thing for a miner to do.  John Merritt found the body buried  under Smart Aleck's cabin. Contrary  to what appeared in the newspapers  at the time, the excavation was made  from the outside and the floor of  the cabin was left undisturbed. An  examination showed there was only  one wound on the body, a terrible  wound on the back of the head evidently inflicted with an axe for the  skull was split down to the nape of  the neck. Those who were on the  spot said he had evidently been taken  unawares and attacked from behind,  probably while sitting at the table  eating a meal. The finding of the  body caused much indigna t i o n  throughout the valley and every effort was made to capture Smart  Aleck but it was then too late.  These are the particulars as I  recollect them, but the full particulars of Dewar's death will be known  only when my brother's letters and  reports to the Government are found.  He was sent in to  hold  an  inquest  15  and no doubt reported the matter  very fully to the Government. The  return he made of the inquest is not  in the office of the Attorney General  in Victoria, nor can any of his letters  be found either in Kamloops or Victoria. No doubt**they will turn up  later on.  The Public Accounts show the  Province paid the following sums to  various persons in connection with  the death of Dewar: —  For searching for the body, John  Merritt, $60.00 for 20 days, and  Richard Rowat, $39.00 for 13 days.  T. McK. Lambly for self and assistant in holding the inquest, $80.00,  and Price Ellison received $300.00  for 75 days with horse in pursuit of  Smart Aleck. The following year a  notice appeared in the B. C. Gazette,  dated 15th March, 1883, and signed  by the Provincial Secretary, John  Robson, offering a reward of $1,000  for information that would lead to  the apprehension and conviction of  the person or persons who murdered  Dewar. As far as I am aware Smart  Aleck has never been heard of since.  Another sad affair occurred when  Angus McDonald, who built the first  public school in Priest's Valley in  September, 1884, was killed on the  B X Ranch. The Kamloops "Inland  Sentinel" in its issue of the 18th  June, 1885, gives the following particulars which I presume are correct:  "We are in receipt of correspondence  from Spallumcheen giving an account  of the death of Angus McDonald, who  was well known along the Railway  and at one time employed in the  building of the steamer "Skussy."  It appears he was engaged in the  erection of a large stable on the  B X Ranch, and while engaged in  raising a log the rope broke and the  log fell back and struck poor McDonald on the head. He lived for  some hours' after but was unconscious. His home was, we believe,  in Charlotte, N. B., where his parents  still live."  The So-Called Sink-Holes at Summerland  ARTHUR  H.  LANG, M.A.  Several so-called sink-holes occur I the writer with the President of this  about  one  mile  south  of  Summer- Society, visited them in the  Spring  land.   As they have in the past at- of 1928.   After reading descriptions  tracted   considerable   local   interest, ' of them in the press what was found. 16  was disappointing. Most of the holes  are now filled up with debris and we  found only one of any considerable  depth. The orifice of this one was  sloping and funnel-shaped, gradually becoming steeper on descent, and  only about thirty feet deep.  These holes occur in the White  Silt Formation, an extensive deposit  of fine clayey silt, probably of inter-  glacial origin, which forms the great  cliffs and benches so characteristic  of the southern shores of Okanagan  Lake. The cliffs at Summerland extend for about two miles along the  lake shore and are about two hundred feet in height, occurring again  south of Trout Creek, where they  are less high. These terraces are the  remnants of a much more extensive  deposit which formerly occupied the  bottom of the valley, and most of  which has been removed by the  great river which used to flow  through the valley at the close of  the Ice Age. The cliffs owe their  present castellated appearance to the  erosive action of small streams and  of rain-water.  In this silt there is a great deal  of seepage water, travelling from the  hills to the lake. The holes have  been formed where water from the  surface has seeped downwards to  join one of these underground  streams. The fine particles of silt  were naturally washed down with  the water, resulting in "sink-holes"  such as the one above mentioned.  True sink-holes are formed in  soluble rock, like limestone, where  underground water dissolves part of  the rock and forms holes and caverns  such as are commonly found in the  southern Appalachians. This mode of  formation is quite different from that  of the holes under discussion, which  were simply formed by the mechanical transportation of fine silt particles. However, the term may be  used in a general way to include the  local examples.  On the same excursion we found  some very interesting volcanic bombs  about two miles north-west of the  Log Cabin. Volcanic rocks of Tertiary age are very common in the Okanagan, but these are the most perfect bombs that the writer has observed in this District. It is a well  known law of physics that when a  liquid is thrown into the air it tends  to assume a globular form, and volcanic bombs are formed in this way.  Masses of liquid lava were thrown  into the air, became spherical, and  hardened sufficiently to withstand  the impact when they struck the  molten lava flowing on the sfurface.  The bombs vary in diameter from two  to eight inches. As they are rather  good examples of this phenomenon  several were sent to the University  of British Columbia, and two of them  have been placed in the Log Cabin  at Summerland through the kindness of Mr. J. W. S. Logie.  Indian Place Names  H.  B.  KENNARD  Choyoosk: Man's nose—Point at  Whiteman's   Creek.  Nix Naponer: Snake's head—  Cameron's  Point.  Inquicoot: Open range or grass  land—Commonage and back of  O'Keefe's.  Kilsla-ina: Meaning unknown—  Range between Commonage ahd Okanagan  Landing.  Tolikintan: Corduroy or logs laid  on mud to enable canoes to land—  Okanagan Landing.  Illiquilliken: Big Horn Sheep—  Terrace Mountain on north side of  Shorts' Creek.  Spiptin: Meaning unknown—Bay  at Ewing's Landing.  Sinquina Otiaton: Jump on their  backs—Fintry. Name comes from  ambush where the Okanagans surprised the Shuswaps and killed three  or four hundred men by rolling rocks  down on them.  Myars-kala: Place of the little  men (Inchamas skylugh) whose  home consisted of all the water shed  flowing into Shorts' Creek. Their  outlook was a cave in the mountain  side above Nahun and when an intruder was seen they retired to their,  own territory and laid in wait for him. As he passed along the trail  they would jump on his back and  grasping his forelock break his neck  by a quick jerk. The Indians avoided this country and say that deer,  cougars and men have been found  with their necks broken.  Cus-ln-so-nook: Place of fickle  women—Carr's Landing and Island  in Lake. Food and supplies were left  on the Island in order to be safe  from bears: Squaws who were left  in charge were abducted by the Shuswap Indians. It was customary to  place a guard on Rainbow Mountain  to watch up the Lake and signal to  braves who might be hunting or fishing.  Sin k-mili-may-was: Portage  where canoes were carried from Okanagan Lake to Wood's Lake—the  same route as that now followed by  the Rainbow Road.  Sun Stick: Writing tree—A tree  which was marked with the directions of the trail at camping place  on   the   old   Hudson's   Bay   Brigade  17  trail at Reid's Landing, across Okanagan Lake from Okanagan Centre.  Sin-cla-cla-eel-hun-hun: Name  given by Papowchin (Echo) to rock  between Nahun and Fintry which  was a secret watching place where  squaws directed braves in canoes to  deer which had been driven into the  Lake by dogs.  Sunalozerton: Place of the white  tail deer—Bear Creek Point.  Ixkilkahowston: Cross ing between Kelowna and Westbank. The  crossing was visible from a long distance and the Indians said that in  approaching it a man and boat could  be seen, but on reaching the shore  neither man nor boat could be found.  Jahachin: Any place where the  trail comes down to the Lake where  horses could be watered.  Sinpapolitan: Southern end of  Okanagan Centre—Caesar's Point or  any good camping place where wood,  water and shelter could be found.  K'Lokum: Open flat. Valley between Duck and Wood's Lakes.  The Glacial Erratic on the Coldstream  Ranch  ADAM   GRANT  In our first Annual Report there  was a paper on the Glacial Erratic  on the Coldstream Ranch by Arthur  H. Lang, and I know something  about it.  The sketch of this rock as shown  on page 150B of Dr. G. M. Dawson's  Report 1877-8 was evidently taken  from the north side. It shows some  tissues and cracks in the rock and  shows a small scrubby fir tree growing out of it on the south side, the  side next the Vernon-Lumby road.  This tree grew at an angle of about  45 degrees from the perpendicular.  It was during a severe storm on the  8th July, 1916 that the portion with  the tree growing on top of it tumbled  down the hill side. It was probably  struck by lightning. I remember the  day very well. I was engaged in  hauling lumber from Lumby to Vernon at the time. It was one of the  most severe electric storms I ever  saw. The same day the lightning  struck the pinnacle of conglomerate,  which   stood close   to the   Vernon-  Lumby road where it crosses the old  wash-out just east of Lavington and  tumbled so much rock into the- road  I had to stop and clear it off before  I could get the team by. I did not  of course see that part of the rock  with the tree growing on it fall, but  it was there the day before the  storm and the next time I passed it  had fallen. The 'Vernon News' in reporting the storm in its issue of the  13th July, 1916 says:— "One of the  heaviest electric storms that has visited the Okanagan for years was experienced here last Saturday (July  8th). The crash of thunder and the  blaze of lightning reached a degree  of intensity seldom witnessed in this  District." The same day Price Ellison had a mare and colt killed, and  other property was damaged. The  same storm was reported from Kelowna, Rutland and Lumby.  Through the efforts of this Society  the Government has taken this rock  under its care, and last fall a neat  bronze plate 9x12 inches was neat- ly and securely fastened to the rock.  Under the Provincial Coat of Arms  the  inscription reads:—  Notice  All Historic Objects in this vicinity have been placed under the pro  tection of the Historic Objects Preservation Act of British Columbia  and any interference with the same  is subject to penalty.  This in my opinion is one bit of  good work well done by our Society.  The Ten Encampments  MARGARET  A.   ORMSBY,   B.A.  In his report on the Okanagan Indians, filed with the Royal Anthropological Institute, Professor Charles  Hill-Tout says the Salish Indians occupied the country from Enderby to  the Boundary Line, and that these  .Indians had ten permanent encampments or villages. Although the populations of these villages were not  constant but varied from time to  time as the Indians were at home, or  away on their hunting or fishing expeditions, yet these ten places were  recognized as the principal camping  places as distinguished from other  places which were used only occasionally. Professor Hill-Tout gives  the names of these places, and the  meaning of each name, thus: —  1. SpalEmtcin—Flat rim or edge  (of river) Cf. 'nk'Emtocin, rim or  edge.  2. 'nkEma'paluks—Head of the  Lake.  3. SinkloHot Em — Massacred;  having reference to an incident in  their history when some of their enemies attacked this settlement without warning and slaughtered great  numbers of them.  4. Kelau'na—Grizzley  bear.  5. S'tEkakwtlini'wEt—Has reference to a solitary lake.  6. 'NHakwactEn — Refers to a  stone for smoothing and straightening their arrows.  7. PentHikten — Mean ing u n -  known.  8. CwoqEne'tq—Little   Falls.  9. 'nk.ame' p—End  of  the  lake.  10. S'ciyus—Narrows.  In the spelling of these words as  given above, which is no doubt  phonetic and follows as cl'osely as  may be the Indian pronunciation, the  capital letters are scarcely sounded  at all, the accent being on the next  succeeding letter while the ' represents a gutteral sound or click impossible to indicate adequately.   Even  with these adventitious aids—the  capital letters and the apostrophe—  the exact pronunciation is not clear.  (1) The first is Spallumcheen.  The Spallumcheen River was wooded  on both sides up to its banks, from  its source in Mabel Lake to its mouth  at Sicamous. The only break was at  Enderby where the Spallumcheen  prairie extended north to the river.  It was this place the Indians called  the edge or rim of the river, but the  name has since been pushed farther  south. As far as we know the first  time this word was used in its present form was in 1878 when Mara  & Wilson built a boat at Kamloops  to ply between Kamloops and Enderby or Belvidere as it was called  then. She was a stern wheeler of  eighty feet in length and they called  it the 'Spallumcheen.' The arrival  of this boat so often at the landing  at Enderby would familiarize the  settlers with this form of the word  and may have been the reason of the  settlers calling their new School  District which was Gazetted oh the  8th  May,  1884,  Spallumcheen.  (2) This word is usually written,  Inkamaplux and means the head of  Okanagan Lake south of O'Keefe's.  It has practically the same meaning  as No. 9. Inkameep. Isaac Harris  says that Inkameep is the diminutive  of Inkamaplux.  (3) Sin-kina-ot-iat:   A  Fintry or Shorts' Point-  elsewhere in this Report.  (4) Kelowna.  (5) Stkakwalinet. This has reference to a solitary lake. The only  lake to which it can refer is one  which once existed east from the  Rutland railway station on the C.N.  R. It was here, William Brent says,  that William Peon planted some potatoes on his way north in 1863, the  year he discovered placer gold on  Cherry Creek.   The future historian  place near  -dealt with 19  will however look for this lake in  vain for it has been drained, and the  lake-bottom is now cultivated fields.  (6) Nor-kwa-stin. This word  means a hard black rock used by  the Indians for sharpening their arrow heads. It is the Indian name of  Black Mountain, east from Kelowna.  (7) Penticton. Most commentators say the meaning of this word is  unknown, J. W. S. Logie says it probably means "ever" or "forever"  meaning the land that is, and always  was the Indians.  (8) Kwak-ne-ta, little falls—probably Okanagan Falls.  (9) Inkameep—The place designated by this word occupies the same  relative position to Osoyoos Lake  that Inkamaplux does to Okanagan  Lake.  (10) Osoyoos. In the '60's this  word was written as Sooyoos, So-oy-  oos and Osoyoos. W. G. Cox the first  Gold Commissioner at Rock, 1860-1,  usually wrote it, Sooyoos, but on  three or four occasions while referring to territory south of the boundary line, he wrote, Osoyoos. In the  map made by the Royal Engineers  in 1869 they used the word Osoyoos.  Until comparatively recent years the  accepted pronunciation was, Sooyoos,  a word of two syllables, but now  more and more people are beginning  to follow the accepted spelling of it  and pronounce it as a word of three  As late as July 25th, 1880, it appears  in the Victoria "Colonist," in three  different places, as Sooyoos.  The Okanagan valley is a land of  an unwritten past. History begins  with the year 1811, with the coming  of the white man. We know little  of what took place before that date.  We know however (and the testimony of the rocks proves this) that  at least as far as the present purpose is concerned, the valley has always been as it is today—the same  streams and lakes, and hills and valleys; and that for thousands of years  before the pyramids were even  thought of the waters of Long and  Okanagan Lakes lay sparkling in the  sun while our beautiful forest trees,  our bull pines and firs, clothed our  mountain sides when the cedars of  Lebanon were being felled for the  building of the first Temple. During  those long past ages we do not know  what nations may have risen, flourished and disappeared in this valley  or what human triumphs o^Jxaged=t?itf  ies its bunch-grass hills may have  witnessed. The traditions of the Indians for want of an interpreter are  inane and childish, as we know them,  and give us little insight into their  past history. There are no ruined  cities or temples here to tell us anything, and the bunch-grass hills  guard their secrets jealously.  So that in these place-names—  names which some of these places  may have borne from time immemorial—we have the oldest vestige or  trace of the prehistoric people of the  Okanagan Valley. For this reason  they are well worth careful investigation and preservation.  Military Grants of Land In Okanagan  District  MARGARET   A.   ORMSBY,   B.A.  On the 18th. March, 1861 an Ordinance was promulgated by His Excellence the Governor, James Douglas, whereby all retired Military and  Naval Officers, on coming to British  Columbia would receive a free grant  of  land.   This was done  to  encour  age the immigration into the Province of this class of men. The  amount of land each received was  determined by the rank and length  of service of the applicant. The following list may not be complete, but  it includes all that can be found up  to the present time. 20  Lot  Acreage  Name  100  160  William Bentley  102  "  Thomas Robertson  106  "  James Normansell  108  >»  Roger Moore  115  >»  Robert   Stevens  25  1450  C.   F.   Houghton  Date of Crown Grant  10th April 1878  June  1872  C. F. Houghton had some trouble  in getting his grant. When he was  Gazetted out of the Army on the  29th June, 1863, he was then Captain of the 20th Regiment. He left  England two weeks later and arrived in British Columbia some time in  September. When he applied for his  grant however he found he was entitled to 300 acres only instead of  the 1440 acres he expected to get,  the Ordinance of the 18th March,  1861 having been repealed by an Ordinance, dated the 23rd Feb. 1863,  which reduced the acreage of the  grants. Houghton appealed to the  Governor who refused to interfere.  He then obtained leave from the  Governor and laid the matter before  the Commander-in-Chief of the Army, the Duke of Cambridge, but  without success. It appears the Ordinance of 1861 was very widely-circulated through the Army and Navy,  but no effort was made to give the  repealing Ordinance of 1863 an  equally wide circulation. The hardship inflicted thereby was so manifest that finally a third Ordinance  was brought into force, dated 4th  May, 1864, whereby all Officers who  had left the service prior to the 31st  Aug. 1863, and who at the time were  not aware of the change in the law,  would receive the grants they were  entitled to under the law as it stood  in 1861. In Houghton's Crown  Grant the land is described as Lot  25, Group 8, Yale-Lytton Division of  Yale District. This is the large oblong Lot shown on most of the Government Maps as lying between the  Coldstream Ranch buildings and  Long Lake. This Lot 25 contains  1450 and the Crown Grant for it  was issued in June, 1872, but the  day of the month on which it was  issued is not given in the Crown  Grant.  Okanagan Polling Division, 1876  MARGARET  A.   ORMSBY,   B.A.  In our last Report we gave the  Voters List for Okanagan Polling  Division for the year 1874, and, to  show the rapid growth in the population of the valley, we now submit  the Voters List for 1876.  Name  Andrew, Joseph  Ashton,  Charles  Besset, Peter  Blondeau, Jules  Brent, Frederick  Brown, Andrew  Bucherie,   Isadore  Christian, Joseph  Christian, Louis  Christian, Thomas  Dennis, Pierre  Donaldson, William  Duteau, Vincent  Furstenau, E. M.  Ganfell, Dosete  Girouard, Luc  Greenhow, Thomas  Residence  Spellamacheen  Do  Okanagan  Okanagan  Mission  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Okanagan  Spellamacheen  Okanagan  Do  Do  Occupation  Farmer  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do 21  Herman,  John A.  Jones, Thomas  Lacerte, William  Lambert, Stephen  Lawson, Charles  Lawrence,  Theodore  Le Guime, Elie  Le Meurs, Joseph  Lumby, Moses  McDougall, John  McNeill, Alfred  Moore, J. D.  Ortolan,  Francois  O'Keefe, Cornelius  Phillips, John  Postill, Alfred  Postill, William  Simpson, George  Tronson, Edward   J.  Vernon, Forbes George  Vernon, Charles A.  Verselle,  Louis  Whelan,  George  Wood, Thomas  Wichers, Herman  Spellamacheen  Okanagan  Mission  Do  Do  Okanagan  Okanagan  Mission  Do  Do  Spellamacheen  Okanagan  Mission  Okanagan  Okanagan Mission  Do  Okanagan  Do  Okanagan Mission  Do  Do  Okanagan  Do  Do  Okanagan Mission  Do  Do  Spellamacheen  After this date, the Increase in the  population became more and more  marked. Indeed, for some years, a  large proportion of all the land preempted in the Province was staked  in the Okanagan Valley. The following table will show this to be the  case:  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Do  Year                                    A B  1892       "204 869  1893        257 832  1894        295 709  1895        236 632  A—Pre-emptions recorded in Osoyoos District.  B—Pre-emptions  recorded   in  the  Province.  Early Days at Okanagan Mission  MRS.   ROBERT  LAMBLY  The Postill family came from  Yorkshire, England, to Ontario, and  from there to British Columbia in  1872. The family then consisted of  my father, Edward Postill, my mother and three sons, Alfred, William  and Edward. The same year, 1872,  my brother Alfred and T. McK.  Lambly, who had come out with us,  went to the Okanagan Valley. They  bought what afterwards was known  as the Postill Ranch from Simpson.  There was at the time some sort of  a partnership agreement between  them, but in the Autumn they returned to New Westminster, and Mr.  Lambly opened a book store on Columbia Street, which he kept until  1877 when he sold out to W. H.  Keary, who is now City Clerk in New  Westminster.   In 1873 we moved to  the ranch at the south end of Postill Lake, this was some time in the  Spring or early Summer of that year.  I remember we were all packed up  and ready to start and were living  for a few days at a boarding house  kept by Mrs. Keary, when A. L. Fortune arrived. He was then on his  way east to bring Mrs. Fortune out.  When we arrived at Kamloops my  father became ill. B. F. Young of  Armstrong was then driving the  stage between Kamloops and Okanagan Mission. A stretcher was improvised on the stage for my father  and we continued the journey, but  when we arrived at Priest's Valley  my father became worse and he died  there. We brought the body to the  ranch which he owned but was destined   never to   see and   buried  it 22  there—a sad home-coming for us, his  children  and  for  our  mother.  A short distance across the meadow from the Railway station on a  small mound there is a small plot  of enclosed land and in it my father  and two brothers, Alfred and Edward are buried. On the monument  of dressed Aberdeen granite which  stands at the head of my father's  grave the following inscription may  be  read:—  Sacred to the  Memory of  Edward Postill  Died  April 1873  Aged 52 years.  My brother Edward died 5th Dec.  1889 aged 32 years, and my brother  Alfred died on the 26th Sept. 1897,  aged 45 years.  As a girl I remember visiting at  the Allisons when they lived across  the Lake at Westbank and remember hearing Mrs. Allison tell of the  unidentified    creature   in    the   Lake  which the Indians call Naitaka. She  wrote a poem about it about 53 years  ago. My brother Alfred saw it once.  The Customs House at Osoyoos was  burned down in 1878, and M_. Haynes, the Collector, the same year  built his own house on the east side  of Osoyoos Lake. The lumber for  his house was cut at our saw mill on  the Postill Ranch. My brother was  engaged in building the lumber into  a raft to be rowed down the Lake  when the Naitaka rose out of the  water a short distance away.  I remember also visiting our school  while it was kept by our first teacher, Angus McKenzie. The first trustees were, William Smithson, Frederick Brent and Joseph Christien.  W. Smithson became Insane in 1881  and his name was dropped from the  list of trustees and Alphonse Lefevre  took his place, and curiously enough  the Secretary-Treasurer of the School  Board, Joseph Christien, himself,  went to school during the winter of  1876, no doubt to make up for time  wasted in his youth.  The Lakes of The Okanagan Valley  JAMES C. AGNEW-  C.E.  The Report of the Department of  Geology for 1877-8 contains some  observations by Dr. G. M. Dawson  relating to some of the physical features of the lakes in this valley which  are of interest. We are offering no  apology for quoting so copiously from  Dr. Dawson's Report. In the first  place he is a very high authority on  such matters, and again his descriptions and explanations are delightfully clear and lucid.  "Osoyoos Lake is nine miles in  length, and averages probably one  mile in width. It is said to be deep,  but is remarkably divided near its  centre by two spits or bars. The  northern of these is at the Custom  House, and so nearly divides the lake  that a small bridge has been built  across the gap (at the west side).  The second spit is about a mile farther south, and has also a narrow  channel cutting through it, in this  instance near the east side. The  spits are quite different in character  from fans previously described, several of which may be seen in other  parts of the valley, but always in  evident relation to entering streams,  which these are not. The material  as far as can be seen, is chiefly fine  gravel and sand, and the surface of  the spits do not rise far above the  water level. It can scarcely be supposed that these are moraines as the  material would probably be coarser  in that case. I am inclined to refer  them to the conflicting action of  Waves originating at different ends  of the lake, under the influence of  currents of air drawing through valleys differently placed with regard  to the direction of its axes."  Elsewhere he explains a fan as the  debris brought down by streams and  deposited in the bottom of a valley,  in the form of a delta or fan.  Continuing he says:— "The upper  end of Duchien Lake (Dog Lake) is  about a mile and a half in width,  and is separated from the lower end  of Great Okanagan Lake by what  appears from a height, to be a broad  strip of land, occupying the valley-  bjjfcrom for a distance of three and 23  a half miles. It is found, however,  on further examination, that the  lakes are really divided by two large  coalesced flat fans, probably of subaqueous origin, and formed by the  important streams here entering from  opposite sides—one on the Indian  reserve (Sheep Creek on the west)  and the other at Penticton (Penticton Creek). Duchien and the lower  end of Okanagan Lake are fringed  with terraces along the shore which  on the upper end of the former are  quite narrow and interrupted from  time to time by rocky bluffs. The  material of these terraces is, for the  most part, a white silt, but near the  north west end of Duchien Lake is  replaced by a fine white sand, in beds  generally an inch or two in thickness, and sometimes as thin as paper. These are often observed to be  in broad undulating curves, indicative of current structure. The banks  are hard enough to form vertical or  nearly vertical faces, in which layers  slightly hardened by ferruginous cement are  sometimes seen."  The so called "clay bluffs" at  Summerland are very noticeable  from the Lake. They are about two  hundred feet high and extend for  about two miles along the Lake  shore north of Trout Creek, South of  Trout Creek they appear again and  extend for a considerable distance,  but are not so high.  "Okanagan Lake has a total  1 length of about sixty-nine miles with  a average width of nearly two miles  which is maintained with considerable regularity. It occupies one of  the great trough-like valleys common in this country, and though  much larger, in its width and mode  of formation, closely resembles Kamloops Lake.  "The Mission settlement occupies  a large flat formed by the detritus  brought down by the stream known  as Mission Creek. This flat does not  extend far into the lake as many  fans and deltas do, but fills what at  one time must have been an extensive bay.  "Opposite the Mission at the 'Narrows' the bottom formed by the subaqueous extension of the Mission fan  or delta, it is said, can be seen all  the way across and is probably not  in any place deeper than twenty or  thirty feet. On the west shore at  this place are two remarkable acute  triangular points of sandy material.  These are not in connection with any  entering streams, but are pretty evidently the result of the convergence of waves originating in differently-trending reaches of the lake.  They are of the same nature but not  so well developed as the spits in Osoyoos Lake."  It may be worth noting that at this  place the Indians say that on approaching it a man in a canoe is seen,  but on coming up to the place the  man and canoe have disappeared.  They offer no explanation, but insist  that this is so. This may be a mirage,  but on the other hand what the Indians say may be founded on an optical illusion created by the conflict  between the opposing air and wave  currents which are responsible for  the creation of the two spits. It  would be well for some of our members who are living in the vicinity to  bear the matter in mind, it is not  important, but it would be interesting to know if there is any connection  between the two.  "The Mission is connected with  Kamloops by a good wagon road  which however does not follow the  shore of Okanagan Lake, but a parallel valley which lies a few miles  east of it occupied by smaller lakes.  The first or southern lake is called  Duck Lake. The second generally  known as Long Lake is thirteen and  a half miles in total length, but is  almost completely divided four miles  from its southern end by a very narrow traverse strip known as 'The  Railway.' This is supported in the  centre by a little rock mass, but  otherwise resembles the spits in Osoyoos Lake. The southern end of  Long Lake is separately distinguished  as 'Primwash Lake' on Trutch's map.  "Long Lake has an average  breadth of over three-quarters of a  mile, and appears to be very deep,  a shallow border of variable width  fringing its shores, which drops suddenly at its outer edge to deep water. It was at first supposed that the  flat submerged border, well marked  in the lakes above mentioned, but  also seen frequently elsewhere implied a comparatively recent rise in  the lake waters. It would appear  however that it is really due to the  distribution, by the movement of the  waters of the lake itself, of debris  from the shore.  At a depth so great 24  as to render the surface movement  inappreciable the material forms a  steep talis sloping down to the deeper portions of the lake bottom. Thus  when the lake is wide and the force  of the waves great, the shallow border is proportionately increased.  This feature has important bearing  on the formation of lakes generally,  and explains several circumstances  connected with those lying in the  valleys of the interior."  It is regrettable that the depth of  the different lakes in the Okanagan  Valley had not been ascertained and  the character of the bottoms known  at the time Dr. Dawson was making  the Geological Survey as we might  have had from him further comment  of interest. It is surprising how little  we know of our lakes.  The writer in 1911 surveyed a  cross-section of Okanagan Lakes in  two places, for the telephone cable,  one off the park at Kelowna, and  one between Carr's Landing and Fintry. At Kelowna the distance surveyed was 4500 feet. The profile developed showed that for a distance  of 1500 feet out from the west shore  the greatest depth reached was 34  feet. From this point east to within  130 0 feet from the east side, the  bottom curves down to a depth of  165 feet, and at 2 00 feet from the  Kelowna shore the depth was 43 feet.  The soundings made here would indicate that the lake.bottom had been  raised by the breaking down of the  land on  the  Indian Reserve  on  the  west. This intrusion extends for  1500 feet into the lake. On the east  side the intrusion of the material  brought down by Mission Creek extends for 1300 feet over the lake  bottom.  The distance surveyed between  Carr's Landing and Fintry was 10,-  100 feet, and the deepest spot found,  538 feet, was about half way across.  The soundings would indicate too  that the washings from Shorts'  Creek extend along the lake bottom  for a distance of 2000 feet. From  there for about one mile the bottom  was a whitish clay, then mud, sand  and gravel on to Carr's Landing.  These are the only cross sections of  this lake ever surveyed as far as  we are aware. It is remarkable that  the stretch of clay above mentioned,  appeared to be clear of mud or sediment of any kind, the sinker when it  reached the bottom stopped suddenly as if it had encountered a hard  surface.  Okanagan Lake has no doubt great  depths, and I should look for the  deepest spots off Squally Point, between Bear Creek and Kelowna and  off Whiteman's Creek. C. D. Simms  reports that he failed to reach the  bottom of Long Lake with a line 600  feet long at a point off Cousins' Bay.  Even a few individual soundings of  this sort made by our members from  time to time would be valuable.  Swan Lake, north of Vernon, presents  some unusual features which we hope  to deal with in another Report.  The First Steamboat On Okanagan  Lake  L. NORRIS  In his dispatch to the Home Government of the 16th July, 1861, Governor Douglas said he proposed, with  a view of opening up the country  and facilitating transportation, to  have a steamboat placed on Shuswap  Lake, and, also, one on Okanagan  Lake with a wagon road connecting  the two lakes.  The wagon road from Ashcroft to  Savana's Ferry was completed and  a steamboat placed on Shuswap Lake  in 1866. The wagon road from the  head of Okanagan Lake to Spallum  cheen prairie was built in 1873, but  it was not until the 21st April, 1886,  just twenty years after a steamboat  was placed on Shuswap Lake, that  the shores of Okanagan Lake first  echoed to the whistle of a steamer.  This important undertaking was not  the work of the Government nor was  it subsidized or assisted in any way  by the Government, but was due  wholly to the initiative and enterprise of two men, Captain J. D.  Shorts and Thomas Greenhow.  The vessel was the "Mary Victoria 25  Greenhow": length of keel 32 ft,  beam 5 ft. and driven by a two H. P.  coal-oil-burning engine manufactured in Rochester, N. Y. She was built  at the head of Okanagan Lake by  Hamil and Pringle of Lansdowne.  Quite a number of persons were at  the launching of her, among others  Hamil and Pringle, the builders, E.  M. Furstineau, William Lawrence,  B. F. Young and Robert Wood, and  the trial trip was made to Fall Creek  where the party was royally entertained by Captain Shorts. When she  started on her first trip to Penticton  she was carrying five tons of freight  and five passengers and towing another boat.  Prior to this date Captain Shorts  had been, for some years, freighting  on the Lake with a row boat, and  he boasted, according to the newspaper accounts of the time, that he  was so used to the oars he could row  all day without feeling any fatigue.  It was Dr. I. W. Powell, of Victoria  who, having made a trip down the  Lake with Shorts in the row boat,  advised the purchase of this particular engine which was then a new  departure in marine engines, and extensively advertised in the magazines  of that day. The advertisements usually contained a cut showing this  coal-oil-burning engine propelling a  light skiff over the placid waters of  a lake with apparently, a gay pleasure party on board consisting of two  handsome youths in straw hats and  one girl with a red parasol. The engine was probably equal to such  work, but when the same engine was  placed in a large heavy boat, wide of  beam and loaded down with freight,  the consumption of coal-oil per mile  was increased  enormously.  Shorts started out on the trip with  a barrel of coal oil, but before he  reached Penticton the supply was exhausted, and he was then confronted  with a problem with which he was  by nature well fitted to cope for he  had a ready wit and a most persuasive tongue. Besides everyone liked Shorts. The result was that when  the "Mary Victoria Greenhow" got  back to the head of the Lake, the  settlers had all gone back to candles.  There wasn't a tin of coal oil left  on the Lake. Shorts hastened to impart, the afflicting intelligence to his  partner. "Tom Greenhow" he shouted   as soon   as he   saw him  "Tom  Greenhow, we are a busted institution, that's what's the matter, we  are ruined, one more trip like that  and we are a financial wreck," and  it was well on into the night before  he got through telling his partner,  with that wealth of detail the Captain  loved, of all that happened to him  on that memorable trip. The late  Thomas Greenhow was blessed with  a keen sense of humour, and if he  lost money on the venture he appeared to get lots of fun out of it. In  after years he could never tell of  Shorts trip down the Lake when he  ran short of coal oil, without going  into roars of laughter.  The progress of the boat down the  Lake was, nevertheless, hailed with  enthusiasm by the settlers who realized what it would mean to them  to have a steamer on the Lake making regular trips, and when she  reached Penticton something of- a  demonstration was staged and a salute of 21 guns fired in honour of the  event—shot guns, of course, they  had no cannons.  The "Mary Victoria Greenhow"  was burned to the water's edge afterwards as she lay on the beach at Kelowna. The engine was salvaged and  placed later on in the second steamboat built by Captain Shorts to ply  on the waters of Okanagan Lake.  The new boat, the "Jubilee," was  launched at Okanagan Landing on  the 22nd Sept., 1887.  The late Captain T. D. Shorts was  in some ways a remarkable man, and  very likeable—always genial and  friendly. He was noted for his rugged honesty, and also, for a certain  sturdy independence and self reliance which never deserted him. Like  only too many of the pioneers of the  Okanagan Valley, towards the close  of his life he had lost most of his  money and was in straitened circumstances, and for some years before his death he lived alone in a  cabin at Hope. The people of Hope  were friendly to him and helped him  about as much as they were permitted, but when their well meant offers  of assistance savored as he thought,  too much of charity they were declined, and sometimes with a directness of speech that was rather disconcerting. Enterprising and optimistic all his life long he eagerly  pursued the fortune which he believed awaited him just around the 26  corner, and being of a sanguine disposition he was never unduly depressed by a bit of bad luck or misfortune. When things went wrong  with him as they occasionally did,  he usually passed it off with: "Boys,  if we only had as good foresight as  we have hind sight, we would raise  hell, wouldn't we," and that was the  last  heard of it.    Despite his slight  eccentricities, of speech and otherwise, the late Thomas Dolman  Shorts—to give him his full name—  was a man of character and real  worth, a true pioneer. He was born  on the 14th June, 1837, and died at  Hope on the 9th Feb., 1921, aged  83. The record of his death in Victoria gives the place of his birth as  "Adolphuston,  Canada."  The Cariboo Trail  L.  NORRIS  In the well known collection of  works by different authors, on Canadian subjects and Canadian history  published under the general title of  "The Chronicles of Canada" there  are two by Miss Agnes C. Laut:  "The Cariboo Trail" and "Pioneers  of the Pacific Coast." All are by  eminent authors and writers, and  among them none stands higher in  public estimation, and deservedly so,  than Miss Laut. This collection "The  Chronicles of Canada" is generally  regarded as the most important as  well as the most reliable contribution to Canadian history that has  yet been published. It was therefore  with surprise we read the following  passage taken from "The Cariboo  Trail," commencing on page 77: —  "A similar fate befell a crew of  four men from Toronto. Two of them  undertook to portage provisions along  the bank of the canyon while the  other two, Carpenter and Alexander,  tried to run the canoe down the rapids. This episode has some interest  for students of psychology. Carpenter walked down the bank of the  canyon a short distance to reconnoitre the different channels of the  rapids. He was seen to take out his  note book and write an entry. He  then put the note book in an inner  pocket of his coat, took off the coat  and slung it in a tree on the bank.  When he came to the canoe he seemed pre-occupied. The canoe ripped in  midstream, flattened and sank. Carpenter went down insensible as  though his head had been struck  and he had been stunned. Alexander  was washed ashore. He found himself on the side of the bank opposite  the rest of the party. Going below  to   calmer   water   he   swam   across.  Carpenter's coat hung on the tree.  In the pocket was the note book in  which Alexander read the following  "Arrived at Grand Canyon. Run the  rapids and was drowned." Carpenter left a wife and child in Toronto  for whom he had evidently written  the message. But if he was of sound  mind, desiring to live and so certain  of death that he was able to write  his fate in the past tense why did he  attempt the rapids. His friends had  no explanation of the curious incident.  There is another gruesome story  of a sand bar in this raging canyon.  It will be remembered that some of  the Overlands had straggled far to  the rear. Sometime before Spring a  party of them attempted to run this  canyon. They were never again seen  alive. Some treasure-hunters who  came over the trail in Spring stranded on this sand-bar. They found the  bodies of the missing men. All but  one had been torn and partly devoured. It need not be told here that  no wild beasts could have stemmed  the rapids from either side. Unless  wolves and cougars had been ac-  cidently washed to the sand-bar and  washed away again, the wild solitudes must have witnessed a horror  too terrible to be told for the body  of the man who apparently died last  was fully clothed and unmolested.  As absolutely nothing more is known  about what happened than has been  set down here it seems well that  there is no record of the names of  these  castaways."  And this is the kind of stuff that  sometimes passes for history! If  Miss Laut found anything remarkable in the Carpenter incident she is  probably the only one who ever did, 27  nor would the student of psychology  have far to go to find the explanation. The facts are quite simple: The  men came to a bit of rough water;  they landed and while some of them  unloaded the canoe Carpenter went  along the bank to see if the canoe  could be taken down the rapids. He  evidently concluded that it could, but  knowing that some risk would be incurred and wishing to leave a message for his wife in case of an accident he wrote the note, put it in the  pocket of his coat, and hung the  coat in a tree where his companions  would be sure to find it. When he  pushed off he did not believe he was  going to certain death by any means;  he believed he would get through  safely. He would then land, recover  his coat tear up the note and resume  his journey. It was probably not the  only time a member of this expedition  resorted to a similar expedient when  they found themselves in a dangerous predicament. As the message was  not intended to be and could not be  delivered except in the event of his  death, his use of the past tense was  permissible at least.  The members of the overland expedition of 1862 came mostly from  Ontario and eastern Canada, from a  particularly decent class of people.  These Overlanders today would probably be deemed a narrow-minded  lot, and tiresome, but they lived  strict lives and had a high regard  for the moral law. In all the accounts  written of the journey there is no  drunkenness or brawling reported  and not a single case of theft. A. L.  Fortune tells us in his diary how  they camped one Saturday night on  the bank of a stream. An examination of the stream next day showed  that the water was rising, and some  of them wanted to construct a bridge  and cross at once while there was  still time, but the others objected.  They would not work on Sunday.  They were willing to run the risk of  breaking their necks or being drowned in crossing the river but they  would run no risk of breaking the  Sabbath. Fortune calls this "witnessing for God." Such refinements of  the law as Sunday tennis with the  approval of the Church were unknown to these men. Fortune also  relates that when he and his party  crossed on the bridge the following  day,   they   were  not   reproached   by  those who built it by so much as a  word or a look. And this is only one  of a score of incidents which might  be cited to show that these were  strict-living men, men who respected themselves and respected each  other.  What happened in the second incident related by Miss Laut seemed  to be reasonably clear: An accident  had happened on the river and the  men were drowned and the bodies  washed onto the sand bar. During  the winter months when wild animals were free to come and go at  will they found and mutilated the  bodies, all but one. And it is on  this flimsy foundation the whole  story rests. The place where the  bodies were found must have been  in comparatively still water since a  sand bar cannot exist in swift water.  Had the men reached the sand bar  alive they would have made shift  to gain the shore by some means or  other or have perished in the attempt. It is unlikely they all would  have lain down to die without making the effort.  And yet from one end of Canada  to the other this story will be read  in the "Chronicles of Canada" by  thousands who will believe it without stopping to inquire whether it  rests on any reasonably sure foundation or not. In fact Miss Laut has  shut the door on any further inquiry  by stating that nothing further is  known of what happened than what  she has set down in the passage quoted above, and in doing so she has  very effectively shut the door on herself.  When she tells us wolves and cougars could only reach the sand bar  by being accidentally washed on to it  and washed away again she is silly.  The river at that point—about fifty  miles above Prince George—is frozen over in winter; the ice is thick  and solid and the snow three to four  feet deep. Those who doubt this  should communicate with the Government Agent at Prince George, G.  Milburn, who is well-informed,  obliging and courteous. Again she  stresses the fact that the body which  was unmolested was found to be  fully clothed. And what of it? Did  she expect the man to undress before  lying down to die?  Had what is alleged actually happened, had some of these men brok- 28  en down under the stress and strain  of that long, trying journey and gone  insane, surely, common sense would  indicate the propriety of passing the  matter over and letting it rest. As  it is there is something revolting in  the source pursued by this writer in  thus besmirching the memory of the  overlanders of '62 without cause,  and possibly bringing unmerited  shame and humiliation to some of  their descendents. The unspeakable  horror which those wild solitudes  were supposed to have witnessed ex  isted only in her own fertile imagination, but the injury she has done to  the fair name of these decent men is  real. The conclusion she has reached  is entirely at variance with the facts  as found by herself. Frankly, we  don't understand it and have passed  it up to the student of physhology  to find the explanation.  As a number of the Overlanders of  '62 have lived for many years in this  valley, this matter is not without interest to the people here.  OKANAGAN  L. NORRIS  The first time the word, Okanagan,  was written, as far as we have any  record, was on the 6th July, 1811.  It occurs in the diary or journal  kept by David Thompson while making his trip to the mouth of the Columbia River to forestall the Astor  men. The journal commences with  the words:— "July 3rd, 1811. Voyage to the mouth of the Columbia,  by the Grace of God, by D. Thompson and 7 men on the part of the N.  W. Company." He was then at Kettle Falls on the Columbia River, and  in the employ of the North West  Company, the only serious rival the  Hudson's Bay Company ever had in  its efforts to secure a monopoly of  the fur trade in the west. It was on  the 4th or 5th July, 1811 that his  party (the first white men) saw the  mouth of the Okanagan River, but  the exact date will only be determined by an examination of his journal which is now in the Department  of Public Records and Archives, Toronto. On the 6th July, Thompson  made this entry:— "last course fine  view and see high woody mountains  of the Oachenawawgan River." This  is how he wrote it we are told on  that day, but in his map of the following year, 1812, it appears as,  Ookenaw-kane.  In an appendix to the tenth Report  of the Geographic Board of Canada,  the following variations of the word  appear. They are here given with  the year in which the book or other  publication in which the word used,  was printed.  Oakanagans    1855  Oakinacken      1847  Oakinagan      1831  Oakanagm      1844  Okanagan    1840  Oakanagon  "   1900  O-kan-a-kan    1871  Okanakanes    1843  Okanaken   1890  O'Kanies-kanies    1856  Okanesganes      1855  Okenakanes     1842  Okiakanes       1857  Okinakan     1846  Okinakanes      1854  O'Kinakanes      1857  Okinaken   1889  Okinekane      1843  Okin-e-Kanes    1857  O-kin-i-kanes    1857  Okinokans      1878  O-ki-wah-kine      1870  Okanagans    1848  Okonagan    1854  Okonegan   1854  Omahanes - -   1856  Okinaganes   De S met  Okinagans      1842  Okinhane     1856  O'K ina hain   1848  Oo-ka-na-kane     1891  Oukinegans      1850  Onkinegans      1891  It will be seen that this list does  not include the two words used by  David Thompson in 1811 and 1812,  respectively, nor does it include the  American word, Okanogan, while the  authority for the Canadian word  dated back to 1840. The authority  for the word, Okanagan, is given in  the Appendix above mentioned, thus: Parker, Journal, 258, 1840." It  also gives, Oke, as the name of an  Indian village on the west coast of  Vancouver Island, and, Oka, as the  name of an Indian village on Lake  of two Mountains, near Montreal.  From the same authority we learn  that the home of the word Okanagan  is the confluence of the Similkameen  and Okanagan rivers. It was applied  to the country there, but expended  to include first a small band and  afterwards a large and important  division of the Salish Indians, who  occupied the west side of Okanagan  River, Wash., from old Fort Okanagan to the Canadian boundary and in  British Columbia the shores of Okanagan Lake and the surrounding  country.  When the building of Fort Okanagan was well under way in 1811,  David Stuart left on his trip to the  north.    When  he   got  back  to  Fort  29  Okana&an he told Ross that he had  left the Shuswap country on the  26th Feb. 1812, and that the return  journey occupied 25 days. Elsewhere Ross says Stuart was away  from Fort Okanagan for 188 days.  So that while we do not know the  date on which Stuart and his party  (the first white men) saw Okanagan  Lake, a little calculation will show  that it was on or about the 17th  Sept., 1811, they left Fort Okanagan  on their trip to the Shuswap country.  We have secured from the Department of Public Records and Archives,  Toronto, a photostat of that part of  Thompson's map made in 1812 showing the Okanagan River and Lake  from the Columbia to about as far  north as Shuswap Lake. This was the  first map made of the Okanagan Valley. This photostat is with our Secretary and may be seen by any one  who is interested in the matter.  The Okanagan Arc  L.  NORRIS  A remarkable light is occasionally  seen in the sky in the Okanagan  Valley at night which up to the present remains unaccounted for and  its cause or origin unexplained. It  was seen in 1908, 1916, 1926 and  1927. It appears on nights when the  sky is clear, moonless, and when  there is no wind. When it appeared  in 1908 it was reported in the 'Hedley Gazette' by the late Ainsley Megraw, deceased, who was editor of  the paper at the time, and his description of it is so good that we  here give it in full:—  "Signs in the Sky"  "On Thursday of last week (18th  Aug. 1908) a curious phenomenon  was witnessed here and consisted of  a luminous band of white vapour that  stretched clear across the sky from  horizon to horizon, cutting through  the zenith and approximately in a  south-easterly and north-westerly direction. It was much more luminous  than  the Milky Way,  and  not  over  one-fifth its width. Unlike the Milky  Way also which tapers off towards  the edges until it is difficult to ascertain where the Milky Way begins  and the sky ends, this band was well-  defined and equally dense to its outer edges. In fact quite as much so  as the rays of a search light with the  difference that while the rays of a  searchlight widen tfiis seemed to  maintain uniform width almost from  end to end. It was seen by the Editor about 11:30 p.m. and we have  been told by others who saw it start  that it lasted about an hour and a  half and began at the eastern end,  shooting across the sky as rapidly  as the course of a meteor. We have  been told that Mr. M. K. Rogers saw  it from his camp and attempted to  photograph it. As we have not noticed any reference to the phenomenon in exchanges it may have been  local.   John Love saw it too."  Following its appearance in  19 26  a   writer   whose   letter   appeared   in 30  the 'Vernon News' stated that it was  the Zodiacal Light, but on the matter being referred to the Observatory  at Saanich, it was made clear that  it could not be the Zodiacal Light.  This Society is much indebted to Professor J. A. Pearse of the Dominion  Astro-physical Observatory in Saanich for his valuable and ready assistance and for the courtesy of his  prompt replies. In his letter to this  Society, dated 2nd Feb. 1928, he was  good enough to go into the matter  of the Zodiacal Light rather fully  His letter is filed with our Secretary  and is open for perusal by any one  who cares to do so, but for our present purpose the following paragraph  is sufficient: —  "You might be interested in a few  facts regarding the Zodiacal Light.  It may be seen on any clear night  after twilight has disappeared as a  faint beam of light in the west,  stretching along the ecliptic. Near  the horizon it is wider and brighter  than the Milky Way but it grows  fainter and narrower in higher latitudes. It may be seen best in Spring  when the ecliptic is most nearly perpendicular to the horizon. A similar  beam of light extending westward  along the ecliptic from the eastern  horizon is visible before sunrise and  is  best seen in Autumn."  The writer saw the Arc in 1908,  1916 and in 1926, and on all three  occasions the conditions in the sky  were the same. On all three occasions it was a calm, still night; no  moon or clouds and not the slightest  indication along the northern horizon or in any other part of the sky  of the Aurora or Northern Lights.  In fact there was nothing to be noticed but this band of light or luminous cloud hanging high in the air  .against the dark though star-lit sky.  It is a very beautiful and remarkable  phenomenon, and those who saw it as  it was in 1908 and 1916 will not  readily forget it.  The cause of the light is not  known. They know nothing of it in  the Department of Meteorology.  Washington, while the authorities at  the Observatory, Saanich, have suggested the Aurora as the more probable explanation. It would help  much if the height of the Arc above  the earth's surface were known. The  undermentioned  Civil Engineers are  interested in the matter, and with  this end in view when it occurs again,  will take an observation, each in the  locality where he happens to be, to  ascertain the height of the arc above  the southern horizon, viz:— H.  Earle, Oliver; C. A. Shaw, Keremeos,  G. C. Tassie, Vernon, and J. C. Agnew, Vernon. If these observations  are taken successfully, with a base  of 80 or 90 miles to work on, the  height of the arc above the earth  can be ascertained with some degree  of accuracy. If there is anyone sufficiently interested to take an observation on his own account, if he will  communicate with our Secretary,  Max H. Ruhmann, instructions will  be sent him whereby he can ascertain the height of the apex of the  Arc above the southern horizon with  no other instruments than a 2-foot  rule and a carpenter's level. The accuracy of this method, within limits,  is vouched for by Truatwine's Engineers' Manual.  It is important too that the time  of the appearance of the moon above  the horizon or mountain tops following the appearance of the Arc, should  be noted.  The suggestion that the Okanagan  Arc and the intrusion of the Sona-  ran Zone at Osoyoos may be brought  by the same causes has been rejected by some as being highly improbable. This attitude is, we think,  hardly warranted, since we know so  little about the matter. We know  however that the Flora and Fauna  of a country is largely determined by  its climate, and also, that a body of  cold air coming into contact with a  body of air of a much higher temperature is apt to create cloud of  mist. In a proper understanding of  the topography of the Pacific slope  from the Rockies to the ocean, and  south to Mexico, and the extent to  which the prevailing south-west  winds from the Pacific, affect the  climate of the Okanagan Valley south  of the boundary line, may yet be  found the explanation of the intrusion of the Sonoran Zone at Osoyoos,  and of the appearance in the sky of  this remarkable phenomenon. A  better knowledge of these things  may also give us the reason of those  strange spells of absolute quiet and  stillness which prevail here from  time to time as mentioned in a former Report. 31  W. G. Cox And His Times  L.  NORRIS  In 1861 W. G. Cox who was at the  time Gold Commissioner at Rock  Creek, staked a Government Reserve  at the head of Okanagan Lake. A  tracing has been made of the sketch  plan he sent in with his report, and  is now filed with our Secretary. The  sketch shows the boundaries of the  Reserve as commencing at a point  about a mile below Okanagan Landing, thence east about a mile, thence  north, thence west through the middle of Swan Lake, to a point about  four miles west of O'Keefe's house,  thence south and west to the lake  shore, taking in all the country between Swan and Okanagan Lakes  and a large part of what is now Indian Reserve on the west side of  Okanagan Lake. It was staked as a  Government Reserve but they usually  referred to it in after years as an  Indian Reserve. The sketch is dated  30th June, 1861, but he did 'not  make his report until after he had  returned to Rock Creek in the first  week of July.  In 1863 C. F. Houghton pre-empted land and on the 17th Feb., 1884  wrote to the Colonial Secretary at  New Westminster to say that he had  found within the boundaries of his  pre-emption a stake marked: —  "Government Reserve. Ten Miles  square W. G. Cox P. J." and asked  to have the Reserve cancelled in as  far as it interfered with his preemption claim. When his letter  reached New Westminster they apparently knew nothing about it, and  they had to communicate with Cox  who had it seems, staked the Reserve on oral instructions. Houghton's second letter is dated the 3rd  June, and is now in Victoria. On  the back of it is the following note  in Governor Douglas's handwriting:  "I wish the land in question to be  maintained as a reserve for the present at all events. J. D." and below  this another note by the Colonial  Secretary, A. N. Birch, "Mr. Good.  If this reserve has not been notified  in the Gazette, pray have it done."  We cannot find however that the Reserve was ever Gazetted.  On the 10th August, 1865, J. C.  Haynes, who had succeeded Cox as  Gold   Commissioner,   was   given   in  structions* to alter the boundaries of  the Reserve as it was found to be unnecessarily large. We have been unable to ascertain what alteration in  the boundaries was made, but apparently the area was very much reduced because in 1868 C. O'Keefe, W.  Coulter and T. Greenttow were given  records of land at the head of Okanagan Lake.  There is a sketch plan in the Lands  Department in Victoria showing the  pre-emption claims in Priests' Valley, of F. G. and Chas. Vernon, E. J.  Tronson and Luc Girouard. This plan  shows the trail from Kamloops to  Okanagan Mission as slanting across  the valley, from about where the old  cemetery is to the gap in the hills  through which the present road to  the Commonage runs, in an almost  straight line. The trail enters the  Tronson pre-emption claim at the  north-east corner and comes out  about 20 chains north of the southeast corner. It was somewhere here  where the trail crosses Long Lake  creek, that the priests built a house  or cabin which afterwards led to the  valley being called Priests' Valley.  Unfortunately the plan does not  show the location of the cabin, but  the land pre-empted by Charles Vernon on the 31st Aug. 1866 is described in his record as "running in a  S. W. direction from back of the  priests' house to within a half a mile  of the arm of Okanagan Lake. Originally Indian Reservation." We  hope some day to be able to fix the  location of this cabin with some degree of accuracy.  When Cox got back to Rock Creek  he reported the staking of the reserve and also, the same day, the  murder of the white man by an Indian, at the first crossing of Rock  Creek. The Indian's name was  Charley or Saul, a Colville Indian  and the white man's name was Pierre  Cherbart. The crime was committed  on the 13th June, the inquest was  held by Cox on the 19 th and the same  afternoon a party of miners from  Rock Creek rode over to the "Traverse" at the foot of Osoyoos Lake  and the next morning the Indian  was lynched. Cox in reporting  the  crime  said  there  had  not  been 32  "an assault or outrage" committed  by a white man or an Indian in that  part of the country from the previous September to that date. This  speaks very highly indeed, for the  good behaviour of the miners who  first came into the lower end of the  valley, and for the Indians as well.  But when Cox made this boast he  should have touched wood for on the  14th Aug. he had another "outrage"  to report, a young Englishman, a  supposed deserter from the Navy,  was caught robbing sluice boxes at  the mouth of Boundary Creek. After  the culprit was found guilty he was  given five minutes to prepare and ten  minutes within which to leave the  camp, after being first forced to pay  up all his debts, and Cox, the Gold  Commissioner and J. P., adds: "We  all assisted in the ceremony of drumming out," a truly patriarchal way of  administering justice.  It was while Cox was at Rock  Creek that the International Boundary Line was established along the  49th parallel by the two Commissions, one American and the other  British. He mentions them twice in  his letters. On the 9th Dec, 1860 he  reports:-— "I also perceive that the  English Commissioners have built  their monuments more than 200  yards south of those built by their  American companions" and again on  the 27th April, 1861 he writes: "The  American Boundary Commis sion  passed through here (Rock Creek)  yesterday en route to Osoyoos to  rectify some error connected with  the parallel by them committed I  presume. The English Commission  has proceeded eastward." Instructions were sent to Cox and J. C.  Haynes to see that the monuments  erected along the boundary line  were not interfered with in any way  Haynes in his letters calls them  "obelisks."  Cox in his letters often mentions  the "Traverse." We have not seen  it marked in any of the numerous  sketches he sent in with his_ letters,  but it is pretty clear that by the  "Traverse" he means the ford across  the Okanagan River at the south end  of Osoyoos Lake. It was here the  steamboat was built in the winter of  1861 to run from Priests' Rapids on  the Columbia to the mines on Mission  Creek, by Captain Grey. His letter  to the Colonial Secretary, dated 9 th  Dec, 1860, contains this passage: —  "The residents of the Traverse have  petitioned the President for the appointment of a Collector of Customs  there to collect duty on goods entering from British Columbia to the  newly discovered mines" and adds,  "The candidate is a Mr. Grey formerly a resident at Hope and well  known on the Fraser for his boating  speculations there." It is just possible that this is the man who built  the steamboat.  Cox used the word, Osoyoos, only  in his two letters regarding the  Boundary Commissioners and in his  report of the murder of the white  man. In all three cases he was then  referring to territory south of the  boundary line. It is just possible that  "Osoyoos" was the American word  and "Sooyoos" the Canadian word.  "Sooyoos" was the word in general  use in British Columbia for twenty  years after Cox left Rock Creek, and  it appears in three places in the Victoria "Colonist" in its issue of the  25th July, 1880. One of Cox's letters  is dated the 29th Oct., 1860 from  Prince Town, and in the body of the  letter he refers to the place (now'«/j.\  Princeton) as, Prince Tmmr^dLhovtgh.lM^i  in nearly all his letters he calls it,  Vermillion Forks. The history of the  word "Sooyoos" or "Osoyoos" will  stand investigation, and we hope  some of our members will bear the  matter in mind.  Cox made a return of pre-emption  claims recorded by him which shows  that he, J. C. Haynes and Gideon  Peon recorded each 160 acres at the  Mission and in connection with  Peon's entry he adds:— "240 acres  additional recorded for this man,"  but gives no reason for the extra  acreage.  The importations of live stock on  which duty was paid at Osoyoos during the years 1861 and 1862 while  Cariboo was at its height are given  below. The cattle for Cariboo were  of course, driven over the H. B. C.  trail on the west side of Okanagan  Lake, and not over the trail through  Priests' Valley:  U Horses  Cattle  Mules  33  Sheep  1  1861  1st  Jan.  to  19th  Oct.  356  625  92  19th  Oct.  to 30th  April  ,  1862  172  250  May  963  681  203  June  1065  488  135  July  461  1532  238  400  Aug.  141  163  82  646  Sept.  172  95S  C  Oct.  54  53  325  Nov.  67  19  Dec.  12  4817  3  778  Total  3396  1371  Some Arrivals in the Okanagan  Valley  1863—Luc Girouard  (or earlier).  1873—Theodore Kruger, Mrs. Chres-  tenza Kruger, B. F. Young (driving  stage).  1876—Donald Graham.  1878—Price Ellison.  1883—Joseph   Dunne,   Miss   Genier,  (now Mrs. Donald Graham), Miss  Haack,  (now Mrs. T. Clinton).  1884—C. D. Simms, Miss Gillard  (now Mrs. F. H. Barnes).  1888—Duncan Carmichael and Stephen Mangott (both in from Granite Creek), Aaron Johnson, William McCluskey, Mrs. Almira Furniss.  EDITORIAL NOTES  JAMES   C.   AGNEW,   C.   E.  In our 1st Report it was stated  that the Commonage near Vernon,  was surveyed in 1893. This is an  error. The Commonage was surveyed by J. P. Burnyeat, C. E., assisted  by J. A. Coryell, C. E., in 1892.  Burnyeat's letter accompanying the  return of the survey to the Department of Lands is dated the 26th  Sept., 1892. He gives the acreage  as  25,114  acres.  The iron safe weighing about 1200  pounds, brought in from Priest's  Rapids on the Columbia to Rock  Creek by Cox in 1860, has been located. It is on the upper Keremeos  townsite and is now the property of  Mrs. Thomas Tweddle. Arrangements have been made, through the  kindness of Mrs. Tweddle and J. W.  S. Logie, whereby the safe will be  brought over to Summerland and  placed in the Log Cabin there. A  proper description of this safe will  appear in our next Report. A small  portion of the inside wood work has  been sent to the University in Vancouver,  by  the  University  students.  The first issue of the Vernon News,  the first newspaper published in the  Okanagan Valley, appeared on the  21st May, 1891. Later the hand-  press on which it was printed was  taken to Midway where it was used  in printing a weekly newspaper at  that place. The press was taken from  Midway to Beaverdell, up the West  Fork of Kettle River, where the  house in which it was stored was  burned down. It is just possible  what is left of it is worth salvaging.  If so it should be brought over and  placed in the Log Cabin at Summer-  land.  It is very gratifying to learn that  the U. B. C. students have organized  for the purpose of collecting original  documents and other historical data,  each in his or her own neighborhood,  throughout the Province. The material so collected will be sent to the  University in Vancouver for preservation. It is an excellent idea, and  no doubt much good work will be  done. The average student will give  things to his University which he  would not dream of sending to the  Archives in Victoria. Eric North, of  Armstrong,  is  the  Chairman.  In our first Report there is a paper  by F. M. Buckland on the first wagons brought into the valley. Up to  the present but little is known about  them. General Joel Palmer, who  brought them in, wrote a long letter  describing the different routes over  which freight could be taken into  Cariboo and which was published in 34  the "Oregon Statesman" printed at  Dayton, Oregon, in its issue of the  14th Feb. 1860. In his letter he incidentally mentions these wagons but  gives us few particulars. We hope  to secure the complete story of the  wagons before long.  It has been suggested that this  Society consolidate our Reports into  one, and issue it as a Hand Book of  the Okanagan Valley. It is our intention to do so, but it is too early  in the day to do this. An enormous  amount of work must yet be done  before we know very much about the  Okanagan Valley.  A movement is under way to have  the Historic Sites and Monuments  Board of Canada mark in a fitting  manner the discovery of Okanagan  Lake and the establishment of the  trade route through the interior  which did so much towards opening  up the country and was such an important factor when the boundary  question came to be settled in 1846.  To succeed in this it will be neces  sary to show that the opening up of  the trade route was of national importance otherwise the Board will  not deal with it. It has also been  suggested that this Society prepare  the case on behalf of the trade route.  If we are successful a cairn may possibly be erected somewhere on the  shore of Okanagan Lake.  The old cemetery at Vernon mentioned in this Report which has been  sadly neglected in late years, was  started in 1885. In July of that year  a boy, the eldest child of the late  C. W. Hozier who was then head  cattle man on the Coldstream Ranch,  died. The nearest burying ground  was at the Mission and the late E. J.  Tronson suggested that a burial place  be started at Priests' Valley. Luc  Girouard donated the ground and  Tronson took up a subscription  among the settlers for sufficient to  fence it, and Hozier's son was the  first one interred in the cemetery.  Our President, L. Norris, was at the  funeral. 35  Some Early Pre-Emption Records  No. 1  27th. Aug.  20th. Sept.  1860  4  "         "  5  24th.    "  6  "        "  7  5th.  Oct.  8  15th.    "  9  "        "  10  rt               tf  ii  20th.    "  12  "        "  13  28th.    "  14  23rd.    "  , 15  3rd.  Nov.  116  "        "  17  18  "        ¬a'*  4th.     "  Vl9  "        "  eo  "        "  Bl  "        "  p2  20th.    "  h  23rd.    "  24  30th.    "  25  10th. Dec.  26  28th.    "  27  28th. Feb.  28  7th.  Mar.  29  15th.    "  1st. Apr.  31st. July  31st. Aug.  6th.  Apr.  18th. May  1st.  Sept.  26th. Nov.  11th. July  25th.    "  2nd. Mar.  24th. May  1st.  Aug.  20th. May  1st.  Aug.  14th. Feb.  27th.    "  1st.  Mar.  26th.    "  23rd. Jun.  5th. July  17th.    "  5th.  Dec.  1861  1866  1867  1868  1869  1870  1873  James Phillips  Similkameen  George   Barnet  Do  J.  F. Allison  Do  John  Marston  Do  John  MacDonnell  Do  James Orr  Do  Charles  Good  Do  John Riley  Do  Higman  &  Johnson  Do  F. Higman  Do  Richard  Connor  Do  Col. Moody  Do  W.   McCall  Do  John  Cover  Do  W.  Moberly  Do  Edgar  Dewdney  Do  Capt. Suard  Do  Edgar  Dewdney  Do  W.  Moberly  Do  Hudson's  Bay  Co.  Do  Do  Do  Louis  Marshall  Do  Robert Burnaby  Do  Thomas Stalschmidt  Do  W.  Young  Do  P.  O'Reilly  Do  F.  Higman  Do  George Turner  Do  John  S.  Macdonnell  A.  Beavon  Do  Roderick McLean (purchase)  Do  Chas. A. Vernon  Priest's Vallev  Forbes G. Vernon  Do  Do     (purchase)  Do  Thomas Ellis  Penticton  A.   MacFarland  Do  G. W.  Simpson  Osoyoos  W.   H.  Lowe  Do  Luc  Girouard  Priest's Valley  W. Lacerte  Mission  E. J. Tronson  Priest's Valley  C. O'Keefe  Head   of  Lake  William  Coulter  Do  Thomas Greenhow  Do  James  Jameson  Mission  C.   F.  Houghton  Swan Lake  Do     (purchase ^  Do  J. C. Haynes  Osoyoos  August  Gillard  Mission  A. Macfarland  Penticton  J. C. Haynes  Osoyoos  M.  Keogan  Dog Lake  D.  Driscoll  Mission  I_.  Barcelo  Keremeos  Harrington Price  Do  Henry Nicholson  Do  Francisco   Mendosa  Similkameen  T. Cole  Do  Barrington   Price  Do  Henry Nicholson  Do  T. Kruger  Osoyoos i


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