Kinesis

Kinesis, March 1988 Mar 1, 1988

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 9«  Special Collections Serial  March 1988 $1.75  KINESIS  About Women That's Not In The Dailies  INTERNATI^0  SUPPLEMENT STAFF BOX  Kinesis welcomes volunteers to work on all aspects  of the paper. Call us at  255-5499. Our next News  Group Is Wed. March 9,  1:30 pm at Kinesis, 301-  1720 Grant St. All women  welcome even If you don't  have experience.  PRODUCTION THIS ISSUE: Marsha Arbour.  Noreen Shanahan, Alllsa  McDonald, Esther Shan-  Nancy Pollak, Isis, Susan  Fell Pacaud, Lucy Morelra,  Kathee Muzln, Andrea Lowe,  Maura Volante, Glsele Car-  rlere, Patty Gibson, Ivy  Scott, Shauna Fox, Claire  Stannard, Emma Kivisild.  FRONT COVER: Photo  from Refugee.  EDITORIAL BOARD: Esther Shannon, Patty Gibson, Marsha Arbour, Alllsa  McDonald, Nancy Pollak,  Pat Feindel, Noreen Shanahan, Maura Volante.  CIRCULATION AND DISTRIBUTION: Cat  L'Hirondelle,       Noreen  Shanahan,          Lucy  Morelra, Nancy Pollak  Marsha  ADVERTISING:  Arbour  OFFICE: Cat L'Hirondelle  Kinesis Is published 10  times a year by the Vancouver Status of Women.  Its objectives are to be  a non-sectarian feminist  voice for women and to  work actively for social  change, specifically combatting sexism, racism, homophobia and Imperialism.  Views expressed In Kinesis are those of the writer  and do not necessarily reflect VSW policy. All unsigned material Is the responsibility of the Kinesis  Editorial Board.  SUBSCRIPTIONS: Individual subscriptions to Kinesis are $17.50 per year or  what you can afford. Membership In the Vancouver  Status of Women Is $25.50  or what you can afford. Includes subscription to Kinesis .  SUBMISSIONS: All submissions are welcome. We  reserve the right to edit  and submission does not  guarantee publication. All  submissions should be  typed double spaced and  must be signed and Inr  elude an address and phone  number. Please note Ki-  nesis does not accept poetry or fiction contributions. For material to be returned, a SASE must be Included. Editorial guidelines  are available on request.  ADVERTISING: For Information about display advertising rates, please contact Kinesis. For Information about classifieds,  please see the classified  page In this Issue.  DEADLINE: For features  and reviews the 10th of  the month preceding publication; news copy, 15th;  letters and Bulletin Board  listings  18th. Display advertising:  camera ready, 18th; design  required, 12th.  ESI  ^^IMews About Women That's Not In The Dailies  0m  B.C. women are well organized to take on Bill  Vander Zalm's anti abortionist government 3  pO  <3  Si  ^  &L  "V^  *%s*+A  V^      ^VMES  ©  fW  Jpp  <S£  /mmnftW  «3  mm  ^v  ij  .OC3/7  it       sv  m  ft  Artists respond to Middle East turmoil v  thoughtful show on the Palestinians  This year international supplement (page 13) focuses on immigrant  and refugee women in Canada and around the world. Interviews 14  /BBffflM  '?  ....3  Advisory council report criticized    ....3  MSSH: Reorganization hurts service access    ....5  Movement Matters   ....2  Abortion: The national picture and legal analysis  ....6  What's News   ....8  Accord puts social programs at risk   ..10  by Heather Wells  Beans    ....9  Privatization weakens social control   ..11  by Nora Randell  by Ivy Scott  Western world blocks refugees    ..12  by Esther Shannon  Speculative Fiction ....  .21  Women refugees:  by Melanie Conn  unique problems with no special protection   ..13  by Trisha Joel  Flight from Argentina:  Commentary   .24  the search for political asylum   ..14  by Carol McLeod  by Jasmin Miranda  Young immigrants a match for a tough challenge  ..14  by Leslie Timmins  Letter   .25  Palestinian show, impressive and touching   20  Bulletin Board   .26  by Sima Elizabeth Shefrin  compiled by Lucy Moreira  Non-fiction selection sparks new thinking    22  by Patricia Maika  i  Kinesis Is a member of the  Canadian Periodicals Publishers Association and Is  Indexed In the Alternative  Press Index.  CORRESPONDENCE: Kinesis, Vancouver Status of  Women, 301-1720 Grant  St., Vancouver, B.C. V5L  2Y6  Camera work by Northwest  Graphics. Laser printing by  Vancouver Desktop Publishing and Eastside Data  Graplcs.  Printing  by Web  Press Graphics.  Second class mall #6426  KINESIS  Mar. 88 1 Movement Matters  N$S$Sxxxx<SSS^^  Movement  matters listings  information  Movement Matters is designed to be a  network of news, updates and information of special interest to the women's  movement. Submissions to Movement Matters should be no more than 500 words,  typed, double-spaced on eight and a half by  eleven paper. Submissions may be edited for  length. Deadline is the 18th of the month  preceding publication.  National  economic  conference  A national conference on Women and  Community Economic Development will  take place in New Westminster, May 27 -  29 and conference organizers are urging interested women to book those dates now.  The conference intends to explore is-  Bues resulting from women's participation in  community economic development (CED).  Women across Canada are involved in a  wide variety of CED activities with goals  that include gaining greater control over the  creation of stable employment, the investment of capital in our communities and control over the use of our own resources.  Workshops at the conference bclude:  working in organizations in their  neighbourhoods, cities and regions, women  initiating projects with women, building development structures, CED and the con-  of labour, and many others.  The conference is sponsored by Douglas  College and Women Skills which are committed to making the conference as accessible as possible. A detailed brochure with  registration form etc will be available by  March 31. To be put on the conference  mailing list write: Attn. Margaret Zucht,  Community Programs and Services, Douglas College, P.O. Box 2503, New Westminster, B.C. V3L 5B2 or call (604) 520-5479  or (604) 430-0453.  Diaphragm  fittings  available  Are you looking for a safe and effective  method of birth control? The Vancouver  Women's Health Collective has begun to fit  diaphragms and cervical caps once again.  The diaphragm and the cervical cap are  barrier methods of birth control. They are  used with a spermicide so that sperm are  killed as well as being prevented from reaching the egg. You only use these methods  when you need them — during intercourse.  There are no harmful side effects, and they  are convenient and easy to learn.  A cervical cap or diaphragm fitting at  the Women's Health Collective is an enlightening experience. The fitting covers an introduction to reproductive anatomy, counselling on how to use the method effectively,  and cervical self-exam. The fittings take as  long as is needed, so that each woman comes  away feeling confident that she knows how  to use the method she has chosen. Most sessions take one and a half to two hours.  The diaphragm and cap fitters' collective  is a group of women who are committed to  helping provide women with safe, effective  birth control. They undergo approximately  50 hours of training spread over a year of  workshops and clinical experience.  To make an appointment for a fitting,  phone the Vancouver Women's Health Collective at 255-8285.  West Word  Four scheduled  Women and Words announces West  Word Four, an annual summer school-  writing retreat for women. The retreat will,  as in past years, be held at Vancouver  School of Theology at the University of British Columbia and will run from July 31 to  August 13. The retreat includes both group  and individual sessions as well as readings.  Instructors for the West Word Four are:  Donna E. Smyth, fiction; Dionne Brand,  poetry; Susan Crean, creative documentary; Eileen Kernaghan, speculative fiction.  Guest readers will be Audrey Thomas and  Barbara Smith.  The application deadline is April 15. For  a descriptive brochure and application information write West Word Four, 210 - 640  West Broadway, Vancouver, B.C. V5Z 1G4  or phone (604) 872-8014.  Accessibility  guide produced  The British Columbia Coalition of the  Disabled has produced a new publication:  Accessibility Awareness: Vancouver Guide,  a must for disabled people and service organizations. The guide rates public facilities  in the Greater Vancouver area on their accessibility to people with disabilities.  Listings are comprehensive and incorporate information for people with sensory as  well as physical and mobility impairments.  The goal of the guide is to go beyond minimum access and work toward the full integration of disabled consumers. Guide information covers banks, stores, restaurants,  theatres, churches and indoor and outdoor  recreation facilities. Overall ratings for any  specific listing are not provided since accessibility will depend on the individual and  their particular disability.  To order copies write BCCD, 211-456  West Broadway, Vancouver, B.C. V6Y 3R1  or call 875-0188. There is no charge for the  guide, however, donations are welcome to  help cover costs.  Women's tour  to Nicaragua  Planning is underway for the Second  Women's Tour to Nicaragua, sponsored by  the Women's Sector of the B.C. Nicaragua  Solidarity Coalition. Tentative plans to date  call for a two to three week trip in November of this year.  Planning is focused on trying to find a  way to explore fewer interests more extensively than the first women's tour was able  to do in its 1986 trip. Areas that have been  discussed to date include: housing, arts,  health, childcare, agriculture and women in  the military.  Fundraising plans are underway and  hopes are for a benefit dance on March 21  or 28. Keep posted for final details. A raffle  is planned and organizers are actively looking for donations of raffle prizes.  Women interested in organizing, participating, working, planning and co-operating  should write Women's Tour, 9 West Broadway, Vancouver, B.C., V5Y 1P1.  KINESIS ///////////////////^^^^^  /////////////////////^^^^^  News  Vancouver  abortion clinic  to open soon  by Laura May  "You are not alone. We are for  you, and we are determined you  can make your choice," Maggie  Thompson told the women of British Columbia Coalition for Abortion Clinics' (BCCAC) press conference on Sunday, February 21.  The BCCAC "unanimously resolved ... to set up immediately  an abortion clinic in Vancouver."  Since Premier Vander Zalm has refused to allow provincial funds for  abortions unless a woman's life is  in danger, the BCCAC says that  "we consider ourselves to be in a  medical emergency" and an abortion clinic is "absolutely urgent."  Hundreds of angry people eager  to help the pro-choice movement  and several desperate women seeking information about abortions  have been calling the BCCAC,  Planned Parenthood, and other  women's groups ever since Vander  Zalm decided to limit funding, a  spokesperson for BCCAC said.  Between thirty and forty doctors have volunteered to perform  abortions one afternoon a month.  BCCAC has not announced the  location or opening date of the  clinic, only that it will open "as  soon as possible" somewhere in  Vancouver.  BCCAC plans to establish a  comprehensive women's reproductive health centre—including birth  control and"non-judgmental"  abortion counselling—in five or  six months and regards the abortion clinic as an interim measure towards this end. Abortions  performed in clinics rather than  hospitals cost considerably less,  Thompson emphasized. She con-  B.C.'s clinic coalition sees an abortion clinic as an interim measure and plans to establish a comprehensive women's health centre in five to six months. Above (left to right) Ruth Hule. Hilda Thomas.  Maggie Thompson and Janet Vesterback. coalition spokespeople announcing go ahead plans for the  clinic.  demned Vancouver General Hospital's pay-first abortion policy, noting that "no other medical service  must be paid up front."  Thompson also reported that a  few doctors in B.C. plan to start  their own abortion clinics, which  the BCCAC would support as long  as they offered equal access to all  rights  Abortion  Join the fight back  by Joy Thompson  If you are pro choice and concerned about the abortion situation:  Join the Pro Choice Movement  The B.C. Coalition for Abortion  Clinics is going to set up a clinic in  Vancouver as soon as possible. The  fastest way to become active is to  phone the contact people for each  committee listed here: the committees are meeting weekly.  The Clinic Sub Committee  This   committee   has   a  number  of   tasks,   they   include:   finding  a building; talking with doctors,  nurses, counsellors and nurses aids  who are interested in working in  the clinic; organizing equipment  for the clinic; investigating insurance and liability issues; applying  for status as a non profit society.  Call: Jackie Ainsworth 253-6725  or Barbara Mintzes 253-6725, 255-  8285.  The Fundraising Committee  This committee tasks include: developing a fundraising strategy;  raising the money needed to open  the clinic. Call: Lucielle Wood 438-  9025.  The Outreach Committee  This   committee   tasks   include:  If you need help...  by Joy Thompson  If you are in need of abortion  services or know someone in need  of abortion services. Do not despair, abortions are still being performed in many areas in B.C. You  can take the following steps:  • Call your doctor to confirm you  are pregnant as soon as possible. This will help avoid delays.  • Your doctor will likely refer you  to a gynecologist. The gynecologist is usually the person who  does the surgery.  • You will be booked into a hospital, usually a surgical daycare  unit, for your procedure. You  may be told there is a 3 week  wait.  • If you do not have a regular doctor, if your doctor is unsympathetic, if the wait is too long,  or if you do not have money to  pay for an abortion call the Vancouver Women's Health Collective. We will make direct referrals for abortion services in  Vancouver and in Washington  State.  The Vancouver Women's Health  Collective phone line is open from  10 am. to noon and 2 pm to 4 pm  Monday to Friday.  The cost of an early abortion  in clinics in the States is approximately $280.  Both of these options require  cash payment before the procedure is done.  Do not despair. You are not  alone.  writing a new brochure as an outreach took; recruiting new members to the coalition; plugging in  new members; answering the coalition paper. Call: Jean Rands 251-  2826, Ruth Huile 253-0462.  Join the Concerned Citizens for  Choice on Abortion: Call 876-  9920.  Donate Money  You can donate money to the  Vancouver Women's Health Collective's Abortion Fund. This fund  is set up to loan money to women  who cannot afford to pay for abortion services. The money may be  paid back when and if the woman  can afford it.  Send your tax deductible donations to:  The Vancouver Women's Health  Collective, Suite 302, 1720 Grant  Street, Vancouver V5L 2Y7 or  drop it off... the money is needed  now.  You can donate money to the  B.C. Abortion Coalition so that a  clinic can be opened as soon as  possible. Send donations to: The  B.C. Coalition for Abortion Clinics, P.O. Box #66171, Station F,  Vancouver V5N 5L4  Write to  The B.C. Minister of Health: Peter  Dueck, Legislative Buildings, Victoria, B.C. and federal Minister of  Health Jake Epp, House of Common's, Ottawa, K1A OA6  Your M.P. and your M.L.A. tell  them that abortion is not a criminal act and should not be in the  Criminal Code. Tell them you do  not want to see federal legislation  re-criminalizing abortion. Demand  that they force their provinces to  provide medical insurance coverage and provide equal access to  medical care.  women regardless of income, provided counselling, and billed MSP.  Meanwhile, the B.C. Civil Liberties Association (BCCLA) has  brought a suit against the provincial government over abortion  funding. If BCCLA is successful, the government must pay  for "medically required" abortions  which "protect a woman's health,"  a spokesperson for BCCLA said  Tuesday. BCCLA defines health  as a combination of "physical  and psychological well-being." It is  "unclear," however, whether this  suit will enable BCCAC's abortion  clinic to bill MSP.  If the B.C. Civil Liberties  Association suit fails, then the  Women's Legal Education and Action Fund (LEAF) plans to file  another suit challenging Vander  Zalm's policy, according to The  Globe and Mail. LEAF's suit will  invoke the Charter of Rights and  Freedoms' guarantee of equality  for both sexes to attack provincial abortion policy, since men currently receive all "medically required" operations while women  do not.  Report criticized  by Esther Shannon  A recent publication on immigrant women, produced by the  Canadian Advisory Council of the  Status of Women (CACSW), has  angered the only national organization for immigrant and visible  minority women in Canada.  The National Organization of  Immigrant and Visible Minority  Women of Canada (NOIVMWC),  says the report, "Immigrant Women in Canada: A Policy Perspective" misrepresents the situation  of immigrant women.  According to Carmencita Hernandez, a vice-president of  NOIVMWC, the organization objects to "... the process of consultation and the content of the report."  "First of all," said Hernandez, "there was no consultation.  And there are basic aspects of the  report that we disagree with. It  says that immigrant women are  better off socio-economically than  Canadian born women, that we  have a lower rate of unemployment  and a higher rate of labour force  participation."  "Statistically it does not consider today's flow of immigrants  who are mostly from third world  countries and who have a much  lower median income than immigrant women of the past."  The report, authored by Shirley  Seward and Kathryn McDade, examines a number of major areas of  concern and concludes that "as a  group, immigrant women are doing rather well" pointing to the  finding that "they are better represented in managerial and professional occupations than Canadian  born women." The study notes,  however, that "a disproportionate  number are in the most disadvantaged groups within Canadian society."  The report calls for:  • fully subsidized, government  sponsored language training  courses  • reform of the Canadian Job  Strategy to facilitate greater  participation by immigrant  women in training programs  • greater sensitivity to the problems faced by many immigrant  women with respect to recognition of their credentials  • the development of culturally  sensitive child care options  • improvements in the rights of  foreign domestic workers particularly in view of proposed  changes in entry selection criteria  The report does not focus on  what it describes as "systemic discrimination on the basis of race  and ethnicity" (racism) saying it  should be studied in its own right.  Hernandez says her organization is concerned that " If policy  makers get hold of the report they  may say that immigrant women  do not need any help. The re-  See Report pg 4  KINESIS ACROSS B.C.  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  ^xxx>^^^^^^  Quarantine law:  what it means  who is affected  by Lea Dawson  On December 8th British Columbians witnessed the provincial  legislature's final reading of Bill  34—the Quarantine Bill.  The Quarantine Bill makes  amendments to the B.C. Health  Act relating to persons who may  have a communicable disease. Although terms like "communicable  disease", "isolation" and "quarantine" are not defined in the bill,  they are interpreted by most as  targeting AIDS and persons who  may carry the AIDS virus.  Gay and bisexual men are assumed to be most affected by the  legislation, but the recent provincial AIDS education program directed at Vancouver's street community suggest street people could  also be affected.  Before Bill 34 reached final  reading there were a few minor  changes. One specified that only  those people a government appointed medical health officer believes are spreading the disease  "wilfully, carelessly or through  mental incompetence" can be isolated or quarantined. Gay activists  fear that conservative politicians,  doctors and judges who interpret  a homosexual lifestyle as irresponsible will implicate gays solely on  their sexual orientation.  Widespread opposition to the  quarantine law has been mounting since its introduction last year,  year, with major concerns for human rights violations. The bill con  travenes no less than five sections  of the Canadian Charter of Rights  and Freedoms.  Groups   speaking   against   the  legislation at a rally last fall included the B.C.  Human Rights  Coalition, the City of Vancouver  employees   union,    the    Persons :_  With Aids Coalition, Prostitutes "U  and   Other   Women   for   Equal Ji  Rights,   and   the   Coalition   for w  Responsible   Health   Legislation. I  These groups favour  "education, g  not incarceration."  What will the Quarantine Bill  Mean?  On February 18th, lawyers  Brigit Eder and Eric Warren met  with the Coalition for Responsible  Health Legislation to discuss the  implications of the quarantine law.  Although the bill has been referred  to as cumbersome and unworkable,  Eder and Warren believe it can  and may be implemented.  According to Eder the lack of  definitions for terms like "quarantine" makes it difficult to predict  the meat of the legislation. The  provincial government will eventually define these terms, without  public discussion or input.  Despite the vagueness of the legislation, Eder believes the most  dangerous part of the bill lies in  the power it gives Cabinet appointed medical health officers. A  medical health officer can with  "reasonable grounds" order a per  son to comply with certain conditions like isolation or quarantine.  "Reasonable grounds" do not have  to include probability, certainty or  even proof.  "You can be in quarantine, nobody has ever really tested you,  and nobody knows for sure that  you have tested positive for anything," says Eder. There is no opportunity for a second opinion.  Refusing to comply with a medical health officer's order could result insix months in jail, a $2000  fine, or both. An ensuing court order could mean a one-year quarantine, a decision that can be renewed for subsequent years.  Eder and Warren emphasize  there are no safeguards in the  legislation for persons thought  to have a communicable disease.  They conclude that a massive  Charter challenge to the entire bill  must be initiated as soon as pos  sible. Challenging the bill "piecemeal" will be ineffective.  Who Will Be Affected?  In February the B.C. Ministry of  Health began a program of AIDS  and safe sex education on the  streets of downtown Vancouver.  With a budget of $200,000, four  public health nurses have been  hired and a fifth will soon be  hired to work with natives. Dr.  Michael Rekart, director of sexually transmitted disease control for  the province, describes the project  as "simple, effective, cheap and  safe." After talking with street  people he said he expects the  project will be well received.  The public health nurses will  distribute condoms, show drug  users how to clean needles with  bleach, and take blood samples for  the AIDS test. They will educate  people presumed to be engaging in  International women's day  by Laura May  The International Women's Day  Committee is working right up to  the last minute to organize activities and confirm speakers and  events for IWD week. The following information is as up to date as  is available but be sure to call the  numbers listed below for information about other events.  The annual IWD march will  take place on Saturday, March 5th.  It will start at Victory Square  (Cambie and E.Hastings) at 11:30  pm and will follow a route through  Report frompg3  port pits visible minority and immigrant women against Canadian  born women."  According to NOIVMWC "It  is crucial that distribution of the  paper be stopped until appropriate amendments are made after  community consultation and feedback."  Sylvia Gold , advisory council president says the council will  not withdraw the report saying that she doesn't think the  criticisms "are shared across the  board." citing meetbgs she has  held in the west and in Ottawa where NOIVMWC's concerns didn't arise.  Saying that the purpose of the  paper and her meetings is to "look  to the future and bring about some  changes for immigrant women",  Gold suggested that those criticizing the study "really, really didn't  read the report." which she said is  largely about the needs of the "disproportionate numbers of immigrant women who are over represented in the most disadvantaged  group."  "We did read the report, said  Hernandez , "and it might be important to point out that there are  social scientists, economists and  statisticians in our organization  and we studied the report thoroughly. We would not have released a detailed press release if we  had not studied the report. What  we would like is that the Advisory Council would take responsibility and see that criticism like  this should be taken in the spirit  that it is offered, as a way to build  unity."  the downtown eastside to Op-  penheimer Park. (Dunlevy and  E.Cordova) where a brief outdoor  rally will be held.  In keeping with the focus on the  women of the downtown eastside,  rally speakers will include Laurel  Kimbley of the Downtown East-  side Women's Centre and Joan  Meister of the Disabled Women's  Network, who will speak on the issue of access to Crab Beach. Other  rally speakers have yet to be confirmed. Sign language interpreters  will be provided.  Following the rally, there will be  an Open House at the Downtown  Eastside Women's Centre's new location at 44 East Cordova from  lpm to 5pm.  An IWD Information Day Celebration sponsored by the Vancouver Status of Women will be  held at First United Church,  320 East Hastings from 1 to 5  pm. The Celebration will include  entertainment featuring Japanese  drummers from Katari Taiko and  the women's acapella group, Aya.  Speakers will address a variety of  issues including South African and  Palestinian women, Japanese redress, bride burning in India and  lesbian rights internationally and  abortion in Canada.  The Celebration is wheelchair  accessible, onsite childcare is provided and sign language interpreters will be available. Admission is free.  Other recently confirmed events  of interest to feminists include an  opportunity to hear Madeline Parent, Quebecois trade unionist and  feminist, who will speak at the  Georgia Hotel on Thursday, March  10 at 7:30 pm. Childcare is available for those who pre- register by  calling 875-1769 and the Japanese  Redress Rally on March 13 at the  Japanese Language School, 475  Alexander, reception at 5pm.  For information on other IWD  events check your February Kinesis or call 255-5511, Monday to  Thursday 1 to 5 pm.  high-risk activities on how to prevent the spread of the AIDS virus.  Although the project is primarily directed at sex workers and  IV drug users, Marie Arrington of  Prostitutes and Other Women for  Equal Rights says that street people, runaway kids, alcoholics and  natives are also being targeted.  According to Arrington, Rekart is  negotiating with Chiefs on the reserves not to allow native people who are living in Vancouver  back onto reserves unless they are  tested for AIDS.  The AIDS test has long been  questioned by AIDS education  groups who do not believe it is  effective in preventing the spread  of the disease. Whereas a positive  AIDS test result indicates exposure to the virus, a negative test  result says very little. AIDS Vancouver does not recommend the  AIDS test, but promotes safe sex  and safe drug use practices.  Arrington states that blood  samples for the AIDS test are  being taken from street people in Vancouver "by coercion"—  refusals to give out condoms, or  bad trick sheets.  The tests are confidential unless positive, at which time health  nurses have forty-eight hours to do  contract tracing. With detailed descriptions of their clients recorded,  the nurses leave envelopes for  women, or messages on the street.  "Everyone knows why the health  nurse wants you" she says.  Confidentiality without protection from incarceration or quarantine offers feeble assurance to people who may be at risk for AIDS. It  is recommended that people taking an AIDS test consider giving a  false name or go "in costume."  The Quarantine Bill adds to the  poor record of the Socred government on human rights issues.  Who will be implicated by the legislation cannot be predicted, but  the support of the province for  AIDS testing in the street program  (while refusing to fund programs  for the gay community) suggests a  direction.  The Coalition for Responsible Health Legislation continues to fight the quarantine  law. Their first meeting is on  Thursday, March 17, 7:80 pm.  Call 854-8458 or 684-6869 for  more information.  KINESIS  Mar. 88 Across B.C.  ///////////////a.  MSSH  Reorganization will make services inaccessible  by Noreen Shanahan  Changes are in the works for  British Columbia's GAIN recipients. Watch as your file is passed  around from office to office, hand  to hand, and watch as the Socreds  try to make it disappear.  A three year draft proposal  prepared by the Ministry of Social Services and Housing (MSSH)  shows they intend to use decentralization and privatization in their  mandate to (further) strip people  of access to services, as well as  stripping them of personal dignity.  "Rumour has it that within a  year MSSH will disappear altogether," said Darlene Marzarri,  NDP MLA. "The government is  hellbent to unload as many services and programs as possible; the  social service department is very  vulnerable."  Rumour is beginning to take the  shape of reality as the reorganization plans become visible. According to some frontline workers  within the ministry (who choose to  remain nameless in order to protect their jobs) the most detrimental change in terms of client access  will be the splitting apart of the  social worker and financial assistance worker (FAW) team.  MSSH proposes to house the  two positions in different regional  offices and under separate supervision.  "At present, if a mother comes  in and says her spouse is threatening her, the FAW gives the  money directly to her, then sends  her down the hall to the social  worker for help," said one Vancouver FAW.  While   the   two   workers   now  share relevant information on a  client's needs, the onus will soon  be on the social worker, (who  knows the client) to convince an  FAW, (who primarily knows budgets and figures) to provide money.  "The trouble will be in getting  money in emergency situations,"  said one Burnaby social worker,  "I'll have to go through two supervisors. Now I just walk over and  say 'what about this?' Soon I'm  going to have to write ten memos  just to get fifty dollars."  Regional offices throughout the  province will be amalgamated,  leaving fewer workers with larger  caseloads and less time per client.  "Vancouver, for instance, will be  split from five offices to two," said  Garry Colley of the Unemployed  Action Centre (UAC).  Services other than those per-  DERA gets provincial funds  by Noreen Shanahan  In an attempt to rid Vancouver's downtown eastside of  'welfare day problems' the Ministry of Social Services and Housing (MSSH) has recently agreed  to fund the Downtown Eastside  Residents Association (DERA)  $25,000 to open bank accounts for  GAIN recipients in that community.  "The ministry seems to love  us right now," said Jim Green  of DERA. "We've been trying to  get this funding for fifteen years.  What's amazing is that Richmond  (Claude Richmond, Minister of Social Services and Housing) has really followed through with direct  contact with people who will provide the funds."  Calling itself "Downtown Financial Services" the project will  open an office in the downtown  eastside and hire three people for  an initial four months. The project  will assist people with opening  and using personal bank accounts  where their monthly GAIN cheque  will be automatically deposited  from the ministry office.  "Our first priority is to meet  with frontline workers in the ministry as well as bank managers in  the community. We'll explain the  program to them, explain why it's  important for the area and the re  cipients, and tell them to expect  people to come in," said Green.  The ministry will advertise this  new system and will direct people  to the Downtown Financial Services.  This service, which Green expects to be used primarily by single men, will provide the person with greater financial independence and will lesson the risk of  him being robbed on welfare day,  after cashing his entire cheque.  "It will also cut down on people  being tempted to go out for a toot  and losing their money in some or  several of the twenty-seven pubs in  the area," he said.  Most importantly, the likelihood of a recipient's landlord intercepting his cheque, which Green  sees as "the biggest welfare fraud  in the community," is diminished  through the person having sole access to his bank account.  He expects 7,000 people in the  downtown eastside will be served  by this system.  Asked whether he was suspicious of MSSH's motives behind  offering this funding, particularly  in light of the Socred's privatization plans, Green said, "We're not  interested in privatization in any  way. We would have no part in replacing BCGEU members."  formed by a social worker or FAW  will also be independently housed  and supervised. This will make social services less accessible to the  average recipient. It will no longer  be possible to go through only  one door but rather it will become  more of a bureaucratic maze.  "II a client needs money she'll  have to go to one office, if she needs  support groups or counselling for  children she'll have to go to another office," says Colley.  Clients must also negotiate a  relationship with several workers  instead of just one or two, increasing the possibility of worker-  client harassment. Jean Swanson  of End Legislated Poverty (ELP)  predicts that an increased number  of FAW's will result in a fiercer  "welfare cop" situation.  Stuart Aleock, Executive Director of the B.C. Association of Social Workers says there's a fair  amount of anxiety over service separations not the least being added  stress on a family in need.  "... a fiercer  'welfare cop9  situation"  "In the past it was 'one-stop-  shopping' services, now it'll depend on whether they've gone in  the right door or not."  Emergency after-hours social  work services presently offered by  MSSH will be lost in the upcoming  reorganization. "There'll just be a  person on the phone giving referrals," said one social worker.  Under the heading "Income Assistance" and slated for 1988 the  ministry's draft proposal reads,  "integration of Income Assistance/Employment Initiative program." According to Jean Swanson this refers to one aspect  of MSSH's privatization plans,  namely the present use of the  Hewett Group, a private company  whose mandate with the ministry  is to access a person's employabil-  ity, teach them how to job search,  and get them off the welfare rolls.  "Imagine the scenario of an  employer calling up the Hewett  Group for referrals, and if the  GAIN recipient refuses the job she  could possibly get cut off assistance," said Swanson.  According to Swanson the ministry aims to collect data on clients  refusing to take these jobs, or refusing to attend Hewett Group  seminars. Publishing this data, she  says, will serve to further humiliate people needing assistance.  Darlene Marzarri predicts both  increased privatization and a move  from welfare into 'workfare'—a  more deliberate shove off welfare.  "I fear women (over forty) in  particular will be badly trashed  because they won't meet employable standards but neither will  they be single mothers on welfare now able to get emergency  grants," she said.  "Single mothers on welfare, now  comprising forty percent of the  MSSH caseload, will be expected  to move into training, not the best  place for them or their children,  since quality childcare is the last  priority of this government."  While John Robinson of the  B.C. Government Employees Union believes MSSH "... has  no intention to privatize any services beyond what has already occurred" some union members/ministry workers disagree.  According to one Financial Assistance Worker, MSSH is trying  to physically separate FAW's and  social workers in order to "make  it easier to privatize social workers  and easier to get them out of the  union."  Claude Richmond, Minister of  Social Services and Housing, had  this to say at a DERA (Downtown Eastside Resident's Association) meeting last August,  "Sometimes the best people to  look after the people we've spoken  of (people in need) are the people  closest to them ... who would be  best to deliver these services than  DERA or other similar groups?"  According to Marzarri, movement on the part of MSSH will  be to privatize as quickly as possible. "If the whole department is  dismantled, I fear children and social services will in effect move  to the private sector, be reorganized into children's aid society—  Catholic chilren's aid society—and  there'll be no accountability or assured standard of service throughout the province."  Despite repeated efforts by Kinesis, a spokesperson from the  MSSH Reorganization Committee  was unavailabe for comment.  Centre's new office dramatic change  by Teresa D. Gibson  The Downtown Eastside Women's Centre, incorporated in  1978, has moved to 44 E. Cordova.  Their new facility is bright and  spacious, with a private office, two  bathrooms (one wheelchair accessible and the other with a shower),  a kitchen, laundry room, and place  for children to play.  The atmosphere change is so  dramatic that Lori Gabrielson,  drop-in coordinator, commented  on the premises at 217 Main  Street. "Lots of times I'd go away  for a month on holidays and then  I'd come back and open the door  and it would be smokey and dark  and I'd think—How do I spend  forty-five hours a week of my life  in here?"  The City of Vancouver was  the core funder of the project —  providing the new building on  a five-year lease basis, at only  $500 monthly. A one-time grant of  $10,000 was also granted for renovation expenses. This figure was  matched by a private benefactor,  bringing the total to $20,000 in  available funds. An application to  the B.C. Lottery Foundation for  funds for badly needed furniture is  pending.  The story of the Downtown  Eastside Women's Centre is an  amazing one. It started with Laurel Kimbley as the only staff person, dealing with forty or fifty  drop-ins a day. "Laurel should be  credited," Lori pointed out, "she  brought feminism to the Downtown Eastside"—an area offering  little or no services for the women  of the district.  At one time the Centre shared  space with a soup kitchen. At another, both a Native and Chinese  outreach worker were employed.  Even with Pam Cooley, programming coordinator, as Lori's coworker, there is much need for additional help. While some problems are gone forever, others are  temporarily controlled.  "We have very little money  for programming or staff development," Lori said. "Our programming changes from month to  month. The only thing definite  right now is the Alcohol and Drug  support group ... We're always  looking for women who have skills  to share, ranging from anything  like massage to knowledgeable crisis intervention."  KINESIS Across Canada  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx^  Across Canada  "Section 251 clearly interferes with a woman's physical and  sanction, to carry a foetus to term unless she meets certain  a profound interference with a woman's body and thus an  The  national  picture  British Columbia: The B.C.  government's policy on abortion  now is to pay only if it involves  a life-threatening pregnancy. Premier Vander Zalm says provincial medicare won't even cover the  costs of abortion for women who  become pregnant as a result of  rape or incest. Ministry officials  expect to pay for only about fifteen abortions next year.  Alberta: Abortion committees  continue to operate until there are  other guidelines. The medical associations have to approve a Morgentaler clinic and he'd need another year of post-grad study to fit  Alberta's practitioners guidelines.  The fact that he's been in jail  could be a problem according to  Dr. Roy le Riche, Registrar of Alberta's Medical College. Le Riche  is now the centre of controversy  because he sent a letter to the  province's health minister saying  doctors don't think most taxpayers want to pay for abortions.  Saskatchewan: Medicare will  cover hospital abortions if a  woman's life is threatened. Saskatchewan will not fund abortions done in clinics. Premier  Grant Devine said he sympathizes  with B.C. Premier Vander Zalm's  position, and doesn't "particularly like" the Supreme Court of  Canada decision on abortion.  Devine, who personally opposes  abortions, said the operation can  be better controlled in hospitals where alternative information  about adoption and help if the  woman should choose to keep the  child is available.  The medical association says  clinics should be funded like hospitals as long as the standards are  equal.  lVlanitoba: Several hospitals  have disbanded their abortion  committees, but are still using the  old guidelines. Some hospitals say  they want the province to bring in  new regulations.  The Minister of Health says the  province will pay for abortions  done at health care facilities licensed by the College of Physicians and Surgeons.  The Morgentaler Clinic in Winnipeg has applied to the Manitoba College of Physicians and  Surgeons for a licence.  Suzanne  Ontario looks rosy but...  by Pat Daley  Although the Ontario Ministry of Health has ordered the  province's hospitals to dissolve  their therapeutic abortion committees, the work is not over for  the Ontario Coalition for Abortion  Clinics (OCAC).  "The Supreme Court ruling  makes things more hopeful, rather  than creating a dramatic broadening of access to abortion,"  says OCAC spokesperson Miriam  Jones. "There are still quotas on  beds and operating room time.  And there are still women having  to fly out of the North, for example."  Compared to most other provinces, the current situation in Ontario may look rosy. Health minister Elinor Caplan moved quickly  to dissolve the therapeutic abortion committees—in mid-February  the government revoked the Public Hospitals Act regulation requiring the committees—and announced that OHIP, the provincial  health care plan, will pay a standard $100.30 for abortions performed by qualified doctors, in either hospitals or clinics. Still, says  Jones, "She could have moved for  full funding for freestanding clinics, but she didn't."  There are two freestanding clinics operating in Ontario, one run  by Dr. Henry Morgentaler and  the other by Dr. Robert Scott.  Both are located in Toronto. An  abortion at the Morgentaler clinic  costs $300, to cover the operating costs of the clinic. But that  extra $200 also constitutes extra-  billing, which is illegal in Ontario.  While Morgentaler and Scott met  recently with deputy health minister Dr. Martin Barkin to discuss  funding, a ministry spokesperson  said no decision was reached.  The full funding issue is high  on OCAC's agenda, says Jones, as  is the establishment of a network  of community-based, freestanding  clinics providing a range of reproductive and alternative sexuality  counselling.  Last December, the government  announced the first of its new  women's health centres. The system of centres, attached to public hospitals, rose out of a January,  1987, report by Dr. Marion Powell.  In her study, commissioned by  the health ministry, Powell said  that in 1985, in more than half  of Ontario counties—home to 30  percent of Ontario's population—  the majority of women obtaining  abortions had the procedure outside their place of residence. More  than  half  of  all  hospital  abor  tions in Ontario were performed  in metropolitan Toronto. In response to the report, the Ministry  of Health asked for submissions to  establish women's health centres  as a way of improving access.  But, says Jones, the question of  access is not being addressed by  the centres. "Caplan says it's not  a numbers game," she adds. "But  it is."  According to a Ministry of  Health spokesperson, four centres  have been approved—two in Toronto and two in Hamilton, a forty-  five minute drive away. The two  Toronto centres will not perform  abortions, focusing on education,  counselling, and referral instead.  Besides abortion, the services will  cover family planning, birth control, infertility, premenstrual syndrome and menopause, prenatal  and postnatal care, nutrition, and  more. In Hamilton, the centres will  also provide "enhanced abortion  services," the spokesperson said.  As for establishing centres in  more remote areas of the province,  he said the ministry is reviewing  the proposals it has received. However, the locations and formats will  not be announced until the proposals are accepted.  There is another Toronto proposal under discussion. The community-based, 24-hour centre  would be sponsored by Toronto  General Hospital, the Canadian  Mental Health Association, the  YWCA, and Planned Parenthood.  Even if the centres do not act  to improve access to abortion services, OCAC is concerned about  the quality of care women will receive. "Women having abortions in  hospitals are not guaranteed the  safest, newest techniques," Jones  said. While the Morgentaler clinic  uses a local anesthetic, for example, hospitals tend to use a general,  which sometimes means women  need an overnight stay. The Powell  Report also criticized widely used  procedures for dilating the cervix  prior to an abortion. Jones added,  "Hospital staff are not necessarily  supportive of women."  OCAC will continue to press  its demands for community-based,  free-standing clinics. "We have  been working and working on  this front for years," Jones said.  "The whole clinic strategy paid off  in the Supreme Court decision."  While OCAC has been criticized  for adopting a legalistic approach,  "it worked," she said. "We were  dealing with a federal law and we  had to deal with it in those terms."  For the time being, the organization is also continuing its escort  services for women going into the  clinics. In one week in February,  there were eight arrests for trespassing at the Morgentaler clinic,  Jones said. The charges were all  laid against the same two men.  Support for women in other  provinces is another of the group's  immediate tasks, Jones said She  pointed out that the speed with  which Ontario's health minister  moved to abolish hospital committees was not the result of  having a Liberal government or  any better organization among  Ontario women than elsewhere.  "Larry Grossman (former Progressive Conservative party leader  in Ontario) would not have done  what Vander Zalm's doing," Jones  said. "He's an iconoclast. He's not  representative of anybody."  "Vander Zalm is not going to  get away with this for long. But  everyday that he does keep it up,  there are hundreds of desperate  women."  Jones accused federal health  minister Jake Epp of "waffling"  when he says he can't move unilaterally against the B.C. government  for refusing to cover the cost of  abortions under provincial medicare. "It's clear to me that it's  a delaying tactic," she said. Any  delay for a new federal law gives  Canadian women, buoyant from  the recent victory, more time to organize against it.  "We are opposed to it (gestational rights) being in the Criminal Code at all," Jones said,  pointing out that doctors have  their own self-governing mechanisms. As well, she said, "the danger of being in the Criminal Code  is a rollback." In January, the  British House of Commons voted  to reduce the twenty-eight week  limit to eighteen weeks. Jones said  the risks of such a law outweigh  the small proportion of women  who need late abortions, noting  that Canada's high rate of second  trimester abortions can in large  part be attributed to delays caused  by the therapeutic abortion committee process.  In the meantime, now that the  Court has said women are free to  choose, the issue is access. And it's  also time for congratulations before wading again into the fray.  "We can't minimize the contribution of Dr. Morgentaler," said  Jones. "He put everything on the  line, but there are also thousands  and thousands of supporters and  activists who have been working  really hard.  "It's not just the pro-choice  movement. It's the women's movement as a whole, and the labour  movement. This is national victory."  Newman, Director of the Clinic,  says they need a licence urgently  because she is having to refer numbers of women to the United States  and eastern Canada.  Charges against Morgentaler  have been dropped, and Winnipeg  Police returned $200,000 worth of  equipment seized in raids on the  clinic in 1983 and 1985.  Quebec: The government has  tolerated free-standing clinics since  Dr. Henry Morgentaler was acquitted in 1976 on abortion-  related charges. The government is  now studying how to finance services. The Physicians Association  says medicare should cover abortion clinics.  Ontario: Health Minister Elinor Caplan has scrapped abortion  committees and brought in legislation to make sure no hospital requires a woman to seek approval  from them again. Abortions in  hospitals and free-standing clinics  will be covered by the province's  health insurance plan.  trince Edward Island: No  abortions on the Island before  the Supreme Court ruling. The  provincial government will cover  the cost of abortion procedures  but women have to travel out of  province as no Island hospital will  provide the service.  1^ ew Brunswick: The province  will pay for abortions carried out  in approved hospitals, providing  a woman has the consent of two  physicians. The abortion must be  medically required, but the government will not strictly define  those requirements. "That's up to  the doctors," said Ray Frenette,  the Health Minister.  IN ova Scotia: Health Minister  Joel Matheson says the province's  medicare plan won't pay for abortions in clinics. Hospital's abortion  committees will be disbanded, but  it will be up to each hospital to decide if they will perform abortions.  The Nova Scotia Medical Association will have to decide if Morgentaler can practice there,  there.  J\| ewfoundland: No decisions  yet. The provincial medical association believes hospital committees  should disband, but wants abortions to stay in hospitals where  there's proper staffing and equipment.  bodily integrity. Forcing a woman, by threat of personal  criteria unrelated to her own priorities and aspirations is  infringement of security of the person."  Supreme Court of Canada,  Morgentaler Decision, Jan 28,1988  KINESIS  Abortion law unjust... what's next?  by Barbara Findlay  The Supreme Court of Canada  finally ruled that women have a  constitutional right to choice on  the issue of abortion. It held that  the state had no business in the  bodies of its women. And so—  apart from the question of who will  pay—the woman's right to choose,  in consultation with her doctor, is  secure.  Right?  Initial reaction to the Morgentaler decision was ecstatic. The  Supreme Court of Canada had  ruled that section 251 of the Criminal Code was unconstitutional because it contravened the Canadian  Charter of Rights. Section 251 was  the section which made abortion  illegal unless it was approved by  a therapeutic abortion committee  who assessed the "health" of the  pregnant women, performed in an  approved or accredited hospital,  and carried out by a doctor who  was not a member of the abortion  committee. The result of the decision is that abortion is no longer a  crime, under any circumstances.  Why the abortion section is unconstitutional is important. The  Court could have held that s. 251  was illegal because it contravened  s. 15 of the Charter—the right  of women to equality before the  law and the equal benefit of the  law. But that's not how they got  there. Or they could have held that  s. 251 violated a woman's Charter right to freedom of conscience  "We must support legislators  who protect us from  complicity in the moral  crime of abortion."  Archbishop James Carney  Feb 11, 1988, Vancouver Sun.  (as Madame Justice Bertha Wilson did). But they didn't do that  either.  Five of the seven judges found  the abortion law unconstitutional,  but for three somewhat different  sets of reasons.  All five judges found that the  abortion section violated section 7  of the Charter of Rights. That section says:  Everyone has the right to  life, liberty and security of the  person and the right not to be  deprived thereof except in accordance with the principles of  fundamental justice.  There were several steps in the  Court's analysis. Does s. 251 affect  a woman's "life, liberty, or security  of the person?" Answer: yes, because "to force a woman by threat  of criminal sanction, to carry a fetus to term unless she meets certain criteria unrelated to her own  priorities and aspirations, is a profound interference with a woman's  body and thus an infringement  of security of the person." And  the delay caused by the approval  procedures for an abortion, which  "As far as our responsibilities  are concerned we intend to  provide the leadership that is  required on this issue."  Federal Justice Minister Ramon  Hnatshyn, Feb 2,1988,  Globe and mail.  adds to the risk for a woman, also  interferes with her "security of the  person."  But that is only the first step.  The Charter itself guarantees only  "life, liberty and security of the  person and the right not to be  deprived thereof except in accordance with principles of fundamental justice." The Court's conclusion was that the current Criminal Code abortion scheme didn't  measure up to "principles of fundamental justice".  Fundamental justice was breached because of the elaborate requirements in the Code for a legal abortion, which had the effect  of making access to a legal abortion arbitrarily unequal across the  country. That in turn made women  vulnerable to criminal charges on  an arbitrarily unequal basis.  The Criminal Code requirement  that there be an abortion committee of three doctors not including  the doctor performing the abortion, that abortions be performed  only in "approved" or "accredited" the fact that the  prov et additional lim-  itatio. .. jpitals, that hospitals don't have to have abortion  committees, that there is no definition in the Code of "health" and  therefore the term is differently  interpreted—all of these together  mean that a woman has been de-  I have been made aware  by many Albertans  that they resent having  their taxes used to pay for  abortions when these are done  with contraception irresponsibly  being conceived in the joy of sex  Dr Roy le Riche, Alberta College of  Physicians and Surgeons Registrar,  Feb 12, Canadian Press.  prived of security of the person in  accordance with the principles of  fundamental justice.  But the judgment is a far cry  from saying a woman has a constitutional right to choose whether  to carry a fetus to term. The judgment says that if the state is going  to interfere with a woman's right  to choose (security of the person)  it must do so "in accordance with  the principles of fundamental justice."  Each of the three majority judgments was careful to say that the  state (in this case the federal government) has the right to enact  criminal laws about abortion, because the state has to balance the  competing interest of the woman  and the fetus. Justices Beetz and  Estey went so far as to say that  Parliament is justified in requiring  a reliable, independent and medically sound opinion as to the "life  or health" of the pregnant woman  in order to protect the state interest in the fetus event though that  will inevitably result in some de-  lay.  Only Madam Justice Bertha  Wilson analyzed the situation of  women in terms of their right  to privacy and control over their  own bodies, in line with their own  constitutional right to their conscience. She said that liberty in a  free and democratic society does  not require the state to approve of  one's personal decisions but it does  require the state to respect them.  However, even she recognized that  there would be a point at which  the state could intervene to regulate abortion.  At the moment all abortions are  legal in Canada, as a result of  the Morgentaler decision. But the  Court was not so concerned to assert a woman's right to choose,  as it was to establish that if the  state intervenes it must do so equitably. This leaves the door open  for federal laws which are "fair",  "uniform"—but restrictive.  The Supreme Court of Canada  has yet to decide the Borowski  case. In that case Joe Borowski, a  former Manitoba MLA and "pro-  lifer", is suing for a declaration  that the fetus is a person within  the meaning of the Charter of  Rights. The judgment in that case  could also affect the question of  abortions.  The Vander Zalm position on  payment for abortions under the  provincial health plan and the federal government's announced intention to enact new legislation  signal that the fight is not over yet.  not over yet.  The Morgentaler decision is  available at the Legal Resources  Centre of the Legal Services Society in Vancouver.  "There are any number of  reasons for abortion but in  broad terms selfishness  has a lot to do with it."  "We mourn for the unborn  children of Canada... We  promise to continue the battle  with all our might."  James Huges, Campaign Life,  Jan. 28,1988, Globe and Mail.  William VanderZalm, B.C. Premier,  Feb 12,1988, Vancouver Sun  KINESIS Across Canada  Eating  with the  mighty  atom  by Marianne van Loon  If something doesn't happen,  Canadians will soon be buying irradiated food in their local grocery stores. Changes to food regulations, giving food irradiation legal status, are expected to be published in the Canada Gazette anytime now. And when they are,  there will be a thirty day period for public input before irradiated food becomes a feature of the  Canadian supermarket.  The problem is that irradiation is known to. cause dangerous changes to food. The process  wherein food is exposed to gamma  radiation shatters the cells and alters the chemical makeup.  Says Lila Parker of British Columbia's Health Action Network  Society, "The federal government  knows it isn't safe. They're trying to pull the wool over everybody's eyes." She cites an Indian  study in particular, where children  fed wheat irradiated at the same  dosage as Canada recommends,  developed chromosomal abnormalities. "I truly believe we wouldn't  live to see three generations if we  let this thing go through."  In England, the London Food  Commission has condemned food  irradiation, on the basis that it is  unsafe, while in the United States  irradiation of food has been widely  opposed by consumers and many  of the members of the National  P\rf£€Ui5 ftp  Coalition of Food Irradiation, including Quaker Oats, Alpo, Nes-  tle's, Campbell Soup and Stokely  Van Camp have dropped out of  food irradiation when faced with  consumer disapproval.  Similarly in Canada A & P  withdrew its offer of cooperation  in test marketing with Atomic  Energy Canada when consumers  protested.  Lila Parker is urging Canadians to protest food irradiation. She  suggests writing MP's and calling  Prime Minister Brian Mulroney  collect at (613) 922-4211. "Tell  the operator you wish to speak to  the Prime Minister about stopping  food irradiation. If he is not available leave your name and number  for a call back. It is imperative  that everyone speaks out against  WHAT' S NEWS?  by Pat Feindel  Veto  Meech  In the past month, two dozen  rural Manitoba municipalities have  approved a resolution condemning the Meech Lake constitutional  accord. They are angered by the  "special privileges" they believe  were given Quebec.  Ed Peltz, Reeve of Woodlands,  northwest of Winnipeg, drafted  the resolution and distributed it to  160 communities. "There is some  connection to the bilingualism issue." He says the accord gives  Quebec special status "to forward  Quebec's powers ... We're being  given the short end of the stick."  The municipalities are concerned over clauses that give Quebec greater control over immigration and allow Quebec to preserve  a "special identity." They have  urged Premier Howard Pawley to  veto the accord.  Two provincial cabinet ministers agreed to meet with the Union  of Municipalities to discuss their  ing to develop a charter challenge  against sole custody awards, arguing that sole custody is "real child  abuse."  The NAC Justice Committee  asks anyone with information or  interest to write to Fluerette Os-  born, NAC Justice Committee,  344 Bloor St. West, Suite 505, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1W9.  Child  abuse  More than half the names on a  current registry of child abusers in  Ontario shouldn't be on it, according to a report released by Ontario's Minister of Social Services  John Sweeney.  Six researchers from Queen's  University found the criteria used  to add names to the list were inconsistent and inconclusive. Their  report recommends listing only  those people who have been convicted of child abuse in a criminal  or civil court or who have admitted in writing to abuse.  They also recommend that the  list be available to employers or  agencies screening applicants for  jobs or volunteer positions working with children.  Father's  rights  The agenda of fathers' rights  groups appears to be the protection of fathers at the expense of mothers and children, say  members of NAC's (National Action Committee on the Status of  Women) Justice Committee.  The umbrella organization of fathers' rights groups is the Canadian Council for Family Rights.  The men have actively lobbied for  involuntary joint custody of children, mandatory divorce mediation and access enforcement.  Despite research that indicates  that involuntary joint custody  works badly for women, children  and men, the fathers' rightists continue to lobby for a fundamental property right to their children  without regard to the children's  best interests.  Meanwhile, they oppose mandatory enforcement of support payments. And they are seeking fund-  Male  maternity  UI  Opposition parties are calling  for reform of the unemployment  insurance system to allow men  parental leave from work. The controversy arose as a result of a  Kitchener father whose wife died  leaving him with a newborn infant  and no means of support. His local unemployment insurance office  told him he did not qualify for maternity benefits and that he should  apply for welfare.  Three House of Commons committees, the Forget Commission  and the Human Rights Commission have previously recommended  changing the Unemployment Insurance Act to allow parental benefits for either parent.  Employment Mnister Benoit  Bouchard agrees the Act is unfair and will soon be introducing legislation to allow benefits  for widowed fathers. But Mr.  Bouchard says putting parental  equity into practice will require  wading through political and legal  complexities for months.  Most proposals for reform recommend some kind of parental  sharing of the currently allowable  fifteen weeks of maternity leave.  But the Women's Legal Education  and Action Fund (LEAF) strongly  opposes any solution that would  reduce the weeks that women already have. LEAF is looking for  shared parental leave benefits on  top of the existing maternity leave  benefits.  Woman  wins assets  Florence LeBlanc will not have  to divide the family assets she accumulated during a marriage that  broke up after twenty-six years. "I  didn't expect it... all I care about  is that it's over ..." said the surprised Leblanc.  Supreme   Court   Mr.    Justice  Gerard La Forest made an exception to the normal rule of dividing  family assets equally in this case,  because of the minimal contribution made by Mr. Leblanc to the  marriage. He awarded Mr. Leblanc  $6,000 rather than an equal share  of the property.  Florence Leblanc had seven  children and worked long shifts  throughout the marriage. Eventually she started her own pizza business which made enough to allow  her to buy a car, house, and summer cottage.  Her husband drank heavily and  contributed almost nothing toward child care, financial needs or  household management.  "I have no difficulty concluding  that the wife in this case is entitled to the lion's share of the marital property," La Forest said.  Nurses  fight on  "Just because the strike is over,  the concerns haven't stopped,"  says Edna Hutchings, one of the  11,400 Alberta nurses who have returned to work after a nineteen  day illegal strike.  "The issues we wanted the most  have not been resolved, but I don't  think we would have gotten any  more if we'd stayed out longer,"  commented Rosa Madsen, an Edmonton nurse.  The nurses voted in February  on a contract settlement which  provides an 8 percent wage increase over twenty-seven months  and an extra 2.9 percent increase  for nurses with over six years experience.  The nurses say they will continue to fight for improved working conditions. Among their concerns are under-staffing of wards  on night shifts and the dangers of  working alone at night in small  hospitals. (Last year a man was  charged with sexually assaulting a  nurse working alone at night.)  N.S. pay  equity  The Nova Scotia government  will implement a three-phase program over the next six years to  bring pay equity to the public  and private sectors. Premier John  Buchanan announced that the first  phase will be the introduction  of pay equity legislation for the  province's 10,000 civil servants, to  be implemented over a four-year  period ending in 1994.  Phase 2 of the plan will bring  pay equity to Crown corporations and government agencies by  September 1991. Legislation to  bring pay equity to the private sector (phase 3) will be introduced by  1992.  NDP leader Alexa McDonough  welcomed the planned legislation,  modelled after pay equity laws  in Ontario and Manitoba: "I certainly welcome the fact that they  have finally seen, with an election  on the horizon, that they've got to  do something concrete."  No  payoff  Two women who replaced men  in senior Alberta legislature jobs  are making less money than the  men were. But a man who got the  administration's highest level job  in the recent shake-up is earning  more than his predecessor.  New Democrat house leader  Pam Barrett demanded an explanation. She said women taking  jobs formerly held by men "for  some reason qualify for a reduction  in pay while men inheriting men's  posts don't."  Speaker of the Alberta legislature David Carter said reclassification of some jobs had affected pay  levels.  Karen South will earn $44,000 a  year, down from $51,500 earned by  her male predecessor. Meanwhile,  David McNeill will be paid $71,000  a year, up from the $65,000 made  by the former clerk of the legislature.  Carter said South is making  more than she was at her old job  and is above the national average  of salaries for top women managers.  Poor  Moms  More than two-thirds of single  mothers in New Brunswick are on  welfare, says a report released by  the New Brunswick Council on the  Status of Women. And they can  not afford to feed their families adequately.  New Brunswick welfare payments are the lowest in Canada.  Many of the women pay two-thirds  of their welfare cheques on housing.  Council Chairman Myrna Richards says the Council's priorities  are increased welfare payments  and more affordable housing. They  recommend major changes to the  welfare system, including basing  the amounts allotted for rent on local housing costs, and amounts for  food on Agriculture Canada's estimates of the cost of a nutritious  food basket.  "Unless basic items ... are adequately covered, it is unrealistic  to expect women to meet the challenge to get off financial assistance  or to live in dignity," Richards  said.  KINESIS ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////S  /////////////////////^^^^^  ///////////////////^^^^  life Stories  Nora and Mona  from Minnesota  B \l A X S  by Nora Randall  I want to tell you about my Aunt Mona.  At her funeral the priest read a poem about  a simple soul which everyone agreed was so  like her. I thought nothing could be further  from the truth, but I kept silent, the same  way I had growing up there.  I feel a kinship with Aunt Mona that goes  way beyond the biological. She and I left  home from the very same house, at roughly  the same age, she was sixteen, I was eighteen; to join the convent. She in 1907, me,  in 1966. We both lasted six months. By  1966, Pope John XXHI's "strong wind" was  blowing and I came home just long enough  to pack my bags and head off to the cities  and the University of Minnesota where I got  caught up in the tornado of the 60's and  70's and eventually landed in the Vancouver  women's community.  In 1907 there was no such wind, and Ramona returned home to remain there until  1980 when she fell and broke her hip. Then  she entered a Catholic Old Folk's Home at  the other end of Fourth Street. (I asked her  once how she liked it and she told me she  liked it fine because it was on the same  street as her house and the same street as  the church, and she could see the highway  from her window.)  We were both considered to be the "artistic ones" of our generations. Aunt Mona  played the piano. After she returned home  in 1907 she gave piano lessons. She also took  the train into the cities every two weeks to  take piano lessons from a more experienced  instructor.  By the time I was old enough to know her,  Aunt Mona was in her sixties. She no longer  gave piano lessons but she loved to play.  She would come down into the living room  (she called it the parlour) in the evening  and turn on the chandelier (our house was  built in 1890 and had high ceilings). Then  she would sit down at the piano and play—  Brahms, Beethoven and Chopin are three  names that I can remember being on her  yellowed books. She was wonderful to watch  "Ally and Germaine in Wonderland" - from the pen of Vancouver cartoonist Liz Clark, is a new attempt to bring a cartoon saga to the pages  of Kinesis. Check for Ally and Germaine in each issue. Like the universe... their story will unfold as it should.  because she sat elegantly straight and she  loved to play the notes so her hands rose in  the air like birds. (She was the most elegant  ham Fve ever met.) Sometimes she would  play so late I would have to go to bed, but  it wasn't so bad because 1 could lay in bed  and let the music lull me to sleep.  At Aunt Mona's funeral one of my relatives who's in her eighties now, told me that  she lived in the house when she was going to  high school and Ramona used to play the piano at six o'clock in the morning and drive  them all nuts. I don't doubt it for a minute.  Time was not one of the things Aunt Mona  paid attention to.  Besides playing the piano, Aunt Mona  did a lot of the house work both for the family house and her sisters and brothers and  their families who lived around town. She  did all the ironing (she ironed everything on  two sides including sheets and underwear)  and most of the mending (but not blue jeans  which she hated) and she did a lot of sewing.  Earlier in her life she sewed everything, but  later on she specialized in flannel pajamas.  At our house she also did the dishes.  Besides the piano and domestic work, she  read, mostly religious books and geography  books. She loved geography books and loved  to pour over pictures from far away places.  She told my stepmother once that the pictures of Yosemite Park were beautiful—just  like when she had been there. How she ever  got there is her secret, because as far as the  rest of the family remembers in her 96 years  of life, Aunt Mona has never travelled more  than two hundred miles away from home.  The family memory is reliable as far as the  material world goes.  For most people going to an old folk's  home represents the closing in of their lives.  For Aunt Mona, who spent her entire life  in the bosom of her family, doing domestic  work, it was like a trip to Disneyland.  There were people and programs and activities. There was a bus that would take her  to St. Cloud to shop in a mall. There were  tours around the county that she liked to go  on, and outings to restaurants, which she  loved. At night there was a steady stream  of camp fire girls and boy scouts and Lions  and Rotarians who came to the home to put  on entertainment. And then there were the  birthday parties for the residents—this is  where Aunt Mona really shone. She played  "Happy Birthday" on the piano while everybody sang along. At her funeral, they all  talked about how she played "Happy Birthday" with such style, with her hands rising  in the air.  During the homily the priest talked about  how everyone loved her so, how she had such  a sweet spirit, never complaining, always of  service. I thought she couldn't have been  more perfect if she'd had a lobotomy. But  I didn't say it. I would have gotten no support for what I thought, not even from Aunt  Mona. Till the day she died, her prayerbook  was A Catholic Girl's Guide to Heaven.  For the recessional they played "Happy  Birthday" because it reminded them of  Aunt Mona and it fits in with their Catholic  cosmology. I didn't sing and I didn't write  anything about Aunt Mona until I got back  to Vancouver. I couldn't. But I knew I  wanted to tell at least a part of Aunt Mona's  story. "Happy Birthday" is my Catholic  family's tribute to Aunt Mona. My tribute  is this column.  In the "Book of Job" in the Bible, messengers come running up to Job to tell him  of the disasters that have befallen his family. They end by saying, "I alone escaped to  tell thee."  KINESIS Economics  Meech Lake Accord  to put social programs  at risk  by Heather Wells  If women fear vastly different treatment  in areas of health and social services to be  the result of the Meech Lake Accord then  British Columbia's response to the recent  Supreme Court decision on abortion underlines their suspicions.  Witness B.C. Premier Bill Vander Zalm's  immediate one-man refusal to uphold the  spirit of a federal court decision. Vander  Zalm has unilaterally refused medical insurance coverage for abortions unless the  woman's life is directly threatened.  While Canadian women are busy seeking amendments to the Meech Lake Accord arguing that it weakens the equality  clause in the Canadian Charter of Rights  and Freedoms, this recent Supreme Court  decision highlights the significance of the  "opt out" clause in federal-provincial cost  sharing programs. While both the equality  clause and cost sharing programs threaten  women's rights and require amendments to  the accord, the recent Supreme Court ruling brings focus to these programs and calls  for a close look at opting out.  Opting out of national programs can act  as a vehicle for Bill Vander Zalm to accomplish legally the same goal he is now accomplishing illegally by refusing to comply with  the Supreme Court decision. The opt out  clause with its vague wording such as "initiatives" and "objectives" wold allow Vander Zalm or any other premier to go so  far as to privatize medical insurance completely. In this respect, it makes little sense  for New Democrat Opposition Leader Mike  Harcourt to deplore Vander Zalm's handling  of the abortion situation while supporting a  constitutional accord which would have the  same effect.  If the Meech Lake Accord is ratified,  women, for example, would have no constitutional protection from premiers seeking  to abolish the notion of subsidized health  care. In this way the Meech Lake Accord  could serve as an effective vehicle for privatization. And yet the accord does more  than invite privitization. It sets in stone  certain laws future federal and provincial  governments must obey regardless of their  mandate. For example, if the NDP were to  ... unprecedented  powers are being  handed to the  provincial premiers  take office federally, they would be unable  to bring provinces into line with federally  set standards, unless they could amend the  Meech Lake Accord with a ten out of ten  consensus agreement from every province.  Essentially, the Meech Lake Accord in messing with the very chromosomes of constitutional law.  The wide ranging powers offered to the  provinces in the accord did the trick of  getting the premieres on side but could  cost the Canadian public dearly in the  loss of programs and services. In addition  Right wing economics exposed  Women have a unique perspective on economic issues. Our experience of power relationships can provide useful tools for analysis.  Vancouver's Women's Economic Agenda (WEA) is working on a feminist analysis of  economic policy and women in B.C. To be completed in June, the report will focus on the  effects of free trade, the Meech Lake Accord, and privatization.  The following two articles are based on our initial research of privatization and the  Meech Lake Accord. Next month, we'll follow up with an examination of the consequences  of "free trade."  Free trade, privatization and Meech Lake are not separate issues. We see them as three  parts of the same right wing agenda which is based on the idea of transferring economic  power to the private (profit making) sector.  To combat this agenda, women need to talk, read, form study groups, and organize politically. WEA would like to share information and ideas with women interested in these  issues. For more information, or to arrange speakers, or to get on our mailing list, contact WEA c/o BC PIRG, Simon Fraser University, TC 304 Burnaby, B.C. V5A 1S6 or call  (604) 291-4360.  to veto power over the formation of new  provinces, leaving the Northwest Territories  and the Yukon with little hope of becoming  a province, premiers gained a voice in the  appointment of Supreme Court judges and  veto and appointment rights for the Senate.  However, there is no doubt that the big plus  will be the opt out clause for cost shared  programs.  Although Mulroney's advisors would  have us believe only future programs would  be affected, some constitutional lawyers suspect that current programs would be subject to 'opt out' when they are renewed or  renegotiated. Topping the list are medicare  and the Canada Assistance Plan.  Les Federation des Femmes, the largest  women's organization in Quebec, which is  supportive of the accord, has raised an interesting question. If half of the provinces  decide not to participate in a federal program will it still be a national program?  Perhaps an equally fascinating question is  how does the federal government respond to  any of the demands of the female electorate  in this country?  While a loud outcry goes up around B.C.  as Vander Zalm openly flaunts Supreme  Court directives, the concern needs to extend to the Meech Lake Accord where un  precedented powers are being handed to  provincial premiers.  According to Jillian Ridington of the Ad  Hoc Coalition on Meech Lake, "The Socreds  have held hearings on the accord in at least  one riding in the Okanagan. This was apparently a constituency initiative and could  be a useful precedent when requesting hearings in other constituencies."  Another avenue is the Senate hearings on  Meech Lake. Briefs may still be submitted  to the Senate Committee as no date has yet  been set for these hearings and the submission deadline has been extended.  Provincially, letters should be sent to the  following ministers asking the B.C. government to conduct hearings before the ratification of the accord: Claude Richmond,  Minister of Social Services & Housing; Brian  Smith, Attorney-General; Stan Hagan, Minister of Advanced Education k Job Training; Isabel Kelly, Deputy Minister of Advanced Education & Job Training; Bill Vander Zalm, Premier.  Finally, women should job with the  Canadian Advisory Council and other  women's groups who are strongly lobbying  the federal government for a national conference on women and the Meech Lake Accord.  e must join forces  to defend our gains  from attack.  e must work together to  pursue our right to child  care, choice on abortion  and job protection against  privatization and free trade.  Diane Wood a Joanne Fox  Secretary-Treasurer      "C ¬•      Chairperson  BCGEU ^     BCGEU Women's Committee  The BC Government Employees' Union joins with women throughout  British Columbia in celebrating International Women's Day, 1988.  A  KINESIS Economics  Privatization weakens public control  by Ivy Scott  The international trend towards privatization has come to British Columbia.  The Social Credit government is following Britain's lead in privatizing large parts  of the public sector. The move jeopardizes  public accountability along with women's  employment, wages, and access to services.  An issue like privatization is most easily  understood when we look at it in our own  terms. Who gains and loses power from the  change?  In this case, power to affect major decisions about our lives and social structure is  being taken away from us.  Privatization, like the free trade agreement and the Meech Lake Accord, is a  method of changing the role of government.  The state's role in planning the economy  and providing services is turned over to the  "free market".  The government's influence on the economy is diminished as it ceases to control  public utilities and becomes a smaller purchaser of supplies and labour. A related  method of lessening government influence is  deregulation, where government sets fewer  rules for private industry.  The effect of both tactics is to remove  the little control we now have to make or  change economic policy, such as what industries exist where and what wages are paid.  Although we're sometimes powerless to affect the state's decisions, government policy remains the only public method of controlling business. The private sector, on the  other hand, is not even intended to be pub-  lically accountable.  The argument most often used in support  of privatization is that the private sector is  somehow inherently more efficient than the  public sector. The trouble with this idea is  that it measures the public sector by the  standards of the private one. In capitalist  business, the crucial decision making factor  is profit. The attempt to make a profit determines what the business does, where it  does it, who it employs, and for how much.  sector can be more plausibly explained by  what it represents to them. The existence  of much of the public sector is testimony to  the failures of capitalism. It was created by  a public recognition that the market alone  could not maintain a society consistent with  public values.  In B.C., privatization is difficult to oppose because it has not been introduced as  a package of legislation. Instead, the provincial government is steadily implementing  privatization in piecemeal fashion, behind  the scenes in various ministries.  To oppose it, we've first got to recognize  that it's happening. Privatization takes several forms: selling off crown corporations,  selling government operations and services  ... the public sector is  testimony to the  failures of capitalism.  to the private sector, contracting out, and  repealing monopolies to allow competition.  In B.C., contracting out is particularly  widespread. On a national level, federal  crown corporations like Canada Post also  face contracting out and sale of operations.  Women are particularly threatened by  privatization. In addition to diminished  public participation in decision-making,  we'll be hardest hit by job loss, lower wages,  and increased unpaid labour.  Women working for Canada Post have  felt the effect of privatization on women's  employment. The corporation's cleaning  staff, largely immigrant women, have had  their jobs contracted out right across  Canada. The workers were hired on by new  contractors, but lost their union status and  had to renegotiate contracts. Many had  their wages cut from ten to four or five dollars an hour while doing the same work in  the same place.  Clerical workers in the post office have  seen the increased contracting out of data  .;.  This is how the "free market" sets wages  and prices.  In contrast, when the state controls an  enterprise, social concerns are also factors  in decision making. Making money or even  breaking even may be of secondary concern  to meeting public needs.  When public enterprises are accused of  being inefficient, they are being accused of  not making the bottom line (money) their  first priority. They don't do this since that  is not what they're intended to do.  The right wing's targeting of the public  processing work. As a result, there is less  opportunity to advance, and increased pressure to roll back wages and benefits.  Provincial contracting out includes areas of primarily women's employment like  cleaning and food services and clerical work.  Women's access to health and social services is also jeopardized. Privatization of  these means user fees and loss of universal  standards of quality.  In the health care field, women are both  the major providers and consumers of some  services. This is especially true for services  for the elderly, which are already heavily privatized. Most nursing homes are privately run, and senior citizens have recently  been hit with user fees for dispensing prescriptions and for treatments like physiotherapy.  As user fees are applied to more health  services, quality health care becomes out of  reach for low income women.  Seniors were on the forefront of a successful fight against privatization of medi-  Seniors were on the  forefront of a  successful fight  against privatization.  cal care in Ontario last year. The provincial  government had intended to bring in extra  billing and user fees. More variation among  provincial medical services would become  possible under the Meech Lake Accord, including more privatization.  The privatizing of the Vancouver Transition House in 1984 resulted in a disruption  of services to battered women. When the  first private contractor decided not to renew the contract, the provincial government  couldn't find an immediate successor. The  House would have shut down for months,  or perhaps permanently, had not a group of  women occupied it and run it on a volunteer basis.  A third consequence of privatization is an  increase in the amount of unpaid work that  women do. As social services are dismantled, become unaffordable or poor in quality, more work is created for women in the  home and for volunteer and charity organizations.  To oppose privatization, watch for it and  speak out against it where it's happening  around you, at work or a service you use.  You can also make a public stand against it  by organizing actions or educational work,  writing letters or leaflets, or joining a coalition that's been formed against privatization. The coalition can be reached through  the Vancouver and District Labour Council  (879-2421).  VANCOUVER RAPE RELIEF  AND WOMEN'S SHELTER  872-8212  • 24 Hour Crisis Line  • Emergency Shelter for Women  & their Children  • Women's Organizing Centre  WE ALWAYS NEED VOLUNTEERS ...  MORE OF US CAN DO MORE!  CELEBRATE INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S DAY  EVERY DAY ... FIGHTING BACK!  INTERESTED?  PLEASE CALL US.  KINESIS Western world  blocks refugees  by Esther Shannon  Most sources say there are between 12  and 15 million refugees in the world today.  Since the late 1970's western governments have increasingly barred entry to immigrants and refugees, most of whom are  from third world countries. Immigration  controls have been tightened in most European countries and in the United States  and Canada. Immigrants already living in  the West are under increasing pressure from  immigration and police authorities, and face  increased discrimination and racism in employment, housing, health care, education  and social assistance.  Where once western countries opened  their borders to the boat people, now we  call refugees queue jumpers, illegals and  economic migrants. They are accused, at  best of being cheaters and at worst, of terrorism. We plead "compassion fatigue" and  turn our backs on those fleeing from war,  persecution, famine and exploitation. We  are silent while right wing politicians and  governments promote racism to win political power.  Gone, apparently, is the understanding  that people who live in fear will naturally  seek security and asylum. We are unwilling  to acknowledge that there are global reasons  for the massive increases in refugee populations, many of which are the responsibility  of the western world.  Background  In the post-war period of the late forties and fifties, millions of people displaced  from the war were welcomed into European and North American countries. While  humanitarism was a factor in this influx,  of equal importance was the pressing need  for workers to rebuild Europe's devastated  economies. European countries also imported vast numbers of manual laborers  from former colonies, while countries such  as West Germany and Switzerland counted  on "guest workers" from less industrialized  countries.  Even at that time certain immigrants  were not acceptable in western Europe. People fleeing from communist countries were  feared and seen as a potential threat to a  fragile social stability. Between 1947 and  1951 over a million of these people were resettled in the United States, Canada and Israel.  During this time the United Nations  wrestled with defining refugee status. In  1951 a United Nations Convention established that a refugee is someone who has a  "well founded fear of being persecuted for  reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular group or political  opinion."  Article 33 of the convention says that  "no contracting state shall expel or return  a refugee in any manner whatsoever to the  frontiers or territories where his (sic) life or  freedom would be threatened." (The convention and the subsequent 1967 Protocol  Relating to the Status of Refugees were  signed by Canada and over a hundred other  countries.)  Refugee Populations Today  The four major refugee producing areas in  the world today are Africa, the Middle East,  Southeast Asia and Central America.  The single largest refugee group is the 5  million Afghans who have fled the war in  their country since 1979, and live in camps  in Pakistan and Iran.  Throughout Africa it is estimated that  there are 3.5 million refugees fleeing drought,   war,   military   repression   and   the  destabilizing program carried out by the  aparthied regime in South Africa. Conflicts in Mozambique, Angola, Uganda, the  southern part of the Sudan and Ethiopia,  along with persistent drought, have driven  refugees to nearby countries in the Horn of  Africa.  In the Middle East the largest refugee  population group is the Palestinians, two  million of whom live in camps in the occupied areas and in surrounding Arab countries. As well it is estimated that between  one and two million refugees from the war  in Iran are living in Middle East refugee  camps.  Indo-China refugees are the result of the  continuing conflicts in Vietnam, Laos and  Cambodia which has seen almost 800,000  refugees arrive in Thailand since 1975. Of  these over 350,000 have been re-settled in  other countries, but hundreds of thousands  more remain.  In Latin America prolonged civil wars  and repressive military regimes have resulted in over 300,000 people leaving their  homes in El Salvador and Guatemala. Most  of these people live in camps in Mexico,  Honduras and Costa Rica.  While virtually every western country  has developed legislation to prevent refugees  from gaining asylum in their countries the  vast majority of refugees are living in the  poorest countries in the world. The countries with the fewest resources, the largest  populations and often the most fragile political and economic systems are the ones  which offer asylum while the wealthiest  countries make sure that a comparatively  minute number of refugees find a welcome  at their borders.  Racism in the West  Today's refugee and immigrant populations  have little ir. rommon in terms of language,  customs, culture and colour with western  society and so do not "blend in" as easily as  the largely European refugees of the postwar period.  What you can do  Bills C-55 and C- -84 Canada's proposed immigration and refugee legislation is still before Parliament. There is still an opportunity to influence government leaders, members of  parliament and public opinion so that this legislation is amended to protect and enhance  the rights of refugees. Here are some suggestions for action.  Building  Form or join a local coalition of concerned groups and individuals. Draw up a statement  of your coalition's views on the issue and publicize it, encouraging others to endorse your  views. Let the news media know of your concerns.  Personal Involvement  Encourage personal involvement with refugees and immigrants. There are many voluntary agencies assisting refugee and immigrants that can use your help. Check for such organizations in your area.  Some groups may be interested in sponsoring a refugee or refugee family. Ask the immigration office i your area for the names of organizations that help groups in their sponsorship efforts.  Letter Writing  Letter writing is effective, particularly is letters are from individuals, start a letter writing campaign from your group, neighborhood, workplace, church, etc.  Public Opinion Messages  POMs and telegrams from individuals and groups do count, especially if the government receives many from a broad range of people. Public opinion messages may be sent  via CNCP Telecommunications. A fifteen word message costs $3.40 and is billed to your  telephone. Your name and address are included at no charge.  Lobbying  Arrange for you or your group to talk to your M.P. and other party leaders in your area.  Make sure they are well informed on the issues and aware of your concerns. Ask them to  take concrete steps you can monitor. For example ask your M.P. to take your concerns to  caucus and report back to you.  Send letters to: Right Honorable Brian Mulroney, Prime Minister of Canada, House of  Commons, Ottawa, Ontario, KlA OAl; Honorable Benoit Bouchard, Minister Of Employment and Immigration, House of commons, Ottawa, Ontario, KlA OAl, Honorable Jerry  Weiner, Minister of State for Immigration, House of commons, Ottawa, Ontario KlA OAl.  Information from: Coalition for a Just Refugee and Immigration Policy, c/o Jesuit  Refugee Programme, 947 Queen St. E., Toronto, Ontario M4M 1J9. This Coalition has prepared an excellent fact package which includes information on the proposed legislation.  Write them for a copy.  The Vancouver Status of Women has produced a brochure "The Real Refugee Story"  which is available for free by single copy or in bulk. Write VSW, 301 - 1720 Grant St, Vancouver, B.C., V5L 2Y6 or call 255-5511.  In the 1970s, when the post war demand  for labour began to ease off in the face of  rapid technological change and a severe economic downturn that saw sharp increases  in unemployment and inflation, such immigrants and refugees became convenient  scapegoats for the failures of industry and  governments.  But what was a simmering resentment in  the 70's has burst into a full scale backlash in the 1980's with virtually every Euro-  The four major  refugee producing  areas in the world  today are  Africa,  the Middle East,  Southeast Asia  and Central America.  pean and North American government implementing severe restrictions on immigration and refugee claims from third world  countries.  Britain began the move towards truly  repressive immigration legislation with its  1981 British Nationality Act which was designed to deny citizenship rights to virtually  all but white Britons. Since then Britain has  introduced further legislation which adds  up to the toughest immigration and refugee  legislation in Western Europe.  Other western European countries are  not far behind. Like Britain almost all have  stringent airport screening procedures, levy  fines against transit companies that carry  passengers without proper documentation,  empower police to carry out identity checks  of individuals thought to be illegally in the  country, and many have set up internal detention camps for refugees.  In Canada and the United States new  . immigration proposals and laws mirror the  same provisions and go even further. The  American Immigration Act, passed in August of 1986, is designed to insure that  illegal migrants, principally from Central  America, are forced to return to their home  countries. Another law, similar to proposed  legislation in Canada, gives the United  States authority to board vessels and turn  back would-be refugees before they reach  the American border.  Canadian proposals, Bill C 55 and C 84,  are currently being studied by a Senate  £ committee. The bills' powers have shocked  J5 critics and drawn intense opposition from  -< immigrant and refugee advocates. Bill C-  j» 55 says asylum requests are to be processed  2 within 72 hours by a two person committee  ^ which has the power to reject arrivals. The  _£> panel can reject claimants who already have  .o refugee status in another country and those  "§, who cannot establish a "credible" basis for  fcj, a well founded claim of persecution.  Bill C 84 allows immigration officials to  See Blocks pg 23  KINESIS Women refugees  Unique problems with no special protection  by Trisha Joel  Once again the world is waking up to  the reality that refugees are dying in very  large numbers in countries like Ethiopia and  Mozambique and growing in ever-increasing  numbers throughout the southern hemisphere.  An astounding picture has been emerging over the last decade that shows that the  world's refugee population is estimated to  be between 75 to 80 percent made up of  women and children—a figure which represents up to 12 million individuals, possibly  more.  Since Canada's refugee entrants are 80  percent men our selection procedures in  no way reflect this staggering figure. The  fact that two thirds of the twenty percent of entrants that are women are dependents of male immigrants (wives, mothers etc.) shows that Canada has been unwilling to recognize the large percentage of  women who are discriminated against as  single women or as heads of households.  The majority of single parent refugee  mothers become so through disruption  caused by political repression or natural  disaster. They are often in fact "man-  made" disasters, whether the consequences  of war or bad economic-agricultural planning. Women, who are the subsistence farmers in many countries, are particularly vulnerable to famine and drought. Living in extreme poverty in refugee camps or in squatter shantytowns at the edge of third world  cities in effect punishes these women for situations that are not within their control.  Many refugee women suffer forms of discrimination based on their sex. Gender oppression is still not established with race,  religion and nationality as just cause for a  refugee claim despite the fact that women  do flee countries for reasons related solely to  their gender. Women try to escape certain  torture and possible death because of their  violation of marital, behavioral or dress  restrictions—such as choosing a husband in  place of accepting an arranged marriage,  becoming politically active in a women's  movement, marrying a man of different race  or becoming open as a lesbian.  In many countries particular forms of  persecution against women, such as rape or  in-law bride burning, are not recognized as  torture or human rights violations, thus further denying women rights to United Nations protection.  Beginning in the early 1980's a Swiss  organization called Sentinelles lobbied the  U.N. to officially recognize persecution on  the grounds of gender for women who flee  from "honour crimes" or "customary practices". The U.N. refused—questioning the  relevance of the subject to its mandate and  declined to take any action. Though the recent sati burning in India received considerable media attention, for the most part silence about the abuse women suffer is main  tained in the interests of "protecting the  family" and not interfering in the culture.  This male right to immunity, even from  charges of murder, is still enshrined in custom and has recently been restored in law  in some countries.  "Silence surrounds this violence to women. Death as a punishment for the loss of virginity is accepted in silence, as is the murder of young mothers and their unborn children. In parts of Lebanon, Egypt, Syria and  Algeria there is no risk for the killer. Everyone is proud when family honour is saved  by the killing of the victim."  In West Jordan there are about 150  women killed this way each year. There are  hundreds, possibly thousands of reports of  the deaths of young women concealed as  "cooking accidents".  and have increased dramatically over recent years. Women without male protection are brutalized by abduction and/or  rape. For example for the thousands of  Vietnamese who continue to leave their  country illegally escape is often perilous,  especially for those leaving by sea. Many  thousands have died at the hands of pirates who beat the men and rape the  women and girls, many of whom may be  thrown overboard or sold into prostitution. Of the 1000 Vietnamese women abducted since 1982 less than a half have  been found.  In Africa, where half the world's refugees  are fleeing drought, war and repression,  there are many reports of female refugees  who are sexually abused and exploited.  Camps in the Middle East, where approx-  Less than two percent of all refugee  women have any opportunity to even  reach Canadian borders.  Finally, coming from a world where  women's political leadership role is barely  recognized and women's rights activists are  rarely seen as human rights campaigners,  women refugees are usually seen as economic migrants rather than "legitimate"  political refugees.  Protection of refugees has been part of  the Mandate of the United Nations High  Commission for Refugees since 1951—yet in  all areas women experience incredible lack  of guarantees for their safety and no recognition that they face unique problems because they are women. There is no recognition that they need legal protection and  refugee status as individuals in their own  right and as women.  The Route to Canada  A woman refugee faces many barriers before  she could potentially reach Canada's borders.  • Canadian requirements that refugees  have a visa prohibits the vast majority  at step one. Visa offices in third world  countries are often: unsafe to enter for  political reasons, inaccessible to women  responsible for elderly relatives and children, and/or located at huge distances  or even in neighboring countries. Travelling without documents, as many refugee  women are forced to do, is extremely unsafe and leaves women vulnerable to demands for sexual favours by any figure in  authority en route.  • Serious physical and sexual dangers for  women and girls in transit or at refugee  camps are normal every day experiences  imately two million Palestinians reside, and  in Central America are subject to raids and  massacres by army personnel (for example, the atrocities of the Palestinian refugee  camps of Sabra and Shatila).  Women report being raped by male  neighbours and guards in camps, by police  and customs officials in countries of "Asylum", by "Coyotes" (guides) along the U.S.  border and by other carriers of refugees who  have no alternative but to use illegal routes.  Women who survive such attacks suffer severe emotional damage and carry the  shame of deep degradation. Any reliable  statistics, especially of rape and sexual torture, are and will remain difficult to obtain as women are understandably reluctant to complain, especially to male immigration officials. Many from strong religious  backgrounds feel damaged and unworthy of  any respect after being so outraged and violated.  • For women reaching the partial safety of  a refugee settlement camp, barriers such  as socio-cultural or religious beliefs, responsibility for children, long line ups for  food or water and illiteracy may preclude  a woman from acting on her own behalf.  As women have little say in the running of  the camps, their needs, concerns and difficulties are rarely heard. They are often  dealing with the loss of spouse or significant family members, disorientation and  uncertain futures.  A visit to an Afghan refugee camp would  show that adult women are virtually invisible in the camps. As traditionally they  artist unknown graphic design by Kathee Mutin  are never allowed to be seen by strangers  they can only go out if they are accompanied by a male relative and are fully veiled.  These restrictions and the resultant isolation are especially severe for widows who  had no one to collect their food or medical supplies and this has given rise to increased health problems. In some cultures  the tradition of men eating before women  and children has meant a superior diet for  men and the consequences of this practice  for a refugee woman's health can be serious,  especially if she is breastfeeding. Media images of starving children belie the fact that  women are often the ones who die first.  Finally, women in the camps usually have  no recognized employment skills, education  or financial assets and are therefore totally  unattractive to selectors looking for potential workers in industrialized countries.  • Less  than  two percent  of all  refugee  women have any opportunity to even  reach Canadian borders. They need help  understanding the language and their legal rights. The proposals of Canada's new  refugee legislation, Bills C-55 and C-84,  mean women are particularly vulnerable  to rejection at the initial screening process because of greater illiteracy and lack  of ability to understand the regulations.  Their inability to talk about the incidents  of sexual attack deprives them of a legitimate right to ask for asylum.  The whole process of waiting and being  separated from husbands and family causes  increased harassment  and family  breakdown. Women report severe emotional reactions such as depression, insomnia, phobias, anxiety and alienation as they try to  deal with their losses, torture or rape experiences, insecurity and fear.  Once in Canada a variety of major tasks  face a refugee woman and her family. For  a new arrival here the most immediate  problems are culture shock (often involving a conflict of values), racism, the language barrier and isolation from extended  family or community. English as a Second  Language (ESL) classes are provided for  refugees though it is often the men and  children who learn first while the mother  has to stay at home. Poverty, housing  and poor employment prospects force even  those women with previous employment  skills and training to take jobs in domestic  work or exploitative factory situations. The  biggest problem in adaptation is the exile  syndrome—a kind of bereavement involving  loss or roots, material goods and status, extended family support and the long term effects of torture and repression.  Canadian immigration policy has always  sought to benefit the economy and reinforce the dominant culture. White, male,  educated and skilled Europeans have been  See Unique pg 25  KINESIS     ".,. _  Flight from Argentina:  the search for  political asylum  by Jasmin Miranda  Jasmin Miranda: Why did you leave  Argentina?  Nora: I left Argentina in 1977, by that  time the military was kidnapping a lot of  people. In my case, in my family I had two  cousins and a brother disappeared and I was  kidnapped myself and tortured. So I was  disappeared and in a concentration camp  for several days, and for some reason they  released me. I was told I had never seen  what happened, I never knew anything, I  could not speak about it, I was afraid they  would follow me and take me again. So I left  the country.  I went first to Israel, then I was in different places. I couldn't find a place to stay. I  could not find any place where I could ask  for political asylum. At that time there were  a lot of people that had been accepted in  Europe. In Israel I didn't want to stay because of the violence.  Jasmin: Why did you come to Canada?  Nora: It was only by chance. I was in  Europe trying to stay somewhere, I met a  professor from UBC (University of British  Columbia) who told me I could register and  teach here with my degree. I thought that  was okay, because I didn't want to deal with  saying I was a refugee. I didn't want to  speak about it with the authorities, I preferred to come as a student if I had the  chance. And I had the chance. I never asked  for political refugee status in Canada, I was  scared of that, after all my frustration before.  Jasmin: When did you apply for  refugee status?  Nora: It took some time for that, because  when I arrived in Vancouver nobody seem  to know about it. In the meanwhile I was  under a student visa. So I didn't hurry so  much. It seemed that in Vancouver it was  very hard, some people told me I would not  get it. It took me two years to find out about  the procedures. I went to Toronto, because  I found an organization that could pay for  my lawyer. I started the claim in 1982.  I had a meeting, I don't know the word  for it, a meeting with an immigration  cer, a translator. I could speak English but  it wasn't that good, and my lawyer and I  had to speak about my story for about four  hours. Then they made a copy of it and after awhile they sent me the copy so that I  could see if it was correct and make corrections. After that I had to wait. I waited for  about two years until they gave me an answer. I was accepted as a political refugee,  then I applied for immigrant status. By the  time I was accepted it was 1984, and Alfon  sin was coming to power. (President Raul  Alfonsin Soulkes took office in December of  1983. He was the first president elected after  the Argentinian military was forced to give  up power. Alfonsin was considered a progressive by western governments.) I thought  I would be rejected. Maybe because in my  family so many people died—who knows  why?—they did accept my request.  Jasmin:   What happened during the  inquiry?  Nora: I found it to be a terrible experience. I thought it was terrible. That is  why I was not very sure if I wanted to go  through that, but I needed the papers. I had  to remember everything and go through a  very painful experience speaking about everything. I didn't want to do it and the officer was not very friendly either. It was quite  a tense situation. I had the luck to have  a lawyer, who went through my story first  and helped me organizing it. I was lucky really. I had an organization who paid for the  lawyer, but other people don't have these  things. I can see how hard it could be. I  had the money to pay ticket to Toronto. I  was in better condition than other people.  It was very important that they accept me.  I didn't have any other place to go to.  Jasmin: Was it very hard to adjust to  Canadian society?  Nora: Well, in my case, you have to consider that I had been travelling for quite  awhile, living in different countries and  speaking different languages. So by the time  I came here I was already used to those  kinds of shocks. For me it wasn't that difficult, besides I could speak a little bit of English. I had a job at the university, I had a  visa. I did have cultural shock, meaning that  I really felt isolated, it was easier to meet  people in other countries, but it wasn't as  serious as for other people.  Jasmin: Was there anything that was  different  in   your   experience   here   in  Canada, than for example in Europe ?  Nora: In Vancouver in particular there  was no place where I could go and speak  about my problems, no support. Nobody  knew about refugee problems. I was lost  with this—not only refugee but immigrant  problems. I didn't find any place where I  could go and feel that I was supported and  understood. So I don't know if it was because I didn't find the places or because  they didn't exist.  Jasmin: What kinds of places would  you have considered necessary?  Nora: Well, I wish I could have gone to  a place where I could have asked first about  the information, about how to deal with my  problem. That was how to get refugee status. Nobody knew how to do it and how to  lose the fear of it. If somebody could have  explained that to me...  Then if I could have met other people  who had gone through torture as I had. My  other experience here was, I went to a psychologist to try to explain my situation and  deal with it, because I was really depressed,  I could not move, I could not get out of bed  and I had to go to work. So I went to this  psychologist and nobody knew how to deal  with it. With one psychologist this experience was that he ended up crying and I had  to tell him that it's not that bad you know  (laughs) ...  Jasmin: Can you talk about your ex-  Young immigrants:  A match for  a tough challenge  Over the last ten years the issue of women as refugees and immigrants has slowly become more visible but resources for and information about children in the same situation is  much less available. Some of the same concerns about physical, sexual and emotional protection for women are obviously equally important to children as many have been traumatized by experiences of hunger, homelessness, repression and sometimes death. In refugee  camps, where some children are forced to live for long periods of time, sufficient food and  medical supplies to ensure their basic welfare may be available but other equally important  needs, such as educational opportunities, may be lacking.  For children coming to Canada, either as immigrants or refugees, culture shock, language difficulties, schooling and racism are just a few of the many barriers they will deal  with as they try to get accustomed to life in Canada.  The following excerpt is from a lengthy interview with teenagers who have recently come  to British Columbia from other countries.  by Leslie Tlmmlns  Leslie: Is there something I haven't  asked you that you feel people should  know about what it's like for young  people, students who come to Canada?  Is there something you'd like people to  think about?  Virginia: I think that they shouldn't  look at us like we're different from them.  We're all alike. The only thing different  from them is the language, and it's hard for  us to learn, so they should try and help. It's  tough.  Well, what I asked Canadian people is,  why don't you go somewhere you don't  know, where you don't know a single word  and you'll see how people—like if you go  to Latin America—you'll see that the people want to try to help you. They're not going to try to push you away. But here, they  just push you away and they don't help you.  When you need help.  Jola: Try to understand how we feel  when we come.  Virginia: Yeah, how we feel and how  they feel when they come to our country.  Sarabjit: They should be put their selves  in that situation, and think, how would they  feel if they were us.  Elizabeth: It's really hard to go to Canadian people and talk—with them; like some  time they don't talk to me, you know.  Maybe the person might find a hard time  in class, like the teacher speak too fast and  they don't catch up, and sometime you can't  read his writing but other students can, and  sometimes it's hard to ask for help. And  some people doesn't want to help.  Jola: I think that Canadian people, when  you come to Canada, they don't want you  here because you came from somewhere  else.  Sarabjit: Well, Canada is a multicultural  country so they can't say that it's their  country and we should not come to their  country. People made this country, right?  No one owns this country.  Leslie: People from all over the world  made this. Everyone here was (in immigrant except the Natives.  Virginia: I had a fight about two or three  days ago with this guy, he's Canadian. He  says, "Are you going back to Nicaragua?"  and I go, "Why?" He says, "I don't know,  are you going back?"  And I said,   "No,  I'm not going back because I'm not from  Nicaragua, that's why I'm not going back."  And then he said, "Oh, well wherever you  are from, are you going back?" And I said,  "No," and he looked like, I don't know ...  they don't even try to understand. Maybe  it's because people that come from other  places are smarter than Canadians (laughter).  All:\ agree with you (laughter). ... and  they don't want competent—how do say it?  Leslie: Competition?  Virginia: Competition. They don't want  competition. They want to be the best.  They don't want anybody else. Because  there is this girl sitting behind me, she's  been here a month, and she's getting B in  class, and he failed that class, and she's been  here a month, and that's pretty good. He's  pushing us away like, "We don't want you  here." I don't care. Why don't you go and  ask your mom or your dad where they came  from and then talk to me because I know  you're not from Canada, you're not Canadian.  Jola: Some people, when they see that  you're a different colour or something, they  treat you right away different—it doesn't  matter if you speak perfect English or not.  Her brother (Virginia's) and my friend, they  were playing soccer and they did something  to the referee where they swear at him. Because he say, "Go back on the boat you came  from."  Maria: Because he's East Indian, and my  brother, he doesn't look—he's white, he's  more Canadian, he doesn't have the accent  I have—I have an accent—he doesn't have  it. So, I don't know, the referee, he went:  "Why don't you just go back on the boat  you came." And they don't play soccer with  him anymore because he just kicked them  out. And he isn't even Canadian, he's from  England ... he's just another one.  Jola: When you hear something like  that, somebody tells you that, you just hate  that. You don't want to be here. You hate  Canada because people are awful. Why do  they care? It's none of their business where  I came from. You know, you just hate that  so much.  Maria: Canadian people should consider  themselves very lucky to be here and to have  all the things that they have. So I think  if I have something nice, and she comes to  me and she says, "Can I use some? can I  have some?" I'm just not going to say, "Get  out of here, go away." Just, "Here, I have  more than I want," so, why not sharing any?  Why not? I mean, I'm not going to use all  this, and maybe I'm gonna throw it away  or something. Why don't I go and give it to  her, or her? So you should consider yourself  very lucky to be here in a peaceful country  that you have a lot of freedom, and food,  and ...  Sarabjit:—and everything you want—  Maria: There is nobody saying that  you're supposed to be home at ... six  o'clock. If you're not, you're death. Cause  that's the truth, that's what's happening  in Central America. If you're out of your  house at six, visiting somebody, you're walking down the street, driving your car or  something—you're dead—two shots—dead.  Jola: When you tell a Canadian that you  were fighting with the police or something,  they say, "Yeah, really? I don't believe you."  They just don't know anything. They say,  "Yeah, you're lying, just go away." Who  cares?  Elizabeth: Can I say something? It's really hard for people from the ESL (English  as a Second Language) to make Canadian  friends. They try to go to Canadian people  and talk but they kind of can make fun of  the accent. So they become afraid of speaking and become quiet. Suppose you have  something you don't understand, but it's  hard to speak out in the class because other  Canadians are listening, and they know my  accent. When you're different, if teacher and  one student, it's easy to talk but if other  students are around listening your accent,  you think, what do you think of my accent?  And it's very uncomfortable.  Maria: The other day in my English  classroom, I was reading something and I  pronounced bad a word. And then everybody laughed and after that they started,  sort of bugging me with that word. And  then I just ... I just couldn't stand it anymore ... I stood up and I said,  "Okay, excuse me, I'm learning English.  I'm not only learning English, I'm learning German and French. And I speak Spanish, how 'bout you, what are you learning?  Are you learning just to criticize other people? Anyways we're learning, this a classroom, classrooms for learning, not for criticizing, making fun of somebody else." At  least that's what I think.  Leslie: And how did they respond to  that?  Maria: Everybody quietened and it's  like "Ooh, she's a Spanish, don't talk with  her, but you better be her friend, not her  enemy. That's what they say, I don't know  what they say. I mean, I had to do something, because, not only for myself, but for  the people whose behind me, right? Maybe  the other people is ... shy, or, they're  just—And these people are gonna walk over  the faces, practically, so, if you don't say  something in there, right away, forget it.  Jola: You have to say, "Listen. I'm different, because I speak a different language.  But everything else is the same, so stop talking. You have to tell them straight.  Maria: We all breathe the same air, we  all eat the same food, we all, our bodies are  the same, we have the same things. And I  don't know why—I still don't understand  them. Why?  perience with torture?  Nora: Well, I think there is a whole scene  there, you have a group of men around torturing you and interrogating you. The interrogation is like a sexual joy for them,  even if you are not abused by them. You  can feel it in their sexual questions. In my  case, under the pressure of electricity I had  to answer about my sexual experiences. If  I had experience, what was my first experience, and they were laughing, and asking if  through the back or the front all these kinds  of things. Is a very special thing that they  would not do with a man. As a woman I experience all these men forcing me into these  kinds of questions. In my case I didn't answer them. Is very special for a woman.  Then you have the concrete electric shock  (picana) is this device that they can put inside your sexual organs, like it happened to  me. Then you don't know if you will be able  to have babies anymore, how far they did  go. You have all these ideas, and you never  know the consequences, until you actually  get pregnant. The doctor that I had seen  after that, she told me that all my wounds  were superficial. I will never be sure about  it, mentally I will never be sure, psychologically.  Jasmin: How are you coping with it?  Nora: It's hard to explain, I know I  wrote about it. It's very important. In Argentina Las Madres, (the Mothers of the  Disappeared) are very healthy psychologically, they speak about it, they write about  it they do things. In my case since I was isolated and I like writing I wrote my story. I  wrote a book out of it, it's going to be published. I put out all my problems and it was  very good for me.  Jasmin: Could you return to Argentina now?  Nora: Yes, in theory I could but that is  only in theory, because we just heard some  days ago the military was trying to take  over, although in the news it wasn't presented that way, that is the news I get from  Argentina. In theory I could go back, but I  think is very dangerous. I feel it. So, yes it's  hard to get used to that, I have been very  depressed over that because it's hard to get  used to a different kind of society, and up  until now I haven't gotten used to it. I feel  like I am a foreigner. I have come to terms  with this feeling. I just accept it.  Jasmin: If things change in Argentina, will you go back?  Nora: Well, that is a theoretical question. My feeling is that from now on Argentina will pass through very difficult  stages and it's going to change in reality. If  I knew that the situation was perfect there  I would probably go back. Because I belong  there. If I go back at this point it will be  dangerous, it would be okay, everybody can  face danger, but I'm not ready to go through  the same kind of experience two times. Reality tells me that is not the case, so I can't  speculate about possibilities.  Jasmin: Knowing that you cannot go  back, how do you deal with it?  Nora: I go on writing in Spanish and  am in the Latin American literature area, I  will work on that and keep my culture alive  here as much as I can. Which will mean that  I will always be divided in two, but I cannot dream of adapting a hundred percent  to this society. So I prefer to keep that division and work for my culture wherever I  am. I hope it will help if Canadians can get  to know our culture a little bit, we could  translate books for a more fluent communication maybe that could also be good for  Canada ... I don't know ...  These interviews have been prepared  by a Vancouver Co-operative Radio  project which is producing a docume  tary series, Leaving Home: Stories from  the Lives of Immigrants, Refugees and Native People in B.C. The project, sponsored by the provincial Ministry of Advanced Education and Training and  JOBTRAC, will produce a series of radio documentaries to be aired on Co-op  Radio (102.7 FM) April 20, 21, 22, 25,  26 and 27 at 7pm. Call Co-op Radio at  684-8494 for more information.  A'NESIS  KINESIS by Janet Sawyer  Who are the Palestinians?  There is an uprising in the West  Bank and the Gaza Strip. Palestinians are  protesting Israeli occupation and Israeli  troops are 'containing' any 'unrest' by violent and repressive means—mass arrests  and detentions, curfews, forced closure of institutions, shooting to kill (on unarmed people), and most recently—as a matter of official policy—savage beatings from which  some people have died.  Who are these Palestinians? What are  they protesting, and what do they want?  To answer these questions we have to know  something about the recent history of Palestine and Israel.  It is impossible for me to talk about  Palestinians without talking about Israel  and Zionism. It is like trying to talk about  Ireland without talking about England; or  South African black people without South  African whites; or North American aboriginal people without the European colonizers.  In each of these cases the first-named people have been dispossessed by the second;  their situation has been changed so much by  the actions of their oppressors that it cannot be talked about without talking about  those actions.  I am going to try to focus as much as possible on what happened to Palestinians,  what they did and how conditions changed  and developed for them. One of the ways  in which Canadian racbm manifests itself  is in whose point of view things are seen  from. It is the norm to see things from  the point of view of the occupier, rather  than from the point of view of the occupied or the displaced. Then it becomes very  easy to get caught up in the motivations  and the humanity of the one, the occupier,  and not pay sufficient attention to the effects of the actions on the actual situation  of the other, the dispossessed. This giving  of more weight to the reality of one people than to the reality of another, whether  they be aboriginal people here, black South  Africans, Palestinians or others, is racist no  matter how unintentional—or indeed how  well-intentioned—it may be.  From the Beginning  . Since the beginning of Zionist settlement in  Israel, Palestinians have been forced away  from their land and their livelihood. Palestine in the late 19th and early 20th century  was a largely rural and agricultural society.  It was not independent, it was part of the  Turkish Ottoman Empire. The population  was overwhelmingly Arab, and was mostly  Muslim. Some Jews and Arab Christians  also lived there. These people—Muslims,  Jews, and Christians—lived in Palestine together in relative harmony; certainly there  was less anti-Jewish antagonism than there  .was in Europe at this time.  A common pattern of land ownership was  one in which absentee landlords owned large  plots of land which were farmed by others.  The peasants who lived and worked on the  land usually had lived there for many generations.  Early Zionist settlers, from Russia and  Europe, bought land from the absent owners, moved there and began cultivating  it themselves. This disrupted the protection and rights traditionally afforded to the  peasants and displaced them without their  having any say in the matter.  This was also a period of increased industrialization and increasing Western European (particularly British) influence in the  area. All these factors led to a drift of displaced rural Palestinians to the cities, where  they formed a pool of cheap labour, alienated from their traditional way of life.  At the end of the First World War (1919)  Britain took control of Palestine from the  Ottomans, despite Arab agitation for independence. Britain had already lent its  support to the idea of a Jewish homeland  in Palestine, in the Balfour Declaration of  1917.  Zionists and Jews  by Janet Sawyer  Being Jewish and being a Zionist a  other.  s not the same thing. One does not follow from the  Zionism is a political ideology, one which holds that there should be a Jewish state in  Palestine. This idea arose in Europe in the second half of the 19th century, as a response  to the oppression of Jews in Europe and Russia.  Zionism has a tremendous number of non-Jewish supporters in the West. Non-Jewish  Zionists have been essential to the success of the Israeli state. It is perfectly possible—  and, I would argue, not infrequent—for Zionists to be anti-Jewish, believing that all Jews  should go to Israel because they cannot or should not live with other peoples.  There have always been Jewish people who opposed Zionism, arguing that Jews should  fight oppression wherever they live, that a Jewish state is not the answer, and/or that  Zionism is oppressive to Palestinians. At the beginning of Zionist settlement in Palestine,  the small Jewish community there, most of whom had lived there for generations, were not  particularly supportive of the Zionist goal.  Today many Jewish people, Israelis and non-Israelis, are speaking out against the policies of Israel towards the Palestinian people. Their own political opinions vary widely; some  oppose the whole idea of Zionism, some are Zionist but want to take a more conciliatory  approach to Palestinians, some believe that Israel should withdraw from the occupied territories. Many Israelis actively opposed the invasion of Lebanon; many today oppose their  government's response to the uprising in the occupied territories. Indeed, the whole Israeli-  Palestinian question is much more open to debate in Israel than it is in the West. It is important to realize that Zionism and Israel do not command the unanimous and unquestioning support of Jews across the world, the way the Zionists would have us believe.  Many people feel that there had to be a Jewish state in Palestine because of the Holocaust. The hypocrisy of this on the part of Western nations is incredible. These were the  countries that closed their doors to Jewish refugees fleeing Nazi persecution. Boat loads  of Jews had to go from one port to another looking for a place to land, and sometimes  ended up where they started after having unsuccessfully sailed halfway around the world.  Canada's record is appalling—we accepted less than 7,000 Jewish refugees during the whole  Nazi period. Western nations need to accept more responsibility for their own society's  anti-Jewish attitudes, rather than projecting their guilt onto the Palestinians.  Zionist propaganda has blurred the distinction between Jewish and Zionist for a lot  of people. It is extremely important that we differentiate the two. Jews are oppressed in  many parts of the world. Most Western societies, including our own, are fundamentally  anti-Jewish in both subtle and obvious ways. It is important that we recognize this and  fight against it. It is abo important that we support Palestinians in their struggle for self-  determination.  During the 1920's and '30's, new Zionist  settlers dbplaced more Palestinian Arabs.  As well, they were an increasing influence in  an already changing economy. It is important to understand that Zionbts were not  coming to Palestine with the intention of fitting in to the already exbting social structure. Zionism is a colonial movement. They  were coming to build a country of their own.  Many Zionists were idealists who wanted  to establbh a progressive or socialist Jewish state. However, their vision was never  able to accommodate the actual reality of  non-Jewish Arabs living in Palestine. When  they settled on the land, they established  being closed to them.) This British effort  to appease Palestinian nationalists did not  work. And as well, independent Zionist military activity, begun in the previous decade,  increased.  By the end of the Second World War  (1945), most Western nations accepted and  supported the idea of a Jewish state in  Palestine. The Arab world, and Palestinians  in particular, did not.  The Partitioning  In 1947 the United Nations (U.N.) put  forward a plan for partitioning Palestine  into two states, one Jewish and one Pales-  SINAI PENINSULA  new settlements which were not integrated  with existing Arab settlements.  In the 1920's, labour and socialist-  oriented Zionists developed and enforced a  "Jewish only" labour policy. That b, they  called upon Jewish employers, who were  many by now and increasingly dominated  the economy, to employ no Arabs, but only  Jews. This had a disastrous effect upon  Arab workers. They were excluded from  jobs because they were Arabs, at a time  when more and more of them were forced  to leave the land and move to the cities in  search of work. Zionbts were establishing  an economy which excluded the Arab residents of Palestine. Whether intentional or  not, such policies are policies of displacement.  During the 1930's, as the anti-Jewish atmosphere in Europe intensified, more Jews  came to Palestine. The situation grew worse  and more violent. Arabs were increasingly  unwilling to accept either the Britbh military and imperialist presence, or the Zionist  colonists with their plans to take over the  country and establish a Jewish state there.  In 1939, just before the start of the Second World War, the British severely limited  Jewish immigration into Palestine. (At thb  time, when Jewbh people fleeing Nazism  desperately needed places to go, borders all  over the world, including in Palestine, were  tinian Arab. At this time Jewish settlers  were about one-third of the population; the  plan offered them just over half of the area  of Palestine. Virtually no Arabs accepted  this plan. Neither, in fact, did most Zionists.  When the British occupying forces pulled  out of Palestine, they left behind a situation in which relatively well-trained and  well-armed Zionist forces were intent upon  seizing as much territory as possible from  what was essentially a civilian Arab population. What Palestinian Arab military resistance there was, was not well trained or  organized and was very poorly armed. After the formal birth of brael, on May 15,  1948, the neighbouring Arab states invaded  the country; they were defeated by the Israeli army and by 1949 the war was over.  Over three quarters of a million Palestinian Arabs fled Palestine between 1947  and 1949. Overwhelmingly, they left because of economic and military pressure  from the Zionist forces. Economic pressures  included blockades, seizure of goods and  of transport, burning of crops, destruction  of fields and orchards. Over 300 Arab villages were totally destroyed, many of them  not even in the area of the fighting. The  Arab inhabitants of many villages and of  See Palestinian pg 23  KINESIS Not even a foot in the door  by Nancy Pollak  Like a bad dream coming true, Canadian  refugee laws are going from merely scary to  terrifying (see box). They won't, however,  stop Frances MacQueen.  An activist with Amnesty International,  MacQueen has made it her business to  help people fleeing their homelands. She  has plucked refugees from countries oceans  away, and she has personally guided them  across the border at Washington State's  Douglas border crossing.  MacQueen is part of a small network   '  of people—like the U.S. Sanctuary movement which shelters 'illegal' Central Amer-   •  ican refugees—who wish their governments  would at least live up to the 1969 Geneva  Convention on refugees.  Recently, MacQueen assisted a Guatemalan woman through the initial stages of  the 'refugee determination process.' Evidently, even current practices are gruelling.  "We went through the whole process, the  questions they would ask, why they're doing  this, so she wouldn't be alarmed. It's called  a deportation inquiry, and that's frightening.  'So, I had a good interpreter, and she  went right through, and then they asked  her, is there any reason why we should not  deport you? And she said, no. And they  asked, do you want to make a claim for  refugee status? And she said, no. And they  asked her these questions four times, and  then they adjourned. And we took her outside and told her, say yes.  'She was so blocked, so afraid. This is  authority, these are foreigners. Yet she had  managed herself really well up until then.  She'd been stopped three times at the Mexican border, and she managed to persuade  "By Sunday she  was paralyzed.  Monday was her  inquiry."  them she was Mexican: she got really assertive, she psyched herself up before hand.  She made herself more assertive than a  Guatemalan peasant would be crossing the  border. Maybe she used up all her assertiveness there."  People Become Paralyzed  "I've had people who become paralysed, literally, rather than tell their story. Another  Guatemalan woman, shortly before her inquiry, wasn't feeling well. The phone calls  got more and more alarming. And there  was no medical coverage for her, I couldn't  get her into hospital. I felt it was psychosomatic. I got a psychiatrist to go and see her,  and he didn't realize she lived in the basement suite, and he went to the house and  there was no response, so he left.  "By Sunday she was paralyzed. Monday  was her inquiry. Her legs didn't want her  she had been tortured and she didn't  want to recount it.  "We got her into hospital. The psychiatrist, who was quite brutal in my opinion,  managed to get her up (they had postponed  the inquiry) and around.  :Now she's really very strong. It's extraordinary. She goes around and tells people what happened to her."  "The people who will  get the visa will  be rich business  men. That's the new  class of immigrants,  the entrepreneurial  immigrant who can  invest $250 thousand."  2 Frances McQueen, Amnesty International  ^member and immigration activist.  There are relatively few refugee women  who make it to Canada's borders; single  women are even rarer.  "Coming from Third World countries,  you (single women) tend to be more within  family situations and structures, where you  are more protected. They will not permit  you to leave. And if they do permit you,  you are much more vulnerable, obviously, to  rape, to abuse.  "The only case I ever 'lost' was a Kurdish woman of nineteen, whose family was  in North Vancouver. Her fourteen and sixteen year old brothers had been executed in  Iran, her father was imprisoned and she had  gotten out to Turkey.  "I couldn't get to her. I didn't know anyone in Turkey. She was in one place, the  Canadian embassy was in another. Kurds  are persecuted in Turkey as well as Iran. A  woman alone, a young girl—which is what  she was classified as—can't travel alone.  And the 'agent' who brought her out of Iran,  on discovering there wasn't enough bribe  money at the end of it, insisted ;that she go  back. And he took her back.  "I'm phoning around for advice and, even  from Amnesty, they say, tell her to go to  Greece. You know, they're so used to dealing 'middle class': middle class, white, male.  Basically, it's beyond their understanding to  put themselves in the position of that young  woman.  "She's all right, she's still alive, back in  Iran."  But, as MacQueen quickly points out,  even if that young woman had reached the  Canadian embassy, she would still have been  far from safety. Our refugee policy is, in fact,  an immigration policy.  "She would have needed to get points:  for being between the ages of nineteen and  thirty-five, for having a job skill, for speaking English or French, for having a university education. She wouldn't have qualified.  "Even if you've been tortured almost to  death, or are the whitest christian, you have  to qualify under a point system to be a  refugee. They do sometimes have special  programs and will take people who don't  qualify.  "But, basically, it's a privilege to come to  Canada. And (according to the Convention)  it's your right within Canada to be heard as  a refugee. And that's the difference. That's  why people who may not 'qualify', once inside Canada, Canada must provide them  with a safe haven."  No Foot In the Door  "So, (the new law) will stop them from even  getting a foot in the door. Presently, they're  stopping them with visa restrictions, and  by fining the airlines for transporting people without proper documents. And lots of  countries are doing that."  Bill C-55 appears unconstitutional, and  MacQueen predicts a court challenge.  "It violates the Charter of Rights and  Freedoms, it violates the UN Convention  which says everyone has the right to be  heard.  "So this legislation lacks 'universal accessibility'. And should a person be heard,  they're going to go before someone who is  in a government appointed position, an immigration officer. I've had one immigration  officer at the border turn around and say, 'I  don't think any of them are refugees.' That  was in front of me. So what do they do when  there's no one there?  New refugee bills  Announced May 5th, 1987, Bill C-55 may safely be dubbed a refugee denial process due  to its rigid procedures.  New Laws, No Refuge  Shortly after arriving at the border, people will be asked if they wish to claim refugee status. If they fail to respond "yes", it's game over: no second chance, no appeal. In fact,  many genuine refugees are understandably hesitant when dealing with authorities. Without compassionate advice, they may answer this life-saving question incorrectly.  'Safe' Third Country  If a would-be refugee is found to have travelled through a 'safe' country en route to Canada,  they may be deported there within days. Hence, Salvadoreans could be returned to the  U.S., which invariably deports them.  Credibility  If a person has survived the first two tests, they then must immediately convince an immigration officer of the veracity of the dangers they face. If Canada hasn't judged their  homeland to be a human rights violator, they may not be believed. Also, few people will  be able to describe their torture or rape with ease.  Appeals  People denied access to the determination process may appeal through the Federal Court  on questions of law only. Appeals are discretionary, and people will be deported pending  the decision.  Bill C-84 is a wholly new force in Canadian immigration law: it sets out severe penalties  for anyone who aids, abets or advises a person to enter Canada illegally.  "Now, immigration officers are there to  enforce immigration law, which a refugee  has to break in order to claim refugee  status. Basically, most immigration officers  have no sensitivity to the issues.  The 'hear no evil, therefore see no evil' element of the legislation is particularly troubling since the credibility of a refugee claim  depends on what the Canadian government  knows—or believes—about another country.  "What really frightens me is, if there is  a newly-producing refugee country, there's  a wave of people before it catches up, and  the news doesn't filter out quickly. For instance, the first Sri Lankans who came here  weren't believed. They just didn't have any  evidence about what was going on. Well,  what do they need to do? Produce a corpse?  "And if we don't know who can't get into  Canada (because of the restrictions), we're  not going to get people's stories, we're not  going to have evidence."  The 'safe-third country' hurdle will likely  prove insurmountable to Central American refugees who have journeyed overland,  through Mexico and the U.S., to our borders. The federal cabinet for political reasons, is unlikely to declare the U.S. 'unsafe'.  Yet, in the recent past, Canada allowed the  majority of Central American refugees to  await their inquiry in Canada.  "It was considered dangerous for (them)  to be returned to the U.S.," says MacQueen.  "There, the acceptance rate is about ten  percent.  "Weiner (in charge of immigration) was  quoted as saying he thought the United  States would 'do the decent thing' ." Yet,  last   year  it  wasn't   safe,   and  conditions  "They just didn't  have any evidence..  What do they need  to do? Produce  a corpse? "  haven't changed."  Welcoming the Rich Businessman  MacQueen is doubtful that many refugees  will "fit" the new laws.  "The major refugee producing countries,  like Central America, well, they've got to  go through Mexico, or get on a plane. You  can't get on the plane without a visa. Even  if you get a visa, it's a tourist visa which  means you can't claim refugee status. Any  lawyer, even immigration, will advise you to  wait until you're 'illegal' before you claim  refugee status, because it's a safeguard in  the system. If you're legally here, say as a  tourist, and you claim refugee status, you  have no right of appeal.  "So, number one, you're not going to be  able to get a visa—it would be very rare.  The people who will get the visas will be  rich business men. That's the new class of  immigrants, the entrepreneurial immigrant  who can invest $250 thousand. I was told  by a person who has a genuine refugee case  that, when he went for advice (from Canadian authorities) about how he could safeguard his claim, they said, sure, just invest  $250 thousand."  See Bills pg 25  KINESIS     M International  USA  Still fighting  to free Sharon  Karen Thompson has not seen her lover  Sharon Kowalski for over two years, but  she is still fighting. Most recently Thompson's support groups met in Washington,  where Thompson announced that she has  filed a new motion asking the court to declare Kowalski legally capable of making her  own decisions. Sharon has been under the  legal guardianship of her father since July  1985 after being declared mentally incompetent after a disabling accident.  "Free Sharon" groups have raised $80,000  towards Thompson's $110,000 in legal bills,  and have been pressuring Minnesota politicians on her behalf. As well over 1,000 birthday cards were sent to Kowalski, although  Minnesota governor Rudy Perpich has refused to deliver them.  The most powerful demonstration in support of Sharon and Karen was an empty  wheelchair pushed at the October National  Lesbian and Gay Rights March, with a sign  "Sharon in absentia."  Further actions discussed at the Washington meeting include: asking gay pride organizers to include Sharon as a Grand Marshal in absentia, a national demonstration  on Sharon's birthday in August, civil disobedience at Sharon's nursing home and a  telephone campaign to Sharon.  Off Our Backs  BRITAIN  MP tries for  time limit on  choice  Liberal M.P. David Alton's campaign to  cut the abortion time limit from twenty-  eight to eighteen weeks will be sent to committee for discussion and shaping, so that it  can be presented for a third reading. The  committee will probably discuss changing  the proposed time limit, and already introduced an option that would enable women  who had initiated tests for fetal abnormalities before eighteen weeks to have an abortion after this time if the tests were positive.  Alton, a Roman Catholic, argued for reducing the time limit to 18 weeks on the basis that scientific advances allow premature  «**  Mft*  mm  babies to survive earlier. However, Dr. Peter Dunn, a world expert on premature babies, opposes the limit.  "There is no chance of a baby surviving  at eighteen weeks ... two or three have survived at twenty-three weeks. I don't think  we'll go any farther without a quantum leap  in technology."  Currently, 99 percent of terminations are  performed at or before twenty weeks. Of  the rest, half are for young women who did  not know they were pregnant or were too  scared to tell anyone, and the rest we were  due to National Health Service delays or  waiting for test results e.g. amnioscentisis,  which can't be done until eighteen to twenty  weeks. As Alton's compromise stands, the  only ones who will be able to still have an  abortion after twenty weeks would be those  who had to wait for test results.  After Britain's 1967 Abortion Act, back-  street abortions became very uncommon.  Health Minister Mr. Tony Newton warned  the Commons "It would be rash to say there  would be no return whatsoever to some degree of abortion outside the law."  In the meantime, while the debate has focused on preventing an increase in the number of severely disabled babies being born,  there is a growing consensus among MP's  that the time limit for abortions should  be reduced from twenty-eight to twenty-  four weeks. According to the Manchester  Guardian, Mr. David Steel, the Liberal  Party leader who promoted the existing  1967 legislation, declared himself to be in  favour of a twenty-four week limit to reflect  advances in medical technology.  And as Alton continues on his mission  from god, English women must again rally  to defend their right to choice.  Manchester Guardian, Spare Rib  BRAZIL  Abortion leading  cause of death  Complications from illegal abortions have  become the leading cause of death for  women in Brazil. For every seven women  who give birth, ten have abortions and one  of those ten dies from the complications,  making for a death total of over 400,000 per  year.  Because abortion is illegal, most women  use makeshift clinics or try a self-inflicted  procedure. When these abortions go awry,  no further medical help is available. Being  found guilty of having an abortion can lead  to prison terms of between six and twenty-  four years. Seeking treatment in that context is difficult although some women fabricate details of a fall in order to get help.  The Catholic church has been the leading voice of opposition to the legalization of  abortion, despite estimates that Brazil has  more abortions per capita than any nation  in the world.  The federal government has begun a family planning campaign designed to reduce  the need for illegal abortions, but the church  has voiced opposition even to that.  The bishops proclaim, "The church must  remain as it has always been: a defender of  human life in whatever form, above all of  those, the unborn children who cannot defend themselves."  HerSay  BRITAIN  Hooking: illegal  but very taxable  The British government is not concerned  whether women make money according to  their laws, but only that they receive their  share of the profit. Lindi St. Claire, a former prostitute lost her seven year legal battle when a High Court Judge ruled she had  to pay $106,000 in tax. The judge decided  that tax was due, whether or not the service which she had offered was legal.  St. Claire fears that she will be forced  back into prostitution to pay the tax. Would  this then make the British government her  pimp? And will they then help procure customers, and offer "protection", so that they  can get their money?  Outwrite  AUSTRALIA  Koori say shame  on white lies  While the Australian government celebrates its bicentennial, Koori (indigenous)  black people have declared a year of mourning. At the opening ceremonies in Australia's capital, Sydney, the Koori, bearing  signs "200 Years of white lies," and "Australia has a black history," achieved international attention as they chanted "Shame."  The Bicentennial Protest Group has  mounted an education campaign, and as a  result of that pressure, the government is  considering rewriting school textbooks to  include the role of the Koori in Australian  history. Whites have been in Australia for  200 years, while the Koori lived on the land  for over 40,000 years. Said education minister Clyde Holding, "The teaching of history in Australian schools for generations  has been distorted. One of the reasons for  racial tension in Australia is because the average Australian has very little knowledge  of history of his (sic) country and in particular the history of our (sic) indigenous people and their treatment."  The BPG is also working for land rights  for native groups and organizing activities opposing official events during the year  long celebration. They want to forge links  with other similar groups in other countries and can be contacted at: Bicentennial  Protest Group, P.O. Box 174, St. Peters,  2044 N.S.W., Australia.  COSTA RICA  Heredia brings  some dignity home  In Costa Rica's San Jose, women are  organizing a model community to provide  shelter. The Heredia Housing Cooperative  Project demonstrates how housing initiated,  designed and managed by women can help  solve the housing shortage.  In San Jose, escalating immigration has  caused a severe crisis in housing. The government's response has been to fund low-  income, low-quality developments. Control  of these construction projects has been in  the hands of the National Institute for  Housing and Urbanization (NIHU). Residents of NIHU projects have input into the  design of neither their homes, nor their communities. It follows that they have no feelings of ownership or responsibility.  In resistance to the NIHU, women started  organizing. Six years ago, the Heredia Housing Cooperative began with a hunger strike  staged by women demanding "dignified" living conditions.  Specifically, they wanted to purchase government land and take over the design  and construction of their community. Their  own studies showed that they could create  welcoming, well-organized, low-cost housing  developments (in contrast to government-  sponsored slums), and they could do it at  one-seventh the cost per home charged by  the NIHU.  In 1985, under pressure, the Costa Rican  Ministry of Housing accepted the challenge  and agreed to fund Heredia.  Heredia will eventually house 3,000  families—15,000 people. Residents have  participated from the outset. Most are cultivators, factory workers or members of the  service industry. Fifty percent of the households have female heads.  Property will be held in the woman's  name, whether or not her husband is  present—a truly rare phenomenon. A cooperative member said this exceptional situation was well received because of the  women's leadership in the project. Eighty-  five percent of the non-hierarchial organizing group is female.  Though the cooperative has separated  from the NIHU, it is nonetheless obliged to  buy its building materials from the Institute. NIHU is not only charging ridiculous  prices, but the services are very slow, resulting in costly delays. NIHU wants to control  who moves into the neighbourhood, violating previously established occupancy agreements.  In the first week of June, 1987 eight  women began a second hunger strike to  protest the power of NIHU over the Heredia  housing cooperative. "Dialogue is impossible," they charged. "When the government  is deaf."  The women have hope, and strategy and  eventually, their voice will be heard says another cooperative member. One day to "live  with dignity" will be more than a dream—  it will be called the community of Heredia.  Women and Environments  ■sro^efs.ofjf   **r   studio -gift jr  U>T<3   OF   efttfiMl&S,  ^  HELIUM   &rUL00/v£   POTnfAY  vi ftftATOftS ujow\E*s ' syM&o L$   VANCOUVER WOMEN'S   BOOKSTORE  Hours: Monday-Saturday  11:00-5:30 pm  684-0523  315 Cambie Street    Vancouver, B.C. V6B 2N4  IN SOLIDARITY WITH OUR SISTERS.  HAPPY INTERNATIONAL  WOMEN'S DAY  Downtown Eastside Residents  Association  682-0931  ,. KINESIS EUROPE  Invisible but  refuse to  disappear  An International Cleaners Conference  called Invisible Workers was held in London in November 1987. The first of its kind,  it was organized by THIS (Tower Hamlets  International Solidarity) and the Transnational Information Centre, following a delegation of cleaners from London's East End  to Paris in March of the same year. The  cleaners returned determined to maintain  the links they had begun to make in France.  Delegates from Europe included migrant  workers from North Africa and Turkey, activists and cleaners from Spam, Netherlands and Belgium. They shared their experiences with black women and migrant  workers from Colombia, Philippines and Ireland, who work as cleaners in Britain.  The conference was organized into a series of workshops, in which cleaners raised  the issues of privatization, contracting out,  lack of trade union support and racism.  The similarities across Europe were obvious in both the public and private sectors.  For many, the time was spent exchanging  experiences, often with cleaners from other  European countries who work for the same  company.  In common with most industries, cleaning is gradually being taken over by multinational companies. Service Master, for example, is a U.S. company which operates in  West Germany and has just won the contact to clean Guys Hospital in London.  The workshop on international links  called for a network to be established so  that trade union activity and solidarity  could spread across national boundaries.  The management of the George Pompidou  Centre in Paris conceded some demands to  the strikers after cleaners from the East End  joined them on the picket lbe.  The Union of Tunisian Migrant Workers  who organized the strike managed to gain  important rights and improvements following a series of strikes. Yet their achievements have led to increased racism from  French nationals and their unions.  All immigrant organizations are illegal in  France. There has to be a minimum of one  white/French member in migrant workers  organizations. In a recent strike organized  by the CGT, the main Communist trade  union which has a cleaners section, black  members were harassed by the police.  The issue of racism was also raised in  the "Women organizing in trade unions"  workshop. An asian woman from Harlesden  spoke about the lack of language facilities  in unions and how white men came to token meetings.  The majority of cleaners are women,  usually black and migrant workers, factors  International  ////////////////a  which further increase their isolation and invisibility. A Turkish woman from Belgium  spoke about her situation, similar to so  many. She used to work for a company with  the contract to clean the European Parliament. When the contract went out to tender again, the company gave a lower offer,  in which the cost cuts were in labour. Previously women had twenty offices to clean,  now they had 120 in three hours.  Despite the problems that women and  migrant workers face in organizing, there is  plenty of evidence that cleaners are active  in trying to prevent privatization and contracting out of cleaning jobs.  In the Netherlands recent plans by com-,  panies such as Phillips and Unilever to contract out their cleaning work have led to  angry reactions from the workers. The impending privatization of cleaning work in  Holland has also met with much resistance.  Outwrite  WEST GERMANY  GASA goes, after  forging Tutu's  name  The International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA) at its July conference  in Cologne suspended the membership  of the Gay Association of South Africa  (GASA) because a predominantly Black  South African gay group charged that  GASA was collaborating with the South  Africa government.  "GASA claims to be in contact with some  government agencies, yet they can't lift a  finger for their non-white members ... they  don't deserve to be in the international  body," according to Ian Christie of the Scottish Homosexual Rights Group, which sponsored the GASA suspension.  ILGA has debated the status of its South  African delegates for several years. Last  year, GASA sent a representative, Kevan  Botha, to the ILGA meeting in Copenhagen. Botha presented more than 100  pages of evidence claiming that GASA was a  multi-racial organization fighting apartheid  and including greetings and support from  several South African black political leaders, such as Bishop Desmond Tutu and imprisoned black gay activist Simon Nkoli.  However, ILGA has learned that much  of the evidence, including the endorsement  from Bishop Tutu, was forged.  Nkoli wrote to ILGA from prison that,  "My relationship with GASA is not a good  one ... they talk evil of me and write unfounded allegations in their newspapers ...  I suspect that Kevan Botha made up that  letter (from Nkoli) himself, and I am worried about what is in it." (Nkoli, the founder  of the first gay group in the black township  of Soweto, near Johannesburg, was released  July 1 after spending three years in prison  awaiting trial.)  Both black and white gay activists from  South Africa wrote to ILGA to urge the expulsion of GASA. A black activist wrote,  "It is very sad to see that GASA cares very  little for black people," and a white activist wrote, "GASA is currently fundraising for its legal reform program, which I believe to be collaborationist ... progressive  (South Africans) are not interested in working within the system to 'perfect' it. Reform  is not a progressive word. We have to make  our space outside all apartheid structures."  SOUTH AFRICA  Sharpesville Six member:  black woman sentenced  to death  | An international campaign is under-  fiway to stop the execution of Theresa  IRamashamola the first black woman in  | South Africa to receive the death sen-  si tence. Theresa was convicted in December  11985, along with five other members of the  I'Sharpeville Six', for the 1984 murder of  I Khuzwayo Dlamini, the deputy-mayor of a  I black township, during the Vaal Triangle  I uprisings against rent increases and corrup-  1 tion of councillors.  On 1 September 1984, rents were in-  1 creased in the area. On September 3,  1 the Vaal Women's Organization, the Aza-  1 nian People's Organization (AZAPO), the  •United Democratic Front (UDF) and the  I Sharpeville Anti-Rent Committee called on  I local councilors to resign in protest and for  I residents to boycott the councilors' shops  | due to their corrupt practices. What began  I as a peaceful protest march to demand a re-  1 duction in the rent led to the police killing  I innocent people.  On the day of the march, residents had  asked Dlamini to join them. He refused.  Dlamini, as an official in the township's puppet 'government' was seen as a collaborator  of the Pretoria regime. He was stoned and  burnt to death.  Under Section 29 of the Internal Security Act, eight people were arrested. Two  were subsequently released. Theresa, with  five others was tortured while in custody.  A year after their detention, the trial began on 23 September 1985. Despite insubstantial and conflicting evidence coerced out |  of state witnesses, the six were sentenced  to death. An appeal was lodged against the  sentence. Five judges retired to consider the  appeal. They rejected it.  For more information about Theresa  and the 'Sharpeville Six' get in touch  with Pan Africanist Congress of Aza-  nia (PAC), 212 Church Rd., Willesden,  London, NW10  Spare Rib  GASA did not send a representative to  defend it at the ILGA meeting this year.  ILGA is sending a representative to  South Africa thb year to further investigate  GASA before making a final decision on expulsion.  ILGA has another South African member group whose status is not challenged—  the predominantly black Rand Gay Organization (RGO) from Soweto. Although  the South African government refused to  give him a passport, RGO founder Alfred  Machela found a way to attend the ILGA  conference, with funding from ILGA. Three  Scandinavian gay groups pledged to pay the  rent for RGO's new Soweto office.  Off Our Backs  BRITAIN  Coming out  aganist the law  The British government, long known for  their right-wing attitudes and actions, are  in the final stages of passing a strongly homophobic bill. British gays and lesbians are  protesting by the thousands Clause 27 of the  Local Government Bill.  This clause will outlaw any assistance  or support from city and town authorities.  And the clause is seen by many lesbians and  gays as a significant step towards outlawing  gay parenting.  Since the bill's introduction in December 1987, lesbians and gays have organized  many large rallies and demonstrations. The  largest and most recent occurred on February 21, when thousands arrived in Manchester to protest.  Earlier in February three lesbians disrupted a sitting of the House of Lords by  swinging on ropes down from the visitor's  gallery, in a move reminiscent of suffragette  actions when women fought for the vote.  Similarly, the women descended into the  waiting clutches of security officers, and  were removed and charged.  The bill will act by making the promotion of homosexuality illegal. It b portrayed  as relating only to sex education for young  children and children's school and library  books, but in fact states overtly that 'a local authority shall not give financial or other  assistance" to those promoting homosexuality.  Outwrite fears this will mean an end  to lesbian and gay centres, projects, counselling services, clubs and pubs.  By specifically targeting so-called "pretend family relations"—i.e. gay parenting,  the bill threatens to open the doors to the  outlawing of gay parenthood.  Lesbians are the main target as the Tories fulminate at the idea of men being fully  excluded from the parenting process for all  but the anonymous donation of sperm.  Although the bill, at this stage, outlaws  no more than local authority support or  funding for such parenting, and bans educational material promoting it, many lesbians  see this as only the first stage in the complete outlawing of artificial insemination for  gay women. Outrage is expressed above all  at the bill's phrase "pretended families," as  though two women can't make a "real" fam-  ily.  Outwrite, Guardian  International shorts compiled by Marianne van Loon.  Heed Help wHOl income 1<yc  £ouise tfutckinsorii&.R  377-001?  ..£.  CALL FOR. MTZS MO foKTHZK iHFOfirtmoN.  fuss, consultation md WEek^-  CAL.U VLC R>R SCH£I>ULfc.  INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S DAY  1988  DARREN LOWE  A VANCOUVER LIBERAL  mw  Women Against Violence Against Women / Rape Crisis Centre  WAVAW wishes all women a  Happy International Women's Day!  24    HOUR    CRISIS    LINE       875-6011  KINESIS Arts  Palestinian show  impressive, touching  by Sima Elizabeth Shefrin  Two things particularly impressed me  about Visioning Palestine, the exhibit  of Canadian, Israeli and Palestinian artbts  currently showing at the Pitt Gallery. One  was the collection of photographs of Palestinian people, which put the many political cartoons and calendars and posters in a  very human context for me, reminding me  that the Palestinian struggle against the Israeli occupation b not merely a pohtical issue, but a case of real people trying to hold  on to their homes and their lives.  The second thing which impressed me  was the sensitivity with which the exhibit's  organizers, Persimmon Blackbridge, Gary  Coward, Morgan McGuigan, and Abdullah Shabom, handled a very delicate issue. By clearly acknowledging and focusing on the opposition movement among Is-  raelb who support Palestinian rights, they  refused to let their strong statement of support for Palestine provide any opening for  anti-Jewish feeling.  When I first. stepped into Visioning  Palestine I found myself surrounded by a  multitude of political posters. Some of these  bear the message "Down with the Occupation" in English, Hebrew and Arabic, and  are part of a larger exhibit of that name  which recently toured major cities of Israel.  The barbed wire, and the isolated trapped  figures are a repeated theme of many of the  posters, but they are saved from becoming  cliche by the impressive design quality com-  I mon to so many of them. But it was not until I reached the back area of the gallery and  saw Jane Storey's photographic portraits of  the proud dbplaced Palestinian people, that  the exhibit began to touch my heart.  Throughout the exhibit the labeb are  well thought out and well placed, and the introduction to the photographic section b no  exception, with the irony of this 1969 quote  from Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir.  "It was not as though there was a Palestinian people and we came and threw them  out and took their country away from them.  They did not exist."  In image after image we look eye to eye  at these people who do "not exist", see  them harassed, confined, thrown out of their  homes, robbed again and again of the little remaining to them. From one picture a  woman stares out at us defiantly in front of  a wall of fresh cement, and beside the photograph we read her story.  "Following the arrest of her husband,  Muyassar Wazwaz was given forty-five minutes to collect her belongings before braeli  soldiers sealed shut the doors and windows  of her one-room house with cement."  In another photograph, three women and  a man, their backs to us, sit on separate cement blocks, each isolated within the picture, even from each other. "Four Palestinians wait outside the Jerusalem Interrogation Centre for information on members of  their families being detained inside."  In a third image we see rounds of barbed  wire surrounding buildings. "As a form of  collective punishment whole communities,  villages, towns and refugee camps are frequently placed under curfew by the Israeli  army. During the curfew, which can be a few  hours or weeks, everyone b confined to their  homes ... Only a limited time is allowed  for residents to do their shopping, dispose  of garbage, fetch water or visit the doctor."  Complementing the photographs are embroideries, the colours and patterns traditional to different regions of Palestine, and  dolls and crafts made by women in the  refugee camps.  The other component of Visioning  Palestine, found in the Pitt's somewhat  murky basement, b work by contemporary  Vancouver artbts which speaks of Jewbh-  Palestinian parallels and Jewbh-Palestinian  unity. Persimmon Blackbridge's clay and  Four Palestinians wait outside the Jerusalem Interrogation Centre for news on  members of their families being detained inside.  fabric sculpture, "Iris, Abdullah, Chava and  Iris", consbts of casts of three real people,  one Jewish and two Palestinian, all standing close together. Iris and Abdullah speak  of their memories of Palestine, while Chava  explains how her support for Palestinian liberation has grown directly out of the values  of her Jewish heritage.  Josie Kane's mixed media sculpture, "A  Country is for all People", is made up of  a life-sized seesaw, the Israeli flag on one  end, overbalancing the traditional Palestinian head scarf, while from the sand below  pale faces peer through bits of barbed wire.  And in Gary Coward's collage, "Memory  dies slower than our children", the words of  the piece describe the Palestinians as "the  new Jews, wandering always back to our  homeland, Palestine."  Visioning Palestine consists of many  parts which tell one complex story. In presenting art forms which are overtly political in nature, the danger lies in oversimplification. The organbers have managed to put together an exhibit which is  strong and compelling, but avoids that pitfall. And like all stories of people's freedom  struggles, it offers us much to learn.  Las Madres highlights film fest  by Kinesis StafT Writer  Vancouver's International Development  Education Resources Association (IDERA)  b sponsoring a series featuring the best new  documentary films on international issues  as well as contemporary classics by Third  World filmmakers throughout March and  April.  A number of films are of particular interest to women including Las Madres: The  Mothers of the Plaza De Mayo, Fires  From the Mountain, Children in Debt,  Naked Spaces: Living Is Round, and Up  To A Certain Point (Times, places and  costs can be found in this month's Bulletin  Board).  Las Madres, dedicated to 'struggling  mothers everywhere' is a documentary  about the protests of the mothers of over  30,000 people who disappeared in Argentina  during the wave of kidnapping, tortures and  murders in the 'dirty war' period of the  1970's. The film, directed by Susana Munoz  and Loures Portillo, was a 1986 Academy  Award nominee and won first prize in the  1986 American Film Festival. Las Madres  follows the development of the organization  since 1977, shows the influence of the mothers of the Argentinean government and includes footage of their protests in Argentina  and Europe as well as interviews with several mothers.  Naked Spaces: Living Is Round is an  extraordinary feature length documentary  on women in Africa. The film, directed by  Trinh T. Minh-ha, challenges the enthno-  centrism underlying Western anthropological studies of "other" cultures. A dominant  theme is how the roundness of the houses,  of the domestic utensils, wall paintings and  sculpture are associated with the feminine  domain.  Filmmaker Deborah Shaffer brings to  the screen a documentary film based on  the life of Omar Cabezas, an internationally acclaimed Nicaraguan writer who came  of age under the Somoza dictatorship and  eventually joined the Sandinista forces in  their struggle to overthrow the dictator  ship. Through the film we experience the recent history of Nicaragua and the history of  United States intervention in that country.  The film focuses on the emotional, physical  and spiritual costs of the war against the  Contras as well as the Nicaraguan people's  desire for peace.  Children In Debt is a powerful and  moving examination of the impact of Latin  American external debt crisis on children  including malnourishment, lack of medical  care, abandonment of children and child  prostitution. Directed by Estela Bravo, the  film shows children talking about their lives  and urging that the money going to the  debt re-payment goes instead to schoob and  health care.  Other films in the IDERA series include  Witness to War, Martin Chambi, The  Heirs of the Incas, Our God the Condor, and The Last Supper.  For more information about the film  series contact IDERA at 788-8815.  ^COMING SOON  TREKS TO NEPAL  including a Women's Trek and more...  MORE TIME TO TALK  WOMEN 45 AND BETTER TALKING WITH EACH  OTHER ABOUT WHAT'S IMPORTANT TO US NOW.  Thursdays in April and May 7:30-9:30 pm  Introductory session: A chance to get to know each  other and set topics for discussion in later sessions.  Possible topics include:  • financial survival  • mid-life daughters and aging parents  • sharing pleasures and enjoyments  • choices for intimacy and warmth  • women as caretakers  A GROUP TO CELEBRATE OURSELVES AND TALK  ABOUT OUR CONCERNS  For more information and to register call:  Vancouver Status of Women at 255-5511  KINESIS    «« Arts  /////////////////////^^^^^  by Melanie Conn  Stories from pros and newcomers  I have to admit that the thing I love  best  about  the  science  fiction  I review  for this column is the endless number of  women characters who flex, flaunt or otherwise display their remarkable talents (and  often their muscles). So for International  Women's Day, 1988, here are three more  books with wonderful women to entertain  and entrance you!  THE SHORE OF WOMEN  by Pamela Sargent  Bantam Books, 1986  $5.95, 471 pages  I first learned about Pamela Sargent from  her anthology of women's short science fiction, Women of Wonder, published by  Random House in the mid-seventies. The  appearance of that book—soon followed by  More Women of Wonder and The New  Woman of Wonder—was an explicit sign  that women's science fiction was developing  its own identity.  Sargent has abo written several SF nov-  eb. The Shore of Women is her latest.  The book has a familiar theme: life on Earth  centuries after a nuclear catastrophe has de-  troyed civilization.  In Sargent's scenario, women live in  enormous, walled cities, called enclaves,  where they maintain control over technology, guarding it from men who used it so  recklessly. In contrast to the peaceful life of  the enclaves, the men live "outside" roaming in nomadic bands, barely surviving in  the harsh environment. The men's spiritual  life focuses on The Lady who is worshipped  at shrines around the land. Periodically, certain lucky men are "Called" to the enclave  walb for mysterious ritual encounters.  The most startling aspect of the book is  the degree to which the women have kept  the men ignorant of the true nature of the  situation. Using sophisticated holographies, voice-linked computers and pleasure-  oriented conditioning, the Mothers of the  cities have virtually enslaved the men, keeping them psychologically bound to the will  of the enclaves.  Is it worth it, to preserve civilization at  the cost of depriving all men of it? Are the  women not also prisoners—of their fears of  men and of scientific innovation that might  lead to change? These questions are explored in the dramatic adventures of Bi-  rana, a woman exiled from her enclave as  the book begins.  In some ways, the book b very romantic:  the relationship between Birana and Arvil,  the man with whom she (predictably) falls  in love, is certainly central to the story. But  Birana's struggle to come to terms with her  new perceptions of men and women, despite  the threat her learning represents to the enclaves, is complex and real.  MacLeod')  USED& OLD  900KS  QOUC-WT £L SOLO  HAPPY  INTERNATIONAL  WOMEN'S  +55 WEST PENDER  VANCOUVER  PHONE  681-7634-  LYTHANDE  by Marian Zimmer Bradley  Daw Books, 1986  $4.95, 237 pages  Bradley is a marvelous story-teller. Many  readers were introduced to her recently  through The Mists of Avalon. Others  have been fans of the Darkover novels  for years now, snapping up a new one the  minute it appears.  Each of the stories in this collection features Lythande, a Pigrim-Adept whose forehead bears a blue star that blazes when she  invokes her magic. Lythande is witty, stubborn, street-smart and gorgeous. She is also  bound by her Pilgrim's oath to never reveal her gender to any man: if she b discovered to be a woman, she will lose her powers. This masquerade b at the heart of several of the stories and causes much trouble  for Lythande.  Some of the circumstances are definitely  amusing. In "The Wandering Lute", an enchanted instrument pulls Lythande helplessly along the path of the previous owner  whose reputation as a womanizer leads  the magician into some perilous situations.  But in "Sea Wrack" and "Somebody Else's  Magic", we see that Lythande b emotionally vulnerable: she longs to hear a woman  call her sister.  UPDOING  BREADS  BAKEDY  I.W.D.  1697 Venables Street  Vancouver 254-5635  A part of CRS Workers' Co-op  The special treat for me in this collection  was the final story, "Looking For Satan".  Here is Lythande, but in the hands of Vonda  N. Mclntyre, an SF favourite of mine. This  story b more complex than the others and  less concerned with Lythande's secret identity. The characters are well-developed and  give Lythande a chance to experience some  new feelings.  WILD CAM) RUN  by Sara Stamey  Berkley Books, 1987  $3.95, 232 pages  ... / was only a feverish, exalted  rhythm, another particle flung through  space by random forces, but caught in  the fierce joy of it... My body gripping  and flexing the bars, springing off one  to spin around the other, was only the  engine driving the surge of space around  me ... I was the music, and I was the  centre, and I was flying ...  It's always exciting to come across a new  author. Wild Card Run is Sara Stamey's  first book and it's a good one. Her heroine  b Ruth Kurtb, a young, gutsy woman who  loves life in the fast lane. She designs gambling games and she's a space traveller. But  in this futuristic novel, everybody tries to  stop her.  By page four, fresh from a workout on the  acrobatic gym in her office, she b plunged  unwillingly into a role as a spy on her home-  world, Poindros, by the computer-rulers of  the galaxy. The adventure that follows pits  her against multiple authorities.  The human-looking cyborgs are the immediate menace. As agents of the computer net, the cyborgs' control involves constant surveillance and an ability to manipulate minds. And when she reaches Poindros,  Ruth must also deal with the restrictions  placed on women by the human culture.  Poindros b a rural, matriarchal society. "Hearth-matrons" have several husbands and dedicate themselves to nurturing their families. There are rigid proscriptions, called Taboos, on activities for women  outside the home. For example, women  not permitted to walk in the fields or to  enter the massive Towers that regulate the  volcanic activity on Poindros. Violations of  Taboos are reported and once the maxin  number is reached, the person b forced to  take "The Steps of Healing"—the Poindran  euphemism for mind-wiping.  The book is not quite as melodramatic  as it may sound. The author's portrayal  of Ruth's mother is extremely skilful: she  b presented as a radiantly beautiful and  warm woman who suffers genuinely because  her daughter's rebelliousness. Ruth's ambivalence about her mother and about her  own role in Poindran society gives a quality  of depth to the book. Stamey's subtle style  allows her characters to develop slowly and  even the cyborgs turn out to be more than  you might expect.  I'm looking forward to the sequel.  SOLIDARITY GREETINGS FROM  ON INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S DAY!  WORKING WITH WOMEN FOR  DEVELOPMENT AROUND THE WORLD.  YOUR CONTRIBUTION CAN MAKE THE DIFFERENCE  OXFAMCANADA  Box, 18,000 Toronto, Ottawa, Halifax, St. John's  Box 12,000 Winnipeg, Regina, Calgary, Vancouve  re information. All  are, tax deductible.  CCEC CREDIT UNION  "Keeping our money  working in our  community."  When you bank at CCEC,  you are investing in a neighbourhood  business, in the co-op down the street,  and in the whole community's growth.  CCEC CREDIT UNION  33 EAST BROADWAY  VANCOUVER, B.C. V5T 1V4  MON. & WED. 11 am-5pm  FRIDAY 1pm-7 pm  876-2123  KINESIS .*s**sssssss**sa*s****^^  Arts  by Patricia Maika  Selection sparks  new thinking  THE POLITICS OF DIVERSITY:  FEMINISM, MARXISM AND NATIONALISM  ed. Roberta Hamilton and Michele Barrett  Book Center Inc.  492 pages, 1986 $24.95  WOMEN: ISOLATION AND  BONDLNG: THE ECOLOGY OF  GENDER  ed. Kathleen Storrie for C.R.I.A.W.  Methuen.  209 pages, 1987  MASQUES   OF   MORALITY:  FEMALES IN FICTION  Johan Lyall Aitken  The Women's Press  190 pages  CANADIAN  FICTION MAGAZI-  NENUMBER   57:   FEMINIST   FICTION/THEORY  ed. Tessera collective  149 pages, $6  You may resist the application of labels  and prefer to concentrate on the practical  detaib of life as a woman: how to be fed, fulfilled, free and equal—those kinds of things.  Yet politics, ecology and feminist literary  critical theory are important topics which  affect us all. Assuming that knowing yourself is the pre-requisite to understanding  and knowing the difference between friends  and enemies with a view to arriving eventually where you want to be—equal etc.—the  four texts on my list to review may be useful resources: to build arguments, validate  feelings and ideas and spark new thinking.  In previous separate works sociologists  Michele Barrett and Roberta Hamilton addressed one problem: Women's Oppression Today (Barrett) and argued for  the solution: The Liberation of Women  (Hamilton). In The Politics of Diversity, their latest and collaborative publication, they present feminist politics from  the Canadian viewpoint which historically  recognizes divisions and differences among  people, and results, in Canada, in remarkably open-minded and lively debate among  women and men.  Disillusionment with the idea of undivided sisterhood b less marked here in  Canada than in the strongly nationalistic  U.S. and Great Britain: a major significant difference between the development of  feminism in Canada and in the U.S. is, of  course, socialism; in Great Britain the is-  of racism has come to dominate feminist politics. Canadian feminists have undertaken the task of finding a place for  women to stand together with greater solidarity and less suspicion between theorists  and pragmatbts of all stripes than has been  the case in Britain or the U.S.  Of the five sections of thb densely written, informative book, "Home and Workplace" will confirm all you know about  women's double work day, and the way government schemes control women. "Toward  Feminbt Marxism" contains discussion of  the application of Marxist concepts to domestic labour; "Racism, Ethnicity, Nationalism" includes an enlightening essay on the  phenomenon of the "Yvettes", women unwittingly exploited, who voted solidly for  traditional government over separation in  Quebec in 1980; "The Social Reproduction  of Gender"  deals with the recreation of  QUESTIONS. FOR.'FEMINISM  ILITICSOF  £K DIVERSITY  \ HAMILTON AND  [LE BARRETT  women's oppression through the hidden curriculum of the educational system; "Subjectivity, Sexuality, Motherhood" may help to  sort out mixed feelings about motherhood—  the ultimate oppression of every woman's  destiny?  Marxist feminist Mary O'Brien winds it  all up with a brief and brilliant discussion  of the political significance of biological reproduction, capturing the "originality, and  the diversity, of Canadian feminist work."  The Canadian Institute for the Advancement of Women (CRIAW) nurtures fem  inist work in many disciplines. Women,  Isolation and Bonding, a selection of papers given at the 1985 conference in Saskatoon and edited and introduced by Kathleen Storrie, shows how women's social and  physical bolation from the mainstream of  "malestream" inhibits the search for freedom and equality.  Women experience exclusion from themselves, from each other, from men, from organizational structures, from public space,  and from true portrayal in official db-  courses. Women's space in gender ecology  b the private domestic sphere; men, as a  group, can move freely anywhere, including  the domestic sphere which they mediate and  control.  Four papers grouped under the heading  "The Personal Niche" deal with the bolat-  ing effects of wife battering and of fear of  crime, particularly rape, the social isolation  of farm women and the importance of developing strong female friendships as a strategy to combat bolation and to blur the distinction between public and private worlds.  "The Organizational Realm" b a series  of papers criticizing the exclusive nature of  bureaucratic structures. Georgina M. Taylor's delightfully titled "Should I Drown  Myself Now or Later?" discusses the male  monopoly of the farm movement and the  CCF; at the crux of two papers on education  are the issues of white middle-class urban  bias and the educational problems of native  women in white culture and their own native cultures.  Jane Gordon presents a small victory in  the battle over the control of women's reproductive functions in a case study of hospital planning. Three papers discuss how immigrant women continue to be isolated by  racism, sexism and class structure upheld  by the state.  The final section, "The Domain of Discourses," criticises the value of female or  male role models for women. A woman  should trust in her own competence and  that of her peers and consider reciprocity  and interdependence. A pedestal is a lonely  spot, as is the life of a feminist philosopher,  as is a stereotype: the subjects of the final  two papers. Why should we care? Because,  as Deborah C. Poff tells us, our work will  always be done in isolation until we transform the thinking of our oppressors.  The woman fiction writer, accustomed to  working in isolation, often hides her real  message beneath a style coded for the female reader with knowledge of women's  lives and history and understanding of their  oppression. Masques of Morality by Johan  Lyall Aiken, author of several books of feminbt literary criticism, looks for the woman  behind the masks of twenty-five female characters from a wide variety of works. By assuming (quite properly) that fiction is more  truthful than history, we may learn to understand ourselves and our culture and may  be encouraged and enabled to change.  The six divisions of Aiken's work (women  writers are nothing if not orderly) include a dbcussion of literary theory, followed by a section on literary characters—  Jane Austen's Emma is one—who are planners and activbts and respond, in Aitken's  opinion, to the question "What b to be  done?" The unwilling victim, for instance  Hardy's Tess, comes under the heading  "Can anything be done?" "Grace Under  Pressure" is how many women make the  best of things; "Rebellion Under Pressure"  Women:  Isolation  and  Bonding  THE ECOLOGY OF GENDER  deab with women, like Margaret Laurence's  Morag Gunn, who have the courage of their  convictions.  The final section "Towards a New  Mythos" looks at women who go beyond  rebellion and change the rules they cannot  obey. Aitken b conscious that reader interaction with and response to a text can  change the reality of that text.  If women are to rearrange language to  suit them, the most useful key on the typewriter may be the slash. Feminist Fiction/Theory tells why. The four members  of the Tessera collective, Barbara Godard,  Kathy Mezei, Daphne Marlatt, and Gail  Scott understand the role of the reader  as co-creator of a text and provide, in  their movable journal (each issue is produced in a different city), a forum for  experimental texts in French and English  and for discussion of the relationship of  reader/writer/editor/text/translator/  translation.  Tessera No 8 is notable for fine poetry, unusual fiction, and essays including a  discussion by Lorraine Gauthier of French  writer Luce Irigaray's theory of the relationship between the body and language. The  dictionary is fascinating reading for destructive, re/constructive, creative readers and  writers, such as poet Betsy Warland.  Masks of Morality and Tessera 8 are  fascinating and useful reading for literary  and linguistic sleuths. Tessera, Women's  Isolation and Bonding and The Politics  of Diversity although dense with specialized language/jargon stimulate thought and  imagination. All four works are in the Vancouver Status of Women's resource library  for women who long to welcome who long to  welcome their idiosyncratic muse as well as  to find supportive arguments for their gut  feeling that the struggle continues.  BRITISH COLUMBIA NURSES' UNION  BC  WORKING FOR NURSES  AND FOR HEALTH CARE  KINESIS    Ma, BlOCkS from pg 12  detain an immigrant for up to seven days,  and detention can be extended for a further 28 days if the government believes the  claimant is a security risk. RCMP and immigration officers would be allowed to board  ships at sea and turn back vesseb carrying refugees without providing a hearing. It  would be an offense for anyone to knowingly  help a refugee claimant come to Canada  without valid travel documents. (See article  page 17 for further information.)  Western governments insist thb legislative overkill is required to stem the flood  of "bogus refugees" who want to immigrate  to the north for purely economic reasons.  They say that the measures will not turn  back any one who truly has a "well founded  fear of persecution."  Refugee workers and legal experts, however, say that western states are watering  down their obligations under the United Nations Convention by: insisting refugees have  valid documents, something that b virtually  impossible for those fleeing in fear of their  lives and by denying due process with measures such as turning ships back at sea without providing a hearing and an appeal pro-  More fundamentally there is a problem  with the UN's definition of a refugee as  it is virtually impossible for a claimant to  prove that they, individually, are the target  of deliberate persecution. In fact refugees  are more often the victims of random violence intended to threaten and terrorize entire populations, not specific individuals.  Governments seeking tighter control of  immigration are quick to claim that most  refugee claims are "frivolous" or claiments  are economic migrants, not real refugees.  According to the United Nations High Com-  mbsion for Refugees (UNHRC) the number  of "manifestly unfounded claims" amounts  to no more than 10 to 15 percent of the total, hardly the torrent of unfounded claims  governments point to in support of the need  for repressive immigration legislation.  The Real Causes  Western governments seem to believe  they can simply close their borders and  the world's refugee problem will go away.  Given that western policies and practices  are in large part responsible for growing refugee populations this attitude b appalling. Equally despicable is the west's apparent willingness to promote racism and  xenophobia against some of the world's  most destitute and desperate peoples in an  effort to keep out those fleeing persecution.  The refugee crbb will continue as long as  powerful nations, such as the United States,  Russia, South Africa and others support illegitimate and repressive regimes. Since the  end of the Second World War, governments,  in particular the super powers, have used  regional wars and conflicts as a surrogate  means to batter one another. Arms manufacturers and the military establishment  also have their stake in promoting wars and  revolutions.  The problem of the external foreign debt,  which has virtually destroyed the economies  of Third World countries, must abo be addressed. Many developing countries have  had their economies hammered out of shape  by the power and influence of transnational corporations and organizations such  as the World Bank and the International  Monetary Fund. Immigrants are not simply  "looking for the good life," but are fleeing  crushing poverty and often starvation, due  in many cases to famine and drought but  due also to economic mismanagement.  Resolving such complex issues remains  low on the political agenda of western nations who prefer to escape responsibility by  blaming the victim. But the world's refugees  are not going to go away and as they see  their lives and their children's lives swallowed up in refugee camps, their future  holds only increasing despair and unrest.  All the west's well intentioned campaigns  and donations for refugee aid may be a sop  to conscience but in the long run they are*  a woefully inadquate substitute for justice  and respect for human rights.  Palestine from pg 16  some cities were forcibly evacuated by the  braeli army. And there were numerous ter-  rorbt acts carried out against Arab civilians, which caused panic and led many to  flee their homes.  Zionists have long claimed that Arab  leaders encouraged Palestinians to leave the  country. There is absolutely no evidence of  this—it is simply not true.  The new state of Israel held about three  quarters of the area of Palestine, considerable more than the U.N. 1947 Partition  plan had suggested. Those parts of Palestine not held by Israel were taken by the  neighbouring Arab states (the West Bank  by Jordan and the Gaza Strip by Egypt).  There was no Palestine for Palestinians.  The refugees from brael's "War of Independence" have never been allowed to return to their country. Furthermore, virtually none of them have ever been compensated for the lands and goods they lost.  War and Invasion  Nearly twenty years later, in 1967, Israel  fought another war with its Arab neighbours, in which it occupied even more  territory—the Golan Heights, the West  Bank, the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula. This war created still more Palestinian  refugees, as people were dbpossessed, expelled, or deported, and had their lands and  goods confiscated. These refugees, too, have  not been allowed to return. The West Bank  and the Gaza Strip are both still occupied  by Israel and together are known as the "occupied territories". The Golan Heights has  been annexed outright.  In 1978 and again in 1982 brael invaded  Lebanon, ostensibly to clear out Palestinian  fighters from the border area. Thousands  of Palestinian civilians have been killed  and wounded by the Israelis in Lebanon.  Some camps, particularly in the South of  Lebanon, nearer to Israel, were completely  destroyed and their inhabitants driven away  yet agab.  A Homeland Needed  Palestinians live in several different situations in different places. There are Palestinian Arabs who live within Israel (its pre-  1967 borders) and who are brael citizens.  (They are distinctly 'second-class citizens',  but they are citizens nonetheless.)  There are Palestinians living in the occupied territories, which are part of what  is traditional Palestine. Some of these people (or their parents or grandparents) lived  there before the creation of Israel. Some of  them were refugees from the 1947 to 1949  war; some were refugees from the 1967 war.  Of the refugees, some live in camps and  some do not.  And, there are Palestinians outside of  Palestine altogether. Many live in Lebanon,  where again some live in camps and some  do not. A great many live in Jordan; substantial numbers abo live in Syria and other  Arab countries; many also live in Europe,  the U.S. and Canada. There are estimated  to be about two million Palestinian refugees,  according to the U.N.'s fairly strict standards of what constitutes a refugee. Many  Palestinians have had to flee more than  once, from successive waves of Israeli expansion.  Many people suggest that Palestinians  should simply settle down in other Arab  countries and leave Palestine to Jews only.  This is a form of racism. It sees Arabs as  a homogeneous and indistinguishable mass  of people, blames Palestinians for not melting into that faceless mass, and blames  the other Arab countries for not accepting Palestinians as if all Arabs were the  same. Palestinians are a distinct people;  they strongly feel themselves to be so; and  they have a homeland from which they have  been driven. Few people would suggest that  all Europeans are the same and that it  doesn't matter where in Europe theylive; it  b no more true of Arabs than it is of Europeans.  PLO—A Representative Body  The Canadian and U.S. established media frequently give the impression that, far  from being genuine refugees, most Palestinians are fanatical and unreasonable terrorists. Or, alternatively, that the PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) b a fanatical terrorist group which is not representative of the majority of Palestinian people. Both of these attitudes are not only  wrong, they are racist—perhaps not intentionally so, perhaps out of ignorance, but  racist nonetheless. They stem, I believe,  largely from an inability or unwillingness to  see things from the displaced people's point  of view. It b not, in fact, unreasonable to  think that you ought to be allowed to return to your own country.  The PLO is an umbrella group of  Palestinian political organizations. Between  them, its members represent a wide range  of opinions. Nevertheless, it has been able to  maintain enough unity as an organization to  function as a representative body for Palestinians. It is active, on a grassroots level,  in many aspects of Palestinian daily life—  education, health care, political and community organizing, and more.  Every time Palestinians have had an  opportunity to express themselves on the  subject, they have overwhelmingly indicated that they regard the PLO as their  legitimate—and only—representative. This  is true even of those who do not agree with  its current leadership. By refusing to acknowledge the PLO, Israel and its western supporters are simply refusing to acknowledge the right of Palestinians to self-  determination.  Perhaps part of the problem is that most  Canadians do not know what it is that  Palestinians are fighting for. They believe,  or fear, that the PLO want to drive the  Jews out of Israel altogether. In fact, the  PLO since the mid-1970's has been prepared  to negotiate with Israel for an interim two-  state solution, setting up a rump Palestinian  state on the West Bank, with appropriate  international guarantees to keep the peace.  As a long-term solution, the PLO has never  called for the expulsion of Jewish people,  but rather for the right of Palestinians born  in what is now brael, and their decendents,  to return, and for a state in which both peoples can live with equal rights, brael, however, absolutely refuses to negotiate with  the PLO, and has never given any indication that it would consider allowing the return of the refugees.  Conditions Appalling  Conditions in most Palestinian refugee  camps are appalling. There is usually no  running water and often a real shortage of  any safe drinking water; no sewage system;  extreme crowding and poverty; makeshift  buildings; frequent food shortages.  In the occupied territories camps are no  longer bombed or strafed by the braeli  military. However, the military presence is  constant. Curfews, blockades, demolition of  houses, closure of schools, frequent arrests,  and day to day harassment are common.  With the recent uprising, shootings and  beatings have become common as well.  In Lebanon, Palestinians have more than  one oppressor to contend with. They have,  in the last ten years, been attacked, besieged, and massacred by Israelis, Syrians,  Phalangists and the Shiite Amal.  The occupied territories have been under  military rule for twenty years. In that time  there has been a concerted effort to destroy  the independent economic basb of Palestinian life. Scarce resources, especially water, and the land itself, have been diverted  for the use of new Jewish settlements. Mili  tary and bureaucratic harassment hampers  Palestinian agriculture, industry, and municipal development.  Many Palestinians have only been able  to find work inside brael—they must travel  back and forth every day as they are not allowed to sleep there and are denied many  of the benefits that Israeli workers receive.  To suppress Palestinian resistance and political organizing, Israel employs harsh military laws, censorship, arrest and imprisonment, and deportation. There b ample evidence of torture of Palestinians in braeli  prisons.  The current uprising in the occupied  territories is less about economic and  physical conditions than it is about self-  determination. Palestinians want an end to  braeli rule.  brael must negotiate with Palestinians.  An international peace conference would be  a first step towards achieving a just peace.  There are many proposals for peace conferences, and it b important to distinguish  between them. There is no point having a  peace conference about Palestine without  including the Palestinians—and at the moment, whether the U.S. or brael like it or  not, that means including the PLO. Efforts  to promote alternative organizations, such  as the U.S. peace conference plan proposes,  are blatantly self-serving, do not represent  Palestine public opinion, and are bound to  fail.  The U.N. has called for a peace conference including Israel, the PLO, Soviet  Union, U.S. and other parties. We should be  supporting thb resolution, and urging others, including the Canadian government, to  support it.  Palestinians are not going to go away.  They are determined to keep their cultural  identity and their goal of self-determination.  They need and deserve our support.  Best Wishes  on  International  Women's  Day  -lllllll  _ Jj  KINESIS  Mar. 88 23 Commentary  Sexism in courts: alive and well  by Carol McLeod  Behind her blindfold, Themis, the Greek  goddess of justice, is rolling her eyes at  the sexism in Canadian courts—sexbm that  Nancy Morrbon, a Vancouver lawyer and  former provincial court judge, says "is alive  and well and going on every single day."  It manifests itself not only in judicial rulings, but also in the way laws are written and in the way women—whether they  are attorneys, litigants, witnesses or court  employees—are treated.  "It's not a matter of malice or ill will,  it's a matter of ignorance," explains Louise  Lamb, a Winnipeg lawyer and a member of the steering committee of the National Association of Women and the Law  (NAWL). "The judiciary, being primarily  male, doesn't have experience of the realities of women's lives."  NAWL has called for the federal government to recognize that sexism in the courts  exists and that it is a problem to be ad  dressed. "Once that's done," Lamb says,  "we'd like to see proportionate representation of women on the bench and a formal  education program designed to familiarize  all judges with the problems women face."  Although NAWL members are heartened  by several recent Supreme Court of Canada  rulings—such as one that established grabbing a woman's breasts as sexual assault—  they feel there is a real problem with decisions being handed down at the lower and  appeal court leveb.  "Some judges, it's true, are very sensitive; but it's not enough to rely on the sensitivity of an individual judge," Lamb says.  She points out that when judges show gender bias toward women or are ignorant of or  insensitive to women's bsues, their rulings  can have a negative effect on women and on  their self-image.  Two years ago, for example, in Nova Scotia, a woman complained that family court  judge Raymond Bartlett had ordered her  sexually abusive husband to pay back alimony at the rate of $10 a month. Other  women accused Bartlett of demeaning them  in the courtroom by telling them to be subservient to their husbands and by backing up his directive with quotes from the  bible. (Judge Bartlett was removed from the  bench in January, 1987.)  "Fortunately," says Lamb, "Judge Bartlett was an extreme example." She notes,  however, that judges frequently dbplay gender bias or ignorance of women's issues or  both in child custody decbions.  Rulings can also go against women in  matrimonial property situations where the  law does not always grant them equal protection. "Eighteen months ago," says Gillian  Butler, who practices family law in St.  John's, "I represented a woman who had  been in a common-law relationship with the  father of her four children for over twenty  years. She was a traditional stay-at-home  wife and when the couple separated, the  DAUGHTERS  OF THE COUNTRY  From the historic encounter between  Indian and European in the Canadian  northwest emerged a mixed-blood nation, the Metis. Here, in a four-part  dramatic series that spans two centuries, is their proud story, told from  the point ot view of courageous  Metis women. Winner of three 1987  Gemini Awards: Best Pay TV Dramatic Program, Best Writing, and  Best Actress in a Mini-series. Lillian  Gish Award for best mini-series,  Women in Film Festival, Los Angeles;  Blue Ribbon for Original Drama,  29th American Film Festival, New  York; Best film, 1987 International  Women's Film Festival, Montreal.  DAUGHTERS  OF THE COUNTRY 1  (IKWE and  MISTRESS MADELEINE)  C 0186 138  DAUGHTERS  OF THE COUNTRY 2  (PLACES NOT OUR OWN  and THE WAKE)  C 0186 139 115 minutes  PRAIRIE WOMEN  C 0187 009 45 minutes  The little-known story of the vibrant  social and political organizations  founded in the 1920s and '30s by  Prairie farm women. Best Documentary over 30 minutes, 40th Yorkton  Short Film and Video Festival, 1987.  FIREWORDS  Three half-hour segments, each  profiling a leading Quebec feminist  writer. Part 1 focusses on Louky Bersianik and her satirical use of language; Part 2 introduces Jovette  Marchessault, who works to unearth  the ideas of women that history has  erased from our collective memory;  Part 3 reveals the work of avant-garde  poet and post-modern feminist writer,  Nicole Brossard.  Available on one reel or videocas-  sette: C 0186 072, 84 minutes;  separately, Parti: C0186 073; Part  2: C 0186 074; Part 3: C 0186 075;  or in French under the title Les  Terribles vivantes: C 0286 072.  DOCTOR, LAWYER,  INDIAN CHIEF  C 0186 532 29 minutes  Five native women who have successfully forged non-traditional  careers share their experiences and  reveal how they drew on the strength  of native Indian culture. A French  version is also available: L'Avenirest  entre nos mains.  ENTERPRISING WOMEN  C 0187 063 27 minutes  The stories of five female entrepreneurs relay the pitfalls and the  joys of running a business. The women profiled head companies involved  in pasta, lumber, fish, silk-screening,  and a business academy.  THE IMPOSSIBLE  TAKES A LITTLE LONGER  C 0186 513 45 minutes  Women with a range of physical disabilities demonstrate how they have  overcome obstacles in their careers  and their personal lives, and what  services are still needed by the handicapped. Captioned for the hearing  impaired. A French version is also  available: Le Vent dans les voiles.  Honorable Mention at the Third  Medikanale Internationale Festival,  Parma, Italy.  TO A SAFER PLACE  C 0187 067 58 minutes  An inspiring account of how one  woman has overcome the trauma of  being a victim of incest. Now in her  thirties, Shirley discusses childhood  memories of sexual abuse and family violence with her mother, brothers  and sister. A film that encourages incest survivors to break their silence.  IS IT HOT IN HERE?  A FILM ABOUT MENOPAUSE  C 0186 043 38 minutes  One of the least understood of women's experiences is menopause. This  is an informative, sometimes humorous, look at social attitudes,  symptoms and treatments.  THE BEST TIME OF MY LIFE:  PORTRAITS OF WOMEN  IN MID-LIFE  C 0185 102 58 minutes  Ten women from a variety of backgrounds and lifestyles share their experiences of menopause and mid-life,  describing how this turning point affected their lives and freed them to  explore exciting new directions.  <?  FROM THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD OF CANADA -,  NEW FILMS AND VIDEOS  ABOUT CANADIAN WOMEN  »**«»!  These and other NFB productions are available in 16  mm and VHS video. Reservations can be made in person, by phone or by mail.  Note: The NFB will send  videocassettes by mail to  viewers located outside NFB  distribution centers. All NFB  productions can also be purchased in 16 mm and all  video formats.  judge wouldn't stretch the rules of unjust  enrichment and she got zero."  As far as criminal law is concerned,  NAWL is concerned that women frequently  encounter gender bias in sexual assault  cases, where, Lamb says, judges "are still  motivated by myths about women's sexuality and availability."  A recent Manitoba decbion illustrates  the problem. It involved a forty-three year  old man convicted of sexual assault after  girls eleven and twelve years of age accused  him of fondling their breasts and genitalia  over their clothing. In sentencing the man  to six months in jail, the judge reportedly  said, "I'm sure you must feel in some way  that you were set up by these young ladies  ... however, society must be protected."  NAWL members abo worry that some  judges are using the Charter of Rights and  Freedoms against women. "We see evidence  in some courts of equality backlash," says  Lamb. "It's the sort of thinking that if  women want equality, they can have it with  a vengeance."  Nancy Bateman, who practices family  law in Halifax, is especially concerned about  the effect such a backlash will have on traditional homemakers. "They may be badly  burned because the law now focuses on self-  sufficiency, and a judge may feel it's no  problem for a woman to go out and get a  job with so many career women out there.  That glosses over the reality that people  made contracts five, ten or twenty years ago  to act in traditional roles—the husband as  breadwinner and the wife as domestic."  Another area of contention is the language of both the law and of the courtroom,  which many women describe as hierarchical  and masculine. They say it can be used by  judges and prosecutors to trivialize women  and to present them as weak.  As far as sexist comments are concerned,  Lamb says they are fewer and less blatant  than they were a few years ago. "But the  fact a judge doesn't call you 'dear' doesn't  mean hb problems with the perception of  women and their role in the courts have  been solved," she points out. "The problem  can manifest itself in other ways."  She cites the case of two lawyers—  one male and one female—who recently  appeared in court representing a mutual  client. "There was a marked difference," she  recalls, "between the judge's reception of  the male counsel's objections to evidence being led by the other side and of the female  counsel's objection on the same grounds."  NAWL believes the best way of dealing  with sexism in Canadian courts is to follow the U.S. example. In the last few years,  a dozen states, including New Jersey, New  York and California, have established task  forces to investigate and to deal with the  problem.  In its first report, tabled in 1984, the  New Jersey Supreme Court Task Force on  Women in the courts noted:  ... stereotyped myths, beliefs and  biases were found to sometimes affect  decision-making in ... damages, domestic violence, juvenile justice, matrimonial and sentencing. In addition,  there is strong evidence that women and  men are sometimes treated differently  in courtrooms ...  Since the report was released,  on recognizing and eliminating gender bias  have been held at each year's New Jersey Judicial College and at bar association  workshops. As a result, says Task Force  Chair Judge Loftus, "The consciousness and  sensitivity levels of the New Jersey judicial and legal system have definitely been  raised."  The American initiative shows that  progress can be made, says Lamb. "Unfortunately, in Canada, we have a long way to  go."  KINESIS ///////////////////^^^^^^  ///////////////////^^^^  Letters  Subtle but sexist  Kinesis:  I have just realized why I always experience a niggling anger in the back of my  mind every time I hear statements like: "600  Palestinians were beaten today—20 percent  were women."  The niggling question is, why the distinction? b it worse to beat a woman  than a man? The answer is, it is worse if,  consciously or subconsciously,  thought of as children. Hence, "women and  children first".  Men and women no doubt have accepted  and do accept this attitude as benignly  protective, but the protection is not freely  given. Women buy it with their status as  adults.  Nor b it the opinion that women may be  Unique from pg 13  preferred immigrants and refugees. As the  doors have closed in all major industrialized countries, war, poverty and repression  have produced more refugees world wide.  Only two percent of women and children  refugees ever have an opportunity to resettle in the Western world. The majority find  temporary shelter in neighboring countries.  To close the doors tighter and increase the  poverty and repression is an act based on  racism, sexism, protectionism and an unwillingness to share resources with those less  privileged. Where women refugees are concerned the motto is not women and children  first but women and children last.  Canada's proposed refugee legislation denies basic U.N. Convention rights of asylum;  safeguards against forcible return to countries where refugees fear persecution and  fair treatment to refugees in terms of their  legal status.  If Canada is to maintain it's proud reputation as a humanitarian society we must  work to ensure the application process is  more accessible for women and children. We  must ensure that the routes to safety are  more protected and that the hearings and  screenings at entry are more equitable and  recognize women's concerns and needs.  The following are possible actions the  Canadian government could take in place of  the repressive legislation in Bilb C-55 and  C-84:  • accept women's rights to an equal number of refugee places and begin to work  towards changing the discriminatory processes that lead to this profound injustice.  • recognize "persecution based on sex" as  just cause for a refugee claim and pressure the United Nations to amend it's  regulations  • provide independent women acting as  refugee counsellors and advocates to help  women understand their rights in offices  in refugee producing areas as well as at  border or entry ports  • become a more accessible country by  dropping visa restrictions for refugee producing countries.  BillS from page 17  At present, MacQueen is concerned  about being picked up by American police  or the Immigration and Naturalization Services (ISN). Would-be refugees and the people helping them are being "harassed really  badly."  "It's very dangerous for anyone getting  on the bus—they're constantly monitored.  Bellingham is very, very dangerous. You've  got to be very careful, because they're trying to get you before you get to the border.  "Some people come up in the backs  of cars—particularly really fair-skinned  people—and then declare once they're inside the country. That's the safest thing."  Canadian officials aren't angels, either.  "I've been thrown out, and asked to leave.  They take the refugee into a separate room,  and that person has no rights. I've had sanctuary workers calling me up almost hysterical, because Canadian officials have been  giving out their names, or threatening to report them for harboring illegal aliens. One  n just had her car seized, as evidence."  Bill C-84 will create a whole new class  of Canadian criminals: those who aid, abet,  or advise someone to enter the country illegally. Supposedly aimed at unscrupulous  sea captain, MacQueen has no doubt who  the real target is.  "I don't see that I can behave any differently than the way I'm behaving now, which  means I may be subject to ten years imprisonment. That would be very difficult.  "I've got two children ... and, at the  same time, I've taught my children to defy  authority, not to take orders necessarily, to  try and work out what is right in their  minds. So, in spite of, and because of my  children, it's a difficult one."  To become active in the fight against  the proposed refugee laws—and to help  refugees—contact Amnesty International at 784-5150.  SPAKTOCUS  311 W.HASTINGS ST.  Vancouver    688 6138  COF»E  and the  COF»E  Women's Committee  sends greetings  of solidarity  to all women.  COF"E  committed to  equality,  development,  and peace.  physically less strong than men that is behind this sanctimonious idea (when armed  soldiers and unarmed people meet, strength  has no bearing). If this were true, it would  be reflected in judgments concerning sexual assault, for example. But, ironically, this  may be the only situation where a woman  t's considered an adult. She is always adult  enough to lure an otherwise pious man into  the sins of the flesh against his will.  Women are victims of many things which  men rarely or never face. But to consider  the same treatment less serious for one sex  b sexism. It b more subtle than most sexist  ideas, but it b sexism nevertheless. It is insulting to both sexes, for different reasons.  Sincerely,  AnnVrlak  CAWAPHPIHES  Now, 221 publications to choose from!  The new 87/88 Canadian  Periodical Publishers'  Association catalogue is  the one source that describes  221 of the latest and best  Canadian magazines.  There's an incredibly wide  variety of topics, points of view  and special interests.  They're all yours to choose  from when you get our current  catalogue with its easy-to-use  detachable order form.  Fill in the attached coupon  today and for just $2 (to cover  postage and handling), we'll  send you our new catalogue.  I lease send me the new 87/88 CPPA  catalogue. I enclose my cheque for  $2 to cover postage and handling.  POSTAL CODE  Ptriodkal  PuMishtrs'  Association  2 Stewart Street  Toronto, Ontario  M5V 1H6  The Vancouver Folk Music Festival and  Vancouver East Cultural Centre  present  CY  WHITE  with Rick Whitelaw on guitar  and Michael Creber on piano  MARCH 29 - APRIL 3  8 pm Tuesday to Sunday  VANCOUVER EAST CULTURAL CENTRE  Reservations 254-9578  Tickets   $ 10 Tues, Wed, Thurs and Sun  $12 Fri and Sat  * Two for One opening night!  Available at Black Swan, Highlife, The Vancouver Folk Music  Festival office and VTC (« 280-4444 to charge by phone)  KINESIS Bulletin Board  Read this  All listings must be received no later than  the 18th of the month preceding publication. Listings are limited to 75 words and  should include a contact name and telephone number for any clarification that may  be required. Listings should be typed or  neatly handwritten, double-spaced on 8 k  by 11 paper. Listings will not be accepted  over the telephone. Groups, organizations  and individuals eligible for free space in the  Bulletin Board must be, or have, non-profit  objectives. Other free notices will be items  of general public interest and will appear at  the discretion of Kinesis.  Classified are $4 for the first 75 words or  portion thereof, $1 for each additional 25  words or portion thereof. Deadline for classifieds is the 18th of the month preceding  publication. Kinesis will not accept classifieds over the telephone. All classifieds must  be prepaid.  For Bulletin Board submissions send  copy to Kinesis Att'n Bulletin Board, 301-  1720 Grant Street, Vancouver, B.C. V5L  2Y6. For more information call 255-5499.  EVENTS  WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT  The GREMF. Laval University's multidis-  ciplinary research group on women's issues, invites you to the 12th Annual Conference of the Canadian Research Institute for the advancement of women to be  held in Quebec City on Nov. 11, 12, 13.  The theme of the conference is Women  and Development: Women From Here and  Elsewhere. For further information contact: Service des Communications, Fac-  ulte des sciences socials. Bureau 3446.  Pavillion Charles-De Koninck. Universite  Laval. Quebec G1K 7P4 (418) 656-2832.  WOMEN'S MUSIC FESTIVAL  The Vancouver Women in Music Network and Nada Productions present the  1st Vancouver Women's Music Festival  to be held August 1988. Women are now  needed to organize this herstoric event.  We need support to make this dream  come true. For more info or time and day  of next meeting call 681-3617.  DEBATE ON MEECH LAKE ACCORD  U.B.C. invites the public to a free two-  day debate on the constitutional amendment Mar. 18 7:30-9:30 pm, Mar. 19  9:30 am-4:30 pm in the lecture hall 2.  Woodward Building. 2194 Health Sciences Mall. U.B.C. For more info call 222-  5238.  NANCY WHITE  At VECC Mar. 29-Apr. 3 , 8 pm. Tix  $10. $12 Fri. and Sat.  a      CARDS*  m ^RECORDS  'tmm  OCTOPUS EAST  1146 Commercial* 253-0913  CHILDCARE: MEET THE CHALLENGE  A three day national childcare conference will be held in Ottawa Apr. 21-24.  Workshops to include dealing with policy,  strategy, skill building and networking.  For more info write: The Canadian Day  Care Advocacy Association. 323 Chapel  St., Ottawa KIN 7Z2. (613) 594-3196.  CENTRAL AMERICA WEEK  Mar. 18 7 pm-10 pm. "The Peace Process" conference at Britannia Secondary  School auditorium; Mar. 19 8:30 am-6  pm Conference workshops at the Croa-  tion Cultural Centre, 3243 Findlay. To  register for the conference phone 873-  5011; Mar. 20 worship services focussing on Central America throughout  Canada. U.S. and Europe; May 23 11  am-2 pm vigil in support of the struggle for peace in Central America in front  of the U.S. Consulate. 1075 W. Georgia. Noon, outdoor concert in front of  the SUB. U.B.C. 7:30 pm. panel on militarism in Central America, 2524 Cypress  St; Mar. 24, 7:30 pm worship service  at St. Andrew's Wesley. 1012 Nelson St;  Mar. 15. 12:30 pm Vigil and service  in commemoration of Archbishop Oscar  Romero in front of clock tower. U.B.C.  campus. Info call 224-3722. Mar. 26.  Idera film "Under the Gun—Democracy  in Guatemala," Pacific Cinematheque.  1331 Howe SL   IWD EVENTS  Mar. 4 IWD women's dance at Capri  Hall. 3925 Fraser St., 8 pm-1 am. Tix  $4-$6. Childcare available. Wheelchair accessible. Mar. 5 march begins at Victory  Square (Cambie & Hastings), gather at  11:30 am. rally to follow at Oppenheimer  Park (Dunlevy and E. Cordova). Information Day Celebration at First United  Church. 320 E. Hastings, 1-5 pm. Downtown Eastside Women's Centre Open  House 1-5 pm, new location: 44 E. Cordova, wheelchair accessible. International  Benefit Dance at Ukranian Hall. 805 E.  Pender, 8 pm-1 am. Tix $2-$6. On site  childcare. See page 4 for info on other  events.  IWD: LA QUENA  La Quena women volunteers invite other  women to join for dinner. March 8. 6 pm.  Advance tickets only at La Quena $3 and  $5. March 15. 8 pm update on abortion  crisis in B.C. Speakers and fundraising  for pro-choice movement.  OUT TO LUNCH BUNCH  Fundraising women's dance for the  OTLB softball team Mar. 31. 8 pm at  Celebrities. $4 in advance $5 at door. Tix  available at Little Sisters. Ariel Books,  VLC.  MOVIES FOR KIDS  At VECC every Sat. at 1:30 pm. Pay  what you can.  LESBIAN SHOW OPEN HOUSE  You are cordially invited to an open house  at Co-op Radio's weekly Lesbian Show  Mar. 24. 7:30-9:30 pm. 337 Carall St.  Not wheelchair accessible. For more info  call 684-8494.  LAND CLAIMS  The Gitksan-Wet'suwet'en land claims  case continues at the Robson St. courthouse. Drop by Courtroom 53 any day to  see the Gitksan-Wet'sewet'en recounting  their history and culture. Or contact the  Tribal Council office at 303-865 Hornby  to offer volunteer time or support.  WORKSHOPS  LEGAL ADVICE  Free workshop on "Living Together and  Legal Separation". Discussion to include  legal response to the battered lesbian, cohabitation contracts and trust actions.  Mar. 21. 8 pm. 876 Commercial Dr.  Childcare provided.  WRITING WORKSHOP  Flight of the Mind announces it's fifth  annual summer writing workshop for  women July 24-31 at a retreat centre on the McKenzie River. Registration  fee $420 includes full board and lodging.  Scholarships are available. For a brochure  send a 22 cent stamp to: Flight of the  Mind, 622 S.E. 28th. Portland OR 97214.  STUDENT PLAYWRITING CLASS  The New Play Centre is now offering  playwriting classes Apr. 9, 16, 23, 30  from 10 am-12:30 pm. Cost $55. These  classes are geared to grades 10, 11, and  12. For more info contact Sharon Thompson 685-6228.  SUBMISSIONS  WOMEN'S PRESS  The Lesbian Manuscript Group at Women's Press is accepting written work for  a new anthology. We encourage writers  to submit traditional and experimental  works of fiction, non-fiction, erotica, poetry and prose. Send to: Women's Press.  Lesbian Manuscript Group, 229 College  St. #204. Toronto M5T 1R4.  TIME  ON YOUR HANDS?  WANT TO LEARN MORE ABOUT WOMEN'S ISSUES?  VOLUNTEER AT VANCOUVER STATUS OF WOMEN  FOR HANDS ON EXPERIENCE  # GUIDE TO THE WOMEN'S MOVEMENT   * LEGAL REFERRALS  ' INFORMATION AND RESOURCES-WHAT'S NEW  ' OUTREACH TO THE COMMUNITY * FEMINIST PERIODICALS  * KINESIS CIRCULATION   * FINANCES AND FUNDRAISING  AN ORIENTATION TO VSW WILL TAKE PLACE IN APRIL/MAY.  CALL 255-5511 AFTER 1 PM FOR DETAILS.  IWD FILM FEST  The YWCA and NFB present a day of  films by and about women Mar. 8. 10  am-8 pm at the YWCA, 580 Burrard St.  For info call Leslie Anderson 683-2531.  THIRD CINEMA FESTIVAL  The festival will showcase the best new  documentary films on international issues as well as contemporary classics  by Third World filmmakers. All screening at the Pacific Cinematheque. Pacific  Cine Centre, 1131 Howe St. Mar. 4 "Las  Madres: The Mothers of Plaza de Mayo";  Mar. 4 and 19 "Fire From the Mountain"; Mar. 4 "Witness to War"; Mar.  19 "Children In Debt"; Mar. 26 "Naked  Spaces: Living is Round"; Apr. 2 "Up to  a Certain Point". For festival programs,  advance sale tickets, or further info contact: IDERA, 2524 Cypress St. Van. 732-  1497.  ARABIAN FILMS  IDERA presents two films dealing with  the changing lives of women in the  Arab world: "A Veiled Revolution" and  "Women Under Siege" Mar. 6, 8 pm  at La Quena, 1111 Commercial Dr. $2  IDERA members and unemployed, $3  employed.  M   I    S   C  WOMEN'S STUDIES  The women's studies program at SFU  is seeking individuals for a limited term  appointment from Sept. 1988 - Apr.  1989. For further info and sample outlines call 291-3593. Application deadline  Apr. 15.  PITCHER WANTEC  For women's  softbal  4174.  team  Call  420-  G  R  O  u  P  s  COMING OUT GROUP  The Vancouver Lesbian Connection is  sponsoring "Coming Out" groups starting March. For more info and registration call 254-8458.  DOWNTOWN EASTSIDE  The Downtown Eastside Women's Centre has moved to 44 E. Cordova. We  will be hosting a community Open House  Mar. 15 from 3-7 pm. Everyone welcome.  GAY AND LESBIAN GROUP  The Fraser Valley Gay and Lesbian support and social group hold meetings and  events throughout the Fraser Valley. For  dates and more info call 852-9613.  Liift  from  Press Gang Printers  603 Powell Street  Vancouver, B.C. V6A 1H2  253-1224  Your Local Women's Press  6 KINESIS SS/S////////S///////////////S/////SS/////////////////S//////S//////////S//////S//////S//////S//S///A  ///////////////////^^^^^  /////////////////^^^^  Bulletin Board  CLASS IFIEDHCLASSIFIED  VACANCIES  We are presently updating and adding to  our waiting list.  Sitka Housing Co-op is a 26 unit housing  development for women and women with  children, located in the east end of Vancouver. One to four bedroom suites and  spaces to share often become available.  If you would like to be considered for vacancies or to meet women who are interested in sharing a suite. Phone Tova:  255-0046 or Jackie 255-7363.  APARTMENT EXCHANGE  Montreal. Would like to exchange apartments. May 1 to Aug 15. Some flexibility  in dates. 4 rooms. 1 bedroom. For one  person or couple. Near subway station  and downtown. Contact Helene Perrault,  3668 Joseph. Verdun (Quebec). H4G 1J1  (514) 767-1782.  SHARED ACCOMMODATION  Lesbian wanted to share with same in 3  bdrm apt. in East End Co-op. Rent $325.  plus hydro. Available Apr. 1. Call Brenda  at 254-3042.  WOMEN'S COUNSELLING  My specializations include depression,  sexuality, sexual and emotional abuse,  adult women survivors of childhood sexual abuse, identity issues, self-awareness,  relationship issues, decision-making and  career explorations. I work using verbal and expressive therapies, gestalt and  guided imagery. Sliding fee scale. Janet  Lichty, B.A. M. Ed. Counselling Psychology. 874-6982.  ACCOMMODATION AVAILABLE  One bdrm. ground-level suite, in a contemporary house, in West White Rock.  Bright, airy, treed privacy. Private patio.  Shared use of a large sundeck with partial ocean view. Garden. Close to express  buses, and shopping. 10 min. walk from  beach. Reasonable. References and damage deposit required. Quiet, non-smokers  only. Please call 531-8762 from 8 am to  9 pm.  NATIONAL WOMEN'S MUSIC FESTIVAL  June 2-5. Lucie Blue Tremblay, Deirdre  McCalla, Teresa Trull, Rhiannon, Connie Kaldor, Casselberry and DuPree,  Kay Gardner, MUSE, Jasmine. Diana  Mariechild, Shuli Goodman, Diane Stein.  Nurudafina Pili Abena. Sonia Johnson, Anne Wilson Schaef, Becky Birtha.  Leslea Newman, Karen Lee Osborne,  Barbara Wilson. For brochure write to  NWMF, P.O. 5217. Bloomington. IN.  47407.  CRAFTSWOMEN NEEDED  Seeking craftswomen who are making feminist jewelry, altar/ritual instruments, ceramics, clothing, etc.—  goddess/witch/Wiccon theme—and who  would like to merchandise their products through a mail-order business. Prefer women living in B.C. but open to  other Canadian women. Leave message  for Patricia at (604) 732-5153 or write:  P. Hogan. 1937 W. 2nd Ave.. Van. B.C.  V6J 1J2.  CHILDCARE  ATTENTION: Groups, organizations, unions. Co-ops. Need childcare for your  meetings or conferences? Reliable, experienced, caring childcare offered. Call  253-8645 or leave message at 266-7100.  SHIATSU MASSAGE  I use deep, rhythmic pressure and  stretches to open, revitalize and balance  the body's energy system (what more  could you want!?) Shiatsu treatments  are useful in healing digestive problems,  menstrual discomforts, emotional imbalances as well as tense or stiff muscles.  Sliding scale. Flexible hours. Phone As-  tarte 251-5409.  LESBIAN WITCHCRAFT WEEKEND INTENSIVE  A lesbian witchcraft weekend intensive  is slated for Apr. 1-Apr. 3, in Portland.  The intensive will be led by Pandora  O'Mallory and Carol McAnnally from Reclaiming Collective. The cost will be $50-  $75. sliding scale for early registrants.  For further info and pre-registration contact Sierra Lonepine Briano, 2514 SE  Ankeny #2. Portland. OR. 97214 (503)  234-2322.  JUNE MILLINGTON IN CONCERT  Coming soon in April, Nada Productions and The Talk of the Town night  club present from California, recording  artist/record producer. June Millington  in concert for 2 nights. For more info 681-  3617.  TALK OF THE TOWN  The Talk of the Town, a new mixed  gay night club, located in the heart of  Gastown at 23 West Cordova, is now  open. JBL sound system, dance floor,  pool tables, live entertainment plus more!  Thursdays is women's night with your  dj's Nadine and Maggie.  BOOKINGS WANTED  Soloists/Trios/Bands wanted for bookings into the Talk of the Town, a mixed  gay night club. JBL sound system, dance  floor. All inquiries call Nadine Davenport  681-3617 (24 hr. message).  HELP WANTED  Woman to work in wheelchair shop.  Some experience of electronics and upholstery helpful. U.I. top-up grant—need  8 months U.I if possible. In Kingsway  area. Contact person Annette Gerein 732-  1694.  VANCOUVER EAST HOUSING  CO-OP  The Vancouver East Housing Co-op. with  38 units in 6 different locations in the  lively East End, is now accepting people for its waiting list. Market rents are  very reasonable: single units from $260-  $374 (share purchase $1000). 2 bedrooms $397-$577, 3 and 4 bedrooms  $482-$601 (share purchase $2000). If you  are interested in working cooperatively  with others and living in stable, affordable housing, send SASE to: Membership  Committee. #3 -1220 Salsbury Dr.. Van.  V5L 4B2.  The IDERA fundraising film festival features the best new documentary films on  international issues. The festival runs throughout March and April. Call IDERA.  738-8815, for show times. The above still is from Naked Spaces: Living Is Round,  just one of the many films on women.  CLASS IFIEDICLASSIFIED  GOLDEN THREADS  A contact publication for lesbians over  50 and women who love older women.  Canada and U.S. Confidential, warm, reliable. For free info send self-addressed envelope (U.S. residents please stamp it).  Sample copy mailed discreetly, $5 (U.S.)  Golden Threads. P.O. Box 2416. Quincy,  MA 002269.  BOOKS BY MAIL  Feminist and lesbian books by mail  (in English and French). Free new  book bulletin published 3 times/year.  L'Androgyne Bookstore, 3636 St. Laurent. Montreal H2X 2V4.  SINGING GROUP  Come join us if you like to sing. A chorus is being formed for gay men, lesbians, and friends. For info, call Kaery  321-7368.  WOMANSPACE ON SALTSPRING  Newly built, fully equipped, self-contained cabin on 5 \ seculuded acres. Close to  Ruckle Provincial Park, hiking trails and  sea. Saltspring is accessible by ferry from  Swartz Bay and Tsawwassen. $50/night  double. $35/night single. Wheelchair accessible. Children welcome. No pets. No  smoking indoors. Call Gillian 653-9475 or  write Box C85, King R.. R.R. 1. Fulford  Harbour, B.C. VOS ICO  NAME CHANGE  Notice is hereby given that an applica  tion will be made to the Director of Vital  Statistics for a change of name, pursuant  to the provisions of the "Name Act" by  me, Noreen Marion Mercedes Howes of  1021 Salsbury Drive in Vancouver B.C.  to change my name from Howes, Noreen  Marion Mercedes to Shanahan, Noreen  Marion Mercedes.  OPEN SEVEN DAYS A WEEK,  10am to 7:30pm  • KIDS play space  Q)t^        • FRESH produce—incl. organic  NEW convenient location  10% OFF for seniors, Wed. & Thurs.  1034 COMMERCIAL  254-5044  WOMEN'S STUDIES AT SFU  REQUIRES A LIMITED TERM APPOINTMENT  1 Sept. 1988 - 30 Apr. 1989  This position wiH be responsible for teaching two courses per  semester: Introduction to women's Studies and Women in Canada  1600-1920 (Fall 1988); Introduction to Women's Studies and Women  in Canada 1920 to the Present (Spring 1989).  Applicants should send curriculum vitae, course outlines  (including required & recommended readings, topics to be covered  in a 13 week semester, assignments and an estimate of the  proportion of final grade awarded tor each course component) and  an application letter to:  The Coordinator  Women's Studies Program  Simon Fraser University  Burnaby, BCV5A1S6  291-3593  Deadline: 15 April, 1988.  KINESIS Dicey.  Hot Dicey.  Gamble on a good read.  Subscribe.  w ":^rt£>  r   -T_-_^fc^---,  Published 10 times a year                                                     *-->     |  by Vancouver Status of Women  #301-1720 Grant St., Vancouver, B.C. V5L 2Y6  □ VSW Membership-$25.50 (or what you can afford)-includes Kinesis subscription]  □ Kinesis subscription only - $17.50       □ Sustainers - $75  □ Institutions - $45                                  □ New  D Here's my cheque                                 D Renewal  D Bill me                                                   D Gift subscription for a friend  10  E  I  Address   rt -4«—i

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