Kinesis Mar 1, 1987

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 INSIDE: information onJWD events  $1.75  News About Women That's Not In The Dailies  March 1987 sp  Kinesis welcomes volunteers to work on all aspects of the paper. Call  us at 873-5925. Our next  News Group meeting Is  Wed. March 11, 1:30 pm at  . Kinesis, 400 W 5th Ave.,  All women welcome even If  you don't have experience.  PRODUCTION THIS  ISSUE: Isis, Dr. Aletta  Jacobs, Lee Saxell, Al-  llsa McDonald, Lesley Sed-  don, Esther Shannon,  Nancy Pollak, Noreen Howes, Ann Doyle, Jody Mc-  Murray,  Maura Volante, Marsha Arbour. Joanne Menard, Slma  Elizabeth Shefrin, Lalwan,  Lucy Morelna, Patty Gibson, Ruth  Wood, Pam Third,  FRONT COVER: Graphic  from Eritrea information  Bulletin BACK COVER:  Design by Joanne Menard  EDITORIAL BOARD: Esther Shannon, Isis, Lisa  Hebert, Kim Irving, Emma  Kivisild, Maura Volante,  Noreen Howes, Sharon  Hounsell, Patty Gibson, Al-  llsa McDonald.  CIRCULATION AND DISTRIBUTION: Vicky  Donaldson, Cat L'Hirondelle, Meredith Bolton  OFFICE: Vicky Donaldson, Gall Meredith.  Kinesis Is published 10  times- a year by the Vancouver Status of Women.  Its objectives are to be  a non-sectarian feminist  voice for women and to  work actively for social  change, specifically by  combatting sexism, racism,  homophobia and Imperialism.  Views expressed in Kinesis are those of the writer  and do not necessarily reflect VSW policy. All unsigned material Is the responsibility of the Kinesis  Editorial Board.  SUBSCRIPTIONS: Individual subscriptions to Kinesis are $17.50 per year or  what you can afford. Membership in the Vancouver  Status of Women is $25.50  or what you can afford, Includes subscription to Kinesis.  All submissions are welcome. We reserve the right  to edit and submission  does not guarantee publication. AH submissions  should be typed double  spaced and must be signed  and Include an address and  phone numbers. Please  note that Kinesis does not  accept poetry or fiction  contributions. For materia!  to be returned, a SASE  must be Included. Editorial  guidelines are available on  DEADLINE for features  and reviews Is the loth of  the month preceding publication. News copy, 15th.  Letters and Bulletin Board  listings, 18th. Display advertising: camera ready,  18th; design required, 12th.  %*cial Collects,  °«s Seriffi  (l/l  iff  0)  \!&  $  AIDS: a growing threat to women   3  Fearing job loss local farmworkers keep  silent on sexual    harassment  5  INSIDE  Abortion in Nicaragua: a revolutionary society confronts women's right to  choose 10  Lost Herizons     3  AIDS: Health, safety and sex  3  City Budget may limit community grants   4  Farmworkers and sexual harassment  5  Maternity leave at risk     6  Harassment ruling chilling  6  FEArms  New Atlas Charts Women's Place in the World       9  by Nadine Schuurman  Abortion in Nicaragua    10  by Kim Irving  Eritrean Women: Quiet Confidence and Inner Pride    14  by Lynn Hunter  A Window into the New South Africa  16  by Kerensa Lai Thorn  Chile: Democracy Here and At Home    17  by Marjorie Agosin  ARTS  A Letter to Myfanwy   18  by Jill Pollack  New Work from Still Sane Creator    19  by Sima Elizabeth Shefrin  Surviving Breast Cancer    20  Hazards in the Automated Office    20  REqtfMIK  Movement Matters    2  Rubymusic  In Other Worlds    20  Commentary 22  Letters 23  Dyment   25  Bulletin Board    25  CORRESPONDENCE: Kinesis, Vancouver Status of  Women, 400A'West Sth  Ave., Vancouver, B.C. V5Y  1J8.  Kinesis is a member of the  Canadian Periodicals Publishers Association.  Typesetting by Baseline  Type and Graphics Cooperative. Camera work by  Northwest Graphics. Laser  printing     by     Docusoft.  Printing   by   Web     Press  Graphics.  Second class malt #6426  KINESIS  March'87 1 Movement Matters  Movement Matters is designed to be a  network of news, updates and information of special interest to the women's  movement. Submissions to Movement  Matters should be no more than 500  words, typed, double-spaced on 8| by  11 paper. Submissions may be edited for  length. Deadline is the 18th of the month  preceding publication.  Porn play  on tour  Le Theatre Parminou, a Quebec-based  theatre troupe, will be touring Western  Canada next fall with their new production Ca Creve Les Yeux, Ca Creeve La  Coeur, (It Hurst the Eyes, It Hurts the  Heart). The play's 'moral' is that no one  escapes porn's dehumanizing effects and the  material presents a fresh and funny yet devastating dramatization of how pornography  affects people.  Le Theatre Parminou is a troupe dedicated to addressing social concerns and is  keenly interested in involving its audiences  in its dramas as well as the issues they examine.  The company is interested in invitations to perform Ca Cri Les Yeux, Ca  Crive La Coeur in communities in Western Canada. If you are interested in sponsoring the play in your community please  contact Danielle Roy, Tour Manager, Le  Theatre Parminou, C.P. 158, Victoriaville,  Quebec G6P 6S8 or call (819) 758-0577.  The company intends to tour Western  Canada, starting in Manitoba, from October 5th to November 29. British Columbia  tour dates are from November 16 to November 29. Please contact Ms. Roy by March 15  for more information.  Red Door  appeal  We, at the Red Door Rental Aid Society, need your help. Our funding is in jeopardy and we are in need of support letters  to present to City Hall. If, at any time in  the past, you have been assisted by Red  Door please write a short letter stating your  past circumstances and how we aided you  in finding suitable housing. Send letters to  Red Door Rental Aid, #200-2250 Commercial Drive, Vancouver, B.C. V5N 4B6  Lesbians  and aging  Our names are Sally Shamai and Maureen Ashfield and we are students in the  Gerontology Diploma Program at Simon  Fraser University. As part of the requirements of the course we are asked to do a  research project on some aspect of aging.  As lesbians we are aware that very little  information exists on how we age. Therefore we have chosen to do a project about  lesbians and aging. Our objective is to ascertain special issues confronting older lesbians in terms of understanding both our  sexuality and the aging process. This infor- 'Ä¢  mation will be potentially useful for identifying needed support services, educating  those who work with the elderly, developing advocacy strategies and educating ourselves about the issues lesbians confront as  we grow old.  Our hope is to interview a sample of forty  lesbians fifty years and older. The interviews will take approximately one hour and  will include topics about social support systems, legal and health care issues, coming  out and/or being out and sexuality.  All interviews will be held in strict confidence and may be conducted in person or,  if your prefer, by telephone. In the event  that comments from individual interviews  are cited, no names will be reported.  This study is being conducted under  the supervision of Dr. Gloria Gutman, Coordinator of the Gerontology Diploma Program. If you have any questions or concerns  about the study please feel free to contact  her at 291-3555.  If you're interested in participating in our  study, please contact Sally Shamai at 879-  3030 or Maureen Ashfield at 254-1620 by  March 10,1987.  Thank you very much for considering our  request.  Dangerous  diagnoses  Representatives of feminist mental health  professional and therapy consumer groups  are concerned about several proposed new  diagnostic terms into the psychiatric diagnostic manual. These diagnostic categories,  if adopted into the DSM-EI-R (the revised  third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association) have the potential for great abuse  and harm to women. Canadians should note  that the American Psychiatric Association's  diagnostic manual is considered the major reference work on psychiatric conditions  and is widely used in Canada.  The first proposed category of concern  is Self-Defeating Personality Disorder.  The diagnostic criteria for this term describe what feminists know to be the tran  sient effects of battering or sexual assault on  women's functioning; lowered self-esteem,  feelings of helplessness, difficulties advocating for oneself. Describing this survival  strategy as a "personality disorder" implies grave and unchangeable psychopathol-  ogy. In the hands of misogynist or uninformed clinicians, this diagnosis could be  used against women in custody battles,  in self-defense murder cases, in sexual harassment litigation, in short, wherever a  woman's mental health is called into question in decisions that intimately affect her  life.  The second proposed diagnosis of concern  is titled Premenstrual Dysphoric Mood  Disorder. As written, this diagnostic category would ascribe any problems in functioning experienced by any woman during  the week before and the week after her menstrual period hormonally-based. The potential for this diagnosis to be used against  women, particularly as a so-called "scientific" excuse for job discrimination, is enormous.  Finally, the inclusion of Paraphilic Coercive Disorder. Simply put, this makes a  psychiatric diagnosis out of rape. The diagnostic criteria require only a relationship  between fantasies of coerced sex or actual  coerced sex, and sexual arousal. This diagnosis hands an instant insanity plea to any  rapist, and would decrease the likelihood  that rape survivors would get any justice in  the court system.  Inclusion of these diagnostic categories  in the DSM-HI-R is due to be published  in 1987. You are encouraged to express  your concerns about any or all of these diagnoses directly to: Robert Pasnau, M.D.,  President, American Psychiatric Association, 1400 K Street N.W., Washington,  D.C, 20005 or Carol Nadelson, M.D.,  President, American Psychiatric Association, 171 Harrison Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts, 02111.  >'ñ† KINESIS ////////////////m^^  //////////////////////^^^^^  NEWS  Lost Herizons      HEftlZONg  by Kinesis Staff Writer  With the ending of its federal  grant, Herizons, the Winnipeg-  based feminist magazine, will  cease publication in March. Editor Penni Mitchell characterized  the government's decision to terminate funding as "political", a  view which has been echoed by  a project officer from the now  defunct Local Employment Assistance Development program, the  body which had provided Herizons with nearly a million dollars  over the past five years.  Herizons had been informed  that, under the terms of the  L.E.A.D. (Local Employment Assistance Development) program,  funding past the fifth year would  be unavailable. They subsequently  learned that other L.E.A.D. projects were permitted to reapply for  extended funds if they had demonstrated financial growth, a criterion Herizons staff felt they had  met.  Project officer Bill Kitson stated  that the Federal Employment  and Immigration Department had  bowed to pressures from conservative  lobbyists,   especially  anti-  AIDS: health,  safety and sex  by Kinesis Staff Writer  As of February there are forty  known cases of women with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in Canada. Twenty-  seven of these have died.  Thirty of the women with AIDS  fall in the 20 to 39 age group.  There have been seven cases of infant females with the disease, five  have died.  It is certain that these numbers  will rise and it is imperative that  all women, both heterosexual and  lesbian, take precautions against  becoming infected with AIDS.  AIDS is a disease caused by a  virus which breaks down a part  of the body's immune system. It  is transmitted primarily through  blood and semen. At present AIDS  is not curable but it is preventable.  Women at Risk  You are at risk of becoming infected with AIDS if you:  • share needles or other paraphernalia associated with using  drugs. (Currently this is the single most important risk factor  for women).  • have had sexual contact with:  ,   people   who   use   intravenous  drugs; men who have had gay  sex since 1979 (the year of  the first recorded ADDS case  in North America;) people, of  either sex, whose sexual histories you don't know; people  who   are  hemophilic,   or  who  have received blood transfusions or blood products between 1979 and November 1985,  when blood first started being  screened for AIDS antibodies.  • have used semen for donor insemination (artificial insemination) from a donor who is known  to be antibody positive or whose  risk status is unknown.  • have received blood or blood-  product transfusions between  1979 and November, 1985 (contaminated blood products received before 1985 caused a  small number of AIDS cases.  The AIDS antibody test, started  in November of 1985 in Canada,  is now used to check all blood  for signs of the virus.)  AIDS is not spread through casual contact. It is not spread by  coughing, kissing, hugging, sneezing, touching doorknobs, dishes,  telephones, toilet seats, drinking  glasses, swimming pools or sharing cigarettes or joints. No one  has gotten AIDS from living with,  touching or caring for a person  with AIDS, even in households  with young children.  AIDS Symptoms  The symptoms of AIDS are similar to many other diseases. They  include: unexplained fever, shaking chills, soaking night sweats,  swollen glands lasting over several weeks; sudden and extreme  weight loss (not due to dieting);  white  patches   or   spots   on   the  abortion groups. "The government  wanted the heat off," said Kitson.  Mitchell agrees with this assessment. "We'd like to be judged  on growth, not perceived political  bias. But the magazine industry  and feminist publications in particular, aren't well supported by  the government."  Herizons, with a national circulation of 8,000, had received  $181,000 in federal money last  year, a figure which covered forty-  five percent of its operating expenses. Mitchell stated that the  magazine needed two years to  achieve a 15,000 circulation base,  the point at which national advertising revenues would have made  the magazine self-supporting.  Letters protesting the decision to stop funding to Herizons can be sent to Benoit  Bouchard, Minister of Employment and Immigration, House  of Commons, Ottawa, Ontario,  K1A OC8.  W O M EN'S    ME W S   AND    F E M I NiST   VIEWS  Herizons ceases publication for now. forever?  Abortion in Kamloops at risk  by Maura Volante  Gus Halliday resigned last  month as chairman of Kamloops  Royal Inland Hospital in a dispute  with the board over her right to  cast a vote. The issue arose during voting on a motion to change  the structure of the hospital's therapeutic abortion committee.  Halliday, visible in the community for the past six years as a  pro-choice advocate, says that the  board went against its own bylaws in disallowing her, as chairman, to cast a deciding vote. Hospital lawyer, Bob Hunter, corroborates her view, but the board  has stuck to its position. Halliday's  vote would have defeated a motion  tongue or mouth; persistent diarrhea; dry cough (not due to  smoking or minor respiratory ailment); on white skin the appearance of pink or purple flat or raised  blotches, and on black skin the appearance of blotches darker than  the area around them and with a  purplish tint. In either case these  marks don't go away and are most  often found on or under the skin,  inside the mouth, nose, eyelids or  anus.  If you have these symptoms—  don't panic. AIDS symptoms are  similar to other illnesses—you  could just have a cold. If you think  you may have been infected go to a  doctor or take the AIDS antibody  AIDS testing  The AIDS antibody test, which  is used for checking blood donations, shows whether someone has  been infected with the AIDS virus.  There are a variety of factors, including alcoholism and use of birth  control pills, that may cause a  false 'positive' test result, that incorrectly shows infection with the  virus where there has been none.  If you are considering taking  the AIDS antibody test make sure  extensive counselling is available  both before and after your decision  to test and after getting your results.  There is a slim chance that the  presence of AIDS antibodies may  not be detected for up to a year after the initial infection. While this  is rare it is possible and women  who strongly suspect they may be  infected should consider taking a  second test within a year of their  first test results.  Women who are considering  tests should be aware that people who have tested positive for  AIDS do face discrimination. Some  insurance companies, for instance,  refuse applicants once a positive test result is shown. Different sectors of society have urged  that AIDS carriers be quarantined  and while they have had no success to date the situation around  the rights of people with AIDs  is still in flux. If you take the  AIDS antibody test take it where  your anonymity is guaranteed and  where the test results will not be  reported on your medical record or  anywhere else.  Most people infected with the  AIDS virus have no symptoms and  appear to be in good health. Most  people infected with AIDS will  probably not get AIDS but will  probably remain infectious indefinitely.  Pregnancy and Artificial Insemination  Women who are infected with the  AIDS virus may pass it on to  the fetus during pregnancy or at  birth. The AIDS virus can also be  transmitted through breast milk.  For women who are infected with  the AIDS virus, pregnancy may  increase their risk for developing  AIDS since pregnancy weakens the  body's immune system.  If you are planning a pregnancy through artificial insemination (donor insemination) you will  want to do a risk assessment of  your donors on a case by case basis. The safest choice is to use a  donor who is not a member of a  AIDS continued on page 8  to cut the twelve member therapeutic abortion committee down  to six doctors, including thre'e who  are committed anti-abortionists.  The motion, which required a two-  thirds majority, passed seven to  three.  "There probably won't be much  change (in access to abortion) in  the immediate future," said Halliday, "as the new committee is in  a three-month trial period. They  will want to let things go for now,  to quiet the fears of the public. Bui  in the next year or so I have no  doubt that there will be a drastic  reduction in the number of abortions permitted in Kamloops."  One factor which may give  more influence to the three anti-  abortionists on the committee is  that two of the other members are  specialists with limited availability. The committee meets in components of three at a time, according to a schedule worked out by  the committee chairman.  With the recent anti-abortion  stands made by Vernon and  Kelowna hospitals, Halliday speculated that interior women needing abortions will be "heading to  Vancouver".  Kamloops, like many other  communities in British Columbia,  has seen an escalation over the  past several years of the struggle between pro-choice and anti-  abortion factions. "Six years ago,"  said Halliday, "there were around  100 people voting to elect the hospital board. Now there are 1400."  Though defeated in the current struggle, Halliday said she has'  very positive feelings about her  support in Kamloops. She will continue to sit on the board, though  not as chairman, and members of  the community will have a chance  to elect some new members to the  hospital board in June at its annual general meeting. Halliday will  not be required to stand in that  election, as she is in the middle of  a two-year term.  KINESIS  March'87 3 ACROSS  B.C.  Help for welf are'workers'  by Jean Swanson  End Legislated Poverty (ELP)  will ensure that free legal help is  available to people cut off welfare for refusing to take jobs found  by the new job matching program announced by Social Services and Housing Minister Claude  Richmond in January. The program is starting on a trial basis in Kamloops and Surrey/White  Rock and may spread to the rest  of the province.  "Many people may want to take  advantage of the program, but we  don't like the fact that the Ministry has already threatened people with being cut off welfare if  they don't take jobs," said Sue  Harris, spokesperson for the nineteen member anti-poverty coalition.  While Richmond has criticized  the media for reporting that he  would cut people off welfare, he  did, in fact say that he would.  On a CBC radio program in mid-  January, Richmond said, "If we  determined after several attempts  that a person turned down two,  three jobs, we'd probably drop  that person from welfare rolls."  Announcer   Gail   Hubick   asked,  "You'd   cut   off   their   welfare?"  Richmond replied, "Yes."  While Richmond has since been  pressured into backing down, saying that the program is voluntary,  Mr. Hewett who runs the company  providing the program to the Ministry said on another CBC radio  program that his company had two  obligations to the Ministry:  1. Reporting people who don't  take advantage of his company's  services; and  2. Reporting people who turn  down jobs.  ELP reacted to the program  saying it would be especially hard  on children whose mothers could  be forced to work for wages no  higher than welfare rates that are  now at about forty percent of the  poverty line.  Even if work expenses such as  child care, clothes, and bus fare are  provided by the Ministry, children  could be hurt because the mother  wouldn't have the time to cook  from scratch, shop at rummage  sales, sew and do other things that  mothers can do to reduce the effects of poverty on their children.  "The whole policy is particu-  larly bad when you consider that  the Ministry can start forcing  women to take jobs when their  child reaches the ripe old age of  seven months. Some women may  want to work under these circumstances, but they should not be  forced to," said Harris.  What else is wrong with the  program? It fosters the illusion  that the Ministry is doing something to reduce poverty when in  fact it only shifts poverty around,  taking jobs from people on unemployment insurance (UI) and giving them to people on welfare.  No jobs are created except for  the company running the $300,000  program. It does nothing to reduce  poverty since the jobs will virtually all be low wage and many of  them temporary. It's an employer  assistance program disguised as a  program to help people on welfare. The program effectively adds  all employable people on welfare  to the pool of impoverished labour  competing for low pay jobs, pushing the wages down even further.  The federal Canada Assistance  Plan Act may be an unexpected  ally to people who feel threatened  by the program. It states: "No person shall be denied assistance because he (sic) refuses or has re-  IHUMJIOMl  mum  BAH  Mareh Jib 1987  IMIiMMmUMIIM  IWD, 1987, Women Everywhere Unite." For full details on Interna  tional Women's Day events see Bulletin Board  fused to take part in a work activity project."  The provincial government can  do things that will end or reduce  poverty. These include creating decent jobs at decent wages, raising the minimum wage to $6 per  hour (the poverty line for a sin  gle person), raising welfare rates,  building affordable housing, making child care accessible to low income people, and bringing in rent  control.  Call ELP for further information or legal help S21-4S55.  City budget may limit community grants  by Colleen Tillmyn  Money talks. How it talks and  to whom is being decided right  now at city hall. Recommendations for Vancouver's 1987 budget are in the process of finaliza-  tion. The system goes something  like this.  City departments such as finance, social planning, and health  must submit their reports to the  Finance and Priorities Committee  of City Council. (This newly created committee is made up of all  the council members.) City Manager, Fritz Bowers, is the next step  in the process. He receives recommendations from the Finance and  Priorities Committee and after he  has reviewed the material he reports back to them.  By April 2, the Finance and  Priorities Committee must establish "the interim budget". (Also at  this point, departments can appeal  projected changes.) On April 13,  a public hearing is scheduled to  discuss the "interim budget". The  following day Council as a whole  votes on this budget and any proposed changes. Two weeks later  Council formally votes on the budget and sets Vancouver's new tax  rates for the upcoming year.  What can we look forward to  with this new economic package?  Mayor Gordon Campbell put it  this way in his inaugural speech  last December:  "To meet the challenges of  change, we are all going to have to  be aware of the city's financial limits. Recognizing our limits forces  us to make the toughest choices of  all. ... In short, there is no room  for new services to meet today's  needs without a reallocation of resources."  In concrete terms this means  that department heads have been  asked to identify their "most dispensable activities, costing about  five percent"; and their "next most  dispensable activities, costing a  further five percent." Fritz Bowers explains this request in terms  of "tight budgets, and ... a reallocation of some resources to  Council priorities."  According to reports in the  Vancouver Sun reductions in  some current expenditures appear  certain. In late January Sun reporters noted that council had instituted a new budget review process whereby a committee consist  ing of the "mayor, finance committee chairman, the city manager and the finance director"  would meet "to review requests  (for funds) and meet with departmental representatives at city  hall, and then prepare a package  of possible reductions. The list of  cuts will be submitted to council's finance and priorities committee later."  Another new process instituted by this council involves the  civic grants procedures. Formerly  groups would speak to council and  if they didn't receive what they  applied for they could appeal and  appear before council again. In  early February council passed several new recommendations on the  civic grants process.  To begin with, letters will go out  to community groups who have applied for grants informing them  of Social Planning's recommendations on their applications and  inviting them to attend a special  Finance and Priorities Committee  meeting in late March. At this  meeting the grants allocation report will be discussed and those  who disagree with its recommendations will be given time to speak.  The committee will then vote on  individual grants and pass its report on to council for final approval, possibly on the same day.  Another significant change involves the appeal procedure. In  contrast to former practice, where  groups had an opportunity to appeal directly and publicly to council, now, "Council (will) only consider appeals wherein additional  funds are required to prevent un-  forseen staff layoffs or the survival  of an organization."  On the face of it, it appears  that no community groups will  have automatic access to formal  city council meetings. And council  will not have to deal, in a public  forum, with criticisms of its decisions about community grants.  These new procedures belie  Campbell's plan "to create discussion, to provide each individual the  opportunity to be heard, to empower people to choose their own  paths", as he stated in his inaugural speech.  There are approximately 137  community service grants this  year, a substantial increase over  the 112 grant applications funded  in 1986. To a considerable extent  this increase is due to provincial  government cutbacks which have  forced social service organizations  to rely more and more on city support.  There are other pressures on  the city's grants budget, most notably in grants for cultural organizations. The following is contained  in the City Managers Report on  Civic Grants—1987.  "While Expo created several  new initiatives, it certainly had a  major adverse impact on local patronage. According to a survey undertaken by the Social Planning  Department about forty percent of  the city's non-profit cultural organizations experienced a decline  in attendance during the world's  fair and fifty-six percent experienced a financial loss compared to  the same period in 1985. In addition organizations with subscription programs for the 1985-86 season reported a significant decline  in subscriptions. While these figures related directly to Expo, the  pattern continues to occur several  months after the fair."  According to preliminary information the city is keen to increase certain areas of the budget.  Tourism expenditures, currently  at $296,520 may rise to $640,000  if the recommendations for an increase are approved by council.  This gives us some indication of  the mayor's priorities and some insight into what he means when he  talks about "re-allocations of resources" .  As Campbell mentioned, again  in his inaugural address, "We are  an ocean city, and we all recognize  that as we move into our second  century the tide is with us."  Just what kind of tide he is referring to will be spelled out more  clearly in the months ahead.  KINESIS  March '87 Across B.C  Farmworkers and sexual harassment  A harvest  of fear  and silence  by Noreen Howes  Just as surely as there is British Columbia produce on the shelves at your corner Safeway store, so too are women being  raped in British Columbia fields. You don't  know this? Well how could you? The produce you pull from the shelves cannot talk,  and the women who originally picked it for  you believe themselves to be safer, silent.  Eighty percent of the farmworkers in the  Fraser Valley are women, most of East Indian origin. Many are illiterate, and speak  no English.  For the time being, others are speaking for these women. Canadian Labour  Congress (CLC) president Shirley Carr, for  example, who as guest speaker at a recent  Canadian Farmworkers Union (CFU) benefit cautioned the women on sexual harassment. And then there's the farmworker's  union itself which is now shifting its' priorities to include combatting sexual harassment, and is eager to have farmworkers tell  of their experiences on the job.  And some do. Or rather, some speak  of "my friend", "my neighbor" or "my  brother's wife", who was sexually harassed.  Rarely do they tell their own stories.  Listen to what goes on in the country; on  that picturesque stretch of beautiful B.C.  we pass en route to Fantasy Gardens.  In the labour contractor's vans, which  transport the farmworkers from their homes  to the fields, particular women are chosen  by their employer-contractor to work separate from the others.  "One or two of the younger women would  be picked", said Bhavana Bhangu, an organizer for the CFU. "And then these women  would ask that an uncle, or some older  man, be allowed to work alongside them."  Inevitably, however, this isn't allowed. Instead, the contractor isolates these women  in the field, a far cry from other workers,'  and they are available to him throughout  their twelve hour shift.  In other cases a woman is driven to deserted shacks or barns on the farmers property, raped, and then driven back to continue her work. Sexual abuse by the labour  contractor also occurs on the return trip  home. He decides which farmworkers to  drop off first, and which last. Often the last  woman in the van becomes his victim.  Some farmworkers living in cabins on the  land are sexual prey to the growers themselves. These women, leaving their homes  in the interior to work the land, are available to their employer twenty-four hours a  day. It is at the growers discretion who is  to leave the cabins during the day to work  in the fields, and who is to remain. During peak season the cabins are almost always deserted; one woman, however, can be  refused work on a particular day and left  alone in the cabin.  Sexual abuse also happens in a farmer's  cannery, located on his land, during a late  night shift.  This article was initially intended to examine the sexual harassment of farmworkers in the Fraser Valley, but it was not clear  what constituted sexual harassment and  what constituted sexual assault. Through  examples of the farmworker's plight, pri  marily provided by the CFU, it was soon  apparent that some farmworkers have been  raped. Their choice to remain silent, partly  out of shame, is also characteristic of rape  victims.  The women, however, are silent for other  reasons as well, which are peculiar to  the farmworker's economic dependency and  overall exploitation. If she refuses sexual  advances, for example, she and her family  risk being refused work by a contractor or  grower. Her pay could be withheld at the  season's end. She could become ineligible for  unemployment insurance, through her employer's refusal to do the required paperwork.  One particularly ruthless example of sexual harassment concerned a woman who  lived with her young child in a grower's  cabin. After continually refusing to have sex  During the peak season the cabins are almost always deserted; one woman, however,  can be refused work on a particular day and left alone in the cabin, a victim.  with her employer, this man physically abducted her child. He then called the Ministry of Human Resources (MHR) claiming  she was an abusive mother. Her son was  immediately apprehended, and it was only  through the intervention of the CFU that  the child was returned to her.  "She had no one supporting her but the  union", said CFU president Sarwan Boal.  "The other farmworkers were too intimidated by the grower, and her husband  thought she was the one to blame, not  him."  The women are silent about being raped  and about being sexually harassed, because  they are aware of their powerlessness. They  often receive virtually no support from their  husband, "but are blamed instead for encouraging the bosses attention" said Boal.  "They do talk about it themselves," said  Anna Brisbois, CFU staff representative.  "But it never gets told beyond a very small  community of women farmworkers ... they  warn each other who to stay away from, but  even this doesn't necessarily stop them from  continuing to work for these men."  Once, when the union did respond to a  sexually abusive contractor whose reputation was well-known among farmworkers,  their good intentions backfired on them.  The woman who had complained about this  man refused to support them in confronting  him.  "We went into this contractor's field early  in the morning and began leafletting", said  Boal. "But the woman was right there working with him anyway." Clearly she understood who had the power over her, both economically and physically.  A further consequence of women's silence  is frustration on the part of the union. Introducing the issue of sexual harassment into  their community is fraught with difficulties. There is the realm of supposedly realistic possibilities—such as writing a Punjabi  translation on sexual harassment to be dis  tributed among the farmworker community,  or organizing the women around this issue,  but even these objectives are extremely difficult to achieve, due partly to the low literacy rate in the community and the women's  fear.  "They will only talk to Indo-Canadian  women—and they can't be too young either, because very young women aren't  respected-and they also have to be farmworkers" said Brisbois. "And they can talk  only when their husbands aren't around  Brisbois thinks it's important, at this  stage, to assure the farmworkers that sexual  harassment shouldn't be tolerated; and that  it's a serious violation of their rights. Shirley  Carr's speech at the CFU fundraiser, she  said, was a powerful encouragement for the  women. "There she was, this woman who  was very well-respected, speaking publicly  about sexual harassment among farmworkers ... and it was excellently translated into  Punjabi."  Within the Indo-Canadian community itself similar problems exist regarding the  farmworker's silence. The India-Mahila Association, a Vancouver-based support group  concerned with violence against Indo-  Canadian women, receive few calls on sexual harassment or assault in the fields.  "These women don't dare talk about it,"  said Darshin Mann, a spokesperson for the  Association. "They're very frightened about  losing their jobs ... and in our culture,  women are taught to keep quiet about violence. Keep it to herself."  If she refuses sexual advances she, and her family, risk being refused work by an  individual contractor or grower or even throughout the industry.  KINESIS  March'87 5 Across Canada  Maternity  leave at risk  by Kinesis Staff Writer  While some employers across  the country are, once again, making noises that maternity leave is  too expensive and inconvenient,  three Manitoba women are claiming sex discrimination before the  Supreme Court of Canada because  their pregnancy benefits, under  unemployment insurance, paid less  than sickness benefits paid men by  their employer's company plan.  The women, employees of Canada Safeway stores in Manitoba,  became pregnant in 1982 and are  nearing the end of a long court  batfle to have Safeway's insurance plan ruled discriminatory.  Two courts in Manitoba agreed  that the company plan discriminated against pregnant women but  ruled that it wasn't sex discrimination, because of the 1978 Supreme  Court Stella Bliss decision.  In the Bliss case the Court  unanimously dismissed a sex discrimination complaint by Bliss,  a Vancouver woman denied unemployment benefits when she  couldn't work because of pregnancy. The court said that discrimination on the basis of pregnancy wasn't sex discrimination.  The women's appeal to Canada's highest court comes at a  time when there is mounting business opposition to maternity leave  rights which were first granted in  1971 when a law was passed that  guaranteed women their jobs back  after seventeen weeks of maternity leave. The Unemployment Insurance Act was amended so that  pregnant women on leave received  up to sixty percent of their salaries  for the seventeen weeks. Later  some companies, particularly in  the public sector, began topping  up the unemployment to ninety-  five percent of pre-leave earnings  and extended leave provisions for  as long as two years while still  guaranteeing a woman her job  back afterwards. The Unemployment Insurance Commission paid  a total of $400 million in maternity benefits out of its 1985 $10.2  billion payout.  The Canadian Organization of  Small Business (COSB), which  represents 5,000 companies across  Canada, and the Canadian Federation of Independent Business  (CFIB), with its 76,000 members,  are arguing that maternity leave  is too expensive for small business  and that there's an imbalance between the rights and responsibilities of the pregnant employee.  Both organizations say that because women are not obligated to  return, many quit after their leave  to stay home full time. The COSB  and the CFIB are lobbying the federal and provincial governments  to pass laws requiring women on  leave to give four weeks notice if  they intend to quit. They also suggest that women should have to  financially compensate their employers if they don't return to their  jobs.  Sylvia Gold, president of the  Canadian Advisory Council on the  Status of Women, says employers  fears are exaggerated. "I think it's  pretty safe to say that women entering the labour market are going to stay there until they re-,  tire. So in their entire working career they may take time off for  two children, which amounts to  twenty-eight weeks out of a potential thirty-five years."  Business groups and lobbyists  are promoting a number of solutions to what they see as the problem of maternity leave. Among  these are: flex time, part time  scheduling, job sharing, a registered maternity benefit plan, and  remote work.  Most trade unions are adamantly opposed to increases in the part  time work force and strongly resist  job sharing because they are committed to a shorter work week with  no loss in pay.  The notion of a registered maternity benefit program was first  proposed to the Forget Commission on Unemployment Insurance  reform and calls for tax breaks  for women contributing to such  a fund, which they could collapse  after each child is born with no  penalty. Such a scheme undermines universal access to maternity leave since the only women  who could afford it are those who  have disposable income that could  go to such a fund.  The remote work option, an  idea of increasing interest to business, calls for women to be able  to work at home on computers  and be near their children. Such  schemes have drawn strong opposition from feminists who point out  that a woman isolated in the home  and truly juggling two jobs at the  same time would suffer.  The Manitoba women, who are  seeking to appeal the Bliss ruling, have only appeared before a  screening panel of judges who will  decide if their case will be heard  by the full court.  Apollo harasses Daphne -  \i legal in Manitoba  Harassment ruling chilling  by Kinesis Staff Writer  Does sexual harassment constitute a violation of human rights  protection for women? According  to a ruling by the Manitoba Court  of Appeal the answer is no.  In a landmark decision handed  down from Manitoba's highest  court November 19, the cases of  two waitresses were dismissed on  the grounds that there can be  no protection against sexual harassment under Manitoba's human rights legislation, unless it is  specifically stated in the legislation. And even then, Mr. Justice  Huband made it clear he was not  in agreement with those govern  ments specifically prohibiting sexual harassment as an act of discrimination against women as is  the case with the Federal Act, Ontario, Quebec and Newfoundland.  "I am conscious, of course, that  it is within the power of a legislative body to say that black is  white, or that day is night, or that  harassment is discrimination." Describing his concept of sexual harassment Huband said, "When a  schoolboy steals kisses from a female classmate, one might well say  that he is harassing her. He is  troubling her; vexing her; harrying  her—but he is surely not discriminating against her."  Women in combat  by Kinesis Staff Writer  In a move that may leave many  feminists more attuned to the limits of an equal rights strategy  for women's liberation the federal government has declared that  women can now assume combat  roles in Canada's armed forces.  Perrin Beatty, National Minister of Defense, said in mid February that Canada "has not gone  far enough in the employment of  women in the armed forces", and  announced the creation of a trial  system that is supposed to find  the best path to integation and set  timetables for trying out women in  combat roles.  According to a report from  the defense department, however,  most women don't want to go  into combat units and if all roles  were open, including infantry,  artillery  and  submarine  service,  fewer women would join the forces.  Beatty told reporters that women  presently in the military who do  not want combat duty would not  be forced into combat units.  The Canadian Armed Forces  are facing several human rights  complaints about employment practices. Four women have filed  claims with the Canadian Human  Rights Commission saying they  have been discriminated against  on the basis of gender. One complained that she was not permitted to join a tactical helicopter  squadron; another said she was not  allowed, to apply for a spot as a  fighter pilot.  Noting that physical admission  standards, although "gender free",  will be higher and may mean a decrease in the number of women in  the forces, Beatty said that is "the  prices we have to pay for equality." Beatty also said that recruitment of women would have to be  stepped up to offset any loss.  At the end of the ruling Huband  went on to say that including in  human rights legislation a prohibition against sexual harassment  would be outside a province's jurisdiction and should be struck  down as unconstitutional.  The case before the Manitoba  Court of Appeal involved two waitresses at a Winnipeg restaurant  who were sexually harassed at  work. The harassment involved  kissing, embracing, touching various parts of their bodies and making comments of a sexual nature  against their appearance.  The women, who were employed  at different times, were awarded  substantial settlements for damages and lost wages by the original Board of Adjudication hearing  the case. Upon appeal, the Decision was again upheld by the Manitoba Court of the Queen's Bench,  although the settlement itself was  reduced.  The Manitoba Court of Appeal  Decision has dealt human rights  protection against sexual harassment in that Province a heavy  blow and according to human  rights advocates, has serious implications for human rights protection against sexual harassment  across the country.  The Justices involved in the Decision also stated that employers  are not responsible for any acts  of discrimination in the workplace  unless it can be proven they had a  specific policy to discriminate.  Justice Twaddle said there is no  requirement in the Act for an employer to eradicate any discriminatory tendency on the part of its  employees.  The Canadian Human Rights  Commission is seeking leave to  appeal the Decision before the  Supreme Court of Canada.  Ontario promises rights for domestic workers  by Kinesis Staff Writer  According to the Globe and  Mail the Ontario Ministry of  Labour is set to recommend  changes in that province's Labour  Standards Act which will provide more protection for domestic  workers.  A confidential report obtained  by the Globe recommends "regulatory and legislative changes  which would increase the employment protection and improve the  equality of treatment of domestic  workers." A specific recommendation calls for including time and a  half pay after forty-four hours of  work a week.  There are an estimated 65,000  domestic workers in Ontario, ninety-eight percent of whom are  women, the great majority from  Third World countries. Presently  domestic workers are excluded  from basic employment protections such as minimum wage laws  and set working hours. According  to Judith Ramirez of Intercede,  a Toronto organization that lobbies for domestic workers rights,  'It's technically legal for a domestic worker to be on the job for  120 hours a week." Live-in workers, says Ramirez, are most at risk  and report having to work between  sixty-five and ninety hours a week.  Domestic workers exclusion  from labour standards protection stems largely from "the  widespread belief that what happens in the home is not real work"  said Ramirez.  A domestic worker paid the  minimum wage will earn approximately $191 a week for an annual  income of under $10,000. In contrast, a 1984 Ontario Labour Ministry study found that eighty percent of households employing domestic workers had an income of  more than $40,000 per year and  half had an income of more than  $65,000 a year.  6   KINESIS    M^ch   87 //////////////////^^^^^  ////////////////////^^^^^  LIFE STORIES  m^^^^^^o^^^^^^^m  SMV39  BEANS  BEANS  A look at  life in Nicaragua  went off to the coffee harvest leaving her to  work in what felt like a deserted building.  For lunch most of the people in Claire's  office ate at the Commodore on a bono  (meal pass provided to government workers). The Commodore had good meals and  they ate protein maybe three times a week.  Bill wasn't so lucky over at the art school.  He ate macaroni, corn, potatoes and tortillas.  After lunch Claire shopped. Both Bill and  she would shop a couple of times every day  just to keep themselves in food. At the supermarket you could stand in as many as  four lines—a meat line, a vegetable line, a  line at a counter to buy packaged soups,  chicklets, and pastries, and a cashier line.  Once Claire counted ninety-two people lined  up to buy crackers.  by Nora Randall  Claire and Bill got back a couple of  months ago from spending a year living and  working in Nicaragua. I've had a chance to  talk to Claire about her experiences and to  see her slides and journals from the trip. I'd  like to tell you some of the stories Claire  told me about her life in Nicaragua, not, by  any means, the whole story, more like snippets of life.  Claire was hired by the Nicaraguan government to design stamps, which is an important export product for the country. Bill  was hired to teach in the art school. Their  day went a little bit like this.  They got up in the mornings about 6:30  and the first thing they did was shower  because after ten minutes the water was  turned off for the day. For breakfast Claire  often went across the street to a house that  sold tortillas and sour milk out the front.  Then she walked to work through the barrios where people from the country had set  up housekeeping in cardboard boxes hoping  that they would be safer in Managua and  maybe make some money.  She got to work about eight and worked  on her projects in the morning. Once a week  they had staff meetings at 10 a.m. These  were always interesting because everyone  spoke Spanish faster than Claire understood  it. Sometimes she would miss one word and  get the whole thing backwards.  She encountered the usual problems associated with any office, like departmental  rivalries (the artists were considered privileged because they had the office with the  only air conditioner); as well as the unusual,  like shortly after she arrived half the office  aire, vdxjuwuteic.  Claire has lots of line stories but her bus  line stories are my favorites. One is about  taking the bus back from the beach after  a couple of hours of swimming and sunbathing. There were about 300 people waiting for that bus. It came every hour or so  and people pushed and shoved and clawed  their way onto it, either inside or on top  of or off the back or hanging anywhere you  could get a hold. Another time Claire rode  the bus with six toes on the bottom step of  the bus which she shared with three other  people. She had one hand wrapped around  the side view mirror and the other wrapped  around a man. In Nicaragua this constitutes  "on the bus".  People are packed so tight no one can  move except the man who takes your money  for the ride, who somehow manages to  squeeze his way up and down the bus col  lecting fares. No one can explain how this  is done. People also get on the bus with  trays of wares they are selling. They hold  the trays over their heads and do business.  Also at every stop vendors run up to the  sides of the bus and sell drinks and other  things through the windows to the people  on the bus. All this is done in the 95-100  degree heat.  The other time Nicaraguans get together  is for parties. Everyone throws parties.  Claire and Bill threw one after they were  there a month. Parties are a big deal and  done with style. Claire went to a wedding  party where the family had painted the  front of their house turquoise and pink and  covered it in little white flowers made out  of plastic garbage bags. Only the front wall  though, because there wasn't enough paint.  Claire went to another party that was  held to celebrate the graduation of a sewing  class. This party started like most parties,  early in the afternoon, right after work. The  first thing that happened was that the entire dirt yard was swept clean. Then about  fifty or sixty chairs were carted in from  man who rents them out for parties. That's  his business. The next thing that happened  was that four guys staggered in carrying  heavy old fashioned victrola for the dance  music. Then a line of five light bulbs was  strung across the yard and people started  showing up.  The graduation ceremony started off with  everyone standing to sing the national anthem, which is a holdover from colonial days  and doesn't have a latin note in it. The  teacher and all the girls stood as one by one  the girls went up and received their awards  and kisses. Then a photographer took a picture of each individual girl. This is a big deal  since the country is short of photographic  paper and chemicals.  After the graduation ceremony the little kids went around and passed out drinks  and little portions of pork and bread. Then  the music started and everybody danced,  kids, old people, the works. The people that  Claire had come with figured they would  have to leave around 7 p.m. to walk the  and half back to the road to catch the bus  for Managua. One thing led to another and  they didn't start out till nine so they missed  the bus, walked nine kilometers and ended  up hitch-hiking back to town on a truck.  There are a lot more stories but these at  least give me the feeling that I've had a peek  through a keyhole at life in Nicaragua.  If the Government in Ottawa  gets its way,  they may take this magazine  right out of your hands  The Great Depression; two world wars; a small, spread-out population;  recessions; inflation; overwhelming competition from the U.S.-none of  these could kill Canada's magazines...  ...but the current Government in Ottawa just might.  r I ,he Government is considering demolishing the delicate struc-  JL ture of postal, tariff and tax-related incentives that helps keep the  Canadian magazine industry alive. If this happens, many Canadian  magazines will die.  Those that survive will cost more to readers and publishers  and will be more vulnerable than ever to competition from foreign  magazines that have the advantages of huge press-runs and lower  per-copy costs.  Those that survive will be less profitable and, therefore, more  likely to succumb to adverse economic  circumstances in the future.  CANADA'S  MAGAZINES  2 STEWART STREET, TORONTO, ONTARIO M5V 1H6  ...a voice of our own  |MAY21-22-23, 1987]  FEATURING:  a feminist look at Motherhood.  PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATES  3 Cameron Crescent, Toronto, Ontario  M4G 1Z7  fcllift  USED&OLD'  BOOKS.  •BOUGHT S, SOLO  INTERNATIONAL  WOMEN'S  t55 WEST PENDER  VANCOUVER '  PHONE 681-7654-  KINESIS AIDS continued from page 3  high risk group i.e. gay or bisexual  men, and intravenous drug users.  If gay donors are chosen, give  priority to those who have been in  a monogamous relationship since  1979 and whose medical and sexual histories are known and indicate lesser risk of infection. Donors  'ho have used IV drugs may be  in poor health regardless of AIDS  risk, and also should be screened  carefully or ruled out.  Whether you use a gay or  eterosexual donor, get all the  information possible about their  health, medical and sexual history.  Many lesbians have asked their  donors to be tested for AIDS but  women should be aware that there  is a possibility that a donor could  have a negative antibody test and  still be an AIDS carrier. The test,  therefore, should be done twice  prior to insemination within a period of three to six months between tests and with an agreement  that your donor practice safe sex  between tests.  Intravenous Drug Use  The most common source of AIDS  among women is intravenous drug  use, the fastest growing risk factor  of all new AIDS cases. Drug use  has never been more dangerous as  traces of blood in shared or rented  needles and cookers can spread the  virus.  If you shoot drugs, get help. If  your partner has a drug problem,  encourage him or her to get help.  If you persist in IV drug use follow the following guidelines stringently. Never share needles, works  or cookers. Don't rent works at  shooting galleries. Don't use re-  bagged needles.  Clean your works by soaking the  needle, syringe and cooker in rubbing alcohol or in a mixture of  household bleach and water (one  cup bleach to ten cups water) for  ten minutes and then rinse in running tap water. Never inject alcohol or bleach into the body.  Sex  Sex with anyone who is infected  is very risky. Sex with anyone  whose sexual history you don't  know is almost equally risky. Semen, blood, vaginal fluids, urine  and feces can spread the AIDS  virus during vaginal, anal and possibly oral sex. Kissing, as mentioned, is not a risk behaviour. Although tiny amounts of the virus  have been found, sometimes, in  tears and saliva, there have never  been any proven cases of AIDS  spread through them.  Most cases of heterosexual transmission have involved women infected by their male partners. It is  much less common, but possible,  for the virus to travel from women  to men. Theoretically, although no  cases have been documented, lesbians who carry the AIDS virus  could infect others if their vaginal  fluids or menstrual blood enters  the body of their sexual partner.  Lesbian cases to date are traced to  intravenous drug use and sharing  of needles.  Lesbian and heterosexual women who may be at risk (if they've  had sexual contact with a partner known to be infected, with gay  or bisexual men, or with intravenous drug users), should not allow their menstrual blood, vaginal  secretions, urine, feces or breast  milk to enter their partners bodies through the mouth, vagina, rectum or through broken skin.  Safe Sex  Choose sexual activities that prevent blood, including menstrual  blood, semen, vaginal fluid, urine  or feces from entering the mouth,  vagina, anus or through broken  skin.  Use condoms. For lesbians at  risk a thin latex barrier can be  placed between the mouth and the  genital or anal area. A thin latex  glove or finger cot can be used for  finger/hand penetration.  Because condoms can come  off during intercourse, withdrawal  during ejaculation is safest. Some  sources maintain that nonoxynol-  9, a spermicide, kills the virus. If  you have an allergic reaction try  another brand.  Each person should use their  own sex toys (dildos, vibrators,  etc.). If you are sharing sex toys  clean them, after each use, with  bleach, alcohol or hot soapy water  or use condoms and change them  after each use.  Information for this article was obtained from the  Women's AIDS Network, San  Francisco, Gay Men's Health  Crisis, New York, San Francisco AIDS Foundation and  AIDS Vancouver.  For more information or  resources, including speakers,  counselling and self-help  groups, contact AIDS Vancouver (24 hours a day) at 687-  AIDS or write P.O. Box 4991,  Main Post Office, Vancouver.  The Vancouver Persons  With AIDS (PWA) Coalition,  formed in 1986, is made up  of people with AIDS or ARC  (AIDS Related Complex). The  Coalition provides services such  as advice on alternate forms  of therapy, hospital visitations,  non- professional counselling  of patients, support groups  for AIDS and ARC patients,  speakers bureau, media relations etc. Contact them at 683-  SS81 or write Box 136, 1215  Davie Street, Vancouver, B.C.,  V6E IN4.  Both groups use volunteers  extensively in their work. If you  are interested in volunteering  contact them for further information.  180 East Cordova Street  Vancouver, B.C.V6A1L3  The Firehall Theatre Presents  The Fairies Are Thirsty  (les fees ont soif)  Western Canadian Premiere  of the extraordinary, controversial  play by Denise Boucher, Directed by  Donna Spencer.  March 18-April 4  A bold, passionate poetic exploration of the role of  women through all time.  Book Now: 689 - 0926  HAPPY  INTERNATIONAL  WOMENS  DAY  from S.F.U. WOMEN'S CENTRE  The Women's Centre presents:  FEMINISTS SPEAK TO THE BACKLASH  A debate between Susan  Cole, Toronto Feminist  and Gwen Landolt, co-  founder of R.E.A.L.  Women of Canada.  For times, dates, and information call 291-3670  Daycare available.  e must place  a very high  ■priority on  developing programs  to remove harriers  that block the  progress of women. J9  Diane Wood  1st Vice-President, BCGEU  Chairperson, BCGEU Women's Committee  The B.C. Government Employees' Union joins with women  throughout B.C. to celebrate International Women's Day, 1987.  «KINESIS NEW ATLAS  CHARTS WOMEN'S  PLACE IN THE WORLD  by Nadine Schuurman  WOMEN IN THE WORLD  by Joni Seager and Ann Olson  edited by Michael Kidron  Pan Books, 1986. 128 pages.  Women in the World is the title of a  new atlas published by Pan Books. It is  authored by two North American feminist geographers, Joni Seager and Ann  Olson.  The atlas is edited by Michael Kidron  who  co-authored a previous   'alternate  tion that aren't considered relevant in the  books of conventional data collectors.  Cartography is dedicated to making a  point through geographical differentiation.  It shows differences in phenomena as they  occur across space. This is usually accomplished largely by a hierarchy of symbols.  Remember the circles used in school atlases  to show how big a town was. A dot for a rural community, a big blob for a megalopolis.  Bold print for the United States, tiny print  for Guyana.  The authors of Women in the World  have   largely   avoided   using   quantitative  Women at War:  this month's supplement  This year's international supplement has one dominant theme, women at war. In Eritrea  women serve as troops in a people's army of liberation, in South Africa women struggle  against apartheid, in Chile their battle is against a military dictatorship, in Nicaragua it's  a confrontation against male defined laws and customs that make women a victim of back  street abortions. Elsewhere, around the globe, the fight is against the sex trade, dangerous  birth control practices and the myriad conditions that control and limit women's equality  and freedom.  When men go to war their means and ends seem fairly simple, if destructive. They seek  territory, influence, or to punish an enemy and occasionally, they too, seek freedom. Whatever the ends, however, the result rarely means any concrete, positive change in women's  conditions, conditions that ensure that women and their children are always the first victims of men's wars.  Although more common now than ever before, women's wars are rarely fought on the  battlefield consequently, women's wars have few 'enemy' casualties. Many ideas, however,  die an invariably slow and often painful death and as a consequence men lose status, power,  privilege and perhaps, one day, even the right to decide that women are going to be victims of war.  Women's freedom, in its ultimate sense, has never been won but, steadily, it is an idea  whose time is coming.  The centre of each map is not the conventional North America and Europe but  rather Eurasia and the Pacific. This is indicative of an effort to swerve away from a  white-world centralism. It is somewhat offset, however, by there being more data presented on countries from Europe and North  atlas' titled "The New State of the  World Atlas", the mandate of which  was to illustrate the geo-political consequences of the present international  control system.  Given that the authors of "The New  State of the World Atlas" lump women's  groups with "single focus movements  ... which offers a less serious chaUenge  to the world order than did the broad  coalitions of the past," it is a relief that  Pan Books found two feminist geographers to design this atlas.  Women in the World covers a broad  spectrum of women's issues under forty topics that range from female circumcision to  women in the labour force to poverty. Each  topic covers two pages, which typically include a map, several charts and some narrative text.  The graphic information is distributed  between maps and charts. Charts and  graphs are far more numerous than maps  and abound throughout, making the book  as much an atlas as a collection of feminist graphics. The charts are a useful technique for representing data on countries for  which information is available without having to show large areas of the world map  in that "data unavailable" grey. One chart  that illustrates how hard it is to find data on  women's issues is called"Invisible Women *  It simply lists the categories of informa-  symbolism, switching instead to a greater  reliance on colour. (Which, incidentally,  makes finding examples for Kinesis more  difficult.) Innovative symbols are used.  Women's symbols mark occurrence of an  event. Swatches of wheat show the proportion of women agricultural workers (with  the telling title "Beasts of Burden").  Data was hard to obtain. The lack of  (available) statistics is decried by Seager  and Olson. They note that most of their  data was obtained at a grassroots level especially from feminist writings in assorted  journals and that they used an average of  ten cross-checks to validate the data on each  map.  Traditionally a map is haughtily considered inadequate if it is not alone sufficient  to relay the information. Text is a complete  faux pas.  The accompaniment of each map by several paragraphs of text allows the authors  to provide a feminist context for the graphic  information. For example, the "Out To  Work" section includes a world map depicting the proportion of women working  in trades for wages. The map alone might  lead a dangerously naive person to believe  that women in the Middle East do little  work compared to women in the rest of the  world. The text clarifies this by stating that  women have the primary responsibility for  the home, children, extended family etc.  America than from developing countries.  Clearly this is related to the varying degrees  of accessibility to information.  Cartograms are a tool for showing quantity by depicting geographical areas in varying sizes, based on the occurrence of the element being mapped, rather than the actual  size of the geographical area.  A sober example is "84 Mutilated  Women". This cartogram (in a section euphemistically titled "Social Surgery") illustrates the magnitude of the practice of female circumcision. The map directs atten-  WOMANPOWER  tion to the countries where the practice is  most prevalent by drawing these countries  larger. Here the accompanying text gives  the reader some bone-chilling insight into  the religious and patriarchal beliefs that  perpetuate this travesty.  Gender comparison is an important recurring theme of Women in the World.  This is done with illiteracy, for example, to  show some astounding differences. In almost  half the worlds 168 countries, the illiteracy  rate of women is 50-200 percent higher than  that of men.  Another comparison is one of women's  earnings to white and black men's earnings.  Here quantitative differences are illustrated  in hard currency.  Some comparisons, missing from this  book, are those between women in the  same country, especially in countries like the  United States, where there are huge discrepancies in resources and data is available.  Some of the issues mapped out have been  touched in various centre  and left wing  presses in the last decade. Others break  silence (not within the feminist but within  the mainstream community) and are parti  ularly valuable for that reason.  One is the depiction of the "invasion of  South-East Asia by organized sex tours for  men". The text and notes in the appendix  give some details about female sexual slavery which bring home its repugnance. The  authors describe the practices of marching  women, who have been given a number  identification, through viewing rooms where  potential buyers purvey the 'wares'. Seager  and Olson make no secret of the fact that  this business is supported by host governments.  A significant omission from the subjects covered in Women in the World  is lesbianism. This is not only unrealistic  but is glaring given that heterosexuality is  given credence throughout in topics such  "Young Brides" and "Single States" which  give a variety of information on the marriage status of women around the globe.  "Women in the World" is innovative, covers fresh ground in the world of graphic feminism and is a valuable research aid. It is  also a healthy departure from the stodgy atlases that simply don't tell our story.  KINESIS  March'87 9 by Kim Irving. Interview Translation  by Rita Arouz  Abortion in  Nicaragua  A debate  burning  out of  control  An average of ten women per day are  .dmitted to a hospital because of complications due to (illegal) abortion. Ten  percent die.  After completing her eight years of  medical training, specializing in obstet-  rics/gynecology, Dr. Ligia Altamirano (now  thirty-two years old, was assigned to the  intensive care unit at the Berta Calderon  Women's Hospital, Managua, Nicaragua.  Here, in the stark, dusty waiting room or  in the metal paint-chipped beds that occasionally lack a sheet, Altamirano witnessed  en's reality. It was women being admitted, some conscious, others semi-conscious,  many bleeding profusely from the uterus—  all victims. Botched, illegal abortions, Altamirano quickly learned, was the number  e cause of maternal death in Nicaragua.  "It was horrible" explained Altamirano,  shaking her head when we met recently,  "there were women who needed to be  treated up to five times for all kinds of complications."  Realizing something had to be done, Altamirano began a study on 109 critically ill  women during her one year stay in the uniti \  "We (Altamirano and her colleagues) got directly involved with the patient and the pa-  tients's family."  'Once the women were able to talk, we  asked them when did it happen, how and  why. And we found that a woman's decision  to have an abortion, an illegal abortion, is  extremely traumatic. First of all she must  make the decision on her own, then she must  look for some money, find someone to do it,  find out how it's going to be done and eventually she ends up here, at the hospital. All  this means anguish, anxiety, physical pain  and fear. Fear! Not just of death, since they  are aware it's a possibility, but fear of talking! These women would stay at home, hiding their problem, until they reached an absolute terminal phase ... so this is why I  had to study it."  Altamirano (now chief of obstetrics/gyn-  ecology at Berta Calderon hospital) along  with two social workers and an accountant  put together a position paper titled "Illegally Induced Abortions—Cost and Consequences". The study, completed between  March, 1983 and June, 1985 has won two  prizes for medical studies, one in Nicaragua  and one at an international meeting.  During the twenty eight month period  studied, the women's hospital attended to  8,752 cases of legal and illegal abortion.  The report analyses the causes of maternal  deaths, the complications from illegal abortions and the economic costs for the women  and the hospital.  "When we studied the origin of the patients," continued Altamirano, "more were  from the country and from small towns.  We are only aware of the ones who die  in the hospital. The illegal abortions are  done without any antiseptic measures, no  anaesthesia—nothing. They use metal wire,  plastic tubing and particulary electrical  wiring. This is the only type of abortion that  is within reach of the average woman."  Altamirano's report opened up a profound debate in Nicaragua's society. "I left  that unit with the images I saw," says Altamirano. "I recorded it. This written report was the spark that leaped off the fire  ... which caused a national debate. Since  then it has been burning out of control."  Altamirano's report set fire to the two local  newspapers, the television and many radio  stations. In particular, the newspaper Bar-  ricada, the official organ of the FSLN, the  majority party, seemed keenly interested in  the debate. For two weeks in November and  December, 1985, it published report after  report on the "abortion drama". Not long  afterwards, the other Managua newspaper,  El Nuevo Diario, followed with articles  and commentaries.  Women's Town Meetings  26 percent of the women studied are  now sterile due to abortion complications. 16 percent have never had children.  Dr. Ligia Altamirano, "We must ask for massive sex education and accessible family  planning.  The vast majority of women in attendance were supportive of the decriminalization of abortion. Some were opposed. The  one man who dared to speak was hissed into  silence.  The Abortion Law  35 percent of the women studied had  the abortion because their partner abandoned them. 24 percent because of economic  reasons,  12 percent for family  The present abortion law in Nicaragua  has existed since 1974 and was enacted during the right-wing dictatorship of Anastasio  Somoza.  "The abortion law in Nicaragua," explained Altamirano, "falls into one of the  more restrictive categories internationally.  So what this means, in Nicaragua, is the  only way a woman can get a 'legal' thera-  A"|"hey taught us to give birth to children.  They   haven't taught us how to prevent  conception.   This   constitution now must  recognize our right   to choose freely."  During the past two years in Nicaragua,  'Cabildos Abiertos' (town hall meetings)  have been held in every corner of the country, to allow citizens the chance to discuss  constitutional issues with government legislators. Eight women's meetings were held.  The largest was in Managua, in June 1986,  which over 1,000 women attended. Abortion  was the topic of the day.  Women stood shoulder to shoulder, hip ,  to hip, in order to fit into the small, hot au- .  ditorium. The range of women was impres- .  sive, young and old, peasants, students, dis- .  abled. A record-breaking eighty-five signed [  up on the speakers list.  Magda Henriquez was one of these  women, who spoke against the conservative  party's attempt to include a 'right to life'  clause in the constitution that would extend  to cover the gestation period. "They say  they are defending life," Henriquez warned,  "but they are accomplices of death."  Another woman, Edelma Ocampo, a  single twenty-eight year old mother with  ten children, approached the microphone:  "They taught us to give birth to children, although the man doesn't help us raise them.  They haven't taught us how to prevent conception. We have been forced into motherhood. This constitution now must recognize  our right to choose freely."  peutic abortion is if her life is in danger. But  ... the abortion must be requested by the  husband of the woman. It must then be accepted by a committee of doctors and then  ... the husband must be asked again if he's  in agreement. This is what the law says ....  I explained to Dr. Altamirano a bit about  the abortion situation in Canada, the similarities in the laws (ie. therapeutic abortion committees) and the persecution of Dr.  Morgentaler, nurses and women in general  for challenging the Canadian law. I wondered if doctors or women were being prosecuted in Nicaragua. She answered, "Absolutely not! Our National police chief is  a woman ... thank God! She publicly declared, she as a woman and as a police officer would never prosecute an abortion because she is in favour of a woman's right to  abortion."  In an interview with National Sandinista  Police Chief Doris Tijerino, she commented,  "The law actually restricts the civil rights  of women and refuses them the option to  choose freely on maternity." Tijerino said  she had not found any arrests for abortion  in police statistics and in cases of complications or death there was usually insignificant evidence to carry out an investigation.  She stated the police would not intervene  on any abortion "except if ordered to do so  by a judge".  The Committee  83 percent of the wome studied had  severe uterine infections. 53 percent had ■  genital tears, 6 percent had pelvic abscesses, 4 percent had perforated uteri.  The abortion committee at Berta Calderon Hospital, called the "Committee for interruption of pregnancy", consists of an obstetrician, a pediatrician, and an internist  who is the director of the hospital. Once the  committee has received a request and confirmed it with the woman's husband, they  interview her. She is then asked to sit outside the room until they call her in for their  decision. "In reality", said Altamirano, "we  bend the rules because the struggle has been  so hard. We still get the husbands agreement for our own security, but the committees are much more liberal in their visions  and opinions."  But this is only a recent change, largely  due to the abortion debates. Until recently  the committees were known as "ethics committees" after it became a public issue, doctors urged the hospital to change the name  because "abortion is not an ethical problem". When they changed the name, they  also changed the committee membership,  which previously consisted of men only. The  present committee at Berta Calderon has  only one male member.  "Our most famous case," continued Altamirano "was a fourteen year old, mentally handicapped girl who was paraplegic  and had been raped. Her father came to the  hospital to request an abortion. The committee, at that time all men, had to meet  five times because they could not find a reason to interrupt the pregnancy! The workers, especially the women, took advantage of  a public assembly at the hospital to express  their opinion about the case. They asked  the AMNLAE representative to attend the  next committee meeting. At that meeting,  the AMNLAE representative ordered all the  doors to be shut and food brought in and  said no one was leaving the room until acceptance was reached. The committee members finally accepted."  When I asked Dr. Altamirano if she was  for legalization or decriminalization, she  stated that she was not aware of the differences in the terms. As an obstetrician,  she considers that abortion is not the best  birth control method. "So before legalizing  abortion," she explained, "we must ask for  massive sex education and accessible family planning throughout the country. In reality, abortion is a problem that involves all  of us."  > KINESIS Every woman , at any age, is a candidate for an illegal abortion. We believe that  protection should be given to all of them. If  this country wasn't in such a critical situation, this issue would have been dealt with  a long time ago—but what's stopped us is  the war situation."  Part of the social argument against abortion in Nicaragua has to do with population. Psychologist Vilma Castillor comments, "Historically, there has been a manipulation of women's reproductive capacity. Always, in this country, there has been  this argument 'necessity of population'.  What's the results? Children not desired,  children abandoned, children maltreated."  Economics  Taking care of the 109 patients with  abortion complications meant 696 patients could not receive the care they deserved.  The stories of women's tragedies were  front page news in the Nicaraguan papers.  At Berta Calderon hospital, 45 percent of  the patients admitted have abortion-related  problems. Many of the women arrive in critical condition And the more critical the condition is, the longer the woman must stay  in the hospital; the more medical resources  she requires and the higher the cost is for  the hospital. In the report "Illegally Induced  Abortions: Cost and Consequences" it is estimated that the average patient, with complications from an illegal abortion, costs the  hospital 96,571 cordobas. A legalized therapeutic abortion, done within the hospital,  costs the hospital 150 cordobas. Hospital  care is free to the patient.  "Because we are a country at war," ex- ]  plained Altimirano, "we are very concerned  about the economic costs. And besides the  economic cost, there is the blood consumption, which is something that really worries  us because of the war. In our 1985 study,  taking care of 109 patients with abortion  complications, meant we could not serve 696  patients with the care that they deserved.  Economics is also a major reason why  women do choose to abort. Altamirano explained. "An unwanted pregnancy implies  a lot in our country. It doesn't mean the  woman simply doesn't want it because 'I am  too old' or 'I don't want to ruin my figure'  ... in my country an unwanted pregnancy  means 'I don't have any money' or 'I don't  have a husband who can help me support a  child' or 'I don't have a family to support  me'—it means economic problems. This is  what an unwanted pregnancy means."  Birth Control and Sex Education  55 percent of the women had never used  any method of contraception, 36 percent  who was a vendor in the same market. She  got pregnant and ended up paying 2,000  cordobas for an illegal abortion. She is now  in the hospital; she's now sterile. "From the  moment she put the thing in me," explained  Elena, "there was pain. It all started with  this terrible pain in my stomach ... then a  neighbor took me to the hospital."  Legalized therapeutic abortions remain  out of bounds for most Nicaraguan women  due to the restrictive law and for ideological reasons. Therefore, women turn to mid-  grftphic hy Lai wan  She replied, "Before we started talking  about the abortion problem, it was almost  impossible to find birth control here. From  the pill, to the I.U.D.—they were all luxuries here. At this hospital, we survived  on international donations and, at the moment, donations have increased. You can  even get pills in the regular market. We  also use I.U.D.s. We have great donations  of LU.Ds because that's what Nicaraguan  women prefer. The diaphragm? Don't even  mention it because they are horrified by it.  They don't like to play around—sticking  wives, nurses and private doctors, some of  whom have very little experience in performing abortions, others of whom are unable to provide sanitary conditions.  The  ^\n unwanted pregnancy doesn't mean the  woman simply doesn't want it because Mam  tooold'or'l don't wanttoruin my figure/  It means economic problems.  things in and out of their bodies. The condom? Only young people accept it. We are  still a machismo society, and men take little interest in protection for their part-'  ners. So, it's the pill or the I.U.D. And  also sterilization—which is always done to  waited until after the 12th week of pregnancy before having an abortion.  There was one about Margarita, who, finding herself pregnant, searched for an abortionist at the local market. She found one.  She also lost her uterus in the process, "I  asked, is this not dangerous?" Margarita  whispered to the reporter, "And she told  me there's nothing to fear, this is only the  beginning, nothing will go wrong. Then she  put this tube in me. Not long after I felt  like I was going to die from the pain." Margarita took herself to the hospital. She is  now afraid to go home because she will have  to explain where she has been and what  happened to her body.  Another story was about Elena, age fourteen. She works in one of Nicaragua's markets helping her grandmother sell vegetables. She had intercourse once with a man  black market price for an abortion ranges  from 3,000 to 50,000 cordobas. An average  wage in Nicaragua is about 60,000 cordobas  a month, although women earn considerably  less. For example, a domestic worker's wage  is approximately 20,000 cordobas a month.  One hears a lot of rumours in Nicaragua.  Originally I had been told there weren't any  birth control devices available in the country, another time I was told yes, there was  some but they were very hard to get and  still another person told me that plenty was  available and all Nicaraguan women knew  about them. As an outsider, this confusion  of facts is very difficult to sort out. To clarify the differing stories I had heard, I asked  Dr. Altamirano what the real situation is  concerning the availability of birth control.  The spokesperson at the AMNLAE  Women's Legal Office gives this view of the  situation, "The little bit of birth control material that comes in is not enough to respond  to the demand." She said that vasectomies  are available through the Ministry of Health  and that "some four men a day go". "I personally feel," she continued, "that foreign  exchange should go to buying a rifle, rather  than birth control devices."  I also spoke with a foreign health care  worker who spent several years working in  health care clinics in rural Nicaragua.  "A woman couldn't just pack up her ten  kids and head down to her nearest health  clinic," said the health care worker, "first,  she would probably have to get permission  from her husband to leave the house. Second, she would have to find a way to get  to the clinic—she may live miles from the  nearest village. Generally, I found women  didn't want contraceptives. They were very  much opposed to them. What is needed is  concrete education around contraceptives,  to shake away those fears. To make it easier  for women to walk through that door and  not be afraid. But there's been no money to  do this."  In conversation with Dr. Altamirano,  I raised the subject of North American'  feminists' criticism of contraceptives with  known health risks, such as the I.U.D..  ing sent to developing countries.  "My country is a very special one,"  tamirano replied "I know that I.U.D.s have  been attacked in many countries and I'm  sure they are right. But those societies have  varying stages of commodity—of comfort.  Here, in Nicaragua, we are in the basic of  surviving. Even though it hurts us, even  though we bleed a little bit more, even  though we run the risk of infections—all this  is explained to the patient. She must place  that in balance versus the difficulty in getting an abortion."  Undoubtedly, the lack of sex education  in Nicaragua has been seen as the one factor contributing to the need for abortions.  There is a sex and youth program on television each week. Some attempts have been  made to introduce programs in high schools  via biology class, but students complained  that the teachers, all male, were too embarrassed to talk about the more delicate areas of sexuality. Dr. Altamirano commented  that sex education was not even taught  in medical school, only in the specialty  of obstetrics-gynecology. Medical personnel  have been trying to overcome this barrier  by using the media. There have been several television programs, locally produced,  on such issues as sex and abortion. Recently,  several countries have donated sex education teaching aids, which the Health Department hopes to introduce shortly into  schools.  The Opposition  During the abortion debate of late 1985,  there seemed to be very little direct opposition to the pro-abortion position. But even  the pro-abortion articles centered their arguments on social or economic reasons. Few  talked about the issue of 'choice' which has  been the key focus of North American feminist positions on abortion. Was choice an  issue in Nicaragua?  Alamarino answered that Nicaragua h:  not reached that far in the debate. "Our  choices," she replied, "are between life and  death. And what's causing deaths are illegal  abortions. So, our priority is survival. After  the population is educated, when contraceptive methods are available, then the negotiation of abortion becomes a reality. At that  time, we can probably argue for the right of  the woman to be able to have choice. Any  woman knows in this country that she is the  one that suffers the consequences, she is the  one that needs to decide what is going to  happen."  As a result of the heated debates, Altamirano and colleagues were invited to address  the National Assembly, Nicaragua's highest  political congregation. The ninety-six house  members, twenty-eight of whom are women,  represent seven different political parties.  From the ultra right to the ultra left. "They  sent us a questionnaire," stated Altamirano,  "and the first question was, 'When does life  begin?"'.  The Socialist Party has been the only  one to step forward in support of repealing the abortion law. Three parties are  strongly opposed to repeal. "The other parties pronounced themselves not necessarily  against," continued Altamarino, "but said it  was not the time to discuss it. They couldn't  handle such a big problem at this time."  Up until this year, when the new constitution came into force, rights have been protected by the "State of Rights and Guarantees", which contains the anti-abortion law.  In addition, it states that human life exists  from gestation.  Over the next two years, legislators will  be combing through some thirty archaic  laws, deciding which measures should be incorporated in new legislation. It is expected  that the abortion law will be one of the last  laws to be considered, because its controversial nature.  When I suggested that two years was a  long wait, Altamirano commented "I think  that the population is not ready to receive a  law at this moment. If abortion is legalized,  Abortion con't page 18  KINESIS /trvv^K  France  by Eunice Brooks  A new drug RU-486 that stops  ova from nesting in a uterine lining  by cutting off progesterone from  the cells in the lining, is coming at us soon. Roussel-Uclaf, a  Paris-based pharmaceutical company, and the creator, Dr. Etienne-  Emile Banlieu, claim that the  steroid will be marketed in 1987.  Research is underway on the feasibility of using the drug as a once-  t-month birth control.  Currently known side effects include: dizziness, excessive bleed-  uterine contractions, slight  nausea, and fatigue. Long- term effects are unknown.  The announcement of the drug  has pro-choice and right-to-lifers  taking sides. The right-to-lifers  claim the drug is really causing abortion. If taken the drug  is eighty-five percent effective in  causing menstruation—which will  carry with it any fertilized egg—  within ten days of a missed menstrual period. Roussel-Uclaf is promoting the drug to be used only as  a back up to other forms of birth  control. Side effects seem to be  slight compared to surgical abortion.  Norma Scarborough, president  of Canadian Abortion Rights Action League (CARAL), says RU-  seems to offer advantages over  existing procedures.  "A woman can take this, and  not have to deal with whether she  is having an abortion. So it may  remove some of the emotionally  charged part of the problem."  Dr. Banlieu has signed an agreement with drug companies, obliging them to sell RU-486 at cost if  they decide to market it in Third  World countries. There is a possibility poor women will once again  be guinea pigs. European doctors  plan to closely monitor effects on  patients when it is prescribed in  France and Scandinavia. Dr. Banlieu is quoted as saying, "Abortion, in my opinion, will more or  less disappear as a concept, as a  fact, as a word, in the future."  Off Our Backs  New Zealand  by Eunice Brooks  Defaced family planning billboard in Bangladesh.  India  by Eunice Brooks  Net-Oen is one of several injectable contraceptives women in  India are protesting. A lengthy petition, backed by evidence that the  drug is a health hazard, has been  presented to the government. Side  effects include: excessive bleeding,  leading to anemia (a -major disease of Indian women) as well as  nodules found in the pituitary and  breasts of users.  The drug, which has not been  approved in Canada, is promoted  in both India and Bangladesh. As  well, in Bangladesh there is growing concern about the use of Depo-  provera and Norplant, both in-  jectables, with long-term effects.  Another concern is that women  who are using drugs on a trial basis are coerced into coming back  for monitoring. For now, the testing of Net-Oen is suspended while  the government considers the petition.  In India the government is  strongly committed to lowering  the birth rate. However, the Cen  tral Health and Family Welfare  Ministry is seeking to introduce a  bill that would limit the practice of  sex detection. Couples have shown  that foreknowledge of the sex of a  fetus is often cause for abortion.  Girls are not wanted. In a recent  study, 7,997 out of 8,000 abortions  ended the growth of a fetus that  would eventually become a girl.  Amniocentesis is commonly  used to determine gender but it  cannot be performed until the second trimester, a risky time to induce abortion. Other sex determination techniques are being investigated. Abortion then is not just  a matter of choice, but is blatantly  anti-woman.  Women's groups, consumer associations, health and human  rights groups are all campaigning  for improved socio-economic status for Indian women. The fact  that a petition can arrest the trials of a birth control method is  proof that the voices of women  have some impact on government.  Spare Rib  Where in the Western world  can you find women wearing the  Lippes Loop, the Dalkon Shield,  the Saf-T-Coil or some copper  bearing coil? New Zealand is only  now looking at the IUD and its  possible complications. Long overdue changes have been recommended by a national Health Department committee.  But Dr. Sandra Coney says  the recommendations don't go far  enough. Coney, a member of Fertility Action Co-ordination is the  only consumer representative on  the five doctor committee. She  criticizes the report's findings because it doesn't require doctors to  change previous procedures, which  women know to be inadequate  or negligent. Coney says doctors  rarely tell women the risks of a  particular IUD.  The root of the problem is that  IUDs do not need the Minister  of Health's consent before distribution, and no one has any idea  ' how many IUDs are in use in New  Zealand.  Iran  by Eunice Brooks  In Iran, under Islamic law,  women have been re-defined as unequal and biologically and naturally inferior to men. While men  can initiate divorce, girls can be  married at the age of nine. All children over the age of two automatically become the property of the  father. Men may have four permanent wives, and an unlimited number of others. The suggestion of  adultery of a woman is likely to  get her killed by the ancient but  effective method of stoning. However, the law states that the stones  should not be too large, as the person might die at the first or second  stone. The death is meant to be an  ordeal.  The New Internationalist  Abortion in Ireland  by Eunice Brooks  In Ireland today, a fetus has  the same rights as a woman. Fetal rights began as an amendment  to the Irish constitution and have  been expanded as a result of a recent High Court ruling which not  only confirmed that abortion was  illegal but also ruled that it's an  pffense to counsel a woman about  an unwanted pregnancy, give information about abortions or refer women to clinics outside the  country for abortions. As a result,  several Dublin agencies that had  counselled women on health issues  generally, including abortion, have  been closed.  The Society for the Protection  of the Unborn Child (SPUC) initiated the court action when they  took the Well Women Society to  court for counselling women on  how to obtain abortions in England. Some 10,000 women leave  Ireland annually to obtain abortions. SPUC based their case on a  1983 referendum, which gave equal  rights to fetus and woman.  Mr. Justice Hamilton, in his decision, said abortion was an interference with and destruction of the  right to life of the unborn child. In  his opinion, clinics that put pregnant women in touch with abortion services were implying assent,  approval, and encouragement for  the procurement of an abortion.  The Irish Women's Abortion  Support Group says the illegality of abortion counselling is an  infringement on women's rights  and on freedom of information.  The ruling has far-reaching consequences for freedom of informa-  Doctors have been reported to  pass off PID or ectopic pregnancy  as normal IUD side effects, and  offered pain killers. It was found  that information was slow or missing as a woman was passed from  her general practitioner to a specialist, or a family planning clinic.  No doctor has ever reported an  IUD complication to the Medicines  Adverse Reactions Committee, so  there was no official documentation of IUD complications. Women  who are infertile, as a result of using IUDs, often live in constant  pain.  The committee recommended  that inert IUDs should be withdrawn and destroyed and that doctors report IUD-caused complii  tions to the Medicines Adverse Reactions Committee.  Complications include: perforation of the uterus, inflammatory  disease, break up of the PUD in the  body, heavier and more painful periods, accidental pregnancies, and  spontaneous abortions, aggravated  pre-menstrual tension, depression,  lower back pain, smelly vaginal discharge, occasional fevers,  swollen glands, and the list goes  on.  The committee recommended  that each IUD be regularly reassessed by the Department of  Health and that users, doctors,  and consumer groups should be  entitled to make submissions in  the process. The report went out  to all doctors last September. A  steering group within the Health  Department met in December to  assess all new information. According to Coney it is extremely  unlikely that doctors will be required by law to inform  PUD dangers.  Coney will continue to push for  complete birth control information  for the general public, for doctors  to insist on regular check-ups for  PUD wearers, and she would like  to see all plastic HJDs removed  from the market. She also wants  all birth control methods tested  and approved by the Ministry of  Health.  Broadsheet  tion. Magazines and newspapers  that advertise abortion clinics will  be banned from Ireland. Also feminists fear that SPUC, emboldened  by its successful court case, will  next attack the IUD or low dose  contraceptive pills because Hamilton's ruling gave the fetus statutory rights from the moment of  conception.  In a related development and in  what may be a sign of an increasing backlash against abortion, Sien  Fein, the political wing of the Irish  Republican Army (IRA), has revoked its strong freedom of choice  policy. Sien Fein's policy now  states that it is "opposed to the  attitudes in society which compel  a woman to have an abortion as a  means of birth control, but we ac-.  cept the need for abortion where a  woman's life is at risk."  Spare Rib  12 KINESIS     March   87 Nicaragua develops constitution  by Kim Irving  zens participated, submitting over  4,300 written suggestions. Considering Nicaragua has only three  million people, over half being children and adolescents, this overwhelming response impressed all  parties.  Of all the meetings, the women's  forums were the most lively and  perhaps the most controversial.  Eight women's meetings were held,  the largest in Managua, the capital city. Most of the women's positions were presented by AMNLAE representatives and focused  on changing women's traditional  roles. However, as hopeful as some  of the debates were, few went beyond the discussion level. Many of  the issues raised will be dealt with  in the next two years, as the National Assembly revises old laws,  to fit them into the context of the  constitution.  Of the 221 articles in the  constitution, 165 were approved  by consensus. Of the 96 members in the National Assembly,  78 were in attendance. The differences within the parties themselves often slowed down the con-  !Aqui no se Rinde Nadie!  Here no one surrenders! (1987  solgan)  It's been seven long years since  Nicaraguans overthrew the right-  wing Somoza dictatorship, establishing the present government,  under the leadership of the Sandinista National Liberation Front  (FSLN). Since then, Nicaragua has  faced continuous military harassment from the United States government that has sunk the country into further poverty and social restrictions. Yet, despite all  odds, the FSLN, which were officially voted into power in 1984, has  fulfilled one of its major campaign  promises: a new constitution written "by the people".  After the 1984 elections, a  National Assembly was established with 96 representatives from  seven political parties. These are:  FSLN (61 seats), Democratic Conservative Party-PCD (14 seats),  Independent Liberal Party-PLI  (9 seats), Popular Social Christian Party-PPSC (6 seats), the  Nicaraguan Socialist Party-PSN stitutional process. Leaders of four  (2 seats), the Communist Party of the parties withdrew from the  of Nicaragua-PCN (2 seats), and    debates at different times, often re-  Drafting the Constitution: everyone had a chance to make observations, criticisms and suggestions.  the Marxist-Leninist Popular Action Movement (2 seats). This assembly's first assignment was to  write the constitution within the  next two years.  It was generally agreed that  all Nicaraguans should have the  chance to participate in the constitutional process. But how this  could happen, considering much  of the country was still illiterate  and many villages remain inaccessible, was a major debate. It  was agreed to hold cabildos abier-  tos—town meetings, in as many  different locations throughout the  country as possible. These meetings would allow citizens to discuss, reject, modify or add to the  first proposed draft of the constitution.  The first draft was written by  the National Assembly by reviewing constitutions from eighteen  other countries and by consulting with sixteen local social organizations (including AMNLAE,  Nicaragua's national women's association). Some 150,000 free copies were distributed in Spanish,  and in the indigenous languages.  Of   the   eighty-four   scheduled  turning sometime later. Some of  the departing members had been  openly lobbied by the American  embassy to disrupt the constitutional proceedings and pull out,  from debates.  All laws within the constitution  are based on the fundamental principles of political pluralism, mixed  economy and non-alignment, all  major goals of the FSLN. The government has been divided into four  independent branches:  1. Executive branch: consisting of  the President and Vice President who are voted in for a period of six years;  2. Legislative Branch, which is the  National Assembly, also elected  for six year terms;  3. Judicial Branch, a seven member Supreme Court elected by  the National Assembly and  4. Electoral Branch, the Supreme  Court Council composed of five  judges for a term of six years.  The establishment of a Supreme  Court means all Nicaraguans may  challenge the Constitutional laws,  according to their needs.  Some of the highlights of the  and common-law relationships are  protected, men and women may  divorce by mutual consent. Within  the family unit "equal rights and  responsibilities" are given to men  and women. Also under the Family  Act it reads, "fathers must attend  to the maintenance of the home"  (ie. housework) and that the "integral formation of children is a  common effort, with equal rights  and responsibilities" (ie. childcare  within the home).  Other sections guarantee "special protection" of pregnant women, including paid maternity leave  and corresponding social benefits.  Now, no one can refuse a pregnant  woman work. (Before, women applying for work often had to take a  pregnancy test to prove they were  not pregnant). Nor can she be fired  during her period of leave or during her post-natal period.  Other issues raised by AMNLAE and left for later debates are:  protection for battered women; allowing women to be the "head" of  the family when she is abandoned  by a man; decriminalization of  abortion; protection of prostitutes;  protection of prostitutes; and a  definition of the family. These and  other issues will be detated over  the next few years as the National  meetings, eighty-two actually took constitution concern women's is-  place, between May, 1985 and sues. Under the Rights of the Fam-  June,   1986.   Over   100,000   citi-    ily Act, in which both marriage  Kenyans arrested for IUD protests  by Eunice Brooks  Independence for Kenya, now  twenty-five years old, does not  mean independence for individuals. Kenyans who ask publicly who  owns Kenya, its citizens or the  United States, often go missing.  Amnesty International has issued  urgent appeals over the use of torture in Kenya. The Kenyan government has been pushing the use  of contraceptives such as: IUDs,  Depo-provera, sterilization, and  even the Dalkon Shield. When people protest against these, arrests  are made.  Last March five women were  arrested in connection with birth  control. This was followed by the  arrests of 100 persons: journalists,  students, lawyers, and even politicians. At private trials the accused  had no representation; in fact most  were found guilty because of forced  confessions. The families of those  imprisoned without trial are isolated, lest any friends are arrested  for associating. One mother described the condition as terror  worse than death.  One fact which is apparent,  is that the controversial birth  control items are imported from  the United States. Another fact,  which has Kenyans asking about  their country, is the presence of  American military bases in Kenya.  Which way is America looking, is  the query, when torture goes on or  when there is public debate that  ends in arrests. Kenyans are saying  they have no real human rights.  But they are saying it very quietly  and never when members of the  Special Branch Police are around.  Spare Rib  Assembly repeals or reforms some  thirty laws contained in the Statue  of Rights and Guarantees, which  the constitution now replaces.  Some of the other rights achieved are: there can be no discrimination on the basis of birth, nationality, political creed, race, sex,  language, religion, opinion, origin,  economic position or social condition. All Nicaraguans have the  right to free expression of ideas  in public or private, individually  or collectively, orally or in written  form. All children, born in wedlock  or not, have equal rights, protection, education and cannot be socially or economically exploited.  Workers rights include: equal  pay for equal work; a minimum  salary; eight hour work days;  healthy and hygienic work conditions; vacation; social security for  old age, sickness, disability, maternity, and to families in case of a  worker's death.  The indigenous people of the  Atlantic coast have been guaranteed the same rights and obligations as all Nicaraguans, as well  as the right to preserve and develop their cultural identity and  the right to express themselves in  their own language, art and culture.  After the ratification of the  constitution last January, the  Nicaraguan president Daniel Ortega re-established a "state of  emergency", which was first decreed in March 1982. Due to this,  some of the constitutional rights  and guarantees are on hold. However, there is debate on whether  this affects fundamental rights  such as freedom of life, equality  before the law, freedom of conscience, thought and religion.  This constitution has been a  major step for the FSLN and for  all Nicaraguans. Although only a  skeleton in form, with many difficult issues remaining, this constitution has brought Nicaraguans  up to world standards of human  rights.  Girls  abducted  for sex  trade  by Eunice Brooks  An eleven year-old female child,  Shab Meher, was recently kidnapped from her home, and taken  to Tanbaza, to a brothel. She  was tortured to death, her body  then dumped out like garbage.  This news brought The National  Women's Lawyers to criticize the  lack of police action on abductions. They had already lobbied  and received ordinances that carry  a penalty of fourteen years for abduction. But so far there have been  no convictions.  A police raid in Tanbaza, after Meher was murdered, recovered fifty-five under-age girl prostitutes, all of whom had been  abducted and kept in brothels  against their wills. Police estimate  there are approximately 2,000  women and girls forced into prostitution in Tanbaza alone. Tanbaza  is a red light district in the port  city of Dhaka, on the Bay of Ben-  gal.  There is also evidence that  women are being transported over  the border into Pakistan to serve  as prostitutes. In 1982 five men  were caught trying to smuggle 150  women, and again in 1985 four  men were charged with running a  prostitution racket in Karachi.  Usually the women have come  from poor rural areas, so that families have no money to trace them  after an abduction raid. It is rumoured that police look the other  way when it is convenient to do so.  Abduction is a profitable business  in Bangladesh.  Outwrite  KINESIS  March'87 13 by Lynn Hunter  The Horn of Africa, Ethiopia,  Eritrea—the words conjure up pictures  of a sad land, crippled by war and  famine. The visions of the tragedy there  have forced us to ask many questions—  about ourselves and about Africa. For  the past eighteen months I have been  immersed in those questions.  My job, as coordinator for a development education project on Vancouver Island has allowed me to explore  these questions. The project, jointly  sponsored by OXFAM-Canada and the  Canadian International Development  Agency (CIDA) has a mandate to increase public awareness of the causes  of hunger and underdevelopment in  Africa. Last November I was chosen to  be one of the three development educators to accompany OXFAM Canada's  project officer for the region, Susan  Watkins, on her annual visit to OX-  FAM's projects there.  I went as a witness, to see what has  happened in the wake of the devastating famine of 1984- I also went as a  feminist, active in the Victoria Status  of Women, to explore how to meld my  work in the local women's community  to my work with international development. The area I visited was Eritrea,  the northern most part of Ethiopia, and  the area most severely affected by the recent famine.  For the past twenty-five years, Eritrea  has fought a war against Ethiopian occupation. The war, combined with drought, produced the tragedy we saw on our television  screens in 1984. What would motivate people to fight a war in such an environment?  To answer that question we must look at the  political and historical context of the conflict.  Eritrea was first colonized by Italy in the  1890's. Under the Italians, Eritrea developed a European-oriented agricultural and  industrial economy. Equally important, a  national identity was forged, distinct from  neighboring Ethiopia, where Italian conquest failed. During the Second World War,  Italy lost all its colonies to the Allied forces  and in 1941, Britain took control of Eritrea. Under both the Italian and the British colonial regimes the seeds of parliamentary democracy and national independence  were sown.  After the Second World War, the United  Nations (UN) took on the task of sorting out  what to do with former Axis colonies, Eritrea included. In 1952, the UN gave Eritrea  self-government in federation with Ethiopia.  Under Emperor Haile Selassie, Ethiopia was  a modernizing but still fundamentally feudal state. The people of Eritrea were in a situation of struggling for independence within  an increasingly repressive feudal regime.  Ethiopia was understandably attracted  to Eritrea's industrial base, its seaport and  its strategic Suez canal trade route. In 1962  Ethiopia abandoned all pretext of Eritrean  self-government and unilaterally annexed  Eritrea as a province. Seeing all peaceful  or political avenues for independence closed,  Eritreans launched a war of national liberation.  This war has become one of the many  wars exacerbated by the super power con  flict. During the last years of Haile Selassie's  reign, Ethiopia was heavily dominated by  the United States which poured in economic  aid and investment. Military aid was also  provided in return for allowing the United  States to establish a military base in the Eritrean capital city, Asmera. The Ethiopians  used American military hardware against  the Eritreans. The strategic importance of  Eritrea had become a curse.  In 1974, in response to escalating corruption, repression and poverty Haile Selassie's government was overthrown. A military government took over. United States  support declined until ties were broken in  1977. Ethiopia then turned to the Soviet  Union for economic and military support.  Today this military aid is estimated to be  running at $3 billion. The Eritreans have  managed to continue the struggle with captured arms and remain firm in their resolve  to remain non-aligned despite foreign armaments being used against them. Both the  United States and the Soviets have fueled  the twenty-five year conflict over this strategically important area.  Throughout these years of war, the Eritreans have developed an acute awareness  of the roots of oppression. War often acts  to accelerate social transformation. This has  certainly occurred in the case of Eritrea.  During the past fifteen years the Eritrean  People's Liberation Front (EPLF) has not  only fought a war of independence, they  have also initiated a social revolution. It  is this social revolution and its effect on  women that will be the primary focus of this  article.  Let us first look at the place of women  in traditional Eritrean society. The religions of Eritrea are evenly divided between  Moslem and Coptic Christian, neither of  which is noted for its progressive stance on  women. In rural Eritrea, where sixty percent of the population live, sex roles are  adhered to rigidly. Men's work—ploughing  and herding—are seen as the central tasks  of the agricultural and nomadic economy  respectively. Women's work in the domestic sphere and agricultural production is  constantly downgraded. Yet women take  full responsibility for all domestic chores—  grinding grain, preparing food, gathering  firewood, fetching water, caring for children  and cleaning the home. They also work long  hours in agricultural production—weeding,  harvesting and tending vegetables. The only  task prohibited to them is ploughing. There  is a common belief that if a woman ploughs,  the land will be infertile. This belief indicates a view of women as a source of contamination and permits social control mechanisms to be implemented to "limit the contamination".  This view, while more immediately apparent in the rural areas, is not limited  to the countryside. The condition of urban Eritrean women is not much better  than that of their peasant sisters. Eritrea's  relatively industrialized economy employs  many women but women are paid less than  half the wages of men and are laid off  when pregnant with no compensation. With  the decline of Eritrean industry since the  Ethiopian occupation, jobs for women, always the most dispensable, have decreased  in number. The predictable pattern of increasing numbers of women turning to prostitution has followed. Women's economic  vulnerability, the social control mechanism  most familiar to us in the West is even more  powerful where there are no protective social policies.  There are also other mechanisms within  traditional Eritrean society which reinforce  women's dependency. Once again these  methods of control are most apparent in rural Eritrea but are by no means confined to  the countryside. Perhaps the most visible of  some of our so-called enlightened Western  politicians, the EPLF realizes that the oppression of women is structural in nature  and has addressed it at that level. What  I saw in Eritrea demonstrated how quickly  and radically things can change when there  Traditional Eritrean  women and (above  left) literacy students,  by a campfire.  these social control methods is the lack of  access to education. In the general population, the literacy rate is approximately fifty  percent, however, as late as the mid-1970's,  it was estimated that ninety-five percent of  Eritrean women were illiterate. Such statistics indicate how severely women's access to  knowledge has been curtailed.  Marriage practice was also an effective  method of control. Arranged marriages were  the norm and it was common for girls as  young as nine to be married to much older  men. A man could divorce his wife easily,  but as a woman's return to her family home  might mean her parents would have to return her dowry, she would be unlikely to  receive support from them if she wished to  leave her husband. As women could not own  land and had a very tenuous access to the  job market they were entirely dependent  on either their husband or their family for  their livelihood. These are the most pervasive methods of controlling women.  There are also other means perhaps not  so pervasive but which have enormous impact on the way in which women are perceived, the most dramatic are those directly  connected to women's sexuality.  Among the nomadic people the use of isolation tents was widespread. These tents are  used by menstruating women for the duration of their monthly period. The social  isolation of women and the perception of  women as contaminator cannot help but be  exacerbated by such practice.  Another practice, even more horrific, is  that of clitorectomy. By removing a girl's  clitoris prior to puberty it was thought that  her sexual purity would be guaranteed. The  horror of this act is amplified because, as  with many such control mechanisms, this  practice is conducted by and most rigidly  enforced by other women.  The EPLF, which is the de facto gov-  . eminent in the liberated areas of Eritrea,  has recognized the particular oppression of  j women. It sees women's emancipation and  their full participation in social production  I and the political process as central to the  | success of the revolution. These are not  ., empty words.  I     The EPLF has implemented specific poli-  1 cies to address women's oppression. Unlike  is a political will to do so. Unencumbered  by our over-developed sense of individualism and with an unbelievable level of commitment, the EPLF has, over the past fifteen years, set out to radically change the  position of women in their society.  The result has been an impressive list  of accomplishments. These achievements  affect women's lives most dramatically  throughout the EPLF controlled zones  (roughly one-third of the country) but  their impact has even been felt in the  Ethiopian controlled towns. Change is occurring rapidly and it is clear that for the  women of Eritrea there is no going back.  As one old woman said, "It is like washing with soap and seeing through the layers  of dust." Centuries of oppression are being  washed away.  "It is like washing with soap  and seeing through the  layers of dust."   Centuries  of oppression are being  washed away.  The exigencies of warfare have made  nonsense of the sexual division of labour.  Women make up one third of the fighters  in the military units of the EPLF. Women  and their families are not only motivated by  patriotism to join the fight but also by the  realities of existing under an army occupation. As in other wars, women are viewed  as part of the spoils of war in the Ethiopian  controlled towns. Families would rather see  their daughters be active in their opposition to Ethiopian aggression than be passive victims of abuse. Women fighting side  by side with men, exhibiting equal bravery  and commitment, have transformed traditional views of women. The dress and demeanour of these women speaks volumes.  All the women I met were individually humble but it is a humility born of collective  self-assurance. They carry themselves with  quiet confidence and inner pride.  Women also make up over thirty percent of the administrative branches of the  EPLF and women's rights occupy an important place in the EPLF's National Democratic Programme, the document contain  ing their objectives. Within revolutionary  movements these types of initiatives are  common. Sadly, it is also common for the actual change in women's lives to be marginal.  What I witnessed during my visit demonstrates that Eritrea, under the EPLF, is not  following this sad pattern. As the women I  met attested, change is reaching every aspect of Eritrean life.  The EPLF's land reform has been of major significance for women who can now own  land in their own right. Economic independence is a door to freedom for women. One  woman I met, Tebereh, is an excellent example of this. She was from Asmera where  her husband was a teacher. He was an alcoholic who beat her regularly. She  has seven children and although she  ran away to her family over twenty  times she was always forced to go  back. Five years ago she took her  children and ran away to the EPLF  zone. She was given sufficient land to feed  her family, assistance to get started and  on going encouragement. She is currently  working full time for the National Union of  Women (NUEWmn), the civilian branch of  the EPLF which organizes women. She is  the chief organizer foT women in her district. She has gone from a battered wife to  an impressive political figure in the span of  five years.  The NUEWmn is involved at a very basic and practical level in changing their society. They have been instrumental in working with the medical department to institute training for traditional birth attendants. It is at this level that the horrific  practices of the past are being eliminated.  Another project that the NUEWmn has  taken on is the funding and operation of  a sanitary napkin factory. One woman told  me that these sanitary napkins are taken as  a miracle they so transform women's lives.  Although there are difficulties in obtaining the raw materials these products are  distributed freely throughout the liberated  zones. It is impossible to satisfy the demand.  It is only through international support for  these types of projects that these logistical  problems can be solved.  Marriage practice has also undergone  fundamental alteration. In 1978, the EPLF  outiAWs-d child marriage and marriages arranged without the full consent of the couple concerned. In order to be sensitive when  encouraging people to adhere to these laws,  the EPLF has instituted a political education campaign explaining the law's benefits.  It is this multi-pronged approach to change  that has accorded the EPLF such a high degree of popular support. They do not impose their ideas on an unwilling populace  but they use their popular support to encourage the changes that are necessary to  transform their society.  Central to this political education is an  impressive literacy campaign for women.  The NUEWmn has received funding assistance for this campaign from OXFAM-  Canada. The NUEWmn gives a high priority to raising the political consciousness  of Eritrean women so they can grasp the  source of their oppression and what is required to change it. To a feminist working  in international development this type of  project exemplifies the sisterhood that exists among all women and the exciting potential that sisterhood has.  Women of Eritrea  QUIET  CONFIDENCE  INNER  PRIDE  KINESIS  14 March '87  KINESIS /VrvvftK  Building a window into South Africa  by Kerensa Lai Thorn  Solomon Mahlangu Freedom College or  SOMAFCO, established after the 1976  Soweto uprisings to meet the needs of militant youth fleeing racist repression in South  Africa, has become known throughout the  world—within South Africa itself and beyond. Here, near the town of Morogoro in  Southern Tanzania, the African National  Congress (ANC), with aid from the international community, is\building a "window  into the New South Africa", as envisaged  in the famous ANC Freedom Charter. Non-  racialism, unity and freedom from exploitation are central to the philosophy of the college.  While the college itself is the core of the  complex that is known as Mazimbu, there  also exist many support structures to cater  to the daily needs of the entire coijununity.  Throughout the years many people from  South Africa itself as well as fromlthe international community have come to Mazimbu  to support this dynamic project. Aaa result  sectors to do with food production, transport, research, culture, maintenance etc.,  have steadily grown. Today there is acollec-  tive population of supporters and students  of close to 1800 people.  As ANC members, my husband George  and I decided to commit ourselves to. two  years work at Mazimbu. We arrived\to-  gether with our three children, Mula  Sunya and Che in September 1984. While^  our children were to study at SOMAFCO  we were pledged to work in whichever sector we were needed.  Mulan, the oldest child was enrolled  into the SOMAFCO secondary school (SOMAFCO consists of nursery, primary, secondary and adult education sectors). Before she could attend the secondary division she had to undergo orientation at  the Student Orientation Centre situated at  Dakawa, eighty kilometers from Mazimbu.  At Dakawa young South Africans are assessed on their educational level for placement in SOMAFCO as well as given information about what to expect at the college  and ANC philosophy in general. While waiting for placement Mulan made herself useful by assisting Primary School teachers in  their projects, one of which was the painting of a mural on a wall of one of the temporary classrooms. This mural still stands  and will always be a proud memory for us.  The primary school, which Sunya and  Che attended was in the beginning situated  in an old inadequate building but in 1985  new premises were completed and the children were moved in.  Finding qualified teachers for the 270  plus children has been a continuous problem and the school has had to rely on recently qualified high school students. However, with the return of trained ANC teachers from overseas, this situation will improve rapidly.  The emphasis of the educational system  in all sectors is not merely literacy and numeric. The aim of the ANC is threefold:  1. to provide opportunities to attain academic excellence;  2. to create good cadres for the liberation  movement; and  3. to bridge the gap between mental and  manual labour.  Thus, apart from mere academia, the students take courses in "History of the Struggle"; participate in cultural activities and  are all expected to work with their hands in  maintaining the buildings, dormitories and  grounds.  I began work in the newly constructed  nursery school. It consisted of four separate buildings (units) each accommodating  twenty-five to thirty children and a staff of  three to five adults. When I began there was  only one trained child care worker, the others were either students waiting for scholarship placement or members of the community. They had little knowledge of early  childhood education (ECE), but did a good  job taking care of the children whose ages  were from three to six years.  The staff had bi-weekly meetings at  which the children's social, emotional and  physical development would be assessed and  discussed. It was difficult at times to convey  modern child-rearing practices to people  who had never been exposed to organized  childcare, and we had many animated discussions concerning the value of free-play,  English as a second language teaching methods and the like. Interestingly enough, later  piglets, and a special treat was when the  tractor from horticulture would load all the  children on the trailor to give them a ride.  Once a year we arranged an excursion to the  game reserve or a park in Morogoro and we  also started exchange visits by students and  teachers to nursery schools in the region.  It is worthwhile mentioning that of the  students who chose to work in the nursery school or day care centre (one to three  years old) almost half were males. This was  very important for the children as many of  them do not have contact with their fathers  for years at a time. We had one qualified  male who after just one year of contribution at the nursery school died suddenly of  cerebral malaria. Malaria is a serious prob-  V$v^'^  FrwOels,  Everything that is possible under the  circumstances is done to give the children of  the ANC in exile the opportunity to develop  to their fullest potential.  when qualified ECE staff trained in Zambia, Sweden, Chile and Bulgaria arrived, the  topics of discussion did not change much.  As a result of these discussions we developed a working curriculum for the nursery school as a guide for the non- professional staff which has come in very useful.  We also organized workshops on childcare  topics when we had visiting experts.  Every alternate week we had production  unit (P.U.) meetings. The P.U. serves more  or less the same purpose as a trade union.  We discussed our work and the relationship  between the different departments within  the complex, such as transport for the children's outings, or food supplied through  the nursery school kitchen. We were also  responsible for the regular distribution of  shoes and uniforms to the children which  brought us in contact with the garment factory and the cobblery, and other departments in the complex.  Many of our daily walks or outings with  the children were to the various departments in the complex. The farm was one of  the favorites, especially when the pigs had  lem and many children and adults suffer  from this. Unfortunately only in cases where  it becomes chronic is medication given to  the children as a preventative, or if possible  they are moved to another region out of the  malaria belt.  Many of the children in the nursery and  primary schools are parent-less—not necessarily orphans, but children whose parents  are on scholarships or specific missions for  the ANC. Sometimes they do not see their  father or mother for several years. For the  little ones especially, when their parent or  parents do come they are strangers for a  while.  Connected to the nursery school there are  three homes which have twelve to sixteen  children in each with a boarding mother and  three staff members to care for them. The  primary school has a large boarding section which is next to the dormitories of the  secondary school and houses approximately  160 children.  The women's section organizes the community members to 'adopt' the children  from the nursery school boarding section for  weekends so that there is always an adult  friend and role model available to them.  Everything that is possible under the circumstances is done to give the children of  the ANC in exile the opportunity to develop  to their fullest potential. The environment  created is one of a large extended family and  the whole community is encouraged to participate. The children generally feel secure  and protected. They know everyone and everyone knows them. They can visit or talk  to anyone and can go anywhere they please  within the limits of the complex. Maybe this  is but a small compensation to life in exile  but it makes this prpject very worthwhile.  I  The SOMAFCd students lead a very  rigorous life. School starts at 7:00 a.m.  and compulsory study-periods are from 7:00  a.m. to 9:00 p.m. fivfe days a week. At 9:00  p.m. there is verbal summary of world news  done by a news monitoring committee after  which they have discission period on current events.  The curriculum includes history of the  struggle and development of societies. Math  and history are compulsory. Due to the  Bantu^Edrfcation system many of the stu-  virtually no grounding in the sci-  ices, but the newly finished laboratories  ihould do much to alleviate the quality of  teaching.  An increasing number of ANC students  •e returning from university studies to take  up teaching posts, in addition to the volunteers from Holland, Britain and the GDR  and other countries.  Students are prepared for the general certificate examinations from the University of  London and for an internal ANC examination, after which they apply for a scholarship in the area of their choice.  The secondary school boarding section  can hold 880 students and is divided into  four sections. All the students with perhaps  one or two exceptions live in the dormitories. When Sunya moved to the secondary  school both she and Mulan asked to join  their friends there. Until that time they had  lived with us in the shared family houses  that are built for the staff of SOMAFCO.  The students live eight to a unit. Each unit  has two rooms, one for sleeping and one for  socializing or studying. The students are responsible for their surroundings and they all  eat together in a common dining hall.  Living with these young exiles has taught  our children more than any school could.  They came to understand some of the reasons that young people in South Africa run  away from their families and loved ones.  They came in contact with despair and loneliness that is part of their lives; the anger  and sometimes strong feelings of helplessness they have to suffer; also the strong  bonds of friendship that get formed among  them. They saw the results of the torture and solitary confinement some of these  young people had gone through, and the  strength and courage it takes to continue  with their struggle against the evils of apartheid.  To my children and me many of the horrors of apartheid became more real. To  George it was a re-opening of old wounds. I  ceased to be a sympathizer and supporter  of the liberation struggle and became instead a participant in the struggle. We are  more determined than ever to continue the  fight against apartheid's system of oppression and exploitation and will continue to  fight until apartheid is finally destroyed and  a new South Africa is ushered in.  Kerensa Lai Thorn returned from her  work with the ANC in Tanzania a  few months ago. She is a member of  Vancouver's Southern African Women  Against Apartheid group and prepared  this article on their behalf for the international supplement.  ie KINESIS Chile: democracy here and at home  by Marjorie Agosin  Any dictatorship affects the lives of all  those living under it in all manner of ways.  The institutionalized climate of fear, the imposition of silence, the prohibition of the  right of assembly, the ever-present terror  of disappearing—these conditions form the  stuff of everyday life in Chile today.  Women, and here I am referring particularly to the situation of Chilean women,  suffer double blows from the dictatorship.  Many traditional housewives who had never  worked outside the home were converted  overnight into mothers of the disappeared.  Their few savings vanished quickly, particularly in the face of the tremendous inflation raging in the country and women were  forced into the streets to try to support  themselves and the remaining members of  their families. Being untrained, they have  to work at the most marginal jobs, as street  peddlers selling trinkets or food, or as prostitutes.  On the other hand, the Pinochet dictatorship, like so many others, tries to reim-  pose an older order, to reinforce the old-  fashioned traditional values that relegate  women to the domestic sphere only. She  is to stay at home, bear children, revere  and serve the father and the fatherland. In  a country where women are also arrested  and tortured and where their torture almost  routinely includes sexual violation of the  most degrading kind; the women of Chile  today are playing a leading role in the country, exemplifying the most humane qualities  of Chilean society and character.  It is ironic that the hardships imposed on  women by the dictatorship itself (on poor  women in particular whose lives have always  been the most restricted) have forced these  very women into a wider and more public  sphere.  Hunger, necessity, the need to survive,  and the desire to forge a better future for  themselves and their children have shown  women they are more capable and resourceful than they realized. They have become  more self-confident about themselves and  their abilities.  Something similar has happened to  women of the middle class, who are also affected by the adverse economic and social  climate, and who are concerned for the future of their children. They are forced to  venture out of their usual protected surroundings to seek relief, first of all, and then  to try to effect change. Thus it happens  that a large feminist movement has begun in  Chile, one that includes women from many  social classes and which is directed primarily against the dictatorship.  This coming together of women from different segments of the society, united in a  common cause, is the main characteristic of  the women's movement in Chile today. Let  us not forget that they have organized at a  time when organizing is still forbidden.  The first groups were formed by women  who banded together to solve concrete problems, such as organizing communal soup  pots in poor neighborhoods, with each one  contributing what they had so that everyone might share in what there was; or the  association formed by the relatives of the  detained-disappeared who got to know each  other by meeting day after day in jails,  courthouses, and detention centres as they  searched for their loved ones; or the groups  formed by women in workshops where they  met to make hand-made crafts for sale.  Out of these cooperative efforts was born  a feeling of solidarity, hope and a determination to fight in whatever way they could.  Fear and isolation, both of which were carefully planned by the junta as a means to  control the population, were lessened and  broken down.  So after starting with projects to combat hunger, women went on to proposals to  combat the dictatorship. Their first political  discussions took place around the communal soup pot, in little gatherings in the shan-  ning of 1983 when a radical change became  noticeable in the climate. It was women who  led the way.  In 1983 the organization known by the  initials MEMCH (Partido del Movimiento  de Emancipacion de la Mujer Chilena/Party  of the Movement for the Liberation of  Chilean Women), a movement that arose in  the 1930s and helped obtain the vote for  women, was revived together with its entire  feminist platform.  Also in 1983 a group was formed called  Women for Life, a collective of thirteen  women, most of them artists, who decided  to issue a call for widely ranging groups of  women and associations to join together to  fight against the larger issue of authoritarianism. This naturally includes opposition to  fa protesta femenina.  tytowns. In this modest way they began to  express their attitudes and aims in slogans.  One says "Democracy Here and At Home",  because women now realize that even after  the dictatorship falls there will have to be  basic reforms to change the society in profound ways. We don't even need to point  out that many Chilean women are abused  by their husbands as well as by the military.  The first decade after the coup, 1973-  1983, was marked by silence on the part of  the population. They were too stunned by  the bloody and traumatic events to do more  than try to survive from one day to the next.  There was, of course, some vocal opposition  to the regime, but the public, non-violent  movement did not catch on until the begin-  the dictatorship, but it is also directed toward the machismo embedded in the society and against the patriarchal system that  keeps women in inferior positions.  The first call for action by Women for Life  brought together more than thirty organizations, some of which had been in existence  for years, others newly formed. To name a  few of the groups responding: the Movement  of Women from the Pobladores, or shan-  tytowns, known by the initials MOMUPU,  MEMCH, already mentioned, Women for  Socialism, and Women of the Christian  Democrats. Women for Life acts as a coordinating group to organize mass public  demonstrations, marches, rallies, and the  like, which are intended to make a strong  visible impact on the country.  To me, one of the most interesting aspects  of the women's movement in Chile is the diversity and the varying political tendencies  represented. So far diversity has not meant  disunity, which has not been true in the case  of men in the Alianza Democratica (Democratic Alliance) who have not yet been able  to establish any dialogue with certain opposition groups.  The optimism of the women is contagious. In the meetings one feels the desire  for change, the hope, and the energy. The  contact between women of different parties and different social classes is of great  importance. In Chile, the political action  of women is based on this contact, and is  emerging from a grass-roots democracy.  In the meetings everyone has an equal  say; all decisions are voted on; there is no  one person who commands. This is a very  different situation from the political organizations of men. But women, in their new  united movement, realize that if they wish  to overturn the old social order they must  find new and more equitable ways to act, beginning with how they act with each other  first of all.  There is now active discussion of the idea  that women should make political decisions  based on their own needs and not follow th<  traditional pattern of being only an auxiliary group for men. Women feel that even i  democratic government dominated by men  would not be truly democratic. They are exploring many possibilities for creating a new  kind of political power for themselves that  would reflect their special views and needs  today.  The activities of the women's movement  are beginning to command attention as they  become more and more visible. One indication is that last April Pinochet felt obligated  to have his own rally of women. It was reported that three thousand of his supporters gathered to hear him praise traditional  values, of course.  Last year on March 8th women drew  big crowds when they began their anti-  Pinochet campaign with a march to celebrate Women's Day. They began to march  in small groups from many different neighborhoods and were to meet in a central location for the rally itself. One of the signs they  carried that day said: "1986 Belongs to Us".  Unfortunately they were not able to reach  the place designated for the rally because  a violent show of force on the part of the  police prevented them. However, the growing numbers of women participating in the  demonstrations and the frequent marches in  spite of police harassment show that, at last,  the women of Chile have decided to become  part of history. They are making their own  history. They are daring to speak out in ;  society where only not speaking is allowed.  Marjorie Agosin is a Chilean poet  and activist, working with different  women's groups that fight against the  dictatorship. Reprinted from Women of  Power, Issue Four. Translation from  Spanish to English by Cola Franzen.  Contributions  Contributions to Chile's feminist movement can be sent to Ximena Bunster.  Casilla 16513, Santiago, Chile   VANCOUVER WOMEN'S   BOOKSTORE  Happy International Women's Day  Hours: Monday-Saturday  ll:00-5:30pm  684-0523  Ask about our new book club.  315 Cambie Street     Vancouver, B.C.V6B2N4  Happy International Women's Day  VANCOUVER RAPE RELIEF  AND WOMEN'S SHELTER  872-8212  • 24 Hour Crisis Line  • Emergency Shelter for Women  & their Children  • Women's Organizing Centre  SB  * • TU: VIXF .• •  HS»  For the best in Foreign Films  and Independent Quality Films  Non-Sexist, Coffee Bar, Crying Room for parents  with small children  16th and ARBUTUS STREET  Phone 738-6311  $2.50 on Tuesday, $4 students with   valid student cards.   KINESIS March Arts  Hard Edge (Self), 1985, acrylic  on canvas. Self portrait by My-  fanwy Spencer Pavelic.  A letter to Myf anwy Pavelic  by Jill Pollack  Dear Myfanwy,  It's been three months now since your  exhibition, Altered Ego, was at the Floating Curatorial Gallery at Women In Focus,  and your work still haunts me. I have so  many questions I want to ask you. There  so many things I would like you to know  about how your paintings, drawings and collages affected me. I am used to the working methodologies and processes which seem  to be consistently employed by most Vancouver artists, and yet you do not fit easily into those categories. For someone who  has made art all of her life, on an almost  daily basis, you do not seek out exhibitions  the way other artists do. From your show, it  appears that what is most important to you  is the private act of making art. Why don't  you look for shows? Obviously, your art is  very important to you. And you have so  much to say about people and about styles.  Sometimes when an artist is involved  in  constant  exploration and shifting ap  proaches, the body of work looks like the  maker is uncertain and seeking a voice. But  in your work, and since you have such a  good command of the various styles, I get  the feeling that you are continually pushing  because pushing is what interests you.  You take chances and buck trends not  necessarily intentionally, but because your  sensibility demands it. Even though the  show contained forty-seven self-portraits, I  felt that there was a conscious attempt to  be revealing in a universal rather than in a  personal way. While the subject matter was  not treated dispassionately in terms of the  rendering, somehow the subject (you) was.  You managed to use your physical self to  portray a wide range of seemingly honest  and sometimes even agonized emotions, yet  I did not feel like I was invading or penetrating your life. You did not allow me to get  to know the person called Myfanwy Spencer  Pavelic through the artwork.  Rather, I got to see the breadth of  your artmaking skill and how it developed.  Maybe because you rarely situated yourself  in a setting, and focussed instead on the depiction of a woman as a vehicle for conveying emotional states, that as a viewer, I too  allowed the feelings, not the anecdote, to  dominate.  The hands. The way you draw hands is  so powerful and special. Your hands become  the repository for so much. You give them  such life and a strong ability to evoke, especially the more painful states. I begin to  wonder if at those times when you were  working and rendered hands instead of your  face or whole body, was the pain overwhelming? Are the hand pieces a particular response or denial of events in your life? Or  were you trying to see if you could portray depth of emotion through a fragment  of your physical being? Do you view these  pieces, then, as technical exercises?  Then I think about the way you capture  the process of aging. No holds barred. Looking at the works you did in the forties, when  you were a young woman but still a girl.  Then moving to the pieces from the late  seventies and into the 1980's, I see a logi-  Abortion cont 'from page 11  it's a service you need to give women. The  state is not in the economic condition to assure that new service. The state is not in  the condition to confront new political, religious or ideological problems. We are absorbed with fighting a war."  Women's Future  One thing that strikes you in Nicaragua is  the people's convincing sense of hope. "We  dream of the potential," is how Dr. Altamirano described it. And it is these dreams  that keep the people struggling forward.  The revolutionary government has been  complimented over and over again for its  commitment to making women's status  and equality a primary issue. And indeed,  women have made remarkable gains in the  seven years since the triumph. Yet one must  question, why has it taken so long for the  abortion issue to come forward when it's obvious so many women are dying? "In this  revolution", commented Sagrario Cavayel,.  a nurse in Managua, "women have won the  right to vote, the right to work, to combat  ... but why are we denied the right to decide about our bodies?"  Other women seem quite satisfied with  the progress in the abortion issue. "Just to  accomplish what we have in less than one  year is remarkable", commented Altamirano. "People are talking about abortion in  the newspaper, on the t.v., radio—even on  the streets. It's been very successful. Maybe  this year we may not get what we want, but  it's going to happen."  The similarities between Canadian feminists' struggles and those of the women of  Nicaragua are as clear as the differences.  Canadian women have been fighting continuously for abortion rights for two decades.  For Nicaraguan women, the struggle has  only begun. "It's all part of history," concluded Altamirano "In other countries, the  men haven't given us the right to choose  abortion because it just occurred to them.  It's been a long struggle for women everywhere."  Information obtained from: Barricada,  Barricada International, Pensamiento  Propio, "Illegally Induced Abortions: Cost  and Consequences" 1985 essay, Managua,  Nicaragua, El Nuevo Diario, interviews.  nica2 8 Rita Arauz was born in Mata-  galpa, Nicaragua. She lives in Managua with her daughter. Kim Irving is  a member of Kinesis's Editorial Board.  She is living in Nicaragua.  cal progression of maturation laid bare. I do  not detect any artistic license at play. Unlike, say, Hannah Hatherly Maynard, who  used to pencil in the glass plate negatives  to make her waist smaller and who would  only appear photographically from what she  deemed her "good" side. No, you draw or  paint what you see. That speaks of a self-  assuredness; and a detachment from the expectations of what society reminds us we  should try and avoid. Just as your artmaking skill has never been stronger, so too have  you shown us a woman proud of who she is  and unafraid of exposure.  It's also clear that you make your own  trends, explore those styles which interest  you. It is refreshing to see work which not  only has its own integrity but which draws  from and utilizes whatever tools are considered necessary. In fact, over the years your  work seems to be involved with a paring-  down, a lessening of presented information in order to emphasize content through  a form of minimalist-representation. With  less you invoke more.  And those forty-seven self-portraits are  only a very small part of your overall body  of work. You have been very prolific (even  though you point out that over a year was  spent on the Yehudi Menuhin commission  for the National Portrait Gallery in London,  England). You continue to make images of  the people in your life, moving now towards  inter-relationships rather than single figure  portraits. And you bring the same ability  to capture and distill that is evident in your  self-portraits.  I may not know those people on a personal level, but you show me their stuff.  A sense of trust is apparent in their willingness to pose not just for a formal sitting but for a psychological portrait of familial dynamics. Over the span of the series,  there appears the range of emotions, pleasant and unpleasant, that is afforded by the  freedom of the family. You present a basic  liking for and acceptance of people, close to  a lack of judgement, towards the particulars that occur in almost any long-term relationship. That same honesty in the self-  portraits shows up in the Relationships series. This leads me to believe that that finally is your consuming interest: the portrayal of the state of being alive. Your work  exhibits a desire to understand and a willingness to be understood.  I appreciate your skill and I am moved by  your imagery. And that, ultimately, is the  most an artist can hope for.  Best regards,  Jill  Women  Educating in  Selfdefense  Training  A STRONG  AND SAFE  INTERNATIONAL  WOMEN'S  DAY   learn  how to  be effective  for women  by women  2349 St. Catherines  Vancouver, B.C.  876-6390  Women of the world unite!  "KINESIS m- arts  //////////////////////^^^^^  New work from Still Sane creator  by Sima Elizabeth Shefrin  Persimmon Blackbridge's new work, the  first she has shown in Vancouver since the  highly successful and completely exhausting  Still Sane exhibit of two and one half years  ago, is currently on view in three different  locations. Opening at the Pitt International  Gallery is a comical ceramic sculpture series entitled Crow Advises Me to Jump.  At the Vancouver Lesbian Connection, eighteen decorative paper-cast masks are on display. And on a more serious note, in the  Window for Non- Commercial Culture at  MacLeod's Books, Persimmon is showing  the first complete piece of a new major series called Doing Time, done in collaboration with Gerry Ferguson about Gerry's experiences in prison.  Persimmon describes Crow Advises Me  to Jump as "lesbian soap opera with  mythological intrusions." It consists of small  clay figures in various poses set in twelve different rooms with tiny windows and hand-  painted cabbage rose wall paper. According  to Persimmon, the series tells the story of  "this drippy woman and her cool friend, and  this crow who flies in the window one night  and proceeds to terrorize and challenge her  and push her life in different directions."  Around the base of each piece, like a cartoon caption, appears a deliberately melodramatic title such as "Waiting for her  to phone", or "I tell Crow my problems.  Crow laughs." Crow Advises Me to Jump  is showing in conjunction with an equally  whimsical series of large oil paintings entitled Esmeralda and the Fish by Victoria  artist, Phyllis Serota.  The masks on display at the Vancouver  Lesbian Connection grew out of Persimmon's experiments in paper-cast sculpture.  I he masks are quite  true to life and some  viewers might be able  to pick out some friends.  She was anxious to learn to work in paper to  overcome the practical difficulties of firing,  hanging and transporting large clay works,  especially since she has plans for a whole  new series of life-sized sculptures made from  full body casts.  Persimmon recently took a course from  Vancouver paper maker Sharon Yuen, and  became fascinated with the medium, and  the different materials which can be incorporated into it. As the wet paper picks up  detail which clay would miss, the masks are  quite true to life, and some viewers might  be able to pick out the faces of their friends.  The third exhibit, done in collaboration  with Gerry Ferguson, is a large single sculpture in the Window for Non-Commercial  Culture at MacLeods's Books. A life-sized  clothes figure cast in paper and painted,  stands pressed back against a wall on which  are words describing the early weeks of a  seventeen-year old woman's first imprisonment. The words are Gerry's, and the figure  is cast from her body.  Learning about the lives of women in  prison has been a meaningful experience for  Persimmon.  "One of the things Fm really excited  about", she explains, "is that I'm finally  understanding something that's going on  that's always been frightening and distant  to me, and I want people who see the work  to get that information. At the same time,  with Gerry's input, this is also a show for  women who know about prisons already.  They'll see themselves reflected and laugh  at all the jokes the rest of us don't get."  Crow Advises Me to Jump and Esmeralda and the Fish are at the Pitt  International Galleries, 36 Powell Street,  March 9-28, open every day from noon to  five.  The masks are at the Vancouver Lesbian  Connection, 876 Commercial Drive, January 9-February 28, open Monday to Friday, eleven to four.  The prison sculpture from Doing Time  is on view at MacLeod's Books, 455 West  Pender, March 23-April 11, and may be  twenty four hours a day every day.  IBYMUSIC  by Connie Kuhns  While I was away on holiday, two important events happened. I gave birth to Georgia, a 9 lb. 3 oz. baby girl, and I received  a grant from the Explorations Program of  The Canada Council to write the history  of the women's music industry in Canada.  Although my new daughter is an exciting  topic, she is outside the perimeters of this  column. So I will have to limit myself to  telling you about the other project.  The women's music industry developed  in North America and in Europe during  the early 1970's as a result of the women's  movement. It was designed as an alternative  to the mainstream music industry which  had not shown sufficient support for female  artists, female initiative, or the female point  of view.  Generally the women's music industry  was dedicated to the production of music  that was humanistic in its approach; music which counter-acted the messages of sex,  drugs and rock and roll which dominated  popular music.  The music which grew out of this industry was varied. Some women used this  new artistic freedom to write hard-edged,  overtly political lyrics. Others chose to  celebrate the accomplishments of women  they knew: mothers, grandmothers, sisters,  friends. Still others documented the intricate subtleties of relationships between  women, between lesbians. And some composers dared to demonstrate female sensibilities in purely instrumental music.  The industry was also committed to  training women in the technical aspects of  music, as well as encouraging the develop  ment of women's distribution networks and  production companies. As a result, thousands of women were able to find employment in this new industry. Now, almost two  decades later, the women's music industry  is the largest independent record network in  the world.  In addition to this industry is a host of  collaborators and beneficiaries: women who  have spent most of their professional life in  popular music but who perform when they  can at women's events, women and men who  work together equally in their own musical configurations, young women who were  raised on feminism and take their musical  place for granted, and veterans of women's  music who are crossing over to test the waters. It is an exciting mix and an historical  one.  Although the history of the women's music industry is being documented in the  United States, Canada's contributions have  yet to be acknowledged. Our own industry is  flourishing with music festivals, record companies, coffee houses, distribution networks  and a varied group of artists who are actively changing what we call Canadian music. The Canadian women's history project  will be the first of its kind in this country.  During this next year I will be interviewing musicians, producers, promoters,  managers, record distributors, administrators, journalists, technicians, club owners  and coffee house collectives (both past and  present) and other women's music affi-  cionadas. I will also be assembling a nation  wide chronology which will document the  birth and development of women's music in  this country. (In Vancouver our early history includes these names: Womankind Pro-  I ductions, Sapphire, the New School, the Full  1 Circle Coffee House, Ferron, Eileen Brown,  Jane Perks, the Women of the World band).  I am asking every person reading this  copy to dig out those date books and journals and begin remembering what happened. I am collecting names, dates, and  anecdotes, personal experiences, and the  histories of communities and groups. If you  wish to contribute or be on a mailing list,  please write to me at 1706 West 15th Avenue, Vancouver B.C. V6J 2K8. Now is your  chance to write yourself into history.  Connie (Smith) Kuhns is the producer and host of Rubymusic on CFRO  Radio in Vancouver, B.C . Her column,  Rubymusic, has appeared monthly in  Kinesis since December 1983. Rubymusic will now be published in the March,  May, July-August, October, December-  January issues.  -Hous-ewives-  in   I raining  ana  l^eseavcn  Happy International     ^^^  Women's Day Lfe  (604)321-5400 \  4932 VICTORIA DRIVE,      ^  VANCOUVER, B.C. V5P3T6  "IT'5TIM£" HOUSE WOW WAS,  ftjcCOGrN/ZEC   AND PAlD  copies available    - ea|l WS.  KINESIS  March'87 19 Arts  ^^^%^^p^^^%^^^%  A THE CANADIAN MEDICAL LIBRARY  THE UP-TO-DATE,  REASSURIMQ GUIDE TO  RECOGNIZING AMD  TREATim BREAST CAMCER  SURVIVING  BREAST  CAMCER  CAROLE SPEARIN MCCAULEY  Surviving Breast Cancer: read it  by Marlene Enmal *—■'  SURVIVING BREAST CANCER  by Carole Spearin McCauley  Seal Books, 1986. Toronto (The Canadian  Medical Library), 336 pages.  This is a well-researched and informative book on the topic of breast cancer—the  leading cause of death from cancer among  women. An updated version of a 1979 Dut-  ton original, this work remains essentially  American in content. Although a few Canadian statistics are supplied in the two sections added to the beginning of this edition, they are absent from the remainder of  the book. Moreover, there are no profiles of  Canadian women and no Canadian organizations are listed in the appendix of" Useful  Addresses."  The author, a novelist and science writer,  draws upon both mainstream and non-  traditional medical sources in her fairly  technical discussion of controversial theories concerning causation and treatment of  breast cancer.  Although  an  appendix  of  ggj  "Cancer-related words" is provided, additional glossing or explanation of terms used  would likely be appreciated by most readers.  A refreshing stylistic contrast is, however, contributed by the personal accounts  of fifteen American women, which the author intersperses between the chapters dealing with scientific data. These accounts  are highly readable and often moving. The  courage displayed by these women is astounding. So, too, are the ignorance and insensitive attitudes which many of them encountered among members of the medical  profession.  McCauley's interesting presentation of  the various risk factors suspected of being  associated with breast cancer includes dietary, hormonal, hereditary, psychological  and environmental causes. Yet, as she admits, this plethora of information remains  limited in its practical application: "Until prospective, instead of retrospective, research can predict  or  diagnose high-risk  A Collection of Films Dealing with Women's Weil-Being  THE WOMENS BODY POLITIC  D.E.S.: An Uncertain Legacy  55 min.       1985  Between 1941 and 1971, a synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol or D.E.S., was  prescribed to pregnant women to prevent  miscarriages. This practice resulted in  numerous cases of reproductive and genital abnormalities. This film looks at the development, marketing and medical consequences of D.E.S.  The Best Time of My Life:  Portraits of Women in Mid-life  58 min.       1985  Reflecting a wide range of income levels,  lifestyles, careers and backgrounds, ten  women in their middle years share their experiences of menopause.  Is It Hot In Here?  A Film About Menopause  36 min.       1986  One of the least understood and most  universal of women's experiences is  menopause. This film is an informative and  sometimes humorous look at contemporary  social attitudes, symptoms and treatments  relating to menopause.  Abortion: Stories from North  and South  55 min.       1984  Of the estimated 30 to 50 million induced  abortions performed annually, more than  half are illegal, and an estimated 84,000 of  them result in death. Filmed in Ireland,  Japan, Thailand, Peru, Colombia and  Canada, this film is a survey of the realities of abortion.  Spirit of the Kata  Five women, all black belts of world-class  calibre, discuss how an ancient martial art  has transformed their lives.  Turnaround:  A Story of Recovery  47 min.        1984  Five women were brought together by a  common illness — all had a dependence  on alcohol, prescription medication, street  drugs, or a combination of these. Living in  Aurora House, a residential treatment  centre in Vancouver, these women are  learning to face painful truths.  The Recovery Series  Related to Turnaround: A Story of Recovery, this series of four films focusses on individual women who are recovering from  drug or alcohol dependency.  Recovering alcoholics, two sisters talk  about their battle to shake alcohol and drug  addiction. A factor contributing to their  sense of self-worth and helping to maintain  their sobriety is a renewed commitment to  their Native Indian culture.  Delia  12 min.       1985  Delia spent years counselling women to  confront their alcoholism and drug addiction while ignoring her own alcoholism. Finally she quit her job and sought the  treatment that enabled her to gradually  build a new life for herself and her son.  Lorri  14 min.       1985  Humiliated by her inability to control her  drinking, and feeling confused and suicidal, Lorri committed herself to a psychiatric  ward of a hospital, where she recovered.  Ruth  14 min.       1985  At 14 years of age and in search of an escape from painful memories of childhood  physical, mental and sexual abuse, and  prostitution, Ruth turned to alcohol and  drugs. After 18 years of addiction she  joined Alcoholics Anonymous.  T  National       Office  Film Board   national du film  of Canada    du Canada  The Next Step  A series of three films that deal with the nature and scope of woman-battering and the  support services victims need to rebuild  their lives.  Sylvie's Story  28 min.       1985  Sylvie recreates her experience as a battered woman seeking help at a Montreal  transition house. This film emphasizes the  importance of women speaking out and  points out the role of the transition house  as a safe place for sharing experiences, obtaining support and counselling.  A Safe Distance  28 min.       1985  Filmed in Thompson and Portage La  Prairie in Manitoba, and West Bay Reserve  in Ontario, the film looks at providing  shelter and services for battered women in  rural, northern, and native communities.  Moving On  28 min.       1985  A co-ordinated effort by police, lawyers,  doctors and social workers has resulted in  an effective response to woman-battering  in London, Ontario. Services for victims and  therapy for offenders are part of this city's  attempt to break the cycle of violence.  These films are available for free loan in  16 mm from all National Film Board offices  in Canada. Video rental, in VHS format, will  also be available from NFB offices as of  March, 1987. For more information, contact  the NFB office closest to you.  NFB Offices in Canada  Halifax: (902) 426-6001 — Sydney: (902) 564-7770 — Saint John: (506) 648-4996 — Moncton: (506) 857-6101 — St. John's: (709) 772-5005  Corner Brook: (709) 637-4499 — Charlottetown: (902) 892-6612 — Montreal: (514) 283-4823 — Chicoutimi: (418) 543-0711 — Quebec: (418) 648-3176  Rimouskl: (418) 722-3086 — Rouyn: (819) 762-6051 — Sherbrooke: (819) 565-4915 — Trois-Rivieres: (819) 375-5714 — Toronto: (416) 973-9093  Ottawa: (613) 996-4863 — Hamilton: (416) 572-2347 — Kingston: (613) 545-8056 — Kitchener: (519) 743-2771 — London: (519) 679-4120  North Bay: (705) 472-4740 — Thunder Bay: (807) 623-5224 — Winnipeg: (204) 949-4129 — Regina: (306) 780-5012 — Saskatoon: (306) 975-4246  Calgary: (403) 292-5338 — Edmonton: (403) 420-3010 — Vancouver: (604) 666-0718 — Prince George: (604) 564-5657 — Victoria: (604) 388-3869  before malignant disease develops,  those general risk factors which truly apply  to the individual woman cannot be known."  Regarding treatment of the disease, the  author aims to educate women about alternatives to the Halsted radical mastectomy-  a treatment which is perceived by many  women as being more devastating than the  actual diagnosis of cancer. A good list of re: -  erence material for further study is provided  along with a step-by-step guide in the final  chapter for the woman who is faced with the  possibility that she may have breast cancer.  This book deals only indirectly—through  the women's personal accounts—with the  task of recognizing breast abnormalities.  There are neither illustrations, nor a written description of breast self-examination  methods. Early detection remains, after al  the best defense against breast as well as  other types of cancer. Nevertheless, apart  from this oversight, McCauley's book is a  comprehensive work on the subject of breast  cancer and should be read by every woman  Playing with  health no fun  by Bernadette Stringer  PLAYING WITH OUR HEALTH:  HAZARDS IN THE AUTOMATED  OFFICE  by Marcy Cohen and Margaret White  Press Gang Publishers, 120 pages, 1986.  Playing With Our Health: Hazards in  the Automated Office, by Marcy Cohen  and Margaret White is a well-written, prac  tical guide to occupational health for office  workers.  This 120 page handbook printed by Press  Gang and paid for by federal government  grants to the Women's Skill Development  Society is designed to be used by ordinary  office workers—with the emphasis on used  The format is easy to follow—with a  clear and detailed table of contents, illus  trations, "balloons" containing important  points from the text, and easy to rip-out  pages.  The content is meant to be used as well—  the information presented is practical but  still detailed. The latest research in the areas of stress and VDT radiation is described  in an easy to read style that is a refreshing  distillation of jargon-filled scientific papers.  We learn that office work—especially low  status, low paying positions—is extremely  stressful. The authors explain why this is so  by analyzing what stress is and then showing how a lack of decision-making powers regarding work environments and work organizations is one of the major causes of stress  by individual and collective action.  The section on VDT radiation follows a  similar format—a description of the latest  scientific research is followed by a discussion  of preventative measures.  The last third of the handbook discusses  the overall workplace health and safety  environment—legislation, health and safet'  committees, the media, research, and compensation.  Most of this is well-written, clear, and  helpful but the section on "right to know"  might be misleading because it leaves the  impression that legislation in Canada is  stronger than it is. In this country, especially in this province, workers have very  limited legal rights to know the chemical  composition of substances they work with.  Aside from this fairly minor quibble, the  book is very useful. Every office worker who  is concerned about her health—and that  should be everyone—should pick up a copy.  20|<JNESIS    March   87 Arts  /^^^^^^^^^^^^^^.  i *  /n^o>v\c*  by Melanie Conn  I've been writing this column for a year  now. When I started I had no idea how  many women were science fiction readers.  But since then I've had lots of suggestions  from women about books to review, and I've  enjoyed discovering who shares my devotion  to the genre.  The other evening—in the interest of  fun and research—a few of us met to talk  about SF: the group included Cole Dudley, Jackie Larkin, Kathee Muzin and myself. The first interesting thing was how  easy it had been to schedule the meeting!  "Only four women", you say, but think of  all our various personal, work, and political commitments! As it happened, we were  delighted with the prospect of talking to  each other about the books we liked and  our favorite authors. So even on an evening  preceded by an all-day conference, we were  soon caught up in an enthusiastic discussion.  I've often assured my friends who don't  read SF that there's more to it than space  ships and interplanetary struggles. But, in  fact, it was the thrill of adventure in space  that first attracted Kathee and Cole to  SF. They used to dream about travelling  through space on peace-keeping missions or  working on an interstellar ship enroute to  unknown planets. For Kathee, the journey  itself was more important than the destination.  Listening to them reminded me of Seven  Worlds by Mary Caraker, a book I picked  up on a recent trip to New York at Fantastic Planet, an enormous SF megastore.  This just-published book could have been  called (or sub-titled) "ESL In Space". The  heroine, Morgan Farraday, is a 23rd century  teacher, equipped with lesson plans and an  addiction to adventure, she trips around the  galaxy teaching English to the offspring of  a series of bizarre alien beings.  The four of us agreed that the SF adventure is especially entertaining because it's  not confined by any of the realities of time  and space, of life as we experience it. Once  you accept that anything is possible, you  are free to explore your reactions, prejudices, perceptions of people, and relationships. We had all read and loved The Left  Hand of Darkness by Ursula K. Le Guin,  a classic SF examination of sex-role stereotyping. The story concerns a planet where  the androgynous inhabitants become male  or female for limited periods of time in or-  WOKLt^  der to procreate. The Envoy from earth has  great difficulty relating to genderless people;  the effect is both humorous and instructive.  Jackie recommends C.J. Cherryh because  she has a "fabulous ability to create a completely different social structure in such a  way that you can get inside the heads of her  alien people." Cherryh takes the reader out  of her own framework and allows her to see  what other worlds feel like.  But what about the really weird aliens  in some SF books? (Hard core SF fans call  them Bug-eyed Monsters or BEMs.) Kathee  described a story which repelled her. The  dominant group was a cross between reptile  and insect. Humans were kept as pets and  as breeding receptacles for the aliens' eggs.  We all had examples of unpalatable creatures turning up in SF books.  The skilled writer will encourage us to  suspend our disbelief (and our squeamish-  ness) in order to explore new possibilities.  That has been my experience, not shared  by Cole, with John Varley's trilogy [Titan, Wizard and Demon. For me, much  of the power of the books had to do with  the aliens: the centaur-like multi-coloured  Titans.  Cole suggested that aliens in current Science Fiction are different than those in the  40's. Invariably, the old-style alien was offensive, malevolent and incomprehensible.  The only way to escape annihilation was to  use brute force. Today we often find benevolent alien cultures who are seeking to establish contact with us. It would be interesting  to track SF over the past fifty years to see  if it reflects the dominant political ideology.  The biggest difference in our small group  was around fantasy. Two of us rarely or  never read fantasy, meaning stories featuring mythology and magic. But although  she doesn't like "simplistic, moralistic fairy  tales", Jackie is an enthusiastic fantasy fan,  especially when the subject is Celtic.  She's just finished The Copper Crown  by Patricia Kennelay about the Celtic flight  to the stars in dragon-shaped space ships  3000 years ago to avoid the coming of Christianity. What she likes about the book is the  melding of high tech and magic, and the author's attention to the language; there are  several pages explaining the pronunciation  of names.  Some of us made an exception for  The Mists of Avalon by Marion Zimmer  Bradley, an extraordinary version of the  King Arthur story told from the perspective  of Morgan Le Fay, and very convincingly.  We were not surprised to find that our  tastes are not unanimous. One of the pleasures of SF is that there are so many choices.  We do have a strong and common interest in  books about women though. As Jackie said,  SF can educate desire: if we can imagine  it, we can create it. Reading about women  struggling and winning, living full and liberated lives, works like a powerful visualization exercise. It reinforces our passion for  change.  What follows is a list of some of our favorite women SF writers. (There are a number of male authors who we, as feminists,  like—such as Samuel Delaney, John Varley,  Spider Robinson—but that's another article!)  Leigh Bracken, Marian Zimmer Bradley,  Suzee McKee Charnas, C.J. Cherryh, Suzette Haden Elgin, Zenna Henderson, Patricia Kennelay, Tannith Lee, Ursula K. Le  Guin, Doris Lessing [Canopus in Argos:  Archives), Elizabeth Lynn, Anne McCaf-  ferey, Patricia McKillip, Vonda Mclntyre,  JoAnna Russ, Sidney Sheldon (aka Racooi  Sheldon, James Tiptree Jr.), Mary Statton,  Joan D. Vinge, Kate Willhelm  Ariel Books and the Women's Bookstore  stock some women's SF authors that are  not available anywhere else. Other bookstores in Vancouver with good SF collections (new and used) are: Octopus East,  Fraser Books, White Dwarf, Granville Book  Company, and the Comic Shop.  THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD OF CANADA  presents a new film  "IS IT HOT IN HERE?"  A film about Menopause  Wednesday, March 25 at 7:30 p.m.  Theatre, Robson Square Media Centre  800 Robson Street, Vancouver  Following the film will be a discussion panel including co-directors  Laura Alper and Haida Paul and members of the Vancouver Women's  Health Collective.  For further information, call 666-0718  This event has been organised in collaboration with the Vancouver  Women's Health Collective.  ADMISSION FREE  ^^     National Office  ^if       Film Board     national du film  of Canada      du Canada  KINESIS //////////////////^^^^^^  ////////////////////^^^^^  Commentary  A Canadian feminist goes to Tokyo  by Nancy Lewis  I am just finishing four months of  teaching English in Tokyo. These are  some of my impressions of life in this  city.  One of the biggest shocks for me, and still  the most difficult to deal with on a day to  day basis, is the pervasiveness of pornography in Tokyo. Not set apart from other  media, porn shows its ugly face everywhere.  Advertising, which inundates the Tokyoite  at every turn, features stereotypes of both  Japanese and foreign women: the former  cute, young, smiling; the latter mysterious,  rich-looking, often with breasts prominently  displayed in tight T-shirts, or no shirt at  all. Every woman who has ever used public  transit in this city has had the experience of  glancing at the newspaper or "adult" comic  book in the hands of the man next to her  and seeing naked women splayed there; that  pubic hair cannot be shown in these images  is merely absurd. In addition to porn in the  'everyday' media, Japanese versions of Playboy and Penthouse, as well as a multitude of  domestic counterparts, are available at any  bookstore; if these are closed, well, there's  always the porno vending machines. Judging from covers, bondage ("SM", it's called  here) is a favourite theme.  Not content with women in two dimensions, Japanese men spend vast amounts of  time and money on the "water industry"  or what we might slightly less euphemistically call "male entertainment.'' Hostess  bars are staffed by women who pour drinks,  make conversation, and dance with customers. Strip bars and porno movie houses  abound, and here too "SM" is popular.  At my questioning, my (young male) students also list off: geisha, who are expensive  and rather formal, but allow some touching;  pink cabarets, a modern, less formal version  of geisha houses, with sex possible; prostitutes, who are not so expensive, but "have  diseases"; soap land, involving at least a  bath and sometimes sex, and which, they  report, an Australian with whom they regularly do business likes very much; and the  oddly named fashion health, which features  teenage women who cannot "have sex" but  can "satisfy."  What is equally astonishing is that public  sexual harassment is rare. I live in an area  notorious for prostitution (as evidenced by  their "business cards" with photos, which  pimps put up in the local phone booths),  but I have never been whistled or yelled  at by a man in my neighborhood, or anywhere in Tokyo. I have heard a few stories  of women being touched while riding the  subway; I use it daily, and have (happily)  never had this experience. In view of arguments that porn, especially violent porn, increases violence towards women, it is interesting that Japan has the lowest incidence  of sex-related crime of any industrialized nation (2 per 100,000 people as compared to  33.6 in the United States), according to the  Tokyo Journal (Nov. 1986). The relatively  recent glut of pornography is accompanied  by a traditional emphasis on repression and  self-control, making this huge city still a safe  place for women.  Women In Focus  el  y  ■ SUNDAY MARCH 8, 1Q87.   2:00 - 7T30PmB|  In celebration   of International   Women's Oay, Women in Focus  will present a showcase of its newest film and video titles.  We extend an open invitation   to everyone  for these   free  public screenings  Our event coincides  with Wome~n in Focus' expanding  representation   of women artists  from all over the world  The showcase schedule   is:  2:15 pm     "DOUBLE  X" -Australian  animation   by several  animators  2:30 pm       "DAUGHTERS   OF THE MIDNIGHT   SUN" - Lapland documentary   by  Ylva Floreman  3:30 pm      "LEE A TWO RIVERS"   and   "COMPTINES"   -   Quebcois  video art b  Nicole Benoit/Diane   Po  4:00 pm      "CLOSE  TO THE HEART'  - Canadian  documentary   by Shona C   Ross  4:35 pm      "BRIDES  BURNING"   - British experimental   social  commentary   t  Gwyneth Baines  4:50 pm      "FLOW OF APPEARANCES"   - Canadian  quirky video art by Tess P  5:30 pm     "SLEEPWALK"   - American feature thriller-comedy   by Sara Dn  *204 -456 West Broadway (at Cambie)  REFRESHMENTS   AND SNACKS AVAILABLE   FROM AROUND THE WORLD.  FOR FURTHER  INFORMATION,   PHONE 872-2250  In spite of recent changes in Japanese  society, traditional ideas about sex roles  remain, even among the young, single,  university-educated elite who are the students in my company classes. Both men and  women say they will marry and have children, and that the wife should stay home  and raise the children, while the husband  works outside the home. Women say they  might return to work when their children  are in high school, if their husbands allow  it; my suggestions of work-sharing and day  care are greeted with polite skepticism. My  own independent lifestyle is thought fun, if  irresponsible—but only suitable for me.  One private student, in her late thirties,  is unusual in being a single career woman.  She complains about the unlikelihood of being promoted to a managerial level, but  justifies any discrepancy between hers and  her male counterparts' wages by explaining  that she does not have any dependents, and  hence has fewer expenses than they do. I  have found that standard sexist arguments  such as this are repeated with alarming regularity by nearly everyone I question.  Another unusual person is the Japanese  woman—I'll call her Yoko— with whom I've  been living. Also in her late thirties, she has  been single since her husband ran away with  her best friend ten years ago, leaving her  with two pre-school age children. Her children now live with her mother in another  town, and Yoko works as a jazz singer in  Tokyo clubs.  Yoko faces difficulty in supporting herself, as do many 'older' Japanese women.  The problem is particularly acute in her  profession, where youthful good looks are  more important than talent. She has a hard  time finding work because of her age, and  because her low, attractively husky voice is  very different from the high, breathless style  favoured for Japanese female singers. In addition, her refusal to dance with customers  or allow them to touch her is a debit in clubs  where singers are also expected to be pleasant and pliant hostesses.  In my first week at Yoko's, when we were  still virtual strangers, an incident occurrec  which assured me that, in spite of language  barriers, we would get along well. Her frienc  came to visit, complaining about her husband, who beats her severely every month  or so. (Hers is an extreme, but not unusua  case). Yoko's advice, haltingly translated for  me, was that this woman and her children  leave immediately for a transition house  The woman was worried about money; Yoko  told her how to get welfare.  There are small signs that women are organizing in Japan: I see the odd feminist  book, and notice of a feminist meeting or  lesbian retreat weekend. Some women recently won a case on the basis of a new law  prohibiting discrimination in the workplace  because of sex. Overall, however, feminists  in Japan have a long fight ahead of them  Emphasis on conformity to sexist traditions  is strong, yet wonderful, uncompromising  women do fall through the cracks. They're  incredibly friendly and generous with one  another, and with me, and have made my  stay in Tokyo much more enjoyable than it  could have been without them.  Airheart  Co-operative Travel Centre  Airheart, a new worker-owned and  controlled co-operative venture, is now  open for business.  Please help us celebrate at our Grand  Opening Party on Friday, March 20, 1987,  from 4 to 8pm, at our office.  Deborah Bradley   •   Ellen Frank   •   James Micklewright   •   Frances Wasserlein  2149 Commercial Drive, Vancouver, B.C.  V5N 4B3 • (604) 251-2282 • CompuServe 71470,3502 ,T^«  CCEC Credit Union  Come to the Credit Union which has)  specialized in helping you  and your community  "HAPPY INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S DAY"  CCEC CREDIT UNION  33 EAST BROADWAY  VANCOUVER, B.C. V5T 1V4  MON. & WED. 11 am-5 pm  FRIDAY lpm-7 pm  876-2123  We are a full service credit union*    We keep your  money in your community. That's our bottom line.  = KINESIS ///////////////////^^^^^  ///////////////////^^^^^  Letters  Dial: End  apartheid  Kinesis:  We are concerned that, due to Press censorship in South Africa, apartheid will cease  to be documented and challenged.  For readers who are also concerned and  who think that sanctions against the South  African government and white-run businesses are an effective way for Canadians  to support black South Africans, we would  like to suggest a couple of phone calls that  might help.  Both would be aimed at stopping Canada's largest (dollar-wise) export to South  Africa—sulphur. South Africa gets almost one-quarter of its sulphur from  a Vancouver-based company, Cansulex,  which ships it out through a North Vancouver port. If enough people phone them,  at 688-1501, maybe they'll be persuaded to  end their trade with South Africa.  A second phone call could be to Pat  Carney, Federal Minister for International  Trade at 687-3330. Get her office to pass on  a message to the Federal Government that  if it supports sanctions, that this should include ending exports to South Africa, not  just putting restrictions on some imports  from that country. You could point out  that the Federal Government has additional  leverage and responsibility since, through  indirect corporate links, it has shares in  Cansulex.  The situation in South Africa is desperate. We must keep up the pressure on the  South African and Canadian governments  to end apartheid so that, at least, those who  have been killed protesting this system did  not die in vain.  Diana Hawthorne  Carolyn Jerome  Teen mothers  who  Kinesis :  I am a seventeen year old woman who  would like to take a third look at teenage  pregnancies. I'd like to look at values. I am  certainly not against welfare. My family and  I were on welfare after my father died, while  our insurance claims were being processed.  Welfare, as a safety net for those who fall—  homemakers who are widowed or divorced,  and wage earners who lose their jobs—is vital to the health of society.  My concern is with those who jump. Both  Crystal and Ani (Younger Women's Supplement, Dec/Jan '86) had easy access to  abortion. They made clear choices to keep  their babies, knowing full well what their  situations would be. They obviously made  those choices based on their personal values. That's fine. I respect their values.  But what about my values? I don't think  it matters if what I value involves buying  books and going to the theatre, or buying  hunting equipment and going to the football game. Why should I, through taxes, be  forced to spend on Crystal and Ani's values money that I would like to spend on  my own? Crystal made her decision presumably aware that she will not be able to  leave the child alone, nor would she have  the cash to hire a babysitter. Why should  I, the taxpayer, be expected to provide a  homemaker? Why should I, because of a  decision she made, based on her own feelings, wishes, opinions, and emotional needs,  have to spend money I could be spending  based on my own feelings, wishes, opinions  and emotional needs, or those of my family?  Why should her values have priority over  mine?  An argument can be made for government spending on education or the arts.  The theory is that they benefit society as  a whole. Society does not, however, need  more children. In these days of increasing  jump  automation, the only ones that really benefit are big corporations, that need more consumers, but ever fewer workers. For the rest  of us, these children mean a burden on our  tax dollars now, and increased unemployment in the future. To put it more dramatically, many population specialists feel overpopulation is second only to nuclear war as  the most pressing threat to humanity.  Obviously, we cannot let these women's  children go malnourished or unclothed. I  would, however, like to see a sane and reasonable discussion of this issue, not by the  Grace McCarthys of this world, who would  like to see everyone on welfare dumped unceremoniously into the street, but by people  who really care about people—all people—  and their rights and responsibilities.  Sincerely,  Galila Svendsend  No prisons  no guards  Kinesis:  Having been quoted, accurately but only  partially, in "Women On Guard For Male  Values" [Kinesis February '87) and lest it  might appear that I would condone the existence of women prison guards, allow me to  draw your readers' attention to the following:  Prisons are an abomination, calculated  to destroy whatever trace of humanity that  might remain in either the Keeper or the  Kept. To descend to the level of debating the merits or demerits of the 'job' on  its newly dubbed 'cross-gender' aspects (a  euphemism which must surely rank with  the best of Orwell's Newspeak) should be  viewed with as much horror as those female  guards in Auschwitz, famed (sic) for their  skill in producing lamp shades from human  skin.  Unfair exaggeration—do I hear? Ask the  women prisoners at Oakalla if it matters  whether it's a male or a female guard who  drags them down the hill to the humid,  stinking, dungeon cells under the old Cow  Barn. A job is a job—is a job?  Objective criticism is levelled at women  who strive for top executive positions in our  highly competitive, industrial-militarist system, as they debase all before them, including their own personal integrity. Why then  should it be so difficult to recognize the irreparable damage created by working in the  jungle atmosphere of Canadian prisons.  For my part, I must admit I am at a loss  to understand your concluding paragraph,  as with no previous reference to prison reform, suddenly the replacement of men by  women "into all the top jobs" will solve everything?  If we are so intent on improving the  lot of women, why not direct our feminine  audacity to radically cutback on the imprisonment of women, sixty-five percent of  whom are needlessly serving under twelve  months for petty, minor charges. Approximately ninety percent of women in prairie  prisons are native women. Does it really  matter whether their guards are women or  men? Or does it matter that women (as well  as men, as well as young offenders) continue  to be subjected to the most barbaric prison  practices, which demean everyone involved.  Instead of fighting for parity (or better)  with male guards, why not divert these "female qualities of compassion, intuition and  thoughtfulness" to demand from elected  representatives (who are still, sometimes,  known to heed when enough voters shout  loudly enough) that they restore those community services which are being eliminated  with dizzying speed, such as adolescent  counselling, Child Find, learning disabilities, adequate health care, decent housing,  to name just a few areas. The jobs are there  to be developed once the pressures are ex  erted. And in the meanwhile, let's perfect  our other alternatives, such as, barter, boycott and civil disobedience.  Of course, feeding and housing our families must come first. However, these economic needs can best be met by a concerted  effort to develop essential social services, instead of by a servile submission to work  in the very institutions which may well,  eventually, jail our own children when the  chaotic economy really gets out of control.  Pitting female guards against male  guards must be rejected, in favour of pitting all our potential force against those  who would deny us all, men and women, the  right to adequately feed and house our families.  This is not idealistic. This is realistic.  Claire Culhane  Prisoners Rights Group (PRG)  In response to "Women On Guard For  Male Values" [Kinesis, Feb. '87), while this  article's headline puts women's employment  in prisons in its proper context, I believe the  article itself does not.  Employment as a prison guard is not just  another non-traditional job for a woman. It  is a situation where a woman uses her energy against her own interests by perpetuating a male-devised hierarchy based on coercion.  It's important to understand that the hierarchy of male domination over women and  that of state domination of subject is one  and the same hierarchy.  The prison system is the most violent  tool used to maintain the state's power over  its population; the ultimate threat against  those who won't recognize a government's  authority to set the rules we live by. As most  prisoners are inside for crimes against property, the use of prison enforces the class system and private property the way rape enforces sexism.  In my mind, there is no doubt that being  a prison guard is in complete contradiction  to being a feminist.  The article suggests that not only might  it be good for women that more of us are  being hired as guards, but that it is good  for prisoners.  The reality is that prison guards are there  to implement rales and punishment, not  to nurture or care for prisoners. That is  what the system demands of women prison  guards and that is what they do.  I question the use of academic studies  in understanding what is best for prisoners. Especially when these studies contradict what prisoners themselves have told me  about the effect of female guards on an institution.  In male prisons, prisoners are often angry and frustrated (rather than soothed) by  the presence of female guards. Although it  is largely the prisoners own sexism which  makes it feel more degrading to be ordered  around by a woman than a man, the result  is a still more difficult environment for prisoners.  I'll grant that most women still need jobs,  and I can't know the factors which would  lead a woman to take such a job. But I think  it's a tragedy that women participate in the  prison system. To see that women can be as  effective instruments of oppression as men  can is hardly a feminist victory.  Sadie Johnston  ful campaign by the U.S. Navy: everybody  repeats with little variation, "... policy to  neither confirm nor deny the presence of nuclear weapons ..."  I propose for your editorial guidelines the  word 'stonewall', which more graphically  describes the action of avoiding to answer  a simple and direct question.  In fact, as regards U.S. warships, some  tired U.S. admiral has said that ships able  to carry nuclear weapons normally do carry  them. You can bet they don't mean to  run for San Diego and stock up when a  crisis develops. The U.S. has plans to  nuclear depth charges (which many ships  carry) early in a confrontation with the S<  viet Union.  Apart from that one complaint, thank  you Maura Volante for the February article,  and congratulations to Motherpeace and to  the Nanoose Conversion Campaign. I know  the use of "confirm or deny" was not intended as an endorsement of the Navy, but  I just can't stand the phrase.  Dennis Laplante  Motherpeace  language  Kinesis:  He who controls the words we use to some  degree controls how we think. In all news  media you see the result of a very success-  Rape  monitoring  Kinesis:  In 1983 the federal government passed  Bill C-l27 amendments to the Criminal  Code which dramatically redefined how  the criminal law treated rape. While the  changes in Bill C-127 included some progressive changes, the amendments did not  reflect the needs of rape victims nor adequately reflect the reality of rape.  Many women's groups across the country  decided to support the proposals in Bill C-  127, believing that they represented a first  step towards having legislation that did adequately protect women and which properly  defined rape as a form of violence.  In order to secure support for the legislation from many women's groups, the  government at the time, and the Conservative opposition promised to implement  a thorough and comprehensive education  and monitoring program to ensure the new  laws provided women with protection as  well as assess whether the new provisions  encouraged more women to report their  rapes. Only now is the government acting,  however, the monitoring program they are  putting into place is desperately inadequate.  Among the major problems with the  Department of Justice's current proposed  monitoring program are: the centralization  of control for monitoring in the Department  of Justice, rather than the appointment of  an independent monitoring coordinator or  team, limiting the involvement and control  of local rape crisis centres; the scope of the  proposed contract, including an examination of child sexual assault (it belittles both  rape and child sexual assault to attempt to  comprehensively study both issues within  one study) and severe limitations in both  the allocation of time and money.  We cannot allow the government to minimize or forget their commitments to rape  victims across the country—an independent, comprehensive, victim-based monitoring program is essential.  What You Can Do  • Write, telephone or telegram Justice Minister Ramon Hnatyshyn, House of Commons, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OA6 (613)  990-0690, with copies to your federal  M.P., Hon. Robert Kaplan, Liberal Justice Critic and Svend Robinson, NDP  Justice Critic, demanding that: the current sexual assault monitoring program  be suspended, and an independent, comprehensive victim-based monitoring program be implemented, with consultation  KINESIS  March'87 23 Letters  from women's organizations and anti-  rape movement advocates, as soon as possible.  • Refuse to consult on, or sign any contracts currently being tendered for sexual assault monitoring, until the monitoring program can be appropriately revised and sufficient time and funds are allocated to the process.  • Send as much information as possible  about what is happening in your region  with sexual assault monitoring to the  Male Violence Against Women Committee of NAC, 344 Bloor Street West, Suite  505, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1W9 (419)  922-3246.  FeindePs  article  shallow  Kinesis:  In her article "The Theft of Native Children" [Kinesis, Dec. 86/Jan. 87), Pat Feindel says, "the wholesale removal of native  children from their families and communities by MHR is simply a continuation of that  process (of the economic and social destruction of native people)."  Her heart is, I'm sure, in the right place,  but many of her facts are incorrect and her  conclusions and analysis are at best shallow.  It is easy to blame the "white honky social workers" of the MHR for stealing native  children and raining native families. Bureaucrats make an easy target, none more  so than welfare workers. But in attacking  that easy target, Feindel over-simplifies the  causes of social problems in the native community reducing them to the absurdity of  the mean old bigots from the MHR stealing  our babies.  Feindel admits that "at least forty-six  percent of children in the care of the MHR  are native", while native children make up  less than five percent of the general child  population. What she doesn't say is that  mortality among native children, the causes  of which are often avoidable abuse and ne-  lect, is far higher than among non-natives  and is reflected in the high numbers of native children in the child welfare system.  The simple fact is that native people in  British Columbia have been oppressed to  the extent that their social structures no  longer cope well with late twentieth century bourgeois society. For historic reasons  that are well-known, B.C.'s native population lives b appalling social and economic  conditions.  Even if all social workers were native  and controlled by local band councils, there  'ould be little difference in the number of  children and families requiring intervention.  To assert, as Feindel does, that social  workers delight in apprehending children  "without due cause", or encourage native  parents to "sign away their children into  permanent care" is generalizing to the point  of absurdity. A superficial reading of the  Family and Child Service Act indicates that  it's impossible to "sign away" a child permanently, and that social workers are obligated to protect the lives of infants who are  the weakest victims of poverty and social injustice.  It is the lack of political and economic  power that is at the root, not only of native social problems, but of family breakdown among all the working people of  B.C. Feindel forgets that thousands of non-  native children are apprehended from working class families which are also labeled as  "uneducated" and "rife with alcoholism".  The solution doesn't lie, as Feindel suggests, in "native-controlled" social services  that would only mimic existing systems.  In a society that places more values on  the accumulation of corporate wealth than  on the safety of children and only differentiates between its native and non-native vic  tims in degree of oppression, the solution  lies in more radical changes.  Pat Feindel would do well to direct her  able talents to making those changes to a society that victimizes all working people and  children, native and non-native alike.  Ivan Bulic  Pat Feindel responds:  Your letter raises several points. For  the record, I did not refer in my article to "white honky social workers" or  say they "delight" in apprehending children. Nor did I suggest that child apprehension is the cause of all social problems among native people.  What I did say is, firstly, that there  is a very high rate of native child apprehension that warrants questioning and  secondly, that social workers supported  by the dominant culture's value system  could and have apprehended native children without examining how their actions contribute to a larger pattern of  racist policy.  I did suggest that the system for protecting "the weakest victims of social injustice", in the case of native children,  doesn't work and often hurts the very  children it is supposed to protect. In  addition, removing children from their  community—as has been MHR (now  Ministry of Social Services and Housing) practice—hurts other family members and weakens the whole community.  Your assertion that native control of  child welfare would make no difference  seems insensitive to the issues I was  raising. You imply there is no racism  involved in creating the high percentage  of native children in MHR custody, that  native people simply can't 'cope'. But as  I said in the article, even the funding  structure for native children is fundamentally racist—providing federal funding only for apprehension while other  preventative and support services fall by  the wayside.  I agree that political and economic  oppression has taken its toll on native  family life and social structures. But do  you really think taking children away  from Indian people is an acceptable solution to this state of affairs? Do you  think it increases Indian "political and  economic power"?  The struggle for control over child  welfare services is one component of a  broad struggle for native self-determination and autonomy on many levels.  Native control can ensure that intervention is appropriate for the child's needs  without threatening the survival of the  entire community and culture. Perhaps  I should have made clear in the article that where native control of child  welfare exists, it has meant significant  changes in the procedures and criteria  used for removing children and for setting up foster homes.  Your letter also suggests that racism  is not an important concern for those  a^v5>x°        Flnd  lOUIVoice!  $**      JOIN  WOMAN VISION  MONDAY      7:30-8:30pm  WOMANVISION needs new voices,  hands and ideas to maintain its  high quality programming.  WOMANVISION will train in all  aspec  of i  irk, :  have energy  for  this  Call   684-8494   or   251-3857  working towards radical change. I  strongly disagree. You presume a solidarity and commonality with native  people's oppression which utterly denies the real differences between native  and non-native experience—dismissing  the difference as a matter of degree.  However, colonial occupation of North  America has placed native nations in  a unique position not shared by immigrant "victims of oppression". For one  thing, native people had political and  economic power which was almost totally eliminated by colonial laws.  The crucial factor in native oppression has been race, and the quality of  that oppression has differed because of  the concentrated efforts to eliminate native people as a race. This is no more  the same as "working people's" oppression than women's oppression is the  same as "working people's" oppression.  I am not denying there are common areas of concern, but these cannot be reduced to one simplistic concept. While  you lump native people in with the oppression of all "working people", your  rationalization of native child apprehensions by non-native agencies can  hardly persuade a native person you  would act in their interests.  Fundamental radical changes will indeed be needed to get at the deepest roots  of existing social problems. But one of  those roots, surely, is racist ideology and  practice. Challenges to that are coming from native communities in many  forms—among them, the struggle for  autonomous native governments. Initiatives can come from the non-native  community too—and they start with  recognizing and acknowledging white  privilege, even among oppressed "working" people, examining and changing  the ways we individually have participated in racism, and supporting native  people in the struggles they define for  themselves.  Government  clarifies  Re: "The Theft of Native Children" by  Pat Feindel  In response to the recent article in Kinesis, I would like to add the following information in order to clarify the Ministry  of Social Services and Housing's mandate in  working with Native children.  • The primary goal of the Ministry of Social Services and Housing is to return  Native children to their natural parents  or place with relatives and/or extended  family whenever possible. This decision  is determined on "the best interest of the  child" principle.  fifth annual  INT'L WOMEN'S^ DAY SALE  march 2-8  20% off books with  "woman" or "women"  in the title  Women Impressionists  Women Who Love Too MUch  The Quotable Woman  Olher Women  arid books for women  2766 w.4th ave. van., b.c. 733-35U  • Children in voluntary care, such as short-  term care agreements are not considered  "apprehended".  • The child's parent(s) and his/her band  are required by law, to be notified of any  hearing, whether for temporary or permanent committal.  • The Family and Children's Service Act  places the onus of proof on the Superintendent of Child Welfare to prove a child  is in need of protection.  • The Superintendent's presentation is  made to Family Court by a social worker  and it is the Judge who, having heard all  the evidence, decides whether or not the  child is in need of protection.  • There is no "dress code" or specific physical requirements that parents must meet.  Rather, a number of risk factors are taken  into consideration in assessing whether or  not a child is in need of protection.  • The basic maintenance rate paid to relatives caring for a child, whether as foster parents or under Child in the Home  of a Relative Agreements are the same as  those paid to other foster parents.  • There have been concentrated efforts to  recruit Native foster parents in British  Columbia.  In conclusion, the Ministry of Social Services and Housing is prepared to work cooperatively with any band or identifiable  Native organization towards providing the  best possible environment for a native child  to grow up in. I hope this letter provides a  framework for understanding the Ministry's  official policy in working with native children.  Yours truly,  Carol Rumby  for Andrew Armitage  Superintendent of Family & Child Services  (Victoria)  THE  \&NCOUVER  OUTDOOR  CLUB  FORWOMEN  ORGANIZED AND RUN BY WOMEN  LEARN NEW SKILLS  For more information phone:  Helen 435-7132  HAPPY INTERNATIONAL  WOMEN'S DAY  For more information, please send  S.A.S.E. to us: Sitka Housing Co-operative Society, Box 65689, Station F,  2160 Commercial Dr., Vancouver, B.C.  V5N 5K7.  KINESIS //////////////^^^^  Bulletin Board  EVENTSEVENTS  TRIBUTE TO ROSEMARY BROWN  The NDP Women's Rights Committee is  sponsoring a tribute to Rosemary Brown  wine and cheese party. Heritage Hall,  3102 Main (at 15th).Mar. 27, 7pm.  Women only. Childcare available. More  info. 266-6830 or 879-4601. Tix $10 or  what you can afford.  BWSS/WRC OPEN HOUSE  Battered Women's Support Services and  Women's Research Centre invite their  friends to celebrate their move to new  (larger!) premises. Research Centre is  also launching 2 new publications Mar.  20 4-7 pm, 1066 W. Broadway. More  info. BWSS 734-1574 or WRC 734-0485.  VLC COFFEE HOUSE  VLC hosts coffee houses 1st and 3rd  Fri. of each month. $l-$3. Mar. 27,  songwriter's workshop. Panel of women  All listings must be received no later  than the 18th of the month preceding publication. Listings are limited to  75 words and should include a contact  name and telephone number for any clarification that may be required. Listings  should be typed, or neatly handwritten,  double-spaced on 8| by 11 paper. Listings will not be accepted over the telephone. Groups, organizations and individuals eligible for free space in the Bulletin Board must be, or have, non-profit  objectives. Other free notices will be  items of general public interest and will  appear at the discretion of Kinesis.  Classifieds are $4 for the first 75 words  or portion thereof, $1 for each additional  25 words or portion thereof. Deadline for  classifieds is the 18th of the month preceding publication. Kinesis will not accept classifieds over the telephone. All  classifieds must be prepaid.  For Bulletin Board submissions send  copy to Kinesis Att'n Bulletin Board, 400  A West 5th, Vancouver, B.C., V5Y 1J8.  For more information calf 873-5925.  (Airheart  Co-operative Travel Centre  Deborah Bradley  Travel Consultant  Ellen Frank CTC  Travel Consultant  2149 Commercial Drive  Vancouver, B.C. V5N 4B3  (604)251-2282  CompuServe 71470,3502  songwriters co- sponsored with the Van.  Women's Music Network. No coffee  house Mar. 6 (IWD dance)  TAKEO YAMASHIRO  Shakuhachi virtuoso Takeo Yamashiro  with Minoru Yamamoto (Shakahuchi).  Teresa Kobayashi (Kotu) and Themba  Tana (percussion). Traditional Japanese  Koto music and original compositions.  Mar. 21. 8 pm. Tix $9 general. $7  students/seniors. VECC, 1895 Venables,  254-9578  RAE ARMOUR  Rae Armour returns with Vancouver musicians. Vancouver East Cultural Centre,  1895 Venables. Mar. 20. 8:30 pm. Tix  $12.  RITA MACNEIL  VECC and VFMF present Cape Breton  Island's favorite daughter. The Cultch,  1895 Venables. Mar. 24-28 8 pm. Tix  $10. Tues.-Thurs;$12. Fri. &. Sat.  HOUSE BUILDING PARTY  Women's house building party in the  country. Fun spring break Apr. 17-20.  Camping and limited sleeping space available. Coombs, Vancouver Island. More  info. Liberty 752-5380/ 752-6679 or write  RR#2 Site 295 C-30, Qualicum Beach,  B.C. VOR 2TO  CHILD POVERTY FORUM  Panels, workshops, movie, discussion,  action strategies. Sponsors: End Legislative Poverty, First United Church. B.C.  Teachers Federation, Vancouver School  Board. Apr 4. 9:30 -4:30 pm, Mt. Pleasant School, 2300 Guelph. Reserve free  childcare by Mar. 25, 321-4355. Free bus  fare if needed. $10 or what you can afford. Bag lunch. More info. 321-4355.  MASTERPIECE TRIO  Linda Lee Thomas, piano: Gwen Thompson, violin; and Eric Wilson, cello. Mar.  22, 2:30 pm and 8 pm, Tix $9 general.  tyttrf  DYMEKT  $9 students/seniors Van. East Cultural  Centre, 1895 Venables. 254-9578.  WICCAN SUMMER INTENSIVE  With Starhawk and members of reclaiming collective. Feminist ritual, magic, empowerment. Aug. 9-16. Secluded lower  mainland campsite. l| hour drive from  Vancouver. Open to women and men.  $250-$350 sliding scale includes lodging,  food, training. Send SASE to Patricia  Hogan, 1937 W. 2nd Ave., Vancouver  V6J 1J2.  CENTRAL AMERICA MEETING  Canadian Council for International Cooperation, Inter-Agency Committee on  Central America and B.C. Nicaragua Solidarity Society sponsor 5th B.C. Conference on Central America: A Regional Update. Mar. 20 7-10 pm. Robson Square  Media Centre. Mar, 21 9-6 pm St. An  drew's Wesley Church, 1020 Nelson (at  Burrard). Daycare on Sat and billeting requests by Mar. 6. More info. (604) 732-  1496.  THE LESBIAN SHOW  Thursdays 8:30-9:30 pm. Co-op Radio,  102.7 FM in Vancouver and on cable  throughout B.C. More info and scheduling 684-8494. "Lesbians Talk Back Mar.  12, "Lesbians and the Bars" Mar. 19,  "New Dyke Tales" Mar. 26.  CHERYL CASHMAN  Cheryl Cashman's Turning Thirty. Pushing Forty. Mar. 31-April 11, Turning  Thirty only Fridays 8:30 pm and Saturdays 6 pm. Tix $8.50. 2 for 1 Tuesdays  No shows Sundays and Mondays. VECC  1895 Venables. 254-9578.  255-5858  HAIR  PARLOR  1918 COMMERCIAL DRIVE  VANCOUVER, B.C. V5N 4A7  UPRISING  BREADS  BAKERY  Vancouver's Best  Wholegrain Breads  Come and visit  our new store  I.W.D. COOKIES  AVAILABLE  1697 VENABLES ST.  VANCOUVER, BC  V5L2H1 (604)254-5635  Women Against Violence Against Women / Rape Crisis Centre  WAVAW wishes all women a  Happy International Women's Day!  | Happy International Women's Day  I Support your local]  24   HOUR   CRISIS    LINE      875-6011  NEED   INFORMATION?  WANT  TO  TALK?  'Ģft (604> 875-6963  m  Weds & Sun. 7-10 p.m  400A West 5th Ave.  Vancouver, B.C. Canada V5Y 1J8  Lesbian Information Line  KINESIS  March'87 25 BULLETIN BOARD  SUBMISSIONS!   MISC. ■ WORKSHOPS!WORKSHOPS!  SHORT STORIES WANTED  The Lesbian Show. Co-op Radio (102.7  FM) wants original short stories with lesbian themes by lesbian writers, to be read  on the air Mar. 26. Mail or drop off  typed, double-spaced manuscripts (max.  length 40 minutes when read aloud). The  Lesbian show. 337 Carrall St. Vancouver,  V6B 2J4. Deadline Mar. 9.  SINGING FOR OURSELVES  Singing for enjoyment, singing for meditation, singing for vocal development,  singing for ourselves. Weekly classes  beginning Tues. Mar. 10, 7:30 pm. Sliding scale fee. More info. Maura Volante  872-4251.  -WORKSHOPS  LESBIANS AND AGING  Lesbians aged 50 plus are wanted to participate in research study by SFU Ger-  entology Diploma Program students. For  more details call Maureen Ashfield 254-  1620 or Sally Shamai 879-3030 before  Mar. 10. See this issue's Movement  Matters.  1  3     CARDSt  !/^RECORDS  3 POSTERS**  31* MAGAZINES  oc  TOPUS EASTl  I J  X, ii_^f|! I  3    Tit  mH*~.  jrvfttl  VANCOUVER WOMEN'S HEALTH  COLLECTIVE  Women's Health Collective. 888 Burrard, facilitating free workshops Tuesdays 7:30 pm. Menopause: Mar. 10, Apr.  14, May 12, June 9; Birth Control: Mar.  17, Apr. 21. May 19. June 16: PMS:  Mar.24. Apr. 28. May 26. June 23. Workshops are individual sessions. Info: 682-  1633.  FEMINIST PUBLISHING  Back due to popular demand. Workshop  designed  to  provide readers  and  writers access to alternate feminist publishing.  Focus on  getting work into  print  1146Commercial* 253-0913  CLAIRE  SIGNPAINTER  GRAPHIC TECHNICIAN  COMMUNICATING DESIGN  254 » 8892  OPEN SEVEN DAYS A WEEK,  10am to 7:30pm  • KIDS play space  • FRESH produce —incl. organic  NEW convenient location  10% OFF for seniors, Wed. & Thurs.  1034 COMMERCIAL  254-5044  and tapping into resources of contemporary Women in Print Movement. Mar.  21 10-4 pm. Kootenay School of Writing  Office. 105-1045 W. Broadway. Limited  space. Register early 732-1013.$30 employed $25 otherwise. $4 photocopying.  Instructors Wendy Frost and Michelle  Valiquette.  WOMEN AND AIDS  Women and AIDS workshop, 876 Commercial Drive. Mar. 14. 10-5 pm. Morning sessions addresses specific questions; afternoon session-discussion: issues concern women's lesbian community. Nov. workshop follow-up. New participants should attend in am. Facilitator  Lezlie Wagman, AIDS Vancouver. Registration encouraged. VLC 254-8458.  HEALTH HAZARDS OF VDTs  Women's Skills Development Society Microtechnology Research Group sponsoring workshop on radiation and VDT hazards. Speakers Jean Greatbatch, H.E.U.  and Bernadette Stringer, B.C.N.U. Current research on VDT health hazards  and ways women can protect themselves  against reproductive hazards. Mar. 5, 5-  7 pm. Rm. 3 Robson Square Media Centre, $8 general, $6 unemployed/student.  More info. SFU 291-4304.  OFFICE ENVIRONMENT ISSUES  Looking at topics such as ergonomics  and closed-air buildings, session deals  with office organization and the reduction of health hazards. Concrete ways  clerical workers can deal with workplace environmental issues. Speakers:  Kay Teshke. UBC Dep't of Occupational  Health and Suzanne Fournier, Press Guild  and Province journalist. Mar. 12, 5-  7pm, Rm. 3 Robson Square Media Centre. $8 general, $6 unemployed/student.  Sponsored by Microtechnology Research  Group. More info: SFU Continuing Studies 291-4304.  ADOPTING THE OLDER CHILD  Therapist or Parent: Adopting the Older  Child. Workshop contents offer parents  practical info, and approaches. Mar. 7  9:30 - 3 pm and Mar. 14 9:30 - 1 pm.  $35 for both sessions. $25 for Mar. 7  only. Justice Institute of B.C., Blake Hall,  4180 W. 4th Ave. Registration 228-9771,  local 224. Content 228-9771, local 233.  MIDLIFE DAUGHTERS  Most often it's daughters who are actively involved in care giving as parents  age. Participants will learn how their own  reactions positively and negatively affect  their relationship to their aging parents  and will begin to develop a wide range  of effective coping strategies. UBC ass't  prof, and midlife daughter, Clarissa Green  facilitating. Apr. 4, 8 am - 3 pm, 5185  University Blvd. $55 includes lunch, coffee breaks, handouts. More info, and registration 228-7507.  SANDINISTA LESBIANS  Nicaragua Sandinista lesbians and gays  recently organized Nicaragua's first lesbian/gay group and are looking for con  tacts with other lesbian/gay groups. Du<  to U.S. embargo and war conditions info,  on legal issues and education, newspa  pers, publications and general solidarity  is unavailable. Donations welcome. Mai"  travelling through U.S. often stopped,  best to send through traveller coming to  Nicaragua. Write Rita Arauz, Apartado  A-262. Managua, Nicaragua, CA.  HEALTH COLLECTIVE  The Vancouver Women's Health Collective has new hours for their extensive  women's health information centre and  phone lines: Tues. to Thurs. 10 am - 4  pm, Thurs. 6-9 pm and Sat. 1-4 pm. 888  Burrard, 682-1633.  MANUSCRIPT GROUP  Press Gang Publishers is a feminist col  lective looking for women to join volunteer manuscript group. Aim: develop  book ideas for publication. More info.  Delia McCreary 253-2537.  RADIO WOMEN WANTED  If you think women's voices should be  heard on radio, Womanvision, Co-op  Radio's feminist public affairs program  needs you. We're looking for women to  come forward and participate in producing shows. Learn skills, meet women and  be part of feminist media network. Training provided. More info: Louie Etting  (days) at Co-op Radio. 684-8494.  COMPULSIVE EATING  I want to meet with other lesbians who  struggle with compulsive eating. I'd like  to form a support group to look deeply at  related issues and explore ways of learning to trust, know, and be expressive of  our physical, emotional, social, political  and spiritual needs. If interested call Ann  253-0465.  HAPPY INTERNATIONAL  WOMEN'S DAY  U.B.C. OFFICE FOR WOMEN STUDENTS  • Responds to questions from prospective students.  • Counselling services for women students.  FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: 228-2415  SvefyWeaf  IN SOLIDARITY WITH OUR SISTERS.  HAPPY INTERNATIONAL  WOMEN'S DAY  Downtown Eastside Residents  Association  682-0931  -"  ii&fe  ■$00  Wr&'^smm  -^_/5  3^  margo dunn  f ariel books for women  '        2766 west 4th ave.  feminist theoi  Vancouver, b.c.  women's writing     TM  Canada v6kin  ending abuse  (604)735-5511  _/At£ GouxU.%  PIGEON  proqram your  683-1610  683-2696  <?i  NEW ARRIVALS  WHAT IS FEMINISM?  -Ed. Juliet Mitchell $14.95  WOMEN: A WORLD REPORT  -New Internationalist .... $12.35  WOMEN IN IRELAND:  VOICES OF CHANGE .... $17.35  PIRATES AND EMPERORS:  INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM  Spartacus Books  311 West Hastings Street  Vancouver, B.C.  688-6138  26 KINESIS ///////////////////^^^^^  /////////////////////^^^^^  bulletin Board  WORKSHOPSICLASSIFIED  "The Fairies Are Thirsty", the controversial feminist play, is coming to Firehall Theatre, see Events listing. Don't miss it!  I W D     EVENTS  HEATHER BISHOP  Vancouver Folk Music Festival celebrates  IWD. Heather Bishop, Kris Purdy (bass)  and Sherry Shute (lead guitar). VECC,  1895 Venables, Mar. 8, 8 pm. Tix $10.  Mar. 8 2-5 pm. Free, ail welcome,  wheelchair accessible. More info. 872-  2250.  PARADE AND RALLY  Pedestrians gather 10 am at the Vancouver Art Gallery Mar. 7. Bring banners,  balloons, noise-makers ... Parade begins  11 am sharp. Pre-registered vehicles (call  872-5874) gather 10 am, Sunset Beach.  Rally with speakers and song 1 pm, Art  Gallery.  A HERSTORY OF CHOICE  Britannia Community Centre, 1661 Napier. Mar. 8, 7:30 pm. For Info. Concerned  Citizens for Choice on Abortion 876-9920  or 434- 9615.  DANCE  VLC hosts IWD Dance, Capri Hall,  3925 Fraser. Mar. 6, 8 pm. Tix $4 &  $6, available Ariel Books, Little Sisters,  Women's Bookstore, VLC. Women only.  Wheelchair accessible, childcare off-site.  TAPPING THE SOURCE  B.C. Federation of Labour Women's  Rights Committee Conference Mar. 6-7,  Robson Square Media Centre. More info.  430-1421.  CANADIAN CONGRESS  Congress of Canadian Women IWD Mar.  8 2:30-5:30 pm. 600 Campbell Ave. More  info. 254-9797.  DISPLAYS  Vancouver Public Library (Burrard &  Robson) and Carnegie Centre. Mar. 1-  15. Posters, IWD photo-herstory, Women  and Unions, South African women.  COFFEE HOUSE  Celebrate IWD. VLC, 876 Commercial  Drive, Mar. 8 7:30 pm. Special guest  Christine Donald reading from her new  book Fat Women Measure Up. Musician Carol Street and a capella group  Aya performing. Also new and exciting  art exhibit. All women welcome. Partially  wheelchair accessible.  NEW SCREENINGS/OPEN HOUSE  Women  in   Focus,  456  W.   Broadway.  IWD RADIO  Co-op Radio's women celebrate IWD  with 18 hours of programming. Besides  topics listed, expect newscasts, music and writings. Mar. 8, 8 am-2 am  women run the airwaves. 8:00 Celebrating Women's Voices; 9:00 What We Do:  10:30 Native Women: 11:30 Women Voicing: Noon Welcome to IWD Radio; 12:30  Liberation: Linking Arms; 2:15 Mothering; 4:00 Flux Deluxe; 6:45 Health and  Healing; 8:00 Women Fighting Racism;  9:00 Women of Spirit; 10:30 Talking  About Writing; midnight Party Time.  102.7 FM Vancouver, on cable elsewhere  in B.C. More info: Louie 684-8494 or Sue  251-3857.  NICARAGUA WOMEN'S SECTOR  Is looking for new members. Meeting  at Britannia Community Centre. 1661  Napier, Rm. L.3 on Mar. 27, 7-9  pm. Showing video tape documenting  Nicaragua women's tour. Day care.  VANCOUVER LESBIAN CENTRE  Open Mon. to Fri. 11 am-4 pm, 876 Commercial Drive. Ongoing groups: coming  out, young lesbians, and violence in relationships. More info. 254-8548.  CLASSIFIED  NANNY WANTED  To live co-operatively in Parksville. Room  and board plus $600 mo. Another child  welcome. 248-2904.  PRESS GANG IS HIRING  New collective member will be press operator, preferably experienced printer capable of running 19 X 25 press. Will  also consider small press operator. Starts  Apr. 13. Application deadline Mar. 20.  Minimum 2 year commitment. Bring resume to Press Gang, 603 Powell St., and  fill in application. Applications accepted  from experienced printers for on-call casual work.  WOMEN'S CO-OP WANTED  Woman, 27, seeks warm and friendly coop to live in. I am encouraging of all  kinds of women and expect same. Easy  to live with, serious, sense of humour.  In roommates I seek people with similar priorities—desires to set up a healthy  and supportive home life for women taking charge of their lives. Rent $200 -  $300 (possibly higher). Apr. 1. Terry  253-3818.  SATURNA ISLAND RETREAT  Enjoy the unspoiled quiet of island life  in 12 room historic farmhouse nestled in  28 acres with private beach. Reasonable  rates. Groups, families and individuals.  Breezy Bay Bed and Breakfast, Saturna  Island, B.C. VON 2YO. (604) 539-2937.  BOOKSTORE OPENINGS  Two staff openings at Ariel Books. One  Part-time, requires knowledge of feminist literature and politics. Bookstore experience essential. Also require feminist  with vehicle to do occasional book tables. Send resumes to Margo Dunn, Ariel  Books, 2766 W. 4th Ave. Vancouver V6K  1R1 by Mar. 15.  TWO SPACES AVAILABLE SOON  Four bedroom shared house. Kits/Pt.  Grey, garden, fireplace. $250. mo. plus  utilities. Emphasis on creating home en  vironment with compatible people. Share  meals, chores, and Agora Food Co-op  membership. Common interests include  theatre, outdoors, vegetarian, food, cats  beach walks. Russel or Valerie 732-8927  RETREAT  Spring, summer or weekend retreat.  Robert's Creek—Sunshine Coast. Gorgeous beach, privacy, wooded. $15 daily.  Also weekly and group rates. Women  only. Hanna 291-4268 days, 876-4256  evenings.  STUDIO APARTMENT WANTED  Feminist commuting looking for studio  apt. Clean, inexpensive, quiet and bright  for long term occasional use. 253-3386 or  876- 4256 evenings.  PERSONAL CARE ATTENDANT  Wanted for 3 physically disabled adults in  False Creek area. Domestic chores. Self-  motivated. Driver's licence required. Ap-  prox. $60 per day. More info. 736-7107  days or 732-1694 evenings.  FABRIC BANNERS  Fabric   banners,   all   sizes,   any  desig  made to order. Also bed quilts, made,  you like, from your old clothes and other  memories. Reasonable rates. 734-9395.  of*  $  KINESIS  March'87 27 LIBRARY PR0CESSIN6 CENTRE-SERIALS  2206 EAST MALL, U,  3^...  Published 10 times a year  hy Vancouver Status of Women  400A West 5th Ave., Vancouver, BC V5Y 1J8  □ VSW Membership-$25.50 (or what you can afford) -includes Kinesis subscripts  □ Kinesis subscription only - $17.50       □ Sustainers - $75  Q Institutions - $45  D Here's my cheque  D Bill me  □ New  D Renewal  □ Gift subscription for a friend


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