Kinesis

Kinesis Apr 1, 1984

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 r  mr/?£  ■  1  Porn   'experts'   met   in  I  Toronto in February—fern-  inists were only invited as  observers. Susan Cole  looks at what transpired.  4 As the provincial NDP  leadership convention approaches, the cry goes up  again for a 'revitalization'  of the party. Is it really possible, or just campaign rhetoric? Jan DeGrass comments.  8 Women behind the Iron  Curtain are challenging the  state to work on disarmament. Kinesis reports.  9 In this month's feature  supplement, Kinesis looks  at women and the arts, including features on graffitti,  women and video, local  dancers, and more.  14 The 'girl group sound'  dominated the airwaves in  the early 60's. Who were  these women? Did they  control their own careers?  Connie Smith gives us the  story.  17 In an article on the  economics of creativity,  Cy-Thea and calls on feminists to keep our visions  vital by paying attention to  the means of production  as well as the end.  18 Barbara Godard reviews Zarkeen, Pegeen  Brennan's novel about the  origins of creative expression.  24 Feminist writer and  witch Starhawk was in Vancouver recently. Jennifer  Svendsen asked her about  her personal journey into  witchcraft.  COVER: Graphic by Jeanne Taylor  Design by Claudia Macdonald  SUBSCRIBE TO KIMESIJ  Published 10 times a year  by Vancouver Status of Women  400A West 5th Ave., Vancouver, B.C. V5Y 1J8  , □ VSW membership - includes Kinesis subscription -  $20 (or what you can afford) ftk^M  D Kinesis subscription only - $13  □ Institutions - $40  □ Sustainers - $75  Name  Address  Phone  Please re  funding -  Amount Enclosed  nember that VSW operates on  - we need member support!  inadequate  w  to 3  at  ><  S3  10  §2.1  Anrll 84  $1  news about women that's not in the dailies  ■* 2 •*  ft 2 c  m  <23  interviews with local photographers  pioneer women writers  girl groups of the 60's  liB I  women and the NDP  soviet peace activists  grenada: before the invasion KMffJJJ  This Granville Island mural  is the work of many women  in preparation for Witches'  Eve, April 30, a traditional  night for women's actions.  No decision  on VSW funds  in an end of March letter, Attorney-  General Brian Smith informed the Vancouver  Status of Women that the organization will  receive interim funding for the months of  April and May. However, a decision is still  pending regarding funding for the remaining year. VSW was not the only "special  project" put on hold for an extended  two month period. All special projects  funded through the Attorney General's  Ministry are awaiting approval for their  1984 budget submissions. Other special  projects include: People's Law School,  Native Courtworker's Association of B.C.,  WAVAW/Rape Crisis Centre, and Elizabeth  Fry Society.  In the letter sent out to all special  projects, VSW was also informed that if  the organization received a cut in its  1984 grant, the cut would be made retroactive to April 1.  The_ concern over a future cut made on a  retroactive basis makes current planning  almost impossible, say staffers who have  been juggling the insecure funding situation since January. Nonetheless, Board  and staff are hopeful that the two-  month interim period indicates a grant  to be forthcoming.  Supporters who have not yet written a letter to the Attorney-General are urged to  do so immediately.  Porn experts challenged  by Susan Cole  Reprinted from Broadside  Feminist rhetoric has grown so powerful  and convincing that a number of American  and Canadian scientists, men for the most  part, are working on impressive careers  bolstered by their study of the effects  of pornography on viewers.  For the first time ever, an attempt was  made to gather together these august  clinicians for a conference on media  violence and pornography. The Toronto  conference, held Feb. 5th, was sponsored  by three action groups: Action Group on  Media Pornography, Canadian Coalition  Against Violent Entertainment and the  National Coalition on Television Violence.  The brains behind the conference belonged to David Scott, a local Ph.D. candidate  in psychology with a high profile on the  Metro Toronto Task Force on Public Violence Against Women and Children.  All the heavyweights were planned for the  agenda: Neil Malamuth (U of Manitoba); Edward Donnerstein (U of Wisconsin, whom you  may remember as a bearded scientist from  'Not a Love Story' who talked about what a  "time bomb" agressive pornography can be);  Dr. Dolf Zilman (University of Indiana),  who's been looking at reactions to so-  called non-violent porn; Peter De Julio,  the Toronto Crown Counsel who has prosecu-  B.C. Women's Centres meet  Eighty women representing 30 women's  centres from throughout British Columbia  and the Yukon met in Richmond at the  beginning of March to discuss funding,  networking and priorities. The conference,  which arose from concern about the funding insecurities experienced by the  centres, was sponsored and attended by  representatives of the Secretary of State  Women's Programs.  Women at the conference attended workshops on the funding process, writing  applications, networking, and the priorities of the centres. Many pointed out  the added burden that women's centres  are taking on in the face of massive  cuts to social services in B.C. The result was a resolution to lobby the Secretary of State to keep adequate ongoing  funding in place for women's centres  working toward social change. Carol  Gordon, of the Cranbrook Women's Centre,  says, "We don't want to have to keep  changing our goals to accomodate  Secretary of State rules for qualifying."  The presence of Secretary of State representatives enabled the women to drive  this point home, says Gordon. "One of  the reasons the conference was so good  was we could voice our feelings in unison. They were right there, they had to  listen, and I think they heard us."  Other results of the conference were the  formation of a provincial steering committee, and plans for another conference  to be held next year. The steering committee will be working on sharing information in the province and the Yukon as  well as implementing the resolutions.They  have already mailed a post-conference  questionnaire to the delegates, asking  what their centres have, and what they  need. A packet of materials compiled from  presentations delivered at the conference  is also available.  For more information contact the Steering Committee: Carol Gordon, c/o Cranbrook Women's Centre, 101 7th Ave. South,  Cranbrook, VIC 2J3, 426-2912.  ted more obscenity cases than just about  anybody else in Canada; and the biggie, Dr.  Everet Koop, Surgeon-General of the U.S.,  slated to give the luncheon address.  The preponderance of men on the original  schedule (to say nothing of the American  representation) prompted those women who  were able to hear of the conference through  academic channels to wonder where all the  women were. American feminist law professor  Catherine MacKinnon was one of them, and  she phoned Scott to question the women's  absence from the agenda. Scott quickly  covered his tracks: "Would you like to  come?" "Yes, I would," said MacKinnon,  "and make sure Andrea Dworkin is there too,  and all the women organizing across Canada.'  Scott confessed he should include them all.  In the end, the conference agenda looked  like a paradigm of sex stereotypes, with  men appearing as the objective discoverers  of truth while women appeared to be doing  what we do best - react. The morning was  to be taken up with reports from the academic sector. The first panel on violence  and television featured nine participants,  two of whom were women. The second panel  promised the findings of the research on  the effects of pornography - five panelists, two women. The luncheon address was  to be given by the star of the show, Dr.  Koop. The first panel of the afternoon on  pornography: victims and perpetrators, included two women. Then Andrea Dworkin was  to address the throng. The two panels  with a preponderance of women were crammed  in at the end of the day.  In the meantime, the conference organizers  thought they had the uneasy coalition between feminists and the decency contingent  under control, without understanding that  you simply cannot bring activits out to a  conference of this nature without having  a political potboiler on your hands. Scott  attempted to diffuse the tension by admon-  ising the participants "not to raise the  potentially divisive issues, such as homosexuality and abortion."  The morning session began and the drone of  scholarly male voices filled the auditorium. Donnerstein livened things up with his  findings on aggressive pornography, informing the audience that prolonged exposure  led his subjects to trivialize rape. As  usual, Donnerstein's visuals were compelling: a remarkable sequence from an R-rated  (US) film called "Toolbox Murders" which  features a female victim masturbating in  a bathtub before being brutally murdered  to the tune of a love song. Still, none of  the material was in context.  continued on p. 27 Kinesis   April '84  MOVEMENT MATTERS  Liberal budget:    ?; ¬ß  Another disappointment for pensioners  by Lorri Rudland  In December, 1983, after months of special hearings across Canada, the Parliamentary Task Force on Pension Reform released its report. Unfortunately the  report will not significantly assist  women.  Following its release, Minister of Finance Marc Lalonde brought down the Feb.  15 Liberal budget. In the budget Lalonde  was supposed to demonstrate the Liberal  government's oft-stated commitment to  improve pensions, particularly the lot  of women. Not surprisingly, the budget  was another disappointment for pensioners.  The major goals of pension reform are to  ensure that retirement income is not too  severely reduced from pre-retirement' income, and that it be adequate to establish a dignified standard of living.  The Parliamentary Task Force failed to  come to grips with these issues despite  the testimony of most women's organizations , labour unions, and progressive  community groups, whose solutions were  clear: raise Old Age Security (OAS) to  a decent standard of living, do away with  the income-tested Guaranteed Income  Supplement (GIS) as much as possible,  and double the earnings-related Canada/  Quebec Pension Plan from a 25% to a 50%  replacement rate of pre-retirement  income. None of these groups expressed  any confidence in the private plans,  KMMStJ  KINESIS is published ten times a year  by Vancouver Status of Women. Its  objectives are to enhance understanding about the changing position  of women in society and work actively  towards achieving social change.  VIEWS EXPRESSED IN KINESIS are  those of the writer and do not necessarily reflect VSW policy. All unsigned  material is the responsibility of the  Kinesis editorial group.  CORRESPONDENCE: Kinesis, Vancouver Status of Women, 400 A West  5th Ave., Vancouver, B.C. V5Y 1J8.  MEMBERSHIP in Vancouver Status of  Women is $20/year (or what you can  afford). This includes a subscription  to Kinesis. Individual subscriptions  to Kinesis are $13/year.  SUBMISSIONS are welcome. We re-  . serve the right to edit, and submission  does not guarantee publication.  WORKERS THIS ISSUE: Libby Barlow,  Jan DeGrass, Vicky Donaldson, Cole  Dudley, Dorothy Elias, Patty Gibson,  Anne Grace, Linda Grant, Nicky Hood,  Kim Irving, Emma Kivisild, Cat L'Hiron-  delle, Claudia Macdonald, Jean McGregor, Nichola Martin, Patty Moore,  Judy Rose, Rosemarie Rupps, Cy-Thea  Sand, Swee Sim Tan, Valerie, Marrianne  van Loon, and Michele Wollstonecroft.  KINESIS is a member of the Canadian  Periodical Publishers Association.  which could be notoriously unreliable,  not available in all jobsites, discriminatory to women and not protected against  inflation.  All of these groups expressed confidence  in the public Canada/Quebec Pension Plan  which has immediate vesting, portability  (transfer of plan between workplaces),  inflation protection and is generally  non-discriminatory.  The Parliamentary Task Force  failed in three major ways to address  the real needs of women and men in Canada  for a dignified retirement income:  1. They failed to increase the OAS and  GIS to at least the -poverty line. Instead  they recommended that the GIS (the income  tested supplement) be increased to a  maximum of $102/mth, which would equal  $644. Under the recommended increase,  Task Force members admit that it would  provide no benefit increase to 3/4 of the  elderly. It would only assist the extremely poor.  The Liberal government's response to this  recommendation in their February budget  speech was to reduce the increase by 1/2.  Pensioners will now.receive a $50 increase: $25 on July 1st and on-Dec. 1st.  This amount raises a pensioner's income  to $7100/yr., which is $1300 below the  urban poverty line.  2. They failed to recommend an expansion  of the Canada/Quebec Pension Plan (C/QPP).  Instead, they rely on private plans to  do the job.  Nelson women  protest sexist ad  Nelson women are taking* action to protest  the local paper's endorsement of a violent  and sexist advertisement.  The Nelson Daily News has reprinted, free,  on its editorial page, a blown up version  of a Heads' Boots ad that advertises "Powerful boots for men who work" with a semi-  clad woman with an axe embedded near her  head.  Anyone who sees sexual symbols and connotations in the apple, axe or trees surrounding the scantily-clad woman should "seek  psychiatric help," said the publisher's  note in the March 5 edition.  Local Kootenay Tractor manager Peter Hart-  ridge, whose store placed the ad, says,  "It's sexist in a way, but hell, today what  isnt ? You look at anything it's sexist.  Just look at car ads." He claimed that the  ad, which he calls "eye-catching," does not  perpetuate sexism.  Hartridge also said it would be fair to  use a black person or a Jew to sell a product, where that kind of advertising could  clearly be labelled exploitative.  The Nelson Women's Centre has sent the ad,  along with a complaint that it sets up a  potential rape scene, to Media Watch, the  national watchdog on sexism in the media.  Kootenay West MP Lyle Kristiansen has also  registered his objections.  -from Images  3. They failed to redress the poverty of  all women over age 65, whether .they worked  in the home full-time or in the paid  labour force. Instead, they recommended  a small homemaker's supplement ($130/mth)  which will go to one-earner couples only  (where the spouse works full-time in the  home). This proposal bonuses the one-  earner family (13% more pension income  than the 2-earner family or single working person) and compensates full-time  homemaker's for housework, while  X ensions for homemakers  reinforces traditional roles and  philosophically allies women with  the new right, who have no doubt  whatsoever about where  women belong.  ignoring the housework of single women,  or women who work in the paid labour  force and at home. Most significantly,  pensions for homemakers becomes a kind  of deferred wages for housework. It reinforces traditional roles of women and  philosophically allies women with the  new right who have no doubt whatsoever  about where women belong.  The Parliamentary Task Force made clear  its commitment to private and individual  pension plans as the correct vehicle from  which Canadians could prepare for retirement. So, they tidied up the private  plans.  Certainly, many of their recommendations  we appreciate, and are long overdue, including a two year vesting rule, coverage  for part-time workers, disclosure to  both spouses of the full details of pension benefits, mandatory credit-splitting  between spouses, mandatory survivor's  benefits, some inflation protection and  opposition to termination of survivor  benefits upon remarriage in both C/QPP  and private plans. But these adjustments  are not good enough. The majority of  Canadian women and some men over the age  of 65 will still live below the poverty  line.  In the February budget speech, Lalonde  reiterated his party's commitment to the  elderly and then told them how much of  an increase they would receive. As previously stated, the increase is only $50  spread over 1984. The rest of the amendments Lalonde proposed are in line with  the Parliamentary Task Force proposals  above: Strengthen the private plans and  improve the individual retirement savings  plans.  But only 38% of women workers are presently covered by private plans and no sudden  increase should be expected as private  plans have not expanded in any significant  way for over forty years.  Lalonde has not made any commitment to  the special homemakers pension, and instead stated that he will begin discussion  with the provinces on introducing this  item into the CPP and on improving CPP  survivor and disability pensions. April '84   Kinesis   3  ACROSS B.C.  Artists protest  video cancellation  Vancouver artists put two resolutions  through the Vancouver Art Gallery (VAG)  AGM, and organized an informational picket  of the gallery as part of mounting public  protest against the first major assault on  alternative forms of representing sexuality  in the city.  When Luke Rombout, Director of VAG, decided  .to cancel 'Sexual Views', the second part  of the Confused video series by Paul Wong  and his co-producers Jeannette Reinhardt,  Gina Daniels, and Gary Bourgeois, he was  acting as an ex officio censorship board.  The artists' protests took the form of an  informational picket a few days prior to  the AGM, during which they painted banners  and collected more than 300 signatures in  opposition to the decision, and two motions  at the AGM, requesting that the VAG Board  of Trustees apologize to Wong and his co-  producers, and that a committee be formed  to examine the lines of authority at the  gallery. Both motions passed. About 300  people attended the meeting.  While Rombout's decision is not direct  state censorship in the sense that it is  experienced in Ontario, where Not a Love  Story, ■•some  gay and lesbian publications,  A Message From Our Sponsor,  and other works  critiquing the dominant expression of sexuality have been banned, it is nonetheless  a political ruling.  'Sexual Views' is-comprised of twenty-seven  interviews with individuals, couples, and  families (traditional and non-traditional)  speaking about their early sexual experiences, sexual orientation, and preferences  of sexual activity. It is a valuable work  in that it presents sexuality as information, not as erotic or pornographic material; it provides a clear view that het-  erosexuality is not the only possible sexual practice and it empowers the speakers  by allowing them to represent their sense  of their own sexuality to the camera and  the audience.  Rombout cancelled the show because of its  content. He felt that the Vancouver art  public (an ambiguous entity) was not ready  to see people talking openly about sex, albeit in a restricted viewing space. Not  only is that decision presumptuous, but it  also suggests that alternate attempts to  represent sexual experience have no place  in a public arena. It relegates sexual experience to the private sphere of the bedroom, while leaving untouched the rampant  increase of pornography, rock video, and  right-wing morality which fills another  public, but supposedly private, space, the  television.  A recent letter, drafted by the Vancouver  Artists League for endorsement, says the  decision "represents a dangerous and neg-  tive suppression of the artist's right to  create. It undermines the public's right  to have access to as broad as possible a  spectrum of art work within a public gallery ."  The letter, signed by the Unit Pitt Gallery, the Western Front Society, Video Inn,  and the League, states its objections to  the show's cancellation for several reasons, including that "it is not the function of a public art gallery to control  the production of art, but rather to encourage and support its development." The  letter objects specifically to the rejection of the show only three days prior to  its scheduled opening, and says that the  gallery has impugned the reputation and  artistic integrity of the artists.  It goes on to point out that the parameters  of video art include documentary and semi-  documentary concern with social, political  and moral issues, and that 'Sexual Views'  falls well within those parameters. The  artists also question "why pornography is  readily available within our culture, but  an art work that deals with sexuality in  an honest and non-exploitative way is censored."  The letter expresses a fear on the part of  these artists that Rombout's decision is  "a political one based upon a new orientation of (the galler's) leadership towards  a conservative public image, presumed to be  in line with its recently enlarged membership, its extensive corporate patronage and  public funding from municipal, provincial,  and federal agencies."  Women who feel strongly about this issue  can send a letter to VAG at 750 Hornby St.,  Vancouver, B.C. The Paul Wong Defense Fund  can be contacted at 688-3827.  Kamins melds  art and politics  by Michele Wollstonecrof t  Jeannie Kamins is a visual artist who is  very visible in the Vancouver community  both as an artist and a political person.  Kamins, an active member of the Vancouver  Artist's Alliance, was part of the Artist's  protest at the Vancouver Art Gallery on  March 18th. Jeannie was responsible in  the five hours of the protest for collecting the 378 signatures on a petition  protesting Luke Rombout's cancellation of  Paul Wong's video installation.  "The cancellation of this video show is  symptomatic; I am supporting this as an  issue that affects all artists. My reason  behind the protest is that the Vancouver  Art Gallery shows no respect for or interest in local artists. We feel that we  have a right to have representation and  participation in the Vancouver Art Gallery.  We don't want it to be just a museum."  Jeannie Kamins, herself, is exhibiting her  work in two current exhibitions. Aerotika  II at the Phoenix Gallery, is a group show  based on the theme of the erotic. It  includes some of Jeannie's large fabric  applique of people bathing.  Jeannie also has a one-woman exhibition,  Portraits,  at the Unit/Pitt Exhibition  Space.  A happy-looking self-portrait in the front  window invites the passer-by into the  gallery. In the centre of the room is a  piece that represents an entirely different sentiment. Thank God They Don't Have  the Bomb  is a large painting which portrays 11 members of the "inner-circle" of  the Socreds. Bill Bennett is portrayed in  a tutu, Grace McCarthy is there, Rogers,  Hewitt and so on. The scene is like an  orgy, with fleshy pink bodies, one dressed  only in leather whipping another. They  feast on drinks and food served to them  by Jack Munro. In the background looms  the stadium.  Beside this painting is a corresponding  written text that describes each minister  and explains his/her role in budget cutbacks. When asked if she thought the  people portrayed in this painting might  find it offensive, Jeannie replied, "I  sent them all invitations to this show."  .Our Apologies.  regrets the following error which  appeared in our March 84 issue. Re: book  review by Cy-Thea Sand on Makeda Silvera's  book Silenced,fourth paragraph from the  end, second to: last sentence should have  read: "It is a disquieting image and an  indication of the limitations of radical  feminist theory',', not racial feminist  theory,as printed. Our apologies to  Cy-Thea Sand, the author of the article.  Battering case  sets precedent  by Margaret Keelaghan  The issue of battered women is one that  we are all concerned about, but when a  man goes one step further and murders his  wife or lover, we can feel nothing short  of outrage. Men are murdering their wives  in 'domestic disputes" at an alarming  rate and worse, a significant majority of  these men are getting off with appallingly  light sentences.  A case in point is the brutal slaying of  Linda Marie Chemko late last summer in  Vernon. Statements at the preliminary  hearing on November 1, 1983, by witnesses  bore testimony to frequent beatings before the death, the death itself being  the result of one of the most severe  beatings the coroner had ever seen. Despite a mass of evidence supporting the  original second degree murder charge, on  November 24, Steven Chemko pleaded guilty  to a reduced charge of manslaughter. He  was sentenced to four years. Chances are  he will be released in less than two.  One of the justifications for Chemko's  light sentence was the precedence set by  other cases with other such murderers  getting off with the same or lighter sentences. Obviously, some changes in the  judicial system are in order. The'underlying mentality still seems to be that  a man's wife is his possession and he may  do what he wants with her, and this includes killing her.  One step in the direction of making  changes is to demand a public inquiry in  to the Chemko case. As many letters to  the Attorney General as possible are  needed. Please voice your concern. Write  to Brian Smith, Attorney General of B.C.,  Parliament Buildings, 506 Government St.,  Victoria, B.C. V8V 1X4.  New university  challenges budget  The first semester term at Budget U. has  officially started. The university, opened  by Women Against the Budget, is intended  to give information about the current political situation in B.C.  Course offerings cover a wide variety of  topics, including series on "Grimm Fairy  Tales: the Mythology of the Right", "News-  peak is Alive and Well and Living in British  Columbia", "Cut Along the Bias: What's  Happening to B.C.'s Educational System",  "How the Right Got it Together and Why the  Left Had Better", and "Everything is For  the Best In This Best of All Possible  Worlds." Featured speakers come from  diverse backgrounds to cover many different  perspectives on the problem. Courses are  designed to promote student participation.  Budget U. creators hope that the university  will promote new ideas and new political  strategies to deal with government social  and economic policies.  Unlike other universities in this province,  registration is not required, and courses  are free and open to everybody.  If you want more information about the  courses, which run into May, contact *the  Lower Mainland Solidarity Coalition at  879-6884; or 255-7820; or 251-1402. Or  write to Women Against the Budget, Box  65366 Station F, Vancovuer V5N 5P3.  Donations are welcome, please make cheques  out to Women Against the Budget, and mark  them for Budget U.  Graduation night is Saturday, May 12 at  the Ukranian Hall, 805 E. Pender and  diplomas will be awarded. 4   Kinesis   April W  ACROSS BC  by Jan DeGrass   ii®&&MfrS*'!*%'  *  !k'£  As the New Democratic Party heads for its  May leadership convention, it is apparent  that many feminists are left somewhat disillusioned with the party's performance  over the past year. After all, the disillusionment started early, back when they  lost the May '83 election after having had  seven years to develop new policy, work  out a winning strategy, and "revitalize"  the party - a phrase that features prominently in much of the leadership campaign  literature.  Just two months following the NDP defeat  last spring, voters got a taste of the  consequences of losing. Everyone - NDP or  not - lost to the Social Credit's harsh  and repressive budget package that came  down in the wake of their electoral victory* To a party steeped in the importance  of parliamentary procedure, the NDP MLA's  subsequent trashing in the legislature virtually stripped them of any remaining  ability to take up the vanguard of the  anti-budget fightback. As the legislature  dragged to its weary end, thousands of  'B.C. citizens threw their support behind  Operation Solidarity and the Solidarity  Coalition, taking their fight onto the  streets and the picket lines.  Even at that point, however, there was  still a certain amount of sympathy for  the elected opposition MLA's who were  fighting a losing battle with a government  that was prepared to change the rules  whenever it wanted and that left no tactic  untried to render the opposition as ineffectual as possible. But when the NDP  publicly; withdrew its support for the  Solidarity strike action, arguing that  the legislature was the only place for  the fightback to take place, sympathy  was increasingly lost in a groundswell of  anti-budget outrage that was heading for  a general strike.  In the November '83 issue of Kinesis  the  article "Women Evaluate Crisis" gave a  sampling of opinions from feminists active  in Solidarity organizing. During the  course of interviewing more than 20 women  for that article it became clear to  Kinesis  writers that a profound frustration with the NDP leadership's lack of  support for community based anti-budget  work was brewing. This month, with the  provincial leadership campaign underway,  and a cry from a number of candidates for  a renewed party, is a good opportunity  to examine the source of that frustration  from a feminist's point of view,  view.  Where does the disillusionment stem from?  Are the cries for revitalization really  new, or are they they same old electioneering under a new title? Is the 'women's  candidate' Margaret Birrell running to  assauge the party's feminist conscience  or is she a serious contender? If,  as evidenced by her background, she is a  hard-working women's rights activist, why  has there been such an underwhelming show  of support for her from the B.C. women's  movement ?  As has been amply pointed out by Women  Against the Budget, the Solidarity Coalition, and a multitude of other social  service groups, those who have been most  severely affected by the Social Credit  budget have been women. On an electoral  level, women are left with little choice  but to fight the policies adversely affecting women by voting for the NDP or  not voting at all. In an essentially two-  party province, dissatisfaction with the  Socred's policies means only one alternative. But how much of an alternative is  the NDP?  People who vote for a party because they  have no choice, are unlikely to be enthusiastic or vocal campaigners. They are  more likely to feel as if they are being  taken for granted. Why would politicians  Women  and the NDP  \jv^ 8  ire*  yjA  concern themselves with a constituency  that has its guaranteed vote? Unless, of  course, those politicians truly believe  the principles that its party stands for.  Evidence of belief in party principles is  always abundant during campaign time, but  an examination of the six candidate profiles as published in The Democrat (the  NDP's paper), indicates where the candidates stand on women's issues.  Margaret Birrell, certainly, buttresses  her campaign with two issues she says  she is "convinced are of vital concern  to New Democrats": technological change  and the rising waves of commercialized  pornography". Although she stresses that  the hi-tech revolution is of concern to  all workers, it is surely no accident  that these two issues are of paramount  importance to women. When questioned,  Birrell contended that she sees women's  issues in every issue. "There are policies already in place within the NDP,"  she says. "If elected, a woman leader  would move on those programs immediately."  That sentiment is echoed by Frances Was-  serlein, an activist who has worked with  battered women for. many years. "Oh yes,  the policy is,there in the NDP... there's  policy coming out of their ears... but  its action they need." Wasserlein won't  support the present campaign because she  has lost a lot of faith in the NDP. "I'd  still do election work for the NDP as an  alternative to the Socreds. The NDP is  all we've got. But I really think there  are so many other issues that women have  to work on, especially issues like violence against women."  Wasserlein points out that Birrell's is  an "uphill fight - a fight to change attitudes and behaviour. She may be seen as  an outspoken feminist, even a troublemaker, who is being nurtured in the bosom  of the party. Later, on, a moderate candidate would look much less dangerous by  comparison. She's very brave. I don't  mistrust her motives or what she's doing."  Not only Birrell, but Bill King, Bob  Skelly and even Dave Stupich invoke vows  of action for the 'women's rights cause'.  Skelly in particular, calls upon the NDP  to "reach out in a positive way to the  women's movement, to youth, to environmentalists, to the unemployed and to the  peace movement" - a package which cuts  a wide swathe through feminist concerns.  But in Birrell's opinion, the reason  most candidates are showing sensitivity  to women's issues is because she came  onto the platform, whether that is the  case or not, cries for a change in  the party may be coming a bit too late.  Many women may just not be listening any-  Esther Shannon, Women Against the Budget  activist, says she considered supporting  Margaret Birrell, describing her as "a  dedicated and committed woman, probably  more so than the NDP deserves." Shannon  felt that a logical extension of much of  the work women were doing on the budget  would be to move their organizing en  masse into the party, perceiving Birrell  as the kind of candidate who might support such a move. But the idea didn't  fly among a lot of other women activists,  said Shannon, and she suggests at least  two reasons why it didn't. "First, there  is considerable suspicion among many  feminists of electoral politics...secondly, there's a problem with the role  that the NDP has played over the last  couple of years."  Shannon expresses the views of other women interviewed when she says the NDP has  lost touch with their roots:"They gave  little or no support to the protest movement arising out of the budget - and  that was disgraceful. They're not supporting the actions that people produce;  they were trying to keep too much to the  middle ground. Frankly, with the Socreds  forming a visible right wing, I don't  think there is any middle ground in B.C.  right now." Or, as another WAB activist  Penny Thompson, puts it: "Women either  have been burned or are burned out" by  their organizing efforts with the NDP.  Wasserlein agrees: "The thunderous silence  of the NDP toward Solidarity, from about  July onward, was horrible. It was like  being left alone out there in the political wilderness. I still remember how angry  I felt when I listened to Dave Barrett  give a TV interview at the end of August  and say that he didn't think people could  organize an anti-budget group like  Solidarity... he didn't think that people  could keep it together. It shatters any  feeling of support one might have for the  NDP leadership."  Birrell, whose campaign has moved in concert with the efforts of party workers  to transform the NDP, makes some distinctions about the leadership of her party.  "I think you have to differentiate between  the leadership who didn't support Solidarity and the rank and file NDP who were  out on the marches and were actively working with the protest movement."  "I completely understand many anti-budget  organizer's frustration with the party,"  she said. "But within the party, groups  like the Women's Committee have continually worked to make policy changes and to  make the structure non-hierarchical. We  now have a body of literature. We've published Priorities  (NDP women's magazine)  for 12 years. But of course we have to  reinforce those words. There has to be  action."  Birrell says that during her campaign many  people have identified with her as a wom-  am talking about democracy within the  party. "I get support from a tremendously  broad basis," she says, "the broad democratic base that is so important to women." Birrell makes it clear that her motivations to contest the leadership of the  party do not centre only on raising wom-  ens issues, however. She considers herself  a serious candidate, and says she is out  to win the campaign race.  Johanna Den Hertog, NDP women's activist  and trade union workers, makes a point  regarding how women interested in the NDP  could actively work to bring about changes  in the party. "It's so important for  people to realize that the NDP is not an  anonymous huge machine. There's only so  much we can do, even in the party. When  you compare the resources we have, with  continued next page April'84   Kinesis   5  ACROSS CANADA  Festive  Collective pride  Women in Montreal showed their collective  pride for International Women's Day 1984  with week-long celebrations. From March 5  to 10th activities were organized by  Women's centres all over the city, including Com-femmes, Centre des Femmes de  Laval, La Ligue des Femmes du Quebec, the  YWCA, Centre D'Education et D'Action des  Femmes, Curio-Femmes, Centre des Femmes  de Verdun, Comite des Femmes Immigrantes  and many more. The Women's Information  and Referral Centre chose March 8th as  the official date to change its name to  The Women's Centre. The McGill Women's  Union and the Concordia Women's Collective collaborated to present an art show,  films by women directors and a series of  discussions on feminist fiction, poetry,  women in Nicaragua, pornography, film  and literature.  On March 8th, 3,500 women of all ages and  diverse backgrounds gathered at the Montreal Paladium to enjoy an evening of  performance and song; there were 3 hours  of showtime in all with a dance afterwards. This event was sold out! La Vie  en Rose (publishers of the Quebecoise  feminist periodical of the same name),who  organized this spectacular but crowded  evening, are talking about having a similar event next year in a larger space so  that more women can attend.  On Saturday, March 10th, approximately  4000 women participated in a march to  celebrate IWD. This two hour demonstration had a festive spirit, with clowns,  balloons, music, songs and slogans such  as "toute les femmes ensemble/de plus en  plus fortes" and indeed, after such a  week of solidarity, women's pride was  strong.  In spite of wet weather, approximately  400 women took to the Vancouver  streets March 10th to celebrate International Women's Day (IWD)(above  and right). The march/parade included banners, costumes, and fooats,  from women's groups throughout the  Lower Mainland. IWD activities, on  the theme 'Women Speak Out', continued  over the weekend, with an Information  Day on Sunday at Sir Charles Tupper  School, which had a full days programme in French, as well as films,  information tables, and workshops on  a range of topics.  R.E.A.L. women attack feminism  by Pat Daley  One of their steering committee members is  named "Femmie". One of their aims is "to  promote, secure, and defend legislation  which upholds the Judeo-Christian view of  traditional marriage and the family." They  are R.E.A.L. Women, "realistic, equal,  active for life," and they're "out for  action," according to their President  Grace Petrasek.  At a February press conference announcing  the organization's existence, Petrasek  said 10,000 women have joined since they  got together last October "to express the  beliefs of the majority of women throughout the country."  If their aims are indeed "realistic," then  the majority of Canadian women recognize  j/oman's role as educator and nurturer of  the family in the home, recognize woman's  contribution to society through her volunteer work in the^community, support  policies for women whose primary concern  is the care and well being of their families, and support the pro-life movement.  "We have touched a nerve across the  nation," Petrasek said. She may be right,  especially if one considers the nerves of  the three to fpur million women represented by the member organizations of the  National Action Committee on the Status  of Women (NAC).  "Their (NAC and Status of Women's Councils)  views on many crucial issues undermine  the family and are not those of the real  women of Canada," states the Thornhill-  based organization's brochure.  Petrasek said R.E.A.L. women have no interest in affiliation with NAC and would  not work with feminists against pornography, for instance. They plan to affiliate with other organizations but Petrasek would not say with whom.  She did-admit, however, that R.E.A.L.  Women are looking into co-operating with  NDP Leadership continued from p. 4  those of the Social Credit Party, it's  amazing we even do as much as we're doing."  Den Hertog, like other politically active  women in the NDP, wishes more women would  take an active role in electoral politics.  "It counts for women to get power. It  matters to many people who is in power,  and what you fight for you do, within a  much larger forum. Mind you, I don't  think we automatically get power by having  a woman in the leadership role - its harder than that. But I do think it's a good  idea for women to run for these positions."  Birrell herself suggests that maybe one  of the reasons many women don't vote is  that "as women, too often, we look at  political structures and realize they work  against us." Nonetheless,. she is prepared  to throw herself into the party leadership race and that, in itself, is an interesting move considering the blanket of  indifference that seems to envelop much  of the women's community on the issue of  the NDP as a viable opposition, at this  time. In many ways, she faces a double  struggle. Not only must she convince her  party that she is indeed a serious and  viable candidate for party leadership,  but she must do so without a groundswell  of feminist support in the province.  The  lack of support, however, seems to have  little to do with Margaret Birrell as an  individual. It stems from a dij^satisfaction  id.th the party as a whole*  organizations like the Alberta Federation  of Women United for Families. (R.E.A.L.  Women claims to have 1,000 chapters in  Alberta). AFWUF was .formed in November  1982 at a conference featuring American  anti^ERA activist Phyllis Schlafly. It  would appear that Schlafly is also the  inspiration for R.E.A.L. women.  "We know her and know her work," Petrasek  said, adding, however, that there is no  connection with Schlafly. Even so, they  have adopted her definition of the family-  two or more people living together, related by blood, marriage or adoption-and  share her mistrust of the media.  In fact, R.E.A.L. Women's program could  have come straight from Schlafly's speech  to AFWUF: opposition to choice on abortion,  no-fault divorce, affirmative action,  equal pay for work of equal value, universal day care; support for criminaliz-  tion of prostitutuion, increased"family  allowances, a separate mother's benefit,  homemakers' pensions, financial recognition for caring for elderly parents in  the home, and government-funded parenting  courses.  Many of the women active in R.E.A.L.  Women come from the anti-choice movement,  but Petrasek said they wanted an organization that could address broader issues.  Although there are 10,000 members, presumably each paying the $5 membership fee,  Petrasek says R.E.A.L. Women has no funds.  They will be applying for government funding for their lobbying efforts and their  efforts to "safeguard the family, the  basis of our society."  (Reprinted from the TORONTO CLARION,  Feb.  1984.) 6   Kinesis   Aprils  INTERNATIONAL  V^/ne of the good things about the organization starting  out small was that the women within the organization  raised a debate within the party on what should be the role  of women in the society. Had a party come to power  without that kind of analysis, there would have been no  clear perspective on the conditions and aspirations of  women in Grenada."  Phyllis Coard, Secretary for Women's Affairs in Grenada's  New Jewel Movement. February 1983.  Phyllis Coard was the Secretary for Women's  Affairs in Grenada's Bishop government.  Currently she is imprisoned, along with  her husband former Deputy Minister Bernard  Coard.   The following is excerpted from a  speech delivered at a conference on "Coordination of Development Funding"(The  Role of Non-Government. Organizations in  rural development of Grenada), on February  21st,  198S.  It has been edited only for  The organization of women really began in  December 1977 with the organization of the  Women's Arm of the New Jewel Movement. Before, the women had never been organized in  any kind of community action programme at  all. Of course there were women's organizations, but they were mainly church groups  and charitable groups, but in terms of  a social action programme designed to  engage women in participation in the society  that had never happened before. This organization in its-original conception was  really very small.  In those days, we were living through a  time of terror and a lot of people were  scared to join anything that looked as it  it was against the dictatorship. Many  women were afraid because if they had a  job it was something precious. They could  not afford to join anything that would be  likely to run the risk of losing them their  job, or that could even lose them a child  of theirs. Many were the only breadwinner  in the family. Unemployment at the time  was 50% and higher among women.  Because of this, the organization stayed  small in terms of membership although it  had fairly broad support. We used to give  out pamphlets calling for equal pay for  women, talking about how to bring down the  price of food and create jobs for women etc.  One of the good things about the organization starting like that was that the women  within the organization, and the New Jewel  Movement which later took power, raised a  debate within the party and with the men  in the party on what should be the role of  women in the society. Had a party come to  power without that kind of analysis, there  would have been no clear perspective on the  condition and aspirations of women in  Grenada.  The women who started the organization were  a group of active and dynamic women who  were engaged in a constant and rigorous  debate. By the time the revolution occured  there were clear outlines; we had reached  a clear consensus as to what must be done  to bring about equality for women in the  society. The four decisions that we had made  were firstly, the state must have a firm  official postion advocating equality for  women and that the state must support that  with laws which would ensure that no legal  discrimination against women was committed.  The second decision was that every woman  must have the*opportunity to work and therefore to be economically independent. Most  Grenadian women want to work.»A recent  survey among the unemployed women of the  country showed that only 13% of those  questioned said that they did not want to  work outside the home. We think that women  should be encouraged to be economically  independent and when we say work we do not  mean working in low paying jobs. Sometimes  women in some countries are given the right  to work but it's mainly at the lowest  paid jobs in the society. We want to ensure  that women have.an equal chance to get the  better paying jobs in the society through  equal access to skills training and education at all levels.  Thirdly, we saw that it would be necessary  to provide certain social facilities for  women to allow them to work and become  independent. I'm talking here particularly  about day care, and also night care centres.  When we talk about independence we don't  only mean economic independence, but we  mean the independence to involve oneself in  community activities in the development  of the nation. That means having to go to  a lot of meetings at night. Women's meetings, Zonal Councils, Parish Councils -  are our form of democratic participation.  Women must attend these meetings to take  part in the whole political process.  Therefore, we want to develop a system of  night nurseries as well ^is day nurseries.'  Of course there are other facilities like  laundrettes and cheap restaurants and so  forth that we are going to need in this  effort.  Lastly, but definitely not the least important decision the New Jewel Movement  made, was for women to receive education  geared toward increasing the consciousness  and confidence of women. We found that  xjuite often when women have the technical  abilities or leadership potential, a lack  of consciousness and confidence about  their ability, gets in the way. A leadership position in a trade union or a group  is often turned down because of this  lack of self-confidence.  We therefore feel it very important to  offer leadership training, and I'm talking about the broad mass of women, because  of the endless opportunities for women to  play a leadership role at grassroots  organizing levels, in cultural groups, in  sporting groups, in women's groups, in  youth groups, in trade unions and so on.  Women today in Grenada have an opportunity to play a dynamic leadership role, in  political leadership, in social services,  etc. There are also jobs in managing  industries which women must prepare themselves for.  Unlike during the old days in Grenada  and in the Caribbean generally (even  today) where leadership training and  management training was/is given only to  the elite, our view is that it must be  given to all who want it. The very low  level of education in general is one Of  the things that holds back our working  people. Our women in particular tend to  have a lower educational level because  very often parents allowed the boys to  stay on at school while the girls left  school at an early age. It is not just  the case of having passed through primary  school and achieved a primary school  certificate. It is also a case of general  education - knowing about all kinds of  things which middle class people learn  about in a variety of different ways  through the newspapers, through their  'families, their homes and so on. The  working people of a country very often  do not get that opportunity.  As a Women's Organization we think it's  very important to learn about international affairs, and how to safeguard the  health of the family and the nation, the  economy and what has led to our underdevelopment, women and what role they  should play in this process.  During the first three years of the  revolution, with the establishment of  the National Women's Organization as well  as the ministry of Women's Affairs (we  are the first island in the Caribbean  to have a Ministry of Women's Affairs. I  think we are the third in Latin America),  the official policy has been to place  as many funds as possible and as many  resources as possible at the disposal of  the Ministry on the question of education.  Unemployment among women had declined from  14,000 to 4,000 in the four years of the  revolution. That is from approximately  69% unemployment to under 20%, which is  still a high figure because 70% of the  unemployed are women. The reason for  this is that the demands of national  development have meant that priority has  been placed on agriculture and construction. These being traditionally male  oriented areas, a lot of unemployed  young men with not many skills have been  able to find jobs. With the exception of -  some older women who are agricultural  workers, women have not seen these as  job areas.  However, while in the very first agricultural training school in St. David's there  were 46 students of which only 6 were  women, at Rbcage on the west coast a  few months after that, there were about  GRENADA April'84   Kinesis   7  INTERNATIONAL  40 students and about 15 of these  women. And at the last school in Boulonge  there were about 60 students and half of  ~ them were women.  This brings us to the present and to the  National Women's Organization projects  that we are putting forward at this  conference dealing with "consciousness  raising and leadership training" and  "skills training" (with particular  emphasis on auto mechanics). The focus of  the latter has emanated from women in  the Parish Councils who were very  interested in learning to operate heavy  equipment, ie. tractors, bulldozers,  etc. and other non-traditional work.  Added to that interest, the needs of 'Ģ  national development demand that during  the next three years, the majority of  jobs would be created in agriculture and  construction - agriculture, because it  is our major industry, and construction  to lay the physical infrastructure of our  country.  Our country is so underdeveloped that we  believe that women should not demand  special jobs to be created for them, but  should enter the non-traditional field  and work alongside men. Some women responded very confidently but there were also  women who said, "Well, we could not go and  fork land, we are just not physically  strong enough." However, the debate among  women deepened within all our communities  and it was possible.to see a shift in  attitude among us. Having got over the  first shock, a lot of women started to say,  "This is really foolishness to say women  cannot do this and women cannot do that." .  Women started to come forward with ideas  about the types of non-traditional work  they would like to get into. A lot of women  were also interested in carpentry, furniture-making, masonry and plumbing. Basically the aim of the National Women's Organization is to ensure that women get both  the academic and technical skills, as well  as the leadership skills to ensure that  they play a full and equal part in society.  (The National Women's Organization is made  up of 6,500 women representing 28% of the  population of Grenada).  Lastly, we are involved in education  through the health brigades. In this we  would be co-operating very closely with  the Ministry of Health.,They have recently  appointed a National Women's Organization  member to lead the programme of Voluntary-  Health Brigades which would be vehicles  for health education within every community.  These health brigades have proven to be  highly successful in other countries in  reducing infant mortality and' improving  the general health of the people. Previously  seen as the preserve of a few health professionals, we are really breaking the  question of health down and aiming to make  health education the preserve of the entire  people. For we think that is the human  right of every person to know how to protect  their health.  In summary, our programmes are social  education, leadership training, women's  mobilization into the programmes of education, skill training in agriculture, motor  mechanics and craft, and health education  through our health brigades. With thanks to  Dionne Brand for making this speech available to Kinesis.  Australia  by Kate Rowe  With the emergence in Australia of 2nd  wave feminism in the late 60's-early 70's,  came the rekindling of International  Women's Day. It was and still is, seen as  an event which focuses on particular  issues that women would like to have the  politicians do something about; it is  also affirming how good it feels to be a  woman, to be feminist and hopefully to  make people look at their own attitudes  about women's position in society.  The first IWD march in Sydney took place  in 1971; the major themes being child  care; free,safe contraception; equal  opportunities in education and safe legal  abortions on demand.  This year's march proved to be bigger and  better than ever-much to the surprise of  all of us. Five thousand women, children  and some men congregated at Town Hall  Square in the centre of the city. The  scene was multi-coloured-many dressed in  the suffrage colours of green and lilac.  People handed out leaflets on a gamut of  issues including the prostitute collective,  a photography exhibition on the Pine Gap  (women's peace camp) and Anzac Day which  is a public holiday in Australia commemorating the Battle of Gallipoli in 1915,  a women's S/M workshop, paedophellia  seminars, an upcoming women and work conference and many more.  The march took almost two hours to weave  through the three main streets of the cen-  Politics aside, IWD  has always been a  wonderful, colourful  occasion with several  thousand women  marching through the  streets of Sydney with  feeling of strength  and unity.  tral business district.  This year women'and unions, Aboriginal and  various migrant women groups were represented and it was a pleasing sight to see  that these groups feel part of the women's  movement.  Women this year carried dozens of banners  which clearly showed the growing diversity  of the movement in Australia. As well as  the groups just mentioned, other banners  included a beautiful one from Actors  Equity which said "Dead Men Don't Rape",  one from Lesbian Line-lesbian teachers,  feminist bookshop, and a contingent of  women from a Women's Services Repair  Project funded by the government to create  jobs. Migrant groups represented were  IWD:  Bigger  and better  Turkish, Greek, Vietnamese, South African,  and the perennial Spartacists and other  socialist groups.  There was much noise with many women beating on drums and even a banjo. Two women  were on stilts and danced to the beat for  the whole route.  The march finished up in Hyde Park where  a market had been set up selling food,  drinks, books, clothes and massages. The  celebration finished with a women only  dance which was attended by 800 women who  danced to local bands plus the "Typical  Girls" disco.  The media coverage was better this year  with more accurate reports, longer T.V.  coverage and a focus on the politics as  well as the celebrations. One radio station  devoted the whole day to IWD using women  D.J.s, women's music and women's programming on Greenham Common, Pine Gap, work and  sexuality.  It is interesting to look back over the  past thirteen years and see how the same  issues have been raised year after year,  as well as new ones specific to certain  economic and political times. Themes like  child care, equal pay, equal employment  opportunities and the right to work are  still major demands.  An abortion can be obtained in Australia  though not on demand and it remains a  bureaucratic nightmare. Contraception is  also available.  By 1975 the issue of  discrimination was being debated and seen  at last to be relevant to women's liberation. By 1983 the IWD Broadsheet was  translated into seven languages. In the  early 80's the struggle of Aboriginal  women and their land rights was debated  and support groups set up.  Most recently, due to the world-wide recession, the rights of women in employment,  sexual harassment as an industrial issue,  and women's activities within unions have  started to be debated within the women's  movement rather than to be seen as largely  irrelevant. Politics aside, IWD has always  been a wonderful colourful occasion with  several thousand women marching through  the main streets of Sydney with feelings  of strength and unity. 8   Kinesis   April '84  The deployment of cruise and Pershingll'missiles in Western  Europe changed the face of Western European peace movements,    I   in some places forcing a demoralized populus to regroup and  PJv_A.CE  rethink,  in others precipitating more and more radical ____________  actions. For activists on the other side of the Iron Curtain^  the deployments have had serious ramifications  - the fledgling  'unofficial'   (that is, "not state controlled) peace movements of Eastern Europe face more than the usual harassment  from the state as a consequence of increased NATO pressure  on the Soviet Union.  Soviet activist arrested  In Czechoslovakia,  for instance,  the USSR responded to this  pressure with the announcement of SS-20 deployment,  sparking  what one Czech writer reports is more widespread disquiet  than any single political issue since the invasion of 1968.  Public protest has been followed by police questioning on  peace activities and criticism of Soviet missiles, and  there has been increased repression of human rights activists,  especially those who have contact with the Western peace  movement.   One activist Was sentenced to six years in prison,  a sentence which has been interpreted as a warning to Czechs  not to criticise the SS-20 deployment or conduct any peace  activities on the issue.  'Unofficial' peace activities continue, however, in groups  throughout the USSR, and in countries outside the Soviet  Union, but nonetheless under Soviet influence. These activists target the Cold War mentality as the enemy, and often  lay the blame for their repression squarely at the feet of  the Western forces backing the Soviet government into an  increasingly defensive position.  Women are at the forefront of many of these activities - they  are also frequently bearing the brunt of increased repression.  German women freed  wis  L  In late January, two East German (GDR) peace women who had  spent six weeks in prison were  released and the charges  against them were dropped.  Ulrike Poppe and Baerbel  Bohley were facing charges  which carried up to 12 years  in prison. They were arrested  on December 12 (the anniversary of the Nato two-track  decision). The reason given  was that they had been in  contact with a member of European Nuclear Disarmament (END)  and Committee for .Nuclear Disarmament (CND), Barbara Ein-  horn. Barbara was also detained for a week.  It is not known exactly why  Baerbel and Ulrike were released. One theory is that  the GDR authorities responded  to pleas from the Western  peace movements. Letters of  concern were sent to GDR head  of council of state Erich  Honecker and a joint letter  signed by a dozen movements  was sent from the International Peace Co-ordinating Centre  conference in Stockholm in  January.  Another theory is that the  women were victims of the international climate and the  relations between the USA and  the USSR and between the two  Germanies. They were arrested  as the first cruise and Pershing were deployed and the  Geneva negotiations were  breaking down. They were released on January 24 as the  icy climate was slightly thawed by overtures between the  Kremlin and. the White House  and the possibilities for  detente between the GDR and  West Germany.  That high-level Cold War politics have an immediate effect  on the tolerance for dissent  in Eastern Europe was stressed  during the campaign for Baerbel and Ulrike's release. A  statement from representatives  if GDR women's peace groups  clear on this point, and  demanded that the government  of West Germany "should halt  deployment of the new US  missiles. Otherwise it should  acknowledge it's partial responsibility for the arrest of  Ulrike Poppe and Baerbel Bohley." The news that they were .  released could indicate a  growing political tolerance in  the GDR for 'unofficial' peace  activities.  Baerbel and Ulrike were charged  with paragraph 99, section 1  of the GDR criminal code which  bars anyone from passing on  unclassified information which  could potentially harm the  image of the GDR. The alleged  evidence was said to be notes  that Barbara had made of their  conversations, though neither  they nor Barbara have any anti-  GDR intentions. In fact, Barbara is lecturer in GDR women's  literature and has long been  working to counter the Cold  War image of the GDR.  Ulrike and Baerbel identify  strongly with the aims of the  Western peace movements. They  were amongst hundreds of women  who signed a letter to Honecker in 1982 protesting a new  law which conscripts women into  the Armed Forces in times of  emergency.  Since then, they have continued their peace activities with  stalls, discussions and letters  of protest - including one to  the West German Bundestag  after it ratified deployment  of the Euromissiles in December.  About the same time that Ulrike  and Baerbel.were arrested,  other peace activists in Leipzig, Weimar and Potsdam were  also imprisoned. Letters of  protest, pointing out that  these people are campaigning  for the same reasons as the  Western peace movements (which  are given good press in the  GDR) should be sent to Erich  Honecker,   Staatsratsvorsitz  ender of the GDR, 102 Berlin,  Marx-Engels Platz.  -from END Journal  Olga Medvedkova, a leading  member of the Moscow Group to  Establish Trust Between the  USSR and the USA, was arrested  on December 8 and charged with  "forceful opposition to the  militia". This is the latest  in a series of attempts by the  Soviet authorities to silence  the Trust group.  Last May Olga Medvedkova  bravely joined three members of  Women for Life on Earth in a  meeting with members of the  official Soviet Peace Committee. In September, the Trust  group held a joint seminar  with visiting Canadian and US  activists. The group feels  that since they are calling  for the building up of trust  through a process of normalization of contacts between people  East and West at all levels of  society and are not calling  for changes in the Soviet  system, they should be allowed  by the authorities to function  openly.  On October 14, group member  ' Oleg Radzinsky was sentenced  to five years internal exile  in Tomsk, Siberia, after one  year's imprisonment awaiting  trial. Moscow Trust group  members who tried to attend  Radzinsky's trial were prevented from doing so by police detaining them for three hours  (the legal limit). They were  then told by the KGB to get  into a van.  Medvedkova and others refused  to get in, and were beaten up  and forced inside. They were  taken to a derelict building  and detained for four hours -  by which time the trial was  over.  It is these events which have  led to the.arrest of Olga  Medvedkova and "two other group  members, Valery Godyak and Olga  Lusnikova (who is ill with  nephritis). The charge against  Olga alleges that while at the  police station she assaulted  a policeman. Godyak and Lusnikova support Olga's testimony  that none of them offered any  resistance to the police. The  witnesses were told that  since their accounts contra  dicted that.of the police,  they would be charged with  giving false evidence. The  original charge against Olga,  which itself carried a sentence of two years hard labour, has now been replaced  by a more serious charge. The  fate of the other two is not  known.  Trust group members have previously been harassed by the  loss of their jobs and transfers to job sites in Siberia,  but now the threats have become more serious. News of  other group members is also  grim: it is said that the  KGB is trying to frame one  man on charges of drug-dealing  or 'speculation', and it is  reported that another was  taken to a police station and  observed by a ten-year-old  boy for several minutes, after  which he was told if he did  not leave the group he would  be identified as a child  molester (a crime punishable  by the firing squad in the  USSR).  The Moscow group, though  devastated by what has happened, is unlikely to end its  activities. Ten new members  have joined since the trial  of Radzinsky, and they have  a growing network of supporters in other countries.  Support for the groups and  Medvedkova's case has been  forthcoming from the Western  European peace movement. In  last January, four Greenham  women went to the Soviet Embassy to protest the treatment  of the Moscow activists. They  managed to get to see the  First Secretary shortly before" 11 a.m., and talks continued for 5 1/2 hours, by  which time the four women  felt the conversation was  being led around in circles.  At that point they stopped  talking, and sat in silence  in the Secretary's office for  90 minutes. Finally the Secretary was forced to read a copy  of the Trustbuilders'sAppeal  that the women had brought  with them.  -from Peace News  Canadian testing of the United States airborne cruise missile began on March 6. A local  women's group protested the tests with a test flight of their own, in downtown Vancouver. Their cruise eventually crashed at the US consulate. April'84   Kinesis   9,  * When one phrase or word is concerned,  use graffito; when more than one word is—'  involved, say graffiti. 10   Kinesis   April'84  Observations on  local women artists  by Avis Lang Rosenberg  The following article is reprinted, with  permission, from the Vancouver Art Gallery  Catalogue,   "Vancouver: Art and Artists  1931 - 1983." It has been edited for  length. ••■i:ljj|iy|  If Lucy Lippard hadn't already used the  title "Fragments" in From the Centre, I'd  want to use it for what I'm going to say.  This won't be a recent history of women  and art in Vancouver, only a few observations, a few ideas, a few generalizations  I feel okay about making.  First off, we have these terms "woman  artist" and "women's art", which mean  different things depending on which side  of which fence you're on. The terms .have  a centuries-long history as prescriptive  and dismissive categories, used by the  Ones to try to keep the Others firmly in  some conveniently chaste, unassuming,  small-scale, subordinate place. Many  people now want the use of those terms  back, on our  terms. But history lives on,  and "woman artist" still sounds like some-  one-less-than-Artist to many ears and  many minds. Happily, however, enough  high-profile women artists have stopped  seeing the term as an imposed label so  that it is beginning to become a more  objective form of description/self-description.  In the case of women artists who see  themselves as such in a positive  way, we're  talking about people in whom a double  realization/identification had to occur:  that of themselves as women and  as artists.  These two factors can be experienced as  being in harmony or at odds, as implying  new and old forms of community or new  and old forms of isolation and competition.  We don't choose to be women; we are,  and  that's that. Female is the given (feminine  and feminist are the popularly-polarized  antitheses). But people do  have to choose  to be artists; in fact, it is a matter of  becoming, of developing, not being.  Then there is the concept "women's art".  To assume that all women who are artists  inevitably and always produce work that  displays female family resemblances in  form, method, and content is to dangerously  oversimplify the complexities and circumstances of creative endeavour. Patriarchal  pronouncements from the 18th century  through our own time have held this notion  very dear, and it has fostered neither  appreciation of the works at hand nor  equal opportunities for women artists. Its  logical escape clause, in the face of "undeniably" strong and successful work by  women, has traditionally been The Exception;  the woman artist who is not really or  not just a woman and who is not like All  Those Other Women Artists.  So we come to the notion of "female sensibility". Yes  there is work that sings out  WOMAN to the observant viewer, through its  narrative or materials or declarations or,  yes, perhaps certain formal predilections  as well, but there is also work by women  that does not  do so. Are we to dismiss  the latter as inauthentic, or alternately,  to search out obscure revelations of its  femaleness in tell-tale clues, so that our  methods of categorization will stand vindicated? Furthermore, the sensibilities of  numerous women, having been incorporated  into their artistic output, are now out in  the public sphere. The work is accessible  as source and inspiration for whoever  Work by Georgiana Chappell (L), and Persimmon Blackbridge. "Significant achievemc  promise of things to ci  wants to pick up on it. What terms do we  use when it is men who do so?  Another difficulty with the category "women's art" should be noted, one which arises  within the community of committed artworld  women. It has to do with the quest for an  authentic women's art. The quest - if lacking in openness and flexibility - can become a form of control, an automatic dismissal of work that does not address itself  in particular ways to particular issues.  We do well "to seek and herald effective  feminist art, but to define too narrowly  what that can encompass and to deny the  worth of other work by women is to place a  sentry at the door to what we've as yet  gained only partial access: the fullest  possible range of expression for the greatest number of women artists.  Vancouver women artists produced a tremendous amount of interesting work during the  1970's in every medium and at every level.  Starting at the top of the visibility scale,  there are people like Gathie Falk and Evelyn  Roth...although I must say that as soon as  I begin listing names, I get nervous about  those I'll not be mentioning. Two of the  seven artists in the National Gallery's  International Women's Year show, Some  Canadian Women Artists,  were from Vancouver's  Gathie Falk and Sherry Grauer. Gathie and  Evelyn have been significant figures in  the growth of performance art in this country (and elsewhere), as have Toby MacLennan  and also Anna Banana of the Western Front.  Kate Craig has been crucial to the extensive video production activity at the Front.  Liz Magor and Marian Penner Bancroft both  did major cycles of work in the seventies,  in sculpture and photography respectively.  One of the most dramatic installations I've  seen anywhere was the roomful of ceramic  shards and sentinels called Rank Beginnings,  which Lynn Hughes did at the Vancouver Art  Gallery just after graduating from the art  school, then the Vancouver School of Art.  Ann Kipling's weightless landscape drawings  are riveting in the acuteness of their vision  and the deliberate slowness of their growth.  The Reelfeelings feminist media collective  included a number of women who have gone on  to take prominent places in art life on the  continent: Renee Baert, who became Video  Officer at the Canada Council; Ardele Lister,  who directed the raucously revelatory Reel-  feelings film called So Where 's My Prince,  Already?,  was a founder and co-editor of  the important artists' periodical Criteria,  and has gone on to have her videotapes  given the Leo Castelli imprimatur; Barbara  Steinmen in video, Nomi Kaplan in photography, Svetlana Zylin (who starred in So  Where's My Prince, Already?)  in theatre.  The Video Inn was an active centre for  community/feminist video during the greater  part of the decade, with Shawn Preus a key  element. Women in Focus, and Marion Barling in particular, began to produce and  distribute feminist media works; small  and bare-bones as the group's Kingsway  space was, it included a tiny gallery.  The list gets long very quickly. Judy  Lodge, Judy Williams, and Sylvia Tait  are three painters who must be mentioned.  Before moving to New York, Lodge left  her mark on Vancouver (and Banff) not  only as an artist but as a committed  teacher; Williams, along with printmakers  Barbara Sungur and Wendy Dobereiner,  succeeded her at UBC, where Gathie Falk  had also taught for several years - as  long as she could be persuaded to stay.  Victoria-based photographer Nina Raginsky  and ceramic sculptor Sally Michener were  then on the faculty of the art college;  major solo shows of the work of Raginsky  and sculptor Ruth Beer, on the faculty of  the University of Victoria at that time,  were held at the Vancouver Art Gallery  late in the decade. If it seems as though  institutional recognition - in the form  of solo shows, sales, and permanent teaching positions - must have been commensurate  with the locally available female talent,  one need only consult the faculty handbooks and my own survey of the representation of women in the Canadian artworld  (Criteria,  Fall 1978) to see otherwise.  A light sprinkling of women - nothing  more - seemed tolerable. Generally speaking, whether then or now, there's a little  bit of room at the top and lots of room  at the bottom. But things did improve  here and there as the seventies ended,  not because everyone with a pie to divide  had suddenly become just or generous, but  in large part because increasing numbers  of women had become outspoken and persistent about the need for increased representation. A few key changes in art  administrators also occurred at this time -  Bill Kirby moving into the Canada Council,  for example.  By the end of the last decade, many more  artists had emerged with significant  achievements and great promise of things  to come: Karen Chapnick, Joey Morgan,  Share Corsaut, Nora Blanck, Phyllis Green,  Persimmon Blackbridge, Alexandra Dikeakos,  Georgiana Chappell, Jeannie Kamins,  Colette French, Chick Rice, Lyse Lemieux,  Valerie Pugh - to name only some. Each  year the roster lengthens. Several of  the above-mentioned women were members of  the Women's Interart Co-op-jr a fair-sized  group begun in 1974 with some hopes of  establishing a Woman's Building (a recurrent Vancouver project); they eventually  settled for communal studio space in the  barely-ventilated basement of the Avalon  hotel, below what was then the Helen Pitt  Gallery on Pender Street. Anna Buchan  was instrumental in the creation of the  co-op, which held once-a-month meetings  and five annual group exhibitions before  its late-seventies demise, and was, along  with Women in Focus, an important "grassroots" organization for local, vocal  women artists interested in developing  productive and supportive alternatives to  the exclusionary mainstream. There were  other groups, other contexts, other projects - some so alternative that one  participant described them as "several  people meeting in someone's basement",  others with a more institutional focus.  Through such means, the SUB Gallery at  UBC became the site for a series of substantial group shows by younger local  women artists; Judy Lodge helped make this  happen.  I began by saying I could provide only a  few observations about women/art/Vancouver,  not a proper history. Indeed, I haven't  mentioned filmmakers, animators, or  potters; I've barely touched on the fabric/  fibre arts or on women as educators, curators, key administrators, and other gallery  personnel. Nor have I mentioned the locally-  favoured non-art ways that artists found to  pay their bills. Aprils   Kinesis   11  The Goddess, art,  and animals  by Michele Wollstonecroft  Beginning with studies in anthropology,  ancient law and dream analysis, and arch-  eological research into ancient sites and  art, a re-evaluation of the feminine is  taking place. Through "seeking our fore-  mothers we are finding that cultures have  existed on earth without militarism, without the institution of private property  and that these cultures revered the earth  and her cycles rather than viewing nature  as something to conquer and control. We  are also finding that these Pre-Patriarch-  al cultures existed for many thousands of  years.  In art this re-evaluation of the feminine  is taking place in two ways, through the  re-emergence of Goddess symbolism in the  | work of contemporary artists and through  the discoveries and interpretations by  feminists of the art of ancient civilizations. Publications Heresies  and Woman  Spirit  as well as the work of researchers,  for example, Gloria Orenstein and Mary  Beth Edelson, are creating new arenas  where contemporary art with Goddess symbolism can be viewed and discussed. We  now have a number of exciting and well-  informed writings by feminists on the  subject of the Great Goddess in the art  of the past. For example, Merlin Stone's  When God Was a Woman,  Maria Gimbutas'  The Gods and Goddesses of Old Europe,  7000 to 3500 B.C.   and M. Esther Harding's  Woman's Mysteries, Ancient and Modern.  Buffie .Johnson, a feminist researcher and  painter, now in her 70's has spent the  past 20 years investigating the orgins of  the Great Goddess. She has written  articles on Goddess symbols in art, including two that she co-wrote with Tracy  Boyd, "The Eternal Weaver" (The Great  Goddess, Heresies,   Issue 5) and "The Eye  Goddess and the Evil Eye" (Lady-Unique-  Inclination-of-the-Night, New Brunswick).  Johnson was in Vancouver in early February  to give a lecture at the Western Front on  "The Lady of the Beasts", a slide presentation which focused on the animals of the-  Great Goddess. Johnson showed approximately 50 slides of artwork reperesenting  cultures from paleolithic times to the  present and including art from many countries around the world.  "Presenting the Goddess through her  beasts, is an attempt to vivify her personality, to discern her meaning and  relate her to contemporary needs," says  Johnson. "The Goddess's invitation is to  be inwardly free and unfettered and to  transcend limitations. Clearly the world  needs to regain its balance. A re-  evaluation of the feminine through the  study of the Goddess and her beast is,  I believe, a pretty sure path towards  that goal." The Goddesses and Gods revered by the ancient religions have be  come evils in contemporary Judaeo-  Christian religion. Realizing their original menaing is to change one's point of  reference.  Even though fertility was a major theme  in the myths and rites of the Goddess,  her realm encompassed far more than reproduction. "The Goddess took the form of  many different animals to explain her  meaning, function and general personality.  Her meaning is very diverse."  Johnson explained that the bird is the  main symbol of the goddess, and that there  are many instances of this as water birds,  hawks, doves, swans. The bird represents  re-birth because it is born twice, first  as the egg is laid, and then when it is  hatched. Many paleolithic cave paintings  and engravings show rituals where people  are wearing bird masks. Later, in Greece,  we see an invory carving of a priestess  of Artemis with a long pole on her head,  on top of which is a hawk. The pole is a  symbol for the tree, most likely the moon-  tree, (from which it has been suggested  that the cross has evolved as a symbol.)  Johnson also discussed the bull, which  represents the Great Mother, changes in  the weather, and the moon. The horns of  the bull are like the crescent moon, hence  the association of the two. The horn of  the bull was considered to have power,  and images depicting the bull's horn as a  sacred object have been found in stone  age art. The bull is also associated with  the weather god and there are many sculptures showing the bull, or a group of  bulls, pulling the weather god in a cart.  The bull thus symbolized changes in  weather.  A beautiful colourful fresco from Knossos,  (3000 B.C.) shows men and women "bull-  leaping". This combination sport/religious  activity demanded that the leapers grasp  the bull's horn and leap over its back.  Grasping the.bull's horn allowed one to  experience the flow of the Goddess's'  power. A 6th century temple figure from  Sicily shows the Goddess sitting on the  bull holding onto its horn.  As early as paleolithic times the fish  was a symbol of fecundity because she lays  so many eggs and because life begins in  the water. The fish was also an important  symbol of the underworld. An example  Johnson showed was of an Egyptian sarcophagus painting that showed the "dog of  the underworld" wrapping the mummy in the  shape of a fish, preparing the dead one  for the journey into the underworld. By  transporting the dead to the underworld  the fish was also giving an opportunity  to new life, and the fish as food represented nourishment.  The pig is an animal "that was once sacred  but now abhorred in the Judaic tradition.  The pig was sacred because it is a very  fertile animal; when the pig is killed the  entire animal can be used for food and  clothes and in bad times, it eats its  farrow, which thus return to the place  they came from, and produce more fertility"  (The Wise Wound,  by Penelope Shuttle and  Peter Redgrove).  The Goat represented the womb. "If you  look at well-drawn anatomical pictures of  the womb, you will be able to see ¬±r\ it  the significance of a wise goat-head bent  forward, with.magnificent sweeping horns,  which are the fallopian tubes,"(The Wise  Wound).'  The goat today has come to represent the devil, with horns and a beard,  but in ancient times it was revered for  its horns as well as its usefulness as a  provider of milk, meat and clothing.  Today all over southern Europe, the Goat  is associated with the expression "He's  got horns", which means that a man's wife  is sleeping with another man. Clearly this  implies the kind of fears the current  dominant culture has of the power of the  feminine; if women are not suppressed by  the institutions of the patriarchy, marriage for example, then the horned beliefs  wil  Animals of the goddess also had specific  relationship to the moon. The hare, for  example, is associated with the moon because people saw the face of a hare in the  moon, and the snake shedding its skin  associated it with women's menstrual  cycles and, hence, the moon's cycle.  In pre-patriarchal times the snake also  represented re-birth and re-generation.  The snake was associated with the underworld as well as representing the phallus  in the worship of the moon. Once one understands the symbol of the snake in pre-  patriarchal cultures, all the mythology  surrounding serpents take on new meanings.  Myths that talk about killing snakes are  describing the destruction of religions  that worshipped the moon.  There are many good reasons for studying  Goddess symbolism in art; beginning with  symbolism itself and how it is used in  this world. Currently the religious  symbol systems that permeate our daily  lives are used to maintain, sustain and  promote patriarchy. As Carol P. Christ  says, in her article "Why Women Need the  Goddess" Phenomenological, Psychological  and Political Reflections",(The Politics  of Women's Spirituality.)  "We must first  understand the importance of religious  symbols and rituals in human life and  consider the effect of male symbolism of  God on women...Religious symbol systems  focused around exclusively male images  of divinity create the impression that  female power can never be fully legitimate or beneficient...Symbols have both  psychological and political effects,  because they create the inner conditions  (deep seated attitudes and feelings) that  lead people to feel comfortable with or  accept social and political arrangements  that correspond to the symbol system."  Because religion has such a compelling  hold on the deep psyc^p of so many  people, feminists cannot afford to*ii|eaVe  it in the hands of thiffeathers."  graphic by Jeanne Tayloi 12   Kinesis   April'84  IpThe titles of video productions by women  I are too numerous to list. They provide a  | stark contrast to the number of female  producers, directors and technicians employed by video's big brother; television.  With the emergence of portable, relatively  inexpensive equipment, women have predominated the video scene, not only as  I independent producers, but as curators  I and administrators of the many video co-  I operatives and parallel galleries in  \   Canada, Quebec, the United States, England  I and Europe.  i Why such enthusiasm when, after all,  I women have experienced exclusion from  I most technologies? In the case of video,  \ women have established their capacity  I to understand a constantly evolving  [ technology, controlling and redefining  I its parameters. Video is a relatively  i new medium (some 15 years old), one which  ! was initially cheap and remains fairly  i accessible.  I There was no video establishment with  ! vested interests to defend .against  I women's incursion, as has been true with  ! other visual art media, theatre and  I music. There is an analogy to be made  I with women's role in early photography,  | where, at the turn of the century-, women  \ made great strides in a new medium.  | The field was open with no preconceived  ; notions of form. The availability of  | video occurred simultaneously with the  | growth of the newest wave of feminism,  | a time when women were concerned with  J regaining control over their imaging  | and asserting their capacity to use tech-  | nology.  \ Video has been a central counter-medium  ( for women because it allows us to take  | back some of the power that television,  [ a centralized mass media, has wrested  | away. We, as women, are its major  | advertising audience, our distorted image  I fills the monitor and we are its programm-  I ing audience. Television dominates our  i. culture; it is impossible for North  ; Americans seeing a videotape, to not make  S mental reference to t.v. Video artists  \ have put this to good use. The key to  I women's video is the process of self-  \ representation, whether it be in the  critical lens:  Video has been a valuable consciousness-  raising tool. It provides a comfortable,  familiar, but alternate venue in which  social issues can be presented in a  synthetic way. Video is effective in  small group discussion formats. It lacks  the formal, dream-state qualities of  film and this is more conducive to discussion.  Video's accessibility has made it attractive to groups without vast financial  resources, as a means of representing  community, labour and women's issues. A  strong feminist documentary tradition has  emerged in video. Women have looked to  rank and file sources for spokespeople,  thus affirming the importance of democratic process and demonstrating the ways that  issues and even structures, such as  political organizations and unions, effect  people on the immediate human level. Feminist video has given space to criticism  within political process as well as to a  vision of the goals and highlights.  Women have worked in production collectives , proving that a creative group process is possible. Video lends itself to  such a format, both in the need for  more than one pair of hands in the production process and to a share of the  financial burden of equipment, tape and  editing facilities. Video is cheaper than  film, but it is still costly. Collective  production has encouraged skill sharing  and demystification of the technology:  many women producers are capable camera  and sound technicians as well as scriptwriters and directors.  Video allows the possibility of working  with, people either through intensive consultation or training in the use of equipment. This process, as well as the finished  product, can enable a group to see the  tarians' vision of how to best empower ||  women through the video medium. ||  Women video producers have increasingly |j  networked with each other. Festivals in ||  Canada, Quebec, the United States and j|  Denmark have helped women develop an over-||  view of work and share issues. A femini: t  distribution-network has emerged, with j|  groups like Vancouver's Women in Focus ||  organizing international access to women'sji  productions. j|  Women in Vancouver have made important - ;|  contributions to video production as ;|  independent video artists, through work in|  mixed collectives, and within women's  media groups. The first Vancovuer women's 1  media group was Reel Feelings, who used j|  video, together with film, slide-tape, j§  sound and photography. Their work included!  art and documentary productions. A women's§j  media vcollective formed after this with ||  many of its members linked to Video Inn ||  which began in 1973. Video Inn introduced ||  Women's Media Nights, which featured i  work by local and international women ^|  producers. Women in Focus, a video pro- jj|  duction, film and video distribution ||  centre and gallery/performance space J<{lM  began in 1974, continuing to the present i|  day. It has trained many women in video §  production as well as creating its own |  tapes. A women's media group formed in ||  1978, providing support for women engaged ^  in various aspects of media and producing j|  several tapes on battered women. Amelia ;|  Productions, a feminist video collective ||  produced 14 tapes from 1980-1982, and |  continues to distribute its work. Media ||  Watch has monitored the mass media and ||  has produced video tapes for use in its |  education work. §  Video art is emerging into the mainstream. ||  As video art becomes increasingly recog- H  nized, women will be challenged to main- i  tain an innovative, critical and central  |  by sara diamond  documentary mode of giving voice and  presence to women who are traditionally  ignored as an authoritative source, or  through art works which refer to the  packaging and imaging within consumer  society in general, and of women in particular. Female video artists have rendered  an extensive critique of television  through this work. Women have used video  art to "deconstruct" the mass media: to  ■ show the ways that it works upon our minds  |i and desires. The very existence of self-  presentation by women, whether explicitly  ||j|wninist or not, has been an important,  'Jt$:'small scale rupture.  extent of its power within what may have  been experienced as isolated moments in a  struggle. Video allows for immediate  feedback; it can be played back on the  spot, critiqued and developed. Tape can be  recycled, so many different ways of documenting a situation can be tried, and the  most effective used.  Feminist documentary provides a vital  resource through which to see recent women'i  history. There are a series of tapes, for  example, on violence against women; they  reflect the developing understanding of  the issue; strategies for dealing with  violence through transition houses, attempt  to work with state authorities, and self-  defense etc. as well as feminist documen-  role. Institutionalization usually result  in attempts to relegate women to support  roles. Both women video artists and feminist consumers must not allow this to     m  happen with video. M  Although not all women video producers are  feminists, either in their work or political orientation, a great deal of video  work by women has had a positive impact forJ|  women, both by the criticism of the media  embedded in it - what does it mean when  the object seizes the camera and turns it  on herself and her world - and by opening  a major art form for women. As feminists,  we spend many hours cirticizing the media/^,  presentation of our lives. It is equally^jjjVj  important that we support and participa^^M  in the development of alternative vision*  and assist in their widest possibly 316*  tribution. April'84   Kinesis   13  -ffflgftffinS*1 * -w*'vp,  /  !>'  //^  _   W*  V  /  y£* v'.i by Faith Jones  Women dancers live with the constant competition of athletes and none of the financial rewards.  Professional dancing is one of the places  where our society's concern with youth -  and especially youthful women - is exaggerated, to an even more extreme level.  i pitted against each  l the basis of their  Women dancers ar  other, not only  dancing, but also on their appearance.  Changing rooms are the scenes of whispered  gossip (usually malicious), crying, insults and sarcasm.  One of the hardest positions for a woman  dancer is that of apprentice to a company. Women apprentices have a much  longer period of initiation before they  are asked to become full members of the  company than men do. Some may wait as  long as three years, while men are  almost always accepted after one. Apprentices are unpaid, and must either get  another job (on top of eight hours of  dancing a day) or live with their parents.  For young women entering the field, hard  work with no pay isn't always worth it,  and many quit before they get a chance to  work professionally.  All this is true of male dancers to a  much, lesser extent. Perhaps because of  our society's notions of machismo, the  number of women always outranks the number  of men, by as much as double or triple  in some companies. Men dancers can afford  to be more generous, helpful and friendly  with each other, since the competition is  so much less.  Part of the problem for dancers in Vancouver is that funding for dance companies  is minimal. In the past few years,  several dance companies have lost funding  or had it reduced. No wonder competition  is so stiff.  In spite of these problems, Vancouver  women dancers are active and interesting.  Some approach their work from a feminist  perspective, while others are more traditional. This is a highly random sampling  of the local scene.  Perhaps the best-known Vancouver company  is Anna Wyman's Dance Theatre. In spite  of their phenomenal success internationally the company does little that challenges  the audience. International critics  describe her "delightful whimsy" (India),  "elegance of movement" (Germany), and  1 "voice rich with promise" (France). They  shave little to say about her content.  ' Although her dancers are technically  excellent, and are utilized to their full  advantage in her choreography, there is  no feminism or woman-orientation in her  work. In this sense, she is strictly   ^ "  traditional. j  More enjoyable for feminists is Mauryne   %  Allen's Mountain Dance Company. Although  J  recent works are slight-ly less promising, i  in the past she has.displayed great re-   \  spect and affection for women in pieces  like "For Gwenneth". ~She highlights her   '  female dancers, allows them freedom, and  encourages them to choreograph themselves.  Allen's own dancing may be a clue to this:  her body is large (by dancers' standards),  strong, her movements deliberate. She  explores diverse topics, including fantasy,  religious myths and current fads. The  joyous "Barkmulch" contrasts two dancing  ,couples - a tuxedoed man and evening-  gowned woman versus breakdancers.  Gisa Cole, formerly co-director of the  defunct Prism Dance Company, also has a  delightfully untraditional body for a  dancer. Who said you have to be tall and  skinny? Cole is neither, and her movements  are enough to change those perceptions.  What a relief to watch this perfectly  ordinary-looking woman, and see the magic  she can create. Of all her work, one  dance stands out particularly. "After the  Fire" is a solo for a woman, and it describes the pain of mothers whose children  Karen Jamieson Rimmer company, Vancouver  t'  die young. A technically challenging and  | emotionally racking piece, "After the Fire"  f  continues to move audiences years after  p its creation.  * Dancers like Helen Clarke and Jennifer  | Mascall, independant and experimental, are  f,  among the most exciting Vancouver dancers.  I Their work is highly unconventional,  <t challenging notions of dance form as well  i  as suitable content. Mascall's "True.Lies"  4 is an examination of male-female relations.  i Clarke's "With Hiroshima in Mind" was con-  £ structed with just that: it is a semi-  '*   improvised piece of dance-theatre performed  > last year on the anniversary of Hiroshima.  £ At one point, audience members came danger-  r ously close to .breaking down altogether.  ,. Could someone like Anna Wyman dare such an  £ emotional and highly sensitive subject?  5 At the forefront of the latest revitaliza-  jj tion of the Vancover Dance scene is Karen  *' Jamieson Rimmer with her seven-member dance  ?troupe. She collaborates closely with  £ composers, which may explain why every part  £of the dances work so beautifully together.  V Her highly acclaimed "Sisyphus" is a re-  1 working of the legend of the man who was  f condemned to roll a rock up a hill forever.  \ln her piece, our whole society is being  ' asked a question. The dancers slam against  5 a wall,-unable to break out of their trudg-  £ ing lives. The music by David Mclntyre  J perfectly expresses the despair and frustra-  i tion of the theme.  At Simon Fraser University, teachers get  a chance to show their work in occasional  dance shows. I only wish they had more  .   opportunity, because some of their work is  [   extremely fine. Dance professor, Iris Gar-  f   land, combines strength and fluidity, show-  j ing off the best in each dancer.  It Qne stunning piece in last fall's SFU dance  ^ show was "Voices In Doorways" about female  j socialization. Surreal and intense, the  jipiece was undoubtedly the highlight of the  * show.  fiInterestingly, although there are more wo-  | men than men teaching dance at SFU, the  department is headed by a man. Well-known ."  and highly qualified though he is, one can  only wonder at such blatant sexism on the  part of the administrators^  Although women in dance in Vancouver have  it hard, our support can help bring more  woman-oriented content into their work.  They are always open to feedback, volunteer  workers and financial contributions. If we,  as a women's community, give them honest,  critical support, they will support us with  exciting, women's art.   m^j,^^.^.,^ 14   Kinesis   April'M  Aprils   Kinesis   15  by Connie Smith  (Author's note) Part I of this article, an  historical and political perspective,  appeared in The Radical Reviewer,  issue  nine, 1983)  During the years of 1958 to 1965,  there  was no such thing as a "girl group" -  only great songs performed by great singers - who happen to be female.  The term  "girl group" came truch later through media  hype and a desire to categorize, imitate  and later dismiss this incredible phenomenon.   What phenomenon? For seven years,  the airwaves were completely dominated  by women.  During this chapter in music history,  there were over 1000 singles released  that charted - performed by over 130  different groups of women or individual  female performers. And because most of  these women were black,  the music charts  were integrated in a way that has never  before and never again been equalled.  During this era of women's music, at least  40% of the biggest hits every year were  by black women, compared with March,  1984  when the number of females of any colour  to make the Top 50 averaged around 3.  This article profiles only a very few.  The Chantels:  Original members - Arlene  Smith (lead), Lois Harris, Sonia Goring,  Jackie Landry, Rene Minus. Ages (when  signed): 13-16 years old. Residence:  New York City (Bronx), N.Y.  The group was organized by lead singer,  Arlene Smith who had been trained as a  classical singer. She performed solo at  Carnegie Hall when she was 12. the girls  were discovered when they were waiting  backstage at the Alan Freed Show for their  idol, Frankie Lymon. They began singing,  to pass the time and were heard by a man  named Richard Barrett who took them to  producer George Goldner. They were on  of the first groups to sign with Goldner  -on his END label.  The Chantel's most significant recording  was "Maybe", released in 1958. It was  such a success that Goldner couldn't  meet the demand, so the bootleggers took  over. However, The Chantels early recordings were considered to have too much of  an "earthy black R & B sound" to keep  them on the charts consistantly. They did  manage to have four major hits in spite of  this prejudice.  Eventually, there was trouble between  The Chantels and the record company  because royalties weren't forthcoming  yet Goldner and Barrett were getting paid.  Finally, Goldner has other financial  obligations which forced him to sell  END Records. The Chantels went to Carlton  Records without Arlene. Arlene finished  school at The Professional* Children's  School and went on to Juillard. The  Chantels continued recording for a few  more years. Arlene still lives in New  York and^teaches music.  The Shirelles:  Original members: Shirley  Owens and Doris Coley (lead), Beverly  Lee, Addie "Micki" Harris. Ages (when  signed): 17-19 years old. Residence:  Passaic, New Jersey.  The teenagers began singing together in  junior high and were appearing regularly  at talent shows in high school when they  were referred to Florence Greenberg at  Decca Records. Florence became their  manager and in 1958 she recorded The  Shirelles singing their original song,  "I Met Him on a Sunday". She then formed  her own company, Scepter Records, with  songwriter,Luther Dixon.  In late 1960, The Shirelles' recording  of "Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow"  became a hit all over the world. They  were overnight sensations. They were .  voted Most Popular Group in every poll  held by WINS Radio (Murray the K) from  1961 to 1963.  Eventually their emotional, gospel^^  strengths had to be down-played in favour  of a more white sound.  The Shangri-las  '"corded the controversial 'Leader of the Pack,'  banned at some radio  'stations.  The group began singing together because  they loved music and because it helped  them forget the kind of lives they were  Forsevenyears  living. Their favorite singers were Little  (1958-65) the airwaves were completely Anthony and the Imperials, Mary Wells, The  dominated by women  Flamingos and Dionne Warwick.  They were so committed to their singing that  they released a record in high school for  an obscure company named Kami-Sutra Productions. The record was soon forgotten, but  Kami Sutra did not forget the papers they  had the girls sign. Later, the Shangs were  used by an enterprising young man named  George (Shadow) Morton to break into the  music business. He played their demo for  Red Bird Records, who thought Morton's  song was weird, but who loved the singers.  Just after the girls signed with Red Bird,  Kami-Sutra showed up and a deal had to be  arranged. What transpired left The Shangs'  earnings to be divided up between two  companies. With this arrangement, The Shangs  received an average of $50 per performance  and little if no royalties. By 1964, they  were the #1 white group in America.  for them by the recording company. It  was empty. However, not to be undone,  The Shirelles celebrated their 25th  anniversary last year. They are frequent  performers at The Bottom Line in New York.  The Marvelettes: Original Members: Gladys  Horton (lead), Wanda Young, Katherine  Anderson, Juanita Cowart, Geor-geanna Dobbins.  Ages (when signed): 17-18. Residence:  Inkster, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.  Gladys was 15 when she formed The Marvels  and with the exception of Wanda Young,  all the girls were students in high school.  The group auditioned at a school-sponsored  talent contest where the first prize was  an audition with Tamla/Motown. They sang  The Chantels' hit "Maybe" and placed  fourth. Because they were so good, they  were given the audition anyway. However,  they were told by the Motown representative  that their material should be more original.  So over night, Georgeanna wrote "Please,  Mr. Postman". They performed the song at  their audition and were signed immediately.  When the song was released in 1961, it hit  #1. It remained at the top of the charts  for six months.  In spite of the fact that The Marvelettes  (as they were now called) were Motown's  hottest act, their first two albums didn't  feature the group's picture. It was feared  that their looks would not be acceptable  to white audiences. However, they continued  to have Top 40 and Top 10 hits.  In 1963 their career began to slide. Other  acts at Motown were receiving more attention  and the Marvelettes were left to anyone  wanted to produce them. They had come backs  in 1964 and 1967, but by 1969 they were  completely out of the picture.  The Shangri La's:  Original Members: Mary  Weiss, Betty Weiss, Mary Ann Ganser. Ages  (when signed): 16-17 years old. Residence:  Queens, New York.   The material recorded by The Shangs was  the most controversial of all the songs  recorded during this time. "Leader of the  Pack" was unofficially banned at some  stations and it was banned officially in  England. Their songs also spawned a series  of editorials in newspapers and on radio  and t.v. Their material was considered too  real and too complicated to be understood  by the mainstream audience. However the  group toured constantly - mainly with all-  black reveiws.  It was usually chaos when The Shangs performed and their life on the road was very  difficult. There were rarely breaks during  their tours and their manager changed from  day to day. They never knew what versions  of their songs were being released, or  what songs were on the charts. They just  kept touring. Meanwhile Red Bird was involved with some unsavory.companies and  the label folded. The Shangs were left  with nothing. They moved to another label,,  but the damage had already been done.  The Dixie Cups:  Original members: Barbara  Hawkins, Rosales Hawkins, Joan Marie Johnson. Ages (when signed): 14-17 years old.  Residence: New Orleans, Louisianna.  The three singers were discovered at a  talent contest in New Orleans and were  taken to New York. They auditioned in the  Red Bird office and signed the same day.  Their first recording was in 1964. It was  called "Chapel of Love" and it went to #1  in six weeks, knocking off the Beatles,  "Love Me Do".  Their next major hit was a New Orleans  traditional song that the girls had been  singing since they were children. It was  called "Iko Iko" and it reached #20.  "Iko Iko" is considered the purest record  by the Dixie Cups because it was sung and  recorded naturally using traditional  gospel call and response. Although the  group was doing well, they weren't receiving royalities. Their manager moved them  to another label, hoping to get some money  for the group, but the new label wasn't  interested in them after they signed them.  However, like the Shirelles, the Dixie Cups  continued performing and they can still  be seen in New Orleans.  The Crystals:  Original members: Barbara  Alston, Pat Thomas, Dee Dee Wright (Kenni-  brew), Lala Brooks, Mary Thomas. Ages  (when signed): 15-17. Residence: Brooklyn,  New York.         - ■ :-.   . .  Like many of the others, The Crystals sang  together in high school, where they decided  they wanted a career in music. Phil Spector  "discovered" them when he heard them  making a demo tape. They became his first  contract on his newly formed Philles Records .  The Crystals got off to a rough start and  were often victims of Spector*s business  deals. They were made to record a terrible  little record called "Do the Screw" which  Spector used to get even with an ex-partner and likewise for "When He Hit Me, it  Felt Like a Kiss" - a song Spector wanted  recorded to scare off another business  associate. The Crystals hated both songs  and did not want their image associated  with such inferior songs. Fortunately,  "When He Hit Me..." was banned.  Spector had a belief that the singers on  his records were interchangeable and expendable. To prove his theory, he used Darlene  Love and The Blossoms to record "He's a  Rebel" and put the Crystals name on the  label because he was trying to get the song  out before another producer and he didn't  have time to get the group together.  The Crystals were often angry, confused  The Chiffons  and overlooked during their years at Philles.  Other problems arose when the girls wondered aloud where their royalities were. They  also wanted to expand their material and  do more jazz. No was their answer. The end  came when The Crystals objected to the  muddy quality of their recordings. (Otherwise known as Phil Spector's wall of sound).  Spector's response was to make the recordings muddier still. 'V-,<-7-  In spite of all the trauma, The Crystals  were perhaps Spector's most important  group, as they had four individual million  selling singles and several others that  almost made the mark.  The Ronettes:  Original Members: Veronica  Bennett, Estelle Bennett, Nedra Talley.  Ages (when signed): 16-17 years old. Residence: New York City (upper Manhattan),  N.Y.  The girls were fans of both R & B and rock  and roll. They had been singing together  since their early teens. In 1961, they  got jobs as dancers at the Peppermint  Lounge and later worked with Murray the K.  They did all this at the young ages of 16  and 17. By mid-1961 they managed to get a  recording contract with Colpix Records  and they released a few singles between  1961 and 1962. They called themselves  Ronnie and the Relatives and later The  Ronettes.  When Phil Spector met them, they were doing  session work around New York. Although he  had never heard them sing, he decided to  sign them because he liked the way they  looked - particularly their thick eye  liner. Phil took an interest in this  group like no other group on his label and  eventually he left his wife for Veronica  Bennett. . S|gil|§?  "Be My Baby" is considered The Ronettes  most significant work. A copy of it was  enclosed in plastic and placed in a time  capsule to be opened in 2063. The inscription on the casing reads "An Example of the  Perfect Pop Record".  The relationship between The Ronettes and  Spector seems to have been, a good one.  Veronica enjoyed the recording sessions and  she sang all her songs in the dark. However,  she left The Ronettes right before their  tour with The Beatles. Spector had asked  her to choose between her career and himself. Illlil  The Ronettes career came to an end because  Spector went into seclusion, taking Veronica with him. A variety of personal and  political forces acted upon him and by  1966 it was all over.  However, during this past year, Veronica  (now Ronnie Spector) has surfaced as a  single woman and is continuing on with her  Martha and The Vandellas:  Original members:  Martha Reeves, Annette Sterling, Rosalind  Ashford, Gloria Williams. Ages (when  signed): 18-21 years old. Residence:  Detroit, Michigan.  The group was originally called The Del  Phi's. Martha Reeves sang tenor. Martha  audition for Motown but could only get  a job as a secretary. She took the job  and used it to get the rest of her group  into Motown to do session work. The Del  Phi's had made a name for themselves during  the "doo-wop" period.  The Del Phi's got their break when Mary  Wells didn't show up for a session. The  song they recorded didn't chart, so Gloria  left the group and Martha took over the  lead. Martha was a very accomplished singer  whose talents ranged from gospel to opera.  Their first two recordings "I'll Have to  Let Him Go" and "Come and Get These Memories" were successful. But their third  release in 1964 became one of the most  exciting sounds in rock history. The song  was "Heat Wave". However, "Dancin' in the  Streets" remains their most memorable record.  Although their career seemed to be going  extremely well, they began to get shuffled  from producer to producer. Berry Gordy had  taken an interest in another group, The  Supremes. By 1967, Martha and the Vandellas  were not even on Motown's backburners, but  the group wasn't officially disbanded  until 1971.  The Chiffons:    Original members: Judy Craig,  Barbara Lee, Patricia Bennett, Sylvia  Peterson. Ages (when signed): 16-17 years  old. Residence: New York City (South Bronx),  N.-Y.  The girls met in high school and sang in  the lunchroom or on the street. A young  man they knew recorded their voices and  took the demo around to various producers.  A company called Bright Tune Productions  signed them.  The first song they recorded was "He's So  Fine", a song selected by the producers  because they were after the Spector sound.  The song went to #1 in six weeks.  However, as time progressed, The Chiffons  became very unhappy. They were dissatisfied with their choice of material and  they wanted more input into the creative  end of their careers. Also, huge amounts of  money were being deducted from their royali-  ty cheques for studio time which they were  not using. The producers were doing quite  a lot of experimentation in the studio  and The Chiffons were footing the bill.  The Chiffons sued and won, but no other  producer would touch them after that.  Eventually they went back to their old  label and had'a Top 10 hit, "Sweet Talkin'  Guy." ■*£*.'* 16   Kinesis   April'M  K  5 local photographers  A Visual dialogue  \ Shard to detect when it is happening and  \   3 harder to tie into any concrete analysis  }*o/ systemic discrimination. And,  as we  \\well know,  women are only too willing to  J  §, believe that setback in their careers is  by Michele Wollstonecroft  Many surveys, discussions and articles  have been published recently .that have revealed that women in the arts receive less  recognition, opportunities and earn less  than men in the arts. (See Susan Crean's*  "The Thirty Per Cent Solution; Sexism  as a Fine Art", This Magazine,  January/84  and Sharon H. Nelson's "Bemused, Branded  and Belittled, Women and Writing in Canada", Fireweed,  Winter/82.) While few  artists make a lot of money, women artists  make the least. Most women artists support  themselves with low paying jobs; jobs  that require shorter hours and pay higher  salaries are few.  Having read the "statistics" and talked  with many artists, I wanted to find out  what Vancouver women photographers were  experiencing. I interviewed five women  photographers including, Kiku Hawkes,  Paula Levine, Donna Hagerman, Susan Dirk  and Cheryl Sourkes.  Photographers have enormous financial  constraints. Materials, supplies and equipment are expensive; for those who are  eking out a living to support their art  this means forfeiting holidays, entertainment and generally maintaining a poorer  lifestyle. The stress attached to being  poor is extremely high.  I asked each photographer how she got into  photography-r-what-was her training? Is  she getting commercial jobs? Has she been  funded by the Canada Council or other such  agencies? How is she supporting herself  otherwise and, as a result, how much time  is she able to devote to her art? Is she  able to afford the equipment that she  needs? Is she getting the exposure she  needs (exhibitions, publishing)?  The interviews revealed that these photographers would rather talk about their  work than these issues>but reluctant as we  all were to dwell on economic details,  financially things are very bleak for these  photographers. Four of them have to do  other work to support their art. For those  who are employed at other jobs, this leaves  little time to do their photography.  One of these photographers usually works  as a waitress; she is currently unemployed  and can't afford to print her photographs.  One earns some money doing part-time babysitting for a film maker while he goes off  and makes movies! One has been on welfare  for a number of years. One works at night  so that she will have the daytime to do  her photography. One, photographer who was  asked to participate in this article refused because she has recently begun working in a restaurant and doesn't "feel like  a photographer".  In her article "The Thirty Per Cent  Solution" Susan Crean says:  Still the mythology surrounding the notion  of excellence runs deep and is compelling.  As I've said it has a lot to do with the  iate arrival of sexism as an issue in the  arts and the difficulty women have had  even recognizing its existence in their  own lives.  For in this field,  sexism works  through sins of omission not comission;  opportunities not offered rather than  promotions or pay denied.  It is extremely  Today in Vancouver there are a lot of women  artists creating excellent work, but  . Vancouver is not a city that is interested  in art, by women or men. Galleries and  exhibition spaces are not readily available  to local artists, and even fewer to photographers. Given the statistics that show  women visual artists receive between 20%  and 30% of the exhibitions and funding,  this does not leave much of the remaining  meagre opportunities that do exist to  Vancouver photographers who are women.'  Another problem is that daily newspapers  devote little space to the arts and the  chance of getting reviewed is lower if  you are a woman.  Despite the fact that there is an enormous  amount of good artwork being done by women  photographers in this city, Vancouver women  artists still have to deal with the sexism  inherent in the system as well as the  general public disinterest in local work.  It is time for the Vancouver Arts Community  to address these issues.  The intention of this article was, however,  to present a perspective of women in the  arts...not women in poverty. I asked each  photographer to comment about some aspect  of exhibiting in Vancouver.  SB  . Cheryle Sourkes originally studied  science. Cheryl says "Photography is the -  meeting of art and science through the  machine." Her work combines abstract and  traditional photography. She has exhibited her work in group shows since 1970 and  for the past four years has shown annually.  Last April she exhibited her "Street  Photographs" at the Coburg Photography  Gallery. Cheryl is part of a group show,  "Art and Photography", taking place at  the Vancouver Art Gallery in May and  June 1984.  "It is sad that there is not more response  to local work here in Vancouver.  There is  not enough support from the Vancouver  public.  There is so much really good art  being produced in this city.  Exhibitions  are a gift to the city; they are a lot of  hard work.  Artists are people who are  working and enriching the city.  If I  didn't have a show every year I'd never  get to see all my work at once! I love  that.   When my work is up I get to bring  the eyes that I bring to a gallery to  see my own work. I find that valuable."  Cheryl also noted that the Coburg Gallery,  the only exclusively photography gallery  in Vancouver, has a policy of showing 50%  work by women and 50% work by men as well  as 50% local work and 50% work from other  places.   ,  Paula Levine earns a marginal income from  photography. She works as an auxilliary  worker at Vancouver Transition House.  Paula studied at Emily Carr College and received some grants while a student.  She  was a member of the now defunct Women's  Interart Co-op. Paula considers her work  to be documentary but "not impartial or  dispassionate". She has shown her work in  libraries and coffee houses and has been in  a number of group shows, including the B.C.  Festival of Women's Art, and one-person  exhibits such as her documentary of Spiritualists ("May I Come to You, Please?") shown  j at the Artists Gallery in Vancouver and the  Sechelt Art Centre in Sechelt.  My work usually has to do with people and  their lives,  choices and experiences.  Galer-  ies give a kind of public validation and  giving this validation to people 's experiences is sometimes a valuable thing. As a  feminist who is an artist, I am concerned .  about the influences public avenues have  upon the forms my work takes.  If I allow  myself to have an excessive reliance upon  the traditional avenues for art,  then my  work will inevitably be shaped by those  spaces ready to receive it.  I don't think  this is good for women artists to do for  it limits our explorations right from the  \  start.  Donna Hagerman is an artist who is moving  into doing commercial photography as well.  Until January Donna worked nights in a  home for girls. She studied photography  at Emily Carr College and has been doing  photography since she was young. Donna  has shown her work since 1979, has received some funding in the way of a project cost grant and some awards.  "I'm interested in showing with other  artists, I can't handle the financial  burden 'of a one-person show right now.  I  am interested in exhibits that create an  environment and I want to work with other  artists to give the sense of involvement.  In the past I feel that artists have been  working alone,  it's time for women and  men to work together,   to be more political  and business-like.  In Seattle, for  j example,   1% of tax goes to a municipal  art purchase fund. Artists are pushing  for a similar sort of fund here.  I feel optimistic and excited right now  about the art environment in Vancouver; I  feel like it is coming of age,  even in  this economic slump.   We're surviving1.  I  don't expect to make a living from art."  Donna and Kate Abbott are currently co-  curating "The Wedding" which will take  place at the Contemporary Art Gallery in  May. This artist-organized exhibition will  include the work of 10 artists on the  theme of the wedding: it will include a  _..-•"••.-•••••••  continued on p. 26 by Cy-Thea Sand  The following is an excerpt from an essay-  in-progress about working class perspectives on literature.  "...there are no- private lives; we are all  bound in an economic web, and we benefit  and suffer from its tightening and its  loosing together.\  Marge Piercy  What is a working class woman like me  doing among all these books, messing with  critical standards and perspectives and  fretting about the making of literature?  I work part time at a clerical job which  allows me precious writing hours but financial insecurity and anxiety threaten to  erode my attention and confidence.  You could say that the economics of creativity is ever present on my mind. I am  constantly juggling time and money, seldom  with good humour, and for some time now I  have been trying to make sense of what I'm  doing as a critic living outside of  academe, loving literature while hating  the classist assumptions of most literary  discussions.  I do not and cannot dismiss the making of  literature as a bourgeoise pastime. But I  do agree with marxist criticism that defines bourgeoise literature as being  primarily concerned with individualism  when it is collective action people need  to change their material conditions. It  is also true that progressive literature  can tell us how things could be while pfe-  revolutionary literature simply tells us  how things are. But the act of telling it  like it is has been and is concentrated in  small enclaves of privileged people, mainly  men, and telling like it is for women is  in and of itself revolutionary.  Nonetheless I need to ask: what women get  to make literature? What are the conditions  conducive to publishing and how do they  affect the style, content and form of  women's writing? As we welcome more and  more published work by women I want to know  if the means of that writing - the time,  money, equipment, contacts, role models  and publishing opportunities - are available mainly to white, middle-class women.  Are working class women-white and of  colour-getting their share of the grant  money available to writers in Canada, for  example? As Montreal poet Sharon Nelson  has indicated in her research* only a very  small percentage of Canadian women receive  grants or get published at all.N  I would venture to guess that most of the  women who do are white, college-educated,  middle-class women and/or wives of university or literary men. I am not suggesting  we fight over the crumbs available-the boys  love how much we are forced to do that  already-but I would caution the feminist  literary community not to consolidate artistic opportunities into the hands of our  more privileged sisters.  Are we doing any direct action as a community to support writing as an honourable  form of activism? Are we sharing what is  available or at least asking questions that  may lead to alternative avenues of support?  How do under-financed alternate presses  reach out to historically disadvantaged  people? Are our presses, journals, newsr-  papers and bookstores being supported by  our community as fully as possible?  At the beginning of her book Keeper of  Accounts   (Persephone Press, 1982) American  poet Irena Klepfisz acknowledges the financial support she received from her mother  and from the will of another poet, Claudia  Scott.  I like this idea of naming the means of  how our work gets done and would encourage  all women writers_ to do something similar.  In my more optimistic moments I hope that  this action may encourage' wealthy women to  will money to individual women writers  and/or to feminist publications and  presses. At the very least, acknowledging the cost of creativity focuses our  attention on the serious problem of  support for our poets, critics, writers,  editors, intellectuals and visionaries.  The economics of creativity emphasizes  the historical/material aspect of women's  lives and is an element I want to see  integrated with and incorporated into the  feminist critical process. Klepfisz  writes:  and "not only ideology but society itself is oddly absent".  In the novels of the sixties and seventies by white women "the world was an  obstacle to be challenged, now it has  been left behind." Langer avoids a more  incisive discussion of the class perspective her own thesis raises by noting  a few brilliant exceptions to her point  and by extolling a general need for more  imagination and moral vision in fiction  by women. But despite her reticence the  point comes through loud and clear:  economic and social privilege serves to  isolate women from the public domain and  limits the scope of their fiction. White  middle class women are telling like it  is for women in more and more numbers  The Economics  of Creativity  I feel it is important to give this history of how KEEPER OF ACCOUNTS came to be  written not only because I am grateful to  my mother and Frances  (executor of Scott's  will) for making it possible,  but also  because I want to remind myself and  others of the circumstances that are most  conducive to creative work. A block of  uninterrupted time-unencumbered by a job  or financial anxiety-is critical to every  .form of creativity and rarely available  to most of us, especially to those of us  outside of the mainstream.  I feel particularly fortunate to have received it in  these time of economic depression and do  not want to take it for granted.  Klepfisz' point about the conditions of  creativity being so seldom enjoyed by  "those of us outside of the mainstream"  is a crucial one. How can we fully appreciate feminist literature, or place it  within an historical context, without an  awareness of the limited nature of its  production?  When the production of literature is  limited to those few with adequate time,  money and contacts, innumerable critical  questions are posed. For example, in a  recent article in the New York Times  Book Review  ("Whatever happened to feminist fiction?" March 4, 1984), Elinor  Langer observes that much of recent  fiction by white middle-class women operates almost exclusively on a private  level. The public world of impending  nuclear holocaust, racism, hunger and  poverty are divorced from their fiction  but the private nature of their focus  leaves the status quo unchallenged and  \ renders their work ahistorical. Alice  Walker, Gloria Naylor and Toni Morrison  may be winning literary prizes, but the  fact remains that the literary market is  overcrowded with privatized writings by  white middle class women.  It's imperative that literary discussions within the women's movement become  more class conscious. Feminist criticism  must embrace the economics of creativity  and its implications for working class  women-white and of colour, disabled  women and women of age. I do not want  to witness a reinvention of the literary  wheel in the form of a canon honouring  only writers with privileged backgrounds  and perspectives. I am concerned about  the survival of the poor radical writers  among us and about those of us with  different angles on the world. Writing  is an act of cultural survival, a basic  human need to make sense of it all and  for many of us, the very focus of our  lives. I want writing recognized more  fully as the work that it is, and that  more women want to do. The unusual and  the unfamiliar should not be crushed  by economic circumstance while our more  privileged writers perpetuate an already  overworked view of the world.  The epigram is from Marge Piercy's  Particolored Blocks for a Quilt  (univ.  of Michigan Press, 1982.)  *Sharon Nelson's research was published  in Fireweed,  Winter 1982. (P.O. Box 279,  Station B, Toronto, Ontario. M5T 2W2 18   Kinesis   April'84  by Kandace Kerr  Sisters to the Country  "For our silenced people, century  after century, their beings consumed in the hard, everyday essential work of maintaining human life. Their art, which still  they made - as their other contributions - anonymous: refused  respect, recognition:  lost. "  Tillie Olsen  Silences  "I am beginning a journal as a  sequel to the one I kept on the  journey.  I must lessen, if possible,  the great distance which  separates us by putting you au  courant with my life here.  Thoughts and feelings will go  down, as well as the details of  daily occupations."  Selina Bompas  December 27, 1874  Northwest, Canada  Silina Chalotte Cox was a cultured, genteel woman of forty, a writer and musician, when she married her cousin, Archbishop William Bompas. Following their  wedding, the Bompas' travelled to Canada,  to the Archbishop's new diocese in North  West Canada. From 1874 to her husband's  death in 1906, Selina Bompas lived in the  Northwest Territories - spending most of  her time alone, while he was off visiting  his diocese. To remain at least in spiritual contact with her sister, and to keep  from extreme loneliness and boredom, Selina  kept a journal. It is one of the few  first person accounts of life in the  north before the turn of the century, written from a woman's point of view. There is  little of capital P politics in A Heroine  of the North,  published in 1929. Rather,  there are descriptions of Native and Inuit  women and children, accounts of famine,  disease and death, tales of co-operation  between white and native women, and pages  of loneliness, of longing for a return to  her former life of music, poetry and  writing.  Selina was not alone in her situation.  Like thousands of other women she found  herself at the mercy of her husband's  lifestyle, and made the best of it by  keeping busy - turning to writing to keep  from going completely mad.  J^^Sp  A devoted second hand bookstore hunter, I  discovered Selina's book a few years ago -  and embarked on a search for more journals  and books by women who homesteaded and explored British Columbia. What I developed  was a collection of first woman accounts  of the homestead/frontier life in this province, from the mid-1850's to the present.  "This unpretentious little book is  the outcome of my experiences and  adventures in Alaska.    Two trips,  covering a period of eighteen  months and a distance of over  twelve thousand miles were made  practically alone.. .Enough.. . has  been noted to give my reader a  fair idea of a woman's life during a period of eighteen months  in a few of the roughest mining  camps in the world; and that many  may be interested,  and to some  extent possibly instructed by the  ■perusal of my little book,  is the  sincerest wish of the author."  May Kellogg Sullivan  A Woman Who Went to Alaska (1903)  As with malestream history, the accounts I  have found so far have been written by women who had access to publishing, and to  the tools of the language.  This meant it  was mostly middle and upper class women who  left published accounts of their lives.  Working class women scarcely had the time or  the education to recount their experiences:  one woman I spoke with was told her reminis-  .cences weren't 'good enough English' to be  published. The publisher wanted to rewrite  her life to put it ijito what he called 'readable English'. Few immigrant and native women have left accounts that are easily accessible.    fP^S  That is not to say that these women did not  leave accounts, or that their experiences  are insignificant because there is no written record, but rather, that it will take  more work on the part of researchers like  myself to find that information, to explore  oral herstory, to discover that part of women's experience. What is important is not  the individual stories of extraordinary women, but the common experience of homestead  women.  Most women ended up on the frontier because  of their husband's activities. Couples  headed to the frontier to homestead, to  trap, to mine and look for fortune.  "My husband was a rover, and above  everything else he was also a trapper at heart.    For him,  stories of  that kind were like wild tales of a  gold strike.    He gave up then and  there all thought of our plans to  go back to Fort McMurray, on the  Athabasca River two hundred fifty  miles south, where I had been looking forward to the presence of  other white women, a few frontier  comforts, and a doctor in case I  or the baby needed one.    The three  of us,  Walter decided, would spend  the winter trapping on those rich  fur grounds."  Olive Fredrickson  Silence of the North  (1972)  In order to keep a homestead, one partner  had to live full time on the land, while  the other partner worked for the wages necessary to live on. As it usually was  easier for meft to get work, women were often left alone for long periods of time,  with all the homestead responsibilities added to domestic and child rearing routines.  "The weeks Bill worked at the mill in  the winter were lonely, but there \  was always work to do. Feeding and  watering the animals,  looking after the chickens, getting in a good       §  supply of wood every day...Snow was       J§  melted in the winter instead of  hauling water from the creek...All  baking of course was homemade... J  knit, made rugs and quilts and  read everything it was possible to  find.    Books passed from hand to  hand until they were nearly worn  out...The days in the winter were  Very short.  It was dark until nearly ten in the morning and by four  in the afternoon. . .One time I ran  out of coal oil for the lamp when  I was alone. . .Even though I was  warm and comfortable and had lots  to eat,  the nights were a million  years long.    The darkness and the  deadly silence nearly got to me.  At the end of the week when Bill  got home and brought the oil I  didn 't know if I was more glad to  see him or the five gallon can of  coal oil. "  Ida Scharf Hopkins  To the Peace River Country and On (1972)  A small handful of women explored this province, western Alberta and the North. Agnes  Deans Cameron, the first woman high school  teacher and principal in B.C., travelled  with her niece Jessie Brown from Chicago  to the Arctic Ocean in 1909 - a trip that  covered ten thousand miles, over a period  of six months. On their return, mostly because they needed money, Agnes wrote  The New North,   an account of their exploits  and launched an extensive lecture tour that  took her across Canada, the United States  and Europe.  When I began my reading I assumed that  these women were 'liberated' well ahead of  the feminist movement of our time.  So I  was' continually disappointed to discover  that the women wrote of their experiences  in relation to the men in their lives, or  to their families.  It took some time before I could discard my Walt-Disney fostered notions of the heroic pioneer woman,  relax my feminist idealism and see these  women in their social and political contexts. To expect these women to measure up  to my  definition of liberation was unjust  - to understand and appreciate their  definition of liberation is a process that  continually astounds me.  Isabel Edwards is the author of Ruffles  on my LongJohns,   an account of her life  with her husband Earl in the Bella Coola  valley. When I spoke with her last year,  her response to my queries regarding liberation made me rethink my whole definition  and approach.  "The best compliment that could be  paid a woman on the North Coast  was that she was a darned good  worker and a darned good cook."  Isabel Edward (1983)  Women continue to homestead to this day,  but it is under somewhat different circumstances. Very seldom do they follow husbands or lovers, but often head out on their  own, as did other women before them.  Sisters to the Country  is based on the  writings of women who homesteaded and explored British Columbia, from the mid  1850's to the present.  It is currently  running as a 15 part radio series on Vancouver Co-operative Radio (102.7 FM,  104.9 cable) Monday nights at 8:30. April'84    Kinesis   19  British novelist  challenges ideology  by Linda Grant  British author Beryl Bainbridge lives in  London with her four children, the lover  of one of her daughers, a grandson and a  pet water buffalo called Eric. She watches  Coronation Street and Crossroads, Britain's  longest running soap operas, breakfasts on  fried eggs, coffee and cigarettes and  sometimes does a spot of gardening:  "I'm a believer in plastic flowers", she  says "and I stick them in the borders outside. As long as one brings them in during  winter, they bloom again next year as  radiantly as the day they were bought."  Despite her cult following among British  feminists, despite the fact that she has  twice been nominated for the Booker Prize  (Britain's most prestigious literary  award), despite the filming and televising  of her novels, Beryl Bainbridge remains  unfamiliar to most North American readers.  Some North American feminists are hostile  to her bizarre brand of fiction which,  though minutely filtering day-to-day  domestic experience, does not deal with  traditional feminist themes and portrays  women as neither oppressed victims nor  fighters for women's rights. In her work,  things and people simply are what they are.  Beryl Bainbridge's world is one of cosy  comedy, sudden sadness, mounting unease  and final fear: the tedium of an adulterous  dinner party is alleviated by the violent,  intrusion of armed bank robbers (Injury  Time)'ñ† A civil servant armed with a fishing rod, on an illicit trip to the Soviet  Union with his mistress, gets tangled  up with the KGB (The Winter Garden),  a  wokers' outing to a stately home ends  in a murder and the despatching to Italy  of a body interred in a wine vat (The  Bottle Factory Outing).  To achieve the effect of the confrontation  with the world of hostage-takings, gun-  swinging mothers-in-law and KGB interrogations, the private domain of everyday life  is immaculately executed. What makes  Bainbridge's work so fascinating is the  evocation of English everyday life: eggshells strewn in a privet hedge like leftover Christmas decorations, fish and chip  suppers, slippers and a pipe. In contrast,  bizarre events seem even more unreal but  people's fantasies assume comic proportions.  In The Bottle Factory Outing  there are  two views of the projected excursion,  Brenda's and Freda's:  ...the thought of the Outing filled  her with alarm.  It was bound to rain,  seeing it was already October, and  she could just imagine the dreary  procession they would make, forlornly  walking in single file acorss the  grass,  the men slipping and stumbling  under the weight of the wine barrels,  and Freda, face distorted with fury  at the Weather, sinking down onto the  muddy ground, unwrapping her cold  chicken from its silver foil, wrenching  its limbs apart under the dripping  branches of the trees.  Of course Freda  visualised it differently.  She was  desperately in love with Vittorio,  the trainee manager, and she thought  she would have a better chance of  seducing him if she could get him out  into the open air, away from the bottling  plant and his duties in the cellar.  In the same novel, Brenda's mother-in-law  attempts to kill her, having saved up  her pension for three weeks to buy a  gun. Here, the madness is somewhow intensified by the banal nature of the transaction: "She'd told the lady in the shop  it was for her grandson and the lady  had been very helpful. She gave her a  card to go with it. She brought out of  her handbag a paper target in red and  black to show them."  It is fitting that.the ultimate violence  always seems inexplicable to most of the  participants. Not only does communication  fail, but the absurdity of people trying  to communicate at all becomes apparent.  Each character is acting out a private  fantasy and following a private agenda.  At the most extreme is Adolph Hitler's  older sister Bridget planning his future  as a bell-boy in a Liverpool hotel (Young  Adolph).  More painfully familiar is the determined  unassertiveness of Brenda:  There had been other small incidents  that illustrated her extraordinary  capacity for remaining passive while  put upon.  There had been the man on  the bus who felt her leg almost to her  knickers without her saying anything  until she had to move because it was  her stop and then she 'd said,   'Excuse  me, I'm sorry.1 And the woman with the  trumpet who had stopped her in the  street and asked her if she could  borrow a room to practice in.  Brenda  loathed music.  When Freda opened the  .  door to the trumpet player and told her  When everyday things are  observed in a detached manner  with no one playing villain or  heroine, we experience a surprise.  Ideology, we see, has all sorts of  holes in it, and we can step  through them into the  unexpected.  what to do with her  behind the wardrobe.  Out of the gaps between people, despite  the desire that it might be otherwise,  come a certain levelling. When the gun  goes off and the hostage-taking is in  progress - that is when the familiar  has been decisively violated - a kind of  insight comes. Here characters find themselves as spectators as if the actors in  a play suddenly realize themselves to be  players and begin to watch the action of  the drama.. In Injury Time  Binny is chosen  as hostage:  I knew it would be me...I hope Alison  remembers to do her teeth. She watched  with interest, bent over her knees, as  Harry bundled the wounded Geoff into  the passenger seat...  The car began to  move.  She could see Edward's stomach  as he ran beside the window - he was  holding the handle of the door, preventing it from closing.  There 's no  room, she thought, he 's too fat.  What I have described so far may seem  rather beside the point, compared with the  mainstream of contemporary women writers.  Beryl Bainbridge  The urgent themes we have come to expect  which assist us in defining our place in  the world and directing us forward to new,  unimagined ones are decidedly absent in  Beryl Bainbridge's work. What then, is all  the fuss about?  For me, the fascination in her novels is  both complex and simple. For most of us  life is little considered. Ideology exists  not as a set of ideas, constantly pointed  out and debated, but as everyday things  or institutions whose rules we manoeuvre  our way through. When these are observed  in a relatively detached manner with no-  one assigned to play villain or heroine,  we can experience an enormous surprise.  Ideology, we see, has all sorts of holes  in it and sometimes we can step through  them into the unexpected.  Beryl Bainbridge is principally an observer  who draws our attention to the matter-of-  fact. Thus seen, it assumes bizarre,  even grotesque proportions. This effect  is intensified by the absence of value  judgements. Hostage-takers and madmen are  villains - in terms of their 'jobs' as  hostage-takers and madmen - but otherwise  they are dealt with in an even-handed  manner.  Women-characters are not necessarily central in her novels. In progress is one  about a Victorian clergyman who murdered  his wife. This is not woman-centred  writing in the sense which feminist criticism has understood it. On the other hand,  her male characters are often pompous,  middle-aged creatures, victims of spreading  bellies and the culmination of a lifetime  of cautious ways. Even their escape  attempts are faintly ridiculous. Edward,  in Injury Time,   conducts an extra-marital  affair:  ... there 'd been a few unfortunate  lapses,  like the weekend she'd rung  his house from some drinking club in  Soho.  He'd answered the phone himself,  thank God, but it was frightfully  tricky, standing in the hall in his  pyjamas in the middle of the night  trying to convey through references to  tax returns that he loved her, fearful  of Helen on the landing listening to  every word... There had been too that  incident when he couldn't see Binny  because he wanted to prune his roses,  and she 'd threatened to come round in  the night and set fire to his roses.  Is Beryl Bainbridge a feminist? I suspect  that if she were asked she would feel a  little bewildered. Certainly, her writing  is not feminist in the sense we would  normally understand it. On the other hand,  here is a woman writer both prolific and  critically acclaimed who will certainly  survive into the next century. This article  has been intended as an introduction to  her work. What is now needed is a more  thorough examination. Feminist theory  needs to sharpen its teeth on her novels. 20   Kinesis   Aprils  REVIEWS  Reclaiming the cave  by Barbara Godard  The parable of the cave has a venerable  history of negative connotations from its  introduction in Plato's Republic.   There,  ignorant mankind, bounded by nature and  blinded to the ideal, dwells in an underground cave and must' be educated, led out  into the light in what is a parable of  ignorance. That the cave is a female place,  secret and often sacred, is not developed  by Plato, but would have provided an  additional reason for his banishing women  from his republic. Women writers have  given a different twist to this parable,  transforming it into one of creation, as  Sandra Golbert and Susan Gubar have shown  in The Madwoman in the Attic.  Zarkeen.  By Pegeen Brennan. Montreal:  Quadrant Editionsj 1982.  Mary Shelley in her introduction to The  Last Man,   a work of science fiction, is  one of these writers who have reclaimed  the cave for women creators and visionaries.  In this introduction, she describes her  visit to the cavern of the Cumean Sibyl  and her accidental stumbling into an  inner chamber where she found fragments  of bark and whitish leaves, the sybelline  leaves, on which the hierophant inscribed  her divine intuitions in the written  characters of several languages.  Mary Shelley was unable to read these  inscriptions - her linguistic skills were  weak in a tradition of male education - but  her companion, Percy, was able to do so.  By deciphering the enigmatic messages,  translating, transcribing and recreating  them, Mary Shelley remembers the forgotten  wisdom of the sibyl. In doing so, she  gives birth to her own wise and creative  self, reclaiming the cave for a cthonic  truth which stands in opposition to Plato's  idealism.  Whether or not Pegeen Brennan is familiar  with Shelley's version of the parable, this  is the one she develops in Zarkeen.  A first  novel, this is a powerful fable of female  creativity and should be read by everyone  interested in gynocentric aesthetics. In  spare prose, this narrative is similar to  the creation legend _o_f "The Ice Woman"  narrated within it, and develops a similar  thesis, namely that the creation of the  world or of artistic worlds is the work  of women, producing as they reproduce  themselves.  Zarkeen  unfolds the hero quest of the  female artist into what Adrienne Rich has  called "the cratered night of female memory". Here she reconceives, gives birth  and brings forth art. Zarkeen  circles  backward into what will be the future in  that feminist spiral depicted by Nicole  Brossard.  Drawing on knowledge of pre-historical  societies with their powerful goddesses  and projecting this vision of power for  women into our future, this novel is an  example of the currently popular, feminist, Utopian, archeological fictions.  Others in this genre are Madeleine Gagnon's  Lueur  and Margaret Atwood's Life- Before  Man.   Zarkeen  differs from these two in  following the spare outlines of myth  rather than a more developed fictional  narrative. And in this lies its power.  Zarkeen  relates the events precipitating  changes in custom among a fictive group  of prehistorical people. More specifically  it depicts the origins of artistic  activity among humanity as three pregnant  women in a cave gestate the "sister" arts,  painting, song, dance and sculpture.  The protagonist Zaru enters a cave to  wait out the nine months of her pregnancy.  In accordance with tribal custom, her  dreaming will guide the men towards their  quarry during the hunt. Women and men  live separately, the women being called  "the People" since they are the first  creations of the "Ice Woman". "The Hunters"  .or men have been created afterwards to  give the women sexual pleasure and to  chase the animals, though it is the women's  inspirational power which guides the  hunter's spear to its target.  Zaru is a strong dreamer and has been  marked as the next leader of the tribe.  While she is within the cave she discovers  drawing, the ability to put her thoughts  outside herself onto the cavern wall, first  outlined in charcoal, then dug into the  surface with a sharp stone, each step  towards greater permanency being paralleled with increased success by the hunters.  Later she is joined by two other pregnant  women who find alternate ways of making  concrete the images of their thoughts in  music and sculpture.  Engaging in this new activity involves  the breaking of tribal taboos forbidding  any of the products or weapons of the  hunt from entering the women's caves. Dan-  side me." Feeling her way, trying to under-  stand her world with her hands, she feels  little hands inside her womb like butterflies and wishes she could capture them so  they would not be lost in their fleeting  sensation. This feeling introduces an  orgasm, the first one she has ever had on  her own without a hunter, and in this  orgasm, art comes into the world. Zaru  traps her thought on the wall, outlining  her hand with a burnt stick to "leave its  print on the Wall.  In her account of the origins of art,  Brennan makes explicit the connections  between sexual fulfillment and fertility  and the. overflow of these sensations into  the permanency of art. This is an aesthet-  I ic based on birth, on multiplication.  Women's art is not inhibited by her lack,  her hole - her absence of a penis-pen -  but is encouraged by the sheltering cave  of her body's plenitude.  These new metaphors for creativity based  on female biology and life experiences  are extended when later in her pregnancy  Zaru is joined by other pregnant women.  Skyla with her hand on her belly to feel  the child stirring finds hew own way of  making images concrete in word and song,  accompanied by the drum and reed instrument she invents. Yoran, struggling for  life, puts her hands on the bellies of  the other two women to feel the tiny  white hands, then moulds a statue of a  "fertility goddess" which she reproduces  in a bone carving. The term "sister arts"  is developed literally as the women  collaborate on their dreams and inscribe  them in their varied art medium. As a  trinity, figures of power, they evoke the  figures of the three fates weaving the  tapestry of the world.  ger is threatened, but overcome when Zaru  learns to project her thoughts into the  past or future, allowing her to emerge  from the cave with a new son and increased  power as tribal' leader.  Brennan attempts to create a highly  symbolic language for her imaginary tribe  which is somewhat difficult.to follow  despite the apparent simplicity of the  words. In this way, like Atwood, Gagnon,  Brossard and other women writers, Brennan  demonstrates the inadequacy of our language to convey women's experience.  In the language of the People, both the  living and growing potential of the individual and the foetus growing within the  belly are called "the white self". And it  is this white self, pushing away the black  self of death that initiates the first art.  A much discussed contemporary theory of  influence among male writers emphasizes  the Oedipal relationship between strong  father and strong son and sees the-origin  of art in the act of parricide. Brennan  is consciously establishing a female  aesthetic in her fable, the origin of art  being intimately connected with the life-  giving reproductive power of women.  For Zaru, the moment of first creation  instigated by the white self involves a  blurring of the distinctions between inside and outside, between womb and cave.  In the cave, surrounded by rock on which  she can place her hands and leave no imprint, Zaru puts her hands on her sex,  which is described in terms of wetness,  rocks and earth as "that little cave in-  - X his is an aesthetic based on  |l birth, on multiplication. Women's  art is not inhibited by her lack,  her hole, but is encouraged by the  sheltering cave of her body's  plenitude.  The joy of reading this book comes from  its use of female metaphors of reproduction as a basis for aesthetics. Woman is  not male-minue here, a negative space'  wanting to be filled, confined*in a cave  Which is but the shadow of reality. Quite  literally, the cave becomes the centre  of the world, the umbilicus mundi.  My  initial enthusiasm, however, was somewhat  dampened by problems encountered in the  latter part of the book. One was a printers'  problem, a' consistent inversion of the  names of Skyla and Yoran after this,  latter entered the cave.  The other had to do with the artist's  vision and what seemed to me to be an  abrupt shift in perspective at the end  of the fable. While throughout the narrative Brennan seems to be developing an  aesthetic of sexual difference and advocating a separatist stance - that first  drawing is produced by self-induced sexual  pleasure - at the end the tribe is to be  reorganized on a new basis that integrates  the Hunters with the People. This change  is the first decision taken by Zaru as  she emerges from the cave as leader. The  decision was made when Zaru gave birth  to a second boy and not to the girl she  was so sure she was carrying. While in the  cave the women have talked over their concern about their separation from their  children and of how the young boys continue  to seek them out even though this is expressly forbidden by tribal law. The joining of the two groups is symbolized in  the new baby's name, Zarkeen, a port-man-  continued on p. 25 REVIEWS  April'84   Kinesis   21  RU6YMUSIC  by Connie Smith  In *1968, Aretha made a triumphant tour of  Europe. She appeared on network television  and her concerts were standing room only.  "Aretha had broken new ground for black  female singers, and she personified what  was now officially know as soul.  The late '60's also brought the civil  rights movement to a head and Aretha worked  with Jesse Jackson and Martin Luther King.  In the last months of 1969, Aretha went  into semi-retirement. She avoided new  recording sessions while she wrestled with  scars from her childhood and the recurring  difficulties in her marriage.  She emerged in the latter part of 1970 to  give a benefit concert for Angela Davis.  She also divorced her husband and released  the album "Spirit in the Dark". Although  Aretha said little about her problems, she  told all in a way which had become her  trademark. Aretha wrote five of the songs  on "Spirit in the Dark", each one commenting on the struggle she had just been  through.  Again, Aretha retreated from recording and  considered abandoning her career. Atlantic  was desperate, so they released a collection  of previously unreleased songs. The album  was "Young, Gifted, and Black."  Aretha made another comeback with a concert at the Fillmore and a new album,  "Amazing Grace". The album was good solid  gospel but it wasn't a big seller with the  white audience. Her next series of albums  did not go over well either and her  greatest critics said her direction was  blurred. At the same time, her original  work "Master of Eyes" won a Grammy award  in 1973, but it was never released on an  album, only the '45'.  In the mid '70's, Aretha's style definitely  changed. She experimented with a variety of  producers, including Curtis Mayfield and  Quincy Jones. Her stage performance became  more flamboyant and she shifted away from  soul into pop. She went from playing  electric piano on many of her recordings to  playing no piano at all. Eventually, she  made her way to disco.  As for her private life, again it took a  turn for the worse. In 1979, her father  was shot by burglars when he surprised  them in a robbery attempt. He has been  comotose since. Recently, Aretha staged  the Second Annual Artist's Ball to raise  money for his staggering medical bills.  Although the event was "fabulous" according  to Aretha's brother Cecil, union costs for  staging the affair put them in the red.  In 1981, Aretha, began recording for Arista  Records, She co-produced her album "Love  All the Hurt Away", but the album was  very orchestrated and her voice wasn't  always the focal point. However, she still  won the Grammy for best female solo vocalist.  Her next' album, "Jump To It", released in  1982, went to number one on the pop, and  rhythm and blues charts immediately and  her 1983 album "Get It Right" was number  one on the soul charts. But somebody still  didn't get it right.  In October of 1983, Aretha sued Arista. Her  claim was that she didn't receive royalties  for 600,000 copies of the albums "Aretha"  and "Love All the Hurt Away".  She also said that Arista made charges  against her recording fund account instead  of her royalty account and this diminished  the amount available to her for the costs  ot recording. Arista was alledged to have  hired Luther Vandross as her producer for  considerable cash advances without consulting her.  Last month, Arista settled out of court and  Aretha received an undisclosed amount. She  also agreed to record two more albums for  them. The first, which will be a live  album is due out any time. She won this one.  In total, Aretha Franklin has released at  least 126 singles and 65 albums; 14 of which  are greatest hits collections.  by Helen Potrebenko  The magazine New Woman  contrasts the "new.  woman".with the "old lady" to the latter's  detriment. For example, a new woman believes  that "Hiring a housekeeper is the best  thing a career woman can do to free up her  time." it isn't explained why the housekeeper doesn't have her time freed up -  probably she's just an old lady anyway.  The article I read first was one which  promised to give infallible advice about  how to get rid of psoriasis. Here's an  example of the really scientific advice  contained therein:  Let me spell it out so that you'll  never forget it: It is known that high  cholesterol levels paralyze the big  white cells that gobble up the toxins  and debris,  eliminate cancer cells  and thus strengthen your immune system.  Not only is this nonsense, it doesn't relate to the rest of the article which  doesn't claim that lack of "big white cells"  causes psoriasis. What appears to either  cause or contribute towards psoriasis,  according to the article, is one side of  your body weighing more than the other.  If you play games which unbalance your  body, you'll be like a car that has  suffered a head-on collision. I mulled  this one over for a while and decided it  must mean that just because you don't  have axles doesn't mean you can't straighten yourself out.  In the middle ages, it was believed that  "noxious air" spread the bubonic plague.  I must say this makes as much sense as  supposing that a human body physically or  metabolically resembles a car.  The advice about how to cure psoriasis  goes on to say that one should accelerate  lymph circulation by jumping up and down  on an "inexpensive trampoline"(?) You  Make yourself 'new'  can't eat avocado and you can't go bowling.  Avoid noxious air and signal when you turn.  There was also an article about a new  program for treating heart disease. I  didn't read it just in case it recommended  bowling or a moderately expensive trampo-  then what about my psoriasis?  line 'ñ†  In fact, there were a great many articles  I couldn't bring myself to read. One was  about fashion loungewear designer Olga  Erteszek's relationship with "her finest  creation - her daughter Christina..."  I read the firsthand last paragraphs only  of "The Making (Over) of Diane". The first  was:  To start, New Woman cleansed Diane 's  face with Alogen's Clarifying Cleansing  Emulsion,  followed with Alogen's Papaya  Scrub Exfoliante and Rose Hips Tonic/  The last was: "Result: New hairstyle, new  makeup, new look, New Woman."  (Can anyone tell me why women "cleanse"  their faces rather than cleaning or washing  them?  I was most interested in "The New Heroine  of our Society - the Woman who Makes Things  Happen" thinking it was about us wild-eyed  feminists. But no, it was about women  executives.  The "Finding Romance" article started with  a boldface inset:  Watch Out. .There is one state others  always pick up: The feeling of loneliness. . .There's something in your eyes  and tone of voice...And people react  with either pity (if they're charitable)  or aversion, but not with attraction.  "Making Yourself Approachable" is written  as if you were approaching either men or  women but the accompanying drawings all  illustrate women approaching men. To do  this, you must be: complimentary, dramatic,  controlled, narcissistic (it's "considered  a plus by some men") funny, use sensuous  gestures, be proud of your body, say hello  with energy, make your handshake count,  make eye contact, look good, be nurturing,  don't stand up straight ("when it comes to  inviting attention, the moderate slouch is  more attractive"), don't wet your lips  too often or fiddle with something near the  mouth (this "is a very aggressive, sexual  mannerism, and is considered in the worst  possible taste"), help others in front of.  a man, don't smile continuously. All this  while jumping on a trampoline?  I didn't do the quizzes. One said "Check  off which voice flaw belongs to you...  breathy, whiny, whispery..."etc. You,can't  have a voice; you can only have a voice  flaw.  All women's magazines must have a least  one article on dieting and another one  on recipes and New Woman  is no exception.  One of the feature articles gives nine  "red flags" to look for in your marriage  which indicate "you and your mate should  consider professional help". You can never  be sure unless you read your magazine, can  you? Indeed, one of the readers writes:  "I always cut out the articles and place  them on my husband's pillow." Another  reader discovered she wasn't self-confident  by answering the quiz on the subject in a  previous issue.  Back to the red flags, number six is:   continued on p. 26 22   Kinesis   April'84  REVIEWS  Heart Like a Wheel  by Janie Newton-Moss  Although originally marketed as a drag  racing move, Heart Like a Wheel  explores  more thoroughly ace hot rod driver Shirley  Muldowney's personal struggles through her  meteoric rise to become the first woman  to dominate professional auto racing.  Like Coalminer's Daughter  it shows a woman  determined to develop her innate talents  without the support of privilege, connections or money.  "There's not a man anywhere who is worth  you giving up the ability to take care of  yourself." Thus Tex Rogue greets his  daugher's decision to marry Jack Muldowney,  her high school sweetheart. She ultimately  heeds his advice for although early on we  see her wearing Muldowney's "Road Kings"  jacket while he works up a competitive  sweat with his fellow dragsters, one of  the final frames is his silent salute as  he watches the televised victory of one of  the most important races of her career.  Her professional and personal relationships are all with men. The director, Jonathan Kaplan, is unapologetic in illustrating how sexist the world of competitive  drag racing is. At her first key National  Hot Rod Association event she has to beg,  cajole and threaten to be accepted as an  entrant. Eventually she sets a track record of 155 mph over a 1/4 mile distance.  An early sponsor eager to cash in on the  novelty of a female professional dragster  packages her in a wig and hot pants. Even  when an established name, the media inn  sist on attributing her success to the  cars that have been built by her husband,  then by her lover and fellow competitor,  Connie Kalitta, and finally, by her son  John. A nice touch to balance this distortion is to show young girls hanging around  the tracks seeking her autograph.  Much has been made of the film's editing  which works superbly to show the duality  of her life. The harsh realism of juggling  a career with a family is shown by cutting  from her ecstatic facial expression at  winning her first amateur race to her  hands collecting dishes and tips from the  tables at Good Joe's cafe. Later we see  her at the finishing line and then in bed  with her lover, making use of the conventional representation of power for male  athletes in film.  The four most important people in her life,  her father, husband, lover and son are all  inextricably bound up with her career.  All of them encourage her but when threatened both husband and lover withdraw their  support. After a particularly violent and  confused encounter Connie Kalitta screams  at her:  "If it hadn't been for me you'd still be  getting speeding tickets in that little  town you came from."  We are invited to draw our own conclusions  when, in the next scene, she beats him in  a race. ISlN'.S  Violence erupts twice and at each point,  she leaves the man with whom she is involved and makes a major decision about  her career. These scenes show both a  personal struggle and act as a microcosm  for the violation she faces as a female  competitor.  Only once, at her son's birthday party,  do we catch a glimpse of the women on the  periphery of her life: her sister, her  mother and her lover's wife. The only sustained dialogue she has with another woman  is when her illusions about being "the-  number one thing" in Connie Kalitta's life  are shattered by a coffee shop confrontation with one of his other lovers.  Shirley Muldowney acted as creative consultant on this project, thus affording  Bonnie. Bedelia the rare opportunity of  studying first hand the person she was  playing. The result is a sustained three  dimensional performance from an actress  better known for her stage and television  work. My resolution upon leaving the cinema was to turn to the sports pages more  frequently.  BONNIE BEDELIA (L), stars as the champion race driver,  SHIRLEY MULDOWNEY (R), in her compelling biography, HEART LIKE A WHEEL.  [|k   _i_S     m*  NtfiiR  'Ç ̈  Its images are winds, birds",  the hand  that smudges inner and outer skies, but  the overall sense is one of blessing,  hard-earned. The cruel hurting edge that  once characterized Crozier's work, that  manifested itself in reaction to certain  harsh facts about human kind, is not found  here. These poems push forward; they are  action rather than re-action; they affirm  Crozier's active power as a woman capable  of love and of knowing the natural world.  The book is divided into four sections  called, lamely, Section One, Section Two,  and so on. The first section portrays  mostly human beings, who are strange ponderous figures in the natural world. The  love that arises between humans is closely  allied with nature: butterflies, bats,  gophers, black birds, caraganas, the  smell of rain, and more. The section  starts with a blessing and stays on the  earth's wise surface, where the weather is.  The images of birds are often present. In  one poem, Crozier writes of Pavlova, the  dancer, on her death bed. Pavlova's tenacity at the arrival of death reflects the  poet's own tenacity; her last words were  "Get my swan costume readyI"  In Section Two the dominant images are  still those of animals and birds, but now,  sometimes wryly and humourously, prairie  settlers appear. We are in a special  place, its presence not exotic or hidden.  The power in the prairie earth comes from  simple clarity, and not from a mystifica-  Get my swan  costume ready!  by Erin Moure  A few months ago, Lorna Crozier was in  Vancouver to promote her new book of poems,  The Weather.  Remember? It was November, a  record-breaking month of rain, and then  in the last two days, cold sunshine -  prairie cold.  Lorna Crozier was in town,  bringing us the weather.  The Weather,  by Lorna Crozier. Coteau  Books (Thunder Creek Publishing Co-operative) , Moose Jaw, SA, 1983.  Her latest collection is dedicated "To  the Croziers, whose name I have reclaimed.'  Crozier, author of Crow's Black Joy  and  Humans And Other Beasts,  was formerly  known as Lorna Uher. As she claims her  name, she claims her own poetic territory,  her strength emerging more surely in her  words.  At the end of the first_poem, "The Apple  Tree", petals of the apple blossom are  called "blessings", landing on the heads  of people beneath the tree. And blessing  is a fitting motif for the whole book.  tion of what is real. Its clarity is both  ritual and accessible; sage is called  "sage" and not "witches' moss". Things are  powerful in their simplest names.  ^i^jl^  Section Three is a long poem about the  first white woman settler on the prairie:  a mentor to whom Crozier listens. Though  I found the poem successful from the point  of view of narrative, I was left thinking  that a sequence is somehow more than this.  Crozier comes close to approaching a more  synthetic vision only at the end of the  poem. I wish she had started with the  last section.  The fourth section starts with a poem called "The Women Who Survive." And the poems  that follow chronicle many deaths; the  suicide of the old who walk out barefoot  into snowstorms, the death of pariah dogs  in Mexico, death at the job, the threatened death of imprisonment and torture. Then  the section takes an incredible lunge,  in the poem "Indigo", about a woman in  the (perhaps Asian) mountains apprenticing  to be a cloth dyer, apprenticing for  decades under a teacher now in her nineties,  dyeing cloth indigo. It is an astonishing  and beautiful poem, that ends:  Every day the old one grows  in the other's eyes.  There is much to learn  and much to teach  here  where all things are: Aprils   Kinesis   23  REVIEWS  At  Little  Night  Reading  language threads together her -insights and  experiences into an unforgettable fictional  memoir.  by Cy-Thea Sand  Look Me In The Eye: Old Women, Aging and  Ageism,  By Barbara Macdonald with Cynthia  Rich. 115 pgs. Spinsters Ink. S.F., CA.  $5.95 (U.S.)  A powerful indictment against ageist  attitudes and assumptions, Look Me In The  Eye,  is a book that shakes out the mental  cobwebs and emotional dust of ignorance  and fear. It demands attention and respect.  Barbara Macdonald and Cynthia Rich articulate and analyze our collective distaste  of the aging process in humane, passionate terms. Some of the essays in the book  originally appeared in various gay and  feminist periodicals beginning in 1979. In  1982, Barbara wrote "An Open Letter to the  Women's Movement" when faced with evidence  that as feminists we hadn't learnt much  about ageism over the preceding five years.  The letter-was written in response to a  questionaire Barbara received from a university women's centre in the process of  developing a service for lesbians over.65.  This essay alone is worth the price of the  book. Another essay of Barbara's I particularly enjoyed, "The Power of the Old Woman",  discusses three novels concerned with  aging, one of which is May Sarton's brilliant work, As We Are Now  (New York: W.W.  Norton, 1973). The other two are Valerie  Taylor's Prism  (Tallahassee: Naiad Press,  1981) and June Arnold's Sister Gin  (Houston:  Daughters, Inc., 1975). This is ground  breaking work; each word is engaging,  intelligent and intent on confronting the  taboo on aging which is particularily  harmful to women.  the mountain,  the stream flowing from it,  two women at the centre,  all the blue of the world  flowing through their veins  into cloth  for those who live in cities  they have no need to see.  (page 76)  Poetry is like that, too; all the blue  in the world flowing through the veins,  the apprenticeship that ends close to  death, the refusal of the constructed world  of humans called "cities". I finished the  poem with a sense of awe and a sense that  the world is parasite upon women like these.  As Thomas Merton wrote, the ability of  the world to hold together depends on  just a few people, perhaps as few as two  or three, who live close to the spriit.  It is because of these people, I think,  that the earth blesses all of us, in spite  of what we do to it.  Crozier's final section moves from death  to a feeling "close to love". It ends  with praise, benediction, an invocation  of Rilke, which reminds me of Rilke's  own words: Ever newly begin the praise  you cannot accomplish.  When we praise,  Crozier writes, "the house we imagined/  builds itself around us". Our empty spaces  fill with wind and light. Our bodies become  part of the weather.  Get my swan costume ready!  The Women of Brewster Place  by Gloria Naylor.  192 pgs. New York: Penguin Books, 1983.  $5.95  Using a dead end street as a metaphor in  the lives of seven Black women, Naylor has  written a powerful work of conscience. The  Women of Brewster Place  resounds with what  Alice Walker has termed a "womanist" perspective. Women befriend and betray each  other but the most memorable image is of  an old Black woman healing a younger woman  after the devastating loss of her child:  Ciel moaned. Mattie rocked. Propelled  by the sound, Mattie rocked her out of  that bed, out of that room, into a blue  vastness just underneath the sun and  above time. She rocked her over the  Aegean seas so clean they shone like  crystal, so clear the fresh blood of  sacrificed babies torn form their  mother's arms and given to Neptune could  be seen like pink froth on the water.  She rocked her on and on, past Dachau,  where soul-gutted Jewish mothers swept  their children's entrails off laboratory  floors.  They flew past the spilled brains  of Senegalese infants whose mothers had  dashed them on the wooden sides of slave  ships. And she rocked on.  What comment does such writing command except  to say that The Women of Brewster Place  won  the 1983 American Book Award for a first  novel.  That's How It Was  by Maureen Duffy. 221 pgs.  London: The Virago Press, 1983. $8.95  In The Shadow Of The Wind by Anne Hebert.  Translated by Sheila Fischman.  184 pgs.  Toronto:   Stoddart Publications,  1983.  $16.95  (hardback)  Anne Hebert's latest novel is an exquisite  feast of lyricism and suspense. The role of  the female as Other is juxtaposed to what  I read as Hebert's central metaphor - a  grandmother's early morning swims with her  granddaughters:  Felicity, my grandmother,  awakens  earlier every morning. Arriving before  dawn sometimes, she takes Olivia and  me through the darkness,  the better to  see the daylight...  The first pink glimmer on the gray  sea and my grandmother declares we must  splash about in it right away,  that it's  the new soul of the sun unfurling on  the waves.  When the high tide comes later,  covering  the shores in full daylight, Felicity  stubbornly refuses to swim, becomes  unsociable and distant.  One must love  her at dawn when she's tender and soft,  set free frpm a spell.  Hebert writes.of the essential danger women  are in - teenaged girls are murdered, a  housewife commits suicide - when men view  them as existing only to satisfy male  demands. With skill and mastery Hebert  dramatizes, for me, Mary Daly's idea of  women being spell bound by male domination,  a necrophilic condition leading to shame  and death.  Down Below  by Leonora Carrington. 54 pgs.  Chicago: Black Swan Press, 1983.  This autobiographical first novel by the  acclaimed British playwright and novelist  is both a celebration of her mother and a  rare protrait of a working class artist  as a young woman. The work was originally  published in 1962. In 1982, Maureen Duffy  writes in the Preface: "The grammar school  was the key to escape from poverty that  at the same time brought with it alienation  from the escapee's working class background  if not from the family roots themselves."  Her book explores this issue and in doing  so dramatizes some of the problems educated  working class women share. The novel's  tension revolves around the need for Duffy's  protagonist to succeed educationally and  the child's chronic anxiety about her  mother's health. The mother/daughter  relationship in this work is one of the  most moving I have ever read. Duffy's rich  A short, awesome work, Down Below,   chronicles surrealist painter and writer Leonora  Carrington's experiences with insanity  in Spain during World War II. I was first  introduced to the work of Carrington in  the Vancouver Lesbian Literary Collective  where we read her novel, The Hearing Trumpet.  Both this novel and Down Below  are  surrealistic in imagery and tone. The  graphics of Debra Taub compliment the text  with their esoteric evocations.  An excellent essay complimentary to a  reading of Down Below  is Gloria Feman  Orestein's "Towards A Bifocal Vision In  Surrealist Aesthetics" (TRIVIA, Fall 1983)*..  In her essay Orestein develops the thesis  that through insanity surrealist female  artists "felt free enough to protray the  Goddess as creator, as the natural symbol  for women's artistic    creativity". Down  Below  abounds with images and symbols of  the struggle of a woman to transcend the  linear and limited perceptions of a world  which binds and restrains her. And on a  narrative level the book exposes the horrors  of psychiatric abuses, as well as the  psychology of domination.  *TRIVIA is a relatively new feminist'  journal of ideas. Her address is P.O. Box  606, N. Amherst, MA 01059, U.S.A.  ("A Little Night Reading" is published  quarterly in Kinesis.  Review copies of  fiction, auto-biographies, criticism and  feminist journals should be sent to Cy-Thea  Sand, c/o P.O. Box 24953, Station *C',  Vancouver, B.C., V5T 4G3.)  A mention of a book or journal in this  column does not preclude it being reviewed in depth in future issues of  Kinesis. Review copies of fiction by  and about women may be sent to Cy-  Thea Sand, P.O.  Box 24953, Station C,  Vancouver,  B.C.   V5T 4G3. 24   Kinesis   April '84  SPIRIPJALITY  Working  in witchcraft  by Jennifer Svendsen  Starhawk, author of THE SPIRAL DANCE  (Harper & Row,   1979) and DREAMING THE  DARK (Beacon Press.,   1982) was in Vancouver  this month to give three workshops.  Starhawk wove a web with us—a web of song  and speech, meditation and ritual—a web  to empower and bond us.  On the Friday  night she spoke of magic, of sex,  and of  politics, before leading us in a ritual.  The day-long Saturday workshop focused on  Empowerment and Ritual, while on Sunday  the focus was Bonding and Ritual.  The  atmosphere throughout all of them was one  of relaxed intensity.  That we are hungering for this sort of thing was evidenced  by the fact that both day-long workshops  were filled before any advertising was .  undertaken.  'Despite a hectic schedule, made even more  difficult by a nasty cold,  Starhawk generously gave me an interview before returning to San Francisco. My first question was one which had caused me much  amused speculation ever since I learned  that Starhawk was teaching at Holy Names  College.  J.   What is a nice witch like you doing  _a Catholic college?  program called  and Creation  by a guy named  trying to do  focus of Christ-  than Sin and  being ecumeni-  so he hired me  a certain amount  I was hired to teach in a  the Institute for Culture  Spirituality. It's headed  Matthew Fox and what he's  essentially is change the  ianity to Creation rather  Redemption. He's very into  cal and thinking feminist,  to teach there. It caused  of flack with the Pope...  J.  How did you come to withcraft?  S. I got involved when I was a teenager.  I'd been raised Jewish, but as a teenager  I explored other kinds of spirituality—  some things that were more mystical, more  based on experience and less on just  following a set of customs. I think two  things attracted me to the craft. One  was the imagery of the Goddess. It was a  real revelation to me—I found it very  empowering as a woman to envision the  spirit of sacredness as being in my own  form. The other was that sexuality was  sacred. That was very important to me.  It was the only religion I ran across that  confirmed my own basic opinion about sexuality .  Also, in the Craft there was no authority  figure you had to obey. There was no dogma.  You didn't have to give your will over to  somebody else. At that point I didn't have  much of a feminist consciousness, but I  had an intuitive dislike of having some  elderly man telling me everything I should  do with my life. I wanted to think for  myself.  J.  You obviously do that.  What you describe as traditional witchcraft (something which tends to be very hierarchical  and into elders, with different degrees  of initiation,  etc.) seems very different  from what you,yourself, do.  How did you  go from the traditional training you received to the way you are now?  S. Well, I've just always basically been  very arrogant. I've always had this idea  that nobody,- could tell me anything. One  of the things I've had to grow up and  learn is that, yes, there are indeed  people who can tell me things. But, I've  always felt that if the Goddess is immanent then I've just as good a line on Her  as anybody else. Originally, when I was  16 or 17 I had some very minimal training  in the Craft.  Then I moved away and didn't do much formally, although I did rituals on my own,  I studied art, which was in a way a  strange version of magical training. Then  years later, when I got back to witchcraft,  I had some contact with Z. Budapest. She  is of the Dianic tradition and I found  myself not totally drawn to it. She was,  however, very affirming about doing  things in the way that works best for  you.  When I moved to San Francisco I got together with some other people and we  started a coven, very clearly on our own  ground—our own premises. We would experiment and try to see what worked and  were not necessarily bound by any of the  traditional stuff. It was after that I  met the man who really taught me a lot.  On one hand, he's really very old school,  but on the other, he was always very much  of the opinion that whatever you created  and invented that worked was valid.  J.   What sort of people are attracted to  witchcraft?  S. Originally witchcraft was strongest in  the lesoian feminist community. Now there  are a lot of people attracted through the  anti-nuclear movement and some because of  general new-age stuff. So, there's more  of a mixture. But I think women have a  lot more to gain. Witchcraft has certainly  been a very strong force in the lesbian  cultural community.  J.  Could you talk a bit about the so-  called split between feminist spirituality  and feminist political action.  S. I think it's really a false separation.  The witches I've known have always been  political. Feminist spirituality and  witchcraft have taken a bad rap for the  gurus. The old-line Marxist analysis of  religion applies perfectly to patriarchal  religions but doesn't have much to do with  feminist spirituality and earth-based  religions.  J.  Can you give us a definition of witchcraft and of magic?  S. When I speak of witchcraft I am referring to the old religion of the Goddess  that existed long before Christianity,  that has its roots in pre-patriarchal  times. Magic is the art of changing consciousness at will.  Starhawk is a member of Reclaiming—a  collective that, among other things, is  involved in the teaching of the Craft.  They also publish a "political, feminist,  pagan" newsletter.  To subscribe to the  newsletter, write to: Reclaiming, PO Box  14404, San Francisco,  California,  U.S.A.  94114.  Cost:  $3-10/yr;  $6-20 two yrs;  minimal income-free.  Whenis  magic magic?  by Heather  A discussion of Starhawk's recent Vancour.  ver visit might start with a riddle: when  is magic magic?  I'm asking this riddle/  question in response to a series of conversations I had with women during the  days following Starhawk's talk and day  long rituals.  These talks revealed some underlying  disturbances with the way the weekend's  events unfolded. Many women were left  feeling troubled, and with unresolved  emotional flotsam and jetsam, or they  were left with a very surface impression  of the weekend.  In my discussion I postulated that the  reasons for this were the two-fold,and  perhaps, contradictory goals of Starhawk's  day long workshops. On the one hand, she  was going to bring people together to  share with each other, and on the other  hand she was teaching skills for raising  energy (in other words, magic). With  forty different people and forty different  egos in the workshop it was difficult for  everyone to feel they could open up to  the experience and be safe. To future  organizers I would recommend smaller  workshops.  Also, some of us needed a political focus  for the work as we did it. Or let's say  that such a focus was sorely missed. Why  could we not have zeroed in on the cruise  missile as we wove the web on Sunday? It  was somehow not enough that we were all  gathered together in the name of magic.  Certainly some of the feelings of disappointment centre around expectations.  Starhawk's flu attack left her with a  very soft voice for the hour and a half  of her talk. Some found it difficult to  stay with her for the duration. She was  also at the tail end of a month of engagements ,flying to Vancouver straight  from New York City.  I think some of us were looking for a  witch in glitter platforms with chitchat  full of wicked phrasing and timeless  aphorisms (try performance artist Laurie  Anderson for this effect). Instead, we  had a real human being: one who catches  colds, looks a little like the hippie  heritage she is very much a part of, and  who was undoubtedly a bit of an American  away from her home turf. (She said she  found Canadians took longer to 'loosen  up'.)  All of this is not to deny that many  women did have a deeply fulfilling experience, or at least enjoyed the weekend  for what it was. As a personal comment,  I felt the weekend to be a rather gripping irony. After reading Starhawk's  books and looking forward anxiously to  her arrival in the flesh to 'show how  it's done', I had a distinct feeling of  being let down. In a sense I felt as if  I had let life play another joke on me:  magic and the reclaiming of your own  power is not an experience you can import  from the Bay area on a March weekend,  bottle up, and take home. It takes work-  with your own community, in that old  backyard of the personal.  I think Starhawk would agree. Aprils   Kinesis   25  LETTERS  Coffeehouse  open to groups  Open letter to Kinesis readers:      fi^'if.  La Quena has in the past publicly advertised our space as available for progressive groups to use on Monday nights,  without charge. This policy has up until  now been unclear to many people and so we  are writing this letter to help clarify  exactly what our policy is.  It is now agreed that the space be available on Monday nights to the following  groups:  1. Identifiable groups for their own  private meetings, at no charge, i.e.  Union Sisters, who meet once a month  on Monday night.  2. Any public events or meetings that La  Quena co-sponsors and co-organizes,  at no charge.  3. Identifiable groups may rent the space  for $25 for social events, for public  or limited public access from 6 - 11p.m.  Limited public means open to the public  of Lesbians, Chileans, Students, etc.,  depending on who the renters represent.  We understand identifiable to mean a group  that is known in the community, that has  a name and a membership. At this point,  we are not willing to rent the space for  individuals for socials.  Any group that is interested in using the  space call La Quena at 251-6626.  Carmen Metcalfe and Trisha Joel for La  Quena.  Reader objects  to Kinesis ad  Reading through the programme from Wallflower Order and Grupo Raiz's recent  Vancouver performance I noticed your ad  near the back of it. Reading it made me  begin to wonder whether you are writing  articles about "women filmmakers" who are  over 19 or so and if the "girl group  singers" you are referring to are perhaps  children, or if they are girl groups like  the Shirelles or the Shangri-las. I can't  help getting pissed off when I constantly  see women musicians being referred to as  girls. Maybe you could write some articles  on some progressive music and"women's  groups.  Connie Nowe  Ed.  Note: The copy in the abovementioned  ad, which was for this month's supplement  on the arts, reads: Articles on goddess  imagery in art...writing and class.,  graffitti...girl group singers...women  filmmakers...dance and politics.. .and more.  The girl group singers mentioned  are those  like the Shirelles and the Shangri-las*  They are referred to as  'girl groups ' only  because it is a categorical term of the  music world, something Connie Smith explains in her article on pp.l4&l5 .  The  paper never refers to women musicians as  girls, but this does not mean the paper  is unwilling to look at the phenomenon  known as   'girl groups', we do run a  monthly music column,  Rubymuoic, and  frequent articles on progressive music  and women's groups.   We regret that the  article on women filmmakers will not be   'Ģ  appearing this issue.  Woman seeks  info on scoliosis  Open letter to Kinesis readers:  Scoliosis. Animal? Vegetable? Mineral?  What is it? Do you  know? It seems, very '  few people out there, including professionals, know much about the spinal deformity  known as scoliosis. Yet according to  statistics I've read, one in ten people  has it to some degree. Of those, eight  out of ten are girls or women. That's a  large segment of the female population,  no matter how you look at it. Considering  these statistics, I am surprised that  there is so little information available  about it, and that I have seen virtually  no articles in women's magazines or newspapers on the subject.  I have been aware of my scoliosis for  about 25 years. During that period of  time, I've seen numerous specialists  (mainly men), including chiropractors,  physiotherapists, orthopedic surgeons,  rheumatologists and massage therapists  and have paid dozens of visits to my  GP in an attempt to find more information  and bigger and better painkillers. Those  specialists generally seemed to be long  on opinion and short on knowledge regarding  scoliosis. One orthopedic surgeon told  me that 'Some people can handle pain better  than others', and another implied that  my particular spine deformity was my own  fault because I have weak back muscles.  The only concrete information I've been  able to get was about the physical characteristics only, and most of that data  was found in outdated books at the public library.  Having talked only briefly with a few  people who have scoliosis (whom I've  since lost contact with), I am interested  in getting more information and/or exchanging experience and ideas with others  who have it. Surely there are women out  there who feel as isolated as I do with  it. IM like to correspond or talk with  them about how scoliosis affects them in  terms of pain; whether and in what manner  their mobility and/or ability to function  physically has been altered; what, if any,  treatment they have undertaken and whether  it has worked or not; how their deformity  has affected their relationships with  close friends and family, and their work  situation; how they deal with thoughts of  what their lives may be like in the future.  I am requesting that anyone with scoliosis  write to me so that we might exchange  information (include your phone number if  you like). At this point, this quest is  for personal reasons, but at some point  in the future I may write an article with  a view to educating the public and professional people about not only the physical  aspects of scoliosis, but the emotional,  psychological, and social as well.  Linda Field, 1468 Grant St., Van. V5L 2Y1  Zarkeen continued from p. 20  teau name composed from those of his mother  and father.  This joining seems to undermine the aesthetic developed in the cave and creates  a certain ambiguity of response from the  reader. Is the fable to be read as a celebration of women's creative and visionary  powers that would enable her to become  the effective leader for the entire society?  Or is it to be read as the story, becoming  increasingly well known as the result of  the work of women like Merlin Stone, of  woman's fall from power?  This latter is a definite possibility  given the consequences depicted in Zarkeen  of the invasion of female space by the  Hunters. In a series of escalating invasions, taboo elements from the hunt are.  brought into the cave, women's creative  space. First of all there is the meat which  so greatly strengthens the dreaming, then  the bone for Yoran to -carve her thoughts  in, and finally Keenig, the hunter himself.  Through this last violation of the sanctuary, the Hunters have gained the power to  destroy the People. Zaru's newly discovered  ability to visualize the future, to foresee  developments, enables, her to block this  male destructive force nourished by an  entirely different symbolic system and  myths.  Brennan may be suggesting that women must  use their greater power to communicate  their myths to the young boys and thus win  ascendency over the males in this community,  However, such a conclusion offers little  hope for the woman reader who is aware of  the ways in which our own society has cast  aside female visionary powers and futuristic fictions. Women's word has not generated much force against male stories and  ideologies. I am thus more inclined to  read this as the story of our fall from  grace than as a blueprint for future empowerment .  I reflect on the relative endurance of the  Platonic myth of the cave. It has become  central to our society, while we can no  longer read the sybelline leaves from the  other cave. Nenetheless, the,power of  Brennan's fabel rests firmly in its  attempt to give us greater knowledge of the  creative strengths to be found from a  visit to this other cave where women,  strong in body and spirit, emanate a non-  rational approach. And this advocacy of  women as active producers of meaning  locates Zarkeen  in the mainstream of contemporary feminist writing.  VIDEO INN PRESENTS:  Women's Video Nights II  Evenings   of   technical   workshops   and   tape  viewings for women. All women are welcome.  7:30-10:00 pm  April 24: Women and Video Art  As part of our community outreach Video Inn  presents tapes from our permanent collection.  Includes work by Julie Healey, Shawn Preus,  Anne Ramsden, Teri Chmilar, Kate Craig, and  others.  May 1: Women and Documentary Video  A variety of documentary visions will be  explored with topes from the Video li  permanent collection by Amelia Productions,  Keiko Tsuno, Martha Rosier and Teri Chmilar.  Discussion will Follow Screening.  May 8: Production  Va inch portapak production for women. $10.00  Producers members/$15.00 others.  May 15: Editing  Video editing for women. Basic knowledge of  % to % inch editing will be taught. $10.00  Producers members/$15.00 others.  VIDEO INN  261 POWELL STREET  VANCOUVER',B.C. V6A 1G3  688 - 4336 / 688 - 8827 26   Kinesis   April'84  BULLETIN BOARD  EVENTS  WOMEN'S HISTORY IN B.C. CONFERENCE, April  27-28, 1984, Camosun College, Victoria.  Topics include: history of equal pay,  women in the kitchen in the '20's,  club women, Chinese women, early women ■  missionaries and lots more. Registration: $25/$15 (students and unemployed) . Registration forms available at  UBC and SFU History Depts. or contact  Barbara Latham, Pac/Can, Camosun  College, 3100 Foul Bay Road, Victoria,  V8P 4X8, 592-1281, Local 337.  JOY KOGAWA will read from her prize-  winning novel Obasan  at 8p.m., April  27th, in the Young Building, Camosun  College, Victoria, to open the Women's  History in B.C. Conference. This reading is sponsored by the National Book  Festival and is open to the public.  Free admission.  ANNE CAMERON will read some of her work  on Saturday, April 28th, at 8p.m. in  the Young Building, Camosun College,  Victoria. The reading will be followed  by a presentation of "The Rainbow  Women of the Fraser Valley: Life Songs  Across the Generations" by Marilyn  Ravicz and Laura Buker. Cameron's  appearance is sponsored by the National Book Festival. These events are  free and open to the public.  PACIFIC CINEMATHEQUE EXPLORES the new  British cinema in April with a series  of films produced and distributed by  the British Film Institute. Screenings  include: "Crystal Gazing" by Laura  Mulvey and Peter Wollen on Friday and  Saturday, April 6 & 7 at 9:30p.m. Jan  Worth's "Doll's Eye" on Wednesday and  Thursday, April.11th and 12th at 7:30  p.m. Double-bill: Anna Ambrose's  "Phoelix" and Carola Klein's "Mirror  New Woman continued from p. 21 ————  Severe psychological problems or dramatic gestures - suicide attempts,  physical violence,   leaving home - that  drain emotional energy that could  ordinarily be directed to self-help.  I can understand that if my husband left  home, this would be a hint that something  was a little wrong in our relationship,  but what does the rest of the sentence  mean?  From the pictures and the articles about  executives and how to start your own  business, it is clear that "new women"  are not like you and me. They are rich,  young and beautiful. But from the articles  it is clear that the quest for youth,  beauty and money must be singleminded and  unrelenting. Although one of the reasons  for the unrelenting quest appears to be  a lucrative career, the main purpose seems  to be to catch a man. It doesn't seem to  me that one's career would be at all  affected if one stood straight, looked  lonely or even had psoriasis whereas these  things are clearly presented as the death-  knell to any chance of meeting a man.  Possibly this magazine is primarily aimed  at single women or maybe this issue is an  exception, but catching a man seems more  of a priority than holding him. Married  women presumably can smile continuously,  look lonely or wet their lips as long as  they keep a sharp eye out for the "red  flags".  These magazines feed off insecurities, my  friend says. Are young American women  really so insecure? So willing to be  guilted? So eager for ignorance? Help!  Phase" on Wed. & Thurs., April 25 &  26 at 7:30p.m. All films at NFB Theatre  at 1155 W. Georgia. Admission by membership, can be purchased at the door.  Non-subscribing membership $2, subscribing membership $10. Admission is $3  per film, $5 for double-bills.  and practical considerations to do  with conception, pregnancy and child-  raising, the social and political  issues surrounding alternative insemination, the process of finding and  screening donors, and how to chart our  fertility cycles. For futher info,  phone the Health Collective at 736-6696.  AMERICAN VIDEO ARTIST Doris Chase will be  appearing at Women In Focus Arts and  Media Centre on April 11 from 8-llp.m.  Chase will be presenting her.most recent work in video, including "Mask",  "Three Story Suite" and a retrospective  video documentary. "Three Story Suite"  is a trio of feminist folktales from  Persia, Africa and Polynesia. There is  a $3 admission charge to non-members.  Workshop "How to Keep Control of. your  Images and Make Money Too" by Doris  Chase on.April 12 from 8-Ilp.m. Registration fee is $15. Interested participants are encouraged to pre-register.  Contact Women In Focus at 872-2250  between 9:30a.m. and 5:00p.m., Mondays  to Friday. Contact person: Brenda  Ingratt.    0S?v5^  THE VANCOUVER INCEST AND SEXUAL ABUSE  Centre Society is again offering a 90  hour certificate course for therapists  who wish to improve their skills and  knowledge in the area of sexual abuse  in preparation for work with adult  survivors and mothers of sexually  abused children. The course will begin  May 4 and the final session will be  held June 10. Fee: $500. For more info  please call V.I.S.A.C.S. at 738-3512.  CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT  of Women and Sport (CAAW&S) sponsors  Walk and Roll, Women's Activity Day,  May 19. Opportunity for all women to  ,learn about fitness, and for women's  groups to network. Next organizational  meeting, 7:30p.m. Sport B.C., 1200  Hornby. Call Hilarie at 687-3333, Loc.  242, Mon-Thurs. 9-12, for more info.  IN HER OWN IMAGE - Phototherapy Experiential Workshop, Sat., April 7, 9-5, fee  $35. Conducted by Judy Weiser, psychologist. Workshop through University of  B.C. Continuing Education (workshop LS  -1515-284). For more info call 689-9709.  WORKSHOPS  THE VANCOUVER WOMEN'S HEALTH COLLECTIVE  will hold an information sharing workshop on Alternative Insemination for  lesbians and/or women without male  partners, on Monday, April 30, at 7p.m.  at 1501 W. Broadway (the Health Collective.) We will discuss the emotional  THREE WORKSHOPS BY MARGO ADAIR...May 5,  Sat. Theta training, working at deeper  subconscious levels to visualize  changes in our lives. For men and women  with some previous visualization experience. May 6, Sun. Health-using visualization for healing, women only.  May 4 & 7, Fri. & Mon. evenings - Tools  for Political Thinking. Two evenings  of discussions, learning to develop  an analysis and understanding of political ideas. Women only. Private session time also available. Payment is  on a sliding scale. For locations/child-  care and any other details, phone Jude  at 254-0320.  Photographers continued from p. 16    quilt by Ronnie Tessler, a ceramic wedding  cake by sculptor Bill Rennie and Kate  Abbott's piece on wedding imagery from  comic books.  Susan Dirk has been working in photography  since 1978. Susan studied photography at  the Maine Photographic Workshop. She uses  a "Diana" camera, a plastic view-finder  camera that takes 120 roll film. The  plastic lens of the Diana softens the  image and gives a nostalgic impression to  the photograph.  "It's simple, a very basic tool; because  of its simplicity, technically, you have  to know the camera well,- how the quality  of the lens affexts the picture. It is not  at all inhibiting to people who I photograph in the street."  Susan has shown her work in group exhibitions in New York, Boston and Vancouver,  including "Photo Perspectives '83" at  Presentation House last November. Susan  voiced her concern that the galleries are  not accessible to the 'ordinary' person.  Her photographs are documentation of her  environment: the city. It is the common  person Susan wants to reach with her art.  "In the old days Life magazine had that  sort of imagery, but not today." Current  sensation-oriented magazines do not portray the common person.  Kiku Hawkes is a photographer who earns  much of her income from teaching and from  commercial work. Kiku has exhibited in a  number of group exhibitions as well as  having a solo show of her "Fantasy" piece  at the Camfari coffee house last year and  a show of her "Belly Dancers" series at  the Northwest Exhibition Centre in Hazel-  ton during March 1984. (See Kinesis, July/  August,1982). Kiku's experience in showing  her work in Vancouver has been a negative  one.  "Shows for photographers are hard to come  by in Vancouver. I have found the attitude  of gallery people towards the artist to  be fairly irresponsible: for example,   yes, you have a show... sorry,  things have  changed...we'll call you with our decision  in two weeks...and that turns into no response for two months...and then it takes  another month to get one's slides back.  This is aggravated by the scarcity of  galleries handling our work and the essentially social nature of the~~decision-  making process  (so-and-so has a show and  that gallery owner recommends the person's  work to another owner,  etc.) Breaking into  that can be difficult.  There is a real confusion as to what good  photography is:  that which is new is worth  more than that which has been done before,  but is being done again well.Of ten the  decision of what gets shown relates to  art as a commodity—that which sells will  be shown over-that which doesn't have a  market.  Why do I do it if I seem to receive so  few rewards?    For what it gives back to  me.  It is a secret place,  a somewhat objective platform where I can stand and be  detached from all the nattering things;  a thing that I have ultimate control over.  Something I can trust even if it's not  going smoothly at the time—a way of knowing my core,  giving it form, putting it  out to the world in a hopefully memorable April'84 Kinesis   27  BULLETIN BOARD  "RELATIONSHIPS IN THE AQUARIAN AGE: Alternatives to the Marriage Model" is again  being offered on May 5. This workshop  led by Louise Pohl is designed to pro-  . mote clarity in the area of relationships. The time is 10a.m. to 2p.m. Fee  is $20 and pre-registration is necessary. Call 685-1695.  ON THE AIR  TONE INTO CO-OP RADIO 102.7 FM:  WOMAN VISION, Mondays, 7:30p.m. News,  upt-coming events, music.  DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES, Mondays, 8:30p.m  Special documentary features.  THE LESBIAN SHOW, Thursdays, 8:30p.m.  Reviews, herstory and weekly features.  RUBYMUSIC, Fridays, 7p.m. Women's music.  .NIGHTWATCH, Wed. April 11, 7:30, feature  on Incest.  DISARMAMENT AND BEYOND  CONFERENCE II  April 29th at Langara Campus, 100  W. 49th. Registration 9a.m. Waged $6  unwaged  $3.50. Workshops will be  geared to making the connections  between disarmament and womens, third  world, environmental and nature  issues plus 5 strategy workshops  ranging from Armchair War Resistance  to Civil Disobedience will explore  what can be done. Also films, book  tables, free childcare, differently  abled access table. Pre-register for  childcare 874-0137. Sponsored by  Women Against Nuclear Technology and  Trident Action Group.  GROUPS  WOMEN INTERESTED IN GROUPING with other  women to: -talk/-make new friends/  -learn from each other's lives about  our reality as women/-do something  about it...Phone Rape Relief & Women's  Shelter for more info: 872-8212. Childcare on site. Wheelchair accessible.  FEMINIST SEEKS TRAVEL COMPANION beginning  with fortnight tour hosted by the  Women's Union of Greece to sites  celebrating historic women. We arrange  own travel to (and from) Athens,  arriving June 19th. Tour over, visit  other Greek Islands. Exciting? Call  987-2715. Deposit deadline is April 30.  CLASSIFIED  LOOKING FOR A HOME: Arrow, my dog, and I  are looking for a new home. Women's  house preferred. We are non-smoking,  mostly vegetarian, politically active,  and tired of too many changes lately.  We need to settle. Call Monika 253-4802,  or leave message.  LESBIAN  INFORMATION LINE  y Need Information?'  Want to Talk?  Contact L.I.L. — (604) 734-1016  Thurs. & Sun. 7-10 p.m.  cntteetiveor write 1501 w- Broadway,  Vancouver  Pom Conference  continued from p. 1  That is, until Wendy-Stock began to speak.  Stock is a psychologist from New York  doing work on women's reactions to pornography. She outlined her findings briefly:  whereas men get less repulsed and anxious  after prolonged exposure, women become  more so. This isn't exactly shocking news  but academic circles often demand proof of  the obvious. Stock knows all of this. She  raced through her slides complete with the  required graphs of quantification and analysis . Then she stopped and began to get  the priorities straightened out. "It is  impossible to discuss pornography outside  of the generalized violence women experience in sexist society." There was an outburst of applause. She put up more slides,  one showing a Hustler  magazine spread  featuring the gang rape of a woman on a pool  table in bar in Massachusetts. The truth  was coming out.  During the lunch break, the women participants were visibly agitated, caucusing  quickly.  As the applause for Dr. Koop's talk began  to die down, a phalanx of women drew up  at the side of the auditorium. They looked  determined. Something was in the air. Finally, they made their way to the stage.  They unfurled a banner that read "Women's  bodies, women's lives, we decide." and  MacKinnon read out the women's statement.  Rabbi Goldstein, scheduled to talk about  pornography and ethics, put the clergy in  their place. "Those of you who hear in  confession of a woman being beaten cannot  tell her to take those blows." "The Church  has to take responsibility for confining  women to the role of housewife and child  rearer."  Then Andrea Dworkin appeared. You could  hear a pin drop. "Thank-you," she said,  "for taking feminist rhetoric seriously  enough to base your studies on it." She  expressed outrage that we would wonder  whether a meat hook in a vagina "causes  harm". She reminded the audience that this  was entertainment. And then to the point:  "If you love male supremacy and you abhor  pornography, then you don't abhor pornography enough to do anything about it."  Pauline Bart changed her mind and decided  not to talk about her research.Instead, she  told the audience that when she was completing her Ph.D thesis, she became pregnant and had an illegal abortion. She almost died from the botched procedure, and  if she had, she said, or if she'd had the  baby for that matter, she never would have  done, any of her work on rape, pornography  and violence against women. "So don't tell  me when I'm at a conference on pornography  not to talk about abortion." End of remarks  At least thirty members of the audience  walked out of the women's'demonstration',  including Ontario Censor Board Charman Mary  Brown. At the end of the day, the last  speaker, a Dr. Rudecki, who specializes in  TV violence, exhorted women not to resort  to violence in their protests, as if taking ten minutes on the podium, peaceably,  and after having been "censored" by conference organizers, could even be breathed in  the same breath as the horrifying violence  flashed on the screen throughout the day.  Dr. Rudecki's parting shot was that women  should try something else - like starvation  protests. There's consciousness for you;  let's fight violence against women by committing actions of violence on ourselves.  But consciousness was never built in a dayu  Women's silence and pornography have always  been closely linked and it was the breaking  of that silence that brought the issue into  the glare of media attention surrounding  the conference. By commanding women's silence, by attempting to shut women out,  conference organizers struck a female nerve  that created a kind of magic that day. Many  women left feeling more like getting back  to the old activism than every before. The  real lesson of the day was: You cannot shut  women out. It simply cannot be done. The  Globe and Mail  quoted the beleagured David  Scott as saying that he had "asked the women to leave their guns at home." Pauline  Bart put it best. "Oh, we left our guns  at home," she said. "But we brought our  politics with us."  AUTO REPAIR: complete car care by women.  Have us do your spring tune-up. We  have reasonable rates and a mobile  service. Call Susan 254-7909 (We now  have an answering machine).  LOST: Brown hardcovered journal and every  woman's almanac at Sunday's International Women's Day event. Please return:  Carol-Anne at 874-2007. P.S. I lost  them at the Vancouver Women's Health  Collective table.  WOMAN TRAVELLING TO NEW MEXICO in May is  interested in looking into possibilities of how to get there. Would there  be anyone driving down that way? Even  as far as San Francisco or L.A. would  help. Call Carol-Anne at 874-2007.  SUBLET FOR SUMMER (June, July, August).  Furnished room in comfortable feminist  East Van household. $200/mth. plus  hydro. Some storage space. Non-smoker  preferred. Call Renee (w) 435-7525,  and/or Carolyn, Emma (h) 254-3358.  LITTLE MOUNTAIN NEIGHBOURHOOD HOUSE SOCIETY  has groups for single parents. Single  Mothers meet on Mondays from 5-8:30p.m.  at 3981 Mdin St. (at 24th Ave.) Potluck  supper from 5-6:30p.m. Childcare is  provided. Single fathers meet every  other Thursday from 5-8:30p.m.  "INDEX/DIRECTORY OF WOMEN'S MEDIA" Available  from Women's Institute for Freedom of  the Press, 3306 Ross Place, N.W.,  Washington, D.C., U.S.A., 20008. $8(US)  BED & BREAKFAST IN NELSON, a Canadian Hostelling Association Mini-Hostel. Rates  vary from $7 to $12 for single, $14-17  for double. For more info contact:  Ms. Jane M.W. St^eed, Killarney-on-the-  Lake, R.R. 1, Nelson, B.C. VIL 5P4  oaf".  ofrtoHAfor  IdhtV*.  dt4Jri button,  QircuUtibH.  400A West 5th Avenue  Vancouver, B.C.  V5Y 1J8  Tel: 873-1427

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