Kinesis, November 1982 Nov 1, 1982

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 VMJIDM  Special Collections Serial j  3 It's election time in  Vancouver. Kinesis  looks at what City Hall  has done for women in  the past year and who's  fighting it out for the  school board.  7 Are volunteers cheating the unemployed?  Brig Anderson analyzes  the history of women  and volunteerism in  North America.  8 The struggle in Ireland  continues as women  from both the North and  South attempt to forge a  strong feminist movement.  10 What is the relationship between pelvic infection and the IUD?  Maureen Moore provides  up to date research on  the dangers of the IUD  and    PID    symptoms.  COVER: Photo by Tana Hoban/design by Ava Weiss;  taken from Deborah Hautzig's novel for young girls  Hey Dollface. Hautizig was twenty-one when she  published her first novel about two young women's  journey into adulthood.  14 Jeny Evans talks  about her experiences in  high school and the  need for young feminists  to combat sexism in the  classroom, the family  and personal relationships.  19 Anne Rayvels interviewed prisoner rights  activist Claire Culhane  about the position of  young women in Canadian jails.  20 Alice Munro's latest  book just hit the shelves.  Cy-Thea Sand reviews  this collection of short  stories.  25 When Rachel Rocco  went to the Westcoast  Women's Music Festival  she expected to find a  political gathering of  women. It didn't happen.  SUBSCRIBE TO KMEJIJ  Published 10 times a year  by Vancouver Status of Women  400A West 5th Ave., Vancouver, B.C. V5Y 1J8  □ VSW membership - includes Kinesis subscription -  $20 (or what you can afford)  □ Kinesis subscription only - $13  □ Institutions - $40  □ Sustainers - $75  Name   Address_  Phone   .Amount Enclosed_  Please remember that VSW operates on inadequate  funding — we need member support! /tmesis  Although it has been argued that disarmament is a federal issue, not a municipal  one, approximately 60 Canadian cities have  agreed to conduct referendums on the  issue.  Supporters of a municipal ballot  argue that the gruesome reality of a nuclear war would be met by the cities, many  of which would be targets and all of which  Women step up  anti-porn action  harbour the vast concentration of the  country's population.  'Alien Vancouver voters go to the polls on  November 20. they will have the opportunity  to say no to nuclear build-up. Given the  overwhelming support for anti-nuclear  protest seen In this city during the past  summer we can expect Vancouver voters will  take advantage of the referendum. This  issue, Kinesis looks at City Hall's performance over the past year and the contest shaping up in the school board elections. See pages 3 and 4.  Younger sister, Older sister  What are the problems confronting young women in high school these days? Does the Women's Movement make room for the voice and visions of younger feminists?  Against the much reported anti-feminist back lash in the schools, written up by the commercial media,  several young women speak out about their own oppression and isolation in a world that still does not  tolerate deviance in behaviour, fashion or cultural expression.  Younger Sister, Older Sister is a special supplement in this month's issue of Kinesis where young  women in Vancouver tell part of their story. Are we listening? p. 13  by Pat Fiendel  For several months now women's  groups in B.C. have been demanding local Crown Counsels  and Attorney-General Allan  Williams take legal action  against Red Hot Video  and its.  imitators. The company has  opened 12 outlets in the Lower  Mainland., and another in Victoria, all of which distribute  pornographic videotapes.  Women are protesting the blatant violence directed toward  women in Red Hot Video's  materials, many of which include  beatings (women tied up or  hung upside down, beaten and  sexually abused), rapes, gang  rapes, and coercive sex with  juveniles. These materials are  defined by feminist protesters  as 'hate propaganda' directed  exclusively at one group —  women. There is no doubt, the  Concerned Citizens of the  North Shore say, that the content of several of the tapes  currently available from Red  Hot Video  violate both the  Criminal Code  of Canada (see  October's Kinesis, p. 18) and  the B.C. Guidelines on pornography .  Both the North Shore Women's  Centre and Port Coquitlam Women's Centre have brought specific tapes to the attention of  Crown Counsel in their regions.  So far, no charges have been  laid, although Crown Counsels  say at least some of the tapes  are clearly violating obscenity  laws. Red Hot Video  has been  politely asked to remove the  offending tapes from its shelves, or tapes targetted by  women's groups have mysteriously disappeared from shelves  just as their content is made  public. {Red Hot Video's  lawyer, Mark Dwor, admits that between 25 and 30 tapes have been  taken from the shelves.) However, when one tape ordered  off the shelves {Never a Tender  Moment),  was found to be available several weeks later, Vancouver Regional Crown Counsel  Sean Madigan's response was  "they might have forgotten to  remove it" (at best, a questionable legal defense).  Women are not satisfied with. .  quietly removing tapes, one by  one, from the shelves. North  Shore women insist on a prosecution by the Crown to prevent  the proliferation of outlets  like Red Hot Video.  After months of writing letters  and telegrams to Allan Williams,  Crown Counsels, mayors, Customs  officials, MLA's, MP's and government representatives of the  Status of Women, they have refused to give up. Recent pro  tests target the Red Hot Video  "Special Handbook",  a glossy  colour illustrated pamphlet  which lists tapes by subject  category, including "rape and  gangbang", "incest", "young  girls", and "first sex experience". There are no titles,  just film numbers and general  descriptive comments about each  category. A separate cross-reference catalogue lists numbers  with their titles. The Handbook  also includes colour photographs, among them a full-page  "glossy" showing a woman lying  on a mattress in a shed, being  held down by one man while another rapes her and a third  watches with a beer bottle in  his hand. The woman is displaying obvious pain and unwillingness. The caption reads  "Kelly Nichols gets gangbanged  in 'Roommates'".  Vancouver Crown Counsel Sean  Madigan calls the catalogue a  "sort of Playboy thing" and is  not "overly alarmed" by it.  His reasons for refusing to  prosecute have included such  legally weighty arguments as:  the courts are too busy, prosecution does not "solve" the  pornography "business", and it  is just too difficult to get  a conviction. After viewing  five tapes, North Vancouver  Crown Counsel's office admitted two tapes clearly violated  B.C. Guidelines, but dismissed  the others. One was dismissed  for "poor quality" acting,  another because of a "not  particularly believable" story.  Both tapes included rape scenes.  In a letter dated September 13,  1982, to a North Shore resident, Allan Williams said,  "Material depicting explicit  sex with violence, including  the beating and rape of women,  in my view does contravene  community standards, and therefore the Guidelines, and may  be the subject of prosecution."  As far back as June 22/82,  Williams stated in the Legislature that he saw no reason  why prosecution would not be  possible, and on October 5, he  publicly stated that obscenity  laws would be upheld in B.C.  After the Handbook  was brought  to his attention recently, he  said the criminal justice division "is examining this entire  area and is considering what  action may be taken". To date,  no charge has been laid against  Red Hot Video  for any tape on  its shelves or for the Handbook  catalogue.  continued on p. 2 Kinesis     November 82  MOVEMENT MATTERS  Single moms  growing strong  by Anne Rayvels  Rosemary Brown, NDP Human Resources Critic  opened the Fourth Annual Single Mothers  Symposium saying that women coming together, working together and sharing together  is a wonderful beginning. The YWCA sponsored event was held October 22-24 in  Vancouver.  Brown said that women have alwyas been  blamed for marriage breakups and that for  years "we have accepted the blame. If we  were beaten, or if we got old, it was our  fault," said Brown, adding that in the  20th century there-has been a change.  "We can  take care of ourselves," said  Brown. "We have always taken care of ourselves — and everybody else. We really  can survive and this coming together is  a good sign that we are."  Two lawyers, Gayle Raphanel and Joanne  Rahson gave the keynote address at the *  symposium — Surviving the Reality.   Legal  aid cutbacks, said Raphanel, mean family  law is no longer covered unless it is an  urgent matter, such as the protection of  children. Basically no one is entitled now  to legal assistance in court unless they  can pay for it. She compared the present  situation to a storm at sea where the cry  of "Man the lifeboats — women and chil-  ren first I" rings out. The women and chil  dren first.'" rings out. The women and  children are put into a small life boat  KMEJiJ  KINESIS is published ten times a  year by Vancouver Status of Women.  Its objectives are to enhance  understanding about the changing  position of women in society and  work actively towards achieving  social change.  VIEWS EXPRESSED IN KINESIS are  those of the writer and do not  necessarily reflect VSW policy. All  unsigned material is the responsibility of the Kinesis editorial group.  CORRESPONDENCE: Kinesis, Vancouver Status of Women, 400A West  5th Avenue, Vancouver, B.C. V5Y 1J8.  MEMBERSHIP in Vancouver Status  of Women is $20/year (or what you  can afford). This includes a subscription to Kinesis. Individual subscriptions to Kinesis are $13/year.  SUBMISSIONS are welcome. We  reserve the right to edit, and submission does not guarantee publication.  WORKERS THIS ISSUE: Janet Berry, Jan  DeGrass, Cole Dudley, Pat Fiendel, Patty Gibson,  Melissa Jacques, Debra Lewis, Hilarie Mackie,  Louise Miller, Janet Morgan, Dianne Morrison,  Elizabeth Shackleford, Anne Rayvels, Rachel  Rocco, Rosemarie Rupps, Deb Wilson, Michele  Wollstonecroft, Joan Woodward. Esther Shannon  and Casey Crawford. Thanks to Dorothy and  Robin at Makara.  DEADLINE FOR NEXT ISSUE: November 15  for December 1 publication. All copy must be  double-spaced, typewritten. Late copy will be  printed as space permits.   with one paddle and thrust out to sea.  Raphenal continued the analogy saying that  during a storm, you have to get rid of the  deadwood, and women and children are now  considered part of the deadwood.  Now that women must go through the courts  completely unaided, Raphenal said, we must  band together and make our voices heard.  She said we can write letters to the Attorney General, and organize around these  cutbacks because "this treatment is unacceptable and inhumane".  Joanne Ranson urged women to find out  about their rights. She said information  can be obtained from the YWCA, the Vancouver People's Law School, women's groups  and she encouraged women to go to the  courts just to watch and listen.  Charges dismissed  against Body Politic  The injustice of harassing The Body Politic  on charges of obscenity at a time when the  Attorney-General has turned a blind eye to  much more explicit and violent pornographic material only exposes the legalized harassment of gays and demonstrates  that censorship of the press is possible.  The content of the original article and of  its 1982 successor "Lust with a very  Proper Stranger" (also charged as obscene)  have become almost incidental to the  proceedings.  On November 1 a new trial opened, but  charges were dismissed after the defence  argued that the paper was protected by the  Charter of Rights and Freedoms. So far,  The Body Politic  has spent over $80,000 in  legal fees and expects to land in debt  this year. Donations can be sent to: TBP  Free the Press Fund, c/o Box 7289, Stn. A,  Toronto, Ontario. M5W 1X9. Payable to Lynn  King in Trust for TBP.  Since the appearance of a now infamous  article, "Men ioving Boys Loving Men", in  1977, The Body Politic,   a Toronto magazine  for gays, has been subjected to police  search and seizures, trial and harassment.  All nine members of the collective have  been charged with "publishing obscene  written matter", some of them more than  once. They have been tried, acquitted,  subjected to re-trial and acquitted once  more. On July 13th of this year the Crown  served notice that it had appealed the  second acquittal, causing even the conservative Globe and Mail  to editoralize  that the Attorney-General's office must  have a "prosecution complex".  Family court procedures are long and involved, but if women know what these proceedings are, they would be in a better  position to understand what is happening  in their own case. One source of help is  the Lawyers' Referral Service which charges  $10 for half an hour's information. Ranson  said some laywers give one initial free  consultation and the family courts will  help make out necessary documents. She  said information can also be received from  the Supreme Court registry and student  legal advice programs.  Jean Swanson, NDP candidate for Little  Mountain, facilitated a workshop on employment. She summed up the discussion by saying that when the economy is bad, women,  racial minorities and handicapped are the  hardest hit. Women have alwyas been victims  of wage discrimination and "even employed  women are poor". She said it is profitable  for governments to discriminate against  women. In 1978 in Ontario, it was estimated  that if women had received equal pay, government profits would have been $7 billion  less.  The childcare workshop recommended that an  information centre about daycares in the  city be set up which could also coordinate  information between daycare centres. They  also recommended pooling information to  set up baby-sitting cooperatives in the  community. They believe there Is a need for  extended daycare for people on shift work  and said that presently there is no arrangement for children who are sick. Currently,  Granny Y's offers emergency daycare for  children from three months to five years,  and the B.C. Daycare Coalition meets at  Langara the first Thursday of each month  at 7:30 p.m.  Other workshops included housing, assertiveness, creative employment, creative  play for moms and kids, legal problems and  sexuality. The theme "Single Moms are Growing Strong" was very clear in both the  workshops and in private discussions where  women demonstrated their interest and  eagerness to take greater control of their  situations.  Morgentaler plan  watched  Ontario Attorney-General Roy McMurtry said  he will watch Henry Morgentaler's plans to  set up an abortion clinic in-Toronto, and  if the doctor breaks the law he will be  prosecuted.  McMurtry said he has not heard from Morgentaler but a number of people have told  him of the doctor's intention to set up a  Toronto clinic within the next few weeks.  Morgentaler, who has been tried and acquitted three times for performing illegal abortions in Quebec, is planning to set up  clinics in Winnipeg and Toronto within the  next few weeks. (Globe and Mail)  Federal soliciting law  unlikely  The House of Commons justice committe,  currently examining the issue of street  soliciting by prostitutes, is unlikely to  recommend action to Parliment for at least  another year - if ever.  Besides waiting for a ruling from the  Supreme Court on the challenge to Calgary's  anti-soliciting by-law by prostitute  Lenore Westendorp, the committee is badly  split on the the issue. Some MPs are calling for a tougher Criminal Code, while  others favor "desexualizing" the Code to  allow prostitutes to work in peace. November 82 Kinesis 3  CITY ELECTIONS  So what's City Hall done for women?  As the civic elections approach in Vancouver, it seems like a good time to take  stock of Vancouver Status of Women's involvement in civic issues, and to briefly  examine what this City Council has done  for the women of Vancouver.  You will probably remember that in January  1981, members of the Vancouver Municipal  Regional Employees Union—the staff at  City Hall—went out on strike in an attempt to gain equalization of base pay  rates, a first tactical step towards equal  pay for work of equal value. Out of a  Council that has supposedly committed itself to an affirmative action program for  women and minorities, a grand total of  three aldermen respected the union's picket line. These were Rankin, Erikson and  York, all from the COPE slate.  In February, 1982, Vancouver Status of  Women presented a brief to Council supporting a Ward System for the City of Vancouver. VSW has been presenting briefs on  this issue since 1976, on the grounds that  to effect participation for all women in  civic politics, community accessibility  and accountability are imperative. Vancouver is one of the few large cities in  Canada where there are still no wards. NPA  aldermen still oppose wards, even though  a plebiscite held a few years ago showed  a majority of Vancouver voters support  them.  In March of this year, women were outraged  by a report in the Ubyssey  of a speech  made by city councilor Nathan Divinsky.  In reference to single mothers who keep  their children, he was reported to have  said that "no one ever asked her to uncross her legs". VSW sent a letter to  Council, demanding a public apology from  Mr. Divinsky. The alderman subsequently  apologized, "regretting any statements...  causing your organization any discomfort".  On the brighter side, Council voted in the  same month to fund VSW its one salary for  yet another year. Alderman George Puil  (NPA) made his usual comment about not  supporting the status of women until there  is a "status of men". His strong "no" vote  was echoed by Alderman Warnett Kennedy  (NPA), showing us again that we still have  a long way to go. .  Reva Dexter was hired on a ten-month contract as the Equal Employment Opportunities officer to reactivate the affirmative  action program at City Hall. (Remember  Shelagh Day?) Dexter was given a fairly  restrictive mandate by Council—for instance, the Fire Department was off limits.  Council also struck an Affirmative Action  Review Committee which included the unions  at City Hall, the Human Rights Branch, and  VSW representing women. This committee was  an advisory body only, therefore VSW's  participation was often a disappointing  experience. On a positive note, however,  VSW provided feminist input to the revision of the City's job application form.  VSW is waiting to see if the program will  be continued with a stronger mandate from  Council.  RALUf VANCOUVER CITY HALL  .gquALPAV,  (VAKOUVEfc  f£r» 1 |MISEU»S  TUESDAY MARCH 31  V.S.W. surveys  civic candidates  Early in October VSW sent questionnaires  to Mayoral and Aldermanic candidates running in the November 20 civic election.  All candidates for mayor, the NPA and COPE  slates, and aldermanic ineumbants seeking  re-election were contacted. Unfortunately,  it was not possible to reach independent  aldermanic candidates.  The overall return rate was shockingly  low: two of the four mayoral candidates,  and only six aldermanic candidates submitted completed questionnaires.  MAYOR  Neither Jonathan Baker (NPA) nor David  Ingram, a tax consultatnt running as an  independent, responded to the questionnaire, which leads us to question how responsive either of these two candidates  would be to women and their organizations  if elected.  Incumbent Michael Harcourt and Independent  Ned Dmytryshyn (supported by the Revolutionary Workers League) both supported  municipal funding for VSW and community  Continued on p. 4  continued from p. 1  Copies of the catalogue purchased recently, however, have  been noticeably altered with  a black felt pen: under the  subject category "anal sex,  bondage and discipline", the  subcategory "sadism and masochism" has been crossed out;  under "first sex experience"  the comment "includes both  willing and unwilling virgins"  has been crossed out; under  "young girls" the comment  "most films try to have youthful looking girls. These are  thematic films about pubescent  females" has been crossed out;  and the entire category "rape  and gangbangs" with the comment  "rape and gangbangs are pretty  much standard fare in bondage  films" have been crossed out.  This is not to say that any of  the films under each category  (the numbers are still readable), have been withdrawn from  circulation.  During the last week of October, Rape Relief lodged a complaint against the Red Hot Video  catalogue with their local  police department. (Groups and  individuals are encouraged to  do the same.) Port Coquitlam  women have picketted Red Hot  Video  and written letters, pushing for prosecution in their  region. A Victoria Anti-Pornography Action Group staged an  event where they destroyed  copies of the film, Snuff,  in  front of television cameras.  North Shore Concerned Citizens  continue to vocalize their concerns to Allan Williams and  the press. During a recent  showing of Pretty Baby  at the  Vancouver East Cinema, a group  of women picketted and gave  out information leaflets criticizing the film for its sexual  exploitation of a 12-year-old  girl and its implicit support  of child sexual abuse.  Meanwhile, new anti-pornography  groups are emerging: People  Against Pornography  is circulating a petition in Vancouver;  an Anti-Pornography Action  Group  has started up in the  Little Mountain neighbourhood;  and Media Watch,  from the National Action Committee on the  Status of Women, is holding a  meeting in November to discuss  possible action. (For more information on these groups call  Vancouver Status of Women.)  Kinesis  readers who want to  see an end to the distribution  of hate propaganda against  women should write to Allan  Williams in Victoria, your MLA  and MP, the daily papers, and,  if possible, start an action  group in your own area. The  more voices that speak out,  the sooner the situation will  change.  For further information:  Take Back the Night - Women on  Pornogrphy,   ed. Laura Lederer.  Two paperback editions available: Bantam ($4.50) and  Morrow Quill Paperbacks  ($11.25), 1980.  An excellent anthology including feminist analysis,  research and action strate- Kinesis    November 82  CITY ELECTIONS  School board slates polarized on education crisis  by Louise Miller  The public education system is in a crisis.  Vancouver's 50,000 students are threatened with losing the quality of education  that has developed in our schools over  decades. The 1982 civic election will influence how this situation will be addressed.  Increasingly, children in general, and  those with special needs have been served  by progressive school board policies. However, in the spring of 1982, the Social  Credit government began to seriously constrict education funding. Its "Public Restraint Program" dictated ceilings on public spending, and School Boards were told  to revise their budgets. Services such as  busing in rural areas, school building  maintenance programs, and the hiring of  school counsellors and librarians were  redefined as "extras".  The provincial government also implemented  a new financial formula for education that  reduces the tax base for school boards.  The new formula allows the Minister of  Education more control over education and  limits the financial powers of the local  school districts. The provincial government  now collects commercial and industrial  property taxes, and school districts are  limited to collecting residential property taxes. Local control over education resources is further restricted by the Ministry's new authority to limit operating  budgets.  The Vancouver School Board (VSB) was  forced to reduce its 1982 budget by $6  million which affected school maintenance,  children's school supplies, teacher aids  and custodial staff. The Board expects  $15 million will be withdrawn from the  budget in 1983. In the meantime, projects  such as B.C. Place continue to deplete  public funds, while education has become  a lower priority for the Social Credit  government.  The Vancouver School Board elections are  dominated by two polarized civie organizations: the Civic Non-Partisan Association  (NPA) and the Committee of Progressive  Electors (COPE). Each "party" has nominated nine candidates for the nine-member  board, while three other candidates are  running as independents. The NPA is presenting voters with a skeletal statement  which belies the "non-partisan" declaration. NPA's seven-point statement on education complements Social Credit education  policies. It emphasizes "traditional elements of curriculum; regaining fiscal control; effective utilization of School  Board personnel; that "maintenance of high  standards of achievement can be assisted  through .testing and examinations"; evaluation of teachers' skills so as to pro-  Continued from p. 1  women's centres, the ward system, greater  control of demolition of housing stock,  crisis facilities for women, immediate  improvement in the lighting of streets  and bus stops, promotion of after-hour  childcare facilities, the Equal Opportunities Program and rent controls.  ALDERPERSON  Responding candidates included Helen Boyce  (Independent), May Brown (TEAM), Bruce  Erikson (COPE), Marguerite Ford (TEAM),  Harry Rankin (COPE), and Dominic Watson  (NPA). For the most part, they support  all of the above issues with the following exceptions:  Boyce opposes a ward system for Vancouver,  and in principle funding for community  women's centres. Brown says controlling  demolition of existing housing stock will  not solve the housing crisis. Ford opposes  funding for community women's centres and  supports a limited form of rent controls.  Watson opposes municipal funding for VSW  and community women's centres, and does  not take a position on the ward system.  He opposes controlling demolition of existing housing stock suitable for families,  the Equal Opportunities Program and rent  controls.  ON PORNOGRAPHY  May Brown took the strongest position on  pornography, saying it must be stopped  and all legal routes accessible to City  Hall must be searched. She favoured raising the license fee to curb businesses  selling pornography.  Ford believes prosecution for obscenity  is the only way for the City to deal with  the sale of pornography, and Boyce promises  to continue to lobby senior governments  to tighten laws as well as phase out the  licensing of porn outlets.  Erikson simply says the City has no jurisdiction in the area and Watson says he is  prepared to study and evaluate the extent  of the problem, but freedom of information  and expression are important issues.  "'Degradation'", says Watson, "is a complex word." Rankin was not specific, but  indicated he is opposed to the sale of  violent pornography.  ON SOLICITING  All responding candidates appear to support the "street activity by-law" passed  by Council in April. The stated purpose  of the controversial by-law is to"prohibit  the sale and purchase of sexual services"  in public places.  When candidates were asked if they would  consider alternatives that would, for  example, control instances of public sexual harassment, important differences  emerged between the responses.  Boyce is willing to consider alternatives  but did not proved any details. Brown  believes public sexual harassment is often  more subtle than soliciting and cannot be  curbed by the current by-law. She would  support other measures. Ford says public  sexual harassment is more of a menace than  prostitution and would support measures to  control the problem.  By comparison the responses from male ald-  ermantic candidates indicate they do not  appreciate the seriousness of public public harassment for women. Erikson says the  current by-law controls public sexual har-  rassment as it stands. Watson dwelled on  male prostitution. Rankin stated "I look  to a society that does not have prostitution. Not little mickey mouse changes."  mote accountability; and finally, the need  for a commission "to provide parents,  teachers and taxpayers with a full understanding of province-wdie educational aims  and responsible costs".  NPA's brief proclamation suggests a spectre  of "the three R's". There is no evidence  in the NPA leaflet that a school board  under its control would challenge the decreases in resources available for education. (In 1979, while the VSB was dominated  by seven members of the NPA, the operating  budget was reduced by $2.2 million.)  COPE held a majority on the VSB during  1981 and 1982. During that time, the VSB  recognized special needs of handicapped,  native and immigrant children as well as  potential school drop-outs. It has also  addressed issues such as racism, nutrition,  drinking and driving, women's issues, labour studies and the peace movement. The  VSB is also fighting against the Social  Credit "Restraint Program", and COPE promises to continue those efforts if re-elected.  COPE's relatively comprehensive education  platform and policy includes policy statements regarding a visible and active role  for school trustees; a broader school curriculum; services to immigrant and ethnic  communities; children with disabilities;  improvements to relations between trustees,  teachers, students and the public; health  and nutrition; testing as a small part of  student evaluation; and efforts to eliminate sexism.  According to campaign promises, COPE trustees will ensure that all programs in Vancouver schools are open to children of  both sexes. They also emphasize that physical activity programs should include mass  participation and teach lifetime physical  fitness skills. Further, COPE would like  to survey all schools regarding progress  in reducing sexism. COPE would also like  to appoint more women to "positions of  special responsibility" in schools.  At the time of publication, the policies  of the three independent candidates were  not accessible. However, if you care about  our public school system, this election  is crucial. Investigate the positions of  all candidates, and do VOTE! November 82     Kinesis  RAPE LEGISLATION  Past sexual history  The Victim on Trial  by Joanne Ranson  (This is the second in a series of articles  examining existing rape laws and the pending rape  legislation  — Bill C-127. )  Sexual offences are the only criminal offences where the victim's past sexual behavior is consistently used to assist the  accused in escaping responsibility for his  criminal actions.  No one would even consider asking the victim of a robbery, whether he had on previous occasions given his money away. And,  indeed, if he had, no one would consider  such evidence could be used to prove that  he in fact probably gave  his money to the  accused and, therefore had not been robbed.  Nor would anyone suggest to the victim of  a kidnapping that because he previously  had willingly gone on a secluded holiday  with someone, he probably consented to go  with his kidnapper on the occasion in  question. These examples seem ridiculous—  and they are. The reason is that society,  particularly the courts, assume robbery  and kidnapping are primarily acts of violence and force carried out against the  integrity of the person.  On the other hand, society and, again,  particularly the courts, assume sexual  offences result primarily from sex. Historically rape has been seen in this way:  a man who has been seeking a sexual encounter with a woman forces her to submit  to his overwhelming sexual desires. When  she refuses it is because of this focus on  sex  rather than violence,   that society has  brought its moral attitudes regarding  women's sexuality to bear on cases of rape  and have thus considered the past sexual  history of the victim — with both the  accused and with other men — to be important evidence.  Under existing rape laws a victim may be  questioned regarding her past sexual behavior. If the questions relate to sexual  relations with the accused person, the law  provides absolutely no restrictions. Some  restrictions are provided if the questioning concerns the victim's sexual relations  with other men. First, the accused must  give reasonable notice in writing to the  prosecutor of his intention to ask such  questions and must indicate what evidence  he expects to get from these questions.  The judge will then allow the questions  to be asked in the absence of the jury (a  private hearing) to decide whether the  evidence relates to an 'issue of fact'  (usually the issue of consent) or to the  credibility of the victim. If the judge  decides the evidence is relevant then it  may be used during the trial in the presence of the jury. At present if the victim is asked such questions, she must  answer. If the accused doesn't like her  answers, he may bring his own witnesses  to try and prove something different (i.e.  he 'adduces' evidence).  How does the court use evidence of the  victim's past sexual history to assist the  accused? It has been used most frequently,  in two ways. The first is to attack the  credibility of the victim. The historical  reasoning has been that if a woman had a  history of sexual encounters she was then  considered to be immoral; and, a jury was  entitled to believe that an immoral woman  would not give truthful ^evidence. The  second way this evidence has been used is  to try to prove that the victim really  consented to intercourse with the accused  and was not forced.  The centuries-old reasoning for this has  been that if a woman consented to intercourse with other men in the past, and her  behavior concerning those sexual encounters, where she consented, is shown to be  very similar to the circumstances in the  present situation. It may then be evidence  that she really consented this time.  Let's look at a possible example of this:  The victim has stated that she attended a  local night club where the accused approached her and after some time, conversation and a couple of drinks, he offered  to drive her home. She accepted. He walked  her to the door of her home, embraced her  and suggested he come in. She declined,  he became violent, forced his way in and  raped her. The accused, however, at trial  brings evidence (by questioning the victim  and bringing his own witnesses) that on  two earlier occasions in the past year the  victim attended the same night club, and  on each occasion went home with a man, invited him into her home and consented to  intercourse with him. The accused would  same as the earlier ones, she consented  then and she consented with him. And, we  might expect, in these circumstances, unless this victim could show she was  severely beaten or threatened with a  weapon, that the accused's argument would  be accepted and he would escape conviction.  We, as women, are quite aware that sexual  offences do not derive primarily from  men's uncontrollable sexual desires.  Rather, they result from men's desire to  dominate (and their belief in their dominance) which leads to violence carried  out by sexually assaulting and degrading  women. In the course and history of developing the pending legislation (Bill  C-127) we were told it was the intention  of the government to have society and the  courts both recognize and emphasize the  primarily violent nature of sexual  offences.  Some women's groups who did make representations to the government indicated that  the laws would have to be changed in at  least two ways to achieve this recognition  and reemphasis that was promised. First,  the existing offences would have to be  removed from the Criminal Code section  dealing with morality and placed in the  section dealing with assault and offences  against the person. Second, the law would  no longer be able to use the past sexual  history of the victim as evidence.  The government indeed followed the first  suggestion, hoping to convince women that  they had truly dealt with our concerns.  However, they did not follow the second  suggestion, but only added some restrictions on the use of past sexual history  evidence. It should be noted that the  government made no restrictions regarding  past sexual relations between the accused  and the victim and so questioning in this  regard is still unlimited. The legislation,  however, does provide some restrictions  regarding her past sexual history with  other men.  It states that the accused may not "adduce  evidence" (that is bring forward evidence  himself) about this unless: a) it is used  to rebut any evidence of the victim that  she did or did not engage in other sexual  encounters in the past; b) it is evidence  relating to proving the identity of the  man who committed the offence; or c) it is  evidence of sexual behavior with other( s)  which occurred at the same time that the  accused 'allegedly' assaulted her and can  therefore indicate that she consented to  the actions of the accused.  But even though the accused is restricted  in regard to evidence he brings himself  it appears he may still question  the victim about her past sexual history in the  same way he could before. While the legislation also says that if questioned the  victim can no longer be compelled to  answer, she may find herself in a catch-  22 situation. If she answers, her evidence  may be used against her. If she doesn't  answer, will the court assume she is  hiding some dreadful secret?  One further, and long overdue, restriction  in the legislation is that the accused  may not use evidence of the victim's past  sexual history to attack her credibility.  At last a woman's sexual experiences do  not define her as immoral or a liar.  What will be effect of retaining the use  of evidence of past sexual history of the  victim? First, along with the use of the  defence of honest belief in consent (explored in the last issue of Kinesis)  it  will assist in preventing a man from being  convicted of sexually assaulting his wife,  because he may always bring evidence of  Women are quite aware that  sexual offences do not derive  from man's uncontrollable  sexual drive. They result from  a desire to dominate.  the sexual history between himself and  his victim and apply that evidence to  prove her consent. Eurther, it will continue to permit the courts to concentrate  on the morality and sex aspects of the  offences thereby allowing their attitudes  regarding women's sexuality to affect the  outcome of a trial.  As long as society and the courts are  permitted to hold on to the belief that  sexual assaults are primarily the result  of a man's desire to have a sexual encounter, and as long as they refuse to  fully acknowledge that sexual assaults  are violent acts resulting from a man's  desire to dominate and from his disregard  for the integrity of women, the courts  will be able to put the victim of sexual  assaults on trial, and be able to carry  out a degrading 'second rape' by challenging and scrutinizing the most intimate  aspects of her life — all in the name of  justice. November 82  $iLM«J?}£rt&  Distacom workers win settlement  SORWUC, Local 1 won $2500 for 18 Distacom workers in a  settlement negotiated out of a technological change  arbitration.  Distacom is a paging service in downtown Vancouver.  The operators at the Dispatch Centre were certified  with Local 1 in May of 1980. The organizers fought  management's union busting tactics (suspensions, intimidation, offers of promotion) through almost 18  months of difficult negotiations to sign a solid first  contract.  Two months after the contract was ratified, management  announced lay-offs and disruptive changes in scheduling. Since the lay-offs came on the heels of the installation of a new paging beeper system that bypassed operators, the union grieved that the lay-offs  were due to tech change.  The settlement upheld an important precedent that all  employees bumped by lay-offs, including casual on  call, are entitled to compensation; and was a victory  for part-time workers who are so often used as a pool  of available labour.  Hospital union gets maternity leave  Vancouver.   Employees at Crofton Manor, represented by  the Hospital Employees Union (HEU), have won important advances in maternity leave in their third contract .  The paid maternity leave is 18 weeks long and employees receive the difference between their Unemployment  Insurance benefits and 93$ of their normal weekly  earnings. The current practise under other HEU contracts is for employees to receive 18 weeks maternity  leave at 66 2/3$ of their current salary. The new  clause at Crofton Manor amounts to an additional 40  days paid leave over the previous contract. In addition, HEU negotiated extended leaves of absence of six  months to be taken by either parent after the paid'  maternity leave runs out. This clause represents a  major breakthrough in being the first to provide for  either parent to stay home to care for the child.  The Hospital Guardian  Health workers strike against Reagan  Philadelphia,  Pa.  Workers in 13 Philadelphia hospitals, represented by the National Union of Hospital  and Health Care workers, came up with a novel and  effective way of fighting government health care cutbacks.  The workers, mostly women, saw their jobs as nurse's  aides, housekeepers, and laundry workers threatened  by Ronald Reagan's excalating social service cutbacks.  They voted to strike, not against their employers —  the hospitals, but against the federal government.  Coming predominantly from the bottom of the economic  ladder, the women were concerned not only with job  losses but also with how the cutbacks were eroding  health care for Philadelphia's poor. Months of talks  with government officials accomplished nothing. The  plans for strike action resulted in government funds  being funneled to the three area hospitals slated for  closure, and put a stop to a serious loss of health  care facilities. Off Our Backs  Equal Pay Kit now available  EPIC, the Equal Pay Information Committee, an ad hoc  group of trade unionists studying the issue of equal  pay, has produced an Equal Pay Kit entitled Of Epic  Proportions - Achieving Equal Pay for Work of Equal  Value.  This Kit contains some 200 pages of information,  brought together from many sources, on the equal pay  issue. It is especially relevant at this time when  underpaid workers, both women and men, are struggling  to prevent the lowering of their living standards and  working to correct wage inequities and injustices.  The cost: $12.50 single copy, $10.00 per copy for 10  copies or more, $15.00 each  mailed copy.  Please make cheques or money orders payable to EPIC,  and mail to EPIC, Box 4237, Vancouver, B.C.  WORKING WOMEN  VSW demands protection for  growing part-time workforce  Part-time work is here to stay  and according to all projections it will be a type of  work that will steadily rise  in the future. Employers will  continue to need part-time  workers In peak periods, and  workers will continue to find  themselves in life situations  where part-time work is both  desirable and necessary. At  this time, seventy per cent of  part-time workers are women.  On October 5, 1982, the Vancouver Status of Women presented its position on women and  part-time work to the Commission of Inquiry into Part-time  Work, a federal investigative  body currently holding public  hearings on the subject  throughout the country.  The VSW submission called upon  government, employers, and  unions to recognize part-time  work as legitimate work, recommending that salaries paid  to part-time workers be proportional to those of full-  time workers; all benefits  made available to full-time  workers be made available on a  pro-rated basis to part-time  workers; opportunities for advancement and retraining be  made available to the part-time  workforce; and that all levels  of government as employers make  a commitment to end discrimination against part-time workers.  VSW also recommended that all  part-time workers be permitted  to be a part of the same collective bargaining unit as full-  time employees who do the same  work and that all levels of  government substantially increase their budget commitment  to daycare.  It is well understood today  that women are still considered  a reserve army of workers, to  be brought into production when  they are needed, and to be forced out of the workforce when  the economy no longer requires  their labour. Women who work  part-time, said VSW, are the  worst victims of this theory  and for this reason action must  be taken to entrench them more  thoroughly into the workforce.  Women need to be in a position  in the workplace where they receive the benefits available  to other workers, as well as  the recognition of their varied  work experience, access to promotion ladders and basic job  security.  Many of the myths applied to  women who work in general, such  as "women only work for pin  money", or "women's work is not  real work", are particularly  applied to part-time workers.  The lack of community support  systems, such as daycare, are  also problematic for all women  workers at some point in their  lives. A commitment should be  made, said VSW, not to separate  part-time workers from the rest  of the workforce, but rather  to look at ways these workers  can be better integrated Into  the workforce as a whole.  The fact that responsibility  for domestic labour and the nurturing of children still lies  primarily with women, necessitates a double work day for  those women who work outside  the home. Variations in benefits, such as parental leave,  personal leave, and pension  plans, tend to punish many women  who wish to remain in the workforce during the years they  are raising children. Lack of  available, quality childcare  is still an enormous problem  in B.C., said VSW, pointing  to the fact that there is only  space for one in every 28 children requiring care, and many  existing spaces lack quality  control.  Although studies have provided  valuable insights into part-  time work/ VSW said the organization has not been able to  discover what percentage of  part-time workers are voluntary and what percentage would  work full-time if given the  opportunity. "We strongly believe that people should have  real choices  with regards to  work, and do not support any  programs which attempt to coerce workers into shorter  schedules for lesser pay-  cheques."  It is important to understand  that part-time workers are  needed, and it is not necessary to divide them from those  who work full-time, said VSW,  adding that it is crucial that  part-time workers be recognized by unions as full members of the union. "This means  that they should be considered  in contract clauses and at the  negotiating table, even if  that necessitates new and different ways of thinking about  work."  In the past, trade unions have  tended to consider part-time  work as a method for eroding  full-time employment. This  perspective, as evidenced by  recent union calls for protection of part-time workers,  has shifted. With the labour  movement's support of part-  time work growing, we may see  more concrete protection for  part-time workers in the  future. November 82      Kinesis      7  WORKING WOMEN  Are volunteers cheating the unemployed?  by Brig Anderson  Over 400 charitable organizations are listed in the Vancouver Directory of Volunteers.  At an October volunteer fair held at UBC,  students were asked to choose jobs from  health, recreation, cultural and handicapped groups requiring unpaid labour to  function properly.  "It's a good way to get yourself a job,"  one of the organizers told me. "I got mine  this way." But in times of economic depression, being a volunteer in the hope of  eventual employment is not only an illusion, but actually harms the unemployed  and underemployed. Real problems demand  real solutions. What is needed is activism  not altruism, social change and not more  reformist groups, no matter how well-meaning. We should not agree to turn people  into clients in need of some service, but  make them actively want to change their  lives by political means.  Americans and Canadians have a long history of volunteerism. "Organizing for  others" has its origin in the benefactress  tradition of nineteenth century philanthropy. It was fashionable for rich ladies  to visit the poor in slum districts, when,  at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, England created a host of beggars in  towns who belonged to the deserving poor.  Voluntary female associations in America  organized to help poor women, prostitutes,  widows, the aged and infirm. In order to  escape the isolation and boredom of pioneer life, women performed basic community  functions and at the same time escaped  from their domestic duties. Volunteer organizations gave families status and recognition, and women learned organizational  skills and financial management.  Female solidarity and profeminist communities also extended to ethnic groups who  helped second generation immigrants acquire  self-assurance and leadership skills. The  concept of American individualism among  women was encouraged in the creation of  a variety of Church, ethnic, educational  and cultural organizations. The idea of  helping people help themselves was the  first goal of early volunteers; the secondary gain was to 'do good', broaden interests, and acquire skills by working  with women in groups.  Social workers emerged as a profession and  were exclusively female until the great  depression of the 1930's when working class  women began to understand how upper and  middle class women further oppressed them  with thfiir charities.  This argument was taken up more fully by  the radical feminists of the seventies.  The myth of the classless society' was exploded. White, middle and upper class women had to recognize how they had oppress-  Survival manual demystifies technocracy  Help is at hand for all who have given up  hope of understanding what the advancing  technological revolution holds in store.  A new book with a snappy title, The Techno/  Peasant 's Survival Manual,  by the Print  Project, promises to demystify for the  "technopeasant" the technology of the 80's.  Published with you and me in mind, the book  defines "technopeasant" as "anyone who is  technologically illiterate; a person whose  future is in the hands of the technocrats".  The book's central theme is "if we want  technology to liberate rather than destroy  us, then we - the technopeasants - have to  assume some responsibility for it."  Leaving aside whether or not you think  we ever could have control over our budding  technofuture, this book gives the reader  a solide grasp of the development of  computers, the world (literally) of the  microchip, fibre optics, lasers, genetic  engineering and all the technogoodies in  store for us.  The authors came to the project with the  intention of producing a book that would  not only be readily understood by people  with no background on these intimidating  subjects, but would also make acquiring  the information fun and interesting. This  book is now available in paperback in  Vancouver bookstores for approximately $10.  Ask ycur public library to order it for  you.  Union produces guide  to microchip  A new resource guide for use in developing  strategies to address the impact of micro-  technology in the workplace has been published by the National Union of Provincial  Government Employees (NUPGE).  Microtechnology  is a 54-page booklet that  looks at what stage we are at in the technological age and discusses technological  change in terms of job security, job  satisfaction, health and safety.  The booklet is of particular interest to  union members.  It includes the text of 43  existing contract clauses on issues ranging  from retraining to the right of pregnant  women to refuse to work on VDT's.  Copies are available from NUPGE, 204-2841  Riverside Drive, Ottawa, K1V 8N4  ed or colluded in oppressing their sisters  because they had not taken action to eliminate class power and privilege. Some  feminists had indeed rejected their class  privileges and boasted about downward  mobility. This infuriated poor women who  correctly perceived that poverty made  fashionable still left them without decent  housing, good food and clothing.  Today, poverty has again exposed the fault-  Klines of class, ethnic origins, and race.  With increasing unemployment women are  once again being forced back into stereotyped roles of unpaid housewives and mothers, as well as rich and poor, black and  white.  Self-interest female organizations continue to flourish, of course, but I suggest  that trade union, educational, and cultural support networks have replaced in prestige and power the previous charitable ones  . without mitigating or even addressing the  problems of poor women. Older women (40  and over) are now segregated into the  "nouveau poor", the new poor.  By now I hope I have cast doubt both on  women's organizations themselves and volunteerism in general, as well as on the  recipients or clients of volunteerism. We  cannot hope to cure the ills of society by  .using unpaid voluntary and usually female  labour.  Volunteers may feel fulfilled but they are  still economically exploited by developing  services and communities that should be  supported by federal, provincial and municipal funding. A more creative use of volunteers is urgently needed if we are not  to continue to neutralize women's dissent  into innocuous tasks, keep the male power  system intact, and continue the myth of  helping which encourages paternalism,  racism, and classism toward the old, the  porr, ethnic minorities, and the under or  unemployed.  A changed consciousness is necessary, as  is a new awareness of work and leisure  activities. Politicized attitudes on behalf of the helper and helped must be  developed in these darker times. I hope  my comments will help open the debate.  References for further reading:  Bernard, Jessie. The Female World,   The  Free Press, 1981.  Gold, Doris B. Opposition to Volunteerism,  CPL, June, 1979. November 82  Anti-imperialism and the  Irish feminist movement  by Marion Malcolmson and Maeve Moran  Between 1970-1979, some one million bullets were fired in the six counties of  Northern Ireland. 1425 civilians, most of  them Catholic, were killed (many more if  the most recent hunger strike and its  aftermath is taken into account). 542  police and army personnel were also counted among the dead. Some 20,000 more soldiers, police and civilians were wounded  and there were 6560 bombings.  In Belfast alone, the greatest civilian  migration in western Europe since World  War I has taken place. More than 60,000  people have been relocated to what are  called "safer ghettos", and another 77,000,  or 19$ of the entire population of Belfast,  have left altogether.  The 'nationalist (Catholic) population of  Belfast has not forgotten the British  raids into its ghettoes on August 9, 1971.  During that single raid 342 men were arrested and held without charges. The British called it "internment", but to the  nationalist community it was an open declaration of war.  The civil rights movement of the 1960's,  with its campaign for concessions and an  end to discrimination against the nationalist minority, was abandoned. The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) was born  to protect the ghettoes and to remove  British troops from Irish soil. The British  army, meanwhile, began its active campaign  against what it calls "IRA terrorists".  This British'"counter insurgency campaign"  involves arrests without warrants. The  "Special Powers Act", first introduced in  1922 after the British partitioned the  country into North and South, has been  followed by a series of other acts within  the last decade, all equally designed to  suspend the civil rights of the nationalist  population.  Women, too, are subject to arrests, humiliating body searches, interrogation under  torture as well as imprisonment. Sentences  are being meted out in the notorious "no-  jury Diplock courts". Increasingly the  ranks of female political prisoners are  being swelled in the jails. The shocking  treatment of female political prisoners  recently came to light during the campaign  for political status at Armagh. Images of  British civility were shattered amidst evidence of rape, beatings and other forms of  mental and physical cruelty.  Recent reports by Amnesty International reveal how children are being used as bargaining tools during interrogation. Women  are threatened with never seeing their  children again or with having them taken  away by the welfare authorities. Many women  reported being arrested with their children. Sexual abuse of children has been  threatened while women are held. Others  told of being snatched out of their homes  or off the streets without first being  allowed to ensure the safety of their infant's .  Increasingly children as young as ten  years old are being arrested and interrogated. For the nationalist youth of the  North politicization begins early in life.  Facing a future of poverty and unemployment, and witnessing daily the discrimination and atrocities perpetrated by the  British occupation forces, children are  fighting back with rocks and petrol bombs  while the army responds with deadly pias-  tick bullets.  Devastated by the effects of renewed urban  warfare since the early 1970's, many nationalist areas have become depopulated of  male adults. Large numbers have been  killed and a larger number interned.Many  are on the run. Many others have emigrated in search of employment. Of those left  behind, too many are inflicting their own  frustrations onto women and children. It  has only been in recent years that the  first refuges for battered women were organized in the North, and these are.indicative of a growing problem.  Women in both the north and  south are continuing the  tradition of resistance upheld  by their sisters throughout the  history of the Irish struggle.  Other support systems, such as state  funded childcare centres, are conspicuous  by their absence. Many mothers, forced in  to the job market to feed their families,  leave small children behind with arrangements as tenuous as a neighbour "keeping  an eye out". Little children are left to  their own resources while they play on  some of the most dangerous streets in the  world.  The fact that the nationalist communities  continue to survive is attributable in  large measure to the determination of its  women. It is women who are banding together to fight evictions; who are protesting  against rising food prices; who are organizing massive rent and rates strikes to  protest discriminatory housing practices,  and who are the emotional pillars amidst  the horrors of war.  Much of the strength of the resistance  movement against British imperialism stems  from women as well. Both in the North and  the South they are continuing the tradition of resistance upheld by their sisters  throughout the history of the Irish  struggle.  The first main involvement of Irish women  began with the revolution of 1916 when  many of them fought in the Citizen Army.  For several years prior to the 1916 Rising,  Irish women had been involved in the  suffragette movement and in attempts to  unionize women workers. As national fervor  again called for an uprising against the  British imperialist presence, women extended their struggle to include the national struggle. Unfortunately most of then),  because of sexism, were relegated to the  areas of nursing and food preparation and  their part in the Rising has never been  fully appreciated by Irish historians.  After the 1922 Partition Treaty and the 26  County Constitution of 1937, which banished women back into their homes, that great  spirit seen for a few short years was  forced into seclusion. In the words of the  Irish Constitution, "By her life within  the home, woman gives to the state a support without which the common good cannot  be achieved...The state shall endeavour to  ensure that mothers shall not be obliged  by economic necessity to engage in labour  oo the neglect of their duties in the  'home".  Only within recent years has the marriage  bar, prohibiting women in the South from  working in white collar jobs, been lifted.  Still, out of economic necessity, women  make up 21%  of the paid workforce but only  14$ of married women are employed as compared to 50%  in the North.  Since the renewal of the armed struggle in  northern Ireland, women in the six counties  as well as women from the 26 counties of  the South have become members of Provisional Sinn Fein, the dominant republican  party. However, it is only recently that  any serious dialogue between nationalist  and feminist women has taken place.  Because of increasing support from feminists for the anti-imperialist struggle and  a clearer understanding by nationalist  women of the need to include sexual equality in their vision of "the New Ireland",  women within Sinn Fein produced a "Women's  Document" in 1980. The document supports  many struggles including: co-education; the  fight against sexism in the media and  schools; equal pay; pension and social  security benefits; safe and available  contraception; drastic amendment of the  marriage laws; the right to divorce and the  provision of childcare.  The Sinn Fein document must be seen  against a background of extreme conservatism in a country that continues to blend  Church and State. Its failure to support  abortion is alienating to feminists. It  also fails to comment on homosexuality  and lesbianism, which are illegal in both  parts of Ireland. Nevertheless, it does  represent a major achievement for feminism and must be seen as an important first  step.  Similarly, the Irish Republican Socialist  Party, although smaller in numbers, is  involved in the feminist struggle. Its  platform includes unequivocal support for  a woman's right to choose and the Party  is currently engaged in active support in  the "anti-amendment campaign" of the  South. Passage of the proposed amendment  would enshrine "the rights of the fetus"  within the Irish Constitution, this despite the fact that the law already states  the illegality of abortion in all cases  except for those involving uterine cancer.  Historically, the current women's movement in the South began in the 1970's.  Women flocked to the new movement with  its demands for equal pay, equality before the law, justice for deserted wives,  unmarried mothers and widows, and for  "one family, one house". Despite theoret- November 82     Kinesis     9  Since the start of the 'troubles', sectarian threats and violence, or fear of them,  bricked up and decaying. Photo: David Manse!!.  ical differences between socialist women  and other feminists, 300 women marched  behind the "Irish Women's Liberation  Banner" in May Day parades. Suddenly  these women were challenging every traditional Irish institution. However, because differences between socialists and  feminists, particularly around the "national question" were not resolved, this  first movement and several of its successors disintegrated.  Finally in 1979, another group calling  itself "the 32 County Federation of Women"  attempted the task of organizing a broad-  based women's movement. Aware of previous  failures, the group stated explicitly  that one of its chief aims was to come to  terms with "the national question" and to  unite women in the 6 counties of the  North with those in the 26 counties of  the South. However, due to the enormity  of the task, this Federation folded  after only one year.  Today, this critical problem still has  not been resolved. At the same time, women's liberation in the South is experiencing a revitalization through its  efforts regarding the "anti-amendment cam  paign", and it is being supported by progressive forces both North and South —  sections of the anti-imperialist movement,  the trade unions and a number of socialist  parties.  It wasn't until February of 1980 that the  first "Woman's Right to Choose" group was  launched in Dublin. Four months later, the  British-based "Society for the Protection  of the Unborn Child" sent two speakers to  Dublin and the Irish SPUC was formed. The  current campaign to include a "right to  life clause" within the Constitution is  being spearheaded by this organization  with the support of the Catholic church.  For the first time in the history of Irish  women's liberation is the issue of abortion being widely debated. At issue is not  only the essential "right to choose", but  also the fight for the secularization of  Irish society. This could well be the  most important struggle of 1982.  As for ths six counties of the North, it  is largely premature to speak of an  actual women's movement. There are in existence, instead, a sprinkling of feminist groups, many of them service-oriented,  which could potentially provide the  •  nucleus for such a movement.  The problem for women's liberation in  Northern Ireland must be understood in relation to the presence of British imperialism. British imperialist penetration  have caused over 60,000 mainly working class people  in Ireland has succeeded in inhibiting the  formation of a significant middle class  amongst the nationalist population.  The women's movement,-which historically  tends to be initiated and led by middle  class women, has therefore not found a  class basis in the North. Nationalist women, when confronted with the daily realities of'British occupation, have  largely fought within the anti-imperialist  movement without formulating an understanding or a strategy related to their  specific oppression as women.  As for the handful of feminist groups In  the North, theirs is a constant battle to  come to terms with the inter-relation of  the feminist and anti-imperialist  struggles.  It is difficult for women to  have a common language when  the laws governing their bodies  and their lives are different in  the two parts of Ireland.  Born in 1977, the "Belfast Women's Collective" held to the position that while  the anti-imperialist struggle should be  supported, it should not be a major focus  for feminist agitation. For women, the  way forward was to organize specifically  around feminist concerns so as to build a  broad base that could reach out to un-  politicized women.  "Women Against Imperialism" broke away  from the BWC a year later over this issue.  WAI asserted that the anti-imperialist  struggle and the feminist struggle are  absolutely linked. It was WAI who worked  with nationalist women in the network of  "Relatives Action Committees" set up to  support Irish political prisoners, both  male and female. The group made international headlines in 1979 during its  picket outside Armagh jail on International Women's Day when 11 of its members  were arrested.  The "Belfast Women's Collective" on the  other hand was unable to weather its  aloofness from the anti-imperialist  struggle and as a result, it dissolved in  May of 1980.  Very slowly, groups of feminist women in  the North are beginning to join with nat-  ;, leaving thousands of hi  ionalist women on a variety of single  issues. The support accorded the women in  Armagh jail is a case in point. Such  united action in the future could help  advance the birth of a women's movement  in the North.  It is difficult for women to have a common language when the laws governing their  bodies and their lives are different in  the two parts of Ireland..Such is the  reality of "Partition". Women in the North  are in a marginally better position than  their southern sisters with regard to  some legal rights and social services.  They have a more comprehensive healthcare  system and more liberal laws regarding  divorce and contraception. At the same  time, northern women are living in a  State with wide-ranging police powers,  something that women in the South do not  have to face. This has made it difficult  for women in the South to understand the  problems of overt imperialist repression  which confront their northern sisters  daily.  Another source of division is the problem  of loyalism. Loyalists (Protestants) tend  to receive the jobs and the better housing when these are available. They have  also joined the ranks of the brutal police  force and are increasing their victimization of the nationalist community  through membership in para-military organizations armed by the British government.  Given this situation, it is impossible to  forge links within a united women's movement between loyalist and nationalist  women. Such links await the successful  resolution of the anti-imperialist  struggle.  A further difficulty is related to the  need of integrating the feminist and anti-  imperialist struggles. Feminists are understandably wary of any attempt to submerge their struggle against sexist oppression within any other struggle. History is filled with examples of how women  have been sold out within progressive  movements, movements which have characteristically been "sex blind". At the same  time, feminism has frequently tended to  operate in a fashion that is oblivious to  class differences.  The greatest hope for women in all of  Ireland lies in the solidarity of feminism  and anti-imperialism and the realization  of both groups that each component is  vital in order to bring about a truly  united women's movement. 10    Kinesis    November 82  HEALTH  by Maureen Leyland-Moore  In 1973, a young Vancouver woman decided  she and her husband would postpone having  children until some vague future date.  When she went to her doctor to be fitted  for a diaphragm he asked, "Do you travel  in a horse and buggy, too?" and told her  that the IUD was better than the "old-  fashioned" diaphragm.  He inserted a SAF-T-Coil into her uterus.  For a year she had no trouble.  Then in 1974 she was hospitalized due to  excruciating abdominal pain. She remembers  screaming for doctors to get the IUD out  but was told there was too much infection  in her pelvis to allow removal of the  device. She was terrifed she was going to  die.  Doctors were unsure about what was wrong '  with her: a tubal pregnancy? A kidney  problem? After five days they told her she  had pelvic inflammatory disease and treated  her with antibiotics.  The infection subsided, the IUD was removed, and she was sent home with instructions to "take it easy". Relieved that her  ordeal was over, she looked forward to  recovery.  Unfortunately the infection had not been  wiped out and her continuing pain caused  her to return to the hospital's emergency  department. There she was advised that  her problems were not-physical and was  told to see a psychiatrist about the pain.  Desperate, she sought help from a private  gynecologist who put her on antibiotics  for a year during which time blood tests  indicated her body's fight against infection. With each period she hemorrhaged.  Finally, after a year of fear and pain,  she decided to stop fighting to save- her  fertility. She wanted, at least, to be  well again and to be able to live a normal  life. In discussion with her gynecologist  she decided to have a hysterectomy.  In 1975 her doctor performed a vaginal  hysterectomy and she went home from hospital to recover. As the pain from the  surgery lessened, however, it became increasingly clear that she was to be left  with a significant level of pain.  Today she lives with daily pain and  fatigue. She had to give up the career  that was so important to her and for which  she trained for years; it demanded physical strength and stamina that she no  longer has. She was a ballerina. Now she  is unable to work at all.  She had no idea that she was using birth  control that could cause infection which  might lead to sterility, chronic illness  and, in some cases, death.  No one really knows how many women develop  pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) from the  IUD. Studies report an increased risk of  3-9$ (Ory, 1978:200) among IUD users and  many doctors think that PID rates are  increasing. Hundreds of thousands: of women  have suffered from PID due to IUD use and,  as an article in a 1978 issue of The  Journal of Reproductive Medicine  points  out, the relationship between IUD use and  the subsequent development of PID is "one  of cau e and effect" (Ory:200).  What is PID? It's an infection caused by  bacteria which travels up from the vagina  through the cervix into the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. These infected  fallopian tubes can become hugely swollen  with pus and during the acute stage of  the disease there is danger that this pus  will spill into the pelvic cavity and  cause life-threatening peritonitis. Most  deaths from PID are from tubo-ovarian  abscesses which rupture. The ovaries, too,  are often involved in the infectious process.  The IUD  and Pelvic  Infection  When the pelvic organs are inflamed the  body tries to protect itself by producing  fibrous scar tissue called 'adhesions' —  a process which results in sterility and  chronic pain for many women. The tubes,  distorted by scar tissue, may become  twisted, clubbed at the ends, or bound  down; unable to receive eggs. The cilia  that move the egg through the fallopian  tubes to the uterus may be destroyed so  that conception, while still possible,  results in a tubal pregnancy.  This scarring that can bind tubes and  ovaries together in a mass of fibrous  tissue can also connect the reproductive  organs to other organs, usually the bowel.  These adhesions, along with the distortion  of the pelvic architecture, can cause  incapacitating pain.  Even women without symptoms can have  problems. "Silent" infection affects unknown numbers of women who only discover  later, when they try unsuccessfully to  conceive, that PID-caused scarring has  sealed off their fallopian tubes.  Women whose pelvic organs have been  damaged by one bout of PID are at great  risk of having recurrent episodes, each  one causing further damage which weakens  the body's defence system so that a cycle  of recurrence continues.  Why do IUD users get PID? Doctors and  researchers think it's because the tail  of the IUD acts as a wick, allowing  bacteria to move up into the uterus. The  Dalkon Shield caused more PID than other  IUD's. (The Dalkon Shield was especially  implicated as the cause of septic abortions and tubo-ovarian abscesses-Hager,  1977).  Once in a uterus already irritated from  an IUD, bacteria colonize the IUD itself,  multiply, and spread to the fallopian  tubes which may, in fact, already be inflamed (one disturbing 1976 report indicates that almost half of all women using  IUD's have what is known as "chronic  sterile inflammation" in their fallopian  tubes (Ory, 1978: 203). It has been known  for years that IUD users have chronic  sterile inflammation of the uterus. Not  surprisingly, inflammation in the uterus  and tubes lowers their ability to fight  off the infection.  The tail of the IUD is not the only contributing factor; the presence of a  foreign body in the uterus is itself sufficient to cause PID. Doctors have seen  pelvic infections caused even by devices  without tails.  Despite this, many doctors are unwilling  to admit that the IUD causes pelvic inflammatory disease. One Vancouver general  practitioner told me with a shrug of dismissal, that women don't really get PID  from the IUD — they get it, he said,  from organisms. This puts the blam right  back on women and takes it away from  doctors and drug companies. It suggests  that women who get PID have nastier inhabitants in their vaginas than other  women (and therefore deserve to get PID?)  However, the bacteria implicated in IUD-  related PID are usually those that occur  normally in the vaginas of healthy women.  The vagina is a complex microbial ecosystem and vaginal and cervical flora are  always present.  This is one of the reasons for the fact  that, ironically, before IUD's became  popular doctors thought it was dangerous  to use any device that would connect the  vagina with the normally sterile uterus.  Although the IUD had been around since  the 1920's, it was not until the early  1960's that the medical community began  to change its mind about the danger of  infection, influenced by the need for population control, and reasoning that the  new, inert plastics used in the devices  would reduce chances of developing PID.  The new antibiotics, they thought, would  clear up any infections that did occur.  Twenty years of IUD use has shown that  doctors' earlier reservations were justified. There are now two generations of  PID victims.  Yianna, a Vancouver woman now in her 30's,  got an IUD in 1966, a month after her  marriage. The pain was so severe that she  had it removed the same day it was inserted. She was not told to watch for  signs of infection, so when she began to  experience abdominal pain, weakness and  fatigue, she did not link these symptoms  to her brief use of the IUD.  She consulted two different GPs about her  symptoms. Both shook their heads and said  they couldn't find anything wrong with,  her.  • Finally, she was hospitalized and a D&C November 82    Kin  HEALTH  Sometimes  she is awakened  by a 'ripping, tearing  pain' in her abdomen.  was performed by a genecologist who reported that he couldn't find anything  wrong with her either. The nurses in the  hospital chided her about her worries.  "There can't be anything wrong with you  with those rosy cheeks," they said.  Despite her illness, she went back to her  library job but the pain and fatigue increased. She had no energy. She was unable  to lift books. She switched to a third  GP who referred her to yet another gynecologist.  "You have an infection the size of a grapefruit in your right fallopian tube," he  told her. "It's very serious."  The antibiotics he gave her did not reduce her infection. Five days after getting the diagnosis of PID, Yianna underwent major surgery during which doctors  made an incision from her pubic hairline  to her navel, cleaned out the infection  in her fallopian tube, and removed her  appendix. The gynecologist told her that  the infection had spread beyond the tubes  and left her with the impression that she  was lucky to be alive.  Since the surgery, Yianna has had a couple  of bouts of PID that had to be treated  with antibiotics and she is sometimes  awakened in the night "by ripping, tearing  pain" in her abdomen. When the significance of her illness hit her, she remembers, she felt extremely depressed to  realize that she could never again count  on being well.  Dr. David Eschenbach, a doctor at the  medical school in Seattle, who has been  doing research on PID for years, agrees  that PID is often diagnosed as phsycho-  genic. He attributes this to "a lack of  uniformity in its clinical features"  (1976:147). While it is true that many of  the signs of PID are often absent when a  woman does in fact have the disease, all  the PID victims I talked to had severe  lower abdominal pain which had been diagnosed as "psychological" by a doctor at  least once. Since it is crucial to get  immediate treatment for PID this particular mis-diagnosis is extremely dangerous.  Doctors and other health care workers  often associate PID with "promiscuity".  Before the IUD became popular, most women  who got pelvic inflammatory disease got  it from gonorrhea and the stigma associated with this sexually-transmitted  disease causes some doctors to make judgments that influence both diagnosis and  treatment.  Many women who have had IUD-related PID  have had the experience of having repeated  tests for gonorrhea which turn out negative. Their doctors have not been willing  to believe their own tests.  Yet the fact is that studies show that  IUD-users have a lower  rate of gonorrhea  than non-users. The high rate of PID in  IUD users is clearly not related to gonorrhea. (By the way, the copper, IUDs once  thought to protect against gonorrhea have  now been shown to be useless for that  purpose (Ory, 1978:202).  In countries where IUD use has become  widespread (such as Sweden, the U.S. and  Canada) the IUD is considered to be a  leading cause of pelvic inflammatory disease. In this sense it can be said that  much PID is what Ivan Illich calls iatrogenic, or doctor-caused disease.  "When I tell people that I had PID they  act as if I'm really disgusting," says  Anne, a therapist now doing visualization,  a form of healing meditation, with PID  victims. Another woman with PID described  her disease to a male friend who exclaimed,  PID Symptoms  - lower abdominal pain.   This may be intermittent or constant.   It may occur during  intercourse,  during menstruation,  or  with ovulation.  It is usually present  during a bimanual  (done with two hands)  pelvic examination.  Often the pain  occurs only on one side of the abdomen.  - lower back pain  - 'nausea and dizziness  - fatigue  - fever.  If present,  it is low.  - bleeding.   Increased menstrual flow or  bleeding between periods.  - general feeling of illness  - vaginal discharge  It is crucial to get diagnosis and treatment immediately before the infection  spreads.  The doctor consulted should do  a gentle bimanual pelvic exaritination.   He  or she should also do a blood test to  check the  level of white blood cells and  the sedimentation rate  (indicators of  infection).   Even if these levels are  normal it is possible to have PID.   If  PID is diagnosed,  material from the  cervix should be cultured since there is  a chance that the particular microbe (s)  involved could be identified this way.  "My God, it sounds just like the medieval  view of women — pleasant-looking but  filled with all kinds of noxious evils."  Doctors are just beginning to realize  that IUD-related PID can occur months and  even years after insertion. It used to be  thought that uterine contamination cleared  up two days after the IUD was inserted;  this belief was based on a 1969 study by  Mishell and Moyer in which researchers  found more bacterial contamination in  women who had IUDs in place for less than  two days than in women who had IUDs in  place for more than that length of time.  This study has since been discredited.  Doctors ignored an earlier, 1968  Wright and Laemmle which showed a high  rate of PID in IUD users compared to women using birth control pills and even  women using no contraception. They ignored  a later, 1970 study by Ishihama and other  researchers which showed a constant rate  of bacterial contamination existing up to  five years after IUD insertion.  Recent studies have indicated that it is  more usual to have acute PID develop  months after IUD use has begun rather than  just after insertion and one study indicates that the increased risk of PID  exists "for as long as the IUD is in place".  Despite all the evidence, there is a persistent medical myth that IUD use is  relatively safe for some women. Women who  have had children and who have only one  sex partner are considered "low-risk".  This view is contradicted, however, by a  recent study of 690 women hospitalized  with PID in Sweden which found no difference in the rate of IUD-related PID in  women who had never been pregnant and  those who had. Other studies show no difference in the PID rates in married and  unmarried women or in women with multiple  (male) sex partners and women with one  (male) sex partner.  Ironically, the IUD is not even particularly effective birth control. Out of  every 100 women who use it for one year  1 to 6 will become pregnant. This means  that it is less effective than the diaphragm and less effective than condoms  and foam used together, both methods of  birth control that are considered safe.  Ory, Howard W., M.D., M.Sc. "A Review of  the Association Between Intrauterine  Devices and Acute Pelvic Inflammatory  Disease." The Journal of Reproductive  Medicine.   Volume 20, Number 4, April  1978. pp. 200-204. 12    Kinesis    November 82  SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY  Women in Science  by Marianne Van Loon  The scientist walks into the room,  notes  under one arm,  and sits informally at the  front of the classroom,  carefully adjusting and arranging papers for a special  lecture at Simon Fraser University.  A member of the audience rises to introduce  Dr.  Lowe    of Boston University.  Dr.  Lowe  smiles and begins her lecture.  Did this fool you? Were you expecting the  scientist to be a man? This is precisely  the topic Dr. Marion Lowe, Professor of  Chemistry and Women's Studies, chose to  address — the issue of women and science.  Lowe believes the two paramount issues  concerning women and science are women who  are actually doing scientific work, and  what science is saying about women in  general.  Since the rise of industrial capitalism  and the parallel dominance of scientific  rationalist philosophy in the western  world, science has been thought to require  a particular type of person; one who is  able to stand back from nature, be objective and seek to control it. Because of  fact selection, however, there is no such  thing as pure objectivity. The way in  which one chooses to look at the world is  determined by the cultural framework in  which one thinks.  People have a social point of view, said  Lowe, and different cultures will ask very  different kinds of questions. The questions  our culture asks through science are primarily connected with controlling the physical world. As a result, science is considered intrinsically male, and to the extent  other activities are seen as having a scientific component, they also are considered intrinsically male activities.  Historically, she said, any work involving  a significant degree of power is considered a masculine activity, whether it be  . the military, politics, business or science. In general, these areas are thought  to require 'masculine' attributes and  there has been no place for stereotypical-  ly 'feminine' characteristics of nurturance, intuition and passivity. This means  women are believed, by their very nature,  not to be scientifically oriented. "Science isn't a womanly activity," said Lowe.  "All you have to do is look at the stereotype of the woman scientist."  Even considering  a scientific career is  difficult for most women, she said, and  consequently there is a high degree of  women self-selecting themselves out of  scientific professions. Those who don't  select themselves out will face reduced  opportunities as they are less likely to  be sponsored (women are assumed to be both  less able and less committed than their  male counterparts) and they will generally  be seen as outsiders in a male field. Women in science are typically excluded from  the informal 'old boys' networks' which  are a vital source of connections and •  information for people doing scientific  work. Many women who train as scientists  end up teaching in liberal arts ^schools  and community colleges rather than doing  scientific work.  "Nobody really knows how to view women  scientists," said Lowe. "In fact, academia  in general doesn't know ho?/ to regard  women." She said women scientists have  developed strategies to try and overcome  their outsider status, although it isn't  easy, and some are able to take advantage  of the outsider status since they are more  able to free themselves from established  ways of thinking and work more creatively.  However, it is difficult to get someone  to listen to those outside the central network no matter how brilliant their thoughts,  said Lowe, citing the case of Barbara  McClintock, a geneticist who is known as  an extremely inventive thinker.  As for the commitments of women scientists  to their .field, Lowe said she'd met several women "who were so committeed to science  that on summer vacations they went to somebody else's lab to try and do research on  a shoestring, and they have produced some  incredibly good work given their resources  and time."  The second major aspect of women and science is what science has been saying about  women. Lowe is more critical of scientific  structures than the individuals working  within these structures. "Some individual  scientists may well be sexist, homophobic  and awful, but it's not a requirement."  Rather, she points to the scientific structures that determine the significance or  importance of certain ideas, and the goals  which people working in the field will  have.  Currently, scientific theories about women  are prevalent. This is not surprising  since science is being called upon to answer social questions regarding the role  of women.  Intense questioning on the position of  women has occurred at two periods in  western capitalism — during the first  women's movement in the late nineteenth  and early twentieth centuries, and in the'  second wave women's movement since the  late 1960's. In the period between these  two organized movements, science has shown  very little interest in women's position.  Using a wide and wild variety of theories,  science has insisted that sex roles are  biologically determined. Science makes a  critical assumption that sex differences  in certain physical abilities cause social  differences and subsequent inequalities.  But is this assumption correct? Social  factors are  extremely important to social  mobility.  "The theories," said Lowe, "have  the potential of self-fulfilling prophecies." All the nineteenth and twentieth  century theories turn out to be unscientific, fact-free speculation, and politically  loaded. "We could just dismiss them on  those grounds alone," said Lowe.  There are a number of critiques demonstrating the flaws in scientific theorizing.  A very interesting question which has been  largely ignored is, why do scientists keep  coming up with biological theories to explain the differences in men's and women's  roles? The answers lie in who is doing  science and the fact that science Is not  really objective. The theories are actually reflections of the social biases of  the people doing the work.  Science is masculine, and scientists are  privileged in our society, said Lowe. "In  general, they believe in the social order  they live in. They are not revolutionaries." All their theories really do is reinforce masculine and feminine stereotypes, and further legitimate them as  natural law.  The 19th century scientists  believed society was based on  natural biological law.  The nineteenth century scientists believed  society was based on natural biological  law. When the first women's movement developed, science attempted to answer the  questions it raised and their answers took  two major routes. Evolutionary theories  said that women's nervous system was evolu-  tionarily less complete, meaning she had  a smaller mental capacity and therefore  inferior status. Behavioural and physical  theories included one linking brain size  to sex role differences. This particular  theory was abandoned after scientists were  unable to support the theories by proving  women had proportionately smaller brains  than men. "It was dropped not because it  was bad science, but because it didn't  work," said Lowe.  Today's theories parallel old theories.  Brain size is replaced by brain lateralization and math genes research. Scientists  looking at social behaviours make biological and evolutionary conclusions that  are exactly parallel with earlier theories.  All of these presume biology determines  behaviour. "We could start looking at how  biology is in turn affected by culture,"  suggested Lowe, saying that behaviour cannot be proven to emante from biology. Biol  ogy and environmental determinants of behaviour cannot be separated. Biology itself can be affected by culture. Recent  studies'suggest that sex differences in  strength, height and hormones can all be  affected by the different environments in  which men and women live and work in our  culture. November 82    Kinesis    13 Kinesis     November82  7  by Jeny Evans  Being a young feminist is like realising  you're in jail and want out. Y.ou begin  plans for your escape at any cost. You're  constantly struggling with the choice between being what they want you to be or  being what you want to be. You could be  that passive, fragile piece of property  you are pressured to be (and that is sometimes very comfortable) or you could be  strong, exposing sexism whenever It may  arise (which is not so comfortable). The  second choice threatens some people,  especially boys, creating angry responses -  and leaving us hurt and alone.  We have so much pressure on us by the behaviour of boys and the teachings of our  schools to be passive, polite and silent.  Upon realizing this pressure, I became  angry. It's hard to be silent when you're  angry. "With this, I became more aware day  to day about the need to fight back loud  and clear. I began to realize^the oppression of the jail and the need for me to  fight for freedom.  The education system is one part of the  jail that women must confront because it  is here that the attitudes and behaviour  are ground into our heads. It starts in  grade school where we are taught to be  "feminine" whereas boys are taught that  they are capable and strong. We are taught  that our opinion is not valid, and that it  is a man's world where women have only a  secondary role.  Sex education is limited within schools  (if there is any at all). What is taught  is very basic and mostly taught only to  women. This entrenches the idea that we  alone are responsible for issues around  sexuality. Boys learn that they don't  have to deal with it and so they can put  pressure on us without considering the  consequences.  A lot of what is offered to us avoids  many of the really important issues. Porn-  orgaphy isn't discussed. Neither are the  attitudes causing rape (except that we  shouldn't hitchhike or walk down a dark  street alone). Personal experiences need  to be discussed. We need to talk about  harassment, and being able to say no.  Most important, we need to understand that  these are real issues in our lives.  Furthermore, we need to know that the ways  in which our sexuality is exploited are  not our fault.  In addition, sexuality is only discussed  under the assumption that we are all  heterosexual. From the point of view of  sex education, you'd think that lesbians  and gays don't exist. It means that young  lesbians in school are pressured to remain invisible. Otherwise, the risk is  ridicule and alienation.  Another huge problem to speak out against  is the sexism of some of the teachers.  In Family Studies, a student responded  one day to her teacher (who happened to  be a woman) on her attitude toward the  subject: "There better be pink and blue  chairs in here tomorrow. Then it would be  more straightforward instead of subtle."  In another class of Grade 12 students, a  woman was offended by her male teacher.  He would crack jokes about how nice it is  to have "sexy girls" in the class, or  ask "what are you doing tonight?", referring to women as sex objects. A woman  in the same class wore a Stop Sexual  Harassment button to school one day and  he commented, "Hey baby, why stop it when  we can start it?" When approached about  his sick humour he said he does it harmlessly and he uses it to ease the atmosphere of the class. The jokes aren't  funny. They don't ease the atmosphere,  they create a worse one. They put us  down, degrade us, and make us feel that  we are only sex objects for the boys.  In one of my classes, another teacher  .refers to women as girls. One day he was  talking about the ballet and how beautiful it was. He then commented that the  girls, on stage were just lovely. Each  time he mentions the "working girl" I-  cringe and look for other reactions by  the students in my class. Unfortunately,  there are none. The attitudes of teachers  in the classroom reinforce the belief  that women are only sexual beings.  The other day at school I heard a joke  that I didn't find funny: "Why do women  like Ms. PacMan? Because for a quarter  you can get eaten three times." We are  taught to laugh at jokes like this. If we  don't, we are ridiculed or called "up  tight". But the jokes hurt. They must be  reacted to and stopped.  There are other incidents in school that  makes being a feminist difficult. The  hardest thing is to watch other women  being mistreated in their relationships.  Often we don't feel special without a boyfriend. We put ourselves on starvation  diets to lose weight or to look better  for boys and fit the fashions. Mostly the  pain comes from personally being abused  in my own relationships which stirs a  strong empathy in me towards other women  who are being hurt and harassed by boys.  A really common situation is one where a  boy wants to have sex and the woman does  not. He'll continue to pressure her and  refuses to recognize her feelings or  choices. If a woman isn't very strong, the  boy just gets away with abusing her, disregarding her feelings, and, in essence,  raping her (having sex with her against  her will). She may give in, possibly  feeling it is her duty or that he won't  love her if she doesn't. A hard thing to  look at is whether love can be based on  that kind of disregard for a woman's  choice.  In the long run, however, saying no and  refusing to be stomped on will put you in  a better postion to stand up for yourself  and demand respect. Until I began saying  no and expressing how I felt at certain  moments, I was constantly being misused by  the fallacy that women are playmates for  boys and don't need to be respected. We  do deserve to be heard and should fight  until we are.  This isn't easy. It can result In more  pain. This Is when we need to turn to the  women around us. We are all feeling some  pain from the oppression of not being  listened to or taken seriously when we  have something to say. To be heard we have  to react, get emotional, which can turn  into screaming and crying if we continue  not to be heard.  When we do ask loudly, we're called neurotic or told we shouldn't be "so emotional". Boys can be calm and unemotional because they are heard and listened to.  This gives them the choice to back out of  emotional issues. It's all part of male  dominance—taking charge, keeping cool.  What isn't recognized is that emotional  issues are hard work. We are expected to  deal with them for boys in relationships  and in the family. I've found this the  hardest thing to deal with. I want to be  heard and respected.  I find if we're having trouble being  heard, screaming sometimes helps. But we  also have to learn to point out to the  person not listening that we are not  being taken seriously and that we demand  to be. It can't hurt our position but it  could help the other person realize why  there is a need for shouting. It won't  always work, but we need to be persistent.  It's hard work to deal with it but it  hurts more silently within-ourselves if  we don't release it. As more women take  the risk of demanding to be heard, more  boys will be forced to listen.  continued on p. 18 7  Eventually, after avid reading and consideration of what I had read about feminism, I decided to become active. While  handbooks such as Our Bodies,  Ourselves  served as identification and motivation  to become involved, without knowing any of  the "right" people I encountered little  encouragement. My conceptions of the women's community and power of sisterhood  were horribly shattered. Not only was I  faced with the various divisions within  the movement in general, I confronted a  true lack of communication with the more  active feminists of long standing.  It is often the case than among older  feminists, where certain norms, attitudes  and ideas are so firmly entrenched, there  isn't room for a younger woman to be  allowed to express herself. Through offering criticisms which come from our own  time, our own experience, we are often  rejected.  It seems obvious that while the previous  influence of the movement will have a  direct effect, culturally we are more influenced by what is happening now.  Although our "fashions" are often considered severe and/or male-identified (a  strange term to be used within a movement  of personal freedom and equality, with  by Melissa Jacques  "Freedom is taken, not given." When recently asked to discuss the accessibility  of the Women's Movement to younger women  this piece of graffiti became a most vivid  and undeniable message. More accurately  applied the message becomes: accessibility  within the movement is painstakingly  forged, not graciously extended.  Theoretically the women's movement is one  of active liberation, yet many younger  women become discouraged from any political involvement. Even more choose to dismiss feminism completely. Although some of  this alienation may have occurred as a  result of the distorted media coverage the  movement has received, definite and inherent differences exist within the women's  community itself.  Having just experienced the oppressive  atmosphere of our modern high school  system, the need for feminist-oriented  influence became most obvious. Indoctrination as education and the peer pressure  to remain thankfully anonymous are overwhelming, resulting in frustration that  is often left unidentified. -This repression, accompanied by a newly awakened  sexuality and consciousness of self,  creates a situation of vulnerability, confusion and guilt.  While these schools often offer an initial  introduction to feminism through women's  studies courses and/or "liberal" teachers,  familiarity with the literature, history  and theories of the movement does not  suffice. This introduction may offer an  alternative avenue of approach, but must  be backed up through application to the  reality of day to day living. It is here  that I found the women's community most  necessary and unfortunately ineffective.  androgyny frequently held as an ideal)  they are an emotional and intellectual  expression of how we react to reality.  And while the aggressive electric sound of  certain rock and/or punk oriented bands  may be considered offensive, they capture  the urgency and relevancy most appropriate  to these times. If one is able to get  past (if need be) the sound and invest  some curiosity in the energy, lyrics and  subsequent messages, perhaps our tastes  would become less alienating. Considering  the many women creating within this medium  it should be acknowledged as a valid and  often political form of expression.  Mixed bands such as The Gang of Four,  Roma  Void,   The Pretenders,   The poison Girls,  Talking Heads  and X,  present strong lyrics  often invoking imagery of a necessary  liberation from, while expressing obvious  faults of, this western patriarchy.  Artists such as Patti Smith, debora iyall,  Nina Hagen, Lene Lovich, Viv Albertine,  Marianne Faithful and Vi Subversa, emerge  with the revolutionary strength of individual voice, literally and musically. The  most popular line written by Chrissie  Hynde of The Pretenders,   "They're trapped  in a world that they never made, but not  me baby, I'm too prceious. Fuck off!" reveals the power one gains with a voice intended to be heard.  In Vancouver, a band of Moral Lepers  described in the local Behavior Bulletin  as  "Five radical feminists...the most intense  band of hard-rocking professionals we've  had the luck to call our own — period,"  have made an impression upon its audience  that is impossible to dismiss. Another  all-women band, The Persisters,   still  offers us that strong feminist voice within  a usually male-dominated realm. In fact,  they offered the major feminist influence  within the recent Festival '82's apolitical  presentation of women in the arts.  A frequent criticism I share with other  women, is the patronizing manner with  which our comments and actions are greeted.  While lip service is commonly paid us, we  are left unconsidered in important situations. While our "youthful enthusiasm" is  admired, little interest is paid to what  we are actually saying. One example, is  the struggle an unusually active friend  experienced while attempting to implement  a workshop for younger lesbians within the  lesbian conference earlier this year. She  was finally successful through much persistence, though thoroughly upset by the  lack of attention paid a most immediate  concern.  As younger women, we must be encouraged and  allowed to explore our sexuality without  the vicious constraints of socially or  politically "incorrect" preferences. To  have chosen feminism as both political and  personal, is an integral step towards demanding and retaining control over one's  life. A true exploration of one's sexuall  is an important aspect in the discovery  and personal control of that self. We  should not be made to feel self-conscious  within the movement, about our exploration'  Neither should our vulnerability be exploited from within, as it so often is,  from outside. Differences and similarities  should be acknowledged, rather than described with destructive cliches like baby-  dyke, closet-case, breeder, homophobiac,  etc.  While physical love between women is a  natural and integral part of many relationships, there is such pressure to ultimately  define oneself as lesbian, heterosexual, or  bisexual (although I was told that this  particular brand of person did not really  exist, but was evidence of some identity  screw-up, a closet-case not recognizing  herself); it becomes another instance of  being forced to conform. This demand for  immediate identification can be a frighten-  November82    Kinesis    15  ing confrontation and definitely averts  those women who feel any uncertainty, or  _who are exploring their sexuality.  With our vision as children of the sixties  and seventies, we can offer new insight.  There has recently been some recognition of  younger women. Spare Rib,   a magazine from  the UK, includes a section entitled "Girls  are Powerful". Ms.   from the U.S., while  offering a very middle-class view of women,  also offers us "Stories for Free Children".  Up to now, there is still very little said  from our own mouths. We must make ourselves  heard with a voice true to our own experience, rather than a mere adaptation of outdated rhetoric.  I  Our voices may effect change. Change is  growth, but if it is to occur freedom must  originate from within. In view of the  present state of the world, the implementation of that freedom may come to mean  survival. 16     Kinesis     November8;  Poem to an older woman  II have lost  I my Crowning Glory  I And cut away  1 this shroud  I this mask  I this veil  of perfection  |this cloak  of protection  I this guise  of deception  I For I am ..  jno Rapunzel  I no Gwenivere  I no Lady Godiva  I no fair maiden  I with  I petty coats  I and  I flowing locks  I For locks they truly  I And in my seeing  J I have cut them off  I and  I Down to size  I No veil  I crowds  I my vision  I it is unobscured  I Nothing to hide  ■ no need  ■no desire  II stand here  I here  I naked  All can see me  and  I can see all  No sideways glances  neath  kiss curls  No passing chances  exchanged  through  free flowing  [roaming  golden  over  strands  breasts  Strands that  past  waist  scintillate  and  poving  stimulate  ever  po  seduce  pteadily  and  ptelthily  succumb  strike out •  and  strangle  No  heavy  head  of  weighted  oppression  hanging          L  down             town  down  down  down  down  past  below  vagina  casting shadows  to  Yes, I indeed  I do  OBJECT  I've cut off  my  i longer  A little woman  A lovely woman  A lovely young thing  Pretty as a picture  Blondes have more fun  Oh, her Crowning Glory  Pretty lady  Pretty baby  Chick  Cunt  Object  Object  Object  November 82    Kines  They  said  I lost my beauty  But I know  I've  only  lost my duty  to do  as is expected  and  be a woman  on their terms  alone  and  lost my Crowning GlorI  "clicking, the in  oss her jeweled hand  her eyes, dazed, her falling  mouth before mine, a witness  to accusation and shame  I've been blacking out a lot lately.  I guess  it's from drinking.  So Well I woke  up to the three of them three of them.  Your father sat there smiling  smiling with his arm around Her while  they told me  told me that Neil had  fucked me right  there in front of the both of them.  I wouldn't  believe he could just  sit there and smile while I got  fucked.  His own wife.'  So  then he  made some joke like they'd finally got  their way a swap like,they'd always wanted.  I lost my voice I  couldn't even cry...  wanting not to look, my heart racing,  sickens,  pounding out anger, a fist  against bars, hatred instilled spills to no  where  They could by lying but I  was too fucking drunk to  know.  This you see this  now?  I don't even feel this  I  don't even feel.  I'm numb  there  is nothing I can do  do  you hear me?  Nothing.  Can you  understand  can you?  after placing the iron back into its proper position she bends  over the board,  hunching, she collapses like an abandoned  marionette upon the handwaxed title,  above her a twisted smile  views the result of his careless torture, His Wife:  this  charred, once human offering.  Melissa Jacques High school  women's studies  thrives in Burnaby  by Jan De Grass  In the midst of a storm of outrage  directed by B.C.'s teachers toward a thick-  skinned Bill Vanderzalm, it is refreshing  to find one small corner of Burnaby where  the whirlwind has not yet hit. There is  a special course that has not  been cut  back and a teacher, overworked, yet still  enthusiastic about her course material.  Jane Turner teaches women's studies to a  class of Grade eleven and twelve students  at Burnaby North Senior Secondary school.  This year she has her largest enrolment  ever — 28 students, including three boys,  all between the ages of 16 and 18.  Some of her students have told her it is  one of the most valuable courses they have  ever taken. Turner admits, however that  she begins each year with participants  whose consciousness of the subject has  already been aroused.  "There's already a pre-selection process  in that some of the course's former  students like to talk up the class and the  new students'arrive knowing something of  what to expect. Nonetheless, their attitude undergoes a change in the ten months  of class; they move from interested to  really enthusiastic," she said.  The curriculum is similar to adult women's  studies classes. She uses the tested techniques of consciousness-raising and  assertiveness-training. The course provides  a grounding in women's history; segments  on women and the law, which include discussions of sexual assault and pornography;  and a section on the economics of women's  lives: why women are underpaid and how  money is made by exploiting women.  Assertiveness training gives younger  women a chance to stand up for themselves,  to learn their rights and develop a sense  of dignity. Turner encourages the women in  her classes to learn Wen-Do and has called  on resource people from the community to  talk about verbal and physical self-  defence .  What kind of issues do younger women want  to hear about today? Are their problems  different from those we faced when we grew  up? "Not really," thinks Jane. "It's okay  now for a girl to say that she wants to  be a plumber or a lawyer, although she  might still get laughed at, but under the  surface it's still not okay. They face the  same pressures we faced: whether or not  we're attractive and popular, what our  friends think of us, what to do about  boys..."  Younger women's conscious may be more  heightened than ours was, says Jane, because they are growing up at a time when  issues like sexism and pornography are  more public. But there are still problems.  "You. can be aware of being sexually exploited, for example, but still not know  how to deal with it," she says. It appears  that awareness is more public, but  solutions are still not forthcoming.  The concept of women's studies in high  school was first drafted more than eight  years ago. Some of its original material  was published in the B.C. Teachers Federation Status of Women program guide. When  the provincial government changed hands  in 1975 educators feared that the program  would be- dropped, but instead it resurfaced as a "locally-developed" course,  a course undertaken by the individual  school.  Jane had been teaching for two years when  she applied to teach this course. It was  not new to her. Turner's former history  professor at UBC, Jane Gaskell, provided  the impetus for the women's history segment of the curriculum.  It took some lobbying on Jane's part to  have the course accepted at her school.  "I had to present a detailed course outline," she recalls, "far in excess of the  usual procedure for having a course  accepted." She also recalls the frequency  with which superintendents just happened  to be in the neighbourhood during the  early years and would ask to sit in on  her class.  "They were unsure," she said. "The superintendent would phone and actually ask  questions like, 'Would I be teaching man-  hating? '. They always seemed to drop by  just at class time. Of course, this was  the first high school women's studies  course in the province."  Six years later the visits have stopped.  During the recent budget cutbacks there  was no mention of dropping this course,  probably in part due to the particular  enthusiasm of its students. "Some of my  students have given workshops to my (BCTF)  local about this class and another student  was on CBC giving it a very good review.  She was very articulate," said Jane.  If  someone tried to set up a similar course  today at another school, they probably  would have some difficulties, she thinks.  These days everything is considered a  frill, except for the basics—reading,  writing and arithmetic. -  "We're losing teachers—1000 this year—  so naturally we're losing the option to  develop different courses," she said. "If  anyone tried to cut this course now I tell  you I would fight for it."  continued from p. 14  For me being a feminist at this point in  time is very painful. Sometimes I get  scared and tired which makes me pull back,  letting things just happen around me without speaking out. It's hard when I have  to deal with being aware at school, and  with responding to sexism in our textbooks, with our teachers, and with  friends. Then I come home to my family  where my father plays the controlling  figure (being the "provider"). At the  same time, I see my mother being the person that keeps things together by working  hard to stay in tune with everyone's  emotions and sacrificing her own.  I can't come home after a hectic day to a  house of other feminists, or roommates  that are supportive and understanding. I  come home to fight the battle just a  little bit more before I return to school  the next day.  Being a young woman is double bind. Not  only am I seen as less credible because  I am a woman, but also because I am young.  That makes the choice to fight on feminist issues even more difficult.  There are days when I just can't deal with  it so I choose to be numb. But every other  day, my eyes are open, I am angry and  frustrated. Sometimes I lash out, wanting  everyone around me to understand. However,  unless people see the need for change  themselves, it's very difficult to make  them recognize my need to fight for it.  Seeing all this causes real problems in my  interaction with the boys I do care about.  I hate the ways in which we are oppressed,  how boys treat us sexually and in relationships; how they are encouraged to feel  superior; how we are expected to be thin,  beautiful and pleasing to be loved. On the  other hand, I can't relate to my father or  my brother as examples of the enemy. However, getting close to any boy is a frightening experience. The anger keeps me apart.  But I don't feel that it's a bad thing.  The anger is real.  I have one assurance in my life and that  is the women around me. We have to reach  out to each other. Standing together is  strength and can ease the pain. Who is  there when you're depressed? Who is there  when the world around you crumbles? More  than likely it is your women friends.  Being a feminist is challenging as well  as rewarding. I have gained incredible  strength from standing up to sexist remarks and fighting against pornography. I  am learning who I am as a woman and why we  are forced to wear masks and be in submissive positions.  I can see that true love between people  must be based on the agreement to fight  the stereotyping together. I can hold my  head up (or at least most of the time)  even if I'm in a group of people that feel  what I have to say is nonsense.  You have to weigh the risks to decide  which risks you're willing to take. Choosing to be a feminist is choosing to fight  for all women to be respected and heard in  our society.  I can never be at ease or stop speaking  out until all women begin speaking out  firmly about this oppression. While taking  care of ourselves, we have to force boys  to look at their behaviour. We must stand  together to one day eliminate pornography,  degradation, lies and abuse of women.  By speaking out what you believe and not  holding it inside, you can open it up to  other people so they can learn and gain  strength from you. When pornography no  longer exists; when women are no longer  oppressed; then,and only then,will I stop  the fight.  Postscript: You've probably noticed how  strange it sounds in this article when :i  refer to all females as women and all  males as boys. It was deliberate! It shows  how absurd it is to use the word girls instead of women. It also demonstrates how  referring to adults by words that are defined as children is one way of making  them seem less important. We are not less  important I November 82  7  The throwaway kids  Young women in prisons  by Anne Rayvels  Dulhane believes we cannot appreciate the  situation whereby a young girl is picked  up and put into prison without understanding why the institution exists. By the  same token, she says it is difficult to  separate young women from others in prison, and impossible to discuss women in  prison without relating the issue to the  society in which we live.  Culhane said that the stated purpose of  our prisons (to protect society, deter  people and rehabilitate) obviously doesn't  work. "If we understand that," says Culhane, "then we will understand why it is  a dead loss to put young women in prison  and wonder why they come out worse rather  than better." Young women in prisons  learn hairdressing or dressmaking. They  clean and work in the kitchen. But most  end up without an opportunity to live normal lives.  Before women are old enough to go to prison, they are placed in reformatories  (equivalent institutions, according to  Culhane). However disquieting, she says it  is not uncommon to see a young woman,  cynical and hardened by the age of 14- or  15, who is already a criminal. This criminal record could begin as early as the  age of ten, she said, because once a  child is a runaway, she is considered to  be a criminal. Culhajie said these children  are called "throwaway kids", and feels  strongly that they are a reflection of our  . society.  Culhane referred to a TV program with Jack  Webster, filmed at Willingdon, in which a  1^-year-old girl told him she just wanted  to go to school. Webster asked her about  her parents and she told him she had been  in 43 foster homes. "What kind of society  are we living in that would allow a young  girl to have lived in A3  foster homes?"  exclaimed Culhane, adding that we must  look at the family and the community for  possible cures.  'Culhane said that although the rate of  violent crimes for women is almost negligible, she recently met a woman in her  thirties who told her a story of violence  occurring after abuse. When this woman  was ten, she began running away from home.  She had no father and a mother who worked  and drank a lot at night. Her brother and  mentally-defective step-brother continually attempted to rape her. At 14, after  leaving home many times, she began to  sleep with a knife under her pillow. She  finally had occasion to use it. This 14-  year-old girl was apprehended, arrested  for attempted murder and sentenced to 18  months in a women's prison in Prince  Albert, Saskatchewan. "You can imagine  the kind of person she had to develop  into. In prison, she fought to defend herself — against other women," said Culhane.  In 1975, when Culhane taught a Women's  Studies course at Oakhalla, her class included a 17-year-old new admission. The  girl never left her side and when the  class was over, she was literally hanging  on to her. When Culhane asked her what was  wrong, she said, "They are coming at me  with penknives."  Twin Maples in Haney, B.C. is a unique prison in Canada, said Culhane, because young  women who are pregnant or have children  under two can keep the child with them.  But she said we must consider what will  happen when the child reaches two, if the  mother Is still serving time. She questions  the kind of judge who creates this irreparable kind of family problem for a nonviolent crime. The child may be farmed out,  and it may be difficult, if not impossible,  for the mother to find her child when she  gets out. Many other young women with  small children lose them when they go to  prison because their husbands go to court  for custody. The incarcerated woman can do  little unless she is wealthy and can afford  a good lawyer.  There are alternative programs to incarceration, said Culhane, and she spoke highly  of the one at Cedar Cottage in Vancouver.  She told of one 17-year-old woman who had  been caught shoplifting and was referred  to the community program at Cedar Cottage,  thereby bypassing the courts. An arrangement was made between the store-owner and  the girl to pay for the stolen item, and  progress reports were requested by the  Committee at Cedar Cottage while the girl  worked as a counsellor at summer camp.  Culhane said this viable alternative to  incarceration is in trouble because public  funding for the project has been cut, and  it is now dependent'only on private funding.  "We even practise apartheid in our prisons  in the prairie provinces," said Culhane,  referring to the fact that '90% of all women prisoners in these provinces are native  women. Vancouver has a particular problem  in this regard. "Our peace officers are  nowhere to be seen during the day when  native women are in need of help, but at  night on Hastings Street between Carrall  and Main, they are out in force scooping  them in."  The rate of recidivism is 80% for all ex-  convicts. Culhane said the reason for this  is that there is no one to help when they  get out. She said many people who are involved get caught up in bureaucracy or are  on a power trip, and many look the other  way.  The options for young women leaving prison are few. Culhane recalled a young woman she met at Oakhalla who had been in  prison for seven years. When she was released, she went to a halfway house. In  the morning she was told to get up, dress  and have breakfast before going to look  for work. The girl got up, dressed and  sat there. She didn't know she could open  her door. She hadn't opened a door in  years.  Once, when this young woman was on the  street, a constable driving by addressed  her by name. The woman (from Toronto) was  astonished. She didn't know that all police are given the names of people released  from prison and are told to keep an eye on  them. Culhane said this often results in  undue harassment.  Continued on p. 20  Claire Culhane, 64, is an author and prisoners ' rights activist. Born in Montreal  of Russian Jewish immigrant parents, her  political activism began in 1937 when she  became involved protesting the Spanish  Civil War. In 1967, Culhane administered  a Canadian government-sponsored hospital  in South Vietnam, which gave rise to her  first book Why is Canada in Vietnam? (NC  Press,   1972).  She became a member of the Citizens Advisory Committee at the B. C.  Penitentiary in  1967,  and her work with the Prisoners '  Rights Group since that time has involved  her in prisoners' activities throughout  Canada and the U.S.  Her second book,  Barred From Prison (Pulp Press,   1979),  was  written after she was told she could no  longer enter Oakhalla.  The prison ruling  was made,  Culhane said,   "in the best  terests of the institution". November 82    Kinesis  7  iAts&n***^  Nancy Drew and beyond  by Janie Newton-Moss  "I'm just happy that everything turned out  alright"  Ned grinned.   "If I were to give Nancy the  reward she'd like best,  I'd hand her  another mystery to solve. "  But it was not Ned who would bring  "The  Clue of the Broken Locket" to Nancy though  he was to play a part in the strange case.  "I'll find you a mystery by tomorrow morning",  he promised jokingly.  "And I'll be ready for it",  Nancy said  with a twinkle in her eyes.   "But make it  very,  very complicated and orginal. "  Caroline Keene's heroine Nancy Drew who  has been enthralling young girls since the  1950s was my introduction to the detective  novel. I think my obsession to finish one  book.and get on to the next came less from  a desire to absorb details of crimes than  to experience the world through Nancy's  eyes. Here was a girl albeit unlike anyone  I was ever likely to meet who was not only  permitted, but positively encouraged to  pursue her adventurous instinct and propensity to stick her nose into any : u.3-  picious kind of business.  Re-reading some of my favourite Nancy Drew  mysteries recently, I was disappointed to  find that they were, on the whole, badly  written and contained forgettable plots.  However, I still felt a loyalty to Nancy  herself, who made it seem possible to  participate in a dangerous other world  with courage, dignity and a sense of,  humour.  Like many of her older sisters in the detective novel, Nancy is able to pursue her  passion without the every day distractions  that occupy most of our lives. She lives  at home with her father, a distinguished  criminal lawyer with whom she is able to  discuss her cases over leisurely meals  provided by an adoring housekeeper who asks  nothing more than the occasional peck on  the cheek and the promise that Nancy will  do nothing foolhardy. She is accompanied  in her adventures by two friends who seem  content to bathe in Nancy's reflected  glory although: From their years of  friendship with the young detective,  Beth  and George had learned to let Nancy act as  spokesman.  She seemed to know just how  '  much to reveal whereas they were afraid  they might give information that Nancy  would prefer to be kept secret for the  time being.  She has an understanding boyfriend, Ned,  who turns up occasionally but never interferes. Although we are told in every book  that she is "a titian-haired, slender  attractive girl of 18" she is without sexuality. With the odd exception most detective heroines are portrayed as "spinsters"  who are either too old interested in  sex, young enough that they may still discover it, or emotionally deformed so that  their work compensates for their lack of  ability to be "a complete woman". It is,  however, the odd exceptions that prove to  be the most rounded and believable characterisations.  Lesser writers than Dorothy L. Sayers, the  creator of two of fiction's most fascinating detectives: Lord Peter Wimsey and  Harriet Vane, have noted the difficulty of  combining the two great passions of crime  detection and sexual love. P.D.James in a  recent interview on the CBC said she was  not interested in a mystery novel unless it  contained passion. She quoted-Sayers as  saying that "Love should be kept out of the  classic detective novel" and yet even  Sayers succumbs in Gaudy Night  by having  Wimsey and Vane marry. This is no formula  boy meets girl novel. It is the culmination  of a long relationship based on mutual respect and a shared obsession with detective  work. Although earlier Wimsey has rescued  Vane from a criminal court, by the time of  their marriage she is an established crime  writer and amateur detective. When Sayers  wrote this she was indeed going against the  grain of respectable society who would have  preferred Wimsey to have taken a more conventional bride.  P.D. James' heroine Cordelia Grey finds  the same prejudices in the 70's faced by  Harriet Vane a few decades previous. She  is introduced in An Unsuitable Job for a  Woman  as the younger partner in a detective agency. Although her name is printed  clearly on the door the police when called  in to investigate the death of her male  partner, assume she is his secretary and  that she will make them tea while they go  about their business. Her main concern  about having chosen to pursue an unconventional career is not how to combine it  with a private life, but rather how her  role affects other people.  Unlike the con-  Continued from p. 19  There are many problems involved in finding work if you are an ex-con. If you are  on probation, your probation officer can  check at your job, creating embarrassment  and problems. Perhaps one of the most  shocking stories Culhane had to tell involved a young woman released on probation  (although two years of her sentence was  still unserved). She received permission  from her probation officer in Vancouver  to go to a job she was offered in northern  B.C. (in a hamburger stand). She worked  hard and was offered a better job in  another northern town. After receiving  permission from the probation officers in  the town she was leaving and the one where  she was going, she attempted to reach her  Vancouver probation officer and was unable  to do so because it was the weekend. She  assumed one of the other officers would  do it for her. She moved and began work  but in one week was apprehended and return  ed to prison to serve another two years  — for violation of parole.  If the public is concerned about young women in prisons, says Culhane, we should  work to make prison and remand centre  builders accountable to the public. She  quoted Isobel McNeil, Warden of the maximum security Prison for Women in.Kingston,  who more than two years ago called for  the Prison to be shut down — because it  is a crime to keep women in a place of  that kind.  Prisons are almost impossible to penetrate,  said Culhane. They are a closed society  and are not places where parents, relatives or concerned citizens can go and  say "What's going on here? This is my  daughter. This is my tax money."  Culhane insists that no one should believe  a single word she says or writes. She says  we must go and look for ourselves. But,  she adds, "The first thing you will find  out is that you can't find out."  "Nancy! Watch out!" Bess screamed  ventional male detective she does not feel  herself to be either an objective observer  >or a passive seeker of justice.  A newcomer to this particular genre is  Helen Keremos, the hard-bitten, cool,  karate-chopping heroine of A Reason To  Kill.   I mention her as she is one of the  few Canadian woman detectives and her  creator Eve Zaremba has contributed to the  ever expanding field of women's literature  by portraying her as a lesbian.  Mary Lamont, the governess turned amateur  detective in A Coffin'for Pandora  by Gwendoline Butler, shares Cordelia Grey's  anguish about the responsibility of judging  other people's criminal actions. When ^er  young pupil becomes the focus of a kidnaping plot and subsequent series of  murders she finds herself alternately  drawn in and fighting back to keep within  lawful limitations. Finally in the best  tradition of women detectives she not only  finds herself able to restore order where  there has been chaos but also that she has  learned far more about herself than her  ability to piece clues together.  "At first when it was all newly over and  I had survived, I felt like the victim of  some natural disaster, an earthquake say,  or a shipwreck and that it had all happened  by chance, the fall of the coin on the  table. It is only now, looking back that I  see. how much I, Mary Lamont, contributed  and that the climax sprang as much out of  my own chracter as anything else. There  was my spirit of pride and my impatience  together with a quick curiosity which made  me always eager to know what was written  on the next page. The gods keep a special  fate for people like me. In short I helped  bring it on."  It is no accident that Gwendoline Butler  chooses a late Victorian Oxford University  setting as the background for a mystery  which involves ,the murders of several  young women. Oxford resisted the efforts  of early feminists who fought to have  women accepted as undergraduates. These  women characters are all faced with choosing between the local brothel or the  sweatshop conditions^of a milliner's workshop.  In the 1980's we are still trying to combatl  the contradictions embodied in Victorian  morality. The unitiated who have yet to  discover the seamier side of our civilised  world have a whole new body of literature  to discover. The prejudiced, the literary  snobs and those who equate women's fiction  with pulp writing ignore it at their own  peril. November 82  REVIEWS  Munro's latest preoccupied with romantic love  by Cy-Thea Sand  The Moons of Jupiter by Alice Munro.  Toronto: MacMillan of Canada, 1982. 233 pp.  $17.95 (cloth).  Ambition was what they were alarmed by,  for to be ambitious was to court failure  and to risk making a fool of oneself.  The  worst thing,  I gathered,   the worst thing  that could happen in this  life was to have  people laughing at you.  Lives of Girls and Women (1971)  Poverty was not just was  not just deprivation.   It meant having  those ugly tube lights and being proud of  them.  It meant continual talk of money and  malicious talk about new things people had  bought and whether they were paid for.   It  meant pride and jealousy flaring over  something like the new pair of plastic  curtains,   imitating lace...That as well as  hanging your clothes on nails behind the  door and being able to hear every sound  from the bathroom.  Who Do You Think You Are (1978)  With these words, Alice Munro underlined  her sensitivity to small town poor and  working class people and to the lives of  women in a culture both classist and sexist. In her latest work, a collection of  stories entitled The Moons of Jupiter,  Munro is much less focused on the economic determinants of her characters' development. She seems more interested in the  middle-aged woman's search for love.  If I sound disappointed it is because I  was hoping that Alice Munro would further  explore the mother/daughter knot (another  of her major themes) and'the effects of  poverty on her characters' perceptions. I  agree with the Kenyan writer Ngugi wa  Thiong'o when he says that literature  should be primarily concerned with what  any political and economic arrangement  does to the spirit and values governing  human relationships.   I am also interested  in female characters who move outside of  the romantic realm and I confess a boredom  with the sameness of heterosexual mating  rituals in literature. As a feminist and  optimist I am concerned with the fact that  Munro's women seldom win.  In Dulse,  one of the most powerful stories  in the collection, Lydia is on holiday to  recuperate from a failed relationship. In  Chaddeleys and Flemings:  1.   Connection,  the protagonist is married to an insensitive, rude snob. Frances' marriage in  Accident  is motivated by the death of a  child; in later life Frances contemplates  the twist of fate that offered her a marriage rather than spinsterhood:  What difference, thinks Frances.   She  doesn't know where that thought comes from  or what it means,  for of course there is  a difference,  anybody can see that,  a  life's difference.  She's had her love,  her scandal,  her man,  her children.  But  inside she's ticking away,  all by herself,  the same Frances who was there before any  of it.  Not altogether the same,  surely.  The same.  In Bardon Bus  the image of a solitary  woman is used as a backdrop against the  protagonist's tale of unsuccessful romance.  In this story, women's manipulation by  life's "cruel sexual bargain" — to use  Elizabeth Smart's phrase — is dramatized  by the main character's tormented thoughts:  The images,   the  language,  of pornography  and romance are alike; monotonous and  mechanically seductive,  quickly leading  to despair.   That was what my mind dealt  in:  that is what it still can deal in.   I  have tried vigilance and reading serious  books but I can still slide deep into some  scene before I know where I am.  A male character in this story had earlier  stated, ironically, that women, like the  terra-cotta soldiers he had seen in China  are very seldom found as whole figures...  Their legs and torsos and heads have to  be matched up,  usually.   They have to be  put together and stood on their feet.  ALICE  MUNRO  The Moons of Jupiter  Munro's women are emotionally fragile and  dependent — often "sliding deep" into a  role of powerlessness vis a vis their  lovers or husbands. One character is a-  shamed of her poor background; humiliated  by her husband's contempt. Another steals  from her lover's house; her booty a sad  revenge against being usurped by a younger  women. Husbands and lovers hurt and insult  women by scorning their aging bodies —  the women cower in self-hate, their buried  rage becomes depression. Women worry about  pleasing men; they fret about assuaging  men's impatience and disdain. There is a  disquieting inward search for blame in  these stories; the societally constructed  horror in male-female relations is absolved  of guilt. One female character, in analyzing her deep unhappiness, reflects a misguided tendency to individualize a cultural malady:  She made him a present of such power,  then  complained relentlessly to herself and  finally to him,  that he had got it.  She  was out to defeat him.  Alice Munro's mastery of the short story  is evident in The Moons of Jupiter.   Two or  three stories are much longer than any  she has done before. Two or three stories  she has done before. Labor Day Dinner  and  Chaddeleys and Flemings  are two examples  of long stories beautifully realized. The  shortness of Prue  is an interesting exercise in contrast. On first reading I  found it too abrupt but on closer examination it is a well-wrought, succinct  tale of despair.  There are a variety of themes in this  work. Female bonding, friendship and aging are explored in Mrs.   Cross and Mrs.  Kidd.  The two women have been friends for  eighty years and find themselves together  in Hilltop Home making new friends, facing illness and death. Visitors  examines  the loneliness in the relationship between two elderly brothers. There is a  hint of mother/daughter conflict in the  title story, which also deals with sickness and death.  In The Turkey Season,  Alice Munro's ability to create hard working small town  characters is celebrated. It is difficult  to forget women like Marjorie and Lily,  who are two middle-aged sisters,  who were  very fast and thorough and competitive  gutters... and who sang at their work and  talked abusively and intimately to the  turkey carcasses.  Alice Munro loves to  write about unmarried women — old maids  in patriarchal vernacular — and she does  it well. In Part One of the first story,  Chaddeleys and Flemings:  1.   Connection  2.  The Stone in the Field,   the maiden  aunts from one side of a family are lovingly drawn. They are contrasted with the  six sisters in Part Two, who live a puritanical life of hard work and seclusion  in the backwoods of Ontario.  My favourite story is Dulse,   the second  tale in this finely crafted collection.  It is set on an island off the South  Coast of New Brunswick. The characters,  who are residing in a local resort, are  richly and brilliantly realized. Lydia,  on vacation from her editing job in Toronto, learns from another guest that the  American novelist Willa Cather and her  lover Edith Lewis used to spend their  summers there. The guest, a retired newspaperman, is intrigued by Willa Cather  and speaks often of her to Lydia. The  image of Willa and Edith together threads  this short story with a glimpse of women  living together unencumbered by men.  As this story unfolds Lydia ponders her  relationship with Duncan, her ex-lover,  and wonders how and why she gave such  power to him:  She believed that Duncan's love - love for  Alice Munro  her - was somewhere inside him^  and that  by gigantic efforts to please,  or fits of  distress which obliterated all those efforts,  or tricks of indifference,  she  could claw or lure it out.  Annoyed with her own emotional turmoil  and with Mr. Stanley's adoration of Willa  Cather, Lydia becomes harsh and rude. He  has just told her that Willa Cather once  spoke to a local woman about the latter's  confusion as to whether or not to marry:  What would she know about it,  anyway?  Lydia said.  Mr.  Stanley lifted his eyes from his plate  and looked at her in grieved amazement.  Willa Cather lived with a woman, Lydia  said.  When Mr.  Stanley answered he sounded flustered, and mildly upbraiding.  They were devoted,  he said.  She never lived with a man.  She knew things as an artist knows them.  Not necessarily by experience.  continued on p. 29 22   November8:  CULTURE  Impressions of Fay Weldon  by Angela Page  Who is Fay Weldon, and why was she in Vancouver recently? She is a comfortable,  middle-aged Englishwoman who came here for  the final performances of her successful  play, Love Among the Women  (reviewed in  Kinesis, September, 1982). The play was '  unique in reflecting our own lives accurately onstage, making us laugh and wince  in recognition. However, Weldon is more  than a perceptive playwright, she is an  extremely versatile writer.  She is the author of nine novels, several  short stories, innumerable plays and  scripts for British TV and radio, including the award-winning Polaris,  writer of  five early episodes of Upstairs Downstairs,  contributor to Crossroads  (a successful  British soap opera),adaptor of Pride and  Prejudice  (recently on PBS), etc. etc.  Her latest novel, The President's Child,  has just been published in Britain and  will appear soon in North America. Another  is newly completed.  For all that productivity,  she presents  a calm, mellow exterior, smiling gently  at the world and answering even the most  inane questions (mainly from male interviewers) with wit and intelligence. While  in Vancouver, she gave talks at SFU and  UBC, a writers' workshop and a reading at  City Stage, plus interviews with CBC, The  Vancouver Sun,  Kinesis  and The Radical  Reviewer.  She appears to enjoy the role of  feminist novelist and playwright; she is  briskly uncompromising with male reviewers  who complain about her unfairness to men.  After all, she says, women have been unfairly described by men for centuries. Now  it is our turn.  She herself spent her early childhood in  New Zealand ("a completely different country" ) and then moved to England with her  divorced mother — a period of "hardship  and deprivation". It is noticeable that  nearly all the women in her novels are  brought up by women alone; husbands and  fathers are absent. She won a scholarship  to university in Scotland and, oddly,  studied economics while failing English  exams. Her degree eventually led to a copy-  writing job in an advertising agency where  she coined the immortal and successful  slogan, "Go to work on an egg". Commissions  from the BBC followed, and then her first  novel.  Weldon describes herself as married "on  and off" to an antique dealer; they maintain establishments in London and in the  country. She feels a sense of place is important. The earlier novels were written  in London, while two of the most successful, Praxis  and Puffball,  were written  while she was coming to terms with life in  the country and the impact of long-established country folk on newly-arrived city  dwellers.  "I can invent women with no trouble; I  have to describe  men," she says. She has  frequently been taxed by male reviewers  for her unfairness to her male characters.  They are indeed universally awful — oblivious of their effect upon their wives,  insensitive while claiming sensitivity,  ever-willing to trade them in for younger  prettier women — or men. She sees this as  only just, and cites the long list of women described by men in their fiction,  beginning with Anna Karenina  ("a vulgar  book") and Madame Bovary,  both examples  of faithless women who are held up before  us and punished for their sins. "They are  male fantasies," she says firmly, "this  is how men would like it to be."  She feels it is high time the balance was  redressed, and emphasizes that most of  the best novelists in England now are women, not men, because they are in touch  with what is really happening. She thinks  there is a new school of English women's  fiction, concerned with the reality of  the world and painfully aware the possibility of its coming to an end in nuclear  holocaust. "When they blow it up, I just  hope they miss," she says. While English  women writers have a sense of solidarity,  "We're all unhappy with Doris Lessing now  that she's going round telling us we've  all got to build our own nuclear fallout  shelters."  When speaking at SFU, Weldon defined herself as wife and mother of four sons before discussing her writing. Asked about  this, she said it would be useful if men,  too, were defined in this way as a matter  of course. She sees pregnancy and childbirth as only a part of women's lives:  "The mistake is to think It is all one  can do".  Weldon suggest, only half-jokingly, that  babies should be handed over to their  fathers at six weeks. Fathers are just as  responsible as mothers when they are in  sole charge, and it would keep them from  blowing up the world. She would like to  see the next generation of women less fully committed to childrearing and feels  the childbearing role, although defined  as female, is in essence a series of emotions which men are quite capable of  having as well.  On the other hand, Weldon sees role reversal often as a mere exchange of lines —  her husband now complains about her untidiness just as she used to about his.  She is sure the domestic role is inherently oppressed, no matter who plays it. She  suspects that working wives of men at  home now bully them, but hopes that "perhaps having been oppressed they may not  be such oppressors!" Certainly, it is obvious from her fiction that she does not  see women as we would like to see ourselves — strong, supportive, kind — but  more as a mixture of good and bad, manipulation, jealousy, dishonesty. There is  malice and anger in her writing, often  directed by women at women. For instance  Puffball  is mainly about a pregnancy, the  biological imperative, but it is also  about malevolence, jealousy, the urge to  hurt other people. The forces of evil may  be bungling and incompetent, but they  exist and are not exclusive to either sex.  The supernatural is a frequent element in  Weldon's fiction. Praxis Duveen, heroine  of Praxis,   communes with the star Betel-  geuse, and the dead Madeline in Remember  Me  makes her presence eerily felt for  several days after her death. In Puffball  there are emanations from Glastonbury Tor.  The Glastonbury Thorn, said to have grown  from wood of the True Cross, brought by  Joseph of Aramithea from Palestine,  flowers every year on Christmas Day. (Fay  Weldon herself lives at times in that  part of the world.) There are ghosts, too,  in several of the short stories in Watching Me,   Watching You.   Fay Weldon says  briskly that she has a friend who edits  a ghost story anthology who commissioned  several of these ( "Can you write a ghost  story by Tuesday?"), but that she does  feel that women are in touch with realities we do not understand, relating back  to witchcraft and the moon and ancient  mysteries. There is something of the  white witch about her, I think — the easy  warmth and friendliness, yet evil is there  in some of her fiction. She says she is  sometimes asked to read Tarot cards at  horseshows, sitting in a little tent on  a Saturday afternoon, but she always takes  out the bad cards before she starts so  that she cannot foretell death or disaster.  Perhaps this helps to define Fay Weldon,  the person — an essentially nice woman,  easy to talk to, co-operative, polite,  remembering to ask about one's sick child  from the day before, coping with hostile  male interviewers who have not bothered  to read her work, at the same time aware  of the pain and evil in the world, not all  caused by men but a part of us all. She  says she has moved from the indignation  she felt in her thirties to a calmer acceptance. Certainly she is cautiously optimistic about the future.  Although she is a feminist, she does not  call herself a feminist writer. She refuses  to distort her own vision of the universe  for the sake of a party line (if there is  one). Despite her prodigious output, she  says she is not superwoman — one cannot  be a good mother, wife and writer. She is  concerned about being away for her youngest son's birthday, although she knows  fathers have been doing it for years (and  that her son is young enough to be misled  about the date anyway). Yet even if "you  are a good wife and mother, children leave  you and so do husbands," and certainly she  has yet to portray a happy, good wife and  mother.  For me, meeting Fay Weldon was, if not an  inspiration, certainly a tremendous encouragement. Here is a woman my own age,  superbly competent and skilful in her  writing; in her prime, at the top of her  form. Like me, like all of us, she juggles  her commitments to work, to family, to  friends. Like me, she is afraid of dropping one of the balls. She has a strong  maternal streak — she positively melted  at the sight of an old photograph of herself with her then year-old son, and she  suffers from the universal guilt of mothers. But she can turn on her writing like  a tap (sometimes it shows), despite the  constant interruptions of home and family,  and still do a more than creditable job.  She herself says that, of course, something  has to go, and in her case it is the domestic scene; but she, more than most  ■female jugglers, can interpret our condition to us.  Fay Weldon is not very well known here,  and she deserves a wider audience, especially among feminists. She is published  in Britain, Denmark, America and Australia. November 82       Kinesis  REVIEWS  The Blatant Image  Speaking a woman's visual language  by Michelle Wollstonecroft  The Women's Movement, as a social revolution must take place on many levels. As  a visual image maker I see the need to  create new forms of expression that give  recognition to our lives and experiences.  We need new symbols to win, reproduce and  maintain a place for our culture in the  world.  The Blatant Image  A Magazine of Feminist Photography  The Blatant Image, 2000 King Mt. Trail,  Sunny Valley, Oregon. U.S.A. 97497  The Blatant Image,   a magazine of feminist  photography, is 97 pages of woman-  identified images. It combines the ideas  that we share as women with the ethnic,  class, sexual and physical diversities  within the women's movement. The photographs document aspects of women's lives  that have previously been made invisible  by the dominant male culture.  The Blatant Image  is produced annually.  The first edition was produced in 1981  at Rootworks, in the hills of Southern  Oregon, by Ruth Mountaingrove, Jan Phillips, Caroline Overman, Tee Corrine and  Jean Mountaingrove.  The Blatant Image  sets out to " a  consciousness-raising space for who we  are. In our photographs we can tell each  other who we are. In our photographs we  can tell each other how it really is..We  will take photography in a life moving  direction when we image our own lives,  when we publish images that are ours. Seeing ourselves doing things we never  imagined possible, we will begin to do  them." (Ruth Mountaingrove)  Although this magazine is written for  feminist photographers, by feminist photographers, I feel that the information and  articles would appeal to women who are  snapshot makers as well as women who just  want to look at the pictures.  I enjoyed The Blatant Image #1  for the  feminist analysis of photographs and  photographic processes. Foremost I was  impressed by the photographs, which images  speak a woman's visual language.  The photographs vary from women doing  traditional women's work, such as laundry  and mothering, to non-traditional work  such as logcutting and climbing telephone  poles. There are photographs of women  photographers, self-portraits, photographs  of women in protests, of women showing  affection and love for other women, of  mothers and daughters, and of women giving  each other political support.  The photographs represent the diverse subcultures of feminist women including:  women who are physically disabled, third  world, white, lesbian and heterosexual,  middle class and working class women.  The photographs also represent many different styles of working with photographic  images. For example, Stephanie from Yellow  Springs, Ohio does not take photographs  herself, but works exclusively in the  darkroom. Using "found".old glass negatives, she layers them with materials  such as lace and buttons to make her  prints.  Another photographer, Mary Beth Edelson  has contributed an article and photographs on "Documenting Rituals: What a  Modern Day Problem!" Her photographs play  with exposure times, moving images and  the contrast of night with torch light.  Figures of women and womenspirits are  apparent in the photographs, but quite  abstract.  The collective power of these images, is  that same power that created and sustains  Fairies fight mangy macho mefirsts  by Cole Dudley  As the holiday season nears, the sales  hype for children's gifts increases. What,  oh what, do we buy our children for  Christmas/Solstice presents? Hopefully,  we'll find gifts acceptable to us as well  as able to catch the interest of our children. Along comes Press Gang, just in  time. They have recently published a children's story called The Day the Fairies  Went on Strike,  written by Linda Briskin  and Maureen Fitzgerald with illustrations  by Barbara Eidlitz.  The Day the Fairies Went on Strike  is a  wonderful story about the worker fairies  and the "Mefirsts" who order them around  and waste their precious wish-granting  time. Consequently, the fairies have become so bogged down with wishes that they  cannot fill Hester's wish for 42 years!  Hester is a little girl who is troubled  by bullies and decides to ask the fairies  to grant her a wish that will do away with  her problem.  After talking to the fairies, Hester learns  about the terrible conditions in which  they work, and suggests they call a meeting to bring about some changes. Hester  relates her mother's success in organizing  to fight back against the bosses in her  office, and the fairies decide to do the  same. In the end, the Mefirsts learn a  valuable lesson and equality reigns in the  workplace. Hester also decides to stand  up to her own bullies.  The DAY The FAIRIES  WENT ON STRIKE! k  PRKSS GANG PUBLISHERS  The Day the Fairies Went on Strike  provides children with the basic information  for understanding a strike action. With  more and more parents striking for their  rights and the media distorting the facts,  a book like this is invaluable to our children.  Although the book is mainly a small child's  story, it can be read and enjoyed by older children as well. (This 32-year-old  enjoyed it!) The book costs $4-95 and is  available from Ariel Books, the Women's  Bookstore, Octopus East, Octopus West and  Press Gang.  mJk   fl  the women's movement. It is the explicit  subjectivity of the work, that in examining women's own lives is revealed even in  those articles which discuss the technical  aspects of photography.  This subjectivity challenges the traditional and mystifying "technique first"  premise of photography. At the same time  it gives emphasis to the authenticity of  women's creative expression as something  quite apart from the dominant male  esthetic.  For example, in "Being Sensitive to Light"  Karen Gottstein demystifies photographic  jargon by relating methods of exposure to  the ways we see each other and the world  around us under the different daily atmospheric conditions.  Likewise, Betty Fairbanks draws a relationship between the inherent qualities of  film and the colours of nature, weather  and natural light.  The herstorical articles gave me a sense  of my place in the evolution of women in  photography. As a Canadian I was delighted to read in Laura Jones' article that  In 1890 there were 135 professional women photographers working in Canada. I  also enjoyed Frances Rooney's article  about Edith Wharton's turn-of-the-century  photographs documenting rural Canadians  and am looking forward to reading more  about this woman.  The inherent message of The Blatant Image  was the importance of women making visual  images. "...That visual statement when it  connects to another's (sometimes latent)  understanding and sensibility is my contribution to the development of a culture  and community that is self-defined. That  culture is considerably different from the  one we are bombarded with daily..." (Shell  Glick, Blatant Image,p.6.)  Not only does The Blatant Image  encourage  women to make images but includes suggestions of places women can publish their  photographs, as well as organizations that  women photographers can join. It also includes information about workshops, archives, collectives, exhibits and festivals in the U.S. and Canada.  The only criticism I have.of The Blatant  Image  is the cost - $10. in the U.S. and  $12 in Canada, which is a little steep  for many would-be purchasers. However,  the black-and-white reproductions are  well printed and this undoubtedly accounts  for the price.  The women at Rootworks began production  on The Blatant Image #2  in September. We  can look forward to more images that document our culture as we wind our way out  of the patriarchy. 24      Kinesis   November 82  CULTURE  When Alix Dob kin played and sang at the  Koerner Auditorium on October 3rd,  there were many women in the audience who  gratefully soaked up every last repetition  of the words 'woman' and 'lesbian'. Myself, I was bored.  It was hard to be having that kind of re- .  sponse, because I really wanted to enjoy  it, to enter into the space experienced  by (seemingly) the majority of the crowd,  to bask in the feeling of being validated  as a lesbian, that Alix provides. None of  the other well-known lesbian musicians  puts that message across so openly and  clearly as Alix Dobkin. For that I give  her credit, and I wish others would be as  honest about being lesbians.  But that honesty and validation are not  enough in themselves. I still found Alix's  performance basically uninspiring.  Her lyrics are prosaic and repetitious,  written in a conversational or polemic  style, with very few really poetic lines.  There isn't enough of the creative imagery that can make me want to sing a song  forever and appreciate new levels every  time. The words go in one ear and out the  When she asked us if we could yell and  we were right there ready to hoot and  holler, she picked it up and dropped it,  going right back into the same stuff.  Her guitar accompaniment was fine for  what she was doing—supporting and not  obscuring what is obviously the more important aspect of her work, the words. If  the words had been worth all that attention I would not fault so heavily her lack  of musical interest.  The other performer on stage was Cheryl  Wharton, interpreting Alix's words into  sign language. Though there didn't seem  to be any hearing-impaired women in the  audience, it was educational and beautiful for all of us to watch the visual  presentation of Alix's words. I also appreciated the time and effort Alix made  to teach us all the signs for one of her  songs "If It wasn't for the Woman". I  agree with her that it is important to  make our events accessible to differently  abled women. Then they really have a  choice to attend or not.        ,  The theatre itself was quite lovely, the  stage set-up beautiful and the acoustics  excellent. Apart from the fact that the  poster didn't state that boys were not  welcome, the concert was well-organized and technically well-produced.  As the majority of the audience seemed  to enjoy the show, I can honestly say  that overall, the event was a success.  Although I have my criticisms of  Alix's work, I am happy that she  is out there making more and  more women aware of lesbian lifestyles.  other. An example of a typical chorus  shows the lack of substance:  There 's something about a lesbian  She can send me,  she can send me!  She's a Lesbian.  She's a woman's woman through and through  her and  Someday, maybe I'll woo her.  yea!    Weeeeee yea,  yea!  Weeeeee yea, yea!  There 's something about her.  Alix Dobkin c 1980  Although it's not apparent on the written  page, the most interesting part of this  song is the "weeeee yea, yea!". This line  is sung in a style adapted from the yells  which come from the Balkan folk tradition.  For those of you who are familiar with  Alix's music, you'll remember these yells  which she uses now and then. They are  truly wonderful sounds, as exciting to do  as to hear.  If I hadn't heard Alix do those wide-  ranging howls, I would think that she can  only sing octave, as her songs  are very limited in range and variety of  musical form using 4/4 time, predictable  chord progressions, major keys, with no  instrumental solos or vocal variations to  lighten the monotony. It's particularly  frustrating because I know she has the  voice to do more.  In early September I agreed to interview  Alix Dobkin for KINESIS while she was in  town.   Unfortunately,  circumstances and the  chaos of my  life prevented us from getting together.   Instead,   I edited for print  an interview taped for THE LESBIAN SHOW.  Many thanks to the collective for making  the tape available to me.   You can listen  to other important interviews,  news and  music on THE LESBIAN SHOW,   every Thursday  at  7:30 pm,   CFRO  (Co-op) Radio,   102.7 FM.  ON SEPARATISM:  My separatism comes from my feelings, not  from an intellectual decision. It's a feeling of comfort and the kind of atmosphere  that's created when women are alone together.  It doesn't mean to me that I can't ever  talk to a man, or even be fond of a man.  I love my father, I like my brother a lot,  and I do spend time with them.. A lot of  women think that lesbian separatism means  that you're not allowed to have anything  to do with men, or with women who have  anything to do with men, and I've never  subscribed to that. I'll participate in a  program (a rally or benefit) with a mixed  audience, but I won't do a whole concert  for an audience unless it's only female.  ON MALE CHILDREN IN THE AUDIENCE:  Women only is not boys. If a child is old  enough to sit and enjoy a performance then  there's no point in having a boy in that  audience, because the material that I do  is not particularly supportive of boys.  To me it is not doing the boys any favours  to let them be in that atmosphere and it  exposes them to the hostility of many women who don't like to have boys around.  It's not fair to anyone. And it's important for boys to learn respect for women's  privacy at an early age, to learn that  there are places where they don't have to  be.  ON HETEROSEXUAL  WOMEN IN THE AUDIENCE:  Oh, I'm all for it. Nothing pleases me  more than to have a woman tell me, "I came  out right after your concert." I'm real  happy to have all kinds of women at my  concerts.  ON LESBIANISM AS A POLITICAL ISSUE:  It provides the basis for me, for getting  through anything. For making bonds with  all kinds of women—there are all kinds of  lesbians. If we can manage to achieve  coalition politics among lesbians, I think  we are really doing something.  Being lesbians gives us the basis to communicate with the kind of people that we  would never communicate with before. It  brings issues into our lives like racism,  anti-semitism, disability.  These kinds of  issues become very personal and very important to lesbians when we're lesbian-  identified, because there are lesbians we  need to connect with who are not like us.  A good example of this is when I went to  Germany and spoke about being Jewish in my  concerts. I made connections with German  lesbians who understood what had happened  during the '40's, who were conscious of  the holocaust and Nazism, which is not an  easy thing to be conscious of in Germany  these days. We were able to make these  connections because we are lesbians, and  have the kinds of bonds that are so supportive and wonderful. And I couldn't  connect with other German women like that  unless they were lesbians. I think it's a  big mistake and very self-destructive to  be conscious of being a lesbian as a limitation. This is not a limitation. It broadens our perspective. November 82      Kinesis  CULTURE  Alive and  doing well  by Diane Morrison and Janet Morgan  Alive:   five women musicians uncompromisingly trying through their music, their  work and their lives, to be who they are.  "Then," as pianist Janet Small says,  "finding the people who are interested in  that, making them know about us."  Alive  played at the Landmark Jazzbar late  in September. After the first all-stops-  out number a friend said, "When they start  out the show like that, where do they go  next?" But go they do; jamming, jiving,  jazzing, and really outdoing themselves  with each number. They give so much to  each other on stage. It's like a shout of  "Go for it! and their firm embrace takes  you along.  Rhiannon, Susanne Vencenza and Carolyn  Brandy met six years ago at a workshop for  women musicians. Originally, they got together to play music, not to form a group.  But something clicked; people liked what  they heard and asked for more. Barbara  Borden and Janet Small liked what they  heard and became part of it almost four  years ago.  "We're women. We're musicians. I can't  separate those two. Music is what keeps us  together," said Carolyn. "It wouldn't be  enough that we were just women. As musicians we share the same standards and  goals."  But the group, in their music and their  personality, says a lot about the things  women are after In their lives.  "We were real fortunate to have the space  and the opportunities and the support of  the women's community. Women were so responsive. They connected to the spirit of  the group. There was a desire to see women  playing. They liked the risks we were  taking, liked what we were writing about.  And we felt we could try out a lot of  things and really improve as musicians because of that support. There were some  Janet Small, Barbara Borden, Rhiannon, Susanne Vencenza, and Carolyn Brandy  magical moments in those women-only spaces.  But we want to do it all, to play to all  kinds of audiences. We're trying to reclaim  our own space."  One of the group's foundation concepts is  that everyone is a soloist. "When we make  up the set, we work so that each person  feels they're being represented as an individual." And when you see them perform you  know you're seeing five of the best jazz  musicians around.  Composing is a big priority for all the  members of Alive,   as well as performing  original material. They don't put their  sets together by relying on old standards.  They are in the contemporary world and  their jazz reflects that. No matter who  writes the music, they choose it because it  says what they want to say. "We don't sing  lyrics that are contrary to our beliefs."  Alive sees big changes in the music business. They believe the growing number of  women, as groups, leaders and soloists,  have had an impact on women's attitudes  changing toward themselves.  "People's attitudes are changing in general.  I'm really proud that we're part of that.  And feminism has been instrumental in helping women confront and overcome some of the  barriers," Carolyn said. "I was so impassioned about playing drums," she added. "I  played for about three years before I  realized that the guys were really up-tight  about it. By the time I.started realizing  the taboos, it was too late. It didn't  stop me. "  Future plans for the group include a third  album, possible tours in Europe and Brazil,  more writing, more gigs, financial  stability as musicians and continued  opportunities to grow, as musicians, as  teachers and as people. We hope that Alive  will have a long and prosperous association  with Vancouver audiences.  Alive's records are available from Redwood Records,   419 East Elk Avenue,   rear,  Glendale,   California,   U.S.A.   91205.  Westcoast Women's Festival falls short on politics  by Rachel Rocco  Sure, I was pretty excited about attending  the Third Annual West Coast Women's Music  Festival, held in late September. Most of  all I was looking forward to being part of  a self-sufficient, self-contained, community composed entirely of women. To me, this  was the perfect opportunity for an interesting and educational Information exchange  between women.  Before even arriving at the festival site,  however, it was clear the organizers were  not creating an environment condusive to  any sort of political education. One major  women's bookstore in San Francisco chose  not to participate in the festival claiming  it was not open to community input and the  sliding scale ticket prices were totally  inadequate and discriminated against poorer  women.  Ticket prices were set at $80 for the four  days and everyone who paid this fee was expected to do at least one workshift necessary for the smooth running of the festival.  Women who could afford to pay $20 more were  exempt from working completely while those  who could not afford the $80 could try for  one of the limited number of spaces that  allowed a person free entrance if they  worked the festival. Considering this  "city of women" required meals, 24-hour  daycare, security, medical care, site  maintainance and so on, these women would  end up working for most of the festival.  On the surface the festival attempts to  create an accessible atmosphere. Certain  areas were set aside for women with supposedly similar experiences. There was a  women only area, an area for women with  children and their friends, an area for  disabled women and their friends, an area  for women of colour and their friends, an  area for older women and their friends, a  clean and sober area where women could be  free of alcohol and drugs, a chemical-free  area where women could be free of alcohol,  drugs and tobacco, and a general camping  area. While there were reasons for some of  these divisions, most seemed questionable  and arbitrary since many were based on the  traditional ways women are separated from  each other. An event meant to bring women  together began by separating them.  As for the program book, it provided no  information about the various performers;  where they were from or what they played.  There was no elaboration on the workshops  or who was conducting them. Ill-equipped  to make any informed choices about what  to attend I tried the 'Female Sexuality'  workshop which looked promising. About  40 women showed up but as it turned out,  the workshop leader was a representative  from a women's sex toys company.She spent  most of the workshop telling us that we  could liven up our relationships with  vibrators, lotions that smelled good,tasted  good and got hot when you rubbed it. Needless to say, many people left. The "Organizing Around Nuclear Power" workshop was  attended by only five women and many of  the morning workshops didn't even happen.  The Festival definitly places a priority on  women's music, however. It successfully  presented an amazing array of fine performers. The opening show on Thursday night  was slightly confused after the elaborate  light tower was blown down by a gust of  wind during a sound check for the Bay Area  Women's Philharmonic Orchestra, but the  rest of concerts all proceeded without incident.  Margie Adams  and her expressive piano was  one of my favorites. Two stringbands, the  Harp Band  from New York and Rosie's Bar &  Grill  from midwestern U.S. were both well-  received. The two most memorable acts were  the Orchestra Sabrocita, a Latin influenced  band from the Bay Area who had the entire  crowd on their feet dancing, and the highly  energetic Edwina Lee Tyler and A Piece of  the World,   another New York band whose  hypnotic, jazzy, African rhythms were incredible.  But without a doubt the most inspiring  performance was given by The Mothertongue  Readers Theatre    whose readings from  scripts of women's writings and conversations shattered the sexual labels women  use to define themselves and dramatized  incest, battering, sexuality, and the  common realities faced by all women in  the world.  Despite the evening concerts and extensive craft market, the lack of serious  and well-programmed workshops convinced  me I would not travel to the Fourth Annual festival if it takes place next year. November 82  Opinion  A successful worker's co-op: at what cost?  by Sarah Shamai and Nina Rabionvitch  This article examines the apparent discrepancies between the stated philosophy  of a  workers' co-op and the working reality.  We are two former members of Co-operative  Resource Services (CRS) Workers' Co-op,  who were part of the collective at Uprising  Breads Bakery for a year and a half. We  both left the Co-op in the spring of '82  without'knowing if an article of this type  would be productive. Consequently, we did  nothing. The recent firings at Uprising  Breads Bakery have erased our doubt. We  hope tdv explain to readers the major contradictions and weaknesses that we see in  the co-op alternative from our experience  at CRS, and how these weaknesses significantly stray from a common conception of  workers' co-ops.  A common assumption about a workers' co-op  is that it recognizes the importance of  the struggle of working class people. One  goal of CRS states they "encourage the replacement of capitalism and private enterprise with collective ownership and control1'. However, there is really nothing  innate about co-ops that makes them supportive of working class people.  In fact, our experience has shown us that  any identity with and desire to align with  working class struggles becomes more and  more compromised in a workers' co-op. It  becomes easy to lose the identification  you had as a worker and take on the primary orientation of owners and managers.  How does this happen?  The co-op structure is such that each  worker has equal say in decision making,  equal voting power and equal share in the  management of the co-op and collectives.  There are no bosses to speak of and no  huge bureaucracy to crawl through. We all  received equal pay (there is a dependant  supplement for workers with children), we  all worked a thirty-five hour week, and  there were numerous benefits: medical,  dental, use of the truck, free day-old  baked goods, a lunch fund and nice people  to work with, to name a few. The bakery  is a pleasant place to work. However, in  the process of striving to improve our  working conditions for ourselves we easily  become insulated from the concerns of  people who have to deal with their bosses  and have little flexibility for their personal needs.  Unless you consciously make connections  We expected more from the coop and were disappointed. . .  our divergent views were not  welcome.   with other working class organizations  (the mainstream of workers), you become  more and more pulled away from the problems most people experience in their working life. CRS did have meetings with other  co-ops but their contact with workplaces  in the mainstream was limited. Detachment  set in.  Another problem is the Co-op's philosophy  that the best way to politically educate  people about the merits of co-ops is to  show the public that CRS can be a financial success and a sound business. In  fact, in the past few years, the CRS salaries have increased dramatically and  they are definitely making headway in  terms of financial stability and growth.  We see nothing wrong with this until we  examine the compromises made along the  way.  One good illustration of this lean towards  management for economic stability can be  seen in the "Naam issue". This was a 'hot'  issues at the Co-op and its results instructive. At the time, part of the stated  goals for the year was to support trade  unions. When the Canadian Farmworkers  Union went out on strike and picketed the  Naam restaurant last year, CRS did stop  selling to the Naam while the pickets were  up. However, when the restaurant was sold,  the farmworkers sent a letter to CRS explaining the sale of the restaurant.  The owner of the Naam had two choices: to  recognize and negotiate with the union,  or to sell the restaurant in order to get  rid of the pickets. He chose to sell, rejecting the demands and needs of the workers.  This was seen as strike breaking tactics  on the part of the Naam. Despite the  union's explanation that its demands had  not been met and strike breaking tactics  the Co-op, there were ten people working  full time in the Bakery. A ten-member collective could keep the Bakery in operation  and there were fragmented work shifts left  unfilled. Most of the time, there were  three people, working between 15 and 35  hours, who filled these shifts. These  people were part-time workers and were not  members of the Co-op. Therefore, they were  excluded from meetings, did not receive  medical and dental benefits (but did receive a slightly higher wage instead).  They had no formal input into the decision  making process of the Co-op. They were  working for ten bosses. There was an obvious gap between member and non-member  workers.  Working at the Bakery involves shift work:  weekends, mornings and evenings. One of  the policies formulated was that there  would be shift differentials for people on  undesirable shifts (evenings and weekends).  These people would work slightly less  hours than others. This differential was  not extended to part-time non-member work-  There is a certain mystique about setting up alternative  organizations. People believe they will help to change the  system. Instead they set up a comfortable community for the  people who work in them.  had been used, CRS chose to resume selling  to the Naam because the strike was legally  over and they were not prepared to lose  the business. Most members did not see  that by selling to the Naam they were in  fact denying the farmworkers' struggle.  It should be noted that CRS, when asked,  has given financial contributions to labour  unions. But this example illustrates that  the support stops there.  There is a certain mystique about setting  up alternative organizations whether they  be schools, financial institutions, retail  food outlets or bakeries. People believe  these kinds of alternatives are helping to  change the system. These kinds of alternatives attract people who wish to integrate  their politics with their wqrking lives.  At CRS our experience involved confronting  contradiction after contradiction. It became clear to us that a co-op is not necessarily a vehicle for integrating politics and work experience. In fact, we feel  that co-ops don't change the system, they  don't even confront the system. Instead,  they only set up a comfortable community  for the people who work in them and contribute to groups radically confronting  the system. But they do not take that work  on themselves.  We expected more from the Co-op and were  disappointed. When we tried to express  that disappointment we received no active  support; our divergent views were not welcome.  In our view, the Co-op was losing sight of  many of its political objectives. Most members of the Bakery collective agreed that  there was a conflict between the goals  and objectives of the Co-op and its actual  practise. A process was begun which focused on bringing the goals and objectives  in line> with the established working reality of the Co-op. In effect, this meant  a business orientation taking priority over  the less profitable aspects of support for  social change.  Another major issue which demonstrates contradictions within CRS is membership. Policy states that members must work at least  25 hours a week. At the time we worked at  ers who did work evenings and weekends.  The Co-op has generous policies allowing  members to take courses such as typing,  democratic management, vocational training,  etc. These are paid for in time and dol-  .lars partially by CRS. This benefit was  also not extended to part-time workers.  About one and a half years ago we began  the lengthy process of re-evaluating membership policy in an attempt to reconcile  the differences between full and part-time  workers. The result was the Co-op approved  a policy that members could work part-time.  There were a number of criteria for this,  but the present part-time workers were  assured their situation would be considered unique and dealt with separately.  One of the three part-time workers left  the Co-op, while the other two applied for  membership. In the end, they were informed  that, although they were good workers,  with an "exemplary work record" as one  member said, the hiring committee felt  they would not make good managers, and on  this basis they were terminated with two  |  weeks notice.  This action — in fact, the whole process  — is a contradiction to anything that  even resembles an organization that is  worker-oriented. We find it inexcusable.  It is in opposition to the general purpose  of promoting co-operation and equality  in the workplace. Job security is a fundamental right of.workers. It also illustrates to us that the present membership  of the Co-op is unwilling to allow for or  deal with political diversity that may  deter from the harmonious operation of the  business.  These workers were told they had a negative  attitude. How could striving for equality  in a "workers' co-op" be considered negative?  The Co-op's actions support our view that,  though workers' co-ops create an alternative working environment, they do not alter, confront or attempt to change the  structure of society at large. Given the  fact that they are inflicting such blatant  injustices on workers, we question how the  name "A Workers' Co-op" can be used. November 82       Kinesis  Opinion  CRS part-time workers lose their jobs  by Wendy Solloway and Susan Mullen  On September 5, two part-time employees of  CRS Workers Co-op were terminated instead  of being accepted into the collective.  This was the culmination of a one and one-  half year process in which part-time non-  member workers tried to gain equality in  the Co-op. This brings the number of women  who have left the Co-op in the last five  months to five. Here is an analysis of the  situation by the two women terminated.  Our connection with CRS has been that of  hired part-time employees (non-member workers ). One of us has worked for two and a  half years, the other for eleven months.  During this time we have worked anywhere  from eleven to forty hours a week each.  We have enjoyed working with most of the  members of CRS and have generally found  the working atmosphere at the Co-op to be  friendly.  However, there were undercurrents to this  atmosphere, as we discovered when we tried  to become members of the Co-op. We ran  into steady opposition. Many members had  negative feelings about part-time workers,  that they had less commitment, that their  contribution was not as great, that it  was work for "pin money". Few members  realized that the level of commitment was  tied in to membership and the type of involvement membership allowed/disallowed.  Women have encountered this all too often  regarding part-time work.  As non-members, we were not involved in  the decision-making process, we did not  go to meetings, and did not vote, even  when issues affected us directly. There  was a hierarchy and we were definitely at  the bottom. The communication link between  the members and us was very informal and  unstructured. We often found that we were  not informed of decisions after they were  made and certainly there was no encouragement to take part in discussions beforehand. This left us in isolation, and outside of participation in the Co-op.  About a year and a half ago, discussion  about part-time worker/members began.  From that time on, lack of communication  became more evident. We knew whatever  decision was made would affect our jobs.  Most of the information we received was  from the minutes of the Co-op meetings,  which were not very detailed, and from the  few members who actively supported us on  this issue. We were assured that our jobs  were safe, and though we doubted the truth  of that statement, we continued to hope.  In late spring we were asked to meet with  the Co-op hiring committee. We were told  that the use of part-time non-member workers had gone beyond what was originally  intended. The original intent, we were  told, was to provide "pin money" for members' families. They recognized however,  that they must now deal with a situation  very different from that intent, arid assured us that we need not worry about the  security of our jobs.  Despite these assurances, we were worried.  In actual fact, we had no job security.  We presented our position in an open letter to the Co-op. We said two classes of  workers existed in the Co-op: those with  decision-making powers and those without.  paid as for full-time (we were not re-  ceiving any at this time).  The policy was accepted by the Co-op with  some changes. We were informed that we  could apply for part-time worker membership and that we would be considered under  the "exceptional case" category. Two of  us applied; interviews were set for September. Finally that day arrived.  Because we were applying for membership,  there were no restrictions on the types of  1 questions which could be asked. In a co-op  We believed our position was no different  than workers in any capitalist enterprise.  There was no official response to our  position, and it was not discussed at  their meeting as we had requested. The extent of the feedback consisted of a member angrily confronting one of us at work.  By early summer, a proposal was circulated  among the members (we received a copy)  about a suggested change in Co-op policy  concerning part-time worker membership.  There were interesting qualifications:  - only two part-time workers per collective. (At this time there were three  part-time workers at the Bakery, and  with one member wanting to work part-  time, this meant eliminating two of our  jobs. )  - one must have been a -member full-time  for at least two years (none of us had  been members)  - exceptional cases would be given consideration.  - all benefits (medical, dental) would be  Meet Jane Rule  1 pm    Peregrine Books  2950 W. 4th Ave.  738-6523  Jane will be autographing "Contract With the World"  (just out in paperback) and other titles.  Saturday Dec. 4  the hiring policy is not governed by the  Labour Standards Act.  We were asked our  political affiliations/activities, union  involvements, attitudes towards management  But most surprisingly of all, we were confronted with angry reactions to the letter  we had written four months previously.  None of these members had ever talked with  us about their criticisms. Also, we were  informed that some members had expressed  negative opinions about us. This was surprising because no criticisms had ever  been made of our work to us directly. We  asked to see these comments and were told  they were confidential.  In this workers' co-op, we had less rights  than workers in many union shops. A unionized worker has the right, in the company  of their shop steward, to hear any substantiated grievances made against them.  We asked that members bring these criticisms to us in person; the response has  been minimal.  Later that day, we were informed that our  applications had been refused. They said  we were good workers but would not make  good managers. At a meeting with other  co-ops, it was said that we were terminated because of our negative attitude  towards the Collective. Both of these explanations are problematic. Our negative  attitude was, in fact, a positive attitude  about our rights as employees. We never  had a chance to prove ourselves as managers; we were found wanting without evidence.  It is probably truer to say that political  differences were the reasons for our termination. We were too strongly identified  with the workers movement and not enough  with the management. In management's  typical solution to workers' militancy,  we were fired, in spite of efforts made  by a few members on our behalf. This  leaves us with the question, to quote  from a recently produced CRS pamphlet,  "What is a workers' Co-op anyway?" 28    Kinesis    November 82  LETTERS  Pollack applauded  on festival review  Kinesis:  I would like to make some comments in response to Jeanni Kamins' response to Jill  Pollack's review of Festival '82. I do  not wish to deal with the tone of the  letter, nor with Kamins' defence, both of  which are basically irrelevant, (i.e.  "..Doris Shadbolt's...credibility in the  art world is incontestable." This statement is highly debateable at best, as any  visitor to the Vancouver Art Gallery  during Shadbolt's tenancy can attest.)  Instead I would like to comment on some  of the ideas Kamins presents.  "We wanted to do a show...of what women  in B.C. were doing. If (they) were doing  hearts and flowers, then hearts and flowers it would be." Firstly the argument is  tautological: we were doing a show on women artists in B.C.; therefore what we  selected showed what women artists in B.C.  are doing. The fact is that some 200  women submitted some 20&~ oxides and 119  pieces of work done by 65 artists were  selected. Surely this indicates an elimination process of some type beyond the  basic "female, resident of B.C., work  completed within the last two years"  criteria stated in Kamins' letter.- If the  women artists in B.C. were all painting  kittens, sunsets, (insert your favourite  cliched image here) on black velvet, is  that what would have filled Eaton's windows and the Robson Media Centre?  "From the inside out...". No one has cast  aspersions on the energy, conviction and  dedication that helped to put together  Festival '82. What has been called into  question are the final results. Any artist knows that the viewer does not and  will never perceive the exact content,  intent and form that the artist does.  (This has become particularily true with  much more contemporary work due to its  highly personal, or abstract or conceptual,  etc., nature, as well as the generally  poor quality of cultural education.) Beyond the basic separation between and  artist, each viewer also brings her/his  own educational, political, cultural bias  to the piece of work. What Kamins seems  to be complaining about is one viewer's  assessment of the larger work. (An exhibition being a collection of work which  also comprises a larger "piece".)  The piece didn't do what she, as one of  the creators, wanted it to do for that  viewer.  As an aside, it is interesting to note  that Kamins did not thank, nor otherwise  give support to Kinesis  and her writers.  who compiled several pages of very uncritical reportage of Festival '82.  If Pollack were to live up to Kamins'  contentions of promoting "in-fighting",  not to mention that totally awesome  epithet of "non-supportive", (the contemporary equivalent of assigning the Scarlet  Letter), Pollack could have mentioned:  - quotes from the insulting and patronizing rejection letters sent by the Visual  Arts Committee,  - the dominant place that members of the  Visual Arts Committee (and friends) held  in the show itself,  - a woman who was offered work at one  rate of pay and the man who was offered  the same job at a higher pay scale.  Six years ago I participated in an ad hoc  IWD meeting. The criticisms my group offered were given the same short shrift  Kamins gives Pollack: you weren't there;  our decisions were optimum in that situation; you don't understand; your critique is useless. Translated into an  artistic milieu this approach becomes  extremely elitist. It seems to mean that  only the artist and/or others directly  involved in the creation of a work can  truly appreciate that work. And further,  that any criticism indicates a certain  vindictive and/or philistine attitude on  the part of the viewer. Surely our artists and as  stronger than that. A little judicious  pruning will rarely endanger a tree.  And finally, Jill Pollack is to be congratulated for taking on such a delicate  task. No one fail. However,  there are certain difficulties inherent  in a project the size and scope of Festival '82. Pollack had the courage to say  concisely and publicly what I have heard  everyone saying privately (40-50 women,  some involved in the show): the space was  poorly utilised, the fhow uneven, conservative and generally timid at best.  To perceive and state this is neither "a  lack of respect for (one's) sisters","in-  group bickering", nor "an unconscionable  lack of support for the hard work..".  However, to accept a show uncritically is  all of the above.  Kamins' claim that Festival '82 was about  B.C.'s "state of the arts" among women  artists was belied by the show itself.  Pollack saw this and wrote about it. Nothing more, nothing less.  Renata Rato  Socialist-Feminists  to host conference  Dear Sisters,  We are a group of Vancouver women meeting  to discuss a proposal for a national socialist feminist conference. We want to  invite you to participate.  This idea is being discussed by women all  across English Canada and Quebec. A letter  from the Toronto committee and a draft  call explaining the objectives of the conference are now being circulated among  many interested groups in B.C. We hope to  print them in an extensive article about  the conference in the next issue of  Kinesis.  Meanwhile, we want as many women as possible to express their opinions and get  involved in talk and planning. It is important to stress that a decision to go  ahead with a conference opens  the discussion on agenda, topics, ways of organizing  the conference, future work, etc. We.hope  you will speak up.  Since it will take at least a year to  plan, we need to hear from you soon. We  urge you to write us, call us, or if possible, attend a meeting at Britannia Community Centre on Monday, November 8 at  7:30 P.M. to share your ideas.  Please write to us at:  Socialist Feminist Conference  #6 - 1686 Charles St.  Vancouver, B.C.  or phone: Jackie 253-5068 or  Nancy 224-4182  In sisterhood,  The Ad Hoc Committee in Vancouver  Accept the chip,  it's here to stay  Kinesis:  I was disappointed to read yet another  reactionary article on computer technology  in your last issue: Decoding the Microchip,  Oct.82. Before you move in horror to the  next letter, let me say that the article  raised three very important points.  1. Yes, microchips are produced under conditions which exploit Third World women.  2. Yes, the spread of computer technology  threatens the jobs of thousands of workers,  particularly women.  3. Yes, constant exposure to VDT's (Video  Display Terminals) poses health risks  which have not been adequately researched.  However, one further point needs to be  clarified. Computer technology itself does  not threaten us. It is a tool (and a very  powerful one at that) which is currently  being used to perpetuate many of the inequalities of our society. By burying our  heads in the sand and rejecting this tool  outright though, we have less, not more -  control over how it affects our lives. We  must take an active stance and harness  this valuable resource for our own purposes.  Now I am not trying to say that South-East  Asian women have much chance of changing  the values of their multi-national employers, or that tellers can easily reverse  the trend of automation in banking. On  the other hand, grass-roots women's organizations could benefit enormously by a  responsible use of the new technology.  Ms. McHugh herself mentioned that one of  the three objectives of the Women and the  Impact of Microtechnology Conference was  "to develop individual and group strategies  for using technology to women's advantages'.'  Unfortunately she did not report on any  discussions on this topic, and so I would  like to make a few suggestions.  The microcomputer is taking the business  world by storm because, in contrast to  the mainframe computers of the 1960's, it  is cheap and easy to use. If implemented  by a grass-roots organization, these two  factors can also mean that it is operator-  owned and controlled, and therefore decentralized and democratic. A computer/  word processor could be used for mailing  lists, lobbying, more effective direct-  mail fund-raising, and bookkeeping. This  would relieve the volunteer worker of much  of the repetitive work of typing, filing  and bookkeeping, and free her time and  energy for more creative discussions,  meetings, writing, reading and organizing.  The group would maintain complete control  over working conditions and length of exposure to VDT's.  Several women's groups have already taken  the initiative in this direction. These  include the National Women's Mailing List,  the Women and Technology project in Montana, the Pittsburg Feminist Network, and  the Women's Resources/ Computers in Philadelphia. Another very interesting organization which is developing the use of  computers for social change is New Era  Technology, in Oregon. November 82    Kinesis   29  LETTERS  Whatever your personal opinions on computers, one final point deserves your consideration. Please think twice before you  pass on to your children (especially to  your daughters) a totally negative attitude towards this new technology. Every  day, as I pass a local computer store, I  see several school children busy playing  with, exploring and learning about computers. Unfortunately, all these children  happen to be boys. They are probably the  computer scientists, engineers, programmers  and technicians of the future. Whether you  like it or not, computers are here to stay.  We desperately need more socially responsible people in these fields so that  computers will be used to their full potential in promoting our needs, interests  and welfare.  Helen Salter  Kinesis: Anti-semitic  Kinesis:  The women signing this letter are protesting the anti-semitism expressed by writers  in several articles and letters published  recently in Kinesis.   The problem of anti-  semitism in the women's movement has been  addressed by several feminist publications  in the last year but not by Kinesis.   Femi-.  nists in Vancouver have said that anti-  semitism is not an issue and that Jews  are over-reacting.  Anti-Zionists usually claim they are not  anti-semitic. But most Jews and people  familiar with Jewish history can identify  clear links between anti-zionism and anti-  semitism. Anti-semitism like sexism and  racism, is a prejudice based on ignorance  and hatred. Anti-semitism is racism against  Jews. It states that Jews are dangerous  and should be controlled. It holds that  Jews are not entitled to their homeland—  Israel^-and that Israel is a dangerous  imperialistic state that should be eliminated. It also assumes that Palestinians  do have a right to the state of Palestine  which will be founded on the destruction  of the state of Israel.  Vancouver anti-zionists also argue that  Israel is aggressively imperialistic and  should be eliminated for this reason. They  would probably not use a similar argument  against other imperialistic countries  such as the UK, the USSR or the USA. When  the United States invaded Vietnam, there  was world outrage against US imperialism  and genocide but no one suggested that the  elimination of the USA would be a viable  solution for this problem. This is a double  standard.  For those of you unfamiliar with the  Israel-Palestine-Zionism issue, being a  Zionist does not mean opposing the concept  of a Palestinian homeland, nor does it  mean supporting Menachem Begin's aggressive expansionist policies. In ana outside  Israel, a high percentage of Zionists  oppose Begin and support the demand for a  homeland for the Palestinians. However,  all Zionists insist that the Jews have the  same right to their homeland, Israel.  Throughout Jewish history a minority of  Jews have identified with their oppressors  to the extent of becoming anti-semitic and  anti-zionist themselves. For example, in  the 70's there was a leader of the Klu  Klux Klan who committed suicide when he  was exposed as a Jew. In pre-Nazi Europe  there was a Jewish communist leader, Rosa  Luxembourg, who refused to consider the  Jewish issue even as the Nazis planned the  extermination of European Jews including  the total Jewish population of her home  town. Here in Vancouver at this time we  have "Jews against Zionism", a group more  anti-zionist than the PLO. The term for  this phenomenon is "Jewish self-hate".  We hope Kinesis  will print feminist views  of these issues in the women's movement.  Anti-semitism is a serious problem and we  think it should be taken seriously.  Jane Wintemute Helga Jacobson  Rachel Weiss Mary Adlersberg  Sally Thome Lorie Ross  Jan St. Amand Karen Lewis  Jan Radford  Reproductive rights  group needs your help  Sisters:  It has been several months now since the  pro-choice march and rally of May 8, 1982,  which was co-sponsored by the Coalition  for Choice on Abortion and CCCA. One of  the less publicized but hopeful outcomes  of this event was the support of the members of the Coalition for a continued effort to work in the area of reproductive  rights as a broader issue. It was through  preparing for the march and rally, and  the many discussions and the research undertaken by the Coalition, that it became  apparent that much more work needs to be  done around reproductive rights as a more  general issue. For example, while there  is some information about forced sterilization occurring in the U.S., there is  very little known about to what extent  this kind of thing is taking place in  Canada. Another area of concern is the export to third world countries of dangerous  methods of birth control by multinational  drug companies.  The women who took part in the evaluative  discussions after the march and rally supported the idea of a reproductive rights  group to undertake such work as research,  education and political organizing. We  recognized, however, that while there is  much work to do, there are still too few  of us to accomplish all of it. The continuation of a reproductive rights group depends on how much interest and commitment  we can get from women in the Lower Mainland. We would like to hear from women  about what kinds of issues they want to  examine and in what ways we should work in  the community to educate the public about  what we learn.  IF YOU ARE INTERESTED IN WORKING IN THE  REPRODUCTIVE RIGHTS GROUP, PLEASE COME TO  A PUBLIC MEETING, THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 18,  1982 AT BRITANNIA CENTRE (ROOM TO BE ANNOUNCED ) AT 7:30 P.M.  Helen Glavina for  The Reproductive Rights Group  More news please  Kinesis:  In the October issue of Kinesis  you ran an  item on page 2 with the title People 's  Republic of China visits VSW.   It looked  interesting so I started to read it. It  was four paragraphs long. Three of those  were taken up with giving the names and  describing the titles of the six women who  visited from the All China Women's Federation of the People's Republic of China.  The date they were at VSW was given, too.  The last paragraph was two sentences long,  and gave some very general information  about how women's groups are organized in  China.  What I want to know is, what did the  women from the Chinese delegation and the  women from VSW talk about? Surely the women from China didn't just introduce themselves, get a quick tour of the office and  leave.  The reason I'm annoyed that nothing more  was printed in Kinesis  about this visit is  that it's so hard to get any real news  or information from the mainstream media  about anything going on outside this  little corner of the world, particularly  anything to do with women.  Many of us would be interested to know  what is happening with women outside of  western countries right now; what their  lives are like, their accomplishments  and what they are trying to achieve. Once  in a blue moon we'll get that in the  Vancouver Sun. -Kinesis  promises us on its  cover "news about women that's not in the  dailies". So please give it to us; we  want to hear it.  In sisterhood,  Daphne Morrison  continued from p.21  But what if they don 't know them? Lydia  protested.   What if they don't?  Lydia's desperation with heterosexual  relationships motivates her to demand  whether or not lesbians have a secret to  happiness: But was she  lucky or not,  and  was it all right with that woman? How did  she live?  Lydia also asks the question because the  silence about the lives of lesbians is so  well-maintained in our society. Munro  chooses not to use the word in this story,  and infers that Lydia would have been indelicate had she uttered it to the eighty-  one year old Mr. Stanley. (There are a  couple of gay male characters in The Moons  of Jupiter. )  The controlling myth in the  story is Willa Cather creating her novels  from within a woman to woman relationship.  It is an image of a relationship working  for women rather than contributing to  their lack of self worth and emotional  disintegration.  Alice Munro is at her best when she creates  dialogue, investing characters with warmth  and humour, and when she exposes the fragility of human relations. The talent of  her earlier work is evident in The Moons  of Jupiter but I was disappointed in the  collection as a whole. There is a thinness  here — too little innovative material  stretched too far. There is a tone of emotional fatigue in many of the stories.  These flaws reflect an excessive concern  with romantic love, a concern which does  not re-vision human sexual interactions,  but simply retreads the old roles, the  old patterns.  Willa Cather once wrote that there are only  a few human stories and they keep repeating themselves as if they were new. Perhaps  it is time to change the stories. To ensure  a radical future the human imagination must  be empowered with the unthinkable: we just  have to keep up with its potential in our  politics and our literature. November 82    Kinesis  BULLETIN BOARD  ON THE AIR  WOMANVISION ON CO-OP RADIO, 102.7 FM.  Listen on Mondays, 7-8 pm. News, views,  music on Womanvision, the program that  focuses on women.  RUBYMUSIC ON CO-OP RADIO, 102.7 FM. Join  host Connie Smith from 7-7:30 pm every  Friday for half an hour of the finest  in women's music: pop, gospel, folk,  feminist and new wave.  THE LESBIAN SHOW ON CO-OP RADIO, 102.7 FM,  each Thursday from 7:30-8:30.  November 4 - Shy Lesbians  November 11 - Jewish Lesbians Part I  November 18 - Jewish Lesbians Part II  November 25 - Humour Show  MEMBERSHIP IN CO-OP RADIO is open to any  community member, 16 years or older, and  to incorporated groups and certified  unions. Lifetime share is $2; annual  membership assessment fees are $18 for  individuals and $50 for groups.  CLASSIFIED  LAND FOR SALE TO LESBIANS: 1/4 share of  21 acres on Mayne Island. For details  write to: Mayneland, c/o 4123 Main St.  #1, Vancouver.  East End Food Co-op makes you  • The co-op is a neighbourhood  food store, owned and controlled  by the people who use it.  • We carry a full line of groceries,  bulk natural foods, dairy  products, regular and organic  produce.  • We offer in-store specials this  month as well as our regular low  prices.  Former member? Come back and  shop again. We need you. Our  work requirement is now  optional.  Never heard of us? Stop by and use  guest shopping privileges before  becoming a member. We're open  every day except Mondays.  Tuesday-Friday 2 p.m. to 7:30 p.m.  Saturday & Sunday 10:30 to 4:30 p.m.  1806 Victoria Drive  (Victoria & 2nd Ave.)  Phone: 254-5044  CANVASSERS NEEDED ON MONDAY, NOV. 15th,  6-9 pm for door to door canvas to raise  money for Medical Aid to El Salvador.  Requires only one short training session  and an evening of your time. No experience necessary. Training sessions are  Wed. Nov. 10th 4-5:30 or Sat. Nov. 13,  11 am-12:30 pm. For further info, call  Paullette at 255-0523 or Jane at  253-3350.  RESEARCH IN PROGRESS: For extended research  on downward displacement of immigrant  women, I need case studies. If you have  come to Canada in the past twenty or  thirty years, and would like to tell'  your story, please contact Brig at  255-0051.  I AM A SINGLE MOTHER who is interested in  working full-time in a non-traditional  trade. I desperately need to talk to  some other women who are in the same  position to find out how they are doing  it...sitters, etc. Please call Robin at  588-9047.  ROOM AVAILABLE IN CO-OP HOUSE. Kits area.  Housing is large, light, quiet, has  large back yard with garden. Room is  medium-sized and sunny. Here now are  2 women, one man and one child. $150.  plus utilities. Non-smoking. 731-8790.  FOR RENT: PERSON WANTED for large mixed  co-op house. We are 3 women, 1 man and  2 cats. We are politically concerned,  anti-sexist, and friendly, looking for  same. $180. month, share-utilities.  Available immediately. Phone-876-5609.  MUSICIANS: Vancouver Composer and recording artist Marcia Meyer requires experienced woman bassist (electric, double-  bass or cello OK) for performing and  recording. Call: 986-2826.  BOOK-KEEPING SERVICES to trial balance.  Carolyn Schettler, 879-2601.  TWO WOMEN LOOKING FOR A THIRD to share  sunny, 4-bedroom house close to East 1st  and Commercial. 1 cat and 1 young dog,  large backyard.. $170/mo. plus shared  utilities, gas, heat. Call-255-5587  between 4 and 8.  WANTED: ROOM IN non-smoking co-op house  for feminist who can pay total of $240.  a month. Call Hilary: 689-1632.  GROUPS  GOT A HEALTH PROBLEM THAT'S BUGGING YOU?  The Vancouver Women's Health Collective  provides an informal setting for women  to discuss any health issue that's on  our minds, every Thursday afternoon at  2:30 till 4. 1501 West Broadway.  The Vancouver Women's Health Collective  offers a skill sharing session one  Saturday each month. Learn breast and  cervical self-exam, and learn how pap  smears and vaginal cultures are done.  This is an opportunity to learn how to  understand the results of pap smears.  Next skill-sharing day: 1-4 pm, Nov.20.  No appointment necessary.  Reproductive Rights Group. Next meeting  Wed. Nov. 17 at Brit. Com.Centre L5  beside the library at 7:30 pm.  LESBIAN DROP-IN meets every Wednesday  evening 7:30-10:00 at the Women's  Bookstore, 322 w. Hastings St.  V.S.W. launches Fund-raising  These are tough times for women. More and more women  are poorer and poorer. Calls to V.S.W. reflect this reality —  women face unemployment, welfare harassment, legal problems and violence against themselves and their children.  It is more important than ever that feminist support and services continue to be available for all women.  Current government funding does not meet our  expenses. We are now in a deficit situation due to  rising costs such as rent, postage, printing and  resource materials. Those of us still able to contribute toward keeping V.S.W. alive can participate  in our fundraising efforts by:  •joining V.S.W. (form on back cover)  •sending a donation if you are already a member  •signing up your friends.  There are monthly and grand prizes for the person  who sells the most memberships and who collects  the most money before March 31, 1983. (minimum  of 30 memberships or $1,000 for the grand prize)  GRAND PRIZE  A free trip to the Michigan Women's Music Festival  drive November 82    31  BULLETIN BOARD  EVENTS  MARGO ADAIR WORKSHOPS. Three workshops  with Margo Adair.  Beginners Applied Meditation - covering  basic visualization techniques. Friday,  November 5th, all day Sat. & Sun. Nov.  6 and 7th. For women and men. Childcare  provided. Call 253-2077 or 738-7127.  Theta Training - For those with some  experience with visualization. Tuesday  and Wednesday evening Nov. 9th and 10th.  For women only. Collection for childcare  expenses. Call 253-2077.  Tools for Political Thinking - To develop tools for working together  politically, while taking into account  our divergence, discussion format. Some  visualization techniques may be used.  Sat. and Sun. Nov. 13 & 14th. For women  only. Childcare provided. Call 731-8790.  Fees for all workshops will be worked  out on a sliding scale for unemployed  and employed. Pre-registration and  deposit required.  .. ■■/.. ' ■;■ -  WOMEN AND SPORT PUBLIC SEMINAR. Workshops  include girls; adult women; women,  sports and the media; university and  college competition and recreation and  career opportunities. November 14, 1982.  1-5 pm Robson Square Media Centre, $2.  Sponsored by The Canadian Association  for the Advancement of Women and Sport.  For further information call Marion Lay  687-3333.  RAPE AWARENESS: A free program for the  public on Tuesday,November 9, 1982. At  7:00 pm at Justice Institute of B.C.,  Blake Hall, 4180 West 4 Ave. Guest  speaker: Frances Wasserlein. For more  information or to pre-register, contact:  Community Programs, Justice Institute at  228-9771, local 279.  WOMEN IN FOCUS presents  November 10 - P.melia  Video Night: new  productions. 7:30 p.m. $2 donation.  November 11 & 12 - The Sparkling Fruits.  November 20 - Dance/concert with The  Persisters.   9 p.m. Admission charge.  November 28 - Film night. Donna.   7:30  p.m. While the film was in production  a right wing group destroyed the women's radio station in Rome and shot  five women. Their account of the attack and its relationship to their  work became the starting point of the  film. Donna  speaks of the relationship  between politics and women's lives in  Italy.  THE SPARKLING FRUITS:  Diane Levings, Lorna  Boschman, and Wanda Jane perform in a  lively show of music, comedy, and films  at Women in Focus. Three shows:  November 12-9 p.m. ($5) Mixed.  November 13 - 2 p.m. matinee. ($3) Free  Childcare. Mixed.  - 9 p.m. ($5) Women only.  International lesbian cuisine served  nightly. Tickets available at Ariel,  Women's Bookstore, Octopus East and West.  ,    AND  j(WiLUN(r  A To GIVE It  ALL DP  WEN-DO Women's Self Defense. Six-week  basic class at Western Front, 303 East  8th Ave. Starting Nov. 16 3-5 p.m. $30  (negotiable). Call 876-6390 to register.  AND IF YOU'RE IN SEATTLE an exhibition of  women's art is happening. IN OUR OWN  IMAGE  is at 913 E. Pine (Odd Fellows  Hall) from Nov. 6-27.  WOMEN AND WORDS: Women and Words/Les  femmes et les mots  is a country-wide  conference to be held in Vancouver,  July 1983. It will be a meeting of women working with the written word in  both traditional and alternative frameworks. If you are interested in putting  your creativity and ideas to work, join  us for our general meetings held the  last Wednesday of every month at the  Canadian Book Information Centre, 1622  West 7th Ave. There is*pleh"ty of room  on several on-going organizing committees for energetic women. For further  information call the office: 684-2454.  WOMEN'S EYE VIEW on The Knowledge Network.  Fridays-12:30 pm or Sundays-7 pm.  November 5 & 7: Post Partum Depression  This film profiles two women with postpartum depression, and explores its  profound effects on their relationships  with their husbands, their children and  themselves.  November 12 & 14: Loved, Honoured and  Bruised. This powerful film shows the  difficulties battered wives experience.  November 19 & 21: This Film is About  Rape.  This is an analysis of rape, intended to reach people on an emotional  level in order to explore some of the  myths associated with this crime.  November 26 & 28: Killing Us Softly:  The Image of Women in Advertising.  A  unique analysis of one of the most  powerful forces in our society.  WRITERS' WORKSHOP: The Radical Reviewer,  a Vancouver-based feminist journal of  critieal and creative work is sponsoring  a workshop for women writers of poetry  and fiction. The workshop will be an  opportunity to explore your writing with  other women, as well as being a forum  in which to meet other writers.  Betsy Warland, poet and cultural organizer, will facilitate. The workshop will  be held Saturday, November 27 from noon  to 4 pm. at Women in Focus, #204-456  W. Broadway. Cost is $3.50 to cover  rental space. All women welcome.  For pre-registration, please call:  684-2454 or 684-2455.  NEXT IWD organizing meeting at Britannia  Community Centre on Nov. 16 at 7:30 pm.  WORK TO WRITE poetry series presents a  poetry reading by Bronwen Wallace,  feminist poet and filmmaker from Kingston, Ontario. Thursday, Nov. 18 at 7:30  at Mt. Pleasant Library (Kingsgate Mall)  A vital and powerful writer. Free  admission. Sponsored by Vancouver Industrial Writers' Union. Kirsten Emmott  will open the reading with a brief  presentation.  Other readings in the series:  January 20 - Gwen Hauser  RACISM: TWO EVENINGS OF FILM and discussions to be held at the Carnegie Centre.  November 21 — Blacks Britannia,  Emigrante  December 5 — Program to be announced.  Admission: $2.50. Presented by Women  Against Imperialism.  Cinema Canada  Canada's  film magazine  P.O. Box 398 Outremont Station,  Montreal, Que.  POETRY READINGS sponsored by Women and  Words at Women in Focus on Nov. 25 at  8:00 pm.  SORWUC COFFEEHOUSE at the Odd Fellows Hall  (Gravely and Commercial) on Nov. 26.  For more information contact SORWUC at  684-2834.  LESBIAN INFORMATION LINE BRUNCH on Sat.,  November 27 at 11:30 am.  Call LIL  for more information—Thurs/Sun 7-10 pm.  at 734-1016.  ALL DAY CUSTODY WORKSHOP on November 28th  With Ruth Busch and Joanne Ranson will  be sponsored by Lesbian Mothers Defence  Fund. Location: TBA. More information  on the Lesbian Show on Co-op Radio or  255-6910. Ask for Frenchie.  UP AND COMING  THIRD ANNUAL MATRONIZE SHOW & FAIR,   at  Women in Focus,  December 4-24,  1982.  DANCE,   GOSSIP,  MEET GOOD FRIENDS AT VSW'S  December Party at the Odd Fellows Hall  at Gravely and Commercial on Dec.  10.  f\r\ fttter no-lfi ve  f o/- \A/oV«en  • to look  cfc  ou-rsclve^  • to  look,  at  o\>r reLaVto/vsWip^  • to iKore oi4.«~   oV»servo.V'iorvs/  ho|3£*7  cartel,    \s\  ex.  iitpporVtv*.    aVrrios-pKe*-*.  SiKwxle^i OO a. H cu-re. uJ©oeUcl  lot, p*"«ocd<- VietAt-W, s^>&t~VcL<-vj-Wr-  V/iCaO   of   OC££»rv  **rv*\   rv\o»jnrvVcM.r»t>.  rv mc<>crvaVions»    We.*»rlo  V/o«|To


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