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Kinesis, July/August 1982 Jul 1, 1982

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 Special Collections Serial  ■  VMS/DB  6 Responding to Chava  Mintz' article, Marsha  Ablowitz provides an historical analysis of Zionism, its  goals and achievements  8 500 women from Europe,  Africa, Asia and the Americas met to discuss health  issues in Geneva last year,  and Frances Birdsell of  Terrace was there  10 "Aimez vous les  hommes?" The question is  false say the women of La  Vie en Rose, explaining  why their magazine is pro-  lesbian and not just anti-  sexist  12 What's it like to be a  deckhand on that traditional male bastion, the fishing  boat? In an interview with  Kate Braid, Anne Stanley  tells how the experience  changed and strengthened  her sense of self  14 The Dinner Party was  shown first in Montreal,  then Toronto, this spring.  Frances Rooney discusses  the vastly different dynamic she experienced at the  two exhibitions  19 Promising to explore  the lives of B.C. women  who have gone before us,  Kandace Kerr and Jill Pollack launch a new feature  — Her Story, My Story  20 Verna Lovell's book on  the 1977-78 nursing dispute  at Vancouver General  Hospital raises the question of how to blend feminism with nurses' struggles  22 Is lesbian SM an issue  that will divide the feminist  lesbian community, or  stimulate growth and  understanding? Susan  White warns of the dangers  of intolerance  JULY/AUGUST '82  COVER: In belly dance, we discover a celebration of the  power of women's sexuality. Panel from the MeliaTriptych,  Midnight at the Oasis, by Kiku Hawkes.  SUBSCRIBE TO K/MMI/T  Published 10 times a year  by Vancouver Status of Women  400A West 5th Ave., Vancouver, B.C. V5Y 1J8  □ VSW membership - includes Kinesis subscription -  $20 (or what you can afford)  □ Kinesis subscription only - $13  □ Institutions - $40  □ Sustainers - $75  Name   _Amount Enclosed_  Please remember that VSW operates on inadequate  funding — we need member support!  KJMESiJ  news about women that's not in the dailies Kinesis       July/August 1982  UNIONS  CLC convention roused by women's demands  by Marion Pollack  On May 24 (Victoria Day), 2300 unionists  gathered in Winnipeg to chart the course  for the labour movement in the next two  years. The occasion was the 14th Convention of the Canadian Labour Congress (CLC).  The eighties may be a good era for royalty,  but they are a bad time for workers. Unemployment rates have reached depression  levels. Interest rates are matching the  temperatures in Honolulu on a good day.  The right to strike is being taken away  en masse from workers, and trade union  leaders are being jailed for exercising  their rights.  Both the B.C. and Quebec governments have  imposed wage controls, and Trudeau is  threatening to institute them nationally.  Major trans-national corporations for  their part, are telling workers that if  they want to keep their jobs they will  have to work for less.  Workers won't pay for economic crisis  Workers have responded to these crises  unevenly.  In B.C., the IWA (International  Woodworkers of America) has refused to  accept rollbacks. Various labour councils  have set up strike support and direct action committees to assist workers and the  CLC started a fightback program by or-  KINESIS  KINESIS is published ten times a  year by Vancouver Status of Women.  Its objectives are to enhance  understanding about the changing  position of women in society and  work actively towards achieving  social change.  VIEWS EXPRESSED IN KINESIS are  those of the writer and do not  necessarily reflect VSW policy. All  unsigned material is the responsibility of the Kinesis editorial group.  CORRESPONDENCE: Kinesis, Vancouver Status of Women, 400A West  5th Avenue, Vancouver, B.C. V5Y 1J8.  MEMBERSHIP in Vancouver Status  of Women is $20/year (or what you  can afford). This includes a subscription to Kinesis. Individual subscriptions to Kinesis are $13/year.  SUBMISSIONS are welcome. We  reserve the right to edit, and submission does not guarantee publication.  Include a SASE if you want your work  returned.  WORKERS ON THIS ISSUE: Janet Beebe,  Janet Berry, Brownie, Cole Dudley, Patty  Gibson, Nicky Hood, Naomi Mitchell, Jeanne  Taylor, Deb Wilson, Dorothy Elias  DEADLINE FOR NEXT ISSUE: August 15 for  August 31 publication. Late copy printed as  space permits.  Vancouver Status of Women offices  are located at 400A W. 5th Avenue,  Vancouver, V5Y 1J8. Office hours are  Monday to Thursday, 9:00 to 5:00 p.m.  (some evenings by appointment).  Our phone number is 873-1427.  ganizing a mass demonstration on November  21.  Unfortunately, it did not follow through.  At the last CLC convention in 1980, delegates passed a series of resolutions  calling on the CLC to carry out campaigns  against unemployment, for a shorter work  week, on the right to strike, and on  sexual harassment. However, the CLC did  not institute extensive campaigns, either  within and without the labour movement, on  Some of these.  Priorities  If this recent convention proved anything,  it Was that workers are not in an acquiescent mood. Throughout the convention,  delegates made it clear they were neither  responsible or willing to pay for the  economic crisis. A policy paper on concessions passed at the convention firmly  stated that no worker should take a wage  cut in order to keep a job.  It pointed  out that concessions don't save jobs -  only money for the bosses.  Wage controls are swiftly becoming a  reality in Canada and while such controls  are an attack on all workers, they hit  particularly hard at women. Responding  to this, delegates to the convention  passed a resolution urging action up to  and including a general strike were wage  controls imposed. Shortly after this resolution was passed, NDP leader Ed Broad-  bent publicly stated he would not support  an illegal general strike, as if such  action would be legal.  Labour's affiliation with NDP debated  Support of the NDP was an issue throughout  the convention. The cavernous meeting  halls were plastered with political posterns. As well, a resolution was presented  urging unions to redouble their support  for the NDP. The experience whereby the  NDP was elected in Manitoba was presented  as a model.  Debate was quite interesting. A number of  delegates pointed out instances where the  NDP was not supportive of labour and said  when this support occurs the NDP won't  have to worry about receiving the wholehearted affirmation of unions. Until that  time, they were reluctant to pass the  motion. While the resolution did carry,  the fact that such open debate on the NDP  had occurred was unprecedented.  Much of the debate on the convention floor  was not so open, for Dennis McDermott, CLC  President, in his own words uses a "flexible" chairing method - one for which the  rulebook hasn't been written, and which  is subject to revision on the spur of the  moment. However, the complacency of much  of the CLC leadership was shaken this  time round. One reason was the existence  of two left caucuses. While they differed  in strategy, their combined efforts brought  some life and militancy to the convention  floor.  The women of CLC are moving.  Delegate after delegate at the  convention spoke to the urgency  of the fight for women's issues,  pointing out that a failure to  fight for women's issues means  women's position will  deteriorate.  The situation with regard to the right to  strike is, sadly deteriorating.  Increasingly, government leaders are restricting  workers' right to strike.  In 1981, for  example, CUPE hospital workers in Ontario  (mainly women) were legislated back to  work, and their strike leaders either  fired or jailed. Despite a 1980 resolution calling on the CLC to organize a campaign on the right to strike, this has not  been done.  At this convention, the 1980 resolution  was reaffirmed. However, the CLC limited  its support to affiliated unions; in B.C.,  the unions representing large numbers of  women are not members of the CLC.  Women demand public action on VDTs  While rapidly rising unemployment rates  are, as usual, higher for women than for  men, this was not a major topic of the  convention.  It seems the operating theory  of the CLC is that if you fight for a positive economic strategy, unemployment will  go away.  What was most clear to me at this convention is that women in the CLC are becoming  more and more vocal about issues of concern  to them.  Health and safety is an example. The committee handling resolutions had initially  recommended rejection of a resolution on  video display terminals (VDTs); moreover,  it was buried so deep in the pile of resolutions to be dealt with it would never  come up. Yet delegate after delegate  stood up and demanded that the resolution  be debated, eventually forcing the commi-  tee to alter its agenda to include it.  Women delegates spoke angrily about the  committee's recommendations and insisted,  continued on page 16 July/August 1982       Kinesis  ACROSS B.C.  Women's expedition reaches  summit of Mt. McKinley  The all-women's team, "Women on Denali",  successfully reached the summit of Alaska's  20,320' Mt. McKinley Saturday, May 22 at  9:30 p.m. Four and a half hours later, they  returned to their high camp.  "Because we were so far north it never  really got dark at night and we could find  our way back fine, but we were exhausted,"  said leader Jan St. Amand.  There has been only one previous all-women's  climb of Mt. McKinley, led by American  mountaineer Arlene Blum in 1978. She later  organized a successful all-women's expedition to Annapurna Mountain in Nepal.  G.P. Elaine Kennedy said by the time the  three women reached the summit they were  tired, cold and concerned about getting  down safely. Elaine suffered frostbite to  her thumb in her summit climb. The other  two successful climbers were Jan St. Amand,  SFU Kinesiology student, and Barb Clemes,  physiotherapist and Outward Bound instructor.  The fourth climber, Jane Weller, a worker  at Mountain Equipment Co-op, failed to complete the climb due to altitude sickness  and pulmonary edema, which she developed at  14,200'. Jane recovered quickly after descending to base camp.  Jan and Elaine began planning the climb and  recruiting experienced climbers last August.  Each climber needed about $1500 worth of  mountaineering clothes and equipment.  The women skied in carrying packs and pulling sleds. Since each woman had 120 pounds  of food and gear, they had to make more than  one trip in. This meant that by the end,  they had climbed the equivalent of twice the  distance up the mountain.  At the higher elevations of the mountain,  oxygen is scarce, and their thermometers  "bottomed out" at -40 degrees. Because of  extreme cold, storms and oxygen starvation,  climbers on other teams became sick, and  the women helped in rescues and medical e;  while stormed in at the 17,200' high camp  "Conditions at 17,200' were very bad during  the storms. It was very hard to spend  days in a small snow cave where we couldn't  even sit up," said Jan St. Amand. "But  everyone on the mountain seemed to know us.  We made a lot of friends. It's a great area  beautiful. We would like to go back sometime."     Marsha Ablowitz  Socreds hedge on national day  care conference  B.C. Human Resources Minister Grace McCarthy has refused to send a provincial representative to a national conference on day  According to McCarthy, the provincial government is too busy enhancing day care services in B.C. to participate on a national  level.  Organizers of the conference, however,  think that day care in B.C. is in a state  of crisis, much like the situation in other  provinces. To date, most of the provinces  have named a representative to the 30-  member national planning committee. Because  of McCarthy's refusal to participate, the  education and health ministries, who are  also involved in day care services, have  been asked to send a government representative to the conference.  Provinces are also being asked to help finance the travel and accommodation expenses  of delegates. Seven delegates will be attending from B.C., including two parents,  two day care workers, one teacher and one  administrator or supervisor.  Only once before has a national conference  on day care been held in Canada - the last  one was in 1971. The conference expects to  examine the present state of day care policy and programming from a provincial,  territorial and national perspective;- some  basic elements of high quality day care;  and policies, structures and action strategies needed to achieve high quality day  care.  The bulk of the conference funding (some  $100,000) is being provided by Health and  Welfare Canada, co-sponsor of the conference along with the Canadian Council on  Social Development. CCSD is contributing  $20,000. (Vancouver Sun)  Hospital abortions challenged in  civil suit  Two directors of North Vancouver's Lions  Gate Hospital have asked the Federal Court  of Canada to declare more than 2,000 abortions performed at that hospital between  1978 and 1981 illegal.  In filing civil action against the hospital's therapeutic abortion committee,  George Carruthers and Michael Whelton, both  anti-abortion advocates on the hospital  board, say some abortions at the hospital  were authorized in violation of the federal  Criminal Code and others were approved on  the basis of a faulty definition of the  word "health". The president of the North  and West Vancouver Hospital Society,  however, has strongly denied the allegations .  The two claim that between March 31, 1978  and March 31, 1981 there were 2,248 abortions performed at Lions Gate, against a  total of 4,295 live births. They say the  figures, representing about 52.3 abortions  for every 100 births, are about three times  the Canadian national average.  However, as documented by the 1977 Badgley  Report on the Operation of the Abortion Law,  there are sharp disparities in the distribution and accessibility of therapeutic  abortion services, which might help to explain what is seen as a "high rate" of  abortions in North Vancouver. Only 20$ of  civilian hospitals across Canada had therapeutic abortions committees in 1976 - and  that situation has not changed substantially  since then.  Lions Gate's definition of "health" includes factors such as "social, economic,  emotional, and familial health or well-  being", in addition to "physical or mental  health", because that is the definition of  "health" adopted by the World Health Org-'  anization. (Vancouver Sun/CCCA Newsletter)  CUPE negotiations help to close  wage disparities  The Canadian Union of Public Employees  (CUPE) in northwest B.C. has made major  breakthroughs in establishing new salary  relationships between clerical workers and  manual workers.  In recently concluded contract talks between the District of Kitimat and CUPE  Local 707, and the City of Prince Rupert  and CUPE Local 105, very significant  changes have occurred.  CUPE Local 707 (Kitimat) was able to negotiate salary increases of 18-33$ for clerical workers effective January 1, 1982.  The other workers received a 15$ general  wage increase. On December 1, 1982 the 48-  month clerical increment plan will be shortened to 24 months.  CUPE Local 105 (Prince Rupert) was able to  improve the clerical relationship established in their 1981 agreement. The local  union negotiated an agreement which makes  the salary of an Office Clerk I with two  years service equal to the salary of a  Labourer with two years service.  These new salary relationships were negotiated without third party assistance or  the threat of any job action. (Sisterhood)  Douglas College women's  program cancelled  Without either warning or consultation,  Douglas College has cut its women's program, according to department head Marg-  aretha Hoek.  The program, in operation since 1971 and  offering a wide variety of non-credit  courses, served about 600 women this year.  A very limited program will be offered in  the fall, but even this will be gone by  the end of the year.  Hoek said, "In being cut like this there  is, to me, a statement being made that  women's concerns aren't as important as  everything else. I realize the college  system is really hurting but I don't agree with starting the cuts at the women's  program."  The reason for the cuts, according to college principal Bill Day, is budget constraints. Douglas College's operating budget for next year is $12.3 million, $1.4  million less than was asked for.  Day said he expects the program's cancellation to be damaging to the college, "but  we decided in the long haul it would cause  the least damage to the institution."  Day's statement that he continues "to be  a strong advocate of such a program" seems  rather contradictory in light of this.  Women in the community served by Douglas  College are upset at the cancellation of  this valuable program, and plan to protest  the action of the college board. (Vancouver Sun)  VANCOUVER WOMEN'S BOOKSTORE is holding  9th Founding Anniversary July 24  There will be a 10$ off sale, with selected titles at a larger discount.  Helen Potrebenko will be reading from  her work from 2:00-3:00 p.m. Refreshments too! Kinesis       July /August 1982  ACROSS CANADA  Single mothers top  unemployment chart  Statistics Canada recently released unemployment figures for 1981 which confirm  that single mothers continue to be the  group hardest hit by the country's rapidly  shrinking job market. Women serving as the  principal family breadwinner now total  637,000.  While the overall unemployment rate for  men and women was reported at 7.6$, single  mothers supporting at least one child  under three years of age now face a 32.5$  rate of unemployment.  That means of 27,000 women classified as  single mothers, only 7,000 were able to  secure full or part-time jobs during 1981.  In addition, women widowed, divorced and  separated during 1981 who support small  children but are not officially classified  as single mothers, suffered an unemployment  rate of 18.8$.  These figures are alarming in themselves,  but they also tell only part of the story.  Government calculations of unemployment do  not include students, people who have given  up looking for work, or. those who have had  an unemployment insurance claim run out  before they have secured a job. (Vancouver  Province)  Rape victims' right to privacy  challenged by justice minister  Federal justice minister Jean Chretien  continues to refuse rape victims the right  to keep past sexual conduct out of trial  proceedings.  During a meeting of the Commons justice  committee June 15, Chretien insisted that  a ban on courtroom questioning of rape  victims regarding their past sexual conduct  "might prevent a valid defense from being  raised". The justice committee is currently  debating amendments to a bill intended to  update sexual conduct laws.  Several women's organizations have told the  justice committee repeatedly that questions  regarding a rape victim's past or conduct  are irrelevant and should be thrown out.  Not even the record of the accused can be  mentioned during a trial. Still, the minister maintains an overriding concern for  the accused's right to a "fair defense".  The bill under debate is intended to replace the crimes of rape and indecent assault with the crimes of sexual assault  and aggravated sexual assault, involving  the threatened or actual use of a weapon  and causing serious bodily harm. (Vancouver  Province)  Pension reforms badly needed  by women  Most Canadians, when they retire, receive  pensions amounting to little more than  half what they were earning before retirement.  And while only 45$ of all workers have  access to employer-sponsored plans to supplement federal Old Age Security and Canada Pension Plan, even fewer women (l in  3) have such access. Women also suffer  most where benefit payments are not indexed to inflation, for they tend to outlive  men.  Pension reform is badly needed, but it  will be expensive. In pushing for reform,  we must decide whether to improve the pub  lic plans, or alternatively, legislate  reform to private sector plans.  In either case, a reform strategy should  include: universal coverage for all Canadians, including homemakers; some form of  indexing to the inflation rate; an improved package of benefits for survivors  of deceased spouses; and portability, or  the guarantee that pension contributions  will be transferrable from job to job.  Currently, an NDP inquiry on older women  is holding hearings across the country to  gather public views on pensions for women.  The first hearing was held in P.E.I.,  ?;hich has the highest proportion of elderly  women in the country. (Vancouver Province)  Quebec government to  implement affirmative action  All Quebec government departments will be  required to have affirmative action programs under amendments introduced June 22  to Quebec's provincial rights charter.  The amendments are expected to be passed  in the fall.  Quebec will become the first province to  make such programs mandatory. Private  companies will continue to implement equal  opportunity programs on a voluntary basis,  but they could be forced to implement affirmative action should there be proof of  discrimination.  Changes to the charter will also prohibit  discrimination on the basis of age or  pregnancy, as well as discrimination in  the area of social benefits such as retirement, pension or insurance plans.  Quebec's seven-year-old rights charter  already forbids discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. It is one of  the few existing charters which does so.  (Globe & Mail)  Media portrayal of women  an important cultural issue  The recent Summary of Briefs and Hearings  published by the Federal Cultural Policy  Review Committee fails to stress the importance to our culture of portraying women  in a positive and realistic manner in all  media. It also does not acknowledge the  economic disparity facing women working in  the arts.  Both these issues are clearly cultural issues, and must be dealt with by this policy  review committee to ensure an improved  climate for women in the future.  Send letters urging the committee to clean  up its act to: Louis Applebaum of the Federal Cultural Policy Review Committee and  Hon. Francis Fox, Minister Responsible for  the Dept. of Communications, both at 365  Laurier Avenue West, Ottawa K1A 0C8.  Supply copies to MP John Bosley (PC Cultural Critic), MP Simon de Jong (NDP Cultural Critic), and Hon. Judy Erola, Minister Responsible for the Status of V/omen,  all c/o the House of Commons in Ottawa.  Farm women lose out on  equal pay  Early survey results from a research project of the National Farmers Union (NFU)  show that farm women do not receive a level  of compensation equal to the value of their  labour.  A meagre 3$ of the 200 women surveyed had  legal partnerships with their spouses in  the farm operation. And although the majority of farm wives are younger and better-  educated than their husbands, they earn  only half as much money as their partners  when employed off the farm.  Two-thirds of the respondents reported  that 75-100$ of their farm-earned income  went back into the farming operation. Less  than 20$ received an actual wage.  Besides taking responsibility for the majority of household tasks, farm women surveyed were responsible for almost 20$ of  the work involved in the rest of the farm  operation.  The NFU is conducting research into the  employment practices of farm women in order to gain a picture of how heavily the  Canadian family-run farm is subsidized by  the low (or no) pay farm family members  receive for their labour.  Women's labour, it would appear, is once  again the most exploited. (Globe & Mail)  Peace activists barred from  U.S. during disarmament  session  Kay Macpherson, a past president of Voice  of Voice of Women, was turned back by U.S.  border officials June 2 on her way to New  York to discuss disarmament matters.  Muriel Duckworth, another past president  of Voice of Women who was travelling by  bus with Macpherson, went on to New York  alone.  Macpherson's exclusion coincided with a  news report that the U.S. was barring 500  people seeking visas to participate in  activities centering around the special  UN session on disarmament, which began  June 7. The U.S. claims the exclusions are  justified by the McCarran-Walter Immigration and Nationality Act.  Peace demonstrations were held around the  world June 12, to convey the importance of  disarmament to all nations. Locally on  June 12, more than 15,000 Canadians and  Americans attended a demonstration at the  Peace Arch, located on the B.C.-Washington  border.  (Vancouver Sun)  Statistics Canada's reference library  can be reached toll-free. For the Yukon  and northern B.C. (serviced by NW Tel),  call the operator and ask for Zenith  80913. For the rest of B.C., call 112-  800-663-1551. (from Northern Times) July/August 1982       Kinesis  INTERNATIONAL  New York poor win struggle  for independent union  Welfare recipients in New York City have  won the right to form an independent union.  After a long legal battle with the city's  Social Services Department, the New York  Unemployed and Welfare Council was able to  overturn a ban on collecting union dues in  welfare centres. The council wants to collect voluntary dues of 50^ to $1 a month  from its members to cover organizing costs.  A progressive black woman judge, Amalya  Kearse, ruled in favour of the union in  late April, just weeks before the 13,000  member council convened a people's conference to pave the way for an officially constituted Welfare Congress.  Formed in 1975, the Council's membership  began to grow dramatically when, in 1977,  it exposed and documented a series of brutal attacks by welfare security guards on  clients at welfare centres.  The welfare department responded by restricting organizers' movements within the  centres and prohibiting them from collecting union dues on the premises. Nevertheless, the Council continued to grow, signing up new members, winning illegally-  denied benefits for welfare recipients, and  pressing for protection against brutality.  The Council's political and financial independence (it is supported solely by dues  and donations) has put it in direct competition with the city-sponsored Client Advisory Committees (CACs). The Council considers the CACs to be an administrative arm  of the city, designed to keep the poor under control.  When Judge Kearse ruled in May that the  Council had the right to collect dues from  its members, she also supported their contention that the CACs were firmly under the  thumb of the city's Human Resources Administration.  Now that the right to collect dues has been  won, New York's union of the poor will have  a political and economic independence never  before held by welfare organizations, according to Lorraine Stevens, an organizer  with the Council and sole support mother of  six.  "This is why the call for a Welfare Congress  is so vital," Stevens said. At the May 8th  people's conference, the Council proposed  that a Welfare Congress be organized, composed of five welfare recipients elected by  each of the city's 46 welfare centres. The  proposal was accepted unanimously.  "The congress will provide a democratically  elected vehicle for welfare recipients to  build their own organization, which they  control and which doesn't'rise or fall on  the whim of the federal government's funding.  "Winning the fight for voluntary dues means  a truly independent union which could lobby  for increased benefits, fight against brutality and harassment, and carry through  the struggle for economic representation  and collective bargaining." (Barbara Sands  and Lorraine Robertson/Toronto Clarion)  Women in music form  international association  A new organization called The International  Congress on Women in Music has arrived on  the scene in Los Angeles, California.  The Congress, established by participants  at the 2nd International Congress on Women  in Music, aims to l) facilitate an international exchange of information on women  in music, 2) organize future meetings of  women musicians, including the next inter  national congress, 3) do advocacy Work  with governments, foundations, the music  business world, and educational institutions, and 4) officially recognize outstanding women in music.  The organization is intended to encompass  musicians, composers, researchers, musicologists, ethnomusicologists, arts administrators and managers, critics and journalists, educators, and others. Music represented ranges from serious concert music -  contemporary and classical - to jazz,  ethnic, commercial, sacred, and experimental.  The Congress does not intend to duplicate  the efforts of other organizations working  on behalf of women in music. Rather, it  will consolidate them into a confederation  of organizations and individuals.  Membership is open to individuals, institutions and organizations. Annual dues are  $20 for individuals and institutions, $30  for organizations with fewer than 100 members, and $50 for organizations with 100  or more members.  For more information, write the Congress, '  P.O. Box 366, Loyola Blvd. at West 80th,  Los Angeles, CA 90045. (Media Report to  Women )  Swedish women narrow pay gap  Sweden's new equality ombudsman is bringing  the pay of women closer to men's income. A  new 11-member commission (which includes  six members from labour) has the power to  compel employers to initiate affirmative  action programs.  Latest income figures show that women have  made significant economic progress in Sweden, with average hourly earnings for  women workers now at 87$ of men's pay. (In  Canada, women earn only 56$ of men's pay on  the average.)  Ten years ago, women's pay in Sweden averaged 80$ of what male workers earned, according to the Swedish Institute, a research  organization. (Labour News/On The Level)  Ireland moves to entrench  anti-abortion laws  Ireland's prime minister has announced the  country will hold a referendum to make the  country's anti-abortion laws part of the  national constitution. (Her Say/New Directions for Women)  West German feminists  withhold war taxes  Twelve employees of the West German feminist magazine Courage  have announced they  will not cooperate with a NATO decision to  house nuclear warheads in their country.  NATO recently decided to place Pershing  Two and Cruise missiles in West Germany  beginning in 1983, a move widely opposed  by the women's peace movement in that country.  Now the staff of the Berlin-based magazine  have announced they will withhold 10$ of  their taxes until NATO changes its mind.  In a letter to tax authorities, the women  of Courage  reported they will put the funds  in escrow until the government assures them  their taxes will be for peaceful uses.  The women's decision is part of a widening  women's tax revolt in West Germany, aimed  at resisting the arms race. They base their  call to resistance on the actions of two  U.S. pacifists, both of whom served terms  in American jails for their protests. The  motto of the West German movement is "Not  a penny more for the military".  New Directions for Women)  ' Say/  Susan Saxe freed from prison  Feminist Susan Saxe was freed from prison  on May 7th after a U.S. Superior Court  judge ordered her released on personal recognizance at a hearing on tax evasion  charges.  Saxe was convicted in 1977 of manslaughter  in the shooting death of a Boston policeman during an extortion of $26,000 from a  Boston bank. Sentenced to 12-14 years in  prison, she had completed five years when  she was released.  The women's decision is part of a widening  January 6th at the Massachusette's prison  for women in Framingham, where Saxe was  serving her sentence. (Big Mama Rag)  Turkish women on trial after  hunger strike  Ninety-one women political prisoners are on  trial in Turkey, accused of assaulting  their male jailer while on hunger strike  last summer protesting prison conditions  and torture.  The women have been jailed in Mamak Military Prison, notorious for its treatment of  political prisoners - for example, routine  beating on arrival, torture, and subjection  of women to military exercises and discipline. Women may face additional charges  leading to prison terms for resisting prl  son warders.  Turkey is one of the Muslim countries of  the Middle East which introduced progressive civil laws separating religion from  state in the early part of this century. As  a result, women were able to gain jobs and  education, and the Muslim veil was banned.  Turkey at present is ruled by a military  government, which took over after a coup in  1980.  Since then, women's organizations have been  dismantled throughout Turkey and women act  ivists jailed, harassed or forced underground, along with left-wing and trade  union groups. Muslim religious studies  have been re-introduced into the school  curriculum, and civil laws changed to justify the junta's repression. (Outwrite/  New Directions for Women)  Battered women asked for I.D.  In Albuquerque, New Mexico, officials have  decided that battered women will not be  accepted at state-run shelters unless they  are married, and can show a marriage license to prove it.  In addition, only women beaten by their  husbands would be eligible. (Big Mama Fag) Kinesis       July/August 1982  INTERNATIONAL  Israel offers Jews the means for self-determination  by Marsha Ablowitz  I am a Jewish woman, an active feminist,  anti-racist and formerly an active Zionist.  It was therefore a shock to read the anti-  Zionist article in the April issue of  Kinesis  by Chava Mintz (aided by Dara  Culhane), and I wish to give a Zionist-  feminist response.  Though I am no longer actively working in  the Zionist movement, and I disagree with  much of the current ultra-nationalist  "expansionist" moves by Israel in the  Middle East, I still am a Zionist.  This means I believe in the right of Jews  to a homeland in Israel.  I support the  right of Israel to exist, to seek security  and peace as an independent democratic  country. And I support Israel's right  to defend her borders from hostile neighbouring countries.  Even though I disagree with the annexation  of the Golan Heights which overlook Israel.  I can empathize with the Israelis who before the occupation of those hills, lived  under the fire of Syrian guns. While I  lived in Israel, there were Palestinian  terrorist bombs exploding in local theatres, supermarkets and school buses.  Jordanian guns shelled our neighbourhood.  Article distorts historic facts  It is hard for Canadians to realize what  it is like to live in a war zone. Israel  is at war with her neighbours. It is not  a war of Israel's choosing and it is not  In the early 20th century, European Jews  under the inspiration of Zionists such as  Theodore Herzl looked at two thousand  years of Jewish history and saw the recurring pattern of anti-semitism, religious persecution, and massacres of Jews  as a result of the Jews' landless condition.  Israel was proposed as a safe haven  where Jews could go "back to the land",  find their place in the working class, and  renew their cultural heritage as free  people.  Other places were suggested - Africa,  South America, Canada. Rich Jewish philanthropists bought land and resettled  Jewish peasants in many parts of the world.  My great-grandparents came to pioneer in  the Canadian prairies.  Zionists created Israel as a refuge  So far, Jews in North America have been  safe from extreme persecution - safe, but  wary. It is our awareness of our own vulnerability which has led many American and  Canadian Jews to work so energetically in  human rights and anti-racist groups here.  But other countries are not so safe for  us. Fleeing from the Nazis, many Jews  migrated to South America, and they are  currently being murdered and persecuted by  military juntas there. The Jews in Russia  are persecuted. The Jews remaining in the  Moslem countries are at great risk; many  have been killed and most have been forced  So far, Jews in North America have been safe from  extreme persecution. But other countries are not so safe for  us...The only country that will always take Jewish refugees  is Israel. And before 1948, Israel did not exist. It was the  Zionist movement that created the state of Israel as a refuge  for Jewish people.  a war which benefits any country except  perhaps the Western and Russian superpowers and corporations who keep up a constant flow of armaments into the Middle  Chava's article seriously distorted historic facts, presenting an incorrect picture of early Zionism. This is the part  of her article I found offensive.  Zionism is the national liberation movement of the Jewish People. Any person who  supports the right of Jews to live in and  govern their own nation, supports the  Zionist ideal. This does not mean a  Zionist must support every Israeli policy  or action.  There is a Jewish saying that if you have  two Jews, you have three opinions. Jewish  people have been praying for "Zion" for  over 2,000 years, so it is little wonder  that many of us have extremely different  views of what Zionism is, was, and should  be.  Zionism ranges from ultra-right to ultra-  left on the political spectrum, from  ultr-orthodox religiosity to aethism in  belief. There are feminists, sexists,  militarists, pacifists, and lots of liberals. (Incidently, nowhere in Zionist  ideologies do you find the brutal oppression of women found under fundamentalist  Moslem rule.)  to flee.  The only country that will always take  Jewish refugees is Israel. And before  1948, Israel did not exist.  It was the  Zionist movement that created the state of  Israel as a refuge for Jewish people.  Early Zionists predominantly socialist  I have studied Zionist history in detail  and am shocked that Chava could describe  Zionism as a pro-Tsarist, pro-Nazi, Jew-  killing movement. Early Zionists in small,  grassroot collectives set out in the early  1900's to free their fellow Jews from self-  hatred and anti-semitism.  Many Zionists migrated to Palestine to  settle in swamp land and deserts purchased  from absentee landlords. The built "Kibbutzim", socialist agricultural settlements  based on absolute equality of the sexes.  (Women were freed from the burden of childcare through children's houses.) These  early Zionists had Utopian visions of  peace, social justice and human freedom.  The Zionists who lived in pre-revolutionary  Russia were predominantly socialists. Many  other Jews were communists, or else predominantly religious-orthodox and apolitical, but very few Jews or Zionists sympathized with Tsarist rule.  In the 1930's when Hitler was gaining  power in Germany, Zionist leaders tried  frantically to warn European Jews of the  danger and help them get out of Europe.  The Zionists were among the few who forsaw  the coming Nazi Holocaust and tried to rescue Jews.  When the European Jews finally realized  their danger and tried to escape, there was  no country that wanted them. Canada, the  U.S., Britain and France turned back boatloads of Jewish refugees to be massacred  by the Nazis. The British even turned  back boatloads of Jewish children trying  to escape to Palestine. At great risk  Zionists smuggled European Jewish refugees  into Palestine and other non-Nazi countries  during World War II.  Inside Nazi-dominated Europe, Zionists continued their political work through the  various Jewish underground resistance  groups.  In Eastern Europ, the Christian  anti-Nazi underground groups often refused  to help or accept help from Jews.  Zionist led united front against Nazis  So the Jews had to organize their own resistance, and this was hampered by the fact  that Jewish groups did not trust one another. For example, it took three years of  Nazi extermination in the Warsaw Ghetto  before socialists, anarchists, communists,  Zionists, and religious Jews formed a  united front to fight the Nazis. They were  led by the Zionist Mordechai Anilewicz.  Mordecai Anelevitch and Hannah Senesh  Another Zionist hero of the resistance was  a young woman, Hanna Senesh, who migrated  to Palestine where the British recruited  her to parachute behind Nazi lines to do  underground work. She also tried to rescue Jewish children, and was captured,  tortured and killed by the Nazis. She is  one Zionist I thought of when I read  Chava's statement that Zionists collaborated with the Nazis to kill Jews.  I am sure there were some Zionist "kapos"  or collaborators in the ghettos, in the  concentration camps, just as surely there  were some Catholics, some Lutherans, some  Polish, and some female "kapos". These  people, victims of Nazi oppression, collaborated for a complex variety of reasons  ranging from personal or family survival  to working as double agents for the resistance.  Since Chava did not back up her statement  it is difficult to know what she was referring to, but it is slanted or false  journalism to accuse the Zionist movement  of collaborating with Nazis or Tsarists or  anyone for the purpose of harming or  killing Jews.  I hope the women's movement in Vancouver  will not support Chava and Dara's attack  on Zionism, and will look in more detail  at the situation of Jewish women in Canada;  and Israeli women in the Middle East. July/ August 1982       Kinesis  INTERNATIONAL  Zionism: a desire for self-identity, a national home  In the article by Chavah Mintz in the  April 1982 issue of Kinesis,  the author  indicates a misunderstanding of Jewish  history, relation of Jews to non-Jews,  sources of Zionism and Zionist views.  We are a group of women who are Jewish,  who are active and concerned for the  feminist movement, and are disturbed by  the facile equation of Zionism with  racism.  A hoped-for end to suffering, inequality  The term Zionism simply refers to a  national movement aspiring to political  self-identification for the Jewish people.  It began as an attempt to bring a solution  to the suffering and inequality of the  Jews in Europe in the 19th century. Many  Zionist leaders arrived at this stand  after having tried other ideologies which  did not work.  Prominent 19th century Zionist personalities such as Moses Hess, Leo Pinsker, even  Theodore Herzl himself, are examples of such  such idealists. They soon realized that the  social problems could not be dealt with  unless the national problem was confronted.  All they wanted to do was to give the Jewish people the same rights as other peoples- national self-determination and a  national home.  This did not mean that all Jews had to  use only this solution to their problems.  In fact, a leading cultural Zionist Ahad  Haam, saw only a minimum of the people in  the land.  Just as Frenchmen, Englishmen,  Spaniards and all other peoples could  choose to live in their mother home or  not... so could the Jews.  If it is racist  to desire self-identity, then every people  in the world is racist.  Arab nationalism, which emerged with  European imperialism, consistently refused to recognize the Jewish right to a  homeland.  In the 30's and 40's, the mufti  of Jerusalem even collaborated with the  Nazis, lived in Germany, adopted the military Nazi uniforms, tried to organize Arab  armies to fight with Hitler, and had the  "honour" of being photographed with  Hitler.  On November 29, 1947, when the Holy Land  was partitioned into a Jewish and an Arab  homeland by a UN vote of 33 in favour,  13 against, 10 abstentions, Israel accepted both the partition plan and the establishment of an Arab state; but the  Arabs refused to accept the UN decision.  They rejected the idea of a Jewish or  an  Arab state in the British-mandated Holy  Land, and Arab governments would not let  the Palestinians establish a political  identity or even form a government in  exile. To this day, Arab states, to  quote an article by Eric Downton in the  Vancouver Sun  of April 26, 1982, use the  Palestinians "as pawns in a design aimed  at the destruction of Israel."  Most religious Jews support Zionism  The author disclaims religion as a source  of Zionism. She thus discounts the  prayers, holiday observances, traditions  and teachings of 2,000 years of Jewish  history, which in language and ritual  repeated the constant desire of the Jew,  wherever he was living, to return to his  land.  These hopes were accompanied by pilgrimages to the Holy Land and throughout the  centuries and indeed imigration and settlement by various Jewish groups such as  the religious mystics of Safad in the  16th century and the religious Hassidim  in the 17th and 18th century. (There  has always been a Jewish presence in the  Holy Land, the size dependent on the degree of freedom and tolerance allowed by  the various invading conquerors.)  True, there are some minute religious  groups among Jews who do not accept the  existence of a Jewish state. Yet even for  them (many of whom live in Israel), Zionism is an attempt to give them the right  to live and pray freely in the Holy Land  - a right not granted for 2,000 years.  (Establishing a national  homeland) did not mean that all  Jews had to use only this solution to their problems. Just as  people of all nations could  choose to live in their mother  home or not... so could the  Jews. If it is racist to desire self-  identity, then every people in the  world is racist.  Since in Judaism there is no one central  authority, wide varieties of religious  opinion exist. Yet the great majority  of relgious Jews do support Zionism.  Within the Israeli Knesset itself a number of religious parties are represented.  When we speak of religion it should also  be noted that Israel recognizes the rights  of every religious group, and freedom of  religious and indeed religious autonomy  exists by law.  Jewish oppression a global problem  The author states that there were Jews in  political and social movements of the 19th  century who opposed Zionism. As Jews are  not monolithic in religious outlook,  neither are they in their views on other  issues. We repeat a point previously  noted: Zionist leaders who originally saw  hope in the new communism, eventually realized that it would be impossible to deal  with the social problems of the Jewish  people until the national problem was  tackled.  The history of the Jews proves that all  attempts at Jewish self-realization in  Soviet Russia or in Eastern Europe failed.  To this day, even under the vaunted communist governments, Jews are not allowed  to express themselves as Jews.  The Evian conference of nations called by  President Roosevelt in 1938 to solve the  Jewish refugee problem found no country  willing to open its doors to refugees,  save a few Latin American countries. The  Holocaust in Europe which followed and in  which six million Jews perished, frequently with the complete silence of democratic  countries, reinforced a political Zionism  fighting for political realization.  The author's statement on Zionist history  since the rise of Nazism manifests a misguided view of history and of Nazism. She  says:  "Zionists worked hand in hand with  the Nazis." To say Zionism cooperated  with Hitler in the genocide of the Jews  gives credence to those same sources which  claim the Holocaust never existed.  To say that Zionists served as police in  the ghettos in the service of the Nazis is  a complete distortion of historical truth.  The Jews in the ghetto organized in order  to survive and later revolt against the  Nazis.  Indeed, Zionist leaders such as  Mordechai Anilewicz, who led the famous  Warsaw Ghetto Uprising on Passover, 1943,  were in the forefront of revolts against  the Nazis in the ghettos and the concentration camps.  Zionist leaders in the Holy Land living  under British authorities and opposing  the British mandate, nevertheless fought  with the British armies in opposition to  the Nazis. The Zionist underground in  Europe worked to smuggle as many Jews as  possible, regardless of political identification, from Nazi-occupied countries to  a haven in the Holy Land. Governments of  the world refused to accept Jewish refugees, not only before World War II, but  even afterwards when its frightening magnitude was revealed to the world.  Britain refused to accept refugees  The author refers to British "readiness"  to help in saving and absorbing Jews.  The British government, which held a mandate in Palestine from the League of  Nations, under which it was specifically  instructed to develop in that country a  Jewish national homeland, consistently  pursued a pro-Arab, anti-Jewish policy.  Insofar as Britain's attitude during World  War II is concerned, one has only to read  government correspondence between the U.S.  State Department and Whitehall to learn  of the British adamancy in its refusal to  accept refugees. The White Paper issued  before the War further barred entry of  Jews into the Holy Land, and extended to  the post War period when boats of refugees  from DP camps, reaching the port of Haifa  were turned back to return to Germany, or  their passengers detained in camps on  Cyprus, eg. The Exodus.  Arab dispossessed were compensated  The author states that Jews have built  their country on land not belonging to  them. In the 19th century, Palestine was  under the rule of the Ottoman Turks. Many  of its inhabitants were tenant farmers on  land owned by absentee landlords. Long  before the Zionists came, taxation, exploitation, blood-feuds and invasions by  Bedouin tribes had caused an economic depression that resulted in an exodus of  many of the peoples (who consisted both  of natives and of a substantial number of  migrants from surrounding lands). Most  of the remaining 300,000 Arabs lived in  the hilly regions.  From official records, land registries and  British accounts (as quoted in "Land  Ownership in Palestine" by M. Aumann), it  is clear that (l) most of the land purchased by Jews belonged to absentee owners  (2) most of the land purchased by Jews had  not been cultivated because it was swampy,  rocky, sandy, or for some reason unculti-  continued on page 9 8       Kinesis        July/August 1982  INTERNATIONAL  International conference on health promotes solidarity  by Frances Birdsell  The author has worked in a Women's Centre  in Terrace,  B.C.  for a number of years and  is CItairperson of the Northwest Development Education Association,  with particular  personal interest in women and development  issues. Anyone wishing further information  on the conference is invited to contact  Frances at P.O.  Box 1035,  Terrace,  B.C.  In June 1981, I attended an International  Conference on Women and Health in Geneva,  Switzerland. The conference was organized  by ISIS, an international feminist network.  Representatives of grass-roots women's  groups were invited; in response, five  hundred women came from around the world-  Europe, South America, Central America,  North America, Africa and Asia, to talk  about women's health.  Poor health hits women and children first.  Third World women of Africa, Asia and  Latin America believe that 80$ of their  health problems relate to poor nutrition  and the scarcity of good, safe water.  Poverty is the primary cause of this situation, but there are also cultural factors involved. In many countries, women  are the last to eat, (husbands eating first,  with children next and it is the women who  walk several miles every day to get water.  Women from India were alarmed by what they  saw as an even more serious indicator - a  change in the sex ratio in their country.  It has long been accepted that women comprise 51$ of any population, yet a recent  census in India indicated that the percentage of women had dropped to 48$. This is a  startling change in a country as populous  as India, and the women went on to examine  possible contributing factors.  First, for currently unexplained reasons  there has been an increase in the mortality  of women in childbirth. Second, there has  been a remarkable increase in the number  of abortions.  Third, the widely publicized sterlization  campaign of the mid-1970s performed not  only vasectomies but also tubal ligations -  in the streets, in unsanitary conditions.  A lot of women died from these operations.*  And finally, there has been a startling  increase in the mortality of female children.  The Indian culture places a high value on  looked at as a financial liability, whereas a son is an asset. The women were  forced to conclude that parents are killing  their female children and/or letting them  die.  We were given an example of a woman with a  year old son who is still being breastfed.  If the woman was to give birth to a baby  girl, she might choose to continue to feed  the older boy and let the baby girl either  starve to death or choke on solid food.  male children and the birth of a female  child is often a sad event. The parents of  females are expected to provide a dowry  (even though it is illegal) if they want  their daughter to marry. A daughter is thus  'ñ† It is interesting to note that the World  Bank would not lend money to India at  that time unless they instituted a  massive sterilization campaign.  Statement from Third World Women  In searching for ways for women in the  First and Third Worlds to help each  other to attain a genuinely human world,  we noted that:  Since the roots of women's oppression  lie in international capitalism and the  patriarchy, we must focus our efforts  dually - towards socialism and feminism - thus ensuring that liberation is  total and complete. To this end, we  call ourselves and feminists all over  the world :  1. to see that problems women face are  an integral part of the struggle for  social transformation, and therefore be  conscious of the danger of fragmentation and marginalization, as we follow  issue after issue, basing our actions  on serious social, economic and political global analysis;  2. to ensure the existence of an autonomous women's movement but also to  co-operate meaningfully with other  social and political forces working for  change;  3. to ensure that development aid  truly generates self-reliance and autonomy in the Third World and is not  allowed to become a means of capitalist  penetration.  We are particularly concerned that  health projects not be used for the  economic and political ends of industrialized countries and the trans  nationals .  Thus we call on women in decisionmaking positions in funding agencies  to inform themselves about the conditions of women in the Thirld World and  work actively to formulate policies  and project criteria, in co-operation  with project proponents.  At the same time we call on Third  World vjomen receiving funds from First  World agencies to stand united and set  their own conditions for receiving  such funds.  We felt strongly that we must respect  the right of every group to set its  own priorities, within the context of  its own political, economic and social  realities.  We experienced such solidarity within  the four hours in which we listened,  shared and began to know each other,  that we concluded that the success and  salvation of the feminist movement lies  in continuing this learning and sharing  process on a global scale- especially  between the women of the First and  Third Worlds, and if possible with our  sisters in the Second World.  As we laud ISIS and the Dispensaire  des femmes for their role in bringing  us together we also call on them to  ensure that this process is continued  and enhanced, especially by taking  what happened here as a basis for  future meetings.  Hard to believe? Perhaps, but should the  boy die, the woman would be expected to  have another child, and another, until the  family was sure that some boys would reach  adulthood. The family's economic future is  at stake: boys have value, girls do not.  This is sexism at its worst, and the cost  is women's lives.  Discrimination affects western world too  Sexism, as it relates to women's health,  is also apparent in the western world.  Switzerland, host to this conference and  headquarters for numerous international  organizations is a country which forbids  women the right to vote in many of its  cantons (provinces).  Swiss men also think that pregnant women  look unappealing. Therefore, when a woman  is noticeably pregnant in Switzerland she  immediately loses her job, with no benefits  or compensation, and regardless of seniority or position. Swiss women thus try to  starve themselves (and the foetus) and  wear girdles and loose clothing to disguise their changing shape.  Perhaps the most emotional point of the  conference was when an African woman said  she had come knowing the enormous problems  facing women in Africa, and had learned  that similar problems face women everywhere, but that she particularly felt pain  for her Swiss sisters who couldn't even  enjoy their pregnancies without discrimination.  Then the women from Sweden spoke. Here is  a Social Democratic country with very progressive legislation and enlightened attitudes. Yet, the Swedish women said they  thought they were worse off than the other  countries present. Their progressive legislation has succeeded only in stopping the  women's movement from fighting sexism.  Wife battering is rampant and attitudes  of male dominance still rule supreme.  Contraception is a subject of particular  continued on page 9 July/August 1982       Kinesis  INTERNATIONAL  ISIS CONFERENCE continued from page 8  concern to women all over the world. Yet  contraceptive information is poorly and  inadequately distributed. We have the medical community, drug companies and our  governments to thank for that. (Not long  ago it was illegal  to dispense contraceptive information in Canada! )  Governments often coerce women into having  more children to increase the population  by restricting information we might use to  prevent pregnancy. On the other hand, if  our governments don't want us to have  children, they institute easy access to  abortion and sterilization incentives.  Controversy developed at the conference  over the use of the contraceptive Depo  Provera in the Third World. This synthetic  hormone, given as an injection every three  to six months, has been shown to cause  cancer in animals used for research.  It was tested on women in Thailand, where  many women died while on the drug and many  others developed breast cancer, which was  treated by radical mastectomy. 'Banned for  use in North America and Europe, it is  widely used in Africa, Asia and Latin  America.  Many women at the conference were concerned that the drug companies are "dumping" a dangerous product to increase their  profit, and decrease their stock-pile.  After all, the death of the women is the  ultimate in population control.  Relief from childbearing a priority  The women of the Third World had a different perspective to offer. Consider for  a moment that your function in life is a  "baby machine". Add to this the fact that  * Depo Provera is currently being used in  mental institutions in Canada.  you do all household work without electric conveniences; you don't have enough  food to eat; you have no control over when  you have sex (women are considered entertainment for men in the villages); and  that almost continual childbearing/child-  rearing has made you very, very tired.  For those women, sneaking down to the  health clinic every three to six months  for an injection will allow them to space  their children. This is the first real  step they have taken towards control of  their own lives. It doesn't matter to them  that they may develop cancer many years  from now. They could die from sheer exhaustion next year if they don't stop the  children from coming now!  Governments often coerce  women into having more  children to increase the population by restricting information  we might use to prevent  pregnancy.  Discussion continued with what contraceptive devices were available to us in our  respective countries. In many nations, the  condom is virtually unknown. In others,  only the diaphragm and I.U.D. are available. In some countries, where there are  taboos on handling your own body, Depo  Provera, the Pill and sterilization are  the only choices.  Even when all available information is  accessible, the choices for women are dismal. All contraceptives have major drawbacks and side-effects. Women at the conference agreed that if women controlled  the funding for contraceptive research,  there would be a safe, reliable method of  birth control that was free from dangerous  side-effects, and that was not penetration-  oriented .  Sexism — only a matter of degree  The overwhelming conclusion of the conference was that all women are discrimated  against - there is only a difference of  degree. Racism and poverty compound the  discrimination. Imperialism (elsewhere  known as "colonialism") and the profit  motive of multi-national corporations combine to use women as a cheap labour source,  as guinea pigs and as a dumping-ground for  banned medication.  Information sharing and research with a  feminist analysis is crucial. We must promote an awareness among women of our  rights. We don't have to be manipulated  by the medical profession and the drug  companies. We need international solidarity to fight sexism/machismo in every  country. We need to stand together.'  ISIS International Bulletin is a quarterly  publication which presents an international perspective on specific themes concerning women.  Bulletins include reprints of  articles from around the world as well as  extensive resource listings. Subscriptions  are U.S.   $15  (U.S.   $20    airmail) for  individuals/women's groups,  and U.S.$25  (U.S.$30) for institutions.  Write: ISIS,  C.P.   301,   1227 Carouge,  Switzerland.  Currency equivalents  ZIONISM continued from page 7 ————  vatable (3) as most land was purchased  Arab landownders raised prices (for example, in 1944 Jews paid between $100-1100  per acre for mostly arid or semi-arid  land, while the same year rich black soil  in Iowa went for $110 per acre (4) Jewish  pioneers introduced new farming methods,  which improved soil and crop cultivation  and were emulated by Arab farmers.  May Arabs who had left the land began to  return as the economy improved, and many  new Arab imigrants from surrounding countries settled in the Holy Land. Peasants  dispossessed by land purchases were by  law relocated and given liberal compensation, or preferred to enter new occupations. During the British mandate period  most ownerless land was in British control.  In 1947 when the state of Israel  was declared, it was legally handed over  to the new state.  Economic disparities not due to racism  The author's claim that Israel is strictly  a capitalist, exploitive country ignores  Israel's strong origins in socialism, the  role of the unique kibbutz movement and  the labour unions.  Jews of oriental or Sephardic background  are now the majority of the Israeli population. Many came from lower economic and  cultural backgrounds, and yes, as a result,  to some extent hold positions lower on the  economic scale. The picture has been  slowly changing in a country merely 34  years old, as education and training  raise levels.  These discrepancies, however, are not a  result of official racism as the author  implies (though one cannot deny prejudices  exist as they do among individuals in every  country), but merely due to educational and  economic gaps. It should also be mentioned  that one of the three largest banks in  Israel is owned by Sephardic Jews, as are  many business and commercial enterprises.  Yitzhak Navon, Israel's president, is a  Sephardi.  Many Arabs are also of lower economic and  educational levels, and hopefully they too  will improve their status with education  and peace. Nevertheless, the salaries  paid Arabs are higher than in most places  in the Arab world. The following- statistics for West Bank Arabs are significant:  In 1967 under Jordanian rule  141,735 children in school  37,995 people with an education past Gr.9  42,000 patients treated in health clinics  23.1$ families with electricity  1 car/300 families  No equal education for boys and girls  No franchise for women  Life expectancy at 49 years  Since 1967 under Israel  253,826 children in school  120,500 people with an education past Gr. 9  145,000 patients treated in health clinics  79.2$ families with electricity  13 cars/100 families  Law for equal education  Women have right to vote  72 years life expectancy (highest in  middle east)  ...and the statistics could go on and on.  Arabs have freedom of expression,  movement, religion  The author states Arabs are denied basic  rights. Arab citizens of Israel by Israeli  law, are given the same democratic rights  as other citizens. They can vote, organize  political parties and run for public office. They have freedom of expression,  freedom of movement and freedom of religion.  Israeli citizens who are Jewish  cannot visit Arab lands, but those of Moslem background can. Arab citizens do not  serve in the army because of security (all  neighbouring Arab countries save Egypt are  in a state of war with Israel), and humanitarian reasons (Arabs should not be put  into a position where relative faces relative across the battlefield).  What is not allowed is terrorism as incited by the PL0. Military governments  are never good; the Israeli military on  the West Bank have been more liberal than  most military governments. There will be  tension in this area until problems are  sorted out. And yet there is far less  violence and loss of life than in countries like Syria, Iran or Iraq.  Obviously it has been impossible to deal  with every single misrepresentation in the  article. We appreciate the opportunity to  express corrections to the opinions suggested by Ms. Mintz, and to offer a viewpoint supported by the overwhelming majority of the Jewish people. And we too join  Ms. Mintz in her important and worthwhile  endeavors to fight racism and prejudice  wherever, whenever, and to whomever it  Judy Weinstein  Sandy Chernoff  Sheila Romalis  Shirly Schwartz  Randy Pollock  Gayle Rossman  Sylvia Berkson  Tricia Cristall  Beth Bogner  Marcy Glanzberg  Gwen Yacht  Marsha Robinson  Hilary Benson  Lynn Belzburg  Carole Lieberman  Rosalind Karby  Elayne Shapray  Jackie Buller  Sharon Harowitz  Carole A. Abramson  Florence Lapidus Kinesis       July/August 1982  MOVEMENT MATTERS  La vie en rose — a matter of choice  The following editorial appeared in the  June/July/August 1982 issue of Montreal's  feminist magazine,   La Vie En Rose. Translated from the French by Marlene Wildeman.  ...Des yeux qui font baisser les miens  Un rire qui se perd sur sa bouche  Voila le portrait sans retouche  De I'homme auquel j 'appartiens  Quand il me prend dans se,  Qui'il me parle tout bas.  bras  (Edith Piaf)  Since we started publishing La Vie En  Rose,  and actually, long before that, ever  since a number of women began calling  themselves feminists, we have been asked  repeatedly: Aimez-vous les hommes?   All  of us together and each of us individually  have been asked this question...from distributors of the magazine, from the man  in the corner store, from people in bars,  at family dinners, at parties, by telephone, and by letter.  The question is posed in various ways, from  man, the next-door neighbour, hit-and-run  drivers, the police, officials, rapists,  bosses, our fathers, our brothers, each  of our male subscribers? All together,  or one by one? On the bus, when having a  heart to heart talk, in a photograph, or  in bed? With ketchup, or mustard?  It is a false question because a feminist  presented publicly with this question is  expected to respond with a definite and  enthusiastic Yes, or a reassuring smile,  as if at last we were given the chance to  exonerate ourselves.  Aren't we normal, reasonable,  intelligent?  To be sure, we at La Vie En Rose  are regarded as suspect. A feminist magazine,  OK, but don't carry things too far, eh?  Are we serious, reasonable, intelligent,  normal women, and do we have good sense?  Good sense, reasonableness, seriousness  and intelligence, for a feminist, is to  love men, they imply. Or are we, alternatively, completely hysterical, demented,  and aggressive - radical lesbians who hate  you ^ow  trfeK/ND  woAan  1 CWLD  feAU-r  fa,?  ~lyfmr  ZA" SAY To  You FfarLC  SHAMN(T^  w»fH  -  the subtle and oblique, to the directly  offensive. Why do you not accept men to  work on La Vie En Rosel    Are there some  among you who refuse to talk to men? Are  there more lesbians than heteros? Why do  you hate men?  Initially, the question seemed to us  simply stupid. Eventually, however, because this question seemed to somehow trip  us up, to tie our hands, and because it  made some of us feel decidedly ill at  ease, we began to understand that it was  not, in fact, harmless, and that it should  be looked at with a critical eye in order  to put a stop to it at once. The question  is a false one, but at the same time, it  is fundamental.  First of all, which men? Reagan, Jean-Paul  II, Trudeau, Levesque, Maitre Emile Colas^-,  Docteur Jean-Yves Desjardins2? The post-  1. Maitre Emile Colas is a well known  Montreal lawyer who has become famous  for his pro-Right and pro-Life opinions.  2. Docteur Jean-Yves Desjardins in the  founder of the Department of Sexology  at the University of Quebec at Montreal.  He has recently become Quebec's leading  "conferencier" and author with a series  of published talkes entitled "vivre en  amour" which is a clever rehabilitation  of what is presently considered our ailing  heterosexual relationships. Incidentally,  this book is a bestseller in Quebec today.  You doubt? Make this test.  They ask you:  "But just the same, you do  like men, don't you?"  You answer:  "No, to tell the truth, I  don't like men.  I much prefer women."  Or:  "You know, to be perfectly honest,  I'd have to say I'm rather indifferent to  men."  Observe the reaction! Yes, this is very  instructive. And it is precisely here  that the question becomes fundamental.  Heterosexuality not a choice  Women do not love men by choice.  In general, one must love men.  It goes without  saying.  It's normal.  It is men, men in  general, who rape us, beat us, abuse and  exploit us by pornography, men who refuse  to hire us because we are women, men who  have us laid off because we refuse to  serve coffee, who hold us in contempt, men  who ignore us, men who give us their  children to raise and their jockey shorts  to wash, and men who, despite all this,  systematically exclude us from the spheres  of money and power.  We must love them, for they are not all  the same, because they are not all individually responsible, and because, above  all, one must not generalize. Maybe,  possibly, we shouldn't generalize. But  why then must we say that we love men in  general?  And why is loving women so poorly regarded'  Why did they teach us to keep clear of  women in general? Why was it so frequently and variously repeated to us that it  would be a man, and not a woman, who  would be the Love of our Life. Why was  it not left to us to choose?  And why do we so quickly forget that we  weren't given this choice? Because some  of us manage to pair up with a man we  might actually want? Because those of us  who are more daring, or more strategically  placed, manage to choose the men we wish  to associate with? This ideal is brought  about by chance, not choice.  Heterosexuality is not a choice.  It is a  way of life. Obligatory. An institution  inherently defended...refined...because it  leaves us the illusion of our liberty.  But how can we pretend to have chosen  heterosexuality when we were brainwashed  for it from our earliest infancy?  How do we know what we might have chosen  if, for instance, we had been raised by  two or three lesbians? If we had always  known that women could love other women,  ,    AND  (HiLL\n(t  A To Cxive ij-  p ALL UP  love to make love with other women, find  other women passionately attractive? And  if the whole world accepted this love  between and among women?  But heterosexuality is the dominant lifestyle and whatever else exists becomes  marginal, that which must be tolerated,  that which might as well be accepted, or  at least, not discriminated against too  much. After all, we live in a liberal  society, don't we? This marginal existence  homosexuality, gathers both men and women  together under the same roof, as if there  were no fundamental difference between  homosexual men and lesbians, as if everything can be explained under the umbrella  of the word gay.  As feminists we think that there is a difference between a heterosexual man and a  heterosexual woman. Even thought both men  and women practice seduction, make love,  marry, live with someone, have children,  raise them, grow old...it is never the same  reality. For women, heterosexuality is a  well-worn path which leads them to housework, for this is the traditional form that  women's love for men takes.  If you really  love them, you make a home for them.  It is here where our heterosexual feminist  existence or our lesbian feminist existence  becomes more than defiance, more than something marginal; as for male homosexuals,  this is a veritable rupture with our roles  as defined by the institution of heterosexuality .  continued on page 11 July/August 1982       Kinesis  MOVEMENT MATTERS  Sojourn in gay movement an exercise in futility  by Margaret Verrall  Less than a year ago I wrote in Kinesis  about the importance of participating actively as lesbians In gay movement activities. This stemmed from my then involvement with the Vancouver Gay Community  Centre, and also with Gay Unity Week.  In retrospect, my experience with the  "gay movement" has been one of many factors that led directly to my embracing  separatism, that is, a movement of our  own, unclouded by male dominance.  I spent one and a half years meeting with  VGCC twice a month. I felt it important  to bridge the gap, to make lesbian voices  heard not only on the board but in speaking engagements, public appearances,  lobbying groups, etc. I now feel that when  lesbians speak as lesbians, it is far more  effective than acting as a token woman  among a group of men whose politics and  lifestyle I question.  In the time I spent at VGCC more talk was  over raising money for a nebulous building  than over political direction. The meetings were boringly male-structured:  roberts' rules ad nauseum. Pacts were  made with other organizations not to duplicate services, which meant there could  be no branching into group work or phone  line activities (SEARCH offers counselling ).  This despite the fact that SEARCH'S message to women calling in is negative toward the Lesbian Information Line and toward those 'man-hating feminists' who support women meeting with women only: that  is, the women's movement.  While in a meeting at SEARCH'S office, I  overheard LIL being trashed, and when I  questioned the trasher, he dismissed the  incident. When I brought it up with a  LA VIE EN ROSE continued from page 10   This is why at La Vie En Rose  we believe  it is important to affirm a pro-lesbian  position, and not simply one that is anti-  discriminatory or anti-heterosexist. Lesbianism is a refusal to obey, a fundamental rebellion against the order: il faut  aimer les hommes,  and as such, it is an  outright refusal of a life which is predetermined, pre-ordained, and obligatory.  The question is not whether it is necessary  to be a lesbian to love women, or to be a  feminist. Obviously, all women could be  feminists, regardless who they sleep with.  But the existence of lesbians gives to  all women the possibility of living their  heterosexuality with greater freedom and  fewer obligations, and it offers them the  possibility of choice.  Lesbianism offers freedom to all women  Lesbianism is therefore an instrument of  power which is important for all women, in  the same way that feminist groups within,  for example, leftists political organizations, brought greater freedom for all  women by affording them an alternative:  the choice of where to put their energy.  There are many ways to refuse the constraints of heterosexuality.     First, one  can refuse the illusion that heterosexuality is a choice. One can refuse to  marry, refuse to bear children, refuse  to be available 'a priori' for men, refuse to work for free in the name of love  of a man, refuse to interrupt an absorbing conversation with a woman when a man  approaches...  Above all, one can affirm actively that  relations are not only possible with  male board member of VGCC, he agreed with  SEARCH. I began to see that "working together" is another name for "working  against women working together".  This same fellow board member later tried  to prevent a lesbian from being hired in  the social services, as a group facilitator on incest - questioning her lifestyle  as anti-male, speaking himself against  women-only groups for incest victims.  Through all this I got a lot of encouragement to stay: male gentility, male compliments, male lip service to women's rights.  But when I made a short (3 minute) speech  last year after the gay unity parade  about the violence, rape and incest that  we women are uncovering and dealing with  daily, I was chastized for raining on  their parade, turning a celebration into  something unpleasant. The plea for men  to run men's groups fell on deaf ears.  In short, I have heard very little from  men about consciousness-raising groups in  their own gay community. I never got a  clear stand on whether men loving boys is  considered freedom or incest, nor did I  hear of much work being done on woman-  hating, or on cleaning up the worst aspects of the drag shows.  It was "live  and let live", and "you just don't understand" .  I encouraged women to join the parade last  year, after lobbying for a decent spot  where we could gather as women rather than  lose our particular demands amongst the  boisterous bunch bound to be found at the  end. I was assured that we would have a  woman-only section within the first third  of the parade, in front of the automobiles.  As it turned out we were put behind,  breathing exhaust, mixed in with the rest.  The "mistake" was pointed: when it came  down to it, their cars, their costumes,  their party took precedence over women's  politics.  It was to be a day of togetherness ("to-get-her-ness").  I felt my time,  my breath was wasted.  I suggest now. that women not march with  men, and turn down invitations to be involved in gay unity week. Their invitations to us are to make themselves look  better.  I suppose it helps them "pass"  as men who have female connections.  In  the end, they are concerned with themselves .  To look to the few who know how to talk  liberation is to ignore the seething mass  of woman-hatred and liberal male bonding  that lies underneath the facade.  other women, but something to be energetically worked toward on all levels: political, social or sexual, at work, in  friendship, and in love. This rupture  can be highly subversive, if we are careful to avoid continuously undermining  ourselves by repeating: Yes, I love men.  For, what purpose is served if after  ripping up the strait-jacket, we are the  ones who go back and sew it up again?  Men will attend, if forced to  If men are afraid to find themselves  alone in their bed, or in their life,  they will only be moved to be more attentive, to pay more attention. And if we  have the possibility to go elsewhere, we  will only be freer, and stronger, because. ..  "What men are afraid of, in fact, is not  that women will impose their sexual appetite, that women want to devour or smother  them, but that women will be perfectly  indifferent to them; that they will no  longer have access to women sexually, or  emotionally, and hence, economically, and  that under these conditions, there is a  risk that men will be dragged along in  the wake of their mistresses."3  For is it not more and more apparent that  there are other ways of seeing la vie en  rose  than that depicted by Edith Piaf?  Not A 1                    W  Love Story 1                  ^m  Resource B               ^W  Kit Now 1           BK  Available 1         ^m  f._  A resource kit comprising a discussion  guide to the film Not A Love Story,  along with a half-hour video entitled  Pornography: A Women's Issue? has just  been produced by Gayla Reid and Pat  Feindel for Vancouver Status of Women.  This resource kit is now available for  loan to women's groups.  Contact Vancouver Status of Women,  400A West 5th  Avenue, Vancouver (873-1427) for more  information.  3. Adrienne Rich, retranslated from the  French, taken from her article La con-  trainte a I 'heterosexualite et I 'existence  lesbienne  which appeared in Nouvelles  Questions feministes,  March 1981.  LA VIE EN ROSE, a quarterly magazine, is  available from 3963 St. Denis, Montreal,  P.Q. H2W 9Z9. Subscriptions are $6 for  individuals, $20 for institutions, $50  for sustainers. Foreign subs are $12. 12       Kinesis       July/August 1982  EMPLOYMENT  The New Ark — when a woman goes to sea  L  an interview with Anne Stanley  by Kate Braid  Introduction  For hundreds of years, with a brief interlude during World War II, blue collar  work has been almost exclusively a "Men  Only" club where men - without women -  created the atmosphere and established  the relationships with which they felt  most comfortable, and from which women  were almost universally excluded.  Lately this rule of male territory has  been challenged as women increasingly  move into resource extraction and primary  industries such as logging, mining and  fishing where they have never worked before or only under limited circumstances.  In the fishing industry, for example,  wives and daughters are not uncommonly  seen working alongside their men. At the  same time, there are deep superstitions  about "bad luck" associated with women on  boats. Some men fish with members of  their family. Others will not let even a  wife step on board for fear of her presence causing tangled nets, broken traps  and disappearing fish runs.  This situation is changing. Women like  Anne are pioneers, entering a man's world  and doing a man's work for a man's wages  frequently without the family connections  that made them barely acceptable before.  The path of such women is a difficult one.  In entering non-traditional occupations,  they face intense isolation, conspicuous-  ness, expectations by their bosses and  co-workers that they will fail, and self-  doubt generated by years of socialization  about what is and is not "appropriate"  for a Lady to do, look and act like.  Anne, the woman speaking here, was 30  years old when she was interviewed. Following is her story of two years experience as a deckhand.  Women in a double-bind position  Originally the idea of being a deckhand  never entered my head. I never even considered it. But I was living with this  woman, Darcy, who had this fantasy of  going deckhanding. As soon as I thought  about it, I got incredibly excited.  We went down to the Women's Employment  Centre on East Hastings Street in Vancouver which was originally developed to  work with ex-cons. Neither of us were  ex-cons - we didn't know about this before we went - but they handled a lot of  listings in non-traditional employment  fields for women.  So Darcy got the name of this prawn fisherman and went up there and worked with  him for two weeks. Then she asked him if  he would like another deckhand, so I went  up.  Both of us were really ignorant about what  to expect. We didn't have any standards.  I was so enchanted by the whole thing I  didn't really look at the boat and I didn't  really look at the skipper. When I got  back from my first trip of two weeks and  started looking at some of the other boats,  I realized what a disaster his boat was.  He had no safety equipment on board, he  had no radio. Mechanically there were a  lot of things wrong.  This skipper was interested in getting a  woman because he had a really good experience with a woman before. You're in  a sort of double bind position. As a  woman applying for a job you find a lot of  fisherman want you and that gives you  quite a bit of advantage. But it's the  wrong kind of advantage, because a lot of  them assume you're going to sleep with  them.  A woman is a status symbol for the captain  who has one. Whether she slept with him  or not, everyone assumes she did. I was  so naive when I started. I didn't even  think they would expect me to sleep with  them. Now that I look back, I think, "Of  course."  But this skipper didn't pressure us sexually because there were two of us on  board. That gave us quite a bit of  strength. He tried to play us off against  each other, telling one of us we were  really excellent and the other that she  was slacking off. But we had a pretty  good friendship, so we could be honest  with each other.  On that boat we were setting about 500  traps a day, and we would take turns doing  it. You set them in rows on a line, then  you haul them up. He had a hydraulic drum  on his boat so he would take the traps up  and hand them to one of us, and we would  have to shake them.  It was fairly heavy  work lifing traps between 30 and 40 pounds  and shaking them to get the prawns out.  Plus you have to keep up a certain pace.  You have to keep up with the machine.  I  found that pace hard at first.  It took  me about a week to get my strength up but  I was in fantastic shape when I got off  the boat.  I found also there was a tremendous compulsion for me to prove myself  because I was a woman. There were a lot  of doubts but I tried really hard.  I  really put myself out.  After that trip, my friend and I met a  halibut fisherman. He said he would hire  both of us and take us out on alternate  trips. Everything was set up, then just  before we were supposed to go out the  first time, out comes this idea that we  were going to sleep with him. He got  drunk one night and came to see us. We  told him we wouldn't, that it wasn't part  of the agreement. He wouldn't expect a  male deckhand to do that. That was my  judge! If I was a male, this wouldn't  happen to me.  Still, sometimes it was pretty awkward.  If you refused to sleep with the captain  but went out with a male deckhand from  another boat, the captain might be offended. "You'll sleep with him, why not  me?" I know women deckhands who if they  put out for another man, were fired the  next day for not putting out to the captain.  I'm usually quite demonstrative with my  friends and people I know. But I had to  stop myself being physical when I started  deckhanding because it was always construed as being sexual.  I had to hold  myself in.  After the episode with the halibut fisherman I came back to Vancouver and advertised in the newspaper, saying I had some  experience from my month on the prawn  boat.  I got a lot of quack calls but I  also got a call from this older fisherman  who was really decent. He had a pretty  nice boat, a 58 foot trawler, a freezer  boat, and I worked with him from June  until October.  Because of the experience with the halibut  fisherman I was really upfront and told  him, "I have no intentions of sleeping  with you and if that's what you want, you  might as well look for someone else." And  that was fine with him.  His wife was very upset about him hiring  a female deckhand so I offered to meet her  and talk to her just so I would be less  threatening to her. That turned out OK  because we got to know each other fairly  well.  Job tested limits of endurance  This man was really fair in a lot of ways.  He wasn't into being a big tough skipper.  He was more into sharing the work. Also,  he was willing to teach me anything I  showed an interest in, including how to  dock the boat.  I was really impressed with that, because  those boats are a big investment. Letting  me dock it was a major risk for him to  take. He showed me how to operate radio  and sonar equipment and how to plot  courses, different mechanical things that  had to be done.  We each took turns on that boat, each had  our own line. We were running eight lines  all together so I worked one side and he  worked the other.  If the fishing was slow  we'd go out and check the lines and come  back in and have a quick game of crib and  go back out again, but most of the time  was spent working.  I think this skipper was probably more  tolerant of me at the beginning that he  might have been with a man. He probably  gave me more time to learn because he realized I would have to learn from scratch.  I found there were things he would try  and protect me from. For instance, he  didn't want me to do a lot of heavy lifting, but I would insist on doing it and  eventually he accepted that.  It sounds really glamorous at first - a  deckhand.  But when you think about it,  what you're doing is very, very routine.  For example, I used to spend five to six  hours a day cleaning fish.  That's not  very glamorous!  I didn't have to ice the fish on that boat.  What we did do was stack the fish and  freeze them overnight. Then we had to  glaze them so they didn't oxidize. We  would haul this big bin of water into the  hold and then dip the fish - it's so cold  down there the water would freeze within  seconds.  Also, any work in the galley is usually  the deckhand's.  I did all the shopping  beforehand and all the cooking. He would  help out with the dishes. Another thing  deckhands have to do is all the cleaning.  continued on page 13 July/August 1982       Kinesis       13  EMPLOYMENT  THE NEW ARK continued from page 12  It's very traditional when you're coming  in off the grounds that you scrub the  whole boat down.  I think it's really important for women  in these kinds of jobs to test their  limits. I really didn't know how much I  could do, and I found out. On my first  jobs particularly, I had this tremendous  compulsion to prove myself because I was  a woman.  I think I know my limits now, but I think  I was quite unrealistic when I first went  out fishing.  I had the attitude that I  could do anything, could handle anything.  But the next year when I worked on a halibut boat, I just couldn't handle the size  of the fish. A lot of them were coming up  at 30, 40, 50 pounds heavier than I was.  Companionship important link to reality  We were working from five in the morning  to between 12 and 1 at night. At 5  o'clock in the morning I would be out there  chopping up frozen herring, putting it on  the hooks, making bundles of hooks. This  was long lining, the same kind of fishing  as with shrimps. We usually set four  skeins of hooks which would take about  two hours, sometimes more, depending on  the weather and how far we had to run to  do that.  I didn't do the setting but I  would hand the other two all the anchors  and flagpoles.  After that I would make breakfast. We  would sit down and eat, and after breakfast go back and pick up the first line  we'd set. You were lucky if you got a  half hour to yourself in a day. I kept  that up for ten days. Luckily he was a  Seventh Day Adventist so he took Saturdays  off.  After ten days I started getting really,  really tired and my energy started to go  really down.  I think if I had had to stay  on much longer, I would have been totally  exhausted.  I think it's a really good idea to work  with another woman. At first I didn't  like being out there, didn't like the  isolation of fishing. If someone starts  laying things on me I tend to take them  all on, to begin to doubt my own perceptions .  That doesn't happen when there's another  woman on board, someone I consider a  friend who I can talk about these things  with. But on fishboats, two deckhands  have to be willing to take a cut in pay.  I was getting 15$ the first year I trolled,  but when I worked with Barb we each got  10$.  'Going fishing has changed me'  To me it was worth it in terms of the support of another woman, having a kindred  spirit who shared the same values, because fishermen I met were very different.  They had a very different perception of  life, very different values.  For example, there is the issue of killing  things unnecessarily. With two of us, it  ma'de us stronger in terms of speaking up.  I think we at least made him think more  about taking pot shots at seals.  They shoot sea lions and seals because  they think they eat their salmon. It was  the same when we were fishing prawns. A  lot of octopus come up with prawns and the  fisherman would kill them for the same  reason. He said octopus eat prawns and  were eating his profits away.  I've never been scared on the sea.  I've  been out a couple of times in storms but  nothing really, really bad.  I've been out  in 60-70 mph winds and my reaction was  total exhilaration.  I loved it.  I used  to think to myself, "What's wrong with  you? You should be scared." But I had  confidence in the skipper and in the boat,  so I just enjoyed it.  I don't think you know how you will react  to a panic situation until you've been in  one. The first time for me was when we  almost lost the prawn boat.  We had anchored in a little bay one night  and it was relatively calm. I was the  last one to go to bed and as I was out  doing my teeth, I was looking at the shoreline. I guess because it was my first  trip, I wasn't aware I should make a point  of positioning myself.  I didn't notice  we were a lot closer to the shoreline than  we had been earlier. Just after I got  into bed, we hit the rocks.  Luckily, we had a herring skiff.  It was  the only time in the whole trip we had a  skiff with us, and the skipper had just  shown us how to operate it that day. So  Darcy and I leaped into the herring skiff  and tried to haul the big boat off the  rocks. This was 11 o'clock at night,  really dark and blowing hard.  The skiff didn't have enough power to  move the big boat. Meanwhile, during  the day the skipper had set a net up the  far as to talk to bank managers about  loans, but we had very different ideas  about what kind of boat we wanted. So we  decided not to do that.  Still, having your own boat is probably  one of the only alternatives if you want  to go fishing. I feel it's an incredible  emotional drain to work with men under  those circumstances.  Another thing about this job is it can  really affect your relationships because  you're gone from four to six months of  every year. Many fishermen have broken  marriages because they're out for so long.  I didn't go fishing after the second year  because I was going out with a man and I  wanted to spend the summer with him.  I'd  like to go fishing again but not as a  career because at some point I would like  to have kids.  There are ways in which going fishing has  changed me. One thing is for sure, I  would never work in an office again if I  could help it. When I was fishing I felt  a lot more free, a lot more healthy. A  lot of women never have the opportunity to  get in touch with their body that way.  I  loved working outside and feeling strong.  I wanted to be challenged.  I didn't find clerking a challenge. I had  a fairly good job and yet I was never  I've never been scared on the sea. I've been out a couple of times  in storms but nothing really bad. I've been out in 60-70 mph  winds and my reaction was total exhilaration. I loved it.  bay a little to catch some salmon, and the  wind blew us down into this net. When he  started up the main engines, his prop  caught in the net and was immobilized.  It was just luck that we were blown up  against a logboom. We lashed ourselves  to it and next morning took the herring  skiff to the logging camp. They sent a  couple of big crew boats over and towed  us back. We spent that whole day cutting  the net out of the propeller.  I loved fishing.  It's beautiful being out  on the water. There is something really  whole about that kind of job where you're  working with your whole body. You're a  part of those natural cycles.  I still get  very strong rushes to be out on the ocean  again. But I won't go for a while, not  unless it's under my own stipulation.  I thought about buying my own boat and  pursued it to a certain extent. I wanted  to do it with my friend Darcy. We went so  given that kind of responsibility. I had  a very good supervisor who gave me a lot  of freedom in organizing my position...but  still it didn't compare. He never let me  do anything equivalent to docking the boat.  Also on the boat, I felt I didn't have to  play as many roles.  I could just be  myself.  In terms of inward changes, I am a quiet,  gentle person. I tend to be that way, so  I fit easily into that "nice" role a lot  of women get trapped in.  But I found when I was out fishing that I  had to stand up and fight and draw the  lines. So I became a lot more assertive  just in terms of defending myself, defending my space out there.  That was a really positive learning experience for me. My idea of femininity  is more amorphous now. I don't know if I  would call myself more "feminine", but I  think I am more real. 14       Kinesis        July/ August 1982  July/August 1982       Kinesis       15  CULTURE  When Judy Chicago began the Dinner Party  she worked alone, taking for granted that  she, like artists of all ages, could create  only out of solitude and social deprivation. Six years and the work of more than  400 people later, the project opened at  the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art -  and became the most successful show in  history, of work by a living artist.  The vicious critical response to the show  is now history. The Dinner Party is a  clumsy example, critics said, not of art  but of some of the minor crafts. Not only  is it craft, they said, it's cunt - ugh.  The round form is too confining commi-  tees can't create art...who are all these  women, anyway, and who cares? So the  attacks went.  The replies flew back. What is art, what  is craft and who decides - and why do they  have the right to do so? Breasts and  penises have always been considered art-  worthy, why not vulvas? Art by group, as  Chicago discovered in her research, is  the historical norm. And how is round  genitals, but it's so much more. Every  last one of them said, "It's a monument."  They were right, it is a monument. A  monument to people we didn't even know  were there, to female past, to us. Without either Chicago's book or the 35 minute  "acoustiguide", it is all too easy to miss  most of the significance and imagery of  each plate and runner.  Women made significant contributions  to history  The table starts in prehistory with powerful and benign female goddesses, and progresses to the present. All 39 women  represented made significant contributions  to history: Theodora, for instance, who  ruled with her husband Justinian and got  laws passed to improve the status of  women (including the death penalty for  rape); Sappho, the greatest lyric poet of  western civilization; Trotula, 11th century gynaecologist whose text was used  throughout Europe for 500 years; Christine  de Pisan, a French writer who attempted  to put women back into history 500 years  more confining than rectangular, which is  then further confined in a frame? Why is  women's art treated so harshly? The battle raged, and still rages, on several  levels, its vigour equalled only by its  frequent irrelevance.  Critics have missed the point  For the Dinner Party is infinitely more  than a collection of plates.  It is a  huge collage of the history of women, its  purpose "to ensure that women's achievements become a permanent part of our  culture". The table with its plates and  runners is the focus and the sine qua non  of the exhibit, but it is just the beginning.  The Dinner Party is also the International  Quilt, the introductory banners, the explanatory tape, the accumulating story  and lessons of its own history, the effect  it has on those who see it.  It has  power - to devastate, to shatter, to invigorate, to politicize.  Those who complain that no single plate  affects the observer as would, for example,  a Gauguin, have broken the whole into  fragments befitting standard art critical  categories, then examining those fragments,  have found them lacking.  (It's a variation on the fragment-and-trivialize theme  so often used to judge women's lives - we  should hardly be surprised when it's  applied to our art.)  Those critics, so entrenched in art establishment definitions, so threatened by  anything that dares to smash their categories, have missed the point entirely.  The show was in Boston, then New York,  while I was in Connecticut researching a  book.  That was at the height of the "It's  genitals, therefore it's awful" stage of  criticism. Many of my friends saw it before I did, and were the first feminist  ones I had heard. Yes, they said, it's  ago, and who ran businesses after her  husband's death; Sacajawea, guide to the  Lewis and Clark expedition, who gave birth  early in the journey and completed it a  nursing mother with her child on her back.  These 39 are but the tip of the iceberg.  The Heritage Floor on which the Dinner  Party sits consists of 2300 porcelain  tiles, all hand cast by a single crafts-  woman. On those tiles are the names of  999 more significant women selected from  3000 names a committee spent three years  finding.  Emily Carr is the first name by the Georgia  O'Keefe plate; Mary Shelley sits prominently under her mother's. Aphra Behn,  Suzanne Necker, Annie Peck Smith, Minna_  Hauer, Isabella Losa, Amy Beach - dozens  and hundreds of them are there, challenging our ignorance, excavating our past,  assaulting oblivion.  Table tells a sombre story  As if that's not enough, the whole experience of finding women is continued in  the International Quilt, which is displayed in the next room.  Its hundreds of  triangular pieces celebrate groups, individuals, accomplishments largely unrecognized in men's records.  There are triangles for mothers, educators,  explorers, parachutists.  For Ukrainian  women and Polish American women. For Joy  Adamson, Rachel Carson, Mother Teresa,  Chiang Chin, Emily Bronte, Mary Cassatt,  and Emily Carr.  For Rights for Canadian  Indian Women, for battered women, for  addicted women, for women the world calls  crazy. All of women's experience is there,  in our diversity and our sameness.  The table tells a more sombre story than  the quilt.  Perhaps what first becomes  obvious is just how dangerous it is to be  a woman. Here is Aspasia, an Athenian  woman at the height of Greece's 'demo  cracy ', who was sentenced to death for  educating women and encouraging them to  discuss political matters.  Here too is Hypatia, head of the University of Alexandria, mathematician and  philosopher, who was torn limb from limb  by fanatical monks because she was too  powerful for a woman, had all too successfully resurrected goddess worship.  Christine de Pisan lived and worked as an  independent woman. Millions of others who  tried - business women, healers, crafts-  women, propertied women, lesbians - were  executed as witches.  Mary Wollstonecraft's runner depicts,  mercilessly, her death in the birth of  her daughter Mary Shelley. Chicago says  on the tape that she did not want, but  felt compelled, to include this scene in  the Dinner Party. Excluding it would have  left unmentioned the killer that until the  beginning of this century destroyed more  of our past.* Women have repeatedly attempted to put women back into the culture  through writing. When not removed from  literature or history altogether, women's  writings have been trivialized by being  termed myth or legend or, as one 'modern'  writer put it, "Quaintsy-goysy, tiny, too  dykily psychotic, crippled, creepish,  fashionable, frigid, outer-Baroque,  maquille  in mannequin's whimsy, or else  bright and still-born."  Sojourner Truth's runner contains rags  representing the bits of their own clothing  hat slave women incorporated into quilts  they made in an attempt to preserve evidence, however obscure of their own culture. The metaphor is applicable to women  of every society and class and time.  Because of this, it's no surprise that  women come away from the Dinner Party  sobered, silent, seeing in a new way; no  surprise that the most common response  women's lives than all other causes combined.  The dangers and frustrations that stop  short of death, but still cruelly twist  lives, are here too: imprisonment, the  horrible crippling of bodies and talent,  the isolation of women from their own  kind, their heritage, their potential.  The plates and runners, taken together,  indicate the extent of harmony or discord  between the women represented and the  worlds they lived in.  Only one set is in  full accord, that of Natalie Barney, and  she achieved that harmony only by double  removal from the world around her: she  was a lesbian who set up her own salon  and structured her life within it.  Much more common are the repeated echoes  and variations of Anna von Schurman's  sentiments. She wrote, over 300 years  ago:  "Woman has the same erect countenance as man, the same ideals, the same  love of self-development, the same longing  after righteousness, and yet she is to be  imprisoned in an empty soul of which the  very windows are shuttered."  Perhaps most poignant is the record of  repeated attempts to pick up the thread  from men is, "Really, you feminists have  gone too far."  During the Dinner Party's first showing  in San Francisco, two museums that had  booked it for subsequent shows cancelled.  As a result, the Dinner Partys went into  crates and storage. Chicago and the others  who had worked on it were devastated,  fearing their massive attempt to make  women visible was being assigned to oblivion.  Two years and untold work and heartache  later, a couple of museums got brave, and  the Dinner Party has been on the road almost constantly ever since. This spring  it showed in Montreal, and in May arrived  at the Art Gallery of Ontario for a six  week stay. The story of those showings  tells volumes.  The Quebec government subsidized the show  in Montreal. Virtually everyone thought  it would be a sleepy little exhibit for  the Musee de l'art comtemporain, but im  portant, or at least interesting, enough  to merit deficit financing of the close  to $100,000 cost of rental, insurance and  mounting.  In one month, ninety thousand people, almost double the number who usually go  through the museum in a year, saw the  Dinner Party there. The museum was totally  unprepared for such as invasion, and the  result was long line-ups, sin exhausted  staff, more than a little chaos, and an  invigorating carnival atmosphere.  The Art Gallery of Ontario was much more  organized about the whole thing. They  sold dated and timed tickets, using armies  of volunteers to coordinate moyement of  crowds. Other activities of the institution continued undisturbed. Arid our experience of the show was infinitely impoverished. Grumbling and complaining in  line in Montreal, we hadn't realized quite  how important it was to be experiencing  what was happening there.  It's no secret that isolation is the key  to women's oppression, that women in groups  who, if not guards, certainly served that  function, and stand almost alone in front  of it. Explanatory books stood unnoticed  on a table in front of the quilt.  It was all extremely organized, and  sterile, and enervating, and isolating  and...ladylike. The implications were  not lost on those of us who saw the show  in both cities.  The show's arrival at the Art Gallery of  Ontario (AGO) came as quite a surprise,  for it had refused to exhibit the Dinner  Party when it first became available,  judging it unworthy as art. Sixty  thousand people had already seen the show  in Montreal when the AGO announced it  would open in Toronto on May 22.  The gallery, it appeared, had recognized a  money maker. But it still had not accepted  the Dinner Party as art.  Instead this gigantic show was mounted 'at  the gallery because it was a project of  the women's volunteer committee - yes, the  ladies' auxiliary. Women took a women's  It's no surprise that women come away from the Dinner Party  sobered, silent, seeing in a new way, no surprise that the most  common response from men is, "Really, you feminists have  gone too far"...The Dinner Party is a beginning. It has  faults. But we would be fools to let these things prevent us,  for once in our lives with delight instead of guilt, from  stuffing ourselves with all the table has to offer.  *It is amazingly appropriate that the  Dinner Party consists largely of needlework techniques contemporary to the women  it depicts, because for centuries women  put coded messages in their needlework -  codes which are now being rediscovered.  begin to feel their power, their mutual  interests. The Dinner Party itself throws  together women from several cultures and  classes. Standing in line in Montreal (I  waited for 2\  hours) was an extension of  that, and an extremely important part of  the politicization that went on there.  There we all were: long-time feminists,  closet feminists, people starting sentences with "I'm not a feminist but..."  There were women whose lives had changed  significantly in the last decade but who  had never needed (or wanted) to think  about why.  As we climbed over each other to get to  the Quilt, as we rummaged together through  books explaining it, as we read sections  aloud and grappled with each other's questions, some of these women felt their  connectedness with other women for the  first time.  For many it was the first realization that  women are a class. For others of us, it  was the return of a feeling we hunger for.  It was precisely the kind of realization  that launched the second wave of feminism  almost twenty years ago. And it looked  as if for the first time the majority of  the men there had recognized themselves as  Outsider, the Other, not the center of  everyone's universe. And they were ex-  remely uncomfortable.  The Toronto experience was pale beside  that. People are' not products to be  shifted as efficiently as possible and art  museums are not warehouses: regimented  art doesn't work. Although intended to  reduce the line ups (I waited 1| hours  this time), the stifling environment the  AGO provided made the waiting an endurance  test.  In Montreal we approached the table  eagerly; in Toronto people were exhausted  by the time the got to it.  In order to see the quilt, it was necessary  to leave the line (which was oh so neat  and orderly), pass a barrier of attendants  show to this institution as a fundraising  scheme. And because the show was taken to  the institution as a fundraiser, that institution still  does not have to support  the show or women's art as art. All it  has to do is accept the money it makes.  Once again women have been allowed to partake of the feast - in the kitchen, after  they have done all the work, after the  others have eaten, and if there's anything  left.  As we said early in the women's movement:  Click.  Women wield money power  There is a positive part to this lesson of  the power money lends, and conversely,  the money power women as a group possess.  The experience of the Dinner Party in  Montreal and Toronto gives a striking  gauge of that power - if we can agree on  a place to focus it.  Thousands of women went to Montreal just  to see the Dinner Party. We poured probably close to half a million dollars into  getting there, staying there and entertaining ourselves. Those dollars bought  a lot: they got the show to Toronto (where  it made more money), they may have hastened  construction of an addition to the Musee  de l'art contemporain, and they sent women  away from the show invigorated and more  aware of other kinds of power they possess.  If we could channel that kind of money  directly into ourselves instead of into  "malestream" restaurants, railroads and  hotels, the ripple effect would enhance  all the facets of our lives.  And so the feast moves us. The Dinner  Party is a beginning.  It has faults.  It  has shortcomings.  But we would be fools  to let those things prevent us, for once  in our lives with delight instead of  guilt, from stuffing ourselves with all  the table has to offer. 16       Kinesis       July/August 1982  REVIEW  The Comfortable Arts pays tribute to domestic artists  by Sima Elizabeth Shefrin  As a feminist artist and long time admirer of women's traditional fabric arts,  I was excited at the opportunity to see  The Comfortable Arts,  Traditional Spinning and Weaving in Canada.  This touring exhibition of the National  Gallery was organized by Dorothy Burnham,  former curator of textiles et the Royal  Ontario Museum. Burnham deserves credit  for her unusual attempt to display traditional textiles as fine art, without  denial of their utilitarian purpose.  "The Comfortable Arts,"  the Vancouver  Museum tells us, "...represents the first  time that Canadian weaving from the early  eighteenth century until the 1940's has  been treated as an art form."  The arts of the early settlers were survival arts. Life was a constant struggle,  and women braided and wove and knotted  and stitched their physical and emotional  frustrationas into their handwork, creating beautiful and powerful pieces.  Their art was not hung in galleries for  the pleasure and profit of a few, but integrated into their daily lives. Few examples of early Canadian textiles have  survived because they either have beer-  worn to rags or cut up to be patched or  woven into new fabrics, new works of art.  Scholars and museum visitors may find  this loss lamentable, but we who are trying to redefine the role of art in a feminist context might take a lesson from  these artists, who worked on a small scale  for themselves and their communities  rather than creating monuments for posterity.  Ironically enough, to reach the area of  the Vancouver Museum where the textile  exhibit is held, we must walk through a  display of tea and coffee sets. Elaborate  and beautifully made, they symbolize  wealthy women at their most purposeless,  caught in meaningless social ritual.' The  contrast with the textile display could  not be more forceful.  The display itself begins with the tex-  CLC CONVENTION continued from page 2   instead, that the CLC be instructed to  organize a public campaign around the  radiation dangers of VDTs. Such a resolution could not have passed if women delegates had not been in a fighting, determined mood.  Delegates angered by McDermott's  remarks  The debate on the paper "Equality of  Opportunity and Treatment for Women  Workers" also reflected this mood. The  paper was initially scheduled to be debated Wednesday, but got postponed several  times. When it finally came up, it was  allotted only one hour.  When delegates protested this fact,  McDermott responded that the convention  had to move on so other special interest  groups could be heard from. When several  women delegates protested McDermott said  not to lay that "patronizing trip" on him.  That outburst only provoked further anger  from the delegates.  Then McDermott said, "Can we please dispense with the chicken shit and get on  with the business of the convention?" The  floor just erupted. Delegates both male  and female responded angrily to this outburst, demanding an apology.  McDermott didn't apologize. However, the  tile arts of the native people, then  moves - chronologically and geographically - through the work of Aoadians,  Quebecois, and settlers from the British  Isles and Germany, before ending in a  dramatic burst of colour with the work of  Icelandic, Hutterite, Ukrainian and  Doukhobor settlers. The technical information accompanying the weaving is extensive and detailed, and includes clear  diagrams of the various weaves.  Most, but not all of the work was done by  women. Professional weaving was largely  a male domain, and some of the more elaborate spreads and coverlets are credited  to male weavers.  Two pieces in the exhibit I found particularly wonderful. The first was an alter-  piece, embroidered in wool on a white  woolen blanket by Ursuline nuns in Quebec  in the early 18th century. From a small  head of the virgin in the centre, flowers  explode in all directions, creating a  powerful effect despite the conventionality of the subject matter.  The second piece which impressed me was  a Doukhobor rug, approximately 10' by 10',  knotted and woven by Anastasia Lords in  1923.  It is alive with exotic plants and  animals depicted in rich warm colours.  The exhibit is not organized with a feminist consciousness, and two or three of  the labels made me wince. Particularly  disturbing was this comment accompanying  the artwork of native women:  "It was the women who were the textile  artists, but one wonders how a busy  Indian wife managed to produce beautiful  and non essential luxury items. The  answer may be relatively simple.  In  pre-contact and early contact times the  idea of monogamy was not part of Indian  life and an expert hunter often had  more than one wife.  It is an intriguing  thought in these days of 'women's liberation' to wonder if the liberty of a  woman to be a creative artist came from  the cooperation of another wife within  the family unit".  Such superficial speculation trivializes  the work and culture of native and non-  native women alike.  My other serious criticism of this exhibit is the absence of quilts. One or  two unimpressive ones are included, but  only to show examples of the fabric in  their patches.  The exhibit does expand several times beyond its own title into areas such as  knitting and lace making. Thus it is unfortunate, when so many really fine quilts  are in existence, and are so clearly part  of the "comfortable arts", that Burnham  did not see fit to include them in this  exhibit.  Still, at a time when god knows how many  people are lining up for hours to see the  Dinner Party,  with Chicago's hastily  pulled together needlework celebrating  well-known upper class women, we might  stop for a moment to see and appreciate  the work of ordinary Canadian women who  spent lifetimes developing art which  needed no galleries, and was part of their  daily existencp.  Th.e Comfortable Arts,  Traditional Spinning  and Weaving in Canada  will be open daily  until Labour Day at the Vancouver Museum,  1100 Chestnut Street, Vancouver (736-4431 )'ñ†  incident was a victory in that the rest of  that committee's report was brought back  to the floor on Friday - the only report  to be gone through in its entirety.  Delegates also affirmed policy on day care.  The CLC will urge its affiliates to work  with community-based daycare coalitions,  and urge the government to implement free  24-hour childcare. This is one of the  first times the CLC has suggested affiliates work with groups outside the labour  movement. This was largely based on the  Ontario experience where community-based  coalitions are in the forefront of the  fight for daycare.  Access to non-traditional jobs has generally been a stumbling block for women. Delegates passed a resolution forcing the CLC  to support women's struggles for non-  traditional jobs. Delegates also adopted  positions supporting equal pay for work  of equal value, and affirmative action,  calling for a conference to map strategy.  Feminists, trade unionists must unite  Sexual harassment was another issue debated at the convention. Delegates asked  the CLC to initiate education on this  subject. (There seems to be a gap between  how delegates vote on issues and how they  act - flying home with a number of delegates shortly after this resolution was  debated, I saw some of the men harassing  the stewardess.)  A resolution calling for 26 weeks paid  maternity leave was also passed. This  resolution implicitly recognized the  struggle of postal workers and other  unions for paid maternity leave; unfortunately, it was also a rollback. The  CLC already had a policy for one year  paid parental leave on the books.  Also passed were resolutions calling for  unions' involvement in International  Women's Day and for meaningful women's  conferences.  The women of the CLC are moving. Delegate  after delegate at the convention spoke to  the urgency of the fight for women's  issues, pointing out that a failure to  fight for women's issues means women's  position will deteriorate.  This CLC convention ratified some gains  for Canadian workers. But it also showed  that the CLC will move only if workers  force them to. Unfortunately, this can't  be done alone.  If we want to build a  militant anti-sexist trade union movement,  we will have to unite as feminists and as  trade unionists. Together, as the song  goes, we can build a new world. July/August 1982       Kinesis       17  CULTURE  Kiku Hawkes' art explores sexuality, separation, fantasy  by Michele Wollstonecroft  with input from  Nina Handjeva-Weller and Robin Campbell  Kiku Hawkes is a Vancouver photographer  whose work takes the form of prints, photo  albums and environmental installations. At  present, Kiku has three series of work she  is preparing to show - one complete, one in  progress and one just begun.  The completed piece is Midnight at the  Oasis,   a series of I6"x20" prints of belly  dancers. In Kiku's words: "The work in  Midnight at the Oasis  began as a series  parodying turn-of-the century erotica.  Within this photographic genre, I wanted  to examine the visual messages expressed  through the use of women in costume.  "As the work evolved, the beauty and ability of the dancers, often obscured by their  working environment (cabarets and restaurants), became more apparent. The issue then  centred on the thin line separating work  that objectifies and exploits women's bodies and sexuality, and work that celebrates  this aspect of our power.  "Although these women would not be considered beautiful by the contemporary, commercial standards we are inundated with,  when they dance they are exquisite. At that  moment, they have reclaimed their bodies,  their sexuality and their fantasies. They  remind us of a time (perhaps mythic) when  these selves were ours, and foretell a time  when they will be ours again."  Oasis prints are 'visual poems'  Oasis  consists of nine colour prints, three  sepia toned prints, and fifteen hand-  coloured prints. The hand-coloured prints  are actually five triptychs, that is, three  panels of each of five different dancers in  costume, (see front cover)  Kiku's palette of oils for the hand-coloured prints included lush mauves, plum, cream,  reds, golds, flesh tones, earth tones and  the occasional bit of blue or green. In  these prints, she has played on the textures  of colour; for example, she repeats the gold  in the fabric, brassiere and bracelet of the  dancer.  These prints are visual poems. The interplay of line, shapes, colours, patterns and  tones, along with Kiku's careful manipulation of the photographic medium, effectively translate the beauty of belly dance into  the photographic artform.  Joan, February 1982 (from Gold Mountain Tableaux)  Kiku has portrayed these women re-creating  space and time with their bodies. Each  dancer appears fully engrossed in her art,  enjoying her control over her body, making  something beautiful with her clothes, form  and movement.  The dancers are by no means feminine in the  traditional sense. The fluidity of their  skirts and scarves is well balanced by mus-  Dancer & Model/Diana, Goddess of the Hunt  cular shoulders and arms. There are also  numerous photographs of dancing bare feet.  One delightful print shows feet dancing on  a luxurious carpet, below which float clouds  and sky.  The Oasis  pieces have an interesting ancient  flavour, both in content and design. Kiku  attributes this quality to the five years  she spent travelling in Asia, and to her  studies of artifacts and cultures from old  Eastern civilizations. These influences can  be seen in her treatment of costumes and  gestures, and in her attention to detail and  space.  The costumes, with their full skirts, flowing scarves, armour-plated brassieres and  many bracelets suggest a multitude of images.  Scarves float off the shoulders like moth  wings. Circular coin belts hang from the  butterfly-like brassieres, repeating the  breast form and intimating mythological  many-breasted women. The skirts have fertile, moon-like shapes around the abdomen  and behind. With arms uplifted and skirts in  full motion, the dancer resembles earth  meeting sky. The colours, vibrant and rhythmical, create the music.  Kiku has shown the dancers out of the context of any environment. Dancing either  alone or in pairs against seamless background paper, it appears that they dance  only for themselves and each other.  In some shots, Kiku has isolated parts of  the body. Unlike the way contemporary media  images of women fragment the feminine form,  Kiku's photographs focus on the physical  strength and power of a woman's body in  motion.  Photographs of a torso twisting in dance  emphasize the physical control needed to  manipulate the body to this position, while  remaining sensitive to the texture of the  dancer's hair and skin and the fabric of  her costume.  (from fantasy series) -  The nine colour pieces in Oasis  show two  dancers together, photographed against a  bright orange background. For these photographs, Kiku left the shutter of the camera  open while the dancers moved across the  frame. Like brushstrokes, the light, costumes and bodies create dazzling patterns  of colour and line.  Kiku's photographs are a fine representation of the beauty and sexuality of the  dancers. The subjects are photographed from  below or straight on, giving them equal  power or even dominance over the viewer.  The women in these pictures refuse to be  objectified.  Gold Mountain portraits personal,  dignified  Currently, Kiku is working on The Gold  Mountain Tableaux,   an installation piece  based on a series of photographs she made  of her neighbourhood, the Strathcona  (Chinatown) district of Vancouver. This  body of work celebrates the ethnic diversity of the neighbourhood, and documents a  very interesting part of the city, which  may soon be destroyed by developers.  The installation combines the exterior atmosphere of Strathcona streets with the  interior domestic environments of forty-one  Strathcona residents. All the prints in  this series are hand-coloured.  At the entrance to the space, 3i*x3i' "exploded" prints of buildings hang on the  walls. On the other side of the room, four  "still-life" photographs hang above a sofa  and table. A rain-covered window (The window is real, the rain large drops of glue)  occupies the centre of the room, separating  the "exploded" prints from sofa and table.  Near the sofa are two photo albums contain-  continued on page 19 Kinesis       July/August 1982  REVIEW  Fight Back! focuses on creative resistance to violence  by Jeanne Taylor  I was afraid to read this book, presuming  it to be a chronicle of violent acts upon  women. But once started, I realized how  wrong I had been.  Much more than an anthology, Fight Back!is  an important compilation of positive action  and feminist theory on combatting male violence against women. Its format is impressive and diverse. Short stories, poems,  Fight Back! Feminist Resistance to Male  Violence  edited by Frederique Delacoste and Felice  Newman, Cleis Press, 1981, 398 pp.,  $13.95  interviews and articles by women from varied backgrounds speak out against violent  acts such as sexual harassment, battering,  incest, rape, psychiatry, pornography,  prisons and attacks from the right.  Their stories teach us how diverse the  forms of violence are, and how women, alone  and together, are creatively fighting and  learning about power.  Feminist stance on violence crucial to  organizing  To illustrate, Part 2 of the book begins  with a poem ("Need: A Choral of Black  Women's Voices") by Audre Lorde, about two  Black women murdered in the late '70s. It's  followed by an article entitled "Twelve  Black Women: Why Did They Die?" (about a  series of murders of Black women in Boston  in 1979)., This article, by the Combahee  River Collective, was written purposefully  "to understand the social and political  causes behind these sisters' deaths", and  specifically addresses the issue of violence against women.   This black feminist  collective was actively involved in organizing the many groups and individuals angry  at these slayings.  Later in the book, organizers within the  battered women's movement speak about their  experience - their history, analysis, net- ,  working, successes, and future. Susan  Schlecter, affirming the need for a feminist stance on violence against women (in  "The Future of the Battered Women's Movement"), writes: "Because of the seeming  split between the family and the social  world, there are few remaining personal  and community mechanisms for controlling  what happens to members of the family...  (Shelters) demonstrate that women have the  right to be free from male domination in  one of its most controlling and vicious  forms."  There are also writings about women who  have successfully defended themselves from  male violence. Of these women, Barbara Hart,  an attorney and member of the Pennsylvania  Coalition Against Domestic Violence, says,  "It's been my experience in self-defense  cases that she understands this time it's  different, her life is in danger, or the  children's lives are in danger."  Powerlessness can encourage denial  Part 4 of Fight Back.'dea.ls  with the theory  and practice of self-defense. In her article "Karate and the Feminist Resistance  Movement", Nadia Telsey points out that our  powerlessness can bring us to deny that  violence against us exists. Telsey advocates resistance in the form of training:  "Women who enroll in self-defense or karate  training are already past one level of de  nial because they are willing to face the  existence of violence as a force in their  life."  For those of you who, like myself, are eager to rediscover our herstory in myths and  legends, there's "The Great Goddess Fights  Back", by Susan Ribner and Christine Wade,  who are currently researching women warriors .  The photos and drawings in Fight 'Back!  are  well-chosen and effectively dispalyed-  many tell their own story. Clearly women  artists too are experiencing and expressing  the anguish and joy of learning to fight  back. Several articles in Fight Back!  attest to this: "Feminist Artists: Develop-  On the way to women's liberation no power relationship will  be left untouched; a new set of  relationships will come into being that actively support, and  grow out of, the safety and  power of women. When  women take their bodies back  from every force that would  abuse them, much more than  violence against women will  have ended.  - Janet Howard, Fight Back!  ing Media Strategy for the Movement", "Art  and Politics: Post Cards To Go" and "Three  Weeks in May".  Finally, a comprehensive Directory of Resource Organizations (covering USA, Canada  and England) has been included, representing the day-to-day work against violence:  support, teaching, self-defense and building alternatives.  The analysis of violence in Fight Back!  taught me that we cannot fail to see resistance to violence against women as pivotal  to our future liberation. This valuable ha  handbook focuses on the nature of violence,  and our developing ability to construct  creative and successful ways to resist it.  ARIEL BOOKS  now offers a greatly  expanded selection of  books of pregnancy,  birth, parenting and  health.  Mail orders welcome.  Ariel • 2766 W. 4th Ave., Vancouver • 733-3511  radical  reviewer  Canada's only radical/feminist book  review and literary tabloid.  Reviews Fiction Poetry  Criticism Interviews  and more ...  Published three times per year  Subscribe  P.O. Box 24953  Station C  Vancouver, B.C.  Canada V5T 4G3  Individual '5.00/year  Institution MO.OO/year  Sustainer l50.00/year  _ POSTAL CODE_  Assorted colours,  short or cap  sleeve style,  sizes S, M, L and  XL. Children's  sizes too. $8  adult/$6 child.  Available at Vancouver  Status of Women, the  Women's Bookstore and  Ariel Books. Get yours  soon! July/August 1982       Kinesis  CULTURE  Her Story, My Story will be regular  feature, profiling the life stories and accomplishments of a variety of women in  B.C.'s history - from pioneers and pilots  to writers and unionists.  Each profile will be accompanied by a  short reading guide. This month, authors  Kandace Kerr and Jill Pollack honour  their grandmothers.  '''Little Birdies in Their Nest Do Not Agree"  Dorothy Paola Goldstein Grossman  (1893-1980)  I doubt she would have considered herself  a feminist, but my grandmother, in her own  way, was womyn-identified and incredibly  strong. She was not active with the womyn' s community, but she was active within  a community of womyn.  Dot (her nickname) was born in Montreal  into an upper class Jewish home. Her twin,  Marjorie, later went on to be a full  professor of English at McGill (Marjorie  was, of course, considered 'a failure').  Dot went to McGill part-time, taking sign  language, French, German and literature.  She married and bore two children - a boy  and a girl.  All this is by way of showing that in many  respects, she was a traditional stereotypical womyn. But she really wasn't.  She had an amazing inner strength and  facility for change. She encouraged me,  at alternate points in my life, to write,  visit museums and galleries, and learn  about whatever I was interested in with  as open mind as possible.  Dot was President of the Canadian Mental  Health Association, the National Council  of Jewish Women, The Hadassah, The B'Nai  Brith...and a club womyn who at the age  of 40 took up woodcarving.  She moved within the societal constraints  of her age to the best of her ability in  order to express her creativity. Dorothy  Paola is and was one of many who serve as  an example of our possibilities and our  limitations.  "When I see the elaborate study and ingenuity displayed by women in the pursuit  of trifles,  If eel no doubt of their capacity for the most herculean undertakings. "  (Julia Ward Howe)  - Jill Pollack  KIKU HAWKES continued from page 17   ing forty-one 4-"x5" portraits of Strathcona  residents. The people in the portraits  range from Asian immigrants and merchants  to other artists and photographers, from  the very young to the very old. The subjects seem relaxed and look straight into  the camera.  These pictures make personal, dignified  statements about the people of this neighbourhood. Clearly, there is an identification between subject and photographer.  Many of the portraits show the subject  standing next to windows - a reflection of  the window in the installation, which is  the unifying factor between the external  and internal space of the installation.  Likewise, some of the pictures are taken  indoor, and some outdoors.  For Kiku, the window evokes the idea of  separation and isolation, as well as the  curiosity, or desire to see in, that win-  Dorothy Paola Goldstein Grossman — college  years  One generation meets another, 1956: Elizabeth  Graham and Kandace  Elizabeth Graham - born Dublin,  Ireland,  circa 1882.     Came to Canada at 14.    Still  lives in Ottawa, argues politics,  hates  the Liberal party.    Family legend says  she is 100 this year.  I'm told I am just like my great grandmother Graham - which makes me very happy,  for she was strong, confident and definite  in her actions.  Sent to Canada by her parents at the turn  of the century to what they hoped was a  better life than they were enduring in  Ireland, my great grandmother was 14 when  her parents watched her sail away. She  went with hundreds of other "home children"  - children of poor families and orphans,  sent to this country during the latter  part of the 1800's and the early part of  this century under the watchful eyes of  church organizations.  The church looked after the children on  the voyage, gave them each a trunk filled  with clothes and books, then sent them  into servitude (working for a farmer or as  domestic or factory help). These children  formed an exploitable labour pool, under  the benevolent dictatorship of the church.  On the boat to Canada, my great grandmother was married to a boy barely a year  older than she. When they arrived in  Canada, they were sent to work for a farmer in Southern Ontario. There they  learned farming, and in ten years saved  enough to buy their freedom and start a  farm of their own.  My great grandfather was killed during  the first world war. When I was back east  earlier this year, my grandmother showed  me a packet of letters her mother had  kept. Among the letters was his death  certificate from the army - and attached  to it, his final letter to her, about the  pain and horror of war in the trenches.  My great grandmother had several children.  My grandmother, Lillian Graham, still has  her mother's strawberry blonde hair and  the Graham twinkle in her smile. She left  her mother during the Depression, supporting the family on earnings she and her  sister Girlie made working as stenographers  in Detroit.  When I was small, my great grandmother  gave me a pearl ring.  "I want you to have  this," she said.  "It's my wedding ring -  so you don't have to get married to get  one of your own." I still have the ring.  And I have no intention of getting another.  -Kandace Kerr  dows arouse. The windows also represent a  visual metaphor; the eyes of the people as  they look into the camera are windows  through which we may see their souls.  Kiku made these portraits on a 90-year-old  wooden <4"x5" view camera. She contact  printed the negatives (a method which renders extremely clear, sharp, same-size  images), then toned the prints with sepia  toner to add a brownish tint, before meticulously hand-colouring them. (Kiku learned  hand-colouring from Nina Rijinsky, a West  Coast photographer renowned for her hand-  coloured portraits.)  Unlike the glittering bright colours of the  Oasis  pictures, the Gold Mountain  prints  exhibit subtle colour relationships. Also  unlike Oasis,  with its many diagonal lines  representing movement, these photographs  possess static horizontal and vertical  lines which convey a feeling of peace.  As well as her studies in Asia and her ten  years' experience as a photographer, Kiku  has studied at the Emily Carr College of  Art.  She has produced slide/tape productions for  numerous groups (including the Labour Advocacy and Research Association and the B.C.  Teachers Federation), shown her work in the  recent Community Arts Council Regional  Juried selection, and given workshops.  Kiku has just begun a new series of photographs on fantasies. The project plays on  costume, posture, shadow and light, and  subjects represent themselves as they wish  to be seen. Characters so far include a  magician, a swordswoman, Sara Bernhardt,  Indiana Jones, and Diana the Huntress.  Kiku Hawkes is a creative photographer with  an abundance of ideas and energy. Vancouver  can look forward to seeing a great deal  more from her in the future. 20       Kinesis       July/August 1982  REVIEW  VGH study a 'rare contribution' to history of nursing  by Jan Radford and Sally Thorne  I Care That V.G.H.  Nurses Care!  is an  interesting case study and readable analysis of the dispute that occurred in  1977-78 between nurses and administration  at Vancouver General Hospital.  I Care That V.G.H.  Nurses Care! A case  study and sociological analysis of  nursing's influence on the health care  system  by Verna Lovell, Vancouver, In Touch  Publications Ltd., 1981, 92 pages  Author Verna Lovell describes herself as  a nurse-sociologist who acted as "official  historian" during the controversy. Her  stated objectives (no nursing manuscript  would be complete without objectives! )  were to document the issues, examine the  strategies and analyze the dynamics in  terms of the use of power in the health  care system. She attempts this through  a chronology of events, a description of  the processes, and an analysis of the  meaning of the experience to nurses and  nursing.  The V.G.H. controversy was an historic  event in the "struggle for an oppressed  group of nurses to acquire control over  work for which they were responsible and  accountable." As such, its documentation  is a rare contribution to the history of  nursing.  A major strength of the work, in our view,  is the inclusion of many of the actual  letters, briefs and memoranda which were  exchanged by,the parties concerned. While  it is* useful to understand theoretically  how power may be manipulated in such a  struggle, the appended documents and  anecdotes allow the reader to vicariously  experience the tactics employed. Often  these testimonials and letters tell their  own story, and at these times Lovell  wisely avoids overkill analysis.  The 1982  Annual General Meeting  of  Vancouver Status of Women  will be held  Thursday, July 15, 7:30 p.m.  at  400A W. 5th Ave., Vancouver  What analysis there is clearly defines  the struggle as a women's issue, in spite  of the author's efforts to avoid labelling  it as such. Lovell is perhaps restricted  in this by her attempt to account for the  struggle without challenging the views of  the nursing activists involved:  "While there were mixed views about how  the position of women in society was related to their concerns,   the concerned  nurses as a group were adamnant that the  issue not be coded, as a struggle for  women's rights.    Most agreed that the fact  that nursing is primarily a women's profession was coincidental and not relevant  vis-a-vis the problems in the nursing  department at VGH."  It is perhaps this loyalty to the perspective of the concerned nurses which results  in some of the cloudy or contradictory  stances adopted by Lovell in this book.  She defines her analysis as one which  relies on an understanding of the use  of power in maintaining organizational  stability, yet applies this theoretical  framework sparingly.  Women who are nurses have  been doubly socialized toward  roles and values that inhibit  collectivity, mutual support and  activism. The women's community is full of "ex-nurses"  who left the struggle to direct  their energies elsewhere.  The thrust of her analytical discussion  is in terms of women's history as a subservient class, excluded from expression  and participation in decision-making  structures. As such it is a valid and  relevant analysis.  However, since Lovell constrains herself  by minimising its importance, there are  times when she raises more questions than  she is able to answer in this volume.  Nurses reject feminist image  Since it is our conviction that the issues  in nursing are not well understood by  nurses or by non-nursing women, we regret  the exclusion of certain historical analyses which could contribute to awareness.  Although Lovell explains that nurses have  been (and are still) cast into subordinate  roles, she provides inadequate analysis  of how this came to be and why it should  not be so.  She does not, for example, address the  history and social ramifications of power-  acquisition by medical doctors. Such  background seems essential to the argument  that the work of nurses has been systematically relegated to the sphere of domestic labour.  Although there are exceptions, nurses  generally do not view their professional  struggles as women's struggles. Too often  they see themselves individually as un-  oppressed, assertive and competent practitioners, remaining unaware of what it is  they do individually and collectively to  actively participate in their own subordination and oppression.  Lovell herself takes the position that  commitment to nursing is the panacea to  the problem:  "...nursing could have more power and prestige if nurses felt as free to commit themselves to nursing as they do to their husbands and children or to their wish for a  family."  A number of crucial questions about the  controversy remain unanswered by Lovell's  analysis. Why, for example, did the  nurses elect to label their struggle as  a patient care issue in spite of their  reliance upon leading feminist theorists  as advisors? What beliefs and values contributed to their agreement upon an anti-  feminist public and media image? And how  is feminist-phobia perpetuated within such  a large community of women?  Book a useful tool for organizing  Our criticism of the work may be overly  harsh, but it is a product of our craving  for strong feminist analysis by and about  nursing. We see this book as a valuable  tool to teach nurses about organizing,  about the change process, about social  systems, and about their collective potential.  We also hope that non-nursing women will  use it to learn more about the unique  struggles nurses have within their profession. Women who are nurses have been  doubly socialized toward roles and values  that inhibit collectivity, mutual support  and activism. The women's community is  full of "ex-nurses" who left the struggle  to direct their energies elsewhere.  Lovell's book laments this fact, and  challenges nurses to open themselves to  the possibilities of learning to struggle  together.  Recent government cutbacks pose yet another  threat to nursing services. Thus it is  timely to suggest that nurses need the  support and analysis of their feminist  sisters, and that feminists need to know  something of what nursing is actually  about. I Care That V.G.H.  Nurses Care!  is a tool which could facilitate that  mutual understanding. July/August 1982       Kinesis       21  REVIEW  a  Fighting back is the greatest high in the world"  by Marcia Meyer  Marcia Meyer interviewed comic Robin Tyler  during her week-long appearnace in Vancouver last month.  In 1959, comic Robin Tyler left Winnipeg.  At that time, she was a performer with extensive training at Manitoba Theatre Centre and Rainbow Stage.  Why did she leave? In her own words, "I  left Winnipeg because I was gay. I had to  leave very early as I didn't have any peer  groups. I was ostracized by gay people  there because I was out of the closet in  '59."  Robin is now a well-known comic, producer  of the annual West Coast Women's Music &  Cultural Festival, and a politically relevant humourist.  Women given no credibility for  assertive humour  I asked Robin about the role of women in  comedy who perpetuated negative images of  women with their humour. She stated,  "(Singling out any one performer as a target) is sexist. These women were a product  of a patriarchal society that allowed them  to be aggressive, which comedy is, by  turning that aggression toward themselves.  "We must understand that just like Black  people had to shuck and jive in order to  get into the early movies, so these women  also had to be self-depracating in order  to last in a patriarchal society. I never  criticize the victim, only the perpetrator of these attitudes of patriarchal  society that made women do this."  Will this pattern of negative self-portrayal by female comics change? She said,  "It's very difficult if you're straight,  because it's hard for a straight woman to  be as assertive, let alone aggressive.  "Basically, women are given absolutely no  credibility for doing this kind of stuff  (assertive humour).- Men are very threatened by it; possibly I've gotten away with  it more because I'm gay."  Does Robin see herself as influencing a  change of awareness in people?  "It's not because of what I did, but in the  past eleven years, we've seen the women's  movement and the gay movement emerge as  two of the most powerful movements in the  world. I was a very small part of that.  Would I change being a part of this moment, this time and this history? Absolutely  not - it's the greatest high in the world,  fighting back."  Through my humour I hope that  everybody will come out of the  closet, because then it will be less  easy to oppress us. It's not just  women or gay people — it's  anybody, whoever you are. If  you're a vegetarian, come out of  the closet. I think people should  not lie about what they are.  When asked if she thought it essential  for comics to be politically progressive,  Robin replied: "It's not essential - you'd  probably make a better living if it  weren't (progressive), but I think it's  desirable. It's certainly in the tradition  of comedy. Comedy has always been a culture of resistance.  "Its essential for me to be progressive  and political because that's my gut. But  again, I'm just not defining it as essential for everyone.  "Through my humour I hope that everybody  will come out of the closet, because then  it will be less easy to oppress us. It's  not just women or gay people - it's any-  BULLETIN BOARD continued from page 28   CLASSIFIED (cont'd)  TWO ROOMS IN CO-OP HOUSE to sublet. One room  for July-August, and one for August only.  Feminist politics, shared food, 5 bedrooms, 2 living rooms, large backyard.  16th & Heather area. Rent $l80/mo. Call  876-5609.  LESBIAN COUPLE with two children wish to  meet other couples for social get togeth-  ers, dinners, shows, picnics, etc. Write  Box 46588, Stn. G, Vancouver, B.C. V6R  4G8.  SFU sociology-anthropology student is doing  a summer research project on factors influencing the adjustment and adaptation  of individuals separated and/or divorced  during the last five years. To participate in her questionnaire, call Sheila  Ker at 291-3606/3146 or write her c/o  Dept. of Sociology & Anthropology, Simon  Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C. V5A 1S6.  body, whoever you are. If you're a vegetarian, come out of the closet. I think  people should not lie about what they are."  Who ever heard of a heterosexual  comic?  Explaining her dislike for the title  'Lesbian Comic', she asked: "Is Joan Rivers a heterosexual comic to you? Do you  ever describe Joan Rivers or Phyllis Dil-  ler as a heterosexual comic? Have you ever  heard a comic described by their sexuality?  "I mean, why must gay people be singled  out by their sexuality - I think it's exploitive. I'm a comic and I'm Jewish and  I'm progressive and I'm anti-nuke and I'm  not a vegetarian and I'm a lesbian. To  just take one part of me to describe me  I think is a hang-up."  What inspired Robin to be a progressive  humourist? She stated: "The background,  the tradition, of Jews in comedy has always been political and satirical...1  would say that I'm following very much in  the tradition of my people. What inspired  me to be a comic was the band in Miami  Beach who couldn't cut my music when I was  a singer. So I became a comic - that simple ."  I asked her whether she distinguishes between wit and humour. She responded: "Only  intellectual bourgeois critics do that...  I think there's too much analysis of stuff  You know what I mean - I think it's become  so intellectual, soon you're going to need  a PhD. to decide.whether something's funny  or not.  "If people laugh, they laugh. One person  calls it wit, another calls it belly laughs.  I don't want to analyze it, I just know  funny is funny."  My last question to Robin was what she  thought the essence of feminism is. She  replied: "That sounds like a perfume!"  (What else could I have expected from a  comic?)  As I turned to walk away, she called out:  "You know what the essence of feminism is?  Sweat."  LOST: Brown Levi kangaroo jacket with house  keys in pocket, at in-movement meeting  (1st United Church) June 14-. Sentimental  value. Call Hilarie at 873-1427 days.  FOR RENT: Loft of house in Aldergrove, on  5 acre lot. $350/mo. negotiable. Available immediately. Women only. Call  856-9418 (long distance) or 874-7915.  JUST OUT  PARENTAL RIGHTS & DAYCARE: A Bargaining  Guide for Unions, from the Ontario Federation of Labour, is a booklet designed  unions and other interested organizations  in negotiations around daycare. For a  copy, send $2 to Elizabeth Smith, Ontario  Federation of Labour, 15 Gervais Drive,  Ste. 202, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 1Y8.  SOMEWHERE BETWEEN, a 50-minute documentary  from Hy Perspectives Media Group, looks  at the history of Canadian government  legislation affecting Indian women. A  teacher's guide is available to facilitate classroom presentation. For info  regarding rental and sales, contact Hy  Perspectives at 1164 Hamilton Street,  Vancouver V6B 2S3, tel:683-2689.  Off Our Backs  PEOPLE'S LAW SCHOOL has flyers available  listing current titles of the booklets  they publish as well as a video catalogue.  Write People's Law Schoo, 3466 W. Broadway, Vancouver V6R 2B3, tel: 734-1126. 22       Kinesis       July/August 1982  SEXUALITY  Lesbian SM — anti-feminist or a valid choice?  by Susan White  If Vancouver's lesbian feminist community  follows the pattern of most other communities, we.are probably on the verge, if not  already into, the pro/anti lesbian SM controversy .  Having followed the development of this  controversy in other feminist journals  (Big Mama Rag, Plexus,  Off Our Backs,  to  name a few), I write in the hope that  Vancouver lesbian feminists can somehow  look at the fact of lesbian SM without the  pain and devisiveness that is occurring in  other communities.  I believe that we can do so, if all  of us  commit ourselves to the creation of a caring, tolerant, and inclusive atmosphere in  which SM lesbians will be encouraged to  communicate about themselves - to each  other, and to the community as a whole.  I offer this probably unpopular solution  out of my awareness of one completely irrefutable fact: lesbian SM exists. What  is even more important to acknowledge is  that lesbian SM is practised by womyn who  self-identify as feminists. Whatever else  is said, neither of these two facts is  going to go away.  How we choose to deal with these two facts  is therefore vitally important. Anti-SM  comments have already appeared in the  letters section of Kinesis, and it is the  policy of the Vancouver Women's Bookstore  to refuse to carry pro-SM lesbian literature.  The basis of both is that lesbian SM is  antithetical to feminism. Taken on a personal level, the implication is that a  womon cannot be an SM lesbian and a feminist, that these two identities are mutually exclusive.  It is important, and difficult, to distinguish between SM as portrayed in hetero-  sexist pornography, where it epitomizes  male power over womyn, and SM in a lesbian/  feminist context, where it can exist as an  erotic and personally fulfilling means of  sexual expression.  SM in the heterosexual context illustrates  male-female power imbalance at its worst,  where there is no basis of consent, and  where the pleasure of one person (the  womon) is irrelevant. Alternatively, the  consensual nature of lesbian SM is probably its most important feature.  Lesbian SM does play with power, but it  does not, as has been alleged, re-create  the male-female power imbalance: neither  sation/stimulat5on. A role in an SM  situation is chosen because it conforms  to a particular womon's sexual needs/wants,  and that role may change from time to time.  Because stimulation is sustained at a  higher or lower level by different situations, SM encompasses a range of sexual  behaviour, from "soft" SM with scarves  and feathers to "heavy" SM play with bondage and leather.  SM activity is always preceded by negotiation in which it is decided whether or not  both partners want to play, what activities  are likely to occur, which will NOT, and  about how long the play will last. This  negotiation is also a time when a "safe  word" or "code action" is decided upon:  Lesbian SM works toward an open acknowledgement of the  power of the erotic, out of the belief that this power is a fact of  existence. This acknowledgement is a tool for demystifying  power, developing an awareness that power is not inevitably  negative, and that it is often illusory.  partner is male, neither partner comes  from the male experience, and neither has  male power. The most significant reward  of lesbian SM is sexual pleasure for both  participants.  Lesbian SM works toward an open acknowledgement of the power of the erotic, out  of the belief that this power is a fact of  existence. This acknowledgement is a tool  for demystifying power, developing an  awareness that power is not inevitably  negative, and that it is often illusory.  In doing so it violates the feminist fantasy of romantic sex, in which sexual  pleasure is supposedly the automatic re-  To deny feminism to those with whom we  disagree has long been a popular strategy  in the lesbian feminist community. It has  few, if any, benefits. If we argue on  this level we merely ensure divisiveness,  the internalized oppression of one group  of lesbians condemning another (and vice  versa), and an atmosphere of exclusivity,  intolerance, and isolation.  Very little will be learned, as seems  clear from the course of this controversy  in other communities. Questions about  what lesbian SM is, or more general discussion about how power dynamics operate  in all  lesbian relationships, SM or not,  will almost certainly not be addressed.  suit of two womyn loving each other, and  less than spectacular sex is too often  attributed to the quality of our feelings  for one another. Within this fantasy,  pain is taboo.  This taboo ignores the fact that sexual  arousal affects all our perceptions, in-  eluding perceptions of pain. Many of us,  after an enthusiastic session of love-  making, discover bruises and scratches of  which we were not aware at the time, without being able to remember exactly how or  when we got them. The sensations involved  in lesbian SM are not that different.  Lesbian SM is a consensual  activity involving polarized roles and intense sen-  such an action or word will stop the  scene at any point.  SM has its own particular jargon: para-  phenalia are usually referred to as toys,  SM activity as a game or a scene, and  roles as top or bottom rather than S or M.  The key work in lesbian fantasy, in which  roles, dialogue and equipment allow the  exploration and creation of different  visions of sexuality.  Communication is essential to SM (as it is  to any sexual activity) in ensuring an atmosphere of trust in which the forbidden  feelings of submission and dominance can  be explored. Negotiation and safe words  ensure that a "bottom" has as much control  as the "top".  SM does not define the whole woman  Sexuality has a great deal to do with  power; we deceive ourselves to our own  detriment if we choose to pretend otherwise. For womyn who choose it, SM can be  a creative exploration of that power. To  be into SM as an aspect of sexual play  neither defines the whole of a relationship nor of an individual womon.  If we are open to listening to SM lesbians  we may learn something about the operation  of power dynamics within all of our  (sexual) relationships. We may have a  " chance to explore our own SM fantasies,  | thoughts and feelings, frightening as that  8 may be.  - To draw pro and anti lines through the  8 fact of lesbian SM will result only in  = our trashing one another, and despite our  s familiarity and seeming comfort with this  D tactic, it will be of no more use in our  struggle than it has been on any previous  occasion.  The power and responsibility for avoiding  argument on this level lies most with  anti-SM lesbians. If the ideal we work  towards, as feminists, is to resolve our  differences in a caring, accepting, and  open-to-information fashion, it is clear  that the anti-SM stance is none of these.  Rather, it is angry, intolerant, condemnatory, and above all closed to information- for the major stategy of the anti-  SM stance seems to be the denial of access  to information through such tactics as  refusing to carry literature, advertising,  or information which presents lesbian SM  positively.        continued on page 23 July/August 1982       Kinesis  SEXUALITY  LESBIAN SM continued from page 22  I do not mean to say by this that lesbians  do not have the right to feel frightened,  angry, or disgusted by thoughts of lesbian  SM.  I do mean to say that is is wrong to  propose these reactions as the only right,  moral, and feminist  response.  To "protect" womyn from pro-SM books,  articles, and discussion serves only to  deny womyn information they may want and  need to make their own assessment of the  situation.  It suggests a perception of  womyn as passive and gullible, in need of  guidance from some greater authority than  themselves in deciding how they think and  feel.  All lesbians have issues around power  It is exactly this kind of "protection"  preferred by state and church that has  kept (and keeps) womyn sexually enslaved,  "safe" from information about sexual fulfillment, lesbianism, abortion, and birth  control.  It is no less oppressive to  womyn to have such dubious protection  emanate from inside the womyn's movement  than from outside it.  It is hard for any of us to listen openly  to something about which we have a powerfully negative emotional reaction; it is  also, in this situation, the only positive  alternative.  It's too easy to toss around words like  "male-identified", "patriarchal", "unhealthy" and "sick" about other lesbians'  (sexual) behaviour. To do so ignores that  all  lesbians have issues around power.  We all live with reservoirs of rage about  what was (and is) done to us as lesbians  and as womyn. We all struggle with our  socio-cultural conditioning as passive,  powerless beings. We work at creating  self-images outside of the vamp/victim/  victimizer roles created for us by a pornographic media.  These struggles are reflected in the ways  we deal with one another- whether or not  we're into SM, we must accept that power  dynamics operate in all our relationships.  As part of the discovery of our ability to  be powerf\il in positive ways, we should  not deny the possibility that there is  something to learn from ]esbians who openly acknowledge and play with the existence  of this power on a sexual level.  The adoption of an anti-SM stance helps to  create an atmosphere of fear and guilt  surrounding any discussion of lesbian  sexuality.  In the absence of information  and discussion, we can all wonder where  the line between "acceptable" lesbian  sexuality and SM lies, while denying ourselves the right to draw that line based  on our personal preference.  To draw pro and anti lines  through the fact of lesbian SM  will result only in our trashing  one another, and despite our  familiarity and seeming comfort  with this tactic, it will be of no  more use in our struggle than it  has been on any previous occasion.  As lesbians we have all suffered from the  socialized denial of sexuality to womyn  except in the presence of men, and the  alternative but no less oppressive images  of lesbians as sexually voracious prowlers.  We are still only beginning to be able to  talk about what pleases us, what we like  and don't like. Many of us still make  love in the dark, silently, hoping that  our lovers will magically discover our  preferences and discarding them when they  don't - or finding the denial of pleasure  easier and more acceptable than stating  our wants and needs.  To deny the right to communicate on the  basis of misinformation and possibly erroneous assumptions will serve none of us.  If we are closed, we will once again be  dividing and alienating ourselves: not  from the institutions which oppress us,  but from each other. We need to be able  to listen to one another in ways that are  meaningful and accepting.  SM lesbians, like all of us, need support  and constructive criticism in improving  the quality of our lives and our relationships. What they have been offered is  wholesale condemnation and bitter accusation and the termination of their membership in feminism unless they deny their  sexual preferences.  I think that there is an alternative, and  I hope we are strong enough to choose it.  Resources  Sapphistry:    The Book of Lesbian  Sexuality,  Pat Califia, 1980. The  Naiad Press Inc., P.O. Box 10543,  Tallahassee, Florida 32302. $6.95 (US)  Coming to Power,   $7.95 (US) and What  Colour is your HandJcerchief?,  $3-50  (US). Both from Samois, Dept. P.,  P.O. Box 11798, San Francisco, CA  94101.  Heresies #12:    Sex Issue,  from Heresies,  P.O. Box 766, Canal Street Station,  New York NY 10013. $5.00 (US)  A Woman's Touch,  Cedar and Nelly (eds).  Womanshare Books, P.O. Box 2922,  Eugene, Oregon 97402.  $4.75 (US).  Lesbian erotica including some SM  material.  Vancouver Folk Festival features strong feminist line-up  Since its third annual festival in the  summer of 1980, the Vancouver Folk Music  Festival Society has been applauded for  its high ratio of women artists and feminist content. Foremost among the dozens  of folk get-togethers springing up in  cities all across Canada, Vancouver's  festival has made a conscious attempt to  present feminist artists within the framework of a comprehensive potpourri of folk  music.  This year, festival organizers will be  presenting an extraordinary line-up of  women's music and women in music, one unprecedented in scope and variety for the  Folk Festival and unlikely to be equalled  by any similar event.  Besides bringing to the stage such well-  known artists as Holly Near, Meg Christian  Cris Williamson, Ferron, the Robin Flower  Band, Betsy Rose and Cathy Winter, the  Harmony Sisters and Cathy Fink, the festival has lined up a plethora of women new  to the Vancouver folk music roster.  It should be no surprise that the growth  of women folk artists over the years has  had a major impact on audience and musicians alike. While increasing the overall  quality of the festival for women festival  goers, feminist musicians have also had a  profound influence on their male counterparts, many of whom display an increasing  awareness of women's issues and  their own material.  The Robin Flower Band  New women artists this year include Queen  Ida's Bon Temps Zydeco Band, who present  a unique hybrid of cajun, blues and traditional music; Rose Maddox, one of the  first country-and-western women to become  internationally recognized; singer/dancer  Beverly Cotton; songwriter and solo performer Claudia Schmidt; and Darcie Dea-  ville.  Tickets for the three-day event (July 16-  18 at Jericho Beach) are on sale now at  several outlets. Weekend tickets in advance are $34.00, and $40.00 at the gate.  The Friday evening concert will cost $12,  while tickets for Saturday or Sunday are  $19.00 each. Children under 12 (accompanied by an adult) are admitted free. A  children's area is provided. 24       Kinesis       July/August 1982  CULTURE  Canadian Fiction Magazine does not speak for women  by Jena Hamilton  I recently received the enclosed article  (see box) paper-clipped to a rejection slip  from Canadian Fiction Magazine. I had sent  them a feminist short story entitled "Dead  Goldfish". I have written Mr. Hancock the  following reply, with copies to McGoogan,  to Barbara West of Chatelaine, and to Fred  Kerner of Harlequin Books.  Mr. Geoff Hancock, Editor  Canadian Fiction Magazine  PO Box 946, Station F  Toronto, Ontario M4Y 2N9  Mr. Hancock:  I write in reply to your rejection slip  and enclosed article, 'CFM is like a woman  in high heels'.  You attempt to put women to bed; you libel  the voice of women's experience and the  work of women artists in particular.  It may not please you to remember that females comprise a population majority, nor  that Chatelaine and Harlequin fiction,  while not perhaps, strong voices, are nonetheless indicative that women writers exist,  that women, moreover, are at last speaking  out and demanding our stature.  Who defines what 'literature' consists of?  Yes, that's correct, you do. Do you actually believe that you can extend your expertise and demand that women comply with your  male definition and judgments - and opinions?  I charge that the pressing issue between  you and I is not a question of literary  worth but your assumption that if a woman  wrote it - and about, oh Jesus, womanpain  - it just ain't valid. After all, ''let them  (the masses, ie. women) eat Harlequins  (give the subs the substandard literature)'.  Avoidance of this nature points most abruptly to fear.  'Like a woman in high heels.  No one can  walk efficiently (or run, or defend self)  while wearing high heels. Try it. (What me?  a man? objectified? how degrading! simply  ...impossible!) And further, if heels are  a metaphor for 'good' literature then I  suggest that literary art is in tall,  spiked trouble, sure - at least - of breaking an ankle.  The female submissiveness implicit in  Rooke's 'high heel' image does not equate  with literary brilliance, but rather the  T- ^1 f, /$V2_  opposite. And who are you, McGoogan and  Rooke, to assume that you can 'name' a  woman, or most notably, that you can then  'put' her 'on the road'? Which road is  this  Mr. Hancock?  This is sexism at its most blatant. You demean yourself Mr. Hancock, but, in any case  self-degradation is hardly your greatest  evil. I return your subscription blank uncompleted .  Sincerely, Jena Hamilton  None are immune from death - take the time to make a will  by Angelina Huard  We don't think of death often. Especially,  we do not think of our own deaths. Dying  is for the elderly, right? Well, I recently  discovered - with the death of a young  friend - that none of us are immune.  Single people, in particular, need to think  about the details surrounding death. If  your parents are not alive, or if for some  reason you are estranged from them, who  would you have take care of the arrangements?  If you are not a follower of any specific  religious group, would you really want a  Christian service? If you don't specify,  you may well be given a full Christian  farewell, even if you've been a Buddhist  for years. That's what often happens in the  midst of confusion and mourning.  If you are a lesbian, you have even more  difficult considerations. Are your parents  aware of your sexual preference? If not,  and they are left to orchestrate your funeral because you did not appoint someone  else, think how their sorrow could be multiplied by their chance discovery of it.  Imagine their reaction to being confronted  by all your love letters from the past ten  years, all your lesbian literature, and  your own enthusiastic attempt at updating  The Well of Loneliness.  Some parents of lesbians have chosen not to  acknowledge their daughters once they have  'come out' to them. It would be a sick  farce to have these people responsible for  the burial. Alternatively, a lesbian woman  may have a good relationship with her parents, but for reasons of her own, not wish  them to make these last arrangements.  Any of these three groups of women are likely to have friends and intimates within  their own chosen family who they would prefer to deal with their remains. In any case,  if you do not clearly specify your wishes,  you will end up with whatever a number of  puzzled, emotionally upset, but well in-  tentioned people decide is the right thing.  All you need is a simple statement  It's difficult at any time to deal with a  loved one's death. Nobody is really prepared, so make it easier. Take a cursory look  around your home. You might say, "I don't  have a hell of a lot. What's the big deal?"  But ;do you really want your mother to have  all your journals? Would you prefer to give  them to your lover, or your best friend, or  do you want them burned?  What about your books and record albums?  Who gets your personal belongings? Would  you like gifts of jewellery returned to the  women who gave them to you? If not, where?  As you move on to larger items - furniture,  property, clothing - it doesn't seem such a  little bit anymore. And what about your  parents? Do you want them to attend any  service or take any responsibility?  You really don't have to have a will composed by a lawyer, especially if your goods  do not represent much monetary worth. All  you need is a simple statement, witnessed  by two adults, outlining whether you would  like to be buried or cremated, what type of  service, if any, and who you would like to  be the responsible party. An alternate  executor can be named, or perhaps two could  do it jointly.  Once you've written your instructions, you  should make another copy. Keep one among  your private papers, or stuck up on your  corkboard, making sure you tell your close  ones where it is. The other copy should be  placed in a safe deposit box, or with a  trusted friend. If it is left with a friend  make a card for your wallet indicating how  to contact her.  I'm writing my will tonight. I hope you  will too. July/August 1982       Kinesis       25  MOVEMENT MATTERS  Women's legal advice clinic  operating at VSW  The UBC Law Students Legal Advice Program  is sponsoring a free legal clinic at Vancouver Status of Women, focusing on the  particular legal problems encountered by  women,  We offer assistance on divorce procedures,  social assistance and UIC appeals, small  claims actions, landlord and tenant disputes, simple wills and estate problems,  and some family law problems. To qualify  for these services-, you must meet the income levels as provided by Vancouver legal  services.  During the fall and winter, this clinic is  run on a drop-in basis one night a week(the  night for the coming year will be announced)  For the summer, the clinic is staffed by  two feminist law students. Our hours are  Monday to Thursday, 10 am-4 pm.  If you have a legal problem or think you  might, come in and see us. For an appointment (no drop-ins please) call Jesse  Gossen or Laura Parkinson at 873-1427.  Writings of working class  lesbians requested for anthology  Working Class Lesbians are asked to send  oral herstory (interviews and tapes), personal narratives, journal exerpts, poetry,  analyses or short fiction for consideration  in an anthology of Canadian working class  lesbians.  I want to explore the experiences and perspectives of lesbians from working class  backgrounds - coming out stories, our  awareness of how class background influences our lives, our relationships, our  self-image, and our liaison (if any) with  the women's movement.  Submissions from Canadian raised,  as well  as Canadian-born lesbians are welcome.  Please forward your ideas, suggestions,  work outlines and completed work to:  Cy-Thea Sand, P.O. Box 24953. Station C,  Vancouver, B.C. V5T 4G3.  Inquiry on part-time work  invites submissions  The Commission of Inquiry into Part-time  Work is inviting submissions from all interested parties. Public hearings will be held  in seven major cities across Canada during  September and early October.  To receive the Commission's terms of reference and a bibliography on part-time work,  contact Joan Wallace at #412-1755 W. Broadway, Vancouver V6J 4S5, tel: 732-4591. If  you want to appear before the hearings you  must advice the Commission in writing before  July 31.  WAVAW reports on plans for  crisis centre  WAVAW's second in-movement meeting took  place June 14, and was attended by approximately 200 women.  WAVAW called the meeting in keeping with its  desire for accountability to the women's  movement. Accordingly, we decided not to  apply for government funding without demonstrated support to do so.  For this reason, we proposed 2 resolutions,  one in favour of WAVAW applying for government funding, the other opposed. We also  stated our intent to make the outcome of the  meeting binding upon WAVAW.  Support was given to WAVAW to apply for provincial funding by the majority of women  present, although the meeting earlier passed  a resolution that any decision reached not  be made binding upon WAVAW. Some support  was also given to two proposals frjpm the  floor involving alternate approaches to  government funding.  WAVAW has now submitted its application for  funding. We have found an office (#201-636  W. Broadway, Vancouver V5Z 1G3), are doing  some retraining, and generally looking at  service concerns and devloping internal  policy.  We are looking for women to join the collective, especially those willing to help  with crisis line work. If you're interested, phone 738-1542(after 5pm) or 684-6787.  We will be setting up training sessions  later in the summer.  The benefit dance for AMES (Women's  Association of El Salvador), held  March 27 at the West End Community  Centre with the band Reconstruction  raised $2,340 after expenses.  This money has been sent to the AMES  office in Costa Rica. Women Against  Imperialism would like to thank all  those people who made the event such  a success by helping at the bar, selling tickets, cleaning up, and of  course, attending.  Festival '82 swings into  celebration July 5-17  FESTIVAL 82, A Celebration of the Arts by,  for and about Women will be held at the  Robson Square Media Centre from July 5  through 17.  This will be a multi-disciplinary event  exploring B.C. women's contributions to  dance, drama, film, literature, music, performance art, video and visual art. Each  area has been organized and juried by top  professional women in their respective  fields. Presentations will be accompanied  by workshops and several special events.  Some features will include:  LITERATURE  - Vancouver premier of Anne Cameron's  play Rites of Passage.  - a workshop/panel discussion on Women  Writers in Canada, moderated by Jane  Rule.  MUSIC  - A benefit dance  Saturday, July 3 at  Britannia Community Centre in the old  Cafeteria, featuring the Moral Lepers.  - Songwriting workshop by Shari Ulrich  'and Ferron.  VIDEO  - National and international women video  artists' works will be presented at  Video Inn prior to the Festival. B.C.  women artists' work will be presented  during the Festival at Robson Square.  VISUAL ART  - Accompanying the Juried Exhibition will  be a continuous slide presentation of  the more than 200 individual entries,  allowing for a true representation of  the work done by women artists in B.C.  - A workshop by Avid Lang Rosenberg on  the History of Women in the Arts.  SPECIAL FEATURES  - A panel discussion of Women in the Arts  moderated by Eleanor Wachtel,  - Homage,  a documentary presentation  honouring women who have contributed  greatly to their field,  - Daycare Cpre-registration recommended)  - Gala Opening Wine and Cheese Party.  - Sale of FESTIVAL 82 t-shirts and  posters.  Tickets are available through all Vancouver  'ĢTicket Centres. A FESTIVAL 82 pass for all  events is $15,00, individual tickets are  $3.50.  Women and the Environment  in the '80s  WOMEN AND THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE '80s is  a summer research project co-sponsored  by the National Survival Institute and  Environment Canada.  In this project we intend to identify  and investigate issues of mutual interest to both women and environmentalists.  We have extended the traditional concept of environment beyond the natural  world to include the built environment,  so that we can approach physical, economic, social and cultural issues from a  holistic point of view.  We hope to:  l) develop a network of individuals and  groups interested in women and the  environment  2) compile a list of information and  contacts for use by this network  3) produce fact sheets on several topical issues  4) encourage the participation of women  in the decision-making and planning  processes which shape the environment.  If you have any questions or would like  a copy of the sourcebook, please contact  Women and the Environment in the '80s,  #712-402 West Pender Street, Vancouver,  B.C. V6B 1T6, tel: (604) 681-8872.  We look forward to hearing from you.  Susan Cornish  Marion Lindsay  Lynnette French  Kim Walker  Linda Fraser 26       Kinesis       July/August 1982  LETTERS  More than misogyny behind  medicalization of childbirth  I have a few thoughts to offer on Maureen  Minden's article, "Birthing: the Co-  optation of Experience."  One cannot deny that the medicalization of  childbirth has had "devastating effects"  on the physical and mental'health of some  mothers and infants.  It is only fair to  add, however, that it has had tremendous  benefits for others.  The sensational improvement in maternal and  infant mortality that began (in North  America) around 1937 happened to coincide  with hospital birth, mainly because that  was the time that two great steps forward  in maternity care took place: blood transfusion and antibiotics. Since the Middle  Ages and before, the main causes of maternal deaths had been hemorrhage, infection  and toxemia. Advances in public health  and general prosperity no doubt helped  lower the incidence of all of these problems, but good old technology played a  part.  Hospitals and technology have done quite  well in carrying out the tasks assigned to  them - cutting down the death rate.  I  have just done an extensive statistical  review of maternal and perinatal mortality  all over the world and I find that the  maternal death rate here in B.C. is one of  the lowest in the world, and the perinatal  death rate is as low as it is in Sweden!  The perinatal death rates and maternal  death rates are tens of times higher in  Third World countries, such as parts of  Africa and South America, where most births  take place at home. The only developed  country I know of that has more than a 2%  incidence of home birth is the Netherlands,  and their results are slightly worse than  in Sweden, which has 100$ hospital birth  and the best survival statistics in the  world.  Essentially, then, it was not just misogyny  and the desire to control women which led  men to medicalize childbirth.- There appear  to have been sound health reasons. The  total neglect of the woman's autonomy and  desire to'ñ†feel at home in her own environment was about what you would expect in  a patriarchal culture.  We all act in ways that might later be  seen as a product of our culture - we  can't always free ourselves from lifelong  prejudice. When Grantly Dick-Read spoke  glowlingly of "birth being a woman's  glory" and so forth, I expect he was just  expressing his great joy and good fortune  in being able to attend so many wonderful  births.  Minden writes, "the relentless imposition  of the medical method on healthy women  with normal courses of birthing is a tragic  victimization of women and their babies.  Why has it not led to an outcry for women  and midwives to reclaim birthing?" I  would suggest that there has been such an  outcry, and that it has brought results.  Readers might want to have a look at  Constance Bean's Labour and Delivery,  a  book written only ten years ago, where most  of the hospitals she visited used scopolamine, and general anesthesia for delivery  was common. Few fathers attended births  and the general situation was little different from the 1940's.  Our local hospitals do have a heavily  medicalized outlook, but look at the  changes which have taken place in just a  decade or so! Spinal anesthesia, general  anesthesia for vaginal births, and scopolamine are not used; induction for conven  ience is frowned on; paracervical blocks  have been dropped, as too dangerous for  the fetus; the great majority of husbands  attend the births of their children; husbands are coming into Caesarean births;  epidural anesthesia is being used for most  elective sections; parents are being urged  to spend more time with their premature  infants in the intensive care nursery,  instead of being barred and forbidden to  breastfeed; nurses are learning to teach  breastfeeding; 70-80$ of newborns are  breastfed; rooming in is the rule; even  the dreaded professional organizations of  obstetricians in the USA have come out  strongly in favour of family centered maternity care.  I have never seen a delivery in which the "  mother was flat on her back. At the very  least, pillows and wedges are used to lift  her.  I have seen thousands of births in  B.C., and only once did I see a woman's  hands strapped down.  Women in hospital are under the control of  others; they are not treated as the primary experiencer of birthing; their auto- ,  nomy is denied. Much remains to be done.  Let us keep in mind, though, the huge  strides that have been made in recent  years - mostly as a result of organization  by women.  If I may make one more point; there is  more to safety in childbirth than avoiding  technology.  If you asked the average student of the subject what objections there  might be to mid forceps delivery, for example, she might say "asphyxia from the  anesthesia and head compression, and tentorial tears (injuries to the brain mem -  branes) from the trauma." So she would  be opposed to mid forceps delivery.  Then, if she studies breech delivery of  large infants, she might find that the  death rate among such infants delivered  vaginally, compared to vertex babies, is  fifteen times higher chiefly because of  asphyxia and tentorial tears.  If you  correct these figures for premature births,  the death rate is still four times higher,  chiefly because of asphyxia and tentorial  tears. Would she then applaud the high  Caesarean section rate among breech babies  in B.C.?  I suspect that Minden might not, despite  that fact that C-sections for large  breeches and premature breeches is one  major cause of the rising section rate.  To be sure, it is a highly technological  way to have a baby. But keep in mind that  two babies in B.C. in the past few years  died because they were delivered breech  at home.  If you're opposed to one kind  of tentorial tear, you ought to be opposed  to the other kinds. We've got to think  these things through.  Kirsten Emmott, M.D.  What constitutes "accepted  definition" of sado-masochism?  Kinesis:  R. Elaine Young makes an erroneous assumption in her criticism of Kinesis  for  publishing a classified ad containing  "S/M".  That being, that there is a  given and accepted definition of sadomasochism.  I did not find the ad offensive, not  because I condone violence or support  power imbalanced relationships, but  because my definiton of S/M is broad  enough to accept that a photographer  might indeed create positive and healthy  , images of sex between S/M lesbians.  Does black leather as a costume constitute sado-masochism? How about  butch/femme role playing? Given the  sexist nature of society, having heterosexual fantasies could be construed as  engaging in S/M.  None of the above are intrinsically violent or oppressive." It could be argued  that all of the above fall into the arena  of sado-masochistic ritual.  Therefore,  an ad seeking positive and healthy images  of sex should not be labelled anti-  feminist based on a knee-jerk reaction  to S/M.  The phrasing of the ad in the February  issue of Kinesis led me to believe that  the intentions of the photographer were  honourable. I find no fault in such an  ad appearing in Kinesis.  Nicky Hood  S/M reflects a world full of  oppression, exploitation  Kinesis:  I am writing to add my voice to that of  Elaine Young, whose letter "Taking Issue  With S & M", appeared in last month's  Kinesis.     The letter was referring to an  advertisement in your February edition:  "Lesbian photographer seeks S/M lesbians  to be photographed for positive, healthy  images of sex."  Sado-masochism is not a healthy form of  sexual expression.  It is instead, a  direct reflection of the kind of world  we live in. A world full of oppression  and exploitation.  It's a power trip.  Up until now, it has been principally  men who consciously or unconsciously  equated their sex drive with having  power over another person or persons.  Women were conveniently labelled as  being asexual or frigid.  To go from being frigid to being sadistic or masochistic is not necessarily a  progression. The argument that women  do these things, that this is where some  women are at so we have to give them  equal time, really bothers me. Do we  give the so-called "Pro-lifers", many  of whom are women, equal time?  There is a big difference, in my opinion,  between accepting people where they are  at without condemning them personally,  and actively promoting such a mentality.  To quote Robin Morgan:  "Love between  equals has no history. V/e are only  beginning to create it."  Joan Woodward July/August 1982       Kinesis       27  LETTERS  Provincial arts festivals seen  as more effective  Kinesis:  I am writing with reference to the interview with Jean Kamins regarding Festival  '82 which appeared in the April edition of  Kinesis.  Ms. Kamins states that 'two years ago,  women from London, Ontario received money  to organize a National Women's Art Festival.' The statement is inaccurate and may  have left your readers with a rather  screwed impression relating to the use of  the funding received.  In fact, I received funding from the  Women's Programme of Secretary of State  in order to bring various arts-related 'Ģ  women together in St. Mary's, Ontario for  the purpose of discussing the potential  for a national festival of women in the  arts and to begin planning for such an  event. The funding was to cover transportation for the participants in the  meeting and for the cost of the inn.  Among the goals resulting from our discussions were to network with arts-related  women in all parts of Canada in order to  ensure that the festival would reach as  many women as possible and would be as  democratic as possible in its process of  selecting the works to be exhibited and  performed at the festival.  A group of London women were charged with  the national organization and coordination  and in spite of good will and much work on  the part of these women, we found that we  were replicating the general problems of  Canada, such as regionalism, isolation  and vested interests. Because of this we  suggested to the provincial representatives  that, in our view, provincial festivals  might accomplish our goals more effectively.  The Women's Programme supported this decision and has since demonstrated its commitment by funding the various provincial  festivals that have already occurred and  those that will happen over the remainder  of the 1982 and 1983 (British Columbia-July,  Alberta-May, 1983).  Many of the original goals of the planning  committee have been and are being accomplished:  important contacts with women  artists are being made and a Canadian  women's art movement is alive and contributing immensely to a more balanced  creative environment.  Sasha Mclnnes-Hayman  WAVAW meeting one-sided,  unprincipled  Kinesis:  In the interest of truth and justice with  regards to the conflict between WAVAW/RCG  and Rape Relief, we want to set the record  straight on the May 18 meeting called by  WAVAW to give more information on their  statement in the May issue of Kinesis.  We are concerned as well with reporting on  that meeting because WAVAW in the June  issue of Kinesis  gives the impression of  dealing with criticism coming out of that  meeting. Any talk on their part about  being concerned with criticism and being  accountable must be seen against the background of specifically what they have to  account for.  The May 18 meeting was a meeting from  which Rape Relief was barred.  In other  words: the very women who could have  challenged the charges made against them  by WAVAW were not allowed to be there to  defend themselves or participate in a way  that those of us who are concerned with  finding out the truth of what has taken  place could do that.  Instead we ended up witnessing the full  scale proceedings of a kangaroo court!  A trial where Rape Relief was charged,  tried and judged in their absence!  The bulk of the meeting was taken up with  WAVAW adding further damaging accusations  and, in the context, smears of Rape Relief,  this time in testimonials from individual  WAVAW women. Without getting Rape Relief's  side and having a chance to ask questions  of both parties there was no way of telling  what was true in any of those testimonials.  We see this meeting as a further attempt  by WAVAW to trash and discredit Rape  Relief, something they started with their  unprincipled and slanderous attack on  them in the May issue. We are against  trashing and for principled struggle.  WAVAW and their supporters at this point  clearly are not. Unless they take hold of  their behaviour other women can expect the  same treatment from them in the future, as  Rape Relief is getting from them now!  Rose-Marie Larsson  Inessa Ormond  Sharon Lund  Something about men  Kinesis:  I much appreciated the letter in your recent issue, proclaiming one's right to be  bi-sexual.  "Androgyne" is what I call it.  The following is a contribution to that  dialogue:  Over the 45 years that I have been an editor, reviewer, and teacher of poetry in  Canada, I have consistently drawn attention  to new lights on the horizon: men such as  E. J. Pratt and Earle Birney, both late  starters in poetry writing; and to younger  men who came to me for advice and help -  AI Purdy, Milton Acorn, Seymour Mayne,  Patrick Lane,Robin Mathews, Alan Safarik.  I believe my criticism has been fair and  objective, always offering encouragement  when it was due; but critical when I felt  it necessary to stimulate self-criticism  on the part of the poet.  Now, at 72, I wonder if the time spent was  almost thankless?  E. J. Pratt, so much my elder, did a great  deal to start me off on the social and  political "committed" writing of documentaries when he published the polemical  "Day and Night" in the first issue of his  Canadian Party Magazine.  I shall always  by grateful to him for that, and for his  support of the anti-fascist journal New  Frontier  of which I was one of the editors  (1936-37).  And Seymour Mayne did a thorough job in  co-editing with me "Forty Women Poets of  Canada" (1972) - the first anthology of  women poets in this country (and perhaps  North America).  After that, however, we had many disagreements editorially, and a printing breakdown. This sort of problem has also, unfortunately, been the pattern of my relationships with other younger poets. I  think only Pat Lane has taken the time to  appraise my work seriously and my role in  the historical scene (in his article on me  in Black fish,  4 and 5, Winter/Spring  1972/73). Others have tended to denigrate  me and put me down. _So the question has  to be: why?      How have these differences  developed?  Seeking to be as honest as possible, I  can only attribute the problem to the fact  that these men - old, middle-aged or  thirtyish - have been unable to see me as  a person. The age-old stereotypes have  persisted. They have expected me to behave as female - the listener, "the little  woman" or the "lady poet" who exists mainly as a support for the male ego. They  cannot accept me as a fellow poet, critic,  editor, with views that do not necessarily  coincide with theirs; one who does not fall  into bed at the drop of a look.  Now I want to make it clear: I like  men!  I recognize that they will always be different from women. They have the biological built-in set-up which gives them freedom from having to nurture others - a baby,  a child, or a young male.  It is also true  that they can  learn how to nurture if they  have been encouraged to do that in their  life education, from their parents' example.  It is noticeable that there are an increasing number of young men in their  twenties who are taking on roles hitherto  assigned only to women. They share the  housekeeping, share the care of children -  some of them indeed are successful single  parents. The great thing about human  beings is that they can change! The can  modify traditional patterns all too often  ingrained by a mother or a father.  This is equally true of women. They do not  have to raise little boys and girls as mama  did.  It is rather the physical aspects of  the sexes which cannot be fundamentally  changed. But perhaps these also are in  process of being modified by homosexuals  and lesbians?-. I am willing to accept that  possibility.  These however are the problems of a woman  poet or novelist or a critic in the 1980's:  how to disassociate, free oneself from the  stereotype believed in by men for so long?  Not, I suggest, by dressing flashily or  provocatively; not by being a slave to  fashion consciousness; and certainly on  the other hand, not by looking like an unkempt flat-chested rag doll. After you  have found your true, individual style in  clothing, or in appearance - as well as in  which you think, say and write - STICK TO  IT! On every level, see it through.  Dorothy Livesay  And a bouquet...  Kinesis:  This ($20) is way more than I can afford  in $'s AND I think Kinesis  is excruciatingly valuable and wonderful, so please know  there is a donating spirit in this seeming-  regular-rate renewal. Bless all your  hearts.  Carol Spiers  ... or two for Kinesis  Kinesis:  I am so sorry it has taken me so long to  renew, but life is hectic. With all the  cutbacks, there are many exhausting  battles (with our local school board for  me) going on here. I sensed burn-out in  the Kinesis gang recently too - a very  widespread disease right now.  I just want to tell you that Kinesis  is  WONDERFUL. I have added another $15 with  a request that you post me the last issue  which I am sure I missed.  Solidarity,  Paddy Tsurumi 28       Kinesis        July/August 1982  BULLETIN BOARD  ON THE AIR  WOMANVISION on Co-op Radio, 102.7 FM,  from 7:00-8:00pm each Monday.  July 5: Midsummer women's art and music  show.  July 12: A look at Festival '82: A Celebration of Women in the Arts.  July 19: Minimal Music.  July 26: Review of the Vancouver Folk  Music Festival.  THE LESBIAN SHOW on Co-op Radio, 102.7 FM,  each Thursday from 7:30-8:30 pm.  Starting July 1, our literature section will  begin reading Claire Morgan's 1952 novel,  THE PRICE OF SALT,  a rare, early lesbian  novel.  July 1: Lesbian Information Line: One of  the most frightening aspects of coming  out is the fear of dealing alone with  the bigotry of society. Services like  the Lesbian Information -Line work to  alleviate isolation by providing counselling and information to lesbians.  July 8: Violence in Relationships: Many  women are battered by their husbands,  but battering and violence also happens  in lesbian relationships.  July 15: Herstorical Accounts of "Passing  Women" (Transvestite Lesbians): In this  feature we look at the lives of women who  worked, dressed, and "passed" as men while  having sexual and emotional relationships  with women.  July 22: Country Lesbians: Life in the  Country: Bliss or horror story?  Political alternative or co-out? Interviews  with lesbians who have left or want to  leave the city life.  July 29: Global Lesbians - Part 3:    Continuing our series on what it's like to  be a lesbian in other parts of the world,  we turn to South Africa,  August Programming Features:  August 5: Virginia Woolf  August 12: Alternative Living Arrangements  August 19: Humour  August 26: Alternative Fertilization  RUBYMUSIC on Co-op Radio, 102.7 FM, from  7:00-7:30 each Friday.  Join host Connie Smith for half an hour  of the finest of women's music: pop,  gospel, folk, feminist, and new wave.  GROUPS  BATTERED WOMEN'S SUPPORT SERVICES fall Lower Mainland Leaders' Training Program will  take place in early October. The initial  training weekend (tentatively Oct. 2-3)  will be followed by 6 or 7 weekly ses-1  sions and a final day-long workshop early  in December. No charge for training, but  leaders are expected to co-lead at least  one 10-week support group for BWSS. BWSS  is looking particularly for women not  currently working with battered women on  a full-time basis. If interested, contact  BWSS at 734-1574 by August 31.  LNS Women's Group  FIREWEED: A Feminist Quarterly is looking  for women to write, do promotion and solicit work, in order to expand their readership and connection with feminist  groups creating change. Contact Lynne  Fernie, P.O. Box 279, Stn. B, Toronto,  Ontario M5T 2W2.  LESBIAN & GAY YOUTH GROUP, sponsored by  SEARCH, meets every Saturday, 8-10pm at  1244 Seymour St., Vancouver. For lesbians  and gays under 21. Informal rap sessions  and organized activities. For more info,  call 689-1039 between 7-10 nightly.  DIAPHRAGM FITTERS COLLECTIVE of Vancouver  Women's Health Collective will be taking  in new members this September. New fitters  apprentice with experienced fitters for  one year before becoming experienced.  For more info, call the Health Collective  at 736-6696.  WOMEN IN FOCUS: Anyone can preview any film  or video in their catalogue for $2. Or  phone and order a catalogue, also $2.  THE PAP GROUP of Vancouver Women's Health  Collective is doing a survey about lesbians and cervical cancer. If you have had  a Class 3 or worse Pap while a lesbian,  please come to the Health Collective  (1501 W. Broadway) and fill out a questionnaire or call Robin at 255-5363.  CONFERENCES  SEXUAL ABUSE AND THE MENTALLY DISABLED, a  two-day conference September 16-17 at the  Justice Institute of B.C., 4180 W. 4th  Ave., Vancouver. For more info, or to receive flyer, contact Community Programs,  Justice Institute of B.C.  EQUAL PAY CONFERENCE will be held September  25-26 at Robson Square Media Centre in  Vancouver. Sponsored by B.C. Federation  of Labour.  EVENTS  PORNOGRAPHY: A WOMEN'S ISSUE?, a video produced by Pat Feindel and Gayla Reid for  Vancouver Status of Women, will be aired'  on Cable 10 TV in Vancouver on Friday  July 2 (7:30pm), Sunday July 4 (noon),  and Monday July 5 (9am). The video, prepared to be shown in conjunction with Not  A Love Story (and available on loan froir.  VSW), is a 2-hour program discussing the  issue of pornography and its dangers.  BI-SEXUAL WOMEN'S FESTIVAL July 24-25: A  weekend in the woods for bi-sexual women  and their children, featuring workshops  and discussion groups as well as swim-  - ming, dancing and a special children's  program. Sponsored by the Bi-sexual Women's Group of Vancouver. For more info,  call Joyce at 251-6090 or Georgia at  874-1756, or write c/o 3085 Charles St.,  Vancouver.  SOUTH AFRICAN WOMEN'S DAY, August 7 at the  Ukrainian Hall. All day activities, including a performance by Gwin'yai, the  women's marimba group from Seattle.  Sponsored by Women Against Imperialism  and Oxfam.  WOMEN'S RETREAT & RESTORATION. Emotional  release work, massage, meditation, stress  reduction exercises, creative visualization and feminist analysis. Group I: Aug.  6-8, Group II: Aug. 11-15 on Texada Island.  Sliding scale fee. Phone Sara David at  595-8217 or write 1643 Haultain Street,  Victoria V8R 2K8 before July 28.  3rd ANNUAL WEST COAST WOMEN'S MUSIC FESTIVAL will be held September 23-26 in California. For more info, contact the  Festival at 1195 Valencia Street, San  Francisco, tel:(415 )641-4892.  DEALING WITH OFFENDERS: SEXUAL ABUSERS &  BATTERERS, a workshop series sponsored  by The Justice Institute of B.C. On  Sexual Abusers, October 11-12 in Vancouver; on Batterers, October 21-22 in  Victoria. For more info or a program  flyer, contact Community Program, Justice Institute of B.C., 4180 W. 4th Ave..  Vancouver, V6R 4J5 (tel: 228-9771, loc.  224).  CLASSIFIED  FULL-TIME POSITION for Transition House  worker at Coquitlam Women's Transition  House. Applicant must have good communications skills. Assertiveness training  and related experience desirable. Days  and evenings. Submit resumes to Coquitlam Women's Transition House, Box 213,  Port Coquitlam, B.C. V3C 3V7. Deadline  July 15. Employment will commence August  1st.  SARA DAVID wishes to announce she has moved  to 1643 Haultain Street, Victoria V8R 2K8  tel: 595-8217. Now available for individual sessions and group work.  ONE LARGE & SUNNY BEDROOM for rent, kitchen  and bathroom shared, with 2 serious women.  Private entrance. 28th & Main area, available immediately. $250/mo., utilities included. Woman preferred, immigrants welcome. Call 879-5091.  BOARDING HOUSE FOR CATS, $4/day. Good care,  lots of affection. Call 879-5091.  WEST WIND CIRCLE T-SHIRTS, a new woman's  business: silkscreening, custom designs.  Call Carol (327-5778) or Stella (253-2120).  continued on page 21

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