Kinesis Oct 1, 1982

Item Metadata


JSON: kinesis-1.0045576.json
JSON-LD: kinesis-1.0045576-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): kinesis-1.0045576-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: kinesis-1.0045576-rdf.json
Turtle: kinesis-1.0045576-turtle.txt
N-Triples: kinesis-1.0045576-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: kinesis-1.0045576-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

 VMJ/DE  3 Women and children in  B.C. face another cutback  in critical services. This  time its a $1.3 million cut  to legal aid services.  5 Margaret Zita is the coordinator of the Zimbabwe  Women's Bureau. She talked  with Prahba Khosla about  the history of women  organizing in her country.  6 Cathy Ellis is a 'barefoot  doctor' working in solidarity  with the women of rural Mexico. She tells their story.  4  1 0 The new sexual  assault law - did we get  what we want? if not, why  not?  1 3 Bonnie Kreps makes  films through the eyes of a  woman. Michele Wollstonecroft takes a look at  her unique and imaginative  perspective.  1 7 Life isn't easy on the  other side of the camera,  especially for a woman.  Haida Paul talks about her  experiences in the film industry.  9 Margaret McHugh provides a detailed report of  workshops held during  Ottawa's Women and the  Microchip conference.  COVER:   Courtesy NFB/Sharon McGowan  2 3 Feminist singer and  song-writer Cris Williamson discusses her music  -where its come from and  where its going.  SUBSCRIBE TO KIMEJiJ  Published 10 times a year  by Vancouver Status of Women  400A West 5th Ave., Vancouver, B.C. V5Y 1J8  □ VSW membership - includes Kinesis subscription -  $20 (or what you can afford)  □ Kinesis subscription only - $13  □ Institutions - $40  □ Sustainers - $75  Name   _ Amount Enclosed_  Special Collections Serial  OCTOBER '82  KIMEJIJ  news about women that's not in the dailies  Please remember that VSW operates on inadequate  funding — we need member support! KM£JU  Photo by Dorothy Elias  Video chain expands despite outcry  Photo by Pat Fiendel  by Gail Peain  Amidst growing public outcry,  Red Hot Video  is finding sexual violence against women  profitable enough to again  expand their number of outlets.  In a mid-August interview with  Danny Stovic, one of the  owners of Red Hot Video,  Kinesis  was told the chain  would expand from ten outlets  to fifteen in B.C. by the end  of September. Red Hot started  in February of this year.  The store offers thousands of  titles of nothing short of  pornography. And it is making  money. Lots of money. Stovic  would not release figures but  said they "aren't complaining'.'  The first community protests  appeared in May. The North  Shore Women's Centre began  pressuring Attorney-General  Allan Williams to prosecute.  Several months later, after  numerous letters, phone calls  and telegrams with little response, they are frustrated.  On June 22 Williams said in  the provincial legislature he  was investigating and would  take necessary action. To date,  the only result the women's  centre has seen is Red Hot  Video  being asked to remove a  few films from their shelves.  When communities began trying  to ban hard core pornography  in their regions, managers of  Red Hot made public statements.  They are now refusing interviews.  In Victoria, the manager Don  Mottershead said he was upset  by suggestions that his store  carries material containing  excessive violence. "Even if  we were allowed to, we wouldn't  carry any of that because of  my own standards," he said.  North Vancouver store manager  Ted Emery said on an open line  CJOR radio show this summer,  "there is no rape in our  films". Donna Stewart of the  North Shore Women's Centre  calls this "an outright,  blatant lie". She cited a review of six films, randomly  selected from the store in  North Vancouver, all of which  were extremely violent. The  videos contained incest, rape,  bondage, beating and degradation of women. Many of the  films depicted women being  raped and enjoying it.  According to Stewart, Emery  said this material actually  makes the streets safer for  women, by giving men a harmless release for their  aggressions.  Some of Red Hot's videos are  copies of banned U.S. films  that have been smuggled into  the country. It is illegal to  produce these hard-core films  in Canada. It is also illegal  to import them. However, the  law does not cover copying and  distribution of illegal films,  and that is the loophole Red  Hot is operating on.  The other legal issue is  jurisdiction. Municipalities  and cities, as the city of  Victoria recently discovered,  do not have the power to keep  such businesses out.  At its September 24 annual  meeting, the Union of B.C.  municipalities called on Allan  Williams to invoke legislature  prohibiting the distribution  of hard core pornography.  They cited evidence showing  that pornography leads to  violence and said the federal  and provincial laws have  proven inadequate in this  The resolution was originally  number 48 on the agenda. When  women showed up and distributed leaflets asking the  civic politicians to support  it, the resolution was moved  to number one and passed  unanimously.  In the face of the controversy, Red Hot Video has a  petition asking people to  support their "freedom of  choice". One action group is  preparing a counter petition.  A major question remains unanswered - who is behind the  chain? As one police officer  who received complaints about  the business has asked, "what  company do you know that has  enough money to open fifteen  stores in eight months in this  time of recession?"  continued on p. 18  Women and Film  For too long women have been degraded and exploited through the camera  lens. During the past decade we have witnessed a drastic expansion in pornographic images of women through every kind of medium, particularly  film.  This issue, Kinesis looks at the film women have begun to create, for by  and about themselves. It is exciting to see women reclaiming their own  images, for it is one very important way of combating the false and  exploitative use of the camera.  OCTOBER '82 2   Kinesis October 1982  MOVEMENT MATTERS  Pro-choice campaign  on the upswing  Four vacant seats on the Lions Gate Hospital Board in North Vancouver were filled Sept. 1 by pro-choice candidates.  Insurance consultant Michael Whelton and  lawyer George Carruthers, who had begun  legal action against Lions Gate Hospital's  therapeutic abortion committee last June  were defeated. First time candidates  Elena Hall and Bill Burdett, who ran on  an anti-abortion platform were also  defeated.  Therapeutic abortions at Lions Gate are  now unanimously supported by the hospital 's board of directors. At Victoria  General Hospital, the vote went to the  anti-abortion candidates on Sept. 2.  Langley Hospital elected four anti-choice  people to their board on Sept. 21. In  Chilliwack on the same day, all positions  on the hospital board were won by anti-  abortion candidates. Elections in Powell  River are coming up very soon.  Although Chilliwack Hospital's Board is  anti-abortion throughout, Citizens for  Choice organized in Chilliwack this year  for the first time. The anti-choice  board in Langley has resulted in a 90  percent decrease in abortions.  Dr. Henry Morgentaler who plans to open  a "free-standing" abortion clinic in  Toronto before; the end of October, will  be speaking in Vancouver on Oct. 23 at  2 pm at Tupper Secondary School. He is  sponsored by the Concerned Citizens for  Choice on Abortion. His book Abortion  and Contraception which has been translated into English, will be available  at the meeting.  KINESIS  KINESIS is published ten times a  year by Vancouver Status of Women.  Its objectives are to enhance  understanding about the changing  position of women in society and  work actively towards achieving  social change.  VIEWS EXPRESSED IN KINESIS are  those of the writer and do not  necessarily reflect VSW policy. All  unsigned material is the responsibility of the Kinesis editorial group.  CORRESPONDENCE: Kinesis, Vancouver Status of Women, 400A West  5th Avenue, Vancouver, B.C. V5Y 1J8.  MEMBERSHIP in Vancouver Status  of Women is $20/year (or what you  can afford). This includes a subscription to Kinesis. Individual subscriptions to Kinesis are $13/year.  SUBMISSIONS are welcome. We  reserve the right to edit, and submission does not guarantee publication.  Include a SASE if you want your work  returned.  WORKERS THIS ISSUE: Janet Berry, Jan  DeGrass, Pat Fiendel, Patty Gibson, Nicky Hood,  Debra Lewis, Linda McNeil, Janet Morgan,  Dianne Morrison, Ann Rayvals, Rosemarie  Rupps, Deb Wilson, Michele Wollstonecroft,  Joan Woodward.  DEADLINE FOR NEXT ISSUE: October 15 for  November 1 publication. All copy must be double-  spaced, typewritten. Late copy will be printed as  space permits.  People's Republic  of China visits VSW  Six women from the All China Women's Federation of the Peoples Republic of China  visited the Vancouver Status of Women on  September 17. They were accompanied by  three women from the Chinese Consulate in  Vancouver, including the wife of the Consul General.  Cao Guan-Qun headed the delegation from  All China Women's Federation, which is  based in Peking. The Deputy head of the  group, Hao Zhi-Ping was accompanied by her  daugher, Dora, who is attending the University of Victoria. Lin Shang-Qian, the  third member, is the Deputy Head of the  International Department of the Federation.  The fourth member, Wang De-Xiu is a senior  agronomist in the Ministry of Agriculture,  Animal Husbandry and Fisheries. Li Yue-Yin  is deputy division chief of the Intern-  national Department. The sixth member is  Xiao Ling, who is an official with the  International Department of the Federation  and acted as the official guide for the  Canadian Women's Delegation in October,  1981.  Cao explained there are women's groups all  through China, but every province, every  city, and every district are under the  leadership of the All China Women's Federation. However, she stressed that from a  point of view of working at the various  centres, their aim is to attempt to meet  the specific needs of the women in that  area.  WAVAW's membership  bid in the lurch  Women Against Violence Against Women/Rape  Crisis Centre's application for membership in the B.C. Federation of Women was  not accepted during the Federation's  September 22 meeting.  The vote to accept WAVAW's application  resulted in a negative vote where five  abstentions determined the outcome. Four  groups supported the motion and there  were no opposing votes.  It is unclear at this point whether or  not WAVAW will reapply to the provincial  women's federation. Member groups attending the meeting include Women Against  Imperialism, Makara, Press Gang, the  Food Politics group, the Women's Bookstore,  the Vancouver Women's Health Collective,  Rape Relief and the UBC Women's Centre.  November workshops  held by Adair  Once again, a group is bringing Margot  Adair from San Francisco to do workshops  the first two weekends of November. Margot  has been in Vancouver before and taught  "Applied Meditation" and problem solving  at a theta level using relaxation and  visualization to create positive symbols  for healing, intuitive problem solving  and political change. In addition, this  time, Margot will be facilitating a workshop on "Tools for Political Thinking".  Margot defines herself as a Marxist feminist. For the past ten years she has been  teaching how to use meditation skills in  everyday living in a way that demystifies  spirituality and works to increase personal power in order to be more politically effective.  The beginner's Applied Meditation workshop  will cover basic visualization techniques  on Friday evening, Nov. 5 and all day  Saturday and Sunday, Nov. 6 and 7. It will  be open to men and women and childcare  is being organized. For location, registration and special needs, please call  Lawrence 253-2077 or Kathleen 738-7127.  On Tuesday and Wednesday evenings, Nov. 9  and 10, Margot will provide theta training for those people with some experience  of visualization. This workshop is for  women only and there will be a collection  for childcare expenses. For information  call Trisha 253-2077.  On Nov. 12 and 13, Margot will facilitate  discussion about "Tools for Political  Thinking" including some of the following:  combatting liberalism - class background,  class stand, class bias; what is dialectical materialism/humanism?; criticism,  self-criticism. Some visualization work  may be incorporated into this workshop  which is for women only and will be limited in size. For more information call  Heather 731-8790.  For all these workshops the fees will be  worked out on a sliding scale. Pre-registration and some money will be necessary  ahead of time to cover costs. Margot will  be available between Nov. 8 and 12 for  individual sessions. Call Trisha 253-2077  to arrange times.  VAWL to sponsor  prostitution conference  Vancouver Association of Women and the  Law (YAWL)  will be sponsoring a one-day  conference on prostitution and soliciting,  Saturday, October 30.  VAWL hopes the conference will provide a  forum for productive discussion concerning the various issues related to prostitution, within a feminist framework.  Recent attempts to increase criminal  sanctions related to prostitution have  prompted the House of Commons to initiate  discussion on the topic through its  Judicial and Legal Affairs subcommittee.  In Vancouver, West End citizen pressure  groups have lobbied both city council and  the federal government to bring action  against street soliciting. Vancouver City  Council has responded to the pressure by  implementing a controversial by-law that  fines both prostitutes and customers for  soliciting on the streets.  Prostitution has been a difficult issue  for feminists to come to grips with. For  this reason, VAWL is hoping to provide  women with an opportunity to consider the  range of options related to prostitution  and soliciting. For further information  contact Frances Gordon at 669-6711 or  Sandra Polinsky at 669-5500. October 1982   Kinesis   3  ACROSS B.C.  Legal services society protests funding cutbacks  The women and children of B.C. are facing  yet another rollback in critical services.  This time the B.C. government intends to  slash the Legal Services Society budget  by 1.3 million dollars in 1983/84. This  cut is in addition to the $625,000 cut in  this year's budget.  The Society is vigorously protesting the  cutbacks and has organized a public meeting for October 24th. Groups and individuals are being asked to endorse a petition  in an attempt to turn the decision around.  What are the effects of these cuts on  women? First, new eligibility guidelines.  Suppose you are a mother with two children, your husband has left and you are  trying to get him to pay maintenance. You  are holding down a fulltime job. If your  takehome pay is more than $1154 per month,  sorry,no lawyer. You will have to pay for  a lawyer yourself - if you can get the  money together. Lawyer's fees can run between $100 and $200 per hour.  If you are below that income level, you  Women protest, 'take back the night'  by Hawley Neuert-Shields  Women all across Canada "took back the  night" on Friday, Sept. 17. In the Vancouver rally, more than 150 women and  children asserted their right to safe  streets, and protested rape, the battering of women, and pornography.  The march was organized by Vancouver Rape  Relief. Women Against Violence Against  Women (WAVAW) and the Simon Fraser University Women's Centre both carried banners  representing their organizations.  The marchers, carrying colourful balloons  emblazoned with the feminist symbol and  signs proclaiming "The Streets are Ours  - We Have a Right to Be Safe", convened  at the Mount Pleasant Community Centre.  Messages of solidarity came from women's  groups across the country including WAVAW  of Winnipeg, the Feminist Town Hall of  Calgary, Northwest Women Against Rape' of  Terrace, B.C., and the Cowichan Rape Crisis Centre in Duncan, B.C., where women  held their own local demonstrations.  The marchers, chanting and singing, moved  down 16th St. onto Main St. where they  stopped at Red Hot Video, a well-known  distributor of pornography. Joni Miller  of VRR condemned the porn industry, pointing out that it is illegal to own an original pornographic tape, yet it is within  the law to sell copies.  She outlined the typical plot lone of the  so-called "ordinary sex" that Red Hot  Video tapes depict. In the example she  cited, confined women are raped and beaten, treatment which results in love for  their attackers. The marchers chanted,  "Pornography is the theory, rape is the  practice".  Carrying candles and sparklers, the marchers then turned down 17th St. At Columbia  St., Krin Zook of Red Door Rentals called  for the posting of rapists' names in public places, criticizing the socialization  that encourages docility in little girls  while promoting violence in little boys.  Eileen from Song Spinsters sang a "Song  for the Dead" using words from Anne  Cameron's Daughters of Copperwoman.  City Hall was the group's final destination, where Sally De Quatros, a former  prostitute and member of the Alliance for  the Safety of Prostitutes, discussed the  role of powerful men and institutions as  the "pillars of prostitution". She indicted the pimps for exploiting the insecurities of girls and women who are often  fleeing sexually and emotionally abusive  environments. Police, lawyers, and judges  who often derive their livelihoods from  the harassment and confinement of prostitutes were also criticized. Sally pointed  out the inadequacies of the "solution" of  "concerned citizens" who want to bar prostitutes from the streets, and emphasized  the links between prostitution and basic  social inequities.  VSW part of Attorney General's agency review  The B.C.'s Attorney-General has recently  conducted an external evaluation of its  funded agencies, including the Vancouver  Status of Women.  The review entailed an examination of the  relationship between staff and board, constitution policy and procedures, staff job  descriptions, allocation of funds and  assessment of work priorities for the coming year.  During a mid-September meeting with a fund  ing officer from the Special Projects  Branch, VSW was assured that the purpose of  the evaluation was not to find an area or  organization to cut, but rather to ensure  that each group functioned and reported in  a way acceptable to the Attorney-General.  However, VSW, like other agencies under review, was told to temporarily withhold its  application for funding for the next year.  The officer's report will be made available  to VSW for their consideration in a few  weeks.  are financially eligible. But wait - first  you must pay the $30 user fee. If you're  on GAIN, it's a mere $10.  If you're poor enough to qualify, but rich  enough to pay the user fee - the next  question is whether you're on the way to  Family Court. Custody and maintenance  matters are generally dealt with in Family  Court, not Supreme Court, unless you have  grounds for a divorce, need an order for  exclusive possession of the family home,  or certain other limited circumstances.  According to the Legal Services Society,  the cuts will mean that more than seven  thousand people in British Columbia who  could have had a lawyer this year will not  have a lawyer appointed for them next year.  The cuts take effect October 1, 1982. So  now there really is one law for the rich  and one for the poor in this province. If  your husband is richer than you - so it  goes.  It is critically important to women that  Legal Services' funding be restored. All  women's groups and organizations should  endorse the following resolution as well  as send letters to newspapers, MLA's, the  Premier, Allan Williams, the Attorney-  General .  Resolved:  that the Attorney General immediately  restore all funding to the Legal  Services Society;  and that the Attorney General continue  to fund the Legal Services Society to  an adequate level.  It is a good idea to send a carbon copy to  Legal Services Society, P.O. Box 12120,  555 West Hastings, Vancouver, B.C. For  more details of the restraint program,*  call the Legal Services Society or Vancouver Status of Women. And attend the  public meeting.  $1.3 million dollars is peanuts to the  overall provincial budget, but the effect  of the cuts are drastic.  But if you're going to Family Court -  sorry, no lawyer. You see, the Attorney  General cut back the lawyer they used to  provide in Family Court, and now, because  of the provincial restraint program, the  Legal Services Society has had to cut services it formerly provided in Family Court.  But wait. Suppose you have grounds for a  divorce (though you may not have intended  to get divorced). That's heard in Supreme  Court. So you get a lawyer? Not necessarily. No lawyer unless your case is considered "urgent". If you are eligible,  you have $30, the matter is urgent, and  the case is to be heard in Supreme Court,  a lawyer will be appointed. But the lawyer appointed on the legal aid tariff has  just had his or her legal aid fees reduced by 12.5%.  The Legal Services Society has also cut  coverage in criminal law matters. Now you  can only get a lawyer if, in the opinion  of the Legal Services Society, you will  "probably" go to jail if convicted. If the  Legal Services staff guess wrong about the  sentence - too bad. See you in visiting  hours in Oakalla. Cuts in criminal coverage will particularly affect native people  who are overrepresented in penal institutions. 4   Kinesis   October 1982  ACROSS CANADA  CEIC charged with discrimination  A group called Action Travail des Femmes  in Montreal has laid a formal complaint  with the Human Rights Commission against  Canada Employment and Immigration and its  minister Lloyd Axworthy.  The complaint is a result of women in  Montreal being refused entrance into  welding courses by CEIC. The complaint  uses the refusal to train women as welders, as an example in a broader context  of systematic sex discriminatory practices.  Action Travail is asking for support to  speed up the Human Rights Commission process by requesting people take action on  any of the following:  * Lay a complaint with the HRC if you  have good reason to believe that discrimination is taking place in the  training of women. Consult the Human  Rights Code or regional HRC office regarding the procedure.  * Submit a brief to HRC outlining your  concerns and experiences in trying  to get women into non-traditional  Ontario woman faces obscenity charges  Lily Chiro, an artist and member of the  legal profession, went to trial September  15 on charges of making obscene pictures,  possession of obscene pictures for distribution and distributing obscene  materials. The three charges stem from  photocopied invitations she sent out last  January for a showing of the National  Film Board's Not a Love Story.  Chiro distributed her invitations, which  were designed to be congruent with the  material presented in the film, to a  small number of her own friends, including  doctors, lawyers, artists and police.  Chiro had intentionally chosen a broad  cross-section of people because she believed they would benefit from seeing the  highly acclaimed documentary, which  critically explores the role of pornography in the exploitation and degradation of women.  On the night of the screening an inspector from the Liquor Control Board and  several policemen in the audience ordered  the film be stopped and seized it along  with the projector. Chiro was arrested  the following night at a restaurant and  her apartment was searched. Nothing was  left unturned - from her bed to her artwork to her laundry.  Within two weeks she was fired from her .  job with the Bail project where she had  been working alongside the police for more  than a year and a half. She was told that  no one could occupy a security position  who had been charged with a criminal  offence. The charges carry a fine or a  possible jail term of up to two years.  Obscenity is defined as material in which  the "dominant aspect" is the "undue ex-  KMMJZJ  is looking for a part-time ad person  Salary on commission.  Call 873-5925  ploitation of sex." What is at issue in  this particular case will be whether the  dominant aspect of materials criticizing  pornography respresents the "undue exploitation of sex." (A. Devon: Toronto Clarion)  OPSEU deals with  sexual harrassment  The Ontario Public Service Employees  Union (OPSEU) has become the first union  in Canada to deal constitutionally with  the issue of sexual harassment between  members.  The revised Membership Rights article in  the OPSEU constitution now reads "Every  member in good standing is entitled   To be free from sexual harassment by  another member, both within the Union and  the workplace." No longer will members  face the situation of having to grieve to  management about another member's behaviour.  Other resolutions passed by the 1982 OPSEU  convention include: scheduling a Women's  Conference for 1983, broadening the mandate of the Provincial Women's Committee,  protecting members' jobs and working  conditions adversely affected by technological change and intensifying a  campaign to eliminate health hazards  associated with the use of Video Display  Terminals.   (Union Woman)  Native women may  regain lost status  A federal parliamentary committee, set up  to investigate discrimination against  native women under the Indian Act, has  recommended the restoration of the rights  of Indian women who lost their status because they married non-Indian men.  The Department of Indian Affairs estimates  about 15,700 women and 40,000 children  could be eligible to regain their status.  Native groups say the figure is low.  The proposed changes would involve provision of federal services such as housing, medical care, educational help and  a share of band resources for those women  and children who would return to the  reserves once their status is restored.  (Province)  training, and the discriminatory  practices you have encountered.  * Write a letter expressing your concerns about discriminatory practices,  urging the HRC to view the complaint  laid by Action Travail as speedily as  possible.  All correspondence to the HRC should be  addressed to Gordon Fairweather, Commissioner, Canadian Human Rights Commission,  257 Slater Street, Ottawa.  INFACT steps up  Nestle boycott  The INFACT Formula Action Coalition of  Canada is not asking for a ban on commercial breast-milk substitutes, but they  do want Nestle to stop their unethical  promotion of these products.  INFACT CANADA says Nestle's recent claims  to abide by the 1981 WHO Code are a hollow  exercise in public relations. For this  reason the boycott of Nestle products is  intensifying. The organization says  Nestle has unilaterally rewritten the WHO  Code and pretends the Code condones its  market strategy.  Nestle, the largest seller of breast-milk  substitutes in the Third World, is using  promotional tactics to convince mothers  to feed their babies artificial substitutes instead of their own breast-milk.  James P. Grant, Director of UNICEF, estimates that more than ten million children  suffer from bottle baby disease every  year. "Because these mothers have neither  enough money to buy sufficient infant  formula nor the clean water and sterile  conditions to properly prepare these artificial substitutes, their bottle-fed  babies become sick and even die."  The WHO Code and the Nestle boycott demand an end to routine free formula distribution and a stop to all promotion of  commercial breast-milk substitutes to the  public and through health care systems,  including gifts and other unethical inducements which encourage medical staff  to promote commercial breast-milk substitutes .  On October 5, the Vancouver Committee of  INFACT Canada will hold a public meeting  on the infant formula controversy in the  Graduate Student Centre of UBC at 7:30 pm.  The film "The Formula Factor" will be  shown and followed by a panel discussion.  "Too bad they won't live  long enough  to drink our instant coffee."  BOYCOTT  NESTLE^ ia@tttifcteni(982iitKaniisis^ 5  INTERNATIONAL  Margaret Zita  coordinates a  bureau for  Zimbabwe women  by Prahba Khosla  Margaret Zita is the Coordinator of the  Zimbabwe Women's Bureau in Harare, Zimbabwe. She was in Toronto in June, 1982  and was interviewed by Prabha Khosla.  Mbuya Nehanda was a woman spirit medium  who was hung by the settlers around 1896,  for leading the people to revolt against  the many debilitating taxes imposed on  the people of Zimbabwe by the settlers.  She was one of the original guerrilla  fighters of Zimbabwe.   She laughed at them  when they decided to hang her,  because,  you see,   spirit mediums do not die,   they  just come back in another form.  There are different types of women in  Zimbabwe's urban.and rural areas. In urban areas you have women who are professionals: teachers, a few doctors, a few  lawyers, secretaries - a whole lot of them,  yes, and also you have the unemployed sector who are housewives, who do all sorts  of craft work. Women form small groups,  then learn a certain skill that they use  to produce crafts for sale amongst themselves, and also for the tourist trade.  The others sell fruit and vegetables. They  are the majority, because people cannot  do anything else, you see. Even though  people cannot read and write they do comprehend the currency.  There are others who commute from urban  areas back to rural areas. They spend  half the year in rural areas growing food,  and the other half in the urban area,  during the drier months, living with their  husbands because they have housing in  town.  Others don't have housing in town, because  their husbands cannot afford rent, so they  are accommodated in singles quarters,  where many men live together in the same  room. So these men visit their wives in  the rural areas because there is nowhere  to put their wives when they come to town.  Thus you have this category of women who  are almost always in the country, and  rarely visit town and are visited by their  husbands only when they have an opportunity. This is mostly in December before  Christmas until after New Year's. That is  when most companies allow the men to have  holidays. The women .in the rural areas  do all types of work: from plowing the  land to weeding, building fences, looking  after children, herding cattle and building huts.  Prior to independence women were treated  as minors; they had no legal rights. The  settlers used certain aspects of customary laws, leaving others, so when the  settlers began to rule the country the  effect of the changed laws was cold-blooded and oppressive to the women. Zimbabwean  society used to be and still is patrilineal. Men have responsibility over the  children, care of families and women have  a rather subordinate role in that sphere,  but their contribution is quite important  and significant and they are accorded a  great deal of respect. The older they get,  We tried to create awareness  to get women to realize how  oppressive the system was  and to participate after  independence.  the more respect they get. In fact, by  the time a woman gets old, she receives  far more respect than her husband. She  probably is the person that decides most  issues, because she is the person who owns  most of the cattle.  Every time a daughter was married they  gave a cow (or cows) to the mother to  thank her for having a daughter. This cow  would just be left in the kaarl to breed;  it would not be slaughtered for any reason. By the time she received all the cows  of motherhood, she had more cattle in the  kaarl than anybody else. The cow was  given to acknowledge the work she did in  bringing up that daughter. Also it is a  cow that she can milk throughout life.  Before the mother dies she decides who  will get the cattle. If she had one grandson who looked after the cattle, she would  give a cow to one of the grandsons; they  would probably each get a cow. This would  help the grandsons start their lives. If  she had sons who wanted to get married,  she would give some cows to them also.  Bride wealth was not always in the form  of money. It was only converted to money  during colonialism. Before this time, it  was usually in the form of cattle.  Daughters do not get cattle. Although the  mother owned the cattle, they were looked  after in the husband's kaarl. The cattle  were very much hers, and if she died her  relatives would come to get the cattle.  A lot of the women in rural Zimbabwe that  received education got it because their  grandmothers sold cattle to send them to  school.  The Zimbabwe Women's Bureau is a non-governmental organization, formed in 1978  by women who felt that the programs their  organizations were involved in did not  have a sufficiently feminist orientation.  It was formed after International Women's  Year and women all over the world were  looking at issues affecting their lives  in their own countries. So women in Zimbabwe thought, why not start, even if  they were not yet independent. Women wanted a joint front so they could participate  irrespective of their other affiliations  - socio-economic or educational. The bureau would-be a place where women could  meet, and be themselves, and look at themselves as women.  The ZWB wanted to have a certain kind of  unity that could allow that, and we found  that in language - everybody could use a  certain language irrespective of their  background. Women became even closer together, when women of lower socio-economic status realized that middle class women were as affected by their status as  women, as they themselves were, and middle  class women learned the privileges of  their class.  At that particular time we had a major  struggle ahead of us, which was the liberation of our country, Zimbabwe. Of  course, we had to join forces with the  whole nation to take part in that, so we  did not want a very rigid and formal  structure. We left the question of an  umbrella organization to the future, after  we had obtained our independence. Some of  the women who would be directly involved  in decision-making were outside the  country. They were members of political  parties which were banned. If we had  started forming an umbrella organization  at that level, it would have created some  confusion. Later on we would have to undo  it. We needed to start looking afresh at  the realities of the day. We wanted an  openness among women and preparation for  change, so that when the change did come,  women would find their rightful place  side by side with the rest of the people,  and start working on the structure for a  new Zimbabwe.  Initially, many of our activities revolved  around seminars and workshops on different  aspects of women's lives: women in education, employment for women, involvement  of women in decision-making, and women  and the law. Due to the war situation in  the country at the time, these activities  were confined primarily to urban women.  When Zimbabwe achieved independence in  April, 1980, the Bureau sought to carry  out changes that became possible as a  result.  A lot of women in rural  Zimbabwe got an education  because their grandmothers  sold cattle to send then to  school.  For example, there is the Musika Wholesale  Co-operative which grew out of an educational session organized by the Bureau in  1979. This is a co-operative of over 700  market women from all of the 13 high-density suburbs of Harare. Since its formation, the Bureau has been closely involved  in assisting the co-operative even though  the co-operative is an independent organization. Initial funds, raised from share  capital, plus grants and a loan, enabled  the market women to set up a wholesale  distribution centre in Harare. The objective was to buy produce in bulk from the  rural producers, especially women, for  resale to the co-operative members. In  this way, it hoped to assist both the  rural women producers, and the market  women vendors, by cutting out the middlemen who usually make all the profit.  We tried to create awareness, get the women to participate. Our focus was to get  women to realize how oppressive the system was, and get them to participate now  and after independence. Women are left at  continued on page 6 6 ' Kinesis "October 1982' '  HEALTH  Barefoot doctoring in rural Mexico  by Cathy Ellis  The village of Xochitepee lies atop a  mountain range called the Sierra Madre (a  continuation of the Rocky Mountain chain  extending from Alaska to Chile), in South  West Mexico. It is a 23 km,5 hr. walk or  donkey ride to the nearest dirt road and  another hour by truck to the nearest town  with any medical facilities. The 2,500  inhabitants of mixed Spanish and Indian  blood struggle to survive planting corn,  beans and chili peppers on the rough  mountainous slopes surrounding the town.  They live in stick huts or small adobe  houses and have no electricity or running  water. They have to walk 1 km. to the well  they have hewn out of the mountain rock.  Due to its isolation, the people of this  village have had to rely on their own folk  lore for healing. There are a few people  who know how to cure with herbal remedies  and prayers. As well, two or three times  a year, Xochitepee receives the benefits  of public health vaccination teams. These  teams are sent from the state capital and  they vaccinate against TB, measles, polio,  tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough.  For the past three winters, Xochitepee  has been my home. My work is akin to that  of the Chinese barefoot doctors. I have  been walking up and down the steep mountain ranges bringing medicines and food  supplements which are carried by the donkeys. These supplies are obtained from the  Public Health authorities in the state  capital. These people recognize my lack  of official documents to work in Mexico  but also my desire to do a job no one else  seems willing or able to accomplish.  The abject living conditions and poverty  of the people contribute significantly to  the widespread malnutrition amongst both  children and adults. The food supplements  are sold to the villagers at prices far  below cost. Milk powder (donated by Canada), egg powder (donated by Holland),  canned cheese (donated by Denmark), and  high protein cookies (courtesy of the  Mexican government) are quite popular with  everyone.  Last year, forty children came down with  severe gastroenteritis and four died be  fore I arrived. The kids were given medicine and water samples were taken from the  well and sent to the Public Health authorities. The final report showed the main  well to be severely contaminated with E.  coli bacteria. The villagers formed a  committee, and together, we cleaned up the  well and treated it with potassium permanganate .  This year I have treated cases of anemia,  impetigo, upper respiratory infections,  puerperal infections, scabies, intestinal  continued from page 5  Zimbabwe Women  home, especially in urban areas, and their  focus is narrow - perhaps just on the  neighbourhood. Men were more exposed,  because they were directly confronted with  oppression on a day to day basis, and  because they worked for wages. We now  wanted women to start looking at all those  issues to create a broad spectrum first,  and then look at themselves as women.  We wanted them to analyze the nature of  their oppression, the extent of their  oppression and the source of their oppression.  Let me tell you about some of the new  laws and how they affect women. The law  of universal majority age for everyone  has been lowered to 18 years. Before it  was 21 for men and never  for women, as  women were always considered minors. This  means women now have a certain level of  freedom. They can represent themselves in  law courts as they don't need a guardian  to represent them anymore. They are free  to apply for passports. In the past they  required the endorsement of a legal guardian. Women can now own property and are  eligible to apply for credit from banks.  They can get loans without having to go  through a lwayer, so they don't have to  give money to lawyers anymore. The marriage law is being amended to give women  more protection, especially regarding  property rights.  We have not established any official relationship with women in other countries,  including the front line states. I think  the relationship with another country  should come through the government with  policies laid out by the government. The  women of Mozambique, of course, are meeting the women in Zimbabwe through the  Ministry of Community Development and  Women's Affairs. The ZWB has hosted women  from all over the world who have come to  Zimbabwe.  PEMBERI NEMUGOTI  (Means "Forward with the cooking spoon"  and is a slogan used at the end of meetings to salute women in appreciation for  their participation, and to acknowledge  that without women the war would not have  been won. You see, the women used to cook  for the fighters.)  parasites and dysentery. A child with hare  lip will be sent to Acapulco for reconstructive surgery at minimal cost. One of  the more difficult aspects of my work is  attempting to convince people that they  should go to larger urban centres for  specialized care. One lady has advanced  pulmonary TB and thus far refuses to go to  Mexico City (10 hrs. away). She and others  fear that staying in a large city would be  a great burden to relatives who accompany  them. Furthermore, if the woman should  die in Mexico City, the red tape and costs  necessary to get her body transferred back  to her own village are almost insurmountable.  Farmers from neighbouring ranchos  (clusters of huts) come to buy medicines  from me. Sometimes they come to take me  to their ranchos, 3-5 hrs. away, to treat  sick members of their families.  Although the village has several native  midwives, I have been asked to attend several births here. The women kneel on a  grass mat or piece of cardboard which lies  on the dirt floor, and they hang onto a  rope tied to the ceiling. I respect their  customs and kneel beside them to catch  their babies before they hit the floor.  The local midwives have been attending the  women here since the village was formed,  150 years ago. They have a lot of empathy  but lack in basic concepts of hygiene.  For example, they don't boil the scissors  or knives prior to cutting the umbilical  cord. I am treating a newborn with tetanus  right now, as the family would not take  the baby to the hospital, many miles away. 'ñ†  Without tetanus vaccine the baby has a  poor chance of surviving. It's very difficult, however, to convince the midwives to  change their ways as they have been working for many years and most babies and  mothers survive the birth process in spite  of everything.  The state government has promised to build  a road into Xochitepee but in 6 months has  only accomplished 5 kms. of the 23 km.  distance and still has to build a bridge  over the river which lies at the halfway  point. The current health care situation  is not likely to change until that road Is  completed.  Kenya outlaws  century-old  female circumcision  Kenyan President Daniel arap Moi has outlawed the practice of ritually circumcising  young girls in that country.  The decision followed reports of the death  of fourteen girls of the Kamba tribe after  such operations had been performed. It  appears the girls had either bled to death  after inexpert operating, or developed  blood poisoning from a "communal" scapel.  For more than half a century efforts to  stop the practice in Kenya not only made  no headway, but aroused bitter opposition  from the tribal traditionalists among the  Bantu tribes.  Moi first issued the order to his own Tugen  tribespeople in the Baringo district of  the rift valley to stop the custom, and  then extended the ban to the whole of  Kenya, making it a charge of murder if any  girl dies from this practice. October 1982   Kinesis   7  HEALTH  Depo-Provera: not safe for men  or dogs; pushed on women  by the Health Collective  Depo-Provera is a long-acting contraceptive  injection that causes women to be infertile  for three to six months. Currently it is  not approved for use as a contraceptive in  Canada or the United States because of the  health hazards involved, although recently  the director of the Bureau of Drugs has  recommended its approval for use in Canada.  In North America its only official use is  for the relief of pain in inoperable endometrial (uterine lining) cancer. However,  doctors can and do prescribe it for other  uses at their own discretion. Consequently  an estimated 150,000 to 200,000 American  women and an unknown number of Canadian  women have received Depo-Provera.  Depo-Provera is a synthetic form of the  female hormone progesterone. Like the  birth control pill, it acts to supress  ovulation and has numerous health hazards  associated with its use. It causes menstrual irregularities, very heavy bleeding  or no period at all. The injection can  also cause headaches, dizziness, weight  gain, depression, loss of sexual desire  and permanent sterility. Depo-Provera has  also been linked with birth defects,  diabetes, and breast and cervical cancer.  Although it is not to be given to pregnant  women, Depo-Provera is often administered  to those unaware that they are pregnant.  In such cases, the drug poses extreme  danger to the unborn fetus. Sometimes the  fetus is killed. Sometimes Depo-Provera  causes "serious congenital malformation"  in the infant according to former U.S.  Food and Drug Administration commissioner  Donald Kenney. The drug can also be passed  along virtually undiluted by nursing  mothers to their infants.  Linked to cancer  'While the manufacturer, Upjohn, insists  that Depo-Provera is safe, what little research has been done has shown that it  causes an increase in malignant breast  tumours in beagle dogs and abnormalities  in rhesus monkeys.  Ironically, Upjohn withdrew the same drug,  marketed as an animal contraceptive called  Promane, from the veterinary market in  1966 after it noticed abnormalities in the  uteruses of dogs.  While Depo-Provera is not approved as a  contraceptive in North America, it is used  on a massive scale in the third world. An  estimated 10 million women in 82 countries have been injected with the drug in  the last 15 years. Although the U.S. Food  and Drug Administration (FDA) forbids U.S.  pharmaceutical companies from exporting  products banned for domestic use, Upjohn  manages to side-step this inconvenience  by manufacturing the drug in Canada and  Belgium.  Depo-Provera is distributed world-wide  mainly through the relentless efforts of  the International Planned Parenthood  (IPPF) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). A third organization, the International Fertility  Research Program (IFRP), which is funded  by AID, is leading the crusade to maintain  the use of Depo-Provera against the rising  tide of protest.  According to IFRP director, Malcolm Potts,  his agency, "is devoted to shortening the  time between the development of new fertility control technology and its use in  family planning." Potts, who was also  International Planned Parenthood medical  director for nine years, insists that  Depo-Provera must be given to millions of  women over the course of decades before  its carcinogenic effects can be judged.  "We are not going to know whether Depo-  Provera is safe," he explains, "until a  large number of women use it for a very  long cannot prove a drug is  safe until you use it. I would say you  have to use for at least two decades."  Women of colour targeted  Potts has also targeted women of colour  for Depo-Provera use in the U.S. as well  as for women in the third world. During  the 1978 FDA hearings, he singled out  minority groups as "subgroups who have the  same problem as people in the developing  world...the same need for fertility regulation." Blacks, Asian Americans, Chic-  anas, and Native Americans, he told  congress, all'have high infant and maternal mortality rates and Depo-Provera is  the appropriate form of contraception for  them.  Here in Canada, it is not certain who is  given Depo-Provera. The Vancouver Women's  Health Collective has begun collecting  data on its use and discovered that it is  given to mentally retarded women. Planned  Provera to women, there is strenuous objection to its use as a male contraceptive. The drug virtually eliminates the  sperm count in men and the loss of fertility lasts about three months, the same  as in women. However, research has shown  . that it causes a loss of libido (sexual  desire) which is considered and unacceptable side effect for men.  Women also report a loss of sexual desire  but this is not considered cause for concern. Interestingly enough, prison officials have taken advantage of the resulting loss of sexual drive in men and are  using Depo-Provera in behaviour modification programs in U.S. prisons to "treat"  sexual offenders.  Undoubtedly, there are more hazards to men  than just loss of libido. A Vancouver  doctor interested in carrying out research  on Depo-Provera as a male contraceptive  could not get permission because it was  considered "too dangerous".  In many third world countries, in Europe  and in North America, there is increasing  resistance to the use of Depo-Provera.  The Washington, D.C. based National Women's  Health Network has launched a campaign  against it and has established a national  registry to "identify and assist" Depo  users. Many hundreds of women have already  responded and follow-up questionnaires are  planned.  The campaign takes on added importance because the FDA is coming under increasing  pressure from the Upjohn Co., U.S.-based  world population control groups, and the  Agency for International Development to  reverse a 1978 decision banning use of the  drug as a contraceptive.  The National Women's Health Network has  also sent letters to the American College  Parenthood advocates its use in their  manual entitled: Guidelines for training  in Sexuality and the Mentally Handicapped.  They state that, "Depo-Provera is very  useful for the mentally handicapped woman  who lacks motivation and judgement, who  cannot control her feelings, who cannot  be trusted to refuse unprotected intercourse if it is offered, or who is negligent in using other birth control methods'.'  In Ontario, the Minister of Community and  Social Services states that they will continue to use it in institutions despite a-  study that found three women in institutions for the mentally handicapped died  of breast cancer while using the drug.  Depo-Provera is given sometimes as a contraceptive and other times to inhibit a  woman's menstruation for "hygienic"  reasons.  Immigrant women who have used Depo-Provera  in their home country have requested it  in Canada and have been given the injection. It is likely that native women are  another target group for Depo-Provera use.  While there is a singular lack of concern  regarding the health hazards of Depo-  of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and to  the American Medical Association warning  both groups that physicians administering  Depo should be advised of possible lawsuits.  In Los Angeles, the Institute for the Study  of Medical Ethics has collected over 300  affidavits from the women attesting to the  drug's ill effects on.their health. Two  women have also filed suits against both  their doctors and Upjohn.  In Canada, the resistance is not yet as  highly organized as in the U.S. It is a  critical issue for Canadians as well, however, since there is a very real possibility that the ban on Depo-Provera as a contraceptive could be lifted in the near  future.  The Vancouver Women's Health Collective is  not involved in any legal action against  Depo-Provera, but is collecting information  on its use in Canada.   If you have ever  received a birth control injection or know  of anyone who has,  contact us at the  Vancouver Women's Health Collective,   1501 W.  Broadway,   Vancouver,  B.C.  or telephone  736-6696.       CF.3pri.nted from Leftwords) kinesis "Dcfdbe'r'^82  AROUND TOJ  Lucy's strives to be  a no attitude bar  by Mary Woo Simms  Recently, the Quadra Club, which served  the women of Vancouver as a women only  bar/disco, closed after close to three  years of operation. Lucy's,  a "no attitude  bar for women and friends", has opened  in its place. The same two women who owned  the Quadra Club, Suzanne and Heather, now  own Lucy's.  What follows is an interview  with Suzanne. Her opinions do not necessarily reflect the views of the other owner, Heather.  MWS:    During the years that you operated  the club as the Quadra Club,  you have come  under criticism from the feminist community for a variety of reasons:  the operation  and policies of the club and the shows.  The most recent criticism was about a segment of a show where some women objected  to what they felt was a depiction of violence against women.   When you opened the  Quadra approximately three years ago,  did  you intend for the club to be a "politically correct" place,  run on feminist  principles? Or did you intend for the club  to be a place where women could meet  socially and have a good time?  Suzanne: We opened the Quadra as a place  where women could go to have a good time.  Three years ago, there weren't any clubs  catering exclusively to women. Two different clubs had opened up for women only  and didn't work... There just wasn't anything for women. At that time, Heather  and I both were frustrated by the lack of  place where we could be around women.  We wanted a place where there were a lot  of women, not necessarily only women,  where we could have a good time and socialize.  MWS:  With regard to the criticisms of the  running' of the Quadra,   some of which have  appeared in  Kinesis over the years,  have  you ever responded to them? If not,  would  you like to do so now?  Suzanne: Kinesis,  in the past, has offered  to print a response from us if we submitted one. However, we have not had the time  so I'd like to now. The incident which  you mentioned in the previous question  was a screaming match that occurred between a group of other customers and the  women who objected to the show. We, as   owners, and our staff did not interfere.  The women who were watching the show and  enjoying it were really annoyed with the  women that didn't like it.  There have been some negative articles  printed in Kinesis  about us. One article  claimed that we, the owners, were making  a lot of money exploiting women. Neither  of which are true. We are not making a  lot of money and we are definitely not  exploiting women. Another article was  about the violence at the Quadra. The  violence in the club is not created by  the staff or management of the club. It  is created by our customers. It is not  our fault that some women, after consuming  alcohol, take out their hostilities on  each other. We can only try to control it.  MWS: Lucy's advertising states that it is  a "no attitude bar". Could you please explain what that means?  Suzanne: Lucy's is probably the only gay  bar in Vancouver where you can be exactly  who you are. If you're Into leather, you  can wear your leathers and not get hassled.  If you want to dress in a politically  correct way, asexual, androgynous, whatever, you can do so. If you're a feminine  lesbian and dress that way, you're welcome. If you have tatoos up and down  your arms, you're welcome. We don't want  the club to be a political forum. We want  it to be a place where all gay people can  come and be comfortable. Our priority is  women, and women can bring their friends.  Gay or straight.  MWS: Some women have trouble reconciling  your "no attitude bar" slogan with the  fact that you have an outlet for Top Man  'Leather selling leather paraphernalia at  Lucy's.  As well,  Top Man Leather is a  gay male business; were you aware that  there were women who manufactured the  same type of leather goods?  Suzanne: We don't make any money from Top  Man Leather. We don't charge them rent.  We don't make any percentage off their  sales. It is a service for gay people. I  will not discriminate against gay men. I  support all gay businesses. No woman has  ever approached me offering the same ser-  vice that Top Man Leather is offering now  at Lucy's. If a woman had approached me  with that idea last year, or the year  before, or in 1979, I would have sat down  and talked seriously with her about it.  Top Man Leather approached me and said  that a lot of women who frequent our club  shop at their store, and they would like  to put one of their outlets at Lucy's. I  agreed to it. I felt that it would help  instill this "no attitude" policy that I  want. Having this outlet means that people  can even be comfortable in their leathers  at Lucy's. I don't wear leather, and I'm  not pushing my own politics.  MWS: What is the relationship that you  have with your staff? I heard a rumour  a long time ago that anyone that worked  at the Quadra, and I'm sure the rumour  will extend to Lucy's, had to sleep with  management in order to get a job and keep  it.  Suzanne: That was a humorous rumour.  Please take this as a joke, I wish it  were true. A lot of people thought that  and think that still. I don't know why.  It's not true. I don't think I've even  kissed member of my staff, two of whom  are straight. We have a very good relationship with our staff. If you were to  ask them, I'm sure they would confirm  that. They enjoy working here. There are  a lot of pressures working at this bar,  or at any gay bar for that matter. We try  and help our staff out. If they have a  rough night, we look after them. We make  sure that they're OK and if it's serious,  we'll even let them go home early. We  feel, at least I feel, that it's important to sit down and talk to them and  explain that they're not the only person  that goes through the stress and tension  of working at a gay bar.  MWS: How have your Quadra customers taken  to Lucy's? Is it a different crowd now?  Suzanne: The crowd is basically the same.  A lot of the political women are not  coming in. However, business has never  been better. The place has really changed.  We haven't had a fight that I'm aware of  since we've opened, which is unusual. I  don't know if that's because there are  men in the room or what it is. However,  it feels far more comfortable in here  now. Everyone is getting along. We have  a lot of fun. The music has improved  immensely and we have a new disc jockey.  I think it's a much better club now. In  fact, I think it's one of the better  clubs in Vancouver, because it doesn't  have an attitude. We don't say we allow  only 20 women or men in the club; or  we only allow leathers in; or we only  allow politically correct women in; or  you have to be a clone. We accept you  the way that you want to be. We want  you to enjoy yourself. That's the most  important thing. I think the changes have  made a great difference and the change has  been for the better.  MWS:  Will Lucy's ever have a women only  night again?  Suzanne: Probably. We're not sure yet what  night it will be. Tuesday night seems to  be a women's night. There are very few  men coming in and lots of women. In fact,  men are not allowed in until after 11 p.m.  MWS:  What days and hours are you open and  do you have special events scheduled on  any of those evenings at Lucy's?  Suzanne: We are open six days a week:  Monday to Saturday, 8 p.m. to 2 a.m. On  Tuesdays we have female exotic dancers.  It is a very popular night with the women.  We have tasteful dancers and acts. Thursday nights we have a beer bash. A bottle  of beer is $150. We still have a lot of  shows lined up with the Lucy Players.  Crazy shows. All of these upcoming shows  will be advertised. October 1982   Kinesis   9  SCIENCE'AND TECHNOLOGY  Decoding the microchip  by Margaret McHugh  The "Women and the Impact of Microtechnology Conference", which I attended in  Ottawa last June, had three main objectives: to analyze key issues relating to  microtechnology and its impact on women;  to develop individual and group strategies  for using technology to women's advantage;  and to familiarize women with microtechnology. Strategy workshops were held to make  these objectives more concrete and to find  the directions people wanted to take.  The four organizations sponsoring the conference included the Canadian Congress  for Learning Opportunities for Women, the  Canadian Federation of University Women,  Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women and the National Action  Committee on the Status of Women. Most of  these organizations tend to represent  professional and academic women, and that  is who attended the conference. Although  there were a few trade-union women, women  working with the actual technology - particularly unorganized women - were not in  evidence.  Patricia McDermott, who spoke on Changing  Employment Patterns, discussed the microelectronic revolution, and how it is affecting all work and all lives. McDermott  said the new industrial revolution'has  evolved in accordance with the expansion  of three areas - computing technology  (hardware), ability to compute and manipulate data (software), and telecommunications and laser beam communications technology. These three areas have all come  together with the micro-chip and its  ability to cheaply store a large amount of  data in a small space. The increased ability to compute has been accompanied by a  shrinking of both size and cost.  One micro-chip replaces 936 parts in a  telex machine or 350 parts in a sewing  machine. All the people who make these  parts no longer have jobs, and it is primarily women who work in this kind of  "light" assembly work.  Chip production is very capital intensive,  not people (labour) intensive. The only  labour intensive part of the process,  McDermott said, is the chip assembly  which is done by women in South East Asia,  and even that could, and probably will,  be automated. Right now it is cheaper to  have it assembled in S.E. Asia. McDermott  described what has been called the "displacement" effect of the chips. Fewer  people are needed to make parts, and more  goods are produced quickly and with less  skill. The commodities produced are smaller and easier to transport and store. The  chips are an incredible multiplier of  energy and labour savings.  Most women work in the service sector of  the economy where economists, including  the government (see the "Dodge Report"),  are predicting major displacements. Bank  tellers are already having their jobs de-  skilled and terminals do the thought work  that bank tellers used to do. McDermott  predicts that within the next ten years  bank tellers will be completely eliminated.  Computer supervision gives management the  ability to speed up and monitor work.  McDermott added that grocery store clerks,  directory assistants, anyone who does data  entry can be monitored and have their work  evaluated purely on their productivity,  their keystrokes per minute. She said new  technology brings health hazards not only  as a result of the quipment, but also as  a result of anxiety at being measured.  Rhonda Love, Assistant Professor in the  Faculty of Medicine at the University of  Toronto, conducted a seminar on "Homework  to  2erx      ►    *  i   - Vferegreltoihfoi  \$ ^9* required,     -v^  If ^^'checkiswamng".  - Present and Future". She said women may  find the idea of working at home ideal,  but what most women don't understand is  that they may be electronically monitored  and paid on a piece-work basis. Working at  a steady pace can earn a living wage, but  if you slow down, so does your standard  of living.  Love said that the "homeworker" is not  compensated for the overhead she picks up  for the employer, who no longer has to  provide a building, office furniture, heat  or cafeteria staff. More workers can be  designated as casual or contract workers,  and do not have to be paid any benefits.  There are no health and safety standards  in the home, unionization is impossible,  and office workers already facing these  problems could be forced to accept work  at home that they would not otherwise  accept.  New Act no solution  Lynn Wilkinson, Co-ordinator, Adult Education and Training in the Labour Market  Development Task Force, CEIC, and Lenore  Rogers, President of CCLOW, headed a panel  workshop entitled "Directions and Strategies for Training: Implication of the  Dodge Report".  The Dodge Report addressed ■■■:;■.. ■  the growth of high opportunity industry  and the way to produce adequate numbers of  trained workers for high technology industry and megaprojects. It has been critized  for not addressing social goals but rather  methods for producing a highly skilled,  mobile and flexible work force needed for  the eighties.  The bulk of the labour force, she said,  will have to learn to plug in and out -  to retrain, in order to avoid bottlenecks  and what she called "push/pull". Alternative schedules for work, like part-time  and part-year will have to become normal  (although no mention was made of working  part-year for a whole year's wage).  Rogers spoke on the new National Training  Act, which should have dealt with some of  the problems predicted by the Dodge Report,  but the outlook is bleak for women. Funds  have been cut for upgrading at the lower  levels of education, with a ten percent  cut to post-secondary education. Rogers  said there will be an increase in high-  skill trades training, where women experience special difficulties in access.  The Act has the prerogative to define "Red  Seal Occupations" and to provide money to  universities and businesses for training  in these designated areas. She said there  is a skills growth fund of $180 million  for training facilities, and money for  supplementing apprenticeship pay in skill  shortage areas. However, women are involved  in only three percent of apprenticeships  now, and the new National Training Act has  no affirmative action for women and no  legislation saying that money is to be  used to employ women, even though the  Dodge Report predicted high unemployment  for women.  Ads describe 'docile' women  Anuradda Base, a development education  officer of the Canadian Council for International Co-operation, conducted a workshop on Third World Women and Microtechnology. She said there are 2-300.000 women  working in factories in South East Asia.  They are employed primarily in free-trade  zones, where there are few protections for  workers. Multinationals are attracted to  these "tax break areas" by government advertizing and financing, lack of sales tax  and levies, ten-year corporate tax exemptions, transportation, cheap labour and  lack of benefits for workers. Usually the  only restrictions in place are that there  can be no adverse effects on industry outside the zones and no "environmental"  Base said that countries with free trade  zones like to attract the microtechnology  industry because it is a "clean" industry  and does not pollute. But it is on the  American National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety list of health-  harming industries because it uses a high  number of toxic chemicals. The toxins  affect the workers, not the atmosphere.  Women in the Third World are employed because they are even cheaper than male  workers. There is a naturalization of the  role of women which still sees men as  primary wage-earners and women as secondary.  Women also have a high productivity rate,  and do jobs that men would find too "tedious". She said there are advertizing leaflets used to attract industries, which  describe docile, submissive oriental women  who accept discipline and have "nimble  fingers". Most of the women who work on  the "global assembly line" (assembling  micro-chips that are produced primarily  in the Silicon Valley in California), are  exhausted and can no longer work by the  age of 26. They work huddled over microscopes all day long, which weakens their  backs and destroys their eyesight.  The average wage per day is $2.4-0 U.S. in  Sri Lanka, $2.60 in Malaysia, $3-40 in  Thailand, $2.40 in the Philippines, $5.40  in Korea and $6.90 in Hong Kong. Korea and  Hong Kong had been the largest assembly  line areas, but they are being closed down  in favour of cheaper areas like Malaysia  and the Philippines. 10   KinesTs n $<*<$&' fl»fr r'°  RAPE LEGISLATION  BILL C-127:  How did we get there?  Where do we go from here?  We are a working group who came together,  initially to discuss the implications of  Bill C-127. Our names are Kate Andrew,  Jan Barnsley, Megan Ellis, Debra Lewis,  Hilarie McMurray, Joanne Ranson and  Jillian Ridington.  We have all, over the last several years,  worked on the issue of rape and rape law;  as researchers, in legal practics, and as  rape crisis centre workers. We have all  been involved in presenting briefs or  position papers to national women's organizations and the federal government.  Our intention is to work to produce information for women, cutting down on the  "legalese", about the new law and its implications for women. In the course of our  discussions it became clear to us that one  of the aspects most needing explanation  was how we got this bill in the first  place. Three of us - Megan, Jan and Joanne  - decided to write this article.  After studying the contents of Bill C-127,  we concluded that some of the new provisions had serious negative consequences  for women. Yet, some major women's groups  had supported its passage.  The following article is an attempt to  look at the process by which "women's  issues" become translated into legislative  amendments. It is a brief examination of  the respective roles of "grassroots" women's groups, national women's organizations, and the federal bureaucracy. Our  intent is not to blame any organization or  any individual, but to stimulate discussion around the strategy of legislative  reform, the role of national organizations,  and even the parameters of the rape discussion itself.  Council on the Status of Women had decided  that one of their priority concerns would  be sexual offences in the Criminal Code.  In 1976, Bill C-71 was passed, which was  intended as a step towards giving protection to victims of rape. It became very  clear that the changes only affected procedure in rape trials and that the substance of the law remained the same. Certainly, reporting of rapes did not increase  and rape victims continued to suffer degradation at the hands of the law.  The early days  The Canadian Women's movement began addressing the issue of rape in about 1972. In  that year Vancouver Rape Relief opened its  doors and within the next six years there  were more than thirty rape crisis centres  operating in Canada. The anti-rape movement gained momentum as women began to  recognize the violence in our lives. The  injustice perpetrated upon the victims of  Meanwhile, there was some discussion among  women's groups as to what form a new law  should take. There appeared to be general  agreement that the whole.area sexual offences should be overhauled, that rape  should be considered an "offence against  the person" (and not lumped together with  offences of public morals), and that the  violent nature of the act must be stressed.  (There was even some discussion that the  sexual aspect could be left out altogether. ) This represented the state of consensus reached when the National Association  of Sexual Assault Crisis Centres met in  Victoria in 1978. They adopted policy  recommending that new assault offences be  created to prohibit all acts of forcible  sexual contact and that there be no dif-  Questions have to be asked about the wisdom of deferring to  women who are working to become part of the system - a  system that has not served women's best interests.  rape by the courts (or the second rape as  we called it) sparked discussions around  rape law. We came to realize that male  attitudes to rape were enshrined in the  law, and the law in no way served to protect the physical and sexual autonomy of  women.  During this time period, some feminists,  notably Diana E. Russell, Susan Brownmil-  ler, and Debra Lewis and Lorene Clark,  began to do research in the area of rape.  Generally, these authors suggested the law  be reformed to provide for gender-free  offences of sexual assault to replace the  existing offence of rape.  The various books and articles which had  surface, coupled with the loud voices of  the "grassroots" anti-rape movement (e.g.  Rape Crisis Centres, Women Against Rape)  prompted various national bodies to take  notice of the issues being raised. Indeed,  as early as October 1974, the Advisory  ferentiation on the basis of the gender  of the parties to the offence.  Thus, by 1978 this position regarding how  rape laws should be changed was established, although there had not been extensive  debate reagrding degenderization or the  effects of suing the term "sexual assault"  instead of rape. Attention shifted to the  federal government's proposals to change  rape laws.  Government moves  The federal government's first move was  to introduce Bill C-52 into the House of  Commons - the day after the National Conference of Sexual Assault Crisis Centres.  No mention of the Bill had been made by  the government's representative who attended the Victoria conference. The Bill, proposing the substitution of "indecent  assault" and "aggravated indecent assault"  for the offence of rape, was seen merely  as a bone thrown to placate the anti-rape  lobby.  The Bill did not come close to the more  progressive Law Reform Commission working  paper on Sexual Offences which appeared  three weeks later. In fact, as was suspected would happen, the government allowed Bill C-52 to die on the order paper.  The Law Reform Commission's final recommendations came out in November of 1978  favouring the removal of husbands' exemption from prosecution for rape and suggesting that the offences of "sexual interference" and "sexual aggression" replace the  crime of rape.  In January 1981, the federal Justice Minister introduced Bill C-53- According to  staff in his department he wanted to contradict charges that he had only been  working on issues related to Canada's new  Constitution. C-53 proposed replacement  of rape by the two-tiered offence of  "sexual assault" and "aggravated sexual  assault" and represented some movement  towards the positions developed by national feminist groups. The debates about government legislation did not focus on such  key issues as definitions of sexual assault - which were left to the discretion  of the judiciary.  Instead, the discussions centred on legal  terminology, technical details and their  ramifications: Should "bodily harm" be  "serious"? Should belief of consent be  "reasonable" or merely "honest"? Were the  penalties adequate? - with sentences for  sexual assault (supposedly covering everything from "bum-pinching" to "rape with a  minimum of violence") ranging from a possible fine to ten years imprisonment. The  government's moves were centre-stage.  Women's groups were asked to put their  energy and trust in tinkering with the  criminal justice system - the very system  which has come under so much criticism  over the last ten years for its anti-  woman bias.  The practice of national  women's organizations  The two groups that have been most visible  recently in lobbying for changes in rape  laws are the National Association of Women  and the Law (NAWL) and the National Action  Committee on the Status of Women (NAC).  (The Canadian Association of Sexual Assault  Centres was not as visible. The departure,  in the summer of 1979, of the National  Assiter of the NASACC and her replacement  by a between-conference governing body of  Regional Representatives decentralized  rape crisis centres' work around legal  reform. This work was later delegated to '  the Ontario Coalition. However, for whatever reasons, CASAC does not appear as a  prominent force in the debate around legislative change.)  NAWL is a group made up mostly of lawyers  and law students. They are educationally  qualified and strategically located (including having members in key positions in  the federal government) to be advocates  for the concerns of local women's groups  who have neither the time nor the opportunity for concerted lobbying. It is logical  that government officials would prefer to  work with a national group having such  expertise. And, it is understandable that  women's groups tended to defer to NAWL as  a group with expertise that is particularly  valuable in efforts to change legislation.  However, questions have to be asked about  the wisdeom of deferring to women who are,  in the case of NAWL, actually part of or October 1982   Kinesis   11  RAPE LEGISLATION  working to become part of the system that  needs to be changed - the system that has  not traditionally served women's best interests. In the women's movement we've had  ample evidence of the difficulties women  face in working from within the system  to change it. And, we've tried to avoid  letting the state or the media set up some  of us as "experts", knowing that isolation  of such women and often unfair resentment  of them can result. A further problem is  that once we embark on a course of letting  feminists who are removed from the daily  realities of rape victims, for example,  speak for us it is harder for grassroots  concerns to be heard. Unfortunately, it  is also true that the decision-making procedures of national groups compound this  problem.  NAWL formulates policy through conferences  held every two years (e.g. 1979, 81, 83)  and in the interim periods through an  elected steering committee. The following  sequence of events is an example of this  process of policy making and shows how it  limits the participation of members at the  local level:  - February 1979 - NAWL conference recommends four tiers of sexual assault offences ("honest belief" defence was not  an issue).  - February 1981 - NAWL conference - no  further resolutions re: rape laws.  - September 1981 - NAWL brief (prepared by  a few members) in response to C-53 presented to steering committee. Brief  recommends three tiers of sexual assault  offences and adds "reasonable" to defence  of "honest belief".  - April 27, 1982 - three members of NAWL  appear before the Parliamentary Committee on C-53 to present brief.  - July 23, 1982 - Memo to members advising  of NAWL's position as set out in brief  is obvious now that the Liberals did not  bother themselves by meeting with women  who'd come from across Canada to lobby  them because they had already established  a working relationship with key members  of NAC (and NAWL) more conveniently located in Ottawa and Toronto. There is evidence to make the charge that the feds  siphoned off certain NAC (and NAWL) women  to consult - women whose positions on  amendments to the Criminal Code were relatively compatible with the government's  preferences. This practice set it up so  the government could later claim - as it  already has - that it gave us women what  we wanted. Thus, it will make any future  efforts to change the legislation even  more difficult. Unfortunately NAC, in par-  ticular, co-operated in this manoevre -  It is important to appreciate how insidiously demands from government, for input  and response, work to compromise organizations and individual advocates - particularly when the stakes are as high as rape  and assault legislation that can affect so  many Canadian women. It is neither useful  nor valid to blame the individuals involved. Also, the difficulties of being  a national women's organization in a  country the size of Canada and the pressure to respond to government, to play by  the government's rules and schedules, can  make checking with local members seem  cumbersome and inefficient. No one would  charge that NAC (or NAWL) deliberately  dienfranchised and alienated it members  - however, that is one result.  How do we define 'experts' on  Should the 'rape debate' be re  end in itself?  particular women's issues?  opened? Is legislative change an  perhaps unwittingly though, no doubt, with  good intentions.  For example, in 1982 NAC forwarded its  brief to the Parliamentary Committee on  C-53 prior to its AGM in March. Participants in the Justice workshops at the AGM  remember having to insist that the contents  of that brief be made available to them.  The brief was not  put forward for approval  by NAC members. Further, it is noteworthy  that the NAC brief deferred to NAWL and  endorsed fully the recommendations NAWL  had presented. This perpetuated and reinforced the dominance of those few women  who had taken responsibility for developing NAWL's position. In addition, when  NAC actually sent a delegate to appear in  person before the Parliamentary Committee  on C-53, its representative - a feminist  to Parliamentary Committee.  Groups such as the Vancouver Association  of Women and the Law (VAWL) and the Toronto  Area Caucus of Women and the Law (TACWL)  prepared and distributed their own analyses of Bill C-53 which differed - in  TACWL's case, substantially - from NAWL's  positions. However, as far as the federal  government was concerned, it is clear  NAWL's statements carried the most weight.  In reviewing the role of the National Action Committee, the concerns we've raised  about undue deference to experts and less  than fully democratic internal decisionmaking procedures are apparent. NAC is  Canada's premier national women's organization, with member groups as diverse as  the Communist Party of Canada and the  United Church (and including NAWL), and  claims to represent millions of Canadian  women. Lobbying is a focal point of NAC's  work and a regular adjunct to its annual  general meeting (AGM) which is held in  Ottawa each March precisely to afford  access to federal politicians.  It is significant that after NAC's 1982  lobby, members were outraged by the low  representation of Liberal MP's - particularly when women's groups had been asked  to advise the government about C-53- It  author/researcher who had previously been  consulted by the Justice Department on  drafting rape legislation - spoke at times  as an individual and contradicted some  points in the policy on which NAC's brief  was based. Later, when NAC was continuing  to lobby for improvements in C-53, its  executive and consultants found themselves  in the difficult circumstance of having  to take positions that would not undermine  NAC's credibility by contradicting what  its representative had said to the Parliamentary Committee.  A final example of the problems of responding to government is the eleventh hour  activities surrounding passage of C-127  (the abridged version of Bill C-53).  Amendments were flying from all sides in  the House of Commons and women across  Canada were trying to fathom what was  really being proposed. We had to rely on  our representatives in the east. Unfortunately, the NAC executive apparently gave  no thought to refusing to play by so-called  "parliamentary rules" and take time for  careful consideration of the amendments.  Instead, local NAC members were urged by  the executive to send telegrams supporting  a Bill they had not even seen. As it turns  out, NAC's executive support for passage  of the legislation contravenes policy  passed by delegates to its own AGM in 1982.  Questions for the future  The account and analysis of process we've  presented is not meant to undermine or  devalue the work of the women who have  researched and written or lobbied in NAC  and NAWL for changes in rape and assault  laws. Without their contributions the legislation would be even worse than C-127.  But C-127 is not good enough! And the process by which we got it raises serious  questions we must all address if we are  to learn from these experiences for future  work:  1. How do we in the women's movement define "experts" on particular women's issues? How can we balance the tendency to  value more highly the expertise acquired  through academia, research, and writing,  with the importance of expertise obtained  in direct work with women and the problems  they face in their every day experience?  2. Should the "rape debate" be re-opened?  What does "sexual assault" really mean  (there are no definitions in C-127)? How  can we cut through the legalistic jargon  and deal with the problems rape victims  and battered women will face as a result  of C-127?  3. How do we want to do legislative changed  Do we see legislative change as an end in  itself? Shouldn't we be pressuring for  needed reforms in such a way as to empower  and politicize women in the process? In  terms of a strategy for legislative change  - do we accept that change must come about  gradually; that we must respond to governments' language, time tables, and rules;  that some change is better than none; and  should we tailor our demands to what is  "feasible"?  4-. How can national women's organizations  be more effective advocates  for the concerns identified by feminists working with  women at the grassroots/community level?  Can the decision-making structure and  practices of national groups be revised to  respect local groups more and minimize  eastern domination? Can local groups find  ways of participating more fully in national organizations so that women working at  the federal level are less isolated and  better supported? Can the NAC October 22-  24- mid-year meetings in Vancouver be a  place to start?  The years preceding the passage of Bill  C-127 provide us with a "case study" of a  recurring problem - how do we best integrate the efforts of women working at all  levels and simultaneously resist pressure  to play by the government's rules? If discussion of the issues raised here provides  us with a better blueprint for our future  work, we will have made significant gains  from a bad situation. 12    Kinesis    October 1982  RAPE LEGISLATION  by Joanne Ranson  The following is the first in a series of  articles outlining critical defects in  Bill-127,   the new sexual assault legislation.   Some women's groups and individuals  have praised the legislation and others  have proclaimed it a "step forward".  However,  there is evidence to indicate that  the changes will merely provide a modernized smokescreen for the same old problems  and,  in fact,  create some new ones.  The issue of consent has always been central in the prosecution of rape cases. In  fact, it has been said that rape is a  unique offense in that the central issue  in the courtroom has been the mental state  of the victim (i.e. consent vs. non-consent) rather than the behaviour of the  offender (the use of force or coercion).  Bill C-127 claims, on the surface, to alter this state of legal affairs. But does  it?  Actual consent to any assault, whether it  be sexual or otherwise, will prevent conviction of the offense. In fact, it is the  corwn's duty to prove beyond a reasonable  doubt  that there was no consent to the act.  That this has been a less important aspect  of court procedures in non-sexual assault  cases says as much about the attitudes  (both legal and otherwise) towards women  and violence as it does about the letter  of the law.  Proving non-consent, especially in sexual  assault situations, can be a very heavy  burden. For instance in the Saskatchewan  case of R.   v.  Pelletier  the Court of Appeal indicated that tearing of clothing,  dirt on clothing and semen stains together  do not necessarily corroborate (or support)  the victim's calim of non-consent. Further,  in a B.C. case, R.   v.  Jones,   it was stated:  It is not enough for a woman to say  "I was  afraid of serious bodily harm and therefor consented." She must prove in evidence  that she had due reason to be afraid and  that she took every reasonable precaution  to avoid the outrage.  On May 20, 1980, the Supreme Court of  Canada added a further burden to the  Crown's proof of non-consent. The court  decided in the case of R.   v.   Pappajohn  that if the accused honestly believed  consent was given, then he could be acquitted  if his evidence is believed. The court  further indicated that although the reasonableness of the accused's belief is  evidence of whether he actually held the  belief, it is not necessary that the belief be based on reasonable grounds.  That decision was a radical change from  the then existing rape law. It has now  been incorporated into the proposed legislative changes to the Criminal Code relating to sexual offences in Bill C-127  (section 244(4-)). There are some who are  prepared to accept the incorporation of  this defence outright and others with the  provision that the honest belief be based  on reasonable grounds. This acceptance is  often bolstered by the argument that the  defence of an "honest belief in a mistake  of fact" is used in other offences, and,  that to allow it in cases of sexual assault is only proper to be "fair" to the  accused.  Clearly, however, there is no other criminal offence in which the law is so prejudicial to the complainant and so conducive  to protecting the accused from conviction.  This is so because of existing societal  attitudes as well as judicial interpretation. As one author has noted:  ...judges filled the gaps with a century  of misogynist case law,  adding inequities,  burdens of proof and plain insult.  1  The inclusion of this defence may have far  reaching consequences, all of which can  only reduce the already insufficient protection provided to victims of sexual  Consent  and  Honest Belief  in C-127  A hM*%tl«u<S-  A Critical Flaw  assault.  First, except in cases of sexual assaults  by "complete strangers" (which are by no  means in the majority), there may well be  fewer charges laid, fewer convictions and,  where there are convictions, lighter sentences. We are living in a society which  generally "honestly" and yes, "reasonably"  believes that consent to physical interaction between men and women includes consent to sexual intercourse; that women  cannot resist male sex and charm; that a  woman's body is inherently a "come-on",  inviting sexual advances from men; that  men cannot control their sexual impulses;  that women have asked for it by virtue of  their mode of dress, their geographical  location (in a bar or on the street at  night), or their status (virginal vs. non-  virginal); that it is natural for women  to resist (although they don't mean  it)  and for men to be aggressive and forceful;  that sexual assaults are primarily a result of men seeking sexual encounters  with women. Further, we have a media which  on the whole publishes and broadcasts that  women enjoy being beaten and raped.  Keeping this in mind, surely it will not  be difficult for an accused to produce  "acceptable evidence" to support a defence  of honest belief of consent - and, even  that the belief is based upon "reasonable"  grounds. Bear in mind that in the eyes of  the law the definition of reasonable is  what the average man  in the street consid  ers reasonable. Further, once evidence  has been led to support a defence of  "honest belief", even in a conviction is  obtained, it may well be that this evidence will be seen as a mitigating factor,  i.e. it will make the offence seem less  serious and so result in lighter sentences.  A second consequence of this defence relates to the provisions regarding "spousal"  immunity. The offence of rape has always  restricted prosecution to those men who  rape women who are not their wives. The  proposed legislation claims to remove this  "spousal" immunity. As an aside, it should  be noted that there never has been an immunity granted to husbands in the offence  of indecent assault on a female. In any  event, the honest belief defence may well,  in practice, reverse the removal of  "spousal" immunity and put us right back  where we have always been - without protection from men who carry a marriage license. It is only logical to assume that  husbands who are accused will be able to  >   produce acceptable and "reasonable" evidence of honest belief. Firstly, they may  say that prior consent of their wives made  them honestly believe that there was consent this time. And, in this regard, it  must be remembered that evidence of prior  sexual relations between the complainant  and the accused is always admissable as  evidence of consent.  Even where visible injury has been inflicted upon the wife, the defence may still  hold up, particularly in cases where there  has been a history of battering or, more  legally put, "domestic disputes". Can we  hear him say, "That's the way we make up  after fighting"? Often, a battered wife  will not be able to resist his sexual advances after a beating and this non-resist-  o  ance will itself assist in the defence of  ■g  honest belief of consent.  Another concern here can arise where husbands are acquitted of sexual assault,  when that assault was preceded by a beating. A jury, having believed in his version regarding consent to the sexual assault, will go further and also acquit on  included charges of common assault. In  other words if the jury has found the  husband more believable in respect of the  allegations of sexual assault, they are  more likely to find him more credible in  respect of the charge of common assault.  Honest belief must be  removed in its entirety  just to maintain the inadequate protection  women have  under existing law.  This is only one area of the proposed  changes to the laws relating to sexual offences which belies the claim that the  legislation is progressive and will provide  better protection for women. In a society  where reasonable and honest beliefs oppress  women, such a defence can only maintain  and condone that oppression. The defence  of honest belief must be removed in its  entirety just  to maintain the inadequate  protection women have under the existing  law.  1. Ben Dor, J., "Justice After Rape: Legal  Reform in Michigan" in Walker, M. and  Brodsky, S., eds., Sexual Assault,  Heath & Co., Toronto, 1976, p. 149:15/4. October 1982   Kinesis    13  WOMEN AND FILM  Bonnie Kreps: An artist with a vision  by Michele Wollstonecroft  "What I'm trying to do is get a human portrait; a little cameo of a thing in our  lives.  It has no hooks,  doesn't point the  finger,  has no axe to grind. "  Bonnie Kreps  (A Woman's Film Aesthetic)  Bonnie Kreps is a woman with a vision. She  is a feminist, a journalist and a documentary filmmaker. Bonnie's films are unique,  for while they present radical feminist insights about the world we live in, they do  not "axe grind" but rather portray ordinary  people with a sensitivity and respect  rarely found in film or the media.  Bonnie began producing independent films in  1969, with a strong academic background  and three years experience at CTV. "I wanted to say things from my experience, in my  way," she said, and being a "confirmed  freelancer", she wanted to be independent.  At this time Bonnie decided she was not  interested in "success" per se, but wanted  to communicate ideas that would "move  people's feelings". Since 1969 Bonnie has  made five films; After the Vote  (1969),  Portrait of My Mother(1974),Mountain Dance  (1976),This Film is About Rape  (1978) and  No Life For a Woman.  All these films are  distributed by Canadian Filmmakers Distribution West, with the exception of No Life  for a Woman  which is available through the  NFB. Bonnie is currently working on her  sixth film which is about women who work  the family farms in the Peace River District.  Looking back on her films, in A Woman's  Film Aesthetic  (a video tape about Bonnie  Kreps, produced by Peg Campbell and available through the Canadian Film Distribution Centre) Bonnie classifies them by  phases.  Phase I was women making a film about the  things they didn't like about the male  world in which they lived and worked. This  was After the Vote,  a black and white 22  minute film that includes footage of  beauty pageants, the soundover being the  song "I enjoy being a girl", cut with  interviews with people such as Ti-Grace  Atkinson discussing sex stereotyping.  Although Bonnie later criticized the film  for "using a masculine medium in a masculine way with a masculine structure..."  she also notes that the content is still  relevant, because, unfortunately, the  world has not changed for women and men.  Phase II was to make a film giving visibility to a "positive model" for women.  Thus Bonnie made Portrait of My Mother,  (Colour, 25 minutes). With an all-woman  crew Bonnie documented her mother. The  CFDC catalogue appropriately describes the  film this way: "Bonnie Kreps visited her  mother in her Wyoming cabin/home and recorded the pleasures and challenges of a  life lived quietly, independently and in  harmony with nature. This is a film that  avoids any hyped-up message or mystery;  the camera is attentive rather than dicta-  torial. A movie that respects its subject  who in turn respects herself and her surroundings ."  The film includes shots of Bonnie's mother  baking bread, as well as of the crew and  Bonnie's mother scaling a steep mountainside, then having a picnic, and descending.  It centres on women being strong together  and sharing their skills, their lunch and  stories.  Phase III sees the world though the eyes  of women. Phase III is Mountain Dance  (Colour, 10 minutes) an absolutely delightful and amusing documentation of women enjoying a mountain.  Mountain Dance  was an experimental film  for Bonnie, because it was an attempt to  break from her academic background. However, although the CFDC have it listed as  an experimental film, Bonnie sees it as a  documentary.  This is a dance film in four parts which  attempts to integrate dancing with nature,  and, again, was shot in the mountains of  Wyoming. One scene includes shots of a  woman dancing on the mountain, cut between  shots of a chipmunk scurrying about. A  woman dances down the face of a cliff on  a rope, and a dancer lies on the mountain  enjoying tapping her foot.  Here is a wonderful fresh female view of  nature as something that we are part of,  rather than the male view that nature is  something to be conquered.  This Film is About Rape  (colour, 29 min. )  is "an analysis of rape that is intended  to reach people at an emotional level so  that they may wish to change some of their  possibly wrong ideas about rape-a subject  permeated by myths". ( CFDC catalogue) It  includes interviews with a woman who was  the victim of an attempted rape, as well  as two convicted rapists. Bonnie notes  that "..there must be mutual trust and  respect" in order to allow the interviewee  to "have the courage and generosity to  open up to you."  Although this film centres on rape as an  act of aggression against women by men, it  does not "axe grind", but says" is is awful..and look".  No Life For a Woman  is about a company  town in the underpopulated regions of Northern B.C. that has brought men in to work  in their plants, without considering the  lives of the women who accompany these men.  This film discloses the isolation these  women suffer and includes interviews with  women in women's centres and their homes.  Bonnie is currently working on a film about  the Women of the Peace (not the actual  title). This film is Phase IV in Bonnie's  analysis - "A critique of the male culture,  from brass tacks." In documenting the  farmers and ranchers of the Peace Valley  in B.C. Bonnie is concerned with the way  our nation treats food producers and production areas of land. Noting that only one  percent of our land is used for producing  food, she then explains how these production areas are being threatened-by development, as in the Niagara peninsula, and by  foreign investment, as in the Peace Valley  where family farmers are tenants on land  belonging to foreign investors.  This film will criticize the less-than-  sane attitudes of a dominant culture that  does not value the land, that considers  tilling the land basically feminine-hence,  something to rape.  Presently Bonnie is back filming the Women  of the Peace as they roll out their big  machines for harvest. Of these women, who  participate in all aspects of farming,  Bonnie says, "Without exception these are  the most calmly self-possessed people I've  met." Bonnie is filming these women as  they go about their "Women's Work" as well  •> their farm work.  Women of the Peace is directed by Bonnie  Kreps, Nina Wisnicki is the camera operator, Debra Parks is the assistant camera,  Martin Fossum is on sound and Sharon  McGowan is the researcher and location  manager.  Beginning November 1st Haida Paul will be  editing this film. "I almost would make a  film just to work with Haida Paul," Bonnie  says and notes that Haida edits all of  her films.  Bonnie Kreps considers herself to be a  "peripatetic feminist", a woman who walks  about while in search for knowledge. Even  though her subject matter in both film and  writing is eclectic, Bonnie's message is  consistent: "...the 'normal' world is  basically boring and rigid...Look around  and observe the lack of originality that  manifests itself everywhere. The uniformity  of behaviour is stultifying. Our inventions  are boring beyond belief." Bonnie's films  tell us that we are interesting  and encourage us to have the courage to be ourselves.    .,  Christie is the daughter of one of the farmwomen in the Peace District. She can't resist getting in on the film action 14   Kinesis   October 1982  October 1982    Kinesis    15  four women  talk about finding  room behind the cameras  in traditionally male territory  by Brenda Longfellow  reprinted with permission from Cinema Canada  Individual women have been and done everything that individual men have done at  some time or other if only to prove that  they could.  Jane Marsh  Pioneer woman director  (quoted by Barbara Halpern Martineau,  "Before the Guerillieres," Canadian Film  Reader)  Trailblazers  Women technicians may be an exotic species  in the male-dominated film industry, but  they are not a new phenomenon. Forty years  ago, women sound and camera operators were  being recruited, along with women producers and directors to fuel the wartime propaganda machine that was to be the National  Film Board (NFB) under Grierson. Judith  Crawley and Sally Macdonald were brought  in as "camera" and "sound" respectively,  to shoot films on nutrition, daycare and  folk traditions with directors Evelyn  Spice Cherry, Gudrun Parker and Laura  Bolton. Margaret Perry, who, after the  death of her husband, bought herself a  camera with the insurance money and taught  herself photography, worked at the Board  as camera operator before going on to  become a one woman show - writing, shooting, producing and directing films out  of the NFB unit in Nova Scotia.  As Judith Crawley pointed out,  There was no sex prejudice against women.  There was no one else around and the thing  was if there was a human being who seemed  to have some command of the situation and  the ability to do something,   then that  human being was drafted.  Sex didn't enter  into it.   If you were there and you could  do it,  by all means do it.  The stipulation for women, however, was  that they not allow their biology to interfere with their filmmaking. Grierson,  Crawley commented, did not approve of  families and demanded absolute commitment  and dedication, regarding marriage or  pregnancy among his women staffers as  personal affronts.  The wartime receptivity of the film industry to women proved to be shortlived. It  had been, from the very beginning, contingent on the shortage of creative manpower  - a result of the war effort. Like their  sisters in the farm, mining and manufacturing sectors, the services of women in  the film industry were no longer required  once the war was over and the men returned.  The well-concerted movement which effected  the massive retreat of women into the home  took its toll at the NFB. Whether through  attrition or conscious policy (Crawley and  Sally Macdonald disagreed on the point),  the women who had occupied positions at  the Board during the war were quietly replaced by men.  The cold war hysteria which plunged the  NFB into a series of crises at the end of  the war (and which culminated in the removal of Grierson), changed the political  climate at the Board. "People became cautious," noted Crawley, "afraid of innovation. The encouragement of women suffered  as a result."  Crawley eventually hung up her camera altogether to become writer-producer at Crawley Films, later to be joined by Sally  Macdonald who would work primarily as  editor for the next 30 years. Women camera  and sound technicians slowly disappeared  from the film scene, creating a hiatus  which continued until the early 1970s.  Behind the man behind the camera  While female technicians may have endured  an ephemeral existence, women have never  been entirely absent from the film industry. They have always occupied certain  positions: make-up, hair, wardrobe, administrative support - those support functions traditionally associated with women's work. These so-called "women's  ghettos" continue to provide for the largest concentrations of womenpower within  the film industry.  International Association of Theater and  Screen Employees (IATSE) 647 has four women camera operators and assistants out  of a total membership of 200. The Canadian Association of Motion Picture and Electronic Recording Artists (CAMERA) maintains a slightly better showing with ten  women out of a total of 100. The Canadian  Broadcasting Corporation has no female  camera persons on staff, out of a total  of 70 cameramen and the NFB has two out  of 13. Female sound recordists are an  even rarer breed, the Canadian Film Sound  Society reporting only eight out of 60.  The feminine mystique  But if the numbers are insignificant, the  challenge posed by the group of women who  have crossed the frontier of "no women  allowed" is not. There is something subversive about the image of a woman confidently operating a camera or adjusting  levels on a Nagra. Like female rock Dands,  the effect is uncanny and exciting. Which  is not to say that changing the gender  behind the equipment automatically ushers  in a feminist vision of filmmaking. Obviously, the latter demands the development of a women-identified consciousness  and a work environment in which women  have the opportunity to contribute to the  decision-making process.  The emergence of a new generation of women  sound and camera operators, however, does  provide a critical element in the evolution of woman's film practice. All too  often, one tends to define the latter in  terms of women directors or of particular  subject matter, ignoring the fact that  the majority of directors are dependent  on a knowledge of technique developed over  the last 90 years in the context of an  institution dominated by male perceptions  and visions. The increasing mastery of  technique by women working in conjunction  with directors open to creative interchange  and innovation would, indeed, constitute  a very real potential for the future.  Coming from backgrounds as varied as medieval studies, English literature, still  photography or teaching emotionally disturbed children, today's women sound recordists, camera operators and assistants  may be seen as the just descendents of  the NFB pioneers under Grierson. While  largely concentrated in independent documentary production which, in the majority  of cases, provided the point of entry and  the training ground, some have succeeded  in crossing the more resistant barriers  of the feature film industry and several  have established their own production  companies. Stationed on the front line of  production, with a collective experience  that runs the gamut of Dracula documentaries in Bucharest to television reportage  of the Middle East War, they are proving  on a daily, practical basis the fallacy  of myths that a woman can't: that she is  physically too weak, or that the technical  mastery required is beyond her grasp.  I Susan Trow (top) and Mary Armstrong  With reference to the "physically weak"  argument (and apart from the fact that the  development of lightweight equipment is  undermining its legitimacy), all of the  women interviewed were engaged in some  regular physical regime as a means of developing the muscle structure required for  their work. Zoe Dirse, assistant camera at  the NFB, remarked, "The thing is knowing  your limits." She tells the story of being  challenged to lift a 90 lb. camera by a  fellow student in a course given by the  Canadian Society of Cinematographers  (CSC). She refused and suggested the  challenger attempt it. "Of course," she  adds wrily, "he couldn't."  Women have historically been isolated from  technology by a sexual division of labour  and a socialization process which discourages women from gaining a familiarity with  machines. Not surprisingly, many of the  women interviewed admitted to certain inhibitions in confronting the technology  of filmmaking.  In any event, an absorption with technology was never the single most important  factor inspiring the movement of women  into technical positions. More often, the  reasons cited were that working in sound  or camera provided financial security and  a means of realizing social and creative  ambitions. As Aerlyn Wiseman, sound recordist, explains,  I'm not a techy.  I don't spend hours playing with my equipment.  I keep it in shape  and do what I have to.  But that's never  been the most absorbing thing about filmmaking for me.   I wanted to go out in the  real world and deal with people.   Sound  was a way of doing that.  It's only a  vehicle.  Breaking in  Women feel they have to work harder at it.  There's this feeling,   "I've got to be  better than he is in order to be accepted,  in order to make it." There 's this drive  to show them that we can do it too.  Susan Trow  Most of the women arrived in filmmaking  by a number of circuitous routes, having  already embarked on one career or other.  Zoe Dirse, for example, was engaged on  a film for emotionally disturbed children  because she had worked in the field for  two years. Aerlyn Wiseman wrangled her  way into a job as sound recordist with a  student documentary crew, having never  been introduced to a Nagra before:  I needed the money.   I was trying to work  my way through medieval studies at the  University of Illinois and I heard of  this job paying $2.50 an hour which was  more than you could make waitressing.  They asked me if I knew how to record and  I lied.  But I learned very rapidly where  to plug the mike in,  what a crystal generator was and how to turn the machine  off and on.   I just proceeded from there.  While a number of the women had attended  college, university or CSC courses, the  majority started by experimenting with  the machinery on their own and then set  out to gain experience in the "real world".  A difficult prospect, it seems.  Getting the first break is a major obstacle for anyone trying to work in the film  industry, but for women who, for the most  part, are denied access to the informal  mentor system - the old boys' network  which brings in and grooms new technicians  - the obstacles are doubly difficult. With  the exception of Studio D (the women's  studio at the NFB), which has endeavoured  to promote women technicians and with  which both Trow and Joan Hutton, assistant  camera, credited getting their starts, the  majority of women relied on their own considerable resources. Take Deborah Parks,  assistant camera, for example:  I had done a lot of sewing in high school,  so I set up a barney-making business   (a  barney is the cloth coat used over a camera to muffle noise).   I'd phone up cameramen.   "Hello.   I'm an assistant but I make  barneys." They'd drop their equipment at  my place and I'd meet them.   I built up  quite a rapport and they started thinking  of me when they needed an assistant.  Or Carol Betts, camera operator:  I was teaching English at college and  realized this wasn't what I wanted to do  for the rest of my life.   So I went out and  bought a Bolex,  and some short ends and  started doing local stories for TV news  on spec:  covering events and bringing the  film in.   I learned how to react quickly.  Just picking up the camera and doing it  allowed me the freedom to do what I wanted  and to experiment.  If starting is one thing, getting hired is  quite another. People in positions of hiring - usually male producers and directors  - tend to hire male technicians who have  had the advantage of being similarly favoured by other male directors and producers. For women, this creates a kind of  double bind situation as Deborah Parks  explains. "The excuse is usually that wo  men are not experienced enough. But how  can I get the experience if I'm never given a chance? I'll never have the confidence to shoot 'til I do it."  The problem of gaining acceptance, however,  does not stop short of being engaged by  a director or producer. There is the whole  delicate area of establishing a working  relationship with film crews, which have  traditionally functioned on a dynamic of  male camaraderie and which, naturally,  have a certain interest in preserving the  territory.  "Anyone new," says Wiseman, "is subjected  to the 'checkout', but for women it's  different. There are a lot more-preconceptions ."  "You've got to prove yourself more if  you're a woman because people are watching  for it," adds Dirse;  At first,   there are always people around  I Petra Valier (top) and Debra Parks  trying to help you carry and you just don't  do that.   They wouldn't do it for a man  and it's not their job.   They have to learn  too.   That's the first thing someone will  turn around and point their finger at.   Oh,  she can't do the job.   We won't hire her.  Defining a new working relationship is,  however, a two-way process, and it's not  only the male crew members who have had  to make the social adjustments demanded  by the entry of women into the field. Women, as well, have had to make certain  psychological accommodations, as Trow  points out,  I've had to do some adjusting myself to  being in a position of authority.   It's  role reversal for women.   I've often wondered how does this man feel about being  my assistant.   But I've never felt resentment.  Changing the balance  There is every evidence that a new dynamic  is, evolving as women attain a certain visibility and prove the potential of their  contribution. Ingrid G. Cusiel, sound recordist, points out that many directors  "are now discovering that women bring  something special to a film." "Especially  on a feature film," adds Dirse, "if you  have five men on the camera crew then a  woman can bring a really nice balance."  John Walker, director, who has just completed a documentary on artist Georgia  O'Keefe with Wiseman on sound and Parks  as camera assistant, commented that:  Too often we neglect the emotional, pas  sionate side of filmmaking.   Filmmaking is  not just a technical medium, particularly  with social documentaries.  It's dealing  with human beings,  relating to the subject  you are filming.   Women can make that contribution.   They aren't afraid of expressing their feelings.   I find I get a lot  more valuable input on a film from a  mixed crew.  One particularly encouraging sign is the  increasing collaboration between women  technicians and women directors with films  such as P4W,  Janis Cole and Holly Dale's  splendid documentary on the Kingston  Prison for Women. Aerlyn Wiseman, who recorded sound with Nesya Shapiro on camera,  insisted the all-woman crew was instrumental in producing the final quality of  the film.  "My God.'",  people said,   "How did you get  people to talk to you?" It meant developing a good trusting rapport,  making those  ladies feel comfortable.  And that involved  all of us.   We all contributed.  Future predictions  I can't understand why there aren't more  women.   Being a technician is the most  fantastic thing... Joan Hutton  What about the future? Is the current revival of women technicians again an ephemeral phenomenon? Most of the women interviewed claimed they did not see many encouraging signs among younger groups of  women of a pronounced desire to enter the  field.  "It would be marvelous to work with other  women," says Ingrid G. Cusiel,  but there aren't that many.   It's a hard  and lonely job.   There's so much demand to  build a reputation and that takes years  as a technician.  And there's the investment you have to make in the equipment  which gets very restrictive.  "There's also the emotional and lifestyle  demands," adds Wiseman, for whom a traditional family scene "is simply not in the  cards".  "Certainly I've thought of having children, " adds Trow, "but the system really  forces you to make a choice and that's  frustrating because men can always have  both. Women in this kind of work simply  don't have the support systems that would  make it possible."  While enrollment of women in film production courses has in fact increased, the  numbers are still far from encouraging.  York University, for example, had only  three women graduating in 1981 as compared  to 11 men; Concordia had one as compared  to 13 men; Ryerson 19 out of 87 and Sheridan College 13 out of 28. Of these, the  overwhelming majority tended to secure  employment in media-related industries  as writers or producers.  Why the continued underrepresentation of  women in technical positions? Can the  responsibility be laid at the doors of  the film schools? "Not really," says  Marjorie Morton, director of production  at Concordia.  Women themselves are making those decisions.   Women tend to see film as an expressive medium and,  as a result,  opt  more for studio courses - experimental  filmmaking or animation.  More often than  not,   they tend to get alienated,    by the  egos and personality politics of large  crews and prefer working on their own.  Obviously, enhancing the development of  women technicians would demand the increased commitment of all sectors of the  film industry - schools, unions, public  and private institutions. A difficult  prospect given the current climate of  economic restraint and unemployment. One  possible solution might lie in the development of apprenticeship programs specifically geared to meeting the needs and  interests of women, programs like the  month-long Film Production Workshop organized at Studio D last fall which proved  to be enormously successful. 16 'Ģ Kinesis . October 4982  WOMEN AND FILM  WOMEN on the SCREEN  by Barbara Evans  The question of how women have been represented on the screen has been dealt with  extensively by feminist critics. The vamp  of the 20's and 30's, the "women's weepies" of the 40*s, the Popcorn Venus of the  50's and 60's have all been chronicled by  writers such as Joan Millen and Marjorie  Rosen in fairly accessible books, and by  others such as Claire Johnston, Laura  Mulvey and Annette Kuhn in more difficult  but important works.  The late 1970's seemed to put us into a  new era of films about women. Films such  as An Unmarried Woman, Julia, Alice Doesn't  Live Here Anymore  and Norma Rae  apparently  gave us new models - positive cultural  heroines at least partially in control of  their own destinies and situated at the  centre of the drama.  But did these new, powerful heroines real-  drama; in films such as Raiders of the  Lost Ark  the female lead is a mere accessory. A parallel development is cinema's  casting of women in a new mould. For  "liberated" now read "tough". Films such  as Body Heat  and Fassbinder's Lola  show  women with rather ignoble goals and the  ability to attain them, a depiction not  particularly flattering to women and one  which seems to cast more light on the  fantasies of their creators than the women  characters themselves.  In my work as a filmmaker, I have come to  the uncomfortable realization that this  version of "liberation" is easier for men  to deal with than a more complex, vulnerable character. Men like the screen image  of the tough woman. It lets them off the  hook. How much simpler to deal with a woman who can cope with anything. Knock her  down and she can retaliate with a karate  chip; abandon her and she can always find  ly serve a positive function in the changing history of women's iconography? Although a decidely forward step out of the  quagmire of docile, dependent sex objects,  these heroines are problematic because  they do not deal with women at a personal,  emotional level but rather on the level of  the superstar, working her problems out in  the end, with no cracks in the glossy wallpaper. They also tend to individualize  male/female contradictions, instead of  putting them in a social context or confronting the real threat to women's self-  development - patriarchy.  Why was this swing of the pendulum towards  the image of the "strong woman" so attractive to Hollywood and its satellites? Of  course, marketing considerations were a  major factor. The appropriation of feminist themes, albeit almost ten years after  the inception of the women's movement,  and their distortion into a commercially  viable package, was not unappealing to  the financial moguls.  Hollywood's version of the liberated woman  was saleable - her liberation was usually  portrayed in sexual rather than intellectual terms. Her quest for identity more  often than not ended her up in the arms  of understanding men such as Kris Kristof-  ferson or Alan Bates - men who, in their  roles as saviours, became curiously flaccid and uninteresting. But still, there  was some attempt to give these heroines  an emotional range and depth.  At the beginning of the 80's we are into  another phase. Now it seems that it is  men's psyches which are "bankable" once  again, as evidenced by films such as  Kramer vs.   Kramer,  Diner  and Making Love.  Hollywood's probings into the female  psyche seem to be, at least temporarily,  in abeyance. Even 9 to 5  dealt only with  caricatures, however amusing or laudable.  In general, films of the 80's have tended  to situate women at the periphery of the  someone else, or go back to college. This  is not to say that a woman shouldn't be  resilient and seek out alternatives. But  the movie version seems to me to be a  twisted intrusion of male fantasies onto  the female character, a superimposition  of some of the less desirable qualities of  the male psyche, however much sociologically determined.  This simplistic view of the "liberated"  woman eliminates the need for men to take  responsibility in their social and sexual  relationships with women. Of course, the  quest for liberation is essential for women, but Hollywood's packaging of it is  all too often a convenient escape for men  and may pose a serious impediment, if not  a threat, to women actually discovering  their own routes to liberation.  This is not to say we don't need strong  cultural heroines to serve as role models  and inspirations. But this brand of Hollywood liberation is distorted and one-sided. It makes the gap between life as depicted on the screen and life as it is in  reality even wider. This has its class  base too, of course. Films like Making  Love,  although ostensibly dealing with  gay relationship between men, are able to  show the central female character who can  cope, only because she comes from a white,  upper-middle-class and professional background - a kind of female cinematic protagonist equivalent of a Virginia Slims  advertisement. This Virginia Slims syndrome operates in the vast majority of  films which feature a woman as the central  character, from An Unmarried Woman  to The  China Syndrome.  How do women who work in films manage within these contradictions, and how do they  go about trying to bring about change? One  answer is to work with an all-woman crew.  But to date, few films have been made in  this manner. The London Women's Film  Group, with which I worked for some years  in England, made a number of films, but  projects were difficult to finance, since  a women's film group was seen as marginal  and somewhat ephemeral by those in a position to hand out grants.  The London Women's Film Group operated as  a collective, with the women involved rotating jobs and sharing skills. While this  was an invaluable experience and produced  some influential films such as The Amazing  Equal Pay Show  and Let Down Tour Hair,  the  films were most significant because of the  process by which they were produced. The  strains of working without pay, the difficulties of making collective decisions  and the time-consuming task of teaching  one another technicial skills eventually  caused the group to disband. However, it  was an exciting experiment, and other  women's film groups have emerged to continue the work.  The National Film Board's Studio D, which  produced among many other films, Not A  Love Story,  remains perhaps the most positive arena for women filmmakers in this  country. Studio D is, however, currently  suffering from severe budget cutbacks.  Independent filmmakers still stand a  chance of getting their work onto the  screen without excessive interference,  when they can raise the money. A film like  P4W is a good example. But funds for independent films are becoming increasingly  difficult to raise. Even the directors of  P4W have to augment their incomes by working within the established industry.  The established film industry presents  serious problems for a woman filmmaker.  Even women directors find the films they  make not wholly within their control,  being dependent, as they are, on a large  crew composed mainly of men, who are still  seen as the chief bearers of technical  knowledge and skills. And women's voices  are far too often stifled by those who  control the purse-strings. Unfortunately  for the cause of women's self-expression,  these are usually men. Claudia Weill,  whose independent feature Girlfriends  was  in many ways a landmark film, had the un-  fortunate experience of having her later  This simplistic view of the  'liberated woman' eliminates  the need for men to take  responsibility in their social  and sexual relationships.  work re-edited when she entered the Hollywood machine.  Even if a director works with a woman producer, the problems may not be that different. The pressure to succumb to the  ever-present "bete noir" of profitability  is, of course, felt keenly by all filmmakers, male and female alike. If you want  to make another film, the film you're  working on has to be successful. Unless  you're the female equivalent of a Coppola  you'll never get another chance if you  bomb out. The concessions, both conscious  and unconscious, that this imposes are immeasurable. The struggle for a woman to  convince financiers that she is "bankable"  in the first place, is particularly difficult.  The woman director is, moreover, at the  mercy of her cinematographer, usually  male. Critical and often subtle aesthetic  decisions, such as framing, lighting, and October W8-^(: Krhesls^ 17s1  WOMEN AND FILM  choice of lenses are within his domain.  No matter how scrupulously the director  tries to control the camerawork, she is  not behind the camera. Unless she is  shooting the film herself, an unusual and  often disastrous experience for any filmmaker, there is always the possibility of  unpleasant surprises when the dailies are  screened. These surprises may turn out to  be too costly to correct.  One of the answers is for  women to acquire the  technical expertise in order  to exercise control over all  aspects of the medium  Ideally, the woman editor has the possibility of thoughtfully constructing the  best possible representation of women that  she can, but only insofar as her material  allows, material over which she has little  or no control. And she, too, is subject  to the "final" decisions of her male superiors in the hierarchy.  However, editors do have a greater influence over the finished film than is gen  erally recognized, laurels usually going  to the writer and director. It is perhaps  not surprising that women tend to get a  fairer shake at being complex personalities in European cinema, where women are  very frequently the editors. Here in North  America, the women film editor is still  the exception, not the rule.  Even in documentary films, the editor is  often given little choice. Unless a film  is specifically about women, the footage  usually consists of men. Male experts  tend to cover important matters and provide analysis. Women usually appear as  cutaways, attractive women whose faces,  or other parts of the anatomy, the cameraman has focused lovingly upon.  And, of course, the woman writer is subjected to interference all along the line,  which can cause her original concept to  be so distorted that it is almost unrecognizable. Once they have been filtered  through the hierarchy of the filmmaking  system, female characters who may have  been portrayed sympathetically by the woman writer as realistic people with problems, run the risk of ending up as neurotics in less sympathetic hands. Adaptations of works by women writers tend to  stray even further afield. A good example  of this is a comparison of Margaret  Atwood's novel Surfacing  with the film of  the same name, directed by Claude Jutra  and, ironically, produced by a woman,  Beryl Fox.  One of the answers to this perpetual conundrum is for women to acquire the technical expertise in order to exercise control over all aspects of the medium. This  too is not without its problems, since  most training, either at film schools or  as an apprentice, is under the auspices of  men.  Film schools, like the industry itself,  are directed by men, and women are consequently examined and judged by men who  have their own expectations of how women  should behave, both on and off the screen.  I had the experience while at film school  of being told by my male tutors that "women do not talk like that" in reference to  a film I was submitting for their approval  - which I had to have in order to graduate.  My teachers, too, equated liberation with  toughness. Women who cried provoked horror. I was given lectures about the ideal  liberated woman who, apparently, doesn't  cry any more. Crying is a sign of weakness  and we want our women to be tough, after  all.  It seems the struggle to gain control over  our own screen image is still very much  at the beginning stage.  Haida Paul: notes from a film editor  by Haida Paul  In grade school I wanted to be a baseball  player, a pirate and a play writer. In  high school I wanted to be a gun moll. Instead I became a very young and unsuccessful wife and mother. Soon divorced, I went  out to seek my fortune.  I worked in banks, clerical pools, insurance agencies and doctors' offices. I  learned to type, keep books, take shorthand  and wear high-heeled shoes. By then it was  1960. I discovered art, jazz, literature  and beatniks. I got a job in an advertising agency. I worked as a production assistant on a TV quiz show by day and pondered  upon the meaning of life by night. I went  to see "Jules et Jim" and joined 'film soc'  at UBC.  I didn't know films were made, (as In manufactured). I thought they sprang, like  Aphrodite, fully-formed and perfect,  straight from the camera,sound track complete and every dissolve in place and I  guess I thought everyone just stood real  still for the freeze frames.  I got a job in the film department at CBC  and discovered the splicer, the moviola,  and the synchronizer. I was astonished.  Film was not real life. It was made up,  arranged and rearranged, organized and,.  most of all, fudged, particularly in documentaries. I learned to sync rushes, cut  negative and split sound tracks.  In 1966 I went to Beirut, sort of by  accident, where I got a job snipping censored bits out of American TV shows destined to be shown in Saudi Arabia. Exposed  thighs were snipped from golf series. Cartoon characters, particularly piggies and  angels, were clipped out and curled up on  the shelf to be re-inserted after telecast  so the films could be returned intact to  the U.S. I prepared a Bonanza series for  dubbing into Arabic and deleted offensive  images from episodes of Gilligan's Island.  I returned to Canada a year later to Be-ins,  beads and, for me, two babies a year apart.  I made bread, canned fruit and learned to  spin. I went to night school and studied  Math, Biology and French. I began to think  about my future.  I decided to become a pre-school teacher  and began to take courses in early childhood education. This, illogically enough,  led to my getting a job as an assistant  editor on a low-budget feature film.  Since that time I have ploughed my way  through some 900,000 feet of film that had  to be screened and rescreened repeatedly  during the editing process. I estimate  that, at a minimum of forty hours per week  for ten months per year for ten years - a  total of 16,000 hours, multiplied by a  projection speed of 2160 feet of 16 mm  film per hour,  I have, in the past decade,  viewed thirty-four million, five hundred  and sixty thousand feet of film.   There are two popular misconceptions about  working in film. One is that it is glamorous or meaningful or important to a high  degree. The other is that you make lots  of money. I guess that may have happened  somewhere at least once, but it has not  been my experience and I doubt it has been  the experience of many of the people with  whom I have worked.  We eat stale junk food at 3 am, sleep on  the editing room floor, work against impossible deadlines and forego traditional  human pleasures such as Christmas,beaches,  normal relationships, keep-fit classes  and real life.  As for fame and glory...well, from an  editor's point of view it is generally a  case of avoiding massive humiliation, the  pinnacle of which, for me, was being nominated for a Genii editing award and upon  arriving breathless in Toronto for the  event being told that the category in  which I had been nominated had been  dropped as all the editing was considered  substandard. I had bought a silk blouse  and flown three thousand miles at my own  expense in order to have an exquisitely  painful personal growth experience in  front of at least 300 strangers.  So - no fame, no glory, not much money  and cross-country mortification. Why do  it? Because I love it and, like love, it  is irrational, occasionally ecstatic, frequently painful and totally obsessive. It  changes all the time and the excitement  of a new project is akin to - you guessed  it - being picked for the baseball team.  In order to survive to the end of the project you have to be a great ball player,  a crafty pirate, a bit of a playwright  and a dead loss as a gun moll.  NFB sets up Vancouver affirmative action fund  Jennifer Torrance is spreading affirmative  action at the National Film Board. As a  "producer with special interest with women"  she has recently received funding to promote a women's program through the Pacific  Regional Production Studio. This funding,  which is minimal at $15,000, will be used  to develop a working relationship between  women filmmakers in Vancouver.  On Jennifer's invitation, 23 women filmmakers met at the NFB on August 26 to discuss what should be done with the money.  The filmmakers discussed the possibilities  of workshops. seminars, or making a film  together (such a minimal sum would pay for  stock and processing only). They also  discussed the option of financing proposals  or providing technical help to women already making films. More meetings are  planned.  Jennifer's primary goal is to encourage  and facilitate more women making films.  She wants women filmmakers in B.C. to be  aware of herself and the film board as a  place to bring their skills and ideas. At  the same time Jennifer sees the presence  of women filmmakers and women's issues at  the film board as helping to raise the  consciousness of the NFB. 18   Kinesis   October 1982  WOMEN AND FILM  Getting your film out of the can  by Cynthia Bunbury  Film. One immediately associates it with  glamour. Fame. Eccentricity. Money. Especially money. Most people tend to forget  that what goes on film, or the energy put  into the film, will get you nothing but  in debt if that film doesn't see the light  of day. A film is completed by its audience. It is the wholly unglamourous field  of film distribution which may spell success or failure for a filmmaker.  When speaking of films for, by or about  women, distribution plays a key role in  the effectiveness of the product on its  way into, as well as out of, the can.  Three major areas of discussion thus come  into consideration: women as filmmakers,  women as film subject and women as audi-  Any filmmaker must consider the end result  of her labours in terms of who is going to  see her film. What audience does it speak  to? Who does the filmmaker want to reach?  Any novice filmmaker soon realizes that  the distribution of her product will not  happen on its own, and that she may have  to spend much of her precious time and resources in packaging, prodding and pounding the pavement in order to have anyone  express any interest.  Women making films run into all of this,  but may be subject to an even harsher  reality. While finding little to indicate  any overt discrimination against women in  discussions with both filmmakers and distributors, (the distributor really is more  interested in the film than the filmmaker),  it is true that in the past women have not  been found behind the camera in great numbers.  Recently many more women have come into  their own as producers and directors, but  the general lack of experience (which all  new filmmakers go through) can work  against the number of women who finally  get through to a distributor.  The best way for any filmmaker to reduce  the chance of her film falling flat, and  to increase its distributability, is to be  well-prepared and knowledgeable about the  distribution process. Familiarity with  contracts, an understanding of real costs  of filmmaking and a quality product will  help considerably. Advice on how to distribute your film is readily available  from a number of distributors (a list  appears at the end of this article), and  the National Film Board has printed a  Guide to Distribution which may be obtained from their offices.  An ignorance on the part of the distributors and audiences has tended to stiffly  categorize films made from a "woman's perspective" or films dealing with "women's  issues" as being films for women only.   (Coincidentally, many such films are made  by women.) This means that the films may  see only limited distribution as they are  perceived as being limited in scope and  appeal. (Does this mean, conversely, that  all the films made by men, and thus perhaps from a male perspective, have really  been for men only? Have we been watching  films which weren't intended for women's  eyes all these years?)  Again, carefully choosing a distributor  may lessen the chance of a film being  pigeon-holed and therefore limited in its  distributability. Of course, so can the  careful planning of the film itself to  allow for more general appeal - if that is  possible without compromising the message.  Getting your film out of the can is not  such a colossal task if you inform yourself before you set out. Talk to other women in your field who may have gone through!  the process. There are many women involved  in both film and television distribution  who will not only have a feel for your sit-  utation and your viewpoint, but who will  also have the expertise to advise you.  For further information, contact:  Cynthia Bunbury,  National Film Board of  Canada,  1161 West Georgia St.,   Vancouver.  Telephone:  666-1718  Sandra Gould,  Gould,  Sale and Associates,  339 - 163 West Hastings St.   Vancouver.  Telephone:  684-5341  An ignorance on the part of the distributors and audience has  tended to stiffly categorize films made from a "woman's  perspective* or films dealing with 'women's issues' as films for  women only.  Choosing to appeal to a female audience  could create other problems. Some distributors, in all their wisdom, find it hard  to deal with such films because they may  not view sexism as a special issue, thus  they feel there is no reason to promote  women's films. They may put forward the  argument that to have women as a target  audience is too narrow a scope and only  leads to a ghettoization of women filmmakers and their audiences. In other words,  instead of finding yourself and your film  pigeon-holed by a distributor, they sit  there telling you that you are doing just  that and ought not to.   Cari Green,  Canadian Filmmakers Distribution Centre,   1 - 525 West Pender,  Vancouver.   Telephone:  684-3014  Donna Wong Juliani, Canadian Film Development Corporation, 1500 - 1176 West Georgia,  Vancouver.   Telephone:  684-4829  Michele Nickel, Women in Focus, 204-456 W.  Broadway,   Vancouver.   Telephone:  872-2250  Justine Dancey,  World View Television,  5534 Cambie,   Vancouver.   Telephone:  321-  5266  continued from p. 1  The following are the relevant sections  from the Criminal Code of Canada:  HATE PROPAGANDA:  281.1  (1) Everyone who advocates or promotes genocide is guilty of an indictable  offence and is liable to imprisonment for  five years.  (2) In this section "genocide" means any  of the following acts committed with intent to destroy in whole or in part any  identifiable group, namely:  a) killing members of the group, or;  b) deliberately inflicting on the  group conditions of life calculated  to bring about its physical destruction.  OFFENCES TENDING TO CORRUPT MORALS:  159.   (1) Everyone commits an offence who:  a) makes, prints, publishes,  distributes, circulates,  or has in his  possession for the purpose of publication,  distribution or circulation  any obscene written matter, picture,  model, phonograph record or other  thing whatsoever,  or;  (2) Everyone commits an offence who knowingly, without lawful justification or  a) sells,  exposes to public view or  has in his possession for such a purpose any obscene written matter,  picture, model, phonograph record or  other thing whatsoever  b) publicly exhibits a disgusting  object or an indecent show;  (8) For the purposes of this Act,  any  publication a dominant characteristic of  which is the undue exploitation of sex,  or of sex and any one or more of the  following subjects,  namely,  crime,  horrorj  cruelty and violence,  shall be deemed to  be obscene. October'l&y Jinesis"'"^  WOMEN AND FILM  ^ot^«nCtatf  KnVmat\o**  through the camera lens  by Jeanne Taylor  Women down through the ages have woven  huge tapestries and quilts, using their  homecraft to write unique visions of their  family and their surroundings. Bettina  Malone is part of that tradition: sewing  fabrics and yarn, animated through the  lens of the camera, to piece together her  history.  Hometown  is a nostalgic look at Vancouver.  Cozy images are created by the filmmaker  from brightly coloured fabric, buttons and  embroidery floss. Landscapes are warmly  remembered: Lion's Gate Bridge, using  orange yarn, West End towers, North Shore  mountains of blue and green thread, and  freighters in the harbour. The city is  not depicted with grey tones, dirty tones,  city smells and noise. The animator,  Malone, stands ready with her packed suitcase, remembering the rain, the harbour,  friends, all part of her hometown memories.  In Distant Islands,  done two years later  in 1981, Malone uses fabrics and floss to  animate a tale of childhood memory. Nettie  Wild narrates over the warm and fluid  images of sailing voyages by a girl and  her parents, through the Gulf Islands.  While berry-picking one afternoon, they  discover an abandoned house and the child  creates a make-believe family.  Animator Kathy Li's view of recalled  childhood is dark and dramatic. Li's  smearing of blue, black and white oil on  plexiglass (it looks like finger painting)  produces swirling, blended creatures,  imagined in the dark. The child awakens  to go to the bathroom. The hallway she  runs down is oh-so-long and frightening.  Nightime  is very brief, only two or three  minutes long, but it explodes with the  child's fright until she returns to bed.  Li's Tearing,  done at the Emily Carr College of Art, is equally brief and terrifying. The images begin slowly, innocently;  hands tearing paper, but the tension cre  ated by speeding the images and using a  soundtrack of a woman's hilarious laughter  is dynamic. Violence is portrayed: a window shatters, a leaf tears, blood-red, the  earth splits in half. Kathy Li's talent  lies in exposing the underbelly of fear  and dread, in an explosion of fast-paced  animation.  Marilyn Cherenko creates animation in her  pursuit of morality. Dream  and Omnibus  open with a short fable, written on the  screen. Both are drawn with ink and dull  wash. In the first film, a man awakens  from a dream that changes his perceptions;  he decides to follow the path of a pilgrim.  The fellow changes his attitudes in Omnibus ,  after finding an abandoned child  (here again, unmistakeable Christian symbolism). The soundrack to these films is  reminiscent of medieval Christian choir  music.  Shelley Mcintosh's popular Labyrinth  is a  curious and complex spoof regarding modern man's preoccupation with intellectual-  izing. Lighthearted criticism is spoken  by a mutt, called "Worm", who wears shades  and a French tarn. Our hero (or is it anti-  hero? ) walks through a labyrinth of his  mind, symbolically, and literally. Mcintosh  has drawn him mumbling and walking, walking, through a landscape of staircases  and hallways that twist, turn, appear and  close. Drama, seen from the mutt's point  of view, is transformed into comedy.  Brushstrokes,  a three minute colour animated film, is among the new releases at  the Canadian Filmmakers Distribution Centre. It is credited as "an hilarious  spoof of art school". The artist, Sylvie  Fefer won the award at the 1982 B.C.  Student Film Festival, for Best Animated  Film.  Montreal's World  Festival of Film  by Georgette Robitaille  From August 19 to 29, Montreal held its  sixth World Film Festival. Of the approximately 80 films presented, I managed to  view 30. Most films were good, in the  sense that visuals were excellent and  story lines moving. However, if most of  the time I was pleased with what I saw,  too many of the screenings left me with  an uneasy feeling regarding women. Still  in 1982, women are too often portrayed as  powerless, brainless, and penniless - the  latter being not too far from the truth.  And to make someone even more ill at ease,  the women's presence was more often than  not a pretext for the exhibition of her  so poetic nudity. (No downright pornographic scenes here - the Festival was, after  all, dealing with a sophisticated and  socially conscious audience.) Fortunately,  there were some films that portrayed  women as full-fledged human beings with  souls of their own, not only as an appendage helping to unfold the story line.  And, of course, the majority of these  exemplary films were made by women directors.  A few names and titles are worth mentioning. The Silence Surrounding Christine M,  by Marleen Gorris (Holland, 1981), is  about the years of repressed anger of  three women that result in the murdering  of a man in broad daylight in front of  delighted female witnesses. The audience  in the theatre also seemed delighted with  what they saw. Perhaps I should add that  the theatre was packed with women, and of  the few men present, many left before the  end. Would all this be indicative of  something?  Another of my favourites was The German  Sisters  by Margarethe von Trotta (Germany,  1981). This is a film about the strong  bond of caring and love between two sisters. It was not a buddy movie, as the  relationship of intimacy between the two  sisters was central rather than peripheral to the narrative (diegesis) of the  film (remember Julia?).  Another Way  by Karoly Makk (Hungary, 1982)  also ranked very high in my esteem. It is  about a gay relationship between two women  journalists during the late fifties in  Hungary. It is especially about the dif-  ficulties the two encounter from people's  intolerance. It is the best film I have  seen on the topic so far. There are no  stupid stereotypes and the eroticism is  both genuine and realistic. The nude and  lovemaking scenes are done with imagination and delicacy, not the sort to make  you feel that lovemaking is the only worthwhile activity or hobby to engage in,  but rather is something... very special.  The next on my list of favourites is The  Day Before Yesterday  by Peter Basco (Hungary, 1981). Basco's film is about the  pettiness of political games, about love  and betrayal, but it is also about the  sincerity and the struggle of Dorottya  Gonczi to keep her integrity. It is a film  about a strong, intense, and passionate  woman.  There were, of course, other films made  by and about women, but very few. However,  even with its under-representation of  women directors, I must say the Festival  presented many films of high quality, and  was therefore a most exciting event to  attend. I suppose that the participation  of women in this art form is like many  other areas - relatively small. Women, I  must not forget, are just starting to  break through.        ^^^_ 20   Kinesis   October 1982  RESOURCES  Women operate alternative media centre  WOMEN IN FOCUS  -#204- 456 W. Broadway  Vancouver, B.C.  Phone: 872-2250  Contact Persons: Marcia  Kreden, Colleen Tillmyn,  Val Power, Marion Barling  Women in Focus  is a women's alternative  arts and media centre and has been in  operation since 1974. Their activities  include the production, exhibition and  distribution of videotapes, films and  other media, and organization of gallery  exhibitions, workshops and performances  by women artists.  The films and videotapes in the library  deal with the issues of vital importance  to women's lives and experiences. The  images of women portrayed in them challenge the stereotypical images presented  in dominant media. At the same time,  Women in Focus have been among the first  to make productions about rape, pornography and sexual harassment. These films  and tapes are both helpful and interesting to people involved in feminist groups  and also suitable for people who have  never considered feminist ideas before.  These productions are available for rental and purchase. It is advisable to first  screen the film or tape on the premises  for a nominal $2.00 charge.  Women in Focus also has a print library  relating to women in the arts and media,  resource catalogues on video and film by  women producers and lists of contacts of  Canadian and International Women's filmmaking groups around the world (and some  catalogues).  Among the films available at Women in  Focus are:  Size  10  - a film about how women feel  about their bodies. Produced by Susan  Lambert/Sarah Gibson. The film raises  discussion about body image, sexuality,  society's conditioning of what women  should look like, the fashion industry's  profits from our insecurities, pressures  on women to conform, adolescence and how  women can feel better about their bodies.  Donna -  tells the relationship between  politics and women's lives in Italy.  Produced by Yvonne Scholten. While the  film was in production, a right wing  group destroyed the women's radio station  in Rome and shot five women. Their  account of the attack and its relationship to their work became a starting  point of the film.  Thriller -  Thriller uses the opera La  Boheme  by Puccini as the basis for analyzing the position of women as romanticized victims in fiction. Produced by  Sally Potter. The love affair between  Rodolpho the poet and Mimi the seamstress,  set in Paris in 1830, and Mimi's tragic  death from TB, are remembered by Mimi as  she sets about assembling the clues to  her own murder.  Daughter Rite -  is an important feminist  film which explores relationships between  mothers and daughters and between sisters  in an innovative way. Produced by Michelle  Citron. Daughter Rite looks like a documentary but is really a narrative fiction  constructed from interviews with 40  women on their relationships with their  mothers. This film looks at the contradictory emotions and the process of  struggle, i.e. - mother-daughter tensions,  childbirth, rape, and competition between  sisters for the mother's love.  NFB provides forum  for women filmmakers  NATIONAL FILM BOARD  'ñ†  1161 W. Georgia St.  Vancouver, B.C.  Phone: 666-1716  The National Film Board was established  by an Act of Parliament in 1939 as Canada's  official filmmaker and film distributor.  There are many good films about women's  issues available through the NFB, including drama, animation and documentary.  Catalogues are available through the NFB  district office. (See address). Part of  the National Film Board's English production branch is Studio D, founded in 1974.  Studio D was formed to provide a forum  for women filmmakers. The NFB also carries  films by the CBC.  Described below is a sampling of the  films distributed:  Maria  - After years working in the same  factory Maria, a young woman, starts the  long and sometimes frustrating process  of unionizing her fellow employees. In  the process she makes choices about her  own life.  Would I Ever Like to Work  - Woman on  welfare with seven children wants to work  but daycare costs are prohibitive.  A Matter of Choice -  (CBC) Rape - the  horror and its psychological, emotional  and legal ramifications.  Augusta - Portrait of an 88 year old  Indian woman who lives alone in a log  cabin.  IDERA works  on international  development  IDERA -  Idera Films  2524 Cypress Street  Vancouver, B.C.  Film bookings: 738-8815  IDERA is part of the International Development Education Resources Association, a  non-profit educational society established  in B.C. in 1974. IDERA's mandate is to  provide educational resources on international and Canadian development questions to educational institutions, labour  unions, and community organizations in  B.C. and other parts of Canada.  A Common Assault-Slide  Tape, Canada 1981.  Crisis intervention in family violence.  Analysis of the role of transition houses  and family courts. Vancouver-based.  A Sign of Affection -  Canada,1977.  Survey of attitudes and opinions on wife-  battering.  Good Daycare: One out of Ten-Canada, 1978.  Shows the benefits of good daycare and  discussion of the lack of quality usually  available.  The Willmar g-U.S.A., 1980.A film about  the courage of working women who attempt  to form a union in the bank they work in.  Union Maids - U.S.A.,1977. Three Chicago  women who become labour organizers in the  1930's.  Women in Arms -  Nicaraguan women involved  in their country's liberation struggle.  South Africa Belongs to Us - The effect  of apartheid on the lives of six black  women.  You Have Struck a Rock - U.S.A.,1981. A  film celebrating the dignity, strength  and courage of black women in South  Film Co-op shares  production facilities  CINEWORKS  -525 West Pender,  Co-ordinator: Janine  Cineworks  is a filmmaker's co-operative,  established in 1980 to give non-commercial  independent filmmakers access to equipment. Presently Cineworks  is equipped for  post-production work, but is aiming for  production facilities.  Cineworks  was begun in 1980 and has  received Canada Council funding since the  summer of 1981. Films by members of the  co-operative have been put together as a  "Cineworks Package" which is available  from the Canadian Film Distribution  Centre.  Centre promotes  independent filmmakers  Canadian Filmmakers Distribution-West  - 525 West Pender, Ste'l,  Vancouver, B.C.  Phone: 684-3014  Contact person: Cari Green  The Canadian Filmmakers' Distribution  Centre (CFDC) was founded in Toronto in  1967 and incorporated in 1972 for the  purpose of promoting the work of independent filmmakers and to gain for them a  financial return from the exhibition and  sale of their films.  In January of 1979, the Centre opened a  Vancouver branch in order to increase the  distribution of its  films nationally. In  July 1982 the Vancouver office became an  independent organization and operates  under the name Canadian Filmmakers Distribution-West (CFDW). Both organizations  have pledged to work co-operatively to  promote the films of Canada's independent  filmmakers nationally.  The films distributed by the CFDC and  CFDW are those films that lack obvious  commercial potential. These include experimental films, films by animation  artists, short dramas and student films,  documentaries, personal essays and essays  and visual poems and films on Canadian  painters, dancers, musicians, poets. These  also include many fine films about and by  women. Among these are:  Trapline  (1976) Ellie Epp. Trapline represents a new way of considering film as  a vehicle of projected movement. Filmed  in a London swimming pool, Trapline is a  painterly film, conveying a state of  limbo.  The Bridal Shower  (1972) Sandy Wilson.  A painfully funny, painfully realistic  enactment of one of the most bizarre  social customs ever to have evolved as  prelude to the Most Wonderful Day in any  girl's life.  Shades of Red    (1982) Produced by Paula  Ross and David Rimmer. A film about dance.  This film includes interviews with Paula  Ross as well as three dance pieces from  the Paula Ross Company repertoire. October 1982    Kinesis    21  REVIEWS  Dolores is a character with no alternatives; a tame, naive and hopeful adolescent woman.  Cold Comfort: A play of bondage, not love  by Margot LaCroix  Beneath the glib punchlines and the  ■  moments of out-and-out farce lurks a  superb horror story. ..   Toronto Star  ..a shocker which takes the old theme  of the travelling salesman and the  farmer's daughter and turns it into  the blackest of black jokes.  Calgary Herald  ..more gripping moments of theatre  magic,  more themes of genuine comedy..  Macleans  It 's a wonderful concept-the  locale is  so right-the characters timely.  CBC Arts National  A horror story, yes...A shocker, certainly.  The blackest of black jokes, no doubt...  But 'genuine comedy'? 'Theatre magic'?  A 'wonderful concept'?  Cold Comfort  Is set in the storefront of a  service station transformed into living  quarters, somewhere in Saskatchewan on the  Trans-Canada highway. Outside, a snowstorm  is raging. Inside, Dolores, an adolescent  woman, acts out her loneliness while she  waits for her dad who takes home Stephen,  the travelling salesman, saving him from  death on a snowbank, and destining him to  be his daughter's 'birthday present'. As  the play unfolds in an atmosphere of tension and unpredictability, we are witnesses of the consequences of the newcomer's  involuntary irruption into the peculiar  father-daughter relationship.  The more I think about this play, the  furthest I am getting from what, essentially, every one of these reviews is trying  to sell me: "Despite its dark, even horrible overtones, one cannot but enjoy this  play, for it is a masterpiece of punchlines and atmosphere."  If I was from the Prairies, I'd be downright insulted by all the stereotyping.  And if I was a woman...I would conclude,  as I did when I got out of the theatre,  that a whole act was missing to this play.  "Exit Dolores..alone..the two men chained  to the floor through their need of domination and possession".  A hard one to pull, maybe, given the development of the play. But no less plausible than having Stephen chained to the  floor while father and daughter flee together for an uncertain journey through  the blizzard. And one which would have  done away with my frustration; it is impossible to isolate the form of this play,  however well-orchestrated in the black  humour mode, and conclude that it is a  brilliant collage. How can the material  feeding the style be ignored? Well, really  it's easy, as the whole history of the  arts demonstrates quite fully, and it has  been achieved once again in Cold Comfort.  In this case, it is also material to which  the general public has been increasingly  exposed, and to which it has become particularly sensitive: child abuse, child  pornography, incest.  Stripped to the bones, the play rests on  the complex and ambiguous interaction between Dolores and her father, Floyd, both  prisoners of a relationship in which the  father dominates and controls the daughter.  He has a violent and unpredictable character, punctuated by glimpses of affection  for Dolores. She is a tame, somewhat naive  and hopeful adolescent woman (what better  name than Dolores? Dolor, douleur, souffre  douleur = underdog) who occasionally makes  attempts at self-affirmation that are  rapidly crushed. The irruption of a third  character into their lives, the travelling  salesman, only contributes to further  complicate and dramatize the strange incestuous bond between Dolores and Floyd.  I would argue that the play would not be  successful as black comedy if the love-  hate relationship that ties Dolores and  Floyd together was developed to a full and  realistic extent. Too many aspects of that  relationship remain ambiguous, such as the  frightening operation which we suspect is  a hysterectomy performed on Dolores by her  father. Why this operation? Dolores makes  a few hints at the hate her father felt  for her now-missing mother; the father  never mentions her. We are given no clue  of her situation. Where is she? What happened to her? Again we are left to our wild  imaginations, and the author nowhere  denies the invading thought that Floyd,in  one of his violent outbursts, may well  have killed his former wife.  All these elements have been overlooked by  in order to achieve what was sought after,  an atmosphere of uneasiness and horror,  however, it leads the play to borders of  sensationalism, and destroys any credibility it could have as social realism. I  felt it was exploitative because it used  issues of utmost significance to women but  sacrificed a potential comprehensive exploration of these issues to the demands  of the chosen style.  Dolores is given no alternative. She may  fulfill her dream of following the trains  that pass by her window, but never of her  own will. Leaving with the salesman would  not have been a guaranteed passport to  freedom; under his civilized and humanistic morals, one is led to believe that he  would have tired of the new and young  companion forced upon him.  But really, there can be no choice for  Dolores, the larger-than-nature character  of the father can but be pushed to its  extreme in order to maintain us until the  very end in a torpor of disbelief and uneasiness that is magically congealed in  the moments the lights come on after the  highly implausible and unexpected ending.  'Fabrique de toutes pieces', the demands  of the style have been fulfilled.  "A play of love and bondage on the Canadian prairie". Bondage, no doubt. But love?  COLD COMFORT by Jim Garrard is a Vancouver  East Cultural Centre production.  Poet May Sarton to visit Vancouver  May Sarton, poet, novelist and chronicler  of international critical acclaim, now at  the age of seventy, will be making her  first, long-awaited  appearance in Vancouver.  Ariel Books Ltd., and the Vancouver  Women's Bookstore will sponsor "An Evening  with May Sarton" October 31 at 8 pm at the  Robson Square Centre Theatre. The evening's  program will start with a 30 minute film,  "World of Light" on May Sarton, followed  by Sarton reading from her own work.  Sarton's published work is extensive:  poetry includes A Grain of Mustard Seed,  Collected Poems 1930-1973, Selected Poems,  Halfway to Silence; novels Shadow of a Man,  A Shower of Summer Days, The Small Room,  Kinds of Love, As We are Now, Mrs. Stevens  hears the Mermaid Singing, A Reckoning -  and just published, Anger; autobiographical  ■chronicles Plant Running Deep, I Knew a  Pheonix, Journal of a Solitude, House by  the Sea, and most recently, Recovering.  A number of critical studies have been  written about May Sarton, the latest of  which is May Sarton: Woman and Poet.  There will also be signings/receptions at  the bookstores: Monday, November 11, 5-7  p.m. at the Vancouver Women' Bookstore;  Tuesday, November 2, 5-7 p.m. at Ariel  Books.  Tickets for the October 31 Robson Square  program are $5. Advance tickets can be  purchased at Ariel, the Women's Bookstore,  or Octopus Books East. 22   Kinesis   October 1982  REVIEWS  Notes on a Blue Theme exhibits fabric art  by Elizabeth Shefrin  It is tiresome, in this day and age, to  think that people still question whether  fabric art is really art or just craft, or  whether craft itself is an art form. Yet  a quick glance at the comments book of  Notes on a Blue Theme,   a recent exhibition  of fabric and fibre art at the Cartwright  Street Gallery on Granville Island, shows  that the issue still drags on. The comments are meant to be complimentary, but  "Good show, recognizing fabric art as  art." suggests such an approach is new or  unusual, and "Stunningly decorative!"  would make any serious painter crawl into  a tube of paint in despair and stay there.  If Notes on a Blue Theme  was intended as  a celebration of the sophistication of  fabric and fibre arts, it was successful.  When we walk into the gallery, we walk  into an environment of hanging textures.  The works are big; fibre seems to be a  medium in which women have no problem  breaking out of the conventional tendency  to work small.  The artists have used many techniques.The  pieces are woven, braided, knitted, or  knotted (as in Barbara Heller's Knots so  Blue).  They are appliqued, made into  paper, stuffed into plastic tubes. Some  are felted, a process in which steam and  heat are applied to unspun fleece, breaking down the fibres in the wool and causing them to matt. My favourite piece in  the show is done in this way. Inese  Birstins has created three white life-  sized felted humans which confront us  hauntingly.  Each of the works of the sixteen Vancouver  women represented, is accompanied by a  photography of the artist working, and her  comments on her own work or work process.  It is interesting to look at the pieces  and the comments of the artists and to  see how they seem to tie in with, or reject, their roots in traditional women's  fabric arts.  The most traditional piece in the show is  Dorothy Field's Prayer Shawl for a Woman  woven in silk and wool. She says of the  piece: "Only recently have Jewish women  claimed their equal right to wear prayer  shawls...I wanted these shawls to be part  of the tradition of shawls worn by men at  the same time as they made their own non-  traditional statements."  Some of the pieces look like clothing.  Madelaine Chisholm's two pieces: Look Ma,  The Blue is Gone,  The Twinkle 's Back  and  Look Ma,  The Blue is Gone.  Madelaine's New  Coat  are hanging, star-speckled, knitted  silk coats. Elizabeth Berezowska's Delphinium Blues-Kimona 3  is a flat woven kimona-  shaped wall hanging. Carole Sabiston's  Sail #5,   Grandmum's Serene Turbulence/Lost  Horizon Dawning  is a large triangular sail  (again something traditionally of fabric)  with a sort of seascape worked in fabric  and net (not fishing net but fabric net)  on the sail.  Jane Kidd acknowledges her debt to traditional textiles. "I am deeply influenced  by the richness and order of ethnic textiles, but it is critical to me that my  own work appear spontaneous."  Barbara Heller speaks of working her life  into her tapestries in a way that is reminiscent of countless women braiding and  patching scraps of their lives into rugs  and coverlets. "For me, tapestry is a form  of meditation, a slow process in which I  and what I am have time to interact. In  tapestry one is creating a totality -  colour and texture, past experience and  current interest, mood and emotion all  woven together."  In a more mundane way, Joanna Staniszkis's  Out of the Blue  recalls the same tradition.  The piece is a row of plexiglass tubes,  each stuffed with various colours of unspun wool. The plastic tubing was first  used in a piece commissioned by the Vancouver Children's Hospital which specified  that the work must be cleanable. In this  case, as in the case of so many of the  arts of the pioneer women, design and  material are children of necessity.  For many centuries, fabric art has been a  complex art form, and historically, a  special women's art form. The pieces in  Notes on a Blue Theme  are exciting  examples of one aspect of the contemporary  development of this ancient art. But we  must not forget to see it in the context  of a tradition of women's work of which  we have every reason to be proud.  Dead animals, dead art, dead issue  by Janie Newton-Moss  Dead Animals by Rick Gibson was recently  shown at the Unit Pitt Gallery,   West  Pender Street,   Vancouver.  Janie NeWton-  Moss attended the opening night and interviewed the artist the following day.  "They could call me a horrible monster if  they want, my only requirement was that  they prove it as intelligently and articulately as possible."  Rick Gibson's September art show called  Dead Animals  did invite intelligent and  articulate criticism. However, beyond provoking thought on such wide ranging topics  as abortion, euthenasia, vivisection and  vegetarianism, Mr. Gibson neither indicates where he stands on these issues nor  offers us any solutions. He is unclear  about the relationship between politics  and art and whether his exhibition is a  political or artistic statement or both.  He is of that school of thought that thinks  it is enough for an artist to be provocative without being responsible. His publicity posters with the montage of Dead  Animals  featuring freeze-dried dissections  'a human uterus' and an invitation to hear  Betty Green, President of the Vancouver  Right To Life Society left me and no doubt  a number of other women wondering what on  earth Mr. Gibson was up to. This was, in  part, what he had intended.  Gibson referred to the dead animals as  sculptures which have been arranged and  freeze dried by him. I could only admire  the tremendous amount of energy that had  been put into the show. His assertion that  although humans are animals we choose to  treat them differently from ourselves is  perhaps best illustrated by a "sculpture"  of an octopus which was quite beautiful.  According to Gibson the octopus is the  most intelligent of all invertebrates, its  brain being a powerful but simpler model  of our own. Like the rat, it is now being  used in scientific research in the dubious  quest of learning more about ourselves.  A more bizarre example of Gibson's insistence that we examine how we treat animals  differently is the inclusion of a piece  entitled "I'm a human uterus with a paint  job". Gibson defended its inclusion by  stating: "I had to put it into the show as  far as I was concerned to show that I  tried to treat everything as equal...and  for me not to have included a human organ  in the show...I couldn't live with that.  I think I would be highly unfair and hypocritical of my own true feelings."  When asked why he had chosen a specifically  female organ rather than using an ambiguous human organ he asserted that he had  found it impossible to obtain a male sex  organ and that he hadn't wanted to use a  brain or a liver. He anticipated that  women's groups might get angry about such  "a charged item" but challenged the idea  that they should "complain" to him, rather  that they should complain to the medical  supply companies or to "society in general"  He added:."If people are going to get upset about this and not about the animals  then I'm going to get upset."  Momentarily Gibson did get upset when he  found that his exhibit of a pregnant cat  surrounded by medical paraphernalia had  been tampered with during opening night.  Entitled "The biology lab at the back  alley street of abortion", he had again  opted for controversy rather than clarity.  As the exhibit did not tell me Gibson's  attitude to abortion I had to ask him. His  somewhat lengthy and confused reply was:  "In the present with our attitude towards  animals I'd have to say that I see nothing  wrong with it, because you're talking  about aborting a twelve week old foetus.  And yet the average shopper goes down to  the grocery store and buys meat from a six  month old steer. And as far as I'm concerned a six month old steer has just as much  on the ball, if not more,about life and  death and its meaning and purpose than a  twelve week old foetus. But if everyone  stops eating meat and we go to vegetarianism then maybe the people who are "pro-  lifers" will have a stronger leg to stand  on."  I wonder whether Mr. Gibson's philosophy  will have been at all affected by the fact  that no one turned up to hear Mrs. Green's  talk as part of his effort to get the public to think about "important issues". October^.1982, ^Kinesis.   21  REVIEWS  Cris Williamson: Music is now  the greatest healer  by Janet Duckworth  Chris Williamson,  an American singer and  songwriter,  appeared at the Vancouver  East Cultural Centre September 13.  She  was interviewed by Janet Duckworth for  KINESIS.  J.D.  Do you see any changes in your posi-  tion in Women 's Music now from when you  first began?  C.W. A lot of changes. When I first started, this thing called Women's Music had  just been invented and I'm pretty sure  Meg Christian invented it, and I'm still  not certain that that's what I should call  my music. Mostly, I don't know what to  call it, which is a kind of a problem because if people don't know what to call  it, they don't know what to do with it,  ...except love it. And I've been real  fortunate in that, that even if people  don't know what to call it, or how to  identify with it, they just love it...  old people, all kinds of people, not just  women; but the women knew what to do with  it.  The same music I was doin' then travelled  over many a desk of many a record company  and they all would say, "My. That's beautiful, but we don't know what to call it."  Well, the women said the same thing and  they said, "We'll call it Women's Music".  And at the time it was very important for  them to have something of their own. And  I fought that a little because I don't  like being constricted in any'way. You  know, if you said it was Women's Music,  then what of the men to whom I had been  singing, previous to the women's movement,  forever? And they had to have a lot of  courage to come because suddenly they  were in rooms full of \  Now for women, being in rooms full of men  is mostly our lives. But for men, they  rarely experience this and it was very  frightening for a lot of them as well as  for a lot of women who had never either,  been in rooms full of women and didn't  know where to place themselves in that,  you know. So a lot of what I do is to try  to soothe people and make them feel at  home.  J. D.   I noticed on your latest album  Blue  Rider,  for one thing you have a bigger  band with you than you've had before and  also it is not necessarily rock,  but it  is definitely more up tempo and a lot  more out there.   Is this the way you are  going? I really enjoyed it.  C.W. I feel that that's descriptive of  how things are, of how the times are. I'm  alwyas trying to describe how I feel and  the times in which I find myself. Each  album is like that for me, it's like a  diary or a water mark on a cliff. And I  look at them and I say, "Ah, I was there  then and this is what was happening in  history and this one has a real particular  journey which starts off with "Blue Rider"  and you kind of take off and it ends up  with "Surrender Dorothy" - the last thing  is there's no place like home.  I feel all our journeys, either as artists  or just so-called regular people (I try  to hope everyone will be artistic in  whatever it means to each individual person. Like E.T., you know... "Home, home".  He points to the sky, but the concept is  held and understood by all alien creatures  which we all are.  J.D.  That concept could perhaps be used  as a way of explaining why women made  "Women 's Music" as a way to feel more at  home instead of having to feel alien.  C.W. That's right. You've got to fit all  the time into another world. Well, then  we'll all go over here where we just fit.  And women know how women fit, they just  know. Who is it that women talk to? They  talk to women. Who is it men like to talk  to mostly? Women. Their best friends  generally are women and so they're really  not so amazed that women can find that  sense of home and being with other women.  That's not so hard for men to understand.  I think mostly they feel, "Well then,  where do we fit?" And I encourage them to  be more in the interior with other men,  to help other men to become more... inte-  riorized, if that's the word, to become  more familiar with their internal selves  and find a language for that. I'm not  content to be the person who's always  finding a language for everyone.  J.D.  I read in some of the other interviews that you've given,  that you were  very influenced by where you grew up,  by  the Black Hills of Dakota,  and by the  Indian feeling there,  by the wind and  all of nature there.   Is that still a very  strong influence on you?  C.W. Really. I carry it always. The thing  about being a musician is, I don't think  the trees and the prairie and the wind  need me to sing to them. They sing to me;  I need them. So I go to the cities where  people are, because people need to be sung  to. People need music. Music is far and  all the greatest healer there is. Deaf  people come to our concerts and tell me  how much they love my music, because  music is vibration and it enters the body.  Each of my songs is more. I consider them  not so much songs, but little spells or  pieces of magic, if they're done right,  if I sing them right every time, they  should strike the body.  You know it's real hard to find a commonality among every different life that's  there, so that's why I go for things like  water, earth, air, fire.  J.D.  I noticed the spell-like quality of  your music on the album  Strange Paradise.  You seem to achieve an other wordly atmosphere with that album.  C.W. One definition of stranger is resident alien, and I feel a lot like that,  but no more and no less than the American  Indians, the native tribes of Canada, the  native peoples of this earth. This was  paradise and it's fast going the other way.  I try to increase my memory and my word  capacity and everything that I can to conjure up paradise for us because I think  that it will be held internally when the  exterior world is so terrible and so forgotten. You know our Mother earth is being  terribly, terribly tortured, and I often  feel that what I am doing is a kind of  Mystical Warrior approach. The commonest  ground I have for that is the Mystical  Warriors of the American Indians, near  whom I was raised. And I feel more at home  with them than I did in the women's movement. But only in the last few years have  the Indians called me and that's the largest stroke of grace to touch my life yet.  I'm most happy about that.  J.D.  You say that the country where you  grew up is a real influence on your music,  yet the last album is much more up tempo  with a rock influence, which is an urban  influence,  rock being an urban music form.  Is this because you're spending more time  in an urban environment and are being submitted to those influences?  C.W. That's what needs to be expressed.  The urban problems, I mean that's what  makes the news. But still my underlying  concern is for the earth, 'cause the people  who are in these urban centres are the  ones who can or cannot change things.  J.D.  How would you answer some of your  critics in the feminist movement who get  upset that you do have other concerns,  that you've lost your feminist perspective':  It seems some people were upset with the  Ben Fong-Torres interview that appeared  in Mother Jones because they felt that  you didn't stress a solid feminist line  strongly enough.   Do you have a reply to  these women?  C.W. Yes. I tell them that they should  speak for themselves then. I speak for myself and I speak from my heart and all  that I care about. I'm so happy that I  care about what I care about, and I know  it's right for me. You only know that  when you know it. Some people, I think  most people, have only found' their freedom recently and they found it in the  women's movement. But for them that freedom is like blinders, to me. You know,  what one person's freedom is could be a  fence to another. And when they criticize  me for those things, I shake my head, and  I get sad more than angry, but also my  heart is... all I have to do is look to  the right and left of me at the people  who are encouraging my work and then...  it's not that I forget about them, it's  just they are in a place in my life that  they won't trip me up. Because I must  speak for myself and if I'm not speaking  for them, then either they must find someone who will speak for them  they should  speak for themselves, and not just look  for others to be their mouthpiece.  I'm not denying them anything. The thing  is, I've never stopped speaking in the  way in which I'm speaking. I'm doing the  same music I ever did, and the pronouns  are not  there. They put them in, in their  minds. They think it is all for them and  I rarely speak of just women alone. I  speak of the people. The Indians, you  know, in their creation myths, they're  all called "the People", the "Human Beings". Well, that's my centre.  And each person has to stay true to their  heart, you know, and where they come from.  I know those people don't understand  where I've come from, but that's O.K.,  it's alright, it's a big world. And Mother  Earth holds James Watt who doesn't care a  fig for her and he comes from Wyoming,  where I come from, which breaks my heart.  So I think, "Well, I must be like Mother  Earth, I have to be that big that I can  hold even people who don't understand me.  That's no new. 24   Kinesis    October 1982  OPINION  Women must work for peace  Guest Editorial appearing in the Summer  Edition of the Women's International Network News.  Women working for peace is nothing new. We  read of it in two thousand year old Greek  plays like Lysistrata and The Trojan Women. Neither is the equation of peaceful-  ness, nurturance, loving, and non-violence  with femininity new.  What is  new is that we have reached a point  in human history when the lethal mix of  our unprecedentedly high state of technology and our "masculine"-values dominated  system threatens to destroy us all.  As feminists we have long sensed that our  global crises - the threat of nuclear holocaust and its interlinking with the global population explosion, environmental  pollution, and the widening gap between  rich and poor - are inherent in the prevailing androcratic or male-dominated paradigm, and thus cannot be solved within it.  Now some of us have undertaken the urgent  task of documenting this connection with  the best available research from archeology, anthropology, sociology, psychology,  linguistics, economics, and other relevant  disciplines, including systems analysis  and the new field of scientific futures  forecasting.  My forthcoming book The Blade and the Chalice  reports these findings at length. To  briefly summarize, the picture that is now  emerging with increasing clarity is that  there is, in systems, terms, a strong  structural correlation between male-dominance, a generally hierarchic and authori  tarian system, and a high degree of insti-.  tutionalized social violence.  These findings also show that the horror and absurdity of our male-dominated, hierarchic and  warlike system is not,  as some religious  dogmas have it, divinely ordained. Nor is  it, as some scientists would have it, due  to "man's killer genes". It is rather the  result of a five thousand-year long detour  in human cultural evolution.  Moreover, this system of androcracy or  male-dominant patriarchy did not,  as has  sometimes been said, replace an earlier  female-dominant matriarcy. Rather - and  this is both a hopeful and essential point  - what earlier existed, embodying the original direction for human cultural development, appears to have been a fundamentally  egalitarian system. That is, it was a social system in which our linking  as human  beings rather than our ranking was predominant .  But what in terms of the critical relation  of the two basic human types - women and  men - might we call such a system? For as  it is now, our language - the product of  a paradigm in which "andros" or man is  ranked both by religion and science over  "gyne" or woman - does not even have a word  for such a way of structuring human relations, just as it does not have an independent word for human beings who are what we  must now call "non-violent".  If we look at recorded history as the  struggle between the blade-imposed androcratic paradigm and this older, more gylan-  ic world view seeking to reassert itself,  much that is otherwise incomprehensible  begins to fall in place. For it explains  the zigzagging between more humane and  peaceful periods (when for a time women  and more "feminine" values struggled for  ascendancy) and bloody androcratic regressions. What also becomes evident is that  the progressive modern social movements -  such as republicanism, socialism, pacifism, abolitionism, and feminism, which  began to emerge after the eighteenth century enlightenment - have definitely been  moving us in a gylanic direction. But they  have each succeeded in bringing about only  slight modifications of the deadly weight  of the androcratic "oversoul".  What further becomes evident - and in the  United States, striking - is a most ironic  fact. When "push comes to shove", those  on the liberal left and centre who speak  of freedom, equality, and disarmament continue to see sexual  equality and other  women's issues as peripheral concerns -  something for action after  more important  things are done. But those on the right,  who relentlessly work for hierarchical  orderings, authoritarian controls, and  increased armaments, correctly perceive  that sexual inequality is the cornerstone  of the system they seek to impose on us  all, and therfore also work relentlessly  against  sexual equality.  As women working for peace, we cannot once  again permit ourselves to me misled and  misused by the ineffective male leadership  and male-centred ideologies of centre and  left.  Peace will never be found through a few  surface changes in the prevailing androcratic system. As futurist studies bring  out time and again, this system - where  technologies of destruction and men's  prowess in using them are not only viewed  as manly but also as heroic - is taking  us inexorably toward a technological  Armageddon.  As Helvi Sipila, Ester Boserup, Fran  Hosken, and many others have brought out  so forcefully, it is totally absurd to  try to solve global problems of hunger  and poverty through male-dominated and  centred policies. For while statistics  show that in both the developed and developing world poverty is largely the poverty  of women and their children, these policies blatantly discriminate against women  in development assistance of land grants,  technological training, etc. Similarly,  it is totally absurd - and as more and  more research shows, structurally impossible - to try to bring about world peace  within a system in which aggression and  conquest are considered synonymous with  manliness or masculinity, and in which  the half of humanity to which nurturance  and bonding is relegated is excluded from  social governance.  If androcratic man's love affair with the  technologies of destruction is to be replaced with the gylanic higher valuing of  the technologies that sustain and enhance  life, our anti-human mythology (contain  ing the "great" heroic epics of both our  sacred and our secular literature) will  have to be exposed for what it is and replaced with a new tapestry of pro-human  myths.  The end of sexually stereotyped socialization - where only women (the subordinate  or "second" sex) are taught the behaviours  of love and peace while "mankind" is from  infance handed toy swords and guns and  taught to kill - is essential to world  peace. Reproductive freedom of choice  and equality in educational and work opportunities for girls and boys is likewise  essential to world peace. For how can overpopulation, with the war-inducing tensions  it produces, ever be curbed if women have  no other life options than those of being  male-controlled baby factories?  Perhaps above all, if we are to have world  peace, a radically new normative and values  structure, in which "soft" values govern,is  essential. What this means is that the highest power must again become what it once  was: the gylanic chalice rather than the  androcratic blade. For this conflict  between ancrocracy and gylany, on which our  fate and that of our children rides, is  really a conflict between two very different ways of conceptualizing power.  Male rank and privilege is no  more than a first class cabin in  a rapidly sinking ship.  One is the vision of power that has ruled  human society since barbarian hordes like  the Indo-European Kurgans described by  University of California archeologist  Marija Gimbutas overran the peaceful gylanic peoples of the Neolithic Age and Crete.  This has been the power to transform life  into death: the power of the androcratic  blade.  The other power that we must now invoke  and reinstate is the power to bring about  a very different kind of transformation:  the change symbolized since remotest antiquity by the feminine chalice. This was and  is the transformative power to create,  nurture, enhance, and recreate life. It is  our power as women. But increasingly it is  also a power that more and more enlightened men are recognizing and using in gylanic partnership with women - as they also  recognize that all their male rank and  privilege in androcracy is no more than  a first class cabin in a rapidly sinking  ship. October 1982   Kinesis   25  LETTERS  MCC questions policy  Dear Kinesis:  I have just spent an enjoyable week in  Vancouver. Part of that enjoyment began  before I arrived when I read a copy of  your publication. I was delighted with  your broad coverage of events and the  diversity of views represented. My visit  was a part of the celebration of Women's  Month at Metropolitan Community Church in  Vancouver. I presented a workshop dealing  with integrating sexuality and spirituality and preached a sermon entitled,  "What's a Lesbian Like Me Doing in a  Church?"  Careful attention was given to submitting  the information about my visit to Kinesis  and to rechecking that it had been received and would be included in your calendar of events. I was very disturbed to  discover upon my arrival that none of this  information appeared in your publication.  I would like an explanation of how this  omission occurred. It was my plan to subscribe to Kinesis. However, I cannot make  that kind of decision without understanding the policies you use in including and  excluding information from your publication.  The Rev. Betty Pedersen  MCC of Portland  Editorial Note: Kinesis apologizes for the  inconvenience caused by not including the  Metropolitan Community Church copy in the  September issue of the paper.  The paper is  often in the position of having to cut  copy due to space constraints and last  month was no exception.  For this reason  Bulletin Board is not a guaranteed space  for any individual or group.  The longest copy is often the first to go.  MCC copy totalled about six inches of  space.  However, your concern,  and the concern expressed by another member of MCC  has prompted a policy discussion in this  area.  We invite you to submit an abridged  version of your sermon for publication in  the December issue.  Copy deadline is Nov.  15.  The article should not exceed 1200  A struggling sister  thanks the community  Open letter to the Vancouver Women's  Community:  As a womyn, a feminist and budding political activist who has now crossed the path  of wanting and,trying to die, to craving  life each day, I feel it's time I spoke up.  As a child I was battered mentally, physically and sexually. Abused in every way.  Yet within this I had power and responsibility that I never before acknowledged,  spoke of or took responsibility for. I put  all the blame onto him and took no responsibility.  I acted out in very damaging and self-destructive ways to get back at him when in  effect the only person I got was me. I  chose a victim stance and perpetuated that  stance for twenty-two years. In some ways  I did more harm to myself than he ever  could have done to me for who knows how  to get one, better than oneself?  I provoked him to no end. Setting myself  up to be had. Then I could turn all blame  on him. As opposed to blaming myself.  Those were choices I made. That was survival for that was all I knew. Whereas now  I take responsibility for myself and actions, stand firm in my beliefs, and hold  people accountable for their part as well,  in good or bad situations.  This battle has not been an easy one.  There were many times I wanted to give it  up. In those times I had migraines and  ulcer bleeds, attempted suicide, drove  erratically, drank and took pills abusively. I also screwed people with my mind  and body. Damage was done and lots of it.  To friends, lovers, family and myself.  Then I came to realize there were other  ways of coping through the support of damn  fine womyn and the strength of womyn power  and the womyn's community. Plus a lot of  hard, frightening and demanding work on  my own part. I could have remained where  I was in a victim stance, a victim in  every aspect of the word - to me, men, and  society, there to be abused and tramped  on, and if they wouldn't I would. I was  slowly destroying a damn fine human being  (me) and in far more damaging ways than  he ever could have. Yet I justified it  quite easily, as I had for twenty-two  years by taking no responsibility for what  I was doing.  The point I'm attempting to make is that  even the most overwhelming and devastating  experiences have a silver lining (maybe  not at the time) but one can look in retrospect and see where responsibilities lie,  what happened and how one can grow.  I am convinced that all behaviour is learned. Those destructive behaviours can be  unlearned, if replaced by new.  The battle is tough - there are slips, and  it's not easy. But it can be done. With  self dedication, hope, determination, and  support from good people while going  through the process. A person can be reborn! Not in the sense of spiritually but  in the image of oneself. A whole united  being. Encompassing the negative self with  the positive self and coming up with one  unified dynamic spirit.  I owe a lot to the womyn's community as  well as to myself. My only hopes are that  through this, one womyn out there struggling will find the support within the  community that I have.  Remaining forever indebted,  Lynn  Reader gets angry . . .  To Suzanne Gerard:  Your article in the recent Kinesis made me  so angry that I decided to definitely  attend and participate in our local "Take  Back the Night" march next Friday.  Although I have read many articles on  porn, I have never been so stirred up  about its corner store availability as  in your article.  Thank you and keep up the good work.  Catherine F. Barnsley  Saskatoon  Festival '82: from  the inside out  Dear Kinesis:  After reading your review of the Festival  '82 Art Show in the September issue I felt  that an answer was called for. Jill  Pollack's review showed a complete lack of  understanding of the dynamics of what a  juried show is, and an unconscionable lack  of sisterly support for the hard work done  by a group of very dedicated unpaid women  who worked two years to put together a  comprehensive multi-disciplined event.  My first contact with Jill over Festival  '82 began when I received a phone call  from her. I explained that the criteria to  be in the show were that you be a woman  and that the pieces had to have been produced since 1980. Two years may seem like  a long time, but some kinds of work are  complex and need to have the two year  range.  Entrance to the show was completely open.  Many shows are by invitation only (as were  the shows Jill has curated in the past).  Invitational shows have the advantage  that imagery, theme and ideas can be predetermined. The resultant show will be  tight and express the artistic philosophy  of the curator. An open juried show means  that the final show is derived first of  all only from those who enter and secondly  is a selection from that work by the jury.  We knew of artists who had not entered,  but had no way to compel their entrance.  A jury, no matter how competent, only expresses the opinion of the result of the  interaction of its members. In an effort  to get around the exclusiveness of a jury  we ran a continuous slide show of all  entries so that the viewing public could  make up their own minds about what women  artists in B.C. were doing.  When making up the jury our committee was  very concerned about getting a good balance of people. Our jury included Doris  Shadbolt who is a senior art curator in  Canada. She is an important person to have  on a jury and her credibility in the art  world is uncontestible. Next we had Avis  Lang Rosenberg. She is a highly respected  art historian and curator. She specializes  in women's issues. She curated "Pork Roasts  - 250 Feminist Cartoons" and "Mirroring",  a show on women seeing women. She and  Colette French, a watercolourist, were  chosen especially because we wanted a representation of strong feminists on the  jury. Ruth Beer, a sculptor and instructor  at the Emily Carr College of Art and Design was another juror. Barbara Shelly, a  fabric artist was the last. One of our  considerations in choosing her was that  we wanted an artist whose specialty was  in a "women's" discipline. They were all  highly respected women: three artists and  two curators.  There were over 2000 slides for the jury  to look at. Jurying by slides is a difficult thing to do. Slides don't look like  the work - size is distorted, colour inaccurate, etc. It took the jury four days  to judge the work. They discussed some  pieces for an hour and more. They argued  all the issues: what is art?, techniques,  craftpersonship versus content, etc.  As I told Jill... At the end of the first  day's judging the Visual Arts Committee  could not resist checking out the jury's  choice. The result was that we all disagreed with the jury and with each other  as to who should be included. Because we  were committed to the decision to respect  the jury's choice, and knowing that any  jury would offend someone, we kept our  opinions to ourselves. From the 2000 slides  119 works were chosen, representing 65  artists.  continued on page 26 26   Kinesis   October 1982  BULLETIN BOARD  CLASSIFIED (cont'd)  LAW STUDENTS LEGAL ADVICE PROGRAM Women's  Clinic operates out of VSW offices,  400A West 5th Ave.) every Tuesday  evening from 7 to 9 pm. Law students  will.advise women on a wide variety of  legal and law-related problems, including family court problems, small  claims court actions, consumer transactions, landlord/tenant disputes,  UIC and welfare appeals.  In addition, students will draft wills  for estates of less than $2,000. Referrals from Legal Services for 3 and  5 year separation divorces are also  handled through the clinics. For  those unable to attend Tuesday evening  clinics there is a Women's clinic on  Thursday evenings at the Women's  Resource Centre, 1144 Robson St. also  from 7-9 pm.  For further information contact:  Law Students Legal Advice Program-  228-5791.  LESBIAN COUPLE with children wanting to  plan dinners, picnics, movies etc. with  other lesbian couples and children.  Phone: Lynn,856-9418.  THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD is co-ordinating  screenings of films for departments in  the Federal Women's Film Program.  Interested in knowing about films,video,  slide shows about women, women and work,  women and health. Send information and  technical description to Ms.M.McEvoy,  Federal Women's Program, 150 Kent St.,  Ottawa, Ontario. K1A 0M9.  JEWISH FEMINISTS. We need to talk with one  another. If you are interested in meeting, on an infrequent but regular basis  to study, discuss,argue and socialize,  phone: 874-1387 or 872-5847. Leave your  name and phone # and we'll organize something for November.  EAST END FOOD CO-OP welcomes new members.  We have a full line of grocery, produce,  bulk foods and dairy and are open six  days a week. Our work requirement is now  optional. Visit us at 1806 Victoria  Drive (nr.2nd Ave.)-254-5044.  WANTED: Donations of books regarding  sexual abuse and related subjects for  the new WAVAW/Rape Crisis Centre. Call  875-1328.  Also wanted: a reasonably priced filing  cabinet for WAVAW/Rape Crisis Centre.  875-1328  A NEW WOMEN'S BUSINESS-West Wind Circle  T-Shirts, silk screening, custom desigi  Call Carol at 327-5778 or Stella at  253-2120.  STUDIO OR OFFICE SPACE for rent (315 sq.  ft.). Some sharing with a women's  graphics shop. $200/mth. includes  utilities. Contact:Makara Graphic Arts  and Design Co-op, 1011 Commercial Dr.,  Vancouver. Phone: 253-8931.  WOMEN CARPENTERS. Would like to contact  women interested in sharing work experiences and possibly future work. I  have been doing construction trades for  almost 2 years. Call:Louise Mailloux,  731-2370.  FUNDRAISER-a part-time position with the  Women's Building of Victoria Society to  raise funds to acquire and maintain a  women's building. Candidate should be  familiar with society's background &  goals,knowledge of governmental, public  and private resources and feminist involvement. Submit resume to Box 6317,  Station C, Victoria,B.C.V8W 1L4 by  October 18.  ON THE AIR  WOMAN VISION ON CO-OP RADIO, 102.7 FM.  Listen out on Mondays, 7-8 pm. News,  views, music on Womanvision, the  program that focuses on women.  RUBYMUSIC ON CO-OP RADIO, 102.7 FM from  7-7:30 pm each Friday. Join host Connie  Smith for half an hour of the finest  in women's music: pop, gospel, folk,  feminist, and new wave.  THE LESBIAN SHOW on CO-OP RADIO, 102.7FM,  each Thursday from 7:30-8:30  Oct. 7th- Dance music  Oct. 14th-Younger Lesbians  Oct. 21st-Violence in Lesbian Relationships  0ct.28th-Witches  MEMBERSHIP IN CO-OP RADIO Is open to any  community member, 16 years or older,  and to incorporated groups and certified unions. Lifetime share is $2;  annual membership assessment fees are  $18 for individuals and $50 for groups.  Letters continued  Robson Square is a large barn of a room.  Hanging in that space is difficult yet our  show held the room with symmetry and  strength. Hanging a large group show has  special problems. We considered subject,  style, colour, and size when determining  what to hang where.  The response was overwhelming. The comments  in the comment book were incredibly supportive from women and women's groups from  around the world. We from Festival '82 and  the Visual Arts Committee were proud of  the show. We had put together a strong  show of women's work from B.C. We had not  defined what women's imagery was, but allowed the imagery to be what women were  really doing.  This brings me to the issue of philosophy  which is paramount in the women's movement.  The issue of art versus political content.  This art show was not a "feminist" or "lesbian" art show, though many of the artists  were. We were not trying, nor did we feel  it appropriate, to put together a show of  politically correct work. We wanted the  show to be inclusive of what women in B.C.  were doing. If women were doing hearts and  flowers, then hearts and flowers it would  be.  We were not pre-determining what the images  of women are. Some people believe that we  should allow only works which show "approved" images - strong, powerful, heroic.  We believe that women's imagery is different from men's. We believe that to understand what this imagery is we must see a  wide selection of women's work. That by  exposure, women's imagery gains validation  and credibility. That once validated within our artistic vocabulary, discrimination  against it will be overcome. Then women's  works will be included equally in collections, both private and public.  So far I have just explained what we did  and why, in putting the Festival '82 show  together, but now I feel that some of the  gross misconceptions presented by your  reviewer must be dealt with.  She calls the work middle-of-the-road.  Obviously when you choose from a large  cross section of the population you get  many views. But the show also included  plenty of strong feminist work. My work  is not middle of the road and neither are  the works of Persimmon Blackbridge, Bonny  Beckwoman, Marsha Arbour, Paula Lavine,  Coral Arrand, Jane Fawkes, Mar-tine, Donna  Hagerman, Doreen Jensen, Pamela Speight,  and many others.  She says we didn't take chances because we  were trying to ingratiate ourselves with  the funding agencies. That's pure crap!  Close to 20 women worked for months for no  money. And even the minimal funding which  we did have was in no way contingent on  the resultant show.  She says publicity was inadequate. I must  agree with her here, though it was through  no fault of our own. The city was blanketed with posters. We had two articles in  the Sun  and one in the Province.  We were  mentioned in the "What's Happening in Vancouver in July" sections of the Sun,  The  Province,   Westworld,   Vancouver Magazine,  neighbourhood papers, and guild newsletters. We were on three talk shows including a show which Jill does on Co-op Radio.  We had numerous spots on all the radio  stations and on the Cable 10 bulletin  board. We were on the French CBC and In  the French newspaper. We had two prominent  display areas at Eatons and we were on the  Vancouver Poster which is displayed  throughout the city. Even with all this  coverage, the press was noticeably silent.  We believe this is because we were a women's group. We do not believe that an  event which had as many national and international celebrities as Festival '82 had,  would have been ignored if they had been  men.  In conclusion, I want to say that Jill's  diatribe was not a review of our show. In  a review one takes what was in the show  and criticizes the work. This gives dignity to the artistic merit of the works  and shows respect for the artists who have  participated. One talks of the strengths  and weaknesses of the work. One does not  spend the entire review deriding the show  because it didn't express the political  bias of the reviewer. One could hope that  a review by a woman who claims to support  women artists could have found more than  one artist to mention in a review of 119  works. I was disappointed that she showed  such a lack of respect for her sisters.  I expected a more supportive reaction to  the Festival '82 show. In our effort to  advance women's position in society, we  must present a strong cohesive front. If  our efforts are going to be forever used  up with in-group bickering, we will have  no energy to fight the enemy. Perhaps it  is easier to fight each other than to confront the male power structure.  Jeannie Kamins October, 1982., ^Kinesis ^ 27,  BULLETIN BOARD  EVENTS  OPENING CAFE BABE on October 9,for women  and friends at 560 Davie Street,  Vancouver.  SEARCH COFFEE HATCHES, talk, coffee and  socializing for 99/. All at 7:30 pm at  1244 Seymour Street.  October 6th: panel discussion sharing  coming out experiences as lesbians.  October 20th: an evening of destroying  myths about gay men.  Call: 689-1039 any evening of the week  for more information.  WOMAN TO WOMAN TWO, Artwork in Celebration  of Lesbians. October 4 to Nov. 4 at  Women in Focus Arts and Media Centre,  456 W. Broadway, Vancouver.  GALA OPENING: Monday Oct.4 at 8 pm. Please  bring food art. Women in Focus gallery.  Workshops and Events:  Thurs. Oct.7 workshop, Censorship from  within and without,   7:30 pm.  Thurs. Oct.14, Part I workshop for woman  to woman contributors to share ideas &  experiences, 7:30 pm.  Thurs. Oct.21, Opening of Part II Herstory  Workshop  Thurs. Oct.28,Part II workshop for  woman to woman contributors, 7:30 pm.  Thurs. Nov.4, Closing performances, 8pm  Sun. Oct.17,workshop on Erotic Images  (bring images for discussion) 2 pm.  Sun. Oct.24, Literary Reading,Off the  Page.   8 pm.  OFF THE PAGE,   a lesbian literary evening  to be held on Oct.24. What is lesbian  literature? Voice?Form?Content? Selections will be made to create Off the Page.  Manuscripts to Box 65563,Station F.  Vancouver.  A ONE DAY SEMINAR on Affirmative Action  will be held by Organized Working Women  on Saturday, October 15, 9:30-4:30 at  OPSEU building, 8th floor, 1901 Yonge  Street, Toronto, Ontario.  Write Organized Working Women,  15 Gervais Drive, Suite 301, Don Mills  Ontario. M3C 1Y8  SEXUALITY SERIES. 6 sessions. Explore  sexual self-image, relationship issues,  assertiveness, communication, and sexual  decision-making. Guided self awareness  exercises, resources, sharing. Beginning  late October. Details and Registration:  Sharon Colling, Group Leader, 733-6239.  WOMEN IN TRADES present Hands Off My Ass,  A  discussion of sexual harassment on  Saturday, Oct. 23, 1-5 pm at Britannia  Centre, 1661 Napier Street. Child care  available. Register by October 16th.  Call: Women in Trades-876-0922  PUBLIC MEETING sponsored by Concerned  Citizens for Choice on Abortion on  Saturday, October 23, 2 pm at Tupper  Secondary School, 419 E.24th Ave.  Speaker will be Dr. Henry Morgentaler.  R£f1£rl8£R MR-PoRkf^  , At W0Rk,tW£ Out WHO  AUvays Co/TptinEMts rt£  "•"rtYctotUES-WEu-  M WE£k He <jo&  fllfS   /fe^LOWfe  IliBefAPREHY  qlRL Uk£ You  FILM, FOOD AND DANCE EVENING co-presented  by Isadora's Co-operative Restaurant,  Concerned Citizens for Choice on Abortion  & Vancouver Co-operative Radio. Oct.29th.  Ukrainian Hall, 805 E. Pender St.Film,  dinner and dance $10. (Film at 7 pm. )  Dance only: $5.  Film: Right Out of History: The Dinner  Party.Dinner by Isadora's and music by  The Persisters.  HALLOWEEN BENEFIT DANCE for SORWUC and  Press Gang. Saturday, Oct. 30th, The  Viking Hall, 828 E. Hastings from 8 pm  to 1 am. Advance Tickets only,$4 and $5/  available from SORWUC, Press Gang,  Vancouver Women's Bookstore, Ariel,  Octopus, Makara. Costumes welcome.  Ad Hoc and the Persisters playing.  FILM BENEFIT NIGHT FOR KINESIS  at the  Ridge Theatre on Monday, October 18.  Tell Me a Riddle  at 7:30  Stevie  at 9:15  Advance tickets are available at Ariel  Books, Vancouver Women's Bookstore,  Octopus East and West, and the  Vancouver Status of Women. Regular  Ridge prices for tickets (Adults:$4.)  AMELIA PRODUCTIONS PRESENTS: WOMEN SPEAK  OUT:  four showings of feminist documentary video. All showings at 7:30. $2  donation at door. Approx. l£ hours of  tape with discussion between tapes.  Mon. Oct. 18 at Video Inn, 261 Powell St.  Holly Near,  IWD  '82,  and Great Expect-  tions  Tues. Oct.26 at Octopus East,1146 Commercial Drive. This Line is Not in Service, Mother's Rights-Union Rights,  and  VDT (Very Dangerous Technology)  Wed. Nov.3 at Octopus East,1146 Commercial Drive. Women Speak Out Against the  Right,  Hardly an Ending.  Wed. Nov.10 at Women in Focus, 456 W.  Broadway. Mother's Day and One Hundred  Concerned Aboriginal Women  The Vancouver Women's Health Collective  is now holding a drop-in every Thursday  from 2:30 to 4 pm at the Health Collective, 1501 West Broadway. Women are invited to join in informal discussion about  any health-related issue of interest to  them.  Skill-Sharing Days are held monthly at  the Health Collective. The next one will  be at 1 pm, October 16. Women can learn  how to do breast self-exam and cervical  self-exam as well as learning more about  pap smears - how they are done and how  to understand the results.  A Holistic Health Group for women will be  starting Thursday, October 14 at 7:30.  Topics will include nutrition, exercise,  stress, massage, visualization and overcoming addictions. Call the Women's  Health Collective at 736-6696 to register.  UP AND COMING  BERNADETTE DEVLIN McCALISKY will be speaking on the current struggle in Ireland  on November 7th at Sir John Oliver  Secondary School at 7:30. Sponsored by  the Irish Prisoners of War Committee.  NATIONAL ACTION COMMITTEE ON THE STATUS OF  WOMEN will he holding their executive  and regional meeting and lobbying workshop for B.C. member groups at Capilano  College, October 22-24. All member groups  are invited to send a delegate; out of  town delegates will be subsidized.  Members of all member groups are welcome  as observers (includes VSW members).  Registration is $20 and includes lunches  coffee and 3 workshops.  Topics include: Disarmament as a Women's  Issue, Pornography/Violence Against  Women,  Women and Employment,  The Canadian Constitution and How to Make Sure  We Get Our Rights,  Daycare, A Feminist  Economics.   Dinner on Saturday night  is open to all women and will include  a feminist folk singer and a feminist  B.C. politician.  For further information: Jillian Ridington, 738-0395 or Donna Stewart at 987-  4822 (North Shore Women's Centre)  FOURTH ANNUAL SINGLE MOTHERS SYMPOSIUM on  November 22,23,24 at the YWCA, 580  Burrard Street. For registration info  and child care phone: Judy Rogers,  683-2531  CLASSIFIED  ROOM TO RENT IN CO-OP HOUSE. We are looking for a woman to share a spacious  house on Charles Street near Victoria  Drive, beginning November 1st. $266  includes your rent, utilities and food!  Feminist non-smoker is desirable but  we are  willing to make concessions  about the smoking part. Call Jan at  253-3006  RENTAL: We are looking for one person,  possibly with one child to share our  co-op house; two rooms to rent for  $285. plus utilities. The house is  quiet, large, sunny, has a long fenced  yard,in the Kits area.  We are: one woman, one man and one  sixteen month old child. Non-smoking.  Call Heather or Tony-731-8790  AND  said You  ©flw  OWAnD  \  Now Yoi>'fe  AFWD  You'll  FiRED.  CALL A  f£WW«|6rf  WlGafwC,      GR0U»S-6£+-'  T°D°7      iimm*.


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items