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Kinesis Nov 1, 1978

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 Vancouver Status of Women  2029 W 4th Avenue  Vancouver, B.C. V6 J1N3  INSIDE  VSW reports on where the election candidates stand  on feminist issues :   1  Equal Employment Opportunities at City Hall  4  Stella Bliss decision : a kick in the stomach to  all working women,  5  Towards a feminist perspective on prostitution  6  Optician assaults patients. Do you know him ?.  7  Workers Compensation and Women  8  Budget rent-a-car; exploit-a-worker. A story of one  woman's courage and action   10  Unemployment Facts and Fables   12  Constructive Criticism: what is is; how you do it  13  Plus: Overview of women's movement action in the  Lower Finland for the past year. Reviews, more news   SUBSCRIBE TO KINESIS!  Published By Vancouver Status of Women  2029 West 4th Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.  Subscriber Only _  Member/Subscriber _  AMOUNT ENCLOSED:  Subs are $8/year Individual (or what you can afford), $15/year Institutions.  VSW membership is by donation. Please remember that VSW operates on  inadequate funding — we need member support!  1 <  U'c  $D: ?  SJ-EOSAL COLLECTORS  KINCSIS  50c  uerwy ^J     Vol 7 no 10  ^i£__ucg&  November 78  Vancouver Status of Women  the election issue  constructive critfc^^ v**>^  prostitution  Graphics by Valerie Pugh. Photograph by Gerda Osterneck. V.S.W. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR  CANDIDATES TO CITY COUNCIL  Candidate's Name:  COPE    NPA _  TEAM   VIA   VIP    Independent  Other  Alderperson  Mayor   civic elections:  QUESTIONS & ANSWERS  1. Indicate your support for, or  opposition to, the following:  a) Equal employment opportunities program;  b) Municipal support for crisis  facilities for women (ie. Rape Relief, Transition Houses, etc.);  c) Ward system;  d) Municipal funding for Vancouver Status of Women;  e) Municipal funding for community women's centres;  f) By-law changes to require a  minimum standard of indoor and outdoor play space for children in all  new residential development;  g) Immediate improvements in  lighting of streets and bus stops -  to increase safety;  h) Greater control of demolition  of housing stock suitable for families;  i) Revitalization of the city's  Housing Corporation for construction  of housing suitable for low- and  moderate - income families;  j) Rent control;  k) Permanent regular funding for  a free housing rental agency;  1) Requiring bus schedules to be  posted at each bus stop;  m) Promotion of after-hours  child care facilities and facilities  for children under 3 years of age;  n) Delegation of authority within general guidelines set by Council  to local area planning committees  including representatives of all  segments of the community;  o) By-law changes to insure a  minimum requirement of family residences in all new residential development .  2. Which of the areas outlined in  question 1 would you be prepared to  actively support by introducing a  motion in Council, for example (list  by letter).  3. If elected, what would you do  to insure that more women enter the  planning process, and that women's  special needs are integrated into  community development?  4. If elected, what would you do to  improve our transit system so that  it serves the needs of women in Vancouver?  5. If elected, what would you do to  improve and expand child care facilities in Vancouver?  6. If elected, what would you do to  eliminate discrimination against women  (ie. women on welfare, immigrant women,  single women and elderly women) and  children in housing in Vancouver?  7. If elected, what would you do to  encourage the development of affordable housing in Vancouver?  8. Additional comments.  Questionnaires were sent to the five  announced civic groups (COPE, NPA,  TEAM, VIA, VIP) and to incumbent independents.  This did mean that groups  or independents who had not announced  publicly their intent to run were  missed.  This was unavoidable since  the questionnaires had to be distributed and returned prior to the close  of nominations to meet our publishing  deadline (apologies to anyone we  missed).  The questionnaires were  evaluated on the following criteria:  1) The proportion of candidates in  each group (only one independent returned the questionnaire) who answered the questionnaire.  It is our belief that candidates who could not  take the time to respond are unlikely to be any more responsive to our  concerns if elected.  2) Their support or opposition to a  series of specific issues.  3) Their responses to the open-ended  questions; specifically, how their  answers reflected their knowledgabil-  ity of the issues involved, indications of direct   action they have  taken and specific proposals they  would implement if elected.  Cope  CITY COUNCIL:  Responses to the questionnaire were received from all 8  COPE candidates for alderperson (Joe  Arnaud, Libby Davies, Bruce Eriksen,  Sol Jackson, Paul Murphy, Harry Rankin, David Schreck, Jean Swanson).  In addition, COPE mayoral candidate  Bruce Yorke was one of only two  hopefuls for the mayor's position  who responded.  Yorke's answers were the most detailed of any candidate's received,  and COPE council candidates generally  showed the greatest degree of knowledge and support of the issues involved.  All these candidates supported the 15 issues listed, and  their responses to the open questions indicated the highest level  SHEXTFR.  of involvement, knowledge and'Ģspecific proposals for implementing our  positions.  Yorke emphasized child care as an  area of top priority that would "do  more than anything else I can think  of to enhance the status of women  and children".  Current COPE alderman Harry Rankin  has consistently supported the issues outlined in the questionnaire,  including introducing motions designed to increase the availability  of affordable housing and preserve  existing stock by more effective  by-law enforcement.  Other specific  proposals advanced by COPE candidates included "pressuring the provincial government to amend the  city charter to implement a by-law  prohibiting discrimination against  children in housing" (Libby Davies),  "a subsidy system for single parent  and other low to moderate income  families  to use 'free transit'"  (Paul Murphy), and opposition to  any change in taxation policy which  would decrease taxes on industry  and consequently increase the cost  of housing through higher residential property taxes (David Schreck).  to page 2  All graphics for this article  by COLETTE FRENCH. from page 1^  SCHOOL BOARD:  Six out of nine COPE  candidates replied to the questionnaire: Connie Fogal, Betty Green-  well, Wes Knapp, David Lane, Helen  O'Shaughnessy, and Pauline Weinstein.  Once again, all COPE candidates  responding supported the issues  raised in the questionnaire.  In  addition, several specific programs  were suggested by COPE candidates  in response to open-ended questions.  They felt that the school board had  made very little progress in eliminating sex discrimination in the  schools, and recommended direct consultation by the school board with  the B.C. Teachers' Federation Status  of Women Committee, and pushing for  the reinstatement of a Provincial  Advisory Committee on Sex Discrimination within the provincial Ministry of Education.  Candidates also  would initiate compulsory in-service  training of teachers and school  counsellors to advance the implementation of non-sexist career  counselling.  All candidates favoured the institution of a ward system  for the election of school board as  well as for city city council.  PARKS BOARD:  Five of seven COPE  candidates returned the questionnaire: Douglas Laalo, Peter Marcus,  Jim Quail, Phil Rankin and Glyn  Thomas.  The responding candidates  supported the issues put forward in  the questionnaire, and indicated  that all points raised were part of  overall COPE policy.  Specific recommendations coming from COPE Parks  Board candidates included "provision of Parks Board programming staff  to provide programming for day care  wherever day care is offered" (Douglas Laalo), and "removal of tourist  industries from the Parks Board budget and have them funded under the  provincial government Ministry of  Tourism" (Phil Rankin).  ENVIRONMENT  7f^  >  *>V  /  V3  I  y  \/  t<  '.   c f  &  4  U  £  -ft****************.********  *' On Childcare: *  * :  •*• "I personally feel this question to +  * be of such fundamental importance *  ^, that I would mobilize the entire *  •* social planning resources of the '^  *' city to effect the maximum atten- *  jr. tion,  including leading a personal *  * campaign to get senior government .,  *• funding. " *  *;          Bruce Yorke, COPE *  * mayoralty candidate *  : ;  + On Recreation: m  * I  * "The fact that the Vancouver tax +  * base is paying for provincial tour- *  ^ ist attractions while community *  * recreation goes begging is atroc- .  * ious. " «*  * Douglas Laalo, COPE *  m.                            Parks Board candidate *  On Parks Board:  "It is the inaccessibility of the  Parks Board to the electorate and  the Board's apparent unawareness of  its accountability to the citizens  that has been the basic reason for  my becoming associated with VIP. "  Elsa Lehmann, VIP  Parks Board candidate  * On Planning:  * "If you gals want to be equal,   then  * you must acquire that equality by  -* your own wits. "  David Bader, VIA City  Council candidate  *  On the Involvement of Women:  "We need some formal way of calling  together the women in Council,  Parks  Board and School Board with the  Status of Women - perhaps three or  four times a year - to review outstanding issues and to phrase motions.     This could result in better  communication and more support for  policy resolutions.     We had this  with the EOF,  and it should be extended. "  Darlene Marzari, independent candidate for City  Council  +t On the Integration of Girls' and  * Boys' Sports Programs:  + "I admit the difference between ac-  * cess to sports and competition in  + sport.     I support access but dis-  * agree with competition between sexes  * in most sports. "  * Freda Pryce, NPA School  _, Board candidate  * On School Board Progress in Eliminate ting Sex Discrimination:  ^ "Very little.     COPE candidates would  * be in direct consultation with the  * BCTF Status of Women Committee and  "Z recommend to the B. C.   government the  * reinstatement of the Provincial  * Advisory Committee on Sex Discrimi-  * nation. "  * Pauline Weinstein, COPE  .w School Board candidate  Independent  Darlene Marzari was the only independent candidate to respond to the  questionnaire, and one of only two  incumbent alderpersons (the other  being COPE's Harry Rankin) to reply.  As expected, Marzari supported all  15 issues raised and had a number  of specific proposals to advance.  She noted that many of the proposals  would require "a majority progressive council (ie. 6 votes)" to be  implemented.  She has introduced  motions on many of the issues raised  but indicated that the "batting  average is only about -333!"  Some specific concerns raised by  Marzari included maintaining the  present day care consultant after  the current mandate runs out in  March; funding for Family Places  throughout the city; a city task  force to follow through on the Family Violence Task Force at United  Way, and leading to neighbourhood  transition houses; and a number of  specific recommendations to improve  housing supply, particularly to  low to middle income families.  Vip  • •••••a*****.*************  CITY COUNCIL:  Four of the seven VIP  candidates for city council replied  to the questionnaire: W.J. Prest,  Jim Lepkovits, Sue Hiscocks, Gloria  Anne Kieler.  (VIP has no mayoralty  candidate.)  The candidates supported unanimously 14 of the 15 specific  issues raised. . Two candidates (Prest  and Kieler) also supported funding  for community women's centres - the  remaining two candidates changed the  question to read "people" centres,  which seemed to underplay the need  for community organizations geared  specifically to women's needs.  In  addition, one candidate (Hiscocks)  did not respond to the issue of  child care facilities for children  under 3.  In the open-ended questions, VIP  candidates expressed considerable  sympathy with many of the aims advanced, but set out relatively few  specific proposals on how such ideas  might be implemented.  Some candidates displayed a lack of knowledge  of how the municipal/provincial  system operates.  However, a few  specific proposals were put forward  including forming "a women's advisory group at City Hall" (Kieler),  and the creation of a municipal  ombudsperson (Prest) or rentals-  to page 3 from page 2  person (Lepkovitz).  It was difficult to determine, however, what  specific action they would take on  the questions raised.  SCHOOL BOARD:  VIP has no candidates for school board.  PARKS BOARD:  Three out of five  VIP Parks Board candidates responded: Geoffrey Smith, Elsa Lehmann,  Julian Bowron.  The candidates  responded favourably to the seven  issues presented, except Smith who  would not answer the question  concerning affirmative action programs .  Again, however, there were few  specific proposals on how the general aims contained in the open-ended  questions would be accomplished.  One candidate (Bowron) recommended  a recall system where 10% of the  electorate could call for the replacement of specific commissioners.  VIA  CITY COUNCIL:  Four of the five VIA  candidates for alderperson (David  Eader, Patrick Graham, Tom Hammond,  and Sydney Wellgress) responded, and  David Ingram, mayoral candidate for  VIA, also answered.  Ingram supported 12 of the 15 issues presented,  but opposed rent control, funding  for a free housing rental agency,  and municipal funding for community  women's c ent res.  In general, responses by VIA candidates were variable, supporting some  issues presented in the questionnaire  and opposing others.  All except  Hammond (the only candidate to support all 15 issues) opposed rent  control and funding for a free rental agency.  Other issues opposed  by VIA candidates included municipal  . support for crisis facilities for  women (Bader, Graham - although he  would give token support, Wellgress),  the ward system (Wellgress), municipal funding for VSW (Bader, Graham -  again with token support), municipal  funding for community women's centres (Bader - who did not respond  to the question, Graham, Wellgress).  Child care for under-3's was given  token support by Graham, supported  for parents in need by Wellgress,  and not responded to by Bader.  In  addition, Wellgress opposed more  control of demolition of housing  stock suitable for families, re-  vitalization of the city's housing  corporation, requiring a minimum  amount of playspace and family  dwellings in development, improvements in street lighting for safety  and the posting of bus schedules.  SCHOOL BOARD: No VIA school board  candidates completed the questionnaire.  PARKS BOARD:  Only one of three VIA  Parks Board candidates responded to  the questionnaire (Harkvipal Singh  Sara).  He gave no response to issues related to child care and favoured only a partial ward system  (an option not contained in the  plebiscite).  He did oppose increasing parks space at the expense of  affordable housing, but gave few  other specific proposals.  TEAM  CITY COUNCIL:  Only two out of 10  TEAM candidates for alderperson returned the questionnaire (Pam Glass  and Jack Say Yee), but unfortunately they returned the wrong version  (Glass returned the school board  questionnaire and Say Yee the parks  board questionnaire).  TEAM headquarters was notified of the error,  but it was not rectified.  Consequently, it was impossible to determine their stands on many of  the issues in the city council field.  However, Glass is opposed to the  ward system and Say Yee described  his reaction as "ambivalent".  The  TEAM mayoral candidate did not respond.  SCHOOL BOARD:  No TEAM school board  candidate responded.  PARKS BOARD:  One of seven TEAM Parks  Board candidates responded to the  questionnaire: Ian Bain.  Although  he was in favour of the issues raised, his answers were qualified by  such terms as "if appropriate" or  "where feasible", and he gave no  indication of the grounds upon which  he would make decisions.  In response  to the question regarding issues that  he personally would be willing to  raise he responded "No blank cheques".  NPA  No NAP CITY COUNCIL or PARKS BOARD  candidate replied to the questionnaire,  SCHOOL BOARD:  Only one of nine NPA  School Board candidates replied to  the questionnaire: Freda Pryce.  Pryce's responses were variable -  she favoured affirmative action  programs and in-service workshops  for teachers on sex-role stereotyping; but opposed V.D. and birth  control information in the schools  (although she thought there should  be easier access in the community),  the integration of home economics  and industrial education, and the  ward system ("too much like separatism").  In a number of other  areas, her answers were qualified.  For example, she would "possibly"  support the provision of child care  facilities with night school programs .  **********************  SCHOOL BOARD QUESTIONS  The questionnaire for members of the  School Board included the following:  Indicate your support for these  issues:  Allocating surplus space in schools  for childcare facilities;  Requiring all school board personnel  to adopt affirmative action programs;  Integration of girls' and boys' sport  programmes;  Requiring all schools to make space  available for after hours childcare;  Provision of chilcare facilities in  conjunction with night school programmes to ensure maximum opportunity  for women to participate;  Provision of V.D. and birth control  information programmes in schools;  In-service workshops for teachers  regarding the dangers of sex-role  stereotyping.  'Ģa*********************  PARKS BOARD QUESTIONS  Parks Board candidates were asked to  express their opinion on the following issues, among others.  Were they in favour of:  Requiring all childcare or playschool  facilities in parks board buildings  to be operated 12 months a year?  Providing space for after-school  childcare programmes in parks board  facilities?  Increasing authority of local community centre associations?  Directing funds away from large  tourist-oriented facilities to programmes designed to meet community  recreation needs? * %  $50,000  SETTLEMENT  IN  EQUAL PAY CASE  In February 1978 six women signed a  complaint form alleging discrimination in pay on the basis of sex. The  women were employed as "cleaning  assistants", a position held only  by women.  The women alleged that  they performed substantially similar  work as "cleaners", a position filled  only by men.  Two of the men in the cleaner position were required at times to wash  floors and bale garbage, duties the  women did not do. However, neither  did the other men in the cleaner  position do these duties, yet received the higher rate of pay.  A Human Rights officer investigated  the complaint, found it valid, and  arrived at the following settlement  with the company:  1) The company gave a written commitment to adhere to the provisions of  the Human Rights Code.  2) All 19 women in the cleaning assistant position were given equal  pay with the male employees and received $48,000 in back pay.  3) In addition, three female employees who had left their job were  sought out and given the $2,000 back  pay to which they were entitled.  It  was not possible to track down a  fourth female employee.  SOCRED WOMEN  At the annual one-day convention of  the Social Credit Women's Auxiliary  October 19, Socred women:  * adopted "0 God Our Help in Ages  Past" as their official opening song  at conventions and conferences.  * opposed constitutional changes  affecting the monarchy.  * expressed fears that B.C. had been  moving towards "a communist republic" under the NDP.  * advocated the return of the strap,  daily reading of the Bible and recitation of the Lord's Prayer in the  school system.  * called upon Education Minister  Pat McGeer to remove from circulation in schools texts with "poor  literary content, subversive overtones, unesthetic illustrations  and commercial advertising." Many  of these, explained auxiliary president Zonzabelle Sather, had been  approved by the NDP and were a  "disgrace" to the school system.  * praised McGeer for his efforts to  "upgrade the moral standards of  teachers throughout the province."  Possibly this refers to McGeer's  comment last month that teachers  using or advocating the use of pot  will be fired.  * called for mandatory labels regarding health hazards and the habit-  forming potential of alcoholic beverages .  (Vancouver Sun info)  E.E.O.P AT CITY HALL  Though the City of Vancouver's Equal  Employment Opportunity Program had its  beginnings in July 1975 when Council  struck an Equal Employment Opportunity  Committee, it was in September 1977  that the Program was approved by  Council and February 1978 that the  Program really began.  The Report of the Equal Employment  Opportunity Committee on the Status of  Women, Minorities and the Disabled,  made public in the spring of last year  outlined the different job distribution patterns of women and minority  employees of the City of Vancouver.  Not unexpectedly, the majority of women employees of the City are in  clerical and secretarial, nursing  and librarian positions. Of the almost 1500 labouring positions, eight  are presently held by women, and few  women are in management, except in  the Vancouver Public Library where  20 women are Branch and Division  Heads.  Minority employees also have a different job distribution pattern from  non-minority employees, with few  minorities employed in the Fire and  Police Departments, and no minority  employees in management.  These different patterns of job distribution for women and minority  employees result in lower earnings  for these groups.  In addition, a building accessibility  study done for the Equal Employment  Opportunity Committee showed that  many City-owned buildings are not  fully accessible to the handicapped.  It was on the basis of this information that Council approved the Pro  gram last September and passed about  30 resolutions covering all aspects  of employment practice - training,  testing, recruitment, classification,  pay, height requirements, and building  accessibility, to name a few.  Equal Employment Opportunity officer  Shelagh Day reports that the last  eight months have been a time for  planning, updating information on the  civic workforce, looking at career  paths for clerical and secretarial  workers, and the way application procedures affect disabled people.  Here are the short-term accomplishments :  * Council approved open advertising  for firefighter positions and a  study of entrance and height require^  ments for firefighters.  * The Finance Committee recently  gave approval to a report on fringe  benefits for disabled employees. If  Council approves, this will mean  that standard fringe benefits will  be given to all disabled employees,  regardless of the kind of disability.  * New training programs for women and  other employees have begun.  * Information sessions on methods of  implementing equal employment opportunity are planned for senior staff  and will begin in November.  * The accessibility study of City-  owned buildings was referred to  Council's Special Committee on the  Disabled for its decision on priorities. The Committee's first priority  is modifications to the Queen Elizabeth Theatre that will make it fully  accessible to those in wheelchairs.  Plans for these changes are underway.  And, we expect, there are more to come.  IN CELEBRATION OF THE HEALTH COLLECTIVE'S MOVE TO  BRIGHTER OFFICES AT 1501  WEST BROADWAY,  MELANIE  CONN GIVES US ALL A GOOFY WAVE. Gerda Osterneck photo BUSS:  we lose  Any inequality between the sexes under  the Unemployment Insurance regulations  are the result of nature, not legislation.  That's what the Supreme Court of Canada said October 30, when they ruled  7-0 against Stella Bliss.  Bliss, who  had been excluded from regular UI benefits under Section 46 of the Unemployment Insurance Act because she had  just had a child, had claimed that Section 46 of the UI Act contravenes the  Canadian Bill of Rights by discriminating on the basis of sex.  The Supreme Court decision upholds the  discrimination of Section 46. It is  a kick in the stomach to all working  women, especially those thirty thousand a year who are denied regular benefits because they are pregnant.  Section 46 arbitrarily forces women  who are pregnant to apply for mater^  nity benefits even when they qualify  fully for regular benefits and would  prefer them.  Nature  Discriminates  Against  Stella Bliss  7-0  not us guys  &&P'  Unions and women's groups across Canada cooperated in bringing this case  to the various courts of the land.  SORWUC (Service, Office and Retail  Workers Union of Canada), Bliss' union, took the case to UI umpire, who  found that Section 46 "authorizes  discrimination by reason of sex."  This judgement was appealed by UIC,  overturned by the Federal Court of  Appeal and finally squashed by the  Supreme Court.  Bui Bui  Maternity benefits are riddled with  tricky rules for qualification. Bliss  was denied maternity benefits because  she had not been working at the time  of conception. She was further disentitled to regular benefits because  pregnant and post-pregnant women are  eligible for maternity benefits only.  Vancouver Community Legal Assistance  Society lawyers Lynn Smith and Al  McLean took the Bliss case to the  Supreme court in defence of two  central principles:  Should the Canadian Bill of Rights be  enforced to bring about equality under  the law?  Should women who work and  pay UI premiums be deprived of benefits arbitrarily in situations where  men would not?  The Supreme Court decision appears to  have sided with the judgement at the  Federal Court of Appeal, which in  June 1977 decided that Section 46  does not discriminate on the basis  of sex - it only discriminates against  pregnant people!  CHILDREN  AND THE LAW  The Coalition Task Force on Children  and the Law is concerned about the  future of children in this province.  The Coalition, an alliance of groups  and individuals involved with family  and children's law, is developing a  detailed critique of the White Paper,  Family and Child Services Act, made  public September 6, 1978.  The White Paper proposed legislation  to "replace the B.C. Protection of  Children Act of 1901. Needless to  say, families have been going through  changes since that date, and the old  Act has long been inadequate for B.C.  families.  The Coalition has devoted the entire  issue of its newsletter for October  to the White Paper.  To obtain a copy  of that newsletter, Athena, contact  SPARC, 2210 West 12th Avenue, Vancouver,  One major criticism which the Coalition has of the proposed legislation  is that it thrusts the burden of responsibility for crisis upon the parents.  Human Resources Minister Bill Vander  Zalm has said that the Act tries to  ensure that children are cared for by  their parents whenever possible.  This means that the parents have to  pay for whatever services they need,  and the state can turn its back on  its responsibilities toward children.  The White Paper's message is that  parents, having decided to have children, must shoulder the burdens alone.  The Coalition describes the White  Paper as "punitive".  critique  Here, point by point, is the Coalition's critique of the philosophy  of the White Paper.  (For critique  'of specific sections, see Athena.)  Although the Coalition Task Force  Study Group agrees with the philosophy that the family should remain  together as long as possible,  there  is strong concern about the attitude of the Act in that:  a) it does not encourage parents or  guardians to seek help before complete family breakdown.    We believe  that every family should have the  right to seek and obtain help without stigma.  b) it is a  'band-aid' act and not a  preventive one.  c) children are society's future.  This act ignores the community 's  responsibility for every individual  especially children.    The number of  family breakdowns and the cost in  dollars will be lessened if a preventive and supportive role to the  family is played by the government  and the community.  d) it ignores the need-for children  to have a legal status in law.  Children remain possession or objects with no rights.  e) a child under 5 years ' sense of  time and need are not considered.  A day in the life of a one or two  year old child seems like forever.  f) it ignores the special needs of  children who have physical, social  or emotional handicaps.    We believe  that the government and the community should provide extra support and  services to the family to enable  those children to have the same  opportunities as all other children.  g) it makes no reference to the needs  of native Indian children to be cared  for by their own people according to  their own customs.  h) it does not set out the role,  function and authority of social  workers to prevent the abuse of power.  i) it makes no provision for a Family  Advocate (as described in the Family  Relations Act) to consult with a  child and act as counsel for the interests and welfare of that child in  decisions respecting adoption, guardianship, protection of alleged delinquency, etc.  j) there is no provision for children between the ages of'17 and 19  to have protection and financial  support in their own right where the  family is no longer available to provide these.  k) it allows no provision for accountability and review of services to  families and children.  Emergency Librarian  The Coalition also points out that  the language of the Act lacks sufficient detail and clarity. There are  no definitions of what "neglect" and  "abuse" might mean. Does "abuse"  include emotional and sexual abuse?  The new Act will be a tremendously  important one, which will touch the  lives of every family in B.C. It is  being designed as an anchor Act for  all other Acts affecting the family,  e.g. The Adoption Act.  Voice your concerns about this proposed legislation by writing to Mr.  V. Belknap/Children's Legislation  Committee, Ministry of Human Resources, Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C. V8V 1X4. a difficult   problem   for  This article is part of a brief on the Criminal  Code amendments concerning prostitution.  It is  a companion-piece to last month's article on  pornography.  by DEBRA J. LEWIS  Prostitution is an area which has  generally presented problems for the  women's movement.  While feminists  are agreed that the very existence  of prostitution is a reflection of a  sexist society, it is also recognized that the historical persecution of the prostitute is equally  unjust.  The law has never imposed  sanctions on men for utilizing prostitutes - in this sense it is the  most blatantly exploited victims of  sexism who are held responsible for  the existence of prostitution.  Further, it is precisely those prostitutes who are most exploited in the  system who carry the brunt of the  blame - call girls, safely out of  public view, have seldom been persecuted, while women working on  the street are continually taken  into the revolving door of the  criminal justice system.  Sanctions  taken against prostitutes have been  little more than harassment techniques - a tariff for engaging in  the trade and a means of preventing  the problem from becoming too blatant and offending the sensibilities  of "respectable" people.  In this  sense, the system itself becomes  a pimp, and provides additional  assistance for other pimps by providing the reasons through which  they can keep women under their control.  The law has done nothing to  solve the problem, and it is doubtful that it was ever intended to do  so.  Its intent, instead, has been  to make examples of those women who  stray from an acceptable idea of  femininity, and to keep the problem  safely tucked away from public view.  However, it has done nothing, in  practice, to deal with men who use  the services of prostitutes, pimps  who exploit them, or a society  which often provides few alternatives to the women who become prostitutes.  While we believe that prostitution  will only be eradicated when women  are truly the social, economic and  sexual equals of men, we also believe that there are immediate steps  which can be taken. As one British  criminologist and feminist states:  The economic explanation of prostitution in affluent societies is therefore not in terms of dire need but  rather in terms of the relatively  limited opportunities for women in  such societies to earn a living  wage,  to win promotion and achieve  a secure career,  and to be economic-  aily independent of men.     Complete  economic independence remains a  possibility for only a small minority of women, with the consequence  that a majority are not only employed  in low-paid,  insecure work,  but are  also dependent on husbands,   lovers and  fathers or,  in some cases,  a paternalistic welfare state.     Given such prospects prostitution may well appear a  favourable career to many women... Yet  the act of exchanging sexual favours  for economic reward is not always  morally or legally reprehensible...  Legally and morally a wife gives her  husband absolute rights over her body  on signing the marriage certificate;  in return the husband is bound to support his wife financially.    The prostitute on the other hand takes out a  series of short-lived "contracts" with  several men in return for an economic  reward.     The significant difference  between these two activities is not so.  much the number of men involved as the  fact that sexual relations outside the  marriage contract are still condemned  in European and North American cultures  ...Moral code and legal statutes do not  arise in isolation,   they originate in  a specific structural context in which  the distribution of power is significant in determining the form and content of the moral and legal code.  Questions as to why prostitutes are  predominantly female and clients predominantly male, why the prostitute is  vilified at the same time as being  thought of as socially "useful",  are  not answered simply by reference to  moral or legal norms.  COCRCION  BY  PIMPS  The economic aspect of prostitution is  further compounded by the labelling of  women who may have been engaged in  prostitution at various times of their  lives, and in many cases, the control  of pimps who may exert various kinds of  coercion to keep them in the business.  One obvious solution is the provision  of facilities to allow women who choose  to leave an alternative.  Funds which  have traditionally been used for the  policing of prostitution could be far  better used to provide communal living  situations, training opportunitxes,  street workers and other resources for  women in these situations.  Such provis  ions would be a far more powerful motivation for women than any legal sanctions .  PRCSS, POLICC  IGNORC   DANGCRS  In fact, the entire issue of the  dangers faced by prostitutes is one  that has been totally ignored by  both the press and politicians a-  like.  Because in the past many prostitutes have been dependent on pimps  for "protection" or even simple emotional support, they have been liable  for abuse from this source.  But  further than this, the chance of  encountering violence from customers  is always present.  Under these circumstances, prostitutes have even  less protection under the law then  women generally.  Those few prostitutes in Vancouver who do report  sexual assault to the police, for  example, don't get past the point of  the initial report to the police. This  is the case even if the investigating  officer genuinely believes that some  form of assault has taken place.  If  the law dealing with rape and related  offenses favours women who most closely  adhere to societal norms of acceptable  female behaviour, it is prostitutes who  have most blatantly refused to adhere  to those norms.  Because they have refused to conform in these ways, they  are subject to assault without legal  recourse.  In addition, they are open  to fraud from clients who refuse to pay  for their services.  Finally, the incidence of murder among prostitutes is  an indication of the extent of risk  she faces every day.  The prostitute  must accept such risk as simply a hazard of the trade.  In short, we are opposed to any changes  in the criminal code which would put an  increased responsibility on prostitutes  We favour, on the other hand, greater  enforcement against pimps who are in  the position of coercing women who are  current or potential prostitutes, and  greater opportunities for women who  choose to leave the prostitution business.  If society is serious about dealing with prostitution in a positive way  it can no longer place the responsibility on the women involved.      -^ more on PROSTITUTICN  Although we are opposed to laws directed against women prostitutes, we  are in full support of those directed  towards pimps. While most officials  in the system direct far more anger  towards pimps than the women involved,  they also stress that it is far more  difficult to arrest and prosecute  them than the women.  This is certainly true, but provides no excuse  for taking the path of least resistance.  The proposed changes, in fact,  make it far more difficult to gain  access to pimps.  The changes are obviously in response to the Supreme  Court decision in which it was decided that an automobile (in this case,  one used for police entrapment) was  not a public place, and that a prostitute's conduct must be pressing  or persistent in order to constitute  an offense.  (As an aside, we believe  that "pressing or persistent" conduct  is a form of behaviour which could  be under the control of the law,  provided that such harassment of women  by men, a much more common occurrence,  was similarly sanctioned.) But tightening the law merely to force prostitutes into a less visible position  (and therefore out of the sight of  the public) simply puts them in the  position of being more likely to  need the protection of a pimp, and  hence make it less likely that she  would be willing to give up such  "protection".  It is interesting to  note that in April of this year,  shortly after the Supreme Court  decision, the Vancouver Province  carried reports of a number of arrests of pimps after reports from  prostitutes themselves.  This possibility will be much less likely  if the proposed changes come into  effect, forcing some prostitutes to  become once again more dependent on  pimps.£  PAPPAJOHN  George Pappajohn actually believed  he had his rape victim's consent.  So argued lawyer Allan McEachern  before a B.C.Court of Appeal, October 17.  Pappajohn, a wealthy Vancouver businessman, is appealing his conviction in August 1977. At that time he  was sentenced to three years for the  rape of a real estate saleswoman in  a house she was arranging to sell for  him.  Apart from real consent, proposed the  defence, there is the belief that consent has been given. In a world where  no is supposed to mean yes, that kind  of convolution can occupy the court's  attention.  McEachern*s other major point was that  the judge should not have permitted the  evidence of Alice Goodfellow to have  been introduced at the point of cross-  examination. Goodfellow, one of the witnesses at the trial, said that Pappajohn  had threatened to kill her if he was  sent to jail. Pappajohn admitted that  he had done so.  The Court of Appeal judges are currently  writing up their judgement.•  do you KNOW  THIS MAN?  OPTICIAN ASSAULTS PATIENTS  Leaning unnecessarily close to his  female patient, the optician places  her left contact lens and begin massaging her neck, shoulders, back   |  and upper chest on the pretext of  relaxing her.  Then, in an attempt  to fit the right lens, he "accidentally" drops it down the front of  her blouse.  His hand deftly follows  the direction of the misplaced lens.  This is a usual procedure for one  optician practising right now in  Vancouver.  Using his position of  authority and his status as a professional, he has followed this  opening with molestation, indecent  assault and rape.  He is a married  man with children.  Tomorrow morning he will go to his office without fear of impediment and he will,  no doubt, begin again.  In his office, during office hours,  this optician has raped at least  one patient.  He has molested and  sexually assaulted at least four  other women.  Some of these women  contacted Vancouver Rape Relief.  They have not spoken with the police.  Involvement with the rapist's  family, the fear of either personal  repercussions or of not being believed often deters many women  from speaking out.  There are probably more than five  women who have been subjected to  this man's1 forcible molestation and  their support is necessary in order  to stop him.  If you have been molested by this man, or know a woman  who has been, write or call Vancouver Rape Relief at 872-8212, #4-45  Kingsway, Vancouver V5T 3H7. You  may remain anonymous and your call  kwill be kept in strictest confidence.  This optician is not unlike many  other men who use their positions  of authority and trust in order to  perpetrate acts of aggression and  control against their female clients, patients and employees.  Vancouver Rape Relief has received  calls from women who have had physical intimacy forced on them by  doctors, dentists and even therapists.  Often, because we are  taught to depend on and trust in  experts, we are totally unprepared  for and stunned by the experience.  Sometimes we feel unsure about our  perceptions of the event, sometimes  we even blame ourselves but most  often we simply change professionals and are frightened to say anything.  When nothing is said, these  men will continue to practise and  continue to molest and rape.  The optician will be at work tomorrow morning. If you are one of his  victims, you have the power to stop  him.  Call or write Rape Relief.  For further information contact:  Bonnie Agnew (office 872-8212 or  home 872-3391) or Megan Ellis  (office 872-8212).  ANITA  Renaissance preacher Ken Campbell said  recently that his organization may  book a school auditorium in Vancouver  for Bryant.  Bryant had been booked by Renaissance  for October 15 for a Vancouver crusade, but it was postponed. "We're  just watching for a time when we can  come,"  Campbell told the Province.  "It won't take much planning. "  BATT€R€D WIV€S  When the punk rock band "Battered Wives" comes to town mid-November, VSW  will be there to protest and educate.  Call 736 1313 for the details.  Lee Grills, President of VSW, is a  strong feminist candidate for election to North Vancouver District council in mid-November.  J TRIAL FOR POSTERING  B.C. PEN ON TRIAL  Putting up posters protesting conditions at the B.C. Pen can land you  in court.  Brent Taylor was convicted October 20 for putting up Betsy  Wood/Gay Hoon defense posters. The  poster reads: B.C. PEN ON TRIAL, and  gives dates of the preliminary hearing for Wood and Hoon, prison reform  activists charged in connection with  an incident at the Pen last January.  Prison reform organizing makes the  law of the land jumpy. The judge  wanted to jail Taylor for a week,  but when both prosecution and defence  argued against that, Taylor was given  ♦•hree months' probation.  Wood and Hoon supporters outside the  courtroom pointed out that Taylor  had been busted because of the political nature of the poster, not because of the postering - a common  practice among community groups. Wx k^rs Compensation  & Women  BY CRAIG PATERSON  The economic and occupational situation of women employed at the Workers'  Compensation Board (WCB) certainly  deserves attention.  It is obvious  that women's salaries and job responsibilities at WCB compare unfavourably to the men.  By and large, women  are working at the repetitive, manual  jobs where responsibility, authority,  initiative, creativity and policy input are not encouraged or desired.  And salaries are undoubtedly much  lower on average.  On the other hand, most men at WCB  are working in jobs where some responsibility, authority, initiative,  creativity and policy input are expected. Male salaries are undoubtedly much higher on average.  And generally, of course, it is men who  supervise, hire or fire the women.  The traditional male view that women  cannot be competent inspectors must  be ended.  But it must also be said  that the Board ought not to passively  wait for women with sufficient industrial experience to present themselves since apprenticeship and hiring  programs in industry have not been  encouraging to women either.  Only in the last two years has any  woman been appointed to the boards of  review or to the compensation consultant's office.  There is now one woman, Barb Blumen, of ten positions at  the boards of review.  There is now  one woman, Maria Giardini, of four  positions at the compensation consultant's office.  This overall pattern is not peculiar  to WCB of course.  The situation is  undoubtedly much the same at the  Occupational Environment Branch, the  Ministry of Mines, or the Ministries  of Labour and Health in both the  federal and provincial governments.  And needless to say, the corporate  sector is the runaway leader in sex  discrimination both in terms of job  opportunities, type of work and income.  Real change in this situation at WCB  will only come when the workers decide to join together to put strong  demands forward.  Day care, promotion and advancement training programs for women, equal pay for work  of equal value, rotational jobs and  positive female hiring or promotion  into senior positions are obvious  interim demands. Much could also be  done to broaden and enrich or to  alleviate the manual labour done by  many women.  POLICY REFORM  Women and men at WCB can also do a  great deal to further reform on WCB  policies regarding prevention and  claims, on behalf of women workers in  B.C.  On the prevention side, the WCB to my  knowledge has never attempted to devise policies or programs which specifically take into account the nature  and extent of women workers' occupational health problems.  For example, agricultural and domestic  workers are not automatically covered  by the Workers' Compensation Act.  This particularly hurts women, who  consititute a large portion of these  workers. Also, women are probably  more likely to be working in "optional coverage" j.obs and in small or  non-union workplaces where health and  safety problems are difficult to address without fear of employer reprisal. And women have particular work  and health concerns, either because  of the type of jobs women have been  slotted into or because of the distinctive biological features of women.  CreditrTom   Angotti/Belinda Sifford/LNS  Many of these issues are covered in  two excellent bibliographic publications (by women): Working For Your  Life: A Woman's Guide to Job Health  Hazards,  by Andrea Hricko and Melanie  Brunt (1976), and Occupational Health  Hazards to Women: A Synoptic View,  by Anne George (1976).  See also the  "Person Paper" entitled Health Hazards at Work  by the Advisory Council  on the Status of Women (1977).  On the compensation side, the only  mention made of women in WCB Annual  Reports is what percentage of claims  involved women (13% in 1976). While  the name of the Act was changed in  1974 from "Workmen" to "Workers" and  sexist terminology was largely taken  out of the Act and prevention regulations, it is an ongoing struggle  to ensure that claims and pension  policies are reformed to assist women.  PENSION FACTS  We still face a situation where pension entitlement and amount is not  as sensitive to women in the long  term as is needed (see Women and  Pensions,   Canadian Council on Social  Development, 1978), although we seem  to have largely but not entirely  overcome, for example, much of the  common-law marriage discrimination  which plagued women for years (see  WCB Reporter Decision #87,   Vol.   1,  p.   319).     Both pension and rehabilitation provisions for surviving  spouses have been progressively reformed in recent years (see WCB  Report Decision #56,   Vol.   1,  p.   234)  and this direction should be continued.  But without ongoing detailed review of pension policies  and women's income situation, progressive improvement will neither  be appreciated nor instituted.  WCB pension policies for women are  especially important given these ^  facts: ^ - In 1941, life expectancy for Canadian males was 63.0 years; in 1971,  it was 69.4 years.  For females,  life expectancy at birth in 1941  was 66.3 years and in 1971 it was  76.5 years.  - Beyond childhood (20 years), male  life expectancy in 1941 was 69.6  years and in 1971 was 71.8 years;  female life expectancy in 1941 was  71.8 years and in 1971 was 78.3  years.  - In 1931, Canadian women on.the  average could expect to live two  years longer than men.  In 1971,  this difference has grown to seven  years.  (See A New Perspective on the Health  of Canadians,  Canada, 1974.)  Because women are living longer, and  longer than men, they have increased  future personal and family responsibilities which pension and rehabilitation policies must take into, account.  The Canadian Royal Commission Report  on the Status of Women (1970) made  the following recommendation (#13)  regarding workers' compensation:  We recommend that the provinces and  territories amend their workmen's  compensation legislation so that the  provisions applicable to the wife of  the person deceased will also be  applicable to the husband of the  person deceased.  This recommendation has still not been  implemented in British Columbia.  What  UPDATE"   said  In March 1978, the B.C. Women's Research Team reported on the state of  implementation of the 1970 Royal  Commission and on WCB policies regarding women (see Update on the  Status of Women in British Columbia).  They stated as a general criticism  of the Act that women are not eligible for the same compensation that  male workers can expect to receive  due to the fact that women workers'  wages average "...only 57% of men's  earnings."    They also stated that  the Act in many sections "...appears  to support a traditional concept of  the family, where women and children are supported at home by men who  work",  whereas in fact that is not  the reality in many families.  Their five recommendations were as  follows:  1. That the Workers' Compensation  Board consider that the incomes of  women are frequently lower than those  of women, and therefore,  standardize  benefit payments, regardless of a  worker's income.  2. That the Workers ' Compensation  Act be amended so that provisions  benefiting the common-law wife of a  deceased worker apply equally to  the common-law husband of a deceased  worker.  3. That the Workers ' Compensation  Act be amended so that provisions  benefiting the wife a deceased worker apply equally to the husband of  a deceased worker.  4. That the Workers ' Compensation  Act be amended to guarantee all separated and divorced dependents of  deceased workers the right to the  full amount of court-ordered support  payments, whether or not the deceased  worker was meeting those payments.  5. That the Workers ' Compensation  Act be reviewed and revised for the  purpose of eliminating sexist language, i.e.  the use of "he" and "his"  when referring to both women and men.  PHYSICAL &  EMOTIONAL  EXHAUSTION  One other claims area that concerns  me is physical and emotional exhaustion and its impact, particularly on  women. WCB Report Decision #102  (Vol.   2,  p.   25)  denied a woman's  claim based upon medically diagnosed  physical and emotional exhaustion.  She had worked six years in a residential treatment centre for children.  Not only was her claim denied (even  though her employer supported it.'),  but all such claims were denied in  advance, regardless of merits, on  policy grounds related not to the  equities of such cases but to the  assumed administrative costs and  problems involved in adjudicating  such claims.  Such a negative policy hits many  women particularly hard for at least  two good reasons:  1) women have  traditionally been slotted into the  emotionally trying personal service  jobs, e.g. education, health, social  services, where physical and emotional exhaustion are more likely than  in many jobs; and 2) women often  carry the double work burden of both  home labour and job labour, which  increases exhaustion probability  all round.  Had Decision #102  involved an executive or specially skilled middle-  aged male with similar occupation-  ally caused exhaustion, would the  decision have been the same and  even if so, would it also have expressed a general negative policy on  exhaustion? Perhaps, but it would  still be incorrect and particularly  negative to women.  CANADIAN  ACTIVISTS  In occupational health generally, women have assumed a very significant  leadership role. Some of the earliest demands for reformist labour standards legislation and damning social  critiques of unhealthy working conditions in Europe were initiated or  carried forward by women. Perhaps  the most widely used English-language  workers' handbook on health hazards  in North America - Work is Dangerous  to Your Health -  was written by Susan  Daum and Jeanne Stellman. A Canadian  woman, Jean Surry, has produced one  of the most widely used bibliographies of industrial accident research.  In British Columbia, the situation is  similar.  Marianne Gilbert of the B.C. Government Employees Union has been active  on noise and hearing loss issues and  is Chairperson of the B.C. Federation  of Labour's Compensation and Safety '  Committee.  That Committee also produced a report entitled Perspectives  for Health and Safety in British  Columbia  in 1977, which included a  section entitled "Women and Occupational Health".  Verna Ledger has been safety director  of the New Westminster local of the  IWA for the last six years.  That  local has some 6,000 members, the  overwhelming majority of whom are men.  Verna Ledger has also worked as a  member of the IWA's Regional Safety  Conference Council.  Connie Sun was WCB Secretary until  1976 and now engages in educational,  legal and organizational activities  on workers' compensation issues for  workers and trade unions.  Cathy Walker of CAIMAW has assumed a  vigorous public role on a wide range  of compensation and prevention matters and is Chairperson of the Canadian Confederation of Unions (B.C.  Council) Health and Safety Committee.  Moira Yeung of UBC's Respiratory  Clinic has been undertaking significant medical research work with  particular reference to industrial  diseases which cause lung or other  respiratory impairments. Yeung's  work on Red Cedar Dust Asthma and  grain dusts are well-known in B.C.  and beyond.  I hope that the foregoing will lend  some information and encouragement  to those women and men who see the  need to honestly and openly address  these issues and more importantly,  to begin doing something about them  in an organized and persistent fashion. 0 BU DG ET  all the dirt that's fit to print  $700  for men  $550 for women  I was hired at Budget Rent-A-Car  Victoria on February 20 of this year  along with a man of equivalent work  experience.  He worked at the truck  rental office, I at the car rental  office. He was paid $700 per month  and I $550. Working conditions were  appalling: no lunch hour,or coffee  breaks; the young men who washed  the vehicles were viciously tongue-  lashed by management and paid minimum wage; there were sexist pay  differentials; overtime was unpaid;  and the c^era! tone of management-  worker relations was characterized  by fear on the part of the workers  and rudeness and beratement on the  part of the management.  The conspicuous wealth of the management trio was nauseating.  The  major owner, Scotty, drove a Caddy  and one of the minor owners drove  a Corvette, all three lived in  sumptuous penthouses, and it was  carefully pointed out to me that  Scott spent twice my salary in Hy's  Steak House every month.  It seemed  obvious to me that this shop needed  a union badly.  But what to do? It was easy to  predict management's reaction to  an uppity worker daring to form a  union: immediate dismissal.  But I  decided to try anyway, not so much  because I desired martyrdom, but  because at the rate management was  firing its disaffected workers there  was little or nothing to lose.  After a couple of weeks, I contacted  Tom Barnes of the Teamsters' Union  in Victoria and we planned a strategy. He then phoned Vancouver and  Ed Mcintosh, a Business Agent for  Teamsters Local 351, was put on the  case.  I gathered a list of names,  phone numbers, and addresses through  any number of surreptitious means  and started engaging people in conversation about organizing. Word  got out and I was fired.  Workers have a legal right to organize and are protected by the Labour  Code, so I immediately did three  things:  I contacted Ed Mcintosh and  started a drive for signatures on  union cards. Although only 55% of  the workers are required, we had a  healthy 65% signed up and applied for  certification with the Labour Relations Board.  I then filed charges against Budget  with the British Columbia Human  Rights Commission for discriminating  against female employees with respect to wages and convinced two former Budget employees to do the same.  I also started proceedings with the  B.C. Labour Relations Board charging  Budget with unfair labour practices  under the Labour Code. Under Section  3 of the Code, no employer shall  "discharge, suspend, transfer, lay  off, or otherwise discipline an employee for the reason that the employee participates in the promotion,  formation, or administration of a  trade union..."-  So theoretically and legally, I had  a perfect right to try and start a  union if I so desired.  But the question I kept asking myself was, "Why,  with this seeming wealth of enlightened labour legislation, was it possible for my employer to summarily  dismiss me in contravention of the  law of the land?"  The cynics are right. The rich get  the peaches, and the poor the punches.  After much work and waiting the outcome of my cases before the Human  Rights Commission and Labour Relations Board was to show that the law  is not totally irrelevant, just cumbersome and slanted towards the powerful at the expense of the weak and  unorganized.  Legal avenues take a great deal of  time, and wars of attrition favour  management.  I was forced by financial pressures to settle out of court  for a cash settlement equivalent to  a month's pay. Admittedly, this was  a hollow victory, made ever more hollow later when the Budget employees'  attempt to unionize was beaten by  management's counter-attack of lies  and threats orchestrated by a very  high pressure law office that specializes in breaking fledgling unions.  However, it was a learning experience  for me and the other Budget workers.  Consciousness was raised, even if the  good fight was fought and lost.  The  battle will be fought again, and next  time, maybe...  The following are some  observations and thoughts based on my  experiences that may be useful to  someone faced with a similar situation.  As to choice of unions, I contacted the  Teamsters' Union because car rental  companies seemed to fall within their  jurisdiction.  It made a great deal  more sense as the unionizing drive  progressed because becoming a member  of the Teamsters' Union gives a sense  of security that membership in a  smaller union might not have.  by DEBRA HOPKINS  I pointed out to people that we were  joining the Canadian Conference of  Teamsters and that our constitution  was separate from the American Conference.  Several people were critical of me becoming involved with the  Teamsters, which admittedly has some  unsavory associations.  Please remember that several of the workers had  never heard of the Teamsters, let  alone any other union.  Once you've chosen your union, get  as many people involved in your  struggle as possible.  Remember,  promoting union membership is not  criminal and for you to protect  yourself is necessary. Get friendly with the labour reporter on your  local newspaper(s).  Every time you  send out a piece of correspondence,  send carbon copies to your MP, MLA,  leaders of the political parties,  the Minister of Labour and in particular, send one to management.  Let them know that their actions  are not going unnoticed.  Somewhere along the way, you're  going to run into sympathetic people  who will use their influence.  It is  also very important to get all kinds  of advice from people who have worked  the labour field.  It can be pretty  intimidating running into bureaucratic walls and officious government  people.  cordinol rules  A few cardinal rules of union organizing: Keep your mouth shut until  you have your ammunition.  Get as  much dirt on the company as you can,  such as quotes to use in the complaint to the Human Rights Branch and  Labour Relations Board.  Make sure  you have a complete list of employees and their addresses. And remember, if someone is acting like a  company suck, he or she IS one.  This is where I made a mistake.  Never get confidential with someone  who is being groomed for management. 11  Another important consideration is  analyze the set-up of your company.  Are there groups of employees who  could conceivably have a different  vested interest from the bulk of  the workers? In Budget's case, we  should have applied for exclusion  of the bookkeepers and mechanics  in our application for certification.  It can be argued that these people  are a professional interest group,  higher paid, and therefore not representative of the average worker.  Only apply for this exemption if  you're pretty sure they won't sign  up. Professional people are hard  for management to replace, and if  they support the union it will be  more powerful because of their  support. Management may try to  favour one group of employees and  denigrate another, the principle  being to divide and conquer.  Can  you conquer this game?  will they fire me?  Before you begin talking to people  about signing union cards, sit  down and analyze answers to the  types of questions they will ask of  you.  Some examples are: What will  happen when they find out that there  is an application for certification  before the Board? Will they .fire us?  Explain that you are protected from  harassment under the Labour Code  and that it is absolutely illegal  for them to fire you.  The only way  management can get at the workers is  by undermining their solidarity.  The most important thing is to stand  together.  This solidarity, however, is not always present.  The workers at Budget  reacted with fear and reluctance to  the idea of unionizing, but were so  frustrated with their lousy jobs that  a good percentage signed up. Management is going to get to the employees  so be prepared for a backlash of resentment against you. You will be  perceived as a troublemaker and many  workers will have second thoughts.  It is best to just remember that it  is not you personally that they are  Bui Bui / LNS  reacting against. People completely  depend on these jobs because others  are so scarce.  Try to explain that  conditions would greatly improve if  a union was there to defend them.  will eliminate jobs?  Can management shut down areas of  the operation or perhaps mechanize  or eliminate jobs? Remind the person that if mechanization would have  made the company more financially solvent, the changes probably would have  already been made.  In Budget's case,  many of the young men who washed  trucks and cars felt that machinery  would be introduced.  Encourage them  to use their common sense - what kind  of truck washing machine washes ten  ton trucks and how much would one of  those cost to buy and maintain? What  kind of machine washes windows, empties garbage, and checks oil? Fortunately, only human machines.  There  is also a degree of protection offered under the Labour Code.  Under a  collective agreement any introduction of technological change may be  referred to an arbitration board by  either side.  The arbitration board may then, or  later, make any one or more of the  following orders:  1. That the change be made in accordance with the terms of the collective  agreement unless the change alters  significantly the basis upon which  the collective agreement was negotiated.  2. That the employer will not proceed with the technological change  for such period, not exceeding ninety  days, as the arbitration board considers appropriate.  3. That the employer reinstate any  employees dismissed by reason of the  technological change.  So, if this type of change is introduced as an obvious attempt at union  breaking, there is a good chance that  the Labour Relations Board will rule  in favour of the union.  shut down?  Another fear expressed was that Budget  would just shut down completely. Again, appeal to common sense. Owners  do not profit when the doors are  closed.  As soon as it becomes known that a  certification drive is underway, management can be expected to launch a  witch-hunt for union activists.  There  will be a period of some weeks or  months before an application for certification is accepted, or rejected,  by the Labour Relations Board.  During  the interim the union activists are a  vulnerable group, for they have provoked management's wrath and do not  yet have a union to protect them.  During this period, solidarity must  be maintained.  workplace. A quote from the wilderness:  "I'm just so tired of being shit on."  Tell them that this is a question that  may be dealt with specifically in a  collective agreement. Management will  quickly learn respect when it costs  money to deal with grievances.  Management will also attempt to amend  past injustices. Promises of high wages  are whispered in ears and rumours of  promotions abound.  Illegalities will  also be concealed from the law.  For  example, the minute management received  notice of the Human Rights charge, one  member of management hired his male  roommate for the car office at $550 per  month. Nice try!  human rights victory  Although this organizing effort failed,  there were several beneficial results.  The Human Rights Branch deemed that  the men's and women's jobs were substantially similar and the women received cash settlements ranging from  one to several hundred dollars as compensation for the discrimination they  suffered.  Budget shake-up  The most important result, I feel, is  that Budget really got a shake-up.  Management for the first time was  forced to look at their behaviour and  from all reports, they are being much  more polite and sympathetic to their  workers.  All the workers received a  raise, and men and women now have wage  parity.  Some rather sad lessons cannot be ignored.  Originally, 14 of the 24 employees were prepared to sign union  membership cards. After management's  vigorous counter-attack only 4 actually  voted to form a union. Management was  able to convince the rest that a union  would entail Budget's immediate bankruptcy. That, of course, is absurd,  but the fearful workers were quick to  believe it and vote down the union. I  can only hope that their experience  since last spring has given them a  retrospective viewpoint that will ensure that they will not make the same  mistake again.  respect  The over-riding concern of every single Budget worker was respect in the 12  UN€MPLOYM€NT]  Fables & Facts  This excerpt is from the CANADIAN  NEWSLETTER OF RESEARCH ON WOMEN,  available from OISE,   252 Bloor St  W.Toronto.  SYLVA M. GELBER  Special Advisor to the  Deputy Minister of Labour Canada  The public perception of the unemployment of women, persists in being  coloured by certain socially-ingrained assumptions about the status of  women in our society.  These outdated assumptions in turn  all too frequently lead to the unsubstantiated contention that there  is a direct relationship between  national unemployment on the one hand  and the increasing participation of  women in the labour force on the other.  It is a contention which arises from  the fact that while the female labour  force has increased very rapidly during the last decade, unemployment  has, in recent years, been increasing substantially as well.  It is  therefore an easy jump from cause  to effect, to blame the one on the  other, to blame working women for  national unemployment.  Myth: Pin Money  It is apparent that Canadians too  frequently still look upon the  woman worker as a supplementary  wage-earner, a seeker of pin-money  a worker whose basic fundamental  needs are met through the earnings  of another, a father or a husband,  the so-called "head of household",  who fully provides for her.  It is  equally apparent that Canadians  still frequently assume that a woman worker who enters the labour  force displaces a male worker who  solely by virtue of his sex is assumed to carry social and economic  responsibilities not shared by his  female counterpart.  Myth: We're Taking  Men's Jobs  The myth regarding the displacement  of a male worker persists in being  widespread in spite of the regret-  able but visible evidence of a work  force still segregated on the basis  of sex.  In order to place in proper  perspective the dimension and significance of unemployment in relation  to women workers, it is essential to  take a closer look at the facts.  Although little attention has been  directed to the relevant statistics,  during 1977 the unemployment rate for  adult women was considerably greater  than that for adult men (7.4% for  women,vs. 5.8% for men).  The pattern of unemployment reflects  in no small measure the extent to  which the male and female labour  force is still segregated in these  late years of the seventies. Not unexpectedly it is in those occupations  into which women are generally segregated that the greatest number of unemployed women workers is to be found  (clerical 106,000; services 81,000;  sales 34,000; teaching 13,000; medicine and health 15,000); although the  highest rates of female unemployment  are in occupations where female worker participation is relatively low  (processing 19.7%; materials handling 16.9%; product fabricating 13.4%)  Conversely, a high percentage (about  40%) of the unemployment among adult  men is to be found in occupations in  which practically none of the female  labout force (some 3%) is employed,  such as construction, transportation,  machining, forestry and logging, mining and quarrying, fishing, hunting  and trapping.  Job Ghetto  Continues  The measure of unemployment among men  and among women can be all too readily  gauged by the economic health of a  given occupation, most of which are  still apparently not interchangeable  by sex.  Although the female labour  force has been increasing rapidly  during the last decade, the pattern  of unemployment has remained fairly  constant over the years, the percentage of women workers employed in the  same few occupations has remained substantially the same.  The wife's contribution to the family  income has become particularly crucial  in these days of high inflation.  The  family deprived of this segment of family income represents a family deprived of fundamental needs.  The unemployment of the married woman therefore is no less serious a condition  than is the unemployment of any other  worker, male or female.  It is surely  unnecessary to add that when the male  wage-earner is unemployed the family  must then depend almost wholly on the  married woman's earnings.  It  was    A  OF5P0N/DE1V-)  Tame wh-o  reti/rjved Bone  TO   HEtV. FAMILY  THAI   |s/fcHT  The increasing numbers of new women  workers have for the most part been  absorbed in expanding sectors of the  economy such as the service industries  (except transportation, communication  and utilities) which showed a particularly strong employment growth last  year (216,000 or 3.4%).  Small breakthroughs into other occupations which  traditionally had been comprised of  men only, are still considered to be  so unique as to warrant a special  story in the press.  In the light of this segregation which  still persists in dividing the labour  force by sex, it would seem to be a  fallacy to argue that there is a direct  relationship between the participation  of women in the labour force and the  high unemployment among men.  For the  primary occupations in which men are  employed are still closed to women for  the most part.  At the same time the  vast majority of women are in employment which men would neither accept or  be qualified to carry out.  The segment of the population of  working women, however, which in the  past and indeed to some extent even  now has been a target of much unwarranted criticism for their very presence in the labour force, is that  which consists of married women, this  in spite of our international commitment to the principle that everyone  has the right to work, and indeed to  our national human rights statutes  which prohibit discrimination in employment on grounds of marital status.  Married Women ~  First Target  Well over one-half of the present fe^-  male labour force consists of married  women (2,430,000).  Less than two  decades ago only one-fifth (20.8% in  1961) of all married women were in  gainful employment, a figure that has  doubled in the intervening years.  While the roots of this virtual social  revolution are readily traceable to  the scientific and technological advances of the age in which we live,  family economics have more and more  accounted for the rapidity of the  change in the participation rate of  married women in the labour force.  to page 17 13  CONSTRUCTIVE CRITICISM  Recently in Vancouver a day-long  workshop on constructive criticism  was given by eight local feminists.  We had been meeting over the summer to plan the workshop, as well  as learn and practise this method  of problem solving ourselves.  Constructive criticism is a method  of preventing and solving problems  in order to improve the way we work  together.  Most of the information we used  came from the book Constructive  Criticism by Grade Lyons.    As  feminists, we found the ideology  in the book inadequate and prepared  out own background paper.     The  "how  to" part of the book was compatible  with our needs,   though we did add  a section on  "appreciations" which  Lyons did not cover in her book.  We thought it important to recognize this aspect of communication  and to give guidelines on how to  make it most useful and effective.  Following is a detailed summary of  the workshop.  The workshop introduction included  a short statement of our principles:  Why we do criticism:  Our reason for  practising crit and self-crit is to  make us able to work together more  effectively, in order to reach unity  by working through our differences.  We do not criticize to come out on  top, to knock people down or to win  points for being more correct.  What we criticize:  What we criticize follows from this.  We criticize practices that divide us and  therefore hold back unity - and the  ideas behind these actions.  Who we criticize:  We practise crit/  self-crit with people whom we want  to work with and who in turn want  to work cooperatively with us. It's,  a relationship in which both people  are active and important parts.  Receiving criticism is as much a  skill as giving it.  The two parties  involved need to have some equality  in power.  We don't suggest you do  criticism with your boss or landlord  - though some aspects of the technique may be useful.  Where and when to do criticism:  It  is important to choose an appropriate  time to do criticism.  Don't give  criticism until your intentions are  constructive.  Give full vent to  your feelings elsewhere by hitting  pillows, yelling or by whatever  method works for you.  When your  head is clear, choose a time with  the other person that is good for  both of you.  It's not a good idea  to give a crit to someone when she's  in the middle of cooking dinner (and  wielding a knife).  Another choice  you need to make is whether to do  your criticism alone, with a mediator or in a group.  And remember, it is OKAY to make mistakes.  The criticizer is not necessarily in the right nor the receiver  in the wrong.  Criticism is an opportunity to change, a chance to learn  from mistakes.  A short exercise following the introduction, where women, in pairs, had  five minutes each to voice their hopes  and fears around giving criticism -  what holds me back from doing it,  what I would like to get out of  doing it.  We then broke into four small groups  to review, demonstrate and practise  the guidelines.  Below are some of  the points covered in one of these  groups.  guidelines  Before specifying the 8 guidelines  it is important to realize that we  can criticize either the content of  our political practice and theory  (our analysis, strategies, tactics  and ways we implement political decisions) , or the process of our relationships (the interactions that  occur between people in daily living,  political work, and person-to-person  contact).  In this workshop, we concentrated on the latter.  Communication has at least two levels:  the content level where we give and  receive information, and the relationship level which deals with dynamics between people, essentially "Are  we equals or does one of us have the  power to dominate the other?"  Second Wave Joan Wy,  In her book, Lyons emphasizes that  content (what we criticize) is primary  though how we do it and how well it  gets across is a vital part of the  process.  In the workshop we concentrated on learning "how" rather than  "what", aiming for clarity and objectivity.  We referred to some of the resistances  women may have to using this method.  Lyons pointed out that although it  appears simplistic and obvious (and  rather like your basic assertiveness  training formula), she found for herself a contradiction between this  obviousness and the difficulty she  had in putting it into practice - the  moral of the story being before writing it off, we should try it.  The  results may be surprising.  Some women are put off by how "tech-  neeky" and artificial it sounds, but  like learning anything new, at first  it will feel clumsy until we can put  it out in a way that suits us.  Some  of it may appear to be "picky", for  example, making sure we say "I think"  instead of "I feel" when we are expressing anything other than our own  emotions/feelings.  Since there is so  much that can get messed up in communication it is important to be precise,  clear and as "picky" as possible.  beginning  Before saying anything, I need to  check out my intentions.  Is my intention to protect and educate this  person (or group), to strengthen us  for the feminist struggle, or is my  intention to punish, coerce, guilt-  trip, etc? Do I start with a desire  for unity? The decision to work in  the spirit of protecting and educating is the result of a political  evaluation of the person(s) I am  criticizing: which side are they on?  I need patience and a sincere commitment and if I find myself emotionally  attached to an issue, it's a good  idea to re-check my intentions.  what am I  reacting to  BE CONCRETE.  Distinguish inferences  and opinions from actions and observations.  Use observations of concrete  things SAID or DONE, not abstract  ideas about what they are, feel or  think.  Observations convey useful information.  They keep the head working  dialectically, ie. labelling people  with abstract judgments makes it  harder to see them capable of change  and also blinds me to seeing the  over to p.14  «> 14  15  CONSTRUCTIVE CRITICISM  from p.lZ  problem as rooted in a system of  interaction rather than one person's  character seen in isolation.  I can  judge ideas, but my judgment should  be grounded in and explained by concrete observations.  Objectification of self (internalized oppression) or of others is an  instrument of class rule which causes  us to turn against ourselves and each  other instead of the system that  oppresses us.  EXERCISE:  Translate examples of inference or subjective statements into  observations.  For example, "You're  irresponsible" becomes "You said  you'd finish the report two weeks ago.'  howl feel  about it  DESCRIBE FEELINGS:  Clarify the subjective part of the criticism - the  feelings that go with it.'  This helps me to get in touch with,  and make conscious, my feelings. By  verbalizing feelings, I say where I'm  at and therefore make myself accessible to her.  This encourages me  to take responsibility for my own  end of the contradiction.  It does  not work to pretend that emotions  aren't there, but when feelings are  in command I'm putting the needs of  the part above the needs of the  whole - I need balance to do work  in a critical way.  Two obstacles to knowing my feelings are: 1) internalized injunctions (ie. I shouldn't feel that  way); and 2) playing the victim  (giving up responsibility).  We need  to spot the difference between our  feelings and our thoughts.  Process involves an outside event  being filtered through thoughts and  values, resulting in a feeling.  It is important to see that my feeling comes from my thoughts and values (heavily influenced by society).  Otherwise, if I think that feelings  are forced on me from the outside  world, and that other people can  create my feelings, I am at the  mercy of what they say or do.  Conversely, if I think that I can  control other people's feelings,  I will be afraid to do anything to  which someone might have a negative  reaction.  Therefore, though I can't control  outside events (1), I can learn to  make conscious decisions about how  I evaluate the event (2), which  means I take an active role in determining which feelings I experience (3) .  Two common abuses in describing  feelings:  1) thoughts and judgments  are snuck in under the guise of feelings, ie. "I feel you are totally  inaccessible.", and 2) we are in the  habit of saying "I feel" instead of  "I think", ie. "I feel we should  focus on fighting Bill C-65."  EXERCISE:  From a mixed list ,of sentences that contain thoughts (but  disguised as feelings) and sentences  that describe feelings, spot the ones  that do not describe feelings and  translate them so that they do.  changes  I want  STATE ACTION WANTS:  State concrete  action-wants versus negative or abstract wants.  Say directly WHO you  want to do something.  Specify concretely what you want other(s) to DO  or SAY rather than what you want them  to be or feel.  Stress what you DO  WANT, rather than just what you don't  want.  EXERCISE:  Translate list of abstract  or negative wants into concrete  action-wants.  why  I in doing it  EXPLAIN PURPOSE:  Explain why I think  someone should change.  For example,  the capitalist/patriarchal society  leads to direct or indirect economic  compulsion - psychological compulsion  - guilt-tripping - punishment - bribery, etc.  An alternative is educating about the  purpose of change:  that it will  benefit the whole; that criticism  should show class/sexist/etc. origins  and consequences behind different  kinds of behaviour; that "how" is  important but "what" to criticize is  primary.  FORMULA: When you do A (observation)  I feel B (emotion), and I want you to  do C (action-want) because of D (purpose) .  receiving  criticism  PARAPHRASING:  After clarifying statement of the problem, the criticism  must be accurately received and understood.  Upon receiving criticism, suspend  reaction until you confirm the accuracy of what you heard.  Paraphrasing (not mechanical parroting) should not be done indiscriminately.  Do it under certain circimstances  such as: a) when the other person asks  for reassurance that I understood her  message; b) when I'm unclear and want  to check my understanding of the message; and c) when things are getting  rushed and confused and I want to slow  things down.  Restating a message  does not mean that I agree with it.  Women: A Journal of Liberation  Miriam Greenwald  EXERCISE:  From a list of clear messages that express a combination of  observations, feelings, wants and  purpose, paraphrase in the following  format: When I/we do A   (observation),  do you feel B  (emotion), and do you  want me/us to do C  (action-want) because of D  (purpose)?  EMPATHIZING:  Often criticisms are  not clear or concrete.  The following  is a way to receive vague or onesided criticism as a statement of the  criticizer's observations, feelings,  wants and purpose.  deal with  defences  PREVENTING AND HANDLING DEFENSIVE-  NESS:  The best preventive or remedial reading is "Combat Liberalism"  by Mao.  "...when a person responds defensively to criticism  (whether through a  hot come-back,   sarcasm,  or avoidance),  she teaches her comrades that giving  criticism is dangerous,   thus pushing  them back into liberalism  (avoidance .  of conflict).     So,  disciplining ourselves against reacting defensively,  as well as  learning how to handle de-  fensiveness from others, are two ways  to combat liberalism."  The social origins of defensiveness  include the following: a) we expect  to be categorized and called names,  to hear attacks even when they aren't  intended; b) people often hear wants  as demands; c) people hear wants as  guilt trips or obligations.  A lot of defensiveness originates not  in resistance to the content of the  criticism,, but rather in resistance to  what the receiver hears as the intent  behind the criticism.  When someone  believes that a criticism is really  a personal attack, demand, threat, or  guilt-trip, defensiveness comes to  the fore.  (Some defensiveness is  rooted in self-interest, ie. "I have  something to lose.").  To prevent defensiveness, preface  criticism to head off the problem by:  asking the receiver to paraphrase my  criticism, and disclaiming the misinterpretation that I predict will be  most likely.  Identify a defensive reaction by  checking out if you think criticism  was received inaccurately, ie. "My  hunch is that my criticism came across  as a put-down - is that right?".  Handle defensiveness by empathizing  before correcting the misinterpretation.  Consistent misunderstandings may mean  the person has you completely stereotyped, and you could try asking the  person or group for a way out of that  box.  Say where you agree with criticism  and criticize yourself. You can also  offer your own criticism if you didn't  like how it was delivered.  It is impor  tant that you express a real desire to  understand and hear criticism.  If it  is unclear, you can check it out, but  you are only guessing.  It requires  discipline to hold your own response,  and not be defensive.  Finally, if the basis for unity is not  strong enough to be worth the struggle,  stop.  But, as one member  said, the reason she continued to  struggle was because "I am a revolutionary, not a cynic."  worhshop  format  After reviewing these guidelines, we  broke into groups of three to practise, through role-playing, giving  and receiving criticisms chosen by  each woman.  Then, in small groups and later in  the group as a whole, we discussed  problems that arise, listing common  ones, and trying to use the constructive criticism method to solve them.  We also included guidelines on giving  and receiving appreciations as this  (sometimes neglected) part of feedback  also helps us to work better together  and to feel good about ourselves and  others.  Here too, it is most useful to be  specific when appreciating something  someone said or did.  Instead of just  saying "You were great at chairing the  meeting", I could say exactly what it  was that I liked that I thought made  the meeting go better.  Since women are notorious self-negators  we can also use practise in receiving  appreciations, hearing them without  discounting what is being said.  Self-criticism and appreciation is  also an important part of the whole  process and useful to include.  The workshop ended with space (obviously) for criticisms and appreciations,  as well as the opportunity to fill in  an evaluation sheet.  The 30 women  present appeared for the most part to  find the workshop useful, especially  the opportunity to actually practise  role-playing in some relevant situations.  Many women wanted a follow-up session  while several women who missed the  workshop requested that it be given  again.  There will be a short, 2-hour  version at the BCFW convention on  Saturday, November 11. Any women  who are interested in organizing or  attending another workshop can contact  872-1940, or write to 644 E. 13th  Avenue, Vancouver.  FURTHER READING:  Constructive Criticism: A Handbook  by  Gracie Lyons  Prisoners of Liberation  by Allyn and  Adele Rickett (NY: Doubleday Anchor,  1973)  Combat Liberalism  by Mao Tse Tung  IREOLOGY  We need to do criticism because we need  to be clear about what ideas are sexist  and to point them out in practice.  Some ideas that hold back women's  struggle:  1. That society must be organized in  relations of domination/subordination;  that someone must be on top.  2. That the way things are is the way  things have to be; that we can't change  because we are completely determined  by impersonal forces like "human nature", "the stars", "karma"...  3. That people are naturally and inevitably selfish and competitive.  4. That we are superior and other women  are inferior because we are feminists  and they wear make-up, are married, are  "apathetic", etc.  5. That we must be nice at all costs -  that criticism isn't nice.  6. That being "liberated" by myself is  more important than working collectively with other women.  7. That to appreciate unseen work, inner strengths or personal effor is egotistical and unnecessary.  UNITY  Another reason to do criticism is that  it is a way to reach unity. This comes  by struggling through our disagreements  openly rather than allowing them to  divide us in hidden ways.  One mistake we can make is to emphasize  unity at all costs. This buries all  criticism. The reverse mistake is to  demand complete agreement on all points  which leaves no room for differences.  How broad or narrow a basis of unity  we need in any group depends on what  the group is trying to do.  GOALS  1. To change sexist practice in every  avenue of our lives.  2. To identify and confront class priv-  ledge.  3. To give appreciations to each other  as individuals and as a group.  4. To learn how to give criticism  without bludgeoning each other, &  how to receive it without being demolished.  5. To develop our fullest potential;  to recognize that every woman has  much undeveloped power; and to construct our workshop so that a person can get encouragement to try  out her abilities.  (Article by Diana S.   based on material  compiled by Cindy,  Isabel,  Dorrie,  Paulette,  Lou,  Diana S.,  Diana L.,   an_  Karen.) ^1> 16   INTERNATIONAL   NEWS  QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS  ON CALIFORNIA'S  BRIGGS INITIATIVE/PROPOSITION 6  (LNS)  What is the Briggs Initiative?  The Initiative, otherwise known as  Proposition 6, is a referendum proposition subject to the approval or  rejection of California voters November 7.  If passed, the state education  code would be amended to read: "The  governing board of a school district  shall refuse to hire as an employee  any person who has engaged in public  homosexual activity or public homosexual conduct." Public homosexual  conduct is defined in the initiative  as:  "...the advocating, soliciting,  imposing, encouraging or promoting of  private or public homosexual- activity  directed at, or likely to come to the  attention of schoolchildren and/or  other employees."  Are teachers the only ones threaten-  ied by the Briggs Initiative?  No.  "Employee" as defined in the  initiative is "a probationary or  permanent certified teacher, teacher's aid, school administrator or  counselor." All schoolworkers are  endangered.  Are gay schoolworkers the only ones  threatened?  No.  "Public homosexual activity" is  defined to include the "advocating,  encouraging, or promoting" of homosexuality.  Thus, any teacher who  assigns a term paper on lesbianism  could be fired; any counselor who  tells a youngster in a sexual identity crisis that many gay people  lead happy lives could be fired.  Assigning Walt Whitman could be  considered "dangerous".  Is Proposition 6 necessary?  No.  Wilson Riles, Superintendent  of Public Instruction, State of  California, recently released the  following statement:  "In my opinion, the current law is sufficient  to protect pupils from sexual advances by teachers, whether homosexual or heterosexual, and to  prevent teachers from promoting  their sexual lifestyle or preference in the classroom.  I am opposed to Proposition 6." The initiative is allegedly designed to  protect school children from child  molesters, yet a 1972 study in Oregon demonstrated that over 95% of  child molestation offenses were  made by heterosexuals, mostly by  fathers, uncles and stepfathers  on female children within the  family.  Who is John Briggs?  Briggs is a Republican State Senator  from Fullerton, California. With  the support of reactionary forces  from around the country (like the  Save Our Children campaign), Briggs  is hoping to use the anti-gay issue  as a springboard into the Governor's  seat.  I  G  G  S  CHILDREN CRUSaBe  Comes to California  Gheri Strong  Who is behind the Briggs Initiative?  There is an organized alliance of  conservative groups from around the  country who can accurately be called  the New Right. Anita Bryant gave  Briggs her Save Our Children mailing  list so he could raise money.  Right-  wing fundraiser Richard Viguerie  allegedly provided $500,000 just for  the drive to collect signatures to  put Prop 6 on the November ballot  (Viguerie got his start in the sixties  with the George Wallace campaign.)  Money and support also flow from  people like Joseph Coors, Phyllis  Schlafly and Los Angeles Policy Department Chief Ed David.  The issues  of homophobia, racism and anti-feminism have provided a political ground  work for the New Right.  "The Right  realizes that if conservative forces  vote in a Pro-Brlggs congressman,  he's going to vote anti-labor, anti-  Black, anti-woman, even if he wasn't  elected on that platform," a California activist told LNS.  SCAPEGOATS?  Why is  an issue?  all of a sudden such  Don Liles, executive vice president  of American Federation of Teachers  Local 2121 answers:  "The easiest  issue for mustering broadbased support for the rest of the radical  right's campaign (anti-abortion,  anti-ERA, anti-desegregation, control of the press and 'right to work  laws) is the issue of gay rights.  Senator Briggs has chosen to attack  lesbians and gay men, and has singled  out a minority within a minority:  gay educators.  His initiative is  merely the first in a series of  major 'moral crusades' supported by  the radical right." In other words,  gays are being scapegoated to divert  attention from real issues like inflation, lay-offs, speed-ups, unemployment, racism and sexism.  Is the Briggs Initiative anti-labor?  Clearly. If passed, it would destroy  the job security of unionized school-  workers.  It places limits on; their  political activity, violates their  freedom of speech and abrogates portions of a valid union contract.  The  Bay Area Committee Against the Briggs  Initiative (BACABI) Labour Committee  cautions:  "A founding principle of  the union movement demands that employees be judged on their job performance and only on their job performance.  The Briggs measure gives  schoolboards an excuse to start a  witch hunt against any employee they  want to harass or fire.  If passed,  the initiative will pave the way for  the firing of workers by other employees based on any differences in lifestyles or political views."  Will Proposition 6 affect Third  World i  Yes. "The Briggs Initiative is the  beginning of an attack on the rights  of all minorities," says San Francisco Board of Supervisors member  Gordon Lau.  "If we allow one group  to be singled out for discrimination  we clear the way for discrimination  against Asians, Blacks, Latinos,  women, etc." t7  UNEMPLOYMENT Fables/Facts  GVUU  I At dinwgr* jm6 waktted r° re/.c hkr. I  PAMit-Y W4<vr Uk& j4^^iK»Bb. 8ut .sweI  0*Ui7   COULDU'T    FJU»  THE.   \aJ09J>S.  DANK WORKERS  HOLDING OUT  from p.12...  In a fairly recent study of the income  of husbands of families in which the  wife was also employed, it was found  that in seven out of ten cases the  earnings of the husband were less than  $15,000 a year.  This statistic should  be weighted against the average family  income at that time ($16,613).  It  should be of interest to note that the  so-called "poverty line" for a family  of four in urban areas was then one-  half ($8,422) of the average family  income.  The difference between living  below the average family income or  indeed at or below the so-called poverty line, rested on the availability  to the family of a second pay cheque,  usually supplied through the employment of the wife.  While reiterating the right of every  person to enter the labour force without apology, it may be revealing to  examine the composition and economic  status of the female working population in order to better understand its  dramatic increase.  Last year for the  first time the number of women in the  labour force exceeded four million  (4,022,000).  Three-quarters of all  the working women (2,720,000) are employed in only five occupations:  clerical (1,290,000), services  (629,000), sales (380,000), all forms  of nursing (266,000) and elementary  and kindergarten teachers (155,000).  Over one and a half million working  women are either single (1,209,000)  or widowed, separated or divorced  (383,000).  Obviously, this group of  women workers is wholly dependent for  living on their own earnings.  Furthermore, there are among them almost two  hundred thousand (191,000 estimated,  for 1977) who are single parents,  women who are not only responsible for  their ewn economic well-being but are  also responsible for that of one or  more dependent children.  In the main, the working women of Canada are in the labour force because  of the need to earn the money to meet  the basic necessities of living in an  inflationary society.  Like their male  counterparts, when women workers are  unemployed they are deprived of basic  needs and in most instances their families are equally deprived.  From the  statistical data available, there is  little evidence that the tragic arm  of unemployment falls more lightly on  the woman worker than it does on her  male counterpart.  The facts appear  to negate the myth and show that it  is otherwise. #  In Willmar, Minnesota, the strike by  bank employees of the Citizens' National Bank has entered its ninth  month.  When women with 20 years experience  helped train a new male employee, only  to learn that they were being paid  $300 to $96 less than him, they filed  a sex discrimination charge against  the bank, formed a union, went on  strike, and filed unfair labour practices charges with the National Labour  Relations Board.  The bank manager has an unfortunate  way of putting things. "We're not all  equal, you know," he told a female  employee. "You have the president  and the officers up here  (gesturing  in mid-air) and you have the bank employees down here  (pointing to the  floor)."  "This isn't a fight over unions," he  added. "These girls are being exploited by the National Organization of  Women."    NOW has been supporting the  strikers in their demands.  The strikers have won one round: the  Equal Employment Opportunity Commission decided that the bank owed  • $11,700 in back wages to strikers and  other female employees.  The outcome will be watched with intense interest by bankworkers across  the States. Only a handful of banks  are organized.  (Info from In These Times)  •••••••••••••••••••••••a***  PRO-CHOICE I  On WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 22, Concerned +  Citizens for Choice on Abortion (CCCA) *  are holding a public meeting at Britan-*  nia Community Centre (Commercial and ^  Napier) in the Library (L3). The *  meeting, which begins at 7:00 p.m., i*  will discuss the future direction of *  the organization. +  *••*••****•••••*••**•*•****  Dear Sisters  Choy LNS  A publication is being planned which  will present a women's perspective on  women and health internationally.  The proposed publication, to be coordinated jointly by ISIS and the Boston  Women's Health Book Collective, will  include material from as many countries as possible, and will appear in  English and Spanish.  During the preparation period over  the next five or six months, we will  be working with many groups and individuals to make the finished publication as useful as possible. We are  now soliciting information and suggestions from you.  Our working definition of women and health includes  the following topics as part of an  overall relationship between women  and health:  - women as paid and unpaid health  workers;  - women's health and medical care  issues:  abortion - birth control -  childbirth - menopause - sexuality -  venereal disease - sterilization -  unnecessary surgery - women and  drugs;  - analyses of social, political and  economic forces affecting the relationship between women and health;  - organizing efforts and alternatives to improve health and medical  care, as developed by women.  Replies from North America, Latin  America, Australia, New Zealand,  Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Scandinavia, Spain and the United Kingdom  should be sent to:  Boston Women's  Health Book Collective, Box 192,  West Somerville, Mass. 02144 USA.  o  __[  QU€B€C   FEMINIST WRITING  O  cz  8  Room of One's Own  p  P.O. Box 46160, Station G  Vancouver, B.C.   V6R 4G5  ^  ROOM OF ONE'S OWN ^s pleased to announce the November pub  lication of a landmark issue on QUEBEC WOMEN WRITERS.  1—  33  lO  It presents, for the first time in English, selections from  z  "the most important literary event of recent times  ... LA  5  BARRE DE JOUR, nos 56/57,  entirely devoted to the writings  ^5  of women." - Emergency Librarian.  GL  Authors featured are Monique Bosco, Cecile Cloutier, Nicole  -H  y  Brossard, Louky Bersianik, France Theoret, Madelaine Gagnon,  Genevieve Amyot and others.  Interview with Michele Lalonde.  CD  This double issue  (166 pp.) was expensive to produce. It  —1  Z>  costs $4.00.  "2L  O  -                                                                                                                                                                     J  OU€B€C   FEMINIST WRITING 1&>  B.C.F.W. LOWER MAINLAND  REGIONAL REPORT 1977-1978  BY DIANA SMITH  It seems like it has taken me the entire year to come to terms with how  this region functions. Generally, it  appears that the main value of the  regional meetings has been for communication and information exchange,  especially for the more isolated  groups. Most of the year I have felt  an underlying frustration at the neb-  ulousness of the region as a region  and consequently dissatisfied with  what we did or could accomplish as  that structure.  Most groups and individual feminists  in the lower mainland are active  quite apart from BCFW. Large (as  well as small) scale organizing happens from a variety of sources, again  often independent of BCFW. Here it  is appropriate to validate what did  happen. We played an instrumental  role in the wonderful International  Women's Day events. There have been  two useful workshops on political  group process. Regional meetings  have provided contact for many groups  as well as a forum for evaluating  local actions (e.g. WAR Day of Protest) and supporting other struggles  (e.g. postal workers' strike).  STRUCTURE  Though I have criticisms of myself  as regional representative (not  funnelling enough information between  standing committee and member groups)  as well as criticism of many member  groups (little interest in being  active members of the region), in  retrospect much of my criticism is  of the structure.  That is if, in  fact, other women are also dissatisfied with how the region functions.  I think the region, as a region,  could be mobilized a lot more in  initiating action and using the BCFW  structure for support. The impetus  needs to come from the member groups  but they first need to feel motivated  in this direction. One obstacle I  see which blocks this process is too  big a gap between member groups and  standing committee with the only link  being the regional representative and  the newsletter. The regional meetings  where the link is made has not been  enough. They are generally poorly  attended unless there is a controversial issue or I do what feels like a  neavy sales pitch.  "Why come to the  meeting?" has been a big undermining  question for me and apparently for  many of the groups who rarely, or  never, showed up.  Who and what I represent and how have  also been perplexing questions. Instead of the regional meetings being  the link between standing committee  and member groups-;-they need to be  the key to the whole structure.  This  I think would create a more cohesive  and solid link between member groups  in the lower mainland and help gener  ate a regional identity. We need to  feel power and potency at this level  in order to make the larger provincial structure effective. More focus  on regionalization and decentralization, as being the key to better  functioning of BCFW, at least for  the lower mainland.  Discussion on regionalization will be  included in the BCFW workshops at convention. Specifically, a change that  would have positive results in the  lower mainland area is rotating regional meetings so that different  member groups take the responsibility to 'host' them. This would encourage more involvement between  groups. We would actually see  where each other works and what  resources are available, and since  we would be going to the group,  they would get a better handle on  BCFW besides the one loyal meeting-  goer.  It is exciting to envision us becoming a more active force as I see  great potential in what we could  accomplish as well as appreciating  what has already happened. I hope  it is an excitement that member  groups also share.  What follows are reports presented to  the final meeting of the Lower Mainland region of BCFW for this year.  This is by no means a definitive  picture of what's going on in this  area,  but it does give Kinesis readers an overview of some activities.  WOM€N  AGAINST VIOL€NC€  This provisional sub-committee of  BCFW is now meeting bi-weekly (second and fourth Wednesdays). We are  working on the planning of a Women  In A Violent Society Conference, to  be held next spring, if things -  and money - come together as we  hope. There are sixteen members,  representing three regions, and we  plan to apply for ratification at  the convention.  Though things are going well now, we  would like more members, and would  like to find ways to include women  from more remote areas of the province. With membership and action  concentrated (as far as we know) in  the lower mainland, it is difficult  to have truly provincial representation or to have meetings out of the  Vancouver area. The costs in time  and dollars seem prohibitive. Having  co-chairs is a great help and spreads  the work load, keeps you from feeling  overextended and provides an automatic sounding board - if there are no  communication problems. When the co-  chairs live in different regions,  and phone contact is not always possible, such problems are bound to  exist. Perhaps some discussion  around issues like this could take  place during the workshop on BCFW at  the convention.  WOM€N'S  M€DIA COLLECTIVE  The Women's Media Collective formed  in May, and applied to join BCFW in  September. We will be sending two  delegates, Shawn Preuss and Sylvia  Spring, to the convention. We are  ten women with backgrounds in various aspects of media work, who got  together to work on projects with a  feminist base, develop a feminist  aesthetic, provide mutual support.  We are at present working on a  "basic kit" on Feminism, incorporating a wide range of visual and  written elements, for use in introductory Women's Studies courses and  community groups.  PRESS GANG  Besides being very busy with day-today printing jobs, which brought with  them the occasional need for technical experimentation and changes, we:  - moved, from a basement to a rather  spacious warehouse.  - held internal technical and political workshops.  Helen Lucas - underwent great changes in the collective. We now have fewer people,  and we are better organized.  - we are studying, and hope to practise more and more the principles of  constructive criticism.  - we trained many people.  - put out the leaflet for the International Women's Day parade.  - started a short story sub-group  within the collective which is working towards publishing an anthology  of stories by women authors.  - published a non-sexist children's  book entitled Muktu and a collection  of poetry entitled Jody Said.  - produced the 1978 Vancouver Women's  Wall Calendar.  - reprinted Women Look At Psychiatry.  - did work towards the publishing of  the second edition of the Anti-Psychiatry Bibliography.  - as a collective, we did the following printing on a volunteer basis:  Chilean stickers, Boycott Chilean  Goods poster, the Wood-Hoon Defense  poster, and things for SORWUC. To  both SORWUC and the Women's Film and  Video Festival we gave a 10% discount.  - personal donations of labour from  individual collective members included  the C.N.T. poster, the Mayday poster,  and the Reclaim the Night poster.  U.D.C WOMEN'S  COMMITTEE  We see our activities for 1978/79  falling into two categories -  Referral and Counselling Services,  and Programs.  Now that We have become established  in SUB 130 with a fairly consistent  core of volunteer workers, we feel  ready to launch ourselves in a very  real and active way into the U.B.C.  community.  During the winter, we plan to hold  training workshops on topics such  as Rape Relief counselling and referral, birth control and health  self-help, developing skills in  problem-solving in a collective  framework, strategy on consciousness-raising, etc. We have resource  people ready and willing to assist  us in these and other areas. We  hope to reach a level of confidence  and self-reliance that will allow us  to research and present topics of  interest to ourselves. The collective will staff the centre and meet  regularly to discuss experiences,  pfoblems and development.  On the subject of rape referrals and  counselling, the RCMP U.B.C. detachment has assigned an officer to  liaise with the Women's Centre and  Rape Relief to see if we can coordinate information and referrals in  order to attempt to put together a  realistic picture of the problems on  campus. This we are sure will be of  assistance when it comes time to  structure rape services in the new  campus hospital.  Our prime focus will be on referral  services due to the lack of facili  ties, expertise and time with counselling and self-help emphasized  where possible.  programs  Instead of maintaining the traditional Women's Week, we will be organizing and scheduling activities at regular intervals from September through  April 1979. Our experience tells us  energies will be used more wisely,  the attendance will be better and  exposure will be more consistent.  We are looking at the feasibility of  having a workshop, film and speaker  either once every two weeks or once  a month as time and energy permit.  We would like to coordinate our efforts with other groups in order to  involve women in different faculties;  The strategy is to approach women  in the Federation of University Students, for example, discover their  interests and co-sponsor speakers,  workshops, etc. in their area of  campus, not in SUB. In this way,  we will reach more women and maintain a broad focus of issues and  action.  The Dean of Women's Office is (with  our assistance) co-ordinating a  series of planning meetings during  the summer with women representing  faculties, departments and women's  groups on campus. Joint programming of a specific and campus-wide  nature of women's issues will emerge  from these sessions. These meetings  will be held in the Women's Centre  on a regular basis.  The Women's Committee has produced a  booklet of women's resources at  U.B.C. and relevant services in the  community.  ROOM  OFONC'SOWN  ROOM OF ONE'S OWN, a feminist journ-  nal of literature and criticism, is  four years old.  Vol.4, #1/2 is a double issue devoted completely to Quebec Feminist  Writing. It's just off the press;  and it's our most ambitious effort  so far.  The issue includes Quebec feminists  such as Nicole Brossard and Louky  Bersianik. There's an interview  with Michele Lalonde (she wrote :  the poem "Speak White", the famous  attack upon Anglo dominance in  Quebec); there's fiction by Monique Bosco, France Theoret and  many others.  At Room, we undertook this special  issue because we believe it's important for Anglophone feminists to be  aware of what's going on among Quebec feminist writers. These writers  come out of a highly political climate, and recognize language as  being a social/political tool.  We're a small collective of five,  and we operate out of the living  rooms of two of the collective members. Ironically, we don't have an  office of our own.  Right now, we're working on the  next two issues of general fiction,  poetry and criticism. We're also  planning an issue on Dorothy Livesay  for late spring of 1979. Another  special issue we're thinking about  is one on feminist aesethics.  You can contact ROOM OF ONE'S OWN  to subscribe, help out, chat etc,  through our postal address: P.O.  Box 46160, Station G, Vancouver B.C.  Or phone 733 3529 in mornings.  more reports on next 3 pp 20  NORTH SHORE  The North Shore Women's Centre has a  physical existence at 3255 Edgemont  Boulevard in North Vancouver (987-4822  if you want to call us). A small  office, staffed by volunteers every  weekday from 12-4 pm, it functions  as a drop-in centre, come library,  come meeting place, come (on occasion) coffee/tea house.  It comes  heavily disguised as a church annex  and we would love to find ourselves  a more conspicuous "storefront" location, but so far no luck.  Our most important function is the  liaison we provide between our members. For some of the more than 300  women on our mailing list, our  monthly newsletter may be their main  contact with the women's movement,  and perhaps their only contact with  the women's movement on the north  shore. For others, attending our  monthly Pub Night provides an opportunity to discuss the issues.  Beer  and wine and pop flow merrily on the  first Tuesday of every month (except  July and August) when we meet at  Neighbourhood House. A speaker, or  film, or performer, sets up the topic and conversation or argument  follows close behind.  Our projects could have three headings: Special, Summer and On-going.  Our two Special Projects at the moment are working for a North Shore  Transition House (this one is very  long-term), and sponsoring the BCFW  convention, scheduled for early  November. Our Summer Projects this  year involved two students on Secretary of State grants, one preparing  a study of maintenance awards, the  other assembling a reference file on  notth shore doctors and lawyers. Our  On-going Projects are numerous: we  are working to have sexism recognized  in north shore schools; to have  Women's Studies introduced in high  schools (now that we have successfully had it approved by the school  board); to help with career counselling for girls in high schools; to  elect politicians who have an awareness of women's issues; and to sponsor consciousness raising, assertiveness training, LIFE, and peer  counselling courses whenever we perceive a need.  COFFEEHOUSE  The coffeehouse has been going  through major changes, with new  members coming in. At the moment,  we haven't re-defined how we want  to relate to BCFW.  HEALTH  COLLECTIVE  Our big news is that we have moved  into new offices at 1501 West Broadway (at Granville). The phone number remains 736-6696. Our hours  have changed slightly, so phone before coming in.  ARICL BOOKS  Ariel Books was originally owned by  four women in a partnership. Just  previous to the last BCFW Convention,  a collective process began to take  shape, while the actual ownership  of the store continued on a four-  partner basis. We operated within  this framework for some time, weathering changes in energy and membership, and making changes where  needed in the running of the store.  With the advent of summer came the  biggest change. We were legalized  as a collective, and purchased Ariel  Books from the partnership.'  We are in the process of making  changes in the store operation (ie.  revamping file card system, making  transition from American to Canadian book distributors, considering  carrying records, etc.).  More changes in energy are also occurring. We have two new collective  members due to a cry for help which  we posted on our front door; we have  a volunteer who, though not working  in the store, does research for nonsexist children's books, and one who  does general feminist research.  Any new energy that might come our  way is welcome, in whatever form it  may take, from working in the store  to keeping us posted in women's activities in the city.  We are operating on a non-profit  basis. We hope to continue being  here for the Vancouver women's community. Our ability to continue is  directly proportional to the support  we receive.  WOMCN'S  BOOKSTORE  While we have no official report to  present, as a feminist bookstore we  have for many years been part of the  movement and contribute to it in  every way we can. We're still the  listing in the phone book for Women's  Liberation, which means we handle a  lot of referrals to other groups.  Tuyj ■ 15  ID- DA  VI cfecjj  o-hdus •;  •Portrait  en- will-not.-v  :.■ be'-A^i10  nkr/ird- wjv  •IV vl hse .see.r-  l\y;lrp-one -■■><  TNVT-.h«-J,  to[e away  yv ovy-da  ALDV  VSW  A major change of direction in VSW  over the last 12 months has been away  from ombudservice and into community  development.  One year ago, we moved from one-to-  one ombudservice to a collective  problem-solving structure. Women  with related problems (for example,  separation/custody/divorce) met together to work on common solutions.  These clinics helped break down  feelings of isolation and were a  success, particularly in the area of  family law.  We had to drop this ombudservice  completely at the end of March due  to funding cuts.  A commitment was made to attempt to  develop community work in a more  complete way. Over the last 12  months, we've been putting a great  deal of energy into South Vancouver  and we have started to work in Marpole and, most recently, Kitsilano.  COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT  At VSW we define community development in the following way: community  development is action oriented.  The  group defines the issue, not the  worker.  It is based on the premise  that, given the opportunity, people  can solve their own problems, determine their own goals and together  effect societal change.  It is worked through the group rather  than through one-to-one interaction.  The community worker has no power;  members can skip the group if it isn't  meeting their needs.  Social service  that is done is preventative rather  than direct - it attempts to deal  with a problem when it begins rather  than when it has developed to a crisis stage.  WORKING  WOMEN  UNITE  Working Women Unite has been around  for the last six months. We see our  task as being to relate labour issues  to feminist issues. We see working  women as being women in unions, unorganized women and women working in  the home.  In an effort to establish a broader  base between women within BCFW and  women in the trade union movement,  we have had dialogue with the Women's Committee of the B.C. Federation of Labour. Our address is:  1843 East 16th Avenue, Vancouver;  our phone number is 874-0694. 21  RAPE RELIEF  lOooooooogoooooooqogoggoopQf  In the past year, among other things  we have:  - attended 300 cases.  - been invited to train students at  the B.C. Police College.  - had liaison with emergency nurses  towards standardizing medical procedures .  - trained nurses at BCIT.  - blocked the Storaska film in Vancouver schools.  - helped produce and circulate  "This Film Is About Rape".  - trained 45 new volunteers.  - held workshops with the B.C.  Teachers' Federation.  - changed our constitution and bylaws.  - translated our material into 8  languages.  - maintained a crisis line.  - took part in broadening the base  of the National Association of Rape  Crisis Centres.  - maintained liaison with numerous  community groups, criminal reform  groups, prosecutors, legal service  groups, etc.  Rape Relief is in the process of restructuring its staff/volunteer  components into different committees.  RESOURCES  CENTRE  The Women's Resources Centre is a  drop-in resource centre at 1144  Robson Street. Our goal is to  provide support and information  for any woman seeking to change  her life; that is, to assist women  in clarifying their goals: educational, vocational, emotional and  physical.  We are staffed by a half-time coun'-  sellor and 25 trained volunteer  associates. Our services include:  - Life Planning Interviews and  Groups  - Self-Development Groups  - Vocational Planning Groups  '- Psychological Testing  - Access to Education Information  - Diet and Exercise Planning  - Information and Referral  An exciting new service for us is  the Vocational Planning Centre.  Designed for re-entry women, we use  a newly developed Job Hunting Manual,  an updated occupational Informational File and small groups.  The goals of the vocational groups  are to have women:  - assess and value their achievements;  - be conscious of their work needs  and atmosphere;  - write a resume;  - learn to match individual needs  with appropriate occupation and the  job market;  - develop good job-hunting skillsi  Valuable volunteer time is spent in  and out of the centre. This past year  we had contact with 7,000 women. Many  associates also spend extra hours  outside of the centre with groups,  both as speakers and participants.  In summary then, the Women's Resources Centre offers life planning  for change within an adult education  framework in order to teach women to  develop new skills.  SIMON FRASCR U.  WOMEN'S  CENTRE  The Simon Fraser University Women's  Centre operates on a semester system.  In the fall of last year, our cultural events were:  - Film Festival: weekly showings of  feminist and women's films from Europe, Canada and the U.S. (ie. "Blow  For Blow" from France).  - Pro-choice rally when "Right to  Life" descended on SFU. We mounted'  an informational picket line. We  didn't prevent the meeting from happening; we did, however, show there  was a pro-choice side present.  We continue to offer the following  on-going services:  - doctor directory  - referral  - lay advice and counselling  - financial counselling  - library and information service  We provide workshops on health and  sexuality; birth control - ovulation  method; lesbian feminism; and emotional self-defense.  This spring, we organized a week of  events for International Women's Day.  This included: panels.on trade unionism; Helen Potrebenko on literature;  poetry, folk music, a dance; Ferron;  speaker from the Women's Research  Centre on immigration (Roxana Ng);  workshops on women in the arts; films.  This fall, we have operated as a drop-  in; played a role in organizing against  racism on the campus; and sent people  to AUCE Local 2's support committee.  We are now going for permanent funding. We pose the necessity of the  SFU Women's Centre maintaining its  organization independence. We are  facing pressure from the administration that we set up a board of directors on which they could be represented. The usual gothic horror story.  We are in an isolated position and  bargaining for a central space.  The semester cycle means burn out  and turnover.  It makes it difficult .  to define needs, create a focus.  People are often on campus for only  one semester; mid-term over-exertion  means that people have to pull out  of commitments.(  MAKARA  MAKARA has just had to make the painful decision to cease publication of  the magazine.  The expenses have been too great.  MAKARA will be seeking community support for the possibility of resuming  publication at a later date.  The  group will continue as a graphic arts  collective.  RWL WOMEN'S  COMMITTEE  We affiliated with BCFW this year. We  support its objectives of building an  independent women's movement. We  support its policy. We believe in  the necessity of a women's movement  which is based on the interests and  the organization of the majority of  women; one which fights for the needs  of minorities (Quebecois, Native women, lesbians, etc.). We see the  need for such a movement to adopt  militant united forms of organization.  We believe that such a movement is a  central and essential part of the  class struggle.  Our support for such a women's movement (and the struggle to construct  such a women's movement) has meant  the active participation, of our  members in both the organizations and  campaigns of the women's movement. We  also carry women's demands and the  campaigns of the women's movement  into mixed organizations, particularly  into trade unions. We have been involved in building women's caucuses  and committees in the unions and on .  campuses.  Because of this involvement we decided that it would be  appropriate for our women's committee to affiliate with BCFW, in order  to better participate in building  the women's movement and pose our  politics in the most open way possible to women. We believe that the  participation of women's groups  from mixed organizations which support women's liberation is an important component of the women's movement.  The women's committee has been active  on several levels:  The International: The RWL is a  member of the 4th International,  which organizes revolutionaries in  about 60 countries. We adopt positions within the International on  question which have global implications for the struggle for socialism.  The struggle for the liberation of  women is clearly such a question.  over for more... f__  more RWL report  So, as part of our preparation for  the next World Congress of the International, all of our organizations  are discussing, debating and amending a major resolution on the oppression of women and women's liberation  within the colonial, imperialist and  post-capitalist sectors of the world.  Women in the women's committee here  are involved in developing this discussion, as well as all other members  of the RWL. We look forward to sharing the discussion with feminists in  BCFW.  Pan-Canadian: Our organization in  Quebec and English Canada is involved in various campaigns and organizations.  Some examples are: the  women's committees in the Quebec  labour centrals; Organized Working  Women in Ontario; abortion organizations in Quebec, Ontario and the  Prairies; the Truxx Defense in Montreal, Canadian Lesbian and Gay  Rights Organization; Lesbian Organization of Toronto; Edmonton Women's  Coalition; International Women's Day  Committees; women's committees of  various unions, etc.  British Columbia: We have been  active in the following areas in  Vancouver: SFU Women's Centre; Coalition Against Discrimination; Coalition of Concerned Citizens for Choice  on Abortion; International Women's  Day Committee; B.C. Federation of  Labour Women's Committee; Women  Against Rape; Working Women Unite.  We have, as individuals, participated  in other women's groups, such as  Rape Relief. We have been active in  building women's caucuses in unions,  and work on women's committees in  some unions (OTEU, for example). We  have tried to give support to the  SORWUC and UBW organizing campaigns  through our union work and fundraising. We are presently involved in  CUPW strike support. RWL Women's  Committee members participated in  many of the workshops which x.he BCFW  put on this year.  WOMEN'S  RESEARCH  CENTRE  Emergency Librarian  The Women's Research Centre (WRC)  has now been in full-time operation  for 22 months, though initial planning and preliminary work have been  in progress, through the Women's  Studies Association, since 1974.  The Centre has been designed around  a particular way of doing research  in which we develop, with other  women, the skills necessary to make  their (and our) experience and knowledge of the world the basis for  description and analysis.  In doing  this kind of research, we share with  groups skills and knowledge that are  concrete and practical, and this  leads into methods of working and  strategies for change that are based  on and take account of the needs of  women in their local situation.  In  this way the strength and effectiveness of the groups of women we work  with are built at the local level as  they are able to develop and to disseminate information.  Through the Centre we have been able  to call upon women who have the  training and the experience necessary to provide the resources and  share organizational and research  skills developed either directly in  the women's movement or in various  institutions such as the university,  government and private organizations  in the community.  Our emphasis is  on strengthening communication networks and decentralizing skills and  information.  Most of our work is with women who  are disadvantaged or who do not normally have access to funding for research work. Many of the women who  help us donate their work, and a few  are also able to make regular donations of money. Our core funding at  present is from the national grants  budget of the Ottawa office of the  Women's Program, Secretary of State.  Our grant for 1978-79, received in  late September, enabled us to expand  our paid staff from one person to  two and one-half people.  Gene  Errington, Rachel Epstein and Diana  Ellis are those people.  The Centre's work is developed and  directed by a policy collective.  Several committees, made up of policy  collective members and WRC volunteers  undertake research and action. The  following topics represent some of  the work we are involved in at the  present time:  R€S€ARCH  PERSPECTIVE  WRC members share, in response to requests, their experience and analysis  with other women's groups involved in  research work on various topics other  than those we may be actually working  on at the Centre. The Prince George  Women's Collective, working on a study  of the status of women in their community, utilized WRC staff at two  workshops during the course of their  work. Kaslo Women's Group also asked  WRC staff to their community to assist in a workshop.  Salmon Arm Women's Group is presently developing  methods of researching the needs of  women in their region and WRC travelled to Salmon Arm recently to assist in a 2-day study session. Research from a woman's perspective  was also talked about at a workshop  on women and economic development in  May on the Queen Charlotte Islands.  WRC members will make a presentation  on "Community Research from a Woman's  Perspective" at the Canadian Research  Institute for the Advancement of Women (CRIAW) this November, and are  planning to mount a major seminar on  the topic for any women in Vancouver  who might be interested. This should  occur early in the new year.  Two major papers have been completed  on this topic and are available at  the Centre's office. They are "Women's Perspectives in Research" and  "How to Study Your Own Community -  Research from the Perspective of  Women".  Both are by Helga Jacobson.  IMMIGRANT  WOMEN  The eommittee is composed both of  women who work with immigrant women  in the community, and of women who  are immigrants themselves. We are  working to develop analysis, distribute information, and organize action  around the particular situation(s)  of immigrant women - in the home,  the labour force, and the community.  In the summer of 1977 we completed  a series of workshops for women who  work with immigrant women in the  community. A detailed report and  evaluation of these workshops has  been written and published and is  now available, for $2, from the  Women's Research Centre.  This summer we carried out a research project for the Non-Medical  Use of Drugs Directorate of Health  and Welfare (Non Mudd) on wife  battering in immigrant families.  The completed study, entitled "The  Social Organization of Family Violence: an ethnography of immigrant  experience in Vancouver" should be  released by Non-Mudd shortly.  Considerable time was also taken by  the committee in preparing activities for the Women's Information Day  on International Women's Day in March.  Material included talks, slide shows,  taped interviews, information, music,  visual displays.  Other work includes extensive research for completion of a broadsheet on the new Immigration Act  (Bill C-24) and its implications for  women. We did a number of speaking  engagements related to this topic  as well. Another paper published  this summer was "The Vancouver Chinese Immigrant Community and Social  Services" by Roxana Ng.  Copies are  available at the Centre.  ECONOMIC  DEVELOPMENT  This committee works to develop an  understanding of how economic development decisions are made, and how  women can begin to understand their  situation and role in the economic  to p.23 _Q  WOMEN'S RESEARCH CENTRE cont.  development process.  Committee members have continued their work begun  with the Northern B.C. Women's Task  Force on Single Industry Towns in  early 1977. The Centre facilitated  several workshops at the Women and  Economic Development Conference in  Prince George (November 1977) and  sat on the planning committee for  that conference. This May we completed a workshop on women and economic development, at the request of  the Queen Charlotte City Women's  Group, in Queen Charlotte City.  The WRC is working at present with  the Fort Nelson Women's Centre and  the Yukon Status of Women Council  on monitoring the Alaska Highway  Pipeline Project and its effects on  women of northern B.C. and the Yukon.  We presented a statement, along with  the Fort Nelson women, to the special Parliamentary Committee reviewing  the Northern Pipeline Act in March,  and have been working towards the  preparation of research that will  meet the needs of northern B.C. and  Yukon women who are facing one of  the major development projects in  Canada's history. This work involves  travel, economic development and  research workshops, lobbying and research work.  WRC also worked with the Coalition  for Responsible Forest Legislation  in presenting a critique of the  provincial government's new Forest  Act in June. The Minister of Forests was lobbied and our information  was circulated to women's groups who  lived and were active in forest industry towns.  FAMILY VIOLENCE  Members, of the WRC are working to  present a feminist analysis of family violence in a number of arenas,  both in the city of Vancouver and  elsewhere. A "mini-course" on  wife-battering was presented by WRC  at Douglas College last winter, and  members are active on the United  Way Task Force on Family Violence  and several of its sub-committees.  Members participated in family violence workshops in Vernon and Vancouver, and have assisted in planning workshops for other parts of  the province, for recreation workers  and for staff development trainers  within various provincial government  Ministries. This work has also entailed fund-raising for men's and  women's support groups, planning for  audio-visual materials. We are also  as a result of this experience, preparing a critical analysis of how  this issue of family violence has  been handled by United Way.  Members of WRC are presently researching this problem in order to provide  a basis for some action.  This is a  joint project with the B.C. Federation  of Labour (BCFL) Women's Rights Committee, with WRC members acting as  consultants on research techniques,  preparation of the final report, etc.  A working committee has been formed  of BCFL and WRC members, a questionnaire developed, pre-tested, and it  is now being distributed through BCFL.  *••*••****••*•*•**•**ft******************************  INT€R ART'S onnuol show  ft**************************************************  THE WOMEN'S INTER-ART SOCIETY'S  THIRD ANNUAL SHOW is coming up. It  takes place October 30 - November  11 at the Helen Pitt Gallery, 163  West Pender.  This is the group's annual opportunity to share their work with you and  me. As the only women's art co-op  in Vancouver, their show is also a  statement about women's culture to  the rest of the art community.  As in previous years, this will be a  multi-media show.  Included will be  photography, fibre art, sculpture,  ceramics, paintings, drawings and  fabric art.  "A multi-media show can give you a  new way of thinking about individual  art forms,"  comments Inter-Art Soci-  eity member Maria Fitzgerald. "By  looking at ceramics, for example, in  a context of other art forms, you  learn to make connections and broaden your ideas about the possibilities  of ceramics as an art form."  To raise money for the show, the  Inter-Art Society held (of all things.')  a successful rummage show. "You have  to have tons and tons of stuff, "  explained Inter-Art Society member  Leslie Stanwick. "We held it in a  member 's front yard and we made about  $200.'    We have information at our  studios about how to hold a rummage  sale, and if any other women's groups  are interested, we 're happy to give  them our files."  Further funding for the show came  from the Community Arts Council and  the B.C. Cultural Fund. The show is  free for artists whose work is accept  ed for the show, and free for us who  want to go and see it.  The Inter-Art Society rents a large  space beneath the Avalon Hotel at  165 West Pender, adjacent to the  Helen Pitt Gallery.  Society members  have divided the basement there into  studio spaces, which are rented to  members for either $11 or $22 monthly, depending on size. Every studio  space is filled right now, with  women working in diverse art forms:  painting, puppetry, photography,  fibre art...it's a colourful, busy  environment.  "As a group we actually don't have  financial problems," Maria Fitzgerald told Kinesis, "which is something of a miracle for a women's  groups these days.    That's not to  say that as individuals we 're not  in financial difficulties,  however,"  she added. I asked her how studio  members managed to make a living  and still have time for their art  work. "Some of us teach art, one  is a make-up artist... .we've done  murals on commission...you name it, .  we 've done it."  With a membership of around 60, the  Inter-Art Society also uses their  basement for critiques and other  cultural events. This summer, the  Society sponsored a poetry reading  by Gwen Hauser and Cathy Ford, for  example, and they have plans for  November events to coincide with  the show. "One of the basic goals  of the Inter-Art Society is to  provide communication among women  artists and between women artists  and the community,"  explained Leslie  Stanwick.  In her studio at the Inter-Art Co-op, fiber artist KAREN CHAPNICK  prepares a piece for hanging in the 3rd Annual Inter Art Show.  Gerda Osterneck the violent sex ?  THE VIOLENT SEX: MALE PSYCHOBIOLOGY  AND THE EVOLUTION OF CONSCIOUSNESS,  by Laurel Holliday.  (Bluestocking  Books, Guerneville, California 1978)  Reviewed by Cy-Thea Sand  "...Male aggressiveness (whether in  mice, monkeys or humans) is connected  with the level of androgen circulating in the bloodstream and the particular organism's sensitivity to it,  which has been determined by heredity."  One common and almost integral belief  of the women's movement is that the  difference in men and women's behaviour is conditioned.  In other words,  most of us contend (as I did until  very recently) that the differences  in the behavioural and psychological  characteristics of women and men were  only learned responses to a prescribed  sexist culture.  Maybe not.  Laurel Holliday in her  book The Violent Sex: Male Psychobio-  logy and the Evolution of Consciousness has researched a convincing argument that "although men are responsible for the pain and suffering they  cause, they are not to blame". Why  not? Because, as Holliday shows,  bringing us through an excellently  done first chapter on fetal biology,  'boys are the product of the mascul-  inization of the 8-week-old female  fetus and with this androgenization  comes a tendency (illustrated by  numerous experiments) towards violent, aggressive domineering behaviour.  All human fetuses are female until  after the eighth week of conception,  having the primitive antecedents of  both male and female reproductive  systems.  If no androgen reaches  the fetus it will mature as a female  fetus, but if androgen does circulate  through the fetal system, maleness  occurs.  "It is an additive process.    The proper male hormones must act upon the  brain at the proper time for the  brain to send messages of maleness  throughout the system.    If the brain  is not triggered in time,  the fetus  remains female.    It is a struggle to  become a male. "  This androgenization becomes a crucial factor in determining behaviour,  despite efforts of socialization.  A  study done on girls with adrenogenital syndrome (the accidental androgenization of female fetuses) found  the girls to be more tomboyish and  proud of it than the girls in the  control group; they were indifferent  to dolls, preferring trucks, cars and  guns and most of them wanted a career  rather than marriage. A second study  found similar results - the androgen-  ized girls exhibited atypical female  behaviour despite conditioning to the  contrary.  Holliday then explains the link between brain damage and a proclivity  towards violence.  She analyses the  major causes of fetal brain damage  and explains how males are more likely to succumb to these negative in  fluences. "Whether the result of  heredity or accidental injury,  structural brain abnormalities are  definitely a part of the problem  of male aggressiveness. "  The structure of the brain is the  next topic in this first, fascinating chapter. Holliday explains  the bio-chemical makeup of the  brain and how male and female  hormones act upon particular chemicals which are linked to aggressive/violent behaviour in animals  and humans. At this point Holliday  emphasizes the impact of our environment on our biochemical makeup: "the important things to realize is that our biochemistry is an  open system which is under the  influence of both genetics and  environment. "  Holliday believes that this development is directly associated with  man's decision to become carnivorous.  Two anthropologists she quotes,  Washburn and Lancaster, believe that  when man began hunting big game, he  dramatically changed his relation to  the universe.  In becoming a predator, man began his historical blueprint for controlling and dominating  natural forces, for a hierarchal  structure of dominance and submission  and for battles with his own kind.  "Competition between groups of prehistoric men...was greatly increased  by meat-eating and hunting. "   Of  course, because human babies were  dependent on their mothers' attention,  women did not participate as fully in  the hunt as men and so "the beginning  of large game hunting marked the beginning of sexually dimorphous roles."  Therefore, in Chapter 2 Holliday  explores the various ways in which  our culture encourages boys to be  boys.  For example, boy babies are  treated more roughly than girls in  play as well as in punishment,  teaching them that roughness and  violence are acceptable forms of  expression in this culture. "Extensive research has shown that  physical punishment is one of the  five major factors associated with  the development of delinquency in  young boys. "  A link through many studies has  been found between the degree of  punishment one receives in childhood and the amount of aggressive  behaviour one exhibits as an adult.  For example, "...nearly all of the  Nazi criminals had been seriously  mistreated in childhood."   The  media picks up where the family  lays off by promoting male violence and macho images in ways  which I am sure we are all too  familiar with.  Chapter 3 investigates WHY men have  evolved with this biological inclination towards aggression and  why sex-role differences, studied  in over six hundred cultures, leads  to the conclusion that "there is  a fundamental pattern across all  human societies:_   male are more  concerned with sexual needs, more  interested in pursuing dominance,  less responsible to others,   less  nurturant, and less able to express emotions other than anger,  and are,  of course, more aggressive.    Females are more nurturant  and are almost universally given  the child-caring role."  Old Mole/LNS  CARNIVOROUS  OPPRCSSION  Chapter* 4 discusses some of the horrendous consequences of man's psycho-  biology: animal oppression, crime,  pollution and war.  She also discusses  some of the influences on contemporary  sports, art and literature in relation  to man's urge to dominate and destroy.  This chapter concludes with Holliday  stating that biology does not have to  be destiny, that we can change the  movement of evolution because we have  consciousness. But men need help from  women in order to change.  She does not  think that the solution is women  taking power from men, as this would  only perpetuate the ideology of hierarchal power. Women must help men  change. Here is where I begin to  have problems with Holliday's analysis.  to page 25  NCR/CLAC/LNS 2f  More about male psychobiology  Chapter 5 is concerned with solutions.  It begins with a discussion on the  pre-natal environment and how women  can take certain precautions which  can positively affect her offspring.  For example, smoking while pregnant  has been cited as having a detrimental effect on the fetus' later social  adjustment. Therefore, pregnant women  should not smoke.  Obviously, there  are health factors as well, but for  our purposes, suffice it to say that  studies have associated women's prenatal habits with their children's  health and behaviour. Once again the  responsibility is placed in women's  hands without being accompanied by  political power. Holliday is too  simplistic here in her analysis of  how women must help if our planet is  to survive.  WOMCN - NO  ORGANIZCD  POWCR  Mothers are concerned about nutrition  for example, and the effects of food  additives on their children's health,  but they have no mass organized power  base from which to challenge the  mighty food industry.  It seems to me  that Holliday is exposing a feminist  catch-22: how can women help men  change when men are the propagators of  the patriarchal ideology which effectively eliminates women from decision  making?  The patriarchal ideology may destroy  us all, but I fear mankind will hold  steadfastly to its tenets rather than  yield to women's demands.  Holliday  is much more optimistic than I am.  She believes that women can exert  "tremendous pressure" by withholding  sex, by carefully considering the  genetic makeup of her child's father  and by carefully studying nutrition  and its effects on behaviour.  Interestingly, her solutions are passive  and homebound ones. How about mass  campaigns to get more and more women  educationally channeled into the  sciences? A feminist perspective is  beginning to make its way into the  liberal arts, but too few of our  sisters are in laboratories where,  if science fiction is any indicator,  the future of our planet may be decided.  Holliday's research has reminded me  of the complexity of the origins of  women's oppression.  I hear many  feminists say so downheartedly "How  did it happen, why is our oppression  so pervasive?" The Violent Sex gives  us another explanation which I think  should be taken seriously and debated.  Unfortunately, Chapter 6 is  a weak appeal for us all to love one  another, the land and all the creatures therein.  A feminist revolution will need more  than a nebulous call to love and the  creation of more female children (see  Appendix 1: how to have a girl) to  eradicate women's deep-rooted sense  of inferiority.  I was disappointed  with Holliday's ineffectual ending.  It was unexpected in an otherwise  engaging, exciting book. %  Mothers & Daughters  OF WOMAN BORN by adrienne rich  BANTAM BOOKS  REVIEWED BY KAY MATUSEK  Of Woman Born  preceded My Mother/My  Self  (see review in October Kinesis')  but I'm glad I read them the other way  around.  I am first a daughter and  then a mother.  My Mother/My Self talks about the relationship between daughters and  mothers, Of Woman Born  speaks of the  relationships between grown women and  history, society, men, sons, daughters  and mothers.  Whereas My Mother/My Self talks about  the personal relationship between the  woman-child, trying to find herself,  and her mother, the teacher of self-  depreciation, and only casually mentions the forces to which the mother  is responding and reacting, Of Woman  Born  speaks first of the forces affecting women in the world today and  then relates this to the personal way  this affects her relationships with  other women, men and children.  Whereas My Mother/My Self indicates  that a woman can find her identity by  recognizing and severing the ties she  has with her mother, Of Woman Born  speaks of the difficulty women have  when they fail to recognize how they  are defined by patriarchal society,  and in fact, discusses the great  difficulty a mother faces trying to  love her daughter enough under these  conditions.  But both books speak about the actual  situation daughters are in: women  are raised by mothers who are the  role models and who teach their daughters to be alienated from their bodies and to grow to be mothers which  is to be a second-class citizen. As  Adrienne Rich says (p. 237), "Thousands of daughters see their mothers  as having taught a compromise and  self-hatred they are struggling to  win free of, the one through whom  restrictions and degradations of a  female existence were perforce transmitted.    Easier by far to hate and  reject a mother outright than to see  beyond her to the forces acting upon  And the daughter is not alone in  hating her mother, for the daughter  becomes the mother and (p. 224):  "...every mother has known overwhelming, unacceptable anger at her  children."    The path for women is  guilt and it's walked in anger.  In Of Woman Born,  Adrienne Rich explores the history of women's place  in society from the time she was the  mysterious giver and taker of life,  a goddess, unto her self, until today where woman is feared, subjugated  and robbed of all power, even in the  birthing chamber. She explores what  this has done to women's self-image  and how it has also, negatively,  affected men.  This book goes beyond My Mother/My  Self and is a classic which needs to  be cherished and shared as every concerned person has explored Greer's  The Female Eunuch  and de Beauvoir's  The Second Sex.  —Colette French  EVERYWOMAN'S  ALMANAC  The EVERYWOMAN'S ALMANAC 1979 is out  now - but it's different.  This year the Almanac, compiled by The  Everyday Collective, brings attention  to all of us women who are considered  ordinary.  The months are introduced  by interviews with women from varied  backgrounds ranging in age from 9 to  over 60 who are not well-known but  whose experiences are common to many  of us. In telling their stories they  speak on behalf of the struggles, the  let-downs and the successes of every-  woman. The student, the woman who  works in the home, the office worker  any woman, will find something of  her own life told here.  Orders of five or more almanacs re--  ceive a 20% discount. Instead of the  regular $4.95 price you pay only $3.95  for each copy. To order, send to  Margie Wolf, The Women's Press, 280  Bloor St. W., Toronto, Ontario/Make  your cheque or money order out to  BELFORD BOOKS. Please enclose 25c  for the first almanac and 15c for  each additional copy to cover mailing  costs. Outside of Canada, the charges  are 35c for the first book and 20c  for each addition copy. 26  DORIS MARIA OF NICARA  INSIDE THE NICARAGUAN REVOLUTION  By Doris Tijerino, as told to Margaret  Randall. New Star Books, Vancouver,  1978. 176 pp.  $5.25  Doris Maria Tijerino is a Nicaraguan  woman, a longtime member of the San-  dtnista National Liberation Front  (FSLN).    On April 13, immediately after  returning to Nicaragua from several  years in Cuba,  she was captured and  imprisoned by Anastasio Somoza's National Guard.    Last month, she was one  of 59 political prisoners freed when  the Sandinistas occupied the National  Palace.  While Tijerino was in Cuba, she was  interviewed at length by Margaret  Randall, an American writer and poet.  Randall constructed her life story  from the interviews.  Doris Maria Tijerino, a militant in  the Sandinist Front for National Liberation (FSLN), gives us a personal  account of her life. We are taken  along a road that for her, led to becoming a political activist in the  FSLN.  As Randall presents in the Introduction, the struggle for National Liberation is aimed against the dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza. For forty  years now, Somoza, or his immediate  family, have ruled and exploited  Nicaraguans in the most brutal and  tyrannical way.  The story of Nicaragua is told to us  through the life of a woman whose very  life has been shaped by the struggle.  We are shown how women are doubly exploited, both as women and because of  the social and economic divisions that  are structured by capitalism.  "For working class and peasant women  the choices imposed on them have been:  semi-slavery, domestic service, prostitution or stealing, death in the  street from tuberculosis, or a lifetime of hard work, just to be able to  earn enough to eat. "  General Augusto Casar Sandino, a man  who fought against U.S. imperialism  and military operations in Nicaragua  during the 1930s, was brutally assassinated that same decade. However,  his life's struggle Is carried on by  the FSLN, a movement of peasants,  workers and students resisting the  Samoza dictatorship and its international ties.  Doris Maria describes in a beautiful  and honest way the road that led her  to the FSLN. Born in 1943, the daughter of a landowning family, she was  sensitized to the lives of the country's poor by her mother. However, the  nun's school she attended as a child  also shaped her early opinions:  "We had a project we called  'clothes  for the poor', consisting of our collecting old clothes, shoes, and sometimes food,  that we would later distribute among the poor.    Each one or  each group of two or three girls had  its  'poor people ',  visited them and  took, them the things collected.    It  was the best way of teaching 'ñ†us that  'there had to be rich and poor people  in the world, and that the rich must  help the poor', without making us  feel bad about this situation,  since  we were helping. "  However, her mother would point out  ether aspects of the situation:  "My mama,  then, with a lot of patience  and a lot of subtlety, explained to  me...that some things were not so  certain or so fair...My mother always,  constantly made me see the relationship between North American imperialism and the dictatorship of the Somo-  zas, and the situation of the Nicaraguan people..."  As a child, Christmas was a major  celebration that Doris Maria felt to  be tainted by the inequalities of  rich and poor.  "Our own Christmas was celebrated on  the farm, in the presence of all  those  (peasant) children, with all  Our  gifts.      I realized that We   Should  President Anastasio  never have celebrated Christmas in  the presence of the other children  who were only watching us. Any child  with a minimum of sensitivity would  have to be affected by that situation. But my grandparents were in  that respect a result of their class. "  As a child, she felt that there was  not any discrimination between the  sexes, only between peasants and  landowners. Awareness of sexism came  later.  LAM/LNS  When she went to a coastal centre to  study, Doris Maria began to see another form of discrimination, that of  race. Blacks, as well as Indians,  were used as cheap labour and mainly  worked in the mining centres.  The relationship between the poor and  the incidence of tuberculosis was  impressed upon her early:  "Once I saw a tubercular woman die  in the atrium of the Matagalpa cathedral.    She was spitting up blood  and when she vomited, an older daughter, who was also spitting up blood,  helped her...In Nicaragua many tuber-  culars die on the sidewalks."  mother  At 13, Doris Maria began to realize  the terror that the National Guard  imposed on the people.  She began to  develop in a political way, after  reading a book her mother gave her,  Maxim Gorkey's The Mother.  Her mother wanted her to study -  always at government institutions.  There she met people of the lower  social classes and developed relationships of equality with them.  It was her mother who asked her to  make her first act of conspiracy  against Somoza: to carry a rifle and  other goods to the resistance fighters in the north of the country.  In her college days, Doris Maria  took part in numerous street demonstrations against Somoza and his  U.S. counterparts. There she began  to resolve the issue of violence for  herself.  "I gained an awareness that, faced  with so much violence, it's necessary to respond with violence."  The National Guard were brutal with  demonstrators, often gunning them  down or arresting them to face some  of the most brutal torture.  The mothers of those people fallen  in their resistance to Somoza's  tyranny always participated in  further demonstrations. The violence of the National Guard evoked  * the fury and the wrath of the people.  In her early activities, she realized  that the only way of solving problems  of Nicaraguan working people and poor  peasants was to change the system.  It wasn't for another five years, when  she joined the FSLN, that she found  an organization capable of taking on  this issue and one in which she was  able to participate more directly in  the struggle.  She describes some of the mistakes  she made because of her lack of clarity on ending oppression. She tried  to solve problems by taking a job  teaching rather than by organizing  and mobilizing the people to make  demands to the government.  As well, we get a look at some of  the activities carried on by the FSLN:  the city activities of demonstrators,  "expropriations" at the banks, support of trade union struggles, and  struggles of the peasants and Native  peoples of the land, the distribution  of leaflets informing people of FSLN  activities and activities of their  enemy, the dictatorship.  Doris Maria describes the movement of  people to the mountain regions, where  they can be trained (in relative safety) as guerrilla fighters, even though  they are constantly sought out and  assassinated by the National Guard.  She describes her work with the Patriotic Alliance of Nicaraguan Women.  The Alliance was composed mainly of ^  working women, whose objective was:* . m  more about DORIS MARIA:  from p. 25  "... to overcome women 's inferiority  and to struggle for better working  conditions for women - equality in  matters of wages, for social security  for domestic workers, especially the  right to vacations and one day a week  off and for better treatment for all  women workers. "  Her own capture and subsequent torture, at the palace of Somoza, and  with the president personally involved  lays bare the very real decay of this  regime.  Doris Maria explains that during her  two year imprisonment, she was kept  constantly informed of the activities  of the FSLN and the dictatorship by  a network of information organized by  the other women prisoners.  The earthquake of December 1972 sharpened the crisis. Between 20 and 30  thousand people were killed - these  mainly from the poorer classes whose  adobe huts or loosely-made shacks  totally collapsed. The government  response terrorized the people. The  National Guard was sent out to restore order and to kill anyone on the  streets. American army personnel were  brought in.  It was they who burned  the bodies of the dead, right on the  streets, depriving the people of the  tradition of burying their dead. New  lands had to be acquired for housing  the homeless. A group of landowners  made a great deal of money from purchasing the land at a low price and  turning around and selling it to the  government at ten times the price.  The story continues with more information and details of the Sandinist  Movement and the government tyranny.  Finally, by December 1974, the FSLN  moved into a stage of open warfare  against the tyranny - determined to  create a popular people's army. The  book ends when Doris Maria asks:  Why does the U.S. continue to support Somoza's regime? She answers  her own question: the U.S. will continue to support Somoza as long as he  can guarantee the protection of North  American political and economic interests.  This is the first book to reach North  America informing us about the situation of the people in Nicaragua and  the struggle of the Sandinists.  It  is simply and clearly written with  enough detail (without being gruesome)  to describe the problems in Nicaragua.  By describing her own life, Doris  Maria has given us a more profound understanding of what it means to be a  woman and a revolutionary in a Third  World country.  not clear  The one weak point in the book is the  lack of clarity of the FSLN.  Is it a  movement simply to oust the Somozas?  Does that mean eliminating all of the  people and institutions that support  him (ie. the U.S. government and the  multi-national corporations)? Is it  a socialist movement aimed at eliminating the roots of inequality: poverty, unemployment, disease, and  illiteracy? Even keeping this criticism in mind, the book is an essential one to read.  LINDA FORSYTHE  letters  KINESIS:  I have been active in the women's  movement in Vancouver and North Vancouver since I joined VSW in 1971,  and the movement is very important  to me.  However, a trend has been developing  in Kinesis which disturbs me.  I  don't feel that the theme of some recent articles represents the views of  the majority of women working in the  movement. Please don't lose sight of  the fact that we are all entitled to  be feminists, regardless of life style  and personal philosophy.  To succeed,  ours must be a movement in which all  women can feel comfortable.  Let's get back to the basic issues,  as outlined by the Royal Commission  on the Status of Women. We still  have much to do.  COMMENT ON LAST MONTH'S FEATURE:  Thank you, Debra Lewis, for a clear,  well-written explanation of the  real significance of pornography  and its effect on the status of  women generally. Joan M.Robinson  'Ģ ISSN : 0317 -  # November 1978  We are a group of women collecting  stories for a new anthology of  Canadian fiction. Send us your  manuscripts.  Short Story Group  c/o Press Gang Publishers  603 Powell Street  Vancouver, B.C.  Assertiveness Training  FREE Workshops for Women Sponsored By:  Vancouver Status of Women and Public  Night School.  For further information  about times and places, call 736-1313.  KINESIS  KINESIS is published monthly by the  Vancouver Status of Women. Its objectives are to enhance understanding about the changing position of  women in society and to work actively towards achieving social change.  Views expressed in KINESIS are those  of the writer and DO NOT necessarily  reflect VSW policy. All unsigned  material is the responsibility of  the KINESIS editorial and production  crew.  CORRESPONDENCE: KINESIS, Vancouver  Status of Women, 2029 West 4th Ave.,  Vancouver, B.C. V6J IN3.  Membership in Vancouver Status of  Women is by donation. KINESIS is  mailed monthly to all members.  Individual subscriptions to KINESIS  are $8.00 per year. We ask members  to base their donations on this and  their own individual financial  position.  SUBMISSIONS: VSW welcomes submissions to KINESIS from the'feminist  community and in particular from VSW  members. We reserve the right to  edit. Submission does not guarantee  publication. Include a SASE if you  want your work returned.  DEADLINE: The 15th of each month.  ADVERTISING: KINESIS welcomes nonsexist, non-racist advertising. Rates  available on request.  DISTRIBUTION: KINESIS needs distributors. Call 736 1313 for details.  CHARITABLE STATUS: As we now have the  status of a charitable organization  and as we are unable to pay for KINESIS from these funds due to government regulations, we will be issuing  tax-deductible receipts for the balance of all donations over $8.00/  PLEASE REMEMBER: VSW operates on  increasingly inadequate funding.  We NEED YOUR SUPPORT, NOW MORE THAN  EVER!  OLIDARiTY'  fyfFO**  For information on union organizing or tfte  women's programme of the B.C. Federation of  Labour, please contact:  Director of Women's Programmes  B.C. Federation of Labour  3110 Boundary Road  Burnaby, B.C. V5M 4A2  430-1421

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