Kinesis Jan 1, 1977

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 SPECIAL COLLECTIOKfS  KIN6SIS  Jonuary77  vol 6 no 2  Vancouver status of women  o  ONE GOOD REASON FOR  -SORWUC   I am more firmly  convinced than  ever that the law  under which I am  now being tried is  unjust, cruel and  dangerous to  women. "  __i  Ik  MORGENTALER HAS WON  ot VSW,       kjnesis means change m  -*.   .**.—-.—      ww~>_      >AUNK3NF0R  SORWUC %®  >*M0^  There are three facts which stare  a feminist in the face day after  day. They are absolutely basic to  our lives, because they determine  how we pay the rent and buy our  food. These three facts are:  lo Most women earn their living  in the service, office and retail  industries. Ever had a typing job?  2. We earn about half of what male  workers earn,. We buy lots of pins.  3. Most of us are unorganised -  apart from the lousy wages, that  can mean no provision for childcare,  for compassionate leave, for job-  posting, for promotion, for leave  without pay, for a flexible work  week, for part-time benefits, for  employer contributions to medical  and dental benefits. We work overtime. We know that the person at  the next desk is being paid more  for the same worko We smile nicely  and fetch that coffee.  What can we do about it?  Right now, there is something that  feminists in B"C. can do» We can  support SORWUC, the Service, Office  and Retail Workers Union of Canada.  This is an independent, Canadian  union which is organising in the  biggest female job ghettoes in the  country - in offices and banks.  Currently, SORWUC is concentrating  its organizing drive on banks.  united  bank  workers  Banks employ about 130,000 workers,  and of those, a massive 72% are  women. They have some of the  lowest wages in the work force,  while their employers are among  the largest profit-makers in the  country.  SORWUC has now applied for certification for 15 different branches  of four banks. They expect to apply  for many more in the coming months.  The response of bank workers to  SORWUC's initial organising drive  was so good that the bank workers  have now organised their own  local of SORWUC : Local #2 is  the United Bank Workers-  The organizing of bank employees  will be the most important breakthrough for Canadian labour in  thirty years. Because SORWUC is  attempting a first (no bank has  ever been successfully organised in  English Canada) there will be hearings before the Labour Relations  Board of Canada. At these meetings,  the Labour Relations -Board will  decide whether one bank branch can  form an appropriate bargaining unit.  That banks will argue that it is not  enough to sign up a majority of one  bank, branch in order to win union  recognition. The Board will decide  upon what legally constitutes an  appropriate bargaining unit: they  could claim that bank-by-bank certification is legitimate, or that  the whole region, or something in  between, must be organised into  a single bargaining unit.  hearings  These hearings before the Canada  Labour Relations Board will establish the right of bank employees  to unionize. What is at stake is  the future working conditions of  thousands and thousands of women"  SORWUC is a small, independent union,  completely organised by the workers  themselves. They don't have many  resources. We all know that women who  work in banks aren't busy salting  away dollars into their own accounts-  they are too busy salting it away  for businessmen.  And the hearings before the Labour  Relations Board are going to cost  a lot of money0 Legal costs are  expected to run between $10,000  and $15,000. Therefore, SORWUC is  appealing for help. If you can,  loan them some money (they will  handle it professionally!). If  not, please send them a donation  (any amount is welcome) as an  expression of your support.  VSW urges all of its members and  readers to show their support for  SORWUC in these important hearings  which will be coming up sometime  in the next two months. For more  information, contact UNITED BANK  WORKERS, 1124 - 204 West Hastings  Street, Vancouver B.C. 681 2811  SORWUC could also use your help  when they leaflet banks in they  mornings between 8 and 9 in  downtown Vancouver. Contact them  to find out what you can do about  spreading the word in areas outside  the lower mainland.  SORWUC desperately needs your help  to cover the costs of the hearings  before the Canada Labour Relations  Board. At least send them as fat  a donation as you can afford. Their  work is important. When they win,  we win,  past  & present  In 1959 three workers at the Kitimat  branch of the Bank of Nova Scotia  applied for certification. The Canadian Labour Board ruled - "While  this application is rejected the  Board deems it advisable to state  that this decision must not be  taken as indicating that the Board  agrees with the Respondent's (the  Bank's) contention that   the appropriate  bargaining unit must be a  nation-wide unit of employees of  the Bank. The present decision  rests on and is applicable only  to its own particular facts. The  Board points to the facts that this  is the first application with  which it has had to deal, concerning bank employees, and that employees of Canadian banks have hitherto  not been organised by trade unions  for collective bargaining. The  Industrial Relations and Disputes  Investigation Act applies to banks  and their employees, and the Board  will consider all applications concerning bank employees, with the  purpose of giving effect to the  intent of the Act. It may well be  that units of some of the employees  of a Bank, grouped together territorially or on some other basis, will  prove to be appropriate, rather than  a nation-wide unit."  Since then there has been no organizing until.the fall of '76, when  4 branches in Ontario and 12 branches  in B.C. applied for union certification. In Ontario the three branches  are in Simcoe, Port Dover and Jarvis  and they are applying through the  Canadian Union of Bank Employees.  In B.C. the branches are in Port  Hardy, Ganges, Duncan, Langley,  Cloverdale, Haney, Burnaby and  Vancouver, and most recently, in  Port McNeill. All are applying  through SORWUC. The two unions are  in touch with each other and hope  to help each other in the battles  ahead.  (from SORWUC's newsletter: Union  Women Speak, available from 1114—  207 West Hastings Street, Vancouver) kjneft  ISSN 0317-9095  Vol VI, #2  SUBSCRIBE  NAME  MEMBERSHIP DONATION  $  January'77  INSTITUTIONAL SUB: $10 a year  RENEWAL  MEMBER    KINESIS is sent to all members In  good standing of the Vancouver  Status of Women. Membership fees are  by yearly donation. In determining  your donation, we ask you to balance  your own financial situation with the  fact that KINESIS costs approximately  $5-.00 per person to print and mall.  KINESIS costs 35 cents per copy in  bookstores.  KINESIS is published monthly by the  Vancouver Status of Women. Its objective' is to promote understanding  about 1:he changing position of women  in society.  Views expressed in Kinesis are those  of the writer and unless specifically  stated do not reflect the policy of  V.S.W.  FtTBLICATION DATE : The last week of  each month.  COPY DEADLINE: The first of the previous  month (e.g. Nov 1st for the December  issue).  KINESIS EDITORIAL AM) PRODUCTION  COMMITTEE: Janet Beebe, Lirfda  Hourie, Gayla Reid.  SUBMISSIONS: KINESIS welcomes submissions from members of V.S.W. and  will certainly consider those from  non-members. All submissions,  including letters to the editorial  committee, must be accompanied by  ■the writer's name and address.  Pseudonyms will be used where requested. Where necessary, the  editorial committee shall edit for  brevity, clarity and taste.  CORRESPONDENCE: KINESIS, Vancouver  Status of Women, 2029 West 4th Ave.,  Vancouver, B.C. Canada VfJ 1N3  GRAPHICS CREDITS: cover, Guide to  Women's Studies in Australia, by  Penny Ryan; p.2 flowers: The Second  Wave; p.3 photo: Labour Challenge  and Women in Focus; p.4 engraving  by Eichenberg, Random House; p.7  cartoon from Upstream; p.10 graphic  by Jerrylee Cerny; p.15 photos:  Linda Forsythe; p.16 graphic:  Women and Film; p.17 photo by Millie  Strom; p.20,21 from Women: A Journal  of Liberation.      December's Kinesis  carried a graphic from Branching Out,  to whom we apologise for not crediting  it then, it appeared on p.5  Special thanks to Jerrylee Cerny for  her graphic work on this issue.  letters  December  3,   '76  Dear (What is the plural of Ms.?)  (ed: women)  I'm sorry that illness caused me to  forget that my membership in the  Status of Women expired for this  year on October 10, so I'm renewing  it now as from that date.  I enclose a cheque for $27.90.  Anything beyond the membership fee  please accept as a donation - and  as a tribute to my female friends,  who, in spite of male injustice  or other outrageous behavior, do  persist in regarding and treating  me as a fellow-being.  Sincerely yours,  Geoffrey B.Riddehough  2929 West 33rd Ave  Vancouver  November 15th, '76  Dear Sisters,  Another year passed already! Time  to renew? No doubt in my mind,  Kinesis is a life-line of mine.  I feel I make use of practically  everything in it.  Thanks for your article on the  women's studies course, the  BCTF, and Strategy for Implementing Women's Studies.  I plan to  tackle my community on this issue  - that will be my '77 committment. I plan to share with the  education sub-committee of the  B.C.F.W all the bits I'm bound to  learn!  Thanks for everything, and hang  in there!  Ellen Chamberlin  RR 2, Shaw Rd  Mission B.C.  I would like to send a friend a  complimentary copy of KINESIS.  My name is  My friend's name and address:  Name   Address  help KINCSIS grow  events  JANUARY 4, Tuesday, 7"30 pm. A  panel discussion on "Christianity  and Feminism" organised by the  North Shore Women's Centre at  the North Shore Neighbourhood House,  225 East 2nd St, North Vancouver.  Details from Faye Cooper, 985 0067.  JANUARY 5, Wednesday, 8o30 pm,  at the Western Front Lodge, 303  East 8tho Meg Christian and Teresa  Trull will sing. Women only.  JANUARY 6, Thursday. Mom's Garage  is holding at workshop at 7.30  at VSW. For details phone us at  736 3746.  JANUARY 15, Saturday, at  VSW. First meeting of this year's  BCFW Rights of Lesbians Subcommittee.  For more info. : 872 2156 or  736 3746.  JANUARY 17, Monday night. A six-week  training course in ombuds work begins.  VSW Ombudsperson Carol Pfeifer is  organising it, and has details.  JANUARY 18, 7.30. YWCA, 580 Burrard0  Vancouver Status of Women holds  a quarterly GENERAL MEETING. ALL  MEMBERS ARE URGED TO ATTEND. SEE  p. 23 FOR A COPY OF THE AGENDA.  JANUARY 20, VSW. Education Action  Group meets at 7.30 736 3746  for details.   *  JANUARY 22: COLLECTIVE ACTION  group of BCFW meets at 10am. 517 East  Broadway. Judy Paterson, 738 0904 for  details.  JANUARY 29, Saturday. B.C.F.W Lower  Mainland Region will be holding  an internal discussion conference  at THE NEW SCHOOL: POLITICS AND  PRACTICE. Participating groups are  preparing position papers. For  details contact Val Embree, 4420  West 12th Ave, 228 8143. At work:  736 3661.  THE WOMEN'S COFFEEHOUSE COLLECTIVE,  Friday nights, 8pm at ARIEL BOOKS,  2766 West 4th has a fantastic line-up  of women poets for January : Jankola,  Zonailo, Susan Musgrave, Judi Morton,  Cathy Ford, and others. 669 3397 for  details.  EVERY WEDNESDAY NIGHT AT VSW  is Lesbian Drop-in night.Starts  at 8.00 pm.  EVERY SECOND THURSDAY NIGHT,  January 13 and January 27 is  ORIENTATION NIGHT at VSW.  November's Kinesis carried a brief  note about a firm in Southern California which hires women as mercenaries  to suppress the liberation struggles  of the Third World. The intention  in publishing this brief was not,  repeat NOT, to laud affirmative  action schemes within hire-a-killer  firms! The intention was to point  out the impossibility of supporting  and fighting for the equality of  women without first examining whether  this vaunted "equality" is merely  the freedom to oppress other human  beings. What kind of a system do  we seek equality within? Kinesis  editors believe that this is a vital  question, and have resolved to be  more explicit in future. MORGENTALER  VICTORY  It is a victory for Dr.Morgentaler,  and for the women's movement in  Canada. Both have been fighting for  years for a woman's right to control  her own body.  The Parti Quebecois has dropped all  of the remaining charges against  Dr.Henry Morgentaler. Morgentaler  was facing his fourth trial on  December 13th. When he appeared  in court, it was only a matter  of minutes before the new Quebec  Justice Minister, Marc-Andre  Bedard announced that: "It would  be useless to start a fourth  trial when Dr.Morgentaler has already been acquitted by three different juries in the past few years."  Bedard also called upon Justice  Minister Basford to amend the  Criminal Code under which Morgentaler has been accused and persecuted for years. "We tried in  Quebec to apply this article with  all the necessary force, but it has  been shown that it cannot be applied in its present form."  Basford, according to The Vancouver  Sun, found the Quebec decision  to be "fair and just." What does  he mean by that? Does he think  that the Criminal Code, under which  abortion is illegal, is out-of-date? ^  If so, why doesn't he repeal the  abortion law?  Morgentaler, who has been hounded  for the past seven years, says  that protest action "played a great  role" in winning his freedom. "Over  the years", he said, "we succeeded  in convincing public opinion in  Canada that the abortion laws are  indeed cruel and dangerous to  women (and) that they are unjust."  But the legal system which tried  him, which threw him into jail  despite the fact that no jury in  the land found him guilty, which  ruined his health and his right  to earn a living, still keeps  abortion on its criminal code.  Unfortunately, the last few years  has seen the resurgence of the  "right to life" groups, and their  opposition to removing abortion from  the criminal code will be vociferous,  even though they have proven helpless in their attempts to defeat  Morgentaler.  Now is the time for the women's movement to move, and to demand that  abortion be removed from the criminal  code. Massive public protests have  been tremendously important in  forcing the governments of Canada  and Quebec to back down. We do need  to organise our efforts for the  final push - the repeal of the  Darrel Furlotte/Labor Challenge      abortion   laws .  the  eyecatchers  WOMEN AGAINST SEXIST ADVERTISING TAKE ACTION  Here is a letter which we have been  writing for years, until we are  long in the tooth, arthritic in the  limb, and given to bickering amongst  ourselves in fatigue. Will they  never smarten up??  Dear Manager, Dear Editor, Dear  People (feminists write, we write!)  Will some advertisers never learn?  Remember the Benson & Hedges advertisement that showed two men  peering out of hole and gawking  up at a pair of female legs? The  ad promoted the tobacco company's  king-size cigarettes and the caption  read - "the longer the better".  Angry protests from women's groups  throughout Canada eventually resulted in the complete withdrawal  of this offensive ad.  But unfortunately we have not seen the last  of those two men.  The identical picture has now reappeared on Canada Safeway*s billboards.  This time it promotes the  company's pantyhose - "the eye  catchers".  Not only is this sexist  advertising but it also shows an  appalling lack of imagination on  the part of Safeway's ad people.  Yours truly etc.  We write the same letter again next  week o..  ACTIONS  SPEAK  LOUDER  THEN ONE DARK NIGHT...feminists unknown but very much admired quietly  improved 15 of Safeway's sexist billboards. One and all got a good look  at them on their way to work next  morning.  But on their way home...they weren't  there any more. Embarassed Safeway  personnel had had all the pantyhose  billboards covered during the day  (not just the improved ones), with  what they hoped were innocuous 'public service' ads. Now, all feminists  know that history repeats himself,  and, sure enough, there it was:  It takes a man to help a boy - the  same 'innocuous' notice with which  they had covered the same Benson  and Hedges ad. in Ontario! Will  some advertisers never learn???  Many women's groups, including  BCFW, VSW, Women in Focus and Press  Gang, gave public support to the  work of the anonymous women.  The ad. wasn't meant to offend anyone, said The Vancouver Sun, which  for some strange (?) reason felt  obliged to defend Safeway. HUMAN  RIGHTS  IN B.C  FUR  Friday, December 10, '76 was International Human Rights Day. At  Vancouver Status of Women, it  was a Day of Mourning for the  fate of B.C.Human Rights. Other  community groups, including  many women's groups, took part  in the Day of Mourning, which  was given coverage by the establishment press.  What we need now is for the pressure to continue. The flurry of  activity on and around December  10 has no doubt been long forgotten  by those in power. Accordingly,  VSW is asking its members, and  encouraging other women's groups,  to undertake a monthly letter-  writing campaign. Once a month,  write a letter to your local  MLA, pressuring her/him for action.  The Federal government has been  promising a national Human Rights  Code since 1966, but one still  does not exist. The Human Rights  Code of B.C. is a progressive  and far-reaching piece of provincial legislation which has  existed since 1974. However, like  any other legislation, it is  only as effective as the parties  responsible for ics implementation  choose it to be. The dispositions  of numerous human rights cases  indicate that the Social Credit  government of B.C. is not willing  to enforce the code, and is therefore not committed to human rights.  A government can easily render an  agency ineffective by ensuring  that it is understaffed, overworked  and underfunded. Given the frustrating conditions under which they  are forced to work, the Human  Rights Officers do an excellent  job. There are only seven human  rights officers in B.C., as compared to thirty-six in Ontario.  With so few officers in B.C.,  their case loads are extremely  high and delays in investigating  complaints become unavoidlable.  The human rights officers can  handle only 50% of the cases  referred to them; the other 50%  are handled by the overworked  Industrial Relations Officers,  who receive no training in this  area of investigation.  The Minister of Labour further  subverts the intent of the Human  Rights Code by failing to appoint  Boards of Inquiries to examine  legitimate complaints which cannot  be resolved by mediation. A case in  point is that of Linda Ward vs.  Pilgrim House. The complainant  was refused a job in February of '75.  Her complaint of sex discrimination  was found to be justified by the  Human Rights Officer, Wo Ping Lee,  and a Board of Inquiry was requested.  One and a half years later, the  Minister of Labour has still not  set up a Board.  Under the previous government,  all recommendations for a Board  of Inquiry were approved. Under  the present government, very few  Boards are set up; e.g., no  Board of Inquiry has been set up  in the case of the Langley Curling Club. In the case of Dr.Jonna  Bruhn Mou vs. the B.C.College of  Dental Surgeons, approval for a  Board of Inquiry was given by the  previous minister, Bill King, ten  months ago. The present Minister  of Labour, Allan Williams, has  just reversed the approval,  refusing to set up a Board. There  is reason to infer political interference in each of these cases  of inaction.  1975: 25 cases referred for a Board  of Inquiry. 24 approved.  1976: 26 cases referred. 6 have  been approved. 3 have been heard.  THE UNSATISFACTORY OUTCOME OF HUMAN  RIGHTS CASES AND THE REFUSAL OF THIS  GOVERNMENT TO SET UP BOARDS OF INQUIRY HAS MADE A MOCKERY OF HUMAN  RIGHTS IN THIS PROVINCE. CHANGES IN  THE CODE ARE IMPERATIVE IF PEOPLE'S  RIGHTS AT TO BE PROTECTED AND DEFENDED.  The first and foremost amendment  in the Code must be a change from:  "The Minister of Labour...may  refer the allegation to a board of  inquiry," to: the Minister of  Labour shall refer the allegation  to a board of inquiry." Furthermore, the ..Minister of Labour  should not be able to handpick  the members of the board of inquiry.  The practice of entrusting an  impartial nonpartisan appointee  with the responsibility of setting  ,up the board of inquiry and assigning members to sit on the board  should be re-implemented. A board  of inquiry should be empowered to  recommend affirmative action programs .  CHANGES  NEEDED  Other changes in the Code are  needed. Specific time limits  should be set up for each step involved in laying a%complaint.  Equal pay for equal work should  be changed to equal pay for  equal value of work. The definition of discrimination in accommodation should be expanded to  include physical handicaps,  family arrangements, criminal  conviction, and sexual orientation.  All places of employment, accommodation, service, or facility  should be required to post relevant aspects of the Human Rights  Code on location.  ENFORCE  CODE NOW  The Human Rights Code of British  Columbia could be a very effective  vehicle against discrimination ,  and the human rights officers are  capable people, dedicated to the  spirit of the code. But the potential  can be realized only with a proper  appeal procedure, an increase in  staff, and the implementation of  the other changes recommended.  The failure of the Social Credit  government of implement such  changes and the dispositions of  human rights cases since their  election leaves one asking:  DOES THIS GOVERNMENT CARE ABOUT  PEOPLE? The answer is a resounding NO!  People who have laid human rights  complaints and who are experiencing lengthy delays or other problems in settlement, should contact  their local women's centre for  helf. Or contact Vancouver Status  of Women, 736 3746. ISSUES  FACING  WOMEN  UNIONISTS  Issues facing women unionists were  discussed at a recent Vanguard  Forum. Women unionists taking  part were : Ruth Houle, shop steward for the office workers in  local 180 of the Hospital Employees'  Union; Monica Petrie, former executive  member of the Social Services  Employees' Union; and Pat Barter  from SORWUC (Service, Office and  Retail Workers Union of Canada).  Ruth Houle's union has 16,500  members, of whom 13,500 are women.  Working in a hospital, says Ruth;  is something of a hot-house situation because all the people in  key posts are women, and their  competence is so obvious that  it is not challenged at every  point. The main points of her  discussion covered the history  of her union's contract - which  followed a fairly predicatable  pattern of good-contracts and  tangible gains under the early days  of the former provincial government,  followed by worsening conditions ever  since. One of the most important advances made in '73 was the awarding  of retroactive, catch-up settlements  for women workers within her union,  which brought practical nurses parity  with male orderlies, for example.  This was an interim measure aimed at  redressing clear-cut cases of wage  discrimination on the basis of sex.  In the summer of '73, the union, and  the then Health Minister, Dennis  Cocke, had agreed upon a job evaluation which would work towards ending  sex discrimination by '76. Needless to say, this efford ended in  stalemate, with some minimal gains  by unionists, and the provincial  government cosily protected by the  AIB.  Houle concluded that every woman  in the union has learned a lot  from the advances and reverses  of the past four years. When a  sound contract finds tangible  expression in improved pay-packets,  and when those gains are then  taken away, the women realise  that there is nothing to be gained  by accepting a worsening situation  with docility. She says that  although there are feelings of  demoralization within her union  these days (occasioned by the  AIB, in particular) there is also  a strong feeling that there can  be no going back.  Monica Petrie is a childcare worker  and she outlined the ways in which  childcare workers began organizing  five years ago. Right now, childcare workers have a separate contract for every single centre,  because the parents of the children at each centre are the employers. The employer group can, and  does, change each year,and the  negotiating problems connected  with this piecemeal bargaining  are extremely time-consuming.  Another problem for childcare workers  is that they are paid on a centre-  by-centre basis, according to the  subsidies which are awarded to the  parents, and which are then poured  into services, with the staff having  to make-do with the left-overs for  their salaries.  Petrie's union Is working towards  eliminating the unweildy situation  where 50 centres each have to  negotiate separate contracts each  year. The union is currently  preparing a master contract, which  would enable union members not  to negotiate with individual parent groups but with the appropriate  government agency - the Department  of Human Resources. They will be  asking for the same contract for  all workers within the union, and  for wage parity with workers who  have had two years of post-  secondary training.  Petrie also explained the current  difficulties encountered in  a system whereby parents receive  a set subsidy, which they then  have to apportion for rent and  services - and the rent varies  greatly from centre to centre.  One of the demands of the union  will be that the actual operating  costs of the centres must be  underwritten to end this kind  of discrepancy.  76: DISMAL  YEAR FOR  CHILDCARE  Petrie outlined some of this year's  dismal history concerning the fate  of childcare. Many of the parents'  subsidies have been taken away by  a zealous government. Two student  families, and some categories of  landed immigrants can no longer  receive any subsidy for childcare.  (Moral courtesy of Vander Zalm:  women should be kept quietly at home,  bringing up the children for  nothing, keeping out of the  labour market and making our  employment figures look less  embarassing). Now that the  numbers of those who can afford  childcare has gone down, enrollment has dropped, and hence fewer  staff are needed: so it goes, in  a vicious, downward spiral.  Petrie concluded that childcare  workers, who are mainly women,  should cooperate with other  women workers to push for better  childcare.  BANKS  ORGANIZE  Pat Barter, of SORWUC (see story p.l)  mentioned several of the old myths  about women and work: firstly, that  we work for 'pin money' (who wants  to buy pins, anyway?) and that our  work as typists and as bank tellers  is 'unskilled'. Work which women  perform is undervalued simply because  it is women who are performing it.  Barter pointed to the fact that 60%  of all women over the age of 14 work  because we need to. .  Many of her remarks focussed upon  the organizing which SORWUC is now  undertaking in banks. For every  single bank job, there are six  experienced workers who need it.  Barter also gave a brief history of  SORWUC. Initially the union organised VOP workers, then moved on  to organising in some legal offices  and in restaurants. Right now SORWUC  is organising not only in banks  but also in data and chargex centres.  Barter spoke as well about the  importance of an independent union,  and she defended SORWUC's non-affiliate  status.  The meeting concluded with discussion  about the need to form some alliance of  women workers, which could fight for  part-time workers and for contracts  which include adequare provision for  childcare, and for across-the-board  increases. Such an alliance would serve  to raise the issue of sexism within the  predominantly male union hierarchy. /  U.S.  IRELAND  CHILE  Women: a Journal of Liberation, an  excellent and long-lived feminist  publication, does not have enough  money to take its current issue (on  ageism) to press. Support them with  a subscription to 3028 Greenmount Ave,  Baltimore MD 21218  The outgoing Ford administration increas  ingly made working women the scapegoats  for that government's failure to curb  unemployment. Will the Carter administration resort to the same technique?  Ford's economic advisors tried to explain  away a stable unemployment rate of 7.8%.  That figure should be adjusted to 5.5%,  they said, because the larger number includes so many women who don't need to  work. The argument runs like this: the  economy is generating plenty of new jobs;  it just can't keep pace with labour force  growth caused by the influx of women  and teenage workers, so unemployment  does not seem to be falling. But, since  these new workers aren't the primary  breadwinners of their families, things  aren't as bad as they seem; as Newsweek  put it recently, the unemployment rate  is " no longer a valid indicator  of the economy's performance - or  of the human suffering that goes  with it." The government would  apparently have us believe that  most women still work for pin  money. In fact, nearly three-  quarters of all women who  work outside the home are  supporting themselves or  their families, dr are'  married to men earning  less than $10,000 per  year. (From The Spokeswoman, November '76,  Vol 7, #5)  Just what is happening with the Irish  Women's Peace Movement? The women (whom  we mentioned briefly in the- November  Kinesis on this page) have drawn support from a variety of groups, ranging from the U.S. establishment media  to the Communist Party of Ireland.  Betty Sinclair, trade union secretary  of the Northern Ireland CPI, said:  "The rise of the women's peace movement enabled ordinary people, and  especially women, to show their desire  for an end to sectarian strife, violence and loss of life."  What is the feminist press saying  about it? I have been unable to find  commentary from Eire or directly  from Northern Ireland, but SPARE  RIB, a major women's movement  publication from England (subs,  from 9 Newburgh Street, London)  wrote about it in their November  76 edition:  Susan Saxe goes to trial  again on January 10. She  was tried in Boston last fall  in connection with a 1970 bank  robbery, having been arrested ii?  Philadelphia in 1975, after four  years underground. Her first trial'  resulted in a hung jury.  The state has a very shaky case against  Susan.  None of the eleven people in  the bank at the time of the robbery can  identify her.  The state made one feeble  attempt when the prosecutor asked one  witness, who said that the woman robber  had thick lips, if she saw "lips like  that" in the courtroom.  The witness  pointed to Susan Saxe.  The jury in  the first case heard only two people  place Susan at the scene - one man  already convicted of the robbery and  aiming for a reduced sentence; and another who hasn't been charged with  anything, although he admits being involved, because of his "co-operation"  with the state. -It took the jury four  days to return the "no verdict" finding.  Susan Saxe is a dedicated and determined woman who has continued to be  up front in her lesbian feminist politics since her arrest. Despite possible adverse effects on her own case,  she has maintained a complete position  of non-cooperation with the state.  Saxe is supported by a board spectrum  of the women's movement in the U.S.  More information is available from the  Susan Saxe Defense Committee, P.O.Box  39, West Somerville, Mass. 02144.  (From Through the Looking Glass, a  newsletter of women and children in  prison, Box 22228 Seattle, WA 98122.)  If the peace movement posed a  real alternative, it wouldn't be  hailed and defended by the same  politicians, the same army, the  same papers as have consistently  either ignored or exacerbated the  oppression of the Catholic minority.  The press has, of course, duly  exploited the emotive power of the  marchers being mainly women, presenting them as caring, peace-  loving wives and mothers - and  aren't they humble, aren't they  sensible as they pray for respite  on anybody's terms. Miraculous, how  women are suddenly taken seriously.  It's tempting for feminists the  see the peace movement as a mass  initiative mainly from women which  cuts across sectarianism and  militarism and raises women's  issues...But it is not the voice  of women's liberation. They raise  none of the basic political issues  struggled for by feminist movements.1  SPARE RIB has a longer article  from which this excerpt is taken.  women  round  One of the women -from last month's  campaign has been allowed to leave  Chile: Luz de las Nieves AYRES MORENO.  Three countries have already offered  her a visa: Sweden, Italy and West  Germany. In these days she must be  getting ready to leave, after three  years of imprisonment, torture and  mistreatment.  Each month, Kinesis takes part in a  letter-writing campaign coordinated  in Vancouver by the Committee for  the Defense of Human Rights in Chile.  JANUARY'S PRISONERS ARE:  PENA SOLARI, Nilda Patricia. She  was a student of biology in the  Science Faculty at the University  of Chile. She was detained on August 10, 1974, and is being kept  at the Tacna regiment in Santiago.  She's 24. Her I.D. # is 6.494.786.  ZAMORA AGUILUZ, Maria Cristina.  She was a medical student, and was  detained by DINA agents (the secret  alice) on the 12th of December,'74.  She's 26, and has a five month  ^pld son.  ZARCUR ATANACIO, Elena Hala.  ^She is 29, and has a daughter  Vthree years old. She was a  V>hilosophy student when she  detained by the DINA on  \January 24th, 1975.  BECKER AGUIJLUZ, Mirja  Bepzie de Lourdes. She's  a 39 year old student.  She was detained first  on September 15, 1973,  and for. a second time  by DINA agents in Santiago in January of '75.  WEISSER SOTA, Bernardita  del Carmen. She was a student when she was detained  on October 26, 1973, She  is 23. She was kept first  'at the Temuco jail, and later  at the Casa Correctional in  Santiago.  WRITE TO ALL OR SEVERAL OF THE  FOLLOWING ADDRESSES:  Monsenor Enrique Alvear  Arzobispado de Santiago  Casilla 30-D  Santiago de Chile  General Augusto Pinochet  Edificio Diego Portales  Santiago de Chile  Ministerio del Interio  General Benavides  Edificio Diego Portales  Santiago de Chile  Servicio Nacional de Salud  Enrique Mac-Iver 541  Santiago de Chile  Sr.M.Eyzaguirre  Presidente de la Corte Suprema  Plaza Montt  Santiago de Chile  IN CANADA: UN:  Horacio Arce Kurt Waldheim  56 Sparkes St. Ste 816 General Secretary  Ottawa, Ontario       O.N.U.  Canada. New York, NY  (Contact: COMMITTEE FOR THE DEFENSE OF  HUMAN RIGHTS IN CHILE, 906 - 207 West  Hastings St, Vancouver; ph: 669 5545) Although many assume that the curricula and courses in our schools  are objective, the assumption is  false. Courses and classroom materials are biased in favour of  knowledge about men...In actuality,  courses in schools are men's studies courses...A positive change is  necessary. One of the positive  ways in which to proceed presently  is to introduce courses on the  study Of women.  BCTF  13/10/76  The ostensible purpose of schools is  to educate everyone and to equalize  opportunity for all. Liberal reformers  who accept this purpose at face value  bemoan the fact that schools are  'failing' (i.e. not educating), whereas  more sophisticated analysts move beyond  the stated purpose of schools and reveal that schools are 'succeeding' in  differentially socializing pupils by  race, class and sex'Äû  - Betty Levy  Schools in all nations, of all kinds,  at all levels combine four distinct  social functions:  custodial care,  social-role selection, indoctrination,  and education as usually defined in  terms of the development of skills and  knowledge...It is the conflict among  these functions which makes schools  inefficient.  It is the combination  of these functions which tends to make  the school a total institution...and  which makes it such an effective instrument of social control.  - Everett Reimar  EDUCATION  AFTER  MILLENIA OF  MEN'S STUDIES  A complete women's studies course, with  an annotated bibliography, has been approved by the B.C.Department of Education  for use in the secondary schools. Howevei  the "approval stamp" received from the  government is only the first step in  actually implementing the course.  seminar on sexism  At a recent seminar on Women in Education and Sexism in the Schools, sponsored by the Centre for Continuing Education at the University of British  Columbia, Jane Gaskell and Heather  Knapp (major contributors to the Women's  Studies course) outlined the necessary  steps to follow in successfully setting  up elective women's studies couri as in  the schools.  The need for cooperation between the  community and teachers' groups was made  clear. Knapp stressed that the community  must have access to what is going on in  the schools and that citizens' groups  are very important in the political process involved in establishing new courses  in the schools.  Reva Dexter, seminar participant and  former Special Advisor to the Education  Minister on Sex Discrimination in  Public Education, claimed that the  impetus for the Women's Studies course  must come from the teachers. The  point being, she said, that citizen  action can provide the push to  get the course initated, but there  must also be qualified and interested teachers available if the  course is to be successful, and  accordingly, continued. The task,  then, is not only to get the  course implemented (perhaps, in  -ome cases, grudgingly), but also  The key to establishing successful  women's studies courses is people...  concerned, enthusiastic, persistent  women and men, both citizens and  teachers. Liaisons between interested  teachers and concerned citizens  must be established in every community  in the province. Without this kind  of province-wide concerted effort,  women's studies will remain on the  fringe, a "frill" rather than where  it belongs : as a basic part of  every child's education.  to impress upon everyone the high  priority that should be accorded to  a women's studies course. It is  necesssary to see studies about  women as being part of the mainstream,  not as a tributary.  Within teachers' ranks, there are  ongoing BCTF Status of Women Committees in all school districts.  These committees are an important  link in the process of gaining local  approval for the implementation of  courses.  To reiterate, the impetus for women's  studies must be two-pronged to be  optimally successful: an active  and concerned community and interested,  qualified teachers.  There are many different ways in  which the community can start the process necessary for course implementation. The most effective citizen group  actions are not spontaneous and accidental. They are well thought-out and  researched ahead of time. How do  these community action groups come  into existence?  The Burnaby Women's Centre, a community group that has been working to  get the women's studies course into the  schools in Burnaby is probably not  atypical in its herstory. The women  originally got together as a lobby  WILL '77  SEE WOMEN'S  STUDIES IN B.C.?  group for the Women's Rally for Action  in March of '76. The women didn't want  to disband after the rally, as their  energies had just been mobilised, so  they continued to meet informally.  Noreen Garrity, spokesperson for the  group, had taken a women's studies c rse  at Langara campus of Vancouver Comm  ty  College and had become interested ii  the possibility of having such a cout s  in the high schools.. In addition, a  couple of the women were teaching at  Simon Fraser University, and the MLA  they had all been to lobby was Eileen  Dailly, former Minister of Education.  The group then discovered that a women's  studies resource guide had been approved  for use in the schools. A natural outgrowth of the group',s combined interests  and experience, then, was the make the  implementation of the women's studies  course in their local schools a priority  for their collective energies. To this  end, they contacted the BCTF Status of  Women committees, education professionals  in the community, other groups in Burnaby  working in the education area; and they  wrote to local MLA's and MP's. A brief  was then presented to the Burnaby School  Board, and followed by visits with each  of the principals of the five secondary  schools in Burnaby. Garrity is quite  optimistic and feels that of the five  principals, three are willing to co-  cooperate. One of the five principals  is non-committal at the moment. The  last says that he has no sexism in  his school (sic), and that he won't  be pushed into having a women's studies  course thrust upon him. So - the  fight goes on.  FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THE WOMEN'S  STUDIES COURSE, CALL NADINE ALLEN AT  VSW : 736 3746.  What did you learn in  school today, dear?  Curriculum Guide to Grade 11 English  Department of Education  Consider the ideal man in any society.  His role has varied from prophet to  revolutionary, artist to warrior,  philosopher to Beau Brummell, explorer  to actor.  His attitudes from boldness  to humility, wisdom to irrationality.  Ideal woman, too, has held many, roles,  from beast of burden to queen, virgin  to courtesan. THE DALKON STORY  W€ GOT TH€ CRAMPS  TH€Y GOT TH€ BUCKS  This story about the Dalkon shield  (shortened by LNS from Mother Jones)  mainly concerns corporate mismange-  ment below our border. But it is of  relevance in Canada because so many  of us were its victims. The Dalkon  shield was banned in Canada by the  Federal Health Department in 1974,  but that Department's documentation  of adverse reactions to the Shield  by Canadian women is at best fragmentary (see The Vancouver Sun 7/4/75).  No doubt the Health Department was  influenced by the fact that the Dalkon  Shield had killed 17 U.S. women. No  doubt, also,that this is not the last  time that Canadian women will be the  victims of IUD devices imported from  the U.S.  The controversial birth control device was invented in 1968 by Irwin  Lerner, a former electrical engineer,  and Dr. Hugh T" Davis, associate  professor of gynecology at John Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.  Over a one year period'at the University clinic, Davis inserted 558 Dalkon  Shields into clinic patients, and 82  into private patients and noted the  "results". He published these results in February, 1970 in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the leading journal in the field.  They were remarkable, to say the least.  Especially the pregnancy rate, 1.1%,  the lowest among all the IUDs. The  article concluded: "Taken all together,  the superior performance of'the Shield  intrauterine device makes the technique  a first choice method of contraception  control."  "SCIENTIFIC  Research Marginally "Scientific"  The rise of the Dalkon Shield really  began with Davis' research at Hopkins,  and the more closely one looks at it,  the less scientific it appears.  For  one thing, the women tested didn't  sign any consent forms, so no one  knows what Davis told them about the  fresh-off-the-drawing-boards gadget  that he put into their uteri.  Also, many people say that Davis regularly told his patients to use spermicidal foam during the tenth to seventeenth days of their cycle, which  would leave it unclear whether his  study reported the contraceptive effects of the Dalkon Shield or of the  foam.  It is as if in studying a new  headache remedy, he had told patients  to take aspirin as well.  Also, the study sounds less impressive when one realizes that there  was an average of only 5.5 months  testing per woman - not much time to  get a reliable pregnancy figure.  After publishing the study, things  moved fast.  Other doctors were beginning to hear about the results  from John Hopkins. Many were sending for it to try out on their patients.  Additional help came to Lerner and  Davis late in 1969 from Dr. Thad Earl,  a small-town practitioner from Defiance, Ohio.  He had used the Shield  and thought it was a great idea, so  he offered Lerner, Davis and their  lawyer, Robert Cohn, $50,000 and got  a 7.5% interest in what became "The  Dalkon Corporation".  (The name was  presumably an amalgam of Davis,  Lerner, and Cohn.)  Thad Earl proved to be an energetic  salesman willing to go on the road  drumming up publicity.  IUD's were  not at the time classified as drugs,  which had certain restrictions in  marketing.  So Dalkon Shields could  be hawked just like new office furniture to doctors browsing in medical  convention hallways.  ROBINS  A.H. Robins Buys The Shield  At an Ohio.medical convention in  1970, Thad Earl met John McClure,  a salesman for the A.H. Robins Co.  Robins, headquartered in Richmond,  Virginia, has assets of more than  $186 million and subsidi aries in  more than a dozen countries.  Tranquilizers and appetite suppressants  are among the best-selling products  of its large line of drugs.  Within a few weeks time, a deal had  been worked out. The Dalkon Corporation was paid $750,000 for the  Shield patent which was split between Davis, Lerner, Earl and Cohn  according to their interests in the  corporation. An agreement was made  that the four men would split ten  per cent royalties on all gross sales  of the Shield by Robins in Canada  and the U.S.  Finally, Earl was retained by Robins as a $30,000 a year  consultant for three years; Davis  consulted at $20,000 a year for five  years; and Lerner for one year at  $12,500 and two more at $2,500.  As the deal was being made, however,  something was discovered that proved  to be a portent of troubles ahead.  Dr. Fred Clark, the Robins official  who had flown to Baltimore to meet  Hugh Davis, dictated a three-page  memo to the files on his return to  Richmond.  In it he said that of  would raise the pregnancy rate from  the previously published 1.1% to  the 832 patients Davis had tested  so far, 26 had become pregnant. This  close to 3%. The dates on the Clark  memo show that Hugh Davis was aware  of this new, less impressive result  back in February when his Journal  article was published.  PROMOTION  Ad Campaign  Although not quite the equivalent of  the smoking gun, the memo has become  an important document in the Dalkon  affair.  It indicates that both Davis  and Robins are guilty of promoting  the Dalkon Shield with false statistics.  And promote it they did.  In December  of 1970, readers of five national  medical journals began to see two-  page ad layouts for the Dalkon Shield.  Pictured oh one side was the Dalkon  Shield nestled in a cross-sectioned  uterus.  It's about, the size of a  small fingernail, and made of white  plastic. Unlike other intrauterine  devices, it has small legs around its  circumference to keep it from slipping out of a wearer who might otherwise expel an IUD.  It also has a  multifilament "tail" or string attached to facilitate removal.  The advertising copy on the opposite  page, with the "scientific" findings  from Dr. Hugh Davis' earliest research,  boasts of the 1.1% pregnancy rate and  says nothing about the women in the  study also using foam or being tested  for only six months.  Davis is impressively footnoted as a  research physician with citation  from the articles he published. He  is not cited as a businessman who had  just collected $250,000 from his share  of the sale to Robins and who stood  to make a royalty fee on all future  sales.  For the next few years, everything  went well for the Robins Company.  The fialkon Shield was advertised as  particularly good for women who had  not had children, and was inserted  into 3.3 million women. Robins  reaped huge profits from the Shield  - each one was made from a few cents  worth of plastic, but sold for $4.35  retail.  LIES  Davis Lies to Senate Subcommittee  In January 1970, Dr. Hugh Davis was  called to testify as an expert witness at Senate Subcommittee hearings  on the side effects of the Pill. Davis took a stand against birth  control pills with high estrogen  content and in favour of IUDs, "especially the new ones" that had been  developed. He disapproved of the  collection of information regarding  the side effects of the Pill, saying  that they were vastly "underreported".  Davis said that information supplied  to gynecologists about contraception  was not adequate.  "They are busy,"  he added.  "They read the brochures  and information that the drug houses  tend to pump into them, I am sorry  to say."  Although it is true that IUDs were  generally safer than the Pill, one  of the committee members sensed  that Davis might have some special  stake in his strong arguments for  IUDs. He asked Davis if he had a  patent on any IUD. Davis mentioned  an IUD (not the Dalkon Shield) he  had co-invented ten years earlier  that was never marketed.  "Then you  have no particular commercial interest in any of the intrauterine devices?" asked the committee member.  "That is correct", answered Davis.  For the first time in the murky  history of the Dalkon Shield, someone  had indisputedly broken the law. Davis had committed perjury, a felony  that carries a prison term of up to  five years. To date, Davis has not  been indicted.  HUSH UP  Prediction of Harmful Effect Hushed  In 1971, the chief of Robins' Antibacterial and Miscellaneous Division  (the Shield came under Miscellaneous)  wrote a memo to medical director  Fred Clark (the same Robins official  who had written the 1970 memo about  the inflated-pregnancy statistics).  In her memo, Dr. Ellen Preston said  that she was concerned that the Dalkon Shield's "multifilament tail"  might display "wicking qualities".  She was predicting the source of the  very problem that was to lead to so  many injuries and deaths among women  who used the Shield. According to  most researchers who have since studied it, the Shield's tail acts like  the wick of a kerosene lamp and allows bacteria from the vagina to  creep up and enter the uterus, where  massive infections leading to blood  poisoning, and eventually death, can  result.  On August 20, 1971, Clark replied to  the memo with a curt letter saying  that it was not up to Preston to test  the Shield and indicating that he was  passing the problem along to the company microbiologist, Dr. Oscar Klioze.  But, in a sworn deposition four years  later, Klioze said that he had never  heard of the Preston memo and when  shown it, he swore that he had never  seen it.  Also at this time, Robins did some of  its own testing and came up with a  pregnancy rate of 2 per cent, somewhat higher than Davis' claimed rate  of 1.1 per cent. They put this into  their ads. However, they chose to  ignore other studies done at the same  time that showed vastly greater pregnancy rates.  One, by Dr. Johanna  Perlmutter at Beth Israel Hospital in  Boston, showed a 10.1 per cent pregnancy rate; and another done by the  Kaiser Medical Centre in Sacramento  showed a 5.6 per cent rate.  DANGER  Shield Dangers Finally Made Public  The floodgates were opened in May,  1975 when Army doctor Russel Thomsen  testified about his experiences with  the Shield at a federal hearing on  medical devices. On the strength of  Robins advertisements and Davis'  Journal article, Thomsen had persuaded his patients to switch to the  Shield, only to see them go through  a great deal of suffering because  of it.  Thomsen described cases of septic  abortion (an abortion caused by an  infection), pelvic inflammatory disease, massive bleeding and incessant  cramps.  Some patients had almost  died. He said he was "revolted" by  the gap between the glossy advertising claims and the occurrence of  serious and even fatal complications.  His testimony hit most major papers  the next day.  A flood of reports like Thomsen's  began coming in. After a full year  of such reports, Robins got word of  a death in Arizona due to the  Shield.  Finally the company went  to the Food and Drug Administration  (FDA) with the information.  Four  more deaths were reported soon after  and Robins decided to send out a  strongly-worded "Dear Doctor" letter  which warned of possible septic  abortion and death from the Shield  and recommended that women who got  pregnant while wearing the Shield  be given therapeutic abortions.  7 YEARS  After Seven Years, Sales Suspended  Finally, in 1975, the FDA in the U.S.  began hearings on the Shield.  Even  before the FDA made its recommendations, however, Robins was forced to  suspend sales of the Shield.  It was  a difficult decision as Dalkon had  moved into the lead in IUD sales.  But in 30 short days, the deaths reported to the FDA had risen from  four to seven and the septic abortions from 36 to 110.  By this time, also, many people were  pointing to the possibilities of  "wicking", which was the subject  of the Preston-Clark memos in 1971.  Throughout the entire controversy  over the Shield right up to the moment that Robins took the Shield off  the market, the U.S. Agency for International Development's population  control program was busy distributing  Shields to Third World countries.  Only after the FDA ruled the Shield  unsafe, which was some time after  Robins had stopped selling them, did  the AID try to recall any Shields.  They managed to get back less than  half of the 769,000 Shields they had  given out.  PROFITS UP  Business as Usual  Throughout the rise and fall of the  Dalkon Shield, it is ironic how  seldom anyone actually broke the law.  Hugh Davis did when he perjured himself telling Senators he had no commercial interest in any IUD.  But  his having that interest in a harmful  device that he and the Robins Company  were vigorously promoting by questionable means was not really illegal.  Most doctors consider the process  business as usual. Many medical researchers are paid by drug companies  to test new products and don't mention the fact in their statistical  write-ups. The whole affair has been  considered so normal a way of conducting "free enterprise" medicine, in  fact, that John Hopkins took no action against Davis; state medical  authorities censured neither Davis  nor Earl, and the government has not  touched A.H. Robins Company or the  Dalkon Corporation.  Robins spent $5 million in litigation  costs over the Dalkon Shield last  year and more civil suits are yet to  come.  The company is setting aside a  reserve from its profits to cover  future lawsuits, and its stock value  has dropped sharply.  But all told,  Robins' corporate health is not bad:  profits were up 26 per cent in the  first half of 1976.  Meanwhile, some 1,300,000 women, including many Canadians, are still  wearing the Dalkon Shield as a birth  control device.  How Much They Made  Sale  of Patent  Estimated  Royalties  Consulting  Estimated  Gross Sales  Total  J Irwin Lerner  4&*  **  ^  Hugh Davis  *?  y  4*.  ^  <i*"  Thad Earl  ^  <*  X  *?.  Robert Cohn  >*  'ÄûX  ^  A.H. Robins Co.  ^  ^ women  and  religion  by  dulce  oil^pwo  "Take authority to preach the Word of  God, and minister the Holy Sacraments...'  For centuries, millions have taken on  this authority and have been called  priests. On November 30, 1976, a historical first occurred in the Anglican  Church of Canada.  Six women were allowed to respond to that call in British Columbia and Ontario.  At Christ Church Cathedral in Vancouver,  Deaconess Virginia Brian and Elspeth  Alley were welcomed into the ministry  by a standing-room only congregation.  In Quesnel, B.C. the Primate of Canada  himself presided over the ordination of  one-time social worker Patricia Reed.  Protestant churches such as the United  and Presbyterian have had women in  their ministry for some time.  So what's  unique about the Anglican Church ordination?  For the answer, a look at the inherent  traditions of the Anglican Church is  necessary.  Its mother is the Church of  England. During the reformation, the  break-away from the Catholic Church  happened less drastically in England.  Therefore, the Anglican Church maintained many of its cathloic traditions  while at the same time, it attempted  to blend with the radical Protestants.  For example, like its Protestant sisters, the Anglican Church has an evangelical side. That is, emphasis on  the Bible, the "word", where freedom  of individual interpretation and testimony is recognized.  Its catholic heritage, however, which  links it to the Roman and Orthodox  churches, contains the sacramental  side of its tradition. What's a sacrament? Foremost is the sharing of  bread and wine, or the "meal", called  Holy Communion. Other sacraments in  the Church include baptism, confirmation, marriage, holy orders (ordination), penance (forgiveness) and death.  The sacrament of holy orders is unique  to the catholic tradition.  Its roots  go back to the twelve disciples of  Christ. When Jesus considered them  prepared, he sent them out as his Apostles or ambassadors. The Apostles  were commissioned to teach the truths  of jesus (the word), to break bread  together (the meal) and generally look  after the physical and spiritual well-  being of the community. The Apostles  became in effect the supreme legislative body of the Church. Their author  ity' could be transferred to the chosen  through the laying on of hands. This  apostolic office has been transmitted  to those designated as Bishops, priests  and deacons within the catholic tradition.  major  br^kjhrough  The ordination of women into this  historic succession is therefore a  major breakthrough for a tradition  formerly reserved for men. Women were  accorded the office of deaconess in  1969 in Canada. A deaconess performs  all the duties of a priest except absolving sin and consecrating the bread  and wine. The elevation to priesthood  therefore is a full circle fulfillment  of the deaconate.  Women have previously been ordained  priests within the Anglican communion  in the Hong Kong Primacy in 1973 and  in the United States in 1974. New  Zealand, Australia and the United Kingdom have accepted in principle (but not  in practice) female ordination. Political Church hierarchy in the United  States, however, has ruled the 1974  ordination of 15 women by retired  Bishops as "irregular". Dissension  and threats to "form a separate province where the tradition of male-only  priests will be maintained" cry out in  the U.S. Latest reports from below  the border indicate that "at a September meeting of the House of Deputies  an official resolution was passed allowing female ordination. The 15  women will be required to undergo a  'public event' to complete the ordinations. The first official regular  ordination of women will occur early  in 1977."  Canada is not exempt from dissension.  Some reasons offered against female  ordination include:  it's a departure  from the accepted order; it does not  have universal consensus; wait until  the 1978 worldwide meeting of the Church;  it will hamper ecumenical discussions  with the Roman and orthodox churches.  Or consider the protest of the vocal  dissenter at the Cathedral who termed  the ordination "a sponge to women's  lib". He decreed that women "by their  nature" cannot possess ordination.  Canadian  dissent  minor  The Canadian dissent, however, appears  to be but a "small voice crying in the  wilderness" compared to that of our  southern neighbours.  In large part,  this can be attributed to such socially  aware and highly respected individuals  as the Primate of Canada, Archbishop  Edward Scott and Archbishop David Somer-  ville, Metropolitan of B.C. The latter  was the Chairman on the Committee on  Ministry that presented the resolution  on women's ordination to the 1973  national meeting of the Anglican Church  of Canada.  Archbishop Scott, in a letter to all  clergy outlining the historic perspective of female ordination, indicated  among other things, that:  - the Anglican Church of Canada has  acted with due process at each step  and fulfilled all the requirements  agreed upon by the wider communion;  - there is evidence of a growing conviction in most provinces that the  Church should move to ordination of  women;  - it is appropriate for provinces of  the Church to act independently while  keeping each other informed.  Individual Bishops have the democratic  prerogative to refuse to ordain women  in their jurisdiction. Likewise, male  priests may refuse to participate in  services with ordained women.  The.  ancient walls of tradition will not  crumble overnight. Yet Eastern echoes  are resounding in the western world.  The Archbishop of Canterbury who (by  tradition and respect, less by authority) is the head of the worldwide  Anglican communion, and advisors to  the Pope in Rome, are reported to be  "keeping a watchful eye on the resultant effects of female ordination in  the western world".  In such a light,  Archbishop Edward Scott's comments  that "our action may have a creative  impact" is already being realized. the virtues of the mothers  Hannah was born in Toronto in 1913.  The breakup of her family and consequent move to Alberta happened when  she was about eight years old.  Hannah loved the prairie town they moved  to with its many animals and lots of  room for movement and play.  In  spite of the split between her parents and her own uprooting, she recalls this as a happy time.  She  walked the four miles to the one room  school where grades one to nine were  taught.  She became an avid reader,  and read everything in the school  library and her home, including such  writers as Balzac, Sabbatini, Kipling,  and Jack London.  Although all the family were not living under the same roof, her one brother remained with her and her mother,  while the other siblings lived close  by on a neighbouring farm.  circa. 1920  HANNAH IN TORONTO, about age seven  started work, at 13  After the move to Edmonton in 1921,  Hannah returned once more to Edgerton  at the age of thirteen, lived with  her Aunt Jane for several years and  started "working out" as a hired girl.  This aunt was an excellent housekeeper and cook, and she acted as mother  and instructor to Hannah for several  years.  Hannah's first outside job was  with a family in which the wife was  ill with "something".  Hannah comments that "I never did find out with  what...I used to hear them talking  pegi hall  To paraphrase Nellie McClung: If the  sins of the fathers are said to be  visited upon the children, then why  not also the virtues of the mothers?  about hemorrhaging, but I didn't know  what it meant." There was a husband  and two girls about Hannah's age in  the family.  She was paid $5.00 per  month and shared a room with the girls  Her duties started at 5:30 a.m., when  she made tea and porridge, and they  included cleaning, washing by hand on  a scrub board in a tub, carrying water  from the well and cooking, although  she was not very accomplished at this  latter task.  (Her aunt thought Hannah  was quite slow because she was unable  to bake bread at age thirteen, when  her own daughter could do it at age  eleven!)  Hannah had one day off a  week which she spent riding her horse  and visiting her sister Eve who was  working out nearby.  Hannah's observations at this early  age were that men didn't seem to be  able to do anything around the house,  or want to.  Also, that a wife's responsibilities were so immense that  if she became ill, the husband almost had to replace her with a horse!  In fact, one of the local men had actually tied his wife and his cow to  the plow in one instance.  Another job that Hannah had was for  a woman who suffered severe headaches.  At this home, she had to carry water  from a slough for the washing, and  to boil the clothes as a bleaching  measure.  She worked to the extent of  picking twelve quarts of minute wild  strawberries for the woman to preserve that summer, no mean feat when  you consider the size of the berries.  She was engaged to work for the sum  of $10.00 per month if she was good.  (Hannah says she is still not certain  if they were referring to her virtue  or her work habits!)  Evidently, she  was not good enough, for they refused  to pay the full amount, saying she  had not worked very hard and had visited her sister too much.  The eventual payment was $10.00, a gingham  dress, and a pair of running shoes  for three months work.  Her best job was for a wealthy farmer  who had a washing machine, water  pumped into the house, and who paid  the unbelievable sum of $1.50 per day.  By the time she held this job at age  fifteen, she was competent in cooking.  Often she hired out to local farmers  during the threshing time, receiving  $2.00 per day for her efforts, which  was considered good money.  When she  helped her own aunt with the threshing crew, she recalls rising at 3:00  a.m. to make huge breakfasts of hash  brown potatoes, bacon, eggs, and hot  cakes, all ready for the men by 5:00  a.m.  At 9:30 a.m. a meal was carried  to the men in the fields by horse and  buggy and in later years, by car.  Then at noon they would transport a  huge lunch to the field once more, or  at other times the men would return  to the farmhouse to eat.  circa. 1926  HANNAH IN ALBERTA, about 13 or 14  threshing time  Weeks were spent baking and preparing  for these crews, with much competition  between the neighbouring women over  who could prepare the best spread.  Hannah says threshing time was also  a good time to eye the young men,  as this was the only opportunity  outside of square dances that a girl  got to see them.  Hannah also helped  by spike pitching the wheat onto the  belt of the threshing machine, a job  women did not often do.  Altogether,  she had five or six jobs on farms, and  one in Edmonton, where she worked as  a maid for $20.00 per month.  herstory is not the ascent of women up the  token poles of this society; the crucial women  are the millions who never become famous In 1929, at the age of sixteen, she  joined her mother, stepfather and young  half-brother in Kamloops for a time,  and worked there in a tomato cannery.  The depression was being felt by almost  everyone, and was especially hard on  those in the cities.  When Hannah  moved to Vancouver, there were no jobs  available except housework in places  like Shaughnessy and Dunbar, where  wealthy people were not noticeably  altering their lifestyles.  She worked  for $1.00 per day and carfare, then  the wage rose to 25c per hour and car  fare. Hannah was given cast off clothing by these women who employed her,  and she promptly sold them to buy food.  It seems that the women who employed  domestic servants really had no concept  of how destitute they were. A perfect  example of this was the woman who expected Hannah to take an amount from  her own wage to buy a maid's uniform,  thereby adding class when she waited  on the woman's friends at afternoon  tea.  She simply could not understand  that Hannah felt it more important to  send money home to her mother than to  buy a uniform that in the woman's eyes  was so necessary.  Hannah had another type of work in  1931, when she modelled for the Vancouver Art School.  She also posed for  Varley, and his students in that famous Canadian artist's studio.  Then  the sculptor, C. Marega, who was well  known in Europe, and had moved to  Vancouver and done sculptures on such  buildings as the Georgia Medical Dental Building, asked her to pose nude  for him. Hannah had left the good  paying work at the Art School precisely because this request was also made  of her there. However, she felt her  virtue would be safe with this kindly  old man and she consented to the posing.  It turned out to be unnecessary,  as he eventually did a series of drawings of her in a long flowing dress as  the proposed figure head for the then  newly drafted Burrard Street Bridge.  She did not get to see her form so  preserved, as Marega's plans were not  cccepted and another artist's model  was chosen. How near to fame Hannah  was in 1931!  first women  wrestlers  PUZZLED PROMOTER WILL  GO THROUGH WITH GIRLS'  BOUT DESPITE PROTESTS  Entries from THE COLUMBIAN, March, 1934  TWO GIRLS WILL GRAPPLE  GIRLS PLEASE THE FANS  Hannah, however, did achieve a distinct first in Canada, when she had  the unusual job of wrestling in 1934.  She was one of the first two women  to wrestle professionally in this  country.  She was married by this time  and had a son who was almost a year  old. Her husband, his brothers and  several friends were wrestlers and  promoters. They felt that the novel  idea of women wrestling would be profitable, so they showed Hannah and two  other women various holds and ring  techniques. One of the other women  withdrew, due to her husband's objections. Hannah assumed the name of  May 0'Riley, and the other woman took  Babs Lateur as her stage name. They  put on four or five fights at Coquitlam, the Vancouver Hotel, Courtenay,  Powell River and New Westminster.  Their first match was in Coquitlam on  St. Patrick's Day.  May and Babs graciously took turns  winning, and one would be officially  Champion of Canada until the other  one won the next match. They worked  in shorts and leotards, and suffered  such events as wetting themselves out  of sheer nervousness upon entering the  ring for the first time, and accidentally being knocked out on a few occasions. They made a few dollars per  match after promotion and travelling  fees were paid.  Although the men loved the female  wrestling, the feeling among most of  the women was that these women wrestlers had to be obscene, or immoral at  the least. One woman refused her  small son's pleas to "look at the lady  wrestler" by saying, "No, they're bad  women!" Finally the Vancouver Council  of Women decided to officially "frown  on the proceedings" and had a letter  sent to the Police Commissioner to  show their disapproval. As the match  did not break any laws, the Police  Commission could not prohibit it,  but they could and did disapprove.  The promoter invited the Commissioner and the President of the Local  Council of Women to attend the controversial match, but they refused to  attend. The match was put on to the  delight of the audience, even outshining the publicized main male event  of the evening, but all future matches  were cancelled.  So ended Hannah's  wrestling career.  During Hannah's visit to Kamloops in  1929, she met Jack, a first generation  Canadian whose father was Irish, and  whose mother was English. They both  eventually met again in Vancouver, and  it was in order for Hannah to return  to Kamloops, and Jack to go East, both  to look for work, that Hannah had the  occasion to ride the freights. As  far as I can tell she accomplished  something not many women did, as few  writers about this period have commented on observing a girl "riding  the rods".  Hannah said she was the  only woman that she saw doing it, but  all the men she met on the trains were  complete gentlemen.  Eventually they returned to Vancouver  and in 1932 were married. They had no  money, no place to stay together because  of lack of money and no way to get the  relief people to pay them until they  had established a home!  A bureaucratic  Catch 22 if there ever was one. Hannah  was living with a friend, Jack with  his brother, but upon the advice of  friends, they managed to deviously get  a room by saying they were on relief  and to force the relief officials to  pay them by saying they had a room.  Hannah married not exclusively out of  romantic feelings for Jack, but basically out of a desire to have a place  of her own and someone to help her in  the tough battle of"supporting herself.  Ironically, she was not to live in a  house that was truly self-owned, rather  than rented, until she left Jack and  built it herself.  Hannah in 1932.  Hannah's recollections of the depression are numerous and lengthy. However, the all-pervading poverty and  lack of gainful work for her husband,  as well as the total inadequacy of  birth control methods, so typical of  the depression, were I think important  factors in the breakdown of their marriage. Hannah felt that somehow Jack  had failed her, was lazy, and had  shirked her and the home, (if you can  call one rented room with a double bed,  crib and all their household possessions a home) to go and play horseshoes  with his cronies.  THE DEPRESSION  Nathan Ackerman in his observations  of the depression years sums up the  phenomenon beautifully. He says,  "A jobless man was lazy, good for  nothing. The women punished the men  for not bringing home the bacon, by  withholding themselves sexually...  Those men suffered from the depression. They felt despised, they were  ashamed of themselves. They cringed,  they comforted one another. They  avoided home." Because a man's authority over his wife, and his value  in the home, depends on his ability  to secure the money from the societal  system, which in turn gives the woman  the ability to maintain home and  children, the man is seen less as a  person than as a source of employment.  Although Hannah felt disillusioned by  Jack, she was in fact victimized,  as he was, by a capitalist system in  an acute state of recession.  During the marriage, in 1933, William  was born.  He was premature, and jaundiced. Hannah was toxic during the  last three weeks, and for some days  previous to the birth had not passed  urine or fecal matter and had gone  temporarily blind. Medical care for  poor women was not good during the  depression years. Few were able to  have their own doctor, and all pregnant women had to go to the Vancouver  General Hospital for maternity care.  For Hannah, this involved a two way  walk from Robson Street to the hospital, usually on an empty stomach.  Sometimes she was lucky enough to be  given a street car ticket for the return trip and a bowl of greasy soup  at the hospital. Women were generally  treated impersonally at this facility,  often being examined as though they  were "cattle in a stall". Hannah's awareness of woman's lot was  deepening from the first inquisitive-  ness, so many years previously, about  why men never helped with household  tasks.  She saw women as receiving the  short shrift of things; they were unable to draw relief money if they left  their husband, and had to remain with  him no matter how intolerable the situation.  She didn't like the city, the  poverty, her husband, the way things  were going, and she decided, that in  spite of the prevailing notion that  women were supposed to both have and  want to have children, she would not  have any more.  ADOPTION (j  ABSTINENCE  The only birth control available was  abstinence, or abortion. Hannah practiced the former to the enragement  and bewilderment of her husband and  the latter in defiance of society and  her own body. Many women around her  resorted to the same measures and  even supplied her with her methods.  One method was Slippery Elm bark, inserted into the uterus and allowed to  swell from the moisture and thereby  introduce air into the womb.  If a  sliver entered the ^bloodstream, the  result could have been death. The  most ingenious method was a mixture  of pure castile soap and castor oil,  beaten to a froth, and inserted in  the vagina for three days. This acted  as a poultice, drawing the uterus down  so a syringe could then be easily inserted to introduce air., On one occasion a sympathetic doctor performed  an abortion for a small fee. During  a four to five year period Hannah  experienced eight abortions, two live  births and two spontaneous abortions.  Her feelings are strong about "the  bleeding hearts" who say that it is  wrong to kill life, her reply being,  "But it's a terrible thing to kill  the soul of a woman."  In 1937, a daughter was born, and  Hannah's feelings, although she actively wanted the child, were similar  ' to Rose Anna's in the Tin Flute, who  says, "...she had always wanted daughters.  And yet...she prayed that she  might give birth to a male child, one  who would suffer less than she." After this birth Hannah decided to def- '  initely leave the poverty of city  living and attempt to make a better  life for her children.  During her marriage and life in the  city, she had been active in a number  of community activities.  One of these  arose out of her interest in providing  some sort of enrichment activities for  young pre-school children.  She had  noticed that most of her friends and  neighbours never got an opportunity  to be away from their children. There  were no early childcare facilities in  1937 in Vancouver, that she knew of,  so she helped to organize a cooperative nursery, a daycare arrangement  where the mothers took turns having  the children in their own homes. The  fee was 10c per day, the money being  used for supplies for the children,  such as paper, crayons, etc.  THE MAY DAY PARADE, VANCOUVER 1935. Hannah is the first woman  on the left, partially concealed.  Hannah was also interested in politics  and local union matters.  She marched  in the Vancouver May Day Parade of  1935 to show support for the men who  were out of work.  The women were protesting the brutality that the police  had used in order to break the strike  at the Ballantyne Pier. They were  also calling attention to the rights  of the Safeway workers who were trying to alter working conditions. The  organizers of the C.C.F. party, of  which she was a member, felt that  public and government sympathy would  be with the march if women participated.  Hannah was tremendously sympathetic  to the Spanish Loyalists who were  suffering under the dictator Franco.  She helped support the Spanish Revolution by knitting and campaigning.  WOMEN'S  COURSE  Because of her desire to find an alternative to the social ills she felt  were happening, Hannah sought information from the then active Communist  Party.  She thought that she saw in  their philosophy a better chance for  poor people like herself. Many other  lower class people in Vancouver felt  the same way and there was a lot of  activity around such things as block  parties.  The organization even sponsored an educational course for women,  dealing with women's history that  dated back to Amazon days.  Hannah  was intrigued by this knowledge and  loved the political meetings because  it gave her the new experience of  speaking her opinions.  The women's course and other activities of the Communist Party were  curtailed or went underground due to  to threatened government pressure  against the members, who were  considered subversive -  In 1942 Hannah's marriage was ending  and she left Vancouver to stay for  a while near her mother in Hope.  In  1943, ^after a short return to the city  to live separately from Jack and to  secure a divorce, she returned to live  permanently in this small town. There  she built her own little house and in  her own words "looked after the two  kids who put on weight, grew healthy,  and did well in school".  Around this time she met and impulsively married Jim, a merchant seaman.  This relationship functioned well  while Jim was away and sending money  home, but it failed miserably when he  returned to live permanently in Hope  and went through the tragic misfortune of infection and eventual loss  of an eye.  Hannah and Jim divorced  quickly and by 1947 she was single  again.  Without a husband for financial support, and with no child support money  from Jack, Hannah had to seek employment.  As Hope depends on tourism for  most of its income, she chose one of  the most available sources of work, a  restaurant.  Starting as a waitress,  she soon was trained as a short order  cook and here she found her forte. She  prided herself on her skills and speed  and she was to work in this trade more  or less permanently for twenty-five  years.  Like her mother and grandmother before  her, Hannah had chosen to take her domestic skills, learned within the home,  and use them in the outside world for  making money.  The status of her work  was low, the pay was poor, with men  cooks making twice the wage for similar labour.  The work was hard, hot  and long, with shifts of eight hours,  six days per week.  On her day off,  she completed the weekly household  chores of shopping, cleaning and cooking.  In the late 1940's and early  1950's, the washing was done during  the summer in the nearby creek.  For  several years during this time the  water for use in the house was hauled from a water tap almost half a mile  away. Not until 1954 did her home  have all the conveniences of running  water, electricity, and indoor plumbing. During most of these years, she  felled the trees and bucked her own  wood for the stove, as well as clearing land and helping to build her  house.  circa. 1945  HANNAH and children, outside home  she helped build herself.  NOTE WELL: The author of this article,  Pegi Hall, has kindly allowed Kinesis  to excerpt this material from a book  on which she is working. Nothing ?n  this article may be reproduced in any  way without the express, written  permission of Pegi.  Around 1948, Hannah began to share  the house with a man she had met and  liked. Due to her distrust of marriage, they lived together in a common-law marriage for ten years before  she finally consented to marry him.  Prior to the marriage, and in a pattern similar to her mother's, a child  was born to her when she was past  forty. Unfortunately, the infant  boy was stillborn.  In response to  her and Tom's desire for a child,  they adopted an infant girl, Ellen,  some three months after the death of  her own son. This family arrangement  continued, with alterations of her  son and older daughter leaving home  to marry, until Tom's death in 1961.  full time cook  Again Hannah was the sole wage earner,  and she increased her part-time cooking jobs to full-time ones. Often she  worked night shift and, due to a shortage of baby-sitting funds, had to take  young Ellen with her, where she was  bedded down outside the restaurant in  the family station wagon.  She was  lonely and often depressed during this  time, and in 1965, she made her fourth  attempt at the state of matrimony by  marrying a man she was totally infatuated with.  Recommended and related reading:  A VERY ORDINARY LIFE, as told  to Rolf Knight. New Star Books,  2504 York Ave., Vancouver B.C.  This union was of a bitter sweet quality, with Hannah in her fifties longing  for an attention and affection that  Mike seemed unable to provide. He was  an alcoholic and the relationship was  coloured by his abuse and liquor and  Hannah's feelings. Money was still a  problem as Mike was either in a low  paying job or unemployed, and she  worked for awhile to supplement his  income. They are presently still living together and existing on his near  poverty level income from a burned out  veterans pension of $4800 per year.  Mike has ceased drinking with the help  of the A.A., and their relationship  seems a bit smoother, if not ecstatically happy.  today  As an epilogue to Hannah's story, she  remains an unorthodox, verbal, forceful,  vibrant person.  She began jogging  several years ago, and presently, at  the age of sixty-two, runs two miles,  five days a week.  She writes ironic  poetry, plays bingo, and reads and  knits avidly.  She recently took up  mountain climbing, exploring many of  the peaks around Squamish, including  the Black Tusk.  One excursion involved a two day overland hike from  Squamish to Deep Cove, through partial  snow conditions.  While not active  politically, Hannah's personal convictions continue to be what they have  always been, those of a strong and  vocal socialist and -feminist.  VIGIL AT THE PEN  Women from the PRISONERS' RIGHTS  GROUP and other concerned people  spent their Christmas keeping a  24 hour vigil outside the B.C.Pen.  They were protesting the grosteque  and brutal conditions at the Pen.  Vigil-keepers sang Christmas and  prison songs by candlelight, and  demonstrated with pickets.  They returned on New Year's Eve to  keep vigil once again. Prisoners  heard the singing and responded by  banging on their cell walls and doors.  They were protesting the fact  that solitary confinement continues  at the Pen., and under more hideous  conditions than ever. They were  protesting the warehousing of  40 prisoners in the derelict East  Wing. These prisoners have no  running water, no plumbing. There  is no glass in the windows. A lawyer visiting the East Wing has said  that conditions there are as bad  as those of solitary.  They were also protesting the fact  that, since the September riots,  Pen inmates have been receiving only  two meals a day : breakfast, and  another meal at 2.30pm. They were  calling for a return to open visits  - since September, all visits have  been made through a plexiglass screen,  The majority of inmates refused  their Christmas dinner to protest  the continuance of solitary and  the retention of inmates in the  East Wing.  Solitary confinement continues at  the Pen, despite the Heald ruling  of December '75 that solitary  confinement constitutes "cruel and  unusual punishment." Conditions  in solitary have not been improved  since that Federal ruling in  December of 1975. Instead, conditions have become even worse.  According to the Heald ruling, the  openings in the solid steel doors  of the solitary confinement cells  had to be made larger. This was  done at the Pen, along with a lot  of media coverage. However, these  larger openings have now been  covered with a heavy wire mesh,  and prisoners are more caged in  than ever.  B.C.Pen now has 44 super-maximum  security units - cement walls,  steel doors, cold water. Those in  solitary are entitled to one  half-hour visit a week. They are  taken to the visit in leg-irons,  handcuffs, and with a chain around  their waist, which extends to their  arms. They see their visitor through  a plexiglass, and speak via a  telephone. However, the waist chains  Facts from the Prisoners' Rights Group  Find out more about their work by  phoning 299 7178 or 922 7598.   are so short that prisoners have  difficulty holding the phone.  Any prisoner can be thrown into  solitary at the discretion of the  director, who has absolute power -  he does not have to explain his  reasons to a warden's court. Prisoners are taken to solitary without  any explanation of why they are  being punished. Naturally, they  have no legal recourse. There  are prisoners in solitary right  now who have been there without  a break for over a year. Others  have been in solitary, with brief  breaks, for six years.  At the moment, a parliamentary  subcommittee on prison systems "  in Canada, is receiving submissions for its inquiry into conditions at the Pen, which is due to  begin on February 14.  This subcommittee has already decided not  to permit any person from solitary  to speak about conditions there.  They are accepting submissions  only from an inmates' committee  into which solitary prisoners  have no input.  Futhermore, it is the subcommittee  itself which decides upon who is  to be allowed to speak at the  inquiry - in this way they have  already controlled the information  which they will permit to go out  to the media and the public.  And nobody from solitary will be  heard. INDIAN WOMAN DRYING FISH  Indian women play an absolutely  vital role in the maintenance and  preservation of their culture: they  are the key people in passing on  the skills, knowledge, stories,  legends and values of the communities  in which they live.  When we look at the role of Native  women in Indian society today, we  need to understand two things:  (a) that the economics of any society determines the role which women play in it,  (b) that the role of Indian women  has been determined by the traditional economics of that society.  Traditionally, women have been very  important indeed. They have been  essential to the survival of the  group, working alongside men in the  traditional hunting, fishing and  gathering societies in an equality  which our system finds very difficult to imagine.  Women tanned the hides from the  animals which the men caught;women  gathered and preserved berries;  women made baskets from roots which  they picked themselves. They also  carried out the domestic labour of  cleaning, cooking, washing, and  caring for the family.  With the arrival of the European  settlers, a different economic  system was imposed upon Native  people. They were placed upon  reservations and required to settle  permanently in one place, where  the federal government policy of  allowing the freedom to fish and  hunt was cancelled out by provincial  restrictions.  Governments decided  that Native people would become  farmers. But due to the economics  of farming, few Indian people (and,  indeed, few non-Indians) can farm  with great success today. Other  types of economic development on  the reserves have been practically  non-existent. They have become, by  and large, havens of poverty.  Native men, having lost their traditional means of livelihood, have  been forced to enter the capitalist  system, selling their labour. Having  had little chance to learn the 'white  man's way', and facing the stiff  competition that is an integral  part of this economic system, racism  has eliminated most men from the  competition. As a result, Indian  men charactertistically suffer from  the problems of chronic unemployment.  native women  linda Jorsythe  Indian women, on the other hand,  have not suffered to quite the same  extent. On the reservations, they  still can perform many of their  traditional functions. They are the  ones who perpetuate the culture.  Indian women still maintain the  home, raise the children, tan any  hides they come by, preserve the  fish, collect berries, and make  baskets from the roots they gather.  The women usually organise collectively: they prepare and work at  all the feasts, wedding celebrations,  concerts, fund-raising events and  funerals that take place in their  community. The decision on what  MOTHER AND DAUGHTER AT THE FISH CAMP  is to be done in the community seems  to be made by the men, for the women  often sit quietly during the meetings. But since women are the ones  who actually carry out these decisions, it is they who in fact  decide what is done. Outside the  meetings, in practice, they have  the final say.  The women do not work alone. When  it is time to gather roots, branches  or barks for the baskets, or when  it is berry-picking time, the women  set out in groups of three or four.  And the women spend two to three  months of every year at the fish  camps - cleaning, drying and smoking  the fish. In the evenings they  gather together to share a meal  and to exchange stories and legends.  Life expectancy for Indian people is  34 years. Those few who do reach old  age are mostly women. These women are  strongly and quietly respected by  every member of the community. They  become the teachers of the younger  women. For example : the work of  making baskets requires a great deal  of skilled experience - few young  people can do it well. When the  younger women decide that they do  want to learn that skill, they begin  a kind of apprenticeship with the  older women, learning by watching  and doing.  For Indian women, unlike ourselves,  motherhood does not mean isolation  and exclusion from other important  community activities. Women always  have an aunt, mother, sister, cousin  or niece who can look after the  babies if need be. And if it is  impossible for a woman to raise her  children herself, then they will  always go to a member of the extended family. In one community I know  of, the most active members were  also the mothers of eight or nine  children.  Today, Indian people are involving  themselves in discussions around  the economic development* of their  communities. Those Indian children  who survive the encroachment upon  the traditional community of  capitalist values will help to build  and preserve a distinct culture and  nation. Undoubtedly, women will play  an important role in this development.  This is already evident in  the schools that are being established  on the reserves today: these schools  are almost totally the result of the  labour of the women who administer  and staff them.  AUTHOR IS IN THE APRON - LEARNING HOW TO DRY FISH' ■■'■:.'■,  WOMCN IN  FOCUS  WOMEN IN FOCUS production and distribution centre has received a grant to  run workshops and seminars for women  who are interested in learning some,  of the basic skills of Video production. The areas we will be working  on are:  i) The most effective methods of  organizing and developing potential  material for video.  ii) The most effective methods of  video production at a minimum cost.  iii) The various video techniques  for presenting material., i.e. enactments, slides, special effects, camera  movement, interviews, Porta-Pak,  graphics, editing, etc.  By doing this, we will familiarize  women with the technical and creative  aspects of video as a means of ..communicating their work, ideas and research.  If you are interested in being part of  these workshops, or would like further  information, please contact Women In  Focus and leave your name, address  and phone number.  We would like to get  an idea of how many women are interested in this project and we will then  inform you of details regarding schedule, time, etc.  The tentative starting date for this  project is the middle of January 1977.  We are also researching and working on  a tape concerning "Women in the  Sciences", and would appreciate  contacts or information in this  area.  FEMINIST  FILMS  The WOMEN IN FOCUS Production and Distribution Centre would like to draw  your attention to the latest addition  to our collection of programmes made  by and on women:  16\rm colour FILM  Length:  15 minutes  Producer: Marion Barling  Title:  KAREN: WOMEN IN SPORT  Rental:  $20.00  Purchase:  $250.00 plus shipping  charges  'Why did they put you in the younger  league then?"  uos I'm a girl."  "I told her to say that her name was  Kevin instead of Karen because I knew  they'd pull something like this."  This film documents a young girl's  fight for acceptance by her peers and  the local Soccer League.  Karen, a poised and skilled soccer  player, and her mother Nancy tell their  story with a poignancy that encourages  the viewer to reassess previously held  views regarding women and sports. Women  athletes performing in their chosen  field of sports reinforce the startling  contrast between myth and reality.  "Do you think there is a place for  someone who is strong, aggressive,  active?"  "I hope so, I hope so...because I was  all of those things and I'm not now."  WOMEN IN FOCUS would like to encourage  you to make as full use of this film  as possible. Your rental and purchase  orders allow us to continue working in  this area.  For further details or a  copy of our new brochure please contact:  WOMEN IN FOCUS Production & Distribution Centre  #4 - 45 Kingsway, Vancouver, B.C.  Telephone:  (604) 872-2250  WOMAN ALIVE  WEDNESDAY NIGHTS  9.30  CHANNEL 10  NEW FORMAT  THIS SPRING  WATCH IT  FOR SURE  V.S.W.'s  OWN T.V.  SHOW.  watch!  woman  alive  WOMAN ALIVE  WANTS YOU:  WRITERS  ARTISTS  CREW  P.R.FOLK  CONTACT  VSW OFFICE  NOW!  FEMINIST FILMS  Sorry, VSW does not have prints of  these films on hand to lend or rent  out to you. We list them so that  you can order them at your convenience from the distributors as listed.  However, we do have an up-rto-date  list of a.v. tapes we have produced  on our weekly cable 10 TV show "Woman  Alive" which are free to borrow,  except $1.00 for postage and handling.  We also have a two-page list of feminist films above and beyond those  listed here, which you may want to  order for reference.  It is 50c (KR)  Access Resource Catalogue of Women's  Films, articles on running film equipment, list of feminist films, tapes,  distribution centres, media courses  etc. for women. Free from Innervisions,  ARC, Box 228, Station B, Toronto, Ont.  Festival of Women in the Arts: A  Multi-Media List, 30-page booklet of  contemporary materials about women  prepared to accompany Toronto public  library IWY exhibit. Free from Metro  Toronto Library Board, Toronto, Ont.  Women Now, 40-minute slide/sound presentation in colour featuring music  by Deadly Nightshade, on feminism,  rape, sexuality, sisterhood, CR,  marriage, etc.  Rental $50 plus postage. Ellen Cooperperson, Feminist  Productions, 23 Whalers Cove, Babylon, New York, NY, USA 11702.  Audio-Visual Survey 1976, 29 audiovisual tapes on women in the church,  prisons, education, and rape.  Send  25c for list to Ecumenical Women's  Centre, 1653 West School Street,  Chicago, Illinois, USA 60657.  We Are Women, film featuring Helen  Reddy. Free on <loan from the Provincial Film Library, 11510 Kingsway  Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta.  Not A Pretty Picture, fiction-documentary on rape. Rent from Dabara  Films, 367 Queen Street West, Toronto,  Ontario.  A Woman's Work, explores wage gap  between women and men's earnings.  Order from E & A Productions, 396  Davisville Street, Toronto, Ontario.  Is Anybody Out There Listening?, a  study of sexism in high schools.  Colour videotape, $50 per print or  video cassette $75.  From E & A Productions, 396 Davisville Street,  Toronto, Ontario.  Women's Bureau Films, a number of  feminist films are available from  the Women's Bureau, Department of  Labour, 400 University Avenue,  Toronto, Ontario.  Women in Engineering, 26-minute film  for teachers and students on careers  for women. Women in Management, 28-  minute film on careers for young  women. Both rented from Christine  Ball, MIT Bldg. 9, Room 315, Cambridge, Mass. USA 02139.  $25 each.  Women and Film, newsletter with  articles, films and filmmakers,  festivals, etc. on independent  women's cinema,.  $4.50 from Sa.unie  Salyer, P.O. Box 4501, Berkeley,  California USA 94704.  DOUGLAS COLLEGE, in New Westminster  at 8th and McBride, houses the now-  defunct Isis, Women and Media materials.  \m THE CULTURAL  EXCHANGE  Opening soon is The Women's Cultural  Exchange - a place for women to share  their talent, knowledge and good times.  Regularly scheduled events will be  art showings, film nights, music and  other kinds of entertainment, poetry  readings, skill-sharing workshops and  rap nights.  The Exchange will be centrally located,  to be easily accessible to all. As  soon as we officially lease a space  for the Exchange, we will be announcing  the address to invite you .all to our  grand opening.  But don't wait until then to become a  member of the Exchange! As a member,  you will receive our monthly calendar  of events, and will be entitled  to lower admission to these  events. Become a member by  clipping out and mailing in  this coupon below. You can  also support The Exchange by  attending the women's dance  ON JANUARY 22nd, IN THE SOUTH-  COURT LOUNGE AT S.F.U. It will  be a benefit for our new  organization.  We are by no means a closed  collective. We need varying  levels and support and input.  If you can help us .now, or  when The Exchange opens, please  contact Joy at 736-7891 or  Miriam at 224-9245.  MEMBERSHIP FORM  Sisters  VICTORIA  The Women's Centre at 552 Pandora has  undergone some changes since it lost  its funding, but it's still alive and  kicking, despite a lack of money.  Now known as the Women's Community  Centre, it's considered primarily as  a 'space for women'. Any women's  group may use it for meetings or  whatever.  But rent still has to be paid for the  accommodation so women volunteers tackle that problem by raising funds  through various enterprises. Women's  Pub Night, or Boogie Night, as it's  otherwise known, is held alternate  Fridays.  Membership: $5.00/year individual OR  $50.00 supporting membership.  Mail to 3279 Findlay Street, Vancouver.  Membership becomes effective February  1, 1977 with the opening of the WOMEN'S  CULTURAL EXCHANGE.  A receipt will be  mailed upon receipt of your subscription and a membership card issued as  soon as they are available. Membership  entitles you to a monthly calendar of  events and voting privileges in the  Exchange.  MAPLE RIDGE  Maple Ridge Status of Women is holding  a series of four informal discussions  at the Women's Centre, January 4th,  8 - 9:30 p.m.  22558 Lougheed Highway,  Maple Ridge, B.C. Telephone 467-1633.  The Fraser Valley Women's Coalition,  in conjunction with the Maple Ridge  Status of Women, is sponsoring a course  in WOMEN'S SELF DEFENSE.  This course  is set to begin on Wednesday, January  26th, and will run for eight weeks in  the evening, from 8-10 p.m.  Fee is  $16. Call 467-1633 for more details.  KELOWNA  Saturday 22nd, and Sunday 23rd of January is the weekend for Kelowna Status  of Women's Conference.  On Saturday,  there will be a guest speaker, followed  by lunch and more workshops, then dinner with a speaker and a get-together  after that.  Sunday there will be a,  guest speaker, workshops, lunch, a  political panel and an evaluation session.  They have confirmed workshops  on pensions and women, property rights  and the unified court system.  Hopefully, their political panel will speak  to issues such as equal pay, property  rights, affirmative action and day care  There will also be lots of health information and a feminist book display.  Day care will be provided.  Women in  the Kelowna area who are interest in  attending this conference should contact the conference committee, c/o  Patti Dyck.  KITIMAT  'ñ†  NO WOMAN IS AN ISLAND  Turnout is usually good, with between  30 to 50 women attending.  Some bring  their children along and there's a  room for them to play in, under supervision.  Although the swing has been away from  social services, the centre seems to  have drawn in more support and commitment to it since the women lost their  grant.  It now has a store - a woman's emporium called UPFRONT - where arts and  crafts, jewellery, clothing, pictures,  plant holders, records and many other  items can be purchased. Most of the  articles are made by the women.  The store has been open six months,  and although business isn't exactly  booming, there's a steady sale of  goods. Women are encouraged to contribute to the store.  (And patronize  it!)  For women who need free legal advice,  women law students from the University  of Victoria are on hand every Wednesday from 3 to 6 p.m.  -Sisters-  Kitimat women have re-named  themselves the TAMITIK Status  of Women Association, and have  developed a constitution, in  order to apply for Society  status.  They have received LIP funding  this winter to operate a women's  centre and a child-minding centre,  and they are completing their  study of women and employment,  which they began earlier in the  year.  Member Ellie Burton is leading  the organization's participation  in the Northern Women's Task  Force on Single Industry Towns.  For more information, contact  TAMITIK STATUS OF WOMEN, Box  18, Kitimat, B.C.  THE CHARLOTTES  The women's group in the Queen Charlottes is called the "Q.C.I. Society  for Continuing Self-Development".  They have branches in Masset, Port  Clements and Queen Charlotte City.  The Charlotte City Branch operates a  thrift shop, and organizes workshops.  They have developed a 'sitting-room'  at the back of the shop, where there  is an amply stocked women's resource  centre.  The Port Clements branch is  represented on the Port Clements  Recreation Commission, which recently  received LIP monies to do community  recreation work, including the provision of a room for the women's  group. There is a women's studies  course being offered in the Charlottes  through the Northwest College, and  ten students have enrolled. The  society puts out a newsletter, which  you can receive by contacting Sharon  Finkleman, Masset, B.C.  For more  information, write to the Q.C.I.  Society for Continuing Self-Development, Box 387, Queen Charlotte City,  B.C. L£TT€R LOBBY  KAREN RICHARDSON  ABORTION  On November 5 and 8, 1976, MP  Eldon Woolliams of Calgary moved  that the Minister of Justice  investigate the New York "abortion racket" advertised in the  Ottawa newspapers, since it might  contravene section 251 of the  Criminal Code which makes it  illegal to aid and abet abotion.  His motion was defeated.  The Hon. Ron Basford (Justice  Minster) replied that the  Badgley Committee on abortion  had already done so and said  he would consult with the  committee to make sure that  the ads. did not offend the  law. The committee's report  on abortion in Canada is being  prepared and will be tabled  when it is ready. Basford did  not say when this would be.  On November 18, Woolliams asked  the Minister of National Health  and Welfare why his department  had published a kit on sex education which pictured women like  Penthouse magazine images. He  noted that the provinces have  jurisdiction over education and  wanted to know if the purpose of  the kit was to promote abortion-  on-demand. As the Hon.Marc Lalonde  was not present, his parliamentary secretary, Paul McRae, replied  he had not seen the kit and  would respond later.  The same day, MP Paul Yewcuk of  Alberta asked the Minister of  Justice if he would initiate a  debate on abortion when the Badgley Committee report is tabled.  Basford would not commit himself.  Also on the same day, MP Eymard  Corbin of New Brunswick asked  Basford if he would introduce  an amendment to The Criminal  Code to prohibit "so-called  legal" abortions and promote  "upholding life and human dignity", in light of the thousands  of couples who want to adopt  children. The Minister of Justice  said his intention went no further  than tabling the Badgley report  and making it public.  On November 25, 1976, MP Stu  Leggatt of B.C. said he was concerned that, despite the three  acquittals of Dr.Morgentaler,  he is now (was, at that time)  facing trial for a fourth time.  He said it seemed Basford was in  favour of trying Morgentaler  over and over until he was  convicted, since Basford had not  asked the Attorney General of  Quebec to drop the charges.  Leggatt called the persecution  of Morgentaler "a disgrace to  the judicial system of Canada."  Mike Landers, parliamentary secretary to the Minister of Justice,  replied that Basford had jurisdiction only over ordering new  trials and that prosecutions  apply to the provincial attorneys  general. He advised Leggatt to  direct his comments to the national assembly in Quebec, which  Leggatt has already done. Landers then said that because of  the unprecedented result of Morgentaler *s first trial the federal government amended the  Criminal Code to ensure that all  persons tried by a jury can  only be convicted by a jury  and not by a court of appeals.  The court must now order a  new trial or dismiss an appeal.  Write to Justice Minister Basford,  pointing out that the vindication  of Dr.Henry Morgentaler by the  government of Quebec makes the  removal of abortion from the Criminal  Code alarmingly overdue. Also write  MP Stu Leggatt (carbon copy to your  own MLA, and VSW) commending his  defence of Dr.Henry Morgentaler.  SUPPORT  On November 26, 1976 the Federal-  Provincial Alimony and Maintenance  Order Enforcement Act was given  second reading but it died when time  for the debate of private members'  bills expired before voting.  If the  bill had been passed, a central agency would have been established to  enforce the payment of support across  Canada.  M.P. Ron Huntingdon of B.C., who  introduced the bill, opened the debate by quoting from the federal Law  Reform Commission report on Family  Law Enforcement saying that court  orders for support payments are not  worth any more than the paper they  are written on and that enforcement  of such orders is "the weakest link  in family law".  He said that although the provinces  are responsible for enforcing the law,  the federal government which legislates divorce law should make sure  that such orders are not just "empty  gestures". Huntingdon went on to  cite some statistics.  Vancouver Family Court reports that  in March 1976, the rate of failure to  pay support was 42.5%.  In 1972, when  the paying spouse moved to another  province, the rate of default was 72%.  He said that in Vancouver, 80% of  welfare costs are caused by deserting,  and defaulting spouses.  So much for  the myth that women get rich on alimony.  Huntingdon explained why the system  of enforcement is so bad. Lawyers  are reluctant to take such cases because they are time-consuming, frustrating and low-paying. Employers  are unwilling to garnishee wages for  the purpose of support payments.  Judges are reluctant to send defaulting spouses to jail where they lose  their jobs and ability to pay.  He admitted that the bill was "broad  and simplistic" in its attempt to resolve a serious and complicated social  problem but asked the government to  approve the bill because family law  reform is long overdue.  At this point, Mr. Landers, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Justice, said that creating a national  agency to enforce support payments  would require several offices in each  province and this would be too costly,  and would result in too many spouses  going to jail and this would be "pointless".  He said there needed to be more  "cooperation" between the federal and  provincial governments in developing  existing enforcement systems.  Landers noted that the federal government had already appropriated $400,000  for unified family court pilot projects  for 1976-77 and the same amount for  next year, on a cost-sharing basis with  the provinces but that none of the projects is yet in operation.  M.P. Elmer McKay of Nova Scotia was in  favour of the bill which he called  "sensible and practical". He was disturbed by Landers' "unnecessarily complicated and negative approach" to the  bill and said Huntingdon's speech had  been "very perceptive".  McKay noted  that the bill was badly needed because  any spouse who is determined to avoid .  paying alimony and maintenance can  simply move to another province. He  saw no reason why the* bill should not  go the Standing Committee on Legal and  Justice Affairs for further consideration and amendments.  M.P. Robert Daudlin of Ontario said it  was not so hard to trace defaulting  spouses across the country and that  garnisheeing wages is the cheapest  method of enforcing support payments.  He chastised the provinces for not  enforcing the law and argued against  the bill saying that_establishing another agency for this purpose would be  "foolhardy" and "inordinately costly".  M.P. Penner, Parliamentary Secretary  to the Minister of Indian Affairs and  Northern Development disagreed with  the bill because of its "extreme  narrowness" and said it only sought  to put a patch on a faulty system.  Then he spoke about no-fault divorce  and said alimony should only be paid  for the transitional period until the  dependent spouse was independent.  Enforcing support payments would  do nothing for women's equality;  it would reinforce government  excuses for refusing to recognize  its own responsibilities. Family  law needs more fundamental change  and VSW is not in favour of this  regressive bill. We suggest that  you write your MLA (cc to VSW)  pointing out that if we had no-  fault divorce, community of matrimonial property and a guaranteed  annual income, e.g., we would  not face a situation where divorced,  dependent women are unable to  collect maintenance and alimony. SOM€ HON. M€MB€RS  RAP€  Clockwork Orange in Ontario:  On November 22nd, 1976, MP  David Orlikow of Winnipeg  asked the Solicitor-General  if convicted rapists and child  molesters were being treated  by aversive conditioning  through electric shock of the  genitals. He wanted to know  if their "informed consent"  to such treatments was being  obtained, what the review  procedures are, and if the  treatment is effective, and  if there was an ethics comm-  itttee on the matter.  MP Art Lee of Vancouver, who is  also parlimentary secretary to  the solicitor general, replied  that the treatment for sexual  offenders is available at the  Regional Psychiatric Centre in  Ontario and that the program  lasts 12 weeks. He said aversive  conditioning is used by electric  shock to the index and middle  fingers. The treatment includes  group therapy.  Lee claimed that patients are  examined for mental illness and  retardation to make sure they they  can give informed consent. They  are given an outline of the treatment on which they make their  decision. They may withdraw from  the program at any time, he said.  There are, however, no review  procedures or ethics committee  and Lee said that too few prisoners have been released to conclude  from research what the effectiveness of this treatment has been.  If the violence of rape merely begets  more violence and rape, we are all  getting nowhere fast. Demand that  Lee respond more clearly to Orlikow's  questions.  UIC  BANKS  On October 15, 1976 MP Ray  Hnatyshyn of Saskatoon asked the  Minister of Finance if he intended  to introduce legislation to  amend the Bank Act during this  session of Parliament, to  make it easier to appoint women  as directors of chartered banks.  The Honourable Donand MacDonald  replied that the federal government "might" take a fresh look  at the requirement that bank  directors own $100,000 in bank  shares and that the amount "might"  be reduced to give equal opportunity to women and minorities who  cannot afford this amount.  However, he did not say when he would  discuss the bank amendments.  Moving women into token positions  at the top does nothing for the  majority of women, who work at  low-paying jobs under deteriorating  condtions.  CPP  On November 22nd, 1976, MP Stanley  Knowles of Winnipeg asked the Minister  of National Health and Welfare to extend CPP benefits to ALL homemakers,  not just to those women who leave  the waged labour force to look after  the children.  The Hon. Marc Lalonde replied that  he would not admit an error had been  made in the new amendment and if  there was one,well, he would correct  it. He said the amendment would be  introduced in the House shortly.  On November 23, 1976, Knowles once  again raised the issue, saying that  homemakers, housewives, and mothers  need an equivalent pension to that  paid to women in the workforce.  He said he welcomed Lalonde's assurance that the amendment was still  open to suggestions, but noted that  once a bill is brought in, it is  difficult to change.  Write to the Hon.Marc Lalonde  urging him to amend the CPP to  include housewives who never did  enter the waged labour force. Send  a carbon copy to your local MLA,  to Stanley Knowles, and to VSW.  O CANADA  MISS  CANADA  On November 17, 1976, MP Ray  Hnatyshyn of Saskatoon rose  "on a matter of the most urgent  and passing necessity" to move  that the House of Commons extend its congratulations to  Yvonne Foster, from the city of  "intellect and pulchritude", viz,  Saskatoon, on the occasion of her  winning the Miss Canada contest.  Sexism is alive and well and  speaking for Saskatoon.  On November 22, 1976, MP Forrestall  of New Brunswick said it is unfair  that adoptive mothers are not entitled to UIC benefits like natural  mothers and said women who are not  able to bear children are being discriminated against by the UIC system.  UIC is paid to claimants who are  ill or pregnant, in recognition  that their disability for work is  involuntary. Forrestall arged that  the sterility and subsequent  adoptive actions stem from an involuntary situation and that therefore the decision not to cover adoptive parents by UIC is inconsistent.  MP Caccis of Ontario said the real  question is whether or not an adopted child would benefit from having  the mother at home for the initial  transition period and said the parenting process would be more success  ful if "she" could afford to stay  home. No mention of fathering.  Caccis also pointed to another UIC  anomaly - mothers of premature  babies are not entitled to benefits  for the same length of time as  full-term babies!  MP Larry Condon of Ontario introduced himself as., an adoptive parent. He said that more single  parents are adopting children and  that childcare facilities may not  ne adequate to their needs. Then  he said that abortion is "rampant"  and "rubber-stamped". He added  that women who have abortions  "steal" love from adoptive parents.  MP Stanley Knowles of Winnipeg  mentioned that adoptive grandparents get a cutback in the  guaranteed annual income if they  receive support for their adopted  grandchild!  Arthur Portelance, parliamentary  secretary to the Minister of Manpower replied that "the needs of  adoptive parents are indeed legitimate; however, we feel that the  UIC program is not the proper  vehicle to support incomes of parents  who choose to adopt". He did not  say what the "proper vehicle"  should be. (If you enjoyed Catch 22,  UIC regulations are recommended  reading).  The debate continued along these  lines, with various hon. members  rising to offer their anecdotal  wisdom about themselves as adopted  children or adopting parents..  The debate - if that's the name  for story-swapping - ended when  the Speaker declared that time  for the consideration of Private  Members' Bills had run out. This  happens as a matter of course.  Write to MP Forrestall, urging him  to raise the issue again. Send VSW  a copy.Ask the Minister of Manpower  (Hon Jack CullenJ why premature  mothers don't get the same UIC  benefits (surely having a baby prematurely is involuntary, under the  strange voluntary/involuntary  categories they chose to use). FEMINIST  BOOKS  THE CURSE: A CULTURAL HISTORY OF  MENSTRUATION by Janice Delaney, Mary  Jane Upton, Emily Toth.  Distributed in Canada by Clarke-  Irwin, 1976.  Reviewed by Karen Richardson  The Curse: A Cultural History of  Menstruation is prolific, scholarly,  humorous, frightening and immensely  informative.  Like other women's issues, menstrua-^  tion has been written about mainly  by men.  In this case, they didn't  write much, and if so from a negative  point of view. Thus, the authors of  The Curse set out not only to educate  women about the history of menstrua-1  tion, but also to celebrate the menstrual cycle from puberty through  menopause.  With the odd exception, everything in  this 276-page book was exciting and  new to me.  I found myself wanting to  underline everything in it.  I had to  stop myself from offering a million  examples in this review of what the  book offers.  Topics are very broad but have a co-  hesiveness to them.  The book examines  menstrual taboos, rites, myths, jokes,  ads, products,, fairy tales, madness,  menopause, estrogen therapy, male  climacteric, defloration, clitoridec-  tomy and infibulation to name only a  few things.  If you think that menstruation was  only a means whereby men could oppress women, this book offers several  examples whereby women maintained a  high status in ancient times through  menstrual taboos. Think about it!  In patriarchal days men envied women  their "magical" childbearing capacity.  The Curse offers a number of contradictory studies on the effects and cause  of menstruation and its symptoms.  It  unsettles all your preconceptions and  leaves you open to forming new opinions in the future.  Here are a few interesting tidbits from  The Curse.  In ancient Japan women  used 8 to 12 paper tampons per day  held in place by a bandage. Roman  women wore a tampon of sheep's wool.  Egyptian women wore rolls of soft  papyrus. Until the 1920's American  women wore a diaper of flannel which  they had to wash and re-use.  The first commercial disposable pad  was made by Johnson & Johnson in 1896  but since ads for such unmentionables  were not allowed, few women knew about  them and the product was withdrawn  from the market.  During the First World War, French  nurses discovered that cellulose  wound bandages absorbed menstrual  blood better than cloth diapers and  in 1921 Kimberley-Clark made the first  successful commercial disposable sanitary napkin Kotex. They are made  from rayon and wood pulp today. We  have forgotten that it was at the  time, as liberating as the Pill is  today.  Menstruation has been such a private  thing for so long, I never even  wondered about history's famous  women and their periods. The Curse  says that if Queen Elizabeth had  menstruated regularly she might  have borne a child and changed the  course of English history.  If in the  1600's Anne Hutchinson had not been  undergoing premature menopause, she  might not have aborted a deformity  that caused her to be called a witch.  Did you know that Joan of Arc did  not menstruate? Poor Marie Antoinette developed traumatic menstrual  bleeding in anticipation of the  guillotine.  She stuffed her stained  chemise in the wall of her cell when  she changed into her execution gown  so that no one would know. Her bleeding served as one of her final punishments. Elizabeth Barrett Browning is  said to have taken opium for her menstrual cramps and Virginia Woolf was  more creative writing during her period.  Did you ever hear of rhinorrhea, (vicarious or supplementary bleeding)?  It is a rare phenomenon of bleeding  from the nose or elsewhere in conjunction with or instead of menstruation.  You've heard 'of the couvade (men pretending to be giving birth).  The  authors cite cases of saignade, men  imagining they are undergoing menstruation. These are just a few examples  of the many interesting and sometimes  barbaric items cited in The Curse. I  highly recommend it.  999  THE MISTRESS CONDITION, New Options  in Sex, Love and Other Female Pleasures, by Catherine Breslin  Distributed in Canada by Clarke-  Irwin, 1976.  $11.50.  Reviewed by Karen Richardson  The Mistress Condition, New Options  in Sex, Love and Other Female Pleas  ures is a series of vignettes about  real women casting off their sex-roles.  The author calls them "mistresses"  which she defines as women who control their own lives.  Somehow I cannot bring myself to use this terminology.  The "mistress" apparently cannot be  defined in any one way.  She lives any  number of differing lifestyles. Her  one distinct quality, according to  Breslin, is adaptability to change.  DON'T FORGET!  We have a paperback library  of feminist books, for loan  or for research in the office.  Drop in to VSW on weekdays  from 9 am to 5 pm, except  on Tuesday mornings...  999  I found her numerous examples of "mistresses" almost too broad to qualify  as liberated women.  She spouts few  actual examples of feminists who are  actively engaged in the women's movement.  Breslin does however, offer us many  examples of women who have gone through  the usual hell and who are now reaping  the benefits.  "No argument about it,  for many women these will be rotten  years. But for others, it's a prime  time to be alive."  She also outlines the pleasures and  pitfalls of being a "mistress", and  what other women did about their kids  and their men in order to get through  the garbage.  But no formula emerges for women's  liberation into being a "mistress".  It remains distinctly a subjective  struggle. There is no political analysis; only personal liberation.  I found Breslin's last chapter on men  especially interesting.  She notes  that it is no use being a "mistress"  if you must be without men. (lesbians  unite). "But how do we do this unless  men are willing to meet us half way?"  Unfortunately, the author does not  offer us any real hope in this regard,  only that "men can join us when they're  ready." That s many years down the  road.  "...self-generative women often suffer  the unquite form of loneliness rooted  in their often claim  to hanker after a real woman but some  of the realest women among us sleep  in lonely beds."  The following books are waiting  for someone to review them for  Kinesis.  If you would like to,  call me at the office at 736-3746.  Karen Richardson  Women and Success  Divorce, Children, Welfare  Elizabeth Cady Stanton  Women Look at Psychiatry  Privilege of Sex  Woman's Evolution  The Wheel of Things (about  L.M. Montgomery)  Controlled Childbirth  Pregnancy After 35  Women Loving  Womanhood Media Supplement  Women in Antiquity  Prepared Childbirth  Cuban Women Now  Contribution of Women to Sports  and Aviation  Immaculate Deception  A Woman's Book of Money  Women and the Church  Working Mothers  Maria Tallchief  Maria Martinez  Country Women THE ASSERTIVE WOMAN by Stanlee Phelps  and Nancy Austin  Uniquity, P.O. Box 990, Venice, CA  USA 90291.  $3.95  Reviewed by Norah Hartman  Stanlee Phelps, a Senior Psychiatric  Social Worker at Thousand Oaks Community Mental Health Centre, and Nancy  Austin, Evaluation Co-ordinator, Ox-  nard California Community Mental Health  Centre, collaborated in the production  of this publication in order to make  their experiences with women's groups  and assertiveness training more widely  available.  This book is particularly addressed to  the woman of the 70's who has a heightened awareness of changing values and  roles of our society but feels at a  loss as to how to put her heightened  awareness into action.  Phelps and  Austin point out early in the book how  the felt need to change behaviours  without the resources to learn new  behaviours can increase the anxiety of  many women today.  This book sets out  to fill that need by providing a program for action that can be carried  out either in a group or as an individual.  The assertive woman is defined as a  person who has high self regard, a positive sense of personal value and a  capacity for independence; she can  choose to select her own style and be  free to be herself-.  This book is aimed  at the average woman who wishes to be  true to herself without making radical  changes in her lifestyle.  Examples of  assertive action come from everyday  problems that arise in the life of  most women when they attempt to be  themselves - who will cook supper, how  to discipline other's children when  required, requesting financial credit.  It suggests that the responses to most  situations can be divided into four  categories:  passive, aggressive, indirect aggressive and assertive. Much  energy is expended non-productively in  the first three types of behaviour but  when one learns assertive behaviours,  one is able to express one's own views  and desires spontaneously and at the  same time respect the feelings and  rights of others.  This book is extremely well organized  for use in a -continuing group situation  or as a self-help book.  Its division  into chapters dealing with various  problem areas and its emphasis on a  step at a time make it a very useful  learning tool.  The several check lists  and questionnaires throughout the book  enable the reader to take an inventory  of where she is in certain areas of  assertiveness and which areas need extra effort.  The writers have presented their material in a precise, logical, well-  organized and friendly style.  It is  generally devoid of jargon and the  warmth and empathy felt by the writers  towards women wishing to become more  assertive is apparent.  Because of  their use of a similar format for most  chapters, the work becomes repetitious  but at the same time this increases  its value as a learning tool.  This is an extremely useful publication  for any group leader who is looking for  specific material for an assertiveness  training workshop for women and also  for the woman who wants to try it on  her own. I  SUPPORT  The 6th Annual Women's Calendar  is now available.  12 pages, one  for each month, multi-coloured,  on 11x17 sheets.  These lovely,  strong, feminist calendars are  $3.00 for singles, $2.40 for  groups of 5 to 9, and only  $2.10 for groups of 10 to 14.  Everywoman's Almanac is also  distributed by Press Gang.  Pocket-book size with a tough  heavy-duty spine. $3.95 for  singles, with group discounts.  For more info, phone Press Gang  at 253 1224, or write to them  at 821 East Hastings, Vancouver.  PRESS GANG  MARXISM AND FEMINISM, Charnie Guettel.  The Women's Press, Toronto 1974.  62pp. $1.00 paperback.  Reviewed by Linda Hourie  "Historical materialism holds that  in a society founded on private  property, the class struggle is  primary: racial, national, and sex  contradictions are secondary." p.50  (reviewer's emphasis).  For Guettel, historical materialism  is the method of analysis that most  clearly delineates the origins of  women's oppression, and provides  the ground for strategies to end  that oppression.  The book ( although "extended pamphlet" might be more accurate) is  divided into two main sections -  first, a background of feminism,  and second, her thesis and suggestions for strategy.  The first section, which, unfortunately, comprises most of the book,  is not very effective. Guettel is  apparently trying to reach a very  wide audience, and she doesn't quite  succeed. For those who have no  background in Marxist writings, the  section is somewhat confusing, due  to the number of technical terms.  On the other hand, because of the  repetition, the "punch" is somewhat  diluted for those who are more  familiar with Marxist literature.  The second section, however, where  Guettel presents her own case, is  thought-provoking, clearly written  and concise. She explains why  Marxists view class as the primary  contradiction, but also highlights  the importance and necessity of  the integration of primary (class)  struggle with the secondary (sex,  race, nation) struggles. She goes  further and outlines the specific  and crucial role which women's  oppression, and the struggle against  it, plays in the development of  socialism.  Guettel defends consciousness-raising,  as long as it is not an end in itself,  but a stepping-stone to political  action. She also suggests that organising in the workplace and demanding  universal childcare are important  links in the overall struggle to  end the oppression of women.  I would not suggest this book as  a 'basic primer' , but would  recommend it to those who have some  background in feminist and/or  (particularly) Marxist writings.  I agree with The Women's Press,  who write, in their introduction:  "We publish this essay now as a contribution to the ongoing debates,  and with the hope that it will  stimulate further theoretical inquiry." (I would add, "and action.")  To this end, The Women's Press  offers a group discount of 40%  Order your bulk copies through  their west coast distributors,  Press Gang, 821 East Hastings.  ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE FOR WOMEN: The  Foundation For Equal Rights  Edited by Jane Roberts Chapman, Published by Sage Yearbooks in Women's  Policy Studies, California, 1976.  Reviewed by Karen Richardson  Economic Independence for Women gives  an excellent overview on how women's  economic dependence is institutionalized in our society.  It is a collection of papers by various feminist economists and sociologists, each of which zero in on women  in industrial society, and in developing countries.  The editor maintains that efforts to  improve the status of women economically cannot be separated from social,  psychological and political considerations, for if they are, reforms  result in benefits to only a few women  while oppressing other women.  When viewed separately, discrimination  against women in social security,  welfare, UIC, taxation, pensions, insurance, credit, child-support, employment, etc. may seem unrelated, but  taken as a whole, they form an overwhelmingly unfavourable economic climate for women.  What emerges is an integrated overview  of the complex web of economic oppression which women suffer.  The next  ,book in the series will examine the  economic impact of marriage for women.  If discrimination in all aspects of  the economy continues, then an independent income is not the entire answer  for women and politics becomes crucial.  I hope the third book in this series  develops along that line.  FEMINIST  BOOKS Sisterhood makes the newS  PRO LIFERS'  It has come to VSW's attention that  the so-called "Pro-Lifers" will once  again be trying to influence the  annual election of VGH's board of  directors. Currently, the board has  a fairly progressive stance towards  abortion, but the anti-abortionists  would like to turn the clock backwards.  To counteract their endeavours, we  urge VSW members to take the following  action: Join VGH Corporation by  phoning the hospital at 876 3211,  local 2201. Ask for an application  form, and fill it out with a $2.00  membership fee. This will make you  a prospective member of the corporation, and at the Annual General Meeting, your membership will come up  for acceptance. But you will also have  voting powers at the AGM for the  board of directors, at which time you  can make sure that the anti-abortionists  fail once more. The meeting will be  coming up in mid-April of '77, so  PUT THIS ON YOUR LIST OF NEW YEAR'S  RESOLUTIONS.  EQUAL WAG€S  RALLY  Toronto women rallied last month  to demand equal pay for work of  equal value. The meeting was organised by the Canadian Women's Educational Press, Organised Working  Women (OWW), the Law Union of  Ontario, CUPE, and the Ontario  Federation of Labour, amongst  others. About two hundred and fifty  persons, mostly women, attended.  In Ontario, the current law, called  the Employment Standards Act, prohibits discrimination against women when men and women perform  similar work. Naturally.this runs  into the old problem: what about  the female job ghetto? When the  majority of workers are women, the  law doesn't apply, because there  are no men with whom to demand  parity.  The meeting was a lively one, with  the government's defendant having  his time cut out trying to defend  Conservative inaction on a labour  task force report from '75, which  had been favourable to the concept  of equal pay for equal work. Grace  Hartman, CUPE (Canadian Union of  Public Employees) President, commented: "If we really are able to  introduce the kind of legislation  that will bring about equal pay  for work of equal value, many  of the supporters of..(the Ontario)  government in big business - the  employers - are going to have to  fork out a hell of a lot of money  that should have been paid to women  workers for"years and years."  LESBIAN  CUSTODY  An Ottawa lesbian mother is fighting  to regain legal custody of her son.  While there is no law denying lesbian  women custody of their children, judges  rarely if ever decide in their favour.  The outcome of this case will be an  important precedent for Canadian lesbian mothers.  The Ottawa Women's Centre has created  a defense fund "Equal Rights for Lesbians" to which tax-deductible cont-»"  ributions are urged. The woman in  question has little money to fight her  case. Send money to Ms. Forbes, ERL,  P.O. Box 2919, Station D, Ottawa, Ont.  Meanwhile, a Toronto feminist is  currently engaged in a court battle  for the custody of her two children.  This woman, who must remain anonymous in order not to jeopardize her  chance of retaining her children,  is very much in need of the support  of the women's movement. Her ex-  husband is questioning her ability  to be a fit mother because she has  "brought her children into contact  with 'known lesbians'", and because  she has stated that she will not  influence her children's sexual  orientation one way or the other.  A trust fund has been established .  to help her defray her court  costs. Send a contribution to  "Custody Defense Fund", P.O.Box  595, Station "F", Toronto, or to  the Toronto GATE Lesbian Caucus  at "Mother Defense Fund", 193  Carlton Street, Toronto M5A 2K7.  EUROPEAN  ACTIONS  Despite the driving rain, 10,000  women demonstrated in the streets  of Rome on November 28th. They were  protesting parliament's failure to  enact a law legalising abortion.  They were also protesting other  forms of sexism, such as the growing  incidence of rape in Italy. The  march started near the central train  station, where prostitutes have recently been the target of rapists,  and ended in a midnight rally in  the Piassa del Popolo.  November 11 is a "Journee des  Femmes" for women in Belgium.  This year, many women's groups protested the recent raid upon a  Belgian hospital which performs  abortions, and the arrest of a  prominent Belgian gynecologist,  Dr.Willy Peers, whose career in  many ways parallels that of Dr.  Morgentaler. Belgian abortion laws  are among the worst in Europe.  Abortion is prohibited under all  conditions. Doctors who perform them  and women who seek them can face  fines and imprisonment of from two  to five years.  ACSW  The position of British Columbia  member of the federal Advisory Council on the Status of Women becomes  vacant when the three year term of  Joan Wallace expires in March 1977.  Nominations for appointment to the  position can be made by individuals  or women's groups in B.C.  Resumes  outlining work history, volunteer  activity, and political activity  of the candidate should accompany  the nominations.  Nominations should be sent by March  1977 to the Minister Responsible  for the Status of Women, The Honourable Marc Lalonde, House of Commons,  Ottawa, Ontario, who makes the  political appointment.  Carbon copies of nominations should  be sent to Yvette Rousseau, Chairwoman, Advisory Council on the Status  of Women, Box 1541, Station B, Ottawa  Ontario.  Reality is such that political appointees are usually active card-  holding members of the party in  power.  Thus women active in the  Liberal party are most likely to be  appointed but nominations of other  women should be forwarded.  Responsibilities of ACSW members  include advising federal government  on legislation affecting the status  of women and educating the public  about feminism.  The ACSW which is composed of members  from each province, meets publicly  in its entirety four times a year,  twice in Ottawa, twice elsewhere in  Canada, and at least once with the  Minister Responsible for the Status  of Women.  In the meantime, ACSW members are expected to liaise regularly with local  and regional women's groups to ascertain their needs and recommendations  for change as input into federal government policy.  This involves reading numerous women's  newsletters, personal contact and  correspondence, as well as an average  of once weekly speaking engagements.  ACSW members are paid $100 per day  plus travelling expenses for the  quarterly meetings, but receive no  other pay except travelling expenses  to out-of-town speaking engagements.  The term of appointment is 3 years,  but as the next federal election  could be called at any time within  18 months, if a new party is elected,  ACSW appointees could change at that  time.  Interested women are welcome to  visit the VSW office and read our  ACSW materials, in order to come  to some decision about the nature  of ACSW work, and the usefulness  of running for nomination.  VSW has forwarded a list of nominations of feminists to the federal  government. We hope other groups  will too.  (KR) VSW  OFFICE  IN  ACTION  OMBUDSCRVICC  For those members who are interested, we are planning a six-week  course to be held on Monday nights,  starting January 17, '77. Sessions  are planned on interviewing; counselling; research; brief-writing  and advocacy techniques. The only  condition attached to taking this  course is a commitment to get  some work done for the organization.  So, if you are interested, get  in touch with Susan Hoeppner at  the office, and sign up now. If  you have any other ideas on how  the Ombudservice could provide  better services, please let  Ombudsperson Carol Pfeifer know.  Call VSW 736 3746  WOMAN ALIVC  The Woman Alive team are working hard  on the possibility of going to a  magazine format in the spring. They  are looking for people who wish to  gain experience working with t.v.  media, and they especially need  writers and crew. The team works with  Channel 10, which is community t.v.  They donate their labour and are  in need of strong support. If you  are interested in contributing and  learning, please call VSW (736  3746) and find out about the  WOMAN ALIVE meetings which are scheduled for January.  REPORTER NEEDED  Vancouver Status of Women is looking  for a volunteer feminist reporter to  cover the once-weekly meetings of  city council. She would be responsible  for preparing a column once a month  for Kinesis, in conjunction with the  editors. The column will keep our  readers informed about what the municipal politicians in Vancouver are  doing and saying (and not doing and  not saying) about women's issues.  This job requires a person who has  an interest in civic politics, and  who can prepare brief, accurate releases. We also need a person who  could commit herself for a period  of at least several months. If you  would like to become involved in  this work, call Karen Richardson  at 736 3746.  JOB!!  We will be having a staff vacancy  at the end of the month for an  OFFICE ADMINISTRATOR and B00KEEPER.  The staffperson who fills this  vacancy will be responsible for  the following tasks: bookeeping to  trial balance, staff payroll,  monthly financial statement, processing VSW memberships and Kinesis  subscriptions, working as the office  receptionist and answering the phone,  coordinating VIP workers, and also  performing the million-and-one  general office administration duties.  If you are interested in this job  vacancy, send us your resume by  January 17, '77. For enquires call  Judy Bourne at the VSW offices (to  which the resumes must be sent):  736 3746. She is currently preparing  a more detailed list of tasks which  this job entails.  KINESIS  KINESIS NEEDS PEOPLE who are interested in donating some time to  dropping off complimentary copies  of Kinesis to their local community  centres, to doctors' offices,  resource boards, laundromats and  other places where people read free  literature. We have plans to expand  our readership considerably in '77,  and we see this distribution to  community locales as an important  preliminary step towards reaching  a wider readership.  If you can  donate some time and labour to this  undoubtedly honourable and worthy  task, give Gayla Reid at call at  VSW : 736 3746.  NOTE: The Kinesis editorial committee  accepts full responsibility for  everything which appears unsigned  in Kinesis.  HELLO OUT THERE  In the excitement of preparing for  Christmas, we goofed. Three people  were registered to receive a complimentary copy of Kinesis, and we lost  their addresses, and also the names  of the people from whom the complimentary issues were to come. So: if  you are out there, and your name, or  your friend's name is : Janet Thomas,  Susan Baldwin, or Noel Gunnarson -  give us a call at 736 3746, and we  can set up the complimentary copy  right away.   MCMDCRSHIP  MEETING  The Vancouver Status of Women is holding its quarterly membership meeting  on Tuesday, January 18, at 7.30pm.  The place for the meeting is the  YWCA, at 580 Burrard, in the Board  Room on the third floor.  There will be a panel discussion  at this meeting about WOMEN AND  POVERTY.  Speakers will include  Nancy Denofreo (a coordinator with  the VRB), Sandra Currie, a community  worker, and Joyce Rigaux (area  manager, VRB).  This panel will  serve to raise the issues of women  in Vancouver who live below the poverty line. Now, more than ever,  governments find it expedient to  turn their backs on their demands.  BCFW  On SATURDAY, January 15th, the RIGHTS  OF LESBIANS SUBCOMMITTEE OF BCFW  meets at VSW. Who is invited to  attend, and to participate in the  actions of this subcommittee?  -Any lesbian in B.C. who is tired  of struggling alone against a society  that fears and oppresses her.  - All BCFW feminists. It is the responsibility of every BCFW member to  implement all BCFW policy. Time is  1.00 pm. 872 2156 for more info.  WOMEN'S MOVEMENT INTERNAL DISCUSSION  CONFERENCE. Vancouver Region of BCFW.  On Saturday, January 29, the Vancouver  region of BCFW is holding a one-day  conference about POLITICS AND PRACTICE, at which participating member-  groups shall present position papers.  If your group is coming, fill out  this form, and sent it NOW to Val  Embree, 4420 West 12th Ave, Vancouver.  Group name:  Who is coming ?  How many are coming?  How many children will require care?  Ages?  A small registration fee may be  charged, or a collection taken up,  to cover childcare/printing etc.  Bring your own food. contents  SORWUC: their hearings before the  Canada Labour Relations Board are coming up.  Pol  Dr.Morgentaler is free at last! A feminist victory.  p.3  An anonymous group, known as Women Against Sexist  Advertising, do a little educational work on  Safeway's sexist billboards.  p.3  Whatever happened to Human Rights in B.C.?  p.4  Will 1977 see Women's Studies in B.C.'s schools?  P.7  How we got the cramps and they got the bucks -  the definitive horror story about the Dalkon shield,  The Anglican Church of Canada ordains its first  women priests.  By Dulce Oikawa.  p.10  The Virtues of the Mothers - excerpts from work-  in-progress about a gutsy woman who worked as  a wrestler and who rode the rods.  By Pegi Hall.  p.11  Vigil at the Pen. - the Prisoners' Rights Group  spent Christmas and New Year's protesting inhuman  prison conditions.  p.14  Native Women. Analysis by Linda Forsythe.  p. 15  THE REGULAR FEATURES: BOOKS  SISTERS, SOME HON. MEMBERS,  LETTERS AND OTHER ASSORTED  GOODIES FOR A FEMINIST NEW  YEAR.  Q O ¬ß  8 O O  fl) fl> <D  7* S3 ~*  O   5 *  <  3  <Sm  o w  Is "El 2055 PURCELL WAY, NORTH VANCOUVER, B.C. V7J 3H5 TEL.  WHAT ARE YOUR ALTERNATIVES?  WORK?  STUDY?  COMMUNITY?  The Career Alternatives Program is offered on Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday and  involves 15 hrs. per week class time.  It costs $15 per month and lasts from  January - April. Any of the following courses can be taken separately.  Professional Development Seminar  3 hrs. Tuesday, Thursday  - self awareness  - information about the community  - practical job hunting skills  Careers Seminar \h  hrs. Tuesday  12 speakers tell about their jobs  (no homework)  Skills Lab 3 hrs. Friday  Seminar for discussion of topics  of interest to CAP Students (no  homework)  Work Week  Classes cancelled - spend one week  in job situation.  (no homework)  Communications 150 3 hrs. Friday  English, written and oral  Elective 3 hrs.  subject of student's choice  Information Andrea Kiss 986-1911,  Home 922-4507  Public Relations Tuesday 7 - 9 p.m.  Practical information on how to utilize media (print, T.V., etc.) and how to  develop or increase public relations skills.  Information Walter Stewart 986-1911, Local 235  Become a Bilingual Secretary  Information Walter Stewart 986-1911, Local 235  A community College serving North Vancouver, West Vancouver, and Howe Sound.  capilano  college


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