Hawthorn Fly Fishing & Angling Collection

Dry-fly entomology. Leading types of natural insects serving as food for trout and grayling; with the… Halford, Frederic M. (Frederic Michael), 1844-1914 1902

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  THE LIBRARY
THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Harry Hawthorn Foundation
for the
Inculcation <$_ Propagation
of the Principles 8l Ethics
of Fly-Fishing t?" /
^
/<?u
1
■   ^ a &l c DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
—H  THE   HALFORD   DRY-FLY  SERIES
VOLUME II.
*$>vt>*fly Entomology
LEADING  TYPES  OF   NATURAL   INSECTS
SERVING   AS   FOOD    FOR   TROUT    AND    GRAYLING
WITH THE
ioo BEST PATTERNS OF  FLOATING FLIES
AND
THE VARIOUS METHODS OF DRESSING THEM
FREDERIC   M.   HALFORD
"Detached Badger" of " The Field'''1
Author of "Floating Flies and How to Dress Them," " Dry-Fly Fishing in Theory
and Practice" and "Making a Fishery."
SECOND   EDITION   REVISED
LONDON
VINTON  &  CO., limited
9, New Bridge Street, Ludgate Circus, E.C.
1902
ALL   RIGHTS RESERVED GREAT TITCt
LONDON :
ALE,  SONS AND   DANIELSSON,
FIELD STREET,  OXFORD STREET, PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.
It has often been said by Anglers, and
hinted in the Sporting Press, that a treatise on
the entomology of the floating insects serving
as food for trout and grayling would be at once
of interest and practical utility. Probably few
fishermen or critics have studied the subject,
and the majority have little idea of the magnitude of the work entailed in compiling such a
treatise. Careful reading of such books as
Pictet on the Phryganidse, Ephemeridae and
Perlidae, or such monumental monographs as
Eaton on Recent Ephemeridae, McLachlan on
the Trichoptera, or (the very latest) Lowne
on the Blowfly, would give them some notion
of the amount of attention bestowed upon the
history of a family, or even a single insect, by
modern scientists.
Is it then to be wondered at that the perusal of such works, each of which embodies the
study and research of several years, should
have long caused me to shrink from undertaking so heavy a  task ?    After  all,   I   have only dallied with the subject as a beginner,
mastered the mere rudiments of the science,
and cannot pretend to speak with any semblance of final authority on the question.
As, however, " Floating Flies and How to
Dress Them " is out of print, and Messrs.
Vinton & Co., Limited, who have purchased
the copyright, are of opinion that the present is
a favourable time for bringing the information
contained therein up to date, I have striven
to carry out their suggestion. I have thought
it advisable to incorporate in this book the
entire subject—the natural insects and their
life history, the best imitations, and the most
approved and modern methods of dressing
them.
In respect to the first part, viz., the entomology, I have the inestimable advantage of
finding in the Rev. A. E. Eaton, of the
Entomological Society of London, a friend
in need. The first living authority on the
Ephemeridae, and an entomologist of great
general knowledge, he kindly volunteered to
read, and amend where necessary, that branch
of the work. If this book is of use to my
brother fishermen, their deep gratitude as well
as my own are eminently due to him.
My aim has been to convey the required
information in the simplest language, avoiding,
as far as possible, scientific terms which are not always easily understood. To assist, however, in the identification of the insects, and
to prevent any confusion, I have given the
modern scientific names wherever they can be
readily ascertained. Latin and Greek terms
are only used where necessary, and in all cases
where there is difficulty in understanding them,
their meaning in plain English is appended.
The second part contains a list of what are
considered by the leading dry-fly fishermen of
the day the best patterns of artificial flies,
copiously illustrated by coloured plates and full
description of the materials used in dressing
them.
The third part comprises the entire manipulation of fly dressing, with modern improvements, as well as the implements required, the
materials used, and receipts for dyeing them to
the required tints.
The devotees of the dry fly have given my
previous works a welcome so warm and so
much beyond my deserts, that I am tempted
to commend to their tender mercies this my
latest bantling, and to ask their kind forbearance for its numerous shortcomings.
FREDERIC M.  HALFORD.
January ist,  1897.  TABLE   OF   CONTENTS.
PART    I.
LEADING  TYPES   OF   NATURAL   INSECTS   SERVING
AS   FOOD   FOR  TROUT  AND   GRAYLING.
Chapter
Introduction
i
I.—Ephemeridae
•     33
11.—Trichopter a
•     77
III.—PERLIDiE
.      IOI
IV.—SlALIDiE
.    114
V.—Diptera, &c.
.    126
PART
II.
THE   HUNDRED   BEST  PATTERNS   OF
FLOATING   FLIES.
Group   I.
IMITATIONS   OF   NATURAL   INSECTS.
Section      I.—Olive Duns .
„ II.—Pale Watery Duns
„ III.—Blue Duns .
„ IV.—Blue Winged Olives
„ V.—Spinners
156
i59
163
167
170 TABLE   OF   CONTENTS
Section VI.—Mayflies
,,     VII.—Curses
1   VI11.—Caddis Flies
„      IX.—Various
Section
.   Group II.
FANCY   FLIES.
I.—Upright Winged Patterns
II.—Flat Winged Patterns  .
III.—Hackle Patterns .
page
176
192
194
PART   III.
DRY-FLY   DRESSING.
Chapter     I.—Materials and Implements
I II.—Dyeing
1       III.—Manipulation
179
230
239 LIST    OF    PLATES.
PART   I.
Plate I.—Ephemeridae Nymphs : Fig. i,
Ephemera ; Fig. 2, Ecdyurus ;
Fig. 3, Baetis ; Fig. 4, Baetis ;
Fig. 5, Ephemerella
. to face page 43
III.-
-Olive Duns and Spinners : Fig. 1,
SUBIMAGO^ ; Fig. 2, SUBIMAGO ? ;
Fig. 3, Imago $; Fig. 4, Imago $ ;
Fig. 5, Head of Imago $■ ;
Fig. 6, Abdominal Forceps of
Imago <?
-Pale Watery Duns and Spinners ; Fig. 1, SUBIMAGO $ ; Fig.
2, Subimago 2 ; Fig. 3, Imago £ ;
Fig. 4, Imago ? ; Fig. 5, Head of
Imago <? ; Fig. 6, Abdominal
Forceps of Imago $
IV.—Iron Blue Duns and Spinners :
Fig. 1, Subimago $ ; Fig. 2, Sub-
imago ? ; Fig. 3, Imago $ ; Fig.
4, Imago $ ; Fig. 5, Head of
Imago $ ; Fig. 6, Abdominal
Forceps of Imago $
V.—Blue Winged Olive : Fig. 1,
Eggs Hatching ; Fig. 2,- Larva
three months old ; Fig. 3, Subimago $■ ; Fig. 4, Subimago ?    .
59
65 X.—Caddis: Fig. i, Grannom Eggs
Hatching ; Fig. 2, Larva and
Case of one of the Limno-
e; Fig, 3, Larva and Case
of one OF the Limnophilidce;
Fig. 4, Larva and Case of
Anabolia Nervosa
XL—Caddis Fly : Large Red Sedge
XII.—Caddis Fly {Rhyacophila dor sails):
Fig. 1, Larva ; Fig. 2, Case ;
Fig. 3, Pupa in Cocoon ; Fig. 4,
Pupa; Fig. 5, Imago
XIII.—Caddis Flies : Fig. 1, Brown
Silverhorns ; Fig. 2, Welshman's Button ; Fig. 3, Grannom
XIV.—Stoneflies : Fig. 1, Willow
Fly ; Fig. 2, Yellow Sally
XV.—Stonefly {Perla cephalotes) : Fig.
1, Larva; Fig. 2, Imago $
XVI.—Stonefly {Perla cephalotes):
Imago ?    . list of plates
PlateXVII.—Alder: Fi
on Sedge
born ;
grown
i, Eggs; Fig. 2, Eggs
Fig. 3, Larva newly
Fig.   4,   Larva   full
Fig.  5, Pupa ;  Fig. 6,
Imago $    . . . .to face page 12
XVIII.—Diptera : Fig. 1, Larva of Reed
Smut ; Fig. 2, Pupa of Reed
Smut ; Fig. 3, Fisherman's
Curse ; Fig. 4, Black Gnat $ ;
Fig. 5, Black Gnat ? „      „    14
PART  II.
COLOURED   PLATES.
Plate XIX.—Olive Duns : 1, Gold Ribbed
Hare's Ear ; 4, Hackle Dark
Olive Quill; 5, Medium Olive
Quill ; 7, Detached Olive ;
8, Flight's Fancy
,, XX.—Pale Watery Duns: 9, Pale
Watery Dun ; 13, Hare's Ear
Quill ; 15, Quill Marry at ;
16, Ginger Quill ; 17, Hackle
Ginger Quill
„ XXL—Blue Duns : 18, Detached Iron
Blue ; 19, Purple Quill-
Bodied Iron Blue ; 24, Hackle
Adjutant Blue ; 25, Blue
Quill ; 29, Whirling Blue
„ XXII.—Blue Winged Olive and Spinners : 30, Blue Winged Olive ;
33, Red Quill ; 39, Hackle Red
Spinner (Holland's Pattern); 40,
Detached Badger ; 45, Jenny
Spinner     ....
i57
169 list of plates
te XXIII.—Mayflies : 47, Egyptian Goose
Hackle ; 50, Summer Duck ;
51, Brown Champion ; 53,
Dyed Gallina ; 55, Undyed
Rouen Drake ; 56, Spent
Gnat       . . . .to face pag
, XXIV.—Curses: 57,'Fisherman's Curse
58, Hackle Curse ; 59, Male
Black Gnat ; 60, Female
Black Gnat ; 62, Claret
Smut      . . . „       „
, XXV.—Caddis Flies : 63, Silver
Sedge; 65, Hare's Ear Sedge;
67, Kimbridge ; 69, Hackle
Sedge ; 71, Grannom ; 72,
Welshman's Button   . .     „       „
, XXVI.—Various : 73, Alder ; 76, Red
Ant ; 78, Black Ant ; 79,
Willow Fly ; 80, Coch-y-
Bonddhu . . .     „       „
; XXVII.—Fancy Flies—Upright Winged
Patterns : 81, Wickham ; 83,
Golden Dun ; 85, Badger
Quill ; 86, Saltoun ; 87,
Apple Green   . . .     „       „
f XXVIII.—Fancy Flies—Flat Winged
Patterns : 89, Hammond's
Adopted ; 90, Artful Dodger ;  92, Governor.
Hackle Patterns: 93, Hackle
Wickham ; 95, Furnace Bumble ; 99, Macaw Tag   . „       „
183
187 PART I.
LEADING TYPES OF NATURAL INSECTS
SERVING AS FOOD FOR TROUT AND
GRAYLING.
INTRODUCTION.
T^ EFORE embarking on so complicated a
*~* subject as Entomology for the Dry-Fly
Fisherman, some explanation is necessary to
remind the reader of the scope and intention
of this portion of the work as stated in the
Preface. The main object is to give the
rudimentary knowledge required to enable an
enquiring Angler to recognise such insects as
are at once plentiful on the water, and serve
as food for trout and grayling. It is intended
also to impart some elementary information
respecting their life and metamorphoses, and
their zoological position. This is no scientific
monograph or series of monographs, but rather
a help for the majority of fishermen, who, being
professional or business men, either cannot
spare the time or (as happens with a large proportion) have not the requisite aptitude for a DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
deep study of natural history. Anyone desirous of pursuing his research further, and
mastering all the complicated details necessary
for the identification of genera and species,
must consult modern scientific works devoted
to particular orders, families, or groups,
^omobgicai The following are the latest and most
XknsCe°drthe reliable works :—Rev. A. E. Eaton's "Re-
student, visional Monograph of Recent Ephemeridae
or May-flies;" R. McLachlan's " Revision
and Synopsis of the Trichoptera of the
European Fauna;" F. J. Pictet's I Histoire
Naturelle des Insectes Nevropteres ; " " Fa-
mille des Ephemerines" and "Famille des
Perlides;'' R. McLachlan's 1 Monograph of
the British Neuroptera-Planipennia," printed
in the Transactions of the Entomological
Society of London for 1868 ; and the monograph, which will shortly appear, of the British
Diptera, by Mr. G. H. Verrall.
Floating food      There are good reasons why the First Part
and sunk food.     1    , . 1111 i i r
of this work should not be entered upon from
the point of view of the dry-fly purist only,
and why the attention of students should be
directed not to the winged forms of the insects alone, but also to their other conditions.
It is, of course, understood that the larvae.
&c, are found in the bed of the river and
in midwater among the weeds. The late
Mr.  G.  S.   Marryat,  in  that   pithy and witty INTROD UCTION
form of expression which was one of his
greatest charms, once said that " while floating food is caviare, sunk or midwater food is
beef to the fish." This explains the position
accurately.
No doubt the Salmonidae in rivers will at
times take, and take freely, winged flies on the
surface, but, besides minnows and other small
fish, Crustaceans, and Mollusks, their staple
food consists of Caddis or larvae of Trichoptera,
and the larvae of Ephemeridae, Perlidae, Sialidae,
Diptera, and many other land and water-bred
insects. A vast amount of space has been
devoted in the sporting press and elsewhere of
late years to prove, or try to prove, that one of
the effects of the so-called education of the
fish has been to cause them to feed more freely
on the larvae and less on the mature or winged
insects than they did in olden times. Some
eminent authorities, too, have striven to demonstrate that its assumed tendency to prefer
subaqueous to floating food is due to the introduction of artificially bred and artificially fed
trout and grayling.
It is to be presumed that the writers who
have advanced this theory have an implicit
belief in its truth and persuade themselves
that they have proved it to their own satisfaction. As one of the few fishermen who
have for many years  consistently studied  the DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Difficulty
of identifying
the insects.
food of the trout and grayling by the only
available and practical means, i.e., autopsy,
may I be allowed to tender my evidence ?
I have invariably found that the undigested
insect food has consisted of masses of larvae
and nymphs with a few occasional specimens
of the winged insects. This has been the universal result, whether the trout or grayling have
been taken in waters fished daily, or in comparatively wild parts where they seldom see an artificial fly. In rivers where in the memory of man
no stocking had taken place, or in others, which
from neglect or other causes, had been depopulated, and where, therefore, a fresh generation
of trout had been turned in from the pisciculturist's ponds, the experience has ever been
the same. The earliest autopsies taken do
not differ at all in this respect from those of
the latest date. It may be urged that the
span of an ordinary lifetime is not sufficiently
long to yield conclusive evidence of stability
of habit, but surely this argument applies
equally to the statements of those who trust
to their memory in support of the opposite
theory.
Every fisherman has probably had the experience of finding himself at the riverside when
fish are rising freely at some insect invisible to
him, or at one of which he cannot readily discover a successful imitation.    His first impulse INTRODUCTION 5
is to ascertain what is astir, and catch a specimen if possible ; and then if his knowledge of
insects enables him to recognise the form,
or if he has some friend at his elbow who
can name it for him, he turns with confidence
to his fly-book, and having gained the clue to
the most suitable selection for the occasion,
may deem himself in luck's way. No one
without an inkling of the order to which the
specimen to be traced belongs would search
at haphazard through ponderous volumes filled
with the scientific names and descriptions of
other kindred insects, classified in orders and
families, or genera and species, however anxious
he might be to know its name and learn something of its life history.
But while content at such a juncture to leave
exploration of the features essential to identification of the particular genus and species of
the creature to advanced students (comprising,
as the quest must do, such details as the form
and nervures of wings, the proportionate length
of the joints of legs, the number of articulations and shape of mouth-parts, the exact form
of the abdominal appendages, or markings on
parts of the thorax, body, or wings), many a
fly-fisher would be happy enough to arrive offhand at a clear conception of its approximate
ordinal standing.
The  eye   can   be easily trained sufficiently DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
for this purpose. It needs but a few hours'
observation in a well-managed natural history
museum furnished with show-cases exhibiting,
apart from the general collection, a small series
of specimens of the leading types of every
family of insects, together with their metamorphoses, to verify, by actual inspection of
the objects, the particular peculiarities of each
Order as defined in any systematical handbook
of Entomology.
For the riverside examination of insects all
that is required is., a pocket lens ; the best of
these, called Aplanatic, and made by Zeiss, of
Jena, or Reichert, of Vienna, in two powers
x 6 and x 10, can be bought of C. Baker,
Optician, 244, High Holborn, and cost 15s.
Specialists in Trichoptera and Ephemeridae
(requiring rather stronger lenses for examining
mouth-parts and male appendages) find Cod-
dingtons or Platyscopics x 30 answer their
needs. For home use or for more advanced
study a microscope is certainly a convenience,
but the entomological angler requires only a
plain and inexpensive stand, and low power
objectives which are not costly.
A few hints on the collection and preservation of specimens will not here be out of
place. For the collection of insects floating on
the water, the best form of net is a small bag
of cheese-cloth fitted to a ring of stout copper INTRODUCTION
wire, three inches in diameter, fastened to the
point of an old trolling rod. For larvae or
other subaqueous forms a frame of flat iron,
seven inches in length and three and a half
inches in width, of the form  shown (fig.  i).
can be made by any ordinary ironmonger ;
a long deep bag of cheese cloth is fastened to
it by string passed through the holes. The
frame with bag attached is driven on firmly
to a stout ash-handle, four feet in length. The
spade-shaped front of the frame is designed to
dig the mud or weeds, so that they may easily
drop into the bag with the larvae they contain.
Fly fishermen and fly dressers have long Preservation,
felt the want of examples, suitably preserved
for reference, of the insects on which fish principally feed. The plan generally favoured by
entomologists, after specimens have been
netted and killed in an ordinary cyanide bottle
—pinning  the  large   kinds   and  securing the DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
smaller either with wire to pith or pins to card,
for dry storage in boxes or cabinets—is open
to the objection that shape and colour change
so much in drying as to make it sometimes
impossible to recognise the species of specimens thus preserved. Entomological specialists
are often obliged to rely, for identification of
species, upon the form of parts that shrivel up
in dry insects; and, therefore, dry storage
entails either the labour of recording fugitive
characteristics with pen or pencil, or else a
supplementary storage of duplicate specimens
in a preservative fluid. The solutions of glycerine and alcohol commonly employed for this
purpose do not preserve the natural colours of
insects.
Insects in the angler's collection should be
so arranged that their general form and contour
are maintained, and that the various organs
can be examined either by a hand-lens or a low
power objective under a microscope. It is
also desirable that the colours of the living
insect should, as far as possible, be preserved,
so as to assist the student in identifying the
flies at the riverside.
For the school of fishermen who lay great
stress on the reproduction in the artificial fly of
the exact shades of colour of the natural insect,
this preservation of colour is essential, while
for the exponents of the colour blind theory INTRODUCTION
it is comparatively unimportant. The critic,
when looking at preserved specimens, must
remember that the Ephemeridae in their
various stages gradually become darker as
they approach the successive metamorphoses,
and that the. imagines also darken with age.
In some cases, such as the eggs of the Sherry-
spinner (Epkemerella ignita), the green colour
gradually changes, in a state of nature, to a
brown shade. The entomologist's dried insects,
in which both form and colour have deteriorated,
are evidently not fitted for our purposes,
although it must be conceded that mere identification of species is, as a rule, not impossible
when working with them.
At the initial stages of my experiments the Preservation
& |        L in spirit.
insects were collected in fluid, either dilute
alcohol or methylated spirit, and although the
colour was soon destroyed, yet they served to
make a series of microscopic slides, which have
been most useful for examination of details.
Perhaps the worst feature in reference to these
Ephemeridae in spirit was that they rapidly
became very brittle, and setae, legs, antennae,
&c, often broke off at the slightest touch, or
even, in some cases, from the shaking of the
tubes in transit from Hampshire to London.
A number of fresh specimens were success- Mounting in
1 Canada
fully   arranged,  hardened in spirit,  cleared inbalsam and
y.J & Hantzsch's
oil of cloves, and mounted in Canada balsa DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Formalin as
a preservative
without pressure, and saving the loss of colour,
are to-day as good as when collected. Some
Ephemeridae were transferred from the spirit
to Hantzsch's medium, consisting of one part
pure glycerine, two parts distilled water, and
three parts alcohol. These were mounted
in the same medium, and, except for the
unusually unreliable nature of fluid mounts,
were fairly successful.
At a later date the use of formalin by
modern scientists as a preservative of both
tissue and colour opened up a new field of
experiment. Formalin is the name given to
a 40 per cent, aqueous solution of formic
aldehyde. To obviate mistakes it is well to
remark that the strength of formalin solutions
is by some authorities referred to the percentage of formic aldehyde, and by others to
that of its diluted preparation called formalin.
Thus, hereafter, there will be references to the
2 per cent, solution.    This is made by adding
1 oz. of formalin to 19 ozs. of water, making
in all a bulk of 20 ozs., or an imperial pint.
To be strictly accurate this should be described
as a 2 per cent, solution of formic aldehyde, or
a 5 per cent, solution of formalin. It is,
however, here   and  generally described  as  a
2 per cent, solution of formalin.
At the outset a grave difficulty occurred—
fresh or dried Ephemeridae transferred to this INTRODUCTION
formalin solution floated on the surface of the
fluid, and even after many months the flies
showed no sign of immersion in the liquid.
Ephemeridae in the imago stage, and in a far
greater degree in the subimago state, are
covered with ciliae or fine hairs, which retain
minute air bubbles, and a comparatively dense
medium like the formalin solution does not
tend to soak into the specimens. This did not
occur when collecting in spirit, as, owing to
its low specific gravity, it was rapidly absorbed by the ciliae, and the insects soon
became thoroughly immersed. Besides the
loss of colour, another great disadvantage
when collecting in spirit was that the flies
generally died in distorted attitudes, contracting and curling up their legs and setae, and in
many cases drooping their wings, so that the
form of the insect was quite changed. Hence
to collect in spirit and transfer to the formalin
solution was of no avail.
A friend told me that sea anemones and
zoophytes killed in an aqueous solution of
menthol died with their tentacles spread out,
and as the result of a number of experiments
on similar lines with Ephemeridae, Trichoptera,
and other insects, the following method may
be recommended : The collecting fluid consists of one part alcohol and two parts 2 per
cent, formalin solution, to which as many crys- DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
tals of menthol as will dissolve are added.
Menthol is very sparingly soluble in this mixture. When collecting Ephemeridae or other
insects, pick them up by the tips of the wings
lightly between the thumb and forefinger,
both quite dry, and drop them into a tube
containing the above collecting fluid. As
soon as convenient, but certainly within, say,
six hours, transfer the insects to another tube
containing 2 per cent, formalin solution. It
will be found that leaving the specimens too
long in the collecting fluid will have an effect
on their colours. They can be kept for any
length of time in tightly-corked tubes or
bottles containing 2 per cent, formalin solution, but exposure to light should be avoided,
as all insects, living or dead, dried or in fluid,
are more or less bleached by the action of
light. When making the formalin solution it
should invariably be filtered, or otherwise a
fine white precipitate is often formed, and this.
disfigures the insects.
If the foregoing method is carefully carried
out, the colours will not be appreciably altered
from those of the living insects, and a fair proportion of them will be found to have died in
a natural position, so that the parts can be
properly displayed by mounting either prone
or in profile. No arrangement of displaced
parts is practicable, so that distorted specimens INTRODUCTION 13
should be discarded, and only the perfect and
best arranged ones kept for mounting for the
cabinet or other receptacle in which they are to
be kept.
For collecting the specimens corked tubes, Collecting
3 inches in length and 1 inch in diameter, are
recommended. The makers sell square wooden
blocks to take the tubes, so that they can be
safely transmitted by post. Ephemeridae and
other insects will travel uninjured if a small
wad of cotton-wool is pressed lightly down on
the insects in the fluid, and the tube securely
corked. Care should, however, be taken that
the tube is quite full of fluid when corked.
The Rev. A. E. Eaton, who is working on
the Psychodidae—a family of small moth-like
Diptera—has tried this method of collection
and preservation, and suggests the following
modification. He writes me on the 31st
January, 1902 :—" In collecting Psychodidcz"
" which are very retentive of air, owing to "
" their excessive hairiness, I take out into the "
" field a supply of empty corked tubes (homoeo- "
d pathic globule tubes) in some of the 3 inch "
■ " x 1 inch wooden-cased tubes referred to "
% above and two drop bottles—one of these "
I filled with alcohol, and the other with your "
" alcoholic and menthol solution of formalin. "
" Instead of cyanide, my collecting bottle is "
" charged with one or two drops of rectified " H
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
I ether. As soon as the fly is overpowered
| by the ether vapour, I remove it from the
" collecting or filling bottle and let it fall into
| one of the smaller tubes. Then moisten
| the fly with a drop or two of the alcohol,
" drain this away immediately, fill the tube
" quite full with the alcoholic and menthol
" solution of formalin from the second drop
1 bottle, and cork it. The small tubes with
M flies in them are carried home upright inside
" the larger wooden-cased tubes ; the fluid is
" eventually drained away, and 2 per cent.
% formalin solution substituted. I am mount-
| ing successfully specimens thus preserved,
" which were collected last May and June.
" As the fluid in the small globule tubes is
" apt to evaporate, they could be stored in a
I glass stoppered jar containing 2 per cent.
" formalin solution. The alcohol might efface
I some of the more delicate subcutaneous
I markings of Ephemeridce, but not the
P stronger markings, if care be taken to
'" drain it away promptly."
Whether my method or the modification of
it suggested by Mr. Eaton be adopted, the
subsequent mounting of the specimens will be
identical, and prove a comparatively simple
matter. For the collection now being made
for the Flyfishers' Club, the insects are in 2
per cent,  formalin solution contained in what INTRODUCTION
15
mapped    OUt     by Divisions of
the animal
are called solid watch glasses. These are slabs
of plate glass half an inch thick and about two
and a quarter inches square, with a concave
circular cell about two inches in diameter
worked in the centre of each. The cavity is
filled to the brim with the formalin solution,
the specimen inserted, and a piece of flat glass
securely cemented on to the upper face of the
solid watch glass. These are arranged eighteen in each drawer of a cabinet, and the
insides of the drawers lined with white paper,
to show the colours and shape of the insects.
The animal kingdom is
modern scientists into five provinces or sub- kingdom
kingdoms :—I. Vertebrata (back-boned) with
two warm-blooded classes (Mammals and
Birds) and two cold-blooded classes (Reptiles
and Fishes). II. Mollusca {soft) with seven
classes. III. Annulosa {ringed) or Articulata
{jointed) with four classes. IV. Radiata with
four classes; and V. Protozoa, Sponges, &c.
The four classes of the third sub-kingdom
are: 1. Arthropoda {jointed-footed), for the
most part characterised by the possession of an
extensive system of internal air-tubes subservient
to respiration. 2. Crustacea {shelly), comprising
many orders provided, like Arthropoda, with
jointed limbs, but differing in the mode of
respiration, of which may here be cited in
illustration    Crabs,    Lobsters,    Crayfish    and DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
Definition of
insects.
Prawns of the order Decapoda, Woodlice of
the order Isopoda, Sandhoppers and fresh
water Shrimps of the order Amphipoda,
Water-fleas of the Ostracoda, and Barnacles
of the Cirrhipedia. 3. Annelidae {ringed),
containing Earth-worms, Sea-worms (for instance the rag-worm of sea fishermen), and
Leeches. 4. Entozoa {internal animals) or
parasitic worms.
The class Arthropoda embraces three
sub-classes :—ist, the Insecta or Hexapoda
{six-footed), composed of many orders to be
hereafter mentioned. 2nd, Arachnida (web),
likewise of many orders, typified by Spiders,
Harvestmen, Scorpions, Ticks and Mites,
amongst others. 3rd, Myriapoda (thousand-
footed) with two orders, one of the predatory
Centipedes {hundred-footed), the other of the
kinds that feed on vegetable substances, such
as Julus and the wood-louse-shaped Glomeris.
Members of the second and third classes
when adult possess (with hardly an exception)
a larger number of legs than full-grown insects,
and have fewer regional divisions of the body.
The following definition of the Insecta is
given by Mr. Sharp in Volume V. of the
" Cambridge Natural History."
11 Definition. — Insects are small animals,
having the body divided into three regions
placed in longitudinal succession—head, thorax INTRODUCTION 17
and abdomen; they take in air by means of
tracheae, a system of tubes distributed throughout the body and opening externally by means
of orifices placed at the sides of the body.
They have six legs and a pair of antennae;
these latter are placed on the head, while the
legs are attached to the thorax, or second of
the three great body divisions ; the abdomen
has no true legs, but not infrequently has
terminal appendages, and on the under surface protruberances which serve as feet. Very
frequently there are two pairs of wings, sometimes only one pair, in other cases none ; the
wings are always placed on the thorax. Insects are transversely segmented—that is to
say, the body has the form of a succession of
rings; but this condition is in many cases
obscure; the number of these rings rarely, if
ever, exceeds thirteen in addition to the head
and to a terminal piece that sometimes exists.
Insects usually change much in appearance in
the course of their growth, the annulose or
ringed condition being most evident in the
early part of the individual's life. The legs
are usually elongate and apparently jointed,
but in the immature condition may be alto
gether absent, or very short; in the latter case
the jointing is obscure. The number of jointed
legs is always six."
The anatomy of internal organs ot insects
2 i8
DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
as well as the microscopic structure of the
tissues and their embryology, are excluded
from discussion in the present work, although
employed in assessing at their true worth many
features that bear upon questions of classification. Items of these descriptions, if at all referred to, will only be mentioned in the most
summary manner.
skin of insects. The external covering or skin of an insect
is the hardest and most solid portion of its
anatomy. It is composed of a tough, flexible
and horn-like substance called Chitin. Insects
that are aquatic in early life shed this protecting envelope on leaving the water, or very
soon afterwards, and any organ used in the
water only, will be found attached to the old
cast skin.
Morphology. The outward form of the body and limbs
is diversified by differences in development of
their component parts. The regions of a segment are three :—back, belly and sides. The
back, termed in thoracic segments notum as
opposed to the breast {sternum), and in abdominal segments dorsum or tergum as opposed
to the belly (venter), is liable to be marked
out into several portions by sutures, and so
are the sides (pleura, singular pleuron); but
in a great many insects the minor constituents
of these regions are intimately blended together
as dorsum or pleuron without any trace of sub- INTRODUCTION
appendages.
division. Legs by their situation are sterno-
pleural, and wings noto-pleural, appendages but
by development the latter are really appendages that grow out of the notum.
Comparison with certain Crustacea supports Head and
the theory that the head of an insect, like each'
of the other regions, should be regarded as a
conglomeration of several segments, here intimately blended. Its form and proportionate
size vary greatly in different members of the
class and sometimes sexually. Most insects
can see, and many have two sorts of eyes,
viz.:—three or a pair of ocelli (single eyelets), and a pair of oculi (eyes), formed of
eyelets touching one another in faceted or compound eyes, but less crowded in clustered eyes.
A few have the oculi parted, horizontally, in
two, and larger facets in the upper than in the
lower division ; they are never borne on a
moveable stem, like crabs' eyes. In theory,
the antennae and mouth-organs (excluding the
lips and tongue) stand in the same relation to
segments of the head as legs to segments of
the thorax. Their various forms in different
kinds of insects are most remarkable. The
mouth is an opening between sterna of segments and not a perforation through a sternum ; its organs are modified in construction
to suit the food of the animal, and to lend
themselves to any uses other than feeding for
which they may be required. DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
Mandibuiata. Insects that eat solid food are termed man-
dibulata (jawed) ; those that live upon fluids
suctorial or haustellata (suckered); but haus-
tellate mouths are not all of one uniform
model, and in Hymenoptera are associated
with a pair of mandibles used for biting or
gnawing. The normal parts of the mandibu-
late mouth are—in front, the upper lip {la-
brum) ; next behind this laterally, a strong
pair of jaws {mandibles), followed by one or
two pairs of weaker jaws (first and second
maxillce), the second pair of which is very commonly closely associated with the lower lip
{labium). This completes the enclosure of
the aperture posteriorly and is itself attached
to a part of the frame of the head termed the
mentum (chin). The tongue {lingua) occupies
the floor of the cavity, and is attached to the
labium and second maxillae ; it is often trilobate, and then the median lobe is distinguishable as the tongue proper {glossa) and
the lateral lobes as paraglossce. The maxillae
carry externally a single-jointed appendage
termed the palpus (feeler), which is undeveloped in the mandibles of insects ; and the first
maxillae have sometimes in addition a moveable lobe articulated with the jaw, immediately
beyond or interior to the insertion of the
palpus, termed the galea (hood). The palpus
and galea, in theory, are the outer and inner INTRODUCTION
branches of a two-branched limb of which
the jaw is the basal joint. Forked legs are a
common feature in Crustacea. The second
maxillae often resemble in appearance lobes
of the labium, and hence their palpi are frequently designated labial palpi.
In mouths of the haustellate pattern, palpi, Hausteiiata.
when present, show clearly by their attachments which of the parts correspond to maxillae
in mandibulate mouths, and supply a key to
the understanding of the homologies (identical
relations) of all the remaining elements of the
mouth ; but in many insects a great reduction
is noticeable in the number of the mouth-
organs. Thus Trichoptera or Caddis-flies
have palpi but no jaws and no tongue.
The thorax is divided into three segments Thorax and
—the prothorax, the mesothorax, and the
metathorax ; the legs, six in number, are
attached, the pair of forelegs to the prothorax,
the pair of medial legs to the mesothorax, and
the pair of hind legs to the metathorax, and
each leg consists generally of five divisions,
viz., (i) the coxa, or hip ; (2) the trochanter\;
(3) the femur, or thigh ; (4) the tibia, or shank ;
and (5) the tarsus, or foot; this last, composed
of from one to five joints, and terminated by
one or two claws (ungues), sometimes also
with a pad {pulvinus), or a pair of flaps (rarely
three) or a bristle.
legs. DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
Wings.
Internal
anatomy.
The wings, if there are two pairs, are
attached, the fore wings to the mesothorax,
and the hind wings to the metathorax ; if there
should be only one pair it is generally meso-
thoracic. The attachment of the wings to
the thorax is by means of strong muscles and
ligaments. The wings themselves are composed of two layers of integument, traversed
by nervures and veins; and differences in the
arrangement, &c., of the nervures are important factors in determining genera and species.
In the Diptera, or two-winged insects, the
hind wings are usually present in the form of
very minute, pear-shaped appendages, called
halteres, or poisers.
The abdomen, or body, is composed usually
of ten rings, or segments, and has various
appendages at its hinder end, such as the setae
of Ephemeridae, and the ovipositor, or sting,
of Hymenoptera. The ovipositor is formed of
several pieces, developed in pairs from more
than one segment. In the same situation, as
a rule, the male genitalia are located; t>ut in
Dragon-flies (Odonata) most of these parts are '
in this sex relegated to a position close to
the base of the abdomen.
The inside of an insect cut open in air
presents the appearance of a mass of soft wet
substance amidst which nothing can be clearly
distinguished;   but by opening carefully with INTRODUCTION
23
fine scissors by a shallow incision along the
back, afterwards pinning apart the gaping skin
on a leaded cork, and submerging the whole
under water in a shallow trough {e.g., an
empty sardine tin) the internal anatomy of
the animal can be easily traced under a lens,
with the aid of needles fixed in the ends of
pieces of stick and a pair of fine surgical
forceps. One of the lenses recommended at
page 6 could be employed with advantage,
held in a horizontal vice of suitable length
made to slide up and down an upright stand
with a fixing screw to keep it at any height
required in focussing the object. If the
student is a fly-dresser, either of the forms
of vice recommended in Part III., pages 218
and 220, could easily be adapted to the purpose.
Light can be concentrated beneficially upon the
dissection with a condenser, or the fly-dresser's
lamp described in Part III., page 226, would
be suitable for the work.
At this stage the viscera in view are muscles
of the thorax, and the bulk of the alimentary
and reproductive organs, with abundance of
fat masses buoyant with air in the abdomen.
After a little teasing apart with the needles,
removal of some portions of the fat, and a
judicious employment of the scissors, the different organs can be floated aside for detailed   examination,   exposing    to    view   the DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
Nervous system.
Respiration
ventral nervous ganglia and cords overlying
the floor of the cavity, and in addition to
these, the main air-tubes of the body.
As regards the alimentary canal and its
appendages, and the sexual viscera, the object
of this work will have been attained by indicating to the reader an easy method of exploring them.
The nervous system is very complicated, and
according to Sharp "maybe treated as consisting of three divisions:—(i) The cephalic system, (2) the ventral or ganglionic chain, (3) an
accessory sympathetic system or systems. All
these divisions are intimately connected." This
subject is, however, too deep for treatment here
at any length. It will suffice to explain that
the cephalic system consists of a large ganglionic mass or brain, supplying nerves to the
eyes, antennae and mouth-organs, and situated
above the alimentary tract ; that the ventral
ganglionic chain is a series of ganglia, differing
in number in different insects and situated below
the alimentary canal in the thorax and abdomen,
linked one to another by a pair of longitudinal
cords and emitting nerves to the parts of the
body in those regions ; and lastly, that the
cephalic ganglion is similarly linked to the
foremost of the ventral ganglia by a pair of
cords embracing the oesophagus (gullet).
Along  the   sides of the   body and   thorax lo Family.    Dra
Iher, and the bo CLASSIFICATION    OF    HEXAPOD    INSECTS    IN    OUTLINE
Metamorphosis incomplete
Mouth mandibulate
Wingless
Body scale-clad;   maxillae furnished with palpi
Antennae and caudal setae many-jointed, long and setaceous
Antennae filiform and few-jointed; no caudal setae
Body hair-clad; maxillae destitute of palpi.    External parasites of Birds ; labial palpi present [fide Piaget)
Winged with some apterous exceptions
Fore wings similar in texture to the hind wings (Neuroptera, Lin., part)
Nymph aquatic
Antennae of adult subulate (awl-shaped) and short;  wings fully extended in repose
Fly gentle, with atrophied, flaccid mouth-parts, filiform or setaceous caudal setae and wings erect (with few exceptions) in repose
Fiy predatory, with powerful ljnouth-parts.    Wings outspread widely in repose, or obliquely reclinate in a vertical plane above the back, according tb
Antennae of adult elongate ; mouth -parts well formed but feeble ; wings (with individual short-winged specimens as exceptions) closely overlapping one anofh
Nymph terrestrial
Non-gregarious insects
Wings when fully developed imbricate or connivent lengthwise in pairs almost roof-like during repose.    Nymphs free roaming
Wings in the male arranged in repose much the same as in Perlidae.    Nymphs dwelling in silken galleries under shelter    ...
Social insects living together in communities composed of sterile or neuter individuals and both sexes ; often lucifugous ...
Fore wings (tegmina) firmer in texture than the hind wings.    Nymphs terrestrial
Mouth suctorial
Wingless.    Body beset with hairs ; rostrum protrusible. \  External parasites of Mammals, without palpi (Pediculinae or lice)
Winged, with some apterous exceptions
Fore and hind wings alike (or nearly so) in texture|
Wings very narrow or linear, deeply fringed, incumbent horizontally upon the dorsum.    Tarsi with a terminal bladder-like sucker
Wings with some exceptions broad, deflexed towards the costa and reclinate in repose, with the inner margins connivent or touching if not overlapping
Fore wings to a large extent stronger in texture than the hind wings, but thin towards the tips
Metamorphosis complete
Mouth mandibulate; maxillae, when present, ancillary to manducation
Fore wings indurated or coriaceous (leathery), usually free and sheathing a pair of membraneous hind wings
Wings all membraneous (Neuroptera, Lin., part)
Mouth-parts of the fly efficient.    Larvae (except in! Osmylidae and Sialidae, page 114) terrestrial
All but the palpi weak or atrophied in the fly.    Larvae (except Enoicyla) aquatic
Mouth suctorial, or (if mandibulate) with maxillae especially auxiliary to the organ of suction, when there are any
Four-winged (rarely apterous) and mostly scale-clad flies, without mandibles (one genus excepted)
Four-winged (rarely apterous) flies, nude or hairy, with mandibles    ...
Two-winged flies with halteres or apterous without; mostly hairy or nude, seldom scaly in parts
Family.    Dragon-flies
ler, and the body, in repose ,
Thysanura
Collembola
Mallophaga
Ephemeridae (page 33)
Odonata
Perlidae (page 101)
Psocidae
Embidae
Termitidae
Orthoptera
Anoplura
Thysanoptera
Homoptera
Hemiptera
Coleoptera
Planipennia
Trichoptera (page 77)
Lepidoptera
Hymenoptera
Diptera (page 126) Nervo
tern.
Respiratk INTRODUCTION 25
are certain small holes called spiracles. These
communicate with a system of tubes called
trachea, by which air for respiratory purposes
is conveyed to the circulating fluid in all parts
of the animal. The main tubes extend the
full length of the insects horizontally, one on
each side of the body, and send off branches
like blood-vessels in all directions to the limbs
and viscera. Larvae that inhabit the water
have usually, in place of spiracles, tufts of
threads or fin-like appendages termed branchiae,
by means of which the air of the entire respiratory system derives oxygen from the water
in the same way as the blood in the gills of
fishes. Nymphs of Dragon-flies sometimes,
in addition to those in the form of tail-fins,
have branchiae composed of longitudinal membraneous plates within the rectum or terminal
portion of the bowel. These are abundantly
supplied with tracheae from two large mains
that branch in a very beautiful manner, one
on each side, exterior to the rectum. The
tracheae of many insects taper gradually like
branches of trees, and their walls contain a
spiral thread, closely coiled; but some have
minutely sacculated tracheae interspersed with
large tracheal pouches that may be likened to
the air-cells of birds.
The circulation of the fluid taking the place Circuiatic
of blood is effected by a pulsating vessel in 26
DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
the form of an elongate tube with valves, placed
in the upper portion of the body and extending
to the thorax. It is called the dorsal vessel,
and fulfils very much the function of the heart
in the Vertebrata.
Sex. Although in communities of social aculeate,
Hymenoptera (Bees, Wasps and Ants) and the
social Neuroptera, called Termites or White
Ants, the species is represented by males,
females, and one or two other forms termed
collectively neuters (viz., large and small workers
in the former, and soldiers and workers in the
latter order); and although specimens recorded
as hermaphrodite are of occasional occurrence
in most orders, every individual insect is essentially uni-sexual—either male or female. For
neuter wasps and bees are females reared in a
manner that produces ovarian atrophy, while
the sting and other external pecularities of the
sex remain in evidence, and stingless neuter
ants possess the poison glands, the antennae
and the abdomen of the female. An hermaphrodite insect is never, like a snail, potentially bi-sexual, but is an individual specimen
with internal organs of one sex and some
external sexual features of the other. Symbols
often used to denote sexual conditions are, 6*
male, $ female, $ neuter, and J hermaphrodite.
Reproduction.     The great majority of insects are produced INTRODUCTION
27
from eggs that have been fertilised, laid by the
adult female. The young insect emerging from
the egg, sexually immature and differing morphologically from its parents in a small or great
degree, attains its full stature and adult form,
while the parts concerned with reproduction
are also in course of development, during a
series of moults of the integument termed
ecdyses (casting off of a covering) varying in
number with the family. The periods of its
life between the successive moults are termed
mstars (instar, a form) by some modern authors,
and referred to singly by numbers according
to their places in the sequence, or by a term
specifying the particular stage of life, e.g., the
third larval instar, the pupal instar, and so on.
The changes in outward form through which incomplete
met"™"*
an insect passes after its birth, prior to be- pho
coming adult, are called metamorphoses. They
differ in amount according to the degree of
morphological development reached by the
animal at the time of its exclusion. If this
be relatively forward, the remaining alterations
needed to perfect the form, already roughly
modelled upon the lines of the adult, are increase of stature and finishing touches, as
it were, in minor detail, involving perhaps
the development of wings and finally the loss
of temporary organs peculiar to early stages
of life.    Changes so  small  are  said  to  con-
metamor-
hosis. 28
DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
Nymph.
Subimago.
Complete me
tamorphosis.
stitute an incomplete metamorphosis. Sexual
maturity is not always attained exactly at the
same moment as perfection of the outer frame ;
thus the pairing of Dragon-flies does not take
place until they are several days old ; but on
the other hand nymphs of Grasshoppers very
commonly give proof of individual sexual precocity.
Nymph is a term applicable to the young
of insects with incomplete metamorphosis ;
but the word is often used to denote
those stages of the metamorphosis during
which the wings are undergoing development and are immoveable, the preceding
stages being distinguished as larval. Hardly
anything is gained in precision by this distinction, since the growth of the wings commences almost imperceptibly and extends over
several instars.
In Ephemeridae, nymphs (at the conclusion
of their last stage) rise to the surface of the
water to moult, and there give issue to the
winged flies; but these, although capable of
flying, are not the perfect insects, being
covered by a thin hairy integument which is
shed at the last. The condition of the fly
before this final moult takes place is termed
subimago.
Complete metamorphosis is undergone by
insects  whose   morphological   development  at INTRODUCTION
29
birth has not arrived at the stage of appreciable likeness to the adult form. The young,
emerging from the egg, shed their skins at
different stages of growth, and with many
exceptions are active and voracious, growing
in bulk with little alteration in form until the
interior sexual parts are well advanced. Then
comes a transformation, introducing a stage of
repose and total cessation of feeding, during
which the viscera and all internal organs receive their final modifications in structure and
arrangement, and the outer frame of the perfect insect is fully developed, preparatory to
the next moult, which is the last, when the
insect effects its transformation into the fly.
The  terms  larva  (mask),  pupa (effigv,  or Larva, pupa,
v J    r   r       v .      and imago.
doll), and imago, distinctive of the three principal phases of transformation through which
an insect having a complete metamorphosis
passes in its development from the egg, were
originated by Linnaeus, who considered that
the animal was masked in the larva (some of
the parts of the adult fly being distinguishable
beneath the skin in the later larval instars of
Lepidoptera), and because the features of the
moth or butterfly are discernible in the integument of the quiescent pupa. The alternative
terms chrysalis and aurelia, applicable to the
pupa, were suggested by the golden colouration at  this stage of certain common species 30
DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
of butterflies. Many pupae are enclosed in
cocoons spun of silk, or otherwise constructed
by the larvae, after ceasing to feed, in their
last stage. In Caddis-flies (Trichoptera) the
pupa, at first quiescent, becomes active, and
swims to the surface of the water to effect
there the final transformation. Flies of one
of the chief divisions of the order Diptera
have pupae that are termed obtected, or
mummy-pupae. The last larval integument,
instead of being shed, is converted into a
smooth, hardened envelope enclosing the pupa.
No trace of limbs or segmentation is visible on
the outside; a circular piece at one end becomes detached like a lid when the fly emerges.
Diptera of the family Hippoboscidae, to which
the Camel-fly and Forest-fly belong, instead
of eggs produce full-grown larvae that moult,
and eventually become obtected pupae; hence
they are termed pupiparous.
The series of metamorphoses through which
an insect passes generally terminate in a form
specifically identical in appearance with its
parent; but to this there are exceptions. It
has been found that in some of the Gall-flies
(Hymenoptera) from eggs laid in autumn a
brood, exclusively female, is bred in the following spring, and the issue matures in the ensuing
autumn and is bi-sexual; the agamic (unmarried) spring-fly is so different from the autumnal INTRO D UCTION 31
bi-sexual fly, and their galls so dissimilar, that
before their life-history was known they were
ranked apart in different genera. Analogous
differences are sometimes observable in the
markings of moths that have more than one
brood in the year, but only sufficient to have
caused them to be reckoned different species.
Parthenogenesis, or reproduction by virgins
without sexual concurrence, in addition to the
above instance of Hymenopterous Gall-flies,
has been observed in the summer broods of
plant-lice (Aphides), a succession of several
viviparous agamic generations starting from
the issue of eggs laid by females that have
paired, and ending in autumn with a bi-sexual
brood to recommence the cycle.
Since the time of Linnaeus a considerable Classification,
number of methods of classification of insects
have been devised. Many of these schemes
are only of historical interest, and no useful
purpose would be served by passing them here
under review. Natural relationships cannot
be fully shown by a straight line, and therefore
the mention of the several recognised orders
seriatim does not very adequately give expression to their affinities. The leading principles
of modern systems concern metamorphosis and
morphology, the latter with more particular
regard to the mouth and wings. Given the
main grouping of the Orders, it matters little 32
DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
which of them is mentioned first or placed
highest in the page. The table of classification of Hexapod Insects, in outline, facing
this page, has been prepared by the Rev. A. E.
Eaton for the assistance of the reader.
In the Chapters of this Part dealing with
the flies of special interest to the angler,
the sequence in ascending order, if arranged
in strict Zoological succession, would be—i,
Ephemeridae ; 2, Perlidae ; 3, Sialidae ; 4, Tri-
choptera ; and 5, Diptera. I have, however,
arranged them according to what may be
deemed the comparative importance of the
families, &c, to the fly-fisherman desiring to
study this branch of entomology. Thus Chapter   I.  deals with   the   Ephemeridae,   Chapter
II. with the Caddis-flies (Trichoptera), Chapter
III. with   the   Stone-flies   (Perlidae),   Chapter
IV. with the Alder (Sialidae), and Chapter V.
with the Diptera and other insects serving
as food for the Salmonidae in the rivers. CHAPTER I.
EPHEMERIDAE.
HP HE Ephemeridae, or, in other words, the
* Duns, Spinners and Mayflies, seen floating on the surface of the stream, constitute
beyond doubt the most fascinating family of
insects for the dry-fly fishermen. It must not,
however, be imagined that they represent any
important proportion of the food required for
the sustenance of the fish. As pointed out in
the Introduction, even in streams where insect
life abounds, trout feed freely on younger members of their own species and on minnows,
stoneloach, bullheads, and lamperns, while both
trout and grayling are partial to such crustaceans and mollusks as fresh water shrimps
[Gammarus pulex), water wood-lice (Asellus
aquaticus), crayfish (Astacus fluviatilis), the
various bivalves, snails, &c. Then, too, the
Caddis (larvae of the Trichoptera), the larvae of
the Ephemeridae, of the Alder and of numerous
water-bred and other Diptera, all go to swell
the variety and bulk of this heterogeneous
diet. When Mayflies or smaller Ephemeridae
in the winged form are plentiful, and when the
3 /
34
DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
Identification
of Ephemeridae.
fish (as they occasionally will be) are feeding
on them with avidity, they will no doubt take
and swallow an incredible number, yet it is
surprising into how small a space flies are
compressed when once in a fish's stomach.
When a fisherman by the river side has
carefully studied an insect that he has just
taken off the water, and which he believes
to be the fly on which the fish are feeding,
how is he to decide whether it is or is not
one of the Ephemeridae ? For the purpose
of illustration the accompanying block (fig. 2),
Fig
an outline sketch of a March Brown or subimago of Ecdyurus venosus, is given.    The fly EPHEMERIDAE1
is shown in profile, with the wings erect, such
being the position in which it will be seen
under normal conditions floating on the water,
or resting on a blade of grass or sedge. It may
here be noted that entomologists usually show
insects laid flat with their wings extended, their
antennae, legs, setae, &c, arranged so that all
the parts can be plainly seen. Following this
plan the majority of the plates of flies and their
larvae are thus drawn in this book, but in addition an outline drawing of one example of
each family is given in the natural position as
a type.
The first points which will strike the
student as assisting him in the identification
of the family will be the erect position of
the wings, the taper and curve of the body
upwards towards the tail, and the presence
of two or three thread-like tails, which are
called setcB or caudal setce. In the case of the
March Brown there are two, but in some
other genera three setae. These matters of
detail, however, will be dealt with under the
names of the various flies. If the specimen is
examined more closely under a small lens or
magnifying glass, the following features will be
discovered :—
The head, generally wider than  its length, Head,
has   apparently  no   mouth   organs,   and   the
antennae which  are   attached to   it  are insig- 36
DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
nificant and composed of three joints, of
which the first two are short and stout, and
the third comparatively longer and tapered
to a point. The Rev. A. E. Eaton describes
the third joint of the antennae as "a slender,
many-jointed setaceous awn," but with the
ordinary hand magnifying-glass the articulation of this joint is invisible.
Eyes. The   eyes,  of which   there  are  invariably
five, are of two sorts — compound eyes
(oculi) and simple eyes {ocelli). The compound eyes are reticulated or faceted on the
surface, i.e., made up each of a considerable
number of lenses, and the simple eyes are
smooth. There are invariably two large compound eyes on the sides of the head, and,
to quote Eaton, "The oculi, always much
larger in the male than in the other sex,
are in him, in some genera, divided each
into two parts transversely ; the upper portion has larger facets than the lower, and
is sometimes differently coloured. The division between these segments of the oculus
may amount to nothing more than a mere
superficial furrow or impressed line traversing
the faceted surface horizontally ; but when
it is deeper the upper part of the oculus
(always much the larger of the two) assumes
a short sub-cylindrical or turbinate form,
faceted only on its summit, and supports on EPHEMERIDAE
37
its outer base the  smaller  division, which is
oval, and is faceted all over."
The ocelli, or simple eyes, are in all genera,
and in both sexes three in number, the two
hinder ones between the compound eyes ;
and the foremost one, which is situated midway between the antennae, is in some genera
carried on a conical stem.
The thorax, as usual, is divided into three Thorax-
segments, the prothorax, mesothorax, and
metathorax, of which the first is generally
short, the second large, forming the greater
portion of the thorax, and the third insignificant.
The abdomen, or body, composed of tenAbdoroen-
segments, tapers from the thorax to the tail
end, and, when the fly is on the water or at
rest on the herbage, is curved upwards posteriorly. It is cylindrical in form, smooth on the
surface, flexible at the joints, and at the last
joint carries the tails or caudal setce. These
setae, of which there are three in some genera,
in others two, with or without the rudiment of
the third, or median one, are long, tapered, and
made up of a great number of joints, and more
or less fringed with hairs. In the females
the oviducts terminate at the junction of the
seventh and eighth segments. The males are
provided with a pair of forceps placed ventrally
at the extremity of the ninth or penultimate 3;8
DR Y-FL Y ENTOMOLOG Y
segment of the abdomen. Great stress is laid
by Eaton on the form of these forceps, and the
identification of the species as named by him
is largely dependent on their shape.
wings. The wings are usually four in number—two
large fore wings and two very small hind wings.
In some genera the latter are absent, and in
all cases they are very small as compared with
the fore wings. The fore wings are almost
triangular in form, rounded off at the upper
extremities, and are relatively longer in the
female than in the male. The wing membrane
is usually glassy and iridescent in the imago,
and covered with short spine-like hairs in the
subimago, at which stage the posterior margin
of the wings is closely fringed with short hairs.
The neuration of the wings is strongly marked,
and is an essential feature in determining genera
and sometimes species. The fore wings are
appended to the sides of the mesothorax and
the hind wings to the metathorax.
Legs. The legs, six in number, are attached, one
pair to each segment of the thorax. The fore
legs are always longer in the male than in the
female, and in the genera here dealt with are
invariably longer than either of the hinder pairs.
In the imago stage the excess of length in the
fore legs of the male is greatly accentuated.
The foregoing description should be sufficient
to  enable the fisherman to identify a winged EPHEMERIDAE
39
insect as one of the Ephemeridae. When dealing hereafter with the particular forms likely
to be found on an ordinary trout stream, these
general features will not be recapitulated, but
attention will be drawn to variations, or to the
points to be specially noticed as indicating different genera or different species of the same
genus.
METAMORPHOSES AND HABITS OF
THE FAMILY.
The metamorphosis of the Ephemeridae is Ovipositi<
incomplete. The stages consist of the ovum
or egg, larva, nymph, subimago, and imago.
The eggs are laid in the water, and by some
members of the family are extruded en masse,
in which case they are rapidly separated by
the action of the water; others "extrude them
gradually, part at a time, and deposit them in
one of the following manners, viz. : either the
mother alights upon the water at intervals to
wash off the eggs that have issued from the
mouth of the oviducts during her flight; or
else she creeps down into the water (enclosed
within a film of air, with her wings collapsed
so as to overlie the abdomen and with her setae
closed together) to lay her eggs upon the underside of stones, disposing them in rounded
patches, in a single layer evenly spread, and
in mutual continuity " (Eaton). DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
After laying her eggs she floats to the
surface and flies away, unless perchance her
setae or wings have become sodden, in which
case the brief remnant of her life is sacrificed
to her care for the next generation. Every observant fisherman has at times, when wading,
been surprised to find a number of spinners
crawling up his stockings and brogues. Doubtless these are the females striving to regain
the surface after depositing their eggs in the
manner just described.
Eaton employs the term " nymph " to designate all the stages in the development of
insects with incomplete metamorphosis after
they are hatched, preceding the adult in apterous forms, and in others all up to the stage
at which the wings first become capable of
being used in flying or acquire mobility.
He would use the term "pupa" exclusively
in connection with those having complete metamorphosis, objecting to the promiscuous application of "larva and pupa" because they
do not indicate any precise epoch of particular importance in the life-history of other
orders. In fact, as far as the term "pupa"
is concerned, since it points to a quiescent
or dormant period, it is not strictly applicable
to the young of die Ephemeridae; but, inasmuch as it has been customary for many
years among fly-fisherman to speak and think EPHEMERIDsE
41
of the wingless grades as "larvae," and those
showing the rudiments of the wing-covers as
"nymphae" or nymphs, I propose to adopt
these names henceforth as likely to be more
easily understood than unfledged or wingless
nymphs and winged nymphs.
The larvae inhabit the water, and in shape
resemble generally the mature insect, except,
of course, in the absence of the wings. They
are- all provided with three ciliated caudal
setae, and their mouth organs are fully developed, as at this stage they require and
take a great quantity of food. Many kinds
generally subsist on mud or minute aquatic
vegetation ; but, judging from their formidable
mandibles and the construction of their forelegs, some must be carnivorous and preda-
ceous. They are all provided with tracheal
branchiae, varying in form, position, and
number in different genera. These branchiae
are arranged in pairs on seven or fewer of the
foremost segments of the abdomen ; and their
function is considered to be the change of
carbonic acid, introduced into the air contained within the tracheal system from the
fluid that serves as blood, for oxygen held
in solution in the surrounding water.
When rudiments   of wings become visible, Nymphs,
the immature Ephemeridae are called nymphs,
and the fact that externally there is no other DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
Pictet's
classification
of the larvae.
The digging
larvae.
apparent difference between the larva and
the nymph certainly lends weight to Eaton's
determination to designate all their subaqueous
stages by the name of nymph.
Pictet, in his masterly monograph on the
I Famille des Ephemerines," classifies the
larvae and nymphs in four divisions: (i)
Larves fouisseuses, or digging larvae; (2)
Larves plattes, or flat larvae ; (3) Lai^ves
nageuses, or swimming larvae; and (4) Lai*ves
rampantes, or crawling larvae. Although these
divisions do not correspond with the natural
grouping of the genera of Ephemeridae, and
do not embrace every form of nymph (Pictet
having only a limited number under observation), yet for the purposes of easy identification of the immature insects they will
commend themselves to the fly-fisherman.
The digging larvae are so called because
as soon as they are hatched they burrow into
the mud or clay and form tubular galleries
in which they take shelter. The work of
constructing these retreats is carried out by
means of their mandibles and powerful forelegs. It is said that these burrows, although
somewhat larger in diameter than the larvae
themselves, are not sufficiently roomy to allow
the nymphs to attain their full growth in
them, and that from time to time the insects,   as  they  grow,   construct    other  larger  PLATE  I.
EPHEMERIDv£   NYMPHS.
Fig. i Fig EPHEMERIDaE
43
galleries. They swim with difficulty, and
therefore frequent comparatively still waters.
Their branchiae are in the form of a number
of convergent filaments or threads or fringed
leaves. The genus Ephemera, which includes
the Mayflies, is the type of this division, and
a reference to Plate I., fig. i, will give the
angler a sufficient idea of their general form
and appearance for recognition at sight. The
life of these insects, from the egg to the imago,
is not less than two, and possibly extends to
three years.
In the flat larvae, as their name indicates, all The flat larv3e-
parts of the body are flattened out and broad
in proportion to their length. This flat shape
enables them to cling closely to the underside
of stones, where they are usually found ; but
does not lend itself to digging, in which they
do not indulge. They are better able to swim
than the larvae of the preceding division, the
thin form of their bodies causing them to be
less affected by the current, and their flattened
legs serving as fins; and with these characteristics it is not surprising to find that they
frequent rapid stony streams. They are said
to be carnivorous, and the length of their life,
from the deposition of the egg to the appearance of the perfect insect, is considered to be
ordinarily one year. The type of these larvae
is  the genus  Ecdyurus, to  which the   March 44 DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
Brown belongs, and the shape and general
characteristics of the nymph are illustrated in
Plate I., fig. 2. These larvae are not plentiful on the south county chalk streams, which,
considering the class of water they frequent, is
not surprising.
The swimming The swimming larvae differ materially from
both the foregoing; they are cylindrical and
attenuated in form, with thin, feeble legs.
Their most distinctive character is the presence
of strong hairs, closely fringed horizontally on
both sides of the setae, which thus serve as
a caudal fin or propeller. They cannot dig,
nor are they of a convenient form for lurking
beneath stones. In swift streams they do not
remain in foaming shallows, but prefer rippling
or gently flowing water, where they ramble at
large over the stones or gravel, or live among
the vegetation. In all chalk streams they are
found in great numbers whenever the weeds
are examined.
The most remarkable feature of swimming
larvae is their mode of progression ; their legs
are too weak to allow them to run rapidly in
the water, and out of it they have difficulty
in progressing at all, jumping aimlessly about
with curious wriggling movements of the body;
but they can swim and steer themselves fairly
well. Their duration of life is probably one
year, although it is open to doubt whether with EPHEMERIDaE
45
some of them there are not two broods in the
year. The type of these larvae is the genus
Baetis, to which the Olive Duns, Iron Blue
Duns, and two of the species called by anglers
Pale Watery Duns, belong. The nymphs of
the genus Centroptilum, in which the other
Pale Watery Duns are included, are also of
this type. One of the nymphs is shown in
Plate I., fig. 3.
The  crawling larvae are thus described byThe crawling
. iarvse-
Pictet: " The larvae belonging to this division have been the worst treated by nature.
Unprovided with the powerful mandibles and
the solid fore-legs of the digging larvae, having
neither the strength of the flat larvae nor the
caudal fin of the swimming larvae, they are
altogether feeble and have slender legs." He
goes on to say that their movements are slow,
and, being unable to dig, they could not escape
from their many enemies unless they made
up for their deficiency of strength and agility
by their cunning. Larvae of this type live in
streams or parts of streams where the current
is moderate, and in swift rivers inhabit the
slack water along the banks. The gravelly
bed being coated with a thin layer of mud,
they cover themselves with detritus and are
almost invisible ; and even when desirous of
examining them it is not altogether easy to
remove the mud with a fine brush. 46
DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
Thus hidden, they escape their enemies, and
are in a favourable position to lie in wait for
the smaller insects on which they prey, the
capture of which, but for such concealment,
would probably be difficult, in consequence
of their slowness. The type of this division,
the genus Ephemerella, of which the Blue
Winged Olive is the prominent species, is
shown in Plate I., fig. 5.
The newly-        According to   the  Rev.   A.   E.   Eaton,  the
hatched larvae.
newly-hatched larvae " are destitute of any
visible muscular, nervous, circulatory or reproductive system ; their alimentary canal is incomplete, and, being too small to require special
breathing apparatus, they respire through the
integument at large. During the first few days
after their birth the young cast their skin
several times, the intervals between the moult-
ings lengthening by degrees (Lubbock). The
abdomen is nine-jointed, and the antennae and
caudal setae have likewise fewer articulations
than those of the more advanced nymphs.
Blood globules and rudiments of the trachea
branchiae begin to appear simultaneously when
the insect is eight or ten days old."
A reference to Plate V., Blue Winged Olive
{Ephemerella ignita), is recommended. In this
illustration fig. 1 is a magnified view of eggs
hatching and a larva emerging, drawn from
specimens hatched in captivity, and fig. 2 is a EPHEMERIDaE 47
view of one of the same larvae at the age of
three months. The development generally,
the presence of the branchiae in fig. 2, and
their absence in fig. 1, go far to confirm the
observation quoted.
Eaton   also   states:—"Adolescence  is  evi- Development
of the nymph.
denced by the advancement towards maturity
of the reproductive organs internally, and
externally by the out-growth of rudimentary
wings from the hind borders of the proper
segments. The forceps of the male also begin
to bud forth, and in certain genera an extension of the apical integument of the penultimate ventral segment becomes perceptible in
the female." Growth and development thus
proceed until the nymph has attained to its
full size and is ready for change to the subimago. If a nymph is examined when ready
for this metamorphosis, the subimago will be
seen within the nymphal skin—its head, thorax,
abdomen, legs and caudal setae plainly visible
and perceptibly smaller than the corresponding
limbs and members of the nymph in which
they are enveloped, The curious folding of
the wings within the wing covers, and the
absence in the subimago of mouth organs,
branchiae, and, in some genera, of the central
caudal seta, present so striking an appearance
that at Plate I., figs. 1 and 4, nymphs are
shown at this stage. 48
DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
Change from
nymph to
subimago.
The creature is now ready to undergo the
great change from a subaqueous nymph to the
winged subimago. It accordingly swims upwards through the water, and, if it has calculated its movements accurately, arrives at the
surface just before the metamorphosis. Its
entire body is inflated, and the external integument distended, until at length it splits
along the back of the thorax. First the thorax
and then the head is pushed out through this
slit in the outer skin. Then the legs are disengaged, and next, just before the abdomen
and setae are quite free, the wings, one at a
time, are withdrawn from their covers and
quickly unfolded. The winged insect supports itself on the cast nymphal skin or on
the water until its wings are dry, and then flies
ashore to seek the friendly shelter of grass,
rushes, sedges, or even trees.
The above is the normal order in which the
various parts are withdrawn from the nymphal
shuck, but this, in individual cases, is subject
to variation. Sometimes a change in the procedure is fatal to the individual; thus not
infrequently subimagines are found dead, or
nearly dead, on the surface of the stream, with
their wings erect and the nymphal envelope
still enclosing the abdomen and setae. Some
have one wing erect and the others still folded
in the wing cover, and others again are free EPHEMERIDaE
with the exception of two or three of their
legs, which they have failed to disentangle
from the cast skin.
In places where the current is moderately
strong, the change to subimago can only be
performed in this manner by active species,
such as the digging and swimming larvae, with
supple bodies. Other species with comparatively stiff and horny bodies, and frequenting
rapid portions of streams, are unable to do this,
but are obliged to find a dry place on stones,
where they fix the claws of the nymph and
there effect the metamorphosis much in the
same way as some Trichoptera and Perlidae,
which will be introduced in subsequent chapters.
The following is a translation of Pictet's brief The subimago
but expressive description of the subimago :
| The winged insect which appears as the
result of this operation has not yet arrived at
the perfect state ; it is still enveloped in a semi-
opaque skin, which dims its colour, hampers its
flight, gives its wings a grey and dull appearance, and its legs and caudal setae are often of
smaller dimensions than they attain later on.
It has yet to cast off this covering."
Eaton says of it : "The term 'subimago' is
used to denote the penultimate stage of such of
the Ephemeridae (the large majority of them)
as moult once after direct respiration through
the stigmata has been established and their
4 5o
DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
Change from
subimago to
imago.
wings have become fully expanded. The chief
points whereby insects in this condition can
generally be distinguished from adult examples
are—the dulness of the integuments, especially
that of the wings ; the ciliolate terminal margin
of the wings in many genera; the brevity of
the forelegs ; the greater hairiness and shortness of the caudal setae; the less protuberant
and less brightly-coloured oculi ; and, in the
male, the marked shortness and stoutness of
the forceps. The term \ Pseudimago,' employed by a few authors instead of ' Subimago,'
is an etymological solecism derived from two
words belonging to different languages."
It may be noted that this intermediate stage
between the pupa or nymph and imago exists
only among the Ephemeridae—although Packard
notes something analagous in Humble Bees.
Generally, the angler can recognise the
subimago by the surface of the wings being
covered with short spiny hairs and the lower
margin of them closely fringed with longer
hairs. The movement of the subimago through
the air is slow and heavy, and its usual tendency is to make a short flight to the safe
shelter of herbage, bushes, or trees.
After a certain lapse of time, varying in
different genera and species and largely dependent on temperature, the subimago arrives at
the period of its existence when the last change EPHEMERIDaE
is to take place, and something analogous to the
metamorphosis of the nymph happens. The
skin, once more distended, splits along the back
of the thorax, and then the head, the legs, the
abdomen, the caudal setae, and lastly the
wings, are disengaged. The entire subimaginal
envelope retains its shape, with the exception of
the wings, which collapse, and so the skin has
very much the appearance of the nymphal
exuvium.
The imago or perfect insect is the stageThe {
from which the family name of " Ephemeridae " is derived; for in the species
known as Ephemera to the ancients (Palin-
genia longicauda, Polymitarcys virgo, and
perhaps Oligoneuria rhenana) the life of a
fly is limited to a single day. This is not
the case with those of the genus now bearing
the name, for I have kept specimens alive
for five or six days, two or three in the
subimago stage, and the remainder in that
of the imago. Eaton says that there is a
tradition of a female Cloeon having been
kept alive for three weeks. Data derived
from experiments with Ephemeridae in captivity are not reliable, as no doubt the prevention of reproduction tends to lengthen
their life. It may, however, be taken as
proved that the duration of life in the imago
state is prolonged by cold, and shortened by
hot weather. 52
DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
Habits of t
imago.
The adult Ephemeridae by day generally
seek shelter from the sun, but sometimes disport themselves high in air with the swallows
and swifts; the clouds of these insects seen
engaged in a dance-like up and down motion
are always males. Their flight, as regards
many genera, is thus described by Eaton:
" A fluttering, swift ascent and then a passive,
leisurely fall, many times repeated. The
body, during the rise, is carried in a position
very little out of the perpendicular, with the
legs extended upwards in advance, and the
setae trailed behind. During the descent the
body, less steeply inclined, is steadied by
the half-spread motionless wings and the
outstretched setae and legs. They couple
during flight, the male lowermost. Darting
at his mate from below, and clasping her
prothorax with his elongated fore tarsi, he
bends the extremity of his body forwards
over his back, grasps with his forceps the
hinder part of her seventh ventral segment,
and with his outer caudal setae embraces her
sixth segment. Meanwhile the couple gradually sink, the female not being quite able to
support herself and mate, and by the time
they reach the ground their connection is
usually terminated." The male flies away to
resume his interrupted dance, and, being prone
to polygamy, seeks a new mate.    The female, EPHEMERIDaE
53
after some time, lays her eggs as previously
described.
Pictet points out that it must not be forgotten that the true life of the individual is
in the larval state, and that the imago only
exists to perpetuate the species. Hence their
life is long in the immature or larval stage
and short in the perfect state. Morning and
evening are the portions of the day in which
they are most numerous, and Pictet says that
in Switzerland they do not appear in great
numbers while the wind is in the north. It
may appear to be presumption on my part,
but I feel it right to state that, in my English
experience, the exact opposite prevails. All
the greatest hatches of duns I have seen have
been on the river Test during north or northeasterly winds. Pictet lived on the north coast
of a lake.
Of the enormous numbers of Ephemeridae
seen on favourable days every angler has
experience, but perhaps the statement of
Scopoli will be accepted with some slight
reservation. According to Pictet " L'auteur
que je cite dit que, pres du lac Laz, il nait
au mois de Juin une si grande quantite de
VEphemera vulgata, que les paysans regardent
comme une faible recolte de pouvoir conduire
sur leur champs vingt chars bien charges de
ces insectes, qui forment un excellent engrais." 54
DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
However, it is a fact that the " Hungu" cake
of Central African markets is made of Caenis
and midges of the lake pressed together and
dried.
Description
of larva.
OLIVE  DUNS AND  SPINNERS.
The Olive Dun is placed first on the list of
the Angler's Ephemeridae, because it is, perhaps, the most widely distributed and best
known of the family. Then, too, it is present
on streams of all sorts and in all parts of the
British Isles. It has been seen in numbers in
the Vosges, the lowlands of Switzerland, the
Tirol, Corsica, and most of the European countries, as well as Madeira, and it is common in
Algeria. I have seen good rises of Olive Dun
on the Test in March, when prospecting for
the earliest trout fishing, and on the same river
in December I have seen the grayling taking
them greedily while the trout were spawning.
The term " dun " is applied by fishermen to the
smaller Ephemeridae in the subimago stage,
and the expression " spinner " is used to denote
the imago stage of the same genera of insects.
Under the heading of smaller Ephemeridae all
members of this family, except the Mayflies
and March Brown, are included.  .
The Olive Dun, with several other angler's
flies, belongs to the genus Baetis.    This genus  OLIVE   DUNS   &   SPINNERS. EPHEMERIDaE
55
is one of the group proceeding from the
larves nageuses, or swimming larvae of Pictet.
The following is part of Eaton's description :—
" Abdominal tracheal branchiae, all somewhat
alike in form, each obtusely ovate or ob-
ovate, and traversed lengthwise by a pinnately-
branched, irregularly sub-divided trachea. Antennae about as long as the head and thorax
together. Outer caudal setae about f as long
as the body ; median seta commonly § as long
as it; the fringes narrowed acuminately to the
extremities of the setae." These details, with
a reference to Plate I., figs. 3 and 4, should
enable the student to identify the larvae. He
must expect to find them in moderately rapid
portions of the stream, among stones, weeds,
or other vegetation.
The winged forms have two caudal setae,
and the males have the compound eyes divided
as described at p. 36, with the upper portion of
a turbinate form, faceted only on the summit.
The fore-wings of this genus are remarkable
for the small number of cross nervures, and the
hind wings are small, with blunt, oval tips.
The Olive Dun and its spinners, male and Scientific
names.
female, belong to one of five species of the
genus Baetis, viz. :—B. vernus, B. rhodani,
B. atrebatinus, B. tenax," and B. buceratus. Of
these the last three, being comparatively rare,
are  excluded . from  our  list.    B.  vernus  and 56
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
B. rhodani are widely distributed and common,
and, as they differ chiefly in the form of the
forceps of the male, and are not easily distinguished apart, even by the most experienced
entomologists, they may be treated here as a
single species. Baetis vernus is not described
by Pictet; but he describes and figures B. rhodani under the name of Cloe rhodani.
Description of     Eaton's   description   is   as   follows:—"Sub-
the Olive Dun.   # r
imago {living): Wings, either cinereous or dark
brownish grey, with greenish grey neuration.
Fore-femur greenish grey, with a dark cres-
centic spot, or an ill-defined light grey spot,
before its distal extremity ; the tibia light sepia
grey; the tarsus dull black; hinder femora
light greenish or yellowish white; the tibiae
greyish white; the tarsi dull black; setae
greenish grey, with reddish or warm sepia
brown joinings." A reference to Plate II.
is now recommended, figs, i and 2 showing
respectively the male and female .subimago.
To assist the fisherman in identifying his
specimen the accompanying block (fig. 3),
representing one of the hind
wings and its nervures, is given,
and I would add that the Olive
*10 Dun  has  two caudal setae;   the
rIG.  3.
wings afe of a dull grey ; the
body and legs of an undefined olive tint,
neither yellow,  nor brown,  nor grey, but par- EPHEMERIDaE
57
taking of all these colours. The wing of a
large female measures about '\ of an inch, and
that of a male about '35 of an inch in length.
The body of the female, from the head to the
last segment of the abdomen, measures about
•35 of an inch, and of the male about '3. The
measurements of different specimens of the
same species and genus, if bred in waters alike
in climate and character, do not vary greatly.
It must be remembered that all winged insects
are adults, and the growth of the individual
takes place entirely in the larval and nymphal
states.
The spinner of the male Olive (Plate II., Male spinner,
fig. 3) has a nearly black head and thorax,
with brown red turbinate eyes. The appearance of the head and eyes in profile is also
given in Plate II., fig, 5. The six first segments of the body are a very pale and transparent greenish grey, and the remaining four
segments at the hinder end of the body a rich
brown ; the legs are pale olive grey, and the
caudal setae very pale grey, nearly white. The
wings are transparent, with faint yellowish
grey nervures. The form of the abdominal
forceps is shown in Plate II., fig. 6. Altogether it resembles the Jenny Spinner, or
spinner of the male Iron Blue Dun ; but it
can be readily distinguished by the greenish
tint on   the   transparent  portion of the  body 58
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Female
spinner.
(which in the Jenny Spinner is translucent
white), and by its being altogether a larger
insect; also by the nervures of the hind-wings.
The spinner of the female Olive (Plate II.,
fig. 4) has transparent wings similar to those of
the male, the thorax brown becoming darker,
and the body a dead gold colour at first, but
also becoming darker and browner, probably
from exposure to light. The legs are pale
brown olive, and the setae very pale grey.
PALE   WATERY   DUNS   AND   SPINNERS.
The Pale Watery Dun is a fly which appears
on the water about the middle of May and
continues during the mild weather until well
towards the autumn. There are four species
of natural flies called by this name, two of the
genus Baetis :—B. binoculatus and B. scambus,
both of which are plentiful in the majority of
trout streams ; and two species of the genus
Centroptilum:—C. luteolum and C. pennu-
latum, of which the former is the more generally distributed. The Pale Watery Dun
may therefore be considered as one of four
insects, viz.:—Baetis binoculatus, B. scambus,
Centroptilum luteolum and C. pennulatum; and
for all practical angling purposes need not be
further identified.
For the  more  advanced  student,  however,  PLATE III.
PALE  WATERY DUNS  &   SPINNERS.
'R
jbk: EPHEMERIDaE
59
the differentiation of these flies can be effected
by reference to  the   hind  wings.     The hind
wing of B. binoculatus (fig.  4) is broad   and
obtusely  rounded,   and   the   hind
<^§2^     wings   of the two species   of Cen-
*TO        troptilum     are    spur-shaped,    the
etymology     of    the    word   being
K€VTpa>To<; a spur, and tttCKov wing.     The hind
wing of C.  luteolum (fig.   5) is  acute  at  the
tip,   and   that of   C.   pennulatum
t^zzz-^   ^g^ ^ js obtuse at the tip.     The
Fig. 5.      larvae  and nymph of Centroptilum
are  very similar  to   those  of the
A£=====$    Baetis,   and   like    the   latter   are
x 10       included under Pictet's division of
FlG- 6*      larves nagettses.
The following is the description of the Sub- Subimago.
imago: Wings, pale grey; Legs, very pale
greenish-grey; Body, a pale lemon-grey;
Setae, pale greenish - olive. The wing of a
female measures about '27 of an inch and of a
male about '25, and the body of the female,
from the head to the hind end of the abdomen,
about '2j, and that of the male about '25 of an
inch. Plate III., fig. 1, shows the male, and
fig. 2 the female. It will be noted that they
are smaller and paler than the Olive Dun.
The male spinner illustrated in Plate   111., Male spinner,
fig. 3, has transparent wings with pale yellowish
nervures, the turbinate eyes of a pale yellow or 6o
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Female
spinner.
Scientific
names.
orange tint, the thorax a reddish orange, legs
and setae a delicate lemon grey, and all the
segments of the body except the hinder three
translucent white, these three segments being
orange. The colouring of the turbinate eyes,
thorax, and hinder segments of the body will
prevent this fly from being mistaken for the
spinner of the male Olive Dun. Plate III.,
fig. 5, shows the head in profile with turbinate
eyes, and fig. 6 the abdominal forceps.
The female spinner in Plate III., fig. 4, has
transparent wings like the male, with body, legs
and setae of a golden colour, getting darker with
age. It can be distinguished easily from the
spinner of the female Olive Dun, being smaller
and generally paler in colour. In case of doubt,
however, if the specimen is B. binoculatus it
can be identified by a careful examination of
the nervures of the hind wing, and if it is
either of the species of Centroptilum the difference in shape of the hind wing is so marked
as to prevent misapprehension.
In Pictet's book Baetis binoculatus is called
Cloe' bioculata, Centroptilum luteolum is styled
Cloe translucida, and C. pennulatum is not
named or described. The plates of Pictet's
Cloe bioculata are very good, and give a
quantity of detail of structure, both of the
nymph and the adult insect; all of which is
commended to the careful study of the fisherman  PLATE IV.
IRON  BLUE  DUNS  &  SPINNERS.
m
Fig. i
m
Fig. 2
/ \
/    \
x 3
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
x 3
Fig. 6 EPHEMERIDaE
61
desirous of pursuing  the subject beyond the
limits of this work.
IRON  BLUE  DUNS AND  SPINNERS.
Wherever the Iron Blue Dun is found on the
water it is of interest to the fisherman, not only
because of its striking appearance, and the fact
that it is usually plentiful in cold and inclement
weather, when there is often a paucity of other
small Ephemeridae, but also because, wherever
and whenever present, the fish seem to prefer
it to any other dun. From the middle or end
of April to the end of October it is more or
less en Evidence, and the imitations of it are
too often neglected by the modern school of
anglers.
There are two species, both of the genus narnes!fi°
Baetis, comprised under the name of Iron Blue
Dun, viz. :—Baetis pumilus and B. niger; they
are both fairly plentiful, and as it is not easy
even for experts to distinguish them, they may
for all practical purposes be considered as one
and the same insect. Pictet does not describe B.
niger, but in the 5th Edition of Ronald's " Fly-
fisher's Entomology" it is called Cloe diptera.
B. pumilus is named by Pictet Cloe pumila, as
he includes all the insects now classed under
the genus of Baetis among his Cloe. From
the modern   entomologist's   point of view the 62
DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
Iron Blue Dun,
Male spinner,
Fig. 7.
genus Cloeon, so named by Leach years in
advance of Pictet's Cloe, consists of Ephemeridae without hind wings, inhabiting stagnant
water.
The following is the description of the Iron
Blue Dun :—Wings, a blackish blue grey, legs
and setae greenish grey with dark grey tarsi,
thorax and abdomen in the female of a purple
grey and in the male of a greenish grey.    Plate
IV., figs.  1 and 2, show the male and female
subimago.    The shape and ner-
vure of the hind   wings (fig. 7)
^j£=gp>     will  assist   in   the   identification
of the   species.    The length of
the wing of the female is about
'27 and of the male about '25 of
an inch,  while the length of the body of the
female is about '27 and of the male about '25
of an inch.
The spinner or imago of the male Iron Blue
is called by anglers the Jenny Spinner. It has
intense sepia or burnt umber brown turbinate
eyes, thorax a deep brown, the fore segments of
the body translucent white, and the three hind
segments a deep red brown. The wings are
transparent, and the legs and setae white.
Plate IV., fig. 3, is an illustration of it, and figs.
5 and 6 of the same plate show respectively the
head and turbinate eyes in profile and the abdominal forceps.      It can be distinguished from EPHEMERIDaE
63
the spinner of the male Pale Watery Dun by
the colour of the turbinate eyes, thorax, and
hind segments of the body ; and from the
spinner of the male Olive Dun by being a
smaller insect and having the fore segments
of the body white, and from either of them
by the  nervure of the hind wings.
The imago of the female Iron Blue is a small Female
0 spinner.
claret spinner having transparent wings, thorax
and body of a claret tint, legs and setae a very
pale grey, nearly white. It is illustrated in Plate
IV., fig. 4. The colour of the body is so much
darker and richer than in the female spinners
of either the Olive Dun or pale Watery Dun,
that it can scarcely be confused with either of
them—besides which, the greater size of the
Olive Dun and the nervures of the hind wings
are sufficiently distinctive features to prevent
any confusion of the species.
BLUE   WINGED   OLIVES   AND   SPINNERS.
A reference to Plates V. and VI., where
various stages of the Blue Winged Olives and
Sherry Spinners are shown, should convince
the reader that there are far more details
given of this insect than of any of the foregoing species of Ephemeridae. This is due
to my having had the advantage of the
collaboration   of a  good   friend,    Mr.   T.   P. 64
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Ephemerella
eggs, larvae
and nymphs.
Hawksley, in hatching the eggs, and attempting to rear the larvae to maturity in captivity.
Although, unfortunately, the experiment was
a comparative failure, yet it has conveyed a
mass of information which should be of service
to the student. We certainly did succeed in
getting a single specimen in the subimago
stage, and are able to deduce from this, not
quite as an established fact, but yet as fairly
free from doubt, the statement that the life
of the insect from egg to imago is approximately one year.
The first batch of eggs was taken on
18th July, 1887, and after many anxious, and
sometimes despairing, examinations, the first
larvae hatched on the 8th February, 1888,
and they went on hatching until the 27th
of that month. It would be out of place
here to treat of the embryology of the species
as noted by Mr, Hawksley. Possibly, however, at some future date he may be persuaded
to collate his notes, and publish them in book
or pamphlet form, when they must infallibly
prove of interest and advantage to students
desirous of following up the subject.
The genus Ephemerella, of which the Blue
Winged Olive is the species ignita, belongs
to the group classified by Pictet as larves
rampantes, or crawling larvae. The eggs,
which are  a  blue green   colour, are  dropped  PLATE   V.
BLUE WINGED   OLIVE.
;Mr
^#1P5M
Fig. 3 EPHEMERIDaE
65
by the female imago in a round bunch. They
sink to the bottom of the water, and adhere
generally to stones on the bed of the river;
they swell, and in time hatch. The appearance of the newly-born larva and eggs at
this stage is shown in Plate V., fig. 1. The
larva at the age of three months is shown
in fig. 2 of the same plate, and the nymph in
Plate I., fig 5.
The following is an abbreviated form of
Eaton's description. Nymph latent under
stones or among weeds. Body broadest at
the metathorax. Abdomen plump, slightly
convex beneath, and somewhat quadrangu-
larly arched above in segments 2-9. This
angularity is due to longitudinal protuberances, one on each side of the middle of
the back, extending from segments 2-9. Tracheal branchiae are borne by the segments
yj, and diminish in size successively from
the foremost, those of segment 7 being
completely covered by those of segment 6,
and hence not visible on the plate referred
to. The foremost branchiae are broad and
obliquely quadrilateral, and the hindermost
are nearly oval, with an ear-shaped base at
the lower side. The other branchiae exhibit
gradations of form intermediate between these.
■o
Caudal setae are thickly fringed in the central
portions   with   hairs    that   gradually   become
5 66 DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
less  dense  at  the  roots  and  extreme points
of the tails.
The Blue Winged Olive {Ephemerella ignita
in the subimago stage) has wings of a shade
intermediate between that of the Olive Dun
and the Iron Blue Dun. They are distinctly
darker and bluer than those of the Olive,
but not so dark as those of the Iron Blue.
Eaton describes them as "black grey." The
thorax and body are generally of a strong
greenish olive, and the legs and setae of an
olive grey tint. Plate V., fig. 3 is the male,
and fig. 4 the female of this species.
It can be distinguished from the Olive Dun
by the setae, of which the Olive has two, and
the Blue Winged Olive three. Apart from the
size, the three setae distinguish it from the
Iron Blue, and the darker colour of the fore-
wings, together with the form and neuration
of both fore- and hind-wings, are so marked
that it is not easily confused with the Olive
or Pale Watery Duns. It is essentially a
summer and autumn fly on the Test and
Itchen, but on the Kennet is seen as often
as the Olive Dun at the opening of the
season. It must be remembered, however,
that the small Ephemeridae are not plentiful
on the Kennet in the spring. Pictet figures
this insect under three names, viz. :—Pota-
manthus erythrophthalmus, Pot. aeneus, and
Pot. gibbus.  PLATE VI.
SHERRY   SPINNER.
\       I
\
\W//
IllPfl
lH
;         ,                    /
\
\
- V
X
3
Fig. 3
^ EPHEMERIDaE
67
The spinners of the Blue Winged OliveMaIe spinner,
are called by anglers Sherry Spinners, and
the male is shown in Plate VI., fig. 1, the
head and eyes in profile fig. 3, and the abdominal forceps fig. 4. The head is of a yellow
fawn shade, the upper division of the eyes
ruddy brown, and the lower of a paler and
more yellow shade. The thorax is a dark
red brown, and the abdomen of a similar
colour, but paler in shade. The setae are
grey, and the legs almost sulphur colour.
The wings are glassy, with dark amber-
coloured nervures.
The  spinner  of  the   female   Blue Winged Female
1 °       spinner.
Olive is that from which the common name
"Sherry Spinner" is derived. This is not
a very descriptive name for the insect,
but since it is well known, and as possibly
there may be sherry of the colour of the
body, it is perhaps convenient to retain it.
The female imago shown in Plate VI., fig. 2,
has glassy wings, pale grey setae, and olive
grey legs. Its head and eyes are dark, and
the abdomen has a sort of yellow-ochre
colour, slightly tinged with green. The
sherry spinner is usually seen on summer
evenings flying slowly before the wind over
the water. It is generally present in clouds,
and formerly the late Mr. Marryat and I,
looking   at  some  of   them   against   the  skv» 68
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
took them for a flight of ants, and therefore, neither of us being at the time interested
in that group, did not attempt to secure
specimens.
One evening, however, my friend noticed
that they were dipping on to the surface of the
stream ; this at once roused our suspicions, and
getting a butterfly net, we commenced taking
some for observation. They were a revelation
to us ; each sherry spinner was carrying, held
against the hinder end of her abdomen, a
little blue-green round ball of eggs, and at the
least touch this object was liberated. The
eggs were held in position by the pressure
of the three setae, which were doubled under
the abdomen and kept up to the thorax.
Nature has provided a curious arrangement
at the entrance of the oviducts, in the shape
of projecting lobes to form a resting-place for
the ball of eggs, shown in Plate VI., fig. 5.
The reason of our mistaking the sherry
spinners in the air for winged ants was
that the setae turned up under the abdomen
were of course invisible, and the ball of eggs
was suggestive of the form of an ant's body.
The first time the reader has the opportunity,
he is advised to look at a flight of these
spinners, and he will certainly be struck by
the wonderful similarity of their appearance
with that of the winged ants.   EPHEMERIDaE
THE   MAYFLY.
So much has been written about the Mayfly,
and in such extravagant terms, that I am
almost tempted to plunge into the scientific
description without preliminaries. We have
St. Mayfly, Mayfly carnival, Mayfly gorge,
&c, ad nauseam, and what does it all amount
to ? Simply that for perhaps a fortnight there
is a chance of getting a number of the ugly
old cannibals present in every stream, and
an occasional specimen of a really good fish,
of a size unusual for the dry-fly fisherman on
the particular river. What follows ? Every
man who has or rents water, or who has a
friend willing to give leave, the pot-hunter
who has the impudence to ask permission of
a perfect stranger and gets a favourable reply
—in fact, everyone who by any means whatever
can get the opportunity, is at the river-side.
They all commence hammering the fish before
they are feeding on the winged insect at all,
kill a few, and make all the rest shy of man,
gut, or fly for at least a fortnight.
Of course there is a certain charm about it,
the most lovely time of the year, the long
days, the continual excitement, and the out-of-
door life, all tending to make it a sort of picnic.
One of the best (if not the best) fishermen in
the old Houghton Club,  when other members DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
were deploring the disappearance of the Mayfly, said that in his experience, provided the
supply of insect food is ample in a river, the
absence of Mayfly is rather an advantage than
the opposite ; and I am rapidly arriving at the
conclusion that this opinion is sound. Some of
the ultra dry-fly purists, " encore plus royalistes
que le roi," have called Mayfly fishing poaching, and only comparable to minnow or worm.
In this they are wrong, as it is certainly the
most difficult form of dry-fly fishing, and perhaps, taking one season with another, the most
disappointing.
Having, with the assistance of Mr. Hawksley,
hatched some Mayfly larvae in captivity, I can
say with certainty that eggs laid on the 9th
June hatched out in London on the 15th
August in the same year, or a little short of
ten weeks. A keeper of great experience on
one of the best parts of the Test, and an
accurate observer, tells me that he has col-
ected thousands of Mayfly eggs in large
bottles, and finds that they hatch out on that
river in three weeks. Although the hatching-
out of the eggs may be affected by the temperature of the water, I doubt whether difference of
temperature alone is sufficient to account for
this startling discrepancy. At the same time
I have full confidence in the bona-fides of
my informant.    Mr.  Eaton   suggests that the  PLATE   VIII.
MAYFLY.
IMAGO   $. EPHEMERIDaE
hatching in London may have been retarded
by diminution in amount or deficiency of bright
sunshine.
The average number of eggs laid by a
Mayfly, as computed from six specimens from
which they were dissected, is approximately
6,500. Although the attempt to keep them
alive until they arrived at maturity was unsuccessful, yet from the variation in size of
the larvae taken from the river at different
times and seasons it may be inferred that the
larval and nymphal stages of the Mayfly last
certainly two, and possibly three, years.
The Mayfly belongs to the genus Ephemera, and in rapid streams Ephemera danica
is the prevailing species, while in slow rivers
or lakes E. vulgata is more usually found.
There is a third species, E. line at a, which
is comparatively rare ; but for the angler's
purpose they may all be considered as practically one. Strange to say the E. danica
of modern nomenclature is styled E. vulgata
by Pictet, and the modern E. vulgata is neither
named nor described. The E. danica of Pictet
is the E. lineata of Eaton and the modern
school of entomologists.
The genus Ephemera is one of the larves
fouisseuses, or digging larvae of Pictet, and the
nymph is illustrated on Plate I., fig. 1. An
abbreviated  description   of  the   nymph   is  as
Scientific
names.
Larva and
nymph. DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
Subimago.
follows: " Head narrowed anteriorly and armed
in front with two conical projections; mandibles
tusked, the tusks subulate, curved slightly upwards and towards their extremities outwards,
their tips interlocking when the jaws are closed.
Antennae setaceous—Branchiae attached to the
hinder part of the first, second, third, fourth,
fifth, sixth and seventh segments of the body.
The first pair are minute, lineal, and fringeless;
the remaining branchiae consist each of two
narrow, leaf-shaped, membraneous leaves, tapering to a point and closely fringed on both sides.
Setae short and fringed with hairs on both sides.
Legs stout and muscular, covered with hairs,
especially the anterior pair."
The Subimago of which the male is shown
in fig. i and the female in fig. 2 of Plate VII.,
has wings of a blue green grey tint, thickly
covered with short thorn-shaped hairs, and
fringed with hairs along the posterior margin
and base ; the veins and cross veins are of a
brownish hue, their bordering forming (through
confluence) spots in the midst of the fore-wings.
The head is dark brown, the thorax olive with
pitch brown markings, the first seven segments
of the abdomen a pale yellowish straw colour
with dark brown markings, and the hinder segments a dark ochre ground with dark brown
markings on them. The legs are olive brown
and the setae pitch brown.  MAYFLY.
IMAGO  ? . EPHEMERIDaE
73
The male imago (Plate VIII.) has a black Imas°'male-
head, thorax blue black, abdomen with the foremost four or five segments ivory white, and the
hinder segments deep brown, all more or less
marked with dark brown streaks. The legs
are pitch black and the forelegs very long.
The setae are very long also and deep brown
in colour. The wings are transparent but
slightly tinged with a pale grey, and the
nervures are nearly black. This fly becomes
darker, probably from exposure to light, so
that at the end of the Mayfly season assemblies
of males dancing up and down in the air look
dark brown or nearly black.
The female imago (Plate IX.) is very like imago,femaie.
the male in colouring, but the fore-legs and
setae are much shorter, and the insect itself
much larger than the male. The wings are
transparent with a metallic blue grey sheen,
and the darker portions of the thorax, hind
segments of abdomen, legs, &c, are more
brown and less black in colour. At the last
stage, when, after depositing all her eggs, the
fly lies flat upon the water with extended
wings, she is the "Spent Gnat" of the angler.
When engaged in laying her eggs, just dipping
upon the surface of the stream, every time she
touches the water some of them are washed off,
and in flying up again others move down to the
orifice of the oviducts to be washed off at the DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Turkey
brown.
next dip, and so on until the laying is finished.
I have counted more than fifty dips made by
individuals when laying their eggs.
The March Brown is the subimago of
Ecdyurus venosus (Baetis venosa of Pictet) and
although not frequenting the chalk streams, yet
it is undoubtedly an acceptable form of food
to the trout in rapid stony hill streams and
some North country and other rivers where it
is found in great numbers. The outline sketch
at page 34, fig. 2, coupled with the following
brief description, should enable an observant
angler to identify it.
It is a large fly of the usual form of the Ephemeridae, the wings of the female measuring about
•55, and of the male '50 of an inch ; the body of
the female about '65 and of the male *6o of an
inch. It has two dark brown setae, a reddish
brown thorax and body of reddish brown, with
light fawn coloured joinings. The wings are
a faint brown colour with strong brown nervures, and the legs more or less dark brown
in colour. The nymph, one of Pictet's larves
plattes, can be identified from Plate I., fig. 2.
The imago of the March Brown is the Great
Red Spinner of Ronalds.
The only insect likely to be mistaken for the
March Brown is the Turkey Brown, or subimago of Leptophlebia submarginata. The
fact,  however,   that this  is  much smaller and EPHEMERIDaE
has three caudal setae, ought to enable anyone
to distinguish between the two flies.
The Little Yellow May Dun of Ronalds is ^leJndlow
altogether of a pale lemon yellow colour with
blue eyes (turning black, however, inspirit). Its
spinner has transparent wings with pitch-black
neuration, excepting that, towards the roots,
the principal nervures are often tinged with
greenish or amber yellow. The body is of an
ochre yellow shade, becoming darker and
browner on the back. It has two setae and
the nymph (one of Pictet's larves plattes) is
very similar to Ecdyurus and included in the
same group. It is called Heptagenia sulphurea
by Eaton, and Baetis cyanops or B. sulphurea
by Pictet.
The little insect shown on the accompanying Caenis.
block (fig. 8) is of the genus
Caenis. It is figured and
noticed here because, although from the experience
of autopsy there is no reason
to believe that it forms in any
great degree food for the
trout, it is desirable to dispel
certain illusions and remove wrong impressions. Periodically, some fisherman asks questions about what he calls the "little white curse,"
and straightway numerous letters appear on the
subject.    Some one, speaking of the clouds of 76
DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
Caenis on the calm June evening, will proceed to
argue that, because the fish were rising at an
insect which he could not see, and because he
was unsuccessful in catching a single trout, all
that he required was an imitation of this, the
smallest of the Ephemeridae. Some other
eminent authority then tells of the strange
thing that happened when the insects settled
on his hands and face and bit or stung him.
To answer these points : Firstly, what fly-
fishermen call Curses are Diptera, but this is
one of the Ephemeridae. Secondly, in many
hundreds of autopsies I have never found a
single specimen of Caenis in a trout or grayling.
Thirdly, Caenis has no sting, and the mouth
organs are so aborted that it is incapable of
biting. The tiny insects usually appear in
countless numbers on hot, calm evenings
when the fish are likely to be rising freely
at various other flies on the water; and they
settle down on the clothes, the hands, face or
any other part of the fisherman only because
they require some firm object to stand upon
while casting their subimago skin and emerging as the imago or perfect insect. CHAPTER   II.
TRICHOPTERA.
HP HE Trichoptera or Caddis-flies are classed
* by some authorities among the Neurop-
tera and by others are constituted as a separate
order. It is not a matter of moment to fly fishermen which alternative is adopted, nor whether
the old appellation of Phryganidae is applied
to them, or the comparatively modern one of
Trichoptera. The angler should, however, be
aware of the fact that under these titles are included all the aquatic insects the larvae of which
make cases, either movable ones that they drag
about with them, or fixed ones that they anchor
to large stones and leave or enter at their
pleasure. In the winged or imago state they are
occasionally taken by trout and grayling, but as
larvae, at all times of the year, they are almost
invariably present, in considerable numbers, in
every trout or grayling subjected to autopsy.
Pictet, who calls them Phryganidae, says that identificati
they form part of the insects classed as Neu-
roptera; and that they are easily distinguished
from other families of this order by the presence
of several characteristics, viz. : the pent-house DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
form of their wings, the lower or hind ones
generally folded lengthwise ; their five-jointed
tarsi or feet, their long filiform antennae, the
absence of mandibles, and their complete metamorphosis. For the fisherman the accompanying block (fig. 9), showing in profile one of the
so-called Caperers {Halesus radiatus), will indi
cate fairly the general appearance of these
insects. To this may be added that they are
commonly of a cinnamon or brown colour,
(lighter or darker); that the wings are four in
number, the hinder ones generally broader than
the forewings, and both pairs covered with hairs ;
and that all members of the group have long
antennae made up of many joints, and then there
should be no difficulty in their identification.
The following is an abbreviated form of
McLachlan's description of the adult insects :—
The head is small, wider than its length, and TRICHOPTERA
79
generally covered with hairs. The antennae are
multi-articulate and generally tapering towards
the tips ; their basal joints are attached to the
head in front of the eyes. The compound eyes
{oculi) are hemispherical and finely faceted.
The simple eyes {ocelli) are either absent or
three in number. As to the mouth organs, the
maxillce are small, and the maxillary palpi vary
much in construction. In all female Trichoptera (except in the foreign genus Thamastes)
these palpi are five-pointed; but in males the
number of the joints ranges from three or
four in genera of one Division of the Order to
five in genera of the other Division. In one
group (Sericostomatidce) the palpi present some
strange modifications of form in the male, but
with this exception their structure is identical
in both sexes. There are no mandibles, or at
most mere rudimentary traces of these organs.
The prothorax is short,  forming a  narrow Thorax,
ring  in   which   the   head moves.    The mesothorax is large, and the metathorax smaller and
triangular.
The legs are long, slender, and have five- Less-
jointed tarsi, the last joint carrying a pair of
claws. The tibiae are armed with movable
spurs in addition to hairs and strong spines.
The disposition and number of these spurs are
factors of some importance in classification.
The abdomen is composed of nine segments, Abdomen. 8o
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
although frequently only eight are visible. For
the identification of species the anal appendages attached to the end segment of the body
are of great value. In the male there are
ordinarily three pairs of such appendages, the
superior, intermediate and inferior, the two
former appertaining to the last dorsal, and the
latter to the last ventral segment. Besides
these appendages there are also the penis and
its sheaths varying in position, and of use in
classification. In the female there is less complexity and the parts are less distinct.
Wings. There are invariably four wings.    The fore-
wings are more leathery than the hind ones,
and in repose are closed up and deflexed in an
almost vertical manner, giving the insect a
narrow and elongate appearance. Almost
without exception they are clothed with hairs
or pubescence more or less dense in its nature,
and sometimes obliterating the nervures. The
hind wings are broader and more transparent,
folded longitudinally in repose and less thickly
covered with hairs. Both pairs of wings have
numerous longitudinal nervures, but the transverse nervules are few. As usual, wing neu-
ration is an essential feature in determining
family, genus, and sometimes species.
According to McLachlan, at the time of his
writing, 409 species of Trichoptera had been
found within the geographical limits of Europe,
of which 148 are natives of the British Isles. TRICHOPTERA
HABITS AND METAMORPHOSES.
Anyone studying the family of the Caddis
flies cannot fail to be struck by the wonderful
instinct which prompts the larvae of many
genera to form tubes, to cover these tubes with
various materials arranged in various forms,
to select these materials, and so proportion
their weight and bulk as to form a structure
strong enough to serve as protection, heavy
enough to withstand the force of the current,
and yet not too heavy to be dragged about by
them with comparative ease. It is strange,
too, that larvae, apparently identical in structure with these, should, instead of making
portable cases, fix their habitations firmly
to large stones and sally forth defenceless to
feed.
Pictet says : "It would be difficult for one
who has only vaguely considered the riches of
nature to imagine that the smallest brook, or
even a little muddy pond, should contain so
many marvels, and yet what incredible activity
reigns in the waters that irrigate the land.
Fish, molluscs, crustaceans, worms, and insects
are so numerous there that it may be said without fear of contradiction that the water is more
densely populated than the land.
" This great population of the water is often
composed of species inimical to one another,
among which the absolute reign of force results
6 S2
DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
in the weaker generally serving as food for the
stronger. Hence it comes that small species
must have a means of preserving themselves
from the large ones, and in particular the
larvae of the Phryganidae (Trichoptera), soft
and inactive, would have been too easily destroyed without the faculty that has been bestowed on them of making these cases for their
protection."
Oviposition. The eggs are often carried in an oval bundle
on the underside of the abdomen- of the females,
and are enveloped in a gelatinous covering.
Occasionally the masses are carried considerable distances before the insects deposit them
either on leaves or stems of water-plants, or,
by dipping and fluttering upon the surface,
let them sink to the river bed where they
adhere to stones. It is said that, like a few
individual Ephemeridae, some species descend
into the water to select a spot favourable for
the reception of the eggs, and it is not unusual
to find specimens covered by extraneous
matter which would lead one to suppose that
they had been right down to the mud.
The Grannom {Brachycentrus subnubilus)
certainly does generally descend into the
water and deposit the bunches of bluish-
oreen eggs on posts or piers of bridges, stems
or other portions of aquatic plants, stones or
other suitable positions ; a few days after their TRICHOPTERA
83
deposition they swell considerably, and the
eggs can be distinctly seen with an ordinary
hand magnifier. In about three weeks they
hatch, and their general appearance as well as
that of the new-born larvae at this stage is
shown in Plate X., fig. 1, drawn from specimens hatched in captivity by Mr. Hawksley.
The Trichoptera larvae are divided into two Larva?.
well-marked divisions, viz. : (1) larvae making
portable cases, which they drag about with
them wherever they go, and (2) larvae making
fixed cases generally attached to large stones,
issuing from them to roam in quest of food and
returning to them for repose. Among the
Trichoptera treated herein, the Rhyacophilidae
alone make fixed cases.
Soon after they are born the larvae leave
the jelly-like mass in which the eggs were
enveloped, and at once commence case making.
It may here be remarked that as a rule the
larvae in this order are vegetable feeders, living
on leaves and shoots of plants such as the
Water celery {Apium inundatum), Water
Crowfoot (Ranunculus aquatilis), Sec. They
do not, however, despise larvae of other
aquatic insects, whether those of the smaller
Ephemeridae, or Gnats and other Diptera, or
even those of their own genera, which, before
devouring, they tear from the cases.
Amongst the  most  interesting points  con
Larvae making
movable cases. DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
nected with a Caddis are the form of the case,
and the materials of which it is composed.
Some larvae use stones, others sand, some
diverse vegetable matter such as leaves, small
twigs, reeds, and any stray particles of plants
found in the water; others again use partly
mineral and partly vegetable matter. As a
foundation for the external covering, all Caddis
larvae spin a silken subcylindrical tube, which
is generally broad at the fore end, and comparatively narrow at the hinder.
When the extraneous substance fastened to
the exterior of this tube is sand or very fine
small stones, the case is regular in contour,
but when vegetable fragments are introduced
regularity is lost, the most irregular of all cases
being those of larvae employing both mineral
and vegetable materials in their construction.
Some of the cases built only of vegetable
matter, are, however, very neatly made, the
fragments being cut into equal lengths and
arranged in a regular spiral. Among such
are the cases of the Large Red Sedge {Phry-
ganea striata). Another insect, the Grannom
{Brachycentrus subnubilus), makes a quadrangular case, formed of vegetable matter,
slightly tapered towards the tail.
Whatever shape the case may take, it must
not be too heavy for the insect to be able to
move with it easily, nor so buoyant as to en- TRICHOPTERA
85
danger its footing. The larva in walking protrudes out of the case its head, thorax and legs,
and by means of two horny hooks at the tail
end of its body, holds on to the interior of the
case and drags it along as it progresses. If
danger threatens it withdraws out of sight into
the case for protection. As the Caddis grows
it cuts away part of the case at the smaller end,
and constructs a new section sufficiently large
in diameter for comfort at the other, or if the
case is wide enough but too short an addition
is built on of the same diameter.
A number of experiments have been tried as
to the effect of forcibly removing a Caddis from
its case. If left in the water near the case the
creature sooner or later crawls back into it head
first, its relative position towards the case being
thus reversed, but the sheath in some species is
sufficiently wide to enable it to right itself by
turning round inside. Where this is impracticable it cuts off the tail end and makes there
a new front to the tube as large as the anterior
end of the original case. Should the case be
removed the larva will in time make a new one
of any materials available, and Caddis have
thus been persuaded to build cases of coloured
beads  and  other   unusual and unnatural sub-
Mouth organs consist of labrum, mandibles, Description of
0 larva.
maxillae,  and  labium—labium bi-lobed ;   man- 86
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Preparations
for the meta
morphosis to
the pupa.
dibles generally blunt-ended, and therefore
adapted for dealing with vegetable matter,
either for food or for cutting it into pieces
for making the case ; maxillae attached to the
labium, each composed of a thick ovoid base
and a small scaly tip with two very small
teeth ; thorax in three distinct segments carrying the legs, and having no external respiratory
organs ; legs—fore-legs shortest and strongest;
medial legs weaker than the fore-legs and
shorter than the hind legs ; abdomen soft and
pale coloured, in nine segments, the first
tougher than the rest and usually terminated
by three fleshy humps, apparently retractile at
the will of the larva ; the remaining segments
yellow or whitish ; segments 2-8 usually have
each a band of hairs on each side, and in some
genera carry the tracheal branchiae ; at the end
of the last segment are two movable hooks, by
means of which the creature holds on to the
case, and so powerful are they that an attempt
to pull it out of the case by force usually results
in the larva being torn in, two. Plate X.,
fig. 2 shows larva and case of one of the
Limnophilidae; fig. 3 larva and case of another
of the Limnophilidae; and fig. 4 larva and case
of a dark sedge {Anabolia nervosa).
When the larva is full grown it prepares for
the next change by closing the end of the
case.    Some kinds close the anterior orifice of PLATE   X.
CADDIS.
Fig.   i
mm
ps^
^i^Slfe,
O— A v
Fig. 4  TRICHOPTERA
87
the case by means of a grating or sieve made
of the same silk as is used for the internal
lining of the tube. This grating closes the
opening, and yet allows the flow of water necessary for respiratory purposes. Sometimes
small pieces of wood, leaves, or stones are also
fastened obliquely across the entrance of the
case, but not so closely as to render it impervious to water. Besides these precautions, the
larvae inhabiting rapid water fasten their cases
to large stones or other solid and heavy bodies
to prevent their being washed away.
The larvae with fixed cases proceed generally Laroe with
. fixed cases.
on a uniform plan of construction. A heavy
stone being selected, the larva collects a number of little bits of stone and attaches them to
the lower side by means of the silk, forming a
house closed all over except at one point, where
a small irregular-shaped opening is left, large
enough for ingress and exit. The shape of
this retreat is usually a long oval, cylindrical
in section. When full-grown the larva closes
up the case altogether, but water flows through
the interstices between the stones. The larva
then becomes enveloped in a brown horny
cocoon, and its metamorphosis to the pupa
takes place in this skin. On Plate XII.,
fig. 1, is shown a larva of Rhyacophila dorsalis,
one of the Caddis, with fixed cases, and figs. 2
and 3  show the case made by this insect, as 88 DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
well as a pupa enveloped in the cocoon. The
description of one of these larvae is given at
page 96 under the heading of Rhyacophila
dorsalis.
The larva then, whether in the case of the
movable or of the fixed type, undergoes the
change to the pupa, which is quiescent except
for a constant oscillation of the abdomen. The
drawing of a pupa of Rhyacophila dorsalis,
Plate XII., fig. 4, shows the general appearance
of the insect in this stage. It will be noted
that the wings are folded up, and the antennae
and legs close to the body ; the eyes also are
abnormally large, and there is a beak-shaped
projection in the neighbourhood of the mouth.
This beak consists of two hook-shaped mandibles, and is used to tear open or break down
the grating across the aperture at the anterior
end of the case of the portable type, or the
stones stopping up the entrance of one of the
fixed type. Having thus opened the case it
creeps out, enveloped in a thin pupal skin,
swims up through the water,' generally on its
back, and crawls along stones or weeds until
it finds a convenient place for effecting the
next and last change, preference being given
to a dry spot. Here it rests for a few minutes,
and the skin having been distended splits along
the back. First the head emerges, and then in
succession the antennae, legs and wings.    Mean- TRICHOPTERA 89
while the abdomen moves about and struggles
out of the pupal skin, and the perfect insect,
which has no further change to undergo, stands
free.
The new-born flies are soft in consistence, imago,
and pale, not acquiring their full colouration
until some hours have passed. They fly well,
but generally stay in the vicinity of water,
hidden usually among the sedges during the
day, and seen chiefly in the evening or at
night. The insect lives about a year, spending
by far the greater part of it in the larval form.
Sexual intercourse takes place on the sedges,
boughs, hatches, or even walls; soon afterwards the eggs are laid as previously described,
and the insect dies, having accomplished its
task, viz., that of procreation.
The above is necessarily a somewhat brief
history of the habits and metamorphoses of the
Trichoptera, but it will probably be found
sufficient to enable the fisherman to recognise
the larvae, pupae, or imagines, when they meet
his eye at the river-side.
Anglers usually style the Caddis flies seen in Sedge Flies,
summer evenings on the water, Sedge flies or
Caperers. They differ considerably in size
and in colour; some species are light, others
comparatively dark; some have self-coloured
wings, others speckled wings, and some (the
so-called  Caperers) have  blotched  wings.    It 9o DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
would be possible, no doubt, to work out and
give in detail the family, genus, and species of
every one of them, but this would require an
inordinate amount of space, and be of no real
practical use to the fisherman. To show the
great variety of these flies to be found on a
good trout stream, the following from the Test
at Houghton were kindly named for me by
Rev. A. E. Eaton, viz.: Caperer (Halesus
radiatus), Large Red Sedge (Phryganea
striata), Brown Silverhorns (Notidobia ciliaris),
a medium-sized Sedge (Rhyacophila dorsalis),
Grannom (Brachycentrus subnubilus), Welshman's Button (Sericostoma personatum), Black
Silverhorns (Mystacides nigra), Dark Sedge
(Anabolia nervosa), besides the following to
which I can give no English names:—Limno-
philus rhombicus, Limnophilus lunatus, Steno-
phylax stellatus, Drusus annulatus, Chaetopteryx
villosa, Goera pilosa, Lepidostoma hirtum,
Molanna angustata, Odontocerum albicorne,
Leptocerus cinereus, Polycentropus flavo-
maculatus, Tinodes waeneri, Psychomyia pus-
ilia, Chimarrha marginata, and one female of
which he could only identify the genus as
Hydropsyche. As the genera and species
differ chiefly in small details and size, I think
that a description of the first six in this list will
amply serve all useful purposes so far as this
work is concerned. TRICHOPTERA
THE   CAPERER.
The name Caperer is applied by the fly-
fisherman to all cinnamon-coloured Caddis flies
with blotched or mottled wings. Probably the
name was originally derived from the peculiar
dipping motion on the surface of streams, in
which these insects indulge. The motion is
not confined to any particular family, genus,
or species, but is common to most of the
female Trichoptera when over the water.
Hence what are known as Caperers vary
much in size and in colour, comprising, as
they do, flies of many species, genera, and
families. I have taken here, however, as the
type of the Caperers, the largest, which is
classed by McLachlan among the family of
Limnophilidae and named Halesus radiatus.
The same insect is placed by Pictet among the
Phryganidae proper and called Phryganea
digitata, classification in his days not having
advanced to the separation of the two families.
The larva is large, and inhabits running Larva,
water. Its head and thorax are brown with
black markings, the abdomen yellow, with a
few thread-like tracheal branchiae, the legs of
medium length and brown. Its case is very
solid, composed of slips of wood and vegetable
debris, arranged, some longitudinally, some
obliquely, and some in a moderately regular
spiral.     Beyond   the   hinder end  of the case 92 DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
longer and stronger twigs are often seen projecting; but, before pupating, the larvae usually
cut off all projections. They live under
stones, or in some instances attach themselves
to weeds. Pictet says the flies usually appear
at the end of September or commencement of
October, but in this country they are often
seen much earlier in the year.
Head brown, thorax light brown with its
upper side darker. Abdomen cinnamon brown
but darker above. Legs fawn-coloured with
black spines. Fore-wings broad, closely covered
with dark brown hairs, the apex broadly and
obtusely parabolic, the nervures yellowish
white and the membrane between them mottled
with brown and yellowish spots or streaks.
The hind wings transparent yellowish. General
colouring of the insect cinnamon inclining to
brown on the body and thorax and to yellow
on the wings. The outline block, fig. 9, at
p. 78 is a fair likeness of this Caperer.
THE  LARGE  RED  SEDGE.
So far as chalk stream fishermen are concerned this is certainly the largest of the British
Trichoptera. It is classed by McLachlan in
the family Phryganidae, genus Phryganea,
and species striata. Phryganea grandis is a
trifle larger, but I have never to my knowledge seen a specimen of it, while of P. striata  PLATE   XI.
CADDIS  FLY.
LARGE   RED   SEDGE
^^^^^S^fw^M TRICHOPTERA
93
on Test, Itchen, and Kennet there has in no
season been a scarcity within my memory.
This is the large sedge which is prevalent on
calm evenings during the rise of Mayfly or on
parts of the rivers where the Mayfly is not seen
during the month of June. It is so striking in
aspect and so much bigger than any other
sedge fly that it hardly needs description. Across
the outstretched wings a fair specimen measures
i *8o inches, and its body from head to tail 'g of
an inch in length. Its antennae are about 'g of
an inch and its hind legs are '75 of an inch
long. Its colour is generally of a red brown
tint, darkest at the head and thorax, but a
shade lighter in the abdomen, antennae and
legs ; the wings are of quite a light brown.
The larva is large and stout, with brown Larva,
head and thorax, short brownish legs, and fawn-
coloured abdomen. The case is made of small
pieces of weed and leaves arranged spirally, and
measures altogether over ij inches in length.
It is said by Pictet that although the case is
constructed at first wholly of vegetable matter,
yet, as it requires repairs or lengthening to
accommodate the increasing size of the growing
larva, the repairs and additions are made with
small stones, so that eventually the Caddis is
almost entirely enveloped in mineral matter.
The Imago is thus briefly described :—Head imago.
and antennae dark brown, thorax and legs light 94
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
brown. Abdomen brownish above, but the
entire under side of the body is ochraceous.
Fore-wings, especially in the male, elongate and
narrow, pale brown in colour. The hind wings
wide in proportion to their length and folded
longitudinally, transparent, and of a pale brown
colour. In Plate XL this insect is illustrated, and there should be no difficulty in
identifying it from the details given. Possibly
a specimen of the larger species Phryganea
grandis might be mistaken for this, but that
would not be a matter of any great moment to
the fisherman, as in colour, shape, and detail the
two insects are almost identical, and the difference of size is unimportant.
BROWN SILVERHORNS.
Caddis flies are often seen hovering about in
great numbers close to the surface of a stream
in the evening. They are remarkable for the
length of their antennae, and are usually called
Silverhorns by fishermen. There are two sorts,
one the Black Silverhorns, the smaller of the
two, which do not appear very attractive to
the fish ; at least, they are seldom found in
autopsies. This is known to scientists as
Mystacides nigra, and is curious because at
the margin of the posterior wings there is a
short series of little hooks (each thickened and
upturned  at the tip),  which fit into a narrow  dflk
msm
x 3
PLATE XII.
CADDIS  FLY.
Rhyacophila Dorsalis.
mm
Fig. 3
/  I  1   I \
*■* TRICHOPTERA
95
fold at the inner margin of the fore-wings,
keeping the two wings coupled together when
in flight. The other sort, the Brown Silverhorns, is named by McLachlan Notidobia cili-
avtris, and by Pictet, Sericostoma atratum. It
is larger than the Black Silverhorns, and
better appreciated by the trout.
The larva inhabits streams, makes a conical Larva-
case, tapering towards the hinder end, and the
covering of the case is usually, but not invariably, formed of sand or small stones. This
larva does not appear to be very well known,
as Pictet was unacquainted with it, and it is not
described by McLachlan.
The imago is dark brown, nearly black in Imas°-
the head and thorax, the abdomen brown and
the legs a yellowish colour. The wings are
brown, sparingly dotted with spots of a paler
colour, not easily seen owing to the dense
hair with which they are covered. Pictet says
that it is usually plentiful in May, McLachlan
that it appears from the end of March to June,
adding that in northern districts it would seem
to occur later, for Kolenati says it is found at
St. Petersburg in July, and Zetterstedt gives
August (!) as the time of its appearance in
Lapland. In Plate XIII., fig. i, an illustration is given. 96
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Pupa.
RHYACOPHILA DORSALIS.
I can give no English name for this insect,
but it is one of the medium-sized light-coloured
Sedges, and is very plentiful on the Test and
other chalk streams, appearing from May to
October. Rh. dorsalis is the commonest
British species of its genus Rhyacophila, the
type of the family of Rhyacophilidae. It is the
Rhyacophila vulgaris of Pictet and Stephens.
The larva of this insect is one of those
which make fixed cases and inhabit rapid
streams. The cases are somewhat oval,
formed of fragments of stone affixed to rocks
or larger stones. The larva is narrow and
elongate, gradually attenuate towards each extremity, with very strongly defined segments.
The head is a long oval with powerful mandibles, like the prothorax chitinous, while the
remaining segments of the thorax and abdomen are soft; the terminal segment is divided
into two processes, each furnished with a long
double claw. The legs are short and equal,
or nearly so, ending in a powerful claw with
a basal tooth. The larva is shown in Plate
XII., fig. i, its fixed case, with the long oval
brown cocoon enclosing the pupa at fig. 2,
and the pupa in the cocoon at fig. 3.
The pupa has powerful mandibles, strongly
toothed within and finely serrated along the
inner edge.    The wings are folded and encased,  PLATE   XIII.
CADDIS  FLIES.
Fig.  i
W
^
£388 TRICHOPTERA
97
the antennae and legs laid down against the
body. The legs are not fringed, and McLachlan, from whose description the above is abbreviated, infers from this absence of fringes on
the lep"s that, instead of swimming, it crawls
along rocks and stones to the surface. An
illustration of this pupa is given in Plate XII.,
fig. 4.
Head and thorax red brown ; abdomen a imago,
light brown ; legs a little darker than the body ;
fore-wings a greyish yellow ground colour (the
2 darker, often nearly uniformly brownish),
with ill-defined darker markings and a tolerably distinct dorsal blotch ; hind wings paler
and more transparent. Across its outstretched
wings it measures a little less than 1 inch and
the body about \ inch in length. Plate XII.,
fig. 5, shows this fly.
WELSHMAN'S BUTTON.
About the end of May or commencement of
June, usually in the forenoon, there suddenly
appear great numbers of this fly, which seems
to be in continual motion on the surface as
if struggling upon the stream. It is usually
taken by fishermen for the alder- {Sialis
lutaria), an insect which, unless blown down
by the wind on rare occasions, is scarcely ever
seen on the water. The Welshman's Button is
7 98 DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
named by McLachlan Sericostoma personatum
or S. Spencii, and by Pictet S. collare.
The larva is so similar to that of Notidibia
ciliaris as not to need any detailed description.
Pictet says that it is easily distinguished by the
citron yellow colour of the abdomen and of the
two hinder segments of the thorax. The head
is a chocolate brown, the legs fawn coloured.
It makes a conical tapering case of small
stones, and when the time of metamorphosis
approaches closes the anterior orifice with the
same material.
Head and thorax dark brown, but covered
with yellowish hairs. Abdomen dark red
brown, legs golden brown with dark tarsi.
Fore-wings brown pink closely covered with
hairs. Hind wings paler and more transparent, but of a similar tone. Plate XIII.,
fig.  2, shows its general appearance.
GRANNOM.
Whenever it is plentiful this insect is well-
known to the fly-fisherman. From the middle
of April to the middle of May it appears on
some parts of the Test in clouds, and when it
is rising from the water the fish usually feed on
it voraciously. The clouds of dark coloured
grannom seeking a suitable place for the deposition of their eggs do not seem to offer any TRICHOPTERA
great attraction to the trout. By McLachlan
it is called Brachycentrus subnubilus, but it is
neither described nor figured by Pictet.
The larva is slender and subcylindrical, with Larva,
branchial filaments short and isolated. The
case is a quadrangular tube formed of vegetable matter, slightly diminishing in diameter
towards the tail. The species prefers rivers,
but occasionally breeds in canals with little
or no appreciable current. The imago is
a true spring insect, and almost invariably
swarms in immense multitudes where it occurs.
The pupa is very similar to that of Rhyaco- Pupa.
phila dorsalis, but has a dull blue green body.
It swims rapidly up through the water, and
generally spins round and round on the surface
as the thin pupal skin distends and splits and
the imago emerges.
Head and thorax black with grey hairs, imago.
Eyes dark brown, upper portion of the legs
dark brown, the lower yellowish. Fore-wings
with pale smoky grey coloured membrane
clothed with pale yellow hairs and marked
more or less with large pale yellowish spots.
Hind wings pale or dark smoky grey with
whitish fringes and fawn coloured neuration.
The body of the imago immediately after its
metamorphosis from the pupa is of a yellowish-
green grey colour. The female carries an
enormous oval mass of bluish green eggs en- DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
veloped in gelatinous matter. After the eggs
are voided, the body turns dark lead colour,
nearly black. This description with a reference to Plate XIII., fig. 3, should enable the
angler to recognise the insect.
Since the publication of the first edition of
this book I have often thought that there are
many dry-fly fishermen who would be glad to
be able to identify the various Caddis flies
found on their streams. With this object I
consulted my good friend the -Rev. A. E.
Eaton, and he has once more responded to
my appeal. The drawing of Index Wings
made by his own hands and the following
table compiled by him should enable any one
to determine the genus of any of the Trichoptera described or referred to in this work,
where that can be done without entering more
fully upon minutiae of detail than is here attempted. The material for the table is derived
partly verbatim from the monographs of Mr.
McLachlan on British and European Trichoptera, who selected from his own collection the
specimens used in preparation of the Index-
fig-ures of wings. CHAPTER   III.
PERLIDAE-
' I 1H E Perlidae or Stoneflies are certainly not
* so important for the dry-fly fisherman as
the two preceding families, but for the wet or
sunk-fly fisherman, or for one frequenting the
brooks and streams of the North, they are
essential. The Stonefly, from which the English name applied to this group of insects is
derived, is a large, fat, juicy morsel, whether in
the winged or imago form, or as the creeper,
by which name the larva is usually designated in our northern counties and in Scotland.
Wherever it is plentiful the trout feed on it
freely, but the imitations are not usually successful, and hence fly or creeper in the natural
state is more generally fished. For the dry-fly
purist there are two species which may serve as
food for the fish, the Yellow Sally (Chloroperla)
and the Willow Fly {Leuctra geniculata).
Having caught a specimen which he believes identification.
to be one  of the Perlidae, it is not a difficult
matter for the angler to make sure of the fact.
The salient features of the   order   are unmis- 102 DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
takable—the flat head with mandibles and
maxillae ; the long, thread-like antennae; the
four long, narrow wings, folded together so as
to appear but little wider than the back of the
insect when it is walking or in a state of repose
(which wings, during flight, set out at right
angles to the body, and fluttering backwards
and forwards, make the insect seem to be far
larger than it really is) ; the body in some
genera without setae and in others with two.
The  accompanying block, fig.  10,  shows the
Willow Fly (Leuctra geniculata) in   its natural
position when at  rest.
Description of     Head flat, broad.    Eyes hemispherical, often
Imago.
elongated. Ocelli three. The first joint of the
antennae cylindrical and stout, the second as
long as the first and half its diameter, the rest
very short and slender, gradually tapering
towards the tips Mouth organs—mandibles
and maxillae much smaller and softer than in
the larva,   maxillary  palpi  much longer than PERLIDaE
103
those of the larva. Thorax of three very
distinct segments, prothorax a thin disc, and
mesothorax and metathorax thicker. Abdomen very similar to that of the larva. In some
genera there are two ciliated multi-articulate
caudal setae, and in others none, or merely rudiments. Legs without apparent hairs, longer
and more slender than in the larva, each with
two thin claws and a pad. Wings large in
proportion to the insect, except in the case of
males of some genera, when they are quite
short and rudimentary. The fore-wings narrow
and long, and the hind wings much broader, all
with strongly-marked nervures.
METAMORPHOSES AND HABITS.
The eggs, which are oval and generally dark Oviposition.
in colour, are arranged in a bunch covered
by a thin skin and carried at the hinder end of
the abdomen. They are easily detached, and
are not surrounded by any gelatinous secretion. The female probably drops them while
flying at some distance above the water, and
they separate as they sink towards the bed of
the river. Pictet says that he has never seen
the female going under water to deposit eggs
like some of the Trichoptera and Ephemeridae.
The larvae are all aquatic, those belonging to Larvae,
the genus Perla always inhabiting rapid parts
of streams, and those of the genus Nemoura io4
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Description of
Larva.
(Pictet) frequenting, some species quick-running, and others comparatively'quiet and stagnant, water. They are usually hatched during
the summer and at the commencement of
autumn, from eggs deposited by the imago
shortly before. By the beginning of winter
they have grown to a small extent, and pass
the inclement season in the middle of the river
bed, seeking deeper water as the weather becomes colder. In the spring they work towards the bank, grow more rapidly, and then
change to the imago ; the earliest in the late
spring, and others in the summer and autumn.
In genial wTeather the species inhabiting fast
water frequent the strongest and roughest parts
of streams, the others quieter places. They
are not strong swimmers, but usually walk on
the bed of the river, the larger sorts living
under stones and the smaller sorts on sandy
mud, these covering themselves with fine detritus, so as to be almost invisible. This instinct of hiding is almost necessary, as all are
carnivorous, feeding on the small larvae of the
Ephemeridae and of their own family. The
nymphs, as previously mentioned, only differ
from the larvae in having fixed rudimentary
wings.
Head generally smooth and flat, as broad as
the prothorax, or even broader. Eyes hemispherical.    Ocelli three in number, larger in the PERLIDaE
105
larva than in the imago. Antennae long and
flexible. Mouth organs—labrum broad and
short; mandibles about half the length of the
head, obliquely truncate at the extremity, with
five or six teeth at the end, the outer of which
~ is large and only moderately sharp ; maxillae
about the same length as the mandibles, but
thinner, flatter, and with sharper teeth ; maxillary palpi five-jointed; labium square, and
forming the greater portion of the lower side
of the head. Thorax with the three segments
subequal. Abdomen smooth, cylindrical, in ten
segments of approximately equal length, with
small, short, stiff hairs at the hinder ends of the
segments. All genera and species with two
caudal setae. Legs ciliated with long hairs,
tarsi three-jointed, the fore and medial legs
very short, and the hind legs powerful, all
armed with two strong curved claws.
When the time for the  last metamorphosis Metamorpho-
L sis to the
has arrived, the nymph makes its way out of Imas°-
the water to a favourable spot, selecting as such
a large stone, a wall, the trunk of a tree or the
stem of a plant. It requires a somewhat rough
surface on which to fix its claws solidly during
the change of skin. Air passes into the space
between the old and the new skin, and the
nymphal envelope splits along the back. The
thorax, then the head and antennae, appear,
and   next   the  wings are   drawn out of their io6
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
sheath and unfolded. After these, the legs are
withdrawn, and then the abdomen, and, if the
particular species has them, the caudal setae are
also freed, and the imago flies away, leaving
the envelope behind, adhering to the resting-
place chosen by the nymph,
imago. The fly on first emerging from the nymphal
shuck is softer and paler than later, when its
full strength and colour are attained. The
imago, heavy in flight, cannot rise easily in the
air; the slightest obstacle stops its course and
the least touch brings it to the ground. Hence
it does not stray far from the water where it
was born. Shortly after its appearance sexual
intercourse takes place, the male being above
the female. This is never attempted while
flying, and is soon over.
Many anglers confuse stoneflies with Caddis
flies, and imagine that the Caddis, with a case
of stone, is the larva of a stonefly. This mistake is not altogether surprising, as the names
are certainly calculated to mislead. It is
strange, too, that a Swiss entomologist, writing
in 1680, according to Pictet, described larvae of
the large stonefly of that country as making
a cylindrical tube as a retreat, with which
they crawled about the river-bed. The mistake was corrected three years later by De
Muralt. In the north the stonefly is called
the Mayfly, and   consequent   confusion   often PLATE   XIV.
STONEFLIES.  PERLIDaE 107
arises among angling writers. To assimilate
the nomenclature of north and south, this
name should be abandoned and it should be.
applied to the genus Ephemera alone, although
possibly the north country nomenclature may
have been the earlier in date.
WILLOW   FLY.
The Willow Fly, Needle Brown, or Spanish
Needle, the insect being called indiscriminately
by these three names, is placed by Pictet in
the genus Nemoura and sub-genus Leuctra,
but in modern classification Leuctra is considered a genus by itself, and the fly named
Leuctra geniculata. Towards the later part of
the summer and throughout the aytumn, great
numbers of a small member of the Perlidae
family are seen, and when crawling along a
post or at rest, have the appearance shown in
fig. 10, on page 102. Under these conditions it
looks like a long narrow insect, of a steel blue
colour, this tint being derived from the four
wings folded together and lying close along
the back. The same insect seen flying (its
long wings, four in number, fluttering through
the air) has the appearance of a much larger
and more important creature. It is at times
taken freely by the trout and grayling, although
on   the   Test   and   Itchen,   where   it   is   very io8
DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
plentiful, it does not seem to be so well appreciated as on the Welsh and other rivers.
The larva is similar in form to the imago,
except for the absence of wings, and the presence of two caudal setae. Its head and thorax
are of a pale fawn colour, the legs dark brownr
the abdomen yellowish, and the setae dark
brown.
The imago has a broad brown head, with
dark antennae ; the thorax is brown, the abdomen dark brown on the back, and a pale yellow
beneath, and the legs pale brown with black
tarsi. The wings are long, of a pale fawn
colour, with nervures of a dark tint of the
same colour ; the fore-wings narrow and longer
than the hind wings, and the hind wings broad.
Across its outstretched wings a good specimen
measures 'g of an inch, and the body, from
head'to tip of tail, about half an inch. Plate
XIV., fig. i, is an illustration of it.
YELLOW SALLY.
Another insect somewhat similar in form
to the Willow Fly, is often present in great
numbers in the early part of the summer. It
is, however, a trifle larger than the Willow Fly,
and generally of a slightly greenish yellow hue.
It is called the Yellow Sally, and is one of the
species of the genus or sub-genus Chloroperla.
Some fishermen have the idea that one of the PERLIDaE
109
Ephemeridae, an upright-winged, lemon-yellow-
-coloured insect, somewhat larger than the
general run of the duns, is called by this name,
but this is a mistake, the dun in question being
the Little Yellow May Dun of Ronalds {Hepta-
genia sulphurea). The Yellow Sally is not a
fly particularly relished by trout and grayling ;
certainly I have never found it in the numerous
autopsies I have made. Some angling writers
{notably Francis Francis) say that the fish will
not take it because it is too bitter, but I can
neither confirm nor contradict the statement,
having never been tempted to put Yellow
Sally's flavour to a practical test.
The larva is similar in shape to that ofLarva-
Leuctra geniculata, but is somewhat larger. It
lives in the mud, and has the head and thorax
of a yellowish brown ; the legs are thick and
fawn-coloured, the body a somewhat greenish
yellow, and the setae pale brown, ciliated at
the joints. The antennae are pale brown, and
taper at the tips almost to a point.
The head is greenish yellow, the eyes black, imago,
and the antennae a green brown. The thorax
is brown, slightly tinged with green, the abdomen dark brown with yellowish rings at the
joinings. The two caudal setae are brown, and
the legs a pale greenish brown, with black tarsi.
The wings are a dull green, slightly tinged
with brown, and the margins a light yellowish no DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
green. The nervures are of a similar colour to
the membrane of the wings, but of a darker
shade. The fly is illustrated in Plate XIV.,
fig. 2, and it measures very nearly i inch across
its outstretched wings, and the body is about
J an inch in length.
THE STONEFLY.
The Stonefly inhabits rapidly-flowing water,
and is seldom very plentiful on the South
Country chalk streams. The dry-fly fisherman is, however, almost certain to come across
an occasional specimen, and it is so prevalent
in other parts, and such an important item in
the insect food of trout and grayling in brawling
becks and strong streams, that this work would
be incomplete without some notice of it. It is
called Perla cephalotes, and is abundant, Pictet
says, in the rivers of the canton of Geneva and
in different other parts of Switzerland, ascending in places to as much as five thousand feet
above sea level. I have also found it in Switzerland and in the Tyrol—in the latter country
at Sulden, which is more than six thousand
feet above the sea. It also occurs in the
greater part of Europe. Newman, indicating
its existence in England, adds that he has
received specimens from Belgium, Berlin,
Halle and   Vienna,   and  an individual speci- PLATE   XV.
STONEFLY.
Perla Cephalotes.
I  PERLIDaE
men from the Austrian Alps very similar to it
but browner in colouration.
The larva illustrated in Plate XV., fig. i, Larva,
presents the following characteristics :—The
head is pale yellowish brown, marked with
brown patches of a darker colour. The eyes
are black, and the mandibles and maxillae are
formidable-looking weapons of the type given
in the general description of the Perlidae larvae.
The prothorax, of a fawn colour, is surrounded
by a dark brown line which is not quite marginal, and is marked on the back by a medial
line and two spots, all dark brown. The mesothorax and metathorax are of similar colour and
with somewhat similar markings. The abdomen is of a yellowish brown tint on the underside and brown on the back, with yellowish
joints to the segments. The two caudal setae
are a pale reddish brown, and the legs yellow
and flattened in shape, ciliated with fawn-
coloured hairs. The female is much larger
than the male.
The sexes in this species present but little imago,
difference except in respect to size. The female is one of the largest of the Perlidae, but
the male is very much smaller ; thus, while the
female measures over 2 inches across the outstretched wingsK and the body (including, as
usual, the head and thorax) is about *q of an
inch, the male   is   only  about   *8   across the H2 DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
wings, and its body about 7 of an inch in
length. The head of the female is wide and of
a reddish fawn colour, with a dark brown
crescent-shaped marking around the posterior
ocelli; the thorax is dark brown, and the abdomen light brown, with two brown caudal setae.
The legs are brown, with dark tarsi, and the
semi-transparent wings of a pale brown ground,
with dark brown nervures. It is shown in
Plate XVI.
The male has head and thorax and abdomen
very much the same in colour as the female,
but all very much smaller and slighter. The
legs and setae are perceptibly darker than those
of the female. The wings are quite rudimentary, not adapted for flying, and when folded
in repose do not extend* to the end of the
abdomen. The nervures are distinct, and in
colour dark brown. Plate XV., fig. 2, gives
a very fair notion of its appearance.
Apart from its interest for fishermen, the
careful observation of a flat mounted specimen
of this insect under a microscope, with a i-inch
or J-inch objective, is recommended to anyone
interested in entomology and desirous of studying the tracheal system of an insect. He will
see the two main tracheal tubes, with their
markings resembling in appearance the spiral
wire spring of a flexible gas-pipe, and serving
a  very  similar purpose.     From  these   main PLATE   XVI.
STONEFLY.
Perla Cephalotes.
w'  PERLIDaE
113
tracheae smaller branch tubes ramify in all
directions, and can be traced almost to the
ends of the various members and organs.
The air required for respiratory purposes is
conveyed by means of these tubes to the circulating fluid in all parts of the insect, as previously noted in the Introduction. CHAPTER IV.
SIALIDAE.
' I 'HE family Sialidae comprises in our islands
*- only one genus—Sialis, and of this genus
two species, viz., S. lutaria and S. fuliginosa.
According to McLachlan, " Transactions of
the Entomological Society," 1868, these two
species can only be distinguished by the
position of one transverse nervule in the
anterior wings. Pictet, in " Annales des
Sciences Naturelles," 1836, adds to this (1)
that the colour of the wings, especially in the
males, is darker in S. fuliginosa; (2) that certain
markings on the head and thorax are darker
in S. fuliginosa; (3) that there is a difference
in the colour of the larva; and (4) that S.
lutaria appears in April, and S. fuliginosa a
fortnight later. But his statements, whenever
divergent from those of modern authors, should
be viewed with doubt.
For all purposes to be served here, the two
species may be treated as if they were identical, and as Sialis lutaria is certainly the more
plentiful in our country, it may be allowable to call the well-known Alder fly by this name. I
am able to speak with greater certainty about
this insect than about any other described in
this work. In conjunction with the late Mr.
G. S. Marryat, I have hatched thousands and
thousands of the eggs, have reared the young
Alder in captivity, from the new-born up to
the full-grown larva ready for the metamorphosis to the pupa. I have taken the larvae
from every chalk stream in which I have
fished, and I have found the pupa buried in
the ground at or near the banks of all such
rivers in the spring.
Having caught a fly which the angler be- identification,
lieves to be an Alder, how is he to identify it ?
As a preliminary, I would warn the fisherman
that he is not very likely to capture a specimen
on the water, as the insect is never voluntarily
there. During a gale of wind or heavy rain it
may on rare occasions be blown or washed on
to the river. When searching for it, the grass,
the sedges at the edge of the river, or occasionally boughs of trees, wood, or brickwork of
hatches or bridges should be closely examined.
At the first glance it will be seen that the
Alder is a very sober and sombre-coloured
creature, with body of a dull brown and wings
of a lighter shade of brown with heavily-
marked nervures. The wings are somewhat
bent downwards when at rest, hence Kingsley's u6 DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
appellation of " hunchback " when apostrophising it in his " Chalk Stream Studies." It is
not altogether unlike one of the Trichoptera,
and if the peculiar shape of the wings is not
noticed could be easily mistaken for a member
of this family. It is, however, only requisite to
use a magnifying-glass to dispel any lingering
doubt, as the wings of an Alder are destitute of
hairs, while those of a Caddis fly are thickly
covered with them, or, failing that, the former
have mandibles and   the latter spurred tibiae.
The accompanying   block  (fig.   11)   shows  a
female Alder in profile.
METAMORPHOSES    AND    HABITS.
Oviposition. On June 9th, 1890, I was fishing in the
Itchen. It was a close, muggy day ; the Mayfly was over, and there were neither small flies
on the water nor trout moving. Seated in a
shady spot, I noticed an Alder laying eggs on
a flat sedge.    Cutting" off the blade so as not SIALIDaE
to disturb the insect, I arranged it in a good
light, and watched the operation for a considerable time through a hand magnifying-glass.
When first seen there were a considerable
number of eggs already deposited on the sedge.
These were arranged regularly in slightly convex rows of about twenty eggs, each row of
eggs close to or touching the next.
The Alder's left legs were round the left edge
of the sedge. Commencing from the left, it
laid usually twelve eggs, the last of these being
at the apex of the convexity ; it then commenced from the right side and laid eight
eggs, this completing the row. Sometimes it
would lay the eggs from the left side to the
apex, then skip a space of three eggs, lay these
three eggs to the apex, and then commence at
the right side of the sedge and complete the
row. Very rarely it would commence a row
from the right side, and reverse the order
throughout.
Sometimes an egg space was accidentally
missed, but as, before laying, it always felt the
egg in the row immediately behind with the
hinder end of its abdomen, on such occasions
it discovered the blank in the series on its next
traverse, and first laid one egg in the vacant
space, and then a corresponding one in the
row on which it was working. In laying the
eggs, it always   worked  the rows backwards, n8
DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
Eggs.
crawling over those already deposited, and
covering them throughout with the wings, kept
flat in pent-house shape. The operation was
very slow, and lasted seventy-five minutes,
during which time twenty-eight rows, or about
560 eggs in all, were deposited.
A second specimen had its right legs over
the right edge of the sedge, and commenced
the rows generally from the right. Probably
the object of placing the legs over the edge of
the blade was to keep the rows of eggs equidistant from the margin. From curiosity I
took this specimen off its eggs and placed it
close to another patch of eggs on the same
sedge. It moved away from these, and after
crawling about the leaf for some time found
its own eggs and remained on them, but did
not recommence laying. After a time it
crawled up the sedge, flew off about a foot
into some long rank grass, and then crawled
under it out of sight.
The eggs are laid, as just described, sometimes to the number of as many as 2,000 or
3,000, on blades of rank grass, sedges, or
rushes, usually close to the river, but occasionally they are found at a considerable distance from any water. On a flat surface they
are arranged in symmetrical rows, on a round
rush or reed, in a spiral, and all invariably in
immediate   contiguity   to  one  another.     The SIALIDaE 119
eggs themselves are a long, narrow oval in
shape, with a small projection or stem at the
upper end. The appearance of single eggs and
of a mass of eggs are shown in Plate XV11.,
figs. 1 and 2.
In eight to ten days the eggs split open at Larva
or near the upper end, and the newly-born
larva, crawling forth, proceeds at once to make
the best of its way to the nearest water. The
young larva is shown in Plate XVIL, fig. 3.
It will be noted that the head is large, armed
with curved mandibles sharp-pointed at their
tips, and furnished with two teeth on their
inner edges. The maxillae are also curved,
more slender than the mandibles, and have
each a movable lobe (galea) interposed between
the jaw and the palpus.1 The antennae are
short and four-jointed. The legs are fringed
with hairs, and the two-jointed tarsi have each
two sharp claws. The abdomen is long and
tapering, composed of nine segments. Each
of the seven anterior segments of the body
carries a pair of branchiae, one on each side ;
these are four-jointed, tapering towards the
points, and are ciliated. At the end of the
abdomen is a long, tapering tail, also ciliated
but not articulated.
1 See Introduction, page 20, where this type of construction is discussed. tittup.
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Metamorphosis to pupa.
As soon as the young larvae are in the
water they swim down to the bottom and
bury themselves in the mud, there to pass
their larval existence. Their food consists
mainly of smaller aquatic larvae ; they are
voracious feeders, grow rapidly, and within
somewhat less than a year from the date
of the deposition of the eggs, are fully grown
and ready for the metamorphosis into a pupa.
They frequent comparatively still portions of
a stream, or even ditches or ponds. The
adult larva is shown in Plate XVII., fig. 4,
and it will be seen that, except for the great
increase of size, the general description of the
newly-born larva will apply.
A short time before changing to a pupa,
the larva crawls ashore and digs an oval
cavity in the ground into which it retires,
about six or eight inches below the surface.
It is generally held that the tracheal branchiae
of aquatic larvae can only be used when wet,
because it is said that when they become
dry, air or oxygen can no longer pass by
endosmosis through the membrane, and their
function necessarily ceases. Having with
difficulty collected larvae in the act of making
the oval hole, and having selected them
from dry places, I can speak with confidence. They were in every way identical,
and   could   not  be   distinguished   from   other Fig. 4
PLATE   XVII.
ALDER.
Fig   3
4&
Fig. 5
/   H
mm
if  SIALIDaE
larvae taken out of the water. The tracheal
branchiae were plump, and showed no sign
of contraction or shrivelling. Here then is
an undoubted instance of an insect breathing
in the air by means of an external respiratory
branchiae, unless it has other means of breathing at present unknown. Perhaps it can
.manage in some way to keep the branchiae
moist! But how ? That is a question to
which an answer has yet to be discovered.
The larva when in the oval hole changes PuPa-
into a soft, motionless pupa, shown in Plate
XVII., fig. 5. This pupa is curiously curved
in the cavity, with its head bent downwards
and against the lower side of the thorax.
The hind end of the abdomen is bent upwards, and the wing covers, antennae and
legs are all lying nearly parallel with the
abdomen. Its head, mouth organs, and abdomen are very similar to those of the larva,
but the tracheal branchiae and the tail have
disappeared, and there are a number of stiff
hairs at the joinings of the segments. The
legs have become more slender, and the
antennae longer. In a few days the pupa
changes within the cavity to the imago, which
makes its way to the surface of the ground,
leaving the cast skin, which shows all the
organs and the form of the pupa.
Head  black,  antennae  comparatively short, imago DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
ocelli absent, labrum nearly triangular and
with a deep notch in the middle in the $,
rounded in front, with a slight notch in the
$ . Thorax large and nearly black. Abdomen short and thick in the 2, and more
slender and tapering in the 6*. Legs dark
brown, with four-jointed tarsi. Wings light
brown, with very strong brown veining.
Plate XVII., fig. 6, shows the male imago.
Sexual intercourse takes place on a post or
a sedge, but not in the air; the male during
copulation is undermost, and the eggs are
laid shortly afterwards. The life of the insect
from the egg to the imago is approximately
one year. Specimens have been taken as
early as the second week of April, but May
and June are the months in which the fly is
most prevalent.
It will be seen from the foregoing life history
that the only stages at which the Alder has
any occasion to be near or upon the surface of
the water are when the newly-born larva is
first entering this element, and when it is
returning to dry land, full-grown, preparatory
to pupation. Now, in all the families of insects
described in the previous chapters the animal
has, during its life and metamorphoses, to be at
times on the water; in some the nymph or
pupa emerges from it, but in every case the
female imago has to deposit  its eggs in the SIALIDaE
123
water, being itself either close to, on, or below
the surface for that purpose. The winged
Alder, however, is under no necessity of visiting the water ; the larva is safely housed in
a cavity in the ground before changing to the
pupa, the imago rises directly from that cavity
and deposits its eggs on a rush or sedge at or
near the river.
It is necessary to be quite clear on this
point, to prevent, if possible, amateur writers
from indulging in the wild freaks of fancy
indicated by references to " great rises of
Alder," "Alder bushes from which clouds of
the fly named after it are falling on the water,"
" the fish gorging themselves on Alder and
hence refusing imitations of any other insect,"
and so forth. Let it at once and for all
time henceforward be definitely understood
that, except under stress of weather or by
accident, Sialis lutaria is seldom found on the
surface of the river. What hallucination
prompts a fish to take the artificial fly intended to represent the Alder is beyond comprehension ; possibly it is mistaken for the
Welshman's Button {Sericostoma personatum),
which is often seen in great numbers on the
surface of streams when the former species is
abundant ashore.
While  breeding Alders   in  captivity, a cir- EarasitresA^
& r j Eggs of Alder.
cumstance occurred which gave the late   Mr. 124 DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
Marryat and myself much extra work. On
one occasion, instead of larvae of S. lutaria, a
number of tiny perfect winged insects emerged
from the eggs. None of our entomologist
friends could identify them, but all agreed that
they were parasitic Hymenoptera. I tried the
experiment several times, and in some cases
found that, from part of the eggs, the Alder
larvae emerged, and from others this little
insect.
In despair, we mounted a series of Alder
eggs, Alder larvae, larvae and pupae of the
parasite, as well as the imago of this fly, and
submitted them to the British Museum
(Natural History). After considerable delay,
the official in charge of that department
wrote, after giving his reasons, " that it would
be quite allowable to describe it provisionally
as a new species." " The insect is, as I told
you, a Chalcis, i.e., it belongs to the great group
of parasitic Hymenoptera called Chalcididce."
Some time afterwards, discovering that an
entomologist of great experience (Mr. Frederick Enock) was working out insects of this
class, I submitted to him the identical mount
that had been previously sent to the British
Museum. In reply, he said, " The species
that you have bred is by no means new; it is
Trichogramma evanescens. Last year I carried
it through the year breeding in various kinds SIALIDaE
125
of eggs, Sialis lutaria included, to the seventh
brood, and now have the eighth brood in the
eggs of a moth."
I mention the matter for two reasons, firstly,
to tender my thanks to the British Museum
and to Mr. Enock for so kindly rendering me
assistance, and secondly, to point out to my
readers that if they, or others, are mistaken
in the identification of an insect, it is quite
excusable, seeing that experts of high standing can differ in their conclusions on such a
question. CHAPTER  V..
DIPTERA,   &c.
W^ESTWOOD, in his " Modern Classifica-
™ tion of Insects," said of the Diptera :
| The two-winged insects constitute one of the
most extensive orders of the Ptilota, not only
in respect to numbers of distinct species, but
also to the swarms of individuals of the same
species ; and which from their constant attendance upon man have attracted his attention
from the earliest ages."
Mr. G. H. Verrall, the Dipterologist, compiled in 1888 "A List of British Diptera,"
containing about 2,500 species, and in the preface invited | authentic additions to this list
and confirmation for all species printed in
italics." These (about 570'in number) were
partly doubtful natives of this country, and
partly species of questionable authenticity insufficiently described.
Mr. W. F. Kirby, in his " Elementary Text
Book of Entomology," second edition, published in 1892, gave a table exhibiting approximately the number of insects in every order DIPTERA
127
" known to inhabit the British Isles and the
world," and reckoned the British Diptera at
about 3,000 out of about 28,000 species in the
entire world.
Every chalk stream angler must have been Abundance of
Diptera on
struck by the frequent appearance on the stream the water.
of swarms of small, dark, or black-looking flat-
winged insects belonging to this order. If he
has carried his investigations further and examined the contents of the stomachs of trout
and grayling he has killed, he cannot fail to
have observed that flies of this class are almost
invariably present in large or small numbers,
and seem to constitute in many cases the
greater portion of the undigested food. It may,
in fact, be said without fear of contradiction
that these Smuts, Fisherman's Curses, and
Black Gnats, as they are variously styled, are
found more often than any "other variety of
floating food.
Head   usuallv  large   and   most  frequentlv Description of
. . Diptera.
narrower than the widest part of the thorax,
rounded in contour more or less laterally, and
above and sometimes in front also ; but often
flattened or concave behind, and attached mov-
ably to the thorax by a short neck.
Compound eyes {oculi) varied in form in
different families or genera, round, oval, reni-
form or hemispherical ; their relative size also
varied, sometimes with  the  genus or family, 128 DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
and sometimes with the sexes of a species, so
that they may be far apart in the female, while
in the male approached to each other or in
mutual contact above. Three ocelli often
present.
Antennae likewise diversiform in distantly
related flies, and also sexually in certain
families of the Nematocera (thread-horned), a
portion of the lower division, Orthorrhapha
(straight-seamed), of the order. Thus in most
of the Nematocera they are long in proportion
to the head, many-jointed and in their greater
part filiform (thread-like) or moniliform (like a
string of beads), in the female or in both sexes ;
but the males, in some families, have plumose
(feathery) or pectinate (comb-like) antennae.
In the other portion of the same division, hence
termed Brachycera (short-horned), and in most
flies of the higher division, Cylorrhapha (circular-seamed), these appendages are short in
comparison with the head; and a large majority of them have the third antennal joint
(the biggest of all) compressed, oblong, or else
roundly dilated beneath, and the few succeeding jointlets, inserted in its upper edge, either
very short or tapering, or in the form of an
awn, which is either nude, hairy, ciliate, or
plumose.
Mouth-parts  adapted   to   suction,   or  very
rarely undeveloped.    The mandibles and first JJIFTEKA 129
maxillae (distinguishable by their palpi from
the former), if used for piercing take the form
of lancets, as in the Flea and Gnat. The
swollen, fleshy-lobed tongue, beyond the palpi
in the elbowed proboscis of the Blow-fly, is said
to be chiefly labial in its composition.
Theobald, in " An Account of British Flies
(Diptera)," the first volume of which was published in 1892, describes the thorax as usually
large and compact ; the prothorax very much
reduced and attached as a collar to the very
large mesothorax, which is developed at the
expense of the other two segments.
One pair of true wings only developed ;
these, the anterior, are usually transparent and
never folded, but are provided in certain
families with an inferior basal lobe which is
termed the alula (winglet). Veins crowded in
front, distant behind.    Cross veins few.
The hind legs reduced to small club-
shaped laminae, known as halteres. Both
pairs of wings may be absent. The abdomen
is generally small, but may be elongated as in
the Tipulidae, and is composed of five to nine
segments.
Legs slender, having five-jointed tarsi with
ungues or pads at the tips (or both) for attachment.
The nervous system presents various modifications ; in some the ganglia of the thorax and
9 DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
abdomen become fused, or there may be three
thoracic ganglia and five or six abdominal
ganglia.
The male internal genital organs consist of
two testes with vasa differentia, and there are
external copulatory appendages. The females
have three receptacula seminis in connection
with the vagina, and in some cases have a
retractile ovipositor.
The alimentary system of Diptera cannot
here be passed in review. With regard to
their respiration, it may be noted that some
of them have extremely sacculated tracheae.
CLASSIFICATION.
onhorrhapha Reference has already been made, in the
paragraph treating of the antennae (page 128),
to the two principal divisions in which Diptera
are arranged by Professor Brauer of Vienna.
The flies comprised in the lower division,
Orthorrhapha (straight-seamed), emerge from
the pupa through a simple slit in the integument of the back. Among them the Nematocera are more numerous in this country than
the Brachycera, and comprise a great variety
of insects of varied habit, habitat and life
history.
The   Fleas   (Pulicidae),   placed   lowest   in
Verrall's   list,   are    more   highly   specialized DIPTERA
131
than many of the families ranked above them ;
but it is convenient to shelve them OLit of the
way of the others on account of their aberrant
form. Living in the habitations or nests of
mammals and birds, their larvae find nutriment
(perhaps in particles of animal matter) in the
dust, and the imagines—there is no need to
say what they do. Cecidomyidae are mostly
minute flies which lay their eggs in the tissues
of flowering plants, and thereby produce, in
many instances, characteristic deformities and
galls. Mycetophilidae, as their name implies,
are chiefly fungus-flies, and their maggots form
some portion of the writhing population inside
fresh or rotting toadstools.
The larvae of Bibionidae live underground
and feed on the roots of plants (see Black
Gnat, page 142) ; those of Simulidae inhabit
water, and are largely concerned in the purification of rivers and streams, their food consisting of minute particles of organic matter
secured as they drift past within reach of the
animal's sweepers (see Reed Smut, page 138).
The female Simulia are the well-known Sandflies—a name strangely misapplied by Ronalds
to one of the Caddis-flies (Trichoptera).
Chironomidae are  a numerous   family.      A Chironomidae.
large  number  of   them   have  aquatic   larvae
that live amidst  water-weeds, especially Con-
fervaceae; but many are terrestrial and inhabit DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
damp soil or other moist material.    The flies
that congregate in dense clouds over roads and
footpaths to gambol in the air in the neighbourhood of water and high above rivers are often
species of  harmless gnats belonging   to   this
family.      Other members of it are the little
specks of midges (Ceratopogon) that are so maddening in the shade of trees and damp places.
Psychodidse.        Psychodidae are small flies similar to moths
in aspect.    The larvae feed, some on putrescent animal, excretory or vegetable substances
in   shady  situations ;   some   on   the  slippery
cryptogamic vegetation coating stones exposed
to   the wash   of   ripples or   to   the spray of
waterfalls;    and others   live   in wet   sand or
mud.    The transformations of certain species
have lately been illustrated by Miall and Fritz
Miiller in the " Transactions of the Entomological Society of London."
Cuiicidae. Then follow the Gnats or Mosquitoes (Cu-
licidae), of which the life-history has been a
favourite study of microscopists interested in
the inhabitants of ponds and other tranquil
waters; and at last the highest forms of
Nematocera are reached, in families related
Tipuiidae. to the Daddy Long-legs or Crane-flies (Tipu-
lidae), with larvae of differing habits, many
being destructive to the roots of grasses, &c,
others inhabiting marshy ground or the borders
of streams, and some living under rotten bark. DIPTERA
133
Among the Brachycera (which comprise Brachycera.
several families) may be mentioned the Cha-
maeleon-fly (Stratiomys), since its larva is
figured in many popular natural history books ;
the Clegs and Stouts (Tabanidae), and the
Fisherman's Curse (Hilara), a genus of the
Empidae (see page 142).
In the division Cyclorrhapha (circular- Cyciorrhapha.
seamed) the fly issues from the pupa through
a round hole formed by the detachment of
a lid-like piece from one end of the obtective
integument instead of through a slit in the
back. The families composing it are separated into sub-divisions according as the flies
have a labial proboscis (Proboscidea), or have
not (Eproboscidea); a synonym of the latter
sub-division is Pupipara, the flies giving birth
to larvae that moult and become pupi-form or
moulting    pupae   (Mansel-Pleydell)   instead   of
Without mentioning every family, a few Proboscidea.
members of each sub-division may be named
as examples of flies of varied habits among
the higher Diptera. Thus in the Syrphidae,
the typical genus yields larvae that feed upon
Plant-lice (Aphidae), to the great benefit of
hop-growers and agriculturists ; Volucella larvae
ravage the nests of Humble Bees ; Eristalis
tenax breeds in putrescent carcases and
sewage; and Merodon larvae bore into the
bulbs of Amaryllidaceous and Liliaceous plants. 134 DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
Conopidae provide larval parasites that make
inroads on Wasps (Vespidae) in their nests,
like the invaders above-mentioned of Bombus
(Humble Bees).
The larvae of Oestridae are mammalian
parasites, some inhabiting the stomach like
the Bot-fly of the Horse (Gastrophilus) ;
others the nasal passages, frontal sinuses or
pharynx, like that of the Sheep (Oestrus),
and a newly recorded fly of the Elephant ;
and others again, the Worbles (Hypoderma),
establishing setons under the skin of the
back of the ox, horse, and even man. The
maggots of several Tachinidae eat out the
viscera of larvae of other insects after the
fashion of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) ;
Sarcophagidae and some of the Muscidae are
carrion flies, such as the Blow-flies, Green-
bottle, and Blue-bottle flies, of which the maggots are more relished by the fish than by the
fly-fisherman. In other families there are the
Dung-fly (Scatophaga), the Bacon and Cheese-
Hopper-flies (Piophila), and numerous species
that breed in plants (on their roots, in their
leaves, or amidst their inflorescence), some of
them garden-pests, like the flies of the celery,
parsnip, carrot, and onion.
Eproboscidea      The Eproboscidea (Pupipara) mentioned in
(Pupipara). r i •        i
the early part of this chapter, are all of them
external parasites.    Hippoboscidae, besides the DIPTERA
135
Forest-flies (Hippobosca) that harbour on the
horse and camel, comprise other flies that
attach themselves to birds, one peculiar to deer,
and the well-known apterous Sheep-tick (Melo-
phagus). Braulidae, of which there is but one
genus Braula, is a minute blind apterous parasite that clings to Humble Bees, with its head
thrown back, upside down upon its thorax.
Nycteribidae are parasites of Bats (Cheiroptera)
and are also apterous.
From this imperfect survey, it will be seen Scope of
, , . . r Chapter.
that the order comprises a great variety of
insects differing in their habits, habitat and
life history. To treat of the entire order here
in full detail would obviously be impossible,
and practically useless to the fly-fisherman. I
propose, therefore, limiting the scope of this
chapter to a few species which are commonly
seen on the water, and serve as food for the
fish. Nor can I refer the fisherman to any
reliable modern works in English descriptive
of Diptera, with full particulars of their earlier
stages or biology.
The majority of entomologists are, unfortunately, too prone to neglect the consideration
of the larval and pupal stages. In fact, it
almost seems as if their study of the creatures
were confined to the imago, and the chief
if not the only object of their work were to
discover new species or rare varieties.    But it 136 DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
is not everyone who can secure space and
leisure for extensive research in the departments of comparative anatomy and metamorphosis, and few can command a facile pencil to
record, in the only way that is intelligible to
all, original discoveries by means of exact
illustration.
Scarcity of Theobald, in his Preface, says that the only
books on English book on the subject is Walker's
" Insecta Britannica Diptera," which is out of
print, having been published forty years ago,
and containing much that is out of date and
inconsistent with the knowledge of the present
day. Westwood's illustrations of the flies and
portions of the letter-press contributed by
Haliday give it, however, an intrinsic value,
especially in the third volume; but Walker was
given to describing the same species repeatedly,
re-naming them as often, and slurring over
difficulties, so that the work is unequal in merit.
In the older books on Entomology by
Westwood and Curtis, some space is devoted
to the Order, and although' the information
given is usually accurate, yet, as regards the
flies which are specially of interest to the
fisherman, it is meagre. Theobald's book
already referred to is useful as far as it goes,
but is not exhaustive. Verrall has a monograph in preparation descriptive of the species
of flies, but it is said that it will  not treat of DIPTERA
137
their life history in great detail, being designed
after the model of Zetterstedt's works.
Hitherto,   therefore,    English    students    of,Forf5gn
0 books on
Diptera have made great use of foreign Diptera.
monographs on this Order, such as Schiner's
1 Fauna Austriaca Diptera," in two volumes,
completed in 1864 (German) ; Van der Wulp's
work on the Diptera of the Netherlands
(Dutch with Latin diagnosis) ; Zetterstedt's
* Diptera Scandinaviae," in fourteen volumes,
completed in the fifties (Latin); and Meingen's
H Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten
europaischen Zweifltigeligen Insecten," published in the early part of this century and
reprinted over thirty years ago, which is
especially serviceable on account of its finely-
coloured illustrations (German with Latin
diagnosis). Brauer, Osten-Sacken and Lowe
are also important writers on this order.
Here  let   me   express   my  thanks   to   Mr. Species of
it • 1 •    Smuts or
Verrall  for enabling  me to  give the  generic Curses.
names of three and   the specific name of one
of the fly-fisherman's   Diptera in this chapter,
and now to be mentioned.
Three species of these flies that are freely
taken by the fish are called Reed Smut,
Fisherman's Curse, and Black Gnat. There is
also a fourth Smut, which the late Mr. Marryat
and I found on two on three occasions on the
Test in considerable numbers.     This, from its 138
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
wings being of a slaty blue colour, we called
the Blue Smut. As we have only found it on
the Test, and as I believe it is a somewhat
rare insect, it has not been deemed advisable
to illustrate it here.
According to Mr. Verrall, the Reed Smut
is U a species of Simulium, but species in this
genus want to be in beautiful condition for
satisfactory naming; we have about eight
species in Britain." He says that the Fisherman's Curse I is a Hilara of which we have
forty or fifty species in England." He gives
the scientific name of the Black Gnat as
Bibio Johannis, and of the Blue Smut says
that it is of the genus Clinoce7ra and species
I possibly bipunctata."
REED SMUT.
The name of Reed Smut was given to the
fly illustrated (fig. 12) by the late Mr. Marryat,
because he believed that
its larvae and pupae were
found in the water fixed
to reeds or ribbon wTeed
{Sparganium ramosum). I
have long tried to verify
this by reference to entomological works, and consulting specialists
on the subject. This has unfortunately been
impracticable, but I have always found my late DIPTERA
friend so accurate, and so uniformly correct
in matters pertaining to natural history, that
I have very little doubt as to the fact. In
very shallow trout-brooks where there are no
weeds, the pupae are often attached to stones.
It must not, however, be considered that I
have taken the responsibility of identifying the
larva and pupa illustrated at Plate XVIII.,
figs, i and 2, with the insect now called the
Reed Smut. Mr. Verrall determined the
imago to be one of the genus Simulium, and
the illustration in question agrees with Miall's
description of the larva, pupae, and imago of
Simulium. But I do not vouch for the species.
The following is an abbreviated form of
Professor Miall's description in the | Natural
History   of   Aquatic    Insects,"    published   in
i89s=-
In brisk and lively streams where there is Larva.
a never-failing supply of well-aerated water,
plenty of submerged foliage and microscopic
organisms, the larvae of Simulium abound,
looking like small black worms, five-eighths
of an inch or less in length, attached to water-
weeds such as float grass, water-cress, water-
crowfoot, and the like, in countless numbers.
They are clustered mostly on the underside,
and only become visible when leaves are
plucked or turned over. Their bodies are
cylindrical, and dilated in   the hinder part of 140
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
the abdomen. On each side of the head is
a fringed, fan-like appendage containing about
fifty long filaments. This pair of appendages,
like the similar apparatus of the larval Gnat,
is employed in sweeping particles into the
gullet, the food of the larvae being altogether
microscopic ; the creatures can often be seen
combing out these appendages with their
mandibles to prevent their getting clogged.
They have two pairs of small eyes (mere
pigment spots) and small three-jointed antennae. There are two pairs of legs ending
in coronets of hooks, each pair coalescing to
form a single organ, which is mainly employed
as a sucker; the fore-pair is, however, occasionally used in grasping, being opposable
to the head. Each sucker is thus a cup
roughened on the edge by numerous minute
teeth to prevent slipping. The action of these
suckers is easily demonstrated by placing a
larva fresh from the stream in. sl saucer of
water. It creeps about like a leech, applying
the two ends of its body alternately to the
smooth surface of the saucer. Even in a
rushing stream it appears never to be detached
against its will.
When feeding, it holds on by its tail
sucker and sticks its body straight out into
the current. In an unusually strong stream,
when not  feeding,   the  larva  doubles  up  its PLATE   XVIII.
DIPTERA.
Fig. 3
w
Fig. 4
^^
n
i     i
mJ
x 4  DIPTERA
body and anchors with both suckers. If disturbed it lets go, drifts a few inches, and then
remains stationary in the torrent, and on
close observation a thread or a number of
threads ean be seen extending from leaf to
leaf, grasping which it creeps about to regain
its former position. On an emergency a new
thread can be spun.
Before pupation the larva constructs a kind Pupa,
of nest, which is glued fast to the surface of a
water-weed. Sheltered within this smooth and
tapering cocoon, whose pointed tip is directed
up-stream, while the open mouth is turned
down-stream, the pupa rests securely during
the time of its transformation. When first
formed, the cocoon is completely closed, but
when the insect has cast its larval skin, one
end of the cocoon is knocked off, and the pupa
thrusts the forepart of its body into the
current. The respiratory filaments projecting
immediately behind the future head (according
to Theobald eight in number), very long and
filiform, draw a sufficient air supply from the
surrounding well-aerated water. The rings of
the abdomen are furnished with projecting
hooks by means of which the pupa is secured
to the interior of the cocoon.
During the latter part of the pupal stage, Meta
the pupa skin becomes inflated with air and lmas
assumes a more rounded shape in consequence. 142
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
It splits along the back, and there emerges a
bubble of air which rises quickly towards the
surface and bursts. Then out comes the fly,
which mounts to the top of the water, and
as soon as its wings are dry takes flight to
the trees or bushes overhanging the stream.
The flies of this genus are small and of dull
colours, with lighter hair-markings on the legs
and sides, of the body, differing with the species,
and which readily wear off.
FISHERMAN'S   CURSE.
Description. The Fisherman's Curse, figured on Plate
XVI11., fig. 3, belongs to the Family Empidce,
Group Empince, Genus Hilars. The metamorphoses seem to be unknown, but probably
the larva is aquatic. The imago is a small
insect of a grey black colour, sparsely covered
with hairs. The palpi are three-jointed, the
proboscis prominent, antennae curved upwards.
Eyes separated in both sexes, ocelli three.
Abdomen brown in colour, slender in the male
and broad in the female.
It is said that the flies swarm in myriads in
the spring and summer over running water, so
near the surface as almost to ruffle it.
BLACK   GNAT.
Description.       The   Black  Gnat of the  Angler is  of the
Family  Bibionidce, Genus  Bibio, Species Jo- DIPTERA
143
hannis. The larvae are cylindrical or fusiform
maggots living in the earth, in dung, stems of
plants, and at the roots, destroying the vegetation. They are furnished with twenty spiracles,
and with transverse rows of hairs. They are
generally whitish brown in colour with brown
head, which is armed with two biting mandibles.
The pupa is dark brown, of shrivelled appearance ; the wing cases are small.
The imago is illustrated in Plate XVIII.,
the male in fig. 4, and the female in fig. 5.
The Black Gnat is a common and widely-
distributed fly, occurring about Midsummer
(St. John's) day, whence the name. Another
species that comes out towards the end of April
is for a similar reason named Bibio Marci.
The common house fly, the blue-bottle, and other Diptera
1 1    n 11     r 1   • •       taken by Fish.
the oak fly, are occasionally found in autopsies,
and sometimes gnats and gnat larvae are taken
by the trout, chiefly on fine, calm evenings in
early spring. No doubt odd specimens of
any other members of the order falling in the
water near hungry trout or grayling would also
be promptly annexed.
OTHER   INSECTS   FOUND   IN
AUTOPSIES.
Besides the insects described and referred
to in this and previous chapters under the
respective Orders and Families to which they DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Aphis.
belong, there are a few which are freely taken
at times by the fish. Probably the genus of
insects most usually found in trout, in addition
to those generally described in the fly-fisherman's list, is one of the Corixae. These are
small water bugs, very similar in shape to the
well-known Water Boatmen {Notonecta), and,
like them, belonging to the Heteropterous
division of the order Hemiptera. In Corixa
the head is short and wide and the body thick.
The forelegs are short and the medial and hind
legs long. The hind legs are flattened in the
lower joints to a paddle shape, and all the
legs are fringed with hairs. The hind wings
are large and transparent, and the fore wings
are mere wing covers of a horny substance ;
they are a purple brown colour, with spots
or markings of a lighter shade. The insect
swims rapidly, using its legs, and especially
the hinder, as oars. The water boatmen swim
on their backs, but the Corixae swim with the
back upwards. They are also able to leave
the water and fly, using their hind wings for
the purpose.
The Aphis, green-fly, or plant louse, a form
of the Homopterous Hemiptera, is often taken
by fish, but is too minute for successful imitation. Westwood, in his " Modern Classification of Insects," says, " Each family of plant
lice in spring and summer consists of individ- DIPTERA
uals always wingless and of pupae ; all these,
however, are females, which produce living
young without a previous union with the other
sex. The males, of which some are winged
and others apterous in the same society, are
not born until the end of the summer or
autumn. They fecundate the last generation,
produced by the previously born specimens,
consisting of wingless females, which then
deposit fecundated eggs, which remain through
the winter and produce young in the spring,
capable of reproduction without fresh impregnation." This gives some idea of their life
history, which, although interesting, is very
complicated, and being of no practical utility to
the fly-fisherman need not be further pursued.
Earwigs occur very rarely. An occasional
specimen of the winged Red Ant (Myrmica) is
present during the summer and early autumn.
In certain rivers, notably the lower part of the
Dorsetshire Frome, a considerable number of
the so-called bloodworms, or larvae of various
species of the genus Chironomus, as well as
the pupae and imagines of the same, are
generally present in autopsies. I have not
included this insect among * the Diptera usually
taken by trout and grayling in the South
country chalk-streams, because I have grave
doubts as to the genus being plentiful in the
clear running streams which are comparatively 146
DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
unpolluted. I believe that wherever in flowing
water the bloodworms are abundant, it may
almost be deemed a certainty that sewage pollution in considerable volume is also present.
No better example can be cited than the river
referred to. Above the town of Dorchester
Chironomus is comparatively rare, while below
the point where all the sewage and filth of the
town is or certainly was poured into the river
it is present in great numbers and is freely
taken by the trout, which certainly seem to
thrive and grow to great size on the food they
affect. On one occasion, when a quantity of
small weed was discovered, microscopical examination revealed the cause of the trout taking
this vegetable matter, as it was found to be
full of minute larvae of one of the Diptera
(Simulium reptans) the genus of which has
been previously described under the heading
of the Reed Smut.
There are, however, in addition to these, a
host of others which have been credited by
Angling writers with the. quality of being
acceptable to the feeding Salmonidae in the
rivers ; but I am inclined to consider that in
the majority of instances this has been largely
due to excess of the imaginative faculty, no
substantiating evidence being producible.
Of the caterpillars, spiders, and other creatures   which  are  supposed  to  fall  from   the DIPTERA
trees into the water, and into the trout's
mouth, and of the consequent advantage of
trees projecting over a stream ; of the sapient
advice, verbal and written, to cultivate vegetation overhanging the river, because it increases the supply of natural food ; of the
statement that fish under trees are invariably
in the best condition, Anglers have heard from
time immemorial. My advice is, cultivate your
trees, because they are of advantage as. giving
shelter to the fish ! Not a single example of
these tree windfalls has been found in the
hundreds of autopsies which I have made,
and all the caterpillars and spiders that fall
from the trees in a mile of water would not
suffice to feed a single pound trout for a single
day. They may therefore be discarded from
consideration.
It will be seen that the entomological chapters of this book, as far as they concern fishing,
have been altogether confined to two classes
of insects :—firstly, those that undoubtedly do
serve as food for trout and grayling; secondly,
other species and genera which are occasionally
taken by them.
In the first division are included only such
insects as have been found by me in autopsies ;
and perhaps this definition may savour of conceit. It may be argued that the fact of one
individual   not finding a particular fly in the 148 DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
fish he has killed is at best but negative evidence on the point. The reader must, however, remember that this individual has for
many years on many chalk streams made it an
invariable custom to autopse fish, and make
careful notes of results, besides retaining and
preserving in spirits typical examples, with date
and name recorded of the artificial fly with
which the fish were killed. Nor must it be
imagined that all these trout and grayling
were caught by me, since it often happens
that I examine the contents of the stomachs
of fish also killed by my friends. PART  II.
THE    HUNDRED    BEST    PATTERNS    OF
FLOATING    FLIES.
XTINETY standard patterns were described
*■ ^ and illustrated in " Floating Flies and
How to Dress Them," and the above title suggests that the number has since been increased
by at least ten. Some readers may express
doubt as to whether there is any necessity for
the modern dry-fly fisher to equip himself with
so great a variety. Some may indulge in a little
harmless ridicule, and say that, for the man who
can fish, half-a-dozen different sorts of flies are
sufficient. Let it be once for all clearly laid
down that the writer does not in any way assert
that all the patterns are required for an adequately filled fly-book; nor does he advise even
the most enthusiastic devotee of the art to
squander his substance in the purchase of all
of them.
The object of this part of the book is to indi- 150
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
cate what the experience of many years on South-
country streams has taught an observant angler
as to the comparative merits of the different
flies, and the conditions under which success can
be anticipated for each pattern or section of
patterns. Every fisherman has a predilection for
particular dressings, colours or materials, and, to
quote the words written on the subject in 1886,
I " leave to the practical fisherman the choice
of such as accord with his fancy, and free permission to discard any he does not consider suitable for the particular stream he is in the habit
of fishing, nothing, in my opinion, so much contributing to the success of a pattern or dressing,
as a firm conviction in the mind of the fisherman
that it is the very best of its sort."
The expression so often used, especially by
professional fly-tyers, that a certain dressing of
a pattern is right, and any variations or deviations from it are wrong, should be disregarded.
It is impossible to draw a hard-and-fast line as
to the most appropriate combinations of materials or mode of dressing for any fly which is,
or pretends to be, an imitation of a natural
insect. Some of the very best and most killing patterns of modern times are the outcome
of successive experimental alterations of old
standards.
Many of these experiments have, as may well
be imagined,   proved unsuccessful;    some have HUNDRED   BEST   PATTERNS
been of questionable utility, and a few of the
patterns evolved have been found so admirable
as to result in the original standards being discarded in favour of the improved dressings.
This form of development is continuous, and
should continue for all time. In respect to fancy
flies, by which expression it is intended to designate such as are not imitations of natural insects
which are plentiful on the streams, there is a little
more excuse, and variations or improvements
of such patterns should, for the mutual convenience of the fly-dresser and the fly-fisherman,
be called by different names, and not by those
usually applied to the orthodox patterns.
Some exception may be taken to the above
definition of a fancy fly, and it may fairly be
argued that to warrant this appellation the pattern
must not be an imitation of any natural insect,
either common or rare. I would, however, urge
that if the modern dry-fly fisherman is content to
restrict his study of entomology to such insects
as are bred in the water in great numbers, or
are generally found on the surface of the stream,
he will find quite sufficient work for an ordinary
lifetime. If the fly-dresser, too, will agree to
call all flies not included in this category fancy
patterns, it will tend to simplify matters.
To indicate the danger of trying to fit every
fancy fly to some natural insect, I can give a
curious, but probably not unique, experience.    On 152
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
July 18th, 1886, I found a specimen of the so-
called Fisherman's Curse, with a small bright
scarlet parasite fixed on the back of the abdomen
close to its hinder end. There was a temptation to proclaim it far and wide as the original
of the well-known red tag. What an absurdity
it would have been! Never before or since had
another such specimen been, as far as I know,
even heard of. During the summer of this year
I have, however, discovered a considerable number
of these scarlet parasites on the Itchen, attached
to Blue Winged Olives, Sherry Spinners and
Olive Spinners of both sexes.
For convenience of reference in studying the
patterns described in subsequent pages, it may
be here explained that each fly is distinguished
by a number as well as a name, and it should
also be noted that wherever a pattern is designated by a name which also occurs in " Floating
Flies and How to Dress Them," it is dressed
similarly to, and is practically identical with,
that given in that book. Where any great
improvement has been effected in the dressing,
or where the old name has been given to a
new pattern, such fact is noticed immediately
after the description of the dressing of the fly.
It has not been deemed necessary to give
coloured illustrations of each pattern, as in many
instances the difference of shade or colour is
only minute.    Fifty-three   of   the   hundred  pat- HUNDRED   BEST   PATTERNS
terns are, however, shown, and in the case of
the smaller ones the figures are magnified to
assist the dresser in matching, by giving a
larger mass of colour in each part. In every
such case an outline sketch of the fly, drawn
to the natural size, is placed immediately under
the coloured plate.
I have also attempted a more natural and
systematic arrangement of the patterns, dividing
them into two groups—the first such as are
imitations of natural insects, and the second
such as correspond to the definition given before
of fancy flies. Group I. is subdivided into the
following nine sections:—(I.) Olive Duns; (II.)
Pale Watery Duns; (III.) Blue Duns; (IV.)
Blue Winged Olives ; (V.) Spinners ; (VI.) Mayflies ; (VII.) Curses; (VIII.) Caddis Flies; and
(IX.) Various, not comprised under the above
heads. Group II. is subdivided into three sections:—(I.) Upright Winged Patterns; (II.) Flat
Winged Patterns; and (III.) Hackle Patterns.
It will probably be remarked that the proportion of wingless or hackle flies comprised in this
series is largely increased as compared with the
list given in 1886. Not many years since,
winged flies were the sheet-anchor of the dry-
fly fisherman, and the number of hackle patterns
used, or of the anglers using them, could be
counted on the fingers of one hand. Since then
such   dressings  as   the   Hackle   Red   Spinner, 154
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Brown Badger, Detached Badger, Jenny Spinner,
Orange Bumble, Furnace Bumble, Red and
Orange Tags, Half Stone, &c, have advanced
rapidly in favour. Then, too, the Egyptian
Goose and other hackle patterns of Mayfly have
for years killed so well as to necessitate their
inclusion in every fully-stocked Mayfly box.
The introduction of the hackle patterns of
sedge must be treated somewhat in detail.
From the middle of August to the end of the
trout season, and thence well on to November,
the sedge flies are plentiful during the daytime,
the females being usually seen on the wing,
dipping occasionally on the water while in the
act of laying their eggs. All fish in the stream,
whether trout, grayling, or coarse fish, are eager
to secure them as they touch the surface of the
stream. Naturally an observant fisherman tries
the best imitations he has in his book, such as
the Silver Sedge or Hare's Ear Sedge. The
experience of one and all is that on bright or
moderately calm days the winged patterns are
generally useless on a south-country chalk stream,
and many dismiss the subject with the remark
that the fish are shy of gut, man, or shadow of
rod, and are content to wait until dusk. Some
will impute their want of success to a superabundance or a deficiency of weed, or to the excessive
brightness of the sun. Others, again, will take
refuge in the safe and oft-repeated formula of
" over-fished."
few HUNDRED   BEST   PATTERNS
The next time the reader is out, he might find
it most interesting and not less instructive to
devote a little time to careful observation of the
sedge flies and their movements. He will then
notice that in the act of laying its eggs the fly
barely touches the surface of the stream, and
even when it falls and cannot rise again it lands
on the water like the proverbial thistle-down.
Let him attach the best winged pattern he has to
his cast, and, using the greatest care, place it on
the water, when it may safely be predicted that
he will be disgusted at the force with which it
falls, and the disturbance it makes on the surface.
If he can see a feeding trout that has just taken a
sedge fly, and, combining the utmost delicacy and
accuracy in the first cast, puts his fly over it, it is
more than probable that the fish will be scared,
and retire to the safe seclusion of the nearest
weed-bed.
Let him, however, dress one of the wingless
hackle patterns described later on with soft
landrail or woodcock hackle at the head, and a
ginger cock hackle behind it at the shoulder, and
it is almost safe to predict that he will find its
fall on the water will not scare the fish, but very
possibly rise and kill it.
Following on these lines, a number of hackle
imitations of duns and spinners have been included in this series. They are all dressed with
soft dun hen hackles at the head to imitate the m
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
wings, and cock hackles behind them of the
colour of the legs of the natural insect. Such
flies can, of course, be indefinitely multiplied, as
a hackle variety of any winged pattern can be
dressed by substituting the hen or soft-plumed
hackle for the wings, and making the legs, body
and whisk precisely similar to those of the winged
pattern.
GROUP  I.—IMITATIONS   OF
NATURAL   INSECTS.
SECTION  L—OLIVE   DUNS.
No.   I. GOLD-RlBBED     Hare's    Ear.
Illustrated at Plate XIX.
Wings.—Medium or dark starling.
Body.—Dark   fur   from   hare's face   ribbed with
fine flat gold.
Legs.—Dark   fur  from   hare's   face   laid   across
doubled waxed silk and worked as a hackle.
Whisk.—Gallina dyed brown red.
Hook.—ooo to o.
This pattern is placed first of the series as the
most successful of modern times. From early
spring to late autumn it is one of the most
killing of all the duns, and is, besides, preeminently the fly to be recommended for bulging or tailing fish.     It is probably taken for the  Plate  X"
%
OLIVE DUNS
Magnified
vis.
Gold Ribbed Hare's Ear
HacMe Dark Olive Quill
Medium Olive Quill
mr
*/
Detatched  Olive
ts rancy k hackles  dyed   green  olive
pacock quill dyed green olive,
ed green olive.
dark blue dt
een olive. I
i HUNDRED   BEST   PATTERNS 157
subimago emerging from the larval envelope of
the nymph just risen to the surface.
No. 2.—Hackle Gold-Ribbed Hare's Ear.
Head or Front Hackle.—A medium or dark blue
dun hen.
Shoulder Hackle.—A grizzle blue dun cock.
Body and Whisk.—As No. 1.
Hook.—000 to 1.
This fly is  likely to run the winged pattern
very closely in popularity.
No.
-Dark Olive Quill.
Wings.—Medium or dark starling.
Hackles.—Two cock hackles  dyed   green   olive
(Recipe No. I.*).
Body.—Condor or peacock quill dyed green olive.
Whisk.—Gallina dyed green olive.
Hook.—000 to 1.
No. 4.—Hackle Dark Olive Quill.
Illustrated at Plate XIX.
Head Hackle.—Medium or dark blue dun hen.
Shoulder Hackle.—Dyed green olive.
Body and Whisk.—As No. 3.
Hook.—000 to 1.
*The recipes referred to are given in Part III., chapter
II., ''Dyeing." 158
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
No. 5.— Medium Olive Quill.
Illustrated at Plate XIX.
Wings.—Medium or pale starling.
Hackles.—Two cock hackles dyed  medium  olive
(Recipe No. III.).
Body.—Condor  or  peacock   quill dyed medium
olive.
Whisk.—Gallina dyed medium olive.
Hook.—000 to o.
No. 6.—Hackle Medium Olive Quill.
Head Hackle.—Medium or pale blue dun hen.
Shoulder Hackle.—Cock   hackle    dyed   medium
olive.
Body and Whisk.—As No. 5.
Hook.—000 to 1.
Nos. 3, 4,  5  and 6 are   very useful  patterns,
especially for the spring.
No. 7.—Detached Olive.
Illustrated at Plate XIX.
Wings.—Medium or light starling.
Body.—Detached, of a fine slip of india-rubber
over an undyed doubled split bristle, with
three or four strands of Gallina dyed
medium olive for whisk.
Hackles.—Two cock hackles dyed medium olive.
Hook.—000 to o.
An invaluable spring pattern for very shy fish. HUNDRED   BEST   PATTERNS
159
No. 8.—Flight's Fancy.
Illustrated at Plate XIX.
Wings.—Pale starling.
Hackles.—Two pale buff Cochin cock hackles.
Body.—Primrose floss silk, ribbed  with fine flat
gold.
Whisk.—Gallina dyed slightly green olive.
Hook.—000 to o.
The primrose silk body when wet is of a green
olive tint, and the fly altogether resembles the
Olive Dun prevalent during the Mayfly.
All the patterns comprised in Section I., Olive
Duns, are imitations of the subimago stage of
the  Ephemeridae, Baetis vernus and B. rhodani.
SECTION II.—PALE   WATERY DUNS.
No.9.—Pale Watery Dun (Holland's pattern).
Illustrated at Plate XX.
Wings.—Pale starling.
Hackles.—Two cock hackles dyed a pale lemon
green olive (Recipe No. II.).
Body.—White   horsehair  dyed   a   faint  canary,
worked on a bare blue hook.     For a bronzed
hook  the horsehair should be dyed a pale
lemon green olive.
Whisk.—Very pale olive Gallina.
Hook.—000 to o.
This, the  best imitation extant of the natural i6o
DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
insect, was originally worked out by Mr. G.
Holland, of Winchester, to whom I am indebted
for the above full description.
No.   10.—Hackle   Pale Watery   Dun.
Head Hackle.—A pale blue dun hen.
Shoulder Hackle.—A  cock hackle dyed as the
hackles of No. 9.
Body and Whisk.—As No. 9.
Hook.-—000 to 1.
The hackle   variety  of No.  9,  and one that
kills very well during the summer months.
No.  11.—Pale Olive Quill.
Wings.—Palest starling.
Body.—Pale grey condor dyed a pale canary. *
Hackles.—Two cock hackles dyed a pale lemon
green olive.
Whisk.—Very pale olive Gallina.
Hook.—000 to o.
No.  12.—Goose Dun.
Wings, Hackles, and Whisk.—As No. 11.
Body. — A    strand   of   pale    grey   goose-wing
feather, dyed a pale lemon green olive, and
ribbed with fine gold wire.
Hook.—000 to o.  Hate XX
PALE WATERY DUNS
Magnified
Hares Ear Quill
Quill Marryat
16 17
ez
Ginger Qui!
Hackle Ginger Qu Wkis
Hare's Ear Quill.
^jp^ipr peacock quill dyed
:   of  the   Australian
chin c<ne& hackles.   i62 DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
No.   16.—Ginger Quill.
Illustrated at Plate XX.
Wings.—Pale starling.
Body.—Well-marked strand of peacock, undyed
or dyed a very faint brown red.
Hackles.—Two pale ginger cock hackles.
Whisk.—Gallina dyed a faint brown red.
Hook.—ooo to o.
No.   17.—Hackle Ginger Quill.
Illustrated at Plate XX.
Head Hackle.—Pale blue dun hen.
Shoulder Hackle.—Pale ginger cock.
Body and Whisk.—As No. 16.
Hook.—000 to 1.
Pale watery duns are essentially summer or
late spring flies, and even in the autumn in
genial weather they are often present. Of the
natural insects usually called by this name
there are four common sorts, Baetis binoculatus,
B. scambus, Centroptilum luteolum, and Centroptilum pennulatum; and, • as their colouring
is very similar, and the genera and species can
only be distinguished by minor differences, they
may, for the fly-fisherman's purposes, be treated
as one and the same insect.
The Ginger Quill, whether dressed with or
without wings, has been included in this section,
and, although possibly some exception may be HUNDRED  BEST PATTERNS
163
taken to this arrangement by the hypercritical,
yet, seeing that it almost invariably kills when
the Pale Watery Dun is on the water, it would
be difficult to place it elsewhere. There is,
however, very little of the ginger colouring in
the natural insect, nor, for that matter, of the
cafe au lait tint of the body of the two Marryats,
wThich are also most successful when the Pale
Watery Duns are up. With the patterns of
Sections I. and II., Nos. 1 to 17, in his book,
the dry-fly fisherman should be able to match
fairly well any of the spring and summer olive-
tinted Ephemeridae in the subimago stage with
wings of the grey or starling colouring.
SECTION   III.—BLUE   DUNS.
No.   18.—Detached Iron Blue.
Illustrated at Plate XXI.
Wings.—Tom-tit tail.
Body and Whisk.— Detached—a thin slip of
india-rubber worked over a doubled split
bristle dyed purple, and three or four
strands of dark undyed Gallina for whisk.
Hackles.—Two dark honey dun cock hackles.
Hook. —000 or 00.
No.   19.—Purple Quill-Bodied Iron Blue.
Illustrated at Plate XXI.
Wings.—Tom-tit tail.
Body.—Condor dyed purple. m
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Hackles.—Two dark honey dun cock hackles.
Whisk.—Dark undyed Gallina.
Hook.—ooo or oo.
No. 20.—Hackle Purple Quill-Bodied
Iron Blue.
Head Hackle.—Dark blue dun hen.
Shoulder Hackle.—Dark honey dun cock.
Body and Whisk.—As No. 19.
Hook.—000 to o.
No. 21.—Mole Fur Bodied Iron Blue.
Wings.—Tom-tit tail.
Hackles.—Two dark honey dun cock hackles.
Body.—Mole fur ribbed with primrose silk.
Whisk.—Undyed dark Gallina.
Hook.—000 or 00.
No. 22.—Olive Quill-Bodied Iron Blue.
Wings.—Tom-tit tail.
Hackles.—Two  cock  hackles dyed brown  olive
(Recipe No. IV.).
Body.—Condor or peacock dyed brown olive.
Whisk.—Gallina dyed.
Hook.—000 or 00.
The wing of the iron blue can also be made of
dark starling wing dyed to the required shade by
Recipe No. IX., but where procurable the torn-tit
is to be preferred.  Plate
r
BLUE DUNS
Magnified
Detatched iron Blue
I
Purple Quill Bodied Iron Blue
(K\
Haclde Adjutant Blue
Blue Quill
Whirling Blue  Mm HUNDRED   BEST   PATTERNS 165
No. 23.—Adjutant Blue.
Wings.—Coot.
Hackles.—Two dark honey dun cock hackles.
Body.—A strand of adjutant wing or tail.
Whisk.—Undyed dark Gallina.
Hook.—000 to 00.
No.  24.—Hackle Adjutant Blue.
Illustrated at Plate XXL
Head Hackle.—A dark blue dun hen.
Shoulder Hackle.—A dark honey dun cock.
Body and Whisk.—As No. 23.
Hook.—000 to o.
The patterns Nos. 18 to 24 inclusive are
imitations of the different shades of Iron Blue
Duns, and on streams where this fly is plentiful
they are invariably successful spring patterns.
In reference to the variations in the colour of
the body, it may be noted that the purple-bodied
specimens are females, and those in which the
abdomen is more or less of a brown olive tint are
males. As in all the Ephemeridae, too, the
females are larger than the males. The subimago,
which is called by anglers the Iron Blue Dun,
comprises two species of the genus Baetis, viz.,
B. pumilus and B. niger.
No. 25.—Blue Quill.
Illustrated at Plate XXI.
Wings.—Medium starling.
Hackles.—Two honey dun cock hackles. 166
DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
Body.—Peacock quill undyed.
Whisk.—Medium Gallina undyed.
Hook.—ooo to o.
No. 26.—Hackle Blue Quill.
Head Hackle.—Medium blue dun hen.
Shoulder Hackle.—Honey dun cock.
Body and Whisk.—As No. 25.
Hook.—000 to 1.
This, the hackle variety of the Blue Quill, is
similar to the Devonshire " Blue Upright."
No.
27.-
-Blue Dun.
Wrings.—Snipe or light Starling.
Hackles.—Two pale blue dun cock hackles.
Body.—Pale mole fur spun on yellow silk.
Whisk.—Pale undyed Gallina.
Hook.—000 to o.
No.   28.—Autumn Dun.
Wings, Hackles and Whisks.—As No. 27.
Body.—A strand of undyed heron herl.
Hook.—000 to o.
No.   29.—Whirling Blue.
Illustrated at Plate XXI.
Wings.—Medium starling.
Hackles.—Two ginger cock hackles.
Body.—Water-rat fur. HUNDRED   BEST PATTERNS 167
Whisk.—Gallina dyed brown red.
Hook.—000 to o.
This pattern is continually being reproduced
as the "Invincible" or ''Infallible" of some
amateur or professional, and is generally successful. The colours can be varied to a considerable
extent by the use of darker or paler starling for
the wings, hackles more or less red in tint, and
the body of fur from young or old water-rats.
The patterns Nos. 25 to 29 inclusive are
imitations of the Blue Dun. From time immemorial the existence of such a natural insect has
been affirmed, and in the face of so much accumulated evidence it must be included in the
category of "Imitations of Natural Insects." It
has never been my good fortune to find or
procure a specimen, nor can I find among the
lists of British Ephemeridae any corresponding
to it in colour, &c. Two or three friends have
sent me what they took to be individuals of
this species, but they have on examination all
proved to be subimagines of the Olive or Iron
Blue Dun, or of the Blue-winged Olive.
SECTION IV.—BLUE-WINGED  OLIVES.
No.   30.—Blue-Winged Olive.
Illustrated at Plate XXII.
Wings. — Coot.
Hackles.—Two cock hackles dyed green olive.
Body.—Grey condor, or peacock dyed green olive. i68
DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
Whisk.—Gallina dyed green olive.
Hook.—oo to i.
No. 31.—Rough Blue-Winged Olive.
Wings.—Coot.
Hackles.—Two cock hackles dyed green olive.
Body.—Heron herl dyed green olive, ribbed with
fine gold wire.
Whisk.—Gallina dyed green olive.
Hook.—00 to 1.
No. 32.—Indian Yellow.
Wings.—Inside grouse wing from a young bird.
Hackles.—Two buff Cochin cock hackles.
Body.—Floss   silk  about   the   colour of natural
Russia leather,   ribbed  with   bright lemon-
coloured tying silk.
Whisk.—Buff Cochin cock hackle.
Head.—Three or four turns of orange tying silk.
Hook.—00 to 1.
The late Mr. Aldam's pattern.
Many fishermen have an idea that the Blue-
winged Olive is a variety of the ordinary Olive
Dun. This is an erroneous impression. The
common Olives all belong to the genus Baetis,
while the Blue-winged Olive is the subimago
stage of Ephemerella ignita, the Sherry Spinner
being the imago of the same insect. The most
casual   observer can distinguish  these two flies,  BLUE WINGED OLIVES and spinners
Magnified
Blue Winged Olive
Red   Quill
39
Hackle Red Spinner, (Hollands pattern)
40
Detatehed Badger
Jenny  Spinne 'our of it ings,
£>-&& #fr, tfagef than the
te- winged Olive has three
Dun, llfai all other mem-
>tis in the winged stages,
the Test and Itchen the
s   essentially    a   late   fly,
any  number   before   the
md
the  Oliv
.c   eany
;ason  is
old  Rough   OHv<
i,  but  it  HUNDRED   BEST   PATTERNS
as, apart from the darker colour of its Wings,
the Blue-winged Olive is far larger than the
Olive Dun. The Blue-winged Olive has three
setae, while the Olive Dun, like all other members of the genus Baetis in the winged stages,
has only two. On the Test and Itchen the
Blue-winged Olive is essentially a late fly,
seldom appearing in any number before the
middle of June, and continuing to November,
or possibly even later. On the Kennet it,
however, puts in an appearance in the early
spring, and at the opening of the season is
almost  as  plentiful   as   the   Olive   Dun.
Of the three dressings given, No. 30 is the
best for the summer evenings, or for daytime
in the autumn or early winter; while No. 31
has proved most successful on the Kennet in
the spring. The old Rough Olive, No. 1 of
"Floating Flies," which resembles No. 31, has
been discarded. As an early spring fly and
imitation of the darker Olive Dun, it has been
superseded   by   the   Dark Olive   Quill   and   the
Gold-ribbed  Hare's  Ear.
late Mr.
Aldam's celebrated Indian Yellow, has a great
reputation, especially on the Itchen, but it certainly is not as good an imitation of the natural
insect as either No. 30 or 31* *7o DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
SECTION V.—SPINNERS.
No. 33.—Red Quill.
Illustrated at Plate XXII.
Wings.—Pale or Medium starling.
Hackles.—Two red game cock hackles.
Body.—Peacock quill or condor dyed brown red.
Whisk.—Gallina dyed brown red.
Hook.—000 to 1.
No. 34.—Hackle Red Quill.
Head Hackle.—A medium blue dun hen hackle.
Shoulder Hackle.—A red game cock hackle.
Body and Whisk.—As No. t,^.
Hook.—000 to 1.
No. 35.—Red Spinner (the late  Mr.
Marryat's Pattern).
Wings.—Two blue dun cock hackle points.
Hackles.—Two   black   butted   red   game   cock
hackles.
Body.—Adjutant quill dyed brown red.    A very
good alternative material, suggested by Mr.
W.  F.  Brougham, is a strand of red macaw.
Whts&.—White Gallina.
Hook.—000 to o.
No.   36.—Hackle  Red  Spinner.
Head Hackle.—Medium blue dun hen hackle.
Shoulder Hackle.—Black butted red game cock
hackle. HUNDRED   BEST   PATTERNS
Body and Whisk.—As No. 35.
Hook.—000 to o.
No. 2>7-—Hackle Red  Spinner
(Mr. S rues'   Pattern).
Hackles.—Ruddy, rusty, sandy, or honey dun
cock, or badger, or smoky ginger cuckoo.
Body.—- Flat tawsy end from hank of gut dyed
brown red, and worked on the bare hook.
Whisk.—Blue or whitey cock's hackle.
Hook.—000 to o.
No.  38.—Red   Spinner  (Holland's Pattern).
Wings.—Pale starling.
Hackles.—Two red game cock hackles.
Body.—White   horsehair   dyed brown   red,   and
worked on bare hook.
Whisk.—White Gallina.
Hook.—000 to o.
No. 39.—Hackle  Red Spinner
(Holland's  Pattern).
Illustrated at Plate XXII.
Hackles.—Two badger cock hackles.
Body.—White horsehair dyed brown red, worked
on bare hook, and ribbed with crimson silk.
Whisk.—White Gallina.
Hook.—000 to o. 172 DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
No. 40.—Detached  Badger.
Illustrated at Plate XXII.
Hackles.—Two badger cock hackles. *
Body and Whisk. — Detached, of white horsehair
dyed brown red, worked over a foundation
of doubled split bristle also dyed brown
red, and ribbed with crimson silk. Three
or four strands of white Gallina worked in
for whisk.
Hook—000 to 1.
No. 41.—Orange   Quill.
Wings.—Pale starling.
Hackles.—Two orange ginger cock hackles.
Body.—Peacock quill dyed orange.
Whisk.—Gallina dyed a faint brown red.
Hook.—000 to o.
No. 42.—Brown Badger.
Hackles.—Two badger cock hackles.
Body.—Peacock quill dyed brown red.
Whisk.—White Gallina.
Hook.—000 to o.
No. 43.—Cinnamon Quill.
Wings.—Pale starling.
Hackles.—Two pale sandy ginger cock hackles.
Body.—The root end of a strand of peacock tail,
which,  when stripped, is  a  pale cinnamon
colour; or condor, dyed a faint brown red. HUNDRED   BEST PATTERNS
Whisk.—Gallina dyed a faint brown red.
Hook.—ooo to o.
Nos. 33-43 inclusive are imitations of the so-
called Red Spinner, and are one and all excellent
patterns. The term Red Spinner includes a
considerable number of the Ephemeridae in the
imago, or perfect stage. The largest and darkest
is the spinner of the Turkey Brown {Leptophlebia
sub marginal a). Next in size comes the Sherry
Spinner, or imago of Ephemerella ignita. The
body of the spinner of the female Olive Dun
(Baetis vernus or B. ?'hodani) is a dead gold
colour immediately after its metamorphosis, and
becomes darker and browner, probably from exposure to the light. The body of the spinner of
the female Pale Watery Dun (Baetis binoculatus,
Centroptilum luteolum, or C. pennulatum) is of
a golden colour, becoming darker, probably from
exposure to light. The body of the imago of
the female Iron Blue (Baetis pumilus or B. niger)
is a full dark claret. The largest of all known
British Red Spinners is the imago of the March
Brown (Ecdyurus venosus), but it has never been
my good fortune to find a single specimen of it
on the Test, Itchen, Anton, Wiley, or Kennet.
It will be seen from the foregoing that Red
Spinners of different sizes and colours are most
plentiful on the south country chalk streams, and
hence the importance of the patterns imitating
them can be appreciated. 174
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
No. 44.—Olive
Badger.
Hackle
s.—Two badger cock
hackles.
Body.—
-Peacock quill dyed brown olive,
with
flat
gold tag.
Whisk.
—White Gallina.
Hook.-
-000 to 0.
This
is  the imitation of
the spinners   of
the
female
Olive Dun {Baetis vernus or B.
rhodt
mi)
at its last stage.
No. 45.—Jenny
Spinner.
Illustrated at Plate XXII.
Hackles.—Two badger cock hackles.
Body and Whisk.—Detached, of white horsehair,
worked on an undyed split doubled bristle,
with four or five turns of crimson silk at the
tail end, and the same number at the thorax.
Three or four strands of white Gallina are
worked in for whisk.
Hook.—000 or 00.
This is the imitation of the male imago of the
Iron Blue {Baetis pumilus or B. niger) which is
known as the Jenny Spinner. The male imago
of the Olive Dun {Baetis vernus or B. rhodani) is
similar in colouring, but is a larger fly than the
Jenny Spinner, and the central segments of the
body are distinctly a pale olive tint. To imitate
it accordingly the horsehair for the body should
be   slightly  dyed  medium  olive.    The  spinner HUNDRED  BEST PATTERNS 175
of the male Pale Watery Dun {Baetis binoculatus, Centroptilum luteolum, or C. pennulatum)
differs in colour from the Jenny Spinner only by
the thorax and lower segments of the abdomen
being a yellow orange, and to imitate it the silk
turns at the tail end of the body and thorax
should be of this colour.
No. 46.—Spent Olive
(Mr. E. J. Power's Pattern).
Wings.—Four dark blue dun cock hackle points
set on flat.
Hackle.—White cock hackle with black centre.
Body. — White peacock dyed very palest yellow.
Whisk.—-White cock hackle very short.
Hook.—000 or 00.
Mr. Power says that he also dresses this
pattern with wings made of a shaving of whalebone dyed a pale slate to dark blue, but that he
prefers the hackle point wings as more durable
than the whalebone. He adds: "A killing fly
in the morning during July and August, when
fish rise like mad, and no fly seems to be on the
water." Evidently it is taken by the trout when
the female imagines of the Pale Watery Dun,
having laid their eggs, lie flat and motionless on
the surface of the stream, and altogether it is a
fair imitation of the natural insect at this stage. 176
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
SECTION   VI.—MAYFLIES.
No. 47.—Egyptian Goose Hackle.
Illustrated at Plate XXIII.
Hackles.—One or two well-marked darkish
feathers from the breast of an Egyptian
goose, undyed or slightly dyed according
to Recipe No. V.
Body.—Pale maize floss silk ribbed with a strand
of peacock, selecting one which is pale
cinnamon at the root. It is worked with
the pale portion at the shoulder, and the
bronze portion showing about three turns
or ribs at the tail end of the body.
Whisk.—Gallina dyed in Diamond dark brown.
Hook.—No. 3 long.
For a variety the body can be made of Rofia
grass laid over white quill, and ribbed with  flat
gold, or red or olive silk.   For trout bulging at the
nymph this is the most successful pattern extant.
No. 48.—Summer Duck Hackle.
Head Hackle.—Canadian wood or summer duck.
Feathers which are too long and narrow
for wings can be used up for this pattern.
Shoulder Hackle.—Pale ginger cock hackle.
Body. — Rofia grass over white quill, ribbed with
fine flat gold.
Whisk.—Gallina dyed in Diamond dark brown.
Hook.—3 long, 3, or 2.  Plate XX]
xinj
mayflie s
Natural Size
^x.
Egyptian Goose Hackle
Summer Duck
Brown Champion
Dyed Gallina
Undyed Rouen Drake
Spent Gnat   No. 49.—Dyed  Rouen Drake Hackle.
Head Hackle.—Rouen drake dyed according to
Recipe   No.   VII.    Feathers   too  long and
narrow for wings can be used.
Shoulder Hackle.*—A large fine honey dun hen
hackle.
Body and Whisk.—As No. 48.
Hook.—3 long, 3 or 2.
Nos. 48 and 49 are admirable hackle patterns,
and can be varied by the use of hen golden
pheasant, grey hen, hen pheasant, &c, for shoulder hackles. Bodies can be ribbed with crimson
or olive silk, either with or without the flat gold
ribbing.
No. 50.—Summer Duck.
Illustrated at Plate XXIII.
Wings.—Canadian summer duck.
Shoulder   Hackles.—A   hen   golden    pheasant
hackle   in   front,   and  a  pale  ginger  cock
hackle close behind.
Ribbing Hackle.—A pale ginger cock hackle.
Body and Whisk.—As No. 48.
Hook.—No. 3 long.
An imitation of the female imago in the act
of laying her eggs.
No. 51.—Brown Champion.
Illustrated at Plate XXIII.
Wings.—Rouen drake dyed according to Recipe
No, VI. 178
DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
Hackles.—A grey partridge dyed in strong tea,
and a pale ginger cock hackle.
Body.—Of Rofia grass over white quill, ribbed
with fine flat gold and red silk.
Whisk.—As No. 48.
Hook.—No. 2.
No. 52.—Green Champion.
Wings.—Rouen drake dyed according to Recipe
No. VII. If the colour is not green enough,
the feathers can be dyed again in very weak
solution of Indigo.
Hackles.—As No. 51.
Body and Whisk.—As No. 48.
Hook.—No. 2.
No. 53.—Dyed Gallina.
Illustrated at Plate XXIII.
Wings.—Well-marked feathers from cock Gallina
dyed as wings of No. 51 or 52, according
to whether a brown or a green shade of
wings is preferred.
Hackles.—A hen golden pheasant in front, and
a pale ginger cock behind.
Ribbing Hackle.—A pale ginger cock.
Body and Whisk.—As No. 48.
Hook.—No. 2.
This fly is not an easy one to float, but the
Gallina wings are so like the natural in appear-- HUNDRED   BEST   PATTERNS
179
ance, and the pattern is so deadly, that it is now
considered quite equal to the old favourite Brown
and Green Champions.
No. 54.—Dyed Rouen Drake
(Holland's Pattern).
Wings.—Rouen drake dyed according to Recipe
No. VIII.
Hackles.—As No. 51.
Body and Whisk.—As No. 48.
Hook.—No. 2.
The wings of this pattern match those of the
natural insect very closely in colour.
No. 55.—Undyed Rouen Drake.
"   Illustrated at Plate XXIII.
Wings.—Well-marked dark Rouen drake.
Hackles.—As No. 51.
Body and Whisk.—As No. 48.
Hook.—No. 2.
A better imitation than No. 50 of the female
imago laying her eggs.
No.   56.—Spent  Gnat.
Illustrated at Plate XXIII.
Wings.—Four dark grizzled blue dun cock hackle
points set on horizontally.
Hackles.—A grey partridge in front and a badger
cock hackle close behind it. *m*.
180 DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
Ribbing Hackle.—A badger cock hackle.
Body.—A strand of condor quill dark at point and
white at root, the white part worked in  at
shoulder to show two or three turns of the
dark colour  at  the  tail   end  of  the  body.
Body ribbed with fine silver wire.
Whisk.—Gallina dyed in Diamond dark brown.
Hook.—3 long.
This, the late Mr. Marryat's last improved
dressing of his well-known pattern, is the only
imitation of the Spent Gnat or imago of the
Mayfly worthy of notice.
The flies in this section are known as Ephemera danica, E. vulgata or E. lineata, the first
being the one usually found on the more rapid
streams, and on sluggish streams or lakes the
second.    E. lineata is comparatively rare.
SECTION VII.—CURSES.
No. 57.—Fisherman's   Curse  (the   late   Mr.
G. S. Marryat's Pattern).
Illustrated at Plate XXIV.
Wings.—Pale starling.
Hackles.—Two cock starling hackles.
Body.—A strand of cock golden pheasant tail or
of brown turkey tail.
Hook.—000  CURSES
Magnified
57
58
4
Fisherman's Curse
Hackle   Curse
59
Male Black Gnat
60
62
Female Black Gnat
Claret    Smut ik   late   Sir   M
TTBRN).
;r<-a ai snouic
H&i silver ta£.
Gnat  Hackles.—Two cock badger hackles  and three
turns of black ostrich worked at shoulder.
Body.—Black tying silk and flat silver tag.
Hook.—ooo.
No.  59.—Male Black Gnat
Illustrated at Plate XXIV.
Winps.—Pale starling.
Hackles.—Two cock starling hackles.
Body.—Peacock quill dyed black or black quill
split from chaffinch tail feather.
Hook.—00.
No. 60.—Female Black Gnat.
Illustrated at Plate XXIV.
Wings.—From starling tail, selecting the part of
the feather with well-marked brown tip.
Hackles and Body.—As No. 59.
Hook.—00.
No. 61.—Pike Scale Black Gnat.
Wings. — One strip of pike scale cut to shape and
laid flat along the upper side of hook.
Hackles and Body.—As No. 59.
Hook.—00.
Mr. H. S. Hall's favourite pattern. 182 DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
No.  62.—Claret  Smut  (Mr.   E.   J.   Power's
Pattern).
Illustrated at Plate XXIV.
Wings.-^-Pale starling.
Hackle.—Black cock hackle.
Body.—Peacock quill dyed claret.
Hook.—00 or 000.
Very successful with smutting fish on the
Upper Test.
The flies in this section are imitations of the
so-called " Fisherman's Curse," or other small Diptera of different genera and species, plentiful on
the chalk streams throughout the season. All the
patterns given are excellent, and the best advice
to the angler is to try them in succession, unless,
like some of the most experienced dry-fly fishermen, he prefers to use fancy patterns or certain
imitations of natural insects which are usually
successful for smutting fish. Such fancy patterns
are dealt with in Group II., and of the imitations
of natural insects, red quill, detached badger,
red ant, black ant, and very, small silver sedge
will be found the most suitable.
SECTION VIII.—CADDIS FLIES.
No. 63.—Silver Sedge.
Illustrated at Plate XXV.
Wings.—Landrail.
Hackles.—Two pale sandy ginger cock hackles
at shoulder.  CADDIS   FLIES
Natural Size
Silver Sedge
Hare's Ear Sedge
Kimbridg'e
Hackle
Welshman's Button 'ale sandy ginger cock hackle,
or quill ribbed with fine silver
3EIXXE.
pattern
ckles  at
RiMtKg   Hackles
'1m&*f%®£ ribbe  HUNDRED   BEST   PATTERNS
Ribbing Hackle.—Pale sandy ginger cock hackle.
Body.—White condor quill ribbed with fine silver
wire.
Hook.—oo to 4.
Dressed on a 00 hook, this is a good pattern
for smutting fish.
No. 64.—Orange Sedge.
Wings.—Landrail.
Hackles.—Two  brown  ginger  cock   hackles  at
shoulder.
Ribbing Hackle.—Brown ginger cock hackle.
Body.—Orange floss  silk  ribbed  with fine gold
wire.
Hook.—o to 4.
No. 65.—Hare's-Ear Sedge.
Illustrated at Plate XXV.
Wings,   Shoulder   and   Ribbing   Hackles. -
No. 64.
Body.—Brown fur from hare's face ribbed with
fine gold wire.
Hook.—o to 4.
A fly which has proved uniformly successful on
all chalk streams—in fact, the best of the landrail-
winged patterns.
No. 66.—Dark Sedge.
Wings.—Speckled cock pheasant wing.
Hackles. — Two    rusty    Coch-y-Bonddhu   cock
hackles at shoulder. 184 DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
Ribbing Hackle.—A rusty Coch-y-Bonddhu cock
hackle.
Body.—Dubbing of cream-coloured crewel ribbed
with fine gold wire.
Hook.—i to 5.
No. 67.—Kimbridge.
.    Illustrated at Plate XXV.
Wings.—Woodcock.
Hackles.—Two pale sandy ginger cock hackles
at shoulder.
Ribbing Hackle.—Pale sandy ginger cock hackle.
Body.—White condor ribbed with fine silver wire.
Hook.—2 to 5.
This fly is often taken better than the Mayfly
itself, even in daytime, during the hatch of Green
Drake, and it is at all times a useful pattern for
evening fishing.
No. 68.—Hackle Kimbridge.
Head Hackle.—A well-marked woodcock hackle.
Shoulder  Hackle.—A   pale   sandy   ginger  cock
hackle.
Ribbing Hackle.—A   pale   sandy    ginger  cock
hackle.
Body and Size of Hook.—As No. 6y.
No. 69.—Hackle Sedge.
Illustrated at Plate XXV.
Head Llackle.—A landrail or brown hen's neck
hackle. HUNDRED  BEST PATTERNS 185
Shoulder Hackle.—A sandy ginger cock hackle.
Body.—Central  quill  of  partridge   tail   feather,
with plumes cut away close on both sides,
ribbed with gold twist.
Hook.—o to 4.
Patterns Nos. 63 to 69 are imitations of different species of Trichoptera, called by anglers
Sedges, Caperers, Brown Silver-horns, &c. The
natural insects are all very similar in colouring,
being generally of a lighter or darker ruddy
brown or cinnamon colour. Those with self-
coloured wings are best imitated by landrail, the
speckled wings by cock pheasant, and the mottled
wings by woodcock.
No. 70.—Grannom Pupa.
Wing.—A small piece of the point of a brown
partridge hackle.
Hackle.—A rusty dun cock hackle.
Body.—Peacock or grey condor quill dyed blue
green.
Hook.—1 to 2.
No.   71.—Grannom.
Illustrated at Plate XXV.
Wings.—Palest hen partridge wing.
Hackles.—Two rusty dun cock hackles.
Body.—A strand  of condor,  very pale  grey at
point and dark at root ; the root part only is 186 DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
stripped, and the entire strand dyed blue-
green. The root portion is worked on at
shoulder, and the unstripped portion at the
point forms the bunch of green eggs at
the tail end of the body.
Hook.—i to 3.
Nos. 70 and 71 are imitations of the Grannom
in the pupa and mature or imago stage respectively, the scientific name of this insect being
Brachycentrus subnubilus.
No. 72.—Welshman's Button.
Illustrated at Plate XXV.
Wings.—Brown pink feather from underwing of
peacock. There is an Indian pheasant with
wings of a similar colour.
Hackles.—Two rusty black cock hackles.
Body.—Copper peacock herl {i.e., dyed Magenta).
For a variety, cover the herl with guttapercha tissue or thin india-rubber. The
central quill of one of the smaller tail
feathers of a hen pheasant is another
material for the body of this fly.
Hook.—1 to 4.
The   natura    insect is known as Sericostoma
personatum or Spencii.  Alder
Natural Size
VARIOUS
Magnified
Red Ant
Black Ant
Willow Fly
&
Coch-y-Bonddhi  Hi HUNDRED   BEST PATTERNS 187
SECTION IX.—VARIOUS.
No. J2>-—Alder.
Illustrated at Plate XXVI.
Wings.—Hen pheasant tail,  bustard,  or  woodcock for a variety.
Hackles and Body.—As No. 72.
Hook.—o to 2.
No. 74. — Hackle Alder.
Head Hackle.—Woodcock.
Shoulder Hackle.—Coch-y-Bonddhu.
Body.—As No. 72.
Hook.—1 to 3.
Nos.  73 and   74 are imitations of the Alder
which is known to scientists as Sialis lutaria.
No.  75.—Cowdung.
Wings.—Lan drail.
Hackles.—Two ginger cock hackles.
Body.—Dubbing of pale   buff or brown  yellow
crewel.
Hook.—1 or 2.
No. j6.—Red Ant.
Illustrated at Plate XXVI.
Wings.—Pale starling.
Hackles.—Two red game cock hackles.
Body.—Grey condor dyed brown red.    The root 188 DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
of the strand only is stripped, and the point
worked on close to form butt.
Hook.—o to oo.
No. yy.—Hackle Red  Ant.
Head Hackle.—A honey dun hen hackle.
Shoulder Hackle.—A red game cock hackle.
Body.—As No. y6.
Hook.—oo to i.
No. y&—Black Ant.
Illustrated at Plate XXVI.
Wings.—Pale starling.
Hackles.—Two cock starling hackles.
Body.—Peacock dyed black or quill of chaffinch
tail feather.
Butt.—Black ostrich.
Hook.—o or oo.
Nos.  76,  yy, and yS, imitations of the winged
ants, are useful patterns for smutting fish.
No. 79.—Willow Fly.
Illustrated at Plate XXVI.
Head Hackle.—A dark honey dun hen hackle.
Shoulder Hackle. — An orange ginger cock
hackle.
Body.—Grey condor or peacock dyed in Diamond orange. HUNDRED   BEST   PATTERNS
189
Tag.—Primrose floss silk.
Hook.—00 long or o.
This is the Willow (Leuctra geniculata) in the
act of laying its eggs.
NO. 80. COCH-Y-BONDDHU.
Illustrated at Plate XXVI.
Hackles.—Two cock Coch-y-Bonddhu hackles.
Body.—Two or three strands of copper peacock
herl twisted together, ribbed with fine gold
wire for small sizes, or with  fine   flat  gold
for larger sizes.
Hook.—00 to 2.
According to Ronalds, this, the last pattern of
Group I., is the imitation of one of the Coleop-
tera, or beetles called Chrysomela populi. The
modern scientific name of this insect is Lina
populi.
GROUP II.—FANCY FLIES.
SECTION I.—UPRIGHT WINGED PATTERNS.
No. 81.—Wickham.
Illustrated at Plate XXVII.
Wings.—Medium or light starling.
Hackles. — Two    red    game   cock   hackles   at
shoulder.
Ribbing Hackle.—Red game cock hackle.
Body.—Flat gold ribbed with fine gold wire.
Whisk.—Gallina dyed brown red.
Hook.—000 to 1. 190
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
No. 82.—Pink Wickham.
Wings.—Landrail.
Body, Hackles, Whisk, and Sizes of Hook.—As
No. Si.
Two of the best fancy patterns known, and
most efficacious in some rivers for smutting
fish, for which purpose, of course, the smallest
sizes should be used. Some professional fly-
dressers omit the ribbing of gold wire. This
effects some saving in time when dressing the
flies, but in use those without the ribbing over
the hackle do not stand the wear and tear of
drying, and should therefore be rejected.
ill
No. 83 —Golden Dun.
Illustrated at Plate XXVII.
Wings.—Pale starling.
Hackle.—Hare fleck worked on at shoulder  as
a hackle.
Body.—Flat gold.
Whisk.—Gallina dyed a faint brown red.
Hook.—000 to o.
An improvement suggested by the late Mr.
J. A. Day on the pattern given under the same
name in " Floating Flies," and one which is
often successful in hot, calm weather.  Plate XXVII
FANCY FLIES, UPRIGHT WINGED PATTERNS
Magnified
Wiakha
i
Golden Dun
Badger Quill
Saltoun
Apple Gr No. 85.—Badger Quill.
Illustrated at Plate XXVII. Plate XXVII
"FANCY FT.TF.S    TTPRT^HT WINGED PATTFRTSTS  192 DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
No. Sy.—Apple Green (Holland's   Pattern).
Illustrated at Plate XXVII.
Wings.—Medium starling.
Hackles.—Two red game cock hackles.
Body.—Condor dyed light green.
Whisk.—Gallina dyed brown red.
Hook.—ooo to o
A good fly in the summer and early autumn.
No. SS.—Greenwell's Glory.
Wings.—Hen blackbird wing.
Hackles.—Two Coch-y-Bonddhu cock hackles.
Body.—Olive silk, ribbed closely with fine gold
wire.
Whisk.—Gallina dyed brown olive,
Hook.—ooo to o.
An old and well-known pattern, probably
originally intended to represent one of the Olive
Duns.
SECTION II.—FLAT-WINGED PATTERNS.
No. 89.—Hammond's Adopted.
Illustrated at Plate XXVIII.
Wings.—Woodcock wing.
Hackles.—Two brown ginger cock hackles.
Ribbing Hackle.—A brown ginger cock hackle.
Body.—Dubbing of ruddy brown crewel, ribbed
with fine gold wire.
Hook.—1 to 4. No. 90.—Artful Dodger,
Illustrated at Plate XXVIII.
Wings.—Cock pheasant wing.
Hackles.—Two blood-red cock hackles.
Ribbing Hackles.—A blood-red cock hackle.
Body.—Dubbing   of   purple   crewel   (or,   for   a
variety, of dark  sage-green   crewel) ribbed
with fine gold wire.
Hook.—1 to 4.
No. 91.—Coachman.
Wings. —White swan or duck.
Hackles.—Two red game cock hackles.
Body.—Gopper peacock herl.
Hook.—1 to 4.
No. 92.—Governor.
Illustrated at Plate XXVIII.
Wings.—Woodcock.
Hackles.—Two ginger cock hackles.
Body.—Copper peacock herl.
Butt.—Primrose  floss   silk,   or  flat   gold  for  a
variety.
Hook.—o to 4.
Nos. 89, 90, 91, and 92 are useful evening
flies, and No. 90 is also at times successful during
the day, especially in the Green Drake season.
No. 92, dressed on hook No. o or 1, is a great
favourite on some rivers in the summer on hot,
still days.
13 194 DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
SECTION III.—HACKLE PATTERNS.
No. 93.—Hackle Wickham.
Illustrated at Plate XXVIII.
Head Hackle.—A honey dun hen hackle.
Shoulder Hackle.—Red game cock hackle.
Ribbing Hackle.—Red game cock hackle.
Body.—Flat gold ribbed with fine gold wire.
Whisk.—Gallina dyed brown red.
Hook.—000 to 1.
No. 94.—Orange Bumble.
Head Hackle.—Honey dun hen hackle.
Shoulder Hackle.—Honey dun cock hackle.
Ribbing Hackle.—Honey dun cock hackle.
Body.—Condor   or   peacock   dyed   orange
ribbed flat gold.
Hook.—00 to 1.
and
No. 95.—Furnace Bumble.
Illustrated at Plate XXVIII.
Substitute furnace hackles for the honey dun
hackles,  but  in  other respects  dress  exactly as
No. 94.
No. 96.—Corkscrew.
Head Hackle.—A brown ginger hen hackle.
Shoulder Hackle.—A brown ginger cock hackle.
Body.—Central  quill  of a   brown  partridge tail
feather,  from which the  plumes have been,
cut away on either side.
Hook.—00 to 1.  Plate XXV]
FANCY FLIES, FLAT WINGED PATTERNS.
Natural    Size
Hammond's Adopted Artful Dodger
Governor
HACKLE PATTERNS
Magnified
93
95
Hackle Wickham
,99
Furnace Bumble
Macaw Tag weather
rise fee
fym -tyre all good si
LUid worth tryinl hot
dte . >herman has failed to
Oilier trout or grayling. If
ks the shoulder hackle should
. .;'■.•: ..'■ as Hos. 9j, 94, and 95,
MJKsmall hackle  fly ribbed
l>ck hackles,
m  :.;-.: ranee, can be sub-.
\f similar in other respects,
>dy, is called the "Golden
H . [
bck hackles.
1 from -'ffc£' ■• >vord fej
aids twistc J together,
iitrt procurable,  HUNDRED   BEST   PATTERNS
195
Nos. 93, 94, 95, and 96 are all good summer
and early autumn flies, and worth trying in hot
weather whenever the fisherman has failed to
rise feeding fish, whether trout or grayling. If
dressed on 000 hooks the shoulder hackle should
be omitted in the patterns Nos. 93, 94, and 95,
or in fact in any very small hackle fly ribbed
down the body.
No. 97.—Red Tag.
Hackles.—Two blood-red cock hackles.
Body.—Copper peacock herl.
Tag.—Ibis.
Hook.—00 to 1.
In the absence of Ibis, a tuft of scarlet wool,
though much inferior in appearance, can be substituted. A fly precisely similar in other respects,
but with a flat gold body, is called the "Golden
Tag."
No. 98.—Orange Tag.
Hackles.—Two red game cock hackles.
Body.—Green peacock herl from the sword feather, two or three strands twisted together,
ribbed with fine flat gold.
Tag.—A feather from the ruff of the Indian crow.
Hook.— 00 to 1.
If Indian crow for the tag is not procurable,
orange wool may be used  in its place, but the
Indian crow feather is preferable. 196
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
No. 99.—Macaw Tag.
Illustrated at Plate XXVIII.
Body.—Of a strand'of yellow macaw tail feather.
Hackles and Tag.—As No. 97.
Hook.—00 to 1.
If dressed with body of a strand of red macaw
tail feather, this pattern is called the " Beefsteak."
Nos. 97, 98, and 99, and their varieties, are the
best standard patterns known for grayling from
July to November; in fact, some of the most
experienced grayling fishermen are in the habit
of fishing these tags to the exclusion of other
artificial flies. Sometimes and in some rivers
trout take the tags, but they should be considered as essentially grayling flies.
No.  100.—Half   Stone.
Head Hackle.—A honey dun hen hackle.
Shoulder Hackle.—A   honey   dun   cock  hackle
worked   in   behind   the   head   hackle   and
carried   down  to  the end of the mole fur
dubbing.
Body.—Upper half of pale mole fur,  and lower
half of white condor dyed canary.
Hook.—o to 4.
An improvement on the old standard pattern,
and killing: at times. PART   III.
DRY-FLY    DRESSING.
CHAPTER  I.
MATERIALS    AND    IMPLEMENTS.
HP H E hook is the foundation on which the Hooks.
* entire structure of the artificial fly is
raised ; as it may therefore be considered of
primary importance, no apology is needed for
placing it first on the list of materials. It is
also one of the links connecting the fish with
the fisherman, and any inherent flaw or fault
in the metal of which it is made is fatal to
its efficacy. The form of the hook, the thickness of the wire, the shape and rake of the
barb, and above all, the hardening and tempering of the steel, are matters requiring careful
and intelligent study by the manufacturer.
From time immemorial angling writers have
held forth at length on these points, and every
possible shade of opinion has been freely vend- DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
lated. Some have striven to prove by mathematical formulae that the relative direction of
the eye and the shank—involving the problem
whether the hook should be made with turned-
up or turned-down eye—is of grave import.
Some have advanced the theory that patterns
with very short shanks will hook fish better
than longer ones. Some have laid stress on
the knot used to attach the eyed hook to the
cast, and others, again, have dismissed the
.subject with the dictum that the old-fashioned
arrangement of whipping the hook to gut is
after all the best.
Eyed Hooks. T0 sum Up the question, however, as far as
the dry-fly fisherman is concerned, the great
majority are agreed that the fly on an eyed
hook is better than one on a shank whipped to
gut. The turned-up eye is far more popular
with trout fishermen than the turned-down eye.
This is not due to any palpable defect in the
form of the latter, nor to any real advantage to
be derived from the shape of the former. It
is, however, directly traceable to the absurdity
that the eye in the turned-down form is made
so small as to be an inconvenience to the majority, and an impossibility to those whose sight,
either from age or other cause, is impaired.
There have been loud, frequent, and it
must be admitted, just complaints on two
points connected with the manufacture of
hooks.   They are, firstly, the frequent variation MATERIALS  AND  IMPLEMENTS
199
of size, whether in the gauge of the wire, the
length of the shank, or the gape of the hook as
marked ; and secondly, the large proportion of
badly tempered hooks among them. On the
question of size, it seems incomprehensible that
the manufacturers should have strayed so far
from their original patterns. The old 000
Hall's eyed hook has apparently been discarded, and in place of it a very short shanked
00 made of the same wire as the old 000 has
been substituted. All the other sizes from 00
to 5 or 6 are made of wire of far smaller gauge
than the original hooks of the series.
It is said that the makers have been urged
from time to time to reduce the gauge so as to
give the dry-fly fisherman a lighter hook, and
thus save his wrist from part of the exertion of
drying. This may be so, but it appears inconceivable that a practical hook maker should
allow his careful calculations of the relative
thickness of wire required for the various sizes
of hooks to be set aside by the caprice or
laziness of the dilettanti.
Then, with regard to the mania for extra
short shanks, and the complicated scientific
arguments to prove that they are more effective in hooking fish than the longer. Has any
practical fisherman a genuine belief in this
theory? Can anyone from his own experience
say that he honestly believes that this clumsy- DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Faulty Tempering.
looking short hook is more successful than the
old shape ? The collective opinions of the first
fishermen of the day are certainly in favour of
the original form of eyed hook. In appearance the fly on the extra short hook with its
stunted, dumpy body cannot for a moment be
compared to one dressed on a shank of the
original length as designed by Mr.  Hall.
The second ground of complaint, viz., the
excessive percentage of badly-tempered hooks,
is, unfortunately, but too well founded, and to
persuade the hook makers to remedy this fault
appears hopeless. They advance, possibly
With some show of reason, the very low price
paid for hooks, and urge that, with the present
rage on the part of the public for buying cheap
rubbish, any increase of price would prejudicially affect the extent of the trade. No sane
man would suggest that the hooks, like the
old hand-made Limericks, should be tempered
singly, as such an alteration of the method of
manufacture heretofore adopted would entail a
large increase of cost. The cost, however, of
testing and rejecting all that were either too
soft or too brittle would be inconsiderable.
Besides, once establish the principle that each
hook is to be tested, and only those properly
tempered sold, and there must of necessity and
within a short time be devised a machine for
carrying out this testing, and the cost of such
testing by machinery would be insignificant. MATERIALS  AND  IMPLEMENTS 201
It is darkly hinted that many of the cheaper
hooks are made of steel so inferior in quality
that it is not possible to temper them properly.
This may be the case, but the policy of saving
a few pounds on a ton of steel which would
probably make millions of hooks, appears to be
suicidal on the part of the manufacturers. If
true, however, this would account in a degree
for a considerable proportion of the inferior
hooks sold to anglers at the shops.
Personally I have always found blue hooks Blue Hooks
J J and Bronzed
less liable to rust than bronzed ones. On this Hooks,
point, however, I am contradicted by Mr. S.
Allcock, of Redditch, whose experience of fifty
years has convinced him that "blue hooks rust
sooner than either bright, bronzed, or japanned."
This opinion, too, is corroborated by an amateur
friend, a fly fisherman and fly-dresser of great
knowledge and experience, who writes : f I took
a box of floating flies to the seaside in the
West of Scotland some years since. The box
was only taken out and opened once during
a week's visit. On my return to London an
examination of the flies showed that some
twenty-four dozen of blued hooks were all
thickly covered with rust, while the dozen or
two brown hooks in the box were perfectly free
from anything of the kind."
As to the special knot to be used for fastening the hook to the cast,  Mr.   Hall's original 202 DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
one is the most secure, and for the information
of any not already cognisant of his method,
the full directions are appended in his own
words, as given in "The Fishing Gazette" of
April 12th, 1884, viz. :—
I Directions.
1 Take the hook between finger and thumb
of the left hand, and push the gut through the
eye (as shown by the arrow), take a turn
round the shank and back again through the
eye (fig. 13.)    The end a, which should not be
Fig. 13.
less than \\ in. long, is then tied in a single
knot round the long end of the gut. If the
gut is well wetted and a gentle pull given, the
single knot will slide down to the eye and form
a perfectly secure and rigid fastening, and the
gut will stand out in the direction of the shank
of the hook. The superfluous end of a may be
cut off quite close to the eye."
Some  anglers  may point out the difficulty,
especially to  those whose   sight   is  not   very MATERIALS  AND   IMPLEMENTS 203
good, of passing the end of the gut cast twice
through the eye of the hook, and in the case
of the very smallest flies dressed on 00 and
000 hooks, I must confess that this is a feat
occasionally almost impossible to accomplish.
Others may complain of the unpleasant manner
in which many professional fly-dressers fill the
eye up with varnish. The latter fault is due
either to the ignorance or to the carelessness
of the workman, and the remedy is a very
simple one, viz., to return or refuse to purchase
any flies so finished.
The following method of attaching eyed-Turle knot,
hooks, the invention of Major Turle, will
obviate the former objection raised. The
advantages of this method over all others
are that the end of the gut is passed only
once through the eye; the knot is a perfectly
simple one, and yet quite secure; and while
tying it the fly, being pushed well up the
cast, is entirely out of the way of the operator's fingers, and cannot be dropped.
Pass the end of the gut cast a, previously
well soaked, upwards through the eye, and
draw the fly well up the cast, so as to be out
of the way.   Carry
the end of the gut
round itself to form
an open loop as
shown (fig. 14).
^ DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
With the end
a make an open
turn round the
gut and end of
the loop (fig. 15).
Pass the end
a through the
open turn just
made (fig.   16),
Draw the knot thus made nearly tight; if
drawn quite tight it is apt to fray the gut
in the subsequent operations. Pass the fly
through the loop, and
place the knot on top
of the neck of the eye
(%. i7).
Bend the loop downwards, at the same time carefully drawing the
fibres of the  hackle clear of it; and, holding
the fly between the thumb and forefinger  of
the   left   hand,   draw   the
loop up close with the upper
part of the cast.    Pull the
knot  quite  tight  with  the
end a (fig. 18).
Cut   off   the   projecting
end a, and the fly is securely fastened.
With either of these knots the gut cast is
not, as the sailors express it, short turned, as
it leaves the hook, and, when properly tied, MATERIALS   AND   IMPLEMENTS 205
the fly is firmly and rigidly attached   to   the
end of the cast.
The hackle, in winged patterns, represents Hackles.
the legs of the natural insect, and in hackle
patterns the wings and legs, and is the most
important of the materials used. There has
always been a standing controversy on the
comparative advantages of using cock or hen
hackles. The cock hackles have a superior
gloss, are more transparent, and are more
easily freed from moisture, but on the other
hand, are much stiffer and coarser than hen
hackles. They were formerly generally preferred for floating flies, and universally used
in dressing them.
Since then, however, the use of the paraffin Paraffin for
bottle has appreciably altered the aspect of the mes.
question by effecting a vast saving in the
labour of drying the fly. Anglers should know
that this discovery was first made public by
the late Mr. Thomas Andrews, of Guildford.
Painting a fly with paraffin before use renders
the materials of which it is composed waterproof. The use of paraffin for this purpose
was known and practised for years by a few
of the Upper Test fishermen, and told in
confidence by one of them to the late Mr.
Andrews, At my suggestion he sought, and
at once obtained, the consent of his informant
to divulge this secret for the benefit of all dry- DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Keeping
Feathers, &c.
free from
Moth.
fly fishermen. One result of this has been that
hen hackles, except for their want of sheen, are
now almost as good as cock hackles.
Latterly some new and very promising
wingless patterns, in which two hackles are
used, have been introduced. The use of two
cock hackles tends to make the flies too bulky
and too stiff; hence the plan adopted is to
dress them with a hen hackle at the head and
a cock hackle at the throat. The use of the
paraffin not only waterproofs both the cock and
hen hackles, but also seems to increase the
gloss of the latter. Then, too, in the case of
such colours and shades as honey duns, pale
blue duns, natural yellow duns, dark slaty blue
duns, &c., it is almost impossible, except at
very heavy expense and with extreme difficulty, to accumulate a stock of cock hackles,
and in these dilemmas hen hackles can now be
substituted without serious depreciation in the
flies dressed.
For keeping hackles, other feathers, and
fur, safe from the ravages of moth, neither
pepper, tobacco, camphor, cedar chips, nor
colocynth, are of much avail. Naphthaline in
crystals, or a similar substance sold under the
name of albo-carbon, is moderately efficacious ;
but the only certain preventive is immersion
in a weak alcoholic solution, say one in a
thousand,   of   corrosive    sublimate   (mercury MATERIALS   AND   IMPLEMENTS .        207
perchloride). Care, however, is needed in
handling this compound, especially if there are
abrasions, cracks or cuts in the skin, as it
is a deadly poison.
It may be noted that, as a rule, dyed
feathers and fur are not as attractive to moth •
as natural ones. If there is any suspicion
of moth or moth eggs, the materials should
be thoroughly baked in a cool oven, and,
when cold, sprinkled plentifully with benzole.
In fact, with a large collection of valuable
materials subject .to moth, it is a good plan
to take them out of their boxes, packets, or
other receptacles once a year and subject them
to the above treatment. All hackles before
use require to have the downy portion at the
root end stripped off, and it is well to do this
to all hackles before putting them away in
any receptacle, as the first indication of the
presence of moth is usually visible on this
flue.
When   any   close-plumed   feathers,  such   asclose plumed
J * Feathers as
those from the neck or rump of pheasant, Hackles,
partridge, grouse, grey hen, &c, are used as
hackles, after stripping off the downy part at
the root end of the quill, take the extreme
point between the thumb and forefinger of
the left hand, and with the right thumb and
forefinger, slightly moistened, stroke back the
whole of the plume except the small portion 208 DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
held between the left thumb and forefinger, as
shown by the sketch (fig. 19).
Fig. 19.
Use of Dubbing as
Hackle.
For the legs and bodies of some flies the
hair or fur of certain animals (dubbing) is used
in place of ordinary hackles ; and in such cases
the plan adopted is to spin or twist it on
the tying-silk for the body of the fly, taking
care to put an extra thickness on to the
shoulder-end of the body, tapering it to the
tail, and after the fly is completed to pick out
with the dubbing-needle a few fibres to form
the legs.
There are, however, patterns in which the
body is of plain silk or quill, and the legs
only of dubbing, and in these instances
a somewhat more complicated procedure is
necessary, viz. : Thoroughly wax a short
length of tying-silk and double it over the
dubbing-needle, the point of which is firmly
stuck into the edge of the working table.
Separate the fibres of the hair  or fur  to   be used, and lay them as much as possible
horizontally across one end of the tying-
silk a (fig. 20); place the other end of the
silk over and press it closely down on the
fur (fig. 21); then, taking the two ends of
the silk between the thumb and forefinger of
the right hand, twist up tightly. The effect
of this  will   be to   twist up the silk and fur
between the two ends, as shown in fig. 22,
into a rough-looking hackle, which is used
exactly like an ordinary one, the silk representing the central quill, and the fur the fibres
of the hackle. By the same method, having
a hackle of the right colour, but too long
in the fibre for the size of the hook, the
dresser can, by detaching the separate strands,
14 210 DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
laying them horizontally across a length of
thoroughly waxed doubled tying-silk and twisting them up as above, produce an imitation hackle with fibres only half the length
of the natural one from which they were
taken.
The following list will comprise nearly all
the other feathers required : Wings of starling,
young and old, of coot, snipe, landrail, partridge,
pheasant, woodcock, the brown-pink feather
from the peacock underwing, and tail feathers
from tomtit, partridge, pheasant, and golden
pheasant,
rial? Mate Of body materials, floss and other silks have
been almost entirely superseded by quills, dyed
and natural. Of these the peacock is the most
usual, because it is easy to procure and inexpensive. The best quill, however, is that
taken from the tail and pinion feathers of the
condor, and its use for that purpose was originally suggested by Mr. H. S. Hall. In the
natural state it varies in shade from almost
pure white to dark slate.
Some feathers have light points and dark
butts, and others are dark slate at the points,
shading into light grey or white butts, so that
a great variety of bodies can be made from the.
natural undyed feather. It takes all the ordinary dyes well, and each strand has two flues,
so that if used unstripped it will make a rough MATERIALS  AND  IMPLEMENTS 211
body ; with one flue only stripped off, a smooth
body with a rib formed by the second flue ;
and if stripped of both flues, a perfectly smooth
body. Whether stripped or unstripped the quill
is very strong ; in fact, it is difficult to break
a single strand by a fair pull between the
fingers.
The difficulty is   to   strip   condor,   and   the stripping
J L Condor.
following plan will be found efficacious and
simple: Cut with scissors, or tear from the
feather close to the central quill, as much of
the plume as can be conveniently held between
the thumb and forefinger. Holding the fine
end of the plume firmly in the left hand, take
the longer flue of the nearest strand, at the
point from which it is desired to strip, between
the right thumb nail and side of the forefinger,
and, drawing it towards the butt end of the
quill, it will be found that after a little practice
the flue of each strand can be torn away in one
operation. In this way enough of the stout
end of the strand can be divested of the longer
flue to make the body of any ordinary trout-
fly.
Sometimes the second or shorter flue can
be torn off in the same way, but more frequently the effect of attempting this is to
split and spoil the quill. When, therefore,
it is desired to make a perfectly smooth body,
the   strand   of   quill   should   be   held   firmly DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Other Quills
for Bodies.
Bleaching
Quills.
flat on a table between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand, and the back of a
penknife drawn five or six times in succession
towards the stout or butt end, thus scraping
off the second or shorter flue and leaving a
smooth strand of quill.
Adjutant quill, which is stripped in the same
way as condor, in its natural state makes a
very good blue dun body, and, when dyed,
is useful for red spinner, dark olives, &c. It
is much stronger than peacock, but not nearly
as strong as condor. Condor or adjutant quills
should be stripped before being dyed ; otherwise it is not easy to predict what the colour
of the body will be when finished. Quills for
bodies are also made by cutting away as
closely as possible from both sides of the
central quill of the plume of tail or wing
feathers of starling, coot, chaffinch, partridge,
pheasant, &c. The central quill is then flattened between the back of the scissor blades
and the right forefinger, the right thumb being
placed over the scissors to exert the necessary
pressure. The short ends of the plume which
are left on the quill make an effective rib on
the body of the fly. Smooth quills can also
be obtained by splitting off the surface of the
central quill of the same feathers with a sharp
knife.
Immersion in hydrogen peroxide will lighten MATERIALS  AND  IMPLEMENTS 213
the colour of any feather, and in time bleach
it to a pure white. When bleaching quills or
other feathers, the addition of about 5 per
cent, of strong liquid ammonia to the hydrogen peroxide is recommended as rendering the
action of the bleach more rapid. Some amateurs have expressed doubt as to the bleaching
action of hydrogen peroxide, and the reason of
this is quite simple. Hydrogen peroxide being
a combination of two atoms of hydrogen with
two of oxygen (H202), is a very unstable compound. Hence, if the chemist from whom it
has been purchased has kept it in stock for any
time it has decomposed, given off one atom of
oxygen, and become H20, or pure water.
The refuse ends of the hanks of silkworm Gut or Horse-
gut are dyed and used for bodies. They take
the dyes well, but in use soon get sodden, and
will not float. Horsehair is preferable to gut
for this purpose, and, although it does not
take the dyes as readily, floats much better.
Another advantage of hair over gut is that
the former can be used dry, whilst the latter
must be thoroughly soaked before working it
on as a body.
It  is,   however,   quite possible  that  in the Dubbing
near future quill, gut, and hair for bodies will
have  been  abandoned  in  favour of dubbing.
This statement may give the idea of a retrograde  step,   seeing  that   fur and  wool were DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Rofia Grass
for Bodies.
probably the first materials used for the bodies
of artificial flies. For sunk flies they have
always been the most suitable materials, from
their transparent, watery, and life-like appearance, but, when once thoroughly soaked, the
exertion of drying has been too great to
recommend them to the dry-fly fisherman ;
the use of the paraffin bottle has, however,
appreciably remedied this defect.
For dubbing bodies the materials used are—
fur from the hare's ear, hare's face, hare's fleck
or hair outside the shoulder, the palest buff-
coloured fur from the flanks and belly of the
opossum, mole, water-rat, and common mouse,
with odds and ends of cuttings from any light
blue, yellow, or brown refuse furs in a furrier's
shop. These, with various coloured crewels
torn to shreds, will, when properly blended,
produce almost any tint required ; the blending merely consisting in tearing the separate
threads into shreds with the fingers, mixing
them and tearing them up together, until the
various shades and colours are thoroughly incorporated. A little practice will enable an
amateur naturally gifted with an eye for colour
to match almost any shade or tint with dubbing.
Rofia grass laid over white quill is the
modern substitute for wheaten or maize straw
formerly used for Mayfly bodies. Ordinary
shoemakers' bristles are required for the foundation of detached bodies. MATERIALS  AND   IMPLEMENTS 215
For Mayfly wings use the saddle or breast Mayfly Wings,
feathers from the Canadian Wood or Summer
duck, Egyptian goose, Rouen drake, either
dyed or natural, and pintail or teal. Latterly,
well-marked mottled feathers from the Gallina
breast have been used when dyed for Mayfly
wings, and although difficult to dry have given
satisfaction to the fisherman and proved acceptable to the fish. The little scarlet feathers
on the neck of the ibis, the orange of the
Indian crow, or the blue and yellow tail
feathers of the macaw, are occasionally useful
for grayling flies.
For whisks or tails, in addition to the Whisks,
ordinary cock beard hackles, tail feathers from
the Bird of Paradise, brown mallard wing,
fibres from partridge or pheasant tail, and
small rabbit's or rat's whiskers, should be included in a fly-dresser's collection. The late
Mr. Marryat's opinion that cock Gallina or
guinea-fowl neck feathers, dyed or natural, are
tougher and less liable to break in use than
ordinary cock hackles, has been fully confirmed.
As they take all dyes, and are obtainable in all
shades, from pure white to a deep puce grey,
plain, or mottled, they can be used for any
pattern.
Gold or silver wire, twist or flat tinsel of
various width and thickness should be procured from the manufacturers of military lace,
badges, &c. wax.
216 DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
Tying silk, por  tying  silk,   when   making  small   flies,
nothing I have yet seen can compare for
quality with Messrs. Pearsall's reels of gossamer silk made for the purpose. The pale
colours should be generally used, such as the
white, cream, yellow, orange, and red, always
selecting a paler shade, but similar in tone, to
that of the body of the fly. As an example,
use cream-coloured tying-silk for the palest
olives, and for the darker olives the shades
of yellow.
Transparent The numerous recipes given in general
angling books for preparing transparent or
white wax are generally unsatisfactory, but latterly a friend gave me a small quantity of white
wax prepared by Mr. M. Gibson, 72, Castle
Street, Inverness, N.B., which, after two years'
experience, has proved successful. Ordinary
rod-maker's wax is always procurable, and in
dressing flies with delicate-coloured bodies it
should be rendered as nearly colourless as
possible by continually pulling it out into thin
strips and working them up together. A small
bottle of varnish, made by dissolving pure
shellac in spirits of wine, will practically complete the list of materials.
IMPLEMENTS.
As to the implements required, although not
an absolute necessity, a vice is a great help, MATERIALS  AND  IMPLEMENTS 217
especially in making the very small flies. "No
one, amateur or professional, after once experiencing the advantages of having the hook
rigidly held by a process which leaves both
hands free would ever revert to the old and
uncomfortable plan of holding the bend of the
hook between the thumb and forefinger of the
left hand throughout the operation of tying."
These words were written in 1886, and may
now be repeated in 1902.
Some discussion has from time to time been
carried on in the sporting press on this question. One writer went so far as to affirm that
no professional trout-fly dresser would dream
of using a vice, and it has even been said
that an expert tyer could take the hook in his
fingers and dress the fly completely in the time
required by the ordinary amateur to fix the
hook firmly in the jaws of the vice. This may
be a smart saying, but it is a great exaggeration. With a view of ascertaining, however,
beyond doubt whether the vice is generally
used or not, an inquiry on the subject was
addressed to Messrs. S. Allcock & Co., of
Redditch, the largest wholesale house in the
fishing tackle trade. Their answer was to the
effect that, out of the large number of trout-
fly dressers employed by them, .about 90 per
•cent, use the vice and 10 per cent, dress
with   their   fingers.    They  add,   too,   of   the 218
DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
users of the vice,   that   " they say   they   can
tie both a neater and a stronger fly with the
i my
Fig. 23.
vice than without, as both hands are free
for the work." This authoritative statement
should settle the question once for all. MATERIALS  AND   IMPLEMENTS
A really serviceable vice, however, is not vice for fly-
easily procured, as those usually made and
sold for the purpose are faulty in design,
and inferior in construction and material ;
the jaws, instead of being made of the finest
and hardest cast steel, are of case-hardened
iron or some such unreliable metal; the screw
to compress them is of soft iron, is placed
much too far from the holding faces of the
jaws, is usually made with a clumsy head,
and the point projects beyond the vice, so
as to be in the way of the fly-dresser at
every turn of the silk. Messrs. Holtzapffel
& Co., 13 & 14, New Bond Street, W., now
keep vices specially made for the amateur
fly-dresser's use, in accordance with the
author's views, as illustrated (fig. 23), and
although the prime cost is necessarily somewhat higher, yet in this, as in most other
mechanical apparatus, the comparatively
costly, but properly-made and well-finished,
article will, in the end, prove the cheapest.
The loose hook immediately above the clamp
is intended to be used when waxing the
doubled silk.
The   form   of  vice   invented   bv  mv   goodNew form of
3 J    s vice.
friend, Mr. T. P. Hawksley, now also kept
in stock by Messrs. Holtzapffel, is to my mind
a very great improvement, and a boon to all
fly-dressers,  whether professional  or amateur. DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
On reference to the accompanying diagram
(fig. 24) it will be seen that the vice consists of
the vertical stem (a), the upper part of which is
bent to the right at an
angle of 1500, and the
jaws of the vice are
again bent to the right
at an angle of r 200, so
that they are in a horizontal position. A rectangular loose steel
collar (b) fitted over
the base of the jaws,
slides up and down
the wedge-shaped tailpiece (c) of the jaw,
for relaxing or tightening the hold of the
vice; and the jaws are
kept apart by a short
length of strong clock
spring (d). To fix the
hook in the vice take
the eye between the
thumb and forefinger
of the right hand, and
place the bend of the
hook between the open jaws, with the shank
horizontal. By pressing the lower part of the
wedge-shaped tail-piece against the stem with
A
Fig. 24. MATERIALS  AND  IMPLEMENTS- 221
the left hand, the collar will fall by its own
weight and secure the hook in position.
The advantages of this improved vice are : Advantages of
. ... improved vice.
firstly, the saving of labour in having only to
slide the collar up or down the wedge to release
the hook from or secure it in the jaws, as compared with the screwing or unscrewing of the
fly nut in the old form of vice; secondly, that
the hook being affixed to the extreme right of
the jaws, the jaws being inclined to the right,
and the upper part of the vertical stem also
inclined to the right, the operator's fingers are
not hampered by the head, stem, or fly nut, as
in the old-fashioned vice.
For a left-handed worker, the vice would
have to be made with the inclination of the
upper part of the stem and the jaws respectively at the same angles towards the left,
unless the operator would put up with the comparatively slight inconvenience of having the
wedge projecting towards him, in which case
he would only have to turn the right-handed
vice round to the left. From a mechanical
point of view there is theoreticaly a fault
in the design. The principle laid down in
reference to any vice is that, whether opened
or closed, the jaws should be as nearly parallel
as possible, and the old screw vice is made in
accordance with this principle. As, however,
the jaws of the Hawksley vice work on a pin DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
Tools for fly-
dressing.
from the left hand side and the joint is close
to the angle of the jaws, when open they are
less parallel than those of the old pattern.
It is fair to point out this apparent defect,
but in practice it is not found to impair the
efficiency of the implement.
The vertical portion of the stem slides up
and down in a solid brass clamp, so as to
regulate the height according to the convenience of the operator. The clamp can be
fixed to any ordinary table, and in this form
the vice is convenient and portable. For
home use, however, a better arrangement is
to discard the clamp and fit a brass socket,
passing through the working table, bored to
take the stem. A small set screw fitted to the
lower part of the socket, under the table, is
used to secure the vice in the desired position.
The tools required for fly-dressing are few
and simple, and comprise a thick blunted
needle fixed in a handle for picking out dubbing, &c, a pair of hackle pliers, a pair of
smooth-pointed forceps, a pair of long bull-dog
pliers as illustrated on page 275, and a pair of
oculists' curved scissors. It may be noted,
to prevent mistakes, that two sorts of curved
oculists' scissors are made ; one in which,
when the scissors are laid flat on a table, the
blades are curved laterally, and the other in
which  they are  curved  upwards.    The form MATERIALS  AND  IMPLEMENTS
223
recommended for fly-tying is the latter. The
blades of scissors after use often grate when
opened and closed ; this can be remedied by
placing each blade separately flat between the
thumb and forefinger of the left hand, and,
while pressing on the blade, drawing the
thumb and forefinger three or four times down
towards the point. This is a plan which
should be followed by everyone using scissors,
as it keeps them lubricated and in good order.
The materials required are usually kept in
a leather-bound book, with leaves containing
divisions of various sizes and shapes, the
feathers, &c, being enclosed in parchment
pockets. A more modern and improved
arrangement, however, is a japanned tin box,
with compartments for the various materials
and implements.
Many   fly-fishermen   are   loth   to   take   the Fly-dressing
J        J by artificial
trouble of learning to dress their own flies, or, Kg*11-
having acquired the art, do not keep their
hands in practice because of the difficulty, or,
as they allege, impossibility, of working by
night without unduly straining their eyes.
They argue, and from their hypothesis it is
quite reasonable, that a man engaged in his
profession or business, cannot spare the time
during the brief hours of daylight in the
winter or close season, and that in the spring
or summer he is more agreeably employed, and 224 DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
with greater benefit to his health, pursuing
his favourite sport in the open air. Having
devoted some considerable attention to the
subject and having, I believe, fairly mastered
the difficulty, it would probably be of interest
to fly-dressers to give them the benefit of the
experience gained.
It is well to determine the exact conditions
under which the work has to be done before
attempting to devise or adopt the form and
arrangement of illuminant and lamp to be used.
It is required as the first condition that the
light should be sufficient to illuminate the
object, and yet be placed at such a distance as
to be clear of the fingers when tying. If the
paramount importance of preserving one's sight
is considered, the source of light itself must not
be visible when working and no ray from it
must approach the fly-dresser's eyes. Evidently no ordinary form of gaslight, candle or
lamp will fulfil all these conditions.
In the earlier attempts I used a gas lamp,
then a paraffin, and later a colza lamp as giving
a much softer light and far less heat. With
either of the illuminants the rays of light were
directed upon the fly in the jaws of the vice by
an ordinary engraver's bottle or globe. This
was filled with a solution of sulphate of copper,
5 grains to the pint, with the addition of a
small   quantity  of   liquid   ammonia,   and   the MATERIALS  AND   IMPLEMENTS
225
blue fluid, acting as an absorbent of some of
the coloured rays, tempered the light so as to
render it less trying than when taken through
a colourless medium.
Since then, as the outcome of numerous ™drofmrat^°"
microscopical experiments, undertaken with a Lisht-
view of producing, at moderate cost and
without complicated apparatus, a light which
is practically monochromatic, it was found
that this result could be obtained by filtering the light of an ordinary lamp through a
solution consisting of 160 grammes of pure
dry nitrate of copper, 14 grammes of chromic
acid, and water added to make it up to
250 cc. The liquid is held in a flat bottle
or cell, of which the sides are parallel and
\ inch apart. This solution, reduced by
the addition of water in proportion to the
increased thickness of the medium in the engraver's globe, will be found preferable to the
old solution of sulphate of copper and liquid
ammonia. With this form of apparatus the
illumination, with diffused light directed upon
the object, was fairly well attained.
The system had, however, the grave fault of
subjecting the eyes to a continual glare. After
trying various forms of shades worn over the
eyes, all of which were more or less inconvenient, I eventually made a large opaque
screen of brown pasteboard, with a round hole
15 226
DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
Electric
lamp.
to admit only sufficient light to illuminate the
object. This arrangement was moderately successful, but had the disadvantage of leaving
the greater part of the working table in darkness, so that it was not easy to find the
wax, feathers, scissors, &c, when required for
use.
Later, however, when removing to another
house, I fitted up a room in accordance with
my own designs, providing, among other things,
a convenient working table fixed in a bay
window facing nearly due west, so that, as far
as daylight was concerned, there was all that
could be desired. Having adopted electric
lighting throughout the house, I had the wires
carried to two ordinary concentric wall plugs,
one on each side, and just above the level of
the table. After exhaustive consultation, a
good friend, an engineer by profession, with a
thorough knowledge of optics, designed a lamp
which, having stood the test of some nine years'
use, may be deemed fairly serviceable for the
purpose.
It consists of a heavy metal foot, on which
is raised a pillar, 18 inches in height. The
fitting to hold the lamp and reflector slides up
and down on the pillar, and is secured at the
desired height by a thumbscrew. The carrier
of the lamp and reflector is attached to this
fitting by a knuckle-joint, by which it can be MATERIALS  AND  IMPLEMENTS 227
inclined to the angle required for directing
the light on to the object. Another thumbscrew tightens and fixes this joint when the
angle is once adjusted. The wire from the
fitting of the wall plug is carried to the lamp in
the ordinary way, and is of sufficient length to
enable the stand to be moved on the table as
required.
The source of light is an ordinary eight-
candle incandescent ground glass lamp, and,
for convenience of lighting or extinguishing
without disconnecting from the wall plug, has
an independent switch fixed to the carrier.
The reflector, also of bronze, with the interior
or reflecting surface heavily plated and polished,
has a true parabolic figure. The eight-candle
lamp is placed in the carrier, so that, approximately, the source of light is at the focal point
of the paraboloid. Scientifically, a light thus
placed is reflected in parallel rays of equal
intensity in the direction of the axis of the
paraboloid, but this would only be possible if
the source of light was a geometrical point;
and any increase of the area of the light
produces bundles of rays originating at various
angles, diverging and converging. This is
mentioned to prevent confusion, as it is impossible for an apparatus of this description to
be made so that all the rays are parallel and
the disc of light of equal intensity throughout. 228
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
The arrangement carries out all the requirements laid down in a foregoing paragraph.
The light is ample for illumination, and is. yet
sufficiently modified by the ground glass of
the bulb to be pleasant. By raising or lowering, and inclining to the requisite angle, the
light can be directed on to the object with the
reflector at such a distance from the vice as
to be quite out of the way. If all is properly
adjusted, the light itself is invisible to the
worker, and none of the rays reflected into
his eyes. The area of the table illuminated
is also sufficient to enable him to find any
materials or implements he may require for
his work. The heat given off by electric light
is much less than by any other illuminant
known, and is certainly not enough to cause
any serious inconvenience to the operator.
Some readers may inquire what substitute
can be suggested where the modern improvement of electric light is not available. The
answer is that a paraffin or colza lamp, or an
ordinary candle, can be fitted in a somewhat
similar manner, but the distance of the lamp
from the vice must be determined, and the
angle at which the axis of the paraboloid
should be inclined from the perpendicular calculated, and the reflector fixed accordingly.
The reflector could not be fitted on the
knuckle-joint,   as,   when   the   inclination   was MATERIALS AND IMPLEMENTS
varied, the lamp or candle would not be perpendicular, and would not burn satisfactorily.
If the light from the lamp or candle should
be too intense, it could be modified by the
interposition of ground or coloured glass, or
of a bottle containing the monochromatic fluid
before described, between the reflector and the
object. Apparatus
required.
CHAPTER   III.
DYEING.
PjNE of the most difficult problems for the
^-^ amateur fly-dresser is that of dyeing
the materials to the various shades required.
Nothing but experience can make him certain
of being able to match the tints, and even then
his power of matching accurately is bounded
by his natural capacity of appreciating delicate
gradations. Without being in any way colourblind, a vast proportion of human beings have
no very keen preception of slight differences
of colour. In every case, however, careful
attention to details-, great patience, working in
very dilute solutions of the dyes, and continual
comparisons of the dyed material with the
original pattern, are the only known means of
attaining success.
It is proposed here to describe the process
of dyeing the colours and shades required for
the series of patterns in Part II., and in all
probability this range of tints will suffice for
any  amateur,   and  possibly   professional,   fly- DYEING
231
dresser. The necessary apparatus consists of
a few common glazed earthenware pipkins, a
small deep china colander to fit into them,
a few glass stirring-rods, and a spirit lamp
or gas apparatus to boil the ingredients and
keep them at the required heat. The best gas
arrangement is a Fletcher's Safety Bunsen,
which is superior to the ordinary form of
atmospheric burner, as it can be turned down
to a mere flicker without risk of lighting back
and sooting up the burner. It is also a convenience to have a sink with hot and cold
water laid on in the room where the dyeing
is carried on.
The amateur must not expect to be successful in dyeing silks, crewels or other yarns, and
in fact, considering how great is the variety of
colours in which they can be obtained, it is
scarcely worth while to attempt it. When
dealing, however, with hackles, quills, feathers,
or other animal matter, and with most dyes,
it is necessary, as a preliminary, to soak them
in a solution of potash or soda, about one
ounce to the quart. The object is to remove
sufficient of the natural grease from the fibres
to enable the colour to strike. The feathers,
&c., should then be thoroughly washed in hot
water. In the recipes for dyeing given in this
chapter, it may be inferred that this preparation
is necessary in all cases, except where especially
notified to the contrary. 23^
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Packet Dyes. A number of firms make inexpensive packets
or bottles of prepared dyes, which have been
used for many years by fly-dressers, such as :
Messrs. Crawshaw & Co., Messrs. Judson, the
Diamond Dyes, &c. Although the use of
these packets is much less troublesome than
the preparation of decoctions of vegetable and
other products, it will yet be found that the
recipes here offered are more satisfactory and
reliable for the particular colours indicated
' than any of the made-up dyes. Where no
recipe is given for a particular colour, it may
be inferred that the packet dye has been found
satisfactory. The weak point of the packet
dyes is that using the same dye of the same
strength with the same material will not always
produce the same shade of colour. Whether
it is due to the dyes themselves not being
always uniform, or whether the ingredients of
which they are concocted are not always intimately mixed, or whether the fault is in the
worker himself, is not easy to determine.
Useeof°Skert     ^ ^e Packets are used> a sman quantity of
Dves- the dye should be placed in a teacup and suffi
cient boiling water poured on to dissolve it.
One of the pipkins filled with hot water should
be kept simmering over the lamp- or Bunsen,
The materials to be dyed should be placed in
the colander, and the colander in the pipkin. DYEING
233
A few drops  of  the  strong  solution  of dye
should   be  poured from   the   teacup   into  the
pipkin and stirred to mix properly.    When all
the colour has been absorbed by the material
more of the strong solution can be added until
it is thought that the colour is sufficiently dark.
The   colander   should   be   withdrawn,   placed
under  a   tap  of cold  water and   thoroughly
washed.   A single feather should then be dried
and examined.     If not dark enough it must
go  back  into   the  pipkin, and  the  operation
of  dyeing   be  continued   until   the  colour  is
right; then the colander must be removed and
again washed under the cold water tap,    With
all packet dyes except Canary, the addition to
the dye bath of a small quantity of vinegar,
acetic or other acid, is recommended to bring
the colour out fully.
The prepared packet dyes, and all decoctions Mordant.
except such as are specially noted here as not
requiring a mordant, should, after the dyeing
and washing,  be   immersed   in   a  solution   of
alum for a few minutes ; this fixes the colour
and   discharges   any   superfluous   dye.      The
alum solution should be prepared by dissolving
half an ounce of alum  in a quart of  boiling
water,   but   should   not   be   used   until   cold.
After   mordanting,    the   material   should    be
thoroughly washed  in   cold water.
To  dry  the  feathers, shake   out  as   much Drying Feathers after
Dyeing. 234
DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
water as possible, place them in a hat-box or
large cigar-box in front of a bright fire, and
keep shaking the box about. The effect of
this is not only to dry the feathers effectually,
but, in drying, each fibre arranges itself in its
natural position. Feathers which have been
crushed or disarranged can be restored to their
natural shape by a thorough soaking in boiling
water, followed by the same drying process.
Single feathers that have been crumpled can
be put right by holding them in the steam
issuing from the spout of a kettle.
In respect to the infusions enumerated in
the following recipes, there is no reason why
they should not be prepared in quantity and
kept in bottles ready for use. To preserve
them from decomposition or the formation of
confervoid or other growth, it would only be
necessary to add a few drops of a weak solution
of Corrosive Sublimate, say i in 1,000.
Recipe No. I.—Green Olive.
(Mr. G. Holland's.)
Boil a teacup of ebony chips in a quart of
water, adding a piece of chrome potash about
the size of a pea; boil down to a pint, fill
up to a quart, and again boil down to a
pint.    Pour the clear solution off into another DYEING
vessel, and add three drops of muriate of tin.
Crawshaw's Green Olive, or Diamond Olive
Green, dyes a similar colour to this.
Recipe No. II.—Lemon Green Olive.
(Mr. G. Holland's.)
First dye the material a fine yellow in an
infusion of barberry bark ,* then make it olive
in an infusion of camwood, to which a very
small crystal of copperas has been added.
Recipe No. III.— Medium Olive.
Boil for two or three hours two good hand-
fuls of the outside brown leaves or coating of
an onion root in a quart of vinegar and water
in equal parts. Pour off the clear liquid into
another vessel, and immerse the materials to
be dyed. After the feathers have been in
some time, add a crystal of alum about the
size of a horse bean. If the colour be too
pale and yellow, the addition of the smallest
possible crystal of copperas will produce a
browner and darker shade. No preparation
in soda or potash is required with this dye,
and no mordant.
Crawshaw's Medium Olive dyes a similar
colour. 236 DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Recipe No. IV.—Brown Olive.
The addition of a small quantity of black
tea and a small crystal of copperas to the
preparation for No. III. will produce the
mixture necessary for Brown Olive ; the more
copperas is added the browner and darker the
colour becomes.
Crawshaw's Brown Olive and Judson's Olive
Brown produce a similar colour.
Recipe No. V.—Green Drake Wings.
(The late Mr. G. S. Marryat's.)
Soak the feathers for at least twenty-four
hours in solution of alum, then rinse out in
cold water; make a decoction of a handful of
outside onion leaves to a pint of boiling water.
Dye the feathers in this until they are a distinctly orange olive tint, wash out thoroughly,
and then finish in a solution of a quart of
boiling water to a small quantity of Judson's
" slate," a few drops of Stephens' blue black
ink, and two or three grains of Crawshaw's
" green." If the colour produced is in any
way bright it is wrong, and the feathers must
be taken out just as the latter dye is driving
off the former. By the use of this recipe, the
green drake wings are dyed of the subdued
blue green tint of the natural fly. DYEING
237
Recipe No.   VI.—Brown Champion Wings.
(Mr. G. Holland's.)
(1) In a quart of soft water put half a teacup
of ebony chips, a quarter of a teacup of logwood chips, and a piece of chrome potash the
size of a pea; boil to rather over a pint ; put
in the feathers and dye to a dirty blue brown.
(2) In a fresh vessel put a piece of extract
of fustic with a quart of soft water, simmer,
and pour over the feathers already taken out
of No. I. dye ; let them remain fifteen minutes,
then add five drops of double muriate of tin,
and simmer to shade, which should be that
of Hammond's "Champion," a decidedly dark
brown olive tint.
Recipe No.  VII.—Green Champion  Wings.
(Mr. G. Holland's.)
Dye the feathers in an infusion of onion,
two good handfuls to half a pint of water and
a pint of vinegar, and get them as brown as
possible. Then dye in a fresh bath, consisting
of a tablespoonful of extract of indigo dissolved in hot water, until the feathers are
sufficiently green.
Recipe No. VIII.—Blue Green Mayfly
Wings.    (Mr. G. Holland's.)
Dye the feathers first in extract of fustic and 238
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
infusion of camwood, and then in Brown Olive,
Recipe No. IV., or Crawshaw's Brown Olive;
wash and dip in weak solution of Judson's
slate.
Recipe   No. IX.—To Dye Wings for Iron
Blue.    (Mr. G. Holland's.)
Select dark starling wing feathers ; steep in a
teaspoonful of solution of potash to a quart of
boiling water.    Wash thoroughly in hot water.
Dye for first stage in Judson's slate dissolved in boiling water, until a rather deep
shade is produced. In a quart of boiling water
dissolve sufficient extract of indigo to colour
a pale sky blue, and, for the second stage,
steep the feathers until they are of the desired
shade.
To dye Brown Red use Crawshaw's Red
Spinner or Judson's Light Brown. For
Orange the best dye is the Diamond Orange;
for Claret, the Diamond Dark Wine ; for Blue
Green, Crawshaw's Grannom Green; for a
light Green, Diamond or Crawshaw's of the
same name, and for Canary, either Judson's
or Crawshaw's Canary, or a solution of Picric
Acid. With the Canary, no vinegar or other
acid should be added. CHAPTER  III.
MANIPULATION.
rTnO describe the improvements effected dur-
* ing the last decade in the manipulation
of trout-fly dressing, by merely enumerating
them, would occupy considerable space, and
would, at the same time, entail on the careful
student continual reference to enable him to
compare the modern with the new methods,
and correctly estimate the value of such
improvements. To obviate this frequent
application to earlier writings, it is proposed
in this chapter to treat somewhat briefly of the
general characteristics, and then give in detail
the modus operandi with one particular type of
flies, and a supplementary description of such
modifications as are necessary when dressing
other types or other patterns.
Although for a tyro it is necessary to follow
each step in accordance with the rules laid
down, yet every fly-dresser, as he gains experience, is certain to modify in some degree,
or improve, according to his lights, the details
of procedure.    With a view of presenting to 240
DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLQGY
General instructions.
the reader the opinions of others besides the
author, I will set forth in their own words the
methods adopted in dressing the same type or
types by two of the best amateur fly-dressers
of the day, who, at my invitation, kindly consented to give the benefit of their experience.
The first is Mr. G. E. M. Skues, who dresses
with the. vice, and the second is Mr. W. F.
Brougham, a strong and consistent member of
the school who condemn the use of the vice
and work with their fingers only.
The majority of modern trout-fly dressers
adopt the order of procedure to be presently
described, commencing by tying on the wings.
As a general rule, professional fly-dressers are
short of work during the close time, and, from
the latter part of October, when grayling
fishing is nearly over, to the commencement
or middle of March, when some of the keener
fishermen commence placing their orders for
the coming season, they have difficulty in
keeping their assistants fully occupied. Some
few have tried the experiment of dressing
for stock, but, as the fashion and fancy of
anglers for particular patterns are liable to
change, the result has often been the reverse
of profitable.
Hence some of the thoughtful employers
have set their hands, during the slack months,
to  the  special work  of testing  and   winging MANIPULA TION
241
hooks. They know that if they have in stock
000, 00, and o hooks winged with starling or
coot, and o, 2, 3 and 4 hooks winged with landrail, they will be able to execute their orders
more promptly, and save their customers from
disappointment during the busy season. There
is a second advantage in this method, viz.,
that, from the operators having continual practice from day to day in winging, this most
important part of the process is better and
more securely carried out. Amateurs are
recommended to follow this example, and
keep a stock of winged hooks, which can,
when required, be finished by the addition of
the hackles, whisk, body, &c, necessary for
the patterns upon which they determine.
Experience has shown that an upright-
winged fly, with hackle at shoulder only, will
float more easily if dressed with two hackles
instead of one. The adoption of this plan
will, it is hoped, cure professionals of their
present bad habit of using one very long hackle,
with fibres out of all proportion to the hook,
and then cutting or breaking the fibres, leaving
them with thick and unsightly points. With
patterns hackled down the body, three hackles
—two shoulder and one ribbing—are required ;
and, with some of the large, full-bodied flies,
two ribbing hackles, besides the two shoulder
hackles, are of advantage.
16 242 DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
The plan of working the tying silk or wire
the reverse way through and over each turn
of a hackle is essential if a really strong and
durable fly is desired, and the whip finish is
the only safe and reliable one to use. Some
professional dressers are seriously injuring
their reputations by neglectiwg or refusing to
adopt these manifest improvements. In respect to securing the turns of the hackles with
the tying silk or wire, and using the whip finish
instead of the old-fashioned plan of two half
hitches, their inaction is simply suicidal. No
one can urge that the few extra seconds occupied in carrying out these methods can for
a moment be weighed in the balance against
the advantage derived from making the work
secure.
Preliminary For dressing all trout flies on eyed hooks,
winged or hackled, the preliminary work is
identical. The vice must be securely clamped
or otherwise fixed to the working table. The
table itself should in daylight be placed opposite and close to a window in a good light,
preferably facing north or west. When working
by artificial light the lamp must be placed so
as to fully illuminate the head of the vice,
while no portion of the flame or source of light
should be visible to the worker.
The vice is arranged so that the head is
at a convenient height, and the height of the
dresser's chair should also be adjusted so as MA NIP ULA TION
243
to be comfortable for the worker. There is
a convenient and inexpensive music stool made
of Austrian bent wood, the seat of which is
raised or lowered by rotating on a vertical
screw, admirably adapted for the purpose. The
materials for dressing the particular pattern
are selected and laid out on the table, and
the various implements required, the scissors,
dubbing needle, hackle pliers, a pair of ordinary smooth forceps, as well as the wax, tying
silk, and varnish, are arranged ready for use.
The hook is then taken in the right hand Fixing and
testing the
and fixed in the vice. Until some proper hook.
method is adopted by the manufacturers it is
necessary for the operator to test the hook at
this stage, and, to make sure that it has not
been crippled in the process of dressing, it is
also advisable to test it a second time after the
fly is completed. To test the hook the eye
should be pulled sharply upwards by the right
thumb and forefinger. If the hook springs
back to its original form it may be considered
properly tempered ; if it remains out of shape
it is too soft, and if it breaks off short it is too
hard.
Break off the reel from eight to ten inches
of Pearsall's gossamer silk. This should be
sufficient to dress two ordinary flies.
Double the silk round the stem of the vice, Waxing the
silk.
and hold the two ends together between the 244
DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
Foundation
for wings.
left thumb and forefinger. A small piece of
the transparent wax is held between the thumb
and forefinger of the right hand, and the two
ends of the silk are pressed together and
held tightly extended from the stem of the
vice by the left thumb and forefinger. The
wax is then worked up and down the silk
until it is thoroughly coated, and the silk is
then removed from the stem of the vice and
opened out at length. Some fly-dressers use
the silk doubled for large flies, but this is a
mistake, as it tends to make the work bulky
and clumsy without materially adding to the
strength.
Hold one end of the silk firmly between the
left thumb and forefinger on the far side of the
hook, and, taking the silk in the right hand,
about three or four inches from the same end,
commence lapping at the neck immediately
behind the eye. Take four or five turns, each
close behind its predecessor, pulling the silk
down tightly at each turn, to form a solid
and smooth foundation. Cut the short end
off close to the hook shank. When lapping
be careful not to let the right thumb and
forefinger slip down the tying silk, and thus
remove the coating of wax. Always keep
the silk well waxed, although, if thoroughly
waxed at first, it should not, as a rule, require a further application of the wax while MA NIP ULA TION
245
dressing the fly. If at any time the silk
breaks, it can, after being waxed once more,
either be scarfed by twisting it on to the
broken end, or simply lapped over the last
two or three turns. To this point the manipulation is identical for every sort or pattern
of fly.
In the diagrams of fly-dressing it may be
noticed that the tying silk is lapped in the
opposite (or what some might call left-handed)
direction to that adopted by the majority of
professionals and amateurs. With the extreme end held in the left hand above the
hook shank, I commence winding the silk
with the right hand towards me. By proceeding in this way there was a natural inclination to pause and draw the silk taut when
the hand is below the hook, and this is less
likely to obscure the view of the work than
would be the more usual plan of winding the
silk away from the operator.
TO  DRESS AN  UPRIGHT-WINGED
QUILL-BODIED   DUN.
From each of a pair of wings of the same
starling take one right and one left feather,
for a 000 hook the second, and for a larger
hook, preferably the third or fourth primary
quill feather. For a beginner the easiest
plan,   perhaps,   is   to  split   the   central   quill 246
DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
longitudinally with a sharp penknife, and discard the shorter plume altogether. Then
pare down the quill as thin as possible with
the scissors, and cut it transversely through
at regular intervals into sections, each consisting of a portion of the central quill with
the longer plume attached, and of the width
required for a wing (fig.  25).    A professional
Preparing the
wings.
Fig. 25.
or experienced amateur usually cuts or tears
the longer plume from the feather, and
separates it by means of the dubbing needle
into the requisite sections. If the entire
plume is cut or torn from the central quill,
the use of the long bull-dog pliers, illustrated
on page 275, is recommended. Whichever
plan is adopted, the remaining details of winging are identical.
When dressing with double wings, two sections from the right feather are laid on the
table, one on the other, with their points even,
and the darker side of the feather downwards ;
and two sections from the left feather are
similarly treated. It may be noted that the
darker side  of the  feather is  the  outer side MANIP ULA TION
of the bird's wings. The operator then proceeds to build up the wings by lifting the
two sections with his forceps from the right
wing of the bird as arranged, and laying them
on the table with the darker side of the
feathers downwards, the stump ends towards
him, and the natural inclination of the fibres
to the left or tail end of the fly. These form
the left wing of the fly, or that on the further
side of the vice.
He then takes the two sections from the left
wing of the bird to form the right wing of the
fly, and lays them with their points evenly on
the points of the sections forming the left
wing of the fly, with the darker sides of the
feathers upwards, the stump ends towards him,
and the natural inclination of the fibres to the
left or tail end of the fly. The four sections
thus arranged form the pair of double wings,
and if taken up and viewed edgewise they
should be in the form of the letter V, the
sides each of two thicknesses, the stumps
together at the base and the points diverging.
For single wings the procedure is identical,
except that each wing is composed of one
section only.
Pass the forceps under the set of wings as Applying and
j j   it.- t_ r i 11 ,      tying on the
arranged, and, luting them from the table, take wings,
them by the points between the left thumb and
forefinger.    Holding them firmly by the stump 248
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
ends between the right thumb and forefinger,
carefully stroke any disarranged fibres into
their proper position with the left hand.
Transfer the wings back to the left hand,
holding them between the thumb and forefinger at the point where the tying silk is to
pass when they are tied on. The length of
the wings is regulated by the position of the"
left thumb and forefinger, and should be about
equal to the length of the hook shank. The
tendency of amateurs is to make wings too
long, and nothing but continual practice will
cure this.
The wings are then placed on top of the
hook shank, close down to and immediately
behind the last turn of the tying silk at the
neck of the eye. The wings being held in
position, and the thumb and forefinger of the
left hand being momentarily separated sufficiently to allow the waxed silk to pass between
them and the outside of the wings, the
tying silk is carried over the wings and
down again. The wings are then gripped
tightly between the left thumb and forefinger
while the tying silk is pulled down quite taut
by the right hand. This is repeated two or
three times, and the tying silk is passed
once behind the wings and over the hook
shank, and pulled forwards to make all secure
(fig. 26). MANIP ULA TION
249
Unless the grip of the left thumb and forefinger on the wings is very firm, the action of
lapping is likely to break the wings—that is,
separate or disarrange the fibres. If the pressure exerted in lapping is insufficient, the wings
will not be firmly secured in place, and of
course, excessive pressure in lapping will break
the silk and necessitate a fresh start. If examined at this stage the wings, if properly set
on, should be at an angle of about 6o° to the
shank, sloping to the left or towards the tail
end of the fly. The stumps -should be on top
of the hook shank, projecting to the right or
over the eye. When viewed on end the wings
should be in the V-shape, and stand up on the
centre of the hook shank. If they should
incline slightly to one side it is often possible
at this stage to twist them sufficiently to correct
the fault.
Set  the  stumps  out   horizontally  at  right Setting out
, the wing
angles to the hook shank, each stump or pair stumps. 250
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
of stumps (according to whether they are
single or double wings) on their own side, as
shown in fig. 27.
Fig.   27.
With the right hand draw the tying silk
forward between the stumps, and at the same
time with the left press the stumps back against
the hook shank, and holding them in this
position, work two or three turns of the tying
silk over them and the hook shank. Cut away
the stumps at an angle to form a foundation
for the body, and taper it towards the tail end
of the fly (fig. 28). MAN IP ULA TION
251
As before remarked, two hackles are neces- Fastening in
the hackles.
sary for a fly intended to float well ; two of
about the same size and shape are selected,
the longest fibres being somewhat shorter than
the hook shank. They are laid on the wire
of the hook with the points projecting to the
right or over the head of the fly, and the root
ends, from which the downy flue has been previously removed, to the left. They are secured
in position by two or three turns of the tying
silk, and the projecting ends cut off closely.
The tying silk is then lapped down nearly to
the bend of the hook.
The whisks or tails of three or four strands Forming the
tail.
of Gallina are held by the left thumb and fore
finger on top of the shank, secured by two
or three turns of the tying silk, and a single
turn   is  passed  under   the   tail and over  the 252
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Fastening in
and forming
the body.
hook shank and pulled tight to set the tail up.
This last turn of the tying silk should be
just at the place where the shank of the hook
commences to turn down to form the bend of
the hook (fig. 29).
The strand of quill for the body is then laid
in position on the hook, with the point projecting to the left or over the vice head, and
the root end is secured in place by two or three
turns of the tying silk, which is then carried in
open laps to the shoulder or close behind the
wings. The refuse ends of the quill and whisks
are cut off close. The quill is then (taking
care not to twist it) wound smoothly up,
fastened at the shoulder by two turns of the
tying silk, and   the refuse end broken  or cut
Fig.
off.    If the lapping of the foundation is smooth
the body  will  also   be  smooth,  but  a slight MANIPULA TION
253
irregularity can often be remedied after the
body is finished by the application of pressure
with the forceps. The appearance of the fly
at this stage is shown in fig. 30.
The point of the hinder hackle is fixed in Turning the
hackles.
the hackle pliers, and the hackle passed round
the hook shank close behind the wings, keeping it on edge and, preferably, with the glossy
side towards the head of the fly (fig. 31).
Fig.   31. 254
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
The right forefinger is kept in the ring of
the pliers to prevent twisting, and the successive turns of the hackle are worked close
in front of each other until the wings are
forced into an upright position. When all but
the extreme point of the hackle has been
wound on, it is secured by two turns of the
tying silk and the refuse point cut off The
second or front hackle is treated in the same
way. When turning a hackle the pliers should
be kept well forward under the hook shank, so
as to fill up the space under the wings. It
should be observed that the more turns of
the hackle are worked forwards or towards
the head the more the wings are forced into
an upright position.
The tying silk is now carried in successive
folds between the fibres of the hackles towards
the head of the fly, so as to secure each turn of
the hackles, and it may be repeated that the
importance of this as tending to strengthen the
fly cannot be over-estimated. Pass the tying
silk in front of the wings and take two or three
turns on the neck of the eye.
It is now only necessary to fasten off the fly,
and it may be noted that throughout the previous operation not a single knot or hitch has
been made, nor have pliers or weights been
hung on the tying silk at at any time to keep it
taut.    If the silk is kept properly waxed, and MANIPULA TION
255
the folds are drawn down quite tightly, the fly
will remain secure at any stage ; the continual
half-hitches recommended by the old school
of tiers are useless, and give an uneven and
lumpy appearance to the work.
I   cannot  too   strongly   impress   on   profes- The whip
0 J L x > finish.
sionals as well as amateurs the necessity of
abandoning the old system of finishing off a
fly with a series of half-hitches. True, it saves
a little trouble, which, to the professional, may
be of some importance, but I venture to suggest that it is worth a trifling expenditure of
time to make the work really secure, a result
which can by no possibility be attained by the
use of half-hitches.
The V Whip Finish"
shown in the magnified
sketches of the eye end of
the hook is the most secure
and reliable knot for fastening off. It is made
thus:—
Lay the end of the tying
silk back towards the tail
to form an open loop, and
work one turn of the loop
r Fig.   32.
round the neck of the eye
(fig-_34
Similarly work three more turns of the loop, 256
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
passing it at each turn
over the eye (fig. 33).
Holding the hook and
turns of silk firmly between the left thumb
and forefinger, draw the
end of the tying-silk
down with the right
hand until the  knot is
quite tight (fi
Fig.   33.
34).    It is essential in this operation to proceed
^^ slowly,   so   as   to    allow    the
x?^  S warmth of the finger and thumb
Jf IG.   34. o
to soften the wax, and allow the
silk to draw freely. Cut off the remnant of
the silk, varnish the knot thoroughly, and if
in this operation the eye is filled with varnish,
do not neglect to clear it. The fly is now
complete (fig. 35).
Fig.   35. The use of the fine end of a porcupine
quill is recommended both for varnishing and
clearing the eye.
Mr. Skues' Method of Dressing an Upright
Winged Quill-Bodied Dun.
Mr. Skues writes:
small one, with no great width across the
jaws. The shaft is not set up perpendicularly, but slopes to the right, to enable the
hand and silk to pass freely round the hook
without striking the shaft. The vice is fixed
at the corner of a table so as to project over
the edge. The fly nut of the vice is on the
far side, where it serves as a rest for the little
finger of the left hand in the process of tying
down the wings.
'J Fixing the hook—an upturned eyed hook
—with the eye towards the right, firmly in the
vice, so that the jaws grip the point, and about
half-way up to the bend, take a length of silk—
about 18 inches—by one end in each hand,
pass it under the hook and round the bend,
double it and twist the two ends loosely until
the twist nearly reaches the hook. Then, holding the two ends together firmly by the left
hand, so as to stretch the silk between the
hand and the hook, well wax the silk.
" With a pair of sharp-pointed pliers, separate the twisted silk at the eye of the twist, and,
17 DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
Forming bed
for the wings.
Preparing
wings.
bringing the pliers down sharply, rip out the
twisting in one motion, and take the silk off
the hook.
"In dressing double-winged floaters I use a
finer and tougher silk than in dressing single-
winged flies, for I find that the single wings
are much more readily cut by the fine silk.
PearsalVs gossamer silk is quite fine enough for
single wings.
" The next step is to form a bed for the
wings. Taking the silk by one end between
the left finger and thumb and by the middle in
the right hand, pass it over the shank of the
hook at about two inches from the left hand,
and make the first lap away from you and over
the end held by the left hand, beginning at
such a distance from the eye of the hook as
wrill leave room for the wings to be tied down
and for the head to be finished. The wings
should not be tied down on waxed silk, but on
the hook shank quite close to, and so as to
jam against, the next turn, of silk.
" Wind five or six laps towards the tail of the
fly, still holding the short end firmly in the left
hand. This ensures even lapping, for each lap
slides down the short end on to the last.
Then whip back to the point where you began,
break off the short end with a smart jerk, and
the hook is ready to receive the wings.
" Taking a corresponding feather from each MANIPULA TION
259
wing of the same bird, strip off the flue at the
base of the quill. In most birds the only suitable feathers for winging are primaries, but in
land-rails and water-rails the secondaries are
equally good. If the yellow part of the wing
of a thrush be used the secondary is essential.
"If the wings are to be made of one thickness of feather each, tear off a suitable width
from each feather with the right forefinger and
thumb. If the wings are to be of two thicknesses, cut off the plume close to the quill,
beginning near the tip of the feather and cutting down to the root of the quill, and then
break off with the pliers sections of feather
of appropriate size. The reason for this difference of method is that the roots of the
fibres, when torn off, are left ragged, and thus
make it difficult to lay one width of wing
evenly upon another.
" In the case of double-winged flies, divide
off with the pliers enough from each feather to
wing one fly—that is, two equal strips from
each. I tie them as broad as I can without
getting the wing too long or breaking it.
Then with the pliers lay the two strips from
the right wing of the bird one upon the
other, with the glossy or under side upwards,
and see that they fit evenly. Repeat the process with two strips from the left wing.
" Place the first two strips, or the first single 260
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Applying and
tying on the
wings.
strip, as the case may be, on the tip of the left
forefinger with the glossy side upwards and the
stumps towards you, and the second pair of
strips or the second single strip upon top of the
other with the glossy side downwards, so that
the points of the upper and lower wing lie
evenly together. The wings now lie with the
slope of the fibre from left to right, and the
curve of the lower wing fits naturally on the
edge of the left forefinger.
" Taking the two wings together in the pliers,
hold them up to the light to see that they fit
evenly and have parallel edges with no overlapping strands. If there are too many fibres
in any section remove them with a needle,
which you may pass through the two or four
sections, so as to detach any fibres that project beyond the main body. One thus gets all
the sections of feather of precisely the same
width.
" Then, taking the now fully prepared pair
of wings between the left forefinger and thumb
in such a way that when the wings are laid
on the hook that part of each feather which
has grown nearest the root of the quill lies
uppermost, and that the fibres cross the centre
line of the forefinger as nearly as possible at
right angles, rest your left little finger on the
wing nut of the vice, and bring down the
prepared wings from above, so that the lower MANIP ULA TION
261
edge rests as nearly as possible on top of the
hook along its length. The difficulty here
is to avoid leaving too much wing without
leaving too little. Nothing but experience
can teach the eye to measure correctly. The
wing should not exceed in length that of the
shank of the hook from the bend to the point
where the wing is tied on.
| Bringing up the waxed silk between the
thumb and the hook, take it down again
over the wing on the other side between the
left forefinger and the hook, making way for
it to pass, and again tightening the grip firmly
on the feather and pressing it firmly down on
the hook. At this stage it is judicious to give
the feather a slight twist, so that the stumps
project over the eye with an inclination to
the near side of the hook. Still holding the
feathers firmly, but easing them down, pull
the silk perpendicularly and draw the end
slightly towards you. You can then let go
the feathers, and if the operation has been
properly performed the wings will set rightly
and evenly on the hook, separating so as to
form a V-shaped parachute. Still keeping
the silk quite taut, pass it behind the wings,
as close up to them as possible, so as to jam
the fibres tighter than ever, lifting the wings,
with the fingers or pliers for the purpose if
necessary. The end of the silk may now be
released, for the wings should be quite firm. Fastening in
the hackles.
DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
" The next move is to separate with the
pliers the stumps of the right wing from those
of the left. It is convenient, when each batch
has been secured, to screw it slightly with
the fingers to make its fibres adhere. Then,
bringing the silk from the far side up between
the eye and the stump nearest you, turn it
over that stump and under the hook, and
bring it up between the far side of the eye
and the other stump, over that and under the
hook again, up between the wrings from the
near side and down between the stump and
the eye on the far side, round the neck of the
eye and back between the wings to the far
side, behind the wings.
"At this point, if a fine body be required
for the fly, the stumps can be cut off quite
close with a sharp knife, in which case a couple
of turns of the silk over the roots make all
fast. If a stout, tapering body be the aim, the
stumps can be drawn back behind the wings
and firmly laid down with two or three laps
of silk, and the ends taken off by slanting cuts
of the scissors, so as to get an even taper of
the body from shoulder to tail.
" Here the time comes for tying in the hackle
or hackles, and in the few instances in which I
use ooo hooks, I make a difference in method
between them and larger sizes. It is difficult
to get hackles long enough in themselves and MANIPULA TION
263
short enough in the fibres for 000 hooks, and
I therefore dress them with the hackle in front
of the wings. By this method a longer and
longer-fibred hackle can be used than if the
hackle is wound behind the wings.
" To wind the hackle behind the wings it
should be tied in on the near side with the
glossy side horizontally upwards, and the root
towards the tail. To wind it in front of the
wings it should be tied in on edge with the
glossy side facing you.
" Three or four turns of silk over the root
will secure the hackle. If there are two, as
is commonly the case, it is advisable to tie in
each with a separate turn of the silk, so as to
get them to lie right.
"The root ends are then cut off, and the
whipping carried down to within two turns of
the beginning of the bend.
"Here the whisks, fibres of cock's hackle, Forming the
or Gallina, are tied in. The three or four fibres
are laid slantingly across and somewhat under
the hook on the near side with the roots downward. One turn of the silk over them and one
close behind suffice to lay them properly projecting straight over the tail.
"Then lay the strand of quill for the body Forming and
. securing the
on the hook, projecting over the tail, with the body-
fine or weak end towards the wings, and whip
evenly over it to close up behind the wings, 264
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Turning the
hackles.
cutting off the waste ends of whisk and quill
and hanging a heavy pair of pliers to the silk to
keep it fixed. This serves the double purpose
of preventing the silk from unwinding (which
indeed it shows little disposition to do), and of
keeping it out of the way while the body is
being wound. It should be borne in mind
that the upper side of the quill, when it is laid
on the hook, becomes the under side when it
is turned round the hook. Seizing the end of
the quill in the hackle pliers, you should wind
it evenly up the body to the shoulder, where
two laps of the silk secure it. Now cut off the
refuse end close with a sharp knife. This is
safer than breaking off the end, as the break
is apt to release the whole quill.
" Then, taking the point of the hackle if only
one, or of the hinder hackle if there be two, in
the hackle pliers, turn the hackle behind or in
front of the wing, as the case may be, in close
laps, pressing nearer with each turn to the
wings when turning the hackle behind them
and forcing them into an upright position.
Then bring the silk through in a couple of
turns so as to secure the hackle, and cut off the
end with a knife. Then turn the second hackle,
if there be one, in front of the first and still
closer up behind the wings.
" Next coax the silk two or three times
through the second hackle, and take one turn MANIP ULA TION
265
round the neck of the hook in front of wings
and hackle, and finish with the whip finish,
cutting off the waste end of the silk with a
knife. The varnishing may be most efficiently
yet lightly done by putting a drop of very thin
varnish on the loop of the silk before it is
pulled through in the whip finish. It thus
soaks the silk at the head, dries quickly, and
makes no mess.
I During the whole process there is no need
to be greatly concerned about the wings, so
long as you do not break them, i.e., split the
fibres so that the split extends into the base.
In other respects a little knocking about seems
to do them no harm.
" Atf this stage the wing is finished by being
coaxed into neatness with the aid of pliers, and
the points, if too long, are nipped off with teeth
or finger nails or the back of a pair of scissors
against the forefinger (the last is Mr. Hal-
ford's plan). If the hackle is wound in front
of the wings, press it firmly backwards so as to
make it slope towards the point of the hook.
The fly is now complete.
"I think it only fair to the reader to say
that I have had next to no practical experience
but my own. I never took lessons from a
professional dresser. I began to teach myself
when ' Floating Flies and How to Dress
Them' came out, and took that book for my 266
DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
guide. Apart from books, I have had little
but my own experiments and failures to guide
me. I can therefore venture to speak for no
one but myself, and it is probable that in some
respects my methods are hardly up to date.
I think, moreover, that it is quite possible
that a method that suits one dresser may be
objectionable or difficult for another."
Mr. W.  F. Brougham's  Method of  Dressing
an Upright winged Quill-bodied Dun.
Mr. Brougham writes:—"I know little, if
any, of the theory of the art of fly-dressing.
My knowledge is entirely self-acquired, and
possibly at variance with the principles followed by well-known professional and amateur
fly-dressers. I fear that as a rule I attempt
to sacrifice neatness and perfection of finish to
utility. I have been very fond of fly-fishing
since childhood, and like a great many other
anglers, have always had my own ideas as to
what flies are mostly to the liking of certain
fish. It is possible that some of these ideas
might shock the orthodox views of some
friends. Nor can I pretend to have ever
been able to prove to my own satisfaction
the superiority of my own manufactures ; at
the same time (though perhaps saying so may
be thought egotistical), I confess to having
a sneaking distrust of any fly not tied by my MANIPULATION
267
own hands. It is the old proverb of the crow
and his egg, and the only extenuating circumstances in this case are, that many amateur
anglers who dress their own flies hold the same
views.
" Being a more or less busy man, the only
times that I can devote to fly-dressing are
Sundays, during long railway journeys, and on
fine days in the boat when loch fishing, hence
the use of a vice would be generally out of the
question.
"The only instruments used by me are:—
(1) a finely-pointed pair of scissors, with points
ground down almost as fine as a needle (this
operation I do myself), and (2) a small pair of
tweezers.
" First of all I would state that I generally Mr- Brough-
am's method
tie a dozen or so of flies of the same kind at of tying
one time.    I have a small round tin box with
trays in it, in which I put the materials,  as it
must be remembered that, as a rule, the tying
I table consists of the bottom of a boat
or the rug for my knees in the railway train.
" I wind about  16  inches of tying
silk from the bobbin, passing the end
I through the hole of the bobbin and
/ bringing it out on the other side and
underneath one turn of the silk, which
FlG' 3 '   passes   round  the   bobbin   (fig.   36). DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Holding the
hook.
On each side of the bobbin I cut two small
nicks, in which the silk catches. The bobbin is
thus held rigid and forms a constant weight
upon the silk. When more is required, the silk is
simply lifted out of the little nicks and unwound
a little, drawing the end tight through the hole
of the bobbin. This is an excellent method,
and one for which I am indebted to a young
lady in Ireland. Placing the bobbin between
the knees, taking the end of the silk between
the thumb and first finger of the left hand, wax
the silk well. Pick out three strands of hackle
for the whisk, which place roots upwards between the second and third knuckle (it must be
remembered that winds blow and trains rock,
so at no time should feathers be left unsecure
when tying).
" The hook is taken by the bend firmly
between the thumb and first finger of the left
hand. This sounds very simple, but anyone
trying it will find that it is exceedingly difficult to do properly. In the first place you
must cultivate a strong thumb and first finger
nail; secondly the top of the first finger must
become quite hardened. This is only achieved
by constant practice, but when once hardened
it will remain so permanently, thus sacrificing
the picturesque to the useful. The grip of the
hook should be so firm that a sharp pull will
not move it. MANIPULATION
" Gripping the end of the silk between the Fastening
rr    & the whisk
third and fourth finger of the left hand, catch and body.
up the silk with the thumb and first finger
of the right hand, and make three turns
round the hook. Then, letting the silk hang
from the hook, take out whisk with the right
hand and whip it in with two turns of the
silk. Fasten in the body, allowing it to stand
out over the whisk, and wind the silk up the
body so as to make it even to within three-
quarters of the length of the shank. Lay the
hook and silk down, just catching the barb of
the hook in the trousers in order to keep it
from being blown away,
" Take the two starling pinion feathers off Preparing the
the right wing, using only the lower half of
the wing, the fibres of the upper half being
too coarse. Strip off and throw away about
half an inch from the bottom and divide
off with the point of the scissors a portion
suitable for the wing, holding the portion
firmly between the thumb and finger of the
left hand and pulling it away sharply. Take
a similar portion off the other feather and
squeeze the two pieces together. This done,
place the wing so made between the joints
of the second and third fingers, then take
the two feathers from the left wing and make
a wing in the same manner as heretofore
described. DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
Applying and
tying on the
wings.
" Place the two sets of wings together, holding them between the thumb and first finger
of the left hand ; take up the hook in the
right hand and place it just underneath the
wings between the thumb and first finger of
the left hand, so that the wing rests exactly on
that part of the shank of the hook where it is
to be tied on. Nip the two nails of the thumb
and first finger tightly together, taking care
that the bottoms of the wings are pressed
against the shank of the hook. Taking a turn
of silk over the left hand quite loosely, and
placing the bobbin between the knees, hold
the butts of the wings between the thumb
and first finger nails of the right hand ; then
raise the hands so that the loose coil of silk
gradually works itself over the wings and until
it is as tight as can be strained without breaking. Still keeping the same tension on the
silk, give the silk two more turns with the right
hand and a fourth turn over the shank behind
the wings, which now ought to be firmly fixed.
"It takes a considerable amount of practice
to do this properly. The butts of the wings
should stand up over the top of the head.
Fine these down with the scissors, snipping
off fibres which do not stand right, and bending
them down tie them in underneath the shank
of the hook very firmly, as described in ' Floating Flies and How to Dress Them.' MANIPULATION
" Lay the hook down and take out the two Fastening i
y the hackles.
hackles, one a hen hackle and the other a
cock hackle, which place between the knuckles.
Taking up the hook again, tie in first the hen
hackle and then over it the cock hackle, by
laying the hackle on its back on the side
nearest to you and close up to the roots of
the wings.
"Make the body quite symmetrical by carry- Forming and
. securing the
ing down the silk a little way and back again, body.
Take the tweezers and wind round the quill for
the body, tying it off so that the last turn of
quill lies underneath where the wings stand up.
''Then fix the tweezers on to the point of the Turning the
hackles.
cock hackle and twist it round underneath the
wings, so as to make them stand well upright.
Tie in this hackle by working in two turns of
the silk between the fibres. Twist round the
hen hackle over the head on the opposite side
of the wings to that of the cock hackle. Three
turns of the hen hackle are generally sufficient.
Tie it off in a similar manner to the cock
hackle.
" Take hold of the head of the fly between Mr. Brough-
the nails of the right thumb and first finger,
press down all the fibres of the hackle against
the body of the fly, so as to make room for
one or two turns of silk for the head ; at the
same time let go the grip of the silk with the
left  hand, and catch  up the  fly with the left 272 DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
thumb and first finger where the right thumb
and first finger has been. This is rather a
difficult operation, and only to be acquired by
practice.
I Then give three turns round the head of
the fly, and let the left hand little finger
fall right down ; then taking a turn over the
head of the fly and bringing the silk round
the little finger so as to form a loop, through
this loop pass the silk bobbin. This operation
repeat three times. Then drawing out the
little finger and putting in the first finger of
the right hand, turn this loop round the head
of the fly three times. Draw the silk tight.
This knot was shown to me by a practical fly-
tyer, who, I believe, tied for Mr. Cummings of
Bishop Auckland. I have never seen anyone
else use the same knot, and I think on the
whole, without being prejudiced, it is the best
and simplest tying-off knot known.
I Place the barb of the hook between the
tweezers, divide the wings, and with the points
of the scissors work in the fibre of the hackle
between. If the wings seem at all too long
squeeze them tightly together with the right
thumb and forefinger, and with the left thumb
and forefinger nails nip off the points. Apply
with a needle a small touch of varnish to the
head.
" I have tried tying a  fly with a vice, but MANIPULATION 273
cannot manage it at all, and now that I can
dispense with this article I have no desire to
learn the use of it, besides which it would be
useless under the circumstances I have alluded
to, i.e., in the train or on the river bank.
There is nothing more delightful on a hot
summer day, when the fish are not rising,
than to dress a fly on the river bank. Then
when the evening rise begins, you can comfort
yourself with the thought that had you not
dressed that particular fly you might have
caught no fish."
It will be noted that the methods of winging
adopted by Mr. Skues, Mr. Brougham, and
myself, although varying in matters of detail,
are in fact almost identical variations of the
improved method given in " Floating Flies
and How to Dress Them." The plan of tying
on the wings in the middle of the shank, cutting
off the stumps, and then forcing them bodily
with their foundation of tying silk up to the
shoulder behind the eye has been abandoned.
It has been found in practice that wings so
tied did not set as well, and were not so
secure as those worked by the more modern
method. 274 DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
TO DRESS UPRIGHT REVERSE-WINGED
DUNS.
Work four or five turns of well-waxed silk
close to the eye of the hook.
Preparing the     Take  two feathers  from  a right,  and two
wings. °
from a left wing of a starling, or other bird ;
cut out the entire plume from each, excepting
the extreme points and downy part of the roots
of the feathers ; lay these as cut on the table,
taking care not to disarrange the fibres. Place
the two pieces from the right feathers one on
the other, with the points quite even along
their entire length, and similarly those from
the left feathers, in each case pressing the
plumes together, so that they will adhere to
one another. Lay the two lengths now adhering together from the one wing on the two
lengths from the other, with their points quite
even along the entire plumes, with the natural
inclination of their fibres sloping towards the
tail end of the fly, and with the darker sides
outwards.
Take a pair of long bull-dog pliers of the
form shown in sketch1 (fig. $y), and, pressing
them open by means of the thumb and forefinger of the right hand applied on the portion
1 This form of pliers is the invention of the late Mr.
Marryat, and can be procured from Messrs. Holtzapffel
& Co., 13 & 14, New Bond Street, London, W. MANIPULATION
275
Fig. 37.
roughed for this purpose, place the four plumes
together between the jaws of these pliers with
sufficient width projecting beyond the points
to form, when detached, a set of wings. Remove the pressure of the right thumb and
forefinger, and the feathers are securely fixed
in the position shown on the diagram. The
projecting pieces, being four wings accurately
in position, can now be detached, and when a
set of wings is required for the next fly, it is
only necessary to press the pliers open and
draw the whole of the feathers out sufficiently
for the next set of wings. Releasing the
pliers, the remainder of the four feathers is
kept firmly in place. In this way sufficient
feathers can be arranged at one time to make
six or eight sets of wings.
For single wings it is, of course, only necessary to use the plumes of one right and one
left feather.
Having detached   the  set  of wings,   place Applying and
them with the left thumb and forefinger with wings,
their points projecting to the right or over the 276
DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
head of the fly; and note that the tendency in
this style of winging is to judge them too short.
Secure the wings with three or four turns of
silk, and carry one turn in front of them and
over the neck of the eye (fig. 38).
Fig. 38.
If the wings have been properly put on
without disarranging the fibres, they will set
outwards at the points with two thicknesses of
feather in each wing; if, however, a few fibres
are out of place, divide the wings carefully
with the dubbing-needle.
Take the tying silk in the right hand,
and pass it in front of the double wing on
the further side from you, then carry it back
between the wings, once round the wire of
the hook behind the wings, then forwards
between the wings, then round the neck of
the eye in front of the wings, and then once
more   behind  the  wings,   thus  forming  with MANIPULA TION
.Xlft
w
Fig. 39.
the tying silk the figure 8 with a wing in either
loop. Hold the wings firmly in the left hand,
and, with the right,
pull the tying silk
down quite tight, and
take one more turn
behind the wings,
which should then
be quite upright, and,
looking at them " end
on," set apart at the
points in the shape of
the letter V (fig. 39).
Cut away the stumps of the wings diagonally
to taper the body, fasten in the hackles by the
root^end, and continue the dressing of the fly
precisely as given on pages 251 to 256.
This process is still used by some amateurs
and professionals who have not yet mastered
the improved method. Some twist the fibres
of each wing together and work them as above
described ; they are then styled rolled wings,
and it is the fashion to dress the rolled wings
sloping forwards over the eye, adjusting them
in this position with the figure of eight whipping.
If the pattern to be dressed has the body of pubbing
1 J bodies
dubbing—i.e., fur or crewel, mohair or other
yarn, torn into shreds—the manipulation is as
before described until the tying silk has been
carried under the fibres forming the whisk and DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
over the hook shank to set the tail up. The
tying silk is then waxed. The dubbing to
be used is pulled out and slightly rolled on
the table or on the palm of the left hand into
a tapered length sufficiently long to form the
body. The tying silk is taken in the right
hand about three inches from the hook, held
out at length, and slightly untwisted. With
the left hand the fine end of the dubbing is laid
against the hook shank and under the tying
silk ; the stout end of the dubbing is held in
the right hand in contact with the tying silk.
The hold of the right hand is then relaxed
sufficiently to allow the tying silk to twist up
into its original State, thus spinning the dubbing on to it. It is often necessary to continue
the twisting, so as to spin the dubbing tightly
on the silk for the body.
The body is then laid on in regular close
laps to the shoulder, any superfluous dubbing
removed, the silk waxed again, and two turns
taken at the shoulder to make all secure. Any
ragged fibres can be cut off with the scissors,
or, if the body is too smooth, a little coaxing
with the dubbing needle will pull out a few
fibres and make it rougher. If the legs of the
fly are of the same dubbing, a little extra quantity can be spun on at the shoulder, and the
fibres picked out for the legs. It is, however,
a better plan to lay some of the fibres trans- MANIPULA TION
279
versely across a well-waxed double length of
the tying silk, as described on page 208 ; twist
this up and fasten in and turn like an ordinary
hackle.
If the body is ribbed, the ribbing tinsel or Ribbed herl,
...    sdk, or tinsel
silk is fastened in at the tail, the ribbing laid bodies.
on after the body is formed, and secured at the
shoulder by two turns of the tying silk. Three
or four turns of ribbing are ample for a small
fly, and the tendency of amateurs is invariably
to work on too many.
For a herl body, three or four strands are
fastened in by the root-ends and twisted together before being lapped on to form the
body. With a herl body, an occasional twist
is required to counteract the untwisting when
lapping. It is always well to strengthen herl
bodies by ribbing with gold or silver wire, or
with silk if it is desirable that the ribbing
should not be prominent.
Silk bodies of floss or sewing silk are worked
like quill, excepting that care should be taken
not to twist it or soil it by passing the fingers
along it unnecessarily. Silk, however, is, as a
material for bodies, rapidly becoming obsolete,
the colours being so much changed by the
water. A gold or silver body is worked exactly
like the quill.
Many of the new patterns are dressed with Horsehair or
1 r i- 1-1 211' bodies.
bodies  of horsehair or gut  laid on the  bare 280 DRY-FLY   ENTOMOLOGY
hook. To carry this out, after winging and
fastening in the root ends of the hackles, the
end of the horsehair or gut (this latter being
first thoroughly soaked) is fastened in at the
shoulder. The hair or gut is then lapped on
in close folds down to the tail, the whisk, if
any, being whipped on by the hair or gut.
The body material is then lapped back from
the tail to the shoulder, and there secured by
the tying silk. To get these hair or gut
bodies quite smooth and regular, a little care
is requisite when lapping. As they have the
appearance of being transparent, they are
certainly attractive both to the fish and the
fisherman.
Tags. For a fly with  flat gold or silver tag, one
end of the tinsel is fastened in when carrying
the tying silk down to the tail end of the fly
after fastening in the root ends of the hackles.
The tag is then worked on the bare hook,
secured by the tying silk, and the refuse ends
of the tinsel broken off; the whisk, if any, is
then set on. The tag of a fly like the red tag,
which is a small ibis breast feather, or of the
orange tag, which is a feather from the ruff
of the Indian crow, is put on like a whisk,
pressing up- When dressing an upright winged fly with
fly hackled     hackle  carried  down  the body,   such  as  the
own body.
Wickham,   the   following   is   the  procedure:
Having  winged as  usual,   three  hackles  are MANIP ULA TION
selected, two of the ordinary type for the
shoulder hackles, and the third rather a long
one with comparatively short fibres for the
ribbing hackle. The two shoulder hackles are
fastened in by three or four turns of tying silk
over the root ends, and the points projecting
over the head of the fly. The ribbing hackle
is then fastened in by the root end, the point
projecting over the head of the fly, the refuse
ends of all three hackles cut off, and the tying
silk carried down to the bend of the hook,
working in tag and whisk, if any. The body
material and a short length of gold or silver
wire for ribbing are then fastened in, the refuse
ends cut off, and the tying silk carried up to
the shoulder. The body is then formed and
secured as usual, the tying silk being left at
the shoulder, and the ribbing wire left projecting from the tail end of the fly (fig. 40). DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
Turning and
securing the
ribbing
hackle.
The ribbing hackle is then turned, the first
turn not too~ close behind the wings, and the
succeeding ones in open, evenly spaced laps to
the bend of the hook. The hackle point is
secured by two turns of the wire, which is then
carried up the reverse way between the turns
of the hackle to the shoulder, where the wire
is secured by the tying silk and the refuse end
broken off. In respect to this, it must be
remembered that if a hackle is worked from
the shoulder towards the bend of the hook and
the wire is brought up from the tail towards
the head, and both wire and hackle are wound
in the same direction, the wire ribbing is
carried up the reverse way to the turning of
the hackle itself, The refuse end of the hackle
point is cut off.
The shoulder hackles are then turned and
secured successively, the hinder one first and
the front one after, the hackle points being
secured by the tying silk, and the refuse ends
cut away. The tying silk is worked the
reverse way over and through the turns of
the hackles to the head, where the fly is tied
off by the usual whip finish and varnished.
TO DRESS FLAT WINGED FLIES.
When dressing flat winged floating flies it
is well to work a few extra turns of silk at the
head of the fly before winging, so as to leave MA NIP ULA TION 283
a somewhat longer neck ; the object of this
will be shown in the subsequent manipulation.
The wings are set on as described on page
248, the stumps, however, are not set out
horizontally and forced back, as this operation tends to make them upright. The
stumps are cut off close to the head of the
fly, and a couple of turns of the tying silk
worked over them.
If the fly is hackled at the shoulder only,
the fastening in of the hackles, the lapping of
the silk down to the bend of the hook, the
working in of tag or whisk, the fastening in
of body material and ribbing, if any, carrying
tying silk to shoulder, forming and securing
it at shoulder, are worked precisely as before
described.
The hinder hackle is turned, but the turns
are not jammed in in front of one another to
force the wings upright; the point of the
hackle is secured by the tying silk. The
front hackle is then turned, the first turn on
the neck in front of the wings, and the subsequent ones either there or behind the wings,
according to their set. Every turn of hackle
in front of the wings tends to set them flatter,
and every turn behind to force them into a
more upright position. The due appreciation
of this principle, and the consequent adjustment  of the number of turns  in front of or 284
DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
Flies with
flat wings.
behind the wings, will enable the operator to
correct any fault in the original set of the
wings.
For a flat winged floating fly most fishermen like the wings to be set at an angle of
about 300 to the horizontal or hook shank.
The extra space in front of the wings is necessary to allow of the turns of hackle being
worked there without running the risk of
clogging the eye with the tying silk when
making the whip finish. If too little space
has been left, this fault can be in a measure
corrected by pressing the fibres of the hackle
well back with the right thumb and forefinger
after the tying silk has been worked through
and over the turns of the hackle, and taking
three or four laps over the hackle at the
neck before making the whip finish,
very Some dry-fly fishermen like the wings of
a flat-winged pattern even flatter than the
angle of 300, and when dressing for them, a
modification of the procedure is necessary.
The silk is worked on at the head, the hackle,
or hackles, fastened in by their root ends, one
hackle being preferable to two for this kind
of fly. The tying silk is carried to tail end,
whisk or tag, if any, set on, body formed and
secured, hackle or hackles turned and fastened
in, and the fibres pressed well down toward
the tail of the fly.    The wings are then laid MANIPULA TION 285
on as flat as possible, the stumps cut off, and
the whip finish worked at the head and varnished. This manipulation will be found useful for most of the wet-fly patterns ; but, of
course, the hackle should be spare, two or
three turns at most, and the slips of feather
for the wings much narrower than those of
the floating patterns. The wings must, of
course, be single.
With a flat-winged floating fly hackled down Fiat-winged
s s <   J flies hackled
the  body,   such   as   the   various   patterns   of down the
, - body.
Sedge, Hammond's Adopted, Artful Dodger,
&c, the method of dressing is as previously
described for an upright winged fly with hackle
carried down the body, with the modifications
described above for the flat winged floating-
flies hackled at shoulder only. These are the
working of extra turns of silk at the neck and
the turning of the front hackle in front of the
wings. As before, if by this procedure the
wings are not flat enough, the plan of winging last can be adopted.
DRESSING HACKLE FLIES.
In  the  case  of a  pattern  hackled   at  the Flies hackled
at shoulder
shoulder only, the tying-silk is worked at the only.
head of the hook, the two hackles fastened in,
the tying silk carried to bend of hook,  whisk,
&c, worked in, body formed, hackles turned, 286
DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
11
points secured, and tying silk carried through
to head. The hackles are pressed well back
with the right thumb and forefinger, two or
three turns taken over them at the neck, and
the whip finish made as usual.
Hackle flies are recommended for beginners, as they are much more easily tied, owing
to the absence of the wings. A little more
care, however, is required when turning the
hackles if it is desired that the fly should
have an artistic appearance. With a winged
pattern the fibres of the hackles above the
hook are kept in place and partially concealed
by the wings ; while with the hackle pattern
every strand is visible.
For a bumble or other hackle pattern in
which the hackle is carried down the body, the
two shoulder hackles are fastened by the root
ends, and then the ribbing hackle. If the fly
is to be ribbed with gold or silver wire, proceed as described for flat-winged flies hackled
down the body. If, however, the ribbing wire
is objectionable, the fly should be tied with
silk, which, when waxed, is the same colour
as the body.
After the ribbing hackle has been fastened
in, the body materials should also be fastened
in at the shoulder with the portion to form
the body projecting over the eye. The refuse
ends are cut diagonally to taper the body, and MANIPULA TION
the tying silk lapped down to the bend of the
hook; the body should then be laid on and
secured at the tail end by two turns of the
tying silk.
The ribbing hackle is then turned, secured at
the tail end by two turns of the waxed silk;
the tying silk is then carried through the turns
of the hackle to the shoulder, the point of the
ribbing hackle at the tail end cut off, the
shoulder hackles turned and secured as usual,
the fibres pressed back, two or three turns of
tying silk lapped over the hackles at the eye,
and the fly finished in the usual way.
DRESSING MAYFLIES.
A pair of feathers from the back or breast
of a Canadian summer duck, Egyptian goose,
Rouen drake, or other suitable bird, are selected
for the wings. Holding each feather between
the left thumb and forefinger, and judging of
the length required for the wings, the remainder of the plume on both sides of the
central quill is stroked down towards the butt.
This is preferable to stripping off the super-
'fluous fibres, as tending to make the work of
winging more secure.
The waxed silk having been lapped on   to winging
the  neck of the hook,  the  pair of wings are
laid in position, with the stumps one on each
side of the hook, and then secured by three or 288
DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
Fastening in
the hackles.
four turns of silk, and one turn behind the
wings and over the hook shank. The quill
ends are pressed back against the hook shank,
whipped securely in this position^ and the
stump ends cut off diagonally to taper the
body. The tying silk is passed between the
wings in a figure of eight, and one or two
turns taken horizontally round the quills close
to and above the hook shank. Mayfly wings
in use often split at the base, owing to the
inherent weakness of the central quill of these
feathers, and whipping round with the waxed
silk has been found efficacious in counteracting
this tendency.
The shoulder hackles, of which one is usually
a close-plumed feather, are then fastened in by
the root ends. To prepare a close-plumed
feather for use as a hackle, hold it by the
point between the left thumb and forefinger,
and with the right thumb and forefinger,
slightly moistened, stroke the rest of the
plume down towards the butt end of the
feather. If the feather ' is too harsh it is
also well to press the right and left plume
together before turning the hackle. If the
pattern is hackled down the body, fasten in
the root end of the ribbing hackle, and carry
the tying silk in close, even laps down to the
bend of the hook, where the whisk is fastened
on and set up. MA NIP ULA TION
The body materials—consisting of a narrow Forming body
J a and turning
strip of white quill, split from a peacock tailthe hackles
feather, which must be thoroughly soaked
before use, and a narrow strip of Rofia grass
—are fastened in, as also a length of silk or
gold wire for ribbing. Work the tying silk to
the shoulder, carry the quill, laid quite flat in
regular laps, up to the shoulder, where secure
by two turns of the tying silk, and cut away
refuse end; work the Rofia grass also quite
smoothly to the shoulder, secure, and cut away
refuse end.
Turn the ribbing hackle, as usual, down to
the bend of the hook, secure it there by the
ribbing wire or silk, which carry up between
the turns of hackle to the shoulder. Secure
the ribbing wire or silk by the tying silk, and
break or cut off refuse end. Turn the shoulder
hackles as usual, the hinder one first, carrying
the tying silk through to head, where tie off
with the ordinary whip finish. Omit the bronze
herl head, which is absolutely useless, as it not
only prevents the possibility of varnishing the
whip finish, but almost invariably gives way
itself when the fly is in use.
If the pattern is hackled only at the shoulder, Mayfly hack-
J led at shoul-
omit the ribbing hackle ; instead of gold wire der only-
for  ribbing  the  body,  use narrow  flat gold ;
with   some   patterns   a   ribbing   of   coloured
sewing   silk,   besides   the   flat  gold,   is  used.
19 DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
With respect to the shoulder hackles, where
one is a close-plumed feather and the other
an ordinary cock hackle, the close-plumed
feather is invariably used as the front one
nearest to the head of the fly, and the cock
hackle for the hinder,
straw bodies. Rofia grass is undoubtedly the best material
for a Mayfly body, but if it is desired to dress
a pattern with straw body take a strip of thin
maize or wheaten straw, and having first soaked
it in warm water until quite
soft, cut out of it a slip of
the form shown in the sketch
(fig. 41).   With the left thumb FlGl £j
and forefinger apply it under the hook, immediately after the ribbing wire has been fastened
in, and the tying silk is at the tail end of the
fly, so that the join will run up the back of
the fly, and, pressing it tightly so as to make
it lie round the wire of the hook, fasten it
securely at the tail end with three very tight
turns of the tying silk ; rib the body up evenly
with the tying silk, and take two secure turns
at the shoulder, just behind the wings.
Turn the ribbing hackle, secure it at the tail
end with the wire, which is then carried
through the turns of the ribbing hackle, and
there secured by the tying silk. The shoulder
hackles are then turned and secured, and the
fly finished as usual. MANIPULA TION
291
DRESSING SPENT GNATS.
When dressing the Marryat pattern of Spent
Gnat, take four Andalusian cock hackles for the
wings, selecting the best and most glossy with
warm or ginger coloured points, and strip away
from the butt ends all the fibres, leaving only
sufficient at the points to form the wings.
Arrange the two hackles for the left wing or Arranging the
& & wings.
that on the farther side of the vice, one on the
other evenly at the points, and with the glossy
sides upwards. Then the two hackles for the
right wing are also arranged one on the other
evenly at the points, and with the glossy sides
upwards. The left wing is laid on the table
with the root ends towards the operator and
the glossy sides of the hackles upwards, and the
right wing with its root ends away from the
operator is laid on the left, so that the last
fibres left on the hackles come together at the
central stems midway between the wing points.
Five or six turns of tying silk are worked on Winging.
the neck of the hook, and the set of wings as
arranged are placed horizontally at right angles
to the hook shank, and with the hackle points
projecting equally from the hook shank, those
forming the left wing on the farther side of the
vice, and those forming the right wing on the
side of the vice next to the operator. They
are  placed   on  the  hook   shank  immediately DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
behind the last lap of the tying silk, and
secured by two or three turns over the stumps,
and hackle points worked diagonally in both
directions so as to secure them in position.
The four stumps are then pressed forwards
towards the head of the fly, and there secured
by two turns of the tying silk. The four
stumps are then pressed backwards towards
the tail end of the fly, the hackle-point wings
stroked forwards, and the stumps whipped to
the hook shank.
A grey partridge hackle is fastened in by the
root end, and then a cock badger for a second
shoulder hackle in the same way. A long
cock badger ribbing hackle is also fastened
in by the root end, and all refuse ends of
wing stumps and hackles cut away diagonally
to taper the foundation of the body. The
tying silk is worked down to the bend of the
hook, and the whisk fastened in and set up.
A strand of condor is selected for the body
with dark point and pure white root, the longer
flue is stripped off at the root end only and
fastened in by the fine end with a length of
silver wire, and the tying silk carried up to the
shoulder. The condor body is worked on so as
to show three or four turns of the dark colour
at the tail end, secured at the shoulder by two
turns of the tying silk, and the refuse end
broken or cut off. MA NIP ULA TION 293
The ribbing hackle is turned, secured by two Turning the
&    % J hackles.
turns of the silver wire at the bend of the
hook, the wire is carried up through the turns
of hackle to the shoulder where it is secured
by the tying silk, and refuse end broken off.
The badger shoulder hackle is turned and
secured, and then the grey partridge hackle
similarly treated, the points of both hackles
being cut off and the tying silk worked over
the turn of the hackle to the head.
The wings are pressed back and two or three Finishing the
turns of tying silk taken close in front of them,
so as to set them at right angles to the hook
shank, and so that they lie quite flat and horizontal. The fly is tied off by the usual whip
finish and varnished. If the wings are a trifle
too long the points can be cut away with the
scissors in a curve sloping inwards and towards
the tail end of the fly. Any of the patterns
dressed with hackle point wings set horizontally are dressed in the same way, except that
one hackle point on each side only is used in
some cases for the wings.
It may be noticed that no description of the
manipulation for dressing flies with wings of
any material except feathers has been given
Excepting the whalebone shavings used for
the spent olives, dressed according to Mr.
Power's pattern, and pike scales, there are,
according  to   the  experience   of   most  chalk 294 DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
stream fishermen, no successful substitutes for
feathers. All the loudly-puffed and patented
wings have proved, on trial, to be no better
killers and far less durable than the old-
fashioned feather wings ; and it may safely be
predicted that the inventors themselves will
cease to dress them.
TO  MAKE   DETACHED   BODIES.
Many modern anglers complain that when
fishing with detached-bodied flies, they miss
a large proportion of the rises. Some of
them have, from this, formulated the theory
that fish come short at this type of fly, and
argue that the use of detached patterns is
therefore to be deprecated. Such a theory is
not in accord with the experience of many
dry-fly fishermen in the first rank. For very
shy fish no flies have been so successful as
the transparent detached-bodied patterns. All
such monstrosities as quill-bodied or cork-
bodied detached flies, or, worse still, the
patterns in which the bodies are made partly
on the hook shank and partly detached on a
bristle, are worse than useless. They fail in
the one essential feature of detached bodies
—viz., that they should be as transparent as
possible.
The reason why so large a proportion of
rising fish are  missed with detached flies as MANIP ULA TION 295
usually dressed is obvious. The body is, as
a rule, made far too long, often projecting as
much as one half its length beyond the bend
of the hook. When a shy trout or grayling
rises at such a fly its lips come in contact
with the stiff projecting detached body before
the barb of the hook is in its mouth, and the
fish, detecting the fraud, ejects the fly before
there is any possibility of its being hooked.
The remedy is equally obvious: do not tie
or buy any detached-bodied fly in which the
body projects beyond the outside of the bend
of the hook.
Take  an  ordinary bristle  such   as   is   used Preparing the
z bristle.
by bootmakers, either natural or dyed, according to  the   colour of the body of the fly to
be imitated.    If too thick,
split in two from the point. .-^^^^^^^
Double  it tightly in form FlG    2
shown (fig. 42).
Holding the bristle firmly between the nails
of the thumb and forefinger of the left hand,
take two tight turns of waxed silk close down
to the double end of the bristle. Lay in position, the fibres to form the tail.
If the covering of the detached body be of Procedure
c . m       with horse-
horsehair, affix to the bristle well-waxed tying hair covering
silk  as  near  the colour  of the  horsehair as
possible.     Place the whisk  and  horsehair in
position, and fasten them in with the tying silk. 296
DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
Commencing close to the doubled end of the
bristle, lay on four or five turns of horsehair,
and,   holding it   securely  in  the  left hand so
that   the
folds    shall
not  open,
take a single turn ofc
the      tying
silk    round
horsehai r
and   bristle
(ng. 43).
Take four or five more turns of horsehair,
and then one of the silk, and so on, in succession, until sufficient length of bristle is
covered to form the body, when secure the
horsehair with the tying silk, and finish with
whip finish (fig. 44).    Cut away any projecting
Fig. 43.
Fig. 44.
ends of horsehair or whisk, roll body on table
to make it round, and bend body to set the
tail up. The single turns of tying silk give
the appearance of the joints of the body, which
are prominent features in all the natural flies. MAN IP ULA TION 297
For the Jenny Spinner body, select the most ]^i Spin
transparent bristle and the finest and clearest
white horsehair. Use red-brown silk, which
secure as before at the doubled end. Lay a
cream-coloured whisk along the top of the
body with points projecting to the right, and
the horsehair projecting towards the left.
Secure both with the silk, and make a whip
finish.    Cut away the tying silk (fig. 45).
Fig. 45.
Roll the horsehair on, taking care not to
cover the silk at the tail end ; fasten it off
with two or three turns of silk, and conclude
with the whip finish (fig. 46).
sBKDQDODDaimBB^
Fig.   46.
Which India-rubber
covering to
If it is to be covered with india-rubber
uuvc
can be cut from the ordinary bottle rubber with body
a sharp knife previously wetted, or drawn from
elastic webbing—two or three turns of waxed 298 DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
silk are taken round the doubled bristle at the
point where the stout end of the body should
terminate, and one end of a thin narrow strip
of rubber is fastened in. This length must be
judged with great care to avoid making the
body too long.
Taking the strip of rubber between the
right thumb and forefinger, and with the
left hand laying the gallina for whisk in position on the doubled bristle, the india-rubber
is lapped down, tightly stretched over the
gallina and bristle to the tail, and then
lapped back to the stout end of the body,
where it is secured by two turns of the silk,
refuse ends cut off, and finished with whip
finish.
Roll the detached body backwards and forwards on the table with the flat handle of the
dubbing needle to make it perfectly round. By
this method there is no waxed silk under the
india-rubber, and the body has a transparent
and natural appearance.
Making de-        When   making  detached  bodies   it   is   the
tached bodies
in vice. latest  fashion  to   stretch   a  single  length  of
bristle between two vices, or a vice and a stout
hook. Five or six bodies are dressed in this
bristle and are cut off when finished. After
the fly is winged and hackle fastened in, one
of these detached bodies is whipped on, the
hackles  turned,   and   the   fly  finished.    This MANIPULA TION
plan certainly saves time, but the bodies so
made are neither as sightly nor as secure as
those built according to the old method on the
split doubled bristle.
The manipulation has, however, been improved in one respect. When the split bristle
has been doubled, a short length of fine copper
wire is inserted through the loop at the fine
end of the doubled bristle. The stout end of
the bristle is fixed in a vice, and the two ends
of the copper wire, having been brought together, are secured, with the bristle and wire
stretched out at full length, either in a second
vice or in a strong hook. This simplifies the
procedure, as the bristle foundation is securely
held and both hands are free.
In all cases note that the whip finish at the
end of detached bodies should not be varnished ; otherwise it is almost impossible to
attach them securely to the hook, as the tying
silk does not bite on the hard varnished surface.
To complete the flies with detached bodies Finishing de-
for a winged dun, set on the wings in either winged duns.
of the methods previously indicated ; fasten in
the root-ends of two hackles. Apply the body
with the two projecting ends of bristle a cheval
on the hook, and close up behind the wings
(fig- 47). DRY-FLY  ENTOMOLOGY
Fig. 47.
r astemng
the body.
It is a good plan to flatten the ends of
the bristle slightly between the teeth before
applying.
Holding the body securely in position with
the left hand, bind down over the ends of the
bristle and round the wire of the hook five or
six tight turns of the tying silk, then make
one turn of silk under and behind the body
and round the wire of hook, so as to set the
tail-end of the detached body well up. Cut
away the refuse ends of the bristle not too
closely (fig. 48). MA NIP ULA TION
301
Fig. 48.
Take three or
four turns of the
silk round the body
and hook, carrying it towards the
shoulder; turn the
hackles, fasten in
their points, bring
silk between the
fibres of the hackles
to head, where
finish   with    whip
finish, and varnish (fig. 49).
For a detached bodied hackle pattern the
procedure is identical excepting, of course, for
the omission of the wings.
It may be noticed that there is no descrip- DRY-FLY ENTOMOLOGY
tion here of the method of making detached
bodied Mayflies. Experience having shown
that they are not generally successful, their
use is not recommended. INDEX
DBDOMEN of Insects, 22
Abundance of Diptera on Water, 127
„ ,, ,,    in Autopsies, 1
Adjutant Quill for Bodies, 212
Alder.—Eggs, 118
Identification, 115
Imago, 120
Larva, 119
Metamorphoses and Habits, 116
Metamorphosis to Imago, 120
,, ,, Pupa, 120
Not usually seen on the water, 122
Oviposition, 116
Parasites'in Eggs, 123
Pupa, 120
Sialis lutaria, 114
,,   fuliginosa, 114
Anabolia nervosa, 86
Anatomy of Insects, Internal, 22
Animal Kingdom, Divisions of, 15
Aphida, 144
Aphis, 144
Artificial Flies.—Adjutant Blue, 165
Alder, 187
Apple Green, 192
Artful Dodger, 193
Autumn Dun, 166
Badger Quill, 191
Beefsteak, 196
Black Ant, 188 304
INDEX
Artificial Flies.—continued.
Black Gnat, Female, 181
„     Male, 181
Blue Dun, 166
Blue Quill, 165
Blue Winged Olive, 167
Brown Badger, 172
Cinnamon Quill, 172
Claret Smut, 182
Coachman, 193
Coch-y-Bonddhu, 189
Corkscrew, 194
Cowdung, 187
Dark Olive Quill, 157
Dark Sedge, 183
Detached Badger, 172
Detached Iron Blue, 163
Detached Olive, 158
Female Black Gnat, 181
Fisherman's Curse, 180
Flight's Fancy, 159
Furnace Bumble, 194
Ginger Quill, 162
Gold Ribbed Hare's Ear, 156
Golden Dun, 190
Golden Tag, 195
Goose Dun, 160
Governor, 193
Grannom, 185
Grannom Pupa, i$5
Greenwell's Glory, 192
Hackle Adjutant Blue, 165
Alder, 187
Blue Quill, 166
Curse, 181
Dark Olive Quill, 157
Ginger Quill, 162
Gold Ribbed;Hare's[Ear, 157
Kimbridge, 184
Medium Olive Quill, 158  INDEX
Artificial^ Flies.—continued.
Olive Badger, 174
„    Quill Bodied Iron Blue, 164
Orange Bumble, 194
,,      Quill, 172
,,      Sedge, 183
„      Tag, 195
Pale Olive Quill, 160   .
„    Watery Dun, 159
Pike Scale Black Gnat, 181
Pink Wickham, 190
Purple Quill Bodied Iron Blue, 163
Quill Marryat, 161
Red Ant, 187
,,    Quill, 170
,,    Spinner (Holland's), 171
„ ,,        (the late Mr. Marryat's), 170
Red Tag, 195
Rough Blue Winged Olive, 168
Saltoun, 191
Silver Sedge, 182
Spent Gnat, 179
„     Olive, 175
Welshman's Button, 186
Whirling Blue, 166
Wickham, 189
Willow Fly, 188
Baetis atrebatinus, 55
binoculatus, 58
buceratus, 55
.61
pumilus, 61
rhodani, 55
scambus, 58
tenax, 55
vernus, 55
■bio Johannis, 142
Marci, 143
. I3I Bodies,
Black Gnat, Larva, 143
,, „     Pupa, 143
„ „     Imago, 143
Bleaching Feathers and Quills, 212
Bleaching, Hydrogen Peroxide for, 212
Blow-flies, 134
Blue Duns—Doubts as to existence of natural,
Blue-bottles, 134
Blue Smut, 138
Blue Winged Olive, Eggs, 64
,,      Newly-born Larva, 65
,,      Larva, 65
,,      Nymph, 65
,,      Subimago, 66
,,      Imago, Male (Sherry Spinner), 67
,, „      Female (Sherry Spinner), 67
-Adjutant Quill, 212
Bristles for Detached, 214
Condor Quill, 210
Crewels, 214
Dubbing, 214
Floss Silk, 210
Gut, 213
Horsehair, 213
Macaw, 215
Mayfly, Rofia Grass, 214
Peacock Quill, 210
Rofia Grass, 214
Various Quills, 212
Bot-flies, 134
Brachycentrus subnubilus, 99
Brachycera, 128
BraulidcB, 135
Bristles for Detached Bodies,
Brown Mallard, 215
Brown Silverhorns, 95
,, ,, Larva, 95
„ Imago, 95
Bull-dog Pliers, long, 275 3o8
INDEX
Caddis-flies.—Anabolia nervosa, 86
Bvachycentrus subnubilus, 99
Black Silverhorns, 94
Brown Silverhorns, 95
Caperer, 91
Description, 78
,, of Larva, 85
Grannom, 98
Habits and Metamorphoses, 81
Halesus radiatus, 91
Identification, 77
Imago, 92
Large Red Sedge, 92
Larvae with fixed Cases, 87
,,       ,,     movable Cases, 83
Mystacides nigra, 94
Notidobia ciliaris, 95
Oviposition, 82
Phryganea striata, 92
Preparation for Metamorphosis to Pupa, 86
Pupa, 88
Rhyacophila dorsalis, 96
Sedge-flies, 89
Sericostoma personatum, 98
,,        Spencii, 98
Welshman's Button, 97
Caenis, 75
Canada Balsam, mounting in, 9
Canadian Summer, or Wood Duck for Mayfly Wings, 215
Caperer, Larva, 91
,,      Imago, 92
Cecidomyidce, 131
Centroptilum luteolum, 58
,,       pennulatum, 58
Cevatopogon, 132
Chalcididce, 124
Chalcis, 124
Chamaeleon-fly, 133
Chironomidce, 131
Chitin, 18 INDEX
Chloroperla, 108
Circulation of Insects, 25
Culicida, 132
Cyclorrkapha, 133
Classification of Insects, 31
Clegs, 133
Clinocera, 138
Collecting Nets for Insects, 7
Collecting Tubes, 13
Collection of Insects, 6
Complete Metamorphosis of Insects,
Condor Quill for Bodies, 210
Conopidce, 134
Copper Peacock Herl, 186
Corixa, 144
Crane-flies, 132
Crewels for Bodies, 214
Daddy Long-legs, 132
Definition of Insects, 16
Detached Bodies, Bristles for foundation of, 214
„ „        Horsehair for, 295
,, ,,        India-rubber for, 297
Difficulty of Identification of Insects, 4
Diptera.—Abundance of, on Water, 127
,, ,,  in Autopsies, 127
Bibio Johannis, 142
,,   Marci, 143
Bibionida, 131
Black Gnat, 142
Blow-flies, 134
Blue-bottles, 134
Blue Smut, 138
Bot-flies, 134
Brachycera, 133
Braulida, 135
Cecidomyida, 131
Ceratopogon, 132
Chamaeleon-fly, 133
Chironomida, 131
Classification, 130 INDEX
'tera.—continued.
Clegs, 133
Clinocera, 138
ConopidcB, 134
Crane-flies, 132
Culicidce, 132
Cyclorrhapha, 133
Daddy Long-legs, 132
Description, 127
Dung-flies, 133
Empidce, 133
English Books on, 136
Eproboscidea, 134
Eristalis tenax, 133
Fisherman's Curse, 142
Foreign Books on, 137
Forest-flies, 135
Gastrophilus, 134
Gnats, 132
Hilar a, 133
Hippobosca, 135
Hypoderma, 134
Melophagus, 135
Merodon, 133
Mosquitoes, 132
MuscidcB, 134
Mycetophilidce, 131
Nematocera, 128
Nycteribida, 135
Oestrida, 134
Orthovrhapha, 130
Piophila, 135
Proboscidea, 133
Psychodida, 132
Pupipara, 134
Reed Smut, 138
Sand-flies, 131
Sarcophagida, 134
Scarcity of English Books on, 136
Scatophaga, 134 INDEX
3ii
Diptera.—continued.
Sheep-ticks, 135
Simulida, 131
Simulium, 138
Simulium reptans, 146
Stratiomys, 133
Syrphidce, 133
Tabanidce, 133
Tachinidce, 134
TipulidcB, 132
Volucella, 133
Worbles, 134
Divisions of Animal Kingdom, 15
Doubts as to Existence of Natural Blue Duns, 167
Dressing Flies by Artificial Light, Electric Lamp for, 226
,, ,, ,, Engraver's Globe for, 224
,, ,, ,, Fluid for  Monochromatic
Light, 225
Solution   for
Globe, 224
Engraver's
Dry-Fly Dressing :
General Instructions, 240
Preliminary Work, 242
Fixing and Testing Hook, 243
Waxing Silk, 243
Foundation for Wings, 244
Upright Quill Bodied Dun.—Preparing the Wings, 246
,, ,, Applying the Wings, 247
,, ,, Tying on the Wings, 248
,, ,, Setting out the Wing Stumps,
249
„ ,, Setting back the Wing Stumps,
250
,, ,, Fastening in the Hackle, 251
,, ,, Forming the Tail, 251
,, ,, Fastening in the Body, 252
,, ,, Forming the Body, 252
,, ,, Turning the Hackles, 253
,, ,, Whip Finish, 255
,, ,, Varnishing the Head, 256 INDEX
Mr. Brougham's
Dry-Fly Dressing.—continued.
Mr.   Skues'   Method.—Vice 257
,, ,, Forming Bed for Wings, 258
Preparing Wings, 258
Applying Wings, 260
Tying on Wings, 261
Separating Wing Stumps, 262
Fastening in the Hackles, 262
Forming the Tail, 263
Forming the Body, 263
Turning the Hackles, 264
Finishing the Fly, 265
Instruments used, 267
,, ,, Arrangement   of   silk   in   bobbin,
267
,, ,, Holding the Hook, 268
,, ,, Fastening in Tail and Body, 269
,, ,, Preparing Wings, 269
,, ,, Applying Wings, 270
,, ,, Tying on Wings, 270
,, ,, Fastening in Hackles, 271
,, ,, Forming the Body, 271
,, ,, Turning the Hackles, 271
,, ,, Finishing Knot, 271
Upright Reverse-Winged Duns.—Preparing Wings, 274
,, ,, Use   of   long   Bull-dog
Pliers, 274
,, ,, Applying Wings, 275
,, ,, Tying on Wings, 276
Dubbing Bodies, 277
Ribbed Bodies, 279
Herl Bodies, 279
Silk Bodies, 279
Tinsel Bodies, 279
Horsehair Bodies, 280
Gut Bodies, 280
Working on Tags, 280
Upright Winged Flies Hackled down Body, 280
Upright Winged Flies Hackled down Body.—Turning and
securing the Ribbing Hackle, 282 INDEX
313
Dry-Fly Dressing.—continued.
Flat Winged Flies Hackled at Shoulder only, 283
„ „ „    With very flat Wings, 284
,, ,, ,,    Hackled down the Body, 285
Hackle Flies, Hackled at Shoulder only, 285
,, „     Bumbles, 286
Mayflies.—Winging, 287
Fastening in the Hackles, 288
Forming Body, 289
Turning Hackles, 289
Hackled at Shoulder only, 289
Working Straw Bodies, 290
Spent Gnats.—Arranging Wings, 291
Winging, 291
Fastening in the Hackles, 292
Forming the Body, 292
Turning the Hackles, 293
Finishing the Fly, 293
Making Detached Bodies.—Preparing the Bristle, 295
,, ,, Working Horsehair Body, 295
,, ,, ,,       Jenny Spinner Body,
297
,, ,, ,,       India-rubber    Body,
297
,, „ ,,        In the Vice, 298
Finishing Detached Bodied Winged Duns.— Fastening on
the Body, 300
Finishing   Detached   Bodied   Winged   Duns. — Turning
Hackles, &c, 301
Finishing Detached Body Duns. — Hackle Patterns, 301
Drying feathers after Dyeing, 233
Dubbing for Bodies, 214
,,       Hackle, to make, 208
Dung-flies, 134
Dyeing.—Apparatus Required, 230
„ Fletcher's Safety Bunsen, 231
,, Mordant after, 232
Dyes.—Blue Green, 238
„ Brown Red, 238
„        Canary, 238 INDEX
Dyes.—continued.
Claret, 238
,,        Light Green, 238
,,       Orange, 238
,,        Packet, 232 P$fM
„ „    Directions for Use, 232
,,        Recipe No.       I. Green Olive, 234
II. Lemon Green Olive, 235
III. Medium Olive, 235
IV. Brown Olive, 236
V. Green Drake (the late Mr.Marryat's),
236
VI. Brown Champion Wings, 237
VII. Green Champion Wings, 237
VIII. Blue Green Mayfly Wings, 237
IX. Iron Blue, 238
Ecdyurus venosus, 74
Egyptian Goose for Mayfly Wings, 215
Electric Lamp for Fly Dressing, 226
Empidce, 133
English Books on the Diptera, 136
Engraver's Globe for Fly Dressing, 215
Entomological Works—Modern, 2
Ephemera danica, 71
,,      lineata, 71
,,      vulgata, 71
Ephemerella ignita, 64
EphemeridcB.—Abdomen, 37
Baetis atrebatinus, 55  -
binoculatus, 58
buceratus, 55
niger, 61
pumilus, 61
rhodani, 55
scambus, 58
tenax, 55
vernus, 55
Blue Winged Olive, 63
Caenis, 75 INDEX
3i5
Ephemerida.—continued.
Centroptilum luteolum, 58
,,       pennulatum, 58
Change from Nymph to Subimago, 48
,,        ,,     Subimago to Imago, 50
Development of Nymph, 47
Ecdyurus venosus, 74
Ephemera danica, 71
,, liniata, 71
„      vulgata, 71
Ephemerella ignita, 64
Eyes, 36
Habits of Imago, 52
Head, 35
Heptagenia sulphurea, 75
Identification, 34
Imago, 51
Iron Blue Dun, 61
Jenny Spinner, 62
Larvae, 40
Larves fouisseuses (Digging Larvae), 42
„       nageuses (Swimming Larvae), 44
",,      plattes (Flat Larvae), 43
,,       rampantes (Crawling Larvae), 45
Legs, 38
Leptophlebia submarginata, 74
Little Yellow May Dun, y$
March Brown, 74
Mayfly, 69
Metamorphoses and Habits, 39
Newly hatched Larvae, 46
Nymphs, 41
Olive Dun, 54
Oviposition, 39
Pale Watery Dun, 58
Pictet, F. J., 2
,,    Classification of Larvae, 42
Sherry Spinner, 67
Subimago, 49
Thorax, 37 m
INDEX
EphemeridcB.—continued.
Turkey Brown, 74
Wings, 38
Eproboscidea, 134
Eristalis tenax, 133
Eyed Hooks, 198
,,        ,,        Knot for attaching (Mr. Hall's), 202
,,        ,, „       ,,        ,, (Major Turle's), 203
Examination of Insects—Lenses for, 6
Fancy Flies, Definition of, 151
Fancy Patterns for Smutting Fish, 182
Feathers and Quill—Bleaching, 212
Feathers—Drying after Dyeing, 233
,, Restoring to shape when crushed, 234
,, Preserving from Moth, 206
Fisherman's Curse, 142
Floating Food and Sunk Food, 2
Floss Silk for Bodies, 210
Fly-dresser's Vice, 218
„        ,, ,,    Improved (Mr. Hawksley's), 220
Fly Dressing, see Dry-Fly Dressing
Food—Floating and Sunk, 2
Food of Salmonidae in Rivers, 3
Foreign Books on the Diptera, 137
Forest-flies, 135
Formalin as a Preservative, 10
Gallina—Dyed for Mayfly Wings, 215
„        for Whisks, 215
Gastrophilus, 134
Gnats, 132
Gold or Silver Tinsel, 215
„    „      „     Wire, 215
Grannom.—Eggs, 82
,, Larva, 99
„ Pupa, 99
„ Imago, 99
Green Drake (see Mayfly), 69
Gut for Bodies, 213
Hackle Patterns, Importance of, 153 INDEX
317
Hackle Patterns of Duns and Spinners, 155
,, ,,      of Sedges, 154
Hackles—Close Plumed Feathers as, 207
,, Cock, 205
,, Dubbing—to make, 208
,, Hen, 205
Halesus radiatus, 91
Hantzsch's Medium, mounting in, 9
Haustellata.—Insects, 21
Head and Appendages of Insects, 19
Heptagenia sulphurea, 75
Hilava, 133
Hippobosca, 135
Hooks.—Eyed, 198
,,        Blue or Bronzed, 201
,,        Extra Short Shanks, 199
,,        Faulty Tempering of, 200
,,        Knot for attaching (Mr. Hall's), 202
,, ,,      ,, ,,        (Major Turle's), 203
,,        Testing Temper of, 243
,,        Turned-down Eyes, 198
„        Turned-up Eyes, 198
,,        Variation of Gape, 199
,, ,,        ,, Gauge of Wire, 199
,, ,,        ,, Length, 199
Horsehair for Bodies, 213
„ ,,  Detached Bodies, 295
Hydrogen Peroxide for Bleaching, 212
Hypoderma, 134
Ibis for Tags, 215
Imago—Insects, 29
Imitations of Natural Insects for Smutting Fish, 182
Incomplete Metamorphosis of Insects, 27
India-rubber for Detached Bodies, 297
Indian Crow for Tags, 215
Insects.—Abdomen, 22
,, Circulation, 25
,, Classification, 31
, Collecting Nets, 7 INDEX
Insects.—Collection, 6
,, Complete Metamorphosis, 28
,, Definition, 16
,, Difficulty of Identification, 4
,, Haustellata, 21
,, Head and Appendages, 19
,, Imago, 29
,, Incomplete Metamorphosis, 27
,, Internal Anatomy, 22
,, Larva, 29
,, Lenses for Examination, 6
,, Mandibulata, 20
,, Morphology, 18
,, Nervous System, 24
,, Nymph, 28
,, Packing for post, 13
,, Parthenogenesis, 31
,, Preservation, 7
,, Pupa, 29
,, Reproduction, 26
,, Respiration, 24
,, Sex, 26
,, Skin of, 18
,, Subimago, 28
,, Thorax and Legs, 21
,, Wings, 22
Internal Anatomy of Insects, 22
Iron Blue Dun, Subimago, 62
,, ,,       ,,     Imago Male (Jenny Spinner), 62
,, ,,       >,     Imago Female, 63
Lamp for Fly Dressing, Electric, 226
Large Red Sedge Larva, 93
»        »      Imago, 93
Larva of Insects, 29
Legs and Thorax of Insects, 21
Legs of Artificial Flies formed of Dubbing, 208.
Length of Wings of Artificial Flies, 248
Lenses for Examination of Insects, 6
Leptophlebia Submarginata, 74 INDEX
319
Leuctra geniculata, 107
Long Bull-dog Pliers, 274
Macaw for Bodies, 215
Mandibulata.—Insects, 20
March Brown, 74
Mayfly.—Eggs, 70
„ Larva, 71
,, Nymph, 71
„ Subimago, 72
„ Imago, Female, 73
„ Imago, Male, 73
Mayfly Bodies.—Rofia Grass, 214
Mayfly Wings.—Canadian Wood or Summer Duck, 215
,, „ Egpytian Goose, 215
„ „ Gallina, 215
„ „ Rouen Drake, 215
Melophagus, 135
Merodon, 133
Metamorphosis.—Complete, 28
„ Incomplete, 27
Modern Entomological Works, 2
Morphology of Insects, 18
Mosquitoes, 132
Moth—Preserving Feathers from, 206
Mounting in Canada Balsam, 9
,,        „ Hantzsch's Medium, 9
Muscida, 134
Mycetophilida, 131
Myrmica, 145
Mystacides nigra, 94
Natural Blue Duns—Doubts as to existence, 167
Needle Brown, 107
Needle, Dubbing, 222
Nematocera, 130
Nemoura, 107
Nervous System of Insects, 24
Notidobia ciliaris, 95
Nycterbida, 135
Nymph.—Insects, 28 INDEX
OestridcB, 134
Olive Dun.—Subimago, 56
,,      ,,        Imago Female, 58
,,      ,,        Imago Male, $y
Orthorrhapha, 130
Packing Insects for Post, 13
Pale Watery Dun.—Subimago, 59
,,        ,, ,,       Imago, Female, 60
,,        „ „        Imago, Male, 59
Paraffin for Waterproofing Flies, 205
Parasites in Eggs of Alder, 123
Parthenogenesis of Insects, 31
Peacock Quill for Bodies, 210
Pearsall's Tying Silk, 216
Perla cephalotes, no
Perlidtz {see Stone-flies), 101
Phryganea striata, 92
PhryganidcB (see Caddis-flies), 77
Piophila, 134
Pliers—Long Bull-dog, 274
Preservation of Insects, 7
,, in Spirit, 9
Preservative, Formalin as, 10
Preserving Feathers from Moth, 206
Proboscidea, 133
Psychodida, 124, 132
Pupa of Insects, 29
Pupipara, 134
Quill, Condor, Stripping, 211
Quills and Feathers—Bleaching, 212
Quills for Bodies.—Adjutant, 212
,,     ,,        ,, Condor, 210
,,     ,,        ,, Peacock, 210
,,     ,,        ,, Various, 212
Red Ant, 145
Reed Smut.—Larva, 140
,,        ,,        Pupa, 141
,,        ,,        Metamorphosis to Imago, 141
,,        ,,        Imago, 141 INDEX
Reproduction of Insects, 26
Respiration of Insects, 24
Rhyacophila dorsalis.—Larva, 96
,, ,, Case, 96
,, ,, Pupa, 96
,, ,, Imago, 97
Rofia Grass for Mayfly Bodies, 214
Rouen Drake for Mayfly Wings, 215
Salmonidae in Rivers.—Food, 3
Sand-flies, 131
Sarcophagidce, 134
Scarcity of English Books on the Diptera, 137
Scatophaga, 134
Sedge-flies, 89
Sericostoma personatum, 98
,, Spencii, 98
Sex of Insects, 26
Sheep-ticks, 135
Sherry Spinner, 67
SialidcB (see Alder), 114
Sialis lutaria, 114
,,   fuliginosa, 114
Silver or Gold Tinsel, 215
,,      ,,     ,,     Wire, 215
Simulida, 131
Simulium, 138
Simulium reptans, 145
Skin of Insects, 18
Smutting Fish—Fancy Patterns for, 182
,, ,,        Imitations of Natural Insects for, 182
Spent Gnat, 73
Spent-Olive—Mr. Power on, 175
Spirit, Preservation in, 9
Stone-flies.—Chloroperla, 108
,, Description of Imago, 102
,, „ „  Larva, 104
,. Identification, 101
,, Imago, 106
,, Leuctra geniculata, 107 322
INDEX
Stone-flies.—continued.
Metamorphoses and Habits, 103
Metamorphosis to Imago, 105
Needle Brown, 107
Nemoura, 107
Oviposition, 103
Perla cephalotes, no
Spanish Needle, 107
Stone-fly, no
Willow-fly, 107
Yellow Sally, 108
Stone-fly.—Larva, in
,, Imago, Female, 111
,, Imago, Male, 112
,, Tracheal System, 112
Stratiomys, 133
Straw for Mayfly Bodies, 214
Stripping Condor Quill, 211
Subimago of Insects, 28
Sunk Food and Floating Food, 2
Syrphidce, 133
TabanidcB, 133
Tag — Gold or Silver, 280
,,       Ibis, 215
,,       Indian Crow, 215
Temper of Hook, Testing, 243
Thorax and Legs of Insects, 21
Tinsel and Wire—Gold or Silver, 215
Tachinidce, 134
Tipulida, 132
Tools for Fly Dressin,
Trichogramma evanescens
Trichoptera (see Caddis-flies'
Tubes, collecting, 13
Turkey Brown, 74
Curved Scissors, 222
Dubbing Needle, 222
Forceps, 222
Hackle Pliers, 222.
Long Bull-dog Pliers, 222
124
77 INDEX
Varnish, 216
Vice for Fly Dressing, 218
,,     ,,    ,i ,,        Hawksley's Improved, 220
Volucella, 133
Waterproofing Flies—Paraffin for, 205
Wax—Transparent or White for Fly Dressing, 216
Waxing Silk, 243
Welshman's Button.—Larva, 98
,, ,, Imago, 98
Whisks.—Gallina for, 215
Willow-fly.—Larva, 108
,, Imago, 108
Wings of Artificial Flies.—Length, 248
Wings of Insects, 22
Wire—Silver or Gold, 215
Worbles, 134
Works—Modern Entomological, 2
323
Yellow Sally.—Larva, 109
,, ,,        Imago, 109   If  

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