Hawthorn Fly Fishing & Angling Collection

The angler's vade mecum; or, A compendious yet full discourse of angling Chetham, James, 1640-1692 1700

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Array    THE LIBRARY
THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA £H Hi i
IIOD  m+A-
Or,  a Compendious, igfe full,
Dlil' C Q II# I El
: % N G L'i B G Jj
DISCOVERI N &
The  apteft   Methods 3y}n. Ways,-.j^^^3i
Rules, propereft.Baits,, and choicelF Experiments
for the catching all manner of irejfh-: Wafer Fifh.
Together with a brief Difcourfe. of" Fifh*pond(s,
and not only the eafiefl, but moft Palit^ei
Ways of dreffiLg of all forts of Fifh, Whether
belonging to Rivers, or Ponds *, and the Law$
concerning Angling, C^fiM the Prefervation' <:im
fuch Fifh.
The €§ir& €l5ition,
Illuftrated     with     Sculptures*?"   Arir|
very much Enlarged.
LONDON. Printed for WVdUm Battersfy;&nd are
to be Sold at his Shop at Thavks Inn Gate, near St.n An*
dretvs Church in ffolbourn * and William Brown iri ™1|
Horfe Alley,    1700.  i    —^^ : ~ji%;
THE
PREFACE.
Courteous or Uncourteous deader.
WHichfoever thou art I value not,knowing
that kind Words tn a Preface are never
Charms a froof to anticipate Cenfnre -,a
Fate aR Writers (efpecially on fo inconfiderable a
Subject) cannot but expect, yet, if a Brother of
the Angle reads and trys, better Fortune may be
hoped for : As to others*, the Bool^is not only generally ufelefs, but they indifcreet that Judg and
pafs Sentence on what they under ft and not;  Tra-
Qent Fabrilia Fabri.   The common Objection, I
know, will be raifed by the Ignorant; that is, What .
needs any more Writing in this kind*, fence Mark-
ham, Walton, Venables, Cotton, and others,
have with fo much Ingenuity beftowed no fmafl
Pains herein ? (to whofe Labours and Indujtry I
acknowledg this Tract not a little beholding) Nom
the old and trite Anfwer to this Objection muft
needs be returned, That a Pigmy mounted on the
Shoulders of a Giant may fee further than its Supporter ; alfo all Arts are -capable of Improvement'-*
none yet being arrived to an ahfolute Perfection ^ni
fome affirm,that Aagling,/% Mathemacicks, can
A 2 never The Preface
never be fo fully Learned, but that there will be
ftill new Experiments left-* for the try al of others
that fucceed: Be fides thofe Authors have dife our fed
femething generally & (lightly on Angling, whereas
this (efpecially in this Third Edition) defcends to
the meaneft particular any ways relating thereunto.
I pur pofely forbear to fpeah^any thing,as is ufual,in
praife of Angling, or of its Antiquity\or any ways
Celebrate it, by tellinayou what holy,wife *.and il-
luftriomVeifons have not only beenPrattifersthere*
of, in all Ages, but alfo fpoken largely in its Com**
mendation ; neither ft)a 111 enumerate the manifold
Advantages it has of other Recreations, efpecially
bftts eafy Attainment,by the fm alinefs of its Ex»
pence, Salubrity, and its creating a Calm and Sedate temper of Mind; that being an unworthy way
ofraifeng its Reputation by r efelt ingwithdetr action
on other Sports : Neither could I ever obferve that
■jffarangues of that nature evercaufed any per fan to
be enamoured thereon,uniefs there be a natural pro**
penfity in his own Genius thereunto ; Anglers, life
Poet$*.being born with an innate Affection to Angling,^ Poets with a peculiar Inclinatien to Poetry 5 only this let me note, That none ever by their
fondncfs of this Art confuted Lordlhips or Lands,
left and intended by provident Anceftors for a jup-
port to their Pojiertty • nor deplored any misfortune
(if he kept him on dry Land) he receivd by pur-
fw.it of this Recreation jt no ways beingaccompanied
voith thofe Inconveniences which frequently attend
others^nor is there herein the leaft natural tendency
I o V'ice* *+ +
The Preface
Asforthis UttleTreatife,many perfons have con*
tributed much Oyl to its Lamp,elfe it would never
have been able to afford fo great a Light-,and{with-
mt Vanity *I hope, Tmay fay) there are very many
things herein never yet^blifhed* and not vulgarly
known*, as alfo all that has been materially Printed
concerningAVig\lTig,andthat info concife,regular^
and brief manner delivered, as will not only render
this the ufefulleft Boo\, but the moft perfect of that
kind: You'll find herein no vain or fuperftuous T)i~
p'effionsjfar fetched,and incongruous Similitudes*,
more apt to inflame the Price than inform the Red ■
der. Be fleafed to remember-. That many of the
Rules herein are General*, and admit of fome Ex~
ceptions,yet the Angler may make from thence beneficial Deductions • which, if well and prudently
conpder9d*,will difcharge any Indictment of Falfityj
the Fifher-man otherwife might be incited to profe-
cute againft me : Be fides,fome things are propofed
for him toExperiment^andnot as infallible Truths
Alfo the Countries,Soils, Rivers, Se a fans,Winds ^
ana Qualities of the Tear,are not alike*, but differ
almoft in every place,(and the Spring is five or fix
Weeks forwarder in fome than in other places) to
whofe great variety the defect or imperfection that
appears in anyrule ought to be a fcribed,and certain
of allowances made according to Circumftances
thatintervene,efpecially in Artificial-Fly- Angling;
yet if the Reader per ufe this Book, deliberately, and
be but endued with confederation, and fome Judgment, to be gained only by practife,the genuine Parent of Perfection^ be111 net deny but that all things
herein
A The Preface
herein arefencerely Written* and*, fo as on his own
frequent Fffays he'II find True 5 and that the pritw
of this Book is not totally caft away, fence it will in
the higheft degree conduce to the ferfeft Knowledge
of the exaUeft ways of the practical part of this
Art, for which iCs only defigri*d, and not to fill f or*
perplex the Angler's Head with Speculative,Fan--
cift$l^Idli,or Fabulous Notions of Fifh,0rAngling,i
And,t hough the Reader be no Angler,yet perhaps he
maybe Owner of Fifh-ponds, or have adefire to
have Fifh well dreft at his Table • and herein heyll
he well farm(hed for both, with ample and trm
Inft ructions/not to be met with elfe where ; moft of
the latter havtng received the Approbations of the
beft Palats, and practice of the Nobleft Tables :
And as afecurity to the former,the under {landing,
the Laws made for the prefervation of Fife), will
not be unavailable.    And, becaufe the Pike is a
mighty Tyrmt in the liquid Element■*! have added
-a Supplemental and particular Epitome of him,
wherein is declared, not only the manner of his
Life, Nature, and Vices, but a probable Method
deferibedfor his deftruction,thereby to gain liberty
to the other Watery Inhabitants, whom he accounts
only Created for the fatisfaction of his voracious
Humor , and. though the Pearch ftands upon Property, and will not tamely fubmit, and part with
his Life for tin. fake of Prerogative;   yet if the
Pike catch him by the Poll be makes him pay dear.
ly for his refinance.
The Style is plain, and fitted to the capacity of
the me an eft Ftjherman^ which I efteemed would
beft The Preface
)eft become a Wor\ efthis Nature, which will not i
'tear a Florid drefs, or Rhetorical Phrafes, Ornari
resipfanegat, contenta doceri, neither indeed^
If I would, could I other ways havedrne, becaufe
f cannot pretend to be the 1Mafter of any Eloquence.
The kind acceptance of the I aft, produces this
Third Edition,wherein every Chapter, nay almoft
?very Section is confiderably augmented, he fides the
addition of two new Chapters, and you'll find on
comparing them, many excellent things, and more
'efinedhpacks added through the whole, gained by
Converfe^ wish the moft curious Obfervers, and
Vractifers of this Art *, which knacks may be fer-
viceable to fome,though difapproved by others^moft
Fifljermen having fome frtvateSentiments of their
own,which conceitedly they prefer before others,on
purpofe to put a greater value on themfelves, than
my real Merits or Skill can be found in them:
Fr*f* fuch *Bully Fifhers,this Bookjxpects no other
Reception than Scorn and Comempt,t heir conftant
Companions* And fome ill Natured Anglers are
offended for opening their Cabinet*, by divulging
their Secrets, like Flowersgathered and placed tn
me Garland, and pro ft hut ed to the view of every
common Eye ^ how ridiculous their Opinions art-
every one is able to Judge, fence it is not Fwe,Curious 9 and Skilful Angling*, thai deftroys the breed
ofifijhjOr is thereunto injurious -, but Otters,Water-rats, Water-mice, Herons, Bitterns, Seagulls, Kings-filhers, Cormorants, aid the unlawful practice , and frequent ufe of Damming, Groping^
Spear 'ing*,Hanfing*,Twmitlling* Firing by Nighty
and The Preface
and Nets that depopulate the watery Element,more
in one Month than all the Tears Angling. Nowr
but that itJs ufual to follow the beaten Path, and
that the Printer perhaps would be put out ojrffM
mom, there had been no need of a Commendatory
Preface, to Court any into a good Opinion of it;
Pofftbly ifs own Worth will abundantly juflify it,
which on ferious perufal,and careful Experiments^
it7s hoped the Buyer will be both ready, and willing
toteftify-tfor the vindication~,aswe 11 as fatisf action
of the Author j who now Annexes>nisName, not
out of the common Itch^ or Qftentation-. to be feen
in Print,but to evidence that he^s not afhamedtoown
the Workj which.although an Anonymous at firft <*
yet from. Anglers found a generous Entertainment^
far beyond the Expectation of
Smeel ley near Manchefter,
in Lancashire, Nov. 26.
1688.
Ja.  Chetham.
p      ADVERTISEMENT.,
AT the Sign of the Fifh in Blacl^ Horfe Alley near Fleet-
Bridge^ liveth Will. Browne, who^aketh all forts oi
Fifhing Rods, and Selleth all forts of Fifhing Tackle; alfo
^Charles Kirbys Hooks,with Worms,GentIes,and Flyes jand
alfo the Eaft India Weed, which is the on*rv thing for Trout,
Carp, and Bottom Fifhing, firft being well foaked for half
an hour before you ufe it in Water, being of a brittle nature,! f not moiftned before ufed,and then proves fo ftrong
and fine, of a Water colour, that it deceives the Fifh much
more than .Hair or Silk. Note, That Kirbys Hooks are
known by the finenefs of theWyer andStrengtlr, and marij
Shops fells Counterfeit, for his, which proves prejudicial to
the Ufer, which the true Kirby* are to be Sold by Willi
Browne, and nowhere elfe. THE THE
ANGLER'S
FADE  MECV M, Sec.
C H A P.    I. L
Of the Angle Rod,   and its
Materials.
When j  and what Materials to provide
for Angle Rods, Sec.
ATHER the Materials to make
Angle Rods of, as the Hafle,
fmall Crab-tree, Black-thorn,
land Yew Switches) &c at the
10th of December^ or betwixt the laft day of
November and Chriftmasc\zy*\\\2X. being the on-
ly time, becaufe then they are freell from Sap,
B and The Angler's
and are then the tough eft: Get the Stocks,
and Tops efpecially taper, or rofh grown,
ftreight, fmooth, and free from Knots ^ the
pieces of each Rod to fuit each other in an exact Symmetry? otherwife they'll neither caft,
nor ftrike well nor ply truly. If they be not
free from Knots, they'll be very apt to break
at a Knot, and often fruftrate the Expectation : Bind them in bundles, in the middle, j
whereof put fome ftreight Pole, to keep them
from warping or crookning, and let them reft
15 months at leaft, before ufed.
Beft Rod for Ground Line in muddy Waters, and for Float Anglim.
§ 2. For the Ground Angle, efpecially in
muddy Waters, the Cane or Reed Rod is beft,
which fhould be g yards and half of Cane, and'
a top of Hafle therein to put, confuting of
one, two, or three pieces, and all of them together to be 2 yards, or 1 yard and half long,
with the Whale-bone, at leaft; and at the
top have 5- or 6 inches of Whale-bone, made
round and taper, and whip'd with Shoe-maker's Wax, and Silk, neatly thereunto ; fo
that your Rod will in all be 5 yards and half,
or 5 yards long at leaft.
The ftifFnefs of the Cane is helped by the
length and ftrength of the top, the proportionable bending whereof chiefly preserves the
Line.   Having got an Hafle top, made of
your Fade Mecum^ Sec.
your defired lengthy cut off 5 or 6 inches of
the fmall end ^ then piece neatly, to there*
maining part, a fmall piece of round, fmooth,
and taper Whale-bone, of 5- or 6 inches long,
and whip it to the Hafle with good Silk, well
rubbed with the beft Shoomaker's Wax; all
which will make the Rod to be long, taper,
gentle, and not fo apt to break: Let not the
fjVhak>bone be above 6 inches long, at the
moft; and, at top thereof, whip a narrow,
but ftrong, noofe of Hair, with waxed Silk,
to put your Line to.
§ 3 If your Hook fatten on Wood or Stones,
in the Water, take out the top} and, inftead
thereof, put a Stick of a Hafle, which hath two
Grains, or is forked; and follow the Line
therewith, until you come to the Hook, (the
Line running between the Grains or Forks )
and it will loofen the Hock $ then takeout
the Stick, and put in the top again.
The beft Rod for Ely^ and running Lincr>
in clear Wtiers.
§ 4. A Rod for Fly A'rrgling,or running Line,
in a clear Water, for Trout, Grayling, or Salmon Smelts (which are young Salmons about
the bignefs of a Frefh Herring) fhould be of
feveral pieces of Hafles (as~ 5 or 6) and
6 inches of Whale-bone, ail fmooth, round,
and taper: And the Holies are to be taper,
and proportionably fitted to each other \ and
B x fo fo neatly piee'd together,with fine Wax thread
below, and Silk above, as to make it taper,
andruih grown, like a Switch, and ply with
a true bent to the Hand.
Bat the neateft Rod is thus made: Get a
white Deal, or Fir-board, that's thick and
free from Knots and Frets, and 7 or 8 foot
long •, let the Arrow-maker divide this with a
Saw into feveral breadths $ then, with his
Planes, let him fhoot them round, fmooth,
and rufn grown, or taper-wife,, and one of
thefe will be 7 or 8 foot of the bottom of the
Rod, ail in one piece 5 then piece to it an Hafle
of 6 or 7 foot long, proportion'd to the Fir,
yet rufh grown ( the Hafle may confift of
2 or 3 pieces - ) then to the Hafle piece a piece
of Yew, about 2 foot long, made round, taper, and fmooth, bv the Arrow-maker; and
to the Yew a piece of fmall, round and fmooth
Whale-bone 5 or 6 inches long} and this will
be a curious Rod, if artificially work'd : Be
fare that the Deal for bottom be ftrong and
round. Toe Rod for Fiy,and running Worm in
a clear Water,muftby no means be top heavy,
but very well mounted, and exactly proportionable as well as flender and gentle at topjother-
wife it will neither caft well, ftrike readily,
nor ply and bend equally, which will very
much indanger the Line; and let both the
Hafle and Yew tops be free and clear from
Knots, otherwife they'll be often in danger to
break.   For the fame reafon, let all the Hafle
Rods Fade Mecum, Sec*
5
Rods be free from Knots, and no weightier
than you can eafily manage with one Hand.
Now the white nefs of the Deal, or Fir, will
fcare away Fifh ? but you muft colour the Fir
in this following manner, viz.. warm the Fir
bottom at the Fire, when finifhed by the Arrow-maker • then,with a Feather dipt in Jlqua
Fortis, ftroke the Deal, or Fir bottom, and
with your Hand, chafe it into the Fir, and it
will make it a pure Cinamon colour.
Roch,
Rod.
§f. Rods for Roch, Dace, Tench, Chub,
Bream, and Carp, &c, fhould not have the
top fo gentle as one for Fly', therefore make
their tops pretty ftifF, that fo the Rod may exactly anfwer the motion of the Hand; For
Roch and Dace only nibble, and if you ftrike
not in that very moment, efpecially if you
fifh with Pafte, or any very tender Bait, you
mifs them; becaufe a flender top folds and
bends a little with afudden Jerk.
§ 6. In Droughts, fteep your Rod in Water,
a little before you begin to Angle.
§ 7. At top of your Rod or Fin fix, with
Shoomaker's Wax and!
of Hair,not large but ftr
to fix your Line to,
ofe
loop
ray ftraight,
B I
Tbi 6
The Angler's
The Rods length.
§ |l Generally length of Rod is to be governed by the breadth of the River you Angle in 5
but always ufe a Rod full as long as the River will bear, and let the fame be very well
mounted, and not in the leaft top-heavy : Although I angle in a fmall River generally, yet
I conftantly ufe a Rod 5 yards and a half
long s and experimentally find more advantages by it than I need to trouble you with
here, by recounting them.
Running Line top.
§ 9. Your top for running Line muft be gentle, that the Fifh may more eafily, and (to
himfelf) infenfibly run away with the Bait,
1 and not be feared with the ftifFnefs of the Rod:
If you make your top of Yew and Whalebone,
as before is directed, it will much conduce to
this purpofe; the Yew, though much bended,
will quickly return to its former ftanding.
To pre/erve Rods.
§ 10. TopreferveHafles,whetherftocksor
tops, from Worm-eating or rotting, twice or
thrice In a year, as you think fit, rub them
all over with Sallet Oyl, Tallow, , Or fweet
Batter, which was never faked \ and, with
Rile much Fade Mecum, &c.
much rubbing, chafe the fame into them; and
keep your Rod dry, left it rot, and not too
near the Fire, left it grow brittle ^ and in the
Spring, before you begin to Angle, fteep them
12 hours in Water.
C H A P-   II.
Of Hairs and Lines.
What Hair to deti for Lines.
p i ."T7 Ledt your Hair not from lean, poor, or
Jtjy difeafed Jades, but from a Stone-
Horfe, or Gelding at leaft, that is fat, ftrong,
and lufty, and of 4 or 5 years old, and that
which groweth from the in moft and middle
part of his Dock, and fo extendeth it felf
downwards to the Ground, is commonly the
biggeft and ftrongeft Hair about the Horfe,
and better than thofe upon the upper part of,
or fetting on of the Tail: Generally beft Hor-
fes have the beft Hair.
Colour of Hair' for Lines.
§ 1. Hair of a Sorrel, Chefnut, or Brown
colour is beft for ground Angle, efpecially in
muddy Waters, they being not only the colour of the Gravel or Sand, but of the Water
B 4 alfo-, The Angler's
alfo |■ the white, and grey, or duskifh white
Hair, for clear Rivers and Waters. Your Hair
thus fuited' is not difcernable by the Fifh, and
conftquently will not fcare them from your
Bait, if your Lines be but of a juft and due
thicknefs.
Some ufe the pale watery Green, but not a
deep Green, for weedy Rivers in Summer.
A Black may do well for Rivers that immediately flow from Moffes, and are thereby very
Black: But, in my own'Pradice, I always
contemn'd both the Green and Black colour'd
Lines.
§ 3. Some (although!never do ) dye their
Hair of what colour they pleafe; which, for a
Brown, is thus done, viz.. Boil Walnut Leaves
in Chamber-lye, or, inftead thereof, Water
and.feme Alluminit, and, when cold, fteep
the Hair therein; and fome add a few Marigold Leaves to the Walnut Leaves and Cham*
ber-lye, which is needlefs.
Some fay, that the inner Bark of a Crab-tree
boii'd in Water with fome Allum, makes a
pure Yellow colour *, which is only (if at any
time) good when Weeds ror, and thereby the
Line looks like to the Weeds.
§ 4. If you'll have a pale water Green, take
a Pint of ftrong Ale, half a Pound of Soot, a
little quantity of Juice of Walnut Leaves, an
equal quantity of Allum •; put all together.in a
Pot, Pan, or Pipkin, boil them half an hour ;
being cold, put the Hair into ic, and it will
make mk   i
Fade Mecum, &c. 9
make the Hair of a Glafs, or pale Green colour, the longer it lies, the deeper is the colour : But if you'll have it rather a deeper
Green, take a Pottle of Allum Water, a large
handful of Marigold Leaves, Boil them till a
yellow Scum arife; then take half a Pound of
green Copperas, as much Verdigrife, beat them
into fine Powder, put thofe into the Allum
Water, fet all to cool; then put in the Hair,
and let it remain till it's deep enough coloured, about 12 hours-, then take it out, and lay
it to dry. Note, that the longer you permit
Hair to be in it, it will be deeper coloured :
Some put in the Hair whilft the Liquor is hot,
but, I doubt, that weakens the Hair; and indeed fo, I think, does any dying or cplouring
of Hair.
How to order, chufe, and keep Hair,
§y. When you get any good Hair, immediately fteep it 12 hours in cold SpringWater *9
then wafh and rinfe it very well from Dirt,
without ftraining any Hairs $ then hang it Up
to dry 3 or 4 days in a Kitchin, but not too
near the Fire • when perfe&ly dry, put it in
a Bag or Cafe made of Parchment or Paper;
which lay in a Box or Desk, plac'd in an upper Room.
ft** IO
The Angler's
How to make Lines.
§ 6. When you make Lines, efpecially 4 or
5 of the lowermoft Links, Lengths, Gildards,
or Toughts, (for they are (tiled by all thefe
Names in different Places and Countries) let
them be of the beft Hairs, and chufe out of
the Hair fuch as are of equal bignefs, evenj
round, clear, and free from Galls, Scabs and
Frets y for fuch a Hair will prove as ftrong as
3 uneven, fcabby Hairs, that are ill chofen,
and full of galls or unevennefs; for fuch commonly ftretch altogether, or break altogether,
which Hairs of an unequal bignefs never do*
but break fingly, and betray the Angler that
relies on them : Therefore when you get good
Hair, be choice and fparing of it; and you
may make the top of your Line, and indeed all
the Line, except 2 yards nexc the Hook, of a
courfer Hair* Always kt the top of your
Line, whether in muddy or clear Waters, be ,
made of white Hair ; becaufe the Fifhes Bites
and Line, will be far more difcernable, than if
it were either of black or brown Hair.
§ 7. Never ftretch or Grain Hairs before
they be made into a Line, ( as fome do) for
then they will (brink when ufed •, the ftrongeft
and beft are eafily ele&ed by the Eye.
§ 8. To make the Line handfom, and to twift
the Hair even and neat, gives it ftrength ; for
if one Hair be long, and another (hort. the
inort Fade Mecum, &c. 11
fhort one receives no ftrength from the long
one, and fo breaketh; and then the other, as
too weak,breaketh alfo: Therefore twift them
flowly, and, in twitting, keep them from entangling together, which hinders their right
pleighting or bedding together \ and twift the
Hairs neither too hard nor too flack, but even,
fo as they may twine, and couch clofe one
within another, and no more ^ without either
kfharling or gaping one from another.   Your
ILinks may be tyed to each other with a Fiddler's knot, or, as fome call it, a Water-knot,
■which any Angler will teach you to make. The
■ mixing Hair and Silk I efteem no ways good
for Lines *   but if your Lines muft be very
ftrong, make them all of Hair, or all of Silk,
that is white •, becaufe it's ftrongeft, and will
not rot fo quickly as colour'd Silk.
§ 9. When you have twitted your Links,lay
them in cold Water for one hour, then twift
them over again before you tye them into a
Line \ otherwife a Hair or two will (hi ink,and
be (barter than the reft, at firft Fifhing with
it, and is fo much of the ftrength of the Line
loft, for want of firft watering, and then re-
twifting it.
§ 10, Do not arm, fix, or whip Hooks to any
Line, either for Grounder FSy Angling, that
confifts of more than three or four Links, at
the moft: but if the Hair be long, and the
lowermoft Link confifts of three Hairs, then
you may whip to one that confifts of two Links
only: 12
The Angler's
only: The top of the uppermoft Link having
a fmall loop, or water noofe, you may to any
Line put the fame, and as eafily remove it 5
there being another loop, or water noofe, at
the bottom of your Line.
The length of a Dub-fly Line.
§ it. Your Line for Dub-fly,Caft-fly?or Artificial fly (which are all one and the fame)
fhould be about 3 yards longer than the Rod,
or almoft twice the length of the Rod, if the
River be not encumbred with Wood or Trees
on its Banks; if fo, let it be fhorter, but longer than the Rod, and kt the Hair be a white
or dsrki/h white Colour.
The thicknefs of Caft fly Lines.
§ 12. To Angle for Trouts, Gray lings, and
Salmon Smelts (no bigger than a very large
Herring) with the Dub-fly; let the two firft
Links next the Hook be but of one Hair a-
piece, but the Hair muft be ftrong, and of the
thicker ends only, and chofen for the purpofe5
the next two Links of two Hairs, and next
to that muft confift of three Hairs; at the top
whereof have a Water noofe, or loop, to put
your Line to; whofe lowermoft Link confifts
of three Hairs, and has another Water rloofe
at bottom3 to fix your Fly of three or four
Links to 5 then lee two of the next Links of
your Fade Mecum^ 8c~c*
your Line be four Hairs, and fo proceed, by
increafing one Hair until you come to fix, or
feven Hairs, at the top; let the fingle Hairs_,
and three or four next Links, be of a white,
or darkifh white colour.
§ 13.But many think this too fmall,efpecially where there are very large Trouts, and
therefore for Caft-fly Angling conftantly ad-
vife two of the firft Links next the Hook to be
of two Hairs apiece, the next above them of
three Hairs,to which have a water noofe - then
two or three Burs apiece, and.then proceed
with four, five, fix, and feven, to the topmoft
Link.
I § 14. Others there are, and good Anglers
too, that advife the two.Links next the Hook
to confift of three Hairs apiece; then one
Link of four, at top whereof to have a water,
noofe ; then four, five, fix, and feven, to the
topmoft Link; which I like very well, if the
River abound with large Trouts, and the Water either be clearing after Rain, or be very
full, or (welled more than ufually.
Now, fince you have all directed, make
choice according to your skill, practice, and
dexterity : Moft, when they Angle with three
Hairs next the Hook, make a water noofe on
the top of the fecond Link, efpecially if the
Hair be long.
You may much advantage your felf in calling your Lines, efpecially the Artificial Fly-
Line, by making the uppermoft Link or Gil-
dard [4-
The Angler's
dard to confift of twelve or nine Hairs, and
one or two Hairs lefs in the next Link, and fo
abate proportionably in every Link, until
you come to the Hook; by this means any
Tyro Angler will caft a Fly well, and quickly
become an accurate Artiftj and if you chance
to fallen your Hook, and cannot come to
loofen it, you'll notlofe above one Gildard,;;.
or two at moft, though you pull to break
it: Becaufe the Line is fo ftrong at the upper
end, and you may Angle with ftronger Lines
at the Caft-fly than at Ground, in a clear
Water, for the Trout. For a clear Water at
Crourid for Trouts, Graylings, and Salmon
Smelts, never ufe a Line made otherwife than
is before dire&ed, at Sect. 12. of this Chapter ^
only have not above four Hairs in any one
Link of the Line.
Your Lines thus made, will caufe the Rod
and Line to be in a manner taper, from the
very Hand to the Hook, and the Line to fall
much better and ftraighter, and caft your Fly
or Bait to any certain Place your Hand and
Eye fhall direct, with lefs weight and violence,
that would otherwife circle the Water, and
fright away Fifh.
Length and thicknefs of a Line for running
Worm, tn a clear Water.
§ 15. Anglers differ in opinion about the
length of running Worm Line in 2 clear Wa- **L.
Fade Mecum, Sec.
ter, for Trouts, Graylings,and Salmon Smelts*,
fome would have it longer than Rod, others
length of Rod, and a third fort 2 yards fhorter
than Rod, which I, by my own Experience,
beft approve of ^although each of thefe lengths
of Line may in fome Rivers and Seafons be
more proper than other; as the Line longer
than Rod,when the Water is exceeding bright
and low, is beft; for thicknefs,. let thex or
3 lowermoft Luiks or Lengths be of one Hair
apiece, and then proceed as is before directed
for Caft-fly Line, at Sect. 12. of this Chapter:
But let no part of this Line be above 4 Hairs
in thicknefs, in any one Link. Let the Hair
be of a white colour, or rather a duskifh white
folour, not perfectly white.
Length and thicknefs of running Line for
muddy Water.
§ 16. Let the Line for running Worm in
muddy Water, the 3 lowermoft Links at leaft,
be of Chefnut, Brown, or Sorrel colour, and
from Hook upwards, the thicknefs of the Line
before directed, at the 14.Seft.of this Chapter, and but half length of Rod.
The Float or Cork Lines length andthicknefi.
§ 17. The Line for Float Angle fhould be
made as that directed at the 14. Sect.of this
Chapter for thicknefs; but fhould be as long,
or i6
The Angler's
or rather longer than the Rod for Rivers, but
(horter than the Rod for Ponds, Pits, Mears,
and ftanding Waters, and the colour of three
or four lowermoft Links, according to the
colour of the Water j that is, a Chefnut, Sorrel, or Brown colour, for a muddy Water;
but a dark White or Grey for clear Rivers
and Waters.
The Dibbing Line,
§ 18. The Dibbing Line fhould be of the
fame length and thicknefs of a Line for running
Worm, in a muddy Water; or it may be 1
Hair or two thicker, becaufe little of the Line
comes i§to the Water: And in this way of
Angling you may expect the biggeft Fifh ; and
wanting length to give him Line, after he is
ftruck, you muft be forc'd to tug for't; yet
fometimes this Line may be as long as Rod, or
near it, if a gentle Wind blow from the Bank
you ftand on.
§ 19.1 have often for the ground Angle made
my Links of 3 Hairs, to confift of 2 Hairs of
a "Sorrel, Brown, or Chefnut colour, and 1 of
White, fometimes 2 White Hairs and 1 Hair
colour'
it.
cf Chefnut, Sorrel, or Brown
and do like it very well.
§ ic. At the bottom of every Line have a
fmall water noofe, or loop, that you may hang
a Hook of any fize, whip'd to a Line, confift-
ing of two or three Links, or change your
Hook, Fade Mecum,  &c. r
Hook, and two or three lowermoft Links, as
you pleafe. If it be a Line of one Hair next
Hook, let the noofe be at a Link of three
Hairs; if a Line of three Hairs next Hook, let
the water noofe be at a Link confiding of four
Hairs.
I have been the more precife in defcribing
[ the Lines, becaufe many Anglers underftand
them not, and, to their no fmall prejudice, are
very carelefs therein: For good and neat
Tackle much conduces to his Sport, efpecially
in Angling for Trouts, Graylings, and Salmon
Smelts, in clear Rivers.
The trowling Line.
§ 11. Let the trowlingLine be made of four
or fix fold of Hemp Yarn, finely Spun of the
beft Hemp, and let the folds be neatly twitted
together; its length fhould be 20 or 30 yards
long, and have alfo 3 yards next the Hook of
ftrong white Silk neatly made. Some ufe
green or sky coloured Silk, and fome make
the trowling Line all of Silk, either green or
sky colour'd.
Barbel and Chub Line.
§ 22. The Barbel and Chub Lines muft be
very ftrong, feven Hairs at leaft next Hook,
and twelve at top of the Line *, fome ufe a Line
of Silk that is white, becaufe white Silk is al~
C ways [8
The Angler's
ways ftrongeft,and not fo apt to rot as others 5
and fome uie green or sky colour'd Silk.
CHAP.   III.
Of Hoo%s, Floats, Leading Lines,
Plumbs, and ihe reft of the
Angler s Tackle.
THE beft Hooks are made by one Mr. Denton that lives about Teland in Yorkjhire,
and by John Perkjn, and William Verkin^ that
live in Sadleworth in Yorkfhire *, which three
Perfons are very excellent Trout Anglers.
11. TheWyer of the Hooks fhould be fmall,
and fuch as will not ftretch - the Points fo well
tempered, that they'll not become dull with
Fifhing, but ftill preferve their keeanefs | all
which Demon's Hooks will perform.
The London Hooks are of too thick a Wyer,
and of too open, and ill contrived compafs5
which, although they may ferve or fuit for a
River abounding with Weeds, by reafon of
the widenefs of their compafs or bent, being
fomething more eafily to be loofed when entangled with Weeds, which is all they are
good Fade Mecum, &c. ip
good for; neverthelefs I totally reject them
inFiihtng with Dub-fly, or in ftony Rivers,
by reafon they will become fpeedily dull;
and for that a Fifh will quickly get off the
Hook, by reafon of their open bent.
§ 2. Let $>e Hooks be long in the fhank, and
of a compafs fomewhat inclining to roundnefs,
btit the point muft ftand even and ftraight,
and the bending muft be in the fhank j for if
the fhank be ftraight, the point will hang outward, though when fet on it ftand right, yet
it will, after the taking of a few Fifh, caufe
the Hair at the end of the fhank to ftand bent,
and confequently-ihe point of the Hook to
hang directly upwards.
§ 3. Whetbegyou Angle at top or bottom,
proportion youFHooks for ftrength and compafs to the number of the Hairs you Angle
with next Hook; and ufe not a fmall Hook to
great Baits, nor a great Hook to fmall Baits,
Barbels and Chubs muft have large Hooks,
but Pearches, Carps, Tenches, Breams, and
Eels, Hooks of a far lefs fize, not too large.
Trout's in clear Waters, and Graylings, Salmon Smelts, Roches, Dates, Ruffs, and Gud-
gtons, mdft be Angled for with fmall Hooks .•
And although many ufe great Hooks for
Trouts, in muddy Waters efpecially, yet it's
not fo fure a way as to Angle with fmall ones,
and experience will convince you of the inconvenience of great Hooks; but the great
Salmon muft have a large and ftrong Hook.
C % Whiy-
Ji io
The Angler's
Whipping Hooks.
§4. When you fet on the Hook (which is
ftil'd arming, fixing, or whipping Hooks) do
it with final! but ftrong Silk, well rubbed with
Shoomakers Wax, and lay your Hair on the
infide of the Hook; for, ifontheoutfide, the
Silk will., cut and fret it afunder, and it is not
fo apt to ftrike Fifh: And to avoid the fretting
of the Hair,by the Hook on the infide, fmooth
all the Hook on a Whet-ftone, from the infide
to the back of the Hook floge-ways, and from
a Straws breadth, below w top of the Hook,
wrap the Silk about the bare^ook, until you
come to the top of the fhanl^then lay your
Line on the infide, and whip with your Silk
downwards, until you arrive almoft at the
bent of the Hook, and then cut off the end
of the Gildard, and faften.
Whip your Heoks for Angling with Worms,
with red colour'd Silk; but for Pafte, Cod-
bait, and other whitifh Baits, with white colour'd Silk, and fome do it with a white or
red colour'd Hair, and fome with Flax or
Hemp: But ftrong and fmall Silk I like
beft.
How to arm a briftled Hook you will fee
hereafter,when we difcourfe of Cod-baits.
Tropor* Fade Mecumy Sec.
Proportion of Hooks.
Hooks for Dub-fly generally fhould be
fmall, fo for Cod-bait, but larger for Worms ;
yet I like not Angling at Worm, efpecially in
a clear Water, with fo large a Hook as
fome do.
©f Floats.
§ f. Floats fhould evermore be of Cork for
Rivers 5 but Quills and Pens are beft for Pits,
Ponds, Mears, ancLftanding Waters, (being
not able to bear thewong Streams in Rivers)
and Angling neatftop in very flow Rivers,
and efpecially with Pafts or tender Baits.
§ 6. Obtain the beft Cork you can without
flaws, or holes, bore the Cork through with
a fmall hot Iron, then put into it a Quill of a
fit Proportion, neither too large to fplit it, or
fo fmall to flip out, but as it may (tick in
very clofely; then pare (either with a (harp
Pen-knife or Rafor)the Cork into the form of a
Pyramid, fmall Pear, Egg, or Nutmeg, and
into what bignefs you pleafe$ then upon a
fmall Grind-ftone, or with a Pumice-ftone,
make itcompleat; for you cannot pare it fo
fmooth as you may grind it, and have Corks
of all fizes.
§ 7. After you have fhaped your Cork, bore
with a fmall hot Iron a hole from end to end,
C 3 through
ill %%
The Angler's
througWthe midft thereof,into that hole thruft
a Quill, and cut the Quill offeven with the
Cork at each end, and through the Quill
draw the Line, and fatten them both together
with a Wedg of the uppermoft hard end of
the Goofe Quill, the Feather being ftript off;
let the Wedg be z inches long, and white,
which will be beft difcernable:, then plaggb
the fmaller end of the Cork towards the
Hook, and the bigger towards the Rod, that
the fmaller end finking down with the Hook,
the bigger may float aloft, and bear the Wedg
directly erect $ which, when puli'd under t&m
furface of the Water, is the certain fignal of
the Fifhes biting, uniefs by accident the Hook
or Line become entangled, or ftayed by fome
Stone, piece of Wood, or Weeds.
| 8. Cork, in form of a Nutmeg or Egg,
being biggeft in the midft, and fmall at each
end, is a little apter to fink, and will not carry
fo weighty a plumb of Lead 5 yet on clear
bottoms, and Angling with Bait fome diftance
from Ground, and in flow running Rivers, it
will do very well, and better than others.
§ 9 Furnifh your felf with Corks and Quills
of all fizes, and let the Cork be fo poized
with Lead, on the Line, that the Quill which
is in it, being about 2 inches long, mill fwim .;
upright 1 and fo juftly and equally balanced
with Lead, that the leaft bite or nibble will
fink the Cork.
l*eadim Fade Mecunty Sec. a
6
Leading Lines.
§ lo.For Leading Lines, I account the fmall
round Pellet or Lead fhot beft, efpecially for
ftony Rivers and funning Line, let it be cloven, and neatly clofed about your Line, and
let not above two plumbs be on the Line at
once, an inch and a half, or 2 inches diftant
from each other, and the lowermoft plumb
I about 7 or 8 inches diftant from the Hook,
for a running Line, either in a clear or muddy
Water, but 9 or 10 inches of Hook for a float
Line: But if the River run on a Sandy bottom,
and be full of Wood, with few Stones,
Plumbs, or Lead, in Shape of a Diamond, or
of a Barley Corn, or of an Oval form, is beft,
the ends being fmooth and clofe laid down,
either for a muddy Water or float Angling.
Many,when they Angle amongft Weeds, place
their Lead on the fhank of the Hook, and
conceive it not fo apt to entangle on them.
§ 11. When you Angle with the running
Line, let the Line have as much Lead as will
fit the Stream and River in which you Angle,
and no more; viz.. more in a great trouble-
fom and rough Water and Stream than in a
fmaller that is calmer and quieter, as near as
may be, fb much as will fink the Bait to the
bottom,and will permit the fame to be kept in
motion,by continually rowling on the Ground,
and no more.  This Rule is to be obferved in
C 4 float a4 The Angler's"
float Angling in Rivers. Some cover their
Lead on their Lines with Shooraaker's Wax as
thin as may be.
§ 12. As the day increafes, your Pellet or
Plumb of Lead may be lefferj for trjat will
carry readily at five a Clock in the morning
at running Line, which will fink and fatten
the Line at nine a Clock : For in Droughts
Rivers generally abate, as heat increafes.
When you Angle in a very ftony River that's
clear, with the running Line, the Stones are
apt to rub the fmall Pellet or Lead bright, and
that fcares away the Fifh •, therefore, when it
does fo, remove the bright Lead, and put on
Other Lead that is black.
Lead Plummet.
§ 13. In a Piftol Bullet, make a hole through
ft, and put therein a ftrong Thread twifted j
and, whenoccafionis, bang this on the Hook,
fo try the depth of the River or Pond, efpecially when you Angle with the Float, and the
Bait is to be near the bottom, or but juft
touch it.
Whet/tone.
§ 14. Procure a little Whetftone about two
inches long, one quarter of an inch fquare,
which is far better, to whet or ftarpen Hooks
on, than a File, though never fo fine or good -7
for it either w|U not touch a well-temper'd
tfook, pr. leave it rough, but not fharp: And
Wf Fade W[ecnm^ &c.
we always, to avoid the fretting of the Hair
by the Hook, fmooth all the Hook on a Whet-
ftone, from the infide to the back of the Hook
flope-ways*
JLine Cafes.
§ 15-. Get a Cafe made of red Leather, like
a Comb Cafe, with 12 or 14 partitions therein, made of the fineft thin Parchment, with a
flap to cover over the edges to prevent lo-
fing any thing out of them; in the feveral partitions keep Hooks ready whipt to Lines of
two or three Giidards in length, and ready
leaded likewife,fpare Links,Lines of all lengths
or forts, Silk or all forts and colours, hair, and
iEngle ftrong Hairs, Hooks. Thefe Cafes contain much, and lye in a fmall room in the
Pocket; in one of thefe Cafes yon may put
all your tackle ready fixt for the running Line
in a muddy and clear Water -, in another, ail
the tackle for the ground Angling with Float;
in another (which muft be large) the Angling
tackle for great Fifh, as Chub, Barbel, great
Salmon*, in another, your Angling tackle for
Pike, which muft likewife be very large: So
that when yon travel from home, you may
Angle any where for moft forts of Fifh at
ground, if you carry but a good Rod with
you made of Hafle, and the pieces put
into each other, and it will ferve for a walking
Staff} fuch as thefe you may buy ready made
in London, and other places.
How The Angler s
How to keep Cod* baits, &C.
§ 16. Make Bags of Linnen and Woollen to
keep and carry all forts of Baits in; alfo a
piece of Cane, with holes bor'd therein, to
keep Caterpillars, Palmers, Wolbeds, natural
Flies, Bobs, or any fort of Infects, a Horn
for Gentles | Boxes of diverfe fizes to carry
Hooks, Silk, Lead, Thread, Corks, Floatscjj
Qyitls, Shoemaker's Wax, and Dub-flies in;
alio have a neat and fharp Pen-knife.   The
following way is efteemed a fecret, and the
beft way to carry and keep Cod baits, Caterpillar^, Clap-baits, natural Flies, and Oak-
worm in, for to give Cod-baits Water is foon
to roi: them, becaufe they are as well kept in
a piece of withy Bark, that fome of them will
live therein to be turn'd to Flies:  'Tis thus,
cut a round Bough of fine green bark'd Withy, about the thicknefs of half ones Arm, and
taking the Bark clear off, about a foot in
length, turn both ends together from the
middle, and let them infold within each other,
and then tye it with a String on the top, and
Hop it with a Cork or piece of Stick \ in this
put the aforefaid Baits, and every Night lay
it in the Grafs, and ufe it next Day, or let M
lie until you have occafion for them:   The
Dew preferves them,  and makes them fcour
and thrive.   Thus you may keep Cod-b;its,
Prafhoppers, &c. for the moifture of the Bark
contri- Fade Mecum^ Sec. 7 7
contributes much to their prefervation, yet it's
convenient to bore fmall holes in it for their
better perfpiration, although the bark be very
porous.
The Landing Net and Hook.
§ I7. Have a fmall long Pole made with a
Loop at the end, like a Water-noofe,to which
faften a fmall Net to Land great Fifh, without which you'll be in danger to lofe them:
But if you Angle for Pike, Barbel, Chevin, or
great Salmons, get a large Hook, cali'd a
landing Hook, with a Screw at the end to
fcrew into a Socket, fixed at the end of a
long Pole, to ftrike into the mouth or any
part of the Fifh, to draw them to Land.
You may alfo fit to the fame Socket and
Pole two other Hooks,one fliarp to cut Weeds
away, the other to pull out Wood.
The Panier.
§ 18. Let the Panier be light, made of peel'd
willow Twigs, neatly work'd up.
Materials for the Angler to carry.
with him.
§ 19. Carry with you all forts of Hooks,,
Lines, Links ready twitted, #air, Silk of diverfe colours, fmall but ftrong Thread,Leads„
Plummets, s8
The Angler's
Plummets, Floats of all forts and fizes, Shoo-
maker's Wax,Pen-knife, Whet-ftone,Line-ca-
fes, Worm-bags, Hooks, Boxes, Hooks ready
fixt to Lines of two or three Links or Gildards
in length, Baits, Flies, Dubbing-bag, Worm-
bags, Horn for Gentles, a neat and fharp
pair of Sciffars, and Rod;
CHAP.
IV.
Of Baits.
§ i. TTAving inftructed our Angler with
Xl what Tackle to be accoutred, the
Bext Difcourfe directs him how to find, order,
manage, keep and preferve all forts of natural Baits,  which generally are Infects,  or
Creatures bred  of Putrefaction, and are a
fmall, flefhlefs and bloodlefs Vermin, divided
(in fome fort) between the Head, Body and
Belly, as an Ant, Fly, Bee, &c. under which
the Earth-worm,  Caterpillar,  &c. are alfo
comprehended.   Firft,  he's to obferve that
Earth-worms are a general Bait for all forts
of Fifh whatfoever, and that they and Gentles continue in Seafon the whole Year; the
Earth-bob from Martinmas until almoft May
X>av; and the Cow-turd-bob from May Day
until Michaelmas \ Flies, Palmers, or Wooll-
beds, Fade Mectwt, Sec. 19
beds, Caterpillars, Cod-baits, and Worms,
bred on Herbs, Plants or Trees, as the Oak-
worm, &c. all Summer. And know, that
that when one fort of Bait comes in feafon the
preceding are not ufelefs; and whenfoever
you Angle at ground,, in clear Water, have
both Earth-worms, Cod-bait, Gentles, and
Bobs in readinefs with you, and in more likelihood fuccefs will attend your Labours: But if
you go to Angle for Trouts in a muddy Water,
with running Line, you need only take Brandlings, Gilt-tails,Tag-tails,and Meadow-worms
with you; if the three laft are not to be eafily
got, then Brandlings only: And you may
have fome fcoured in Mofs and Water only,
others,as is directed, with Riddle, and others
with grave Earth: For fometimes they'll take
the Worm kept one way, and fometimes the
other, and that all on the fame Day, and in
two hours fpace.
Of Worms there are diverfe forts$fome bred
in the Earth, and therefore cali'd Earthworms, or Worms fimply, without any addition^ fuch are the Dew-worm, Red-worm,
Brandling, Gilt-tail, Tag-tail, and Meadow-
worm: Others are bred on Herbs, Plants or
Trees, as Palmers or Wooll-beds, Caterpillars, Oak-worm, and Cabbage or Golewort-
wormj others on Excrements or fome dead
Flefh, as Gentles, Wafps, &c. of all which
this Chapter treats.
Dem m q
The Angler's
Dew'worm,
I!111
i;-;.„|ii
II;
I
mm
Garden-worm9
or Twatchel,
Lob worm,
§ ^. Are but one Worm, although called in
different Places by all the laid Names* and
it's the principal Worm for Salmons,Chevins,
Trouts, Barbels, and Eels that are of the
greateft fize ; but for fmaller Fifh, though of
the fame Species, it's not fo proper. Of thefe,
fome be called Squirrel-tails, which have a
red Head, a ftreak down the Back, and a
broad Tail; and thefe are efteemed the beft,
becaufe they are tougheft, moft lively, and
live longeft in the Water: For with a dead
Worm you are in all probability to catch
little or nothing. This Worm is found in a
Garden or Church-Yard, late in a Summers
Evening, with a Lanthorn^ or in great
Droughts pound Walnut Leaves, and put
the Juice thereof,mixt with a littleWater, into their holes, and it drives them out of the
Ground.
Brandling, Gilt tails, and Red-worms,
§ 3. Are the principal Worms for all forts
of Fifh, and are generally to be found in old
Dunghills, or fome very rotten Earth or
Place near to them, but ufually in Cow-dung
or Hogs-dung rather than Horfe dung, which
isfomewhat too hot and dry for them$ but
the Fade Me cum y
fchfcbeft are to be found in Tanners Bark,
iwhich they caft up in heaps after they have
ufed it about their Leather. Thefe, efpecially the two firft, are the prime Worms Anglers ufe for Trouts, Graylings, Salmon
Smelts, Gudgeon, Pearch, Tench and Bream j
thefe three laft take the Red-worm well fcoured, very well: The Brandlings and Gilt- tails
are taken by Trouts and Grayling, both in
muddy and clear Waters, but the Red-worm
beft in muddy Waters. Some fay, the Brandling is the beft Worm for a Trout, otherstfet
Gilt- tail ? but if you Angle with two Worms
on the Hook at once, as is generally ufed
for Trouts in muddy Waters, then put both a
Bt&ndling and Gilt>tail on the Hook at once,
the Gilt-tail the latter.
Marfb or Meadow'.worms*
§4. Are got out of Marfh ground, or the
fertile Banks of Rivers, and is a little ble wifh,
and fhould be well fcoured, and then it's both
tough and fj>rigbtly. 'Tis a choife Worm in
March, April and September, for Trouts, Saloon Smelts, Gudgeon, Grayling, Flounder*
Breams and Pearch; and fome will conftant-
ly ufe this Worm from Candlemas until Mi-
vhaelmas, and prefer it before either Branding or Gilt-tail^ and IPtequires more time
:o be well fcoured 'in ;than either Brandling or Gilt-tall? ISd^Jftbuid be kept in
Sfc: Mofs 32
The Angler's
m
||L
I
Mofs and Water, fifteen days at leaft, before
ufed*
7dg~ta?L
o
5 y. Is a Worm of the colour of a Man*s
Hand, or a pale Flefh colour, with a yellow
Tag on his Tail, almoft half an inch long:
They are found in Marled Lands or Meadows,
after a fhower of Rain, or in a morning, in
Weather that is calm and not cold, in March
and April.ltfs a very good Worm for Trouts j
and there are Anglers that affirm, that there
is not a better Bait in the World for a Trout,
if you Angle with them whilft the Water is
difcoloured by Rain $ fome commend it like-
wife for a Grayling: This Worm will not endure long fcouring.
§ 6. Note,that the Dew-worm,Red-worm,
and Meadow-worm will abide more fcouring
than any of the before-mentioned Worms,
and are better for long keeping.
How to order j keep, and fcour Worms.
§ 7. Put your Worms into very good long
Mofs, whether white, red, or green, is not
Efiefeh material, but the foft white Mofs that
grows on fome Heath is beft; (but it's difficult to be found in fome Places and Coun-
trys) wafh it well, and cleanfe it from all
Earth and Filth, wring k my dry, then put
your Fade Mecumy Sec.
your Mofs and Worms into an earthen Pot,
cover it clofe, that they crawl not out , fet it
in a cool place in Summer, and in Winter in
a warm place, that the Froft kill them not;
every fourth day in Summer change the Mofs,
once a week in the Winter, or, at leaft, let
the Mofs be taken from them, and clean
wafhed in frefh Spring Water, and fqueezed
betwixt your Hands till it be pretty dry, and
then put it to them again: The longer you
keep them, efpecially the Lob-worm, Marfh-
wormand Red worm, before you ufe them,
the better j fome mingle Camomii or Fennel
with the Mofs. Clean fcouring Worms
makes them redder, dearer, tougher, fpright-
iier, live long on the Hook, and keep colour,
and confequently more defirable by Fifh. If
you be in hafte, a little Bole-armoniack put
to them will farther your Defire., and make
them fcour in a ihort time: Or you may put
the Dew-worm, Red-worm, 3 or 4 hours in
Water, and they will fcour themfelves, but
be very weak, yet a few hours in good Mofs
will recover them •, then obferve when the
Knot near the middle of the Brandling begins
to fwell, he's Sick, and, if not well look'd to,
is near Death ; but, leaft they Die, you may
feed them with Crumbs of Bread and Milk, or
fine Flower and Milk, or the Yolk of an Egg
and fweet Cream coagulated over the Fire,
give them a little and often.
D Or, H
o
***********************************************
The Angler's
Or, if you be in hafte, put your Brandlings,
Gilt-tails, &c* into Mofs that'$.exceeding
wet, and it will quickly fcour them, but not
keep them long $ but when you goto Angle,
remove them into Mofs, out of which the Water is very well wrung or fqueezed.
Some wet their Mofs very well in fweet
Milk, or, which is far better, Ale-wort, (in
which there has been no Hops) and then
fqueeze it pretty well, and over-night put the
Worms therein they intend to life the next
day, and think Fifh like them better 5 but the
Worms muft not reft long in the Mofs thus wet
in Milk or Ale-wort, in regard it will much
fwel-l them, and in 24 hours fpoil them 5 but
if you put them in frefh Mofs and Water,
when you have finifhed your days Angling, it
will well revive and recover them.
Others, end expert Anglers, keep them in
Mofs, and good ftore of Earth caft out of a
Grave-, the lefs time the Party hath been Buried the better, and put them in frefh Mofs,
and fome- of this Earth, when they go to Angle and thofe that ufe this much, boaftof its
Excellency in alluring Fifh. I know fome ingenious Anglers that in the Spring, and for a
rpddy Water, ufe to fhave Riddle or red
Oker (with which People in Lancafiire ufe to
mark their Sheep) into the Mofs they keep
their Worms in, and fometimes thofe Baits
will be" taken engerly, when the brighter
fthat ik thofe kept in Mofs and Water only)
>;3T win Fade Mecnm^ &c.
will not at all be taken, and perhaps within an
Hour again the bright ones will hetafcen, and
the radled Worms refufed. Now fince all
ways are difcovered to you for keeping and
ordering your Worms, elect that way which
Experience allures you to be the beft * only
this let me obferve, That if I could otherwife
help it, I would never have my Brandlings or
Gik-tails kept in Mofs, and the Water well
fqueezed out of it, (which way I only ufe) lefs
than 48 hours, or above 10 days; but I often
Angle with them when they are not fcoured
18 hours, but 'tis not fo good.
Palmer-worn, Palmer-fly, Wooll bed9
and Cankers.
§8. Are all one Worm, bred on Herbs,
Plants, or Trees, and is, if not a perfect
Catterpillar, yet a Species thereof} thefe are
rough and woolly on the outward parts,
hence by fome called Wooll-beds, and are
good Baits either for Trout, Chub, Grayling,
Roch, or Dace ; Palmer-fly and May-fly are
the very Ground or Foundation of all Fly
Angling.
11
D %
Catter
1 The Angler's
IP
' i
Catterpiliars, Oak worm, Cabbage-worm,
Colewort-worm or Grub, Crabtree-worm
or Jack
Are Worms bred on Herbs^Plants or Trees,
and may be kept with the Leaves of thofe
Trees, Herbs or Plants on which they are
bred, by renewing the Leaves often in a day,
and putting in frefh inftead of the old ones :
The Boxes they are kept in fhould have a few
fmall holes bared therein, to let in Air, but
you may keep them beft, as is already directed Cap. 3. Sect. 16. in Withy Bark.
Thefe are good B tits for Chub, Roch, Dace
and Trout, &c. and Fifh bite much better at
the Oak- worm, or any Worm bred on Herbs,
Plants or Trees, if you Angle with the fame
when they fhew themfelves on the top of the
Water, (as with the natural Fly) than if you
ufe it under 5 for when a gale of Wind fhaketh
the Trees, the Worms fall into the Water,
and prefently rife and float on the top,
where Fifh life at them as at Flies^ and indeed they fink not till toft and beacen by the
Waves ot Stream, and fo they Die and lofe
their native colour, and then the Fifh ( as you
may perceive by thofe on your Hook ) value them not; although thefe fort of Baits
are taten by Roch,.Dace and Chub, well at
the top of the Water,  yet you may Angle
j8 Fade Me'cnm5 &c
18 Inches or lower within the Water, and
they do very well; or ^ ou may put one on
the point of a Dub fly Hook, and dib with it,
or dib with the Afti-fly and one of thefe on the
paint of the HoBk for Trouts. The Oak-
worm is a very good Bait, and of a fine green
tolour, and in Ponds is a Murtherer of Roch
and Dace.
•:$Po get thefe Baits, beat on an Oak, Crab-
tree, or Haw-thorn, that grows over an Highway or bare Place, and they'll falJ for you to
gather \ or go to Cabbages or Coleworts,^?,
and there feek for them.
Some think the Palmer-worm, Catterpil-'
lar, &c are bred from a Dew left on the
Leaves ?o]f Trees, Herbs, Plants or Flowers,
Coleworts or Cabbjgcs, which being con-
denfed by the Suns generative heat, do in j
days become living Creatures, of feveral
fhapes and colours, fome being hard and
tough, fome fmooth and fofc, fome are horned
in their H^sd, fome in their Tail, and fome
have none j fome have Hair on them, fome
none; and fome of them are faid to be bred
on the Eggs or Spawn of the Catterpiilar,
and in time turn to be Butter-flies •, and generally all Flies, being bred of Putrefaction, receive Life, or Vivify, as the Suns heat farthers
or difpofes the feminal Virtue, by which they
are bred, unto Animation.
D 3 i
The Angler's
Bobs
§ 9. Are of two forts, the one found or bred
in mellow, refty, heathy, fandy, light Soils,
and gathered after the Plow when the Land
is firft broke up from Grazing, (and is cali'd
the Earth-bob, White-grub, or White-bait)
and is a Worm as big as two Maggots, hath
a red Head, and is all foft, and full of whitifh
Guts ; you may eafilv know in what Grounds
moft are, for there the Crows will be watching, and follow the Plow very clofe- or
you your feif may dig one Spade Graft deep
in fandy, heath v Ground, that has lain long
reft from the Plow, and find fufEcient of
them.
Thefe are a choice Bait from the firft of
November until after mid April for Chub,
Roch, Dace, Salmon,, Smelts, Trout, Bream,
Tench and Carp.
When you gather thefe, put them into a
Pot or Firkin, with fufficient of the Soil they
were bred in, to preferve them, then flop the
VefTel exceeding clofe, or all will fpoil J fet
them where neither Wind nor Froft may in
the leaft offend them, and they'll keep all
Winter for your life, and fo you'll always be
ready furniflied.
§ome, in the Morning they go to Angle,
boil thofe they intend to ufe that day in Milk
or Water, one or two Minutes, and then pour
them Fade Mecunt. Sec.
them on a Sieve, but they'll not keep after
boiling above two days: In like manner, you
may boil the Brood of Wafps, Hornets, Humble-bees, &c. and they'll thereby become
fomething tougher, and look well on the
Hook, as more plump, white, and be more
tough 5 and fome put thefe Baits in a little
Earth and Honey, the day before they Angle
with them, for Carp or Bream j &c or put
them in a Box with Gum Ivy.
Cowturd-bob, or Clap bait.
§ 10. The other Bob is found under a Cow.
turd (from about May-day until Michaelmas)
that refts on fuch a Ground as theorher is
found in, and is alfo called a Clap-bait m
fome places \ 'tis an excellent Bait for Trout,
if you Angle with it as a Cod-bait \s ufed, on
the top of the Water with a bridled Hook,
only you may fometimes put a pair of Artificial Wings and Head, fuch as is ufed for the
Dub-fly, on the top of the Hook. This Bait
is almoft like a Gentle, but bigger, and is
kept in wet Mofs, but above 3 or 4 days it
will not keep in Mofs • therefore keep it as
you are directed to keep a Cod-t>ait, at Chap.
3. Sett. 16. in Withy Bark.
Fifh of ail forts likewife take the Clap-bait,
within the Water,as the Trout,Salmon Smelt,
Grayling, Chub, Roch, Dace, Carp, Bream,
Tench, &h   For Trout and Salmon Smelt,
D 4 I 40
The Angler's
I think, you may imitate it with yellow Bees-
wax, and Angle at top therewith , having an
Artificial, or Dub Head and Wings at top of
the Hook.
Cod bait,  Cadis worm,  Cad bait, or
Cafe-worm
§ 11. Are all one and the fame Bait, and of
thefe there are 2 forts, fome fay 3, one bred
under Stones that lie a little hollow in fhallow
Rivers, or fmall Brooks, in a very fine gravelly Cafe or Husk; thefe are yellow when ripe ^
and are the beft fort of Cod-bait, and are bigger than a Gentle, having a black, or, at
leaft, a blackifh Head.
The other fort are found in Pits, Ponds,
flow-running Rivers or Ditches, in Cafes or
Husks of Water-weeds, Sticks, Straw or
Rufhes; and are called by fome, a Straw-
worm or Ruffcoat. Both thefe forts are excellent Baits for Trouts, Graylings, and moft
forts of Fiih, as Carp, Tench, Bream, Chub,
Roch, Dace, Salmon Smelts, and Bleak.
The green fort breed in Pits, Ponds, and
Ditches, are found in March, before the yellow ones come ; the other yellow fort come
in May. or the end of tsfpril, and are out of
Seafon in July ; n third fort, but fmallerxome
in again in Avvuft,
§ 12, Thefe Fade Mecum9 Sec
6 12. Thefe Cod-baits cannot endure the
Wind and Cold *, therefore keep them in a
thick Woollen Bag with fome moift Gravel or
Sand amongft them, got out of the fame River, Rill or Brook, the Cod-baits you get
were bred in; wet them ©nee a day, if in the
Houfe, but ofmer in hot Weather; when you
carry them forth, fill the Bag full of Water,
then hold the mouth clofe, that they drop
not our» and fo let the Water run from them:
Thus they have been kept 3 Weeks: Or you
may put them in an earthen Pot full of Water, with fome of the Gravel they were bred
in, at the bottom, and take them forth into
your Bag, as you have occafion to ufe them :
But the beft way of keeping them, is as before
is directed at Chap. $*Scti. 16".
Various Ways of Angling with the
Cod bait.
§ 13. One may Angle feveral ways with
Cod-baits, either at bottom with a Float, or
within a Foot of the bottom ac mid-water, or
at top: But if in a clear Water for the Trout,
Grayling, or Salmon Smelt, ufe fine and fmal-
left Lines never above one Hair for 2 or 3
Lengths nextFTcok, &c. Your Lines are to
£>e almoft lergth of Rod, and very light Lead-
>d,ifyou Angle within the Water: Sometimes
jcu may (when you ufe a Float) put on 2
or 42
The Angler's
or s together; and fometimes Cod-bait, to
very great effect, is joined with a Wrorm, and
fometimes to an Antificial Fly to cover the
point of the Hook; and fometimes it's put on
the point of a Hook after an Oak-fly, and
then they dib with it,*ld> which I like better,
to let them fink 9 or 10 Inches within the Walter, continually raifing, and gently moving if
up and down within the Water, and ^ttop.
Some fay Cod-bait, when ufed by itfelf, is
always to be Angled with at the bottom, and
with the fine ft Tackle; and that it is for all 1
times of the Year the moft holding Bait of all
other whatever, both for Trout,Salroon Smelt
and Grayling: Others there are, that affirm,
the beft way to Angle with the Cod bait, is to
Fifh with it on the top of the Water forTrout,
Grayling, or Salmon Smelt,, as you do with
the Fly ^ and it muft ftand on the fhank of
the Hook, as doth the Artificial Fly, (for if it
come into the bent of the Hook, thQ Fifh will
little or not at all value it, nor if you pull the
blew Gut out of it) and to make'it keep that
place, you muft,  when you kt on, or whip1
your Hook, fallen a ftifFHorfe-hair, or Hogs-*
briftle under the Silk, with the end Handing*
out about a Straws breadth at the head of the;
Hook, from under the Silk, and pointing to;Jj
wards the Line, (which, by the way, let me
tell you, is called a briftled Hook when thus]
arm'd or whip'd) and this will keep it either!
from flipping totally ciF, or from Aiding backej
intol Fade Mecum^ Sec. 42
into the beritroif the Hook, by which means
your whipping would be left naked and bare,
and is neither fo "flight'Iy norfo likely to be
taken • to remedy which, (becaufe it often fo
falls out) fome always whip the Hook they
defign for this Bait, with the whiteft Horfe-
hair, which it felf will referable and fhirje like
that Bait, and confequently do more good,
or lefs harm than whipping with Silk or any
other colour: Thus ufed, it's an excellent
Bait for a Trout, Salmon Smelt or Grayling,
You may, if you pleafe, place a fmall fiend er
Lead upon the fhank of the Hook, to fink the
Bait, and draw the Cod-bait over the Lead.
You may alfo ufe to Angle with a Cod .bait, as
a Dub-fly, if you put on the very top of the
fhank of the Hook, a pair of Artificial Wings,
and a little below a Briftle, to keep up the
Bait from flipping back.
Airtifacial Cod bait.
You may make, for Trouts and Salmon
Smelts, an Artificial or Counterfeit Cod-bait,
by making the body of yellow Bees-wax, and
the Head of black Dubbing and black Silk; or
yOu may do it by making the body of yellow
wafh Leather, or rather Shammy or BufF, and
theHeadofblackSiik.
Some Perfons make theCounterfeitCod-b3it
of yellow Bees-wax, with an Artificial black
dub'd Head, and a pair of Wings at the Head,
and
.nn. 44
The Angler's
1. ■;:;!'■■
mi
and Angle therewith as at the Dub-fly. If you
imitate the Cod-bait with yellow Bees-wax,
and make the Head of black Dubbing and black
Silk, and perform the fame very artificially,
it's an incomparable Bait for Trouts and Salmon Smelts. Thefe you may often let fink to
the bottom, and immediately raife again to
the top. Some melt yellow Bees-wax, and
therein dip yellow Crewel often, and then
wrap this about the fhank of the Hook, and
put a Head on, as before is taught, &c. And
fome make ufe of a piece of a fmall yellow
Wax Candle, to imitate the Cod-bait, and
put a dub'd Head and Wings on the top of the
Hook.
Thofe Cod-baits that are Natural, are moft
excellent Baits for Trouts, Graylings, Salmon
Smelts, Chubs, Roch, Dace, Pearch, Carp,
Tench, Ruff, Bream and Bleak ; and the Artificial Cod-bait is for Trouts and Salmon
Smelts only ; and Trouts take the Cod-bait
in clear Waters only, but never in muddy Waters; fo do Salmon Smelts.
You may bait the Natural Cod-bait, as is
directed for the Bark-worm, in the next Set?.
ifyou ufe but one only. Cod-baits, when they
are full ripe, turn into Flies of feveral forts,
as the Cod-baits are,cfpecially into the Green-
drake, &c.
/Bark- Fade Mectm*. Sec. 45
Bark-worm, or A[hgrub
§ 14. Are all one and the fame, and are
plump, milk-white, bent round from Head
to Tail, and exceeding tender, with a red
Head, refembling a young Dore or Humble-
bee; it is in Seafon all the Year, efpecially
from Michaelmas until mid May or J tine. 11'$
the moft proper Bait fave any but the Fly and
Cod-bait for the Grayling; and Chub, Roch
and Dace will likewife take it.
It's found under the Bark of an Oak, A(h,
Alder or Birch, efpecially if they lie a Year or
more after they are fallen: Likewife it's found
in the body of a rotted Alder, if you break it
with an Axe *, but be careful only to fhake the
Tree in pieces with beating, and crufh not the
Worm \ you may alfo find it under the Bark of
the ftump of a Tree, if decayed.
He is very tender, therefore to be baited on
fuchabriftledHookas before is directed for
the Cod-bait; and he's to be baited thus, viz..
The Hook is to be put in under the Head or
Chaps of the Bait, and guided down-the middle of the Belly, without fufferingit to peep
out by the way, (for then it will ifTue out Water and Milk, till nothing but the Skin remain,
and the bent of the Hook will appear black
through it ) tiil the point of the Hook come
fo low, that the Head of the Bait may reft
and flick on the Briftle that comes out to hold
it; The Angler's
II
if
m
\lm!
IV
1!
46	
it*, by which means it can neither flip ofFk
felf, neither will the force of the Stream, nor
quick pulling out on anymiftake, ftrip it off.
This Bait is ufually kept in Wheat-bran, and
thereby grows tougher.
For Grayling you are to Angle with this
Bait, with theTmaU'eft Lines, fuch as is directed for a Trout, with a running Line in a
clear Water; and you are always to ufe a
Float, and the leaft weight of Plumb or Lead
you can, that will but fink, and that the
fwifenefs of the Stream will allows and your
Bait is always to be 7 or 8 Inches from the
bottom: But for other Fifh, as Chub, Roch,
Dace, you may ufe Lines and Tackle proper
for them, and Angle as is fuitable for their
Humor.
I am very apt to think that Tench, Bream,
Carp and Bleak will likewife very well take
the Afh-grub ^ but having never experienced
them for thefe Fifh, I dare not be pofitive, but
refer you to your own Trials.
Flag-worn, or Dock-worn
§ 1 ?. Are aH one-0 to find them do thus s
Go to an old Pond or Pit, where there are
ftore of Flags, (or, as fome call them, Sedges)
pull fome up by the Roots, then fhake thofe
Roots in the Water, till all the Mud and Dire
be wafhed away from them, then amongft the
fmall Strings or Fibres that grow to the Roots,
you'll Fade Mecum,
you'll find little Husks or Cafes of a reddifh or
yellowifn, and fome of other colours-7 open
thefe carefully with a Pin, and you'll find in
them a little fmall Worm, pale, yellow, or
white as a Gentle, but longer and flenderer,
with rows of Feet all down his Belly, and a
red Head. This is an exceeding good Bait for
Graylings, Tench, Bream, Carp, Roch and
Dace. I am prone likewife to think it may
do well for Chub, Bleak and Pearch.
If you pull the flags in funder) and cut o-
Ijfcnthe round Stalk, you'll alfo find a Worm
like the former in the Husk, but tougher, and
in that refpect better: Both thefe Worms are
to be kept in Wheat-bran, and baited on the
briftled Hook, as the Afh-grub; and when
you Angle for Graylings with them, ufe a
Float, and the fmaileft Lines, and the Bait to
be 8 or 9 Inches from the Ground. A Trout
rarely takes either Afh grub or Flag-worm.
Gentles, or Maggots.
' GO
§ 16. Gentles are kept with dead Flefh?
Beafts Liver, or Suet; or,which is better,keep,.,
cleanfe, or fcour them in Meal or Wheat-
bran: You may breed them by pricking a
Beafts Liver full of holes; hang it in the Sua
ia Summer time, and tez under an old courfe
Barrel or fmall Firkin, with Clay and Bran
in it; into which they will drop and fall, and
[herein.cleanfe- themfelves,  and be always 48
The Angler's
ready for life •, and thus Gentles may be created until Michaelmas $ but if you would Fifh
with them from Mtchaelmas to May-day', then
get a dead Car, Kite, or Other Carrion, at
the latter end of September, and let it be Flyblown, and when the Gentles begin to bea-
live, ftir or creep, then bury it and them in
foft, moift Earth, deep in the Ground, that
the Froft neither injure nor kill them, and
they'll ferve to ufe Sxj March or April following, about which time they'll turn to be Flies,
commonly called Fiefh flies.
Gentles are fometimes added to a Worm,
and fometimes put on the point of a Dub-fly
Flook, for Salmon Smelts, but moft commonly they are ufed by themfelves, and that 2 or
3 on the Hook at a time; fometimes when
^ougo to Fiib with Gentles, pur them in a
Horn (wherein are fmall holes bored to let in
Air) with fome Wheat-bran only 5 and fome
{have fome of a Barber's fweet Walh-ball into
the Bran ; but the beft things to put Gentles
to, is to put them, the day you Angle, in a
Bok, with fome Gum-ivy, and you'll find it
of no fmall effect, if you frequently try it.
.,Others anoint the Horn wherein the Gentles are, in Bran, with Hony ; and others perfume the Horn wherein they are kept, with
Musk and Civet. You may imitate a Gentle
with white Jerfey Wooll, if you be mindful
10 pia it to another Bait or Fly for Salmon
Sjnelts, when you Angle at top for them-.
Gentles — mk  i
Fade Mecum,  &c. 49
Gentles arcTfingolar good Baits for Roch,
Dace, Chub, Carp, Tench, Barbel, Bream
and Bleak*, and a Gudgeon and Trout will
fometimes take them in fome Rivers and Sea-
fons, if the Water be clear.
Sheeps Blood.
§ 17. Dry ic in the Air upon a Board or
Trencher, till it becomes pretty hard, then
cut it into fmall pieces, proportioned for the
fee of the Hook, fome add a little Salt to it,
which keeps it from growing black, and fay,
it makes it not worfe, but better: It's a good
Bait for Chub, Roch, and Dace, if rightly
ordered.
Grain, Wheat, Malt.
§ 18. When you ufe Grain, as Wheat,
Malt, &a boil it foft in Milk, or which is
liked better, in Sweet-wort, and peel off the
outward rind, which is the Bran, and then ufe
it; or if you will, you may fry it in Hony and
Milk, or fteep it in fome ftrong-fcented Oyls,
as Amber, Spike, Polypody, Ivy, Annife,
Turpentine, Oyl of Peter, &-c. for Fifh can
fmeli, eife Nature in vain had be (to wed No-
ftrils on them, which were ridiculous to think.
Grain is a good Bait either in Winter or Summer, for Chub, Roch, Dace and Bleak. That
Fifh can fmeil few doubt; but what fort of
E Smells
ill
m s<   I 50 The Angler's
Smells they moft delight in, or covet, tfcfat^
the great Queftion, and fo ambiguous, thJti
it's not yet perfectly known, whether fweet,
or ill-fcented.
Ant fly
§ 19* When the Ant-fly is plentifulleft
(which is in ■■the end oijttne*. July-, Auguft,
and moil of September) go to the Ant-hills,
or Mole hills, where they breed, take a great!
handful of the Earth, with as much of the
roots of the Grafs that groweth on thofe Hillocks, put all into a large glafs bottle, then
gather a great quantity of the blackeft Ant-
flies, their bodies and wings to be fo choicely
handled, as not to be in the leaft bruifed § put
them into a Bottle or Firkin (if you would
keep them long) firft wafhed with Hony, or
Water and Hony. Thefe in any ftream and
clear water, are a deadly Bait for Roch, Dace
and Chub; and you muft Angle with them under the water, no lefs than a handful from the
bottom.
Take an Ant-fly or May-fly, (perhaps any
other Fly may ferve your turn) fink him with
a little Lead to the bottom, near to the Piles,
Pofts of a Bridge, Poftsof a Weir, or Flood-
gate, or any other deep places,where Roches
lie quietly, and then pull your Fly up very
leifurely, and ufually a Roch will follow your
*ait, to the very top of the water, and gaze
on Vade Mecum^ 8cc.
******
 51
Dn it there, and run at it, and take it, left
the Fly efcapc him. The Ant-fly may be
kept alive, as is before direfted, two or three
Months; and Ant-flies are not altogether of
the very fame colour, fome being blackiflb
others reddifh, &c.
I prefume, it will be no unpleafant Digref-
fioirto acquaint the Reader what a few Ob-
fcrvations fome have made on this fmall, but
naturally wife, induftrious, and providently
politick Creature, the Ant, or Pifmife, of
which our Ant-fly is bred: Ifs obfervM to gather its Food ia Summer, in the Full, and
jrefts in the New Moons: They are like a
Commonwealth, and gather Corn, which
they dry, and bite at both ends, that they
may not grow: They wear away Stones by
their afliduity, and make beaten Roadways §
they help one another in drawing their Burdens, dam out water, and bury their dead.
i/The Greater lead the way, and the Leffer drag
the Corn j and,when dirty, they cleanfe themfelves b^re they enter into their Habitation 3 \
j TJhey teach the Young to labour, but expel
the Idle and Slothful; and when they carry
their Grain, it's faid to be a Sign of foul weather. They caft up the Earth over the mouth
of their Caves (that the water may not enter
in) wherein they have three Cells; ' In the
one they live, in another they breed and bury,
and in the third, they keep their Corn. They
generate in Winter, bring forth Eggs*, which,
E 2 in i
^11
52 The Anglers
in the Spring, are Ants:  When old, they
grow winged, and then fuddenly after die.
Toung Brood of Wafps,   Hornets,   and
Humble-Bees.
m
mm
§ 20. Dry them on a Fire-fhovel or Tile-
ftone, or in an Oven, cooling after baking,
left they burn, and to avoid that, lay them
on a thin board or chip, and cover them with
another, fo fupported as not to crufh them,
or eife clap two Cakes together 5 this way
they will keep long, and flick on the Hook
well: if you boil them a minute or two in
water or milk, they grow black in three or
four Days, but are good for prefent life:
Thefe are lingular good Baits for Roch, Dace,
Chub, Eel, Bream, Flounder; and you may
try them for Carp, Tench, Barbel and Bleak,
which, I fancy, will fcarcerefufe them. Some
ufe Wafps, Hornets and Humble-bees, when
their legs and wings are a very little grown
forth, efpecially for the Chub. The flinging
of Hornets is cured by Venice-treacle taken
inwardly, and applying outwardly Cowdung
and Falling-fpi tie. Hornets breed out of the
harder parts of Horfe-flefh, as Wafps out of
the fofter. The fting of Wafps is vyorfe than
that of Bees, and is cured by application of
Cow-dung mixed with Barley-meal, or Leaven mixt with Oyl and Vinegar. Underftand,
that Fade Mecunt^ Sec.
that it's the old Hornets and Wafps,^c. only
that can fting, which frequently happens when
their Nefts are taken; but the young brood
of them, which are for the Baits, are not capable to fting.
Salmon Spawn.
§ 21. Is a very good Bait for Chub, and in.
fome Rivers for Trouts: Take the Spawn,and
boil it fo hard as to ftick on the Hook, and
then ufe it, or not boiled at all, is ufed by
fome. Others take ihe Spawn and put good
ftore of Salt to it, and hang the fame in a Linnen bag, in the Kitchin, but far off the Fire,
and it will be hard, and then they fteep it,
the Night before it is ufed, in Strong waters:
Some expert Anglers preferve Salmon Spawn,
from pining, with Salt, or difcoiouringwith
moifture, by laying it upon Wool, in a Pot,
one layr of Spawn and another of Wool, to
the filling of the Pot} and'tis a lovely B it
for the Winter and Spring, efpecially if ufed
where Salmons ufe to fpawn; for thither the
Fifh are gathered, and there expect it.
Minnow*, Loach, and BhII Head.
§2X. Are Bait3 for Pike, Pearch, Chub,
Eel and great Trout.   The Trout takes tin fe
Bais about a foot within the wat r, and fometimes lower in the deeps, inrheday timr, in
E  3 A        March The Angler's
54
March* April and September, when the wind is
in the South, Weft, or South-weft, and blow-
eth ftrongly, curling the Waters, and tSfflM
high waves thereon. In Summer Months (that
is, from the middle of April^ until the end of
Auguft* according to the Computation of Anglers') he takes them not in the day time, uniefs the day be dark, and the wind high, and
bluftering • and then you muft add fome Lead
to the Line, and fink thefe Baits to the bottom ; for the Trout will not takejthem at mid-?
water, in a clear water, in Summer, in the
day time •, but in the night,at night Hooks,he'B
take them from the beginning of March* un-
til Michaelmas. Pike, Pearch, and Chub will
x take them either by day or night, only the
Chub values them not fo much in the day,as the
night,in the four hot Months, viz. May, June,
July* and Auguft. But both Pike, Pearch,
Chub, Trout and Eel, take them exceeding
well in the night, at night Hooks, from March
tbe firft, until after Michaelmas. Minnows of
a middle fize, andwhitifh, are the beft. And
though Minnows be good Baits, as aforefaid,
for Pike, Pearch, Chub, Trout and Eel, yet
Experience affures me, that a fmall Loach, or
Bui;-head, his guill fins being cut off, are better than Minnows by many degrees. When
you Angle with Minnow, fmall Loach or Bullhead, for Trout, be fure that the Bait turn
quick, and be always in motion and in a clear
watery ftickth* Hook-thorough the back fin
of Fade Mecum, Sec.
of aMinnow,or put theHook into his upperlig,
and keep him aboutmid- water,ora little lower,
bytheaffiftanceofaFloatjforPearch./^W.c^p.io".
Lamprey, Pride, or Seven* Eyes
§ 23. Are all one, and like unto fmall Eels,
no thicker than a Straw, and may be found in
fandy, muddy heaps, in Rivers near the fide.,
almoft as eafily as worms in a dung-hill, and
are good Baits either by night or day, for
Chubs and Eels, and foare likewife thefmaJl
brood of Eels for Chubs.
Snails
§ X4-. Both the white and black Snail, his
Belly flit, that the white appear, are good
-Eaits for the Chub, very early in the morning,,
but in the heat of the day he cares not for them.
Trouts and Eels will likewife take them at the
night Hook, in the night.
Grafs-hopper and Cricket
§ x5. Grafs-hopper is a Creature, having
no mouth, only a pipe in the^reaft, b^whiqk
it fucks in Dew, of which it lives. The Ancients (as is faid). ufed to eat them. There
are two, if not three forts of them, not differing in fhape, but colour ; Phe one is green-
coloured, the other dun, andathirdyellowifli
E 4 green
I
J 5*
The Anglers
MW
111
Li J
«
ill
green on the body. They are principally found
in green Meadows and Grafs *, and Fifh take
them beft in the latter end of June, all July
and Aaghjl: Cut oft" their legs and outward
wings, the middle fize are beft. For Trout
or Grayling, you may lead your Hook on the
fhank, with a flender plate of Lead, made narrow eft and flendereft at the bent of the Hook,
that the plate may come over it, then draw
him over the Lead, after put a lefler or a God
bait on the point, and keep your Bait in continual motion, lifting it up, and finking again ;
pull off the Grafs-hoppers uppermoft wings
and legs. A Chub will likewife very well take
this Bait.
Others, and very expert Anglers too, ufe,
with good fuccefs, only the tail, or half of the
Grafs-hopper, putting on the Hook firft. a
young Beetle, or Sharn-bud, which is found in
a Cow-turd of a day or two old, and they
take off the higher hard wings, and then fhe
puts forth a long pair, coloured hice thofe of
the Pad-fly: This in a clofe water, and which
breeds a large Trout, is as killing a Bait as
any whatever; but 'tis not fo good in a fhal-
low, very clear and open River, by the Opinion of many. You may dib with a Grafs-
hopper, either for Chub or Trout; the green
Grafs-hopper is moft ufed by fome.
There is iikevyfe aHoufe-cricket, which is
a winged Infect, like a Grafs-hopper, lives in
Chimneys and warm places, and fings almoft
con- Fade Mecum, Sec. 5 7
continually, and is faid by fome to be a good
Bait for Chubs, if you dib therewith-, or permit it to fink within the water.
Water-cricket, Water lowfe, or Creeper\
§ 26. Are all one, and are excellent good
for a Trout,in March and April, or fometimes
in May*\w fome Rivers. They are found under
Stones that lie hollow in the water,and y oumay
fifh with them within half a foot or a foot of
the bottom; others let it drag on the ground;
and others, and expert Anglers too, affirm,
that if you dibble in the ftreams, about noon,
on a Sun-fhiny day, and fofor two or three
hours therewith in the month of April, for
Trouts, that 'tis a murthenng Bait> \u always
to be ufed in a clear water, and is not to be
found in every River: It commonly is bred in
very ftony Rivers, and not in thofe that calmly
glide on Sand,and champaign Grounds Thefe
Creepers always turn into Stone-flies about
^Ay-day.
Lip-berries.
§27. Whofe true name is Ay-on berries, or
&ttnssoiCookoW"p'nts*ox\Vake-Robin: Thefe
Berries proceed from the Herb Aron* and are
rjpe and fit for ufe in July and Auguft, and are
of a lovely, transparent Red, or Orange-colour : They are good Baits for Roch, and efpecially Chub. Any Apothecary or Herb-woman ~
The Angler's
man will ftew you the Herb in May, and do
you look for the Berries or Fruit in July aafl
Auguft. You may put four or five on the
Hook at a time for the Chub.
Cherries, Rafberries, Blackberries,  and
MuUberries
§.28. Are Baits for Chubs, and they will
take them beft in Ponds or Rivers,  where
fuch Trees grow near the water, and fuch
Fruit cuftomarify drop into them 5 fometimes |
a Carp will take them.
Oat cake, or Cheefe
i-fflfl
§ 29 Are good Baits to Angle with for
Chub, Roch, Dace and Barbel, when you
ufe a ledger Bait: Your Cheefe may be kept
a day or two (if it be not new, which it
ought to be) in a wet linnen Cloth, or fteeped
a little in FIcny.
To keep Baits for the Pike,  or Night-
Hooks.
§ 30. Carry Baits for the Pike, as fmall
Roch, Dace, Gudgeon, Bleak, Loach, Salmon Smelt, Minnow, Smelt (or as we call it
■   ia Fade Mecurn^ Sec. 59
in Lancajhire Sparling or Spurlin)fmall Trout,
fmall Pearch, (his back fins cut off) and fmall
Eels in Wheat-bran,which will dry up the fli-
my moiftare that is on them, and fo keep them
longer, and caufe them ftick more firmly on
the Hook j befides^here is a green watery fub-
ftance or humour that iflueth out of Fifh, which
will infect and rot them •, but the Bran dryeth
up the fame, and preventeth that mifchief.
Oak fly, Afb fly, or Woodcock fly
§31. Is cali'd by ail thefe names, indifferent places, and is a very good Fly, from the
beginning of May* until the end of Auguft:
It's a brownilh Fly, and found on the body of
an Oak, or Afh, and ftands frequently with
his head downwards, towards the root of the
Tree-, 'tis very proper for a Trout, and
the beft way to ufe it, is to pat one on the
Hook length ways, and fometimes two (or,
as you are directed, to bait the May-i\y for
dibbing, cap. 33.) and if you put it on length
ways, put at the point of the Hook a Cod-bait,
and let them fink 6 inches, or a foot, into the
water, and then raife it again gently, having
a fhort dibbing Line, and it's a deadly Bait for
a Trout in a clear water:, and fometimes inftead of a Cod-bait, ufe an Oak-worm, or
green Grub, got off an Haw-thorn: Some dub
it with black Wool, and Ifabella coloured Mohair, and bright brownifli E ears-hair, wrapt
on
tofefc 6o
The Angler's
■I
JSw;
ii
I
on with yellow Silk, but the head of an Afh
colour. Others dub it with an Orange,tawny
and black ground : Others with blackifh Wool
and gold Twift about it. The wings muft be
the brown of a Mallards Feather, if you could
but dub it aright, there would be no need of
the natural one for a Trout.
Stone fly and Green* drake.
§ 32. I fhall fay nothing of them here, becaufe I fhall exa&ly defcribe them when I
come to Dub-fly Angling, chap. 35.
Hawthorn fly.
§ 33. Is a black Fly, to be found on every
Hawthorn bufh, foon after the Leaves are
come forth, and is a Fly to be ufed for dibbing in fome Rivers for Trouts, &c.
fifh eyes.
§ 34» Pull out the Eyes of thofe Fifh you
catch, and put them on the Hook, and they
are an excellent Bait for moft forts of Fifh -. the
UkQ is faid of Fifh-livers.
Fr
§ 3 5. The yeilowifh bright Frogs, that are
found in Jim** and July, in green Meadows3
are
m& fc ..... ——I
are good Baits for Chubs, Pikes and Pearches.
Put your Hook through the skin of his Leg,
towards the upper part of it. Ufe a fmall
Frog for Pearch and Chub. The French eat
the hinder part of the green Frog: I believe
none will rob them of the Dainty.
Great Moth
§ 36. Has a very great head, not unlike to
an Owl, with whitifh wings, and yellowifh body : You may find them flying abroad in Summer Evenings, in Gardens, fome wind ftirring.
This Fly the Chub delights in very much, and
you are to dibble therewith.
Fat Bacon
§ 3 7. Is affirmM by fome to be a very good
Bait for Chub and Pike, in the Winter months
(that is, from the end of Auguft, until the beginning of April, according to Anglers Computation) at Snap efpecially.
Ihe Earwig
§ 38. Is commended by fome, to be a good
Bait for Salmon Smelts. They are to be got
by laying a white Linnen Cloath, or a Cows
Hoof, in a Garden hedge, a night or two:
Ufe them within the water, near bottont.
Black,
Si 62
The Angler's
Black Bee
§ 39. Is a great black Fly, that breeds in
Clay walls, and is good for the Chub. Some
cut offhis Legs and upper Wings.
Fern fly, or Fern, bud
§ 40. Is a thick, fhort Fly, and is to be found I
on Fern, from about M*y-day,until the end of
Auguft; or later* This Fly hath a thick fhort
body, and two pair of wings, the uppermoft
are hard, and red on one fide; but the under-
moftare tender,diaphanousand blackifh: Wm\
often takeoff the uppermoft wings, and dibble with this Fiy. A Trout will take it about
ten days together, in fome part of May ; but
the Chub takes them all Summer.
x°ith, or Marrow, in an Ox, Cow, Calf,
or Sheeps Back-bone.
§*4i» Take otntthe white Pith of an Ox,
Co\*', &c. Back-bone carefully; and be very
tend er in taking off the tough outward skin o
thofe in an Ox or Cows Back-bone 3but be fure
you k ave the irrward and tender white skin
fafe a&d untouched, or your labour is loft,
This is an excellen t Bait for a Chevin all Winter long •, and fo is the Brains of an Ox oil
Cow,! Fade Mecum, Sec. 6%
Cow, either for Winter or Summer, and the
Pith aforefaid is a good Bait for Eels at Night
Hooks.
A Rule about Baits
§ 42. Rffa take all farts of Baits moft eagerly and freely, and with the leaft fufpitton
or boglcng, when you prefent the fame unto
them in fuch order and manner as Nature affords them, or as they themfelves ordinarily
gather them-, and fome are peculiar to certain Countries and Rivers, of which every Angler may in his own place make his proper
obfervation; as fome of the forego^ Baits
will be takeni'n fome particular Rivers, and
not in others, and the fame Baits are taken
earlier is fome Rivers than others, and fooner
or later in fome Years than others, according
to the quality and feafon of the Year ^although
ground Baits in general are ufeful and certain
almoft in every River, yet lo is not the Fly,
mfdeh varies in colour, kind, fhape, or projection, almoft in every River, nay, in the
very fame River, at five or fix miks diftance.
There may be perhaps many other Baits
which the Author hath no knowledge of, but
yet he will be bold to fay, that thefe are the
chief, and fufficient for the experteft Angler
tp underftand. In the River Thames Anglers
for Roch ufe a Periwinkle, which they gather
in the Thames in Shells, they break the Shells
and 64 ajftfe^gler's
and take the Periwinkle whole, (for if broken
it's fpoil'd)and that part f^iich flicks to the
Shell they cut off from the Fifh, and leave it
flicking to the Jkell, and bait their Hooks
with the other; ^bffiblya fmall white Snail
may ferve in liejijhereof, it's like it) and thi|
PeriwMfcleis much ufed about London&ti$$
Wf%$. Shilteps taken out of the Shei}^
good Sfets for Hke and ChuteieThe white
Biite with much Seed, by fome cali'd Allseed,
is a very acceptable Biit to Fifh, fay Love8
and Coles in theftWHerbais.
§44§Let all 'oS$ Baits firthe Pike be alive
the fame Mornii%\fOU iufe them, fm if they
be ftale, and not frefh andlfweet, he values
them not. The very chief Bdts for him are
the large Gudgeon, Roch, fmall Dace, Bleak,
young Jack, a piece of an Eel, a large Minnow, Loach, in Hay-time a bright, yefk>«|
Frog, the Pearch, all his Fins cut off, maybe
ufed for want of others, bust's the very worft
Bait of any, for the #ike hath an Antipathy
againft him \ a young Trout and Salmon
Smelt are good Bait&ialfo.
iffiiiS
CHAP. Fade Metuw> Sec
CHAP.   V.
Of Paftes.
THU Chapter treats only of Paftes, which
might have been comprehended under
the general notion of Baits, yet fince they are
Artificial ones, and to be Angled with at
Ground or within the water, I judgM it beft
to difcourfe of them feparately in a Chapter
oy themfelves; and although there are, or may
be, as many and diftinct Paftes as the luxurian*
cy of every Fancy will fuggeft, yet the fubfe-
quent are of beft eftimation.
Pafles.
§ i. Take Bean-flower, and if that be not
to be got, then Wheat-flower, and the ten-
dereft part of the Leg of a young Rabbet,
Whelp or Catling, as much Virgins Wax and
Sheeps Suet 5 beat them in a Mortar till they
be perfectly incorporated, then with a little
clarifiecf Hony temper them befo^ttf f ire in*
to a Pafte 5 fome omit the Bean and Wheat-
Sower, and others omit the Virgins Wax and
Sheeps fuet, only when they ufe it for Carps.
§ 2. With Crumbs of white bread and Hony, make with clean Hands, a Pafte for Carp
and Tench.
F S3. Of
IS
mJMUUm 66 The Angler's
§ 3. Of the Crumbs of pure fine Manchet,
and a little Water, make a Pafte, with clean
Hands, for Roch and Dace.
§ 4. Beat Mutton Kidney Suet and fofi
new Cheefe into a Pafte, for for Barbel in An*
gu&*
§ 5. Take the ftrongeft Cheefe pounded in
a Mortar, with a little Butter and Saffron, (fo
much of it as being beaten fmall will turn it to
a Lemon colour) and make a Pafte for Chubs
jn Winter.
§ 6. Take Sheeps Kidney Suet, as much
Cheefe, fine Flower or Manchet, make it in**
to a Pafte, and allay its ftiffnefs with clarified
Hony.
§ 7. Take Sheeps Blood, Cheefe, fine Manchet, clarified Hony, make all into a Pafte.
§ 8. Take Cherries, ( the Stones being taken out) Sheeps Blood, fine Manchet, and
Saffron to colour it with, and make a Pafte.
§ 9. Take thefatteftold Cheefe, and ftrongeft of the Rennet, Mutton Kidney Suet,
Wheat-flower and Annifeed Water, ( and if
for Chub add fome reafted Bacon j) beat all
very fmall into a Pafte. mst$
§ 10. Take thefatteftold Cheefe,ao8 ftron-
feft of the Rennet, Mutton Kidney |$et, and
urmerick reduced into a fine Powder 5 work
all into a Pafte, add the Turraerick only tiB
the pafte become of a very fine, lovely, yellow colour; this is excellent for Chevin.
§ 11. Take Flower made of fine Manche£>
•'JSrv' and Fade Mecum, Sec. 6y
knf Butter, and Saffron to colour it, and make
i Pafte for Roch and Dace.
not muu
Obfervations on Pafle.
§ 12. In September and all Winter Months,
when you Angle for Chub, Carp, and Bream
with Pafte, let the bait be as big as a large
ftazle-riut V but for Roch and Dace, the bignefs of an ordinary bean is fuflkient.
$ 13. You may add to any Pafte Ajfa-faetidas
Oyl of Polipody o|the Oak,Oyl of Ivyi Oyl of
Petre, or' the Gum the Ivy, and many other
things ? and try whether they will increafe
your Sport.
"^|*%4.. Into all forts of Paftes whatfoever,
beat a tittle Cotton-wooll, fhaved Lint, or
fine Flax, which will make it flick well on the
Hook, and not eafily wafh off: And if yott
would have the Pafte keep long, put Virgins-
wax, and clarified Hony into it.
§ iy. When you Angle $jth Pafte, or any
fmall tender bait, have a fmall Hook, quick
Eye, a nimble, Hand and Rod; and that
fomewhat ftiff too, or both bait and Fifh are
loft; and, you muft ftrike at the very firft
time you perceive them bite or nibble.
Paftes are to be ufed in Pits, Ponds, Meares,
or flow running Rivers only. Note, that this
Rule is general, and holds in all very tender
baits.
§ 16. When you Angle with Pafte, or any
F 2 very 6%
The Angler's
very tender bait, ufe a Float of Qjiill, rather
than of Corks -, becaufe Corks will not fo eafily dip under Water, nor the bite fo foon be
perceived.
§ 17. Pafte is a very good bait for Chub,
Roch, Dace, Barbel, Carp, Tench, Bream
and Bleak.
CHAP.   VI.
Ointments to Allure Fijh to the
Bait.
NExt follow Ointments and Receipts,
which I have read and been informed
of, by feveral knowing Anglers, and are
practifed for the better furtherance of this
Sport; and fome have fuch confidence, that
they affirm they'll not only allure, but even
compel Fifh to bite. Part of the following
Receipts I have Experienced, and though i '
found them in fome meafure advantagious to
my Recreation, yet far from fo high a degree,
as has been pretended to me : Neverthelefs
I fhall prefent you with them 5 and if you'll
be at the expence and labour of a Tryal, you
may elect thofe for your daily ufe, which on
your own Experience you find to be the beft:'
And the firft fhall be one highly commended
by Fade Mecum^ &c. 69
by Monfieur Chan as, ( Operator and Apothecary 'Royal to the prefent French King,
Lewis the Fourteenth ) in his Tharmacopxia,
printed at London, Part the Second,/. 245.
§ 1. Take Man's Fat and Cat's Fat, of each
half an Ounce, Mummy finely powdred three
Drams, Cummin-feed finely powdred one
Dram, diftilPd Oyl of Annife and Spike, of
each fix Drops, Civet two grains, and Camphor four Grains* snake an Ointment according to Art 5 and when you Angle anoint 8 Inches of the Line next the Hook therewith, and
keep it in a Pewter box, made fomething taper:
And when you ufe this Ointment, never Angle
with lefs than 2 or 3 hairs next Hook, becaufe
if you Angle with 1 Hair, it will not flick fo
well to the Line ; but if you will mix fome of
this Oyntment, with a little Venice Turpentine , it will then ftic& very well to your
Line^ but clog not your Line with too much
on at a time.
§ x. Take Gunvlvy, and put thereof a
good quantity into a Box made of Oak, (fuch
as Apothecaries ufe of White-wood, and long
for Pills) and chafe and rub the infide of the
Box with this Gum, and when you Angle put
3 or 4 Worms therein, letting them remain
but a fhort time, (for if long it kills them) and
then take them out, and Fifh with them, putting more in their ftead, out of the Worm-bag
and Mofs; and thus do all Day.
•§ 3. Gum-Ivy is a tear which drops from
F i the
jbbj 7°
The Angler's
the body of the larger Ivy,being woundej|$fjj
Is of a yellowifh red colour, of a ftrong fcent
and fharp taft *, that which is fold in the Shops
is Counterfeit and Adulterate, and generally no fuch thing. Therefore toigel^rn-Ivy,
at Michaelmas or Spring, drive feveral great
Nails into large Ivy ftalks, and wriggle the
fame till they become very loofe, and let them
remain, and a Gum will iflue thereout. Slit in
the Spring and at Michaelmas feveral great
Ivy ftalks, and vifit them once a Month, to
fee if Gum flow from the wounded part:
This Gum is Excellent for the Angler's
life.
§ 4. Take Ajfa-fcetida half an Ounce,Cam-
phor two Drams, bray them well together
with fome Drops of Oyl Olive, and put it in
a Pewter box, and ufe it as the firft Receipt
of this Chapter. Sonie inftead of Oyl Olive,
ufe the Chymical Oyl of Lavender and Catno-
mil: and fome add the quantity of a Nutmeg
of Venice Turpentine to it. But that which I
generally ufed for a Trout in amuddv Water,.
and for Gudgeons in a clear Water, is thus
compounded; vizJji Affs:feeudathreeDrams,
Camphor one Dram, Venice Turpentine one
Dram*, bray altogether with fome Drops of the
Chymical Oyl of Lavender, or for want
thereof, with Oyl of Spike; and ufe it as
the firft Receipt of this Chapter.
Camphor is a refinous Gum, partly flowing of its own accord, but chiefly by incifion,
from Fade Mecum^ Sec.        yi
from a tall Tree growing in India •, the Bor-
neon Camphor is beft: Chufe the White,clear
likeCryftal, ftrong fcented, will eafily crumble between the Fingers* and is britt e, ani
being fired wiU fcarcely be quenched. There
is a Counterfeit or Fictitious fort, that put into a hot Loaf will parch, but the true will melt.
It will keep many years in Flax-fted, if it be
not expofed to the Air, otherwife it will evaporate and confume to nothing.
AJfa-foetida grows in Media, Libya, Syria,
and is a Gummy Juice of Lafer, Laferpitium,
or Sylphyon, gathered from the root or ftalk
cut: Chufe that which is pure, fine, clammy,
and fmelling almoft like Gar lick s and not dry,
or foul with fticks,in colour like the beftMyrrh;
it will keep good many years, but it is often
Counterfeited or Adulterated, by mixing
Meal, Bran and the Gum Sagapenum together.
§ 5. Take Venice Turpentine,and beft Hive-
hony, and Oyl of Polypody of the Oak, drawn
by Retort *, mix all together, and ufe it as the
firft Receipt of this Chapter.
§ 6. Take Oyl of ivy-berries, made by Ex-
preflion or Infufion, and put fome in a box,
and ufe it as is directed in the fecond Receipt
of this Chapter.
§ 7. Diflblve Gum-ivy in the Oyl of Spike,
and anoint the bait therewith. Mr. Walton
prefcribes this for a Pike.
Eft;1
F 4
§ 8. Puft 72
!£iie Angler's
§ S. Pat Camphor into the Mofs, wherein
are the worms the day you Angle,
§ 9* Diffolve two Ounces of Gum-Ivy, in a
Gill of Spring-water j then mix thefe together
in the like quantity of the Oyl of fweet Al*
monds, then take what quantity of Worms you
intend to ufe that day (firft well fcoured in
Mofs) and put them in Linnen Thrums, firft
wellwafhedin Spring-water, and fqueezedrifti
then wet the fameTftrums in this Compofiti-
on, and put the Thrums and Worms in a Linnen Big, and ufe them.
§ 10. Take AJfafastida three Drams, Spikenard of Spain one Dram; put them in a pint of
Spring-water, let them ftand in a fhady place
fourteen days in the Ground; then take it out,
and drain it through a Linnen Cloth, and put
to the Liquor one Dram of Sperma cceti9 and
keep it clofe in a ftrongGlafs-bottle; and when
you go to Angle, take what quantity of worms
you intend to ufe that day ( the worms being
firft well fcoqred in Mofs ) and put them upon
a pewter Saucer, and pour a little of this water upon them -, then put them in the Mofs a-
£ain, and ufe them.
§ i \. Take Juice of Camomil half afpoon-
f$, Chymical Oyl of Spike one Dram, and
Oylof Comfrey by Infufion one Dram and aa
ferff, Goofe-greafe two Drams $ thefe, being
well diflblvM over the Fire, let ftand until
cdid, then put it in a ftrong Glafs-bottie,which
Jet be unftopt three or four days, then flop it
very Fade Mecum^ &c. 73
very wdl* and when you Angle, anoint the
Bait therewith.
■■^$m2. Take a laadful of Houfleek, half a
handfui|if *Sfttr-green Bark of the Ivy ftalk \
pound ttarfe well together, and prefs the Juice
thereout, and wet your Mofs therewith 5 and
when you Angle, put fix or eight worms therein out of the other bag, and when fpent by
fifhing, do the like.
§ 13. Some ufe the Juice of Nettles and
Houfleek, as the laft Receipt, and fome only
the Juice of Houfleek.
§ 14. Some anoint their Bait with the Marrow got out of a Heron's Thigh-bone,and fome
ufe the Fat and Greafe of a Heron.
§ 15. Take the Bones or Scull of a dead
Man, at the opening of a Grave, and beat the
lame into powder, and put of this powder into
the Mofs wherein you keep your worms, but
others like Grave-earth as well.
§ 16. ^ Of Man's Fat, Cats Fat, Herons
Fat, and of the beft Ajfa-faetida^ of each two
Drams, Mummy finely powdred two Drams,
Gummin-feed finely powdred two Scruples,
and of Camphor, Galbanum and Venice Turpentine, of each one Dram, Civet grains two;
make according to Art, all into an indifferent
thin Oy ntment,with the Chymical Oyls of Lavender, Annife and Cammomil, of each an
equal quantity •, and keep the fame in a narrow-mouthed and well-glazed Gallipot, clofe
covered with a Bladder and Leather;   and
when 74
The Angler's
K
when you go to Angle, take fome of it?JH
fmall Pewter box, made taper, and anoint!
inches of the Line, next Hook, therewith,^
when wafhed off, repeat the fame.
This Ointment, which, for its Excellency,
will call, Vnguemum Fifeat or urn mirahile, pro
digioufly caufes Fifli to bite, if in the hand o
an Artift, that Angles within water, and ir
proper Seafons and Times, and with fuitabh
Tackle and baits, fit and proper for the River
Seafon, and Fifh he defigns to catch. The
Man's Fat you may get of the London Chy-
rurgeons, concerned in Anatomy, and the Herons Fat from tbe Poulterers in London * the
reft are to be had from Druggifts, or Apothecaries. And this Compofition will ferve you
two or three Summers Angling. I forbore
( for fome Reafons ) to infert the fame in my
firft Edition; but now, fince it's divulged, value it not the lefs, but efteem it as a Jcwef.
They that would try other Experiments, not
before inferted, and be curious, let them con-
fulc a Book cali'd, Modern Cwiofnies of Art
and Nat me, pag. 178 .* But upon frequent Ef-
fays, tliis Jaft hath the preheminence, and is
found to Excel them all.
C H A P. Fade Mecmn, Sec.
**.
75
CHAP-   VII.
General  Directions  and   Obferva-
tions.
% i. T ET the Anglers Apparel not be of
J_/ a light (hining or glittering colour,
which will reflect upon the water, and affright
away the Fifh; but let it be of a fad,dark colour,
and clofe to his body -, for Filh are affrighted
with any the leaft fight or motion -, therefore
by all means, keep out of fight, when you Angle
in a clear water, either by fheltering behind
fonje bufh or Tree, or by ftanding as far off the
Rivers fide, you can poflible $ to effect this the
better, a long Rod at Ground, and a long Rod
and Wne, at Artificial Fly, are abfblutely ne-
ceflary: Neither ought you to jump on the
banks next the water, you Angle in *, for of all
Creatures there are few more {harplighted,
or fearful than Fifh, efpecially Trouts, Chubs
and Carps.
§ a. When you Angle at Ground in a clear
Water, or dibble with natural Flies, Angle
going up the River , but in a muddy Water,
or with Dub-fly, Angle going down the River.
§ 3. Before you fet out to Angle fee that
your baits be good, fweet, fine, and agreeable
to 7^
The Angler's
to the River and Seafon, and proper for the
Fifh you dej^n to Angle for, an&likewife your
Tackle fuitable and t$fn; for,if otherwife,you
liad better ftay at home, becaufe you'll not only tire and weary y^urfelf, bntalfo lofe your
labg|& j||iich, if a young Angler, will be no
fmall difconragement.
gjKgh Ufe Shoomakers wax to the Thread or
Silk witli^hich you make or mend either Rod
or Fly, or whip Hooks ; for it holds more
firmly, and flicks better than any oth|t4^M
§ y. When you have hooked a gispt Fifh,
let him play and tire himfelf within tbe water,
and have an efpecial care to keep the Rod
bent, left he run to the end of the Lfile and
break either Hook or hold, and hale him not
too near the top of the water, left by flasket j
ing he break your Line.
§ 6. Angle for ail fort of Fifh whatever ifl$j
fuch Rivers, and in that part of the River,
wjhere their haunts are defcribed to be.
Fifhes general Haunt:
§ 7. Where any Weejki Roots of Trees,
Stones, Wood, or othe^uibbilh are, it's often
good, but troublefohl^ngling 5 for to fuch
places Fifhes refort for warmth and fe<ftrfity,
fo likewife inWhirl-pooJs5 for they are like Pits
in Rivers, and are feldom unfurnifhed of good
Fifh,likewifeatwiers,Wier-pools,Mill-ftreams
PilesjPofts and Pillars of Bridges,Flood-gates,. '
Cataracts  \ Fade Metum, &c.
Cataracts and Falls of Waters, the Conflux of
Rivers, the Eddies betwixt two Streams, the
returns of a Stream, and the fide of a Stream,
are good places generally to Angle lif'; and
in the iuinmer all Fifh generally lie in the
more fhallow part of the River, or in a ftrojj^L
Twift or gentle Stream, except Carp, Tench
and Eel -, in Winter, all fly into the deep,ftilL
places. Where it ebbeth and fiWeth Fifh
fometimes bite beft, in the ebb moft ufually^
fometimes when it floweth, rarely at full Water, uniefs near the Arches of Bridges, Wires
or Flood-Gates.
Rivers that are ftreight and level are not
fogood to Fifh in, as thofe that are crooked,
and have many corners and turnings, Pools
and Pits; for Fifh get into thofe Creeks and
Channels, and hide themfelves in their private
apartments. If the Water be narrow you may
Fifh both fides, and fooner chop upon them ;
but where broad and deep their haunt is un-*
certain.
The beft Rivers to Angle in, are not fuch as
run in a direct, ftreight Line, but fuch as have
many Polygone windings and turnings, and
almoft in piano reprefent the Figure of a Regular Fortification with Baftions, Flankers*
Fauxbray Retrenchments, &c. which are fafe
places to defend the watery Inhabitants from
the Aflaults, and Attacks of violent Floods
and Inundations: Neither areRivers which are
very broad, fo convenient for this Paftirne, as
thofe I
le Angled
f hofewhich run in a more contracted andiat|
row compafs.
§ 8. When any Fifh have taken theHooK
from you, if it be not fwallolved into their
Gorge, they will live; eitherijiwaterwill
caufe it to raft, and in time wear away, or
the Fifh wiO go to the bottom, and ther<»
root, like a Hog, on the Gravd&'ftttlieywj
ther rub it out, or break the Hc^t{%t||§
middle.
How to Feed Fifh.
§ 9. Into fuch places as you ufe to Angle,
once a Week at leaft, caft in all forts of Corn
boyled foft, Ale-grains, or Wheat bran fteeped
in blood, blood dryed and cut into pieces,^
Snails, Worms, chopt into pieces, pieces of
Fowl or beafts Guts, Guts of Fowl or Pullen,
Beafts Livers cut into pieces, Oat-cake or
Cheefe chewed, ground Malt; efpecially for*
Carp Tench, Chub, Roch, Dace, Barbel and
Breamjoucannot feed toooften ortoomuch^
This courfe draweth the Fifh to the place yon,
dcfire, and there keeps them together: Caft
in about 20 Grains of Ground Malt, or Beans*;
now and then., as you Angle, or chewed Oat-*
cake or Cheefe. Your Feed for Fifh muft always reft in that very place, where you mean
to Angle, and that your bait may come to;
therefore, by no means, when you Angle in a
Stream, caft them in at your Hook, butforhe-
thing Fade Mecumy Sec.
hing above where you Angle, left the Stream
:arry thejpbeyond the Hook, and fo inftead
>f drawing them to you, you draw them beyond you. You may, between your hands,
ilofe the Malt, or Ale-grains, fo faft, in nand-
fo$|,*ihat the water will hardly part ic with
;he fall. All forts of Baits are good to caft in,
sfpecially whilft you are Angling with that
Bait, principally Cod-baits, Gentles, Wafps
md Parte; and you'll find they will fnap up
yours more eagerly, and with lefs fafpicion.
$ io. If you Angle at any place you have
twice or thrice baited * and find no Sport, if
none has been there before you, or no grand
Impediment in the Seafon or Water appear, be
aflured, Pike or Pearch ( if they breed in that
River) have there taken up their Quarters,
and affright all other Fifh thence, for fear of
being made a Prey: Your only Remedy is pre-
fently to Angle for them, with fuitable Tackle
and Baits; and when they are caught, the o-
thers will repoffefs themfelves of their former
Station.
To know what Bait and Fly Fifh take.
§ ii. The firft Fifh you c.atch,rip up his.Belly,
and you may then fee his Stomach, it's known
by its largenefs and place,lying from the Guills
to the fmall Guts; take it out very tenderly
(if you bruife it, your labour is loft) and with
a (harp Penknife, cut it open, without bruifing,
and
11 8o The Angler's
and then you'll find his Food within it* and
thereby difcover what Bait at that very inftaai
the Fifh take beft, whether Flies or Grouch
Baits, and fo fit them accordingly ^ and if you
have a good Microfcope, or magnifying Glafs,
you may (with fome Pleafure and Delight w
you ) eafily difcover the very true colour*
proportion and fhape of the Fly - and fome
can do it pretty well without a Glafs.
§ 1 z. Keep the Sun ( and Moon, if Night)
before you, if ypur Eyes will endure it,at ieaft|"
be fure to have thofe Planets on your fide 5 for
if they be on your Back, both your felf and
Rod, will, with its fhadow offend much, and
the Fifh fee farther and clearer, when they
look towards thofe Lights, than the contrary -y
as you may experiment thus: In a dark Night,
if a Man come between you and any Light, you
fee him clearly, but not at all, if the Light
come betwixt: you and him.
jfi 13. All Fifh whatever, that fwim in clear
Rivers, are wholfomer, pleafanter, and far
better tafted than thofe of the fame kind*
that live in Pits, Ponds, Mears, and ftanding
Waters.
§ 14. A Hog back and a little head, either
to Tf rout, Salmon, or any other Fifh, are a
Sign they are in Seafon. All forts of Fifh that
have Scales, on their backs, conftantly fwim
together, in Troops and Companies, as the
Roch, Dace, Chub, Gudgeon, &c. The Females of moft Fifh are larger than the Males,
§15. Let Fade Mecwn, Sec.
81
^jtiiS* keC a^ Ba'ts an^ ^*es whatfoever*
fall gently firft into the water, before any
other part of the Line, and with as little of the
Line as poffible, and without any difturbance,
ponging, or circling of the water, which
mightily fcares and affrightens Fifh.
§ 16.: Some Fifh are faid to be Leather-
mouthed, that is, their Mouths are fo tough,
that if they be once hooked, they feldom break
the hold; fuch are the Chub, Barbel, Carp,
Tench, Roch and Gudgeon 5 but the Pike, Salmon, Pearch, Eel, Grayling,Trout and Bream,
are very tender mough^d, and their hold often
breaks after hooked.\
§17. Roch and Dace, or Dare, recover
ftrength, and grow in feafon within a Fortnight after fpawning ; Barbel and Chub within
a Month; TroutJ iff four Months, and the Salmon in like time, i£$ie get into the Sea, and
after into frelh water?*
§ 18. Angle always, if you can, on the
Lee-fhorej and note, that FifH lie or fwim
nearer the bottom, and in deeper water in
Winter, than in Summer; and alfo near the
bottom in any cold Day, and then gets near
;he calm fide of the water, and in the Winter
ire caught beft at the mid time of the Day,
and in Sun-fhiny Weather.
§ 19. When you put any living Bait on the
rlook, torment or bruife the fame as little as
poffible, that they may live long on the Hook,
after baited.
Q       %io. Let
iifa 82
The Angler's
§ 20. Let him that would be a compleat
Angler,fpend fome time in Angling in all forts
of Waters, Ponds, Rivers, fwift and flow, fto-
ny, pebly, gravelly, fandy, muddy, chalky,
and (limy 5 and obferve the differences in the
Nature of the Soils and Ground on which they
run or ftand i and likewife the Nature and Humour of each particular Fiffe, Water and Bait,
by which he'll become a perfect and judi*
clous Artift, and be able to take Fifh wherevef
he Angleth, and will find much difference between fwift, flow, and ftanding Waters.
Likewife let the Angler obferve when he
takes ftore of Fifh, the Age of the Moon, thf
Temperature of the preceding Night, and the,
darknefs, brightnefs or windinefs of it 5 feafoS
and nature of the Morning and Day, together
with the Temperature of the Air, Water &§■
Wind, and all other precedent, concomitant,
natural or adventitious Advantages, that could
any ways conduce to his Sport, and likewife
on the contrary all things he finds to be Ob-
ftacles and Obftructors of his paftime, and enter them methodically in a Book, with thediaNl
of the Month, &c. Hereby, with a little pra*?
dice, he'll be able toraifeConclufionsfi^a|
improvement of this Art.
§■21. In all fort of Angling, befure to keep
out of Fifhes fight, and as far off the Rivers
bank as poffible, uniefs you Angle in a muddy
water, and then you may approach near the
-water.
■*r    § zi* Se- § 22. Several Countries alter the time, and
almoft the manner of Fifhes breeding, but
doubtlcfs of their being in feafon,as in the River Wye, mMonmouthfhire, Salmon are in feafon from September to April^but in the Thames,
Trent, and moft other Rivers, they are in feafon almoft all the fix hot Months.
§23. Gather or get all forts of Materials,
to make Angle-rods on, as the Hazk, Blackthorn and Yew Switches, &c. at the Winter
Solftice, or, at leaft, between the la ft day of
November, and the 20 day of December; becaufe all fort of Wood then is moft tough and
freeft from Sap; it not afcending with that vigour into the Ball and Branches, by reafon of
the coldnefs of the Weather,and Itfte Suns fmall
ftay on our Horizon, which renders its influence feeble.
§ 24. Trouts, Salmons, Pikes, Pearches and
Eels have large Mouths,afld their Teeth therein, but moft other FMfy have tbek Teeth in
their Throat.
§2f. When you Angle for Pearch, Chub,
Tench, Carp, Dace, Bream, Gudgeon and
Rafi^ and have hooked one who after makes
his efcape, you'll not often have any great
Sport at that ftaaflingfor one or two hours
fpace next after fuch misfortune, becaufe he's
fo affrigfcted, that he chafes his fellows out of
that place; therefore after fome trial, you
maft remove your felf, and Angle at fome
other Standing.
G 2 4*6. Who- 84 The Angler s
—#—| 1—-—2	
§ 26. Whofoever defires to know all the ab-
ftrufe Notions and Properties of Fifh, let them
diligently perufe and read the following Au-
thotSyViz.Cefner,Rondeletipts,Oribatiusilib.j.cap
22. Monfieur Mnffetus, Jantu Dubravim-, AU
drovandm-i J! rami feus Bonfuetns, Paulas JovitUy
cap. 34M Vliny*s Natural Hi(lory, Belloniusi
Hyppolttm Sdvianus*, Arifiotle% &C.
§ 27. Ail Fifh are of a cold and moift Temperature, but fome exceed others in goodneft^
according to the Nature of the Water, and
places wherein they live.   Fifh live either i%
the fait Water or Sea, or in frefh Waters, as
Rivers, Brooks, Lakes, Mears, Pools, Ponds
or Pits.   The Sea fifh is accounted beft, is
more favous.y, and nourifhes better, by being
of a firmer fubftance, hotter and drier, and
not fo vifcous, clammy and flimy, as the frefhn
Water Fifh. Of Sea Fifh,thofe that have Scales
and firm Subftances are beft, and fuch as are
jnclofed in Shells,asoyfters,lobfters,crabs,dv/
afford a good and folid nourifhment; but thofe
of a fof er,flimier or cartilagineous SubftanceiJ
are not fo good. Fifh that live in pure Water
toffed to and fro with Waves, are better than
thofe that live in calm and muddy Waters*
that are little agitated,and thofe that live near
fandy, rocky Shares,-are better than where
there is much Slime and Mud;  fo fuch frefh•']
WaterFifh which live moft commonly in clears]
rocky, ftony, pebly, gravelly or fandy Rivers, and which are of a fwift courfe, far ex-'
ceed Fade Mecum^ Sec.
ceed ingoodnefs, and yield a purer and better
nourifhment, than thofe that live in flimy,
muddy or ftanding Waters, or very foftly gliding Rivers, whofe courfe is fo flow as is
fcarce difcernable. Fifh are generally the fat-
teft, though not the fweeteft, that are fed in
muddy, weedy Rivers.
§ 28. Trouts,SalmonSmelts,Pearches,Ruffs
and Gudgeons, are allowed in fome Diftem-
pers by Phyficians, for their fick Patients to
eat.
§ 29. When you Angle for any fort of Fifh,
be fure the fame Fifh is in feafon, elfe your
Labour is ill loft; for Fifh out of feafon are
the worft fort of Meats.
§ 30. A great Fifh bites more calmly and
moderately than a fmall one ; for they fnatch
and runaway with the Bait, without any care
or deliberation : So an old Fifh that hath been
prickt in the Guills or Guts, is very cautious
in making a fecond Adventure.
§ 31. There are many Circumftances that
conduce much to the feeding of Pike, Pearch,
Chub, Carp, Roch, Dace and Bream ; as con-
veniency of harbour; for they that lie among
Weeds and foggy places, prove the fatteft,
though not always the fweeteft: They are
there fecure from the Affaults and Difturbance
of Enemies, and enjoy a more fafe and contented Repofe: Reft and Quietnefs being as
natural and helpful to their feeding as to other
Greatures. Again, fome Waters may be more
G 3 feeding %$
The Angler's
1
ill
ii
feeding and nourifhing than others: A thicker
fort of Water, if it be not foul and muddy, is
of a better confiftency, and the parts better
difpofed and qualified for Nutrition,than thofe
of a more thin and rarified Subftanee: NoEte^
ment that is pure and without mixtutfe/iscoi*4
fentaneous for nourifhing: Neither can Fifh
live by pure Water,Refpiration,or fucking, in
thofe flender Particles of his beloved Element
only, without the concurrence and affiftance
of fome grofler and terrene Qualities, which
are intermingled with thofe liquid Bodies.
§ 3 2. In the Pool Limperis^nCarnarvanjhirt^
there is a kind of Fifh, peculiar to that Water/
and feen no where elfe, cali'd by the Inhabitants there, Tor-coch,of the Belly that is fome-
what red. So in Winander-mere in Lancashire,
there is a Fifh cali'd, a Charr*. peculiar to that
Mere only; 'tis about length and bignefs of a
large Trout, andfomethingrefembles a Troul^
in its fhape. ,
§ 3 3. In the Eaft part of Meriomthfoire, the
River Dee, fpringeth out of two Fountains,
and forthwith pafleth throughPimble ovPlenlin+t
mere*, cali'd in the Map, Lyn-tegit, a Lake
fpreading far in length and breadth, and fo
runneth out of it with as great a ftream as i$$
entreth in, and you fhall never fee in the Dee
Fifhes, callM a Guinmad, which are peculiar
to t\\QMcre,nox yet Salmons in the Mere, which
neverthelefs are commonly taken in the River.
iv § 34. About Fornby,in Lancajhire,when the
People Fade Mecum^ Sec.
%y
People get Turf&,there is a certain black Water under the TurfTs, where fwim little Fifhes
that are caught by the Diggers*, and in other
parts of' Lancajhire, under the Turffs,are often
caught Eels; fo that Fifths here are digged
out of the Earth, as well as about Heraclea and
Tios, mPontm, and in Paphlagonia many and
good Fifhes are gotten by digging in places
nothing watery.
§ 35. Near unto the Abbey of-St. Maurice,
in Burgundy, there is a Fifh pond, in which are
Fifhes put according to the number of Monks
of that place 5 and if any one of them happen
to be fick, there is a Fifh feen alfo to float and
fwim above the Water half dead -, and if the
j Monk fhall die, the faid Fifh a few days before
f^^s\.Leonardm Varius reports this on theTe-
Jftjmony of Cardinal Granvell. So at Brereton'm
Ck/k>e,before any Heir of the Houfe of Br ere-
ton dieth, there are feen in a Pool adjoyning,
cali'd Bagmere, Bodies of Trees fwimming for
certain days together, and after to fink until
tikQ next like occafion.
§ 36. Our BritifiSea breeds and affords variety, and almoft innumerable Fifhes, as Salmons (wjhich Bede calls Ificios, as Pliny, Efox)
Plaice,Flounders,Flooks andShads,whiah pickled like Anchovis, equal the beft Anchovis,
Pungers,Cods,Haddocks,Hoilyburt,Whitings,
Herrings, Pilchards, Soles, Mackarel, Mullets, Turbuts, Seals, or Sea-yeais, or Sea-
calves, Rochets, Maids, Ray-fifh,Scate,Thom-
p 4 back,, 88 The Angler's
back, Oyfters, Lobfters, Crab-fifh, Mufles,
Cockles, Peris, Sprats, Spurlings, which,pickled like Anchovis,or Turners-way ,exceed them
in goodnefs,and very much ftrengthen theSto-
mach,Congers,Lampreys,Yards,Periwinckles,
&c. with an infinite number of others,whereof
it maintaineth and feedeth innumerable Sculls
and Beds, but thefe being beyond our Province, the frefh Water,a re not to be difcourfed
of here $ only let me tell you what Mr. Camb-
den faith, That near unto Hunt-cliff, in the
North-riding of Torkjhire, not far from the
fhore, there appear at Low-water, certain
Rocks, about which the Fifhes, we call Seals,
tjuafi Sea-veals, meet together in Troops, to
fleepand fun themfelves, and upon that Rock,
which is next unto thefhore, there lieth one,
as it were, to keep Centinel, and as any
Man approacheth near, he either by throwing
down a big Stone, or by tumbling himfelf into
the Water wich a great noife, giveth a Signal
unto the reft to look to themfelves, and get
into the Water. Moft afraid they be of Men,
againft whom, when they chace them, they
being deftitute of Water, fling backward with
their hinder Feet, a Cloud, as it were, of Sand
and Gravel Stones* yea, and oftentimes drive
them away: For Women they care not fo
much \ therefore thofe that take them ufe to
be clad in Womens Apparel.
| 37. In Bone Well, a Spring not far from
Michardh Czftkfm Herefordshire, are continually Fade Mecum^ ckc. 89
ally found little Fifhes Bones, but no Fifh to
be feen*, and being wholly cleanfed thereof,
will notwithftandinghave the like again; whether they be naturally produced, or in Veins
thither brought, is unknown.
CHAP.    VIII.
Seafons    generally
Anting.
im\
tpropi
er
for
§ l • TN great Droughts, when the Rivers are
JL fmall,or in the heat of the Day,in May,
June, July, Auguft, and beginning of September*, although there be no Drought (except
cooled by Wind or fhadowed by Clouds)
youll find fmall Sport, efpecially in marly,
chalky, flimy, or very fhallow and clear Waters and Rivers.
§ 2. In cold, frofty, or fnowy Weather, or
where ftore of Snow-broth is in the River, it's
to little purpofe to Angle*, when there happen-
eth in the Summer, or Spring efpecially, any
fmall hoary Froft, all that day after the Fiffr
will not rife kindly and freely, except iri tbe
Evening, and that prove very pleafanc.
§3- If
feel
eel po The Angler's
§ 3. If the Wind either be Eafterly, or fo
high that you cannot guide your Tools, it's to
little purpofe to Angle; for there is a ftcreti
i&aHgmty in the Eaft-wind, that generally a-
bates Fifhes appetite and defire of Baits.
§ 4. Sharp, bitter, nipping Winds blowing
from the North, but the Eaft efpecially, blaft
the Recreation.
§5. After any fort of Fifli have fpawned,
they'll not bite to any purpofe, until they have
recover'd their ftrength and former appetite.
§6. When any Clouds arife, that will certainly bring a Shower or Storm (though in the
midft of Summer) they will not bice •, and
if they bite well before, yet at the approach
thereof, they will ceafe biting.
§ 7. When the Nights prove dark, cloudy
or windy, and that the Moon fhines little, or
noi: at all, next day there will be little or no
Sport, except at fmall ones; for Trouts and
great Fifh then range about to devour others,
and feek Food j fo that when the Nights are
dark or windy, the next day rarely proves fuc-
cefsful to the Angler, for great Fifh, efpecS
ally Trouts.
§ 3. In fmall, clear and fhallow Brooksl
where the Mills ftand and keep up the Water,
you will neither catch Fifh at Ground or Fly
at that time: For Fifh, efpecially Trouts, then
dare not come out of their hold, by reafon of
thefhallownefsof the Water,and that the Water then brings no Food or Aliment with it.
§9. When Fade Mecum, &c 91
•****.
§ 9. When People wafh their Sheep in Sum*
mer, at the firft time only Fifh bite well -,
becaufe die Filth draweth them together as to
a baiting place; but after they have glutted
themfelves four or five days, they will not bite
again till wafhing time be over.
§ 10. Thunder and Lightening are very of-
fenfiye, and fpoil the Anglers Sport.
CHAP.   IX,
Seafons generally  proper for
Angling.
§ I. ~H E beft Hours in general Efteem,
J. to Angle in a clear Day and Water, from about the tenth of April, until the
end of -^^«#,isfromSun-rife,until half anhour
after tea a Clock, and from half an hour after
two a Clock,until Sun-fet •, fo that you may reft
your felf in the heat and middle of the day -*,
but if the day be dark, cloudy, gloomy or
lowring, efpecially if at fuch a time alfo a
gentle Breeze, or gale of Wind blow from any
quarter hut the Eaft, or be not Eafterly, you'l
never fail of catching Fifh in any hour of the
day that is dark, cloudy, gloomy, lowring
and windy, as aforefaid, but in March, beginning 92 -The Anglers
ning of AprilJSeptember,and all wintpjMonths,
you may Angle all the day, from aboa^SM
hour after Sun rife, until about half an hour
before Sun-fee, either in a muddy of jffcar Water. And you may Angle all the dayTraB
the rifing until the letting of the Sun^pH
muddy Water,from the middle of April, until
the end of Auguft', but early in the Morning,
and late in the Evening,are beft in May, June,
July and Auguft.
§2. If the day be dark, clofe, gloomy or
lowring, and have a gentle whittling Wind
playing on the Water, or a fine milling Dew
of Rain falls gently without violence, at fuch
a time Fifh will bite: So when Trouts leap
out of the Water, and Pikes fhoot in purfuitof
other Fiflies, they will bite well, if you Angle with Tackle and Baits proper for the Seafon and Fifh.
§ 3. Ca!m,ciear,(or which is far better)cool,
gloomy, dark, cloudy Weather, in the Summer Months (that is, from mid April? until
the end of Auguft) the Wind blowing gently^;
fo as you may guide your Tools with eafe, in
thehotteft Months the cooler the better, at
fuch times Fifh bite well.
§ 4. When a fudden, violent Shower hath a
little mudded and raifed the Water, then if
you go forth immediately after fuch a Shower,
and Angle at Ground in the ft ream or fides
thereof with Brandling, Gilt-tail, Tag-tail,or
chiefly red Worm well fcoured, if there be
ftore Fade Mecumy &c.
93
ftgrc of Fifh, you'll have Sport to your own
fatisfatlion.
§ 5r. When Floods have carried away all
the Filth that the Rain had wafhed from the
higher Grounds into the River, and that the
River keepeth his ufual bounds, and is of a
Whey, Chefnut Brown, or Ale colour, then
it's good to Angle at Ground.
§ 6. After Floods are gone away, and Rivers come within their own naturalBounds and
Banks, their firft clearnefs recovered, and the
Water pure, then it's good to Angle.
§7. A little before any Fifh fpawn, they
come into the gravelly, fandy Fords, to rub
and loofen their Bellies, and then and there
they bite well.
§8. When Rivers areraifed by Rain, and
yet within their Banks, Fifhfeek fhelterand
eafe in little and milder Currents of fmall
Brooks that fall into larger Rivers, and at the
fides or ends of Bridges, that defend a fmall
fpace of Ground from the impetuoufnefs of
the Stream, or in any low place near the River fide, Filh reft and fecure themfelves from
the rapid Scream ;in fuch a place not too deep,
you'll find Sport.
§9. At the conflux of Rivers, andwhereit
ebbeth and floweth, Fifh fometimes bite very
well, ia the ebb moft ufually, fometimes when
it floweth, rarely at full Water.
§ 1 o.In February,March,beginning of April,
September&nd all WinterMonths,Fiih bite beft
in P4
The Angle*'
in the Sun-fhine, warmth, and middle part of
the day, no Windftirring, the Air clear 5 but
in the Summer Months, that is, from the
tenth of April, unto the end oiAugufl^ early
in the Mornings and in the Evenings, until
Sun-fet (or after the Sunsfetting, frommw
May, until the end of July) and dark, windy,
gloomy, lowring, cool or cloudy Weather, is
beft to Angle in: And if you can guide your
Tools, and find fhelter, no matter how
high the Winds be, fo they be not Eaft*
erly.
§11. Fifh rife beft at the Fly after a Shower
that hath not mudded the Water, yet hath*
beaten the Gnats and Flies into the River, you
may, in fuch a Shower, obferve them to rife
much, if you can but endure the Ram.
The beft Months for Fly, are March^ April
and May: In cooler Months, Angle in tbq*
„.v warmth of the day ^ in warm Weather abont*
nine in the Morning, and three a Clock in fjtel
Afternoon, are the very chief times to Angle
in, if any gentle gale blow, and often in a
warm Evening, efpecially if the Gnat plaj;f
much: And likewife Fifh rife well when the
Weather is calm, cloudy, dar4c and gloomy*
or gloomy, dark, and a little windy.
^ 12. In calm, clear, and Star-light Nights
(efpecially if the Moon fhine) great Fifhi
Trouts efpecially, a*e as wary and fearful, as
in dark, cloudy, gloomy and windy days, and
ftir not, but if the next day prove dark> cloudy,
gloomy Fadt Mecunty Sec.
gloomy and wmdy,and.$he water in order^Kiii
may be fure of Sport, if there be ftore of Fifh ia
the River: For having abftained from Food all
night, tliey are more hungry and eager, and
the darknefs and windinefs of the day, make!
them more bold to bite.
§ 13. In fmall, clear Brooks, if you com*
in, or immediately after a Shower that hath
railed the Water •, or take it juft as any Mill
Water begins to come down, a«d fo go along
with the courfe of the Water, Fifh, efpecially
Trouts, will then bite wett^ fee then they
come forth to feekFood, which they expect
the water to bring down.
§ 14. In May efpecially, and generally all
Summer, if the Morning prove extream cold,
as fometimes it doth (although there be no
Froft) Fifh bite not to any purpofe, until the
day become warmer; and if ic prove cold all
the day long, they bke beft where the Sun
fhines, but not at all in the fhady parts of the
River.
§ 15. If the day bedark,cloudy and gloomy,
in the Summer,no matter how high the Winds
be, fo they be not Eafterly, and you be able
to manage your Tools.
§ i6k After the River is cleared from a
Flood, Fifh rife very well; being glutted with
Ground-baits, they then covet and defire the
Fly, having wanted it a time.
§ 17. Morning and Evening are beft for
Ground-line, for a Trout, or other Fifh, ia
clear $6
The Angler's
clear Weather and Water; but in dark, gloomy, cloudy Weather, or muddy Water, you
may Angle at Ground all day.
§ 18. Great Fifh, as Trouts, &c. feed moft
in the night, efpecially if it be dark or windy,
and then bite not next day, uniefs dark or
windy it prove, and then a little in the Afternoon only.
§ 19. The Wind blowing from the Souchor
Weft, is good to Angle in, the North-wind
is but indifferene,and the Eaft-wind very bad.
§ 20. All Fifh bite keener and better, efpecially in Summer, in fwift, rapid, ftony,pebly,
gravelly Rivers, than in thofe that run gently,
and glide on Slime and Mud.
§ 2i. Some may expect me to infert the
Elective Times moft propitious to Angiers,ac-
cording to the Rules of Judicial Aftrologers^
but they muft pardon me herein, fince 1 am
fufficiently convinced of the Vanity thereof\
and it would rather be an Unkindnefs, than
Favour, by puzzling our Angler with their ridiculous Notions, as unferviceable to him, as-
falfe in their Foundations. But let our Ingenious Angler eletf; a cloudy, gloomy or windy
Day5 and the Wind not Eafterly, but either
Southerly or Wefterly; and ufe proper and
neat Tackle, and fuitable Baits for the River,
Seafon, and Fifh he defigns to catch, and then
I doubt not, but he'll conclude with me, that,
Sapiens dorminahitm Aftris*
C HAP. Fade Mecum. &c.
97
CHAP.   X.
Observations on the Trout.
MY next Difcourfe fhall be of the feveral
fortsof frefh water Fifh, wherein I fhall
only tell you of little more than their Haunts,
(which isthe place proper to Angle in for them)
their particular times of biting, feafon, fpawn-
ing and Baits, omitting much that might be
faid of each Fifh, becaufe this is intended to
be a Summary of the Anglers Art, and more
for Practice than Theory ; and for that the
Trout is the moft excellent Fifh, by the vogue
of the moft curious Palates, my firft Difcourfe
fhall be of him.
His Haunt.
§ i. A Trout loveth fmall purling Rivers
and Brooks, that are very fwift, cryflai and
clear, running on Stones, Pebbles or Gravel;
he feeds whilft ftrong, in the fwifteft Streams,
and more ufually in the fide of the Stream
than in it, fometimes in the deepeft part of it,
( efpccialfy if he be a large one ) and near the
banks, or behind a Stone,   block, or forrie "\
bank that fhoots forth with a point into the Ri- )
ver, upon which the Stream beareth much, I
H and f Js The Angler'§\
1
1
and caufeth a whirling of the Water back by
the Banks fide,mu.ch like the Eddy of the Tide:
And he the more willingly maketh choice of
this place, if there be a fliade over his head,
as a Bufh, Foam or hollow, hanging Bank,
under which he can fhelter himfelf • or behind
a Stone, Log, or fome fmall Bank, that fhoots
into the River, which the Stream beareth u#-
on, where he'll lie watching for what cometh
down the5tream,and fuddenly catcheth it up £
fometimes in the Eddies betwixt two Streams,
and in the Returns of a Stream he lies. His
hold is ufually in the deep, under a hollow
place of the Bank., root of a Tree, or Stone,
which he loveth exceedingly • and fometimes,
but not often he's found in Weeds. In the
Spring, and latter end of Summer, he'll ply
at the tail of a Stream, but in mid May, at
the upper end; ( and fo do mft Fifh: ) If his
hold be near, he'll ftay long in a place. As
the Weather in Spring grows warmer, fohe
grows ftronger, and departs from the deep,
or dead ftill Waters, into the Sharp Streams
and Gravel; yet the beft Trouts often in Summer, in Exceflive Droughts, are driven out of
the fmall and fhallow Streams, and retire into
the plain Deeps, where you may catch them
with dibbing, or on a dark, gloomy, cloudy
and windy day, that furls the Water, with the
Caft- fly. Thereare feldom any ftore of Trouts
in Rivers that foftly glide through plain, le*
vel and champaign Grounds \ for they gene*
rally Fade Mecum, Sec.
rally live nearer thefource, or Spring-head of
Rivers.
§ 2* If there be great ftore of Chubs in the
River, you fhall only catch Trouts in the
Streams, in March, April, beginning of May
and September^ becaufe in the four hot Months
Chubs come into the Streams, and then drive
out moft of the Trouts, by the Opinion of very good Anglers.
Spawning time, feafon, &C. of Trouts
§ 3. Trouts, contrary to moft Fifh, fpawn
about Martinmas, in fome Rivers a Mllle earlier or later, but moftother Fifh fpawn in the
Spring or Summer; he's in feafon from the
beginningof March uatil Michaelmas, but his
very chief feafon is the end of May.TheFem&te
hath a lefs Head, deepetBody, and is ufually
better Meat fhsn the Male ; the beft are ufually red or yellow, and fome white, yet good,
but thofe rarely found; fome Soils nourifh
them better than others, for in the fame River
you fhall in one Field catch one lank, lean,
and with a great head, and in the next Field
one fa% -d&M, lefty, red, fat, and with a
fmall bead} they die quickly after taken, but
the Eel, Carp and Tench, live long out of
their properElements they andSalmons will mi-
raculouflypafs thorougband overWiers,FiO0d*
gates, fmall Catara&s and Fifh Garths. They
are a greedy, devouring and ravenous Fifh ♦,
H 2 and IOO
The Angler's
IS
and in their Seafon nimble, quick, and ftrive
long and vigoroufly for their Lives* an#^e|j
run among Roots, Weeds, or any thing to
entangle the Line, or break it, and when ftruck
will endeavour to run to the end of the Line,
they like a large Bait at ground, and his ground
bait muft dragon the ground; Flies they take
moft at top of the Water,or fometimes within
2 or 3 inches of it: with Minnow or Loach he's
caught within a foot of the furface of the Water,and fometimes lower by Trowling. They
are of a fudden growth, yet no long-lived Fifh*,
at full growth they decline in Body, and grow
in the head until death. Some Rivers breed^
very large, thick and good Trouts, others
generally fmall ones, not above 9 or 10 inches in length, but very numerous. Trouts in
Seafon have their Bodies adorned with red
Spots, but the Salmon with black or blackifh
Spots, and indeed fome efteem the Salmon (and
that not irrationally) to be no other Fifh than
a Sea Trout -, becaufe of their fmall difference
in fhape, nature, and qualities from Trouts,!|
that live continually in the frefh Streams and
Waters, j
On the very top of Cadier Arthur Hill in
Brecknockshire, there walmeth forth a Spring of
Water, and this Fountain in manner of a Well
is deep, but fourfquare, having no Brook or
Riveret iffuing from it, yet are there Trouts
found therein.
AtForedidge 'mKent.areTioutsof afive-fold
Remark, Fade Mecum^ ckc.
10 I
R^fiark, i.J They equal Salmons in bignefs.
2. In their beft feafon they cut white, and not
red or yellow, as moft Trouts do. 3. They
remain nine Months in the Sea, and tfjree
Months in the Frefh Water, and obferve their
coming into the Frefh Water almoft to a Day.
4'HSontrary to moft Trouts., they have been
obferved to be but once caught with an Angle-
y. They eat nothing in the Frefh Water, but
are thereby only fuftain'd, as thofe that have
diffected them do think.
In Northumberland, there is a Trout cali'd a
Bull-Trout, greater and bigger than any in the
Southern parts, and there are in many Rivers
relating to the Sea, Salmon Trouts, as much
different from others in fhape and fpots, as
Sheep in fome Countries differ one from another in their fhape and bignefs; in the River
Kennet near Hunger ford in Barkjhire9 there is
great plenty of Trouts fignally large and good,
alfo the Stower in Kent, which runs through
Canterbury, is faid to breed the beft Trouts in
the South Eaft of England^nd thofe in Wandle
near Cajhalton in Surrey, and Amerly in Suf-
fexj and in Dove, Wye, Lathkin, and Bradford \n Derbyjhire, Ribbel,zn& IrkjnLancaJhire,
and in Vsk^ and Wye, in Montnouthjhire, are
accounted excellent Trouts.
Mr. Walton fays, that Hampfture exceeds all
England, for fwift, fhallow, clear, pieafant
brooks and ftore of Trouts 5 the fame opinion
Mr.Cotton hath of Derbyjhire.^ efpecially of the
H 3 Rivers 102
The Angler's
Rivers Dove, and Wye, and the Brooks Lath**
kin, and Bradford, which Rivers and Brooks,
he fays, breed the reddeft, beft, and moft admirable Trouts in England.
But to fpeak impartially, I think none can
truly determine, in what River or Brook are
the moft and beft Trouts •, becaufe England
and Wales, hath fo many Rivers and Rivulets
plentifully ftored therewith ; that it would
puzzle the AccuteftNaturalift to refolve which
ought to have the preheminence, and be moft
efteemed.
Thefe Fifh are found, and principally affect
to lye near, and towards the fources and
Spring-heads of Rivers,and the Trouts are better or worfe, bigger or lefler, according to the
nature of the Soils on which the River runs;
Pure, Clear, Cryftalline, and Tranfparent Rivers and Rivulets, running on Rocks, Stones,
or Pebbles, efpecially on Lyme Stones, as&«eri
perimentally found to breed and afford the
moft delicate and beft Trouts.
When ever you make an Artificial Palmer-
worm or Fly, which is to be made with a
Hackle Feather, if you ufe a brown or red
Hackle, then be fure to dub with red Silk, if a
dun Hackle, then dub with yellow or Limon
coloured Silk j if a black Hackle, then dub
with blew or sky coloured Silk -. and they
are excellent for Trouts.
Jl
Makf Fade Meetim, Sec. 10:
Baits for their mt.
§ 4. Principal Baits for Trouts at the
Ground are Worms, as the Brandling Giit-
tail, Meadow-worm, Tagtail,and red Worm,
but for a mighty Trout the Dew-worm well
fcoured i the two firft are the principal Worms
for him all the Year, both in clear and muddy
Waters; the other for waters difcoloured with
Rain: Then a Cod-bait which is eit her for top
or bottom, but always to be ufed in clear waters Only; fo is the Clap-bait, and the Water-
cricket. He'll take the Palmes fly, or Wooll-
bed, and all forts of Flies both Natural and Artificial at top of the water, efpecially the Palmer-fly, Water-cricket, Stone-fly, Green-
drake, Afh-fly Tern-fly,and Ant-fly. He'll like-
wife take a God-bait, and Clap-bait that are
fa&itiotfs* or counterfeited with yellow Wabf*
Shammy or Buff, as before is dire&ed,Ghap.4.
Sometimes alfo he takes the Oak-worm and
Hawtharn-Wdrm, at top of the water, and
fometimes within the water, but always in
clear wates*
The Minnow, Bull-head, his Guill Fins cut
off, and the Loach efpecially, are excellent
Baits in a clear Water for great Trouts in
March, April and September,about Mid-water,
to Trowl with in the Streams, or on dark,
cloudy, gloomy, windy days in the Deeps.
A Trout will alfo take all forts of Bobs,
H 4 Palmers, 104 The Angler's
Palmers, Catterpillars, young Frogs, Gentles,
Dores, the young brood of Wafps, Humble-
bees, and Hornets; Beetles, their Legs and
•uppermoft Wings cutoff; Grafhoppers, their
Legs and outmoft Wings cut likewife off;
as the Brandling, Gilt-tail, Meadow-worm,
Tag-tail, Red-worm, and Dew-worm, are the
beft Worms for the Ground Angle, to be
fuited reflectively to the temperature and colour of the River, ( although the Brandling,
Gilt-tail, and Meadow-worm, are for either
muddy or clear Waters and perhaps the beft *,
fo is the Cod-bait, Clap-bait, Water-cricket,
Palmer-worm, Stone-fly, Green-drake, Oak-
fly, Fern-fly, Ant-fly, and Artificial Fly, the
beft for the Trout at the top of the Water
when clear. Dibble with the Water-cricket,
Stone-fly, Green-drake, Grafhopper, and
Sharn-bud, as they feveralJy come in feafon}
dibalfb with the Oak-fly, and a Cod-bait, at
point of the Hook, and let them fink half a
foot, or a foot within Water, and it's a dead
bait for a Trout; Alfo a Clap-bait, with Ar-
tificialHcad and Wings, as Cod-bait is ufed, is
excellent for top, in like manner ufe the Oak-
worm, and Hawthorn-worm, orGifc&i-grub.
Of each of thefe particular baits, foe morfljt^
the Chapter of Baits.
The Fade Mecum, Sec.
The ways to Angle for Trouts.
§ 5. The way to Angle forTroutsatGround,
is with the running Line without any float
theron, and with 1 or 2 fmall pellets of Lead
for Plumbs, &c Or he's caught by float Angling at Ground, at Mid-water by trowling, at
top of the Water by dibbing,and the Caft-Fly,
of all which ways you'll fee more particular
defcriptions hereafter: Only let me not forget
to inform vou, that when you Angle in a clear
Water, either for Trouts, Graylings, or Salmon Smelts, if you can attain fo much Skill
and dexterity as tp Angle with a fingle Hair for
2 links next Hook, as is in the 2 Chap Sec. 15.
and 12 directed, you will certainly catch %
Trouts for one,for any that Angles with 3Hairs
next the Hook, and although you'll now and
thenlofea great Trout by his breaking your
Line3yetif you had not been fo fmall tackled,te'h
to one he had never bit, and the numeroufnefs
of Fifhes bites compensates the lofs; and obferve that you may Fifh with lefs hazard at
bottom than top with fine Tackle, becaufe'a
Trout at Fly [hoots or fprings with a rapid
agility at your bait, and from you when he
hath taken it, with his head generally down^
wards, but at the Ground or Mid-water, he
takes the bait gently, and therewith glides far
more leifurely; likewife a Trout takes lefs
notieeof a thick Line at top than bottom, by
reafon \o6 The Anglers
reafon of his eagernefs. The excellent proportion, ihape, length, true plying, gentlenefs,
freedom from top-heavinefs, and well mounting of the Hafle-Rod for clear Waters, foi
Trouts, Grailings, and Salmon Smelts, contributes much to your fuccefs in this way, tog««i
ther with your own freedom from rafh and ea*
ger humors: And if your Hair be ftrong,*.]flj
may eafily overcome and mafter a Trout 13 inches long with a fingle Hair next Hook, efpecially if you have water-room, and be unmo-
jefted with Wood or Trees.
Chief Biting time for Trouts.
§ 6. A Trout bites beft in a muddy rifing
Water, or in a Water that is clearing after a
if lood, or in dark gloomy, cloudy, or windy
weather, early in the Morning (from mid
April, until the end of Auguft) from Sun rifing
until about half an hour after Ten aClock^nd
from about 2 a Clock in the Afternoon until
Sun fet, and oftentimes in the Evening ; but
9 a Clock in the Forenoon, and 3 in the Afternoon, are his chiefeft and moft conftant hours
of biting at Ground, or Fly, as the water fuits
either : In March, beginning of April, Septem*
her, and part of Otlobery ( for you ought not
to Angle for Trouts after the 15 of Otlober until the end of February ) he'll bite from about
one hour after Sun rifing ail day until almoft
Sun fet, and beft then in warm, Sun-fliiny weather, Fade Mecum^ Sec. 107
:her, and middle part of the day.   March,
Jpril, May and part of June, are his chiefeft
Months ; though he bites well in July, Auguft
and September.   After a fhower in the evening
berifes well at Gnats: And in a warm evening, Jg|
or in the evening of a hot day in Summer, you
may have Sport with dibbing. When he takes
the Minnow and Loach, vide antea.
§ 7. In little Brooks that fall into larger
Rivers, where it Ebbs and Flows only in
frefh waters, or a little brackifh ; if you begin at the Mouth of fuch brooks, juft as the*
Tide cometh in, and go up the brook with
the head of the Tide, and return with the
Ebbing of the water, you'll take good Trouts,
and have mucjjijSport *, and if the Tide do not
muddy the Water, they will alfo rife at the
^y at fuch a time.
§ 8. Vid. Chapter 9. throughout.
I 9. In fmall clear brooks, if you come in, ^
or immediately after a fhower that hath raifed
the Water, or take it juft as any Mill-water
beginneth to come down, and fo go along with
thecourfe.of the Water, Trouts will then bite
well, becaufe they expect the Water will then
bring down Food with it, and they come forth
to feek it: But in fmall brooks or Rivers, when
the Mills ftand and keep up the Water, you'll
have little or no Sport, at Ground efpecially \
and but little with Fly; for the Trout at fuch
time is fear&l, and dare fcarce venture out of
his holdp
§ 10. When
wait io8
The Angler's
§ 10. When you Angle for Salmon orTrout,
and all day long have had little, or rather
no Sport, either atfjSround or Fly,'-^J
^|t, efpecially at the beginning of it,;IJ
until mid-night, or near it, they will not fail
finite,either at Ground or Fly (as the Seaf|H
or Water fuits beft for either) freely and eagerly, if the weather be not nipping cold or
frofty.
§n. When you Angle for Trouts tfith FJfj
or Ground baits,  you need not make above
three or four trials in one place ; for he will
then either take it, <ff taake an offer, orjriffl
ftir not at all.
§ 12. When Rains raife the Rivers, and almoft continually keep them equal with their
banks, or above their ordinary height, Trouts
leave Rivers and larger Brooks, and fly into
fuch fmall brooks,  as fcarce run at all inn
Summers that are dry,  in fuch brooks then
Angle for them.   Trouts generally quit the*
great Rivers and brooks at Michaelmas, and
go into fmall Rills, or Rivulets to fpawrf,  and
are frequently there deftroyed by idle, loofe
and diforderly Fellows, with groping or other-
wife, which does more injury to the breed of
Fifh, than all the Summers Angling.    Thus I
have known a River very plentifully ftored
with Trouts, in three or four years utterly
fpoiied.
§ 13. When you Angle for Trout or Salmon, with Worm or at Ground, let your bait
drag Fade Mecum' Sec.
top
drag on the Ground as little as may be; but ^
touch the Ground it muft, efpecially for >
Trouts : But Mr. Cotton advifes, when you
Angle with a Float, to let the Bait be as near
the bottom as you can, but not drag, which
perhaps may do well -, but the Experience of
the running Line contradicts this Opinion, for
therewith the bait always drags ; and there
is no better way at Ground yet known, for
the catching of Trouts, than the running
Line % Yet,I confefs, if you Angle either with
Cod-bait, Clap-bait, or Water-cricket at
Float, that the bait fwimming very near the
bottom as may be, but not touching ic, may
do beft.
When you Angle for Trouts,and only catch
Minnows,be affur'd there are no Trouts there 5
therefore remove to another place. A young
Trout is a good bait for the Pike.
wm
C HA P.   XL
Observations on the Salmon.
Naturefeafon andJfawning time of Salmon.
\\. THE Salmon is cali'd  the King  of
X   Frefh-water Fifh : Breeds in Rivers
relating to the Sea, yet fo high as admits of
no
wmf iio The Angler's
bo Tincture of Salt, or Brackifhnefs. It is
preferred (by fome) before all Fifhes, whether
Marine, Fluviatile, or Lakifh ; it is wonderful Sweet, and of extraordinary Nourifhment,
and therefore (uniefs eaten moderately)
caufeth Surfeits, if it be pickled like Sturgeon, ftrengchens the Stomach much, and
provokes to an Appetite. The Salmunculi^
Shuins, or Salmon Smelts ( which are about
bignefs of a frefh Herring) are yet lighter and
better food, and eaten as the other, or Trouts $
they are in Seafon almoft all the fix hot
Months in moft Rivers, only the Wye in Mon-
mouth-fhire, hath both Trouts and Salmon in
Seafon, from September to April \ and fo have
Tome ether particular Rivers, but they are
rare. They Spawn in the end of Auguft, or
in September-, having delighted himfelf all Summer in the Frefh waters, (into which he comes
at Spring) in Ottober he returns to Sea, where
he lives till Spring, and grows exceeding-
large | but in the Frefh waters only he grows
Fat, and that in the Summer. If about Michaelmas he chance to be ftop'd by Flood-gates,
or Wiers, from going to Sea, and enforced to
take up his winter Quarters in the Frefh waters, he grows Sick, Lean, ilnfeafonable, Kipper, infipid and Taftlefs, and in one year pines
away and dies. Their Age is about ten Years,
and their Growth is very fudden, after they
get into the Sea, as quickly as a Gofling becomes a Goofe.   They are about five Months
out Ill
Fade Mecuw, Sec.
ut of Seifon, after Spawning. It is faid, that
ur Englifh Salmon is the beft in Europe, and
\eThames beft in England: But in the North^
ehind Lancafter, there is as good Salmon as
oy in England, if judicious Palates are not
liftaken. Salmons when in Seafon, have their
lodies adorn'd with black or blackifh Spots,
nd Trouts with Red.
Moft Rivers in England and Wales, where
hey difembogue themfelves into the Sea, and
b upwards the River, for feveral Miles, are
ibundantly ftored with Salmons; but of prin-
;ipal Note, are the Thames, Severn and Trent,
and Lon at Lane after, and about Cocker fund
Abbey, at Wirkjnton in Cumberland, By well in
Northumberland, Durham,Newcafie upon Tine,
Vee inCbffljire^tnd the Rivers Vsk^znd Wye in
Monmouth-ftir e, wherein are both Salmons and
|f0Uf£ in Seafon all the whole Year. At Kit*
larran upon the Tivy in Pembrookrjhire, where
is a Catadoup, or very high Cataract, cali'd
the Salmon Leap •, and the fall is fo downright
aid high, that People ftand and wonder at the
flight and ftrength, by which they fee Salmons
leap, andget out of the Sea into the River; for
iitoonsswing out of the Ocean to Spawn,
and defies to pafs farther into the River,
when they meet with thisObftacle,as NLr.Dray-
*^ defcrib.es in his fgly Albion.
Here 112
The Angler s
Here when the labouring Fifh does at the
foot arrive,
And finds that by his Strength he does but
vainly ftrive-,
His Tail takes in his mouth, and bending
like a Bow,
That's topfull compafsdrawn, aloft himfelf doth throw.
Then fpringingat his height, as doth a
little Wand,
That bended end to end, and ftarted from
Man's Hand,
Far off it felf doth caft, fo do's the Salmon
Vault*,
And if at firft he fail, his fecond Summer-
Salt,
He inflantly eflays, and from his nimble
.    Ring, *****
Still y erking, never leaves, until himfelf™
fling
Above the oppofing Stream.——
According to which,Aufonius Elegantly writes.
Nee te paniceo rutilantem vifcere Salma, I
Tranjierimy lata cujus vaga verb era cauda
Gurgite de medio fummas refermtur in undas.
In the River Ban in Ireland, there is likc4
wife a Catadupa, or as is vulgarly cali'd a
Salmon Leap. This Rivers head is in the
Mountains of Mown in the County of Down,
and! Fade M&ftwty Sec.        4* I \
mp jpifl&sf ^through Lough Eaugh, >ffijm&%&
^irfc'SlargeLake in the Coxi\i6frh8 Gtlran ;•
rflifs River (fays Mr.Cambden) bt^fefls Salmons in abundance,' above any cthe*°River in
m$$r(rpe ; becaufe, as fome think it exceeds
ifiFoiher for clearnefs; in which fort of Wa-
^S4lmons take a fpecJSf delight. It's almoft
incredible, (faysMr.C?^^»,fpeakingof the
Rivers Done and Dee at Aberdeen in Scotland ;)
what abundance d$$almons, as wellsthfele Rivers as others in Sffiiftmi on both, fides of the
Realm do breed. This Fifh was altogether
unknown unto Pliny, uniefs it were the-Efix of
the Rhine, but in this North part of Europe
very well known.
In Autumn, they Engender in fmaller Rivers, and fhallow places for the moft part,
whereandwhen they daft thekapawn,and cover
it over with Sand *, and then they are poor and
lean,fo that they feem almoft to be nothing hue
Skin and^ones.   Of that Spawn ifrfctfe following Spring, there comes a fry of tender
little Fifhes, whiiffl3making towards tfHef Sea,
in a fmall time grow to their full bighra/ and
returning^ack again tdftek for the fame Ri-
TO?,-where they^were bred, (which they
always endeavour to c^Bieback into) they
ftrive and ftruggle a^lifft the Stream, and
whatfoever lieth in their way, to hinder their
paffage, with a jerk of their Tail, and a certain leap, (whence perhaps cali'd Salmons a
Sdliendo ) asaforefaid, to the wonder of the
I be* 14
J he &ng|ec'$
li
'tm
beb&tfegs* They nirnjjjy whip over, a^nd ftay
in thefe Rivers of theirs un til they breed j during which time it's a Law in Scotland, they
foonJ4/}ofJ^eaught$ viz.. from th^A/fumpti-
$p^£pur Lady (which is tjie \f^^L(^^y
to St. Andrew's Day [Ngwtftber tfr§ jguY flfl
they ate reputed amongft thegreateft Commodities of Scotland; Becaufe it's there enaft*
ed, none fhall be fold to Englifhmen, but for
Engfjfl? Gold and nothing elfe. So Trouts
caught in the Lake Lemanns at Geneva, are a
gr^tpartof the M^^jMi^^ j^^^^'/g
The Inhabitants on both fidesof Solway Frith
in Scotland, at Low-wat?r, onHorfehack with
Spears Hunt Salmons which are there very
pie rK ifpi.:! i*^      *$£&
The Salmon's Haunt.
6 2. .$alpb$s love large fwift Rivers, where
it Ebbeth and Floweth; yet, fometimes they
are found in leffer Rivers, high up the
Country, chiefly in the latter end of the Year*
when they come thither to Spawn: He like-
wife delights in the fwift and violent Streams,
and the cleareft pebly, gravelly Rivers, ufor
ally with Rocks or Weeds. He ftays not long
in a place, (as the Trout will) but is ambitious ftill to go nearer the Springhead, nor
does he lie (as the Trout and many other
Ilfty' do) near the Water-fide, or fen^ajH
Roots of Trees, but fwims in the deep and
broad Fade MetiUnti
broad parts of the Water, and afiiaHy in the
na$$<ne, and near |^<3r©und, where he's to
be Jiflied for. But the Salmon Smelts commonly lie in the rough and upper pa& of a
gentle Stream, and in the middle thereof.
Salmon's principal biting time.
§ 3- Salmons beft biting time is nine a Clock
in the forenoon, and three a Clock in the Afternoon, in a clear Water, and when fome
Wine! bloweth againft the Stream ; and the
only Months areiy#frX$&Apyit, to the end of
■4&2$r* When «r#ck he ufuatfy falleth to
plunge and leap, but does not ordinarily endeavour to run to the end of the Line, as the
'E^ntwill. Young Salmons are very tender
Mouthed, as well as Grailings •, aad.dre frequently [jpftr^fjt^if breaking hold, after
Hooke4gvrhcnw8|^pe Perfons faften two
Hooks together, in like manner, as fome
double Pike Hooks, lately ufed iu Trowling
a|| made, not with the points oppofice to one
another, but almoft a quarter of a circle from
each other 5 and on them they make their Fly,
that if one Hook break hold, the other Hook
may pot fail.
Baits for the Salmon.>-.
,&db^S9^MK^^moni  the principal
Ground bait is the Dew-worm, well feowred ^
I 2 and IK
The Anglers
II
and for the Small Salmon Smelt, about bigra|
of a Herring, the Brandling, Gilt-tail iifii
Meadow-worm well fcoured, are th$'bd|
Ground-baits ; they will likewife take excjEfjOT
ing well in the Bop of both forts,theCod^5iSH
Water-ioufe and Counterfeit Cod-bait (with
yellow Bees-wax) in clear Water.
For Flies* he takes the fame that the Trout
generally doth, whether Natural orA^^ilOii
but the Natural Baits are generally taketftreii
ter than the Artificial Fly, efpecially by the
fmall ones.
If you put a Cod-bait or Gentle, either
Natural or Artificial, but^Natural bettd^'$B
point of your Dub-fly Ho^fo^ithey wjlra$|
the Dob fly better,  efpecially th^SSffiSjf
Smelt.   Flies made for the great S^ffl^PSM
better, being made witftfeurWngs^
two only; and with-fi$btk$t than withtiftftMf
of four j And if beb inl^acH-pai r ofwings|$w
place a different colour for the B°<|f^{fPw
Fly, it is much better,1' wtitfch argues?that he
lovese too Have feveral Fii^s^on the Hodjpii§
o-xe,. for the Fly looketh%s if it wercr3?|l
vers Flicstogether.
The wings muft be madercanlfifog one tiKjf
hind the other, whether four or fix; alfo he
df lights to have both body gnd wings of the
moft gaudy colour, with lolg wings and tails.
Silver-twi.ft andGold-twift, are good to ufe
indubbfng the bodies. He'sfeftight at Ground,
w nh flwming Line or Ffoatflne Bait touching,
Piii& or FadeMecumy Sec.
or as near the Ground as poflible; and, fome-
tiemes he bites welliower than mid Water, at
Ground-baits. He's caught with Dub-fly5Cod-
bait, Clap-bait, Water-cricket, Oak-worm
and Counterfeit Cod-bait at top of theWaier;
and the factitious Cod-bait will be taken by
ttel, well withisithe Water. The great Salmon wHteakeMinnowsrand Loaches fometimes,
and then you may Angle for the great Salmon,
with a ring of Wire on the top of the Rod,
through which the Line may run to as great a
length, when he's Hooked, as is needful; and
to that end, fome ufe a Wheel about the mid-
dleof the Rod, or near their Hand, wnich may
be far better underftood by feeing one, thsn
defcribingit, vid.Chap. ip. Sett. 10.13-
CHAP.   XII.
Observations   on the  limber or
Grayling,   Sec.
Nature,haunt and feafon of tht^Yaylwgfkc,
UMber and Grayling differ only in Name,
only fome call the largeft Umber, and
the fmaller Graylings.   They delight in Marl,
I 3 Clay,
1 11
f
The Angler's
day, clear Waters, fwift: Screams, and far
from the Sea j the Hodderr Dave7 Treat and
Derwen, in the Counties of York* Derby and
Stafford, are beft ftoied witffc theoialf any RU
vers in England. The biggeft is not above 18
ii^ebes llongi They are in feafon all the Yeai?£
but their principal feafon isDec ember .at which
time he's black about the Head, Gullla, andt
down bis Back, and has his Belly of a dark
grey dapled wish black fpots; fcfeey are very
}0% after mid April, and are faid to b§ of 1^
Tiout kind. His Flefh even ia hk worft fea*
fen, is firm, while, will eafily calve*, and is
excellent Meat at all times, but when at beft,
little inferiour tot be haft Trout; andinSa#jfe
ferland fcheyi aKfcprefer'd before Trouts,hut not
fo in England. He's a very nimble Fifh, fwift
fcimmer, but dead-hearted afte^ Hooked, hat
his Teeth in his Throat, is eager* and biteth
freely, and wiUSi&en bite at tlie fame Fly, if
not prickt •, he's tender mouth'd,and often loft
by breaking hold; therefore \ wfyeu you ufe a
Fly, vid. cap, 11. I 3.
§ 2. When you Angk-for him within water,
hisBait by no means muft dragon theGround,
he being a Fifh that ufually fwims nearer the
middle of the Water, and lies always loofe*
and more apt to rife, than defcencl, even to a
Ground- bait • therefore let your Bait be about*
6 or 9 inches from the bottom, and to thai
end ufe a Ffogt of Cork, rather than the Rua*
ning line, if you Angle particularly for thts/
Mm Fade Vkitmt, &c.        rip
BMft y but if for Trim and Grayling, t&ri a
Running-Line,   d
Graylings Baits.
§ -3. He generally takes the fame Bans that
the Trout does: But his principal G ©arid-
baits dWfthe Brandling, Gilt-taiI,Tag-fall, and
tl^ilWsadow-worm wtil fcour'd, Cbd^Ml,
Bafk*worniasd Flag-worm; and at top he's
tBkfffc either With Itetural or Artificial Patata#>
and Flits (iefpecislly the Camlet-fly, and a
&jfmtide of Purple-^ool, and another made
of light tawny Hair-c&iWtet) as the Trouts
iKfiw he'll likewife caki the Ekttkfcfbb and
Clap-bait, &c4
CHAP.   XIII.
Observations on the Peatch.
Nature, Hatittt, &c. of Pearch.
§ i. T TE loves a gefitte Stream of a reafon-
Xli abie.ctepth, feldom fhallow, clofe
by a Hollow  Bank ;   and although Salmon,
I 4 Trout m
<nao       ^>Hhe Angler's
Trout and Pearch delight in clear and fwift
Rivers, pebly, gravelly bottoms^ $Kj green
Weeds, yet Pearches are fometimes found,
but not in fuch plenty and goodnefs, in (low,
flimy and muddy Rivers, as about Oxford,zvA
he frequents creeks and hollownefles about
the Banks.
He's a very good, wholfome, and weli-
tafted Fifh ( efpecially the River-Pearch ) a
bold biter, ravenous, and great devourer of
other Fifh, of flow growth, and not ufually
above 14 inches long, and oftner about 10
or under. He has a Hog-back, arnVd with
fharp and ftifF Briftles, his Skin cover'dioVeff
with thick, dry, hard fcales, and hath (whfcfc
few other Fifh have) two Fins on his Back,
but the Sea Pearch (which is better) hath
but one Fin on his Back, The Pearch is deep
bodied.
Pearches biting time.
§ 2. He'D not bite at all iimes or feafons,
being very abftemious in Winter, only in the
middle of the day ( as other Fifhes Xhen do )
he'll then bite •, in Summer he'll bite all the
day long, in cool, gjooniy, cloudy or windy
Weather, yet principally from feven a Clock
in the Forenoon, until after ten a Clo<£, and
from about two in the Afternoon, till about
fix, and fometimes later, even till Sun-fet,
tlKfelaiiy in hot Weather, and middle of Sum-.
raer. Fade Mecumf&ec
mer. He's ftrong, and will contend hard and
long for his Life •, they accompany one another
in Troops, (as all FinVthstt? have Scales do )
and if there be thirty or forty in a hole, they
may at one ftanding becatcht, one after another ; be fure you give him time to bite, for
he's often mift for want of that.
Pearches Spawning time.
§ 3 X We Ipawns but once a Year, and S^
about February or March, and carries his Teeth
in his Month, which is large.
Baits for Pearch.
§ 4. His prihjti^ai1 Baits are Brandling,Dcw-
worm, Red-^orm and*Meadow-worm, all to
be well fcowftd, and the Minnow, Loach and
fifetl Frog v^e alfo takes Bobs of both forts,
Oak-wbrfiis, Gentles, Cod-bait, the young
brood of; "^Vafps, Hornets and Humble-bees,
Colewoft£Worm,WodI{fed} and fometimes any
Bait but the F^which he never meddles with:
He's beft caught with a Float, your Bait being
about 6 inches from the Ground 5 fometimes
they are wfjSnft about mid Water, or lower,
and fome will fuffer the Bait to touch theground,
efpecially the Worm,and judge it beft.Thev are
ufed ast^its for the Pike, the Fins being all cut
off, butlft the worft bait of any, becaufe the
Pike hath a very great Antipathy againft them.
CHAP. ppa The Angler £i
Qbfervations m the Pop*,  or Knff.
§ 1 TD°Pe raWl™ likeineSearch, both
JL in nature, difpofition and fhape, but
leffer, being no bigger than a large Gudgeon,
is a pkafanter tafted, and better jFkh than the
j$e§i£h -, a greedy biter, and commqnJjy abundance of tl?em lie together in one referved
place, where the water runs deep and quietly.
And one may catchforfy or fifty at a ftanding,
and in fandy places they delight and grew exceeding fat and fweet. He takes the fame Bait
that the P<p$h does, and bitest at the fame
tim€;/prmcipallyhey|^kethekiallredWorm,
Meadow-worm and Gilt-tail \ ufe a Fi©at>and
Angle for him as the Pearcfe,, and t>ait theJffH
ter wtoEattf^or Sandra* for the Gudgeon.
For escellentPearcb andRuff,theRiver Tare,
that runs by Norwich? is famous v and Dr. t^fjjH
in hisBook cali'd, RariorumAnwaliufn-tiiftori*,
gives the Ruffa new Latin Name,, and that
not improperly v for it's all the Body o|«
sough, and hath fharp and prickly Fins, &dm
lighted! in fandy places, for fhape like unto a
Peafch^im colour brown, and duskiffe abov^,
but pattib yettow beneath, marked by the
Chaws with a double courfeof half .Circles,
the Fade Mecnmy Sec.
the Eye for the upper half of it of a dark brown,
andtheH^wer pd®OjCItfomewhatyeUoMKf
like delayed Gold, the ball and fight thereof
black *, and this fpecial Mark it hath, that there
is a Line goeth along the Back, and fattened to
the Body (as it were) with anoverthwari
Thread, al! to befpotted over the Tail and
Fins with black fpots, which Fins (as doth the
fifth's) ftand and brittle ftifF and ftrong
when the Fiu^utapg^y, but when appeafed,they
fall flat agahj'y tlfcTIefh refembiing that of a
Pearcha is much commended for whoUbmnefs*
and eating tender and fhort.
CHAP.   XV.
Observations on the Gudgeon.
I i. /^\F Gudgeons the whiteffi are beft -,
KJ they are good and pleafent Food,
whoHbm, excellently tafted, of eafiecRgeftion„
nourifhing much, and hicreafing good Blood,
of a fine mape, Sifver- colour'd, and beaudfttf
with black fpots, bofft on his Body and Tail*
He delights in fandy* gravelly bottoms, gentle
Streams and fmaH Rivers, rather than Brooks %
ia the heat of the Summer they are ufually
fcatter'd up and down in great Companies in
the 124
The Anglers
the iihatews of everyT^^^^
f^p^pppM. begin to 1^^ wmt p rSfc
aMtheW^ppM^
River, and ar^]|f^^^^^
tlfea Flpat,arid let yM"%^sfp(^6^ot
dragontheGrdficj. Son^iffl|ii|lg]fe^M
fifhoutariy Float of CoiK^Ht^di with
f|t^nhihgilineras you do for l^ifeltfa^WJS
Water* but it's nocTbg0|^^^^fere be
iftany in a pretty tongb..9j^m|m^mnier|!
BbttheGotft-line I however effie&i beft. Be,
not too hafty with them when they mi?^i-I
caufe they'll fometimes nibble a little before
they take it, the' they commonly take the
Bait pretty furely.
§ x. Theyareavery.wbolfpm andpleafant
Fifh, and breed two orthree times a Year, the
firft time afcout May -day, but always in the
Summer. When you A nglefol them in /hallows., ftir or rake the Sand or Gravel with a
Pole, and they^ll gather to that place, and bite
better j but for the Ruff or Pope, |ou muft
caft Earth or Saijlg into thej^jLj^ei^e your
Bait is, to make them more^greedily take your
Bait | do fo likewife for the Gudgeon.
hee'
Biting Fddi^ihcnmy &c.      ., Jufp,
Biting time, and Baits for Gudgeons.
§ 3. He bites all the day, from the end of
March, till Michaelmas, in or near a gentle
Stream, ^d/requentty a^^ravelly, or rather fandy Ground, but will not bite when very cold,nor for a little time after his fpawining,
wfah^^-jjtyy!, nor immediately after a
Shower or Land^ flood, but will bite well in
^TOy^j^f^M^ther, or in hot, Sunlhiny
Weathei^^^t:§fey'll feldom bite either before Sun^nfe^oV^fi: Sun-fet; but commonly
begin< to bite about an hour after fun-rife,
and ceafe a)vn9i|fT&fore fui^jfet i becaufe they
^^^{d.Ci|3^j|^r devouryvbyi great Fife,
who then are ranging for Food. His principal
Baits are the Gilt-tail, Brandling and Meadow- wofnj $J#fcowred, && the fmall red
wcdb, ahcf|g^j^ke CodrSait, Gentles, or
Wafps fpoie^5^[3^ut nev#rfthe Fly. Fid.
*$&l fyoWfa^v  **es a verX ^cellent Bait for
CHAP is6 ^|he Angler's
CHAP.   XVI.
Observations on the Carp.
§ i. /^Arpfeektniiddy,fandjrb6ttdms,an<I
V7 deeptftiB* Waters, andtfid deepeft,
ftilleft place of PondorRiver,and^iii Wfeeds^
which be loves exceedingly, if you cut Weed*
intfftiver, the better to make a place cmIi
to Angle -ioftoCttps, they will not (tho' tfte£
before feaunted the place very mii^ji) come tfff-a
therragainfortwoortteee MofltHsj tfc^H|
they come near a Boat that you go in wfl
larger Pond or R8m to Angle in fctf tliem, aiv
though Rufhes-or Wefeds interepofe jp ift&j in
fawar^earfuIandfuMl'r tfiereforeftiletlth|l
frefh Water Fox, and{by otfe^iti#^been o?
Rivers. TheSp^wiidfCarp^isv^rygoorf,^?
the Italians thereof make a red Caviare, and'
fell the fame to the Jews, who are prohibited
(as appears by Leviticus, cap. 11.) to eat any
Fifh that want Scales; therefore the Spawn of
the Sturgeon, of which our common-Caviare
is made, is an abomination to them.
Sufex is faid to be the beft furnifhed with
Carps of any County, whither they were firft
brought out of Spain by one WMafcal, about
/ i5«of Fade Mejcumr$ec..
iff^W^3^i^r2ng-Do^' *$H* asthefu$|e*
quent Rhyrrjie intimates: ^z..
i!l||^ Carps and
Beer,
Gan)ffaj|^^QJ% obii
" 1 ^nr^c^cJ^y'.S^jm^d, that in the W&
about the ijle of Marii there are caught very
excellent T&&h and (Jarps.
Spawning time qf Carp, &c.
§ W^pey breed better in Ponds, tharMfc
vers, but not at all in cold Ponds, but in thofe
W*h^Mffl$$^ free from blufteringWifj^^:
SiwSW^tf^tf^^ti^W1 -Pits tn2t have clean Cfaitf
bottoms, or in new Ponds, or Ponds that lie
dry a wpter feaf&w oftt they breed not fo
w|^*e the like the Water and Soil, thej%
breed tn|$ko* four dmes a Year, and fyMx
fi?ft fpajpuig time is about Mayday * and as
their increafe is v^nj^mlfor their multitjua&L
which is fo great as to overftock the POndi,
and thereby'bQth ftarve, themfelves and other
Fifh therein, fo their decay is myfterious, all
beingc|i;en^or^aodnou&knQy^|iow^ They
^B?#%i^Bl^#^ ^ij^Qj'Cofty Years, and
fome fr&ro&rek and ar? y^^rary to the tf$Bb
better for Age and bignefs, the largeft is rarely
above 18 or 20 inchesVjpng *, they are; a fat,
fweet Jl
)
PBT       The Ang!ef¥^
fweet and foft Fi|^^^^)^|^^n the
Female, and the white better tfigffl the yellow,
andarebeft in March, and will live long out
of Water. They begin fo fpawn Wthree Years
old, and continue to do fo tillMpM ^jfcfH
feldomcacch Cafm in a River witrAngmifif
but in Ponds you may take ftore j they'll feed
piGrafs in the Poncff'o^les^W^^^
Carps chief biting time.
^ 3. They bite very early ahcHatelin April,
Mayffunezjnd July and Auguft,and inthe Sum-
. j[$i|all night in the ftitf$art of the water •, have
a longJipd,and k^fpljand out of fight,whe^i
you An^fe for them. When you ftrike him, if
you giyelim not pla^le'llbre^W.£5for he's
ftrong, will ftruj^llifehg and;^tori|; he's
\ caught^iWtd Water, Jbmetime^ lower,\aflB
* fometimes higher, as the Weatrfet ii* and ufe
always a Float of Qtflfl; wheOi lar8e CarP
tpf£ the Bait, he^fins to the farther fide dj.
the River or Poind]. Bait the place you Angle
in, for them, with ground Malt.
Baits for the Carp.
Hi\ ^ Ba*ts ^or the CarP' are Gentles>
Wafp§^obs, fweet Paftes, Dew-worm, Red-
worm, Marfh'Worm,_Gilt-tail, Flag-worm,
Cod-bait,Bread-grain boiled foft. Mr Walton
advifes to dip a piece of Scarlet, breadth of a
Die, Fade Mecum^ilW
Die, in Oyl of Petre or the Rock, and put it
above theKook, having a Bait of Gentles below. In the heat of the day,- in June and July,
when Carps fhew themfelves on the top of the
water, efpecially amongft Weeds, takeawell-
fcour'd Lob-worm, and caft tfhe fame to them,
as you would Angle with a Natural Fly, and
they will bite, if you carefully keep out of
fight, feed for them.
CHAP.   XVII.
Observations on the Tench*
Haunts of Tench*
W? TT \ i haunts and times of biting are ge-
JLx nerally the fame with the Carp, yet
I have known them in April, on a cloudy, mif-
ling, rainy Morning, the Wind South or Weft,
and warm, bite very well until eleven a Clock.
He loves to feed to/foul Water, and amongft
Weeds, andjift JSk^j^nds, better than Rivers, and Pits better than ei|her/. In fome Pits
they will breed only, and never thrive to any
bignefs, and in others they'll thrive and never
K breed °5 130
The Angler's
breed •, and, like the Eel, he loves muddy
Ponds-, and notwithftanding the ill Character
fome have given of him, yet he's a good and
pleafant Fifh, if eat in his feafon, and well
dreft. He hath large Fins, very fmall and
fmooth Scales, a red Circle about his Eyes,
big, and of a gold colour, and from either
Angle of his Mouth, there hangs a little Barb.
The River Stoxvr, in Dorfetjhire, is particularly commended for plenty of Tench and Eels;
fbis Brecknock-mere,\nBrecknockfhire being two
Miles in length, and as much in breadth, full
of Pearches, Tenches and Eels. The Tench
when rightly pickled, is faid very much to referable Sturgeon in the eating.
t
Spawning time of Tench, &c.
§ t. They fpawn about the beginning of
July, live long out of Water, and by fome
efteem'd the Phyfitian to other Fifh, having a
Medicinal Balm on his Skin; their beft feafon
is from the beginning of September, until the
end of May.
Biting time of Tench.
§ 3. Carp and Tench bite froi&Sun-rife, qJK
til eight a Clock, and from four a Clock in the
Afternoon, until after Sun-fet, but in the hot
Months from Sun-fet all night.
Baits Fade Mecum^ Sec.
Baits for Tench.
§ 4. Angle for them with a Float of Quill,
the Bait being about 2 foot within Water,
fometimes more,fometimes lefs: His beft Bait
is Gentles,Cod-bait, Flag- worm,MarfiV worm
and red Worm well fcoured \ and as you ufe
your Worms, put them by themfelves in Tar,
a little before ufed only, and try whether it
increafes your fport, which many affirm it
does 5 but I could never find any advantage by
it: He'll likewife take Wafps, and Paftes,
specially if fweet ones.
CHAP.   XVIIL
Observations on the Bream.
-sssssr,   1 mi ——————. 1   1       i»i.  ' ■
Nature and Haunts of Bream, &c.
§ 1. T> Ream is a large and ftately Fifh at
JJ full growth, is dangerous to eat by
reafon of Bones, and is a kind of flat Carp,
yet iswhiter,and of betternourifhment 5 breeds
both in Rivers and Ponds, but in the latter
K i betterj pfe
*32        3le AngIer's
better *, if he likes the Water and Air  he'll
be very fat, is long in growing, yet a'great
breeder, evenTo great as to overftock the
Pond, and thereby confume all the fweet E Jl
and ftarve all other Fifh.   Some fay Breams
and Roches mix their Spawn together  and fo
there becomes a fpurious breed of Breams
They fwim in Companies, and he likes gentle
Streams, fandy, clay bottoms, and deepeH
and broadeft part of a River or Pond     He's
caught from Sun-rifing, till eight a Clock  in
a gentle Stream, muddy flimy Water  and a
good gale of Wiud, and in Ponds, the'higher
the Wind, and where the Waves are higheft
2nd nearer the middle of the Pond, the bet*
ter.   Three a Clock, and four in the After-
noon, and fo till Sun-fet, are likewife good
times to take them, but if the day be dark
cloudy, gloomy and windy, Breams will bite
ail £he day.   He fpawns in June, or begin-
ningof July, is eafily taken ; for after one or
two gentle turns, he falls on one fide, and fo
iMM
m
i';m
Brits* Fade Mecnm^ Se
Baits for the Bream.
§ 2. Principal Baits for the Bream, are red
Worm, Gilt-tail, and Meadow-worm well
fcoured, Paftes, Bobs, Flag'worm, Wafps,
Gentles, a Grafhopper, his Legs cut off, and
Flies, under Water, efpecially green Flies.
When he bites, he'll draw the Bait towards the
farther fide of the River. Angle with a Float,
and let the Bait touch the Ground. And if
you bait the place where you intend to fifh,
with ground Malt, it will draw them to that
place, and you'll have far more fport. In the
fame manner you ought to bait the place for
Carps.
CHAP.   XIX.
ObServations on the Barbel.
Barbels Nature and Haunts.
T
HE Barbel is of a fine caft, and hand-
fome fhape, is large,  with fmall
Scales, placed after a moft exact and curious
K 3 /  manner ;
§ 134
The Angler's
manner; fo cali'd from his Barb or Wattels,
at his Mouth under his Nofe: In Summer he
lives in the ftrongeft fwifts of the water, and
under the fhades of Trees *, they much delight
in the fhalloweft and fharpeft ftreams, and
lurk under weeds, feeding on fmall Gravel or
fand, againft a rifing Ground, where he'll root
and dig in the fand with his Nofe like a Hog,
and there nefts himfelf; yet fometimes he lies
about deep and fwift waters,at Bridges,Flood-
gater or VViers, where he'll remain among Piles
or hollow places, and take fuch hold of Mofs
pr Weeds that the fwiftnefs of the water is
not able to force him thence; at the approach of Winter,heforfakes the fwift ftreams
and fhallow waters, and by degrees, retires
to thofe parts of the River that are quiet and
deep.
Spawning time of Barbel, &c.
§ 2. He's none of the beft Fifh either for
wholfbmnefs or tafte, yet not fo defpicable as
fome would make him, though he and the
Chub are efteem'd to be the worft fort of Fifhes,
yet good Cookery makes them of better re*
putation with thofe that eat of them,than they
are in vulgar Opinion. The Barbel (pawns
about April, and the Spawn is very unwhol-
fome, (fomefay) almoft Poyfon, yet they
are often taken by Country People; for they
fcoth ypinjt and purge yiolendy • Aldrepandus
ilitb* Fade Mecunt*, Sec
faith, That the Barbels Flefhtafts well, is tender, of eafy Concoction, and of good Juice,
but full of Bones, which perhaps is the reafon
he'scontemn'd. They grow in feafon about
9 month after fpawning.
Barbels biting time.
§ 3. He bites early in the morning, from
Sun-rife, until ten of the Clock, and late in
the Evening, from four a Clock, till Sun-fet,
and fometimes later. Their principal biting
Months, are from about the twentieth of May,
until the end of Auguft. He'sacunning, wary,
fubtil and ftrong Fifh, will ftruggle long, and
uniefs dexteroufly managed, breaks both Rod
and Line. They flock together like Sheep, and
are at worft in April.
Baits for Barbel.
$ 4. His Baits muft be fweet, clean, well
fcoured, and not kept in mufty, four Mofs, and
his Bait muft touch the Ground, and ro be Angled for with a Float. His prime Bait is Gentles, not too much fcoured,new Chefe, Paftes,
Red-worm and Dew-worm well fcoured , and
try the young brood of Wafps, Hornets and
Humble-bees, and the Bob of both forts. He'll
often nibble or fuck the Bait off the Hook, yet
avoid the Hook's coming into his Mouth.
»4
CHAP. '3* The Angler's
CHAP.   XX.
Observations on the Koch ,   and of
the Dace, or Dare, in fome places cali'd a Showier.
Nature, Haunts, &c.   of Dace an A Roch.
% i. 'TpHE Roch, aftd the Dace, Dare, or
A   Showier, are much of a kind in
ufually fize.   Tney like Gravel spd Sand, and
the deepeft part of the Hirer',  under the
fliadesof Trees, are Fifh of no great efteem
very Simple •, become in feafon about 3 weeks
after fpawr.iig    The Dace or Date fpawn
about middle of March, and the Roch about
the middle of May   who is cali'd the freih
Water Sheep for his fimplicky 5 however is a
very healthful Fifh, whence the Proverb, A:
Jound as a Roch.   Their being fo full of Bones
makes them lefs regarded.   The beft Roch
are in the Thames about London.   The Flelh of
the Dace is foft, fweet in tafte, and of good
nounfliraent 5 and pickled like Anchovis  af-
pcr the Italian manner, with Allomot Salt are
ireipac.h|ca| j fome pickje them {ike Herrings,
the' Fade Mecum, Sec.        137
The Italians take them in Winter, but they are
beft in February and March-* before they have
fpawned. They are efteemed excellent food,
by fome,if rofted or b;oyl'd,and feafoned with
Salt, Vinegar, Oyl, Cinnamon and Pepper.
The Roch is caught in Ponds,within 2 foot or
lefs of the top ; but the Dace fhould have his
Bait within x inches of the bottom, and fometimes to touch the bottom •, both Roch and
Dace bite all the day long, from the rifing
until the fetting of the Sun. Angle for them
with a Float.
§ 2. Beft Baits for them are Earth-bob,
peptles, Cod-bait, Clap-bait, Oak-worm,
Paftes, Wafps, Sheep's-blood, Lip-berries,Pe-
riwinckles, fmall White-fnails, Hawthorn-
worm, Colewort-worm, Cabbage-worm, and
any Worm bred on Herbs, Plants, or Trees,
and Flies,efpeciaily the Ant-fly •, but the Roch
takes Flies beft within the Water, but the
Dace at top of the Water, or within an inch
of it: In Rivers they'll take likewife Brandlings, Gilt-tails, and Meadow-worm well
fcoured j In Ponds Angle for the Roch under
Water-dock Leaves ; they'll alfo take Bread-
grain boiled foft: They are prodigious breeders for Number: They are very excellent
Baits for Pike.   Roches fpawn is excellent to
ff»tt ^i#f^
si
CHAP.
SMasUm
~£d£^=: ,38
The Angler's
CHAP.   XXf.
Obfewatioms on the Chuby ov
Chei>in.
m
m
1
Nature and ff awning tine of the Chub:
§ i. '-p H E Chub is no good Fifh, timorotd
A although large, muft be eaten thd
fame day he's caught -, his Head is the -IB
part of him; his fpawn is good, and he fpawns^
in March} and becomes in feafon a month after fpawning, and is in feafon from mid May,
until after Candlemas, but his beft feafon is
Winter. They ufually fwim many togcthd
in fummer. fcf»<*
ChuPs Haunt.
§ 2. He likes fandy and clay bottoms, Iargl
Rivers, and ftreams fhaded with Trees; in
Summer you'll find many together in a Hole,
Jometimes floating on the top of the water,
they may be then caught by Dibbing * andj|
hot weather he's caught near the mid water
or top; in colder weather nearer the bottom,
or at bottom by a Ledger bait, that is, when
the* Fade Mecum^ Sec.
the Bait reds oa the Ground in a certain
place.
ChuPs chief biting time.
$ 3. They bite from Sun-rife until 8 a
Clock,and from 3 a Clock in the Afternoon till
Snnfet. After ftruck he quickly yields, if a
large one, but the lefler fttuggle briskly and
longer. In winter Months they bite in the middle of the day, and in Sun-fhine.
Baits for the Chub.
§ 3. He'll take almoft any fort of Bait, but
his beft Baits are feven Eyes, and Eel-brood,
each about thicknefs of a ftraw; alfo the Dew-
worm and Red-worm well fcoured •, the Earth
bob, and Brains of an Ox or Cow, Cheefe,
Pafte, and the Pith or Marrow of an Ox or
Cow's Back bone, fat Bacon, thefe are good
fjijts for the cooler Months. In the Summer
Months, he takes all forts of Baits bred on
Herbs, Plants or Trees, efpecially the Oak-
worm, Crabtree-worm, Palmers, Wool-beds,
Catterpillars, Cod-baits, Gentles, the young
brood of Wafps, Hornets and Humble-bees,
Beetles, ther Legs cut off, Dores, Grafhop-
pers, Clap-baits, White fnails, and Black
fnails, their Belly flit that the white appear;
thefe Snails he takes very early in the morning
but not in the heat of day.   He'll likewife take
Mm f4o
The Angler's
Minnows, Loaches and Bull-heads, and ftnall
Frogs, either by night or day; likewife he'll
take Lip-berries, Colewort-worm, Cabbage-
worm, Hawthorn- worm,Fern- fly, great Moth,
the great brown Fly which lives on an OakfflB
aScara-bee, and the Black-bee which. isJuM
in Clay Walls, and tm] HohferCricket^;JEM
peel'd Malt, or Wheat Gripn boyl'd fof&$^H
fo Rarp-berries, Black-berries and M^err^H
He loves a large Bait, as a Wafp, aiicpa QoleJj
wort-worm, and then a Wafp all on the Hook
at a time 5 and he would have diverfe forts ofl
Flies on at once, and a Fly and a Cod-bait, or I
Oak-worm together.
How to Angle for the C huh.
§ 5. He's caught by a Float at mid Wat|fi
or lower, at top by Dibbing, and at bottom by J
a Ledger-bait.   When Cattel in Summer coiq3
into the Fords, their Dung draweth Fi/h into I
the lower end thereof. At fuch time Angle for
Chub,with Tackle and Bait fuitable, and you'll
have fport. Take offthe Beetles Legs and uppermoft Wings when you ufe them $ do the
like by the Gralhopper.
CHAP. Fade Mecum, &c.        141
CHAP.   XXIf.
Observations on the Eel.
Eels their Nature and KJnds^ &c.
§ 1. T7 Els are faid to be bred feveral ways,
3l2j either by Generation, as oiher Fifh,
or of Mud, putrefaction of the Earth, or fome
|E)ew that falls on the Water-fide in May or .
$une, and is condenfed and enlivened by the
Suns calid influence; others fay, when Eels
grow old, they breed others out of thecor-
roption of their own Age. There are 4 forts
H|Eels, the Silver Eel, and the Greenifh or
Ifellowifh Green Eels breed by Generation,
and not by Spawning, her brood coming alive
from her, no bigger, nor longer than a fmall
Pin, are the beft: The blackifh Eel, which
hath a broader, flatter and larger Head than
■Binary, and the Eel with Red Fins; the
blackifh Eel is the worft. They live about 10
years, and after they get into the Sea they
never return, neither do they at any time
go^or fwim up the River they breed in, but always downwards 5 fo that catch what numbers you pleafe with leaps or weels at Mills,
and it's no prejudice to the River.   The^are'
always [4a
The Angler's
always in feafon and very good, but their very
belt feafon is Winter, and their worft in May$
Eels are impatient of cold, for in the 6 cooler
months they ftir not up and down, neither ia
Rivers nor Ponds, but get into the foft Earth
or Mud, and there many of them bed them*
felves together; they feldom ftir in the day
time, uniefs the Water bemudded andraifed
a little by Rain j but are moft ufually caught
in the night.
There is likewife the Conger or great Sea-
Eel, which has a white, fat and fweet Flefh,
nourifhing to Excefs 5 therefore dangerous, becaufe of forfeits. They are firft par-boyi'd ia
Water, with ftore of Salt and fweet Herbs,
then broyl'd, fo they are exceeding good food jj
Or, you may firft par-boil them in Water and
Salt, then highly feafon them, and bake them
in a Pot in the Oven. The fmall ones are taken between Glome ft tr and Tewksberry, and b©4
low Warrington in Lancashire *, the great ones
only in the fait Sea.
There is likewife a Lamprey, or Lampronjj
whofe Flefh is fweet, good, and of much
nourifhment, increafing Luft ; and by reafon
of its Lufcioufnefs, eafily caufes forfeits, if
much eaten, and is for that caufe bad even
for ftrong Stomachs, efpecially fuch as are
Paralytick, Gouty, Agueifh, or Old. This
Lamprey is beft in March and AfriU being
then fatteft; in Summer they are harder and
leaner. The Italians beat them on the tail till
almoffl '43
Fade Mecumy Sec.
almoft dead, then gagg them wkh a whole
Nutmeg, and flop every oylet-hole with a
Clove, then caft them into Oyl and Malmfey,
with Grambs of Bread, and a few Almonds
blanch'd and rainced,to correct and better taeir
Flefh,~and then broil them, They are about a
yard long, live in the Sea in Rocky places,
and in thfc mouths of Rivers, and weigh about
12 pound weight. But I fufpect my felf to be
impertinent, in faying thus much of the Conger and Lamprey, fince they afford the Angler
no fport, therefore! will return to my Eel,
and tell you that the Eel hath a very fweet
Flefh, fat, white, pleafant, and yields much
nouriftiment $ they are beft rofted and broiled^
or firft par-boil'd in Salt and Water, and then
rofted or broiled, which makes them very tender, if par-boil'd firft *, or after par-boiling
jfeSalt and Water, you may fry them in a Pan,
&c. They are apt to caufe forfeits; therefore
eatfparingly of them, and drink a Glafs of
Wine after eating them.
The Rivers Stowr in Dorfetjhire, zndjinkam
in Lincolnshire, and Irk in Lancafoire, are fam'd
by their refpeclive Neighbours for very excellent Eels 5 and the following Rhime is
frequent in the Mouths of Lincolnshire Ru-
ItickS 5 Hiz;
An\am Eel, and Witham Pike,
In all England is none like*
W *44 The Angled
f
WE,: I
In Ramfey-mere in Hwtiftgtonjhire, are ftore
ofEelsahd large Pikes, which they there cajj
Hagets •, Cambridgeshire fancies fhe has the moft
andbeftEels,if you'll credit her Natives
The Severn inlVorcefterflireMtta.* and ieeds
fuch a number of frefh water Lampreys, M|
Mature had there ftored a Fond with them;
thefe Fifh are like to Eels, flippery and blackifh but beneath on their Bellies fomewat
blew* at either fide of theirThroat they receive
and let in frefh waier at feven holes, becaufe
thev want Guills; they are beft in the Spring
time, being then very fweet, for in the Summer the inner Nerve or String which ferves
them inftead of a Back-bone5grows hard ; and
this Sting or Nerve is always to be taken away
when von drefs them. And, whenfoever you
either roft, fry or broil Eels, Congers, or Lampreys, be fure they be done brown, tender and
crifo; and firft well par-boyl'd in water, with
ftore of Salt and Fennel, or fweet Herbs,whicti
mightily correfts,and renders their Flefh mo£f
pleafant, tender and palatable.
Haunts of Eels.
§ 2. In the day time they hide themfelves
under fome Coverts, Roots of Trees, Stocks,
Stones, Brufh-wood, Piles, Boards, or Planks
about Flood-gates, Wiers, Bridges or Mills, or
in holes in the Rivers bank •, and they delight
in ftill Waters, and in Waters that are foul Vade Mecnm. &c.
«45
Or muddy *, tho the fmaller Eels are found in
?ll forts of Rivers and Soils: They area very
pleafant and delicate Fifh, and one may eafily
librfeit on.them. A piece of an Eel is a very
good and fweet Bait for the Pike.
Baits for Eels.
§ 3. Beft Baits for Eels are Dew-Worm,
Red-worm, and Lamprey that's very fm. 11,
and young brood of Wafps, Minnow, Loach,
Bull-head, his Head cut off, very fmall Gud-
geon,Bleak,and fmall Roch,a Hen or Chickens
iGut, Beef or Horfe Fleftr, the four firft are
proper for him, either by day or Night; but
the reft are to be ufed with night Hooks
only.
Ways of catching Eels*
§. 4. He's caught in the day time by a Ledger-bait, by Snigling, or Brogling and Bobbing; and by night with laying of night
Hooks, baited with feven Eyes or Eel-brood,
each about thicknefs of a Straw, Minnow,
Loach, or Bull-head, his Head cut off, fmall
Roch and Dace, fmall Gudgeon, a Hen or
Chickens Gut, Dew-worm, Beef or Horfe
Flefh, a Bleak, or a Red-worm, Pith or
Marrow in the Back-bone of an Ox, Cow,
Calf, &c
L Sntgl'ing°> 146
The Angler's
ill
rSH
Snigling, or Broiling for Eels.
§ $. Brogling, or Snigling is thus performed, get an exceeding ftrong and long Line,
and a fmall compafled Hook, baited with %
well fcoured   Red-worm,   or  Dew- worm I
hold one end of the Line in your Hand, then
place the upper end x>f your Hook very eafily
in the cleft of a long Hazle-ftick, that it mag
easily flip out: With this Stick and Hook thus
ta ted, fearch for holes under Stones, TimberJ
Rcots, or about Flood-gates, Weirs, or Piles,|
and put the Bait leifurely therein -, if thera
be a good Eel, give her time and fhe'Il tan
it, but be fure fhe hath fwallowed it,  theifl
very leifurely draw her out by degrees; for
fhe lying double in her hole, will with the
help of her Tail break all, uniefs you.gfM
time for her to be wearied with pulling, and
fo hale her out by degrees, not pulling too
hard.
This way of catching Eels, is only to be|
praclifed when the Waters are low, and on a
hot Summers day.
Bobbing for Eels.
§ 6. Bobbing for Eels is thus; take the
fargeft Garden-worms well fcoured, and with
a Needle run a ftrong Thread through them,]
from end to end; take and ufe fo many as at
laft Fade Mecutn^ Sec.
'47
laft you may wrap them Hackly about your
hand a dozen times at leaft, then tie them faft
with the two ends of the Thread, that they
may hang in fo many long boughts or hanks,
then fallen all to a fmall ftrong Cord, about
z yards long,, and about a handful or 8 inches
above the Worms, tie the Cord on a knot
(for the knot on the Cord (hould always be
about 6 or 8 inches diftant from the Worms)
then get a Lead-plumb 3 quarters of a pound
weight, fhaped like a Pyramid, and bore a
hole through the middle of this Lead from end
to end, fo as the Cord may eafily pafs to and
fro, then put the upper end of this Cord
through the Plumb, (the thicker end of the
Plumb being downwards) and let the Plumb
reft ontheknotontheCord above the Worms,
then fix the upper end of the Cord (which
fhould not be above 2 yards long) to a ftrong
and long Pole. Thus prepared, Angle in a
muddy Water, and either in the deeps or
fides of Streams, and you'll feel Eels tug
ftrongly and eagerly at them, when you think
they have fwallowed the Worms as far as they
can, gently draw up your Worms and Eels,
and when you have them near the top of the
Water, hoift them amain to Land, and thus
you may take 3 or 4 at once, and good ones
too, if ftore there be.
Thefe two ways of Snigling and Bobbing,
are proper only for Eels, no other Fifh being
to be caught after that manner.
L 2 CHAP.
eeefV'j
m 148
The Angler's
CHA P,   XXIII.
Observations on the Fikg.
Nature of the Pike
T\ IE Male Pike is better than the Female,
which is out of feafon a great part of
Summer.   And,
§ 1. The Flefh of the Pike is whiter, fubtil-
ler, and more excellent than that of the Carp,
and is fo harmlefs, that fick Perfons may eat
thereof. The Spawn or Rows provoke both
Vomit and Stool, and are us'd by Ruflicks for
that purpofe. He is a great devourer of other
Fifh, whereby he acquires the name of
frefh Water Tyrant or Wolf. He's long liv'd,
as to live 20 or 30 years, fome fay 200 years,
but others will allow his Life to be not above
10 years 5 the Eel and Carp are better for age
and bignefs, but fo is not the Pike; their chief
feafon is from the end of May, until Candlemas*
the middle fize being beft and fatteft; his bites
are venemous *, he always fwims by himfelf,
and nor. in company; he breeds but once a
year, and that in February or March-, he's a
bold and greedy biter, and is not afraid of a
feadow,- 01 feeing People. The beft Pikes are
ia. in Rivers, next thofe in great Ponds or Mears,
and the worft in fmall Ponds. England hath
the beft Pikes of any in Europe,zn<\ Lincolnjhire
thebiggeft, though about Oxford there art very excellent Pikes, and large ones too. They
grow to the length of 45 Inches.
The Pikes Haunts.
§'2. He loves a Ml, fhady, and unfrequented place, fandy, chalky or clay bottoms, ftill
Pools, full of Fry, and fhelters (the better to
furprife his Prey unawares) himfelf amongft
Bull-rufhes, Weeds, Water-docks or Bufhes,
and often he bites about the middle of the River or Pond, and always about mid Wa er,
the Bait generally being in a continual and «
gentle motion, and never to be lefs than a
foot from the Ground.
The Pikes chief biting times.
§ 3. In Jpril, May, June, and beginning of ]
July, he Mtes beft early in the Morning, and \
late in the Evening, and feldom to any pur-
pofe in the night of all the year, and he bites
beft in a clear Water and a gentle Gale, in
ftill places ufually, or at leaft in a gentle
Stream, and three a Clock in the Afternoon
is his beft hour in July, Aagnjt, September,
and October, in a clear Water and gentle
Gale, in ftill places, or a gentle Stream.
L 3  ' la I a-O
The Angler's
1
n September and all Winter Months, he bites
all the day long, efpecially about three a Clock
in the Afternoon, the Water being clear, and
the da y windy, and then indeed he bites beft,
both in Winter and Summer, efpecially when
the day is dark, cloudy, gloomy and windy,
but in a muddy Water he bites not well, except after a Flood, and the River be almoft
clear, and then he bites pretty well; for after
a glut of Rain, or fome great Showers, a Pike
never bites well, nor in a muddy Water, nor
at fpawning time about mid March. Thofe
that are fat, are ufually yellow and fpotted,
but a thin lean Fifh is white and pale.
Baits for the Pike*
j, §4. He takes all forts of Baits, except Fly,
but principal Baits are large Gudgeons, Roches, fmall Daces, large Minnows, Loaches,
Bull- heads, Bleaks ; in jrVy,young Frogs, Salmon Smelts no bigger tnan a Gudgeon, Smelts
or Sparlings that are fmall, frefh and fweet,
and well faftened on the Hook 5 for they are
very tender. Fat Bacon is ufed by fome for a
Bait for him in the Winter Months. A young
Trout, a young Jack, Pearch, his back Fins cut '
off, and a piece of an Eel are good Baits like-
wife for the Pike} and be fore that all your
Fiili Baits, as Roch, Dace, &c. be very frefh
gild fweet when you ufe them for hitn* Pearch
is Fade M<
ecum*,
"5c
T^i
*
Is the worft Bait of any, and to be ufed only
For want of others.
and
after
Ways to catch the Pike.
§ 5. He's caught four manner of wa^
by a ledger Bait, by the Snap, Sn?
Trowling; of all which you'll fee h
plentifully in this Book: But however procure
fome expert Angler, the firft time you fifh
for him, to accompany you, and fhew you
the way. Let your Bait for Pike, be always
about mid Water, and never to touch the
Ground, but at leaft a foot from the bottom.
ft
m
CHAP.   XXIV.
Observations on
Flounder,
the
or
§1
Look or Flounder is*i Sea-fifh, which
wanders far into frefh Rivers, and
F
there dwells and lofes himfelf, thriving to an
hands breadth, and almoft twice fo long; is
a pleafant Fifh, of good nutriment, ftrengthens
the Stomach, and caufes appetite; the beft
Plaice have theblackeft fpots on their Body,
as the beft Flounders the reddeft; is a Fifh
without Scales, therefore not eaten by the
L 4 I-ws. l$2
The Angler's
Jews.   He makes the Angler great paffiimHj
and although greedy biters, yet crafty ^ for
they will nibble and fuck at a Bait fometimesj
before they fwallow it,  and if they perceive^
the Hook fly from it; therefore let your Bait
be always in motion, and it will make them
more eager •, they commonly covet gravelly,
fandy bottoms, deep, gentle Streams, neat;
the Bank,or at the end of a Stream, in a deep,!
ftill place, or in a gentle Stream that is brack-
ifh, and fometimes in the deepeft, flilleft place:
of the River, and near the Bank, but not fol
ordinarily as in a pretty fwift, or rather gen-:|
tie Stream.    They bite all the day, from Sun»|
rife, until Sun-fet, in April, May, June, July,
and part of Auguft.   His beft Baits are fmall
Red-worms, and the Meadow or Marfh-worm
well fcoured, Gilt-tails, the young brood of
Wafps and Gentles. Ufo a Float, and let your I
Bait touch the Ground,
C H A P.   XXV.
Observations on the Bleah^ or
Bky.
§ i. T> Leak or Bley has a tender kind of
JLJ Flefh, but is  no  wholfome Fifh,
becaufe in Summer they go mad, by reafon
o| Fade Mecunt*, Sec. 153
of a Worm in their Stomachs, but the Sea-
bleak is a good Fifh, he is always in motion,
a very eager biter, and you may Angle for
him with as many Hooks on your Line as you
can conveniently fallen on it, they being tied
along the Line,one half a foot above the other* ...
He takes Gentles the beft, and likewife the
fame Baits that Roch does, but they muft be ■
lefler, alfo the Dub-fly which fhould be of a
very fad, brown colour, and fmall, and the
Hook fo too. He's caught at mid water, or
top, and he is almoft always in motion. The
Variata, or Sea-bleak changes his colour with
every Light and Object:, and is therefore callM
the Sea-Camelion, but it has firm and whol-
fome Flefh, and is as good as any Carp. They
are very good Baits for the Pike.
CHAP.   XXVI.
Observations on the Minnow or
Fench^ Loachy and Bull-head
or Millers Thumb.
§ 1. 'TpHefe Fifh are of little confideration,
A   only fometimes they are caught to
make Baits on for other Fifh, elfe they are only Women and Children? Sport.
The The Angler's
The Minnow appears firft in March, continues until Michaelmas, and then betakes himfelf to the Mud, Weeds, or Wood in Rivers,
to fecure himfelf from Floods, devouring
Trouts, and other Fifhes of Prey.
He leaft frequents deep, ftill places or holes,
where Trouts or great Fifh ply,neither ftirsin
the night, nor in dark, windy Weather,for fear
of becoming a Prey to Trouts or other Fifh,
who at fuch times principally bite and range
about for Food. His moft ufual time is from
an hour after Sun-rifing (if the day^ prove
fair) till an hour before Sun-fet. His Baits
are chiefly fmall Worms, Gilt-tail, Brandling,
Cod-bait,^?, and is caught either at mid Water, or near, or clofe to the bottom, life a
Float in Angling for him.
Loach and Bull-he ad.
.The Loach is a pleafant Fifh, light, delicate in Taft, wholfome, and of excellent nutriment, breeding and feeding in clear, fwift
Brooks or Rills, living in the fharpeftStreams*
and on the Gravel, and often under Stones, he
fomething refembles an Eel in fhape, and both
Loach and Bull-head being of one nature and
humor; their Female are in the Summer often
full of Spawn, they are always caught on the
bottom, the Bait touching the Ground, and
their beft Baits are the fmall red Worm, Gilt-
tail or Meadow-worm.
& 3. The Fade Mecum^ Sec.
§ 3. The Minnow, Loach and Bull-head
(his Guill-fins cut off) are very good Baits to
trowl with, in the Streams, or on dark, windy
days, in the deeps, about afoot within Water,
for the Trout, in March, April and September,
and for the Pike, Pearch and Chub, from
March, till Michaelmas, and for the Eel, at the
fame time •, at night Hook, Fifh take the Minnow, Loach and Bull-head, in the day time,
in a clear Water only.
CHAP,    XXVII.
Of the various Ways   of Angling,
andjirji of the Running-Line.
ALL forts of Fifh take Baits at the Ground
fometimes, although all will not take
the Fly at top of the Water, and the Running-Line, without any Float thereon, and
one or two fmall pellets of Lead, for Plumbs,
is the moft proper and excellent way to Angle
for a Trout with Worms, either in a muddy
or clear Water, at Ground.
Hovt i$6
The Angler's
How to Angle with the Running-Line in A
muddy Water.
ill
§ i. npHE Running-Line, in a muddy Wa-
l   ter, or one difcoloured by Rain,
fhould be about half length of Rod,  fometimes more, and fometimes lefs, and the two
lower moftLinks of threeHairs a piece,then one
of four Hairs, at top, whereof have a Loop
or Water-noofe, to put it to another Link of 1
four Hairs, having likewife a Water-noofe or
Loop at its bottom, and then proceed with
Links of five or fix Hairs a piece to the topmoft : The three lowermoft Links or Gildards.
fhould be ofaforrel, brown, or Cheftnut colour 5 and have a Cane or Reed-rod, with a
top neither too ftiff, nor too flender, but in a
mean, and the Cane or Reed to be about a
yards and half long, and the top about i yard
and half, or 2 yards of Hazle in one or tw<l
pieces, and 5 or 6 inches of Whalebone, mad©f
round, fmooth and taper, all which will caufe|
the Rod to be 5 yards and half long, or 5j
yards at leaft, which it ought to be.
§ 2. The Line fhould have fo much and no
more Lead than will fit the Water you Angle
in, viz.. more in a great, troublefome, rough
River, than in a fmaller that's quieter, as near
as may be, fo much only as will fink the Bait
to the bottom, and permit its motion without
any Fade Mecunt, &c. 157
any great hefitation or jogging on the bottom,
and in Angling, carry the top or point of your
Rod even with your hand,gently downwards
(for you muft begin at the head of the Stream,
and let the Bait run downwards as far as the
Rod and Line will permit) the Lead dragging
androwling on the Ground, no more of the
Line being in the Water, than will permit the
Lead to touch the bottom, (for you muft keep
the Line as ftraight as poflible, yet by no
means fo as to raife the Lead from the bottom
or Ground) and when you have bit, you'll
both feel and perceive by the point of your
Rod and Line, then ftrike gently, and ftraight
upwards, firft allowing the Fifh (by a little
flackening the Line) a fmall time to take the
Bait- „ , • •       c   i_
But fome ftrike at the firft biting of the
Trout,butthat is in a clear Water/or Trouts,
Graylings and Salmon Smelts, which may not
only do well, but is the beft: Your Bait fhould
bea red Worm well fcoured, or, which is better, a Brandling, Meadow-worm or Tag-tail,
or, which I like beft, both a Brandling and a
Gilt-tail on the Hook at the fame time, to be
baited as is hereafter directed to bait two
Worms to be on the Hook at once*, and note,
that you are often to renew your Bait, and
generally, in a muddy Water, I Angle with
two Worms on the Hook at once, as two
Brandlings, two Meadow-worms, or a Brandling and Gilt-tail on the Hook at once; when I
0 Angle
"&" The Angler's
Angle for Trouts, uniefs I ufe the Dew-worm,
aTrout takes theBait dragging on theGroi$|M
either in a muddy or clear Water, when you
life Worms, but a Grayling 9 or 12 inches
from the bottom, and had rather rife, than
defcend even to a Ground-bait.
As for theLeadingof the Running-Line with
Plumbs, you are before taught at Chap. 3.
§ 10, 11, \i*
The manner of baiting a great DetP*tvorm.
| 3. If you Angle for a great Trout, with a
well fcowred Dew-worm, in a muddy WatM
or one difcoloured by Rain,bait it thusywc.put
(the Hook in him towards the tail, fomewhat
above the middle, and out again a little below
towards the head, then draw him above the
whipping or arming of the Hook, then put
the point again into the head of the Worm,
till it come near the place where the point of
the Hook firft came out, then draw back that
part of the Worm, that was above the fhank
or arming of the Hook, and fo fifh with it; the
Hook fhould be pretty large.
How to Bait two Worms.
§ 4. But if you Angle in a muddy Water
for Trouts of the ufual fize, (viz.. from 8 to
12 Inches long) then have two Brandlings, or
two Meadow-worms, or a Brandling and
Gilt-tai —  —rirai,^
Fade Mecum^ Sec. n$p
Gilt-tail on the Hook at once, (which I efteem
beft) and you are to bait them thus, viz.. Run
thepointof theHookin atthevery head of the
Brandling, and fo down through his Body, till
it be paft the knot, or about middle of the
Worm,and then let it out, and ftrip the Worm
above the whipping or arming (that you may
notbruife it with your Fingers) till you have
put on the other, by running the point of the
Hook in below the knot or middle of the
Worm, and upwards through his Body towards the head, till it be juft covered witli
the head, which being thus done, flip the firft
Worm down over the arming or whipping
again, till the knots or middles of both Worms
meet together. Any two Worms may be thus
baited.
How to bait a fingle Worm proper for a
clear River or Water, and Running-
Line there.
§ 5. But if you Angle with one Worm only
on the Hook, ( which is moft proper for a
Trout, Salmon Smelt, or Grayling, in a clears
Water, at Running-Line) it is to be baited
thus, viz.. Pnt the point of the Hook in' at the
very tag of his tail, and run up his Body quite <£
over all the whipping or arming, and ftill <f
ftrip on almoft an inch upon the Hair or Line,
the head and remaining part hanging down- J
wards, . 891S
m
fp!
mm
;.; e
ie
l§i
lele
\6o The Angler's
wards and covering the point of the Hook,
but many Anglers let the head hang downwards, and the point of the Hook to be bare,
and fo Angle with it *, but others cover the*
point of the Hook with the Worms head, as
aforefaid, but nip off the very tip-end of the
Worms head, and fo Angle with it: However,
many highly commend the Angling with Running-Line, in a clear Water, for Trouts and
Salmon Smelts, with the Worms head hanging
downwards, and the point of the Hook bare,
and ftrike then immediately upon the firft bite
or Touch of a Trout or Salmon Smelt.
How to Angle in clear Water with
Running Line.
§6. Thus you are to bait the Brandling^
Gilt-tail or Meadow-worm, and only one
Gilt-tail or fmall Brandling to be on the Hookj
at a time,   well fcoured, your Hook beinlg
fmall, your Line fhould have two or three of
the lowermoft Links or Gildards to be of onel
Hair a-piece, and then one or two Links of
two Hairs a:piece,and then one of three Hairs,
and fo proceed with three and four to the topmoft Link: The Hair fhould be white, or rather a duskifh white or grey colour, and fhe
Line generally about % yards fhorter than thd
Rod, \vid. before cap. 2. and § 12. 15.) ahdrj
leaded with a fmall blackifh Pellet of Shot for
PlumbJ FadeMecum-i Sec
Piumb, '\vid. cap. 3. § 10,   11,   12.)   thus
Tackled and Baited,   Angle always  in the
Streams, evermore in a clear, rather than a
troubled Water, and always up the Stream A •fS
and River ; ftill calling out the Worm before J
you, with a light one Handed Rod, (mac'eof
Hazle, Yew, and Whale-bone, and 5 yards
and half long at leaft) like an Artificial-fly,
where fometimes it will be taken at the top,
or within a very little of the fup'erficies of the
Water, and commonly before the light Plumb,
can fink it to the bottom, both by "reafon of
the Stream, and that you muft always keep
your Hand and Worm in motion, although
very flowly,  by drawing ftill back towards
you the Bait, as if you wTere Angling with a
Fly.   The Rod muft be light, pliant, long,
not top heavy, true and finely made ; and it's
the beft way of Angling for Trout, Grayling,
and Salmon Smelts with Worms, in a clear
Water efpecially, by many degrees: And, if
your Conftitution would endure to let yoir'
wade to the Calf of the Leg, or Knee, into
the, tail of a fhallow,  clear Stream, and (o
keejy&ff the Bank, you may almoft take what
Trouts, Graylings, or Salmon Smelts ( if the
River be but plentifully ftored ) you can de-
fire.    However, fome had rather ufe with the
like fmall and fine Tackle, when they Angle
for Graylings only, with Worms, Cod-bait,
Afh-grub, or Dock-worm, a Float of Cork y
becaufe they take their Baits beft 6, or 9, or
M 12 inches 162
The Am
ki
12 inches from the bottom or ground: But I
do net fo well approve thereof, as the running
Line.
The manner of Angling in very clear Rivers,
by reafon of their exceeding brightnefs, is
very much different from the method common*,
ly ufed in others, which by not being near fo
tranfparent, but of a more condenfed dark
Body, admit of ftronger Tackle, and allow a
nearer approach to the Stream, and are not fo
difficult for Novices, as are our more rarifled
Northern Rivers, which require an able and
judicious Artift, and very fine Tackle, widn
which Wonders may be effecled in a clear
Stream ;   and this way of Angling with aj
Worm and a Angle Hair,   for 2 links nexl
Hook, in a clear water for Trouts, Graylings,
and Salmon Smelts, is of a modern Invention!
but on frequent Experiments, found fo ad-,
vantagious,  that it's generally  fubftitutedj
( efpecially from the rifing of trie Sun until I
8 a Clock) inftead of the Artificial-fly, an3
by fome affirmed to be the beft way of kil-1
ling moft Fifh in a clear ftream, even thedayi
through.
CHAP.j Fade Mecumy Sec. 163
CHAP.   XXVIII.
Float Angling.
Flodt Angling.
§ 1. T?Or Float Angling, your Line is to be
longer than Rod by 2, or 3 foot in
a River, but fhorter than the Rod in Pits,
Ponds or Mears; when you Angle for Trouts,
Graylings, Salmon Smelts in a clear Water-
then but one Hair next the Hook, &c and
fuch a Rod and Line as directed for a Trout
with running Line in a clear Water • but for
moft other Fifh, and in a muddy Water,
three Hairs next Hook, and of the thicknefs as is before directed, chap. 2. § 14,
and 17, and let it be leaded as is directed,
chap. 3. § 10, 11, 12. But if you Angle
for the Chub, Carp, Barbel, Tench or Pike,
then your Lines muft be ftronger and your
Rod too.
§ 2. The Bait muft be proper for the Fifh
you Angle for ; your Plumbs fitted to the
Cork or Float, your Cork to the Condition of
the River you Angle in, that is, tothefwift-
nefs or flownefsof it: (vid. before chap. 3.
M ? § y, 164
The Angler's
§ 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 ) and you muft caft the bait )
up the River, and let it run downwards as far j
as the Rod and Line will fuffer.   In a clear^
Water, when you ufe Worms, bait but with
one worm only.   In a muddy or difcoloured
water, bait with 2 worms at a time, as is before directed.
If you Angle in a clear water, the colouroM
your Line muft be white, or rather a duskiflr
white or gray colour. But if in a muddy water,
or one difcoloured by Rain, then your Line for
2 yards next Hook ought to be of a forrel,
brown, or of a Chefnut colour; and the upper
part of your Line of white Hair.
§ 3. This way you may Angle for moft forts I
of Fifh, and the bait muft drag on the GroundH
for fome forts, efpecially the Trout, Gudgeon JB
Bream, Barbel, Flounder and Salmon;  but 1
for Grayling and Pearch 6 or 9 inches from
the bottom, but the Pike, Ruff, Carp, Tench,
Roch and Bleak at mid water,  fometimes
lower and fometimes higher.The Chub is often
taken with the bait on the bottom, fometimesJB
at mid water in hot weater, fometimes at the
top.    The Dace takes all Ground baits at   ;
bottom: Some let the bait touch the ground
or bottom , when they Angle for Pearch,
Tench and Roch in Rivers, and like it beft,
although others difallow thereof, and would
have the bait to be about 6 inches from the
bottom.   In Ponds for Roch and Tench, Angle
always about 1 foot within water.   Mx.Cotton
direfts' Fade Mecum^ &c. 165
directs to Angle for a Trout with Float, and
then the Bait to be as near the bottom one can,
fo as the Bait drag not, which is difficult, if
not impoflible, to be obferved, by reafon of
the declivity of the bottom, and unevennefs
thereof in moft places •, and the daily experiment of the running Line, fhews that a Trout
will take the Bait at bottom well enough.
The Eel is never to be Angled for with a Float,
but always with a Ledger-bait, Snigling, Brog*
ling, or Bobbing.
You may ufe all forts of Baits when you
Angle with a Float, but Ground Baits and
Paftes are moft ufual, fometimes Flies for
Roch within the water, as the Ant-fly, &c.
§ 4. Let your Lead neither befo heavy, as
to fink the Cork or Float, nor fo light, as not
with the fmalleft touch to make the Cork dip
under water; the infallible Signal of a Bite,
uniefs the bait flop onWood,StonesorWeeds,
or the Line be entangled on Wood, Stones or
Weeds.
CHAP.    XXIX.
Angling at top with a Worm.
o       o ■*■
§ i.T^Or this way you muft ufe a Line lon-
Jr   ger than the Rod,  and a Brandling,
or a Gilt-taibworm 9 and your Line is to be
M q with-
'F'tiffl i66
The Angler's
without Float or Lead.  You muft draw your
Bait up and down the Stream,?j^_ top of the
water, as you do a Cod-bait fo^lfrout: In as
ffifjjfeWater and Day, perhaps you may take
more Trouts and Salmon Smelts than other-
CHAP.   XXX,
Sill
Of Night Angling.
§ i. TN the Night ufually the beft Trouts
_1 bite, and will rife ordinarily in the
ftill Deeps; but not fo well in the Streams.
And although the beft and largeft Trouts bite
in the Night, (being afraid to ftir, or range
about in the Day time,) yet I account this way
of Angling both unwhomfom, unpleafant and
very UDgentiel, and to be ufed^ by none but
Idle pouching Fellows. Therefore I fhall fay
nothing of it, only defcribe how to lay Night
Hooks; which, if you live clofe by a River
fide, or have a large Moat, or Pond at. your
own Houfe, will not be unpleafant, fometimes to practife. But as for Damming, Groping, Spearing, Hanging, Twitchelijg, Netting, or Firing by Night, I purpofely omit
them, and them efteero to be ufed only by
diforderly and rafcally Fellow's,, for whom
e   lm        §M . this Fade Mecunt^ &c.
xhls little Treatife is not in the leaft intended.
How to lay Night Hooks.
§ 2. Let him that would lay Nights Hoc^fe,
procure a fmall Cord 16 yards long, .and
thereunto at equal diftances tye 5 or 6 H«np
Lines, of 06 Thicknefs of the Trowling Line,
about 18 inches long a-piece, (but fo fMt&T
or tye them to the Cord, as you may 'rarUT
remove or put them to again-,) to eacn jjj
which whip a Hook, and Bait the fame with
a Minnow, Loach, or Bull-head, his Guill
Fins cut off, or for want of them a fmall
Gudgeon, fmall Roch, feven Eyes, or fmall
Brood of Eels, or Beef, or Pith or Marrow in
an Ox, or Cow's back-bone-, and if you bait
with any Fifh, put the point of the Hook in
at the Tail and out at the Mouth, the Head of
the Fifh re fting in the Hooks bent, and cover
the point of the Hook with a fmall worm,and
then to one end of the Cord faft en or tye a
Stone, or a Lead weight about 2 pounds in
weight •, and throw ic crofs the River in fome
ftill deey, or at the tail or fide of a Scream
that's deep ; and the other end fallen to fome
Bough or Stick, on the Water bank you ftand
on ; and in the Morning you'll not fail to find
Fifh caught. Some put their Hemp Line
through a great Needle, and put the Needles
point in at the Fifties Mouth they bait with,
M 4 and 168
The Anglers
and out at his Tail, and then let the Bait flip
or fall down to the Hooks bent, the Head being downwards, and tye the Baits Taii to
the Line with thread,and then tye the top of
the Hemp Line to the Cord, and fo proceed
as before, &c.
§ 3- This way you'll take Eels,.Chubs, large
Trouts and Pike-, but if you lay for Pike, let
not your Bait go to the bottom, but with a
Float keep the Bait about a Foot from the bottom. For ot her rifh let the bait touch the bottom, which Lead will caufe. Your great Lobworm is as good a Bait as any for Night Hooks,
only if you lay them in Rivers, perhaps th£
fmall Fifh may pull your bait off, and mifs being taken. Therefore it's beft to ufe Minnows,
Loaches, Bull heads, fmall Gudgeons, Bleaks,
fmall Roches, fmall Daces, Seven Eyes, &c.
in Rivers at Night Hooks.
CHAP.    XXXI.
Observations
o?t mid Water.   and
Ground Angling.
§
i. TXTHen you Angle with running Line,
; VV    ( which is always to be without
any Float ) keep your Line fo ftraight, that it
only permit your Lead totoucli the Ground,
¥*vyi*C ;   ' VT   'and Fade Mecumy Sec. \6$
and thgreon roul ( without any hefitation, or
jogging) and no more: So in Float Angling,,
keep your Line as ftraight as poflible, fufferf
ing none of it to fall or lie in the Water, but
what is inevitable, becaufe it as well fcares
Fifh, as hinders the nimble jerk of the Rod
when you ftrike ; but if, as fometimes you
cannot avoid, but fome little will lie in the
Water, then keep it in the Stream above the
Float, by no means below it; and let your
Bait always, either at Float or running Line,
or any other way of Angling whatfoever, fall
gently firft into the Water, without any di-
Iturbaiace, circling, or plunging in the Water,
as little as you poflibly can 1 and let as little
of the Line as you can, fall with the Bait into
the Water.
§ 2. When you Angle at Ground for fmall
Fifh, as Gudgeons ; or at mid Water for Roch
and Bleak, put 2 or 3 Hooks on your Line,
the one about 8 or 9 inches lower than the
other, which you may do., by having z or 3
Gildards, or Links arm'd, or whipt with
Hooks, and tied at the lowermoft water Knot.
Thus you may put on 2 or 3 different Baits,
and "you'll.- try with more eafe and lefs time
which is beft taken, and often catch 2 or 3
at once. You may alfo have one Bain for
fuch as feed clofe upon the Ground, as Gudgeon, Flounders, &c. And another for fuch as
feed a little higher, as Roch, Dace, &c. But
if your bait be to run on the Ground, ( as for
Gudgeon) 170 The Angler's
Gudgeon) you muft have a fair Sandy bottom, free from Wood, Stones and Weeds:
Your Lead is always to be on the lowermoft
Link.
§ 3. Give all Fifh time to take and fwal-
low the Bait, efpecially Pike, Pearch, Gudgeon, and, in a muddy water, Trout^Mingnot
over hafty, uniefs you Angle with fi&Jf tender
Baits as will not endure niblingat, bur muft
upon every touch be ftruck at, (as Paftes,
Sheet's Blood, Flies, &c. which are taken I
away at the firft pull of the Fifh.) and therefore at firft pull oblige you to try your Fortune.
But the Roch generally nibleth at the Bait,
and does not bite furely ; but if he does bite
furely, then it's commonly a very good one :
Therefore ftrike at the firft touch when you
Angle for him.
§ 4. Angle for all forts of Fifh in the place*j
they moft frequent, and where their Haunti j
are described to be, and at the proper feafonsi
gn$) 1 inies of biting, and when the Fifh are in j
feafon, (all which you may be perfectly in for- \
med pf,in the particular Chapiter of each Fifn 5)
and with fuitable Tackle and Baits.
§ 5. When you Angle with Worm in
a dear Water, fometimes put after the
Worm, and on the point of the Hook a Cod-
bar, E.-irth-bob, Clap-bait, or Gentle, or
Wafp. ■
§ 6. When you ufe Paftes, or any very tender 1
Baits, have a fmall Hook, quick Eye, nimble
Rod, Fade Mecum^ Sec.
Rod, and that a little ftifF, and a ready Hand,
or all will be loft, both Bait and Fifh ; which
muft in fuch cafe be ftruck at, the very firft
touch or pull.
§ W. Many when they Angle for Trouts, or
Salmon Smelts in a clear Water, ftrike as fooa
as they have bit; (which I commend ) and
the bite is eafily perceiv'd by the motion of
the Rods point or Line.
§ 8. When you Angle at Ground for Sa
mons, put z or 3 Garden-worms well fcoured
on your Hook at once, and difpofe your felf
as when you Angle at Ground for a Trout,
§ 9. If you Angle for Pearch or Trout, 2
catch Minnows, be allured that neither Pearcfo
or Trouts are there, becaufe they are great
devourers of Minnows and fmall Fifh.
§ 10. Whenever you Angle, either at mid
Water or Ground, and have bit, be fure
yon ftrike gently and ftraight upwards, if
poffibly you can, which you may eafily do, if
you be not obilrud>ed by having Wood, or
Trees over you.
§ 11. life not a great Hook for a fmall
Bait, nor a fmall Hook for a great Bait.
§ 12. The running Line h ufed only for
Trouts, Graylings and Salmon Smelts, and
fome ufe it for Gudgeons, and the iunning
Line without any Float thereon-, and about
half lengt'h of Rod, is proper only for ftreams
and quick running Waters, and not for flow
and mild Rivers, whofe current is not H \\t.
§ 13. When- J7'
The Angler's
§ 13. Whenever you Angle with the running Line, (which is always to be without a-
ny Float on it) with Worms in a clear water,
theWorm ought to be a Gilt-tail,Marfh-worm,
or fmall Brandling well fcoured, and one only
to fee on the Hook at a time 5 and your Bait -is
always to be call up the River and Stream,
and kept in a gentle motion, by drawing your
Bait towards you, and without the Leads fanning or jogging on the bottom, although it.
muft touch the bottom ; having 1 or 2 at moft,
fmall Pellets for your Plumbs, and thofe not
too heavy, but fo as may be carried eafily with
the current of the Water.
§ 14. When you Angle with running Line
and Worm, either in a muddy or clear Water, let your Bait be always in a gentle mfl
tion your Lead or Plumb feldom or not at all
flicking, or faftning on the bottom; and
when your Line is run as far as the Rod «■
permit it, and to its utmoft extent, then drafl
it our gentlv, and not haftiiy,and you'll oftefl
have a Trout take the Bait at its riling frojj
the Ground. \
§ J 5. When you Angle in a very ftony.J
ver that's clear, with the running Line, the
S'ones are apt to rub the fmall Pellet, or Lead
Plumb bright,  and that fcares away  Fifh :|
Therefore,  when it does fo,  put on otheil
Lead that is black* and take away the for-J
d. chap. 7. § 25. Whenever voui
Angll
m
it.
V Fade Mecunt, Sec
Angle for Barbel, Carp, Tench, Bream,
Pearch, Gudgeon, Ruff and Flounder, ufe a
Float and Lead at your Line. The like do
for Roch, Dace and Bleak, if you Angle for
them within Water, and not at top with a
Fly.
CHAP.   XXXII.
Angling with a Ledger-bait.
§ i. QOmeperfons (efpecially when tired,
O and mindful to' reft their wearied
Limbs) betake themfelves to Angle with a
Ledger-bair, which is, when a Bait always
refts in one fixed or certain place *, and is fo
called in oppofition to other Baits, that are
always walking or in motion, thence called
walking Baits. The manner of the Ledger-
bait is thus.
§ 2. Takeoff your Cork from your Float
Line, it being Leaded as ufually - and within
half a yard of the top of the Line, wrap
about it a thin Plate of Lead, 1 inch broad and
an inch and a half long* then put your Line
to your Rod, and bait your Hook, and caft
the fame into a very gentle Stream, or ftill
low draught, and there let the bait fink, and
reft
$■! Y* The Angler's
fig;   a ___
reft on the bottom : You either firmly holding the Rod, or flicking the thick end thereof
in the Rivers Bank, and either ftanding or
fitting by it, you wifl perceive, by the motion
of the Lead on the Lines top, when you hajB
bit. This way you may Angle for all forts I
Fifh whatfoever, efpecially the Chub and Eel.
Let Ledger-baits for the Pike be always kept,
at leaft, a foot from the bottom,^ by the help
of a Float.
CHAP.   XXXIII.
Treats of Natural Fly-Angling
Dibbing.
§ i. A Nglingwith the Natural Fly (which
jTIl is cali'd Dibbing,Dapeing or Dib-
ling ) is firft to be fpoken to ; and it will fervl
as an Introduction to Angling with the Artificial Fly.
§ 2. Dibbing is always performed on the
very furface, or top of the Water, or fometimes by permitting the Bait to fink 2 or 3
inches into the Water, but that feldom, un-
Jefs you joyn a Cod-bait, or Clap-bait with
the Oak-fly, for Trout or Chub.
This
: Fade Mecum^ Sec. tj^
§ 3. This Dibbing is performed with any
fort of Natural Fly, but principally with the
Green-drake and Stone-fly, or with the Oak-
fly and Cod-baits, or with Fern-fly, for about
ten days in May, for a Trout, but the Fern-
fly is good for the Chub all the fomraer; or
you may dib with Cod-baits, Clap- baits,Can«
kers, Palmers,Catterpillars, Grafhoppers their
Legs and outmoft Wings taken off, Oak-worm
and Hawthorn-worm, or Grub, and fometinaes
with an Artificial Green-drake or Stone-fly.
Some often pull off the uppermoft wings of the
.Fern-fly, when they ufe it in Dibbing for a
Trout.
§ 4. The Salmon Trout, Grayling, Bleak,
Chub,Roch,andDace,are the ohlyFifh that will-
take Flies, the four firft take the Natural Fly
no better than the Dub- fly, except in verj hot,
calm weather, or in the Evening of a hot day,
at which times it's moft proper to dib 5 the
reft take Natural Flies either at top, or under,
Or within the water, and fometimes a Dub-fly,
, efpecially if a Cod-bait, Oak-worm, Clap-bait:
or Gentle be joyned with it. The Dace takes
Flies beft at the top of the water, or wichia
an inch thereof, but the Roch takes Flies
beft within the water a foot or more deep
fometimes.
Dili-
•$!i i76
The Angler's
Dibbing for Trout, or Gra
§ 5. Dibbing for Trout or Grayling is performed with a Line about half length of Rod,
if the Air be ftill, or with one almoft as long.,
as Rod, if there be a Wind to carry it from
you ( have four Hairs next Hook for Trouts,
but five or fix for the Chub) wherein always)
have the Fly play, or Fly on the very top of
the water before you, up and down the River, as the wind ferves; and Angle as near
as you can to the bank of the fame fide where- j
on you ftand, although where you fee a Fifh
rife near you, you may guide your quick Fiji
over him, whether in the middle, or on the \
contrary fide; and if you are pretty well ou||
of fight, either by kneeling or the interpofi-
tion of a Bank or Bufh, you may almoft be I
fure to raife and take him too,if it be prefent.
ly done •,  the Fifh will otherwife, peradven- I
ture, be removed to another place, if it be in
the ftill deeps, where he is always in motion,
and roving up and down for prey, though ia f
a Stream you may always almoft, efpecially |
if there be a good ""Stone near, find him in the
fame place.    You may likewife dib with the
Water-cricket, or Creeper, in the Streams,
in the Month of April-, above ah inch of the
Line (at moft) is not to be fuffered to touch I
the Water in Dibbing 5 therefore you may be
ftronger tackled; likewife in this kind of An- 1
gling \ Fade Mecum, &c. 177
gling, you are to expect the biggeft Fifh, and
wanting length to give him Line after he is
ftruck, you muft be forced to tug. for't h therefore your Line may be ftronger.
t heard an .Aji§ler lately, highly commend
a Dibbing t3uWmadex>f white Virginal Wy re,
the brittlenefs or ftiffhefs of it being firft allay'd
and temper'd, by laying the fame upon clear
hot Coles of Fire, for fome fmall time, which
witt-caufe the Wyre to be more tough, and
not fo apt to fnarl, or break.
How to bait the May-fly for Dibbing*
$6. The Green-drake and Stone-fly-, all allow to be May-flies 5 therefore take one of
them (for commonly two are ufed) and put
the point of the Hook into the thickeft part of
his Body, under one of his Wings, run it directly through, and out at the other fide, leaving him {pitted erofs on the Hook, then taking the other, put him on after the fame.
manner, but with his head the contrary way,
in which pofturethey will live on the Hook,
and play with their Wings a quarter of an
hour, and let them but juft touch the fuper-
ficies or top of the Water; but if yon dib with
an Oak-fly and a Cod-bait, put the Oak-fly
on length ways in under his Head, and out at
his tail, and a Cod-bait on point of the Hook?
and let them fink a little into the Water, and
they are a killing Bait, efpecially in fome Ri*-
N vers* ii
The Angler's
|||
vers.   And obferve, that you may bait any
other two Flies after the fame manner4, anq
let me inform you of this Secret, thatifFiftj
will not very well take your Natural StoneH
fly at Dibbing,then if you pull away his Wingsj
and Angle with him within the Water, a bout
mid Water, or near the bottom, in a clear Wa-I
ter, as you fometimes Angle with a Cod-baitJ
that Trouts, Salmon Smelts, &c. will very ea*|
geriy take it.
Dibbing for Chubs.
i- y. In hot Weather, and in a clear WaterJ
you'll find Chubs often floating near, or on
the top of the Water, then get fecretly behind!
fome Tree or Bufh, ftanding as free from mo|
don as poffible, let your Hook hang a fool
fhort of the Water, to the end you may reft
your Rod on fome Bufh or Bough of a Tree!
and the Chubb in all probability will fink dowij
• towards the bottom of the Water, at firft fight
or fhadow of the Rod, and would fo do, if a
Bird fly over him, yet prefently riles to the
top again, foaring there, till frighted by fonq|
fhadow • look out the beft, moving your Rod
as gently as a Snail to that you intend to catch,
let your Bait fall gently on the Water 5 or 6
inches before him, and he'll feldom refufe the
Bain, You may Angle thus with Catterpillars,
Oak-worm, Aih-fly and Cod-bait, or any
Worm bred on Herbs, Plants or Trees, Cla|l
bait, ——^—m
Fade Mecum^ Sec. 179
bait,Crabtree.worm,Hawthorn-worm, young
brood of Wafps, Hornets and Humble bees,
Fern-flies, Grafs-hopper, Beetles, Great Moth
that flys abroad in Gardens in a Summers E-
vening, and hath a great head like an Owl,
with whitifh Wings, and a yellowifh Body,
Houfe-cricket, Black-bee, &c Take off the
Legs and uppermoft Wings of the Black-bee,
Beetle, Grafs-hopper or Cricket, fometimes
when you ufe them ^ do the like to the Fern-
fly fometimes; and have two or three forts of
Baits on the Hook at once, as a Fern-fly, Clap-
bait and Wafp; and if you be on the fide of a
Stream when you Angle, let the Bait fink a
foot or 2, and he'll often take it within Water.
Rules for Dibbing.
§ 1. You muft always Dib in a Clearwater,
and on the furface or top thereof, and you are
neither to have Lead or Float on the Line; a
hot, calm day, or in the Evening of a hot day,
is the moft proper time, and in ftill deeps, rather than Streams, but fometimes in Streams
or fides thereof, when the Water is clearing,
after a Flood efpecially. You may dib with
the Green-drake both in Streams and ftills., all
hours of the day, but the Stone-fly is moft
proper for the Streams only, and that early
and late, and not in the mid time of the-day :
But if there be a whiffling Wind in the Evening, Dib in the ftill deeps with an Artificial
N 2 Stone- i8o The Angler's
I rail
Stone-fly, where and when- it will murder,
and the beft Fifh then and there rife*, no matter how late, fo you can fee the Fly. Sometimes you may pull offthe Wings of the Stone-
fly, and Angle within Water with it, and if
will be fometimes taken better than the Stone-
fly with Wings on, efpecially in Streams neat
bottom.
§ 2. When you bait any fort of Fly, let your
Fingers be dry, and not wet or moift, left you
fpoil the Fly, efpecially if tender.
§ 3- Keep out of fight, if poffible; for to
fifh fine and far off, is the great Rule in all
manner of Fly-Angling \. for if a Fifh be coming towards a Fly, and perceive one, he'll
turn fhort -, therefore keep your Fly gently
moving on the top of the Water, as if it were
alive, your felfout of fight.
§ 4. When you Dib for Chub, Roch, Dace,
move not the Fly fwiftly, when you fee the
Fifh coming towards it, but rather after one
or two fhort and flow Removes, fufFertheFly
to glide gently with the Current, towards the
Fifh, or if in a ftanding or very flow Water,
draw the Fly flowly, not directly upon him,
but doping and fideways by him, which will
make him more eager, left it eftape him -9 for
if you move ic nimbly and quick, they will
not (being Fifh of flow motion) follow as
tho Trout will.
§ 5*. When Chub, Roch and Dace Ihew
themfelves on the top of the Water, on a Sun-
fhine Fade M
ecunt, 5£C.
fliine day, they are eafily caught with Baits
proper for them; and you may almoft choofe
from amongft them which you pleafe to take.
Roch takes Flies beft within the Water, but
Dace on the top. Chub, Roch and Dace will
fometimes take an Artificial Fly: but they
take it better, if you put a Cod-bait, Earth-
bob,Clap-bait or Gentle at point of the Hook,
or an Oak-worm, Hawthorn-worm, Cole-
wort-worm, or a Cabbage-worm. The Oak-
worm, Hawthorn-worm, &c. is full as good
on the top of the Water, as under, or than the
Fly it felf, and more defired by them.
§7, Trouts, Graylings, and Salmon Smelts
will take an Artificial-fly very well at Dibbing; particularly beft the Green-drake, and
likewife the Stone-fly, early or late in the
Evening; and if you could but hit the colour
of the Oak-fly aright, and join a Cod-bait,
either Natural or Artificial, there would be no
great need of the Natural Oak-fly. If you dib
for Salmon Smelts, Chub, Roch, or Dace
with the Dub-fly, put on a Cod-bait, Clap-
bait, Wafp, or Gentle at point of the
Hook. ~
§8. In a calm, you will not have fo much I
Sport even with Dibbing, as in a whiffling |
gale of Wind, both becaufe youthen are not
fo eafily difcovered by the Fifh, and alfo then
but few Flies can lie on the Water; for
where they have fo much choice, they will
not be fo eager and forward to rife at a Bait,
N 3 that   1 i%2 The Anglers
that both the fhadow of your Rod, Body, nay
very Line, in a hot, calm Day, will, in fpite
of your beft caution, render fufpected to
them; but even then in the fwift Streams
with the Green-drake, or Stone-fly, or other
Natural-fly proper for the River, Seafon anct|
Fifh you dib for: By fitting patiently behind
a Bufh you may do execution.
§9. All Fifh take the Fly, fometimes beft
at top of the Water, at another time rr\flfc|j
better a little under the fuperficies of ffim
Water. Therefore, if they will not rife at
the top, try them a little under 5 but Chull
and Roch will frequently take the Fly within
Water, and the Dace at the top of the Water,
or within an inch or 2 of it.
§ 10. Fifh never eagerly rife at any Fly,
until that kind come to the Rivers fide, which
all Flies do before they die, to moiften their
Bodies and Wings, and from the Bufhes and
Herbs skip and play upon the Water, where
they are fnapt up by the Fifh.
§ij. To know what Flies Fifh take, beat
■on the Bufhes on the Rivers Bank, and fee
what Fly fails, and Fifh take beft, and that
ufe, vid. cap, 7. §11. cap. 4. § 35.
§ 12. You may Dibble with the Oak-fly,
Oak-worm, Fern-fly, (for Trouts only about
1 o Days in fome part of May, and fometimes
take off the Fern-flies uppermoft Wings 5 but
ufe the Fern-fly for Chub all the Summer;)
Green-drake.  Stone-fly, Grafliopper, Sharn-
bud _
Fade Mecum^ Sec. 182
bud and Grafhopper, Oak-fly 5 and thereunto put on point of the Hook a Cod-bait, or
Clap-bait, or any other Fly proper for the
River, Seafon and Fifh. Your Line being
about 2 yards long, ftanding behind a Tree
or Bufh, or over any deep hole where the
Trout, or Fifhes hold is*, and make the BAz
ftir, or move up and down on the top of the
Water, as if it were alive-, ftill keeping your
fel£out of fight. And if there be Trouts, in
a hot Day, or efpecially in the Evening of a
hot Day, you may have Sport.
§ 13. You may Angle with the Oak-worm,
Hawthorn-worm, Cod-bait, or Clap bait at
top of the Water, fometimes as a Dub-fly, if
you fet on the fhank of the Hook when you
whip it, about a Straws breadth from its
Head, a Hogs Briftle as is directed for Cod-
bait, chap. 4. § 13, and at the Head of the
Hook a pair of Artificial Wings.  ^
CHAP.   XXXIV.
Treats   of Artificial   Fly-Angling.
N'Ow I fhall treat of Artificial, Dnb fly,
or Caft-fly Angling, (for fo it's ftilcd
in feveral places: ) And herein I find no fmall
N 4 difficulty 184
The Angler's
«ar
ill
$1»
difficulty by written directions, perfectly (although I fhall attempt it) to teach any (though
1 as ingenious as may be) how to make an Artificial, or Dub-fly. Therefore thebeftand
readieft way is, to procure fome skilful Fly-
Angbrto let you fee one made^ and by ob-
ferving the following Rules, and then your
own Experience and Observations, in a fhort
time will make you a perfect Artift. The
great difficulty is, to obtain the right colour
of the Fly, Fifh, at the inftant of your Angling* then take, which none can make a
general description of, becaufe feveral Rivers and Soils produce feveral and divers Flies}
as the Boggy have one fort particular to them,
the Clay, Gravelly and Mountainous Country
and Rivers others; and the Mellow light Soil
different from them all, but much earlier in
fome places and Rivers than others: Nay, in
Wales, and in fome other Countries, there are
peculiar Flies proper to the particular placeand
Country. And my own Experience has abundantly latisfied me, that almoft in every River
the Flies vary in Colour, Kind, Shape, or Proportion ; and that in all places the fame fort
of Flies are taken,much earlier in fome RN
•vers and Years than others; nay, in the very
fame River and Year, I have known the Stone-
fly taken a Month, or more earlier at 5 or 6
Miles diftance lower, than higher up the fame
fiiier. For thofe /very Flies that ufe to appear about, and on the Water in one Month
Pf Fade Mecum^ Sec.
.185
of the Year, may the fucceeding Year come
almoft a Month fooner, or later, as the fame
Year proves colder or hotter; for Sun-fhiny
Weather and warm Springs brings them earlier, but in colder Weather they are later.
Sometimes Fifh change their Fly (but not
ufually) once or twice in one Day, but ordinarily they feek not for another fort of Fly,
till they have for fome Days even glutted
themfelves with a former kind, which is commonly when thofe Flies are near Death, and
ready to go out. For Fifh contemn the Flies
until they be at the beft} and have the greateft
appetite for them when moft plentiful; and
when that fort grow old and decay, and another kind, or fort cometh in abundantly, then
they change.
Therefore the Angler having obferved and
found the Fly Fifh moft affect, at the yery
prefent time, let him make one as like it as
poflibly he can in Colour, Shape and Propor-d
tion of Body and Wings •, and for his better
imitation, ^let him lay the Natural Fly before
him, and try how near Art can come umo, or
diflemble Nature, by an equal Symmetry and
Commixture of Colours. The better to attain,
which end, the Angler muft always have in
readinefs a large Magazine Bag, or Budget,
plentifully furnifhed with the following materials.    WZy
Bear* w
The Angler's
Bears Hair.
§ i. Bears Hair of diverfe Colours and
Shades, are the moft excellent Dubbing; as
Gray, Dun, light Coloured, fad Coloured,
and bright fhining Bears Hair, and bright
brown Bears Hair.
MKn
Camels Hair.
§ 2. Camels Hair fad,   light,   and  of
middle, or indifferent Colour.
Badgers Hair.
0f r Badgers Skin Hair, that is, thebrown-i
ifh foft Fur, which is on fome part of the
Badgers Skin, is very good Dubbing, after t«
Skin is tewed in the Skinners Lime-pits, and
fo is the blackifh.
Spaniels Hair.
§4- Spaniels foft Fur and Hair of diverfe
Colours, and parts of the Spaniel, as on the
Ear, m< as brown, hd brown, light brown,
blackifh, and perfect black.
Dogs Fade Mecum, Sec.
■s
Dogs Hair.
§ j. Get the like Colours from a
Dog, and from a long-coated Cur,
fmooth-coated Cur.
Water
and a
Hogs Down.
§6
. Be fure to procure from Butch
ers, or
others, Black, Red, Whkifhand Sanded Hogs
Down, fuch as is combed from the Roots of
the Hair, or Briftles of Hogs of thofe Colours,
or of fpots on them of thofe Colours. And
you may get the Dyer to dye the White Hogs
Down of any Colour you judge convenient,
and it's excellent; becaufe it both {bines well,
and is ftiff, and proper for the Water, and
lively.
Sheeps Wooll.
§ 7. Sheeps Wooll of all colours both Natural and Artificial, get the courfeft Sheeps
Wooll,and the Dyerf efpecially the Silk-Dyer)
will make it you of any colour you judge convenient, and fuch as will beft abide in the Water -, for all your colours fhould have that
property.
Mohair
II i88 The Angler's
Mohairs.
§ 8- Mohairs of all colours, efpecially the
following, viz,. Black, Blew, Purple, White,
Violet coloured, Ifabella, and Philomot, coloured Mohairs, Yellow, Tawny, &c.
Cows Hair.
§ 9. Get foft Hair and Furs from the Flanks
and other foft parts of a Black Cow, Red
Cow, and Brended Cow, and of thefe have|
brown,' fad brown, light brown, and perfect
Black Hair and Furs.
Camlets.
§ 10. Get pieces of Camlets both Hair and
Worfted of all colours, efpecially the follow^
ing, viz.. Blew, Yellow, Dun, Brown, dar&f
Brown, light Brown, Red, Violet, Purple,
Black, dark Brown, Aiming Camlet, dark Vi-\
olet, Horfe-Flefh, Pink and Orange colour'd.  I
Abortive Colts, and Calves Hair
§ it. Refort to a Skinners Lime-pit, and
there get Hair of various Colours, and you
may get moft excellent Dubbing of Caftling
Skins of Calves and Colts, that are Tewed; j
and feveral colours and (hades of one Skin:l
fo ftfc*
Fade Mecumy Sec. 189
fo of Cufhions made of fuch Skins that have
been neatly Tewed in the Skinners Lime-pit ;
fo of Abortive Skins of Colts and Calves, at
Skinners Lime-pits Tewed, &c.
Furs.
§ 12. Furs of the enfuing Animals, viz..
Furs of Squirrels, and Squirrels Tail, Black
Cats-Tail, Yellow dun Cat, Hares Neck Fern
colour, white Weafels-Tail,Mole, Black Rabbet, Yellow Rabbet, Down of a Fox Cub, Afh
:oloured at the Roots, Fur of an Old Fox,
Fur of an Old Otter, and Fur of an Otter Cub,
Blackifh and Brown foft Fur, and Hair of a
Badgers Skin, that has been Tewed in a Skinners Lime-pit, Marterns Yellow Fur, Filmerts
Fur, Ferrets Fur.
Hackles.
§ 13. Hackles (which are Feathers about a
Cock or Capons Neck, and fuch as hanging
down on each fide, next a Cock or Capons
Tail) of all colours, as the Red, Dun, Yellow-
ifh,White Orange coioured,and perfect Black'
thefe are of efpecial ufe to make the Palmer-
fly, or Infect called by fome Wool-beds.
Feathers. 190
The Angler's
Feathers.
§ 14. Feathers of all fort of Fowls, and of
all colours, as Feathers on the Back, and 0-
ther parts of the wild Mallard, or Drake, and
Feathers of a Partridge, and of a Partridge-
Tail, and Feathers of a brown Hen, Throttle*
wing, ancj Feathers got from the Quills and
Pens of the wings of Shepftares, Stares or Starling, Fieldfare, and Throttle. ThePead|M
Herle, Feathers of a Herons Neck, the top
or Cop of a Plover, or Lapwing, whichjH
make the black Gnat, the black Feather o^B
Oftridge or Eftridge, and thofe of variptt&ll
ed colours, which Children and others wear in
Caps, Feathers from Qjuills in a Blackbira
Wing and Tail, the black Down of a WafjH
coot, and Feathers of all other Colours and
Birds, &c.
Cadows, and Blanckets.
§ 15. Of OutlandifhCadows, and Blanckets of diverfe colours,are very often got eJ&H
lent Dubbing, fo ofCufhions made of Al^|
tive Skins of Colts, and Calves, and of Badgers Skins Tewed, &c.
Silks.
§16. Silk of all colours,
ftrons.
fmall, but very
Wire,
mi Fade Mecum, &c.
Wire, and Twifl.
§ 17. Silver-Twift,  Gold-Twift,  Silver-
Wire, Gold Wire.
§ 18. A fharp and neat pair of Sciflars.
How to make a Dub* Fly.
Thefe materials being ready, you may
make your Fly after the following manner,
being the moftexad way of all others, and it's
performed thus, viz.. You are firft to hold the
Hook foft betwixt the forefinger andThumbof
your left Hand, with the back of the fhank
upwards, and the point towards vcur Fingers
end ; then take a ftrong fmall Silk of the colour of the Fly you intend to make, (or at
leaft of the moft predominant colour of the
Fly, if ic be of diverfe colours) wax ic well
with Wax of the fame colour too, (to which
end you are always to have Wax of all colours
about you) and draw it betwixt your Finger,
and Thumb, to the head of the fhank, and
then whip it twice or thrice about the bare
Hook, which, you muft know, is done, both
to prevent flipping, and alfo that the fhank of
the Hook may not cut the Hairs of your
Tought, Giidard or Line 5 (which fometimes
it will otherwife do) which being done, take
your Line, and draw it likewife betwixt your
Finger and Thumb, holding the Hook fo faft,
as only to fuffer it to pafs by, until you have
the ip2 The Angler's
the knot of your Tought almoft to the middlfe
of the fhank of your Hook, on the infide of it,
then whip your Silk twice or thrice about both
Hook and Line, as hard as the ftrength of fjhe
Silk will permit, which being done, ftrip the
Feather for the Wings, proportionable to the
bignefs of your Fly, placing that fide down*
wards, which grew uppermoft before, upon
the back of the Hook, leaving fo much only as
to ferve for the length of the Wing of the
point of the Plume, lying reversed fromtjB
end of the fhank upwards, then whip your
Silk twice or thrice about the Root-end of the?
Feather, Hook and Tought, which being dcne^
clip offthe root-end of the Feather clofe by
the arming or whipping, and then whip the;
Silk faft and firm about the Hook and Tought^
until you come to the bend of the Hook, but;!
not further (as fome do, and thereby make a
very unhandfom, unnatural and fhapefefs j|H
which being done, cut away the end of the
Tought or Gildard^and fatten it,and then take
your Dubbing which is to make the body of
your Fly, as much as you think convenient,and
holding it lightly with your Hook,betwixt the
Finger and Thumb of your left Hand, takee
your Silk with the Right, andtwiftingit be-^
twixt the Finger and Thumb of that Hand,
the Dubbing will fpin it felf about the Silk,l
which, when it has done, whip it about the
armed Hook backward, till you come to the
fettingon of the Wings, and then take the Feather Fade Mecum^ &.c. 193
ther for the Wings, and divide it equally into
two parts, and turn them back towards the
bend of the Hook, the one on the one fide,
and the other on the other of the fhank, holding them faft in that pofture betwixt the Forefinger and Thumb of your left Hand, which
done, warp them fo down, as to ftand, and
Hope towards the bend of the Hook, and having wrapt up to the end of the fhank,hold the
Fly faft betwixt the Finger and Thumb of
your left Hand, and then take the Silk betwixt the Finger and Thumb of your right
Hand, and where the warping ends, pinch or
nip it with your Thumb-nail againft your Finger, and ftrip away the remainder of your dubbing from the Silk, and then with the bare Silk
whip it once or twice about *, make the Wings
to ftand in due order, fallen, and cut it off;
after which, with the point of a Needle, raife
up the dubbing gently from the warp, twitch
or clip off the fuperflnous Hairs of your dubbing, leave the Wings of an equal length (your
Fly will never elfe fwim true) and the work is
done. Thus you are to make the Dub-fly-:
But a Palmer-fly, or Wool-bed is made of a
Capon, or Cocks Hackle, twirled on Silk, and
warp'd about the Hook, and either with, or
without any Wings,and fometimes a little dubbing under the Hackle.
So that you fee, by this particular direction, That you are Firft, to hold your Hook
and Line*, Secondly, There are to be two or
Q' three i<J4 The Angler's"
three whips about the bare Hook ; ThiriM
Joyn the Hook and Line; Fourthly, Put ofj
yourWin^s-, Fifthly, twirle and lap on yout
dubbing- Sixthly, Work it up towards the
head 5 Seventhly, Part the Wings $ EightJM
Nip off the fuperfluous dubbing from the Silk i
Ninthly, Fatten; Tenthly, Trim and adjul
the Fly.
Rides for Dub flies, and its Angling.
§ i. In making Dub-flies, chiefly obfeM
and imitate the Belly of the Fly, for that cor
lour Fifh moft take notice of, as being mo^
In their Eye $and let the Wings of the Fly alj
ways be of an equal length, elfe the Fly wiS
not fwim right and true.
§ 2. When you try how to fit the colour of
the Fly, wet the dubbing, left you be miftaker,
for, although, when dry, they exactly fuif
the colour of the Fly; yet the Water alters
Bsoffc colours, and will make them brighter!;
or darker.
y § 3. Always make your Dnb-flies on a Sum
fliine Day j and to know the exa& colour ©J
your dubbing, hold the fame betwixt yourj
Eye and the Sun,, and you'll far better difcover
■fhe tree colour of the dubbing, than only IS
looking on it in the Hand, in the Hoofs, dark!
Psy, or % fhady Place.
I 4. Never let the Tail of your Dub-fly]
dclcendn lower,, than until you'come to the
bend wli
—^———*^i
Fade Mecumy Sec. 195
bend of the Hook, and not into the Hooks
bent, as they generally do in the South, and
fo make very inartificial, fhapelefs, and un-
naural Flies.
§ 5. When Trouts often fhew themfelves
at your Fly, and yet do not take it, be allured
that either the Day, or Water is improper for
Fly-Angling; or, which is far more probable,
your Dub-fly is not of the right colour or
fliape they then covet.
§ 6. Some always advife to dub with Silk of
the moft predominant colour of the Fly 5 but
we generally dub Duns with yellow Silk, and
our Browns with red Silk,and at September with
Violet Silk, or Horfe-flefh coloured Silk.
7. Flies made of the Hairs of Bears, Hogs,"
Squirrels Tail, Camels, Dogs, Foxes, Badgers,
Otters, Ferrets, Cows, Calves Skins tewed;
abortive Calves and Golts Skins tewed, Wea-
(els, Outlandilh Cadows, &c. are more natural, lively, and keep colour better in the
Water than Flies made of Crewels, and many fort of Worfted Stuffs, which are of a
dead and dull colour in the water, therefore to
be efchewed, uniefs you mingle Hair of Bears,
or Hogs therewith.
§ 8. The Feather got from the Quill of a
Shepftare, Stare, or Starlings Wing, is the
beft Feather generally to ufe for Dub-fly
wings; then next is the Feathers got from
the Quills of the wings of Throttles, Fieldfares, Black-birds, and the Feathers got on
O z the
1 The Anglers
the Back of the wild Mallard, or Drake,
and riot from the tame one, 'is ufed by forril
for moft fort of Flies. If yoiideflre a black
Wing, then the faid Feather of a Black-bi J
if a Red Wing, then Feathers got out ofj
Partridge Tail, if a brown Wing., then M
thersof the faid' Throftle, if a greenjfh WirgB
then Feathers from a Lapwing, or Plover i
Bpt however, fome ufe only Feathers of
Shepftares Quills, got out of the wings thereof, for almoft all fort of Flies, and affirm there
are great variety of fhades in the ShenftarM
Wings, fome being fadder3 others lighter coloured.
§ 9. The Palmer-fly, Gold Hackle, Silver
jrlackle, great Dun, dark Brown, early bright
Brown, later bright Brown, little whirling-
Dun, Thorn tree: fly, great whirling pun, yell
low Dun, Dun-cut, green Drake, Stone-flyJj
Black May-fly, Yellow May-fly, Badger-|M
Ant- fly, Camlet-fly, and Grey Midge are Fliei*
fufficieat to be furnifhed with. The Hackles" |
and the Stone-fly, being the very ground of all
Fly-Angling. \   ! "
I know an excellent Fly-Angler, that only
pfesthe? before-mentioned Hackles, and thji
grek Dun, and thefe following Flies all the
Year, viz. Yellow Dun, made of Dun Bears.
Hair, and yellow Marterns Fur, Wings'of a
Shepilares Quill Feather, and diibM with yel||
low Silk.    And another Fly made of yelloWl
Marterns For, J}un' Beafs Hair, and Sanded
{' '''     ": •' {;' IfofB fyade Mecumy &c. 197
fiogsDown, dub'd with Ydlow Silk, and the
Wings of the Feather of a Shepftares Quilt;
got out.qf the Wingo Another Fly made of
Dun Bears Hair, blackifh Hogs Down, and
Yellow Marterns Fur. And another Fly mad6
of Dun Bears Hair, Yellow Marterns Fur,
Sanded Hogs Down, and black Hogs Down.
Another Fly made of Dun Bears Hair, Camels Hair, and Yellow of a Blanket* And
all thefe three laft mentioned Flies, are dub'd
with yellowifh Silk, and the Wings of Feathers
of a Shepftares Wings: Befides the Green
Drake and Stone-fly, all which are but ia hf
Number.
And the feme Angler affirms, That ih dale
you Angle with a Dub-fly, made and mix'd of
2, or 3 colours of Dubbing all together, that
If any one Colour, of the faid mixture, referable the true colour of the Natural Fly
Fifh then take, that Trouts, and Salmon
Smelts I will take the fame Dab fly vefry
well.
§ so. W'heff ycTtf Angle With Dub-fly, it
muft be in Rivers either clear , or almoft
clear after Rain, or iri a Mborifh River, dif-
c"olo$red b$ Mofs or Bogs, orelfe in a dark,
gloomy, cloucly Day, when a geritfe gale of
Wind moves the Water; but if the Wind be
high, yet, fo a* you may guide your Tools,
they will rife well in the plain deeps, and
then and there you'll commonly kill the
idl Fifh 1  but if the Wind be little,  or
o '?. m$ 198 The Angler's
none at all, you  muft Angle in the fwift
Streams.
§ 11. Keep your Dub-fly in continual motion, though the Water or Day be Dark, or
Wind blow: otherwife the Fifh will difcern,
and refufe it.
§ |$m If the Water be clear and low, ufe a
fmall bodied Fly with flender Wings.
§13. When you Angle in Rivers difcoloured a little by Rain, or paffing through MoiTes
or Bogs, or if the Water be dark or very
full , ufe a larger bodied Fly than ordinary.
§ 14. If the Day be clear, ufe a light coloured Fly with {lender body and Wings.
§ 15, la dark Weather, as well as dark
water, the Fly muft be dark.
§ 16. As Summer approaches, and water
clears, Flies generally are made fmaller, and
brighter.
§ 17. When you Angle with Dub-fly, y|§r
Rod fnould be no lefs than 5 yards and a half
long, and the Line fhould be about 7 yards and
half long, uniefs the water be incumbred with
Wood or Trees , and when the water banks
are free from Wood3 or Trees, fome ufe a
Line almoft twice length of the Rod.
§ 18. Some advife for every Fly to have
3, one of a lighter colour, anotherfadder,
and a third the exact colour of the Natural
Fly; by which means, you may the better
adapt them to the colour of the water, and
'   Sky: Fade Mecutftj Sec. 199
Sky : But in my thoughts, if you can dob 1
Fly of the exact colour of the Natural Fly
Fifh at that inftant take, it's fufficient-, and the
other 2 extreams fuperfluous.
§ 19. Fifh rarely take the Dub-fly, in any
flow River whofe bottom or ground is flime or
mud. For in great droughts Fifh bite little in
any River, but nothing in flimy Rivers, whofe
mud is not cool'd by the fwiftnefs of the current, but in fandy, graveli'/, pebly, ftony, or
rapid Rivers you may catch Fifh at that
time. *
§ 20. You muft have a quick Eye, a nimble I
Rod and Hand, and ftrike with the rifing of I
the Fifh, or they find their miftake, and put i
but the Hook again ; others are of opinion |
never to offer to ftrike a great Fifh, if he do not I
ftrike himfelf, till firft you fee him turn his 1
Head, after he has taken the Fly, and then fay
they, the Tackle will not ftrain in ftriking, if
moderately you ftrike.
§ 2r. When you caft the Fly, wave the Rod
With a fmall circumference about your Head,
elfe the Fly will be very apt to Jerk, and fnap
off, and thereby your Fly loft.
§ 22. When you fee a Trout rife, caft the
Fly behind him, and then gently draw it over
his Head, and if of the right colour, and you
fcare him not, he's your own.
§ 23« In calling the Fly, do it always before you, fo that the Fly may firft fall upon
the Water (otherwife it will foare the Fifh)
O 4 aatf 20o The Angler's
and as little of the Line with it as poffible,and
without circling the Water, though, if the
Wind be ItifF, you will then be compel'd to
drown a great pdrc of the Line, to keep the
Fly in the Water 5 and endeavour to have
the Wind on your Back, and the Sun in your
Fnce if you can, but the windings and turnings of the River will render that impof-
§ 24. When you Angle in flow Rivers,orft$M
Places with ihe Dub-fly, caft your Fly over
crofs the River, and let it fink a little in the
Water, and draw him gently back again, fo as
yon break not the Water, or raife any circles,
or motions thereon, and let the current of the
River cany the Fly gently down with the-
Stream ; and this is the beft way in flow,flimy,
boctom'd Rivers for the Dub-fly, otherwife
your Fly is to fwim on ihe top.
§ 25 Stand always as iar eft the Rivers fide,
as the Rod and Line will give leave. For to
hfh fine,, and far off, is the great Rule in Fly-
Angling.
§ 26. In froft and fnow, or exceffive cold
weather in the Spring, Angle with the fmal-
lefl: Gnats, Browns, and Duns you can
make.
§ 27. For ftony, clear, cryflalline River,
Flies generally are made with fiender Body and
Wings, but in dark, difcoloured and full Waters, the contrary.
§ 28. When you know not certainly what
Fly m<.
Fade Mecumy Sec.        201
Fly is taken, or cannot fee Fifh rife, then put
on a fmall Hackle if the Water be clear, but
bigger if fomethingdark, until you have taken
one, tfaen order the matter as you are directed,
Cap. 7. §. 11.
29. Some Perfons for fome Rivers'generally
make their Flies of a Cock or Capons Feather or Hackle of diverfe colours, which wilt
ferve all the Spring efpecially, and moft of
Summer, if you but vary and fuit the colour
of the Silk to the Hackle you Dub with, as for
a Dun Hackle, Yellow Silk ; a Black Hackle,
Sky or Azure-colourM Silk; a Brown or Red
Hackle, Red-coloured Silk, &c. and you may
make them either with or without Wings,
but better with Wings in moft Rivers, and
thefe do truly reprefent the infect cali'd a
Palmer-worm, or (by others) Wool-beds,-
whofe external parts are arm'd or adorn'd
with a kind of Wool, or Hair, and at all times
of the Year drop into the Water, from the
..adjacent Bufhes and Trees. And with thefe:
you may generally catch Fish at any feafona-
bie time, efpecially on windy days, and the'
Spring.
§ 30. In all fort of Flies whatever you
make, mingle wich your Dubbing (uniefs
the Fly be made of Feathers and Silk only )
more or lefs of Bears Hair, Hogs Down, or
Yellow Fur of a Martern ; but Bears Hair
efpecially if you have ir.
§ 31. That the Angler may go dry on his
Feet »G2
The Angler's
Feet, let him get a pair of Header Leather
Boots ro reach as high as his Knee, and befor^
they are cut out, let the Currier Very well
Liquor them with this following Liquor,which
Experience has approved to be excellent fot
keeping out Water, viz. l&Emflaftri Diapam
tnaj and of P^ miniocompofit. ofeach2Gun4
ces, Hogs Greafe rendered half a Pound • melt
them together, keeping continual ftirring it,
and when ufed let it be warm, and afterwards
as often as occafion is; if you'll take pains
you may Liquor your Shooes or Boots therewith.
C H A P.    XXXV*
Of .Artificial Fly-Anglings   and
particularly Dub-flies.
f Did once determine to have wholly omit-
X ted any particular Defeription of Dub-flies/
for the Reafons already delivered in the beginning of the j+th Chapter of this Book. Yet^
notwithstanding fuch RefoJution,! think it not
artiifs to infert twoCatalogues,that will ferve as
a Bafis for any perfon,wkh difcreet Variations
and Obfervations, to raife a Superftructure
for his own particular Country and Ufe, in any
Hw pars Fade Mecttmy Sec.
part of England * and will afford no mean light
to the perfect llnderftanding and Attainment
of the Art of Dub fly-Angling, which is as de-
lightfom a way of Angling as any whatfoever,
if the River you frequent, be but plentifully
ftored with Fifh ■ and herewith there is but
little or no alteration of the bait for the whole
day, and you are not to ufe either Lead or
Float, but the Fly is always to be on the
very furface or top of the water, and you are
to Angle going down the River, and begin to
caft the Fly either from the head or fide of the
Stream or Water: And I will begin withF*$r#-
^ry,that being early enough for anyGeutleman
to enter on this Recreation, by reafon of the
wetnefs and coldnefs of the Weather at dial
time: The firft of March being commonly affoon as ever I begun to Angle, and <M-
chaelmas day or St. Luk<?% day the time of die
year 1 defift from that Sport, and, and then I
repair all the Angling Tackle, both Rods and
Lines, that have been any ways damnified id
the preceding Summers fervice j and orderly
difpofe of the fame to be in a compleat readi-
nefs the following Spring*
Dut- 264 The Angler's
Dub-flies for February.
Little Red Browti
§ 1. Is made of the Fur of the black fpot
of a Hog's Ear ( becaufe there it's fofteft )
warpt on with red Silk, Wings of the Male
of a Mallard almoft white.
Palmer-fly or Plain Hackle
§ 2. Is made with a rough, black body, ei-
ther of black Spaniels Fur, or the Whirl of an
Oftridge Feather, and the red Hackie of I
Capon over all.
Silver Hackle
§ i* Made with a black body alfo, Silver
Twift over that, and a red Feather over all'.
Great Hackle^
§ 4. The Body black, and wrapped with a*
red Feather of a Capon untrim'd, that is, the
whole length of the Hackle ftaring out ( for
fometimes we barb the Hackle Feather fhort
all over, fometimes barb it only a little, and
fometimes barb it clofe underneath ) leaving
the whole length of the Feather on the top,
li Fade Mecum^ &c. 205
or back of the Fly; which makes it fwim
better, and Qn a whirling round Water, kills
p;reat Fifhv   '' •&;
Gold Hackle^
§ 5. The Pody black, rib'd over with Gold
Twift, and a red Feather over all, does great
execution.
Great Dun9
§ 6*. Made with dun Bears Hair, and the
wings of the grey Feather of a Mallard near
unto his Tail, the very beft Fly for this Month,
and make5s admirable Sport.
Greaf Blew Dun,
§ 7. Dubbing of the bottom of Bears Hair
next to the Roots, mixt with a little Blew
Camlet, the wings of the dark grey Feather
of a Mallard.
Dark Brown.
§ 8. Dubbing of the brown Hair of the
Flank of a brended Cow, and the grey Feather
of a Drake for Wings.
Thefe Hackles are fome for one Water and
jSky, apdfbme for another, and accordingly j
|fi| fed and colour are alterM, and ufe a jfmajj
'' Hackle, ao6 The Angler's
Hackie, if the Water be clear, or a bigger, if
Ibmething dark *, and when you cannot know
certainly in this Month or any otner, wna Fly
is taken, put on a fmall Hackle, if the water
be clear, but bigger, if ibmething dark, and
the firft Fifh you ake, proceed with him as you
are directed, Cap. 7. §. n.
I
e;eee
Dub-flies for March.
life all the fame Hackles and Flies with fl
brBarys but make them lefs.
Little Whirling Dun.
§ 1. Made of the bottom Fur of a §qir-|
jrelsTail, and the Wings of the Grey Feather!
pf a wild Drake or Mallard.
Early Bright Brown.
§ 2. Made either of the Brown of a Spaniel,
or of the Hair of a Red Cows Flank with a
Grey Wing.   "
Whiiifh Dun.
§ $. Made of the Roots of Camels Hair,
Wings of a wild Mallards Grey Feather.
Thorn- Fade Mecnm^ Sec.
Tihomtree^fly.
§ 4. Dubbing of an abfolute Black, mix'd
with 8 or 10 Hairs of Ifabella coloured Mohair, the Body as little as can be made, Wings
of a bright wild Mallards Feather $ an admirable Fly, and in great repute for a killer.
Blew Dun.
§ 5. Comb the Neck of a Black Grey-hound
with a fmall Tooth Comb, and the Down that
fticks in its Teeth is a fine Blue, wherewith
dub this Fly | the Wings can fcarce be too
white 1 and it's taken from the Tenth till the
Twenty fourth.
Little Black Gnat.
§ 6. Is taken from the Tenth, until almoft
the end of this Month, made either of the Fur
of § black Water Dog, or the Down of a
young black Water Goot,the Wings of the
Male of a wild Mallard, as white as may be,
the Body as little as you can poflible make it,
and the Wings as fhort as the Body. Some
spake the Body of the cop, or top Feather on
the Head of a Plover or Lapwing.
Later The Angler's
j^,, Later bright Brown.
§ 7. Is taken from the Sixteenth, to the
Tenth of April, Dubbing to be got out of a
Skinners Lime-pits, and of the Hair of an
abortive Calf,which the Lime will turn to be fo
bright, as to fhine like Gold. Wings of^tM
, Feather of a brown Hen is beft. --/Jl
f)ub-flies for April.
All the fameHackles and Flies that are tskm
in March, will be taken in April 2K0, with this
diftinction only, concerning the Flies, that all
the Browns be lap'd with red Silk, and th£
Duns with yellow Silk.
Small bright Brown.
§ 1. Made of Spaniels Fur, with a light
Grey Wing, in a bright Day and clear Water,
is very well taken.
Little dark Brown,
§ 2. The Dubbing of dark Brown, and VU
okt Camlet mixM, Grey Feather of a w|ld
Mallard for Wings.
Crpat Itade Mecutn, &c.
Great wfml{ng Dun.
§ 3. From the Twelfth of this Month, is
taken all the Month through about mid time
of the day, and by fits, from thence to the
end of June \ and is one of the the beft Flies we
have ; isisc$pmonly made of the Down of
a Fox Cub, .wijch is of an Afh colour, at the
Roots next the Skin, and rib'd about with Yellow Silk, the Wings of the pale grey feather
of a wild mallard.
Violet Fly,
§ 4. From the Sixth to the Tenth of this
Month is taken, made of a dark Violet Stuff,
and a very little Dun Bears Hair mix'd therewith, wild Mallards grey feather for W ings.
Ttllow Dun.
*    i    '
*' ?e^"'*y.-'££-
§ 5. Dubbing oftanWpHair, and Yellow
Camlet, "br Yello$ Wdifl of a Blanker, well
mix'd, (and fome add Bears Hair) and a white
Grey Wing, Others dub it of Dun Flair of a
Bear, and fome Yellow Fur of a Mar tern mix'd
therewith^Sbd dub it with Yellow Silk, and
tfie Wing^jf* the feather got from the Quill
of a Shepftares Wing. And it's an excellent
Fly bdfltfor April and May. TO
The Angler's
III*.
Pi
mm
Horfeflejbfiy
§ 6. Is taken beft in an Evening, and kills
beft from 2 hours before Sun-fet until Twilight, and is taken the Month through, Duh*
bing of blew Mohair with Pink coloured*
and Red Tammy mixM, a light coloured
Wing, and and a dark brown Head. It begins
to be taken beft about the Twentieth of the
Month.
Dub-flies for May.
All the fame Hackles and Flies, the Hackles
only brighter, and the Flies fmaller, that are
taken in April, will alfo be taken in May, like-,
wife all Browns and Duns.
Next, follow 7 of the very prime Flies for
May, and indeed of all the Year, efpecially*
the Duncut, Green-drake and Stone-fly; and
then 9 of fmall efteem, in comparison with
the fiift 7, yec fuch as will kill Fp-jo^. 3
Dun cut
§ 1. Is the firft of the 7, its Dubbing is of
Bears Dun Flair, with a little Blew.ggd Yellow mix'd with it, a large Dun wing, and 2
Horns ac the Head, made of the Hair of a
Squirrels Tail h and is a very killing Fly.
The Fade Mecum^ Sec.
21 I
The next are 4 Flies which contend for the
Title of May* fly, but the Green-drake., which
is taken both in ftreams and ftills, and that at
all Hours of the Day, whilft in Seafon, and
the Stone-fly taken early and late, but not
very well in the raid time of the Day, have
the preheminence of the black May\y, and
little Yellow Mayfly, by the general vogue
of Anglers.
Green-drake deferibed.
§ 2. At full maturity his Wings ftand high,
and clofed exact upon his Back, like the Butter-fly, and his motion in flying is the fame,
his Body is in fome of a paler, in others of a
darker Yellow ( for they are not all exactly
of a colour ) rib'd with rows of Green, long,
flender, and growing fharp towards the Tail $
at the end of which, he has three long, fmall
Whisks, of a very dark colour, almoft Black;
and his Tail turns up towards his Back, like
a Mallard, from whence he has his name of
Green-drake.
Green drakes feafon, and Dubbiftg-
He comes in about mid May, and is taken until Midfummer in Mountainous Stony Rivers;
far earlier in others, and thet at all Hours, as
aforefaid, and is made thus, viz. on a large
Hook the Dabbing Camels Hair, bright B-ars 12
The Angler's
Hair, the foft Down combed from a Hog's
Briftles, and yelfow Camlet well mixt together, the Body long, and rib'd about with;
green Silk, or rather yellow Silk waxt wM
green Wax,the Whisks of the Tail of thelong
Hair of Sables, or Fitchet; and the Wings of
the white grey feather of a wild Mallard dyed
yellow, which is dyed thus: Viz,.
Take the Root of a Barberry-Tree, and
A^ave it, and pur to it Wood-Ivi's, with as
much Allum as a Wallnut, and boyl the feathers in it with Rain-water, and they will be
of a very fine and curious Yellow. You may
try whether rhe inner l ark of a CrabiJM
boyPd with fome Allum in Water, will »
do the fame, and make a fine Yellow $ which
I an> informed it will, but never experienced it
Stone fly dtfcribt
8 3, The Stone-fly lies under hollow Stojies
at the Rivers fide, his Bodj is long, and prefc
ty thick, and as broad at the Tail almoft as
in the middle, his colour of a very fine brown,
rib'd with yellow, and much yellower on the
Belly, than the Back, he hath two or three.
Whisks, alfo at the tag of his Tail, and two
litrle Horns on hi,. Head, his Wings, when full
Ifo^fn- are double, and flat down his Back,
< f the fame colour, but rather darker than his
I-ody, and*longer than it, though he makes
bui yUTBL
ecum^
■w
but little ufe of them • for be rarely flies,
tho' often fwims and paddles with feveral Feet
he has under his Belly, upon the Water without ftirring a Wing; but the Drake will mount
Steeple height into the Air, tho' he's found
upon Flags and Grafs too, and indeed every
where high and low near the River.
7"he'Stone-fly*s Seafon and Dabbing.
The Stone* fly comes in about middle of
April, and continues until the end of June or
Midfummer*, it's proper for Streams, rather
thanftills, and taken beft early and late, but
not fo well at the mid time of the day $ if there
be a whiffling Wind, then it maybe taken in
thedeepftillsof the River i It's a very killing
Fly, and you may Angle with the Natural
one within the Water at bottom, or near it,
or at mid Water, ir. you pull away the Wings
from the Body, anv in that manner, it will
fometimes be better taken than one with wings
on. The Artificial Stone- fly is made of Bears
dun Hair, with a little brown and yellow
Camlet well mixt, but fo placed, that the fly
may be more yellow on the belly, and towards the Tail underneath, than' in any other
part, and you are to place two or three Hairs
of a black Cats Beard on the top of the Hook,
in the arming or whipping, foas to be turn'd
up when you warp on your Dubbing, and to
ftand almoft upright, and flaring one from
P 3 another; 11
4 jHi^Anglers
another: And note, that this Fly Is to bd
rib'd with yellow Silk, and Wings long and
very large, of the dark grey Feather of the
wild Mallard, or (which 1 intend to to try) of
the brown, foft feather of a Kite, or rather
of the feather got out of the Wing of a
Throftle, or feather of a Quill in a Throftle*
wing. Sometimes ycu may dibble with an
Artificial Stone-fly, in the ftijl deeps, in ajjf
Evening, if any gentle gale of Wind or Breefci
furl chtm.
Black May-fly
| 4- Is the next May-fly made with a black
body of the Whirl of an Oil ridge-feather,
rib'd with Silver Twift, and the black Hackle
of a Cock or or Capon, over all; and is a killing Fiy, but not to be compared with the
Green-drake or, Stone-fly.
Little yellow May fly
§ 5. Being the Jaft of the four, of the fame
fhape of the Green-drake, but a very little
one, of as bright a yellow as can be feenf
made of a bright yellow Camlet, Wings of i
white-grey feather dyed yellow. But fome;
dub it with yellow Far $f a Martern.
Grey - *
Fade Mecumy &c.        2 15
Grey Drake.
§ 6. Is in all fhapes and dimenfions perfectly
the fame with the Green-drake, but quite almoft of another colour, being of a paler and
more livid Yellow, and green and rib'd with,
black, quite down his Body, with black Chining Wings, diaphanous and very tender,Cob-
web-like, it comes in, and is taken after the
Green-drake, and in a Dub« fly, kills very well.
It's made of the whitilh Down of a Hog's Bri-
ftles, and black Spaniels Fur mixt, and rib'd
down theTbody with black Silk, the Whisks of
the Tail, of the Hair of the Beard of a black
Cat, and the Wings of the black grey feather
of the wild Mallard.
Camlet fly.
§ 7- Is taken from the middle of ^y,until
the end of June, is in fhape like a Moth, with
fine Diapred or water Wings, and made of a
dark-brown fhining Camlet, rib'd over with
very fmall light green Silk, and the Wings of
the double grey feather of a wild Mallard,
ahd is a very killing Fly for Graylings and
fmall fifh.
I had thought here to have put a period to
the defcription of any more flies for May; yet
fince there are nine flies of fmall efteem comparatively with the foregoing 7, I will -infert
P 4 them The Angler's
them for the Readers fake, who is at Liberty either to ufe or reject them, as his fancy is.
Turky Fly,
§ 8. Dubbing ravel'd out of fome blew Stuff,
and lap'd about with yellow Silk, the Wings
of a grey wild Mallards feather.
Tellow Palmer
§ jo» Made with a yellow body, rib'd with
Gold Twift, and large Wings of a wild Mal-
lard's feather dyM yellow, with the red Hackle
of a Capon over all.
Black Fly,
§ io. Dubbing of black Spaniels Fur, and
the Wings of a grey wild Mallards feather.
Light Brown
§11. Made of a light Brown with a {lender body, the Dubbing twirl'd upon fmalfred
..Silk, andraifed with the point of a Needle^
that the ribs or rows of Silk may appear
through, the Wings of the Grey feather of a
wild Mallard.
Link OftHfe
Fade Mecum^ Sec.        217
Little Dun}
§ 12. Dubbing of Bears dun Hair whirled
upon Yellow Silk, Wings of a wild Mallards
Grey feather.
White Gnat,
§ 13. With a pale Wing,  and a black
Head.
Peacock Fly,
§ 14. Body made of the whirleof a Peacocks feather with a red Head, and Wings of
a wild Mallards feather.
Cowlady,
§ 15. A little Fly, the body of a Peacocks
feather, the Wings of a red feather, or ftripes
of the red Hackie of a Cock.
Cow*turdfly,
§ 16. Dubbing light Brown and Yellow
tpixM, the Wings of the dark Grey feather
Hf S wild Mallard.
Dub- ai8 The Angler's
m
e^n
MB* j
H
Dub-flies for June.
From the firft to the Twenty fourth are ta»
ken the Green-drake, and Stone-fly; and all
the Month the Camblet-fly.
Ovlfly,
§ i. Is taken from the twelfth to the twenty
fourth, late at Night; Dubbing of a wMJl
Weafels Tail, and white Grey Wing.
Barmfly,
§ 2. Dubbing of the Fur of a Yellow Duo
Cat, and the grey Wings of a wild Mallard!
feather.
Purple Hackle,
§ 3. Made with a Purple Body, whip'd a-
bout with a red Capons feather.
Purple Gold Hackle,
§ 4- Made with a Purple Body, Gold twift
over that, all whip'd about with a Red Capons feather,
Fled Fad&fyfeww, Sec. 219
Fkfhfly.
% ?. Dubbing of a black Spaniels Fur, and
blew Woolfmix'd, and a Grey Wing.
Little Flefhfy,
§ 6. The Body made of the Whirl of a
Peacocks feather, and the Wings of the grey
feather of a wild Drake.
Peacock fly,
§ 7. The Body and Wings both made of
the feather of that Bird.
Antfy,
§ 8. Dubbing of brown and red Camlets
mixd with a light Grey Wing.
Brown Gnat,
§ 9. Made with a very flender Body, of
brown and Violet Camlets mix'd well together with a light Grey Wing*
Little Black Gnu.
§10. Dubbing of black Mohair^and a whit^
Grey Wing.
I Green 0 2O The Angled
raft
Sfl
Gree# Grafhopper,
§11. Dubbing of Green and Yellow Wooll
mix'd, rib'd over with Green SilK, and a red
Capons feather over alL
Dun Grajbopper.
§ i2. The Body flender, made of Dun
Camlet, and a Dun Hackie at top.
Brown Hackle.
§ if. Made of the light brown Hair of a
fat Colt, with a red Hackie over all, wrap'd
with Afh coloured, or Hair coloured Silk.
Dub-flies for July.
Badger Fly.
§ i. Dubbing of the foft brown Fur of a
Badgers Skin ( that has been tewed in the
Skinners Lime-pits ) twiri'd upon red Silk,
with a red Head, and a fad Grey Wing of a
wild Mallards feather; an excellent Fly for
this Month in many Rivers, and it's alfo taken
in many Rivers in March and April.
Or awe- Fade Mecum, Sec.
221
Orange fly,
§ 2. Dubbing of Orange coloured Woll,
and the Wings of ^the feather of a Black-birds
Qmfl»
Little White Dun,
I 3. Body made of white Mohair, and the
Wings of a Herons blew Feather.
- p|#,   -    §
§ 4. Made either of dark brown Dubbing,
or elfe of the Fur of a black Cats Tail, rib'd
about with Yellow Silk, Wings of the Grey
feather of a wild Mallard.
Black Hackle,
§ 5. The Body made of the Whirl of a
Peacocks Feather, and a black Hackie Feather on the top; there is alio another, made
of a Peacocks Herle without any Wings.
Shellfly,
§ 6; Dubbing of Yellow Green Jerky
Wpoll, and a little white Hogs Hair mixt.
Black
* W: 2 22 The Angler*s
ill
,e
Black Blew Dun,
§ 7. TheDubbing of the Fur of a black Rabbet, mix'd with a little Yellow, the Wings of
the Feather of a blewPidgeons Wing.
Dub-flies for Auguft.
Firft, all the fame Flies with July, alfo allj
Browns and Duns are taken, that were taken
in May.
Late Ant fly,
§ 1. Dubbing of the black brown Hair of
a Cow, fome red warned in for the tag of the
Tail, and a dark Wing; a very killing Fly.
Fernfyi^
§ %. Dubbing of the Fur of a Hares Neck,
that is of the Colour of Fern, or Bracki»,
with a darkifh Grey Wing of a wild Mallards
Feather.
White Hackle,
§ 3. The Body of white Mohair,and wrap*
ped about with a white Hackle Feather.
Harry Fade Mecunt, Sec.
Harry Long-Legs,
§ 4. The Body made of Bears Dun and
Blew Wooll mixt, and a brown Hackle Feather over all.
Dub-flies for September.
This Month the fame Flies are taken, that
were taken in April, and alfo the
Camel Brown Fly,
k 1. The Dubbing pull'd out of the Lime of
a Wall, whipt about with Red Silk, and a
darkifli   Grey   wild Mallards   Feather  for
Wings.
Late Badger Fly,
§ 2. Made of the black Hair of a Badgers
Skin, mixt with the Yellow fofteft Down of a
fanded Hog.
October's Dub-flies.
The fame Flies are taken in October, that
wfcre taken in March*
Notwithstanding the wild Mallards Feather 22^
The Angler's
is generally prefcribed for the Wings of Dub-
flies in the preceding Catalogue of Flies; yet
the feathers got from the Pens and Quills of
4he Wings of the Shepftare, Stare, or Starling
is to be prefer'd, and better by many degrees
than the Mallards feather -, and fometimes for
brown Wings, thefeathers got from the Qpills
of a Throftle-wing, is excellent.
Another Catalogue of Flies, prattifed by a very
good Angler, and ufeful to be known by the
young Anglers^ in clear Stony Rivers.
Dub-flies for February.
Prime Dun.
"'Id
en1
i
I
Iff
Mm
B5H. ■• J-;'
§ 1. Dubbing of the Down of a Fox CuB
dul>M with fadAfh-colour'd Silk,Wings of the
feather got from the Qnill of a Shepftares
Wing. This Fly is made little, but there is a-
nother made of the fame Dubbing but larger
by far.
D
ub-fl,
tes for
* March.
The
taken i:
fane
n Ma
Flies
rch, 2
taken in Febium^
nd alfo the fob ft que
warbil
:nt.
Moorijh «fa*
Fade Mecum^ Sec.        22$
Mobrifh Broivn
§ 1. Dub'd of the Wooll of a black Sheep,
and Red Silk, Wings of the feather got from
a Partridge Wings'.
Palm Fly,
§ 2. Made of Hair of a broWn Spaniel got
on theoutfide of the Ear, and a little Sea-green
Wooll mixt, Dub'd with brown Cloth-coloured Silk, Wings of the feather of a Shepftare
Quill got out of the Wing.
Green Jail^
§ 3. Made of the brown Hair of a Spaniel,*
got on the outfide of the Ear, but a little in
the end of the Tail, muft be all of Sea-green
Wooll without mixture,Wings as the laft.
Dub flies for April.
Bright Bedr,
§ 1. Made of bright Bears Hair,, Dub'd
with fad Cloth coloured Silk, Wings of the feather of a Shepftares Quill; others dub the Bo-
py with yellow Silk, which is better.
Q
TellotP 22 6
The Angler's
mm
WEi-
Tellow Dun
§ i. Madeof Yellow Wooll, and Aih-co-
loured Fox Cub Down mixt together, DubM
with Yellow Silk, Wings of the Feather of a
Shepftares Quill: others Dub it with Dun
Bears Hair , and the yellow Fur got from a
Marterns Skin mixt together, and with yellow
Silk, Wings of the feather of a Shepftares
QjJJIL Make two other Flies, their bodies
Dub'd as thelaft, but in the one mingle fand-
ed Hogs Down, and in the other fMckHogs
Down, and the Wings of the feather oK
Shepftares Quill, and there is alfo taken1™
excellent Fly made of Dun Bears Hair, yellow Marterns Fin;, fanded Hogs Down, and
black Hogs Down, all mixt in an equal proportion together dub'd with Yellow Silk, and
the Wings of the feather of a Shepftares Quill
got out of the wing : thefe Flies mentioned
for April are very good, and will be takei
almoft all the Spring and Summer.
Note once for all, That the yellow Fur got
from a Marterns Skin is abfolutely the very
beft Yellow of any whatfoever, either to dub
with, or mingle with other dubbing.
Dd- Fade Mecum, Sec.
Dubrflies for May.
Thorn Fly
§ i. Dubbing of black Lambs Wooll, and
£)ub'd with black Silk, Wings of a Mallards
light Grey *, Note that all the Feathers got
from Mallards for Wings, ought to be got
from a wild Mallard, and not from a tame
one.
Kjtop  Ply
§ 2. Made of the Down of an Otter Cub,-
Warpt about with the Herle of a Peacock, and
dub'd with black Silk, Wings of the light grey
feather of a Mallard-
pern Bud.
§ 5- This Fly is got on Fern, and the natural one is a very good Fly to dib with %
it is but of a fhort thick Body, of a very fad
Greenifh colour, and hath two pair of Wings 5
the uppermoft are hard, and fometimes taken
off, but the uridermoft are diaphanous and
tpwei *, it's^d^^with the Herle of a Peacocked very fad Green-colour'd Silk, Wings
of the feather oY a Felfare Qaill got out of
the Wins*
q 2 LittU 2 28 The Angler's
Little Dun.
§ 4. Dubbing of an Otters Fur, dub'd with
Afh-coloured Silk, Wings of the feather of a
Shepftares Quill.
Tellow May Fiyfi q
I 5. The Body made of yellow Wooll
mixt with yellow Fur of a Martern, Dub'd
with yellow Silk, Wings of the lighteft co-
iff
loured feather of a Throttle.
ill
Dub-flies for June.
Black Midge, or Gnat,
§ 1. Made of the Down of a Mole, Dub'd
with black Silk, Wings of the light Grey feather of a Shepftares Quill.
Grey Midge, or Gnat,
§ 2. Dubbing of the Down of a fad Grey
Car, or fad Grey Camels HairiVDnb'd with
Grey Silk, Wings of the Grey feather of a
Mallard.
Furple \2$
Fade Mecum, &c.
Purple fly,
§ 3. Made of Purple Wooll, and a little
Bears Hair mixt with it, and fometimes no
Bears hair at all % Wings of the feather of a
Shepftares Quill, dub'd with Purple Silk.
Sand Ply
§ 4. Made of the Wooll gotten off the
Flank of a black Sheep, Dub'd with black
Silk, Wings of the fad coloured feather of a
Throttle Quill •, others make the body of the
feather of a Herons Neck.
Mackerill
Dubbing of light brown Camels Hair,Dub'd
with black Silk, Wings of a Red Cogks
feather.
Dub flies for July.
Blue Dunn,
Iffll
11
jy* 1
m
§ 1. Made of the Down of a Water-
Moufe, and the biewifh Dun of an Old Fox
mixt together, Dub'd wkh fad Afh-coloured
Silk; Wings of the feather of a Shepftare
QuiU.
Q, 3 Auguft
m
Mm >3o
The Airglerik
11
Auguft Flies.
Bufs Brown,
§ i. Made of the light brown Hair of the
Ear of a Cur, the Head bfacfcli%ings ofqttl
feather of a Red-Hen, whipt with Orange coloured Silk.
gi.$|g Hearth Fly,
§ 2. Made of the Wooll of an old black
Sheep with fome Grey Hairs in it for the |B
dy and Head, Wings Dub'd with black Silk,
Wings of the light feather of'a Shepftares
Pifmire Fly,
§ 3. Make the Body of bright brown Bears
Hair twirl'd upon Red Silk, Wings of the fad-
deft colour'd feather got from the Quill of I
Shepftares Wing, a good fly.
September's Fly\
Little Blue Dun.
§ i. Made of the Down of a Moufe for
gody and Head, dub'd With fad Alb-coloured
:0t    ■   Sj r|» Silk] tit*
Fade Mecum^ Sec*        231
Silk 5 Wings of the fad coloured feather of a
Shepftares Quill,
Note? ($hat the feather got from the Quills,
or Pens5f "Srj^bftares Wings,Thr4>ftles Wings,
Fieldfare Wings are generally better (the 2
firft efpecially} to ufe for Etafe-fly Wings, than
thofe got from a wild Mallard or Drake.
Thus have I prefented you with 2 Catalogues ^of" Flies, the one confifting of about
65 Flies, the other of about zo Flies, proper for Trouts, Graylings and Salmon Smelts,
in Mountainous ftony Rivers; which, although the Lifts be large and numerous, yet a
few of them will be fuflicient to be ftored
with, and will ferve all the Year for almoft
any River.
CHAP.   XXXVI.
Flow  to Angle for the great 'trout
with a Minnow or Loach.
§ i."\7~Ou may Angle with a Minnow, or
X fmall Loach thus, to be baited on a
large frz'd Hook, viz.. put the Hook in at
his Mouth, and out at his Guill, then having
drawn the Hook 2 or 3 inches beyond, or
through his Guill, put it again into his Mouth,
and the point and beard out at his Tail, then
draw your Line ftraight, fo that the Body of
Q 4 the ?3a
The Angler's
the Minnow will be alipoft ftraight on the
Hook 5 and clofe his mouth that no Water get
tgj which you muft avoid, or you mayftitch
tip his Mouth, or you may ( when you fet on
the Hook) faften fome Hogs fifties under
the Silk, leaving the points above a Straws
breadth and a half, or almoft half an inch
ftanding ouMowards the Line, which will keep
frim from flipping back; this done, try how it
will turn by drawing it crofs the Water, or a*
gainft a Stream, and if it do not turn nimbly,'
then turn the Tail a little to the right or left
hand, till it turn quick, otherwife you'll catch
nothing"; you mult alfo have a Swivel or Turn
in this way, as well as for Pikes (the Swivel
make's the Minnow play better, and preferves,;
the Line from fnarling by turning ) placed a-
fcput a yard of more from the Hook; you
need no Lead on your Line - You muft continually draw your bait up the Stream, within
half afoot, or a foot of thefuperfkies of gfl
water •, in the fame manner Angle with a fmall
t,oach or Bull-head, his Guill-hn cut off And
you are always to Angle this way in a clear water, and in the Stream2 or on very windy dayss
that will furl the water in the plain deeps,
and only In the Months of March, April* September and OtJober. You may thus alfo Angle
fqr-the Pike and pearch.
CHAP Fade Mecum, Sec.
133
CHAP.   XXXVII.
The various ways of Angling for
the Pihg.
§ 1. 'TpRowling for Pike is very pleafant,
X and the Trowl may be bought ready made, only let it have a Winch to "wind it
up withal; and you muft always Angle therewith in a clear water,and, if^poflible, on a windy day. And fome prefer a Angle Hook before the double Pike-hook, and bait with a
Minnot^, as well to catch Pearch as Pike, by
Trowlihg, mMl
Ifrowlhn^ Tackle, &c.
§ 2. For this Fifh, your Tackle muff be
ftrong, your Rod muA be tong, and not very
Oender at the top, Vhere you muft place a
fmall flender Ring for your Line to run
through. Let your Line be Silk, for at leaft
z yards next the Hook, and the reft 4 or 6
folds of the very beft and neatlieft fpun Hemp-
yarn, and curioufly twifted, 18 or 30 yards
long, your Hook double and ftrongly armed
with Wire, for above a foot; then, with a
Probe or Needle, you muft draw the Wire in
a§ the Fifhes Mouth, and out at his Tail, th*t
"''"''    *v|   ?>   , ' fo aw
3WI»
m
234 The Angler's
fo the Hook may lie in the Mouth of the Fifh,
and both the points on either fide 5 upon the
fhank of the Hook, fatten fome Lead very
fmooth, that it go into the Fifhes Mouth, and
fink her witfeihe head downwalis^i^^hough
Jhe had been playing op the top of the Water,
and were returning to the bottom: Your bait
may be a large Gudgeon, Bleak, Minnow,
fmall Trout,fmall Roch or Dace, fmallfalraoa
Smelts, Pearch, his uppejfr&oft BacMns cut
off, a piece of an Eel, Loach, or fomefcitafj
a Frog, in Hay time. Your Hook thus baited,
you muft tie the Tail of the Fifh clofe and faft
to the Wire, or elfe with drawing to and again,
the Fifh will rend off the Hook; or, which is
neater, with a Needle and ftrong Thread,
flitch through the Fifh on either i|^4$$lil
Wire, and tye it very faft. Weeds are de-
ftru&ive to baits, efpecially when they are
ftrong and tough, fo that if you be not careful in tying the Tail of J|e the bait faft to
the joint of the Wire, the Weeds will fpoil it
before the Pike come.
How to Trowl.
§ 3. Ail being thus fitted, caft your Fifh up
znd down in fuch places as you know the Pike
frequents, obferving ftill that he fink fome
depth before you pull him up again \ when
the Pike cometh (if it be not funk deep) you
may fee the Water move, at leaft you may
feel titafc
Fade Mecyin^ &$. 235
feel him, then flack, your Line,, andgive him
length enough to run away to h%liH?W, *# 3
ther he'll go directly, and there pouch or
fwallowif, ever beginning (as-you may perceive)- with the Head, fwallowing thai: firft ,
thus let him lie until you ft e the. Line move ir*
the Water, and then you may certain ey conclude, he hath popped or ftpfaHowed the Bait*
and ranged abroad for more; tbfn, with the
Trowl, wind up your Line (which fhould always be 20 or 30 yards at leaft) till you think
you have it alrnoft.ftraight -0 then, with a fmart
jerk, hook him, and make your Pleafure and
Paftime to your content and fatisfaclion.
§ 4. Some ufe no Rod at all, but holding
the Line on Links on their hand, ufing Ltaa
and Float.
§ 5. Others ufe a very great Hook, with
the Hook at the Tail of the Filh, and when
the Pike cometh, they ftrike at the firft pull
of the Pike.
§ 6. Others ufe to put a ftrong String or
Thread in at the Month of the Bait, and out
at one of the Guills, and fo over the Head,
and in at the other Guills, and fo tye the Bait
to the Hook, leaving a little length of Thread
pr String betwixt the Fifh and Hook, that fo
the Pike may turn the head of the Bait the
better to fwailow it, and then, as before, after fome paufe, ftrike pretty fmartly. If any
Weed hang on your bait, the Pike will re-
fufe it.
§ 7. Some 2^6 The Angler's
§ 7. Some ufe to tye the Bait, Hook and
Line to a Bladder, or bundle of Flags or Bull-
rufhes, fattening the Line very gently in the
cleft of a fmall ffiick, to hold the bait from fink*
ing more than (its allowed length) half a yard,
and the ftick muft be fattened to the Bladder
or Flags, to which the Linf§4>eing tyed, that it
might eafily unfold, and run to its length, and
fo give the Pike liberty to runaway with the
Bait, and by the Bladder or Flags recover their
Line again; you muft obferve this way to turn
off your Bait, with the Wind or Stream, that
they may carry it away, or fome ufo (for more
fport) if the Pike be a great one, and in a
Pond, to tie the fame to the Foot of a Goofe,
which the Pike if large, will fometimek^pW
under the Water.
Angling for the Pike at Snap.
§ 8. When you Fifh for the Pike at Snap,
you muft give him leave to run a little, then
ftrike \ but be fure to ftrike the contrary way
to that which he runneth • a double fpring
Hook is principally, if cot only ufeful in this
way of Angling, and much to be preferred
before all Hooks; for the Pike will ufually
hold the bait fo faft in his Teeth that you may
foil to pull it out of his Mouth, and alfo ftrike
him, whereas with a fpring Hook though he
hold it never fo faft, the Wire will draw
through the Bait, and fo the fpring will open, Fade Mecnm, Sec.        237
and you will vef y frequently Hook him on the
outfide of his Mouth: Angling with Trowl
isafurer, at leaft a more eafy way for a learner to pra&ife, ( who wants an Inftrucler )
than the Snap; befides, the Snap is chiefly ufe-
ful to take a Pike, which often pricking with
the Trowl hath made wary and cunning ( for
one that hath not been feared will fwallow
the Bait boldly ) fuch an one is beft taken at
Snap, and the Snap is beft for March, when
the Pike bites ill, becaufe they fpawn then,
and are fick.
How to Bait for the Snap.
§ 9. In this way of Angling put on your
Bait thus, viz.. make a hole with the point of
your Hook or Probe, in the Fifhes fide, as
near the middle as you can, put in your Aril® "Wire, and draw it out at the Mouth, and
with a Needle and Thread few up the Fifhes
Mouth.
Others ufe the Probe to draw the Arming
Wire under the Skin only ( not the Ribs by
any means) and out at the Bone behind the
Guills, then again under the Guills and out
at the Mouth ; this latter way is much better
Kpfe there is only the Skin to hinder the
drawing and piercing of the Hook 5 whereas
|M: former way, if the Pike hold faft ( as
commonly he doth ) all the Flefh on the outfide of the fifh will be drawn into a heap or
lump, 238 The Angler's
lump, fo thick, that the Hook (except very
large ) can hardly reach through it to pieiS
the Pikes Chaps.
Obferve that the Pike will feed to that ex-
cefs and fallnefs that he cannot gorge your
bait, yet will he rife and flie^himfelLJM
make many offers, having fuc^a goqd wfft^B
it, that you may often catch him with the
Snap. ''m
Rules for Pike Angling.
% 1 • After he hath taken your bait if he
move flowly and make no ftop, give him time,
and you'll feidom mifs him; caft not the bait
in one and the fame place above once or tw^B
at moft 5 for he commonly takes the bait at
firft or fecond throw.
§ 2. Or if he lye after he hath taken the bait
(as fometimes he will) gently move your hand,
to try which way his Head lieth ; if you cafe
not difcover that, then ftrike directly upw^H
otherwife you may (inftead of Hooking him)
pluck the bait out of his MoutjjjC '
§ 3. If he take it upon the top of the water,
and lie ftill, you fee which way nis Head lieth,
and may order your felf accordingly.
§ 4, At the Snap yourTackle muft be ftroflg-
er than for the Trowl, in regard you muft,
ftrike much more forcibly, your beft Lines
are made of Green or Sky-colour'd Silk^f|jB
vards
m
'— Vade Mecum* &c.
J0$8
yards long for the Trowl.   Next are thofe of
Greeh Thread or Hemp.
§ 5. At the Snap you muft give two Iufty
f&jbpne after the other,and be lfj?£e you ever
^Pfecogtrary to the way his Head lieth, left
you Puttie bait from him only.
§ 6. Fallen your £wivel to the end of your
Line (for you muft ufe a Swivel both at Trowl
and Snap) and Hook your Armed Wire upon
the Swivel.
w?$-' For the Snap caft a piece of Lead hollow, ar^io wide as to go over the Wire, and
the endr|t the Hook, which you draw within
ffif rifhes Ntfj^tiJ^jtet it lie there to fink his
^^l^^nwards, make it fo rough that it flip
not out, or few up theFilhes Mouth, which
iSibett^rt^an to place the Lead upon the Line,
(as fome ufe) for the Lead will very often
flip further,and alfo entangle the Bait and Line
together.
§ 8. Both at Snap and with Trowl, cut a-
toy ojie^pf the Fins of the Bait clofe at the
Guills, and alfo behind the venc, another on
the contrary fide •, the bait will play better.
•m.gvjtrjt calling with Trowling, or at Snap,
%flflre to raife yc^ur Hand a little when you
fee the fiatt ready to fall into the Water; this
will prevent that the bait dafh not violently
iato the Water in its fall, which affrights the
^&ev'(thougtj, |ie be a bold Fifli) when it falls
tjggjnd and near unto him : Mter your bait is
in, then let it fink a little then draw it towards
you, ^4°
The Angler's
!»ll;
M
tif&
m
I!
liii
you,  near to the top,   then let it link a-
gain, &c.
§ 10. Make your Lead for the Trowl four
Iquare, and much thicker and fhortefc thai
moft ufe, the Square Will keep the Hook in the
fame place as you fet it, and the thick fhort
Lead finks him with his head downwards, fo
that he will not fhoot flopewife, as he doth
when the Lead is long.
§ u. Join your Wire Links together with a
fteel Ring} the Bait will play and fink better,
if it lie only in the Baits Mouth,5 Mwill not
entangle in the Line fo often. February, April,
beginning of May* September and October, are
the chief Months for Trowling, zMMarcb
for the Snap.
§ 12. A larger bait doth more invite the
Pike, but a letter takes him more furely, as
fooneft gorged or fwallowed, and the Hook
certainly taken into his Mouth both at Snap
and Trowl. Two or three baitswtffeVe^aK
the day, arid bait them before you go to Angle, and ufe one until it be water-fopt.
§ 13. life a large white Minnow, or large 1
Loach, put on with the Hook in his Mouth,
Angle with him for a Pike as you do for aTrout,
and let your Hook be fmall *, ufe not a great
Hook with a fmall Bait, nor a great Bait with
a fmall Hook. You may catch both Pikes
and Pearches, if you Trowl with a Minnow or
Loach, or fmall Gudgeon, and have riot too
big a Hook;    You muft always Trowl in a
clear
U-Bft Fade Mecum, Sec.
clear Water^arid if poflible in a windy day.
When .t|^W^ter is T^nfparent and the day
clear and bright, a large Gudgeon is the beft
Bait fofrike, but if the day be dark or cloudy, Roch, Dace, or a Bleak new taken, are
the beft Baits can be madejife of.
Angling for Pike with a %linno\v.
Get a fingle Hook, long and [lender in the
fhank, put Lead upon it, as thick near the
bent as will go into the Minnow's Mouth,
place the point of the Hook direftly up the
Face of the Fifh, let the Rod be as long as
you can handfomly mannage, with a Line
of the fame length, caft up and down, and
mannage it as when you trowl with any other
Bait; if, when the Pike hath taken it, he run
to the end of the Line before he hath gorged
orfwallowedit, do not ftrike, but hold ftill
only, and he will return back and fwallow it,
but if you ufe that Bait with a Trowl, fome
^vfem it the very beft for Pike, efpecially if
; y£u ufe a Swivel. YOU may ufe a large Loach
after the fame manner for the Pike, as alfo a
Gudgeon, Bleak, &c
The manner of Snaring young Pikes or Jacks.
In May j June and July, in a clear, calm, hot
gieamy day, Pikes foar on the Waters furface,
or near It; then fix a Snare or Running-noofe
R of
-Mm ^^^"^^^^HRerAngleR
of Wire to the end of a ftrong Pacfethread,
a yard and half long, and the owt$$Q of the
Pack thread to a long Pole or Goad'pafcjj
mannageable: Your Snare or Running noofe,
aforefaid., being ofi|n, you ma^ ffi&i;ve Jap™
to lie on the top dfthe Wa|e|- anj?|6b may
eafily put the Snare over thtffh, andyJ<with a
quick and fmart jerk,hoift them amain to Land.
This way I have taken many, near Oxford.
Hooking Pikes in Ditches.
Or you may, at that time, take a Line of
7 or 8 foot, and thereunto arm or whip a
Hook of the largeft fize, and lead the fhank
of the Hook neatly, that the weight may
guide itatpleafure, and you may ftrike the
Pike with the bare Hook where?vpu pleafe,
when they go a Frogging into Ditches, in
May, June and July-, and you feejfeem foa'rf
ing on the fuperfides of the Water. Or you
may whip four Hooks to fuch ajJypf, the
points of each a quarter or a~circle diftant
from each other, arid all whipt together, &V+
CHAP. Vade^iecum^e^7
CHAP.   XXXVIII.
Of Fifh-ponds.
2 A.1
WHen the Ground is drained, and the
Earth made firm, where the Ponds
head muft be, in that place drive two or
three rows of Oak or Elm Piles, and lay Faggots of fmaller Wood betwixt them, and
Earth betwixt and above them, very well
rammed 5 and then fet another row of Piles
as the firft wTere; which fhould be abottit the
heighr you intend to make the Sluice or Floodgate, or the Vent conveying the over-flow-
ihgsofyour Pond, in any Flood, that may
endanger the breakings of the Ponds Dim.
The depth of the Pond fhould be about 7 foot,
except at fome one end or fid-e it be very
fhallow, which is neceflary for the preferva-
tibn of the Spawn and Fry of Fifh.
§ 2. Plant Willows or Alders about the
Pond, and ca'ft in fome Faggots in fandy places, not far from the fide, for Fifh to fpawn
in, and defend their Spawn and young^&yi
from Ducks, Herons, Geefe, Frogs, Kings**
fifhers and Vermin, efpecially the Spawn of
Carp and Tench.
§ 3. Contrive the Pond fo, as the Water
may be continually renewed by fome R 11 or
R 2 Rain- 2j^__^^ra^^nglers
Rain-water, whichindi^Fiftb^h^b^d
and feed better, and makes them be of a bS
cr aad pkafanter taft:  So Pools that ar
tor Fifh to fport themfelves on, make thd
purely rafted .• So hollow Banks shelveI a
Roots of Trees ^.ndpSSS
thur Enem.es and Devourers, and Shade S
fend them in the Sumner from heat, and 4
the Winter from Cold i But many Trees grow"
mg ; bxu the Pond, fi j for FinS l? r
the falling and rott nj of he Leaved
the Water ftmk and four, ^tTJliSlS!
§+. The Carp loves and delights in gravel-
ly   fandy Gionnd and bottoms-, and Treed
beft g Marie-pits, or Pits that'ha™ clean
8£feS S 8$ S88 or Ponds 1 at
JdwawiM inuf0Ch ,ikewife that
(ILa wmrer leafon, but not fo well p
old Ponds that be full of Mud and Weeds: And
they would have their Ponds warm, and free
torn o^rn' WKf Grafs growi"g °° SGI
h^'nf  1eS'7liere0D' in the hot Months,
they 11 feed and eat, and would alio have Willows grow on the fides of the Ponds  in Sum-
SdT !n/fatd/°UghtS are> Oft-S :
fiS with%?r      rr Pcnds' and «ke the
lame with an Iron-rake, and Grafs willauirk
uarps will feed thereon.
Carp§ Fade Mecum, Sec*
Carps are very great and numerous breeders, and often over-ftore the Ponds where thy
■pjjyell, and delight, fo do Breams, and that
makes them both be lean, and not thrive fo
well.
Cleanfe and drain your Ponds every four
or five years, letting them lye dry fix or nine
Months, to kill the Water* weeds, as Water-
liilies, Candocks, Reat and Bull-rufhes, that
breed there-, and as thefe die^ fow Oats,
Parfley-feeds, and Hay-feeds, and let Grafs
grow on the bottom and fides of the Ponds,
Kg^fisrps to feed on \ and obferve what kind
of Fifh foever either feed beft, or thrive in the
Water of the refpeclive Ponds, and fuit them
accordingly. The Tench arid Eel love and delight in Mud, and foul Waters and Ponds.
§ y. Often feed the Fifh by throwing into
them chippings of Bread, Ale-grains, Curds,
of the Intrails of Chickens, or of any Fowl or
Beaft you kill for your felf: So Garden-earth
and Parfley thrown into a Pond, very well recovers and refrefhes fie kFifli. When you ftore
a breeding Pond, put in two or three Males
for one Female ; but in a feeding Pond, take
no care whether there be more Male or Female Carps: Others advife to put in two Fer
males for one Male into the breeding Pan \
if there be great ftore of Rubbifli in a Pond,
there needs a lefs fupply of adventitious Feed.
§6* Carps and Tenches thrive and bnei
bell:, when no other Fifh is put with them Pjp
R 3 the
mmd 2j\6 The Angler's
the fame Pond ; for all other Fifh devour their
Spawn. Others fay, that Carp, Tench and
Bream will breed and like well in the fame
Pond \ but fince Breams are fuch exceffijjB
breedeis, I fhould keep them out of the Pond
wherein Carp and Tench are. So likewife
Roches are prodigious breeders for number,
and (like Sheep in" a pafture) devour and
confume all the fweet Feed in Ponds, and
thereby pinch and ftarve all other Fifh.
§ 7. Pike, Pearch, Roch, Dace, Bream
and Minnows, may be put into one and the
fame Pond ■ the two firft will feed on, and
mightily devour the Fry and Spawn of all
the others, which are numerous breeders.
Breams will like very well in fair and large
Ponds, or Mill-dams. Let your Pikes be ail
of a length ycu ftore your Ponds with3 for
one of 30 inches will devour one of 15.
§ 8. In Winter break the Ice, if a great
Froft, and make feveral holes in the Ice of
your refpe&ive Fifh-ponds f&r^JFifb to breathe,
and take the Air at, and throw Bean^ftraw
into the Pond, if you fufped a hard Froft to
approach.
§9. Kill and deftroy all Herons, Cormorants, Sea-gulls, Kings fifhers, Water-ipoots,
Water-rats, Water-mice, Bitterns, Wife
ducks and Otters, that frequent the Pondrj^
andfufFer not much fronting at Wij^owl;
for that affrightens, harms and deftroys Fifh.
Your Tame-ducks are great Enemies to your
Flii
wM Fade Mecum^ &c. 247
Fiffi in the Fifh-ponds; for they devour all the
jfpf&n, and the young fry of Fifii: The like
<Io Geefe, but not fo much as Ducks.
§ 10. You may carry young Carps, or
mWn^f^alive 40, or 60 Miles, if you lay one
layrofFifli, and another of very wet Mofs in
a Pannier, and refrefh them with frefh Water,
every 10 Miles, which way is to be ufed for
thole you"1!! preferve alive, to ftore Ponds
with.
•■'§'•1 if The Age of Fifties is more uncertain,
■pp that of Terreftrial Creatures, becaufe living under the Water they are not fo eafily
obferved. Many of them breathe not, by
which means, their Vital Spirits are more
clofed in *, and therefore, though they receive
fpme refrigeration by tftfeir Guiils, yet that refrigeration is not fo continual, as when it is by
breathing.
They are free from the Defurcation, and
Depredation of the Ambient Air, becaufe they
live in the Water. Yet there is no doubt, but
the Water Ambient piercing and receivM into
the Pores of their Body, doth more hurt to
long life thmthe Air.
It is afnrmM too, that their Blood is not
warrjti, fome of them are great devourers,
even of their own kind. Their Flefh is fofter,
more watery, and tender than that of Terreftrial Creatures.
That which they report of fome Fifhes, is
ftrange-, that after a certain Age their Bodies
R 4 will 2 4
8
The Angled;
wm„
will wafte, and grow very fiender, only^hiSi:
Head and Tail retaining their former great-
nefs.
The Pike, amongft Fifhes living in frefh
Water, is found to laft longef^/tbrpetimes to
40 Years, though others^thmk 10 Years to
be the extent of his Age; he's a Ravener, of a
Flefli fomewhat dry and firm. The Pike,
Chub, Pearch, Trout and Eel amongft frefh
Water Fifh,are the greateft devourers of other
Fifh- The Carp, Bream, Tench, Eel, Chub,
and the like, are by my Lord Bacon held not
to live above 1 o Years, yet others on their
own Obfervations, affirm the Carp to live 30,
or 40 Years. Salmons are quick of growth,
fhort of life: But the Pearch is flow of growth,
long of life. As Terreftrial Creatures cannoti
bear the Air that is too hot, or too clofe^
fo Fifhes are fuiFocated in Waters, if they be
totally and long frozen.
§ 12. Salmons fpawn in moft Rivers in.
Augufl} then they dig a hole, o^rave in a
fafe place in the Gravel, and there place their
Eggs, or Spawn (after the Melter hath done
his natural Office) and cunningly hide^and
cover it over with Grayel and Stones. So
leaving it to be enlivened by the Suns heat,
and fo they become Smelts early in the next
Spring.
§ 13. In Lorrain in a Lake there, there's
fuch abundance of Carps, that the prefect
Fnjich King Yearly receives a great Revenue
chtfts tfa*
Fade Metum, Sec.
'A9
thereby. In Perfia there are neither Pike* nor
Kp^and in Mufcovy no Carps are either in
K3r* Rivers, Lakes, or Ponds. Icf Spaiu
there are no Pikes.
»>i4. All forts of Cfeatures what^r^te"
their Redudtives, and CpiSeclions, elfe the
Kntedrfe would be over-ftock'd witheveryArticular Species: Man hath his Wars, Plagues,
fetains,Foreign Plantations,Sea Voyageslt)e^;
baucheries and Exceffes, which, were it not
■Kihefe Mankind would grow fo numerous,
that the whole Earth and Sea could not produce fufHcient Food, and Aliment for his nutrition ; and amongft other Creatures, Fifhes
are infinitely more numerous* or increafing
than Beafts, or Birds, as appears by the*iSp*
^potsfpawn of any one Fifh, though cWF^:j
narily tWy breed but once a Year;sftiBWaJr^
thefe fhould come, even the Ocean it felf
would long fince have been over ftored ^Wi"tf?
Fifh. Now the Correctives and Redu&ives of
thefe are very many,    i. Ariflotle obfer^ftTJ
his Sixth de Hiftoria Animalium, crfj^reftfi§fe't
Eggs that are not {yx\v^e$p<AfpergineSemifts]
genitalis mari$, prove uriftlfi$ul; a greatTOJff^
are devoured by the Male, and rhilSn more
by other Fifh; fome of their Eggs a?e£buried
in the  flime, and corrupted.   2. Many are
(taken byMen and imployed for Foodp 3. As
among Birds and Beafts, there areE^rds and
Beafts of Prey,  fo efpecially amongft Fifh:
And though the Wifdom of Providence hath
given
mmd 11
i$o
The AngleiV
mm
iSvHP? •
IS
re' v~
I -a  i"•■■■;
L/lNfM  '
given certain Exped|ej3ts to Animals,efpecially
Fifties of the weaker Natu^^efcape the vora*
cious, as fwiftnefs to fomfs finallnefs to otheilsli
Ipefeby they efcape to fhaUows, and fhoars
unacqejp^ble to the greater:   And to thofe
that ajif^no^able to move, or at leaft to mow|
fwiftly, the Protection of Shells, as Oyfters*
Efcailops, Crabs, LobfteTt, and other Shetf
fifh, yet a very great number are devoured by
the voracious kind.
My Lord Chief Juftice Hales tells us in his
Moral Evidences, that a Friend! of his, having
ftored a very great PoncLof 3, or 4 Acres of
Ground with Carps, Tejjcji and other Pon&ijj
fiijj, of a very great nupjber, only put iri tm
V^i^k^feiall Pikes; at 7 Years end upon
thtgraoght of his Pond, not one Fifhiqaskft,ei
but the 2 Pikes grown,to an excefflve bignefs, 1
and all thejgft, together yit}\ their MiHiiftis- of I
Fry,%pfjKaped by r£hofe pair of Tyrants.
4 Be^mrtyfp and Birjis of Prey, as .Outers,
W^t^ftats, Bitter^, Herons^Ducks, G^e,
Kingi^Bfhers, Sea-gulls, Cormorants andi$aj
therFowl of trM^i^I^ftrcy many both iri $
Sea, Rjyers, Ponds and Lakes. e5^fel?re^m^
Frofts, efpecially in Rivers, Ponds and Lakes -
make a great deftruc*lio> of Fifh^d|jai:alylby j
freezing them, partly by the exclusion of the
Amjbient Air, which infmuatesfit felf rnijd tft&M
Water, and is neceflary for the prefervation of
the li^es of thofe watery Inhaibitgi>i£.   6. Bpf&
great heats and droughts, not only drying upA
rama ' Lakes, Fade Mecum, Sec. 2^1
Lakes, Ponds and Rivers, but alfo tainting
the Water with e:*ceffive heat, and though
thofe two do not fo much concern Sea-fifh,
who have more fcope and room, yet they
have a great influx upon Rivers, Ponds and
Lakes
§ if. Janus Bubravius fays, Carps begin to
fpawn at the Age of 3 Years, and continue to
do fo 'till 30, both they and moft other Fifh
fpawn in the  Spring, or Summer, excepc
Trouts,   Carps,   Loaches,  £pd   Gudgeons
fpawn feveral times in the Summer, and then
3 or 4 Male Carps will follow a Female, but
ihe diflembling a Coynefs, they force her
through Weeds and Flags, where fhe lets fall
her Eggs or Spawn, which ftjfks faft to the
Weeds, and then th$y let falT^neir melt upon
it, and fo it becomes in a fhortx&e^^ving
Fifh *, and it's thought that moft Fifh breed after this manner, except the Eel. LWyjW when
the Spawner hath weakened her felf by doing
that Natural Office,  2 or three melters have
helped her off from the Weeds, by bearing
her up on both fides, and guarding her into
the Seep.
CHAP. 252 The Angler's
I
TO
Th
CHAP.   XXXIX.
>e  manner^  and  chief ways  of
dreffing frefh Water Fifh.
ALthough I cannot pretend to the Ieatt^
Skill in Cookery; yet I will not deny,
but that (as the times phrafe it) I underftalic^
fomething of ejfing, and very well kno^ that
the Angrer tffien froiji home, 4Shd would plea-
lure his Friends witrf the^RRof his recreaiif- H
ons,; frMjmapneets yfrni fuch ill Huiwivtf&N
at ordinary Iipfe, or AMibtiftf (being oftlff?
enforced IRiftake up his Quarters at fuch
place^fiffthe conveniences of the River he
Angles at|SW|ders by their ill dreflingthe
moft plicate Fifh, not only ingrateful to tfi<^
^afatej" Wjpyen naufeous to the Stomach -, to
obviate which inconvenience, I will here fur-
jiifh the Anglerjfbut of Mr. Walton, Ingenious
Mr. $%?tdn9 anfrbthers) with theeafieft, and
beft ways of d?2ffing all manner of frefh Water Fifh, fo that upon fuch ftrefs, he may di-
re& his Land-lady fo well, (if flie'll butob- !
ferve him) as neither to /hame her felf, nor
fpoil a good difli of Fifh.   And, I will firft
teach how to drefs the Chub, he being a Fifh
that has loft much Reputation, for want of
gooddrefGng.
How Fade Mecum. Sic.
253
How to drefs a Chub.
§ i. Firft fcale him, and then wafh him
clean, and take out his Guills; and to that
end make the hole as little, and near to his
tefnills as you may conveniently, and efpecial-
Svrinake clean hisj^Xjiroat from Grafs and
Weeds that arjb W^ly in ifc^ (ffciS&f that be
not very clean, it wj|inake him to taft very
Tour) then with yojjji Knife cut away ail his
Guills, having fo don^j put fomefwf&feiHerbs
(which are the^tpps of Rofepary, Thyme,
Sweet Mar joralL'Parfly and Wihf4r Savory)
into'Mif Belly'. ana^tgen tye him with 2 or 3
fplinters to a S&it^aid roft him, baftedoften
with Vinegar, or rather Verjuice and Butter,
with good ftore of Salt mixt with it. This
way makes him a good difh of Meat, and
dries up the fluid watery humour, with
which all Chubs abound. Other Fifh may
bedreftthus, as Barbel, Tench, Bream, &c+
only baft them with Butter only, and Salt fiift
ftrewed on.
Another way to drefs a Chub.
§ 2. When you have fcaled a Chub, and
cut off his Tail, Fins and Guills,, and wafhed
him very clean and taken out the Guts, &c.
then chine or flit him through the middle,
as a Salt-fifh is ufually cut, then give him 3,
or 2^4 The Angler's
or 4 cuts, or fcotches onHtGTBack with your
Knife, and .broil him leifurely on clear Charcoal, or Wood^-coal Fire that are free frorm
fmoak, and all the time he is broyling, baft
him with the beft fweet Butter, and good
.ftore of Salt mixt with ttj p^tojffii^S^S
little Thyme cii&-exceeding fmall, or bmuU"
into the Butter - and he's often to te turn'd
whilfttift broiiii%v Dreftp^s manner M
watry taft is taleri away, for which many
except Againft him. He's to be el^nth?
fame Day he's caught, and forget not to cut
his Guills, aid wafh his Throat very clean*
and his Bod££fe not to be wafhef after gutted!
(as indeed no other Fifh fhould be) but wiped
clean with a^Lihnen Cloth. After this man-
Jier you may drefs other Fifh, as Trouts/Jfefe
bels and Tenches, &c.
Another way to drefs a Chub.
foj Set a Kettle over the fire, with fome
Water, and a little Beer Vinegar, fo much of
both as will cover the Fiffi, and therein put
Fennel and good ftore of Salt; and when
the Water boils put in the Chub, (he being
firft fcaled, gutted, Throat made clean, and
wiped clean, and Guills cut away) and let
him boil up but afterwards very leifurely,
and when boii'd enough, take him out, and
lay him on a Board for the Water to run
from him j having fo refted one Hour, pick
all 9%ad^mci^^Ge!c^  '^%f4
all the Fifh from ,t^^5pnes, and JayTft on a
Pewter.difh, wh^h^t^gX Chafing difh of
£oals, and put ^HjWJpre of. My^^hfoi^
which when the wflwfg^ceeding? hot,, ftfoge
it up, 3tfd eat it asfcwglTO»: and fcald
fomeParfly, and fhteajitand mix it with the
Hfiir.':      : r?"^;- - •    *L£?
. :.    ."■ re >3 v.>e. - 3w>* ?r ciop|^.^y>^
To<1frefs Trouts, ffip*£fae common way.
§ 4. Firft with a Knjje gently fcrqggall the
flime off them, then wafli them clean Tin Salt
and Water, and cut away all their Guills,
then gut them, and^pe them very clean
with a Unnen Cloth, then flower th^irpn one
fide with the fineft Wheat flower, rfchf^jpf
them in the Frying-pan, with that Q^down-
wards wnieh was flowered, and fry them very
well, but leifurely in good fweet Butter, until they be brown and crifp \ then flqwer that
fide which is uppermoft, and turn it downwards, and fry as aforefaid, &c. then take
them out of the Frying-pan, and lay them on
a PeWter difh, firft very well heated before
the fire, then pour offthe Butter the Trouts
were fry'd in, into the Greafe-pot, and not
on the jftfh; then fry good ftore of Parfly
and young Sage in otner fweet Butter^ until
they be a little crifp, then take out the Herbs
and lay them on the Fifh, but put not any
of the Butter wherein the Herbs were fry'dj
op the Fifh: Then beat up fome fweet Butter,
with W$ 6 ^Kie Angler's
with ^ Mi? 4 Spoonfuls of boyling hot Spring
WateWiin Anefopyis being firft thereirifjtffl
cfcl^d^if you can eawy have an Anchjp$£w
and pount on the Fira orDifh where they
arev arid ferve them up, garnifhifg your difh
with  fome Straw-ferries;, or other Green
Leaves.   This is the way to fry Trouts, Sail
mon Smelts under a foot long, fmall i Pikes,
Peartfi^^raylings, Rodhes, Daces, creams,
Gudgeons, only thofe that have fcales are to
be c?e%h fcaled,  which muft be done verj|
lightly and carefully with a Knife for bruifing
the Fifh, and tholefthat have no fcales muft
be well wafhed, and rubbed in Salt and WateM
before they are gutted, and the Guills of eve™
Fifh is to be cut clean out, and of the FifhbeJ
fore gutted; for the Guills eafily contracl aril
ill favour, taft and fmell.   This way alfo ycln
may fry fmall Eels, after they are fleadjguttqdH
wiped clean, and cut into pieces 4 or 5 incrrlB
long.
The beft way of dreffing a Trout, Sec*
§ 5. Take your Trout, wafh, and dryJrJ|M
with a clean Napkin; then open him, and!
having taken out his Guts, and all the KSodiJ
and cut and taken away his Guills, wipe him j
very clean within, but wafh him hot, and I
give him three fcotches with the Knife to the 1
Bone, on one fide only; after which take a 1
clean Kettle, and put in as much hard ftale 1
Beer J Vade Mecnm. &c
*57
Beer Vinegar, (but it muft not be dead Vinegar ) and a little White-wine and Water, as
will cover the Fifh you intend to boil •, then
throw into the Liquor a good quantity of Salt,
the Rind of a Limon,  a Handfol of flic'd
Horfe-Radifh-Root, with a handfome little
faggot of Rofemary, Thyme, fweet Marjo-
izm> Parfley, and Winter Savory.    Then fet
your Kettle upon a quick fire of Wood, and
let your Liquor boil up to the height before
you put in your Fifh, and then, if there be
inany, put them in one by one, that they
may not fo cool the Liquor, as to make ic
fall, and whilft your Fifh is boiling, beat up
the Butter for your Sauce with a Ladleful or
two of the Liquor it is boiling in, (one Anchovy being diffblv'd in the Liquor if you have
Anchovis)andbeing boii'denough,immediate-
ly pour the Liquor from the Fifh, and being
laid in a Pewter Difh ( firft well warmM be-
forethefire) pour your Butter upon it, and
ftrewing it plentifully over with fhaved Horfe-
Radifh-root, and a little pounded Ginger;
Garnifh the fides of your Difh, and the Fifh
it felf with a flic'd Limon or two, and ferve ic
up.    Moft omit the Anchovis in the Sauce.
In the fame manner you may drefs a Salmon
More 5  likewife a Grayling, Carp, Bream,
Roch, Dace may be drefl: after the fame manner, only they are tobefaled, which a Trout
never is, and that muft be done very lightly -
and carefully, with a Knife, forbruifing the
S Fifh;
nil .,
T^
The Angles;
Fifh: alfo a Pike may bp ijhgsdreft, theflimp
being firft well fq^iif^l qffiiftjfth Watjei; an$
S.Jt; fo tikevyife n$$.a, I?e3i#$and %WJi be
dreft, but before you ppur on the Sauce,
Jj^pkoff very nearly tteSjgp& o£ tteJkarch
and Tench. For want of Horfe-Rgdifh Root*
ufeflic'd Gingera^fpmegr.p^%^p^e^
per, orratherlpngPepjp9§> which is(gQp4,f&j;
to boil Fifh with.
Jo Drefs Salmon*
§ 6. You may fry pieces ofSalpon. or a
Chine of Salmon, as you are dire&edJqr the*
Trout, at § 4. of this Chapter.
To Stew Salmon,  or o$er Fifh*
§ 7. Take a Salmon, draw it, dgifo fcotch
the Back, put it whole, or in pieces, into^
Stew-ban, and thereunto put fome Beer-VK
negar, White-wine and Water, as much a%
will cover the Fifh, put alfo to it fome whol%
Cloves, large Mace, flic'd Nutmeg, flic'd,
Ginger, a Bay-leaf, a bundle of the tops of;
Rcfemary, ftripp'd Thyme, fwee£Marjoram,,
Winter-favory , and pick'd Paifley, foni^
whole Pepper, Currans,Salt,Butter,andan O-
range in haifs,ftew all leifurely together, and#
when well ftewed, difh them with carved Sipr-
pets, lay on the Spices, and flic'd iyjpon,run it^
over with Butter beaten up in fome of the Lj>- •;
quor Fade MepttmK Stc
afc*
25^
quor it was ftewed in, garnifh the Difli with
learfed Manchet, &c. Thus you may ftew
any other Fifh, as Carp, Pike, Bream,
Pearch, &c
The beft way to Drefs d Carp, Sec.
§ 8. Take a Carp, (alive, if pofiible) fcotif
him, and rub him clean with water and Salt,
but fcale him not, fay fome, others fcale him*
then open him, and put him with his Blood
and his Liver ( which you rriuft fave when
you open him) into a fmall Pot or Kettle, then
take fweet Marjoram, Thyme and Parfley,
ofeach half a Handful, a ffiiig ofRofemary,
and another of Savory, bind them into % or 3
fmall bundles, and put them to your Cirp,
with 4 or y whole Onions, 20 pickled OyIters,
and 3 Anchovies* Then pour upon your Carp
as much Claret-wine as will cover him, and
feafon your Claret well with Salt, Cloves*
Mace, flic'd Nutmegs, and the rinds of Oranges and Limons \ that done, cover your Pot,
and fet it over a quick Fire, till k be iufficient-
lf boiled j then take out the Carp, and lav it
with the Broth in the Difh, and pour upon it a
quarter of a Pound of the beft frclh Butter
$p|ted and beaten, with 6 fpoonfhls of the
Broth, the Yolks of 2 or 3 Eggs, and.fome of
the Herbs fhred ; garnift your Difh with Limons, and fo ferve it up,and you'll find k a noble Difh thus dreft. But if you be not willing ro
S % bs
lltf
Jmd 160 The Angler's
be at the charges of the Claret wine, and for
want of that, fome White-wine, good Beer-
vinegar and Water may ferve very well inftead of the Claret-wine. And if you cannot
have the Oyfters and Anchovis, and thereby
are enforc'd to omit them, it will notwith-
- ftanding fuch orniflion, eat well. In the fame
manner, you may drefs other Fifh, only you
muft for others, omit the Blood and Liver:
As Salmon, Pike, Trout, Pearch, Bream,
Grayling, &c. thofe that have Scales, being
"fcai'd, and if you ufe Wine only, put in the
Fifh before the Liquor boils, otherwife afterwards.
Ih
zte common
way of boiling Fifh.
§ 9. The common way of boiling Fifh,is to
draw them, cut out-their Guills, and fcale
them, if Scales, and wipe them clean, and
then to let over the Fire a Kettle, with as
much Water as will cover the Fifh, and to
put therein fome Beer-vinegar, good ftore of
Salt, fweet Fennel, a bundle or two of fweet
Herbs, and when the Liquor boils very wel|\
up, to put in the Fifh, but then let it &3B
verv leifurely,  until the Fifh  be perfe&ly
boii'd; then let the Water run off, and lay
them on a hot Pewter Difh, and fet it on H
Chafing-difh of Coals, and when all the Water is perfectly-run from the Fifh, then fervel
them up with beaten Butter, fome Parfley 1
boiPd
■J Fade Mecum, Sec.
261
boii'd by it felf, then fhredand mingled with
the beaten Butter; let the Parfley n^t be too
inuchboiPd,but greenifh. The putting in Vi-
Bergar into the Water you boil Fifh in, caufes
the Fifh to harden, and fo does Wine.
How to Fry Eels,,
k) 10. Firft take the Eel, flea him, gut him,
and wafh him clean, then cut him into the
lengths of 3 or 4 inches a-piece, then fet over
Water in a Skillet or Pofnet, and let it boil,and
therein you muft put good ftore of Salt, and\
fome Fennel, when this Water boils, put in/
the pieces of Eel, and let them therein be aK
moft halfiboiled, then take them out, putting
them into a Cullender, then, after the Water
is well drained, flour them with the fineft
Wheat-flower, and fry them as vou are in-
ftructed to fry a Trout, at § 4. of this Chapter. This is a curious way for frying large
pieces of Eel, and they will be very tender.
The beft way of dreffing a large Eel,
§ 11. Firft wafh him in Water and Salt,
then pull off his Skin below his Vent or Navel,
md not much further -, having done that, take
)Ut his guts as clean as you can, but wafh
urn nots^then give him three or four fcotches
vithaKnife, and then put into his Belly and
toofe fcotches, fweet Herbs, ( which are the
S 1 tops
STr I 262 The Angler's
tops of Rofemary, fw,ee£ Marjoram, Winter.-.:
favory, ftripp'd Thyme, and p^&'d P^BfJyi
an Anchovy, and a Ifctjel^^ggrated, or
cue very fmall, and your Ftepbs an4 Anchovies
muft alfo be cut very fmall, and mjxt with
good Butter and Salt; having done this, then
pull his Skin over A|ra a| kathis Head, whi<I|
you are to cut off, to the end you may tie his
Skin about that part where his Head grew,
and ic muft be fo tied as to keep alibis moi-
fture within his Skin -. and having done this,
tie him with Tape or Pack-thread to a Spit,
and Roll him leifurely, and bafte him with
Water and Salt, till his Skjrj breaks, and then
with Butter ; and having Rofted him enough,
let what was put info his Belly, be mixed with
beaten Butter for jus Sawce.
The common way of Rofiing Eels.
§ 1 u Take Eels, flea, gqt, and wipe them
clean, and cut them in pieces 4 or j Inches.
long, put them on a fmall Spit crofs-ways,
and between>axh piece, put fome large Sage-
leaves, or Bay-leaves -, then roft them, and
baft.*them with Butter, and, when enough,
ferve them up with Butter, beaten up in 3 or
4 Spoonfuls of boiling Water, and the Yolk fcf
an Egg beaten in the Batter likewife, if you
like Eggs. If you put the pieces of Eel
In hailing Water and Salt, before you'roft
them, and let; thern be 1 a quarter boii'd, and
'Jfydi-K**':   ' :,"(U i ,: '■ 5%§tO& thia Fade Mecum^ %ec
%6%
*>hen roft them, thty*fl ekt far better.   Your
^dsthataretofted, fhould be ^fe^r Targe.
Wheftrer you titers roft, fry or broil $%$
fear-boil them in Water > Sfelt, and fSmejx
Fettittfi.
Sftfchfflrfe, or Bailed Eels.
§ ty. Take a large fefel, fplit it down the
back* aiidjoymtheBdtoe* being drawftii, and
the Blcfed wafh'd out, leave on the Skin, and
cut it in $ pieces equally, fait them, and broil
tikfk 6n a foft, clear Fire, free from Smoke,
Snd bafte them witfi Butter,and being enough,
and finely ftroiPdi ferve them on a clean Difh,
Mth bfe&teh Butter, or inftead of Butter, you
feiy bifte them with pure (Met Sallet Oil and
Vinegar, and often in broiling, turn them.
Stewed Eels.
§ 14. Flay them, draw them, and wipe
them clean* and cut them in pieces 3 or 4
inches long, and put them into a Pofnetor
ISkillet! withftirWater,affileWhite-wihe,
Verjdicfy &U inftead thereof, Beer-$|tegir/.
3$ rnttch alt6gettf&f as wili*#ell cover thefti*
Btettef,* foMe kf|e Mace, Cloves, Peppf/
flic'd Nutm^ 3ilfii§ft half a Pound of eftr?;
*atfs3 Saflt, dfrb or three Onions,three or f8fiF
Spofcfnfirfe trf Y&aft or Barm| ahd a bundle of
fWe$t ftfr&S4^^.: ftripp^d Thyme,fweet M3r-
S 4. joram-? 2 64.
The Anglers
joram, Witer-favory, Parfley, and one or two
tops of Rofemary. Stew all thefe together
leifurely, till the Fifh be very tender, then
Difh them, and put to the Broth a quarter of
a pound of Butter, pour it on the Fifh, Sippet
it, and ferve it up*
Or you may ftew them in an Oven, cutting
them in pieces, and fetting them on the end,
being firft feafon'd with Pepper, Salt, Cloves
and Nutmeg, and caft in Currans amongft
them, and at the top of all, lay good ftore of
Butter, and fome Sage leaves, and put in four
or five fpoonfuls of White-wine, and fo bake
them, and ferve them on Sippets; inftead of
White-wine, you may put three or four fpoonfuls of Water, but it's not fo good. You are
to put them in a good glazed, Earthen Pot for
this way. And you may ftew them thus with*
out putting any other feafon to them, but a
very little Salt, and good ftore of Butter and
Sage-leaves at top. iWill
How to make an Eel Pye.
| 15. Firft flay, gut, draw and wipe the Eel
very clean, both infide and outfide, with a Nap*
kin; then cut the Eel into pieces z or 4 inches
long, then take Cloves, Mace, Nutmeg all
powder'd, and Pepper powder'd, but not fq
llTiall as the other Apices •, mix all the Spices
together with Salt, then feafon the pieces 0!
your Eel all over on each iidq, and mi very
m e: <-vT^w $P il      ft '    higltl" Fade MecuM, Sec.        26$
highly with the Spices and Salt. Then take
fine Wheat-flower, and to every quart of
Flower you ufe, boil three Ounces of good Butter in fair Spring Water, and make the Pafte
for your Pye fpeedily and quick therewith :
Your Pye fhould either be round, or long like
a Brick, but round at the ends. Then lay the
pieces of Eel in your Pye, with ftore of the
beft Currans ( firft well wafhed in Spring-water, and Cullender'd $) at top of ail lay great
ftore of Butter, and cover it with the Lid,
in which (if the Pye be to be eaten hot) make
dhole, and pour therein 6 or 8 Spoonfuls of
White-wine immediately before you fet it in
the Oven, then fet it in the Oven, and let
it be very well baked and foaked. Let your
Cruft for the Pye be well made; for if either
it drench, or run in the Oven, it wiU be worth
very little. And if the Pye be to be eaten
cold, it fhould be eaten within 2 Days after
baking, elfe it dries, and is not fo good.
'Inftead of the White-wine, you may put in
3, or 4 Spoonfuls of Water, but it's not lb
good as the Wine by much, though it will
do well.
Some put boiling hot White-wine, and a
little grated Nutmeg into the Pye, a little before it?s drawn out of the Oven, and at fet-
ting into the Oven only a little fair Spring-
water.' You muft not put any Wine in, if
you intend to keep it, but Batter only.
T* \46
The Angler's
To CoUar Eels to be eat told.
%\6. TakeJarge Eels, flay, draw and wipe
them clean with a Linnen Cloth, part them
down the Back, and take out She Bone, then
take "Thyme, Parfley, fweet Marjoram, a Ik*
tit Winter-favory, and a fewof thfetopi bf
Rofemary % mince them all fmall, and mingle
them with Nutmeg, Ctovts, Conger, Pepper*
all beaten into Powder, and Salt \ thenftretf
them on the infide of the Eels j then rowl up
the Eels like a Collar of Brawn, and put them
in a clean Linnen Cloth tied at both ends, and
bound clofe with Pack-thread, and boil theift
in Water, fome Beer-Vinegar, and Salt, until they be very tender and enough: But let
the Liquor boil before you put in the Eels 5
when boii'd enough, take them out of the
Liquor, and let them and the Liquor bS cold-
and then put them in the fame Liquor again,
and you may therein keep them y Or 6 days,
or more j and you may ferve it either in Collars, or in round fiices with Saucerfr o£ Vine^
gar.
But if you'll have the collar'd Eel to keep
a Month, or more, put no Herbs to it, ftor
into the Uquor it's boii'd ms buttery highly leafor^tbe Eels only with Gloves, Mac^
Nutmeg.&pp§r and Salt, wiibonttty Herbs
amongft theraj* then proceed as before* &c>
boil thf Pfckle they are kept in every 14
days, Fade Mmm.
26j
J4days, and if fc f«*fce, add Water and Vinegar to it at the boiling.
flow to Fry Pibe$, .or J*tks, not above
15 Inches tmg$.
§ 17. I#t them fifftbeftf'd, #s at § 4. of
this Cfcapter, brown and crifp, being fry'd,
drain all the Butter from them, and wipe the
Pan verf clean % then put them again into the
Pan with Nutmeg and Ginger Ilic'd, an Anchovy, Salt, and Clar«t-wifie ; fry them till
half be confuted, then pat in a piece of Butler, (hake them well together with a minced
*Lira©n, or ilic'd Orange, and difh it, garnifh
• with Limon or flicM Orange, and rub the
Dilh with Shalot. You may fry other Fifh
thusj if you like the way.
To drefs a Pike,  by Boiling it, &c.
I \%. Take a large Pike, rub off all hi$
Slime with Water and Salt, cut away his
Guills, and Fins 3 then gut and draw him, and
caft away his Blood, then put 3 parts Water,
and 1 White-wine, and a Pint of Beer*vinegar, as much of all as will cover him, into
a clean floured Kettle, with a Handful of
Salt, Claves, and large Mace, of each two
Drams, two flic'd Nutmegs, one Ltmon-peel,
C* four races of Ginger par'd and flic'd, two
Dran&s of whole Pepper, four or five great
Onions 6$:
The Angler's
rei
Onions whole, then make a Faggot of fweet
Herbs, viz.. 6 tops of Rofemary, Sweet Marjoram, Thyme, Winter Savory, and Parfley,
of each as much , all bound up together,
puc ihem with the Spices and Salt into the
Kettle, and make them boil a-pace upon a
quick and ftrong fire, and when it boils at the
height then put in the Fifh, but afterwards
let it boil very leifurely; being well boiled,
drain the Liquor from it, and lay it on a large
Difh, lay on the Herbs and Spices on the Fiu%
with fliced Limons and Limon-peels, beat
cp good ftore of Butter in a Ladleful, or
two of boiling Liquor the Fifh was boiled
in; Sippet it, andgarnifh the Difh with fear-
led Manchet,
Or, make Sauce with Butter beaten thick
with flices of Limon, and fome of the Liquor
She Fifh was boiled in^ an Anchovy or two firft
'diflblved therein, and garnifh the Difh with
beaten Ginger.
Or, For Sauce,take 3 or 4 Anchovis, diflblve
them inWhite-wine,put them in a Pipkin with
fome flic'd Horfe-radlfh-root, grofs Pepper,
ibme of^ the Liquor the Fifh was boiled in,
fome pickled Oyfters and their Liquor, large
Mace, ond Onion, or two, the Sauce being
well ftewed,diflblve and beat in the Sauce 2 or
3 yolks of Eggs, pour it on the Fifh with
fome beaten Butter, the ftewed Oyfters and
iik^d Limon.
Or, Put fome of the Liquor wherein the
Fifh
3 Fade MWUm^ &c. 269
Fifh was boiled, with 2 or 3 Anchovis cleanfed
and minced, a little White-wine, fome grated
Nutmeg, and ftew it on a Chafing-difh, and
beat it up thick with fome fweet Butter, the
yolk of an Egg or 2 diflblved with fome Vinegar, give it a walm, and put to it 3 or 4 flices of
Limon y pour on the Sauce, and garnifh the
Fifh with flic'd Limons, the Spices^ Herbs and
boiled Onions,
Note, that you may drefs a Salmon, great
Trout, or Carp after the fame manner, only
for the Carp add his Blood and Liver, to the
Liquor he's boii'd in.
Note alfo, that you may boil feveral Fifh
in the fame Liquor the firft was boiled in, and
it will be ftrbnger and better, what is wanting
for the fecond, being replenifhed with Water,
Wine and Vinegar.
How to roft a Pike.
§ 19. Firft open your Pike at the Guills,
and if need be, cut alfo a little flit towards
the Belly, out of thefe take his Guts and
keep his Liver, which you are to fhred very
fmall with Thyme, fweet Marjoram, Parfley, and a little Winter Savory ; to thefe
put fome pickled Oyfters, and fome Anchovis, two or three, both thefe laft whole ( for
the Anchovis will melt, and the Oyfters fhould
not) to thefe you muft add alfo a Pound of
fweet Butter, which you are to mix with the
Herbs a jo The Anglers
■WK» Herbs chaC are fllred '   an^STthelFairD^
weff failed.v ( if the Pike be more tharr a
M»«Mg        yar(i iong,   then you may1 put? into tfftlf
Herbs more than a Pound of Butter,  or it
fie be lefs, then lefs Butterwilffuffice) tlief&
being thus mixt,. with a blade or tW#of%ace
muff be pur into the Pifce^Btflly, and then
his Belly fo fowed up,   as to keepiall tM
Butter in his Bfcffly, if ir% poflible,. if mr
then as much of it as you pofllbly cari, ifer*
flake not off tKev Scales \   then you aire to
thrufrthe Spit through his Mouth, and outat
Ms Tail* and1 then take 4, 5 or (^ fplit Sticks,
or very thinXatbs, and a convenient rnifm
dtyof-«pe*or-FilIettiDg?. thefe Laths are
txrbe tied round about the Pike's Bod^i^brS
Bis Head to his-Tail, and the Tape tied feme-*
wtrarthick; to prevent his breaking, or falling off from the Spit \ let him be rofted Very
leifurely, and often bafted with Claret-wine,
and Anchovies, and Butter mixt together, and
alfo with what moifture falls from him into
the Pan :   When you have rofted him fuffici-
ently, you are to hold under him (when you
unwind or cue the Tape that ties him ) fuch a
Difh as you purpofe to eat him out of, and:
let him fail into it with the Sauce that is rofted
in his Belly, and by this means the Pike will
be kept unbroken, and compleat.    Then to
the Sauce that was within, (and alfo that
Sauce in the Pan )   you  are to  add a fie
■ quantity of the beft Butter, and therein to
fqueeze Fade Memm^ Sec.
fqueeze the Juice of 3 or 4 Oranges. Laftly,
yomma^Jeither Rifeiflto the Pike with' the Oyfters, 2 Cloves of Gaxlidfe, and take it vvhole
but, when the Pike is cut off the Spit, or to
give the Sauce a Hogo, (let the Difh into
which you let the Pike fall) he rubbed with
ifc: Theufing, or not ufing of this,Garlick
is left to your Difcretion ; becaufe itis often**
five tofome*
|§|4i>ew Carfy Bream, Mullet^ oyfflmen
large Roch, or Dme.
$io* Scaje,,cqtout;tlie<5ttiHs, waflitKera
clean,:3^WP$ them dry, with, a clean Lihr
nen Cl§f£^, flower and fry them, in good
m|§tf B^f^.as before at §^* of this Ghapf
being finely fry'd, put them in a Pewter^
Difh w(t!fv half a Pint of Claret-wine, grated
pgimeg, a; blade or two of large Mace, an
Anchovy fhred, Salt, a little flic'd Ginger, 3
or 4 Cloves, fome Butter,^ 3 or 4 flices of an'
Orang^ fet, it on a. Chafipgtdifh of Coals,
(the Liquor being at boiling before you put
in the Fifh) then^cover it clofe, and ftew it
|»Jpick, anjieturn it; being ftewed, difh it
i&gne carved Sippets, beat up Butter for the
Sauce, with the Liquor the Fifh wras ftewed
in, and. run it oyer therewith, laying on the
Spices and Alices.o£a frefh Orange; garnifh
the Difh with dry Manchet, grated and
fearfed.
H iyi
The Angler's
Iff
m
To Roft a Carpj  Bream, Chub, or
Tench.
"5 21. Take a Carp alive, guill, draw,
wafh m and let t he Scales be on, and take a-
way Che Gall and Milt, dr Spawn, then make
a Pudding with fome grated Manchet, Almond Pafte^ Cream, Currans, grated Nutmeg, raw Yolks of Eggs, candy'd Limon-
Peel, or.any Peel, fome Limon and Salt;
make the Pudding ftiff, and put it through the
Guills into the Belly of the Fifh, but fill it
not toofull^ then roft it in the Oven on 2 or
3 Sticks laid crofs aBrafs Difh,- turn it, and
let the Gravy drop into the Difh; being finely rofteds make Sauce with the Gravy, Juice
of Orange or Limon, and fome Cinnampn;
beat all up thick with Butter, and difh it,
putting the Sauce over it, with dices of Limon.
To Broil a Carp, &c with Sallet Oil.
§x2. Take a live Carp, guill it, draw it,
and fcrape off the flime, and wipe it dry
with a clean Linnen Cloth, both infide and
outfide, and lay it in a Difh with Vinegar,
Claret-wine, pure good Sallet Oil, Salt, and1
fome ftraight fprigs of Rofemary, fweet Mar-
joram,Thyme and Parfley, fome ilic'd Ginger,
Pepper grofly bruifed, a few Cloves, and a
little Fade Mecum* &c.
273
little large Mace \ let it fteep there for abojot
2 Hours* then gently broil it on a clean Gridiron, laid on a clear foft fire, and turn it often, and baft it very often with the Liquor it |
was fteeped in, and the Herbs. The Fifh being well broiled, ferve it on a clean difh with
the Liquor, Herbs and Spices it was fteeped
in, the fame being firft well boiled up together j with or without pickled Oyfter Liquor,
lay the Spices on the Fifh, and Herbs about
the difh, and run it over either with Batter
beaten up with the juices of Oranges, or Limons; or, elfe with pure good and fweec
Sallet Oyl. Broil the Milt, or Spawn by it felf
and lay it on the Carp. Z
Or, You may make a Sauce with pickled
Oyfter Liquor, White-wine, grated Nutmeg, juice of Oranges, and a little Wine Vinegar all well boii'd together, beating up Butter therewith, and-with the yolk of an Egg,
and ferve up the Fifh therewith.
In the fame manner you may drefs Pike,
Mullet, Roch, Dace, or Bream; only ufe
not their Blood, Milt, or Spawn, and you
may broil them either with their fcales on or
off": And in the fame manner you may broil
a Jole, Rand, Chine, or Slices of Salmon. In
the fame manner drefs a Conger, cut in pieces and flead. And, note that you may chiqe,
or flit the Carp, &c. through the middle, as a
Salt-fifh is ufually cut, then give him 3, or
4 fcotches on the Back with your Knife, and
T then 2/4
The Angler's
*' '" ' " mi        > ,. ■
then proceed to your broiling, &c. Some be*?
fore they broil a Conger thus, firft very well.
par-boil it in Water with ftore of Saltan*
fweet Herbs, and then fteep the pieces in th*i
Liquor, &c. aforefaid, and then broil it, &c.
To broil a Conger, or bake it.
§ 23. Flay it, draw it, and cut it in pieces,
and wipe them clean, then par-boil very well
the pieces of Conger in Water, with good
ftore of Sale, and fweet Herbs, which are
Parfley, Sweet .Marjoram, Winter Savory,
Rofem.irv, and Tilyme i then lay the pieces
of Conger on a clean Gi id iron, laid over a
clear foft fire, turn the pieces often, batting
them with Butter, wherein are tops of Rofe-
mary, ftripped Thyme, pickled Parfley, and
Sweet Marjoram fhred, and mingled therewith -7 when broiled enough, ferve them with
Batter beat up in 4 or j Spoonfuls of boil*
ing hot Spring Water, (which keeps the Butter from becoming Oily and being Naufeous)
and the yolk of an Egg being alfo beaten
therewith.
You may alfo bake a Conger, as before you
are directed for an Eel,at § 15. but let the pieces
before you feafon them, be well par-boiled in
Warer, Salt, and fweet Herbs, and when you
feafon them- let them be very highly feafoned.
In the like manner you may bake them, in a,
well glazed Earthen-pot, the infide and botH
torn tito*
Fade Mecumy Sec.        27$
torn  being  firft well   dawbed   with  But*
^ter.
r
How to bake a Lamprey.
§ 24* Flay it) draw it, and folic the Back
on the infide, from the Month to the end of
the Tail, be fure you take out the String in
the Back,and trufs her round; par-boil it well
in Water with ftore of Salt arid fweet Herbs,
then feafon it, when cold, wLh Nutmeg, Pepper and Salt, put fome Butter in the bottom of the Pye, and lay on the Lamprey
with 2, or 3 great Onions, a few whole
Cloves, Currans and ftore of Butter; clofe it
up and bake it, and being well foaked and
baked, fill it tip with clarified Butter, flop it
up with Butter in the vent hole, and you may
firft put in it fome boiling Claret-wine,but then
it will not keep long, nor if you put Currans
in it.
You may bake either large Eel, Conger, or
Lamprey, in a well giaz'd round Earthen*pot
inftead of a Cruft; but rub on the infide and
bottom thereof, great ftore of Butter, and
feafon the Fifh, if to keep long, only with
Cloves, Mace, Nutmeg, Pepper and Sale, and
that pretty highly.
Let me here infert, though improperly,
rather than forget to tell you, That if at any
time you boil fifh, and put only good ftore
of Fennel and Sale in the Water the Fifh is
T 2 boiled mm
Mm
v
IS
III*
■fe
27 6
The Angler's
boiled in, and about a Pint of Beer Vinegar,
or rather half a Pint, that you need not put
your felf to the charges of Wine, to put in
the Liquor you boil the Fifh in, except it be
on fome extraordinary Occafion; and put
no more Water in than will cover the Fifh,
and let the Liquor boil well up before you
put in the Fifh i but after the Fifh is put into
the boiling Liquor, then let the Liquor boil
very leifurely, and fimmeringly only, elfe the
Fifh will be apt to break and fall in pieces,
and not be fo tmly boiled.
Jo make excellent   French  Bread to eat
Fftj with,
§ 25. Take a G .lion of fine Wheat-flower, '
and a Pint of good new Ale- Barm,or Yeaft,and
put the Flower wkh the whkes of 6 new
laid Eggs well beaten in a difh, and mix with
the Barm in the middle of the Flower, and
alfo one Spoonful of fine Salt 5 then warm
fome Milk and fair Water, and put to it, and
make it up pretty ft iff, being well wrought
and worked up, cover it in a Bowl, or Tray,
with a warm Cloth till your Oven be hot,
then make it up either in Rolls, or Fafhion it in
little Wooden-difhes, and bake ic about an
Hour in a quick Oven, and chip it hot. This /
is theve y beft way of making French Bread- j
To Fade Mecnm'*\ Sec.
77
To fouee a Carp,   Pike,  Bream,   Tench,
Trout, &c.
§ 26". Draw your Fifh, but fcale it not,
and fave the Liver of it, wafh it very well;
then take one part of White-wine, and four
parts of Water, boil them together with fome
whole Spice, as Cloves, Mace, fliced Nutmeg, Salt and a bundle of fweet Herbs, and
Vvhen it boils put in your Fifh, and juft before
it fome Vinegar, for that will make it crifp;
when the Fifh is enough, take it up, and put
it into a Tray, then put into the Liquor fome
whole long Pepper and races of bruifed Ginger, and let the Liquor boil, ftill, till it be
enough, then take ic off and let it cool, and
when it's quite cold put in your Fifh again?
and therein keep it; but if to keep above 4,
or 5- Days, you muft not put in any of the
fweet Herbs, but omit them, becaufe they
will quickly caufe it four • and when you ferve
it, have fome Saucers of Vinegar and Fennel.
For ordinary ufe, you may omit the Wine,
Cloves, Mace and Nutmeg ; and only ufe
Water, Vinegar, long Pepper, Ginger and
Salt.
To (lew Trouts, or other Fifb.
P| 27   Put two Trouts into a fair difh with
fome White-wine, fweet Butter, a lie tie whole
T 3 Mace, m
The Angler's
Mace, and fome fliced Nutmeg, a little ParCjj
ley, Thyme and Savory minced, then put in
an Anchovy, an|f the Yolks of hard Eggs*
when your Fifh is enough ftewed on a Cha-
fing-difh of Coals, betwixt two Pewter-difhes,
ferve it on Sippets, and pour the Liquor
over it; and you may add Capers to it, if you
pieafe. Gamifh with Limon and Barberries.
Note, the firft thing you are to do, is to gut,
draw, guill and wipe the Fifh, both infide and
outfide clean, with a clean Linner* Cloth,
and then proceed as above.
Jo ftew Car
lood.
mm
^28. Take two fair Carps, and fcour them
very well from dime, with Water and Salt,
then lay them in a difh, and open their Bellies,
and take away their Guts and Guills,
2nd fave the Blood and Rows in the Difh,
then put in a Pint of Claret-wine, fome whole]
Spice (which is Cloves, Mace and fliced
Nutmeg) and fome Salt, with a little * fliced
Horfe- radifh-root; then cover them clofe, and
let them ftew over a Cbafing-difh of Coalsj,
and when they are enough, lay them in a
warm difh rubbed with a Shalot, and Sippets
laid in, then take a little of the Liquor, and
therein diflblve an Anchovy or two, and t>eat
up Butter therewith, and pour it on the Fifh,
and ferve it hot. Garnilb with Capers, Oranges, or Limons fliced.
■■ TSi Fade Mecum^ Sec.
79
To boil frefh Salmon, &c.
§ 29. Take a Joll, or a Tail of frefh Salmon,
then take Water, Salt, Vinegar, whole Spice,
and Fennel, and boil them together, and when *)
it boils put ia your Fifh, and when it is boiled, j
take fome of the Liquor, an Anchovy or
two, and a little White-wine; boil thefe toge-*-
ther, and beat therein fome Butter, and fo
difh your Fifh, and pour this over ic; Gar-
nifhing with Anchovis, or flices of Limon.
jy|^yV   To ftew Fi[b in the Oven, L^^M^
$ 30. Take Soals, Whitings, or Flounders,
and put them into a Stew-pan, with fo much
Water as will cover them, with a little Spice,
Salt, White or Claret-wine, fome Butter, two,
Anchovis, and a bundle of fweet Herbs;
cover them, and fet them into an Oven not
too hot; when they are enough, ferve them
in, laying in Sippe s. Garnifh with Green
Leaves, &c.
To make a Sallad with frefh Salmon.
§ 31. Your Salmon being boiled and fou-
ced, mince fome of it fmall withApples andOni-
ons, put thereto pure Sallet Oyl, Vinegar and
Pepper, fo ferve it$ Garnifhing with Limons
and Capers. A Salt white-Herring thus dreft,
T 4. is ill
Jljie Angler's
is called a Pickled Herring, but the Herring Is I
not to be boiled, but the Fifh only picj|§
from the Bones.   In the fame manner you
may drefs cold Turkey, or Capon, that is
either boiled or rofted before.
km
To make a Carp, or Trout Pye.
'■ §32, Take a Carp, and fcale h!ais
him, guill Mm, wafh him clean, and dry him
with a clean Linnen Cloi^b^h infide and
outfide, then lay Butter in your Pye, and lay
him therein with .fome whole Cloves', Mace,
and fliced Nutmeg, with 2 handfuls of Capers,
and Currans wafhed clean^rjd culleoder'd;
Butter with Salt, and lay it
oyer? tneo dole itp and. at. the Vent hole in
tht middle* put in ftitneWhite-wine immediately before it's ftt in the Oven, then bake it.
To make an Eel Pye.
§33- Take the largeft Eels, flay them, gut
them, and cut them in pieces 3 or 4 inches
long, having your Pye ready with Butter in
the bottom, feafon your Eel with Pepper,
Nutmeg, Mace, and Salt, then lay them *in
with good ftore of Currans, well wafh'dand
C'uljencJerM, and cover them with Butter; fo
£|ofe it and bake it.        pi^rb.*'"''v- m
Fade Mecumy &c. 281
To make a Fricajie of Eels.
§ 34. Take a midling fort of Eels, fcour
them well, and cut off the Heads and throw
them away, th^^^tthem, and cut them into
pieces abou£^H^feiong;then put them into a
Frying-pai^lth fo much White-wine and Water as wilh#V^Xhem, then put in whole Spice,
as Cloves,. Mace, flic'd Nutmeg, and Pepper,
a bundlo-of fweet Herbs, and fome Salt* then
let then boil well, and when they be very
tender, ^ke them up, and lay them in a warm
difh, then^add; to their Liquour % Anchovis,
feme Yolks of Eggs,- and Butter, all well bear,
together, md pour over them, and ferve
them, &c.
To drefs Neats-Tongues to carry with you.
§ 35. Take to every Pound of Salt you
ufe finely beaten, one Ounce and half of Saltpeter, mix them, and rub your Tongues very
well therewith, and cover them all over there-
with,and as it wafts put on more^when they are
hard and ftiff they are enough •, then rowl
them in Bran, and dry them before a foft Fire,
or hang them in the Chimney-corner ; before
you boil them lay them in Pump-water one
Night, then boil them in Pump-water: The
Salt-peter gives therh the Red colour.
Obfe
cr vat ions 102
Tibe Anglerk
MmA
Obfervations on dr effing of Fifb.
^ Yo' When you drefs any Fifh that have
Scales on them* they are firft to be fcal'd, and
that muft be done very lightly and carefully
with a Knife,
then they are |
Water all the Si;
Fins are to be a
lies^ahd take on?.
then rub and wip
and-outfide wiit
fear of broiling the Fifh \
well wafhed in Salt and
off, then the Guills and
ma tffe| '^genrtheir Bel-
ieir-Gui^v^;very clean,
■ta wry dean both infide
Jri^tfCfoth; then (if to
(fe &*•*£$©&• 4. ante.
nev,: e,., scales, then you
jre, cMy the fcaling can-
§ 3 j If th^ip^tsto be boiled, the wiping
with Linnea^lpS^tr^ii be omitted, but after
<rne;f are gfitfed anj mi Guills and Fins cut
|ai|i|2 and     >Ied, if Scales be on them, let
dieiTi be wafhed and rub'd with Water and
Salt, and then to be boii'd, &c.
§ 4. When any Fifh is to be boii'd, put it
not into the Liquor before it has boii'd to the
heighthfor half a quarter of an Hour, and put
k in when it boils, but after ic hath been in
the boiling Liquor, then let it boil very leifurely till enough. Whether you roll:, fry,
broil, boil, bake or ftew your Fifh, let it be
done thoroughly and enough, though leifirre-
ly-v For if fhort baked, iofted, boikd, fryed,
broiled Fade Mecum^ 8cc. 283
teoil$d or ftewed, your Fifh isfpoil'd, and
becomes both very unwholefom and unplea-
fant Meat.
§ y. The filing of Fifh is a very excellent
way, and you are firft to give the Fifh a fcotch
or two on the back (after they are fcaled* if?
Scales, Guills and Fins cut away, gutted and
wiped cleg;^ 0$ arafhed cle?n in Water and
Salt) and then t > urew fome Salt on the
fifh, and iay it on a Grid-iron laid upon a
fofc and c ear Fire, free from Smoke; you
are to turfTOSSm, and baft them with Butter,
and they are to brcii very leifurely, and to be
often turn^te*
§6. Theic re accounted fweet Herbs which
are much ufed ia boiling Fiih, 0-c. viz.. Sweet
Marjoram, Winter Savory, pick'd Parfly,
ftripped Thyme, and tops of Rofemary. Ginger bruifed is good to put in the Liquor Fifh
is boiled in, when you boil them, and fo is
long Pepper.
\ 7. The beft feafoning Spices for Fifh are
Cloves, Mace, Nutmeg, Pepper and Salt.
The Roots of Horfe-radifh fliced is very good
to put into the Liquor you boil Fifh in, and
good to ufe in Fifh Sauce; it having a (harp
biting taft, is the more proper for Fifh. After
■sou have put your Fifh into the boiling Liquor , ( which is to boil up to the very
heighth at putting them in ) let the Liquor
boil then very gently, and leifurely, other-
wife the Fifh will fall to pieces, and break.
life 482 The Angler's
r want of Horfe-radifh-root^ Hsced Gin*?
ad long Pepper to boil Fifh with.
fh-e tieft getjeral Sauce for Fifh is But-
teat up'with .3 or 4 Spoonfuls of boii-
pt Spring-watcpg   to keep it from be-
g Oily: JC\ijjL you may fcsld, or fome-
3 ftp&ilf boll Parfley, and fhred
d minglf.if'l^jrJri the Butter; or, infteadJ
C pur fe^ mces of Horfe-radifh-root
t or 5 Spoc-r-fo?so^^e-'r-r-^dlet them ma*
cer&te chereio- ene feour ,or two. then boil up the
wajjgf, and take or the Horfeffadifh, and beat
»iSbi?r Butter Wthe Water,  or which is
fra or ":   in 4 or $
bpoonrufs or boiling water;  then beat up
?om Butter for Sauce with the boiling Water,
end beat alfo the  Yolk of an Egg in the
€ 9. If you bake any Fifh, let them be
weW'lesfoned with Cloves, Mace, Nutmeg,
|fj powdered fmall, and Pepper grofly powdered, and Salt s and likewife put among the
Fifh ftore of Currans, well wafhed and calendered, and on the top of all, great ftore of
good Butter.
§ ?o. Trouts, £hubs, Carps, Pearches,
Breams, Roches, Daces, Gudgeons, and
Graylings, fhould be eat ihe very fame day
they are caught \ elfe they are not fo good by
many degrees.
§11. Salmons, Pikes, Trouts, Carps, and
Elver large Breams, of the biggeft fize, are
accounted
m Fade Mecuntj Sec.
^counted ftately Fifh: But Salmons, Troutst
Peaches of the River, Graylings, Gudgeons,
and Ruffs are reputed the beft Fifh •■* next iu
rthem, the Pike, Carp, Bream5 and Tench
are of eftimation , then the Roch, and Daci
caught in Rivers j but the BaibeJ, and Chub
are the leaft ¥alue(J, being thought to be the
worft of ali^&ftr water Fiili, .hough good
Cookery wttf^iake them excellent meat.
The Loach is as pleafant and good a Fifh as
any, arkPihe Eel is ranked by fome in the
firft Clafs for deUcionfnefs,but not wbolfome*
nefs.
§ 12. If you defire your Butter for Fifh
Sauce to be thicker than ordinary, after you
have beat up the Butter in Water, as afore-
faid, then beat the Yolk of an Egg or 2 in
Butter, and it relifhes well.
§ 13. Finally, let me tell you that in the
courfeof ray Observations, I know amcnglfc
all forts of Fifh, none differ amongft themfelves in taft more than Eels', for I haye eat
Bfhem, taken out of above 30 feveral Rivers, and amongft the reft of the Thames^
Severn and Trent Eel; yet none that I ever met
with, were to be compared for good nefs (although not very large) and delicioufnefs of
taft, to the Eels caught in a fmall River in
Lancafiire called Ir\* which is compofed of 5
fmall Brooks, that have their conflux near
onto Middlemen Hall, where it a flumes t
Name of h\* and thence deftends through
BUtfh M
2wm        l^e Anglers
BUkely and CrpmpfatH,  Sec.  to M^nsh-§j}g?%
where under Chetham's Hoipkal, It &ljtfti|
Irs Wafers with the 7**rtW/,and thereunto p£pj
ehe Tribute of its Name= Neither are she '1%
habitants on its, Bajvl-^Jbartial in their JudgJ
Kients7 by rt^^JK- their Vicinity, but w§:
'jU^^Wp9^y^T{ *£s excellent taft, by Per-
•r^|^p ip^rajIBtrargers,  and fuch as have the
eftimatio£:|>f curr6|sPaliats, and havingofr
ten enquired of the Neighbouring People to
it* what might be the P^Rw| they have unani-
moyfly afcrfbed ft m the mmt.ercajfnefs of Fulling Mills that fta^d or? that River j'and fay
.^■p^lhe Fac, Oyl, and Gr&afe fcoured out of
the Cloe:th, makes the Eels Pallatable and Fat,
above other River Eels    And, perhaps their
'OjjHnfon may jC&^-xfK$W Truth, than any
PrdlQlpphical reai|fc or diJfecan pofliblybe
1 PJ|Sr^   Fortfiw, frequently reflected on
theepm-rn rnmdng pretty fwift, and upon a
Canker\Jjp-sipd very  Meagre, Hungry Soil,
Pebble Stene^ and Gravel, and not to run
flow,' nor upon a Fat, Marly, or Chalky Soil:
So confequently the Water, not thereby impregnated with any Unctuous, Fattening Spirit.   In the fame River there are Trouts,
though not fo many as formerly, yet thds
that are caught in it, are not  inferior for
goodnefs and excellency of taft, to any that
ever 3 eat of; notwithstanding that 1 have eat
of the Detbyfhire Trouts, caught in Dove,Wye,
and Lathktn 3 and of Trouts taken in many
other 'i^o -■■- ' —   "■'
F$de Memm, &c.
2o7
fetfe^n |)^rts, of England* But it's tiroe 1 put a
■kkod'to this Difcourfe, and my Chapter pf
^bk^^ of Fifh.
I The 'Romans whsn arrived at their grejtefl;
felory and heighth of Luxury, had ftrange au$
prodigious Exceffes about r.heir Fifh, as we;!
as in other things; they hid FiflhpoftdSj^i$£;
Bwhich they taifed ^SmM, Sefterces An
nual Rent (each Seik^e being a Penny half
Penny Farthji^^and-^alf Farthing of our
Sterling, and-wjggf. Ihoufand |§fterces 7fc
16 s. 4 d Stealing) whJ.di is abont 3165 fb
Sterling
At their Fe§lt%-^^f^
oftentatioss;
Guefts «isvt'j^!^^9 in 1
would infert uhe weight o
ggifc occgfionto Horace in Lib. 2. Sat. x. to fa v
tim their Fifh in a*«
naigMed^ am, tftefc
>sir Tab^Books:
each Fifhi which
■ Laudas
A4allum.
And they would not bogle to gi*e u$%
Sefterces for each Pound weight of a large
Mullet, as appears by Juvenal Sat. 4.
-*-Mnllum Sex mi Rib as emit-,
<z$.qtutn\em fane paribus Seftercia libris.
But another gave more, for, Tres Mullos
triginta mdhbas mimmum v&niffe graviter con*
quefttfs eft, fays Suetomm^ Cap. 34, of the Em-
perour M
Tne-J^gler'ss
perour Tibet m*. which is abou^37}fe Step
ling.   They Exhaufted> M& their Monfi
Luxury* tk; fifh out ^l^k^feswa,l«sdia^3
Seas, and had them brought -a^arsoff* as ap|
pears by Juvenal, Sat. 5.
MullWerat Domina qi&em miftt Corfica^
vel quern
Tauromenetana rn]irr]gyw'r'   1   it p*r^-
clum eft,
Et jam defecit noftrum maim™
And of the Lamprey to the like purpofe,
in theTam$:Sfg.T8
Virroni Manna datnrt qua maxir
Guraite de Siculo	
venit
They were fo Nice and Delicate, that they
caufed their Fifh tc be brought alive to their!
Tables, in Glafs Bottles filled with Water,
fcarce believing them to be alive, uniefs they
expired in theFr Guefts Hands: In cubili natant I
fifces*& fub if fa men fa captnr. qui ft atim tranf*
feratur inmenfam. Sen. Nat. Quaft. ^.\j.
Ad Mullum expirantem verficolore quadam &
mmerofa varietate jfeci-art Proces guU narrant.%
Plin. 9-  17.
Nay, they pretended to fuch curious Palats, *
that they could tell either by their Taft, or
Eye, on what Coaft the Fifh they eat on were
bred, as appears by Juvenal Sat. 4. fpeaking^
of Cur tins Mont an w. &W$
i Cir-
1 *Vade Mecuntj &<
Circaijst^0a for em ^ '*if!3
lsHC^smx!L3d£jmum&*,nnifQVC editafundo
Oft-red, caMk^pnm dsp*e?gfere morfn%
Et femel ajpeffi dicebat itrius Echini^
Domitian the Emperor,eOuld caufe his Lartt*
preys in his Fifh-ponds at Baja* to come at his
call, andjjaey would lick his Hands, as tefti-
fies Marti aly lib- 4. Efig. go.
Pifcator fuge^ ne nocens recedm^
Sacris fifctbmha natantur unday
Qjiinorunt 1)ominum, rftanumq\ lambunt
IUamy qua nihil eft in orbe majiu
<4(H*
S*uid 1
Vocem qui.
nQme&.kabem, & ad magiftri
snaim I
Which latter part is confirmed by Pliny f^.ioa
0*0. SpeBantur & in pifcinis Cafaris genera pip*
cium ad nomen venire^ qmfdarnq; ftng:4os. Mon*
fieur Bernier in his Hiftory of W^jr^reports
the like of the great Mogull.
Antonia the Wife of Drufmy at Baulos hung
Jewels like Ear-rings, at the Neck of a Lamprey which fhe fancied \ and Hortenftm the O-
rator wept for the death of a Lamprey which
he dearly affected, as teftifies Vltny 9.55.
The Tender-heartednefs of this Orator*
puts me in mind of the Piety of a Cardinal,
who caufed a Pompous Funeral to be made for
a Dog of his which died, and at the Inter*
U meat?
w The Angler's
ment, Wieft folemnly to Mafs, which arguedj
the Cardinal^ be a tru% Mahometan, (wM
believed Dogs to have Sou% and are veryjgrja*
ritable to them) as well as a Zealous Catholick
in freeing his Dogs Soul from Purgatory.
CHAP.   XL; W
Treats of the haws of Anglings and
the Preservation of Fifh.
§ i. Qlnce Ignorance of the Laws Excufes
i^ none $ it will not be amifs to fay
fomething of thofe which concern the Angler,
that he may have a little knowledge, how
without Offence, to demean himfelf amongft
his Neighbours, when he goes about his Sport.
And as Angling is of great Antiquitv, fo it's
not meanly favoured, both by the Common
and Statute Laws of this Realm. For by the
Statute of i Eliz,. Cap. 17. Prohibiting the
taking of Fifh with Nets, not of fuch and
fuchafize*, yet, by a provifo therein, the Angler is at liberty to catch, either as big, or
little as he can.
§ ^. Though this Recreation be limply in ft
felf Lawful •, yet none can go on another*
Ground, without the Licenfe of the imme*
diate
1^ Fade Mecurn^ Sec.
diate Owner,or the Law,but he's a Trefpaffei^
feudf one have Licenfe to enter into a CJofe$
brvG.round for fuch a fpaee of time, there*
tho7 he practice Angling all that time, he is
tiota Trefpafferj becaufe his fifhing is rio abilfe
of his Licenfe ; but this is to be underftood of
tunning Streams* and not of Pits, Ponds oi
ftanding Pools: For, in cafe of a Pit, Pond,
or ftanding Pool, the Owner thereof hatha
property in the Fifh, and they arefo far faid
to be pipes fees, or ipftus^ his, that he may
have an Aclion of Trefpafs for the Fifh, againft
any one that fhall take them without his Li-
cenfe, though it be upon a Common, or ad^
joyning to the King's Highway, oradjoyning
to another Man's Ground who gives Licenfe 5
but in cafe of a River, where one or more
have Libera Pifcaria only, it is otherwife, for;
there the Fifhes are faid to bzferx nature and
the taking of them with an Angle is not Trefpafs ; for that none is faid to have a property
in them, till he have caught them : And then
it is a Trefpafs for any to take them from hirti.
But, this is not to be underftood <5f Fifhes confined to a Mans own Ground by Gates, Grates*
or otherwife, fo that they cannot pafs away •
■K-^miay be taken out, or put in ac Plea-
fure: For in that cafe the Party hath a property in them, as in the cafe of a ftanding Pooh
Brook Title Trefpafsi Fitz.. Trefpafs, F. -N. B„
U* 87, 88.
§ 3. None can ereft a Park, Chafe, or War-
il x rem The Angler's
renbut by the King's Licenfe under the great
SeaFpbnt Fifh-ponds being a madisi^rofir
and encreafe of V*§ftuals, any Man ma^re?
Coke iJnftit.i.x^.
§ 4$j$° Larceny can be committed of Fill
that be at their natural Liberty in Rivers, or
m great Waters j becaufe they are NtUUm in bo-
nu, but Larceny may be committed of Fiftes
in a Trunk, Net, or Pond •, becaufe they are
not at their natural Liberty, Cckeh 3 jnftitt
f. 109,110, Stanford. Phc. Cor. f. 2f. C. Hales
Pleas of Crown 6j. But I fuppofe it is not
meant by thefe Judges, that^e taking of Fifh
out of a Pond, where they continually live and
breed, ( for that fhould feem to be only a
Trefpafs) fhould be Felony, but I think thev
Wean, that in cafe you put Fifh ( as many do'
into a Net, or Trunk, and lay the fame in a
Pond, and to be ready for the Owners ufe-
that, to take fuch Fifh is Felony.
§ y. If a Man feifed of a River, and do
grant by DQcdSeparalemPifcariamin the fame,
and make Livery and Seifin fecmdam formam
Chart*,neither the Soil nor Water do pafs 1 for
the Grantor may take Water there, and if the
River become dry, he may take the benefit
of the Soil. And if a Man grant aqnam foam*
the Soil fhall not pafs, but the Pifcary. Coke
fur. Lin A. 4,6. J      I
§ 6. One may prefcribe to have Separalem
Ptfcariam m fuch a Water, and the Owner of
the Soil fhall not Fifh there j but if he claim
com~ m Fade Mecum. Sec.
communiam Pifcaria9 or liberam Pifcariam-, the
Owner of the Soil fhall Fifh there, Coke fur.
Lin. f. 122. a.
§ 7. If one hath a Fifh-pool, and grant me,
all the Fifh therein, I may not dig the Ground
tcr make a Trench, but muft take the Fifh with
Nets, or other Engines, Perk. §110.
H 8. If one grant all the Filh in his Pond, by
this is granted a pbwer to come and Fifh for
them •, but the Grantee may not hereby dig
■lench, and let out the Water to take the
Fifh, albeit they cannot be otherwise taken,
Fitz.'Bar. %$j.
§ 9. One grants, totam Pifcariam, falvo
pdgno molendinifm^ by this the Pifcary pafleth,
and the Stagnum^ and not the Pifcary, is excepted, Plovod. 161.
§ 10. Trefpafs for fifhing in his feyeral fifhing, the Defendant prefcribes to have a Common of fifhing there, and may prefcribe to
have that Appendant to Land, as well as
Common Appendant, 4 Ed.4. f. 29.
§ 11. One may have a free fifhing in the
Soil of another, but a feveral fifhing muft be
in his own Soil, 4 Ed. 3. Title Trefpafs*, 122.
43 H. 3. Title 441. B. A$z*e. 17 Ed. 4, £♦
it Ed. 4. f. 5.  1SH.6, 29.
§ 12. There are but two Writs in the Re-
lifter for fifhing, viz.. in a feveral fifhing, and
3 free fifhing. Vid.Regifter 34, 95,103.
$ 13. There are diverfe manners of Forms
>f Writs for fifhing, one Qjiare^ &c. in Viva-
U 3 riti 394 The Angler's
riis fuis pifcatusfuit^&c. another Quarey&jf^^
Se'parali Pifcariai^ftm A. fifcaty^fuit-.jffierahfl
gnother, as before, jQuare in libera pifc%r. ipfim
h ji. apud N. pifcatm fuit. F. N. B. 88.
§ 14 Ttzf^fsfQuareclaufum fregit & pif»
ces fuos cepit. without fpecifying their Number, or Nature is badandinfufBcient; and is
not made good by the Verdift, altho' the Jury
found for the Plaintiff, and akho' the Writhe
fo,yet the Declaration ought to reduce the generality of the Writ to ceffainty, and paj>
{ictflarity,^ which the Defendant may anfwer;
fo that a certain Judgment may be given, and
if it was by Original, the Writ fhall be Gene-
ral, but the Declaration ought to comprehend
the Fifh in certainty 5 and fo are the Prefidents^
yid. Gok* 5. Rep. Platters Cafe*
§ 15. Where any hith Separate Pifcaria%
there the Fifh may be faid to be His, becaufe
no Man elfe may take them whilft they are
within his feveral fifhing, as appears by Child
and Greenhils Cafe. And Trefpafs lies for taking them, yones Rep. 440.
§ 16. A feveral fifhing is where one hath
the Royalty, and oweth the Ground onj each
iide of the Water, and no Man can have a
feveral fifhing, but in his own Soil, but a free
fifhing may be in the Soil of another Man,
Mich. 17. M4. ! Pafc. 18. Ed.4.4.
§ 17. If I come upon another Man's Ground
without his Licence, or the Licence of the
faw3 I am a Trefpaffer 5' far which, the Dm;
■J       ■'-   • :'-    '   '  • '   k Vade Mecunt, Sec.
*9\
er may have an Action of Trefpafs againft me;
and if I continue there after warning, by the
Owner, or his Servant thereunto Authorized,
the Owner or his Servant, by his Command,
may put me oft by force, but not beat me, but
in cafe of Refiftanceby me: For then I (by
refilling ) make the Affault, but if he beat me,
I not refitting, in that cafe he makes the Affault,
and I may beat him in defence of my Perfon,
and to free my felf from his Violence. F.N.B'.
Trefpafs 9 Ed. 4.21.19. H. 6.31.6 j» i oEd.
4.6. 5 H. 4. 9. 11. H. 6. zz.lib. Intr. 611,
CokeJs zlnft. 316.
§ 18. If I leave my Angle-rod behind in another's Ground,he may takeitDamage feafant,
but he can neither take it from my Perfon by
force, nor break it, but he is a Trefpaffer to
me. Vid. Reynel 2nd pamper noon's Cafe, Croke^s
Rep. tempore Carvte-ff. 228.
§ 19. Our Anceftorsconfider'd,That, Ho*
mo homini Lupm^ therefore they made that excellent Law of 43 Eliz.. Cap. 6. which provides, That in Perfonai Anions, in the Courts
at Weftminfter (being not for Land or Battery ) when it fhall appear to the Judges ( and
be fo by them fignified ) That the Debt or
Damages to be recovered, amount not to
40 s. or above, the Judges fhall award to
thd Plaintiff no more, but lefs, if they pieafe,
Cods than Damages. This Law is inlarged
by another made 22 and 23 Car. 2. Cap. 9.
wherein it's Ena&ed, That in all Actions of
U 4 Tref- 2<?o
The Angler's
IWW
Trefpafs, Affault and Battery, and other PerjH
rial Actions, wherein the Judge, at the Tryal,
fhall not find and certify under his Hand, upon
the back of the Record, that an Affault ancf
Battery was fufficiently proved, or that the
Free-hold, or Title ®f the Land mentioned in
the Declaration, was chiefly in queftion, the
Plaintiff infucli Aclion, in cafe the Jury fhall
find the Damages under 40 s. fhall not recover
more Cofts of Suit, than the Damages fo found
amount unto i And if any more Cofts be a-
warded, the Judgment fhall be void, and the
Defendant acquitted from thexfame, and may
have an Action, and recover Cofts and Damages for fuch vexatious Suit.
§ 20. Thus the Angler may fee how to defend himfelf, in cafe any be quarrelfbme and
vexatious to him : However, there are many
Statutes made for prefervation of Fifh, and
fome very fevere againft any that take Fifh
out of another's Pond, Pit, Pool, or feveral
fifhing : Therefore I fhall give' him their A-
bridgment, and caution him not to offend
therein ; for the Penalties in fome are ( and
not without reafon ) very fevere and fharpj
Therefore it will be moft prudent not to
4ngle any where bun in Rivers and Streams,
in which none can claim a feveral Fifhing,
qtherwife he'll fubject himfelf, and become liable to great Punifhments 5 and when he has
occafidn, let him confult the Statutes at large,
for his more clearer FatisfaJiion | in the in-' Fade Mecum^ Sec.
*97
terim, he muft content himfelf with' the fubfe-
quent Abridgment.
§ 21. Trefpaflors in Parks or Ponds fhall
give treble Damages to the Party grieved, fuf-
fer three years imprifonment, be fined at the
King's Pleafure,and give Surety never to offend
in the like kind again*, and if they cannot find
Surety, they'fhall abjure the |lealm, or being
Fugitive, fhall be outlawed. Weftm.i. cap,
20. 3 Ed. i. Coke's i.Inftit. 199, 200.
§ %i. None fhall take Salmons betwixt the
8 of September, and the 11 of November, nor
yoqng Salmons with Nets or other Engines,
at Mill-pools, betwixt the midft of April*, and
the 24 of June, on pain of having their Nets
and Engines burnt for the firft Offence; for!
the fecond, to fuffer a quarter of a years Imprifonment ; for the third, a years Imprifon-
ments; and after to have their Punifhment in-
creafed according to the Trefpafs; and in places where frefh Waters be, Overfeers of this
Statute fhall be afligned and fworn to'enquire
of the Offenders. Weftm. 2.47. 13 Ed.i.cap.4.7.
Coke's 2. Jnftit. 477.
§ 13. No Fifher fhall ufe any Engine whereby the Fry of Fifh may be deftroyed, upon
the pains mentioned in the Stat, of Weft. 2.
cap. 47.
Salmons in Lancajhire fhall not be taken betwixt Michaelmas and Candlemas *, Conferva-
tors fhall be fworn to fee this Statute obferved,
and tjtie Offenders punifhed, 13 R. 2. cap. 19.
§24. None v?6
The Angler's
None fhall ufe any Net,Device or En-
finewhatfoever, to deftroy, kill, or take the
pawn or Fry of Eels, Pike, Pickerel, Salmon,
or of any other Fifh3or takeSalmons or Trouts,
iiot being in Seafon, nor fhall take or kill Pikes
fhorterthan xo inches,SaImons than i6,Trouts
than 8, or Barbels than 12, or more, or fhall
ufe any Engine or De-ice whatfoever,
to take Fifh, other than aacUxcept an Angle,
or a Net or Tramelof z inches and an half
mefh or mask; in pain to forfeit 20 /. the Fifh
fo wrongfully taken, and the Net or Engine fo
wrongfully ufed.
All perfons having Jurifdidtion of Confer-
vancy upon Streams or Waters, and Lords of
Leets have power, upon the Oaths of Twelve
Men, to hear and determin thefe Offences,
and fhall have all the Forfeitures which fhall
accrue thereupon.
The Steward of a Lett fhall give this Statute
}n charge to the Jury, in pain of 40 s. to be
divided betwixt the King and Informer.
Here if the Jury wilfully forbear to prefent
Offences of this kind, the Steward or Bailiff
fhall impannel another Jury, to enquire of
their Default, which being found, the firft
Jury fhall forfeit 20 s. a-piece.
Upon Default of Preferment wi;
nn one
year, in Leets, Juftices of Peace in Seflions,
Jufticesof Oyer and Terminer, and Juftices of
Afflze in Circuits, have power to hear and
determin the faid Offences,
This Fade MecuMj &c,
l99
This Aft fhall not reftrain the taking of
Smelts, Loaches, Minnows, Bull-heads,Gudgeons, or Eels, with Nets or Engines formerly ufed, fo that no other Fifh be taken therewith, nor fhall extend to abridge any former
Priviledge of Confervancy lawfully enjoyed,
or fifhing in T*jied,Vs^ or Wye, or in Waters
let to Farm by '<:he Queen. fo that the Spawn
or Fry of £¥h be not therein wilfully deftroyed. Stat, i Eliz. 17- „„  ■       „
§  25. None fhall unlawfully break,  cut-
down, cut out, or deftroy any Head, or
Heads, Dam, or Dams, of any Ponds, Pools,
Moats Stagnes, Stews, or feveral Pits, wherein Fifh are, or fhall happen to be put in, or
ftored withal by the Owners or Pofleffioners
thereof, or do or fhall wrongfully fifh in the
fame, to the intent to deftroy,kill, take or fte^l
away any of the fame Fifh againft the Mind
of the Owners, or Pofleffioners thereof, without Licence of the Owner, in pain to fuffer
three Months Imprifonment, and to be bound
with good Sureties to the good Behaviour, for
feven years after.
The Party fhall in Seflions or elfewhere, recover treble Damages againft the Delinquent,
and upon fatisfa&ion, fhall have liberty to procure his Releafe of the Behaviour.
Juftices of Oyer and Terminer*. Affize, Peace
and Goal Delivery, have power to hear and
determin thefe Offences.
Juftices of Peace, upon the Offenders Ac-
■ know- lOO
The Anglerf
m
dmM'
Imowledgment in Seffiosss, and Satisfaftion to
the Party grieved, fhall have power to releafe
the Behaviour. Vid. Stat. 5 EUz. cap. 31.
§ ^. None toll efceft a Weir or Weirs a-
long the Spa-fhore, or in any Haven or Creek,
or wUhin five Miles of the mouth of any Haven or Creek, ©r jfcalS willingly take or deftroy
any Spawn, Fry, or Brood of any Sea-fift, in
pain of 10 L to be divided between the
King and Pfofcjcutor i neither fhall any Fifh in
|. aay of the faid places, with any Net of a kfs
mefh than § inches and an half betwixt knot
and knot (except for the taking of Smoulds
mNorfolk,only} or with a Canvas Net, or
other Engine, whereby the Spawn or Fry of
Fifh may be deftroyed, on pain to forfeit the
laid Net or Engine, and 10 s. in Mony to
be divided betwixt the Poor and Profecutor,
and to be Levied in Corporations by the head
Officers 5 and in other places by Diftrefs and
Sale of Goods upon a Warrant of a Juftice of
Peace directed unto the Conftable and Churchwardens of the fame Parifh for that purpofe,
sjac.cap. 12.
§ 27. By the Statute of 17 R. %. cap. 9.
Juftices of Peace fhall be Confervators of the
Statute of Weftm. 1. cap. 47. and 13 R. 2.
cap. 19. and fhall have powers to fearch all
Weirs, left by their ftraitnefs, the Fry of Fifh
may be deftroyed.
Juftices of Peace fhall have power to appoint and fwear Under-eonfervators, to hear
and Fade Mecum^ See.        301
and determin Offences of this kind, and topu-
[ nifh the Offenders by Imprifonment and Fine,
wtereof thj^t|j^r-Conferyator, which in-
forms$ is to have the half.
The Major or Wardenfcof London have like
power in Thames, from Stanes to London, and
in Medway, as far as the City Grant extends.
17 R.z.cap,*).
§ 28. If any perfonfhali life any Net or Engine whatsoever 3 or fhall take any Fifh by at*y
otherMeans orDevice w?hatfoever, in any Pond
or feveral Water, or fhall be aiding or aflifting
thereunto, without the Confent of the Owner
of the Water, and be convicted l|Confeffion,
Oath of one Witnefs, within one Month, before one Juftice of Peace, he fhall recompence
the Party fuch Damages, and in fuch time as
the Juftice fhall think fit, not exceeding treble Damages, and pay to the Overfeer of the
Poor,for the ufe of the Poor,fuch Sum of Mony
as the Juftice fhall think fit, not exceeding 10 s.
and in Default of Payment, to be levied by
Diftrefs and Sale of Goods, and for want of
Diftrefs, to commit the Offender to the Houfe
of Correction, for fuch time as the Juftice fhall
think fit, not exceeding one Month. Uniefs he
fhall be bound with one or more competent
Surety's to the Party grieved, not exceeding
i'o 1. never to offend in like manner.
Every Juftice of Peace before whom fuch
Offender fhall be convict, may cut in pieces,
and deftroy all and every the Nets and Engines
whatfo- The Angler's
whatfbever therewith the Offender is apprehended.
Every Perfon ^l^finds himfelf agrieved^
with Me judgment of the Juftice of Peace ,m&y
Appeal to the next: General Quarter-Seffions of
^:-.-e •'■ -ele Order and Determination thereof fl 11 be Find, if no Title to any Land, Royalty or Fishery, be therein concerned.
rjtny thing therein fhall not take
away-. < abridge His Majefties Royalty, or
Iteog.tfive et03v3L Fid. at large the Stat, of
22 wsjfi-i '^M^Mcundi, cap. 25.
§ ^o^Pfif* you have an Abridgment of
moft: Cafes and Afts of Parliament that generally concern Angling or Fifh ; now let me
briefly infert one or two Cafes, and conclude
§ 30. Trefpafs for entring and breaking his
Clofe and fifhing in SeparaliPifcariafua*znd for
taking Pi fees fms, ibid. viz.. 100 Eels,C^. after
VerdictforthePlaintiffuponAr^C/wVrypleaded^
and Damages entirely given. Moved in Arreft
of judgment that the Declaration was ill; becaufe it foys*-PifcesfttQS*-fox he hath not any Property in the Fifh until he takes them, and hath
them in h ispofleflion,being 'feraNattira- and the'
fame being matter of fubftance is not helped
by the Verdift 5 but Judgment affirmed,^ curiam^ and agreed that being in, Separali Pifca~
riafua,it may well be fn^Pifees fms,fox there
is not any other may take them, wherefore
being taken out of his feveral Pifcary, and not,
J|m Fad^/lecum^ &c.
extra liber am Pifcariton fuam7 the Action is
.maintainable.
1 In a general fenfe thiey cwftmi be faid, pifces
tffiM*.hx\t in a gliticular fenfe they may 5 and a
Man may have a fpecial and qualified property
in things, fera natura, three ways, ratione In-
firmitatisy ratione Loci, & ratione Privilegij,
and in this Cafe the PlaintifFhath them by way
of Priviiedge. So for Deer in a Park, Conies
in a Warren, Doves m a Dove-coat, the owner
hath a fpecial Property in them, and may fay,
fuos; but liihey be not in a Park, Warren
or Dove-coat, he may not fay, fuos, uniefs he
add, thattheyj/^reDomeftick. f/7^.Crokes
Rep. tempore Carolif. 5 ^4. Child and Greenhills
Cafe. Vid. fame Cafe Rep. Marjh,f. 48, and 49,
and Jones Rep. f. 440, and Hughs Abridgment f. 1972 C.S. 26.
Marjh fays, that the Aftion was brought
for Fifhing in Separali Pifcaria fua, without
mentioning the Clofe, and fo doth Jones in
his Rep. 440. Thus you mav perceive what
care and refpeft our Fore-fathers had to the
prefervationof Fifh, and how many Statutes
the wifdomof many Parliaments multiplied to
that end (befides many others about Sea Fifh,
which I do not fo much as mention) that every
one might reap the benefit or pleafure of their
own Fifh, and fufficient ftore be preferved
from the Roguifh Tricks of Rafcaliy and
loofe Fellows; whofe punifhments, if they be
taken Offending, are not mean and flighty and
one 504 The Anglers
one would think fufficieot to deter them from
Trefpafling in that Na|i*re. Jfoj
S^jiaritur^ut crefcunitoi magna Vofumina Legm
In prompth can fa eftU^refcit w-$rbc dolus.
I had thought m have given a Defcription of
the prime Rivers in England and WaUs, and
of the Fifh they are furnifhed with* but in the
attempting thereof I found my felf not a little deceiv'd by the difficulty I met with, and
that the fame was not to be~ sfetomplifhed
by any other way than Travel: the Account
our Chorographers give thereof being foJame
and imperfect, that it had been ridiculous to
have inferted any thing out of them ,• befides,
**.o have defcribed a few particular Rivers only,
within the narrow compafs of my own knowledge and experience, and omitted many o*
, thgrs far mof$yfeeTiting, had been injurious,
J arp a genera1 Deicnption ufelefs .• therefore
I fitkre I am not fo able as willing to gratify the
A.igler herein,  I Queftion not but to have
my Pardou pafs with more eafe, than if I had
troubled him with a rude and infignificant
Difcourfe thereof.
However, enpajfam,! will tell you that there j
are reputed to be in England 2nd Wales 5-94 Ri-
vivers, whereof Englandchims 350, and Wales
244, for her fhare, but how the number comes
to be fo great, I cannot conceive, uniefs fome
Rivulets are taken into the Accompt, and
then the number fhould feem to be greater.
As i$& Mecum} Sec,        305
As to their diverfitte their fkuations, their
diftance antfremotenefs, their aearaefi or vici-
fefg^:th^ea?fo diey are fl§bjiB£ bosh in the
qpStks-ot^jt^S^fi as alfo their various
ldndi a|td ipecies c&|p&^rVpfe that have a
moreimhieli|te ineeB&aHfe with the Ocean,
parcicipate of its inflgeTk&ftW have the fame
Viciflltudes, tht%p&^<-l and refluxes, the
fame Sale-water, ttidsafe ,ame fore of Fifh
which ftequent the Sea w toe ihey difembogue
themfelves; thefe are mo deep to be fa-
thom'd by the cordage of a Line, but the
more inlaad,  and further diftant from the
common receptacle of Waters, are the Rivers moft proper for the Asglers Divertife-
ment.^ 1 ^principal ft.n ..ts inEngland, are
the Tnames, Severn, Trent; Tine, Tees, Tweed,
Medtvay, Dove*.   Jfts^jffame,  Willey,   Avon,
Lea,   Jrwel^   Lon*.  Nen, ffiiManZ,   Derwent,
Calder, Wharf, Nid, Don^Swale, Hirflt Whar^
Oufe, and Are.    Principal fivers in Wales,
are the Dee,   Wye, Convoy, Tivy, Cbediayiy,
Cluid,   Vsk,   Tovy-y   Taff,   Davy, 6Q.     Bur
the Maps will give you a better profpe# than
any can by enumsra ing them, therefore let
every ingenious Angler,  have a large Map
of England, or at leaft of the particular County where he ufually Angles, and thereby he
may with delight view and obferve the Springhead, fite, diftance, various paffages, windings, turnings, and- confluxes of each particular River,  whh what Towns, Caftles,
X Church.es, 3«8
III ffl
11
If
III'
1
ocT
xne
ffl
gleFs
Churches, Gentlemens Houfes, and places of
Note are near or on their Banks, and make,
as you Angle, Remarks proper to the nature
of each
d Severs
and then
:I
vers in Tmgland rutftmder GrctunB
agJi| as a Branch of the Med*
'•'i^fe Mole WSurrey, Hans in Staf-
ftigmn** thv-little Rivers Men inDenbyMfiS
^^&^m^inWiltjhire^rhc RmkReeaSWi^
^fe(f under Ground, near unioEJmftey in the
J|||j^ . iding of Yorkshire, A t AftwWm Bed-
mm**** rife fo many fourcesof Springs that
4^J0°on drive a Milk • kt Cheddar neit*3t$p
b iuge in Semerfetjhire, is a Spring that drives
Tw:elv%Milis in a quarter of alVfile. In the
midft of the River iWl||outh-^Peterborough
in Northamton[hire, is a deepGulf calPd Medef*
well, fo coid, that in Summer no Swimmer is
?W to indure ic, yet not Frozen in Winter,
$|Iq£ thefe enough*
CHAR   XLI.
Is a Supplement to the 23^ and 37
Chap, aforegoing.
BEcaufe the Pike is fo noble a Fifh, and of
fuch magnitude, and that many Rivers
are plentifully ftored therewith 5 it's not inconvenient,  if I  by  way of Supplement
make Fade MecuMy &c..
make a,more piirdcu^yiicourfeof him than
before, whictp doubt not but will be both acceptable, and delightibm tomanyi
S-*W& You are told before that the Pik*e is
very voracious, even fo greedy that he'll devour thofe of Jhis own Species, only he feldom
adventures on a Pearch, uniefs hunger compels
him ; becaufe of the Fins and Prickles on the
Pearches Back, which are not a little often five
to his Maw, therefore a Pearch is tflfeworft
Bait for hixrj by reafon the Pike has an Antipathy againft him, for not being fo eafily de*
vour'd as others.
§ 2. The Shape or Figure of the Pik»Body
is very long, his Back broad, and'1 almoft.
fquare, altogether equal to the Jo weft Fins,
his Head is lean and very bony, his Snout is
long like the giii, or Beak of a Goois;; and his
lower Jaw is far longer than his upper,, and ia
it are placed many Teeth,not orderly difpofidi
but of diverfe ranks and orders, his Eyes are
of a Golden Colour, and very quick-lighted,
(as are all forts of Fifh) his Belly is always
White, but his Back and Sides are of a Biac^,
fpeckled with Yellow, if a fat one, but the
Sides are Whi:e and Pale in a thin, lean Fifh,
his Ventricle is large and capacious, and his
Throat fhort; as for his Age, there isdiveifi-
ty of Opinions; fome fay he'll live 40, or 50
Years, others but 10. Some grow fafter,
fome flower, according to the diverfity of
their Water and Feed. River Fifh grow much
X 2 fafter ?uo
Lht An
l"dH*M
1
I
|Ier
fafter than Pond Fifh, uniefs the Pond be very
Ia,rge, and have a good Stream run through it-38
lleih Water being a grelt^forwarder of Fifhes J
feeding, ^Jlcks and Pjolerels grow fafte^toi
great ones: One fplwn'd in a clear fprinfing
Brook in March, will be 18 inches long the
next March; a River Pike grows faft till he arrive at 24, or joinches in length,then he ftands
a little more at a flay, and fpreads himfelf
in Thicknefs ; after he'll gt|ffl^a long time,
and be much longer growing to his full bignefs, (which is about 45 inchvlin length )
from 30 inches, than he was increafing to that
proportion. He's a great breeder, and fpawns
aTOtmid March, uniefs the Spring be mild
and forward, and then about the end of February.
§ 3. In ftoring your Ponds, put in all your
Jacks of a bignefs; for a Pike of 30 inches
fcruples not to devour one of 1$. Some are
apt to grow more in length, others iu breadth
and thicknefs which latter fort are beft fed,
and firmeft Fifhes; tor a lean, flender Pike,
though he feem to advance in length ; yet is
commonly a waiter, and in a decaying condition ; by reafon of fome outward Wound or
Hurt by the Otter,or fome ft ronger of his own
kind, or is inwardly pricked by the Hook, or
fome other Cafualty •, yet he'll live and be as
hungry and greedy as ever. A ftill, fhady and
unfrequented place, thick fheltred, where he
receives no difturbance at his feeding, and
where mkte
Fade Mecum, &c. 305?
. where a Ditch joins upon a River, or a Spring,
or fmall Brook run into it, or a folitany and
retired corner, not beaten with Fifliers, or his
flattering Friends, are commodious andplea-
fant for his growth.
§ 4. The Male is generally in feafon, firm,
delicious and inviting 10 the Eater, though at
worft from 15 February until beginning of A~
pril* but the Females are out of feafon from a-
bout Candlemas until mid May *but in feafon the
reft of theYear,efpecially in Auguft-.Sept ember,
October and November. The middle fize are
better than either the greater, or fmallerljpes,
which latter always eat loofe and wafhy, by
reafon of their quick growth. One taken fat
out of a River is far better and fweeter, than
one fed fat in a Pond, except he be taken out
of the Pond, and put in:o a running Stream to
clear a while before eaten.
§ 5. A thicker iort of Water, if it be not
fowl and muddy, is of a better confiftency,
and the parts better difpofed for Nutrition,
than thofe of a more thin and rarified Sub-
ftance: For Fifh cannot live by pure Water
or by Refpiration, or fucking in thofe flender
particles of his beloved Element, without the
concurrence and afliftance of fome grcfllr
and terrene Quali ies, which are intermingled
with thofe liquid Bodies x this is the reafon why
Fifh are the facteft, though not altogether the
fweeteft, that live amongft Weeds and thick
Fog, living and thriving with a little more re-
X 3 frefhmenc, :?!
Ill The Angler's
frefhraent, than what they receive from the
fatnefs the Soil imparts. Fen Fifh brought!
np Into clear and higher Waters, wiliLJirive
much, and be fweeter; but whether the contrary, iszjQury.
1'he 'Pikes Haunt, and Harbour.
§-6. His hold is ufoally amongft, or near a
Bank of Weeds, as of Flags, Bnll-rulhes,Can-
docks, Reeds, or of green Fog:   However,
he often fhoots out, and fports in the clear
Stream^taking his pleafure in the middle of the
Wa^r, and in Pools full of Fry.  If the whple
River be weedy, you'll oe at a lofs to find out
his Quarters, but if the River be free from
Weeds, only here and there a Bank, or Bed of
Bull-rufhes, you majfafely conclude thofe are
his retirements and baiting places. If your River confifts of Pits, have a care to the top and
bottom thereof; he's fometimes caught in the
middle, but his principal Haunt is at the bottom of the Pit or Pool); and ufually where one
is taken at the upper psrr, another bath been
found at the foot or bottom of the Pooll.    In
Winter, and cold Weather he lies deeper and
nearer bottom -, but as Summer approaches,
and the Weather becomes warmer, fie fhoots
iqto more (hallow places % in March they fhoot
ijntothe Scours to fpawn, but after April begins, he lies in (hallows.
■' Mm clear, calm, 'hot, (tytry, gkamyDay, |p?     Fade Mecumy See.        311
he gets to the furface of the Water, and then
^afnare is moft proper: For offer hiraaBait,
and he'll immediatly retreat to his loweft retirements.
' AJbrd that is clear and gravelly at the bottom, efpecially having a Pooll, orPitadjoyn-
ing to it that is indifferently deep and weedy, is
a probable place ; for though they generally
affecl: a deep Water, yet they'll get near to a
Ford or Shallow, where they'll delight themfelves, and fport with the fmall Fry. So are
Scours and Pits, or Poolls near Mills, either
above or below them, commonly well ftored
with Fifh, fo is a Mill Dam that is deep and
weedy.
Rivers that are ftraight and level arc not fo
good to Fifh, as thofe that are crooked and
have many corners and turnings-, for Fifh will
get into thofe Creeks and Channels, and hide
themfelves in their private apartments. If the
Waner 1?e narrow you may fifh both fides, and
fooner chop upon them, and it's more pleafant
Trowling y'ljtit where it's broad and deep,
there is more uncertainty, in their Haunt and
Harbour, fo that they are not eafily found, or
light upon.
If they bite at all, they commonly take the
Bait at firft throw, therefore it's need lefs to
caft the Bait above once or twice ^at the moft
in the fame place.
He delights much in a middle re mmenr,
the River being about 4 foot deep, is a good
X 4 pro-. 312
The Angler's
.1 M
[     ;i
proportion for the Trowler:  For if deeper*,,
they are more difficult to ftir, and harder 9|
find j and if Shallower, apt to fee you, and
fhun your Bait,
Small Jacjcs will often lie not above one, or \
two foot fSpp the top of the Water,and fometimes on the /i ry furface; at fuch time keep
at a diftance* and come not nigh the River till
ihe Baft is in.
Trowling time.
§ 7. February, If it be a dry feafon and open,
is one of the beft Trowling Months. In March
they fpawn and are Sick ; therefore bite ill,
and it's not fo good for the Trowl as Snap •,
lor you'll fcarce take one then at Trowl, except it be a Male Fifh. 4pril, and until the
middle of A/^,efpecially if it be cold and windy, is propitious to the fport, becaufe the
Weeds which have couched afl Winter, begin
then to erect their head s. From mid Adayun-
til September \t\ bad Trowling, by reafon of
the Weeds; but if you'll Trowl in the Summer, let the Djiy be dark, gloomy and windy,
&nd rather ufe the Snap than Trowl, though
either way you'll take more Weeds than
Fifh From the beginning of September until
Martinmas* if you be not difiurbed with Rain
or Floods, efpecially Ollober, is good; becaufe
the Weeds then fall and rot, artd the Fifh are
fat with the Summers feed.   After a glut of
Rain,
iiT«; fade Mecunt, Zee. 313
Rain, or fome great Showers, a Pike never
bites well, nor whilft the Water is thick, and
'any, thing muddy. Pikes bites beft in clear
Waters and windy Days, about three in the
Afternoon. Mornings and Evenings are beft
in Summer, becaufe Fifh towatofsNoon, gee
to the top of the Water ana are then more
mindful of Play than Mea^jptn a clear, calm,
hot, fultry or gleamy days in Summer^ they
get to the top of the Water, and then a Snare
is more proper than a Bait. In February,March,
Goober and November, one pare of che day differs not much from the other, but about
Noon is beft. All Winds are good except
the Eaft. A Pike will feed to that excefs and
fulnefs, that he cannot gorge your Bait, yec
will he rife and fhew himfelf, and make many
offers, fo that you may often catch him with
the Snap.
Baits for the Pike.
§ 8. Roch, Dace and Bleak are the prime
Biits, efpecially if the River be any thing
muddy, or the Day dark and cloudy -, becaufe they are bright, and fhine in the Water,
and Roch and Dace are the hardeft, and will
endure the lengeft on the Hook. In a bright
Day, and clear, tranfparenc Water, a large
Gudgeon is the beft Bait, and is very fweec
though tender, and will foon burft ; alfo
Trouts, Chubs and Jacks that are fmall, and
Minnows and Loaches that are large, are
very li
.tili
;* If
All
j 1
m
514 ^Rbe Angler's
very good Baits, fo is a piece of an Eel 5 for it's
Very tweet to him \ and in Hay-time, a yellbW,
Might Frog is very good, efpecially for the
A Pearch is^he worft Bait, p£l
caufe 3 Pike has an A ntip&lty againft nifti^ but
if neceffip. Ifltnpei you to ufe him, idtftdff1™
his Fins wf :n5ckles, and fcrape off his Scales,
and it's better for Snap than Troll, and in
clear Water, than dark. f^M
Let all your Baits for Pike, be frefh and fweet
and alive theiame day you ufe them ; for with
ftale Baits you'll have fmall fuccefs, efpecially
in Summer, or at Trowl or ledger Bait. -Sortie- |
times with one frefh Bait, you may take fcfSref
or four Jacks, or more; for a Fifh that bites
greedily, and fwallows the Bait prefently, does
pot tear it fo much, as one that plays with ft 1
in his Mouth, and then leaves it 5  for a Bait
is not much worfe for being chopt, and full of
holes, fo that it hang well on the Hook, and
the Lead be not  feen :  For one Pike will
feed well after another, and the Bait will ftifl
be thefweeter, the more it is bitten, if it be
not ufed fo long to be Waterfopt.    One frefh
Bait will wear out two or three ftale ones.
But for the Snap, if they look bright, and
glifter in the Water, it's not material whether they be old or new % for any thing that
may affedt the Eye, may be ufed at Snap, which
is the reafon that Artificial Gudgeons and
Roches are made to ufe at Snap, but are worth
little for the Trowl.
Some Fade Mecum^ Zee. 315
j w!^cn is a ve-
,'ou may catch
■-/ a a quarter of a
Some there are tfiat fifh with their baits alive
having fhort Hooks fafnioned accordingly with
more Joints, and without Lead, and life it as
a ledger Bait, only keeping it a foot from the
bottom, with a Float of Cori
rymurtheringway.
If you have a (Saft-Net,
Baits in one day, that will fed	
year 5 choofe out thofe you like, and put them
in a Trunk with holes in it, and lay the fame
in a Pond.
If you trowl with a middle fized Gudgeon,
large Minnow or Loach, you may catch Pearch
as well as Pikes:
If you'll ufe a ledger Bait for Pike, as fome
will lay forty or fifty, and begin to draw at
the firft was laid, let it be kept a foot from
the bottom with a Float -, and a live Bait is
better than a dead one, and that way, though
the Pearch be the worft Bait, yet he'll live
longeft on the Hook •, and is to be baited thus,
viz.. having cut offhis Fin on his Back, without hurting him, with a fharpKnife, betwixt
the Head and the Fin on the Back, cut or
make an lncifion, or fuch a Scar as you may
put the arming Wire of your Hook into ic,
with as little bruifing or hurting the Fifh as
psoflible, and fo carrying your arming Wire
a-long his Back, into or near the Tail of your
Fifh, betwixt the Skin and the Body of it,
draw out the Wire or Arming of your Hook
%t another Scar near his Tail, then tye him
about 3I(
The Anglers
Ml
about it with Thready but no harder than of
■neceflity £o prevent hurting the Fifh. And
fome ufe a kind of Probe to open the way,
for th^ttore eafy entrance or paflage of your
Arming or Wire : And thus bait your ledger
Bait for Pik<e, and keep it a foot from the bottom | for 3 Pike will not fo foon take any Bait
on the Ofo'imcl, as if it fwim about a foot or
in ore from the bottom.
To bait a "Frog for the Pike? do it thus;
vit. put your Arming Wire in at his Mouth
( which you may do betwixt May-day and the
end of Auguft ; for afterwards his Mouth clo-
fesup) and out at his Guills, and then, with
a fine Needle and Silk, fow the upper part of
his Leg with only one ftitch to the arming
Wires or eye the Frogs Leg to the upper joint
of the Wire* Ufe him gently, and perform
your operation neatly, and he'll live the longer
on your Hook.
Hooks for the Ptke.
§ 9. There are feveral forts of Pike Hooks
both for Snap, and Pouch or Trowl $ your
Spring hooks are excellent for Snap, and
ftrike fure, yet the ordinary plain Snap-hook
will as often mifs as hit. Of Pouch-hooJcs
there are many fafhions, fome wich a round
bent, almoft after the Figure of a Pearch-
hook, which may be good \ but there are
another fort having a floping bent outwards,
turning
.itfa Fade Mecum%
■a
^upinglnlttle inward under the Beard, yet
withal, bending towards the Lead at the point
of it, which point muft be very fharp* which
is the better Hook \ the fingie Hook Mkes as
fure, and is as good for the Trowh if not better, thanithe double Hook, only for a great
Bait, the double Hook is beft.
There are two or three forts of double
Hooks, befides that of the Snap, fome of them
are flat, and are bent back to back, another
fort there is that is more doped, and the bents
clofer together, others there are that haveM
round bent much after the form of the Snafjgb
which muft always have a full bene, and very
large.
Hooks ufed forTedger Baits, with live Fifh,
are not leaded, but rather fhorter than the
other, and the Wire hath ufually more joints -,
but all other Hooks are neatly leaded on the
Shank :, let them be made of well tempered
Steel, that will rather break, than ftand
bent.
Lines jor the Pike.
§ ro. The Trowling-line ought to be ftrong,
and either of green or Sky-coloured Silk, ^nd
thirty yards long, but the Line for Snap may
be about ten yards long ; next unto Silk fine
Spun, Hemp Yarn Died Green, or Sky-colour, 4, 5 or 6 fold neatly Twifted 5 buc for
a ledger Bait Shooemakers Thread well Twifted is good enough. Let your Lines always
7 bs %'% K
mi
^i^SS^rT
be dmi immediately after yon have ufed
Mem* Snap Line muft be ifcrosger fen the
Trowling Line. As for the managing of the
Line and fitting It for your fport, you may
ivind Jp upon a Roll that turns upon a Ring
of Iron, with your Finger in it, having no more
in- your Hand than you make ufe of at prefect    fo rh it if ee.ca.fion be be you may unwind
| § i
1 h«lf
Wither Bai
^olefor the Pike.
I The Pole fhoold be about 5 yards and
iong, and made either of Cane, dried
k't fir, or dried H4zle>with a Ring
a& top for the Line to run through*ind the Pole
muft be ftionger for Snap than Trowl: for
T?o»,\?yo;.* pcy ^-ke off you Hafcle top, and
qi| on a Ring 5 «nd ufe it, and fo it will ferve
ib$$s for Pikes or other Fifh.
■fj$p to Bait the Hook, and play the Bait
at Trowl.
§ 12. Your Baits being ready,takea couple
of Hooks at leaft with you, and you may
Bait them before you fet out, efpecially in
cold Weather: The way then to Bait your
Hook for Trowl is thus, viz,, firft thru ft your
Wire into the Mouth of the Fifh quite through
his Belly, and out at his Tail, fome have be-
fides the Wire a Knitting-needle on purpofe,
but Vade Mi
li^^^^^ft j^int of the Wirebeftiff and
j^9g, it m^very well be done with that;
jfie point of the Hook muft be even with the
Belly of the Bait, for if ithangonekferfide,
$(it$ay hinder a^^check the Pike, vH# will
probably lay his Mouth upon it, for when
be chops cjofs the Fifh, he may be pricked,
and fo leave the Bait j when yo3 have fb put
through the Fifh, then tye the Tail of the Bait
faft to the joint of the wire with ftiongThread,
which will both make it hang ftraight on the
Hook, and prefer ve it from outward violence*
foxr(|i it be not well faftned, the Weeds wjjt
^fc^tfea^jt down to the Guills, and fo fepa-
ratethe Hook ffom the Bait * fome fatten it
w|tn.(a Neediff;
The very beft and chief wav of faftning
your Hook to the Line is with a Swivel!
How to T/ou/.
§13. Thus fixed drop in your Bait fieft t-
ven before ycu, then caft it on each fide to
find him, and let the third throw be before
you into the middle, afterwards caft about all
places where you conceive your Game lies, or
any where you can Fifh without Annoyance
of Weeds, Roots, &c. for if the place be
Weedy, &c. you cannot caft out fo far, but
only drop in the Bait, here and there by the
fides, and in Holes that are clear and deep.
The Weeds are very troublefome and great
Enemies, Enemies'^ f^rff ffif fmafietf mi of W;tmi k:6tig
on your Hook or Bait, e Petke.wilijee^ey
fijueamifh to Gorge it.
■Having caft out a fairtnrow, If'may be i%
or fometimes 20 yards, ( which mav eafily be
done if the River requires it,) let it firft have"
a little time to fink, then feel it by drawing
gently towards you 1 for a Pike often takes it
at firft fight before it get to the bottom, and if
you fnatch it haftily, ycaihoth difcourage him
and deprive your felt of your expected fport 5
after yoii have given ic afi eafie rnotioifto wards
you, iet it have the liberty finking again, then
draw it flowly and (bftly towards you, for if
you jerk I quickJ^f1^ a^y? be has not
time to lay hold on the |§fe file's fo quick-
flghted that he'll oftei^fl^^hL/jfelf from the
fartheft.fid^P-and a¥a guat diftance,towards
your Bait; when the Bait comes near the Bank,
then play it longer there, firft deep, for the
deeper the better, if cold Weather, afterwards
raife ic higher and higher by degrees, till you
have ic fo near che top that you fee ic glifter j
then take ic out, not haftily, becaufe he often
takes it near the top.
When a Pike is once ftir'd he'll lye Watching for the Bait, and catch greedily at it, if he
does not fee you *, therefore keep at a little diftance upon the Bank; for they'll often take it
:\c the very top, and fometimes leap out of the
Water at it, but chen they are fo affrighted
that they'll bite no more.
Caft FadeMecnm*. fee.
Caft not your Bait above once in one and
the fame place, for they are fo greedy, that
they commonly embrace the firft opportunity
to lay hold on the Bait.
Some Trowl, keeping the Bait at le^pi
Foot, by a Float, from the bottom, but that
!s better for a Ledger Bait, becaufe of the
Weeds 5 neither is it'good to Trowl without
a Pole, by calling your Bait with your Hand |
when he has taken your Bait, he'll run to his
hold, and there lie till hehaspouch'd it, and
then range about for more 5 then hook him
with a fmall jerk, and give him Line, and
make your Pieafure to your content.
If he take* the Bait greedily at bottom^
and marches up the Stream with it, or ftrike-
crofs the River towards his hold, he will tberi
probably lie ftill a little time while he is
pouching, as you may feel him check and tc%
at it, from which place, if he goes quick, you
may let him alone a little longer, for you
may come to lofe all for want of 2 or 3 minutes forbearance; if he huh lain ftill a while
the fecond time, and then runs with it, then
draw your Line ftraight, and with your Pole
give him an eafy ftroke, and fo feel him by
degrees, till you come to fee him, but if he be
furious and refift much, let him have Line e-
nough, and give him his full fwing 5 he'll be
very angry at firft, till pacified by lofing his
Strength.
If he be large, he'll be ftrong and unruly,'
Y perhaps 322
The Angler's
p:rhaps (for Madnefs) leap out of the Water
as foon as pfj§k'd,  but if fmall and ligW»1
you'll fcarcefeel him.
Yon muft be cautious in Landing a great
one, for if the River be broad, and your Line
ffiort, you may eafily lofe him ; for he'll
launch om with fuch Violence, that though h4
cannot break your Line, yet he'll tear out hi*
hold, or own Entrails, if he be there hung.
If he take the Bak at top, and runs fiercely
with ic into the deep, and there lie ftill for
fome time, and you perceive that he does noc
f>ou.ch it, your Remedy for that, is to ftir him
a little, and make him run,^ and be more eager of it> then after he hath lain ftill, and
runs with ic again ; there is no danger of lolling that Fifh: For when they leave it, they
commonly throw it up the firft time they lie
ft ill: Sometimes he'll take it again after he
hath left it, and run to his hold, and play
with it more than he did at firft, and after all
leave it. A Fifh that takes it moft greedily
at fi, ft, and carries it far theft, does notwith-
ftanding often for fake it-, the only way to
come quit with fuch, is to ufe the Snap.
When you have bit, and the Fifh goes
down the Stream with it, 'tis commonly a.
fmall one 5 but on the contrary, if he fails
flowly upwards with the Bait, it's a fignofa
good one. For greater Fifh bite more calmly and moderately than the lefler; for the
fmall ones fnacch and run away with ic without
y* Ipsa meeum.
W
out arsyGare or Ddiberatica\ but old Fifh are
more'w£fjsL;apd eunning; mm are fooner
taken by a tine laid for therr!|B<Night than
by Trowling. When the Water is clear and
not very deep, you may fee him rife at it
and take it, fo you may |be the Bait gliftef
as it lies crbf^his Mouth ^ jfou may then fee
when he hath p%ehed} and know your time
Wftrike.
When you haVe firft ftricken him, yott
muft be fure to have your Line ready and
flack, that he may take as riluch liberty as
he will -, for when he finds himfelf trapan'd
with the Hook, hell ufe all his Might and
Cunning to gee loofe ; as you feel him come
eafily towards you, you may be ftill drawings till -you feel him make Refiftance a-
gain, then you may let him have hit fwing
'till his Fury is over, then gather your Line
to you again, till he ftarts away, and if
you can get him to the top, ic will the
fooner tire him I For the more he ftrives
and throwsf^hirrffelf from you , the fooner
he'll be rceary ; after this manner, by drawing him up, and letting him loofe again*
you may tire him, and tame him, Mil you
bring him to your Hand *, then go not un-
advifedly to take him out by the Back, or
Tail, bi&jtake hiaj by the H§a&., and put
your Fingers into his Eyes, ( which is the
faftefthold) but not into his Guills, left
your Fingers be injured with his Bices,
Y 2 which The Angler's
which are venemous \ but if yotl^Save a
Landing-hookf then ydii may eafily and fe»
curely ufe that.
fe  mihi plaudo %   nam Stulta
i foscc popM9
Hie (erippffe feret  me im 9
/jt Iff math
*&*:**&«...■.'
X      k). Fade Mecumy &c.       325
This Paragraph fhould have beeta
added after Chapter 1/ Section
10. Fi%.
To make excellent Glews for Angling Rods
in fome safes y as alfo for all manner of
Joyners Work.
§ 11. Take fcumm'd Milk, which has flood
fo long that no more Cream will arife from
it, fcum it very clean, and fet it over the
Fire in a Leaden Pot, letting it boil a little,
and if any Cream arife, take it off: Then put
into it a fufficient quantity of Glew^ cut it
into fmall bits, which will fbon melt; boil it
into a body that it may neither be too thick,
nor too thin, (for in this boiling lies much
Art) then take it from the Fire, and ufe it as
other Glew.
Obferve, That, firft, This Glew binds beyond belief, and will not be fuhje& to refolve
with any ordinary moifture of the Weather,
becaufe the curdy part of the Milk, freed from
its Oil, is joined with the Glew. Secondly,
That you take care it burn not to the fides of
the Pot, for then it will be deprived of its
Strength ; to prevent which, (both in its firft
making, and after melting of it) you had beft
Y 3 both II
 : m _,
Bp The Angler's
both make and melt it in Balneo MarU^ fo
will you prevent burnlngi^nd by.that means
/o.? may raprl fafely|prj. it tc i."/ ' i yoil
pleafe, without danger of htit'.feg the Glew.
ForinmakinggjfeiyGlew It Ihonld boil as lei-? \
lurely'^ypcifible. This hath been often experimented eey be an excellent Glew.
Monsieur fernery tells m, that if you mi*.
Quick-lime and Juafeed oil together, and
w'hafc you Glens ^>ihiu dry in the tkide.that
it will become as b^rd a^J&^iand not refolve
either by the heat of fire^ or moifture of Water, And a Country Joyner, once teld me,
That if one pour fome Water on fome Stones
of Qgiick-lime, until they are well quenched,
and the Ebullition ceafeth, and then decant the
Vifater, and therewith boil very leifurely your
Glew, that 'twill make an exceeding ftrong
Glew.
Linfeed-oil is good to anoint Hazle Angle-
Rods, once in 2 or 3 Years with*
THE T HE
JL     XX
NC
ter,
i
ANgling at float
At "Dub-fly
At Running-line both in clear and muddy Waters c. 27.
At top with a Worm                                   C. 29.
In the Night                                          c 30.
Rules for Ground and mid Water Angling c. 31.
With a Ledger Bait
With a Natural fly
With a Minnow for Trout
For Pike with a Minnow
With Trowl for Pike
With Snap for Tike
With Snare for Pike
For an Eel by Bobbing
For an Bel with Night-hooks
For an Eel at Ledger Bait
Broglin A   Sk-grub
The Table
-
Ant-fly
Aeon
BUa\^
Blac\ berries,
Blood
Bags
Baits
Bobs
Bark-worm
Bull-head
Barbel
Bream
Brandling
Bobbing for Eels
Broglingfor Eels
Beetle
Black-bee
C. 4. f. I
C 4- C,
C  4
C  4.
4- I 37-
c 25.
4. f. 28.
I /*-/• 9-
§ta£ 16.
3< f. 16.
f. 9. 10.
0 4. f. 14.
f.  22.  C.   25.
c. 19.
c   18.
c 4. f. 3.
C   22. f. 6.
C-  22. f.  y.
c 4- f 2y.
c. 4. f. 39.
C\Od-bait /
4 Cadifh wormV*c*4* £11,12,13.0 3T.16.
Cafe-worm j>
Creeper C. 4. f  26.
Canker-worm c. 4. £ 8.
Cricket Cricket
Wheefb
Carp
Cmb ^ndChevtn
Clap'bat%
Conger
Cherries
DOch-worm C 4. f.  15.
Directions general C. 7.
Dace and Dare C. 20.
Dew-worm e* 4. £ 2e c. 27. f. 3.
Dub fly c 34. c 35.
Dibbing C. 33.
Depth of Water to try c. 3. t  IS.
i)reffing of Fifh c. 39.
ETesofFifh
Eels
Earwigg
Fifh-ponds c.  3*
Fern fly or Fern-bud C. 4. f. 40.
Float-Angling c. 28
Flag-worm a, 4, f. 15*
Ffr*W c. 3. f. 5, 6, 7, 8., 9.
Fly The Table
Fly-Natural to Angle
with
C 33.
Fly*Artifi<ml
C 34- C 35.
Fifhes general Haunt
€. 7. f. 7.
JFlool^ and Flounder
c. 24.
^Urogs
c. 4' f 35.
Feeding Fifh
1 7-
i* o» C. $o. 1. y.
Fifh hew to drefs
c. 39-
Fly to makf
G
C. 34°
fxEntles
\ |        VJT Gram
4 4- r« 16.
Ce    4.    f.     l8.
Grafhopper
O 4« f« 2?.
Green*dra\%
c
4- 1 32" c. IP
Garden-worm
c 4. | 2.
Grayling
C   12.
Gudgeon
c. 15.
Gilt-tail
c. 4- f. 3.
H
HAir o 2.
/f**fe      c 3-f. 1, 2, 3, 4, c. 41. f. 9.
Hornets and Humble-bees c. 4. f. xo.
Hawthorn-fly c. 4. f 33.
Haunt general ofFiJh C. 7. f. 7,
Amprey c* 4. f. 23. C 22. f. 1.
IMP?* c. 2  •Iff
dill
The Table.
Pannier
C3.f. 18.
Falmer»fly or Wwm
c.4.f.8.
Fide
C4.f.x$.
Frike     c.4.f-30. c. 23. c,37-
c.39. c.41.
Fearch
€.13*
*°P j M '■
0 14.
Fgrtwinckle
C4.C42-
Fenck
c. 26.
-jjj            R
TJ  OS fir Angling
c 1.
C4.f.28.
Receipts
06.
mm
c. 14.
Roch
c.20.
Running-line and Worm
C. 27.
Red-worm
c.4.f.?.
SHeeps Blood
Salmon
Salmon Spawn
C.4T. 17- C.7. f.9.
C I c.
C 4. f. 2 I .
5«^#7x c. 4, f. 24.
St one fly c- 4. f. 3 2. c. 3 >.
Seafons proper for Anglings or not       c. 8. c 9.
Swivel c.36.
Snigling for Eels c. 22.
Shrimps c. 4* £ 43•
Snare O 37.
Seven-eyes c. 4«f. 23.
T
^- TRowUng
Trouts
Tag-tail
Tench
Twatchel
The Table
u
Mber
a
w
WHetjtone
Worms
Worms to bait el        	
WooU*bed
White-grub, or White-bait
Wafps
Water-crickft and Water-loufe
Woodcockzfly
Withy-bark^
c4'1^2,3j4,s>^,7.
c 7. £ 1 i.e. 27.
Ce4.f.9>io.
c.4.f. 20.
c.4-f. 26.
04-f-31. Battersby, and Sold aM^i^hop
wfo Thavies Iri^Gat^j^r Sh
^%idre^^Ghurch;^Haibourn.
CASES for th$^e<?o^yf^the Dtj^h^^
the Communion of she Church of .En^ijlfc-
Written by fome of the mop Learned and Eminent
Divines of the City of London* the SecondpdljU
Frecedents of Conveyances,    Written  by the
Right HonorabhgJm^Qthn&o Bridgeman,
Kt. and Barr. fome time Lor4 Reefer of
"^w'&^V^p^^^^nd, thi^rw^.S^fim,
^M^g^Additions.
Moa^m^efo^S^i To which is adaed'mf^^MS
k%inm^mi0d Edition*  *3&ii'*
Dr. $\y$^lgevotion^ in 8vo. newly Pri^m^
-&i$2'op W!lkins7s Sermoks.'
ArsGlericalis, or the An ^fConveySn^mt^^,
plained, in 2 Vol. 8°.
Ward's GagerS. Prattice.
Lightbody's Elements of Gaging,  by way of
Supplement to Ward.. | jjjy ..
Doni^iyf^^niVol. with Sculptures.
Wafhington'^ Obfervations en the Ecclefiafti--
calJttrifdiUion of the Kings of England*
1111 Sip Confetti
Miii    !  

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