Hawthorn Fly Fishing & Angling Collection

The Gentleman angler. Containing brief and plain instructions by which the young beginner may in a short… Smith, George, angler 1786

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GENTLEMAN   ANGLER.
S&jl:.      CONTAINING   ]
Brief and plain Inftrac"tions by which the young
Beginner may in a (hort Time become a perfect
Artift in angling for all Kinds of Fiih.
WITH
SEVERAL  OBSERVATIONS
O  N
A N G.L E    RODS, |
■' *A V  D
'ARTIFICIAL, FLIES:
Alfo the Method of chufing the beft Hair and Indian Grass ; of the proper Tines and Seafons .
for River and Pond Fishing j when Fish
Spawn j and what Baits are chiefly to be ufed :
also
A  N      A   P   P   E   N   D   I  X,
CONTAINING
The Art of Rocic and Sea Fishing j and an
Alphabetical Explanation of the Tech*
nical Words ufed in the Art of Angling*
By a Gentleman who -has made it his Divcrfion
upwards of .Fourteen Years*
L   O   N   D   O   K:
Printed for  G. K E A R S L E Y, at No.  46, in
Fleet Street, 1786.
[Price Eighteen Pence.]      tjSffc
[Entered at Stationers* Hall.]  mm 3
THE
PREFACE.
X May without vanity affirm, that the
followin treatife upon angling, is the moft
p'erfeci and complete that has hitherto appeared in print. Other books are generally
crouded with fo many fuperftuous and1 un-
neceflary accounts of tire va-hae which fome
kind of foreigners fet upon fome kind of
fifli, and? wfcl* reciting what was the opinion of the ancients concerning them, that
they feem to be . calculated to pleafe men of
fpeculation rather than to inftru& a young
beginner, or improve him in the art of ang-
ling.
Ai
To p PREFACE.
To this may be added, that they abound
frequently with a defcription of the various
nets by which fifh may be taken; how to
lay night lines; how to fnare fifh; with
other nefarious and clandefline methods by
which they may be deflroyed; but this is
downright poaching, which has nothing to
do with angling.
There is as much difference between an
angler and a poacher, as between the fair
trader and the fmuggler; and the legiflature
were fenfible of this, when tjieytmade the
practices of the one penal, and laid no re-
ftraint upon the other. .
I would not be here thought to inveigh
againft the ufe of nets, by thofe who are
lords
\ PR   E   F   A   C   E.        , H^
lords of royalties, or pay'rent for fifhertes^-,
my fmall^artiilery is levelled againft fuch
peribns only who clandeftinely invade other
men's properties, and, by poaching methods,*
deftroymore fifh in the fpace of one month,
than all the anglers in England take in
feven years.
Anglers can do no prejudice to a river}
they catch fifh for their recreation and plea-
fure, not for lucre; whereas poachers make
it their livelihood by night and by day: and
it may be truly faid, in a literal fenfe,
that all are fifh which come to their nets.
For thefe reafons I have omitted all fu-
perfluous nicities, defcriptions, and opinions
of the ancients; chufing to come immediately
A3 to
n
1 #'
p r e f mm $
to the point, and treat of fuch things only
as will inftruct. a young beginner, and improve thofe wfa$ have made fome progrefs in
-she art of angling: and to facilitate this,- la
have purfued a- method entirely new; and
have given fuch plain and eafy rules and directions, as will> if carefully obferved and
put in practice, quickly enable a young angler to become an artift.
Thefe rules ami directions are founded*
upon experience, which is the moft infallible
miftrefs, and not taken up upon hearfay, to
which little credit is to be gjrven: for moft
anglers take a pleafure in deluding young beginners, and leading them a&ray, by feadingthem
to fecit places as are unfrequented by fifh;
and telling them that fuch baits are proper
when PREFACE.
when they know the contrary. This is very
ungenerous treatment, and unworthy of an
^mgler: for my part, I am fo far from repining, that it gives me much fatisfadtion,
when it falls to the lot of another to hook
~a large fifh.; and I never refufe my aid or
| my counfel.
Much might be added in commendation
of this work; but I fhall only fay farther,
that I have endeavoured to be concife, and'
to flick clofe to the matter, and rather more
to the practice of the art than the theory;
and do fubmit myfelf to the judgement of
expert anglers, and the experience of ydung
learners.  GENTLEMAN ANGLER,
Hi
E that will be ah expert angler, muft be endowed with the following qualifications, viz.
Patience,
Diligence,
Refolution.
Patient to'endure the difappointments that attend an angler, who cannot promife to himfelf
at all times the defired fuccefs: diligent in following fuch inftriictions as fhall be communicated to
him, obferving the various feafons of the year,
and various difpofitions of fifh:  refolute to rife
early and purfue his fport, whether it be hot or
cold, in winter or in fummer.
B Ir The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
It will be needlefs to launch forth in the praife
and commendation of angling, or to (hew that it
is an innocent diverfion, and a healthful recreation ; experience will confirm the truth: and
they who are refolved to become anglers, will foon
give the fame judgement, though the plainefl de-
monftration will never be fuflicient to convince
and refute its enemies. I fhall not, therefore,
•wafte time in unneceflary encomiums, but proceed to lay down fuch ru|es and directions as
are grounded iipon experience, and which will .
fuffice to teach and inftruct young beginners to
become perfect artifts in time..
Firft, then, let the young angler be equipped with
variety of hooks, and a-competent quantity of every
fort j let him'be always =furnilhed with tackle unstable to that branch of -angling with Which he
hath a mind to divert himfelf. 3Let him not be
without wax and a variety of filk.; a pair of fciflars
or penknife.; a bafket or bag:; and landing net
plummets, fhot, and floats of every "kind ; needles
and thread ; lines, hair, Indian grafs; variety of
feathers, more particularly thofe taken from tlte
neck of a mallard; the wing of a partridge; a
capon's neck; the top of a plover; or the hackle
of a red cock. He muft likewife be furnifhed with
twift and bedding for dubbing his artificial flies:
he muft have a landing hook; reels for his filk
lines; The GENTLEMAN ANGLER
tiies; a pouch or book for hi^hair lines, which
ought to be rolled up in a cirduiar fbrm; a convenient place to repofit his fmail crafts, viz. flies,
hooks, wax, fhot, (ilk, &c. a bag for his worms,
and a tin box for his gentles. Daily experience
will teach him what other neceflaries he will have
occafion to ufe.
As feveral gentlemen take a pleafure in making
and mending their own reds; and as others delight altogether in a rural life, and confequently
cannot prefently apply themfelves to a fifh-tackle
ftiop when any damage happens to their rods, it
may be proper to give fome hints to thofe gentlemen, which, when put in practice, will enable
them to be artifts in making their own rods. The
butt end of every rod fhould not exceed two or
-three feet, at moft, in length; and every other
joint ought to rife proportionably taper from the
firft? hazel is the beft for the uppermoft, which,
as well as the others, muft be cut when the fap
defcends to the root, that is, in the month of
October. I have-feen very good rods made of the
wood taken from the yew tree ; but they are generally more brittle tnan the hazel, efpecially if not
well feafoned. If the fhoots are a little crooked,
let them be warmed in'a gentle flame, ,and then
they may with eafe be made ftraight; if they have
knobs or lumps upon them, a fharp knife will Igpn
B 2 take 4       The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
take away thofe excreflences, but it is beft to
choofe thofe which are naturally ftraight, taper,
and free from knots or banks. Having thus prepared them, place them over a chimney where
there is a moderate fire: by this means the pith
will be confumed, and the joint become tough
and ferviceable. Obferve to place the top joints
fb nicely, that they do not bend or warp in drying ; and when you ufe them, apply to the top
thereof a piece of whalebone made curioufty round
and taper. Let every joint be nicely fpliced with
a fine waxed thread, according to art; and your
rod ought to be ftrongenor weaker in proportion
to the ftrength of the fifh for which you defign to
angle, or the place in which you angle. It will
be very convenient to have rings or eyes (as fome
call them) made of fine wire, and placed fo artificially upon your rod, from one end to the other,
that when you put your eye to one, you may fee
through all the reft; and your rod being thus fur-
nifhed, you will eafily learn jfrom thence how to
put rings to all your other rods. Through thefe
rings your line muft run? which will be kept in
a due pofture, and you will find great benefit
thereby. You muft alfo have a winch or wheel
affixed to your rod, about a foot above the end,
that you may give liberty to the fifh, which, if
large, will be apt to run a great way before it may
be
I The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
fee proper to check him, o/ before he will voluntarily return.
Directions for choofing good Hair, Indian
Grass, and Hooks.
IN choofing good hair, obferve it well, and be
fure that it be long, round, and even, without
any flaw, bank,, or blemifh: the fame directions
are to be followed in the choice of the Indian
grafs. A young, vigorous, healthy ftone horfe,
who is in his prime, affords the ftrongeft hair;
and yie moft proper tirfle for plucking his .tail
(from whence* alone hair for making lines is to
be taken)* is when he goes to cover a mare. An
eld or fick horfe has but indifferent hair, and
what is taken from a dead horfe, except when he
dies fuddenly and without any lingering diftemper,
and his tail has been immediately cut off, is of
little value and fuffers a diminution of ftrength.
In choofing your hooks take care tfeey are fliarpj
at the point, and the beards not broken, ,but fharp,
found, and of a proper length ; and obferve that
the wire be not'apt to give way, fo that you may
ftraighten them .with your fingers; for if fo, they
will fpoil your fport, not being • able to hold any
fifh;. choofeva^hook. whofe fhank is fhort, other-.
R-5, wife 6       The GENTLEMAN ANGLER,
wife it will be apt to break off upon the kail:
Honx)  to make Hair Lines-
YOU  muft provide   yourfelf  with   an   in*
ftrument for twining; then take your hair and
cut oft* a handful at the end, becaufe the bottom
part is generally weak, if not rotten, occafioned
by the dirt that lies conftantly upon it.    Turn the
top of one hair to the tail of the other, which
will caufe every part-to be equally ftrong ; knot
them at one end* and divide them into three parts :
twift every part by itfelf and knot them together t
then put that end into the cleft of your inftru-
ment four inches fhorter than your hair; twine
your warp one way alike, and fallen them in three
clefts alike ftraight; then take out the other end,
and let it twine which way it will; then ftrain it
a little, and knot it before you take it out..
I When you have prepared as many link§ as will
ntffice to make your line long enough, you muft
then tie them together with a water knot, a Dutch
knot, or a weaver's knot; then cut off the fhort
ends about the breadth of a firaw from the knot,
and thus your lines will be comely and even, and
fit for any manner of fifh^
•Now, The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
Now, for as much as the various feafons of
the year, and the various colours of the waters,
wilL require various coloured lines, the young
angler may learn to colour his hair (for making
lines) after this manner.
How f9 make HaI* green.
HAVING procured a quantity of white hair
divide it into fix parts, then, take one quart of ale,
and put into it a pound of allum; then put one
part of your hair, and all together into a pan,
and let them boil foftly for half an hour, then
take out your hair and let it dry. When you
have done this, take two quarts of fair water and
put it into another pan, and two handfuls of wax,
and lay a tile or a ftone to prefs it down, and let it
boil foftly for the fpace of an hour, and when the
fcum is yellow, put in your hair, with half a pound
of copperas4 beat into powder, and let it boil foftly for
fealf an hour; then take it off from the fire and
let it ftand for five or fix hours, then take out the
hair and dry it. By this means you will have a
fine green for the water, and the more copperas
yo&put to it. the. better it will be.
B.*
H'JV. The GENTLEMAN A-NGLBJU
How to make Ha
THE fecond quantity of your hair
lanaged as directed before, with allum,
-ax, without copperas or verdigreafe.
with
To make another yellow.
TAKE two quarts of fmail ale, and ftamp
therein three handfuls of walnut leaves, then put
in your hair and let it remain until it be of as
deep a colour as you would have it.
' "To make Ha i r a rujfet colour.
TAKE a pint of ftrong lee, and half a pint
of foot, a little juice of walnut leaves and a quart
of allum; put them all together in a pan and
boil them well, ,and when it is cold put in your
third quantity of hair, and let it fteep until it is
as dark as you would have it be.
To make Hair brown.
TAKE ftrong ale and fait, mix them together, and let your fourth quantity of hair foak
therein two days and two nights, and it will be a
perfect brown colour. The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
To make Hair tawny.
TAKE lime and water, and mix them together, and fteep your fifth quantity of hair therein
for the fpace of four or five hours; then take it
out, and let it foak one day in a tan pit; and it will
be as fine a tawny colour as you can defire for your
purpofe. The fixth part of your hair remains
white.
Now, to know the feafons and different waters,
, for which thofe different colours are proper, obferve, that the yellow is ts be ufed in all clear
waters from September to November; the ruflet
fervesall the winter, and until the end of April,
as well in rivers as in pools and lakes ; the brown
is to be ufed in waters which are rather black;
the tawny in thofe rivers or waters that are heathy
or moorifh.
As fome perfons - are curiousfpahd may be de-
firous to make their own hooks, they may gratify
their curiofity after this manner:
To make Hooks.
YOU  muft be provided with the following
iriftruments,   viz.   a hammer, a knife, a pair of
pincers, a ferny cleam of iron, a file, a wreft, a
B 5 bender, i*     The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
bender, a pair of long and fhort tongs, an anvir, and
fteel needles of different fizes. Put a needle into a
fire of charcoal until it be red hot, then take it out
and let it cool, and raife the beard with your knife;'
make the point fharp with a file, or by grinding
it upon a ftone, and put it into the fire again,
and then bend it into what fhape you think fit.. $lake
the upper part of the fhank four fquare, and file
the edges fmooth, left it fret the lines ; then put
it into the fire again, and give it an eafy, gentle,
red heat;. then quench it fuddenly in water, and
it will be hard and ftrong.
When you have made your hooks (though they
are fcarce worth the pains or trouble that are.
taken about them, fince the beft may be purchafed
at a cheap price) you muft learn to faften them
to your line, according to their ftrength and fize..
How to whip a Hoqk-
TAKE fmail filk of any colour,, and-if it be.
for large hooks, then double and twift it, and let
it be well waxed, and for a fmail hook let it be
iingle; wind it about that part of .your line where
you would have the hook ftand about a ftraw
breadth, then put your hook to it and twift the
filk round it two parts of the length that it fhall
be twifted in all; and when you come to the third
part, The GENTLEMAN ANGLER,     ix
gart, then put your filk in at the hole three or four
times over- the beard of your hook; having done
this,- wet your hook and draw your filk tight and
clofe, and take care that your line always lies
on the infide of the hook; then cut off the
filk and the end of the lins as near as you can to
the twift.
Your lines muft be proportioned in ftrength and
finenefs to the different forts of fifh for which you
angle: as for example ; if for the fmail roach,.
the bleak, or the gudgeon, or the ruff, or pope,-
angle with aline of one hair : for dace or roach
of a larger kind, with three hairs; for perch,
flounder, or -fmalL bream, with four hairs; for
chub or chevin,. carp, tench, and eel, with fix
hairs.;, for barbel,, lajge chub, large trout, and
great: bream,, with nine hairs; for falmon, with
twelve or fifteen hairs; but for as much as trout
are fhy and wary fifh, and as large bream have
fmail mouths, and require a fmail hook, it is beft
to ufe the Indian grafs for them as the laft link of
your line, which will be. both fine.and ftrong..
Hdw~ to maker Feoa t s.
TAKE a piece of cork that is found and fifm,
fhape it in the form of an egg, fave only that the
one end muft be fomewhat fharper than-the fmail
B 6 end iz    The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
end of an egg; then bore it through with a fmail
red-hot iron, and make it fmooth upon a grind-
ttone. A float for one hair muft be no bigger
than a pea ; for three hairs, as big as a bean; for
fix,hairs, as a fmail wallnut; for twelve, as large
as a French wallnut.
Quill floats with a red head are beft for ftill waters, or for rivers whofe currents are not very
ftrong ; but cork is to be ufed in ftrong currents,
or when the furface of the water is rough, becaufe
it is moft vifible. }$&.■;'
As quill floats are very liable to accident; and
as it will often be found neceffary to join two floats
together, fo that they may be able to bear the
greater weight of lead; and for as much as a per-
fon in the country cannot have immediate recourfe
to thofe who make and mend fifh tackle ; I fhall
therefore give the young angler fuch inftructions
as will enable him to perform what he wants to
have done, as neat, ftrong and firm, as if he had
applied himfelf to the greateft artift in London.
If the float be bruifed and fplit, there is no
remedy for it; and therefore in fuch a cafe, fave
the plug or fmail piece of. wood which has the little brafs wire at the end of it, and this may ferve
for another.
If the water gets in at the top of your float,
you muft amend that defect by covering it with
fealing The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.     13
fealing wax. If the plug of your float be Ioofe,
pull it out; and if it fhould chance at any time
to come out itfelf, it muft be put in and faftened
With one of the following cements:
A Cement for Floats.
TAKE beeswax bruifed.fmail, chalk fcraped
fine, and black refin beaten to powder, of each an
equal quantity: melt all thefe together in a filver
fpoon, or in a fmail/tin veflel made for the purpofe ; and take care that they be well mixed as
they melt.
Another.
, TAKE brick duft fifted very fine, and common refin beat to powder; to one part of brick
duft put two parts of refin, and melt them as before directed.—Now to fix your plug in your
float, dip it in either of the cements when they are
melted, and be fure to put your floats immediately
upon it, for the cement cools in an inftant.
If you would join two floats or quills together,
let the plug be of the fame fhape with that part of
the plug which goes into the mouth of a fingle
float; but let it be a litefe thicker in the middle «
than at the ends; and take care that, each end be
fomewhat
,  ■ i4    The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
fomewhat lefs than the mouth, of the. quill into-
which it is to.be put, otherwife it.may be apt.to
fplitit. Having thus prepared your plug,,dip it
into your melted refin, and place your quill upon
it: do the like by the other, end of the plug, and.
by the other quilK
Bufe if you have a mihdV t© faften two quills;
together:without making ufe of any plug; then*
fcrape them, cut them, and make them ready as
though it was for a plug; and having warmed
them, dip the ends in your^ melted cement, and fix
them together with it. When the cement is cold,,
which it will be immediately, you will find it
fo ftrong and hard, that it will prove a difficult
matter to pull the two quills afunder with both,
hands,^without breaking them to pieces*.
L fhall fay no more concerning floats, but fbalL
conclude this head by teaching the young angler.
-how. to dye his quills, of a beautiful red; and
which he may have occafion to ufe according to.,
the nature of the water in which he angles.
To dye Quills Red..
TAKE what quantity you pleafeof ftale urine,,
and put therein as much powder of Brafil wood
as will make it red: and that you may know wher-
ther it will be. as red as you would have it, dip a.
feather..
V2 The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.    i5
feather into it, and drop a little upon a piece of
white paper. Then take fome fair water, put a
handful of fait into it, a fmail quantity of Argol,
(which may be bought at an Ironmonger's) and ftir
them about till they are diflblved in the water;
then fet them over the fire m a copper pot or
faucepan, and let them boil thoroughly. When
the water is cold, fcrape your quills very well and
let them lie a while in it; then take them out and
lay them in the urine made red with the Brafil
wood, for the fpace of ten or twelve days; then
take them out and hang-|hem up until they are
dry, then rub them with a Knen cloth, and they
will be beautifully tranfparent.
Of Artificial Flies.
IT is the opinion of moft anglers that it will
be loft labour to give directions how to make, or
dub (as fome term it> an artificial fly, fince it is.
fcarce in the power of words alone fufficiently to in-
ftrudt any man ; the method depending upon practice, which muft render him expert in that art; and
therefore he ought to be inftructed by a nice and
curious hand. Neverthelefs for the benefit and recreation of thofe who cannot have recourfe to fuch
artifts, I will give directions for making the artificial
11
I
I
i 16    The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
tificial fly, which may ferve until he can be better inftructed.
How to make an Artificial Fly.
FIRST arm your hook with the line in the
infide of it, then take your fciflars or penknife
(the former is beft and moft ufeful) and cut fo
much of a brown mallard's feather as you think:
fufficient to make the wings of it, having always -
due regard to the largenefs or fmallnefs of your '
hook ; lay the outmoft part of the feather next tov>
the hook, and the point of the feather next to
the fhank of the hook, then whip it three or four
times round with the fame filk with which your
hook was armed, and, having faftened your filk,-
take the hackel of a cock, or capon's neck, or a
plover's topping, which is beft; ftrip one fide of
the feather, then take the hackel, filk crewel, gold
or filver thread, and faften thefe at the bent of
your hook below the arming; then take the
hackel, the filver or gold thread, and work it upa
to the wings, removing your fingers as you turn
I die filk about the hook, and ftrictly obferving at'
every turn that what materials foever you work-
with be tight and neat. When you have made
the head, faften all, and then work your hackel up
to the head, and make that faft;. then with la
needle The GE-NpLEMAN ANGLER.     *7
needle divide the wing apart, and whip the filk
about crofs ways between the wings ; then with
your thumb turn the point of the feather towards
. the bent of your hook, and work three or four
times about the fhank of it, then faften*
~r   There are twelve forts of artificial flies, which
' are generally ufed; viz.
1. The firft is the dun fly, for March; the-body
is' made of dull-coloured wool, and the wings of a
partridge's feather.
2. There is another dun fly; the body is made
df black wool, and the wings of a drake's feather.
3. The third is the ftone fly, in April; the
body is of black wool, made yellow under the
wings and tail, and fo made with wings of a
drake.
4. The fourth is the ruddy fly, in the beginning of May; the body is made of red wool,
wrapt about with black filk, and the wings are the
feathers of a drake, with the feathers of a red
capon alfo, which hang dangling on his fides, next
the tail*
c. The fifth is the yellow or greenifh fly,
ufed in May likewife; the body is made of yellow
wool, and the wings of the red cock's tail.
6. The fixth is the black fly, in May alfo; the
body is made of black wool, and wrapt about with
the harle of a peacock's tail; the wings are made
olf
i
11
Kef sS    The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
of the wings of a brown capon with his blue fea«-
thers in his head.
7. The feventh is the old yellow fly, ufed in
June; the body is made of black wool, with a yelL
low lift on either fide, and the wings taken off;
or the wings of a buzzard bound with black braked
hemp.
8. The eigbfchis the Moorifhfly; the body is
made of dulkifh wool, and the wings of the blackifh
mail of the drake.
9. The ninth is the tawny fly, good until the
middle of June; the body is made of tawny woolv
the wings made contrary one againft the other, of
the whitifh mail of the mallard.
10. The ten$a is the wafp fly, in July; the
body is made of black wool, wrapt about with
yel|ow filk, and the wings made of drake's or buzzard's feathers.
11. The eleventh is the fhell fly, good in mid
July; the body is made of greenifh wool, wrapt
about with the harle of a peacock's tail,, and the
wings made of thofe of a buzzard.
12. The twelfth is the dark drake fly, good in
Auguft; the body is made of black wool, wrapt
about with black filk; his wings are made with the
mail of a black drake, with a black head.
He who angles upon the furface of the water
with an artificial fly, fhouldhave plenty of them,
and
T
Q The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.     19
and muft expect to tire his arm before he can learn
the true art of cafting his line dexteroufly; for if
three or four inches fell upon the water, it will be
ten to one but the fife will be frightened away,
inftead of rifin.g a? the fly.
General InfiruBions for Angling.
"J1 HERE k no great difference in angling in
any place or part of a pool or ftanding water; for it
isf a prifon to all fifh, and they are therefore the
fooner taken: but in rivers, the beft angling is
where it is deep and clear at the bottom; efpecially if it be a gravel or clay without mud or
weeds, and if there is a whirling or turning in the
water, or a Covert, as a hollow bank, great roots
of trees, 017 long weeds floating about the water,
where the fifh may hide themfelves at certain
times. It is alfo good to angle in ftill ftreams and
in valleys of waters, in flood gates and mill ftreams,
and at the bank where the current panes, and is
deep and clear.
The beft time of the year, and the beft time of
the day, are from the beginning of May until the
latter end of September, and from four of the
clock in the morning until eight or nine at night,
if the day's length will permit. A lowering day is
much The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
much better than a clear day, and a cold' one preferable, to a hot one.
If you perceive the trout ©r the grayling leap
any time of the day, a#gle for him with an artificial
fly, according to the feafon of the year; and where
tjie water ebbs and flows, the fifh will bite in fome
particular places of the ebb and in particular places
of the flood after they have refted behind arches o£
bridges and fuch other places.
The beft and'principal time fop angling is a-
lowering day, when the wind blows gently; in
fummer, when it is very hot,, there will not be
good angling. From September until. April ituSi
bell to angle m ft fair funfhine day;. and if t^fe.-
wind 6e in the eaft quarter it is ftark nought; in
the north fomething better, in the weft much bet—
ter, the fouth beft of all;. according to this ancient
diftich i
The North, bad, Eaff worfe, Weft good j But the South
Blows every bait into the fifties' mouth.
Forbear from angling if the weather be tempef—
tuous, as thunder and lightning, or when.the wind,
blows hard, ot when it fnows,.hails, or rains much..
And here I fhall caution, the angler, andfhew him.
twelve impediments which often prevent his fport: ■
viz.
i. The. The GENTLEMAN ANGLER,     ax
x. The fault may be occafioned by his tackle,
as when his lines or hooks are too large.
2. When his bait is dead or decaying.
3. If %e angles at a wrong time of the day,
'whenthe fifh are not in the humour of taking his
^>ait*
4. If the fifh have been feared or frightened by
the fight of him or his fhadow.
£$ If the waters are thick, red, or white, being
4ifturbed with fudden floods.
a6. If the weather be too cold.
.7. If the weather be too hot.
8. If it rains much and faft.
9. If it hails or fnows.
10. If it be tempeftuous.
n. If the wind blows high.
12. If the wind be in the eaft, no fifh will bite
except by chance, and that he is very hungry.
How to keep and preferve Live Baits, and other
Baits.
THEY muft be all kept feverally by themfelves ; worms of all kinds are to be kept in mofs,
or in mofs and fennel; and the longer they are
kept, provided they are not lick, the better and
tougher they will be. In the fummer feafon the
mofs ought to be wafhed and fqueezed dry at leaft
twice
n't The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
twice in every week ; if oftener,the better it will
be for the worms; and a large earthen pan, or tub
with good ftore of mofs in it, is a good receptacle for them. If your worms, efpecially the brandling, begin to be fick, or decay,, which you will
perceive by. a-knot in the middle of them, (and if
not taken care of, will foon die) they -may «berecovered by dropping the quantity of a fpoonful of
milk or cream into the mofs; and if you add an
egg beat and boiled in the cream, it will both fatten
and preferve them long. They muft be kept in ^a
cool place where the fun cannot come near them.
If you defign your worms for immediate ufe, then
keep them in fennel^ if not, let them lie in.mofs:
The beft fort of mofs for this purpofe is the buck's
horn, except the white mofs, which is difficult to
be found. Brandlings are ufually found in an old
dunghill, or fome rotten place near it, but moft
commoniy in cow% or hog's, rather than horfe
dung, which is too hot and dry for that kind of
worm. But the beft fort of them are to be found
in the tanners' bark, which they caft up in heaps
after they have ufed it about their leather. Lob
worms are to be gathered in the night time when
they come out to feed either in grafs fields, or
paths, or in garden walks : you muft have a lantern and candle, move flow and foftly, and when
you perceive them, lay your finger immediately
upon The GE-NTLEMAN ANGLER.      23
Upon them, and draw them out of their holes
gently, otherwife you will break them. They
are quick of apprehenfion, and foon retire into
their holes, but will come out again in a quarter
of an hour or lefs. If they once get quite out
of their holes they cannot get in again.
In a dry feafon when you are put to an extremity lifer worms, take fome walnut-tree leaves,
pound them, and mix them with fait water,
ftrain the water from the leaves, and pour it
upon the ground in the night where the worms
ufed to rife, and it will make them prefently
appear.
To cleanfe and preferve Worms.
"WHAT I fhall here relate belongs to all forts
of worms, except the lob worm; as the brandling,
the yellow or ring tail, the marfh Worm, the red
worm, &c. Take a piece of very coarfe cloth,
whichis not ftruck clofe in the weaving, as other
cloth is; wafh it very clean, fo that no part of
the fope remains in it, and let it dry. Then
take fome liquor wherein a piece of frefh fat beef
has been boiled, and foak the cloth in it; then
wring it out but not too hard, and let fome of the
beef liquor remain in it; then lay it in a deep
earthen
in
Hf% H     The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
earthen pan which has a large bottom j lay your
worms upon the cloth, and they will run in and
out through if, and fcoUr themfelves;, let them
remain there for the fpace of twenty-four hours,
then wafh your cloth as before, but do not dry it:
wet it again in fome of the fame liquor, and
place your worms upon it and keep them in a
clofe cellar.
Repeat this every other day during the heat of
fummer, and you will not only preferve your
worms alive for three weeks or a month, but you
will alfo find them to be red and tough.
When you take any for angling, put them into
mofs that has been well wafhedj and not wrung
dry: when' you come home at night, take out
your worms, and put them into your pan, by
which they will recover themfelves, and gather
frefh ftrength. Be fure there is no fait in your
beef liquor, for if there be, it will kill your worms
by purging them to death*
The following, which is called the uhiverfal
and infallible bait, was communicated to me by a
very old and experienced angler, who had kept it
fecret for many years. I muft confefs I have not
Had an opportunity of making a trial of it; but
however, I wili communicate it to the public,
and they who pleafe may ufe it or refufe if.
'4"\ti       The The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.    *z$
tte Universal and Infallible Bait.
T A K E oil of comfry by infufion three
drachms, half an ounce of goofe greafe, one
fpoonful of the juice of camomile, two drachms
ofoMof fpike, and half an ounce of fpirit of vitriol; diflblve thefe together over the fire, and
when they are thoroughly melted and incorporated, let it ftand for three or four days; then
put it into a gallypot, and flop it with a cover of
parchment or leather. It will keep good for feven
years.    !
Note—The oils and the fpirits are to be had at
any chymift's fhop.
To keep andpteferve Cod Bait alive.
CUT a branch from a withy tree, about the
thicknefs of your wrift, ftrip down the green bark
or flrin to within an inch of the bottom, then cut
off the wbod, and draw up the bark or fkin;
fix a piece of the fame wood or a cork to the
mouth of it by way of a ftopper, and put in your
cod bait, juft as you gather them, with their
hufks or coverings upon them: at night when you
give over your fport, lay the bark or fkin of the
[' * withy (having firft ftopt it clofe) upon a grafs
C plat,
IP The  GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
plat, or on the grafs in a field, but let there not
be any water under it; for the bark being porous,
will imbibe and fuck in a fufficient quantity of
dew and air to keep the. cod baits alive: do this
every night as long as you ufe the baits ; but if it
rains, lay the withy bark in a cellar.
How to make Paste for angling.
WASH your hands very clean, then take as
much of the fineft flour as you think fit, or rather the pith or crummy part of the fineft white
bread ; drop a little milk or water upon it, and
knead it thoroughly in the palm of your hand until it is rery near dry; then temper it with a
fmail quantity of the fineft honey, make it into a
round ball, and keep it in a moift linen cloth,
otherwife it will grow dry and hard. If you
would have your pafte yellow, mix in it fome
turmeric; but if you would have it to be of a
flefh colour, put a little of the beft vermilion in
it, and knead it well, fo that it be not of a deeper
colour in one place than in another.
I
I
4
An excellent Paste for a Chub.
TAKE  fome   of the   oldeft   and   ftrongeft
Chefhire cheefe you can get, the crum of a fine
maa* The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
manchet, or French bread, and fome fheep's-kid-
ney fuet; put thefe into a mortar and beat them
into a pafte, adding as much clarified honey as
will be fufficient to foften it.
ANOTHER.
TAKE a few fhrimps or prawns, pull off their
fhells and fkins, and take the clear meat and beat
it in a mortar with a little honey until it comes to
De a pafte; bait the hook with a piece of this,
but let the point be lightly covered.
Ant Flies are thus preferved;
TAKE the blackeft ant fly out of the ant hill,
where you will find them from June until September; gather them with both their wings, and
put them into a glafs that will hold the quantity
of a quart of any liquor; but firft put in a handful or better of the moift earth and roots of grafs;
then put the flies gently in, that they lofe not
their wings ; lay a clod of earth over it, and they
will keep a month alive, and be always ready
for ufe. But if you would keep them longer,
get a fmail barrel • of about three or four gallons,
wafh it with water and honey, then having put in
a quantity of earth and grafs roots, put in your
C 2 flies *8      The GELNTEMAN ANGLER.
flies and cover it, and they will live a quarter of
a year.
Grubs, which are bred of the fpawn or eggs
of beetles, which they leave in holes that they
make under cow or horfe dung, are thus proved;
Gather a thoufand or more of them, and put
them with a peck or two of their own earth into
a veflel, cover it clofe down to keep them from
the cold and frofts, and you may keep them
all the winter, and kill fifh with them at any
time.
Gentles are good bait, and much the better
for being lively and tough : when they are taken
from tallow, they ought to be kept in moift fand
for two or three days; and afterwards, if for con-
ftant ufe, in bran, or in fine dry fand; and
bait your hook with them after this manner;
Hew to bait the Hook tsith a Gentle.
I
TAKE one or two gentles, and put your hook
into the fecond joint above the tail, then draw it
forward upon the hook ; having done this with
one or two, then put your hook into the fecond
joint of the laft gentle, and cover the beard of
your hook with it, but do not let the point appear in fight: if you run it too deep, the fubftance
of the gentle will come out, and then it is good
for The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
for nothing; therefore take care to run it under
the fkin as gently and as clofe to it as pof-
fible.
Gentles may be bred this way: Take a piece
of a beaft's liver, and with a crofs ftick: hang it
over a barrel or other veflel that is half full of
dry clay, and let it be fly blown; and as the
gentles grow big they will fall into the barrel and
fcour themfelves, and be always ready for ufe:
gentles may be fo br^d till after Michaelmas. But
if you would keep them all the year, get fome dead
/carrion or a bullock's liver, let it be fly blown j
and when the gentles begin to be alive and ftir,
then bury it and them in moift earth, or in a tub
of earth, and, keep it as free from froft as you
can. You may dig out the gentles at any time
when you intend to ufe them; they will laft
until March or April, but after that time will
turn to flies* When they turn black or red,
feparate them from the reft,, and throw them away v
for they are of no ufe.
There are fome baits which are the brood of
hornets, wafps, and humble bees; thefe are to be
baked in bread, then-their heads to be dipped in
blood, and laid to dry.
The artificial minnow is a good bait- for trout or
perch„ and is thus made :
C
How. 3o     The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
How to make an artificial Minnow.
THE body muft be of cloth, wrought upon
the back with dark-coloured green filk, and a
paler green toward the belly, fliaded as naturally
as poflible, and wrought upon the belly with
white filk in one part, and filver thread in the
other ; the tail and fins muft be made of a quill
thinly fhaven, and the eyes with two little black
beads. The ladies are the propereft operators for
this piece of needlework, who ought to have a live
minnow lying before them for a pattern. Another
fort of artificial minnow is made of tin and painted
very naturally, which will be of great fervice
when live minnows cannot be had, and may be
bought at the fifh-tackle fhops, but they are*
dear.
How fo bait your Hook with a live Minnow.
CHUSE as'white.a one as you can %etj and
of a middle fize; and that it may- turn nimbly in
the water and thereby attract the fifh, you muft
thus place it on a large hook :
Put it into his mouth and out at his gills, then
having drawn it three or four inches beyond or
through The GENTLEMAN   ANGLER.      3»
through his gill, put it again into his mouth,
and the point and beards out at his tail; then
tie the hook and his tail about very neatly with
a white thread, which will make it the apter to
turn quick in the water: this done, pull back
that part of your line which was flack when you
hooked the minnow the fecond time, that it fhall
faften the head, then the body of the minnow will
be almoft ftraight on your hook; afterwards try
how it will turn, by d®wing it acrofs the water,
or againft the ft ream j and if it does not turn
nimbly, move the tail a little to the right or left,
and try again until it does, for it cannot turn
too quick. The fame method is to be ufed in
baiting your hook with a loach or ftrkkle-
back.
Hozv to bait wttb a Lob Worm.
IF the lob worm be large, hook hiin fomewhat
above and out again a little below the middle j then
draw the worm above the arming of your hook
(you muft not enter the hook at* the head, but at
the tail of the worm, that the point may come
out towards the head) and put the point again
into the head of fehe worm, until it comes near
the place where it firft came out: then draw back
C 4 that 32     The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
that part of the worm which was above the fhank
of your hook and fo angle with it.
If you deiign to angle with two worms, then
put the fecond worm on before you turn back
the hook's head of the firft: you cannot lofe
above two or three worms before you attain to
this method of angling, which you will find very
ufeful, becaufe you will run on the ground without tangling".
All that I mall fay farther in general is, to ad-
vife every man who ufes the angle rod, not to
approach too near the river fide, or fpeak too
loud; for whether fifh are deaf (as fome people
pretend to affirm, though there is good reafon to
believe the contrary) yet they are quick fighted,
and foon feared. l*et him alfo take care that he
does not place himfelf fo, as his own, or the fha-
-dow of his rod may light upon the water: if
either of them does, he may bid adieu to all fport.
He muft alfo become acquainted with the nature
of the river in which he defigns to angle before
he can promife himfelf good fuccefs ; and let the
wind fit in what corner it will, it is beft to angl#
on tEe lee fhore.
The The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.     33
The following advice is fo feafbnable, that it
ought to be punctually obferved by every angler, and he will thereby rsap the benefit and
advantage of it.
WHEN, through necemty or choice, you are
led to ufe a filk line, remember that you do not
put it upon your reel while it is wet, but hang
it up to dry before you leave the river, or as
,-foon as you come home, otherwife it wiH be rotten in a little time.
The fame method ought to be obferved in your
trouling line, whether it be made of hemp or
filk *T the latter is preferable^ becaufe it will not
be liable to kink half fo often as the former.
Neither muft you forget to oil youp rods with the
Beft fallad oil; this ought to be done thrice every '
week, when they have been expofed much in
the funr and not to be omitted when- you lay
ihem up for any time, for it will preferve them
from flitting, and from being worm eaten.
Fail not to examine your hooks and lines
exery time you go to angle, and take care that
the one be made faft, and the other free from
knots and flaws.
c m
I fhall 4     The GENTLEMAN A-NGLER.
I fhall now proceed to give fome particular
directions to the young angler, and make fome
obfervations on the nature of the feveral kinds
of fifh which are worth taking: And ■firft,
of the
SALMON.
THIS is a fifh of much ftrength and delicacy,
univerfally loved and coveted, and claims preference before all other fifh ; has the pre-eminence,
and is therefore called the king or prince of all
river fifh. Salmon fpawn generally in March,
fometimes in February, according to the nature
of the river, and chufe the frefh-water rivers for
that purpofe. You may frequently obferve the
female, or the falmon which has the pea or fpawn,
to work with her belly upon the gravel, until fhe
has caft up a little hillock on each fide of her,
as well behind as before, infbmuch that you would
imagine file defigned to bury herfelf. In this hole
fhe lays her pea or fpawn, and from thence is
called the fpawner ; and then immediately comes
the male falmon, who is always near, and cafts his
melt upon the pea, and from thence is called the
melter ; and then they work immediately as hard
as poflible to cover them with the gravel or fand
which they had caft up.
From The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.     35
From this conjunction proceed the young falmon fry, which do not continue in a river longer
than the month of May (except prevented by
feme accident) according to this old diftich:
«* The firft great flood that happens in May,
" Carries the falmon fry down to the fea."
When the male has caft his melt, you may observe the water to be of a thin milky colour, for
the length- of fifteen or twenty yards; and if at
that time you angle therein,, you will meet with
plenty of trout.
As all fifh are fick immediately after fpawning,
and confequently unwholefome, they ought not
to be 1 taken until they have recruited their
ftrength, fome requiring a longer time than
others.
Salmon is in feafon from March (if the weather proves warm) until Michaelmas, and is
five years before it comes to. its full growth;
viz.
1. — The firft year it is called; a> falmon trout.
2. — The fecond, a bolger.
3. — The third, a half falmon.
4. — The fourth, a three-quarters falmon.
$t — The fifth, a full-grown falmOh..
C 6 There 36    T«e GENTLEMAN ANGLf*.
There are two ways of angling for falmon,
either with the artificial fly, or with bait. The
fly ought to be made more gaudy, with large extended wi&gs> and to have fome gold or filver
twift round its body, the fhining of which will
allure the falmon to rife at the fly. The morning
and evening are the propereft times for angling for
him. v.
Having therefore furnifhed yourfelf with ne-
ceflaries; as, a long, ftrong, and taper rod and
line; a landing net, landing hook, and a bafket
or bag to put your fifh in; repair to the river
very early, and take care to have the wind at
your back. Having fixed your fly to your line,
which ought to be two yards longer than your
rod, caft it from you with art, fo nicely, that the
artificial fly only falls on the water; then draw it
gently up the ftream upon the furface of the river
A cloudy morning or evening, with a gentle
breeze of wind, Tufficient to raife a curl upon the
water yields good fport.
When the falmon rifes at the fly, upon which
you muft keep your eyes fixed very attentively,
give a gentle jerk, that you may hook him; which
dpne, humour him in letting him run which way
he will. Do not check him, left he break yourKne
fronL your rod, and wind it up as faft as you find
that he returns, otherwife he will entangle and
break The GENTLEMAN AJTOLH..    37
break your'tackle. Remember to keep him fo
tight, that he may bend your rod pretty muehj
then fink or lower your elbow, fo that your hand
be ralfed up, and yoytll have the better command
over him ; for, if you fuffer him to ftreighten your
rod, he will foon make his efcape from you. As
he fwims away, follow him gently, but do not
come within fight of him. He will be apt to
fpring or leap out of the water; at fuch time allow him line enough; and when you do perceive
that he lies at the bottom, have patience for a
while, and be not furprifed if he does this often,
for he will ftrive to break from your hook. Having waited for the fpace of fix or feven minutes,
draw your line pretty tart, and if he runs, then
give him liberty as aforefaid. When he is thoroughly tired, draw him gently to the fhore or
the fide of the bank where you fee the moft convenient place for landing him; then take him out,
either by drawing your landing net over his head,
(never over the tail of any fifh) or by fattening
your landing hook under his gills. It will be
much fafer if you have a companion to let him
perform this friendly office for you; becaufe, if
the falmon fhould not be thoroughly tired, he will
be apt to fwim away, and then you may manage
hku, having the command of your rod.
The
/']
^ i
^8    1Phe GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
The way of angling for falmon with a bak, s
after this manner: Take a dozen of large red or
lob worms,, well purged, cleanfed, and fcowered
in mofs, dtaw them over your hook, one by one,
and let the laft cover it, as you have been fhewa
before, in baiting your hook with a lob worm-:
then draw them clofe upon one another, that they
may appear as one lump ; and having affixed lead
enough to your line, about twelve inches above
your hook, fufficient to fink it, drop your bait
v gently into a deep hole in the river, or clofe under a bank, which latter place the falmon will
chufe for fhelter.
Having lain a minute or two at the bottom,
draw it up and down gently,. and if a falmon be
j there,, and he has an inclination to feed,, he will
take your.bait:, when, you have done this half a
dozen times, and do. not. perceive that he bites,
it will be in vain to repeat it oftner; for you may
conclude there is not any falmon there, or that he
has no inclination to your bait.
The propereft and moft likely hours for fport,
in angling this way, are before ten o'clock in the
morning, and after fix in the evening;. but between ten and fix it will fcarce anfwer your expectation, except it be immediately after, or during
a fhort fhower of rain; for that increafes his appetite, H«3S^
The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.     a<,
tite, and he will look out for food of one kind or
another.
In angling for falmon with a bait, your line
muft be ftronger than what you ufed with the artificial fly, and likewife the top joint of your rod.
He will require as much art and fkiil in managing
him when hooked by this method of angling, as
he did by the former. If this bait prove unfuc-
cefsful, you may ufe a fmail live fifh, and run-,
ning your hook through under the back fin, let
him fwim about the hole, (having taken off the
lead from your line) and, in all probability, the
falmon will fnap at him, for he is a fifh of prey^
and will feed upon thofe that are fmail: if he
takes this bait, endeavour to hook, him as faft as
you can.
!
SALMON   F R T
ARE a very delicate and palatable fifh. In
angling for them you muft have a fingle hai
line, and a taper rod; your artificial flies muft be
very fmail, and fhould be placed at the diftance
of half a foot from each other, and it matters not
of what colour they are. As you draw your
line upon the furface of the water, you may perceive three or four of them to rife at one time.
They are very greedy, and will afford fport {fuch
as ^W-M*»P«r«
zijnjL*m**
1
40    The GENTLEMAN ANGLERv
as it is) all day long; and you may draw them
out of the water with fafety as foon as you have
hooked them-
SALMON PEALE
ARE in every refpecl: equal to the falmon,,
fave only that they are .not fo large, for they fel-
dom exceed fixteen inches in length; theyfeem
to be a fpecies of the falmon, and fome give them
the preference : they are firm, lufcious, and fleaky,
like the falmon, and abound principally in the
frefh water ,rivers in the counties of Dorfet and
Bevon. They will rife at the artificial fly like
the falmon ^ but the beft way of taking them is
with a brandling well fcoured in mofs, efpecially
fuch as breed in a tanner's yard. They bite freely, and ftruggle hard, deS^ting in deep holes,,
and chufe the root or ftump of a tree for harbour ; they lie as near as poffible to the upper
part of the hole, that they may more readily
catch what food the ftream brings down. Drop
your line (without lead to it, except one fingle
fhot) in the ftream, which will cany it gradually
into the hole; and when he bites, be not too-
eager in ftriking him, and remember to keep out
of fight.   He will feed all the morning, and from
five The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.     41
five o'clock in the afternoon till night: he is in
feafon all the fummer.
TROUT
ARE well tafted and much admired; they are
fhy and wary, and therefore the angler muft keep
at a diftance from the water. Trolt fpawn generally in October or November, contrary to the
natural courfe of moft other fifh, which fpawn lit
warm weather, and are to be taken either with
the artifiSMjroT^Wth a bait,
When you ufe the artificial fly your rod and
line muft: be proportioned to the breadth of the
river: fix yards is generally a good length; and
the rod, as well as the line, muft be taper. Now
though you may, and indeed ought to have great
variety of artificial flies ready made; yet the beft
way to try what will beft pleafe the trout, is,
when you come to the river, to look narrowly
upon the water, or to beat a bufh that hangs over
the river, and then match your artificial fly in colour to the living fly which you will find upon
the water: the fame method is to be ufed in
angling for trout, as is ufed for falmon.
There are feveral baits for trout: the firft is the
May fly, taken in the month of May, upon old
large trees; it is of a brownifh colour, much coveted 42     The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
veted by the trout, and to be ufed after this manner: bury the point  and beard of  your hook,
. which muft be fmail, in the back of the fly, between his wings, and let the bottom link of your
line confift of three hairs, or let it be the Indian
grafs, without any lead or fhot to either, and your
line fhould be no longer than your rod rthen fhake
your fly twice or thrice over the water, that the
Ihadow of it may be feen before it touches the
water, if you fufpect a trout to be there; the
beft places are in deep ftreams, neaf a bufh or
-Hump* or the piles of a bridgej-lct your fly drop
eafy upon the furface of the water, and if there
be a trout near he will rife at it eagerly.
There are other baits, fome of which are to be
ufed a little way under the water, and others at the
bottom of the water, or mid water : of the former
are the live minnow, (and how to bait your hook
ivith him has begn already fhewn) and the ftone
leach, with which you are to bait your hook after
the fame manner. They are to be ufed with &
float to your line, and fhould not be above four
feet under water, or lefs if the water be not deep.
The reft are gentles, caddice, codbait, and the like.
Gentles may be ufed with a float, about eighteen
inches under water; or without a float, by drawing your line down the ftream, efpecially if the
water be foul; the caddice, codbait, and fuch like,
mil The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.    43
are to be put upon your hook like the gentles,
and to be drawn up againft the ftream as often as
they fink to the bottom : two or more may be put
upon the hook at once, as you find the water thicker
or clearer. If you angle in weedy rivers, then
make ufe of the Indian grafs, a fmail hook, and
two caddices or codbaits, &c.
The laft fort of baits which I fhall mention are
the red worm, the lob worm, and the brandling :
with thefe you angle at the bottom;, and the
latter well fcoured in mofs, is what anglers call
a killing bait.
A trout feeds in the daytime, from eight in the
morning until eleven ; and in the afternoon, frotn*
three until five; but late in the evening, and early
in.the morning are the beft times for angling for
him with the artificial fly, which, it is fuppofed,
he takes more out of wantonnefs than hunger.
As the largeft trouts feldom ftiroutbf their holes
all day, they chufe the night for feeding; and
the manner of taking them, at that feafon, is on
the furface of the water, with a bait or artificial
fly : the bait is a large lob worm or two; you
muft chufe a deep hole where the water runs
fmooth and quiet; then draw your bait upon the
top of the water too and fro, and if there be a
large trout in the hole he will take it, imagining
it to bra frog or water moufe, which they hunt
at 44    The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
at night. The old trout is both fubtile and fearful, but in the night feeds boldly ; and when he
has taken your bait, let him have time to gorge
it; for he will not fo eafily forfake it as his cuftom
is when you meet with him by chance in the day
time. If you ufe the artificial fly for him, let it
be white, and pretty large. Trout feed beft at
bottom, in the months of March, April, and May,
and part of June; though he will bite well in
July, Auguft, and September. If you angle for
trout immediately after a fhower, ufe the brandling, the red worm, or caddice, codbait and fuch
like, for the bottom; but for the furface, chufe
fuch a fly as you fhall find upon the water pre-
fently after the fhower.
The following obfervations have been found by
experience to hold good in the North and in the
Weft of England : Angle for trout in the month
of March, with the red worm, at the bottom of
the river; and in a ftream, with a minnow, whichi
you muft draw up and down. In April take the
cankier worm that breeds in great trees, the red
fnail, the bob worm that is bred under cow dung,
and the bait which breeds upon the fern leaf. In
June ufe the red worm, nip off his head, and put:
a codbait or caddice firft upon your hook,, and
then the\red worm. In July take the rgd worm..,
and codbait together, or a brandling alone.    In
Auguft The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.     4S
Auguft take a flefli fly, and a little piece of the fat
of bacon, and bind them together about the hook.
In September and October ufe the red worm and
the minnow, as directed for the month of March.
It would be in vain to mention all the rivers in,
England which are remarkable for having good
trout, or to give a defcription of the various forts
of that kind of fifh ; let it fuffice to fay, that the
greateft plenty of both are in Hampfhire: and
4iie white trout, the brown trout with white fpots,
aria* the yellow fpotted trout, are the three beft
forts, (the one preferable to the other as they are
mentioned in courfe) except the Fordwich trout
near Canterbury, which are reckoned the beft of
fifh; many of them are as large as falmon, but
diftinguifhed by their different colours, and ia
their full feafon cut very white. Thefe trouts remain nine months in the fea, and annually obferve their time of coming into the frefh water
almoft to a day, but do not continue there above
three months.
»P
fr I K E,   or   LUCE,
ARE a firm, good fifh, but fo very greedy
and voracious that they fcarce refufe any thing
that falMffn their way; and therefore fome people
call them the frefh-water fhark, or river tyrant.
They
& I
4*    The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
They will feed upon their own fpecies, and a pike
of thirty inches in length will prey upon another
of fifteen inches. When they are large they are
called pike; when fmail they have the appellation
of Jacks. In the river, pike are preferable to
what are taken in the fait water, and their ufual
time of fpawning is in April -or May; then they
go into creeks and ditches, and while the fpawner
is cafBng her eggs, the milter hovers over, but
does not touch her; and indeed they ought not
to be taken till Auguft or September. 1 hey have
more courage than the trout or the falmon, and
are not fo eafily feared, except upon a fudden approach. The male is much preferable to the female. There are five ways to catch pike; but as
two only belong to the angler, (the others being
what we call poaching, which is unworthy of an
angler,) I fhall treat of them feparately: thefe
two ways are trowling and fnapping; the former
is moft healthful and diverting.
The tackle to be ufed in trowling, is a rod in
length feven feet; a line at leaft thirty yards long,
rolled about your reel; a leaded hpok with two
links of wire faftened to it; a ring to be fixed to
the top of your rod: a landing net or a landing
hook, with a ftick four feet long, into the end of
which you fcrew your landing hook; }%i muft
alfo have a bag or net for your fifh.    It will be
necefTarv The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.      47
neceflary and convenient to carry two or three
hooks with you, left any mrfchance fhould happen,
and you then be deprived of your fport, for want
of a fupply, when one hook is either broke or
loft.
Of   TROWLING.
BEING thus equipt, go early to the river in
the morning; and it will be proper that you obferve the manner of trowling, as ufed by an expert angler, before you do attempt the fport. The
method of fixing your bait is after this manner:
Pur the end of your wire into the mouth of
a dace or gudgeon, (for thefe are the beft baits)
and run it along through the body until it comes
out at the middle of the tail. But for as much as
the wire may be apt to bend, I advife that you
provide a fifh-needle, which you may buy at the
fifh-tackle fhops; and having placed your wire
upon the neck end of your needle, run it through
the body of the fifh, and you may with eafe draw
the wire after it. Fix your hooks on one fide of
the fifh, and let the point be near his eye; then
few up his mouth with ftrong thread, to keep
the hook from moving out of its place; then
take a fine .needle and thread and run it through
the head of the fifh, a little below the eye, and .
afterwards
n Th£ GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
afterwards run it through again below the gills,
and faften it on the other fide; fo that the gills
i being thus fecured and preferved will not be da-
Imaged by any thing that rubs againft it in trow-
fling.    The fin of the tail fhould be cut off, and
•the tail faftened to the top of the wire, otherwife
. the bait will not lie fmooth and even upon the
1 hook.    It is to be faftened thus: take a needle and
f ftrong thread, run through the tail of the fifh on
| one fide of the wire,  and do the fame on the
1 other fide of the wire; then faften it, and run
I it afterwards through the eye of the wire, and
! again through the tail of the fifh;  afterwards
twift it round the wire, and tie it fo faft that it
may not flip.   Having made a loop at the end of
your line, and faftened a fwivel to it, put it through
the ring on the top of your rod; and your bait
being ready, hang it on your fwivel.
You are now prepared for trowling; but remember that when you come near the bank of
the river, to keep out of fight, and to drop your
bait down the fide of the bank, and afterwards on'
the right and left hand, before you fhew your-
felf: for, as pike love fhelter or harbour, becaufe
they can from thence rufli on their prey as they*
fwimPby them; fo if you fuddenly appear, you
. will in all probability frighten them away. Having trowled at home, (as anglers term it) then The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
49
veer out more line, .and reach the oppofite fhore;
and as foon as your bait begins to fink, draw back:
your line by degrees, and coil it up with your
left hand. Thus you muft be always in motion tb
neither muft your bait lie ftill; for its motion in
the water is what alarms the pikef who imagines it
to be a live bait.
If you meet not with  fport when you have
thrown out your bait a dozen times, then go forward to another place;  and when a pike takes
your bait, which you will perceive by a fudden
jerk, then do not check him, but let him  run
where he will, allowing him as much line as he
will take; for his nature is fuch, that as foon as
he feizes the bait, he runs as faft as he can to his
harbour, and there pouches his prey.    You muft
therefore give him time; fome will require more"
and fome lefs : if he be hungry he will pouch it;
foon; if he is not, he will keep it between  his
teeth the fpace of half an hour or  more.-    As
foon, therefore, as you find that he has reached^
his harbour, which, you will eafily know, by his
not drawing any more of the line with' him, then i
lay down your rod, and waiting as long as you j
might have fmoaked a pipe of Tobacco, take up i
your rod, and draw your line gently as before ; 5
if you perceive that he has hold of it. ftill, draw
your line tart; and if he pulls, give way a little;
D then 5ov   The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
then draw again, till at laft you get a fight of him.
If you fee the bait acrofs his mouth, then let him
go; if not, you may be aflured he has pouched
it, and then give him a fudden jerk that the beard
of the hook may faftetl in his ftomach : but if he
fhould run away a little after he has firft taken
your bait, then take up your rod and line as faft
as you can and give him a jerk as I juft now mentioned. If the river be clear you ought to let
him run the length of twenty yards, and then
check him; this do until you have tired him.
But if there are trees or ftumps in the water,
fail not to keep your line tight, and prevent him
from going near them, which he will endeavour
to do; and if you permit ^wm he will entangle
your line about the roots or ftumps of the trees ;
and if the waters are deep you will lofe the fifh,
your bait, and a part of your line.
When he is fufficiently weary, then draw him
to the fide of the bank, and make ufe of your
landing net, or landing hook, as directed in landing a falmon. Do not offer to weigh him, that
is, to lift him out of the water, with your line and
hook only; for though you may think he is fo
much tired that he V not able to ftir, yet you
may find yourfelf deceived. If he be a- fizeable
fifh, and you pretend to weigh him, you will
.perceive his pouch to come out of his mouth, fo
plain,
v. The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.    51
plain, that yOttlrtay fee youujiook; but then, as%
#on as he has quitted the 'water, and before you
can get him upon the fhore, he will give a fud-
den fpring, and break his hold: by this means
ybu will tefe your defire, be deprived of your"
expectation; and the pike, if grfevoufly wounded. '
will perifhin the- water.
SNAPPING
IS the father way by which anglers catch pike.
You muft provide a ftrong rod, fixteen or feven-
teen feet long, with a ftrong whalebone top to
it, as thick as the upper part of your little finger;
affix to your rod a ftrong line, not altogether
fo long as your rod ; at the end of your line
place your fnap hook, which you may make after
this manner: take twelve or fourteen inches of
gimp, and two large falmon hoOks ; turn the
hooks back to back, and in the middle of thera
place the gimp j whip or tie them faft together with a piece of filk well waxed, fo that the
hooks cannot turn, nor the gimp be drawn from
them; then take a perch hook, and place it between the other two hooks, towards the upper
part of the fhank, and faften it with a fine waxed
filk, about eighteen inches from the bottom of
your line ; put on a large float made of cork ;
D z and The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
and under it, at a convenient diftance, fix as much
lead to your line as will poize the float arM keep
the bait from the other part of the water.   They
who  think   it  too troublefome   to   make  their
own tackle,   may buy them ready made at the
proper fhops.    The beft baits are the gudgeon,
the dace, or a fmail roach ; the two firft are moft
preferable ; and if you ufe the dace or the roach,
let them not exceed four inches in length.    Fix
your bait upon your fmail hook, by running it
under his back fin; and being thus equipt,  let
your bait fwim down the current; and when you
perceive your float to  be  drawn  under water,
give a ftrong jerk,  for  you may then conclude
that the pike has laid hold of it.    When-/he is
hooked you muft treat him after a different manner from any that has been hitherto prefcribed;
for  whereas you were directed before to give a
fifh  liberty to  play after you had hooked him,
the contrary is now to be  obferved.    You muft
therefore govern him with a ftraight and ftiff" line,
for if he can by any means make it flack he will
foon: get loofe ; wherefore you are to take care to
draw him on the ftiore, if a convenient place will
offer,   if not, you muft then have recourfe  to
your landing hook or landing net: and though
he will flounce and ftruggle hard while he is in
tjie water, yet you muft not regard it, if you
have The GENTLEMAN ANGLER..
have a mind to catch him. I am very fenfible
that many will truft to the ftrength of their line,
and not make ufe of the gimp, or brafs wire ;
but this is a great argument of imprudence ; for
as a pike has feveral rows of teeth, and as thefe
teeth are numerous, fliarp, and of different fizes,
it is two to one that he fheers or cuts the line;
which, though it may by chance bring him to
the fhore, yet it will be fo mangled that there
will be no trufting to it afterwards ; whereas he
can do very little if any damage to the gimp.
I fhall give this advice concerning trowling,
which is all I fhall fay in relation to the pike :
j When he has taken the bait, and will not
pouch it, but will hold it in his mouth and come
to the bank fide as you draw in your line, and
then quit it, which he will often do, or if he
caft it from him foon after he has firft taken it,
it will then be in vain to try him any longer :
all you have to do is then to ufe your fnap,
and you need not doubt but he will quickly take
the bait.
w
CARP
SPAWN generally in May, or the beginning.
of April, efpecially the river carp, according to.
the different nature of the waters which they fre-
D 3 quent, 54    The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
quent, and the different foils. At fpawas&g rimer
they may be feen in large fhoals, and are then
faid to be going to hill, (a phrafe which anglers
ufe when carp are going to fpawn). The river
carp is preferable to the pond carp: the latter
have a muddy tafte, but the former are free from
it, and very fweet. It is a very bony fifh, yet
much admired; which men of the niceft palates c
attribute more to the fauce than to the delicacy
of the fifh. The time for angling for them is
very early in the morning, and late in the evening; they will alfo bite at noon, if difturbed
from their retreat by a fudden flufh of water.
They choofe deep holes with a very gentle ftream;
and their beloved places of refidence are the
ftumps or roots or trees; he is fubtile and ftrong,
and your line and rod muft be proportioned to
his ftrength.
The beft baits are the marfh and flag worms;
but you muft not be too eager or hafty in ftrik-
ihg him when he bites, for he will nibble fome
time before he will take the bait into his mouth,
and then you ought to eafe part of your line ten
or a dozen inches ; and take care that as foon as
you have hooked a carp you keep him from his
harbour or retreat, to which place he will endeavour to retire as fhori as he perceives that the
Jjpok
_7l7^ The GENTLEMAN ANG LER.
hook has pricked him ; but if you fuffer him to
go thither, you will lofe both fifh and line.
Carp will bite alfo at pafte j there are feveral
forts; but I look upon the following one to be
beft: viz.
Take the flefli of a rabbit, and bean flower,,
lifted very fine j mix thefe together with honey
and incorporate them into a mortar, or work them
with your hands into fmail balls fit for ufe; temper it to fuch a ftiff fubftance, that it may not
wafh off your hook, neither let it be too hard ;
\and \f you mix virgin wax, or clarified honey
with it,' it will keep all the year. If it be too
pale you may make it of a true flefh colour, by
mixing a little vermilion with it.
It will be convenient to put a float upon your
line, made of a fwan's quill; which, when drawn
under the water the depth of two or three inches,
will direct you when to ftrike. As carp are very
fhy, fo you muft not come near the river fide; and
when you lay in your bait, drop it down as gently
as poffible.
When you have found a good hole, it will not
be amifs to bait it well every day* by which
means, you will be fure to draw the carp thither
from other parts of the river. The beft method
pf doing this effectually, is, to provide a large
tin pot punched with holes, and to put therein as
D 4 many
11 5^6     The GfeNTLEMAN ANGLER.
many worms as you think proper; then faften a
r line and a piece of lead to it, and fink it in the
hole, and fo let the worms creep out by degrees;
then draw out your tin veftel, and lay it by for
farther ufe. This ought to be done often. The
common method is to caft the worms in by hand-
fuls; but the ftream will be apt to wafh them away
from the place for which they weredefigned.
If you angle for carp in ponds, you muft rife
by break of day, efpecially if you defign to catch
thofe which are large ; and the beft bait that you
can ufe is the red worm well fcowred and dipt in
tar, or elfe caddice, juft as their inclination leads
them. You muft allow them the fame time to
gorge your bait as was directed in angling for
river carp: your rod and line muft be long, becaufe you muft lay in as far as you can from the
fhore, and your float muft be large; though indeed you'may draw them nearer to you by baiting
the place as before is fliewn, or by cafting the
worms in by handfuls; for as it is ftill water
in ponds, the worms cannot be carried to any
considerable diftance from the place you intend.
You may alfo caft in fome boiled malt, which,
they will often take.
Though carp love mud, yet they delight not
in weedy, but in clear water, except a few
weeds, which  they choofe  for fhelter.     If the
water
I The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.      57
water be very fat and full"of feed, then drop
your bak gently near the pond fide, ufing a very
fmail float and no lead upon your line : you
muft keep out of fight, and the Carp will imagine your bait to be a worm coming out of the
bank.
When you angle with pafte, the better to beguile the carp, pellets of pafte fhould be thrown *
into the water, fome hours before you undertake
your trial of fkill with the angle rod; and if
you throw in fome fmail pellets of pafte a day
or two before, you are the more likely to fuc-
ceed. If you. angle in a,large pond, that you
may the better draw the*carp together, throw into
one certain place either grains, or blood mixed
with cow-.dung, or bran, mixed with the cruft of
white bread being well foaked in water and made
into a pafte; or any garbage, as chickens guts, or
the like. As you are angling with pafte, whether
in, a pond or river,, chew a little white or brown
bread, and caft it in.about the place where your
float lies.- Crumbs, of. white, bread and honey
mixed together,. and worked up into a pafte, are
very good.. Angle for. carp at the bottom, if
you choofe the river; and in mid water if you
delight in pond angling..
Notwithstanding what has   been already faid
concerning, pond carp, I have obferved that in
J) 5 your
1 58   The GENTLEMAN  -ANGLER.
your middle-fized ponds, which have been made
fon profit or pleafure, or perhaps* for both, carp
will fwim about the banks of fuch ponds at noon,
provided it be a fair day, and the fun appears with
luftre. I have often feen them prime about
twelve or one o'clock among the weeds : whether
this be for fport, or through wantonnefs, as fome
anglers affirm, is of little fignification. I am apt
, to think that their priming at fuch hours, is to
catch fuch flies as fall upon the furface of the
water. Hewever this I know by experience, that
if they meet with a bait in their way which is
agreeable to them, they will gorge it moft vora-
cioufly, provided that time enough be allowed
them to do it.
Now what has the angler to do in this cafe ?
I will inform him : let him equip himfelf with
a rod, whofe uppermoft joint muft be ftrong,-
and pliable withal, particularly the whalebone
part,; he ought alfo to have a ftrong filk line,
and his hook fhould be large enough for a lobworm. Having prepared fuch fort of tackle, let
him walk about tiie pond, but. at- fome diftance
from it; and if he obferves the carp to- prime, let
him fearch for a place about the bignefs of the
crown of his hat, clear and free from weeds ;
but if he cannot find any fuch place, - then let
him make one by breaking or cutting the weeds.-
This- The G&W3MAN ANGLER.     59
This-being done, he muft put his tackle in order,
but not ufe any float; nor muft he have more
than one fingle fhot on his line, which fhould be
of the larger fort. When he has baited his hook
let him drop it as gently as poflible into the
.place that is free from weeds, and as near to the
fide of the pond as conveniently may be. His
fhot or lead muft lie upon the leaf of the ftalk of
the weed ; fo that his bait will not be above eight
inches deep in the water, and yet have liberty
; enough to move about. He muft-retire from
the fide of the pond, yet not fo far but what he
may plainly perceive the fhot that is upon the
leaf of the weed: the carp,, which continually
roam about,,and do not continue in one place,
will foon difcover the worm.. When he perceives
that his fhot or lead has been drawn away, toge-.
ther with about ten or twelve inches of the line,
he may then venture to ftrike; and when he finds
that he has hooked his fifh he muft keep him
tight to it* and not fuffer him to go where he
pleafes; for then he will fhoot> in among the
weeds, and entangle the line to fnch a degree,
that it will be impoflible to get it loofe, except
the weeds be cut away.. He muft therefore either
take him out;of the pond by main force, or draw
him by the fide of the bank into clear water,.
free- from weeds or thrafh, and fo play him till.
D6 he 60       The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
I
he be tired; and then he may take him out with
his landing net, or weigh him, if he can ufe no
other way. If the angler obferves this method
he may catch feveral brace of carp if the pond
be well ftored, and have diverfion enough befides.
This is the manner in which I have angled for
pond carp, and have been very fuccefsful therein..
I am fenfible that many anglers are very tenacious of the old opinion, viz. that carp will
not feed except it be early in the morning,
or late in the evening. But, with fubmiflion to
them, I will affirm that they are tenacious of a
very great error by embracing that opinion: experience is a demonftration to the contrary; and
if they follow the rules which I have here laid
pjjlbwn, they will quickly be undeceived. Befides
why fhould it be imagined that carp, above alb
other fifh, fhould not have an appetite to feed from-
four o'clock in the morning, till eight or nine at
night ? Let not therefore the young angler be
intimidated: by the erroneous aflertion of fUch po-
fitive perfons : for how can they tell whether a
carp wilHeed' at noon-, in the fummer time when
the weather is cairn and' ffcy ferene, and the day
warm, who never made any trial ? Letehim not^.
therefore give credit to fuch a vain report, but
let him.truft to. experience. The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.    «»
PERCH
IS a fifli of prey, pleafant, and well tailed;
he bites boldly and freely, and efpecially in
a foft rain, or after a violent fhower, and are of-
teneft found under the willows and other trees,
or at the tail of grafs or weeds; and in the
winter feafon, they keep in deep waters, well
flickered. They generally fpawn in June or
the beginning of July, and will feed all day, but
beft in the morning early, and late in the evening. If you angle for them at other times, chufe
fuch places on which the fun fhines leaft. The
beft baits in general are the lob worm, or the blue
tail, newly taken- out of cow dung: if you try
the live bait, which they will not refufe, let it~
be the minnow, and bait your hook with him
as before directed; or you may run your hooki
throUgb the-flefh of his back, under the back fin,
or through the upper lip; put a.float upon your
line, and kad enough to poife it; and whether
yor> ufe the worm or minnow, ftrike not too foon,
but allow him-time to gorge-
It would be convenient when you ufe the
minnow, to have your hook whipt to a link
of fmail brafs wire, which hang upon a.fwivelK
at i£    The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
at the bottom of your line ; for, as you may often meet with a fmail jack, he will take your
minnow, and fheer your hair line, or fhatter and
damage a filk line.-
If your baits are i^jent,. you may cut a fraall.
piece from the tail of a dace, or a roach ; place it
upon your hook,.,fo as to cover the point, and
the perch, who is very voracious, will not refufe to
take it j if He be hungry,. .
a Jf there be any back ftreams, which have immediate communication with the river, chufe
to angle there for perch; or in ditches througha"
. which the waters run.; but then it muft be very
early, or yery late*- When you angle with a
worm left it drag upon the ground; when with a
live bait,, then in mid water. You will meet
with fuecefsj.if you obferve th& following uie«~
thod, viz»
In March^ufe the red-worm at the bottom. —
In April, the worm that- breeds under the ba'rkv
of an oak tree,>©r a young frog with the feet cut
off, or the red fnail.^In May, thevbait that breeds
on the ofierlea^..or the dock worm; or the baha
that breeds on the oak^ leaf, or the hawthorn.—
In June,,the red worm with the head cut off", and
a cod bait put before it,. or the dor.-—Take the
large graftiopper, or grub, that breeds, in a.
du^^bill,   for  July: -—and in i^uguft,   young
hees^ The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.    *|
bees and hornets.—In September, and the months
following, ufe the red worms, or two brandlings.
BARBEL
I S accounted by moft people, to be a very
coarfefifh; yet it is firm and well taftcd; and
there being fuch plenty of them', may perhaps be
one reafon why they are not fo much efteemedr
as a carp; for they will eat full as well if you
drefs them carp fafliion. They fpawn in April;
and fome of them are fo large, that they witt
weigh twelve or fourteen pounds; and therefore,,
your rod and line ought to be very ftrong, and
faftened with rings, and a winch or wheel, as directed for the falmon rod..
The beft time for angling for barbel, is very,
early in the morning;- the bait is a lob worm,,
well fcoured in frefh fweet mofs ; for he is a nice
feeder, though be bites freely. They lie in deep.*
water,, at the end of a current,-and fometimes in*
a ftill fbeam during fummer time; they will*
bite alfo about five o'clock in the evening, if
they be driven, from, their harbour by a fudden.
flafh of water.
At the latter end of fummer, they refort chiej^l'
to.the banks of fand or gravel, in deep waters, or
^22&i tflYGENTLEMAN ANGLER.
at the tail of a rapid ftream, among weeds, or under ofiers. Their fpawn is forfeiting and dangerous ; and whoever eats thereof, will break out m
blotches and red fpots; will loathe his meat, lofe
his appetite, and be extremely difordered: his
liver is likewife unwholefome.
The two famous places to angle for barbel
about London, are at Kingfton bridge, and
Shepperton pool; at the latter of which .places,
there is good accommodation for anglers; a great
quantity of barbel, and good company all the
fummer ; you may there lHsewife be fupplied with
ftore of bait at all times.
A barbel hole fhould be eonftafatly baited with
lob worms; and no. barbel ought,. by the rules
of angling, to be killed, which does not mea-s
fure eighteen inches fairly. A barbel - taken in*
Byfieet or Weybridge rivers, of twenty inches
in length, will down-weigh another of:thefamS\
length taken in the Thames, by a,pound or,
upwards, and is much-, firmer, fatter, and better^
reliftied.
CHUB    or    C HE V I N,
I S a coarfe, boney fifh, and the head is the.
brft part about him.    It fpawns in March;. is.,
•veryr The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.     65
very wary and fly; delighting in quick, deep
ftreams, and loves fhelter; as bridges, trees,
planks, Sec. under which are fandy or clay bottoms. They are cowardly, infomuch that if you ;
once turn them, they are prefently difpirited, and
you may manage them as you pleafe.
For this reafon, fome waggifh, merry anglers, I
compare them to Portuguefe foldiers, who have I
very little inclination to fighting at any time, 1
even  though  the defence of  their   country re- j
quires them ; and if their enemy make a vigorous
attack,   they  immediately  turn  tail;   and it is
twenty to one if you can prevail with them by
any means to face about.
A chub is a voracious fifh, and will feed all
day long; but he bites beft in the morning; and
a minnow/will allure him at mid-day. If the
current be ftiong, and the water deep, a lob worm
is the beft bait you can ufe at the bottom ; but
upon the furface of the water, ufe a grafhopper,
a bee, a wafp, a caterpillar, or moth; and about
two feet under water he will take a black fnail
with his belly flit to fliew the white part of it, or
a piece of cheefe.
During the fummer feafon, about feven o'clock
in the evening, a chub yields good diverfion:
if then you go into a punt or boat, and floating
down the river over which willows or other trees
do
1 66     The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
do hang, angle with a bee, moth, &c. as you dp
with the artificial fly for trout, and. they will
rife as faft at- you can throw out your line for
them.
It is farther to be obferved, that in angling for
chub, in March and* April he is ufually taken with
worms; in May, June, and July, he will bite
at cherries, or at any fly, or at beetles, with
their legs and wings cut off; or at any kind of
fnail, or the black bee that breeds in clay walls.
Jn Anguft.he never refufes the grafhopper on
the top of a fwift ftream, or the young humble
bee that breeds in long gra,fs, and is ordinarily
found by the mowers.
In the cooler months,, a yellow pafte, made of
the ftrongeft cheefe, and pounded, in a mortar,
with a little butter and faffron (fo much of it as
is beaten fmail will turn to a lemon colour.)
Xhe fpawn of a chub is excellent, and he is
in feafon'from the middle of May until Can-
dlemas.
There is no fifh better in the water to enter a
young angler, he is fo eafily caught; but then
it muft be in this particular way : —* In moft hot
days, you find a dozen or twenty chubs floating
ntar the top of the water; place yourfelf behind
fome bufh or tree, and ftand as free from motion
as poffible; bait your hook with a "grafhopper,
and The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.     67
and let it hang a quarter of a yard fhort of the
water; to which end, you muft have fome convex
nient reft or ftand for your rod; and it is very
probable that the chubs will fink down towards
the bottom of the water at the fhadow of your
rod (for a chub is the fearfulleft of all fifhes) tf
and will do fo if but a bird flies over him, and A
makes the. leaft fhadow on the water y neverthe-
lefs, they will prefently rife, and Ue foaring near
the top again, at which time move your rod
very flowly to, that chub you intend to c^tch.
Let your bait fall gently upon the water, three
or four inches before him, and he will infallibly take it, for he is a leather-mouthed fifh,
having his teeth near his throat, of which a hook
does fcarce ever lofe its hold; and therefore give
him play enough, before you offer to take him
out of the water. (&&&
~)
BREAM,
WHEN full grown, is a very large, flat fifh,
and is very fcarce in the rivers within twenty
miles of London. His chiefeft delight is in a
pond, where, if he likes the water and air, he
will breed exceedingly; in fome ponds fo faft as
fo overftock them.    His tail is forked, his fcales
let I
68     The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
fet in an excellent order; he has large eyes, a
fmail fucking mouth, and two fets of teeth. The
milter is obferved to have two large milts, and
the fpawner two bags of fpawn. Their hours of
feeding are extremely early, or extremely late;
but if it be a lowering day, and the wind blows
ftrong, he will bite at any time of the day.
As his mouth is fmail, fo your hook muft be
proportioned to the fize of his mouth; and,
therefore, as you will be necefiitated to ufe ftrong
tackle, fo your hook fhould be whipt to an Indiair
grafs.
He delights in the middle of a deep, large,
hole, with a very flow ftream; and the moft
common bait is the flag or red worm, well fcow-
ered in mofs and fennel. He will alfo take a
pafte made of brown bread and honey, or gentle?,
or the worm like a maggot, which is found
at dock roots, flags or rufhes in wartry places.
In June and July he will bite at a grafhopper,
or at the flies which are found on flags that grow
near the water fide.
The hole wherein you defign to angle ought
to be baited after this manner: Take a peck of
fweet grofs-ground-barley malt, boil it in a kettle,
then ftrain it through a bag into a tub; and when
it is near cold, take it to the water fide, about
eight or nine o'clock in the evening, and not before; The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.      69
fore; throw in two parts of your ground bait,
fqueezed hard between your hands; it will pre-
fently fink to the bottom, and take care that it
lodges in the very place where you intend to angle.
When you angle for the bream, lay in your
bait foftly j in the middle of your ground bait,
but let not your lead be above two feet under
water, and when he bites he will throw up your
float,, which muft be of a middle fize ; and, when
you perceive it to lie flat upon the furface of the
water, you may theniconclude that he has gorged
your bait: ftrike gently, and hold your rod at a
bent a little while; for if you both pull, you
may lofe your game, if not your hook and
line.
As his delightful harbour is the water dock,
under which he lies, fo you muft take care to
keep him from thence when you have hooked
him : he will ftrive to get thither, that he may
entangle your line about the ftalk of the water
dock, which being naturally very tough, it will
be impoflible to difengage yourfelf from thence.
His being a flat fifh, as I faid before, ca~ufes him
to draw much water; which, though it does not
increafe his natural ftrength, neverthelefs it will
add to the difficulty you will find in taking him.
He affords' noble fport, and is very fhy to be
landed; and When you have finifhed your day's
work,
J 76    The GENTLEMAN ANTOELER.
work, then caft in the remainder of yoar ground
bait.
Hating ufed this method and fport for three
or four days, the bream'will grow very fhy and
Wary;' then defift for two or three days or longer;
and in the place where you laft baited, and intend to-fe&efcF ^ouf bait, take a turf of fhort grafs,
about the bignefs or circumference of a pewter
plate, and with a needle and green thread, feften
$fie by one, as many little red worms, as will al-
moft cover the tuff; make a hole in the middle
of a rottnti;boatd, placing the turf thereon* then
put a cord through, and tying it to a pole, let
it down to the bottom of the water, for the fifh
do feed upon without difturbance for about three
or four days, and after that time, when you have
drawn it away, you will find fport almoft beyond
your expe£taticmr
TENCH
U
ARE a ftill-water fifh, and delight in ponds
more than rivers: he is a leather-mouthed fifh,
like the barbel; but as this latter chufes a gravel
or fand, fo the former takes pleafure in mud.
One tench that is taken in a river is worth fix
that is taken in a pond.    Some tench fpawn in
May,
VV
!^rfn ?he GENTLEMAN ANGLER.     ||
May, others in June; and the fame caution and
method is to be ufed in anglhiij.for this fifl^ whioh
has been preferibed for carp-.'
If you angle for tench, you muft repair thither
by dawn of day, efpecfaHy if you defign to
take thofe that are large, which feldom exceed
twelve inches. Your tackle muft be ftrong, becaufe they delight very much to be among the
weeds; and you will meet with little fport after
the ftrfl rifes. Renew your fport about fix o'clock
m the afternoon; and let your ground bait be the
fame as directed for carp.
When you angle in a river for tench, chufe
the deepeft and moft filent waters-; they ought td
be fo ftill, and the furfece fo fmooth and even,
that it cinho* ^ive the leaft motion to your float.
Angle from daylight to feteA O'clock in the morn"
ing, and from five o'clock in the afternoon .until
the night compels you to give over : be not too
eager in ftriking him when he bites ; for as he
delights in fucking the bait, allow him time,' and
he will not quit it.
The beft and moft I&ticiftg bait (and indeed
you need not ufe any other, whether for pond or
river) is the red worm dipt in tar: or, take the
clotted black blood out of the heart of a fheep,
fome fine flour, and honey, temper them fine together, and make them of the confiftenee of an
un- it
72     The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
unguent^ and anoint the red worm with it: I
know not which is preferable, this or the tar. No
other bait is to be compared to either of them:
June, July, and Auguft, are the only months
in which you muft expect to have any fport with
tench.
GREYLING   or  U M B E R,
SELDOM exceeds eighteen inches in fize;
he is good all the year, but is principally in fea-
fon in December; at which time he is black
about the head, gills, and down the back, and
his belly of a dark grey, dappled with beautiful black fpots. His haunts are the fame with
thofe of the trout, and he is to be taken the fame
way. He will rife twenty times at a fly; and
if you mifs him, will rife again: he lies clofe
all the winter, comes abroad the latter end of
April, and fwims nimbly in the middle of the
water.
When you angle for greyling, ufe a cork float,
and let not your bait come within two feet of the
bottom; for he is more apt to rife, than to defcend
to the bait. In March and April ufe the red worm;
In May, the green worm ; in June, the bait that
breeds under the bark of an oak; in July, the
bait that breeds on the fern leaf; the red worm
with
*&m The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
with his head taken ofE and a cod bait placed on
the hook, and the worm ,put after it, is another
.good bait-r—tin Auguft-the-red woito and the dock
worm ;   and -the  zeA  worm  all the reft of the
•T L 0 p&D £ R S
ARE firm and good ; fo innocent In theiiMit-
ture, and fo nutritive, that phyficians order them
-to be given to fick perfons, when their weak -#o-
' *-machs cannot digeft any other food; efpecially
thofe which do frequent, and are taken -in *the
frefh-water rivers.
They are in •foafon all the. year,  except  the
'time of their fpawnmg, which is from/the ktter
end of June to the middle of Juty; and as they
are then fick and flabby, they are confequently
•Ainwholefome.    At  fuch   a jun&ure,   if any of
■them be taken, you may perceive fmail worms,
about the length of half an inch, and in fome
-the length of an inch; which have (as it were)
made a bed for themfelves in the back of the
-flounder: and this will appear'to be after the fame
nature with certain worms in fome rivers in the
Weft Indies; which, by eating away part of the'
jplank of a fhip, make a refting. place for them-
E Selves 74      The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
felves therein ; and will, in time, work a pafiage
through the thickeft part of the fhip which lies
under water.
Flounders are a fliy and wary fifh, and feed at
bottom : their common and moft delightful places
of refort, are the fides of fand banks, caft up by
mill ftreams or Wears, or by ftrong eddies. Sometimes they are found at the tail of mill ftreams, or
at a more remote diftance from them; in deep
Waters, under or next unto the bank fides, efpecially if the bottom be fand or gravel, and has a
declivity. If you find a hole in a river, which
looks ever fo likely, and there is mud at the bottom, it will be loft labour to angle therein; for
the leaft mud or filth  choaks flounders.
As they are geedy and voracious, they will bite
at any red-worm; but the lob worm, as it is the
largeft, will entice them fponeft, provided it be
well fcoured. The ufual way of angling for them
is to lie upon the grabble ; that is, to put fo much
lead upon your line, about twelve or fourteen inches diftant from your hook, that it may keep it
fteady at bottom, and the bait having liberty to be
twirled about by the water.
If you ufe a float, let it lie flat upon thefurface;
and when it firft cocks up, and is afterwards
drawn under water, you may then conclude.that
the The GENTLEMAN ANGLER
the flounder lias, or is taking your bait. Remember to allow him time; for he will fuck all
the worm into his mouth before he gorges it. The
hook which you ufe cannot be too fmail, if you
can get your bait Upon it.
MULLETS
ARE a falt-water fifh, well rafted, delicate*
and much admired. During the fummer feafon
they come into the rivers which lie contiguous to
the fea, as often as the tide flows. Great plenty
of them may be taken with an angle rod* which,
as well as the line muft be jftrong.
They will rife like a trout or falmon at an ar»
tineial fly, which muft be larger than what is
ufed for the trout; and they will alfo take a
worm under water, if'you angle about two feet
from the bottom. They are wonderfully fly and
wary, but feed as freely as any fifh, and will
afford much fport and diverfion. They abound
chiefly along the fouthern and fouth-weft parts of
England, which lie oppofite to France. The
river Ax, in the county of Devon, about two
miles below the town of Axminfter, yields vaft,
quantities of them every time the tide flows.
E i SMELTS 76     The  GENTLEMAN ANGLER,
.SMELTS
ARE a fine-fifh, with a delicate flavour, and
are in feafon twice a year, They make their
firft appearance about the middle of March, and
the beft are taken at Chelfea and Hammerfmith.
At the fecond time of their coming into the river
Thames, which is in the month of Auguft, they
feidom reach higher than London bridge; and
the fineft and largeft are-taken oppofite to Dept-
ford and Greenwich. In.angling for them, ufe
the pater-nofter line of one hair, and let your
; bait be gentles or.white pafte.
&    O    A    C   H
ARE a coarfe, bony fifh; but the largeft fott,
c Which feidom exceed twelve inches, will yield
-good fport.   Their fpawning time is in  June,
..when they are fcabby and unwbolefome. The
chief bait for them is boiled -malt, gentles, white
and red pafte; but if you angle for them in windy •
•weather, then ufe the fmail red worm. They frequent gentle .ftreams which are not "fhallow, an3;
will bite freely.  When winter begins to approach,
-they retire into the deeps at the end of ftrong
cur- The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.      |j
currents: here you will have occafion to ufe more
lead than ordinary; and confequently, the largelfc
float, and a ftronger line to bear the lead: and
here as. well as in other places, you muft angle
about twelve inches from the bottom.
They who defire to have much diveriion, and \
to take many roach, may gratify themfelves after
the following manner — Having provided a fuffi-
cient quantity of gentles, go below London bridge,
as far as Shadwell, Ratcliff, Limehoufe, or thereabouts ; then take a boat, and faften it to the ftern
of a collier, or fome other large veffel, which has
lain fome time in the river, and with a fhort rod,
and a line not exceeding four feet in length, angle
there; and remember to put three or four gentles
upon your hook at one rime. Let your (float be
twelve inches diftant from the top of your rod;
and lay in your bait as clofe to the ftern of the fhip
as you can, and let it fwim about three yards.
This muft be done when the tide begins to ebb,
and you will not fail of good fport for two hours
at leaft, and what you catch will be large.
R      U     D
ARE a fort of roach, but much preferable, and
of a golden colour: are ftrong, broad, and thick,
E 3 and 78     The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
and feed near the top of the water.    The princi-e
pal baits for this fifh are red worms and ilies. They
will feed very generoufly, and divert the angler;
.for they ftruggle hard and are very ftrong.
DACE
ARE a bright handfome fifh, and they fpawn
generally in March ; they love a gravelly fcour,;-
are very.fhy and wary, like the trout, and when
frightened, retire into the deeps. They are to be
taken on the furface of the water with a fine,
nice, common fly,, and will rife fooner at the
black, than any other colour. If you angle upon
a fcour, ufe gentles or pafte; if in the deeps, let
fodden malt, or houfe flies be the bait; and do
Aot fuffer your line, which fhouM be of a fingie
hair, to be above two or three feet under water:
they will alfo take the little red worm, caddice, or
grafhopper. With the former of thefe, you
may ufe the fmalleft float, and one fhot to poife
it; and when the grafhopper is your bait, pull
off the legs, put the point of your hook under his-
tail, then run it through, and bury it in the back
part of his head; and remember to ftrike him nimbly as foon as he bites.
Dace The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.      7*
Dace may alfo be taken with flefh flies upon
the furface of the water, into whofe backs, between their wings, you muft put your hook,
which fhould be fmail. They bite in the morn-
in and evening; and when you have a mind for
much diverflon, you muft provide a cane rod,
which is the lighteft of any ; let it be at leaft feven-
teen feet in length; and your line, which;fhould
from the middle downwards,.confift of fingle hairs,
*jnuft be fomewhat longer than your rod.,
• You ought alfo to be furnifhed with a fufficient
quantity-of fmail houfe flies, which keep in a glafs
bottle flopped with a cork: then, about- feven or
eight o'clock in the evening, repair to a mill
ftream, and having fixed three or four hooka with
fingle hairs linked, hot above four inches long,
to your line, bait them with the flies, and angle
upon the furface of the water, on the fmootheft
part, at the end of the mill ftream, in the fame
manner as you are directed to angle for trout.
The dace will rife freely, efpecially if the fun does
not fhine on that part of the water where you
caft your line, and you may take two or three at
a time. This fport will continue as long as daylight will permit you to fee your flies.
Dace will alfo rife at the ant fly upon the furface of the water,  if ufed in a morning at the
E 4 foot '
fo     The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
foot of a current,, or milHtream, or on the fcour,
before the fun comes upon the Watfcr.
If you angle for them upon the Thames, you
muft prepare your ground-bait made of bran, a
cruft of white bread foaked and worked up into
round balls, with little ftones m the middle :
take a boat; and when you chufe a,place, let it
be under the wind, when the water is fmooth ;:
plumb the depth, and let your lead be eight
inches from the bottom ; then caft in your ground
Bait about four yards above the head of you*
boat, and two or three of the balls nearer to you,
and lay in your bait exacMy Over your ground-
bait. Take your fwim as long as your rod and
line will permit,- and always remember not to let
it fwim too far ; and when you draw it up, give
a little jerk. When your float finks, then ftrike;
and be not too eager to take your fifh out of the
water. This method may alfo be obferved^ in
angling for roach.
A dace frefh taken,, arid fcotched,  and broiled,.
I have already obferved, that dace fpawn generally in March r; and I think I may venture to
affirm, that they fpawn twice a year, though I-
will not take upon me to fay in which month they
%awn the fecond time : and the reafon why I am
pretty
v.
*£iim The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.     It
pretty pofitive herein is, that I have found by
experience, fmail and middle-fixed dace, which I
. have taken at the latter end of October, and beginning of November, to be full of milts and
roes ; and, according to my judgement, thofe fifh
had a finer flavour and r-elifti than any that I took
or eat in fummer.
Although I have faid much in relation to the
feveral methods by which the fair angler may
catch dace ; yet I hope he will not take it aniifs,
if I impart to him two things, which I have
lately difbovtred,,. and which will complete what I
have to fay; not doubting but he will be pleaied
with them," fince he .may thereby increafe lu£
tport, and the number of kis fifh.
The firft then is this : If the water be high, fo
•as to rife almoft to the banks of the river, then
faften to your line an.artificial fly, called the catej>
pillar fly; then take a large yellow gentle, (the
yellower the better) run the hook through th?
&in of them, and draw him up to the tail of
your artificial fly : this being done, whip with it
on the furface of the water ; and if you are diligent and expert, you may affuxe yourfelf good fport.  .
The fecond thing I have to obferve, is; that if
you angle where two milftreams are going at one
and the fame time, let it be in the eddy, between,
tho two ftreams; firft make ufe of your'plummetg
E 5 and 'The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
and if the water .be'deep, ybu muft angle within
a foot of the bottom, and perhaps you will find
but little fport. But if it proves to be fhallow,
that is, about the depth of two feet, or not exceeding three, then bait your hook with three
large gentles: ufe a cork jBoat, which ought not
to be above a foot and a half from the hook,
and have a quick eye to ftrike at the very firft
bite; for if there are any large dace in the
millpool, they will refort to the eddy between the
two ftreams.
If every angler did confider, that gentles are
not only the moft univerfal, but alfo the moft alluring bait, they would always carry fome of them
with them. I have taken trout with gentles, when
every kind of worm has been refufed, and artificial flies rejected- I have taken all forts of frefh**
water or river fifh with them, pike and falmoa
excepted; and I make no- manner of doubt but
they would prove an acceptable bait to them,
could«itr be fo contrived as to fix them upona hook
that could hold either falmon or, pike..
G.UD'GEO N S
ARE fuch a~pfeafant, fweetj and delicate Mijr
that if they were notfb common they would be
.-"* as The GENTLEMAN ANGLER:     *3
as valuable as a"fmelt. They fpawn in March or
April, and are in feafon moft part of the year.
In the fummer they delight in fhallow ftreams,
whofe bottoms are fandy and gravelly, and will
Bite frequently all day from an hour after fua
rife till within an hour of fun fet, whether it
be gloomy, warm, or funfhine weather; but in
autumn, when the weeds begin to rot, and grow
four, [they retire into the deep waters. The
ufual way of angling for them is, to take up the
fend or gravel, and by that means render the
water thick and foul, which will make them bke
the fafter,, though they are free enough at any
time; or elfe you may caft into -the river dried
earth ov duft: but if the water be: made thick
with rain, they will not bite..
They will take gentles, or the cow-dung worm; -
but the fmail red worm is what pleafes them beft.
If you.can find a bridge or plank over a fmail
riverj- chufe to angle underneath for gudgeons ;
for they love the fhade, and are fo far from being
fhy or wary,. that you may not only appear in
fight, but if you drive them from their place of
refort, they will immediately return. A fingle
hair line, a fine taper rod, afloat,, and a fmail.
hook, is what you muft ufe, and your bait muft
drag upon the ground.
E-6. BLEA&C -*Y-i
The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
BLEAK
ARE a fmail, fat, pleafant fifh; and called by,
fome the frefli-water fpfats : they will rife, like the
dace, at a fmail houfe fly, upon the furface of
the water; or will take a gentle, or white pafte,
about a foot and a half under water. The fmall-
eft hooks are the propereft for them ; and a pater-
nofter line, that is, a fingle^hair line, with fix or
feven hooks, each three or four inches above the
other, baited with gentles and caddke Well fcour-
■ed : pafte or red worms are what are ufed in eddies, to which places they refort in the fpring
feafon. If you angle for them In the Thames,
you may lay in deeper than in other rivers ; and it
H obfervable, that in rivers they continue found
and healthful all the fummer ; but the Thames
bleak foon run mad, occafioned by a worm which
breeds in their heads : it is a flat-jointed worm,
and fometimes fo long, that, fhould I mention
what L have feen, I fhould fcarcely meet with
credit. ' -SPili
£   E   L   S
DELIGHT in ftill waters with muddy hot*
foms,. tost are in feafon, or rather? in their prime;
in The G^ITTLEMAN-iiffcGLER.    g5
in the winter ; but are difficult to be taken during
the fix cold months, becaufe they generally get
Into the mud, or foft earth, where they bed"
together,- the better to enable them to endure
the feverity of the winter: they are alfo taken-
fometimes upon a fand of gravel, but rarely.
There are feveral baits by which eels may- be *
taken, and feveral ways of taking them; but the
ufoal baits are, a lob worm, minnow j or the
linaUeft gudgeon: angle for them upon the grabble, and be not too eager in ftriking; for they
will fuck the bait for fome time; and, if you
have patience, it will be ten to one that they will
hook themfelves: they bite freeft in or after a
fhower of rain.
EEL    POUTS
ARE preferable to an eel: their places of rc-
fort are the fame with the eel, but they are to
be taken in peals of thunder, lightnirrg, and
heavy rain, which drives them from their holes j
and the propereft bait for them is a fmajlgudgeon -
ttey are large, afford great fport, and have an excellent tafte.
R UFF 86    The GENTLEMAN ANGLER;
R U F F  and  P O P E
ARE the fame fiffu. with different names : they
are family but choice and good ; and though there
is but little meat upon them, yet it is very fweet.
aThey delight in deep, ftill holes: and when you
have found out their haunt, you may catch forty
or fifty, fometimes double thar number, at a ftand-
fng. They bite free and eager; and" you may
angle with two or three hooks, and'pull upas
many of tjhem af a time as you have hooks to
your line.- You may-bait the ground with frefti
earth, and immediately lay in your line * of •a-
fingle hair, and bait your hooks with gentles or
red worms..
M-r> NNO W,   or   KEN K,.
II
1
ARE in feafon from March to Michaelmas; except immediately after fpawning time: it is ufually
lull of fpawn, and breeds often, and is not inferior to any fifh for ils excellency of tafte.. His
biting time is from an hour aftet fun rife,- and
h taken, at mid water, or near or clofe to the
bottom^f The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.    *j
bottom; and the only bait is the fmalleft red
worm. Ufe a float, and the fame hook which
are ufed for the bleak. After Michaelmas he betakes himfelf to the mud weeds, or weedy places
in rivers, as a prefervative againft floods, and
a fecurity againft his becoming a prey to other
fifh.
BULL HEADS, or MILLER's-THUMB,
SPAWN in April; and the vent is fo fult
©f fpawnr that they are fwelkd almoft into the
form of a dug. Bull-heads hide themfelves in
holes,,, or among, ftones in clear water, and in:
very hot days wilt lie a long time funning,
themfelves, and are eafily feen. upon, any flat:
ftone, or on the gravel; at which > time the moft
unexpert angler may take him with a fmail red
Wonru-
i a a e m^
ARE a delicate fifh, and very wholefome, breed
and feed uv little and clear fwift brooks- and rills;
live i
€8    The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
lives upon the gravel, and in the fharpefj
ftreams; and their growth is not above a finger*s
length, and their thicknefs proportionable. They
feidom rifes above the gravel, and are therefore
to be angled for at the bottom, with a little red
worm.
APPENDIX,
Sffiiia^ A   P   P    E   N    D. I- X.
COKTAINING,
I The Method of Rock fifhing, and Sea
fifhing; the Baits which are ufed, and the
feveral Sorts of Fifh that are taken by
Sportfmen that Way.
II. An Explanation of technical Words and
Phrafes, ufed by fair Anglers, alphabetic
cally digefled.
Of Rock and Sea Fishing*
R,
.OCK fifhing has a double advantage, whidb
anglers cannot pretend to; it is much pleafanter
and more healthful. In angling, a man is ex-
pofed all day to the fcorching heat of the fun,,
which blunts the edge of his diverfion, and too
often lays a foundation for a fever: whereas in
rock fifhing, nature feems to have made a provifion
againft this accident; fo that while the fun is running
immrt^ The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
ning his courfe, and happens to fhine upon you,
you may with eafe fhift your ftation, and be defended from the inclemency of its over heat* by
fitting under a rock, which ferves as a canopy.
Befides, you have the advantage of the circumambient air of both land and fea; and as there is
not any marfhy or boggy ground near the rocks,
fo you are not in danger of feeling the unhappy
effects of the fumes, vapours, and exhalations that
arife from thence, and the air of the fait water is
reckoned to be more falubrious than that of
rivers. To this may be added, that it creates an
appetite; and what can be more conducive to
health than to eat and drink moderately in a cool
Ihade when the fun is at the meridian ?
This kind of diverfion, which is not to be followed but during the fummer feafon, is practifed
chiefly in the fouth and weft parts of England,
and in fome places in Ireland; and in this laft-
mentioned country, the rocks of Dunleary, which
are eight or ten miles in length, and the neareft
part about five miles eaftward of the city of Dublin, are remarkable for this way of fifhing; and
you are fure of meeting with. variety of company,
A different method muft be ufed here, from
what is the general practice of angling: for in
your frefh-water rivers, you are obliged to angle
with The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.     yi
with a very fine line; but in rock fifhing, your
line ought to have at leaft five or fix hairs in
every link. A float is neceflary, and two hooks;
one to reach the bottom, and the other to keep
in mid water; and the beft time to follow this
fport is when the tide is half fpent, and to be
continued till within two hours of high water.
The morning and evening are the moft preferable
parts of the day, provided the tide fhall then happen to favour your defign.
The baits which are ufed generally in rock
-fifhing are the cockle, the lob, and the marfh
worms; but there is another fort, called the hairy
worm, which is preferable to all the reft, and is
fo univerfally beloved by all the fifh that you
need ufe no other.
Hairy Worms, if full grown, are near four
inches long; they are flat and broad, and refemble
an earwig, and are to be found on the fea fhore,
■ when the fait water has left it, efpecially if the fhore
be part fand and part mud. They are to be dug out
with a fpade as you would dig for earth worms;
■and when you have wafhed them from their filth
and dirt, which muft be done in fait water, and
not in frefh, they will appear to be of a fine, pale,
rflefh colour. They are -to be placed upon the
-hook with their heads foremoft, leaving about an
-inch to play.in the water.. to§§1
There ■■!
9*    The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
There is one little mconvenienc.y attending rock
fifhing, of which it will be neceflary to caution
the unwary reader;" that he muft not be furprifed'
if he fometimes finds his hook to be faftened under
water; and then, if he cannot get it loofcd in two
or three offers^ he has nothing to do but to wait
with, patience, or to take off his line from the
rod, and make faft the top of it, fo that it may -
not be drawn, mfio the water.
It often will be loofened in half a-quarter of an
j hour, and fometimes not till the tide ebbs almoft
as low as the place where it is fattened. • TmV
accident is occafiened by an ill-flavoured little fi&j
ecalled acobler, or miller's*thumb'; which, as foon
as he has fucked in the bait j retires into the cleft ox
cranny of the rock^ and turning about, render^ it-
impoffible to difengage him till he has a mind to
come out himfelf, or till the finking of the water
compels him to it: -
This.coblcr, or miller's thumb, feidom exceeds'
four inches in length; he has a large head, large
eyes, wide mouth, and two large fins clofe by his
gills; the upper part of his body is thick, and.
defcends taperwife to his tail. There is but little meat upon him, which is reckoned un whole-
fome; and therefore for the trick he plays, and
feeing a fifh e&flifceH by every body, his fate gene-
jsally is, to have a fmali flick thruft through his
eyes,
1 "1
■SHE GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
*yes, and then to be caft into the foa, where ho- '
>4wims till he dies.
He who defigns to  divert himfelf with rock
•fifhing, ought to haVea ftrongjointed rod, which
fie may fhorten upon ©ccafion, or keep it at k&
full length, the better to command his line, when
he has hooked a fifh, or when the tide increafes,
-or decreafes; and the line muft be ftrong,   the-
'better to endure putting, when it fhall happen
.to be faftened to the fea weeds, which are generally tough; and the beft way. to difengage from
thence, is to ufo tbe lead ring and fmail cord,
jas   fhewn   in .'angling,  and  thca working it
-backwards and forwards till it gets clear of the1.
vweeds.
The fame advice is alfo to be followed here,
* which was given in the beginning of the book,
-concerning the angler's apparatus or fifh tackle;
namely, to be. provided .with a fufficient flock of
every thing that is requifite and neceflary, as
filk, hooks, lines, wax, &c. leftijfy mifchance he
may happen  to break a line or hook* and for
'Want of an immediate fupj&ly, &e deprived of his
future fport forthat day.
Nor muft a landing net be forgot, wfiicii i? absolutely neceflary when the tide is low, or when
you ftand upon a ro^k too high above-tie w?scer,
s&at you inay hereby land your 'fSb, without
running The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
running the hazard of breaking your line i*
weighing him; and left your landing net may
at any time be damaged, and thereby rendered
ufelefs, you ought alfo to be equipped with a
landing hook, to fupply its place, and prevent
the lofs of a good fifh, which is to be hooked
under the gills, that, when he gives a fpringas
you take him out of the water, he may not
break his hold, or your line (according to the
directions before given in angling).
There are but four forts of fifh which are
generally taken by rock fifhing, namely, fea
bream, flounders, whiting pollock, and rock whiting.
Of S E A   BREAM.
SEA bream are not fo broad and flat, nor
altogether fo large as river bream, when full
grown: they feidom exceed twelve or fourteen
inches at moft > they are fuller bodied, more plump
and thick, inclineable to be round; their colour^
is generally a pale red, which turns to a deeper,
red when they are drefled. The ufuai way of
drefling them, is to boil them ; though they eat.
well^ either fried or boiled; and frefh butter,,
with an anchovy or raufhrooms, is the fauce*.
' *i::isiii". • Sea The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
Sea bream are well rafted, but full of bones;
and this~ may .be the reafon why fome people account them a coarfe fifh. They afford good di-
▼erfion in the water, and the larger fort will try
the firill and judgement of the fifherman: they
are not proper to be eat by thofe who have a
weak ftomach; for though they are nourifhing
and ftrengthening, yet they are not eafily di-
gefted. iM^flll'
Of   FLOUNDERS.
THERE is very little, if any diftinclion between the river flounders, and thofe taken in the*
fait water; and though the former come originally from the fea, yet, by continuing in frefh; ,
water, they become firmer and better tafted than ,
thofe taken in the fait water. This may be eafily
proved, by flounders expofed to fale on market
days at Billingfgate, which are caught beyond
the buoy at the Nore, and thofe taken in the
Thames above bridge, or thofe rather that are
caught in the rivers which run into the Thames.'
The falt-water flounders are much larger than
thofe of the frefh water, and are efteemed by
fome to 'be equally as good; and I am apt to
think it would puzzle the niceft palate t6ed£
ftinguifh the one from the other;   and if any
mm -4F^
m    The GENTLEMAN ANGLER,
man makes a right diftinotion, it may very welta
be   faid to be more by chance than   any thing'
Clfe.    As all thofe fifh, if larger draw a great
-quantity of water, fo the falt-water flounders will
afford good fport.
Of WHITING   POLLOCK.
THIS fort of fifh is rather round in the
body, than of any other fhape ; it is well tafted,
nourishing, and fleaky *as cod. It feidom exceeds
twelve inches in length, *and in colour is a
darkifh gray. It ftruggles hard when hooked?
and, %y making along defence for its life, makes
alfo much diverfion for the fifherman. Boiling
is the proper way-of dreffing it; and it require*}
the fame -fence which is ufed for cod.
fDf   R 0>C K.   WHIT I N G.
THIS fifh is a fpecies of the whiting and
Avhking pollock, but differs from both, and yet
is often palmed upon -the ignorant for true whi-
Jting. It is not altogether of fuch a dark gray as
the whiting.pollock, nor fo bright in colour as
the whiting* Its chief place of refidence is
among the rocks, from whence it derives part of
its The GENTLEMAN A NGU ER.
its name ; it affords ^.gdod nourifhment, is eafy
• of -digeftion, and agrees with weak* ftomachs. It
■ makes but an indifferent defence for its life, and
.confeGuently not much diverfion for the fifher-
•man.    It is  well tafied; and as to  its fize,. is
much the fame wkhethe whiting.
Thefe are the different forts of fifh which ate.
-generally-taken at rock fifhing; though it often
"* happens, and. I have frequently feen crabs, as
i'large as thofe -which are fold commonly by the
.-*fifhmongers hi London for eight pence or nine
pence apiece,- taken the fame way. -Bu&athofe
who divert themfelves with catching crabs*
^fhould bait their hooks- with chicken, guts, or
cwith;the guts of fifh; and then agaia they muft
-obferve, that when they -bring a crab near the.
. -furface . of the water, to have their landing net
Teady; or to weigh him, or take him on fhore
.with all the expedition imaginable, otherwife he
• will quit his holdV and drop down alrnoft m. foea*
;~as/he perceives he is out of the^.water,
-iGf^S E A   F I S H I N G.
' THE manner of fea fifhing, as. ufed by gen-
"tlemen for recreation and paftime, is wfeenethfey-
iSfia .-; "V &ft-     - are The:1G#NTLEMAN &NGLER;
are upon.the fea, either in a boat,   wherry, a*
feip. fcft^fr
When in  a'boat,.vjta|herry, they feidom fifh
or catch  any Other  than whiting and haddock ; . the  former of thefe  is moft  frequeaf|jfa
taken, the. latter coming by mere .accident;
?&f MH I TI IS G.
"WHITINGS are fuch innocent food^anft
fo well "known, -that it would be loft time
to give a defcription of them, or their virtues.
If you have a mind to divert yourfelf with this
kind of fifhing, yon^Sirift firft "know where to
find the place where whitings refort, and the
fureft; method 1 can lay down, which I may
venture to affirm without exception, is this:
when you have put off from the fhore, obferve'
diligentfy, and look out for the fea guHs; and
when;s#ou perceive where they hover, and. efpecially when, they-fly down, and ieem to dip themfelves in the water, you may from thence conclude that a fcale -of whitings -it1 there. For
as in the fummer time they keep as near the
furface pf the fea as poffible, the gulls fly down
and wound them with their .bills;   and when' The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
they are   either dead, or difabled from making
their efcape, the gulls then fed upon them.
Having  difcovered where  the   whitings are,
you muft caft anchor there, and prepare your
fifh tackle: you will not have occafion ?to ufe a
rod, which is here altogether ufelefs. You muft
faften- one end of your line to the infide of the
boat, which muft be a pater-nofter line, with half*
a -dozen hooks, each half a yard diftant from the
other; and having baited them with hairy worm*
.{which are the ^noftinticing .baits of .any, if you
canget^hem, if not, you muft ufe- the lob, or
the marfh worms), then caft it into the -fea.
You need not wait long before you draw it up ;
neither have yon any occafion to hold it in your
hand, to know when the fifh bite ; for as whitings
are a •very greedy fifh, they wiH quickly gorge
the bait, and by that means make themfelves faft:
to your hooks. Thus you may divert yoyrfelf,
till you are in a manner tiijed with your fport -:> j
and I have been in company with fome gentle-,
men at -this dhserfion, when, upon coanfcng.the
number we have' taken in an afternoon, mine
amounted to tweisry^four dozen.. This perhaps.
may feemincredible to fome ; but thofe.1Vho are
acquainted. .with, this . method of fifhing,, can af-,
firm the probability of  what \ jbaye affcrted;
i ¥ z for too    The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
for I have known a much larger number taker*
in the fame -{pace of time. Nor is it at all
unlikely, if we confider how" voracious whitings
are, and if the. true method be p'urfued in fifhing for them: for as foon as you have taken
one   whifing. • from   the hook,   you  put   on   a
j ffefihebait, and drop it into the fea; fo that it
is ten to one if one hook or another has not a
, whiting: hung to. % though you drawanp never
fo.-fefo
Of  H A&D 0 C K.
I;N flfsipe asd colour the haddock refembles
a cod much more thsm^any other fifty, when full
grOwn. It is Well tafted, fleaky, and affords
good notlriillftSen*; but yet it is reckoned acoarfo
Ml.
The  fitfell fort  of haddock's   are  often fold
f&r'krge whitings3, and the middle fize for. young^
cods.
When yofc fifh for then?, your liae rrvttft be:
deep in. the-'wateVy and yo»r/hook hailed with'
two or three lob worms: yonar tackle muft.be
ftrong, for they ftruggle hard, and are noteafyto
be overcome, efpecially if they have arrmd»i^lif
tolerable growth. The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.    101
. As to the other part of fea fiftiing, it is in a
ihip when under fail; your line ought to be fixty
fathom in length, a large hook affixed to it, and
a piece of lead fufficient to keep it as deep under water as poffible; and your -line* is to be
made of hemp, and faftened to the gunwale of the
flrip.
Cod,, mackerel, and large.haddocks are the £fb
tduaftly taken this way, and fometimes ling.
fChe bait for them, except for the mackerel, is
a piece of. raw beef; and it is fcarce poffible
co feel either; of them 'bite,, .even though you
hold the Jine in your hand, by reafon of the
.continual motion of the fhip, efpecially if flic
snakes at^Way. X ihall at prefent treat only of
the mackerel. f#fjfr*^|
Of   MACKEREL-.
A MACKEREL, is a fifh fo weHknown, that
it -needs not any defcription; and it is in yain
to fifh for. them, except when the fhip lies
by, or is becalmed. A piece of fcarlet cloth
hung upon a hook, is the firft bait that is
ufed, imd which never fails ©f anfwering the indent it Was defigned for. From itence arofe the
common faying, a fcarlet coat is a mackerel bait for
the ladies.
F 3 When lot   The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
When you have taken a mackerel, cut a thin
piece off from the' tail, a little above the finj-
and place it upon your hook, and you need not
fear taking many of them. Thus one or two
will ferve for baits, tiH you are tired with tbfc
fport. One mackerel, if drefled as foon as it it
taken, will be preferable to a dozen that ar»
brought to fhore; for as it is a rich fifh in its
nature, it is the fooner fubject to decay, and to
lofe its relifh. The common method of dreflmg
them on Clipboard, is to fplit them, and broil
them on the coals, and to put fome butter to
them. Thofe who have never tailed them dreffed
'after this manner, can fcarcely conceive what a
delicious flavour they have; and there is as
much difference between one that is drefled Immediately, and one drefled as foon as brought
On fhore, as between the latter and one that is;
fold in London. A mackerel that is bleeding'
frefh requires not any gaofeberries, or rich favce,
to fet it off; nothing being, more palatable and
pleafant.  $<j$ij$
As gentlemen and ladies,' who; live near the
fea'fide, frequently divert themfelves,- during the
fummer feafon, in catching fhrimps and prawns ;
it may not be improper (though not very congruous to the title of this book) . to give inftrucr
tlons to thofe. who may have an inclinatioa
fc'*!''"'? to The" GENTLEMAN ANGLER,    joj
to fpend an hour  or two in this kind   of paf-
time.
The time of the tide muft be punctually observed ; thateis, thofe who intend to divert them- -
feive3 in taking fhrimps and prawns, muft be'
at the fea fhore, ready to go upon the rocks as
foon as the tide begins to- leave them. A net
muft be provided in the fhape of a cabbage
net, but deeper, and the mefhes fmaller; this
is to be faftened to a bow with a handle, the
fame in fhape- and-1 fize- with a- tennis-ball-1
racket.
This being~ provided, obferve the hole3 or
hollows between the rocks, and efpecially thofe
in which there are many fea weeds, for under j
them the fhrimps* and prawns take flicker. All
that you have to do, is, to thruft your net as-
clofe to the fide of the rock, under a part of
thofe weeds; then take it up, and turn out
what you have taken into a pail, or little tub :*
proceed thus from one part of the hole to another, till you think you have taken what was in
it, and fail not to try the fame place twice or
thrice; for the fifh, when difturbed, will fhift
their ftation. I have takes fometimes five, and
at other times eight hundred, in an hour's time.*
by this method.
F 4 A^
\g^B  C   *•* .0
An Explanation of technical ^ftfords and
Phrafes ufed by the fair Angler; digefled
in an alphabetical Order.
A,
/APPARATUS:—In this word'is"included in
general all the fifhing tackle, of what kind or
nature foever, which the angler fhall at any time
make ufe of; as wax, filk, hooks, plummets, lines,
rods, &c. e
B.
.4t4*^&>rrfeda knot in a hair or link of a line,
and is often occafioned by the twifting of an eel;
which, if not rectified in time, will caufe the
hair or link to break in that place.
To bed .-—Hairs are faid to Jbe^ or^.^; well
fcedded, when" .they twift kj#d|^. £o  thatvS^
F A link
j io6   The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
Ill
i
link is equally round in every part which cannot be effected if there be a flat hair among
them.
Bedding'-—This is a term given to the fub-
ilance, whether filk, wool, &e. of which the body
of an artificial fly is compofed.
Beard;—The beard, is that part of the hook
which is a little above the point in the bending
of it: if it be too fhort or blunt, ^the angler will
not catch any fifh 5 for the beard-is the chief
part of the hook which holds faft the fifh.
A Blind,-—*'Is a part of a ditch, hedge, or row
of fmail fhoots, or any thing elfe a little more
than knee high, at the edge of the Water, to
prevent the angler being cfifcerned by the fifh. If
one that is natural cannot be found, an artificial
one muft be made.
A Brace, — /. e. two; as a brace of carp,
trout, &c.
A Break, —Is a knot in a joint, defigned for
an angle rod, which muft be cut clofe and rafped
till it is fmooth and level with the other part of
the joint.
C.
To Chine • —As, to chine a%dmon, a term ufed v
t© cut upr a falmon, and no other fifh,        wfr&fi
m &
% The GENTLEMAN ANGLER.   *o;
To cock :—A float is faid to cock well, when it
is fo equally balanced by the lead, a little above
«the hook, that it fwims upright in the water,
which is the pofition it fhould be in.
To Dab, — Is, when you have placed a fly
upon your hook, to fhake it over what part
of the river* you ■ think fit, and let it fell-gently
on the furface of the water; and this kind of
exercife is called dabbing..  .
A Drag,«— Is a piece of ir#a refernbling four
hooks, placed back to back; the fhank is four
inches long, and a hole at the upper part of it,
to which a long hemp line is faftened. The fair
angler makes no ufe of this, except.to fave his
line ; p when a bough, knot of grafs, or any*
other thing fwims down and bears againft his^
line, wbich he apprehends may break it; he^
then caft% his drag, and draws it out; - or elfe,
if .his line breaks, or flips from the top of
lus rod, luf mrows in his drag, to pull it out
gently.
To Dr?fi,<—- is a term, ufed by an .angler* in
an artificial fly;   as when he cuts off any ot
the filk, woo^ &c. .that flares out of the body;
F 6 .Mrn&f and
J mm
*o3   THE GENTLEMAN ANGLER.
"* and wheft he alfo cuts off the fuperflUous ends of
the wings, whert they are too long, &c.
A Drift:—this is a term given to anglers and
fifhermen, when four or more are in company
together, and then they are calfed a drift.
To Dub,—is a technical word to make an artificial fly.
||
To Eafe, — is when the angle rod refts Upon
the fork, the angler puflies it gently forward;;
and this is to be done when a carp, or any
other fifh is at thWlbaite^ which nibbles a while
before he takes the Tsait&ito his mouth5- and that?
he may not be checked, the angler eafes dff lifeline. I^pll
Eyes, —are fmafl -jffiees of brafs wire putted*
in a direct line from one end of the rod to the
icfther, to guide the line and lisp'It From twlH*"
ing, which comes from the Wince or Wfee'el; and
this method is ufed in angling for any large or
ftrong fifh, which require to be humourla, as falmon, barbel, carp, trout, &c.
Fl
< Fair: «— this is an epithet given to anglers* *
in oppofition to poachers |l|fhe former making.
angling flfim-GENTL'S'MAN ANGLCR.    109
#figling "his divetfion, and the latter his profit,
not caring what indirect methods he ufes to catch
*fii.
5K*^r,*~ts a term of art, and fignifies to carve
or cut up a chiib, or chevin.
A Flaw, — is a gouty part in a hair, bigger
than any other part; which being rotten, will
make the hair break in that place.
A Float,—-is a piece of cork cut in the fhajw^of
an egg, but more £Si«ted at the fmatl end** it
has a fmail hole in it from top to bottom, through
/ Which the line pafles, or into which a-piece of
jftidk or a jwece of quiM is put, to keep the line
Hetfdy. There is alfo another made of a quill,
which is moft frequently ufed; and the defign
di a float ls~*o give you notice when a fifh bites,
which you will know by the float being drawn
under water.
A Fork.   Vi&eReJt.
Fry/bed, is a term ufed fo* a eliub or chevHi
when it is drefled; as to ^rufh, 1, e. to drefs.
G.
To gobbet - —as, to gobbet a trout, /. e. to cut it   *
up.
*f° gorge, — t.' e. to fwaHowj as, the fifh has
gorged the hook,
Grabble I -
1
li
no The GENTLEMAN ANGLER*
Grabble: — to lie upon the grabble, is when %
running bullet, or flat piece of lead, keeps the
line firm on the bottom of the river ; fo that the
link   to which  the  hook is  faftened may play
' aboujjpvith the current of -the water.
H.
To halteY:—-This term is ufed by the fair angler
in no other fenfe than to fecure and keep alive
pike, carp, or any fifh in-the river, which is performed after this manner: The angler, takes a
piece of a hempen 'line, *of what length he thinks-
fit, and putting one end of it twice through the-
gills of the fifh, but not through, the mouth, he
fattens it, and ties the other end to a flick on
the fhore, or to the bough of a tree, or to
long grafs; and cafting the fifh into the water,
leaves it there to fwim about, and feed, as far-as
the length of &$ line will permit*
To bang:—An angler fs faid to hang a fifh,
when he has fattened his hook in him.
Barbour:—The harbours of any fifh, are the
weeds, or the ftumps of tree|, to which they retire either to gorge or pouch their food or prey,,,
or to fheltef them, from the heat of the. weather,
or
vyy
q* ^The GENTLEMAN ANGLER,   ivt
er to keep them warm from the inclemency of the
winter.
Hill: — To go to hill, is a phrafe ufed by
tmglers,' when carp, • roach, or dace leave the
•great fivers,- and go into the little ones to
»ipawn.
Hold:—A fifh is faid to break his hold, when
he gets clear from" the hook. ~
Hole,—Is a deep water where fifh frequent; and
when an angler has made-'fuch a difcovery, he is
faid to have-found a good hole.-
1
I
Jacks, — An appellation given to fmail pike,
till they have attained to the length of twenty-
four inches.
K.
To kink,—Is a term ufed in trowling, when the
line is twifted between the top of the rod and the
"ring, through which it ought to run freely ; or
elfe, when part of* ,the line twifts about the other
part that is coiled in your left hand. SilklinU
are very apt to kink. JI
1
is
h& *|T«E<JENTLEMJkiT ANGLES;
To Leap**—A fifli is faid tov lea|^ when he
fprings out of the water, either through, wanton-
nefs, or .for any other caufe; and this is almoft ipe-
culiar to trout:Mt falmon. ■ '■■■
A Leap, — Is a fall of water from an eminence, .
br^place of fmaller height, which feveral fife ten-
deavour to furmount, in order 40 go to fpawn. If|
on the other fide theieap, a wire, or bafkets, or
hurdles are placed, to receive the fifh and prevent
them from efcaping; and as this is generally
done to catch falmon, it is then called a falmon
leap.
A Leafk,  i. e. Three y—- as a leafh of jacks,
+       pike, trout, &c.
Link — A link is more or lefs hairs twifted to« ^
gether; and a line is made of feveral links faftened
to each other with a fifherman's knot.
I Loops — Are pieces of leather, of different fizes,
^  fewed together, and put over all the joints of the
rod, when it is disjointed, to keep them tight and
clofe.
P.
Pafe — W the pith of a roll] kneaded in the
band until it comes to be as tough as dough;
fome- r'THE GENTLEMAN ANGLER.    n3
fometimes vermilion, honey, &c. is mixed with
it; and at certain feafons this ferves for a bait,
(being placed upon the hook according to art) for
certain fifh, as carp, &c.
Play — To play a fifh, is an angler's phrafe for
humouring him according to his nature, by permitting him to fwim .which way he will; or,
.when you have .obliged him to return, to let hini
go a different way if he pleafes. It is playing a
fifh, and not letting him efcajL that the angler's
fport confifts in, and in which his fkill and judgement is fhewn, j. . ^Sto
To plumb—Is to fathom the water,'to know the
depth thereof, and the evennefs of the bottom:
this is done with a fmail piece of thin lead rolled
about the hook which is called a plummet.
To pouch—Is av term peculiar to jades and pikes, ---
when they fwallow their prey.
To prime—Any fifh that leaps out of the water* -
4$ faid to prime,, -except trout and falmon..
To -quoit-—Is a-term ufed in tftraling, and fig-
usfies to gather up the line with the thumb and
the two next fingers, in fmail rings of an~equ*l~
fize.
as^fc. ***  TSE.GEKTLEJylA^^ifc^l
E\
Kreft—Is a forked piece of flick with the forkedf
end {landing upright, aid the other''end faftened
upon the ground. It- is called a reft, becaufe one
part of thexanglerrs rod lies upon it.
To rife—Any fifhis-fakl to rife when he endea**
I vours to take* a real cr an.artificial fly on the furf-c
face of the water.-
To run^Thh is properly applied to a jack or
pike, in troufihg; who when he has feized thi
bait, he nfes to his harbour to pouch it; after
which he runs again, and the angler is to <ftrik*~
lam...
Sauced—As, the tench is well fauced ; a phrafe
ufed by anglers, and fignifies well drefled: it is
peculiar to a tench.
A Scale—Any great number of fifh in the water
which cannot be eafily numbered is called a fcale*
To ftour—To cleanfo; as worms are fcoured
from their filth anc^ dirt, with mofs or fennel,
&c. &c
A Scoure — Is a gravelly bottom, over which
the water is.a little rough and fhallow; here gud-
^ 5TtfE GENTLEMAN ANGLER.    &$
geon, trout, roach, and dace like to come at cer-
tainTeafons.
A Shank— Is that part of the hook to which- the
-Hue is whipt.f
& To Jhoot—Any fifh fc^faid to fhoot, when, upon
the approach of the angler, or of any beaft to the
Water fide, it fwims away.
1    Sided—As the haddock is fided; i. e. it is oai* vL
ved o/cut up.
*   Solayed — A technical term for a bream being yC
cut up.
Splated—A pike is faid to be fplated when it -*
is carved up in the difh.
, Splice—To fplfce, in angling, fignifies, to jou|
the" broken parts of the rod together, by cuttings
them into due form, putting wax between, and
then twifting it over with a waxed thread or. filk.!
A line alfo is faid to be fpliced, when, inftead of
knots, it is faftened by placing the ends of the
links together and twifting it over with waxed
filk, &c.
Stand—A ftand is a convenient place by the
Water fide; and it is either natural or artificial;,
that which is artificial-is made by cutting away the^
boughs, weeds, or long grafs which- obftruct a
paflage to the river- ii6    The GENTLEMAN ANGXERe
A
Stout— Is an epithet given to a large fifh, that
ftruggies hard, and makes good fport.
Strike—Strike is a terra ufed -by an angler when
he gives a moderate jerk at the time the fifh takes
the bait.a.from hence came the phrafe, >f he •
" ftruck a ftout fifh."
Swim—A fwim, is that lengthofwater in whiefl
the float fwims along the ftream as far as the rod
and line will conveniently permit.; and if it be
clear, and free from weeds, grafs, ?or boughs, it jfc:-
called a good fwim. .
£nappii%**-iks a snethdd ufed by anglers m cgfcch-
ing jacks or pike.with a live bait.. •■• E
Thrajh—Is the grafs, weeds, hay, or any other
filth or dirt which fwims down the river, and incommodes the angler.
Trim—Vide Drefs.
To troul—Signifies the manner of catching jacks
or pike with a dead bait, in oppofition to fnapping;
and this kind of action is called trouling.
To troul at home — Is a phrafe ufed by anglers,
and given as an inftru&ion to young beginners.
It advifes them to troul firft clofe to the river fide,
and then on the right and left hands; left, if a
jack I The GENTJ
lNGLER.    117
jack or pike fhould lie there, the fudden approach
of the angler fhould cauie him to flioot away.
Trounchened—Is a term ufed by. anglers, and appropriated to cols when they are cut up.
Tujked—This is a term appropriated to a barbel,
. which is faid to be tufked when he 'is cut up- its
the diuV'
To veer — fignifies to let .out- your line from*
your wince or reel, after you ftrike a large fifh,
4eft in checking him too fuddenly he-break his
: liold or your line.
W.
'-Warp—A rod is faid toebe warped, when any
. part of it bends or is crooked -by the heat of the
fun or otherwife.
Weigh—To weigh.a fifh, is to lift-it out<of the
water with a rod and line only, and not making
ufe of the landing net or landing hook. This is
a very imprudent way; for if it be a flout fifh,
it will flounce as foon as taken out of the water,
and very probably will break his hold or the
To fri$ Thk gentleman angler.
. *Tb whip — Is a term given by. anglers to thofe
who ufe the artificial fly; and the action or manner is called whipping.
A Wince, is abrafs inurnment affixed to the in*,
fide of -the ^jfci-near the but end, round which a
line of thirty or forty yards is rolled, which is to
Ibe veered off when you have hooked a flout fifhv
■that you may play him with fafety; and to be
rolled up again when you -perceive him to return
upon you, left he entangle the line^ and thereby
ft uftrate your expectation.
'] I
IKBEX **»» 1
N       D      EX
¥ag*
Xntrjoduwxon,^ ;—     — t
Advice neceflary to every angler,         — :%x
Angle rodjs, fhoots, ortopjointe,           -*• 4
Angling mftructions in general,            — fio,
Apparatus orneceiTaries with which anglers . p;a'-^
ought to be furnifhed,          —          — 2
Artificial flies, which are the beft,           -— 1 £
How to make them.   , :-r      —       16, 17, 18
Artificial minnow, how to make one,      — 30
Bait, an univerfal and infallible one,      — 2$
Cod bak,-to keep and-preferve alive,      — 2$
Baits, how to preferve them,     —       — 21
Floats, how to make them, a «£j —        — ajjj
a cement fos them,        —        — 13
1        another cement,aVffi ?44 *f o   ***r-. iy
Hair and Indian grafsj taw to chufe them, $
LrftlJ^''' Hair
-Tafr--^ "Page
9
—       —       io
I   N   T>   BtjSC.
Hair, how to dye it green,        —
■■ ■ yellow,       —
■ — ruflet,        —
•*  •  ■ > ■■ ■ brown,        —
 .,twj1 tawney,      —
Hair lines, how to-make them,
Hooks, how to make them,        —•
how to whip them,
how to be baited, with a ^veminnow,
, ■        gentle,
, ■ fob worm,
InftrucHons general for angling,^ -—
Pafte, an excellent fort for a chub*       —
Anotherpafte, —— — <—
Iflbw to make pafte for angling, —
Quills, to dye red,      — *—» I—
Of   F I S-.ff.
Barbel, * — ■—
Bfeak, — ••—
G&feara, — —*
Ball -heads,    :§&--■ -—- *** '
Carp, htw to angle for in riveis,
3S
20
i(4 I   N   D   E   X.
Chub, or Chevin, —
Dace, — — —
Eels, — —
^el pouts, —• —
Flounders, — —
£5nd*eon», — —-
ling, or Umber ■
Loach, ' ■
Luce.   See Pike,. —
Minnow, or Penk ——-
Millers Thumbs..  See Bull-heads,
Mullets,; — ■
Perch, •-   ■ * • ■
Pike, how tof roul for them,
fnap for them,,
r*enk.    See Minnow, —
See Ruff.. ———
Ruff, and'Pope, —
Uauonfry,. —
S ilmon peale, - ——
Telich, how to angle forthem in ponds,
..■■-.. rivers j
*4
85
73
82
7*
87
4S
$6
87
75
61
47
51
86
ibid.
\ 76
77
86
34
39
40
7°
71
4f
Umber. tzz INDEX.
Umber.   See Greyling,'        ■ —
Appendix                         ——• —■
Angler's phrafes, an expfenation of them,
Flounders, of the felt water,       — —
Haddock,                 •             —- —
Makerel,               —            — —
, Rock fifhing,              •—. ——
Rock whking,                — —-
Sea bream,              ■                       . ■ ■ ■
Whiting,                —             ^— —        98
whiting pollock,                — —       96
Page
105
95
100
ior
89
96
94
THE        E   N   I>.
1x1 BOOKS juft publifhed by G. KEARSLEY, at
Johnfon's Head, No. 46, in Fleet Street-
The following ititerefiing Compilation has been received
with the Jirongejl Marks of Approbation, particularly among the commercial and trading Ranks of
+ , Society, for whofe Accommodation it if fold for
One Shilling only.
A TABLE of TRADES, for the afliSiSce of
Parents and Guardians, and for the benefit
of thofe young men who wifh to profper in the
world, and become refpectable members of Society.
Shewing at one view what a Mafter in every
profeflion requjreswas an Apprentice Feej what a
Journeyman can earn, and what he can board
for; alfo^^vhat fum is neceflary to fet up as
Mafter in any particular Trade or Calling; with
fome inte^nefting advice to Apprentices, Mafters,
and Parents.
N. B. Thefe Tables contain upwards of threer
hundred profejjions.
THE BEAUTIES OF STERNE.
Including the moft interefting parts of Sterne's
Wos ks, particularly the interefting Stories of Cor~
poral Trim, Lefevre, Trim's Brother, the Filler
de Chambre, the Monk, Dead Afs, the Dwarf,
the Biguine, Maria, the Sword, the Starling,
Shandy's Juftification, the Supper, the Pie Man,
the Sermon on a bad Confcieace, the Hiftory of a
Watch Coat; and a variety of Reflections and
Anecdotes, together with his Life.. The excep*
tionable parts, or loofe expreflions of this elegant
writer, are here omitted, in order to render it an
entertaining parlour-window volume for readers of •
every clafs, particularly youth of both fexes.—-
It has alfo been introduced into feveral refpectable
fchools. Jn one pocket volume, price 2s. 6d. fewed.
The .BOOKS PRINTED FOR G. KEAR9LEY-
1
The Gentleman's GrftcE in his Tour
through France ; with an'account of the public
carriages by lzttd and water., and the hours of their
departure and arrival. Written by an Officer
who travelled on an (economical principle. To
which is added, A Correct Map of all the
Post Roads, containing the dHfcances df the
towns, laid down in a familiar manner. The fe-
. venth edition, with confiderable additions. Particularly an accurate account of the different routes
through Italy, and the expence of travelling
from ftage to ftage.    Price 3s. 6d.
An Abridgement of Captjei** Cook's
Three Voyages round the World—The Firft front.
1768 to 1771 *. the Second, from 1772 to 1775 ;
and the Third and Laft, from 1776 to 1783. To
which is added, Captain FurnEaux*s Narrative, during his feparation in the fecond voyage.
The Wjhole containing an account of every inte-#
refting tranfaction, and an accurate description of
all the New Difcoveries,. with the cuftoms and
manners of the Inhabitants. To which is added,.
Captain Cook's Life, with the particulars of his
Death,, at full length, written by Captain King.
Thofe who have the care of youth of either fox,,
cannot put a more entertaining work for the hours
of relaxation from ftudy, into their hands. The
whole is comprifed in two pocket volumes, price
6s. fewedr or 7s. bound. Each volume may be-
had feparate, price 3s. fcwed, or 3s. 6d.-bound,.  i Er
ill tAjXv^    *A>    V^
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