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Nepal's Political Rights of Passage International Crisis Group Sep 29, 2010

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NO NO ' '
fff FTTftftft Ff T FTft Tfftft^ Fftftftt TTTTTTT ftft TF
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^° (ftftF FTftfr TT TtfTT tfttf f.   ^O^, Nepal's New Alliance, 'i^
ftTTTT ~iOO<i, |
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fttr ftrRft ttt Rf tttt ftft m  1 fttr m trt «. ftr
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ftfFTTf FF? FT FIT FRFR WOTTTRR FFTFTTTf TTTF
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FFft FTBf ?" FF FTT ftTFT RftF FffTFF FF FftfT T Fift
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*IFftl Rsjiift T^T^I^iil TTft ^RlHlfei rft ttt^tpt t^WT TnffttY I srftft
ff 3 ftftT ft T^TTfi" "g^?- TTftfTFTTT ftf T^f ft frfTTT TTFft
s?71 "Restructuring Paper on a Proposed Project Restructuring of Nepal
Emergency Peace Support Project", ff ST ftft, "R "R Tfftf "R 01 O | ftrT
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TT: TTTR TrFTfTT TTTTT +14**1,T^TT TFTflT TTT ^m T TrgTT
TETfTT TTTTTtftR T^JTftt T+TTtTTTTfftf Tf ftf^FI "UN Peace
Fund for Nepal Fact Sheet", ^"TTftft, 1YF?^0<10I ^ft fttftftt
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ftftrj   ^tskfii+i ftf, fnft TnTfftT TTTrrftt frTTTTi "g^r-
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n Tfftf ^ono | -g^T" ftfftt TTTfTT TFTTTTT T^ TTT" Ttfrt
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fftf FFftF Tft RTFTF Ffl FFFTTTT "TTTRt, TFTf TTTFT FRFT
fftT fftt FTFFWT Fffft Fftft TTTTftt TFftft TTFF? I ?°
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Tftr TffftT TTTTTRfTFF fftrf Tfftt ffft^ | TT Tar T Tf|Tftft"
TTTfTT ft" Rftf Tft TRT? Tp TTFt T%F t+tstt *\\ly*\ afftft
TTTTTffr fftrf Rf TTTT ft^TTFI "Land commitments in Nepal's peace
process only partially fulfilled", The Carter Center, FT ^ ° 1 ° I
^ TTTTfft TTTT fftftft" oTtftFTTR ftft "TTTTTT ftTTTRT TF
^oo% TT TftTft TlfTTTT ^ Tff^TT TTTTTlf TTTTT TTTft fr
TTTTt TTTTTfTT Tftr TRT TTTFTT TTITTT fft | "Distant from durable
solutions: Conflict induced internal displacement in Nepal", Norwegian
Refugee Council and theIDP Working Group, FT ^00^ I  TaTTRfTTTT T
F^rftftiTTT fftrr ftiFTTT ttttRtt" tfrnfft ^Rb^^H-aft
fftftr tt; ?,ocm tt ttr TRft TffftTTr Tftrr ttttttir
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"Arms import not against CPA: Rawal", Republica, "R1 frfTtt ^O^O |
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"NA recruitment must continue: CoAS", Republica, H3 frfTtt RO^O |
"Army seeks Rs. 118b for strategic plan", Republica, 11  TTfT ^ 010 |
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Frederick Gaige, Regionalism and National Integration in Nepal (^^vl,
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fWW ^ I 'Tarun Dasta against NC principle: Koirala", ekantipur.com, 11
FF ^ ° 1 °; "Cong at variance over new squad", The Kathmandu Post, 1 3
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TTTTFFT7 ftf TTTW WTI FTTFTTRf: "Nepal at a crossroads: the
nexus between human security and renewed conflict in rural Nepal",
International Alert, TTTtW ROO\S; "YCL to help authorities nab crooks",
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3TFft FTfftft "WW FTFftrTFFT ft FFTFF fftWOT FFTftt I
NO
F^rrrrft Rfftf Fft ftftt frft Rtf Fft t ftfttftt ftrft
FT¥IFTTFTTTf ftFTfftFFtl TTFftfftF? TTdfFFtft FFFTf TTTTTtftr?
TTTTTT ftFgfF I Fft TTdTFT FFTF FFFT ftTTFFFT FFFRF FtT
Fft TTd FWfT fttftr? I w FdlHFlR* FFft FTOTTTF Tfft
FTFTTft FTFTTft fftrf TTFF?!^0 FftRFft FF?^ FTft
TFTFFTft iNdlfd*iul*l TffTWTT FTTT Tfft 3TTWT TTTFF
flildd iNil*l TTf Hldl*! FFFT fttft Fgftr T iNAMId FTT TTF
FdTT TTTtft Tftftnf FT1F FFT TTTRJgfF I ^
^ WfftfftnTft" WT FTWWT TTft T TTRftT t\41*1141 F<?41d+1 TTTf
TRWWrft "TTF-ffttTT TTRT" ft TRT ftrT+T ^f T "ffT+T Tfff
TFffT" n "TTFffTW Tiff ffT" Tft WTWT ftf+T WTI "Nepali
Politics: People-Parties Interface", in David Gellner (ed.), Resistance and the
State: Nepalese Experiences (TTf fftft, ROO^yy. ^ U.V I "iNdlfd +
ftftwf TT+TTRW? %T TWR "WTTT+f ftr TT Tftt | TWrft Tft
TTTTTft TTWn TfTT TTTTfft ft ftf ft TTTf f^ft ftr TTFRft I
fftftT ftft?TT TTTT "TRRT TTTT ft TRTTft TTF FW T?WT ft TTRRT
WTt I " Wf WTF, "Obstacles to Local Leadership and Democracy", in David
Gellner and Krishna Hachhethu (eds.), Local Democracy in South Asia (New
Delhi, 2008),T.  RC I
n% "TTWtT TTft TTRR ft? TFW?" FTftrfft? TfTT TlRrfftT WTTTT+T
TFfT TTTTTTT Tf RFlTWft TTWT f<WIFI+l FTTT? I "Relief teacher
quotas for current FY annulled", Republica, "RY ftpTtt RO<\0 | TrTTTT+T
TRfTW TTTT f FTTTFT TRftTRT fft TRT ftft I   TFftf, TTTTWfl T
nfttnft fn wrw tttt TTTT^wff wfftrTFT7- Tftftt ftftf ttft?
WTfTRITft TRftff+ T^rrft TTTTF TTITf TTTTWf fT WT I "TFftf,
TTTTWft T fftftf ftTT ft fftft+T TTftft?'', =7ft vffiw, ift RO<\o |
fftftft RTTT fftrfTT ftm TTTR ftT TTRT TTFT+FTFft i, Tft
T#TfjRTT ft TfTTtft TTTTftn WWT+f fftftfl TTTTftft Tl + ft TTT
Rf TTTTTfFF TTT T?TTftft "WtRrT ftftft" WTTT TTf fftn T
TTTT+T ftm ftf TTFft fftftf TTTTfTR TTTWT TTTTT+f TrftT T
T+Tftt+T TTTTfRTFTW TTftw ff :fT+ TTTT+T TtfTTTT fffrTFT7 fftft
TTFTWt tftft I "Unity's illegal operation rakes in Rs. 6 billion", Republica,
R. 1 Tfftr ^ 010 T "Unity scam: Our collective failure", Republica, R. K. f
RO<\0\
Fftf  "Nepali Politics: People-Parties Interface", nfft TTfftT, T.
1^1-1^^I
n<1 "TRWRT "gftf fttftf" Wft W ^° ftf^W TWT nftft TTTW
FfFTf I   TTTRTTTTft fft fTTT ^T Trftft TftFTFft TTfttft WT
nfft7^ I Tift Rttt? t fftrftf Trrfffn WTI FTftfr wrft wwiff,
T+ftft, «. ftftr Roo% I Rrifi + I FT? TTT nTTTft+TT+fff w/n
TTTFTT ftf ft:   'W Rf TTTft TWrft  (TRT TTTTT ftD   TTFTT
 ^M=hl {MJ/dcrb «'<>-&/{
MjtQy WT tffiw/Fft7/ ft   1%Y,  ?<? 3L2w< ?o<}o
13
■fttWTFTTTTftTft   FTTFTTT   ftftft  T  ftTFT  FFTTTTFTT   Frft
NO
ftRtftt fft Tgf^ fftt FTfTrftt ttf ft FTFgfi   Ffft
FFTFTT "ftTWTWFWT FlfftF T tftfftFTT FftF, FTFFft ftWTfT,
+Hd4ft il^d^llHd fftFft TFTfttT TFRFF d<=l<-H I Ffff Hil^Nd*
ffFftiTF^ TftgfT I n? Ffftftt Ffttft F3fftf% TWT "5TTTFRRT
NO '     -N NO NO
FfftftTT Tffft FftRRRTW TTFFFRTT? ftftttrFFRRT TftgfTI
FTFT "dTFTT P^Rt) RdRJi 3TTTFT ^Kli *lft*df^^Hf FTFFF
TTft TRF FftF?, TWTF Frft FRFf TfFftt TTfFRT FTTT Flftf
FfttFWRf ftftr fftF FftF? T FfttFWTTf TROT ftft TFRT Tft
Tff?F?l ftt Fft FRftt FtFTfF fftftTFtft Tft fT FTT? T
TftfttftTftf TTftt FRTTT FTFRFT FRTFR ftft fT FFgf I nv
TftftT TTTTft fftft TTT Wffft I ftff+T TRWFTft mrft TTTTRf+t
ftftrfft   TTft+T   fftRl    TTTft   "T5TT   ftf   WWr   TTRftT   Trfftftt
nftfnftFTTfft tw ft+ft nfttnftFTft mri ^nrr wrr
T+Rf+rf fttTRTT ft I TTW fftT TTRftT nffnft T+Rf+ft ffl "
TTftftT WTT WTTiff, TftfW Roo% |  fftftf tttt Y/T.Y I
n^ TTTW RtTT, TRTTTT T ftRlFW ftftWTTTFT7 ft+T TR+Ttf
ftWRFlft TT TTfff frft TTTTTf+TTTTT £<-£<r1l ftlTTF fftw+T WTI
TTfttTT TTTT, WTTfft, ftTHR, TTTtt Ro 1 o | Trtftr T RfTTTTTT+T
ftWTFTWT ftftTTTT+T ftWTFTW ftt WW fftTTT7 | ftrftt Trfftr T
RlwIRW+l t>*IF<P*H ^TTixbl ftftft TTTT TTRftT WJ*\ fft<|41 TFf
ftft I wftftr TTWf, WTftft,T+rsnff; TTTT: Ro<\o | trr m" ft+T
"TTTTft TTF fftftf, "FTft yilll-fl+l Tiff TTRft TRR TTRT TfTTf+t
Wtm 1 o ftft 1 ^ FFF Tfftt fftftf I" fwRtt WTT, TTinftf,
WIH.ftprtt Ro<\o | TT, 4||fft+l TRT TlciF<P<! ftft TFTT" ilte^fl
"ffT+TTTft TRTTTT ftt T7" | TTT Trfftrn y6l3H+l f/^ ,wf? t+TT+t
Tiff Tft TfTFTTft Tftf I TTT Rwftt TTTT fTT+f TTWT T ftftf fft
TT+ ^r I" twRrt tttt, wwftrf, Tf+n (nfttnft), Rftt ftfr
TTTRRTT, TTTfW Roo% I
n? TTf  ^°°^   W  TTRftT  ff+TTFTft  fftWT  Tftftrrft  fffftf  T
ftftr+T ftten Trft ftftftftrft TftwiTft+ tttt TTftrftr tttt
ftft Tf l TTTFTTW Tiff, TTTtTT TlftrfftFT7 TWT TTRftT TTftftT
TfTTTlFTft TTTTTft RlT Trfftr |   ftfftf Tlftftrft 1K.K. I
nV:tWR7TftTwRft TTTftf WW ftf TTftft ftt+mft ftfTWT Rfft
T+TTfTTn ftfrwffFTTfft TTTTTT ftf ft I TTTf TTTTRT fftftr Tfftf
TWT ftftrwff ftftrTFTft TfTRT TTRTW TTfFTftF FTF FTFTFTF ff
TTWI   ftfFWT ftftrfft  ftf T Tft ftf TTWft RfTTTTT  ftt+
fftRrrn ftwtt Twrrf ftftg7 I wftftr tttt, wwRrf, Trftft,
SftsR Roo%; Pri_h4\iy ftrftt Ro<\o | TTT+T frft ftt+T ftft ftt+
WTI FTTFTTW Tift, fTT TTTTTT TWrf ftftTTFTft TRTftTT
+TtRtTW w4nttFT7Fft fT TSTFT fttFTft WTT TTTftf ftfTWT+T
WTTRT fcjaf TSTTWT T Tft   TF ftftftf Fftft   fFTTT TRTjf |
w^Rrr tttt wwiff, ftftTT, wftft,ftftw roo% \ tttt wm
ftf Wft+T  ftft" RFTTFTW  WTTT  TTfFTft  ftft  WRTn  ftft
TTW37 I   'ftwiTF FTTft FTTn wf WTTT" TTfFTft ftfF fftft WW I
WrftifttFT7 ftft TT t+rt+t Tiff TftFTTtft ft  iftajdj   fTFFTft
ftftnft TTT TftTT TTWT FWT TTfFTft ftrrft T+ftr TTWTI
WTTT TTfFTft ftFT ffWT TTlft ft ftidTId WT Tfftf I " TTftfT
TTTT WwRrf, Wf+R,TfIFTT, TTTTW Roo%
ftrftt FTTFTTT d*IH£l T fffttftTT fTTTTT TffttFTTd" TftfW,
TFFRT TTFT 3ft?FTFWTFT FFfTFTft TFTftft fF? I ^K K W FTFT
TRTTT FW T TftftT FTT FTFTFWf TTTFTTFT FftTTT ftftt
NO NO NO CN
fF?l FfttFFtft TftfttftTftf ftlTTT TTT dpRJ*l FlfftTTT
3ft?FTTFWTTf Tfft FTF fftFTftTT fT FTFfF I n5
"R.    H\%M\ «MR
iNdlfd* TFTF T TFTTT "ftTWTFTFWT fftTTT TfFft FW TTf
TftTHftftr WFT FTTtTTfttFF Ttftttrft Fftrrftftt "ftFFT Tft"F
ftfl nis FfttW FTFTFT TRFFFRfft FFTFTFTT ftft FFFTFF
Tftt I nc TFRTT "FTftft FFTFTTTTf TTFFTFF Fft TTft fFTFTT?
NO NO
Fftt T FTftft Ffft TFt fftFFTT? ft Tftftt gf I SRFFt fttWdW
TTF: TftftT TTT FTFTFF FT Hldlffd FWF TTTF fftftFFFftlF
m RRTFT+T  F+  Tn  nTWrft+TT+ff  WWT, "iN-flfd*   TTftftT
RFTTrwn frrftfT ftr Trfftr+T ftfr fftrr rftf i ft+" ftn TTrff
nfftrn TftrrTftf ftf fttr ftrft ftftT TftTj" wftfr wfr
WTTRrf, TTFTT, TTTfW   ROO\\    "YCL, YF bury hatchet for tender
moolah", The Kathmandu Post, 1^ fttTTTT ROOC, |
^^'blsRl'H TTTfT"T-d^Rf,<?yftFl,RftTi, Roo% |  TTTFTftTTftr
N2
ftTT %W T TTTTR ffWTT ff WW I WTTRT Trfftt, "TT Tift ftwRT
W1Tft1ff+   fftft7"   */PrfV<,   R<3   Tft    RO<\0;   3RfT   TRTt,    "Tft
ftrftfrftr t ftftw fnrrr" ftw, 1^ tRt ro<\o \ twt ftftff
wt? T-ftFT iiftyft fftrrn wft tw+1 ttttwt W ft ttwt l
TTftftT TTTT WTTiff, TTT, ftf ftt RO<\o | TT, T-ftFT ftftrft TTTTTT
TRTTTT TftRTT ftf TTTTTft ITfft WT TTT ftft Tftft | ftrftt
TTTFTTTT ftWT fftfrft ftf ftwft W+TTTT Tlfft^ | TTftftT
TTTT  WTTiff,  Tftft TTTft+R TTTT   (RT)  RFTT TTTftf ftrT,
ftrftt ro<\o i
nis Rtrt RriftrrtT Tf ro<\o tt ftrrft tttt Trftfrn ^.%
ftf^wft ttwif tRtf+1 ttf ft 31.1 ftftrftt ff Tftftft Rmr
WW ftl TfrfW+ft TTTTftT? RTT ftft WW (^Y.^ ftftTT) I
wft, TTftftT TTTRT ftft Tj ftrn «.YF ftftsiW fftrr ft" T WWT
TTTTFT7   Fftft   fftTTT   ftfTT   m.S   ftfsiW   fftl    "TWT   ftftftr
ttfwt;', ftf Frfftr I  TRwtftf wewnwrrft TTTTFWwft"
ftftftf WTTfTfTF fTRT 1 TTE~o TFFWTaft 1Y3 ftTsrrr^rrT^^r
W TTf Rooi^ TT ftTTRT+1 TTTT l^ftf" fftfti fttlT ftfTRT
TTRTWT TTTf TTRRT TFfn TWrftTTTRT nft ^1 TTf?TrffTTTTT+f
TTTT l^^ft W WTTTTWTftf TTf Rooi^ y Roo% ft WTTf
www.transparency.org/policy_research/ surveys_indices/cpi/2009/ TT TTWT
T71 TTT^T ftftf TTTTF T iNdldl+iT+l tRtTTFT7 WT" Fftftf
TTTTTW TTf, "Politics and corruption mar health care in Nepal", The
Lancet, Tf 3W, f.  ^31, 1 ^ ff R0<\0 \
nc TTRftrr TT+Ttt twt fft nftfftrTTft ftm fftwrft
nftfnftfTTF Tift ftf F+ W+T fftrr | TTf Rooc, tt nftfnftrnTT
Tift yidlF*? 4-MM41 TTT 'H^ld+l mT Tftf fTRT TFTT W+T fftrr |
W ftf TTT TFTTTft RTTT TTTTTftft" TTft tttttWTT ft WT frm"
TW Tn nfttnft Trrft+Tft twt fftff wfti twtrt ttw,
-nrlnftRTF" Tift w, ^iRity, iv ftrTtf^oTO i
 ^M=hl {MJ/dcrb «'<>-&/{
MjtQy WT tffiw/Fft7/ ft   1%Y,  ?<? WftW ?o<}o
?Y
TfF FT FTFTFT T TFT FFFFTTFF FtftFTF F=F fftFTFFfttF
FTTPW fF?fl m FTTTTTT fF FTTTTTfttFFTT TFTFTTTfft
TFTFTT TTTT ftTftf I FTFTTT fftWFTRFF FF FTT ftrftt FTFt
FTRft fftftt: FftTFFtft "TFRFF fftTTFTT TTTtft gJddFTFTftt TWT
Fft FWFTTRd ftft TTFft Fgftr T ftTFTTT ftft FfttFFTT ft
T?W FFTFftt ftRftgf I FTft FTFt FT? Tftt WfFF FTF TTFF
■gtfttl "^° FffF Roo\ TT FTTTTTTd FTfftffTTFfgf Fff TFRTF
FTftFTTTT FfttFftr? FTTF FTWt T Ffftftf TTTftft "FtWFTTFT
FTWt fftiW FTft Fft gflftTT fftFTF I
TTFFTT T?ft ftttftF? FTTTfttf TFft fftTTTT ftft fftrftt ftFft
NO NO
FFJgf, W"W"ft^TFFfftFTrrftFTTfFFFTTfftFfF?l FFTFTFTT
TTTtft, Tftf TTftft?d?FFFftftt FTTTT ^WFTTTlf ftft TffttftTftf
TTWRR FFRFftf FTFFTft FTTFTTT FFTFft FRF? I ^ ftftRW
FTFTft FTFT FTOTTft ftftft fTTT ft T TftftftT 3TTTFT
FFftft?FW?T TTftWT Fft FFgfF Tft FRT WfFFTT 4ifldd
FWFgil FTFTT fft wftftFTfft 3TTT?TF TFFT Fftftftt
TftTTTTT FFFT Fft*T Tgfrfft Fftt TTTF ftft gf, Fift TW
*|ft*df*l Hldlffd*! itH^dl FPit* FTFF FT FTFGFI*! ff?T
TftfTJ^
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TfFT ftfT FWfttl FFTTTFf T WRT Fftft FTFTFTT TTT
FTFTFFFT FTTftT fftftFTT FFTTFFTTTf ftftt fF FW FftTFT
FtrW ftftFTF gffl ^ Tftt T FST TRTfFT FTTTTfttFWTTf
d^T ftT FF Tfttftftf FFTF FFfFFTTTf FFTFF Fift I ^v
FTFTFTT «Tdli?*ftl FFFt dHiiftltl FF? Hldli?*ftl ddli^P*!
ftTTTT FFF FTTft gf I TTFft FTt "ftrWRrt T?R?TT ftt FTFTFWf
FTRTTRFf dl*BflH Fftft TTdf FTTTf FT1F ftft Tftftt gfl
FTFt Tfftftftfft ft fft FRftt TTT TTFft <=lf ftftcd T FT Tftft TTFT
F=F FFFFFftRftt FTTFft TftTTT?TTTf FFft fftft? Fft ftftT gfl
FST TfftF ftTFTTT TF TftftftF Ff? FTT ftrft Tft: 'FrfftftTTft
ft FWFFTTTf Tftt ftftft gfl fftTTTTf FfttFWT FWT WTFT
WW FfT TFF TFFTT gfFI ftWTFFTd" FfttFFTT TWt Fft
Fft?TT gfF I"*1"
Tftf T FFTF FTFFWf FFRFTWF FTSTTT T TTTFT fftftidl*!
ft, FTft FfftrftT ftft I   FFFTF T Wftftftt FFT FFTft Tftt T
1 NO NO CN
FST TTFf TTFT Fftr ftFTTTTT FTT FFTTTFFFT FFFft Frftft
WTF ft I FFTF FFfW T FTFft RTFFW FTFTftt FFT
FFftftT FTftt fftrftTR gfFI W iNdlP* FF T TFftftRT
TTWtd" TTTF FTTT fftfttW tftnjfttF? FTFFt TTft FFFRT
FgftTi'1" TTFftfftFW TTF: ftFT FRT TRrTT TTTtft FFTF
FTfWTTTf TROT fftftdFI ftt fftfTFFFTft FfttFWTTf FTTTft
FTTTT, ftFT TftftT ftFT T TTFFFTFT FftftRfftt FWT TFFF
FftFWFFTFgfFI TWTf FFTTTFT ftt fftftFft TTTTTft FWTTd
FTfftF TRJgfFI Ff? FTT TTTW Fftft ftftTWjft FTTFFT:
"TftfftFTTTf Tfft FFTF FTf FTRtrftt gf T FFTF FFfTTTf ftft
Tftf FTftF? I   FFTF FFfTft TTF FTTF fftft ft, Tftftt TTF
m WiRw TTTT T^wriffw, fftftr fftTTffFT7, FTTT: ^oovftprtt
N_ N_
ro<\o\ "iiiygi^M-ft R^k*ii eR^++l ftrr ff Rkdi+1 Rtt ftl
"Students go berserk over college tender",  The Kathmandu Post,   %.  fTF
roo% i   "fftrrTTT+T TTwrftrn fff? tttttf? tritttt w
ftWTWIW TTTT ft+t FTT W+t TJ |   tRR Tift TTTTT WTI "FTftfr
TTTT WwRrf, fTTTTTW, ftftrTT Ro<\o |
H%l^d WTTTWnftf, TTTfT, RY ftftr Roo% |
^ "ftRn <NdlR+ +kt<1 ww fftf i w, tfwni wrftft+TT
TftrWI"WiRl'H WTT Wdftdf,TTTRtRtTTT WW,V ftfTtt^OTO |
W TTTftff+ TTTT WTTTW "Tlfft ftft Rn ftftg71   T+f TiTT ftfftfl
^ TTTFTTW TTrfft,  Tf Ro<\o   ftftrn fWTRT nftfTfft T f+T
+ lft+ftfH+l ^|yft+ Rctk^ Tftft yit£f+l +|f+ftF<?41d ft FFT
fT ^TTf I   "Curfew in Simkot after NC, Maoists clash", The Kathmandu Post,
c ftftr ro<\o i Tf ^00^> ft wrr TTTfrn nftfnft t rwt
wft+rfFT7ftFn FFT+f "ffTT ft TTft I TTRftT nftfnftFTft TRR Tn
ftftrmft fttt ftrft fft fr TR+f fftftfl ttt ftftrRnft
nftfnftFT Fnft wft+rf Twft wft n^ft w Rnft wrrrft TTTTt
T+Rf+rf TTRft" i wftfr tttt wwRrf, nffTTft t Rnft Rftt
TfftTFT, ftftr Roo% |
^ TWRRT WTT WTTftftr, FTTS7, TTT, TTTRT, TfT, TTTtf-nft
Ro<\o |   TRT 3.T?.3 W Fftftfl
^V "tRft TfftFT wwR nftfnftfTT ftfnrr Trwft, Trwft
nftfnft+f  TTTT  TTTTftfT  TTTTI    WTTT"  WfF^Tlft  nfttFTft  ft
FTWR+T ffl   W, ftnFTft fttFTnfft+f fTWTT fTTTT | " TTftftT
TTTT WTTiff,nTWrft+R+ff, TfTT. 1* F+ftw Roo% |
^^TTftfT TTTT wwRrf, WTTT, ro ftpftf Ro<\o I
N_ N_
^" ftTTTWTW TTTftT? TWTW W wft+rf+T TTTW TTTTftft TTRftT
WTTT" TTf+T TW Tn fWTT ftlRTft fWT fftftf ^ T TTTft ftTTTT
ftft IgrTTrft ^ |   Tftfttt, f+ft TTRftT WTTT" TRTfft T+f R+ Tn
fnnft wttft Rrttr Ttrft gdin+1 fftft I Trftftr tttt, wwiff,
ftfTtt^OTOI !TRTfT+T TRR Tn nTTTft+R+ff TTRT TTT TTFT7 T
TTTTT FT+f FTT ftft TTTTWT, "ftftr TWT <NdlR+ TTTFTft t^TTT
TTfTft ft^TT RR+T fftrr ftr TTT ^ I   f+T, Tfft TWrfft+R TTTT,
ftwr wttwt ftf t nffrrft ftft r+ n ft tttrt ttttt ftw
WTI   ffftFT7 WTT" TTTT ftftr T RTftnT ftft frfftr fft I   TTTftft
WTTT" TTfTft TfTFT TTTTt TTT TTF FftFTFft ffaTTTf fT WTt I
Tf  Rocm   ft   c;   ftft   ^   TTfftTRRT  TnTT  %TT  TTTft  TOftf
ftftrft l" w^Rrr wtt Twnftf, wftrw roo% \   ttRw tf
RlTTIFTn ftft wft TTTTT TTFTft ffft I TrftfWT+T R+ TT+TT+f
TTFT "TTfttft T^FR+f FTTT T+T+f tftn TTr%T xrftftft TTT
tTRtt^I WT fftw +lf+dfF<? WTT TTTT TWTI " 'tTlsRi'H WTT
WTTftf, fftTTT Roo% | TTFTTW RT? Tn WT+TT+T TfTR "WTTT"
TTf+T nfftTFT7 WWT 'FTftft wff TTTTft ftft TTT te^lH+1 fflft
Wttft FTftnft TFTfT rft | -' TTftftr TTTT WTTfft, Roo% |
 ^M=hl {MJ/dcrb «'<>-&/{
MjtQy WT tffiw/Fft7/ ft   1%Y,  ?<? WftW ?o<}o
?*
TROT tftft Ftl"^15 FWFF^ fftfft T FFTF FTFFF Tfft
FTFTFF TTTF FfF I FfttFFfftFT fft Tfft FFfttftrft TTF FFTFF
FFTTF TTF Tft FF?Fft FFR TTft ft I
TFfftT TTTtft ftt TRT "TRW FTF fttw FfttFWf FTFRFFdT ftft
ftl FFTF FTf T FTTftft fftftFW FTT T?TT?ftt Fft TftftFT
FFftftT? FTTftT Fft Ffft FWTFTF TFft FfftWTW TTT:
NO c
ftTTTTF FgftTI TTTTTTft FftfFFFlfft FTTF TgTJ TFRrtftFW
TTFTT flRffd F^ftt R-BftTFTW flRRd ftft itd-BfdJ FTfttftt
TW FFTtftt TWTT FF Flfftft FFFFT fftWTFF TTWtftr
TTTtft ftft TIFF gfFI TFFft ftt ftWTFWTF FFFT TTFFF
FfftfTFFft FTRT dR*M FT Tfft T?TTFft ftftT TTFgfFI
FfttFFft TTFt FWT TTFF fftft? "dftt SRRlftT TfftTT FF?T I ^
CN NO '     -N
"TFft fTft FWT Fft FTTftft TTF FT4 I FRRft TTTTftt ftftft ftTT
FFTFTTT TTlfft Fftw FTFft fftfTFTTTf TROT FFT FfgfF T
FTTTFTd TTFft fftFT Tfft TTFTTTFFT ft fF? I ^ TFft T FFT
FTTft FTTftlFFFlTTft FWF Ft FFFT fift I Fft TFft
FfftfTFWTTf ff?F Ffft?F I Tftftt W FF FFTF FFfTft fftTTT
FftTTFFFTd ftTT ttWgfFI FT Roo% TT WTTFFWTF ftFT
ftRR TFftft FFTTT FFTF FTFFT fttftt TT?ft?FWrrf TTfftt
fftfttl TTFT TftAllfAl* gc^l*! FTTFf HliffPi ftft FRf Tftftrt
FftTF^I^0
NO '
TFTFfftr? tftrfto, FWT T TFTftt iNdlP*! fFTRTTT FfttFF
FF*T fF?FI FTTFfftT? ft?TTT?TTRrTRd FfttFFTTTf TFT fft
FTTTT FTTTF Tfftftt fF?l Tftftt FfF F WTTF fftTFTTT
FWT fTTTT TTrfft fftfrft SRRlftT FTT Fft TFftft FTFftfFFFTF
^ TTftftT TTTT WwRrf, fftfTTW, fftTTT Roo% |
N_
^ 'wtlffft ftrr ww', ftwTwrw tw ft nrwift+R+ff
wwti   Fft wwt "Rfft wtt ttt fwift t.  ^° TiTTft
TM+TMTId fTf/WI  FT% TTTT WfTTT RwlRll T?   \to TTTTTTT fT?
ft T+ttTf ftftlfTT" fr^ i wftfr TTTTwrnftf, ftrrtt ro<\o \
TTTf T TFfT WRT ft"T TTTT ftft TRTTft rrftft | TTTTT WTRT TTTFTT,
fftTTT Ro<\o RTftT TTTTW TfTTFTfT T+T+Trft TFtf wftTTTW
Trfft fTTTT T. V TTRT «. FFR fT RlR+t TFRTft TTTIW+1 WTTT
RTTTTT fttff I "'Crooked' Karki loses CA berth", The Kathmandu Post, R R
fftTTT RO^O |
^'"'TTTf TfTT TTFfjRW Tft FTTfft ftTT ffftft I TTT TTTTTT TTTW
t? ftf ftrw ftrftftft nft+ ^tti ftrT tttwti ftt FftFTft
wftrft ftf fftr fTTTfft i - Trftftr tttt wrnftf, wt+r, tttRrtt,
ftftw Roo% I   ^IFiT+l Tflff, TTRftT TTTT? RftT+l Tiff TTTTfTT
Tffff wr ft fftrfftrrn wft Rmm fw Rftt ftn+f ftwm
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TRft Tfft+T TftTTFT7 TTTTTWTI ""FF W5TT ftt TTTf WTTTfFTFft
wftft trstt", wrfvffiw, ro ftftr ro<\oft Trnft, "ftw TTwrrn
R+ft Tr^.Tftw TTT", */PdV<, Ro Tfftr RO<\o |
1:130 TTftftT WTT WTTfft, TFtt ftf+T. FT+fT, ftfTtt Ro<\o |
FF ftTFTft FF?I    FWftfFFRtF FfttFWf FfWT Fftrft?
no no no        ' "-   v "-   v no
FTTTF TF Tfft FWTFTF TFft  FftWTFWTTf  FFFTft Fft
' C NO
FTFTfftw T?FT T?TT?ftt Fft FTTT ftdTT TTTtft FftfFWft fft
FTFt  (FT ftftT? FF)  FFFI   TftfttftTftf FFTF FTF T FfftT
NO CN ^
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NO '
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TTFRTF TFft WfTTTf FWT FRFfft fftfttl   FTTTF:  TFftft
fttrnfftr? dR*n tftTTrrf Ftfrf fftftt t FiRftw ft? ftt
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TTTTtRW Fft Fgft I w  T?ft T?ft  FTTFTTT FF*t ftdftF FT
NO "^ NO NO NO
FWT? oAlltbcdf gfdldd FFF JliFIHd ddl^i^tl ftFT HMBfdJ ^
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'   "^ NO
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iNdlP* Tftfw, WFTW T FFTF FTFWftFftt FfdTFTT?
fftTTFF fTfT FFFF fft FTTft TFT FTTFTFft ft FfFFF
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Trftftr wtt wwRrf, nftt+ trtt wft+Tif ttrtwt, ftf ftt
ro<\o 1 TTrrtr+T F^ ft nfttnft ftn wwt "fft *JiR<j+l ttftt
WTft TTT: T WTTT" TTfftft fT RfTTTf WT T^ | " TwRlT TTTTT
wwRrf, Trftftrr, wfttw roo% \ f^Tttn wttt TTfw ftnFTFT
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WftftrfFTft ffFTR+T fft I TTftftT TTTTTTTnftiFT.fftw^ 00^ 1
^^  ftf   TTft+T   TW   Tn   TWWTT   Wtt   Tff+ftt   ft",   "TTTT
Tft+TT+fftT TTFTTW TTTRT Tift fT fftfTTf WT Tftftr+T f/Wfl
wift t TftFTft ftf Rrn TftwT ftr ^tit "trt7 i - twRrt tttt
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Tftf TfttftRftt fftft? "dftt FFTF gfl FlfftFFWTTf Hldl*!
FTFftfftF ilpRI^ *|4J4J| Pilffd "WFT <H%IMd FTftft JlPPfftT
T?TTF?TFTftt FFFFfftFTfftFgtl Tftftt "ftFTTTF FFFT "dTF
FTTFTTT FTftt fftWFTRTT ftTTFTfft TT%FTTRFF FFTFWTTf
TTTTTft Tftft TFTfttT FFftftft 3TFTR T ftfttFF F^fTFF
FTFFgil FFTFFff fPRW FTTFT TFFFT FRTfFftFT FlftlFdl
Fftft FTFFTFF TTTFT FWT fT FFFfF W Tftftft-Tftftft TTTFT
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TRT+Ttt TTTRTTlTT fft wft I  W WT ftTTT TTTTf WWT Tnft[rft+ fft
wrt n TftFTft ftwrrft+ wr fn t fftrrft Tf^TFTftr ttt
ftlffT TFrftt I
1,155 TTT+T TTTTTFT7 ftft WTI fF F WTTT" TTf+T WTTFT7 TTTRTTn:
Wit WI TTftftf W TftFT7 TTftft WTTFT7 ft" f/WTI ftrftt
TTTftfft+ TFffT TRT Tftlft ftt TTWTT? f/W I W Fn ftftT WWT
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Wf TT+t i" wftftr ttttt wwiff, Rftt wtttt+, tttftt, wftfw
Roo%\
1:133 Trftfr TTRft wwiff, Trftt+ Tnwr +ift+ft, frrrwr, iy
ND
ftrftt ro<\o i
^^ TTTFTTW Tiff, TMTi+l R+ nffTlft TTT+T TfTF TTRftT f+T
fnFTFft f+T TTTTlftft fftftr T+fWIFT TTTTT ftft ^o Tn fWTT+T
ttRttft7 ttt ftrr w+m frwr ttt wft fftfti TTftftr tttt
TWnftf.TfTHR.ftTTtt ^OtO I TT TTFn nrftf+n T7 I ft+T fRfR
TTftTTTTftf ^l ftwwR+"ftnftnftftrft Rrrrt TT+fftTrrRnft
fftftf ftfl TTftftT fTTT WTTRrf, ftTTR, TTTtt Ro<\o | TTTtt
Ro<\o TT TTfttfT TTf+T TfWWT+TfFTft TTTT Tfttftf ftft
TftfT+f RTTrtfttwn TRft Tfft 1+1+1  T6 + *ll ftft ftrff RTTT
T+Rft?Tn ffTRTfrn Tft wftf ttttt wfftl Rft fftw tttt Rm-fttm
TFFFf TFFFTFFFT Fft FFF T FTWTf TFF tftft *ilPd Tft
NO NO NO
Ftftftt gfl TTFTtt fftTFTT? FdTF Ftftt FtfTFT FftF
TFTfttT "dtft TFFTTF TTTF FW TTTftRT ftft ftt Ftftftt gf I
TTT *li|f|^^G||i iNdlP* TFRT <HdHd *il*l cilPPH FFW
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fft Tftf TdTT fttWI Ff?FTft*t iNdlP* TTTTTTTf FFT
TftdTTTTTfft fftTTTft FTfttT FF l^o ft FFT?ft W FTtftt
"^ NO
ftfttl TFTfttT TFTTT ftTTT ^ +11 tl*l FWF A^M "?fTF fftftt I
iNdlP* TTTF ftTTT TTrfft itldlPdl fftFT ^ddf -HWM i^-HNsd
fftft FftF? I FTTtTTfttFTfft Flftf fftTTTTTT ftTTft ftfrft FFft
FTT fftrftf Tft Ff? FTT TFft FfftfTft TftTT fftrr:
'FFftTTfttFftf Fftw TftF Ftw "gftft I FftftftT ftFTT T FRT
FFt FFTTTF gfF I   W Hldl^i^tl ftft TFFft ft FTTT? Hi*?dd
lftrftl"w
NO
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FTTFRFf ft: FTftftftt gfl FFFT T FFFFFT TFf FFTTT
d*l*l Tftf iiiFdl WF *H+1I fftft? ft *+lftli fT Tftt I TW
ftFT TRTftflfttFTfft Fft TftftT ft TtftfftfftFWnf FTF FTRTTT
fftrri "TFTftt FTFTftt TTTF FFt I FTTTTTT Ff? FTT ftTT ftTFT
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fftFgfFI"^0 Tfftft FTFTTTftt FTFF FFTTT TfftrftTT ftftf
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fftFTFFHft FRFRFFdT ft "gft I ftt fftTFTW Ffftft "FRF gfF W
TFFt iNdlP* MA&A Fft FTF ftf iftlRlJ*! gfl  FfFFT FF
ftt ftrr ftrrft fttrtfttttt ftrw ffttttttt Tftf Tffttftfft
TftTT fft FFTft fJfT T Tftf TTftwfw Ffft fftTFTTT FTT
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fftFF TfFT WFT TRF TTfItFI ^ 'FTFtTTftTFWft ftf FTFTT
gf", Ff? FTT TFft FfftfTft Fft I ^
FTFTWt FFfttfftr? "dTF FTTFTFTf Ff ^°°^ TTftf <=lf ftftcrl T
FT   TftftfttF   TftFFTT?   fftWTW   FFFT   fft1? I    FTFTTTftt   T
fTRT T+TfftrfFTft TTT+t WTFft+T TFftf I Trftftr ffft TWTtWT,
TfTfT, TTTtt Ro<\o |
W WsjRl'H TTTT WTTfft, ftTTR,TTTtt Ro<\o |
^ wftftr TTTfT Twnftf, ftw Rftt ftfr, tttttt, ^i ftrftt
ND ND
Ro<\o\
^ wftfr wftft wwiff, fw Rftt ftn, tt?t. ftrftt ro^o \
ND O ND
TTT+f Ry{id RTFT RTRt TRW ■HIHlR* yRl+l<! TfT. TFTT W1M4TI
WT TTT+T ftftftftFTTTft tt+T nftfnftf %W ftfT ft+f TTtft
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RlTTT T+ffft TTTTTFTTlfft T+TTT TTWTT TRrrft TTnTR wfft
fftftf I "ffrftT ftft, "TTffTTTT nffnftgRT ftt FWTT', WmK, R1 TWtt
RO<\o\
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TTFgfFI Ff Roo\ TT FTFTTTftftr fftTFFTTflT ftTTFWT FRF
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fftFFTT? TTTTTTT Tfft Fftft ft I
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ftfft TFftft "FTflRF? fttfWd "dfttftl; TTTlftft FT ftR? TfFT ftftf
ftl^ FFRR TF*T TTTTft ^dl^i^tl fftTTF TTFTT Fft TfftFTF
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ftftt TFlftt fftwiFWT TTTTftft FfFT FFW "ifFT Fft if!ft*!
FTTFFft m^% FFTFTTITT TTTtft, TfF "5TTTFRRT FfftfftTT
d*lPd fftftr TTTTt TFTF flRlftl fftfttl n°
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^ Fftftf Wftftr  ff ftftft,    ftwft  VBW:   W?ft £777777.?,   Tiff
wftftr, t. 1 ^ I TftFTft fftn r+ Tn Rnft Rftt ftn+f wr
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TT RWT+fft TftWWrft Tft+ftft I "TTftftT fffft, WTTfft,TTTff,
RY Tfftr Roo% |
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ND O ND
^ fttTfT+T R+ Tn RTRt ftft 13*. Tn nftffRT Tft*1^
wft+rfFTft fTTRT fTftft+T ftT Tn TT Tff+TTft wft+rf TTTf
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WTTfft,"TTff, RY ftftr Roo% |
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ftfttwft Rftt wttrrt fr ftftft ftftr ftft+ tRt Trftftt
ftftft T+Tft+ftFTFft TftftRTTT+T ftftlft fftTT+TTTT+T TTFTTW TTT
ftq+F ft" WWT ft I "Youth Wing would be managed soon: Pokharel",
The Rising Nepal, Y  TTTT: ROO\\
^ ^Trfttrr tttt wrrRrf, Rf+n (nfttnft) Rftt wrft, diftf^.Y
ftrftt ro<\o i
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ND ND
n%l^d fTTT TTTftft, TTTW, W^nft, ftfTft Ro<\o |
n<) ftftf TTtftftTT ft fW TTT ft WT fT ffF ^ TfrftT 3RT
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Wl  TFRTF iiiFdl Ffftft FFfft "dTFTT d*l*l iwft*£<cft tP"
no   "^ '
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Fl*fftd Fft d<H**WI f^Tldl FWFgftl nv !*l*l ftFT Tftftft
fttftf "ffftFTWTTTft FFTTT FTTF FFFTf FFT TTTFT tRtTF
TTFWTd     ftlfllftl I ^     FTTTFTTft    TftfffF    ftft    FRff
NO
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TTFft T?TTTT FTFTTTftt gfF I n^
no '   -n
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ftfft Rmn ttstt r+ Tn Rnft Rftt ftnft ft, "ffnftwrff f+Tftft
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ftftr roo% i
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Tfftftrft 1YY I
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fTT, ftft" Rooi^) T TTft, TfTf (ftfTRTTTT TftfTftT+f ftr tRt
Roo%)\
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ftfTft Ro<\o |   ftTHTW FTF WTW R+ Tn +lft+dft TlRlT T
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ftTTR,TTTtt Ro<\o |
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WTftftf,ftfTtt Ro<\o I
n5f+T+T R+ Tn TTftft fnfnTrf^°f° ftt fftfTT 119 ftft
ro nftrwr ff Tftft T+TTftrft nft TTFTffft^Tftt ftt Tnf#
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Burghart, "The Conditions of Listening: The Everyday Experience of Politics
in Nepal", in Richard Burghart (Christopher John Fuller and Jonathan Spencer,
eds.), The Conditions ofListening (TTf fftftt,   ROOC,  [1^§]).
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TTR+T T7 I "Unite to dispose of imposed federalism: K.C", ekantipur.com, 3
TfT ^0^0; "Masai for alliance against federalism", Republica, IY TTT
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This is also the title of Charlotte Watson and Rebecca Crozier' s, "Security
for whom? Security sector reform and public security in Nepal", International
Alert,TTTtt Roo% |
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lift, ROO%; TTftftT ff TTfTTT ftffft f. I^O, Handing Back
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Pyuthan attack", ekantipur.com, 1 "R ftrf ftt Root, |
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FRTFTn TFft Ttf TRT fftfti TTftftT T ftTRft ftlfld+1 TTTRftr
WWTW fftrm ftftftf T+RT ftTRft T tRRT fm> "Civil-Military
Relations and the Maoist Insurgency in Nepal", Small Wars and Insurgencies,
Roo\t, Tf 15,ft. 1 I ftftt tTTT T fTTT Wft+T ftft+TFTFTt ffWR
TTFTft FT TWrft Tmr-WTFR ftftr W TTftf ftrftt ftftT ft
TTTTfTT FTft Tift I  TFtfTTT TTR+TFTFft ff ftt+ft Tftnft TTTfffrR
fftrff ttRif Rwft ffff Tftf RftwT ftrmr TTR+TFTFTt wtf
TrftRnt ttRrt R?rt I  Trftftr fTfr wrrRrf, wft wtt wr
TfftfT, ftftw Ro<\o I
^° "ftT fTTT WWrnrt fftft frTftrft TTTT (TTRT TFtfft TTWTT
TTTf Wftftft TRRT TTTW) ft W TTfTft WTft I   TRR ftftr, "ftn T
fRrrn TTTTft Rtt-, tv! vf?m,<w Trrtt ro<\o \
^^ rt? Tn RRrftrT ft, "fftftn TrFfTr TFtf t ftnft nft+ Tiftft
Tftwfl wf Trm ftft ^r I - Trftftr tttt wwRrf, Trfrfft, ^ ?
ftftr roo% i
W TTftftT fTTT WTTRrf, TTTfT, ^? ftftr Roo% |
W TTftftT TTftft WTTRrf, Wftff, ftfTtt RO<\0; TTTfT, Tfftr
Roo% I R+tfftt Tft+ftt fTTTf ft, '"T+Tft fftfTT TTfft? Tft FTflft
TTRft I FTftft fTFT7 TTn Tftt, TTTRTT" WTFR FTftft wrt,
FWRIRTTt fTtftr ft+ft Tft Rft TTRRT TTRft, TTTTft TFftFTFTf
ftnt T TTTf TFTnFTft FTFn Tfttl ftfafftf T^"FT TFtftrt,
TftFTft ft ft? TTTft ftft TirftftTTTf f T TwRft ftTRT Tfftn ftft
ftft I W T+ftft FTftTTTt R+ RTTTTT wft Rft? TTTftfft+ ftf+T ftnFT7
FTf TTT TFTft+T fft, W FTft ft" fftgTTTF I " TTftfr TTTT WTftftf,
TFfT, ^? TffT Roo% I
*%* FTftft R+" TTTFTT, STwW'wrft WfTT TfT TTTT TR+f TTft ft
FTTBn fftft TnTTTTfTF TlfftT TfWTTT fftTTTn Tftftft RftTf
Rfft ftftT TftT TfTTf fFFftt Tft TTTT, fFTTfft ftrfrftT ffT T
TlfftT TfWTTT RriTW TFT W"ft+ ft Tftt ftftsftft? 1 ^ TTTT Tftftrf
 ^M=hl {MJ/dcrb «'<>-&/{
MjtQy WT xftftftft/ ft   1%Y,  ?<? 3L2w< ?o<}o
Yo
-i||i|HlP*l*l TRf FRTFt "dTFTT gfftgfl   TFt ftTftft TTFft Fft
NO ' ' NO
HJFf -illillftfFFTf WMIi*l FF d^tti -A||A|HlPl*Mf Pu-JftiiT?-
TTftf iHTT FdTFft FTFT Fgftl ^
FTFT dlddlftl FFTftft Tfft W¥IT  ftrft TTF FRTftftt gf, TFt
NO NO NO "
fFTTfft FTftfgt I W f?TTfft TTF gf W f?ftt Fft FFfttftfTFTfTT
FFTFT FTF TTRT Tft FT8FIT ftfTf FFF Ffftftt T Fftt Tft Fft
NO NO NO
#TI
TFft TffTTTTTft TTFT ftftf Fftftt T TTTTTf TffTRTTTTT
ffftftt T?rfftrrFRlft fttftfRT Tffrftft ftftft gfl fT F
FTFTTTftt ddxF*! iti*li TfTFT !dc<=l*l <Hi*li*l Jli?+kftWtl
TftT? TTTTFT "ftftT" ftfftFTf TTTT TTRTfT fftf | ftTTT fffftF
TRFFT FftTTF gffl W ftt fft Tfft ftfftFTf TTTFftt "gfFfI
"ftftF' TF ft ftTTTlf TRT TRF ft ft Tft TRT *P<rlf Tft
NO NO        ^ ^
FFgf I TFTftt TTTTftt FFt fftftr TTWT fttFTTTR TfTTTFT Fft
FT? FTT FFTTt TFft TTTfTTTf FTF FT? Fdft ftt, "TFFTTT
FFTT'fftftTT'ftftt t^F I ft FFTFFT "FlftF TFTTTTT TTTF FFW
T FF TTTTTT fT FFTF FfdFTfFTf FdTFft FTTT FFt ft I "W
fftftfT TfWT fttFFRft ftftt TffFTF FFT TFTFT?t gf, FTFT
TTFTTTT TFFftt Fffftr fttwft Ff R°°^ Ff TfftdT fftftr
TfFftftTF TTftftFFFfffft fftt TRff T TFlft FTTTTTTT TFft
TffTFRT FFTFFT TFTft fftftt I w fftTTFTT? FFftftT? FdTT T
fr RR "rrt Rfft Rr+t fft i -tttt wf Tft 1 ^ ttttwt ftftT",
<\c ft RO<\0 I
^^Fft RO<\o TT fftfift? TRRfft FTTT+T TTTT WRTTtT TTFTTW ftftT
WTTrrRr+Tn fftwrn tr+t ttttttt ftrftrTft tRttf TTTTTTft+ft
TRfft ftt TTTT WTTft ftftTWT WW ft | "New CJ promises justice for
all", Republica, R % Fift ^ O<|0 | TfttWTT ftft+T TFT FTTRRT TTfTTT
"TTfft ftTTTT Roo% tt Rrft TTT RrRTft ftm ff Tfft TTJTFTTfft
R+ TTT FTTTTtftT R+ ftw WpftTT ftwrftr FfT ftrftft ftr wftWT
ftft ftTFT TTTTTft TTT fft+T fft | "Sharma recommended for CJ",
Republica,   1  ftftrTT ROO% |   ftRTT^TfT TTTFlftt ft ^OO^  Tr RTTT
fttttIt Rtf? fn wf Tmrftftn tttt ftr tor ffwrr ft ftftrr
ft+T fft | TTf TTTTTTRrft FTTtRt+T T FTTTTt^TFT7 WT+T %%
ftftTT ff+TTT FTTTft TFTT wft ft+T fft I "Parliament confirms
Rayamajhee as new Chief Justice", myrepublica.com, 3 F ROO% |
^TTftftr tttt wwiff,ftwrtt RO<\o I
NO NO
^%3 "Tftftftf TTTftftw Tlfft TTftft nftftf+ ft',T+TfftR TRfRIR,
1 3 ftftr Roo% I TTTFTTW "TTff, tRt Roo% ft fftft ttst
TTRft RTf fftrr+T WFT TFtt+T R+" Tff+ftt ft, "ftn p ft
TTf TTTTTfTR ftn TTWFT7 TlfTR+T Wfl TTTft wf W+tt+t TrftT
Tffftr+f ^ T TTTTT Tfftf TTT TRft ^ I " TTftftT TTTT WTTRrf,
TTftni Tgrrtt+T rt? wr+R+t fftrft Rftf w "Fin trtt fRf
ftr+t TftFTft wnrft wft ww wfl Fftw tt+tftttt ftn
FTFFTT FTTFRT ft TFfT fFdT fftTFTTT Tftrft ftf, "fftftTT
Ff-ftft FfftTTFT FTfttft TFft TffTFRT FFTFTT gf,   TFfftt
FF/WTTT TTft ftftftW Tfft FftTT gf I  ftftF FRT ftft FTTFTTT
ft FFF TfTf gf I   TFFTfFFtft Tfft FF *il*l Tfft Fftgff I
"WFT FTTFT ffft fTTft FTTftfW Fftwgffl "w
Ffft TfT Tfft ftt fft Tfft fttFFRft TFTFfftT? wft T FTTTTft F
fft gf[ft TFft TffTFRTTT WrftFF FFF TTFift FftF FTRrft
ftftf "gftfl F F ftt ftTFTTft TFft TffTFRTTT FWftf ft?
iNdlP*   TftHftftt  fft*TF TTFF Fft FTF ft  FTTT gfFI
no '   -v
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NO   C
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Tft FTTT T T?ft ftFFT ftTT I  FTF FFTF TFft FTftt FFRRTTT
NO
FFfft TTdfttT FfftTTftft FfftftTRFTTlf FFTTT ftttftt gf, W
FFTF FTTFW Fffft TTTF FTT TFTTF Fftftt gf I ^%% fftftr
wsf   ftiPyP*!   ftrftt  ff-fwt  ftttfft?  ft  Tft
NO NO NO
TftOTTTWFft TRFTTF FFRftrFT Tftf TTR ftt TTTTRTF? fft
Tfft^
fttftfRT TRWftftt fF F glftgf W ftftFTF TFftW iulftlP*
fftwdft T ftTTF TTFF gfdTdTFTftTF gffl FFTTT FTFtTTftt
ftTTTTf TRFFT ftTT ftFT FT? FTT TFft TTTfft ftf,
"fttfttFFFTfft TTTtFt FdTT Flff" FRFFTf TFftftft TftTWT
Flfftfftt gf T Ff? FTT FTFRT FFFftftt ftftt gf I TTFt TfTT
ft?ftt Fft Tft FFTTF ff "gft I FTft "FlftF T TFTTTTT TTTF
TffgfTFgfl FTTFF TfFfft FFft ffttfTT FTftFTTTT ftft T?TTT
gff FFFfttft Tfft TTft Tft ft W TffftFft ft FT?f fF?l "?0<1
ftFTT gf Tft fTTTT ftfSW TfTT T Fftt TTFT FWTFTF
Fftrrfftt FTT TTfTT FTFT TFFT ftftTTT TFftFTf FIT fftgff T
ftTTFFFF TTTfftt FdFT Tfft Tftf Tft "gftf I   'FRFFTf Ffftftt
TfTWfl FTft TTTTftfT? WT n RfTI+t ftftftT 1 o ftftf fftwfl "
TTftftT TTTT WTTRrf, ftftrTT Roo% |
w Trftftr wtt WTTiftf, wttt, «. ftftr roo% \ Rrifi+i tw
NO
FTTWrffT+R+fRt ft, "TTf TTRft fftftr fTTT ftfmft TTTn fTTT
TTTTRT TfR TTRTft ^ I W TT+t ^?yftl ftft TTTR fft ft+t ^ I
TTTTRTT+ Fftft fift TFTTW ftft Tn +lft+ft FTtt nftr+T Wfl
FTft TTT "WTT+f WFfft fttftw W^l  FFTRT T WT WT WW Wfl
ttttIt Tnw Tfftr wft w *iiR<jtji tt Tftft ^ i ftftft ttttt wrft
TTftftft ft TTFf TJ | 1TT7-1«. f^TT TTTR RlR<F<? TTTTT TR+T WT
YO-Y3 TFtf ft^f T ^> WTTW wtt "ftft ftftr+T WT ftn fTTT
WTTft TTftftft WFTft W Fftf Wft Wft+ «. ft?fttfftTn RWT
Wtt ftftt TTTTf/W I " TTftftT TTTT WTTRrf, T+ftw Roo% |
1%% TTftftT fTTT WTTRrf, WT TFtl TfftfT, wftff, ftfTtt
R0<\0\
?°° Fftftf "TrftfwrTT? wf fftftr fTTT +i4ftw srmyf ft io
TTTtt Ro<\o I
?0<,TTftfT WTT WTTRrf,TTTTT, «. ftTT Roo% |
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MjtQy WT xftft/ft?7/ r   ^Y,  ?<? 3L2w< ?o<}o
Y1
iNdlP* FTFT ft, ftF Tft T FRFTTTf FTF ffft FRgf
FTfftffttgfl s|F<rlf dftd*l TTTfft FTfttft FF TfttT Fftfft fF?,
W FRFFTf FFft FW Tft?"w
FFRTFRTT, FTOTTT FTTFTFF FTFT: FF FTftr FF*T FFftftT?
T   FTFTTF   FTTTTFT   TTTF   FfWWF   TFFttTF   FdtftfTT
FffwfttTW ffl ^ ftt FTTTTFFfttF TFft TTftft FST FTFF I
FTFT TftftftftFRT fttrfTTFT Tftr FfT TFftft FTF Fft FftTTT Fft
fftftwft ftftr I   "ftFftTTTf Rffw Tft'?ov ftrr tRtttrt
c-n NO
JlRdHBi WTFF Ffft ft R^illfJ Tfft "TTT FF *lft*l TTlfft Tdlt
FTTTF "gft I   ftFTTftt FFTFTTf Ftftr? TTT?fttTTd 3ft TR?
fT5
Ffl
on.
"^r. ^w£ *i^ WW)*
"FlftF TftFTRFFftt ft TFFt ftFtftFTT FW Tftftt gf: TFTTf
TTFtrrr T?Fft fftgf? TFrft fftftf ftt tftf Fft wftw T
TTTfftFWF STTTTftfTTTT FRFFSTFTf FFft TF Fft FTftw f?
fF??ftFTFftl4ft*?ft TFTT?WT JldBft? TFT TfFf F<=liFWI
gf, FFTW fftgf FT FFTW TFFWT? FTffTft FTTt FTftrft
gf FT "gft? TTFFTftfTT FFT?TT FTTT ftTFT FF TTTTFT ftt tft Tft
TFTft FflTTT, FFftftT? fftTT T FRF FTTTFTf T?FfT ftw
FTTR?
w wftftr tttt wwRrf,Trftn,«. ftft roo% \ ttw rt? Tn
TTFT+fft ft: "FTTfftfn WfT TTTT Tftftft FW fTTT fft+TTFF
nrftftT? TTT TWTT ffft T ftftft t+TTT ffft I TTTFTf WT ft
T+TFTft ftftRT TTTTTft T wftTRT ftt+TTft ftftftft RftrR TTT WTft
^ NO ^ CN ND
WTTTT ffft T TTTRTR" t+TTWTT TTTT fttfft | " TTftftT TrftT
WTTfft, TTftft, «. ftft" Roo% | TTTTTn TTTT WW Tftft ftf WT,
W yRT4 ffTF T Trf <Md1R+ <f*lftpHl T^TTT WR ftft Rd<rlR TTTT
TftTTTt+Rft ftl
^Fftftf TTW 3 1
?°V "ftft7^ TT+TTTTFT+ ftfft+ FTTft", TT^tfwW, 1^   ft   RO<\o |
(TTftft fftft WI "TT TTpft TTTf WTT+t', R<3 tRt RO<\o) ftrftt
fn tRtrtt ff wf TfTTfTrmt ftftftf ttw w i frftf fn+t
TTWT+" TnTf TTf TTTTTR W+fTT "TF, "Army: PR & beyond",
Republica,  i, TTTtt RO^O \
?0!< TTft Tff Tfft" ffFT ftrft fftT ftfTRTTr TfT fttR+f ft: "ftt+
TWTiTTft TTTTT RTTT TTWT ft ft" Tftft? TTRT W ftft FT+TTTtR
TTft Tfft Tfft FTT ft; TTTFrfft TR+R TTTTT TRn T ftf TTFftr WT
TFW I " Thomas Paine, Isaac Kramnick (ed.), Common Sense (TRWT,
n^ [HSIS§]),T ^ | TftT <F+K T <H*lM<rft TT+ ftT ftt+T WT,
W TFt WTTT Tftrft TRTft TTftft Tlftftft ^ I Tft TTTT RlsJH+l ft
"WTRftt fttrRT "^TFftft R+ ftRraft TWWft ftf ft I TT+t TTTFff+
fftRT ftfTTT Roo% TR TTTft tftftt I TT+t fTTTTT TTRT+f TTRr+"
ftftT RWT ftfft* TTTTT TTTft I ftftftf ftrTRT "TF, "From Evil State
to Civil Society", in Kanak Mani Dixit and Shastri Ramachandaran (eds.), State of
Nepal (<rlRl<ff<, ROOR) |
TRFTTTT FtTTT TlftfWFT TTTtft FFT FRT TTft, FWFTfft RtTWF
Tft T TFTTT FTFTTTF "dtft TfttT Tft 3TW FFFTTft fTTT ft I
NO NO -N
FTTTTTTfftT ftTT TftfftTfFF TTTfft FFT TTftft TFTFt ffTF ftfTF,
W FftfFTfTF FtFTT FW "FRFTTft FRT TTft ft T FTFff FTTlfftT?,
FTfftft T iNdlP* ftFfftTT TTTTft fftrrTTF FTT? fTTTT Tft
ft I   FfF FTFTT T ftTTft TftftT TTTtft 'TFT ftrf?F' T "TFT
C NO
FFftftTF' ftfW FTFT TfTf gf Ffft FFTRF Fftrftrf "FTftF
TftFTft TFf Fdtftt ftFT ftftgf T TFT TFFTTT F-diPPd
T?TfttftFTfFTf Tft FFlft TTRFgf I
TTFtt TFTTf HiTHiPilft H*PhP FftfT STTF fftft TFTF ftRtt
FFfft gf I ?°5 FtftFft? FFTftt Tf Ttft ft FFFTft fftTfft TFTft
■^Tl T?Ffti FTTTFFtt T FhPPPfT* FFFTft TFTW Tfft
FWft FF Tft FTFt FF, FFFTFRRT T FFTWFFFt
FFfFFTTTf FFft Ffftt I TFT FFFftfttT ftRftgf, W fffftF
TTFFTfFT FTTTf f?FtftF FW ft Fftf gfl FFfft ftt
FFfFWTTf FFTftRT FRF gf fftdFT FTTFTfTft TFT Tfftrft Tfft
FTTTFTF? fftw T FTTTF: Tfftrft FTTFTTT? TfttTF Ttft I
iNdlP* T FfT FTTftf T?TFTTTT TFTTf TFR? T FTFftftft
Fftfftt TT?F Tftftt gf I
T?F*Fft Tft FTFT FW gfTTTTft "gfFI TFTTf FpFW T
WTFFTT FRW fttfftw gffl ft, FTTTFlf FTT TFRT Fft fF
ftFFFfF FFft WTFFTRd Ftftf Tft FRgf I FTFT FftOTFd
FFF fffftF FFfFTfftT FTTWTTF FWrf ftrft Ffft gf TFt
FTF FftF? I ftt FFfFTfFT TFTTT FFFFTf, iNdlP* TftfftTf,
^5T FftRf FTW, FRfF ftttTfTf T "TFTFT FgfRFT FTTFT
TRTffT?FTf Tftgffl
?°5 TffftT y ki f <?+1 Frfft ftnft wy i iTTTftr? wft ftf ftft ttr+t
Wt "The Formation of the Concept of Nation-State in Nepal", Journal of
Asian Studies, Tf YY,f 1 (1^Y),T lol-l^ | TRftftftTWftTTf
Tft TWfttTFff TFTTTTFfTT+f The Caste Hierarchy and the State in Nepal:
A Study of the Muluki Ain of 1854 (fWTFT? 1 \3\) fTRT+f Tlfftm T
nftTTint+f ftft FFTTft RWT fm+n % TnRgrrft TTTn ftm
TmftTftTfTftWWfT 11 TTTftFtTTxTft^FFTfft+TWfftTftftftr
fftrgTfFftfTTft ftrTTR+T Wfl FftfTF, "State and Society in Nepal", in
David Gellner, Joanna Pfaff-Czarnecka and John Whelpton (eds.), Nationalism
and Ethnicity in a Hindu Kingdom. The Politics of Culture in Contemporary
iVepTj/(TTFTTftT, 1^lS),T Y%X, Xo^ I ftftrfTTTgRTTTTTtRtTTTT?
Resistance and the State, Ffff TTftftT, TlftR ft TRT TTTTT tRr+T W
ftft WTTft ft" ftt TTTTT T7" | ff+RTTT WrftTT TffftT ftrftFTW
TTRft TTTfTTft TTTTrwrft Tff fRT Trtt TrfFTTTT WTWW TTTRTTFTft
TTTft ff ftft TTWW TTftftT TT+f fftTT+T RftftFTW ftft ft
T+FftttfFTTTWWfl ftTftfTWTWftTpTffWTTT+7WFTftft"WT Lionel
Caplan's ethnography Administration and Politics in a Nepalese town (TRWT,
1 % 13 X ); Mahesh Chandra Regmi's Imperial Gorkha: An Account of Gorkhali
Rule in Kumaon (1791-1815) (fftftt, I^^A); Bengt-Erik Borgstrom, The
Patron and the Pancha: Village Values and Panchayat Democracy in Nepal
(Tftfftftt, Uc;o)|
 ^M=hl {MJ/dcrb «'<>-&/{
MjtQy WT xftftftft/ ft   1%Y,  ?<? 3L2w< ?o<}o
Y?
1.    <rll«iH+l 4>l«tH «il$H
fTTTtt TFTFTf FFTT FTFTTT? FfttTTFFF T FftftftfTT ftRffttt
"FRRFFftf Fft FTTFfF gffl ^°3 FTFT FTFTRF "ftrftt gfl
ftTFtt FW T?FT T FTF Fftft FftfFF ftl FFTft ftftTFft
TTTTF FFTft ftttFF TFT TFTWTTFT FFTtRf gf I FTTftW fT
FW, FFTFRT Fft TW, FTFF FW, FTTfftF Fft FW,
ftTTftRTTFFft FW FTFTft FF T FFTFT FRF FW FF ftrftft
^ NO NO
TFTTf gfl   ftt FT? ftft "gfFI   FFTT FftT Fftr?f FTFTTF
FTTTTW FFft RftftF FFWFTTT TTTF TTlft FRTfft gf I ?oc;
ftTFtt TFTft FTTTflftftW T TTP*li*l  FFft tftrft TTF ftftf
gfl ^°%  TTTTftt STafftr? FftftTFTf ft FTftTT TF*t FfftT
' NO C-n ^
illftfttP*dmi "WF FTFTftt gf T FftftTT FTTFTFT T Ffftft Tfft
TFft Fwtftf Fftftfrf gf I FFft FRFFF? FlftrTTTTT TTFf FWftf
FFFffrft gf T FTF FTFTTft ftTFT TFTFTTft gf (TTF ftftftf) I
FRFRF? WFT ftTFtt TFTft fft ftw ftRtt TTTF Fft Tfftrft gf
FT RitWlfft ff*lP*li Tfft TRF <H**1 "gft I ^°
^°3 fttFTT+F FftTWT ftftft "fft" ft TTTFTTTTft WTftftft
TTTTTtt Tft WTft+RT Fft TfTf TTTT+t TTTTfm wf wftTRTWT
nF+t fftftftTn "fft" "wr ftwr ft wr? ftfr Tftr+r t fft "cnfn
T+TTRTT? TTFT ftfT Tftr+r fT TTTTT ft+T Wfl "State and Society
inNepal",   T  XOO \
?OC; TTTFTTW Tiff, TTTTft WTT+t TRW TTT+t TTTTT T TTTTTn
fft TR+f ffff I
^°% frftf Twft nTftft+" wrrft+T ft ttfttft wtt TrfftT
TRRRft W 7TTTTtt TTTftftRr+n T Tfft+R TW fttT Rft ft Tft
4WTdMR I  Wft "Tnftt+f TTTftRTRT ftftTft ftftr TTTm T TlfftT
TrTftftRr+TT+f Rftf ttttt ftft w ftft WRftt+T TrnrnTft"
TTTTTT TTTft TTW+f TTTTR+ TtR+KtR wfrFT RfuRmI ftftRT
TTfT TTW Wf "The claim of the modern state to monopolize the use of
force is as essential to it as its character of compulsory jurisdiction and of
continuous operation". Max Weber, Economy and Society: An Outline of
Interpretive Sociology, G. Roth and C. Wittich (eds.), (Tfftft, 1 % ^C ), T
X ^, David Gellner, "Introduction: Transformations of the Nepalese State", in
Gellner (ed.), Resistance and the State: Nepalese Experiences, Flff TTTTTT,
T.  R\
^° wrrrr wtttt fr d|4iw*i wft tm+1 R+rff+R Tifft+1 ftft
fftRT: "FF T TTTTFTft TTTTT TRTTft T FTT WTTT ft TRWT TFT
+ lft<P<rlR TTRTT ftkdF<P+l fftw <r14||il.TT fftl ftftftf TTT fftwft
^13 I fTTTTTFT+ fTR ftr TTTft ftf+R RTTTR ftf ff+TTmftf
TTTTT TTW+f t+ft fftft TTTWWft W ftt Tgtf Tiff I TTTFTTW TTrfft
TTf 1^«.o T l^o ft TTTW Tfftft ftftfTR T^pftfTft ftf
fftTTTft TTWft TTRfRrT TTTTRT TTft "gftf fttTftft" TTTTT TTT? ftft
TTTTfT TTWft ftf TTT+t TTTTf TnfftTT T Tftf+R ft" TnTT wftf I
ftftftf fft WT ftft, Landownership in Nepal (Rrft, <\%\3\3) | ^TRT
ftlFTTrft Tift" Ttf TWRT ftftft Rft TTR+t ft TRrTTtf WFT7 ftft
FFTft I    ftftftf TTftftwft  R^3\   TWnft  TTTTT Tftft  W Flftft
TFFFf FTftftft T FTFWTTff TRF Fftt TW ft I   stFTTTT TF
NO ^ NO
Tftf ftftt fFFTfFT FWTft TfF FFW Fftft gf I FF TTTTTT
TTTFtTTfttFTftt FTTF TFft T TFTfttT TfttftfftFTfFTf TftftTF fftf,
FF TTd FTF Tftftft TW fftftt I    (TTW T TTFW ftftt FTTTT
NO NO NO
FTFTFTf FftTT Tf TTft fftdFT FTWF ftfTWF Ffftftt fftftt T
ftftfFTfFTF TR FFTFft fRtwT) I FFfFFfTTfgftt FTfftFT FffftF
FfftTFTf T TFTfttT TFTFTTT FW FfftWFFTf TTTTT FTF
Wftft TFT (RRRRT: TRTfFT) Tft TTFTff TTd FTF
Tffftwtft^
ft Tf Tfft, TFWFRT ftRRFftt FW FftFT ftftt TFF ft ft T
iNdlP* FFTft TTTF TTft TTftt ftl TFTfttT TFTft fftT?TT
TftfTFt TdT? FT l^lS FT TFFF TfTf fftftt T FTfftF TTFT
ftftF FTFT ftTTTFTfFlf FT Roo^ FT FP4Rd *4?Tl(ft*ftl
fftTTT TRTTFTftt fftftt I Ffftft Tft fftft ftTTTFTfft TnWTTTF
TftF TWftt fftFTTT fF? I ft ftTTTFTfft ftftf^fTF TTTtft FT F
TFft WTTFT Fftfftt gf FT Fftftfft TRFF "?fFT FRfftf gfl
TTTT FTft TFTTf FffttT? TftfTT Tftftt TT Fft-TTTTTT FTFTFTf
TRft TTW WTTFRRT Fffftf, FF FFFfFF Fffft, Tfftt T fftTTft
NO ' 'no
FFFfFF Ff FTftrfTftF TTRftT iNdlP* TftTTtftTTlf ftftftr
ilPjlftl gf I fftdTft ftdTT ftrftt TFFTfTT TftftT FrftFTRFTf
TTFftTgftfl
3.    *\\$&*\ TR <H«Hh**I ?
FF Pil*iul T FFTft ^dil*l FFTFT FfFftT SFdFTFFTf gff
ft ftrirftt iiiftfttP*diPd Frrftw gffl ftt ff fftRf?
FFfttfftFT FTfT FftTT T FRfF FTft7* FFFtfFTTF Fft-FFfttftFT
Tft FTft FTTI
WfTTTTT ttRftnTTTTR TTRTT  TFTRft FTT  TTTTTT ft  TTTT
NO NO
T+fftTT TTTTRT Wrft W
^ftr^f/^jR 4IMftlT FrfftTTTltft t+RtRtT (ftftftw) W TfTR TRf
roo^ ft wftft ftftr TfftTFTn ttw 3^ ftft w ftt Tift "crm
TTT t+TF Tftftr+T fft I   Tfftft frftn TWTT+TFn Tft T^TT TTft+t
* NO NO
ffft I Tf Rooi^ ft fftft X1 ftftTT TTfftT TlfftTFT7 TTTTftTT nfTT
T+TTtftm ftftftT Trn TfttTT Tft+r fft, Y1 ftftw TlfftTFT7
TTTTrfftT TFT WF ft T T+Rfwftf nfTT TTtRtT TRf Tf (a ftftTTT
nfftr TTtftft w Tftf ffft i) Tf roo% ft wrrfft T+TTRrm
TfttTT ff TrfftT TlfftTFTft" TTTT YR ftftWRT fttft ffft; RX
ftf^TTfft ftrn WTf+TFTTT WT Tf ft" IY ftftTT TrfftT TlfftTFT7
T+ftftwft* nfftr T+TTRrm ttRtt fft I 1 % ftf wr Tiftr t+ttRttw
TffTFT7 Ft TffftTT TFft n W TTRft Tftft ffft I  TTfftT TfTTFTft
wftftT T+RTftm Tffttftf TFf t+TTT ftlfftft RR+-TT+ fft I
ftrrftRTRft TTTTT ftTfTR ftf T WT wft+T RFTTFTW fTTT TFT
WTT fft, TftftT RFTTFTW "Tfft TTRT' Tft WTT nfftrft ffff TT
ftwr, ftrw n t+f tttt TFTftt RfttftfR ft T+ft ^rt ftf
NO       ' ^   ND NO
"nfft+t WT I "VDC secretary presence in Nepal: Note on 2006, 2008 and
2009 surveys", OCHA Nepal, 2010, www.un.org.np/reports/OCHA/2010/
2010-03-22-VDC-Secretary-Notes.pdf W TTTWT T[ |
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WT?i%W WT xftftftft/ ft   1%Y,  ?<? 3L2w< ?o<}o
Y3
ftFRftt 3) FdR* FTftrTTTTT FTfftft fttfftt FTRTTT Ffftrftftfft
Tfft FRTfft gf T ftt FTTFRTF Tfftrft gf I FFt 'Flfftft' FFFT
TFF FFFTgt, WTF-fftTTF FFTft fft Fft "gft I FW fft Ttft
ftF TW FFFT FTRF FTT Ft%F FF FWT TFF FFW gf T fft
ftF TFTTf FTFT FTFW FdTFft FTFFT Tft TreWI fftdTft
TRTftt FTFW FtftFTF, TFRF, FTfft TTFT FftWf FTFlfftr?,
FTfftft T iNdlfd* TfdTFTfTTF fftafftr FfW gff ft TfW
ftTTRTftt TTTFF TftftFTT gff I ?<n
ftFFft FFfttfftFT TTFTTft FTRTTT TFW: FWftTTTft gf, FF
TFFTTTf Fftft TftlT?RTF (T FF TTFTTTF) gffl ft FWftTTTF
WTFF fftftt FftTT Ffft FFfTfr FfT FT l^o TftftT FTfftFT
Tftftrft ffftftt fftfTF I W A)<H<Hl£ FTFT FWftf WT FTF TFTT
FftftF I Tfftftr F FFt Fdtft fftfdFFTfft fftFFF T ftTFTTft
TFTf TTTf fttft ftftTT TTTftF T?ftTFfdWft Fftrfrft FTRT
WTWT W FFgf I ^ FFft, Tlid*l <H<HHdl Fftwft iNdlP*
no '
Tftf T TFTfttftfFFTfft FRft TTFT TfttTTT ftft fT FFfft ft Fft
?^Frftfnftnft+" ft fftft ftt lyn+1 wftnwTT nMRrwrmt
TTftfr fftftTT ft+T Wfl FT ftf FlftiTl4lF<?^ Tftr ft rft+T "Tft-
TTWft "m Tf-ftftfftRr+" ft TWT ft WIT tw ftf fftrftf
f+fftFTT   W    FftFTft   ftfTTT   TTf   1^$   n   TTTTF   TWftT
RrnnRfft wf ftfft ftfTft tttttwt nfftr ttt Tftfft wi I ft ftf
rtt?t (nftrnftf) nft tf nftftr Frft wf fftftt+f anr tttRt
TTfR ft "Trffft+t ^ T TRWT TftFTFft WIRT TTft TTft ftftRR
FTTftnftf ftftTTTft TftFTft Tift nm ft ftrf I Rnft ftftwrn
TFTT TTT: TTTTft fRT Wfft wftf, W Ttftt TRTRT TFTT ftf TTTT+Ttt
ftfTR+f T7 Tftf TTftf ftftrf ftTR+t fftRT I f+ft TTTft TT TRTn
nfftR+t frr TTftrft fftftft Trftr I ftt wft Tf 1 %3o ftft Trrftr
t+TTTT TTfttfTTft TnTFTli fti ft TTRft W   FTfft TFTftft+t
Tnftrtftn f+T mR+T t7 I Rift ttwf wrftrfftr t nftftr fR
TFT fftftft TRT TTRWT ftft ft Ffft ftf Wfl FftFWaft fttft
TTTftfr ftnfft+, Tifftft WT TTTTftr TTTtWT Tftft TJ | TftFT TRTft
Rtf t TRTrn w twti trttt ftftrwft Rrfft Tirrttn nrft
TTFn ttswt i Tftftf Twrtf+R ttttw ftw tttttT tRtT ttr
Tffft ffft Ffftf TTftftT TTTftftT? T TTRft TTFTTW Tift T+rtt
TTTTft "cTft" wftftm TlftT Wf Fft I ff T Ffft nftf+T TTTFT7
fftw TFTft TfFT+fttFTft TFT TT TTTWWfft Tf/TTffft? TTTTT TWTI
TTRT+T WI+R WT TTTFTft TRftT TTTTftt TTftrftrT Wlf ftt
ftft+T Wfl TRftT Tft+TttFTft Rft "TRT+f ftftft" (TW, TTTWT
ftft) fttft ffgTTFT FfT ft Tft; TRTft TfttWT ft TTRftRT I
TWTTW TTn TTftfTTR Rt+ TTTTft T WTT ftRW+T "frftFTTTft
ftT TTtWW, "Mahakali Impasse: A Futile Paradigm's Bequested Travails", in
Dhruba Kumar (ed.), Domestic Conflict and Crisis of Governability in Nepal
(T+Tmrt, rooo) i
^ TftT fTft TFrRrf (ff wwftrfn tttT nftfnftffT nrf ftft
TRT ft TTF^7 Tft TTTTf Fft ft ft" wtf Tltw Wf); "Ffftt
TTlRTR+f TRftftftft TTFT+f fttftm TKdfft+1 TnTF TTFf TTTTft
nftrnftt+r nFn ftr tttt trtt %", TtftT fftft wrrRrf, Republica,
R% ftft Ro<\o |
Fft TRf FFTTF FfftTTTT ft FFgf I   dHM*l itlftfttftl*dl FTT
NO NO '
Fwtftr Ffffftt TFT T TWTT fftftTT FRFFTfFTf Fpft ftrftft
FWTft fftWF Tft TTF F|ft fftgf I m "FTtft" TftTRTTf TTW
TFRT Fft TTFFT TRTftt FftTTT TFt FFTFTft ftftt T TTFTff
P<=l?FdHR?*l FWRf -Tdldd+ll Tfft FF*t Ffttft? M$v4fft FftTTT
ftrft fftftt | TRTftt fttft FTTTftffttfftFftt T Tftftfft WTFrf gf,
W TFTft TTRT FdftTRF "gfF I ^
TFTFTf TFTft TF TFTFTT ftftftt FFFRTft "fttftf fftftlF
TftTTTFTf Tfft FFFfft fF? I ^ FT <\\^o ft FFT?ftf% ft
fftfTF FTFT T FTTTT FTFft ftfft ftftftr? FFFRTftt TWFT
iNA|*l oi|i|Tli*l "dftt fftTTT Fftdft FRftt gfl ^3 FfftftTfTTTT
Fft FTFFFTfft ftftftTT? FFFRTFTTf FFF FTft fttft ft TTTF FTTT
gfF I  FTF FTFTT TTft TFFT-FTFT FRfftt ftTFFRTTTTf T?Fft FTfttT
'   -v. c NO
Fft T TTFTTF f? TRFTT FTTFF Fft TftftfTT fftft? FTdT T FTRTT
TfTT gffl W ftftftTT? FFTTTT ftftt FTRT: ftFT ft T FFft
iNdlP* FF FFRW T TTfTFFTTTf FTFTTF FFFTFT TFfftt
TTF FTTf gfl TFTFTTft TTFflfftFTf HpHlRd FFT? T ft
iNdlP* TFFtlFT TfftftftRT Flftftt gfl FkdR* TFFT
FFftftT Fftft FFFT FTFTft T FTTTftftt ftftft TRFRTTTTF fft
FFFT Tftft ft TFt Tfft FTTTTTd" FTFF fft WFF ftftfttT?
FFTTTFT fft Fftgfl TFTFFTft FFdf FW TTF ftftt FRf
FTFTTft FftTTT T FfffffftT? Fft$-llftM*l ftftTTTTTf ftftt ftw-
TFFF FTRR ftFTTFF ftft ftl FTF FFFRfft FF FTTTRFf
ftjftt FFWFF ftTTTFT fRtFJT I Ffftft FRR TFTTRFf FFTTT
TfF FTFTTTT TTTTft "dftt did*! FWF Ffrf gf, ftftft
FTTTftftftT TTTfft Ffft FfF fftTTft ft TFt FTF FRf FTFRTTRd fT
?<1VTT ftffftn TTTftT TTTTTTT TTWT fttTTFFTftt iftf WTTT
Tftr+f t|t|
?<,!<nftiTl41+l TTWWT TTTftT frfft TW W TRTTft ftftft TTTT
WTT Tft fftTT T7 T ftTTTTn nftfn4t+t TTTftfftT+ TWT wft TTTTTft
Tftt+ft ftr I TTTTtf fTTT ftm fft fTF W+ft ftf TFT Tlftlft T
TTRT nftfnft TTTTfFTft TinftTT ftf TTFftft I ftftftf FTftfTTT
ftffft, ftftTft ftft7/ WTft glriHI?, nfft TTTftr, T 1 ^-RY I
?u tt fftrm ftft ftrftt t fftftftt ttt+ft7 fftr WT ftw ttt wft,
Nepal's Failed Development: Reflections on the Mission and the Maladies
(T+TWTftt, ROO\ [1^^]);WRTT ftf?, In the Name of Development: A
Reflection on Nepal (TTTTFTT, fttfTTRT, 1^>^); David Seddon, Piers
Blakie, John Cameron T David Seddon, Nepal in Crisis: Growth and
Stagnation at the Periphery (14 vA\, 1 ^>c~0); David Seddon, Sally WestwoodT
Piers Blakie, Nepal - A State of Poverty: The Political Economy of Population
Growth and Social Deprivation (TTTT, 1 ^> £~3); Charlie Pye Smith, Travels in
Nepal: The Sequestered Kingdom (TRTT, 1^AO); T tFl TRTT, "The
Politics of 'Developing Nepali Women'", in State of Nepal, Frfft TTTtTT I
^3 TTfftT? TrFFTT+t TTTfff T TRTTFT7 (fftftrftt TFT T Tftft+T+t
TRTTFT) fTRT ff TTTRTf TRfFTW TTTTWTn, ftftftf Eugene Mihaly,
Foreign Aid and Politics in Nepal (WWfrft,  ^OO^rf^§§])|
 ^M=hl {MJ/dcrb «'<>-&/{
MjtQy WT xftftftft/ ft   1%Y,  ?<? 3L2w< ?o<}o
YY
Tftrft "bRt I  Fft Tfft TTW T ftRfft fftft FFTTTT FFfft TRF#
grffl
FWTft   fttftT?   TTTfFTTTf   FFFTT?FFtT   Tftftfftw  Fftgffl
TFTTTT? T FW wfTTftFTfTT FftTT FftfFTfTTTf FTTF "WTFT T
W¥IT TFTF Fft FWTf FW TTF ft I  FF FTftFTTTT TFTft Trft
NO NO NO
fF?ft Fftrf gf, FFfft TFt WdTfftF ftf "gft I TFTFFT dilftlPd
TWTf ftTTTTT FftF TFT T?ftTTftFTfTTTf FTTF WTFF Ff?F I
TFF FFTW "dFRfr FTWT T?ftTRTFTfFTf "TTTW fftft TTFFT T ft
Wftftft FFfFF TTTTTT Frft FFTTF TfTf gfl W
TFTTF TTTTTT FTFTTF FRFff FTTftT? TFTFWftft WTTFtRf?
FTTTTft FTTFW Tftftt — TFt ftftt TFTft FTftF fftft TT fftTR
ffft I WTTRft T TFT FTTT Tfrfft FTftF TTFT T wfft fftf ft
FWft fftT FW FTTFT FFTTTf "TTT fftfttl Ff l^^o ^
<\%\30 ft FFTW FWTft FTFT ftTFF FFftft fftft T TFF
NO
FT? FTF fFTTRFRT fftftt I W FWW FftTFF FTFT fftftt FTTfftF
TfF TTF ftfT FT *ttF-Tld ftftt ftRR FFFt iftfeilWI PR*i£*l
T FTFTlftT? ftFF TTTTTT FFftft TFrfftFTfFTf "WW FW fft
ftrfftTT? ¥RTTT fftfRT I ?n ft FTft Tf Tft TTFW FTFW FTTFF
FFRfft T FFTftdfTF Fsft Ff? FTF FTTT FTpFfft ftft I Ff
<\%%o TTT FftTFTTT ftftTTT FTFTft gf, WTTft FTT FFTTTT
tftft? FFfttft Tfftt gfl ^° ftrfft fFRFT fftft, FFF TftFRT"WTFft
^^ TTf ^°f ° n T+ftft tr Tn ftnrft T+TftrttFT7 fiRr+t wfl
RrftTTtt nfftr ftftTFT7 ftt twwi ftw ftftwf ^ ro<\o ft
ftfttf i, fRtrt ft Tn nfft t T+rftfn rt? Tn TTFTTn ftw fft,
"Bara VDC secy abducted", The Kathmandu Post, R %. TTTtt ^ 010; "VDC
Secy shot dead", The Kathmandu Post, R3 TTTtt ^0<|0; "Colleague's
killing riles VDC secys", The Kathmandu Post,   H3   fT   ^°f°I    Tf
ro<\o ft ff. WR ^ fttt: fRtrt ftftw: wit-Trf WT TR+t
ffW  TRftT  ffft  frft+r  TTTT  T   Wft+T  WTT  ftTTft+T  Trfftr
TlfftTFTft TmTfft+ TTftTRT Rft ffff ft I TTTFTTW TTff, "Secys
resign en masse", myrepublica.com, 18 June 2010; "Banke VDC secys quit en
masse",  Republica,  R\   TT,   RO<\0 \    TFtf   tfTW   TTRfr+FT7   ftf
ffriTrn ftw wfl Frrfft tfttt+ ftftrnff ftftwrn tt+ft ftf t
TTW TfTFT? FTftR | "Parsa assistant CDO attacked", The Kathmandu
Post, 1 "R TTTtt "R 010 | A DDC office assistant was shot dead in Janakpur.
"Govt employee shot dead to avenge JTMM-R arrests", The Himalayan Times
online, 11 Ff ^°1° I
?n fftftrftT Tnftf+ ftw ftw twt tttftw TR+rtt ttRr
tfmtfT+f TTWT FFTTfrf ftr ftft fffr I Caplan, Administration and
Politics in a Nepalese Town, Flff TTTfTT; Seddon T WT, Nepal in Crisis:
Growth and Stagnation at the Periphery, Flff TrftfTT I ftftr+RT TR+Ttt
T+rfnttFT7 FT FTTTTTT TTft WFTW WF Tft | ft.ft. f 111-11^1
^°ftn tfftt wi ^w n fr nftrr TTTTT+f n,.% ftwifti
ftrftft fftfti ftt ftr Tf 1^^ n 3^ ftftTT ffft ffft t Tf
FWTft TTRf TTft Ffrf gf I
NO '
FTFftft FTftRFTd fftft TTTT TTffft ftftT i|IHd*l TTTtft Tfftft Tp
FFF TFFI^'1 wftft TTFTR fT FftTR? gfl FTWT TFW
*ftFlfl^ TTTFTRTT? "dTFTT FFTT TTFT FTF" TW FF fftgfF I ^
WTFT TRTRft TTFTF ftft TTFT ft*Idft! FFFTT FTFF TfR FFT
Ffftgfl Pi4tT),FFF, std^l*! ^<rkrl ffddl ilTdl FTcM FHlNdBiFT
FFFFT TTlft Tftft ftftt FTWTTT FFTtRfFF? I  iNdlP* Hldl^tl
NO '
TTWTf WdTTlf FTfT FWRjft Fgftf TFT FTTftT gfftgf, TFTTlftT?
WlitP* TTftftft yit^lflcHf FFW fftft ^M*l gfl
FTTTff T?ftTTftFTf FWW fttFFTW FFTT Tftftfftw ffl
ftdft FFTFTft FFft FftTTFF? wftfWF TTTTTT TFTTTF fffftF
FftTTT ftft*l fF?fl fftTFTTT TftFT TFft TFWftF ftft?"dftt
FftTTT fF?IFftlFTfFT Fftftftft FWTTTf ftft fftTT FFT FT
TTTFT Fft ftftRftt TRT? TR? FFgf I ftFW fffftF fftTFTTT FFT
TTF ftfft FWF fTTft FTf ftFRTF FTftF ftft FfttFTfft FFT T
FTFTTT? FWFlf TftRFTTF FfftT ffgffl
TFTTTT? T TFft FFfFF TTTRFd dilftlPd £pcrRJ*l ftftt gf I
Ffftft TfftF FT ftTFT TFft Wfft TFFT fftw ftrftt
wftfTFTfft FTFFft FTTTf FFRft TFFRT TTTTTT ftfW fftf, FT
TW FfffffftT? T iNdlP* FF ftftF ftRft*! fftftt T TW
TTWTf FFRF fftftt I FF T?FTFT FftF "?fTWTft? Tf Tfft FT?
TTFWft WrftW TRRTTF fftftt I FFWFT WTFT ftt FRdFTF
Fdldli^ TTFT FTTf gfl ^
TWT FWTTFT T ftRfWdTft TTTTTft FT FdRTfft gf FFFTf ftfT
FFTF FFTTft ftTTTFT TTft TTF ft I TfFft TRF TTW FFfFF
TTTFT FT?FfftT?F ftftF FftilfJ*l ftfti FT? FTT TFft FfftfTft
TFt ftftT fftf, "ftT Fft FFTft TRFFT ft I Fft FTFT FftRT
fTT?, FW Tfftt FRFFF I  WFRRT ft, gfTFRRT I "^v TFTW ftt
ROOi^ TT Y%A  ftf^Wfftri   "Nepal at a glance", RST ftft,   ROO%,
http://devdata.worldbank.org/AAG/npl_aag.pdf TT TTTRT T7 I
^ y%IITd + l W+T RdF<?*H <F+l(l +4dl{iF<?^ TTTftwrT i+*l^lR
TftTT Tft Wl fttft fftfftt TR+" TTTTTft+T wn ftf ft I   fftn
tiRtt TTwrnTft Tfrm ff WRF+t, TftT fttrt ttfttf t
TFtr+TT wftft, Rtft t mrsrn Tft tRtftt t TTfrwnr
ffftftft TTTft TRTTFT TTTfTRTT ftt+TTTT Tlftft TTTTTflnT fTTT
TTTTTT TlfftT Win ftt TR+Ttt +ftdl{i WT fftlRT Tftf |
^^^TTTftwfftTTTTFTWTRn TTTTW TTTfft fftn TT Tft+TFTft TT
WT f-TRTT FT=TRTTW + 4ftl{lF<p<rlR 1 X ftft Ro TTTT TftftrfWT
fftf rft+T Wf Tft TjfftR+t T7 | "DFOs queue up for Tarai transfers", The
Himalayan Times,  <\X Ffft R0<\0 \
^ Trftftr tttt wrrRrf,ftwr wtt TfffT t Tf tttrttt ftftwr,
wr Rt+tt ftr, ftftr roo% \
^xTrftftr wtt wwRrf, Trfrfft, ^1 ftftr roo% \
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MjtQy WT xftftftft/ ft   1%Y,  ?<? 3L2w< ?o<}o
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Tftfftfftw FFFTTftTft"BvdFI Ff? FTT FWTFTF Fftwftft
W, 'FF TftTT FTTtTTfttFFtT ftdTT ftwif | FftfFftf FTTFT FTRT
T tftTRFlf TTWFfftf I W Hildl*! "dTFTT TFt fF FTFTTF
FTFft?" ^
FfttW Flftftwfttw itWlPt* i*Hkdiul*l yf*i||crlf F?Fft
Ffft eldMd ritid^iift iNdlP* ddl^^Pd fft TTd ^P*>l gft
Tft Fftrftftt FTF FRFRf Fit fftfti  TTTTT FTFF FTRTfft gfl
FffTTTW T?fT fftFRfftlFFTft FftF Ffftf TFTftt FTFT WTRfft
Fftgf TTTTTft TTd WW FfftFR? dit**l FTTFTTT T?ftTFTF?fT
NO '
TFt WTTFTTTF FfttFWf TTF Fft tRtTFT WFT Tftrfft
TTTFgf TWftf FFft FtftT TFWFF T?ft Ff Fftft TW ftfW I
' NO      NO NO ^
V.   <M«i)fa* MI(£IiJ<p: ^r mP) h^«), ,?i^r hR h^
FFftftT? TfttftftftF TFTTf FWW FfttwrfftF T FfFTFTfTT?
fFTFTft Ttftftt gf I "ftRrW FTTTf TfF, ftFTTF T FFTW
TTTfft TftfftFTTTf TFT Flfftfftt gf I TFTFlf Tft TftfftTfft ftftt
gf, ff?TW Tftfw FW T Fffrfftftftftt FWTfftFFTFftwgfFI
Tftftffft STRFTft ftBfTff WTTTFFF T FTTTFT TFF
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TTTtft FRFTft T TTTTTf FFTFt WF FTfttftfT FftfftWTTf FTWt
ffT? FTRTTft gf I
Tftf T TTWTFftt FF FFRFWWft FftFWTfftw gfftftft TTF
fttft gf I TftfftFTTTf FFt FTftF FftlFftf FWTTTf ftFTftft
FFTFFTftgfFI cii^flfl, iFAMf HldlP^ld F<=liFldft> ftftf FWF
FFFFFT FF Fftft gf wftft FfWWF "FRTdfftw FRftt TTF
Fftgf I FTFt FFT FRRFft fftft? T FTTft Tft FFTt, T?TF FFT
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FWFFTTf FFW FT WFFlf Fftft ftr itftftd FF FFTFW
TTTT Tftftffft FWTTTf ftfT Tf%W gffl W TWW FTft
ftTWRTF Fftt TTTF? TTWFWF TFW FTFW FTTTTTTTFF T
FTTftT? TT ftfftfftrfFTFFTt FTftft ftftFT TTrfft ftfTft
FTTTTft "TlfftT FWTFftF? I
TftfFF Fft ftFTT FW FTT T?WT FTTFTT gff I FFl^OTft
FFT?W FftFWTTf TFRTTftfT? FFftw FIFFft T TFRFTTf
ftTdftFTdT FFfft FFFTft Tift FFTW WFT FW FftF? I W
TWW FTft ftt TftWFT Tftftffft FTFTlftT? FWW TrftT?
ftttwrrft FTFFF7. FTT WFT FTT ftdTTTf T?WTFF Ffftt
FFTW WFT Tfft ftft FftF? I FFFlf ftFRftt FTW
TFWftFTRF TF wtftFTW, FT TFRFTTf TFF dHlftftiT Flff
FTTTF: TFFfft?fFTI
^<
TTftftT fTTT WTftftf,TTTfT, ^3  Tfftr Roo% |
Tftfw fT? fftTTTft TFTW gfTTTFft TTF Tgftj FtPfFF
fftfTF FTT TRT Fft Tftftrf TFR? FRgfT FTF, T?ft ftftF FFW
^       NO '     -N T      NO
TTFTFF, fft ftftWFlf Ffft FFTFF, fftTTF T fttTftr wftw TTlfft
FTTF fftF, TTFFF FT FW T?ft WTFfttfftw FW Fft, T?ft ffTF
1 NO NO T      NO
FTTFRT FFFF,   T?FFTf FTFT TRTTFT TT   FTFTTF gJdTFT I
ftwt TTFdlftFW FSTTFTf wft Fgftf, W TfF T "dtft FfW
fTTFF FTWft *ftFlfl, TFft FftfF TT WWftFFFTft Fftfft
TTF   FRW FRTFT ftRR TFTTf   FftTTT TfttT Fft Fgftf I
iNd!P?l TFdlit**! Tff*lftN*l TRT?FTT-FRT fftRf T FTFF
fft FfTf gfl
FWW FFfttfftTRF Fft wft TftffgfftT TT Ffft Fftr FffftF I
fft Wfttft FfF FRftf WTRT*t fTTFT FlftF? iNd!P?l T
TftftftT 3TWT TftfftfftFTf "FfTFft fgfTTFft Tftftf I FWT,
FFFT, Ffttftt FT ftFttft T FftdFT FftfFWft Ffft FRT TFF? Tft
fF ftWFF F FftfFWf FTT? FTf FFgfl fft FTTFR
FFFTWrf FTftF fftF ftf FT fft FFTTftfF TfftFWf FWT Fft
fF FfF, Tftf T ftdW ftFTFF FW FTTTTT fF?fl fftdTft
FftfFFTft FRfft FFW FTTFT TFF ftft ftWFFfft fF? I
FFTTTT TftfftWTF TFTTf iNd!P*iul FFftft Tfft FWFTfft
NO NO
fft Hldl*! ff*lP*li WfT TTfTft gft I FT 1^,^,0 TfgfFftw
TTWTFWT ftWTf TFTT TftftT Tf Tft T?ftTfttdWTT FF*t
TTTTTT FTFTT FW FT?F I FTFT FTF FTW FTTFlf, TTW (FTft)
tt frftrr FWT Ffftf FTWTTT FTfW FW Tftftffft FftF
FTTft TfTfft FTFTFTT TTTT ftf TTTF Fftft? gff I
WTBFftrrr ftft FlfttTTfttFWft ffftt FTTTTT T FFT WFT Fft
TWTtftF fttFTT ftftftt FF FT gf TWW Tgftft ftftr?
FFtftFTW Tfft TTFFftt FRTTT fftTT FTFR ft lf*lP*li ft
FFTFft ft ff ft Tft FTFfT Tftrft gf I 'FTFTTTftt TFftfft ft?
ft? FfttFFft FFT T?WT TFFf Fft ft? Wlftftt? FftfFWf
WTFFft FTft FUTFTFWFTftftl"^5 TWftf fftTFTTTRW
FT? FTT FTFTTTftt ftrftt FTFT TfftfftFT fftftt:
FFT WTFRf T?Fft Tffnftr ft??^15 FW Fftw Fft>F
WRfTFFft FfftftRtftft FFTFT T?WT WTRR FWlft ftftFFWTfft
3ft gf? FFT T?wftt fF Fftfti ft?F FFTFFTft gf? TFt
ft?F TFTft gf Tft Tift Tftftffft Tftft WR? ftftw FWfF T
^Wftfr fTTT WTTRrf, TTTfT, ^ 3 Fffr Roo% |
^'3 "TTTT T+m" "WTTWftft ft Tft TRr71 TWT TlTrftnftft. ft TTW
TTTT TTTft RwTTn ftf ("WftT FTTTfnftt TTFT wfttr TW
TrftFTTT+f TffTTTT?TT TTTF ftTTTT T?WT Tifts7 T TTTTTTT nrftft+"
Trnrnr Rrft ftf nft trw) Twwrft ftft TTRft t fft ftft TTftft
TfTT  fftft   TTTTft TTT  WTW  ftrTFTW FfttRfftf TTTTTf n
TnTTwr t ftfrn Titer n ttttIt wn (ftftw: ttRt wn) t+t
TFTTfFft Tfft TfTRftl
 ^M=hl {MJ/dcrb «'<>-&/{
MjtQy WT xftft/ft?7/ r   ^Y,  ?<? 3L2w< ?o<}o
Y$
FTFt Tftfft Tfftftt TdT? FftFFftt TTRTFTf FTTftTTRTff gf
T W FFFTT gffl FfttW Fftft FFFtft FTTTTT T?WT
FFRF FTfW gffl Ffftft FRR FfttW Ft "FFTTTtt Ffft
fftTFTFRf flRi^Bff FRft ftt fJ*«ft ftftft fTT ftl ^
FFWFTftRT FTftfW ftrfsft Tr^df FFTTFf TF ft? ft W
FTSrtTTftTFFtft FW T HldlftlF*! FTTWTf TFTt FtTFTTf ft
FWft W FT fftFTTF TFF?tFWftft ft TFT "dftt Ftftw fftft W?
NO    "^ <=N =~n NO    "^
FJjfftTTFTfBfW FTWFWTF FfttFWT TftfTFt fft*TFTTlf fFft
gffd ftftF?, FFfft FfttFWF TTTF T TFdlftFF Fft Tfftftt
fftwrrft ft FftF gffl FTTf tRfw FTFT tftrft? Tfft
FFftfftT? Tftftffft fft F fft TTWFT FWFTfft WWT WfTFft
F?FFftRFftgfl
*.    *Hdl*l, MlHdldKI T »Hdl*l <HlR)?
TTWft FTFRT TRTRFWTf FTTT? fftftr, F F FTTRT?FWF Tfrfft
ftrr tftf Fftrnf FTWt TTTftrr? T?ftw wgfi  ftrfft ftf
FTTftf 3FFT-FTT?FFT FWTft ft ftftftF TFft Fs£ FFfft ftt
FTWFW TF Fft FW FFTft gf Tft Fftft FFRTT gffl W
FWTft WTFF TtftFftw FTTfftFWf FfWFF Frft ftwfftTW
Fffi
TTF FfwW TTW FW TTFT iNdlP* TftfftF FTT 'ftftt Fft
Tft" FTSTTT FTTT fF? Tft FTTRT ft Wf fftTTT T iNdlP*
fftftWFWf gfl ft TTWTTT fftftr ftWI Ff 1^° Ft
FFTW FFTTTT wftwf W Fffft 'FFFt Fft^lftt F?rfWFTf
FTTtW Fft" fttft ft WFW FFTFfttFT TFTft ftft I ^ W
FFTTlf TTTfTTF FTft Fft TfttWT Fftfftt gfl fftWFW
R-Wkd*lii?i*tl Ftftff P*IiHIdftt Trft fF? Tft "gftl fTTTFft
TFTrfftr? t FRfftr? Tftrftr Trrft?, fw Fftftf wrftrr sttfrt
TWFgf T ftttftt TTffttRF FFFgf I ^°
FWW TR FFftftt FfTR FRft gf FFW TTW Wlft ftft
dHlR*i?i* iNi|yP*l iHTFI "dftt Pu-iftiJlsiii TFfftTWFTR
ftftftft fftrftTfitFTd FtftFTF gffl  FFft FftTTTTftrf FTTFTFT
^Sl^Rl Tr-rftfr WTTRrf,TTTfT, RY ftftr Roo% |
6 Hj61 <t, Mihaly, Flff TTTTTT, T. 3: "Economic assistance came into
use as a political device largely because of an idea ... that the underdeveloped
countries arebeing swept by a 'revolution of rising expectations'. According to
this view the peoples of these countries are no longer passive in the face of
poverty and misery but are demanding a better life .... The concept of rising
expectations has been so widely assumed to represent historical fact that it has
escaped rigorous examination. Does the revolution in fact exist?"
??° ftftftf Mihaly, Flff wftftr, T Y: "What was the relationship,
moreover, between expectation of a better life and the willingness to experience
change? ... Is it not possible that men may want to improve their lot but are not
prepared to pay a piece in terms of changes in position, privileges, and
traditional modes of living? How important is this unwillingness to pay the
price of change? How pervasive is it? And to what extent has it actually
reduced the efficacy of aid?"
FW TTfftT gfl  ftrRftt TFTTTT Fft FfftWTFWftt FTFFTTTft
' NO
TTfft T FTTfft TR ftffftf FRFTTT "dtft ftft TT Tftftfftw*t
FTF Fft FFFRW ftFTftft wrftt fF? I FTFt FTTTTTf Td ftT
TW FTfftft ftttWTTWTft WRTRF W Ffftt ft gf I FF TTTFT
NO '
FRf ft FTft TTftf FFFt gfl FRFTTT FTfftft FTTFFFFfft F^RT
ft TTftt ft I   FW TTTf Fftt T FFTft FWftf T?ft Tft TTTFT
NO C NO
Ftftft TFTTRFW W FFgfF I TTTfT Tft TRTFFF fftw, WFW T
no '   "^
FW FRFTFF ftn TTF Fft FWTft ftTT TftftdF I
FWW FtftFTF FTFTT FF FFF FTft Wrftt Tf ftft T TFFt
WTT Fft WT Tf Tft ft FTTFWf ft?FTFTWT FW ft Fff
ftfft gfl FTFT FTTFF TfttftWF FTSTTTTd TT FFfttF TFF ft
FW "dtft Tfftt FlftF? ftTTFft ftftt FT FTTF WFT FTTW
fftfT Ffft FFTFF? I ftTTFRfF fft FTF fftfRTFFFTd FTFTTTW
TfftftftT TffttftTftf FW fRFf FFT? Tft ffftftt gf I fFFfftTT
TFRRTTTd FfFT Tftft FTfWFF FftF FTWT FTTTTTf TgfTFftFFT
ftfW FWft FfttFWF FTT FFT "TTTTF FT^ Tft FFRFgftf I ^
FF FFTFTT ftft RTidT FTFftw WFT FW (FTFT WTTTft T
TTRffft FFfft FTFW) T TFTFTW WFT TTTftf T ftWTT
FRTfttT FTTFftft FTFF FTFTFRT TF Fft FffF? I
FWTft ftftftF FfwW T ftdFlf TF Fft TFrft Fft wrftt
ftfTFT Tfftft FWW "gfFI TFFftffF FFT ftwfttF Tfft
TTTffT?W FftTfft? FTFTF Tf Tfft FfttFWf Tftrftft TTTFT
FftWfl FFFRF fft FftT T WTTft ftRRFTTTf ftfW FTTT fftft?
FTTTT FTTTFFFTd FFt FWW STRT Fl*fftd Tft TlfftRgf I
1.    ^MItK1"!*) *I«II«HI T 4*1+1 <rllP) <*«N
wtRfftft FTFTfftT? T FTfftft WTWW FFTFft gf, W ft
WRFW TFTTf PTWFTFT TTfftT TFTftgf T fft FftF
iNdlP* FrrftftdPdl ftT^i^Bf I STTfftftsTTWTWftfrFTTfRTTd
FTFF Ff FRfft fttTW TTFft FFfttftt FFTF FTF FTW FFft
NO
fftTTft W fffftF WFT Fffttftft Tftft FTFfft FFFF FTfftft
TFFftTTTf Tfft ftftgf T FTFlfftr? TftftfTRTTW Wf FTftw Tft
ftftgfl WTTT TW WFT TTFft TTTFTTW ftfftrrw gff cftf
ftfftfF ft I FFFW Ff? FF TTRTTFfftWTWftft TTTFTT'FF-
TTf TftrfFFW WFT T FftfTTT TTTfft FTTFT Fft Fftf I  W FF
NO
TFt fftr I   SRFFt ffft FFTW ftftF FFTT gff T FftfFWf
^^^RTnTnTFTWFTWlftftTg^TTftlFTffl TTftr TTTTRT fttw
RTTFTft+T ffTTTftFTft W+TTFRTft ftt+ ftf T TR+Ttt TTTT+FTft
TTTTRft TTR+T Wfl ftff tftdft TTTft fTTTTTRlff aTRT W+fft" ft T
TftFTft ftftf TTTR+T (T TTW ftftrf TTTf TW TTTTW) "fnffftn
trt ft ffftrr Rr+t Rri twRtt ttttt wwiff, fftTTtr-fttrn,
ftrftt, ^i, ftrftt roio i
 ^M=hl {MJ/dcrb «'<>-&/{
MjtQy WT xftft/ft?7/ r   ^Y,  ?<? 3L2w< ?o<}o
YlS
F?TTF TTFT gfl"^ Tfftft-Tfftft it dldHlldl T Tftf FWFTFFf
FPfftF FFfttfftr? FFftftft Ftft FFfttTftft fF FTT? I ^
TTftTTfft ft? WFT FTdftft TftrftTW WTFT FFgf WFTFftt
FT? Ffftft ft Fft FFTFfftT? FFftF FTW, W FFfft Ftw FFft
gf I FFTWTTd FFFWTftftt FFWFTTT (FF*t FfW ftw
TTTTW FFTFT TFT 3TTTF TTTTTT Fftt fftgf) FlftF? FftTTT
FFdT FTFT FTFF TftTftftwfr fTTF ft FFFTf FTFtTTfttft sft
Tfft TF Fft FTftgff FFfft TFT FftlFWft fttftTT? ftFRFFFW
TfTT FWgf I "v FTFfTTTW FW FTTTTTTFF SOT fft TF Tfft
FTTWTf TftrfFFW FTfW TfttftWF TTTfft FffTTT  FftFF
FFwrft ftrr ff Fftgf i ttftf FftrrTW ww frff FftF
FW Wft FT TFW FTf T FRFFRRFWTF Tft FftTTTft 3TTT?TF
TfftFFFFftgfl
FflFTTft ft?ftt FTf Tfft TFRTT FTirftfftlf FFTFftgf I FFft
WdTTFfFft FfffFTFTf FdTWgf I "* FTfftft WTW ftft fFW
FFf Ffft ftftft FTTTTft TT FFTTTTW FTWft 3TTF FTT?, W
■?fft Fft FtfTTT TFRFT "FFRTTT FTftgf I TWW Frft iNdlP*
TTFfTTF T ftWTfT T TftftFTTf FIR Tfft ftftftfF fT wftgf I
FW iti*li*l +lldi?d+ll Ffft W$\A\{ ddl^^ ^ftlf*l dl^i^R
Fftt FTTTftftt FTTFF TftftRgf I
TT TFT FTFRW FFFFfT FTW WdFlft fT WFW TTT
Ffftwi FflTFTftftftft?ftftWFTFFtFFI Ftfttftt FTTTTT?
Tfftrft iNdlP* T TFTfPt? FTffftTTTf ft Ttftf "?fFT fft Fft-
^Wftf TTTT WTTfft, IK. TTTTW Roo% |
NO
^ fftftr <lfffftft ftft fTft T TTfrfftt+f TTTftfft+ T trtt
TfT+fft+t TaTTTTt TTftftT? TTftf T fttTTT+f wfRnRrT TTTTTn TFf
ftft ftTTRTft T7 I   Philippe Ramirez, De la disparition des chefs (ftft",
rooo) i  tt ftrrr+T Trrfft ftr fr ftf ffft Fftrr, w fftftw ft
WT+n TTftffft+f fftm Tft TTTT fftw WT fft+T ^ I  ftftftf FTTFTTW
ttRt,ftftrmmi+l fdiT*n <ntR+ yidlF<?FR fftft w4-w\ T+rrttT
T+m ftftftT TF TTT WTTFT TFTTnTftf T Tlftftft Tftrr
TaTTT, Gellner (ed.),Views from the Field(*\6H\i\,ROOc) \ ^yROOC
ft Tfim ffT FTTT FWRTRTft ftfrft TTfttft" wft TTTTR ftftftf
fftF "Wlf T TRTfW "TTW, "The reason why", The Kathmandu Post,
nftTT7o1o| (ft ftr ^dlF<?<! ftft TftTT+f yRnm ttttRt ftft
T7 I   TfTT fttTTF RRfT WITTnaTFTTft TTTWT TTFTft ffft I )
^v TT^rrrft tt nTTff Tft FFTrrft ftrft tftt+t wn ftftft
W  "Fff TfJ TTfT W FTTTTft fftlTT fftTTTfft I   TT FTft TTTTft
fftft Rtt TTTftft i ftft nfttftrft Trft Rft t ft ft ftftFT7 TFftft
"T5FRftwfl" fwRtt TfTT wrnftf, nftfnftf nr fn, ftwrwr,
ftrftt ro<\o i
^^trRtt? FTTtrrn wftft TR+Rnft wtt fttnTT t t+t Tnrft
TTTTTT ft Tfft+R fftrft W "TTTRTTWT T TTTRTT? FTrtrmt
ftftTTT", ffftTTTTm, TTW fTTTm WT TTW "ftft fftTTT ftftrfft, ftTTT
TR+R,TTTtt Ro<\o |
Ttfftf TFTFFtft TTWTFT FW FTTTTTTFTf TTTft Ffftwi
FFftftT? TrTTTFTFTfFFT Ffft ftft T TTTWF FW FFTFft Wrftt
fftgf I FFTFTFW TTlfft, fftWTTF FW FTWTft fftTTF ftfrft T
P^oiH iNiliiTinP drlWlftl TFFft PlTfciH TFft HJFf *l TTrfft
FRFRF? FFftftTTF Fguft TW T ftttwRft TFTfttT Tftfftwft
FTTF FW ftft? Ffft Tftgf I
itflildH fft^Fdflil T^llitd+ll fftft? ^r^ff HR<=ld~d ^IddBf T
TTTFT HRslftd FTTF TFRFT iti*li*l iiiFdWI Tfft FlddBf I ft?
TfftWTT TfftFFF FT ftdW FTTTTftwfTW TTWftfTTTF gftftft
■grf? f? ftftf-FFTTTTfftt FWF ftftft Ffftf TFTFtftT? FfdF
Tf fftgf ? TfftFFF fftFF T TFRfft FFfttftTTFT Flff fFTgiTft
FTFftwf WTF Fftftgf FT fftftfFWTTf TTRftT fftFTWFftftgf?
FFTT FfrTTRTTtft FFfFFft TftFTF FTTFTTT TTTWT FTtftfftt
TFFft ftFTT ft Tft TFlfftF Fftgf T TWWf TFTfttT FffTFT TTTT
Fftgf ft?
FTftft FW TffrftFFWF TTrfft TFTftrf FFTF TffttftT FFWFTTft
ftTFTFT ftft? FtFFF ftrf gfl Fdftddl*! TFT Tft FW
Tfftrft ftw I F F FWft FTFTTTftt FTFt ftttFTFT fTFtftftt
FTFTT ft Fftftft fftftt FT FWft FRfftt iNdlP* Fftft T FW
Ffftt TTTft FTT Ftftftw WW ft ftftftfttrft fftftt I W Ffftft
iNdlP* T TFTFtftT? FTfft FFFftft TffrftTW FFTT? T
TTFTTft FTFft "dftT FFTTTFFTTTf ftW WT? Tft ft I fftfRTTT
fftFTfttFWTTf FRRft FTFFTFW 3TFTTTT FW FTTTTTT FTlfftF
Fftrftt ftfttl FF ftTTftf FW Fftft 3TRTFT FFF ftftw TTTf
Tfft FfttFWf Tft fftTTfF FTFffftt fftw i "ftrftt ftrrffF TFT
Tffft HR^ftd FFF TTTTF gf T TFt itWkildAII iftl*lft Tfft fF? I
W "ftF ft ftftfft fFft FFFTFF TTRJgf T TFW TRWT
TfftttFlft: FFfW Fft FTftftft Wrftt fT FTT? I
"R.    ^1$. <H*<lRlt I^T
FWft TfffFFgt, FRFftf fFHgt FTFTFftt TTFT fftrftrF fTTgt T
TTFFf FTFTFF FTT RdHB^ Tft fF FWdF FTT ffl FW WTt
Fft FFFTF Tfffftl TTT: i-iA\£ T iNdlP* ^Bfl^lRt)*! FTTTFlf
FWlFftTfftgfl FT FFFt WW Ffftft gfl TTWTf FT?ftWTT FTTT
F-diPPd T dlft* FFFfl ft FTFt WTTFTTT FFnftF gf Fft
FFSWFlf FTTfT Tfftgf T FFRW FTTTfFFTf FftW Tfft? I
FWft FTT FTTFF TFFF FFftfTd TTFFT fftftFF ft gff
FFFTTT ftnft FFTT T WTFRfW FFFTf FSTFTT F%T FTftRTW
gffl f?ftt Tft FWft FFTTT? TFTTW FTT T fftw TFRT Tft
FTWt TFF FF ftfrft WFTT Iftooo TFT Fftt fftftt
TfTTFF^5 T TTTTT  <Ro fftftf FTFTFTFWft WWT FTRf
^ TTf Roo% ft Tf+WTfTF fTRTn WrrftT ^Rooo
RraRTTFTnaf ftft   l^ooo   TFT ftf fftft fftrTTTT  Wfl    Rftt
 ^M=hl {MJ/dcrb «'<>-&/{
MjtQy WT xftftftft/ ft   1%Y,  ?<? 3L2w< ?o<}o
YZ
fftgf I ?^FftFFT?FTTTTRTTTTTTFfFFF FTTT T FFTft TTTF
TW Fft FFFRF? ftfW ftftt ffFRT WFfttFWft ftdWd fftftt
TTTrrFdftgfl Ftft FTRrft Fftft FFTTF TTFft FTTFT FFTT TTt
Tft WRTHTTT *J-Hdl*l *Pitd fftwW T fftdW Hldl*l
FTftFFWFFFftgfFI it^i+ll fftFftt T Hldl*! FFF FTFfft TfTT
FFT TWtrffF FTft FftrFTFRF FTFFftt FRFW fftTTTFftgf I
NO NO '
TFftft fftft TRW FFF TfTT FWT FTT FTTFF TFFft fftftt
T?wftlFFftt FFR Ffftfffgf I ^
Tft TRTTft FTT T FftnftftFT T?ft FFFF T W?t Fftft ft:"FW?
NO NO -N NO
TRT Fft FTTFT Tf FTftft Tft FTWfT T?ftTrftFTfFTf FF
"WTFTFFTft fftfRT T WF TTFTTRTTTF FFTF FTTTFTFFTfW
T?TFTfrFWft FftffFT FTTFRT TRW fftftt I FTFTT FTFRftW-
FFFT?FWrTf FTT FTTFF TFFft (Fft FTFTTF TT? FFFft ftft
Fft FFFfdt ftft "ftf FT Fift fft FTWft WF FFFfftft FftT)
TTSTTFT?T?W WFT FFfttftFFWft FRF Fdftgfl ftFTftft
wfttTFWf FFFFT WF Tfft Tfttftwft FW FFftftrf FFTR
ftftt ftfFTTR T FffT FTftFW fftftt Tftftt FFFTT TRT
ftftgfT T FftftTT fF TRTW TTTT Tftftt FFftft FF?FI ftftftt
FFTTTftr FFt FWRT T ftFF ftf Tft FW ftFffftF TTTTTf
FTTFTTT FRfftt fttfftw H+llRld Fft FFW I
FFftfTT   TTTFT?,   ftFFft   FftFWW   "dftt   fftTFT   T   dFM*l
•N NO T =^-
iNdlP* TFFft TTWTf FW?WTTFT Fftft gf T T?ft TTWTf
wftWTTTTT FTdftft TTft Tfrft WFFT TFW FFTFF ^HpP
<r+<r1F<P+l Rmft ■HdteTI TfT Tdf fft fT Rmft ■HdteTI+l \XX ff
TRftT ftTTR RYoooo fftr+FT7 TF+m TTT TTTWr+t R<3 ftftTTT
RFr+ft ffftf TfTTFTW trmtt TRTW Wf I   "Flash 1 Report 2009-10",
ftrfT tr+f, ftn Rtrt i
??lS Tf t^ooc; TT TTTTTn Y^lo fftjjnfr TR+T 1Y^3 ffftf TTTTRT
fft Tft ^YY fftmn TR+T %$ W+l{l TTTTTT fft "Overview of
Public-Private Mix in Health Care Service Delivery in Nepal", Health Sector
Reform Support Program, Government of Nepal, fT "R ° 1 ° I ftwrftn
\3Xoo TFT ftt fftmn TR+T 1«. TRT ftftt RTTT TTWRTFT7 Wfl
ftwm Tft+T TTTTT cooo TITTTFTn 1©Y1 WT TTRT TR+F,
TTFn WT TTTTfWT FWTTTTWTfft fTFT Wfl RfftfF ftTRT Rftf
ftrft ftwWTft TJft+T TTR TWT ftftR+t t7 | TTTFTTW TTrfft ftTTTTn
TfTWtft TR+TFTft WTFW TTrfft RT? TTTftr Rftf ftFFT7 ft+T Wf
ft" TR+TTgRT WnftT ^ fft FTT T?F Wfl TTTTtt, Tf Roo^-\3
n Rftt ftft TTTTT TTn Tfft (YY.Y) TTlft WSTT+TT ftn WTT
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TTTTn TF+t s? "The Failed State Index 2010", www.foreignpolicy.com/
articles/2010/06/21/the_failed_ states_index_2010 n TTTWT T71
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working paper, Governance and Social Development Group, Policy and
Research Division, Department for Intemational Development, TRTT, ROO^■^
Alina Rocha Menocal, '"State-building for Peace': navigating an arena of
contradictions", Overseas Development Institute Briefing Paper, TTTF ^ ° ° ^>;
"The State's Legitimacy in Fragile Situations: Unpacking Complexity", OECD,
^ 01 O; "Building Peaceful States and Societies", Department for Intemational
Development, TRTT, ^ 01 O; "An Upside-down View of Governance", IDS,
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Resistance and the State: Nepalese Experiences, FTT TTTtTT I
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national identity. Sequestered ethnic groups, either singly or collectively, have
nothing similar to parallel it. If they try to invent something artificially so late
in the day, they cannot do it without first destroying the idea of the state". Prayag
Raj Sharma, "Nation-Building, Multi-Ethnicity, and the Hindu State", in
Gellner et al (eds.), Ffff Trftftr, T YCR I
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TT++T 4fTTF Borgstrom (The Patron and the Pancha, op. cit.) and Caplan
(Administration and Politics, op. cit.) made detailed studies in the Panchayat
period. Thereis also Dor Bahadur Bista's polemic, Fatalism and Development:
Nepal's Struggle for Modernisation (FTF, 1 W 1 ) I Fftfnft TTftftftt
ftft" TRW Wft T FTTTW%TF?f aTRT TTfR ftft ffff T TTTTft fft
W Tft FftFTFTT FFTTRrf ffWTT Wftf W Gellner (ed.), Views from the
Field, op. cit.; Judith Pettigrew, "Guns, Kinship, and Fear: Maoists among the
Tamu-Mai (Gurung)", in Gellner (ed.), Resistance and the State: Nepalese
Experiences, FTfft TTTtTT; Anne De Sales, "The Kham Magar Country:
Between Ethnic Claims and Maoism", in Gellner (ed.), Resistance and the
State: Nepalese Experiences, op. cit.; Shneiderman and Turin, "The Path to jan
sarkar in Dolakha District: Towards an Ethnography ofthe Maoist Movement",
in Michael Hutt (ed.), Himalayan 'people's war' (TTFT, ROOY). The only
substantial work of political ethnography on party politics, Philippe Ramirez's
fascinating, if not flawless, De la disparition des chefs, FTfft TTTtTT I
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The boundaries and names shown and the designations
used on this map do not imply official endorsement or
acceptance by the United Nations.
\
.^Baitadi.
/UAHAKAU'
simikot „ *■■*
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-   Regional boundary
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+
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/
Map No. 4304   UNITED NATIONS
January 2007 (Colour)
c*
Department ol Peacekeeping Operations
Cartographic Section
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TFFT TTITF fftT WF Carnegie Corporation of New York, The Charitable
Foundation, Clifford Chance Foundation, Connect U.S. Fund, The Elders
Foundation, William & Hora Hewlett Foundation, Humanity United, Hunt
Alternatives Fund, Jewish World Watch, Korea Foundation, John D. &
Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Open Society Institute, Victor
Pinchuk Foundation, Ploughshares Fund, Radcliffe Foundation, Sigrid
Rausing Trust, Rockefeller Brothers Fund and VIVA Trust.
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K3
Central Asia
Turkmenistan after Niyazov, Asia Briefing
N°60, 12 February 2007.
Central Asia's Energy Risks, Asia Report
NF33, 24 May 2007 (also available in
Russian).
Uzbekistan: Stagnation and Uncertainty,
Asia Briefing N°67, 22 August 2007.
Political Murder in Central Asia: No Time
to End Uzbekistan's Isolation, Asia
Briefing N°76, 13 February 2008.
Kyrgyzstan: The Challenge of Judicial
Reform, Asia Report NF50, 10 April
2008 (also available in Russian).
Kyrgyzstan: A Deceptive Calm, Asia
Briefing N°79, 14 August 2008 (also
available in Russian).
Tajikistan: On the Road to Failure, Asia
Report NF62, 12 February 2009.
Women and Radicalisation in Kyrgyzstan,
Asia Report NF76, 3 September 2009.
Central Asia: Islamists in Prison, Asia
Briefing N°97,15 December 2009.
Central Asia: Migrants and the Economic
Crisis, Asia Report N°I83, 5 January
2010.
Kyrgyzstan: A Hollow Regime Collapses,
Asia Briefing NF02, 27 April 2010.
The Pogroms in Kyrgyzstan, Asia Report
NF93, 23 August 2010.
North East Asia
After the North Korean Nuclear Breakthrough: Compliance or Confrontation ?,
Asia Briefing N°62, 30 April 2007 (also
available in Korean and Russian).
North Korea-Russia Relations: A Strained
Friendship, Asia Briefing N°71, 4
December 2007 (also available in
Russian).
South Korea's Election: What to Expect
from President Lee, Asia Briefing N°73,
21 December 2007.
China's Thirst for Oil, Asia Report N°I53,
9 June 2008 (also available in Chinese).
South Korea's Elections: A Shift to the
Right, Asia Briefing N°77, 30 June 2008.
North Korea's Missile Launch: The Risks
of Overreaction, Asia Briefing N°91,
31 March 2009.
China's Growing Role in UN Peacekeeping, Asia Report N°I66, 17 April
2009 (also available in Chinese).
North Korea's Chemical and Biological
Weapons Programs, Asia Report N°I67,
18 June 2009.
North Korea's Nuclear and Missile Programs, Asia Report N°I68, 18 June
2009.
North Korea: Getting Back to Talks, Asia
Report NF69, 18 June 2009.
China's Myanmar Dilemma, Asia Report
NF77, 14 September 2009 (also available in Chinese).
Shades of Red: China's Debate over North
Korea, Asia Report N°I79, 2 November
2009 (also available in Chinese).
The Iran Nuclear Issue: The View from
Beijing, Asia Briefing NF00, 17 February 2010 (also available in Chinese).
North Korea under Tightening Sanctions,
Asia Briefing NF0I, 15 March 2010.
China's Myanmar Strategy: Elections,
Ethnic Politics and Economics, Asia
BriefingNFI2, 21 September 2010.
South Asia
Afghanistan's Endangered Compact, Asia
Briefing N°59, 29 January 2007.
Nepal's Constitutional Process, Asia Report
NF28, 26 February 2007 (also available
in Nepali).
Pakistan: Karachi's Madrasas and Violent
Extremism, Asia Report N°I30, 29
March 2007.
Discord in Pakistan's Northern Areas, Asia
Report NF3I, 2 April 2007.
Nepal's Maoists: Purists or Pragmatists?,
Asia Report NF32, 18 May 2007 (also
available in Nepali).
Sri Lanka's Muslims: Caught in the Crossfire, Asia Report NF34, 29 May 2007.
Sri Lanka's Human Rights Crisis, Asia
Report NF35, 14 June 2007.
Nepal's Troubled Tarai Region, Asia
Report NF36, 9 July 2007 (also available in Nepali).
Elections, Democracy and Stability in Pakistan, Asia Report NF37, 31 July 2007.
Reforming Afghanistan's Police, Asia
Report NF38, 30 August 2007.
Nepal's Fragile Peace Process, Asia
Briefing N°68, 28 September 2007 (also
available in Nepali).
Pakistan: The Forgotten Conflict in
Balochistan, Asia Briefing N°69, 22
October 2007.
Sri Lanka: Sinhala Nationalism and the
Elusive Southern Consensus, Asia
Report NF4I, 7 November 2007.
Winding Back Martial Law in Pakistan,
Asia Briefing N°70, 12 November 2007.
Nepal: Peace Postponed, Asia Briefing
N°72, 18 December 2007 (also available
in Nepali).
After Bhutto's Murder: A Way Forward for
Pakistan, Asia Briefing N°74, 2 January
2008,
Afghanistan: The Need for International
Resolve, Asia Report N°I45, 6 February
2008.
Sri Lanka's Return to War: Limiting the
Damage, Asia Report N°I46, 20
February 2008.
Nepal's Election and Beyond, Asia Report
NF49, 2 April 2008 (also available in
Nepali).
Restoring Democracy in Bangladesh, Asia
Report NF5I, 28 April 2008.
Nepal's Election: A Peaceful Revolution ?,
Asia Report NF55, 3 July 2008 (also
available in Nepali).
Nepal's New Political Landscape, Asia
Report NF56, 3 July 2008 (also available in Nepali).
Reforming Pakistan's Police, Asia Report
NF57, 14 July 2008.
Taliban Propaganda: Winning the War of
Words?, Asia Report NF58, 24 July
2008.
Sri Lanka's Eastern Province: Land,
Development, Conflict, Asia Report
NF59, 15 October 2008.
Reforming the Judiciary in Pakistan, Asia
Report NF60, 16 October 2008.
Bangladesh: Elections and Beyond, Asia
Briefing N°84, II December 2008.
Policing in Afghanistan: Still Searching for
a Strategy, Asia Briefing N°85, 18
December 2008.
Nepal's Faltering Peace Process, Asia
Report NF63, 19 February 2009 (also
available in Nepali).
 MjtQy WT TftlW/ft??7/ W.   1%Y,  ?<? 3L2w< ?o<}o
KY
Afghanistan: New U.S. Administration,
New Directions, Asia Briefing N°89,
13 March 2009.
Pakistan: The Militant Jihadi Challenge,
Asia Report NF64, 13 March 2009.
Development Assistance and Conflict in Sri
Lanka: Lessons from the Eastern Province, Asia Report NF65, 16 April 2009.
Pakistan's IDP Crisis: Challenges and
Opportunities, Asia Briefing N°93, 3
June 2009.
Afghanistan's Election Challenges, Asia
Report NF71, 24 June 2009.
Sri Lanka's Judiciary: Politicised Courts,
Compromised Rights, Asia Report
NF72, 30 June 2009.
Nepal's Future: In Whose Hands?, Asia
Report NF73, 13 August 2009 (also
available in Nepali).
Afghanistan: What Now for Refugees ?,
Asia Report NF75, 31 August 2009.
Pakistan: Countering Militancy in FATA,
Asia Report NF78, 21 October 2009.
Afghanistan: Elections and the Crisis of
Governance, Asia Briefing N°96, 25
November 2009.
Bangladesh: Getting Police Reform on
Track, Asia Report NF 82, 11 December
2009.
Sri Lanka: A Bitter Peace, Asia Briefing
N°99, 11 January 2010.
Nepal: Peace and Justice, Asia Report
NF84, 14 January 2010.
Reforming Pakistan's Civil Service, Asia
Report NF85, 16 February 2010.
The Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora after the
LTTE, Asia Report NF86, 23 February
2010.
The Threat from Jamaat-ul Mujahideen
Bangladesh, Asia Report N° 187, 1
March 2010.
A Force in Fragments: Reconstituting the
Afghan National Army, Asia Report
NF90, 12 May 2010.
War Crimes in Sri Lanka, Asia Report
NF91, 17 May 2010.
Steps Towards Peace: Putting Kashmiris
First, Asia Briefing NF06, 3 June 2010.
Pakistan: The Worsening IDP Crisis, Asia
Briefing N°l 11, 16 September 2010.
South East Asia
Jihadism in Indonesia: Poso on the Edge,
Asia Report NF27, 24 January 2007
(also available in Indonesian).
Southern Thailand: The Impact of the
Coup, Asia Report NF29, 15 March
2007 (also available in Thai).
Indonesia: How GAM Won in Aceh, Asia
Briefing N°61, 22 March 2007.
Indonesia: Jemaah Islamiyah's Current
Status, Asia Briefing N°63, 3 May 2007.
Indonesia: Decentralisation and Local
Power Struggles in Maluku, Asia
Briefing N°64, 22 May 2007.
Timor-Leste's Parliamentary Elections,
Asia Briefing N°65, 12 June 2007.
Indonesian Papua: A Local Perspective on
the Conflict, Asia Briefing N°66, 19 July
2007 (also available in Indonesian).
Aceh: Post-Conflict Complications, Asia
Report NF39, 4 October 2007 (also
available in Indonesian).
Southern Thailand: The Problem with
Paramilitaries, Asia Report N°140, 23
October 2007 (also available in Thai).
"Deradicalisation " and Indonesian
Prisons, Asia Report NF42, 19
November 2007 (also available in
Indonesian).
Timor-Leste: Security Sector Reform, Asia
Report NF43, 17 January 2008 (also
available in Tetum).
Indonesia: Tackling Radicalism in Poso,
Asia Briefing N°75, 22 January 2008.
Burma/Myanmar: After the Crackdown,
Asia Report NF44, 31 January 2008.
Indonesia: Jemaah Islamiyah's Publishing
Industry, Asia Report NF47, 28 February 2008 (also available in Indonesian).
Timor-Leste's Displacement Crisis, Asia
Report NF48, 31 March 2008.
The Philippines: Counter-insurgency vs.
Counter-terrorism in Mindanao, Asia
Report NF52, 14 May 2008.
Indonesia: Communal Tensions in Papua,
Asia Report NF54, 16 June 2008 (also
available in Indonesian).
Indonesia: Implications of the Ahmadiyah
Decree, Asia Briefing N°78, 7 July 2008
(also available in Indonesian).
Thailand: Political Turmoil and the Southern Insurgency, Asia Briefing N°80, 28
August 2008 (also available in Thai).
Indonesia: Pre-election Anxieties in Aceh,
Asia Briefing N°81, 9 September 2008
(also available in Indonesian).
Thailand: Calming the Political Turmoil,
Asia Briefing N°82, 22 September 2008
(also available in Thai).
Burma/Myanmar After Nargis: Time to
Normalise Aid Relations, Asia Report
NF61, 20 October 2008 (also available
in Chinese).
The Philippines: The Collapse of Peace in
Mindanao, Asia Briefing N°83, 23
October 2008.
Local Election Disputes in Indonesia: The
Case of North Maluku, Asia Briefing
N°86, 22 January 2009.
Timor-Leste: No Time for Complacency,
Asia Briefing N°87, 09 February 2009.
The Philippines: Running in Place in
Mindanao, Asia Briefing N°88, 16
February 2009.
Indonesia: Deep Distrust in Aceh as Elections Approach, Asia Briefing N°90, 23
March 2009.
Indonesia: Radicalisation ofthe "Palem-
bang Group", Asia Briefing N°92, 20
May 2009.
Recruiting Militants in Southern Thailand,
Asia Report NF70, 22 June 2009 (also
available in Thai).
Indonesia: The Hotel Bombings, Asia
Briefing N°94, 24 July 2009 (also available in Indonesian).
Myanmar: Towards the Elections, Asia
Report NF74, 20 August 2009.
Indonesia: Noordin Top's Support Base,
Asia Briefing N°95, 27 August 2009.
Handing Back Responsibility to Timor-
Leste's Police, Asia Report N°180, 3
December 2009.
Southern Thailand: Moving towards Political Solutions?, Asia Report N°181, 8
December 2009 (also available in Thai).
The Philippines: After the Maguindanao
Massacre, Asia Briefing N°98, 21
December 2009.
Radicalisation and Dialogue in Papua,
Asia Report NF88, 11 March 2010.
Indonesia: Jihadi Surprise in Aceh, Asia
Report NF89, 20 April 2010.
Philippines: Pre-election Tensions in
Central Mindanao, Asia Briefing N°103,
4 May 2010.
Timor-Leste: Oecusse and the Indonesian
Border, Asia Briefing NF04, 20 May
2010.
The Myanmar Elections, Asia Briefing
NF05, 27 May 2010 (also available in
Chinese).
Bridging Thailand's Deep Divide, Asia
Report NF92, 5 July 2010.
Indonesia: The Dark Side of Jama'ah
Ansharut Tauhid (JAT), Asia Briefing
NF07, 6 July 2010.
Indonesia: The Deepening Impasse in Papua,
Asia Briefing NF08, 3 August 2010.
Illicit Arms in Indonesia, Asia Briefing
NF09, 6 September 2010.
Managing Land Conflict in Timor-Leste, Asia
Briefing NF 10, 9 September 2010.
 MjtQy WT TftlW/ft??7/ W.   1%Y,  ?<? 3L2w< ?o<}o
KK
CO-CHAIRS
Lord (Christopher) Patten
Former European Commissioner for External
Relations, Governor of Hong Kong and UK
Cabinet Minister; Chancellor of Oxford University
Thomas R Pickering
Former U.S. Ambassador to the UN, Russia,
India, Israel, Jordan, El Salvador and Nigeria;
Vice Chairman of Hills & Company
PRESIDENT & CEO
Louise Arbour
Former UN High Commissioner for Human
Rights and Chief Prosecutor for the International
Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia
and Rwanda
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
Morton Abramowitz
Former U .S. Assistant Secretary of State and
Ambassador to Turkey
Cheryl Carolus
Former South African High Commissioner to
the UK and Secretary General of the ANC
Maria Livanos Cattaui
Member of the Board, Petroplus Holdings,
Switzerland
Yoichi Funabashi
Editor in Chief, The Asahi Shimbun, Japan
Frank Giustra
President & CEO, Fiore Capital
Ghassan Salame
Dean, Paris School of International Affairs,
Sciences Po
Stephen Solarz
Former U.S. Congressman
George Soros
Chairman, Open Society Institute
Par Stenback
Former Foreign Minister of Finland
OTHER BOARD MEMBERS
Adnan Abu-Odeh
Former Political Adviser to King Abdullah II
and to King Hussein, and Jordan Permanent
Representative to the UN
Kenneth Adelman
Former U.S. Ambassador and Director of the
Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
Kofi Annan
Former Secretary-General of the United Nations;
Nobel Peace Prize (2001)
Nahum Barnea
Chief Columnist for Yedioth Ahronoth, Israel
Samuel Berger
Chair, Albright Stonebridge Group LLC; Former
U.S. National Security Advisor
Emma Bonino
Vice President ofthe Senate; Former Minister
of International Trade and European Affairs
of Italy and European Commissioner for
Humanitarian Aid
Wesley Clark
Former NATO Supreme Allied Commander,
Europe
Sheila Coronel
Toni Stabile, Professor of Practice in Investigative
Journalism; Director, Toni Stabile Center for Investigative Journalism, Columbia University, U.S.
Jan Egeland
Director, Norwegian Institute of International
Affairs; Former UN Under-Secretary-General for
Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief
Coordinator
Mohamed ElBaradei
Director-General Emeritus, International Atomic
Energy Agency (IAEA); Nobel Peace Prize (2005)
Uffe Ellemann-Jensen
Former Foreign Minister of Denmark
Gareth Evans
President Emeritus of Crisis Group; Former
Foreign Affairs Minister of Australia
Mark Eyskens
Former Prime Minister of Belgium
Joschka Fischer
Former Foreign Minister of Germany
Jean-Marie Guehenno
Arnold Saltzman Professor of Professional
Practice in International and Public Affairs,
Columbia University; Former UN Under-
Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations
Carla Hills
Former U.S. Secretary of Housing and U.S.
Trade Representative
Lena Hjelm-Wallen
Former Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign
Affairs Minister of Sweden
Swanee Hunt
Former U.S. Ambassador to Austria;
Chair, Institute for Inclusive Security; President,
Hunt Alternatives Fund
Mo Ibrahim
Founder and Chair, Mo Ibrahim Foundation;
Founder, Celtel International
Igor Ivanov
Former Foreign Affairs Minister ofthe Russian
Federation
Asma Jahangir
UN Special Rapporteur on the Freedom of
Religion or Belief; Chairperson, Human Rights
Commission of Pakistan
Wim Kok
Former Prime Minister of the Netherlands
Ricardo Lagos
Former President of Chile
Joanne Leedom-Ackerman
Former International Secretary of International
PEN; Novelist and journalist, U.S.
Lord (Mark) Malloch-Brown
Former Administrator of the United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP) and UN
Deputy Secretary-General
Lalit Mansingh
Former Foreign Secretary of India, Ambassador
to the U.S. and High Commissioner to the UK
Jessica Tuchman Mathews
President, Carnegie Endowment for
International Peace, U.S.
Benjamin Mkapa
Former President of Tanzania
Moises Nairn
Senior Associate, International Economics
Program, Carnegie Endowment for International
Peace; former Editor in Chief, Foreign Policy
Ayo Obe
Legal Practitioner, Lagos, Nigeria
Giiler Sabanci
Chairperson, Sabanci Holding, Turkey
Javier Solana
Former EU High Representative for the Common
Foreign and Security Policy, NATO Secretary-
General and Foreign Affairs Minister of Spain
 MjtQy WT TftlW/ft??7/ W.   1%Y,  ?<? 3L2w< ?o<}o
K$
PRESIDENT'S COUNCIL
Crisis Group's President's Council is a distinguished group of major individual and corporate donors providing
essential support, time and expertise to Crisis Group in delivering its core mission.
Canaccord Adams Limited
Neil & Sandy DeFeo
Fares I. Fares
Mala Gaonkar
Alan Griffiths
Frank Holmes
Steve Killelea
George Landegger
Ford Nicholson
Statoil ASA
Harry Pokrant
Ian Telfer
Neil Woodyer
INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COUNCIL
Crisis Group's International Advisory Council comprises significant individual and corporate donors who contribute
their advice and experience to Crisis Group on a regular basis.
Rita E. Hauser
Co-Chair
Elliott Kulick
Co-Chair
Anglo American PLC
APCO Worldwide Inc.
Ed Bachrach
Stanley Bergman & Edward
Bergman
Harry Bookey & Pamela
Bass-Bookey
lara Lee & George Gund
Foundation
Chevron
John Ehara
Equinox Partners
Neemat Frem
Seth Ginns
Paul Hoag
Joseph Hotung
International Council of
Swedish Industry
H.J. Keilman
George Kellner
Amed Khan
Zelmira Koch
Liquidnet
Jean Manas
McKinsey & Company
Harriet Mouchly-Weiss
Yves OltramareAnna Luisa
Ponti & Geoffrey Hoguet
Michael Riordan
Shell
Belinda Stronach
Talisman Energy
Tilleke & Gibbins
Kevin Torudag
VIVATrust
Yapi Merkezi Construction
and Industry Inc.
SENIOR ADVISERS
Crisis Group's Senior Advisers are former Board Members who maintain an association with Crisis Group, and whose advice
and support are called on from time to time (to the extent consistent with any other office they may be holding at the time).
Martti Ahtisaari
Chairman Emeritus
George Mitchell
Chairman Emeritus
HRH Prince Turki al-
Faisal
Shlomo Ben-Ami
Hushang Ansary
Richard Armitage
Ersin Arioglu
Oscar Arias
Diego Arria
Zainab Bangura
Christoph Bertram
Alan Blinken
Lakhdar Brahimi
Zbigniew Brzezinski
Kim Campbell
Jorge Castaneda
Naresh Chandra
Eugene Chien
Joaquim Alberto
Chissano
Victor Chu
Mong Joon Chung
Pat Cox
Gianfranco Dell'Alba
Jacques Delors
Alain Destexhe
Mou-Shih Ding
Gemot Erler
Marika Fahlen
Stanley Fischer
Malcolm Fraser
I.K. Gujral
Max Jakobson
James V. Kimsey
Aleksander
Kwasniewski
Todung Mulya Lubis
Allan J. MacEachen
Gra9a Machel
Barbara McDougall
Matthew McHugh
Nobuo Matsunaga
Miklos Nemeth
Christine Ockrent
Timothy Ong
Olara Otunnu
Shimon Peres
Victor Pinchuk
Surin Pitsuwan
Cyril Ramaphosa
Fidel V. Ramos
George Robertson
Michel Rocard
Volker Riihe
Mohamed Sahnoun
Salim A. Salim
Douglas Schoen
Christian Schwarz-
Schilling
Michael Sohlman
Thorvald Stoltenberg
William O. Taylor
Leo Tindemans
Ed van Thijn
Simone Veil
Shirley Williams
Grigory Yavlinski
Uta Zapf
Ernesto Zedillo

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