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Nepal: Identity Politics and Federalism International Crisis Group 2011-01-13

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the Process of Nation-Building in Nepal", in David Gellner, Joanna Pfaff-
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York, 2002 [1968]),R. 11Y I RTejRR RiR=ftRT "The Question of Building
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(RR-SRlftf ^ 000)R TTftR oTTRft, "The Maoists and Minorities: Overlap of
Interest or a Case of Exploitation?", Studies in Nepali History and Society, vol.
8,no. 1 (ROO^lR. 513-^ls I
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Michael Hutt (ed.), Himalayan People's War: Nepal's Maoist Rebellion
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^l^dl^R%"FfttSFRRd<H^*l Wtf Rl*|ild RTRR RfR, I n
1*. TRTRTT Roo\s rt TTTTFT RRtRr TtRrsnR TtRr Rftf |
TRRRf RRRR RF%R RRRT T d*lf*H*l ^RRlR" TRTT TRRff
%TFFrf TTfRRTTTR" Tft RRRRRR fFRf WTT 3RRTRTT rt#rt
RRRf RTt dJ||lJ*l RfRJ^ RRt Hldl*l R^RRR t Rlftf =||<f|<sf|-c|
TR^RdTRRTTRt RRRR RTsffRT^tft RRf "RftRTTTRT fR R^TR, F:
RTTRT T "R*RTR RTTTTRRTFFT srff Rh^hRjJ ddl^d TRf c*1<Hdl£
BllQRm^15 TRFTR FTTFTRT RRTRR TtRTSTTRRT TRR
Hd4<"=HNl1 ^Tlff TRp" WTt TR RffRFRR WT FftTR WRT I
TRTRT TRf T RfRTRR FTRft RFITRRRTT WTf W> RRRRf TR?
TRTTft STRftTRTRRTFF RTTTT 3TTRf W( I RSRff ^RSrfsfRF RTTR
T %IRT TTFTTRRT TTTtTT RfRr <hR|SIH*I RTTSRT FTFf T TT
•N NiNO ' C^
TTTTfTTTf R3F Rtft TRR RF?FRf W> RRT TT%r RRfsr TFTR
rt rrt 1 Rrrrsrtajf tt;TrrrfRT %trt witt trtrt R<hioh* rt
RTRtl WsffRRR *|if*dkl<l RF ^RT R&# 3TFRtTTR*TTT*t
TJRTR RRt Wf FT¥IT RTTRt ftd~Hld 3° ^RTt RtRr T zoo ^TF
RTFT W;l STTTfdFT Wt-R€R WRRf FRTFRf ¥TR*TTT
RRFRT^RT FRTRR RTjTFFRt -gftf 3TWR TRFT Wtt T RTR Rfe
fR RRtl
31 TRTRTT Roo\s RT f^ TSTTFRftt RftftTTTTTK RRFRTITT FT
RTR T ^fTTfWTTTTTRKT WRt r| RftRdRTR JillVcA TpfgR TTRT
R^d ¥RT*t RT: TRRffR Rd RFR, I RlftsT 3T?f RRf FT
dP*^HfBl *l^<ldld RTRRRf# *R-4lsid+il FRf <l^*l R<=TlRd
R*|i|i^ T TTTFTRt RTTTT^TsRRFWf TRTRTTtRRR TRRRRR
!<V RRftftR RRRR  RRTRfft, Rf% A^l fttRRT   (RTRfRftt),   +I6RI^1,
ND
ft%TRT  RO<\0 I   R^SRfrft RT5RRTRT RTftf RFR Tftftf ^,  'Rrf, ^nft,
RTRT, fftf, TRfft, Rft TRftRRR RTRRRT TftRR ftftjRRftf 3RTR RR RRT
RftRT, RftTR, RlftRTRt, ^RRRR, RRRf, ftfftr, ^ftftlR T R?HRRSRR RTJRR
TTR  fftsftftrRR   tRRRT  RTRRTfR^TTi  RTRfRR  rft   cTRRTR  ftftff  T
TTRRTRR RRRRTRft RTRTTR RTJRRff RTRRft, RRTRlftRR T RRRTTR "gfft
^rrftTRR Rfftt^l" TRfRRTfft RfftftT, RTR ^X I
** RRftTTR TTR fftft, Nepal's Peace Agreement: Making it Work, TRfft
RfttfftR, R.  1 3 I
^ ^IsjRW RRRR RT=RRfRftR,RR5TT[ft',RfRTRT RO<\0 \
ND
*^RR#R RRRR RRTRfft, Rftf RRTfR T RTRTft RfrfRRftR, RT^TTlft',
ND
RfRTRT^OlO| RftfJ TRRfRftfRRTFR RTR 13^(1) TITR RT5RT TftffT
"RTfRRf ftfttfR RRT TTRRTRR RRRfftnf RRRTR r| <|^<rl|^ RfRRft
RRTftf^ T R3£T RRftftftr, RRTRTftRR RRRRRT ^Xwi RfftfW ^ft
"S:TRTR#ft RTR TRRT R^TRRRTTf ?%R Rftft RRTRRR | RRftftR RRRR
RRTRfft,RRT5TT[ft', ^ ftftrRT RO<\o \
^ ^a f^R, i ^ "^rf^ Rrrrsr trstt t ffw ttRfr t srTfUr 1 r
3#Tt Roo\s rt "#TSfFTTTW-"RRRT RRtRr <hR|SIM*I TRR
RTTSFT ttr TRRRf RTRTtRFR RfTR RTRTRRRRftr TTRTRF
^ NO
RRft TTTTTR TTRR jRhR^ RTR TRf RRR WR I K%
TRFlfBl FTRF T ^IRRR RRT TFTTIR 3R^RTR*T%R5RR tt^rt-
TdR^ WTFt tHJ-^ldl^^l <Hf|ildl T <H+ildHlR* yRRRc^^lR*!
TtTfR^TTRTTf RffRRR3% RRR W^Rf T? I 5° "^"F^TffWr RTFTT
F^RF R^t TftRRT "Bl I RF ^RT *lddRK*l *ldl^+il 'Trt FRT?"
RRT R^T sfWsr RfR, RRRR ^RRf' I ^ TR RfttFR TFTTF^f
RfTTW   ^TRRR   3TTSTTTRT   F^f   WT   3RRT   ^RRlR"   T   TRRff
no '
STRRtTRTRRTTRf RFT TTR*t T? I "F^TSTRTFTTRT f^TRTRR F§"
TTTFT T FT¥IT RTTRT ^J FTRft TTlR RRftf | "   SRrRr
^ Rftftf Rftft RTftftTRRft B^X 'frTftTTR tijr fftfft, £#/'<*? WIW
mf, RTfft RfttfftRI
^''RRTfftTRftRTR.RTR 13^(1) I
5° RRlfftT RTRR, RlftRRft ^TRRlftft TT^TRf T RlftRTTR ^RSTTft RRR7
Rfft Rfftftftf ftRTR RTTRff RfTTft | "RTRR T TRRTRRftjRftRftf TRTTft",
^ W^Z, ROO\3 I RRRf T^rftftrRT ftRR T RTRRRTRRff RRRft |
"ftTTR RTRR T Tftftf W^m\ RftRR fttTTTRftrftf RRRft", 30 RRTR
Roo\3 I RTRR t ^ RTRT rrrt RiRRRftrftf R^rrft I "TRRft RR",
13 ftiM< Roo\3 I Re; ftpftf Rooi^ TR RTRR T RFr7 ftt^nRR?7
TTRft 4fhf4lR RRft ~<%V5^ ^(7*4^)441 M^^lfti ^ ^" TRRftRT RfTTrftf
RfftRRRTRTt RTRRRTrI RRft^^l^ -RRTRT RTRftR R%R fftt T
RfRRTRRRTRT RRftftf ftfer RO RfftRTTRT^ RTRf 30 RftRR RTRR fR
RfftrRfffRftl ^ Rrft ^001^ TR mwi RRT R#ft Rr^h RTfR RRRR,
TT#ft RRTRlftRR R%R RRTR, RRR7 RTR R%R ftft uftrR ^TRRTft Rftf
T RTRTRRTfttR TRSnTftR RT?R RRRRftR RTTRff RRRTRTR R#R ftTTRfftR
fftf^RTR, RTRRTR, RTff^: T RTTTRRTftTR T^siTlfRR iW$t? RRTftf
RftRRRT o3TR7 Rfftrftf ^ | 1^ Rift Rooi^ TR ^R+K T TT#R Rr^h
RfR iRl^R RTTftf <H£RftRI R^ft ftTTRfftR R|4-^h R?R eHl^ft fR
Tftftf ^1 ft Tft RT^ftrRRRT TTR ftR# Rre T RRftft RRRTR
www.unmin.org TR RRRrssff fyy\
^RR?ftrR RRRR RT=RRfft,RreTT|ft',RfRTRT R0<\0 |
ND
^^TtfftRRRRTR^hd+l Rift TrfftR,RRRf,uftfR, "RTRffftr T RlftRTft",
"R^fftTRT ftR' RT oftftfR T -R^R' RTt TTRRRTRT Rfftft Rft fti dl fti
oRRFRT Rfrrrftf ftft | ftTRR v^M+ld+l RTfft ^(jX*1^^^ TTR TrfftRT
fftft R. 1Y^>, -yv/e/*/ RTffR T f^H^^i 1lfrk, R ^Tv[ Rooc, \ RRTR
ROO\3 TR RRRff fRRTRft RRT ftf, ^OY^> (RR 1^^>3) ftf RftRRRT
RTRTft %RTRR Rift |ft tt|W RftftftRTTR <\RX Rfft^TR RTftRTRftnt,
1Y.c;i<. RftRR TRfftrRTTt, %.% Rfft^TR TTRRftnt, V.O«. RftRR RfftRRlf
T 1 .S Rft^TR ft^fftTRT ^TRRT RriftRR^R^T RTft ^RRTTRff ftft I
ftRTRft ftr- ftf, (ftft RRfRR), C RTTTR ROO\3 | RfRTRT ROO\3 TR
TnfTRRff RRCrftRRTTR# ^OY^> (RR 1 ^^ ^ ) T R^TW Rfftt RR ftRRTRft
^050 (RR^003) RftRRRT R^ RTRRRfT RTfft |ft t)t|W RftftftRTTR
1Y.Y Rft^TR RlftRTft TRRRfftRTt, 1^.5 RftRR RRRfRrt, % Rft^TR
RfftrTRTi, 5.^*. Rft^TR RftTRRTt T ^.^ RfftRR R^fftTRT ^RTRT
RTfftRRRT RTfft FfftR RfttTftf ^ I   Rfft fRRRTR# (RT^ RftRR), 1^
 3mW: vR-clM*! iM'flRl T W^kfW
wr?i%w wttffrirMr?w. ?<?<?, 13 wmft ?o<i<i
TfRrSTRTRt Tt^ RTtSTRRT "TRTTft, STtRtrtTR-^RTRtRT, #RFTflRRT T
SRR ¥RTRR ^ddl*l STTRTFFTff FlUft RTRTTTfTR y^ldlP'l*
RFRR RRgj" W> "FFRTff TTTfBT TRtRT RRRT TRft ^ TTTFRFT
¥TRT RTT RTRJR "bT I "
*!0<Jdl+l <I^R)
STfqTT Rooc rt RRTR ^FRF RRlR" TTffRFTRt TNdlR*
TT^fftW F^-F^ TTF RFrf TTTR^rRR? WRT TRRRT ^RTTRRR
f^RI 5V"F"^Hlif^^sftRT3fTRT^TT^TTTR"7fRTft^
ft FRf tTFftdTTrfrR RRR? *ldidd yWI<=l<Hfe?d*l RlFul STTRTt
y|fc|U||i|->wi n&cb\ Rfft I 3RR TT^ffRRR #RTTRRRT TTffRFftT
WRRTf RTR FftTR W^Rtd" FrfFFrf <HI<=mR* "RRRT ^ 11^*1
<H^d+il RfffR RHdHldHddl^ ^|IJ*I RfRtl RRt ^TRTR RRF
TW "RPFSPRT ^tR" TtR TTFTRF7? WTFT RfR, Tff T^T^R T
jfldJitdl^Hld R***l RfR,T ddlg^d Rddl^ 3jdl*ld~H TftfftT
■T5TRT RfFTR TRrFFlTd: 3RR ^tfsfR T^T W> ^FtRR RtR I
Tl^ftTcRf TTfftTFRR Tl%T RlRR ^ RT*T RftRRT; T RRT TTRT
RRTTTW TW RTRRRT SRTtRf "bRTFTT FTR RTRR RfRtl ^R
TTftftt RRFTRl^Wt TlRrft ^RRTd W FtRRTT TT^ffR
-HI^R* "RRRT il-H^lR TTRWT RTR RfRT F-tRT f^R, I
TtRRRTFTTRR RSRT RRRRRT "FWffFFT 3TRSTTTRTTRF7? TTRR
TRRR "bRT;T <J*dl^*ldl£ RTF R«I^R dHiflJI ^R WfRRTTRf
fTRRRt"§fR3"TTRT"BRT;i Tff TTR RRSfTTWTRFFrf ^RffR T TRTfRt
TtfRTFTTf FflRF rI wft TTffR RTTTftTT^"T "?f%RTTTRT "bRTJ
FT Hlif^RfR c*l<H*l RRfST R^ RR*t «r | RTTRtd" RRrSTTTFT
RpRRRRR Wd |<J|£R Tff RT^ffTfTT TTfftTTTTTRf ^dl^*l FRRT
"5RRFTW ^Ff RT ^frftR Wt FT R&RT m
TT^ftTcRf TTfftTFRR ftRRT 3RRTT RRFTtf TTfTRT TFFRt
FrtFFrf TRRFt: RTFrt ^d1d1*l TTTTRTT Rfftf ^R TTRbT I w TR
ci|<HW«l RFT +ii?r<=l*l RlRR TNdlR* "bRTI TTR TT^fftR (RtFR
TRf RRTRR: WSTfRtrftfR) ^tRTRT RTRTTtf fRRfRR dlfdii^BldJ
RRfRTT yk<ik <H^i?^ Hldli?^dl£ F«i?*l R%TT ^Ri^B^T
TTfftTFTT ^fRTTR FTTTFT RRRRT RfttF trr ftcTTRdt TtR
f^TF^RI
RtRTRr ROO\3; RTRR RRR ^ ftRRIR# (ftft ftftRR), ^% ftftfRT
Roo\3 | ftRR RTRR Ro\t^ (RR ^005) rr^TR RRRff ftTfftf TRTR
"R%R Rfftf ftf |R§f| rrtRr TRRRTRRf RtRt TtftRTRft RRRf,
RlftRlft-^RRlft, ftftR, TTfftrr T "ftRRftfR ftR'RT oftftfTcft TfRTRT
Rft |R RTftf TgfftitR rftftf m
" RRTftR TfftRTR,RRT 13c;(1r) |
5V Rrrftft^r tjr Rftft, ftwTRqft W T Wm^TT Yffi, RTfR RftffftR, R.
^31
^ TffftjTRRff TRftftT RRTRR RftftR RT1^ fttRT R6id(?^ld fR
fRRTR RffftRR Rft RRRTRT ftifRRfR^T RRRT RR^-RR7^ ^Rl
RRTRR RftRTRft ^ ftrf ftRRTRRRRTTt RfsR "W^ ^^,RT R^RRT
RTf RRRTR ff TTR^ Rft fRRT RfpjftftrfTRT ttrr TTR RT?RRT TgjRJ
ftft RfRRftTfR RRTRR RftRTfft RTRSJ Ttt^lM^MI^ ^fsR RRRT
RT^RT RTRR RRT fftRR RTftftTRRRR RTTpRftR RTTRT RRRfrftRftf
Rft fR RRfft ftftfR R|ft RRTRT^RI RfftRR tttrrr RRfftft, rRb"
W^rft T^ftRTR, RTSRrft, ^5 RfRTRT RO<\0 | RTRR ft T^rft rft^R
R^t ^ ftRRRT RTR 13c; RJRR RRtRr ftftlM^ld TftrgpRiRT
Rffftrftf   ^ |     RRftftR   RTRRT   RRTRfft, RfRRTRfRR, RTORrft, ft%TRT
^olo|
 $WW: vfe-clHcbl iM'flRl T W^kfW
wr?i%w wttffrirMr?w. ?<?<?, 13 wmft ?o<i<i
yO
TM TT^ffW RfRRTRTT RRrft Tf?TRFR ^T7flRR RTsffRT^t TT^f
RTR ffl FftRF^f RRFRTRT TRRRT "RdTFRTff R^t RFTTf
TRtR RTRT, RRTR TRR TtR RRRT WW RT T TTffR FTRff
RRRt RTF? TRRFT RtFRT RTRRT ftRT 3TR TTTfft RRRJR
RRRRFT TRT ^§TR, I
RT3rio|l<fli?WKI FFT TfRrSTTTRT RFftFRT 'RRT, WR T TRRRR'
3RSITTW FR TTRTfR T§F TTfrR TRRRTR TrRRT*f ^ I " fRRRT
WRtRRR "RRRT RfTT ^IRRR Rf WRr? "RRFTff "FTTTFT TFT
RT, TTTTT, #RRTfffR W 'TTtTRW' FRpRRT TTTRTR Ff t
"Fi}fe" FTTRTFFTTf R*Rld FRTFT FT-RRT?" TFf "5RRFR
TtR RRqft ^r I ^ WsffRTrft "RdFF StRTtRftRRT 3TfRRR ("^f|R
RRR" RflRRRRdRt) TTtf TfT-TT TTRFT J^BlftFT RtFFRT RTR,
"SRRFTW ffFT I TtftRT ^TFf TRRRR RTf^R "RRRT ^Rf TRFT
RTWRTT FllJ*ld F1**<u|dl£ 3dloHlf??d JlRdHd" TRt ddli?**
RFRbRT;! WRT T ftTFT TRRFFTlf RRRT ^TRT FRRR TRFRRR
sffftRRjt" Rr#R TRR TTFT ^TR? FR TfR FfftR 3# RRifR I ^
TRTTTTRT: "TRR ^ifeFtFR *-si*l Fft WR RRRRT T? T RRRtg"
RfRRTTF7? TTfRt TRRRT T^^ftl ^ 3RR ?TT TTRSRTF7? RTF
Wi *l<H°lld Vsid yRdlil +ilRldWI TR" RaR^I TTT^f I TRRRT
R3F R€R RRTFF TRTTR TRTR V<£)a| TTTRTTRT TtRRRRT
"RRRT TFf "5RRFTT ft I fR TtR TRRRT *ldd*l RfTT?<R T
RsTlRd TTTsR TRftfRT RfRfRRTRRTR RfTB" T^FFR Ri|Rf) trr?
NO NO V    N NO
TRTffR TRTFTR "FfffR" 3TTRSRRR RRbT | teo TFTfRt TTRFTff
TRTfRt TTRftTTRFTTT Rt&T TRR TRtft fR TTRSRT W*,^ F:
%T^fR TlgnRd Wf TRTfRt TTRFTtf TFTTR FdTFT TRFfBT I ^
" "TRRRTRff R#R RTRT=R RRRTRff RTRRTR', TTRRRT (RTRfRftt),  R% ft
RO<\Oy RRf 5ft D RTf RTRRR RRRRR ^Rf fftrRRTR, fftftR-RfRtJTf-
fttR-RRR,   fftRR,  RRf,   RTTRlfttR,   RRT, RRRTR, TTRRR,  -gfrRft-RRR-
RRRTR cbUlf^.TRTfTR T RRR |   ftft, RRTTfft 1 I
^ "ftftf ■HRlfl" RT ftR RRR RRRrfffftR ^Rf  "TRRtRtr TRRfR",
"TfrfttR ftR'T "ftftf ftsifR" I  ftft, RTR 5* I
^  RRftRR   RRRR   RRTRTRf, rRb"   RrftRftf   ftR, RRSRlftf ftRTRT
ND
^olo|
^ "TRRRlftf Rfft RTTRT=R RRRTRff RfRRTR', TTRRRT (RTftRftf), R% ft
^olo, RTR 55 T RJ^fft *-^ I
130 ftft, RTR ^«.,TRgR TRftftf fftjfftsft RTR ^ TR RftfR ^1
^   RTR   %l(R)   RT   RftfR   RTTRftftTR   'TTTTTRRRRf,   RRRTR   RRRft
TTRRfttR T RTRRRTTTR ftftftt RRfR RR RRRTR RRRTRRRRff RwTTf T
RfTRRRT R% I " RTR ^«.(3) ft RRRTR TRTTRR TRf "RRRTR RRRft Rt=R
RfftTRTTRTR Rl+H+i RtRrRrRT RRR T^%" RRRff ^ |
^^ Rlftft RRRftf ^ftTR rft oRRPR, RRT ^t^(^) ^ ^y(<f  (tr) TR ^ |
3RR TT^ftwf FRPTt TTftRFRT Wt^\ RTsffRTRf TT#RT
3ikdR* RfWRT^I TTfRRTTFT TTfRRTTRT TR?t "f^ F? ^
Tlf%RRT W*\ F: TFTT^TcRT FFsRTRRT Wf %ft RTF ft^RT
WJ 3RR Hldl*l ddli?** TR1^" T «IN<m WiTlf R^TT oilfrhJId
fFRRTTRf T^ftF TRTTRT FTRT RfftRT Wi *Fft FTTRbRT;! ^
TRRR1FR RTTRTR" T R&rff RRRRRRd 3TTRRT RRTFFTTf TTfRRTt
TTTF^TRT STTRTt TT^f RFRTT RRt TRRRFR W> F: T? I  RIFT
C NO NO 'NO
RFT  Hldl*l   RFR m RrRRRT RTffR,  ^3tR FTTTffR RTfRR
no C '
RFF^fl T# H^l^*l ddli?** TRTTT RfRT ^d<H+i^ddl^ ^rWW
TlpRRpI Rf RFTRRT RRd"RFR"Bl WRfR RFRTTtf RT^TT^TFT
TTRT RTTTRbRT I W
TT^ffWT SRTRFsRRT W! TJ%$W ^RlR* RRRTTT RPdd "bRT I
RTsffRT^tfTcRT TTlRT FTTRRT RlfWR ^TTTRR TTRTRR#R RRTRFT
3TRRFTF ydMd TT3& TTTSFT ff I   TRt F-FT TTt W^Tf% FRRTRR
WTTT   RRTRR   RFF   Tlt%R   TffRRRRf   fRnW   Ff    3RF
' C S\ NO
RTsffRT^ftTcRT "Bll FT Rf RtRTT ^TRrtR 3|k<{|dd*lA^^*l
R%fTRT RRRt "fR I RfTRRT ^TRffR 3R^ftrRTRT%R STTFTTtf
STTRrRTTff 3TRRTTRT RtSRRFff 3|R<{lddRld ftl%T f#T FTRRFT
"FRRT T TffRRTRT R5R TTFTT FbT I ^
c NO '
TTRft TTTTRR% TT^f TTtFTRt Tft" 3TTRRT Sff^WR^tR FR TfR
^dHdl*l TftRRRRT T^l "FT; l^^lS srf^RT RftR STRTTfRftRRT
STfsTRTTTTtf Rf^R ^ RfRf T TRTTRR RRRFRT '^TRRlRfFFRt ^FT
TTTTRt RFTRR' RF?RRT RfRtl Sfffft 3TTRT "RRtRf 4ld^l
RFFTFt fRFFRT STRTTfRftRRf RfsRTF ftR TR "5RRFTW ttRR
dl^dd -flR+il 3TTR*t HR<=ld"d 'i^M I TR Rt tRr^TT TTTtft ft I
sfi: ^RfTR 3R^RTRRR%TcRT TTlRt Rf TTTFT T TRFRlRf FfR
RftST TfRT RTsftRTRf RFR R-dl*l RfTR rRrT T? I ^RRTtR
<H^|i|dl^ ^dl^dl-Hii? ^<Rwi< *\^ W> TRpT TfR T? I RF
^RR WsffRftt TRRfRftf Wf, % RRTRTff TFf T? Wf ^d^i
ftTRR*t TTTRF W( TRt RrfR R ^ TTFTTTf FRR T? I TRTTRR
%RR^RRTFFftRTTrR^Bll FFT TfTRTTTTTf RTTTRbT, frRTTTTTTT
T-fTRTlf I"155
RftR TTTfTRRTTfR RrsffRftfRRTf ^TITRRT TFf TRfRFTRtld:
ddl^^dl^ "STTT TNdlR* TTRT WTft T? I  RFR tRr^TT TRTFt
FRlRrft "TfRTRf ^T "B#f WsffRftftWf -^ TRFTTf RfftTRIRR
RTRTRft "gfl  FT Rt RTRR Hldl*l TTlRt 4H4|T^ TfR WTft T? I
RTTTT TTFRR T SRf fftfft^T W4R%*t T? I   RR RTsffRftftTcRT
^ RTTft%Tf RRRR RRTRfft, RfRTRT-ft^TsR   ^O 1 O |
ND
lSV RTT^Rrt RTTRR  RRTRfft,  TTRRfRT  (TRsffRftf)  ftftfq- ^rfftfft R^pT,   %
ND
RfRTRT  ^OlO I
?^f?X *i^R<5   RTRTR,   "Culture, Caste and Ethnicity in the Maoist
Movement",RffR Rfttf%R, R.  R%y-R%\t |
^^RTTgftRT RRRR RRTRfft, RR^R, TRRfrffR, RO ftftrRT ^OlO I
 wr?i%w wttffrirMr?w. ?<?<?, 13 wmft ?o<i<i
11
RTTRTTFf W=TTTnTRT RRRFRT RTlTft FTfRT T^RRTtRFRTR T
FffRF ## TfRT "3FTI Rt RRf T RrftTRR TTffR RTTTT eldMd
RRT TTT TRf RTRRR WSTfRfttRRTf ^RTTTRFT RRfFRiyT; T TT^f
ttrrrRTRRTRpTTfRFTfFFTTf RTff tRbTI RrsffRfttRFR R?f
TRf RRRtRRRr RR Hldldl^ TTlRT <»A1Md TTRR RpSTR <Us<Jei I
T# RTRTRR RF ^RTT TT^f RFR Wf, 'RttsftRftfRRft RTcTTtf Rf
FffRRT FSR TR, TR RtTRT FffffR RlRft ft | TRRft TRR
Tt%RTTTff FRR "RRTR fRTRR TfR RR RTsftRFR % ft | "^
T-  ^JW £»rll Hltffeip
3RR Ff FH Hldli?^ RRRT T RRRR <Hf|ildl*l TTRRR R RTRT
Wi FTRTRT ddl^l fftRR TfR *I-H|IJ*| Till sfr ^FTt RFF7?
LJ*k-H* <Ni|*| 3TF|T d|Jf*l+il SRferf RFTR JlRi^ftl RR
Hidl^^ srffrr d^.Pi^*i f <hV3*I frtr ttft f^ti f%rrt
F: TT%R TffRTR RRRR W^T ^TRR T TTlTTRffftR? TRTIR RFR Wf
W ^ TT^fw TTTWF RRRR cA|fR,^cfc| Ri|^|U| ^ rt RfRRR
R?ft Rf?fR Rfttrrt Rtrf w^rr^rrt "RTRfRrtf rr^rt
ffFRT;i "FT; l^o Rf RTRRT FTFF "FTTRf TFR TM-flfd*
■SRRTRt ftF cilfdRlH RFTRT ^R RTRf <:m\A\£ RFT TfR d-rW
3TRT JlRi^ftl
WsffRfttdtf ^ TRTSTTTRT Rt Rf RT^tFFTTf TtR TTfTRFTT
TTfRfTRF TTRRT T# H£l^*l FTTRT T RrRRTWF RfRR RTlf
¥TRRT RT^TRRTfftTd: RRTR TfTTfRT T? I wff FtfRT "TRRRR RF
^Rff ttRtr RfR Wt,  "3TTtR TRRTTRT TTFRFFrf TfR RrrR
r^ sttRrttrt trRt^- rttR rrtR RTTtf Wd ftr rtRjrt
RFRI
„isc
TTfRt RTTfTRF FT RR% RTsffRTRRf RR RfRTTRff RffRFf TRt
Rwft t Rrt rrtt r?trt wi\ ^ FfFFR fF Pwitj*i f-fR"
Rt TtR R3F RRRt ftl TR TRFTTd: TftlT RfFf TRTRFTRlff
<N-flfd* fjtfddl R^fl "RfRt "5RRFTrRRTftRftRR;fTf^ Idft
TRTTFt ^RTFf FFF t\^ <fTT TTRTTTRRt "fR TRR? T RRTFR
RfRRTRT "RRRT TRFTTf ROTFT RTTTRR "3^1 c°
^•st^Rk) RRRR RRTRfft,RRRfRT (TRRfRftf) RfwR ^RTft, FTRR, 15
RnftrRT Ro<\o |
^ -+I3RW RTRfR RRTRfft, RRRfRT R0<\0 |
ND
^ TTRCT ftft^ RftTRTRRRR WR^TR rRb" ftR RTTTRR ftRRft ftfR
RRTfR TfTRRT RRf T RRTRRTftf RRRT RTTfRRR RRRR RftRft RTf-RTfi
TfftRTR ^m T TRRRff ftR RrftRftftrft RRTRf Rftft Rfftf RTTTTT I
"TTRTft RRTRRTftf RRR ff Rfftf TRftfRTR: rftrR',  </*J, 1 O ftRTRT
^olo|
CORTTftftR RRRR RRTRfft, RT^RTft',  RfRTRT^OlO |
1.   ^11^ ftrT «J$ll>dH *1*l«l> ^M^W
"FT Roo\s RT TTRrff 3TFRRTT FRTfR RRRfR TTffRFRT RtfR
frFft RfFTI Hldl*l RW R|%T^fRFTRT ^Rt I FffRFTTtf
StItRtRf TTRTR FffRF] TffRRRRt TNdlR TTTF^TRT RRTTRT
STRTTTTT 3TTR*t WTWT tRrRtRT sfttRR? fRRf |   RRTTfRf RTR
TTftt Rtrt RRRfRrd TT^f trt; I^y^, w ftrrtt w^nf^*!
R^FRT TRR TTTfft STRRRftRRt 3rfs|*K<HRd*l ^TRfRt +iHI*l
TTRFT RT*t fRRt I FT RrtRf "BRTRTTfFRT Wf RRRRTtRr
RtlPRTTt R R5RT TFt" STTRt T ^RfRt STRfttTRTTTtf FTRFffR
TTRRtl TRRR1R STlfftR W^T ^Id^lfd TB^fR W^RT Sfi: Rdl^^R
ft^ R Tl^f W%T ^TRftR 3TRRRTT RdFR TTlR fR? WT STTtR T§tR
RRRRsff TtftRR Tlfft I H^^IH*! TNdlfddI^ RfTfST rR rjrtRT;
l^o TfBlR%Rf^Rt I TRRRTR IJ+ildd 'TTfRRrtTR <H ^fRRT R|*W TlR RtfR fRRf T ^TRrtR STT^TTFTTf TRt%RlRlRf RRt
RlWRTRRTf RFRt" ^TRT T ^IRffRFRT RFRR RrfRfRfRT TRR
RTfRf dl*<=ll Rftf|c;'1
NO
RRTRR TffRsTRTRT TffTTt TTTfSRTRTd TTftRRRfR Fd" STTTRT
TRTFT 3TTTF"RR? WTTfBT RRRfR R^t RFRTFTtR FFTt FRFt
^RTTRT RTFTfRRT "JfRT R* Jl-f^ld STTFTTtf FRRTRf |
"#rSRTTTWRT FTTRSTRTfR RRiR Vsflil TRRRTTf rRr tRrr
RRSRRTTTRW TTftRFTTtf FffRF RRqft RfRt ^TRf R^Rf
RfRRlTRW TT^tFt STTRR TT% 3TRTR TFT TRRf | ^ TRFTf% TfR
TfFt-TfFtsffdt TTRltR RRRTTfBl RTTT "F^STFTTTWRT TRR TTTfTRTT
TTfRRfW RRRfR STTRTf  STTTRT TFRT T\^ RRRt FRR  StRr^
RRRRf RTRfR, "Culture, Caste and Ethnicity in the Maoist Movement",
RTfR RfttfftRI TTRRtft RR <\%%c; ftf ^ TTfrfft%sifRRT tRrM+I
<MflRHl\ TTRCT ftft R "?RTTTRff fftftt I TRRRT RRfftR T RTftR
TTRTRRT "?RTRR RftftRTt RRRff TRRf RrH+I RTft TTRO' ^ ^
TfftRRf RRRTTRff fRRf | Rft TRRRT TRTRRRT T RTTftftRTRT -<S(\%jAf^
TTf^RfRoTTt ftRTRfRTft Rrft ftftfRftf RffttRRT Tlf ^rftft TRTTTRf T
TtiftRlftf TRRRR: RRRTRf ftfffR RRTT^RTTR RTR RTRR "5fT RfTfRRff
ftft I "^Tlft, RFR, Rff T TRfftRTRftf ffft ftft", RRfRT (RRRt), fftft
RfRftfl TTRRtftf RR^OO 3 TR RTTRff Rrft'TTfTTRRRfft RTR rftftf ftft
?ft Rft ftRft ftftftl TRR ftftft RTTRTR RRRTRRT RTTRff fRRff
TRTRR R Rftt, RT RRRT RTRtRr ftftfTRrl rft RTRRT rR^t^ ftfftf
fftfti TTfsrftftffTftf TRTTfRtR RJRfrftf tsttrrt rft ftfftfft Rft
RRTRR WTT RRTfRRT RRtrftf ftft | "TRRftft-Rf^RRTTRf RftftjR',
ft^RT (TTRRt),ftft^T ^TRRTR,TT[ft ^003 I
^ RR RR "TffT ftftftfftf ftfTTRRT Rftftf RfffRfft rrr rftftf fftft |
RfftRR RTTRR RRTRfft, TTTTfft RRTRR, RTRTft', RfRTRT ^ O 1 O | TTRRfftf
TfftRTRRRT ftRTRRRff RfRRFfRRT RriRfR% RfRflTRRTfRtfR ftfR fftjRRff
ftft T ^ftft RRT RTftft RRRfjfRTfi TR^RR: ^<F?I RTRRf RfftrRff
ftft I TRRRT RfTR, RRR T TRTRTR fRRRRfR Tftf R^ft RTTTRffftf TRRTR
4|Rh+I fRRf I RRRfR TRR RR RrftftrR RRT RRfftR fftftfRTfTRR
RfRTTRT RRRftf RRRRRR ftft I "RfRRfRRRf R^hf.RR RS, Rof,y
ft^RT (RRRt) ftf RfRTRRR", RRRt ftftft TfRtft, ROOi^ |
 wr?i%w wttffrirMr?w. ?<?<?, 13 wmft ?o<i<i
??
RiffRTRRT 3TTSTTTW wRtdT TRR RFFf TFTTR RRrTRT T? I ^
"#TSfRRRTTRT TRR RFRFR TtfRfRw TFRT RRTft FTRTRFR
ykdlil <Nil*l TRRT ^d^ildd RllARil W3fHl<{)i^Rld ftFRTft I
wsffRftftTcRT RTff Tnfrr TffRFrw srsttRr trr rffrtR fRRf
WR Wf iJ+ild^llff WR T *U<ikdl*l TftRRT ^pf*ldl^ RRT Tlftt
wfti^
RRSfRiRTRRRT RfrRRF W^RT 3TFFR Hldl*l RfTB" ddl^^i
rRrr FTR*t RfiRBll "#rSTFTTIWRT TRR RTrfTRTt TTtRtRw
WTFT TiRTRRFFRT TTFTRT RfRR RftfW TTfT#fe TTFTFTT T
TTTRF?" W FF TTftRRTRR RSTSfTFR RfR, I RRTtRRr TTftRTTfRT
TFR fRrfsT WTRT #T I ^ TR RR RfTRRT RRRTRR Rf TTTsR RdRT
NO ' ' ' NO NO NO
TF: trtRRTF TFRT TlF^f I Tf^f RSTRT TRRTRT TFTTTT T Fff
P*d*l RRTfFR TTfRRTRtR Hldl*l RFTTRR T TRRFTFFRT
R#T <HflAldiyfd STTRTt yfd^dl ^|IJ*I WJ ^ FTRRT RfTTTR
^ RfftftR RRRR   RRTRfft, + I6RI^1, ftftFRT   RO<\0 |   RRRfRff   Wi^
ND
RfTfR%RRft RtRR Rftft 41R4M RftftRRTR RRRR T RRRJTRR
RrftTRfftrftf RRfRRT ftTRRTfR RRfRT RTRRRTft RTRfRR RR RRfRRT
fR RfttR RRtrftf fftfti TRRRT TRR1 TRR RfrftRfft RriftfRRR
RfTRoffi fttR ffl RftfRfRTRTft "ftftfTft TRRfR T RTftft RfRRRTfi
R^RTTTftf Sift ijft ftR RRTtTRff fftfft | "RRRT RTRfftTR Rftf (TTRRfR
RTRTiRftf-ftfRRRftf) ftf Rftf" R%R RfTTRRRR (i<-1Y RRRR Rof<\t,
fc3RR) "RR RftR <M-f|R + RRtftTR', TTRRf ftftfa cffTRftfR, RRTR
ROO% I RRRRRFTRRR WmrC. RRRfR tRrM T RfTRtftRT ff Rftf
RFRTRRfRT RTRtRr |RRf^ I RftRTRRlf ^rftftTR, RFR, TfTfft, RRfR T
ffftfTRTR fftCRRRTRff RTRRTR fRfftf T RRTRRRT ff Rftf RTRfRRRTTi
RTftft RRRRTR^R, RRfRR RrRRRRR RRTRf T RTRTRRf, RTffftff
RtRfRRf RRRT5RRT T RTRRftR RfRRT RTRRRf ftftfJRTf fR
RRRRTiTTRRRT RftfR ftft I "ftf^RT TTRRTgfR RTFT TF?R ^RRTRRTftf
RTRfft" RRRRR TRRTR', RRRt, fftft Rfftft |
CVRR?RRr RRRR RRTRfft,RTRRR,Rf^Rfft', ^Y ftftrRT RO<\0 |
ND
C ^RftfRfR RTftf RTRTR ^3^TRRR: RTRR Rf^ I RRfTRRf RTfft :R.
FR R^Rft Rf7^ RfrfftftRRRR RTfft RRR RfftRff TTRO" RRfRfRT
R^RRTRTi" fftRTRfRfCf RRRf fftr | "ftffrrr (RRfft) ftf Rftf* R%R
TRffftftfRRf RT^R RfRlfRRRR RRfRRRRff R^fRRRRRftf fftpRR RRR7
RR', :R. F^" ^^F 1^ ^Tft Roo% I RT RfftRT ftft RRTRTfftft
RTTRRffR RfR R^RRTftf TTffR t^rfr ftRR rft^RI   RRfTRRf rtRt,
RRRt rRtr t&h  jfjf \  wrmym ■hihiR**! RTRTRRfR Rfftf
TRRTftRfftf RfftRT ftRft Tfftrfftr RRTR ^R|
^ RRRRTRR RTft, RRTRTR RRTfft Rlftftf Rf^ Tlfftr TTflfftRRRTR
■flRlM yRft^f RTfp" fttRT fftr T^TRR TTRO" RTTR XT^f ^4<RfNKRft
Tftftf fftft I "RRRT RTRjRTR Rftf (TTRRfR RTRRRtft-ftftRRftt) ftf Rf^
R%R TTfTfftrRRR (RRRR i<-10, ROf<\t) spRRTR RTfp" Rfftt <n41R +
RRtftTR', TTRfft ftft^r ftrfft, R\t  ^f^{| Roo% |
RTSfR Rtrt t %.tt. sffrff m Rrrtrt RrR rTtR t\^ t
RffftFft TtR RtTRTdfTT WRRT 4l^ft| ^
RWRfRR TTffRFRT TTRFTW RRf 3TTRR R^rR^FRT TRT:
^RRTfRRTRR#TTdRT"RdwRT3RI Hldl*l "RftFf ddl^^d
TffRRTRffR "5RF RTTR TfrtRFR "RSTft ft RtRR F%R "Tff
TftBRTi RfffR ftFFft tRrtfr fi-fdi^ flFRTf rtrt t
d*l*l RFRTRftt RRTFffTTR RfTTT "RftR TFRFTRTff
TRRfFRRjg7 TFf TJltftRT 3RRR TfR FTTFR TTRTRbRT I ^
ttrttTRR RF ^TF FTTTTFT WT, "F%R RRRTd: Tftf FdT R
TTRRRR, TR FftFR Rtf-TfftRF RTFFFT T ^TRffRFRT 3RSTTTW
TRR T3F WTFt fR RlftFTI "^
RRRTRT TfftRF RRttft RTF ^fRR ^ FTTRfR T TRTffR
FfTTFTSrfR TRTT TTRFT TfRT AM*I FfFftR RFFFTlf 3R^R
TTRT Till TiTFtTf T# RrrRR ^TRfRt T TFTffR TTfFdFFRT
^tRTRfd STTRTTRRRRRTfTTTf RtRlFt FffFTFTtf FfR-FR" TRrf*t
T? I %° TRf TTTTfRT RF ^RTT RRfR RfR Wf, "RtfR ^TFTRTtf
Tilftt TfftRF RfffRRT T? I Rt WfRT 3fR|*K*| TTfRt "RfR ft I
^RTF fifdmRldl *<lfd< d|Jt*l W?% F%R FRTFR RTRFRi;T
RfttrrR rrr rtffft;i FTTFRRT ftRlTW TRt TRT ttR tt7*
RTR RTdt TfftRF ft I 'A<) TRRRT TTfR TTftRRTRT RF RtfR TRRTR
STTFff Hldldl^ TR?F Tt ^f ft? W> TTTRTF TfR d-fl^^*l T? I
RTRTTRT fRR RfR RRTfR RT, 'TffRsTRTTTWRT RtfR Sfft RniRd
ftRR RRRT "FR ?&W RF TftT' T ^TRRR TfftRF ft I RRRT
TTRWF FTTt RFC RTsffRftt^TcTTtf Fif I ftRTWf RFTTf TfTR
TTRFT RR FffFR R ^1 W^ TTT ^ ^^ FtRRT RR
FffFTFTTf R tRbT I "^
TRRTTFt TSRFRftff fRRRRTTTTR RRFRTtR 3RR Sll RFRRT
ftRTRT ^ HldlRld TRRR RTffR*R TTfRRTfTfR TTRFT ^RTTRRT
^r,i  m Rrrtrt d*i*l RRfRt TrfRtRw s^rrtRf ttrtttt
ClS RRTfTRRf Rffft, ft.ft.  Rftftft ■H^l'Jtll+l RTfft ^TRRR RRRfTR T^TR
RTRTRRT TfTfTT Tfftf RfR oRR tRrT ^R|   "UNMIN- the white elephant in
Nepal: K.P. Oli", telegraphnepal.com,  lo ^TfRft ^OlO|
CCRRftftRRRRR RRTRfft, RRRt RRRTR, RT^RTft',^i(, RfRTRT R0<\0 |
ND
^% RTTftT^Tf   TjTTftT   RRTRfft,   RRfft   R^RRf,   +I6RI^!',    Rt   RfRTRT
ND
^olo|
^° 'bliR'H RRRR RRTRfft, RRfft RfTRR RRfRRrftTRT R0<\0 |
ND
%<]  RRRTR   TIJRRR   RRTRfft, RFTfft   fftRR   RRT, fRRfT,   R\3    RRRfRT
^olo|
%?,
ftfti
 wr?i%w wttffrirMr?w. ?<?<?, 13 wmft ?o<i<i
13
RRftR" Tft TTTTFTT W^T I ^ RTFTRW 3fR SfT RTFRff RRFRfT'
RRFTTTt Tft 'TTftRFRT FfT RfdRt Rf? I "%Y RtRff Hldl^^d
TtiRT RTRFWt TRRWR RTRRTtf "Rfft TRR FRFT Fff Tlftt
WTRTRRT Hldl*l %ft rRb" ddF**d *X<ldld iRlfiNd^d
TRTRT RRW TRRT R^HslR RTR RTF TTRRT RR? I %K
^3p\^ TfftsTRTFTTRt ftRftfTRR TTffR P*ld*l RRnRtTRW
TTffRFRT TTRFT RT*t RfRtl TRFRt RrtTRTlf TfftR TRRRf
WRtRr Ti\^ <fTTW RtS" ftFTFt W F FrTRRT TFTTFWf
RFf RRTR|^W>trRr#FTg" ^dl^lJ*! t|r|^ fRRtTTRTW
RffTRTfTTTTR RTFRR FTT TFRT TtRsffdf RfRRR RR^TFTff R
TFTFWt TRRT ftR fR RFFf RR | %[b RfRRTTRW "TtRTRT
^feTRFRT TfR fR ftFFT rRttrT bJr^, R^fR RFRlff ^^
R RFTFt WftrRT T? I %% RfRRRtRW "FRFTftfR "FTFfWf TTffR
TTTTRTTtRRR TtRftftTR T TTRTTRRR ftw^RT "5RRFR TfR irfR^TR
NO
^TTT?R*t W? FTRf TRFTTf ftFTTTfRT "SRTTsRf RfRRRR-|r | 1°°
RtrrR Roo% RT TRTRtR RRSRRITTRW T^ftdT T RFRfdT
TRTFWt TftRTT TRFT ttRttrt Tjr| T^ftdt TRT "FtR T
TfTWRTR RT 3RSTTTTTT T RFRtdT RTtf 'TffRRT T WRr? TTRT
^ RRRTR RRRR RRTRfft, RRf ftftft Rfffft RR-R, R <+c£| sR-ftftrRT
ND
^OlO|
%* Rtt^Rrt  RRRR   RRTRfft, RRR  ftftfa  ftrftt  R^pf,    RY   RRRfRT
ND
^OlO I RT?q- tjrRtrRT RTRFRRT RRRfRR RR ROO\3 ftf t^TRRT Rftftf
ftRTRRft ftfffR *lsjRl<H TfR fftft, -yy/e/*/ ?ftWft?r yfww, RTfR
RfttfftR, R.  m
^RR#RRRRR RRTRfft, RRR ftftft RRtft RRfpf, RRRfRT  RO<\0 \
ND
^ ^ft"SR ff?R, RRftTffRTR: 'RRRfTRff ftfRfft TR%R RRTR, RTftftfR
RTRRRRT, ^fRRRSRfftf SRRR, RTfftR <J|<1+I RTRTRRTfR, RTftR, TRTffR
T RRfftR R + d<jlT RRRfRfR RRf RRRTfftff RRfRRT tft TfRR^ I
RIRffRRf ftrfk Rft Wit, RfTS" T ftrfRR ftRRT RRfRRT rft RfftRTRt
TRRRTft, RRRf, RfftR T 3FR RRffR RtRRtR fftRRRRTTf Rft RTRTR
rRR^I" "trRtRTRRRT fRRfRR ^05Y,RRRff RfRRRRf RlRRfRR', ftfR
ftftft RRfRR Rfffft, IO TTft ^OOt;,R.   <\R |
%[S RfTftRR  RRRR   RRfRfft, RRR  ftftfq-   cfffRftfftf  RRq-   aRfftfRT
ND
^olo|
^ "TfRR RfFftFft fRTR RTRfR trtRrtt, Rrfftff ftft, R%R TJTfgTr T
RfTRRft aR^RCffTftfR fRRRfR TRfft fRff RTRTRTR, RRTRRfR T "§W
T?Rft^RTftft^^RRTfR|R^R|   <N^R + ,Rfftft, <cllRlRl+, ft<T+R +
T RfftR Rft+K+I TTft fft, ctr, frt^n", trrser, TfRRR T RR RfRRfR
RTRffR T TRfftR RTRRft fftRRRRT |R^RI " "TpTRTRRRT ftRfftf
^05Y RR# RTRRRRf RfRRFTR', ftffT Rfftft RRfTfR Rfftft, IO TRft
^ooc;,R.  <\R I
%% «RR RTRRT, RRTTRY T 3FR RRtftfTTRR RTfR |   Rfftft T TRfRfR
RRTR RfRR RRfRTR, RTrRirt T RRRf RRf "TRRRfR |R RfttfR RfrRRff
^1   ftfti
^°°ftft,I.  13 1
TTRfftR? RRT^dRTTff <|fSJ|d RTf fRRRR TR¥RTRT TTfRt
TftftftTR RTfRR''10'1 SRSTTTRT T|fR3" rRtjrr ^1 ^3cA^ R
^olo rt TFTTR RTRT <hR|SIH*I +i^Xmi T^ftdt yRd*l RrRTt
FFT rRtxtT T? FfSTRTTR RfRtdf TRR FTTfRT TFTbRT T 3RR
FT TRR RRRff fRWTlRRT RtftRRT Ff^RT I ^
TT^ffRR T TRR TfRfTRtRrT "FRfRw Tft TTffRFFTTRT
SfTTWRT RFff TfTRTfR 3TRJRTT T^ft FFR 3TTRTRTTRTTRT RJdT
RFTt FRfRt TRTR TFRT T? I V<£ft <Hpffd*l TTRFt TFRT 3TTRTR
"RffRFRt FTSR TTTfRFRT I Hldl*l S^RRtRf STTTWRT tRrRt
3TR? TfR RRTRT 3RR RftTRR Wf RRfRfTRT "tr 1 rrrtRfF7?
3f^ Tft ftftt RTTRTdfTTT TTffRFRT ftftsT tt^ri 1°? d*l*l
RtTB" T RRFTRfttFWf R3dT FTft %Rt rRb" "BRTRTlftF R
TfftRRRTTf t^RtRrRrRt|#T5R| F%R TTfRt "FFTRTff RR
3TTRT TFTFT d^ftd F"RTTff FftRF R^R, rt FRfftf RRt
WRr? 3RSTTTW TTfRt TRRRf ftrrfft t\^ tt^ t TtR RT TpftdT
WF Rft TFTFR RRFT RFf TT* R^R | 1°Y
no '   "^
3TTRTRRRTRRT TT^ffRRRT R^t TRftRtTT %Rt Wt m ftTRTTff
RRTFR RRfR RfRfRRRf RtFTFtf ^R "?§rr R^r^| R%^
yfdf*i|| RTR ^dMd Hldl*l TTTTT Rr^T RR<iR WiT <HflildNR
TlfftT 3RtR JtifR* <|fs*|u| |FlRw Rft" R-Biftl TR m
FRFRT TTTfR TtR ^TRfft TffftF "Rtft t?R*< "^R T TTRfftR?
fRRRTIRt TTfT WRfftfR? ftWRT fdHd"^ F%RRT Rfe" T? I
RjT^ft TTtRftRT RR? ^Rff "RRFRf Wf, 'RTTftRFRId: TTftRFTTTf
3RRRTFT ft Wf RFTtf RfRTTTfRT RtFTFf I RT TTfRT FR
Tdl"|tRI RFTlTFt "bRTRRTW FRnfR TFT RRq^f ... I FRf
TTffRFRT WRT W *RfT TTTF-TTTF WR TTRFRf I "<10!<
ftRTTRt Rf RR Tftftff TRTft RFR^" TTF^f T TRFRT ffftft
3TTRTR Tft "^1   ftfFR TFRT TFR "BtRf-FfR RRFR ^TRffR
']0'] "TTRRtftR RRRRRFTR: R^R RifTRR RRRfRR RTRRf", RRf ^5
ftRRft ROO% | RR RRRRRFTR TRfR RTRTRRff RSRRRTRT Rfftf
ft^fRf Rt Wv RRTRRfRRt TlRrftRR RRR RRirftf ftft T RTRftftR
rt^rRfrr ftfti
^°* RTRfRT RfRfRRT RTrfRff, "^RRRf, RTTRft, RRTTTfRf, RrRRRRR, fRR^fT
^Rl RTRTftR TfftRfRft RRRTR RRT RRf RRTttTRR fR T TRftft
^IgRtl^KI RteilR^fifti Rft=H |RRft^-9!RI RTftft ■HTflrR* ^TRpR
|R TpRR fftTRff ^ I "RRRTRR RRftRR TfftRTR (^id+0 RrTTRRTfR) ",
A?H,RC ft RO^O |
^ Rrrft%Tf RRRR RRTRfft, A^\ ftftfa ^prfc ^^f  ^y   RRRfRT
ND
^OlO|
',OV RTT^Rrt   RRRR   RRTRfft, A^\, ftftft   ftftft   RRR,   R\t    RfRTRT
ND
^ 010 |  RRfTRRf Rift B^X TTR^fTR TRfR, "Challenges of federalism",
myrepublica.com,  1^ T 1="  RRTcT ROO\\
^0< RTTftRR RRRR  RRTRfft, A^\ ft^TR Rfffft RR3J   ^y   RRRfRT
ND
^olo|
 wr?i%w wttffrirMr?w. ?<?<?, 13 wmft ?o<i<i
n
3RSTTTRT TTffRRrRt FR RFf ^IdMdl ftFFT I   TTTtfRT tRttsTF
no '   "^
H*|*l ddF** RSfRf 3ffs|*K*| TTffR WTRT 3TRRRRT R%T RRTf
WTFf fRR, F TRRRT TfRr ftrfsf t\^ ftsrftw Tft ftRFTJ
"WRfRFTFTtf RRTRFF ftRRRW fRRfRR RrfRrr Tft RR? "FTt
RFTRFfR Wf^ FffFRR "<N-flfd*l FFfft WR" RRfRRT
m 1°^ TRRRT ftTTft RTftRTTff T FRff RRFR Wf FRft
TfffRFRT TW TTRRR? TJFTI FffFFrf FRfR RRf TRrfftt
RftRRTRfffFTcfTRt Tlffft TTTFFT Tft ^tWW TTTRRT TJFTI FRft
RRt TFTfft FfTTFTRT RfRRF FTfftR FTRRT STTTT Tftf TRTRtR
t^ Spft?tRFT ftRRT WJ ^OIS
TfftgTR RTRRRT yP*i|Nld Tffft "FFTt 3TTFT fTTRT FRft T
FTfft 3R?ftTFTR?fTfFTfR?r RraiR R^" RTTrtR R?ftft Riff
SffFTTff RR T\^ RfRRT TTffR TTRR Ff RTTTRR "SFT I ^
TffRFTW SRSTtRr Tffft <Ni|yfd*l TTRFT T FFTT TTRT ykdlil
STRftTFRfff FftR RTRFRT TRRWR TRf RTRT "gf FFT T? I TRf
RTRTRR TFRt FTTR?FTcRTT fftrRfRFf "5RRTR? TTRFT T? I FTlf
TRTW Tft 3RR RRFT ftR? "Sftf T? T RSTTff rsr sRTfFF
TTftRFRT Fit ftrfst JlR^ktdftl 'm
^ rrRtr rrrr RRTRfft, Am Rtwrr ftr ftrrRR, is RRftfRT
ND
Tolo|
11015 RfftftR   RRRR   RRTRfft, RRR, RfRff, RJRRT,  RRftRT-ftftRT
ND
^olo I Rfft TgpR ^4-^h TjRfff TRft RRR ftftfR R^f Rfftf Rlwll+I
TTR Wv ft^f ftR RftTRT TO lo ftf Am RffftftTfRRRfft RtwR
Rfrfftftf RRR RR RFTR% RTftftf RRRfTTRR fftr | TR RRTTTrftf
^RRRffRRl R^RRRfff fRtRTRR TRRf WRf Rfft RRTfftft Rfft
RRR I   RfftRR RRRR RRTRfft,RfRTRT RO<\o |
^ RlR pft TRRRRf RRRR R%Rfftt RTR TTR-^f RRfRR RRf^
RTTRRt TRRRTD ?ft RfTfff RTRftt RTR RTTRff ^| TSfftft
RfftftTRRfCtfR RR I^AO ftf RTTRRT ft%FRR ftft ftg" T RRffTRft
RRf rft R^RI RRfTRRf Rfft, Rfff t ^ftfTftft RRf RrRTR tt^
RRftftf FRO" RRtftf ftffR T RftR+l TRRRRfffRTTfR RRRfRfRf RRRf
RT^i RFRRRT RtR TTRTR TTRtrftf ^ | "TRRR TRf ffft T3RTTRTR RftRR'
Rft" TRR RRfRf Rffftftf T^RTRff fR^R RRRR Xm TTRfRTRR ff Rfgff
TfRrrftf ^ T RRRRff RRffRofft RfTRRffRR, Rrrft, RRTRR, RRRlRfR T
RR RRTJTTRff ^| "RfRft TRR 3", RTRTRTR T^Tjrr RRfR, ^%%R I
TRRRTRT TJRft; TTR^f RftlRfft "RftRfRRfT7 TfRTRRR RRRR fT' Rft
"TftfRfRT ftffRRf FRRfft RTTffR RfR RTSR rft AtWv RRTRR%RR ^R
Rft ftrRRRR Rftft ftft I TRRft FfRTftfR^fff ftfRfftftf RTRRT RRTTRR,
TTfftt RgRTfTRT RTRR fftftf Tff ^R^TTftfR^fff FfrftV RRRftf
RRRfriR ftfTRRR Rfft RRfTR RRFTRR ftft | "TTfRffR RRRRT RRRR
fR', t?R yijfrf HlRl*  lR/*i, RTR T,  1^^>^> I
<,0,> RR ROO% ^RrftRffftfRR FRffftTRRft TRRf FRO" RRtRRRRRR
TRRftR   TR#fRRTftf   RRRRRT  RTRtrf  T^TRRSRfftf   %T^[   13.^   TTfRTfR
1.   *^Imijw
TRf H^l^*l ^dl*mi -Hldl-HlcTl d<=l<-HI HNrldl TTTFTTW Ffsfftf
STRRRTT RFRT TJFTI ftfTR STFRtTTTRRTfFF WRTRT fTTRRTTRtR
RlQlJ*l dHld*l "RfTTRgRfR^dF^I fdH=lld TRR ^IIFBidJ
cil'H*! TftfRTfl ^J-^ld TRRlRRRfRTR <l^^*l W fTRFFT
T ^J-^ld <Nil*l Rl+ildl RR?3ilH<H+il ^Pdd ^ld*l W Tt%R
"RRRT fRf fTRFFWf FTRFsRT 1.Y TtR"TR T TRJFWt R.r\
TftTR TF*t TlF^f I ftRRRRT Rr WR FRt RRqft RrsfRdt
fRFTFRRbR" RftsftdT ftRTTTW RlR ftRRfF TTRWF "Sftt
FRFRT RTW Wi\ TRTTRftt TjfFWt 3RfRRR Tftfsfftr
fRTTTFFRT"^! fR Tft fRFTTW RfRR FRfTT RfTTR"tR I ^°
Rt Rf "RRTRft RRfftR? T STlfRft? FRRRTt T? T RRRfR ftfRfR
Rl*«j«IH| 3fft TfRRR fdJ-^lld <HJ^^^I Tffft fdH=lld TRR
TRRR (TffTTTtT) RT Rft yd*!?** Wi\ 1P^ FTRFR ftRrFC
Roo^ rt W^RT ftRt, ^FTRT RSTRT FRFF Hld^RI Rf?l
RFRf FRWF Ttfrft T "Fft FR FT; ^°°^ Ft "RtfRTT
<HR|SIH<HW*I ^HM-HI WT ftft Rf Rftft RRFT wft I TTfTTTTTRT
RF TfRR Rl^dd TTfft RTRTlftRR? TT%R TRTR (TTTFtR) Ft
WFFTRfR FTTR TTfR ftftR RT|'1^ TRTTTTRT TffTTTTT
(TTTfFRf) RT Rf RfffFF^ T 3RR Sll *|if*dft^d TffTTTTT
(RTRFfRTf) Ft FfRRTf TlR fttft RT | Rt "RRF TfftRTT (TRfFRf)
T TTfTTTTT (fd^d) R^RF ftR? R TTfRt T? T TTFfffRF RRRf
TRtRRRR RFt-RRFf RTtRtR I
NO NO
tft; ro<\o Ft ^fd< rirRftt¥rr rtrR <hRrih (ftrrfRR)
RT R?Rd; RFFfftRT RTTTT TTfft FTRTtRFR TlftR Tftf ?Wi
TRtfRRfR TgjRJ RfTRfSSTR YT RftTfRft RRRff RRRR" RftffT ^T| TTRft
T RRfRf FfRTRtfRRT ^^ 15.5 RRtTTRft RffRRTRff ftRR rftRT
W{\ RT RRRfR Rft TRft R Wi ftHRft" ftf ftrftft rtr FRft trr
|RR4 Rft RRRT TRRRffTRt RRRTRT Rft TTfRTfR ^ R^t TRTfftf RRr
TftffRRT RRfRRf O^te'MI Rft W TfRRRT Rft RtTTRR: RRfR RRfRT I
FfffR "Federalism and Constitutional Issues in Nepal: Perspectives from the
LocalLevel", RftT TFRT, TT "^f^^fi T°1o,R. i^-<\o |
N2 O
''^ftRTTRT "TfRf,  Unraveling the Mosaic, TffR" Rfttf%R, R.   1 ^ I
'm fftTtft "TTRft fftRR TRftft RTTfRff ftrfR^, TRRRf RnFT RffR
TTRRTRf ^R RRf ff;|    ftrRfTRT f%, People of Nepal (Kathmandu,
2000[1967]). (RfSRfft', ROOO [<\%%5]) |   llffj^ftR +4-(f|R|  1«.  ftfRT
ftftR RfftR RRf ^5R| Martin Gaenzle, Origins and Migrations: Kinship,
Mythology and Ethnic Identity among the Mewahang Rai of East Nepal
(RRSTRft", ^000),R.   ^ |
^Ttffa y^M|Ro|+ RfftfRRTR (RTRfRR) ftf TRRRf ftRTRT ROO\t
TRf RFRff ftft, FRfftf RSRR Rfg^Rf T RfRlfRR R^ftf fftT | STTfR:
TRTRfRR TRR RRRRRf A^l RfRTR RTTcft ift R^^T3RRrfft
ftftRRRRTftf FfiR "^ft^T tRRI R I1" FTRft Rooi^ tr rro"
RRftftR R^TRf RtRR RRf Rft I
 wr?i%w wttffrirMr?w. ?<?<?, 13 wmft ?o<i<i
n
RrrfBT "ftftR Fdrf 1 m RRt Rftftr Rrff frrfRFT ftRR
ftTR^TcTTTf RlR FRfRR?F ftR RrFf T TTTTRRRR TfftR
RR^TFFTtf RTFR RTTRT 3RRT TTRRJbFT; I ^ RRTftr fttftr
TTRT TRTFRT FRFRT R?ft FRfTFR FTTT WRtR RfltRFt T? T
TMFR1RT WTTFR Rf "RWftJTR TT:l"J<*X<ul rrrtt F^-ffRt"
FRfTRTTf ^R TRRFt T? I w RtftrRT "RRRT Rt RfRfR TRTR FTF
TfftRI Ff TTTTFRT R^fFTFRt TTFRF rRrR fR Wll?
RFRRRR TRW FR?FTTf TTTR rRrR ft I
F#F & WWWI,: ftRRRTT FRsfFFF Tffft-TffftRT "TTft
TTRfRFT TRRFt RRFRRFTFTtf fTTRRRt TRR TffR Tft
RTFRRRT TFR?t TRRTFT WRT RftRjbFT T 3TRRftftRFfRR?t
FfTRRT TRR FFlR TTFFT "RRRT 3ffR TTRifRI ^ TTftfTTT
(ftf^RR) T TTftRTT (TRTFR) ft" tt^ ¥rftt TRRRT TRFTFTRTff
•N NO    -N
3RRTT RtftRR RFTTRf^RW fRFTTTRRT FftRR RtFT TJFTI m
rR <H-H£d TTfft RTTTTFTRfR <JK<H=iI dHld*l Rlftftf Pftdli^
FRTRT RRRFf TFTfRRf ftRRRRt TRRRT RTR RtFT TJFTI
FffFRR RTR TRRRFT Ffft FTRRTFTRftFT Ff TTfTRT TRRRf
3TTRR"#fsTF^dlddTTRRRfRRFftffR^WT*-5!*l FFTW
R?RTT Tftr^IT, RftT RTRRR T RlftF Rtft "f^FT I
rRfRF STTftRfTFFTcFT TTffR ftftr TfftsR RTFFFf, ^TTTRT rR
RRtRw ftRRfR ftRRFTRR FftRTF "fR; W> ft I ^ TTFfffRF
T 3TffRF wfftTTfFT FRRT rR FRF TRT -STRFTlftFTW
STTftRTrfftRFT TTlfR \o TftTR FTOT RfFBFTJ fd^dd R
TTRfRtTTRFRFTR^FftTTTRTRRFTTJFT;! Ff^RfRftRFt trR
RftftfsRR TfFt RRTft FFT |FfR T TRR ftsnftFTW
ftftRlfsfFR TFTTR TTRT TffRfF TTTSRT#cFRfR* RRRTRRT Tft
TRFff ftRrrfsTFR ^FfR WR TRTFFft W Ff^RTTffFRR
TTTTTRRT   "RRRT   FTRRt   r|    3TTRFT   TTfRfF   FSRRTfRRf
^ RRRfR  RRRR   RRTRfft, RTRfRR   Rfftft   ftrr,  + I6RI^1,   ftftRT
ND
Tolo|
''^RrRTR ttftrr RRfRftf, R^ft fftrRRIR Rjq- rRrr <hRk.IT  (TRf)
fRwR ftR, + I6RI^1, RftTRT T°1o |
''^RT^TR RfTRRT 'ftffff "SfRT ftft RfftfTR Rr^RTR TRTRR RJRRff
RfRT'(fRTRRTR, ROO%) |
^ ^ ^ TffffTR  RFRgRfRff  RftRfRRff   RRRfR   B^X ^R- I    Rl^Rd+i
RRRRft ftfffR, 'TT#R RfRTTlRRR Rdrrr RRRTRRTRR fftr^RTR t^ttrr
TFfRRf TtfRRTR T°5^", TfRTRR, R\t ^Rf ROO%; "R^R ftfRfRfRFff
TTfrnTRR RRRfftf RfftjTR T°5^", RRRRR,   1   Rfftf ROO% |   RrTRTR
RRfft fR -TlRH-llTl  TWI^M ijftl
^ ^R" RFRftRRT RfTRRTRRf "RfftRRff" "TRRft RfTRfff fgRR^ Rft
rRrtRr rRfrr ^r i rt ti^ri t Ri^ftf ^ftfR ftftRf ^mt Rpft
R#ft  RRRfRf   "RfRR"   Igf  TRR  R|R   RR,   RRfRT  FRRfft  RTffRff
TftRTf^ |   RfftRR TITRTRT RRTRfft, rRrFT (TRT) T TlRTRR (ft), RRffR,
ftftRT Tolo I
STTftRTTftFTcRr ftftRTftFR TFR tR WR Tft rR FRfR Rtrt
■^ R^fR TRRFt "SRTTsRt Wf FdfFRR RTRT "itFTJ "^
Wmr&mit TrR. T# TFFTR ftRRfRW frTrRRRTTft "5RFTF
TTRFT TfRT RtRRbT | <,n RwRt TRRRtd RfRFftF "RRRT WTFt
RFTTRR?t TTTW RtRTF R fdH=lld*l +iMIH^lft*l RTT rR TFR?t
RftTFfl "licflcKUR fd^JllQ fTRR TNFKRI "TlfRT <Ni|^^*l
FRRFTT T F^ftfTRRt "TTFf FTftTFTtf ftRRT Ff TTRRT TRRR?t
SffsTFR ftTRFTcRfR z^t T5TTRTTFT RfTR FTI   R5R FFRT
CN CN ' NO    "N
RTftTFTcFT FR?R ^tRfT TRTTFT RTRTW FFTT WTRT WTTT Tft
W F TRft WTTT R FtftTcFT RtFRRTRT TTTTR "#R Wf TFFt
tri
3RRFTFFfRTR^FtRTsR3|^<-dfs -yi^ffd* -y^ldRld RlftlJ*l
TJFT; T RTSRTRfW FSflRR RSR FFTR "TRTF Wf^t TTR¥t
"TTFTRT FTR fRf *fR ft- Ft "TTRF ~^ pR-^f ^ T d-fW*l
"FfftTTtf RRTFR t\^ rtr ffFT "FRRf RRT RfFFT; rR "FRTF
m rf FR RRt 3RftRTRFRft?t WTTF RFR fRR, 'FTW
RlfRFFFR STTFft RftRF RRTRFf "^ T STTFTt TRfft RTTRTTd"
Tft RftlR W *rR FTRRtST WTfRfd FRfR TTRFT TTFT TRRRT
fll FRfR HfiNid*! TN-flPd ^l41dl^ ^l-Mll^*l T? +ilR^K F
RRftTRR ffFT I TtfRRTRT TTFffft R TTFRF RftfRf TRFftft ft
RR FRt ftSTR T? I "<H° ftRRRTT STTRRfBl ^ TTFFf R WT FT
TRf sri: FTT <m^\ TTTFR f^l^* STTF Tftfft, WR T ftftFT:
SfRFf Fftf |R FRRT Rft" R-Biftl
fTRRFTRT WrR TftftRFT TftRRTTf ''v^t W TNdtfd*
RFFSRR RRTfRTTT HldlRld W? Tft WRFTTW RR RTRRft RF
f*Rl-H*l 3RR RFRfR TTFFfl RRTRT TTFTT TTRFFTcTTTTR
R|4-^o|h*I TRTT FRRF TfRT Wi\ ^^ TTfFTRT 3TTtR ¥rRdftr
WF RFR FTFRR STT^FTTTTf "TfRr TRFT RtfT T? I
H^ld^lrHch mm: dld^ldl WT HMJ,$^M\ <HpRIH (TTTTFRT) T
TTftTTTT (Pl^d) Ft TRf RfT^RW RfRRf RRTFTft W rR
FRFRT TFTlftR ftRRFT RrR?T TftVft fR^dl^^l fRFR TlfRft
tjft;t sri TTTtRrFTFR rtf TrfRft wi\
^^ftftfTRTRFRTftRfRRT RTftf RTHTfRT RftfTcft RRfrffftf RfftRRff
RfRRR RTftftfRRR RTTfftRfTRfS: "TTR RFftt RftRT RTTR RTftRT RTTRT
ff, RRTRR ft RRRffftf RTTTftRfTRf RRfRR "TRRfR Rf% RTHTf ^Rl
RRTfftftR RfRTTTfrTfTRRf ftft Rtr^fR, TfSRRRf RlrRRuR+i RRfRR RRT
RfRfRRl RTfftRTTRftRf Rn^frs ^TR Tj^ftf RTftRRfffRftf
RftRRRTRftf RfRRTRR: RfR RRTRirftf ^ (x RRRTR RRtrftf ^) RRRf
fftfRf RfR RfRRFTfRRR RFR |R| RftfftfRR RTTRf TgjRj
^''i^ffftRRTftftRft lo^ |
^° RRRftR tttrrr RRTRfft,  rRtrr  (trt) Rhrtt rrrr, rrr  IY
RftTRT T°lo I
^^RfftftR RRRR RRTRfft,RTRRT,RfftrRT T°10 |
 wr?i%w wttffrirMr?w. ?<?<?, 13 wmft ?o<i<i
1$
RRRT ftRFRRt RfftfRFrR (RTT.W.) FRFT "RRT RFTFR TJFT,
FTRT FFf RfFTRT RT¥IRf WTFT RFF?? I TR FRft TRR
FTRRTT WTTftf ftR RlftftdRT RFR ftRFFt TRR TRTFRT Rftt
Ft FF SRftRTRFRf^TcRt TI^FT TJFT I   RFR RifdPdFi?^*!
no '   "^
TTFsF FFTt TFRT Rftt Ffftwf T? I TTftTTTT (Hld^Rl) Ft
RfRRT Pftdl*l RFFTT <Hf id*dfd yWlRld fdJ-^IH*l RRffdf
fRTTTTW FFW Tftt FFT RifdPdF "bFT wff FF RTFT fRf? I
F TTFsF RfSTR Tft 3|fd<pld W Rtfrft^FTTFFFf TTTftTR
ftF?Ft Tft FFfFS, TR FfftR ftFTF TFRR Tft TTfFRRdftR
FffRF ttRRfTI R fRf, TRf TFFTR RRJ^rr #
wftlRFTTFWr FrfFTft TFR?r TTF^f I ^
ftR RffRRFTTFfTT R RTFTRW ftRRRRT TRRRT FTRRR
RFFTbFT W?T FTR Tft d^*l TTF^f I Rrft RR RfftF TRT
FTRRT Rt Wftft^FTTFFTTf TTFF "TpftRT RTFFRf ttRR
TTTWRTT Tft T? I ftlftR TTRT WTTfft RFRT RRFTTTRT TfRfR?FR
trr Rrrt sir -y^mi <B*id t ddWd Ru^Hdi^i frft
Tft t\^ FTFRT RRRRd: FftftFTTTff TTTTtRf FT RR FTTTFT
RrR 3TTftfTTTR?ttftF RTF FftiRT I
rR RffRRFR RFR FFRrft FF 3TTRfft?t SFRRRT TTRTRT "fRRT
eyelid WT1F TRR ;fR Rrft pR-^HdRld TRTR <H<I*R FRJ*F^
Tft RlfdPdF RRRT b{RJ TR Rt^Ffft tR TTTTfRR FRft?dffF
Tft Rftrl? tjft;i sfi rf frRffr tRttRft wi t TftfRR
Rtftrrrf FfftRft TratfRR r^ft tjft;i wsrr tfrt trt: ttR
TfdFTcFT TTFftftF TB^RR TTRft W Ftft TlfftR FTRRfT TftfRR
RfT^fR TffFf t Ffft RFTTRT RSRR TFFT Rf Tffrft?RR TiRTJ
STTFft FTTSTTTTTtf RFFTFf W?T RfR fftR TTTTFFTR
wftlRFTTFR TTflft ttttfT ^Pd-^ftl RFftR tRR$-I*^*I
WTTFR TffR fR WR^RFRFTcFt FTTlfsfF fR?RTFTTTTW
TftRRF FdR RttfT "^ I ^
WW7&W rFflW: fTRFFTRR sfi "RRRFFR FRTf TRR RRrft?
TRftRT fR RfRRRFTfTft TRRRT TTWT "SRRFT ^R FR FTTFT
^Rtdftl TTTtftRft?TJRR?t TTRR FTTFT R^RW RtTTTRT
TTFftftF RftTRT TiFRT?t T? T STflfFfT FRRt
STRFTTRRRTtFTfTFf FTftR RRFFTfff FFTT Rfe" ftnR TRt
RRTTTf FfftrR TffR "fR FF T?l frRFFTW ftRRfF ^
FTF§T°RF "fR ^Rfft FR TTRRTRTTff fRTRRR FRTT ftRRfR^f
R?R FftFRR RffRT T-RfJ
^ RfftftR RRRR RRTRfft, FTRft, FRT, ftRRT, RftTRT T ftftRT
Tolo|
^   'blsjR'H    TfRRR    RRTRfft,   ^RR,   ft^TeR    T°1o|     RFRlfftff
ND
fftRTRRTRfRRT Rtt^RTR TRRRRRfRR ftfTTTRnRft ftjffR RfRRR TTR
fftft -yv/e/*/ <Mf)R# Ht#/<, RfR" RfttfftR, R.  IY T 1^ I
TRft FR Tft wftFRt FT TTRR RRWRR?t TTTWRTfR RTFT T
NO NO
t\FFFR"5RRFFTTTTTTTRFf Till TRTTRRRf TRTTR RFT RRFf
TRrRFR Rr§f RTRT TiRTJ TTTftRFR ftTTRfR 3TTRTT RTfR
fBlJT=£ft^yfd «^R«fl 3j^f^wJ|^| r^RrrtJfTI FftFTcTTff SFFf
ftR T ftdTTd" ^ gRR RfR FTFt TJFTI TFT Rooo F T#
TFFRt fFTTRRR FTTfRT dRd^FI R?RR RTftfTFRRfd: ftr7" R
^ f^ R "^ TTFsRTW FFTF77? TTTTRR FTFT TJFTI RFFFTFT
TTTfR, TRT 1^,^,0 F «.o FC FFT TFFt TTFdf FtRTTW 3lffR
•N NO '
RFFT Tft RTFT "bRt I FfftTffRgR SffsTFtTFt ^tRrT RffR ftRR
• so ' <=n
TRFTFtFTTRRRWTJTI ™ TftfRTW RFR TRTTR RFR?R R%Ff
TR Tft sft RTFT-"BTRt FRTf RRTT FRftf RRt RSTR RFF "RTRT
NO '
"bRTJ ^^ F%TfFT F: FFTRfF ftFFT FTTRRT WF Tft
RdTRTft FFRFT T FtfRRRff 3TRjR SFRrR TTR FRTT FTFf
ftl^^
<sl^e|H | TRf RRRRTR TFRRRT RRW FRWF TTFFRf
FRf^rffW TFRRRT TlftR Rftf (TFTRt) T ft?RT FTRftt F&R
RT^f (ft^RRTt) FT I  TFTRtFt Rf T FRfFRftRW TRFTt "5RRR
no   "^
TiRtRt RfTRT ^Hdl^ H^|iJ< RiRftftt Hldl+il FRRT I RFTff
3F.R?. TFR T ^-5!FI^ TRTFT RFR ftRRT WJ R^TRTl^^^
W m TftfRR FRFR Fftt% R RFRW TJFT;| F%R FRRt
Tftf Ft RTTR "RfFT RTfFt RFRbFTI ft?TWT F%FFf
RRTFRT wR Root F TTTRTTR RrFf Tftt RR TTTfftTTW
TFRRRT F?RFt FTRRR ^ FTRTff TRtFTRTft?R?t T? I ^^
NO NO '
ft?FRRR STfFTTff RRRTR RTTR FRF FTRJbT T RRR?t FffTTf
"FT; Roo\s f W3f|c||<{l^^ld FRT FRFt ^<l4l*l *l4*d^ld
FTFf ft (F%R TftR RfRTTt TFRFTFT WsftRftt Tftfw tRt
Rtrt Rf?l ) FT; Roo\ t Ro<\o f Ff TdF Tftf FRrftf
rrrt Rfr ftt RftR Ttf (Rpsitr Rftfft) tt RRrfFt tjft;i
RRRT TtfRRR Rf RRfT ft?RRt "FFTRTW TFTRR TJFT; T SfffR
TRFFt FTfSR¥t RdRT TJFT;i   RftfRRT Wf FRR RTRFT FT
Rfr fRrt rRr Rftif t§f tRrt tjft; i
^V 'bliR'H   Rtrrt   RRTRfft,   RFft^Rf  Am fRwR  RRf, RRSRfft',
RRRfRTTOlO |
"Fear makes non-Limbus sell out, flee villages", myrepublica.com, 3 ° R
R0<\0 | TT^ RRfRR ftRRf RRRR fftRReJfScft T^TTfT 't^t rft effft
^R RfftTTR% ^C. ^ft RRRTtfTRT Rft RRf |   TCTTTT R^lfti R^SRT RR
Rooy-Roo\t tr i^^y fRft rR Roo^-roo\3 tr TT«.5 T rr
ROOC-ROO%  TR TRf Rift  T^>33  FR'   "Ethnic violence stokes fear
among non-Limbu", myrepublica.com, i( FT T°1° I
^RRRfR RRRR ftftftfR RRTRfft,RR^R,ftRTRT R0<\0 |
^^RRRrR TlJRRR RRTRfft RTRRTR TTfftR ftft (Rrrft) RT RRTfR,
RRf,RftTRT T°10 |
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F#F & WWWf- TRTTRftR WR TTfft RTRRR TFRRRT TRR
<s|HI^R TfRT W ^ FdftRFt FTTtRfRT TffFFfR 7fR ftftr
RTRRF TFT FftTR rRttrr ^FT, 3TTTR TRR FTFTTW
FRRTTTftF TftftfRcRRT WR J|RlJ*| TT | RftT wfRTTt, TTfftF
Rtft T TftFrTT Rftf R?^RW T^R t RR TfR SffstFR TTfft
RFtFFFRf TFt "5RRFTTR?t WR J|Rij*| W^% "ftRFfftf
Rft^rfqRf% T^Ft TTR FRRT RfRdR RR ftRRRFt T TFRFT
RrTTFt fTFR Rtft TRRRT FR tRrr TT I <NA|*I rR STfFRW
FRlFTffRF TtRftfsRR TFFlR ^RR Tft FffRRR RTRT "bFTI ^°
WTm&mt  WT: TFRRRT   FftftfTRT  TTTsR  TRF "FfTtfRT
NO NO
<Ni|*| FRTTT ft >d<Hyfd TRf HF^*I <l^*l Rft? FF TRRRT
TfRTT-TI TRRt ^RRtR T^ft TTRRR TRFftftF tRfTTTWF TRf
TftrRRRlTT WFTRRF RTFt ft I TRRRf T ft?FRTf RFft RRFT
TRTR RFT FRFT RTTTRFT TTFTI TRR RRRT FfTRRTFFRf
FfTtfRT FTR FFR "fR^f F?fFT fR TFd RlFT R^R T FffFRR
"fR Tftf ftRTRT Rtft Tft TbFRRR "tRR I TRTRFT FRF TRRt
FR ft F FFR ft?TtR TRR FFR TRRt Ft TRTRfR TFd STRF
NO C NO
TfR SRftR TTTI Ff TTFTFt FRFf F^RSt FfFF RFR T
"RRFRF TfftRRf WF FFR ffF SPRRR TWR TRRt ft?TRft
TfTFft (TRfFTtf WR) Ft ¥RfRRf TT I ^ sffTRTfTF TTRTW FR
C ' CN
TftftrRRR RtftRFT W? Tft Tjf FftRT FRFR R5R wf FfSR
TFRRTR STfRrRTRT FRFT F^TT | ^
no '   -n
TR Rt ^^m RfRftr WfRr Wf FTFf "|r I "«RTTW T fRRRTf
rR RFRR rftRF ¥tttrr Trftf ^t;| FTTRR RftsTFTR FFTT
FSfTTRT FffRFTTtf RtRfRf RRRF ftfTft?R?r TRJftRF T
FfRRRT R^SIlR* TRRRRfft ft?f%FT Tft RpSITR TfRT RRFRF
FfftTFTtf FTRRfTTT Ff Fff TRRf I TJffdJFTR RF ftt¥fR?ft
Wt, "RRt <HRlSIHd Rt Rllildl^ FrRtSFtRrFf yu^| f^cim*!
"Rrft ftfRt i f Rft Rt rtR RftRft rrfrf tfR ft wt
FffFWt Rfe" FR RRTTFR "Bl I''^"
WdUcH* mm: ft?TtR FTRftt fM Hldl*l "TfRTFt 3RSF
RRFT *|R*dft^*l ^RF RRf <^lRld RRFt RRFt fRRt TTFTT
ft I RRFf Fsftt FTTRT SfTFff RcTRWf LJcM*[Rld TtRfRf
^^^T^^ftteRT.Rftr^T^fjdi.ft^T^, ^|^^Rr,fty<rit|fi,<ii|^m,
fftFft, Rrrt, rrR, ftrr, RRTfT rrt RTRftt, TftRftr, rrrt t trtrrr
ftft RfRfR RRRf RftfR WW   "^T^RfRRff RRRTRR RTRfR',  RRRf,
Tolo|
^'"'yT^H  Rfftf Rfft, RtRTR-^OO^", RTfft,   TOO?, I
^° 'blsjR'H  RRRR ftftftfR RRfRKff,  fftRR T^TRfft R#R Rfft ftR,
ND
RftTRT T°1o 1
^RRftftR RRTTR RRfRKfffR,RTR^T T ftfOR,ftRTRT T°10 |
^RRftftR RfRR RRTRfftfR, RTRF, FTRR T°10 |
^RfftftR RRRR Rfftft, RfTRR, fttef7?, ftRTRT T010 I
RRR J|1R-RJ*I T-TTFR FTTTt d«i|H<*i R3R 4|H*| s1|Rr«| RRI
^RRf fRftrfRRTRT FRFFF TfR TRR FR |^| ^v  ^R R
ft?RFFT WTTF TRf STTFft fRfRR rRtfRtR fftR, F TRR
Tftftff TWR Wf WRt: FFRR fRTTTTRT FTfR WR T TRTRTt TTF
C^, NO NO
■?§fRT^ fRTTTTRT RRRff  WT T  RfFTTF TftRRT W    TftfRR
no '
RlWFt T FT Ro lo F FTFf Rl<4"dl{l*l d^THf^ TRR Hldl*l
FFfRfF STRF FfR TT TRFFt STfFTTT TRf Fff FTFf T? I ^
ft?F^riFt "pFf Rfrf tfrtrsR RftR Trf t ftrR RffRr
Rftt Tff RTR ^tftR TJFTI  FdftRFt Wf fR ft?TTTft TRTR TT I
RRftT ft?TTTfr Slffft "FFRRRT FRSR^TTJFT T 3TR sft FRft?dftF
Tft TRR TftfF fRTTFT TJFTI
TFRRfft ftRTR T FR FFRT FRtftRFR TRRRT "bT T TRTR-TRTR
fRTTRFFRf STFTRf RFFWt TTFTT TT I ^^ FFR fRftfRRTRFf
RTF STfRFTRT TTffR TTFftftF "RTF TfRRRf "FRRfRR?Ff
FFTT TfFRT RTFt RfR R%R Rftt FftjFT I ^
TTyl T "SRfrfrFf TRF^SRTTWF TFRFT STTftftTTRTtftTcRtR
TtfrRRflT TffsTTRFt TTFTT ^ftt RFRRT FftR ^R TRtR^I
^Ft TTTRt T FW TNdlfd* TB^jfR TfRT T? T ddft***l fftftt
RRR T Rftft FFRftf TTfFfRTTF fTTRRTRTTf RrR RR^f |
FdftTcRRr "SRfRTTRt TFW FF(fR?F Tft ^R Rrft-TI ^RRf,
fRrrfRft" T FTRt RRRTTRT RrtdR FF F^R RFR TTftftfsTRT
R^"TFFT Wi;i
WW7ffiw rFflW: TFRRRT FTTTRTRT FRTTRR^ RftlfRR "F?R?frFt
FTTRtRtF TRRRRT fR RTFT; RFft TRRFt -srtrfFrR RFT
^iftRRTTI RRRTFT RF FR FFTR FRFFR FRtFftfFRR^T
"R5% t Fft" RTF' Rftt FTTR TfFf fRtr tRrr fftrr | ^
^ldl^*l RF FR "tRftt ft?^TR Hldl*l TTFTFF FrRrrR
3RRTT   FfR-"BTRf   fBlRR?ftTcTTTf   R:TR   ftRR?t   FR   "FTTRFT
Rh^hm t *i^«ih mrsfe^Nr^ ^^sri rR RRfRT
*ft*df^^di^ R^siiR* yF*iiiyP "str srRratRtt I ftRFFTT
TFRRRT 3TRRRTTF TFTFT fR TTfFTRR RRTfR RftsTRT Rf%R,
^VRRRfR TTTRRR RTTRRfRffR,RRRRT;,RfRTRr RO<\0 |
^^ftfftRRRftftfRR fftft, ^V/e/*/ <Mf)t9& ^>*/<, TRft^ftrfftR,
R. T-5 I
^^R^rff ^i^^+i *H|3R| ^j41(?4?+l RftfF,ftteTR, ^f^|(l T ^ST^RI
RfR RRrftfR RRT RffRT, RfRfTTRf, RTf^TR, TftFfT^ T fty<rTtjflRI
RfwR   RRrftfR  ^R|    RRftRR   tijrrr   ftftftf   RRTRfft,   ftRTRT
To1o|
^^RRRtR RRRR RRTRfft, RTrft RRTfR, RRR, RftTRT RO<\0 |
N2
^''RRRrR ttftrr RRTRfft, RTRF, FfRR T°1o |
^''RRRrR RRRR RT=RRfft,ftteTR,RfRTRT^OlO |
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Tft 3TTTF TTTTFR RR Ff sft^TT RTilFT I   ddft** Rt R Ro<\<\
cn       so "^
Ft fttRTFf fTT FRfR TTRI TRTTtRt FTtRfTTTRR TTlfR
FTFF TRRcRft Rf ^R FdftRFf FF TT I FFR FFTT
+TMF^dl^ TR JKMd F^NdF^ *tfyRt FST d-fft^fW gigcl)
CN NO NO       NO
FFfR?tTTI "FT Root, fRrtR FFft <HfidfWT RTF TFTft
TTTR4R*kl ft<-HRl Tft^HoiH*I RfRM HIdl^^d i|<Hy*R
<H£p|Ald fRR FTTF eyelid FTRt F-«idd RF ftFT FTRT RTSR
NO NO
RfR FR RRR? I r*° 3RRTRT wR ft Wf TTTTfRT rRw fR TRf
NO NO ' CN
TFFTR RRw Tft RFf FRR FT R? ft Wf R? FFftft FftftfT
TRFR 3H^wi rtr RRF FT RT RrR ddF** FR Tftf TTlRT
TRR FFftfTF Wf!(\ RTRT?
FTTTfRRF FfSftF tRsT-RHTHI*! TTFR TftRRT TTI TRTR,
fTTTR, FTf T TRRF FRfRT RFFFR RFFTTTF dfR**l
TRF^St TT T FTFF STTFFTfTFf FW FftftRff? RJdt ffTF
"FFFTI RrRItRrrrr ^id+il idlidl <Hf Adi?*^* TffR
RF HldlRld TRF^T >dd>dlfd H^hRT*I TWRTftft oAlfrbi^, ffTRTR
RRFF T WftR RlRftftt d^l*3^*l FFTT FRffF Tft TTRftT
TTRI FW FfttftFt FTTRW "Tlf^M FFtTTTRT
FIM*lRdNl1 RRfft Bld<r>d ^pR^*i TTI ^
TRt T RSRFTfRT FTR3FTTF Rttrff Tq^fR RTjRFoFRT RffTR
tt 1 RfRFtt RitrfftF fr tf wft ffFfF ^r; t fRfrR
RRR WF ft^RtfTRt fRrRtFftt TT I FfftFFf "FFTfR FTTffRR
RffR STffFF T TRRlfRF TRF^St TfRT TT I TFRt RTTRT Rrftft T
<NAWI TWR i\M\V,< e)*l*F^ ddft^*l e)<r>KI<0 Tft <fftlHlR R
TfRT "Tft TTT FTTFT FpT I TftrfftRFf Tft TtfRRt% R FFft
RftftfsRR ^FR TFFt, TRRRT dlfd*l RTFt RRtRff, WR TTF
TRFT RRTFTF STfF^TcRfR RRFR WTFt T TFRt RWFTTTff
TRRR R TTTTfRT FTTf Ff TfTFffR RRFt FTRft Tft" FRFf
TTI w RFCt TTTRt m\ifi\*k 4|P^|iJ< T^f RFF Fd; Roo\s T
■^ooz F Rl^id |F TRt FTR RR R?ift FT TTRRt |
FRff STFRRTtR SfftR TffTTRT R^ RFTTRt-^ 1 1*3 FT ^oo^s
T Root Ff FTRRTTF RlRTTFF RFTTRR?t fRFR FTFf 3RR
FFTTFd FFT FR TTTRRT Rf? T FffRRR wf T Tftf
RlFFRFf TFT FFf ftRRr Rf?l    FT   Roo\s   Ff Rffftt
'^RRftftR RRRR RRTRfft,RRSRtft',ftRTRT RO<\0 |
ND
^RrRRT RRRR RRTRftftR,Rf^TTfft',RfRTRT-ftRTRT RO<\0 |
ND
^V^ftfftRRRRTRTijR Rftft, fiw^fmrwrmf, RRRRfttfftR, R. T-
5 I
^ RT 'iOO[3 ftf RRRfRRRR RflftRR RR fftft,  lf!til*l WTRT TRjf,
• ND
TRtft RfttfftR; T RRf RfftftfRRR (j^X ^M4>] ^m T Wm^TT
vfa\ RfR" RfttfftRI
3iR<{lddHfBl <H<*Kd R?ft JT^F^dl^ FrRtSFt RTFt TTfRt R?ft
RRt RtftFR TRRTFt TTI TfRRffsRR RFFT FT Roo\s F
ftRftfT RRFFFt Ft: TffTTffR RRRf | dMlR*dl RTTRT FTFT
RSTTftFRR RRTRFF TR? I F<Ft RlFTF TtfR-TffR FFRfRf
TFRT RtttfT FrfFFRRFt -5RRFT Tft STffR ft FXTRR
RRftf?R?t TTI
Ty^ stfRrRTRR RFT "RTRFFRF "#rsrTFTWRf TtRftfRcR ^
TfttRftt    ?&$t    TftftF    FTI     RSRff    FTFRRF    TRTR
no   "^
(TFFRFR), RRFFR Fftf T TTTTf RSTR dXdlP'l* Tftf
FFRF  TTR   w   T  FF^ FRFjTR  RFR   J|RlJ*l   RSRff
ftfRrf trtr (Rtrt) rf Rtrt frwrf Fftf (FFftt RRt)
Wf TtRT¥rF TTR I TTTtfRT ^^m FRf^FF fFFFTFt TtR?Rt
Rftft TTft ^frltd T d-fft^fF iNdlfd* RRTF RTrR ^llFT Tft
TTftR I m
TfttRtR TT&rfr TftftFFt rft fr wrtR Rttttrt ^ rRtr
WTTTff R3R Ftf FTR RRTFT ft I m RSfRf FTSffsTFR TRTR
(TRFRtRrf) T rR RRFFR TftffFR TFTF FT-TfRFF Tft
rrrR FR RTFt TTR;i w "TfRr ^gTRFRft RftRrRR W? Tft
rR TftRf RftffF "TfRTFRTT TTRFF FFFFT;! 1V[;   WFFt
W tlRftflfti  RRTRT RTR ^Rl   Rfft ftR RftR RRRft 31 ftRTRT
R01 O TRRTRffRf (RRRf) RfTTRf RRtRfft RTff ftt |   TRRRf RTRtfTRRR R
RRTRRfR  RTTTRTf  ^R FTRSR  ^f  Wv   ttRrtRrRRT  RRR  fftr |
RTRffRTRf Rtftt RR FR TRftfTcft Rft  <lftflRI  fftr,  TR RTfRRRTR
RRTRTRft RTRR RRRfft TftRR RTRT fRFRRJ
™* RRfRT RTTW RRffTRft B^X RtTRtTR TTR Rqft, ^V/e/*/
iM-flld*  «'<■&/<, RffR RfttfftR, R.  IY, 1^, ic; |
^ "TfftRTRRRTftf R^Nf+l Rfft RRRf T^rftft^R RRTR, RRRlftf
RTRRFTR-To5Y", 15 RFf Tooc; | ttrttr, ftftft rtrRtr RTRRR, r.
IO; "RRRf T^rftft^R RRTR RRRfftf RFftftR RTTfftR', TTRRR (R)
ftftft RRRftfR, 1^ FTRft ROO% R. 5; "RRRRRTRR" TTRRR
(ftfRTRRRR) Rtft Rfftft"; "RSIRRf RfftftfR RTp" ^^f ftfRRfRRR
RTRPR ftTRfftf RfRRTRRff RRRRRT', TKTRRf Rfft ftftffR RTrRtR, T
Rfftf ROO%, R. [3; "RftFRR", RRRfRT ftftfq- TTRRfR, Rtft Rfftft,
R. Yl
n[S RRRR (ftfRTTTRRR) RfR RRRfRrft RfRRR RR ^f RRRRRfR (^ft
T Rfftft) RFRf RfR RTTRR Rfftr ^^^ | "RRRRRW, RRrft
(ftfRTffRRR) Rtft Rfftft I RRRf (Rffftftft) ft RfftjTRRRTRff RT?R
TJRRTRR TfRtftRff RR Tftftf RRRTRf ftTRfftf rJ RRTft RTR sffRftft
RRR RRRff ftR RRftRfRRf RfftTrftf ^ |
^W RRRR (RRRf) Rff ftrRTR TfR Rft "ftftfrrftf RTRRfTRftR 3FR TfR
RftRR RfRtR Tffftf 3TRT ^1 RRtft (ft + <llP^I+) RFR ftft,
RFfRRRf, "Tfffrft T ^f.m FRf ^R fftfRfR ftrR T RTRTft RRfR WR
tjR7^ Rft RTf^l
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fRTRF Tft TfR Fftf RF FT TTT — FfftF FRFt FR Rj^RT
RFftt RfRt RTFRlRt WF "fFftf wR TT I W
RF RSTTTFt WR V,*<t\ ^RflJ< J|RlJ*| FR ft I Rlftf *<|*ldftl
Tftrff   Rf^F   TRFF   Fffftr   Ff   TTFT   TFFt   FFJbFTI
RrtttfrftrfftirRfRfRwR, 'fRrRf FRF FRt FR
RF FTFFf ff| TR FRt TftfrRR FRftflf R? FF TT WT
R?rRtF Rft FFTR TTFft I FRf RFftft 3TFR WfFt RFR
TRT TR-TftfR "fFRf, FF-RftfT fffT I FF-RftfT TFT
RRTRRT Tffrrl? "TRPT "RfTRFT I "n°
rRf RFRTtRRff RftRf7 Rrft t fftw d<*i<l fR %tr
TTft?FTI Rt fRFTTfF "FT Roo\s T Root Ff FFRTTFT
R?^RFTrT Rf?l FfFRR RRFFR RTFRfttw RTR RFFfFR
3RqRt TftftfRcR FT d<H**l T FFtTTTFd RFRT TRf Tfftft
fRTTfFRW?Ft iR^ftl RS7^ TftftT TRFFfTTft FfR ^
WdRf|wRd|Jt*l 3RRRd|Jt*l TTI n<1 fRTFTRT RFFR FFT
rRrtR rftR rI wR, 'Fftftt rRfrR stfRrttw WT Rtfi
■TTTFfR RfRRF fRTTTfTTTFtt Wf T FRftf TtR FRt FTTTF
ftr fftR wR ff RRrft ftfttl fc R?ft wrti Rrw
RTFRftt F? T TRFT TW?l"n^ TRR Tft "FftsrTFTWF FR
3l1<Hd*l  FlfFRR TfFf TftRf FftfFFFf FTfTFR fft F^Ft
<m ftRRT  (F)  ftftftftf" RfRRRff T R%R RFR RfRRT RRfftR7 Rft
RTf^i 'Rrrt tktrrt Rftf (rt) Rfftf, Rrrt (RT),^Tfrf R°°% I
RRRR (RRRf) T RRRR (ftfRRffrftR) ^Rft ftrRTR TfftfRT IpftftR
RTRRfft RFR |ffR T RTRTfFR RTrR RRRRfft RFR "RfRR RTRfRf
RftRR |fft RTR RftRR ^R| "RRRf T^rftftffR RRTR ftlRTRR
RFffftR RTTffRR', RRRR (RRRf) ftftfR RTfRftfR; "RRRf T^TfftftrRT
fttTR, RRRf (ftfRRffrftR) ftf RfRRfRR', RRrft (ftfRRfRRR) ftftft
TtRtftl RjRRR Rftfft RRRfRfR RTRRtR fftftRfff RTTTRfft RFR
TRRrRR-ftf T RfRffRRT ftrRft, ftftfRf fR RfftfR TRRRFR RR RlRTRTR
ftft 3M<rl4-eH R^ftf TRR fttftf ^ | "R^ft ftfRRfRRR RTRRR RRRTRff
TffftfTRftf RRRRRT', TFR, ^ RTRR ROO% | RTRffRRt ftrqjTR fftftf,
RRRff T RRtftff RRT RRRfRRf RRfft, fftft T Rfftft TRRRFR TfR
RlRFfft ftftftf RfR Rftft Tgj I "RRTRR RRftfftff ffttft — ffft RRRf,
ffft fftfl", RTRffRf, Rtft Rfftft I
n°RRftrR RRRR RRTRfft,^TfTf T°10 |
n<1 *I3R<H TTRRR RRTRRlffR,FTRF'$Kffl,FfR, RRRfRT RO<\0 |
n^  RfRRR   TFTRR   RRTRfft, rRtr   RTTrftffR, RRRT,   RS    RRRfRT
ND
Tolo|
n?TtfftJM^>m+| Rfft ^6 + (?4pRI RRI^^fti RTRTRRRRft 53 RftTfR
Tftftf^l TRRRf Rft rRb" RRRt ^ftlt^fti Rftftjft ^R RR ^ | TTRRR
(RRRf) Rf RRT RftR RfRRftf %.c; RftTfR , RRRf RRT TRR- Rfftftf
11.£""£"" RftTF T RRRR (ftfRRfRRR) m RRf RfRR Rft^RTRff %.%
RtRTTR  RRRRTR  T?7 I    "Attendance and participation in the Constituent
Rjft ftftRRFFFf RRRRTF FRt tRRfR RRRf T RftR
RFRFt TtfTTFt TWR RRT TRt RR FTfTT TfRTT I nV F RRf
TffRsiTTR 3RR FRTTFT FRRf¥[FFFf TR Ff rR?F FR TRt
FT RTFR TTI RFarfRRT strRrTTF FftFRft ^§TTTFf
fFFRffRT RRFT fR Tftftff TTfR srfRftTRFt TT T RtRft
STfsTFRTft" FTFFFf tRRTFR Tft Rft RTR FRfR "STftFT I
RSTTft Hldli^fd 3j^-dfs FFft" Tft dRli?^*l "H^iyP >dd*WFT
FTRRT Wf "b^RI RRF STFRftFTRT *ft*dft^ FR ftfT
FTTFR R&TTFTffFt RFCF RSTR STFRRTRFt FFRF "Sftt
FRTftf WTRT F%FFt rRf TtfRFTRT FFitfFRFT ft I n!<
STftRTRR Tft FfftFFf FFTFF FTTTFT T *ldl*l RRtR R
RfRrfFtTTI
TTSfFTfttfTFRTfRFFfFRRF TffTR (RFTT) 3T^" TfR TTfFfTR
FTWFTTFd: TTfF RTT FtR RfRf TTI FRR FFR ftftr
FRRTR TJTsFTRI m f?F FTf Hd-=l RRf ft^lT**! WTTfW,
'Ftf TfFT dXdlP'l* Tftf R5R Fftftt Tftf ft; FRFFTRf
RFJR: WTTfft" "FFTTFTTR?f TftftRRR RRTT I FFFFt RRR R?ft
RftFtTT, TR Tft FTRT RfR?TT TTR I "nis ftRftRTR R?R FRFR
" ' C NO CN
FTFTTT FFT FFRF "b^R I  TffRRT FTFTTTF ffFTT ftTRFT
RtTFRT  RF RFFf  FFRRFfR  FT,   'RRF   FTRR FFCt
3TRFTTT FTR FR^TR? TRt R TRdtRfF ddF^d FTR FF ft I
FfR RRfFRR ftRTFRRf I   FTF R Ff TFF dTTWF TfRr
Rftr fRVtt 1 "nc;
TftRt TftfFFFt TRRf% RSFTTjfTRR ^ FRRT Rftftt FTFfft"
TF3"TTI f^Fm ft RRFFR RffRftt Rftf RFTTTTff TRRT ftt
RfFT FTTRFT Fi;i   RFFFTRR TTffR, RfTFRTTF ftftRRT RtFT;
Assembly",   TRftft    ftRlft,   Y    RrftrRT    RO<\Oy   R.     5-ls |     www.
martinchautari.org.np RRfRR ^ |
nV RfRRR tttrrr RRTRftffR, FTRF ^ "^^R. FfftRT  T°1o |
RTRfTRT ftRR TTTTTRffTcft rR: "fTTffft RRfRff Rft fRRt T R+ffd*
Rft RRfRff R  Rfc: fTT^I"  RfftRR TrTTRRT  RRTRfft, Ri^   RRRfRT
To1o|
n!< RRRfR RRRR RRTRfftfR, ftTTRTST, ^f*^, RTRff, RTftf T TTfTR,
RRRfRT T°10 I
n5 FRf FR TRRT=R TTRft RftfRRfft rR: "RffRRfR RftR RTRRRff RRf
RfRR^ fftRRRftftfTftRfftR RRRrf TRRT R>Rf fftr | TR^jRTTff
TftftRfR FR RRRR, RffRRR RRRff" RRT TfR fR R ftft ^R | " RflftRR
TFTRR RRTRfft, RRRRTR,   30  RRRfRT RO<\0 |
nlS RTftftR  TTRRR   RRTRfft, TRTRR  RRRf  ft#RR, RrRRfRT,   3°
N2
RRRfRT T°1o I
nC; Rtt^Rrt RRRR RRTRfft, TRTRTR RlfftRTfR, R^TffCf, 31   RRRfRT
N2
Tolo|
 wr?i%w wttffrirMr?w. ?<?<?, 13 wmft ?o<i<i
?o
FTTFRFR TffR RrtRrt STTF^T ftR, I m FRRt TftftT fRFR
RRFF FTFTTRrRrt RfFF RPTFW TFFFT T TTFT Rf
FRTTTTff RF FRTRbFT, ftftFT: TTTFRf FR%FF I U°
TSTRTFftt FR FTTRT TFRT FTTf Ro<\o Ft ftRftfTFt TTffR
TRF FRfR "FRRTFTnftRF RF# RftfR FCF fRRt rRrfrt
TTffR RSRff TftftF RFFTFRt FoRfR t\^ TTRFFf W> RTRTRFR
TTI u<1 F FfftFFT 3TRFTTT Wf fRRftf STTTW RtftRFf *TI
FfFFR TTFftftR F^WWT^FRFTF FTFTTRTTff fRF TlR
^m RRrfFt TTI RSR FFRT ft RFTt RRFF FFR FF
RRtFt FRFt -^FRFFRT TftRt FRffsfFR FTTR (RTRf) F
Rf%RFt FrfRRfRfftld: TTfRR?RT FFTI
RfRTR: RSTF FRSffsTFR TfftR (RTRf) Ft RFRF TFRT FTF
RtRsilFFt RFC fRFR RFFR TRRT TTI FRFR RFFFR
3ftftTF RftrfRT TT I F%F FtR RfttFRT Fft¥RF FFT; T FT
RRFF  ftfFTTF Tft?T  TRFR RftfFFt  TTFTtF  FFFT; Wf
fffft; 1 'Fftfr fftRtfr TfRrftr ftf fR TtFRfRFfrrrf
fRFTTF fftft sfldMd FRFf ••• T ft?T fR TRfR FT RRFFt
TRRRft FTFTTff FWFT TRTFFT;i "^
R?ft FRRf RFFFTTf TRTfF TfRFF ftrrfft" RR fR R^ftt
RRftRI RStTff 3TRFTTT T "FT; Root Ft ftRftfTF TRf
FRTRTTFd R?IFRTFF FdftFFf RfFRtTTlfftR "TfR? RFT FTFt
TTI   FfFRftf "SRFR TR TTRFT FpT I   RTT FftftTT FR tR
RdM-fi ftftr fRfrR rt rfr ftr ttr?rt fftj tr tRRrR?
FFRRT Rft TRt R?ft RR RTRT W?W TRf RFR RR "TfR? FTf
rrtRtTI RF^FTFFFTft#fRRTR?RwT, 'FTSRfttR FTRf
Fftt "fR TTFR tjRf" RFftR RfRdl*!  RFT Fftf rr ftjR
ffR?"^
^''RTTgRRT RRRR RRTRfft, R^RR, RTfTR, T5  RRRfRT ^o1o,RRR
ND
Rrtr RRf.RrRfT, R<s rrRrt t°io i
'^RRRRfRR RfRt, TRTR RRTRRR TTF FR RRT RTRRRRT RRFiTRR Rft
RfRRT RfRTtfFRTf RfRfR RRftjRJ   RflRRtR RRRR RRTRfft, R^ffff,
31   RRRfRT T°10 I
^ RRTRTRft TRRRfTTR ftRRft  3°  ^R  T°10  TR RftRfTR tRr%
Tfft "5TR RfftfR RfTTRTR RTRRft RRTR RRRt ftf R^rR RRRR ff
RftRRT cRRT^R^ TfRRf RR? RRTRTRft RRR rR RRfR I   RfRRfRR
RRRf 3tR RfTRRIfR RTRRftf RRTR RRftRf ^R |
^ " RfRRR TTRRR RRTRfft, RRRR (RRRf) ftRF RRT, ftTRRRT,   3°
ND
RRRfRT T°1o |
^  RRftRR   TTRRR   RRTRfft, RRRf   ftftRR, Rf^TTfft',   R^    RfRTRT
ND
Tolo|
RSTTft 3TRFTTT RR?RT Rf FTTT RSFft-TFRt TRRR T TTTffFt
^^m FRfR RTTTRFR FRfFft FF RTftftR fR ft TFRftF
TRf T RSRTTTjfFd FFT TRR Fjftr F *Wl*l RftfF FFRF
RRT FFR F?l   RRRf TNdlRftl T RRFRFFRT FTFT ^o
TfRTR tfRfrR RRtft fRFR Trfti R?t tfRf <^t ft
FRfR JlReF** FRFTTT I 1^v
FRT «Pi^*i TTfFR fRfFT f*R^*l TTI Rl<FI*l TNwR FjR
RFFR t\^ FFF FRRRTFT RTRfTFF FTRTff FRFT T FRffRT
NO CN NO
RTtRrT FRfR F£FT RTFTI ^ ftrfdRTRRT fRF FFRTFFfR
Fft FR T TRR <Ndlfd*4fi^d TfR STfFtTF RR tHIWlRl*
TFTTftRI TRFRiM*! 3TRFRfR#TI FT R ft TF%FR
' NO
"FT Roo[3 T Rooz Ft FTTTF FfR STTFFFFf fR F:
RW?R?t RFRFFT, ^Tft FflFRR fri" rRt RFRlR RRFR
RfFRRT TT I FTF TRRTFTff RT^TTT^ TOTR TRT:FTf RRT
FRFFF FF FR *l<|s|K ^dl^<l^*l FFFTF FC *R«I^I*I
FFFT T TRRTFTff fftft RftfRjR FdftFFf fR ^Td*td
RfrftRI^
FRft T TFRft SffsfFTTFt 3|R<{|ddd Rfe" tfR ^ftf trfR R?ft
fRRR T RTRTTff TfR FFTRFf Ffl Rt rR STrRrTTRR
WiF^dl^ RFFR fRdfJT fR ft Wf ftdR ^Hld1*l STtRtftRf
HRw^ldl^RFRR"FTRFft^ftRFf «Pi-Bl I FTFfFffR W?
Tft RTftft FTFfFRR?t RJdT TTFFRf ffTF FffFTTRT ^
RrRsrFFFT;i tft;^oo^ f jiRij*! rf ft fR^rtf rffff
FFFTTFFR FfRRR RFfRt FTfRFT Rft?lUls FffRFRT
FRFR TRTFFRT «.o RfRTR FFTFTFF Rf?, TR FRfR T FTlRT
3TTSTTTF Rtrt ftwrr ffRf FfFFRsft RfR fsrwf r?r
WR fRRJ FTFfFRFt 3RSR WRFt FR RFFR T R-dld
3if^d<HJ-+l <Hffid yP<lsi*| FT PfJ*! Fftfl
RR tRrRtrR RfFRftt FRF Rft TRRTRT ftRst FfC?RT FpTI
FFRsff, sft RfrftST T FRFFFR STRFf R%F TffRRTRT
TTFdtft TftRFTTRftt ft T FffRF RTTTTRT RFF ftffR" TRRF
ftl FRfR FfR Rfe TR?FlR ft FfR T FpfftF FFFfR
TRRF STTfRTRT "FFFT, ?TT R?RT FfFTFF SfftRFf FRfR
TRRWflt ddl^^yP 3j^^+Td if^lift Tft d-fl^^dl^ FRT PT<HI^<
ffFT TRffRrfFFT I   RrrlFff ffFFFRf T TTFFFoFFf fRfttT
^VRrRTR TTRRR RRTRfftfR, RRRfRT RO<\0 |
N2
^RRfftR TTRRR RRTRfft, RRftRT RO<\0 |
ND
^5 RfRRR RRRR RRTRfft, RfR,RftTRT ^OO^ T RRRfRT RO<\0 |
^^^RTRRRrTfd HflRl<r«KI ilRli,*! RfdTRR RR v^M+ld+l RlfR
^(?X ^liRl'H TTfR fftft, -yv/e/*/ <Mf)t2# «'<■#/<, RffR RftffftR,
RfftftRft Tn I
 ft77F- vfe-ciHcbl iM'flRl t wffim
wr?i%w wttffrirMr?w. ?<?<?, 13 wmft ?o<i<i
??
FRf FT",  Rt RTRf:   gR RfrRsTF T FRTRRFt RRftff FFTI
FTFFRT TTTfR FfRRR FTfRTTRT RlTR ftl   F%F TTfRRRRT
^ff RRfST  4|R^i4dft F TffFTRR FFFRT fR TTRFFFt
FTF WR FftfT I
Rrrftrt R?.Tfr.Ft Tifftr frwf R rf wr trfR Fftf ft Rt
TTfRRFFt fft RRfST FRFf | Rf RT^f TTFfffRF FTTTTftR FRTT
ftR?=fttR?Ff|RTFtwRFftR?ftFfl TR RfRRT RlfR FRfR RlfRsRR
F?RR MM TTfRRTTRR FFFt fR RtFfft RfR FTTFR RTRTff
f: Ffl  RRRTd: wftrR frtRt Rft RFT fR TRWRF T
RTTFfR RSTR TRRRTd" RTRTRR FRUFTTW 3RfqR TFTTRTTf TRR
RT^fR srRftriRFt Ffl R?.Tfr.TR FfftF fRRRt TfftR stRrttr
FTTRT FfRJ RFFf fR RrSRT TTR T Rt R?fft Tft RFFf TTRFT
FRTTRRFFTJ Tftf TRRFR RtRF" W? Tft RR RRfRRTRR FftR
FfRRR RRftfftFFt FW ?T% FTTFR TfRR Ff I
FfRf FTR RTRTRR RFT F. ftTTFF^FF%TFFT;l^^^/^lS
w RfTFTw f?rR fRRt 1 ttrf Fftt TfRR RtFfFf trt; Roo\
RT% ftR? RFT RRf I FfRf "RRRFt Fft*lR* WTTfRRFT Rt
FfFt TTfRRRRR RRftt fffT RT TtfFFRt FSTtRr TTfRRTTFt
wRRrRsrFftri Rt rrftft "RwfttRtf TftftftrRRR ftf TfrR
Ffl TR RTRfR FR FfFTFf FftFF FftRT FTF FTRF
f^^ T STtfR^ "FF' FftFT FRF FRfR ^R RfR Ff I Rt
3TFT RpSlfTTFt RTFRf WF TfR FTRt FRfTTTf Ff FT
RfRTFft FR fRT WR F-FTft fRf?RR R^FFf I RfRt TTFFR
RFTRtRTRFT 4T-d*+TI TTFf d^*?W H^ld*l <Ndlfd*i FF
Fdftdl JlR^*l Ffl ^ FF TTWRFT TTRFT TRR fftFTTFTTRT
RRRFRR WTTfRT FfftF wR'FRT ^ Tffft RTRRR ^R TTRR
Rrwrff FfRftFFf RRrft ffftf i ^
TRTTFT RfTtft" RFRR *I*1^KI RFR J|RlJ*l TRR RfRt RFF
TTTTRFff FFTT TTfRRTTRR FTF tRrR Ff T FfRftFFf
3ilRc||tfl*l "RRF -Hl-ildl fRFlR TTF fRfRR >dlfd*l <H+lldHlfd*
TN-flfd* TftftftTR^FlR RTRTRR <HW^Id 3tRRttRrRf?I FfRf
TTFFTT ddF** Wf FfFFFTR TTlfR FftFTfftR RRRF fFRRf
TRT TjRFTF "FR TTTTRFT SRTlFR FftTR; I  F%F*t WdtfW
FRRR FF T "FFFFFR FRfTTTf RlfF RFFf sttRfFFR
RFRF fFf ftRI^°
Rt RtRRftr FfFTF7? WR^RW FR TfFRTTFFRT RlRrFF TFFf
NO
TTTRT FRftTRRTTfF ftft TFTTRt FfR I TfftR FTFRlfft FT
■^ooz Ft ftRfFTF TRTR FTRRR FFT TTR?rR fRRT I TRR
RTRfft FRT FT ftd" fRRRR Rftt, TFTF TtR Rft Rft
TTWRTTfftF TftftfsRRRR 3RSTTTF I   FC R?.TRFt FfRRR RRftt
no ^
RfRfR Wf R?ft FRFR FTFf TTR?rR Ffl   "FT   Roo\  Ft
ftrRtt Rftftt frRtt tRrR RtRst rtRRf fRtftrt
FTFFnRTF TFRR Rftt I  TRFRR fR R? Tft FftrFfft Ff wR
RtftR rr fRrRF rtfrtRtRt ttffff t RttRf ftrRfrRr
RTFT R?ft FFRR RTRT Tfftt Ff, RFf T ^ld*l Rf RF RRfR
FRfRR Ff FF FFffF FFTRFFRT FRTFTrFFTRTR fRdF
FfFfRJ ^ ~
ft RTfR T FfRfFF FTFFft "RWFTTTff ¥RR FTRFT FfRJ
ftftt ftWRRT "RfRRR T Rffdf FF FTTTFFrF^FFf ftfR
fRRT FFFRTTd F%FFt ffR ftr wR TTFt Ffl RFRfd
SlffRFf R5R RTTTff TRftRRR FTF T^R, ft?TWf FfFFR
FTF FRFfttftRf FffT TOTFTRT fR SFT-FRftr Tft Rrffr;
FFCRT FfFI TR RtRR FTRFT TTTfR FfTTF RSRRftftR RTfR-
FfRtTRFTR WR FffRRR Tftt" FRFf RFFFF TRffFf TTFR
FF TTtRt ft I FfRf T FfRTTTf FftFRRWFt RTRfFTF "FF'
"RftR?F7FTR FRfR rRttfTf TFT FfRf RFF <H+1N*I FTTTRT
RF FR RFFf ftRTF RTF fRRt: 'Fftf TTRRjR ft wR RJdf
TftTfRfFFRTlTFfttl'^^
RRt RTRRTT FfR-FfFFt fR FfFt Fft FTTT wR FFf FF F:
Tft Ffl ft FRfR STfsTFlTRlRftFFT R%F ffF sft, Rrftft
WFFt RiRT FRT T R5R fRRrR fRRffRRt TTFRFRRT ftfftr?Ff
R?F FTI   FTRTTt Rrftft TTftRFTTff FtRRwRr RRrr TTlfR
no no   "^ y\ no
FfftRR TFFFf ft FfR T FfRfFFR fRRf RRfR ftft RTRT
FfFI FRRt FfRRTRf FRFTftft RFTFTF RFFRFf wR fRFR
R^RRFf RlFR-FfRFF "^RF TftFfTT, fRRTTRt TRf RTRTRTTFRt
fTTTFFFFI ^^ TRR FfRf RFF <H+1N*I RF FTt FTFfft RfR
WR,  "ffF SPRTTtf FTfRf I   Rft TFT ft WT RfRRTftf FfR-
^ ^ RRRRTRR RTfR", TRftft RffRRRIff "fftr' T TRftft RffRRtfRRff Rlf
FRffftf  RRftfrRfrf  RRRfT RRfRR fR  ft  Rft   o^TRRf RRirftf ^ |
"W% RTRTR'^ft RRfR ftTTR ftftfR ftffft,RfRTRT Roo% |
^''RRRrR RRRR RT=RRfTfift^,FF,^RFT,TffRRT FRT, Ffff t
RtRtrt ^olo I
^ RfRRR RRRR ftftftf RRTRfft, %ft RRTR RTfW RTTR RRFRT,
ND *
RfRTRT  ^OlO I
^t^ftRRrftftrRt^i
^^RfftRR RRRR RRTRfft,^TRR,^Rff T°10 I
^^ RfRRR TFTRR RRTRRlffR,RftRRRRT5T,FRftf T RJRRT, "RftfTRT
T RftTRT T°1o I
 wr?i%w wttffrirMr?w. ?<?<?, 13 wmft ?o<i<i
??
FfRftfff Tft FdlFfFflRt RfF FRfFft R TFT  FFRrR
Ffl"^v
RfRt ttwr Rtrt t trr ftf rff ftrrR fttfRR Rtrtrt
fRFR-fRFRF Tfftt W\^X fRRRR WFtt TFRT RRFFF
FRRRTFT RfRRftt T FTTRRT "5RTTR0FF FfR I ^ fRRTR: TRR
FfRf RFF FRTFT RFTTrR FT tRRRt ft *l4*d?i?^dl£
STTFfrR" RfR Ff I ^ rR TTfFTft Rrftft RT^If FT T WFttR
TTF ftftR TTRTRT RRRR TTRT TtRRTtFF fRTTTRT ^^m RFR TRF
Tftftt RFRFfRI RTRTRR 'FfRFFR F FTRt FTfFt RFf
WRRT T^frR FF Tft Fftl^ RT FRFFR TFTTFt TTFlftF RR
CN NO NO
RTTTRRf ftFfRI FffRRR FFTRR R?ft fRTFFFF WTtR
tRRr??FRR Rf RTIRfR RT?FFf I   stfRtRR FfftFFt RF RT
RtRtRfsr RfFQft t|r, tr RtRttttR RfRt frr Rtrt 3TrrRtTTfFT
RrFRTF ftR? tRR?R RflfTFf I RRRT RRFF TTTRRT FTFT ftR?
RfFRT RfFFRT FfR I
NO '    -N
RT Rt fR TfR TTfFTFftR <im FTFTFR wR FTFT Tft?FT
FFFI FftT ^ FFTFFt RTR Tt" TRFfftf rR FTtRfTTT Ff
RfRRt FT TTRTTT I TFF RTTRR srffft FTRJR" RRRFt TTFTTft
TffFTRTTF RfF^fR RTR RR RRRFf I
TTFRT TTRF*FFFt 3RTf R? Ff Wf TTFftftF Hldfi^fd*!
ftFFTR "TTft TRRRFR RRFFF FTTfftRFf I TR RR F#fF
FfftFFt TRTRTRRfR FTF fR FRf FRFR tRrR Rfrftr T
TRTRf FRFR FFf Fftd Tft TTR I R?ft FRR RfSRT Tfrftf "TTft
RRFTR snfFF T FWR FFTFT *ft*l  WSRRRTd TRftrRtF
rRtfi fr Rtft FfFI ^ Trrrfw wttR ttf t rrtr ftR?
RSF <HI=N.R* FTF Rtf TTRT FfRJ "F FfftFFf fR 3R?FT
FftFFt WFFf FfftFFt FFfRlF TTRFF wR F# RRR
RFRsrr^t?7. RTTTRRf R-^ftl   'TTTffRf RfFRRT RffRsRTTFT FTFT
'^RRftfR RRRR RRTRfft,^TTTf T°10 |
T^pRR "Local Political and Peace Process Trends", RRcT FRT, T 3
RfRTRT TOlO,R. 5 | RTf T^ft TTRRT RTRRRR RRTfR lft%M RtRTR
ftRW rR 15  RRTtRtRR RTf 3^ RfTRTTfRRT ''^w^V TtfRftfR TftfR
RTTTRT^RI   RfftftR TITRRR  RRTRfft, ^fft, RftfTRr  RO<\0 |
^ RRfRfRR RfRt, RfTRft ftR Wf^ %ft RRfR ftfRTRT RRR ffj
RfRRR RRRR RRTRRtf,W% TTRfR ftlRTRT RRf,ftRTRT RO<\o |
1,1515 TTRRtftf fR rtrtrR tfRR, rrRtr rr RRft, -yv/e/*/ <Mf)B&
#><*/<!, RffR RfttfftRI
^ RR T°10  sftf R Tjft RRT RrftR "Tfff T ff fRTTR RfTR "Tftfft
RRfRRf ft "Sfftft RfW Tft T RfftT RRTfTfRf FRf RfRftf RfRRfRfRRf
RfR RfTT |   Tfft RRR# ftRTRT "Tftfft "ftRfft fTR" RfRR FRO" RRRRRR
TTTRfftf TRfRRf RRf ^RfRR RURfRfRRf "Tffft RRRTTRf RRRfR RfR
WW
?IIFs!d TtR R?t FTRt "TRRt TrRr TRf TRTFfTI TTTR R?t
FFR FftTFF FTRR TTTRt R?TRT fRTTtf TRf fTftRFfR,"
41<JR>d*l RF FT R% TRRRTR FT I w FfRtFRFRf
RftfRFf TffRRT FRtRfTRR TTFftftF FTTfRRTRR fRf RfRfR FFRT Ff WR TRt FfftF fRt FT I ^°
TRTRftftF FTF fftfFRRf RTRT ffF TRf RTFRR RfRTRRT
RtFTTRtfRrfFfRI FfftFFf FF RRFtF ftFTRTWF TRf srrf
RfTRRT F?RTW fRFR Ff I ^ RF FR "TTFRftt' Tftf WR
fRftRFt TlfftT TFFRFF Fftf (RTRf) (FTTf, RTRf) ft" Sftf
RfrRsTRf, <Nd-r>l T <HfftdNR >dd+Td FFTF JlRdH^ wR P<-d<
FR TffTTFFt Ff I RrfRrt RRW Fftf T FT¥fT ftR FTTF Rnrft
RTT% Rft  TffRTTFt  FRdtfRFd  TlfftT TffRFT  FRFT  FT
^ NO
F?RTF Rt Tftf RTfF Ffl ^^ TffRRT TTFTTff TTTffRR WRT
RRFTF ffF FRfFF fRRJ RTTTRTTf TffR^ ffF TRTRR
RFFTRfF FFTRR RftlFRF ffF "FflfFFR Tft Rft" ftt"
frft FfR i Rtrtrt sft RRtRstf RRttfr sTFRftFTTTrf ftrfFFR
R Rf T FfFTRRF FRFR ftR FRRFfT I ^^
^Hld+TI Tft RftfRFF ffF <Hp*i|dl d<e?*l ftfR I FFFTF
^f Rt FTfR Rftftt FvTI   Rra" ffF RFRf "FT;  l^^l   F
RRfrw trf f?rR ftftt i fftrR Rra" ffF tRtrRtr rrrR
RfR?d TRFTR TfRR Ff T RTRTFt TftRRT "TTft TRFFTTd: Tft
RTftf TTT¥fT FRFf ftRt I w RtfR RFFf WiR SFFIT R Sftf
fRrR^tdf RtF^r tift ft i trt; l^^o f Rhmji-^i-hi ftn^ldi*!
"TTTF TfRRR Rftt I sft RRrRsTRfRR RRfSt RRFfF Rt FfFT Tft
STTTft WftfRT FRF^ft^ fFTTR STrRtR WTTRTFT Ffl Ftn^o
Tftf RftR FfRftT ffF-RfFTR RfTF TftrRtdT RfT RTRRRFRT
^''RfftRR TTRRR RRTRfft,RR^R,ftrTRR, [3 RRRfRT RO<\0 |
N2
<,C;0 ftRTRT  T°10  JJ[ Rft fRRR RRR "TfffTTffR RRRRTRTRft fRRf
ftf?RRfRf T?^ffRff RT=fff Rfftftf 3TRfR Rflftf |   "RRRft Rftft RTTFT",
*/PrfV< 1 3 ftRTRT TOlO I
^RRfftR RRRR RRTRfft, RR5RT ftRRR, [3  RRRfRT RO<\0 |
N2
^^ "TtfRR yvrilTi^l Rftf fTM+i Rf^R-RR: RfRRTRRRT Rft-=H T°5Y",
RRRf (RRRf), ROOi^ I
^ RRRRfRR RffR, RfTfTfft" FTRf Rftfftf ^ RSRR R3TRTR fRfft
RfRRf RRfR TTfRO" fft^ TfTf Rfrftf RTffT=^ RRRR fftr | "RRRf fft^RTjq-
Rfflft^", WZW TfwTK,z, ftftFRT ^olo I
Gerard Toffin, "The Politics of Hinduism and Secularism in Nepal", in
Studies in Nepali History and Society, vol. 11, no. 2 (tsRTRT T ° ° 5 ) I
ftftfft RR 1 %SS F RR-SRlftTR ftR fftf RfRtfftf ftrft RfftfTfRRff
TRfRR Rftff fRTT I RlftRft Rft ftR fftf TRfRTfftR Rf; ^ 00<\ ftftR
RFTRf RRRR" ^TfftR RfTT | TJ^^i TRRfR RfTRR RrR fft^ TTffRfRf
RSRR fftr I RR ROOi^ ftft RRRRTfRTfR Fftf ftRRff^T R^ftf TRTtftf
RSRR X^m ^f|
 wr?i%w wttffrirMr?w. ?<?<?, 13 wmft ?o<i<i
13
W?RTfRR,l ^ Rra ffF RFFfff' RTRt RTrRfrR Tft WFfft
FRF^fffRT RtFd" R4FST Tfftt Ff I
rR ^j^*| Rftftf FFRTF FfFT FTR I ftst ffFTTFTTfRR RF
FfFT ffF RF FfFT FTFfft RfR RTFRfttRTR FFffF
RTTRFRRT FTTRf Tft" wR: 'FRfR TfRf fR FtfR FRt Ff, FffR
FRf Ff, FffR TRff TRTFRR Ff WFfRI R?FRTd" fR FoRfR
RFFf FTfR FRtTTff FfR ~A^ Fft tRtFRR Ff I "^ FT rR
<HJtf*l 41<JR>d TdHldF^mi Wt fR w? Tft ftl? Rftftt FRRT
TFRT FfRI FTftft F5IRFF#R 3TTTFTW FRf FFTft Ffl
RTRTRFRT ffF RFFf T RfFTF fRftr FTR TTFTR T c^lfl
ffF RF FfFT ddF** FTF (RTRT) RT RffRTT TRF TfR FTRT
FfRI ^ ffF RF FfR ^°1° F RtTFRF FSfftftftf RfR"
RRfst trRrf ffft Rft RT^Rtrt fRf FRFt Rftt 1 RtRf
41<J|N+1I TTFFRR^^ff "SRTTfttFFFf RF F FRTFT FRt
RRrR Ff T FTftft" TRg" <Ndlfd?li?^*l STTT Tft RFTTf Ff I ^
RtTTTF RftRRRRt ffFRR RRftsf FT R Sftf RRtRtFTTrR FTTR
C-s NO
ft I TTRRTRftt ffF RFT-FTRFFd Rftrft" RTRT FF RTF
"RrtTRTTf ffF TfF FTRft' RfRR fR FR FTTT I ^ TTffFR
RfR RFt" ^TtRT RFRf TfTRTfR FFf FRR T FRF ftdFFRf
FRTfR 3TFRR Rft F*^ FF FFT T "BlRtFfRR TfRRR TTF
ffFTRRR 3TRFTTT ftft RFt" FT FRR TRt RrR" fF ftl FRft
3RFRTR T FRftfttFTcRftr iNdlfd* ftFTSRRRT TfR R?ft
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V. "^tflm" T 3H<RS<*
TTFR TffRTlt,   "Contentious Politics in Democratizing Nepal",  RTfR
RfttfftR, R.  3=" I
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ND
^^% David Ludden (ft) ftf RTfRR Making India Hindu (RRf fftftf, ROOV,
[1996]) RfcT RfRftftf "TTRfRTR I Gerard Toffin, "The Politics of Hinduism
and Secularism in Nepal", RTfR RrftftfR |
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nv
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Marcus Brand, "Nepal: Constitution Building, Federalism and Peace -
Managing the Transition to Federalism and Implementation of the New
Constitution", TRRRf RR RtRRR RfftftfR ^RRRT RR, RftTRT  RO<\Oy
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NO NO
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n^RfftRR TTRRR RRTRfft, RRffRRRfgRf, RSRR, ^gft RRRRff TRR
Rfftf (ft), ftTffRtR, RftTRT Ro<\o I
David Gellner, "Modernism vs Ambivalence? Some Comments on the
Question of Linguistic Policies in Nepal", in Studies in Nepali History and
Society, vol. 9, no. 2 (RftTRT T°OY)
^0<1 RTftftfRRfff RRffftftR Rft fR RfRRTfffR RTRRFTTRR RtRRTRR
oRfRffRF RR^RffR ftgftff | RRfTRRT RlfR, tRftf RRfRfR RRR,
"Ethnic Activism in Nepal: An Account of the Magar Organizations in Kaski
District", in Contributions to Nepalese Studies, vol. 35, no. 2 (^<r1IS
Rooc) |
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V ' NO NO NO NO
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NO
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RTftftTRRRTffRRT FFf RftlRTRft Eftfff F^fftR" frF^R T RTR
TRT?RTTRTR| RRfft RTTRT RRfRR RffRTRRff RRTRTR T RftfRRT
RRfftR SRRRTfR RfR: ftR RfRff | TRRTt RR RTfR RTRRTrRtr
fRftftRRf RRTRR FftR RTftftfRRRRfTft RfRRf RRRfRfR
snFRfFfff" TTRRTR Rffftt RRR 4|R<£ + | ^f I "Reservations,
FederalismandfhePoliticsofRecognitioninNepal",TTTTR RpTfFaR,R. YT I
prjfff Neera Chandhoke, "The Political Consequences of Ethnic
Mapping", Crisis States discussion paper no. 1Y,fsF-RT T°°^ I
^nftffftf RTftftRft 5T I
pTTjfff Kare Vollan, "Group representation and the system of
representation in the Constituent Assembly and future parliaments of Nepal",
FTRft T°11l www.follesdal.net/projects/ratify/nepal/Vollan-2011-The-
development-of-an-electoral-system.pdf F RRTRR jj[ |
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TTRSTTR RTR TTTR "fRFf I ^ ^
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NO ' C NO
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cv ' ^ cv v no v
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c NO
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NO
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NO '
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""Ul
^^ RRRft ftffTRTRRRRR TftfR  B^X David Gellner, "From Group
Rights to Individual Rights and Back: Nepalese Struggles over Culture and
Equality", in Jane K. Cowan, Marie-Benedicte Dembour and Richard A.
Wilson (eds.), Culture and Rights: Anthropological Perspectives  (RRlftRR,
TooDi
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RTRtfRR "Constitutionalism and Diversity in Nepal" ftRRR RfrftrR RTff
"Ethnicity, Identity, Participation and Social Justice: A New Constitution for
Nepal?", "TftfRf i^fTfRRR, R. C \
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TfRRTftR RTfRTRftf ftftRfff RRRTR TRRRf ft Rftft ^f I Mara
Malagodi, Constitutional Nationalism and Legal Exclusion in Nepal (1990-
2007), RRR RfttfftR I
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The boundaries and names shown and the designations
used on this map do not imply official endorsement or
acceptance by the United Nations.
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■   International boundary
-   Regional boundary
-    Zonal boundary
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+
Airport
0    20
40      60      80    100 km
0   10
20    30   40    50    60 mi
Lamben contoimat cone profecttofi wm a central meridian
ol 64 degrees east tonytude mm standard parcels & ?*
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Map No. 4304   UNITED NATIONS
January 2007 (Colour)
c*
Department ol Peacekeeping Operations
Cartographic Section
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30
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so so 'so
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(TTFTRR) TTRI
FTfftR TDRTTTt ?RTFT RffFT FtRF FTFf RTTRT TTTTRR TTTTT T
fTRf TToTRT fRTR TTR: Carnegie Corporation of New York, The Charitable
Foundation, Clifford Chance Foundation, Connect U.S. Fund, The Elders
Foundation, William & Flora Hewlett Foundation, Humanity United, Hunt
Alternatives Fund, Jewish World Watch, Korea Foundation, John D. &
Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Open Society Institute, Victor
Pinchuk Foundation, Ploughshares Fund, Radcliffe Foundation, Sigrid
Rausing Trust, Rockefeller Brothers Fund and VIVA Trust.
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31
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Central Asia
Political Murder in Central Asia: No Time
to End Uzbekistan's Isolation, Asia
Briefing N°76, 13 February 2008.
Kyrgyzstan: The Challenge of Judicial
Reform, Asia Report N°150, 10 April
2008 (also available in Russian).
Kyrgyzstan: A Deceptive Calm, Asia
Briefing N°79, 14 August 2008 (also
available in Russian).
Tajikistan: On the Road to Failure, Asia
Report N°162, 12 February 2009.
Women and Radicalisation in Kyrgyzstan,
Asia Report N°176, 3 September 2009.
Central Asia: Islamists in Prison, Asia
Briefing N°97,15 December 2009.
Central Asia: Migrants and the Economic
Crisis, Asia Report N°183, 5 January
2010.
Kyrgyzstan: A Hollow Regime Collapses,
Asia Briefing N°102, 27 April 2010.
The Pogroms in Kyrgyzstan, Asia Report
N°193, 23 August 2010.
North East Asia
China's Thirst for Oil, Asia Report N°153,
9 June 2008 (also available in Chinese).
South Korea's Elections: A Shift to the
Right, Asia Briefing N°77, 30 June 2008.
North Korea's Missile Launch: The Risks
of Overreaction, Asia Briefing N°91,
31 March 2009.
China's Growing Role in UN Peacekeeping, Asia Report N°166, 17 April
2009 (also available in Chinese).
North Korea's Chemical and Biological
Weapons Programs, Asia Report N°167,
18 June 2009.
North Korea's Nuclear and Missile Programs, Asia Report N°168, 18 June
2009.
North Korea: Getting Back to Talks, Asia
Report N°169, 18 June 2009.
China's Myanmar Dilemma, Asia Report
N°177, 14 September 2009 (also available in Chinese).
Shades of Red: China's Debate over North
Korea, Asia Report N°179, 2 November
2009 (also available in Chinese).
The Iran Nuclear Issue: The View from
Beijing, Asia Briefing N°100, 17 February 2010 (also available in Chinese).
North Korea under Tightening Sanctions,
Asia Briefing N°101, 15 March 2010.
China's Myanmar Strategy: Elections,
Ethnic Politics and Economics, Asia
Briefing N°112, 21 September 2010 (also
available in Chinese).
North Korea: The Risks of War in the Yellow
Sea, Asia Report N°198, 23 December
2010.
South Asia
After Bhutto's Murder: A Way Forward for
Pakistan, Asia Briefing N°74, 2 January
2008,
Afghanistan: The Need for International
Resolve, Asia Report N°145, 6 February
2008.
Sri Lanka's Return to War: Limiting the
Damage, Asia Report N°146, 20
February 2008.
Nepal's Election and Beyond, Asia Report
N°149, 2 April 2008 (also available in
Nepali).
Restoring Democracy in Bangladesh, Asia
Report N°151, 28 April 2008.
Nepal's Election: A Peaceful Revolution ?,
Asia Report N°155, 3 July 2008 (also
available in Nepali).
Nepal's New Political Landscape, Asia
Report N°156, 3 July 2008 (also available in Nepali).
Reforming Pakistan's Police, Asia Report
N°157, 14 July 2008.
Taliban Propaganda: Winning the War of
Words?, Asia Report N°158, 24 July
2008.
Sri Lanka's Eastern Province: Land,
Development, Conflict, Asia Report
N°159, 15 October 2008.
Reforming the Judiciary in Pakistan, Asia
Report N°160, 16 October 2008.
Bangladesh: Elections and Beyond, Asia
Briefing N°84, 11 December 2008.
Policing in Afghanistan: Still Searching for
a Strategy, Asia Briefing N°85, 18
December 2008.
Nepal's Faltering Peace Process, Asia
Report N°163, 19 February 2009 (also
available in Nepali).
Afghanistan: New U.S. Administration,
New Directions, Asia Briefing N°89,
13 March 2009.
Pakistan: The Militant Jihadi Challenge,
Asia Report N°164, 13 March 2009.
Development Assistance and Conflict in Sri
Lanka: Lessons from the Eastern Province, Asia Report N°165, 16 April 2009.
Pakistan's IDP Crisis: Challenges and
Opportunities, Asia Briefing N°93, 3
June 2009.
Afghanistan's Election Challenges, Asia
Report N°171, 24 June 2009.
Sri Lanka's Judiciary: Politicised Courts,
Compromised Rights, Asia Report
N°172, 30 June 2009.
Nepal's Future: In Whose Hands ?, Asia
Report N°173, 13 August 2009 (also
available in Nepali).
Afghanistan: What Now for Refugees ?,
Asia Report N°175, 31 August 2009.
Pakistan: Countering Militancy in FATA,
Asia Report N°178, 21 October 2009.
Afghanistan: Elections and the Crisis of
Governance, Asia Briefing N°96, 25
November 2009.
Bangladesh: Getting Police Reform on
Track, Asia Report N°182, 11 December
2009.
Sri Lanka: A Bitter Peace, Asia Briefing
N°99, 11 January 2010.
Nepal: Peace and Justice, Asia Report
N°184, 14 January 2010.
Reforming Pakistan's Civil Service, Asia
Report N°185, 16 February 2010.
The Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora after the
LTTE, Asia Report N°186, 23 February
2010.
The Threat from Jamaat-ul Mujahideen
Bangladesh, Asia Report N°187, 1
March 2010.
A Force in Fragments: Reconstituting the
Afghan National Army, Asia Report
N°190, 12 May 2010.
War Crimes in Sri Lanka, Asia Report
N°191, 17 May 2010.
Steps Towards Peace: Putting Kashmiris
First, Asia Briefing N°106, 3 June 2010.
Pakistan: The Worsening IDP Crisis, Asia
Briefing N°lll, 16 September 2010.
Nepal's Political Rites of Passage, Asia
Report N°194, 29 September 2010.
Reforming Afghanistan's Broken Judiciary,
Asia Report N°195, 17 November 2010.
Afghanistan: Exit vs Engagement, Asia
Briefing N°115, 28 November 2010.
Reforming Pakistan's Criminal Justice
System, Asia Report N°196, 6 December
2010.
 4>l$R)ti WT TftTW Mr? W.   ?<?<?,  13 F7?# ?o?7
3?
South East Asia
Timor-Leste: Security Sector Reform, Asia
Report N°143, 17 January 2008 (also
available in Tetum).
Indonesia: Tackling Radicalism in Poso,
Asia Briefing N°75, 22 January 2008.
Burma/Myanmar: After the Crackdown,
Asia Report N°144, 31 January 2008.
Indonesia: Jemaah Islamiyah's Publishing
Industry, Asia Report N°147, 28 February 2008 (also available in Indonesian).
Timor-Leste's Displacement Crisis, Asia
Report N°148, 31 March 2008.
The Philippines: Counter-insurgency vs.
Counter-terrorism in Mindanao, Asia
Report N°152, 14 May 2008.
Indonesia: Communal Tensions in Papua,
Asia Report N°154, 16 June 2008 (also
available in Indonesian).
Indonesia: Implications of the Ahmadiyah
Decree, Asia Briefing N°78, 7 July 2008
(also available in Indonesian).
Thailand: Political Turmoil and the Southern Insurgency, Asia Briefing N°80, 28
August 2008 (also available in Thai).
Indonesia: Pre-election Anxieties in Aceh,
Asia Briefing N°81, 9 September 2008
(also available in Indonesian).
Thailand: Calming the Political Turmoil,
Asia Briefing N°82, 22 September 2008
(also available in Thai).
Burma/Myanmar After Nargis: Time to
Normalise Aid Relations, Asia Report
N°161, 20 October 2008 (also available
in Chinese).
The Philippines: The Collapse of Peace in
Mindanao, Asia Briefing N°83, 23
October 2008.
Local Election Disputes in Indonesia: The
Case of North Maluku, Asia Briefing
N°86, 22 January 2009.
Timor-Leste: No Time for Complacency,
Asia Briefing N°87, 09 February 2009.
The Philippines: Running in Place in
Mindanao, Asia Briefing N°88, 16
February 2009.
Indonesia: Deep Distrust in Aceh as Elections Approach, Asia Briefing N°90, 23
March 2009.
Indonesia: Radicalisation of the "Palem-
bang Group", Asia Briefing N°92, 20
May 2009.
Recruiting Militants in Southern Thailand,
Asia Report N°170, 22 June 2009 (also
available in Thai).
Indonesia: The Hotel Bombings, Asia
Briefing N°94, 24 July 2009 (also available in Indonesian).
Myanmar: Towards the Elections, Asia
Report N°174, 20 August 2009.
Indonesia: Noordin Top's Support Base,
Asia Briefing N°95, 27 August 2009.
Handing Back Responsibility to Timor-
Leste 's Police, Asia Report N°180, 3
December 2009.
Southern Thailand: Moving towards Political Solutions?, Asia Report N°181, 8
December 2009 (also available in Thai).
The Philippines: After the Maguindanao
Massacre, Asia Briefing N°98, 21
December 2009.
Radicalisation and Dialogue in Papua,
Asia Report N°188, 11 March 2010 (also
available in Indonesian).
Indonesia: Jihadi Surprise in Aceh, Asia
Report N°189, 20 April 2010.
Philippines: Pre-election Tensions in
Central Mindanao, Asia Briefing N°103,
4 May 2010.
Timor-Leste: Oecusse and the Indonesian
Border, Asia Briefing N°104, 20 May
2010.
The Myanmar Elections, Asia Briefing
N°105, 27 May 2010 (also available in
Chinese).
Bridging Thailand's Deep Divide, Asia
Report N°192, 5 July 2010.
Indonesia: The Dark Side of Jama'ah
Ansharut Tauhid (JAT), Asia Briefing
N°107, 6 July 2010.
Indonesia: The Deepening Impasse in Papua,
Asia Briefing N°108, 3 August 2010.
Illicit Arms in Indonesia, Asia Briefing
N°109, 6 September 2010.
Managing Land Conflict in Timor-Leste, Asia
Briefing N°110, 9 September 2010.
Stalemate in Southern Thailand, Asia
Briefing N°l 13, 3 November 2010.
Indonesia: "'Christianisation" and
Intolerance, Asia Briefing N°l 14, 24
November 2010.
Indonesia: Preventing Violence in Local
Elections, Asia Report N°197, 8
December 2010.
Timor-Leste: Time for the UN to Step Back,
Asia Briefing N°116, 15 December
2010.
 4>l$R)ti WT TftTW Mr? W.   ?<?<?,  13 F7?# ?o?7
33
CO-CHAIRS
Lord (Christopher) Patten
Former European Commissioner for External
Relations, Governor of Hong Kong and UK
Cabinet Minister; Chancellor of Oxford University
Thomas R Pickering
Former U.S. Ambassador to the UN, Russia,
India, Israel, Jordan, El Salvador and Nigeria;
Vice Chairman of Hills & Company
PRESIDENT & CEO
Louise Arbour
Former UN High Commissioner for Human
Rights and Chief Prosecutor for the International
Criminal f ribunals for the former Yugoslavia
and Rwanda
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
Morton Abramowitz
Former U .S. Assistant Secretary of State and
Ambassador to f urkey
Cheryl Carolus
Former South African High Commissioner to
the UK and Secretary General of the ANC
Maria Livanos Cattaui
Member of the Board, Petroplus Holdings,
Switzerland
Yoichi Funabashi
Editor in Chief, The Asahi Shimbun, Japan
Frank Giustra
President & CEO, Fiore Capital
Ghassan Salame
Dean, Paris School of International Affairs,
Sciences Po
George Soros
Chairman, Open Society Institute
Par Stenback
Former Foreign Minister of Finland
OTHER BOARD MEMBERS
Adnan Abu-Odeh
Former Political Adviser to King Abdullah II
and to King Hussein, and Jordan Permanent
Representative to the UN
Kenneth Adelman
Former U.S. Ambassador and Director of the
Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
Kofi Annan
Former Secretary-General of the United Nations;
Nobel Peace Prize (2001)
Nahum Barnea
Chief Columnist for Yedioth Ahronoth, Israel
Samuel Berger
Chair, Albright Stonebridge Group LLC; Former
U.S. National Security Advisor
Emma Bonino
Vice President ofthe Senate; Former Minister
of International f rade and European Affairs
of Italy and European Commissioner for
Humanitarian Aid
Wesley Clark
Former NAf O Supreme Allied Commander,
Europe
Sheila Coronel
f oni Stabile, Professor of Practice in Investigative
Journalism; Director, f oni Stabile Center for Investigative Journalism, Columbia University, U.S.
Jan Egeland
Director, Norwegian Institute of International
Affairs; Former UN Under-Secretary-General for
Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief
Coordinator
Mohamed ElBaradei
Director-General Emeritus, International Atomic
Energy Agency (IAEA); Nobel Peace Prize (2005)
Uffe Ellemann-Jensen
Former Foreign Minister of Denmark
Gareth Evans
President Emeritus of Crisis Group; Former
Foreign Affairs Minister of Australia
Mark Eyskens
Former Prime Minister of Belgium
Joschka Fischer
Former Foreign Minister of Germany
Jean-Marie Guehenno
Arnold Saltzman Professor of Professional
Practice in International and Public Affairs,
Columbia University; Former UN Under-
Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations
Carla Hills
Former U.S. Secretary of Housing and U.S.
f rade Representative
Lena Hjelm-Wallen
Former Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign
Affairs Minister of Sweden
Swanee Hunt
Former U.S. Ambassador to Austria;
Chair, Institute for Inclusive Security; President,
Hunt Alternatives Fund
Mo Ibrahim
Founder and Chair, Mo Ibrahim Foundation;
Founder, Celtel International
Igor Ivanov
Former Foreign Affairs Minister ofthe Russian
Federation
Asma Jahangir
UN Special Rapporteur on the Freedom of
Religion or Belief; Chairperson, Human Rights
Commission of Pakistan
Wim Kok
Former Prime Minister of the Netherlands
Ricardo Lagos
Former President of Chile
Joanne Leedom-Ackerman
Former International Secretary of International
PEN; Novelist and journalist, U.S.
Lord (Mark) Malloch-Brown
Former Administrator of the United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP) and UN
Deputy Secretary-General
Lalit Mansingh
Former Foreign Secretary of India, Ambassador
to the U.S. and High Commissioner to the UK
Jessica Tuchman Mathews
President, Carnegie Endowment for
International Peace, U.S.
Benjamin Mkapa
Former President of fanzania
Moises Nairn
Senior Associate, International Economics
Program, Carnegie Endowment for International
Peace; former Editor in Chief, Foreign Policy
Ayo Obe
Legal Practitioner, Lagos, Nigeria
Giiler Sabanci
Chairperson, Sabanci Holding, f urkey
Javier Solana
Former EU High Representative for the Common
Foreign and Security Policy, NAf O Secretary-
General and Foreign Affairs Minister of Spain
 4>l$R)ti WT TftTW Mr? W.   ?<?<?,  13 F7?# ?o?7
3^
PRESIDENT'S COUNCIL
Crisis Group's President's Council is a distinguished group of major individual and corporate donors providing
essential support, time and expertise to Crisis Group in delivering its core mission.
Canaccord Adams Limited
Neil & Sandy DeFeo
Fares I. Fares
Mala Gaonkar
Alan Griffiths
Frank Holmes
Steve Killelea
George Landegger
Ford Nicholson
Statoil ASA
Harry Pokrant
Ian Telfer
Neil Woodyer
INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COUNCIL
Crisis Group's International Advisory Council comprises significant individual and corporate donors who contribute
their advice and experience to Crisis Group on a regular basis.
Rita E. Hauser
Co-Chair
Elliott Kulick
Co-Chair
Anglo American PLC
APCO Worldwide Inc.
Ed Bachrach
Stanley Bergman & Edward
Bergman
Harry Bookey & Pamela
Bass-Bookey
lara Lee & George Gund
Foundation
Chevron
John Ehara
Equinox Partners
Neemat Frem
Seth Ginns
Paul Hoag
Joseph Hotung
International Council of
Swedish Industry
H.J. Keilman
George Kellner
Amed Khan
Zelmira Koch
Liquidnet
Jean Manas
McKinsey & Company
Harriet Mouchly-Weiss
Yves OltramareAnna Luisa
Ponti & Geoffrey Hoguet
Michael Riordan
Shell
Belinda Stronach
Talisman Energy
Tilleke & Gibbins
Kevin Torudag
VIVATrust
Yapi Merkezi Construction
and Industry Inc.
SENIOR ADVISERS
Crisis Group's Senior Advisers are former Board Members who maintain an association with Crisis Group, and whose advice
and support are called on from time to time (to the extent consistent with any other office they may be holding at the time).
Martti Ahtisaari
Chairman Emeritus
George Mitchell
Chairman Emeritus
HRH Prince Turki al-Faisal
Shlomo Ben-Ami
Hushang Ansary
Richard Armitage
Ersin Arioglu
Oscar Arias
Diego Arria
Zainab Bangura
Christoph Bertram
Alan Blinken
Lakhdar Brahimi
Zbigniew Brzezinski
Kim Campbell
Jorge Castaneda
Naresh Chandra
Eugene Chien
Joaquim Alberto Chissano
Victor Chu
Mong Joon Chung
Pat Cox
Gianfranco Dell'Alba
Jacques Delors
Alain Destexhe
Mou-Shih Ding
Gemot Erler
Marika Fahlen
Stanley Fischer
Malcolm Fraser
I.K. Gujral
Max Jakobson
James V. Kimsey
Aleksander Kwasniewski
Todung Mulya Lubis
Allan J. MacEachen
Graca Machel
Barbara McDougall
Matthew McHugh
Nobuo Matsunaga
Miklos Nemeth
Christine Ockrent
Timothy Ong
Olara Otunnu
Shimon Peres
Victor Pinchuk
Surin Pitsuwan
Cyril Ramaphosa
Fidel V. Ramos
George Robertson
Michel Rocard
Volker Riihe
Mohamed Sahnoun
Salim A. Salim
Douglas Schoen
Christian Schwarz-Schilling
Michael Sohlman
Thorvald Stoltenberg
William O. Taylor
Leo Tindemans
Ed van Thijn
Simone Veil
Shirley Williams
Grigory Yavlinski
Uta Zapf
Ernesto Zedillo

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