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Nepal: From Two Armies to One International Crisis Group Aug 18, 2011

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Crisis Group
WORKING TO PREVENT
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com I TTftt TTFF ftftt ftftt FFF, ftft nFTT T FTftftTF
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ft Ffrf ftrrwft Fff ftrftft ftrtTrrf ftM*l ftftI^tf
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T ftw, TTft TFTFF. FTFf Fft FTlfftt FSRFFT ftTFTft
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W¥It FTF FRTFT Ff FFft TTTTT TT% I w TFTT FTTFTF
NO
ftftt TT FFT ftFTT TTTT ffft fftft Tftt fftfttl   FTftft TTTTT
Fftft, nrsTTfft, wft ^°11 I
« t^t ?,ocm F Tft TftnTTT FTRft ftnTTT Fftt w
ftftftnTTf FftlFT ft T ftTTft ftrmff TTftft nTFTTFftt
TTftftft FTfT ft TTftt nfttnft FWFTFTt ftFF ftf
TTWF FftFT FTFT FFW ft FHTFT fftF fftl TTTt
FftFT fft T "fftf" fft "WFTF fftTTF |ft T TTRTfttfft fftftt
ftftt ft fftrr w ftftw ftf ttttttt fftl TrftHiftfti ft^r
TpTTTsft FTTft TTFT ftrrnrfFFFf fftTTFT FTTT Frft ft ftr
FT TFTfft Tft fftfti   F TTTF FT ^TTF TTFT TnFFFFf
TTTftT ft fft Tft ft T/FTTf? TTT TTftft ftr I
" TTft TTTT TFTF ft FTftfft "ftFT FFR TFTT ftr nTRFFftt
fft<fti wi ( F nr fftfft ftt) l w^ooc; ftt ftftf ftm
ftftt  FTTt FTfftnrtt TTTTft  FTTJSFft ft FTTFT ftftfft
"Timm fttnnftm ftff ftr FFft ftft TrftT tf "Fmnt
t#t ftfnnPw FfFF Fftl flftR ro<io f wft WWR
ftfTTnfftFT T TTWT Tift <jWT fftTTTFFFi fftfTT fftft TTFT
TFT "TTTTT fft I fftFT T IfTW "FpT (TTRfftfFT T WTFTn) T
ftftFT' Tlf gglgl FFT fft I    TFTft FFRTTft fftlW "ftft T
ftftFT nftft fftrr w t ftf ttrttft ftft Tm Tfrftt ttf
tif Fft ft ftnn (nfttnft) ft fftft ftfe7 ftr fftftr i FTftft ft
fftfft, ftft r-llilejh ?77/ft nRhiii, nfft FftfftT I
w TTT TFTftt TTF fftTTTTTT TTftnn TTft ff ftF Tftftftf
ffftftt I  T^TFTFTTT ftt TTTFF fftw T TTft Fftt ftft ftf
|ft fttnfn fft TFRft Tftft fftTT I   ft FTTFTFT FWFTFTfi
FTFFftfWFf FFfTT TTTfttFTTW ftffSTTFFT fft | Ffftftf
ftftft fFTFT TFFftFFTT T "TTTTtFTF ftFj fftr WTFT fft |
TFTFt TTfT W^°°^> ^? TFTTft Ffftftf "TFfftF TTfftWT
FTfft TTTFF TFFftFF fftFFT FTFf FtT FFFT TFF I
Twrrfw ftrftf? ftrrrft ft ft wftf^ fftf tft ftfrft
FTFFnFFFftTTTftl^F^-ftTFcf ^o^OFFTTFf%T
no '
FFFFFftf TTfftlFTT TftFTFT FffTTT wftiTFT Y,ooo
TTFFWFf fftftr TftFTft TfftftffFFf FFT TFTFFTFTTf
FTTf I
FFF^fftftft FTT ftTTTTFt FCFF WTFf FFf WT TTW fft,
ftf FftTTTTTFft TFT FT TFTT FdTFT FFRT FT ^Iotjj
TTT ftfl TTTFFftfFr ilftdWI FWftFT TFTWF wftf
TTFT TTFF FTTFT FFWFT FdFjftnfF "ftftftF "WFFT
NO
fftft fftnF T TTFTTfF, FFFTFftt TTFTTnf ftFT, "TTTfFTftT
gftTTnTT, T/T:TTTTn %FF^ ^ TrfftT +ITFR(?fti FTfft Tm TTTftf
%rjjm fttt, nfftr t ft ftftFFftt FftrTTfnT nftft ftw I
TTFT FftFT ftftr ftft "FTF' |ft TTftt ftft FfFT fftTT I
TTT ftFTF fftftm FT Tftft TTTTfft TTTTTftfft ft TFF fftft,
W FTTTftftrrn ffftftrn ft. f <i+i-flft fttr stftft ftrft fF
fftfttl ft TffttnftFFnT"ftftTfttnrftfftrrl TrrrftF tsfftftrn
TTTTlf ftf W^ft TT T TTft TFT FTTftn ftft ^tftf ftl
,qnfttnftfFFft ftftt FTT FTTftft ftftt ftftftft "TTTfFFft TTTt
T ^ftft F nftft FTF ft TFftfft f I ffl? fti Tlftift fftTT ft ft
Tpfftri    +i644i^!'+i   nftft  Tnmr  ftftt ftffffI"  nft
FTfftfFTTfft fft TTftftft ftFTTftrn ftftft, TT ftft wft ftft ^ I
Tftft TFTiftrnrftr TTFrn ftrftt ftFft TFfttr fftF ft^i tw
tttft Fnftr ftftft ft ftrrnft ftt f^tf nftt ffftwi
FTFTrnT "ftftft ?,oo<\ f nr fftwIFT Tft ftnTfft fwn Tftf
ftftftnFTftt FTF TTTFT Wmi FTftfft ftftt FTF Tffftrftr ^T
ft fftft ftftfftnr FFf FTFTftt FTt FW ft I F ftftr STTT
TTn FTT T FftFFTTT ff ftftfftn FFTI   fftft J<l + lftl ft ft
ftnFF Finn ft nr nft ftwt^ ftffftnF nft TTFFftt
FTftfft ftFft FFTft FTTT ftftnTTTTnt fftFTTT ft?T Tm FTftfft
ftFft TTTft Fftr Ffft fWTI FT ftftr ft fftr WI Ffftft
TTTTTT Fftftft,FT T +I6RI^?, ft-W ^°11 I
" FffFftt ft ftftr wft w fftft, fr t ft" ftftrnT TrftrFF
ft ^o<\o f nfttnftFft ftnT TFo^rftf nmi ftw ft ft
TTftft I T3nw TFF TffftWT ftftTTFFn ftTTFft fftftf Tftt
FTTT fftw TTnftt fWT WTT nTFTff ftftftr fftl   fftftTF;
?,o<\o f nrcnftF srftt ftf fft^FT 3rww nnftt nftr
FTTftftr fftftsr ft nftnftftt nrr ftrrftT nsnftf FFRfft ftn
tf ftft ftf "nftft Rifftftft" ^rft ft mm, I tt!tt ftrftt
FFR TRftT FFftftn Ftft T TTftt WT ftFT nfttfttFTFTf
TO FTf ft FR ftft ftftFT FTn ftt ft, F TTfft ftt ftT
nftftft Fm nrf nftft ftrftt fftft I ttt ftf Tnftt "ftrmfftnt
FFFTF ftftf TTft ftF ^r ftrftft ft Tm TTFTT ftftnFTftt
fftTTTft TTFTff Fift ft fttfttWTF ft fftt ft FFft TTftftt
TFFT Tft W F WT ftftF fTTTftFF ft nfttnftr "FfTF-
fftftftfft'wi
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ftftT FffFFWFFf ftFTTftf Tft Tfft I W ^oCi0 ^
T5WTftt%TT Ro<\<\ ft ft TrffFFT FTTFTft TTFTft ft Tff,
NO ' "N S\ NO NO
FfFT FTFFRT FftfttdT TFTW IpT T FRTTtFT FFT ft FtT
FW WW? ftFFTW ilft^*l ftTWFF fftWT FFftT
TWFTF FFTWF Tft WTTFT TTTRT Wl ftftff FTTFT
TFFftTFTT ft ftrr ftftr ft FT I
FTTft ftFTF FTFT ftf "FCFF (FFFTTFf FTFFT FTT
■fFTTFf FCFF T FFFTTFT TTTFTF Fftf TFTFT FCFF) ft
ftftft fFTTFf WTFTTF TTTft TTFT ftl ftft "TFT F
TFFftTFTFFf ftTTTTTf WTT I W Ffftrftf ftftftTF fftft
Wft fftFT ftftf T TWTFd "FCFTTFTFTFT TFT ~^t ft ¥TTFT
cn no c
WFTFT FFFTf FTFF TFTTf "Ttft Tft ^ ft*-ftt |  Fift
NO
FTff WTt FfftRFf WFTFFf TTFffftff wf FTTTTFWT ft
ftftft FTFt WFft Tft TTdfTT Ffftf FTt I
FFTFftf ftFT T FTFT T Wfftftrd ftftfT ftftf FTTT ftfW
TT ft Wd FT I ^ FdFTTFf "FFT FFf FTTFiff FF ftf
WF FWf ftTFW ft^l*l ftFTft TTTT I ft ftF WTTTFTTW
Jlt^ft ^-i>?-^^?-HI FFT iNflfd* £lft>4fw<r|l^ R$ll^ TfTTTFT
ft T FFT <Hi?*4ff TTF FT? fftcrfft^ Tft ftftf? ftl*l fft T
TTRTFW TFFTFTf FFFT TFft W^ wftf TTTFTF | ftf
FWT Fft Tftft I " W FFT TFTtftf Fftft FFFF
ftilP^ld Fift Fftft141 5?**<rlI^ .H-Hliil^iH ft PlTRyft TfF ffFT
TTft FF FFT T FTTfFfffT FTfft" Fff ftFFT FTF Ffft
FTft FdT FT Ff ftfti "  FTFt ft ftftF Fdt ftWFf
,0 TTT FFRft Tftft TFnfftnrftt TFTTT T ftft f^FTf fffftft
ftftTTR FTnTftnT "Tffft ffFXFfftft TTftt fftfft, ftft dlilejh
?77ft ftft^ nfft Fftfftr I "TFTTftrnTT' ftft ftftsreF ftft
nftft t nnnpTn ffFFf Tnw ft ft Tftft Tf?ft TFnftrn
FTTFft ftFFT, Tftftfft T fftTT fftft FTftt WTT FTTFT
FRTTW ftft} TF TTTt W ftftftft fff T T fftfl ft^FT TF
|ft TJftl
"ftnftftnnnftiftTftfFRftftftfttf^i ftfftftsrfftnnjF
TT ftft ft Tft TFTTfTR ftTTT fttftf I  FfftT nTftft TTftt
ffftf, ftft sftft *h*1 wmm nfft Fftfftr I
" ftsT^T \tf?4-dt>\ "ftft ft TTTft TTfft TF^ TsRft ft" I Fift FTftt
?,o<\<\ F ftftft Tm ft fttFT TTfT ft TFFft T ftTTTT ftftf
TTfTFF TTftt ftTTftf ftftt TTTTfft TfftfftfftTT Tfft FR frft FFTTTT
ftftT. I TTTt Tfftftft TTTT TTT ftfl TTFT ftftt ftfti ftft
TTT ffftf Tprft n ftft TTTFFft TTFT ft nfttnftFFftft Tft FTT
TftfWfftft TnftftfTTT TTft TTFTft Fffmfft "ftt TTTTRft
TFTRTTRST fT: TFffT ftft T ftftt ft HI ff (? <?+1 ft nftft FTR
Ftft Tap TTfft ftf ftft TfttFTFT fftnftfT ftrftntf FTTRTTT ft
fftTTTTf fftR "ftTTTFT T TFFftftr FTTT TFT ft I "Ministry snubs
NA proposal", The Kathmandu Post, % FTTft ROl 1 |   TTfft |ftft ftft
FftFrnr "ftft ftfttft ttrtff ftft tft FTf nftft ^ft
nftrn   ftsw fftt ftn  roir  f  ttft ttfTwJ
nftnTftt FTTfftn TFTftrrrfft tttt wf ft tfft f ^i
Fftftftt   FRfftf   TFFT   "FCFF   FFffff   fft   W   fftfti
NO
TTFFFTTffFr "F^fftfTTFff  ftft TTTT FFlftlt FTW  TTft
NO '
TFTFT "FCFFft ftftft TFFt ^HflftTFFf FTF ftfT ft ftF
TTFTTl^
Ffftftf li*ij*fyfd FTFt: Tffft" -AlldlHd*? FFTT ft ^FTT,
WFTFFffwft FdFF FFFTF ftTTTft fFfTTFT ftrft "#FTff
FFTTFf TTFFFd ftft ffTFFf Wft T ftTTTft fFTTFf Tft FTF
TtffftFT TtftjftfftT TTFT FFW FTFT TFT TTTFTF FFFTT
FTFf Wl WTTTTTTftft FFaTFFf WF FT Fft FFFt
ff%F*f W FFFTTf FfffFt FFFF FTRf TFT FFFT I
Sfffftft WFT T ftftff FTFF Tft FT ftftftr T
FTFTFFFf WW Fit W, "TTTfT "ff FFF FWF WFT
FfftRFf "ftft "FFFT T TTFftftF ftpSTTFFf TTfdFf TFftFT
TTTWftl FTTftT "ftf FFFTf Tftfft TTFffftFf ftftTFF
Tfft W fftlft FRFTFT T WFTTFTFTTd Fft Fft FTFT ftfT
Tifftw ftr *<i*l fftfTT "wrfft FTFfft: Fftwi   TF
TftftTFTff FFFFWFt FFtRf FTFTFF TFT T ft Tftf
FF FSTfw Fff FF TTft Fff Tftrfft Wl FffW
FFFftWFt Tff TFff ft F TIFffftF FTf Fft ff T
H^^*l fftl^ft^ ^|?Rt^ #m|i||>jH ^T FfFf fftfft ^l^dftFf
FTftft TTTT FTTfftfFF, ftftt ftFJT FTTTFTF ftft ftftnF?F,
ND O
nrsnft, ft^rftf-ftftr ^°tt I tttt ftftfft TnfttFTft
ftftf  ftnft  ftnft   ftftt  ftgrftt  TTRnnft  Tft  Tft
FTftftsiTFft ftTft | TTF FFRT ft ft FTT T$, F ftTTftf ftftt
FTTt TTlftftl+l Fft TTFTFT TnTftftf ftft TF ft FTfft JyW I
■HRlftNiyft TFft 3lBftl ^<r1im TTRft ftftt rtWIrR+ F^rn ftftftl
ft TTTTFT n Tftt nft FT IgcT F ffftn TTFmT "Tffft Tftt
ftftT ft ft fft ftr TTF ft" I TFTFFTft, W ^°tt FTCT FFFTft
FTTT TTftftft ftTRft "ftfftftt ftft TFfttTF ftftt TftTFTTTTf
FTF TTTfT ft Tftt fftfti TpFTfTTTRf ft TfffT Flftt T ftTFT
TgRTTRT TTftft TF TTTTTn ff ft, ^ FRftt T W ftftf ft
nfftffrfftft ft ttff fftft ft fftrrftr ftftftt ^l tttttt ftrRft
ftftftr fftfFR T TTFT |ft ftftftt fftnT FW stttft nTTT
FFFRt ft TTTTT FfftfR ft fftFTT fttft fftft ^ I   " "ftF
frrfm ft fftft", srmtf ft; Ri w ^°11i t ffttt ttttt
Fftft, +I6RI^1, ft ?,o<\<\ I
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ftrrnT "ftft Tfnr ftr ft nrr ftrRft ftnnT Frft ftft fft t
ftftt Wft? ftF TTTTTfT Ttft fft FFRft fftftTT fttft fftft |
Trft ftftrn ftnsT^r frftt ftftt nFFTTTtf nftrn nftftn TrftT
t ftftt "fftf; ftftr ft fftrnft" ftw nftftft ftw ftftftrrr t ft
TTfftft |fft ftt fftftTT TTFTfnT TRFTF TRT FTTF ftftfftft
TTTT FfTtnt tftn I "Govt told to procure for peacekeeping missions",
Republica, 'i, fTTff ^0<|<|; "No misuse of welfare fund: NA", The
KathmanduPost,  11  fft ROH |
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Fft FTFfW T TFftft ftftT ftft FftFF TFTFt Wft I ftftf
ftFT Fft ftFT  WW ft?  TTFTTft  ftwi    FTTTf?   FT
C -v. ' c^, NO
"TTRTFFTf FTft FTF Fft WT FW FTWT T W¥If ftftt
•N NO '      "^ NO
<H°llcH-HI ftTTTftfFfftf <l^*l yWMT^I Ttft FftFT WTftftf
Tft WTTTftftwi
■WMMI
^T.   H\£\4\$\ mifT^Pb «Hl+l <IH'*I
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FTdf WW WTW Tft *<l*l TFFT ft Fft WI W ftftftF"
FFFF FFTFft FTTF? FTTtT ftfFTT (FFFTf) FT TTTfft
"^fftfffTFWI W ^°°^ ff%ft FTTf fffftF WW TTFFT
Tfft" FF*? W T Tftf ftft TFRT FftTTFT "fr I ^ FFFTIFt
ffF TFft STTF W T TFTFt FTTtT TFTT TftfWFT ftfftt Ff
TftTTTfF Wrfft WTF TfFFRT |ft FTfTWF Tft TFTFt
TFTt Ftf I W FftWFt ffF TFft STRFF? ftftf FT FFT
"FCFt W WT, TWT ftFTT T FT FfTTTff ftw, FFftT
T FTTTTFTF Fift I ^ Fffff Tftffftt FFFTf *Hl*l fft? FT
FffFFTF T FFFFF" srft fftlFT WI Tt Tftftf ftFTT T
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TFTFT FftfrfW TTFffftF FTTF ftftFF FTJT" FTFf ^ |
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ft ff I ^ FTFt ft TTWT FTTW FFFF ftFTF ftft ft
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ND
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nfttnft FFFfFF, w ^°1° tt FfFT" fttrnr 1o-ir ft
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ftFFFTT fftftr  Fftftftn  FTTftT T$,   TTftF   Rolo-ff
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ffft TTFft TRTft I   ftftt TTTTt TfFft TTFT: TftfTT TTT TTfFTFFTf
TTRTFftt Tg71   FTftft TTTft Fftftf,  TfWTTnft, +I6RI^1, Tfft
R°11l    (?ffX ^Slft  W^" ft^> ^M*i  iMJR*   «'<■*/<, ftft
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FTF fftnft ff ft^|
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FIRM "FTW' ^ "FTTft ft' ft "FFFF ^S<fty T^ftf tttt
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Fit FTFTFT FT Fftw I ^
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TTd "WW I v° W FFTffft TTFTff FTT TTTTFTTTft ftft FT?
' -N NO NO CN
ftFT T fftft FT FRTT W Tft *<WI fftwt TTT TFT W I
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NO NO    NO
TfF FT ftFWFt FW FFTFft FT ftftlFF FT ftWT
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CN     NONO       NO
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NO ^ NO
fftf Tft fftfti
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ft ft TFTTf I f nftfrfftnt ftrrm tft fft ftf ftrtT
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FtfTFt FTfftTFWTff ft FTT TTRft FF W ft FTTTf FfF
ftfT   FT   FFRft   FT   WFTI    TftfF?   TTfT   FRFTtFT   T
NO NO NO
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'no no -n
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'     -V, NO NO NO
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NO ' NO NO
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CN NO
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fftftFTft ftFTTWF TTTTT fttftpFf Wf T ftf? fftF F
TFFTfft TTftft FF FdT FCFTTF FT TT3FT W WT ft°
no '   -n
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W  Ffftft TTTTTT FftrfFF,W-Fft ^°tt I
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NO NO C
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' NO NO NO
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TFftWTI
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FTFTFTfftTI W ftw Tftftftft TTftFTFf WI FTft FTTft
fftftFT ft Fft ft? "FFTFf I "^
NO NO '
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NO ' <=N
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TFFTff TlftrfFT ^T WW I FFFft TftftT FTFF
FTFTW, TTFWT T Fftftftt FTftFTTTTf dfftelld
Ri||ftRf!*l T'l*l<WFTRidl+>d J|RlJ*l FftluW*l R"1*^
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FTW FCFTFFT FTF fftFT TTFWT I
TT ft fT TTF.F TTTf ft ft ftf ft ft TTffttFT T W'^TFFTTTf
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ND
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Roll | FTTFTTTft, "Maina's murder: Impunity claim in NA ridiculous", The
Kathmandu Post, £  ftn R 011, ft ftfftfl
Sam Cowan, "Inside the People's Liberation Army: A Military Perspective",
European Bulletin for Himalayan Research, vol. 37, Autumn-Winter ROlO |
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TRRRF  Wf T   lo   ftFT   FTTf  Wfl    Tlftft TTFT   Fftftf,
FTfttnft nft fft TTTfnft, fft ?,o<\<\ \ ftf ftfrftft ftttft
TTTTT fF FTFT WTW fftnfft T FTTT? FFTFfi ft"F ftftft ftTRft
ftFT? fftTT FFFTft ft ft TTftftT ^o ftFT Ffft FTFfFT
FTTftrFTTT FTfft FTTT fft ftfl FRTTT Flf FTF ffft ftTRft
ftTTTT ftftTfftFFft TTFftfft* FTFfftf FTTTf Ffft FFf f ftft
FTF ftftfftfftrT TF TRTT FFFTTT FffTFTFli FTfttnft FFfFfftf
FRTTtFT T FTRTTi ft FRTftft FTFt TFF FFT fftrftnttFTi ff ft
 ft/FT; J?dT di/4/d WF
■*l$Rm WT tffim $<M ft  ???,   1$- 3F7?Z~ ?o<j <j
??
Wf Ff?W TTft T WTFFTTFf fTTfFTTF FffFFft ftft
TTtftTftfftFTTtftFTfTTFWftc ft TrffrTW FTF FTF
TftT TFFFf F FTFTFT I TFf ftfFWF? ftftft FTTfrF
ftfTFT TW TFFWFt FFTFT WI
FTT TFT ftftR Tft Fftl*lR* Ff FFFT "fri W
fTTTTTFTT, fftldT T TTTFFT ftTTF ftftTWF ft TTTTTf
Td% TTFTTW I %% TFT FWW fftffftft ftTTftf FFF TTTff
TFT ftFTT TTFFT, TTft TFT ftFF FFf TTtftfT fT Ffft
FfftF ffTtftfT fft F TTFftftF FTFTft ff F FFFT
TFFTTf TTFftftF TFTWtft FFT TTFT "Ttft TRTTFT TFTF?
fftT T ftt FT TTft TTFf WTI TTFt TTFftftF
TTWTftrTTFTTf FFC TF Tft TFT WTWft TT fftTTTft
NO NO G
TFTTtFT Tfrfft TFT fftf TTTT 110°  W Trfftft ftTT? WT
NO G "^
TFTftTFt FW FT FT T^T Wl   fFFFT TTTTf  FTfTffftr
' no ' s-
sfftrr ftFF ftr f ftTrlftf ftt tft ftftr, tt ftrftft Tftfw
NO -v NO -T
tttt TFT ftdH^f ftfF WW Wft 11°'1
FFf TFT "TFTW T TTFftftF FTWFT FT FFFT TTF-W
ftf? Ffftftw WTI Tffft? FTFTT ftfFFT TTFTW FTft
FFfft fflft TTFFWTff WFTTTTF? ftFTT fftT ft
FFfft tftf "TfFWf ftT ffl TT FFTF ftdlftd? FFF
fftTTfftcTFt   TTTFFTFT  FftfT  T  TTTTft   FTTFT10^   TTft
' NO NO NO
fftffFT FTft Wf TFTFt TFT TTT FTFTTFt FTFTFF Fit
ftT T TitFF Tit TTFFWft WFTTFFt Fdt fftfT I   TFf
^•N CN^^NO NO-NG
R*|AW<t1 ftM41l Tlfi^FTI FftftfTTft ftfftft 4f|R,y*l
ftW W TTTft ft TFfftt FFTFTFt TFFRT ftftf TTTTTfT Fit
Fftfftg
NO '
ftFF tRt-tfT TTT TFRTsft Fft TFTft TFFWFt FFTF Ff
T Fft Tftfft FWf ftfRT Ffft FTt tftftft Wft°V
TTfttFFTfTf Fft ftFfFt Tftftfftw FFWTF Tffft TTdf FT
C^ NO
4|lJ*|4l| TWTt M\^*{TTF, <HftyH<THI*l Rftw Ffft <H4!|A||>jH
fTTftTFflFFTFFftTTftfl'10^ #fff FFT TTTfF; FTTFt
fftldT TRTTFd TFf FTftFTT FTFft FFFft Tftftft FfftF
ftf ft ft fft TTR ffft FTfft Fft I nftft TTTTFT Fftft,
+ l6Rlf?,Flft Ron I
^ ftt TRffTR f ftft FTfFfftf fftFTTF fTftftfTfft ftftn FT ft
FFffttFTTT Fffft ftft "fttftFTFti TfFTFTf Ffftft fftfrft frft,
Fff FTTfFT T ff wft FFTFTI ftft, T?ft FRTftfFTn FFT
FTFftFfftf ftftF ft ftfftft^ I Fgftft FTTrn Tfft FFRfft FTTTT
FF fftTT Fff FFftnfttFT FTTfFTftf ftft FfW Ffftftft ft
TFTFTWI ftftft TfTTFFftFTftf FTSn «.^o ftfft isoo fit ^ |
nftft TTFT FTFTfrf, FTFf TFF ftnft, TT-fnft, TFFf ?,o<\<\ | Tfyi
Tf/FRTfi ftfft TRftft fFftTFT fftfTT nft W FFFfnft, ftfft
TRftft fFFTFn fF ftftr TFFfFFFsft 1 o ftftFT (Fftf PI
ftft ft) FTf Wfl
" TFf FFTfTft FTF T FTfftftft nfft FFF fft FTTF T$ I FfF
Ffft FFTfttfftfft:"FftfTTF, fftTTT T WFFTfttFT TTWFf (IDDRS) ft
TTf ffft fFFfi FTR Fft, F Rfftft ft" TTFft fftm fftFTTi
ftfftntt Frft f fftft FFftft fttf nfft FRfftfFF ft fftfttr
Fft I   "4.30 Social and Economic Reintegration", IDDRS I
100 W TfTTTFRft FTTTFfftf FFRm TTTTfFTftf 'W:ftT'Ffi FFF
FTTFT #ft FFTTT Fffft ftfFTTT TflRTTTTT ftft FTFFTTT FRRT
FFFT FTWT I Tf TF fftTFTTT FTFFTfF FFfrfi ftf^f TTFTFT Wf
ftftft F ft, FTTftTT ft fTTfft TTFFTft ftftF" ftRFfi ft" TFFFTn
ffRTf WfT TTF Ftf <ftlcl fft fTF fftftftf ft TFT Wfl fftt.
FfFFTFfft fTR Ffftt TR ft TTFft TfTFT, fftfftfDT, TTfTTfT ft
FF TfftftfT TTR ft Fff TFRTFFT TRT ftt FFT FRft T Fftfft
fW, W TTR W TTFFTft FTTTtt fftTTTFftf FFffft ft Fftlf I
ftf FfTftt fftTTTFT ft fftlRpHI TTRTT FTfft ffttft TTfFf FTR
Fff FTWftl Tft, W TTfFFftt FTTf FFfttFFfi TffFF
TlftTTFTftr FFFFn T FFRFT, ft-FTFTfft TFFft f FnftfFT FF
WTTFFT Tfftnft FfTFF TTftft fftft fRI Ffft fftW I
101 FR fff FTFFn TT fftrftf WTTRTTT Fffft, ftfftf FF V.B.2
FTI
w TffFF TFFF "FFfFFft ft TTFt ftftFTTTFTTft FffFFft Tfft
ftf fTF ftft ftl TTftft TTFT FFTfrf,TTTfnft, W ^°ff I
^ ffrfftfTTT fftTfft FTTTFTTT Flfft TT Ffftftf FFTTi ftftftF
RWY Tftftft TfR Tftwl TTFn Fft-Fmfft FFTfF, fFFTFRTR,
TFTTRFFft TFFft, FTTft FffftFRTT FTfft TTftnfft FFRF f
TFTftft ft FFTft"F W ftt fFFT FFfftF TTft FFfftt TfTFT
TfftTFTf Fffft Tfft ftftf ft ^000 FR fT Ffft I Tlftft
TTFT Fftft, FTFf W ftftfTFT, ftfF, +l6Rlff, W ^ TTTTf
Roll I FFFTFTT Fffft, fftFTFFn TfTT FTTfFftt Ffft ftlRTT
FFfRF TTftt Fft ft ftft fftft ftftt f^ f Fft ftftTT fft I
FTTTFTTT FTfft fftft TTfTF "FTFt ft ft ft fF ft, TF ft
nfftr TrftftfFn FffFFfrri fftnft ft ft ftftftftf fftf tftft
FFTF Ffftwi FgfTT ftftf ft TTFt ffftt TR ft TTFft ftftFT
FTTFT Ffftft? F FFfft I FTlfft ftt TrftTFFFF ftrTFfnftt
FFFRffFTFTi TTft FRTftF ft TTFTft W TTFTTFTft ffFffft I TF
Tfftnft WFTTTF FfTR n FfF W ftTTT TR ftft ft-FRTTfft
fftFt Fm "ftrfft'fFft ftnrn ftn TfTFftTTftftFT ftft ftf
fftft I FTftft TTFT FFftft, ftF TTg" ftftTTttFT, ftfF, FRTf,
Roil I
',OYFFfFTft TTFt T. tpoo FT T. 1,ooo Ffft FFT TTffn
fftWTTft ffftWI TTFTTft FffFFft TTFt TftTTTTTTT FT ftft
TTR ftft FftFT TFTT TTTTFTT n fftftTFTft Fft Fftl ffft
TftTTTTftf TTR T. ^R ffft T. 11° FF fW | FRTFF TTTFT
FftftFT, TfFRfft, FTTft, FfTTi Ro 11 | TTTTF fft FTFftFTTT
FTtft TTTfF fttRTt TTf Fftf FTTft T$ T TTTFFf Tfftft ftftf FFf?
F FFTFt TTF TFFt ft ft ftfft ffftn ftt ffft fftg71 ftftrTT-
fftftTF;  ^oof,  ftf% ^Fi  ^°t1   FTFnFnfFTftf TFTTf Flfft
FTTfft v nffto ftrr ^ft TrftFftft ^l Tfftft tttft ffftrft
FFTfrf,"Flfftf TF ffffftft F^rfFT,FffTi R°11 I ft Tftf TTF ftTRf
"Flfftf ftfTTTTf ("ftTTF fft TF FF) ffF7^ I fTF ftm FfTR f fftfftF
W FfFFftt FFTT RRIIRI fTF FFT ft fttn WTI
"^ TRfft TTFT FftftFT, TTTfTfft, W ^°11 I
 ft/FT; J?dT di/4/d WF
■*l$Rm WT tffim $<M ft  ???,   1$- 3F7?Z~ ?o<j <j
??
TffT TFFf TTTFT TTT TirfFC FTFfT T WTFHdl*! ftFTT
•n NO
ffft TTFFWTlf FfT TFT FTf? Tftftf ft TWTTTt FfWft
WTFT Tftft | 3TTFTT ffTFT TTFftftF FFTF TTFft
WTFWTTf FTrTB" TFT TFfTT TWFTTf fftftr TTTtTT fftTTF
ftft TTFTW ft "FFFf I Tftftt fFTTFFf TFT ft Tffftt fF
TFft W fftTTft TWTTTd ftflFFft ftff FfT FTT FTT FTFf I
TFTt TFT FTft T§ft Ttftw c*I<H*I ffFT TTTf T TRTT ftr I
FTTfWFT ftFF TFT TTFTft TFFTT FTF fftf TFftW F
ftftlF TfTFT FTTFTTTf "FF TTTft fft TfftFf F TFF
FTFTRFT TTTft ftt TFTTF WT fft TfFFf I   WTFHdl*?
' NO
ftFTT ffft TTFFWFt FFF ft FfWft ftftFT FftfT FT
Fftftf FT TFT TTTft ftft TTFF ft TTFFf I
FRFftFFT Tfft T FFT WTFTFFt FFftT Tft ftfT TTfft
crl^l*^^ Tftf ^id*l *|4f4f| cH-HI^H ^T4fRh ftl*l TRg"
FFWTW T ftFF (FFFft) FT ftftFcfw TFTWf I
FTFfT ftft TTF TTFftftF FTT ft FFf TTFFW ft W Tft
Tftft" FT TfFft WT, ^TF? TTTFFft FTT? FTF FTTT Ttft,
TfFTRT Ttft FFf T FTTfttFt Ttft ft? TRTTFT Tft fFf I 10^
Tftfft Tft TfWF FTT ft? FFTt T TfFW Ffftrffw
FWfl ftfft TfFFf F^ FT FTFFft ftF T TTTtft FTTFt
FTFf FftTFT fW fft: "<\\ooo ft FT Tftft ff ft FTRt
FFf FWfFfWtl"'1013 WTT TTFF HIcTf-HI <H4flf^d fFfft ftf
WTftt "fr I FFFft TftT T TTTITT TTTFT ftFftft FfFT
TTFFW fftTftTT ff TFF Tft WT "FT FT ftfFT fftl
FffFFft ftFFTTTF ft TTFFFFFf FCFF T TFF TFTF
fftft FlftT TFFF TFf FTftT ftftFT fft ^ TTWft ffttft
WTWT ffFTTlf Fff TTT TFT Tft ftFTT fftl ft TFFf
TTFFWft FffWTlf ftFft? TFT TTFt FTF? FTTft ftCFT
wrftoc
1.    I^M*I 3T3*R": «(l^<il^ T 3)41^ <rtel<£t?<?
TTTfft TTTFT TftftFT TTFFWFT "Tftfdf FRFFF TFlftF
ftfFT Ff Ff FFf TTFFFFFf FTT? fT WW Tft TTfT
fftTWI  FFFft TTFFFFFt FW ftf WF tftfFCWF FT"
105 Tfftft TTjfftT Fftft, TTRnft, ft Roll |   RT FF TTRFfft
ftft:   "FTfttFT ft" TRTFT FTfffF ffW FTTTT Ffft, F TTFft
FFFT TTFTft ftt TFRFftft ftt Tftf ft ftf ft?F I " TTF FFFF,
"ftft", FTfft FftffftF I
1015TTftft TTFT Fftftft ^P^^ |
i°c   sfftftT   fttRT   fftnFRT   ftfTTFTn   fftft   FFfft   fttft
ftlsiST'HTR ^4ft<? Tfftft ft(?<p<ft *lftlft FFf >FftA TFT FFf
Tfftf yRlifl+^IRI TfTT <r1«!lf(7<p<ft ffft >Flft A Ffftft ftf ft TF
fttftrr  wfl   W  ^°11   ft  Fft  ^   tttsf ftttftrt
fftftlfFfftf RTTT ftr FRf FTfttnft ftfTTfft nft ft +l6Rlf?
FRTT fftl   ft(?fti RT ft +l6Rlf? FF ftf fttTT fft I
TFT F ft Tft TFftfFFI TfFF fttTTFT T ffttft "WT T
TFT FW Fft TW Tftiftt FFftTF TTFTl'10'' TTTfft
FTTFT TffftFT TTFFFFFt "STt TfTF ftftf TFRT TFT TTTf
FFftrft sft FTF TFTfT <M-flR* ftWWI Fft FT wft
FT FTFFftWTlf TFT FTt I ^10
FT Ro<\o ft IS FTFCt T ^ ftjFCtF? FTF TTTfF; ftftt
fftfftWTTd: Y,ooc FfFT wRTTFFTsft TFTTT R\oo
TIFFWTff Ffff WFTFt ftfft I FTftftT fttftt TFFFTTF
TTFTTFFF T FTTfft TTF Tftf Fff FTFfWTff FFFft
TTfFf TTFFTT Tfftft WT fttftf ftfft I FftWFf fftFTTT ft
*ITJWGiid ,114^14^ fftf TTft FTTFTT HITlft* Tft ftftt I
FTf fTTFT FW TFTFTF Tft TfFT T fftftr WFT Tft FFf
TTFFWTTf TTTt ft ftftt T ftt ~£\k Tft ftfft I W fftFfW
ft TFWT FFFF FftWRsft ft TFFt Tft  t^ ft F
NO NO
TTTFF Fft" Tftftftf fftfti FflWFI T%RI TftWTTf
FTTftft FT T FFFft Hldf^ld FTFTft FTT TlffT FTTFTfF
NO NO
ftfft T TTt FflWnfTFt TFT ftfft I FTTfft ftTTF tftft TTTRt
TTT fftTFFFFI fftft T ftftr TTftTFFt Tft fTTft ftff
FFTTTf WI TTFF WTFT fftl'1'1'1  TTTfF; FTTF FfT ftft
CN ^ CN ' NO
3H4f>^^ ^ eft* WH t^Rfslld ^llRRd TT? F^crll^ fftllftjft
T 3IH41lRd FTFt TTf I1"
TFF Wft "TfTFTFt T Tffft WF "Ffftf TF wftrfr TFTFTTFT
TffftfWFTTFTT W:WTTTTFITTTTWTTf ftft FTTFTFT "FTF
ffftftt ftfti tff wfi fttftr R*iaw Tfrr fwt mg^
oi|n^iiR* ftTFt FftlT, <HHlRdl F9TT *I<NR*I TTTtft ^fl4l
TF FTFftF ftftT Fft fTTWTF? WF Ftftr ftft TTTFt
fftfti'1" TTTTTd: TTFfW W f% fWf FFT Tftftfft ft
TTF FFTTTFT FftrffFftt TTFFWFT ftFTT T FTTTTlf
TTftfl" Wf? WFTTTFFT ftFFTWTTf Fftft ft FTT ft |
10% ftft TRfF FRRT ft", F  <3,ooo   FF nfft TRTf  TfTFT
fttRft W
<n°  ftffftf  TTftft   Tfft   ffftf,    ftFft   W$fww   ftFf   Frfft
FftfftFI
<,<n nftft fTFT FFTfftFT, FftFF FTTfFT, ffTTft, FF, T?TTf,
ftftF, Roll I   "Children in the Ranks: The Maoists'Use of Child Soldiers in
Nepal", Human Rights Watch, ftrtFft ROOls |
^ ft FTRTfi ft ftftft FF TtfftFI   ftf TfftTT TTfTft FftFF
TRTTFTTf ft fffft fftftt ft FftFTFTi FFftft ft fttft fftftf,
"ftf FRRft fftftf n FftFTTT ftt FTfttFT ft TRTTft FftFT ft
FRTT fft I TRfft TTFT FftftFT, FFffff FTTTF FTFF FTTfFT,
TffFt?, FF, TtFTf, FRF Rol 1, FffftTTT fftftnttFT, +l6Rlff, ft
Roil I
<nli "Assistance to the Peace Process", "ftfF W fftlT nfTT, FtftlFf
ROlo|  FT ■H^llj^ft ■Hlj^ftlRI Ftft MM*\ Fffft ftF W '^^
ftfTTfTf ftt fTF ftFfftRTf fftftlW   ^°t^   TT FFF fft fi  ft
TFTTTTT Fffft %o ffTF YK. FFR Fftftft TfR ft frft I
 ft/FT; J?dT iHMId WF
■*l$Rm WT tffim $<M ft  ???,   1$- 3F7?Z~ ?o<j <j
13
FTftFT TWdf TFTft ftff frft^*   (TTft Ftftt   FFftT
ftFTTw Tft tt Rfftt fft) I<m w tttfwt FFfrrd
TFF tH-HM-HI T/ft TTTTT TTTT Tfftr Tftft TTF ftfFF ddil'f
ftr TTTTftr Fiftrrnf ft ffff FtiFft? fftn tftf
TTTFt? FTW ffFT W FTft TTFFW FTTTF Ft fT,
FFFft FT T Tftfftr FflWFt WFT FTTTf W T ftflW W
Fftf FFFfT Fftw F Fftf FTWT FTFF Fftfft FT FT
FTftf FfFT FW Tft tRw FFTTTF ftft |
NO NO
FFFft TftT T TTTfF; FTTT Tft FRfft ftfTTFt ftff TTFT
NO ^
Fftl TFftfFFT Ffft "Tfftftw FFTTF T Tftf Fff FTFf
WRTTFT TTFFWTTf TTTtft TTftf TTTWTTf ftf Tft W
TTFFFF Fftf T WTTF FTWFt Tft "FW TWFF
FRFftFT fftf Tft FWT FfFT fftl TFF TF ftFTT
FTFFFTf ftlfFCWF ft FffWFI STTTRTFFTff FTTT ft
ftFTT, WFf WTFHdl*? Flftr TF FFd% FTTft FfT
^     '       T NO NO
FTf | TFftf W ^00^ ^ TTt%ftftT TFTT TTFFFTTfff
ftFFfW ft ftftT fft?FTF Tft FftWTff ftt FTFft FTF? T
TTTW ftft: TftT FTftfT TtftTFt ftfti ftft TTFFWft
FfFTFT FffWTff FTdftF FT FWW? fftr T FFT
ftFFTTTF ft TTf FftWFf "ST? Wf TTFtFt ftfti'1"
WTFHdl*? yA|l<Hcrll^ Tft Tftfft ftftf FfT FTf | Tftfft FfFT
NO
WRTTFT TrFFFTTftf TTFTft FfftT TFFF ft ftr FT? I
F^ T TTTtft ■FTTFT TRg" ftfFF FFWTfd TFdf fT FTFf
T tFFTTTF ft TTFFFFFF Ttftf SFT ttr TTftrft "ftfFF
Fffi fftFrfftf TTFFWFF FTFt Fftftnf Tftftt Ffft
FW WTfTT "TTW TTTTFT TlftT TFT "TTFftFT T
FT:FTfFTTFfFt FFfTTFFTI FTW, fftTFT FTFFftFFT "ft
TTFFWTTf Tft TTTFT TffTTft FT WTFfWft I w
^FTfttnftt +Ri^<(?4?ft ^mPtRri P^+i^ Tftn Fftft fft ff
ftft FFfft FTftFTfft ftft ftnRTfl   TfF FRTT Trfnftft FfT
FFffftr fttrr ggigl f ii+ifti nftr 1 o TfftFrft ftf fftt FTftF
TTFTft FWl   TT ftft_  TTT TTftTFTt TF FFfft ftm FFTTftt
nrftFTTf FTW Tft I Tfftft TfTT Fftft, fffF W TFTFTF
WTTFFT TTftTF (UNIRP) FT TrfftrFFT,TfFfi R° 11 I  W^°11
ft TfFTift FFFFnTffT R,Yoo Fft ISlSR FTRt FTTt ftft ff
ftt, ^o FTFF fttft ttmf TTRT %^o FFfft FTFT fftfft fft I
"Bi-weekly report", UNIRP, 1^> Ffffi Roll |
1 n FTffftf ftnTf TTfFfWT FFfFTT TTTFF fffffftnT FRTf Wfl
RT FF FFfft W ^°°^ F FTFFTTT ftftTTtffTTi TFRf TFTT
fft, "ft n Ffff TRFT Fft, FTTift Fft fftf TFtf ft ftf TTTTFT
TTF", TTftft TTFT Fftft, +l6Rlf?l
m FTftft fTFT  FftftFT, FTTTF fftRTT FTTfFT, ffTTF T
TTFF, ftftF Roll I
w FTftft fTFT FFTfftFT,   ftft-ft  Roll I   Tfft  ?,o<\<\   f
TTftft   +l6Rlf?RI    fftnfft   FTTfFTfft   TdHld+1    TrftrFFTTf
siiftivTHi ftft fftftr f mff+i rt ff ftft ftnft ftrfti wf fttft
TT FTF ft WTTTft TTFTTW FTFT W, fT T FftfTFT
FTFT TFFTFTF WTtT T TTT Tftf ftFTTFf TTTTft ftFC
Hft^crfl m\HM\ TFF <IMd TFT ^I^HHI^ ft FTT Fit I ft
*<W <H4i|i||>jH FTTFTFHdl*? yRMWI 4i^ro|Huf <^<£d^
TFTFT FT ftfF TTFFWTTf TFT ftfTTFt TFTTT ftft FT
Tft Ttftft WTTft Fftf I " c
NO '
RtF|<Hd*| yf*i|l TF FTFt ftff 4f^dlHf^ T FTtTT wRTTFT
ft TTFFFTTfff TftfTT FFTTTf FT fftTT T Hldf*l FT
TTFT Tft WdH FTF FTT ft Tl^ft^*| TTlft WT ftr FtT
TFFftT Ftftftf ftfff I ft FFF TFFFFff W Fftft fftfft
fft TTft Tft I WFffW Tft TfFCFT fTF ftFF TTt TTd
wftftftfrft"
TTTF TFfRF ftfTFT FFTTTf FFTT ftftFT Tftf Wl
FFftT ffTFTTFTWtft FFTTTf ftTTT dft*l ftfftft TTTTt
TFFt WI WTltf TWtTTTF "FT FFFFFT FF TFCftFT Tfft
FFTFffl TT FTf Tft ftff TtfF TTFFW FTTt FtfTF
!T5F TTTftf WWftl TFTTf? FTTTTFftT FTTtF ft T TTFf
Ttfrw T?t fftftTRT WftftFTTf ft TWF Fit ftftt Wl^°
TFTfft TTTF Tft FFfTW "FC ^TFFFftf ftff TTftf FTt FfT
TTFTf ft F Fft TIFT TTTTTf FdTFT ftFFfftfT TTFFWTlf
ft "tfTTfft Fffi W TTFFW TTF FTFF TTTFTT F FT
FFClftF  TftftfttFFF  WFT   FTFT  TFTFF  ft  TfftFT
fwft'1
fF FTfRTf fft I FFfft ftTTTT RT FF ftft TRRTfft ft, "FftFF
"SFWFt ftftn Tftftlfft fftftfl FFfft ftn T3T FTTTFTFft
TFFF "T5FWRI FTTftftT FrftTf Fft TRTf FFfF ftTT Tgjf*| FFft
FRTTtFT ft FRTn WFFTF FfTFTf ftft eJTM ft Ffft
FffFTFfi fftft W" I FTftft TTFT Fftftf,TT"fnftf,Y ft Rol 1 |
mFTftft TTFT Fftft UNIRP TT Tftntt, Ffft ?,o<\<\ |
w TTftft TTTTFT Fftft, FfF FfTf fftftntt, ftTRFRF, ftft
Roil I
1,0 FTftft TTtTF FftrfFT, fftnTFT TfTT FTffftf ftTTTT
FFfW. ffftf. Fn,T?TTf, ftft Roll; FfF TTTT" fftftnttFT,
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Plwllft ff IfftRI ffft ftfftfft fftftFT fftfft fftFTTT fft FFf <H%llfft
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NO NO
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G =N NO
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The boundaries and names shown and the designations
used on this map do not imply official endorsement or
acceptance by the United Nations.
CHINA
FAR WEST
/""~v
/f°Mahe'ndranagart*
M
-jDhangadhi t
i
■
., Dailekh
BHERr
MID-WESTY  ft  r~ <
\    75iinaA>4s;    )    ./ftft —-■/.._
LA        »  .'J    -,'Jpmospm    %
Jajarkot        ,  ,»? ,->      v0,;' (      \7   --».
® Blrond-^g^T&dU-Jhalang^ l]^      ftUhaS!
dipt,      ^DHAWALAGKII       ,    „f)„.„,
RAPTI      < ,    ,   y    ,        '    GANDAKI ,
._Gulariya    ^ >--Raninnn*><.'     ■ia1-,    0 Bisisahar    .•'    —    1
°\      '     ftf    -Tulsipur    ,   ^ \l\9'un9 7 ^  ^Pokhara f / oDHunche-y,
)*J Slii<i Pyuthan^'      OTamghasVPSyangja 0Gprkh'a      BAGMATI1
NEPAL
0           National capital
®           Regional seat
o           Zonal seat
O           District seat
 International boundary
    Regional boundary
     Zonal boundary
Railroad
+          Airport
0       20     40      60      80    100 km
0     10    20    30   40    50    60 mi
LamtwJ contoimat cone profecttcn with a central meridian
ot <** degrees eesr tonjlmde v/itti standard paiaflete o* ?4
degrees and 32 degrees norm latorte using the WCS84
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Humanity United, Hunt Alternatives Fund, Jewish World Watch, Korea
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Central Asia
Political Murder in Central Asia: No Time
to End Uzbekistan's Isolation, Asia
Briefing N°76, f 3 February 2008.
Kyrgyzstan: The Challenge of Judicial
Reform, Asia Report N°l50, f 0 April
2008 (also available in Russian).
Kyrgyzstan: A Deceptive Calm, Asia
Briefing N°79, 14 August 2008 (also
available in Russian).
Tajikistan: On the Road to Failure, Asia
Report NT 62, 12 February 2009.
Women and Radicalisation in Kyrgyzstan,
Asia Report NT76, 3 September 2009.
Central Asia: Islamists in Prison, Asia
Briefing N°97, 15 December 2009.
Central Asia: Migrants and the Economic
Crisis, Asia Report NT 83, 5 January
2010.
Kyrgyzstan: A Hollow Regime Collapses,
Asia Briefing NT02, 27 April 2010.
The Pogroms in Kyrgyzstan, Asia Report
NT93, 23 August 2010.
Central Asia: Decay and Decline, Asia
Report N°201, 3 February 2011.
Tajikistan: The Changing Insurgent
Threats, Asia Report N°205, 24 May
2011.
North East Asia
China's Thirst for Oil, Asia Report NT53,
9 June 2008 (also available in Chinese).
South Korea's Elections: A Shift to the
Right, Asia Briefing N°77, 30 June
2008.
North Korea's Missile Launch: The Risks
of Overreaction, Asia Briefing N°91,
31 March 2009.
China's Growing Role in UN Peacekeeping, Asia Report NT66, 17 April
2009 (also available in Chinese).
North Korea's Chemical and Biological
Weapons Programs, Asia Report NT67,
18 June 2009.
North Korea's Nuclear and Missile Programs, Asia Report NT68, 18 June
2009.
North Korea: Getting Back to Talks, Asia
Report NT 69, 18 June 2009.
China's Myanmar Dilemma, Asia Report
NT77, 14 September 2009 (also available in Chinese).
Shades of Red: China's Debate over North
Korea, Asia Report NT 79, 2 November
2009 (also available in Chinese).
The Iran Nuclear Issue: The View from
Beijing, Asia Briefing NT00, 17 February 2010 (also available in Chinese).
North Korea under Tightening Sanctions,
Asia Briefing NT01, 15 March 2010.
China's Myanmar Strategy: Elections,
Ethnic Politics and Economics, Asia
Briefing NT 12, 21 September 2010
(also available in Chinese).
North Korea: The Risks of War in the
Yellow Sea, Asia Report NT98, 23
December 2010.
China and Inter-Korean Clashes in the
Yellow Sea, Asia Report N°200, 27
January 2011 (also available in Chinese).
Strangers at Home: North Koreans in the
South, Asia Report N°208, 14 July 2011.
South Asia
After Bhutto's Murder: A Way Forward for
Pakistan, Asia Briefing N°74, 2 January
2008,
Afghanistan: The Need for International
Resolve, Asia Report NT45, 6 February
2008.
Sri Lanka's Return to War: Limiting the
Damage, Asia Report NT46, 20
February 2008.
Nepal's Election and Beyond, Asia Report
NT49, 2 April 2008 (also available in
Nepali).
Restoring Democracy in Bangladesh, Asia
Report NT51, 28 April 2008.
Nepal's Election: A Peaceful Revolution ?,
Asia Report NT55, 3 July 2008 (also
available in Nepali).
Nepal's New Political Landscape, Asia
Report NT56, 3 July 2008 (also available in Nepali).
Reforming Pakistan's Police, Asia Report
NT57, 14 July 2008.
Taliban Propaganda: Winning the War of
Words?, Asia Report NT58, 24 July
2008.
Sri Lanka's Eastern Province: Land,
Development, Conflict, Asia Report
NT59, 15 October 2008.
Reforming the Judiciary in Pakistan, Asia
Report NT60, 16 October 2008.
Bangladesh: Elections and Beyond, Asia
Briefing N°84, 11 December 2008.
Policing in Afghanistan: Still Searching for
a Strategy, Asia Briefing N°85, 18
December 2008.
Nepal's Faltering Peace Process, Asia
Report NT63, 19 February 2009 (also
available in Nepali).
Afghanistan: New U. S. Administration,
New Directions, Asia Briefing N°89,
13 March 2009.
Pakistan: The Militant Jihadi Challenge,
Asia Report NT 64, 13 March 2009.
Development Assistance and Conflict in Sri
Lanka: Lessons from the Eastern Province, Asia Report NT65, 16 April 2009.
Pakistan's IDP Crisis: Challenges and
Opportunities, Asia Briefing N°93, 3
June 2009.
Afghanistan's Election Challenges, Asia
Report NT71, 24 June 2009.
Sri Lanka's Judiciary: Politicised Courts,
Compromised Rights, Asia Report
NT72, 30 June 2009.
Nepal's Future: In Whose Hands ?, Asia
Report NT73, 13 August 2009 (also
available in Nepali).
Afghanistan: What Now for Refugees ?,
Asia Report NT75, 31 August 2009.
Pakistan: Countering Militancy in FATA,
Asia Report NT78, 21 October 2009.
Afghanistan: Elections and the Crisis of
Governance, Asia Briefing N°96, 25
November 2009.
Bangladesh: Getting Police Reform on
Track, Asia Report NT 82, 11 December
2009.
Sri Lanka: A Bitter Peace, Asia Briefing
N°99, 11 January 2010.
Nepal: Peace and Justice, Asia Report
NT84, 14 January 2010.
Reforming Pakistan's Civil Service, Asia
Report NT85, 16 February 2010.
The Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora after the
LTTE, Asia Report NT 86, 23 February
2010.
The Threat from Jamaat-ul Mujahideen
Bangladesh, Asia Report NT87, 1
March 2010.
A Force in Fragments: Reconstituting the
Afghan National Army, Asia Report
NT 90, 12 May 2010.
 $WW: J?dT di/4/d WF
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31
War Crimes in Sri Lanka, Asia Report
NT91, 17 May 2010.
Steps Towards Peace: Putting Kashmiris
First, Asia Briefing NT 06, 3 June 2010.
Pakistan: The Worsening IDP Crisis, Asia
Briefing NT 11, 16 September 2010.
Nepal's Political Rites of Passage, Asia
Report NT94, 29 September 2010 (also
available in Nepali).
Reforming Afghanistan's Broken Judiciary,
Asia Report NT95, 17 November 2010.
Afghanistan: Exit vs Engagement, Asia
Briefing NT 15, 28 November 2010.
Reforming Pakistan's Criminal Justice
System, Asia Report NT96, 6 December
2010.
Nepal: Identity Politics and Federalism,
Asia Report NT99, 13 January 2011
(also available in Nepali).
Afghanistan's Elections Stalemate, Asia
Briefing NT 17, 23 February 2011.
Reforming Pakistan's Electoral System,
Asia Report N°203, 30 March 2011.
Nepal's Fitful Peace Process, Asia Briefing
NT20, 7 April 2011 (also available in
Nepali).
India and Sri Lanka after the LTTE, Asia
Report N°206, 23 June 2011.
The Insurgency in Afghanistan's
Heartland, Asia Report N°207, 27 June
2011.
Reconciliation in Sri Lanka: Harder Than
Ever, Asia Report N°209, 18 July 2011.
Aid and Conflict in Afghanistan, Asia
Report N°210, 4 August 2011.
South East Asia
Timor-Leste: Security Sector Reform, Asia
Report NT43, 17 January 2008 (also
available in Tetum).
Indonesia: Tackling Radicalism in Poso,
Asia Briefing N°75, 22 January 2008.
Burma/Myanmar: After the Crackdown,
Asia Report NT44, 31 January 2008.
Indonesia: Jemaah Islamiyah's Publishing
Industry, Asia Report NT47, 28 February 2008 (also available in Indonesian).
Timor-Leste's Displacement Crisis, Asia
Report NT48, 31 March 2008.
The Philippines: Counter-insurgency vs.
Counter-terrorism in Mindanao, Asia
Report NT52, 14 May 2008.
Indonesia: Communal Tensions in Papua,
Asia Report NT 54, 16 June 2008 (also
available in Indonesian).
Indonesia: Implications of the Ahmadiyah
Decree, Asia Briefing N°78, 7 July 2008
(also available in Indonesian).
Thailand: Political Turmoil and the Southern Insurgency, Asia Briefing N°80, 28
August 2008 (also available in Thai).
Indonesia: Pre-election Anxieties in Aceh,
Asia Briefing N°81, 9 September 2008
(also available in Indonesian).
Thailand: Calming the Political Turmoil,
Asia Briefing N°82, 22 September 2008
(also available in Thai).
Burma/Myanmar After Nargis: Time to
Normalise Aid Relations, Asia Report
NT 61, 20 October 2008 (also available
in Chinese).
The Philippines: The Collapse of Peace in
Mindanao, Asia Briefing N°83, 23
October 2008.
Local Election Disputes in Indonesia: The
Case of North Maluku, Asia Briefing
N°86, 22 January 2009.
Timor-Leste: No Time for Complacency,
Asia Briefing N°87, 09 February 2009.
The Philippines: Running in Place in
Mindanao, Asia Briefing N°88, 16
February 2009.
Indonesia: Deep Distrust in Aceh as Elections Approach, Asia Briefing N°90, 23
March 2009.
Indonesia: Radicalisation of the "Palem-
bang Group", Asia Briefing N°92, 20
May 2009.
Recruiting Militants in Southern Thailand,
Asia Report NT70, 22 June 2009 (also
available in Thai).
Indonesia: The Hotel Bombings, Asia
Briefing N°94, 24 July 2009 (also available in Indonesian).
Myanmar: Towards the Elections, Asia
Report NT 74, 20 August 2009.
Indonesia: Noordin Top's Support Base,
Asia Briefing N°95, 27 August 2009.
Handing Back Responsibility to Timor-
Leste 's Police, Asia Report NT 80, 3
December 2009.
Southern Thailand: Moving towards Political Solutions?, Asia Report NT81, 8
December 2009 (also available in Thai).
The Philippines: After the Maguindanao
Massacre, Asia Briefing N°98, 21
December 2009.
Radicalisation and Dialogue in Papua,
Asia Report NT88, 11 March 2010 (also
available in Indonesian).
Indonesia: Jihadi Surprise in Aceh, Asia
Report NT 89, 20 April 2010.
Philippines: Pre-election Tensions in
Central Mindanao, Asia Briefing NT 03,
4 May 2010.
Timor-Leste: Oecusse and the Indonesian
Border, Asia Briefing NT 04, 20 May
2010.
The Myanmar Elections, Asia Briefing
NT 05, 27 May 2010 (also available in
Chinese).
Bridging Thailand's Deep Divide, Asia
Report NT92, 5 July 2010 (also
available in Thai).
Indonesia: The Dark Side of Jama'ah
Ansharut Tauhid (JAT), Asia Briefing
NT07, 6 July 2010.
Indonesia: The Deepening Impasse in
Papua, Asia Briefing NT08, 3 August
2010.
Illicit Arms in Indonesia, Asia Briefing
NT09, 6 September 2010.
Managing Land Conflict in Timor-Leste,
Asia Briefing NT 10, 9 September 2010.
Stalemate in Southern Thailand, Asia
Briefing NT 13, 3 November 2010 (also
available in Thai).
Indonesia: "'Christianisation" and
Intolerance, Asia Briefing NT 14, 24
November 2010.
Indonesia: Preventing Violence in Local
Elections, Asia Report NT97, 8
December 2010 (also available in
Indonesian).
Timor-Leste: Time for the UN to Step Back,
Asia Briefing NT 16, 15 December
2010.
The Communist Insurgency in the
Philippines: Tactics and Talks, Asia
Report N°202, 14 February 2011.
Myanmar's Post-Election Landscape, Asia
Briefing NT18, 7 March 2011 (also
available in Chinese and Burmese).
The Philippines: Back to the Table, Warily,
in Mindanao, Asia Briefing NT19, 24
March 2011.
Thailand: The Calm Before Another
Storm?, Asia Briefing NT21, 11 April
2011 (also available in Chinese).
Timor-Leste: Reconciliation and Return
from Indonesia, Asia Briefing NT 22, 18
April 2011.
Indonesian Jihadism: Small Groups, Big
Plans, Asia Report N°204, 19 April
2011.
Indonesia: Gam vs Gam in the Aceh
Elections, Asia Briefing NT23, 15 June
2011.
Indonesia: Debate over a New Intelligence
Bill, Asia Briefing NT24, 12 July 2011
The Philippines: A New Strategy for Peace in
Mindanao?, Asia Briefing NT25, 3 August
2011.
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3?
CHAIR
Thomas R Pickering
Former U.S. Ambassador to the UN, Russia,
India, Israel, Jordan, El Salvador and Nigeria;
Vice Chairman of Hills & Company
PRESIDENT & CEO
Louise Arbour
Former UN High Commissioner for Human
Rights and Chief Prosecutor for the International
Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia
and Rwanda
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
Morton Abramowitz
Former U .S. Assistant Secretary of State and
Ambassador to Turkey
Cheryl Carolus
Former South African High Commissioner to
the UK and Secretary General of the ANC
Maria Livanos Cattaui
Member of the Board, Petroplus Holdings,
Switzerland
Yoichi Funabashi
Former Editor in Chief, The Asahi Shimbun,
Japan
Frank Giustra
President & CEO, Fiore Capital
Ghassan Salame
Dean, Paris School of International Affairs,
Sciences Po
George Soros
Chairman, Open Society Institute
Par Stenback
Former Foreign Minister of Finland
OTHER BOARD MEMBERS
Adnan Abu-Odeh
Former Political Adviser to King Abdullah II
and to King Hussein, and Jordan Permanent
Representative to the UN
Kenneth Adelman
Former U .S. Ambassador and Director of the
Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
Kofi Annan
Former Secretary-General ofthe United Nations;
Nobel Peace Prize (2001)
Nahum Barnea
Chief Columnist for Yedioth Ahronoth, Israel
Samuel Berger
Chair, Albright Stonebridge Group LLC; Former
U.S. National Security Advisor
Emma Bonino
Vice President ofthe Senate; Former Minister
of International Trade and European Affairs
of Italy and European Commissioner for
Humanitarian Aid
Wesley Clark
Former NATO Supreme Allied Commander,
Europe
Sheila Coronel
Toni Stabile, Professor of Practice in Investigative
Journalism; Director, Toni Stabile Center for Investigative Journalism, Columbia University, U.S.
Jan Egeland
Director, Norwegian Institute of International
Affairs; Former Under-Secretary-General for
Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief
Coordinator, United Nations
Uffe Ellemann-Jensen
Former Foreign Minister of Denmark
Gareth Evans
President Emeritus of Crisis Group; Former
Foreign Affairs Minister of Australia
Mark Eyskens
Former Prime Minister of Belgium
Joshua Fink
CEO & Chief Investment Officer, Enso Capital
Management LLC
Joschka Fischer
Former Foreign Minister of Germany
Jean-Marie Guehenno
Arnold Saltzman Professor of War and Peace
Studies, Columbia University; Former UN Under-
Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations
Carla Hills
Former U.S. Secretary of Housing and U.S.
Trade Representative
Lena Hjelm-Wallen
Former Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign
Affairs Minister of Sweden
Swanee Hunt
Former U.S. Ambassador to Austria;
Chair, Institute for Inclusive Security; President,
Hunt Alternatives Fund
Mo Ibrahim
Founder and Chair, Mo Ibrahim Foundation;
Founder, Celtel International
Igor Ivanov
Former Foreign Affairs Minister ofthe Russian
Federation
Asma Jahangir
President of the Supreme Court Bar Association
of Pakistan, Former UN Special Rapporteur on
the Freedom of Religion or Belief
Wim Kok
Former Prime Minister of the Netherlands
Ricardo Lagos
Former President of Chile
Joanne Leedom-Ackerman
Former International Secretary of International
PEN; Novelist and journalist, U.S.
Lord (Mark) Malloch-Brown
Former Administrator of the United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP) and UN
Deputy Secretary-General
Lalit Mansingh
Former Foreign Secretary of India, Ambassador
to the U.S. and High Commissioner to the UK
Jessica Tuchman Mathews
President, Carnegie Endowment for
International Peace, U.S.
Benjamin Mkapa
Former President of Tanzania
Moises Nairn
Senior Associate, International Economics
Program, Carnegie Endowment for International
Peace; former Editor in Chief, Foreign Policy
Ayo Obe
Legal Practitioner, Lagos, Nigeria
Paul Reynolds
President & Chief Executive Officer, Canaccord
Financial Inc.; Vice Chair, Global Head of
Canaccord Genuity
Giiler Sabanci
Chairperson, Sabanci Holding, Turkey
Javier Solana
Former EU High Representative for the Common
Foreign and Security Policy, NATO Secretary-
General and Foreign Affairs Minister of Spain
Lawrence Summers
Former Director of the US National Economic
Council and Secretary of the US Treasury;
President Emeritus of Harvard University
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33
PRESIDENT'S COUNCIL
Crisis Group's President's Council is a distinguished group of major individual and corporate donors providing
essential support, time and expertise to Crisis Group in delivering its core mission.
Canaccord Adams Limited
Mala Gaonkar
Frank Holmes
Steve Killelea
George Landegger
Ford Nicholson & Lisa Wolverton
Harry Pokrant
Ian Telfer
Neil Woodyer
INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COUNCIL
Crisis Group's International Advisory Council comprises significant individual and corporate donors who contribute
their advice and experience to Crisis Group on a regular basis.
APCO Worldwide Inc.
Ed Bachrach
Stanley Bergman & Edward
Bergman
Harry Bookey & Pamela
Bass-Bookey
Chevron
Neil & Sandra DeFeo Family
Foundation
Equinox Partners
Fares I. Fares
Neemat Frem
Seth Ginns
Rita E. Hauser
Sir Joseph Hotung
lara Lee & George Gund
Foundation
George Kellner
Amed Khan
Faisel Khan
Zelmira Koch Polk
Elliott Kulick
Liquidnet
Jean Manas & Rebecca
Haile
McKinsey & Company
Harriet Mouchly-Weiss
Griff Norquist
Naringslivets
Internationella Rad (NIR)
- International Council of
Swedish Industry
Yves Oltramare
Ana Luisa Ponti & Geoffrey
R. Hoguet
Michael L. Riordan
Shell
Statoil ASA
Belinda Stronach
Talisman Energy
Tilleke & Gibbins
Kevin Torudag
VIVA Trust
Yapi Merkezi Construction
and Industry Inc.
SENIOR ADVISERS
Former Board Members who maintain an association with Crisis Group, and whose advice and support are called on (to the
extent consistent with any other office they may be holding at the time).
Martti Ahtisaari
Chairman Emeritus
George Mitchell
Chairman Emeritus
HRH Prince Turki al-
Faisal
Hushang Ansary
Oscar Arias
Ersin Arioglu
Richard Armitage
Diego Arria
Zainab Bangura
Shlomo Ben-Ami
Christoph Bertram
Alan Blinken
Lakhdar Brahimi
Zbigniew Brzezinski
Kim Campbell
Jorge Castaneda
Naresh Chandra
Eugene Chien
Joaquim Alberto
Chissano
Victor Chu
Mong Joon Chung
Pat Cox
Gianfranco Dell'Alba
Jacques Delors
Alain Destexhe
Mou-Shih Ding
Gemot Erler
Marika Fahlen
Stanley Fischer
Malcolm Fraser
I.K. Gujral
Max Jakobson
James V. Kimsey
Aleksander
Kwasniewski
Todung Mulya Lubis
Allan J. MacEachen
Gra9a Machel
Nobuo Matsunaga
Barbara McDougall
Matthew McHugh
Miklos Nemeth
Christine Ockrent
Timothy Ong
Olara Otunnu
Lord (Christopher)
Patten
Shimon Peres
Victor Pinchuk
Surin Pitsuwan
Cyril Ramaphosa
Fidel V. Ramos
George Robertson
Michel Rocard
Volker Riiehe
Mohamed Sahnoun
Salim A. Salim
Douglas Schoen
Christian Schwarz-
Schilling
Michael Sohlman
Thorvald Stoltenberg
William O. Taylor
Leo Tindemans
Ed van Thijn
Simone Veil
Shirley Williams
Grigory Yavlinski
Uta Zapf
Ernesto Zedillo

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