Digital Himalaya Journals

The Journal of Newar Studies - Number 7, NS 1131 / 2010-2011 Shakya, Daya R 2010

Item Metadata

Download

Media
dhimjournal-1.0365014.pdf
Metadata
JSON: dhimjournal-1.0365014.json
JSON-LD: dhimjournal-1.0365014-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): dhimjournal-1.0365014-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: dhimjournal-1.0365014-rdf.json
Turtle: dhimjournal-1.0365014-turtle.txt
N-Triples: dhimjournal-1.0365014-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: dhimjournal-1.0365014-source.json
Full Text
dhimjournal-1.0365014-fulltext.txt
Citation
dhimjournal-1.0365014.ris

Full Text

 «
^Vnewah vijnana
LJ r~ rr a r     <0 f     M" ^ -\^ s-. r~     S Xz rj- d" f <s s|
:^rr:
i^rir ^
^T: ^T: ^T ^ qjT
^TJ ^T: S4PT ^ | W:
vSEJFT ^rft^f^TT^I
Number 7
NS 1131 Newah Vijnana
Journal of Newar Studies
ISSN 1536-8661
1131 Number-7 2010/11
Publisher
Intl. Nepal Bhasha
Sewa Samiti
Center for Nepalese
Language & Culture
Portland, Oregon USA
Editor
Daya R Shakya
Assistant Editor
Sudip R. Shakya
Advisor
Prof. Todd Lewis
Designer
Sudip Shakya
www.digitalbabu.com
Mailing Address
Newah Vijnana
1739 NE 47th Ave.
Portland, OR 97213
Cover
NEWAH STATE
FLAG & ANTHEM
.ditorial
Jwajalapa !
Since the last issue of Newah Vijnana, there have been some monumental changes in the Newah community worldwide, especially in the political field of Nepal. Most notably, on Dec 26, 2009, after centuries of
straggle, we became witnesses to one of the most important historical moment in Nepal's history as Newah
people from all walks of life assembled at Dasharatha Rangashala, the national stadium of Nepal, to declare
Newah Autonomous State (NAS) under the Federal Republic Nepal. This declaration is to be endorsed by
the Constituent Assembly formed after general election that took place in May 2008. However, the autonomous state still needs a national mandate by the Constituent Assembly for it to be written under the New
Constitution of Nepal.
The straggle for recognition of Nepal Sambat is no longer a matter of dispute among the elite group; all
Newah supporters are in favor of Nepal Sambat. After all, it is the original calendar of Nepal. Historically
speaking, Nepal Sambat fell into scrutiny for being a 'Newah' Calendar to allow continuity of imported
calendar, Bikram Sambat. For decades, this has allowed for a misleading celebration of Nepali New year
in foreign land by non-Newah group of Nepalese community. The slogan 'Nepal Sambat Rastriya Sambat'
had always been a thorny subject during the Panchayat period, ft is the fall of Panchayat, as well as the Shah
rulers, which has paved a way for Nepal Sambat to finally be recognized.
Speaking of recognition, Newah people also awakened a new realization on the importance of their mother
tongue in education. Newah parents, who were born during the Panchayat period, were coerced to teach
non-Newah language due to job security. Consequently, this ill-advised attempt to secure a future proved to
be detrimental as their Newah children simply forgot ethnic language. However, the new changes in the political field brought 100% passing on the SLC exam from schools where the medium of teaching was solely
Newah language. In 1997, Jagat Sunder Bwone Kuthi, which started as pre-primary school, was mentioned
in the first issue of Newah Vijnana as a pilot project, where medium of teaching was other than Khas-Nepali
or English. In both 2009 and 2010, the school consecutively had 100% passing results with distinction and
first division in government standard of education. Now, the school is in process of adding post-SLC, 'plus
two,' levels to show that inclusion of mother tongue is the best way to educate children.
In addition to the revitalization of Nepal Bhasha, Newah people also took to the streets to protest excessive
domination of Khas tradition in major Newah-populated regions even though sovereign power had already
been bestowed on the elected body as the ruler of the country under the true democracy that was achieved
from the second jana andolan, the historical uprising of the 2006. These street protests and solidarity accomplished to help establish the Nepal Bhasha in Kathmandu's workforce, to assist the non-Newah employees
in Kathmandu Municipality, and it resumed to accept application and query in Nepal Bhasha.
Nepal Bhasha and its importance has always been a driving force for Newah Vijnana. But, this journal not
only focuses on language, literature and culture, but also the heritage of Newah people that may include all
subjects relating to Newah people including politics, history, economy, art, architecture etc. The focus of
this issue is 'Newah Rajya,' a proposed autonomous state under the Federal Republic Nepal. Our approach
to reincarnate Nepal Mandala as a state is not an easy task and it does take an entire community to free the
Newah people from the dominant group. Newah Vijnana has and will always maintain its goal to achieve
and research study materials for new generation of Newah people so that they too can live with dignity and
gracefulness as NEW AH, instead of merging identity as Nepali.
This issue, in particular, contains findings of study on Itumbaha, which is one of the most important Baha
traditions of Newah Buddhist of ancient Nepal Mandala by both a foreign and a native scholar. In addition,
this issue also contains a short description of Theravada Buddhism and Nepal Bhasa Literature as well as
few unspoken historical facts from King Prithvi Narayan Shah's period and contribution of Newah people
in building the Chandra Nursery in Sikkim.
In Nepal Bhasha section, a short description on history of Nepal Bhasha poetry is reproduced here for documentation, there is a complete concept paper on Newah Rajya and there is also a combined view of Newah
leaders supporting the Newah movement organizations. Their view is not leading to an ultimate liberation
of Newah people, but a spade-to-spade in connection with current situation. It is being believed and trusted
to those leaders who will keep fighting to establish a free Identity of Newah People.
In Khas-Nepali section, two articles are included which solely focuses on Newah Rajya and Prithvi Narayan
Shah's unspoken chronological facts. Moreover, this section also contains a widespread of Newah literature
in foreign land and Newah culture in nutshell, were included beside all the regular informative findings.
We hope you find these articles interesting for your reading pleasure. Our guest editors from the UK and
Australia will undertake the next two issues. Please contact them for all further submissions. Newah Vijnana
would like to thank everyone for their continuing support. Subhaye! ONTENTS
Newah Vijnana • T^T: tVwft
AD 2010-11 Number 7 BS 2067-68
NS 1131
ENGLISH
Newah State Anthem 01
Reason behind the Declaration of Newah Autonomous State in Nepal Daya Shakya 02
Maintenance of Language and Literature: the Case of the Newars in Nepal Bal Gopal Shrestha 04
The Chandra Nursery: Centenary (1910 - 2010) - A Tribute Rajiva Shanker Shresta... 14
Foundation of Theravada Buddhism in Nepal Bhikshu Kondanya 21
A Short Portrayal of Itumbaha as a Monastic Institution Alexanderv. Rospatt 25
A Study on Itum Bahal Ushnik Ratna Shakya 35
Hidden History of Nepal Dr. H.G. Behr. 38
Encoding Nepal Scripts Dr. Carole Faucher. 41
Bibliography of Thesis and Research Paper in Nepal Bhasa Submitted at TU Ijirose Shrestha 42
NEPAL BHASA SECTION
ST" T^TfTT TTTT T^T ? T^Tf TTf:fT 46
TTmrrn^TTf f?, *rn, TfT ?TRrrTf ^jrr frjr ttt: frrfT TfTfr (ttt).. 47
TTTT RTTTTT T^TTf TTTKTT-TT T/JT.T.T T.T 50
T^TKMT m? T\ TfTTTT TTTTTTT: TTTTTfT fTTTT 58
tN^TT TTTTTTTf TTST - 4if*iK<rH TTfTfT....59
ywfNT/l TTTf TTT 3fffT: TTTRTT 62
KHAS-NEPALI SECTION
TRT TTTT T^TT TTf TTTT 65
TJT>TKfTT TTeTTT TTTTf S'ft^T TTfT7 TTfTfT..66
TTTT 4*4>js\ T TT#T TTTTTTT TRTTTT TTT TTTTfT. 68
fJTPTT TTTTf: fTTTTf TTR TffeRTTT TTTT TTRTT TfT TTTT T^S. 72
TTTffNTT TTfTTT TfeTTTT TTTTTR TTTT TTT.   74
MISCELLANEOUS 76
S U BS C RIBE R'S DIR ECTO R Y 85
ORDER FORM
NEPAL SAMBAT CALENDAR 1131 Newah State Anthem
Lyrics by: Durga Lal Shrestha • Music By: Tirtha Mali
Translation: Daya Shakya and David Hargreaves
Dhuna dane dhuna sanhyala jhii
Phukka hey chhamha jui dhuna
Jhiigu lagae jhii swayam hey
Ja: juya: dhuna luidhuna
Hyaungu bhumii asTamandala
Hyaungu cha: dune thii nagu
Jhiigu newah dhwaen thwa hey kha
Jyanajhii sakasyan chhagu
Jatitaye swayatta rajya
Lui kapachwaejhilimilin
Rastrajha:jha: dhaekanhyake
Jhiigu chatTjhiigu hi
We've already raised ourselves from deep sleep
We've already united as one
Ourselves, our own dominion
Already our light has risen
An eight-pointed mandala on a red background
A star within a circle of red
This is our Newah flag
All of our lives are one
A nation of ethnic autonomy
Colors of the rainbow all across our land
We move onward adorning our country
With our sweat and our blood
err 5T stt tttt *tt
fTT' I" w? tJt TT
flfrT TTTTT *TT ?TTT fT
W. TTT TT T? £TT
fTTTTT T^T? WTJTT
fTTTTT TTT ^T «ff TT
T?RT TTIT STTT «?ts
3TTT *fT TTfTTTT WT
TTcfTTTT WTT T3T
t? tt ^tt f^rrftr ft#r
TW TT: TT: STIT^r TTTTTT
*TTT T:fT *TTT ffT
To Listen to Audio Version of the Anthem:
http://www.nepalmandal.com/content/6184.html
A^\'fv
Newah State Anthem Reason Behind the
Declaration of Newah
Autonomous State
in Nepal
Daya Shakya
Oregon, U.S.A
The struggle for democracy never ends, some countries
have already achieved it and some have just begun to understand its meaning. In the case of Nepal, the democratic
norm has already started to float in the minds of Nepalese
people. It is still working under labs to figure out the result
of struggle by adopting the experimental phases based on
the political mantra,' by the people, of the people and for
the people.' It is still uncertain when the people of Nepal
are going get the final and conducive result of Democracy
even though the 240 years old one-man-ruling system was
abolished two and half years ago.
Under several phases of struggle, it is not worthy to mention here that Nepal is not a mono-lingual, mono-cultural country. It has many layers of multi-cultural identity
diversified under the roof of the world, from the snowcapped mountains to the hot and wet low lands. Collectively, all people living in Nepal all are known as Nepalese, which consists of numerous ethnic groups. But in the
past, there has been many attempts to eradicate identities
of those ethnic minorities from Nepalese history. Consequently, for the past 240 years, this attempt forced all
people of Nepal to live under the umbrella term NEPALI.
This literally arose from the Gorkha hill in West Nepal
and, thus, Nepalese people actually inherited the term
Gorkhali, even in Indian and British armies.
Until the year 2007, Nepalese people were made known
as Nepali and they were enforced to learn the ruling language by provision of less important to ethnic languages.
One of them is the Newah language, a language that was
historically recognized as the official language of Nepal
Mandala, which was then known as Nepal Bhasha, before
the unification of current and larger Nepal. Since then,
Nepal Bhasa has been treated harshly as unimportant and
it has never gotten state privileges until recently.
Keeping this in mind, Newah people have always felt that
they were not treated equally under any constitutions so
far written in courses of historical and political changes.
Their language and culture were given less attention for
development and promotion. Due to this unfair and unequal justice from the ruling group, the Newah people had
to struggle for his or her own identity. This difference,
exploitation and suppression gave birth to political unrest.
Even under the current interim constitution, that was written after the second jana andolan, the importance was
given to only those elite groups. Due to such type of dissatisfaction, many ethnic groups took look for justice by
taking it to the streets. Eventually, they failed reach an
agreement with the elite group controlled government of
Nepal. During the last two and half years, many efforts
were made to secure a place for Newah people in the constitution that was being written. On one hand, the government's spokesperson pacified the ethnic groups to implement the agreement policy that was already signed but, on
the other hand, the reality was different. The signed pact
was never put into practice.
So, the hope from the elite group's government was
fading away and the Newah people were determined to
achieve the goal of securing an identity by any means.
As a result, all the Newah personnel who were involved
in Newah awareness, as well as the Newah members of
existing major political parties, jointly declared to form
a struggle committee to achieve recognition for all suppressed groups. On the day of Dec 26, the day after
Christmas was celebrated around the world, the declaration of Newah Autonomous State (NAS) took place from
the grassroots level by the original inhabitants (adivaasi)
of Nepal Mandala at Dasharath Ranga Shala stadium in
Kathmandu. This was a first time, in modern history, that
such a crowd of Newah people assembled in a venue to
claim own land as an autonomous state under the Federal
Democratic Republic of Nepal.
Newah Vijnana-7 Due to lack of comprehensive approach presented by the
ruling political parties, the Government in Power (GOP) or
the Constituent Assembly, the Newah people themselves
were now able to declare NEWAH - LAND as under their
own territorial jurisdiction. This NEWAH-LAND is built
upon the foundation that Newah people should have the
rights to choose rule of law to save Newah identity in the
constitution that is going to be promulgated in near future.
The Newah community worldwide thanks all the dedicated Newah personnel. Without their cooperation and their
enthusiastic approach, this historical event would not have
taken place. Gratitude and praise must also be given to
members of Newah Swaayat Shashan Mankaa Sargharsha
Samiti (NSSMSS), which compromises of 31 different
castes based social organizations, Newah Dey Daboo (the
national organization of Newah people), Newah leaders of
existing political parties NC, UML, UNCP (Maoist) and
the Nepaa Rastriya Party (NRP). This historical moment
for Newah people would not have been possible without
the collective approach of all social organizations, which
has been working for Newah cause for many decades.
Singing the national anthem of Nepal kicked off the gala
for the declaration of Newah Autonomous State (NAS).
In addition, each and every member of the audience in the
stadium took an oath to save their land by putting their
right hand across their chest and singing the national anthem of Newah State, which debuted on the very day. The
chairman of Newah Dey Daboo, Mr. Narendra Tamrakar,
delivered the welcome speech. Mr. Malla K Sunder, patron of Newah Dey Daboo, announced the structural goals
of Newah state and its features. He said that Newah state
has a place for all supporters and that there will be no
further discrimination to any caste and creed under new
state law. However, he also mentioned that priority will be
given to Nepal Bhasa in every sector of state government
and in educational institutions to save the identity for the
future generation of Newah people.
One of the biggest highlights came when the organizing
committee raised the new Newah State Flag as a symbol
of unity. Moreover, each couple that represented the 31
castes-based social groups in Nepal Mandal, freed pigeons
and released balloons with the message, NEWAH RAJYA
JINDABAAD (long live Newah State). In the evening of
that day, a dazzling light in Newah towns and cities across
the nation marked December 26th, 2009, as a special day,
a day when Newah Autonomous State (NAS) was finally
declared. NEWAH RAJYA JINDABAAD! Subhaaye!
,*T (vH«*l<*M !
sterr: ?a rt ?hm       ■■
F^iaroir ^larr Ft
raw «bt     _ '-<--
'$/$ ''    *n ^raf
Balloon Release at the Celebration
Newah Supporters at
Dasharath Ranga Shala Stadium
>
?"-„
K I   :
* *lAf>HESH
Proposed Federal States of Nepal Showing
Tiny Newah State, 2010
Shakya/Reason behind...Newah Autonomous State. Maintenance of
Language and Literature:
the Case of the
Newars in Nepal
Bal Gopal Shrestha
University of Oxford, United Kingdom
Introduction:
Nepal, a multinational, multicultural, multilingual, and
multi-religious Himalayan country in South Asia, is
situated between two giant neighbours China and India. It hosts more than 100 'nationalities' or 'ethnicities'
(Janajati) speaking various languages and dialects. The
Newars, the original inhabitants of the current Kathmandu Valley are one among them. As a result of the 1767
Gurkha conquest, Nepal underwent a repressive rule of
"one nation, one culture, one religion and one language"
for more than two centuries which grossly undermined
its multinational, multicultural, multilingual, and multi-
religious reality. The ten years long Maoist people's war
ended after a successful people's movement that they
launched together with other parliamentarian parties in
2006, which eventually abolished the 240 years old Shah
regime, and declared Nepal a federal democratic republic
by the elected Constituent Assembly in 2008. Though the
country has been declared a federal democratic republic,
discriminatory policies of the state against various 'nationalities' (Janajati) and languages of Nepal continued
till date.
The making of a new constitution is in process. While
people of major ethnic-nationalities are striving to establish a federal state of Nepal based on ethnic and linguistic rights, major sections of the ruling Hill Bahun Chetris
elites in all political parties are trying to impede the process hoping to retain the same old policy of "one nation,
one culture, one religion and one language". Therefore
Nepal, a country in transition, besides political instability, is facing multiple problems, including Madhesi and
Janajati unrests at present.
The Newars, as the original inhabitants of the Kathmandu
valley, are in forefront to create their own state ' Newah
Rajya' or' Nepal Mandala' within Nepal aiming to embed
special rights in the newly created' Rajya' for good so that
they can rule themselves, decide their own fate, and work
to enhance their culture, religions, language and literature.
They want to free Nepal from the unjust rule of "one nation, one culture, one religion and one language" to let
flourish, cultures, religions, languages and literatures of
diverse nationalities of Nepal so that a truly a multinational, multicultural, multilingual, and multi-religious federal
democratic republic of Nepal could to established where
all of them can live in peace and harmony with mutual
respect.
The Newars
Scholars such as Dor Bahadur Bista assert that the Newar
speakers lived in the Valley of Nepal from prehistoric
times (1976:16). Many also believe that the Newars are
the descendants of the Kiratas who ruled Nepal before
the Licchavis in the Valley. However, the Kiratas left no
documents to prove their rule in the valley, except a list
of names of their kings found in the oldest chronicle of
Nepal "The Gopalarajvamsavali"1 and the nineteenth
century chronicles such as the Bhasavamsavali. The inhabitants of eastern Nepal such as the Limbus and Rais
also claim descent of the Kiratas. Linguistically, Newar,
Limbu and Rai languages are classified as Tibeto-Burman
languages. Newar shares some grammatical features with
Limbus and Rais that justifies link with the Kiratas.
The total population of the Newars in Nepal was
1,245,232 according to the 2001 census. The census of
Nepal shows that the different ethnic groups of Nepal do
no longer maintain their mother tongues. The census reports are criticised however by many Nepalese and foreign scholars for not presenting accurate data. For example, the 1991 CBS data deducted almost half of the Newar
speakers' number from Suntol VDC of Sankhu only to add
it to the number of the Khas-Nepali speakers (Shrestha
Newah Vijnana-7 1999a). Although Newars live in every region of Nepal,
and beyond its boundaries in India, the United States
and elsewhere the majority are concentrated in the valley of Kathmandu. Previously, the valley of Kathmandu
was known by the name "Nepal", and for many people
the word "Nepal" still continues to mean the Valley of
Kathmandu. The word "Newar" is nowadays commonly
used to indicate the people living in the Kathmandu Valley and those people who speak Newar (Nevar) or Newari
or Nepalbhasa as their mother tongue elsewhere in Nepal,
India and in other countries. The Newar is a Tibeto-Burman language with a rich ancient and modern literature
going back to the fourteenth century AD.
During the Malla reign, from the 12th until its downfall
in the 18th century, the Kings did a great deal to promote
Newar language and literature, as well as in other languages like Maithili, Avadhi, Bhojpuri, and Bengali. For
fifteen centuries a Sanskrit literary tradition was cultivated in Kathmandu Valley. The Malla courts supported all
languages, classical and vernacular, without discrimination. The extent of the literary tradition in other languages
indicates the cosmopolitan nature of the Malla courts
(Malla (1982: 7).
After the conquest of Nepal (1767), the Gorkha rulers replaced the Newar language with the Gorkhali language,
which later to be renamed as Nepali. Khas-Nepali has
been the only official language of Nepal and has begun
to be called Nepali since the 1930s only. During the autocratic Rana rule, which lasted a century (1846-1951),
all writing in the Newar language was forbidden, and this
provoked a group of Newar elites to defy the government
policy. The suppression, however, gave birth to a modern
literature written in the Newar language and the rise of a
devoted literary intelligentsia. This period is also known
as renaissance in the history of Newar literature.
As soon as the Rana regime ended in 1950, the government taught Newar language in schools and began broadcasting news on government sponsored Radio Nepal.
During the thirty years of Panchayat regime (1960-1990),
the Newar language was again suppressed as the government imposed a one-language policy. Newars peacefully
protested, however, the notion of ethnic or linguistic nationalism in Newar society emerged only toward the end
of the 1970s. It was only in 1995 that they established the
National Forum of the Newars (Newah De Dabuu) aiming
to assert ethnic national rights and rights to their language
(Shrestha 1999b).
in 1767. Ralph L. Turner asserts that the words Nevar,
Neval and Nepal all have developed from the word 'Nepal' or 'Nevar'2. There are conflicting views about the
origin of the word "Nepal." KR Malla confirms that an
inscription from 512 AD of Vasantadev of Tistung is the
first evidence that the word Nepal was used for the people
of Nepal.3 The Lichhavis, who ruled Nepal from the second to the ninth century AD, have left a corpus of inscriptions. Those inscriptions are all written in pure Sanskrit.
By analysing the place and river names written in those
inscriptions K.P. Malla concluded that, although the Licchavi rulers were inclined to use Sanskrit; the language
spoken by the people belonged to the Tibeto-Burman
stock. He thinks it likely that the names of places found
in the inscriptions are an archaic form of Nepalbhasa.4
Witzel (1980: 326) also saw the possibility of them being
early form of Newar, however, he preferred to call them
"Kirati." According to Gellner (1995: 5) "The Newari
seems to have been spoken by the inhabitants of the Kathmandu Valley as far back as the records go."
After the Lichhavis, the Thakuris ruled Nepal from the
ninth to the twelfth centuries. Not much historical evidence has been found from this period. So far, the earliest
evidence of the use of the Nepalbhasa is found on a palm
leaf document of Patan Uku Bahal dated AD 1114.5 The
earliest dated epigraph on stone in the Nepalbhasa was
found at Vajrayogini Sankhu is dated 1172 AD. Later, during the Malla period (1200-1768), the Nepalbhasa flourished, both in inscriptions and in manuscripts. Vast collections of classical Nepalbhasa literature are preserved
in Nepal in the National Archives, the Kesher library and
the Asa Archives, whereas Western scholars carried away
thousands of manuscripts from Nepal and deposited in
different libraries of the world.6
In the Malla period the name Nepal Bhasa or 'Language of Nepal' was the common name for the Newar
language. The first use of the word Newar was found in
an inscription dated AD 1654 of King Pratap Malla at
Hanumandhoka7 The Newar people to this day call their
language Nepalbhasa; in western philology it is now more
commonly known by the name Nevari' (Lienhard 1992:
3). Newar scholars from Dharmaditya Dharmacharya to
Darasa Newah and many strongly disapprove to be called
Newari' to the Newar language.8
Tradition of Writing in
the Nepalbhasa
History of the Newar language
The word "Newar" itself is recent one, which began to be
popularised only after the Gorkha conquest of the Valley
Newar is a rich and highly developed language with a vast
literature both in ancient and in modern times. There are
five hundred Tibeto-Burman languages in the world but
only five of them have ancient literature. Among them is
Shrestha/Maintenance of Language and Literature. the Newar language, which possesses ancient literature.
In Nepal only the Newar language has the longest attested
history of written tradition after the Maithili. Tradition of
writing in Newar language began in the early Malla period (1200-1482 AD).
Evidences tell that the Newar language became the language of literature since the second half of the fourteenth
century. Nepalese scholars believe that when the Muslim invaded the Valley of Nepal in 1349 AD they burnt
down large collections of manuscripts written in Newar
language together with the Hindu and Buddhist temples
of the Valley. So far the oldest book found written in the
Newar language is Haramekhala, a Tantric medical instruction manual dated 1374 AD. Originally the book was
in Prakrit language but later translated into Sanskrit and
then to Newar language. The second oldest book found
in the Newar language is Naradasmriti dated 1380. It
is also called Nyaya Vikasini, Manava Nyaya Sastra or
Narada Smriti. Several versions of Amarkosa, Sanskrit-
Newar dictionary are to be found dated between 1381
and 1386. The oldest known chronicle of Nepal, the
Gopalarajavamsavali, was compiled in Sanskrit and
Nepalbhasa in the 1380s (Vajracarya and Malla 1985).
Newar writer and historian Chhatra Bahadur Kayastha
claims that the earliest dated poem in Newar language was
dated 925 AD and a poem written by the king Harsadev
(1090-1097) was the second earliest poem in the Newar
language. There is no controversy about the three earliest poems in classical Newar dated AD 1564, 1571 and
1572 found in Patan and written by an unknown poet.
Scholars agree upon the fact that the earliest narrative text
goes back to 1374 AD and the earliest extant drama to
AD 1673.9
Only during the two hundreds years of the later Malla period the courts recognised the Newar language for administrative purposes (Shrestha 1990: 19). However, after the
Gurkha conquest of Nepal in 1769, the Newar language
had to undergo vicissitudes. At the beginning of the Shah
regime it could retain its prestige and importance. Shah
Kings such as Ranabahadur Shah and Rajendra Vikram
Shah still functioned as patrons of the Newar language
and themselves wrote literature in this language10, but
gradually the Gorkhali or the Khas, the mother tongue
of the new rulers had to prevail in Nepal displacing the
Nepalbhasa.
Renaissance in the
Newar Literature (1846-1950)
The Newars were to be excluded from political or decision-making posts as well as from military service from
the beginning of the Gorkha conquest in 1769. Before
1890 people in general had no opportunity to educate
their children in Nepal. In the 1890s when the first school
of Nepal, 'Durbar (Palace) School' was made accessible
to the public, the Newars were among the first to make
use of education. The Valley of Kathmandu was closed
for people from other parts of Nepal. The Rana saw the
Newars as the inhabitants of the politically centralised
state and as possible antagonists who might strangle them
any time. Intellectuals, social reformers, political activists or religious reformers such as Theravada Buddhists'
or Arya Samaj supporters were all regarded as a threat to
their autocratic rule.
An India scholar, Acarya Narendradev mentions the
Prime Minister Jangabahadur's seizing of old texts
from monasteries. He further writes a British residential doctor in Kathmandu, Wright, collected and presented those books to Cambridge University, which were
seized from the monastery, and thrown out on the street
by Jangabahadur.11 Janaklal Vaidya has written that the
prohibition of Nepalbhasa from the court was already declared in 1854 AD, but K.P. Malla remarks that the document mentioned by Vaidya unfortunately cannot be traced.
Malla confirms Cittadhar 'Hridaya's statement about
the 1905 ban.12 It is more likely that Jangabahadur may
have orally ordered such measures and no written documents were kept. Especially with the rise of Rana Prime
Minister Chandra Sumsher Newar language was banned
from the court. The suppression of the Newar language
and of Newar intellectuals intensified during his reign
(1901-1928). The language of the Newars Nepalbhasa"
began to be called 'Nevari' while the word Nepali' began
to designate the 'Parvatiya' or 'Khasakura' or 'Gorkhali'
language.13 The name Nepali' for the Khas language was
first made popular outside Nepal. Only in the 1930s the
rulers of the country recognised it. In a similar manner,
the word Newari' was designated to Nepalbhasa' by
western scholars a long before it was adopted by anybody
in Nepal. In the later period of the Rana regime Newar
intellectuals had to suffer profoundly under the hands of
the Ranas. Rana Prime-minister Juddha Samsher turned
much bitter towards the Newar language. "Anyone daring
to use Newar either for business or literary purposes was
found guilty of committing an illegal, even a revolutionary act" (Lienhard 1992: 4). A considerable number of
writers were given admonitions and fines, sent to prison
or forced into exile. The Rana regime was afraid of the
Newar Language and wanted to suppress it to stop any
propaganda, which might be communicated through that
language against their autocratic rule. Interestingly, at the
same time the Nepalbhasa literary renaissance age (1899-
1940)14 began, which became a milestone in the history of
Newar literature. Pandit Nisthananda Vajracarya (1858-
1935), Siddhidas Amatya (1867-1930), Jagat Sundar Malla (1882-1952), and Yogvir Singh Kansakar (1886-1941)
Newah Vijnana-7 are the four most eminent literary figures of the Nepalbhasa renaissance period.
In 1909, Nisthananda, the eldest among them was the
first to publish a Nepalbhasa book, entitled Ekavimsati
Prajnaparamita, a Buddhist text with Sanskrit slokas. In
1914, he printed another book, Lalitavistara, which deals
with Buddha's life, many other Buddhist religious stories,
and the Svayambhupuran, a mythical story about the creation of the Nepal Valley. Though these works were based
on religious stories, he lent his own originality to them.
He brought printing equipment from Calcutta and carried
out all the printing work himself, including the laborious
job of composition. Later it became difficult for him to
print his books because the government imposed censorship on all publications. Virtually all Nepalbhasa publications were banned. So Nisthananda had to print and distribute his books secretly15 His major contribution was to
publish materials for the first time in the spoken language
of the Newar society using the Devanagari script. Newar
scholars had used old scripts and old language in writing and copying thousands of manuscripts without taking changes in their spoken language into account. The
tradition of copying manuscripts by hand in Nepal scripts
(Bhujimol, Pracalit or Ranjana scripts) continued until
the beginning of last century.16
The most prolific writer of Nepalbhasa literature during
the renaissance period was Siddhidas Amatya. He wrote
nearly fifty books including a version of the epic Ramayana. His early writings deal mainly with religious and
moral philosophy, and later he wrote many poems, which
reflect his ideas on social reforms. He advocated equal
rights for women including access to education. He wrote
against caste discrimination, which was then supported by
law. These were in fact revolutionary writings for his time.
He used to visit the gatherings of Arya Samaj, a Hindu
reform movement based on Vedanta philosophy, whose
members were active in social reform programmes. In
Nepal Madhavraj Joshi established it in 1920, while in India Svami Dayananda Saraswati established it in 1875.17
Siddhidas encouraged young people to write in Nepalbhasa. An active young man of Arya Samaj, Jfianbahadur
Newa, writes that he would never have become a writer
in Nepalbhasa if Siddhidas had not inspired him in those
meetings (Newa 1967: 142-3). Many young students who
were inspired by Siddhidas later became very famous
writers of Nepal.
The Rana government hanged Sukraraj Shastri, one of the
avowed adherents of the Arya Samaj in 1941. He was the
author of the first Newar grammar, Nepalbhasa Vyakarana
(1928), and also wrote textbooks in Nepalbhasa for children Nepalbhasa Varnamala, Nepalbhasa Reader 1 and 2
(1933). Sukraraj was executed together with three other
political activists: Gangalal Shrestha, Dharmabhakta
Mathema and Dasharath Chand. They were all members
of the People's Council (Praja Parisad), which was an
anti-Rana political organisation. However, Sukraraj himself had no connection with the Praja Parisad and was
punished because of his association with the Arya Samaj
and his social reform activities (Rose and Joshi 1966: 55).
Interestingly enough the four martyrs except Dasharath
Chand were all the Newars.
In 1912, Jagat Sundar Malla (1882-1952), who advocated
education in the mother tongue, opened a school in Nepalbhasa in Bhaktapur. He wrote English-Nepalbhasa and
Nepalbhasa-English dictionaries, as well as textbooks,
both in Nepalbhasa and in Khas-Nepali. He was arrested,
tortured and threatened with imprisonment if he did not
stop his activities. He was the first to advocate education
in the mother tongue. He had to pretend being a mad man
to continue his work.18
Similarly, Yogvir Singh Kansakar (1886-1941), the
youngest among the four literary figures suffered at the
hands of the Ranas. He was arrested on several occasions,
fined and tortured. His cloth shop became a gathering
place for Nepalbhasa as well as Khas-Nepali writers of
those days. Khas-Nepali poets such as Lekhnath Paudyal,
Sambhuprasad Dhungel, Chakrapani Chalise, Laksmip-
rasad Devakota used to gather in his shop. All of them
later became outstanding literary figures in Khas-Nepali
literature.19 When the government found it out, their writings were seized, and they were severely warned not to
hold such meetings. In 1924, when Yogvir Singh published one of his religious poems, he and his publisher
both were fined. In 1929, Yogvir and his friends sought
permission to open a public library. All those who signed
this petition were fined heavily.
The Rana regime was supported by the British colonial
power, but with increasing protests against their occupation of India, the British themselves were losing the
ground. The increasing nationalist movement in India
terrified the Ranas, as it was encouraging the educated
youngsters of Nepal to rebel against their rule. The suppression of the Nepalbhasa writers, the majority population in the centre of power, was one expression of this
fear. Therefore, the Rana Prime Minister, Juddha Shamsher, went further in the effort to suppress the Nepalbhasa.
In 1933 he called a meeting of all known Newar writers
and pressed them to stop writing.
The brave or 'Bir' history of Khas-Nepali literature began in India with the publication of the weekly Gorkhali
(1915-16) from Banaras by Suryabikram Gyawali and
Chandrika from Kurseong by Parasmani Pradhan, which
postulated the nationalistic image of modern Nepal.20
Shrestha/Maintenance of Language and Literature. Similarly, the Newar people living in India for study or
business purposes were also active in the service of their
mother tongue. They started establishing organisations
and publications from India. In 1926, Dharmaditya Dhar-
macarya (1902-1963) founded the first Nepalbhasa literary organisation Nepalbhasa Sahitya Mandala in Calcutta, who had earlier started publishing the first Nepalbhasa
journal, Buddhadharma va Nepalbhasa (1925-1928). He
had to suffer tremendously from the Rana government for
his dedication to his mother tongue.21 Those Buddhists
monks who had been expelled from Nepal in 1944 for
advocating Theravada established Dharmodaya Sabha, a
Buddhist Religious Council in Sarnath and started publishing books in Nepalbhasa. Later this Sabha started publishing a second Nepalbhasa journal Dharmodaya (1946).22
Cvasapasa, another Nepalbhasa literary association was
also established in Calcutta (May 1950). It came to Nepal
after the political changes in February 1951.
In January 1941, Juddha Samsher arrested many other
people together with members of the Praja Parisad (People's Council). They were social activists, teachers and
writers. Among them were many Nepalbhasa writers including the great poet Chittadhar Hridaya, were sent to jail
for years. This proved to be a gift to Nepalbhasa literature
because some of the political prisoners turned into writers in jail. Though they had to write secretly they wrote
many books in prison, which made a significant contribution to Nepalbhasa literature. Siddhicharan Shrestha, Ke-
darman Byathit, Harikrishna Khwabilu were some of the
new genre born in the jail period of Newar literature. The
jail period contribution is considered to be a dawn to the
modern literature in the Newar language.
In 1945, together with some political prisoners, Cittad-
har Hridaya and other Nepalbhasa writers were released
from prison by the Rana government. In the same year,
Padma Samsher became the Prime Minister, who was
more liberal than his predecessors. In 1946, he allowed
those Buddhist monks, who were expelled to return to
Nepal. He also lifted the ban on Nepalbhasa publications,
and opened a separate department of censorship for publications in Nepalbhasa. Within three or four years 115
Nepalbhasa books were cleared by the censorship as recorded by the-then censor officer Khadgaman Malla of
the Nepalbhasa department (Malla 1983: 58-81). But the
liberalisation process of the Rana regime started too late.
In 1947, when India achieved independence, anti-Rana
movements gained greater momentum in Nepal, whereas
Rana rule continued to slacken after the British retreat
from India. On 18 February 1951, the Rana oligarchy ended and a multi-party democracy was introduced in Nepal.
Nepalbhasa after the 1951 change
In spite of the political changes of 1951, the Nepalbhasa
did not gain much in status. It did not achieve the right
to be used in the court of justice or in the administration.
Nepalbhasa was highly important as a language of the
Valley. It was the language of the highly educated community of Nepal. As a language of the cultural centre
and the centre of power, Nepalbhasa was the language of
wider communication and also served as a lingua franca.
It had to loose gradually under new system, because it did
not receive any recognition from the government, while
the Khas-Nepali alone was made the medium language
of government, administrations and schools. Individuals, private, cultural and social organisations remained
responsible in expanding modern literature and publications in the Newar language before and after the change of
1951, but negligence from the part of the state continued.
In January 1951, just before the fall of the Ranas, 'Democracy Radio Nepal' (Prajatantra Radio Nepal) started
an anti-Rana propaganda medium broadcasting news in
Khas-Nepali, Nepalbhasa and Hindi languages. Shortly
after the 1951 change, many public schools were opened
to educate the common people. Unfortunately, in those
schools Nepalbhasa was not recognised as a medium of
instruction. However, the Nepal Rastriya Vithyapith, a
non-governmental organisation, which took the initiative
in the field of education in the public sector, recognised
Nepalbhasa as an alternative medium in those schools
and colleges, which were run by them. This encouraged
Newar scholars to take responsibilities to produce educational materials in Nepalbhasa.
On March 3, 1951, the Council of Newar Language
(Nepalbhasa Parisad) was formed by Newar scholars,
which began to publish educational materials and literary books. Simultaneously, other Nepalbhasa organisations also started working in similar fields. During this
period many new publications in the Newar language appeared and new organisations were established. The first
Nepalbhasa daily newspaper and literary magazines appeared during this period. The Nepal Education Council
adopted Newar as an optional subject. HMG also recognised Newar as a spoken language subject and oriental
language subject in 1953. In Nepal, about 40 to 45 minutes of teaching in a day are given to a particular subject.
Seven to nine subjects are taught in a school; usually each
subject carries 100 full marks in the yearly examination.
Newar was never recognised as a medium of instruction
in education; on the contrary, Khas-Nepali was made the
only medium of instruction in schools to the detriment
of all other languages of Nepal (Shrestha 1987: Ka-kha;
Gellner 1986:120). This discriminative measure in education made it impossible for other languages including
Newah Vijnana-7 Newar to compete with the Khas-Nepali.
In 1956, the interim government of K.I. Singh declared
Khas-Nepali to be the only language of instruction in
schools at the cost of all other languages of Nepal. This
decision inspired some protests in the Tarai, the southern
belt of Nepal in favour of the Hindi language (Rose and
Joshi 1966: 202) but the Nepalbhasa speakers made no
protest. The 1959 constitution of Nepal declared Khas-
Nepali to be the national language of Nepal. The first
general elections took place in 1959, and gave the Nepali
Congress Party a massive victory and formed its government, but only to be dismissed the elected government,
and the elected parliament. Banning all political parties
the late King Mahendra introduced the dictatorial monarchical Panchayat System, which functioned for thirty
years in Nepal. Freedom of expression was limited under that system. To the detriment of all other languages,
religions and ethnicities, he strongly imposed a "one nation, one language, one religion and one culture" policy
in favour of the Khas language, the Bahun and Chhetri
(Khas) community, and the Hindu religion and culture.
Therefore, together with all other non-Nepali languages
of Nepal, Nepalbhasa again suffered in a great deal.
In 1965, Radio Nepal closed broadcasting Nepalbhasa
and Hindi news. It gave rise to protests from literary
circles. Various Nepalbhasa literary and cultural organisations in the Valley organised protest literary meetings
for one year. Many Nepalbhasa writers were arrested
and tortured. But the protests were limited to the literary
elites who were unable to gain support from the common
people to launch any effective movement. It was because
the common people did not realise the consequences of
the repressive measure applied against their language by
the government. So the protest meetings had to stop without having achieved anything. However, a year long of
literary protest meetings inspired a number of dedicated
youths, most of whom remained devoted to the cause of
language rights. Gradually its influence started to spread
beyond the Kathmandu Valley to many other small and
big Newar settlements. In a small town like Sankhu and
Hetauda, where no literary association existed till the
early 1960s a single person, such as the late Girija Prasad
Joshi (1939-1987), inspired literary and cultural movements. He stimulated many local young people to work
for the promotion of Nepalbhasa.
Publication became more difficult with the imposition
of the censorship, which intended to prevent any kind of
publication against the Panchayat System. For decades,
no new Nepalbhasa magazines, journals or newspapers
received permission to be published. In 1971, the New
Education Plan was introduced which further pushed the
Nepalbhasa back by forcing children to make a choice be
tween Nepalbhasa or other languages, science, vocational
subjects, mathematics, and so forth. This policy meant the
final suppression of the education of the Newar language
and literature at the school level.
In higher education, then only University of Nepal, Tribhuvan University, accepted Nepalbhasa as an optional
subject, and as a part of the spoken language (vernacular) subject (Khas-Nepali, Hindi, Maithili and Newar)
from 1959, but in 1971 vernacular subjects were removed
from the curriculum of the University and Nepalbhasa remained only as an optional subject to be chosen among
several other subjects. Neither at the primary or secondary
levels nor at the university level Nepalbhasa is supposed
to be the medium of instruction. In 1977, Nepalbhasa was
introduced at the Master's Degree level and a PhD degree
was also made possible. Moreover, a degree in Newar
from the university was not highly valued since it did
not give access to employment in administrative posts of
HMG, as it did not add marks for promotions.
The Royal Academy of Nepal never recognised any
prominent literary figures in Newar language. It published
no books written in Newar. Also the government owned
Sajha Publication (Co-operative Publication), which was
originally called Gorkha Bhasa Prakasana Samiti (Gorkha Language Publication Committee) but later renamed
Nepali Bhasa Prakasana Samiti (Nepali Language Publication Committee) and in 1965 converted into Sajha
Prakasana, never published any text books or literature in
Newar language while it continued to publish textbooks
and readers as well as literary texts in Khas-Nepali. The
curriculum development centre of Tribhuvan University,
and the Educational Materials production centre are producing Khas-Nepali textbooks for higher education and
schools, but they never published books in any of the
other languages of Nepal (Malla 1989: 459). The government run Radio Nepal and Nepal Television were also
reserved only for Khas-Nepali. They were giving regular programmes in Hindi, Urdu and English, but one of
the native languages of Nepal rarely received a chance in
those electronic media.
Nevertheless, Newar intellectuals were trying to encourage loyalty to their mother tongue among the Newars
through various literary and cultural organisations. Organising weekly, monthly or yearly literary programmes,
celebrating the birthdays of the late Nepalbhasa writers, or
observing Nepal Samvat New Years' day23 In 1979, following the consequences of a students' movement, King
Birendra, announced the political referendum and lifted
restrictions against public gatherings and meetings. This
situation allowed the Newars to organise themselves in a
new way for the cause of their language and ethnic or national identity. The result was the formation of the Asso-
Shrestha/Maintenance of Language and Literature. ciation of Newar Speakers (Nepalbhasa Mamkah Khalah)
in August 1979. They categorically rejected the "one language-one nation, one religion-one culture" policy of the
government and urged equal rights to all languages and
nationalities of Nepal. Their demands included education
in the mother tongue to children, rights for all languages
to be used in the court of justice and in administration,
access for all languages into the government media, and
recognition of the culture of all nationalities.24
In the 1980 referendum, the partyless Panchayat System
declared victorious against the multi-party system and the
old language policy continued to prevail. However, the
Nepalese press continued the freedom that it acquired during the referendum period. The launching of the Nepalbhasa weekly Inap in Kathmandu in 1982 was a milestone
in Nepalbhasa movement.25 It played a vital role in inspiring awareness among the Newars for their lingual
and national rights. The circulation of the Inap was not
limited to the Kathmandu Valley but also reached many
other Newar towns outside the valley. Similarly, another
weekly Rajamati was launched during this same period.
Present Position
From the time of the autocratic Rana regime till today,
repression of Newar language saw no end. The Newars,
however, are keen to develop their language and literature
on their own. Many Newar literary and cultural organisations appeared, and even many Newar individual put their
efforts, published numerous books in Nepalbasa without
any support from the state. There are numerous publications to be found in all sections of writings: modern essays, plays, fictions and poetry26 It was only in the 1920s
that Dharmaditya Dharmacharya introduced a modern
essay in Newar language, but at present there are many
established essayists in Newar language. The late Moti
Laksmi' Upasika' was the first person to introduce a modern short story in Newar language in the 1930s. She also
happened to become the first women short story writer
in Khas-Nepali. Nowadays there is a bulk of short story
writers in Newar language. Modern play writing in the
Newar language began with the publication of Chittad-
har's 'KalyanT in the 1950s and it has developed since
many new play writers. With the publication of the late
Dhuswan Sayami's ' Misa', Nepalbhasa received the most
gifted novel writer. He left many novels to his credits.
Similarly, the great poet Grija Prasad Joshi, besides his
contributions in poetry, drama, literary criticism, has left
bulks of novels in Nepalbhasa. At present, there are many
novel writers in Nepalbhasa including the first woman
novelist Sashikala Manandhar.
Modern poetry in the Newar language was initiated relatively late compared to other fields. It was only in the
1960s that with the publication of Purna Bahadur Vaidya's
poetry collection ' Sarasu the Newar language received
modern poetry in the style of T.S. Eliot, who introduced
modern poetry in the English language in the 1920s. The
most celebrated poet in Nepalbhasa, who still is active in
writing, is Durga Lall Shrestha, who has inspired many
new talents in Nepalbhasa. The late poet Girija Prasad,
who unfortunately passed away at a tender age of forty-
eight, left behind more than eighty books, and numerous
pieces of poems together with an epic poem. Nowadays,
Nepalbhasa is rich with many new generation poets who
are engaged in contributing to enhance modern poetry.
The Newars can be very proud of having numerous poets
not only during its early days of its history but also at
present. It is notable that Newar writers produced a considerable amount of protest writings because of continuous suppression their language has to bear throughout its
modern history.
Besides original creative writings in Nepalbhasa, there is
a tradition of translating world literature into Nepalbhasa, and Nepalbhasa into English. For instance Tirtha Raj
Tuladhar devoted whole of his life in this valuable work.
However, there is only a very few academicians who have
been working toward translating Nepalbhasa literature
into English. Among them are Professor Tej Ratna Kansakar and folklorist Keshar Lal Shrestha, who took this
burden of translating Nepalbhasa literature into English
upon themselves out of their personal hobby. They have
translated numerous Nepalbhasa fictions, poetry, and essays into English in their lifetime. Kansakar now in his
seventies, and Shrestha in his late eighties, both are still
active in this field. In the 1980s, Chwasa Pasa initiated
the Sahitya Guthi and carried out translation project as
it received a financial support from the Toyota Foundation, Japan. Initially, it translated many Japanese books
into Nepalbhasa and Khas-Nepali. Later, as the Toyota
Foundation awarded a project called 'Know your neighbours thyself the Sahitya Guthi started translating South
Asian literature into Nepalbhasa, Khas-Nepali, Maithili,
etc. Similarly, it also translated representative Nepalbhasa
writings into English. A few foreign scholars have also
taken interest in this task of translating Nepalbhasa literature into English. For instance, Todd Lewis, together
with a Newar scholar Suvarman Tuladhar translated the
voluminous epic poem Sugata Saurav of the Late Chittadhar 'Hridaya' into English. In such a way, Nepalbhasa
literature is gradually been made available to greater mass
of English readers.
In 1979, with the establishment of Nepalbhasa Mamka
Khalah, the Newar elites could manage to combine the
language movement in a forum, whose chairman is a
prominent human rights activist of Nepal, Padma Ratna
Tuladhar. Numerous Newar literary organisations exist in
70
Newah Vijnana-7 different towns and villages of the Kathmandu valley and
outside the valley. In 1992, a Nepalbhasa Academy was
established in Kathmandu. Nowadays beside several literary magazines and journals, a daily Sandhya Times, a few
weeklies such as Desaymaru Jhyah, Apsara and Svanigah,
are regularly been published in Nepalbhasa. Noteworthy
is the publication house Ilohan, which has been publishing Layaku bi-monthly, Nahli monthly literary magazine,
Ilohan children's digest, Lipi Pau, Page-3 besides books
in Nepalbhasa. There are also web based news bulletins,
magazines and forums though in moderate and meagre
manner.
Since 1995, the Newars are organised under the umbrella
of the Forum of the Newars (Newah De Dabu) to achieve
equal rights to their language and culture. The Newars
have also been in the forefront of the campaign for education in the mother tongue, long before the new constitution of 1990 granted that right. However, post 1990 governments did virtually nothing to promote other languages
of Nepal as it retained only Khas as Nepali and national
language for official use. The Supreme Court of Nepal
went further issuing a decision in 1999 prohibiting the
use of local languages even in municipalities and District
Development Committees. This has infuriated non-Nepali
speaking nationalities of Nepal and instigated many protest programmes but for no avail.
For a long time, mostly Newars were in forefront in advocating their language and culture, but with the establishment of the Federation of the Indigenous Nationalities of
Nepal (Nepal Adibasi Janajati Mahasangha) in 1991, its
sixty-two member have shown their solidarity to achieve
equal rights to their languages and cultures. They urge that
the state must end present discriminatory policy against
non-Khas-Nepali speaking nationalities and treat languages, cultures and religions of all nationalities equally.
Interestingly enough, by launching peoples' war in 1996,
the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) skilfully began
capitalising the grievances of the oppressed nationalities
of Nepal. At first, they initiated 'All Nepal Nationalities' Organisation' (Akhil Nepal Janajati Samgha), which
presented many radical demands, including the right of
self-determination for all nationalities in Nepal. Then they
commenced liberation fronts (Mukti Morchas) for various
ethnic nationalities of Nepal, such as the Newar Liberation Front, the Limbuwan Liberation Front, the Khambu-
wan Liberation Front, the Tamang Liberation Front, the
Tharu wan Liberation Front, the Magarat Liberation Front,
and the Gurung Liberation Front, etc. Declaring autonomous region for each of these nationalities, the Maoists
advocated federal state based on major ethnic-nationalities of Nepal already during their underground period.
The history of suppression of nationalities and languages
in Nepal has to see huge changes with the country turned
to become a 'Federal Democratic Republic' by overthrowing the 240 years old autocratic monarchy, the symbol or suppression of ethnic-nationalities and languages in
Nepal. There are conflicting views regarding formation of
a federal state amongst parties and Janajatis. Some are of
the view that the country should be divided along the line
of geography, while others, especially, various Janajati
groups insist on division on the basis of ethnic and lingual
line (Tamang 2006). The Janajatis' demands for autonomy and self-determination rights are intended to promote
their languages and cultures on equal basis, while certain
groups in Tarai are insisting a federal state with rights to
secession.
The oppressed nationalities hope to see a new constitution
to be made ending all discriminations based on language,
culture, religion, nationality, gender and castes. However,
the making of the constitution has been delayed because
of conflicting views among the political parties on major issues including the structure of the federation. If a
new constitution is made anytime soon fitting to its multinational, multicultural, multilingual, and multi-religious
nature of the country providing the rights to self-rule and
self-determination, the Newars are at the most advantageous position because they are the one who has a longest
history of writing literature in their mother tongue. They
continued maintaining the tradition of writing even during the most adverse times of history for their language.
They survived the autocratic Shah rule; saw the most ruthless Rana regime, dictatorial Panchyat and the so-called
multi-party democratic system where their language been
remained continuously neglected. Therefore, there is no
doubt if the creation of' Newa Rajya' or ' Nepal Mandala'
is realised making the Newars themselves their masters,
and when the state itself begin supporting Newar language, and literature, it will flourish profoundly as never
before.
Endnotes:
Vajracarya & Malla (1985: 121-122).
1
2See Turner (1931: 353) and Mali (1978: 14-18). See Acharya
for a different view (1953).
For detailed discussion on the word Nepal see Malla (1983a:
63-69).
4See Malla (1983b: 57-68). See also Malla (1981: 5-23) and
Malla (1996: 1-9).
Malla (1990: 15-26 ) has analysed the document from the linguistic point of view.
6See Malla 1982. See also Vaidya and Kamsakar (1991).
7Malla(1991:32)
8See Shakya 1997.
9See Singh (2000: 22-24) and (Malla 1989: 446-7).
10See Shah (1967).
USee Acarya (1956: 123) and Shrestha (1990: 20).
Shrestha/Maintenance of Language and Literature.
77 See Hridaya (1982: 7) and Malla (1978: 5).
See Burghart (1996: 253). See also Pradhan (1991: 203) and
Shaya (1997).
See Tamot (1985: 1).
For detail see Hridaya (1982: 25-36), see also Tamot (1985).
See Kansakar (1997: 11).
See Percival (1970: 164).
For more detail see Hridaya (1982: 83-92), Lakaul 1988, Pi-
waju and Malla (1984). See also Adams (1992:11).
See Hridaya (1982: 95).
See Onta (1996; 37-76).
For detail on Dharmaditya see Lakaul (1984: 19-42).
See Kasa (1988) and Joshi (1974)
In Nepal, the solar-based Vikram calendar is in official use.
The Newar people's New Year celebration is based on
Nepal Samvat or Nepaladesiya Samvat, the 'Era of the
country Nepal' as the official calendar committee of Nepal states it. It is believed that a merchant Samkhadhar at
the time of King Raghavadeva founded Nepal Samvat on
Thursday October 20, 879 AD. See Slusser (1982: 389)
for more on Nepal Samvat. See also Vajracarya and Malla
(1985: 236).
24See the Bhintuna Pau, 1993.
25See (Shrestha 1995: 448-456).
26See Tuladhar (1991), Singh Pradhan (1997), Shrestha and
Tuladhar (2000), and Tamot and Shrestha (2000).
References
Acarya, Baburam. 1953. "Nepal Nevar ra Nevar Bhasa" (Nepal Nevar and Nevar language) [in Khas-Nepali]. Nepal
Samskritic Parisad 1(1): 1-16.
Acarya, Narendradev. 1994(1956) Baudha Dharma Darsan
(Buddhist Religious Philosophy) [in Hindi]. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas.
Adams, Barbara. 1992. "Master Jagat Sundar Malla: A Prophet
Before his time." Independent Weekly, November 4, p.
11.
Bista, Dorbahadur 1976 (1967). People of Nepal. Kathmandu:
Ratna Pustak Bhandar.
Burghart, Richard 1996. The Conditions of Listening. Essays on
Religion, History and Politics in South Asia, (eds.) C.J.
Fuller and J. Spencer. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Doherty, Victor S. 1978. "Notes on the Origins of the Newars
of the Valley of Nepal." In J.E Fisher (ed.) Himalayan
Anthropology. The Hague. Paris: Mouton.
Gellner, David N. 1996 (1992). Monk, Householder, and Tantric Priest. Newar Buddhism and its Hierarchy of Ritual.
New Delhi: Cambridge University Press.
Gellner, David N. 1986. "Language, Caste Religion and Territory: Newar Identity Ancient and Modern." Archives
European Sociology. 27: 102-48.
HMG 1990. The Constitution of Nepal, [in Khas-Nepali]. Kathmandu: Ministry of Justice.
HMG CBS 1993. Population Census 1991 vol. 1, Part Vlf,
Table 25.
Hridaya, Cittadhar. 1982. Jhigu Sahitya (Our Literature), [in
Nepalbhasa]. Kathmandu: Nepalbhasa Parisad.
Joshi, Satya Mohan. 1974. Kilam Nayemaphugu Pau (The document saved from being moth-eaten), [in Nepalbhasa].
Patan: Hemantaraj Joshi.
Kansakar, Tej Ratna. 1997. "The Newar Language: A Profile"
Newah Vijnana A Journal of Newar Studies 1(f): 11-37.
Kasa, Prembahadur. 1988. Dharmodayay Ji (fn Dharmoday).
[in Nepalbhasa]. Kathmandu: Cvasapasa..
Lakaul, Baikuntha Prasad 1988. J.S. Malla Jigu Mikhay (J. S.
Malla in My Eyes), [in Nepalbhasa]. Kathmandu: Lacoul
Publications.
Lakaul, Baikuntha Prasad 1984. "Nepalbhasa Parisad va Cittadhar Hridaya" (Nepalbhasa Parisad and Cittadhar
Hridayain). [in Nepalbhasa]. In M. Karmacharya and
R Vajracarya (eds.), fn Memory of Chittadhar Hridaya.
Kathmandu: Nepalbhasa Parisad.
Lienhard, S. 1992 (1974). The Songs of Nepal. An Anthology
of Nevar Folksongs and Hymns. Delhi: Motilal Banara-
sidass.
Mali, Indra. 1978. Jhigu Bhay: Jhigu Khamgva (Our Language
Our Words), [in Nepalbhasa]. Pokhara: Mam Bhay Mu-
lukha.
Malla, Kamal P. 1996. "The Profane Names of the Sacred Hillocks." CNS 23(1): 1-9.
Malla, Kamal P. 1990. "The Earliest Dated Document in Nepalbhasa. The Palm leaf from UkE Bahah N.S. 235/A.D.
1114." Kailas. 16(1-2): 15-26.
Malla, Kamal R 1989. "Language and Society in Nepal." in
K. P. Malla (ed) Nepal Perspectives on Continuity and
Change. Kirtipur CNAS pp. 445-466
Malla, Kamal P. 1983a. "Nepal Archaeology of the Word" Nepal Heritage Society Souvenir. Kathmandu: RATA Conference, pp. 63-69.
Malla, Kamal P. 1983b. "River Names of the Nepal Valley: A
Study in Cultural Annexation." Contributions to Nepalese Studies, 10(1-2): 57-68.
Malla, Kamal P. 1982. Classical Nepalbhasa Literature; A
Sketch. Kathmandu: Educational Enterprise.
Malla, Kamal P. 1981 "Linguistic Archaeology of the Nepal
Valley A Preliminary Report." Kailash 8 (1-2): 5-23.
Malla, Kamal P. 1978. Nepalbhasa Bibliography, [in
Nepalbhasa]. Kathmandu: Layta Dabu.
Malla, Khadga Man 1983. "Nepalbhasa Literature Towards
the End of the Rana Autocracy." [in Nepalbhasa]. In K.
Tamot (ed), An fntroduction to Nepalbhasa Literature.
Kathmandu: Nepalbhasa Parisad. 58-82.
Malla, K. Sundar. 1991. "Nevah Jatiya Paricaya" (An Introduction to the Newar Nationilty). [in Nepalbhasa]. Nepal. 39
(58): 30-39.
Nepalbhasa Mamkah Khalah 1993. Bhintuna Pau (A Souvenir).
Kathmandu: The Association of Newar Speakers, [in
Nepalbhasa].
Newa, Jnanbahadur. 1967. "Siddhidas Lumamka" (In Memory
of Siddhidas). [in Nepalbhasa]. In Kasa, P. (ed.), Know
Siddhidas. Kathmandu: Cvasapasa. 142-3.
Onta P. 1996 "Creating a Brave Nepali Nation in British India: The Rhetoric of Jati fmprovement, Rediscovery of
Bhanubhakta and the Writing of Bir History." Studies in
Nepali History and Society. 1(1) 37-76.
Percival, S. 1970. A History of India. Middlesex: Penguin
Books.
Piwaju, Suryabahadur. and Malla K. Sundar. 1984. Jagatsundar
Malla. [in Nepalbhasa]. Kathmandu: Nepalbhasa Parisad.
Pradhan, Kumar 1991. The Gorkha Conquests. The Process and
consequences of the unification of Nepal, With Reference
to Eastern Nepal. Calcutta: Oxford University Press.
Rose, Leo and Bhuwanlal. Joshi 1966. Democratic Innovations
in Nepal. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Shakya, Daya Ratna 1997 "fn Naming a Language." a paper
presented at the 3rd Himalayan Language Symposium,
UC Santa Barbara, the USA, July 18-20.
Shah, Rajendra Vikram. 1967. Mahasatvapakhyan (Mahasatva:
A Drama), [in Nepalbhasa]. Kathmandu: Mandas Sugat-
72
Newah Vijnana-7 das.
Shrestha, Bal Gopal 1999a. "Rastriya Janagananay Khay Bhay
Lhaipinigu Mithyamka: Chagu Namuna Sakvaya Suntol
Ga.Vi.Sa" (The Deceptive Numbers of Nepali Speakers in the CBS Census: an Example - Suntol V.D.C of
Sankhu). Sandhya Times. March 9 page 2.
Shrestha Bal Gopal 1999b. "The Newars: The Indigenous
Population of the Kathmandu Valley in the Modern State
of Nepal." Contributions to Nepalese Studies 26 (1): 83-
117.
Shrestha, Bal Gopal 1995. "Nepalbhasaya Patrakarita Mhigah
Thaum va Kanhay" (Nepalbhasa Journalism Past, Present
and Future), [in Nepalbhasa]. In Phanindra Ratna Bajracarya, (ed.) fn Memory of Maniharsha Jyoti Kathmandu:
Nepalbhasa Parisad. pp. 448-456.
Shrestha, Bhushan Prashad and Prem Shanti Tuladhar (eds.)
2000. Contemporary Writing in Nepal Bhasa. Kathmandu: The Foundation for Literature.
Shrestha, Manik Lal 1990. "Nepalbhasaya Samalocana: Sah-
ityaya Parampara va Vikas" (Nepalbhasa Criticism: the
Tradition of Literature and the Stage of Development).
In RS. Tuladhar (ed.), Nepalbhasa va Thvaya Sahitya
Vibhagiya Gosthi. Kathmandu: Lacoul Publication, pp.
15-27.
Singh Pradhan, Krishanchandra (ed.) 1997. A Representative
Collection of Nepal Bhasa Poems. Kathmandu: Genesh
'Apar' Sanubabu Vaidya Smriti Prakashan Samiti.
Singh, Tulasi Lal 2000. "Pulamgu Nepalbhasa Sahityay Chapu-
lu" (Classical Newar Literature: An Observation), [in
Nepalbhasa] In Kashinath Tamaot and Omkareshwor
Shrestha (eds.) Ucca Siksay Nepalbhasa va Sahitya. Yala:
Central Department of Nepalbhasa.
Slusser, Mary S. 1982. Nepal Mandala A Cultural Study of
the Kathmandu Valley. Princeton: Princeton University
Press.
Tamang, Sitaram (ed.) 2006. Restructuring of State in Nepal's
Context, (in Khas-Nepali). Kathmandu: Samana Praksan,
Nepal.
Tamaot, Kashinath and Omkareshwor Shrestha (eds.) 2000.
Ucca Siksay Nepalbhasa va Sahitya (Newar Literature
at the Higher Education). Yala: Central Department of
Nepalbhasa.
Tamot, Kasinath 1985. Gadhyaguru Pandit Nisthananda Vajracarya va Vayakaya 'Lalitavistar' (The Master of Prose:
Pandit Nisthananda Vajracarya and His 'Lalitvistar'). [in
Nepalbhasa]. Kathmandu: Cakana Sahitya Pala.
Tuladhar, Prem Santi 1990. "The Stage and the Form of Newar
Language in Pre-Ancient Time." In Prem S. (ed) Nepalbhasa va Thvaya Sahitya Vibhagiya Gosthi. Kathmandu,
pp. 128 - 137 (in Nepalbhasa).
Vaidya, Janaklal and Prembahadur. Kasa 1991. A Descriptive
Catalogue of Selected Manuscripts Preserved at The Asa
Archives. Kathmandu: Cvasapasa.
Vajracarya, Dhanavajra and Kamal P. Malla. 1985. The Gopal-
arajavamsavali. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner.
Witzel, Michael. 1980. "On the Location of the Licchavi Capital of Nepal." Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik 5/6:
311-338.
* Prepared for a presentation at Lumanti Program 'the First
Nepalbh Literary gathering organised in memory of
Nepalbhasa writers by Matina Magazine Publication in
London, UK on 18 December 2010
Book Announcement:
Practical Nepal Bhasa Dictionary
Shrestha/Maintenance of Language and Literature.
13 The Chandra Nursery:
Centenary (1910 - 2010)
- A Tribute
Rajiva Shanker Shresta
Sikkim, India
It was the year 2001, when in Kathmandu to print a book
on rural technology Vikasko Goreto Grameen Proudyogiki
- Kam Dam Dher Gyanka Satheek Sujhauharu at the
Shakya Offset Press, an idea struck why not a CD-
ROM version too along with its deluxe, hardbound and
paperback editions? This writer could soon find the
technical support in E-motion, a PATA award-winner for
its Nepal Tourism Board promo that year, while, for the
voice back up, Sagarmatha FM had Sugam Pokhrel and
Prabha Adhikari ready to help and record just in one go
from the script prepared that very morning. This CD-
ROM is now the first ever for a Nepali book the world
over.
That fine morning it dawned upon on the writer that the
Chandra Nursery should get and be given the credit for
making Sikkim what it is today because of the sheer
foresight and farsightedness of one and the only one - the
great and brightest jewel Chandrabir Newar (1837-1900).
He, along with his brother Laxmidas from Bhaktapur
nee Bhadgaon in Nepal, had landed in Darjeeling in the
year 1851 escaping the Kot Parva when the Ranas had
conspired evil designs rather than pay the debt they owed
to them. They had fortune smiling on them with grocery
business started selling gundruk flourishing. They had
to dispose of a sword, their only heirloom in possession,
to invest and run the business at Gundri Bazar, the then
hub of the town came to be later named after this item.
They were invited by the power that be then to this tiny
Himalayan Kingdom Sikkim nestled in the foothills of
the mighty Mount Kanchenjunga. It was still a common
practice here to sow paddy by digging a hole in the field
with the help of a stick. He started human settlement
clearing deep forests full of dangerous wild animals amidst
strong and wild protest from a section of the society. This
led in 1872 and again in 1878 to scuffle to be settled on
the intervention of the British, since many amongst them
were in their support too for the good works they had
done bringing in the development and prosperity to the
otherwise barren uninhabited forest land, only on the 14th
April, 1880, in the presence of the Deputy Commissioner
Paul at Rhenock.
Chandrabir Newar, a strict law-enforcer who collected for
the Durbar revenues accumulated unpaid over a decade,
was also into philanthropy. He understood well the role
that a temple played in binding together a society so as to
build Sri Sri Sri Dhaneshwar Mahadev Shivalaya Mandir
at the site, which the fable retold since ages say that he
dreamt of some sage showing him the same spot, where
from some stone idol was to be later found and installed.
Stories of this temple being built by somebody else later
on, circulated by a few, does not hold water and could
only be the figment of their imagination as the biography
(unpublished manuscript) by late Pandit Devi Prasad
Sharma, father of Kanchhabajey Pandit Deoraj Sharma of
Pachekhani, circa-1929 mention the truth.
It was during the same period that Chandrabir Newar
thought the need to have a Rhenock Newar Guthi
(association) for his fellow citizens which could play a
significant role unifying them. Senior most of the Guthi
was entrusted with the responsibility of managing the
affairs of the Mandir. This Guthi exists even to this day
there at Rhenock that still render help to the people in
distress or when someone is dead for marriage rituals
besides other matters of the society.
The adage, "like father like son," proved correct, his sons
carried on the torch starting Chandra Dramatic Club
named after him at Rhenock that saw this trend later
spreading over to other parts of Sikkim and neighbouring
Darjeeling as early as in 1930s. A practice started by
Chandrabir Newar now that is a tradition taking out every
year the procession on the Gai Jatra day in memory of the
departed soul in past one year religiously even till this day
u
Newah Vijnana-7 could find Rhenock to be the only place outside Nepal to
hold it the world over!
The British honored him for the exemplary brevity
declaring him the chieftain of the society with the title of
'Pradhan'. They, in turn, shared this rare honor, with the
rest of his kinsman giving credit of this accomplishment
as that of their whole community instead, without whose
support it would not have been possible for him to reach
so far all alone. As a result, we now see most of the
Newars in Sikkim and Darjeeling write this surname of
Pradhan. Even the Shakya have adopted this surname.
Hence, this adoption is now even beyond one's perception
to find even others assuming the title - thus reducing the
ethos and identity of the community itself.
A nother honour the B ri ti s h bes to wed on Chandrabi r Newar
was that of 'Bahadur Shamsher' for the extraordinary
valor and dedication they showed. He passed on this
honor to his two sons thus naming Ratna Bahadur and
Durga Shamsher.
Being   given   the   rights
in   1868   to   extract  ores
excavating copper mines,
they minted till  1891AD
coins    with    inscriptions
Sri Sri Sri Sikkim Sarkar
and Sri Sri Sri Sikkimpati
Maharaj    as    well    that
earned   them    and   their
family the title  'Taksari'.
Dr.    Parasmani    Pradhan,
eminent   educationist   of
the period declared Taksari
Chandrabir Newar a jewel
(vibhuti)   and   mentioned
of this  Chandra Nursery
- started by his two sons,
Ratna   Bahadur   Pradhan
and      Durga      Shamsher
Pradhan    -    included    in
his    textbooks    and    got
approved  by the Board of
Education to be taught in
the schools thus spreading the message far and wide for
wide knowledge and benefit of the general public.
Keshab C Pradhan's Memoir
In his memoir, The Life and Times of a Plantsman in
the Sikkim Himalayas, Keshab C Pradhan mentions of
My Uncles' Chandra Nursery — Pioneers in the Plant
Business giving a beautiful account. "The two sons of
Chandrabir from his fourth wife (Bhima Devi - writer),
Taksari Chandrabir Newar
(1837-1900)
Rai Saheb Ratna Bahadur Pradhan
(1886 - 1946)
Ratna Bahadur and Durga
Shamsher started the plant
business in their vast lands
extending to around 80
acres at Rhenock East
Sikkim in 1910. It is till a
mystery as to how the idea
of trading in plants dawned
on them." Mentioning
different versions for
possibility of going in for
a nursery for plants, "the
Chandra Nursery got a
boost as the elder brother
Rai Saheb Ratna Bahadur
in charge of Rhenock
Estate and also a member
of the State Council had an excellent rapport with the
Political Officers, several Governors and their guests
from the UK visited Sikkim frequently. Their contact
further boosted the interest in the plant business especially
orchids which at that time, were highly
priced among the British aristocracy.
"While the elder brother Ratna Bahadur
specialized in orchids his younger brother
Durga Shamsher learnt the art of growing
and hybridizing garden plants like
bougainvilleas, dahlias and gerberas (and
chrysanthemums and roses too - writer). A
large number of garden plants were named
after the royal families of Sikkim and the
Ranas of Nepal as they happened to be
good customers. Some of them were also
named after family members and workers
in their establishment.
"They were not botanists be genes nor
education. How they imbibed so rich a
knowledge that would put any botanist to
shame is still a mystery. Their only source
of reference came from two momentous
books. The Rhododendrons of Sikkim
Himalayas by J.D. Hooker (1854) and
The  Orchids  of Sikkim  by King  and
Pantling (1898) besides their cousin and my father Rai
Saheb Bhim Bahadur, Forest Manager.
"Ratna Bahadur had a place to stay at Gangtok, being a
landlord-cum-councillor. The Chandra Nursery reached a
peak in 1930s (With proceeds from one single supply they
could build a two-storied bungalow to serve as the office
complex of the Chandra Nursery in 1937 - my late father
used to mention me - author). It was a household name all
over the world, from Buckingham Palace and Balmoral
Shresta/The Chandra Nursery..
15 Castle to the orchid house of Sanders and the Viceregal
Lodge in Delhi. Their Visitor's Book became a Who's
Who, from Governors to Maharajahs, eminent botanists
like Sir George Taylor. The visit of Her Excellency the
Marchioness of Linlithgow (wife of Viceroy of India)
on December 12, 1940 was the high point of their
establishment.
"Initially, my uncles did not know the process of labeling,
packing and forwarding. So they ordered orchids from
nurseries in the UK and Australia and herbaceous
plants from Duncan and Davies in New Zealand. The
consignment took three months to reach them by sea. The
moment parcels arrived; there was a good gathering of
all concerned from the malis (gardeners) to the owner.
They checked every detail and then emulated the process.
It worked. Since cardboard boxes were not available,
they devised woven bamboo baskets of the correct size
and shape acceptable to the postal system. Rhenock Post
Office was upgraded to handle metre-long parcels, (a
Telegraph Office too was functional there at Rhenock in
those days even - author). Then onwards there was no
looking back. Ratna Bahadur had an able hand in his son-
in-law Surjyaman Shresta (Suryaman Singh Joshi, whose
work could still be seen around the Buddha statue near
the Tashiling Secretariat in Gangtok - writer) - a pleasant
personality and a gifted garden designer.
"Those were the glorious years, and it was this single
establishment, rather an institution, that was responsible
for spreading the name of Sikkim far and wide across the
globe. So much so that when my cousin, Mohan Pratap,
former Chief Secretary and son of Ratna Bahadur during
his administrative training
in Oxford UK in 1960 lined
up   along   with   students
from other Commonwealth
countries    to    greet    the
Queen Mother, he was lost
for words about describing
his    country    of    origin
assuming    Her    Majesty
wouldn't     know     where
Sikkim was. Her Majesty
excitedly replied "Oh you
are from Sikkim - the land
of rhododendrons?" Even
today the curators at the
premier botanical gardens
in UK and the continent
mention   with   pride   that
the primulas and rhododendrons growing in their gardens
mostly come through the Chandra Nursery in Sikkim in
the Himalayas. It was a mecca of plants and they imported
plants of all types, which they thought had commercial
Ganeshman Singh (1915-1997)
prospects.
Pradhan mentions of his group tour to Hanover attending
the International Rhododendron Conference in May
1992, when he visited Elizabeth Hobbie's Rhododendron
Park spread over 300 acres where most of the plants were
from seeds of Himalayan Rhododendrons supplied by the
Chandra Nursery and also of such random encounters
occurred at various places around the world.
Acknowledging its role as the mentor, he further writes,"
Most of the eligible male members of the family who
worked in various sections of the garden at the Chandra
Nursery, from orchids to bulbous plants, seeds and
fruit plants eventually turned out to be accomplished
nurserymen and set up a base in the neighboring town of
Kalimpong in West Bengal. Gardeners from Nepal and
Bhutan were trained for the royal courts. Even the veteran
Nepali Congress politician, Ganeshman Singh worked
(incognito, I hear) in the garden for some years. This fact
became known to my uncles only after he left the garden.
Ganeshman Singh in Sikkim
As regards the veteran leader Ganeshman Singh working
in the Chandra Nursery, let us hear straight from the
horse's mouth as told in Ma Krishnabahadur Typist Bane
(I became Krishna Bahadur Typist) from his biography
Mero Kathaka Panaharu (Pages from my Story) translated
for the benefit of the readers:
"Jaishankerlal's in-laws were in Sikkim. He would write
a letter to his father-in-
law and I was to go and
stay there - so, I went to
Sikkim. I reached satisfied
that I would be in an area
and amongst Nepali-
speaking populace. The
address to which I was
directed that was the Kothi
or residence of Rai Saheb!
He was the Rai Saheb of
Rhenock estate in Sikkim.
Actually, a Rai Saheb
is equivalent to a big
landowner with immense
landed property, but the post
had a different stature/status
during the British regime.
His personality was awesome and he was elegant and
refined as well. I once asked him why he had Shamsher
for his name (he might have asked this to his brother
Durga Shamsher - writer), he narrated me an anecdote
from his father's memoir.
76
Newah Vijnana-7 "According to this, his ancestors had reached Sikkim from
Dhulikhel (Bhatgaon to be correct - author). They had to
travel to and fro Nepal frequently. It was during one such
journey that he was much harassed by the people at the
border while Shamshers were treated with respect. On
his return home he thought it better to name himself too
a Shamsher." (Late Durga Shamsher's third son, Bidhan
Chandra Prakash Pradhan, has a different version to
share and narrates that Shamsher Bahadur was an honour
bestowed on the family by the British for their exemplary
bravery and feat in repulsing the aggressive forces as also
mentioned in the beginning above.-writer)
married to Tulsilal on a holiday from Calcutta knew and
recognized him but his identity was not disclosed until
Krishna Bahadur Typist nay Ganeshman Singh left the
place. He used to spend his nights in the outskirts of the
Chandra Nursery in a room of the Bhima Devi Memorial
School started by the Rai Saheb Ratna Bahadur Pradhan in
memory of his deceased mother. My mother was a student
there along with her sisters before going to St. Joseph's
Convent in Kalimpong, where late Shankha Gurung, wife
of the former chief minister Bhim Bahadur Gurung, was
among her friends.
"There was a Nursery belonging to Rai
Saheb. This was regarded as the best or
second in Asia in those days. Its name was
the Chandra Nursery. I joined there as a
Typist. Being his son-in-law's friend, he
used to respect and treat me well. Other
members of the family were also cordial
and I was taken as one amongst them.
Whatever be the treatment from the family,
I had given my introduction as the Typist
only. Thus my name even was changed
while in Sikkim. This name was given
to me by Jai Shanker Lal Shresta. While
writing to his father-in-law he just wrote,
'Krishna Bahadur Pradhan from Birgunj.'
"Thus I went to become Typist Krishna
Bahadur Pradhan of Chandra Nursery."
Jai Shanker Lal Shresta (1917- 2003)
"Thus I, a person who had never touched a
typewriter with his fingers, had to remain
stay in Sikkim for a few days. There was no problem
but in stead, I being a son-in-law's friend, was given
treatment befitting a son-in-law. However, I could not
be happy there. I had to spend a sort of disciplined life,
without any opportunity to share political thoughts and no
one to discuss the situation and to contact the people from
Nepal; I started feeling uncomfortable with my Sikkim
sojourn. So, I decided to leave Sikkim though it was an
appropriate and the right place from the point of view of
security.
"Thus my name now became Krishna Bahadur Pradhan.
I was known by that name until I was in India. Once in
1950 Jawahar Lal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India, also
advised me to keep that name in stead of Ganeshman."
My father once told me of the episode. Ganeshman Singh,
calling in hushed tone from behind in a busy market place
in Calcutta, to find him in rags and tatters dressed like a
porter seen in the hills. My mother tells me that none in
the family knew even though her cousin sister Pratima
I had the rare opportunity
of meeting this great
man Ganeshman Singh
once about a decade
back in a social gathering
where he too was present
to mourn the death
of a relative of mine,
Shy am raj Rajbhandari in
Kathmandu. It was time of
about to leave and nothing
more than just introduction
as Jai Shanker Lal Shresta's
son from Sikkim.
I understand that Math war
Singh   is   working   on   a
memorial    in    honor    of
this      Supreme      Leader
Ganeshman Singh (1915-
1997), who was the first
Asian to receive the United
Nations Human Rights Award and to bag United States
Peace Run Prize in 1990.   He is the only person ever
in the History of Nepal to refuse to become the Prime
Minister when requested by the monarch and supported
by the people and is known as the Father of Democracy
in Nepal.
Recollecting the days past, my father often used to
narrate me about him accompanying his father-in-law in
botanical excursions to high altitudes of Sikkim in Kupup-
Sherathang near Sikkim-Tibet border and how sharp was
his uncle-in-law Durga Shamsher's memory that though
bedridden and lacking the sense of sight in his late
eighties, he could direct his men about orchid plants or
fruits/seeds on trees around the area found in the season.
It was during one of these trips to Gnathang that Rai
Saheb Ratna Bahadur Pradhan - a naturalist - found and
identified a new variety of cobra lily that was later named
by a Kew botanist C.E.C. Fischer as Arisaema pradhanii
in his honor. I remember of writing an article on this alpine
plant for the magazine Yeti that I edited and brought out
Shresta/The Chandra Nursery..
17 from Yeti Exchange the pen friendship club we started
at Birgunj, Nepal in 1964. My cousin Ramesh Kumar
Pradhan, the first agriculture graduate and Naini alumni
from Sikkim and a pioneer in tissue culture of orchids,
had contributed one on the endangered Paphiopedilum
fairrieanum, Lost Lady's Slipper found here in Sikkim.
The proof in color painting of the Arisaema pradhanii
the family possessed was later found to have disappeared
from the living room of the Woodland Nursery to adorn
the wall somewhere else as it was taken by a family
photographer friend never
to be returned. Some might
have made a fortune out of
this discovery as well, who
knows!
Tea and coffee plantations
were taken up for
household use and the
garden is still providing
the family with tea of
unique flavour and taste.
Some of the exotic trees,
like camphor, eucalyptus,
traveller's plant,
Nepenthese khasiana,
Ashok, magnolia, etc.
besides wild fruit trees
like rudraksh, lapsi, triphala (harra-barra-jaiphal),
kapur, tejpatta, litchi, safeda or chikoo, star fruit, guava,
jack fruit, pine apple, amla, haluwaved, etc. could still
be seen in the Woodland Nursery which once used to be
the Chandra Nursery. Besides introducing many seasonal
flowers, citrus fruits were too here and later exported
while oranges were sent to Calcutta. Grown in abundance
fruits like oranges, guava, pine apples, etc. were converted
into jam and jellies while juice was also bottled. Fond of
good things in life, they used to get their tinned provisions
imported and from Rajniklal of Calcutta regularly. They
had Aladdin brand kerosene lamps and room heaters
from London for incandescent light as electricity was a
far distant thing then. Pomp and grandeur came naturally.
No wonder if four goats were consumed in a gathering
that lasted for ten days for settling the family partition -
quoting his late father late Kamal Prasad Pradhan, Sailesh
Chandra Pradhan of Sumbhuk mentioned me once. All
the varieties of sweets made in home had to be laid on
the table and served to the visitors that made Rai Saheb
Ratna Bahadur happy and contended. The guests had
then remarked rather in ajovial way whether the Chandra
Nursery had started manufacturing sugar even!
Rai Saheb Ratna Bahadur Pradhan was fond of collecting
coins and stamps. We as children used to see plenty of
them nicely and neatly packed in bundles for each type
and kind. Today we are dazed to know all these lost out
of sheer ignorance and negligence too. Even the fate of
the stamp albums brought out to sun one summer day I
chanced upon to see during my childhood is not known.
Might have gone to some unscrupulous hands perhaps!
A florist of repute with membership in various national
and international organizations and close to nature by
now, late Durga Shamsher turned an avid follower of
naturopathy and brought out a booklet in his last days for
the common benefit. We
too have benefited of such
practice still followed by
his octogenarian widow
Jamunamaya from the
therapy of virgin soil and
water exposed to sunlight.
He manufactured pencil,
hand-made papers and
colours from the wild
flowers/seeds. He was a
keen photographer and
developed photographs
himself.
Pradhan's Cobra Lily
Arisaema pradhanii
source: www. Phoenixperennial.com
My maternal grand uncle
Durga Shamsher had
blessed and gifted me
with some Sikkim coins made earlier in bits and later
minted by his father Taksari Chandrabir Newar in 1883,
out of which only one is left with me now. Some coins
along with a few stamps from my collection were passed
on and shared with young Ganesh Kumar Pradhan, a
cousin and my student in Rhenock Government school in
1960s. Imbibed thus, he has developed through personal
initiative his collection, converting his sons too into this
hobby, to start a museum in the name of his deceased
parents, Ram Gauri Sangrahalaya at Rhenock. Half a
century hence, they have been spreading the message of
philately and numismatics from this hamjailet besides
display of whatever available archival collection of
whatever if of interest, like currency notes, historical
documents, manuscripts, books, driftwood and antiques
there. Recently he wanted me to find out about the recent
US Postage Stamp on the Hindu theme.
Dr. Bal Gopal Shrestha has made a passing reference of
the Chandra Nursery while narrating the business acumen
of the family in his 2004-study on the Newars of Sikkim
that also appeared in the Newah Vijnana Journal of Newar
Studies issue Number 6 / 2007-08.
Surfing the Net
Curiosity to know more led me surfing the archive in the
78
Newah Vijnana-7 internet making me grateful with many on the Chandra
Nursery besides the Pradhan's CobraLily reproduced for
the benefit of our readers below.
One among them is - Introduction Statement signed by
Knowles A. Ryerson, Principal Horticulturist, in Charge
dated November 15, 1933 of United States Department
of Agriculture Inventory No. 112 Washington D.C Issued
in September 1934 about the Plant Material introduced by
the Division of Foreign Plant Production, Bureau of Plant
Industry, July 1 to September 30, 1932 among others
seeds as the item no. 101064 purchased from the Chandra
Nursery, Rhenock, Sikkim State, Bengal, (see Appendix
A (I))
Another showed an advertisement in The Courier-Mail
(Brisbane, Qld. : 1933-1954), Saturday 18 November
1933, page 19 National Library where figure 31 after
Sikkim is used - CHANDRA NURSERY, Post Rhenock,
Sikkim 31, Indian." (see Appendix A (II))
Where We Stand
In a family gathering on April 18,2010, Keshab C Pradhan
raised the issue suggesting the need to commemorate and
celebrate 100 years of the Chandra Nursery organizing
some festival of sort. Later, Sailesh Chandra Pradhan had
to suggest for this, the great day when the pact was signed
by Taksari Chandrabir Newar in 1880. On his request, I
prepared and provided him an article on Rai Saheb Ratna
Bahadur Pradhan as the pioneer in capacity building in
Sikkim for the annual Champ Gurans.
To sum up, I propose that some devoted scholar should
come forward and take up further detailed study for some
serious research on the Chandra Nursery that would fetch
him/her a PhD as the reward. Keshab C Pradhan lamented
thus:
"It was unfortunate that the nursery went downhill, after
the demise of the elder brother in the mid-1940s. The
younger brother took over the business but he was not into
orchids. The business was divided between two families
as the Chandra Nursery and the Woodland Nursery.
"The Chandra Nursery of yesteryears is in a deplorable
condition. All the Pradhan offspring took up government
jobs. The vast garden is overrun with jungles of weeds,
uncared for and almost abandoned. No tangible and
concerted effort for the revival could be made as the
brothers migrated from Sikkim to India, then to Nepal
and Australia. This made any combined strategy for
revival even more difficult. But I still hope some miracle
takes place and someone from the family chain comes
up to revive it, digging out the old historical records and
carrying forward the good work. It is a historical heritage
garden. A pride to the State and country as a whole and
too precious to let it go astray."
To conclude in tribute, may I share that not even two
generations past down the line, people have forgotten
the jewel in our own home turf. Are we so mean and
ungrateful even to acknowledge and give due credit for
their unparalleled and rare contribution to the Sikkimese
society? We still benefit with meals out of the crop from
the field inherited. Sometimes I feel guilty somewhere
deep in my heart - could it be why our community is not
in itself but through an awkward phase that could make
the departed soul difficult even in the heaven!
Finally, befitting the centenary as our profound tribute,
Rachna help me put both The Chandra Nursery and the
Woodland Nursery in the world map courtesy Google
Earth.
Author: Rajiva Shanker Shresta
Bibliography
Keshab C Pradhan: The Life and Times of a Plantsman
in the Sikkim Himalayas 2008 Publisher : Writer
himself, Gangtok, Sikkim, India
Mathwar Singh : Mero kathaka panaharu - Ma
Krishnabahadur Typist Bane in Punrjagaran
Saptahik Volume 1 No. 32 dated 2046 Kartik 08
Tuesday Kathmandu, Nepal
Appendix A
1) 101064. CfNCHONACALfSAYA
Wedd Eubiaceae.
From  British  fndia.   Seeds  purchased  from  the
Chandra Nursery, Rhenock, Sikkim State, Bengal.
Received August 29,1932.
A tropical shrub with opposite, oblong or
oblonglanceolate, shining green leaves, and
terminal panicles of small white and pink flowers.
It is one of the sources of quinine and is native to
Bolivia.
Shresta/The Chandra Nursery..
79 If) INDIAN- ORUHIDS AND CALADIUMS.
12 sorts Grand Dendrobiums 38/; 12 sorts
Showy Orchids, 28/; 6 sorts Cyprepediums. 24/;
6 sorts Cymbidiums, 24/; 24 different named
Caladiums,24/; hundred mixed, 30/;
40 Achimencs, in 20 named vars., 13/ ; 12 Eremurus
Himalaicus. 30/: 12 Fritttlarla Imperialis, 24/. Post
Free. Cash.-New Catalogues of Orchids, Caladiums,.
Seeds, Free CHANDRA NURSERY, Post Rhenock,
Sikkim 31, Indian."
Appendix B
settlers in Sikkim contributed in the progress of
Sikkim.
Dr. Bal Gopal Shrestha
Oxford University UK Sept 14, 2010
. Lots of thanks for your enthusiasm in bringing world
scholar's attention towards the Newah people of
Sikkim. It will definitely add a new chapter in study
of history ofNEWAH civilization in world. It has its
own existence that establishes very close link with
the country where they belonged to. Well done!!
-Daya R. Shakya
WNOUSA
Currently visiting their daughter Rachna in Exton
Pennsylvania, Rajiva Shanker Shresta was invited
to attend as the Special Guest and speak on the
Newars of Sikkim during the gth Convention of the
Newah Organization of America on May 30, 2010
in Potomac Maryland USA when his latest Newar:
Haami Yastai Chhaun was released.
- published in Talk Sikkim August 2010
Especially, I found your article on the Chandra
Nursery very useful. You have depicted the Nursery
providing very informative views for the readers.
This is a valuable article which tells how the Newar
4. It was a great pleasure to know that Chandra Nursery
has completed its 100 years now and is celebrating
its centenary. All the Newars of Sikkim including
those who have taken the seed of this Nursery
outside the State proved that Newars are supreme,
are proud of being a member of this Great Home.
On behalf of each member of Sikkim Newar Guthi I
congratulate the members of Chandra Nursery on
completion of 100 years and wish this name will
be written in more brighter words in the years to
come. Our prayers are with the family members.
R.K.Pradhan
President, Sikkim Newar Guthi
Gangtok Sikkim India
Book Announcement:
Newah Bhaye Learner by Daya Ratna Shakya
Book Release by Newah Leader
Padma Ratna Tuladhar in Nepal
Photo Courtesy: nepatmandat.com
20
Newah Vijnana-7 Foundation of Theravada
Buddhism in Nepal
A Lecture Presented in Portland, Oregon
by Bhikshu Kondanya
Kathmandu, Nepal
Buddhism is one of the most important and non-aggressive religions in the world today. The Buddhists says that
the ignorance and desires are the root cause of all the sufferings of human beings. Lord Buddha propounded it;
the prince of Peace was in reality a born prince and was
bred as a prince. The ways he propounded are called the
Middle Path of The four Noble Truths. The teachings of
Buddha are as valid today as they were 25 centuries ago.
Buddhism evolved and developed around the teachings
of the Buddha. During his lifetime,
the religion prospered and spread
rapidly through the great personality of the founder himself, and
heaps assisted by a large and fast-
growing community of noble disciples who drew inspiration from
his example of renunciation and
self-sacrifice. Before the Buddha
passed away, Buddhism had become well-established Dhamma,
carrying message of love and wisdom to the mankind of the earth.
Buddhism is an ethical as well as
philosophical way of living. It is a
religion whose message is meant
for all human beings. As result, it
has penetrated far into the Eastern
and Western countries. The effectiveness of Buddhism as a message
of peace in the world is evident
from the fact that in 2500 years of
its long history not a drop of blood
has been shed in its name. From this it is clear that Buddhism has spread in the world not by compulsion but by
voluntary participation of the people.
Buddhism preaches the impermanence of everything, the
selflessness of all individuals, universal tolerance and
love. World peace, in the present time, is being threatened by the appalling increase of the power of destruction of human beings. We are coming close and close to a
critical period where there will be either one world or no
Author: Bhikshu Kondanya
world. Ill-will and malice between people and nations are
dragging mankind towards annihilation. Due to increased
transport facilities and enhanced methods of communication, the world is so closely knit together that the slightest provocation on the part of a nation could shake the
whole globe. As taught by Buddha- the only solution to
this burning problem is that human beings should be wise
enough to choose the path of peace, goodwill and tolerance as preached by the Buddha.
As Buddha has taught us - there is
a path towards peace. Hatred never
cease by hatred but hatred should
be overcome by love and compassion, that is the only way towards
universal peace and harmony
"Those who love me, should love
all mankind" says Buddha, "By
conquering one's greed, one can
become a universal victor, and not
by fighting wars. Everyone loves
freedom and liberty, and so do not
interfere with another's freedom."
"Extremes spell failure" warns the
Buddha, "for one who goes the
extreme loss a sense of proportion
and the idea of right and wrong".
How much this is true in the present world can be clearly judged by
the conflicts and cold war between
nations   with  different  forms   of
government  and   socio-economic
systems. The Buddha synthesizes
the extreme opposites through the Middle Way, - the golden means conducive to harmony, proper cooperation and
unity among diversity.
There are two main schools of Buddhism: the Southern
or Theravada school and the other one called Northern or
Mahayana school. In both of these schools the ultimate
objective of Buddhism is to secure true peace, happiness, social welfare and harmony in human society all the
world over. Buddhism became a popular religion during
Kondanya/Foundation of Theravada Buddhism in Nepal
27 the lifetime of the Buddha because of his dynamic and
charismatic personality. His scientific and rational teaching won him a large number of disciples soon after he
began preaching.
Buddhism was introduced to ancient Nepal first by Buddha himself who visited his birth land a number of times
after attaining enlightenment and preached the Dhamma
to the royal family, his relatives, and converted a number of important persons of the Kingdom including his
own son Rahula.
Buddha's disciple
Bhikshu Ananda,
Sakyas of Kapila-
vastu, and merchants of Sravasti
also have played
important role in
introducing Buddhism to Nepal.
There is no doubt
and we could believe that "The
spread of Buddhism during the
time of the Buddha,
Emperor Ashoka's
performance for
its spread were the
first instances of the introduction of Buddhism in Nepal."
There are monasteries and shrines spread in various parts
of the country but for lack of inscriptions and other records, it is difficult to say when those things were made.
Historians have identified the shrine complex of yogini at
Sankhu, Kathmandu, as Gumvihara, which is considered
to be the oldest Vihar in the Nepal Valley. From the Kiranti coinage of the word, it is generally believed that the
origin of this Vihar dated back to the first century A.D.
Besides local sources, a Chinese source of the traveller Fa
Hien (399-413 A.D.) mentioned that all monks from Kap-
ilavastu, preach about the path of the Dhamma; and Hiuen
Tsiang (629-644 A.D.) travel document proved that there
were two thousand Buddhist monks of both vehicles at
the time of King Amshuvarma. However, he mentioned,
"There are 1000 or more ruined Sangharamas remaining;
by the side of the royal precincts there is still a Sanghara-
ma with 3000 (read 30) followers in it, who study the little
Vehicle of the Sammatiya school."
The popular story is known as the Mallas migrated from
Kusinagara, Pawa and the neighbourhood of Vaishali and
settled near the Gandhaki River. The Changunarayan
inscription commemorates the triumphant campaign of
Bhikshu Kondanya lecturing in Portland, Oregon
Kng Manadeva against a city of the Mallas. After a long
struggle with the Licchavi, the medieval period began in
1207 CE with the reign of Arimalla Deva, the first king of
the Malla dynasty. This seems to have been the beginning
of a golden age of Buddhism. Buddhism expanded beyond
the Valley. One of the kings, King Ripu Malla, travelled
to Kathmandu Valley, Kapilavatthu, and Lumbini around
1312-1313 CE. Almost all the kings of this dynasty were
devoted to Buddhism and King Pratapmalla, grandson of
Kng Ripu Malla ordained as a Buddhist monk. It is believed that he was
| the first king to
I have ordained as a
Buddhist monk in
the history of Nepal. As King, he
gave his full support and patronage
to Buddhism. Most
subsequent kings
supported Buddhism and some
also ordained as
Buddhist monks.
Although the Mall
King, Jayasthiti
Malla was known
as social reformer
too, tried to change
the history of Nepal. However, he tried to re-organize society on the model of the Code of Manu, a Hindu Shash-
tra, which enjoins strict adherence to the caste system,
and effected many administrative reforms. People were
divided into number of castes and intermarriage prevailed
between Buddhists and Hindus. This blood ties more than
anything, else served to bring about complete harmony
and goodwill. He suppressed Buddhism and introduced
the caste system in Nepal. Buddhist culture and traditions
were terminated and the lineage of celibate monks ended.
Celibacy was not compulsory for the monks. The majorities of the monks were idle and became parasites of the
society depending solely on the charity of lay disciples
and devotees. Since a large number of families of monks
had to be fed in monasteries, the poor and the sick nonprofessionals were deprived of the benefit from lands endowed and money invested in some guilds in the name of
monasteries. It is an irony for Nepal that although Buddha
was born in this country, no follows was run for eight decades in this country, that is, no Nepalese was known far
such a long time, who has become a monk (Bhikkhu) or a
nun (Anagarika). According to the recorded history of Nepal, after the social reform carried out by King Jayasthiti
Malla, Buddhism was on decline. Nepalese recorded history cleared that in Nepal; Vajrayana Buddhism has been
22
Newah Vijnana-7 vital role for Buddhism.
Theravada Buddhism was reintroduced in Nepal in the
late 1920s. The renaissance of Theravada Buddhism took
place in Nepal together with the first stirrings of modern
Newah ethnic activism. Nepal in 1920s was ruled by the
Rana regime, which was pro-Hindu in terms of religious
affiliation, and politically it was a traditional autocratic
state. Despite the suppression of the Pro-Hindu government, Jagat Man Vaidhya, who later changed his name to
Dharmaditya Dharmacharya, ignited the revival of Buddhism in Nepal. In 1921, he was exposed to the Theravada
Buddhism in India when he met Anagarika Dharmapala
Since then he dedicated himself to learning Pali and towards revival of Buddhism in Nepal. It is speculated that
he might be the first Nepalese to reintroduce the Pali language in modern Nepal. In 1923, he attempted to establish
an organization for the revival of Tuddhis (Buddha Dharma Uddhar Sangha) and basing himself in Calcutta, India. He began to translate and publish Pali texts in Nepal
Bhasa vernacular in his magazine entitled Budha Dharma
wa Nepal Bhasa (Buddhism and Nepal Bhasa Vernacula)
and other magazine named Dharmaduta (Dharma Missionaries).
This revival of Theravada Buddhism in Nepal was coincided with the visit of a charismatic Tibetan Lama known
as Kyangste Lama in 1924, the Lama's sermons encouraged five Newars to follow their Tibetan teacher to Tibet
and join the monastic order. When they returned to Nepal
as newly ordained monks, it raised a big debate within
the ruling government, who finally ruled that the ordination was an unlawful conversion. As a result, while those
newly ordained monks were collecting their alms on the
street they were arrested and exiled from the country in
1926. When the ruling government publicly disallowed
Buddhism and everyone was forced to follow Hinduism,
it raised dissatisfaction among the Buddhists. This dissatisfaction later turned to be a positive force for reviving
Buddhism in Nepal.
When Theravada Buddhism began in the 1920s, Pali Language was unfamiliar among Nepalese. To ease the transmission of the Buddhist doctrines among Nepalese, the
pioneers to Theravada revivalism invented the Jnanamaia
which basically translate Pali verses and discourses into
vernaculars and more specifically in the style of simple
from taking refuge in the Triple Gems, observing five
precepts to the life of the Buddha and his doctrines. The
Jnanamaia is a modern Buddhist hymn that originated as
a part of the Theravada Buddhism revivalism in Nepal in
1920s. It is a unique type of Theravada Buddhist liturgy
as it is a text comprising of words, music, chanting verses
and actions used in ritual and ceremonies, whether privately or publicly, in vernaculars.
In 1926, Mahaprajna (Prem Bahadur Khyaju Shrestha), a
Hindu by birth, the senior most of the five exiled monks
re-ordained as a Theravada novice-monk in Buddha Gaya
under the preceptorship of a Burmese monk U Kosala
Following the footstep of Mahaprajna, Karmasheel (Kul
Man Singh Tuladhar) who was also previously ordained
in the Tibetan tradition in 1928 later re-ordained as a
Theravada novice-monk in 1930 in Kushinagar. After
being re-ordained in Theravada tradition, Karmasheel
first returned to Nepal and, shortly afterwards, the exiled
monk Mahaprajna secretly entered the country to begin
the work for revivalism of Theravada Buddhism in Nepal.
(Here I remember that An Autobiography of Ven. Mahaprajna has been published in three volumes, which is edited by Mr. Daya Shakya, who is one of the organizers of
this talk program. These books are very important for the
study about the revival of Theravada Buddhism in Nepal.)
Actually this spirit of reviving Buddhism in Nepal gave
birth to the Jnanamaia hymns, a public devotional singing
composed based on the life of the Buddha and teachings
of the Buddha. This was regarded as a revolutionary action not only in the field of renaissance of Buddhism in
Nepal but it has directly developed to be an educational
tool for awakening the indigenous people of Kathmandu
Valley socially, politically and religiously. Today, Theravada assemblies, at all times and in all places, begin with
the Jnanamaia devotional hymn-singing. Although Theravada monastic codes seem discourages singing, it must
be regarded as one of the fundamental constituents of the
modern Nepalese Theravada teaching and transmission
of the Buddha's doctrines. Among Theravada community
in Nepal, devotional hymn-singing are not considered as
breaking the precepts. On the contrary, Theravada monks
themselves composed most of those hymns and liturgies
and they were encouraged to sing widely in public or private as a means of path to salvation.
This, in course of time, brought the waves of the Theravada Revivalism in Nepal. Many youths departed their
homes for ordination in the Southern School or Noble
Order. The first Theravada Buddhist monk appeared in
the streets of Kathmandu in 1930, he was Bhikkhu Pra-
jnananda. The late Venerables viz. Prajnananda, Shaky-
ananda, Dhammaloka, Amritananda, Anuruddha, Subod-
hananda, Buddhaghosh also had been ordained as monk.
Likewise Ratnapali, Dharmapali and Sanghapali appeared
as first Buddhist Anagarika-Nuns in the Nepalese history
of Theravada Buddhism.
In 1943, Ven. Dhammalok established Anandakuti Vi-
hara, which is located at the western side of Swayambhu
Hill in Kathmandu. This is the first Theravada Buddhist
monastery in Modern Nepal. The most Ven. Narada Ma-
Kondanya/Foundation of Theravada Buddhism in Nepal
23 hathera brought with him sacred relics of Lord Buddha,
along with a sapling of Sri Mahabodhi tree from Anuradh-
pura, Sri Lanka, to be planted in the vicinity of Ananda-
kuti Vihara. In 1944, the contemporary Prime Minister
Juddha Shamsher J.B. Rana summoned eight monks (including Ven. Samaneras Prajnarasa, Ratnajyoti, Aggad-
hamma, and Kumar Kashyapa) who were living then in
Kathmandu, and ordered them not to preach the Dhamma.
The monks refused to yield to the order. The Prime Minister then strictly ordered them to leave the country within
three days. In those days, Ven. Amritananda was at Sara-
nath in India. All monks from Nepal went to Saranath and
they formed the first Buddhist Society of Nepal, called
"Dharmodaya Sabha" under the patronage of most Ven.
U. Chandra Muni Mahathera
Today, Dharmodaya Sabha is the biggest national and the
International Buddhist society. This society conducted
4th and 15th WFB conference and has organized national
Buddhist Congress in various parts of Nepal.
Both, late Ven. Sangha Mahanayak Prajnananda Mahathera and Ven. Dr. Acharya Mahanayak Amritananda
were the towers of enchanting and charismatic personality
of Theravada Buddhism in Nepal. They were prominent
Buddhist scholars, and had devoted their whole lives for
Buddha Shasana or the dissemination of Buddhism. Ven.
Dr. Amritananda has contributed to the Nepalese Theravada Buddhism writing several scholarly and academic
volumes. He was well known as an International Buddhist
Monk of Nepal and was also a leading figure among the
Buddhist Societies. During his lifetime, in 1946, a Good
Will Mission from Sri Lanka, headed by Ven. Narada
Mahathera visited Nepal. The mission was allowed to
visit Buddhist Pilgrimage places but was not permitted
to preach the Dhamma and not to interact with the Buddhists and other citizens of Nepal. With the help of Ven.
Amritananda, Sri Lankan delegation met Prime Minister
Padma Shamsher J.B. Rana and the premier gave permission to Ven. Dhammalok to return Nepal and gradually
other monks also were able to return from exile.
In 1951, All Nepal Bhikkhu Association was established,
and then gradually monastic life was organized in Vihara. Eight decades after the revival of Theravada Buddhist in Nepal, there at present 30 Theravada Viharas in
Kathmandu, 21 in Lalitpur, 4 in Bhaktapur and 47 also
outside the valley, included all 102. Now Nepal has 429
Sangha Members. Ven. Ven. Buddhaghosh Mahathera is
the Sanghanayaka, the chief monk at present time in Nepal. Likewise there are 174 Anagarikas (Nuns), the chief
of them being the Nun Dhammavati (who is here with us).
Venerable Ashwaghosh, Kumar Kasayapa, Jnanapurnik
and Nun Dhammavati are the leading figures of Theravada Buddhism in Nepal now. Here we have a Vish-
washanti Bauddha Shikshalaya at Vishwashanti Vihara,
where teen aged Samaneras, Bhikkhus and Anagarikas-
all includes 43 have been studying Buddhism. There are
294 monks and nuns are studying in countries such as Sri
Lanka, Thailand, Myanmar and so on. So now at present
we have Theravada Buddhist monks, novice and nuns all
together only 591.
Since last seven decades, in Nepal, Theravada Buddhism
appeared and new concept of Buddhism has been mobilizing in Nepalese society. Gradually the Bhikkhus, Ana-
garikas-nuns, followers-Upasaka-Upasikas and Viharas
or Monasteries have been building in Kathmandu valley
and out of the valley. Likewise, the study centers of Theravada Buddhism have been established around several
centers in Nepal. Bhikkhu training center where the small
teenaged are being trained and taught by scholar monks
from Buddhist country.
Although Nepal is a country where the Buddha was born,
Buddhism here was in a dormant state, until the Buddhist
revival in Theravada Buddhism since early 19th century.
Since then people became awakened and started to sacrifice and working hard for Buddhism through giving discourse on Buddhism and Social change, telling religious
story for ethics, publishing books on Buddhism and mobilizing to followers for betterment life and happiness in
theirs lives.
When the revival movement started and after that due to
revived of Theravada Buddhism whatsoever and wherever the changing aspects have been established, such
as Viharas, Pariyatti Shiksha, Bhikkhu Training Centre,
Buddhist Communities, Social change, Buddhist School
and etc. We have 54 Pariyatti centers in Kathmandu and
the outside of country, where we provided Theravada
study as Sunday school. Revival of Theravada Buddhism,
gradually its impact influences in ethnicity too. I think
this brief introductory will be more helpful for them who
interested on Theravada Buddhism in Nepal through the
Anthro-Sociological aspect and also the concept of social
and cultural change in Nepalese society.
24
Newah Vijnana-7 A Short Portrayal
of Itumbaha as a
Monastic Institution
Alexander v. Rospatt
Berkeley1
Introduction
Itumbaha is one of the very few monasteries in Kathmandu that preserves the originalsquare plan of a traditional
Buddhist monastery. However, it is not only an invaluable
architectural monument but also an active monastery with
a history of some eight centuries or more. As one of the
eighteen "main monasteries" (mubaha) of Kathmandu, it
is at the forefront of Newar monasticism. On this count
it is an important force for Newar Buddhism at large,
because, as in other Buddhist societies, the backbone of
Newar Buddhism is its monasteries. Traditionally, they
function as the repositories of Buddhist learning in the
widest sense, guarding ritual and tantric traditions. Furthermore, with their shrines and consecrated images of
Buddhas and other deities as well as further shrines, the
monasteries serve as temples for the Buddhist community. In addition their members contribute towards the
maintenance of Buddhist cults also outside the confines
of the monastery. Moreover, through their community of
Vajracarya monks, the monasteries provide priestly service for the Buddhist population. The Vajracaryas perform the obligatory life-cycle rituals (including mortuary
and post-mortuary rites) and also officiate in other ritual
contexts such as house building and healing.
Naturally, the Newar monasteries are most important for
the members themselves. Even though they do not live
here, the monasteries traditionally function as an extension of their homes, in which they spend much of their
time and to which they devote much of their energy. As
members, they are collectively responsible for the monastery, taking care of specific duties by rotation. Most importantly, it is periodically their turn, which in Itumbaha
lasts for one week, to carry out the daily worship
(nityapuja) of the monastery's deities. But also when not
obliged by their turn, the members come to the monastery
frequently for worship and here casually meet friends and
neighbours, play cards or other games and often spend
hours in leisure. This is also the place where they ce
ebrate their important family feasts and other functions.
In a word, much of their life revolves around the monastery. This is, however, less true nowadays. As a consequence of globalisation, Kathmandu has undergone
dramatic changes in the last decades, and its citizens
increasingly live in a world determined by consumerism
and television. This, of course, undermines the role of
the monastery in the daily life of its members. It is to be
hoped that the renovation of Itumbaha sends out new signals, conveying a sense of pride and ownership that will
invigorate the monastic community.
The Setting: Nepal and
Newar Buddhism
Before pursuing these topics with reference to Itumbaha,
it is necessary to place Newar Buddhism into a historical
context. The word "Newar" is nothing but a variant pronunciation of "Nepal," which was originally the name of
the Kathmandu Valley but, since the end of the eighteenth
century, has come to be applied to the modern nation state
as a whole. Thus Newar Buddhism is the Buddhist tradition native to the Valley, i.e. the historical Nepal. Early
on, Nepal was drawn into the fold of South Asian religion
and civilisation and has in this cultural sense been part
of the subcontinent. This is borne out by archaeological
finds in the Valley of monumental stone statues that are
executed in the Kushana style prevalent in Northern India, in a stone type favoured by Kushana sculptors. Most
important among them is the statue of the local king Jaya-
varman, which, according to the (not undisputed) reading
of the inscription, dates to 185 A.D. There is no indication
that the historical Buddha or one of his contemporary followers ever visited the Valley. However, local legend has
it that the great Maurya king Ashoka visited Nepal, sur-
Rospatt/A Short Portrayal of Itumbaha.
25 rounded the city of Patan with a set of four stupas that survive till date, and married his daughter Carumati to a local
nobleman. While this legend is not supported by historical evidence, it is possible that Buddhism reached Nepal
in course of the propagation under the Mauryas, possibly
before the Common Era. Given that the Kushanas and, in
particular, the great king Kanishka, who ruled in the first
or second century A.D., likewise favoured Buddhism and
did much for its spread to the North, it is reasonable to interpret the mentioned finds of Kushana art in the Valley as
evidence that by that time Buddhism had reached there.
Accordingly Buddhism in the Valley should look back
upon a history of eighteen hundred years, if not more.
Given the ruptures in the history of Singhalese Buddhism,
Newar Buddhism may thus be regarded as the oldest Buddhist tradition persisting uninterruptedly until the present.
This impressive continuity owes to the Valley's secluded
location on the southern flank of the Himalaya, at the
edge of the subcontinent. In the plains of Northern India,
Buddhism did not endure beyond the fourteenth century,
because, without the great monastic sites that had been
destroyed by invading Muslim forces Buddhism lacked
the monastic basis essential to its survival. By contrast,
because of its peripheral location and lack in resources,
Nepal was, apart from a few raids, not conquered by
Muslim troops. Hence, Buddhist monasteries and shrines
were not lastingly destroyed but persist till the present as
the basis of Newar Buddhism.
Besides their Tibeto-Burmese language, the Newars
have preserved many autochthonous religious practices
and customs that set them apart from the Indians of the
plain. The Buddhist and Hindu traditions that were introduced to the Valley reflect these local particularities.
Thus, Newar Buddhism cannot simply be equated with
Northern Indian Buddhism. This is particularly true for
the form of Buddhism that developed among the Newars
after the disappearance of Buddhism in Northern India.
On the other hand, the perseverance and development of
particular local traits and features are characteristic of the
way in which Indian religions are disseminated over the
subcontinent. Thus, despite local particularities, Nepal
clearly belonged, as a regional centre on the periphery,
to the larger world of Indian Buddhism, and Newar Buddhism continues to be heir to that tradition. Accordingly,
the Newars have always shared in the Buddhist Indian literature of their day. Not only did they preserve and copy
manuscripts of Indian Buddhist works (and continue to
do so), but they also authored their own works in Sanskrit as part of that literary tradition. Accordingly, when
apropriating Indian Buddhist literature, the Tibetans also
translated works by Newar authors and incorporated them
in the Tanjur, the quasi canonical collection of works written by authentic Indian teachers.
Monasticism in Newar Buddhism
Though monastics, the members of Newar monasteries
are not celibate monks. Rather, they are married householders who live in their own homes outside the monastery and independently earn their living, be it as jewellers
or in some other profession. As boys, they are ordained
for four days, during which they nominally live as monks.
Though they give up celibate monkhood by disrobing,
they continue to be members of the monastic community
(samgha) for the rest of their lives. Even after they marry
and beget children, they periodically reassert their identities as quasi-monks in the context of purification rituals.
Then they shave their entire head hair. By not leaving a
tuft standing as prescribed by orthodox Hindu practice,
they mark their rupture with society and express their
identity as Buddhist renunciants. The Buddhist lay population confirms their monastic status on certain occasions
when they offer them alms (pahjadan, mainly in the form
of rice) and further items characteristically presented to
monks. Most importantly, they do so once a year in summer during the Newar month of Gumla which coincides
largely with August(see below).
The tradition of non-celibate monasticism has its antecedents in India. For instance, the RajataraEginI, a Kashimiri
chronicle from the twelfth century attests to the phenomenon of married monks in Kashmir. It records the endowment of a monastery which was equally divided between
traditionally practising monks (bhiksus) and householder
monks (garhasthya) "together with their wives, children,
cattle and property". The dedication of half a monastery
for householder monks shows that we are not dealing with
a mere violation of the norm, but with a different pattern
of Buddhist monasticism that had become a tradition in
its own right, coexisting alongside celibate monasticism.
This coexistence of a celibate and non-celibate monastic tradition corresponds to the differentiation between
two types of monasteries in Newar Buddhism, the bahas
and the bahis. The bahas, and this includes Itumbaha,
have traditionally functioned as institutions for married
quasi-monks and, indeed, may have been founded from
the outset for this purpose. The bahis, by contrast, were
originally dedicated for celibate monks. However, already some five hundred years ago this form of celibate
monkhood was waning, and bahis gradually adopted the
baha pattern of married householder monks. Be it noted
that comparable forms of noncelibate quasi-monkhood
are also attested in other Mahayana cultures. In Japanese
Buddhism, there are married priest monks with their own
temples, and, among the Nyingmapas in Tibet, there is the
prominent figure of the married tantric practitioner.
Itumbaha is the biggest of the mentioned eighteen main
monasteries of Kathmandu. It is so not simply in terms
26
Newah Vijnana-7 of the spacious area known as Itumbaha, which includes the huge square outside the monastery proper,
called KayagunanI, and the adjacent court yards. Rather,
Itumbaha has the largest monastic community with more
than 525 members. To become a member of Itumbaha (or
of any other Newar monastery) is not a matter of choice,
but of descent. As in the case of all Newar monasteries,
access is firmly restricted to the sons of Sangha members.
They alone are eligible to undergo the mentioned temporary ordination rite and thereby become full members in
their own right. For them this ordination is not a question
of religious vocation, but of social obligation. This is so
because the quasi-monks of Newar Buddhism form an e
dogamous caste. Thus sons have to become such monks
themselves in order to be eligible to marry a suitable bride
from a householder monk family. Therefore, the rite of
temporary ordination, the bare chuyegu, does not only
initiate the boys into the Sangha of their monastery, but it
also confirms their inherited caste status. The bride's family may not be of Itumbaha which, as other monasteries,
is an exogamous unit. The ban on endogamous matches
makes sense in light of the perceived descendence of all
Sakya lineages of Itumbaha from the common ancestor
Kesavacandra, the original founder of the monastery. Of
course, the boys may not marry outside their caste but
have to find the daughter of a member of a different monastery, that is to say, a Sakya or Vajracarya girl. If they
fail to do so, their sons will be barred from ordination
at Itumbaha. This does not only exclude them from the
Sangha but also from the caste of Sakya and Vajracarya
as a whole.
The Ordination Ceremony
The ordination rite is not only of defining importance for
the initiates but also for Itumbaha, because its continuity
depends upon the intake of new members. For Itumbaha
and other monasteries of Kathmandu, this ceremony is
also the grandest monastic ritual in terms of participants
and expenditure. This is so because (unlike in Patan) it is
only celebrated periodically, so that, on that occasion, a
large group collectively performs the ordination. In the
case of Itumbaha, this traditionally happens only every
twelve years, when some hundred boys take the temporary ordination, more than in any other monastery's ceremony. Together with their paternal aunts, who take them
through the ritual, and other family members, the boys
crowd into the courtyard of the monastery. In lines they
spread around the enshrined "Ashoka" stupa in the centre
and bring Itumbaha to life in a way no other occasion does
(see plate 1). Because the rite is offered so infrequently,
the boys' ages differ greatly. While the eldest boys can be
in their early teens (though they should not have reached
puberty), the youngest boys may still be babies. They
must, however, have undergone the most important rite of
passage for infants, the first rice feeding ceremony, which
for boys is typically celebrated at six months.
Two weeks before the ceremony takes place in Itumbaha,
the boys give notice of their imminent ordination by presenting offerings of betel nut, pan leave and coin (gvay
dan) to the main deities of the monastery, the eldest of the
Sangha, the officiating priests, their parents, and -indicative of the social dimension of the ordination ritual- to
the throne of the king. A week before the ritual, the paternal aunt and maternal uncle offer the boys a ceremonial
meal (sagun) consisting of an egg, dried fish and arrack
distilled of rice, in order to protect and bless them for the
ritual passage upon which they are about to embark. The
ritual commences on the day before the ordination with a
series of preparatory rites, among them the boys' ritualized entreaty to be granted ordination. In accordance with
Newar Buddhist tradition, the ordination ceremony on the
main day is performed following a ritual handbook from
the twelfth century (the Kriyasamgrahapanjika by Kula-
datta), which is of defining importance for the ritual tradition of Newar Buddhism. The starting point for Kuladatta
is the rite of "going forth" into homelessness (pravrajya),
i.e. becoming a renouncer, as attested in the Vinaya, the
body of monastic rules traced to the Buddha and hence
regarded as canonical. More precisely, Kuladatta follows
the Vinaya as handed down by the Mulasarvastivadins, a
North Indian school of Buddhism. With the intention of
"going forth" and becoming a renouncer, the candidate
first goes for refuge to the Buddha, his Teachings (dharma) and the order of monks (Sangha), and vows to keep
the five main precepts, namely to abstain from killing,
theft, falsehood, sexual misconduct and drinking alcohol.
Thereby, he becomes explicitly a lay follower (upasaka).
Then, all but a tuft of hair (cuda) is cut off. At the tonsure,
the paternal aunt stands by with a platter in order to catch
the hair before it falls onto the ground. Then the boy is
asked in a ritualized dialogue whether he really wants
to go forth and renounce worldly life. After he has confirmed this, the tuft, too, is cut off, and four assisting
elders of the Sangha of Itumbaha pour specially empowered water over his bald head in order to purify and
bless him. Subsequently, the boy dresses in monastic
garb and receives an alms bowl and staff. He then takes
again the triple refuge and upon this pledges solemnly to
observe the extended ten rules of practice. Technically,
he has become only a novice, but since the full ordination (upasampada) is reserved in Buddhist practice for
adults and hence not imparted in Newar Buddhism, the
ceremony described here functions as proper ordination
that transforms the initiates into full-fledged members of
the Sangha of Itumbaha Accordingly, the ordained boys
are considered proper monks. Relatives of the participating boys affirm this newly acquired monastic status when
they present alms and other offerings to the boys upon
Rospatt/A Short Portrayal of Itumbaha.
27 the conclusion of their ordination ceremony. Also, as new
members of the Sangha, the boys are now for the first
time allowed inside the main shrine room of Itumbaha,
which houses an image of the Buddha Aksobhya. This
image functions as the monastery's principle exoteric deity (kvapadyah) and has to be worshipped by all others
from the outside (see plate 2).
When donning the robe, the boys are also liberally decked
with various kinds of ornaments. Normally in Buddhism,
the ordination is the occasion for precisely the opposite,
namely the shedding of all jewellery and other finery. The
ornaments put on by the newly made monks are of the
kind characteristically offered to and worn by deities. Fittingly, later during the ordination ritual, honorific parasols
are held over the boys just as when deities are being paraded. This is particularly conspicuous when the boys are
taken in procession from Itumbaha to the old royal palace
of Kathmandu at Hanuman Dhokha, in order to present
again the aforementioned offering of betel nut, pan leave
and coin to the king's throne, this time as notification of
their newly acquired status. The use of ornaments and
honorific parasols shows that, on one level, the ordination
serves to sanctify the boys and introduce them to the sacred realm of Mahayana Buddhism. This aspect is at odds
with the common perception of the Buddhist ordination
as little more than a legal act. But it is less surprising from
the perspective of the Vajrayana, that is tantric Buddhism,
where the practitioner aims at identification with a chosen
deity, and in this sense at his own deification.
For the next three days the boys have the status of celibate
monks. They wear their robes and receive alms and gifts
from relatives and neighbours. However, they continue to
live at home (rather than in the monastery) where they are
subject to dietary and other restrictions that set them apart
from the rest of the family.
On the fourth day, three days after the ordination, the
boys again assemble in the inner courtyard of Itumbaha
and go through a series of rituals before they disrobe. In
a ritualized exchange, the boys ask the presiding master
(acarya) to be released from the vows of monkhood. The
master grants this requests, and the boys exchange their
monastic outfit for a new set of common clothes that has
been provided by their maternal uncle. Once the boys
have disrobed, it is time to discard their previously cut
hair, which was safeguarded after it had been collected
by the paternal aunt. For this the aunt goes to the confluence of Bishnumati and Bhaccakhusi, close to the Sobha
BhagavatI temple. This confluence is a sacred place
known as Nirmala Tirtha (lit: "spotless ford"). It serves
Itumbaha also in other contexts as the traditional point
of access to the waters of the Bishnumati. Notably, the
river bank here functions as cremation ground (known as
Karunadipa) for those belonging to Itumbaha.
When the boys renounce celibate monkhood, Mahayana
and tantric practices are enjoined upon them in exchange.
Accordingly, the boys are subsequently introduced to the
tantric realm of Buddhism. For this they proceed first to
Santipur, the sacred tantric shrine atop the Svayambhu
hill. This shrine is identified with SantisrI, the mythical builder of the Svayambhu-stupa (which nowadays is
commonly known as Svayambhunatha). SantisrI is also
regarded as the primordial forerunner of the monastic
community of Kathmandu, so Santipur serves as a focal point for that community. Thus, by worshipping at
Santipur the boys express their newly found identity as
members of the monastic tradition of Kathmandu. Later,
in the evening, the boys assemble again at Itumbaha in
the space called "long second floor" (taha matam), which
is the upstairs of the northern wing. There they are introduced to the cult of tantric deities who are made to be
present, on this occasion, by tantric song and dance. That
is to say, they are impersonated by initiated practioners
of the Sangha who act out the dance-like movements of
the given deities in accordance with those deities' songs,
which are intoned together with instrumental music. On
the same day, the boys are, furthermore, introduced to
the main tantric deity of their family, which is kept in the
shrine room at home. Thus, the day of disrobing is the occasion on which the boys pass beyond the liminal phase
of celibate monkhood to the form of Buddhism that is
meant to be theirs, and that is henceforth to shape and
pattern their lives. In this way, the temporary ordination
functions as an initiatory ritual that introduces the boys to
the form of tantric Buddhism practised in their families
and in the community of Itumbaha to which they now
belong as members in their own right.
The Tantric Masters {vajracarya)
The ordained boys fall by the principle of patrilineal
descent into two groups, namely the Sakyas and the
Vajracaryas. In Itumbaha, the former greatly outnumber
the latter. Thus, at the last ordination performed in February 2001, only 9 of the 105 boys were Vajracaryas. A
few days after the initiation, the Vajracarya boys again
assemble in Itumbaha in order to receive a very high form
of tantric initiation which empowers them to be "diamond
masters" (yajra-acaryd) who may perform the fire ritual
and thus act as priests. After this tantric initiation has
been imparted in the courtyard of the monastery in front
of the main exoteric shrine room, the Vajracarya boys
assert their new status by performing a fire ritual in the
monastery's courtyard. Some days later, they repeat the
fire ritual at the shrine (pitha) of the goddess Karikesvari
on the banks of the Bishnumati. She is propitiated with
varieties of buffalo meat which are offered as oblations
28
Newah Vijnana-7 into the fire. Karikesvarl's shrine has a particular link with
Itumbaha which also comes to bear in other contexts.
When propitiating the planetary deities, for instance, the
offerings have to be brought afterwards to Kahkesvarl .
Moreover, during her the annual procession around town,
which takes place on the day of the "Horse Festival"
(ghodayatra), usually sometime in March, Kahkesvarl
stops at Itumbaha The litter in which she is carried is
brought into the house enshrining the lineage deity, which
is located on the southern end of KayagunanI, the large
square outside the monastery. There she receives the
aforementioned good luck offering called sagun. The other bahas of Kathmandu likewise maintain a special ritual
relationship with a particular shrine of a Mother Goddess.
The vajracarya initiation can be viewed as part of the
sequence of rituals which follows upon the temporary
ordination and introduces the boy to his religion and
into his status group, namely that of the Vajracaryas. It
is important for the community of Itumbaha as a whole
because many of the rituals to be performed in and for the
monastery can only be carried out by Vajracaryas. Moreover, Vajracaryas alone can serve families as their priests,
performing the numerous life cycle rituals that structure
the life of the monastery's members, including funerary
rituals and rites for the deceased. Because only some of
the Vajracaryas of Itumbaha actually function as family
priests, and because they are so greatly outnumbered by
the Sakyas, there is a greater demand for family priests
in Itumbaha than can be met by the monastery's officiating Vajracaryas. This led to a highly unusual initiative
by the Sakyas in 1953, when one batch of boys was taking their initiation in Itumbaha. In order to increase the
number of priests and thereby become less dependent
upon the Vajracaryas of the monastery, twenty-six Sakya
boys were given the tantric initiation, which normally is
strictly reserved for the sons of Vajracaryas. However, because of their Sakya descent, these boys were, despite this
initiation, not really accepted as authorised priests. Thus,
only one of these boys, now an elderly man, continues
to officiate even today. While the family priest must be a
vajracarya, it is not compulsory that he be of Itumbaha
So, a number of Sakya families from Itumbaha use priests
from other monasteries, mainly Makhanbaha The same
holds good for the Vajracaryas of Itumbaha because as
members of one lineage they form a kin group and hence
cannot perform rituals for each other, lest the boundary
between the patron of the ritual and the priestly officiant
be blurred.
The Sangha
Despite the Vajracaryas' additional initiation, all me bers
of the Sangha, including the boys who have newly taken
the temporary ordination, are of equal standing and share
the same responsibilities and privileges. In accordance
with the Vinaya tradition, the only distinction that is made
is by seniority. This is computed not on the basis of biological birth, but of the time of ordination, which thereby
assumes the status of a second birth (consider the appellation "Sons of the Buddha"). Thus, when there is a feast of
the whole Sangha, the members are seated hierarchically
according to how long they have been members.
The Sangha of Itumbaha is subdivided into ten lineages
to which the members belong by patrilineal descent. This
is significant because many privileges and duties do not
belong to the Sangha as a whole but to specific lineages
(kavalf). Most importantly, the ten eldest of the monastery (thaypas, or sthaviras as they are known in Sanskrit)
are not the ten most senior members of the Sangha as a
whole, but the eldest of each of the ten lineages. These
ten elders have numerous ritual and ceremonial functions at which they represent the monastery. At the mentioned initiation ritual, for instance, they cut the boys'
tuft of hair and shower them with blessed water, thereby
inducting them into the Sangha. The elevated status of
the elders is underlined by the fact that they are initiated
into this office by a special ritual that includes the blessing with empowered water, hence the term "showering
the elder"(Newari thaypas luyegu, which corresponds to
Sanskrit sthavirabhiseka) (see plate 3). Before this ritual,
the elders must have received extensive tantric initiation
(diksa) that enables them to perform secret rituals in the
esoteric shrine rooms of the monastery.
The hierarchy among these ten eldest is again determined
by lineage rather than seniority. Thus the lineage currently represented by Triratna Sakya always provides
the main elder (muthaypa). Likewise, the second-ranked
elder always comes from the lineage which was, until recently, represented by Sanu Sakya. This lineage is special
because it has particular rights to the northern wing of
the monastery, including a small section of the adjacent
eastern and western wings. These rights, which put them
effectively in control of parts of the monastic complex,
reflect that ownership of Itumbaha is tied to the lineages.
This link corresponds to the descendence, claimed by oral
tradition, of the nine Sakya lineages from Kesavacandra,
the mentioned founder of Itumbaha The separate position
of the second lineage with its claims of part of the monastery does not affect, however, the unity of the Sangha.
This is so because the Sangha represents the members of
the monastery, not its owners. Thus the claims of ownership by the lineages do not affect the workings of the
Sangha where ownership does not matter. Accordingly,
Sangha rituals such as the temporary ordination are performed collectively by members of all lineages.
The third-ranked among the ten elders comes invariably
Rospatt/A Short Portrayal of Itumbaha.
29 from the one (recently subdivided) lineage to which all
Vajracaryas of the monastery belong. In addition to this
elder, the principle priests of the monastery are by need
Vajracaryas and hence from this lineage. The main priest
has the title Cakresvarl, which indicates his function as
supreme tantric master of the monastery. He may not act
as the lineage's elder, because being one of the ten elders
would functionally turn him into a client (yajamana) representing the monastery. This would be at odds with his
function as chief priest of the monastery because the officiating ritual master has to be different form the patron of
the ritual. The Cakresvarl is assisted by the second-ranking priest (the upadhyaya) and two further priests who are
nominally in charge of the mentioned tantric songs. The
Cakresvarl officiates at all major monastic rituals, including the ordination ceremony. The duties of this position
are very onerous and cannot be renounced, because, like
the elders, the Cakresvarl is replaced only upon death.
Once widowed, however, he is no longer believed to have
the necessary power for performing tantric rituals. They
are then performed on his behalf by the upadhyaya. The
Cakresvarl represents Itumbaha among the abovemen-
tioned eighteen main monasteries of Kathmandu, because
theirs is essentially an association of Vajracaryas and does
not allow for the representation of monasteries by Sakyas.
Likewise, the Cakresvarl of Itumbaha traditionally functions as one of the ten main priests of Kathmandu, the so-
called "masters of the ten regions" (dasadigacarya). As
"master of the south," he used to participate in grand rituals concerning the whole of Kathmandu, such as the periodic renovations of Svayambhu. Outside the sphere of
tantric rituals, however, the main elder takes precedence,
and in yet other situations the most senior member of the
entire Sangha is foremost. Thus Itumbaha does not have
an abbot, but its principle is, depending upon context, either the main elder, the Cakresvarl or the Sangha member
of the longest standing. But its most important body is the
ten elders because they collectively embody ownership of
the monastery. Accordingly, in Itumbaha the ceremonial
welcome (lasakus) is given by the wives of the lineage
elders rather than of the most senior Sangha members.
Daily Worship in Itumbaha
The main duty of the Sangha members is to act, in one
week turns, as ritual officiants, carrying out the daily regular worship (nityapuja) of the aforementioned Aksobhya
image in the main shrine and of the other exoteric deities
and shrines belonging to the monastery and its precincts.
The worship starts at the crack of dawn when the turn-
holder (dyahpal) sweeps and cleans the shrine room of
Aksobhya and ritually prepares the image for the day.
The main morning service takes place a little before nine
o'clock. Outside the shrine room, the turn-holder strikes
a hollow wooden beam of the kind that has functioned
since old as a monastic gong. He then goes on a round,
ringing a metal bell and worshipping stupas and other
shrines outside the monastery itself, in the larger area
generally known as Itumbaha He ends his round at the
well located in a corner of Taranani, the courtyard with
the shrine of the White Tara image, which was set up here
by a noble woman from Banepa at the end of the fourteenth century. This well is believed to be the home of a
set of snake divinities (naga), and hence the water is believed to be a powerful cure against skin diseases. Here,
the turn-holder administers the well's water to the waiting people who have often come from far away. Tibetans,
too, have great faith in the healing power of the well, and
sometimes water is sent for even from as distant a place
as Lhasa. Moreover, once a year the priests in charge of
Bungadyah, the supreme Buddhist deity of Patan, also
known as Rato Matsyendranath, come here to fetch water
for the annual bath of that deity. Also of great fame is
the mentioned White Tara, particularly among Tibetans,
who believe that she sometimes speaks to her devotees.
Around two o'clock in the afternoon the turn-holder once
more worships the principal image of Aksobhya with incense, by waving the yak whisk, reciting Sanskrit verses,
sounding the wooden gong and so on. In the late afternoon, the turn-holder again extends his ritual activities
beyond the confines of the monastery proper and goes on
a second round to worship also the ancillary shrines in the
vicinity. This concludes the routine daily worship.
The turn-holder does not stay in the monastery overnight
but, for the period of his turn, has to observe certain monastic restrictions. Most importantly, he must stay celibate and, accordingly, should sleep separately from his
family. He also is obliged to observe certain other purity
restrictions, which are mostly dietary. As mentioned, all
Sangha members, including the newly ordained boys,
have to take turns as turn-holder. Excepted, however, are
those who have moved away from Kathmandu and only
come to Itumbaha for the mentioned ordination ritual
(which for them functions in the main as a caste-specific
life cycle ritual of adolescence rather than an initiation
into the community of Itumbaha). Since the community of Itumbahal is very large, the one week turn rotates
through the roster of members only once every seven
years or so. Even so, it has become customary to delegate
one's turn to another member who is willing to assume
this responsibility against financial compensation.
In addition to the daily puja performed for the Aksobhya
image and the other exoteric deities and shrines, the secret
tantric deities of Itumbaha are also worshipped on a daily
basis (nityapuja). This concerns the three principal tantric
shrine rooms of Itumbaha, namely the so-called "not-to-
be-seen shrine room" (sva-maru agam) in the southern
30
Newah Vijnana-7 wing of the monastery, the shrine on the upper floor of
the northern wing, and the shrine in the house dedicated
to the lineage deity in KayagunanI, the mentioned huge
square outside the monastery proper. These esoteric tantric deities are worshipped in the morning. Moreover, in
the evening light from a burning wick is offered from
outside the shrine room. Traditionally, the ten elders and
the Cakresvarl took turns of one month to worship these
deities. There are attempts to revive this system, but currently one elder alone takes care of the daily worship
of the tantric deities. But, led by the Cakresvarl, the ten
elders do get together twice a year for the ritual of the
"tenth day" (disipuja), which is dedicated to the extensive
worship of the monastery's tantric deities. This happens
on the tenth day of the waxing fortnight of the months of
Pus and Asar, which mark the winter and summer solstice
and usually occur in December and June.
On the preceding full moon day, a demon called Guru
Mapa is propitiated separately. According to legend, this
demon used to haunt Itumbaha, devouring children living
there. Kesavacandra, the mentioned founder of Itumbaha,
managed to convince Mapa to settle outside town, on the
large open field called Thundikhel. In return he set up an
endowment (guthi) to feed Mapa a sumptuous feast once
a year. Even now, every full moon day in March, a meal
of rice, meat and vegetables is cooked on the stoves of the
monastery, behind the northern wing in the area known
as Bhutu Kebab. The meal is then brought to Thundikhel
and left for s to consume. Responsible for this are not the
members of Itumbaha, but Pradhans (a Newar caste) of
Klaghal (a part of Kathmandu) whose forefathers were
supposedly charged with this task by Kesavacandra. The
next day they also have to provide a meal of beaten rice,
vegetables and pulses for the elders of Itumbaha
It may be noted in this context that the Sangha members'
original lineage deity is the Svayambhu-stupa housed in a
temple next to the shrine of Vajrayogini in Sankhu, in the
north-eastern part of Kathmandu Valley. However, nowadays most members of Itumbaha worship instead the lineage deity in KayagunanI. They do so in separate groups
once a year in spring.
Annually Observed Rites and
Other Events in Itumbaha
Like the tantric puja of the tenth day, most Newar festivals, rituals and celebrations are tied to specific dates in
the lunar calendar and observed annually. Thus the year of
Newar Buddhists is structured by a calendar packed with
such religious events and occasions. Due to the general
decline in ritual practice, many of the rites and customs
traditionally observed in Itumbaha have started to lose
importance. Even so, the main events in the calendar still
stand out as occasions when Itumbaha becomes alive
with ritual activities.
To start with, from the fifth to the seventh day of the waxing fortnight of the month of Caitra, sometime in March,
the foundation of Itumbaha is commemorated. Just as
birthdays among the Newars are occasions to propitiate
the planets and perform other protective rituals ensuring
the well being of the celebrant, so I turn baha's anniversary
is an occasion for protecting it from malignant forces. For
this purpose, a large spirit offering (mahabu in Newari)
consisting of raw meat and other items is prepared. It is
scattered along the periphery of the neighbouring area
(desa) of Itumbaha. This pacifies potentially harmful beings and renders the monastery and its vicinity a protected
The most important time in the Newar Buddhist year is
the so-called "Month of Virtue" (gumla), which, as mentioned, largely overlaps with August. This period falls
in the middle of the monsoon rains and, since old, has
been in Buddhism a time of retreat and intense religious
practice. Much of the focus is on the aforementioned
Svayambhu-stupa. Every morning, thousands of Newars get up before dawn in order to walk the one mile to
Svayambhu for worshipping the main stupa and ancillary shrines there. They are back home some two hours
later, often drenched in rain, but in high spirits. Like other
monasteries and associations from Kathmandu, Itumbaha
has a special ensemble of drummers who contribute their
music to this daily worship of Svayambhu. Members tend
to be youngsters and, since a few years, also girls. They
are accompanied by trumpets and other wind instruments
played by professional musicians hired for the month.
They assemble each morning before dawn in Itumbaha
and then walk to Svayambhu, playing their drums along
the way. There they circumambulate the stupa while
sounding their drums as an offering to Lord Svayambhu.
This music group is active only during this month of
Gumla. Like other monasteries, Itumbaha has also a
standing music group for particular occasions which includes drums, cymbals and traditional trumpet-like wind
instruments, all played by Sangha members.
Within Itumbaha the main rites during the month of
Gumla revolve around the full moon day. Traditionally,
on this and the following day, the main treasures of the
monastery are exhibited and worshipped by the public.
However, in the recent past, the monastery "lost" many
invaluable objects, so nowadays there are only few objects that are still exhibited. Among them is a painted
scroll, itself the copy of an earlier original, that recounts,
with the pictures and captions below, the origins of
Itumbaha. More importantly, on this occasion two stat-
Rospatt/A Short Portrayal of Itumbaha.
31 ues of the Buddha Dipankara are displayed in the monastery itself and a further number privately in the adjacent courtyards. The Buddha Dipankara is the first in a
series of twenty-three ahistorical Buddhas of the past. He
owes his importance to his role as the archetypal recipient of alms, dana. Since the displayed statues are otherwise kept in storage, the few days in the month of Gumla
alone provide the chance to give offerings to Dipankara
and thus engage in the Mahayana practice of perfecting
one's generosity (danaparamita). The most important
of the displayed Dipankara statues is identified with the
founder of Itumbaha, and accordingly called "Grandfather Kesavacandra" ("Kescandra aju" in short). Unlike
the other exhibits, this statue is displayed for two weeks.
Two days after the full moon day, the goddess Kumari of
Kathmandu, who is impersonated by a small child, comes
for a ceremonial visit to Itumbaha so as to grace by her
presence the display of the Dipankara statues and other
sacred items. In addition to the annual worship in the
month of Gumla, a big festival, called Samyak, dedicated
to the cult of Dipankara is celebrated every twelve years
by the entire Buddhist population of Kathmandu. In this
context the Kesavacandra Dipankara of Itumbaha plays
a special role that reflects the endowment of this festival by members of Itumbaha at the end of the sixteenth
century. Itumbaha has been a prominent sponsor of Buddhism in Kathmandu in other contexts as well. This finds
notable expression in Itumbaha's traditional sponsorship
of the seventh of the thirteen rings that form part of the
superstructure of the Svayambhu-stupa and, up to the
nineteenth century, used to be rebuilt periodically when
renovating the stupa.
The two Dipankara statues and other exhibits inside
the monastery are displayed on the ground floor of the
northern wing, which opens to the courtyard. Two of the
aforementioned elders and two ordinary members of the
Sangha are responsible for taking care of the exhibits and
guarding them at night by sleeping there. The two elders
are the current holders of a yearlong turn dedicated to
rituals and other events occasioned by the annual calendar. The two Sangha members are also in charge by the
principle of rotation, but their turn only lasts a fortnight.
The four turn holders responsible for the display of exhibits have traditionally also been in charge of another
important ritual that until recently used to be observed
during the month of Gumla in Itumbaha, namely the recitation of the Prajnaparamita, the famous Mahayanasutra
on the perfection of transcendental wisdom. Itumbaha
owes a preciousmanuscript of this text, scribed in golden
letters on dark blue ground. It was the privilege of the
Vajracaryas of the monasteries belonging to the "middle
section" of Kathmandu to participate in the recitation.
The association of the eighteen main monasteries of Kath
mandu is subdivided topographically into four groups,
from north to south. The "middle section," which extends
basically from As an to the precincts of the old royal palace at Hanuman Dhoka, comprises seven monasteries
with Vajracaryas, of which Itumbaha is one. Traditionally,
a sizeable group would come on seven consecutive days
(later this was shortened to four days) for reciting the
text. On each of these days, upon conclusion of the recitation, the Vajracaryas -eligible were not only those who
had recited, but all who belong to the mentioned seven
monasteries of middle Kathmandu - were feasted with a
traditional meal, considered blessed food and partly taken
home and distributed among family members. Moreover,
on the first day, the Vajracaryas received ritualised prestations of alms, the above-mentioned panjadan. Indicative
of the general erosion in cultic practices, this practice has
recently been discontinued, and since some twelve years
the Prajaparamitasutra is only exhibited and no longer recited.
Itumbaha also functions as an arena for ritual activities
that are not immediately connected to the monastery. A
prominent example is the worship with images made with
fried pulses and grains that are laid out on the ground.
They represent the venerated deity by a water flask or, in
the case of Manjusri, a characteristic implement such as
his book or sword. On the evening of the full moon day
that usually falls in November, these pictorial arrangements of pulses and grains are laid out in front of stupas
and other shrines in the monastery of Itumbaha and its adjacent courtyards, just as elsewhere in Kathmandu on that
evening (see plate 4). They are decorated with sweet potatoes and yams as an offering to the deity in front of which
they are set up. Moreover, fruits and other food items,
as well as flowers and butter lamps are organised as offerings. Facing this arrangement and the deity behind,
the worshippers assemble in a small circle and venerate
the deity by reciting devotional verses, in particular the
Namasahglti, a tantric text dedicated to Manjusri and his
various manifestations. Upon conclusion of the worship,
the image is "destroyed" by the youngest boy present and
the food items are consumed as blessing (prasada).
Concluding Remarks
The rituals and other events mentioned above are only
given as prominent examples to convey an impression of
the workings of Itumbaha. There are, in truth, numerous
other occasions on which Itumbaha functions as a focus
of ritual activities. Notably, Sangha members often use
Itumbaha as an arena for celebrating important family
feasts, in particular weddings. This makes perfect sense
given that Itumbaha is in many ways a family institution
uniting related lineages with a common ancestor. However, Itumbaha is not construed as serving the needs of
32
Newah Vijnana-7 its members alone. Rather, when the boys undergo the
temporary ordination dealt with above, they do so with
the expressed purpose of working for the happiness of
all mankind. Thus Itumbaha's function is framed in terms
of Mahayana Buddhism as an altruistic institution that is
to provide the necessary framework for its members to
benefit all sentient beings. By this token, the preservation
of Itumbaha is not only in the interest of the members
of the monastery, but also of the Newar Buddhist community and the citizens of Kathmandu as a whole. This of
course presupposes that the members of Itumbaha assume
responsibility for their traditional duties and assure that
Itumbaha survives as an intact religious institution that
serves as a local focus for the Buddhist community. Thus,
for the present restoration of the monastic buildings to be
truly successful, it has to instil a sense of pride and own
ership in the Sangha members.
Endnotes:
1 This small article has been prepared with the kind help
by members of Itumbaha. I am particularly grateful
to Svasti Ratna Shakya, Captain Chandra Bahadur
Shakya and Prajna Ratna Shakya who generously
gave of their valuable time to share their firsthand
knowledge of the workings of Itumbaha with me. To
be sure, the following portrayal reflects my own perspective, and any inaccuracies and mistakes are of
my own doing. So as to make this article accessible
also for readers with no prior knowledge of Newar
Buddhism, I have limited the use of technical terms
and simplified the transcription of Sanskrit and
Newar words.
P/afS 7 - Newly ordained monks on Sunday, the fourth
of February 2001, upon conclusion of the ordination ceremony. They are seated in line together with their paternal aunts, who have assisted them, in the courtyard of
Itumbaha.
P/afS 2. - Gyanaratna Shakya on the day of his ordination (on Sunday, the fourth of February 2001) into the
Sangha of Itumbaha, in front of the main exoteric shrine
room of the monastery. Indicative of his new status as
member of the Sangha, he has just been inside the shrine
room and worshipped the image of the Buddha Aksobhya
there.
Rospatt/A Short Portrayal of Itumbaha.
33 P/afS 3 - Seven of the Ten Elders of Itum Bahal, standing with their ceremonial robes
and caps in the courtyard of the monastery. They have just been initiated into the office
of elder by an elaborate sequence of tantric rituals. This happened on the twenty-fifth
of January, 2001 in preparation for the ordination ceremony performed ten days later,
which requires the participation of the elders.
P/afS 4 - The annual worship with an image laid out with fried pulses and grains on
Saturday, the eighth of November 2003, inside Itumbaha. The image depicts a water
flask which represents the worshipped deity. Together with offerings of fruits and vegetables it is set up in front of the exoteric shrine room of Itumbaha The worshipers are
seated outside the temple enshrining the Ashoka stupa in the centre of the monastery's
courtyard. They venerate the image, and with it the Buddha Aksobhya of the shrine
room, by reciting verses.
34
Newah Vijnana-7 A Study on Itum Bahal
Ushnik Ratna Shakya
Kathmandu, Nepal
(Summary of Masters Thesis Submitted to the Central Department of
Nepalese History, Culture and Archaeology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal)
Itumbahal is centrally located at the heart of the Kathmandu City, surrounded by many nannies and gullies.
It maintained its peace and serenity, isolated from busy
life of a modern city, as no vehicles are permitted inside the compound. In fact, the peaceful atmosphere
is a necessary factor for the proper understanding and
execution of Buddhist teachings.
It was once a rich monastery with gilded roof and pinnacles decorated with exotic arts and crafts. The 360
ropanis of land, entrusted to proper execution of duties
and responsibilities of innumerable guthis of Itumbahal, is now in a depleted state of affairs. All the lands
are gone, succumbed to the so-called 'land reforms' by
Govt, of Nepal. As rich Guthis are virtually dragged
into a poor minority, it
resulted in a poor state of
affairs in the once rich Viharas. Without any funds
for even a minor repair,
it makes Itumbahal most
vulnerable to the thieves
and burglars. Many historic masterpieces of fine
arts have been stolen,
making it a great loss to
the Vihara as well as to
the nation.
The elders of Itumbahal
used to say that when
King Mukundsen of Pal-
Daily Ritual in Itumbahal in Kathmandu, Nepal
Photo Courtesy: Sudip Shakya
of Itumbahal is Suborna Maha Vihar, which is named
after its golden roof and pinnacles. Keshchandra repaired it and re-named it as Bhaskar Deva Sanskarita
Keshchandra Krita Par aw aria Maha Vihar in the 11th
century.
There are many interesting legends and personalities
related with foundation of Itumbahal. The legendry
figure of Keshchandra-the founder of Itumbahal and
King Bhaskardeva are both historical personalities.
It is interesting to note that the name of Keshchandra
has been mentioned in colophons of Bhasavamsawali.
During the reign of Gunakarnadeva (late 10th century),
immediately after founding the Kantipur and Lalitpur
city in 1st half of the 11th century, Keshchandra was
one of the successful merchants who had returned
from Tibet and founded
Itumbahal. The period
of foundation of Itumbahal happened during
the reign of Bhaskardeva
(1047-1050). The dates
of Keshchandra might be
between 990-1070 A.D.,
my calculation of dates
are related with the fact
that Keshchandra might
have been alive for at
least 10 years after the
foundation of Itumbahal.
His name mentioned in
pa plundered Kathmandu Valley in NS 646, he never
touched Itumbahal. Obviously, he was much amused
by the rich and splendor of Itumbahal. When he turned
back, the Thaku King of Watu, charged with jealousy,
attacked Itumbahal and burnt it down. The molten gold
flowed everywhere in the compounds of Itumbahal.
The gold was re-collected and Itumbahal was fully
renovated and many pieces of land were also entrusted
to maintain guthis. Yet, in an unpublished document
of late Thayapa, Moti Kaji Shakya, the ancient name
Bhasavamsawali as a merchant returnee from Tibet,
immediately after the reign of Guna Kamadeva (Late
10th century). Keshchandra might have gone to Tibet
and returned with enough wealth to be spent leisurely
with gambling before he met Gurumapa and thought
about founding Itumbahal.
Gurumapa was one of the legendry figures related
with the foundation of Itumbahal. Gurumapa was a
Kirtimukha Bhairab, a Bodhisatwoo, who helped Ke-
Shakya/A Study on Itum Bahal
35 schandra to establish Itumbahal. The legendry figure
of Gurumapa was an ugly-faced dangerous demigod
who devoured, according to legends, live children.
Displeased by his behavior, Keshchandra ultimately,
threw Gurumapa into an open field of Tudikhel.
According to Tibetan sources, Gurumapa (Gurumar-
pa) was a historical personality, a devout disciple of
Guru Naropa, who traveled thrice into India via Nepal.
He was born in 1012 A.D and died around 1096 A.D.
According to the Tibetan people; he was a Bodhisat-
woo, a siddha, and founder of Ka-gyu-pa sect of Tibetan Buddhism. Gurumarpa, as a tantric, can transfer
his consciousness into a dead body and use that body
as his own. His biography tells about his poetic ability and translation works.
In his youth, he was ill
tempered and possessed
whatever he wanted. His
parents sent him to study
Buddhism to calm down
his hot behavior. Influenced by many notable
teachers, he decided to
visit India and meet Gurus like Naropa. For this
purpose, he collected
enough gold to spend on
his way towards India.
He arrived in Nepal and
stayed at Swayambhu for
three years, on his way
towards India.
One of the Gurupama plates in Itumbahal
Photo Courtesy: Sudip Shakya
Calculation of dates and timing, according to his biography, places the event around 1042-45. AD. Gurumarpa stayed at Swayambhu, in his first journey to India,
and altogether he spent a total of 18 years in India and
Nepal on his three journeys. However, he never stayed
at Swayambhu in his 2nd and 3rd journey. Strangely,
dates and timings of Keshchandra, Bhaskardeva and
foundation of Itumbahal are same as dates of Tibetan
Guru Gurumarpa. He had stayed at Swayambhu and,
surprisingly, according to legends Keshchandra met
Gurumapa at Swayambhu and some event did occur at
Swayambhu forest. Keshchandra might have discovered the hidden gold's brought in by Gurumapa and
quarrels erupted between them, or perhaps Keshchandra was able to tame Gurumapa and bring home both
Gurumapa and gold into Itumbahal, with conditional
agreement. While Gurumapa was in Itumbahal, it is
speculates that a deadly disease might have spread,
killing many infants, and blame was showered upon
a stranger called Gurumapa. Coincidentally, even the
only son of Keshchandra became a victim of deadly
disease (Legends: Keshchandra's son was killed by
Guru mapa). The untimely death of Keschandra's son
disheartened him very much. Ultimately, he renovated
his resident into a Vihara and gave it to sangha, for
greater benefit of the mankind. Indeed, Gurumapa was
guru of Keshchandra too! Gurumapa showed the way
for construction of Vihara. He named this Vihara as a
'Parovaria Mahavihard, with dedication to pigeons,
Thereupon, in Itumbahal, pigeons are most welcome
and respected.
Until, and unless there is not any conclusive proof about
Guru Marpa of Tibet and
Gurumapa of Itumbahal,
one cannot say that both
personalities are same.
Even though both of them
are contemporary and the
chain of events of their
lives ascertain that both
of them are same person.
In essence, it suffices to
say Itumbahal is one of
the most ancient Vihara
with many Guthis and full
activities of Sangha. The
mention of Itumbahal
in Gopalraj Vamsawali
in NS 361, and in subsequent inscriptions, as well as
in the colophons of Buddhist manuscripts prove that
Itumbahal is one of the fully active Mahayana Buddhist Vihara, with vast Sangha, from the earliest days
of its foundations in history.
My research on Itumbahal sufficiently proves that in
Itumbahal, the higher vajrayana initiation and vaja-
rayana practices were carried out in medieval years.
The religious debut of personalities like Keshchandra,
Gudochandra, Jayataju, Gangansingh Bharo, Bekhas-
ingh, Dhanasingh, Jayadev, Balsingh, Dhanju, Sukajit
Bharo, Bitusingh Rawat, etc. and a tantric Guru named
Ja-mana-gubhaju who resided in Itumbahal were significant. The higher secret tantric pujas were carried
out by Bajracharya gurus in the premises of Itumbahal.
A direct official relationship was made with then ruling
Malla court of Hanuman Dhoka (Layaku- Darawar).
An unconfirmed report says that even king Pratap Malla paid a visit to Itumbahal. All the land property was
36
Newah Vijnana-7 officially registered at Malla court. With the advent
of the Shah dynasty, the Itumbahal Buddhist heritage
showed a slow decline.
In Itumbahal, there is a mixed sangha of both Shakyas
and Bajracharyas. There are 118 Shakya and a few
Bajracharyas families; altogether there are about 438
initiated members of Itumbahal sarva sangha. Numerous guthis has been established to run the affairs of
sarva sangha, headed by the executive body of eleven
Thayapas. Among eleven Thayapas, nine are from
Shakyas and rest from Bajracharyas. The Thayapas are
headed by Chakreswara and Muthayapa, beside those
two posts there is another post of Sangha Thakuli appointed according to seniority in the sangha excluding
eleven Thayapas.
Groupism within
sangha and dis-
sention is causing
a major problem
in the smooth
functioning of
socio-religious
activities. A group
of 7-8 families
within sarva-
sangha known as
Ba-sangha withhold its control
over northern
halves   of  vihara
Locals in Front of Itumbahal Free Clinic
Photo Courtesy: Sudip Shakya
complex; they disobeyed the major decision of sarva
sangha, and are acting on their own. Ba sangha posed
a major problem in the renovation, and series of legal
wrangling erupted. While the process of renovation
progressed, Ba-sangha members refused to assimilate
the uniformity of slanting roof corner at the meeting
point of back side of western and northern wing, causing a slight variation in renovation works. Consequently, there are clearly distinguishable two types of slanting roof, even if both the parties had registered their
architectural design papers at the Dept of Archaeology
separately and executed under the supervision of Govt,
officials.
For, the solution of legal disputes and other legitimate
activities compelled the sangha to form a working
body, whose activities are recognized as legitimate
by sarva sangha. The Keshchandra Mahavihara San-
grakshyan Samaj, was formed under the chairmanship
of Capt. Chandra Bahadur Shakya with majority of ini
tiated members of sangha as a member of this samaj.
All the legal disputes, property, restoration and renovation are carried on by this samaj on the behalf of 'Sarva
Sangha.'
The repair and restoration works of Southern and
Western wing has been completed with financial contribution from people of Germany. Similarly, the repair
works of northern wing has been completed by Ba-
sangha. The members of Ba-sangha worked on their
own financial resources, no outside donations are taken
as claimed by Ba-sangha members. The eastern wing is
due to be repaired in near future for its restoration. After completion of repair work, the ' Keschandra Maha
Vihara Sangrakshyan Samaf plans to establish a museum in its southwest corner rooms
of vihara, with all
its valuable masterpieces of arts
and crafts, and
paintings. Until
then those rooms
are now occupied
by a medical clinic, which opens
every Saturday
morning with free
medical check-up.
The samaj also
plans to establish
a Buddhist Library in the future. A small primary school with around
50 students managed by 'Education Dept' is still running at the basement of Northern wing.
Itumbahal sangha have had to adopt the changes in the
modern society. The initiations of children born out of
inter-caste marriage were quite impossible in the past
but this has changed dramatically. Recently, about
13 children born out of inter-caste marriage are initiated, which is a significant milestone in the adoption
of changed social structure, in fact Buddhism teaches
about cast-less society.
Solidarity of sangha members is necessary for smooth
functioning of socio-religious activities of sangha.
Unity of sangha must be prevailed at any cost, without
which the splendid socio-religious, arts and architectural heritage of Nepal will be liquidated in no time.
Therefore, unity of sangha is a must for preservation
and secure future of Itumbahal for coming generation.
t.                      ,    •      j,                                 l
-P
'
5ij|8rt^M^J
^=^HIH
Shakya/A Study on Itum Bahal
37 Hidden History of Nepal
Dr. H.G. Behr
This is an English translation,  translated by Chakana Nepami, of excerpt from the book
called Nepal Geschenk der Gotter (Nepal gifts of the Gods)written in German language.
Since 1716, Gorakh Nath Narbhupal Shah had been
sitting on his throne made of mud. He found his throne
very uncomfortable and wanted to change it with the
silver throne of the Kathmandu Valley at any cost.
With this aim in mind, he married many
times to widen his territory and built alliances. But he was not successful. Finally, he changed his tactics. In 1732,
he sent his 10-year-old son Prithvi
Narayan to stay with the king of Bhaktapur.
In a covering letter, Narbhupal Shah requested the king of Bhaktapur to raise
his son and provide him a good education, which was only possible in Nepal.
But, his real intention was to place his
son in the palace so that he could spy on
it and gather vital information.
The Malla king of Bhaktapur took in his young guest
Prithvi Narayan Shah with friendship and showed him
his palace. The prince of Gorkha, Prithvi Narayan
Shah, had an excellent memory, and remembered everything that he saw.
After five years, he returned to his hometown, Gorkha.
He had gathered much information about the reasons
behind the quarrels among the valley kings, the exact
quantity of military equipments and the strategic locations in Nepal.
Prithvi Narayan Shah was sure that he could conquer
the pass of Nuwakot, so in the same year he sent his
Gorkha soldiers to attack Nuwakot. The young prince
had gravely miscalculated or his father had underestimated the Mallas. The Malla kings had banded together and their armies beat the Gorkhas very badly.
Since then, the Gorkha launched an attack on the valley
every year right after the monsoon in order to possess
its wealth. But they failed again and again. The Gorkhas came punctually at the end of September, but they
never made any headway. This went on till 1764.
Prithvi then sent a peace message to the
valley. The Mallas received his message with joy. The endless war was a
strain on their resources, and it was also
disrupting their business.
However, Prithvi's message was actually a clever deception; he really
didn't seek peace. The Mallas came
to know that it was only a ploy when
the Gorkhas blocked the northern trade
route. Another thing that worried the
Malla was that the Gorkhas had come
into possessions of excellent arms and
lots of money with which to prosecute
the war. The Mallas didn't know from
where the Gorkhas had gotten them.
The British government had supplied the weapons to
the Gorkhas, but this fact has been kept hidden in Nepal's history book. The secret treaty, which was done,
is still preserved in London in the archives of East Indian Company.
Captain Ceane and the Gorkhas signed the pact. The
British government agreed to supply the weapons and
advice. In return, the Gorkhas had to destroy the old
trade routes between India and China.
The Moguls of India had a flourishing business relationship with the Mallas of Nepal, and this trade accounted for 30 percent of the wealth of the Moguls.
The British had wanted to get their hands on the riches.
According to the accord, Prithvi Narayan Shah received 800 muskets along with 21 British advisors.
And in 1766, armed with British weapons and intelligence, the Gorkhas attacked Kirtipur. The people of
38
Newah Vijnana-7 Kirtipur could not resist the superior arms, and two
third of them were killed.
The cruel Gorkhas cut off the noses of the survivors.
Till today, this place is known as the "village of the
nose-less". The Mallas then realized that the situation
had become precarious.
Prithvi Narayan Shah imposed a blockade. After three
years, Bhaktapur's food stock ran out. One night, illegitimate children of the Mallas opened the gates to
the city. The valley's three kings were arrested in their
bedrooms. Jaya Prakash Malla committed suicide. To
show his big-heartedness, Prithvi allowed Jaya Prakash
to be brought to Pashupatinath for the final rites.
Jaya Prakash Malla, king of Kathmandu, was an intelligent ruler. He wrote a very touching letter to the East
India Company appealing for assistance against the
Gorkhas. The East India Company subsequently sent
15 very strong men under the command of a captain
named Kinlock to help the Mallas. This captain was
quite fond of drinking alcohol.
When the British arrived at the hills leading to the
Kathmandu Valley, they faked being defeated by the
Gorkhas. The Gorkhas pretended to hit them and they
acted as if they were wounded. Like, we say in Newar
language 'Chhan daye then ya, jin khwaya then yaye."
The British wanted the Mallas to think that the Gorkhas were too powerful to fight with.
Jaya Prakash Malla then looked to religion for support. A prophet told the king that the future of Nepal
depended on the Kumari and so in 1768, the festival
of Indra Jatra was celebrated with extra fervor. The
Nepalese drank lots of rice beer during the festivities,
especially on September 13 on the day of the chariot
festival.
They did not notice that the Gorkhas had entered the
city until they had surrounded the Kumari's chariot.
Pandemonium broke out. Jaya Prakash Malla jumped
down from the royal chariot with his two wives and
escaped to Lalitpur.
Prithvi Narayan Shah stepped in front of the bewildered crowd and shouted, "I'm now your king. Carry
on with your drinking." Prithvi Narayan Shah was at
that time 46 years old.
Many Newars drank rice beer because they were terror-stricken. The Gorkhas put their swords to the necks
of the Newars who refused to accept the new king, so
they had no choice but to obey.
In the following winter, the Gorkhas also conquered
Lalitpur without any opposition. The Mallas then gathered at the palace in Bhaktapur and the palace was well
defended. Following the advice of his British advisors,
Bhaktapur's king Ranjit Malla, who had given shelter
to Prithvi Narayan, was not killed; but his eyes were
put out and sent to the Hindu holy city of Banaras.
Tej Narasingh of Patan did not want to exchange any
words with Prithvi Narayan.
Tej Narasingh was imprisoned in a vault and walled up.
A small hole was left open to pass food to him. And for
two days, a bowl of rice was put near the hole. When
they saw that Tej Narasingh had not touched the food,
the hole was bricked up.
Prithvi Narayan Shah did everything according to
Captain Ceane's suggestions. He said to Prithvi, "The
people of Nepal are very hard working and intelligent.
That is why they are very dangerous. We need to strike
terror into their hearts in order to control them. Don't
let them come to power even after many centuries. We
need to obliterate from their minds the idea of rising
up to seize power. This can only be achieving through
harsh laws and violence."
Accordingly, Newars were not allowed to read, write
or repair their houses. If they broke the law, they faced
the death penalty. In 1770, two and half thousand Newars were killed. The second generation was thoroughly
intimidated, and simply gave up. The third generation
started to forget. The tax records of 1767 showed that
176 different kinds of fruits and vegetables were grown
in the valley.
After Prithvi Narayan Shah took control of the valley,
the old cities began to stagnate even though so much
money was pouring into the country. The only changes
in the cityscape that occurred were the result of earthquakes.
The British naturally benefitted greatly from their cruel
plan. In 1776, the Mogul Empire became bankrupt and
was forced to become a colony of Britain. The whole
of central Asia suffered after Prithvi Narayan Shah
took over Nepal and closed the old trade routes.
Tibet's economy too was negatively affected. The de-
Nepami/Hidden History of Nepal
39 pressed economy forced monasteries to become financially self-reliant. This was how feudalism emerged as
a shadow on the gentle face of the Buddha. There was
a negative effect even in China.
The British were also not very happy with the Gorkhas.
The Gorkhas had tasted the blood, and did not give up
violence. In this way, they conquered all the hill states.
The Gorkha turned the country into a "forbidden land".
As long as the country remained closed up, the British were not disturbed. On the contrary, in 1789, the
Gorkhas became crazy and went to war with China and
England.
Britain's General Ochterlony said, "We have to keep
the Gorkhas busy so that other things besides conquest
come to their minds."
Lord Hastings wrote in his diary in 1817, "To bring
peace in Nepal, the Gorkhas must be kept busy and far
from their country."
This policy led to the recruitment of Gorkha soldiers
into British army. The Nepal government took one-
third of the money sent home by the Gorkhas. It was
an important source of income for the government of
Nepal.
After the Gorkhas began leaving Nepal, there was
peace on the frontier as well as within the country. But
there was no peace in the king's palace. The Shahs
fought among themselves. They didn't care about the
country or the people. They remained engrossed in
their own interests.
Then came the Kot Parwa, and the Jung Bahadur Rana
took over power from the Shah King.
Newah Celebrations Around the World:
Mha Puja - Wembley, U.K
Photo Courtesy: Mr. Keshav Maharjan (www.ppguk.org)
Swonti Celebration - San Francisco, California
Photo Courtesy: Mr. Rajesh Shrestha (www.nepaimandai.com)
T*      1
VvWJ          "$>
IB     ■    W
S!                  B>               l'ls-nfilivlririrLiiR.I|J
Newah Festival - Melbourne, Australia
Photo Courtesy: www.nepalmandal.com
40
Newah Vijnana-7 Encoding Nepal Scripts
A great incentive for the Newar youth to engage
their dynamic and vibrant culture
Dr. Carole Faucher*
I feel much honored to have been associated with prominent
activists and scholars of the Newar community at the
occasion of a consultative meeting held in Kathmandu
on 20 March 2010 organized to discuss encoding Nepal
scripts. My knowledge of Nepal and of the
situation of the Newar is relatively basic at
this point. However I would like to address the
issue of encoding Nepal Lipi scripts from the
perspective of an anthropologist specializing
on Identity politics and power relations. In
my research, which up to now has been based
mostly in Southeast Asia, I tend to pay a specific
attention to the role of language in shaping
power relations. This is not a coincidence. I
come from a country, Canada, which has been
divided over language politics over much of
its short history. The Quebec French-speaking
community,  to  which  I  belong,  has   gone
through decades of uncertainty and of struggle - mostly
peacefully, before the French language finally gained the
official recognition and status it possesses today at both
provincial and national levels.
important, but nowadays, in this age of electronic media,
written forms provide the users with a sense of belonging
and of continuity, from classical texts to contemporary
literature and even popular culture. All over the world
today we regularly witness members of the
younger generation describing the culture they
were born into as out-of-fashion because it is
not adequately represented in popular culture
and electronic media. As I mentioned before,
I see ethnicity and feeling of belonging as
being constantly negotiated through everyday
life interactions - this includes the interactions
taking place in the cyberspace.
In Anthropology, we look at identity in terms of process.
Collective identities, such as ethnicity and nationality,
are continually being re-constructed through everyday
life interactions. Ethnic identity is both situational and
interactional and therefore should never be taken for
granted. In all cases we are talking about an on-going
process in which a large number of factors are involved.
Ethnic identity is shaped through culture, and the
enactment and reproduction of specific markers, such as
religion, language, traditions, morality framework, shared
historical memories and so on. We know who we are
because there is some sort of consensus on these cultural
markers among the members of our community. We live
with these markers, we reproduce them through interaction,
we transform them, adapt them, teach them through formal
or informal means. Language is no doubt one of the most
common - although often underestimated, markers for a
large number of ethnic groups. It is through culture (in its
anthropological sense) that we make sense of the world
around us and locate ourselves in this world; it is through
language that we interact with others and reproduce,
teach, manage our culture. Spoken language is of course
We can observe many cases of ethnic and
national groups who have been socially and
Author: Carole Faucher  politically disempowered due to the lack of,
or the systematic abolition through official
means  of the  script historically  associated  with  their
spoken language. This is the case, for example of many
Central Asian ethnic groups who have been imposed
Cyrillic  alphabet during   Soviet period,  or of former
European colonies who are now using the Latin alphabet,
of Lao, Thailand and Burmese minorities, North American
indigenous groups and so on.
In my view, a script which has developed over centuries
should ideally be re-united with the daily speech in order
for the language to be recognized once again as fully
operative. The Newar people of Nepal have the great
advantage of having kept alive beautiful scripts as part of
a rich set of cultural attributes. The project of encoding
these scripts is in my view extremely important for the
survival of the Newar culture: it will provide a strong tool
to make the learning of the language more systematic,
thus potentially helping to increase the number of users
in everyday life communication. Lastly, the encoding will
act as a great incentive for the youth to look at their Newar
culture as dynamic and vibrant, encouraging them to
continue to actively engage with it in their daily interaction
in order to ensure its survival.
* Professor in International Public Policy, Graduate School of Humanities and
Social Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Japan joined the Consultative meeting
of Nepal scripts encoding as a Guest of Honor at the invitation of Nepal Study
Center, Japan and Nepal Lipi Guthi, Kathmandu.
Faucher/Encoding Nepal Script
41 Bibliography of Thesis
and Research Paper in
Nepal Bhasa Submitted
at Tribhuvan University
Ijirose Shrestha
Patan Mujltiple Campus TU
Nepal
1.
10.
11.
12
Bajracharya, Bajra Muni  (NS  1118/1998). Newah      13.
Sanskar wa Ukiya Shabdavali (Nepal Bhasa Vocabulary in Newah Ritual Tradition).
Bajracarya, Chunda (1105/1985). Jitamitra Malala      14.
ya Palaya ya Dharata Grantha (A Chronologial Recordings of Jita Mitra Malla Period).
Bajracharya, Chandraman (NS  1108/1988). Nepal      15.
Bhasa Kavya Paramparaye Chhwasa (Critical Study
of 'Chhwasa' mini epic).
Bajracharya, Lokendra Man (NS 1125 / 2005). Ate-      16.
pal Bhasha Bikasay Birat Nepal Bhasa Sahitya.... (A
Study on Contribution of Birat Nepal Bhasha Literary      17.
Symposium).
Dangol, Hari Krishna ( NS 1128 / 2008). Loktantrik
Andolanye Nepal Bhasa Bukhdpau ( A Study of Ne-      18.
pal Basha Newspapers on Democratic Movement).
Dangol, Kaji Man( NS 1126 / 2006). Yala Hakha      19.
twaya Dapha Dhajan Dhhagu Adhyana (A Study of
Dapha Bhajan in Hakha Area). 20.
Darshan,    Dhari     Sudarshana    (NS     1118/1998).
Dharmaditya  Dharmacharya  wa   Wayekaya  Kriti     21.
(Analysis of Dharmaditya Dharmacharya's Works).
Darshandhaari,   Annapurna   (NS    1123   /   2003).
Chhenya Lakshyan (A Study of Auspiciousness in     22.
Houses).
Darshandhari, Annapurna (NS 1123 / 2003). Buddha
Dharma wa Nepal Bhasha Patrika ya Dhalah Pau     23.
(Bibliography of Buddha Dharma and Nepal Bhasha
Magazine)
Dhaubadel, Triprashad (NS 1124 / 2004). Navagraha     24.
Nakshyatra mas Tithi Charka Phal Chhagu Grantha
(A Study of the Auspicious Dates and Results in Navagraha Nakshatra). 25.
Dhaubhadel,    Triprashad    (NS     1125    /    2005).
Nasanphagu cha Upanyasya Baicharik Paksha (Critical Study of Nasan Phagu Cha). 26.
Dhital (Manandhar), Sulochana (NS 1119/1999). Lu-
manti Lehe Bugu jigu Anuvhuti (Symbolic Expression
of Personal Memory: A Creative Art). 27.
Joshi, Bindu Baba (NS 1122 / 2002). Bhajanavali
ya Chhagu Adhyana (A Study of Classical Text, The
Bhajanavali).
Joshi, Dilip Kumar (NS 1122 / 2002). Can Pyakhan
Dune Lok Pakshya (Public Aspect of Gan Pyakhan
Drama).
Joshi, Min Bahadur (NS 1118/1998). Ghaye ya
Newah Na (A Study of Newah Names of Grass and
Weed).
Joshi, Rajan Lal (NS 1122 / 2002). Newah Samajaye
Dyahla Jai ( The Dyala People Newah Society).
Joshi, Rajan Lal (NS 1122 / 2002). Mudra Rakshyash
(NS 873) Chhagu Adhyayana (A Study of NS 873
Mudra Raktshyas).
Joshi, Swasti (NS 1128/2008). PunchaliDegah Chhagu Adhyayan (A Study on Panchali Temple).
Joshi, Swasti (NS 1126 / 2006). Asia Varga (Vairag):
Chhagu Adhyayana (A Study of Asta Baitaraga).
Jyaan, Bahadur (NS  1123 / 2003).  Kabir Kumar
Vadan ( A Study of Classical Text Kabir Kumar)
Kansakaar, Sharad Birsingh (NS 1115/1995). Mad-
hay Kalya Nepal Lipi Prabriti (Contribution of Nepal
Script in Medieval Period of Nepal Bhasa).
Karanjit, Mangala (NS 1110/1990) Ritu Mye Bahra
Mase Mye ya Adhyayan (Seasonal Song, The 'Bahra
Masey,' in Nepal Bhasha).
Maharjan, Amrit ( NS 1129 / 2009). Mhaye Piya
Sanskritik Adhyana ( A Study of Tradition on Warding off Own Body).
Maharjan, Amrita (NS 1129 / 2009).
Vichitrakarnikavadan Nyagugu Adhyaya (A Study of
Vichitrakarnikavadan Part 5).
Maharjan, Dharma Govinda (NS 1128 / 2008). Shree
Hari Siddhi Deviya Pooja Vidhi (The rituals of Shree
Hari Siddhi Devi).
Maharjan, Hera Kaji ( NS 1126 / 2006). YalaNagarye
Chonpin Jyapu Jati ya Antyasti (The Funeral Ceremony of Jyapu Community in Lalitpur).
Maharjan, Ishwar Man (NS 1129 / 2009). Dhwon
42
Newah Vijnana-7 Cholechiya Bakhan Chhagu Adhyayan ( A study of
Dhocholecha Story).
28. Maharjan, Jiwan Kumar (NS 1122 / 2002). Karpa-
vati Charitra, Natak Chhagu Adhyayan (A Study of
Karpapawati Natak).
29. Maharjan, Jiwan Kumar (NS 1122 / 2002). Dhanya-
vati Pyakhanaya Chhagu Adhyana (A study of Dh-
anyabati Drama)
30. Maharjan, Jnaani Maiyaa (NS 1127 / 2007). Newah
Samaj aye Bora Sanskar (The Bora tradition of Girls
in Newah Community).
31. Maharjan, Juju Man (NS 1125 / 2006).
Madhavopakhyan Chhagu Adhyana (A Study of
Classical Text Madhavo Pakhyan).
32. Maharjan, Jyaan Bahadur (NS 1125 / 2005). Kipuya
Jyapu Jatiya Samajik Sanskar ( A Study of Social
Customs Among the Jyapu People of Kirtipur)
33. Maharjan, Juju Man ( NS 1126 / 2006). Prachlit
Nepal Lipi wa Bengali Lipi Tulana (A Comparative
Study of Nepal and Bengali Script).
34 Maharjan, Kadam Lal (NS 1125 / 2005). Nepal Sanskriti Layapau ya Chwasu Dhalah wa Ukiya Yogdan
(Bibliography of 'Nepal Sanskriti' Magazine and its
Contribution).
35. Maharjan, Nani Maiya (NS 1126 / 2006) Yatradi
Shubha-shubha Phala NS 878 ya Chhagu Abhilekh
Grantha Adhyana (A Study on the Travel Forecast
Classical Text Yatradi Shubha-shubha Phala NS 878)
36. Maharjan, Ramesh (NS 1125 / 2005). Madhyamik
Shikshaye Nepal Bhasa Adhyayan (A Study of Nepal
Bhasa Syllabi in High Schools).
37. Maharjan, Rajendra Kumar (NS 1126 / 2006). Nepal
Bhasa ya Gajal Chhagu Adhyana (A Study of Nepal
Bhasa Gajal Songs).
38. Maharjan, Rajendra Kumar (NS 1122 / 2002) Geet
Gobinda ya Chhagu Adhyayana (A Study of Classical
text 'Geeta Govinda').
39. Maharjan, Sudip (NS 1128 / 2008). Kipuya Nhayegan
Jatra : Chhagu Adhyayan (A Study on Kirtipur 7 Village Festival).
40. Maharjan, Sudip (NS 1123 / 2003). Gauri Vivaha
Pyakhanye Hyukal Bagya Dharota (Hyukal Bag
Items in Classical Text, Gaurivivaha).
41. Maharjan, Tejman (NS 1119/1999). Nepal Bhasa ya
Bikasaye Dharmadoot ( Evaluation of Dharmadoot
Magazine in Promotion of Nepal Bhasa).
42. Maharjan, Tuyu Bahadur (NS 1105/1985). Thana
Sika Sika Mwaye Thaku (Hardshipness of Being
Alive, Creative Writings)
43. Malla, K Sunder (NS 1102/1982). Nepal Bhasa yaa
Nhuu Chinakhd (Modern Poems in Nepal Bhasa).
44. Manandhar, Babita (NS 1120/2000). Durgalal
Shrestha-juya Sahityik Jiwani (Literary Biography of
Poet Durga Lal Shrestha).
45. Manandhar, Poonam (NS 1121 / 2001). Pasa
Bachhipau ya Chwasu Dhalah wa Ukiya... (Bibliog
raphy on Fortnightly Magazine, Pasa).
46. Manandhar, Rajendra (NS 1120/2000). Nepal Bhasha
Mudran Patrakarita (Printed Journal of Nepal Bhasha).
47. Manandhar, Rashmi (NS 1126 / 2006). Dewalaya
Napan Naksaya Vivaran ( A Study of Maps Near Sacred Sites).
48. Manandhar, Rashmi (NS 1127 / 2007). Lwohan Hiti
ya Vastukala Chhagu Adhyana (An Architectural
Study of Water Spouts).
49. Manandhar, Sunita (NS 1126 / 2006). Ma Bhasan
Shikshya: Jagat Sunder Bwonae Kuthi ya Yogdan
(Contribution of Mother Tongue Education at Jagat
Sunder Bwonekuthi).
50. Maske, Dipak (NS 1124 / 2004). Mudra Rakshyas
Katha Chhagu Adhyayan (A Study of Mudra Rakshas
Fiction)
51. Nemkul, Tulsi Bahadur (NS 1121 / 2001). Nepal Bhasa Adhunik Kavyae Kavi Purna Vaidya (Purna Vaid-
ya's Contribution in Modern Nepal Bhasha Poetry).
52. Newa, Janak Kumar (N S 1107/1987). Dharma Ratna
Yami wa Wayekah ya Kriti (Evaluation of Dharma
Ratna Yami's Literary Works)
53. Pradhan, Bikas (NS 1128 / 2008). NS 801 ya Shree
Swasthani Parameswari Bratakatha (A Study of NS
801 Swasthani Brata Katha).
54. Pradhan, Hari Maya (NS 1129 / 2009). Vichitra
Karnika Vadan Chyagugu Adhyaya (A Study of
Vichitrakarnikavadan Part 8)
55. Pradhan, Hari Maya (NS 1129 / 2009). Sikkimaye
Kwati Punhi Chhagu Adhyayana (Kwati Punhi Festival in Sikkim, India).
56. Pradhan, Madhav Lal (NS 1121/2001). Durga Lal
Shrestha ya Ekanki Natak Chhagu Adhyana (One Act
Play of Durga Lal Shrestha).
57. Pradhan, Prajala (NS 1129 / 2009). Nidhan Grihas-
taha (Vichitra Karnika Vadan) Abhilekh (A Study of
Vichitrakarnikavadan Nidhana Grihasta).
58. Pradhan, Prakash Chandra (NS 1129 / 2009). Agastya
Muniya Bakhan (A Study of Agastya Muni Story).
59. Pradhan, Prakash Chandra (NS 1129 / 2009) Pokhra
ya Bhaila: Pyakhan Sanskritik Adhyayan (A Study of
Cultural Aspect of Bhiladhya Dance of Pokhara Region).
60. Pradhan, Tara Devi( NS 1129 / 2009)Vichitra
Karnika Vadan nhyegugu adhyayana( A study of
Vichitrakarnikavadan Part 7)
61. Prajala, Pradhan (NS 1129 / 2009). Sikimaye Newah
Sanskar Ihi Chhagu Adhayana (A Study on Newar
Tradition, The Ihi in Sikkim).
62. Prajapati Subhasram ( NS 1125 / 2005). Nepal Mandala ya Pulangu Pyakhan (The Classical Drama of
Nepal Mandala).
63. Prajapati, Subhash Ram (NS 1125/2005). Mahanatak
Siddhi Puja Vidhi (Rules of Rituals in Maha Nataka
Siddhi Puja).
Shrestha, Compilation of Nepal Bhasa Thesis.
43 64 Rajbhandari, Rita (NS 1121 / 2001). Newah Ihipaya
Vidhi wa Ukiya Khangwo Muna (Newah Marriage
and its Vocabulary).
65. Rajbhandari, Surya Man (NS 1123 / 2003). Khwapa
Bhelukhya Bhindya Guthi-Chhagu Adhyayan (A
Study of Bhyeukhya Guthi in Bhaktapur)
66. Rajbhandari, Surya Man(NS 1123 / 2003). Dharma
Yudhisthir Sambad wa Tulasistava (A Study of Classical Text Udhisthir Sambad and Tulasistava)
67. Rajkarnikar, Yogendra (NS 1122 / 2002). Bhagavat
Puran (A Study of Bhagavat Puran).
68. Rajkarnikar, Yogendra (NS 1122 / 2002). Silumyeya
Sangitik Pakshya: Chhagu Adhyayan (A Study of
Musical Aspect in Silu Songs).
69. Ranjit, Saraswati Laxmi (NS 1116 / 1996). Mayaju
Moti Laxmi Upasikaya Byaktitwa (A Study on Personality of Moti Laxmi Upasika).
70. Shakya, Amrit Man ( NS 1129 / 2009). NS 962 ya
Bajrabir Mahakala Mantra Hridaya (A Study of NS
962 Text of Vajravir Mahakala Mantra Hridaya).
71. Shakya, Laxmi Sobha (NS 1116/1996). Nepal Bhasa
ya Bikasaye Dharmodaya Sabha ya Yogdan( Contribution of Dharmodaya Sabha in Development of Nepal Bhasa).
72. Shakya, Lelin (NS 1122 / 2002). Pasupatichhetraya
Pooja Vidhi Chhagu Adhyayana (A Study of Ritual
Tradition in the Pasupati Area).
73. Shakya, Lelin (NS 1122 / 2002). Hari Bhakta
Mathema wa Waekaya Kriti Chhagu Adhyayan (A
Study of Hari Bhakta Mathema's Literary Works).
74 Shakya, Manik Laxmi ( NS 1128 / 2008). Chor
Chakraavali Natika Abhilekh Granthaya Adhyayana
(A Study of Chor Chakravali Drama Items).
75. Shakya, Manik Laxmi (NS 1129 / 2009). Kheluita
Patrika ya Chwasu Dhala wa Ukiya Yogdan (A Bibliography of Kheluita Magazine and its Contribution in
Nepal Bhasha).
76. Shakya, Manik Ratna (NS 1121 / 2001). Krishna De-
gah yaa Shilalekha: Chhaguu Adhyayan (A Study of
Inscriptions of Krishna Temple in Patan).
77. Shakya, Maanik Man (NS 1129 / 2009). Bramha
Chakra Maha Viharey Shakya-tay Yaigu Pravajya (
Barechuegu) Sanskar: Chhagu Adhyayana (A Study
of Barechhuyegu in Bramha Charya Mahavihar).
78. Shakya, Manju Tara (NS 1122 / 2002). Amritanand
Vandya Byakti wa Kriti. (Introduction of Amritananda
Vandya and his Contribution in Nepal Bhasa).
79. Shakya, Manju Tara (NS 1122 / 2002). Nepali Devata
Kalin Panchavinshatika (Nepalese Divine Aspect of
Pancha-Vinsatika).
80. Shakya, Milan (NS 1129 / 2009). Baudha Newah
Sanskaraye Nakin-ya Bhumika (Role of Female Partners in Buddhist Rituals).
81. Shakya, Naresh Bir ( NS 1126 / 2006). Khyalah vidha
Nepal Bhasa Sahitya Maulik Sampada (Originality of
Satirical literature in Nepal Bhasa).
82. Shakya, Prakash Man (NS 1122 / 2002).
Manichudavadana Chhagu Adhyana (A Study of
Manichuda Vadana).
83. Shakya, Prakash Man (NS 1122 / 2002). Bhikkhu
Sudarshanya Puudha Pyakhanaye Buddha (Place of
Buddha in Bikkshu Sudarshan's Dramas).
84. Shakya, Rabi (NS 1126 / 2006). Bungadeva ya
Ghatanavali (Event Chronicles of Bungadyo).
85. Shakya, Rabi (NS 1127 / 2007) Yalaya Maha Patra
Jujupini Itihas (Historical study of great characters of
Lalitpur Area).
86. Shakya, Rajani (NS 1123 / 2003). Shivapuri Chosa
Bhupatindra Malla Snana Bijyanaya Dharota (A List
of Items used by King Bhupatidra Malla's Taking
Bath at Shivapuri Hill).
87. Shakya, Rajani (NS 1125 / 2005). Newah Samkaray
Tisa Wasa wa Sama (The Clothings and Ornaments in
Newah Customs and Tradition).
88. Shakya, Rajendra (NS 1119/1999). Nepal Bhasa ya
Balami Bhashika ya Kriya Roop (Verb Inflection in
Balami Dialect of Nepal Bhasha).
89. Shakya, Robison (NS 1119/1999). Yala Nyakha Chu-
ka ya Dhanju ya Chhu Pulanu Pau ( A Study of Old
text of Dhanaju of Nyakha Chuka).
90. Shakya, Robison (NS 1122 / 2002). Yala Nakabahi
lagaya Lwahan Pau Chagu Adhyana (A Study of
Stone Inscription of the Naka Bahi Vicinity, Lalitpur).
91. Shakya, Sanu Raja (NS 1129 / 2009). Nepal Bhasa
Andolan [1110-1126] (Nepal Bhasa Movement of
1990-2006 AD).
92. Shakya, Shreeti (NS 1128 / 2008). Vichitra Karnika Vadan Nigugu Adhyaya (A Study of Vichitra
Karnikavadan Part 2).
93. Shakya, Shreeti (NS 1129 / 2009) Khan-a Khan
Bhaye Bwothala Chhagu Adhyana (A Study of Nepal
Bhasha Riddles)
94. Shakya, Srijana (NS 1122 / 2002). Kushopadesh
niitisar Chhagu Adhyana (A Study of classical text
the Kushopadesh Nitisar).
95. Shakya, Srijana (NS 1122 / 2002). Newah Samajaya
Dhyachuu Mye Chhaguu Adhyayan (A Study of Metaphorical and Satirical Songs in Newah Society).
96. Sharma, Badan Jwalananda ( NS 1129 / 2009). Newah
Ritu Mye ya Sangeet Pakshya Chhagu Adhyayan ( A
Study of Musical Aspects of Seasonal Songs).
97. Sharma, Badan Jwalananda (NS 1128 / 2008). Vichitra
Karnikakvadan (Analysis of Vichitra Karnikavadan)
98. Sharma, Bandana (NS 1119/1999). 2022 SalyaNepal
Bhasa Andolan (Protest Movement for Nepal Bhasa
in the Year 2022 [1965]).
99. Shrestha, Aruna ( NS 1129 / 2009) Nepal Bhasaya
Tajigwa wa Japan! Bhasa ya Tajogwa Tulanatmak
Adhyayana (Comparative Study of Japanese and
Newar Classifiers)
100. Shrestha, Aruna ( NS 1128 / 2008). NS 870 ya Sw-
44
Newah Vijnana-7 asthani Brata Katha (A Study of NS 870 Swasthani
Brata Katha).
101. Shrestha, Bhusan Prashad (NS 1105 / 1985). Jhii
Laypauya Cwasu Dhala (A Bibliographic Collection
from the 'Jhii' Magazine).
102. Shrestha, Geeta Raj (NS 1116 /1996) Newah Chhuna
Khan Chhaguu Adhyan (A study of Newah Riddles)
103. Shrestha, Hari Govinda (NS 1105 /1985). Kwah
Bwothala Chhagu Adhyayan (Classification of Proverbs in Nepal Bhasa).
104. Shrestha, Iswari Maiya (NS 1117 / 1997). Nepal Bhasa Sahitya Shrestha Sirpa (A Study of Shrestha Sirpa,
an Award in Nepal Bhasa)
105. Shrestha, Keshar Lal (NS 1128 / 2008) Vichitra
Karnikavadan Swangugu Adhyaya (A Study of Vichitra Karnikavadan Part 3)
106. Shrestha, Mahedra Prashad (NS 1124 / 2004). Ganesh Bahadur Karmacharyaya Vyaktitwa wa Krititva
(Contribution of Ganesh Bahadur and his work in Nepal Bhasa).
107. Shrestha, Mahendra Prashad (NS 1124 / 2004).Kh-
wapa Nagarya Lwohan Hiti Jakha Sulci Chwongu
Lwohanpau (A Study of Stone inscription of Water
Springs Around Bhaktapur City)
108. Shrestha, Nirmala (NS 1121/2001). Lhatin Cwoya
Layepau Nepal (Handwritten Journal, The 'Nepal').
109. Shrestha, Prayaag Man (NS 1129 / 2009). Newah
Bhoe Chhaguu Adhyayan(A Study of Newah Feasts).
110. Shrestha, Radhika (NS 1129 / 2009). Pulangu Bhajan
Mye: Chhagu Adhyayana (A Study of Classical Bhajan Songs).
111. Shrestha, Rajendra (NS 1125 / 2005). Griha Vastu
Lakshyana wa Memegu: Chagu Adhyana (A Study of
Griha Vasti and Memegu).
112. Shrestha, Raj it Bahadur (NS 1123 / 2003). Nepal Lipi
Prakashan (Nepal Lipi Publications).
113. Shrestha, Ratna Mehar (NS 1124 / 2004). Nepal Sambat 908 ya Swasthani (The Swasthani Text of NS
908).
114 Shrestha, Ratna Mehar (NS 1124 / 2004). Mantra
Khanda Kavya Chhaguu Adhyana ( A Study of Mantra Khanda Poetry).
115. Shrestha, Rajendra (NS 1126 / 2006). Thimi Biska
Jatra Chhagu Adhayana (A Study of Biska Jatra in
Thimi).
116. Shrestha, Raj it Bahadur (NS 1123 / 2003). Kashi Vijaya (Victory over Kashi).
117. Shrestha, Rudra Laxmi (NS 1105/1985). Thah Thiti
Khan Gwao ya Tulanatmak Tdhyayan (A Study on
Kinship Terms in Nepal Bhasha).
118. Shrestha, Sanju Maiya (NS 1129/2009). Gopinathya
Mye (A Study of Gopinatha Songs).
119. Shrestha, Shanti (NS 1122 / 2002). YenDeyya Syasay
Taye Sanskar (The Ritual Tradition of Kathmandu
Shrestha Group)
120. Shrestha, Shanti (NS 1122 / 2002). Nakshyatra ya
Lakshana:  Chhagu Adhyana  (Wellness  aspect of
Cosmic Symbolism).
121. Shrestha, Shreelaxmi (NS 1118/1998). Nepal
Bhasaya Samalochak Manik Lal (A Study of Critic
Writer Prof. Manik Lal).
122. Shrestha, Uma (NS 1120/200) Newah Nasaye Laya
Parikar wa Ukiya Khangwo (Non-Vegetarian dishes
and its Vocabulary in Newah Tradition).
123. Singh, Tulsi Lal ( NS 1105/1985). Nepal Bhasaye
Nasikya Varna (The Nasal Consonants in Nepal Bhasa).
124 Sthapit, Jwala (NS 1109/1989). Nepal Bhasaya Chhagu Hitopadesh wa Ukiiya (A Study of Classical Nepal Bhasha Text, The 'Hitopadesh').
125. Suwal, Anupa Singh (NS 1120/2000). Nepal Bhasa
Radio Prasaran (Radio Broadcast in Nepal Bhasa).
126. Suwal, Shreemila (NS 1129 / 2009). Vichitra
Karnikavadan (A Study of Vichitra Karnikavadan).
127. Tamrakar, Belmaya (NS 1111/1991). Nepal Bhasa
Sahitya Darmodaya Lapau ya... (Contribution of
Dharmodaya Monthly in Nepal Bhasa).
128. Tamrakar, Bimal Kumar (NS 1129 / 2009). Bakhdmi
Laxman Rajbansi ya Namigwagu Sarga (An Analysis
of Story Writer Laxman Rajvansi's Namigwagu Sar-
gah [The Sky in the Dusk]).
129. Tamrakar, Bimal Kumar (NS 1129 / 2009) Kabir
Kumarvadan Chhagu Adhyayana (A Study of Kabir
Kumarbadana)
130. Tandukar, Raajan (NS 1129 / 2009). Kipuya Bhasika
wa yen Yalaya Bhasika Chhagu Tulanatmak Adhyaa-
na (Comparative study of Kirtipur and Kathmandu/
Patan Dialects).
131. Tandukar, Rajan (NS 1128/2008). Gorakshyapakhyan
- Chagu Adhyayan (A Study of Gorakshyapakhyan).
132. Tara Devi Pradhan (NS 1129 / 2009). Sikkimay
Aritarya Newah Nakha Chakhah (Newah festivals of
Aritar in Sikkim)
133. Timila, Gautam (NS 1129 / 2009). Khwapaya Biska
Jatra Chhagu Adhyayan (A Study of Bhaktapur Biska
Festival).
134 Tuladhar, Premhira (NS 1109/1989). Nisthananda
Vajracharya wa Wayeka: ya Lalitbistara (Critical
Evaluation of Study of Pundit Nisthananda's Lalita-
vistara).
135. Tuladhar, Premshanti (NS 1108/1988). NepalBhasaya
Kavya Paramparaye Kavi Byathita ya Kavya (Contribution of Poet Byathit in Nepal Bhasa Poetry).
136. Vajracharya, Chandra Laxmi (NS 1126 / 2006).
Newah Ihi Sanskar Chhguu Duwala ( A Study on
Newah Wedding Ceremony).
137. Vajracharya, Chandra Laxmi (NS 1122 / 2002).
Basundhara Bakhan (A Study of Basundhara Story).
Shrestha, Compilation of Nepal Bhasa Thesis.
45 NEPAL BHASA SECTION
Sc[ TF?m:TT ?faT: TT^T ?
<i<W\ ^TtT*T
TT  TT 1   TT T.T.   11^0   7f^  TTRTT,   cim+<||   ^cRff ^TIT
O O O      O CN ~\    CN O O
TTT fTTTTTTTfT T*o i TTTT TTTT TTTT TTTTTT TTT T fTT
^Trr TTT: TTTRTTTTTTTTTT TTTTT TfTTT cTTHdlTfT fT TTTTTT e?
TTT T? I rR TTT fTTT| fTTRTTT TTTTTTT TT T:fTT TTTTT
dV)1<ll TTTTT TTT, fTTTT, TTT, TTMMdT'HTMT: TTTf T d^lfiM
I WTTTTTT TTTTT TTTTT Tf^ST TTT °TfT +l<ld<)3fT Te!l+lcil
ciTPTTTTT TTTRTT TTTRTTT I TTTT MTPMH TST TI5 TTT
T ^l\M\i TfrfTTTT ?TTS I TTTT H<+H<Hld TTTTTTT TTT 3PI
•UW'tHK TfTT TTRTfTT W( TRR TTT +IT<IMd fTTTTTTT
TTTT   ?   |   fTTTTT   TTTTTT   TTTTTTT
o       o o -\ -\o
TTTTT TTTTTT £TT T. TTTT*| cRI fT
eT TT^TT^F Tf^r TST ^T TTT TTTTTT
TR IT t| TTTT fTTTT «HHI~HK  I
ttt: trt Trr: Trr TfTfT tttttt
^ T TT TfTTf °TfT TTTT srfTTTTT
TfTTi ttttttt T^T:frj jtttttttt tt it ^tt, titt ttrt: ^rtt: 7
RTTT Sffr TTTT t^t 1 ^r: tr^|i||<|(lii| rif TTTT: TTT *TT
I TfT TTTTTT| fTTgTRT TT ## <MdPd + TTT TfTTTTfT* T
TTT TTT TffT T TTEFTT^f TT ##RTT TTfTTT: TfT TTlfTTT
ttt t tstt^t ttt: *r: it Terra ttt: tjts ttt: TfTTTT
tt:trt TfrfTT cTffrfcTf tttt wtt tt tstt" i ttt: titti
o o      o -\ 00
tt: fafd«wd tt ttt: ^ grnfr ^r^ 1 ^■Mid'Md^ ttttt tit
T TS T< TTTTTTT fTT WRn JfTIcT ^o ^ TdWTTT cTf^T STJjf
^TTf T TTRTTTT^TTTFf ^TTTd" Trfrf ^T5 tto" Td" I ?J?r 5Ue!^di++uir:
O OOO 00
I ftpTT #iT ^TcT 1 «q| JfTKuirH^J, ^RSTF^Pf MH % feTTjn:
T?mf^cT 1 3T# "ii+dmi rr gT^r" srsrTT:^^^^^ ^ t^ uw\i\
r^:% Trrcrrq^i sr^FT ^f ^fxTT sfTTT T^TTTff TdiTrdTN-HH-dld ^% ^JJ
tt^ I ^T: ^TW\ WSW^ ^Jpf ^^T I ifarr cTffrf ^r. srgPf
8^ 4 ^T^fT Tf^T^fT ^|w|si|f Trpr^PT «Tft^f ^^TT^^T I ^R
^ ^TT  *TR^T SUT^Tf T[frl'c|T!i||ir tttttt w. TTjfcT TrsTrrfcT ^TT^M
O "\ O CNO O
f^n ^tt #1 W* ^i: *rR^r*irj?ri ^r »iwn<i ttt^tt i *zr
*TfTTRTrfrf ?T?3TTT 4 ^   I  TTsrcTTT ^fT ^FffTT TTRftRTTdTq  cTRTTT
00 o -\ o -\
wvm: sTgrr ^rr^TTT ^r^pfr ~m, Tjcrcrq; rjw -w\ qprf ?f ^
TTTcff I rpr TTTTT qr^Tr ff^f ^ 3PT *T?rW ^^[. I frTpT SRTTT
TTW^Trgrrr: Ptt 3R; ^rrqi^^T I **r ^ffrrr^i. «f5W t ^# srtt:
SPT ?T# TTTTTT ?f>Rq:TT TTf^sn^TTTFT fcTTI 5TcT?° ST:TT3lt>d^ «5 W.
^•. ^-.        ~d ~d o oooo o
fcTTT S^ ^T: TTSir 9FT 3ftrf:ITRTfTf ^T:f|?ftrT f ?ir^T,
fecmyit|>ii(yRiyi   f^rr^r  ^  T?nj  JTfr£rf:^T:f|?frrT
??n^T 5W ^T: ?TFTT W:8T^T: 8WT 55 fcTft ^rf^W
|SgTT5!JT:'T ^T: <l»yyM ^nWTT,*FTW ^JR ^
* JTFI I
ergrj ^rt: tt#tt imRi+difT ^rfcr ^tit ^tt ^^p> ^:^r i %
o~\ o o oc\
TTTTT TTcf|+<u| it^tj ^ ^T?JlTdTqT TTTf 7lfV<ldlTT MrTIcT'TSTTT:
WZ'ftm, WeT^fd T sr^TtoTdT TTRfTT: ^ttt ^tjitj ^ttt ^tTkT T
Wl T^fTfTdUTT ^fTTT ?^fT T^TTd" TT^TsrfxrrTTTTT 3|KlrH fcTTI
CN C O C CNO
T JfTRTT I qTdm*^ ^TTRT ^M'<] ^T I W 4 mi<ld+lcTq;
^PTT TTTfT ^t: TTf#fT?f STS^fTT^TT TR | ^PTgrr:^ ifrr^f STT-H'kI<ld
CN OOO-* "\
iTcTq; rm: tt^rtt g* *t% t wrrq; ^ttt^t i w iinRi+di
^TT<Mi|| TTTTT qFTI^TT ^TTT ^Tf: TTT| t^T ^Tf: I f¥ ^
*F?t?f TTTTT qT^STJTTTT *F?rPf ^frfcT ^RTT >d^de! cTM^ I ^fa
SRTTT ^fTT7 1#it W. I cll+d^ 3TSRI
democracy IT 3T«f «f«f tttj i sttttt f>f
^T ^T 3ri%RTT^T?r^ ^ I «f #tjt
T^tefT TT^TTTTTT ^T:^T?f S^T^+M'y
TR I TTTTFT <NdPd+ TlSw TRT
TTpTpsffT TsqfTfTTTRT 3rP£RTT7qTT PTTJTTTT:
dTT^PTTR | snt?T srTTTfSTTT ^RT ^TT ill^^+M'^ ^ | vefe
PTTJTTTT: TTTTTTfT^qTdTTT ^TcT^rrcTm JfTRfPT^T: TTTTdT d<KMI~H
I «^t JfTT^ *FfTTT qfTT^FfTd" rj T>RT#fT ^tt: t| ^prpf 'T^fTT-^TT
O CN O OOO O
TR I TTjfcT ¥ffr?f STTTJ ^TJTTqTTdTTcTTTTTTJcT SIT^# TpTirl TcTTTT^
<Ft TTTTT ^TT I Tl TTR1'f"TTT: T^?T" snT* +TMMH ITTTR
RT, fcTT^RFT, TTiTTfcTf TTTTT ^TTTTTT TTIc-mu*M?J|q+lll:
£T?T TT TT «TTT-^TT TR | TTJTTT TTT ^TTTT"TTTT T^T" SITTT
5fT?RTT TTTRT TpTTTTT TTT fcTTTTT: «TT3TTTT iUdPH+dlTf
"\ O   O CN O O
RTTTTTT^TT ? T^TcT TrTTTTTTT ITTT TTTT TTT TTTT TTTTTR
TTTT- TTlfT TTR #^5, ^TTTTTTfe TTT^R T feTTTT ?TTTT
^TTTRSTTTT 7T3T TTTTTTTT TfTfT TTTT^TTfTTT ST ^ WW
TTTRTT S ?  TTTTTTTTTTTT S I TTTTTfT STI TT TT? TTJcT '<
^1 <1        <1 <}<}'■•. CNO O
TTTT ?£m TT TfT TTT TT WTTTTTT T? ? «T T3TTTT TTTT 7
o-\ o o~\ o o
T3T *TT ?^fT?RTT TT TRT TTTTTT TTT TRTTTT TRT: ?RTT: WT
^TTTT TTTT ?TTT TTTT TRT TT fTTTTfT TRRR«TTTTT TTWTI
O O O CN        O
TTTRT TTfTTTRTRTTT TTTT ^fTFffTTT TRTTTrTTTRTT TTTTT
TfTTfT fTTT TTT T TTTRSTT TTTTT WT ? TTT" IV T <M<||yTTT
TTR TTTTT TfTTTTTTTTTT TRTTTT TTRlf TTT ?RTT T^T TTTT
TTT TTTTT TST TTTTT fTTT TTTTTfT TTRfTT fTTT TTRTTTT TT
^ T?TT TTTTTTT ? ftTTT «T TTTT TRT TST TTTTTRffT TTTTTTT
oooo o o
STTTT, ^STTTT TTT fTfTTT STTTT T TTT TTTTTTTTfeTTT?TTTT
TT? ^TTTT TTTT RTTTTT: TTT Tjf frfT TfTFTT I «T T^TTTTTTT T
RTTTT TRTRTTT, TTT TTTTTTTT TTT I
?RTT SRTT TT. WO pTwTRT ^
46
Newah Vijnana-7 ^TFRJJ^RTT *r|, ^T:, ^fcT
flRfc mqfa (3TT5T)
*T TT.  3T.
■ TTTTTTT T TJTT TT TRTT TTRTT W.,  TTT T      TRTT TTST W. TT TTTT TTTT TT:fT ? TTTTTTT TTTTTTT TTTT
~\0 CN O O ' O O
TTTTTT ^TlPT ^T TRT TTT TTT TR | TTTTTTTT T, TIT TIT TTT TT TT ST PTStPtS TTTT
TTTT TTT TT TTTTT TTTTTT fTfT TTFTTT t| TT I
■ TTTT TT TtPt TTTTTTTT TTT WlJ ^ ^^ ®^:
fTTTTTTT TT TTTT TT TTTS ? TTTTTT TJTeTTpTTT TTTT T%TT TT TTRRTTT TTT TTTRTTTT
=R T fTTT TT T I Tt TTT T ^T:t <R T fr«TT TTTRTT
■ "fV TTTT TTT TRTTT TTTT TTT TTTTTTTT TfTTT      TTTT TTTT TT TTTT ? TT TTTT TTT T TTT T TTT
-\ O CN O O CN O CN CN ~\
TTTT T TTTTT TIT TT I TT TTTTT TTT  Tf TRT I  T T TTT TTfWT  "^frr fTT
35TTT TST TTTT TTTTT TTTTT TTT TTS #, TT, T TT
TTTT TRTTT TTTTT? T  TfTTT TTT ^TTTT  crfr TTTT TS
OOO o o
T, TT TTT TRTTTTT TIT TTTT TTR T ^TTT I TT TT
TlPTgT T TRTT TT TTTT TTT TTTTT TJTTT TTTT TJTT
T I eTTTT TTT TT TTTWTT TTT: TpT TTTTT TTfTTffT T
^T: qTWlf
TTTTT ?  Tf  TTTTT  "TTTT"  TTT T  TT  I  TfTTT TfSS
TTFTTT TT SpTTfT TTT 3TRT T TTT TT TTTT TTT TTT T
^ ^ p   -- p _i TTT TTT T I  TTTT TTTTTTT TIT TTT TT: TT TTT: TTT
TTTT TT T T, TT, TT, TfTTTT TTT T fTTTT TT TTT "      " "°r    ^
fTST TT TTT T I TTTTTTT TTTTT TTTT TT TTTTT TTT T
oooo -\o o
TT, ^V f>TTpTf, ^V TT~T5, TT T TRT TT TTT TTTT Tf
TT, TTTTTR:, TTTTT T T TTTT TTTTT TMT TTTTT TTpTS,
TTWT, T pTRTTT T.H.T.T TTTT T%TTT TTT TO T ?
TTTfTTT TeT T TTTT TTT TTTT TTT TTTT fTT ? TTT
TfTT" TTTTT TTTR TTT TT I TTTTT TTTT 5R[ q <nTTT
TT TTTg, fTTTTT TpTTT TT T TTTTT TTT TTTTT T TTTT
TfTTT TTPT TT TT I TT TTSTRT TT TTTT TT, TT,
TTTTfT, TTT tPtTTTT TITT TT, TT, TT, TTT TT TIT:
B$TTT TTTTTTT TT TTTT TTT TT TTTT ? W. I T T?
fTTTTT TT TT fTS TT Tt TT TTT TTTTTT TTfT fTT
eTTT TTTTTTT TTTTT TTT TTTT TTT TT T TT I TTTT
TTT "TTTT" Tf Wl   TT TTTT TTTT TTT e$ TT | TTTTTTT,
CN "\ "\ O O O >
TTTT TTTT TTT TT #, TT, TT, TpTTOT TTT, pTTTS TTT
TTT, T T TTTT TTTT 3JT TTT w. I T TTT TTTRTT TlMf
fTT eT iV TTTT TTTT TTTT TTTTT TTTTTTTT TTT ^
T 35TT TTT s?TT TTTT TTT TT TTT T, TT TJT Tf: TTT
TTTtPtT, T TTTT TRTTT T TRTTTT TTTT TTT TT
' CN CNO O "\ CNO
T I TTTTTTTT TTT sTTTT ST fTST TTT TTT TT TTTTT
T TTT TTTTT TJTT TTT TT TRTT TTTTT W. I TTTT TT
CN O O O CN
TRTT TTTTT TTTT TTTTTT TTTTT 3TTTT TTTf ? T
TTTTT ^TT TTT TTTf TT T TT TTTT TTTT TTTTT
I TTTTT ^TfT TTTT TTT TST TT TTTTT TTTT TSTT
I TT T TTT TT | t£ TTTTT 3Tf:fT TTTT TT^ T TTTT
TTR TTT w. I
TTT TT TTTT, Tf TTTT: Tf: TTTT 3STT TT TTTpT TpT
W., 3R TT TTfT TT| I Tt T ? ^TTT TTTT TTT TTTT
TTT TTTfT fTTTT I TT> TRTTT T? T TTT: TTT TTT
TTT fTT Tt TTT TTTT SRR^^Rf TTTTTTT TTT TTTTT TTTT
TfTTT TT TTTTTTT TTT TTTTTT TTTTT TT eTT fTTTTpTT
-\ "\ O        O CNO O
TfTTT TTTT I fTT TTTT TTTT TTTT TT TTSTT TTT T
TTTTT> TTT TITT, THTT TITT, TfTT, Tf TTT TTTTT
TTT? SeT TTTT TT I  TT TTTT TT TTTTf TTTTTT TTT
o o o       o -\o -.
TTTT T TTTT STT TRTT T T TTT: TT TRTT T?f TTT f
CN O ~\ CNO "\     O O
T TSTTT I TTTT T TTT:T TTTT TTTT TpTT, Tf, RTT,
TRT TpTTT TTTl" TJT TST TTTpTTT W. I TT TTT TTT:
TTTT TTTT TTTT Wl TTT TTT TT TTTT TJT TTTT
Siyami/Nepal Mandala yamha lha: tuti  47 TTT w. I
JfaT: 3<kWM
TTTTTTT TfTTT TTTT Trr TT/TTTtPt TT# TTT TT
TT ^TTT TC | T TTTTT TfTTT TRTTT TTTT TRTTTTT
PeTT TTT T I TT S TT PtPtT TTpd tPttPt PtPtT pTTR TR
f TTPtT TpT TTTTTTT TT TT TTTT TfTTT, TTT TTTT TTT TpT
CN "\ CN CN O ' O
TfT TTT T eT I TT TTT TIT T TT T TT I TT TT
TTT T TT TTT TTTT TTTPtTT TTpCTTT TTTTTT TTS
TTTTT TTRTT TTT TTTT TTT TTTTT W. I TTTTT TTTRTS
TTTT TTfT TTT TTRTTTT TTTT> TT TTTT TTT TTT
O CNO "\ CNO "\ O
TTT TTTT TTT TRPTTT T TS I TT TT ? TTTTTTT TTT
fTTT TTpTf cr TTTT TTTTT TTTT 35T TTTT TTTTTpT TfT
TTT TTTT I TTTT TTTTTTT TTTT TTTTPtTT TfffTTTf FT TT
TTPTT TTT TTT TTT TTTT TTTT TTTTTT TpTTT FTT
O O CN O "\ O O
TTS TTT TTT TTT eTTT TpTTTTf TRTT: TT TT TTTTT FTTT
FTfT e$TT T£ TTT W. I TT TJTTf TT: TTTTT (TT TTT
TT TTT: TTTTT) PtPtT TTTTPTTT TfffTTT e$TT TTTT
TTT TTT, TTTTT TTTT, TTTTT TTTT TTT TTT TT
TTRT, TTTT TTT TTT TTT TTRTT I
Tt TTTT tPTT TRTT TT TTTTTT TRTTT TST TT TTRTT
o oooo
STT TTT TTTT TTT TTTT WZ TS TTTTT TJTTRT "TTTTT TT
TRT TTT" t TTTT T I TTTTT T TTTT TTTTT TTTT T
O O CNO        O O CN "\
RT TTT TTT TTTTTTTTTT TTT fTTTTT TT T fTTTTTT
FTS Trf, TTTTTTTTTT TTT pTTTTT TTT TRTT tPtPtS TT
TTT TpT TTTT TTT TTTpT pTeT TTTTT tTTf TT fTT I TTTT
TTTTT TTTTT TTTT TTT TTT TTT <RpT TTTTTT TTTT T
RT TTT TTT TTT fTS TTT TTTTT t| W. I TTT: TTT TTT
fTTTT TT TTT TT TTT TTT T W$ RTT TTT: TTTTT T
T TTT TTT fTTTTT TT TT TTTT e$ TT TTT TTTT
T: TT TTTT fTRT TTT T ?
JfaT: ^rmj ^ ^T: ^«J«H
TTTT TTTTTTTT TTTTTTTT TTT T TTTT TT RTTTTT
TRf ^ TT|t PtTT t| Zfrsf TTTT TT I TTT TTT ? TTTpT
TTT5T STT £ pTTT pTTT TTT TTTTTT #, TT, T TT
TT fTTT TTT TT eTTTTT ? TTTT TTTTT TTTptS TTT t|
TTTS TTT TC | TT TTT STT I TTTpS T TTTTT TT
TTT TT: TT TTT TTT TS* T: I    TTTT T ^ TR4", T:
CN O O "\ ~1 ~D>
JTTT TT TTT TRTRT TTT TTT TRTT TTTT I TTT 5TTTT
FTT: TT TJTTT I TTT TTTR T^5 TTTTTT TTTT TTT
TT TT 35T TTTpTTT TTT TTT TT TRTTTTT TTT TTT T
TTTT TT TT TpTTOT T PtTTTS TTT w. TTT TTTTTT TTT
TTT TT TTTTTT TTpTRfT TT ? TTTR TTTT TR TT TTTT
T, TT, T/T TTTT TT TTTT TTTT TTTTT I TTT TTT
TTTT fTT TTTTf TTT TTTRRTT T TTT TST TTT TTRTT
Ptt frfr ttt Pttt t s ^stt i tt tt ttPt ttt:ttt ttt
TJTTRRfT TTT: TpeTTTT T/T W. TTT TTTT, TT TTT T:
Tf:T TRTT TSTT ^-TTTT TTT eTT Tt W. Tf tt T I
TTTT TTT T TTT: TTTT TTT TT T TTT TTT TTTpT
T WZ TTTR TTTOT I 3STT 3^ TTT TTT TTT: TpTT TTRTT
TTTR T5 TTfT TTT: TT TTT TTTf TTT TTT TTTTT
TTT PttPt TTTTT TTTT TTT TRTT TRT TTT TTTTT I T
TT: TfTT TTR: TfpTTT TTT TTTR Tg TTpT TrJ ir^[ TITT
TTTT TT T TTTT TTTTTT TTFTTT TT>, TTfT TTTT
TTfTTT TT T TT, pTTTT TTT TT I TT TTT T TRTT TRT ^
W. TTTT TTTTT TT TSTT TTTT-
http://www.can.gov.np/doc_folder/225State%20
Re structuring %2 0 Committte s %2 0 Concept%2 0
paper2.pdf
TTTPs TTTTT TffTT TRTTT TTT TTT5T STT Wl TTTTTT
ttt Pttt ttt ttt tt ttttttPtt t: ttttt ttttt TffTT
TTTTT TTTT TTT TTTT eTI TT TTpT TTTTT TTTfT t T
TTTTT t, TT T TT TTT fTTT TTT TT fTTT TTT eT T
TTTT TTT TTS Tf TTTf TTTTT W. I TT TRTT T^WflT
O   O CNO O
TTT TTTT TTT TpTT TTS I Tt TT ? TT pTT I TRT TTTR
TT TTTpT fTTTT TTTT TTT: TTTT TT TTT #, TT, TT
( #, TT, TTT TTT TTT TT| fT), TpTTOT TTT, T TTTTTTTT
fTT T.pTT.TTTTiT T pTTTRi TTT qTT %?.% TTTTT TT TTTT
fTR (o^ TfT?T) TTT TTT TT TTT T I TT TTT THTT
V CN OOOO
TTT 3TTRT TT TTT JTRf TTT TTTTT TTT TTTT TT TTJT T
TTTT TRT TTT TTT TTTf TTTT TTT eT I TT TT ?TTT TTTT
TT TT TRTT TTRTT TJTT I ^t\ T TT S Pn: TTf TRTT ^R|
"\CNO OO CNO O
T, TTTTTT S TTT I   TfTTT TTTTT FtPT  TTTTTTTT, TTTT TT
o' OOO -\     ' -.
TTPT «5 TTTTT TT t|t TT TTT TTTf TTTTTTT TTT TTTT
o o o -\o     o
TT I TT TTT TTT TpT W. T/T TST TTT TT pTT TTT TT
TTJT fTTTTT TT TTT TTT TTT fTTTTT TTT TTTT TT TT/T
TRT TTT qr:T TTTTT TTTTTT TTT TTRfT TT I TT TRTT TTT
fTTTTT RTTTTT ?T T TfpTTT TTT TT Tft TT TTTT TT
TTPT TTT ^rrxr TTTT TTT TTT RTTTTT T?TT ? T T TIS TTTT
CN '        -x O ' -x O O
Ptttt t ttFSs tsttt i tt Ptstt ttPtPttt, sPtfttttt, Ptt
TT TT TTTT TTT Wl TTT fTTTTT TTTT TTTTTT TTT «S
CNO CN O O
TRT T I ^rl TRT TRT TRTT TTT TTT T TR , TTTT T%TTT
TTTTT TTT T TT I TpTTT pTTfT T TTT TTTTTT t TT I
-\ "\ O CN O O O
TTTTT TT TTT TTT T:f§S TT TpT TTT TTT T Tt fT
TTT fT TTTT^TTTTTTpT TTT gRR TST S T TTT TTT I T
TTT TT TTTTT STT TTTT TTTTT TTTT TTTT TTTTpTTTT
TTpS TTT STTT TTf TTT T PTTTTT T TfT I t TTTJT I Tt
TTT TTTTTTTT T TT ST TT TT TTRT e$   TTTT TTf
O CNO O O O
48
Newah Vijnana-7 P^TTTTT TT TT TTT TSt TT ?
?faT: cTFTT *fFT cTSTj f«r? I *T*|
TTT T TTRT TTT TpeTT TTRTT STT TTTT TTRT T
TT TpeTTTT TTTT TTT ? TTf TT T I TTTT TT TTTT
TTTT TT TTTT TT TTT TTTTT TTTT PTTT TTTTT TT
TT TTT TJTTT TT I TTTT TTT peRTTT TTT T TTT T TTRT
TTTW TTJpTT XX TpTTTT TfTTT TTf TT TTTT TT
TTTTTT W TTTT TT fTTffTRR (o^ TfTTT TTT) TTT ?
TTTT TTTTT T TTTTTTTT TTJpT TTTTT T ?  TT TTT
Pttt Trr tttt tPt ttt: ttt tt Pttt tt tt ttt
tt# ttts ttt Pttt ttrtt i tt ttrr ttttt trrs
TT fTT: TSPr TTTT I TTT: TTT TTT pTTRff T TTT
TT TTTprfc TTTT TTT TTRTT I p3pTT TTpTpT ? TT TTT T
TRffT TT TT TT: TTTT TTTT I TTTT TTT TT TT TTT
O O O "\ CN CN
tt TTTfrPe: tt TnpTper tt Tif ttt i t t ttt ttt t.
-\ -\ OOO o '
Ft^tPtTT T TTTpTTT TeRT TT, TTT TTT TIT TTT TTf
TTTT TT TprTT TTT: TTTT TTTTTTTTTT t| W. I Tt T
TTT TTTTT TT TTTT TTTT TTT Tf TTT TTT TT
O   O CN O CN
TTTT Tf TT 35TTTT TTTT TT> I TTT: TT TTT £ TTT TTT:
O CNO O "\ OOO
TpeTTT TT T ? TTT, TTT: TTT TTT TTTTT TTTTTTT
O   O CN CN O' O "\
TST TT TT TTT I T T TTTTTT T:T TJTeTTRRTT T%TT
o ooo -\o'
TT TTTT Tt TTT TT TTTT TTTT TR3" T TTT: T%TT,
TTT: TT TST §TT t| TTT w. I eTTT TTT: TTTT TTT: TTT
TT T TTT: TT T T TTT I TTT T T TT ? TTTT W.
T TTT TT TTTT TTTTT TT TR, TT TTTTT TTTWT
TTTTTT TTTf TTTTRRTT TT TTTTTTT TfTJ TTTTT T%TTT
TITT TTTTTTTT TSTTT TTf TTTT T TT % TTf I TpT T
TTTTTTTf TTf Tt TTfk TTS^ TTTT TTTT TTT TTT T
TRTT TTT T TTS ef TTf | TTTTTTTT TT TT TT STRTT
frs^ Pts* ttttPt tt ttt ^rr ?
K.\ TfTTT TTTTT TTT TT o% TfTTT TTT ? T Tf T
T TTTT TTT ^fTJT "TTTTTTTTf TT TTT TT ^ TTT T
T T TTT TTT I TTTTTTTTTT T T , T TRrTRRTT TT TTTT
T TTT TT I TTJ" TTTT TT TTf eTTT fTt TT ^ TTJ | TTTTT
o o oooo
TTTT TTfTTTTpTS TTf TTT TTTT TT TTTfT TTf
TT T TTT ? t| TT I TT eTTT TTTTT TfT TRTTT TT
TTTTTTTT  TTT TTTT TT TTT TRTT T TTTTT TTf
-\ O "\ CNO CNO O
TT TT fTT I
Tt T TTTTTTT <R T pTTTTf TITT TTTT 3RT TS^
TTTTT TRTTT TTT TIT TTTTT TTRTT TT T I TTpTTT
TTT TTTf ^i PTTT ? t, TT, T TTT TRTT TSrjTT TTT T
TTT TT TTTTT?, TTtTTRTTT, fTTTRTfTT, TTTT, TTTWT
fTTTT TTTT  TT  T TST ?  TT  I   TT TT  TTTTTTT
TT TTTT TTTT TTf TTTTTT TpTTT TTT T> TS I TfT
TTTfT TTTT TIS^TTTT TTRTT T TTTT TTT TTTTIT
TpT TT TTTTT TTTT TT T I  TT TTTT  TfTTT TTT TTTTT
PtFtt thttt frfr Tt ttPtttt tt tt t: ttttt t Tf
TTT RTf TT> TT3" TT TT3",  TTT TTTTR fTTT TTTTT T
-\ o o o' o      o o
PTFTT THTTf fTfT T TT TT TT TTTT T TTTTTRT RTf
TT> TTf TT TTf I fTTTRTfTT, TfTT, TTTWTTf TTTTT TTTR
TTTT PtPtT TpTTT TTTT TRfeT, TTTT, pTTeTT TTT TTTTT
TTTT TT TT TTT T TTT TT TT RTf TTTTT TT TT3" I TTf
o o o o o o o
THTf TTTT TTTT TTT TfT T ZfTT TTT TT TpTS THTf TT
t w% Pttt  ts i t tttt ttt tt ttt ts tt tt
TTT T WT TT TT ? TTT THTf TT TTT ^ T TT
O ~\ o -\      o o o
TT ^ TTf T ? THTf TTTT TTT TT TTTT TT TT TTf
I TTTTTT TRTTlpTT T TTTf TTRFTT TTT ^TTf TTT
# TJT I T TTf I TTT frPTT TTTT t, TT, TT TeT TTTfT
TfTT TRTTT TTTTT TfTT THTf TTT TT T TTT TfTT et
RTf TTT TT TR | TT# TFT TTTT TTTTTT TT TTTT
TT: TSTfTTT TTTTT TTpT TTg, TTRT TJTf TTpT TTT W.
I T# TT TfTT TTT TST STT TTTT TT: TTT TSrf T
TST TTT TT T^fT TST TTRT TTTT ? TS I TTTT TTT
OO o o o -•
^f TTTT TT: TTT TrS^TTT TT TJT TT TTT TT TTTT TT:
-\ CN CNO O "\ O "\
TTTTT TTTTT TTT TTTTTTTT   ? TST TTTT Tf T I TT
o~\ -\ OOO o
T TTTT TTTRT feTTT T RT TT TfTTT I
TTRT TTT TpeTT TTT TTTTTT STT T TTTTf ^T TTS
O O O -\ '    CN C
TTpT TTTTf T%TT TTT Zfrsf TTTTT TTTT TTT TT TT T
TTTTT ? ^TTf TT TT TTTT TTT TT TT T I TTTTTT
-\ oooo -\
TRTT TTTTTT TTTTT TTf T TT t FTTTT T 1* TT
m TTTT TTTTT TTT TTTTf TTT TTTTTTT TJTTT TTTT
TTTTT TfT TT I TJTTTT TT T TTT T TTTTT TTT TTT TT
T TTTTT TTTT T fT TTTT TTTT TTTTT TT TJT TSTTT I TTTT
OO OO OOO
TTTTT, TTTTTTTT TTTf TTTTT T TIT T TfTT TTTTT
TTT qrrfk TTT, 3ST TT TTTT TT^ TT TTT TTTTTTT TfTT
-x        ' CNO' '    CN O C
TTTTTRT TTTT TTT, TTTT TJT^TITT' T TRTpTTT T%TTTf
TTT TTT ffffT TT?T TTT TTTT T%TTTT TT TT "fV TT
-x O-x OCNO
?Tf TTTTTT TT TTTT TTTT TT TT I
TTT - gibinod@yahoo.com
Tf.Tf. WO fTTTTT t;, ?"TfTT:
February 6, 2010
Siyami/Nepal Mandala yamha lha: tuti.
49 %.?«r.TT.*T *r*r m
1) &mi
TTTT TTT W^ (^o^A3 TTT) T TfTTT TTTtPtTT
TfTTT TTT TTTTT TTT, TTT, TTT T tfTTT TTRT T
RTT TTTRTT TTT TTTT TTTT TTTTf TTTT TTTfT
TT T TTT T TfTTT TTTlpTT TRTTT fTTT TT TfTT
TTT TTTS TTT TeTTT TT T TT TTRT TTT ? T W.
O CN O CN O
I TT TfRTTT fTTT T. T. 11^ TT ... (Ro^ TT ^o TT)
fTPr TfTJ TTTTT TfTTfTT TfTT TTTT TTT TT ^ TRT
l^fl) T TTT TTTTTRT TTTTTTTf TTTT TTT TT: | T TT
TT TTT "TTT, TfTTT, TfTTT, tfTTT, TRTpTTT, TTfTTT T T
TfT TTTT TTTf RlfT TTT TTRTT T TTTTTTT TTTTTT
TTT TTT TRTT TTTT, TTTlpTTT
TffT TTT TTT T%TT TTTpT TTTR
TTf TTT" T TTTTTTT T I TTT: TT
TTT TffT TTTTpTTT TTTT TTTT TT.
W^T TST ... R°^ ^5 ^ ) PtPt
TTT TT TpTTRTTTT TfTTT TRTT T
O      O CNO O O
TT TTT W. I TT ? tPtTTTT TT
TTTRTT T TT TTT" TTTTTR: TpTTTT
TTTT TTTTTTT T TTTT TffT TTTlpTTT
TTTT TST PTT TTT TTT TTTT <\* \
TTTT T TTTT TTTTf TTTT TTT T
CN "\ O     CN O        O
I TK TRTT TTTTTTT TTTfTTT TT T,
TTRT TTTTT TfT TTTlpTTT TTTT,
TtPtTTT TpTTTT, TTTT TTT, TTT
TTTT, T TTTTTRRfT TfTTfTT Tf5
fTTTT TRTTg: TTT T TTTpTTT TTSTT
TTTT TpTT TTeT TTTTTTT fTT T5TT
TTT TTT TTTT TTT WO pTTTT 13
TfTT TTTT TT TTT TTT TTTT TTTT TT
TfTTT TfT TpTpT TRf TT TfT TfTpT TRTTT Tf TT W. I
^ O   O ^ O CNO
t tPttFt TT ?oo<3 Tf tPttt tPtttttttt Ftttrt
TTTTT TfTTT TTtPtTTT pTTTTT "TRTTfTTTTf TpTTTT
T tPtTTTTT B5TTT TfTT TTTfTTT, TFTTT, TtPtTT T
TfTTpTTT TTT TTTTTTTTT TTT IpTTT TTp^S TTST" TfTT  T  TTTTfTT  TT  TTT5T  TeTTT  -   <\\%  Tt  TTT
Newah Swaayatta Raajya
TifTTTTfTT TTTTT TJTTTRfT TTTf TRrTRJTT TTT TTlpTTTT
TTTRTT TRTTTT T TTTffTTT T TTTTT TfTTTTTRTT TTTT
rfTT TeTTRTf T TlpTTT, TTpTTT T TRTpTTT tPtTTTTTTT
TTTTRTTRl TTfTTTTTTT TRTpTTTT TpTTTRT TTf
TTTTT, TTTTTT TffT TTTTRTTT TTTT TT TTTT
TTTRTTTTRir TTT TTRTT T STT TTTTTTT T S TTTRfT
TTTT TTT TpTTTT TpTTTT TST: TTT: TTTTTTTT
TTT TTTTT TTT TTfTT T TRRTTT fTTTTT TTTT
TTT W° TfeTRT % (~<\ pTTTT ~iO<\o) 7fT| TT TltTTfTTS
TTT: TTTT TTT TJT^nfTTT TTTf TT W. I TT TRTT T
Tf: TTTT TTTTf TTTTTfT TTTTT TTT T TTT: TTTT T
RTTf TTT: TTTRTTT TTRT TTT TTTTT T TJTT TTTTTT
T TTT: TTTRTTT TTTTT TT I
TT TJT^TtTTT TTRffTT ? TTT TTTT TT
TTTT TCT TTT T TTTTRT TTTT W. I T
TTTf Tf TTT TTTT TT TST TRTT TT
TfT TTT T5TT I TtPtPt TTTT TTTT
TTT TTTT TTTTTTT TTT "TT TfTT
TTT TT TTR (TTT) TTTTf TTT TTT
'TTT "TRT" (TTT TT) TTT TTTT T
TTT Tf TT W. I TTpTTpTTf TT(TT) TT
CNO O O "\ O
TRRTf TTT TT TTT T TTTT TT TTTT
TT T TTTT TT I SpTTfT f>TTTTT TTT
fT TTfTT TTTfTT TTRT TpTTTTT TTR
TITTTTl T=T TTTT TT TTT TTTTJ TTTfT
T I TTTTTT TTT TTTfT TTT TTTT
TTT "T" T TTT "T" TTRT TST W
I T ? TTTT TT TRT TfT TTR T TeTTT TTTT/TTT TT TTT
fTTTfT T I TTTT TTTTT TTTTT TTTT TTT TTT W. I TTT T
O O OOO
TTTTTT TpTTT TpTTRir TTT TTT TT I
TTTT TT TTT TfTT sft TTTf TTT RX TT Tf TTT TTT TR
Pttt ttttj tt tctt i ttt ttttt ttt trtt tttt (s.t.
-\ CNO O O CN
T^-T^iS) T TTT TTfeT TTTT TTTTTT T "TTTT" TT TTf
50
Newah Vijnana-7 T TT T I (TTfT, RO%o : %%) stt TITT TTTT ^ TT Tf TTT F
TfT TT TTTTT TT TRT5 TSTTT T5TT I TfTTT fTTT TT TTTT
0~\ O O     CNO O
tttt tPfttt, Pttt, rttt>, ttt ttt ttt: f tt i sttt
TT TTTTfT TfTTT TTT TftTTTf# TT TTT TeTTTpT TT
TTTpT TTRT T TTTTT TTTTT TTTTT: STTT T TT F TTeT
I TTT". FT. FRTTTTr TTT feTTTT TTffr F TTR TpSTf W. I T
TTTfT TT TT TtPfT TS TTT T (tfTTT, T^o : X%) I
TTTT TTTTTTf RRTTT TTT TTTTTT FTT TT STT TTTT
TFT TTT TTTT T TTTT TTTTT TTTTT T TT TT TTTT
TT F TT TCT T I TT F TfT> TTTTTTT TT T TTTT tpTT
TTT, TRTTfT, tFTT TfTT T STST TTTTRT TT TTT TTTT
F TTTFT I TTTT TTTRTTT TTT TT: SRT TTTTT TT, TTpTTT
TpTT TTT F TTT TTf SpT TTTT TTTT TT I
3) T>fct^T%^ ^WW^T, ^ ?faT: TT^T
TfTTT TTTTTT TTT TTTTT TTfTT %SS TT TfTTT T TpFTTTT
tt t iW tt Pttt tttt s w. i tt Pttt TFrr t:Pt t-
^TfTT TTTTT TTTTT TTTRT TTTT TlpTS TTT TTT pTR
RT TTTT TTTfTT RTT TTT TTTT STTT TTTTT TFT TTTTT
TTTTT TTTTT TT TTTTf fTTTTT TTT TTT T-^TfTTf
TTT PTPTT TJTTS TFJ] TTT TTRT TTTTT TT I RTTTT T
TTT TTT STT TTT pTTRT TTTT TTTRi" TTTTT, TTTTT,
TTf, TTTTTTTf ST STT TTT TTT TTf TT Tf TRTTTRl
sfrr ttPttttt (ttttt) ttt sttt ttt Ittr tt i sPtft
PTTTT TTTTT TTTTTTTsf TT^TT TTTT TTTTTT TTT TRT
TT TTT TT TTTTTTTsf TpT TTTT TTfTT TfTT TT TTT
TTT I TTTfT TTTT pTTT fTTT T-TTTT TTT PtPtT TTTS
TTT TTTTTT TTTTF TTTTT TTTT TfT TTTpTTT TTTTTT
TT TTTT TT W. I TTTTT "TTTTTTT" TRT fTTTTT TT
TTTT Tf TTT TTTTT T PtPtT TTS TT TTTTT W. TST
O ^ O CNO O
t| TT T I
TTTTTTT TTT TTT TTTf TTT TTRT PtRTTT Tf TT:
TT^T TT TTTT fSTTTTf TTT TTTTf TpTTTT T5TT I
T TTTf TT: s.T. Y^Y 1 TTTT TTTT TTTT TTT TT
TTT TTTT T % T TTTT FTTT "TTTTTT TTT" TST
TR TTT TT T I TTTTTTTT T TT TFT TTTT W. I TRTT
TT  TT  TT TTT  "T TTpT fTT  TTTS TTf  STTT  TTT
o -\ o       o  o o o
TTT" TTTfrt T T T/T T I SpTFTTTT T. TTTRTTR ^
TTRT TTT TT TT TTT TTTTT TT TT TT TST fTTTT TT
O "\ CNO CN "\ O
T TJTT TftTT TT TTTTT W. I TTTTTT TTT TT RRTT TfT
TTTT Tf^fTTT T TTT TT "Tf TTTTT TT" TTTTT W. I
(Mr, ROXX : W) RTTT> TTTT TTTTTTTTf TTT fTTTf
TTT Tff (fTTTT) TTTf TpTT fTTT TFTTTT TTT TTT
TTT I TTTTT TTTTTTTTTT TTT fTTT fTTT TTf (fTTT)
TTT TST T TSTTRTf T TTTTfTT TTS TT TfTlpTTT T TRT
TTTTtJ T TfT T I
TTTTTTT T TTTTTTTTTT TfT RTTR TTTT TTT F TT
^TS I TT TTTffT TTTT TT "TTTpT TTTTf PeTT" T TT
TTT TTT TTTTT TpTTT TTTf (TT) T TT, T TRTTT TR
TTTT sttt TTT fTTTT TTT W. I fTTTTTTT TTTTTTTT T TTRT
TTRT T T5 TT T TT TTTT fTTT Tff (fTTTT) TTT TffTS
TT TTTT TTTTT TTTTT T I (TRf, Ro^ : <jY<j-l^) sjf ^TTT
TTTT W Tf TTT TTTTT TTT TFTTTT T TTTTT fTTTf
TTT TTT,  TfVTTT fTTT,  TTT f>TTTT T TfTTT  TTT
CN "\ ' "\ O ' "\ O "\
TTT (fTTTTT) TffT TTTT TTTTT TTTTT T I TTTTTTf TTT
TTTTT T TT TT, TT, 3RT, T T TT TRT TTT Tf
TTT I TTT TT TT TTTT TTJTTRT TSTTT TT TT TTT
5RT tttt tP^rt ttt ttt TTf Pttt tt ttt i tttr
RTT TF T FT TTT STT TTTTTTTTf TTT T F TT TT
TTTT TT T5TT I TTTTTTTT TTTT TTfTT TTT TTTT T
O CNO O O    O O
RT TTf T TTf TT TJTFftTRTT TTT RTT F TRR5, TTTR, TT
CN O ' ' ~D  ~D ' ~D
T, PT^T, TITT, TTT, fTTT TlpT TITTT T TTTTTfT TTTTTT
TTTT W. I
tf)    <|vri|i||   ^  W^Sfm   -   Wife   H)+dlP*l+
TFJTcT^f :-
tMt TT TTfTRTTT TF TTT TTtPtTR TRTT TfT TTTT
PTrfT TTT TTTT TT ^V Y T TTTTTTTT ^T TTTTT
TTTT TTT fTTTTT TTT I TT RRRT TfJTS TTTFTTT: SRT
T TTT fTTTTT TTT I TT T^^ T Tf TRF TTTT TTT: TT
T TT T TT fTTTTT TTT I TT TT TRTT TTT TT fTTTT
TT TITTT TTT I TTTT TTTRfTT TTRT TT TpTTT TT
TTT: TTT TTT TTT TTTTTTTT T TTT TTRT TFTTTT TT
T I TTTTT F TT TT, TTf, TTT, TTTpT TTTT TTTT TJT
TfT TTT TTRTT TT W. I T F T TTTfTTT: TTT TTTT TT
TTT ST TITTT TTT TTTT TTTTT TTfTT TfTT TTT
Tf TT T TTTT TTT, TRTTT T TTfT TTTTTTT TTTpT
TTTT TTT TT TTfTT W. I TJ¥ TTRT TTT TTT T TT
TV TTT TTTTT TTTT TS I TTTT TTT T^RT TTTT
-\ CN O O O "\
TfJT TTTlpTTT TTTT TS I
TTTT TffT TTTTT TTTf TTTT TlpTT TTTTpTTT TFTPtT
o o ^ -, -, o o
TST TTTlpTTT TTTTT TS I TRF TpT, TTT T TTTf TTf
TTTf TTTT TTf TTT TS I TTTT TTpTTTT TpTTT
TT TtPfTT TT TfTT TT Tf TTT TTTTT TT fTTTT
TpTTTT TS I TTT TffT TTTTTT TTTT TfpT RfTfTT TfT
RfT TRT TS I TTT TTT TT TTT TTT, TfTTT, TTfT
TTTT ^TTT TT?TT# TTT TRTT TTRffTT TTT TfT TTT
TTTT TTT TRTT TTTTT TTTTpTTT TTTTTT TTTf TT
TpTpTpTTT TTT TTTTf TS I TfT TRT TTTRTTT TTTTTT
Newah Swayat Rajya yaa Awadharana
51 TTTTT TTTTRRTT TpTRffTT TT TTpTpT TT TS I TTTTf
o -\ o o o o
TTRTT TTfTT TTT TJTT TTTT TTTT TTF TfTT
TTTTTTTTf TTTT TTT F TFTT ^ TTS TTTT# TRRT
TTT T£ TST TTTT TS I ^TTf TTTfT TTTTRT TTTTT TT
TTTTTRT TTRF TTTTTTf TTRT TTT TTTT TTTTT TTTTRRfT
-\ O CN O -x O
TRtPtPtTT TTTTf TT TFTTTtTTTT TTTTT TS I TTRT Tff
TffTTT TTRT T TTRT TTTT T TTfTT TTTTT fTTTT
TT5T TTT TS I TfTT ^T TTT TTTf TT TffT TTTffTTT
TTTT TS I TTT TTTTT fTTffTTT, TTTTTTf T TTfTTT
fTTTTT TTS fTTTT T TTTT TTTT TTT TTT" TTTTTRT
TfTT TS I TffTT trttPtTTT, TfTTT TTTTTf, TTTTT TTT,
TffTTT TTT, TT fTTTTT, TTTT TTTTT TJTT TTfTT TS I
TTTT TpT T TTpTJT fTfT TTT TTTTpTTT TRT TTT
tTfTTT/TTfTTTTf TJTTTR T TTTfTTRTT TRT TTT TS
I TTTT TTTT TTTTT T5, TTT T TTFTfrfTT TTTT
TS TTT TTT ZTTTTTTTTf TTT TTTT TTTT TfTT TS I TT
T,  TTT,  TTT,  TTT,  Tf TfTT,  TTTT TTfTT TTTT T
^>> ~D ~D> O' O' O' "\ OOO
T TTTTf TTRTT TpTTTT TS I ^TTf TTTT TT TTTTT
frr-frr ttttt ts, sfrr TTTTfTTT TfrfTpTTT TTrrr
TS I TTTf T TtPtTTT FT TTfTTT fTTTT, TRTTT TTTT
TTTTpTTT T tTTTT TTTpT pTTTT TTTT TS I TT TTTTTf
TfTT TFTpTTT T TeT TRTTTTTT TRT TTTTT TS I TTfTT
TTTT TTT TTT TTTTT TT STTTTT FS I ^TTf Tf
TfT TTTTTT TTTTTTTT T T TTT TTT TTTT TfTT RRf
TT T TTTTfT TTfTTFf TSTTT TTTT TTT TTTTTT
TTT TTTT TS I TTTTTTT TTTfT TTTTT TTfT TTTTTT
O O "\ O O CN ~\0
TTT TTTT TTTT TJTT JFTTf fTTTT TTTTT TTTT TfT
TfTT TS I
TffT TTTTTTTT TTTTT TTTf fTTTTT Tf TT TT fTST
fTfTT TT TTTTRTT TTTT TT: TTT TTTTTf TRRT TT5T
TfTT TS I TT F TFTTT TffTTT TTT TTT TTT TTTTTS
TfTT frfT TffT fTT TTfT TTT TfTT TS I T TTfT TTf TT
T T TRT TTTT TTS fTTTTT TTT Tf TTT TT fTt>TT
TTTTTf fTTTT TFTT TTfT TTfT TTT TTTT T fTT
TTS I TT F ST TTT T TT TTT TTS TfT TTTT TRf/FTr
TTT TTT T ST TTTT TTT TT TT^TTfrt TTTT frfr #
o ' cn o cn o
R TTTT TTT TRTT TTfT fTTTT TRTR T TT5T TTTT TS I
<i) ^T: f^RrT TT^T ? a^TT ^TFn :-
TT TTTTf TTTT TffT TTTffTTT TTTTT TTTT TTTT T
RT T ST TffT TTT TSTT I ST STT TTT /TTTTTT TRT
TfTTT TT TTTTTTT TJTFffTTT stttTTT TT F Tt TTT TT
Tf Tf TTT TT T I TTTT TTTTT TT TTTTTT TTTTT T
CNOOOO "\ O "\
TTTT TTT TTTf Tf S ^:^I ITTpS TS TST pTTT T TFTTT
ST fTTT TTTT T I T TTT TTT F Tf TTT TSTTTT T
TTTTTT TTT TTTT TTT TTFTTT TTTTT TTf: TRT TfT
T TTTTT" TS I TTTT TTTTf T TTR TJTFRpTRfT TTTTTT
TTT TTT: TTFTT, TTTTTT fTTTTT T TTTTf TTJTTTf
TS I TTTT TTT T: S TTTpTT TTTTTTTf TTT: TTTTT
TTTT TTTTTT TTT TTT TTTTT TRRTT TTT TST TRRT
TTTTTf PtPt TTTTTT TTT T TpTpTpTTTf pTT TS.TT Tf
TFRRT IV?, T TTTTf T TTT TT, TTT, TTT TTTT TTTT
TTfTTTTT TTTT TS I TT TTTT TTTT TT TTTTT TT
T TlpT T TTTpTT T TTT TT TJTFffTTT STfTT TTTTfT
TfTRTTT ffffT TTTf TTTTT T TTRfTffTTT TpTpTpTTT
tPtttt trPtt TS I
TTTT TTTT TTTTf TT T:fsST frfT TTlpTT T TTfTTTT
TJTFffTTT TfT TTT TTTTTTT TTRT TT, TTTT STT T
TfTTT TFTT TT TT,  TT TTTf TJT^TfTT' T TTTfTTT
-x o o  o ' o ' o
TTfT, TTf TTTfT fTTT, TTTT, fTTTTT, TTTS TTTTT
TTTTT, FTTTRTT TT, TfTT, TTRTT, TfTTT, TT, TTTpT,
TTTf TfTTT TTT TTTT TS I T TRTT TfTTT TTTT
TT fTTT TTTT TTTT T -
TT)    TJTFflpTTT Tf TTfT TTTTTTTf TTTT TTTTT T
TfT TT TTT TTT,
T3")    TpTTRTTTT TT TRRTTf T TRTTTT" TTTTTR:
TfTT TTTpTT TTTT TTTT TTTT TTTTT TTf: T
RT TTT TTT,
T)     TJTFTlpTRfT TTTTTT TT  TT  T  TTTT TTT TT
TTT T TTTTTT fTTTTT TT TTTT TTTTT T
O O   O        O CN
Tf: TT TTT TTT I
(^TT TTSRTT TTT TT TTT TTT TTTRTTT TTTTT
T TTTT T -  )
T TTT HT: TTT t^RfT^ tTfTTTTTT TTT: TTT/TT
TT TTT TTTTTT TTTf TT TTf: TfTTfTT TfTT TfT TTTT
TTT Tft TTTR TT I TTfT TTTTTT TTTTTT TRTTffTTT
TTTfTTT TTf TCT T T TTTT TTT TTTTTT TlpTTTT TT
O CN ~\0 CN O
I TTTT TTTTTTTf TT fTS TTT TTT TT: F TTTT T
TfTTT TJTTfT W. I fTTT fTT: TTT TpTTTTTT TT
TTTTTTf T TTTTTT" TTTTTT? TRTfT TTFTT T TTTTTTf
TTfTT TTTpTT TT TTT: TTTT TTTTT TTTT TTTT TCT
TJTTS frftTT TT S ~(TW. Tf^T I I ^f fTTT TTT TTTTT T
TfTT TT TTTT FJT ^rl TT TTTTT TTTTT TST TT
TTT TTT fTST: I TT TfTTT TpTTTTTS T TTTTTTT T%TT
T TTTTTTf fTTTT TTT TTTT TTTfTTT TTT TTTTTTT
TT TTTTT I TTT TRTTT TfTT TT TTT fTT: JTSTT I
TJTTS S ^ TTTRfTf TTTTT T TTT TfTT TTTTT T W.
TST T TTTT TRT I TT TfT TT ttfT^TfTT ^TRTTT TT
TT T TTfTT TTT TT TTT T TTfTfTTf fTTTTT TT TTTT
TTTTT TTTT TT TTfTTfT TST W. I TT TTT TT TTTTf
52
Newah Vijnana-7 TTT TfpTTfT TpFTTT TTTTTT TTR TTTTT TTTT fTTT
TT TTTT TTTT TRT TTTT F TTTT TTfST Tf W. I
TJTFRfTRfT TTTTTT TT TTf TTTTTT TTTT TCT TTf: T
TTTTT TTT TTT TTTT TTT TTTTT T I ST STT TF
TTTf TTT TTTT TTT fTTTT T TpTT T I TT TTT T
CN CN "\ OOO
TTTTT TT TTT T pTRT TTFTT T pTTTTT TT TT
TTFTT TJTFRfTRfT TTTTTTTf TTTT TTT TT TTTT TTT
TTTTT TS I TT TTf: TTTT TTT TT TT TT TTT TT
OOO oooo
TTT: TfTTfTT TTRfTT TTFTT TT TT TTT TpTTTT
TTTfTTf frfT fTTT TTTT TT TTS^T TS I TTT TTTT T
O OOO o
T TTTT TT TT ST TTTT TRR. TT TT TT TST T TT
O   O CN O OO O
TTT TTTTf W. I
TT ST T T TT TfT TTT F TTTfT TTTT fPt TTT
O CN "\ OOO
TTTRT TTT TT TTST: TST fTTT T STT TTT TT TT
T I TTTRT TT fPt TT TTTT TTT TpTTRTfrt TpTT T
O CN O        O CN
TTfT TTTTT T TT T I TTTRT TTT TSTTT ^rl TTTT
TTTT TpTTTT TT TTTf T TTTT TJT (Union Territory) T
TTT i TTT TTTRT TTT FTT frfTTTf TTT TTTT TTTT T
T TTT ^ TTT TFT TST TTTTT TTTTT TTTTT TTf:
SRTT TTT TfT TpTT TT TTT I TT TTTRT TT F TT
TTTTf TfT TTT TTTT TT TT F TT I TJT TfT TTT TJTS T
TTTf TfTTR TTfTT TTT TfT TRTf TfT TTTTT T TTT
TJTTf fTT TS I
TTT TTTTTTT TTT TTfTT TTT/TTT TST TTTTT TTT
o -\ o o ^ o
TTT fTT TTffT TTTTTT TTTTTTT TTTTTTf TfpT TT T
T TTTT TpTpTpTTTf pTTT TTTTTTTf sr£ fTT fTTTT
TfTT TTTT, TTfTT, TfTTT, TTTT TlpT T>T> TTTT TT,
TTT/TfTfTTT TRfTT TTT TTTlpTTR TTT TCT I sfTT TTT
TT TTTT TTT TTfTT TT TT T TffT tPtPtPt TTT T
TT TfT TTRTTfTT TfrfTpTTT TpTTTT TrPtT TS I TTT T
O O OOO
T TTT fTT TTf TfT TTTTTTT FT, FfT T TfTTR TTTTTf
frfT T TTfT TTTT TT TJTTf frfTS I
%) ^T: <I^«M«MI tf^HT ? ^nfspfTTT :-
TffT TT TRT TTT TTT T TTTT TTTTTf TTTTf
fTTTT TTTT TS I TTTT TTTTT TTT TTTT TTTT
TST T TTfTT TTRTTT TTTfTTRT TTTTf TS I TTTT
TTTT TRT TTTTTTT TJTFffTTT TpTS TRTTT TTfT TTTf TT
~\0 ' O OCNO
fTT TTTTTT TTTTTTT TTTTf TpTTTT TSTf TTT TfTTTT
TTTTTfTT TfTfrfTTTf TTTTf TS I T TTTT TTT TT
TFTTTT TRTTTT TTTTf I TTT TTTT TTTTTT TTT F
TTT TTTT TT TT, TTTTT T TTTT TS I TTTPTT TT
TTTf TTT TFTTT TTTTT TTTTT TTTTfpTT pTTfTT
TTTT fTTTT TfTT TS I TTT TTfTT TT TTT TTTT TT
T TTT TTT TTRTT TTT, TTT, TS, TT, TTT, WSftt,
TTlfT, TRT, TTT, TTT, TlpTT TfT TTTfTTT TpTpTpTTT
fTTT TTTT TTT TS I
TTTT TRTT TpTTTT TTf: TTTRTT TTfTT TTTTTT TTTf
TT TTTT TfTTTT TT TST TTT TTTTTf PtPT TTTTT
TTT T TfrfTpTTT TTpTTRT TTTT TS I TT TTT: TRTT
TT TTfTT TTT TlpT T TTTRTT T TTT TT RJTFffTT
STpTT TTTTT TTRTT ffTT TlpTT TTTTT T TTTTfpTT
TpTpTpTTTf TpTTTT TrPtT TS I TpTT frfT TT TTT TT
Tf TTTT TTTTfT TTTTTT TFTTTTT fTTfTT TT TT
T TS I TTT TTT TTfTT TT TT TTT TTTRT TpTRffTT
OOO o o
TTTf: TTTT TTfTT TTTR TTTT TS I TT F TTT: TTTTT
TTT TfT TTT TT TTTT T TS I TRTTT TT TT TT
TT TTTT TT TTT  TTTTT TT Tf TTTT I  TTT TT TT
CNO CN O O v= O O
TTTT TRTTT fTTT (Customary Laws) TT T TTTT TT
TfTTfTTfT TTTTT TTfTT TT TT T:fSTf: TT Tft TS I
TTT TTR, TRTR T TTTT TTT TTTTTTT TTTT TfTTR
TRfTT TS I
TTTT TTTT TRTTT TTTf,  TTT,  TTTT TTTT,  fTT TTTT
O O ~D ' ~D ' ' CN
TTT TTTTT TTTTTT TTJTT TT, TRTT, TTTTf, gTS
TTT, TtPtTT, TTTTTf TlpT TTFT TT qTT TpTTR TS
I TTT TTTTT TTTPTT TTTf, TRT pTTT, TTT, TTTTT,
TTT TTTTf, TfTTfTT TTT, fTTTT fTTTT, TTT, TfTT,
TT TTTT, TTTT TTT, TT, TTT, TTT, TTT fTTTT,
TT, TTRT, TfTTT, TTf, fTTTf TTT TJTFlfTTT TTTfTTT
T TTTTpTT TRTT, TRT pTTTT, TTTT TTfTTT TTTf
TTTT, TRT TfTTTT TS I TTTT TRTTT TTTfTT TfTT
T fTTT TfrfTTf TR TT fTTTT TTT TS I TT F TTT TTTT
TT T TTT STTT T TTT TTTT TfTT, TT? TTTT Tft
T TfTTR T TTTT TTTT TS I TT F TTTT TTTTT TRTf T
RT TTT TTT TRTT# TTT TITTT TfTpTpTT TTT, TpTRffT
TTT TTTT TT TTT TTTf TTTTT TpTRffTT TTT TTf T
ifr TTT TTT T TTT TfrfTpTTT TpTTTT TS I TTTT TTTT
TTT F TTT TfTT T TTTTf TTT T TS I ^fTT TTT ^\^\ TT
Tf TTT TTTT TTTTfT TRTf TTTpT TTT TSTTT TfTTT
fTTTT TTT T fTTTT fTTfTT TTTTT TTTS I TR T TTT:
TTTT TTS TTTT fFTTf fTTT RT TTTT TfFffTTr TTTT TS
I TT TTT TfT> TTTT TT T TfTT, fTpTTT, TTJTT TTTf
TRTT TTT t TTT Tf TTT TTTT TTTT TTT TTTT TS I
TT F S % "RTTTTT TR T TTTT TFTTTT TfTTTT TS I
TTTTT TTT TTTT TTJT ^ T-TTTT, TTT TTTTf T
TTTR, fTTTT fTTT, fTT, TTRT, TTTTT, TpTTTT fTTfTT T
TTTTf fTTTT, TTpT FTTTTT, TTfTT TTTf, TTTpTT
tfT,  TFT T TTfTTTT,  TTT,  TTT,  TffTT,  TfTfT,,     TT
Newah Swayat Rajya yaa Awadharana
53 fTTTT, TTTT T TpTT TTTT TRTT, TfTTT T feTTT
TTTTRT, TTTfT TT TfTT, TpTTFT T tPtTRT TTT,
trpTT TTTRTT, TTTRT, pTTTT, TTTT, fTTT FT, TTTTf
TTT TTTPT, TJT T TT fTTTT, TRT T TTTT TTTTfTT,
TRT, TT T TTTTf, TT, TTfTTT TfT TR T TTTT TFTTT
TfTTR TS I
TT F TTTfT fTTfTTT TTfTT TRTTT TTTT TRTT TfTRTfTT
TFT, TTTT TTR TTTTTT, TRTT, TT TFTT, TTTTf TTT
TT, TTTfT TR. RT TTRT, TTTTT TTT, TTTT TTTf T
TPfRRT TTTT, TTRT, TRTTTS, PrfTTT fTTfS TTfTT
TTTT TTTT TTTTTT, TT, TT, sfFTT TTfTTT TfTTT
TTf TTf, TTTTTRT TTTTTT, TJT TTRT TTTTTT,
TTRT T fTTTT, T5, TT, TTTf, fTT T TTTRFTTTT
TTTTfTT, TTTTfT TTTTf, TRTf TTfTT TffTT TTTTTT Tft
T TpTTTT fTST TS I
TfTTTT TTT TT TTTT TTT TTT TTT" T TTTTT
TfTTR TR T TTTT TFTTT TfTTR (Concurrent Rights)
TT TTTT TTT TS I
S) ^T: feJUTrT <|vri|i|| ?frfcf :-
TTTT TTTT TTT TT TTT TTTTf TT TS -
T)     TRT TTTT T TTT TTRT
• TTTT TTTTT TT TTTTfTT TTT TS I TTTR
TSTfTTTTT fTTTT fTTTT TTT TTfTT TT
TT, TTTTT, TT TTTT T TTTpTT TTT TTS I
• TTTT TT TfTTTTT TTTT TTT TTTT TTTT
TTT F fTTTT TS I T F pTTTT TTRT TTT TTTT
TTTT TTT TTTTf TTTT TS I
• TfpTT TTtPtTR, TfTTT TfTTTT, TTTTT TTT,
TRTT FT, TT fTTTTT, TTT TTTfT TlpTTI
TTTT TS I
• TTTT TT TTTf TTT TfTTT TTTTTf
TTTTT TTTTTfTT fTTTTT TTfTT fTTTT
TS I TfTT frfT TTTT TTTT TTT TTTf TTTT
TTTTTf  TTTTTT  TFTRTTT fTTTTT  TT  TTT
• TTTT TTTT TTTT TTT TTTS TT TTTT TT
TTT TT TTT fTTTpTTT TTTTfT fTTTT" TTT T
RTTT/TTT TTTT T TTTTf TTRTTT TfTfpT
TTT fTTffTT TTTTTTf TT TRT TS I
• TTTT TTT Xo TfTTT fTTpTTfT tPtPtPtT TT
TTT   TTT  TTT  TTTT TT  TT TTT  TTf  Tt|
TfTRTfTT TTTT TTTT TTTT TTf: TTTT TTTR
TTTT TS I
• TTT: TTTT TTT TT TTT TT F TRT TTTT T TS I
TTfTT TT TT TTTT TTTT TT TTT TT TTTTT
TT TT TTfrS I TTT TTT TTTTTT TTTTfTT
fTTTTT T TTT TT TTTTTTTT TTTTT TT TT
TTpSTT TT TTTS I
• TTTT TTTT TT TTT TT Tf TTTf TTTTT
TRTTTTT TpTTR TTTT TTT TTTRTT TTT
fTTRT TfTT T TTfTT, TfTpTT, TffTT, TTTTfTT,
TfTT, TTT, TTTpTT, TlpTTTfT fTTTT pTTT
TTTT TTT fTTTTT TTT fTTT TfS I
• TTTT TTTT TTT TT TRRT TpTTfTf TTTpTT
TRTTTTT TfTTTTTT TRTT TTf TTTTT TT
TTTTTTf TffT TTT TS I T TfpTTT TTTT TT
TT ffTT TTT TTT TTTT TT TTTTTS I
• TTTT TTTT TTT TTTf TJTTf TfTTT TfTTTT TTTT
TRTTT TS  I  TT  TT TfTT pTTT TTTT  TTTT
O CN O O C "\
TfpTTT TFTTTT TpTTR TRpTT TS I
• TTT TTpT RTT /fTT TTfT TTT/TTT TTT
TfTTR TS I
• TTT TfTT TfTTT TTTTT TfTTft TT TTTT TTTT
TTTT TFTfTTf TST TTTT TTT TS,
• TT F TTTT TTTT TTTf #Tf FTTR TT TT TT
TfTTTT TT TTT TTT TTfTT TT TT TTTTT
TfTT TTTT TS I
• TTT TTTTT TT TT TT TTTTT TTTT TfT
TRTTTT TTf RJTTRT   TTTT TfTTTT TS
• TTT TFTTT TTTT TTTT TTTTT TTT TT T
TTTT TTFTf TTTT TfTT TS
• TTTT TTTT TTT TTTfT T/TT TSTT TT TTTf
TfTTR TTT TTT TT t fTTTT TR RT:fT fTTT
TfT TT TTTT fTTTffTTR ^WTTO Tf TpTTR
?S I
T3")    tPtt ttPt
• TTTT TTTT TTT TTTT TTTTTT T TTTf
fTTTTT TTTTTf TTT TTfTTTT TTfTT,
TTTTpTT T TlpTT TfT? TTT TTT TTTT TT
TTT TTTf fTTT T TTTTT TTT TTTT TTTT T
TTTf T TfTT TRT TS I
• TTTT TTTT TTTf TTTT TTR T TTTTT5
fTTRTT TTTT TST TTTTRTT/T frpTT TTTT
TS I
• TTTTTT T TTTTfTT TTTT TfTffTT TTTT
TTTTT TTTT Tf: TT T TTTf TTT TTTf TT
O OOO "\ O     CN
TTRTT Tf TTTT TTT TTTTT TTTT TT TTT
54
Newah Vijnana-7 Pttt Pts i
• TfTT  TTT  TTT  TTRTTT  TTpTTRf  TfTTTR
C "\ O O CN O
Tf TT TTT T TTpTT TTTTfTT TTTT TTTTT T
T TTTT TTTT TT TTRTT Tf T TTTT TfTTT
TTfTTT TTT T TTTT TTTTpTT TRTT TTTT STT
T TTT TTT TTTT TS I
• TTT, TRTT T TfTTTT TTT TTTTTTT RJTFffTT
STTT TT TT T TpTTTT TTTTT TTTT TTTTT T
RTT TT TpTT TRRTfTT TfpTf pTTT TpTT TffT
TTTTT PTTTTT TTTT TfTT TTTpT T TTTTfTfTpTT
TTTT T TRT5TTTTi TT TfT TSTT TS I
o o      o o      o
• TTTTf fTTTT TTRT fTTTT TTRT T TtPtPtT
TTT TTTTf TT: TTfTT TfTT TTS TTTf
TTT TfT TTTT TS I
• TTT: TTTT TTT TTTf TTTf TTT TTf TTTTT
TRT TTTPT TT: TSTTT TRTT pTTTT TTT T
fTTTT fTTfTT TTTTT TTTS I TT F TR T TT
TT TTS TTTT fFTTf fTT RT TfTTT TTFffTTf
TTT TS I
• TTTpTT TRT fTTRTr frfT fTTT TTTTf TTTT
TS I
• TTT: TTTTT TTTf, TTf, fTTT TfTTT, fTT TTTf
TT: TTTTT TTTRTT TTTT TT, TTTT, T
TTTf, ITS TTT, TTTTT TTTT TFT TRT
TTT TpTTR TS I
• TTT: TTTTT TJPt fTTTT, TTT, TTRTT, TfTT tf
TTf, TfTTfTT TTTf, fTTTT fTTT, TTT, TfTT,
TT TTTT, TTTT TTT, TT, TTT, TTT, PTTf,
TTTT, TTf fTTT TTT TfT TfTTR TS I TT F
TTT TTT TT T TTT SI^E ^ 'TTT ^% "^
TTTTT TfTTTT T TTTT TTTTTT TS I
• TTT fTTTT T TTJTT TT TTTT TTRTT T
TTTT TTTT TpT fTTT fTTT TTT TTTTT TTTT
TfTT TTTfT TTT fTTTT TpTTTT T TTT TRT
TFTTT TS I
• TT TTT TTTf TTTT TT T TRTT, frfTTT, TTJTT
TTT TTT TTTT t TTT Tf TTT TTTT TTT
TTTT TS I
T)    ttPtt TrfT
• TTTT TTTT TTT TT TR? t TpTRTfT TTTT TT,
TTf, TT, TRTJT, TTTTT, TTpTT TTT, TTTTTTT
TTTf fTTTTT TT T TT fTTT T TTTTTT TTFR
TSTTf I
• TTTTTT T TT T TfTTTT TTT TTT TTTTf
fTTTTT TTFTT TTT TfTTC TTTTTT TfTT,
TTfTT, TTT T ffTT TTTRT TTTT TTT TT
TTffTT I TT TfTfTTT T T%TT TT I TT, TTT
TTTT TTTTTT TTTT TTT TTT TS
• TTTT TTTTT TTT TT TTT TfT TTT TfT TfT
TfTT TS, fTTT fTTT TT TTTS TTf I
• TfTTTT TT TTT TffTTT TTT TTTTT TTTT
TTFTTT TTTTTT TS I
• TTT TTTT TTTTT T5, TTT T TTFfTfrfTT
TTTT TS TT TT TTfTTfT TT TTTT TTTTf
TfTT TS,
• TTT TTTTf, TTT TlpTTf TTTTf frfT TT fTTT
TTTTT TTTT TfS I ftlPTT TTTTR TRTT PtPT
TlpsfT TTRRTT TTTTT TffT TTS I
T) TTTTJTT TJpT
• TTTT TTTT TTTTf TRTJTT TffT Tf TTTTfTT
TRT TS I
• TTTT TTTfrfTT TTTfTTT T TTTTT fTTTRt
TTTTTTTT TT, tPfT T TRTTT TRTT T Tf
fTTRTT PtPT TTTTTf TTTTTTT TTT fTTRTT
TTT TTTT TfS I TfTT TfeRTTR T TTRRTfTT
TT TRTT TS I
• fTTT TfTTJTT TRTTTf TTTT TTfTTT TTTf
TTTT  TT TTfTTT fTfT TTT  T W.   I  TTT  TT
Tfrrr ttt ttr t tttt trtttjt ts i
• TTTT TTT fTT fTT TTT TTTT ^ TTTTfTT ft
fr, frfr, trtjt t ttttt ttt: t ttt tttt
TTfTTT T TTTfT TTTTf TTT TT TR?f TT
TRT TTRTT TTJT TfTTT TT TTT TFfpT TfSI
• TTTT TTTfTfTt TTTTTT TTT pTTT TT, TTTfT,
TRTT T TTTTTTT TTTTTTT TTTTT S TT
TfTTTTfTT fTTT TTT TTTf I TTf: TTTT TTTTT
TT T TTfTT TTT TpTT ^V^ T fTTTTT TTTTTTT
o oooo o
T TTTTTT Mr TTTTfTfTt TT TTTT TTTRTT
TfTTT T TTTT TTTTJTTftT TffT TT I
• TfTT TFTTTTTT TTTfT TTTTTT TTT TTTT
TTTT TTTT,  fTTTT TfTTT TT  TTT,  TT:,
N; o' O O CN O' '
TTTf, TT:, TT, TTr T T5 TlpTTT STT TTTT
fTTT fTfT TfT TT TRTTT TS I
O O     CN O O
• TTT: TTT TTTTT TTTTT: TTRTTT TT, TTTfT T TT
TTTT TTTTTT TTT TTTf TTTf TTT TTfT
TfTTT ^:^ TTTTTT TTTTTT TTT: TTT TT
TTfT TTTf I
• TTT: TTT TT fTTTT TS, TTT TTTf TT: TT
TTTTTT TT TTT TTFR TfS I
5)      TTf TT
• TTTT TTTT TTTTf TpTT TffT TF TpTT TS I TTT
Newah Swayat Rajya yaa Awadharana
55 T TT TT TTTTTf fTT TTT: TTTT TTTTT TJT
TTTTfTT fTT frfTTT TT TCT TTT T TTTf TTTT
TTTT T TRTTT TfTTT S^ TTS I TTF TTTT
T TTTTTT STTTTTT T TT T TTTTTf F
TS I
• TTTTTTTT TRT TRTTT TfTTT STTTT fTT T
TTT TT TFT TfS I TTTffTT TTTTT Mr TTTf
TTf T STTT TS I
• TTfTT, TTTTpTT, TRTT TTT TT TTf TTTTT
TRT T frfTTTf TT TTTT TTTTT STT TFTTTT
fTTTT TTT TTTTTf F W. I TTf: ST TpTT
TTTT TTT TTf fTTT TTTTf T RTT TTTTT
TTTTT TTT TTTTTf TTT TST: I TfTT frfT
TT TTT TTTT fTTT TTTT TS I
• TTTf TTTT TTTpTT TTT TT TTTTTT T:
TTTTf TTT TRTTT T TTTRTRT TTT TTT T
TTTT TPTTpTT" T TST TTfTT TfTTfTT TRTT
TfT TTTTTfT tPfT, TffTT T fTTTf fTTTT, TT
TT T TTT5TT fTfT fTTT TTT TT I
• TTTT TTTT TTT TTTTTfT TTT TTTf TRTT
TSTT T TTTf I
• TTTT TTT T TTTT TTTT TTTTf PTTT TRTT TITTT
TTTT T TTfT TT TTTTTf TS I TF TT TR5T
TT TTTfT TS I TfTT TT TTT T TtPttPtT TRf TRI
TT TTTTT TTT Tf fTTTTTTj TTTT I
T)     TTf TrfT
• TTTT TTTT TT fTT TTTT TTTT TTfTT TTTfT
TTT fT fTTTTT TRTTTT TTf tTRTT PTTf
TTfT TTT TS I
• TTTT TTTTT TTTTRT fTTTT TT TTT T TTTTTT
TfTT T TffT TT TfTT fTfT TTTRi TTT TT
TTT TS I
• TfT T PTPTT TTfTT TTTT TTTT TTTT TTTTf
ST T TT TJT I TF TffTT TTFlpTT TT TTTTT
T TTTTT TTTT TTTT TTTTTT TTTTT TTTTT
TfTT TTTTf TTT TTf TT Tf TS I fTTTT
TTTT TST TTTT T TTT TTT T fTTTTT
TTT TS I ta TTTTTTT frfT T T TT fTTf TTTT
tPttr ttPtt TS,
• TTTT TTTT TTT TT TTT TTT TTT TTTT
TTTT TTTST TTRTT TFT fTTTT TTT T TTTT
TTT TTpT fT ST TTTT TTTT PTTT TRT TT
TT TS I TTF ST TTFTTT TT TfT fTTTT TfTJ
ftaTTTTTT   TTRTTT   TTTTT   TTTTTT   TffT
^.
• TTTT TTTTT TlpTT, TTTpTT T TTTTT T TTTT
TTTRT TfT? fTTTT TTTT TTt" TTT:fT TT
TRRTT TRTTT fTT TTT T TFT TSTT TTR
RTT fTTTT fTTT TT TTT TTT TS I
• ta TTT TCTTTRTT fTpTTTT T TfTTfTTTT
TRT TTTTT T:fTTT TTT T TfTTfT TTT TT>
TTT TTTR T TTRT TTTTTT TTTT TTTTT TT
T TTTT TTTTT TTTT# TTTT TTT TS I TT t
fTT TTT TRTTT TTTTTTT TT TTfTT TfT
Tf TTRTT TRTTT TTTT TTRTTT TfTT TT
TT TT TTTfT TpTT TTT TTTT TTTT TT TSJ
• TTTT TTTT TRTTT fTRTTRT T T ST TTfTT
frfTTT TTSTf TT TTTT Tk TTTTTT TTTT
TfTTT I TTF PtPtT TTfTTTTf TTTT TTTTTT
TT RTTT fTTTTT TTTTTTT TTTfT T pTpTT
TTTTT TTTT TTTT fTTT TTT TS I
S) TTfTTTTTT TJpT
• TTTT TTTTpTT, TITT, TfTT T TTTT TITT TpTT
TFTT T PtPtTT TT TTTT W.  I T TF TFTTf
O OOO o
T PtPtTT TTTTT ST PtPTTT TTfTT T  I  TT,
-\ CN O CNO O >
fTTTf fTTTTTTf TTTTf TTTf TTTT TTTT: TTT: TT
Tf TTT, TTTT, TTS, TT, TT, TCgrft, TTRT, TFT,
TTT, ^M\, TfTT TfT TTTTTT T TTTTT TT
TTTTTT T, TT TTT TRRTTTT TT TTT TTFR
TTS
• RJTFffTT TTTT TT TTTTf fTTT T TTTT TTT
TT TT T TT TRTTTTT TRRfTT TTTTTTT TT
T TRRTT TTTTTT TTTTT TTTT TTTT TTTRi
TTTTTTTT fTTT TrfT TTTTS I
• TTTT TTTT TTTf TTTTRTTf, TrTTRTTf T
TTTTTTT TfTTT TRRT TpT pTTfTTf TTTT TTTT
TRRTT TT TTt" TTRTfTT TTTTT TRTTTfpTT
TpTpTpTTTf TTTT TTT TS, TTT T TT TRRTT
o       o    ' o o o
TTTT TTTT TT TTT TfrfTpTTT ST fTTT
TTT TTTT T TTTTTTT TTTTT TfT TTT TTT
T TS
• TTTT TTTTT TTTT TTRT TTTTTT TTfT TTT TT
TTT TlpT T TTTTT TTT T TFRTTTT STTT
TTTTfTT T I TTTT TTfT TTTTf: TTTTTT T
O       O OOO o
TTT TpTTR TJTfTTT TfTT TRTTTTT TTTT T
TT TTTTfTT TfrfrfTT TS I
• TTTT TTT TT TTTRTT TTTT Tf TT TT ta TTTT
TRRTT TTTTT TTTRTTTT TTTfT TfrfTTT
TfT sfTT TTT TRTT TTT TS I STTT T TTTTf
sffsff TTT TTTT T TTT TTTTf TTT TTTT
TfTT TS I
56
Newah Vijnana-7 T) TTTTT TfTTR TTfT TT
• TR, TTT T TTTfT fTTTTTf TTS TTT TT T
TffTTfT TTTRT? TTT TS I TR T TTTT TFTTT
TfTTR T TfTTfTT F TTTT TS I
• TfpTTTT TTT TT TTTT TTT TTTTf TTT" T
TTfTT TfTTR TR T TTTT TFTTT TfTTTT
(Concurrent Rights) TT TTTT TfTT TS I
T) TTTTTT fTTTT
• TTTT TTT TTTf TTTTT fTTTTTT TT, fTTT TTTT
TT, TTT T Tf TTTRT TT TRffST TfTT TS, TTf
TTTT TTT TTTffTT TTTTf TTTT TTT TT F
TTfsS,
• TTTT fTTTTTT T TTT TTT TfTFTT TTT TRTf
TTTTf TT TS I
• TTTfT fTTTTTf TTTTTTf TTTTT TTTTTTTT T
TTfTTTTT TTTT TT TTR fTTTTTf TtsfR
TS I TTT TTTTTTT TTTTTT TfTTTT TTRTT
TT TTTf TTTf TTT TTT SpTT T TTTT fTTTT F
TTTTf TTT PtPYtT FT TT pTTlpTTT, TTTTTTf T
TffTT TTTf TpTTR pTST TS I
• TTTT TTTR TTTT TTTTTf TTTTTTTTT
TTTTfTT TS I
• TTT TTTTTT TTT TT TT TTT TT TTTTT TCT
TTf, TTf TlpT TTT/TTTTPtT TTfTTT STTT
F TTTT TTT TTTT TfT Tf Tf TTTT TTTTTf
fTST TS I
• TTTT TTTT TTT TT TTTTTTT TTTT TTfTTT
TTTT fTST TST TTf, TCT TT TRRT T TT
T TlpTTTT TRTT TTTT fTST TS I
• TT TTT TT TT, TTT/TTfpTTRTTT TTTT
T TTf TtPtT TTTTTT tPtPtPtT TT fTTT
TTTTTT tPtPtPsRT TfTT TS I
f TTTfT fTTTT TT TST fTTTT fTTTT, TTTTTT TT,
TTTfT TT TTT TlpT TTTTTT fTTTT F TfTTR T
T TT TTT TS I
T) frfTT
• TTTT TTTT TTT TRTpTTTT TTT TpTTTT PrfT T
RT TTfT TTfTTTTf TTfTT TTT TTTTf TTT T
RT TpTTTTTT TTTT TTT TS
• TTTT TTTT TTTT TTT TTT TRT, TRTTT T TfTT
fTTT T TTTT TS,
• TTTT TTT TTTf TTTf TTT TTf TTTTTT TRTf
TTTpT TTT fTTTT fTTfTT TT TSTT TTT
fTTTT TTTS I
• TR T TT TTTT TTS S ^ ^^ ^ ^^
TFTT TTT TT TTTTT TfT TTT: TTTT
TTTTT feTTT TTTT TS I TT TTT TT/TTT
TTS S ^ TTd"^ ^^T ^^T TTTTT TRTf TfFTTT
TTTT TTT TS I
TRT TTT
V       TTRT, TTTTT : fTT R.0%0, TTTT TTTTf TTT,
TTT TTT
R)      T^Tf,   TTTTTTR  :  ff.T  W!(,   TfTTT  TTTTT  T
RRffpTT sfTFT, TT TTTT TTfT
3)      TTT, TTTTT T ff.T.^OY^ TfT TTT TpTTT, TT
TTTT TTfT
^)      TTf, TTTR T fTT RO^\ TTTTTT RJTFfRTT TTT
T, TTTTTf
K)      TTTft, TTTT : fTT. WO TT^TfTTpTT TTTTT,
Rf>TfT TTTT TRTf
%.)      TT?, TTRTTT TTT. W^ TTTTTTT, TTTTTT
TSTTT TJT
#)      FTT,  TTf  :  fTT.   Ws  TTTTTT fTTT,  RTT
fTTT
s)     FTRRTT, RT. fT. : ST. "1"W>, RT RTTTT TT ft
frfTT TT TTT, RPTTT TfrffT FTTT, T fTTT
\)     T^5, TTTR : S.  Tf.   Root,, fTTTT TTT TTFT,
Tiff TRTTT T TTTTTT TRT,   fTTT TTT
10) TRT T TRT T TT.  W°, TTTT TTTT TT, TTTT
TTTT TT
11) TTTT  TTTT TT  TTTT  TT.   113°,   TTTT  TTTT
TT TTTT TfTT TTTT
13)    TffTTfT TpSRTTTTRTTf fTTTTfTf TTTRTT - Roo<3
13)     TTTTfpTT TT TRT5T TFRRTf - W
Newah Swayat Rajya yaa Awadharana
57 c ^ ^
TWI
TTTRTTT TR TTTTT TTTT fTTTTT ftafT TTtaj ^RT TT:
tar:TT t RffrrRT ttt: ta ttttt tstrt fta? ta tt tarr
TRT TTT TTT TTTTTTTT TRTtT ta ta TTT TTtafT I TTT ttaf TT
TRTttaR (TRRTT) TR EJMfltaT T X. TT TTTRTT TTTTTTTT
TR taT TTTT fta"T TTTT TT TTTTT
ta T3RT: ^rrtaTT TTP RTTTT TTTTTRT TTTT TT ftar
"TTT TTTTT I TtaTRTW TTTf TRTT TTTTT ?TT TTT TfT
^ T (T:tar TTT TTTf TTT TTT TT tar TTTT TRTT 1^
(TT TTT)) W. tar TTT TRta TTT TTTTT T5T fTTT TT (tanta
t) ttar I TTT taTT TT tttMtt T Ttatarrr
TTTTT TTtaT, TTT T:T WT TTR T
TRT" TS Tf? TT tTTTT W: | rt^r TTT
TTTTT ttaTT TTTT TTT: TtatTTTTT Tt Tf
Tsfffta TTTTTT TTT T5 TST M TTT: TTT
TRT TTTT TRR SRT TT fta taTfita-TT
TTTTT TTTTTT TtTT ffTTiTTTT TRTTTTT
TTTTRTTT TTTf TTTTTT TTTRT TtaffftT
TTTTT   TT-   fwtar   TT   TTTT   TTTTTT   ?   Tt
tatar ftar: ttar- ttttt tiI\ih< wt ttt
ta TT:ftaRTTT TT: tata TRt^t TTTRTT
TJT TTT ta TT[ TT I TTT taTlfr TTTTfta
T TTTRffta fTTTT TTTT TT #T TSTT
RTT, Tftr TRTTTT ¥ T TTTTR
ta w:tt fesfr TT ttarr fta TTT: TTTTT
TT RSTRTT MtaT T3RT: TTTT TTTTTfTT' TTT
TtaTRTTT WTT% fTT TT I taTfftafta
ta? SIT I TTT RTRT TRT TT T^RT: STT I ftafT TTT T TRT
TT T TRTRT TTR TTT TtaTTTTT TR STT I TtaffftT T TTTTTR
TT I TTT TTTT TTTfT TTST TTTRTT H*iM& TTT, TTJ TRTT
taTTT TTT T TTTRTT SJMflta Ttafta tar TTTT aac
(TTT l^W ttar TTTT TRRT ta TRT TT tartar TT TT
<\\0/- RTT T TTT I TH^TM ftaf RTTTTRTT tar RT TTR
R=f TTTTT TftT fta
Tf T taTTT TtaTRTW TTTT TTRTTT TTT TTTT TTTTTT T TTTTT
TTT TRT TTTftajT TTTTT staffftaTT TRTT I tartar TT?
f w tt Rjta i stafffta ftarrT tt i ftarr ttt t Ttar tartar
TTTTTTT TTTT #T %i^m TT
Prithvi Narayan Shah
tataT TRTttaR (TTTRT: )T W? TTTT TTTTTTTTTT T:T: TTT:
TTTtaTTTT TT TTTTTTT TRR TTT I T TTTRTTT TTTT-RTTTT
TTTT RTTTT Ttar. RT RTT TTTT ta$ SRR TTTTT TRRR
TRRTta T TTTTT tar TTTRTTRt ftafT TT I ta W:TT T TRT:ft
RT taTT TTTT TTT T TTT STTT: TRTTTT TRRTT TTtTTRRT TtafTT
TRTttaR TTTTRT:) TT Tf TfTT TT I TTTTTT TRRT T TRTT:ft
TTTTtta tatar TRTttaR (trrt) t Ttarr t tttt i rttt
TRRTtaTT TTT TTtTTTRT TTTT I TTTTTT. TT^T" TTTT TTTfT
Tta TTTTT Tt TRRTT TT TTTTTT TRRTT TT TTTT TT
TTTT W: | TTTT T RTTTTRTT TTtTTTRT STTT RTTT
t TRrtar ftarr Trrtar trttt t:#t t ttt
ST TTtTTTTTTT Tta TT#T fta TTT T TTT
TRRftfr TTR (TTT TTRTT TT TR TTTT si|
T ta T RO-^ TTT TTT TT TT) t TTT
TTTttar I TTtTTTRT T #T TTT TRRT TtTT
TTRTT
ftarr. l^x. tarr 13 ta st tt rr
Ttarrta tartatafr tttttr tttttrt tt i ta
t# ftarr tt tt: tar: t:t tttt
rtarta-TT t ftarr t:t fta Ttarr tar
TtaTTRTW TRTT ftaTTttar TTTTTT WM TT^
tata TT TT TTT TTT TtatTRTW TR
TTT RTTTT I Tf TTT WfIT TTTTT T5T
f taTT RT TTT I T:T TtafT TTTT Tj
SIT TT TT TTTTTT TRR ftata TTT ta
T taTT TTT I TT T tartafT T?T ta" ta
TTT STT T.5TTT TT TTTTTr T TT: TTTTT
Tf TTT: TTT TTT T:TT I ta TTTTTRT Trta TTRTT, TT
ftaTTTT TtaTRT TR ftaRTTTTT RR T taT# TTT TtatTTTTT
^TRT TTTfT fta I TTTT Tfrr TRR TT TRTRT RR I TtatTRTT
*TRT ftaT ftarr TTTtaTT TTTTTTT TT TT I TTtTTTRTT RTRftft
ta TT €TT TRTtaTRTr € TTT 5T fta": TRRfffT RR WTTT
TTT TT I Tf T ftafT TTTTT TTTTTT ta TT5TTTT ta TRR fta
TT TTTT TT T TTTTTTT taM TRTT TTTT TTT T:T TTTT
RTT TTTfRT TTTRTTT ftafTTT T: fTTT TRTTTTTT TRRfrfT ta fta
^00%  TTT TR TRTT T #T TTRTT W:  |  rtafT ttar TT I   T
tttt tt frftar rt:^" tt rt ttttt i T3T tr t tar I TRfTT
tar t ftar: ta ttt
58
Newah Vijnana-7 <i fifcx&l I ^TM^TT^T ^l^T
TWI
TRTRT TTTTTT taSTRi TftSTT TTTTTf TTT TT'
TT ST TT TFT TfTT TT,  TT TT TTTTT TTTT
CN~\ o -\'o -\o o
TR I Ptt ttt tPt ttPtt tt tt, t ttttt t| TTT I
o o -\o ocn' oo o
TfTT fTT TTTTTR tas T TT TT TTRT FTTTT T. TTf
O CN O   O CN "\
rTT tas, TTTTT TftTTTT TTTTT TTTf TTTTfTT TT
TTTfTTT TTTT HT I
T.   TTTT ta5 TTCT TT TTf TTTTT TfTTTT TTTTT
Tsfrer t tj: i s t tt: tttt t. tatarr ttt, ttttj
STTFfTT TTTTT T ftaf: TT: STTftaf - "TT: ftaTTTT TT
TT TTTTf T I TT TT TfTTTT TTTT TTT TTTTTT
TT T TT-TpTTf STT TRTT TTffTT TTRTT TR fTRT
TT TT, TfT TT, TT TT TTT: TfTT TT-TfTTTT TTRTT T
TT T TTTf TTT TpTTT T TTTT TTT ST TTTT ST TT
fTTTTT fTTT T I
STTFfTT TTTTTTT RJTFfRTT TRT TT ftTTRRT, TfTTT,
TfTTTT fTTTT TTT Tf fTTTpTT I TTTTT taTTTTT
TTTTT T TfTT TTfTT TTFT TT TT-TTTTTT TTTfTT ftpTT
oo o~\ -\oo -\
fTTT ftaT TTT TfTT Tf TTT TTfT TTfTT I TTTTpTT
ttt, Ptt tt tt-tPtttt TrrfTT ftar tt: Pt tttt Prrr i
T. TTTT taT5T TT: TFTTTT TTT TfTT frfTT fTTTT T
TRTTTT TT TTT Tf ftaf: fTTfTT I fT TTT trttPtTT
I TT F ff, TT, TT T TT TT pTT TpT TT fTTTT fTT
TTTTT TTT TTT Tf fTTftaf I TTRfTTR S T™^ <33t
TTT TT TT TTTT TTftaf I TTTT TTTTTf TTT TSTT
TTf TTT TT T TTTT T I T t| Tfff I
"TTfTTT TtaFfTTf TTTT TTTT TT TT TTT TTT TTTT
o c\-\-\oo~\ o
TTTTT I TTTT TTTTT TrTTTT RRT TTT TTT TRT
TJTTf TSTTT TTT T TTfT TTTfT TTf TTT TT "TftSTT
TTRTTT TRT TT" TTRT TTfTT W. I"
T TT fTTT TfT TTTT TftTTTT T.fT.TRi TT TTTTTR
taSTTf F TTRTT TTT TT "TTT:fs TT" RTTTT TTTTfT
TTTfTT TSTTT I TTTT TTT TSt TTT STT TTTT TTTf
TTTfT TTTTTTT ST TTTTTFT TTT W. I
1 fTT % TT STT TT TT?:, lo fTT %% TT fTTT TTTTTT,
loo ftaf %%% TT TTTT TTTTTTT, TTT T TTTJT TRTT T_
TTTTf I TT TTT TTT: 1,10,100,1000 Tfft W. I TTT ^^
TfTT lo tPt T I lo F lo . loo TS I STTTfr TTRT TTTT
I S ^ ^fTT TTTT TTTTT Tfts, 5:fs, TT, TfPd TTT TTTT
TTT T I TT TftSTT TFT HTT T TT "TftSTT TTTTTf
TTT TT" TTT TT TSTT I
T TT TTR TTTT TIT TpRR TTf TTfT TRTT TTRT
TT TTTTT T - "T TftSTT TTTTTT TTT TT" TTfTS
SlTTTT fTpTRTfT FTTT TT. lo^Y frff TT. 11^3 TTTT X Tf
TT TTT TTT TT. 11^3 TrTTT ^ T SfTTTT fTTT TRT
TJT TT TTRTTT TT I"
TTTTT ST TTT TTTT TT TTTf fTpTpTTTT TfT
TTT TT TTTTT (T.T. W - T.T W) TfT pTTTi
"TTTTST TTpT" F TTT TT pTTRifT TTTT TTT W. I
fTR fTR fTTT "TpRRT TTTT TT TTT TT" TRTTT
TT TTT TTPTT TT TT TTTTTR taTTT TTRTTT fTFf
O O O CN O CN "\
TT I T TT TTT TTTTT TT TTTTf ftafT W. I TfRTT
t| W. I
T TTT TTTTT T. TTTT taT5T TT TT: fTTTT '
fTTTTRi' TTfpTT - "TTTTT TTf TTT fTTT STTTT T
TTTf TTTT RTTTRfrfT TTTTf TpTTTfTT TSTT TftaTT
TTRTTT ST TTT TT fTTTT TTT TTT TT I" TTTT FfT
O CN O O O O "\
TTftar - "tt tar tPftttt TTrfrr tt tttttr t
TTT TTpRR TT TTTTTTpT TT TTTTRTTTT T.T. lo^Y rt
TT TTTf TT, TTT T TTTTTT taT-TTpTTrpTfTT TRTTJT
TTTTfTTT TTRTT TS STTTT T T TTTTS TTTTTT TT I T
O O     CN O O O O
TTfTS TTTTT TTTT TpTTf TTTTTTT TfTT 'STT TTf
TTRT fTTTT' (TT TT TT TTTTT TT) TTT W. I
O CN        CN CN O
T TTf TTT TTT TTTTTT S ^ ^ ^ ^^ TTTT W.
o -\ o o o o
TTf Tf TT TTTTT T - "T TTT W T TTTT ^o T, ^^
OO O ~\ CN O 0>
T sfjsfj TT-TpTTTTf l^T T TTT ^o T, ^ TT Tf T TTTTfri
TTTT  ^  T T tarsta TTTTT lo T TT TTT  K^ T TTT
Bajracharya/Sacchidanya Nepal Bhasha.
59 TTTTT T I" FTT TTTT TTfTf - "T TTT T^ T TTTTTfT
OOO -\ O "\
fTTT TTT TTTTT 3° T TTfTTRT T I" TT STTTTTT Tffrrfs
TT, TT-TfTTf T TTTT TfTTTpS TT TT-TTTTfrfTT TTTf
CN ' "\       O O "\  O O
TTTRTT T I
TTTTf TTTTTT TTT T TTTT l^T T, TTT- TTTfTT TT
loo T TTTTT loo T TT TTTTT loo T TTTT ^ T,
TTTTTT-TTTf-TfTTT Ro T TTST 3 T, TTTT R% T, FfSTS
^ T T TTfTS * T TTT TTfTTfrfTT TTtPtPt TTTf TT
RTT t TTT TTTTg: TT TTTSTTTTT T m T TT TT TT? T
o o     o o o o
X T TT TT TTTTT T TTTTTTT TTTT T TRT TTTf T
OOO -\     o o o
TTTT TTTT TTRTT TTT T I TTTf TTT 'TTT' TTT: TTTTT
T TCTTTT T TFTTRTT S ^ f& TTTTT TTTTT TCTTT I
TTTT TTTT Tf "TffsTT TTTTTf TTT TTf" TTTpTS
TRT TTTT TTT TTTg: TTRTTT TfTTTT taT5T st:T
fTTT TT TTTTfT T - '"TfTTf TT TTTTT TT TfTT T TT
TTTT TTTS, TTTTT TT T TTTPs TT FTSTTT TpTTf TTTT
TTT 'FTST' T TTTT TT TTTT F T TT I TTT T TT RTTf
T T-tPtT TTTf STT5 TTTf T TS TT TT TfTTf TTfSTTf
I 'TTT' TTT TT TTT TTT 'TTT' T TfTT TTT TTT
TfeRT TTfT TftSTT TTTTTT TTT TT' TTT F TTTT
TfTTTT TSTT T I "TRT" TTTT TT TTRR TTT STTTT
o o o o o   o
FTT TTT STTTT TT I
TTTTTTT STTTTTT TTTT TT TRT, TpTT, TfTT TTTfT
TT TTT TTTTTT TT W. TT TTFTT STpTRT tarrr TT
TT I TCTTTT, TFRTTT, STTTTTT TRT TT TTT TTTTT
STTSTRTf TRTTT STTTTTT 'TRT' TT tPfTT TTfTTT
T TS I TfTTT TTFTT T TRT TTTT TT I T TT Tf TT T
TTTfs F TTT I
TTT  Sftaf^l  STT^  TTT  TRTT  TTTT   TT  STTTT  T  -
O O "\CNO OO
"TTTTT TTT 'TfTT' TT TtaffTTTTfT tPfPtT pTTT STTT
... T fTTT TfTTT TTT-TTTTTT TTTT T TTTT TTT FT RTTT
o o o -\    o -\
TT TfFTTf TTTpTT pTTT T TS I" T F fTTRT TTTTT TTT
o    o o o o
TTT T TTT TTf TTTf TTRT TTTTT TT I FTT TTfTT
TTT T t| T TTTfT T, TTT TTT Tiff TTTf TTT fTpT TST T
~D       ~D> O C O O
TT TTTT TT T? fTTTT T TT TTfT Wt TTTT frfTTT TTTT
TTT FTT Tf Tftaft TT TT TTT TT TTTTf fTTTT TTTT
fffST-TSTTT Ptt: Pts TT I
T TfT TRTf TTf I TTF TT: fTTTTT TT TTT TTT TT
TTTTf I TfT TTTTT T fTT TTT TTT TTT: TTffTTTTf
I TTTT F t| TTTT TT TTTpT TS TTTTTR TRTT T TTT
O O O "\        O O O CN O
TTf TTTRT TfTT TTTT TT STTpTT - "T TTT TT TTT
TTT TTTf TTT TTpRR TTT RTT T TTT TfTfrfT TT
OOO O O CN O
TTf, TTTTTTf TRT TTT STTT TT TTTT T TfT TTT TTT
TTTTTT TTTTTT TTTTfrfT TTTf TTTTT TW I" TTTTTf
TTT TTT T TTTpTS TTf:fT TfTpTpT Tf TTT TTT TST TT I
O O OOO
TTTT TTTTT X^. T TTT T I TfTTfs TTT ST fTT TTT
oo -xo oo ' '   io io
ffrsrsT TTT, STpTT Tff TfTT STT sttttst t ttt ttiPt TRTT
o o'     o o o
TTT TSTTT TRTT TTTTTTT  TT TTTTT SSf TTTT fTTTT
CNO ^ ^ O O "•
TTT-TTT SSf TTfT TTT I
TT  TSTT  TTTfTTT  TTTT  TTT  TTTT   TTT  T   (pTTT),
CN O "\ "\ O O CN O    '
lo^lS TfT fTTTTT 'TRpT TT pTT' TTT-ffT RTT TT I TTT
TSTTT TTRT T FfT TT fr TTT TTTT, TT T TTT TTfT
T TTT TTTT I T T ST TT TTT SRTTT I TftST TT
O '    CN CNO ' O
T TRT TTT T TTT T TTTT TTTfT TTT - TT TTpTTT
Tf TT, TTTTTT T TT, TTRTT TT T.T. lo^^S T ffffT TTTf
TfT T TTTT TTT T T TRT TTT TfpT TTTJTTf TT
TTTTCT I
TRTTTT T<MN<u| TT TTTT TT frfrST TTTS STTT TTT
TRT W. I T 'TTfT TT pTT' TTTT TTTT TfTTT 'Tf
W. TfTT TT Tf TT TFTTT TTT TTTTT T I TTR, TTT,
TTT, TRFTT, TTfT TfpT TTT TTTTTf 'T' TTTT ftar TTT
TTTTT T I TT T TT 'Tf TTT TTT TTTTT TSTT" IT
OO CN OOOO
T T TTTTf TT W. FpTTT STta TTT TTT S T TT, ^
TTf Ptt, tiPt ttt Ptt, tt TTTf Ptt, tPtt ftt Ptt
TTT, TpT STTT TTTTT" F TT T I TTRTTT T TTT TTTT
TTTT TTf Tf T TT fTT TTTT T TTfpTTTf TTT T TTTT
O CN O CN O -•
TT TTTTT TSTT I
'F TT TTT T TgT TTT' TTRT TTTT TffTT TTTTTf T
TTRT TTT TTTT TTTT T.T. lOY^S T 'T5 TT T TTT
TT'T fTTT W. I 'T5SRT' TTT TTTf TRRT TpTTT W. I
^m^ TTTTf (TTTTf TFT tas) Tf F TTTT TT T F TT TTT,
TTT TTT TT TT TCT' STTT TT TTTTTf T fTT. l<%^
T TfTTTTT STT TT W. I TTTTTT TTTTT TTT 'TTTTT'T
TTTTTT TTT T STT TST TTT TFTTTT t| W. I
ST TTT TT tPtRRT TRTTT TS I TTTTTT ta5T TTT
ST TfTTTT, TTFTTT TTT W. I TTTTTTT TTT TST
TTTTf TTTf T fTTTTT W. I TTTTTTT TT STTT: TT
T TTT TTT t S 3frf^rT TT TST Tg" | TTT TT TTTT,
O ~\0 00"\0'
TfTT TT I TT TfTTf TT-TpTTTT STT TS, TfT Tt T:T F
TTTT I TfTTTT fTFf TT TTTT fTTTT ST: TTTTTTTT TTf,
fffT TfTTf F TTi T: T# W. TTTftaff I TTTTTT TTTf>T TTT
'TTTfT TTT T' TTTFTTT TTTTT TTTT TTTTf TfTT TT
S TTTT TTTT TTTT TT TfTT TT TTTJfT T F 'TTTT
TTTT T' TTTT TfpTT TT TTT: TTT W. TS I TTTT
TTT T TTTTTfTTTT TRTT FTTTTT TpT I
'TTTT TTf taTTT TTfTT TTfT TTT T, TTTTT TTTTT TT
TTT TT T T TTT TfTT>T fTF TTTTT T TRR T.T. lOY^S
60
Newah Vijnana-7 T 'T5 SRT T TTTTTT' TpTTTT TTRTT TT W. I TTTT
TSTTT T TT TTTTTTT pTTTpTTTTT TT TTTT TTT
TTT frSTTT STTTT TTTTT TC I
TTTT TTTT TTTTTTT TT TTRTT TfT TT TTTT
ffrftafT TTT TTTTT fTTT 'TRTTf' TfT TTTT TTT TfTTTT
'STTS PtPt T TTS TTTTf TTfT TTRT tat ft^ 1W ^
TTRTT TTTfT TfTTf T TTfTS TTT T I
T TTT TTT T.T. lOY^S T 'T5 SRT T TTTTTT' T TTffTT
TTFTTT TTtTTf 'TTT TT' TTT TTTTTT TTTT
TTTf TTTTTTR TffT TTT TTTT fTTT TC I Tfta T TTTTTT T
TT TTT TTRTT TTTTTT TTT TTTT TTT t| TTTTT
OOO -\ o o
TTTT TTTTTTT TTT TTTTTT SFTf W. I
PTTTT 'TJTT'TT TfT TT TT TTRT TTT 'TTTT-Tf TpTTf
T pTftafTT TWTT fTTTT TT TTIT tPfT TTTT FTT TTT
'TTf' TfTTf T T TTT TTF TJTS TTTT T I fTTTT 'TJTT'T
TT TTT 'TTT TRT' t TTT TTTTT TFTTTT TTfTT TTT
ffTftafTT ta5 TTT TTT 'TTT' t TTT TTT TfTTf TT:
TTTTT TTT TlpFTTT STT: TTT TTTTfftT I TT
TtarffcT fTTfTT TTTTf RJTFRTT TFT TT TTTT W. I
T TRT TTT TT TpTT TT TTTT TfTTT TTT TTTTT
T.T. lo^ T 'SRTTT' T fTTT 'pT TTTf TpTT SpTT TTT
TfT TTTTT TC I TTf fffT ffffr TfT TTT TTTT T TSTTT
TTRTTT TTTTT W. I
S TTTTfTT TfTTT frfTT TTT TCTTT I TTTTTTf
TfTTT TTTf TTT TT TTTTTT TT TTf TTT TTTTT TT
T TT F ST^Tf: TTTTT TTT T fTTT I TTTT TfTTf TfTT
TT TTTfT fTTTTTf ' TTTTfT S T pT' W. TT T TRRpTTS
TTRTTTTT T I
TT TRFTT TTTT TTSRT TTT T I ftta T TTTS T TTT
TfT F TTfTT I TTTTTT TTTT TTTf TTT TTT TTTT
TTT TC I TRRTT 'TT TT TT TT' TRT TTT TTTT TTT
'TTT TRfTT' T fTT. 1W (T.T. I033 TTi) fTTT W. I
TT TT TTT TTTTT TTT TCT TTTf T TT TRTT TTTT
TCT TTTT I
ffrftafT TTRT T.T. IOYO TT TT 'TT TTT TTTTT' T T
TTTtTS TfTFTT TTfTT T I
TTTTTT TTT TTT TTT TTT TT I TTf-TfpFTT TTT
T TT I TTTRTT TTT TTT. lo!<3 TTT TT TTT TT 1 T
3 TTTfTTTftT I TTf F TTTT 'TRTf TTTT TfeTT.... TTT
FTTT TTTTT'  TTT TTTTfT W.  I   TTfT TTT TTTF TTT  I
TTTT TTTTT TTT-TTT T TT-TfTTTT TTTTTT TTTTTT
TT I
TTTTTTT TTRTT 'TfTT' TTTf TFT TT? TTT T.T. lo^
T 'STT' TTTT TRR fTTTf ftaf I TTTT T TTTT fTTT
T TTfTTT TTfT TTT TTTTT tas fTTTT TT TT I TTT
fTR f.T. T. ST TFT TTTT taRTRC TTT TTT TCTTT I
TTTT TTT TRTTT TTT TTT fTTpTTTT TTT TCT TSt TTT
TFTTT TTTT W. I TTTTTTT TTTT TTTT TTRT fTTTT
frfTTRfTT TTTT TC I TTfTT 'TfTTf TfTTf T.T. !Oi^ T
'TT'TTT fTTTTTT TfTTTT TTTT TRR TTTfTT TT I
TTTTTf TfT TfT TffT TT W. I T TTRT TpTTTT T TTtTS
fTTT TT fTTTTT T I
TfTTT FfST TTTT T TT I STTTTR TTTTT fTTTTR
TTT TTT 'TRRT FfST' T TTTTS TTTT TT I T FfST '
o o o o oooo o
TTTTT' TfTTTT T.T. lo^l T TRR fTTT TC I
T TTTf TfTT TT TTT W. I TTTTfT tas ftfr TTT
TTTTT fTT TTTf FTTT TRTRRTTT sfffSfT fTST TTT TTTT
T TTTfT TTTTT fTTST TC I T TTT 'TT' TfTTTT T .TT. 10
U t Pttt tc: i ta ttt ttt tttPT t tt ttPt ttt
T I TTTTTTT TTTTi STT TT TCT TTT I fTT TT TTf
O "\        O OO CN
TTTTTT TTT T TTT TTT TTT TTRT TTT TT fTTTF
TTT TCTT I
T ^ TT5 TT 'TpRRTf TTTTTT TTT TTf TTTf ST
ST TTTT PTTTT STTTT TST TTf I TTT TTTTTTf TRT
tPfTT TftSTT TT TTT TTTTT TpTT TCTTT, TTTT TT
fFTRT TT T TTfTT TTSTTT TfT TTfT TTT TTT T T
TT TTTTTTF T, TTf T TTTTT I T TTTTTTT TfTT-
TTT TTTT STT TRTT TC I
TT TT TTT TTTT fTS TTRT fTTTT T T TTTTT TTT TTT
TTT TT TT TT TTT TTTTTTf TTTTT I TTTTTT TfeRT
FTTT PtPtT TT TT, TTfTTT TTTTT TTRT T.pT. STT TT
TTf TTT TJT I TT T TTTTT TTT, fTTT T STTTfTTTr TTTT
TTTT TTTTTT t| TSTTC TS I TTTTTT TTTTTR TRTT pTTT
O OOOOO CN O
TTTT TTR fTTTf TS STTT TTT TT TTTTf T TTT TT I
TRTT TTT TFTT TTTT T TT TpT Tf TTRT TTfTT
TTTTTT ta5T T TpT TTpTT TT pTTTpTTTRF T. TTTT
taSTTT TTTTTTTT FT TTT TTT T I TFTTT !
Bajracharya/Sacchidanya Nepal Bhasha.
61 (*R ^ooc; Tai^m 3T^l^: X M IX rR> TT^tx5 ^T^T f«FrirT«rcW TiFT ifaT ^cTf)
O O "N
TT5 rWT TT^T t^TT 3cT ?
IT TFTT TTf TTT STTT Tff TTf
TT TT TT TTT W. I TTT TST
T TT fTTRT TRT TTf fTTfST W. I
TF TTT TTT TRT T TT TT: TTf
TT TT TTTTTT TTTT fTTTT TTTT
TT T TTf TTT TT I fTTTT TRC TT
T TfTTTT TT I TfTC: TT fT TTTT TS,
TTf TS SRST I TT TT TT: TRC T
TT TT I ST TTRTT TT ST PTTT
TTTf TTT HTT I TTTT TSTT TT
T frfTT TT TTfT TffTTT TTTT
T: PTTTT TTT TT TT TTTT TTT,
TTfT T RTT TT TT I TTTT TTTf TT
T TTf fTTTT, fsPT TTTT TT: TffT
trc? Pt Ptt: frr Pr t tt tttt
Ptt tt ta tr tt tt ttttt Pttttt
TTC TTT TTTT TT TTTT Tf I TT T STT HTfT TTT
TT fTT TTTT TRC TT T I S ta"TT TT I TTTf PtPt T
TTT TT TTC T TT TT TTT TTf I frfT T TT TTfTT
TTTT fsfr T^ffTTRT T fsftaf TT STT T STT TTT
i tt PtPt tt trtPT ttt ttt ttt tt PtPtt tt tt
PTT TSTT TTT TTT TT I TT fTTTTT TT TT TT TT
TTT TST frfTT TTTTT TT TTf ftaf I TT TFTT TTfT
TT TRT F TTTTTT fTTTT ST TTTT TT TT: ST: F TTT
T TTTpT tc:|
TTTT, TTf T TfT TT I S# pTT fTTT TT I T TCT TT
~D> ~D O O       O
tct: PtPt TTTfTT tt: Trr i tar tt frrfT t ttt tt
TTT TCTTTT fTTTT TTTT TfTT ? TTTT TTTTf TT T
TTT TRT TT I TTT TT HTT T: S Tf^ TTTf? T TTT
TT TRC TT T TTTTT TC | TT TTT
CN     O O' CN     O O
TTT TCT TT TT I TTft TTTTTT
T TTT TTTTf TTfT pT ST TT TT
TTT TTT   TTT TT TT  I  TT TfT
ffrr tiPt tt tt tt i
TTTT ST TfpTTTRTT ST TTTT
I TTT TT ST TTTT RTTTRta
TTfTT I frfTT Tf TJ TTRTTT fTT
O O CNO CN
STTT TTT TCTT TT I TTTTT T
TTTT PTTTT TTTT STT FT TTf
fTT TTTT TT FTT TC STTTT TTRTT I
fr sPtt Pt t: tt tr tc: ttftt TTf
STTfTTf I TTfT ffTTTS ST TT TTR <ft
TTf RTTT TT TTT STT FT I TT
TFTT ffRTTT TT I sffTTTT TpRT TR
5TXTT ^:TT   titi   qCTT ^n f^nt ^TT ?
PtPt tt tttt PtPt ttstt tt TTTfT PtPtt ttt tttt
TT TT I TT TTTTT T T frfTT fTTTTT TT TTT pTT
TT TRTf TTST pTTfT TTf TTT I PtPt TT TRT TT TT
TTTTRT TT I TT T F TT TTC TTT F RrfpT I TTT T TT
Dhamavati Gumma
TSSRTT TT TTT TT TTT I TTT TTTT TTT TT TRT
oo -\o -\ -\ o
I TTT T TTTRT I TTT fT TTfTffTf TS TTRTfT T TT
TTTT TT TTT TTT fTTT pT TCTf TT T SfT TCTT TT I TT
TTT TTT TfT TT T T I TT pTT frfs TT TT I T TT pT
TTT TTT TTTf | TSTTT TTpT T T TTT TT TTT TT
TTT tc: TT F fTTT TTT I TTTTRT Tf T TT TTT I TT T
TT TT T TTTT ftas ftaf TT I TRFT TRTf TTT TTT fTT
o oo' o -\ **
TT ST TTTf ST T TTTT fTTTT TTT TTTT T
i Pt tt Ptt tt tttt tttt s tT, ttt tt: i ttttt
TT TTT S TRT TTTTT: TT TTTf TTf TTf TTT TTT
TT TfTTTT fTTHTTT TT pTT: TRTT TfTT TTT TT I
TTT PT TTT T TTT, TTT TTT T TTT, TpT TT T TTRT
TTTT TTT TTT ST TT TTT FTT I  TT TTT TCT 10
O ' O -\ ~\ O   O
TSTT TT TT TT TTTTTTf FffTT STfTRT TTT TTTf ST
TTT TTT T TTT TTf Ffff TTT ffTTTS ST S^TTFT I TT pTTT
TTRT TTTTfT TTTf TTTT TT TT TTT I TT pTT fTFRT TT
TTT TfT I TT TTT t TTfT T T TTT TTTCT TTTT RRT
TTT TfTT TT TTCTS STfT: TT fTTTf TRT I pT TTf V
62
Newah Vijnana-7 tar fr frr TfTT tt i tt Ptt Ptfr st Tftr ttt: Trr
TTT I T TT fT TTTT TCTTT TT TTf TTTT TTTTT
TCTT T TT TT fTT TTTT STTT Tffff ftpT TTf I TTTT
TTTTT TTTf TTT TT fTFRT TCTRF TTTT TTT: TT
TffT F     TT  I   TT TTT
TT TTTTT SRF TTf ST TT T TT T TfTTTT T TT
TT TTT TTfT TT: TTf I TTT TTTT TT T TT fTFRT
TTTTT   TTC   TTTTT  fTTTT  TTTTT   I   TTTTT  TTTTT
fTTTT      TT       TTpT
sttt ttts ttt tt
ttts ttt trt f w. i
ttt Ptt tttt tttt
eT TTTTT fTTTT TTfTT
I T TTTT F TTT TTT
TRT TT I
^nr ^tr ^:fq
tf  tf  Slfcrft   3ncT^.
o      o
<-WPhi ?
ss
Dharmopadesh and Jnanamaia Program
Portland, Oregon
PtPtt Tf trttt tt
fTTTT I TTT TRTRT
TTT TRT TTTT I fFT
TT TTT T TTT I
TTT TTTT TTf TT TTT
TTT TfT TT TTTT
i PtPtt tt tcttttt tt
T TT F TT I
*. SFffofct SRTT
?TT    ?^fT    ^cTR
o
TT% 5TZTT -1^ ^T ?
TR TT Tf F TT TTT: | pr pFfR TT TTTfff fFfR TT F
TTT TT TTTT I fTT TTTT TTTT TT I fTTTT fTRT
ffTFTT RTT TTTTTR TT fTTTTTT pT TTTTT TfTT F
TTT SRTT TTRTT I TTTTRT TTTT TTT TTf TTTT TTf
OOO "\ CN "\
FTT   TTTT   T   TT   fTTRT
TTT TT I
TT   t^TT   tt%   ^fT
o
o
TT% ^ ?
TRf fffT TT TTT TTT
TT TTTTT TTf I TTTT T
TTTT TTFRTT TFT TTTTT
TT TfRT fr TTTT TT I
TTTT STTT TT TT I TT
Visit from Dharmakirti Buddhist Gyanmala Bhajan Group
in Rose Garden, Portland, Oregon
pTRT T TRRTT TT T T TTT TT: TT TT TT fTTT T TTT
TFffT fTTfr TTT TTT I fTT TTf FTT TTTT fTFf TTf I
S TpFTf PTT TTFT TFT r\rU TTTTT fTT TT TT TTT
Ptt: t st Ptt ttt t t frr tt tt TTf st ttt
O CN CNO O O CN
itaTF i tar PtPtt tttt ttftPt ttt tt i t tt tt
O O      O OOO
fTTTT TTf ST TfT fTFR TTT TTT TffT r[rU TTTTT
TfT T TTf Tf, TT, TT
TTT, TTT TST fTTT fTFR
T TTT TTT TTT fTTT
TT I SpffTTT fTFRT TTT
T TTFlffTTTfT TfTTfTT Tff
TT TFT TrfRT TT5T TTT
RT T fFTTT TfTTTTT W.
I fTFRT TRT TT <p TTT
TTTT I TT TTTT pTTffT TpT
TTT TT I TTT TTT fTTTT
TTT TSTTT TRT TTTT fffT
TTfT Tf TTT Tg TT TTR
TTTT, TT TfTTf pTTfTT TT
fTTTTT  Tf  TTTT  T  TfT
STTT frr tt i
v grffarfcfaT ^tst ^
TTT fTFf TT TTf TT TT TTTTT TTT TTffT T SRTTT TRT
I TT fTTTT TTTTS TT TTT TT T TTF TTf fTTRff TJT
i fr ffrr: Prr fr TTTcfrTf tttt TTfrr tt ttc ttttt tt:
TT TTT TfT TT I TT pT TTfTf TTTT TS TTf TTf TTT T
TTTT Tg TT TTT TTT I TTT: TTf T TT TTT TT TT ?
TTT TTT TTTTT T? S ^^ taTTT fTTTTT TTC TT TT I
fTTlfT TTC T TT TCT I TfT TT fTTT TTTT TITT TT
TTC TTT TST I fffT TTfT F TTT TTT TTT T TfTT TT
T tfT TTf TT I Sft MsfT TT TT I TT TTf TT TT TT
Dhamavati Guruma Napa Chhajha:
63 I TTTT TTTf FT I TTTT TT fTTRT TRC TT RTTT
I Tf TTT TTf TT TTR TTT TTT TT I TTfTffTlPT F ?fRT
T TTTT, TTC TT TTf TT I fTR., RTR. TT TTf fT.RT.fe
TT Tft TTTffTlPT F TT TT I TT TT TTTT TTTT pTTT
CN OOOO
f Ptt ttt t Trr tt t i
^3. qrffofcftfT tffcTfafsj T^sf ?{tfT:tftfRtfT W\
?£tf ^W f^RT 3tfT ^ *|^®$,^
Te^o ^ CN o      o o
TTT TTTT TTT TTTf TTT TTT
T TT F fta TTT, TT fTTTT TTTT
TTT T I TRR RTTTT TTT TTT
TT I TTT fTFTT TT TTT TTT
TTTT TT TST TT TT SRTT I  T
O OOO o
TTT TTT fTT T TTT TTT TTT
-\ O       v=    CN O CN
TT TRT TST I  TT T fTTTT TT
O O O v=    CN O
TTT TT TfTT T ST TJT TT TTTTT
TTT TJT I
TTfTTT TRi fTTT T fTTTf TT,
TfTTT T fTTTf TTf I TTT TT fTTTTTf TCT TT TfSfTT TT
, TCTTT fTTTTTf TTTTTT TTf TCT TTT fTTT fTTTT STTST
I TTTTT TT fTT TTT T T TT TTTf TTf: TST I TT fTT
TTT TT TT TTT T TT TpTTT pTTTf TT TTTT T I TT
TTT TTTf T TTfTT T I
zi. ? ? cT^ sffatf 3TfrjT tfTtfT: Wg SFftfT 7tfTT
o
njtfT faciei 3n f^Ttf & Wl tfT^tf ?tf ^ftf ^TT
^- o o
TTTT TST TTTT TT TT TSTT ST TpTTT W. I T TT
O -\C\-\-\CNO O
TSTT TTTTf TTTT T:, TfTT ST TT TTTT T: I TT TT
fTTTT TT F TTT TT T: TS I T: TT TTT fTFR TTTf TTT
T I TTfT TTT TTTTT TTT PTFRT T TT> TT TT TTfTTT
T fST TTf: ST fTFTT TTT T:T T TTf: 3/V TT TTT TTTf
TTT ^TTT TT ST TTT TTT TT I TT fTTRTT TTT TTfT
TTTT TTTfTTT frfTT TTTT TTRTT TTT TTT TT I TSTT
TT TTT TTTlpTTffT TTTT TT TTT T TT STT I TT TT
TRF TTTffTlPT TT TTT I TTT fT TTT T ST TT I TT
T ST TTT TTTT ST$f ST TTT I
%. ^tf:tfT <M^frl+ ^£JT:^tf 3$ SFftfT tf^
tfTtfT ^ ?
Dharmakirti Buddhist
Gyanmala Bhajan Group
Los Angeles, California
TTTTT TT pTpTRT TT I TTTT TTTpT TTTTR ST TT TT TC
O CN "\ CN CNO O
I fTT TTfTT I TT STTT TT TffTTT TTT t T TT I TfT F
TTTR TTTTf TTT TTTT TT TTT F TTT TTT TC TT TTT
fTT TffTTT TT SRTT TT fTT TTT TCT TT |
CN "\    v=    CN O O
lo. qrrftf stzttwt 3^r<+i wwim tf ^t
OOOO CN "V
W Ss W. %3 tf*tf HHIwl'tf ^TT ?
t Ptt ttttt ttttt ttt tc: ttt
ptsfft tst ttttttt tttt tttt tc
I TTf fffT TTTfTT fTTT TTS TT
TT TSTTf fffT S ft^TTf TTT  TT
tt i tt Ptt t ttttt Tfffr tt
fTTT  TTTT  tc:   I   TTTT  TT  TTTS
o o o o  o
ttst tttt ttt ttt ttt tttt
stt tt tttt tttttttf f ttttt
PtPt tt ttttt w. i Pttt tt
TTfTfTT TT F TFfffT TTTT
T I TT TTTTT TTTfTTTT TS
TTT S S ^T T TTT TTT TTT
~1        ~i O O CN
TT TTTTTfT TTT S# TTTT F
TT TTfTT TT I
n 3Ttff^Ttf ^?TT =5^ ^tfftfcT^tf W tf^T
"v o
flrnr f^tf^fT tf eft ? 75fa% ?
o o
Ptt Pttt tt tttttt ^|k ttttt ttt: tttt tc: i
TTTT TST TTT TFT TTf TT TT TTTTT TS TT fTTfT
o -\ o o -\    o
"TfTT TT fTTf STTff T TpTT W. TTTTT TT fTSTT
TTT" TT TTffTTT TTf TTT TT TTRT TTT TTT TTT
TT T TTTT T TTTf TTf TfTT TT TRT I TT TT TT
TTT TRRTT TTTRTRTT TT TTTT TTTf ST TfTT TT T I
TFTT TT TTTT fTS TTS TT TT F TT I TTTT TT TTR
TT F TT TTT TC I Tg TT ST TTT TT5TTT TT TTf I TTT
ffTTT TfTTT Tft TTfTT TTT TT TC I TRTTTT TTTT TTfT
O CN O O ^ O
TT TC | TfTfTT TT3" T TTTpTT TTT TT pTT T I TT TffTTT
O O O O CN     O
TTC TT TT TS I TT TTffTT TRC TRT TS I Tf¥ TTTT
T# TTTT TT TT TTT TT I TTT STTTTT TTTTf TTT
SRTTT TTT TTfT TT TTT TTT TT I
64
Newah Vijnana-7 3ZTT 3TFPT
3TTtrpT, *T TT. 3T.
KHAS-NEPALI SECTION
fl^f ^T: TF?q-
TRTT TT 1 TT T.T. Wo ffRTT TRTTT fTT TTTTTTTT
TTfffT TfT TT TTRT TTTta R*o TT TCtfTRTT TTT
TT FfTTTS TTTfSr: TTT TTTTT TTS TfTT TTTTS TffT
TfT ffff fTTTT TT TT FRT I TT TTTTTT TTTT TfS
TTTT TTTTTT TRTT TT TTTfTT TfT TTTTTT SR TTTS
ftftTfFTfTT TTFTT FTTTT TTTT TTT I TTTTT TTT TTT
TT TftaT TTT TFTTTT FT TTTT TFTTTT TT TTf TFT
TTTTT TfrCRT I TTTfTT TTT RT fT TfT5 TTTfT fTTTTTf T
ffCTS I TTTT T TTTTTT TTTTTS FTTfTT fTT TTTTRTS
TfTT TSTFTTFTTS TRR TT TfTRFTT ST fTTT TT ta T
ffCTS I TfSTf TTTTf TTRFTTT TTT FTT FTT TT FfST
TRT TRT Tft TTTFT TT TRTT TTT TTT ta T5TT ST I
Tf TT TFfTT TffTTT T TnTTFTT S I taTT TT TTTT TTT
TfTTfTT TT FfST ^ TT TTTT-TTf TFTTTT TFTT TT TTTf
TTTT TTTTTT "Ulrl TTT TRT TRTT T Ff T, TTT TTT
taR TTTTT TTTT TFTTT T TTT TTTTT TftaT TfTT TRT
TTTTTT TTTTf I TTfT TT FfST TTfTTTTT fTTT TTTfTT
SfTTf TFTT TTT TTFT TT TTTT TTTT TTTTffTT TRT TTFTT
TStTRTT TTRT T TFPTT TTT FT I TT TSTT TTR TJTTT
TTR TTTTTT TTTS TFTTFTTT TT TSTT TRTT FTTTS I ^T
TR TTTf Tftf TT TffCTT TTFT TfT FTTT I TTTS TTTT
TTfTT TlfTTfTTFTTS TTTTTTTT 30 TTTRT TTTT TT
T TTFTT TTTRRTTTS TTFT TT fTTTTT I TCT TfTTT
TT T TRTT TClTT I Tft TTTT TfTT TTTTTTTTR TT TT
ft TffTTT TfTT TTT TTT TTT ' RTTTT TFT' TTT TTTTF
TT TT T TTTTfr TS FTTTT I TT TT TT TTTf FTTT
TffTCTFTT TTRTT TTTT FTSTT TTRFTTT TTTTT TTTT
TTTTF I fTTfFTTT fTfTT TTTTFT TRTRTr SRT TSTF I T TT
TFT TS TTS SffTFTT TTT TfrTTFTf # I TT TTT TTTf TT
TRT TRTTTTT Tf Ff TTfT TTT TTR TRTTS ftft TftTTFTTf
TftTRTT TfrCRT I Tf FfT frfTT TTTCTT TRT Ff I TTTRT FTT
TTTTTTTT TTTffT fffT TS TT TTT TRTT, TTTTTTRT
TT TT T TFT TTS I TFf TT ta T5TT TfTT TFf FRTT TT
T # TT TRT TTT TTTT TRT Tta TTS 3RTT TTTTFTT S
I TT FfT TT FTT TfT TTTST TTT fTT TTTT TTTTf ?
TfTT TTTRTTT TTfT fTTTlf TTTT TffTT TTTT # Ff TT
TTTTTTTTf fTTTT TSTFTT TFTTfT TTT Ff I TTTTT RTTTTT
RTT T TTTTTTTT TTT TftaTTTT ^TTTT TTTRT TfTT,
Tf TTTfT T TfTfTTTTT TT TTT RT TTf, RT TTT T RT
TRTJTTTS TT TTTT TTfTT TTTfT TTTT TRTTT TTT TT
TTTT TTf TTTT TSTFTT S I Tf TRT TTTTTTTT TTTRTT
TTR TfTTTTTFTT TTTT ST I fTTTT TTTTFTT TfTTT
TTRTFTTTS TfTCT TTTT TTTS TT ffTTftaT TCT TTf
fTTTSTFTf S I TT TTTTTTTT TTT TTTT TT TTtaFTT S ^T
TT TRT TTS TCT TRT I TTS TTS FRTT TT ta TTTT FRT
TTTR FT TfT TlftaT TT TF T TT S TTT TTTfT TT FT
I TTTT TTT TTTTTTTT TT TT TTTT FfST I TTTT ftT
TT TfTTTT FfTffT S I TT TfTTfTT TfsRTTTTTS TTTFTT
TtTRFTT ST I TTRTTT TTTTfTT TTTT TTTFRT TTTTT
TTYtRTT fTRT fffSTTCTT ST I TTTT TTTTT TT TTT TT
ffTTTTTiTT S I Tft TTTf TTRT TTFTTT TTTTTT TCTT T
TT TTTFT TTT TfTRFTT S I Tft TTTT FTTf TJT FTTTS ff
fTTT ftf TT TTT TTT TtTTFTf ST I TTTTTTT FTTTT TTTf
TfTTTS TTTTTT TTTT fTT FTTT TST TT TTTTFTT ST
T Tft TfTT 'TTT TTT' TTTT TtTTFTT S I TTTT, fffTTTT,
TRTTlffTT TTTT TTRTTT TTTT TTTTTT TT TTS TT
TTTT TTTR TJTTFTf ST I TTTTTRT FfT TTTS 'taTT
TT' TTT sfTFTTT TT TTRTT TJTRTS ffTTTT Tf T Tf TRTf
TTfTTTTT fTTTT TSTFTT S fTTT TT TTf I FRTT TTR
TT TTT T)TfTR TrffTRiTT T. TRRTffrfe TTTT T feTTT
TT TTfftT TRTT TRT TTTRTT TTfTT TfTRFTf fTTT
frr # tt TfTTTcrf s ft tarf s i tfTft frrrftT trr
T FTST ? TT TT FTT TT TTTT ft TRTT fTT TT TTT FT
T ? T TT)TT TTT TTT FT STTTTTTT TT TTRTf T)TTTTS Tf
TT TT TT fTTTTTTT fTT TTT TTTTT ? FTTf TTT TTT
fTT TfftTTT TTTTFT TTfTT TTT TTTRTRff TTTTT FTT
TTTfTTT TTT RJTFffTTT TFTTTS TTTT TTT TTfTTT fTTT
TTtafr frr tt ttt tttt ? tt i* tt TTTf ttt ttr
TTT TffTSRT TTTf TT TffTTT TTT TT TTT TRTT TTT
TT5T Tfr RTTT TT TS TT TT TfftT TSTFTTT TT TFT
TfTTTCTf S ? TfS Tff TTT TTT TTTT FRTT TTTTTT ST
TTTf TTT TRT TTTRf STTTT, TTTTTf TTffTffTTf STTT
T TRTT TTTT TTTTTT ta STTT TT TTT TT Ff TTT TT
ST TfTTT I T TRTT TTT TTTS TTTff # TT TTT
Tftff T TT TTTf S I
(TTRT TTTT TRSfT February 13, 2010)
Shakya/Sandarbha Newah Rajya
65 TfTTCRTT TT TTTRTT TF Tft TR, TTT T TT TTfTTT
fTR TT TTTFT TTT TTTf TTT TTTT taTT TTFR TS ffTg
FTS I TTT TTTf TTT TRRTT Tft TT TTTTT fTTRTT fta
I TTTTTTT TTT TTTT SRf TTT ftafff TT TTTRT TfTTT fta
T TTT TT tfrCT TTT TCRTTT TTT TT T5TT fTTT taTT
fTT TT TTTf TTTTT TT TT TTTS srf TTTf TTTTTT
TTf I TTTT TRT TTSf TT TTTT Tft Tft TTRT TTTS Tt
Tf I TTTT TS TT TfS Tf TfSTTS TTTTfS TTTTTT TTS
TRCTf I fTTTT TTTF Tft TTTTTTTT TTTTf TRT TRTf I
TT TT TTTTTTT fT TTT fTTT I ftffeR TfTTTf TTT TRT
sr ttt tarf, ftrfr tttttt trt Tftfr  trtt tt
TTR TTT    TTTTT T5TT TTT fTTTT fTR I  TTTTf TTT
rs sTtts ftarr ta tttt fTTRT tt ttt Ttttt ttt ta
tt fta ; tttt Ttttt ttt ttt sRttt ttttt Trfrf
TR TTT RfTTRT TT TT fTTT TT TTf TT Tta TTTT
fTTT TTT fTTTT TTT TTST TT TT SRfFTT TT(T TT
TTT ftffT Tf TT TTT TTT TR SfTFTT TTTT fTR T TTTT
TRTT fTS TTTST TS TTTT Tff HTR, t TTTTT fTTTTS
TfT TTR TT TT TTTf S I ftta" TTT TT SfTRTS TRTf
T TsfTTf TT TTR, TTT sfTTTS TTf. TTTS TTTTTTTT T
TRW fTTT TTTS TTTT TT TTS TTR I fTTT ffTT fTTTTT
SRTTT TfTTf TTSTRT TTRTr TTTf I TTT TTT TTTT Tf
Tf T fTTTT TTTT TTSTf TTT TTT Sff TTTfT fTTTFT TTT
fTT I TRTTTTTTT TTRT TTTTTTT TTFTS Sfff fTTT TSTT
TT TTT Tf TT TFT, T T% FR T RT TTT FTT TfT TTRTf;
TT TTTTF Tff ftr TTf TTT TTTTT T TTTf S TTf T
T TTRTT T TTf TT fTT TTT TTf TTR I fTTTF tarf
TTT TT TTf fTT TTTTTT TRTT TTfTRTTTTS TTTTTS
TCSTRTf ftalfFFTT TRRf TTTT TTTT TT TTTT TTTT Tf
TT TT ffTT Tf TT TTT fffTfFFTTTS taTft TRT TTR I TT
TTTT FT TT TT T TTTTTTT T5TT TTTf Tf, TTTTT
TTTTTT ffTTTTTTf TT TTTT TT TFT T FTTf TTT TTTT
TfT fTTf I TTRT TTT TR TfS ftTF TTf TTTS ftaTr ffff TfT
T TT I TTTf TfT RTF TfTTCRTT TTSTTf SffT TfT T
TTTT TfT TRRTT TTT TT TTfT, Tf TRl FR, TTS TT TffeT
TRT, TfT TST T FTTf TTFR TTRTT I Tf Tft TTTT fffS TTRT
TTTSTf TfTTTT TTT TRT TT TTTTT FTT TTTT TT I
TT TJT Tf TTT TTCfTTT TTT TTTT TTTT T TR TTTS
TTfT SfT Tftarf I TTfTRfTTT Tf TTTTT TfT TTTS TTS Tf
TTTTTS TTST TTR I T TfTTTFTTTS Tffe fTTf TTTTf
TST TTT ffR TT TT TTTTT TTT TR TffT TTTTTf TTTT
TTTT TTTTR ; TTTT TTT TTFTTTS TFTTT TT fTRT
TSTT TTT TTST TTS ftT TT , Tf TT TTTTf TTTT TTTfS
fTTT Tft TTJTTTTT TTT fTR T TTT TTTfFTT TTTTf TTSf
ftafTFTTS TSTT TTTS TTR I TSTTT TT TTT fTTTf TTf
tt fT tt frrf i tsTtt tt tttt frrf tttT tt tts
TTFT ftafT TTTT TftfTTf TCRTTf ftT TTTT fTR I TTTTf
SfTTT fTFTT TTtt TTTf TTTR TT TRr fTTTf fTT TTTT
TTTTTT TT TTS I TTTTTT TT TfTT fTTTTT Tf Ff Tft TT
T TTTRT T TTT TTTftfT TTfTTTTT fTT TffT TRCT T
TfS T TFfftTT TTT TTT TTR, TTTT TT frcffT TfT$, Tf
TT TTTTTTTf TTTTf TTTTTT TRT Tft ffTS TTT TT T
TTTTS TTTS Tf ffRfffFTS Tft TTST TTRS , TTTS TTT
TT TRJT TT ffTTfft TTS TT 1^ TTTTS ftTT TR fTFT TTST
TTRTf fTTf, TTT TTTf TT TTTT fTTf I TT TT TTTfT
TTTf TTTT TFf TS TRTTS TTTS TfTTTf TTS fTTf I Tf TTf
TfrfS tTTTFTf TfT TT TTTRrTf TT ffTT Tf TTfFTTS
fTTTT TTR I RT TT FTT TFTTT TTRTT FTR fTTR TfS
SR TffTFT M TfRCl TR I HTFT TfT TT TTRTf Tf T5TTT
TTTFTTTS TT TfTTS TFt TT  TTTTf TT TTTCT TTTS
TTRTf trrf i ttt srf sttts tar tttt tt ftarr tarf
TTT TT fsfTTTT TTfTT TT ftfTTT TTTTS TTTfTS TT
FTS I fTTT TRTT TS TTRTf TTTTT TTTTTS ft. ft".(STTT
T) TTT TTS I TffTT TTRT TS TTT ta, TT Tf Tft TTTT
TT STT TRTTT TTfTTTTT TFT TTTTf TRTTS Tf TTT T
[frr TTTTS TfS I fTT TTOT 5TT TTRTT TTTT Tta TT trT
TTT TTT TT TTT TTf I TSTT TTTS TTSTRT T fTT
5Tf RTRT TTTf T ftTcft T STRTf TTTT TFTTT TTfTT T
TT ftfTTT TT Tft TRTT ftR I TRTT TT75TTTT TTTTf T
fSFT Sff TT fftaT TT TTTT TR, TT TT TT TTTR
rTTTT frtafT TTTTS FfTT fTR I Tf TT TTfTTTTT TRT
TfS fTTf Tft TTT TR T frftTTTTS TT TTTT TT I TTTT
STT ftfTTT TT T TTTTTTT TF TTTT TTf TTTTTTTf TT
TTTJT TT TT TTSTT TTT TT TT fTT fTR I TT TT TT
TTTTS TRTS TTf T TfTTCl TT ftr RT TTT TTT FTT
TTT TRTTTT TT ft W^ TT TTTTFT TTTST TST TT Tf
66
Newah Vijnana-7 I TTTTT TT TT fTTTf ftTTfTTT ftftfTT TT TTTST TS
TSTT TTTTTTTTf ff TTT f ST S^T fTff TITTf TITT Tp TTTS
TTTTTT TTT TT TTTTT TTRTf T TR FfffTT fffS TTf TRTT
tarf frrf i Tf tttt t sfRTfTff TFrrs tt tt frr ffrs
fTTT Tf TTRT ffTTTS TTTT TTTS Tft RT fTTTT TfTT
I TT frffTTT T5TT TTT SfTTf TTS TTTT TTTTf TT TTTTT
Tf I TTRffSTf TfT TRTf TTTTT TTTTS TTSTf TTTTS
TSRT TTf TTSf trs ftf TTTfTFT TTT Tf TTTT TT TT
TTRT TTFTTTS TT fTTTf TTT TTTf TTTT Tfft TTRTf I
TftrfT TST TTTTTf FTT Tf TTRT TTTT TTT FTT TS ftff
TTT TTRffS TRT I TT TT TTSTT fttaT TT TTST TTf I
TTTSf Tftf TTT ftftTTS TT TT fTTf fttaT TT TRRff
ftT TT f TJT TClta TTT TTTf Tft TSTSf tf I T ftf
Tftf TTTTTTf TTT Trf TJT TCTTTf T TTcf TJT TcftT
TT TRT TRT S Tf I fT TftTTS TTTT TTfTTTTT TT TFf
fTRT I TTTTTTfT Tf TTSTf Tf Tf STT T TTSTSf TfTRt
TT TTTST I ST STff TT TClt TT TTTT TT TTTTS T
TT TftfTT FTS, TTTf TTTTTTTTf TTT TTf fTT S Tf T
T TTf TTfTffTT TT f TCT TS Tf I Tf TTT TTTTTTTTf
TT TfTT T ff TSTSTTS TTf TT
ttt tt f f ffr taff frfr tar
TfTf T TT fTft TTfTT TTT tr§
Tff fTTf TTTTTTf TTf TT Tf
TRT   Tftf   ST   STTT   TT   TTf
TT ftfTTT FTT Tf | TSTTffT
TffTT  Tfft  fTT  fff  TT  TfSTT
TfTTTT TFTT ftfTTT fTT ff T
FTT  Tf  TTT  I   ftfTTTTf  TTST
ft TTf TTTf TTTft TTT Tff T ff
tftT TTR  I  fffTTTTf TTST ftTTf TTS  TT fTf  TfTCf
TTR  Tf  fTTTf  TfT  Tft  TfffCTT  Tfrf  I  fTTTS  TTSf
TTfS  Tf  TTf  fffTTTTf  ffRffftf  TTTTTS  TTTf  f  Tf
TS  Tft  FffTT TTTTT  TTfRTff  fTTTT  TT  TTT  T RT
TT Tfff TSf TTfTRTTTTS TTTTfS TTTT TTR TTRTf
fffT, t TTT Tfff TRT TTfTRTTTf ff TTTTTS RT fTTTf
TTRffSTf TfT TTRfr T ffrf STTRff ST TTRTf TS ftg
FTS I TTTf tffT TTTT TftffT Tff TTf TST ftaf ftfTTT
T FTT Tft ffTT FTTfTT Tf T TTTft ftfffTTTT TTTTf TTT
ffR - ffffrfrr ttt tc Tfft ftar., tt i« strtT frrf tar
SffFTT TTTC S I fT TST Tft ffTTf TfTTTf TTT TTT
Ff I ffTTf TTTTTf TT TTT TTTfctaf TTTf TTT TTTT
TTTTT TTTT TTf S I TTTT TFTT TTTT TS ff TTTS
fT ftaf Tf TTTFT Tta TTTTTTf TTTT TTSTTTf I TfTTf T
RT TTTT TFTT TFf pTftrf TTTf Tf TTT Tff TRTTT
Tf Tfff TR T Tf TRTTT TTT TT TTf TTTfT TRTf fffT
T TT TTTFT TTT TTTfeT Tff TTRTf fffT I fT TRTf
T Tf TTT5TRT Tfff TfffeTTf Tf TTf ff TffTFTTT
TT ffRT T ft TFT ftffrf ffR TfT TTTTSTT frffT S I Tf
Prithvi Narayan Shah
TTTfT fTfT Tffff TTTT TffTTT ffTTf TTTfT ffTT
Tff (fte TTT) TTRTf fffT T fTTTf TTf frf TTT, TTT
pTTTS TTTTf TfTf Tt TTTT TT TTSTSFT ffftT t
TTS TfTf Tf TT TTTC S I
TTTTTTTTf TTf TTTT TTT5TTTT TTfTft TfT TFT I
TTTfTfrf TTTTTS Tlftf tffT TTTTTT TTTTTFT fTT TIT
TTTTTS, TRTf TTTf, T TtSfTTRTTTf TTTS TTf Ttrf I ff
5ff TTf ff TfS Tf Tft TTT fTT ftf ftRTT I TT TTlfff
TTTTTTf TTTT TfTT Tf, ffTFTTTS TTSff Tfft TT TTTT
TTTTTS ftf TTf I TTTS TTRT ff TRfffff TTTT TTT
Sff I Tftf TTTf T TT TTTf TTTT Tf TTTTfT TTTTTf
Tf TTTTFTf TT TT TTTT TTTTS ftff Tf Tf TT TTTT
TTT TTTTf TTfT TTR fS TTTTTT ff TTT ffrf
TTTTTS TTTTT TfTTTTS T TfTTT TTFTTTS TTTTTS TT
T TTRTT ffR I ff TTT TT ffTTTS TTFT T T ffrf TTTft
TT TT TT5 TfTTT TRTT TTT ff TffTT ffR I TTTS
ff TffTFT ffTTS TS ffR T ffT fff TTTTTT TFTS
TTT TfTT ffR I TTTRTTT TFf TTff TS TTTT TTTTTTf
ffT ff TTTTFT TTRTf fffT I fTTT
TTT l^X STTTTTT TTTT ftaf
TTTTTf FTT Tf, TTT TTTTTT TTT
Tff T TT- fTS TTffTT TRT Tf
TTTTTTTT TF TTTTRT Tf TTTftT
Tf T ff Tf TTff TTT Tff ffrf T
TT TTR I TTTTTTf TSTTS TTT
ffT STTTRTT ffR I TTT T ffRT
instructing his soldiers ffffffrf TT TT Tff TTTf TTSf
FTTf TTT FT f Tfft ftf ffTTf
TfT fffT I fT FTTRT TfSf TTT TTTf ff fT TfftTft
fffT, TTS TTfTTTTT ff TTTS ta FT TT TSTT fffT
I TTTTTT TTT TTT TTST ffT Tf I TSTTT TTTf ff
TTTTS TTTT TTRTff ff Tt TTT TTTRTT TT TffT
TRTTT TTT ffT TR I TTTTTTf TRTTTJTT TTTS ff TTT
TTRTRTS TTTft Tf Tf TTTf TTTTR ff T5TT TfTTT Tf
I TSTTT TfT TTST TffR, TTTTTT TTT TTSf *tf T TTTft
TffrST ftaf TF TTT ff | TTTTTT TT TTTf ffs T
TRTf TRTf ffTTS TTT TT Tf TTT TSTS TTR I TTT
TTf Tf ffTT TfS ffrf TTf tffT fTTT TT TftffT Tf I
TTTTT TfTf ffT ff TT TTTTTTT FTT ff | FTTT fTTT
TT ffTT TTTTS Tlf, TTT TRT Tf TT FTTTT TRTTS
fTSf I ffTTf TTTTTf TTf Tft fT TTRTf TT ffTTTS T
TfT TTT ffTTRTf fff I ffTTf tffT TRTTT TffT TRTf
f ft Tf TTf TTTT TfTT TTTTT T ffffTTTf fffT TRT T
fTTTT Tft TRTT TRT TTT ftTTT Tf | ftf ff ffTT ffR
Tf TT Tffff ffTTTTTS TTS FTS I ffTTf TTT ff ffTT
TTTT TRTf fffT, RT TT TTTTTS TTTR TT TT TRTT TRS
ffrf TTTT TT Tf TTf TTTf T TTf TTTT TTSf I
S.Bajracharya/Pritvinarayan Shaha ko Barbarta
67 ^T
tf Hjfrl: ^ W&tfi
q?TfTR TfrT ^W5fT4
TTTft T TRTR TTTTf TRTT f I fTT TTTTTf ff TTT
TftTT S I TTf fTTff T TRTRf fTR TfffT ffTT fTSTF
fT S I fT t TRTJf T TRTTTff fTR Tffff TTS TRTf TTT
ftTTT TTTf feTTT TTftaf TTT TSTFTt ff S I TffTT
TTSTfT TRRTT TSTTT TTTT TTT ff ff fTTSTf S I Tf ff
Tsf ff TTffrC TT TtffT Tfrf S I
TT TT TTTf, TITTJdT TTf TTRTf
TTT TCTT, TTTTT, pTTF TTTT, TTT
ft TTT TT TTT Tf (TTTS TTTT TTTTTT TFf ffTTfT ff TpTTS) TTTTTf
TTTFTT" RT fttff StafT Tff TS fT
TS fTT TfTTT RTT TTfTT TRTR Ft I
TfTT TTf TfT TfT TfTTTf TT TT T
ffrff stPttftttft ttrrtT RTrsrftT
fs fTTSf TTCTRTT TTTRT TT TT
TT TTTTTTf TTTT Tf TRTJf TTf TT
TT f I ff TTTft T TTTT TT TTTFT
TT ff ST I TT Tff Tff TT TTf TTf
TTTTTf fTT TTf TT5 ftrff fTTT f T
TTT TT TfSfffTS ftrff TTTSTf TT f I
TTTT TTff Tftf TT FfT TTT TTTTf f TfffT TTTTfT
f I TfffTT fs TT TTRTf TFT FT I TT TTTfTRT TTfTTT
TFT TTTS TTTf TTTTf Tff TRT TRFTT TTTTf TfTRTT
TTTfT, STTTff, TTRT, TTTTT Tft TfTTf sffTFTRTS
TTTft Tt TTTTTtff TT TTfTT TTRTf TT TTT TTTT
TT Tff TTf Tf fTTTT TT TfeT TS TfT Tf TTT5TT
TFT ffTTf TT TTTf TST I 'Tff Tff' Tf TT TTTTf T5
ffTT TTf fTS Tf Ff I
Tf Tft Tff Tf TT TT Tf TTf TTTT TT TT TTT TTf
TTTT ff f I TTf TRTf TTT TT ftpTT TTTTft TTf
FT T TT TfTT TT gRTTT TRCTf Tft" ftf fTS I TT Tf f
Tf Tf Tff Tff Tf fTT T Tff TRTf TfTTf ff TTS
Author: Yagyanmanpati
Bajracharya
TTfTTT ffrrrs tar ff f I
TTf frffT TF TRT Tft TT TRff TiTT TR ff Sff TST
TST TRT Tt T TT TFt TTTTf TTT FT TS I TTf
OOO o o '
TTT SfT Sff Tff TT TTTT TRff TTTTf Pdft FT
TS TSTTST t TTTT ff TTpTT FT I TR Tlf Tlf Tff
TTTTf ff ff f I
TR TTf Tlf TT TTTRT TffT fTTT TTFTT" TT FfST
TSTTSTFTT" ff TT TFTTF (Tpff fTTS
TT TfTTf TT) TT pTTTf pTTT fTS TT
FTTf TT ffTTT Tf T TfTTTT ff TST I
R.   STftf
TTTTfTT TTTF Tf TTftaf TTf (STTT)
f I TT TTT TTtffTT ftr TTTSfT (TTTTT
TR ffR fT) TS TfTT TTTf STTTTf
TTf, TfT T fT(fT)Tf TT TT Tt t
TTS I ff TT TTFf fTT TTRR TR fTR
TTRT TTTSTT TTTTS I TTFTT" TTf TTfR
TTf ffT TTTT T TTTTTTTT TTTT fTT
TTS 'Tf T' fsrf TTT TpFT Tff TST' TfT TTTSTTTTS ffTTT
TfTT TS TfTTT TTFTTT TTTf TftafT RT TTT fTTT fff
ffTTf Tff ( fff TTTT) TfTTTT Tf TT TR fTS I TTTT
TT t   TfTR fs Tf TftT TTf TTfT FTS I
Tff TTTf ST Ff I TTTTTTT Tff TTTTS TTTT Tffrt
TfTT fT TfT TT FT I Tiff TT TTT TRTf TTTT TTTT
TRTf TTTFTT" TST TTSTS Tf TTTf TT TT TT TRTT
TfT TTTS Tff fff fTT TTRTTFTT" RTf TTfTS SfRT
Tff Tt TsftT TTRTf TRTR Tff Tf TTTf Tf TST I Tff f
TT TT TTRTT TRTT TTTT ft RTT TTSf TTTT t FTST
I Tf ff TTTT TTTTT T TT TR ff fT STTTS TpT
TTfSTS FT RTT TT ffT TT FT T TT TRffT TT T
T Tfft TRTf TTf tftTS I
68
Newah Vijnana-7 3. 3tftf STtf, jtf:
fTT TT TT T TRTJfT TffTTT TT TTS TTRff TSta
Tf T Tf TFT TRTT fTS I TTTTT TTC (TRTTT TTTT)
TTTT TfT TTTTTf fTT f I fT TT TTTTR fs RT fs TTf Tf FT TtaS TTf
TCT TTC (TTTT) TTT" fTS I TC TTff TT
TT Tf TT T TT TTfT TTC TTff TTTT
TfTTTT TTRTf TT FT I
TTT  Tft  TRT  TfTT  fT  TfT  TCf  f   I   t
TTS Tfff  TTTTTf TfT TFT TTTff FTST
I  T#  TTf  fTT  TT  TT  ffTTSTf  Tff  t
T Tf TTT  TRTf TTt TCT TCTTS  TFT
T t TTS Tff T TCT TCTTf STTfFTTTTS TFT
Tf T-TRffT TTT TTTT FTST, fT TTTT
I  TTTSTT  TTTTf  TCT  TRTT  TFTTT  TTT
TTTT TTT Tf , TTRT TTTFTT"- TT TTFTTTS
TTTtar, TRTf Tf TfT TTTTf TT TR fTS
I ff Tsf    TT TTFTT" STTTTf TTT Tff RT
ffTT TTT TTTTfrf TTTTTS t TT TTT (ta TTT) TT TTf
TT TTTST I
f ftT TT TTT ff Tf-TTT TTT TTTR TT (ftT fST
) tt tar tt ft tar Tcrf Tff(tr tt) ttt tts frrf
TTSTf TRT TTST I TTT TT fTFTTf tfTTSf TTT ft
TSTT TRTTT TTT Tff TTTS TTTTS ftTfST TRTT TTT
T     TTTTTf     TRfff    fTFTT
tftf  ffT  TT  TTf  TTTTS  T
TT^S I TRTTT TTTT TffT
RTTT   TffTTS   TSTTT
TTS TTRT ftf TT TT ftas
TT   TTTTS   I   Tf   TRT
TTT Tf Tft TRT 'TT Tf'
TTTT TTTf 'TTfT TT TTT
f T' Tf T5T-T5Tf Tff TTTT
TTTTTS I TTTf TTTT fs
Tff    TTf   TTf   TtaTFTT
TpFTTf    TTTf    'FT'    TfT
ffTTTS ffTST  I  TTT  'fffT
STJST  FfT Ff   TT  TTTftT
TTT TTTf FTS I
^,^^W3^
Guru Mandala
wa Gurumandala
RT) TRT TTS TTTT ffT TTTTST I TTTT fTR TTt
TRTTT TS TTT Tf TffT TTFT TTT TCTTTRT TTT TTTS
I TRTTT TTffrfs TTTTTT TfT TfTT Tf ffTST ff S I
TRTTT TTt TT TTT TT Tff Tf TTTT
TT TTT, Tt TTS fTTS TpTTT ff TTt
TpFTTf ftTft TTTTTT TTTT TTT Tf TT
TTT Tffff fTTTTf TTTff TT:ft Tf
ffT, fTFTT fTFTT ftffT TT tffFTTf TTT
TT Tf fTTTf, fTTT TRTT" TC fT5 ffT5T
TS tf TTTTTTf TTT Tf TTf TfT STfff
TTTT TTTS I TTfT (TTffr TRTft f STT)
Tf TSTTT TT Tf TTTTT TS I ftaf
TTS tft" TTf TT TTT ff fT TTf fTT TTf
TT TTTTT TTTT TfeT TTTTf Tft TRT
T5Tf TTT Tt TTS TTT Tft TT TTTRTT
Tf TT TTT ff TST TT Tf TT 'TTTf
TTTTS I TTTTTf fTTTS TTTTf TRCTS
STTf TfT ftf Tftf FTTf TTSTf TT TffTS
I TTTTf TTt TT Tfff TTTTT ft TT TTT
Rice Feeding in Kathmandu, Nepal
Courtesy: Sudip Shakya
TRTTTTTT Tf TpTTTS ffFRTtftf TTTS TTCTf TTTSTT
TTff TT ftrff ffT TTS tPfPtTRT TfTTf TST I TTTTT
ftf FTTTS TT ffT Tff Tftff TRT TfTTTf TTT S I Tftff TRT
TfTTS  TT  fs Tf  TTTTf  FRRTS 3STRft  ^  i1^  ^
TTT TRTf fTS I
tf. ffterT,  ^Ift I
f 'Ffrf, FTst' frrf trr tt tt TTtaT Trsfff fff 'fta
' T TSfff f T fs TT TTFTTTt TTRff TTTTT TTT TT
TTT fta 'FTSf' fff Ff I tT pTTTTTf Tff ff 'Ffrf'Tf '
FTSf' f T TTS Tf f TT FT I
TR fTTTf TTfT TT TfT
TTTT TTTT(SRT) TTTT TTS
TT TfT TTT fTTTTTT TT
fta TTTS Tft TFTTf fTt
Tf TFfTTTS RT T5RJTS
Tff TTTT TTftaf Tf
TT tTRFTTf TTf TTTf
TRTft f I TTT TT TST
f 'FTTf' TTT TT TT TT
FTTTS FfTTSTS T Tft TTFTT
Tf TTTff 'FfSt' TT TT
ftf TST I 'fTt' T FTSf
Tt TTTS TTT TTT TT
TTftaf TTT FTS I TTf Tf
TTf TRRTTTTr TTTTfT TTTT T TTTTT fT TS TFTTf
ST I fTT ff ftff I TT ff TTTf TTff TTST, TfTT
TRTft fff FTT" I
Y.Bajracharya/Newah Sanskritit Kehi Jhalak
69 TTTTfTTf STTT TTT TTff, TT T TfTTT TT TT fTS I
TfT, TfT T TfTT TfT TTT TRf fT, TfTTTf STT T
ffTTT TTT Tf TTf ffT ffTTf TTf ff TS I TTRTT TTT
tff TtaSTTTTT TT TfT TTT FTTTT fTTTT TT5TTTS
TRTT Tf TftfT ffTT TTT TRT, ffT ffTT FTTT frr
T tfT fTTT TTT fT TRT TTTS TTFf TFTt T ftTf (TTf
TRC) fr TST ffTTf TTR fs TT TTf sfTTS I Tf pTTT
TtfTTT TTTTTTf TT Sfff TTTTS fTfs TTf Tf TTT
S I
TTT Tf TTT ff TS I T:ffrt TTT TTT TR fs Tiff TFTT
STTT TT TR Tff TfT FfTTT fTST I TTf Tf TTTTRff
TTTTfTT TTf T T:ft ff TTT TTT TTTf TTT fTS I TT
TT TTTf STTT ft TT TTf I fT T:ffff TT STSTT FT I
TfTFTf TTTf Tiff ft TTTTfT TffTTTt TR fTR
FfTTf STTT TT TTff TTT TS I TTT fff T TTT" TTf Tf
TRTT TTTT TTTTTT T TTTTpffT TTf frf TT TT Tf
Tf TTpf TTTTf TS I fTTTf TTT ff TTT TT TTT FTS I
TTfTTT fTTTT (TT TTT) ft TTf TT TT 'ffftTT' TT Ff
I T TT tTTT TffT TTTf TftffT TTT" TS tTTCff TTT
TTTf TRTT ff TTS I TTT TT5 TT T fTTTT TTf fTS I
TTST TTT TpTTTTT TTf TtaST T TTTTTT TT ft T
TTTf Ff I TTTTT, TTT T TTTTfT TTTTf Tt f T TTTTf TTf
f I TT TTTT TRF fff TfT TTTfTCT TTRRTT ftf ftT
ff TT Tf TTf TTT ff TS I TT TFTTT RT TST Tf
TtaSTTTff TT TTTT fta t TT Tf TT fTS I TTTf
tft" TTS TTf TTT Tf TTT Tf TTTTTT TTf Tf TT5
TTT T ffrff TT TTT fTTTTTTT TTR TTf Tff TTfTT TTT
T pFTftaf TT ff TTf TT ff TTST I
*. tftftf q^T
TTff TTT TTTTf fTfT TCTT TTTTfTT TRTf TTTT (TTTf)
Tf ff fTT TTf TRTft f I TTTf Tf fffT TTT TTT
TT TTTT TTF TfT T:ft TTT Tf TTfTS I TTTTrfTft RT
ffftTT TTTT TTf T:ff TTTf TTT TTTT TTT sftTFTT
Tt TRTf TTT TRTT TT T TTTf TT TTTf I Tf
ftf ftttT ttt ttt ttrtT tttttt ttttttt TTTfTT
ffTT TTTTf TTTTT TTF Tf TfSTTTf TTTf T:ffTt TRTJt
TFT TTf TTTTf ftff I Tf TTTT Tftf TT TT T TTTJdfi
TTT Tf TRTf S I
TTRTTT fTTTT TTTf TpT ta TTTTTf ffT ffffT TiffT
FTTf tFTTT TTRT TTTTTf TRTT ff TS I TTTTTf TRT TTS
TTT tTT 1 Tfff ffT TffTT ftT TTS TRCTf Tf TTff
STTT TTRT TTT Tf Tff fTS I ff ffTTT TfT TTT TfT Tf
TRTT f I ff TTff TS ffTTSTTTt TT ftSRTTS I
TTfTTT Tff RTT TT TFT fffT ft fTTTT TTf fTS I
ffTTT TTf TffTT TTFRft TTT TTRT TTTTTTR STRTTT
TTff TTS TRCTf fTS I
TTTTfTTf ff ^ ffT TT TTfSf STTfT TTT TTTf
Tff TRTTT SRtfrf ffT FTTTfTT ffTTT T:ff ftfTTT
ftar ftaf Tftffrf tttt Trrft ttt ffsf tt TfT ff
TTff TRTft t TTTT TTTFTT RTTT TTT f I T:ft TFTRT
TT TTTf fffT ft STTT TTTT TSTFTS I T:ff Tt TTTf TRTft
TTTTT ff ffTTS I
^TT^r TT ffT ft TTpfff TRTR S I T:ff TS TTTTfT
TTT TfeRTT TRffffFTT" TftRTf fT I TTff ff TTTTT TFTRT
f 5 TT TTTT TTS Tf TTT FT I
V cTT^tf rtfT^tf tttjtj srt tfJtfT^
o o -v
TTT TffTT TTT TR TRT TTTT TTRT STT TTTS I
STT Tf TTTff TTT FTS I TTT tart TTftTS TTT T
TfTTT TSTTTS TfTT fTTT TTT Tf TffTS I Tf TTTT
TTT TTRTf TTS TTRTf TTft Tft SfT Tff TT fTTTS
ftT FT t TS I Tf TftTFTTf TRTTTT" fff f I Tf TRTTTT
TTT TTTT TTT STT TTTT' TTTTf TT Tf Tff TTTTTf
TTfSf fsrtTTTTf fff f I
TTTT TTT Tf pRS TTTf TSTTTTTTT ffT T:ftf TT TTT
TT TTTf Tff ft TT TTTTTf TT TT tf ftrtftf fTFT
Tff ft PTT RTTT f fTTTTTf ^V^ Tf T tf TTT TTTpTT
fT5T TTf Tf ft ffT TRT TTf TTfTT FT I TTTTT ft
TTT TTRTT TRT TTT Tft ft fTTTTT TTf fT ff TT
TTTf TT TTTf ft Tf TTST I TTTT TTT TTTf Tf
TTTTT f T STTTT TpTRTFTT" TT TS RT TT Psrf TTT
TTfS TT Tf Tff fTRFTTf Tft TTSfT TRTft Tff Tf S I
S. cTTtff cTTtff ^Ht^TtfT
ffTTf TTTTT TfTTf Tft TS ffFfttfrc TSTT pTTTf
fTT tats TTST TT Tf Tf Tf TrTftTRfTC TTTSfT
TRTTTT TpRTTRT ffFRT tfFTT fTTTT TT TTTf TTTTT
Tf ft TST TTTTTS I Tftf TSTT Tf pTTT TTf TTfRTt
fT TF TRTf TTST fftfS TTTT TfTTf TT ft TS I
TTTf TfTTT TTTTTFTTf TfT st Fff TCT TTf TTT S
I TTTTf    ftarffT TT TTTT TT FT I TTTT TTTf TTT
70
Newah Vijnana-7 T ftTTTT TT (11 ft TTTf) FT I Tff TTTTTS ffTT Tf
ftTTTT TTTT(TTTT) Tf tTTTT TTT TRTf ftfTI
TTTTf fTTTTT TFfTFRTf TRTT ftTTTT TT (TffT)
ffTT Tt TRfT fTTT ff TT TfTTf ftfT I tTTTT T
FT TTftaf fTTT TT TT ( TTfT TT) f fTFR TTTS TFf
ftTTTff TTTS TTT TTf ftfT I fT ffFRTt TT ft TTT
TFff ffFTTT ffT Tf ftTTTT TFftTFR t TT TRCTf S I
f ftFR TTTT TFRTTf TRTf ft Tftf TTTT S I
ffTTTft TT TRT
TS fTT TTRtfrt
Tf Ff I TRTTTT
TpRT TTTf f
TTTTT TTTT( TT
TT<t) ff TT
TTf Tf ftTTTT
TFfTFRT t Tftf
TTTTf Tff TRTT
TSTTT TRTf PrfT I
TFf   TTTTTf   FfT
ttttt Pttt Trt
TTTf TftTT TfT fT
ftRTT ff TCT r^
TRT TTff TFrffFR
T TRTTTT RTf
Tf TTTRfTf TfT
f TTTTTTf Ff TT TTfS S I
Kumari Jatra in Kathmandu, Nepal
Courtesy: Sudip Shakya
f RTST fSRf TfTTf TTftrf fTTTS TTT" TTT ffTT
TTTf TTTT TTftTf TfTTf TTTf pTT TffTS I TTTf TT
ff TTT" TTTTT TTT TTT TRTT TTT" TTTTf (fsf) TFTt S I
TTTT TTf TTRTf fTFRTT TTTTTT TS TTT fT TRTT
T TT frfft TFTT TTT S I
%. ^fttfT^lO^i
TftTFTTf TT fff fff ff ff ftaT TTTS I TfTTTT
Tf Tiff TTf TT TT fit TRRTf S I TTf TTTTTT ff TT
Pttt tttt ff tttt f tt tt ta TTftr t Ft i ttt
tfftrf TpTTTS TTT t TTf TTTT TftT TTtFT Tf
TT ffTTf TTTRT fTTTTTf TTf fTftTTt TRTR T TRTft
S I TTTS TfT fT ( TT TTT) TTS I TTTTffFT ff
Tf TTT S I
TT TRTf TTTTS W TT ^ TpFTf ^ pTT ^ Tft ^ TTf   TTT
ttTfttT ttt frff tst Tft ts i tPt tttrt frfta
TRTf TpTTTS TTTT #T TpT TTlft Tift TTT TTTS
ftPsTTT TTRTf TTT TTT TTTTTT ( pTTT TRTRT TT Tff
TT TTSf TTTf) TT TT T Psff TRFTTt TTTT TS t?T TT
TTSf TTT TRTTT ff TrffrcfT TRTft TSTTf RT fT I fT
TTTR TT TTTf SfT Sff ft Tt TRTR TTS SfT Sftf
TTf TT Tf Tf TTTf TTf TRTR FT I
o
TTT TTTT fff TftT TST ( Trftr TTT TftTT) Sfft
fSTf Tf TftT Tf TTf
Ff I TTf TT TftT f
I TfTTTf TT Tf tPfT
Ff I TfRf Tf TRT TCff
TRTf f fTT Tf TT Ff
ff Tf FTT" ST I TT TT
TftTT ft TTTTfT t
Tf Ff I TTTTT Tfft
Tf TTT trfff ffTTT
TT TTTS TTTTT
TTTS Sff TT f t TST
I TT TRTTT TT TpFT
TTTf Tft ft TT TTTf
ftfT Tf TT) TTS
PTFT Tff TTTTTT TS
TTT TTT Tf ftfT Tf
TT Tiff TS I TTT TTTFTT
PtPtt ffFRT ft tst i
f TTT ftPsTTT TTT Tf pTFfTTT TRTFTRTS pTTTTSf TTTT
S I TRTfTfTf TTTTTf ffFRFTTf TTT TTTT Tf TT feT:
Tf ffFfTFTTT ffffr TTfTTT TT TTTFTT" TTfTTt Tft
tPtTTTS TffTTTf TTT ft ST I TTTT TpFTTf TTTT
TS f TTftT TT TTTRTT" ta Tff TRTft TTTSff t FT I
Tt TT TTpSTT TSTT TTTT, TTTf Tfft T TTfTTT
ftfPf fT T TTFT TTRTf TTTf TTf fTST I TRff Tf TTTT
TFRTT TTTf TTTf frCTf TTTtfTf Tf fta TTTf TTT
Tf T TTfT Tf TTT ft ft TST I ff TTTT TfT TT ftTTt
ft" t TTTFTT" Ttar TST I
n w tf|
Tt ffta TTFf TF TTT Tftft fTS fT TfTTf TT t
TTTT Tf TTTTT: TFT ft fTTf TT Ft I TTTf TpTT,
TTTTT T ft pRSfT TT TTTFTT" TtTTTS Iff TTSTf
TTRf TT f I tf TTTFTTTS T-TTT TTTFTS TT
TfTTT TTTf T ffTTT TTf TTRTTFTTTS TT ff TST
I  TTTT TT TT ftTF TTfTRTT TTTTfTTTFTRTS TTTT
Y.Bajracharya/Newah Sanskritit Ek Jhalak
71 (TTT) TfTTRT TT f t Tft Sftf fTT TRTR TTTf TTT TTT
Tfrrtar tst i tt fs tPrtt frf ttttts frrf tt ta
TCSTf TTT t?Tf TTf TST I
TT fTFTT fFTFTTT TTRTf TTTFTT TJT Tf Tf TFTTT ff
TST I fTTT TT tcttTtT ftff TTTf TFTTTTS TTTTT
TT Tff TTfff TT Tfff fs T TTTf TT Tf TT TT
CN CN O O CN CN O
TT f tTT fTS TTS TT TST I TT TTTTT T^TT TTT
TTT Tf TfSTSFTTf TTT t TTtTt TTTf T5TT5T ff Tf
SRTT TTTftST I Tf ft TTTT TTTT TTffTF TfT fT
TRTf T-TT TSTTSfFTTTS TTT Tf TTT fff TTS TTRTf
TTgTTT T ffTTT TCTTTf TST I TTfT TT TCTRT TSTTSfFTT
O CN O "\ CN O '
ft ftf fTTT Tt fT TS FTS Tf TT fTTTT S I
TTFTTFTt TTf Tfrt fTTT TCRf Tt TFTT TTTTTf TTf
TTFTT" TR" FT TRTS I TTTTT tf TtaSTTTTf TTTTf tr
Ttrr ftr tr fts i ft tttt tft Tfta ftctt stt t
fff TT FTS I TRCTf TTfPTfTf TTf TTRf TTt TTTT
T ffTTS TT fTS I ff TT TTTT T TTt fff TTf ffT
TCS TTf fTS I
o
TTf TTTTTTTf T RTTTC TCT Tf l^ooo TT5R FTT TT
TTS TTfff TfftfTT TFTT t?TTf TTFT fT5 TpTTFTT
TTTftf, TTTTTf, TTTf TpTT TfT fttfrftfFTT" fT Tf
Tft TRTT ST I ftf TpFffFTT" tSTS Tf TTTf TfTT TTTTT
TTT fffft RTTST T Tf tPt^TT RT TST Tf TTf TS
TST TT Tt TT TCSFTT" RT Tff ffTTT Tf TT S I TTTS
TT: TTTT TTT TCSFTT- TSfff Tf TTT S I
TCS TT TT TTT TTT TRTf ffffT TFTFTTT ff TST
I TffTTT STTTf, TfTTT TTTf, TffTfT TTTffff,
TRTT fTTTf TCSTT ft TST I
13   f¥tf «<M«+>HKl STTtfT
v o
ftff Tf TTTTft TTTT 33 TCS RT TT ff TTf Tft TRT
ff TTTTTf TTT Ft I ft TTTf TTfT TTT ft ff TTRf
ttt ftrPr tar tTrcfr ^ tar tt ftr ttt ff 33 tcs TTrt
TTT TTT5TT TTTT TffTTT, ftf TT, TT, Tffft TfT
TTRftTT TTTTFTTf TTRf ftaf TTTf TTfTTT TTRf
TT ffTT ft TS I Pff Tf TTT TTTTS ff TIT T TRTTTTTT
TTTf ffRT Sf Fff Tff ftff TFTTf TRf stars tPttt
STTTf STTT T Tff Rt fTTTS TTTf STTTT STTTT f T
fT TST ffTTT RTT TFT fFT ft fT TTTT 3 TfTT TT
TT TftT TTftfRr TTf TT TfT T TT TTRT TFTfff
TTTTTT T TRS I
Itf.   tfttfft fft
T#T TftT TfTTf TRT TTTTf TfTTR T FTS t I TT
fsRTTt ffTTf TT TTTPTT fTTf FRT TRT ffTT
TRTft tTT t fta FTS I fT fTT TTTTTf fff ftfT
TTTTT TT TrR TTRTf Tft TrfT Tf TTRTTT tf ffT
ffr T TTff fTTTTt TTT TTTT TTT TTTTS TTRRTf TTTFT
Tt TTT S I Tf ffTT TT TTTf f I TTTf Tfta TTf
ta tarf tf f i tttT ffr ff i fT tf tt Trf tttT ft
T I ffT Tf TTTf TTTTS ff TTfT, TT ffT Tftff TTT TRTf
f Tt Tft TT Tftfff TTT TTf ffTTT f I TTTTR
TRrffft TT TTTFTT STf ft FTS I TTTf Tf sf TRTf TR
TTt TT PTT TTTRT ffr ft TT FTS Tf TTT S I TTT
TTT TftTTf TfTT fTTRffTS Tff TTfTTTTT TTTT Tft
TTfff ffTT TTTTTT TT TTRf TTT Ft I
Tff TftT TTTfs TTRTT TTT" fTS I TTTTf Tft ft Tt
f TT TTS I Ttt Tf ffTTf ffT T TTfT TfT TTR ffT
TTT Tt TTTf TTTT TT TTf TTT TTTTT TTTT RT
ft, TTTT TTT tatTTt TJt ft TTTf TTRT fftaft TTfS
TTR fff TTRTT TpTTS I ff pTTTS TTT ftT Tt TRT
TfTf Ft I TTff Tf fff fTTT ftPsTTT TTf Tt TTT TTS
TTT ftf TTT S I
TTTf TTTTf TTT ft f I tf TTTf, TTRT, TT, TTT TfTTf
ffTTf T PrtT TTT TTTFff ^V^ TTR T ftff TTT TTS
TS TRT Tf Tf TCTT 'fff TST' TRTft S I TTTFTTf
TT TT TT TTRTT Tf ft ff TTT S I TT Tft TTTf
TTftTT Tfrf Ff TftT fTT TTTf TTT TTRTf TTf TTS
TTT ftf TTT S I f TTT TF TT TfT TTTTf ft TS I
^(tf^R
fTR Tft TRTft T TRTTTt TTTTT sff TTTf S I TT f
TT TRT TpFTTf TRTT T TTTft Tf fftff TTTT TRTft T
TRTR ft ffftT Tfffff S I TSrpTT TTTTf TTT TfTTTf
fTTftff  3RTTT TTTTT Ft TT ftTTtfTTC TTFTTTt Tt
c oooo o
ftf TTTf Ff I TTT fTTT ft TTT ST I ft"TT Tt tTT
TRT TftT TT TFTTf TF TtTTFTTf TT TT ff TTT TT
TTT TftT TFt TR ST I
72
Newah Vijnana-7 t%ttt
TTT TTT ft TT FffT TTTT TFTT I TTf TTTTTT
TTRT TffT TRTf ft fFT TffTTT fSTSTf TTRTT
ftTTTT TTfT TTt ff TTTTSTTf TTTTTTT TRT I
fTTTTT RT fTTTT TTTpTpTT RT TftTTTT SRf TTT I
TTTf TTTTS TT TTS Tft FTTTS TTT T TffT fTST I TT
TTTS TTT TTT ft TftT fST TRTf fTST, T T TTTf
TTTT t Tt trf TTT TTSRTT ftff I Ttt ffrf ft ftT-
fff TTf TTfff TT TTf TfTt TTTf TTTTTf tarf TTf
TTTT fSTfS TTfTTTf TTTTT TpTTTTf TTTTTTTf ff
TfTTf RT TTfT TTTT TpfRFff RT Tffrf 'T SRTT TTT'
TfT TfTTT pRTTT T TTTf TTTf TTTTTS TTTT TTR FT
ftta TTTf TTT Tfff PTR I Tf Tf Tf TRTT TTTtft Tt
TTTT TTS Tftf taTT ST, TT TTTf TT TTTTTTTT FffT
TfTTTT TTRTf TffTTTfT TFTt S I
TTT TTRT TTT TTTR TRTf FTRT TfTpTT TT Tfff
frf' (TFT, ST. !<l^) TTTTTT ffTCT TTT TTTf TT
TftT TfTTf TpTTTTf TpT TTTTT TTT TTTT TTTFTTt
FTTTf TCTT TT ffTT TRTf RT TfFTTf ffTTTf TS-TT
fTTTTFTTTS ff TTTTF tTT TTTTT TT TfTT ST I TTT
TTTTf T ffTTTf TTTfT taff TpFTTT TT TTS TTTTfT
Tff TftTT STTT TRTTT RT TTT TftTT TTT Tf Tf S
TT TTfTT fTT I TffTT T TTJtT TTTf fTTT T75TFTTS
ffsRTt TT TTTT TTT ftfT ff TTTFT TTTTTT tftrf
I TT T T RT ffTTT tTT TftTTRTt tTt TTT T
ffT ff TffFTTt ffTT TTTC ta TFT$, ffTTf f TJTFT
TTT TTRf TR5TFTTS TTff fT Ttaft tPtTFTT ST I f
TTf TftTTTT TTT TTTTTR TTT tf Tf ff Tt TTT f
TTTTTf TSTTTT TTT TTTTpTTFTTS TT 1<^ t pTRTT pTR
I TTffTCT T TTff T tTt TpFTftafTT TTTT tTT Tf fTR
I Tt TTTf Tf !<130 ftT TtaTT SRTT TTTTf TT TT
fffR TTTT TTTT Tfft TTTS ft T TTTT FT Tfff
fTR I ft TR TTT ft ftrff st tf frf TT T TpFTTf
TSTTTfT TTT TTTRT TfTTTT TTTT TTTT fTT' (Tt)
TTSTf ftf TT TT t tTt TpFTTT ftaff TTTT f Tf T
TTTf TTTTT ftaTffTTTT TSTTTTf TTTf TT TTS TFT
FT TTf I TTTiW f TTRTf TT TTTTRTf TTRT TTTT
TTTTTf TTTTTf TR TT fs TT TRTf pTf I TTTTf
fff TTf TT W*% Tf t TfTTf TfttT TTTTF TRT TT
(ff TTf TT) TTTTTS TTfffT TTTSTTTTr fTR I TT
TTFT TTTT TTFTTT ffrcrt TfTTFTTT TfT TTTTTTf
ftTTTTT TTTT TTTT ST T RTfftT TTT Tft TffffT
ffTT TTT TTTTf fTTTTTf TfffTTTff TrffffffT Tf
TT ST, ffTTf TTTTTT Ttt ft fTTT TT TT TTTf fTf
TTTf Tft Tft TfTTFT TTT ST I RTST TTT RTTTT
STTTTTT ff TTT ffTT TT TRT TRT ffTCTt Tft Tft TTf
Tt t TtftTpTT TTftfT TTTT t f Tf pTTT ffTTf
Tf TSTS I TTf RTSf TTTf Tft fTT T TlftfTTf TTTTTT
TTt TftRTf S I TTT TTf Tfff TTRf Tf FfTTRTT Tft f
TTf TffTTTS TTTft TTRTfts TTTf TTT 5R TTT fTS
T TTT Tf TTSTf <TTRf TTTf ftafT TTTTTS RTT STf
ft tTTTTt TTTTTTS fTTRTT TRT TfTTTf TTTftf
TT t TT Tft ? TTTTTT tTT TftTTTTFTTf ffftf TTf
ftTTTTT fftf TTf fTRT, TT TTT T TTTTTTf TTTTT
TT TTf TTTTf TFR f T TfT ffTT TRTT TTRTT TTFTTT
TTTTfTT TRfgTTf pTTTT TTT TTTf ftfTTT TTTTT
TT taTT ST TTTTS I TTTT TTTT TTTFT TTTTT
TT TTT TTTf T TTTTT TTTTTf frfT TTT TTT
TSTTTTf fTTT I
TRi^T( Tf TT TTtftT FT TTTf TTTf TTT TTTTT 'ffT
Tf tffrf t TTTTT tTT TffT ffTpTTff TTTT TTS I
TTTTTTf TftTT TTTRf TTT RT TTfT fTTT FT T  TT
Tf Tftrrr Tft tttft tsttt ffr TffTT fff ttttts
TTf TRTf fTS I fffTTTTf Sft TTTT TTTTT TTTTfT
TfTT TfTt fTS TT TTTTT ffTTTf TfT TTTTS Sff TS
f TTffsTTt TTT TTf TTff TTRTT fTS I Tf ffr TpFT
ftrfrf TTT TTTTS TTTT ftrfr TTT TTTT T-TTTS
I TTTf TS TTftaf TTTf fTTTf STTTTTTS TTT T TTt
Tftf TRTf TFf TTS T TfffTCTf T TTfttfT fTTRSTTT T
TT TTRT fff Tt TTTff FfTT ftrfTT ftfRT TTTTf TTTT
TTS I fff f RT TT Tffft TT TR TRff TRTTTTT ta
TT-TST tTTTT fTS T TTTft TfFTTf TTT fff Tt
TTTf TTT TTS I TTt TTTTTT TSTTT TST TRCRTTT
TfTTT FTS I TRRTTTRf fTT TffTT TTfT TTTTTf TT
Shrestha/ Dhuswan Sayami Videshma Newari  Sahitya
73 Pttt tarf stt tt ttrTT tttt tt tTtt rT tttftr
TftTFTTf TfTTTT FfTTTf TTT TT TTRTT ST I
TT 1W T TTTffT TTTf ftf TTTT 'TftT (TT) Tf
ftTTTTT ff TffT ffff TpRT TFTT S I TT TRTTTTT
Tft TTTf TTCTTS TTTTTTf TTT - TTTTTftTT TRff
Tf TRTT TTTRT ffTCTt Tff FTTf TtfTfTTT TTTf ffTTT
TTTTT S Tt TRTTT TpTTTT TfTT ST I TTTTS TTT:
TfffT 'tr' (TTTf ST. 1W), ffTTT fTTTT (TTTTTf TTTT,
st iw), 'tt' (TTff), f.T. iw) trfrrr ttttft
ff TTTT TTfFTTf TfTTTT FfTTTf ffTTTft t ffRT ST
TT TTTS I TTT TTtfTT Tft TTTTFTT TffTfS TftffT
TTT ta TTff TTTT Tff ffTTT TTTFRpTTT TTTFTTT
frfff TTTTTTTTf TT TTTSRTT TS^S I
fTTTf RT TSTT TftTTTT TTT TTTf TTf T TTTTFTTT
TT TTTf taTT pTRTT I Tf RT TTTT TSTTTTTf TTTf ft
TTTT ST I TTf ffTCTf RTRTf TTf TTTfTf TSTFT 'f
ftf' TT 'FTT ffT (Tf TT) fftlTTI TfTFTT TTfTT ST
I TTS Tftf ff TTTf TTTTf S fT TTTTTTTT TTTTT
TTTTTTTT TTTf 'FTTT' ffT ftf TfT TTSTT TTTf t T
TsPtRTT ftfT I TT TSTTT tffff TfTTTT TRTT TTTTT
Tff ST I Tt TTRT TffffT TTTf ftaTTTTT ft TTTTT
TTT TTTFTTT TTftTTTf TT tPtPtT TTTf fTTT ta
TpTTS I fTTTTT TT TTTTf TTfT TTTTTT TTT frfT
TfTRTTT Tft tTT TTTf TTf RTST TTff TT TTt S
Tf TSTTT TT TTT TFTt ftf I TTT TRTf TTTTTf
TTTTpTt TTTTS TTTTTTT TTTTTf TTT TTR TT TTT
TTRff PTT FTTRT TTTTf frf TTTTf TT FTTSfTRTt
TT TffpTt S I fff fTTT TTRfff TftrCT TTTTTT
Tff   TRffTTf   Tf   ffT   TfeRFTTt   TTTTS   TTTT   TRTTT
TTTTT TTf RTSf TTT TTff Tf TTTTTT TFTTT tart fTR
T TTTTS RT TT fTTTTTf TTT trCTT fTR I Tt TTTTf
ffftT TT TSTT Tf Tt S TT TTTTT fTS I TTTTTS
TTfTT TT T TTTTTTf TTTT TftT TTT TTTTRT Tit tTT
TTT TTTTT TTTTT FST TTTT Tt TTTTf TTTCtT ft
ftTRT Tff S Tf TT TSTTT TTfTT TTTT TTTT ffTST
T Tft TTT T TftTT TSTFTT S TTTTT TTTTtf T Tftf
Ffff Tft t ft TFTT   Sf I
TTT TTfff TTT TTT TT TTS ftta T Tftf TTFTT
TTT TTT TTRTf TSTS I Tff TTTf fpTTRTT fTTTf
fTTTffTTTTT ffTCFTTT TTT (The Lotus & the Flame),
(TTT T TfT, ST. 1W) TT TfSTTTS Tf ttTRf f
TTfffTFTTt TTTT ftff fTS FT TTTr pTR I TTTT
TT5TFTTS RTT TFTTT TTTS ft TTTT TTTTT TFTT$ I
SRf TTff t TT (TTTfTT ffffTT TT) T tTt TfFTTf
ffTT TTTT Tf TftT fTTT TftTTTT fTR I TTt TT 1<%^
T t TT TT5TFTTTT TTTTT TTRf TfFTTf fftfT ffTT
ffRTT fTR I TTTTTfT tfTTT TT (TTfff TTTRTTf TTt ffrf
Tf RT TTTT RT TTTffT fta 'tTTTT TpFT' (sffTTTTT
TTTTTT) ffTT (TT % T W -Ro^) Tf STffRTf fTRT Tf
Tfft, TTft T TftrfT TfT T fTTTf TftT tff TTf f
*T ftfTTT ffff TTTT (ST. I^Kr T.T. V, T ^- ta)
ffTTTf TTTffT TRTf ftfT I TTTRT fff TTTffT TTRTf
TTS TFT ST I TTf TTf ffTTT tTt TfeRTTt TTR
TTTTf fTTf TTT TTST TTT fTR TT TffTS I Tftf TTT
TTTTf fff TtT TT TTTT TTF Tff TTTf TJtFTTT
Tf TTT TTT TFf ST I
TTTT ftaTTpTTTf
Book Announcement:
Newar Hami Yastai Chhaun by Rajiv Shankar Shrestha
74
Newah Vijnana-7 (?vW ^rarTcTTf TV$R ^rT Eft*pJTT mRh+T 3WS3RT STSTFTR^ft "i«>m«Mltf ^Wf "VWTg" «nH
TMSfpftflT ^. *t   l^o ^Xft ^f ^ft 3WSRT J|Rh+1 *TRftSR ^|t|U|=hl *ft 3T?T)
tarr ftarr tan t tar ttttt Tff Tta TRTf, Tf
TTTff  TTTT TTT ta TRTf fTTTTTTT TTTTT WRRT TTTftT
TTTf RgTRTTTTT fTTfft TSTTS ^\ TTTTRT TTT Tf TTRf
TTtar TTTT TTTT taRTf fTT TTTT 1W TT tata TTTT
TTTf tTt# trtts ^\ fffrfMTT r TtaT t tar TRTTRTTt
Ttarr Ttfta tstts tt ttttrt tt ta ttr§
R3T TTTTTTf ff Ttalft TTtta TrtaT  flTdMJta  TTTTTTTT
Tftf  TRTTTTT  TTT  TTTT  TTTTf  TTTT  TTTTTS  TTT  T3T
ftaf RTf TtaTTT Tf Tf TRTta TTTTRTf Tftatataf TTT TTTTTTf
TTTS RTTTf TTff T fta" T3
ffTTT TTTRRTta Tf Tf f ( TTT TTT ta TTtaTT TTT TT tarf
TTTfT taTTTTttafT TTTTTTTtata TT TTTTTf tarf fffta TTTtta
Tf Tf Tf TTT TTRfff RT TtaTTT tarf fTTTTR I TRRf TRTRTf
T fST, TTTTf TTTT Tf TltaT TTft TRTTT fT TTTTT3 I TTTTTT
TTTTTf TTT ff T^TT TTTTf ffTTT RRf T3 I TTrtarTS TRT f
TTTsrrta tar ttttts Ttarr ttttttT ttt tarr tttt Ttar
Tf TTTf taTRTf T3 I TTTTf ftaRT TTf TTRlfta Tf, TTTT
Tf,  TTRRtaTTTTT.  TTTT TRRRTRTTR TRTT TTTTTTTTT ffTTT
ta ftar ftar tttttt TrfT tata Trft ?t t tarf tata ttt
TTTf ftT TRTT T3T I ff fTTf TTrftafT TTRTf Ttar tata TTT TTRT
T3T I T, ff TTTS TTTTRT ftaftirtat TRTT fta tata RTTT
tt fftarrta tttttt *\Ah*& t Trrta, rtt trtT tt f Tf
tts trj i tartar tf tata TTrrf tartar TfTTTT ttt
tarf Trrta frftar ta Tf ftarftaTT Rff sTTTTTrf ftatTT Ttar
TTT TTTTTTTf ftjT Tf TTTR TTT ta, ff ffRTRT TfTT TTtaT
tafTTS TTf TRTTT TRTTf, TTt TRTta RtftRT, TfTT TTlf*TM,
Tfftf TTT TTTT, TrfT ftTTTRRrTS TTf TTTff TTTta, taRTT
ta TTRta(TTTtaTS TTf TRTfta RT T TTRTf taT tar
R3T TTTf RRf RRRTTf TTT STTRR, TTT TTTTf Tf TTT
Tf Tf ffRT, TTf Tff f Tff I TTTTf Tftff TTTTTf ftf
ftafTTT TTTtaTTTT TTTftT, tarrf TltaT TTTTTS, tarrf
TtaT TTTTTf TRTTT TTf fRta Tf T5Rf I TTTT TTTf 'ROO'S
TTT TTTTR TT TTf taRTTf TffTTTTT ftat ftf T TRTTT T
taT TTff ftrtar Tf ft TffTTTTT TfT TRfTT TTTTf ftf, TTTtat
TTTttafT TffTT ftf Tf I frf TTTTf TTTTf, tata TTTTf
TRTTTTtaf, fTTf TTTTf TTTTf ftaTTTf TTTTTT ftf I ff f
TTfT TTTTf Tt ffTTTf taTTTffTTTTS talftTTT TTT Tf Tf TT
f Rf TTTS TRJ I Tf TTT TRTTRTf TTTftT TfT TRta T3TTT TTt
T TRTT RTTtat TRRT tat I ff RTT TTTTT TTTTTf TT TT ff
st, tata TrtaT ttt, tarrf tatarr, sff tt, TRr/ft, TtaT
tt, TftarrTTT ftftarf Trsf tartar tt ft i ttttttw ftfrfft
TRTTTfTTrT TTTST Rsftaft fTRRTTrTT TTTTf TTTf ff TTtaT
TTTTTS TRTTT TTf TfTTTf RTT *£\*\ TTT TTTTS TtaTTT Tf
Tf Ttarf f i tar TRTTrta, TrtaT tarTTTfta trttt tarrf
Tftaf TTTTTTf RTTta ftaft ta TTTf TtTTR TT Tff Rf fff
tatat ta i tarf Tta tata tttt ta tttt, ta tata, ta
TTTT T3T T fta Tff T T# RTT THTlftT TTTTTftTTf TTTST f
TT ftta T Tf TtaTTT # I TTfT R#f T T# Tf TtaTTf TTTTT
Tf# I TRfT taTTTTftar TTTTTT TTT? Tt ftTT RTT TRTTTf
TTTTTTTf Tff I TTTTT TTRTTTS TrtaT ffff TftatarfTf TrtaT
fttaTTTT TTT TffRTf TTRRfTTT, TTRTTTT Tft TT Tttaf
Tff T Tff Tt RTT TTTTTTTf TRfTT, FTT TTTf SlffT RtftrR
Tftarf TTTT ftaTST TTtafTTT TTTftT RTT TRTT, RTT
TftTT, RTT TfTT TTf ta Tft TTTTS RTTT ffTTf ff TTT
Tf fRft ta TTTTftar TTTT ftaf TTT TTTT ftaftT ftaf RTT
TTTTT fTT fftaTTT ff TTTSR TTTTT T tar TTTTTf TTTSft 3
f ftafTTR TRTRffRTT TT TRfrtaTttar TTf TTf TTRlftT Tft
TTf TfTTTTS TT Trff TTT TfTT, TfTTT, TTTR fta
tartar fta ttt TRTTrta taT ftarTTFrtar 30 Tmtar ttt
ffRTRT ta T RR TT TftfTTTTRTf TT ftTRT Tf ftaft TTTT ftf,
TTfttarr ta Tff T Tff TTTTSR TTTCTTTS TTTTT ffrf ftR I TTTTT
Tft TTT TRTT TT ftTTTT TTTft TTT fRtai Rf TTTTTS TTTT
T fta" T3 T TTf TtatT ffff TTTTSTT TTRTRff ftTTTTTS TTTft
TTTta TTTt TTT, TftTTTS TT Ttai
TtatT TRfTT Tfta RTT TTRRffRTT TRfTT ff Tff I filflTfil
TTTftT TTTf, TTTTRTta TTsf Tf ftf ft TTTTrftTS TTtaf
TTTTTTf TTT tata TTTTft TTTf I TTf TTf ftftar TTTTrft,
RTf   TTf  RtffRTT  TTTTT,   TTTTS  TTf  TT  TTTft  fTTTT  Tf
Gantantra Nepal ko Pahilo Upahar Nepal Sambat
75 Trta, ftars Ttarta ta Tfftar taf i ftarT ftftr TTTft
TTTft TTTf TTTTTTftar TRftTTRTS TTfTTT ftaTTTTftaf TTf
T TTSf I TTTTTftR ttata ftrrta TT TftT eHUSf I TTtaf
ftffr TRTTftTs ftarta, Ttata ftffr tarrTFRTs tata tar
TTRtarrs Trtar ttt Rf ta f i ttrts ttrts ftT tttT ttT
TT T tata TTTT TTTWfff TTRTf TTT, Rrt FTTTf TftTT
Tf TTTffT TTTTTftarr ftaTT tata TTTTTftaf TTT, tata TTTTf
Rtftar TRRftrf TTT TRTf TFR TTTTTrffRTT TRfTT ff Tff I TT
TtaT Tf fRT TTTT T TTftT TTTTTf TTTSft tarrf TTTTTTftar TT
ff, tata TTTTf TTTTTTftR TRfTtaT TtaTTT TTT ff TFTf
T3 I ftTTT Tt TTTf", Tt TTTftf TTf taTTTRT ftaf
TTT ffTTf TTTTf TTTTTTT T TTTftTTta ftta  TTT TTfTT
tarrf tt>r Trrta tttttftttrt tttts TrrftT, TTTTTftr
Rf Tff ff I TTTfT TTTTta TRTTTTJta TTf taR Tftf TTf
TftTT, TTTTTft, TT, TTftRT ftta TRftTT Tf TTT TTTT T f
TR RTjt fT, TT taTT ftfsf f Tf Tfft TR HI taT) FTfT ta
% TTT TTf T3 I Tf ftta tata TTTTf TTTft TMTT TTTftT T5
TTT TRfTT Tft, TTTT TTTTTT TTTftT TRfTT ff I TT T
TTTT" TSTTTTTf Tf TTTf TTTTf tata TTTTf RtftTTT, TTTTTTTT T
TrtaT TTTTf TftftftT ta I taR Tftrf Tf FtST I TTRT ftrft
fTR RTft STTTTTTf TT f TTTf TT ttarTTS TTfT Tfffrta
TT5TRT TRTRFtTRTTTT ta TTRR TTTTTTf TftfTST TTf I  TT ta
taf Trrta fttt t tar taf ts tttt Trtata i tfrtr
ftTTta T TTTf TT TTTTTftrf ftaf RTfRTta I TRTTS ftta tarf
TFTTT TSTFTf f Tft TftT TTTf TTTTTft, TT, fffffTRRTT
RTT TTT fRT TTRf TTTTT T3S I FTfT 10 ta TTSTf TT fttaT
Tff, FTtaf Tft Tfrftr TTRrft, TTTf T TRRftrf TTTTf
TT Rft, TTT TftRRTf TT Rft T TTTf TTT TTT fttata TfTT
tft i Frf tars trt f Tfttarr Fta ftaTTTTffrf tftTtt
TRT fttaT Rf TT TT ftf TT RFTTff TRTSRsfTFfft ftTRTTFT
ta Tfftar TftFRT TTT TrfT TTTR, TTT TttafT TTTR, TTT
TTTTTTftR TTTR ta" TRTf 35 T TFT TTTTT RFT TTT fttaf 35
TTT TTftTFft TTT ftatTTf fTTTT 35 I Fnta tata TTTTT
TTTT, TfstaTTTf TtaTTf TRTT Tf# I TT TTRT TRTTSTTf f
TT TTTTTTT TTTftTT TT ftTT RTfTRTf I R Tftf tft TRTTTT
Tft ft TTTT ta TRTf ta Fnta ff TTftT TTTTTT TTTftTT FFT
ftta ftTT,  FRf TTTTTTftar fTTT T FFT talfta TftTT TTf
Tf Tf ftarrr TTTftT TTrtar Trta ftaft ta ttttt # i f
f ftaftr TTfTT TTT5TTf TffT TR fta I TfTT ta TRr TTTT tat
'T TT TtaT ffff TTT TTff taf I TfT TRTf TtaT TTTTTTfT
FTTta T TTft ftta fTTS T Tltamfl TTTTS TTTTTTftar TTTf
TTT TtaTlfta TTTTf ftff, ffTTT T TtaT Ttar taTWHta
TRTT TTTTS TTTR Tf ta TTf Tf Tft TTT 35 I tadtal TTTT
TTTTTf fRT TTTTTS TTfttT TTTT fTTT TTt, ff TFf TTT Tftf
TTTT fT TTfTT TTTTta RTT TTT taT TTTT TSTRTRRf
T TftTTf TTTTf FffTTRTR ftTTTT TTRR TTR fta" f I TTTT
TTT TTTT T TfTT TRftTTRTS <\M*\ TT Tftf 35 Tf T5ftrf
f I FTtaf Tftf taTT f 1ft TT 35T I TfTT taf RTT TtaTTT
TTf TftaRT TTSTtaT # TT TTRRf TfTTTTT Tf RT TSTTTTTT %,
t I FTft TfflTTT, TfTT TTT TTTTTFFT T tfTT TTTT TTta TTT
TTTTTT 35T I TTTfT TRT TTTTFT taf TTtta fT T TTtar 35T
TT ff TTTTTT TRT tsTf, ff TftT TSTTTTT ^TT I ff TtaTTT
TffrftftT TT TftTTTS TRTTT ta FTft Tft tata TTftf ffrf
TFTTTTT RTTTf TRT TT TTf 35 I TTf TfTTTTS TTTTTT Tf TR
rr tar ttttts Ttarr tttt ttttt, Trf tt TRTTftar ftta
Tft TTTS TTTTRT TTfttaff TfFRTTRT TTR tata TTT
tarf rttt, tarf tftT Trf 35
TRTT TRTT Tftf TTTTTTRTTf RTT ftfTTT TTTT 35 I TfTT Tiff
TftTTTS TTTfT TTTTf, TT TTft STT frf, tata TTTTf TTfttT
TTTT TTTTTTTf frf TTRTf TT TTTRT T fTTT TTTTTTTf
TTft SIT frf TftTTT # I T tata TTTf ftaf TTTT TTTTTTTf
FRTT TFTTST taT ftattat fTTTT taT TfT TTT # I ff TtaT
R#T Tftrf TTT TTeT TfTT 35 Tf, Trta 35 Tftf ft I TTTTS
FTTtTT FTft, RTf TTTTS TTTff, TT tft ftftta Trfrf, TT TTt
TTTTT ffTTf TTTT 35 I taf Tfftf ff ffTTS Trfta TTfR
TTTfT,  TTR TTTfT,  FTft TT frta RTT ftT fTftf  TTTTf
tarTTT # i ff ftT tarf tata Tftaftf tar tar Trta tttts
ttttt ta Trrta
Ttata FTtars sff ftar ftta f sftarta FrftTS sff tft Trta
T TTTTTT ffRTf 35 I  FTft tata tft fRTTftr TTTTTT Sift #
TTTS FTtaf Rtf ta RR TS TTRftt TfTT fT TTTTTTTT taTT TT,
TFTTST, TTTTTTT T fftFTftafT TfrRTTTRT tatata fT ff35 Tf Ttta
T TffRRSFT TT TTTT TTTTTT Tf TTf
Book Announcement:
Nepal Sambat Nhyasah Lisah,  Subarna Shakya
76
Newah Vijnana-7 Miscellaneous Materials
News, Conferences, Seminars, Symposiums, Announcements and Reports
Conferences, Seminar, Symposium, Annoucements and Reports
Nepal Lipi-com
The World's First Online Bulletin in Nepal Scripts
TO WW
Encoding Nepal Script: Consultative Meeting
held in Kathmandu
Monday, 29 March 2010
Kathmandu - The Nepal Lipi Guthi (Nepal Script Trust)
organized a consultative meeting on encoding Nepal (Pra-
chalit/popular) script at Harati Hotel in Kathmandu on
Saturday (March 20, 2010). Prof. Premshanti Tuladhar,
Head of Central Department of Nepal Bhasa of Tribhu-
wan University, Nepal was the chief guest of this well
attended meeting presided by Nepal Lipi Guthi Chair
Sharad Kasah 'Kasah Chhen.' At the meeting, Nepal Lipi
Guthi's academic member and former chair Sharad Kasah
informed of the efforts in encoding Nepal script by several individuals in the past and presented a paper on Nepal
Script Alphabet: A New Perspective for encoding.
Suwarn Vajracharya, Chair, Nepal Study Center Japan reported of efforts in encoding Nepal scripts being pursued
at the international level and presented a paper on Encoding Nepal Scripts: A Report and Preliminary Proposal.
Representing the user community, Naresh Bir Shakya,
Editor-in-chief of Lipipau weekly and Nepal-lipi.com
shared his view on the possibility of a greater benefit that
encoding Nepal script can bring about in the field of communication. Professor in Linguistics Tejratna Kansakar
commented on both papers presented at the meeting.
Guest of Honour Professor at the Graduate School of
Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Tsukuba
Japan Dr. Carole Faucher and Professor at University of
Kathmandu Patrick Hall stressed the need of encoding
Nepal script as Nepal Bhasa has a long and important history. Prof. Kashinath Tamot of Nepal-Germ an Research
Center made remarks about the new alphabets. Nepal
Bhasa Academy Vice Chancellor Laxman Rajawamsi
and Rajiv Shrestha of Lipithapu Guthi commended the
efforts in encoding Nepal script. Chief Guest Professor
Premshanti Tuladhar made remarks on the historical importance of the Nepal script's encoding.
The consultative meeting that commenced after offering a
one minute silence in respect of Nepal Lipi Guthi's patron,
Late Pundit Hemraj Shakya will be submitting a report on
the discussion and proposals seconded at this meeting to
Unicode. The Nepal Script Unicode Committee headed
by Sharad Kasah 'Kasahchhen' has appointed Suwarn
Vajracharya resident in Japan as International Coordinator
to coordinate in the task of encoding Nepal script.
What is Unicode?
Encoding script is a technical term. Once Nepal script is
encoded, it can be viewed and activated in any brand of
computer in the world, not limited only in some computers. Downloading of fonts will not be required any longer.
Emails can be written in Nepal script in the same way
other scripts such as English are used in writing emails.
Not only that, but encoded Nepal script will also help us
use all the facilities related to Nepal script. For example,
words typed on the screen can also be automatically read
out through available software.
Though efforts are now being made to encode Nepal
script, it is learnt that some parties in the US are giving
preference to encode Ranjana script. The issue was also
discussed at the meeting in Kathmandu and efforts for encoding Nepal script are being pursued at the public level.
Scripts all over the world are being encoded at the initiatives of concerned governments. But in Nepal the initiatives have been taken by public level because the Government in Nepal has shown no interest in taking the needful
initiative in favour of Nepal script. The Devanagari script,
which the Government of Nepal claims to be Nepalese
Script has already been encoded at the Indian initiative as
script of Hindi language.
Source: NepalLipi.com
Conference Abstracts
16th    Himalayan    Language    Symposium
SOAS University of London UK
September 1-5, 2010
Miscellaneous Materials
77 'Gama:' Language of Newah People of Nepal
Daya Shakya
Center for Nepalese Language and Culture
Portland, Oregon, USA
In the Newah language speaking community, a term
'Gama:' has two connotative meanings: first as a word
with an underlying reference to 'a string of villages';
second, it is used to address the rustic values of people
(Kolver & Shresthacharya 1994) of rural areas by urban
native speakers. Due to the isolated and embedded negative concepts, which commonly surfaces within the urban society, the rural Newah people tend to hesitate to
communicate with urban speakers. A strong hold of such
misleading concepts raises questions on the implication of
the inter-social communication and creates a gap between
the interaction amid the rural and urban Newah speakers. This behavior pushes the new generation of Newah
people to adopt Nepali (Khas Language) as their mother
tongue instead of continuing their own native language.
This also impacts the future preservation of values of
Newah dialects on the younger generation.
are sometimes as evidence of temporary extensions of
grammatical devices that are basically used for other purposes. In this regard, increasing nominations seem tyo be
general path of their evolution. The numeral ONE, being
a universal quantifier, can be a paradigmatic test case for
such evolutionary claim.
In this paper, I will take 12-14th century manuscript
sources data frfom Newari- A tibetobur manfrfom the
Kathmandu Valley in Nepal tp claim that the morpho-syn-
tactic properties of the numerals ONE do not conform to
the system who rest of the numerals follow and that with
its semantic feature[ Indefinite] it belongs more to the
group of indefinite quantifiers like MANY and SOME. I
sketch its distinct trajectory by suggesting that the quantification is the first shift which once underwent in the early
stage of written Newari before nomination and its associated features such as infections appeared. Further study is
required to state whether such shift was due to increasing
contact of the language with the New Middle Indo-Aryan
languages or due to its own inherent dynamics.
15th Himalayan Languages Symposium,
University of Oregon, July 30-31 2009
In this paper, comparing the data with standard dialect
that is commonly available in literature, I will discuss
some key features of 'gama:' language spoken in rural
areas within the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal. Besides, I
intend to focus on the importance of 'gama:' language
that is unnecessarily considered an inferior version of language among the native speakers.
The data used in this paper was collected during field
work I had conducted in the early nineties in the surrounding villages of Kathmandu Valley. The intention of this
study was to address the issue of weakening the strength
of language shift from Newah to Nepali. This could be
one of the reasons why the educated Newah people from
villages openly communicate in Nepali instead of using
own native language. The impact of this shifting may ultimately lead to the extinct of local speech varieties which
could lead to an irreversible loss for the study of Newah
dialects.
A Note on the Morpho-syntactic Evolution of
the Newar (i) Numeral ONE
Yogesh Mishra,
Imperial College
London, UK
Numerals are idiocyncratic to form of semantic class of
their own. They also stand out for their properties which
Tense and Aspect in Kathmandu Newar
Kazuyuki Kiryu
Japan
It has been posited that Kathmandu Newar has a tense
distinction between past vs. non past and an aspectual distinction between perfective and imperfective. The most
recent summary is found in Hale and Shrestha (2006:54),
as follows:
Conjunct Disjunct
-e'FC -I'FD'
-a'PC
Non-past/ Irrealis
Past/ Real is
Imperfective
Perfective
long stem or -u ID
-a PD
In this presentation, I will argue that the above tense/ aspect distinction are misleading, and propose the following
two points:
1. The fundamental tense distinction is made between
future vs. non-future
Conjunct
Perfective
Continuative
Non future Future
-a -e
-a cwan-a -a cwan-e
2.      The conjunct series has a binary aspectual distinc-
78
Newah Vijnana-7 tion between perfective and continuative aspect, and the
distinction, perfective, continuative and neutral aspects.
Disjunct
Non Future
Future
Perfective
-la
-i
Continuative
-a cwan-a
-a cwan-i
Neutral
ong stem
NIL
Furthermore, it will be discussed that the perfective forms
such as FC, FD PC and PD cannot be simply regarded as
perfective but that the perfective interpretation is explained
by a more modality oriented concept.' Recognition of a
new situation,' This modality analysis explains why the
'past Disjunct' does not appear in non-finite positions
while the past conjunct and future conjunct/disjunct' form
The First Iteration of our Vision and
Mission of WNO:
Introduction:
Not forgetting who we are, and where we come from,
We, the Newah People, residing outside Nepal, feel the
need to come together in a united way, in solidarity with
our fellow compatriot, committed to the basic democratic values in-order to give back and help as much as we
can, the country, culture and people we love, who have
given us so much of our identity and history as a people,
our name and our face. The unwavering will and desire
of the Newah people to be a part of this larger human
community whose obligation is always to lend a helping
hand and strong shoulder of support to alleviate sufferings
and struggles, and to remove all Asorts of socio-political
dominance and injustice from this world and promote full
and unhindered basic human freedom, socio-economical
prosperity, cultural and intellectual development in all arts
and sciences for the Newah people and people of Nepal.
The Objectives:
1. To unite the Newah people around the world in
a democratic forum and alliance with purpose to
support and help our compatriots in Nepal in their
struggle for achieving their aspirations and dreams
for freedom, political and human rights and overall
development in every aspects of their daily life.
2. To preserve and conserve the unique cultural treasures and heritage of the Newah people and bring it
to the people of the world so that they can know and
appreciate their Newah brethren who has made their
due contribution to the larger human society.
3. To bring the Newah people of Nepal into the mainstream of the national political life and international
community of nations so that their work and contribution to promote basic humanitarian values and
rights be recognized which shall ensure the longevity and survival of the Cultural heritage and identity
of the newah people as part of the larger mosaic of
world Cultural Heritage and Experience.
4 The Newah people and country of Nepal shall be
the sole recipient and beneficiary of this Endeavour
to give-back to their homeland by the Newah people
of the world.
5. To establish a WORLD NEWAH FUND for the
World Newah people in order to bring all human and
material resources together into a full fledged financial institution of banking, lending and investing in
business and developmental activities of the country
Nepal that will support the preservation, enhancement the social-cultural development and survival of
the Newah community.
6. The Organizational shall be an internationally
based organization, with country chapters, where the
newah people reside, and a forward based secretariat
in Nepal in-order to impart and interact with all National Newah organization in Nepal.
Miscellaneous Materials
79 *i TO WtPi¥l
DECADE OF THE NEWAH PEOPLE
1131 NS - 1140 NS (2011-2020)
Many a decade and many generations of Newars have
passed through a very rough patch of dark and unpleasant
history. Coming out on the other side, the Newah people
are poised to embark upon a new journey of optimism,
confidence, and achievements as never seen before. The
enthusiasm, the toil, and sacrifice that will be made shall
deliver a bright and strong future to the Newars for many
generations to come.
WNO calls upon the Newah community to declare the
next decade as the DECADE OF THE NEWAH PEOPLE
1131 to 1140 NS so that we can achieve many things in
this decade that we have not been able to in the last 240
years.
One would ask, "What does this DECADE mean to you,
to us, and the entire Newah community and organizations
working around the world and in Nepal?"
To be honest, it is just a CALLING, a VISION and a
CONCEPT, that we hope can ignite passion, creativity
and enthusiasm to make things different and better for
us all so that we can achieve feats we have not known
before. We see it to encourage and support our efforts,
bring real confidence in each and every one of us and say
out loud that we can do it like our ancestors. Each person
will understand it the way he or she knows best and strive
to achieve important changes in our lives and community
It will be impossible for WNO to tell everybody what this
DECADE should mean to them and what they should do.
Our best bet is to ask everyone to bring awareness in the
community and enlighten oneself and also to focus and
combine our resources to achieve great things for the future.
WNO suggests that each one of us make ten important
commitments and resolutions to bring quantitative and
qualitative changes in our lives. If one is an individual, he
or she can make his or her own commitment to themselves
and their family and friends. If there are organization get
together, then make minimum ten goals that will impact
the ways we do our business so that the next generation
of Newah will be better decade than we have now. In a
democratic way, each organization can chart their own ten
goals that suit them best.
WNO does have goals of its own, some organization specific, and others oriented towards the general community.
Here are few examples as there will be many to come:
■ Formalize and Constitute the Organization as
World body within the next 12 months.
■ Forge unity and solidarity amongst national and
regional organizations so as to support the struggles
and effort of the Newah compatriots in our homeland, Newah Mandala.
■ To energize and encourage our Newah leadership
in Nepal and to strategize and achieve our desired
and deserved historic, cultural, linguistic, political
and state rights for a federal state of NEPAL MANDALA. A Federal state within a larger Federal State
of Nepal.
■ Quantitative and Qualitative goals: Increase greater awareness of Newah Culture, language and Arts
in the new and younger generation who has been left
out and detached from their own culture and history.
- Increase the percentage of Newah speakers by
5% every year locally and nationally so that in the
next 20 years all Newah people can speak, read
and write Nepal Bhasa.
- Introduction of Nepal Lipi, the Newah script
we should learn.
- Formulating a University as center of Newah
learning.
■ Mentoring and NEWAH FIRST ALWAYS.
Newah has to come first. Every Nepal Bhasa
speaking person to mentor at least one Newah
youth of age 25 and below and bring awareness of
Culture and Arts and teach him to speak, read, and
write Nepal Bhasa well.
- Home-Nepal Bhasa Speaking Zone: Home to
the Newah speaking zone and Parents are to speak
only Nepal Bhasa to their children.
■ Contribution and Obligation: Each Newah person
has a solemn obligation to their community. Contribution of service has to be made to keep up strong.
WNO members and supporter agrees to contribute
minimum of 10 dollars a month to the Organization.
World-Wide Tele-Conference and formation
of World Newah Organization (WNO)
August 21, 2010
80
Newah Vijnana-7 The Second World-Wide Tele-Conference was successfully concluded on NS 1130 Gunla 11 Saturday, August
21, 2010. Individual and organizational participants from
around the world, and namely, USA, UK, Canada, Japan,
India and Nepal took part in the teleconference lasting
some three and half hours. The first world-Wide Tele-
Conference was held on April 18, 2010. The coordinator
of WNO Coordinating Group, Mr. Daya Shakya, welcomed all participants and thanked them for taking time
off from their busy schedule and participating in this important conference. The conference was moderated by Dr.
Roshan Shrestha with 20 participants around the world.
Attended participants emphasized on the collective approach to save our cultural heritage and Newah Identity
from extinction for the future generation. Participants
also opined on the formation of the World Newah Organization and agreed that the step taken was a needed one
and timely, and the organization will be able to bring all
the Newah around the world to act collectively in defense
of Newah civilization. Participants of the conference discussed on the organizational structure and then formed an
AD-HOC committee mandated to take the organization
to a formally constituted institution with an elected body
and constitution. The following decisions were taken at
the Conference.
16. Ms. Neelam Pradhananga
Australia
17. Mrs. Rajani Pradhan
Belgium Europe
18. Mr. Season shrestha
USA
19. Mr. Subhash Prajapati
USA
20. Mr. Ripendra Awal
Japan
21. Dr. Narayan Rajbhandari
USA
22. Mr. Prajwal Bajracharya
USA
23. Dr. Prasanna Amatya
Canada
24. Dr. Dhruba Shrestha
Netherland
(pending confirmation)
25. Mr. Rajendra Pradhan
Belgium
(pending confirmation)
26. Mr. Aditya man Shrestha
USA
(pending confirmation)
After the formation of the AD-HOC Committee the previous WNO Coordinating Group consisting of the following members that played pivotal role to bring WNO to this
stage was formally dissolved:
1. Daya Shakya - Coordinator USA
2. Dr. Bal Gopal Shrestha-Co-Coordinator UK
3. Mrs. Rahena Wester Germany
4. Mr. Binod Manandhar "Ala" USA
5. Dr. Roshan Shrestha USA
6. Mr. Tribhuvan Tuladhar USA
1. All participants from around the world of the last two
Tele-Conference, (up to the permitted number), shall
become members of the AD -HOC committee
2. The number of the AD-HOC committed shall be up
to 25 members for now.
3. The AD-HOC Committee shall have the following
officers to coordinate the body
i. Chairperson (One)
ii. Co- chairperson (Four)
The following AD-HOC committees and its chairs were
formed:
Mr. Daya R. Shakya (Chairperson) USA
Dr. Bal Gopal Shrestha      (Co-Chairperson) UK
Mr. Tribhuvan R. Tuladhar(Co-Chairperson) USA
Mr. Suwarn Vajracharya    (Co-Chairperson) Japan
Mr. Krishna Chakhun UK
Mr. Sashi Mahaju UK
Mrs. Rahena Wester Germany
8. Dr. Roshan Shrestha USA
9. Mr. Binod Manandhar "Ala" USA
10. Mr. Govinda Shrestha Canada
11. Mr. Suchitra Bahadhur Shrestha   USA
12. Mr. Rajiv Shanker Shrestha India
13. Mr. Rajeesh Shrestha USA
14. Mr. Pramod Shrestha UAE
15. Mrs. Kalpana Pradhan India
Participation from Nepal as "Guests or Observers only"
Included Mr. Naresh Tamrakar - Nayo Newah Dey Dabu
and Mr Dipak Prasad Shrestha of Hetauda Waa Pau/Sam-
achar Kendra Nepal.
The conference also announced the launching of the Sikkim based website dedicated to Karunadevi Dharmartha
Guthi http://www.karunaguthi.com/ for public view.
Participants also discussed on further development of the
Organization. Collectively agreed were the facts that the
constitution of such a World Body was timely and essential to safe-guard the survival of the Newah heritage and
empowerment of the Newah people's rights in Nepal and
bringing Newah awareness around the world. As there
was many things to be done the organization needs to prioritize its program and must be inclusive to all members
and institutions of the community. It was also emphasized
that the Newah people around the world feels and wants
to give back to their compatriots in Nepal where the situation is not getting better and needs all the help it can get
from all corners of the world. Unity of opinion and solidarity of action is paramount among Newah population
which can change the situation towards the better.
The conference adjourned with commitment to meet
again soon to formalize the Institution at the earliest possible time.
Miscellaneous Materials
81 31 TO WWfl
^T:cWTFT^rf
fafa - T.T. 113° r^pT ^ <nfaTT:
(August 21, 2010/ fa. T. W^> ?rrTT x)
^faT^TT - faTTTT TTT: cTTTRTT
i - faRfaRf 1 rff: (T:)
sTfaTRT frfa        - <K *? ( H~ TTffar, TTR, TRT,
TTRfTT, TTRT, wR-Rf, TTTT)
Rfa" ?TTT T:fa   - ftW TTfTf, TfrFTTf TTffal
^RfTT: ^TTTTfa   - TT. TTT T^S, TffaTFT TTffal
faff??" - fTTfa TTTfa (TTT), TTT? TTffaT
TTTTR TTfT    - TfTR T«=T, ^fMifgTTT, TT:
RTR RTT TT ^TF.T ^ ^ ^ fafaf^TR, Rfa TRT
fasfa tttFt ttt ^ i
(1)   RT£ fTTf T^S" TTfT TTTffTTT faRTT TTT (TTT TTT)
^# TTTc?r ?
R)  faRTf TTTTT TTT: TTT TTTT RT
R)  ^T faff: TTTTjf TT faRTT TT: RT I
(V) fafaTTf T^RT ^ft WW TTTT TfaTf TTT: TT TTJT
T#3TT I
W T^S" TTf: TTTTjf TT RTT TfcfT TTT coordination
committee TT TT TfTTTT fa?T I
(%)   sr.sr.rr TTT ^ RTR I
(1) 35# ^T: 3Tlfal^R fa^T ^T: (cT^sf >J5f:)
SR WotfMotTT TTTTTTT T^S" TTfT TTTffTTT TTT RTTT
TTTT TTTRfa ^RTT ^TTT faffa fa 3F? 3F? Tfafafa I T«f
fTRTT TTT  T^faf TfTf? TTTT   Ro  far^f  %  *? TTRT T^#
ttttt fspsTT: RTRf frfar RTf frr i trt ttrr;^ *? 1 TR
iffa Tfaf dfal+fvrA|T 4^4) ft' T ^ I TR TTTR TTTT SfaTRTR
O OOO o o -.
tt: ttt t^t Trr: tttrttt ttr TTft ttt ttt faR ^t
??ajT# TTTTIT ^TT^PT ^K t? rR^TT ^g" ^TT sfa^TT^r^T fa^^TT
T^TT (cT^sr JTifa^f) ^TfT ^^Tf W. I STT W^H^T ^ ^NFT
O O CN O O   O O
^ fa^CT ^4 ^TT SfaRfaf^fPT s^fa ^TT fa^fa TT^P ^^ t?
^fW ft%#f ?R^ %TT?f ^ ^fTT^fjf ^i ^TT STifaT^T^T
faf^TT WTTT ^3f: ^T?rr ^farf I
(R) fa?^TT ^T:m ^m: ^fa 3*T:cT 5q^ I
^S" ^T 3hH|^«h fa^^TT T^R ^K t^TT ^TT^T W$ fafa
STTfa Jf^fa ^«f ^TRT ^P? TTTTiTfa ^TRT ^far TPTfa ^T^fT ^ ^f^T
o o -\ o      o o
I spj W^H^R ^TRT WZ ^^ ^^fa ^f^" W; 3 f? fa^ K
T? rRRT WT ^# TTT#rf ^ W=\ I W^H^H'T ^P? ^TR <T V
T? RTFlfa TT#t TTTfa £f^TT 1 t? ^TRT <T V T? ^Ep ^ rffa ^TT
^^ TTTTFT ^ JpfWf ^"Tl faff ^TTTT ^ ^R Tf^fR" Tf%iT ^THT
O CNO CN O v=
^PT f^T i t? ^TTTT ^ ^ t? R^P TT%if ■W^ld I
(V fa?5HT T5f:m ^Ff: ^^ ^ I
^TT^t: ^t^TT
^TTTT ^faxT ^Ff W^M^H^ ^TRTTf ^TT S^fR IT^f s^fa
EfRffaffaT ^Tf^R: ^TRffa ^T. fRFT ^5 ^TPT TFTT fa=T I
RTTTTT Sr^IT^T Tf fafRT T?Tf£R T ^TRR ?TFPT TT Tf T^f
I 3"t TTfTTT TRf fa^fa TTTTT TTTfa fai?fTTf TTT Tf TTf
fajT W. I farf fa*RT TTTTf T TTT ?TTTT far? TT TTT WZ T
TTTT TTT fafaTTT TTTTf TTTf? TTTT 3TfaTf f^?T ?TTT TRT
?f TT TRT T^TRR ?TJfT TTf fa=T I
TfTTTf ^T3Tf JfTTfT TTT RTTf Tf TfTR TTTTfa? fa*RT
TTT£R (TfaTfTf, TTftTT), TTT TTTTR (TTTTT), TT. TTTTf
TT T^5 (TTTTTT, TTfTT) Tf Tf TT TfTffaT TTf TTTTT
fatTR TTTT irr I
TTT sftTT TTTT SfTT^TTT TFTffa TJT TTT TTT TTTTT TTTT
£fTT3TTT TFTTfa Tfa TTfTT TSTfTR ^ TT I TT TSTTTR
0"\ CN OOO OO
^ TTTT T?fa TeTT ^T ^TTT TT t?T TTTT RTT ^TT T TTI
TT fa^TTT TTTT TTfaR, TTTTT, WTfTf, TTfTT, Tf&faTf,
TfTT (faftTT), T.lT.t, TfafTT, TTFTTTTT, TTT> ^HMW
TTTTTTT TfafafaR T?TT I
TTT T^g" TTTT TTTf?T?R ^^ t?TTTT fTRTT TTT TTT TfTfTT
T5T TTTT TTTTJTTT fafTTT TTT, T.T. WO
82
Newah Vijnana-7 Elr^H
Bc^d       Sbkjb
1
TR:
«kh $\m
<HR'H, <HT<+I
2
"Rf
(faRd TTR?
*lMHMI  <sWk+l
3
"Rf
,
cTTtW?:, TTR
*)£\\<\-J\A\A
4
"Rf
N          N
-, r   -,
&\.  =11 <HJ11H1 <H *\*6
<H+fl4>l< =l<HI1d
5
1R:
RRT fas %*&;
Tfaf
6
1R:
faR fas
-.r.               -.r.
JfK<^|u^,a(i|l<eti|
7
1R:
fafT fas
-.^
3TTRPT
8
1R:
TfaT fas
r. r.
|^||cH=hH, T<d
9
1R:
J|)i=l«i *|t<i
■WMI^I
10
1R:
r.        -,
-.^
^r=Hi ^6
<H>>dl<H1l
11
1R:
^    -,             r.
-.^
nHk <HMfa
ijdlfi,   (SHK + I
12
1R:
SlftT TTT
N
dcMd
13
1R:
fatR SRTT
TTR
14
1R:
gpT TT
N
=l<HI1d
15
1R:
^
-.^
HKMU|  <M*^K)
3TTRPT
16
1R:
fTTT fas
-.^
3TTRPT
17
1R:
Tfa fas
^fa
18
1R:
Tfa? fas
Nrs
°ll<^^
19
1R:
TT   £R fas
N
HsX^I1^
20
1R:
^
Nrs
<M(d  <N*1U^K)
wR^r
21
1R:
fTTT TTRTf
Nrs
WM^I
22
1R:
rs    rs
ctx-H^I  ytlM
|rHI*^, ^|<d
23
1R:
^
Nrs
^m<m y^iiHid
wR^r
(x) t%f^rm *fw t^t ftr^f snrf*f Tt%rT starts? snfcf
fafaT, TRTTT TRRT far RTRT TTTT TfaTf TTfT TT Tf?TTf
faRT TT fafaRTT TfT TTRT TRT Tfa TTTT fffaTT T«f
TT fTTRT *T faff ^TTTT TT T farifar I TT TTTRT RT
o v=oo oo
T TT TTTf http://www.karunaguthi.com/
(*.) ^t ^T: 3rfaTI^?tSH ?3fcT 3^FT: cT:T coordination
committee *fa 5TT *jfH+|^| fg^rr
o o ^  o
Tfa  TTTT   TTTffTTT  faRTf  TTT   RTT  TTTfTT  TT  TTT
O O OOO
TfT coordination committee TTTTf T TfT: TTRT TfTTT
coordinate committee Tf ^T TTTTf TTTfa T: TT TT: TT
OOO o      o
TT TfTTTT TTfTT fTTT fRT I
coordinate committee TT: TTT ^ I
TR - TTRT TTTT
TTT    - if TTT TTT£R
TT:    - Tf. TRTTT fas
TT:    - TT. fTT fas
TT:    - faT fas fa??
TT:    - ifafa TRff (TT)
(%) *T:*T:TT ^T: ST >WT SSI^S:
o    o oooo
• TT faT TRTT TfaRTT TTTT TTT TTRT TRT 'TTT
TT' fTTT RTT RTT fRT I
• srij ?^rrtt farrr farfafa tttt tt: ftf ttrt t
T TTTRTTT Tfa fafa far TT T far: TTTT TTT T far:
TTf fRT I
• TT TTTT TT.   f TT faSTR T RT TT TTTR T ^
O   O O "\ CN O *s
T^f TT RfTR TRTTT TT RT Tf T TTTT <R t TRf
Rf TffT RTf T:TR TTf TRf Rf TT TTT T TRT T
RTTTfaf T?" t RfR fTTT: TT Ifaf I
• TRTT RTTRTR, TTRR Tfa fT: TTTRfTTT T^T
^ fa] Rf^ TRf TTT TT Ifaf I
• TfT T^, TTTT T R TTT?f TTTf Rf TTT TTT, T^
W.W T T TTfaTRT TT W. T?Tf ^Tf TfT TT Ifaf I
• fRTT TTR, TTT RTI TTfaTRf "^Ptl TT TTT TTf
ifaf I
• TfT TTT, TTTT T R TTTRfTTT TTTT faR7 TRf
TT RT RTRfa fTTTT TTTT Tf TT ^TTTT TTT TTT
KT I
• ffff^" TTTfa, TffaTT T RTffTT TT TfT ^TTf fafaf
?TTTT ^TTRT ^ I RTTfaT RT t ^ffa TTT RTR ?T
oooo o -\
T I TTTT TRRT TT TT TT TfT TTT TRTTT RTT
TTRTf TffT I TTTTT TfT TTfTfRTT fTTTRT T
TT RRTT TTT ? TT TTfaTRT RRT ftf RTRfa T
TTTTT fTRTRTT RTRfa fTTTTT RRffa TT TT
TT TT Ifaf I
• TTT TTTTRT TTT T RT TT TR TT RT ^T TT
O "\ O CN        O "\
T TT TTf TTT TTR ^frU ^\ TTTTTT T ^ W. TTT
TTT TTT I TTT TTTTRT Tfa TTT TTTjf TTTT ^TT
TTTT TTT ^TT RTTTTT TT TTTTT TTT ^TTTTT TTT
TTTRT ^ TT TTT I TRRT fTT *TTT TTTTTT TTT
RT T TfTTTT TTTTT TTTTff TR Rf?TT ^ T TRT
rfari TT TTTT TRRT TTfafa TTf Asia and Pacific
Region T Tffafa TTT TTTR T, Asia and Pacific
Region T TT: TTT TT TTf TRT Singapoor T TT
RT ^ TT TTT I
• TTT TTTTTT TTR T f T 3R TTT TTT Tfa TTT TRf
O "\ O O CN     O
^{ TTT TTTT TTRTT ^ I TT R TTT TT: far TTf
O OOO O O CN
TTT TT: TT faTR 3R TRT TT TT: TT TTT I TT TTT
Miscellaneous Materials
83 ^ap faff fafa TRT? TTT tfar I TT if TTT TTTTC Tfa
TTT TfTTfTT TfT T TRfRT TTTTT R TfT ^T ^
RT TT TTT I
TfTT fas T TR TRT TT tfaft R TTffaR RT  far
O OCOO OOO
TTRT TT£ TTT TTR T? I Tt t faf TTT TTT tf t
faffTT Wi TT far: TR T? TR TT far TTffaf TTTT
TT TTT fTRTRRR TTTT TT TT TfTT I RRff T faf
T iR TT TT Tf T^T I T faff: fafTRTRRT T faf T
TTf faf T TT TTTT I fTT TfTTTT tf TTTT ^l\ T ^TT
TTT RTTT ^ TT TTT TRf TRT Rf fafTT TTR RT
far TRff R TTRTT f TTT fn I TTT ^Tf TTTTT TT
TTTTf fsRTTT T? Rfft TTT faTTR T? TR   TT
frr i
TRTfTR f ^5 T faR RT RTRfa TTff T TTTTT far
T^T RT T TTT TTT TTTT T TfRTTTT T TTTT TRf ^ff
T t£ TTT TTffR I fTRT TT TTTT, TffT TfTTR TTT
TTRTT ^ faTTT TTT TfTTR TTTT TTT T? TT ffar I
oooo o oo
•   If TTT TRT" T TTT TTRT TR T TTRT TT RT T ffTT
OOO CN O   O
faR T? I fan:  RfaTR faf TT RT far t RfaffT
O O OOO
faTTR R: I fafTRTRR 1V T ffRTRT R R: TTT faf t f
T fT: T Tf T: far TTRT TT I fafT Rfaf RfTfa T
TRfR fa?T ^Tf faf faffR ftf RTRT TT TTTT RRTRf
Tf fa TR TfaT RRRTTT R: I fafaf fTR ftfaRT "^
TTT RfT R: fTTT TTT RTTffa T TTRTT TR I
(>3) cTlf*r 3ntcT
TT Tfa f T: TTTjf TTT RRT TTTT faffRTRR T? TTT
TT TRffa TRTT Tf TT ffaaT R: I
Openings:
Nepal Bhasa Parishad Building was renovated with
financial support from Indian Embassy sponsored projects
84
Newah Vijnana-7 Members & Subscribers'
Directory
Devendra M. Amatya, PhD, PE
2253 Magnolia Meadows
Mount Pleasant, SC 29464, USA
Email: amatya4@a0l.com
Hydrologic Science/Hydraulic
Engineering
Newah Culture & Language
Pradeep Amatya
384 Miraleste dr # 464
San Pedro, CA 90732, USA
e-mail: Amatya@aol.com
Shashindra & Rama Bajracharya
2722 Mallory Ln.
Eugene, OR 97401, USA
Asha Archives
Gha 3-563 Kulambhulu
Kathmandu -3 NEPAL
Sophia Baidya
4720 Old Ravine Court
Columbus, OH 43220
Brent Bianchi
23 N Knox St.
Durham, NC 27705, USA
Newah Music
Cilia Brady
P.O. Box 873,
Bolinas, CA 94924, USA
Kathmandu Valley Tours
Barbara Brockway
P.O. Box 171
Sisters, OR 97759, USA
S.E.E.D.S.
Central Department of Nepal
Bhasha
Patan Multiple Campus,
Tribhuvan University
Kathmandu, NEPAL
Center For Nepal & Asian Studies
(CNAS)
Tribhuvan University
Kirtipur, Kathmandu, NEPAL
Central Library
Tribhuvan University
Kirtipur, Kathmandu, NEPAL
Chicago University Library
1100 E. 57th St.
Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Columbia University Library
535 West 114th St.
New York NY 10027- 7035, USA
Ellen Coon
7112 Cedar Avenue
Takoma Park, MD 20912, USA
Cornell University Library
110 Olin Library
tthaca, NY 14853-5301, USA
Rummi Laxmi Dake
122 Myrtle St. # 1
Manchester, NH 03104, USA
Raj B. Dhakhwa MD
15 Clive Hills Road
Short Hills, NJ 07078, USA
Newar Culture and Language
Prof. Scott Delancey
Department of Linguistics,
University of Oregon,
Eugene, OR 97403, USA
e-mail: Delancey@darkwing.uoregon.
edu
Tibeto-Burman Linguistics
Prof. George Van Driem
Himalayan Languages Project
tnstitut fur Sprachwissenschaft
Universitat Bern
Langgassstrasse 49
3000 Bern 9
Switzerland
Tibeto-Burman Linguistics
James Ferguson
PO Box 1783
Hillsboro, OR 97123, USA
Prof. David N. Gellner
tnstitute of Social and Cultural
Anthropology
University of Oxford
51-53 Banbury Road
Oxford OX2 6PE
United Kingdom
Newar Religion, History, Society
Prof. Carol Genetti
Department of Linguistics
University of California, Santa Barbara
Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
Himalayan Linguistics, Newar
Dialectology;
Tibeto-Burman and fndo-Aryan
language contact
Gifts From Afar
3101 Lloyd Center
Portland, OR 97232, USA
Dhurba Gorkhali
2231 Halter Lane
RestonVA 20191, USA
Gregory Price Grieve
225 Florence street
Greensboro, NC 27401
Newar Culture and History
Dibya Hada
100 Watkins Pond Blvd. #305
Rockville, MD 20850
Dr. Austin Hale
Erli-Hiiebli
8636 Wald
Switzerland
Newar phonology, morphology,
syntax and discourse
Prof. David Hargreaves
Department of English
Western Oregon University
Monmouth OR 97361 USA
Tibeto-Burman Linguistics
Dr. Nathan W.Hill
Department of China and f nner Asia
School of Oriental and African Studies,
University of London
Members & Subscribers
85 Dr. Nathan W. Hill (contd.)
Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square
London WClH oXG UK
Sanskrit / Tibetan Studies
Gwendolyn Hyslop
P.O. Box 3114
Eugene, OR 97403, USA
Tibeto-Burman Languages and
Linguistic
Prof. Linda litis
H.M. Jackson School of f nt'l Studies,
Box 353650
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195-3650, USA
e-mail: iltis@u.washington.edu
Comparative Religion, Newar Language
and Literature
Puspa Man Joshi
2601 Muskingum court
Columbus, Ohio 43210 USA
e-mail: joshi.2@osu.edu
Planning (transportation)
Saroj Joshi Ph.D.
9929 Azuaga St #Fl04
San Diego, CA 92129, USA
Laura Kainik
1270 Montery Avenue
Berkeley, CA 94707, USA
Binod Kansakar
12926 Entrada Drive
Orlando, FL 32837, USA
Manoj Kansakar Ph.D
1832 Wright St.
Madison, Wl 53704, USA
e-mail: Manojk@compuserve.com
Prof. Tej Ratna Kansakar
37/14 Naradevi Tole
P.O. Box 7045
Kathmandu, NEPAL
Newar Linguistic
Ganesh Lal Kayastha
1909 Alabaster Drive.
Silver Spring, MD 20904, USA
Kazuyuki Kiryu
Department of Environmental Design
for Special Needs
Mimasaka Women's College
Kamigawara 32 Tsuyama
Okayama, 708-8511, JAPAN
Newar, Typology
Knight Library
University of Oregon
1501 Kincaid Street
Eugene, OR 97403-1299, USA
In Bean Lim
716-N0-2 Sanggye- Jugong A
Sanggye-10 dong, Nowon-Gu
Seoul, Korea
Chapang Study
Bhikshu Kondanya
Samgha Ram
Kathmandu, Nepal
Lauri Knytych
19111 SW Indian Creek
Lake Oswego, OR 97035, USA
Ulrike Kolver, Ph.D
Stieglitzstr. 61,
04229 Leipzig,
Deutschland
ulrike-koelver@gmx.de
South Asian studies
KPT Info Trader, Inc.
2-3-18 Nakanoshima Kita-ku
Osaka 530-0005 JAPAN
Prof. Todd T. Lewis
College of Holy Cross
Worcester, MA 01610-2395, USA
Newar Buddhism
Lotus Research Center
Prayagpath, P.O.Box No. 59
Lalitpur, Nepal
Tulsi R. Maharjan, Ph.D
Center for f nternational Business &
Education
Raritan Valley Community College
P.O. Box 3300
Somerville, NJ 08876-1265
Educational Development in Nepal
Ram Malakar
14418 Oakvale St.
Rockville MD 20853 USA
Malakar_Ram@hotmail.com
Raju Lal. Mali
7198 SE Reedville Creek
Hillsboro, OR 97123, USA
Gaurishankar Manandhar Ph. D
2401 West Broadway # 109
Columbia MO 65203
Research in the field of Reproductive
Biology
Prof. James A. Matisoff
Dept. of Linguistics,
Univ. of California,
Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
e-mail: Matisoff@socratesberkeley.edu
Comparative Tibeto-Burman
Linguistics
Ikuko Matsuse
Keio University
1-30-13-202 Higashitamagawa,
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo JAPAN
The Movement Center Yoga Studio
1021 NE 33rd Ave.
Portland, OR 97232, USA
Prof. Dr. Ulrike Mueller-Boeker
Department of Geography
University of Zurich
Winterthurerstrasse 190
CH- 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
Human Geography, Development
Studies, South Asia
Harue Niwa Minpaku
C/O Midori Book Store Co,
Toyonaka Po.Box 98
Osaka 580-8691 JAPAN
harue@md.midori-book.co.jp
Kay Norton
15303 Ashworth PI. N.
Seattle, WA 98133, USA
Bruce McCoy Owens
Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology
Wheaton College
Norton, MA 02766, USA
e-mail:bowens@wheatonma.edu
Steven M. Parish
9535 Vista Secunda,
San Diego, CA 92129, USA
Beda Pradhan
2621 Cory Terrace
Wheaton MD 20902
Newah culture, history, art
Krishana Pradhan
302 S Bassett Street
Madison Wf 53703 USA
Kpradhan @ facstaff. wise, edu
Nepalese Linguistics
Subhash Ram Prajapati
14520 12th Ave NE
Shoreline, WA 98155, USA
Narayan Rajbhandari PhD
3001 Cregler Drive
Apex NC 27502
Watershed hydrology & Water quality
Newah Culture
Penelope Rose
1103 Clay St.
San Francisco CA 94108, USA
Donatella Rossi
8647 SE Alder Street
Portland OR 97216-1603, USA
Oriental Studies
86
Newah Vijnana-7 Jennifer Salyer
995 Joshua PL
Fremont, CA 94539, USA
Veeva @ goplay. com
Nasma Shrestha Scheibler
Ruetschistrasse 21
8037-CH Zurich
Switzerland
Architecture and Town Planning
Newar Culture
Buddha Laxmi Shakya
2233 Lincoln Ave.
San Diego, CA 92104, USA
Kelsang Shakya
9737 N. Clarendon
Portland OR 97203, USA
Sarba Shakya
1508 E. Vine Ave
West Covina CA 91791
Newar Handicrafts
Rajiv S. Shresta 'Rachana'
Karunadevi Smarak Dharmartha Guthi
Gangtok, Sikkim-737-101 INDIA
E-mail:karuna_guthi@yahoo.com.in
Newah Activities in Sikkim
Razeesh B. Shrestha
946 Everett St.
EL SarritaCA 94530, USA
Sarala Shrestha
842 Guilford Ave.
Hagerstown, MD 21740, USA
Nepalese Literature
Subas/ Sachita Shrestha
15657 NW Energia ST.
Portland, OR 97229, USA
e-mail: subas.shrestha@nike.com
Suchitra B. Shrestha
2626 Babcock Road 1702
San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA
Newah Language and Culture
Mark Turin (contd.)
Sciences and Humanities (CRASSH)
University of Cambridge
17 Mill Lane
Cambridge
CB21RX
Prof. Mukti P. Upadhyaya
Department of Economics
Oregon State University
Corvallis OR 97339, USA
Bikram Vaidya
2571 NE 30th Ave.
Portland, OR 97212, USA
David Vala
4507 NE 20th
Portland OR 97203 USA
Architect and Artist
Helen Ward
14085 SW 144th Ave.
Tigard, OR 97224 ,USA
Achyut Krishna Shrestha
7904 Powhatan St.
New Carrolton, MD 20784, USA
Sugan / Magan Shrestha
34 Michael Court
Gaithersburg MD 20877 USA
Ann Weise- Souza
1035 Minna Street
San Francisco, CA 94103
Bal Gopal Shrestha Ph.D
Institute of Social and Cultural
Anthropology
University of Oxford
51-53 Banbury Road
Oxford OX2 6PE
United Kingdom
Bhagat Lal Shrestha
2072 Delta Dr
Gaithersburg, MD 20882, USA
shreb002@yahoo.com.
Computer Soft Ware,
Social Activities Newar Association
Mary-Jo O'Rourke/
Bimal Shrestha
25 Holloway Road,
Brunswick 3056, Victoria
AUSTRALfA
Nepal Bhasa Linguistics
Hariman Shrestha
2307Tecumseh St.
Adelphi, MD 20730, USA
Newah Culture
Mita Shrestha & Larry Owen
375 Zachary
Prescott, AZ 86301, USA
Nisha Rani Shrestha
2502 Babcook Road # 1916
San Antonio Texas 78229 USA
Bhikkhu Sugandha
(Anil Sakya) Ph.D
P.O.Box 90
Ratchdamnoen Post Office
Bangkok 10200 Thailand
Tanka Sunuwar
Microsoft Corporation
One Microsoft Way
Redmond, WA 98052, USA
Software Design Engineer
Juhee Suwal
215J Michener Park
Edmonton AB, Canada T6H 4M5
CANADA
e-mail: jsuwal@gpu.ser.ualberta.ca
Population Studies, Nepal Bhasha,
Buddhism
Kamal Raj Singh Suwal
642 Kirkland Drive # 4
Sunny Valley CA 94087, USA
Dr. Pavitra Man Tuladhar
71 Stablegate Dr.
New York, NY 14580, USA
e-mail: Praju@mindspring.com
Tribhuvan Tuladhar
13203 Ashnut Lane
Herndon, Virginia VA 20171
Dr. Mark Turin
Research Associate
Centre for Research in the Arts, Social
Western Oregon University
Library
345 N. Monmouth Ave.
Monmouth OR 97361 USA
Rahena Wester
Ludwig Bachmeier Platz 5
D-84028 Landshut
GERMANY
Prof. Gautam Bajra Vajracharya
University of Wisconsin
Madison Wf 53704 USA
Sanskrit/ Buddhist Studies
Gary Velikanj e
P.O. Box 17192
Porland OR 97217
Nepalese culture
Members & Subscribers
87 ORDER FORM
Newah Vijnana
(THE JOURNAL OF NEWAR STUDIES)
ISSN 1536-8661
Membership Information
Please Complete and Return to the Editor
Newah Vijnana publishes information about Newar studies and member's activities.
Please keep us informed on your interest and activities regularly.
Please Print or Type Clearly
Name:	
Mailing Address:.
Phone: Fax  E-mail,
Professional Interest and Activities:	
Please enter my subscription to Newah Vijnana, Issue Number  Payment for;.
Institutional   (US$35.00) 	
Individual     (US $20.00)
Students       (US $10.00)
Back Issue     (US$10.00) Half Price
Airmail Surcharge for all other countries (Add US $5.00 - $10.00)
Total $     	
Payment by Credit Cards: VISA or MASTER CARD
Number  Expiration Date_
Signature
Please make checks payable to Himalayan Gifts for Newah Vijnana.
Thank you for your support.
Chief Editor: Sole Distributor
Daya R. Shakya Himalayan Gifts
1739 NE47lh Ave. 42nd Street Station
Portland, OR 97213, USA 2000 NE 42nd Ave.
Ph: 1-503-282-0447, Fax:1-503-774-7554 Portland, OR 97213, USA
E-mail: drasha@aol.com
88 Newah Vijnana-7 Nepal Sambat Calendar
1131
thllflth/ffifSl
SHsJcHI:
SUN
MON
slUIci ^
HJlrt=ll:
TQES
WED
1 cbUci
THQRS
r®
FRI
2010
IMov \ Dec
SAT
&.ef. 50513
SHsJcHI:
SUN
MON
cluiGi ^racf 993^ f^ioTT
HJlrt=ll:          ^T:          R^T:
TQES             WED           THQRS
2010 \ 011
*              Dec \ Jan
ST353T:         SlPfaT:
FRI              SAT
aq     7
aa     8
a3     9
ifoft
as    10
U'dtfl
aa   n
as   12
an    13
I
i
ao     6
aq     7
aa     8
as     9
Udtfl
as   10
aa   11
at    14
ae    15
30      16
iH3?fr
a     is
8         20
as    12
an   13
at    14
ae   15
qT   16
3         18
H*i<j«n
q»»T 17
3         19
a     17
y     21
trr^
S      22
U         23
C         24
e     25
tfdtfl
qO      26
qq    27
8        19
y      20
S       21
b      22
C        23
e     24
qo     25
•yw*fi
qa   28
q3    29
qe     30
qa Deoi
iH3?fr
qg    2
qc     4
qq    26
qa    27
ar^fr
q3    28
qa     29
qa    30
5i5?n
qiD Janl
qn     3
qg   31
qe     5
ftRIl? >Jipf :
1? nt
(Dllcla) • 5^ TT^ t^Mdl /faf. Vfffl r^t • 55 1^ f+dl4dl • 5% TT^ UiMci
qc     2
qe     3
ao     4
'^s* (aowMTsr 5915 fffg • ^ its it. fireiiR afg • ^ irir
S=yE: OTSlft
• 1 TTeT UTITTO SbJI^TS^T iTISI • 1. Ttt RsMeTT s-^muft aisi
• ^ rrfr fimft ijfSg/feYtr nd/3dteft irar • to Ttt [Jh+w+i S
• ti n?r aw *grai? • t$ ttcT ^o'       • =R icf fsftra":|
firRl <t)ljlfT?l   : ^MMWTCIl tf^[: <J?T:
OBT/OTET
2011
Jan \ Feb
3TT?W
SUN
'dlH=ll:
MON
HJlrt=ll:
TQES
3^T:
WED
f^faT:
THQRS
FRI
^|R=1|:
SAT
Ijg         • 5c rr^ s(4slgl:SI: r^1
ann     • 1 rr^ ot:3t^ ^f^/Hr^' ^rfe
aq     5
aa     e
33       7
38       8
ay     9
as    10
an    11
at   12
ae    13
30     14
q TTR       15
a     i6
8          18
y      19
S      20
^frRIT
U          21
t         22
3          17
e     23
qo    24
qq    25
qa    26
q3   27
qs    28
qy    29
qg    30
qt   Febl
qe     2
ao     3
ftsil qgct"
qn    31
,^
«            2011
w            Feb \ Mar
Ll Rlord
Sn^ffl:        ^M:         HJlrt=ll:          ^T:          R^T:
SUN             MON            TQES             WED           THQRS
^f5^T:
FRI
?lf^T:
SAT
U)ldjOl   • ? TTS' 3^ WET WW •
FTRfT a^ntriTT) • is rr^ ^rf^r
aq     4
aa     5
a3     e
ae     7
ay     8
as     9
an   10
at    11
orarfr
ae    12
qir^pT 13
3        15
=Rit5?fr
8         16
y     17
S         18
U         19
a     14
t         20
fpfarT+tfr
e     21
qo    22
qq    23
qa    24
q3   25
orarfr
q8      26
qy    27
qiD Marl
=Rit5?fr
qt     2
qe     3
ao     4
qs    28
IhldJd/tffT
® aluici ;aaci qqsq fciooii ®
ftrRr Tgrpf^ : ^rra*rwi «tw: <B^i:
2011
Mar\ Apr
3TT?W
SUN
'dlH=ll:
MON
HJlrt=ll:
TQES
3^T:
WED
f^faT:
THQRS
^*e||:
FR]
*|R=I|:
SAT
ao     3
del       *y ri^wTT^    • ^ wtn j 1 i$^\{fi<\if^rr) / ^ra^: d 111/^t^t ^^uiijh-li ^3
• 5 TT^1 ^THT ^WTTWT dill • ^ TT^1 C^^LIIWJI • *\\ T7\ ^T^ifs fl iRdlW^IIC
Iddl^ ^f  :   l|iN]H   ^^3 31 ^c  3tra5a   :   lliN^H   ^  31 ^  ^
aq     5
^frRIT
aa     e
33       7
as     s
ay     9
as   10
an    11
at    12
ae   13
orarfr
30     14
q ^  15
3         17
8          18
y      19
a     i6
S         20
U         21
t         22
e     23
qo    24
qq    25
qa    26
q3   27
orarfr
qs    28
qy    29
qn   31
qe     2
qs    30
qt Aprl
mm. P0513/05C
?ffT/daiiiy             ^
oluici ;aaci tt^t cten
®
2011
Apr \ May
ail^d=ll:
SUN
MON
HJlrt=ll
TQES
jsrai:
WED
THQRS
^5^T:
FRI
^lPl=l|:
SAT
aq     4
aa     5
as     e
as     7
ay     s
as     9
an   10
3TC£*T
ac   11
3T3*T
ae    12
w*
30       13
a     15
Q Skills   J,J
We
3         16
8          17
a     is
g          19
Id      20
C        21
e     22
qo    23
qq    24
arec*r
qa    25
3T3*T
q3    26
W*
qs    27
qs    29
qig     30
qa    28
qe     2
an*
ao     3
qt Mayl
^hniuIsi ora
WW.U:Ri1'flllM<j
n%ftftai5wrr*!n
i^ *n ii\ <sm.u&*
si • \ na ipim s^mai
OT Ipl: (aini, ^Rlflff
il W$Hc*HyNI, dl^l
ifl ai^i «vn(i &m{
aOT: • 11 Urt Hl'hd--^
Triwtai^fii gad
frrftr Tgrpf^ : ^JW*TWI «WI: W?t:
frTfSr igi?I#I  : ^H^*ITO «W1: a^I:
89 t&.BT. poqt
► otuioT ^facr qq3fl creson <
2011
May \ June
<HI$d«ll:
SQN
MON
HJlrt=ll:
TQES
WED
Pf€faT:
THQRS
^5^T:
FRI
*|R=I|:
SAT
jJ^IRT   • 5^ TJrt fTTU: TTO fTpT/ntl idl <f%
ffs • 5? ^ araw frfrWT • 5V n^
srrra: w?ftn • 5^ tt^ ^rga fe^r
• ?o Tttt tlHd^l^T TO: fff?,  fnTftSTT
aq     4
aa     5
33       6
ae     7
ay     s
as     9
an    io
aiw+fi
at    ii
ae    12
3q   14
30     13
a     i6
3          17
e     is
y        19
S        20
U          21
q^   is
t         22
e     23
qo    24
aiw*fi
qq    25
qa    26
q3    27
qe    28
qy   29
qiD    3i
3TT%
qt Junl
3te     • 5 n^ smfferCT smfertf ffs
qs   30
» 1"S
t&.BT. poqt
jte"/3iene
> otUToT 3facT ^3^ cTCffolT i
June\ July
JlBTTB'/Bn3gT
® olUloi 3facT W3fl Rod I ®
2011
July
ail$d=ll:
SQN
*ilH«ll:
MON
HJlrt=ll:
TQES
WED
R^=l|:
THQRS
^53T:
FRI
*|R=I|:
SAT
3RIR • ic n^ faja1 jsh^ fe^r, t^wt fe^r • <k tt^ dJwisr ^ror^r • 5? n% at
Midt1 rnTTwf T'TOT'ir • 513 tt^ ^f<(aiiiiil 4+isafl, dn4l tffij fa^5 dri4te*Ji fe^r
• 5c n^ ntfrr^Ttsft -dm Rh+i sfs • 5^ n^ wfj diiirfl • 51 n^ 'T^ijf%
tfldol    • 1? n^ mfHTT:3:t
qt     2
qe     3
30        4
sq     5
33        6
33       7
3Tserfr
3e     8
sy     9
3S    10
3t      12
=RfGT?fr
se    13
30       14
3q   15
33    16
3lD       11
q^n^r   17
3          18
3          19
e     20
y      21
S          22
U          23
t          24
e        25
qq    27
=RfGT?fr
qs    28
q3    29
3TT#
qe    30
qo    26
f&.gf. poqt
erat/arpflji
trff^T T^Tf^T  : ^WT^TTCT *T^T:  ^:
> olUloi 3facT q<13q SloTT <
2011
Aug \ Sep
an$d«ll:
SQN
-tilH«ll:
MON
HJlrt=ll:
TQES
WED
R^=l|:
THQRS
^5^T:
FRI
^|R=1|:
SAT
q3       30
<jft<MI
qe   31
qy sepi
IW*0
qs     2
qui     3
qt     4
qe     5
orarfr
30        6
sq     7
S3       9
3S       8
se    10
sy   11
3S     12
SID       13
^rfRTT
St       14
se   15
30     16
3q   17
q^wtiT is
S          19
3       20
orarfr
e     21
y     22
U          24
S         23
e          26
3TT#
qo    27
<nsf     • T3 iRT itsT aaai^r • iv n^l ^Rdifti'hi cfW • i* iri 3»?T: • 1^ ifl ^ftTaifl
• 1^ Ifl ■ftlilltd^Tt • T>T> Jl^ ftldlP^d/fll&^TTT 1^3(1 • T>3 Jlrl 0":f?T qifliT, 7qra
t          25
3RltS   • 1 Htl &
a^Rf ^aTT • V  ifl f
p^ra:^ Sraiggaa
Sn: ^ • ^ jia sr
#fe ^Rsi*WMI
<Hl^d«ll:
SQN
^ilH=ll
MON
HJlrt=ll
TQES
WED
THQRS
^=11:
FRI
SAT
~3tf5        *^%T]rt SSI^<I • 5V 1^ ftf'WB':, !3TO nTCrT^t WTTa?ft
nrw • 5a n^ <|iwi<iii5ir
3RIR   • =1 TT^ Orrft aidWS+ldl' t^Mi  H^ilMI,  TOT ij%
=R5 TTgUT • ? TT^ WHWHI<d4l • 1? ^ ^^: f?%
• Bit fs^ira:!
qe     2
ao     3
aq     4
aa     5
Udtfl
a3     e
aa     7
-ykttfl
aa    8
aiwtfl
as    9
3T3*r
an   io
7?nn
at    ii
515?Tf
30       13
q»w 15
a     i6
3          17
ii          18
ae   12
3q   14
a    19
Udtfl
S         20
Id       21
-ykttfl
C          22
aiw+fi
e     23
aiw+fi
qo    24
3ra*r
qq    25
??ri*
qa    26
£i4?n
qs    28
qa   29
qg   30
an*
qn juii
q3   27
en3gr/Bret
® otuioT ^aci; ^^3^ tfpw ®
2011
July \ Aug
SQN
MON
HJlrt=ll:
TQES
WED
Pf^T:
THQRS
^|*e||:
FR]
*!lR«l|:
SAT
m?
^ftai
fifty 1
wtafr
trarfr
^#r
wfr
qy    31
qS Augl
qui     2
qt     3
qe     4
SO         5
sq     e
aiw*ft
??r*fr
?i5?fr
5RTtcf?ft
d<J^ft
H^
S3        7
33       8
SB        9
sy    io
3S     ll
3D      12
St       13
m?
^ftai
rjfrldl 1
wtafr
trarfr
tratfr
^#r
se    14
30     15
3q   i6
33     17
q^ is
3          19
3          20
wfr
an-d*ft
sratfr
s?r*fr
SI3?ff
e     21
y      22
S          23
U          24
t         25
e     26
qo    27
^r:^
3nfr
f%?T) • ^0 ^ i|Hi|^Hni|l:
qq    28
qs    29
fll^           • ij TT^^fWTTO" ^tH^^n1* y TT^"i|Hi|^^Vl^Hi||S|lr   10 TT^"£rf7^HS^ICI^r   ^TT:
2011
Sep \ Oct
»ll^d«ll:
SQN
*ilH=ll:
MON
HJlrt=ll:
TQES
WED
fsf^T:
THQRS
FRI
*!lR«l|:
SAT
31-tfbi   • n it^1 5T:stt?s^ • v. i?V i=Ffl^7s wit
TT^1 FillWrJJI^ •I', TT^1 ^T^ (fci^.L|ICy|4l")
^1^:tt+^ • ^y tt^1 ^fn'ijf^
qq      28
qs     29
q3      30
qB  Octl
qy     2
qs     3
qiD         4
qt     5
qe     e
5i??fr
sq     s
SO          7
S3     io
SB      11
sy    12
3S    is
3lD       14
3t       15
33       9
wtafr
se    i6
30     17
H wf?fe 18
3          19
3          20
iratfr
B          21
y      22
5i??fr
Id      24
3TTfr
e          26
qo    27
cpit^Tcp  • 5 5^:TT]HTr  Rfl^liJ^I,
S          23
t          25
H(4lMdl
#rRr igrpft : ^JTasrrcn *WI: W^[:
%ft 1315% : ^"ira*rrtr( «WI: WH-.
90
Newah Vijnana-7 (N>wah VljAanai
TV Jnomil Of \c»»r Vudic
-           =            ™
(NrnAh \ijAflna)
I lii' Iriurnjl Of \iwii NlutJin
tol if 1  g^cf  ^HIM
?Ptt^t ^rrar *faT
<flrH* ^
f^aRT
'*TT7T T ^TT ^T
rafTT  ^pr  N+I'4'l   P-l M ■+-1 -4 -" I, M'Ji'-(   -M ^ I -J ■*■-   W1^
t.'It ^rs i
[Ui'l ™f-H/M ^T^rifarer?' copyright -H4-MK+ "T13
wrf r<rrq; iflPn* ^+(4id ^.^rfa! f*r*f f
fjraTf!":T7 WT ft=fTT '^iH«   I
era; qTfrsrftra; f^m_ i
Call for Papers
Newah Vijnana, Journal of Newar Studies, is accepting contributions for its eighth
and ninth issues which will tentatively debut in 20 I I and 2013. The journal's aim is
to consolidate empirical, theoretical, as well as any work done in Newar language,
culture, art, history, custom, tradition, religion, biography, music, architecture, and
the information on Newars around the world so as to serve tools to preserve and
expose the richness of Newar heritage.
Submissions (articles, abstracts of recently completed dissertations and reviews of
any work on Newars, translations of Newar literary works, notes on any work,
project on Newars) are invited in English, Khas-Nepali and Nepal Bhasha. A hard
copy and a Microsoft Word file (two-column format), prefereably DOC file extension, on disk or electronic transfer to editors are required. If your work includes
pictures, please attach them as a separate individual files, preferably high-resolution,
along with your work. The editors reserve the right not to process suf—
that do not serve the goals of the journal.
Chief Editor:
Mr. Daya R. Shakya
I 739 NE 47th Ave • Portland, OR 972 I 3, USA
Phone:1-503-282-0447 • Fax:1-503-774-7554 • E-mail: drasha@aol.com
TW'H -!• I i*(*J^B t*J afl 4|*Ji
Mr. Shashi Mahaju
Matina Publication
80 Sandy Hill Road
SE 18 7 AZ, UK
info.matina@yahoo.co.uk
Guest Editor for Ninth Issue
Ms. Neelam Pradhananga
Guthi Australia
3/27 Place Street
AUSTRALIA
Jguthiaustralia.com
From South Asian
■-P-
-  :'i;;.'..V.I./.i_,  : JspSiJ
Fh: i-77-. -43J 2 . It'J.

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.dhimjournal.1-0365014/manifest

Comment

Related Items