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Himalayan Journal of Sciences Volume 2, Issue 3, January - June 2004 Mainali, Kumar P 2004-06

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 n
Himalayan   ,
JOURNAL   0F|     I
u
n
n
Volume 2
Issue 3
Jan-June 2004
ISSN 1727 5210
Himalayan Journal of
Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 3
Jan-June 2004
Pages: 1-70
Cover image credit:
Krishna K Shrestha
editorial
Let's air our dirty laundry
Scientists and developers can't save the world
when they have to play along to get along
Seth Sicroff
Page 9
essay
Scientists: Four golden lessons
Advice to students at the start of their
scientific careers
Steven Weinberg
Page 11
correspondence
Chemical research should be a
national priority
Rajendra Uprety
Page 10
policy
Theories for sustainable futures
Sustainable development requires integration of
ecological, economic and social theories
C S Holling
Page 12
resource review
special announcement
How to control illegal wildlife trade in the
Himalayas
As Nepal's greatest natural resources approach
extinction, the stakes could hardly be higher
Ram P Chaudhary
Page 15
publication preview
Mountain Legacy announces plans
Mountain Legacy announces plans for conference
on Mountain Hazards and Mountain Tourism,
calls for nominations for second Hillary Medal,
and proposes research and development institute
in Rolwaling
Page 20
Published by
Himalayan Association for
the Advancement of Science
Lalitpur, Nepal
GPOBoxNo.2838
Himalayan perceptions: Environmental change and the well-being of mountain peoples
Fifteen years ago, the Himalayan Dilemma buried the most popular environmental paradigm ofthe 80s.
What will it take for policy-makers to get the message?
Jack D Ives
Page 17
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Hello, trees, how are you?
Tree species in Dolpa
district, p 23
research papers
Quantitative analysis of tree species in two community forests
of Dolpa district, mid-west Nepal
Ripu MKun war and ShivP Sharma
Page 23
Vegetation composition and diversity of Piluwa
micro-watershed in Tinjure-Milke region, east Nepal
Madan Koirala
Page 29
Indigenous knowledge of terrace management in Paundi Khola
watershed, Lamjung district, Nepal
Karun Pandit and Mohan KBalla
Page 33
Who's to blame if the
Himalayas are in trouble?
pl7
Nature sets the basic
patterns, but human
activities can make a big
difference
p51
Quantitative analysis of macrophytes of Beeshazar Tal,
Chitwan, Nepal
ChudamaniBurlakoti and SiddhiB Karmacharya
Page 37
Methods to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses in Kavre
district, central Nepal
JanakPathak
Page 42
Two new records of Eria Lindl. (Orchidaceae) for Nepal
Devendra M Bajracharya and Krishna K Shrestha
Page 46
Two new records of Viola L. (Violaceae) for Nepal
Ram SDani and Krishna K Shrestha
Page 48
Discharge and sediment loads of two streams in the mid-hills
of central Nepal
Roshan M Bajracharya, Subodh Sharma and Roberto Clemente
Page 51
Only a unified theory that
integrates the three
domians of sustainable
development - ecology,
economy and sociology - can
safeguard our future, p 12
articles
Ethnosilvicultural knowledge: A promising foundation for
integrating non-timber forest products into forest management
Krishna HGautam and Teiji Watanabe
Page 55
It*
miscellaneous
MH
Beeshazar Tal, a fertile lake
covered with emergent
vegetation. Next step could
be marsh meadow, p 37
Author index for Volume 1, 2003
Page 59
Guide to Authors
Page 60
How knowledge is
transferred to new
generation
p55
8
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 In this issue
-yr QJ^prtisturbahBb
\)>fosters (brest regeneration ;
 ,.„•        , ^
Human activities have a
significant impact od
sediment load In streams
New records of Eria Lindl.
and VIola L for Nepal
Jack Ives revisits
Himalayan delusions in
an unsettling new book
Mild disturbance fosters forest
regeneration
Eastern Nepal is rich in biodiversity and is
much explored since the pioneering work
of Hooker. More recently the forests are
under pressure and degraded due to over-
exploitation of resources for subsistence
livelihood. Despite this increasing pressure
some of the forests have been protected
since long by local peoples. It has changed
the regeneration status and diversity of
the forest. Koirala (p 29) compares two
forests of Milke region (east Nepal) at different levels of degradation. He finds that
regeneration is more sustainable in the
mildly degraded Quercus-Rhododendron
forest than in mature and relatively non-
degraded forest, where sapling counts indicate that Symplocos and Quercus are
replacing Rhododendron.
[RESEARCH]
Four Nobel Truths
Nobel laureate Steven Weinberg offers
career advice to graduate students (p 11).
First, don't try to master your field before
completing your PhD: you can learn on
the job. Second, when choosing a research
topic, look for areas that seems to be in a
state of confusion: these are opportunities for creative research and significant
contributions. Third, expect and accept
wasted time: there is no shining path to
the truth. Fourth, study the history of science, and your field in particular, in order
to develop an appreciation for your own
work. Good advice for students in any
graduate degree program! [ESSAY]
Without a unified field theory, sustainable development flounders
Theories of ecology, economy and sociology are partial and perhaps too simple, in
isolation, to solve the complex problems of sustainable development. Past failure was
due to such policies of government and non-government agencies which flop from
one myopic solution to another. Unless we develop an evolutionary and dynamic
integrated theory, which would recognize the synergies and constraints of nature,
economy and people, we cannot assure a sustainable future. Are we doomed? Holling
(p 12) points to a light at the end ofthe tunnel! [POLICY]
Forest management must integrate
the lessons of ethnosilviculture
Timber-only forest management is
incompatible with the conservation of forest
ecosystems. The incorporation of non-
timber forest products (NTFPs) in
mainstream forestry is critical to the
sustainability of not only the ecological
systems but also the livelihoods and cultural
values of local and regional stakeholders.
Some scientific efforts have been initiated
focusing on integration of NTFPs into
mainstream forestry, but the extent and
diversity of Nepal's forests are such that
sustainable forest management will no
longer be an option if we wait for dispositive
empirical results. On the other hand,
ethnosilvicultural knowledge accumulated
over the centuries is vanishing without a
trace. Gautam and Watanabe (p 55) have
documented such expertise among Canadian Aboriginal communities and Nepali
community forest users groups. Their work
underscores the need to establish appropriate databases to document this
ethnosilvicultural knowledge, and the
importance of strengthening the traditional
institutions that have been applying and
expanding that legacy. [ARTICLE]
Rain, slope, and land use determine
sediment load in upland streams
The mid-hills of Nepal have been facing a
dangerous dilemma arising from the
escalating demands of a growing
population, on the one hand, and
worldwide pressure for ecological
preservation on the other. Environmental
degradation has been due largely to human
activities: agricultural intensification,
cultivation of marginal lands, extraction of
forest products, and infrastructure
development. The resulting changes in
water storage and runoff patterns have
contributed to soil erosion. Because ofthe
climate and topography of the region,
stream discharge is low most of the year,
with high flows and sediment
concentrations limited to a few major
events during the pre-monsoon and early
rainy season. A work by Bajracharya et al.
(p 51), however, confirms that land use and
farming practices significantly impact discharge patterns and sediment loads in
streams with steep gradients in the mid-
hills. Preliminary analysis suggests that it
may be possible to predict discharge, and
hence sediment loads, from 24-hour
rainfall measurements. [RESEARCH]
Pre-eminent mountain geographer challenges Himalayan delusions
lack Ives has been aptly described as a "dinosaur" - one ofthe last ofthe great geographer-
explorers. Recently awarded the King Albert I Gold Medal (whose recipients include Sir
lohn Hunt, organizer of the first successful ascent of Mt. Everest, as well as Bradford
Washburn, creator ofthe National Geographic map of Mt. Everest), Ives pioneered a series
of seven expeditions into the interior of Canada's Baffin Island, assigning names to peaks,
glaciers, and rivers on this frigid landmass one and half times the size of Germany. His
theory of "instantaneous glacierization" overturned the prevailing view that ice ages rolled
down out of the north like a window shade: instead, Ives argued, they could begin as
scattered snow patches that survived the summer on high plateaus of the interior of the
Canadian north when mean temperatures fell just a few degrees, expanding rapidly to bury
large areas. In 1989, Ives co-authored The Himalayan Dilemma, summarizing the
controversial ideas that came out ofthe 1986 Mohonk Conference (which Ives organized);
he was one ofthe architects of Chapter 13 (The State of the World's Mountains) of Agenda
21, a seminal document adopted by the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and
Development in Rio de Janeiro (also known as the Earth Summit). Ives founded and edited
the journals Arctic and Alpine Research and Mountain Research and Development. He
established the International Mountain Society. And he is on the Editorial Board of the
Himalayan Journal of Sciences. We are honored to publish a preview of his forthcoming
book (p 17). We can only hope that this time the development planners will get the message.
HIMALAYAN IOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | IAN-IUNE2004
 editorial
Let's air our dirty laundry
Scientists and developers can't save the world when they have to
play along to get along
Seth Sicroff
It's no secret: Nepal is a development basket case. Despite the fact that the country is overrun with foreign researchers and developers
and flooded with loan and grant money, the major problems remain intractable. No one has any doubt where the roots of those
problems lie: bad governance and self-interested assistance. Corruption is deeply entrenched in Nepal, as in most LDCs. Foreign aid is
frequently a poisoned gift, designed to further the donor nations priorities, often at the expense ofthe recipient. Kegarne?
What can the scientific community do to improve the effectiveness of development programs in Nepal (and presumably
elsewhere)? The first step is to admit that we are part ofthe problem.
Let's start with an observation made by Gautam and Watanabe in this issue of HJS. Writing about the need to apply traditional
silvicultural knowledge, the authors point out that "the NTFPs are so vast and diverse that merely waiting for scientific results may
entail delays that preclude sustainable management." Clearly there are many other fields where we cannot afford the luxury of
complete scientific investigation - and I strongly suggest that we not wait for a full investigation of this phenomenon before
consideration ofthe next step. That is, what should a scientist do when he suspects that his research is an unnecessary obstacle to
effective management?
Now let's look at a rather different sort of bottleneck. In 1989, Ives and
Messerli published Himalayan Dilemma, a work that could well serve as a
textbook on the inadequacies and misapplications of scientific research in I he   truth   WOfl t  OUt
the Himalayan region. One fairly typical example: it seems that, while
researchers have been studying the hydrology of micro-scale watersheds in Corruption and incompetence would not
Nepal, they have been unable to correlate their findings with data gathered suffice to cripple development if SCien-
far downstream. The Indian government classifies all such data as secret -
presumably to avoid giving away evidence that might be incompatible with lists and developers were not afraid to
India's unilateralist development of water resources. So, what should blow the whistle and expose them. But
researchers in Nepal do when they cannot come to solid conclusions about . .,      ., .
critical phenomena such as the erosional impact of agricultural ll Seert1S that the 0nly WaYt0 Pr0teCt y0Ur
intensification, road-building, and forest removal? job in this little gossipy country is to
These are among the simplest dilemmas facing Himalayan researchers. protect the eqos and reputations of those
Here, based solely on my own experience, is a short laundry list of some of
the nastier double binds that confront scientists working in the Himalayan who are screwing up. Question: How can
re8ion we put an end to self-censorship?
1. Despite the fact that they are supposedly making important
contributions to economically and ecologically challenged nations, INGO
personnel as well as foreign academics doing research in the Himalayan
region actually depend on the good graces of their host countries. Prudence is essential if one wishes to work for extended periods
in a protected area. Researchers in Tibet are, of course, well-advised to concur with Chinese versions of that region's history, and to
refrain from criticizing China's Taiwan policy, repression of minorities, and remarkably vicious authoritarian regime. But the self-
censorship does not involve only historical and ethical abstractions: it also involves agencies and policies that are central to the
researcher's work. Criticism ofthe management of Annapurna Conservation Area Project (ACAP), for instance, is extremely risky
given the current King Gyanendra's longtime patronage of the King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation. The result is a
sustained whitewash of both development and conservation efforts.
2. Self-censorship also applies when it comes to the performance of international agencies. In a world where who you know is
everybody's stock-in-trade, it just isn't smart to point fingers at well-heeled organizations.
3. When it comes to remote locales, very few researchers or developers stay in the field long enough to make a great difference.
Graduate students are more likely to endure the hardships (and learn the local language) than professors and developers, but they
need to finish their degrees, go home, and look for work. The result is that a large proportion of basic research and development in
the field is done by neophytes.
4. Certain topics are so politically potent that it is dangerous to take a contrarian stance. Examples: gender studies, garbage on Mt.
Everest, Sherpa and Tibetan culture, ecotourism, rapid participatory assessment.
5. No one publishes his own failures. In many cases, these are the experiences that would be most instructive to others working
in the same field.
Of course, there are people who tell the truth, and some who even get away with it. "It's all bullshit on Everest these days," Sir
Edmund Hillary told an interviewer in the run-up to the Golden Jubilee celebration of his and Tenzing's first ascent of that peak. (He
was referring to the commercialization of adventure.) In fact, there are competent and committed researchers and developers,
even in Khumbu. But it's the bullshit that threatens to overwhelm every decent effort. It's the self-censorship, the evasion, the
whitewash, that sustains the failure of development.
So, what to do? That is the question that we pose to our readers.  ■
Seth Sicroff is the language editor of Himalayan Journal of Sciences. E-mail: sesicroff@lycos.com
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES | VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004 9
 Correspondence
Chemical research should be a national priority
Rajendra Uprety
Though Nepal has been active in
natural product screening, the
total national research effort is
negligible. Little ofthe research
that is carried out is appropriate
for the natural and social constraints. Natural
resources are being overlooked, and data that
is collected is not thoroughly analyzed and
reported.
Chemistry research in Nepal was initiated
during the seventies, when it was made a requirement for the Masters degree at the Central Department of Chemistry (CDC),
Tribhuvan University (TU). More than 130
theses have been completed so far, in addition to six Ph. D. dissertations and two dozens
other research works conducted by the department faculty. While the number and impact of these studies has been slight, we
should not conclude that the research has no
value at all. Manandhar 2003, Bajracharya
1998, and Kharel 2000 '3, for example, are
valuable studies. Poudel (2002) reports on
triterpines and betunelic acid, molecules with
anti-cancer and anti-HIV properties, that
have been found in the giant dodder (Cuscuta
reflexa), an annual parasitic herb indigenous
to Nepal4; if extracted and refined, such pharmaceuticals could produce significant revenues. And there are thousands of other possibilities.
Raj a R. Pradhananga, professor and head
of CDC, understands the unsatisfactory
situation of chemical research in Nepal. "By
adding a course on research methods, we can
make the three-year B. Sc. a more research-
oriented degree program", says Pradhananga.
"There should be a law that the income tax
paid by national or international organization
involved in science and technology is
allocated to research and development."
Finally Pradhananga concludes, "the nation
should, as far as practicable, make Tribhuvan
University the focus of research activities."
In addition to CDC, there are many
established national research centers with
adequate scientific manpower and well-
equipped research laboratories. The Royal
Nepal Academy of Science and Technology
(RONAST), the Research Center for Applied
Science and Technology (RECAST), and
Tribhuvan University are the institutions
most responsible for enhancing the science
and technology through research. Although
these organizations have ambitious scientific
goals, their paltry contributions have hurt
Nepal. RONAST RECAST, the Ministry of
Science and Technology (MOST), and the
Ministry of Population and Environment
(MOPE) have never been able to justify their
existence.
During its two and half decades, RECAST
has attempted a mere handful of research
projects, and the titles have been more
compelling than their results. Several ofthe
research reports end with "not applicable at
the moment," "budget not available in time"
and "due to financial constraints,
experimentation couldn't be done properly
and study tour could not be taken"5
RONAST reports about forty research
projects on natural resources and
environmental analysis in the natural product
and environmental analysis over the course
of its twenty years. Many of them are
concerned with the analysis of environmental
parameters in Kathmandu Valley. Out of these,
afewsuch as 'Pollution monitoringin the water
supply system of Kathmandu City' by T M.
Pradhananga6, are considered significant.
Pradhananga, chief scientific officer at
RONAST maintains, "Both government and
scientists are responsible for the failure ofthe
research and development programme. We
the scientists could not convince them ofthe
significance of science and technology and
they could not understand us."
When a researcher lands a foreign project,
RONAST greets it with bureaucratic meddling
and roadblocks. A research proj ect conducted
under the auspices of RONAST by
Wageningen Agricultural Univesity
(Netherlands) with the collaboration of Nepal
Agricultural Research Council (NARC) and
the Department of Bimolecular Sciences, was
forced to tolerate intolerable bureaucratic
impediments. The report concludes, "On
many occasions, researchers are bogged
down by bureaucratic administrative
hurdles, due to whichmany field projectswere
cancelled. [I] n order to produce good results,
a proper environment should be created, free
from administrative hurdles; and the
allocated budget should be released on a
timely basis".7
K. D. Yami, the main investigator in this
project and Chief Scientific Officer at RONAST,
states: "The main reason for the failure of
research programme is the chronic and
unresolved conflicts embedded among the
research personalities when they occupy
high-level bureaucratic positions in different
institutions. Most ofthe time, it is seen that
neither the research personalities nor the
government people identify the common and
main problems. And their commitments
always end only in seminar or meetings.
RONAST being an autonomous body, can
conduct many more research activities
comfortably if a favorable environment is
created. But up to now, research institutions
have not had a healthy relationship with
RONAST . She adds, "We have knowledge and
programmes useful to society but the government policy hasn't given a high priority to science and technology, nor have the private
sectors".
Only if we can move beyond the past
conflicts between research institutes and
between high officials can we advance in
science. Nepal has over a dozen well-
equipped and organized laboratories and
adequate man-power. The laboratories ofthe
Central Department of Chemistry, Natural
Products, Royal Drugs Limited, Quality
Control and Department ofFoodTechnology,
Nepal Standard and Quality Controls,
RONAST RECAST Kathmandu University
and Pokhara University, have advanced
equipments. Tribhuvan University and other
universities have already produced many
M. Sc. graduates. The Nepal Chemical Society claims membership of more than 1500
chemists.
I would like to suggest two steps that might
help promote scientific research. First, an
interdisciplinary and high-level task force
should be created, with members drawn from
government and the private sector. Second,
Nepal Chemical Society, in collaboration with
CDC, should take the lead in research and
publication activities as an open forum.     ■
Rajendra Upretyisamemberof
Executive Council, Nepal Chemical Society.
E-mail: upretyrajendra@yahoo.com
References
1. MD Manandhar. 2003. Chemical investigation of
medicinal plants. Kathmandu: Central Department
of Chemistry, Tribhuvan University, Nepal.
Researchreport.
2. GB Bajracharya. 1998. Isolation and identification
ofanticarcinogenicflavonoids and their
quantification in the vegetable commonly
consumed in Nepal [thesis]. Kathmandu: Central
Department of Chemistry, Tribhuvan University,
Nepal. 194 p
3. MKKharel. 2000. Isolation of novel depsidone from
Parmellia nilgherrensis and antibacterial
susceptibility screening and heavy metal analysis
in some lichen spp.of'Kathmandu valley[thesis].
Kathmandu: Central Department of Chemistry,
Tribhuvan University, Nepal. 85 p
4. YB Poudel. 2002. Phytochemical and biological
studies on Causcuta reflexa of Nepalese origin
[thesis]. Kathmandu: Central Department of
Chemistry, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. 120 p
5. RECAST 1995/96-1996/97. Annual report 1995/96-
1996/97. Kathmandu: ResearchCenter for Applied
Sciences and Technology, Tribhuvan University,
Nepal. 53 p
6. TM Pradhananga. 1999. Pollution monitoring in
the water supply system of Kathmandu City. In: A
research profile 1999. Kathmandu: RoyalNepal
Academy of Science and Technology. 65 p
7. KDYami. 1999. Biofertilizer. In: A research profile
1999. Kathmandu: RoyalNepal AcademyofScience
and Technology. 65 p
10
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Resource review
► BOOK
How to control illegal wildlife trade in the Himalayas
As Nepal's greatest natural resources approach extinction,
the stakes could hardly be higher
Ram P Chaudhary
■«
A
-"-'■
el,
-«d
Cites Implementation in Nepal and India
Law, Policy and Practice
by Ravi Sharma Aryal
Bhrikuti Academic Publications
Kathmandu, Nepal, 2004
200 pp
ISBN 99933-673-4-6
NRs 995, US$ 25 (paperback)
The international trade in wild
animals, plants, and wildlife
products is big business, with
worldwide transactions of over
US$ 5 billion ayear. Most of it is
entirely legal, regulated by national laws and
international treaties. But about one-fourth
to one-third of the trade entails unlawful
commerce in rare and threatened species
that are usually poached or collected
illegally and smuggled across frontiers. The
trade in endangered fauna and flora is
diverse, ranging from live animals and
plants to a vast array of wildlife products
derived from them, including food
products, rare and exotic leather goods,
tourist curios and medicines. Such illegal
trade is one of the main engines driving
species to extinction.
Although population increase and
poverty are generally cited as the indirect
causes of poaching and illegal collection,
the major threats are conflicting laws and
perverse incentives on the part of rich and
influential consumers. An important
challenge, at present, is to systematically
study the population of threatened fauna
and flora so as to understand their status
and conservation requirements1.
The decline in biological resources in
Nepal has been due largely to the lack of
policies to guide legal, institutional and
operational developments in this sector.
Biodiversity policyinNepal has usually been
shaped by political and economic motives
rather than ecological and social
considerations2.
An international treaty, the Convention
on International Trade in Endangered
Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES),
came into force on July 1,1975. That same
year, Nepal became a party to the treaty,
and to date 165 countries have agreed to
adhere to CITES. Its enforcement is the
responsibility of the signatory states, and
governments are required to submit
reports and trade records to the CITES
Secretariat.
Regulation of international trade in
wildlife and wildlife products is an
intersectoral endeavor, with social,
economic, ecological, cultural, and political
dimensions. Aryal's book covers the
spectrum of issues, focusing on the gaps
and weaknesses in the laws, policies, and
implementation measures in Nepal and
India, countries that cover a major part of
the Himalayas. Aryal also discusses cross-
sectoral issues, which must be addressed
in order to control smuggling across
international borders.
The book is divided into seven chapters
addressing a range of topics related to
CITES implementation in Nepal and India.
Chapter One provides a general
introduction to the concept of endangered
species, and to the state and importance of
biodiversity. Chapter Two briefly
summarizes the history of cultural and
legislative efforts to protect forests and
wildlife in Nepal and India. Chapter Three
explains the concept and principles of
CITES, discusses issues raised and progress
made during the COP (Conference of
Parties), and reports on typical cases of
infringement of CITES in Nepal and India.
While neither Nepal nor India has
drawn up specific legislation to implement
CITES provisions, both countries have
adopted numerous policies, laws, and
conservation measures bearing on the
implementation of this treaty. These are
presented in Chapters Four and Five, the
centerpiece of Aryal's book. Article 26.4 of
the Constitution ofthe Kingdom of Nepal
(1990) provides directives for the protection
of the environment at large; the National
Parks and Wildlife Protection Act (1973),
the Forest Act (1995), Nepal Biodiversity
Strategy (2002)3, and other related Acts and
policies are fulfilling the objectives of CITES
in Nepal. Implementation of CITES in Nepal
is further strengthened by the 1991 Nepal
Treaty Act (NTA) which specifies that when
a matter in a treaty is inconsistent with the
existing domestic laws, the domestic laws
shall be void to the extent of the
inconsistency, and the provision of the
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES | VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
15
 Resource review
The international illegal trade in wildlife and wildlife products is one the major engines driving species to
extinction. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES),
which defines standards for use of wildlife and their products, represents a major global commitment to
reverse this trend. It remains to be seen whether the terms of this treaty will be enforced. Focusing on Nepal
and its neighbors, Aryal discusses the obstacles to its successful implementation: imprecise legislation,
inconsistent policies, lack of coordination among relevant institutions (particularly, those responsible for
regulating international trade), and the deadly threat posed by poachers determined to protect their endangered
livelihoods. Aryal's recommendations are detailed, far-reaching, and compelling.
treaty shall prevail as the law of Nepal.
Strangely, Aryal is silent about the Local
Self-Governance Act (1998). According to
this law, the District Development
Committee (DDC) is the implementing
body of the local government. Section
189(g) (1) ofthe Local Self-Governance Act
requires the DDC to formulate and
implement plans for the conservation of
forests, vegetation, biological diversity and
soil. Section 189(g) (2) further requires the
DDC to protect and promote the
environment. Similarly, Section 28(h) (2)
requires that the Village Development
Committees (VDCs), the next smallest unit
of local governance, formulate and
implement programs for the conservation
of forests, vegetation, biological diversity,
and soil.
In Chapter Five, Aryal compiles the
scattered laws impinging on control of
illegal exploitation of wildlife in India. The
Constitution of India as amended in 1976
(Articles 48.A and 51-A9g) directs the
government to protect the environment.
The Indian Forest Act of 1927, the Forest
(Conservation) Act of 1980, the Biological
Diversity Act of 2002 and other relevant
laws are important tools for the protection
of endangered species.
Medicinal plants, many of which are
rare and threatened, are used in two ways:
first, in medications prescribed by
traditional systems, and second, in
medications that have become accepted
in Ayurvedic, Tibetan, and allopathic (or
Western) medicine. In general, the
collection of medicinal plants for traditional
local use is not a problem since this use has
developed gradually and in harmony with
nearby natural ecosystem1. Accordingly,
the 1991 amendment ofthe 1972 Wildlife
(Protection) Act of India allows scheduled
tribes in India to use locally available
medicinal plants in a sustainable fashion.
Such protection of customary rights is not
found in any Nepalese law, and Aryal takes
issue with the provisions of the Indian
Wildlife (Protection) Act. I believe, however,
that through this law the government of
India gives due recognition not only to the
rights of indigenous peoples to preserve
their culture, but also to the importance of
safeguarding   the    transmission   of
indigenous knowledge from one
generation to another.
Aryal has rightly mentioned the
importance of transboundary cooperation.
The CITES treaty could play a crucial role
in the interdiction of smuggling across the
Nepal-IndiaandNepal-Chinaborders.The
protection of wildlife is currently hampered
by differences in the degree of protection
among the three countries. For example,
in China a person can be sentenced to death
for killing an individual of an endangered
species such as the giant panda4. In Nepal
and India, however, the penalty is
imprisonment for few years or nominal
fine or both. Tri-national consultative
meetings on biodiversity conservationwill
be vital in plugging the gaps and untangling
the legal inconsistencies.
In Chapter Six, Aryal undertakes a
review and detailed analysis of existing
plans, policies, and regulations, as well as
interview survey conducted in some
border areas and in the capital of India
about the administrative practice and
constraints in order to expose the obstacles
impeding effective implementation of
CITES. The problems are diverse, ranging
from lack of clarity in legislation to lack of
coordination among the relevant
institutions, from dubious nomenclature
and out-of-date species lists to lack of
competent staff in the field to threat for
guards posed by the poachers.
Chapter 7, "Conclusion and
Suggestion," presents Aryal's astute
recommendations for improvements in
strategy and administrative structure that
would facilitate implementation of CITES
in Nepal and India. I would cluster all the
Aryal's recommendations at three
levels.
Recommendations at the systemic level
include:
• translation of international treaties to
national legislation
• amendments in laws and policies with
the view to closing existing loopholes
• strict enforcement of existing
legislation
• implementation and monitoring of
trans-boundary wildlife trade
regulatory mechanisms.
Recommendations at the institutional level
include:
• development of strong linkages among
the relevant institutions
• development of technical
infrastructure, publication and
dissemination of information, and
promotion of skills pertinent to CITES
enforcement among police, custom
officers, and immigration officials
• insulation of CITES administration
from political interference.
Recommendations at the individual level
include:
• development of professional ethics and
accountability
• expanded professional networking
• enhancement of job security, benefits,
and incentives, including life insurance
• expanded opportunities for career
advancement.
I might offer a few reservations about the
book itself. Although the printing is of good
quality, the high price may discourage some
readers for whom the book would be a
useful reference. The small font used in
the footnotes is also rather frustrating. The
book is illustrated with photographs, a
number of which are redundant. A useful
supplement would be a compilation of
photographs of all endangered fauna and
flora listed under CITES.
Nonetheless, the bookwillbe avaluable
resource for policy makers, politicians,
wildlife traders, protected area managers,
conservationists, national and international
agencies, NGOs and INGOs, professors,
students and general readers. ■
Ram P Chaudhary is a professor of botany
in Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu.
E-mail: ram@cdbtu.wlink.com.np
References
1. RP Chaudhary. 1998. Biodiversityin Nepal-Status
and conservation Saharanpur (India): S Devi and
Bangkok: Tecpress Books. 324 p
2. NBelbase. 1999. NationalImplementation of'the
convention on biological diversity: Policy and
legislativerequirements.Kathmandu:Nepal. 120 p
3. MFSC. 2002. Nepal biodiversity strategy. Ministry
of Forests and Soil Conservation, HMGN. 170 p
4. YM Li, Z Gao, X Li, S Wang and N Jari. 2000. Illegal
wildlife trade in the Himalayan region of China.
BiodConserQ: 901-918
16
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Publication preview
Himalayan perceptions: Environmental change and the
well-being of mountain peoples
Fifteen years ago, the Himalayan Dilemma buried the most popular
environmental paradigm of the 80s. What will it take for policy-makers to
get the message?
Jack D Ives
Perceptions of environmental
change affecting the
Himalayan region have
undergone extensive revision
over the last thirty years. During
the first half of this period it had been
widely assumed that environmental
collapse was imminent due to exponential
increase in pressure on the natural
resources driven by rapid population
growth and deepening poverty. One ofthe
many statements of imminent catastrophe
was issued by the World Bank in 19791,
predicting that by the year 2000 all
accessible forest in Nepal would be
eliminated. Although the linkage of human
poverty and natural disaster continues to
attract serious debate, the catastrophist
paradigm has been discredited by an
avalanche of research, not to mention the
passage of time during which the heralded
disaster has failed to materialize. This has
opened the way for a more realistic
appraisal ofthe actual dynamics of change
in the region.
The publication of The Himalayan
Dilemma (Ives and Messerli 1989)2 fifteen
years ago derived from an international
conference on the 'Himalaya-Ganges
Problem' held at Mohonk Mountain
House, NewYork State, in May 1986. The
conference had been called to investigate
the validity of the prevailing Himalayan
environmental paradigm ofthe 1970s and
1980s that came to be known as the Theory
of Himalayan Environmental
Degradation. In brief, the Theory
proposed that increased devastating
flooding on the Ganges and Brahmaputra
lowlands was a direct response to
extensive deforestation in the Himalaya.
The deforestation was presumed to result
from a rapid growth in the mountain
subsistence farming populations
dependent on the forests for fodder and
fuel and for conversion to terraced
agriculture. As steep mountain slopeswere
denuded of forest cover, it was assumed
that the heavy monsoon rains caused
accelerated soil erosion, numerous
landslides, and increased runoff and
Himalayan perceptions:
Environmental change and the
well-being of mountain
peoples
by JD Ives
Routledge, London and New York
To be published in August 2004
sediment transfer onto the plains. This was
further assumed to induce a progressive
increase in flooding of Gangetic India and
Bangladesh, putting at risk the lives of
several hundred million people.
The 1986 deliberations were frequently
heated, but a consensus was reached to
the effect that the Theory lacked scientific
substantiation. Thiswasreflectedin the 1989
book; we stressed, however, that a great
deal of more focused and more rigorous
empirical research was required in order
to substantiate the many issues that had
been raised. The Himalayan Dilemma,
while effectively contesting many unproven
assumptions that collectively formed the
Theory, could be seen as essentially an
attempt to prove a series of negatives.
Nevertheless, the academic response to the
book was generally positive and it is still
quoted in almost every scholarly
publication on the Himalayan region.
Forsyth (1996)3 credited the Mohonk
Conference with achieving the first major
environmental paradigm shift and, along
with Thompson (1995)4, referred to the
unfolding discourse as The Mohonk
Process.
Despite the positive reception on the
part of academics, the perceptions
generated by the Mohonk Process had little
impact on environmental policies.
Regional authorities, for example, to this
day maintain embargoes on logging in the
mountains based on the justification that
extensive deforestation was causing seri-
Himalayan Perspectives returns to the enormously popular development
paradigm that Ives dubbed the 'Theory of Himalayan Degradation'.
According to this seductive construct, poverty and overpopulation in the
Himalayas was leading to degradation of highland forests, erosion, and
downstream flooding. In the 'Himalayan Dilemma', Ives and Messerli
exposed this "Theory" as a dangerous collection of assumptions and
misrepresentations. While most scholars in the field promptly conceded
Ives and Messerli's points, the Theory has somehow survived as the
guiding myth of development planners and many government agencies.
In his new book, Ives returns to drive a stake through the heart of this
revenant. His book not only reviews the research that, over the past 15
years, has confirmed the arguments of the 'Himalayan Dilemma'; it also
takes a close look at all those destructive factors that were overlooked by
the conveniently simplistic 'Theory of Himalayan Environmental
Degradation': government mismanagement, oppression of mountain
minorities, armed conflict, and inappropriate tourism development.        ■►
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES | VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
17
 Publication preview
ous flooding and major dislocations downstream.
Since 1989, and partly as an outcome
ofthe Mohonk Conference, avast amount
of related environmental research has been
undertaken; its publication, however, has
been scattered widely throughout the
literature. The new book, therefore,
attempts to bring together and analyze the
more recent studies in the context of the
earlier work that led up to the 1989
publication. It presents a final rejection of
the earlier environmental paradigm; this
becomes the more important considering
the inappropriate environmental and
developmental policy decisions to which
the region is still subjected. Furthermore,
the inept and sustained focus of much of
the government legislation has served to
paint the poor mountain minority people
as the prime cause of environmental
degradation and so deflect attention from
the real problems.
T Timalayan Perceptions has two
J. J. primary aims: one is to follow through
on the academic discourse, to examine the
results ofthe post-1989 research, and thus
to update The Himalayan Dilemma; the
second is to assess the problems that
threaten the stability of the region as the
new century unfolds. As a corollary to this,
some ofthe reasons why scholarly research
has had little, or no, inherent impact on
environmental policy making are
discussed. In particular, the perpetration
of disaster scenarios by the news media is
explored because it is believed that this is
one ofthe reasons why the public at large
still accepts the notion of impending
environmental catastrophe.
The region discussed here extends well
beyond the limits of the Himalaya sensu
stricto (the 2,500 kilometre arc fromNanga
Parbat, above the middle Indus Gorge in
the northwest, to Namche Barwa, above
the Yarlungtsangpo-Brahmaputra Gorge in
the east). Coverage is extended to include
the Karakorum, Hindu Kush, and Pamir
mountains in the northwest, and the
Hengduan Mountains of Yunnan, the
mountains of Northern Thailand, and the
Chittagong Hill Tracts, in the southeast. The
United Nations University (UNU) mountain
research project, from its initiation in 1978,
has investigated test areas throughout this
broader region, and the new book
represents a contribution that concludes
the quarter century of UNU effort.
Himalayan Perceptions attempts to
analyze the manner in which the perceptions ofthe Himalayan region have evolved
over the last three decades. It explores how
the simplistic environmental alarm arose
and why it held sway for so long. Without
doubt, the environmental problems assumed to be threatening the region in the
1970s and 1980s were causing widespread
concern and affected the way in which international aid was manipulated. Over the
last fifteen years it has become increasingly
clear that the more dominant causes of
instability are socio-economic, administrative, political, and the spread of violence
and terrorism. The continued debilitating
poverty is regarded, at least in part, as a
consequence of mismanagement in its
broadest sense. Therefore, in addition to
assessing how the environmental discourse
has played out since 1989, issues involving
poverty, oppression ofthe mountain peoples, unequal access to resources, insurgency, and military conflict are presented.
The importance of tourism is also addressed because it is a major force that has
both positive and negative aspects and is
now menaced in many places by the growing political tensions and violence in the
region.
I have tried to write in the spirit of the
United Nations General Assembly of 1997
(Rio-Plus-Five), convened in order to
evaluate the progress achieved in the five
years following the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Earth
Summit (UNCED), and ofthe UN designation of 2002 as the International Year of
Mountains (IYM). Since the primary goal
of IYM is 'sustainable mountain development', it is considered that prospects for
achieving this goal, at least within the
Himalayan region, will be limited by the
degree to which the problems can be correctly defined. If progress has been made
towards producing a more accurate definition then the writing ofthe book will have
been well worthwhile.
There are eleven chapters. Chapter One,
entitled The Myth of Himalayan
Environmental Degradation, provides an
overview of howthe Himalayan region has
been perceived over the last thirty years
and of how research has progressively
influenced, or failed to influence, efforts to
obtain regional 'sustainable development'.
It includes a restatement of the Theory of
Himalayan Environmental Degradation
that was widely publicized by Erik
Eckholm's book Losing Ground (1976)5.
This is followed by a review of the later
Himalayan environmental research, in
effect, a synthesis ofthe first ofthe book's
main themes. Chapter Two is an outline of
the region under discussion - the
Himalaya, defined very broadly. Chapter
Three examines the discourse on the status
of Himalayan forests; it contrasts the more
humid eastern and central Himalaya with
the increasingly drier conditions as one
moves progressively toward the northwest
into Northern Pakistan andTajikistan. Chapter Four, Geomorphology of agricultural
landscapes, addresses the complex relationships between land-cover type, especially agricultural terrace types and their
management, precipitation, soil erosion,
and downstream effects. Chapter Five,
entitled Flooding in Bangladesh: causes
and perceptions of causes, questions the
relationships between land-use/land-cover
changes in the Himalaya and flood plain
responses. Drawing on extensive recent
work by Thomas Hofer and Bruno
Messerli6, amongst other studies, it
concludes emphatically that the primary
cause of flooding in Bangladesh, and by
extension in northeast India, is heavy
monsoonal rainfall across Bangladesh and
adjacent areas of lowland India.
The first five chapters, therefore,
expose the Theory of Himalayan
Environmental Degradation as an insupportable mental construct that should be
totally eliminated as a basis for environmental and developmental policy making.
The following five chapters turn attention
to some of the actual problems that require far more rigorous attention by governments ofthe region and by foreign aid
and development agencies in general.
The major physical hazards that pose a
challenge to sustainable development in
the Himalayas are the concern of Chapter
Six; these include earthquakes, landslides,
and torrential rainstorms. Opportunity is
taken to introduce the controversy
concerning construction ofthe Tehri Dam
in relation to seismic hazard assessments,
and the exaggerated claims ofthe dangers
posed by the likelihood of catastrophic
outburst of glacial lakes. Chapter Seven
attempts to assess the development and
importance of tourism, its positive and
negative aspects, and the dangers inherent
in excessive local dependency on a single
development endeavour. Chapter Eight
reviews the devastation being caused by
accelerating violence - warfare, guerrilla
activity, and unconscionable repression of
mountain minority peoples. Topics range
from actual warfare, as on the Siachen
Glacier, Nepal's Maoist Insurgency,
Bhutan's human rights abuses perpetrated
on its Lhotsampa Hindu minority, Nagalim,
and the oppression resulting from the
imposition of mega-projects, such as the
Tehri and Kaptai dams. Chapter Nine
presents an overview of rural change and
the challenges facing attempts to decentralize control over access to natural resources. The role of exaggeration - deliberate or unwitting distortion of events that
are exasperated by news media reports - is
examined in Chapter Ten. Individual case
studies are presented, several of which are
18
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Publication preview
Are the Himalayas really in crisis? And if so, who's to blame?
shown as examples of distortions, even
deliberate falsehoods, based in part on my
experience in the field. The concluding chapter is styled: Redefining the dilemma; is
there a way out?
The book frames the main conclusion
that the Theory of Himalayan
Environmental Degradation is not only a
fallacy, but also an unfortunate impediment
to identification of the real obstacles to
sustainable development. These include
administrative incompetence, corruption,
greed, oppression of mountain minority
peoples, political in-fighting, and even
military and political competition for
control of resources and strategic locations.
The well-being of the 70-90 million
mountain people has been largely neglected
and so they are left with little alternative
but to exert increasing pressure on
whatever natural resources that are
accessible, whether legally or illegally.
I have tried to make each chapter as
self-contained as possible. This has led to a
considerable amount of repetition.
However, I believe this approach will be
most beneficial for the reader who has not
had direct experience of the Himalaya.
None ofthe topics has received an exhaustive treatment. Rather, by selecting a series
of issues I have tried to keep the task within
reasonable limits while ensuring a broad
view of this vast and complex mountain
region and the challenges facing its diverse
mountain peoples who deserve far better
treatment than they have so far received.
Without their direct involvement sustainable mountain development will remain a
bureaucratic pipe dream. ■
JD Ives is a senior advisor at Environment and Sustainable Development
Programme, The United Nations
University, Tokyo, Japan and an honorary research professor at Department of
Geography and Environmental Studies,
Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada.
E-mail: jackives@pigeon.carleton.ca
This account is a synthesis ofthe book with
the same title that is due to be published by
Routledge (London and New York) in
August 2004.
References
1. World Bank. 1979. Nepal: Development
performance and prospects. Washington, DC: The
World Bank. A World Bank country study
2. JD Ives and B Messerli. 1989. The Himalayan
Dilemma:  Reconciling  development  and
conservation. London and NewYork: Routledge.
324 p
T Forsyth. 1996. Science, myth, and knowledge:
Testing Himalayan environmental degradation
in Northern Thailand. Geoforum, 27(3): 375-92
M Thompson. 1995. Policy-making in the face of
uncertainty: the Himalayas as unknowns. In
Chapman GP and M Thompson (eds), Water and
the quest for sustainable development in the Ganges
valley. London: Mansell. p 25-38
E Eckholm. 1976. Losing Ground. NewYork: WW
Norton for the WorldWatch Institute
T Hofer and B Messerli. 2002. Floods in Bangladesh: History, dynamics, and rethinking the role of
theHimalayas (unpublished manuscript)
ANNOUNCEMENL
The Himalayan Journal of Sciences will
hold a symposium to discuss issues
raised by Jack Ives' forthcoming book,
Himalayan Perspectives in Sept 2004.
The event will be open to the public.
Further details will be published on our
Web site and in Mountain Forum.
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES | VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
19
 Special announcement
Mountain Legacy Announces Plans
Mountain Legacy announces plans for conference on Mountain Hazards
and Mountain Tourism, calls for nominations for second Hillary Medal,
and proposes research and development institute in Rolwaling
One year ago, fifty-five delegates
representing L5 different nations
from as far away as New Zealand,
Canada, South Africa, and
Sweden, converged on Sagarmatha
National Park for an international
symposium entitled "The Namche
Conference: People, Park, and
Mountain Ecotourism"   (May 24-
26, 2003; Namche Bazar, 3350 m).
The event was organized by United
Nations University (UNU), Bridges:
Projects in Rational Tourism
Development (Bridges-PRTD), and
HMG's Department of National
Parks and Wildlife Conservation
(DNPWC), and scheduled as part of
the closing festivities marking the
Mount Everest Golden Jubilee
Celebration.
One of the L4 resolutions and
recommendations of the Namche
Conference was that a new
association be established, to be
called Mountain Legacy. Two
immediate responsibilities were
envisioned.
► First, Mountain Legacy would
organize sequels to the Namche
Conference — that is, international
events bringing together academics,
planners, commercial operators,
agencies, grass roots organizations,
and other stakeholders to confer
with the host community in a
remote mountain tourism
destination. These events would be
held every four years in Namche
Bazaar, and every four years (at a
two year off-set) in some other
remote mountain tourism
destination.
► Secondly, Mountain Legacy
would be responsible for the
presentation every two years, in
the context of the Namche
Conference, of the Sir Edmund
Hillary Mountain Legacy Medal
"for remarkable service in the
conservation of culture and nature
in remote mountainous regions."
(The first medal was awarded to
Michael Schmitz and Helen
Cawley, who for the past decade
have been working on keystone
cultural and ecological projects in
Solu-Khumbu, including the
Tengboche Monastery Development
Plan, the Thubten ChoJing
Monastery Development Project
near Junbesi, and the Sacred Lands
Initiative.)
In addition, Mountain Legacy
would undertake other projects in
support of tourism and
volunteerism in remote
mountainous destinations.
As of April 2004, Mountain Legacy
is officially registered as an NGO
(HMG Regd No. L0L8/060-6L). The
board has following members:
► Arjun Adhikari - President
► Arjun Kafle - Vice-President
► Kumar P Mainali - General
Secretary
► Laxman Karki - Joint Secretary
► GeetanjaJi Nanda - Treasurer
► Bharat B Shrestha and Ganesh P
Bhattarai - Members
Anyone interested in joining
Mountain Legacy, or in
collaborating on any of the projects
outlined below, should contact
Arjun Adhikari
Tel: 977-L-5528090,
E-mail: editors@himjsci.com,
adhikariu@yahoo.com
Mountain Legacy Announcements
1.    From July 1 to December 3L,
2004, Mountain Legacy will accept
nominations for the second Sir
Edmund Hillary Mountain Legacy
Medal. (See Web site:
www. mountainlegacy. org)
2. The second Mountain Legacy
Conference will focus on
Rolwaling (Dolakha District, Nepal)
and will be held in October 2005.
The theme will be "Mountain
Hazards and Mountain
Tourism."
3. Mountain Legacy is now ready
to begin planning for the Rolwaling
Mountain Legacy Institute.
Prospective collaborators The
concept and rationale for the RMLI
are outlined below. (Revised from
Vol 1 No 2)
Rolwaling Mountain Legacy Institute
Rolwaling Valley in north central
Nepal presents an unusual
combination of problems and
opportunities linking cultural and
natural conservation, tourism
development, and scientific
research.
Rolwaling's value as a biological
sanctuary derives partly from its
location and physical isolation.
Running east-west for
approximately 30 km, it is
separated from Tibet by a stretch of
the Himalayas that includes Gauri-
Shankar (7L34 m), which for some
time was thought to be the highest
peak in the world.   The Rolwaling
River flows into the Bhote Kosi
(one of several rivers of the same
name); this Bhote Kosi soon
becomes the Tamba Kosi. Simigaon,
at the confluence of the Rolwaling
and the Bhote, is about 90 km east
of Kathmandu, as the crow flies. It
can be reached by a 4 or 5 day trek
from Barabise, which lies on the
20
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Special announcement
A new NGO born out of the Namche Conference ("People, Park, and Mountain Ecotourism"; May 2003), Mountain
Legacy has announced a conference focusing on Rolwaling Valley to be held in October 2005. The theme will
be "Mountain hazards and mountain tourism." As of July 1 2004, Mountain Legacy will be accepting
nominations for the second "Sir Edmund Hillary Mountain Legacy Medal," to be awarded for remarkable
service in the conservation of culture and nature in remote mountainous regions." Mountain Legacy is also
planning to establish a research and development institute in Rolwaling Valley.
road to Tibet in the next valley to
the west, or by a 2 or 3 day trek
from Dolakha, the district
administrative seat, located on a
short branch off the Swiss road
that connects Lamosangu with Jiri.
The latter trail, the lower trails in
Rolwaling itself, and particularly
the steep ascent to Simigaon, are
subject to frequent damage during
the monsoon season, a problem
that has recently been alleviated
somewhat by improvements
initiated by the Austrian INGO Eco
Himal and by the Tsho Rolpa
Glacial Lake Outburst Flood
(GLOF) hazard mitigation project
being carried out with Japanese
and Dutch assistance. To the east of
Rolwaling is Khumbu district,
which in L976 was gazetted as
Sagarmatha National Park. The wall
of peaks between Rolwaling and
Khumbu is breached by the
formidable Tashi Lapsta pass: with
good weather, one can make the
crossing between the last
settlement in Rolwaling and the
most westerly settlement on the
Khumbu in about four days.
Altogether, access to Rolwaling is
not quite impossible, but definitely
more inconvenient than the most
popular trekking routes, several of
which can now be approached by
Cultural factors have
contributed to the conservation of
species in Rolwaling. According to
Tibetan Buddhism, about L250
years ago Padmasambhava [aka
Guru Urgyen Rinpoche] plowed
the valley out of the mountains in
order to serve as one of eight
"beyul," refuges that were to
remain hidden until, in a time of
religious crisis, they would serve
as sanctuaries, protecting dharma
until the danger passed.   The
neighboring Khumbu was one such
zone, and Rolwaling, in the
shadow of the mountain abode of
the goddess Tseringma (i.e.Gauri-
Shankar), was another. Unlike
Khumbu, Rolwaling remained
isolated and unimpacted until the
nineteenth century, and then was
visited by a very few wanderers
and outcasts. Due to the limited
amount of arable land and the
unsuitability of this east-west
valley as a trade route between
Tibet and India, Rolwaling's
inhabitants remained poor and few,
but devoutly mindful of their
spiritual heritage.   The Buddhist
bans on hunting and slaughter,
elsewhere observed Jess
scrupulously, have protected the
fauna; even plants are considered
living creatures which ought not to
be harmed if possible.
A third general factor that has
contributed to the relatively
unimpacted state of Rolwaling
Valley has been the government's
limitation of tourist access. Until
recently, you needed both a
trekking peak permit and a regular
trekking permit. The trekking peak
permit involved costs and other
factors that essentially excluded the
possibility of independent
trekking. All visitors arrived in
self-contained tented caravans
which contributed virtually
nothing to the economy of
Rolwaling villages. Therefore there
has been very little development of
infrastructure, and not much
impact on the environment.
In terms of biodiversity,
Rolwaling is worthy of close
attention.  Janice Sacherer
estimated that there are
approximately 300 different plant
species (Sacherer L977, L979 ).
The atypical east-west orientation
of the valley creates conditions
unlike those in any other valley of
the Himalayas. Partially shielded
by its southern wall from the
monsoon, Rolwaling has
characteristics of the dry inner
Himalaya; a good part of the flora
derives from the Tibetan steppe
and, in Nepal, is more typical of
eastern valleys. As in other
Himalayan valleys, Rolwaling's
ecosystems vary dramatically from
the broad glaciated valleys to the
chiseled fluvial channel
downstream; to a much greater
extent than in other valleys, the
sharp contrast between north- and
south-exposed slopes affects the
distribution of species.   The east-
west orientation of the valley also
makes it a convenient corridor for
mobile fauna. Rolwaling is visited
by quite a few of the charismatic
mammals, including wolves, fox,
several species of goat, bear, jackal,
Jangur, and several members of the
cat family (including snow
Jeopard). Every resident that we
interviewed on the subject is
convinced that yeti frequent the
valley In short, Rolwaling's
biological assets are clearly worth
studying; their conservation
should also be accorded high
priority as the valley's protective
isolation breaks down.
Furthermore, one cannot consider
development scenarios in the
high Rolwaling Valley without
assessing the implications for
the rich subtropical ecosystems
of the Tamba Valley into which it
feeds.
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES | VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
21
 Special announcement
If isolation has had a benign
effect on the natural ecosystem, the
human residents of Rolwaling have
observed the tourism boom with
envy. In next door valleys, every
family could throw open its doors
to backpackers and cash in on the
amenity values of their homeland;
in Rolwaling, the stakeholders
stare wistfully as organized
trekking caravans deploy their tents
by the river, cook up their burrito
and quiche feasts, and buy nothing
from the local residents. In
Khumbu, their relatives enjoy the
benefits of prosperity: schools,
upscale monasteries, telephone,
electricity, numerous clinics, a
hospital, post office - even
Internet, saunas, pool halls and
chocolate croissants: none are
available in Rolwaling. Many
young men have found
employment with trekking and
climbing services.   Such work
entails extended absence from
Rolwaling, and even emigration to
Kathmandu or Khumbu.   The
result is a brain and manpower
drain that leaves the villages of
Rolwaling populated by women,
children, and those no longer
capable of strenuous labor.
Agricultural fields have been
abandoned, livestock ineffectively
tended, trails poorly maintained.
Alcohol, the only recreational
option, is a serious health problem.
This disparity between the
neighboring districts has created in
Rolwaling (as in the access routes)
an intense demand for free access
to backpackers and economic
opportunity.   Several years ago,
due to the threat of Maoist attacks,
the police checkpost in Simigaon
was removed.   At this point,
Rolwaling is officially open to
general trekking, and, as the
prospects for peace improve, the
valley will become an important
trekking destination.
Research Opportunities
At the western end of Rolwaling
Valley, Tsho Rolpa, one of the
largest and highest elevation Jakes
in the Himalayas, has been growing
over the past decades due
primarily to the recession of
Trakarding Glacier. Attempts to
mitigate the danger of a glacial Jake
outburst flood (GLOF) have
included siphoning, installation of
a warning system, and reduction of
the Jake level by 3 meters through
an artificial drainage channel. Due
to depletion of project funding, the
drainage efforts have stopped far
short of the recommended
objective. Particularly as there is a
real threat of a catastrophic GLOF
Tsho Rolpa is an appropriate place
to begin long-term study of glacial
melting, runoff hydrology, and
moraine stability.
Rolwaling is also a good
location for ecological research.
Zonation is extremely compressed.
The east-west orientation results in
unusually sharp differences on the
northward and southward facing
slopes; it also means that the valley
is probably an important wildlife
corridor. Numerous ethnobotanical
resources have been identified;
now would be a good time to study
them in the wild, and also to begin
efforts to cultivate them as cash
crops.
Serious anthropological studies
by Sacherer and Baumgartner in
the L970s provide useful baseline
data against which the current
changes, especially the impact of
tourism, can be measured and
monitored. Specific studies that are
urgently needed: the Rolwaling
dialect of Sherpa, and Rolwaling
traditions of song and dance.
RMLI Format
In the initial phase, RMLI is
envisioned as an institute of
opportunity rather than
infrastructure. That is, researchers
would use existing facilities (lodges
and homes) rather than
constructing new infrastructures.
This would permit rapid initiation
of programs, significant ongoing
economic contribution to the
village economy and minimization
of impact on the object(s) of study.
The proposal calls for Mountain
Legacy to assist researchers in
recruiting volunteers. This would
provide an opportunity for tourists
to stay for prolonged periods,
making contributions to research
and practical projects, and also
injecting expenditures for living
expenses into the local economy.
International students could be
recruited either as study-abroad
program participants or as interns.
These students could either assist
established researchers or design
and implement their own programs
consistent with the aims of the
MLI.
The primary objective of RMLI
would be to facilitate research and
establish a database, while
developing a special type of
ecotourism in Rolwaling.   RMLI
would encourage Jong-term stays at
very low per-diem rates, as
opposed to so-called "quality
tourism," which aims to extract the
maximum profit over the course of
short stays. It is expected that such
an institute, well-publicized,
would be a magnet not only for
prospective participants but also
for other tourists. Just as tourists
go out of their way to visit cheese-
making factories, they would visit
Rolwaling to see the world-famous
research center and to contribute to
whatever on-going projects might
need their help.
Again, Mountain Legacy invites
collaboration on all of its projects.
Contact
Arjun Adhikari
Tel: 977-L-5528090
E-mail: editors@himjsci.com
adhikariu@yahoo.com
References
Sacherer J. L977. The Sherpas of
Rolwaling Valley, North Nepal:
A Study in Cultural Ecology.
EcoJe Pratique des Haute Etudes
(Paris): Doctoral dissertation
[Unpub]
Sacherer J. L979. The High
Altitude Ethnobotany of the
Rolwaling Sherpas.
Contributions to Nepalese
Studies, Vol VI, No 2.
Kathmandu: CNAS, Tribhuvan
University
22
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Research papers
Quantitative analysis of tree species in two
community forests of Dolpa district, mid-west Nepal
Ripu M Kunwar|* and Shiv P Sharmai
f Society for Economic and Environmental Development, Kathmandu, NEPAL
$ District Forest Office, Dolpa, NEPAL
* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail:ripu@wlink.com.np
Two community forests, Amaldapani and Juphal from Dolpa district, were selected for a study of quantitative analysis of tree flora. A
total of 419 individual trees representing 16 species, 16 genera and 11 families were recorded. Total stand density and basal area
were, respectively, 2100 trees ha1 and90m2-ha1 in Amaldapani and 2090 tree ha1 and 152m2ha1 in Juphal. Ofthe families, the
Pinaceae was the most diverse, with 28 individuals representing five species and five genera, followed by the Rosaceae with three
individuals representing two species and two genera. Pinus wallichiana, Abies spectabilis, Quercus semecarpifolia and Cedrus deodara
had the highest importance value index and could therefore be considered the dominant species. Since the study area was diverse in
tree population of conifers and deciduous forest tree species, it is essential to carry out further studies in order to establish conservation
measures that will enhance local biodiversity.
Key words: Vegetation, tree species, Pinus wallichiana, community forest, Dolpa
Him J Sci 2(3): 23-28, 2004
Available online at: www.himjsci.com
Received: 25 Dec 2003
Accepted after revision: 20 Apr 2004
Copyright© 2004 by Himalayan Association
for the Advancement of Science (HimAAS)
Human impact has, to varying degrees, led to a reduction in
biodiversity in much ofthe forested area of Nepal (Karki 1991,
Chaudhary and Kunwar 2002). Conservation of such forests
requires an understanding of the composition of the particular
forest, the effects of past disturbances, and the present impact of
neighboring land use on that forest (Geldenhuys and Murray 1993).
In order to understand the phytosociological structure of the
Himalayan forests, we need studies that deal with distribution of
individual plant species and of various girth classes, associations
among species, patterns of dispersion and various indices of
diversity (Longman and Jenik 1987). The present study therefore
was designed to explain variation in vegetation composition and
diversity components of tree species of Amaldapani and Juphal
community forests of Dolpa district.
Materials and methods
Study area
Both Amaldapani Community Forest (ACF) and Juphal
Community Forest (JCF) in Juphal Village Development
Committee (VDC), Dolpa district were selected as study sites.
Dolpa, in the rain shadow of northwestern Nepal, is the largest
and most arid district in the country. Lying between 27°21' - 27°40'
N and 84°35' - 84°41' E, it encompasses elevations between 1525
and 6883 m asl. ACF has a total area of 100 ha and 87 users, and
was established in 1998 (2055 BS); JCF with 1750 ha and has 165
users, was established in 1995 (2052 BS). Both community forests
lie between 1900-2700 m asl, are situated close to agricultural
lands, and are dominated by Picea and Pinus species.
Methods
Field studies were carried out in July 2001 and May 2003. Twenty
plots, i.e. ten plots in each community forest, each plot measuring
10m x 10m, were randomly demarcated for study. Density,
frequency, basal area and their relative values and importance
value index (IVI) oftree species were calculated following Mueller-
Dombois and Ellenberg (1974). Botanical name and author citation
was made following DPR (2001). In addition to quantitative data,
we used interviews and group discussions to collect information
relating to community forest management. In order to assess the
general condition and vegetation structure of the forest, we
developed a density-diameter histogram. Girth of trees exceeding
10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh, at 1.37 m above the ground)
was measured. The height of standing trees was measured by
means of a clinometer. The species area curve of each community
forests was calculated by randomly adding up the number oftree
species in each quadrat. The dominance diversity curve (D-D
curve) was used in order to ascertain the resource apportionment
among the various species at various sites.
Jaccard s (1912) coefficient (J) was used to quantify the extent
to which family and species composition overlapped between
sample sites. It is defined as: J = A /(A + B + C) where A is the
number of family and species found in both sites, B is the families
and species in site 1 but not in site 2, and C is the families and
species in site 2 but not in 1.
'S,' or species richness, was determined following Whittaker
(1976) by tabulating the number of woody species in each plot.
Shannon-Weiner's diversity index 'IT (Shannon and Weiner 1963),
concentration of dominance'D' (Simpsonl949) and Hill diversity
numbers NO, NI and N2 (Hill 1973) were computed.
Simpsons index 'D' was calculated using the formula
'D' = 1 - X pi2, where pi is the relative density.
Shannon-Weiner s diversity index 'H' was calculated using
the formula
'H' = - X pi Log pi, where pi represents the proportional
abundance ofthe ith species in the community.
Hill diversity indices were calculated using the following
formulae:
Number 0: NO = S, where S is the total number of species;
Number 1: NI = eH, where 'H' is the Shannons index;
Number 2: N2 = 1/D, where 'D' is Simpsons index
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES | VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
23
 Research papers
Results
Species area curve
The slope ofthe species area curve for each study site declined as
sample area increased but did not approach an asymptote
(Figure 1).
Vegetation composition
Atotal of 419 tree individuals, representing 16 species, 16 genera
and 11 families, were identified within the 0.2 ha area survey
(Table 1). Acer caesium (Aceraceae), Juniperus recurva
(Cupressaceae), Picea smithiana (Pinaceae) and Prunus sp
(Rosaceae) were found only in JCF and Aesculus indica
(Hippocastanaceae) was reported only in ACF (Table 1).
Total stand density and basal area were, respectively, 2100
trees ha-1 and 90 m2 ha-1 in ACF and 2090 trees ha-1 and 152
m2 ha-1 in JCF (Table 2 and 3). Girth
sizes of trees at breast height (gbh)
ranged from 31 to 224 cm in ACF and
31 to 440 cm in JCF The greatest gbh
ol Abies spectabilis (A AQ cm) was found
in JCF followed by Quercus
semecarpifolia (400 cm). The tree
species attaining the greatest heights
(>20 m) were A. spectabilis, Acer
caesium, Cedrus deodara, Juniperus
recurva and Tsuga dumosa, all in JCF
The highest IVI value was that of
P wallichiana (109.58) followed by
C. deodara (54.22) in ACF and
A. spectabilis (75.59) followed by
Q. semecarpifolia (57.31) in JCF Based
on IVI values, P. wallichiana and
A. spectabilis were found to be the
most dominant species in the study
area (Table 2 and 3). 4.53% ofthe total
tree individuals were stumps: 4.05%
(17) in ACF and 0.5% (2) in JCF Ofthe
total stumps, 52.63% (10) were
P wallichiana, 36.84% (7) C. deodara
and 5.26% (1) A. spectabilis and
Q. semecarpifolia each.
Size class distribution
The distribution of dbh classes
conformed to an reverse 'J' shape
curve, with 63.24% of individuals
having dbh between 11-30 cm: 104
individuals of 11-20 cm dbh and 35 of
21-30 cm dbh in ACF; 82 individuals of
Il-20cmdbhand44of21-30cmdbh
in JCF (Figure 2). The number of
individuals with a diameter greater
than 50 cm was 12 in ACF and 31 in
JCF totaling 10.26% of total species
(Figure 2).
Dominance diversity curve
Species dominance related to the
availability of suitable niche and
resource apportionment in a
community has often been interpreted
from the dominance diversity curve
(D-D curve). D-D curves for ACF and
JCF (Figure 3) were found consistent
with the normal distribution model of
Preston (1948), i.e., relatively few
u
v
Q.
V)
0)
3
o
FIGURE 1. Species area curve
TABLE 1. Composition and distribution of tree species in Amaldapani and Juphal community
forests (CF)
Species name
Vernacular
name
Family
Amaldapani
CF
Juphal
CF
Acer caesium Wall, ex Brandis
Tilailo
Aceraceae
+
Betula utilis D. Don
Bhoj patra
Betulaceae
+
+
Juniperus recurva Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don
Dhupi
Cupressaceae
+
Rhododendron arboreum Smith
Gurans
Ericaceae
+
+
Quercus semecarpifolia Sm.
Khasru
Fagaceae
+
+
Aesculus indica (Colebr. ex Cambess.)
Hook.
Pangro
Hippocastanaceae
+
Juglans regia Linn.
Okhar
Juglandaceae
+
+
Abies spectabilis (D.Don) Spach
Jhule sallo
Pinaceae
+
+
Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D.Don) G.Don
Deyar
Pinaceae
+
+
Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss.
Thingre sallo
Pinaceae
+
Pinus wallichiana A. B. Jackson
Khote sallo
Pinaceae
+
+
Tsuga dumosa (D.Don) Eichler
Gobre sallo
Pinaceae
+
+
Prunus species
Aare
Rosaceae
+
+
Pyrus species
Pande mel
Rosaceae
+
Populus ciliata Wall, ex Royle
Bhote pipal
Salicaceae
+
+
Taxus wallichiana Zucc.
Kandeloto
Taxaceae
+
+
Total
12
15
= presence,    = absence
1200
1000
800
£   600
£
■D
■D
£
400
«    200
0ACF
□ JCF
epTI     ^J~l     ^J~l
11-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60
Diameter classes (cm)
FIGURE 2. Distribution oftree in different size classes
61-70
71 <
24
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Research papers
species had a high IVI. These curves illustrate resource partitioning
among the various species (Verma et al. 2001).
Species diversity
Table 4 depicts the plant species richness, Shannon-Weiner
diversity index, Simpsons diversity index, Jaccard's coefficient
and Hill's diversity index ofthe two community forests. Maximum
species richness (15) was observed in JCF while the minimum (12)
in ACE The Shannon-Weiner diversity index was 3.02 in JCF and
2.36 in ACE while the concentration of dominance Simpson
diversity index for JCF was 0.82 and 0.70 for ACE Jaccard's
coefficient (J) was 0.65. Hill diversity numbers NO, NI and N2
were 12,10.59 and 1.42 respectively in ACE
Discussion
While square plots are usually superior for correlating plant
communities with local environmental variables (Ferreira and
Merona 1997), various shapes and sizes of plots have been selected
for other studies (Table 5). In Nepal, most studies designed for
the study of diversity or family/species abundance (including the
present) have employed square sample plots. Comparison of
quantitative data from the present study to those collected at
other forest sites has been shown in Table 5.
For both surveyed sites, the slope ofthe curve relating species
and area declined as sample area increased. The species area
curves for ACF and JCF were more or less consistent with a gradual
increase in the number of species with area, initially up to 600 m2,
TABLE 2. Quantitative analysis of vegetation of Amaldapani community forest
Species name
D (tree/ha)
F(%)
BAfm^ha1)
RD(%)
RF (%)
RBA(%)
Mean Ht (m)
IVI
a. Pinus wallichiana
1000
90
40.22
47.61
17.30
44.67
8.11
109.58
b. Cedrus deodara
440
90
14.38
20.95
17.30
15.97
8
54.22
c. Abies spectabilis
250
80
8.33
11.90
15.38
9.24
7.75
36.53
d. Populus ciliata
90
50
5.17
4.28
9.61
5.74
9.2
19.63
e. Taxus wallichiana
80
50
3.46
3.80
9.61
3.84
7.4
17.25
f. Quercus semecarpifolia
70
30
6.98
3.33
5.76
7.75
9
16.84
g. Betula utilis
60
30
3.58
2.85
5.76
3.97
9
12.58
h. Aesculus indica
40
40
1.48
1.90
7.69
1.64
7
11.23
i. Tsuga dumosa
30
20
3.55
1.42
3.84
3.94
10.5
9.20
j. Juglans regia
20
20
2.32
0.95
3.84
2.57
9.5
7.36
k. Rhododendron arboreum
10
10
0.37
0.47
1.92
0.41
6
2.80
1 Prunus species
10
10
0.23
0.47
1.92
0.25
7
2.64
Total
2100
520
90.07
99.93
99.93
99.99
299.86
D = density, F = frequency, BA = basal area, RD = relative density, RF = relative frequency, RBA = relative basal area, IVI = importance value index
TABLE 3. Quantitative analysis
of vegetation of
Juphal comm
unity forest
Species name
D (tree/ha)
F(%)
BA^-ha1)
RD (%)
RF (%)
RBA(%)
Mean Ht. (m)
IVI
a. Abies spectabilis
510
80
53.09
24.40
16.32
34.87
13.25
75.59
b. Quercus semecarpifolia
410
60
38.67
19.61
12.24
25.46
11.5
57.31
c. Pinus wallichiana
400
70
10.68
19.13
14.28
7.01
7.28
40.42
d. Taxus wallichiana
280
60
4.63
13.39
12.24
3.04
7
28.67
e. Tsuga dumosa
100
50
13.19
4.78
10.20
8.69
14
23.67
f. Populus ciliata
90
40
1.75
4.30
8.16
1.15
8.25
13.61
g. Cedrus deodara
60
20
8.50
2.87
4.08
5.56
14
12.51
h. Betula utilis
60
20
5.11
2.87
4.08
3.39
10.5
10.34
i. Acer caesium
50
20
6.41
2.39
4.08
4.23
14
10.07
j. Juniperus recurva
40
10
5.37
1.91
2.04
3.53
15
7.48
k. Picea smithiana
20
20
2.07
0.95
4.08
1.36
10
6.39
1 Juglans regia
40
10
1.88
1.91
2.04
1.23
8
5.18
m. Pyrus species
10
10
0.40
0.47
2.04
0.25
9
2.76
n. Prunus species
10
10
0.14
0.47
2.04
0.09
5
2.60
o. Rhododendron arboreum
10
10
0.09
0.47
2.04
0.07
4
2.58
Total
2090
490
151.98
99.93
99.96
99.93
299.81
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES | VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
25
 Research papers
and then appears to be approaching an asymptote indicating that
the sampled area is adequate for this specific forest (Figure 1). It
can be argued that, for conifer dominant forests, sample plots
covering one to two hectares are adequate.
Community management of ACF was initiated in 1998,
ending a period of uncontrolled exploitation; in JCF on the other
hand, management was initiated in 1995 and has been supported
by the indigenous forest management. Community forest
management runs under users' forest operational plan and forest
act. The operational plan guides and regulates forest management.
Despite the institution of community forest management, human
disturbance continues in various forms, including grazing, tree
felling, fuelwood collection, and encroachment on marginal land.
The presence of mature trees (>50 cm dbh) is the result of
prolonged forest management in JCF while the small boles and
stumps in ACF are signs of early succession and uncontrolled
disturbance before 1998.
TABLE 4. Diversity indices of Amaldapani and Juphal community
forests
Diversity indices
Amaldapani CF
Juphal CF
Average
Species richness (S)
12
15
13
Simpson's diversity index (D)
0.70
0.82
0.76
Shannon-Weiner's diversity
index (H)
2.36
3.02
2.69
Hill's diversity number
NO (species richness)
12
15
13
N1
10.59
20.49
15.54
N2
1.42
1.21
1.31
Jaccard's coefficient (J)
0.65
At the time of our survey, there were 310 mature trees ha-1
in JCF as compared to 120 ha-1 in ACE The reduced diversity of
vegetation can be attributed to the human impact noted above,
which was particularly severe due to the close proximity of
agricultural lands. Disturbance has been considered an important
factor structuring forest communities (Foster 1980) and different
levels and types of disturbance have a differential impact on forest
communities (Halpern and Spies 1995). Agricultural practices,
over and premature harvesting and recreation constitute 18% of
the aggregate threat to the plant diversity (Freemark et al. 2001).
High human and other biotic pressures are detrimental to the
vegetation structure of forests.
A total of 10 plant families were reported in JCF and nine in
ACE Among them, three families (Aceraceae, Betulaceae and
Taxaceae) were identified as temperate. Pinaceae was the most
diversified family with 28 individuals, five species and five genera,
followed by Rosaceae, with three individuals, two species and
two genera. Pinus wallichiana in ACF contributed the maximum
stand density (1000 trees ha-1), or about 50% ofthe total stand
density. Stand density differed slightly among study sites, although
there was a broad similarity in maj or species composition. Density
is influenced by various factors, including elevation, soil type,
dominant and associated species and human activities (cf.
Shrestha et al. 1998). Climatic factors, environmental stability,
land use and area and habitat heterogeneity are the factors often
discussed as determinants of variability in species richness (Spies
and Turner 1999).
In our study areas, the values for total basal area and density
were higher than the values (15-60 m2 ha-1 and 320-2080
trees ha-1) reported by Bhandari et al. (1997) in temperate forests
of the Garhwal Himalaya. As vegetation matures, total stand
density tends to decrease and the stand increases in height, basal
area and volume. Density and dispersion are quite sensitive to
size and intensity of disturbance. The remarkable differences in
stand density between ACF and JCF were due to the management
history. The mean height and total basal area also differed
significantly i.e. 8.20 m and 90.07 m2 ha-1 in ACF and 10.05 m and
TABLE 5. Vegetation characteristics of various forest types
Forest type
Location
Study area (ha) /
Plot size (m2)
Girth size
(cm)
T. stand density
(trees ha ^
T. basal area
(m2 ha )
Source
Temperate forests
Mid west Nepal
0.20/(10x10)
>30
2095
90-152
Present study
Shorea robusta forests
RBNP, Nepal
2.81 / (25x25)
>30
333-385
32-36
Giri etal. (1999)
Shorea robusta forests
MBNP, Nepal
1.20/(20x20)
>10
1125-1174
32-35
Duwadee et al. (2002)
Castanopsis hystrix forests
MBNP, Nepal
0.60/(10x10)
>30
1921-3075
23-36
Shrestha et al. (2002)
Shorea-Castanopsis forests
MBNP, Nepal
3.84 / (20x20)
>10
1425
59
Chaudhary and Kunwar
(2002)
Riverine forests
KJWR, Nepal
1.84/(20x20)
>30
472-652
20-31
Karki et al. (2001)
Temperate forests
Kavre, Nepal
0.37/(10m radius)
-
5-132
8-19
Shrestha etal. (1998)
Himalayan forests
Nainital, India
0.10/(10x10)
>30
620
16.8
Khera et al. (2001)
Dry evergreen forests
Southern India
0.50 / (50x20)
>20
280-1130
11-36
Visalakshi(1995)
Dry evergreen forests
Southern India
2.00/(100x50)
>10
453-819
11-20
Parthasarathy and Sethi
(2001)
Himalayan forests
Garhwal, India
0.20/(10x10)
>10
792-1111
56-126
Pande (2001)
Semi evergreen forests
Eastern ghat, India
4.00/(10x10)
>30
367-667
26-42
Kadavul and Parthasarathy
(1999)
Upland forests
Jau NP, Amazonia
4.00/(40x10)
>30
160-178
32-40
Ferreira and Prance (1998)
T = total, RBNP = Royal Bardiya National Park, MBNP = Makalu Barun National Park, KTWR = Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, NP = National Park
26
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Research papers
120 i
x
£
01
3
01
o
£
ra
o
a.
100
g     n
Species
I
FIGURE 3. Dominance diversity curve for the tree species given in Table 2 and 3
151.98 m2 ha-1 in JCF respectively. The higher total basal area in
JCF was the result of the high proportion of trees of diameter
greater than 50 cm (Figure 2). Trees with larger diameter have
wider canopy cover and as canopy becomes close plant
competition intensifies and slow growing trees become stunt
and die. The wide range in basal area inJCFshows its heterogeneity.
The presence of a large number of trees in the 10-30 cm
diameter class indicates that the study area is in mid-level
succession. However, there were few trees in the small size classes
(<10cm): only 120 ha-1 in JCF and 260 ha-1 in ACE The paucity of
small trees indicates that the forest is not sustaining itself. This
may be due to the recurrent human disturbance. The extent of
disturbance can be attributed to easy access, inefficient
management, and lack of alternative sources of forest products.
Local people involved in community forestry programmes, on
the other hand, generally protect their forests and access to
government managed forests out of self-interest (Shrestha and
Paudel 1996, Kunwar 2002). Strengthening local control and
governmental oversight is urgently needed to assure long-term
sustainability
The dominance of four species (in descending order, A.
spectabilis, P wallichiana, Q. semecarpifolia and C. deodara),
together with their contribution of 75% ofthe total stand density,
75% of frequency, 74% of total basal area and 67% of IVI, indicates
that these species utilize the majority of forest space and resources
(Figure 3). Of these four dominant species, three belongs to the
Pinaceae family and one to the Fagaceae. The dominance of
Pinaceae in Amaldapani and Juphal community forests of Dolpa
district is one ofthe characteristic features of coniferous forest in
temperate climate zones.
The top niches were occupied by P wallichiana and C.
deodara, in ACE and A. spectabilis and Q. semecarpifolia in JCF
In both sites, the remaining species shared the intermediate and
lower niches more or less equally. The gentle slope of D-D curve
(Figure 3) observed in JCF indicates steady growth of trees, while
sharp depression ofthe curve representing the small size classes
of ACF trees is the result of human disturbance. The distribution
pattern oftree species was similar, with the notable exceptions of
P wallichiana in site ACF and A. spectabilis in JCF Such pattern
of distribution is a general characteristic of nature (Odum 1971)
while the conifer predominates the others in nutrient absorption
in temperate forests (Saxena and Singh 1984).
Under severely disturbed conditions, the age class
distribution of colonizers may be narrow, while individuals of
diverse ages are found where disturbance is less severe
(Figure 2). A total of seven size-classes of tree species with an
interval of 10 cm dbh were recognized for each forest site; such a
large number of size-classes is the result
of better protection due to community
forest management. The proportion of
different age-classes of plant species
across a landscape and over time is one
ofthe fundamental characteristics ofthe
vegetation mosaic (Spies and Turner
1999). The reverse 'J' shaped size-class
distribution curve was obtained which
is typical of all types of forests (Ferreira
and Merona 1997).
If one compares the Shannon
diversity values observed in the present
study with the values reported (between
1.16-3.4) for temperate forests by
Saxena and Singh (1982), the present
study falls within the earlier reported
range. Biodiversity was relatively low in
ACE The impact of human activities such
as firewood collection, tree felling and cattle browsing accounts
for the reduced diversity of vegetation in ACE The similarity index
of the studied sites reveals a remarkable degree of overlap in
vegetation composition and structure. This may reflectthe similar
microclimates ofthe surveyed sites.
Conclusion
Differences in number of individual trees, species, families, total
basal area, and vegetation composition may be due to differences
in local environmental variables (disturbance gradients and
vegetation characteristics). The dominance of Pinus wallichiana,
Abies spectabilis, Quercus semecarpifolia and Cedrus deodara,
with their major contribution to total basal area, frequency, stand
density and IVI, indicates that these are frequent in the studied
forests. The contribution of seven species to total species diversity
and of three species to dominant species list indicated that the
study area vegetation is conifer dominant. Although the forest
existed in several girth classes, there was a reduced number of
small tree individuals (<10 cm) which may be attributed to
recurrent disturbances (marginal land encroachment, grazing
and firewood collection); this dearth of immature individuals
indicates impaired sustainability of the surveyed forests even
though both are community managed. Better management and
local control over the forests is therefore urgently needed. The
present study is a modest effort focusing on a small area; large-
scale studies are needed to help determine appropriate
conservation and management strategies for the betterment of
the existing population and biodiversity of forests. ■
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HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Research papers
Vegetation composition and diversity of Piluwa micro-watershed in
Tinjure-Milke region, east Nepal
Madan Koirala
Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, NEPAL
For correspondence, E-mail: mkoirala@wlink com.np
Comparative study of vegetation structure and composition of two forests at Tamafok (TF) and Madimulkharka (MM) villages in the
Piluwa micro-watershed was undertaken. A total of 20 tree species were reported, with more species in the non-degraded TF forest
than in the degraded MM forest. Rhododendron arboreum and Goldfussia penstemonoides were the dominant species in the TF forest,
whereas Quercus semecarpifolia and Rhododendron arboreumwere dominant in the MM forest. The total density of trees in the TF
forest (756 ha1) was higher than that at MM (346 ha1). Similarly, tree basal area in the TF forest (69.8 m2 ha1) was greater than at MM
(56.9 m2 ha1). Shrub density was also higher in the TF forest than at MM. Diversity indices for both trees (2.61) and shrubs (0.915) in
the TF forest showed higher values in comparison to MM (2.4,0.854). Concentration of dominance ofthe tree species was stronger in
the MM forest (0.266) as compared to TF (0.258). The regeneration potential was higher in the degraded MM forest than in the
relatively undisturbed TF forest. Seedling-sapling density was lower in undisturbed and mature forest which had closed canopy.
Key words: Forest structure, degradation, species richness, dominance
Him J Sci 2(3): 29-32, 2004
Available online at: www.himjsci.com
Received: 18 Apr 2003
Accepted after revision: 15 Apr 2004
Copyright© 2004 by Himalayan Association
for the Advancement of Science (HimAAS)
The species richness of the forests of eastern Nepal has been
documented in a number of studies over the past 150 years, from
Hooker's initial explorations (1854) to more recent works,
including Schweinfurth (1957), Hara and William (1979), Stainton
(1972), Dobremez and Shakya (1975), Numata (1980), Oshawa et
al. (1986) and Shrestha (1989). Eastern Nepal is rich in floral and
faunal diversity (Numata 1980, DNPWC 1995, Ali 1977, and
Carpenter and Zomer 1996). Extensive forest stands at late
succession stage with closed canopy are present throughout
Makalu-Barun Conservation Area, especially above 2000 m asl.
At lower elevations, spatially limited but ecologically significant
stands are found within locally protected raniban forest and in
corridors of near-tropical riparian forest within deep river valleys
that penetrate a considerable distance into the conservation area.
Forests in the Himalaya are under pressure, from both
internal (e.g. over exploitation of forest resources for livelihood)
and external forces (e.g. over flow of tourists), with adverse impacts
on the supply of forest resources such as fuelwood, fodder, timber
and non-timber forest products as well as on forest-based
government revenues (Eckholm 1982, Pandey and Singh 1984,
Ramakrishnan 1992). The increasing flow of tourists has further
increased pressure on forest resources (Ives 1988, Thapa and
Weber 1990). Studies have shown that deforestation in the
Himalaya has implications for agriculture not only in the adjoining
hills and mountains, but also in the plains far below (Pandey and
Singh 1984, Mahat etal. 1986,Virgo and Subba 1994).
The high rate of seedling survival in the shade of late
successional species and the contrasting low rate of seedling survival
in the shade of early successional species are related to these species'
adaptation to different light regimes in the forest community
(Ramakrishnan et al. 1982). In a forest ecosystem, if a disturbance is
small, suitable microclimatic conditions may remain prevalent in
scattered pockets, leading to germination and establishment of
large number of species (Sundriyal and Sharma 1996).
In the present study, vegetation structure and composition
of two forests lying at adjacent villages, Tamafok (TF) and
Madimulkharka (MM) are compared. TF forest is characterized
by low intensity degradation while MM forest by high intensity
degradation. The study site falls within the Piluwa watershed of
Tinjure-Milke region in eastern Nepal.
Methods
Study area
The study area (27T 2' N, 87°27' E), covering 24.69 km2, represents
part of the Piluwa watershed and includes the two villages
(Tamafok and Madimulkharka). The land use ofthe study area is
41.9% forest, 54.4% agriculture land, 2.3% grassland and others
1.4% (Koirala 2002). The altitude ranges from 2200 to 3100 m asl,
with slopes of 15° to 45°. The soil is darkbrown to black, acidic (pH
4.3 - 5.3), with a high proportion of sand and silt, and is podzolic
(Koirala 2002). The study area has three distinct seasons: a short
summer (April to June), monsoonic rainy season (July to October)
and cold winter (November to March). Currently, this area is
under consideration as a Rhododendron Conservation Area
(HMG/MOPE1998). This area leads to the Makalu-Barun National
Park toward the northwest and Kanchenjunga Conservation Area
to the northeast (Kanchenjunga Conservation Area is closer to
Qomolonga Nature Reserve in Tibet, China). For this reason, the
present study area is considered a critical habitat corridor for
many rare and endangered wildlife species.
Sampling
Vegetation analysis of forests in various stages of degradation was
undertaken using 30 quadrats in each forest. The standard quadrat
sizes were 10 m x 10 m for trees, 5 m x 5 m for shrubs and 1 m x
1 m for herbs. Frequency, density, basal area and Importance
Value Index (IVI) of each species were analyzed as suggested by
Mishra (1968) and Kershaw (1973). Regeneration oftree species
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES | VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
29
 Research papers
was calculated by counting seedlings (height = 20 cm) and saplings (height > 20 cm but diameter at breast height (dbh) < 10 cm)
following Sundriyal and Sharma (1996). Diversity Index (H') was
calculated following Shannon and Weaver (1949) and concentration
of dominance (cd) of species was calculated following Simpson
(1949). The field study was conducted during January- December
2000. Since the present findings are part of an integrated study,
observations were carried out over a period of 12 calendar
months, with a maximum lacuna of 4 weeks during the snowfall
period. Identification of plant species was carried out following
the standard literature (APROSC 1991, DFPR1993). Nomenclature
followed DPR (2001).
Results
Forest structure
A total of 20 tree species were found in the study area, with higher
species richness and canopy cover (>70%) in the TF forest. Nine
tree species were common in both forests (Table 1). Density and
basal area were higher in the TF forest (756 hac1 and 69.8 m2 ha1)
than in MM (346 hac1 and 56.9 m2 ha1). Rhododendron arboreum
Smith, Goldfussia pentastemonoides Nees and Lyonia ovalifolia
(Wall.) Drude were dominant tree species at TF whereas Quercus
semecarpifolia Sm., R. arboreum and L. ovalifolia were dominant
at MM. R. arboreum has been conserved under the management
of the local Laligurans (Nepali name for R. arboreum)
Conservation Group. The mean volume of standing trees was
similar in these two forests: TF = 373.08 ± 88.9 m3-ha_1,
MM = 371.14 ± 65.5 m3 ha1 (Table 1).
Five species of shrubs were recorded in both forests (Table
2). The density of shrubs was higher in the TF forest. Rhamnus
napalensis (Wall.) Lawson, Daphne bholua Buch.-Ham. ex D.
Don. and Thamnocalamus spathiflorus (Trin.) Munro were
common and dominant in both forests but at higher densities at
TF Desmodium microphyllum (Thunb.) DC. and species A
(unidentified) were present only in the MM forest, while Calamus
acanthospathus Griff, as well as an unidentified species were
present only in TF
Species diversity and regeneration
The diversity index for both trees and shrubs was slightly higher
in the TF forest (2.61 and 0.915) than in MM (2.4 and 0.854),
although the concentration of dominance was stronger in MM
(Table 3). The diversity index of tree species was almost three
times that of shrubs in the same forest. The regeneration potential
(density of seedlings and saplings) was higher in the MM forest
thaninTF (Table 4). However, a few tree species were represented
only by large trees without any seedlings or saplings (e.g.
IschaemumrugosumSalisb. and Quercus glauca Thunb.). Seedling
and sapling distribution did not correspond to mature tree
distribution. Berberis aristata Roxb. ex Dc. and Viburnum
continifolium D. Don were the dominant regenerating species in
the TF forest, whereas R.  arboreum and Symplocos pyrifolia
TABLE 1. Density (tree ha '*), basal area (m2 ha n) and Importance Value Indices (IVI) of tree species in Tamafok (TF) and Madimulkharka
(MM) forests, Tinjure - Milke region, Nepal
Species
Local name
Tamafok (TF)
Madimulkharka (MM)
Density
Basal area
IVI
Density
Basal area
IVI
Berberis aristata DC.
Chutro
-
-
-
3
0.23
2.9
Castanopsis indica (Roxb.) Miq
Dhalne Katus
-
-
-
3
0.03
2.5
Goldfussia pentastemonoides Nees
Angare
117
6.7
46.6
23
3.3
33.4
Ischaemun rugosum Salisb
Mallido
13
0.8
3.3
-
-
-
Loranthus adoratus Wall.
Kandeliso
3
2.7
5.5
-
-
-
Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude
Angeri
107
6.7
39.0
60
2.1
37.2
Osmanthus suavis King ex C.B. Clarke
Shillinge
70
3.8
21.0
3
0.03
2.5
Pilea symmeria Wedd.
Kamale
-
-
-
7
0.07
3.8
Quercus glauca Thunb.
Falat
10
0.7
4.9
3
0.97
4.2
Quercus semecarpifolia Sm.
Khasru
20
7.6
20.0
147
37.3
140.3
Rhododendron arboreum Smith
Laliguras
340
35.1
116.1
77
12.4
58.6
Rhododendron grande Wight
Guras
7
0.2
3.8
-
-
-
Rhododendron hodgsonii Hook.f.
Guras
10
0.6
4.8
7
0.1
5.5
Symplocos pyrifolia Wall.
Kholme
10
0.3
4.2
7
0.23
4.1
Symplocos ramosissima Wall.
Kharane
23
1.5
12.8
3
0.07
2.6
Taxus baccata Linn.
Dhyangre sallo
3
1.1
3.2
-
-
-
Viburnum nervosum D. Don
Asare
13
0.5
7.5
-
-
-
Viburnum continifolium D. Don
Bakalpate
-
-
-
3
0.03
2.5
Miscellaneous (n = 2)
10
1.5
7.3
-
-
-
Total
756
69.8
300
346
56.9
300
Mean ± S.E. of volume of trees (m3 ha"1): TF = 373.08 ± 88.9; MM = 371.14 ± 65.5
30
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Research papers
TABLE 2. Density (number ha n) of shrub species in Tamafok (TF)
and Madimulkharka (MM) forests, Tinjure - Milke region, Nepal
Species
Local name
TF
MM
Calamus acanthospathus Griff.
Betkanda
200
-
Daphne bholua Buch.-Ham.
ex D.Don
Lokta
4066
3812
Desmodium microphyllum
(Thunb.) DC.
Bakhreghas
-
67
Rhamnus napalensis (Wall.)
Lawson
Chillikath
32632
20222
Thamnocalamus spathiflorus
(Trin.) Munro
Malingo
3146
587
Species A (unidentified)
Musakane
-
160
Miscellaneous (n = 1)
40
Total
40084
24848
TABLE 3. Diversity and dominance oftree species in Tamafok (TF)
and Madimulkharka (MM) forests, Tinjure - Milke region, Nepal
Parameters
TF
MM
Diversity Index (H)
Trees
2.61
2.4
Shrubs
0.915
0.854
Concentration of dominance (cd)
0.258
0.266
TABLE 4. Sapling-seedling density (number ha"1) oftree
Tamafok (TF) and Madimulkharka (MM) forests, Tinjure
region, Nepal
species in
- Milke
Species
TF
MM
Berberis aristata DC.
4932
1346
Castanopsis sp.
-
27
Eurya cerasifolia (D.Don.) Kobuski
-
40
Ficus neriifolia Sm.
-
27
Garuga pinnata Roxb.
-
27
Goldfussia pentastemonoides Nees
533
693
Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude
133
866
Helixanthera parasitica Lour
13
13
Mahonia acanthifolia G.Don
67
-
Osmanthus suavis King ex C.B. Clarke
147
67
Quercus semecarpifolia Sm.
360
1280
Rhododendron arboreum Smith
80
1626
Symplocos pyrifolia Wall.
587
1586
Symplocos ramosissima Wall.
1573
387
Viburnum continifolium D. Don
2399
1067
Viburnum nervosum D. Don
-
120
Miscellaneous (n=2)
200
2026
Total
11024
11198
Wall, were the dominant regenerating species in MM. The number
of regenerating species and sapling-seedling density both were
higher in the MM forest. S. pyrifolia. and S. ramossimaWall. had
the highest sapling-seedling/tree ratio, indicative ofthe highest
regeneration potential (Table 5). The ratio was 58.7 and 226.6 for
S. pyrifolia in the TF and MM forests, respectively. Similarly, the
ratio for S. ramosissima in the TF and MM forests was 68.4 and
129.0 respectively. The ratio for R. arboreumwas low (0.24) in the
TF forest but it was 21 in MM.
Discussion
Forest structure
The differences in the structure and composition ofthe two forests
arise out of differences in their disturbance regimes and ecological
niche of dominant species. Forest MM, which is closer to a
settlement, experiences higher pressure in the form of fuelwood
and fodder collection by local inhabitants. This pressure has
reduced tree density and basal area. The higher density and basal
area of R. arboreum in TF may also be due to conservation by
local Laligurans Conservation Goup. It is the national flower of
Nepal. Felling the trees of R. arboreum was not allowed in the
study area. The differences in dominant species between the two
forests can more readily be attributed to the ecological specificities
of the species (aspect, photoperiodism, etc.) than to the
disturbance regimes. The dominance of Q. semecarpifolia in the
MM forest may be related to high moisture content of soil at
lower elevation (Koirala 2002). On the other hand, R. arboreum
occurs at higher elevations (Shrestha 1989, Sundriyal and Sharma
1996, Chaudhary 1998). This study site showed high tree species
richness, a characteristic of the eastern Himalaya (Dobremez
and Shakya 1975, Shrestha 1989, Sundriyal and Sharma 1996,
Carpenter and Zomer 1996). Higher diversity indices oftree
species compared to shrub species in both the TF and MM forests
may be attributed to the ecological succession still in the process
of stabilization in both ecosystems (Sundriyal and Sharma 1996,
Carpenter and Zomer 1996).
Forest regeneration
Seedling germination and establishment are related to the
availability of space created through perturbation and to
adaptation to particular light regimes (Ramakrishnan et al. 1982).
The regeneration potential of disturbed MM forest was higher
than that of relatively undisturbed TF forest. An open canopy
caused by mild disturbance to the forest allows the growth of
seedlings and saplings, which ensures sustainable regeneration.
However, in a mature forest with closed canopy, seedling
establishment is constrained by lower light intensity on the ground
surface. The fact that tree species are well-represented at the
TABLE 5. Number of sapling-seedling per tree in Tamafok (TF) and
Madimulkharka (MM) forests, Tinjure - Milke region, Nepal
Species
TF
MM
Goldfussia pentastemonoides Nees
4.6
30.1
Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude
1.24
14.43
Osmanthus suavis King ex C.B. Clarke
2.1
22.3
Quercus semecarpifolia Sm.
18.0
8.7
Rhododendron arboreum Smith
0.24
21.12
Symplocos pyrifolia Wall.
58.7
226.6
Symplocos ramosissima Wall.
68.4
129.0
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES | VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
31
 Research papers
adult stage but not as seedlings indicates a high light requirement
(Borman and Likens 1979, Sundriyal and Sharma 1996). Avery
old and stable climax Rhododendron forest community with
closed canopy might be the reason for a very low sapling-seedling/tree ratio for that species. Similarly the higher sapling-seedling/tree ratio of Symplocos and Quercusindicates that these species may replace Rhododendron and become dominant in future.
Conclusion
The difference in structure and composition of the two forests
studied arises out of differences in their disturbance regimes and
microclimatic conditions. Forest MM, which is closer to a
residential area, experienced higher pressure in the form of
fuelwood and fodder collection, had lower density and basal area
than the relatively undisturbed TF forest. However, due to the
open canopy of MM forest, the seedling-sapling growth and
regeneration potential were higher. Furthermore, the higher
density and basal area of Rhododendron arboreum in TF may be
due to conservation by society, as this is the national flower of
Nepal. ■
Acknowledgements
The author acknowledges the financial assistance for this study provided by
University Grants Commission, Nepal, and the creative comments of Eklabya
Sharma, ICIMOD.
References
Ali S. 1977. Field guide to the birds ofthe eastern Himalayas. Delhi: Oxford
University Press. 265 p
APROSC. 1991. Glossary of some important plants and animal names of Nepal.
Kathmandu (Nepal): Agricultural Projects Service Centre. 263 p
Borman FH and GE Likens. 1979. Catastrophic disturbance and the steady state
in northern forests. Am Sci 67: 60-9
Carpenter C and R Zomer. 1996. Forest ecology ofthe Makalu-Barun National
Park and Conservation Area, Nepal. Mount Res Dev 16(2): 135-48
Chaudhary RP 1998. Biodiversity in Nepal: Status and conservation. India: S Devi
and Bangkok: Tecpress Books. 324 p
DFPR. 1993. Medicinal plants of Nepal. Kathmandu: Department of Forestry and
Plant Research, HMGN. 154+XXXIIp
DNPWC. 1995. Biodiversity assessment of forest ecosystems of the eastern mid-
hills of Nepal. Kathmandu: Department of National Park and Wildlife
Conservation, HMGN. Biodiversity Profiles Project Publication No 8. 47 p +
appendices
Dobremez JF and PR Shakya 1975. Carte ecologique du Nepal: Region Biratnagar-
Kanchenjunga 1/250000. Doc Carte Ecol XVI: 33-48
DPR. 2001. Flowering Plants of Nepal (Phanerogams). Lalitpur (Nepal):
Department of Plant Resources, HMGN. 396 p
Eckholm ER 1982. Down to Earth: Environment and human needs. New Delhi:
Affiliated East-West Press Pvt Ltd. 238 p
Hara H and LHJ Williams (eds). 1979. An enumeration ofthe flowering plants of
Nepal, Vol 2. London: British Museum (Natural History). 220 p
Hooker JD. 1854. Himalayan journals: Or, notes of a naturalist in Bengal, the
Sikkim and Nepal Himalayas, the Khasia Mountains, etc. London, 1955
Reprint New Delhi, 1980
Ives JD. 1988. Development in the face of uncertainty. In: Ives J and DC Pitt (eds),
Deforestation: Social dynamics in watersheds and mountain ecosystems.
London: Routledge. 247 p
Kershaw KA. 1973. Quantitative and dynamic plant ecology. London: Edward
Arnold. 308 p
Koirala M. 2002. Environmental determinants of the livelihood related food
production system in a mid- Himalayan landscape, east Nepal [dissertation].
New Delhi: School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University.
141p
Mahat TBS, DM Griffin and KR Shepherd. 1986. Human impact on some forests
ofthe middle hills of Nepal, Part 1: Forestry in the context ofthe traditional
resources of the state. Mount Res Dev 6(3): 223-32
MisraR. 1968. Ecology workbook New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. 244 p
MOPE. 1998. Guidelines for the environmental management plan ofthe proposed
rhododendron conservation area. Kathmandu: Ministry of Population and
Environment, HMGN. 42 p
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Himalayas in eastern Nepal (abstract). In: Proceedings of Symposium on
Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau; 1980 May 25-June 1; Beijing, China, 282 p
Oshawa M, PR Shakya and M Numata. 1986. Distribution and succession of west
Himalayan forest types in the eastern part ofthe Nepal Himalaya. Mount
Res DevG: 183-200
Pandey U and JS Singh. 1984. Energy flow relationships between agro and forest
ecosystems in central Himalaya. Environ Conserv 11(1): 45-53
Ramakrishnan PS, PR Sukla and R Boojh. 1982. Growth strategies of trees and
their application to forest management. Curr Sci 51 (9): 448-55
Ramakrishnan PS. 1992. Shifting agriculture and sustainable development: An
interdisciplinary study from North-Eastern India. Man and Biosphere,
UNESCO, Paris and Parthenon Pub. Group. Canforth, Lancas, UK. 424 p
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im Himalaya. Mitmehr farbiger vegetationskarte 1:20.Mio', Bonner Geogr.
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Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 117 p
Shrestha TB. 1989. Development ecology of the Arun river basin in Nepal.
Kathmandu: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development.
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Simpson E. 1949. Measurement of diversity. Nature 163:688
Stainton JDA. 1972. Forests of Nepal. London: John Murray Ltd. 181 p
Sundriyal RC and E Sharma. 1996. Anthropogenic pressure on tree structure and
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Thapa GB and KB Weber. 1990. Managing mountain watersheds: The upper Pokhara
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district, Koshi hills, Eastern Nepal. MountResDevl4:159-70
32
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Research papers
Indigenous knowledge of terrace management in Paundi Khola
watershed, Lamjung district, Nepal
Karun Pandit| and Mohan K Balla$
f Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Singh Durbar, POBox 21645, Kathmandu, NEPAL
tDepartment ofWatershedManagement andEnvironmental Science, Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University,
POBox 43, Pokhara, NEPAL
*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: karunpandit@hotmail.com
The study was carried out in the Paundi Khola watershed, Lamjung district, with the objective of evaluating the indigenous knowledge
of terrace management. Various biophysical practices and land husbandry practices were recorded through field observation. A
questionnaire survey and group discussions were also undertaken to acquire relevant information. It was found that terrace width and
riser height correlated with slope angle negatively and positively, respectively. Outward-sloped terraces were common in the higher
slope classes. Bund plantation was rarely observed in the irrigated fields. Paddy was the preferred crop wherever sufficient water was
available. Paddy cultivation on unstable slopes without proper irrigation and drainage systems was the usual cause of slumping.
Despite the failure of terraces or slopes in areas with deep-seated slides, farmers continued paddy cultivation by temporarily supporting
and stabilizing the terraces until this was no longer feasible and major slope failure occurred. Gradual replacement of paddy by other
more appropriate upland crops may sort out this problem to some extent.
Keywords: Terraces, watershed management, slope failure, bund plantation, slumping
Him J Sci 2(3): 33-36, 2004
Available online at: www.himjsci.com
Received: 16 May 2003
Accepted after revision: 8 Mar 2004
Copyright© 2004 by Himalayan Association
for the Advancement of Science (HimAAS)
In spite ofthe agrarian nature ofthe country and the commitment
of His Majesty s Government (HMG) to support agriculture, there
is an increasing concern that agricultural production is declining
in Nepal. The population growth is accelerated by low literacy
rate. Both the amount of arable land per capita and productivity
per unit area are declining (Mahat 1987). To overcome this
problem, farmers are forced to extend cultivation to marginal
areas, intensify farming practices, and increasingly seek off-
farm employment. Agricultural land expansion means
deforestation, which leads to increased risk of natural hazards.
Improper intensive agriculture practices may accelerate soil
erosion. It has been estimated that as much as 1.63 mm of topsoil
is washed away from the total land surface of Nepal every year
(DSC 1992).
To cope with such disastrous situations, farmers have
developed several techniques for maintaining and improving crop
productivity through soil and water conservation. Some examples
of indigenous soil fertility management in the mid-hills of Nepal
are terracing, slicing the walls of terrace risers, allowing flood
water into fields, in-situ manuring and inclusion of various legumes
in crop rotations (Pandey et al. 199 5). The success of a development
project often depends on local participation, which in turn depends
on the familiarity ofthe agents with the indigenous knowledge.
Integration of indigenous knowledge in the development or
selection of technology recommendations demonstrates
sensitivity to the local culture, which facilitates the dissemination
of technology (Hafeez 1998, Warren 1991). Therefore, before
implementing any programme, it is essential to identify existing
indigenous knowledge and to evaluate its effectiveness.
According to Pratap and Watson (1994), terrace improvement is one ofthe oldest indigenous conservation practices in the
Hindu Kush Himalayan region. It is a package program that com
prises several activities, including construction and leveling of
terraces, riser trimming, construction of drainage, contour strip
and grass plantation, and pond construction. The present study
was carried out to identify and evaluate the indigenous knowledge of terrace management in the Paundi Khola watershed
(PKW), Lamjung district, western Nepal.
Materials and methods
Study area
Paundi Khola is a tributary ofthe Marsyangdi River. Its watershed
lies in Lamjung district, Western Development Region, between
28°05'00" and 28°12'30" Nand 84°17'30" and 84°27'30" E. It covers an area of 5,877 ha and includes 12 village development committees: Sundarbazar, Tarku, Parebadanda, Chandreswar,
Duradanda, Gaunsahar, Purankot, Kunchha, Dhuseni, Jita, Udipur
andSindure.
The total population of PKW in 1995 was 8,862, about 5% of
the total population ofthe Lamjung district. The total number of
households in the area was 1,774 and the population density was
150.79 inhabitants per square kilometer in the year 1998 (DSCO
1998). The majority ofthe inhabitants ofthe watershed are
Gurungs, followed by Brahmins, Chhetris and Tamangs. Members of occupational castes such as Damai, Kami, and Kumal, also
inhabit the area. Almost 90% ofthe total population depends on
agriculture, while 4.5% have permanent employment outside the
village. The rest ofthe population is either engaged in small business, wage-labor, or teaching at local schools. The number of
inhabitants per hectare of agricultural and forest land is 2.18 and
4.88, respectively.
The elevation varies widely within the watershed from approximately 600 to 1,830 m asl. Land can be categorized according to slope into five different classes. PKW terrain falls within
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES | VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
33
 Research papers
four of these slope classes, with slope class I being absent. The
slope classes and their respective area in the PKW are presented
in Table 1.
About 69% ofthe watershed is under cultivation, of which
level and sloping terraces constitute 34% and 35%, respectively, of
the entire watershed; the remaining 31% consists of forest and
shrub lands (Figure 1). Due to the wide altitudinal variation within
the watershed, variations in forest composition are marked. The
southern part of the watershed is characterized by temperate
forest with major species such as Schima wallichii, Castanopsis
indica and Alnus nepalensis, while the northern part is covered
abundantly with pine along with Rhododendron.
Methodology
Relevant biophysical and socio-economic information was collected using both primary and secondary sources. Primary data
was collected through field observation, a questionnaire surveys
and group discussion. During the field observations carried out in
December 2000, pertinent biophysical parameters, including terrace dimension, slope, and aspect, as well as land husbandry
practices, such as cropping pattern, irrigation, and drainage infrastructure, were studied and recorded.
The main patches of agricultural land in the watershed were
traced from the LRMP (1986) land utilization map. By overlaying
topographical and land utilization maps, we separated agricultural land slope classes. Five sample units were selected from
each ofthe slope classes, distributing them spatially over ridge,
middle and base portions ofthe watershed including all types of
terrain, such as irrigated and non-irrigated land.
A questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information not obtainable through field observation. A total of 62 households were included in the questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was designed to elicit information on slope maintenance
practices, type of terrace preferred, bund plantation, irrigation
TABLE 1. PKW slope classes and their respective areas
Slope class
Slope %
Area (ha)
% of total area
II
3-15
605
10.30
III
15-30
69
1.17
IV
30-60
3396
57.78
V
>60
1807
30.78
Total
5877
100.00
(Source: DSCO 1998)
practices, crop preference, forest resource use, and indigenous
knowledge regarding soil and water conservation. Separate group
discussions were carried out with local leaders and innovative
farmers to assess needs, interests and preferences regarding agriculture and natural resources.
Relevant secondary data and information regarding the
study area were collected from the District Soil Conservation
Office, Lamjung.
Results and discussion
Relation between slope and terrace dimension
The local farmers constructed terraces with narrower width in
the higher slope classes than in the lower slope classes (R2 = -0.78)
(Figure 2). They were well aware of the fact that increasing the
width ofthe terraces on steep slopes entails more effort both in
construction and maintenance. Wider terrace in a given slope
demands for an increased riser height. Farmers tried to keep the
riser height to a minimum, because increasing the riser height
leads to higher risk of terrace failure. However, riser height
unavoidably increased as slope increased (R2 = 0.78)
(Figure 3).
+
LEGEND
m ■■□fiEST
_ AGRICULTURE LAND
i SHH'-tfLAND
:  !■. i—
34
FIGURE 1. Land use distribution in Paundi Khola Watershed
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Research papers
■a
3
O
20 30
Slope (degree)
FIGURE 2. Relation between slope and terrace width
2.5
I       2
1.5
40
O)
0)
.c
1
V
V)
DC
0.5
V = 0.04x + 0.38 (R2 = 0.78)
.
^^' '
'     ^^
•
\^^'*'
0 5 10 15 20 25
Slope (degree)
FIGURE 3. Relation between slope and riser height
30
35
40
o      3
v
3
O-       9
1   -
0 -
D Leveled
□ Outward sloped
S Reverse sloped
II III IV
Slope class
FIGURE 4. Terrace frequency in various slope classes
Types of terraces
In steeply sloping areas, farmers preferred to construct outward-
sloped terraces. The construction of level or reverse sloped
terraces in the higher slope classes requires more cutting and
filling of earth. Outward-sloped terraces were the most common,
comprising 55% ofthe total, followed by level terraces, with 35%
ofthe total number of terraces. Reverse-slope terraces were least
frequently-observed, with only 10% ofthe total; they occurred
only on the higher class slopes (Figure 4). Generally, outward-
sloped terraces were common in the middle slope class while
level terraces occurred primarily on lower class slopes. The results
are in conformity with the statement put forward by Carver (1995)
that farmers modify terrace characteristics to accommodate local
slope and climate demands.
Types of riser surfaces
Most ofthe farmers were unaware ofthe importance ofvegetation
on the riser surface as a binding element. The natural vegetation
in the riser surface was scraped every year before crop cultivation
(mostly paddy cultivation). However, the scrap vegetation provides
green manure for the field. Farmers believed that removing the
vegetation helped control insects and other pests. The farmers'
logic is in line with results reported by Tamang (1992) in a study
focusing on the hills of Nepal.
According to Carson (1992), terrace risers in Nepal are commonly stone-lined, vegetated, or purposely cut to bare soil. Riser
surfaces observed in the study area included natural grass or
improved varieties such as Napier, stone lining and bare surface.
The most common were natural vegetation (40% of the total
observed), followed by bare surface (30% ofthe total). 20% are
stone-lined while only 10% of the total was vegetated with improved varieties of grasses.
Bund plantation
Out of all observations, only 45% ofthe terraces had bund
plantation of grasses, fruits and fodder species. The practice of
bund plantation varied according to the type of land. A low
proportion of planted bunds was observed on irrigated land
(paddy field) in comparison to rainfed land. Only 16.67% of irrigated land had bund plantation while 57.14% of rainfed land was
found to have bund plantation.
Among species most commonly planted on bunds were
fodder trees such as Artocarpus lakoocha (badahar), Ficus
roxburghii (nimaro), Ficus semicordata (khanyu), and Melia
azaderach (bakaino). Also planted were fruit trees such as banana
and orange, annual crops such as soybean and black gram, and
natural grasses such as Eulalopsis binata (babio) and Imperata
cylindrical (siru). Fodder trees were not planted on the bunds of
paddy fields because of their shading effect, which might hinder
crop growth.
Cropping pattern
Paddy, millet, maize and wheat were the major cereal crops cultivated in the PKW. The irrigated land was predominantly devoted to paddy, while either maize or wheat came afterwards to
complete the rotation. On rainfed land, millet was the main crop,
planted in rotation with maize and vegetables. Paddy was the
preferred crop wherever irrigation was available. Even on rainfed
lands, farmers were able to raise special varieties of upland paddy
(ghaiya); thanks to its tolerance of moisture stress.
The cropping patterns observed on irrigated lands were paddy
and paddy/maize/millet, and upland paddy and millet/maize or
millet and maize/vegetables or paddy/millet/maize on rainfed
lands.
Irrigation practices
Irrigation systems were employed in the lower alluvial plains where
paddy cultivation was practised. Farmers flooded the lowland
fields excessively because they believe that more water results in
higher yield. Lack of proper drainage had led to landslides and
slumping where the underlying bedrock was not stable. No irrigation system existed in the mid- and higher elevations where
cultivation was limited, for the most part, to millet.
Construction material
Clay and stone were the materials most commonly used in construction of terrace risers and benches. Homogenous clay was
commonly used for riser construction. Stones along with clay
were also used in some areas, especially in landslide-affected areas. The stones used for construction were not of uniform size
and grade.
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES | VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
35
 Research papers
Indigenous technique forjudging slope stability
People usually judged slope stability by the presence or absence
of paharo (local term used for exposed massive base rock) at the
toe ofthe hill slope. A slope was considered stable if such paharo
is present; lack of paharo was taken to indicate instability. This
criterion was taken into account when houses were constructed
or settlements established. However, terraces were constructed
wherever irrigation was available for paddy cultivation irrespective of slope stability.
Terrace maintenance
Farmers maintained the terrace against failure by using mud,
grass, and sometimes stones to repair cracks in the paddy field. If
the cracks were likely to develop further in subsequent events of
mass movement, they tended to fragment the terrace. They practised cutting of earth from the elevated portions or the field and
used it to fill in depressed areas. However, they continued to
exploit such lands until the slope/terrace completely failed or
became otherwise uncultivable.
Conclusions
There existed a high degree of negative correlation between the
terrace width and slope (R2 = -0.78), as well as between riser
height and slope (R2 = 0.78). From this, it can be concluded that
the hill farmers are intentionally accommodating terrace
dimensions to topography. However, the types of terraces
constructed and maintained were not always adequately related
to slope steepness. Outward-sloped terraces were frequently used
in the higher slope classes, which can lead to increased surface
run-off and downslope sedimentation. Further study of the
possibility of gradually transforming of outward-sloped terraces
to level or reverse-slope terracing is recommended. Immediate
solutions for increased run-off and sedimentation due to
outward-sloped terraces in the higher slope classes might be the
adoption of supplementary soil conservation measures such as
contour drainage, conservation ponds, and contour planting.
Only 45% ofthe observed terraces featured bund plantation. Most were in the upland areas rather than irrigated low
lands. Farmers are unwilling to practice bund plantation in the
paddy field because the species planted could reduce primary
crop yield through above- and below-ground competition. This
sort of problem might have occurred due to the selection of
inappropriate species for the purpose. Conservation agents
should help farmers choose the appropriate species to achieve
best results.
In the uplands, no irrigation facilities were observed and
rain is therefore the only source of water. Irrigation practices
existed in the lower alluvial plain where paddy fields predominate. However, the irrigation practices are not sound, and poor
drainage is a significant problem. Farmers practised flood-irriga
tion using river water conducted to the terraces through small
channels. The impounding of water without regard to slope stability may be a root cause of terrace failure and may also induce
landslides.
Scraping of vegetation on the risers before every cropping
season was commonly practised, supposedly to provide green
manure and destroy insects and pests. Although it may have benefits, this activity certainly leads to soil loss. Planting of improved
varieties of grasses on the risers will not only bind the soil but also
provide a rich source of fodder for the livestock. ■
Acknowledgements
The authors are thankful to NARMSAP/DANIDA, Western Regional Office,
Pokhara for financial support. The paper is based on research project paper
submitted by the first author to Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Nepal for the
partial fulfilment of Bachelor of Science in February 2001.
References
Carson B. 1992. The land, the farmer and the future. Kathmandu: International
Centre for Integrated Mountain Development. Occasional paper no 21.
74 p
Carver M. 1995. How do indigenous management techniques affect soil and water
movement? In: SchreierH, PB Shah and S Brown (eds), Challenges in mountain
resource management in Nepal: Processes, trends, and dynamics in middle
mountain watersheds. Proceedings of a Workshop held in Kathmandu, Nepal:
1995 Apr 10-12. Kathmandu: International Centre for Integrated Mountain
Development / International Development Research Centre / University
of British Columbia, p 193-202
DSC. 1992. Soil conservation and watershed management activities (Definition,
scope and working strategy). Kathmandu: Department of Soil Conservation,
HMGN. 56 p
DSCO. 1998. Watershed management plan of Paundi Khola sub-watershed.
Lamjung: District Soil Conservation Office, HMGN. 78 p
Hafeez S (ed). 1998. Appropriate farming technology for cold and dry zones of
Hindu Kush-Himalayas. Kathmandu: International Centre for Integrated
Mountain Development. 153 p
LRMR 1986. Land systems, land utilization and agriculture-forestry reports.
Ottawa: Land Resource Mapping Project, Kenting Earth Sciences Ltd. 263 p
Mahat TBS. 1987. Forestry-farming linkages in the mountains. Kathmandu:
International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development. Occasional
paper no 7. 48 p
Pandey SP DB Tamang and SN Baidya. 1995. Soil fertility management and
agricultural production issues withreference to the middle mountainregions
of Nepal. In: SchreierH, PB Shah and S Brown (eds), Challenges in mountain
resource management in Nepal: Processes, trends and dynamics in middle
mountain watersheds. Proceedings of a Workshop held in Kathmandu: 1995
AprlO-12. Kathmandu: International Centre for Integrated Mountain
Development / International Development Research Centre / University
of British Columbia, p 41-9
Pratap T and HR Watson. 1994. Sloping agricultural land technology (SALT).
Kathmandu: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development.
Occasional paper no 23.140 p
Tamang D 1992. Indigenous soil fertility management in thehills of Nepal: Lessons
from an east-west transect. Kathmandu: Ministry of Agriculture, HMGN /
Winrock International. Research report series no 19. 59 p
Warren DM. 1991. Using indigenous knowledge in agricultural development.
Washington DC: The World Bank. World Bank discussion papers 127. 46 p
36
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Research papers
Quantitative analysis of macrophytes of Beeshazar Tal, Chitwan, Nepal
Chudamani Burlakoti* and Siddhi B Karmacharya
Central Department of Botany Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, NEPAL
* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: cmburlakoti@hotmail com
The authors undertook a quantitative investigation of aquatic macrophytes in Beeshazar Tal (Beeshazar Lake) in summer and winter of
2002 and spring of 2003. We found a distinct seasonal variation in the distribution of macrophytes: based on importance value index,
Leersia hexandra Sw., Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, Ceratophyllum demursum L. and Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb. were dominant
in the summer; E. crassipes and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle were dominant in the winter; and Ceratophyllum submersum L., H.
verticillata, E. crassipes and L. hexandra were dominant in the spring. The highest species diversity was observed in the summer,
followed by winter and then spring. The luxuriant growth of aquatic macrophytes evinced the highly productive nature ofthe lake, while
the dominance of emergents among the growth forms indicates the encroachment of littoral vegetation, indicating a successional trend
toward marsh meadow.
Key words: Oxbow lake, macrophytes, importance value index, species diversity
Him J Sci 2(3): 37-41, 2004
Available online at: www.himjsci.com
Received: 5 Jan 2004
Accepted after revision: 29 Apr 2004
Copyright© 2004 by Himalayan Association
for the Advancement of Science (HimAAS)
Aquatic macrophytes are macroscopic forms of aquatic
vegetation, including macroalgae, mosses, ferns and angiosperms
found in aquatic habitat. They have evolved from many diverse
groups and often demonstrate extreme plasticity in structure
and morphology in relation to changing environmental condition
(Wetzel 1983). Aquatic macrophytes in different growth forms
represent the most important biotic element ofthe littoral zone
in a lake ecosystem (Piecznyska 1990). Two factors, number of
species and importance values (numbers, biomass, productivity,
and so on) of individuals, determine the species diversity of a
community (Odum 1996). Importance Value Index (IVI), a
quantative parameter, is useful, as it provides an overall picture of
the density, frequency and cover of a species in relation to
community (Curtis and Mcintosh 1951).
Most ofthe lakes on the plains of the Terai are oxbow systems
(Sharma 1973) and possess a luxuriant growth of aquatic vegetation
(BPP 1995, Bhandari 1998b). Some of these lakes are already on
the verge of disappearance whereas others are highly vulnerable
to degradation due to physiographic features as well as
anthropogenic activities (BPP 1995, Bhandari 1998b). Out of 51
wetland sites surveyed by the Biodiversity Profile Project (BPP),
10 sites were identified as meriting immediate protection (BPP
1995); Beeshazar Tal (Lake) in Chitwan District was one. However,
no conservation measures have been undertaken to protect the
lake. Growth of invasive species, natural eutrophication, seasonal
fluctuation of water level and lack of efficient inlet and outlet are
the major threats to the lake. The lake therefore demands
concerted attention towards a clear understanding of its
ecosystem in order to mitigate further deterioration. Though the
studies on various aspects of ecology of Beeshazar Tal have been
conducted by various workers (Jones et al. 1989, BPP 1995,
McEachern 1996, Jayana 1997 and Bhandari 1998a), there are
almost no quantitative studies of macrophytes. Hence, the
objective of the present study is to assess the richness and
composition of macrophytes of the lake in terms of seasonal
variation. This study is expected to be helpful in designing a plan
for the sustainable management ofthe lake.
Materials and methods
Study area
Beeshazar Tal is a shallow dissected fern-shaped oxbow lake
running northeast to southwest and surrounded by the Sal (Shorea
robusta) forest and marshy land typical ofthe inner Terai. Located
at 27°37'19"N and 84°26'29"E, at an elevation of 183 m asl (SD
1994), the lake is situated in the buffer zone of Royal Chitwan
National Park (RCNP) adjacent to Khageri Irrigation Canal, within
the Barandabhar forest patch; it is a habitat corridor between
RCNP and the Siwalik forests. Numerous wetlands are found
along the canal. Bhandari (1998a) reported the area ofthe
Beeshazar Tal to be 100 ha, while BPP (1995) reported that the
entire area of the lake system adjacent to the Khageri Irrigation
Canal covers 180 ha, of which only 5.5% is permanent lake.
Beeshazar has a maximum depth of 6 m and an average depth of
3 m. The water balance ofthe lake was found to be determined by
precipitation and ground water seepage: the lake has no proper
inlet or outlet. The area is famous for its biodiversity. Altogether
21 species of mammals, 13 species of reptiles, 17 species of fishes,
37 species of aquatic insects, 273 species of birds (60 species being
wetland dependent) and 131 species of plants (including 99 aquatic
species) have been identified in and around Beeshazar Tal
(Bhandari 1998a). Some ofthe more charismatic fauna in the
area are the Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris), one-horned
rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), mugger crocodile (Crocodylus
palustris), asiatic rock python (Python molurus), and the lesser
adjutant stork (Leptoptilosjavanicus, a globally threatened bird);
there is also an insectivorous bladderwort (Utricularia aurea). In
September 2003 the lake, along with its surrounding area (a total
of 3200 ha), was named 'Beeshazar and Associated Lakes' as one
ofthe newRamsar site (RCW 2003).
Methods
We studied quantitative parameters of Beeshazaar Tal
macrophytes in the littoral zone of three different sites around
the lake during three seasons: summer (5-15 August 2002), winter
(5-15 December 2002) and spring (5-15 May 2003). These three ♦
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES | VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
37
 Research papers
sites were selected for macrophyte sampling as representative of
the entire lake system. To analyze the macrophytes community,
we applied a random sampling method along several transects
with the help of a 1 mx 1 m light wooden quadrat. The quadrat size
was determined by the species area curve method as mentioned
in Zobel et al. (1987). The length of transects and number of
quadrats in each transect within each sampling unit were adjusted
according to the depth of the littoral zone. Each transect was
taken from the shoreline itself perpendicularly towards the centre
of the lake as far as the depth where submerged species were
seen. The macrophytes were counted by hand picking. The centre
ofthe lake was not covered for quadrat study because of mugger
crocodile infestation. Altogether 36 quadrats in the lake were
studied during each season -12 qudrats from each sampling unit.
Importance Value Index (IVI) was calculated by totaling the
relative values of density, frequency and cover (by visual
estimation); and Shannon- Weiner's (1963) index of species diversity
(H) were calculated following the mathematically manipulated
formula (cf. Zobel et al. 1987).
The plant species were identified with the help of standard
literature (Khan and Halim 1987, Cook 1996, Gurung 1991 and
Press et al. 2000) and visual inspection by taxonomists. All
specimens were crosschecked against specimens at Tribhuvan
University Central Herbarium (TUCH). The voucher specimens
were deposited at TUCH, Kathmandu.
Results and discussion
Altogether 61 species of macrophytes were recorded in the present
study. The highest number of species was occupied by
angiosperms (both dicots and monocots) (Figure 1). Lack of
shady and moist habitat has limited the pteridophytes to two
species.
Macrophytes in the present study were categorized into
four main growth forms following Shrestha (1998). Rooted plants
with main photosynthetic parts projecting above the water surface
were classified as emergents, rooted plants with leaves floating on
the water surface were classified as rooted floating-leaved
macrophytes, rooted or floating plants completely or largely
submerged were classified as submerged macrophytes, and plants
with crown floating on the water surface were classified as free-
floating macrophytes. In terms ofthe number of species, emergent
species constituted the largest group, followed by submerged,
rooted floating-leaved, and free-floating species (Figure 2). Our
conclusion that emergents outnumbered submerged and floating
species is substantiated by Sheerwani (1962) and Shrestha (1996
and 1998).
The number of aquatic macrophyte species was higher
during the summer (39) and winter (37) and lower during the
spring (29) (Table 1).
The dominance of species by growth forms on the basis of
IVI value is presented in Table 1. Emergents were the most
dominant form throughout the year. This can be attributed to the
emergents' high tolerance for fluctuation of water level (Van der
Valk and Davis 1976). Seasonally, emergents' IVI was highest in the
summer, followed by winter and spring. Among emergents,
Leersia hexandra was the most dominant in the summer and the
spring, and Cyperus alternifolius subsp. flabelliformis in the
winter.
After emergents, the next highest IVI values were those of
free-floating species in the summer and winter, and submerged
species in the spring. The dense growth of free-floating and rooted
floating-leaved species prevented colonization of submerged
species in the summer and the winter season (Kaul et al. 1978).
Among the free-floating species, Eichhornia crassipeswas highly
dominant throughout the year. The largest IVI values for this
species were found in the winter (43.5), followed by the spring
(34.71) and the summer season (27.25). Lesser growth of E.
crassipes in the spring than in the winter may be the result of
human removal of this species from the canal site (which was one
of the three sampling units) at the end of winter. During the
summer, E. crassipes was found to flow with water from the lake
to the adjacent canal by means of breaches in the dike between
the lake and the canal due to seasonally high water levels.
Consequently, the lowest IVI value for E. crassipes was observed
during the summer. E. crassipes was not reported in the earlier
studies of Beeshazaar Tal (BPP 1995, Jayana 1997, Bhandari 1998a).
Its current dominance may be ascribed to its invasive nature and
also its preference for highly eutrophic and stagnant water. Gopal
and Sharma (1990) also found a similar relation between growth
pattern and level of eutrophication. Beeshazaar Tal has been
categorised as hypereutrophic (Burlakoti 2003) on the basis of
nutrient criteria proposed by Forsberg and Ryding (1980).
Among the submerged species, Ceratophyllum
submersum, Hydrilla verticillata and C. demursum were
observed to be the most dominant species throughout the year.
The vigorous year-round growth of H. verticillata indicates its
ability to adapt in diverse conditions. Shingal and Singh (1978)
also found this species in a lake area characterized by high silt
load and cultural eutrophication. The silt load and the
eutrophication in the Beeshazar Tal were found to be due to the
transportation of silt, organic matter and litter fromthe catchment
area at the time of flooding. Similar findings regarding H.
verticillata are reported by Acharya (1997) and Shrestha (2000).
The dense growth of Ceratophyllum demursum in the summer
35   n
V)
30 -
0)
u
0)
25 -
Q.
V)
?0 -
l^
o
J_
1b -
0)
£1
F
10 -
3
Z
5 -
0 -
30
28
I 1
Dicots Monocots      Pteridophytes
Taxonomic group
FIGURE 1. Number of species by taxonomic group
Algae
50  n
2     45
43
6
Number of speci
1   O  Ol  O  Ol   O  Ol  o
7
5
0 -
0 -
1         1
FIGURE 2
species b
&
Nu
ygr<
rerger
Tiber c
swthf
ts      Su
)f
Drms
brrerc
Grc
ed
1
wth for
Roote
loatin
eavec
ms
J       Free floating
3
i
38
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Research papers
TABLE 1. Seasonal variation in IVI values of macrophytes by growth forms
Species, categorized by growth form
Importance
value index (IVI) in
Submerged
Summer
Winter
Spring
Average
Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle
16.37
24.9
54.54
31.94
Ceratophyllum submersum L
12.67
23.74
55.83
30.75
Ceratophyllum demursum L.
23.61
11.56
0
11.72
Chara sp.
0
6.03
0
2.01
Potamogeton pectinatus L
0
0
5.43
1.81
Utricularia aurea Lour.
0
0
4.18
1.39
Vallisneria natans (Lour.) H. Hara
0
3.51
0
1.17
Total
52.65
69.74
119.98
80.79
Free-floating
Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms
27.25
43.5
34.71
35.15
Azolla pinnata R.Br.
0
21.15
0
7.05
Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid
19.41
0
0
6.47
Lemna perpusilla Torr.
12.22
6.86
0
6.36
Pistia stratiotes L.
6.04
6.29
0
4.11
Total
64.92
77.8
34.71
59.14
Rooted floating-leaved
Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb.
19.31
0
12.19
10.50
Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
7.69
13.11
3.05
7.95
Ludwigia adscendens (L.) H. Hara
8.75
5.34
2.78
5.62
Nymphaea stellata var. versicolor
(Sims) Hook. f. and Thomson
2.1
3.09
0
1.73
Nymphoides hydrophyllum (Lour.) Kuntze
3.23
0
1.91
1.71
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.
1.5
0
1.35
0.95
Total
42.58
21.54
21.28
28.47
Emergent
Leersia hexandra Sw.
38.97
18.56
36.83
31.45
Cyperus alternifolius subsp. flabelliformis
(Rottb.) Kuk.
0
22.04
19.31
13.78
Persicaria hydroplper(L) Spach
22.54
12.53
5.73
13.60
Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC.
14.05
0
10.79
8.28
Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.
4.87
8.16
6.91
6.65
Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud.
2.82
5.29
11.28
6.46
Persicaria barbata (L.) H. Hara
0
17.29
0
5.76
Cyperus iria L.
13.8
0
0
4.60
Saccharum spontaneum L.
5.43
6.29
0
3.91
Echinochloa colona (L.) Link
4.49
6.26
0
3.58
Hemarthria compressa (L.f.) R. Br.
4.13
2.38
3.53
3.35
Pennisetum orientate Rich.
0
9.18
0
3.06
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa
(Mart, ex Choisy) D.F. Austin
3.57
3.48
0.82
2.62
Panicum sp.
0
0
6.14
2.05
Table continued on next page..
season can be attributed to the high growth
potential of this species in sedimentation-
proneareas (Segal 1971) andtotheeutrophic
condition of lake (Zutshi and Vass 1976). The
sedimentation load was high in the summer
season due to flooding in the catchment.
Among the growth forms, rooted
floating-leaved species were the least
dominant in terms of IVI value. The dense
growth of rooted floating-leaved species,
especially Trapaquadrispinosainthespring
and summer, may be attributed to better
adaptability of the rooted floating-leaved
species to the stresses of water level
fluctuation, to the tearing action of water
turbulence, and to turbidity of water
(Papastergiadou and Babalonas 1992).
Estimating annual average IVI values,
we found that emergents were dominant,
followed by the submerged, free-floating
and rooted floating-leaved species.
Previously, the lake was mostly covered by
submerged and the rooted floating-leaved
species (BPP 1995).
Species diversity was highest for the
emergents followed by the rooted floating-
leaved, submerged and free-floating species
respectively (Table 2). This trend may be
attributed to the increase in species richness
with decrease in water depth (Van derValk
and Davis 1976, Handoo and Kaul 1982).
The highest species diversity index for the
entire community, 4.17, was found in the
summer, as compared to 4.06 in the winter
and 3.17 in the spring (Shrestha 2000). The
seasonal variation in requirements of the
diverse growth forms may cause the
variation in the species diversity.
Management implications
The excessive growth of macrophytes was
probably due to high nutrient level in the
Beeshazar Tal. There is no outlet to flush
the accumulated nutrients from the
decomposed macrophytes; the consequent
high rate of oxidative processes renders the
lake anoxic. In addition, respiration by the
E. crassipes (water hyacinth) roots
contributes to oxygen depletion and
changes the water chemistry (McEachern
1993). When a lake becomes choked by
water hyacinth, the number of birds and
other animals in the upper strata ofthe food
chain decreases significantly (cf. Sah and
Sah 1999).
Though Beeshazar Tal now belongs
to the Ramsar Site as well as to the buffer
zone of Royal Chitwan National Park, no
serious steps have been taken for the
sustainable management ofthe lake. Local
people have been removing the
unnecessary growth of macrophytes only
at the canal site ofthe lake in the post-winter
season for the last few years. However, as
the invasive E. crassipes from the lake was
not completely extirpated, the surface of
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES | VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
39
 Research papers
the lake was again found to be wholly occupied by the species within a few months.
Accumulation of silt and detritus from
the catchment area and decomposition of
macrophytes reduces the water quality as
well as the core area ofthe lake and promotes
the encroachment of littoral vegetation, a
familiar successional trend as the oxbow lake
is transformed into marsh meadow (Wetzel
1983). Without inlet or outlet, the lake derives
water only from subsurface seepage and
precipitation, and water level fluctuation is
common. The failure ofthe dike during the
summer due to the rise in water level is also
common. Recently the local Lake
Management Committee drew up plans to
construct a proper inlet and outlet for the
lake, but work has been postponed due to
the lack of adequate financial support. A
sustainable management plan should be
formulated and implemented soon if
Beeshazar Tal's diverse ecosystem is to be
preserved. The highest priority must be given
to inlet and outlet construction and to
removal of £ crassipes.
Conclusion
The luxuriant growth of the macrophytes
reveals the productive nature of the lake.
The dominance of emergents among other
growth forms (as shown by IVI
measurements) indicates the
encroachment of littoral vegetation,
reducing the core area of the lake and
showing the trend of succession towards
marsh meadow condition. The dominance
of previously absent Eichhornia crassipes
indicates its invasive nature which explains
the fact that the lake is becoming anoxic.
The fact that emergents have the highest
species diversity and submerged species the
lowest signifies the increasing richness in
species with decreasing water level, a
general trend during the course of succession. ■
Acknowledgements
We are thankful to Central Department of Botany
(CDB), Tribhuvan University (TU), RP Chaudhary,
CDB, TU, and P Shrestha, Patan Multiple Campus,
TU, for plant identification. The research work is the
part ofthe first author s M Sc thesis.
References
Acharya P1997. Wetland vegetation and its utilization
in Ghodaghodi andNakhrodi Tal, Kailali, Nepal
[thesis]. Kathmandu: Central Department of
Botany, Tribhuvan University. 105 p
Bhandari B (ed). 1998a. A study on conservation of
Beesh Hazar Tal. Kathmandu: IUCN Nepal. 42 p
BhandariB (ed). 1998b. An inventoryot'Nepal's Terai
wetlands. Kathmandu: IUCN Nepal. xv+ 329 p
BPP 1995. Biodiversity assessment of Terai wetlands.
Kathmandu: Biodiversity Profile Project,
Department of National Park and Wildlife
Conservation, HMGN. Biodiversity Profiles
Project Technical Publication no. 1. ix + 80 p
TABLE 1. Seasonal variation  ...[continued from previous
page]
Species, categorized by growth form
Importance value index (IVI) in
Emergent
Summer
Winter
Spring
Average
Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.
2.05
1.76
2.11
1.97
Echinochloa crus-galll(L) P. Beauv.
0
0
5.71
1.90
Agreatum houstonianum Mill.
0
1.64
3
1.55
Monochoria vaginalis(Burm. f.) C. Presl
0
2.5
2.12
1.54
Paspalum scrobiculatum L
4.62
0
0
1.54
Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) S.F. Gray
0
0
4.16
1.39
Typha angustifolia L
2.42
1.15
0
1.19
Persicaria glabra (Willd.) M. Gomez
0
3.56
0
1.19
Panicum repens L.
3.4
0
0
1.13
Lindernia anagallis (Burm. f.) Pennell
1.63
1.14
0
0.92
Limnophila chinensis (Osbeck) Merr.
0
0
2.75
0.92
Schoenoplectus mucronatus (L) Palla
1.16
1.31
0
0.82
Polygonum plebeiumR. Br.
2.13
0
0
0.71
Rumex dentatus subsp. klotzschianus (Meisn.)
Rech. f.
0.9
0.75
0
0.55
Ranunculus sceleratus L
0.96
0.61
0
0.52
Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. ex Schrad.
0.94
0.55
0
0.50
Smithia sensitiva Aiton
1.35
0
0
0.45
Paspalum distichum L.
0.56
0
0.65
0.40
Vetivaria lawsoni(Hook, f.) Blatt. and McCann
0
1.17
0
0.39
Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene
0
1.09
0
0.36
Rotala indica (Willd.) Koehne
0
1.09
0
0.36
Cassia tora L.
1.06
0
0
0.35
Oenanthejavanica (Blume) DC.
0
0
0.98
0.33
Lindernia antipoda (L.) Alston
0
0
0.87
0.29
Eclipta prostrata (L) L
0
0
0.7
0.23
Axonopus compressus(Sw.) P. Beauv.
0.61
0
0
0.20
Commelina diffusa Burm. f.
0.56
0
0
0.19
Justiciaprocumbensvar. simplex
(D. Don) T. Yamaz.
0.56
0
0
0.19
Ottelia alishmoids (L.) Pers.
0
0.51
0
0.17
Total
139.58
130.29
124.39
131.42
Grand total
299.73
299.37
300.36
299.82
TABLE 2. Seasonal variation in species diversity index values
Shannon-Weiner':
> index of species diversity (H)
biowm loimsoi species
Summer
Winter
Spring
Average
±sd
Submerged                                 1.527
2.020
1.325
1.624 ±0.21
Free-floating                                1.862
1.656
0.000
1.173 ±0.83
Rooted floating-leaved                  2.083
1.412
1.963
1.819 ±0.29
Emergent                                    3.324
3.051
3.229
3.201 ±0.11
Community as a whole                 4.170
4.060
3.170
3.800 ± 0.45
40
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
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HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES | VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
41
 Research papers
Two new records of Eria Lindl. (Orchidaceae) for Nepal
Devendra M Bajracharya!* an(' Krishna K Shresthai
fAmrit Campus, Tribhuvan University, Lainchour, Kathmandu, NEPAL
t Central Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, NEPAL
* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: dbajracharya@hotmail com
Eria concolorPar. & Rchb.f. and Eria obesa Lindl. are newly recorded from Nepal Himalaya. Detailed description and illustration are
provided.
Keywords: Eria, new records, orchidaceae, Nepal
Him J Sci 2(3): 46-47, 50, 2004
Available online at: www.himjsci.com
Received: 30 Oct 2003
Accepted after revision: 21 Apr 2004
Copyright©2004 by Himalayan Association
for the Advancement of Science (HimAAS)
The genus Eria Lindl. is one ofthe larger polymorphic genera of
the family Orchidaceae. It has about 404 species in the world
(Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2003) which are divided into 13 to
17 sections according to the nature of pseudobulbs and leaf
characters (Seidenfaden 1982, Pearce and Cribb 2002).
During the revisionary work on Himalayan genus Eria Lindl.,
several deposited specimens in national (National Herbarium,
Department of Plant Resources, KATH and Tribhuvan University
Central Herbarium, TUCH) and international (Central National
Herbarium, Botanical Survey of India, CAL, The Natural History
Museum London, BM, Royal Botanical Gardens, K and Royal
Botanical Garden Edinburgh, E) herbaria and collected specimens
from East Nepal were examined thoroughly. Eria concolorVav. &
Rchb. f and Eria obesa Lindl. were found to be new records for
Nepal. King and Pantling (1898), Hara et al. (1978), Banerji and
Pradhan (1984), Press etal. (2000) and Bajracharya (2001) did not
mention the presence of these species in Nepal. These specimens
were crosschecked with the protologue texts of Eria concolorVav.
& Rchb.f. (1874), Tran. Linn. Soc. 30:148, and Eria obesa Lindl.
(1830), Gen & Sp. Orch. 68. Both type specimens were collected
from Burma and deposited at Orchid Herbarium, Royal Botanic
Gardens, Kew. Both species are distributed in East Nepal, North
East India, Burma, and Thailand.
Eria concolorPar. &Rchb.f (1874), Tran.Linn.Soc. 30:148;Hooker
f (1890), Fl. Brit Ind. 5:798; Kranzlin in Engler A. (eds.) (1911),
DasPflanzenreicnHfl. 50:102;Seidenfaden(1982), OperaBotanica
62:103.
Pinalia concolor (Par. & Rchb.f.) Kuntze (1891), Revisio Gen. PI.
2:679.
Epiphytic orchid 15-20 cm high. Pseudobulbs cylindrical,
green, fusiform usually 3-5 cm high, with 4-5 internodes, often
swelling between nodes, covered with bright green leaf sheath
when young; older pseudobulbs with white line from the vein of
old sheath. Leaves at top, 14 x 1.3-2 cm, linear-lanceolate, acute,
very narrow membranous. Inflorescence raceme, sub-erect, pubescent, few flowered (2-6). Floral bract ovate-lanceolate, acute
5 mm, small; pedicel plus ovary longer than saccate mentum,
more or less hairy. Flowers 1.5-2 mm in diameter, greenish yellow
and shade of dull pink claret, membranous, glabrous. Sepalsovate-
lanceolate, acute, 5-7.5 x 2-3 mm, glabrous, dorsal sepal oblong,
acute, 5-6.5 mm glabrous; lateral sepals 3-veined, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, falcate; mentum obtusely triangular. Petals
linear, acute, ca. 5.5 mm, glabrous, 3-5 veined; labellum obscurely
tri-lobed, small indentation in an obtuse angle between hypochile
and epichile, 6-7 mm long, nearly 4 mm in width when flattened
at hypochile oblong, base narrow cuneate, side lobed very narrow, disk with a thick keels merging at apex of epichile between
two half-moon shaped cushion, median keel with distinct swelling at base, terminal lobe retuse, apiculate. Column ca. 2-3 mm,
glabrous, curved, foot 5-6 mm long, distinct joint between labellum and foot; operculum ca. 1 mm, pea shaped; clinandrium
collar like; rostellum minute and ligulate. Pollinia 8, obovoid,
attached to caudicle; viscidium simple. Stigma cavity ca. 1-1.5
mm long laterally and two small lobed inside the cavity.
Type specimens: Burma: Moulmein, Parish 128 (K!)
Distribution: Nepal, Burma
Ecology: Epiphyte on Sal tree
Flowering: June
Specimens examined: East Nepal: Bhogatini, Raja Rani Village,
Letang, Morang, 500 m, D. M. Bajracharya, E R. Shakya and A.
Subedi 424; 6 Nov 2001 (TUCH); Burma: Moulmein, Parish 128
(K!)
Etymology: Concolor refers to uniform in colour.
Eria obesa Lindl. (1830), Gen & Sp. Orch. 68; Lindl. (1844), Bot.
Reg. 30 Sub. T. 29, 53; Hooker f (1890), Fl. Brit. Ind. 5:793; Grant
(1895), Orchids of Burma 143; Kranzlin in Engler A. (eds.) Das
Pflanzenreicn Hfl. (1911), 50:82; Seidenfaden (1982), Opera
Botanica 62:105.
Eria lindleyana Griff. (1851), Not. 3:300.
Eria prainii Briquet (1900), Ann. Cons. Et.Jard.Bot. Geneve. 4:210.
Epiphytic herbs, 15-17 cm high. Pseudobulbs stoutly, clavate-
ovate, 4-7 cm long, green with scarious sheath; leaf sheath 1-1.5
cm long, brown, scarious. Leaves shed before the flowering,
develop in autumn, about 5-6 leaves and 12x1 cm appear before
the pseudobulbs started swelling, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate
or glabrous (Griff. 1851); rachis 1 cm long. Inflorescenceraceme,
lateral sub-corymbose, 2-4 in numbers, puberulous. Floral bract
3 mm large, ovate, thin, entire, reflexed at the junction of the
stalks, acute; pedicelplus ovary1.4-2 mmlong, pubescent. Flowers
white, 2 cm across in diameter, glabrous. Sepals unequal, 1.0-12
cm long; dorsal sepal lanceolate, acuminate, entire, 1-1.2 cmx 2
mm, glabrous with 5 veins, lateral sepals lanceolate, slightly
oblique, falcate acuminate 12x1.5-3 mm, entire, white, glabrous,
thin, 5-veins; mentum 1 mm, round, curved, subcode. Petals
46
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Research papers
j -ii- ■
3mm
oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, 10-12x2 mm,
thin, glabrous, and 3 veins; labellumnearly
as long as sepals and petals, linear-oblong,
0.8-12 mm long, 3 mm broad, entire,
obscurely uniformed, thin, 3 thickened
keels with lateral lobe veins, edges of lobed
somewhat thin. Column 3-4 mm long, 2
mm in diameter, white, glabrous, curved,
foot 4-5 mm long, concave; operculum 1
mm, sub-orbicular, thick, pappus at the
upper surface,  two  lobed within  8
chambered; clinandrium collar-like, erect
posterior acute, 1 dentate; rostellum
minute and ligulate. Pollinia 8, obovoid,
laterally compressed in appendiculate,
attached to glandular caudicle; viscidium
simple. Stigmatic cavity 1.5-3 mm long,
curved, low stigma obscured furrow or
groove, two long lobes inside the cavity.
Type specimen: Burma: Altran,
Martabon,Wall. 1976, (K!)
Distribution: Nepal, North East India,
Burma, Thailand
Ecology: Epiphyte on Sal tree
Flowering: August
Specimen examined: East Nepal:
Bhogatini, Raja Rani Village, Letang,
Morang, 500 m. D. M. Bajracharya, L. R.
Shakya and A. Subedi 394, 14 Jan 2001
(TUCH); North East India: Palak, Lushi
Hills, Parry (K!); Lorrame s.n. (K 9461!);
Burma: Altran, Martabon, Wall 1976,
(holotype K!); Moulmein, Griff, drawing
(K!); Mergui, Griff. 37'4 (Herb. Lindl. K!);
Mergui 554 type ofthe E. lindleyana, Parish
24 (K!); Amherest, Lace4495 (K!); Amherest,
Parkinson 5288 (K!); Moulmein, Peches.n.
29 Dec. 1896 (CAL!); Kadanigh, Meebold
17045,1912 (CAL!);Puge toThagahta, Lace
5595, 21 Jan. 1912 (CAL!);]ara),Mokim2\9,
Dec. 1900 (CAL!); Paphi, Meebold 17044,
1912 (CAL!); Nabule valley, Mokim 160, Dec.
1900 (CAL!).
Etymology: Obesus refers to fat/stunt
pseudobulb. ■
Acknowledgements
The first author acknowledges Nepal Forum of
Environmental Journalists (NEFEJ) for the financial
support to carry out this work. We are grateful to
Lokesh R Shakya and A Subedi (LI-BIRD) for their
cooperation during our field visit.
Continued on page 50 ...
FIGURE 1 (top). Eria concolor Par. & Rcbh.f.
A, habit; B, flower; C, lateral view of flower; D,
bract; E, spreading of sepal, petal and
labellum; F, column; G, operculum; H, pollinia.
FIGURE 2 (bottom). Eria obesa Lindl.
A, habit; B, flower; C, lateral view of column
with labellum; D, bract; E, spreading of sepal,
petal; E , labellum; F, column; G, operculum.
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES | VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
47
 Research papers
Two new records of Viola L (Violaceae) for Nepal
Ram S Dani|* and Krishna K Shresthai
fSachdeva College, Dillibazaar, GPOBox: 11783, Kathmandu, NEPAL
t Central Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, NEPAL
* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: rsdani2001 @yahoo. com
Viola mandshurica W. Becker and Viola odorata L. belonging to the family Violaceae are reported for the first time from Nepal. The plants
were collected along the trail between the suburbs Chovar and Jalbinayak, Kathmandu.
Key words: Herbarium, Nepal, Viola
Him J Sci 2(3): 48-50, 2004
Available online at: www.himjsci.com
Received: 15 Jan 2004
Accepted after revision: 2 May 2004
Copyright© 2004 by Himalayan Association
for the Advancement of Science (HimAAS)
The familyViolaceae consists of 23 genera with
830 species and the genus Viola alone consists
of about 400 species (Mabberley 1987). In
Nepal the family is represented by the single
genus Viola, with 16 taxa in 14 species (Press
et al. 2000). The Violaceae is generally
characterized by simple stipulate leaves,
bisexual flower borne on an axillary raceme,
lower petal often spurred, 3 to 5 stamens, 3-
chambered ovary in parietal placenta with
numerous ovules and fruit usually in the form
of a loculicidal capsule.
Previous records (Hooker 1872, Maekawa
1955, Malla etal. 1976, Hara andWilliam 1979,
Polunin and Stainton 1984, Malla et al. 1986,
Kobaetal. 1994,Pressetal. 2000) donotreveal
the existence of the species from Nepal.
Morphologically, the species is often confused
with other endemic species ofthe family.
Methodology
The present work includes the morphological
variations among the taxa both in quantitative
and qualitative characters such as habit,
habitat, leaf size and shape, colour of flowers,
spur length, size and nature of sepals, stamens,
and styles. The species delimitation during
this study was made from thorough
examination of 300 specimens housed in
National Herbarium and Plant Laboratories
(KATH), 50 specimens inTribhuvan University
Central Herbarium (TUCH), 53 specimens in
The Natural History Museum London (BM)
and 50 specimens collected by the first author
from different localities. Several photographs
of type specimens were also received from
different herbaria: BM, KATH, Botanical
Survey of India (CAL), Royal Botanical Garden
Edinburgh (E) and Royal Botanical Gardens
Kew(K).
For proper identification, protologue
texts, photographs of type specimens and
authentic literature were used.
FIGURE 1. Viola mandshurica W. Becker. A, habit; B, stipules; C, flowers; D, calyx;
E, upper petal; F, lateral petal; G, basal petal; H, basal stamens; I, other stamens; J,
style (R.S. Dani, 202, TUCH)
48
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Research papers
Results
The following are recorded as new species for Nepal.
1. Viola mandshurica W. Becker in Bot.Jahrb. 54, Beibl. 120: 179
(1917)
Viola mandshurica W. Becker var. ciliata Nakai et var. glabra
Nakaiic36:60(1922)
Annual herbs, rarely perennial. Rhizomeerect to ascending,
rather stout. Stem absent. Leavesbasal;petiole2-3 (-11) cm long,
glabrous, long winged (almost whole length); leaf blade linear-
lanceolate to triangular lanceolate, 2-3 x 0.7-1.2 cm, base truncate,
apex acute to obtuse, margin shallowly crenate, sometimes dentate
to basal lobes, glabrous, chartaceous or subcoriaceous; stipules
adnate to petiole more than half, lanceolate, 5-8 x 0.5-2 mm,
upper 3-4 mm free, apex acuminate, margin entire or sparsely
denticulate to ciliate. Flowers6-9 mm across, usually dark purple
to violet. Peduncles 2-1.5 cm long, equaling or exceeding leaves,
glabrous; bracteoleslinear, 4-5 mm long, oppositely inserted near
base. Sepal lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 4-5 x 1-15 mm, apex
acute, glabrous, margin entire; appendage 1-1.5 mm long, apex
squarish to rounded. Pe£a7oblanceolate to obovate, 6-7.5 x 2-3.5
mm, margin entire to undulate; laterals bearded; the basal apex
FIGURE 2. Viola odorata L. A, habit; B, stipules; C, flowers; D, calyx; E, basal stamens;
F, other stamens; G, style (R.S. Dani, 205, TUCH)
truncate to emerginate; spurs 3-4 x 1 -2 mm, apex rounded. Styles
2 mm long, slightly geniculate at base, clavate distally; stigma
distinctly 3 lobed, terminal, with distinct anterior stigmatic beak;
fruit loculicidal capsule (Figure 1).
Type: Unknown
Flowering: Mar - May
Fruiting: May - June
Distribution: 1400-1700 m Nepal (Central: Kathmandu) [China]
Specimen examined: Kathmandu, Kirtipur to Jalbinayak, 1450
m, 29.02.2000, R. S. Dani, 202 (TUCH); Kathmandu, Kirtipur,
Chovar, 1500m, 17.03.2000 (R. S. Dani, 226 (TUCH).
Note: Morphologically, Viola mandshurica shows close similarities
to Vbetonicifolia, however; it can be distinguished by its complete
glabrous habit, shorter stipules, smaller flower (6-9 mm across),
shorter peduncles, oppositely inserted bracteoles near the base,
shorter spur (3-4 mm long), and distinctly trilobed stigmas. It is
also similar to Viola kunawarensis except that the latter has
spatulate leaf, pink smaller flower, style geniculation at base,
stigma subterminal or lateral with anterior stigmatic
beak. The V kunawarensis has comparatively longer peduncle
than leaf.
2.Viola odorata L., Sp. PL 933 (1753); Hook,
f & Thomson in Hook, f, Fl. Brit. Ind 1: 184
(1975); Banerjee & Pramanik in Fasc. Fl. Ind.
12: 29 (1983); Wang in Fl. Reip. Pop. Sin. 51:
20(1991).
Annual herbs. Rhizome erect to prostrate, rooting from rhizome and producing
dense rosettes of leaves and flowers,
stoloniferous. Stem absent. Leavesbasal; petioles 7-14 cm long, shortly winged, glabrous;
leaf blade broader ovate, 2-5 x 2.5-6 cm, base
deeply cordate, acute apex, margin dentate,
glabrous or sparsely pubescent; stipules almost free, membranous, 8-11x3-4 mm, margin shortly fimbriate. Flowers 1.5-2 mm
across, dark purple with yellowish white at
base. Peduncle 5-7 mm long, not exceeding
the leaves, glabrous; bracteoles linear, 4-5 mm
long, oppositely inserted below the middle,
margin dentate, glabrous. Sepa7broader lanceolate, 11 x 4 mm, acute apex; lateral broader
than other; appendage 2 mm long, upper two
smaller with entire margin, apex dentate.
Petal obovate to orbicular, 17 x 9 mm, yellowish white spot on inner neck; lateral
bearded; spur 5 mm long, cylindrical, apex
obtuse. Style 3 mm long, geniculite at base,
clavate distally; stigma hooked, with a conspicuous anterior stigmatic beak. Fruit: capsule 5 mm in diameter, globose, hirsute (Figure 2).
Type: Amman, 1052.11 (Linnaeus Botanical
Herbarium, LINN - holo)
Flowering: Mar - May
Fruiting: Jun - Aug
Distribution: Cultivated in gardens, sometimes escapes from the garden; 1400-1600
m. Nepal (Central: Kathmandu) [China, India, North &West Asia; Europe; North Africa]
Specimen examined: Kathmandu, along the
trail between the suburbs Chovar and
Jalbinayak, 1450 m, 29.02.2000, R. S. Dani, 206
(TUCH); Kathmandu, Kirtipur, Coronation
Garden, 1500 m, 29.02.2000, R. S. Dani, 207
(TUCH). ■ +
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES | VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
49
 Research papers
Acknowledgments
We are thankful to Cornell Nepal Study Program for financial support; to
KATH, BM, K, E and TUCH for giving us access to their herbariums; to CAL
and DM Bajracharya for providing images; and to KR Rajbhandari for his
co-operation.
References
Banerjee SP and BBPramanik. 1983. Fascicle of flora of India 12:1-40. Calcutta:
Botanical Survey of India
BeckerW. 1917. BeiblattZu denBontanischenJahrbuchern.Beihl 120:179
Hara H. 1979. Violaceae. In: Hara H and LHJ Williams (eds), An enumeration ofthe
flowering plants ofNepal,Vol II. London: Trustees of British Museum {Natural History), p 47
Hooker JD. 1975. Flora of British India. Henrietta Street (London): L Reeve and
Co. 5. Reprints in 1900 by Bishen Singh and Mahendra Pal Singh, India, p
182-9
KobaH, S Akiyama, YEndo and H Ohba. 199 4. Name list ofthe floweringplants and
gymnosperms of Nepal. Japan: The University of Tokyo. 652 p
Linnaeus C. 1753. Speciesplantarum. Stockholm: T Haak. 351 p
MabberleyDJ. 1987. The plant book: A portable dictionary ofthe higher plants, 2nd
ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 747p
MaekawaE 1955. Violaceae. In: KiharaH (ed), Fauna and flora of Nepal Himalaya.
Japan: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, The University of Tokyo.
p 181-183
Malla SB, AB Shrestha, SB Rajbhandari, TB Shrestha, PM Adhikari and SR Adhikari
(eds). 1976. Catalogue of Nepalese vascular plants. Kathmandu: Department
of Medicinal Plants Resources, HMGN. Bulletin no 7. p 28
Malla SB, SB Rajbhandari, TB Shrestha, PM Adhikari, SR Adhikari and PR Shakya
(eds). 1986. Flora ofKathmandu valley Kathmandu: Department of Medicinal
Plants Resources, HMGN. Bulletin no 11.962 p
Polunin O and A Stainton. 1984. Flowers ofthe Himalayas. New Delhi: Oxford
University Press, p 45-7
Press JR, KK Shrestha and DA Sutton. 2000. An annotatedchecklist ofthe flowering
plants of Nepal. London: British Museum (Natural History) and Kathmandu:
Central Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University. 326 p
WangC. 1991. Flora reipublicaepopularissinicae 51:1-148. China: Science Press
. Continued from page 47
References
Bajracharya DM 2001. Distribution of Genus Eria Lindl. (Orchidaceae) in the
Himalayan Region. J Sci Technol3: 51-54
Banerji ML and P Pradhan. 1984. The orchids of Nepal Himalaya. Germany: J
Cramer. 534 p
GriffithiW. 1851. NotulaeAdPlantae Asiaticas. Vol. 3: 250-510
Hara H, WT Stearn and LHJ Williams. 1978. An enumeration ofthe flowering
plants of Nepal, Vol 1. London: British Museum (Natural History). 154 p
Hooker JD. 1890. The flora ofBritish India,Vol 5. Kent (England): L. Reeve & Co. Ltd.
910p
King G and R Pantling. 1898. The orchids of Sikkim Himalaya. Ann R Bot Gard
(Calcutta) 8:342
Kranzlin E 1911. Orchidaceae-Monandrae-Dendrobiinae 2. In: Engler A (eds)
Das Pflanzenreicn Hfl. 50: 66
LindleyJ. 1830-1840. Eria. In: The genera and species of orchidaceous plants.
London: Ridgways. p 68-71
Pearce NR and PJ Cribb. 2002. The flora of Bhutan, Vol 3(3): The orchids of Bhutan.
Edinburgh (UK): The Royal Botanic Garden and Bhutan: The Royal
Government of Bhutan. 643 p
Press JR, KK Shrestha and DA Sutton. 2000. An annotatedchecklist ofthe flowering
plants of Nepal. London: British Museum (Natural History) and Kathmandu:
Central Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University, p 215-6
Royal  Botanic   Gardens,   Kew.   2003.   Monocot  checklist.   Available:
http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/data/monocots via the INTERNET. Accessed
4 July 2003
Seidenfaden G. 1982. Orchid genera in Thailand X. TrichotosiaBl. and Eria Lindl.
Opera Botanica 62:157
50
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Research papers
Discharge and sediment loads of two streams in the mid-hills of
central Nepal
Roshan M Bajracharya!*, Subodh Sharma| and Roberto Clementef
f Department ofBiological Sciences and Environmental Science, Kathmandu University, Kavre, Dhulikhel, NEPAL
tSchool of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute ofTechnology Bangkok, THAILAND
* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: rmbaj@ku. edu.np
Stream flow, nutrient loading, and sediment yield closely reflect land use and management practices in relation to growing seasons in
mid-hill watersheds ofthe central Himalaya. A preliminary study was conducted to determine approximate total water discharge and
sediment yields from the Galaundi and Pokhare catchments. Mean discharge and sediment loads during the 2002 rainy season were
2.1 m3s1 and 0.9 kgs1 for Galaundi Khola and 0.45 m3s1 and 0.28 kgs1 for Pokhare Khola. Estimates of total annual discharge of
water and sediment were, respectively, 27.8 million m3 and 11,400 t (Galaundi) and 6.4 million m3 and 3,500 t (Pokhare). These
corresponded to about 71.6% and 60.4% of total rain volumes and soil loss rates of 5.18 tha1 and 5.83 tha1 for Galaundi and Pokhare
sub-watersheds, respectively. Good correlations were observed for stream discharge vs. sediment concentration (R2 = 0.83 and 0.94
respectively) and rainfall amount vs. discharge (R2 = 0.94 and 0.96 respectively) for both streams.
Keywords: stream flow, sediment concentration, land use, pre-monsoon, sub-watershed
Him J Sci 2(3): 51-54, 2004
Available online at: www.himjsci.com
Received: 26 May 2003
Accepted after revision: 1 Mar 2004
Copyright© 2004 by Himalayan Association
for the Advancement of Science (HimAAS)
The mid-hill watersheds of central Nepal are characterized by a
myriad of ephemeral and perennial streams, many with steep
gradients from source areas to confluence junctions with major
rivers. The seasonal nature of rainfall, being concentrated mostly
within the five-month period May to September and steep terrain govern the hydro logic characteristics of these streams. Thus,
many streams that run dry or dwindle to a mere trickle for much
ofthe year are transformed into raging, torrential streams up to
2 m deep in some areas. Moreover, land use practices, seasonal
paddy cropping, and diversion for irrigation all substantially influence flows and sediment concentration in the streams.
Studies in the watersheds of the Jhikhu Khola (Kavre district) and Yarsha Khola (Dolakha distric) in the mid-hills of Nepal
have shown that, while major storm events are responsible for
generation ofthe highest flows and channel scouring in the steep
mountain streams, the medium-sized events are more likely to
be influenced by land cover and land use (Merz et al. 2000). Furthermore, Nakarmi et al. (2000) reported that while water storage
within those same watersheds was more effective on agricultural
than on grazing (grass/shrub) land, erosion was higher at cultivated sites during small to medium rain events. However, in the
case of high rainfall events, degraded areas were the main sources
of sediment; the likely mechanism is soil compaction, which
causes reduced water infiltration and storage capacity, resulting
in high runoff velocities, which lead to gully erosion.
Many studies indicate that soil erosion, nutrient losses and
sediment transport in mountain streams is greatest on the occasion of those few major storms that typically occur during the
pre-monsoon and early growing season (Carver and Nakarmi
1995, Nakarmi et al. 2000, Atreya et al. 2002). The main reasons
for this are that during this critical period soil cover is at a minimum and farming operations (tillage, planting, weeding, etc.) are
in progress.
The Himalayan region in general, and the mid-hills of Nepal
specifically, are faced with the conflicting needs of a growing
human population on the one hand, and, on the other, natural
ecosystems urgently in need of protection. This has resulted in
escalating environmental degradation due to unsustainable timber,
fodder, and fuel wood extraction; subsistence agriculture on
marginal lands; and infrastructure development. These activities
impact the hydrology of mountain watersheds, particularly with
regard to flow characteristics and sediment loads, due to soil
erosion and changes in water storage and runoff patterns. See
Ives and Messerli (1989) as well as the Ives (2004, forthcoming) for
a comprehensive assessment of these trends.
Land use changes due to forest clearing; intensification of
agriculture (off-season cash crops) and diversion of stream waters
for irrigation all impact stream flow, sediment content and nutrient
dynamics (Carver and Schreier 1995, Schreier and Shah 2000,
Sharma et al. 2002). Therefore, such land use dynamics and
farming intensification will require careful balancing of water and
nutrient budgets for sustainable production and environmental
protection (Schreier et al. 1994).
Methods
The streams were sampled periodically (randomly) from January
to September 2002, so as to obtain representative data for a range
of conditions, from dry season minimum flows to rainy season
high flows. Samplings were also performed in conjunction with
critical events such as pre-monsoon storms, planting, and harvest,
when streams carry unusually high sediment loads.
Data gathering was constrained, however, by the unfeasibility
of sampling during peak flow periods, when river velocities and
depths were prohibitively high. Also, it was difficult to time sampling
so as to capture specific rainstorm events of high intensity,
especially since these often occurred at night.
Stream velocity was determined using the floatation
technique. Cross-sectional areas of each stream were determined
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES | VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
51
 Research papers
by measuring the depth of water at 0.1 m intervals across relatively narrow and uniform segments of the streams. Sediment
concentration was determined by taking one-liter grab samples
from the middle depth of the stream. Water samples were allowed to settle and the residue was then oven-dried to obtain
sediment weight per liter of water.
Stream discharge (Q, m3-s_1) and sediment delivery rate
(SDR, kgs1) were calculated according to the following formulas:
Q = A*V [Eq. 1]
where,
A = cross-sectional area of stream, in2
V = flow velocity, m-s-1
SDR = Q * C
where,
C = sediment concentration, g 1
Sampling
Date
Results and discussion
Stream flow measurements indicated that flow volumes in both
streams are generally low (<1 m3-s_1 for Galaundi and <0.1 m3-s_1
for Pokhare). Flow increases dramatically (>4 m3-s_1 for Galaundi
and >1 m3-s_1 for Pokhare) shortly after the onset of a major
rainstorm, but diminishes rapidly upon cessation ofthe rainfall.
Such quick responses and rapid fluctuations are likely due to the
small size of the sub-watersheds and steep
stream gradients, as observed by Merz et al.
(2000).
Casual examination of the data gathered from random samplings during the
rainy season of 2002 (Table 1) indicated high
variability of both stream flow volumes (discharge) and sediment loads. Simple arithmetic means ofthe discharge and sediment
yield rates during the rainy season were calculated to be about 2.1 m3-s_1 and 0.9 kgs1
for Galaundi, and 0.45 m3-s_1 and 0.28 kgs1,
for Pokhare, respectively. These values are
comparable to data from other similar sized
sub-watersheds reported in the available literature (Merz et al. 2000). Taking the sub-
watershed areas to be 22 km2 and 6 km2, we
derived crude estimates of mean total water
discharge and sedimentyield during the rainy
season of 25 million in3 and 11,400 t for
Galaundi and 5.7 million in3 of water and
3,5001 of sediment for Pokhare, respectively
(Table 2).
It was, however, established from both
direct observation and inquiry with local residents that for about 7 months during the dry
(October to April) period, stream flows are
at a minimum and that sediment load is essentially zero. It was also noted that maximum flows and sediment loads occurred for
only a few events, typically in the pre-monsoon and early rainy seasons (May-July)
(Table 1). At other times during the rainy
season, flows and sediment concentrations
were generally low to medium.
Thus, assuming that minimum flows
ing the rest ofthe year are negligible, total sediment yields may be
taken to be those calculated for the rainy season alone. Summing
the total water discharge and sediment yield values for rainy and
dry seasons for each stream, estimates for the annual mean totals
are shown in Table 2. Using the ten-year mean monthly rainfall
data of Dhunbesi, Dhading, the total annual flow volumes represented 71.6% and 60.4% ofthe total rainfall volumes for Galaundi
and Pokhare sub-watersheds, respectively (Table 3). The remaining water presumably percolates into the groundwater or is lost
through evaporation and transpiration.
Total annual soil removal from the catchments areas, determined by dividing annual sedimentyield by the total land area
of each sub-watershed (approximately 600 ha for Pokhare and
2200 ha for Galaundi), was 5.83 t-ha~1-y~1 and 5.18 t-ha~1-y~1 for
Pokhare and Galaundi sub-watersheds, respectively. These values fall in the lower range of observed soil loss rates reported in
the literature (Chalise and Khanal 1997, Nakarmi et al. 2000, UNEP
2001) and reflect the well-managed upland terrace and forested
areas over much ofthe two sub-watersheds. In general, soil erosion appears not to be a major problem in the study sub-watersheds. Thus, adequate management and conservation of agricultural and forest lands could lead to low overall soil erosion rates
(at the catchment scale) and correspondingly low sediment loads
in the streams.
TABLE 1. Stream flows, sediment yields and sediment concentration for Galundi Khola and
Pokhare Khola
[Eq. 2]
Galundi Khola
Pokhare Khola
Discharge
(m3s 1)
Sed. yield
(kgs1)
Sed. cone.
(g-L)
Discharge
(m3s 1)
Sed. yield
(kgs1)
Sed. cone.
(g-L)
20/1/02
0.17
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.00
26/05/02f
0.57
0.75
1.30
0.27
0.03
0.12
04/06/02
0.16
0.01
0.04
0.04
0.01
0.02
02/07/02
4.60
1.41
0.54
1.16
1.08
0.93
02/07/02
4.80
1.27
0.50
1.04
0.73
0.70
02/07/02
4.24
2.48
0.30
0.83
0.50
0.60
02/07/02
3.92
2.39
0.36
0.69
0.29
0.42
13/07/02
0.30
0.03
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.07
02/08/02
0.90
0.32
0.35
0.14
0.04
0.30
30/08/02
1.00
0.19
0.19
0.11
0.02
0.14
09/08/02
0.72
0.14
0.20
0.12
0.03
0.10
Average*
2.12
0.90
0.39
0.45
0.28
0.34
f Outlier - excluded from regression analysis
* Average is for rainy season, i.e., May to September, sample size =
10
TABLE 2. Mean stream water discharge and sediment yield estimates for Galaundi Khola
and Pokhare Khola (sample size = 10)
Stream
Rainy season
Dry season
Total Annual
correspond to about 0.16 m3-s_1 for Galaundi
and 0.04 m3-s_1 for Pokhare, the total discharge volumes for these streams during the
remaining (7 months) of the year were calculated to be 2.8 million in3 and 0.7 million
in3, respectively. Since sediment loads dur-
Discharge
volume (m3)
Sediment
yield (t)
Discharge
volume (m3)
Sediment
yield (t)
Discharge       Sediment
volume (m3)    yield (t)
Galaundi
25 million
11,400
2.8 million
-0
27.8 million
11,400
Pokhare
5.7 million
3,500
0.7 million
-0
6.4 million
3,500
52
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Research papers
TABLE 3. Mean monthly rainfall, mean total rain volumes and total
annual rain volumes and discharge for the two sub-watersheds
Month
Mean rainfall
(mm)
Total Rain Volume (X103m3)
Pokhare            Galaundi
January
18.7
112.2
411.4
February
14.2
85.2
312.4
March
31.3
187.8
688.6
April
39.7
238.2
873.4
May
134.9
809.4
2967.8
June
309.2
1855.2
6802.4
July
418.1
2508.6
9198.2
August
492.2
2953.2
10828.4
September
228.9
1373.4
5035.8
October
48.4
290.4
1064.8
November
13.9
83.4
305.8
December
16.6
99.6
365.2
Total Annual Rain
1766.1
10596.6
38854.2
Total Discharge Volume (m3s~1)
6400
27800
Percent of discharge
to rainfall
60.40
71.55
Regression analyses
Regression plots of sediment concentration versus discharge (Q)
for the streams indicated that there were good correlations between these parameters for both streams over the range of values obtained during the monitoring period. This was reflected in
high R2 values obtained for the logarithmic and linear regression
functions for Galaundi (R2 = 0.83) and Pokhare (R2 = 0.94), respectively (Figure 1 and 2).
Inthe case of Galaundi, one outlier eliminated in the analysis. The relationships for each stream are given by the following
equations:
For Galaundi
Sediment Concentration = 0.123 ln(Q) + 0.25; R2 = 0.83
[Eq. 3]
For Pokhare
Sediment Concentration = 0.696(Q) + 0.026; R2 = 0.94
[Eq. 4]
Nearly 90% ofthe rainfall occurs during the months of May
through September (Figure 3) which corresponds to the period
of greatest stream flow, although the sediment concentration in
stream water fluctuates greatly, being highest during the early
season (May-July) and at sporadic critical periods throughout the
rainy season, such as paddy planting time (Table 1) and during
particularly intense storms, a pattern noted by other researchers
(Carver and Nakarmi 1995, Nakarmi et al. 2000, Atreya et al. 2002).
0.6
0.5
I   °-4
re
£   0.3
u
o    0.2
o
i o.i
♦
♦
^       ♦
~ ♦
y = 0.123Ln(x)+ 0.2503
--♦—
R2 = 0.8326
2 3 4
Discharge (m3s"1)
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6 -
0.5 -
0.4 -
0.3
0.2 -
0.1 -
0
♦
_l
u>
£
O
re
£
/+
U
£
O
o
y = 0.696x + 0.0262
■D
♦/
*
R2 = 0.9357
W
♦ , ,	
0.5 1
Discharge (m3s"1)
1.5
FIGURE 1. Regression plot of flow rate vs. sediment delivery for      FIGURE 2. Regression plot of flow rate vs. sediment delivery for
Galaundi Khola Pokhare Khola
500
400
300
200
100
0
492.2
re
18.7
418.1
309.2
134.9
14.2
31.3
39.7
228.9
~487T
13.9
16.6
Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
FIGURE 3. Mean monthly precipitation recorded for the study district over a ten-year period from 1991 to 2000 at Dhunbesi Station, Dhading
(Source: Department of Hydrology & Meteorolgy, HMGN 1995,1997,1999; Climatological Records from 1987 to 1996) '
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES | VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004 53
 Research papers
Crude calculations ofthe total volume of precipitation falling over each sub-watershed, based upon the 10-year mean
monthly rainfall and total annual stream flow volume as a percent of annual rainfall indicated that about two-thirds ofthe total
rainfall flows out of the catchments as stream discharge (Table
3), the rest going to groundwater or evapo-transpiration. Moreover, stream discharge was significantly correlated with rainfall
amount for the days monitored (24 h period during which sampling was done) as seen from the regression plots (Figure 4).
For the limited number of observations made, good
correlations were seen between 24-hour rainfall totals and same-
day discharge rates for both streams (Figure 4). This indicated
that stream flow responds rapidly to rainfall due to the small size
and steep gradients for both Pokhare and Galaundi sub-
watersheds. Because of this fact, however, timing of stream
discharge measurement is critical and pinpointing peak discharge
is difficult.
Conclusions
Climatic and stream flow data revealed that most of the rainfall
occurs from May to September and that during much of this
period discharge from both streams is low. High flows tend to
occur a few hours after heavy storms due to the steep gradients
and small catchment areas of the streams. High sediment
concentrations were confined to critical periods such as the pre-
monsoon intense rains and during tillage/planting times when
the soil is least protected and most disturbed. Soil erosion did not
appear to be a major problem in the study watersheds, presumably
due to adequate management and conservation practices on
agricultural and forestlands. Despite limited observations, good
correlations were obtained for discharge vs. sediment load and
rainfall amount vs. discharge for both streams. Land use and
farming practices clearly influence the nature of stream flow, as
well as sediment loading in streams with steep gradients in the
mid-hills. Further work is, however, needed to establish the causal
relationships among land use, agricultural intensification, stream
discharge, and soil and nutrient losses, in order to formulate
ecologically and economically sound recommendations for
sustainable land management. ■
Acknowledgements
Funding provided by DANIDA through AIT, Thailand, is gratefully
acknowledged. Logistic support extended by Nepal Agroforestry Foundation
and Kathmandu University is highly appreciated.
References
Atreya K, S Sharma and RM Bajracharya. 2002. Minimization of soil and nutrient
losses from maize-based cropping systems in Central Nepal Mid-hills. Paper
presented at National Seminar on Biodiversity and Sustainable Use of
Bioresources; 2002 Oct 10-12; Department of Limnology Barkatullah
University Bhopal, India
Carver M and G Nakarmi. 1995. The effect of surface conditions on soil erosion
and stream suspended sediments. In: Schreier H, PB Shah and S Brown (eds),
Challenges in Mountain resource management in Nepal: Processes, trends
and dynamics in middle Mountain watersheds. Kathmandu: International
Center for Integrated Mountain Development, p 155-162
Carver M and H Schreier. 1995. Sediment and nutrient budgets over four spatial
scales in the Jhikhu Khola watershed: Implications for land use management.
In: Schreier H, PB Shah and S Brown (eds), Challenges in Mountain resource
management in Nepal: Processes, trends anddynamicsin middle Mountain
watersheds. Kathmandu: International Center for Integrated Mountain
Development, p 163-170
a)
5
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
Galaundu
y ~ 0.082x + 0.2982
20 30 40
Rainfall (mm/24 hr)
60
FIGURE 4. Regression plots of 24 h rainfall amount and stream
discharge (flow rate, measured during the 24 h period)
Chalise SR and NR Khanal. 1997. Erosion processes and their implication in sustainable management of watersheds in Nepal Himalayas. In: Gustard A,
S Blazkova, M Brilly S Demuth, J Dixon, H van Lanen, C Llasat, S Mkhandi
andEServat (eds), Regional hydrology: Concept and models for sustainable
water resource management. Proceedings of the Postojna, Slovenia
conference: 1997Sept-Oct.Wallingford(UK): International Association of
Hydrological Science. IAHS publishing no246.363p
DHM. 1995. Climatological records of Nepal, 1987-1990. Kathmandu: Department
of Hydrology and Meteorology HMGN
DHM. 1997. Climatological records of Nepal, 1991-1994. Kathmandu: Department
of Hydrology and Meteorology HMGN
DHM. 1999. Climatological records of Nepal, 1995-1996. Kathmandu: Department
of Hydrology and Meteorology HMGN
Ives JD. 2004 (forthcoming). Himalayan perspectives. London and NewYork:
Routledge
IvesJD and B Messerli. 1989. The Himalayan dilemma: Reconciling development
and conservation. London: Routledge. 295 p
Merz J, BSDongol, RWeingartner and G Nakarmi. 2000. Impact of land use on
generation of high flows in the Yarsha khola watershed. In: Allen R, H Schreier,
S Brown and PB Shah (eds), The people and resource dynamics project: The
first three years (1996-1999). Proceedings of a Workshop held in Baoshan,
China: 1999 March 2-5. Kathmandu: International Center for Integrated
Mountain Development, p 185-198
Nakarmi G, H Schreier, J Merg and P Mahatma. 2000. Erosion dynamics in the
Jhikhu andYarsha khola watershed inNepal. In: Allen R, H Schreier, S Brown
and PB Shah (eds), The people and resource dynamics project: The first three
years (1996-1999). Proceedings of a Workshop held in Baoshan, China: 1999
March 2-5. Kathmandu: International Center for Integrated Mountain
Development, p 209-218
Schreier H and PB Shah. 2000. Soil fertility status and dynamics in the Jhikhu and
Yarsha khola watershed. In: Allen R, H Schreier, S Brown and PB Shah (eds),
The people and resource dynamics project: The first three years (1996-1999).
Proceedings of a Workshop held in Baoshan, China: 1999 March 2-5.
Kathmandu: International Center for Integrated Mountain Development, p
281-9
Schreier H, PB Shah, LM Lavkulich and S Brown. 1994. Maintaining soil fertility
under increasing land use pressures in the middle mountains of Nepal. Soil
UseManageW: 137-42
Sharma S, RM Bajracharya and R Clemente. 2002. Freshwater resources and
quality in the Galaundu-Pokhare Khola subwatershed, Dhading, Nepal.
Bangkok: School of Environment and Resource Developmet, Asian Institute
of Technology. Project Report, p 1 -33
UNER 2001. Soil degradation. In: Nepal: State ofthe environment 2001. Thailand:
United Nations Environment Programs, p 79-95
54
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Articles
Ethnosilvicultural knowledge: A promising foundation for
integrating non-timber forest products into forest management
Krishna H Gautam" and Teiji Watanabe
Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, JAPAN
* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mati:khgautam@ees.hokudai.ac.jp
Reconciling the multiple roles of forest resources is one ofthe unresolved challenges for sustainable forestry, but forest management
practices are still focussed on timber production. The urgent need for the integration of non-timber forest products into mainstream
forestry has, however, been widely acknowledged. Ethnosilvicultural knowledge from Canadian Aboriginal communities and community
forest users of Nepal is assessed in the context of multiple-product forest management. Both cases reveal a wealth of such knowledge,
indicating the opportunities for integrating non-timber forest product management in mainstream forestry. It is argued that ethnosilviculture
is valuable in sustaining ecological processes as well as cultural heritages and traditional rural livelihoods. Broad guidelines for
acquiring ethnosilviculture knowledge are also suggested.
Him J Sci 2(3): 55-58, 2004
Available online at: www.himjsci.com
Received: 9 Jan 2004
Accepted after revision: 28 Apr 2004
Copyright© 2004 by Himalayan Association
for the Advancement of Science (HimAAS)
Agenda 21 (UNCED 1992) highlighted major shortcomings in
policies, methods and mechanisms applied in the support and
development of the multiple ecological, economic, social and
cultural roles of trees, forests and forest lands; subsequently, an
immense need was felt for a rational and holistic approach to the
sustainable and environmentally sound development of forest
resources through adequate and appropriate institutional
strengthening. Reconciling the multiple roles of forest resources
is clearly one of the unresolved challenges facing sustainable
forestry.
The uses of forest resources comprise a wide range of
products and services; broadly, the products can be grouped into
timber and non-timber. Non-timber forest products (NTFPs)
include plant and animal products used or having a potential to
be used for food, ornament, decoration, medicine, cosmetics,
and other applications; they may have environmental, cultural
and spiritual values. In the present paper, we focus only on plant
products whose harvest does not necessitate the felling of trees.
As most ofthe worlds forest resources are either owned by
governments or influenced by their policies, governmental forestry
policies play a pivotal role in the regulation of NTFPs.
Governments usually regulate permits for the collection and
extraction of these products depending upon the resource species
and their end-uses. NTFPs with commercial value may attract
some levies whereas products for subsistence uses are generally
free of charges (Gautam 1991, Mahapatra and Mitchell 1997).
NTFP collection and extraction involves primarily people residing
within and around forests, and is undertaken for the most part at
the collectors' discretion without any management guidelines.
Collectors may be motivated by their objective of maximizing
income without consideration of adverse effects on future yield
ofthe target species or others in the ecosystem; such instances
are common, especially when the harvesters are not assured of
subsequent usufruct rights regarding these products (Gautam
and Devoe 2002). The situation, thus, suggests that most ofthe
NTFPs are still in a state of unrestricted access. Furthermore,
large-scale commercial activities such as timber extraction and
mining have been carried out without regard to their impact on
NTFPs growing in the same forests. Nonetheless, various efforts
have been initiated globally, although with inconsistent
implementation, to improve the deteriorating status of NTFPs of
particular importance.
Traditionally, whenever people have felt that species of local
importance were disappearing from the forest or subject to
intensified demand, they have domesticated those species by
transplanting them into their home gardens. Such NTFPs have
been cultivated primarily at a subsistence level. Some NTFPs have
been commercialized as raw material for industrial uses, resulting
in increased demand. Subsequently, the need to stabilize supply
and increase economic return has provided a motive to undertake
cultivation (Wheeler and Hehnen 1992).
'Extractive-reserve', a relatively new concept in NTFP
regulation, was specifically devised to safeguard Amazonian
rubber tappers when they were threatened by forest clearance in
the 1980s (Brown and Rosendo 2000). It is an approach in which
tracts of forests are set aside for residents to harvest NTFPs.
Extractivism may promote local commitment to forest
conservation, provided clear and binding management
prescriptions are followed.
Recently, NTFPs have emerged as important products in
community-based forest management. Waves of community forestry evolved globally and NTFP production has been the main
motivation for such evolution, indicating enormous potential for
integrating NTFPs into forest management. There is an urgent
need to manage NTFPs in the context of sustaining ecological
processes, cultural heritage, and traditional livelihoods. The management regime must integrate the economic, environmental,
and cultural (including spiritual) values of NTFPs (Gautam and
Watanabe 2002).
A few studies (e.g., Romero 1999, Myers et al. 2000) have
considered the possibility of managing NTFPs within forest
ecosystems, but they have considered only the effects of single
products. Unless and until NTFP management is integrated with
forest management, the sustainability of NTFPs and eventually of
forests will remain threatened. Although some scientific efforts
focusing on integration of NTFPs into mainstream forestry have ♦
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES | VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
55
 Articles
been initiated (Salick et al. 1995, Gautam 2001), the NTFPs are so
vast and diverse that merely waiting for scientific results may
entail delays that preclude sustainable management. On the other
hand, undocumented ethnosilvicultural knowledge gleaned in the
course of many generations is vanishing. The present paper, based
on studies in two distinct contexts (Canada and Nepal), argues
that ethnosilviculture is a prospective base for integrating NTFP
management into mainstream forestry.
Source of information
As the present study is based on primary and secondary
information including a review of earlier studies, the methodology
is broad-based. The Nepalese case study draws on information
collected from two community-managed forests in Dang district
in the course of doctoral research conducted by one ofthe authors
(KHG) from 1997 to 1999 (Gautam 2001), whereas the Canada
case study is based mainly on earlier research (Maries 2001, Turner
2001), supplemented by information from a field visit to Nipissing
First Nation Ontario in September and October 2002. The steps
followed for acquiring ethnosilvicultural knowledge are
summarised in Table 1.
Origin of conflicts in Canadian forestry
At the Earth Summit (UNCED 1992) Canada announced its
commitment to sustainable forestry and acknowledged the forest's
multiple roles - environmental, commercial, and cultural. Since
then, efforts have been made to incorporate consideration of
forests' multiple benefits into management strategies, mainly
through the amendment of provincial policies (NRCan 2002).
Canada holds 10% ofthe world's forests, and 94% of its forests are
publicly owned; forests under provincial and federaljurisdictions
are 71% and 23%, respectively. Out of 417.6 million hectares of
forest, 235 million hectares are categorised as commercial forests.
However, forests are predominantly managed for timber despite
the fact that the public values forests primarily for non-timber
uses (WRI2000).
Over 80% of Canadian Aboriginal Communities (CACs) are
living in productive forest areas, and large tracts of forests may
revert to their control through the adjudication of outstanding
land claims (Quaile and Smith 1997). The CACs are struggling to
maintain their traditional values. Timber harvesting is threatening
the subsistence of many communities in the far north, and
aboriginal interests are poorly represented in forest management
decisions throughout Canada (WRI 2000). Thus, Canadian
government's timber-biased attitude often conflicts with CACs
rights and traditional respect for the sustainability of forests (WRI
2000).
Although Canada has launched a First Nation Forestry
Program (1996), and a few other pilot projects have been designed
with the goal of increasing CAC involvement, the communities'
feeling of marginalization has not yet abated (Jaggi 1997, KHG's
personnel communication with First Nation in Ontario 2002).
Accordingly, the National Aboriginal Forestry Association (NAFA)
recently proposed a separate aboriginal criterion for sustainable
forest management (NAFA 2002). According to the proposal,
Canadian forests need to be managed for multiple products and
values with proper appreciation of traditional knowledge and
active participation ofthe CACs (and not simply as stakeholders).
Thus, Canadian forestry is at a crossroads: timber-biased industrial
forestry evolved over the past 100 years is pitted against CAC
forestry practices evolved over several centuries. The value systems
of these two approaches are radically different, and such
differences may result in an unwanted outcome. As the industrial
forestry development has not been able to accommodate the
values of CACs, it may be an appropriate juncture to assess the
key elements of CACs traditional forestry practices.
TABLE 1. Comparison of methods for acquiring ethnosilvicultural
knowledge in Canada and Nepal
Canada
Nepal
Consent from Band Council and
elders (Band Council is a quasi-
governmental institution of the
aboriginal community)
Explanation of study objectives to
Community Forest User Groups
(CFUGs), and request for consent
Approval from appropriate
institutional ethics committee
Informal discussions to identify key
informants
Formation of advisory committee of
elders to supervise work
Meetings with key informants
Involvement of young people from
the community
Participatory meetings of each
subgroup and class
Regular reporting to the Band
Council
General meeting (presentations
from each subgroup and class)
Compilation of information from
community and literature
Forest transect with key informants
Communication of research
results to the community
Outputs: identification of NTFPs,
silvicultural characteristics of
NTFPs, key informants
Arrangements to safeguard
intellectual property rights
Communication of results to users
Ethnosilviculture from CACs
Traditional ecological knowledge, which not only assesses physical
environmental relationships but also considers cultural factors,
may be able to assemble the requisites for multiple-product
management (Gliddon 2000). North American native communities
have extensive ethnobotanical knowledge (Davidson-Hunt et al.
2001). Maries (2001) noted that Canadian forests have been meeting
the multiple subsistence needs of CACs for millenia. Survival
pressures have produced not only indigenous knowledge but
also indigenous institutions such as 'hahuulhi', a system that
accords community chief's hereditary power along with the
responsibility to manage resources with the involvement ofthe
entire community (Turner 2001).
Turner (2001) noted the following elements in
ethnobotanical knowledge and practices, indicating the scope of
such knowledge that could be available upon intensive exploration
for forest management.
• Replanting propagules, including cuttings; Transplanting
valuable plants
• Pruning and coppicing to improve quality and quantity
• Thinning of density-dependent species to enhance growth
• Partial harvesting of bark, branch or root
• Selective harvesting of medicinal plants
• Controlled burning in order to enhance growth of desired
species
From conflict to reconciliation in Nepali forestry
Nepal, with an area of 147,181 square km, was once rich in forest
resources; timber export was one of the main revenue sources
until the 1970s. Until the 1950s, when they were opened for
settlement, forests in the Tarai were intact. Industrial forestry
intervened through enactment of Private Forest Nationalization
Act 1957; although this was mainly intended to nationalize the
56
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Articles
forest owned by earlier ruling classes, it affected the forests
throughout the country by promoting the conversion of forest to
cropland (Gautam 1991). The act had a negative impact on
traditional forestry, and Nepal's forests became fodder for the
'Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation (Ives and
Messerli 1989), which highlighted the gathering crisis in mountain
region though the theory, in itself, was not supported by reliable
data.
Forest policy makers responded by amending the legislation
and introducing a community forestry development programme
in 1977. Since then policy has increasingly emphasized the
involvement of local communities in forest management, and
the focus has shifted from timber to multiple uses. The response
from communities and concerned organizations has been
overwhelmingly positive, and, as of November 2002, management
of a million hectares of government forest had been transferred
to more than 12000 CFUGs comprising approximately 1.3 million
households (personal communication, Department of Forest,
Nepal).
FUG's Ethnosilvicultural knowledge
Because integrated management of timber and NTFPs had not
been adequately addressed by earlier forestry, most CFUGs were
practicing "passive management", simply protecting the forest.
Community forestry programmes, however, created
opportunities to investigate the usefulness of local knowledge on
various aspects of forest management. Utilization of local
knowledge has proven to be not only beneficial but also essential
for the active management of community forests (Gautam 1991).
A detailed study (Gautam 2001) on ethnosilvicultural
knowledge in two community-managed sal (Shorea robusta)
forests was conducted in Dang district of Nepal. Besides their
knowledge regarding use of more than 200 plant species of
different life-forms, users demonstrated their awareness on the
silvicultural characteristics of 97 of these species. Ethnosilvicultural
knowledge embraced: phenology, abundance and distribution,
ecological associations, propagation, microclimatic constraints,
and dispersal mechanisms.
Discussion
The cases showed that CACs in Canada are still struggling for their
traditional tenure of land, including forests, whereas similar issues
created by nationalizing private forests in Nepal have been resolved
with the transfer of forest management to CFUGs. Nepal had
very bitter experiences with marginalized local communities; in
Canada, we have seen the creation of similar situations, which, if
not handled promptly, may affect the sustainability of Canadian
forests.
Forest management focusing on a single product (timber)
may frustrate users of other products, resulting in conflicts among
interest groups within a community. By the early 1970s, struggle
in Nepal between an economic elite interested in timber extraction,
on the one hand, and others with broader-based subsistence
interests quickly resulted in degraded hills. In Canada, too,
diverging economic priorities of CACs and other stakeholders
may have the same effect on forests. In many regions timber-
biased management has resulted in extreme ecological damage
(Roberts and Zhu 2002, Marchak and Allen 2003). In both
developed nations such as Canada and developing countries like
Nepal, forests must be managed with an eye to optimizing return
on timber as well as non-timber forest products.
Turner (2001) found that some species had disappeared
after the disruption of indigenous management, indicating that a
two-way relationship exists between indigenous knowledge and
species diversity. Since many NTFPs species are ecologically
dependent on a diverse forest environment, disappearance of
one or more species may affect the survival of other species.
CACs have understood these linkages, and therefore emphasize
the importance of developing mechanisms to utilize aboriginal
forest-based traditional knowledge in forest management (NAFA
2002). Both CACs and CFUGs are aware that ethnosilviculture
ensures NTFP productivity. Other cases where local people have
applied such knowledge are well documented (Salicketal. 1995,
Emery and Zasada 2001). Thus ethnosilviculture could be an
effective basis for developing silvicultural regimes.
The transfer of knowledge to new generations was an
established part ofthe cultures perpetuated by CACs and CFUGs.
Language, food, artefacts, and beliefs are important in this process,
and any change in such factors could constitute a threat to
continuity. Collecting such information from indigenous
communities must be carried out carefully so that the process
neither disrupts the tradition nor embarrasses people by casting
them as "primitive" informants. Davidson-Hunt etal. (2001) have
presented approaches and methodologies for collecting
indigenous knowledge on plant use and management.
Furthermore, Maries (2001) has developed protocols for
ethnobotanical research, which may be useful in documenting
silvicultural information. Acquiring ethnosilvicultural knowledge
has involved long effort on the part of CACs and CFUGs. In both
cases establishing a rapport seems to have been the necessary
first phase in acquiring information from local people. (For
example, offering tobacco when meeting with community elders
is an established tradition in CACs). It is necessary to piece together
information from different sources. Information can be collected
from gatherers, loggers, ground-managers, crafters, artisans and
their families and friends (Emery and Zasada 2001). Within a
community, all groups (whether categorized by gender, age,
profession, or ethnicity) hold some sort of knowledge; so the
participation of all will be beneficial. Civic events such as fairs,
churches, and temples, could be very important venues for the
acquisition of such information. Multiple meetings with resource
persons may be useful in triangulating and verifying information.
Walking forest transects in the company of local users has been
very useful in identifying species, uses and habitats in Nepal.
Although research protocols may vary, the informants must be
convinced that the information shared will not be used against
their interests.
Conclusion
We offer the following recommendations concerning the
integration of NTFPs in mainstream forestry.
• Tenural or proprietorship rights need to be safeguarded.
• NTFPs management must be considered an integral part of
forest management.
• An ethnosilvicultural knowledge database must be prepared
for the smallest stands or sites as well as for larger forests.
This information could become a good basis for scientific
investigation for ecosystem-based forest management.
• Strengthening traditional and indigenous institutions is
essential. Such institutions may be capable of monitoring the
ecological condition of the forest as well as implementing
management strategies. ■
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58
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
 Index
Author index for Volume 1, 2003
Issue 1, January, p 1-68
Issue 2, July, p 69-140
Adhikari, Naba R. See Sharma, 103-106
Agrawal, Vishwanath P. Future of plant biotechnology in crop
improvement [REVIEW PAPER], p 17-20
Aryal, Ravi S. Poaching: Get a grip on it [COMMENTARY], p 73
Baitha,   Suresh   N   and   Vijoy   S   Pandey.   Silica   gel
chromatographic study of phenolic compounds in some
cultivated cucurbits [RESEARCH PAPER]. P 123-125
Bajracharya, Dayananda. Welcome to a new journal!
[EDITORIAL], p 1
Bhandary, Krishna M. Flood of discoveries in Nepal!
[CORRESPONDENCE], p 71
Bhattarai, Tribikram. See Subedi, 99-102
Bursikova, Vilma. See Subedi, 115-118
Chapagain, Nawa R. See Sharma, 93-98
Chapagain, Prem S.   See Sharma, 103-106
Chetri, M. Food habits of gaur (Bos gaurus gaurus Smith, 1827)
and livestock (cows and buffaloes) in Parsa Wildlife
Reserve, central Nepal [RESEARCH PAPER], p 31-36
Clevers, Jan. See Sharma, 93-98
Dhoubhadel, Shiva P. Chemical education and research in
Nepal [ESSAY], p 4-6
Duwadee, NPS. See Kunwar, 25-30
Ghimire, Pawan K. See Sharma, 103-106
Ghimire, S. Concept of environmental justice in Nepal:
Environmentalism of poor for sustainable livelihood
[ARTICLE], p 47-50
Graaf, Reitze De. See Sharma, 93-98
Gurung, Santa B. See Joshi, 87-91
Janca, Jan. See Subedi, 115-118
Jha, Lok N and Jeevan J Nakarmi. Plasma physics: A review
and applications with special reference to inertial
confinement fusion energy [REVIEW PAPER], p 21-24
Joshi, Bal K, Laxmi P Subedi, Santa B Gurung and Ram C
Sharma. Evaluation of cultivars and land races of Oryza
sativa for restoring and maintaining wild abortive
cytoplasm [RESEARCH PAPER], p 87-91
Khanal, Sanjay N. Renovation and reconstruction of universities
[EDITORIAL], p 69
Khanal, Udayaraj. Basket case science, basket case society
[ESSAY], p 77
Kunwar, Ripu M. Invasive alien plants and Eupatorium:
Biodiversity and livelihood [ARTICLE], p 129-133
Kunwar, RM and NPS Duwadee. Ethnobotanical notes on flora
of Khaptad National Park (KNP), far-western Nepal
[RESEARCH PAPER], p 25-30
Mainali, Kumar P. Research and its social significance [ESSAY],
p 3-4
Nakarmi, Jeevan J. See Jha, 21-24
Pandey, Vijoy S. See Baitha, 123-125
Paudel, S. Community forestry in Nepal [ARTICLE], p 62-65
Paudel, Shishir and Jay P Sah. Physiochemical characteristics
of soil in tropical sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn.) forests in
eastern Nepal [RESEARCH PAPER], p 107-110
Poudel, KC. Domesticating Lapsi, Choerospondias axillaris
Roxb. (B. L. Burtt & A. W Hill) for fruit production in the
middle   mountain   agroforestry   systems   in  Nepal
[ARTICLE], p 55-58
Poudel, S. Vegetation and prominent flora from Begnash Tal
to Tara Hill, Annapurna Conversation Area Project, Kaski
district [RESEARCH PAPER], p 43-46
Raut, AK. Brick Kilns in Kathmandu Valley: Current status,
environmental impacts and future options [ARTICLE], p
59-61
Roka, Krishna. WTO casts a shadow over Nepal's natural legacy
[CORRESPONDENCE], p 72
Sah, Jay P. See Paudel, 107-110
Sapkota, Birendra. Hydrogeological conditions in the southern
part of Dang valley, mid-western Nepal [RESEARCH
PAPER], p 119-122
Shah, KB. On the distribution and status of Tibetan argali,
Ovis ammon hodgsoni Blyth, 1841 in Nepal [RESEARCH
PAPER], p 37-41
Sharma, Benktesh D, Jan Clevers, Reitze De Graaf and Nawa
R Chapagain. Assessing the land cover situation in
Surkhang, Upper Mustang, Nepal, using an ASTER image
[RESEARCH PAPER], p 93-98
Sharma, Keshav P, Naba R Adhikari, Pawan K Ghimire and
Prem S Chapagain. GIS-based flood risk zoning of the
Khando river basin in the Terai region of east Nepal
[RESEARCH PAPER], p 103-106
Sharma, Ram C. See Joshi, 87-91
Shrestha, BB. Metal toxicity in plants: How do metallophytes
manage to grow? [ARTICLE], p 51-54
Shrestha,    Bharat    B.    Marketing    science    journals
[CORRESPONDENCE], p 71
Shrestha, Bharat B. Quercus semecarpifolia Sm. in the
Himalayan region: Ecology, exploitation and threats
[ARTICLE], p 126-128
Shrestha, Bharat B. Scientific research in Nepal: Where we
are [COMMENTARY], p 8-9
Shrestha, Krishna K. Nice work - but wrong label [BOOK
REVIEW: Review of "Himalayan Botany in the Twentieth
and Twenty-first Centuries", By S. Noshiro, and K.R.
Rajbhandari (eds.)], p 15-16
Subedi, Chandra K and Tribikram Bhattarai. Effect of
gibberellic acid on reserve food mobilization of maize (Zea
mays L. var Arun-2) endosperm during germination
[RESEARCH PAPER], p 99-102
Subedi, Deepak P, Lenka Zajickova, Vilma Bursikova and Jan
Janca. Surface modification of polycarbonate (bisphenol A)
by low pressure rf plasma [RESEARCH PAPER], p 115-118
Subedi, Indra P and Kamini Vaidya. Control of flea beetle,
Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) using
locally available natural resources [RESEARCH PAPER],
p 111-114
Subedi, Laxmi P. See Joshi, 87-91
Tuladhar, Bhushan. The search for Kathmandu's new landfill
[COMMENTARY], p 7-8
Uprety, Rajendra. Arsenic controversy needs conclusion
[COMMENTARY], p 10
Uprety,     Rajendra.     Menacing     food     commodities
[COMMENTARY], p 75
Vaidya, Kamini. See Subedi, 111-114
Zajickova, Lenka. See Subedi, 115-118 ■
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES | VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004
59
 Himalayan ^
JOURNAL   OF
n
u
u
to
Volume 2
Issue 3
Jan-July 2004 ISSN 1727 5210     Lalitpur, Nepal
Himalayan Journal Online
Full text of all papers, guide to authors,
resources for writing and other materials
are available online at
www.himjsci.com
Published by
Himalayan Association for the
Advancement of Science, GPO Box 2838,
Editor
Assistant Editors
Kumar P Mainali
Ganesh P Bhattarai
Ripu M Kunwar
Executive Editor
Arjun Adhikari
Shishir Paudel
Bharat B Shrestha
Rajan Tripathee
Language Editor
Editorial Assistant
Seth Sicroff
Kushal Gurung
Contact
The Editor
Himalayan Journal ofSciences
Lalitpur, Nepal
GPOBox2838
Tel: 977-1-5525313O977-1-5528090R
E-mail: editors@himjsci.com
To visit the office
Himalayan Journal ofSciences
ICIMOD, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, NEPAL
Office hours: 4 pm to 7 pm
Advisory Board
Dr J Gabriel Campbell
Director General, International Center for
Integrated Mountain Development
Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Nepal
Dr Monique Fort
Professor, Centre de Geographie Physique
University of Paris, France
Dr Mohan B Gewali
Professor, Central Department of Chemistry,
Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
Dr Jack Ives
Professor, Department of Geography and
Environmental Studies, Carleton
University, Ottawa, Canada
DrPramod KJha
Professor, Central Department of Botany,
Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
DrUdayR Khanal
Professor, Central Department of Physics
Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
Dr Damodar P Parajuli
Joint Secretary, Ministry of Forest and Soil
Conservation, HMG Nepal
DrBishwambher Pyakuryal
Professor, Central Department of
Economics, Tribhuvan University,
Kathmandu, Nepal
Dr Madhusudhan Upadhyaya
Nepal Agricultural Research Council
Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal
DrTeiji Watanabe
Associate Professor, Hokkaido
University, Japan
Reviewers of this Issue
Dr Roshan M Bajracharya
Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Kavre
Dr Khadga Basnet
Central Department of Zoology,
Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu
Dr Mukesh Chalise
Central Department of Zoology,
Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu
Dr Ram P Chaudhary
Central Department of Botany,
Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu
Dr Mukesh K Chettri
Amrit Campus, Lainchaur, Kathmandu
DrVimalNP Gupta
Central Department of Botany,
Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu
DrPramod KJha
Central Department of Botany,
Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu
Mr Pradip Maharjan
Herbs Production & Processing Co. Ltd,
Koteshwor, Kathmandu
DrEkROjha
Kathmandu University,
Dhulikhel, Kavre
Dr Keshav R Rajbhandari
Department of Plant Resources,
Thapathali, Kathmandu
Dr Gunanidhi Saarma
Central Department of Economics,
Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu
Dr Bindeshwar P Sah
Nepal Agricultural Research Council,
Khumaltar, Lalitpur
DrJayPSah
Southeast Environmental Research Center,
Florida International University, USA
Dr Keshav P Sharma
Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, HMGN, Babarmahal, Kathmandu
Mr Kedar P Shrestha
Nepal Agricultural Research Council,
Khumaltar, Lalitpur
Dr Keshav Shrestha
Natural History Museum,
Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu
Dr Purushottam Shrestha
Department of Botany, Patan Campus,
Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu
Dr Mohan Siwakoti
Natural History Museum,
Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu
Mr Subhasha N Vaidya
Nepal Agricultural Research Council,
Singhdurbar Plaza, Kathmandu
Dr Pralad Yonzon
Resources Himalaya, Lalitpur
Price
Personal: NRs 100.00
Institutional: NRs 300.00
Outside Nepal: US $10.00
HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES |  VOL 2 ISSUE 3 | JAN-JUNE 2004

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