David Conde Fonds

Ex.1464-1500. Treatment of prisoners of war Conde, David W., 1906- [date unknown]

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Doco No e  2707 P^ge 1 SUBJECT: JAPANESE VIOLATIONS OF THE LAWS OF WAR DATE OF ISSUE 23 June 194ブ No, 72 ( S m n l 2 SUMMARY: 2 to COMPILATION PRFFARED FOR, AND SUBMITTED UNLFR OATH TO "COぼISSICN REGARD- ING BREACHES OF THE RULES OF WARFARE BY THE JAPAI\TI:SE FCRC3S”(CO:: GNWEALTH OP' AUSTRALIA), 1 2 INARCH 1 9 4 4。 1 . I h i s report sup'oleirents 4TIS Research Report No. 72 (previously ATIS Information Bulletin N o . 1 C ) , and Supril 1 , a n d co^ririses a fizrther record of violations of the laws cf war noted in doctiments cn file at AT IS, GHQ C It contains inforrration "/hich has become available from 12 October 1944 to 2只March 1945„ 2r Photolithographic conies of pertinent sections of such original documents as are available with relevant identifying data are renrodrced as appendices to t M s reports 3r It has not been possible in all cases to establish definitely the existence of a violation of the laws of war, but where data indicates the n r c b a M l i t y of such a violat."ion the incident has been included, 4 P  Report, adduces evidence of one hundred and ninet} 7 "- four executions in South West Pacific Area] burning of guerrillas in the Philippine Islands; the destruction of property5 ca-nnibalism; GC/CHE/nf Distribution H official Japanese admission cf ill-treatment of prisoners of war, /s/ Signey Uashbir Sidney F, Mashbir Colonel, S.C. Co-Ordinator SOURCES: Captured Documents. Statements by Prisoners of War, ェ n t e l l i r e n c e R.eports, SECRET ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER S E C T I O N SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA RESEARCH REPORT 3 o i l 5 5  3 o  9 6 6 No I e G No B.I.D (INFORMATION SHOULD BE ASSESSED ACCORDINGLY) Doc. 2707-R / M Paい REPRODUCTION OF PERTINENT EXHIBIT DOCUMENT No. AUTHOR OR OWNER UNIT CAPTURED AT DATE OF CAPTURE RECEIVED ATIS AE RECEIVED ATIS, SWPA TRANSLATED BY TRANSLATION CHECKED BY PHOTOGRAPHED ON V . i PARTS OF CA.PTURED DOCUMENTS R 600.616 . 16 Division Hq. ) l6 Div^ s ion Hq_ Levte •• 1  1丨 I, I,__• 4-]1 Novorfiber 1944 14 November 1944 30 January 194ヴ WOJG YAMaSHIRO. Kiyoshi, /IUS 1st Lt KADANI, Tsuneo G., /LUS 25 April194ヲ /s/ Sidney F . Mashbir Sidney P . Mashbir Colonel, S.C. Co-Ordinator Wo shall wait for instructions from our superior officers on the investigation and its disposal and I feel it proper to send this to our senior commanders, ed on the battle-field; those who are of bad charac.ier, will be resolutely 1./'(prisnners^jrf v/ar Jwill be who .qnrrfindpr —‘ 一 — • ed in'secret and counted as abandoned corpses. Bv "Pr;;sorif v.̂  v/e mo^tn so]d ier.q nnd hand its captured on the b a t t i G - f i e l d ; by "surrender" we mean those who surrender or sifemit‘prior to the battle, Prisoners of War will be interrogated on the battle-field and should be immediately — cd. excepting those who require further detailed interrogation for intelligence purposes. In the event of it must be carried out cautiously and circumspectly, with no policemen or civilians to witness the scene, and care must be taken to do it in a remote place and leave no evidence, Malicious surrenderers will be taken into custody for the time being and after observance of public sentiments will be 一 ed secretly when the -inhflhitpntc! hsyr, fnrgntt.e^ about thera }  or secretly under pretext of removal to some distant locality, thus avoiding: methods likely to excite public feci ing • 一 / ~~' Other surrenderers will be set free under the Filipino guarantee after admonition and instruction. In the event oj any men surrendering to the Filipinos, our troops are to be informed about it iinrnediately, and we shall require them to be set free after thorough'.admonition and instruction by th( Filipinos. Thieves caught in the act will be dealt with in the same wa: as malicious surrenderors, Doc, Noc 2707 P-ige 1 SUBJECT: JAPANESE VIOLATIONS OF THE LAWS OF V M DATE OF ISSUE 23 June 194^ No, 72 (Suv^l 2 SU.C. T ARY: s v ^ u . m m KUJ-BFH 2 to COMPILATION PREPARED FOR, AND SITBAITTED UNDER OATH TO "C0^ R ISSICN REGARD- ING BREACHES OF TEE RULES OF WARFARE BY THE JAPANESE FORCES" (CO:; C卿 A L T H OF AUSTRALIA)  C 12 ;,iATiCH 194-4 P 1 . I b i s rerjort. si^nlcrents A rn I£ Research Ren or t No. 72 (previously AT IS Information Bulletin M o . 1 0 ) , and SUTDPI 1 , a n d co^nrises a further record of violations cf the laws of war noted in documents cn file at ATIS, GHQ, It contains inforrration -'/hich has becore available from 12 October 1944 to March 1945„ 2 r  Photolithograt)hic conies of pertinent sections of such original docuirents as are available -vith relevant identifying data are reproduced as aiorendices to this renort-o 3<" It hg.s not been possible in all cases to establish definitely tho existence of a violation of the laws of w-ir, bu.t where data indicates the probability of such a violation the incident has "been included. 4 C  Report addixes evidence of one hundred and ninety- four executions in South West ^acific Area; burning of guerrillas in the ^hili^plne Islands; the destruction of property; official Japanese admission of cannibal isra? ill-treatment of prisoners of war. GC/CHR/nf Distribution K /s/ Signey F . Uashbir Sidney F, Mashbir Colonel,S.C- Co-Ordinator SOURCES: Canturec* Documents. Statements by Prisoners of War„ Intelligence Ret)orts, SECRET ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION SOUTHWEST PACIFIC 遍 A RESEARCH REPORT 4 3 5 0 订  3 o  o 66  r o -N 0 N r D 0  *  G  I e • • 1  B (INFORFL/ITICN SHOULD BE ASSESSED ACCORDINGLY) D o c . No. 2707-S Page 1 /s/ Sidney F . Mashbir Sidney F , Mashbir Colonel, S.C. Co-Ordinator No, 6. The treatment of S u r r e n d e r s ,ン ^ ^ 一 、 "" — v/hen tirisoners are taken, those who a.ra not worth utilizing shall' be disposed of immediately except those who require further detailed interrogation for intelligence purposes, according to N o , 1 2 6 of Part I of the orders concerning afLortart operetional matters 26. Proper investigation shall be made of those who are to be interned in reformatories before the internment, and only those who really need education will be interned and admonished. 27. Surrenderers found to be malicious after the interrogations performed on them according to N o . 1 2 6 of Part I of the orders concerning important operational matters will be iFimediately killed in secret snd will be disposed of so as not to excite public feeling. The rest of the surrenderers shall be set free under the guarantee of the Philippine authorities after admonition and Instruction. REPRODUCTION 07 PF.RTIl^NT PARTS OF CAPTURED DOCUMENTS EXJITBTT S t 16444 し DOCUMENT No. AUTHOR OR OWNER UNIT CAPTURED AT DATE OF CAPTURE RECEIVED A.TIS AE RECEIVED ATIS, SWPA TRANSLATED BY TRPxNSLATlON CHECKED 3 1 PHOTOGRAPHED ON 16 Division Sjgnnl Unit 16 Division Signal Unit l_November 1944 2 November 1944 9 N o v e m b e r 1 9 4 4 Lt (^g.) COFFIN, David D . , USNR 1st It KADANI, Tsuneo G., AUS 2 5 A p r i l 1 9 4 5 Doc 0  No, 2707 P-age 1 SUBJECT; JAPANESE VIOLATIONS OF TH3 LAWS OF WAR DATS OF ISSUE 23 Jtine 194^ No. 72 ( S _ l 2 SU.C-JARY: , SU^^L^^EWT NUMBER 2 to CCMPILATION PREPARED FOR, AND SUBMITTED UNDER OATH TO " C O M S S I C N REGARD-‘ ING BBEAGHES OF THE RULES OF WARFARE BY THE JAPANESE FORCES" (CO:.: ONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA), 12 MARCH 1944 c This renort s-uDolements A rn IS Research Ren or t No. 72 (previously AT'IS Information Bulletin M o , 1 0 ) , and Surml 1 , a n d c o m r i s e s a further record of violations of the laws of war noted in (focnments on file at ATIS, GHQ C It contains inforrration which has become available from 12 October 19料 to 2P March 1945„ 2r Photolithographic copies of pertinent sections of such original docuinents as are available with relevant identifying data are retDroduced as an^endices to this renorto 3' It hqs not been possible in all cases to establish definitely the existence of a violation of the laws of war, but where data indicate^ the* r>robability of such a violation the incident has been included. 4 f  Renort addrces evidence of one hundred and ninety- four executions in South West  D acific Area; btirning of guerrillas in the  D hilir>plne Islands; the destruction of property; official Japanese admission of cannibalism; ill-treatment of prisoners of war, GC/CHR/n.f Distribution H /s/ Signey F- Ilasbbir Sidney F. Mashbir Colonel,S.Cc Co-Ordinator SOURCES: Cantured Documents. Staterents by Prisoners of War, Intelligence Reports, SECRET ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION SOUTHWEST PACIFIC AREA RESEARCH REPORT • 4 3 P  1 1 5 5  3 00 6 6 t N 0 D «# G  I c 1  B (INFORMATION SHOULD BE ASSESSED ACCORDINGLY) / g f 冷 『 v r DOCUMENT 2718 MANILA - 21 Feb 4ガ」 R e e d XIV Corps ATIS Adv Ech 一 23 Feb Reed 4TIS SWPA. - 6 Mar 4^'. Jjoose handwritten sheet containing an account of a visit to Munt?.nglupa Prison, kept by unspecified member 万 r T D R I I ( * 8)Dnit. Datedへ24 October, year not stated* 1 p . Full translation: On the 24th of October, I visited Kuntinglupa Prison with the commander of TORII (*9) Unit, as a guide. The prison is guarded by 2d It TAKESHIBA.い10) and 20 raen of the TORII Unit. According to the story of 2d Lt TAKESKIB4, there are >2^200 prisoners _including doctors, ministers &nd constables v  The food consists of thick rice gruel and one or two slices of papaya. Because of lack of food, deaths average 10 per day. I entered with the unit commander into No 3 Barracks which ^ad a foid odor. Vie entered by using the guard's key. The heavy iron lattice door was opened by a prisoner. The prisoners near us, upon hearing the cominand to salute,, saluted u s , 1 7 or 18 year old youths" were"a11ill-smelling. to 6D year old men V c Because the prisoners were emaciated, their thighs and ankles were the same size. Even walking appeared to be an ordeal for themv--<LJba2e_never seen such thin people^ It _was truly pitiful. Some lay on narrow double deck beds covered with • mats These —エlearned were dead bodies On the way out, we met tSe - corpse carriers. ID prisoners were seen carrying the stretchers. The prison is surrounded with three barbed wire fences5 the center fence is charged with electricitx» The guard towers are placed at various points. I sru prisoners who were avorkinf inside with iron chains a round their legs- T'^e construction of the entrance to the prison camp is like an old castle. The flag of the PHILIPPINES is hoisted on the — look-out tower. It is surprising to notice the 名 r e a t contrast between outside and inside. Visiting is permitted at certain hours. The visitors are mothers or wives. They carry a straw sack which appears heavy with presents. The anxiety with which a family awaits the release of their loved ones is apparent. I wondered hovr the families feel when they see the pitiful state of their loved ones. For those who have no visitors or receive no presents, there is only death waiting. Even though they_ my heart goes out to them. ~~T!rg urlboiiBTS are Filipinos and Chinese. There are also a jfew_vresterners. W e , who are at war, must not lose to the Allied or our fate will be worse. Certain victory;~ ^ DOCUMENT 2718 C E R T I F I C A T E I, JEWELL Ao BLA駆NSI-IIP, 1st L t。I n f” of the Allied Translator and Interpreter Section, Tokyo, Japan, do hereby certify that the attached document is a true and correct copy of the translation of a captured Japanese Document, the original of which has been forwarded to the Washington Document Center, Washington, D . C. /s/ Jewell k. Blankenship Witness: /s/ Henry Shimij/lma Sworn before me this \1 day of October 1946, Tokyo, Japan. - r b DOCUMENT 10-B • 一 乙 Clear Washington <R Dece mber 1 8 , 1 9 4 1 AMEEIC皿 IEG-ATI0H HERN RIBH 331, eighteenth. A r o , iUERiCiiH IlffEEESIS Please request the Swiss Government tlirough its representative at Tokyo to make a cornxaunication in tiie following sense to the Japanese GoverrmBixt; QUOTE It is tiie intention of the Government of the United States as a party to the Oenova Prisoner of War Convention and tlie Geneva Red Cross Convention, both of July 2 7 , 1 9 E 9 , to apply the provisions of those conventions • It is, furthermore, the iatention of the Government of the United States to apply the provisions of the Geneva Prisoner of War Co mention to any civilian eneniy alieii3 that may be interned, in so far as the provisions of that convention Liay b© adaptable thereto. Although, the Japanese Govemrrieiit is a sig- natory of the above conventions, it is under- stood not to have ratified the Geneva Prisoner of War Convention. The Government of the United States nevertheless hopes t the Japanese Governiflent will apply the provisions of both conventions reciprocally in the above sense• The Government of the United States would appreciate receiving an expression of the in- •fcentions of the Japanese Government in this _respect. UKQJJOTE HULL Serial Pages 4 and 5 Doc #  No. 10-1 10-B 10-H 10 - N 10-U 10-1 10-P 10-V 10-J 10-Q 10-W 10-K 10-R 10-X 10-L 10-S 10-M 10-T hi /jyTHUR L. S A ^ U S K Y ARTIIUR L. SAiroUSKY C E R T I F I C A T E I, ARTHUR I“ SANDUSKY, hereby certify: 1 . T h a t I an Chief of the Dccancnt Division of the International Prosecution Section, G,H.Q # ;  S.C.A f P., and as such have ; p o s s e s s i o n , custody and control of original or copies of all docmcnts obtained by the said Scction, 2. That the following described L P . S . documents wore anong documents rccGivcd \rf the International Prosecu- tion Scction from the Secretary of State of the United States as being true and corrcct photostatic reproductions of the originnl documents, rrhich arc nciintaincd in tho files of tho Socrctary of State. Washington, D.C,: -C-D-E-F-G 1 -  1111 9 / / r D ) H O A / 外 7 7 に DOCUMENT 1 0ィ PIAEI Bern Dated Rocd. February 4,1942 2:ピ么p.m. Secretary of State 1 Wa^'nington 398, fourtli, •( A遮SIOrilNf IOTERESTS, JAPAN \ Reference Departraent T  5 531  f  December 18. Swiss Minister, Tokyo, telegraphs January 30 as follows "Japanese Government lias informed me:  f first. Japan is strictly observing Geneva Red Cross Convention as a signatory state. Second. \ 一 — — Although not bound by the Convention でPIA十づマ行 prisoners of war Japan -.Till ap,p.ly,.,rni]tati,s :autaiidi£; p r o、 is ions Of tliat Oonvent ion to Arn̂ -H p-ri nf—沪で __ its power.” f IIUDDLE Serial #7 Pages 16-18 く /作 D0CU1«1T 10 -D MEV ••LEUmiM BF.NT PIAIN February 1 4 , 1 9 4 2 AMEIilC^N LEGATION, BERN. RUSH 446, fourteenth. Please request the Swiss Governineiit to infona the Japanese Government (1)that this Government has received disquieting reports that there is being imposed upon /aoerican civilians in areas ill the Philippines occupied "by the Japanese forces an axtreitiely rigid, and harsh regime involving abuse and huraila- tion; (2) that this Govornment desires to receive from tli© Japanese Grovemment assurances wither that a thorough investigation by tho appropriate Japanese authorites has disclosed the incorrectness of these reports or that immediate and effective steps have been token to remedy the situation and to accord to Americans in the Philippines moderate treatnient similar to that being extended by this Government to Japanese nationals in its territory; (3) that this Govermosnt expects that the same general principles with regard to the treatment of eneny aliens, both detained ana at liberty, which are set forth in its telegrams no. 331 pecembor 18th and no, 219, January 26 th, and which this Gov eminent is applying In its treatment of Japanese nationals oil Ainerican territory, will be applied by the Japanese to American nationals on Jcpanes© and Japanese-occupied territory; (4) that if assurances cannot be given by the Japanese Governineiit that these priiiciples Serial #7 Pages 16-18 DOCUMENT 10-D 2-446, February 14, to Bern. will be applied もne treatment of American nationals, not only Japanese occupied territory in the Philippines but throughout Japanese and Japanese-occupied territories lay be necessary for this Government to reconsider its policy of according to Japanese nationals on its territory the most liberal treatment con- sistent with the national safety• Please ask the Swiss Government if it is in a position to send a representative to the Philippines or has a representative available in the Philippines, to request perraission for a Swiss representative to visit Japanese-occupied territory in the Philippines in order to investigate the situation of Axnerican nationals there* Please icform the International Committee of the Red Cross of the reports which this Govermaeixt has received regarding the harsh treatment of American civilians in Japanese-occupied Philippine territory and request it to endeavor to investigate the situation in that territory. M r .嫩 r c Peter, representative in Washington of the International Coriimittee of the Red Cross, has been informed of this matter and has stated his intention of coimminicating with the Coiaraittee by cable with regard to it. HJLL (SW) Serial #7 Pages 16-18 DOCUMENT 10-G Plain B&rn Dated Februaiy 24,1942 Rec'd 7:23 p.m. S E C R E T L Y OF ST^TE, WilSHIHGT® • 733, twenty-fourth. g IUVEEIC.IN INTERESTS, Swiss Foreign Office note Fob rue ly 19 advises it called attention Swiss Minister Tokyo to contradictions existing in reports of treatment accorded Aiaericans in Japanese occupied territory (see Legation f s 514, February 11)and Minister replied by telogrcnn Februaiy 17 • Minister states that he consulted with Swiss Charge d'Affaires Shanghai regarding other representations to t>e made to Japanese Govenmieiit. He then says "Ministry of Foreign “ffairs sent me new note declaring Jニpail vrill apply on condition of reciprocity Geneva Convention for treatment prisoners of war and civilian internees in so far as coriVGiition shall bo applicable, and that thoy shall not be forced to perfona labor against thoir will, /jriericaii civilians detained in all Japcnoso territories number 134, condi- tions applied to tliom are more favorable than co ntoraplated by convention. Their provisioning in bread, butter, eggs, moat, heat- ing oil, coal and fats assured by Japan. They can reccive from outside gifts of food ana clothing. Despite inconvenience ^hich arrangement presents Japan they are specially detained in vicinity of residence of thoir families in order that latter can see t hem iaoro easily.エnternoos are vi3itod from time to tixae by doctor and sick persons can consult doctor from outside ani obtain admission subsequently .to h03pitrd. They arc porraittcd to read papers, books f Serial #13 Pagec 28-30 DOCUMENT 10-E - 2 - end listen to Jrpanosc radio and to go out subject to certciin restrictions if they submit valid r e a s o n s . — Minister continues that such statements must be vorif ied on spot but thr.t he has not yot been able obtain roquested pomission for regular visits by his special representative at Tokyo airl at Yokohaiin. Promises are continually made. Upon two visits which we're made to Tokyo and one to YokohPma internees did not complain but gave rather impression of niental suffering. IvHinistor finally adds for reports from other cities in Japan エ have again insisted 让::七lay delegates bo allowed to verify internees living conditions # Until now I have had 110 particular information.ェ do not seo necessarily any contradiction botwocn this situation and that reported in China where the internees may be v/orse treated. Jo re ign Ministry assures mo Japan will do all in its power to extend g) od treatmont but is not in a position to offer standard of living equal to thct of ^.incrican for conditions between two countries are so difTeront. Japrjiose people are poor and contented with little from which facts arise difficulties concerning treatment of foreign internees. Regarding nonintcmed .jaericans situation good according to their ovm statements, Assure .jaerican G-overnmciit that エ am attentively following question both with Foreign Office and with ray representatives HUDDLE Serial #8 Pages 19-21 DOCUMENT 10-F PLaIN Bern Dated Rec  f d Ivferch 9 , 1 9 4 2 6:30 p.m. Secretary of State, Washington • 948, Ninth. AMEHICAN INTERESTS, J7.PAN, TEEATMEKT AMERICA!© • Legation's 514, February 12 and 733, February 24, Sv/iss Legation Tokyo telegraphs !脑rch 2: "Re- ferring to inforiaしtion cormaunicated my telegram. February 17 (see Legations 733) Japanese Government denies that American citizens are submitted to unfavorable treatm.ent• I reproduce in substance following letter addressed to me by Minister Togo; 'American citizens v/iioia you are endeavoring to protect enjoy proper treat- ment as you have been able to judge from your visits. T3ie Govern- meat is not in possession of corriplete details for all occupied territories but an official of Japanese Consulate General Hong Prong iias taken over Anerican Consulate General after fall of that colony and lias done his best obtain as nBJiy facilities as possible for American officials. Accordance their desire all American personnel (consisting 13 persons) and 7 members American Embassy were put together January 9 in two buildings chosen by ijnerican Consul himself. Tliey have expressed their thanks for treatxnent accorded. They are authorized go out twice weekly escorted by- Japanese officials Their food sufficiently assured by Japanese Array and all in good health• Adequate protection likewise accorded other American citizens. In addition 26 members American Consulate General Manila benefit same treatment as consuls all other countries; Serial #10 Pages 23-25 DOCUMENT 10 -P ノグ/ノ 2-948, m x c h 9, from Bern they live in building belonging American citizen in Pasaynang Howrood in suburbs Ifenila• They have also thanked Japanese Consulate General for indulgent treatment given them and have told us that they suffer no privation* Treatment given otlaer iUfierican citizens oy Japanese uilitery authorities no less — ^ — :— !~" : ••._.、•. •_ .._  ^_• ‘ ‘ ‘ • — ^ - . 4 indulgent in principle. Old people, mot lie rs of young children, the sick and. pregnant women are not detained by military authorities • App re liens ions Aiaeric an Government based on information from unknown source ar^. citing no exact facts are therefore without foundation. Japanese author it ies will continue accord facilities to Svriss Minister for his visits to interiinient cainps " f  • Swiss Minister adds that concerning last point Uinister Togo's letter authorities still create nevertheless difficulties for visiting internraent camps, in particular causing delays for visits of Swiss special representatives. Swiss Minister hopes eventually obtain al?. necessary facilities• HUDDLE Serial #10 Pages 23-25 DOCUMENT 10-G Plain Wastiing-fcon m x c h 1 9 , 1 9 4 2 A l E R I C M LEGaTICN KEEN 712, nineteenth. Your 733, February 24, and 865, Mircii A M E R I C A INTERESTS - JAPA1T Please request the Swiss Govorniaent to inform the Japanese Government (one) that tLe Govomnent of the United States has taken note of the Japanese Government T  s declaration tir t it will apply, on conilition of reciprocity, the Geneva Prisoners of War Convention in the treatment of prisoners of war and, in so far as the provisions of the Convent ion shall be applicable, in the treat- ‘ ' • * * — — — — ment cf civilian internees, and that the latter shall not te forced to porfoiiii labor against their will, (two) that this Governnent did not contQiaplate and has not imde use of the provisions of Article 27 of the Convent ion to compel JapaiBse civilians detained or interned by it to labor against their wills, (three) tliat this Governrneiit is preparing for presentation to the Japanese Governraent proposals for the carrying out of the Geneva Prisoners of War and Red cross Conven- tions and for the extension of applicable provisions of the Prisoners of War Oonvention to civilian internees and temporary c etainees; (four) that tlie following rations are provided for each Japanese national detained by the Aiaerican authorities: in tejinporary custody of the Departraent of Justice: Weight in pounds per day per individual: Meats and fish, 0075 ;lard and cooking oils, 0.15; flour, starches ana - 一 " 1 cereals, 0.80; dairy products, 1.00; eggs 0.05; sugcir and syrup, 0.S5; beverages (coffee or tea) 0.X0; potatoes and root vegetable s,1.00; leafy green or yellow vegetables, 0#60; dried vegetables and nuts, 0.10; Serial #12 Pagec 28-30 DOGUMSOT 10-G - 2 - fresh fruits and berries, 0.15; dried fruits, ••OS; miscellaneous food adjuncts, 0 # 015; spices, relishes and sauces, 0,10; Japanese food, 0•06032; Interned in the custody of the  ;r ar Department: Weight in ounces per day per individual: Eieat, 18^0; fresh eggs, one each; dry vegetables and cereals, 2.6; fresh vegetables, 21.0; fruit, 4»7; bever£ige3, coffee, 2,0; cocoa, 0.3 ; tea, 0.05; lard and cooking fats, 1.28; butter, 2.0; milk, evaporated, 1#0; fresh, 8.0; flour (vvheat)12.C; sugar and syrup, 5*5; iiiacaroni, 0.25; cheese, spices, relisLes and sauccs, 0 # 984; allowance is m d e in the preparation of food for Japanese national and racial preferences f (five) that aotainees and internoos are penaitted to rcceive visits from their friends ai3d relatives, aro regularly visited by doctors and ore x.ospitalizea should their health require it, are permitted to read novrspapers and books, and aro held in gonoral under condi- tions no loss favorable thcin those wiiich the Japanese Govormaeiit states are applied to American internees in its hands; (six) that t.xis Government has Inforiaod the Spanish Embassy as the protecting Power for JcparLGSQ interests in the United States, the Swedish Legation as the protecting Power for Japanese intorosts iii Hawaii, and the Delegate in the United Stctes of the International Rod Cross that it wolcoxaos v is it 3 by representatives of thuir offices to all of the places of detention of detained or interned Jo pair se nationals in Aaaorioan hands and that reprosentatives of the Spanish Embassy have already begun to visit such places in tho United States. WELLES Acting Serial #12 Pages 28-30 DOCUMENT 10-H TELEGRiil: SELTT PLaIN PD April 3 , 1 9 4 2 腿 H I C A N IEO“TIOK BEPN 853, TMrdc Your 1031,tliirtoonth and 1231 tv;cnty-sixth. MjERIGM UITEKESTS - PHILIPPINES - Treatment American citizens. Ploasc request the S^iss Govommont to inform the Japancse Govern- ment • (one) Tliat tho iuiicrican Govcrninont has taken note of the stateioieints of the Japeneso Govomiaont rognrding the treatnent accordod /jaericaii nationols in the Philippines, (two) Tliat the /anorican GOTeriimont obtained the information referred to in the Dopartmant f  s 446 of February fourteenth from various sources, (three) Th〔vfc the principal source of disquiet in connoction with these reports is tte epparemt reluctance of the J- _ pinese Govcrnraent to perxait the appointneiit by the Ini^'rnntioiial Rod Cross Comittee of ail approprirte ncutrr.l observer to act as the Coiiiraittee^s delegate in the Philijjpines, and (four} That the appcrent relucto.nce of the Jopanese G-oveimiacnt to permit the appointment of a neutral Red Cross delegate in Hong Kong is also a source of cons id ore bie disquiet in connection with reports received froia various sources regarding the condition of American oitizoiis at that place• Please inform tlie Int-.rnational Red Cross Coimittee that you are requesting the Sv/iss GovemiiiGnt to this coinnunication to the Japanese GrOveriinient, convoy to the Committee this Govemraent*s thanks for its efforts in connection with tho eppointnent of ei delegate in the Philippines, and ask it to furnish you for tron amiss ion to the Department Serial #13 Pages 31,32 DOCUl/M'iT 10-H — 2 — information regarciiug the preaont statu3 of the recu,-st vvhich tiiis GoveitLrnent understands it has  i: xide for J paiBse peimission to appoint a delegate in Hong Kong. f E H E S ACTH5G (BL) 740.G0115ム R.cific 7/ar/52 SD:BG:LDL ?ェ FE I W H A-L S.:. r rial #13 DOC'OT/EIW 10-ェ TELEGRAM SEMT PLAIN my 2 1 , 1 9 4 2 AS AHEEICiふT I£GATIOn, BERN (SVaiSiJdAIffi). HUSH 1314 ALEiaCMI INTERESTS - SHANGHAI. Your 2193, Fay 20, 5 p.ra. Department is pleased that Legation has expressed to Foreign Office appreciation for proupt action taken and desires you add this Government's thanks and its hope that Swiss Minister at Tokyo raay be able prevail迎on Japanese G-oveinmeiit promptly to give effect to its commitments under Geneva Convent ion and in addition to according proper treatment fulfill its obliga- tions under Article 86 to permit visits of Inspection by Swiss representatives. This G-ovenmient must insist on a basis of reciprocity that Japanese Government take all necessary steps to insure that military comruanders and other Japanese authorities in outlying areas under Japane se control understand Japanese Ooveiniiieiit T  s corniaitmeats respecting Geneva prisoners of war ConveirDion ana apply its provisions to prisoners of war and | , mmmM.- civilian internees, Swiss representative Shangliai should be requested to report by telegraph names of arrested civilians and. obtain assurances that all of tiiem will be included on first exchange vessel in accordance with, exchange agreexaent with Japanese Government• HULL (BL) SD••皿:OB A-I/B Serial #14 Pages 53, 34 DOCUMENT 10-J TELEGRAM SEOT? /4U MEM November 17,1942 Tiiis telegram must be paraphrased 9 p.m. before beiiig caMunicated to anyone other than a Govei^unental agency. (BR) AMEEICJ® LEGATION, BSKN. A-2567 There follows typical accounts of atrocities perpetrated by- Japanese. 1 1 . T w o nuns of liferist Catholic mission at Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, report that in August Japanese killed two Catholic sisters and two priests, Arthur Duhaiael, American, and another of Dutch nationality. Tlie priests were killed by bayonetting tlirough the throat after being held prisoner for three weeks• 2. Japanese refused request of Father Leo J. Peloquin, American, to be hospitalized at Heijo, Korea, for serious heart ailiaent and forced him to leave without inedical care though hospital and doctors available. Ho died at Kobe. His doctor states that his heart would havo yielded to treatment had it been permitted at H-ijo, I 3. Wife of repatriated official reports that an American woman at Cebu was raped by Japanese soldier in full view of husfcand and childreii who were held powerless by other soldi ers • 4. Repatriated responsible person states that two Belgian priests described to him scenes that they had witnessed in Philippine villages occupied by Japanese Array where Filipino women and girls we?:e being openly violated in streets by troops. 5» Repatriated 細 ericans have described in detail inhuman conditions existing in Gendarmerie prison known as Bridge House in Shanghai and kmy Prison in Peiping where they wore imprisoned. Serial 0 0 Pages 68-71 DOCUMENT 10-J* -2 Noveniber 17, 9 p . m” to Bern. State tliey were forced to sit in craiaped position on floor, without talking, throughout day in vennin-infested, unheated and over- crowded cells ; at night thoy stretclaed out on floor and were fortunate if they had a single thin blanket for covering; open bucket or hole in floor only sanitary facility in cell; their food was regular prison ration givciii ooriiiaon criminals and was far below standard necessary to maintain health. Oue 9  Mr, Powell, will "be peniiarient cripple in consequence of mis treatment received in Bridge House and Kiangwan Military Prison. DUG to extreise cold both his feet frozen and gangrene developed as result of lack of medical care, necessitating amputation front half both feet. W-en imprisoned in December he weighed 160 pounds but owing to malnutrition and condition of feet he weighed only 70 pounds v/ben released for repatriation in June, 6. Three American missionaries repatriated from Korea have furnished details of torture, inflicted upon each of them, ^ i o h Japanese called  w water cure". .‘s rnany as thirty gallons of water wore poured through opening at top of box ~hich fitted tightly over head and neck until victim became unconscious. Aftervrards victim beaten until he regained senses. Of these three Americans, all ever sixty years of age, one who suffered this torture six times collapsed during a beating and 池ile lying unconscious on floor was kicked by gendarrao with such force that rib was broken. ;Then he later reciuosted medical care gendarme struck him violent blow with fist in saLie place. His worst beating included fifty to sixty lashes ,;ith leather belting resulting in gashes on body half-inch deep. Details supplied by other tuo substantially the same. Witli regard to the authenticity of the accounts here recited, this Government has medical and physical evidence of the injuries suffered by Mr. Powell and the other accounts are based on reports received frctn persons v/liose good fait]a this Government has no reason to doubt. Serial p Q Pages 68-71 SBI) T x  / V DOCUMENT 10 — K PTAIN HEL December 12,1942 AMERICAN LEGATION, BEEN, 2814, Twelfth Request the Swiss Government to have its Minister in Tokyo coxoraiiiiicate the following to the Japanese Government: From American citizens repatriated from Japan and Japanese- con trolled territories, tlie Gov eminent of the United States has learned of instances of gross mistreatment suffered by American civilians and prisoners of war ill the power of the Japanese Government in violation of the undertaking of that Government to apply the provisions of the Geneva Prisoners of War Convention • — ‘ 1 一 - — 一- . — 丨.‘ of 1929 to American prisoners of war taken by Japanese forces and, in so far as they may be adaptable to civilians, to American civilain internees in Japan and Japanese-controlled territories, it is evident tliat the Japanese G-overnment has failed "to fulfill its undertaking in this regard and that sorne officers and agencies of that Government have violated the principles of the Geneva Convention in their treatment of certain American nationals not only by positive nistreatLient but by failure to piovide for these American nationals necessities of life th.^t should, in accordance \r;ith the provisions of the Convention, be furnished by the holding authorities. The Government of the United States therefore, lodges wi"cn the Japanese Government a most eraphatic protest and expects that tlie inhumane and uncivilized treatment accorded American nationals, both civilians and prisoners of war, will be uade a ioatter of iiimediate investigation and that the Japanese Government will give assurances that treatment inconsistent with the provisions and spirit of the Geneva Convention is not now Serial力,(38 Pages 86-99 • DOCUMENT 10-K -2 #2814:, December 12, to B7JH and v;ill not in the future bo inflicted upon Aiaerican nationals detained, internod, or held as prisoners of war in Japan or Japanese controlled territory. The Araericon Grovernraont also expects tho Japanese Government to take necessary disciplinary action with regard to agents or officers of that Government who have inflicted iaistroatniGnt upon American nationals or v±io have neglected their obligations to supply to i^nerican nationals in tlioir care the necessities of life, which the Geneva Convention provides shall be supplied. There follows a statement citing cases of raistreataient of iluierican nationals in Japanese hands : A Civilians Conditions in prisons and internmeiit camps• ijaoricans incarcerated in jails v/ore furnished unhealthful and inadequate rations of common criminals. Those interned were supplied a ueager diet for v/Mch they were sometimes compelled to pay, or they -jere given no food and had to provide their sustenance under difficulties. This situation apparently still exists in certain areas. It is in direct contrast to the treatrnent accorded J"Gpaii6SQ subjects in United States who are provided hygienic quarters ;7ith adequate space for individual needs, sufficiaat viiole- soine food, in preparation of nhioh allowance is made for national difforonces in taste, and in addition allowances of rooney or tobacco, sweets and toiletries, 1 . B r i d g e House. Shanghai. More than fifty-throe iliiicrioans have been impriscned for varying periods up to over six months in Gendarmerie prison, Bridge House, where they were crowded into vcriain-infested cells with coiaraon criminals, some of v/hom suffered from loathsome contagious diseases. Sanitary facilities were primitive and inadequate, food Serial #38 Pages 86-99 DOCUMENT 10-K: -5 #2814, December 12, to Bern. was far below standard necessary to m i n t a in Ilea 1th, no heat was supplied from Docember to June and medical care was virtually nonexistent. ; j n e r i c a n s vjotq compelled to sit by day and to sleep by night, provided only with filthy and inadequate blankets, oil cold floor. Tliey v/erc not alloned to converse with each other or smokG at any time. outstani ing exaraplo of effects incarceration this prison is condition J. B* Powell,池o tlirough lack medioal attont ion doveloped gangrene and lost front half of both feet. 2.i^nny Prison^. Poi;oing. Floyd F . SpieIman, E, E* ifcCann, C. J. Eskeline, J. B» Siieroood, £• Z« Mills and P . H» Benedict were taken in handcuffs from Tientsin- on Mircli11 to ム r m y Prison at Poiping, where c ondit iais were as bad as those at Bridge House. During 89 days imprisoniaent their first exercise was for five minutes aft or 37 days in cells. At one time they went without bathing for 23 days and as result of unhaalthful food and harsh treatmont thoy lost an average of forty pounds In weight• 5. Tsin^tao Frank G. Keefe, Grady Cooper, Frank R . Hailing, Charles Liebgold, C. J .施 y e r , N . H . Mills and H . J\ Zimmerman were ‘ confined in unlxoatod co碰on jail Tsingtao for period three weeks• They v;ero forced to sleep on floors or benches without covering in coldest winter months• Fort Santiago, 1/^rAla. Roy Bennett, Robert ^bbott, and other Americans are reported to be imprisoned under barbarous conditions in Fort Santiago. They were reported practically unrecognizable in June as result hardships and mistreatiiient suffered. T-is GoverriiDent insists that they be reloasod iniaediately ana recoive mo die al care. Serial #38 Pages 86-99 D0GU1ENT 10-K -4 #2814, December 12, to Bern. 5. (O^iip Stanley^ rt Stanley, Hongkong^ ‘Luericans Hongkong were taken on January 4th and received no food and very little v/ater during first foi'ty-eight hours. On January 21 thoy wore placed in Fort Stanley, where they wero forced to provide laost of their bedding and other necessitios. Food given them ims insufficiont, araounting to nine hundred calories dcily per person. Tliey were subjected to indignities and insults by gendarmerie, and their faces v'cre frequently slapped• P.esult ioalnutrition average loss v/eight among these iritGniGes was thirty pounds• 6» Santo Toinas._ Manila wintericaxis at Santo Toma^ because of lack of prepara- tion were forced to sleep on floors \;ithout mosquito nets or covering for at least three nights before they uerc permitted to obtain necessities from thoir houses, Tliey v/cre offered choice of boii}g fed by holding authorities at cost of twenty-five contavos per day or of feeding thomselves with, funds American Red Cross had in Philippine National Bank. They v;ere refused permission to use Red Cross funds for supploniQiiting food v/hich holding authorities should have supplied and not being able to exist on twonty-five centavos i^ero obliged to depend entirely oil Red Cross funds to feed themselves. Tiiose funds may be exhausted and this Govcminent is gravely concGriiod regarding the welfare of tiiese internees. 1 * Davao and other internment caia'os in the Philippines® In Davao interned Americans were forced to perform hard labor during first six weeks of intcrnLieiit. They wgib at first provided 'with an inadequate ration of cornmeal and fish# In April they were iiiforrded that tliey フ o u l d have to provide for their own sustenance and would have to reimburse Jepanese authorities f o r the food previously furnished. Serial #38 Pages 86-99 DOCUMENT 10 — K -5 #2814, December 12, to Bern From information recoived conditions other intornrnent camps in PhilippiriGS appear equally bad. The Ĵiiericaix Government expects that the Japanese Governraerxt will take inmediate steps to fulfill its undertaking to furnish Cleric an nationals held by it with suitable and adequate housing and sustenance under humane and Lygieaiic conditions. エ エ 。 M s t r e a t n e i x t and Torture. It Torture and physical violence. Japanese authoritios have resorted to physical torture of American nationals and nunercus of them were subjected to great nental torture by be ing constantly threatened viith treatniGnt far worse ttiaii that they were already suffering, (a) Tlireo ;j:ierican missionaries in Korea were subjected to if 7/ater cure 51  and brutal beatings. In Keijo, R. 0. Reiner, aged 一 -i— - fifty-niiie, suffered tiiis torture six times during period May 1 to I&iy 16. In one instance he collapsed from effect of blows and while lying unconscious on floor vras kicked by gendarmerie employee named Syo with such forcc that liis rib was broken. When he requested medical attention and pointed to broken rib gendarroerie employee named Kim struck him vicious blow directly over broken rib. On one occasion Reiner waa given fifty or sixty lashes with rubber hose and pulley belting making half inch doep cuts on his arms and legs, Edwin w« Koons, aged sixty-two, suffered some torture Eyuzan Police Station as did E. H . Miller, aged sixty nine,Yongsan police Station. (b) Ii'i Ichang, Elsie W. Riebe and Walt or P . Morse were taken v/ithout explanation to Japanese lie ad quarters where she was struck many "times with baijiboo pole and he was beaten for two hours ^ith. iron rod one-iialf inch tliiclc. These acts of cruelty uere comiitted in presence of oom.landing officer of Japanese police in Ichang. Serial力,(38 Pages 86-99 • DOCUMENT 10 -K ^ ^ I -6 #2814, December 12, to Bern (c) Joseph L.IfcSparren was arrested on December 8th at YokotLaioa, bound with a rope and taken to Yokohama prison. During liis iiiprisonment in dark unfurnished cell he had three hemorrhages from duodenal ulcers, but was denied Liedical attontiorx despite numerous requests. While undergoing questioning he collapsed from internal hGP-iorrliagG and was unable to stand or walk without assistance, yot ho was handcuffod as usual when returned to his cell. Miny /jaerican citizens woro kept in solitaiy conf inement for periods ranging from a feu days to rnany weeks in cells, un- heated rooms or othor equally unhoaltliful places, in soioo eases deprived of all reading matter, and subjected to indignities from tlieir guards. The following arc typical eases: 1 . H . W. Mayors^ aged 70, raissionary in Jcpan since 1897, after harsh trcatmont during nearly five noiiths in prison at Kobe, was deprived of all books, and on Ifcy 1 put in solitary confinaacnt at Osalca until his release for repatriation on June 7. 2. William Iv^ckesy, solitary confinemeiit in one room of his house at Tsu, Mie—ken, Japan, from December 10, to Mirch 3 0 , 1 9 4 2 . 3. Mrs. Alice C. Grube, solitary confinement from December 25 1941, to April 8 , 1 9 4 2 In unlie^ted room of Osaka prison. 4. J* B. Talnadge, aged 57, solitary confinement in common jail Koshu Decenbor 8 , 1 9 4 1 , to “pril 9 f  1942. 5. Edward “dams, in a comaon jail at Taikyu from December 8 to 28. エエエ Deaths due to Mistreattaent and Negloct: 1.Artjiur Dulaamel nissioncry iciest on Guadalcanal is reliab3.y reported to have beon bayoncttod through throat by Japanese soldiers aftor being held prisoner for three weeks• 2. Leo Peloquin, aged fifty, requested hospitalization Curistian hospital, Roijo, because of serious hoart ailucnt, but Serial將3 Pages 36-99 DOCUMENT 10 — K #2814:, D o c o m b c r 1 2 , bo Bcx-r;. Japauese ruthorit ies refused pemission and forced his rwvux*xi to Kangai v/ithout treatLient. He died at Kobe as result of tliis neglect. 3. Charles Liebgold, aged sixty-sovon, imprisoned in unhoated jail at Tsingtao contracted cold which developed into fatal attack of pneunonia• 4 . George B . J&Farland, aged seventy, Bangkok, Thai land  t succumbed after an operation at Chulalongkorn Hospital In Jfoy 1942. Orders issued by Japanese military authorities Bangkok to police guards at this residence fatally delayed emergency operation necessaiy to save his life• The ijnerican Government expects that the JapaiB se Govern- loeixt will take imediato steps to punish the persons guilty of theso crimes against ^jierican nationals. IV. Violation of Exchange 二greeraent: 1 . T r a n s port at ion • ajaerican nationals Tsingtao and Ciiofoo were required to pay for passage to Shanghai. laternees who were forcod to pay their fare to Yokohama frora Nagasaki were reimbursed only part of sum erpended, ^ccomodations provided oil local vessels rrere in sono cases v;orse than those furnislaed deck passengers. Baggage limitation and search Japanese authorities sorao aroas ruled tlmt Americans being" repatriated might take only as mucli as tliey could carry themselves, forcing many in Korea, Manchuria, Hongkong, and Thailand to leave behind necessary clothing and. effects• Americans wore forced in sorao cases to carry oxm baggage oven where there were available porters xihom tliey uere prevented fron employing. Tlx is troatmont is in contrast to that accorded Japanese subjects repatriated from the United States who were penaittod to take alnost unlinited amounts baggago v/'ith them. Serial力,(38 Pages 86-99 • DC'CU!腿 T 10-E -8 #2814, December 1943 i;o Bern was often searched three or four tines 2nd different officials m d e inconsistent decisions as to wliat Americans could take• Tlie effects of Ai'ierican officials from Korea v/er© searched in violation of the agreement• B. Piisoners of Jar• Reports have beeu received of iiiiiuioan treatnent accorded prisoners of war by the Japanese authorities wlxich is coriplately inconsistent with the provisions and spirit of the Geneva Conven- tion. I. Philippines: Ai-ierican and Filipino troops talrea at Bataan were forced to iiHrcii ninety miles despite fatigue, sickness and wounds, to ‘ , Camp 0  f Donnel near Tarlac. During march sick and wouiided dropped by the roadside and were left witiiout ^Bdical care and when those ;7I10 survived reached Car职 O'Donnel tliey were without food for •buirty-siji: liours a m without shelter for three days, sick and well equally erposed to the elaments. Japanese authorities roade no effort to give nedical care to sick ana wounded ancl Arnerican and Filipino nurses and doctors wlio TOluiiteered their services were refused permission to enter caiiip. Death rate estii.iEted at twenty-five ‘ 〜 • - - - ^ • ^ - “ — ” •一 ^ — " " percent was the result of this neglect• • ノ Seven American cornnis&iaiied officrears ?/ere brou^it from Zsiaboanga to Davao, mheve Japanese authorities forced tiia'a to work stripped to the v/aist in a river bed, as a result of which tliey were severely sunburned. Tiiey were given no xoeaica 1 atterition and only after lapse of several days was Filipino doctor permitted to visit them. Tiieir food was entirely insufficient, and Japanese w u l d not allow Filipinos to suppleuent meager diet with gifts of food. These officers and Filipino officers who were later confined with theia Serial ^58 Pages Sb-99 DOCUMENT 10 — K -9 #2814, December 12,- 1942 to B e m were subjected to harsh treatment and indignities from their Japanese guards. This GoverciLaent must insist that tlie treatment of these prisoners be In accordance with the provisions of the Geneva Convention, that their names be reported and that representatives of tiie Protecting Power be permitted access to them^ エ!:• Shangliai: Tnis G-oYermnent again most eiapl'iatically protests the illegal sentences imposed by a military court at Shangliai oil COLiijaiider S. Cunningliaiii, U.S.N., Lieutenant Coinniander D- D- Smith, USlffi., and Mr. N . J. Teeters for an atteiiipted escape from Woosuiig camp* This G-ovcmmeiit also protests the mis treatment of four United States Itorines, Corporals Stewart, Gerald Story, Briimner and Battles, who after an unsuccessful attempt to escape from the Woosuxig Yjcx prisoner camp wore imprisoned in tiB Bridge House at Shaiigliai and later transferred to gendanaerie Western District substation prison, 94 Jessefield Road, wliere they were subjected to tiie so-called ^electric treatiaent" in violation of the p3D vis ions of the G-eneva Convent ion regarding admis sable punisiuaents • Tiiis Governaent insists that the sentences irapcs ed on tiiese prisoners be canceled, that their puiiishmeiit be in accordance with tiie Prisoners of War Convention and that their treatraent be in accordance Tfitli tlieir rank. In presenting the foregoing textually to the Japanese GoveriXLient, it is requested the.t the Swiss Minister in Tokyo be asked to point out that the Airiericail Government has endbavored to fulfill in QYery respect its undertakings under its reciprocal agreer/ient with Japan to apply tlie principles of the Geneva Conven- tioii to prisoners of war and civilian internees and that in evidence of its desire to do so, it has welcomed anil continues to welcome the cooperation of t-ie Protecting Power for Japanese Serial力,(38 Pages 86-99 • DOCUMENT 10-K -10 #2814, December 12, to Born. interests, as v;ell as of the Inte:mai:io:ial Red Cross Coromittee, whose representatives are admitted to all places in American territory where Japanese subjects are held. Tiie Ifinister should further point out that tiiis Government Las always been and continues to be willing to investigate all complaints received by it from Japanese subjects held by it or from the Japanese Goveniment and. that it has welcowed and continues to welcome the cooperation of the Protecting Power for Japanese interests in such investigations. Aslc that in this coimection the Minister be authorized to request on behalf of the Swiss Government, as tiie Protecting Power for American interests in Japan and Japanese controlled territory, like cooperation from the Japanese Government. , HILL Serial #38 Pages 86-92 DOCUMENT 10-L TELEGRAM SOT? MAIN April 5 , 1 9 4 3 AMERICAN ISGATI01I. BERN. 889 Please request the Swiss Gov eminent to have its Minister at Tokyo deliver verbatim the following statement to the Japanese Government from the Govermaent of the United States • Tiie Gov eminent of the United States has received the reply of the Japanese Government conveyed under date of February 17, 1943, to the Swiss Minister at Tokyo to the inquiry made by the Minister oil behalf of the Governiiierit of the United States concern- ing the correctness of reports broadcast by Japanese radio stations that the Japanese authorities intended to try before military tribunals Araerican prisoners of war, for military • — 一 — • — * operations, and to impose upon them severe penalties including ren the death penalty, — — " " “ ” - ’ The Japanese Government states that it has tried the members of the crews of American planes who fell into Japanese ha M s after ttui raid on Japen on A p r i l 1 8 last, that they were sentenced to death and that, following comutat_ion^of the sentence for the larger nirnber of them, the sentence of death was applied to certain 一 . — 一 . — . of the accused. The Government of the United States lias subsecLuently been informed of the refusal of the Japanese Government to treat the reriiaining Aiaerican aviators as prisoners of war, to divulge their names, to state the sentences imposed upon them, or to permit visits ' to them by the Swiss Minister as representative of the protecting Power for American interests. Serial  7 f56 Pages 137-142 DOCUMENT 30-L -2 #889, April 5, to Berru Tlie Japanese Govurn^ent alleges that it he.s subjected the American aviators to this treatmoit because they intentionally bombed non-military installations and deliberately fired on civilians, and that the aviators admitted these acts. The Government of the United States informs the Japanese Government that instructions to Anerican aimed forces have always ordered those forces to direct their attacks upon militrry objectives., The Araerican forces participating in the attack on Japan had such instructions and it is known that t.hey d id not deviate thorefrora. Tlie Government of the United States brands as false the charce that American aviators intentionally have attacked non-combatants anywliere_ With regard to the allegation of tlie Japanese Government that the Aiaerican aviators admitted tiie acts of which the Japanese Govermaent accuses theiii, the re are numerous known instances in which. Japanese official agencies have employed brutal and bestial methods in extorting alleged confessions from persons in their jpoiver. It is customary for those agencies to use statoments obtained under torture, or alleged statements, in proceedings against the victims 0 If tho admissions alleged by tlie Japanese Government to have been rflLide "by the American aviators were in fact made, they could only have been extorted fabrications. Moreover, the Japanese Govornmeiit entered into a solemn obligation by agreexiBiit v/ith the Government of the United States to observe tjb.6 terms of tho Geneva Prisoners of War Convention# Article 1 of that Convention provides for treatment as prisoners of war of members of a m i e s and of persons capturod in tho course of military operations at sea or In the air. Article 60 provides that upon the Serial #56 Pages 137-142 DOOmEUH 10-L -3 #889, April 5, to Bern. opariing of a judicial proceeding directed against a prisoner of war, the representative of the protecting Power shall be given not ice there of at least throe weeks prior to the trial and of the names and charges against the prisoners who are to be tried. Article 61 provides that no prisoners raay be obliged to admit himself guilty of the act of which he is accused. Article 62 provides that the accused shall have the assistance of qualified counsel of his choice m d thrt a representative of the protecting power shall be pemiitted to attend the trie.l. Article 65 provides that sentence pronounced against tlie prisoners shall be coroiiiunicated to the protecting Powor limnedietely. Article 66 provides, in the event thr.t the death penalty is pronounced, that the details as to the nature and circumstances of tlie offense shall be comcaunicated to the protecting Power, for transmission to the Power in whose forces the prisoner served, and that the sentence shall not be executed before the expiration of a period cf at least three months after such coLimanicatiori.,The Japanese Government has not coiirpliGd with any of these p r o v i o n s of tlie Contention in its treatment of the captuxod Arnoi'ican aviators. Tho Govuniiiiont of the United States culis aこ;n_in upon tiio Japanese Govしrnment to carry out its agreement to observe the provisions of the Convention by coxnmunicating to the Swiss Minister at Tokyo the charges and sentences imposed upon the Araerican aviators by permitting the Swiss representative to visit those now held in prison, by restoring to those aviators the full rights to which they are entitled under the Prisoners of war Convontion, and by informing the Minister of tlie names and disposition or place of burial of tlio bodies of any of the aviators against whom sentence of death has been carried out. Serial #56 Pages 137-142 DOOT 腿 T 10-L -4 佘 8 8 9 , April 5, to Bern. If, as would appear from its cormn.unice.tion under reference. the Japanese GoveriUiiont has descended to such acts of barbarity aiid manifestations of depravity as to murder in cold blood uniformed members of tho American aimed forces made prisoners as an ln.cident of warfare, tlio American Govormnent uill hold per- sonally and officially responsible for those deliberate J> 3 I M crimes all of tho^e officers of the Japanese Government d̂io have participated in their conEnitment and v;ill in due course -- — — ‘ — — — •——— 11 -一 bring those officers to justice. The American Govemjiieiit elso solemnly w a m s the Japanese Governiaent that for any other violations of its undertakings as regards American prisoners of war or for any other acts of criiainal barbarity inflictod upon Azaerican prisoners in violation of tho rules of warfare accepted and practiced by civilized nations as military operations now in progress draw to their inexorable and inevitable conclusion, tho American Govornmunt will visit upon' — ^ ^ the officers of the Ja pa no so Govoiin-ien^ r espoixs ib le for such uncivilized and inhumrjie acto the punishment they deserve. IIULL Serial #5ら Pages 13〜142 DOCUMENT 10-M Department P IAIN US URGENT A M E R I C A N L E G A T I O N , BERN, 275, Twenty-s eventh• 厂 AMERICAN MTERESTS _ JAPAN T .ere are recited in the following numbered sections, tiie numbers of which correspond to tlie numbered charges in the Depart- ment  1 3 urgent telegram of even date, examples of some of the specific incidents upon which this Government bases the charges made by it against the Japanese Government in the telegram under reference. The specific incidents hav^e been selected from the numerous ones that have been reported from many reliable sources to this G'->veinraent. Ask the Swiss Government to forward this statement textually to its Minister in Tokyo w ith the request that he present it to the Japanese Government simultaneously with the telegram under reference and. that he call upon Hie Japanese C3overn- ment promptly to rectify all existing derelictions and take such further steps as will preclude their recurrence* The Minister should further seek for himself or his representa- tives permission^ ill accordance with Article 86 of the Convention, to visit such place without exception where American nationals are detained and request of the Japanese Government the amelioration of any improper conditions that he may find to exist, TIIQ Swiss Minister in Tokyo should be particularly asked to report promptly and fully all stops taken by the Japanese Governmont in confonaity with the foregoing. Charges I and II. Prisoner of war and civilian intornrnent camps in the Philippines, French Indochina, Thailand, Manchuria, Burma書 Serial #65 pages 180-194 DOCUMENT 10-. M - 2 - Ifelaya, and the Dutch East Indies, and prisoner of war camp no» 1 in Formosa liave never been visited by Swiss representatives although they have repeatedly requested permission to roako such visits. None of these camps except the one at Mukden are known to have been visited by International Red Cross representatives. In • ' ___ — — recent months visits have not been allowed to the prisoner of war camps near Tokyo ami: Yokohama, ani the prisoner of war camps in and near Hong Kong, although the Swiss representatives have requested peimission to Liake such visits. The value of such few visits as have boon permitted to some caiaps has been minimized by restrictions. Swiss representatives at Shanghai have been closely escorted by several representatives of the Japanese Consulate General at Shanghai during their visits to camps and have not been allowed to see all Darts of caiaps or to have free discussion with the inteniees. Similar situations prevail with respect to the civilian internment caiaps and prisoner of war car^s in metropolitan Japan and Fonnosa^ By contrast, all of the camps, stations and centers v;here Japanese nationals are held by the United States have been repeatedly visited and. fully Inspected by representatives of Spain and Sweden who have spoken at longth without witnesses 57ith the inmates, and xntornational Rod Cross representatives havo been and are being allowed freely to visit the camps in the United States and Hawaii whore Japanese nationals are held* Cixarge エエ1參 Consnunications addressed by the persons hold to the protecting Power concerning c end it ions of captivity in several of tho civilian canips near Shanghai, among them Ash Caiap and Cliapei, roiiiain undelivered• The samo situation exists with respect to the civilian internment carap in Baguio, and in most if not all of tho Serial #65, Pages 180-194 doculejt 10-M - 3 - camps where Aiaorican prisoners of war are hold. Persons held at Bagnio, Ctiefoo, Saigon, and at times in the Philippine prisoner of war camps were denied pormission to address the camp canuiandor• Charge IV• On one occasion during the summer of 1943 all of the persons held at the Columbia Country Club, Shanghai, wero punished by cancellation of dental appointments because complaints v/ere made to repros©ntatives of the Swiss Consulate General. During tho same period, at Camp B, Yangcliow, tho out ire camp was deprived of a meal by the Canip Commandant because complaints had been made concerning the delivery of spoiled food. There are cited under Section XVIII below, cases of prisoners of war being struck because they asked for food or water• Charge Y. Civilian internees at Hong Kong have gone without footwear and civilian internees at Kobe have suffered from lack of warm cloth ing. In 1942 and 1943, American and Filipino prisoners of war in the Philippines and civilian internees at Baguio were forced to labor without shoes and clad only in loin cloths. Charge V I . This is reported to- have been the case at the following camps: prisoner of wsr camps in the Philippine Islands, prisoner of war enclosures at Lferiveles Bay, Philippine Islands, civilian internment camps at Baguio, Canton, Chefoo, Peking, liinila, Tsingtao, Weihsien, and Yongcliow, and at the 八sh Camp, Chapei Camp, Lunghwa Cairp, and Pootxuig Camp, in or near Shanghai. The articles most needed toy tho prisoners and internees have been taken. For example, Japanese soldiers took the shoes from an American officer prisoner of war uho was forced to walk unshod from Bataan to San Fernacdo during the inarch which began about A p r i l 1 0 , 1 9 4 2 . Although the prisoners constantly suffered from lack of drinking water cantoens were taken from prisoners during this imrch; one of these victims was Lieutenant Colonel William B^ Byoss. Serial #65, Pages 180-194 DOCUMENT 10-M At Corregiaor a Japanese soldic-r was seen by Lieutenant Oocaiiander M3lvyn H.1ぬGoy VJith one arm covered frcm elbow to wrist and the other arm half covered with wrist watchcs takon from Araoricon and Filipino prisoners of TTar. 厂i VII. Aiaorican prisoners of i^ar in Ifenila were‘ forced by Japanese soldiers to allow therasclTes to be photographed operating captured American military equipment in connection with tho produc- tion of the Japanese propaganda filia "Rip down the Stars and Stripes. Prisoners of war from Gorregidor being taken to Itoiila were not la Died at the port of Manila but were unloaded outside the city and were forced to marcli through the entire city to Bilibid Prison about May 2 3 , 1 9 4 2 • Japanese school children, soldiers, and civilians have been admitted to internment camps and encouraged to satisfy curiosity regarding the persons held. Such tours were conducted at Baguio, g ICong and Tsingtao, Chaise Deficiency diseases such as beriberi, pellagra, scurvy, sprue, et cetera, are comaon throughout Japanese internment camps • These diseases are least comnon in the civilian int eminent caries (called assembly centers) at Shanghai and in some other camps where the persons held have but recently been taken into custody or where trade by the internees themselves with outside private suppliers is allowed. It appears therefore that the great prevalence of deficiency diseases in prisoner of war camps where in- ternees tiave been solely dependent upon the Japanese authorities for their food supply over an extended period is directly due to the callous failure of these authorities to utilize the possibilities for a health sustaining diet afforded by available local products• The responsibility for much of the suffering and many of the deaths Serial #65 pages 180-194 DOCUMENT 10-. M - 5 - from these diseases of A -erican and Filipino prisoners of war rests directly upon the Japanese autlioritios. As a specific exaiiple, prisoners of war at E.ivao Penal Colony suffering from grave vitamin deficiencies could see from their camp trees bearing citrus fruit that they were riot allowed to pluck• They were not oven allowed to retrieve leiaons seen floating by oil a stream that runs through the camp» Charge TX» For example, in the prisoner of war camps at Hong Kong, the profits of the canteens have not been used by the holding authorities for the benefit of the prisoners• Charge Z . At Baguio civilian internees have been forced to repair sawmill machinery without ronuneration. Officer prisoners of war have been compelled by Major Mida, the Gamp Coimandant at Davao Penal Colony, to p e r f o m all kinds of labor including menial tasks such as scrubbing floors, cleaning latrines used by Japanese troops and working in tlie kitchens of Japanese officers. Ciiarge XI. American engineers were required to go to Corregidor in July 1942 to assist in rebuild ing the military installations on that island, the prisoners of war have been worked in a machine tool shop in the arsenal at MUkderu Charge XII• The condition of health of prisoners of war in the Philippine Islands is deplorable. At San Fernando in April 1942, Aiaerican and Filipino prisoners were held in a barbed- wire enclosure so overcrowded that sleep and rest were impossible. So many of them wore sick ani so little care was given to the sick that iiuman excrement covered the whole area. Tlie cmclosure of San Fernando was more tlian 100 kilometers from Bataan and the abomnable treatment given to the prisoners there cannot be Serial #65, Pages 180-194 1丨::产 M - 6 - explained by battle conditions. The prisoners were forced to walk this distance in soven days under nerciloss driving. M m y who were unable to keep up vritti tho march were shot or bayoneted by the guards. During this journey as well as at other times when prisoners of war were inovod in tho Philippine Islands, they were assembled in the open sun even xvhen the detaining authorities could liave allowed them to assemble in the shade. American and t Filipino prisoners are known to liavo been buried alive along the roadsiae and persistent reports have been rDCeived of men who tried to rise from their graves but wore beaten down with " " snoVels ana bur1ea alive. At Caiap C'DOIUIGII conditions were so bad that 2,200 American and irjore than 20,000 Filipinos are reliably reported to have died in the first few iaonths of their detent ion. There is no doubt that a large nuniber of these deaths could have been p rev en tod had tlie Japanese authorities provided minimum medical care for the prisoners• Tho so-called hospital there was absolutely inadequate to meet the situation. Prisoners of we.r lay sick and naked oil the floor, receiving no attention and too sick to move from thoir own excrenent. The hospital was so overcrowded that Americans were laid on the ground outside in the heat of the blazing sun« TJie American doctors in the camp were given no medicine, and even had no viator to VTasii the huraaii waste from tho bodies of the patients. 跡entually, v.iien quinine was issued, there v/as only enough properly to ta r ce care of ten cases of rralaria, while thousands of prisoners 、 一 ; : : - were suffering from tho disease. Over two hundred out of three hundred prisoners from Canp O'Donnoll died while they wero on v;ork detail in Batangas# At Cabanatuan there was no raedicine for the treatment of malaria until after the prisoners has been in the cciap for five months # Serial ;/65 Pages 180-194 DOCUIvIiro 1。一:M Tlie first shipmont of medicines from tho Philippino Eed Cross uas held up by the camp authorities on tlie pretext that thoy must make an inventory of the shipment. This tlioy were so dilatory in doing that roaiiy deaths occurred before the medicine was released. Because of lack of medicines and food, scurvy broke out in the camp in the Fall of 1942. Sinco tho prisoners liad been at tho camp for sone months before this disease bccauie prevalent tho responsibility for it rests upon the detaining authorities. It is reported that in tho autumn of 1943 fifty per cent of the Araerican prisoners of war at Davao had a poor chance to live and that the detaining authorities had again cut ttLe prisoners food ration and liad withdraw all medical at tent ion. Though the medical care provided for civilian internees by the Japanese camp authorities appears to tiavo been better than that provided for prisoners of war, it still does not meet the obligations placed on tho holding authorities by their Goveriunent • s own free undertaking and by the lav/s of liuiaanity. At the civilian interrmient caiap Carap John Hay, cliildbirtli took place on the floor of a sLiall store room  0  At the sarno caiap a female internee who was insano and 池ose presence \ia3 a danger to the other internees vms not removed from the camp. A dentist wlio was interned at the camp was not permitted to bring his oim equipment. The Los Banos Carap v;as ostablished at a recognized endemic center of malaria, yet quinino was not provided, and the internees were not allowed to go outside of the fence to take anti-ioalarial measures. Th^ Japanese authorities have not provided sufficient medical care for the American civilians held, in camps in and near Slianghai and the internees liave themselves iic.d to pay for hospitalization and medical treatiiieiit • Deaths directly traceable to inedequcate care have occurred. Serial #65 Pages 180-194 DOCUMCKT 10-4] - 8 — Even in iaetropolitan Japan, the Japanese authorities have failed to provide medical treatioent for civilian internees, and it has boen necessary for Aiiiericans hcli at L^ r oshi, Yc~.makita 3 and Sumire to pay for tlieir own medical and dental care. Charge XIV. For example the internees at C m p John Hay were ニot ollojed to hold religious services during the first several months of the caiap's operation, and priests have not been allowed to minister to prisoners held by the Japanese in Fronch Indochina, Charge XV*. No copy of an E -glisli translation of tho text of the Geneva Prisoners of War CPnvoirfcion has beon available to civilian internees or prisoners of war nor have the Japanese authorities taken other steps to infoira the persons held of their rights under the tenns of tho Convention. R:/ports havo boen receivod of the J paneso authorities informing prisoners of war txiot they were captives having 110 rights under intornational law or treaty. Chcrge XVI• At Camp 0 T Donnell inany of tlie men had to live without shelter during 194S. In one case twenty throo officers were assigned to a shack, fourtoen by tvrenty feet in size。 Drinking water TTTS oxtremely scarce, it being necessary to stand in line six to ten hours to got a drink. Officers had no both for tho first thirty five days in tho camp and had but one gallon of water each, in irhicli to have tlieir first baths after that do lay • Tlio kitchen equipment consisted of cauldrons and a fifty five gallon drum. Caiaotes were cooked in the cauldrons, mashed viith a piece of timber, and each, man was served one spoonful as his rat ion • In late October 1S42, approxiroately 970 prisoners of war were transferred from tte l^nila area to tho Davao Penal Colony oil a transport vessel providing only twenty inches per men of Serial #65 Pages 180-194 DOCUMENT 10-jj - 9 - sleeping space. C o m it ions on the vossel were so bad that two deaths occurred, end subseciuently because of weakness soroe fifty percent of tho prisoners fell by the roadsido on tlio inarcli from the water front at Lasang, Davao to tLe penal Colony t The places used by tiio Japanese authorities for the intern- ment of American civilians in the Philippine Islands \;ore inadequate for the niiraber of porsoris interned. At tlie Brent School at Baguio, twenty to thirty civilians were assigned sleeping accoinraodations in a roora T^hicli had been intended for the use of one person. At the Columbia Country Club at Shanghai the internees were obliged to spend CRB $10,000 of their own funds to have a building deloused so that they might use it for a needed doiitiitary# At yifeihsien no (repeat no) refrigeration equipment uas furnished by the Japanese authorities and some of the few household refrigerators of the internees were talcen from them ond were used by the Japanese guards, with tho result that food spoiled during the swrner of 1943. Tlie lack of sanitary facilities is reported from all of these camps• Cliarge XVII. American personnel have suffered death and imprisonment for participation in military operations. Death and long-tona imprisoii'.,ieiit have be en imposed for attempts to escape for which the maximum penalty under the G-eneva Convention is thirty days arrest. Neither the American Government nor its protecting Power has been infoimed in the manner provided by the Convention of these eases or of many other instances when Amoricaiis were subjected to illegal punishment• Specific instances are cited under ttE next charge• Charge XVIエエ• Prisoners of war who were narched from Bataan to San Fernando in April 1942 wotq brutally treated by Japanese guards• The guards clubbed prisoners ^ho tried to get uater, end one prisoner \?as hit on the head with a club f or helping a fellow Serial #65 Pages 180-194 DOCUMENT 10-!! - 1 0 - prisoner who bad been knocked do^n by r. Japanese am^r truck. A colonel wlio pointed to a can of salnon by the s ido of the rood and asked for food for the prisoners was struck on tlio side of his lie ad xrith the can by a Japanese officer. Tiie colonel*s face v:es cut open, Anotlier colonel who had found a sympa tlie tic Filipino rrith a cart was iiorsewhipped in the face for trying to give transportation —“ to persons unable to walk:. At Lubao a Filipino who had been run — through ana gutted by tlie Japanese uas hung over a barbed-Triro t Colonel was killed by a Japanese as "lie broke ranks to get a drink at a streara« Jaj)anese sentries used rifle butts and bayonets indiscrinlnately in forcing ezliausted prisoners of war to keep novlng on the marcli froia the Cabanatuan reilroad stat ion to Caiap No• 2 in late May 1942. At Cabanatuan LiGirtenc.nt Colonels Lloyd Biggs and Hor,ard Breitung cind Lieutenant E, D. Gilbert, attempting to escape during Septombor 1942 x/ere severely beat oil about the legs and feet and then taken out of the ccinp e.nd tied to posts, were stripped and ivore kept tied up for two dcjrs. Their hands xieve tied behind their backs to tlie posts so tliat they could not sit Passing Filipinos were forced to "beat tliem in the face v/ith clubs. No food or water was given them. Aftor two days of tortur-o thoy were taken aviaj and, according to the statements of Japanese guards, thoy v;er6 killed; one of tlx em by docapitation. Otlior Araer icans v;ere similarly tortured anxi shot without trial at Cabanatuan in June or July 1942 because thqy Giideavorod to bring food into tlie carap. After being tied to a fence post inside the carap for two days thoy v/ere sliot« At Cabanatuan during the suinoior of 1942 tie following incidents occurred: A Japanese sentry beat a private so brutally Fitlx c. shovel across tlie back and the tiiigh tliat it was necessary to send, him to the hospital, another iinioricm was crippled for months after his Serial #65 Pages 180-194 DOCULEIFT 10-. U - 1 1 - anklo was struck by a stono thrown by a JapcnesG. Ono Japanese 、 sentry used the shaft of a golf club to beat ;jaer ic an p ris o n o j ^ and two .cOiiGricons, caught v/hile obtaining food frara Filipinos, were beaten uniaercifully on the faco and body. An officor nas struck bciiiiid the ear \?itli a riding crop by a Japanese interpreter. TIIG saiiio officer was again beatoii at Davao Penal Colony and is 110suffering fron partial paralysis of the left side as the result of these beatings. Enlisted men who attonptcd to escape v»rere boaten and pub to hard labor in chains. ム t tho Davao Ponal Colony, about A p r i l 1 , 1 9 4 3 , Sergeant McFee was shot and killed by a Japanese guard after c a t c M n g a canteen full of water T7h.icli had been throvjn to him by another prisoner on tho opposite side of a fence• Tlie Japanese authorities atteiapted to explain tiiis shooting as an effort to prevent escape. HQv/evor ?  the — guard shot the sfi-p^anf, imrorn I I mi. . 11n l'7 in !s adition, sHot ilLto~ the "barrack on the opposite side of the fonce toward the prisoner uho liad tiirovuii tlie canteen, ^t about tlie sarae tirae and ple.co an officer" — 一 ‘ — returning fron a uork detail triad to bring some sugarcane for tlie T " - 一 一 一 nen in tlae hospital. For this he xics tied to a stake for tuenty-four hours and severely beaten. In the internment caiap at Baguio a boy of sixteun was knocked do\m by a Japanese guard for talking to an internee girl, and ail elderly interneo was struck with a vjhip when he failed to rise rapidly from his chcir at the approach of a Japanese officer. I.£r. Gray died at Baguio oil I^irch 14,1942 after being beaten and given the water cure by police authorities. At Santo T o m s , Mr, IDrogstadt died in a militaiy prison after being corporally punished for liis attempted escape« H J L L Serial #65 Pages 180-194 jr> * D o c , N o , 1 0 - M I F I C A T E I , H-VT/ISHエ K A O n U , h e r e b y c e r t i f y tint I -r o f f i c i a l l y c o n n c c t c d w i t h the Jつ.oinGS..: G o v c r n r ~ n t ts Chic f of th' A r c h i v e s S r c t i o n , J i m n c s c Foreign Of ̂ ic - , -nd thnt -is such off j ci-^1 I h::vr custody of ナ . h : l e t t e r ぺ 乂 こ d 5 F- brr.?.T>y 1944- sent b y th<. Sv-iss M i n i s t e r to F o r e i g n :-‘!-i.nistrr Shigf.nt.su.; thマt th<- s二id l ' ttrr qi otcd nnd r' n r o d u c o d Chirgrs I to XVIII of the .〜ru.ric:飞n Governmont Note identified マs I°S Document. N o r  10-i-f, -rhich qvotiti on starts .f^pr tn.gr 13 of tho letter o.nd. ends on nig . 32 P ... /s/ K r . Koynshi 3^'gmturc of Official (SEAL) Cf ̂ ici CTI^ICI"'y Signed at TOKY" on this 2nd of D. cr> her, 1946 Witness; /s/ T. Sato St^t- rr^nt of Officべつ-1 °roour"n.-nt I, JOHN A. CURTIS, hereby crrti^y th^.t I ^ nssoci^.tcd •"'ith the General H c i d q u i r t - T S of th" Cunrrin' Cor-'-ind''r for th•: i]li「:d ôvfr.rs,ind that th.- ->.bov.: c^rtif-'.eition ワ.,.s obtained by rrc fror thr。.bov r  si^n'd officiil of t.h,— J^.tnnoso Gove rnn ;, nt. in th;: conduct of my official busin.'-ss, ^ignrd ?.t "okyo bn this .. /s/ Jr Curtis 2d c、y of Doc, ^brr, 194-6, Witness ; /s/ Niori T^lcr . I n v stiRitor I^S Official C ^ - c i t y V ノ /抄 DOCUI®IT 10-K H A顶 June 2 1 , 1 9 4 4 AlfiBGATIOH, BEHT. 2115, twenty-first A L E R I謹 H.TEEE3TS - JAPAN Rec L uest the Swiss Gov eminent to express to Oorgo the thaiilcs of the United States Government for having pointed out to the Japan:し‘se Government that Japan fs advorsaries naturally7" conclude from its porsistont refusal to p e m i t Swiss representa- tives to vis it camps in Japsncse-occupied territoiy that conditions prevailing in tiie unvisitod coiaps are not as they should be. The Govermx-nt of the United Stctos has noted with interest 31aigemitsu ? s statement that he is caadeavoring to bring about an improvement in the conditions undex which American nationals are held in Japan aiad Japanese-occupiod territories, end that tho quest ion of peiiiiitting visits to camps in oecupiod territories is boiiog given consideration. Noto has also been taken of Slxigeiaitsu^ charactorization of tiie role as o of reports of ttie negloct and cruel treatment of A f r i c a n s in Jopancse custody as aii atrocity canpciiga intended to discredit Japan. Tiic Oovoiniocnt of tlio Unitod States oiaphasizos, ond desires Gorgo so to irifom the- Japanese aoveramc-nt, the published reports to which Saigeiaitsu objects arc accounts of the sufferings of iiinoricaii nationals in camps in Japane so -oc c upiod "territories tiict caiiic into tiic xionds of A u r i c s n GovominGiit Qgoncies from reliable sources. To end the publiccition of such aecouiits Japan has only to rejjove tlie conditions giving rise to such accounts and permit 3v;iss roprosontatives so to iiifona the United States G o v e m m o n t . Serial #79 Pages 24.4-24-7 DOCTT7X7T 10-11 2- 2115, twenty-first, to Born. Tiie GovoiniTient of tiio United ^tc.tc3 is obliged to inform its citizens of tiie condition of its nationals in e n o w custody. T'iie continued refusals of tlio J:;.pcinese Govomment to permit visits by roprosentativos of the Protecting Power to cornjE in Japanosc-occupiGd torritorios leads returally to tlio conclusion that conditions in these areas c ont inuc to rem in ixnsQtisfaotory and such as to roake Japan ashaitied to have thooi observed by neutrals. In giving reality to its nuioorous professions of its iiitont い to app2y humanitarian cons idorations in its trertment of prisonors U of war END civilicn internGGS AND in lacking the iiaprovenionts pioiaisod by Shigonitsu, the Japaneso Govorniasnt has at its ccmmnd tho most effective method of removing the causes of unfavorable reports and thereby prevent lag the future publication of such, reports. V/lieii the Japnnose Government accords to ilmorican nationals the huiinnitaricji treati^ont it has proiaisod and when it permits rop re sent at ive s of tlie S^iss Govcroinont to visit all places where AlioRIcan nationals C.re held ??NO. to verify GIIC. confirra tliat thoir traatiiioit is in accordancc rd.th tho promises of the Japanese Govonuaerit, tho Unitod States G-ovemnent will be in a position to rcassuro tlio relatives frifaiids of jlnrican nationals lie Id by Japan with reg'.rd. to their ociidition and. troatiaont• Tho United St .tos GoYe::iiiient continues to hope that tlie J-.p-neso Govorrinieiit will bo persuaded without further do Icy to enable the Swiss reprGSontratives to visit all detainod nationals of tho United Str.tos wherever detained. There v/ould seam to bo no reason why tlio J,,pane so Gororniocnt should not percnit such visits xyith- out prejudice; to the juridical position ta^en by Japan on tho quostion of roprosanttion of onoiny Interests• Soe Departerrtfs 2050, Juno 14• HJLL Serial #79 Pages 244-247 DOCUMENT 10 -P PLAIN S E P T . 1 1 , 1 9 4 4 AMLEGATION, BERN. US  T JRGEI、7T 3133 AMERICAN HJTEEESTS 一 PHILIBPHsCES, Request Swiss Govemnient to coiarauiiicato following ioessage to Gorge to be delivered textually to the Japanese Governraent: The Government of the United States has received from reliable sources that certain Ainerican civilian internees in the Philippine Islands have been removed from the Los Banos Caiqp to Fort IvfcKinley where a major aiaiaunition dump for central Luzon is roaiixtained* As Article 9 of tlie Geneva prisoners of W?‘r Convent ion providos that no prisoner roay, at any time, b© sent into a region where he raight bo exposed to the fire of the combat zone, nor used to give protection from bombardment to certain points or certain regions by his presence, the action taken by the Japanese authorities constitutes a flagrant violation of the obligation uxidertaken by it to apply to civilian internees in so far as they are adaptable, the provisions of the Geneva Convention and of 1X3 coiomitriieiit at all tiiaes to accord protection and humane treat- ment to the Aiaerican nationals in its c us tody • Tlie United States C>overniaeiit expects that the Japanese Government will at once remove the American nationals at Fort McXinlcy to a region far enou^i from military Installations for than, to be out of danger, and that the Japanese Government will exercise overy care to forestall a repetition of the viol:tion of the laws of war In exposing civilian internees or prisoners of "ar to bombardment by housing them in areas in the vicinity of military objectives. H J H Serial #86 Pages 26^-265 ノグ/ノ D0CU1.SWT I C S Departraent PIAHI AMLSG^TION, BEEN, 102 ‘ m m i 、 AMERICAN INTEHESTS - JAPAN Request Swiss Government to caminunicate the following textually to the Japanese G-overnmont : QPOTE American prisoners of war who survived the sinking oil September 7 , 1 9 4 4 , of a Japanese freighter oil which they were being transported off the coast of Mindanao, Philippine Islands, have m d o coiiprehensive reports to the United States Grovevnment of the conditions under which American prisoners were held in the Philippines. These reports further corroborate the reports made earlier that the treatment accorded to prisoners of war in the Philippines has been consistently cruel and intiuiiiaiie • In the present instance, the United States Qoverniaeiit protests vigorously with regard to the conditions of captivity under which 650 prisoners were lield at the Lasang Air Field and ttie abuses to which tliey were systematically subjected. The United States Government charges that tlie Japanese authorities have violated the Japanese Governiiient T s coim.iitroent to apply to prisoners of war the provisions of tlie Geneva Prisoners of War Convontion, and to observe the basic principles of the Hague Convention: ( 1 ) 6 5 0 Araerican prisoners of war were compelled to work on the Lasang Air Field, a known military installatloru (2) Officer prisoners were forced to perform labor aid non- cciiimissionecl officers were compelled to perform labor other than of a supervisory nature. (3) Officer prisoners were forced to perfoim rienial and degrading ta3ks. In an effort to humiliate them they were forced to wash the clothes of the enlisted :aen. (4) Corporal punishment of utmost severity was inflicted upon the slightest provocation. Upon .ne occasion Lieutenant Eosica forced prisoners to kneel for a long period with their Serial #108 Pages 326-329 • D o c u m m IO-S - 2 - shinbones on the sharp edge of railroad tracks in such a position that most of the weight of their bodies was carried by their shinbones• Afterwards, the man. were coiopelled to run bare-footed on sharp coral gravel for several kilometers. On other occasions, individual prisoners returned to camp covered with blood as a result of having been beaten and kicked by Lieutenant Eosimoto. (5) The prisoners were forced to subsist on v^tarvation rations, Food fui'nished to the prisoners was neither equal in quantity or quality to that given Japanese soldiers. Half tlie vogotable issue was usually delivered spoiled and unfit for human consumption, toat and. fish were rarely furnishod. At times a carabao wa3 butciiered, but only the head and ribs were supplied to the 650 prisoners, the meat being retained by the 200 Japanese guards. (6) The latrines provided for the prisoners of war defied all established rules of sanitation. As the original placement of the latrines behind the prisoners' barracks proved offensive to the Japanese officers, the latrines were moved to a position close to and between the prisoners T  barracks wliere they polluted the wells f rora which the prisoners  r  drinking water was drawn. (7) Prisoners were deprived of their shoes. On m r c h 2 , 1 9 4 4 , new shoes were issued to tho prisoners from Red Gross supplies furnished by this Government;. On or about April 8 , 1 9 4 4 , the Japanese authorities coiapelled tlie prisoners to surrender their shoes ana did not return them imtil August 2 0 , 1 9 4 4 . Although the ineii repeatedly requested that their shoes be returned or thnt at least sandals be issued, their requests were ignored with the rosuit that their feet became severely lacerated from the sharp coral on which they were forced to work. Serial #108 Pages 326-329 The abusive, cruel, and inhumane treatment which has characterized the administration of prisoner of war camps in the Philippines is affirrnod unanimously by prisoners who havo osoaped from those cornps^ The United States Govornment demands that, in fulfillioent of the obligations assumed by the Japanese GoYGrnment ;7ith regard to Americano taken prisoner of 孤 r by Japan, thut Gov c m - merrt take steps effectively to prevont the continuation in all Japanese prisoner of war cainps of tho inhunmnc practices that have disgraced Japcn in its ediainistration of prisoner of war camps in the Philippines. UKQUOTE GEEW Acting Serial #108 Pages 326-329 /们 DQO)lE7r 10-T ” T 'IN April 6 , 1 9 4 5 BERK. 1371,-Sixth AMERIC ‘ ぶ IIITSRESTS - PIIILIEPBIES. Request Swiss Goverment to coLununic^te tho follov/ing message to G-orgo to be do live rod toxtually to the Jcparx SG Government : QUOTE Tlie Unitod Statos GOYGimient has received evidence of tlie rauraor by the Japanese autliorities of four Araerican citizens, Carroll Calkins G r i n n e l l , ^ If rod Francis Duggleby, Ernect ©nil Johnson, and Clifford. I/iuronce Larsen, civilian iiitemees in Santo Toinas Intemment CaiTp, Manil?、. Mr. Grinnell was tlie spokGsnan of the Santo Tonias IntermaGiit Carip. Tliose four .jiorican nntionalc vrere arrested and iriprisonod uitliin the Santo Toinas internnont Camp by the Japaneso Military FolicG oil DoceLfber 2 3 , 1 9 4 4 • Ho informtion wr.s ever given to the caiap authorities t.ith respect to tho cliorgos for r/hich those mon Trere hold, Uc. Johnson rras relived fron the carap on or about Decemtor 2 4 , 1 2 4 4 . Lfcssrs. Grinuoll,Buggleby aid Larsen 订ere reniDVod from tiie caiiip on January 5 , 1 9 4 5 • Oil Decombor 3 1 , 1 9 4 4 , Ifr. Johnson v;as coon at the Military Police Station at ttie c o m e r of Corbabitarto <and « ; • • tobini Streets. The other three men irere never again seen alive. Their bodies together •、了ith ten unidentified corpses v/orc found buried in a field no or tlio lie ad quart ers of the Jcpaiiese Militciry Polico. Tlie fourteen bodies were r/irod together in groups of a few oach, “ nediccil examination of the bodies determined ttat death, had occurred on or about January 1 5 , 1 9 4 5 . In viovi of the fact that tho Japanese G-ovenuiunt undertook to apply tho provisions of the Geneva Prisoners of W^r Convention to civilian internees in so far as those provisions are adaptable, the nurder of those ょjaerican citizens constitutes a flagrant violation of Serial #111, lagos 333-334:. wommn 10 - T - 2 #1371 tlio obligations undertaken by tho J^poiiose GovenniGnt• Tlio United States Oovermaent demands thnt the unuarrr.ntod and despotic action of tlie Japanese author it ies coiic ornod be ii^iediately investigated, tliv.t those て:iio ordoroa and comittod the acts herein reported shall be brought to full account for tiieir crines, and tliat tho fludin辟 of tlie investigation and the date of tlie puniahiaeiitG shall be scut to tlais' Governrntnt # T^e United States Goverxment further denands that tlio Japanese Govoraraont shall take all steps necGSsary to prevent in any territory under Japanese control a repotition of such barbarous and arbitrary deeds uliich cro in utter disregard of the Jup^oiioso Gov eminent  ! s cornnitneixt to apply tho Imnanitari^ji standards of tlie Geneva Prisoners of War Convention to interned xjaorican nationals iii its custody. iiCHESON,ム。TIITG Serial #11-1 Pages 333-334 DCOUIvM' 10-4J PL1IN M y 19,1945 AMEEG“TIOK, HERN 1857, Hineteentli iJCHICi^I 327IEEEST3 - .LJP.JJ P.lease request Swiss Legation to transmit following textually to Japanese Gavemmont: QUOTE Tlie United States Government charges tte J panese Govermaent v/ith the i;aiitoii murder of George J. Louis at the Los Banos Internment Carap, Philippine Islands, on January 2 8 , 1 9 4 5 e Mr. Louis, liaviag left the cai^ to purchase food rzas shot, but not (repeat not) fatally, at 6:55 a®m# on January 28 as he TTUS returning to cornp. An appeal by internees to remove Mr、Louis to the Camp Hospital was denied by tho Japanese authori七ies* At 7jl0 a.m., three internees were sunmonod to tho office of Iぬjor Iwanska, the Canp Coraiiaridant, and informod by him thct Mr. Louis' execution rnust be completed, since he iiad ordered that tho guards shoot SUBQUOTE until they kill EKD SUB^UOTS any person violating tho can?) boundaries, A Committee of iaternees interceded with the Carr̂ ) Goxnraandairb to stay the execution of Mr. Louis but the Comnnndant was adamant c Louis, still alivo, r/as carried "by guards on ail improvised stretclier to a clunp of benboo outside the cairjp grounds and shot through the head • The United States Govermaent most vigorously protests the arbitrary action of Mijor Iwonska in carrying out the execution of Mr. Louis as being in dircct violation of Articles 47, 50, 51, 52 a m 60 throueh 67 of ttie Geneva Prisoners of War Convention and a repudiation of tho humanitarian standards yhicli the Japanese Govern- ment has professed it is maintaining in its treatiiBiit of American nationals in its custody. Serial #117 Pages 347-348 DQQtJM^T 10-U Serial #117 Pagos 347-348 -2 #1857, I,fey 19,1945, Born, In the early da如 it night be conceivable that the gucrd could not disccrn that lir. Louis vrcs returning to tho camp snd that tlio giard fired tho first sliot believing he ma pre- vent ing a possible cacape. There is no justification, towever, for tlie sumaory and cold-blooded execution of Mr, Louis an hour Biid a half later. The United States Govormnent deraands tliat Ifcjor Iwanska be brought to full account for tliis crime and. expects tliat the Japanese Govemiaent will notify it of the punishuent inflicted upon. him« I3KQU0TE GREW (Acting) DOCUMENI; 10-V PIAIt'J m y 19,1945 AMLEGATION, ^ J A  v  fjJ\: \ 腿 i. i ) \ [' HI fir 〈ダメ设 1856 AMESICAiJ n-ITEHESTS - ;TAPAH Please request Swiss to transmit verbatim to Japanese QUOTE: Tlie brutal massacre on December 14,1944 of one hundred and f i f o f war at go^rfo^princesi Govemment following message: Palawan, Philippine Islands, by the personnel of the Ogawa Tai Construction Corps has profoundly sliocked the Government and the people of the United States. At; noon of that day the prisoners wlio had been details •to work on a nearby were recalled to caiiip. Following upon a series of air raid &lanu» Japanese guards forced the prisoners into air raid shelters witlii•“ 十]^  C £ i a p coia"Dound. The shelters were tunnels some seventy-five feet lo ムじ openings at each end. About two o'clock in the afternoon f fifty to sixty Japanese guards armed with rifles ana machine gurxS and carrying buckets of gasoline and lighted torches, approached the shelters. Tliey emptied the gasoline into the openings of the tunnels and hurled tlie blazing torches after it. Violent explosions followed. Tiio victims, enveloped in flaiaes and screaming in agony, swarmed from the shelters only to be mowed aown by Machine guns or attacked with bayonets. Four officers 池o had sougjit shelter elsewhere suffered a similar fate. One of them, emorgiiig in flarnes from his retreat, approached a J-panese officer and pled that the carnage be stopped. He wavSsnithlessly shot down. In order to insure that Serial #118 Pages 349-351 DOCUMENT 1C-V 2 - no living priponors renained in the shelters, the guards fired the tunnels with dyxiaraite charges. A : :out forty prisoners succeeded in escaping from the con- pouiid "by tiM-ov/iiiG themselves over a fifty-feet clil'f onto the beach bolow. Lauding barges patrolling tli© bay and sentries on 'che shore fired upon thom. Many roocning in agony, were buried alive by their captors. One, who had roached the v^ter and struck out to soa, was recaptured and brought back to land where Japanese soldiers, prodding him with, bayonets, forced hiia to walic along tho beach. A Japanese guard poured gcsoline upon • ‘ the priじoilers foot しnd set fire to it,ェ{pioriiiG his entreaties that he be sliot the Japanese iberatcly set fire to liis other foot ar.d to both ills hands. Tliey mocked and derided hin in liis sul"fering aud theu bayonetted hiia until he collapsed. Thereupon they poured gatsoline ovor his body and wutclied the i'laiiies devour ib* Such b(.j*baric behaviour oil the part of the Japanese armed forces is an offense to all civilizcd people. The Japanese Goverrment cannot esc are responsibility for this crime, Tio United States G-ovemmGL.t cle^ncls tlxe,t appropriate pun is i-o te inflicted on all tho so wh.0 diroctea or participated :a\ it. It expects to receive from tlie Japanese Gov err. men t notification that such pimislimeiit lias boon inflicted. The United States Govemmoiit further dernands that tLe Japanese Govomiiient take such, action as nay be necessary to forestall the repetition of offenses of so ho incus a nature ancl assure the United States Govermieiit that such outrages will not again be inflicted upon Anerican prisoners of war in Japanese custody. GHEW (Acting) Serial #118 Pages 349-351 DOCUIMVT 10-W PLAIN • Julie 8 , 1 2 4 5 AliLE'^TLCr 3 歴 1992, Eighth Roq.uest Gorge to deliver the following message textua!3.y to tlie Japanese G-overiuncnt and "to i n f o m tlie Departixnt of the date of its dolivery: QUOTE The United Str.tos G-ovGmment has bocn reliably iiiforiood tli;t tho civilian interncos in t3ae Shanghai civilian Assoxobly Centers are iq. gravo danger of strnation. It is reported tliat the J"cp.raiese Govornnoiit lias •で:rom the beginning cf tho year steadily docroasod the food deliveries to tlio con tors. It is :x ported tlie intornoGS rcooive one inoal daily consisting of approximately one ounce of ho at, occasionally substituted by fish or powdercd eggs, tliroo to four ouncos Ox VuCGt:i"blc, one mec 5  imn-size potato, one suall beot and tv/olvo ounces of black broad. T: e iritcmcies receivo neither tea or other bover-.ges nor any other food, product's than those above ment ionod« TJic failure c£ tho Japanese; Govomment to .furnish thu intGrnees v;itii sufficient food ce*ruiot be r.ttribntod to food sir rtagos sinco tho supplica of foodstuffs ccntioiled by the Japoneso authorities In oiaanghai rei^iii plant if u l . T h o J^.paiieso Govc-miaert, it is so inclined, could ariTnge to deliver foodstuffs in tlio amounts- requirod and without delay , Urgent re pre s enta t io ns have resulted in.no i-:nproYcmor.ts by tho local J pane so authorities who openly aoiiiit tiio inadoquacy of th:j credits laade available by the J -oaiiGsc Govemmont for provisioning tlie coinps • T-:e J"- paiiusc GoTemiiiiont entered into a soleinii obligrticn by agrGGiaent with the Govomment of tho United States to observe tho huiaane stcaidarus of tho Geneva Conv out ion in the troatiaent of /孤 Serial #126 P: gas 365-367 \it t cnn x. DOOJi価 T 10-W froid -2 1992, June 8 to B。m ‘ civilian intoraces c.î l prisoners of war in its custody. Ey its refusal to p o m i t tho repatriation of iUaoricon nationals it has further obligated itself to safeguard than frora storvation and T '.Q Govcmmeiit of the Uriited States calls again upon tlie Japan3sc Govomment to carry out its agreement to observe tho liuracjie standards of tiie Geneva Convent ion and to give effect to its xmny public and soleion declcrations to the nations and peoples of the r;orld thct it is accordii]g huioano treatiaent to tloe civilian internees aud Prisoners of v;ar in its custody. Tlie United States Government damands that the Japanese Governineiit v/ithout delay put forth exceptional efforts to remedy the grave food situation in tho civilian assoably centers at Siiangiiai and in any othor civilian or prisoner of 7/ar ccmps vrliere these conditions raay prevail, at present unknown to this Govorrinoiit. Tiie United States Govcmraont d e m n d s the Japanese G o v e r n n t f s 3q丄emn assurance thct this has boen done* Sliould the Japanese Govoniiient continue to deprive civilian internees and prisoners of v;ar in its custody of tho food necossnry to safegtiard them from starvation and liBintain them in health, tho United Statos Governiijent hereby solemnly declcres that it will liold personally ana officially responsible for this crime all of the officials of the Japanese GoveraiQDiit, regardless of position - • — 1 * " ~ 1 1 or status, ^lio Iiot© partioipcited tl^erein either through neglect or froia wilful intoiit ond will in due course bring them to judgmont. It solemnly declares that it will visit upon all such individuals _ ' • “ ‘ the punisliment viiich is their due» UNQUOTE doath # GREW (Acting) Serial #126 Pages 365-367 DOCUMENT 1 W PLi'ilN July 3 1 , 1 9 4 5 -JCSGLi.TIOIT, BERN. 2432, Thirty-first. Request Svri3s to inform Jap Govt as follows: QUOTE As of July 4 , 1 9 4 5 , Japanese civilian interxioos held in thG United I States receirefi daily 4.831 pounds of food representing 4100 c Glories. Tlio food 3 arc as follows, giving first tho xro ight in pound3 and second tho caloric content. / a n l&iats & Fish .4425 442.00 Eggs .10725 64.00 T.'ILlk & CllGOSG .56744 302.00 I/£irgariac .036 1211.00 Fats, othor .05625 230,00 Sugars .2255 351.00 Cereals 1.234 1888.00 Lcguxaus .044 73.00 Vegetablos .548 55.00 Toinatoos .05104 5.00 Citrus fruits •18 36,00 Potatoes .70 350.00 Vegetables, other .33526 67.00 Fruits, other .147 44.00 Fruits, dried .045 72.00 Beverages .069 _ Miscellaneous .04317 a * The Japanese Govemraeiit v;ill observe that the foregoing diet is well balanced. Japanese! pows hold in tlie US as of m y 3 , 1 9 4 5 , wero receiving similarly balanced diets. Typicel daily menus for pars aro as follows: Breakfast: Stowed fruit, •;:iiecvb ccroal, milk, ono egg, broad, m r g a r i n o , coffee. Dinner: Fish, rice, vegetable, vegetable salad breafl. Supper: Soup, raoat, macaroni, potatoaa, bread, tea. Breakfast: Froah fruit, haruiny grits, milk, bread, margarine, coffee. Dinner; Jfcrt, rico, vegetable, vegetcble salad, bread. Supper: Soup, soy beans, potatoes, vegutcble, bread, tea. Serial #134 Pages 380-583 DOCUMENT 10-X - 2 - The US Govt is be coiling increasingly concemcd about tlio food wliict tlio Japcjiese Govt provides for iu-iorican pows and civilian internees in Japanese occupied torritoiy as well as in Japan proper。 Reports road ill the US indicate that at Liany canpa tlio food situation is deteriorating. Tho condition of /jicrican nationals liberated from Japcnsse iLiprisoniiont in the pj.!.ilippine Islands uas such that tho US Govt kno\:s tlict its concern for tho liealtlx of American nationals Iiold by the Jr.pnneso is not (repeat not) unfounded. The US Govt lias from the earliest days of tho m r been con- cerned because of tho deleterious ei*feet of Japanese diet upon ^jaerican nationals unaccustoiaed to oriental foods. It has folt not only thrt oriental foods riight be difficult for .jiorican nationals to bo cone acc us toned to but also tluit the nutritive value of the food would be less than that to x/liich tlie /jiiericans V?ere QCCUStoned. The food supplied ijaerican pows a id inteiiiees has been a subject of continuous representations by the US Govt (See Dept f s 2934, Aug 2 5 , 1 9 4 4 and Depths 1992, Jan. 8 , 1 9 4 5 ) . The Japanese Govt lias not (repect not) taken adequate stops to furnish adequate food for ijjiericons in its hands. Since the beginning of the uar tiie American authorities in contrast to tlie Japanese authorities, have supplied food to Japanese civilic.n internees caid prisoners of uar v;liicli \/c.s not only- sufficient In quantity but TOS in accordance V:ith tlie national tastes of tlie prisoners Gild i n t e m o G S , To the knoulodge of the Uixitod States Government no complaiirts have been m d o about the food given to Japanese nationals held by the Anerican authorities Tlie recent action of the Jcp Govt in stopping all financial assistanco for ijiiorican nationals in prisoner of war aid civilian Serial #134 Pages 380-383 DGCTC側 T 10-X - 3 - interneo camps operated by tlie Japanese (your 3393, July 2), indicates that the Japanese Govcrriiient フill not (repeat not) porrait tlie US Govt to use the only nethod r/hich. has thus far been open to it to provide 3UstoiicTice on a regular basis for A jLiericans held by tho Japanese. Unless the Japanese Govornineiit p e m i t s neutral representatives to purchase relief supplies for the use of ijnerican nationals or uiiloss tlie Japanese Goverinnarxt supports prisoners of and civilian intornoes in accordance with, its obligations, tiie United States Govcmnent can only assuiic tlict the Jap Govt sanctions tlie starvation of ^jncrican pov;s and civilian intenioes in its custody. Tlie US Govt expects the Jap Govt pro:aptly to give assurances tixat Anericans in its hands will bo protected fron starvation. Tiie US Govt also expccts the Japanese Govonuuont to indicate tlie steps w M c h it proposes to tako to as sure thct ijiiericans in its hands vill not stervo# The US Govt GLipliasizes to tlio Jap Govt the seriousness \7nic3i it viov;s reports that ijiericans in Japanese hands are on starvation rations. The US Govt docle,red that the Jap Govt and its officers v/ill not "be able to avoid responsibility for the starvation of .jnoricans in Japanese custody • UIIQJJOTE, に 厂 GREW (-.CTHIG) MMMt 740.00115 P.W./7-645 Serial #134 Pages 380-383 Doc, Noc 28.^2 Page 1 BBC Jan 一 24,1^44 17s00 U. S. GCY3HW17NT: ISStFiS Rて.,:つ0Ro ON JAPANESE AT-OCITY The United States Army and Navy authorities have issued an official report on Japanese atrocity on American and Filipino prisoners at Bataan and Corregidor in the Philippines. The renort is based on sv/orn staterents by American officers who escaped from. Japanese orison camps P He says that rrany Americans have died .from starvation, forced labor and general brutality. At one ca^p about 2,300 Americans died in April and Ila}/ of 194-2, In another 4,000 Americans died by October 1942 r  After the surrender o士 Bataan in 1 9 4 2 , I n d in what is described as the March of Death American nrisoners were strapped, and beaten iro as they inarched in the sun withor't food or water。 Doc, N o, 2 8 8 2 .Page '2 V/ASHI?JG10N; DISCLOSES JX? \?IESE ATROCITY BECAUSE HELIE.F NOT PER:: FITTED m D ^ J a n f . 29,194-4 1 8 : 0 0 ^^Y/nlte House Secretary Stephen Early made the disclosure today that the jaT)an5bh Ouve丄1 11t""will not permit the United States Government to send food, raterial aid, or sunplies to United States and Fil.iToino soldiers now Japan's prisoners of war 0 This, said Early, is the reason the United States government last night authorized the rmblications of accounts cf Japanese atrocities against prisoners of war c He said this inf ornat ion has been known for some tiirie by this government, but it had been withheld while there was any hone of transmitting relief to the prisoners in Japan's hands r Early said, "The tiir.e has come for releasing the factual reports which have been carefully investigated and authenticated because we cannot expect to get further relief to our prisoners of war now in the hands of the Jananese P " DoCc NOo 2 8 8 2 Page 3 SAN ? M N C I S C O KWID Jan. 2 9 , 1 9 4 4 7;CO PRISONERS OF WAR: JAPANESE ILL-TREAT PRISOMERS OF WAR The Secretary of State, Mr P  Cordell Hull,released a statement of the treatment of prisoners of war In Japanese hands A great many of them died of starvation on two Japanese prison carps in October of 194-2 r  We wrote the statement by Secretary of State e "According to the renorts of cruelty and inhumanity it v7ould be n e c e s s a r y to s皿pen the representatives of all the demons available anywhere and combine the fiendishness with all that is (bloody) in order to describe the conduct of those who inflicted these unthr.nk'able (atrocities) on the Americans and Filipinos r " The escaned American officers in their statement indicated several instances of JaDanese a t r o c i t i e s T h e y S3id that the Japanese forces sometimes ^antonly murdered thousands of Arericsn and Filipino soldiers captured in Bataan and Corregidor in the Philippines,. They stated that at least 5,20C American soldiers died n o s t l y of starvation at two prison carps in October 194-2„ 36,000 American and Filipino soldiers have been captured in those carraigns said Colonel White, forroer Domestic Director of the Office, of War Inforrration っ.nd. that most of the prisoners have been murdered ^ K I S O ^ R S OF WAR: ED3N REPORTS TO H0US3 OF COi' ONS ON PRISONERS OF W4R In London, British Foreign Secretary, Anthony Eden, told the House of Commons, that some thousands of British, Chinese, Burmese and Indian war prisoners and internees also have died in. Japanese Drison canos, He said that s-oecific atrocities have been told by escapees Eden said that British protests have drawn unsatis- factory results fror- Janan^ He said that the Japanese were violating not only International Law but all human, decent civilized conduct r  He warned the Japanese govern- ment that in time to come the record of their military ' atrocities in this,"ar will not be forgotteru Doc, No,2882 .Page '4 KWID Jan, 2 9 , 1 9 4 4 8:00 JAPANESE ATROCITIES: DESCRIPTION GIVEN Here are sone of them, factually based TOon the •oersonal experiences and observations of t.ho th-oee escaped officers r Prisoners recrced in weight fror. 2C0 TDotmd.s to •ooimds in soire cnses^ Sone of them found with J-̂ p-•?nese money or souvenirs on their persons were beheaded or bayonet.ted- A few Ar. arican and Filipino men were buried 弓live。 Numerous prisoners were beaten, wト A i dつ a n d shot •when t h e y berimed for f o o d a n d w a t e r r ilany were forced to strip naked for hours in the hot sun, any cf them were forced on long marches withcmt food or water ラnd made to do labor when they were not 'ohysically n .ble to do S0o Some bodies cf the soldiers were run over by Japanese trucks r HULL: i.UGS S I U N T ON JAPANESE ATP.OCIT'Y TO ? l i l S O m i l S Secretary of State Corde3.1 Hull made the following formal statement? "According to the reports of cruelty and inhumanity, it will be necessary to siDnron to asserble together all the 一 一 available frora any here and combine the fiend?.shness which all of the.w embody in order to describe the conduct of those who inflicted those -unthinkalDle tortures on Americans and 'Filipinos,." 'iTr ニ?nil s:?.ic" that repeated protests have been lodged with Tokyo but. to no apparent avail,. He said that it is not known what haonened to the food anc 1  sunplies previously sent to the prisoners aboard the liner, "Crinsliolis.c" He said that efforts, nonetheless, will be continued to obtain release o? war prisoners r He said this government is assembling all possible facts concerning Jat)^nese treatment of v;ar prisoners, and it i n t e n d s to seek full nunishrnent of the reponsible Japanese authorities,. Doc r  No- 2882 -age 5 Oct, 2 3 , 1 9 4 4 . : n 11 J^MIM. Army JMews Service MAC^RT^UR'S GHQ, October 2 2 P — G e n e r a l MacArthur issued a earning to the Japanese military leaders that as comn-ander-in-chief of the "irerican invasion forces, he will hold the enemy leaders immediately responsible for any failure to accord prisoners and internees -ororjer treatment- MacArthur addressed bis warning to the Japanese Field Marshal,Count Terauchi, who is comrnander-ir-chief of the Ja^anese military forces in the ?hiliDnines r The General said, the surrender of the United States and PhilinDines forces in nrevious campaigns was made with the belief that they would rece,'ve the dignity and honor and protect"' on of military prisoners as provided by the rules and custons of .war^ Since then unim'oeachable evidence has been received of the degradation and even brutality to v/hich these prisoners have been subjected in violation of the rost sacred code of martial honor„ D o c , N o, 2 8 8 2 .Page '6 C E R T I F I C A T E i • ii i i • _ m tm-mm m^mm mmmw • • ^mm mmm エ.’ Seishiro OGyw'A, hereby certify that I was c f f i c h l l y connected with the Japanese Government in the following capacity: Acting Chief ..of Fourth^ Se.ctipn of Research B u r e a u from N o v e m b e r 30.,194つ,;that during the war enemy radio station broadcasts were regularly recorded ,'.n the Japanese Foreign Office; that transcripts were regularly made of those recordings and the transcripts distribu ted regularly to all sections of the Foreign O f f i c e a n d also to the B o a r d of I n f o r r a t i o n , t h e Navy Ministry and the War Ministry; that transcriDts of those recordings have been on file with our office. /s/ Seishiro Ô jjAra Signature of Official SEAL Acting Chief of Fourth Section of Research Bureaii from Noverber 11°42 to June .1943 Official Ca-0 9.city E R T I 5 I C A T E wmmm mmmrn' mmmm m • • MHH* i I I I mmmm ^mmm I, Yasuhiko NARA. hereby certify that I an officially connected with the Japanese Governrsnt in my car)acity as Secretary in the Public Relations Office of the P^oreign Office; that tne five docuirents hereto attached are trans- cripts of recordings of enemy rad -1 'o broadcasts regarding treatment of allied pr 1 * sorters of war recorded, durinf?; the period from January 2 4 , 1 9 4 4 to Decerber 1 Q , 1 9 4 4 , which are described, as follows ; Del) BBC Jan- 24,1944,17:00 - U„3 r  Government: Issues Reoort on Jaoanese Atrocity T3p2) Sari Francisco KWID Jan. 29,1944, 7:00 Prisoners of Var; Japanese Ill-treat prisoners of war 〜3) KKID, Jsru 2〇,8:00 Japanese Atrocities: Description C-iven p,4) KWID, Jane 2 9 , 1 9 4 4 18:00, Washington: Discloses Japanese itrocity becar,se relief not permitted. 5) Oct, 23,lQ44 r  JlacArthur' s Earning. /s/ Yapuhiko Nara Signature of Official SEAL Secretary in the °ublic Rela- • ti oris Office of the Foreign Office Official Canacity F i t n e s s : /s/ Hideki 1-Iaki DOCUMENT 2782 9 Until what time did you hold that office? Until July of 1945. I, SUZUKI, Tadakatsu, make oath and say as follows: State your name, age, and residence. SUZUKI, Tadakatsu, 51 years of age, residing at Yokohama. Q During your incumbency were you familiar with American notes protesting against mistreatments of American prisoners of war and civilians in the Philippines which were coursed through the Swiss Legation? A. Yes. Q Throughout your incumbency what was the practice of your office once those protests were received? A The notes were received either in French or English and were translated into Japanese. A copy of the note with its Japanese translation was sometimes addressed to the Minister of War^ the Vice Minister of War, the Military Affairs Bureau, or the Prisoner of War Information Bureau, depending on the Importance and also the contents of the note. Nevertheless we furnished copies, together with their translations, to the other sections concerned of the ?Jar Ministry (the Vice Minister of War, the Chief of the Military Affairs Bureau» and the Chief of the Prisoner of War Information Bureau). In sending those notes, together with their translation^ we accompanied them with a covering note which was either a simple note in itself, or accompanied by our own comments or recommendations. Q Please examine these U . S. State Department notes marked as IPS Documents 10-B through 10-X, inclusive (excepting 10-0), and tell us if they have been received by the Foreign Office Japan through the intervention of the Swiss Legation. A. Yes, they were received by the Foreign Office in the routine procedure of forwarding them to the different departments of our government. /s/ T. Suzuki in SUZUKI, Tadakatsu Sworn and subscribed to before the •undersigned officer by the above-named SUZUKI, Tadakatsu, at the War Ministry Building, Tokyo, Japan, this JJth day of November, 1946. Witness : /s/ Eric W . Fleisher ERIC I FLEISHER — 2nd Lt. A.U.S., M.I, /s/ Richard H . Larsh RICHARD H . IARSH Q When war broke out what position did you hold with the government of Japan* 5 k I was Minister Plenipotentiary in Egypt since 1940. I came home to Japan on an exchange ship in August of 1942 and in December of 1942 I was made chief of the Foreign National Section of the Foreign Office. INTERNATIONAL MILITARY TRIBUNAL FOR THE 蘭 EAST THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, et - A G A I N S T - ARAKI, SAJDAO, et al. a l ) ) ) ) ) A F F I D A V I T Q A Q A レぇ"f / T - v ^ t , . ^ r H へ y ^ 6 . •: 、 へ 一 餐 s / y 七 デ レ仏,、 . } P 0 ' wしへ、. ) ド 化 \ J^r^r ^O^^^y •• 7 yyt^su ^ .io i p で : , … t A ’ 叫   • ‘ - - . I o ノ Z Docuemtn No. 1469D ^ 逢!̂  ^ ^ ^ K Page 1 The Gaimusho Tokyo 29 tlanuary 1942 Translation lio. 22/T3 To the Minister: Following my letter of 20th inst., No. 11/T3, I have the honour to inform Your Excellency of the viev/s of the Imperial Government on the treatment of prisoners of vrar: ( 1 ) J a p a n strictly observes the Geneva Convention of July 27,1929 relative to the Red Cross, as a signatory of that Convention. ⑵ The Imperial G-overmnent has not yet ratified the Convention relating to treatment of prisoners of "war of 27 July 1929. It is therefore not bound by the said Convention. Never- theless it will apply mutatis mutandis the provisions of that Convention to American prisoners of war in its power. I would "be ooliged to Your Excellency if you would forward the aoove to the Government of the United States of America. (L.S.) Minister of Foreign Affairs Document Ho. 1469B Page 1 The Gaimusho Tokyo 13 February 1942 Translation Ho. 46?t3 K.le Minist-re: Following my letter No。32/T3 of 29th Janiia.ry last, I have the honour to send to Your Excellency the following communication on the subject of the treatment of civilian internee3: The Imperial Government v/ill apply for the duration of the war "under condition of reciprocity the provisions cf the Convention relative to treatment of prisoners of v/ar of 27 July 1929 to enemy civilian internees, insofar as they are applics,ble and provided that they are not mads to work without their concent. American civilians now held in Japan (including territories overseas) number 134. They are enjoying more favourable conditions than those prescri"bed "by the a"bove-mentioned Convention. Hot only are they supplied "by the Imperial Government with provisions such as "bread, "butter, eggs, meat, heavy oil for heat ing. coal, etc., "but also they are allowed to receive from outside donations of food and clothing. They are specially held in a place near the residences of their families under some irxConvenience to the Imperial G-overnment as far as surveillance is concerned, so that their families may easily see them. As far as the health of the internees is concerned, they are examined from time to time by specially engaged doctors* Those who are sick can summon an outside doctor to examine them and in serious cases nay enter a civil hospital。 They are allowed to read papers and "books and to li sten to the radio "by sets placed at their disposal and to go out under cerisain restrictions if they have any good reason therefor. Asking you kindly to inform the Government of the United States ofAmerica, (LoS,) Minister of foreign Affairs Document 5Fo. 1469-A-P Page 2 S X H E I T A Document フo- Descriiotioii 1469-P Cor>y of letter dated 27 LecemDer 1941 from the S,•’iss liinibter to Shigenori TOGO, foreign Minister. 1469-3 Letter dated January 1942 from the Japanese inistrv of -'oreign Affairs to the Swiss ..inister (ilo.11/T3). Letter dated 29 January 1942 from the •Jp-opnese inister of foreign Affairs to the Swiss .:inister (Ho. 22/T3). 1469«C Copy of letter dated 20 fetruary 1942 from the Swiss minister to Ghigenori TOGO, Japanese .'oreign i.inister • 1463^5 Letter dat^d 13 February 1942 from Jat)anese Ministr t y of foreign Affairs to the Swiss Minister (iJo. 46/T3). 1469-A Letter dated 2 パarch 1942 Ministry of foreign Affair inister (iTo- 7l/T3). from the s to the J?-oanese •^wiss C E E T I P I ^ A T S I^P-S. H 1.169-A-? Statement of Source grd Authenticity I, _ Zs-i^^J^o.ss.i , here"bv certify that I an officially con- nected with the C-oTernment of Switzerland in the following capacity: 旦w丄s旦 Diplomatic_E^p£e£ent&_tl.Te_ 一 ,and as such officialエ have custody cf the documents, consisting of six letters and notes, as listed on •nodiiDi七 A attached hereto and described as follows: —Tニue copy of and no^es_ injuremh -int_er ^fwi_tzerIstiid addressed i 0 —t赵e—旦n至s旦 Minis_try_cf i1。reign Affairs, and t_he original replies— ^he^re.to. of__the_Jar.ane.se, kinis.try^of Foreign Affair^ acdressed to the Mi互i互七®o主 Ŝ wĵ t.z e r l a n d — _ — . エ further certify that the attached letters a.nd notes are official records of the Swiss Legation in Japan and that they are a part of the official archives and files thereof. 一 I ^ J ,し 3os,si_ __ Signed at Tokyo on this Signature of Official 5th day of Decem'ber,194S> roloiratic Eeioresentatire Official Capacity Witness:旦/一 MSLX — Siiatement of Official?rocureme-nt エ , — 一 S i i 殳 互 • 一 な eis^ez 一’ hereb” cert if--.that エ am associ- ated witli the General  ; eadquarters of the Supreme Co^unander for the Allied Powers, and "bhat the atoye certification was obtained "by me from the alDOTe signed official of the Swiss .ご-over nnent in the conduct cf my oijicial "business• Signed at Tok^o cn this Iri.c__ ム ̂ lei^h^r^nd Lt^AUSill NA1G 5th da; • of^De^cemfeeii, 1346. InTest?,.g:a ; >or IPS W i t n e s s J , Curtis _ Official Capacity )ネル Document Ho. 1469B Page 1 Tokio, 20 J e t r w v 1942 E.3. 7.1. 一 ce 0 M . l e Kinistre, J  Referring to ycur letter of 29 * J-j.n-j.ary, No. /T3, in which Your Excellency 5.nfoi-med me that the Imperial G-ovemment would apply mutatis mutandis to American prisoners of war the Geneva Convention of 27 July 1929, on the treatment of prisoners of war, I have the honour to "bring the following matter to Your Excellency's notice: The Government of the United States of M e r i c a has been informed that the Japanese Government had agreed as far the treatment to "be accorded to British prisoners of war to take into consideration as to food, and clothing, the national and racial customs of the prisoners. The Government of the United States of America has requested my Government to "bring to the notice of the Japanese Government that it will"b© "bound "by the same principle for prisoners of war as for Japanese civil internees in conformity with Articles 11 and 12 of tke Geneva Convention. It expects in consequence that the Imperial G-overnment will eqiaally conform to the above-mentioned provisions of the treatment of American prisoners of v/ar and civilian internee ブ I shall "be grateful to Your Excellency for keeping me ..、.informed of the views of your Government in this respect. SWISS MINISTER To H^E.K. Shigenori TOGO Minister for Foreign Affairs Tokyo Docioment Ho, 1469-A-P DociMent '"o. 1469-P 1469-3 1469-D 1469-C 146 1469- A .'Page 2 ZXHISIT _ A DeBcrliption CoToy of letter dated 27 Lecember 1941 from the S,.dss :dnister to Shigenori TOOO, foreign Minister, Letter dated January 1942 from the Japanese inistr^ of -oreign Affairs to the Swiss .inister (So. ll/T3). Letter dated 29 January 1942 from the Ja^pnese inister of Foreign Affairs to the Swiss .inister (No, 22/T3). Copy oi letter dated 2C よ1etruary 1942 from the Swiss minister to Ghigencri TOGO  t Japanese .oreign minister (EE.7.1.-ce). Letter dat^d 13 ?e"bruary 1942 from Japanese Ministry of foreign Affair s  to the Swiss Minister (i\To. 46/T3). Lf.tter dated 2 ふ:arch 1942 from the J>"oanese ministry of Jcreign Affairs to the Swiss ;-inister (No. 7 l / T 3 ) . Fo.1:69-A-マ Statement cf Scurce ard Authenticity I, _ o_ss_i , here"bv certify that エ an officially con- nected wi^h. the G-oTernmen-b of Switzerland in tlie following capacity: bvdss, £i^lc_iLatic^Hep^e^erxt^t— , and as sucla official I nave custody of the accuments, consisting of six letters and notes, as listed on ibxinoit A attached herefco and dosoribed as follcwrバ True copj nf _ lejtters, and nole_s inj^xe^fh a n i r o.f_Swrbzerland addressed to_the_Japane.se Mini^trjVL.of lor-Ig.x ^ f f a ^ ; ani ih? ^ r j ^ l r a l ^ r ^ i e s ih且r至t殳 £f t h e _ _ J a s M i n i s t r y _ _ o f ?orojlgn Aff&i_rfl_ ac'dre.ssed w。 the 。至 Switzerland. — — — . I further certify that the attached letters and notes are official records of the Swiss Legation in Japan and that they are a part of the ciiicial archives and files thereof• 一 Signed at Tokyo on this 5th day of Secem'ber,1945• J 3 i 3 P.e-oresent?tire #  し:!:丄cia丄 CaTD̂ Gi'cy W i t n e s s :」 — Max — Statement of Official Procuremen-'G エ,一2nd—L主•一殳互•一ゴ丄s互ej: hpre"b” cer し:Lf、T that I am associ- at ed with the General ead quart ers of the Su-oreme Commander for the Allied Fowe re, and that the atove certification was obtained by me from the aboTe signed oxiicial of the Svdss .-oYer iment in the cohduct cf my official "business• Signed at 一 _J'ok^c on this /s/ るr!c」上 IleiEher^nd Lt>AUSiiI UA1G ,5th da: ofJDecem^er,, 1946• . . • ' I • • • _ • " • - “ — — 一 • - — - — — — • • • — — • 1 II _ V M , l^itness:_/sy_ &uj:ti_s Official Capacity /sj 7ニ Bps-it — Signauuxe of Official Document Ho. 1469B Page 1 The &aimusho 2 March 1942 Tokyo Translation Ho. 71/T3 To the Minister: I have the honour to acknov:ledge receipt of your Excellency ? s letter of 20 ?eTmiary last, N o 。 7 。 1 。 一 ce, in which you informed me of the vie^s of the Government of the United. States on the treatment of prisoner。、of war and. civil internees. I desire to inform your Excellency that the Imperial Government intends to taks into consideration, 'with regard to provisions and clothing to "be distri"buted, the national and racial customs of American v;ar prisoners and civilian internees placed under Japanese power© Asking you. to kindly inform the American Government of the United States of Atne3"ica of the above, I am, yours truly, Minister of Foreign Affairs o cument ITo.146 9-A—P SociiiQent "o* 1469-? 1び 3-D 1469-C 1463-E ?a ざ e 2 ZDCHEIT A Descri-otion Co^y of letter dated 27 - ecemlDer 1941 from the Sッiss -.inister to Shigenori TOGO, /oreign minister. Letter dated 2° January 1942 from the Japanese inistrv of ^ oreign Affairs to the Swiss rdnister (lie. 11/T3), Letter dated 29 January 1942 from the J?•orneBe inister of xoreign Affairs to the Swiss minister (No. 22/T3). Copy of letter dated 2C Fetroff-ry 1342 from the Cv/iss "inister to Ghigencri ? C G O , Japanese -oreign ..inister (E3.7.1.-ce). Letter dat^d 13 ?ecruary 1942 from Japanese Hinistry of foreign Affairs to the Swiss Minister (iTc. 46/T3). 1469-A Letter datr-4 2 “arch 134^ from the Japanese Ministry of i^crei^n Affai: s to "the Swiss .inister (iTc. 7l/T3)^ C E S T I ^ I C A‘T B I-P.S. 1•;69-A-? cStatement of Scurce arc 1 . Authenticity 11 —ll^it旦rJB^s旦i , here"bv certify "bĥ .t I an officially coih- nected with -ohe G-oTernment of Switzerland in the following capacity: S^vdss — , and as such, officialエ have custody cf the dccaments, consisting of six letters and notes, as listed on ^xhioit A attached hereto and described as follows: True copy of— letters, and nojfees, jji—へこeぶ:h fy.-Jinis_t,er w i e r ' ^ a n l addressed to_the_J^anese l o r - l ^ 4び Aレ i ^P-l1:せ ̂ r i ^ a ^ r ^ I i e s ihe.re^o. the_Jaoane.s,e Hinis.try^of £oroigii Affai_rs_ ac dressed to bhe S_witzerland. __ I further certify that the attached letters and notes are official records of the Swiss Legation in Japan and thalj they are a. part of the official archives and files thereof• _/sJ マニ Bcs'-ii 一 — Signed a七 Tokyo on this Signauuxe of Official 5t.h day of Decemlper,134c. jDwi^s^Dji^ioniati^ Z.eiDresentptiTe Oflic-ia'i Ca^aoicy Witness :一/旦/— Max B。Ton otatei'ient of Official °rocu?eme-n'o I ii-^leisher here*b^ cer しif” that エ am associ- ated with the General -eadq;ュヒr七ers of the ouoreme Commander for the Allied Fowery, and that the atoye certification was ottained bj me from the ato^re signed official of the Swiss C-over nnent in the conduct cf m̂ * official "businecs* Signed at 一 on this /s/ Iri,c_ 上 I t » A u ' S i I I 腿 E 5th da; of^Deceintsr,1946. IPS _ W i t n e s s ! I , — A 三 2iirl-is Official Capacity Docament i T o» 847-1) ノ Em"bassv of the Argentine HeiDublic ? okyr, o January 1942 M . l e i-iinistre, , Carrying out tlie instructions received from my G-overnment I haTe the hcrxor to i n f o m Your Excellency tiiat the G-oTrernments of G-reat Britain and the DoiLinions of Canada, Australia and î Few Zealand state that tliey will observe towards Japan the terms of the Iirfcernatioiial Coirrentiori on the treatment of t)riscners cf war signed at G-enera on 2?th -July, 1929. At the same time, mv G-oTerninent has instructed me to ask, through. Your Excellency, if the Imperial GrOTerninent of Ja"つan is •prepared to make a similar declaration. In than 1ぐing lour 3xcellency in advance for your kind attention to this letter, I "beg ycu to accent, M , l e ..linistre, the renewed assurances of ny highest esteem. /s/ Srasto 24. Villa. His Excellency f  レ、Shigenori -0G-0 Minister f^r foreign Affairs Tv.D.C.I'o. I.P^S. Fo. 847-D Statement of Source and Authenticity I, EAYASHI K a o m , hereby certify that I am officially connected with, the Jaoanese G-oveminent in 七lie following capacity: Chief of the Arc'dves Section, Ja.oanese ? o r Q i g n Office • and that as such official I liave custody of the document hereto attached consisting of 1 T>age, elated 3 January> 1942, and described e.s followss Copy of letter in Japanese from Argentine Charge d 1 Affairs in Tokyo to foreign Minister TOGO in regard to treatment of Prisoner of War, エ fiirther certify that the attached record and document is an official document of the Japanese Gover rment  #  and that it is part of the official archives and files of the following named ministry or department (speci- fying also the file number of citation! if any* or any dther, official designation of the regular location of the document in the archives or files)i jPot-eign Ministry Signed at Tokyo on this /s/ HAYASHI Signature of Official 7th day of Hovem'ber.1946. SEAL Witness: /s/ フggahara Odo Chief of Archives Section Official C a m e it y Statement of Official Procurement I, __Hichard H , Lareh , herety certify that I am associated with the General Headquarters of the S^upreme Commander for the Allied Powers, and. "bhat the a"bove certification was obtained "by me from the above signed official of the Ja.-oanese G-ov ernment in the conduct of my official "business • Signed at Tokyo on this /s / Hi chard H,Le.rsh 一 _ l<3th day o f j o v e m b e r ^ 1946. M M E '•ittiess: /s/ Edward P>Monoghan Investigator, IPS Official Capacity JJociv>ent ITo. 547 — S 丄 Srabassy of the Argentine luてpublic Tokyo 5 Janupry 1942 M . l e ..mistre, As an addition to my note of the 3rd Instant, in which I had t:トe honor to inform Your Excellency of the proposal cf the &overnments of G-reat Britain, Canada, Australia and -Tew Zeala.nd to obserre towards Ja'oen the terms of the Int;ernetional CcnTention on the treatment of -orisonors of war signed at Grne^ra cn July, 1929 1  I hare the honor to "bring to the knowledge of .our - : xcellencv th3.t the British G-overnnent -orcDoses that, in the aorjlication of Articles 11 and 1 o f the said Ccirren七ion, relative to the pro- vision of food and clothing to prisoners of "both "Darbies, it will consider the national and racial customs of the prisonrrs. In thanking Your Excellency in advance for your kind atteiiticn to this letter, I beg マon to accent,i.•丄,le -.inistre, the renewed assurances of my highest esteem. His Zxcellency h %  Shigenori rりGO ilinister for J'orc-ign Affairs , Tokyo. C E E T I P I C A U W.D-C* Ho. I.P.S. llo. 847-E • Statement of So-urce and Authenticity; I, Odo Na.^ahairu , hereTey certify thet I am officially con- nected with the Japanese G-ove^rnment in the following capacity: Assistant Chief of the Archive日 Sectinn, Japanese Foreign Office and 七hat as such official I have custody of the docuunent hereto attache:' consisting ’f 1 vage, dated 5 January, 1942, and. described as follows: Letter in French fr^m Argentine Charge d ! Affaire in Tokyo to Foreign Minister TOGO cLgited 5 Jamiarマ1942, I further certify that the attached record and document is an official document cf the Japanese Oovernment, and that it is part of the official archives and files of the. fnllovdng named ministry or departmeirb (siDeci— fying also the file number or citation, if any t  or an e y other official designation of the regular location of the document in the archives or files:) foreign Ministry Signed at Tokyo on this Is/ STagaharu Odo Signature of Official 8th day of Fovemter., 1946* SEAL Ass^t* Chief, Archives Section Witness: /s/ S. Koyama Official Capacity S弋element of Official Procurement I, Eichard H. Larsh • hereby certify that I am assooiatrd with the General HeadquaTlers of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, and that the s.tove certification was obtained, 'by mo from the a"bove signed official of the Japanese Government in the conduct of my official "business. Signed at Tokyo on this /s/ Richard H. Larsh MME 8th of i、Toマ.,1946. Investigp.tor, IPS Official Capacity Witness:」sゾ Edwa.rd P^Monoghan Document 2To«. 1465-C Page 1 !• The C-cvor mon : z he s net rai ifiel the agveevaiit 丄し聊丨“パャ”.and therefore it would not "be "boui-vj. to any extent "by the said agree- ment  s  "but wou丄apjp'.Ly mutatis mutandis the provisions of the said a^'eenien!; towai'd the British, Canadian  r  Ausurar.ian and STew Zealand prisoners of war under Japanese control. The Imperial Government v/ould consider the national and racial manners and customs under reciprocal conditions when sur>piyi:ag c丄ofchin芍 and provisions to prisoners of war. I should oe grateful if you would "bring the foregoing to the kaopledge of the Gover nnents of Great Britain^ Canada, Australia and Sew Zealand. ? l e a s e accept, Mr. Chargi d f  Affaires  f  the re- peated assurance of my highest regards. letter of the inform ycu of the七ぴ压七!!̂!!七 19th of this the マi.‘.3WG of of prisoners following "ap month P  I have the honor the imperial G-overriment of war: / Signature of Minister / HonoralDle Charg& Affaires: 29 J anuary 1942 ' - • / も / Doc. K o . 1 4 6 5 — C Statement of Source and Authenticity I, K . Hayashi hereby certify that I am officially connected with the Japanese O o v e m i r t in thn f o l l o v d ^ capacity: Chief of the Archive Section Foreign Office and that as such, official I have custody of the document hereto attached consisting of :!. pa^;es, dated 29 January 1942 ana described as follows; Copy of latter in Prench from Japanese Foreign Minister to Argentine Chr.rge d r  Affair a-.? dated January 2 S , 1 9 4 2 , in regard to treatment of priscners cf .wa.、 I further certify thr.t the attached i-^corcl and document is an official document of the Jr.paneso Government., ai:.d •じha七 it is part of the official archives and files of the following r a m i !r.inisfcry or depa.rtment (speci- fying also the file number or cior„ti^n, if any, or any other official designation of the regalex locr.tion of -he document in the archives or files) i The Ministry of foreign Affairs Signed at Tokyo on tliis K , Hayashl day of Sept.,1946 Signature of Official SEAL Chief of Archives Section _ Witness: /s/ Nagabara Odo Official Capacity Statement of Official Procurenent I, John Curtis, hereby certify ths/fc I an c.3sociated with the General Headquarters of the Supreme Commrnler for the Allied Powers, and that the abova descritad document vjas stained bv me from the a"bove sij^nei official of the Jap.aneae Soverr.ment in the conduct of my official "business. Signed at Tokyo on this 5 day of Sept.,1946 M J. A . Curtis 2d Lt, 腿 I S Witness: s/William 。 !?r。ti"t :"!nvestigator Official Capacity, C ^ E T I f l C A T E C W. D. C. Uo, !• P. S. Fo, Evidentiary Document TTo. 543 ° • 5YN0-?olJ 07 2VIDZNCI - Pa.se 1 oI^^ORZ. A* At the Time of Canitulation. 1• (a) Ti-osecutio^ document numbered the declaration of V/OJNG SIN JOON, is now oifered for identification and the msr^ed excerpt offered in evidence. This declaration states that on 19 Februar3^ 19b2 the witness and other raembers of the Chinese  T r oiunteer Force, surrendered themselves voluntarily in view of ;j'aTDanese a.ssuraces as to their safety. They マere marched to the Drill:-Isl'i and next day all seventy men ”ere taken in trucks to Chan^i where the3 r  マere stripped o? their possessions and led to the beacho Tliey マere lined ux in two rows of 35 sachj facing bren machine ^uns and tommy guns• Ths Japanese o-oened fire and the witness fell down into the sea. Minutes later つhen he raised his bead, the sea crater had turned red and the bodies of his companions were lyin^ around hini, riddled ^ith bullets. The witness and three other mounded men managed to dra^ •fchemselves array• (b) IVosecution document numbered 537紅,"being the sworn affidavit cf ム.F • Ball,is offered for identification and the marked excerpt is offered in evidence. Zrosecution document numbered 3051, being the sworn affidavit of C.7. Perry,is offered for identification and the marked excerpt is offered in evidence. ?rosew.tion document numbered 50i}.7-B, beinj the s-'om affidavit of Hev. Cr» ?o la in, is offered for identification and the marked excerot is offered in evidence. These affidavits state that卜 (i) Major Ball,011 or about 22 February 19IJ.2, ^hen ordered by the Japanese to bury a number of bodies, found about 140 dead Chinese by the T?ater  r s edge* 3ome  _ 7ere boys and some old !nen and they had been dead, 011 estimation, between one to four days. (ii) ?te. ?erry, hearing machine gun fire at Ciiangi, went to see Trhat was haopenirc and was ordered bac': by a Japanese guard. Later the witness sav; the dead bodies cf some 1».0 Chinese and Inlays on the beach, and on examination, found tliey had been shot. (iii) The Rev. ?olain in Anril 1942 saw 43 Chinese bodies lying dead. They had been shot. (c) !prosecution dccinient 5^47-B also states that the witness "Rev. Polain saw six Australians lying dead near Bukit Ti^iah. The men formed &  section of the witness's own Battalion and had been shot some time earlier- They were lyin^ alongside an open jrave, their hands tied ^ith tope and cloth, T7ith bandaged eyes. Doc. 5430- 2 ’ (d) Prosecution doGument numbered 52^2, beinj s^orn affidavit of L• ‘• ; ;cC IM is offered for identification and the marked e^cer-ot offered in evidence* Prosecution document nu-?iborsd 5^45 "oein^ the s^orn affiaa了it of •ム CROFT is offered for identification and marked excerっt offered in evidence« These documents refer to the execution of prisoners of war by the Jat)anese, after their capture。 (i) .CcCann states thfi'c after his capture f  on 13 February 1^42: he and a .Tiunber ci Aust.ral5.ans were marched 9  with tied h/?.nds,dovm Reformauory Road until they arrived at a cree 1 :. Tliere they were f o m s d into a single file snd seven Japanese soldiers lined up aboiit 30 feet a•マay ariasd with Brit-lsh rifies。 Tlie Australians 7!ere orderSD to face -'ohe cree.c sr!d 11cG3I).B. HEARD the R̂ OUND of "IB.e rifle bolts bein^ ^ior\ed. and was t'lien svs.v.c z by a bullet ̂  He fell into the cree'-: -- r ith the other raen^ The Japanese then fived a Dmnber of bullets into the bodies lyinニ OCIOTT. ニ;ieCann, having waited until the J3.r>aner>s y;ere ニone ^as able to crawl a^ay. (ii) Corporal Groft states that on 23 January, 1942? he ^as a でap.eenニer in a Had Cross truc-c» marked In the proper マay, ̂ lien the vehicle vras machine junned。 The oassenders ^ere marched about three miles and put into native huts» Later, a  w Japanese piard came in and too!: out three men with tlieir hands tied together。 :Te thought they フere bein^ taken out for questioningj it マas not loi^ before three shots ran^ out and left no doubt as to what had haっpen.ed* Tliey ksot comins in and 3〇iuニ out, tairing three each tiae and then there ^ould be more shots. rras in the last three to jo. ' r e Treve taken to ths front room and made to sit down and then blindfolded. "e *rere then led outside, still tied to^eth^r, and made to sit dovm not far from the house• It was not I0M3 before something crashed into me and I was knoclied b a c k ,エ was caught "by t^e hee3. and thrown into a drain. Later I slipped the blindfold and had a look. I couldn’t see any one about •••。 and so エ c r a w l e d out of the drain ••--I was Trounded, a bullet having entered the left side of ray head about the cheekbone and out on the ri^ht side at the bade of my neck, I was sT)ittiir; blood airl thsre vrs "blood ever^'TThere iiatiTes エ mei; 77ould not have anything to do マith m e . Then I discovered エ could not speak.^ (e) Prosecution document 3031, beixx^ the affidavit of Lt-Col. HT!ATH; 3ふ 0” fomerl3r Coxnaiandins 9 Coast Rejt •, H , is now offered for ident.i-fic.au〕on and the mar Iced e;:cerpt offered in evidence. This affidavii; states -chat tiirsemen of the witness f s Regiment having escaped, when apprehoroed ^ere shot on 19 Harch in the presence of the witness.- Strong pretest made by General .""ercival to the Japanese in Chanニi ⑩ unavailing* Doc. 5430. 3. 2 • Prosecution Document numbered bein^ the affidavit of L•マ• -.•BIGHT is noT7 offered for identification and the marked excerpt offered in evidence. This aff••iavit states that the witness about 25 January 1942 saw a British ambし丄ance convo2^ bombed from a IOTT height in Johore, by Japanese bombers^ マisi,oilit3r was excellent and the attack was deliberate, Four or five of the vehicles ^hich contained bounded men were hit, and three of them Trere leffc burnii^® The vehicles ヮere plainly marked \7ith trie "Red Cross on th« sides and roof and there ^as 110 military target nearby。 In the : Iuar ^iver fi^ lit ins a party of prisoners roped toぶether with about 10 or 12 prisoners and ^as marched for some days. One of the x>erty had been ill and could not walk. It officially reported to bin "by the survivors that he was taken off the string of prisoners into the jungle and shortly after that a couple of shots were heard  0  Tb.e Japanese j^uard returned jrinning and the march uas resumed. The ^uard later told the survivors that the siclc man had been shot beoausehe could not kee*o up with them. 3 . (a) rrosecution Document nuoibered 5°52-B is offered for identification and the marked ercerpb tendered in evidence. It is the affidavit of ? S T U ^ T who in .January 1942 耵as Senior ic-presentative of the Australian 只ed Cross Society attached to the 'J.exandra Hospital, Singapore. This affidavit states that on Saturday, February 14> 1942» the hospital was stormed by Japanese troops, who raced through the building bayonett-irG and shooting all uho came in their path, leaving behind theoi a path of death and destruction* The medical staff Fas wearing the ^ed Cross brassard, beds had "Red Cross counterpanes and the conventional markings were on the outside and inside of the building. A hu^e led Cross approximately feet square vras on the ニround immediate丄y in front of the "building The witness saw two British soldiers of the Manchester 只 eご imen七 bayonet ted. After the raid he sav dead bodies whici had been bayonet ted or shot; several had been "rounded. At this time an operation was in progress on a British soldier and he was under an anaesthetic• TV/o doctors and t^o medical orderlies were in attendance. A Japanese thrust his bayonet throuGh the body of the Dat ierxt • other Japanese turned upon the medical staff and killed one doctor and one orderly and. wcunded theother two. Dozens of dead bodies ere picked up in the hospital ニrounds at nightfall» Towards evening the Japanese mustered 133 patients and staffs Some of the patients were without footgear, scms hereon crutches, ethers with limbs in plaster» They •ere marched away and only two of the men were evsr seen ajairu These men reported the terrible sGreairL.s of their companions who were evident丄y bayonet ted on Sunday, February 15th, One Japanese was seen wiping the blood off his bayonet. Later on, enquiries were made as to the welfare of themen, but the Japanese replied that they did not have any prisoners of war. A few days later a Japanese officer told the CoO. that our mery had been buried in shell holes with Japanese dead, about half a mile to the rear of the hospital. The total killed was 323, of whom 230 ^rere patients. The R.A.u.C. lost i;7 percent of the medical personnel and 55 percent cf the officers on the staff. Doc. 5430. Later a crowd of Japanese entered the hospital and forcibly looted everything of value, such as watches, fountain pensj r.in^s, cigarette cases, trinl-cets, money ; etc  c The witness was never recognised as a representativeof the Rea Cross Society although application vxas repeatedly made. (b) TTosecution Document numbered 5373 bein^ the solemn declaration ©f J • G H A V】 is offer yd for identification and the marked excerpt offered in evidence. In January 19421 the deponent ccnmanded the Alexandra 'lospital; oircapr-re- and he confirms the events related by FcC. Stuart• The declaration further states?- n Tuesda3^ 17 February 1卿• "The Japanese G^CKG。 caliefi at ths hospital at 3 P«ni.»«• He expressed reコret for the har亡 time t-he hospital had liad and assured me that the Japanese were hard fi^b.りers but kindly captors and that we had nothing to fear Before leaving he visiteA part of the hospital and finally I wast old that I vas to regard bis visit a^beiii^ that of a direct represent a u ive of the Japanese '"mperoi,and chat no higher honour could be paid us» n "Evidentiary Document Ne, 543°• Pafee 5 B . rrisoners of '^r 5.n Intermerit» 1 #  (a) Jrosecutxon Do euro en t numbered 5〇ら3 bein〔; 6ff idavib of :..IAIN is now off ers•ユ for ideajt if icacion a.t)d the ma rived exc erpt • offered in evidence;and rro=3e^ution Vo^vxn.ent mmbered 50S]. "beiu^ the affidavit ol s  Ueixt, F , RAIISBOTIIA,! is offered i'or identification and the marked oxccrpt c;ffe?jed in evidence, These affidavits sta^e tbat in tbe Greac uxld Camp and on parties, prisoners were beat-e^ aud a.: saul^ej v ccio-usly end regularly They were kicked, bea i sn. ^ith any eon yenienb inst.rumc!"へ.-"Vvhipped  ?  'Loclced into unventilafced fjziIぃonfi•ユea spcicee? ニhroTTn into boil iii^ bとu'iis, and generally at tlie will it taejj captorsp (b) -rose^urion DocuinenT, nujubered 5-3^5 し he affidavit of Lt -.Gcla ICATH, D.o.Or  t  is ガで:!. I:or •;.dentificabicn aid the mar-kod excerpt offered in evidence. This ax fid a? it states tha'l; in at Havelock Road Camp, prisoners fran c>hex c&oip snd fr^om the adjoirdn^ River Velley 3aiup vere paraded* The l' r 0C me:i :i i2'jsvly sick and "bare .footedっ were then forced to run round in a lax-je circlec for thirty-five minutes* The Japanese Commandant in addressing cb.e <v.ea  P  said ! have proved to you that you can dance in "bare feet5 therefore ycu can work in bare fest ^ This r/as -foe onl}^ action taken on repeated requests for adequate footvrear to be provided for the prisoners. Food and medical stores uerealrzays in short; supply* (c) ?rcsecution Document irambered be5n3 the affidarit of S^t. riC'OSZ•エ,is no、.7 offered for identif '2.oa 1;icyn and the marked exc©. r p'u offeree in eTidonee* Tha.s affidavit uo the inhuman coil- d it ions existing in the :iiiitary Gaol, Pearls "lill?risen, lien ware beaten ana torti-ired to death てith little prcvocation. Chinese and ""urasicCisc to: to walk or era,7l ?  rrere carried out on stretchers to be e::acuted „ w .7hen Hatfield vrs.s coiaeraiiod to die. he r/as kept in an onpty cell for six days p?.lor to his execut ion le had a he,丄:ror of beheadixig QJ-JCI the guards n^ver los'i; an opportUxiity of t c m e n t i a ^ hirn witli reminders of what was to cone,、 His ineir'Gal anguish must have been almest unb©arable» Froni a 16 stone man he had become a 7 stone wreck and ヲas executed on 6 December 1943- n len were driven mad by constant 11 J.- treatment and a Chinese killed himself by beat in"- his hoad against the wall of his cell. vident iary Docuiasnt ”o * 5430 • 2, pa“e 6 The -orissuers マere hopelessly undernourished and covered in scabrous sores. When they were thought to be about to die, they マere sent to Chan;i •'/.てlosっital, so that the prison death rate did not atDnear too jreat» 2 • (a) ^osecuticn document numbered the affidavit of Lieu七• ニi3, is offered for identification and the .narked excerpt offered in evidence, "'his document refers to the many instances of maltreatment of prisoners of ^ar in Outra-n load  n T aol, (b) "^rosecution Document n m b e r e d 5395, the affidavit of Lieut. •ノバへ D -.N is offered for identification and the marked excerpt offered in evidence < I マas a Lieutenant in the 2/4  T .achine lun Battalion, •エ.F., and -̂cis taken OT is oner on 15 7ebru^.ry 1942 at Sin -apore. 2_ I vras taken to lelaraixj ^ri3oner of ‘ 'ar Gainp, from ^hich T eseeded on 17 ‘  r aroh, with an iustra'.ian C o r p o r a l . e crossed the 'Straits of Johore ii:a saall prau aュid as we approached a small fishing village, our ii^nediate destination, 7ere captured by  m a-iils and slays, who handed us over to the"'empei Tai しn 6 April I spent k days rith the ''emvei っai, who tortured me、y burning cigarettes on my chest and hands and by beating vne on the heed with bamboos, to force a con- fsssion that I vias a spy, 3* I マas transferred to Curran camp, T7hich was the Silch luard caraつ fcr Cha:j ,and held there u n t i l 1 7 Ar)ril t  ^hen I was seirb bscレ to the  T,em”ei Tai. I was .held there until 22ト April, during vrhicli ti^ne I uas asked to si.ぶn a stateoient, which T refused. xfter four days of beat inご,ournin;; with cigarettes and elsctrical shocks, which on one occasion knocked ,ne unconscious, T was !i5inded a statement in  T apanese ^ith no ""n^lish translation, which I マas ordered to siぶn under threats of further torture. T asked for e, translation of the document ^rhich was refused and eventually I si.jned the Japanese docuaent. T ^as then sent to out ram つ oad Gaol on 21\ \pril• k* On l]ay 1942 T was brou jht for trial before a Japanese Court "art ial in 3ir: ;apore. All the "proceedings ’ "ere in Japanese and there •マas no translation. I eventually learned that T had received two years solitary confinement • I ”as then removed to ^utrai "Road 'raol in which O'aol I remained unt5.113  7lay 1944. 5- The cells in Outran load were 6 feet by 10 feet, normally one raan per cell. Later two cr three men ^ ? ere r>ut into sach ce丄丄• In the cell were three boards to serve as a bad, together with a hard wooden pillow. There vas a latrine bucket f  T7hich was normally cleared twice a week. There was one blanket, DuriJi'j the two years I 抓as in the ^soi, approximately 2,400 military and fion-Japanese personnel passed through the ^aol. Of those 110 vrere m i l i t a r y , R r i t i s h and Pa^e 7 ""videntisr • Document > T 。》543^• 'urasian. The remainder were Chinese, 'alays and Tamils. Of those, approxixnately 1 , 0 0 0 people died in all. "Xirinj the sosae period, 3 ,000 Japanese oassed thr#u.jh the ごaol, of whom only #ne died. The most the ぶaol held at any one period of ti.ie, of non-Tapanese personnel,珂as 230. • 6 . The conditions in Out ram Road were a-opalliu^* The ration con- sisted of three meals per day, in all 6 02% of rice and pints of watery soup.  n here ^as no Japanese doctor in the prison camっ and the #ne ”n',lish doctor, a prisoner for a short time in the canro, was jiven nr facilities rzith v/hich to deal with the sick, He was not even allowed to visit them. The ぶa©l Fas 250 yards away from Singapore Qoneral Hospital, the nain hospital of Sin ;cpore t  but no prisoner -7as ever sent -chere, except for one Chinese who tried to co^Tii-5 suicide before t r i a l . " e was taken to taeHosoital where his head "-ras sewn up,and brought b3c'c to the ;jacl for trial. There were 110 siegers, no towels, no toilst articles of any nature. In order to wash ourselves ^e were saaetia s ;iven a bucket of water to throw over ourselves- 7or the first six vreeks T never left :ay cell and never .iad a wash. 7 . l i e T first arrived in the janl it was like bedlam.つeo]〕le Here s cream in j all day from, pain fran their wounds and their beatings* The jaol CoiBnandant used to cc:ae and v/atcli us, oiake no co^aent and leave. The guards,both "oresn and Japanese, had complete control over the prisoners. I saiT oany prisoners beaten ancl I saw many people die. "xanvoles are as follov7s:- On 10 May 1943, 4 Chinese arrived in the prison. They ヮere hand- cuffed and chained 行0..711 ir: their cell. They were in :ニood physical con- dition. The^r were dead in six マeeks of malnutrition and beatings. T sa,マ them, often be?.ten by sticks and sword, scabbards• Davie St an ‘ njlisbman, very bi ぶl3r built, arrived at aprjrcxi^iately the So.ae tine as I did in Arjr\1!19i}.2 f  he contracted beri beri and by August his testicles were two feet in diameter* His only method of 〒厂alkin.〕 was to carry them in front of hiia» The Ja-osnese used to briaj their friends in to watch him and never did anythin; to helo him, nor permit others to help him. Navies died in October in great a : ;;on: r . TTe had been beaten inanj" t Lass grid he died covered in his o" ~n excreta and urine^ 7ov five days before his death he had been unable to laave his cell and,e ポere not allowed to lielo • > Barter died on 13 February 1943 > as a result of beat i n 〉 Shortly before he died, he was very weak, suffering fro] beri beri and dysentery and mn 12 February/ f  the ;uard cane into his cell and forced him to his feet to carry his latrine bucket out to ejipty it• :t tiis ti.ae Barter was nerely skin and bone*  rle was unable t參lift the bucket and tried to draj it alon^ the jround« He was unable tc do this,lioマever, and fell down. The juard beat him and kicked hiia for near five .ninutes. The next jiorniD •; he was dead • Page 3 T”o Chinese women were brought into the jaol on 26 Jul:, a lid were held in the sane circumstances and coftditions as the men. ヮooian 7/as in an advanced staje of pre ;nancy. She ’vas moved only few days prior to the birth of her child. .vident iary Oocuaant ato. 545^* 5- “lien, an Australian, died on 10 July 1943* After his death, vritliout the knowledge of the Japanese authorities, his body was vrei ;hed by our ovm medical people in CJhan^i. ^he weight was lbs.  f apprcociroately That ths bones of themselves ^ould weish* 7or the fort- night before his death, he was not able to leave his cell, or even to move about. Nevertheless, the :;uar^s put rice in a corner of the cell, ^/hich Allen was not able to reach» I asked :nany times to be allowed to feed hi a but the various guards refused • I was ordered to dress him after his death and ^hen I saw him he was literally bone covered in scales as a result of dry beri beri #  TJ.e was covered in filth- Hatfieia, an Australian Ser ;eant, was cau ;ht in Sin;;at)ore in Ma:、1943. He s^ent three nonths vrith the "enpei Ta5. and was then broujht into the jaol in ムuニust. Tie was tried in Tv"feve iber 1弥3,and sentenced to be executed as a s,)y. I had sora'3 snail knowledge of Jaoanese and I,7ss taken to "latf iel? on 4 Dec sab er 1943, asked me to arrar^e frr him to ニlake a v rillmd for a ’riest. Both these requests rrers refused by the jaol Ocnoandant4 "Tatfie].d was taken away frooi the ぶaol on 6 December, and the juard '/ho execut3d hLa told me later that he had had the pleasure of execntinj  T T atfieli in a field at Pukit Ti aah. Nixon, the only —uronean Ionian T saw at Out rail Roaa, caue in January 1944- 3he had been an ? n t e m e e at She was brought in by the irempei  r -?ai and confined in the same circumstances as ourselves, without any privacy, ^ e ^as still there when I left in May 1944, in solitary confinement• ?at her ilassine and another "ortu^uese "driest マere brought into the ニaol in 1943 anrl. had both been tortured previously by the Xenipei Tai, They died of disease in the ;aol. :!assine '沈3 regularly bsat by the -uards -7hen they saw hln on ills knees orayin.r;. lu ;h Eraser, the Colonial secretary f  arrived with a party at the end of 1943. 'Te had been マith tbs Temnei Tai some four months nrior to his arrival, le vxas beaten bj r  the ::;uarベs re^ultifly ancl died after I left• There 17as an " n^lislman -7I10  f  .in ”ay 19^-3 • Sevelotjed a form of scabies as the result of which, the whole of the area at the back of his body fron the waist to knees, became an sore, which dripped pus.  T Ie iss quite unable to sit o"m or lie derm for three months, and r/as jiven no treat 1 nt, no bandages or ra;js to ^i'De the matter coi.nir\r fro.:i the wound. Fortunately, eventually it どried by itself« 1 9 4 3 One Page 3 videntiary Document ]<k> * 5430* 5- A Chinese boy, ajed 12, cauie into the ^acl with his mother. 'lie was put into o:.ie cell and he in another. He oied of beri beri in about nine weeks. I carried his body -faexi he was dead. It was all つuffed out and his head was so swollen that the features vrere n©t cbvic-usly r ".cojnisable as human. A nimber of pe#ple ^ent oiad under these conditions. The Japanese method of treatment ^as to put three or four more people into the cell to loo!: after the lunatic. In most cases the tnad men aied because he refused to eat. On several occasions he injured his companions. jvia jor Smith wlio arrived at the end of ドoveiber 19t3» harl had his jsw broken, by the 一ermei during inter^ro ;at ion. It ロas exceed— injly difficult for hi:-i to eat. le フas refused treatment in tlie prison, the Japanese answer be in.;, if he had told the truth he rrould not have had his ja、,r brov.en« 3. At the end of 1942, the Drison authorities sent some of the worst sick a:7ay from ^utran 只oad. to つhan';i " J o s o i t a l . T n almost every case the .:ien sent vrere about to die, and the Doctors in the Hospital told .ie that these sick Aen 一ere impossible to save and it appeared tint the Japanese were send in.;; than so that the official death rate in Outran load would aっpear to be less than it was in fact. 9- I had a,oiぶ cyst on my ri ;ht hip in 3er)tonber 1943, from vrhich エ suffered for nearly a month• "oreover, x r si〔,e ias enormcusly swollen and I asked the juard to slice the tcp of it off, which he did T7ith his sword and then drained the pus. This I took as a kindly act• Inhere .へ-as a dispensary in the ^aol and a Jap^i^se orderly with a lar^e nuaber of dri\js and instruments, who refused to treat me. Tn 4u^ust 1942, tTo Japanese escaped from their portion of the ぶacl and as a punishment for three v/eelcs all the prisoners had to si七 to intention, tliat is 011 their heels aid cross-le^'jed #  from 7 in the morninj till 9*30 at ni_,ht. The daily rat ion was 3 ounces of rice, a small bov7l of ^ater and a piece of rcclc salt• 10. I had one pair of shorts during the whole period, A-oril 七o leptenber 1943* This the case with many of us. In Sept.e-iber 19431 マere issued with one Javanese shirt and a r>air of shorts, which had coine from diseased Japanese sick. These garments were マashed once a month and o^in.j to their refusal to alio,;: us to maber or mark the .;araents,110 prisoner nor aally ever received his o^n s a n n t s back. In viei.7 of the diseased nature of most of the prisoners, under this system it was impossible for anyone to veniain healthy. Tn a short ti‘iiじ everyone had scabies. 11* It is difficult to describe the cells in ^hich ’-e lived. There were blood and pus stains 011 the マhere people had wipefi ^"vident iary Do cument l^b. 5430. 6. P&ge 10 the hands tliey had used to dry their -7«unc5.s. ^iles of scaly skin lay in the corners. There マere bed buコs in the boards of the b e d .マ e マere never shaved and had to cut our nails by scraping them on The concrete floors. All the guards,ore masks HThen they -' ere on duty in our bloc,: of cells. "Phey never touched anytbinj in our cells irith their hands, 0 2113' with their swords or with gloves• our cells でere cleaned to 、iy kncoled^e, only twice in the tvro years. On the other liand the block in v/hich the Japanese prisoners were housed マas beautifully clean* 12 • I v e r y ;juard rras a law unto himself and one evening; a juard vTculd beat us for not beiny asleep; the next on duty would beat us f#r beiu^ asleep, 13• There were wcrl:inj parties in the ^aol which began in October 1942, when soiae of us went out cleaning drains. 3y ’:ay 1943 other parties had been formed• 14•エ七 was impossible 七o keep notesor a diary since cells rrere searched daily. Outran lord jaol was the Central CJaol for the Japanese Southern J%r=ay9 so that マhen a cell was e;npty マe either the man had died or had been executed, or 耵as about to be executed. 15-  ; hen T first arrived in the jaol I ㈣ in ths open buildings マhich were around, six fully stocked with cases of tinned nil1:* I estimate there were between 20 and 3〇 thousand cases. '•,e jot a little for the first month; after that we had milk t v r ice on the *mper©r f s Mrthday in 1942 and 1943* The milk was used by the Japanese for then- selves in ャhe jaol and as -oresents to visitors• Tt was not distributed tc other units. There was enou;;h .ailk in the .i;aol to su)ply every prisoner with milk until the end of the vmr with a ^ood deal to s -)are f a lid vitanin 3 was, of course, «ur greatest need- l6. On one occasion a manber of the loyal fanily walked through the ニaol at the end of 1 9 4 2 • l e never locked into the cells, he merely Falk^a into ihe passage. On several occasions hi^h ranking officers paid visits to the jaol. They niust have seen some of the prisoners at their v;ork carrying their latrine buckets to be anptied• Trior to such visits, the cell steps would be scrubbed with soap• 3oap was never issued to the prisoners for the purpose of washing their bodies. 17• the 13 May 1944, I left Ou七ram ^oad gaol and went back to Chanぶi ニaol and was put in the tower- I was asked to si : ;n a non-escape f•rai, which I did eventually under com-oulsion* I was then released and became an interpreter,ぶoin^ to 3ukit つanjan^ with 379 officers and men, to dij Japanese fortifications. The Australian Co腿andant -orotested to the Japanese Serjeant in charge of the canro, and tc hi^i inspecting officers FHO visited, as to the nature of the worl:, but to DO avail. In June 19451 an Australian, Private  T ils,n, was killed in a fall of earth owiiじ to insufficient precautions be in:; taken, durin:.; the tunnelling of the hole. Page 11 一 v i d e n t i a r y Document J^b. 5 4 3° • 7 . The TOrk parties be ;an at 3 a,m. and mariied four or five mile each m o r n i n > For the racst r)art, men、ad no bcots. 3o le used home- made rubber shoes or clo:;s ?  others had bare feet ̂  Officers ^ere not r e m i t t e d to leaire the canp, nor allowed to ^o Tith the working parties, which normally returned at 6»30 ToFsrds June 1945, the men bejjan to return fxom wori parties at 10 p.m. in the evenia^, after working 2 C to 3C feet into ths side of a hill by candlelight, and net haYirj"-; eat on since midday. They ottan came back マ et through* No lights T7ere alioマed in the ca,nD and the hours Kere so irrejular . that it was often very difficult to provide a hot ユeal at ni^ht• Clothing was very short in the caiup and in about July 1945, 5 0 pairs of Chinese women 1 3 bloomers were issued to the ^reat amuse- ment cf the villagers as some of the men walked through the strets in thenia " r e had very little medical stores in the ca.np and although 200 yards a^ay vras a medical store distribution centre^ we were unable to obtain any nevertheless, A ニood Seal of beating ir) by the Guards took place> One order thrit all men had to salute sentries, pr'rvided ample excuse for many beatinjs. The ration for working men was 10 03. of rice daily, 3 o^* , o f vegetables and cccasicnally tinned food, yrhich appeared to be TR3d Gross supplies, since I saw led Cross parcels in the stores. The rat ion for a sick man was about 3° Parent less* This affected the camp basic rat ion, as about 5° percent of the can-o were sick." ""rosecution Document numbered 5397» the affidavit cf Lieut• “ ふ T eynton» is now offered for identification and the marked excerpt offered in evidence» This affidavit confirms the conditions of livinj in Outraa ^oad saol and makes reference to the beatinj-s and mur^er of prisoners,and to the execution without trial of Allied airmen and civilians» ( c ) l ^ o s e c u t i o n Document nuribered 5^77* beinj the affidavit of Major J • . %D • BULL is noマ offered for ident if ioaticn and the marked excer-ot offered in evidence, rrosecution "Docuinent numbered 5〇64-3, bein^ the affidavit of :.Iajor 3.L.:二 CLARl-Z is offered for identification and the marked excerpt tendered, in evidence. These documents refer to the jross inadequacy of food supplied to the prisoners in Roberts Barracks and ニRiNJI Caxip, resulti z in deficiency and other diseases; no attempt was made hy the Japanese to control the incidence cf iialaria. Vhen men came to hospital from work 011 the 3ur.aa-.3iam railway 5  in ap-oallin-j physical c Mid it ion, the ?«〇•—“ Doctors vrere •ニ iven no help or facilities to deal with them. There was a shortage of essential dru^s and stores.ムcccrmno— daticn for the sick was greatly inadequate. Page 13, ^ideutiary つocumsirb Fo# 5^-3° • 3. After the surrender, the Japanese sent in enoroious Q.uant it ies of food to the hospitals,つruss, instruments and other greatly needed articles Here sent in. These had been in 3in;-a-ocre since 1942, yet requests fcr food and d.ru^s to save life had always during internment been refused» 3 . Prosecution docunent numbered 5〇5ん"bein- the affidavit of Bri^. G L U E , is noマ offered fcr identification aiid the ••Tiarked excerpt offered in evidence. This affidavit states thats- (i) Iii Septanber 19i|2 p  four prisoners of vrar were executed with- out trial by the Jaoanese for an attempted escape three •Qonths earlier. They マere shot in the presence cf the Titnees. \fter the execution the Japanese Commander ^ave the spectators a hornily remind in:; the'n that diso- bedience of orders .ncant death. (ii) Owin; to the refusal to si召!! ncn-escaoe forms voluntarily, the 16 1 000 prisoners of war under the comriand of the witness were ordered to mcve into the sQ.uar©at Selaran^ Parracks by 18C0 hours, 2 3epta;iber 1942• The normal accom..iodation of the barracks was for roughly 450 men, ^he prisoners of war remained thus until 4 September> when an agreement ロas arranged• During this period no rations were supplied to the prisoners of war, and there was a lar'je increase in the number of dysentery anfi diphtheria cases, vacuaxion of the sick fro^i the square into fie hospital was not permit ted • (iii) In C h a n g C a m p, f o o d was alvrays inadequate. One of l6 stone weight dropoed to stone and. generally peoole vrere at least one third underweight. "Deficiency and s\in diseases vrere rife, .^;edical supplies マere grossly inadequate, (iv) rrisoners were ei^a^ed on buildinj airfields, hours were lon^, clothing was insufficient and rer)resentaticns to the Comlanding Japanese general of no avail. Japanese aeroplanes used the airfield after its construction• (v) Demands made by the Japanese for マcrkin^ つarties 口ere impossible to fulfil usin^ only healthy men* 3rc\z men マere forced to rrarと and repeated ccxn^lsints were useless, (vi) There マere no visits by any led Cross Representative, despite frequent requests. (vii) There Tere inspections of ^hai^i 0a の by hi-h ranking officers. Ocunt Terauchi trdcc inspectoa the Caui->• General I T A H inspected the caoip and walked through it • General T0J0 when in Sinjapore did not visit the Camp, 4秦 Trosecution Document numbered 5〇57_3, the affidavit of,了 OT:ST is now offered for identification and the marked excerpt offered in Page 13 ^yi^eutiai:^ Document Fo, • evidence. This affidavit states that the witness, the "Red Cross Represent at ive in Ilalaya;; interned as a prisoner of war in "River valley Ca ip, was hampered and frustrated in every effort he made to use the facilities of his Society for the benefit of the prisoners of T7arB ,emission was refused to enable the witness to malce necessary rmrchases and help prisoners of war in the hands of the ”empei ^ai- The witness broujht the Red Cross Conventions and "Rules to the notice of var5.ous Japanese officers in a fruitless endeavour to obtain proper facilities. Red Cross parcels  T vere misused and no supervision in their dis- tribution was permitted.. Evidentiery Docunent No e  543〇• p age 14 Yi\0r〔IS Oi. ̂ vID. I^CE S I a i: 0 F. E C o Ii^TLhKEIS A) Frosecution Document numbered 5078 being the Affidavit of J, L, . • エ L S O ハ , , t h e x.ight Leverend Lord Eishop of Singapore together with the report of the Sine x.osd Commission in relation to "Ths Double Tehth" raid, is now offered for iderrcificaticn and the marked excerpts offered in evidence. This document states that "On 10/10/43, all internees in Changi Prison were paraded soon af"cer dawn in the ha.In Yard as if for a routine roll-call c o o» c  number cf the internees were called out by name, labelled and segregated  c。,…Tiie investigation finished after dusk and internees were allowed to return inside the Prison,丄-any of then had had no food since 6 p。m. (T «,T.) on the previous day, and some suffering distress pnd even collapse owing to the day-long exposure to the sun without food. In consequence of this investigation, 57 internees were removed fron Changi Prison by the Military Police cn. or after 10/10/43P。。。0tlie Japanese were trying to establish, that there was a spy organisation in Changi Prison which received af v d transmitted by radio telephony, which had established contacts in the town for the purpose of sabotage snd ;stirring up of anti-Japanese feeling, and which collected money from outside for this purpose» In fact, there was no spy organisa- tion, no radio transmission and no attempt to promote anti- Japanese activities outside the C a m p o » t 0 * The conditions under which Internees were detained by the Lilitary Police were rigorous in tlae extreme. They were crowded, irrespective of race  ?  sex, or state of health, in small cells or cages o They were so cranped that they could not lie down in comfort. No bedding or coverings of any kind wert provided and bright lights were kept burning overhead all night. From 8 a,n, to 10 p.n. iximates had to sit up straight on the tare floor with their knees up and were not sllowed to relax or put their hands on the floor, or telk ?  or movej except to £0 to the lavatory. Any infraction of the rigid discipline involved a beating by the sentries. There was one pedestal water-closet in each cell or cage  5  and tne water flushing into the pan provided the only watei、 supply for all purposes, including drinking。 It should be rscorcled lie re that nearly all of vhe inmates suffered irom enteritis or dysentery, No soap, towel, toilet articles or handksrchiefs were permitted snd inmates had no clothing other than those they were wearing。 The food supplied .>, , »was insufficient to support life over a long period and led to serious de;ficiency diseases Page 15 Evidentiary Document I\o» 54-30 » iri" all cases of lang detention, Medicsl facilities。..were for purposes non-existent. «:, ;a Japanese doctor- see an Incernee suffering fron a fractured ruptured kidney, remarked that the r.an was Pare 2. all practical , w h o was called to pelvis end possibly not sick enough,.,., The biiildangs occupied Ly the Japanese Military Police resoimdec? all day and al.l night with blows, the bellowing of the inqiiisi'ocrs ; and tlie shi ieks of the tortured  (  From time to time, victims fron the torture chamber would stagger back or ?  if unconscious, would be dragged back to the ir cells -»vith marks of .丨;heir ill-treatment cn their bodies 0  In one such case 5  an iirconscious victim so returned died during the night, without receiving eny medical attentionj and his hody was not remove a tintil the afternoon. In these conditions, and this atmosphere of terror, these nen and women waited, sometimes for m o n t h s t h e i r suirjnons to interrogation which might come at any hour of the day or night«, Usually interrogations started quietly and would so continue as long es the inquisitors got the expected answers  t If, for any reason, such answers were not forthcoming  3 physical violence was imriedlately employed» The methods used v?ere (1)..ater Torture „ There were two forms of water torture, In the first, xhe victim was tied or held down cn his back and a cloth placed over his nose and mouth a  Wster was then poured on the cloth。 Interrogation proceeded end the victim, was beaten if he did not reply, As he opened his mouth to breathe or to answer questions, water went down his throat until he could hold no nore» Sometimes, he was then beaten over his distended>stomach, sometines a Japanese jumped on his stomach, or sometimes pressed on it with his foot. In the second  ?  the victim was tied lengthways on a ladder, face npwards, with a rung, of thfe ladder across his throat and his head below the ladder。 In this position, he was slid first Into a t'ujs of water and kept there until almost drowned. After being revived, interrogation procoeded and he would be re-immersed » (2) Beating with ir on bars, brass rods  3  sticks 5 bamboos, wet knotted ropes 3  belts with .Diackleピ,or revolver butts, all over tne body, Whilst these testings were being inflicted, the victims were some tines suspended o'j the wrists from a rope passed over a bean。 Sometimes their hands were tied behind the ir backs and they were forced to kneel on sharp pieces of wood or iion, while sharp-edged pieces of wood or metal were plsced behind their knees so as to cut into the flesh as they I'nelt. while they were so kneeling the Japenese would Page 16 Evidentiary Document N o . 5430. Page ^ jupip on their thighs or on the projecting ends of the tar or wood behind their knees5 semetines to increase the pressure on the wood or "bar behind the knees, a Jspenese would perch himself on the shoulders of the victir, or the victim, with hands untied }  would be ccnpelled to ho^d heavy weights above his head, They were often forced to remain in this position without intermission for 9 to 10 hours, during which period interrogation would go on remorselessly, punctuated by blows. At times, the victin would be tied to a table and flogged -until he lost consciousness。 In cne case, the man so H o g g e d comited over 200 blows tefore losing consciousness a  This treatment, was in some cases, carried on daily for 4 to 5 days conse- cutively. In one case, a European who died later, 'Jas interro- gated vdth the usual tea., ing,for 53 hours at a stretch and another European since dead, underwent 144 hears of beatings in all, according to the estimate of his cell mates (3) During interrogation the inquisitor, in many- cases, burnt the victim with cigarette and cheroot ends, even on the most sensitive parts of the body, e rg. arm-pits, between the toes, on the scrotum and penis. Several Asiatics had petrol poured on their bellies and ignited, and another Asiatic had his hands tied together and imcersed in a bowl of methylatei spirit which was ignited. (4) Electric Torture. There were two forms of this» In the first, an induction coil was used, one electrode being attached to the hand or foot and the other bare wire was applied to various parts of the body. One victim reports that he was thrown across the room by the vioiex ce off the shock. The effect has been described as one of physical and mental disintegration. The second form apparently moie severe, was called the electric table or electric cap. There is evidence that this was used but not on any of our witnesses. (5) In addition to these forms of tortiire, the inquisitor, often employed other methods? such as ju-oitsu, twisting of limbs, bending back of fingers, twisting of sharp- edged wood between fingers, punching, repeated blows on the sare spot, and so on. These methods, in many cases resulted in dislocations and permanent damage to linbs and joints, In one case, the inquisitor punctuated his questions by flicking off, with the frsyed end of a bamboo, flesh bruised in a previous beating. This left a permanent soar, six inches by three inches on the vict丄rr^s thigh, (6) In several cases, victims were lf=d to believe that their execution either by 'behe?.dlT\g or shooting, was imminent• They were advised to write a letter of farewell t  Preparations for execution were carried ou'c 5  up to the penultimate stage, with such realism that, in two cases; the victims fainted, Page 17 Evidentiary Document N o . 5^-30. Page 4• (7) . .• •• .. .一:、 Threats to families。 Threa< were slso made to take action against the family of the victim (the wives of some internees were believed to be in Japanese custody in other parts of Asia)c Torture was carried out to the limit of human endurancie, One Internee attempted to comni.' suicide by Jumping over the verandah c  In his fall he fractiirec his pelvisj but, despite his condition, his interrogation under torture was continued m t i i just tefore he died  0  In another c a s t h e Internee asked his Inquisitors foで the means to commit suicide, A pistol was produced and was snatched away only when the man was about to carry out his declared intentioi B) Prosecution Dccament numbered 5131, being the Affidavit of C , E> HlLTLIiaAlvi^ is now produced for identificatic and the marked excerpt of fered in evidence  s  Prosecution document n-ambered ヲ20ヲ being the affidavit of Dr, B. M. JOHN'S is offered for identification and the narked excerpt offered in evidence« These Affidavits confirm the evidence of the Lord Bishop of Singapore and describe the tortures they observed inflicted by the Kenpei Tai on civilians• The witness Hiltermann states that "on one occasion I saw the Bishop of Singapoie who had been maltreated terribly, his legs from his hips to his ankles had been beaten to pulp, They were literally like raw meat«*..He was just about able to crawl Every refinement of torture, every conceivable humiliation, every possible degradation, was inflicted upon the internees as these documents testify. o んrんだJe ^ZjTG も?/も Evidentiary Doctiment No, OFEi.I^G S T A T E i T C O U N T S い , い , . BLEAChES OF h^iS AKL CU^IOi S OF OI'liiiCLS fi Itoi-EES OF ,ふ」._CI\「ILIi.:v hr-LLS Ai'D ェ i i i _ F : i l i“ T S Oi. O C C U I:.D T"J:.I.ITOKILS. M r . Justice A . J. Lansfield (Australia) Brig. H . G . Nolan (Canada) IviT . L . One to (I rance) C o l . G . S. Woolworth (U.S.) Capt. J. J. hobinson (U.S .N .L .) Lt. C o l . T . F . Lornane (Australia) Lt. C o l . J . S. S. Dairste (Netherlands) Lt. Cdr. C . T. Cole (U.S.) Major h . Depo (France) Major F. E.1'ostyn (United Kingdom). f\s PU This phase 01 the prosecution case covers oi'fences under Article 5(b) of the Charter, that is violations of the laws and customs of war, and comprises evidence of atrocities against prisoners of war, civilian internees and inhabitants of occupied territories, and evidence showing the responsibi— lity for such atrocities of the defendants named in Counts 53? 54 and 55 of the Indictment. Evidence of atrocities in China and the Philippine Islands has already been presented. That which will now be presented will relate to other areas. The phase has been divided into five parts, namely:- I. Evidence of Japanese assurances in relation to International Conventions. II. Evidence ef the commission of atrocities by- Japanese forces. Ill. Evidence of protests made to the Japanese Government and of the replies thereto. IV. Official reports concerning the treatment of prisoners of war nade by the Japanese Government since 3 Septembei 194-5. V. Evidence of the acts of the said defendants and of their subordinates which demonstrate their responsibility for the breaches of the laws of war. I. EtVidence of Japanese assurances in relation to International Conventions. Geneva Led Cross Convention of 27 July 1929, Japan was a party to this Convention and duly rati- fied it. lurthermore, in a letter of 29 January 1942 signed by Togo, Shigenori, as I oreign : inister on behalf of Japan and addressed to the Swiss Minister in Tokyo, (rrosecution Docunent i o . 1 4 6 9 - D ) , Japan agreed strictly to observe the G e n e v a C o n v e n t i o n of 27 iuly 1 9 2 9 r e l a t i v e to the 1 ed C r o s s as a signatory of that Convention. Geneva F:: - .".oner of  1 • ei Convention of 27 Julv 1929. Japan signed but did not ratify this Convention. 一 ? n v j o y pハ T n V.h<a at^vfi-pgnt.innpr> c«imnun±ca"EIon of ど9 January 1 9 4 2 it w a s a l s o stated t E a l , a l t h o u g h n o t BOUIlfll t)y し;liy C D n - vention relative t» the treatment of prisoners -  of war, "to Atiei l e a n p r l s o n y r y uP war .‘ 2. In & l e t t e r of 13 x T b r u a r v ^ 19 / ' ! 2._s - ij.ned t y T o け rs Foreign . inistei and. addressed to tHe twi?s .inister in (. resetuti'oiTTociir^iit h o . 1^-69-E) , it w a s s t a t e d t h a t the Japanese .Government woulc' sr ly for the duration of the war, under conditions of reciprocity, the provisions of the Convention relative to the treatment of prisoner s of war of 27 July, 1529, to enery civil土sn internees, in so far as they were applicable, and provided thst they were not r ads to work without their consent. In a letter of 20 F'ebruary, signed by the P^ifi.inister ^n behalf of the Covernnerxt of the United States of America and addressee 一 t — Q Togo, Shigenoiij (I-rosecution Document i.o.1469-C) it was stafeT "tEaf ^he 1 overmient of the United States of i-nerica had been inforr. ed thf t the Japanese Government hed agreed, as far as the treatrent to be accorded to Iritish prisonei s of v ar }  to take 'into consideration as to food and clothing the national and racial custors of the prisoners. The Ccveriir ent cf the United States of Ar.ierica had requested the Swiss G o v e m r e n t to biin^ to the notice of the Japanese Govcrnr.ent thst it would be bound by the sare principle for prisoner s of war as for Japanese civil internaes in confornity with articles 11 and 12 of the Geneva Convention, This letter was replied to "by Iog0._£Mgenor;i, on tehalf of the Japanese Government on 2n3". . s r c h , 1 ^ 4 2 , (Frosecution E o c m e n t 丄..〇•1469-A) , In this letter it was stated the: t the Irrperial Govf.ini.:.ent intended to tal:e into consideration, vith regsrd to provisions and clothing to be desired, the national and racial custor. s of i.r eric an viar prisoners and civil internees placed under Jepan' s power • I n r e l a t i o n t o Ei I t i s h p r i s o n e r s of vcar, o n 3 r d . J^roisi y t h e i^rgentine . inister in ! T o k y o acting on tens 丄ビ o f the Er itish Corironweslth : oF i\iaticris (Irosecution Document I、.:o» 847-D) inf or red Tog っ, _ S h i g e n o r i, t h a t the C-overnrents _of Great Eritain and tne dominions_of Cs.nada, Auitrs丄la and . ew ^ealancf ;vculd observe ^ov/aT^s Japan tne ちerr.s '"of t.rrs~Tnternat 1 onal Convention on the treatment af risoners of war signed at Geneve on 27th July,1929 iind byolettetoof ^th Jaiiuiary,1942 (Pr osecution Ddcxunent .I'MC. 847-E), the Argentine : inister further inforred Togo, Shigenori, that the Jritish proposed imder the spplicstion of articles 1 1 , a n d 12 of the said Convention relating to the provision of food and clothing to prisoners of both ‘psrties, jtp consicer_ the national _and—racial _cu'stor.:_s of J the prisoners . '‘ . .... . • ~- : . : ‘ : . .. .:. •バ孑 、 'In a letter of 29 Janueiy,1、,42,l'ror. Icf,o,__Shigennr: c n b e h a l f of the Jl-jpenese CoverriDent to the A r g e n t i n e Singapore and . alaya. Burma and Thailand. Hong ン o n g . Formosa. He.inan Andamans and Ficobars. Java» Borneo Sumatra and Eanka Island Celebes inister (Prosecution Locunent 1465C) it was stated that the Imperial C-over-nir.ent had not ratified the Convention relative to the t-estnent of prisoners of war of 27 J"oly, 1929. It was therefore not bound by the said Convention, hovvever, it would apply nutatis nutandis the provisions of the said Convention to ^nglish, Canadian, Austrglian and ri'evv Zealand prisoners of war in its hands. As to the provisions of food and clothing for prisoners of war, [ i t would consider on conditions of reciprocity the national and rac 1 alnycret01:s ~of^"the prisonei s. Similar assurances were given by Japan as to the treatment which would be accorded to i-.etherlands prisoners of war and civilian internees. , • - The manner in which these assiirance^j^ere observed by the Japanese Go venire nt will be seen by th^ evidence which will te produced. 1 1 , E v i d e n c e of tlie Corjnission of Atrocities by Japanese Forces. It will be impossible in any reasonable length of time to put before the Tribunal detailed evidence of all -th-e jQffences committed by the Japanese against the r_eco^nised laws and custorrs of war, and therefore a method has been devised which will be relatively short and which will not omit any important iratter. In order to present the evidence in a manner which nay be easily followed, it has been classified by areas, and in each area it vtrill be — shown thet the r.:istreatment of pi isoner s of war, civilian internees and nar.ivp inhabitants was similar .TirtS similarity of treatment throughout tne "territcsries occupied by the Japanese forces w i l l , i t is submitted,lead to the conclusion that sjj,ch ml gtrp^t-rn^t. was . th£,x^sult not of the independent acts of the individual Japanese Cor.nanders and soldiers, but of the general policy cf the Japanese forces and of the Japanese Governnent. 、 The areas into which the subject has been divided are as follows:- 1 2  3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 f — 1 4 . Aribcn Timor New Guinea New Br it a.in Solomons^ Gilberts, Nauru aftd Ocean Islands» Other Facific Islands» Indo China China ether than i.ong 1 ong Sea Transportation, Jepan 5 Ati' ooities at Sea  s Tha e v i d e n c e w i l l s h o w t h s t i n e v e r y .srea the l a w s of war, in so far a? they relp.te to prisoners of war, civilia internees and native inhabitants of occupied countries, were entirely disregarded by the Japanese forces. This was in accordance with the policy which was declared on r.any o c c a s i o n s b y tbe _ J a p a n e s e t h a t t h e Jap a nc se QovernEient woujLd_treat p f i s o n e r s ofjgg'r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r o w n code — oi ""Vushi^ 0 " and only apply such portions of the Geneva Convention as suited it to apply, and that prisoners of war had no rights whatever。 It will be shown that not only did the Japanese fail to c a r r y out their assurance thst in the ratter of food and clothing they would take into consideration the national and racial customs of the prisoners, tut also that they disregarded the elementary considerations of humanity. It will be shown that prior_to jir^Lrit tirr?ハf the British ^api t-.n] p,̂;-j ̂  c十 Pinpjpor.o , in J.942, many massacres and nurders in breach of the laws of war took p l a c e . : e d i c a l p e r s o n n e l and uat.i^ntR in h o s p i t a l s w ^ r e —ki丄led—in cold r l o p d : w o u n d e d n e n Yvrho_Md_s32ixejidejLBd—mei^e-- e x e c u t e d ; and u n a r n e d p r i s o n e r s of w a r w e r e m e r c i l e s s l y shot,"bayonetted or decapitated. It cannot be contended t h a t the J a p a n e s e f o r c e s r e s p o n s i b l e fc;r t h e s e o u t r a g e s were out of the control of their superior o f f i c e r s . 1 any of the atrocities were connnitted either at the direction — or vuith the k n o w l e d g e of c o m a n d i n g _office^§. The nhronic 1 e__of inurder and mistreatment in every area will indicate the pattern of warfare used by the Japanese tovernir.ent and l i t j and will describe inter alia the rassacre of 5xP〇0 Chinese and the brutal ill-treatment -Di_Eiiraceaiis- in Sinf spore 5 “ the ind is or i n m a t e killing o l ' へ y t h e n a t i v e i n h a b i ^ n r s of the o c c u p i e d a r e a s ; t h e l o s s of ,the lives of ,.QD.Q_^llied prisoners of 1'var, the deaths of over J^OCL^QD^^coolies^ End the 下:ruts丄ill-treatment of a l m o s t e v e r y m e n d u r i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n cf the Eurma-Siain L a i l w a y; the i n f a m o u s d e a t h m a r c h e s st E a t a a n and i n E o r n e o; 1 2  3 4  5  6  7 8  〇ノ  o 「4 11 11111i2  2 the massacre of Australian nurses and other civilians at B a n k a I s F a n d ; t h e r a la wall n a s s a c r e ; the r a s s a c r e a t F l a n t a 1 1 o n ~ T n W e w G u i n e a 5 t n e r a s s a c r e of 200 p r i s o n e r s of war 81 Leha; "cTTe niassacre of Europcang^and natives at Long wawsrfj" Eandjermassin, Pontianak and Tarakanj the m u r d e r s e z "the k i l l i n g of s u r v i v o r s f r o m ships which hea been sunk; and the widespread extermination of prisoners of war and civilians。 Food rations for prisoners of war everywhere were quite inadequate to sustain the strength of any man, especially those who were engaged on manual labour . Diseases of e.ll kinds resulting from malnutrition and n e g l e c t w e r e the c a u s e of m u c h u n n e c e s s a r, s u f f e r i n g and many deaths f  IVhen pcisoners became sick, the already- i n a d e q u a t e r a t i o n s w e r e r e d u c e d Luiless, i n s p i t e of i l l n e s s , t h e y w e n t to w o r k  ? Hospital accornnocation was in most cases non- existent and e^srywliere there wa-3 a lack of medical supplies and drugs fc/* the treatment of tne various diseases, That these latter vere available will he shown by the amount of Ksdical stores discoverpd in the possession of the Japanese after ths Japanese capitulation. Sick men were forced to work and when they were unable to carry on * and collapsed they were beaten. I-丄cur3 cf work v^ere e x c e s s i v e anc: c o n d i t i o n s of w o r k w e r e i n a l m o s t e v e r y c a s e extremely arduous«, Clothing and footwear were not supplied and men were forced to work bare-footed and clothed in lap-laps. This again contritoited to the toll of illness snd death. Tnrti]i-fi T  n a s s p u n i s h m e n t s and b e a t i n g s vjare widfi- spread, Severe punishments were inflicted for "trifling offences and even for no offence; and to attempt to escape was to incur execution, I.en cn working parties were beaten if t h e y s h o w e d the s l i g h t e s t s l a c k n e s s , a n d , i n f a c t , t h e y w e r e b e a t e n l e s c t h e y s h o u l d s h o w slackriess. .. In most of the areas there will be evidence of the 4ilaHS_tQL k i l l all p r i s o n e r a of in t h e evfint of t h e r e being a landing by allied troops in JaiDan or any attempt F a d e to 'recapture て"hem tt  I n s e m e ol tlie a r e a s t h e s e p丄 w e r e i n f a c t p u t m"T,o e y e c u c T o n t E v e n ir the a o s e n c e of~" any direct oraer, from tlie fac^ that similar plans had been prepared in many areas, it may be csdu^ed that such plans were part of the policy of those in control of prisoners of war. T h e s e a r e s o m e of the m a t t e r s w h i c h w i l l b e p r o v e d by the evidence to be produced and for which the prosecution submits the accused named in Counts 53,ヲ4, and 55 of the Indictment are responsible. Ill» Eviaence of Frotests made ot' the He'olies t h e r e t o , l.he Swiss I .inister in Tokyo "on behalf of. Great E itain and the United States and the Swedish 1 inister on behalf of t'a3 Netherlands made frequent protests in writing to the Japan^^e Foreign minister throughout the period of hostiiitxes, and these protests brought to the knowledge of the Japanese Government most of the cases of mistreatment of prisoners of war and civilian internees and other breache of the laws c;f war which have been referred to above. There were 5  h o w e v e i ; o t h e r cases which were unknown to the Allied Governmsnts tntil after the Japanese capitulation, and which therefore wers not contained in any protest» It was in many cases only by a miracle that any information was available as the Japanese endeavoured to eliminate the possibility o.? detection by attempting to destroy all evidence。 On。 Df the most importsnて features of this part cf the case i j the fact that, with a few exceptions, visits by the representatives of the protecting powers and the Internaticnal Led Cross' to prison canps were systematically refused, In the few exceptional cases when visits to camps were pernj tted the conditions therein were very much better than in other camps, and in some cases the camps were specially dressed up for the occasion c  Furthermore, the prisoners were forbidden under threats of punishment to say anything to the visitors except what had been previously approved by the canp commandant;.丄-any requests were Fade to visit camps in Thailand ; these were consistent!; denied  a  It may "be deduced from the fact that visits were not allowed in most of" the areas that the Japanese Govern- ment realised that the reports of any person who saw the cam would be most "unfavourable。 Protests complaining of murders, starvation and ill-treatnent were for the most part either not answered at all or net rerlied to for a long period, When any reply was made it was evasive, contained allegations that the pretest was tassel on incorrect information or consisted of a simple denial 0  At no time before the capitulation was there any acknowledgment that bad conditions existed  a In view of the overwhelming evidence of widespread atrocities and breaches of the laws of war which will be presented, it is apparent that the Japanese Government, the members of which were charged with the responsibility of seeing that their forces complied with the rules of war, either knew of many of the breaches and neglected to take any steps to prevent them, or failed to institute any proper enquiry TO ascertain whether the allegatiしns contained in protests v/are founded on fact. In either case, it is submitted 5  てlie responsibility is the same. Niw.rous api:lications were r.ade for lists of pri sonar £ of war and for tha name s of those who had died. No eomp? ete list was ever provided by the Japanese and it was not uiitii-l the end of 194-5 that the names of many of those Vi/Iio had peri siied in Thailand, Eorneo and other aress "jvere made known for the first time. It will not be practicable to put before the Tribunal all the protests that were made as they are so numerous, but from those which have been selected it will immediately jecorr.e apparent that the representatives of the pro tec ting powers made every effort to carry out their tasksj but hhet they were frustrated at almost every turn by the policy of silence and procrastination which was adopted by the Japanese Government and other officials. One fact which will assist the Tribunal in determining the innocence or guilt of the accused lies in a COITTD—arisun between the number of persons who died in \ a. _c sp ti vi ty ~In “ GermaiTy and Italy and the number s who _vver e 1 ^ killed or died in —captivity一in J a p a n 6 " I n Germany and " 、 j / j" C ェ七aly 丄42Y319 LritTsh" prisoners of war were reported captured and of those 7,310 or 5 »1 per cent were killed or died in captivity» 今050l6 Eritish prisoners of war were in the power of the Japanese and of these 12,433 o rノ 24,8 per cent were killed or died in captivity. IV, Official Reports concerning the Treatment of Prisoners of Mar ir.pjje bv t h e J a p a n e s e L-overnrienb s i n c e 3 Sfe-Qterr.ber,19^-5", 11 After the Japanese capitulation a body called the Central Committee of Investigation of . atters concerning Prisoners of \ ar was set up by the Japanese Government to investigate and report upen the allegations of nistreatment of prisoners of war contained in some of the ntunerous protests which had been received during the war * Two of these reports have already been put before the Tribunal. The majority of the others refer to protests and state that the subject matter is being investigated and that further reports will be made at a later date. Although most of the original reports were made over 12 months ago, no supplementary reports have since been received. c  f  o  /  4 ^ - 9 0/v  ク . フ  oム )y/ Frcm the fact that investigations were "being pur sued for the first time af ter the conclusion of hostilities it can be inferred that the Japanese Government and the accv.ssd took no steps at the time the protests were received to cerry out any form of enquiry» Some of thesa reports contain metters of considerable irportanc.e ; Among taese the most striking, apart from the two alleady before the Tribunal relating to the Burma— Thailand Railway and the massacre, of Chinese at Singapore, are those 7?e.la~ing to the treatment of Allied Air Force personnel in J-vpan, These contain direct admissions that AlliaC s.viatci'3 who had bombed the territory of Japan and were laier captured were executed without any form of trial * As was the case in the two reports tendered during the evidence of Cclonal l.ild, most of the other reports adra - ' t certain of the matters complained of in the protests, and 33?k to avoid any blame or responsibility by alleging that tliey were xhe result of the stress of circumstances, The evidence of eye-witnesses and victims will be sufficient to rebutt the claim that the nxatters complained of were insvitable and that they were net the result of the intentional and deliterate actions of the Japanese» Y. Evidence of the,.Acts of the Defendants and of thai?.' S'abordinates ivhich denonstrate. their Kesponsibi'lity for the Breaches of the ILaws of War . Under the Hague Convention Mo» 4„ Prisoners of V..ar are in tne power of the hostile Government, ard not of the individuals or corps who capture them. Apart from the responsibility which attaches to the various accused by virtue of the respective offices held by them, proof will be offered to the Tribunal that they ase direct^ responsible for acts performed by them and their lnnediate subordinates contrary to the recognised rules of warfare» l/ith respect to Toja, Hideki, there is at the outset an ad mis si cn "by him contained in m s interrogation that he was personally responsible for the mistreatment of prisoners of war and civilians。 In addition there will be proipf of an annooneement made by hir. that Japan would not observe the provisions of the Geneva Prisoner of Ver Convention of 1929» Ee_4i£iLsonally gave instructions to the heads of the Prisoner of レar Cairpo wnicn violated tne rules oiJ war. As War jlilr.ister he had complete Gontrol of the activltre^" of the various departments of the War Office such as ililitary Affairs Bureau, the Prisoner of War Information Bureau'and the Prisoner of War llanagement Bureau» TO JO was also responsible for the policy adopted by the Jai »nese Complaints of mistreatment of prisoners of war and civilian internees were forwarded by the Swir.s Legation, as Protecting Power, to the Jap£ nese Foreign 1 inistry, which in turn transmitted the complaints to the V'/ar luinistry, where in the usual course of procedure they passed fron the Secretariat of the War Ministry through the Office of the Vice Minister of war to the Chief of the Military Affairs Buresu and then in turn to the Prisoner of ar Informstion Bureau or the Prisoner of Vi/'ar Management Bureau, the office of the Chief cf the last named bureaus being held concurrently by the same person. The Chief of the two last named bureau^ formulated a reply when considered advisable, af'wr consultation with the Chief of the Hilitary Affairs Bureau, after which the proposed reply was forwarded by the Vice Linister of 、ar to the Foreign liinistry, and practicelly without exception, the reply prepared in the Prisoner of Vvar Information Bureau or the Prisoner of War Management Bureau was the reply Eade by the Foreign Minister to the Swiss Legation 和 松 . ^ i ^ P A x i f 丨 ブ 终 Z^Mif^ ゾ^j Government towards prisoners of war and civilian int-ニ-riン KH'IULA was_JZlce llinistan^of War fr^m 1941 t。じ9ん and had control of the operations of the Iiinis"cry s^Tijec only to the direction of TO JO. KIliUl.A was responsible f the design of the Prisoner of War Punishment Act, the provisicns of which were in direct contravention of the laws.— < of war and the provisions of the Geneva Pris oner -of-V. F ar Conventions of 1929, and also for the law which prescribed the death penalty for captured members of the Allied Air Forces, under which members of that ®ere executed without trial of any kind. _KIMIIhA was also directly responsible .for the public exhibition of r^risonars of war in Knrpa, and for~sen(3ing of prisoners to work in 'munition factories in_Manchuria and their use for "work_having connection . witTT'the operations of war" in practically all areas. 1 , ., く が ぎ /  i n ̂ f c Q .  LiUTO succession were chiefs of the Military Affairs Biiresu which controlled the Prisoner of War Kan&geirent Bureau and the Prisoner of War Information Bureau. These two bureaux administered all affairs relating t» prisoneis of war, subject to the approval of the Military Affairs Bureau. The same course was followed in the denials of the privilege of visiting prisoner of war camps when such applications weie made either by the Swiss Legation as Protecting Power, or by the representatives of the International Led Cross. Of those indicted, the following occupied the position of Foreign Minister for Japan between the years and 1945, inclusive: TOGO, Shigenori, ISii TOJO, Rideki: and SHIGELIT&U^ Manoru'. 1 一 10. Under the regulations for the employment of prisoners cf war by private industry., most of which industries were engaged in "work having connection with the operations of war n  ?  applications to have such prisoners assigned yent from the Frefectuial Governor to the Kone Linistry and thence to the Vi'ar Linistry for approval, following the same course within the v.ar Ministry as complaints in regard to the treatment of prisoners of war。 The only person indicted who occupied the posit:on of ムome 上、inister during the war period was TOCO  5  Hideki, which position he occupied concurrently while Frernier. TOJO also for s short tir.e was concurrently rrime Linister and Foreign Minister during the war period. Copies of complaints lodged by the Swiss Legation as Frotecting Power in behalf of the United States, Great Britain, Australia, Canada and i\iew Zealand, were transmitted by the Foreign Iiinistry not only to the レar Minustry, but also cories were sent, as a usual thing, to the Navy l,inistry and to the Lome Ministry. So, again, it appears that the responsibility for such treatment lies with the defendants S H I L A D A , who was Kavy Linister under TOJO, and later Chief of the Kaval General Staff; with jdivA-p,^'! \ps Chief of the General and Military Affairs ' ‘ B u r e a 猫 t h e Navy fron October, 1940, to August, 1944, and WifejiCu, who was Chief of the uaval General Staff from April, 194-1 to February, 194-4; and^SUzU]4, Teiichi, who was Minister without Portfolio as well as Presidant of the Planning Board. As suchj he was a mem"ber of TOJO 1  s csbinet and is charged with knowledge of the complaints in regard to the maltreatment of prisoners of war and violations of treaties in connection there v/ith, During the time that TOJO was Premier, he was concurrently Minister of \i r ar, but was seldom in his office in the War Ministry. KIL.UEA, as Vice Minister of War, made r^ny of the decisions ordinarily made by the Minister. On August, 30,1944, KILULA was assigned as Commander in Chief of the Japanese ふrmed Iorces in the Eur ma area, and as such was directly responsible for the mistreatment of prisoners of war in that area occirri ing after that date. The decision to employ prisoner of war labour on the Eurma-Thailand Railroad was made in 1942 by the Imperial General Staff, which included the then Chief of Staff of the Army, SUGiyiu A (deceased), the Chief of the Naval General Staff, then the defendant NAGANO; the Kavy Minister, Oili.ADA, and War Minister TOJO, and the responsibility for the violations of the treaties and assurances in connection with such employment on "work having connection with the operations of war" and the ensuing maltreatment and resulting deaths of such prisoners 11. of war so engaged, crust rest in lsrge part with those above named. For the employment of prisoners of war in Manchukuo on "work having connection with the operations of war", in violation of treaties and assurances, and the mistreatment of the prisoners in that region, the responsibility must be placed in part upon the defendant UI.iCZU. t  who was Coirmander of the Kwantung i-.rmy and Ar.tassador to Lanchukuo concurrently from 1939 to 1944. The defendant ITiGAKI was Commander of the 7th Area Army ir Singapore fron A t r i l . イ , t o the end of the war, and upon hin rests some responsibility ior the breaches of the laws of war in and about Singapore during the period he ~vas in command. y 州 Evidentiary Dccuiacnt ぐ.5129. j statcncnt. \ m G SI> T  JOON, 716 G e y l ^ 如” S fporc. (tcld in his own v;oras)c I ucs in the SS7F under Cじpt« Y^P Ihしng Gcck, until the surrender end disbandr.;ent under orders.エワcn.fc to live uith friends at Lavender Street comer I On the 17th Fob 1942 c.t 12 0 'clock ve yere tcld by the Fenpei-tai (jQp Military police) thut vc msfc feo to J'alcn to bo intcrncd.end ye must bring with us tuc or three refc丄cn, ,:,g arrived at the placc at 4 o 會 clock cjad found the pl^ce full of people s  (quite a fou thousands cf thon • T c x:oro then put into a house in S:しこ ^l-'i Rd. where they ucrc already full® The area allotted to us was fron l/mdo yid c  to syed Alwi Rd. v;ith bexbed wires around, and no one should cross over these i^ircs, if they do they v;ill be shot«> tho houses ?  stroct earners, fivc.-foct v/ay, and Siong Liu saT/ Mills arc peeked 3.ike sardines, and could hardly T;alk freely® Cooking is very difficult s  rater is soarco, and those pi^cos vzere very dirty, still nore people are coijin^ in c  All could hardly sleep r;hcn night canc, bccause cf short cf spaco, and the only v;ay to sleep is to sit down and crosscd cur logs 0 stayed there for tvo days f  'and \7ero later told by thし Japs that all the family can return to their hones on the norning of the 19th, and nen end boys above sixteen years are net allowed tc go; oarly in the acrnin^ cf the 19th all of then (the fauilies )uere lined up in a lon^ queue ready to leave the carip. The japs canc at about G o'clock and told then that they can gc new. ‘ hen uy wife and children had left nc that day f  I vrent back to the house anxiously auaiting tc ^o back houe # 八t 2 p““ 19th Feb icch Jicvk yoxi^ tcld oq that the japs havo called out for 2nd B^tn e  Chinese volunteers tc surrender- I got out and sat; a crcvrd of chiiaoso around a v;hitc banner with Chinese chur-ctcrs 011 it, and c Cliincso standing under this burner asking has La-iybcdy soon Mr* Tcai ICしh Kcoj nobody uasuerode 3c then told tho 11021 that the japunoso wanted all the Chinese ycluntcors to surrender j if thoy dc f  thしy will be given a pass tc go back hone end a jcb us a policonarj If they do net Surrender and if cr.ught within throe days thoy will be shot to d e a t h ,エ l e f t the nob of listeners und went in sccrch cf ijy volunteer friends, and there I found Cpl« Chia Ti^ng Boc, Cpl* Kch Jialc yong end feu other volunteers. I asked then whether it is accessary for us tc surrender; thoy told us net tc dc anything yot as they wish tc find cut。 .a then u::Iiccd to the gate and thorc v;c sox/ a crcv:d cf people, sene are volunteers outside the gate giving their names una addresses> and thu one v;ho is tdciiig dovai tho rocords arc one cf our "E" Ccy e  ^anf und f u r t h o m e r c x:c shyj at the gato necjr tho exit are Lieut • Goh si^w L^o しaid Lir, YじP Tl…n Sciae of the civilicais lot loese after bein^ questioned, uad wero given an IDENTIFICATION ST。こ:ip CN THE p“LN cf thoir hands > Our turn COLICS next with Cpl« Ti^ng B^e loading, as soon as ue passed the gute I hoard Evidentiary Docunent ff 5ュ2?, 2. sonebody say, here they arc. Cplo Ti^ng Bee uere being rocognizod and he yas tcld to bring us to ropeで••; to nan in charge cn ta:; Lie.it:. Goh assured us thut we will ho all rijcV,-?; as lio will lock of fcer us vclu.n— tcers end not to v/on-y,,1ふe uc?re thor ..Tail in しnd nnrched to the \rictoria Bridge school and でere put :.n tiie drill h a l l f  '  T e were there fcr quite a while, cjid Lieut 0  Goh cai.iG cut and 'odd us to g.iマo cur naiaes and addresses again as he wished to hぃve こ11 rccords of us, a.t'-cor this he left us and yjq never sau hin again. ^ ^ 1 ^ ^  L :7hen raorning ccxie about 9 or 10 c J  clock three Icrries and one p r i v a t e car coiae to cur plac3, one lorry was full ci* japs^ T^cy surrounded cur place and cane into cur ha3.I;十iiey were arned viith Bren_Guns 8  and told us to stand up in tuc rows pf each. Ou.i- han^s bchi.nd cui backs and tcld us to .̂o out to tlie eripty truck Q  Qu.:? lorries wei out with tho private car loading. \;e passed L^vcndt.r street, Kailang RdU, got into Groove poc.d and then to chcr-gi 0  ' e T/ero e::poctiLg the lorry to stop at the Ch迎gi jail, but tc cur s'orprise they kept on noving, then we knew cf our fate| that we じre going to be shot 3 ノ f iJter several liinutos the first lorry stopped scneuhere near t'hc custcn house.,  r £hc prisoners v;ere told tc get down, and \7erc taken to /the house and searched and rs*丄ieved of all their pessossions, such as gold ringsj casii, §cld v^xchtBs other articles, ^he lorry wiiich i wしs in cane next; it s^oppod but we wsro ncx seorchGd, ffh.e 了しps told us *6o join 〜 the others.  1<r o v/ere then to go down to the boaoh^ (just like a flock of sheep _going to tho s上augLter バ V7O could _liardiy LXJVG yhen we saw the firmA' squaa y  sonc of us ori&r]. soS) cal ling for their pcj:exit.s# _ to rsyaelf T criea too but cou丄d shed no tears ?  rjy iimos uoro as cold cis _ ice when J looked arcund and saw the firing 3auad in their position. I noticcd the ouchine-guns were p丄ciccd orJbe'rgh'c こ!.rid loft of us f  ^ e Tcixiy— gunners in lying pc'siicru Pr en-guns ragut in the centre ana xhe rirang .squad before us. (This was on the 20th yob, 1942) \ * — Despite こ11 the crying and nooning vc found ourselves cn the becch facinA' xhc sguc-d vi.fch ovx hands tied behind our backs> e wore then lined up in two reus cf 35 “s seen aa v;ore in _linc the jc-ps caught us in a cross fire over _and 广 . n g 。 m , ,- mrt  .、ぞハ” nn”+o勺 m moto all CLOTTIÎ  I frill fa-2c cLoivnn^rda, slicti. but still alive  a  ェ dar。 not neve, just protend bo bo dead, B.7 xhis tine tho tido was ccning in, and the japs had ccascd .fire; end ェ the japs had left us. I cculd held cut no lcngci-« I waiotod tc br^a-L-he ai.id the uator got intc r.iy nose and nouth, sc I tcck a deep breath こrd noved; all of a sudden I heard the rattling of tho gun^ a^aiiiy and ェ felt the burning pain just at iay left side cf i:iy body and gare a shout, "Ch, i:iy God c  i?  H i finished. . Tiicugh .soricusly ycijidcd and i au Su: J.I al:.vo and conscious, this tine ェ ciaro breathe no racre, but kept Gice again tne firing hud coasod, and I only hoard the beating cf a dran. ェ waited for a while but nc hhing happened so I slcv;ly raised riy head and lock( d around. half dusod and. in "tca.r丄bL.ニ pain; and uhat a ghastly si^b'o naじ ny eyos > TJ^e soo. yrxtcr had turned red instead of green x and only a foot uway were the boa丄3s of vy nates Cpl» Chia Ti^ng Bee and Evidentiary Docur.ient j: 5129* 3- pte. John peter T^n. riddled with bullets。ムt the scno tine ェ heard a low vcicc calling for help just twe bodies a^ay from Cpl. T i ^ E Bee and Jchn peter T^n. I did not knew what tc d c , ェ dlared net get up fcr fear that sone japs night be around, but ェ just relied over the bodies of ny friends and got tc the nan yhc liしd called out. He tcld ne that ivo had bettor get cut cf the placc quick.エじsked lain hcv; \ic cculd escapc v/hen our hands t? ̂  ト ^ ^ hnckg^ h g told ix; tc put ny CTists in between his teethj ェ did so and he mncged. to release ne; then told nc that he had got a pen-knife in his pccket ;ェ tcck the knife out and released hin, and told hin to w a i t。ェ turned tc ny left this tine and to qy surprise I sau several mere still alivし,ェ wasted nc tine and gt to then and released then. T^o of then had nasty wounds in their left shoulders5 they were twe nen fron Ccy. One cf them is named Fte. Tan Cheng Cher • Another one uas siict through the thigh and he bclcngcd to the Fcrt Cしfining Signals a lafter releasing thon I tcld then tc get away q u i c k l y .ェ get back to the one whe had released nc, _and T found that he was already dead. て/ith a big wound in the ccntrc cf his threat, causcd by 45 bullot • ェ wasted no tine but jcinod the ether two and get out cf the placc. !7e cculd hardly stand up, but we crawled tc scne lallang bushes where vg rested. asked each other vhoro tc gc after this, and one cf then said that we laist keep going tc the left, crawled sene distance then had another rest and must have fallen asleep, as v;c v;erc sc tired and hungry CIUG tc heavy less cf bleed • (This ucs in the evening of tho 20th Feb 1942.) I vrcke up at the break cf davoi, and get tc the cnc nearest tc rac, but ェ cculd net find tho ether tuc T:ith the broken shoulders• T^oy had gone uhile I v/as しsleep • yy friend said that tjq nust keep cn going, sc wo kept cn crawling for about 200 yards r;hcrc v;e found sene blocd stains alcng cur paths. On and cn uc fclloucd the trail cf the bloodstains till vc rcached sene Milcy villages, uherc T;C sav; scne uell-dressed Malays, but we dared not gc tc then for foar thct we night oncountcr scne japs, but ye called to then and they turned round and sa\7 us, and askc-d us 〜vhじt wc wanted• They refused to assist us, but eventually \jo got c>r/ay. L^tcr T-C ccn- tactcd scne British soldiers vhc tock us tc こ Field ムnbulancc unit uherc cur wounds "vvcrc treated d  ノ (Signed) ;;0NG SIN J00N. Statencnt nado tc no at S f pcrc 12 Fcb r  1946» (Signed) TOTMぶ,mjcr. O.C» Civil Affairs :;ar Crincs investigation section, Singapore. E3co:.iined by no with original affidavit and cortificd to be a true ccpy # (Signed) p。s. LiJVBE, Lt •Colonel. 17 ムpril 46. AAG V.^r Crincs, HQ i^LFSEii. Hyidentiary Docui.上nt No. 537k* ITTLRTしTlOr二 1 I'ULIT^Y TRIBlli\l FOU THE P--R E-ST n 1 TI-ニ IMITED ST.-T::S OF “IEHOu,ムH) 0R& -.iG.iH T ST - f  S^XL.O, ;J® ORS. '' I,」.-LP]""RT FH-JIv R, J,T. in the sfc^tc of l^cu South U^les rxJ:e oath and しy ac follows: I yas 11X12309 Iで“jor Albert Frc.±± 2 / 1 5 “ustralian Field T^c^i^cnt \;hen I \:us taken prisoner by the Japanese しt si^£^.pore on 15 Fしbruury 1942 ^iid pl^ccd in Birdv:ccd Ca-.p• 2. ムPDroxii..レtely one r:cck uftcr uy arrival tlitre I vus detailed to talcc char^c of a party to bury a nur.:ber cf bodies 0x1 the beach. 3 . I toci: thu p^rty consictir^. of four officers and approxirxtcly 6 0 other ruiks to the ccach and afxer soLie difficulty エ l o e a t e d the bodies to be buried。 There \;erc appro:丄ぷt;し];y l^p dead Chinese _alcng tho v/ater !s cd£c over a distance of about ニ00 y^ds^ Tlxey were of all a^oc rixnging fron boys to old .•.cn̂  soix \:orc dressed in Clxincce clothes and soue in :uropeとn clothes, i-hcy had been killed by olslII arns fire mainly about the upper part cf the body and head and frou behind• C^pt• H . Tucker ulic . a ueaical off 1 cor and ;;as one of the p^rty, estinutccl that scrjd had been dead for ^s lcn^ as 4 days, and others approxiix^tely 24 hours, 5 . T̂ xC todies v/orc tied together _in bc'.tcLes of 6 to 8 with their hexxas bciimd. x"Hcir bacL's Dy ncaris of signal T7irc# ‘ . 一 ‘ T̂ l-Gn and suorn at Sydney this seventeenth day of ScptGi.:ber (Signed)ム•F* R J X . Before n , (Signed) J • u.鲁 ノ 今 厂 V 1 , Evidentiary Dccunent // IKT3ZR]M/'iTI0I"i/iL IHLITiJiY m i B U H A L FOR THE Flli EA_ST KCU 1 一 r TEE UNITED STATES OF AI通ICA, AI® OES 一 AGAIl'ST - iiMTI, SAD人0, AID ORS, !If CAldTBELL T7EST0N PERRY of Sydney in the state of Nev; Scuth Wales, Liake oath and say as fellows:- 1。 X was M22959I Private Campbell恥ston perry, A e A 0 S c C . uhen ェ was taken prisoner by the Japanese at Singapore on 15 February 194.2 and imprisoned at i d 2 0 while i YJUS at ChaiiGi there was a mass execution of about 40 I^layan and ciiinesG civilians by the Japanese« ェ was nalci:̂ .; i\Ty yay dc^n to the beach lcokin^ for Cccoonuts v;hen I heard m c h i n o {jm f i r e .ェ continued on rjy v/ay when a Japanese Gucrd stepped i::e and told, ne to wait wheru I was #  Shortly after a party caiie past on a truck and took the jauanese Guard a w a y .ェ went dovm to the boach and sav; approxiuately 40 Chinoso and ^ la van civj .U^riP ^ V ^ u  n 1 1 t h n  $ Q^Xi- T^o ethers had not been killed and r/ore crav/3.in{j away up the beach j they were badly uounded and ェ think thc-y v/culd hove d i e d .ェ went close enciich to tho bodies to see that tlie-y had teen shot  P  J T^ken and sworn at SYDKEIY" THIS FIFTH DAY OF SETTEl.^ER 1946 BEFORE IvE ) ) ( S i g n e d ) C.;7. rERRY。 ) (Signed)ム山 MJNISFIELDo Jud^e cf suprene Court of ouecnsland.

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