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David Conde Fonds

Chinese press review / American Consulate General, Shanghai. No. 310-no. 335 (Apr. 1 - 30, 1947) Conde, David W., 1906- 1946

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' • CHINESfi PRESS RE7IEW; i * * *; American Consulate General, Shanghai, China; No^^lO ; _ • _A£ril_la 19£7; EDITORIAL COMMENT; Stability First; Chung H"Ta Shih Pao (Young China Party Organ), Shanghai; April 1, 194.7; What China needs most in the post-Far period is stability, which is; unanimously desired by all the people of the country, and whoever can; achieve stability will be able to achieve success.; So far as the views and stand of the Chinese Communists are concerned,; they want to overthrow not only the existing political system, but the; entire social order as well. The stand taken by the Communists is diame-; trically opposed to stability.; Since the Kuomintang is the political party that has been in control; of the Government for the past twenty years and since it is the principal; anti-Communist force, it seems to us that it should have adopted a Viewpoint; contrary to that of the Communists and should have tried its best to bring; stability to the people. As a matter of fact, however, this has not been; the case. During the past twenty years, we have seen how the Kuomintang,; believing in armed force, has continuously engaged in hostilities, so; that the people's living has been disturbed by war, conscription, miscellaneous; heavy taxes, and compulsory contributions to the Government. Added to. these; have been the unsystematic issue of banknotes, the existence of unnecessary; Government agencies, confusion in the issue of adrn istrative orders, an; economic control policy designed to compete with the people for profits,; the corrupt Government officials, and the "pao-chiart system > with the result; that conditions in this country have been disturbed all along.; Now, the Kuomintang is prepared to share the governing power with; others, and it is already possible for the political parties not now in; power to particinate in the Government. We hope that the reorganized Govern-; ment will concentrate its attention upon the removal of the existing weak-; nesses by removing in a drastic manner till those administrative orders and; systems which have been disturbing the people and have been harmful to them.; In this way, the people will certainly be able to enjoy stability, so this; is the most important and urgent task, upon which the success or failure of; the new Government will hinge. (Summary); * * *; Law Governing the Reorganization of the Executive Yuan; .Briefly Discussed; Shane: Pao (CC Commercial Organ), Shanghai; April 1. 194.7 •; The organization of- the Executive Yuan has now been radically revised.; The greatest weakness of Government agencies is the existence of unnecessary; agencies, so the organization of the Government should be simplified and; the functions of the different Government agencies should be unified. How-; ever,, the proposed reorganization of the Executive Yuan evidently is in-; compatible with these two basic principles, so it certainly deserves further; careful consideration.; The Executive Yuan already contains fourteen Ministries and three Com-; missions. Besides these, various kinds of Commissions may be set up for the; purpose of dealing with certain specific affairs. Thus, the administrative; committees of the various -.iinistries and Commissions without portfolio will; really be witkout anything to do. This is another point where the law govern-; ing the organization of the Executive Yuan requires further careful study.; (Summary); * * *; - 2; Completion of Laws Governing Enforcement of Constitution; Shun Pao (KMT-supervised, C.C. Organ), Shanghai; April 1. 19/4.7; After nearly one week's careful deliberations by the Legislative Yuan,; the legislative procedure for the ten laws governing the enforcement of the; Constitution has been completed. We wish to express our great admiration; to the members of the Legislative Yuan.; Our only regret is about the establishment of a Ministry of Border; Region Affairs. Tho Second Plenary Session of the KMT CEC had passed a re-; solution calling for the establishment of such a Ministry, and at the re-; cent meetings of the Legislative Yuan a similar proposal was made.; Unfortunately, however, owing to lack of sufficient supoort, this proqpsal; was not passed.; Hereafter, there "ill be a definite path to f-llow in enforcing the; Constitution, so tho completion of tho legislative procedure for the ten laws; governing the enforcement of the Constitution'is an unprecedentedly im-; portant event in the history of law-enactment in China. (Summary); * * *; Two Proposals; (Short Comment); Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; April 1." 19A7; The Association for the Enforcement of the Constitution passed two pro-; posals yesterday. One was a proposal for the protection of civil liberties,; demanding that the Government investigate into the recent cases of the dis-; appearance of people, -he other proposal which concerned propaganda re-; garding the enforcement of the Constitution, called for adoption of the study; of the Constitution as a required course for schools above the Junior middle; school grade, so that the students may become thoroughly familirr with the; provisions of the Constitution.; The first proposal is quite timely. However, the second prooosal seems; to be a little too naive. The only way of making the people respect the; Constitution is for the Government to display its sincerity in enforcing; the Constitution, otherwise, what would be the use of the people becoming; thoroughly familiar with the provisions of the Constitution? (Full Transla-; tion); * * *; The Peonle's Preparations for the Enforcement of the; Constitution; — The whole peoole must become a democratic peonle —; Ho Ping Jih Pao (KHT Army Organ), Shanghai; Aoril 1. 194.7; A democratic and constitutional China is evidently already being brought; up. In spite of this fact, however, we still need to help the development; of real democracy in the following ways:; (1) We should arouse the people's interest in politics.; (2) We must not allow the evil, anti-democratic forces to pretend to; be democracy, and must nurture forces that support democratic government.; (3) We should-establish certain social standards to supplement the law.; - 3 -; (U) Vc should seek to increase the people's ability to distinguish; right from wrong and loyalty from disloyalty. For instance, some people; call the Chinese Communists' attempt to overthrow the Government a "Kuo-; mintang-Communist problem", others call the Communists' attack on the; Government troops a "civil war".; i; (5) We should cultivate a patriotic and discipline-observing spirit.; (6) We should strengthen our sense of government by law and cultivate; a Constitution-supporting spirit. (Summary); * * *; Issue of U.S. Dollar Domestic Loans; Chung Yang Jih ?ao (KIT Organ.'). Shanghai; April I. 194.7; Today, one half of the U.S. dollar Treasury notes and U.S. dollar; Government bonds •'••ill be officially issued. The remaining half will be issued; on October 1, 194-7.; The purpose of the issue of the U.S. dollar domestic loans is to direct; idle capital into the proper channels and to stabilize currency value so as; to stabilize commodity prices and to restore normal economic conditions.; In the past the Government required the holders of gold deposit certi-; ficates to contribute forty percent of the value of these certificates to; the Government. This has been generally considered as an administrative; error on the part of the Government. Hoy,-ever, we must remember that at that; time our war against Japan had entered a critical stage and the financial; condition of our Government had also become almost critical. In order to; finance the war against Japan, the Government found it necessary to sacrifice; part of the interests of the holders of gold deposit certificates. From the ooin-; of view of the interests of tne entire nation and from that of the principle; "Those who have money should contribute their money and those who have enorgy; should contribute their energy", the Government should not be criticised; too severely for having taken this measure.; Now, our country has just stepped onto the road to national recons-; truction, so every Chinese should participate in the work of promoting pro-; duction in the spirit of the principle, "Those who have money should contri-; bute their money and those who have energy should contribute their energy,"; (Summary); * *; The Problem of Supervising the Sinking Fund for the U.S.; Dollar Domestic Loans; Sin Wen Pao (KIT-supervised. C.C. Organ). Shanghai; April 1. 19A7; Whether or not all these Treasury notes and Government bonds can be sold; depends upon whether or not the people will enthusiastically, buy them. How-; ever, the most important factor is the stability of the sinking fund and the; ability of the Sinking Fund Supervisory Committee to fulfil its mission..; In order to positively maintain the credit of the loans, the Government; should use the most profitable Government-o-vned enterprises as security and; should make public from time to time the profits made*by these enterprises; and adopt an independent accounting s3rstem, so as to win the confidence of; the general public. Since the Central Bank of China is the only bank in; this country which handles foreign exchange transactions, and since it has been; charged with the task of guaranteeing the payment of the principal of, and; interest on, the U.S. dollar loans, it should imitate the Bank of England by; taking a relatively independent attitude toward th' Government, so that it; will be able to assist the Government in maintaining the credit of the U.S.; dollar domestic loans.; - A -; With regard to the custody of the sinking fund, the Government's pur-; oose in establishing a separate Sinkiang Fund Supervisory Committee is to; maintain the credit Of the loans and to protect the interests of the bond-; holders. Consequently, the, organization of the Committee must be strengthened,; its functions must be clearly defined, and its membership must be carefully; selected. We attach great importance to the issue of the U.S. dollar; "'domestic loans, especially to the work of the Sinking Fund Supervisory; Committee. (Summary) / .; * * *; Treaty Tilth Austria and International Peace; Ta Rung Pao (Independentt Political Science Grour?), Shanghai; April 1, 19A7; Recently, Dr. Karl Henner, President of Austria, discussing publicly his; political philosophy, expressed the view that Austria should be raade^ into; a permanent neutral State, modeled after Switzerland. Since the conclusion; of World War II, the international situation has evidently been manipulated; by power politics, so that there is danger of another war breaking nut, with; the result that people are jittery. If we want to check this tendency at; the last minute, we must first demand that all the great Powers really res-; pect the neutrality of the smaller nations. In this way it will not be^dif-; ficult to maintain world peace. Now Austria is the first nation to indicate; its determination to become another Switzerland, so she deserves the sup-; port and respect of all the great Powers which should conclude a peace treaty; with her at the earliest possible date. Conversely, whether or not the; treaty with Austria can be satisfactorily concluded will tell us what the; prospects of maintaining world peace are. (Summary); * * *; Other Editorials not translated:; Cheng Yien Pao, Shanghai; Lih Pao, Shanghai; Chien Sien Jih Pao, Shanghai; Yi Shih Pao, Shanghai; Tung Nan Jih Pao, Shanghai; Dated April 1. 19A7; The Priority of the Principle of the; People's Livelihood in the San Min; Chu I; Again Appeal in Behalf of the Delegates; of -Professional Bodies for More; Seats in the Government; The Government Will Soon Be Reorganized; The Present World under Conflict; Between USA and USSR; On the Reorganization of the Government; and What Should Be Given Attention; • • * * *; POLITICAL NEWS; Soviet Ambassador Calls on Foreign Minister; Chung Yang Jih Pao (KMT Organ). Shanghai; April 1. 1917; Nanking, March 31 A. Petrov, Soviet Ambassador to China, called on; Minister Wang Shih-chieh of Foreign Affairs at 10 o'clock this morning,; and had a two-hour talk with him. The contents of their talks have not been; disclosed.; Evening papers here reported that they discussed in their conversations; the question of taking over Dairen. However, the Ministry of Foreign /iffairs; denied this report.; * * *; Democratic League Leaders to Leave for Nanking; i - i Tomorrow; Lien Ho Wan Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; March 31, 1QA7; .» (Local News)—7L0 Lung-chi and 6hang Po-chun, CEC members of the Demo-; cratic League, are scheduled to leave for Nanking by train tomorrow night. , ..; Their trip to the Capital is to confer with the Government on the-release; of Tu Pin-cheng, CEC member of the League, and-other arrested League members; and to' request the Government to adopt effective measures to fully safeguard.,; human rights. Meanwhile, they will assist Chow Hsin-min and Han Shao-ngo; in Nanking,to attend to the League affairs. They are expected to stay in; Nanking for a few days. . t -.-; )' ^ *X" ,7v ̂; -• . - Illegal Arrests in Tsin'gtao; Chairman of Workers' Union; -,-. - of China Textile Development Corporation Cotton; Hill No,9 Missing ' -; Ta Xung Pao (independent, Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 1. 19/,7 : '; Tsingtao (By Mail), March 28 Wang Hsi-ting, Chairman of the Workers'; Union of the China Textile Development Corporation Cotton Mill No. 9, was; suddenly whisked away by three ruffians in a jeep at 8:30 p.m. on March 26,; The intruders carrying two pistols and Wang's photograph forced their way; into Wang's office. After asking his name and identifying him with the ,; photograph, they pushed him out from the premises and carried him away in; the jeep. Up to the present, no clues have been found in regard to his; whereabouts. Many cases of similar nature have occurred in this city of; late, it is learned.; * * *; . .. • Investigation of Thoughts of Newspaper Reporters Conducted; r' • ,---•' in Changchun; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist) .. Shanghai; April 1. I9A7; Changchun (By Mail), March 20—The Changehur Gendarmerie Headquarters; has recently distributed forms to the local newspaper reporters to be; filled by them. Each form contains the following items, namely, family; conditions, experience, scholastic records, income, expenditure, thoughts and; activities. Great anxiety is being felt among all the reporters here.; * * *; Chairman of Democratic Socialist Party Writes Letter . .; to Mayor K.C. Wu Requesting for Protection of; Human Rights; Ta Rung Pao (independent. Political Science Group). Shanghai; April 1, ;194.7 r; (Local-News)—Upon the request of the China International Civil Liberties; Defense Association, Carson Chang, Chairman of the Socialist Democratic , Party,; wrote a letter to Mayor K.C, Wu yesterday, appealing for the safeguarding of; human rights and requesting the latter to probe the cases of illegal arrests.; The letter reads:" - - • -'.'-"; % ; '; "At the tea party given by the China International Civil Liberties De-; fense Association on March 22, I was requested to call on you to inquire about; the true facts regarding the cases of disappearance of citizens in this city.; Due to the pressure of work, I indicated that I was unable to comply with; this request. However, that Association wrote a letter to me yesterday still; urging me to do the same. Therefore I take the liberty of writing this letter; to you. - > •,; - 6 -; "It is generally recognized that the fundamental principle of a demo-; cratic constitutional government is to safeguard human rights, while the; supreme authorities have time and again reiteratec? their determination to; enforce the democratic constitutional government in this country. Though; reports varied in regard to recent cases of disappearance of citizens; in this city, yet at the time when all the people are hoping that their coun-; try will step onto the path of democracy and constitutionalism, the; occurence of such cases c£ inftingemBnt on the personal freedom of the people; is indeed most unfortunate. In the capacity of Mayor of Shanghai, you; should be responsible for the protection of the personal safety of the people.; It is therefore hoped that you will, in accordance with legal procedure,; conduct a close probe into those cases, adopt effective measures to protect; human rights> and severely punish the offenders who make illegal arrests.; In doing so you will certainly contribute a great deal to the enforcement of; democracy and constitutionalism."; * * *; Many Family Members of Missing Persons Register; With China International Civil Liberties; Defense Association; Ta Kung Pao. (Independent. Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 1. 1947; (Local News) According to information released by the Ciril Liberties; Defense Association of Educational Circles in Shanghai, many family members; of the missing persons in this city have registered with the China Interna-; tional Civil Liberties Defense Association. In order to cooperate with one; another in obtaining the release of the victims, the family members of the; missing citizens organized a federation yesterday* Chwang Ya-tang, Wu Siu-; mei and Yao Yung-kang were elected responsible officials of the raid federa-; tion. They have already engaged lawyers to file suits with the court to; demand the release of the missing persons. They hope that the family mem-; bers of victims will register with the China International Civil Li-; berties Defense Association at 66 Wukiang Road (Love tane).; * * *; Ricshaw Puller Stabbed to Death by U.S. Marine; in Tsingtao; Ta Kung Pao (Independent. Political Science Group). Shanghai; April 1, 194.7; Tsingtao, literch 31-—Two U.S. Marines here went to the No. 1 Restaurant; to dance last evening. Arriving there in ricshaws, they refused to pay; fares, ^he ricshaw puller named Su Ming-cheng went after them and asked them; for money. One of the U.S. Marines suddenly produced a knife and stabbed; the Ricshaw puller's belly with it, thus causing the latter's instanteous; death. A furious crowd of pedestrians gathered ateutthe two Americans who; afterwards ran to Chungshan Road and attempted todr've away in a jeep. However,; they were stopped by the crowd and the knife of the murderer was also taken; away. At that moment, the U.S. MP arrived on the scene and took away the; two U.S. servicemen. The victim is twenty-two years of age and he has seven; dependents*; * * *; Fishing Boat in Yalu River Attacked; Ta Kung Pao (independent. Political Science Group). Shanghai; April 1. 194.7 •; Antung, March 31 After the reoccupation of this by Govern-; ment forces, fishermen here have been carrying on their fishing as before.; *; - 7 -; At 1 o'clock on the afternoon of March 2A, fishing boats in waters off the; Yingraen Harbour in Ghaoshihkou were suddenly fired upon by the Korean; garrison force. A fisherman named Li Chang-i was killed while others named; Chang Cheng-sheng and Wang Chi-hsing were seriously wounded * 4.2 others; together with 6 fishing boats were seized by force. The•infringement; on China's fishing rights on the part of the Korean garrison force is; obviously an illegal act.; * * *; C'hennault Received by President Chiang Kai-shek; Shun" Pao (KMT-supervised, C.C. Organ), Shanghai; April 1. 19A7; {Local News)—General Chennault, director of the CNRRA Air Transport; Corps, left for Nanking day before yesterday to interview President Chiang Kai-; shek and to confer with the latter on certain important matters. It is; learned that he was received by the President yesterday.; * * * •; Korean Leader to Come to China; Shun Pao (KMT-supervised. C.C. Organ), Shanghai; April 1. 1917; (Local News) Dr. Syngham Rhee, Korean revolutionary leader, will; leave the United States for Tokyo by plane today. After staying there for; a while, he will pay a visit to China upon the invitation of'President; Chiang Kai-shek.; * * *; Appointment of General Hsiung Shih-hui as Minister; of National Defense.Likely; Wen Hui Pao. (Liberal-Leftist). Shanghai; April 1. 194.7; Peiping, March 31 According to information revealed by a -military; authority here, General Hsiung Shih-hui, Director of the Generalissimo's Head-; quarters in the Northeast, will be transferred to the post of Minister of; National Defense, while General Pai Chung-hsi, Minister of National Defense,; will be appointed Governor of Taiwan.; * * *; Chairman of the Manchurian Cultural Association to; ... Fly to Nanking Shortly; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist). Shanghai; April 1. 19A7; Peiping, March 31 Pu Shin-yu, Chairman of the Manchurian Cultural; Association, will leave here for Nanking by plane shortly to interview Pre-; sident ̂  hiang Kai-shek and to discuss with the President'the question of the; participation"Of the Manchurian delegates in the Government, "it is learned; that while attending the National Assembly sometime ago, he submitted a list; of 15 Manchurian delegates, including-Ping Chih, biologist,to take part in; the Government, However, the Government later on announced that only three; Manchurian delegates including Pu were appointed members of the current Na-; tional People's Political Council. Pu has already wired the Government declin-; ing to accept the post. In the telegram he said that his demand for the; participation of the Manchurian delegates in the Government is intended to; encourage the Manchurians to support the Government so that they might not; create similar incidents as those which took place in Taiwan and Sikong. As; for himself, he does not expect to get anything from the Government, he declared.; # * *; - 8 -; Customs House to Be Established in Dairen after; T alee-over; Sin Wen Pao (KMT-supervised, C.C. Organ)Shanghai; April 1. 19A7; (Local News) As the take-over of Dairen will be carried out shortly,; the Inspectorate General of Customs has made preparations to set up a cus-; toms house there. It is learnt that Lu Shou-wen, Commissioner of Customs; in Tientsin, will be tranferred to the post of Commissioner i>f Customs in; Dairen, the post thus left vacant by him will be filled by Mr. Harvey(?),; Administrative Commissioner of Customs in Shanghai.; According to the Sino-Soviet Pact of 19A5, Dairen is to be established; as a free port, so goods leaving the port for foreign countries and goods; entering the port from abroad will be exempted from duties, but taxes will; be levied upon goods arriving at the port from the interior and imported; goods leaving the port for the interior.; Before the January 28, 1932 Incident in Shanghai, the duties collected; by the Customs House in Dairen were the highest in the Northeast. A cer-; tain responsible person of concerned quarters is reported to have said; yesterday:; "After the establishment of the Customs House in Dairen, the amount of; duties which is expected to be collected in this port will be only second to; that of Shanghai, with Canton and Kowloon taking the third place, Tientsin; the fourth place and Harbin and Tsingtao the fifth place."; * #; MILITARY NEWS; Situation in North Honan; Ta Rung Pro (independent. Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 1. 19A7; Kaifeng, March 30 The situation in North Honan has suddenly become; tense. All the areas east of Hsinhsiang have fallen into the hands of CP; troops. 120,000 CP troops under Liu Po-chen's command are thrusting east-; ward. Authoritative quarters here predict that a big decisive battle will; be fought between the Government and CP major forces on the outer ring of; Hsinhsiang.; * * *; CP Troops Attack Vicinity of Changhsien; Sin Wen Pao (KMT-supervised. C.C. Organ), Shanghai; April 1. 19A7; Tientsin, March 31—CP troops on the northern section of the Tsinpu; Railway attacked and occupied Tatsetien some 10 "li" southeast of Changhsien,; thus creating a tense atmosphere in that hsien. It is learned that the; major force of the CP troops totalling over 10,000 strong is stationed near; Hochien and Changhsien.; * * * V 0; - 9 -; Small Bands of CP Troops Active in Kiangnan; Chung Yang Jih Pao (KUT Organ). Shanghai; April 1. 19A7 '; Nanking, March 31 It is learned that the CP trooos have established; the so-cailed "the 1st Pacification Commissioner's Office" in the Kiangnan; region, which is herded by Fan Yu-lin, a native of Tanyang, who was a graduate; of the 1st class of the Kang Ta (Anti-Japanese. University). local authorities; are" noxv keeping a close watch over.the activities of these small bands of; CP Troops. ' ..; * * *; ECONOMIC NEWS; Extension of Import Quota in Newsprint Not Approved; by Economic Policy Research Committee; Sin Wen Pao (KMT-supervised. C.C. Organ), Shanghai; April 1. 1917 .; Nanking, March 31 At a meeting called by the Economic Policy Research; Committee today to discuss the problem of newsprint Imports, it was decided; that, as the extension of the import quota in newsprint would call'for a huge; amount of foreign exchange, the Government should extend financial aid to; all privately-owned paper factories in order to boost their productive "ca-; pacity to meet the demands of various quarters.; * *; Japanese Drugs to Be Imported to China Again -; Ta Kung Pao (Independent. Political Scicnce Group), Shanghai; April 1. 194.7; Nanking, March 31—-All well-known doctors here received cards from *; the Japanese T.akeda Pharmaceutical Works today, wLich read in part: At; the present moment when 3ino-Japanese peace is restored, we are doubling; our efforts to manufacture products of better quality at-lower prices•and *; we beg to be favored with more orders from you." The cheap Japanese goods; will soon reappear oh the market of the victorious China -one-and a half; years after Japan was defeated,; . • 1 • - rf-*.i; -' . * * *; MISCELLANEOUS NEWS . ' ' . ,;.'; Bombs Found Behind Dresser by Girl in Hsih Htra -; • Nanking . - • -•: ' ->>•.; Lien Ho Wan Pao (Liberal-Leftist). Shanghai; March 31. 19A7; Nanking, March 31 Bombs 'have been found in many places in this city; during these -few'days, thus Causing great consternation among the local po-; pulace. According to press, reports", over 10 cases wherein explosives were; found have occurred here, and the Lungmen Resturant and the Police Bureau; were also involved,; According to a report published in the Nanking Jen Pao this morning, a; young girl who is staying in Room No. 12 in the Hsin Hwa Hotel on Tniping; Road suddenly found two bombs placed behind her dresser and got a great; fright.; * *; - 10 -; SPECIAL & FEATURE ARTICLES; Democratic League Marks Anniversary in Hongkong; Shih Tai Jih Pao (Soviet-owned), Shanghai; March 28, 19A7; Hongkong (from our correspondent Ho Wei-chih) The Hongkong-Kowloon; branch of the Democratic League was inaugurated on March 23, 194-6« At; that time, the GhiaochangkoU Incident in Chungking had just occurred and; the democratic press and publications everywhere were closed down, the; democratic movement suppressed, the PCC resolutions torn to bits, and the; civil war intensified. Today, a year from that time, the said branch office; held a first anniversary celebration meeting at the Lok Kowk Hotel in; Hongkong. The celebration was a magnificent affair, seldom witnessed in; this island Colony. The participants included such personages as veteran; Kuomintang member General Lee Chai-sum; Professor Ma Kam of Hongkong Uni-; versity; Director Chang Kuan-po'of Hongkong University Library; Chen Shu-kue,; representative of the San Min Chu I Comradeship Association; Wong Chin-; yut, representative of the Democracy Promotion Association; members of the; branch headquarters of the South China Office of the Democratic League,; Messrs. Lee Po-kow, Wang Yoh-min, Chien Ka-chu and Sum Chi-yuen; CP representa-; tives Messrs. Lum Ping and Lien Koon; and representatives of the Hongkong; Seamen's Union, China Labor Association and other public bodies. The hosts; and guests numberod over 300 people and the occasion was grandly celebrated.; Chairman Feng Yu-fong gave the opening address. He pointed out that; China's crisis is daily being aggravated but that the people all over the; country have been able to find out the exact course they should follow. So; the democratic movement, the patriotic movement and the anti-civil war move-; ment have all become one.; Mr. Lee Po-kow followed with an address on behalf of the Central Demo-; cratic League, while Mr. Wong Yoh-min represented the branch headquarters; of the South China Office of the Democratic League in delivering a speech.; The latter, besides making an analysis of the current international situa-; tion, also outlined the attitude of the Democratic League toward the dis-; cussion of the China problem by the Moscow Foreign Ministers' Conference.; He said that the League is opposed to any country interfering in China's do-; mestic affairs, but that if the three Foreign Ministers were to make an; inquiry to find out who had violated the resolution of the previous Moscow; Foreign Ministers' Conference and interfered in China's domestic issue, we; would surely welcome this act of goodwill.; At first Gen. Lee Chai-sum delivered an address on behalf of the guests.; He said: "Democracy means fairness and justice. In order to live as human; beings we must fight for the realization of democracy. In our motherland; today the undemocratic system of government makes it impossible for us to; live as human beings but instead compels the people to become running dogs; and bad men under an unfair and unjust political environment. At present,; lots of people say that the Democratic League shouts for democracy just like; the Communists, so they call the Democratic League an apoendage to the CP.; This is indeed a most ridiculous statement. May we ask, if the Chinese Com-; munists must eat every day in order to live, must we give up eating just; because we are afraid to be called their appendage? So I want to urge every-; one not to be daunted by slanders and rumors and not to be afraid of oppres-; sion and attack. We must fight for democracy courageously. We must fight; for human rightsl"; Professor Ma Kam of Hongkong University made a brief address saying:; "Right after V-J Day we were gloriously referred to as one of the Big Four; or Big Five. How long a time has elapsed since others considered us as such?; Nov; not only nobody looks upon us as a Power, but we can hardly maintain our; prewar position of a semi-colony. Delving into the reasons, we come to these; two conclusions: (1) Undemocratic administration and (2) unceasing civil; strife. Democracy is the main trend of the world today. No backward force or; power can check this trend, while it is certain that one-party rule cannot; - 11 -; go on forever. Anti-civil war is the common hope and wish of all the; people of China, and worshippers of might will invariably fail in the end."; Director Chen Kuan-po of Hongkong University Library followed with this; statement: "People have created lots of rumors about me. They say that; I am a member of the Democratic League. In fact, I am not qualified to be a; Leaguer. Nevertheless, I fully indorse and sympathize With the Democratic; League's political aims and views."; Chen Shu-chu, representative of the San Min Chu I Comradeship Asso-; ciation, said: "I speak on behalf of the San Min Chu I Comradeship Associa-; tion. This Association is the democratic faction of the Kuomintang. We; must save the well as the country, and We wish to join hands with; all democratic parties and factions in struggling for the realization "; of democracy."; Lastly, Chow Yin, representative of the China Labor Association, and; Wong Chin-yut, representative of the Democracy Promotion Association, each; in turn delivered a speech. It is learned that recently the various demo-; cratic parties and factions here entered into negotiations with one another; regarding the organization of a united organ as well as the reorganization; of personnel of various grades so as to concentrate their strength on extend-; ing the democratic movement here.; * * *; CHINESE PRESS fiEYIEW . '.; * * *; American Consulate General, Shanghai, China; No.JL.1 . April 2, 1947; EDITORIAL COMMENT; The Question of Where ,the Pea.ce Conference on '; Japan Should Be, Held , •; Ta ICung Pao (independent. Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 2, 1947; Certain high Allied officials in Japan feel that the peace conference; on Japan should be held in Tokyo, We are deeply interested in this ques-; tion and would like to openly discuss it in these columns.; The peace conference on Japan is a Far Eastern question. Of all the; countries in the Far East, China suffered the most from the war. She was; also the first country to be invaded by the Japanese and resisted Japanese; aggression the longest, so, in principle, China should play host to this; conference.; The Japanese surrender document was signed on board the U.S. battleship; "Missouri"'in Tokyo Bay, so it seems to us that the peace conference should"; not be held in Tokyo. There are other reasons why the peace conference; should not be held in Tokyo: (l) Japan is, in effect, under the occupation; of United States forces alone, and since Tokyo is under the military occu-; pation of one nation alone, it lacks an atmosphere of freedom. (2)'.Before; the peace treaty is agreed upon, it must be kept s.3ret. Tokyo is the; Capital of Japan, and in Japan, a defeated country to which punishment is; being meted out, it is difficult to keep secrets. Moreover, Tokyo is filled; with sympathy frith, and compassion for, a defeated country, a fact which; would be very favorable to secret service activities on the part, of the; Japanese. ( 3 ) It would be difficult to learn in Tokyo the reactions of public; opinion in the Allied nations, for up to the present" Japan is still blockaded; and does not enjoy the freedom of sending or receiving news despatches. For; this-reason, the outside world t/ould not be kept informed of developments in; the peace conference and the people of the Allied countries would be unable; to express their views based on their differing interests. Finally, the; holding of the peace conference in Tokyo would naturally hurt the feelings; of the Japanese people. The signing in Tokyo of a peace treaty which will; bind Japan would engender more bitterness on the part of the Japanese than; educational value.; If circumstances permit, it would be best to make Changchun the site; for the peace conference on Japan, because it was the Capital of puppet; "Manchukuo" and because the Sino-Japanese conflict was brought about by the'; Mukden Incident of September 18th, 1931. Moreover, while Changchun has the; same facilities as Tokyo, it does not have the same defects that Tokyo has.; Otherwise, Hongkong or Manila would also be a suitable site for'the peace; conference.; Summing up, we feel that the peace conference on Japan had better hot; be held in Japan, nor should it be held in the far-away Western .Hemisphere.""; (Summary) # - .; * * *; Soviet Russia Should Prize the Friendship of the Chinese; People; Shun Pao (KMT-supervised. C.C. Organ). Shanghai; April 2. 1947; We are not only without any prejudice against Soviet Russia, but are; quite willing to befriend her. The demonstrations recently staged by the; - 2 -; Chinese peoole were not an an';i-Soviet movement, but were designed merely; to voice opposition to Moloto-r«s proposal to the Foreign Ministers Con-; ference which was an insult to China. We hone that after this storm, rela-; tions between China and Soviet Russia will beeore even closer than before.; All we hope for is that Soviet Russia will be able to carry out fully; the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Alliince, and whether or not she will return Dairen; and Port Arthur to the Chines® Government will largely determine whether; she is willing to carry out the treaty. If only Molotov will learn the les-; son of the past by changing the f-'rm of his diplomacy immediately, a new; page in the history of Sino-Scviet relations will appear before our eyes; immediately. (Summary); * * *; Dairen, a City Which Can Be Seen But Cannot let Be; Taken Back; Yi Shih Pao (Chinese Catholic Organ), Shanghai; April 2. 19A7; We can hardly believe that Soviet Russia, which has only recently pro-; posed at the Moscow Foreign Ministers Conference that the Chinese question; be brought up for discussion there and. which has flatly rejected the oro-; posal that China be made one of the inviting nations for the peace conference; on Germany, would prize China's friendship and faithfully carry'out the; Treaty in connection with the Dairen question alone, Soviet Russia certainly; will not hand over Dairen to China', unless and until her attempt at black-; mail has proved a complete failure and her grabbing has been crowned with; a reasonable degree of success. On the one hand, we see the tense situation; obtaining at the Pulantien front, and on the other hand, we see the diploma-; tic efforts being made at Nanking. Under these circumstances, we cannot; help being anxious about the situation. (Summary); * * *; Enactment of Laws Governing Enforcement of Constitution; Chung Yang Jih Pao (KMT Organ), Shanghai; April 2. 19A7; In a short period of time the Supreme National Defense Council has; drawn up ten laws. These ten laws are based on the provisions of the Cons-; titution and upon the views of those Legislative Yuan members who represent; the various democratic political parties and non-partisan leaders in China.; In other words, they are the crystallization of the opinion of the people; throughout the country and are documents that are not designed to serve any; selfish ends. We are sure that the National Assembly, the Legislative Yuan; and the Control Yuan organized in accordance with these laws will be com-; patible with the letter and spirit of the Constitution and will make it; possible for the Constitution to be implemented in full. Moreover, from the; fact that the National Government has enacted the laws governing the; enforcement of the Constitution within the period of time specified, we can; see that the National Government will also enforce the Constitution within; the period of time specified, (Summary); * * *; Today's News; (Short Comment); •; Sin Min Wan Pao (Liberal). Shanghai; April 1. 19A7; The main news items in this morning's rtTa Kung Pao" are: "The National; Government announces the laws governing the enforcement of the Constitution,"; and "The Association for the Enforcement'of the Constitution adopts proposal; requesting the Government to abolish laws that are contrary to the provisions; of the Constitution, to protect the rights of the people, and to probe the; cases of the disappearance of persons."; - 3 -; We only hope that the above news is no April Fool's Day news. (Full; Translation); ' * * *; Insulting the Dead; (Short Comment); Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist). Shanghai; April 1. 19A7; A case of an .American Marine killing a Chinese woman has occurred in; Tsingtao. According to a statement published by the American Military; Police, this woman was shot to death by the American Marine because she was; approaching the U.S. Navy's surplus supplies depot presumably with the in-; tention to steal.; It is highly doubtful whether the true facts of the case were actually; like this. For instance, in connection with the Wang Feng-hsi case, at; first the Americans also said that Wang approached the American defense area; • and attempted to jump over the barbed-wire entanglements, and that was why; he was shot at, However, it was later found out that this was not at all; true.; After an American Marine had killed a Chinese, the American authorities; still wanted to cover up the crime of that American Marine and even went; so far as to have falsely accused the victim of being a thief who attempted; to steal. One certainly cannot help resenting such an insult. (Full Trans-; lation); * -«• *; A Batch of New Ghosts; Lien Ho Wan Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; April 1. 19A7; A United Press despatch from Peiping today reports that during .their; recent manoeuvres, the American forces in Peiping killed three Chinese; children and wounded another three. During the same day, a U.S. Marine in; Tsingtao shot a Chinese woman to death. Naturally, like' the Wang Feng-hsi; case of not very long ago wherein Wang was shot to death by a U.S. Marine,; these more recent cases will either be attributed to "misunderstanding" or; be called "accidental".; We cannot bear to believe that this woman and these children have been; wilfully shot to death by U.S. servicemen. However, these successive; tragedies will certainly arouse the indignation of the Chinese people, even; if they were accidental or due to misunderstanding. Why should the American; servicemen have shot point-blank at a Chinese woman and Chinese children?; Anyhow, the cause of this fact must be investigated. (Full Translation); * * *; Other editorials not translated: Dated April 2. 19A7; Chien Sien Jih Pao, Shanghai — The Failure of the Attempt, at In-; tervention in China's Domestic; Affairs " ' .p-; Chin Yung Jih Pao, Shanghai — There Is No Need for a Change in the; Government Banking System: •; Shang Pao, Shanghai -- Optimistism Prevailing in Economic; Circles; Lih Pao, Shanghai — On the Provisions re the Protection; of Labor Contained in Laws Governing; the Enforcement of the Constitution; Cheng Yien Pao, Shanghai; Chung Hwa Shih Pao, Shanghai; Ho Ping Jih Pao, Shanghai; Sin Wen Pao, Shanghai; POLITICAL M S; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; April 2, 19A7; The U.S. Dollar Government Bonds; Must Be Sold in All; On the U.S. Dollar Government Bonds; 1) The Struggle for Democracy and; Constitutionalism; 2) Internal Rebellion Must Be Quelled; and National Unification Must; Be Achieved in Order to Enforce; the Constitution; The Promulgation of Ten Laws Govern-; ing. the Enforcement of the Cons-; titution; *; Minority Parties Said to Have Brought Forth Fresh; Demands to Government; Nanking, April 1 According to information revealed by concerned; quarters, the Democratic Socialist and the Young China Parties have recently; brought forth fresh demands to the Government, namely, besides urging the; Kuomintang to allow them to share the local Government administration, they; have also demanded their participation in six ministries of the Executive; Yuan and hoped that they will be able to take up at least one ministry which; is not technical In nature,; For this reason, Lei Chen, Government representative, who was scheduled; to return here from Shanghai yesterday morning, postponed his-departure.; Last evening he told a certain top ranking Government official here over; the long distance telephone about this matter and asked the latter to solicit; instructions from the competent authorities in his behalf.; * * *; Chen Lih-fu to Become Chairman of National Economic; Council; Tung Nan Jih Pao (Eg Southeast China Organ) . Shanghai'; April 2. 19A7; Nanking, April 1—The economic reform plan, drafted by Chen Lih-fu,; Minister of organization, which was submitted to the Third Plenary Session; of the Kuomintang CEC, has been highly lauded by all circles. It"is learned; that 'Mr, Chen will be appointed Chairman of the National Economic Council.; * * -*; Relations • Between Kuomintang and San Min Chu I Youth; Corps Not Yet Decided Upon; Cheng Yien Pao (Local KMT Organ)". Shanghai; April 2. 19LI; Nanking, April 1 Though informal meetings were held during the Third; Plenary Session of the Kuomintang CEC to discuss the question of relations; between.the Kuomintang and the San Min Chu "I Youth Corps, yet no decision has; been made in this connection. It is learned that this problem has been handed; over to the Central Standing Committee of the Kuomintang for further discus-; sion. Whether the Party and the Corps will be merged with or entirely separated; from each other will be decided upon shortly.; * * *; - 5 -; National Police Administration Conference to Be; Held in Nanking Shortly; Ta Rung Pao (Independent, Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 2, 19A7; Chungking, April 1 The Police Administration Department of the Minis-; try of the Interior has decided to convoke a national police administration; conference in Nanking early this month. The purpose of this conference; will be to cocrdinate with the reorganization of the Government and to pre-; pare for the enforcement of the Constitution, therefore this meeting will be; a very important one.; * * *; Authorities in Peiping form Special Organization to; Suppress Student Movement; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; April 2, 19A7; Tientsin, April 1—The Party,government and San Min Chu I Youth Corps; authorities in Peiping have recently formed a joint organization to sup-; press all kinds of student movements in that city. It is reported that the; students of the Yenching and the National Tsing Hwa Universities have been; regarded as main objectives of the said organisation.; * * -*; Democratic Socialist Party Delegates Express Determination; to Do Their Utmost to Safeguard Human Eights; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist). Shanghai; April 2., 19A7; (Local News) Upon his return here from Nanking, the delegate of the; Democratic Socialist Party who attended the meeting of the Association for; the Enforcement of the Constitution revealed that according to the resolution; passed by the Association, the family members of those who are-placed under; arrest by illegal means may report to any member of the Association who will the; report to the Association so that the latter may request the Central authori-; ties to conduct a close probe into those cases. He disclosed that there are; many members of the Association in this city. The Democratic Socialist; Party delegates are not afraid of any trouble in doing their part in safe-; guarding human rights. Family members of any missing citizen may proceed; to the General Headquarters of the Party at House 31 Lane 74-9 Yu Yuen Road; to report the incident. * .; * * *; Mayor K.C. Wu Calls on Carson Chang; Ta Rung Pao (independent. Political Science Group). Shanghai; April 2. 19LI; (Local News)—Mayor K.C. Wu called on Mr. Carson Chang, Chairman of the; Democratic Socialist Party, at Fanyuen Villa at 5 o'clock yesterday afternoon.; It should be recalled that Mr. Chang in behalf of the China International; Civil Liberties Defense Association wrote a letter to the Mayor inquiring; of the latter about the cases of disappearance of citizens in the city. In; his visit to Mr. Chang, Mayor Wu promised to do his utmost to safeguard the; personal freedom of all the citizens residing in this city.; •* * #; China International Civil Liberties Defense; Association Busy in Registering Cases of; Hissing Persons; Ta Kung Pao (Independent, Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 2, 1947; (Local News) Family members of a number of missing citizens both in; Shanghai and in the Northeast have registered with the China International; Civil Liberties Defense Association during these faw days. Realizing that; this task is a burdensome one, the Association will hold a joint meeting of; its executive committee and staff shortly to discuss this matter.; * * *; 5,000 U.S. Marines Remain in Peiping, Tientsin; and Tsingtao; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist). Shanghai; April 2. 1947; (Local News) According to the estimation of reliable quarters, there; are still 5,000 U.S. Marines remaining in Peiping, Tientsin and Tsingtao.; * * *; Chinese Children in Peiping Killed and Injured as; Result of Explosion of U.S. Shell; Ta Kung Pao (independent. Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 2. 1947; Peiping, April 1 After conducting an artillery practice at Sishan; today, U.S. Marines gave a shell to the Chinese children to play. Ignorant; as the children were, they played rath this .free gift which afterwards ex-; ploded. As a result, three of them were killed, two of whom were named; Siao Lu, Siao Wu and the third one could not be identified, while the; other three named Soong Chi-you, ̂ hen Ta-chwang, and Yang Erh Ting were; injured.; The wounded children said that the U.S. Marines jokingly offered to; sell them the shell but they didn't want to buy it as they had no money.; Then the U.S. Marines gave it to them to play. Hence the tragedy ensued.; For many times Sishan has been made the target of U.S. artillery fire; for the purpose of maneuver, so it has been badly scarred,; * * *; U.S. Marine in Tsingtao to Be Tried Upon Charge of; Murder; Ta Kung Pao (IndependentT Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 2, 1947; Tsingtao, April 1 The culprit involved in the stabbing of the ricshaw; puller, Su Ming-chen, with a knife and causing his death was found out by; the U.S. MP to be a Filipino who served the U.S. Marines here. Both Chinese; and U.S. quarters are giving much attention to this case and will organize a; mixed tribunal to try it.; * * *; - 7 -; Sino-French Temporary Civil Aviation Agreement; Will Not Be Extended on Expiration; Sin Wen Pao (KMT-supervised. C.C. Organ), Shanghai; April 2. 19A7; Nanking, April 1 Our reporter has just learned from the diplomatic; circles that the Chinese Government had delivered an official communication; to the French Embassy late last night, notifying the French Government that; the Temporary Agreement on the Civil Aviation Route via Indo-China could not be; extended on expiration at the end of June, but declaring that the Chinese; Government would agree to the extension of the operation of the existing; Sino-French Aviation Route via Saigon provided that certain measures would; be amended after further negotiations.; * * *; MILITARY NEWS "; Bitter Fighting Continuing in Wayaopao Area in; • North Shensi; Ta Rung Pao (independent, Political Science Group). Shanghai; April 2, 19A7; Peiping, April 1—During these few days the Government and CP troops; have been locked in a bitter fight in the Wayaopao area. Both sides have; suffered heavy casualties. According to quarters who are familiar with the; situation in North Shensi, the CP has built twp cities-in that area, one; on the right and the other on the left?.'" mk\F M ^ h e buildings in the_; city on the right are' occupied by Government agencies and schools, while in; the city on the left there are the CP Military and- Political University; and garrison forces. The latter aity has" been made a strong fortress. Since; it is built on a high plateau "and separated by the Tsingchien River from the; city on the right, the CP will be able to dominate over the city on the; right so long as it holds out the -one on the left. • After entering.the city; on"the right, the Government forces instantly met with stubborn resistance; of the CP troops stationed in the one on the left. Meanwhile, the CP troops; have brought large reinforcements to unleash a counter-offensive against the; attacking forces, thus leading to the outbreak of the •bitterest fight between; the armed forces of these two rival parties since the entry, of the Govern-; ment forces into North Shensi. At present fighting is in progress under; heavy snow. The occupation of Wayaopao will have a far-reaching effect on; the military situation in North Shensi. - - :; * '; CP Troops in Central Hopei Move Westward; Sin Wen Pao (KKff-supervised. C.C. Organ). Shanghai; April 2. 19A7; Paoting, April 1—Redisposition of the CP troops in areas between Pao-; ting and Shihchiachuang is being made. During these few days, Nieh Jung-; tsen's men have moved westward from Central Hopei. The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and; 10th brigades under Nieh's command have reached the outer ring of Tenghsien; and are erecting defense there in an attempt to prevent the Government forces; from gaining control of the Shihchiachuang-Paoting line. The New 7th Brigade; under Li Chung-i's command has reached Tsingliangchen over AO li south of; Paoting.; * * * V 0; - 8 -; Li Hsien-nien's CP Troops in Hupeh Attempt to; Renew Attack on Szechuan; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; April 2. 19A7; Chengtu (By Mail), March 27 The Szechuan Provincial People's Council'; lors, Li Chung-liang and Cheng Shao-chih, submitted reports to the resident; committee meeting of the Council on March 27, stating that over 1,000 CP; troops under Li Hsien-nien's command launched an attack on Wushan in; three directions on January 26. After being repulsed by the Government; forces, they retreated to the Patung area on the border of Szeohuan; and Hupeh. However, they are recently attempting to renew their attack; on Szechuan, the reports added. Due to the activities of Li Hsien-nien's; CP troops in the areas of Hsuanan and Kefeng in Hupeh, the situation in; Chienkiang has also become tense. Garrison headquarters has been organized; there to prepare for any eventuality. On the evening of March 11, Li's men; attacked and occupied a vital point in Kefeng which is only 130 li from; Chienkiang, therefore the situation there is exceedingly tense. Upon re-; ceiving this unpleasant news, the Provincial People's Councillors elected; Li Chung-liang and others as representatives to call on General Teng-Shih-; hou, Director of the Pacification Headquarters in the Szechuan-Sikong area; shortly to request him to keep a close watch over the situation prevailing; in those bandit-infested areas. Meanwhile, they will also file a petition; with the Generalissimo's Headquarters in Chungking to draw the latter's; attention to this matter.; It is learned that the dissolution of the Pacification Headquarters in; the Szechuan-Hunan-Hupeh-Kweichow area 'Till also be postponed.; According to local press reports, Li Hsien-nien's CP troops are active; in the Shihchu and Wankuo areas on the Szechuan-Hu .eh border.; * * *; Abie-Bodied Men in Kiangnan to Be Drafted as from the; Lattcr Half of thC Tear; Ta Kung Pao (independent. Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 2. 19A7; Chenkiang, April 1 The drafting of able-bodied men in the Nanking-; Shanghai area and various hsiens in Kiangnan will be started as from the lat-; ter half of/yi%r. Able-bodied men of ages between 20 and 25 will; be drafted first.; * * *; ECONOMIC HEMS; I Chung Industrial Corporation to Be Set Up Soon; by Bank of China; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai '; April 2. 19A7; Tientsin, March 31 The Bank of China has invested CN§>1,000,000,000; in the I Chung Industrial Corporation which will soon be organized. The; main office is to be located in Shanghai and an edible oil refinery will; first be established in Tsingtao. Dr. H.H. Kung is the managing director; of this Corporation and Wang Yang-hsien Is the general manager.; * *; - 9 -; Government Decides to Stop Purchasing Tea; Sin Wen Pao (KMT-supervised. C.C. Organ), Shanghai; April 2, 1947; (Gentral News Agency) As a result of views exchanged between the tea; merchants and the Bank of China and the Farmers' Bank of China during the; past several days, the Government has decided to stop purchasing tea with; the understanding that hereafter the tea merchants should exert their utmost; to promote the export business.; * * *; Industry in North Kiangsu to Be Developed; Sin Wen Pao (KB/IT-supervised. C.C. Organ), Shanghai; April 2, 1947; Haichow, March 23—It is learnt from concerned quarters that, in order; to rehabilitate North Kiangsu and develop industry there, the Kiangsu Pro-; vincial Government has decided to carry cat an electrification pro-; gram in the province, whereby central power plants will be established in; Haichow, Huaiyin and Nantung to facilitate supplies of electric power. The; plant in Haichow will be capable of supplying ^,000 kilowatts, that in; Huaiyin 6,000 k.w, and that in Nantung 2,000 k.w.; * *; Mr. Chien Hsin-tze Talks on China Fu Chung Corporation; Sin Wen Pao (KMT-supervlsed. C.C. Organ). Shanghai; April 2. 1947; (Local News) Our reporter called on Mr. Chien Hsin-tzo, Managing; Director of the China Fu Chung Corporation, inquiring of him about a news; report carried by the United Press that the said Corporation has been en-; joying special privileges in China's import and export trade. Mr. Chien told; our reporter that the capital of the China Fu Chung Corporation is CNf?300,-; 000,000, which is being invested by the Bank of Communications, the Kincheng; Bank, the Bank of China and the Native Goods Bank, that there are no private; investments in the Corporation, that the directors and supervisors are all; elected by the representatives of the banks concerned and that all applica-; tions for import licences and foreign exchange srs made in accordance with; the stipulations of the Government . similar to those made' by other importers,; *; NEWS OF CULTURE & EDUCATION; Prominent Writer to Take Up Teaching Job in; Yenching University; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist). Shanghai; April 2, 1947; Tientsin, April 1 The School of Arts of Yenching University has written; a letter to Lou She requesting the latter to join its faculty,; Lou She is now on a lecture tour in the United States. It is learned that he; will come to the North to take up the teaching job after he returns to China; from the States.; * * * V 0; SPECIAL & FEATURE ARTICIES; Bandit Situation in Kwangtung Province; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; March 29, 19 A7 "; Canton, March 23 (By Mail) Wei Chen-fu, Vice Commander of the; Kwangtung Provincial Peace Preservation Headquarters, attended the press; conference held by the Press Bureau of the Kwangtung Provincial Government; on the 22nd instant and made the following report on bandit suppression in; this province:; I. Distribution of bandits: During the early stages of postwar re- •; habitation, there were over 38,000 bandits in the ..hole Kwangtung province.; After one and a half years of suppression, the number of bandits has been; reduced by two-thirds and only some 12,000 men still remain. These bandit; remnants are distributed more or less as follows:'.*; (1) On Hainan Island, the organized bandits under bandit leader Feng; Pai-chu, who number over 5,000 men, are equipped with about 100 heavy and; light machineguns, over 60 sub-machineguns and 4,000 rifles.; (2) In South Kwangtung, there are about 2,500 organized bandits,; among whom are some militiamen who sneaked in from Inao-China.; (3) In the North River area, there are about 500 organized bandits; under the leadership of Wu Hsin-min.; (A) In Central Kwangtung, there are about 300 to Z.00 organized bandits; led by Hwang Ta-tung.; (5) In the East River area, over 1,000 bandit remnants are scattered; in the Wuhwa, Haifeng, Lufeng and Huiyang areas.; (6) In the Han River area, peace and order is comparatively better; maintained than, in other areas, though there are still a few scattered bandits; in Hoyuan and Lienping.; II. Bandit-suppressiofi situation: Since the transfer of Nationalist; troops to the North, the Peace Preservation Headquarters here has been solely; responsible for directing the bandit-suopression campaign. However, the; actual strength of the Peace Preservation Corps Is only 10 detachments,; which is hardly adequate. At present 6 of these detachments are distributed; on Hainan Island and the remaining four scattered in the East River and; North River areas and South and Central Kwangtung.; III. Causes of failure of campaign: The bandit bands are well rooted; and firmly established,and at present there are still over 5,000 bandit rem-; nants hiding in the thick forests south of Limko. Causes of failure to ex-; terminate the bandits in South Kwangtung are:; (1) No troops in that part of the province; (2) militiamen s'neaking-; in from Indo-China; and (3) activities of CP elements.; Now, the entire scheme for bandit suppression has already been decided; on at the recent Pacification Conference convened by Gen. Chang Fa.-k.7ei,; Director of the Generalissimo's Headquarters in Kwangtung. Lin ling, Com-; mander of the South China Division Administrative District, has been en-; trusted with the task of carrying out this scheme.; In conclusion, Vice-Commander Wei Chen-fu said with a sigh: "The num-; ber of bandits in this province is not very great. The difficulty lies in; the inadequacy of military strength. If a battalion of peace preservation; police force can be put to work in each and every hsien, then banditry will; no longer constitute a menace in this province."; * * *; E N D; CHINESE PRESS REVIEW * * *; American Consulate General, Shanghai, China; No. J312 _ _ A£ril_3j. 19£7_ _; EDITORIAL COMMENT; Freedom and Government by Law; Chung Yang Jih Pao (KMT Organ)Shanghai; Aoril 3. 194.7; •  i; At its third meeting, the Association for the Enforcement of the Cons-; titution passed a resolution calling for protection of the people's freedom.; This is certainly a step that should be taken in preparation for the enforce-; ment of the Constitution. Legislation is designed to produce good govern-; ment, and observance of the laws Is essential to the protection of freedom.; The actions of those who violate the people's rights should be corrected,; but even more should the actions of those who undermine the country and so-; ciety be corrected.; Now, the Communists disrupt communications -:id disturb law and order; everywhere, which is detrimental to the people's freedom. They have also; been violating the people's freedom by impeding, national reconstruction; and increasing poverty. These great impediments must be removed as soon as; possible.before the enforcement of the Constitution, so that tHe latter can; be effectively and smoothly implemented. (Summary); * * *; Uphold the Constitution and Quell the Rebellion"; A blow should be dealt the anti-democratic forces —; Ho Ping Jih Pao (KMT Army Organ), Shanghai; April 3, 194-7; The Chinese Communist Party, a group engaged in international intrigue,; is world-wide in scope arid has a long history. Their real aim is to oppose; the country and the people, thereby destroying China as an independent na-; tion and- exterminating the Chinese race. How can such an organisation,; which is bent on doing harm_to the country and the people and on destroying; China as an independent nation, be reconciled with constitutional democracy?; As for the Democratic League, it had no "soul" from the very begin-; ning. That is why, eventually, it has allowed itself to be dominated by; those who sympathise with the Chinese Communist Party and who have Intrigued; and rebelled against their Fatherland. Those individuals who have high; ideals and those parties and factions which have high political ideals have; found it necessary to sever their relations with this group, so that they; may step onto the broad path to constitutional democracy. However, those; who have allowed their selfish interests to muddle their own thinking con-; tinue to be obstinate "and have dared openly to accept the "legacy" of the; Communists and to welcome international intervention. Can such a group still; be called a political group?; The masses should rise and, under the leadership of the wise and sacred; Leader, urge the different parties and factions as well as the people through-; out the country to uphold the Constitution and to quell all types of rebel-"; lion, so as to realise constitutional, democracy and to fulfil" the historic; mission of the San Min Chu I Nationalist revolution. (Summary); * * *; 2 -; Decisive Stage of Foreign Ministers Conference; Sin Wen Pao (KMT-supervised, C.C. Organ), Shanghai; April 3. 1947; The Moscow Four Foreign Ministers Conference has been in session for; three weeks now, but the discussions on the peace treaties with Germany and; Austria can be said to have achieved no results at all. We have every reason; to believe that if no progress is made in the near future, General Marshall; will have no alternative but to return to the United States. From this it; can be seen that the ensuing week is the decisive stage of the Four Foreign; Ministers Conference.; Marshall has a good knowledge of Soviet Russia. Shortly after the; conclusion of World War II, he said, "Today a nation's offensive power is; the only effective means of defending itself successfully." Politically,; his dissatisfaction with the Soviet type of democracy was very,clearly Indi-; cated when he defined democracy at a recent session of the Moscow Conference.; There can be no doubt that Marshall is at present the most imoortant; personage that represents U.S. foreign policy. He wants to see democracy; and peace achieved in the world, and is willing to cooperate with the So-; viet Union, but he is not an idealist like Woodrow Wilson, nor will he falter; as Byrnes has done. We hope that at this critical" juncture, the Soviet; authorities, who are noted for their ability to themselves to all; sorts of situations, will be able to create a new situation and will convert; danger into safety by making it possible for the peace treaty with Germany; to be completed and for foundation of world peace to be laid. (Summary); * * *; Tacit Agreement Regarding Troop Withdrawal; (Short Comment); Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; April 3, 1947; Following the announcement by the Soviet Union that Soviet troops in; Dairen are going to withdraw, the U.S. Marines in China are also accelerating; their withdrawal, and Admiral Cooke issued a statement to this effect yes-; terday.; From this statement we can see that in the past the so-called withdrawal; of U.S. troops in China'was but gesture, and that it was not until the So-; viet troops in Dairen had decided to withdraw that the United States had; begun seriously to withdraw her troops in Ghina,; Then, .judging from the fact that both the U.S. and Soviet forces in; China are withdrawing and from the U.S. State Department's statement reaffirm-; ing that the US$500,000,000 loan to China will only be made on two condi-; tions (namely, the restoration of order in China and the broadening of the; basis of the Chinese Government), we can see that, although the United States; and the Soviet Union have not been able to see eye to eye on the Chinese; question, yet, as a matter of fact, both sides are gradually loosening their; grip on China, hoping that through this tacit agreement an understanding can; be reached. In an atmosphere like this, it is highly probable that the mo-; ment Stalin and Marshall meet, relations between these two Powers in the; Far East will improve. (Summary); * *; On the Diplomatic Blunders Committed by the Government; Lih Pao (General Labor Union Organ), Shanghai; April 3, 1947; Generally speaking, our foreign policy has been correct. But how has; this policy been executed?; First, it is plain that we have not had enough spirit of independence.; In the many international conferences, we have almost invariably followed; the lead of the United States, considering her views as our own.; Secondly, we have been pursuing too weak-kneed a policy toward Soviet •; Russia.; Thirdly, we have not been doing enough to protect the Chinese overseas.; Fourthly, the Three People's Principles require that we help the; weaker peoples to obtain equality, freedom and liberation. However, it is; obvious that our Government has ignored this important mission. (Summary); * * *; Whither Asia?; — On the epoch-making nature of the Pan-Asiatic Conference —; Ta Kung Pao (independent. Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 3. 19A7; We feel that the Pan-Asiatic Conference can be called a conference of; "backward but awakening" peoples. The common sincere desire of all the; Asiatic peoples during the past century has been that they may become the; masters of their own destinies.; Those non-Asiatics who have the racial consciousness and racial pre-; judices common to the great Powers cannot feel comfortable about the con-; ference that is now "in session in New Delhi. We wish seriously to point out,; however, that these are only the few but influential non-Asiatics. One of; the real purposes of the Pan-Asiatic Conference should be to awaken the; non-Asiatics» Once they have abandoned their traditional racial prejudices; and changed their past policy of exploitation and grabbing, really con-; sidering the Asiatics as their brethren, the Asiatics should forget their; past grievances and enthUsiatically participate in the important work of; building world peacej (Summary); * *; De Gaulle and Ramadier; Chung Hwa Shih Pao (Young China Party Organ), Shanghai; April 3. 1917; In view of the present complex European situation and world situation,; Ramadier's policy is worthy of admiration. Located between Britain and; America on the one hand and Soviet Russia on the other, France is a bridge; between the Eastern and Western worlds, and if France is unable to put her; own house in order and to establish friendly relations with other Powers; in the post-war period, she will doubtless find herself in a very embarrassing; position. In the recent local elections in France, the; MRP has already won more votes than the Communist Party, so if there is; real freedom of the press both at home and abroad, the people will natually; be able to make a wise choice. (Summary); * * *; Other editorials not translated: Dated April 3. 1947; Shang Pao, Shanghai; Shun Pao, Shanghai; Wen Hui Pao, Shanghai; Cheng Yien Pao, Shanghai; Chin Yung Jih Pao, Shanghai; Tung Nan Jih Pao, Shanghai; chien Sien Jih Pao, Shanghai; Yi Shih Pao, Shanghai; * *; Will the United States Reduce Her; Customs Tariff?; On the Normal School Education Cam-; paign; On Disciplinary Training in Schools; Rebellion Should 3e Suppressed by; Both Military and Political Means; On the Black Market Transactions in; Consolidated Government Borids; On the Improvement of School Morale; The Fight for Professional Representa-; tion in the Government; On the Cases of Missing Persons; POLITICAL NEWS; Democratic Socialist and Young China Parties; Nominate Delegates to Take Part in; Government; Ta Kung Pao (independent. Political Science Group") , Shanghai; April 3, 1947; (Local News) The lists of delegates of the Democratic Socialist and; the Young China Parties nominated to take part in the State Council, which; were passed at the meetings of their respective central standing committees; yesterday, were carried by Chiang Yun-tien and Tso Shun-sheng together with; Lei Chen, Government representative, to Nanking yesterday evening for sub-; mission to the Government,; After the meeting of its central standing committee yesterday, the Demo-; cratic Socialist Party issued a statement as follows: "According to the; decision of Carson Chang, Chairman of the Party, the Party will participate; in the State Council first and the list of delegates to take part in the; Council has been decided upon. Chairman Chang will proceed to Nanking to-; morrow to sign the 12-point Joint Administration Program."; A certain responsible official of the Party indicated that the dele-; gates nominated by the Party to the Government are Wu Hsien-tse, Hsu Fu-lin,; Hu Hai-men, and Tsi Yi-chiao as reported in our paper yesterday. In regard; to the Party's participation in the Executive Yuan, no concrete decision; was reached at the meeting. Upon being informed of the above decision; reached by the Democratic Socialist Party, the Yo,mg China Party also nominated; its delegates to join the State Council.; * * *; Representatives of Taiwan Residents in Nanking and; Shanghai Bring Forth Demands to National Defense; Minister; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist). Shanghai; April 3, 1947; ' Nanking, April' 2—-Over 20'representatives of the Taiwan residents in; Nanking and Shanghai led by Yang Shao-ka called on General Pai Chung-hsi at; his residence at Tapeihsiang today. The latter received them in person.; They brought forth the following 8-point demand, 1) Chen Yi who should be; held responsible for the murder of the Taiwanese, should immediately be relieve''; from his post of Governor of Taiwan and sent to Nanking to be court-martialled,; 2) Rigid measures should be adopted to maintain the discipline of the Govern-; ment force stationed in Taiwan, 3) The rural pacification campaign in Tai-; wan should be stopped, 4) The pledges made by the Government should be; - 5 -; fulfilled, arrested persons should be released and guarantee should be given; that those who were involved in the recent insurrection should be pardoned; and not to be punished, 5) An investigation group should be organized to; investigate the number of civilians who were killed and wounded during the; uprising as well as responsibility in the incident, 6) The victims should; be consoled and compensated, 7) jfill civilian papers should be allowed to; resume publication and they should be compensates by the Government for; their losses, 8) Several thousand young Taiwanese students who have gone to; hiding after the rebellion should be urged to return to their respective; schools and the policy of suppressing the uprising by armed force should be; abandoned,; * * *; Soviet Quarters Reported to Have Refused to Hand Over; Dairen to China; Sin Min Wan Pao (Liberal)T Shanghai; April 2. 19A7; Peiping, April 2—Passenger services.along the Chinese Changchun Rail-; way are now extended to Pulantien. According to an arrival from Dairen,; the areas in Dairen which Soviet quarters haVe notified the Chinese authori-; ties to take over represent even less than one-tenth of the territory of; Kwantungchow, Meanwhile, they have promised to let the Chinese Government; take over only a half of the Dairen City, while the other half will remain; under Soviet occupation. Furthermore, when the Chinese armed troops proceed; to take over Dairen, they will have to pass through the Soviet Army garrison; districts in Port Arthur, If the Chinese authorities accept these terms; from the Soviets, they will inevitably meet with great difficulties ahead; in taking over that city.- At present, 100,000 CP troops are stationed In; the vicinity of Dairen, of whom a part is Korean Army.; * * *; CP Troops Bring Reinforcements to Vicinity of; Dairen; Ta Kung Pao (independent. Political Science Group). Shanghai; April 3. 19A7; Mukden, April 2 According to an arrival from Dairen, after the re-; lease of the ne-s regarding the forthcoming taking over of Port Arthur and; Dairen by the Chinese Government, food merchants in the city put all their; stock to sale, thus causing an unprecedented slump in the price of foodstuffs.; During these few days, . CP troops in the vicinity of Dairen have brought; up more reinforcements from elsewhere by water. They wear some six or seven; kinds of insignia and their number is around 80,000. They are quite well; equipped, it is learned,; * * *; Hainan Island Has Been Made Province; Sin Wen Pao (KMT-supervised, C.C. Organ) , Shanghai; April 3. 19A7; Canton, April 2—After Hainan Island was made a province, the Parcel; Islands will be placed under the jurisdiction of the Hainan Provincial; Government. A report is current here that General Chang Fah-kuei, Director; of the Generalissimo* s Headquarters in Canton, will be appointed the first; Governor of Hainan.; * *; - 6 -; Possible Reorganization of the Generalissimo's; Headquarters In Chungking Reported; Ta Kung Pao (independent. Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 3, 194.7; Chungking, April 2 General Chang Chun, Governor of Szechuan, will be; appointed President of the Executive Yuan. A report Is current that the; Generalissimo's'Headquarters in Chungking will in all probability be reor-; ganized. Upon the telegraphic summons from General Chen Cheng, Chief of the; General Staff of the Chinese Army, Hsiao Yi -shu, C' lef-of-Staff of the; Headquarters, flew to Nanking and is expected to r-turn here shortly. His; trip has some connection with the forthcoming reorganization of the Head-; quarters. General Teng Shih-hou, Acting Governor of Szechuan, will soon be; appointed Governor of that Province, iinother report has it that General; Sun Chen will be appointed Director of the Pacification Headquarters in the; Szechuan-Sikong area* However, it has not yet been confirmed. According to; the decision hitherto reached by the competent authorities, the Pacification; Headquarters will have to be dissolved,; * * *; China and India to Start Negotiations on signing of; Commercial Treaty; Shun Pao (KMT-supervised. C.C. Organ). Shanghai; April 3, 194.7; Nanking, April 2—Negotiations on the signing of Sino-Indian Commercial; Treaty will be started here soon. It is learned that the return of Yeh; Kung-chao of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to China has some connection; with the negotiations,; * *; Another Incident Caused by U.S. Marine in Peiping; Sin Min Wan Pao (Liberal). Shanghai; April 2. 19A7; Peiping, April 2—-The cart driver Liu Yung-tsing from Tunghsien while; entering the city yesterday, was suddenly fired upon by. a U.S. Marine in a; jeep behind him. After that, the American drove away. The Chinese authori-; ties are now conferring with U.S. quarters on this Incident, it is learned.; •* *; American Newspaper Rebuked by Chinese Judicial Circles; for Attack on Chinese Coiu-ts; Sin Wen Pao (KMT-supervised, C.C. Organ), Shanghai; April 3. 194.7; (Local News) In connection with a Shanghai dispatch carried by the; New York World Telegram last month, in which the said paper launched a; scathing attack on local courts and cited five cases including the killing; of a ricshaw puller named Chwang Ta Erh-tse and the stabbing and wounding of; a pedicab driver named Cheng Jung-fang by one Rogers, a U.S. merchant marine,; to support their charges of incompetency on the part of the Chinese courts,; the Ministry of Foreign Affairs had forwarded a report made on this subject; by the Ministry of Information's office in the United States, to the Ministry; of Justice for transmission to local judicial organs for investigations and; enquiries.; A certain responsible person of local judicial circles is reported to; have said:; - 7 -; "The treatment of and judgments.on foreign offenders by the Chinese \; Courts have always been fair and just. The author of that report must have; been unfamiliar with the conditions in China and the provisions of the; Chinese law. The points raised by him are either the national amnesty being; mistaken for a reduction of sentence or vice versa. As regards the deten-; tion house, even the administrative heads are unable to enjoy steam heating; facilities. Moreover, it is customary for the Chinese courts to refuse to; allow the accused to bring his lawyer and interpreter during the period of; investigations. A report on how the Chinese courts handled these five cases; has now been made and submitted to the Ministry of Justice."; " •••:•• * * *; Mr. Chen Hsi-hao Talks about Kuomintang Activities; in S inkiang; Cheng lien Pao (Local; KMT Organ), Shanghai; April 3. 19A7; (Local News)—-Mr. Chen Hsi-hao, Secretary-General of the Kuomintang; Headquarters in Sinkiang Province, who arrived in Shanghai yesterday, said; that there were over 10,000 party members when he arrived in Sinkiang, but.; their strength has now grown to over 50,000 persons, 80 percent of which; are Uighurs. Altogether, there are over 50 "Hsien" KMT Headquarters in the; Province. However, no PIT Headquarters have yet been set up in Eli, A Shan; and Tah Cheng, he added.; # * *; Farmers in Punyu Protest.Against Monopoly of Farms; by Bureaucratic Capital; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; April 3. 19A7; Canton (By Mail) , March 27—100,000 farmers_ in Punyu, Kwangtung led; by Leong lui, Lum On and others recently sent a telegram to the Kwangtung; Provincial People's Council and the people's councils of various hsiens in; the province protesting against the Hing Nung (Agriculture Promotion); Corporation for its monopoly over the cultivation of their farms and appeal-; ing for help from the Councils.; It should be recalled that last year the Generalissimo's Headquarters; in Canton sealed all the puppet properties of the Traitor Li Fu-chun and; his henchmen including their farms in Punyu and later on authorised the; organization "Tsai Mun Tong" to cultivate these farms for a period of five; years. 100,000 farmers in Punyu are counting on these farms in maintaining; their living. Most recently, the "Tsai Mun Tong" transferred the right of; management over the farms in that area to.the APA of the Central Trust. Then; the A?A Biroctor'authorized the Hing Nung Corporation to take charge of these; farms and to lease.them to other farmers instead of the old tenants. Hence; the old tenants will be deprived of their means of livelihood.; ..MILITARY NEWS ' •; General Sun Lih-jen Appointed Vice Commander of; , — Government Army in Norther ~t; Sin Wen Pao (KMT-supervised. C.C. Organ). Shanghai; April 3. 19A7; Changchun, April 2—According to accurate information, General Sun; Lih-jen, Commander of the New 1st Army, has been appointed Vice Commander; of the Government force in the~Northeast, and the post left vacant,by him; will be taken up by Pan Yu-kwun, Commander of the 50th Division,; * * *; - 8 -; SPECIAL & FEATURE ARTICLES; Brief History of Chu Shao-liang, Rumored Governor-; Designate of Taiwan; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; March 27. 1947; During the past few days press reports have had it that the Taiwan; Governor's Office will be reorganized into a regular provincial government,; and that Governor Chen Yi will be removed and replaced by Chu Shao-liang.; Following is a brief history of the Governor-designate:; .A Military Man Belonging to the Central Government Clique; Chu Shao-liang, a native of Fukien, is a member of the Central Govern-; ment Clique. After the Northern Expedition he was made Commander of the; First Division of the Array. Later, he assumed the post of Chief-of-Staff; of the Pacification Army in Kweichow. As Commander of the "Eighth War Zone"; he had jurisdiction over Kokonor and Ninghsia, the two provinces where Moslem; influence is the strongest. The Governors of Kokonor and Ninghsia, Ma Hung-; quei .and Ma Pu-fang, respectively, are the most powerful of the five Moslem; generals surnamed Ma.; As Commander of the Eighth War Zone; During his tenure of office as Commander of the Eighth War Zone, Chu; carried out his mission with wisdom and tact. At first, Kokonor Governor; Ma Pu-fang's father Ma Ling, though anti-Communist, took precautions against; the entry of Central Government forces into Kokonor. However, Ma Pu-fang; who was dissatisfied with his father's ideas, turned pro-Central Government; instead. At the same time, great differences existed between Ninghsia; Governor Ma Hung-quei and Ma Ling. So, in 1935, prior to the outbreak of; Sino-Japanese hostilities the two Mas of Kokonor and Ninghsia went into; open conflict with each other,; /; When Chu Shao-liang became Commander of the Eighth War Zone he adopted; the same, measures used by the British in dealing with India, ousted Ma; Ling and placed his son Ma Pu-fang on the Governor's chair. This incident; softened Ninghsia's Ma Hung-quei who also yielded and followed in the steps; of Ma Pu-fang. Nevertheless, the differences existing between the two; Mas did not disappear on this account. On the contrary, their incongruities; only deepened.; As Director of Generalissimo's Office; After the reorganization of the National Military Council, Chu Shao-; liang was appointed Director of the Generalissimo's Office. The Generalis-; simo needed a reliable, trustworthy, tactful and shrewd person to take care; of the administration of military affairs, and Chu was found equal to the; task. Chu has the virtue of obedience to orders; also, he came from the; right Clique.; Going to Taiwan?; If the administrative system of Taiwan is to be changed, Chu Shao-liang; is the mos£ likely person to assume the post of Governor of Taiwan. In con-; nection with the recent riots in Taiwan, quite a few bigwigs of the Central; Government have blamed Communist intrigues for tho srtie. Should this allegation; be confirmed, the effect will be favorable to Chu; for he once directed the; anti-Communist campaign to which he made a valuable contribution, so that one; can trust him with the task of quelling the Taiwan rebellion now.; * -K-; %; MORE MILITARY M S; Hostilities Along Tsingpu Line Come to an End; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist). Shanghai; April 3, 1947; Nanking, April 2 According to a certain military observer, hosti-; lities along the Tsinpu line have come to an end and the center of fight-; ing will soon be shifted from the Tsinou line to the Peiping-Hankow line.; CP General Liu Po-chen1s men are now massing in the Shantung-Hopei-Honan; border region north of the Yellow River. According to his observation,; Liu1s men will in all probability pass through Hantan, proceed to the; Peiping-Suiyuan Railway and then head for Shansi Province, or pass through; Hsinhsiang and head for the Lunghai Railway. He pointed out that Liu's men; may take either of these two moves, because they are attempting to link up; with Wang Chen's troops which retreated to Southwest Shansi from North; Shensi and with Li Hsien-nien's force along the Lunghai line.; * * *; Rampancy of Bandits in South Kwangtung; Sin Wen Pao (KMT-supervised, C.C. Organ). Shanghai; April 3, 19A7; Canton, April 2—Local press reports have it that over 2,000 treacherous; bandits including some 100 Japanese soldiers launched an attack on Tungkiu; in Limkong area, South Kwangtung, at 3 p.m. on March 31. The 9th Detachment; of the Peace Preservation Corps stationed there offered resistance, and; the fight lasted until 5. Both sides suffered over 10 casualties either; killed or wounded. The attackers also besieged and attacked the "hsiang"; offices in Pingtan and Leongtung. After killing the hsiang chiefs and; seizing their arms, they left the places.; On March 30 the bandits also attacked Shekmoon in Wuchuang Hsien and; a place near Kwangchowwan. They set fire on a godov/n there and took; away the superintendent and his arms. It Is further learned that some 1,000; treacherous bandits who sneaked into the Luichow Peninsula from Hainan Island; have joined hands with another band of bandits who infiltrated into the same; Peninsula from French Indo-China. Other bands of bandits in Limkong and; Huahsien will also join hands with them.; * *; E N D; CHINESE PRESS REVIEW * * *; American Consulate General, Shanghai, China; J 1^ _ ' • _ _ADril_Aj. 19A7_; EDITORIAL COMMENT; Children's Day Observed with a Heavy Heart; Ta Kung Pao (Independent, Political Science Group), Shanghai; April A. 191,7; Today China's infant mortality is more than four times as high as that; of Europe, and in some parts of the country the custom of killing infants; and that of selling children still prevail. There are children everywhere; who have no opportunity for a schooling, and China's external and internal; troubles as well as the symptoms of her political, economic and social de-; gradation have had a telling effect upon both the mind and body of the; child* Our generation should create a better environment for the next; generation* We should at least make it possible for every child to have; ample opportunity for existence and for education. We must draw up and carry; out policies regarding the safeguarding of young children, the reform of; child criminals, the protection of child labor, the carrying out of the sys-; tem of compulsory free education, and supplying children with nutritious; food. We must not be content with empty slogans alone, but must actually; work for the realisation of those slogans. This is our obligation to his-; tory as well as to mankind. (Summary); * * *; Discussing the Problem of Children on Children's Day; Chung Yang Jih Pao (KMT Organ), Shanghai; April A. 19A7 ... ; /; If we are to convert children from "the private property of the family"; into "useful members of the country and the community", we must not only; change our present concept of children, but also reform our administrative; set-up and our social system. Under existing conditions in.China, the; State and the community bear no responsibility at all for the support and; education of children, and even the system of' compulsory free primary school; education, which has been adopted by most of the other countries In the world,; has not yet been extensively adopted in China.; To go a step further,'we may say that the educational problem is not; the most important phase of the child, problem in China, for the most serious; phase of this problem is that of the relief .and support of the millions of"; poor children. On the occasion of Children's Day, both the Government and; the people throughout the country should pay special'attention to this pro-; blem. (Summary); * * *; Think of Our Children and'Our Children's Children; — In observance of Children's Day --•; Sin Wen Pao (KMT-supervised. C.C. Organ). Shanghai; April A, 19A7; The child welfare work in this country has not only not made any pro-; gress, but has fallen below the pre-war standard. Refugees in the war-; stricken areas have been forced to abandon their children, and even in a great; metropolis like Shanghai, there are 100,000 children who have no opportunity; for a schooling, and there has been a case where a group of primary school; students, in their effort to get enrolled, have resorted to violence. In view; of the present situation, we are very much worried about the society of which; these children will be the key members in the future, (Summary); * * *; True Facts of the Situation; Chung Hwa Shih Pao (Young China Party Organ) , Shanghai; April 4. 1947; We have always felt that the process of democratising China must be; a gradual one. It is an undeniable fact that the Kunmintang cannot return; to one-party rule. The so-called reorganisation of the Government today; is not simply a reshuffle of'a part of the Government personnel, but is a; change in the system; it is not merely a change in form, but also a change; in psychology. That is why we demand not only the reform of the Central; Government, but also that of the local governments. We further demand the; reform of military affairs. If the local administrative power remains; forever in the hands of certain military men so that civilians have no; share in it, then the past effort of the ICuomintr. ig to overthrow the mili-; tarists will have been made in vain. The solutions of all these problems; requires the awakening and striving of the Kuomintrng itself. (Summary); * * *; Lesson Taught by Chen Yi's Failure; .. Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist) , Shanghai; April A, 1947; We must awaken, through the Taiwan incident, to the fact that wherever; government is not in harmony with the interests of the people,- then no mat-; ter how able the Government official who is charged with the task of im-; plementing the. Government's policy may be, he will fail, -̂ he failure of; this Government official is not his .personal failure, but rather the; failure of the policy which he has been implementing.; Although efforts are now being made to settle the Taiwan incident,; yet it will not necessarily be satisfactorily solved. The entire nolitical; situation in China also remains unsolved. It behooves us to ponder care-; fully the lesson taught by the Taiwan incident. (Summary); * * * ' >; The Japanese Question as We See It; Ho Ping Jih Pao (KHT Army Organ), Shanghai-; April 4. 1947 '; Our views on the Japanese question are as follows:; F-irst, the problem of-the democratization of Japanese politics. The; Liberal and Progressive Parties in the present Diet, which resulted -fl*om; last year's general elections, have been converted- from the Seiyukai and; the Minseito, respectively, so they are; still quite feudalistic in character.; The continued existence of the Emperor system indicates that the Japanese; Constitution is not democratic enough.; Secondly, the question of the peace conference. It would probably; be unwise to convene, the peace conference oirt-Japan" before- a democratic basis; .for Japanese politics is laid. We feel that before the conclusion of a peace; treaty: with Japan, the nations concerned should conclude a pact designed to; prevent aggression. Further, before the peace conference takes place,; the Allied_ nations should also_ reach agreement,on other problems, such as; that of reparations. China will not only ask for reparations-which will be; sufficient to compensate 4ier for the heavy losses'which'she sustained during; the war, but will ask that the principles governing reparations be such; that Japanese militarism will be done away with once for all, so that Japan; will become an_unarmed_, peaceful .nation forever... {.Summary).; -* * *; On the Question of the Take-over of Dairen; Lih Pao (General Labor Union Organ), Shanghai; April U, 1947 ,; Dairen is an integral part of Chinese territory. Why is that city; still in other people's hands?; First, our "friendly neighbors", the Soviets, have not withdrawn their; troops from Dairen within the time-limit set by the Sino-Soviet Treaty of; Alliance. Moreover, they have removed or destroyed large quantities of; materials and industrial and mining equipment in China's Northeast.; Secondly, the chaotic situation caused by these actions on the part of; the Soviet Union has been favorable to the armed rebellion staged by the; Chinese Communists. We cannot help resenting all the actions the Soviet; Union has talien in violation of the terms of the Treaty. All our Fellow-; countrymen should, out of their patriotism, urge the Government to fight; for the preservation of our national sovereignty. (Summary); * * *; The Wang Feng-hsi Case; (Short Comment); •Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist). Shanghai; April-A, 19/.?-; The U.S. Marine who shot Wang Feng-hsi to death has now been acquitted]; The press of Peiping has unanimously criticised the judgment handed down; by the U.S. Marine authorities as being too unjust and"the local Chinese; authorities as being too weak.; As a.matter of fact, since the Chinese Government has, one and a half; years after the conclusion of the war," invited the U.S. forces to remain in; China, thus requesting the Americans to violate China's sovereignty, what; harm does it do to let American servicemen improve their marksmanship and; get some pleasure at the expense of the lives of one or two Chinese children?; There will be further incidents like this as time goes on. (Full Trans-; lation); Other editorials not translated:; Tung Nan JIh Pao, Shanghai; Yi Shih Pao, Shanghai; Cheng Yien Pao, Shanghai; Shang Pao, Shanghai; Chien Sien Jib Pao, Shanghai; Chin Yung .Jih Pao, Shanghai .; Dated Aoril L, 19/.7; We Must Closely Watch Commodity Prices; The Seedlings of the Nation Should; Be Well Nurtured; A Permanent Organization Should Be; Set up for the Purpose of Promoting; Child-Welfare; The Turning Point of Industrial and; Commercial Enterprises in China; Give Attention to the Nurture of; Children; On Economic Reconstruction in China; * * *; POLITICAL NEWS; Reorganization of State Council to Take Place; After Return of President Chiang to Nanking; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; April A, 19A7; Nanking, April 3 — I t is learned that the State Council will be reor-; ganized after the return of President Chiang Kai-rjhek to the Capital* The; non-partisans who will take part in the Council will be Shao"Chung-en,; Chang shi-chao, Hu Shih, Fu Ju, and Wang Yun-wu.; Chen Lih-fu to Take Up Post of Minister of; Economic Affairs; Ta Rung Pao (Independent, Political Science Group), Shanghai; Aoril A, 19A7; Nanking, April 3—According to information revealed by concerned; quarters, Chen Lih-fu, Minister of Organization, has been slated as Vice; Chairman of the National Economic Council. Wang Yun-wu, Minister of Eco-; nomic Affairs, has insisted on resigning from his post, so it is possible; that Chen will take up the post of Minister of Economic Affairs in succes-; sion to Wang after the reorganization of the Executive Yuan.; •36- * *; ' Inviting Minority Parties to Take Part in Administration; Lauded by Dr. Hu Shih; Sin Min Wan Pao (Liberal), Shanghai; April-3, 19A7; Peiping, April 3 Dr. Hu Shih, President of the National Peking Uni-; versity, told our reporter yesterday.that he is not unwilling to take part; in the Government, but he still considers that to dedicate his efforts to; the cause of education is much more important and serves a better purpose.; He declared that the determination of the Government to bring a close to the; rule of political tutelage and to invite various parties and groups to; participate in the - administration is a wise move unprecedented in Chinese; history. The decision on the part of the Government to give up the one-; party rule has given the people a good impression, he added.; * * *; Hopei Provincial People's Council Dissatisfied with; Government Measures-'; Wen Hui Pao • (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; April A. 19/,7 . •. - ' * s. - < .; Tientsin, April 2 — A t a press conference the Councillors of the Pro-; visional People' s Council of Hopei Province gave "a report on.the recent,; session.of the Council. Councillor Li Tung-yuen said, "Despite the enact-; ment and promulgation of the Constitution by the Government, cases of illegal; arrests have- been frequently reported In various, places during recent days.; Such unlawful acts are obviously in violation of the provisions of the; Constitution, therefore the Council has telegraphic-ally, urged the Central; authorities to adopt effective measures to safeguard human rights."; - 5 -; Councillor Li Shu-min declared, "The Hopei people are suffering so; miserably from heavy burden which they can bear no longer. All able-; bodied men in the villages have been conscripted, and women are taking their; place_ in .carrying on the work of spring cultivation. Nine out of ten; families are bankrupt."; •. ' ' » • • » • *; Councillor Tsi'Pi-ting said, "Hopei was the first province which fell; into the enemy's hands and which suffered most losses. However, after V-J; Day> the Central Government sold .all the enemy properties from which it; has already made the gain of 01414.0,000,000,000, The so-called enemy pro-; perties are in fact the product of blood aJid sweat of the Hopei people.; The Government is indeed heartless in adopting these measures,"; . - • - - * * *; "Kidnapping" in Hangchow; Yfen Hui Pao (L<beral-Leftist), Shanghai; Anril 3, 194-7; Hangchow (By Hail), March 30 Cases of missing citizens have been; frequently reported in this citjr. Hp to the present, there has been no news; regarding the employee of Hu Ching Yu Tang who was arrested sometime ago.; According to information revealed by reliable quarters today, four; citizens in the city were' secretly nabbed yesterday morning. The compe-; tent authorities refused to shed light on this caco. However, they declared,; "TThat wc can tell you... is that this is not a kidnapping case."; • "• * * *; Meeting Held by China International Civil Liberties; Defense Association to Discuss Measures to; Regain Freedom of Missing Citizens; Ta Kung Pao (independent. Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 4., 194.7; (Local. News) An extraordinary joint meeting of the executive com-; mittee and the staff "of the China International Civil Liberties Defense; Association was held yesterday afternoon. Over 10 members including Chang; Nai-chI, Hsu Kwang-ping, Mrs. Herman Liu, Wu Yao-chung, Ma Hsu-lun, and; Sze Liang attended the meeting, at which the following resolutions were; passed: .; 1) The Association should help the family members of the missing citi-; zens to' file petitions with the Court requesting the latter to grant a writ; of habeas corpus for the victims.,; 2) The Association should dispatch representatives to places other; than Shanghai to investigate the cases of -missing persons there, to comfort; their family members, and to request local authorities there to probe the; cases, ""; 3) The Association will issue a manifesto protesting against the act; of infringing upon human rights committed in varices places in the country.; 4-) A joint meeting of all existing organizations for protecting human; rights should be held.; 5) A date should be set for the convocation of the plenary session of; the Association,; * * *; - 6 -; Activities of Anna® Nationalist Party in; Yunnan Banned; ' •J ̂  .1 .; Lien Ho Wan Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; April; 3, I9A7 •; Kunming (By Mail) Regarding the recruiting of volunteers by the; Anna';i Nationalist Party in Yunnan Province, it is learned that the National; Defense Ministry has issued directives to the Yunnan Provincial Government; to the1 following effect: - . -; (1) All officers and men of the General Officers' Corps, who have; hot received written demobilization orders from the Government, are not per-; mitted to participate in the activities of the Annam Nationalist Party.; (2) No one is allowed to organize troops and to mobilize bandits; inside Chinese territory under the pretext of helping the Revolutionary; movement in Indo-China. As for the activities of'the Annam Nationalists; in enlisting volunteers in Yunnan, they should be outlawed.; (3) The Annam Nationalist Party should limit its organization and; activities within the territory of French Indo-China only.; • - • - . . ..; ... " • -. * * *; Engineers to Be Dispatched to Japan for Dismantling; ~ and Removing of Reparations; Shun Pao (KMT-supervised. C.C. Organ). Shanghai; April A. 19A7; Nanking, April 3 Representatives sent by the Central Government to; Japan to supervise the dismantling and removing of reparations equipment; have left for their destination. As the job of dismantling calls- for addi-; tional technicians, additional 200 engineers will be dispatched to Japan; by the Reparations Committee.; * * *; MILITARY NEWS; War Situation in North China and Manchuria Reviewed; Ta Kung Pao (Independent. Political Science Group). Shanghai; Aoril 3. 19A7; Peining, April 2 According to an observer, after occupying Taian and; gaining control of the Hsuchow-Tsinan section of the Tsinpu Railway, Govern-; ment forces will continue to-advance northward as soon as the mopping-up; campaign along the two sides of that line comes to an end. Judging from; the present civil war situation, the Northeast will be the only possible; foothold from which the CP troops: will launch a counter-offensive against; the Government Army, so a bitter fight.will inevitably break out in that; region after spring. The failure of the four offensives launched by the CP; troops in the Northeast last month cannot be considered as indications of; their lack of strength in. launching counter-offensives. Though the Government; forces In the Northeast are all picked troops, yet they are not sufficient; for distribution to various fronts.5 Furthermore, the transportation of re-; inforcements to the Northeast either by sea or by air "is already imoocsible.; therefore, Government forces there will have to gain control of a land route; through which they can maintain direct contact with Central China and then; transf er large groups of reinforcements to the Northeast to combat the CP; spring offensive*; X; - 7 -; Though there are no vital points and strategic strongholds in the; 400 square li of the vast Hopei-Shantung plain which the CP can use to hold; out its positions, yet it can easily take advantage of the denseness of po-; pulat ion and the dispersion of villages in that area in carrying out their; diversionary operations against theJsosrernment troops. The recent two; attacks launched by CP General Liu Po-chen's men on the Lunghai Railway; are examples of such activities. Moreover, Government forces will meet; with plenty of difficulties in guarding the railways even after they gain; control of them. Despite such difficulties ahead c_' them, they are still; fully determined to attain this end. Therefore, severe fighting of pro-; tracted nature will be inevitable along the two sides of the Tsingpu Rail-; way on the Hopei-Shantung border.; At the end of last month, Tsanghsien was subjected to attacks by; the 18th and the 19th regiments of the CP troops. The situation there be-; came quite tense for a while. However, it has been gradually stabilized; at present. The vicinity of Tsanghsien is -being defended by native garrison; forces. There is still no indication that regular Government forces will; be transferred to the south to cooperate with other units in Shantung in; blasting open the Tsanghsien-Tsinan section of the Tsinpu Railway.•; * * *; Important CP Personnel and Supplies Moved to West; Shansi from North Shensi; Shun Pao (KML-supervised. C.C. Organ). Shanghai; April A. 19A7; Taiyuan, April 3 Important CP personnel and their supplies are being; moved to West Shansi. Trucks and automobiles were seen driving eastward; through Suiteh, Wupao, Chuntu, and Liulin. A part of retreating CP troops; from Shensi is attempting to open an attack on Ngoerhtoszeyu Banner of the; Ikechao League.; * * *; Government Forces Continue Northward Drive in; North Shensi; Sin Wen Pao (Kl.ff-supervised. C.C. Organ). Shanghai; April A. 19A7; Yenan, April 3 After capturing Tsingchien, Government forces discovered; 12 caves wherein CP troops hid their foodstuffs, amounting to several scores; of thousands of catties. Therefore, without awaiting supplies, a part of; them headed northward towards Suiteh while another part opened an attack; on Wayaopao in the westerly direction.; * * *; Higher Standard Set for Cadets of Central Military Academy; Ta Kung Pao (independent, Political Science Group). Shanghai; April A. 19A7 1; Chengtu, April 2—The modification of the school and curriculum systems; of the Central Military Academy has been decided upon at the 3rd Plenary; Session of the Kuomintang CEC and will be put into force shortly. Hence-; forth, only senior school graduates are eligible to sit for the'entrance; examination of the Academy, and the time for the complete course is to be; prolonged to four years, with the first two years set for the studying of; special courses while the last t*.70 years, of military science.. All graduates; of this Acadeny will be given Bachelor's Degree.; * * *; OF COiniUNICATIONS; Hulutao to Be Made the Biggest Harbour in the; Northeast; T? /lung Pao (independent. Political Science Group), Shanghai; A. 19A7 _ ,.. . .; Mukden, March 2 — I n the middle-of last month, the Ministry of Communica-; tions set up a Harbour Administration in Hulutao under the directorship of; Chu oou-hsuan. "Great significance has been attached by the Government to; this matter, because in order to -solve the problem of coal supply for in-; dustrial purposes in Nanking and Shanghai, this harbour must be open to; •.merchantmen, so that coal in the Northeast can be shipped elsewhere. Des-; pite the order issued by the Ministry of National Defense last year to the; effect that the harbour be opened to merchantmen, it has still been used; exclusively for military purposes and up to the present no commercial cargoes; have been exported from the Northeast through this port.; Since the inauguration of the Harbour Administration in Hulutao, atten-; tion has been given to the improvement of installations there. According to; plan, harbour installations in that port are to be improved to such an ex-; tent that the port will be able to accomodate 50,000-ton vessels. It is; anticipated that this port will be capable of accomodating shipping vessels; aggregating 15,000,000 tons annually. If this plan is realized, the export; of soya-beans, steel, iron and coal from the Northeast would be greatly; facilitated. However, the progress of civil war and the need for construction; funds would bo the main obstacles to the execution of this plan.; * * *; LPOZTOIIID NEWS; Rich Coal Deposit Discovered in North Kwangtung; Shun Pao. (KIjT- supervised, C.C, Organ). Shanghai; April L, 19/7 ..; Canton., April 3 — I t is learned from the Reconstruction Administration; of Kw-ngtung Province that the Ministry of Communications has recently appro-; priated CN0200,000,000 to that Province for the repair of highways on Hainan; Island. The length of the highways totals over 2,000 kilometers.; It is also learned that, as a result of investigations made into the; coal.mines In rats-cling in Jhyuan Hsien, North Kwangtung, a very rich; doal' deposit totalling over 50,000,000 tons, is found in these mines. The; Coal mine district has an area of 500^000 square miles and the depth of; the cool, mines is over 20 feet. Both the Reconstruction Administration and'; the National Resources Commission are now planning to jointly exploit these; mines*; * * *; i. „ . • • • • •; MISCELLANEOUS NEWS •- '; Shipment of UNRRA Relief Supplies to Be Sent to; Harbin; Won Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; April L. 19A7; Changchun, April 3 A shipment of UNRRA relief supplies for Harbin; aggregating some 1,000 tons which contain flour, clothes and other items,; will be sent to Changchun on 12 trucks tomorrow. After being carried to; Tehhui, they will be shipped across the Sungari River and then sent to the; north. These supplies will be escorted by an UNRRA representative, five; Americans and ^Chinese. It is learned that the Military Attache of the; U..S, Consulate who was taken prisoner by the CP near Chiutai will return to; Changchun in one of those trucks.; * * *; - 9 -; SPECIAL & FEATURE ARTICLES •; Where Has the Industrial and Commercial; Prosperity Gone?; Shih'Tai Jih Pao (Soviet-owned), Shanghai; .March 23, 1947; It is known to everyone, that in 1946 China's economy was so depressed; that factories, commercial concerns,- and even banks were unable to make any; profits.' However, a few industrial and commercial enterprises, such as the; cotton mills, the tobacco, rubber and match factories, the importers-, and; the stock exchanges where the shares of three small and two large cotton; mills were most popular, were able to enjoy prosperity.; Yet, at present, even these once prosperous enterprises are also com-; plaining at the top of their voices. Now, let us listen ô .their voices; as follows: • -; Prosperity of cotton mills gone with the wind; It was said that the spinning and Weaving mills were able to make a; profit of CN$1Q0 out of of CN$100 at the beginning of last Spring.; But this prosperity soon faded away during the summer and toward the end of; the year, only a profit of 10 percent could be realized,•which was equivalent; to an interest rate of ten percent per mensem. This year, as raw cotton has; to be' imported from foreign countries, the. Textile Industry Control *Bo.ard; has requested the Foreign Exchange Examination Department of the Central; Bank of China and the Board for the Temporary Regulation of Imports to hold; up foreign currency allotments, and thus all the cottoh mill operators have; been forced to bow to the Textile Industry Control 3oard, For instance, at; a meeting recently held (March 17, 1947) to discusd the price of cotton; yarn,' it was decided to give two different quotations: ;; 1) Purchasing price of cotton yarn. A bale of 20's cotton yarn has; been-fixed at CN$3,100,000. l̂iig is calculated on the basis of the present; price of cotton without including any profit.; 2) Production cost of cotton yarn. The cost of a bale of cotton yarn; is CN$4,000,000, including the cost of cotton and labor, plus interest.; The former figure is the price at which the China Textile Development; Corp. buys cotton yarn from privately-owned cotton mills (the Corporation; is a State-owned enterprise and it is said that all the cotton yarn it buys; from privately-owned cotton mills is to be exported). In other words, the; goods are to be .manufactured and exported solely at the expense of orivatelv-; owned cotton mills. The lattor figure.includes a profit of about 10 percent; only.; The policy of forcing the privately-owned cotton mills to sell half of; their output to the China Textile at a lovi price has been in force for; almost a.year. .The real motive behind this policy deprive them of; their legitimate orofits. The fact that the China Textile has been able; to turn over to the National Treasury a monthly profit of more than Cl$40,-; 000,000.,000 shows that all these gains were" mostly extracted from the people.; 'Thus, the prosperity of cotton mills is gone with the wind.; Cigarette factories on'the decline ".'-'• ... ...; The cigarette factories did a roaring business last year. The cigarette; tax collected constituted"more'than half of all the commodity taxes levied; by the National Government. However, these factories are now on the decline..; The sales for March will be 35-40 percent below those for January, resulting; in the closing down of the small factories and the curtailing of production; by the large factories. Despite its strong financial backing, the foreign-; owned Yee Tsoong Tobacco Distributors is able to operate only two working; days each month. The Fooh bhing Tobacco Co. of China produced 10,000; cases of cigarettes last January, but the production for the months of February; and March dropped to 8,000 and -6,000 cases, respectively. Those, factories; which employed night shifts have now completely discontinued same.- ' Why; have these factories had to reduce their production or to close down alto-; gether?; According to a Shen Ghou News Agency story, the sales were greatly; reduced.owing to civil war and disruption of communications." This resulted; in the stocks of cigarettes oiling up high as mountains. As foreign; cigarettes have been invading the markets of Shanghai, Hongkong, Canton,; Peiping and Tientsin, all China-made cigarettes have had to be transported; to the cities and villages in-the interior via the Yangtze River, the; Tientsin-Pukow Railway, the Lunghai Railway and the Peiping-Liaoning Rail-; way. Yet, with the transport facilities busily engaged in military trans-; portation, no ships ur freight trains can be spared for the transportation; of the merchandise. These, coupled with the fact that the'warring parties; have been locked in battle on some of the communication lines, have; accounted for the decline of. sales., . Furthermorethe recent gold crisis; has driven the masses to .extreme, poverty,, and as -cigarettes mold easily; "in:damp- spring weather, how could the cigarette fact,cries have afforded not; to reduce their production? .'; The difficulty of obtaining raw. materials has also been one of the; main contributing factors. Ever since last year, the cigarette factories; have depended largely on imports of leaf tobacco from foreign countries.; As a result of the control of imports by the Government, only-US$3,000,000; worth of leaf tobacco can be imported into China each month, of which; US$2,000,000 is granted to the foreign-owned Y.T.T, Distributors alone:.; If the amount of foreign exchange granted to the Nanyang Bros. Tobacco; Company (Dr. T.V. Soong's) and Hwa Fu Company (owned by Dr. H.H. Kung and; Sheng ?in-chen), which are owned by bureaucratic capitalists, are taken; Into account, then what the privately-owned factories can get is very; little indeed. Furthermore, all applications for foreign exchange may not; be submitted by the factories direct, but only by business firms, thereby -"; causing the factories to incur further losses. China has her own raw material,; namely, the leaf tobacco produced in-Shantung which, however, cannot be ship-; ped here.owing to the fact that bitter fighting is now raging around; Tsingtao. The cost of leaf tobacco" of Honan origin is even higher than; that of the finished products. Although the price of leaf tobacco has been; hiked on account of the readjustment of the foreign exchange rate from; CI$3,350 to CN$12,000 (A times), yet the prices of cigarettes have not- -; been able to follow suit. This actually-is the road to ruinl; Besides, the heavy tax on cigarettes has dealt another fatal blow to; the cigarette factories, as the Tax, Bureau considers that the cigarette; industry is a comparatively profitable one and that, therefore, a heavier'; tax should be-levied on cigarettes. For instance, on a case of China-; made "The Brandy" 'cigarettes valued at CNfP2,600,000, a tax of 01̂ 520,0,00; is levied, representing 20 Percent of its selling-price. Also, in the; levy of taxes, Chinese-owned factories have been discriminated against.; According to a news report dated March 1A, a heavier tax is imposed on Chinese-; owned factories than on foreign-owned ones,. The former have to pay a tax; amounting to 20 percent of the value of the goods, while the latter pay; only 15 percent or even as low as- 8percent. The following comparative fi-; gures on cigarette taxes have, been obtained from the cigarette factories:; Cigarettes produced by British American Tobacco Company; Brand Market Price Tax Levied; Capstan; Three Castles Magnum; Pirate; Victoria; CKy10,370,000 CN$1,500,000; 10,170,000; 2,4-50,000; 2,̂ 30,000; 810,000; /+20,000; 260,000; - 11 -; Cigarettes produced by Chinese-owned Factories; " ' • . * •; Brand I.farkot Price Tax Levied; The Brandy • • CNS2,600,000 C1$520,000; Prosperity - 2:,500,000 520,000; Chrysler 2,600,000 520,000; To the foreign merchants, the Tax Bureau never dares to be harsh,; so a low tax is levied on their products.; while, on the products of Chinese*; owned factories, the Bureau has purposely raised the appraised value of the; cigarettes for the purpose of exacting more taxes from them.; Not only that, all cigarettes have to go through various wholesalers; and retailers before they finally reach the consumers, so that business; tax has to be paid by all concerned, thereby invisibly affecting the; prices of cigarettes. The recent decision of the Central Government to; • collect revenues with the utmost rigor will undoubtedly result in the con-; solidated tobacco tax rate being raised. All these factors will hasten; the total collapse of the cigarette industry.; It was reported on the night of March 21 that the commodity taxes; would soon be readjusted and that a 100 percent tax was to be levied on; cigarettes. This will not only cause the price to go up but also result in; the closing down of all cigarotte factories. Should this news be true,; then the situation will be very grave indeed.; During the past several decades, the textile, flour and tobacco indus-; tries have been the three light industries that have made the best record.; As matters stand today, even these mainstays are no longer dependable.; Prosperity of rubber industry short-lived; The rubber industry is one that became prosperous after V-J Day, Be-; fore the war, only rubber shoos produced by the Tan Ka Kee Co. of the South; Seas were on sale in China. Owing to the post-war economic depression in; the South Seas, China has been able to develop her own rubber industry.; Last year was considered as the most prosperous one, because the Chinese; people who had not seen rubber shoes for years were fond of wearing such; shoes after the conclusion of the hostilities, and the supply was, therefore,; unable to meet the demand.; But recent developments have not been very encouraging. First of all,; the Dunlop Rubber Company of the United States has already despatched their; representatives to Tientsin with a view to regaining its prewar China market.; They are going to dump 60,000 pairs of bicycle tyres pn the market. The; price will be lower than that of the home products,7S±les will be given away; by the Company gratis. The Dunlop Rubber Company is one of the leading in-; dustrial enterprises in the United States and has vast resources at its dis-; posal, and therefore the owners of the Chinese factories have been greatly; perturbed by this news. Secondly, two kinds of raw materials — rubber and; calc iurj carbonate — have to be imoorted from foreign countries. Since; control of imports was introduced, the price of raw rubber has jumped from; CN$1,000 to CMjplO ,000 per pound within one month. Still these raw materials; are unobtainable. As a matter of fact, the question of how to obtain the; 3,500 tons of raw materials required is a very hard nut for the rubber, fac-; tories to cr'ack.; Moreover,the competent authorities have ordered the restriction of rub-; ber imoorts, irrespective of whether they are manufactured goods or raw ma-; terials. Is this the right way of stimulating China's industry? Of course,; manufactured products should be banned, but more imports of raw materials; should be permitted. Now that the owners of rubber factories have orotested; against these restrictions, let us wait and see how this question is going; to be dealt with by the bureacratic organ—the Eoard for the Temporary; Regulation of Imports. .; - 12 -; Prosperity enjoyed by U.S. goods; The most prosperous line of business of the importers and exporters is; the import of U.SC goods which can be sold at gre-t profits. At the peak; of their prosperity, a 50 percent profit was assured. But, since the; Board for the Temporary Regulation of Imports came into existence, a Govern-; ment organ has been tightening the control of imports. Not only that,; Dr. H.H. Kung had his son David Kung organize the Yangtze Development Cor-; poration, T.L. Soong set up the Fu Chung Corporation and Dr. T.V. Soong and; T.A. ̂ oong established the China Finance Development Corporation. In addi-; tion, the Chin Shan Company and the Jen Jen Company have come under the; ownership of bureaucratic capitalists, and there are also the Central Trust; of China, the .Universal Trading Corporation, the Board of Supplies of the; Executive Yuan and the China Vegetable Oil Corporation, all of which are; State-owned enterprises. The control agency, the bureaucratic capitalists; and the State-owned enterprises have joined together in an effort to mono-; polize the As everyone knows, the Foreign Exchange Examination; Department of the Central Bank of China and the Board for the Temporary Re-; gulation of Imports were both under the control of the Soong family (now; changed hands again), the ̂ hira Finance Development Corporation and the Fu; Chung Corporation wevo el,so in Jjr ?,V, Soong's hands and so were the Cen-; tral Trust of China and the Universal Trading Corporation. These three; units have been combined into one bloc, from which not even a drop of water; can leak out. Even Dr. H,H. Kung's applications for foreign exchange and; import licences have bean turned down, to say nothing of applications sub-; mitted by ordinary merchants,; Recently, irregularities in import business have been discovered by; the United Press (because American businessmen in China have also been; offended), It is said that when the bureaucrats wanted to order fashionable; motor Cars which, being under the "luxurious goods" category, may not be; imported, all they had to do was to ask the Central Trust of China, the; Universal Trading Corporation, the EOSEY or any o er Government-owned enter-; prise, to buy the cars, for th^m, only to be resold to the top-ranking. Govern-; ment officials through the bureaucratic capitalists as soon as they arrived.; The luxurious goods included motor cars, refrigerators, radio sets, etc.; When charges of granting special privileges to "favored families" were level-; led against the responsible authorities, the Central Trust of China was; unable to make any refutation but admitted- it was true that Cadillac, Ford; and Chevrolet motor cars had been imported. The Fu Chung Corporation; also imported about 10,000 Willys Jeeps last year, and the jeeps imported; this year numbered almost a thousand. Under the cloak of being a diplomatic; official, T.L. Soong has been making purchases throughout the United States.; Exports have yet to be developed re-; imports have to be "controlled" and exports have yet to be "developed".; The export trade has been, carried on with difficulty in the past, and since; the creation of a board for the development of China's waning export trade,; the exporters find it even more difficult to Carry on their business as; long as they are controlled by the Government. It is said that, when "Soong"; was informed that "Kung" had ceased to import and started to export, an; export trade development board was immediately set up to offset "Kung's"; plans by stipulating that all foreign exchange realised from exports must; be- surrendered to the•Government. Under these circumstances, a lively ex-; port trade can not be expected.; Now exports also tend to be monopolized. Hog bristles are an animal; product of the Yangtze, the South Seas and Szechuan ( the only privately-; owned enterprise in Szechuan). The Central Trust of China monopolized; 70 percent of the total bristles trade. The tung oil trade -Y/as completely; monopolized by the Central Trust of China (Soong) and the China Vegetable Oil; Corporation (operated by a, brother"of Chang Kia-ngao, Governor of the Central; Bank of China). As regards the silk and tea trade,, the Farmers' Bank of China; and the Central Trust of China are obviously behind the monoooly.; - 13 -; No wonder, therefore, that the Importers and Exporters Guild should have; stated at a press conference held on March 12 that most of the exocrt; trade in silk, tea, tung oil and hog bristles was handled by the Govern-; ment, that a tremendous volume of trade was manipulated by the bureaucratic; capitalists and that the actual volume of business done by the privately-; owned enterprises was very limited.; When the official exchange rate for the U.S. dollar was readjusted; from CN§3,350 to CI$12,000 for one U.S. dollar, the following two classes; of people were benefited:; 1) The arch-speculatcrs who are in possession of U.S. dollar notes,; such as a certain high Government official who has resigned his post..; 2) The Central Trust of China, the Farmers' Bank of China and the; China Vegetable Oil Corporation which are in possession of a huge bureau-; cratic capital, and which had hoarded large quantities of export goods.; As a matter of fact, the readjustment of the foreign exchange rate has; not benefited the privately-owned exporters in the least. For instance,; the price of Chinese tung oil in Shanghai is Cfî /OÔ OOO per barrel, that in; the United States C^Uk)tC00y Ihab ir. the United .ngdom CN&440,000 and that; in France CN05IO ,0-0 . 'Cos? qpox.ations in foreign countries can in no way cover; the cost of freight, austcma duty ana insurance and, therefore, like the; raw silk and silk piece goods trade, the tung oil trade is on the wane.; Take the coal business for instance, which is regarded as one of the; most profitable enterprises in the country, and a profit of 50 percent could; have been made on anjr shipment of coal from Hankow to Shanghai or from; Shantimg to Shanghai. But, there has now been created a Fuel Control Board; to manipulate the coal business. Not only are the rank and file not allowed; to deal in coal, but also a coal shortage has been created so as to dispose; of coal supplies in the black market. Their patience having been exhausted,; the Shanghai Coal Merchants Guild comprising of 1,196 members, sent re-; presentatives to Nanking on.March 18 to demand the free movement of coal; and free dealings in this commodity. The merchants have been deprived of; their freedom of business, to say nothing of the freedom of the livelihood; of the workers and staff members!; Where has all the prosperity gone?; All the prosperity has gone to the State-owned enterprises, the bureau-; cratic capitalists and the government control agencies. Let us look at these; big concerns operated by the bureaucratic capitalists, all of which have; been enjoying a 100 percent profit. There is not a single State-owned enter-; prise which is not making a huge profit. All the officials in charge of; the Government control agencies have becomo extremely fat. In conclusion,; the capital accumulated by China's "big families" is a combination of Govern-; ment officials, corruption, capital, bureaucrats, corporations, and profits.; * * *; MORE MISCELLANEOUS USES; Re-cultivation of Land in .Areas Flooded by Yellow; . , River Ordered to Be Done by Local Governments; Lien Ho Wan Pao (Liberal-Leftist). Shanghai; April 3. 19A7; Nanking, April y—With reference to the problem of re-cultivating over; 17,000,000 "mou" of land in areas flooded by the Yellow River, the proposal; made by the Agricultural Affairs Department of the Ministry of Agriculture; and Forestry, the Conservancy Commission and CNRRA to set up one'centralized; organ in the affected areas to proceed with the program of various recons-; truction works, has been turned down by the Executive Yuan, which has ins-; tructed local governments to proceed with the work by themselves.; - H -; It is reported that since the topographical feature of the flooded; areas in Honan has been adversely affected by the impact of the Yellow; River current, the work of re-cultivation will be a very hard job. Fur-; thermore, CNRRA .is going to wind up in coming June, and the supplies of; agricultural implements, fertilizers and seeds will be available only up; to the end of the year. So, in order to safeguard the livelihood of the; people in the affected areas, cultivation work has to be carried out and; completed before Spring cultivation.; * * *; CHINESE PRESS REVIEW * * *; American Consulate General, Shanghai, China; No^ ̂ U Anril_5JL 19/,7; EDITORIAL C O M U T; Creation of a New Type of Democratic Government; —1 The future of the Chinese type of democratic government —; Ho Ping Jih Pao (KMT Army Organ). Shanghai; Aoril 5, 19A7; The Kuomintang has convoked a National Assembly for the purpose of; enacting a Constitution and, has been positively preparing to return the; governing power to the people. It has also welcome other parties and; factions to cooperate with it. This Is, as Dr. Hu Shih has well said, un-; precedented in history, and can be said to be the creation of the "Chinese; type of party politics", namely, a new type of Party politics whereby "one; party leads a number of other parties in cooperating with one another".; This can also be said to reflect China's big family system. One party leads; a number of parties in cooperating with one another, and all the parties; and factions have a voice in the government and the right to express their; views and to participate in the government. Under this system there can be; a Joint Administration Plan and a coalition Cabinet. From the standpoint; of Chinese traditions, this is a real democratic spirit and a real enlarge-; ment of the basis of the Government. (Summary); r '; * * *; Reorganization of Government Closely Watched; Sin Wen Pao (KMT-supervised, C.C, Organ), Shanghai; April 5, 19A7; The real purpose of the current reorganization of the Government is to; broaden the basis of the Government. The State Council will be the supreme; policy-making organ of the new Government, so that the political parties re-; presented on the Council may jointly execute the Program of Peaceful Recons-; truction and the Joint Administration Plan which have been agreed upon by; all of them.; The responsibilities of the new Government will be very heavy indeed.; Whether or not the Constitution can be successfully enforced will affect •; the future, not only of the Kuomintang, but also of the other political; parties and factions, especially of the nation as a whole, therefore, at; present both the Kuomintang as well as the Democratic Socialist and the Young; China parties have been charged with a sacred, historic task, and we tho; people can only allow them to succeed but will not allow them to fail.; The new Government should pay due attention to the suffering and needs; of the people, and this is. our minimum demand. There are three major problems; to be faced when the Constitution is enforced: (1) How can the people's; rights and freedom be guaranteed? (2) How can the elections be made com-; patible with the wishes of the people? (3) How are the representatives of; the Democratic Socialist and the Young China parties, who are going to parti-; cipate in the Government, going to display their statesmanship?; We earnestly hope that all quarters concerned will have a good grasp; of the realities and that they will not betray the trust of the people.; (Summary); * * *; Reorganization of Government Is Not Multi-party; Political Tutelage; Chung HtTa Shih Pao fYoung China Party Organ) , Shanghai; April 5, 19A7; A despatch to the Changsha "Chung Yang Jih Pao", datelined Nanking,; March 24-th, stated, "In explaining the Governmental set-up for the period; between the enlargement of the National Government and the meeting of the; Constitution-enforcing National Assembly, Dr. Sun Fo said: 'During this; period the Kuomintang and the Democratic Socialist and the Young China; parties as well as the non-partisan leaders will jointly carry on the poli-; tical tutelage work, and the Supreme National Defense Council will be super-; seded by the State Council as the supreme policy-making organ, This means; that one-party political tutelage will be converted into multi-party poli-; tical tutelage.'" Dr. Sun's statement was made from the point of view of; the Kuomintang people, and we of the Young China Party cannot agree with; it, because we have never favored political tutelage. In the past we have; demanded the conclusion of political tutelage on more than one occasion,; and if political tutelage is to be continued after the reorganization of the; Government, what is the use of our participating in the Government? (Summary); * * *; A Study of the Laws Relating to the Enforcement of; the Constitution; Ta Kung Pao (Independent, Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 5, 194-7; The ten acts relating to the enforcement of the Constitution have al-; ready been made into laws by the Legislative Yuan and have been promulgated; by the National Government. The legislative process on this set of laws; was completed within a short period of seven days, so omissions and weak-; nesses have been unavoidable.; In studying this set of laws, we may divide them, according to their; nature, into two categories: One category consists of the law of election; and recall of the National Assembly delegates, the law of election and; recall of the President and the Vice-President, the law of election and; recall of members of the Legislative Yuan, and tho law cf election and; recall of members of the Control Yuan. The other category consists of the; organizational law of the National. Assembly, and the organizational laws; of the Executive, Legislative, Judicial, Examination, and Control Yuans.; Let us first discuss the first category. The delegates to the National; Assembly and the members of the Legislative Yuan will be elected by the; people. Both of these laws provide that the election should be done by; "the ordinary, equal, direct, secret, and one-name-one-vote method." This; is the usual practice in all democratic nations. Then, the age-limit set; for those qualified to elect is 20, and that set for those qualified to be; elected is 23. These age-limits are neither too high, nor too low. As; regards restrictions on the right to elect and the right to be elected, there; are altogether six such restrictions. One of these restrictions is "those; who have been found guilty of internal rebellion or external aggression; according to the Criminal Code". This is nothing new, but at this time when; conditions in the country are disturbed and when one can very easily be; charged with this or that crimc, there should a very strict definition of; this lav/ so as to prevent possible misinterpretation. Regarding tho elec-; tion of the Legislative Yuan members, the proportionate election system is; the most modern one and is designed to protect the minority parties, but it; is to be regretted that this system has not been adopted.; According to the laws of election and recall of the Legislative and; Control Yuan members, the tenure of office of the Legislative Yuan members; is three years, and that of the Control Yuan members is six years; if during; the first year a proposal for the recall of a member is not passed, then; during the rest of the tenure of office of that member, his recall may not; 1; i - 3 -; requested again, no matter how he may fail to act according to the wishes; of the people. Such a provision is certainly too stiff. Regarding the; recall of the President, the phraso "if nobody denies that he has signed; the requost for the recall" should be deleted.; Regarding the number of vocational representatives, the law of elec-; tion and recall of the National Assembly delegates provides that there; should be 450 vocational delegates, and the iaw of election and recall of; the Legislative Yuan members provides that there shall be 56 vocational re-; presentatives on the Yuan. The numbers of representatives provided for are; not too small, but the question lies in how people can be elected who really; represent the vocational groups. The number of women representatives provided; for is quite fair.; Regarding the second category, there are quite a number of good points; in the several organizational laws. There will be as many as eighteen heads; of Ministries and Commissions, plus five to seven Administrative Commissioners; (Ministers without portfolio). Thus, the Executive Yuan mil be composed by; more than twenty people, a fact which will affect the efficiency of the; Executive Yuan as the policy-making organ. Now, the Young China and the De-; mocratic Socialist parties are going to Participate in the State Council and; the Executive Yuan, and it has been rumored that the Government is going to; assign only certain unimportant Ministries to the representatives of the two; parties. Should this be true, it would greatly reduce the meaning of the; reorganization of the Government.; In a word, this set of laws are closely related to the success or failure; of the enforcement of the Constitucion and are of great importance, so the; Government must be especially careful. (Summary) -; * * *; Divide Japanese Reparations Immediately; (Short Comment); Ta Aung Pao (Independent, Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 5, 1947; According to a news dispatch from Washington, the U.S. Government has; instructed General MacArthur to carry out immediately the interim Japanese; reparations plan. China, of course favors this measure, but she -will face; a serious problem.; According to this reparations plan, China will be given the largest share; (about 15%) of the first instalment of Japanese reparations, or 138 plants; composed of industrial equipment weighing 1,350,000 tons in all. Out of this; industrial equipment, what types of plants should be chosen? This industrial; equipment needs to be -g hipped to China by boat, but where should it be un-; loaded? How should it/re-built into plants? All this requires planning,; capital and technically-trained personnel.; This is a matter of great importance to our country. If we can make; good use of the plants, they will become the basis of our industrialization.; On the other hand, if they are poorly handled, it will mean a waste of money; and energy, and the industrial equipment brought to China will become mere; scrap, so that we would be laughed at by the rest of the world. Therefore,; we ought to time in making adequate preparations, (Summary); * *; Pan-Asiatic-Conference Closes; Shun Pao (KMT-supervised, C.C, Organ). Shanghai; April 5, 1947; Representatives of Asiatic peoples, among whom there are big historical,; cultural, language and racial differences, have met in the same assembly hall,; and have achieved such a great success.> While this has been due to the per-; sonal inspiration of men like Gendhi and Nehru, yet it also indicates that; the different Asiatic peoples have awakened to the importance of achieving; greater unity among themselves. Today, Asia is located between two major blocs; of nations, but politically, economically and socially, the different Asiatic; peoples remain more or less backward. It is just because of their backward-; ness that they require greater unity.; - A -; However, if a movement is to Inst long, it must have a spiritual foun-; tain. In studying the situation at this time when the Pan-Asiatic Movement; is being developed, we strongly feel that only th Three People's Principles; can serve as such a spiritual fountain and should be able to serve as the; guiding principles for this movement. We have made this proposal for the; reference of those concerned, (Summary); * * *; What One Ought to Know About the Issue of U.S. Dollar; Domestic Loans; Chung Yang Jih Pao (KMT Organ), Shanghai; April 5, 19A7; Beginning today subscription coupons for the U.S. dollar Treasury notes; and U.S. dollar Government bonds will be sold. The purpose of the issue; of the U.S. dollar Treasury notes is to stabilize the financial situation, and; that of the issue of the U.S. dollar Government bonds is to increase the; Government's foreign exchange reserve. Both will be able to contribute much; toward the improvement of the present economic situation, and the benefit; of the buyers, such as they would otherwise secure through savings, would be; well taken care of.; The Central Bank of China has telegraphically instructed its branches in; different parts of the country that they each organize a Sales Promotion Com-; mittee and that they entrust the local banks, both modern and native, with; the sale of the notes and bonds. This is different from the past method of; pushing the sale of Government bonds, that Is, that of pushing the sales; through the Provincial and Municipal governments. Thus, the defects of the; compulsory sale of Government bonds will be avoided. However, the sale of; the Treasury notes and the Government bonds in the rural districts deserves; careful consideration, for if the method adopted is not perfect, the defects; of compulsory sales will arise. This is a point that deserves careful atten-; tion,; The purchase of the Treasury notes and the Government bonds will not only; benefit the whole economic situation, but also facilitate one's savings, so; all those who are financially able to do so should enthusiastically buy them,; (Summary) * * *; Other editorials not translated:; Chien Sien Jih Pao, Shanghai; Shang Pao, Shanghai; Lih Pao, Shanghai; chin Yung Jih Pao, Shanghai; Yi Shih Pao, Shanghai; Tung Nan Jih Pao, Shanghai; Cheng Yien Pao, Shanghai; Wen Hui Pao, Shanghai; Dated April 5. 19A7; The Start of the Sale of U.S. Dollar Go-; vernment Bonds and Treasury Notes; Goods Must Be Available in Order to; Stabilise Commodity Prices; Preparatory Work for the Enforcement of; the Constitution; On the Hsien Banks; President Chiang Kai-shek in chikou; On the Government Banks; Pan-Asiatic 'Conference Should Be Made a; Permanent Organ; Prize the Seedlings of the Nation * * *; POLITICAL NEWS; Association for Enforcement of Constitution to; Issue Manifesto on Current Situation; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; April 5, 19A7; Nanking, April A While the Government is about to be reorganized and; while the work for the enforcement of the Constitution will soon be started,; the Association for the Enforcement of the Constitution will issue a mani-; festo on the current situation, which will contain the following main points:; 1) The democratic spirit should be respected and the views of the Na-; tional Assembly and the Association for the Enforcement of the Constitution; should be followed in carrying out all measures connected with the enforcement; of the supreme law of the nation,; 2) The Government after its reorganization should lay emphasis on the; Constitution enforcement program and its administration program should not be; based merely on the accord reached by various parties and groups.; 3) All possible efforts should be made to stabilize the people's liveli-; hood and to boost production.; A) The foreign policy should be formulated on the basis of the principle; Jof friendliness with neighbouring countries.; * * *; f; I - 5 -; Young China Party Nominates; Delegates to State Council; Sin Wem Pao (KMT-supervised, C.C. Organ), Shanghai; April 5. 19A7; Nanking, April A There is no question about the participation of; the Young China Party in the State Council. The Party has already; nominated its delegates to the Council. However, with reference to; its participation in the Executive Yuan, the Party is of the opinion; that if no concrete understanding or decision is reached in regard to; the Party's participation in the local administration, the Party will; be still unable to take part in the Executive Yuan. Government quar-; ters expressed hope that the State Council and the Executive Yuan can; be reorganized simultaneously, but the Young china Party insisted on; the above views.; According to information revealed by the Young China Party, the Party; has already decided upon the delegates to be nominated to the Executive; Yuan posts, that is, two ministers without portfolio and two Government; ministers. Party quarters said they have not yet reached a final de-; cision as to who will be nominated to those posts. In regard to the; ratio of seats to be occupied by various parties and groups in the State; Council, the Young China Party quarters told our reporter that the; Government had denied the report that the ratio of distribution of; seats on the Council has been changed into 15 seats for the Kuomintang,; 5 for the Young China Party, U for the Democratic Socialist Party and; 6 for the non-partisans, and that the ratio of 12%UiU°U will be retain-; ed, while the five Yuan Presidents will be ex officio members of the; State Council. However, if this ratio is to be revised, negotiations; between all parties concerned will have to be started anew, Young China; Party quarters revealed.; * * *; TTu Hsien-tse Not to Join State Council; Sin Wen Pao (KMT-supervised, C.C. Organ), Shanghai; April 5, 194-7; Hongkong, April L, Wu Hsien-tse, one of tTr-.j Democratic Socialist; Party leaders in South China, told our reporter that he is not going to; join the State Council and that he will henceforth continue his efforts; in promoting cultural work.; * -x- *; Democratic Socialist Farty Exerts; Great Efforts in Enlisting More Members; Ta Kung Pao (Independent, Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 5. 19A7; (Local News) Since the Democratic Socialist Party launched the; campaign of enlisting new members in all parts of the country, it is; learned that many people have joined the Party. In the Shanghai area,; 4-5 branch headquarters of the Party have already been set up and the; membership.of the Party has reached over 30,000 men.; A joint meeting initiated by representatives of various branch; headquarters was held a few days ago, and a consolidated office of; various branch headquarters in Shanghai was established at Room AO5-6,; 169 Yuen Ming Yuen Road.; * * *; Chinese Government Determined; to Take Over Port Arthur and Dairen; Ta Kung Pao (Independent. Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 5. 19A7; Mukden, April A The Government is determined to take over Port; Arthur and Dairen. It is learned that different opinions are being; held in interpreting the articles in the treaty on the take-over of; Port Arthur and Dairen. Soviet quarters indicated that Chinese take-; over officials may be sent to those two places first. However, judging; by experience in the Northeast, the Chinese Government insisted that; Port Arthur and Dairen should be taken over both militarily and poli-; tically. The take-over operations will be started as soon as Soviet; quarters give replies io certain questions put forth by the Chinese; authorities. Concerned quarters here indicated that the Chinese autho-; rities are fully prepared to take over Port Arthur and Dairen by mili-; tary means.; * # *; Ambassador Stuart to Visit Shanghai; Lien' Ho lan Pao (liberal-Leftist). Shanghai; April A. 19A7; Nanking, April A U.S. Ambassador Leighton Stuart will leave; here for Shanghai tomorrow. It is learned that his trip is connected; with the Government reorganization.; * * *; Ambassador Stuart Reported to Tender Resignation; Cheng lien Pao (Local KMT Organ), Shanghai; April 5. 19A7; Nanking, April A (Shenchow News Agency)—Ambassador Stuart will; fly to Peiping shortly to attend to affairs connected with Yenching; University. His secretary, Philip Fu, left here for Peiping by plane; yesterday to mako arrangements for the Ambassador. It is reported that; Ambassador Stuart is going to resign from his post so that he will be; able to devote his efforts to the administration of Yenching University.; * * *; Chang Po-chun and Lo Lung-chi Leave for Capital; Lien Ho. Wan Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; April A. 19A7; (Local News)—Members of the Standing Committee of the Democratic; League, Messrs. Chang Po-chun and Lo Lung-chi, left for Nanking last; night. Before their'departure for the Capital, the Democratic League; called a meeting of its Standing Committee at which discussions were; made regarding the concrete measures to be taken for the rescue of; Tu Pin-chen, member of the League CEC, and Lo Pin-chi, Democratic; Leaguer, both arrested last month. Messrs. Chang Po-chun and Lo Lung-; chi vrere elected to call on authorities concerned in the Capital to enter; into serious negotiations with the latter for the same.; *; Some Missing Persons Already Released, Says Mayor of Shanghai; Lien Ho Wan Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; April 4. 1947; (Local News)—Mayor K.C. Wu, after receiving Carson Chang's letter; requesting him to undertake the responsibility of probing the missing; incidents occurred in this c'ity, paid a personal visit to Chang to; whom he revealed certain facts regarding the reasons of these abduc-; tions as well as the findings obtained in the probes. It is learned; by our reporter that Mayor Wu will shortly.make public the cases of; missing persons. The Mayor also said that a few innocently arrested; citizens have been released recently. As for those that are still; under detention, the majority of them are suspected to be CP elements,; the Mayor revealed.; * * *; Hsinghsien Said Present Red Capital; Tung Nan Jih Pao (KMT Southeast China Organ), Shanghai; April 5. 1947; Nanking, April 4 The city of'Hsinghsien in Northwest Shansi has; now taken the place of Yenan as "Rod City" of the Chinese Communists,; according to information obtained from military sources here. All; CP leaders have withdrawn to that place. Both Mao Tse-tung and Chou; En-lai are reported to be hiding there. Hsinghsien is situated near; the Yellow River bend and the land is comparatively fertile and rich.; The great number of CP personnel who fled to this place find it easier; to get a.means of subsistence. However, another report has it that; Mao Tse-tung himself is possibly in the city of Fuhsien, east of Wutai; mountain and west of the Peiping-Hankow railway line.; * * *; General Shang Chen Reported to Be Appointed; Director of Generalissimo's Headquarters in Peiping; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; April 5, 1947 " '; Peiping, April 4 General Li Chung-jen, Director of the Generalis-; simo's Headquarters in Peiping, has postponed his return here. A report; is current here that General Li will be transferred to a post in the _; Central Government, while General Shang Chen, Director of Military; Affairs, will be appointed to take up his post.; Vr *; EC OHO "TIC NEWS; February HCL Indices Average 11,550 Times 1937 Figures; Ta Kung Pao (Independent, Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 5. 1947; Nanking, April 4 (Hwalien Nevs Agency) According to statistics re-; leased by the price Committee, the February Cost of Living Indices; for various cities, with the early half of 1937 as base year, are:; Hankow and Tientsin, over 13,000 times that of the 1937 figures;; Shanghai and Nanking, over 12,000 times; Canton, over 11,000 times; and; Chungking, 7,600 times. In average, the HCL index for February this; year is about 11,550 times over that of 1937,; I; * *; - 8 -; NEWS OF CULTURE & EDUCATION; Results of Examination of Interpreters to Study-; Abroad to Be Officially Published Two Months Later; Sin Min Wan Pao (Liberal), Shanghai; April A, 1947; (Local News)---The examination of interpreters for further studies; abroad was completed on April 3, The number of participants In this exa-; mination will be officially published some two months later.; Mr. Ho Hao-jo, former Director of the Bureau of Foreign Affairs, is re-; ported to have said:; "Together with Messrs. Chen Li-fu and Chu Chia-hua, I went sometime ago; to personally petition President Chiang for permission to send 360 interpre-; ters to the United States, to which the President gave his assent. However,; only 100 persons-were approved by the Executive Yuan. Now, the National; Interpreters Fraternity has decided to fight with the Government for the; privileges of the other 260 candidates. It is said that the Government has; consented to consider the full number of 360."; The rumor that the U.S. War Department will recommend 20 interpreters; to be sent abroad, is incorrect.; * * *; MISCELLANEOUS NEWS; Commander of Regiment Administrative District in Shanghai; Attempts to 2nd Life; Ta Rung Pao (independent. Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 5. 19A7; (Local News) Major General Li Hsien-kai, Commander of the Regiment; Administrative District in Shanghai, jumped dorm from the porch on the first; floor of his headquarters at the Paiyun Temple in Nantao on April 1 and was; seriously wounded. He was instantly sent to hospital for treatment. Yes-; terday his conditions were much improved as he was able to talk.; Our reporter paid a visit to him, and asked him why he should have; attempted to end his life. He replied that he had met with great difficulties; in carrying on the conscription work in Shanghai. Unable to perform his; duties, he was so disappointed that he wanted to commit suicide, he said.; Major General Li revealed/tne difficulties which he is encountering are; as follows: 1) Lack of funds, 2) Complex environment in Shanghai. Due to; these difficulties, he would not be able to provide the conscripts with good; food and other necessary facilities such as bath rooms, living quarters,; etc. Under the present circumstances; he finds it impossible to carry on; the conscription work properly, he'declared, Mrs. Li told our reporter that; their family is in financial straits, so they have to live in Shanghai and; Hangchow separately. They have four sons and one daughter all of whom are; in Hangchow. Major General Li's aged parents are living in their native; Village of Tungchen in Anhwei, During the time of war of resistance, his; father was a section chief of the Military Affairs Commission with the rank; of Major General," - Due to poor health, he resigned from his post. The Com-; mander's mother is blind. Most of their properties were lost in the war,; Mrs."Li-said.. Chen Tien-chiao, Chief-of-Staff of the Division Administrative; District in Shanghai, is now acting for Major General Li, it is further learned.; * * * V 0; SPECIAL & FEATURE ARTICLES; Anemic Finances of Local Governments; Sin Min Wan Pao (Liberal)4 Shanghai; March 30, 19A7; Of late, those who have been talking about finances have mostly riveted; their attention exclusively on the finances of the Central Government, but; have ignored those of the local governments. The deficits of the Central; Government in the past have invariably been tremendous, but the State budget; could more or less be balanced by the issuance of currency notes and the; floating of domestic and foreign loans.; As regards the finances of the local governments, it was decided at; the Fourth Financial Conference held last June that the State finances of; the nation should be divided into three kinds, namely, the Central Govern-; ment, the Provincial (Municipal) Government and the "Hsien" Government; finances.; Although the financial system of the Provincial Government has been; separated from that of the Central Government and has become independent,; yet only 20 percent of the land tax, which is the principal revenue of a; local government, has been allotted to the Provincial Government, (before; the Third Financial Conference, held in 1941, decided that State finances; should be divided into two main kinds, namely, (1) Central Government; finances, including Provincial Government finances, and (2) self-government; finances, the Provincial Government had been entitled to about 60 percent; of the total land tax and the."Hsien" Government to about AC percent) and; remaining 30 percent and 50 percent are earmarked for the Central Government; and the "Hsien" Government, respectively. Therefore, the present income of; the Provincial Government is much smaller than it used to be. With cumulative; effects of the devastation and dislocation of eight years of war with Jan an; and of over one year of civil strife, the financial situation of the; Provincial Government has gone from bad to worse. Not only no reconstruction; can be carried on, but the salaries to the civil servants have always been; in arrears.; The financial condition of the "Hsien" Governments is more unexpectedly; difficult. The salary paid to each oublic functionary is a mere few ten; thousand dollars per month. With such meagre pay, none of these officials; can be expected to discharge his duties honestly, nor can they be blamed; for the corruption and the dark inner set-up of the lower ranks.; The financial stringencies of the Provincial and Municipal Governments; can be seen from the following budgets for the current year as published; in various papers recently:; Provincial or; Munic ioal; Government Income- _ Expenditure Deficit; Shanghai 242,806,341,000 CN§441,049,834,000 CflO198,200,000,000; Iionan Over 10,000,000,000 .Over 60,000,000,000 About 50,000,000,000; Kiangsu 32,510,333,000 72,170,133,000 39,660,000,000; Shensi 43,743,413,000 60,A27,238,000 16,683,S2A,000; ^hekiang - - 53,700,000,000 6,900,000,000; Chungking 11,744,899,000 18,147,54-1,000 6,402,642,000; China is essentially an agricultural nation, and if the program of; modernizing and industrializing the country is to be carried out, we must; first have rural prosperity and start reconstruction in the different Pro-; vinces. But before we can do so, the financial condition of the local go-; vernments must first be improved. Realization of peace and democracy in; the different provinces are the two prerequisites to the improvement of the; financial condition of the local governments.; * *; - 10 -; Next of Kin of Hissing Persons Here Appeal for Solidarity; Ta Kung Pao (independent. Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 5. I9A7; (Local News) The Next of Kin of Missing Persons Federation here issued; a manifesto which reads as follows:; "We are victims of a tragedy which should not have occurred to people; of a democratic country today. Unable to bear this misery and grievance,; we have organized ourselves into a "Federation of Next of Kin of Missing; Persons in Shanghai." The aim of this Federation is no other than that; of urging the Government authorities and the general public to give their; attention to the mishaps which have befallen our sons, daughters, brothers; and sisters who, for no reason at all, lost their freedom, and also to; quickly and effectively find a solution to these missing incidents.; "What we want to beseech the Government is this: Regarding the dis-; appearances of our sons, daughters, brothers and sisters, although the; Government had made clear that it did not have a hand in these abduction's; and that it would undertake a thorough probe into these incidents, yet we; have been completely kept in the dark as to the progress made in the probes; during the last month and as to who really were the abductors. In reality,; the missing persons are still at large. We also beg of the Government that; the authorities concerned do something 'concrete to assure us so that we,; the kinsfolk of the missing persons, can put our hearts at rest,; "We also hope that the zealous public will continue to give us support; and to fight for human rights. We, the kinsfolk of the missing persons, must; join our hands together in greater solidarity. We are unflinchingly deter-; mined not to be deceived and to insist on a reasonable, just and open solu-; tion! We hope that the next of kin of the missing persons who have not yet; registered, will immediately register themselves at 66, Love Lane, so that; we can keep in touch with one another."; The Federation of Next of Kin of Missing Persons in Shanghai,; April A, 1947.; * * *; MORE MISCELLANEOUS NEWS '; Moldy Milk Powder Distributed by CNRRA to Children; Lien Ho Wan Pao (Liberal-Leftist). Shanghai; April L. 19A7; Tientsin, March 26 On March 2U, the Child ̂ Ifare .Milk Powder Station; established by CNRRA's. Regional Office for Peiping, Tientsin, Hopei and; Jehol, distributed the milk powder allotments for the month of March.; Each Infant was entitled to two pounds of milk powder in the form of a large; cake like a piece of soap. The cake was as hard as a piece of fossil and its; moldy odor could be smelt within a distance of 10 feet. All these indicated; that the substance of the powder had already been spoiled. Members of house-; holds who were devoid of common sense, served their Infants with this milk; powder mixture, and eventually found them suffering from diarrhea and in some; cases from serious illness. As regards the distribution of flcur allotments; to pregnant women, it has been behind schedule for over a month already. It; is learnt that the further distribution of these relief foodstuffs will not; be made, as they are to be used for some other purposes.; * * * V 0; E N D; f; - V «; ' CHINESE PRESS REVIEW * * *; American Consulate General, Shanghai, China; No^ J315 _ A2ril_7j. 19^7; EDITORIAL COMMENT; America1s Responsibility for Maintenance of; World Peace; Shun Pao (KMT-supervised, C.C. Organ), Shanghai; April 7, 1947; The fact that the United States has decided positive^ to aid Greece; and Turkey does not only mean that U.S. foreign policy has been further; clarified, but also indicates that U.S.-Soviet relations will become even; more delicate. Watching developments in the international situation as a; third party, we feel keenly that the differences between the United States; and Soviet Russia are steadily deepening. A study of the fundamental causes; of these differences has convinced us that the latter have been due to mutual; suspicion between the two countries and to the fact that they have not been; able to trust and understand each other. Although both the United States; and Soviet Russia want to see peace and democracy achieved, yet the ideals; of the two countries and the methods for attaining these ideals which they; feel should be adopted are entirely different. While at the Foreign Minis-; ters Conference which is still in session in Moscow the Four Powers have; reached complete agreement in principle concerning the German question, yet; differences immediately arose when they touched upon the crux of the question.; In a word, while we agree completely with President Truman's statement; that the United States is responsible for building world peace, yet we feel; that the question as to how best the United States Trill be able to discharge; her obligations to the entire human race and as to t hat kind of political; wisdom she should exercise in order to remove the mutual suspicion between; her and Soviet Russia, requires further careful consideration. (Summary); * * *; Truman's Words; (Short Comment); Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist). Shanghai; April 7. 1947; President Truman has made another speech. In commemorating Jefferson,; he referred to the Monroe doctrine. Of course, today President Truman's; Monroe doctrine is not,confined to the two Americas, but covers the entire; world. However, because of the great ambitions of the United States, even; Truman himself admits that the prospects are not too bright. He has pointed; out that the United States must have a sound economy and sound finances.; Although ostensibly, the new Monroe doctrine is directed against the; Soviet Union, yet in reality it is directed against the Mediterranean Sea and; the Middle East, which constitute Britain's life-line. Can Britain tolerate; such a strategy of claiming to fight against A but actually fighting against; B? It is but natural that Britain will no longer be willing to depend upon; the United States, thus bringing about the isolation of the United States.; That is why Truman, has said that this is the most critical period in; the history of the United States. (Summery); * * *; Wallace's Visit to Britain; Sin Wen Pao (KM1-supervised, C.C. Organ), Shanghai; April 7, 19A7; In the eyes of the U.S. Government authorities, the words and actions; of Mr. Wallace are contrary to the Government's policies now in force.; However, we feel that Mr, Wallace keeps an eye on world peace as well as; on the ultimate good of the United States. We believe that Mr. Wallace; is a 100$ exponent of democratic government. The r. 1 purpose of his forth-; coming visit to Great Britain is to avert the threat of a new war and; also to link up the two different ideological worlds. (Summary); The Question of Multi-party Political; Tutelage; — Reorganisation of the Government is really "multi-party; political tutelage" —; Ho Ping Jih Pao (KMT Army Organ). Shanghai; April 7, 19A7"; We feel that the chief meaning of political tutelage is as follox7s:; First, political tutelage is a stage of the Nationalist revolution.; Secondly, it is an over-all preparation for the enforcement of the; Constitution, hence only "multi-party political tutelage" can explain the; political significance of this stage. Dr. Sun Fo has clearly stated, "In; the period of constitutional government, the Government personnel will be >•; elected directly by the people. Therefore, the present reorganisation of; the Government is really the conversion of one-party tutelage into multi-; party tutelage-" This has clarified several points, including the following; (1) It has found a legal basis for participation of various parties and; factions in the Government, and (2) it has pointed out the difference bet-; ween constitutional government and political tutelage, so that everybody •; will understand that reorganisation of the Government for the transition; period is not the same as enforcement of the Constitution. It is doubtless'; wrong to say that this interpretation is designed to benefit the Kuomintang; alone. (Summary); * * *; Issue of U.S. Dollar Domestic Loans; Ta Rung Pao (independent, Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 7, 19A7; Under existing conditions, even if the Government succeed in floating; domestic loans and in overcoming some of its present difficulties, it will; eventually have to find a way out. Foreign loans are usually extended with; some conditions attached to them, and in floating domestic loans, when the; purchasing power of the people have been almost exhausted, either the method; of compulsory purchase of bonds -.'ill have to be adopted, or the bonds will; have to be mortgaged to the Government banks so as to obtain credits. The; creation by the Government through the Government banks of purchasing power; which was originally non-existent would be the same as inflation.; Regarding the US$100,000,000 worth of Government bonds, it stipulated; that these bonds shall be bought with foreign exchange or gold at the rates; of exchange to be fixed by the Government, If these bonds can be sold; smoothly, the Government will be able to realise US$100,000,000 worth of; foreign exchange,. However, the import quotas for the first quarters of 1947; alone require a total of more than US$97,000,000,; At present, internally, China is unable to balance her State budget,; and externally, she is unable to balance her international payments and; receipts« The fundamental solution of the former is to reduce expenditures,; so that the people can have a period of rest and so that the source of; Government revenue can be properly nurtured. The fundamental solution of; the latter problem lies in the reduction of the unnecessary expenditure of; large sums of money abroad, so as to stabilize the people's lifelihood, to; balance China's trade with other countries, and to balance her international; payments and receipts. Besides, inflation naturally is not the way-out, nor; is borrowing. (Summary); * *; Total Collapse of Communist Troops Inevitable; -- No matter viewed from what angle, the Communist troops; are doomed to failure —; Mo Ping Jih Pao (KMT Army Organ), Shanghai; April 6, 194.7; With the Communists routed in the Yenan area, the military situation; has become hopeless for them. However, as yet nobody seems to be able to; set his own heart at rest. We wish now to make an objective analysis of; the present military situation.; First of all, we should know that the military situation today is quite; different from that which obtained at the time of the bandit-suppression; campaign in Kiangsi. At that time, actually Japanese imperialism coordinated; its actions wita those of the treacherous bandits, Secondly, naturally; unification had yet been achieved then. Thirdly, the Government had almost; no air .a then.; It ;, l.Mown to all that with military equipment and military strategy •; as they rue today, guerrilla warfare can no longer be effectively resorted .; to. With rhe destruction of the Communist military headquarters at Yenan,; the rebuilding of the a Communist supreme military headquarters has 'become; almost impossible. Such a large Communist force certainly will be unable; t'o continue to operate for a long period of time. The economic difficulties; of the Communists are an even greater danger.; Therefore, the armed rebellion of the Chinese Communists is already; doomed to failure.; * * *; Self-salvation of Asiatic Peoples; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; A p r i l 7 , 1 9 A 7; The Inter-Asian Relations Conference marks only the beginning of the; indication of unity among the Asiatic peoples. The five proposals made by; the Vietnam and Indonesian delegations after the conference definitely voice; the desire of all the Asiatic peoples. We do not want to attach too much; importance to regionalism, nor do we hope that after their awakening, the; Asiatic peoples will start an anti-white man movement. What we hope for; is that all the democratic forces in Asia will be combined for the purpose of; realising completely the birth of a new Asia and the liberation of the Asiatic; peoples. (Summary); * * *; - u; Achievement of Inter-Asian Relations Conference; Sir. "Ten Pao (KM1 -supervised, C.C. Organ), Shanghai; April 7, 19A7; The Inter-Asian Relations Conference closed on April 2nd. This con-; ference, which was participated in by representatives of all the Asiatic; countries, will be able to promote unity among- ohe Asiatic peoples and to; change the European and American nations' traditional concept of Oriental; people s. (Summary); * # *; ; A Korea Governed by Koreans; Sin Wen Pao (KM1-supervised, C.C. Or gar), Shanghai • j; April 7. 1947; "According to a statement by Major-General Archer L. Lerch, U.S. troops; in Korea will from new on play only a supervisory role. However, when an; independent nation has to be supervised by a foreign nation, it. is no longer; really independent. Naturally, the reason why the United States is unwill-; ing to discontinue her supervision over Korea is that she cannot set. her own; heart at rest with regard to Russia. We hope that the Soviet authorities; will also clarify her own position, so as to remove the mutual suspicion; between the two countries with regard to Korea, and to let the Koreans really; govern themselves." (Extract); * * *; Other editorials not translated:; Shang Pao, Shanghai; Lih Pro, Shanghai.; Chung -Hwa Shih Pao, Shanghai; Chung Yang -Jih -Pao, Shanghai; Chin Yung Jih Pao, Shanghai; Yi Shih Pao, Shanghai; Tung Nan Jih Pao, Shanghai; Cheng Yien Pao, Shanghai; Dated April 7. 1947; On the Transfer of Government-; Operated Enterprises to Private; Interests; On the Seats of Px"ofessional Dele-; gates in the Government; Franco at Hie Wit's End; Widening of the Scope of Loans to; Be Extended to Industrial and Com-; mercial Enterprises and Strengthen-; ing of Finances •; Look Straight at Fluctuations in; Commodity Prices ;; The Sanctity of Treaties; Land Administration and National Re-; construction; The Ordering of Foreign Rice and; Increase of Food Production ...; * * *; POLITICAL NEWS; Sun Fo Expresses Views on Government Reorganization; Ta Kung .Pao "(Independent.. Political Science Group) , Shanghai; April 6. 1947; (Local News)—Dr. Sun Fo, President of the Legislative Yuan, while; attending a picnic party in the San Min Chu I Youth Corps Garden yesterday; was surrounded by many newspaper reporters who asked him about his opinions; regarding the reorganization of the Government. A certain reporter showed; him the editorial comment of the "Chung Hwa Shih Pao", Young China Party organ,; on April 5 which points out that Dr. Sim Fp's views that the reorganization; - 5 -; of the Government would mean the change of the one-partv rule of political; tutelage into a multi-party rule of political tutelage merely represent; those of the Kuomintang members to which the Young China Party members; cannot agree.; Giving further explanation to his views, Dr. Sun said, "A constitutional; Government must be directly elected by the people. The delegates nominated; by various parties and groups to take part in the forthcoming reorganized; Government are elected by their respective parties not by the people in; accordance with the process of popular election, so such a government cannot; be regarded as a constitutional one. Furthermore, the Provisional Constitu-; tion enforced during the period of political tutelage will still be.effective; pending the enforcement of the Constitution on December 25 this year, be-; cause the country cannot go without a supreme law. Therefore, the reorganiza-; tion of the Government at present is in fact merely a change from the one-; party rule of political tutelage into a multi-party rule of political; tutelage which will lead to the realization of democracy and constitutionalism".; * * *; Democratic League Spokesman Calls on Government; Representative; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist). Shanghai; April 7. 19A7; Nanking, April 6 Mr. Lo Lung-chi, spokesman of the Democratic League,; who came here to request the competent authorities to help obtain the re-; lease of the arrested League members in various places in the country,; called on Lei Chen, Secretary-General of the PCC, today. Mr. Lei promised; to offer help in this connection, saying tliat he would confer with the; competent authorities on this matter when there is a chance.; Mr, Lo told the reporters this evening that representatives of the; League in various places have lost their freedom, while most of the periodi-; cals published by the League have been banned. Though the League hence-; forth will not take part in the government, yet they certainly will not; give, up their task of winning democracy, he declared. • Commenting'on the •; reorganization of the Government, he said, "This move will not be able to; settle the pending national issues."; * * *; Shao Li-tse Promises to Help Regain Freedom of; . Lo Pin-chi; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; April 7. 19A7; (Local News) In order to obtain the release of Lo Pin-chi, one of its; members, the Shanghai Writers' Association sent its secretary, Mei Lin, to; Nanking at the end of last month to solicit help from Messrs", Shao Li-tse; and Yu Yu-jen, Kuomintang leaders and concurrently members of the Executive; and Supervisory Committees of the Association. Mei Lin has already returned; here from the Capital. He said that Itr. Shao had promised to request the; Government to wire the Mukden authorities to make inquiries and to release; Lo. Meanwhile, the Association has also requested Lu Te-jun, Ta Kung Pao; special correspondent in the Northeast, who is now in Nanking, to request; General Chao Chia-hsiang, Chief-of-Staff of the Government Army Headquarters; in the Northeast, to make inquires into this case after Lu returns to Mukden.; The Association expressed hope that they can help regain lo Pin-chi's; freedom as soon as possible.; - 6 -; Northeasterners residing in Shanghai are deeply concerned about Lo; Pin-chi who was arrested in the Northeast sometime ago. Besides requesting; Lei Chen, Government representative, to request the Government to make in-; quiries into this case and to release Lo, they are also going to request; Mo Te-hui, civic leader in the Northeast, to help restore Lo's freedom.; • * * *; 200 People of Suspicious Character Arrested in Nanking; Sin Min Wan Pao (Liberal), Shanghai; April 6, 19A7; Nanking (By Mail) In order to prevent the activities of subversive; elements, Army and police authorities in Nanking have arrested over 200; disbanded soldiers and people of suspicious character during the past two; months, who are now being detained by the agencies responsible for the; maintenance of peace and order. The investigation indicated that so far no; evidence has been obtained to substantiate the charges against them.; * * *; Negotiations on Take-Over of Port Arthur and; Dairen Continue; Sin Wen Pao (KMT-supervised, C.C. Organ). Shanghai; April 7, 19A7 '; Nanking, April 6 There have been no new developments in the negotia-; tions on the technical problems connected with the take-over of Port Arthur; and Dairen during these few days. It is reported that about 100,000 Soviet; troops are stationed In Port Arthur and Dairen. Chinese quarters expressed; hope that the Soviet troops will not withdraw until the Chinese troops; reach these two places and take over garrison duties. However, Soviet quar-; ters indicated that the Soviet troops may withdraw within a definite period; of time so that they may avoid possible conflicts with the Chinese forces.; On the other hand, Chinese quarters are afraid that trouble may arise if the; Soviet troops withdraw before the arrival of the government armed forces,; therefore they have urged the Soviet troops not to withdraw from Port; Arthur and Dairen until the Government armed forces arrive and take over; garrison duties. Negotiations are still going on.; It is further learned that Chinese quarters requested the Soviet Army; authorities to agree that the Chinese military and Government take-over; officials will proceed to Port Arthur and Dairen by sea. However, it is; difficult to say whether or not the Soviet authorities will agree to this; proposal. Kung Hsueh-sui, Mayor of Dairen, is now still in Nanking.; * * *; Chinese and Soviet Army Leaders Meet at Pulantien; Shun Pao (KMT-supervisod, CX. Organ). Shanghai; April 7. 19A7; Mukden, April 6 Chinese and Soviet Army leaders met at Pulantien; this noon, thus paving the way for the take-over of Port Arthur and Dairen; by the Chinese Government. Chinese quarters will,clarify China's firm; stand before the Soviet Army Commander and will urge Soviet quarters to sug-; gest measures to expel the illegal armed forces from Port Arthur and Dairen,; otherwise the Chinese,armed forces will restore China's administrative rights; over those two action. Chinese representatives left the; place the same evening.; - 7 -; During the Sino-Soviet negotiations at Pulantien today, Soviet quar-; ters promised to let Chinese authorities take over Watsetien, It should; be understood that Watsetien is located southeast of Pulantien and is; known as the "reservoir" of Port Arthur and Dairen. Soviet quarters re-; quested the Chinese authorities to take over that place and to defend it.; * * *; Two U.S. Agencies to Be Set up in Peiping; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; April 6. 19A7; Peiping, April 5 — I t is learned that following the withdrawal, of the; U.S. forces from Peiping, two -new U.S. agencies, namely, a Chinese language; school and an air defense training center, will be set up here. About 600; U.S. servicemen are needed to serve these two agencies. They will be sent; to China from the United States.; * *; Airfield in West Peiping Taken over by Chinese; Shun Pao (KMT-supervised, C.C. Organ), Shanghai; April 7. 19A7; Peiping, April 6—U.S. Marines on the airfield at Siyuan ±n West Peioing; have started to evacuate since yesterday. Competent authorities have dis-; patched their men to take over that airfield. The U.S. Marines have used; this airfield for one year and seven months since they landed on Tientsin; and cgme-to this city after V-J Day.; * * *; General Chu Shih-ming Tenders Resignation; Sin Wen Pao (Mr-supervised. C.C. Organ), Shanghai; April 6. 19A7; (Local News) General Ghu Shih-ming, head of the Chinese Military Dele-; gation in Japan, has tendered resignation from his post,. It Is learned that; General Shang Chen, Director of Military Affairs and delegate to the UNO; military staff, who recently returned to the country from the United States,; will in all probability leave for Tokyo.; -x- * *; Mao Tse-tung Laments Chen Yi's Death; Chien Sien Jih Pao (Connected with Ku Chu-tung), Shanghai . '; April 7, 19A7; Peiping, April 6 CP organ "Ch'ieh Fang Jih Pao" (Emancipation Daily); has published an article written by Mao Tse-tung to lament the death -of Chen; Yi, the late Commander of the New Fourth Arms'", which proxies that Chen was; actually killed in action. The New Fourth Army has changed its name into; the Field Troops in East China which is. now active in the Kiaotung area.; *; CP Sends Assassination Agents to Northeast; Tung Nan Jih Pao (KMT Southeast China Organ), Shanghai; April 7, 1947; Mukden, April 6 — I t is learned that the CP has recently dispatched; over 300'agents from Changtu to various places in the Northeast to; carry out assassinations. Most of those agents disguise themselves as; peddlers, merchants, fortune tellers and beggars. Competent authorities; have ordered all their subordinate organs to keep a close watch over them.; * *; MILITARY NEWS; • New Base Set up by CP in Linhsien; Wen Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist), Shanghai; April 7. 1947; Peiping, April 6 According to a Taiyuan dispatch, Chu Teh and Mao; Tse-tung have crossed the river from North Shensi and headed eastward. They; have set up a new base in Linhsien. At present, the CP trooos are occupying; a vast piece of territory in Shansi. Over 1,000 "li" of land along the Yellow; River from Pienkwan in the north to Kihsien incluWng Paoteh, Hsinghsien,; Lishih, Chungyang, Sihsien and Puhsien are in the hands of the CP trooos.; The areas occupied by the CP troops in Northeast and Southeast Shansi re-; present one-fourth of the areas of the province. The Government forces; occupy only the cities and toims along the Tungpu and Chengtai Rai3-ways and; have cut the CP-occupied areas into three. Therefore, since April 3, five; companies of CP troops led by Chen Keng have opened fierce attacks on Houma,; Chukiang, Yichen and Chianghsien, obviously in an attempt to gain control; of the corridor from West Shansi to Southeast Shansi. Meanwhile, other CP; Army units have also taken action in the Souyang area with the object; of disrupting the communications along the Chengta Railway. If they succeed; in carrying out these operations, they will bo able to lay siege to Taiyuan.; In view of the present grave situation, General Yen Hsi-shan, Governor of; Shansi, yesterday ordered the Taiyuan City.Government to consolidate the city; defense. Some 5,000 men are commandeered/build the defense work in the city; every day.; The operations conducted by the CP General Liu Po-chen's men in North; Honan during these few days are obviously intended to consolidate their; outer ring in Southeast Shansi. Military authorities declared that the paci-; fication campaign launched by the Government forces in North China aims at; driving all the CP troops in Shensi, Hopei, Shantung and Honan to Shansi,; Prom this it can be inferred that Shansi will become the ground for a big battl; in future.; * * *; ECONOMIC NEWS; National Resources Commission to Set up Dockyard; in W0osung; Ta Kung Pao (independent. Political Science Group), Shanghai; April 7, 1947; (Local News) The National Resources Commission of the Executive Yuan; will utilize Japan1s war reparations equipment to set up a dockyard in the; Woosung fort area. For this purpose, over 1,200 "mow" of land mil be re-; quisitioned.; - 9 -; . It is learned that this equipment''aggregates over. 50,0.00 tons. Chou; Mou-pai, director-designate Of the. dockyard, has been dispatched, to Japan; to make • necessary arrangements1 and the said equipmejpt will soon, be sent , to; •'•China. • The dockyard has already^ set up' an'office in "oosung to make all; - necessary preparations. • '.•'•.. .. ' .• ...; - r .; • • - : • •;?... : * * * • : i, ....; •-'• CUD .Notes --of $10,000 Denomination Arrive ;.. .; in Shanghai; Wen-Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist)',' Shanghai 5 ... . ; : -; 'April - 7.: 19A7 ' • ;' ' • • ' • - -; -(Ta Chung-News Agency)—-The -British Liner "Strathmore"•which carried; a cargo-of'new.Chinese banknotes printed in the United' Kingdom, arrived in; port day -before''-yesterday -'from London via Hongkong. It- is learnt by our .,; reporter'that the -new banknotes, packed .in 392 boxes, ar'e "of $1,000,,-$2,000; $5,000 and $10,000 denominations.; . . . - / . : . , * , * * • •• .; ' • - •'• - ••- - - V -•"* • '••' • ' • . ... • * —; '">> 'China--Silk.'Corporation Still to Be;Supervised . . .; ... ; • • * SV > • ; ' by Government. • .. . . ...; Shuri Pao'-feiT-suoorviscd-. C.C. Organ}. Shanghai -. - re,..-.- V..7.; April'.-?'.* BA7' > »- y; .;• . .,. :. ••-.--, 7 '• ,,; v' V'C ("Local News) In accordance with the stipulations of the emergency; ^̂ onomiiî mes.suresy---the--China. Silk Corporation _:i-s .contemplating the. issuance..; *'df-:sfo0cks: and-- shares bh: different occasions after having assessed the;value; » of*' various 'factories 'Under it's control, so that .it will be. gradually turned.; '•bfreb to"; private •i.nterest-s.-"-Detailed measures to parry out this plan are'; ^how being -worked oiit. ' ••" v---̂ '-?_ • . . : ; . ,.; $ ' • . • , • ' ?• * '*:• , .••-•. j »;•*.• • * • • » ' , • j '; -An official of concerned-quarters is-reported to have stated;..,. •; "The China Silk Corporation will still be under the supervision of the; '-Government which will bear-all the necessary expenses. The Corporation has; sfeven,factories and emplqys .oyer-l'0.,Cit)0 .workers and staff-members. The..>; ^'assets of the Corporation are estimated -at: around CU$30,000,000,000.. The -.; output, of silk for the- current- year -is expected to reach 70,00.0. p'iculs, .if; '.'. the-' purchasing price" to.'be fixed will-meet the production cost of the farmers,; "of which 30,000: .piculs- oan be used'for exportation to foreign, countries'."; .*•'. * • •'•- • , .. . . , v.; -*. * * .; HEWS OF CUITURE & EDUCATION; Atomic • Energy -Research Department Planned by; Peiping Research Institute; Shun Pao. Y £.3-supervised, C.C. Organ) , Shanghai; April 7. 19/,7; Peiping, April 6 Mr. Li shu-hua, Director of Peining Research Insti-; :rtute;;~returĥ d here ̂yesterday from a trip to Nanking via Tientsin. On being; interviewed by our reporter, he stated that he was planning to petition for; funds to cover the cost of equipping the Radium Research Department with the; necessary apparatus prior to the change of the said Department to the Atomic; Energy Research Department.; * *; - 10 -; SPECIAL & FEATURE ARTICLES; Conditions in Tsingtao Today; '.Yon Hui Pao (Liberal-Leftist1) , Shanghai; April 3, 19A7; Tsingtao, March 30 (from our correspondent Tan Huai)—The practice of; imposing taxes at will on the inhabitants is a severe headache to the people; here. Recently, an Emergency Work Committee was inaugurated under the aus-; pices of the local Government, Party and military circles, on the ground that; the tense situation now obtaining at the front makes it necessary to mobilize; all manpower and resources for the strengthening of local defenses. The first; act of the So-called "Emergency Work Committee" was to impose a CN$5,000,000,-; 000-tax on the people, A meeting was called at which it was decided to im-; pose CN&l,000,000,000 on the local Chamber of Commerce which would, in turn,; Collect same from the 9,000 odd shops in this city. The remaining ClCp4.,000,-; 000,000 would be advanced by the banks, the China Textile Development Cor-; poration and other big firms.; Taxes such as the so-called "Chu Ma Tax" are being imposed on the local; populace, " This