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Princess of Vancouver Canadian Pacific Railway. British Columbia Coast Steamship Service 1955

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Full Text

 The
NATIONAL
Bulletin
CONTENTS
T.S.M.V. 'PRINCESS, OF VANCOUVER'
PASSENGER, VEHICLE AND TRAIN FERRY
BUILT FOR
THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY CO. LTD.
FOR SERVICE BETWEEN VANCOUVER AND NANAIMO, BRITISH COLUMBIA
BY
ALEXANDER STEPHEN AND SONS LTD.
GLASGOW • SCOTLAND
CONSULTING NAVAL ARCHITECTS
MESSRS. MILNE, GELMORE AND GERMAN
MONTREAL • CANADA
MAIN PROPULSION AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY
BY
THE NATIONAL GAS AND OIL ENGINE CO. LTD.
ASHTON-UNDER-LYNE • ENGLAND
A   MEMBER   OF   THE   BRUSH   GROUP
  The
NATIONAL
Bulletin
ISSUED BY THE NATIONAL GAS AND OIL ENGINE CO. LTD., ASHTON-UNDER-LYNE, ENGLAND
A MEMBER OF THE BRUSH GROUP
No. 299, OCTOBER 1955
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
PASSENGER, VEHICLE AND TRAIN FERRY
T.S.M.V. 'PRINCESS OF VANCOUVER'
Built by Alexander Stephen and Sons Ltd., Glasgow, Scot/and
Launched on the 7th March, 1955, the T.S.M.V. ' Princess of Vancouver' carried out her sea trials
on April 20th and 21st. It is interesting to note that only some six weeks elapsed between the launch
of this vessel and the trials.
1
 The vessel has a modern streamlined appearance, with raked stem, squared stern, squat funnel and two
well raked masts.     Her dimensions are :—
Length overall 419' 9" Load draft extreme 14' 10|"
Length on water line 404' 0" Height of car tween deck moulded   .   .   .  18' 0"
Breadth extreme 65' 5f" Height of car tween deck clearance from
Breadth moulded      63' 0" top of rail to underside of beams-about    . 16' 3"
Depth moulded      19' 6"
British Tonnages
Gross 5,553.86 tons Net 2,430.21 tons
note : The ' Princess of Vancouver' is the largest vessel in the British Columbia Coast Steamship
Service fleet, but the Gross and Net tonnages are smaller than some of the other vessels as the car deck
is exempt from measurement due to its being open at the after end.
Carrying Capacity
28 box-cars carried on 4 rail tracks, or 150
automobiles approximately, 1,200 passengers.
note : The number of passengers can be increased
as and when required by the addition of more
life-saving equipment consisting of life-rafts and
life-belts.
Machinery
The ship is driven by four national seven cylinder
geared diesel engines, each pair of engines driving
a propeller through a Hindmarch/M.W.D. reverse-
reduction gearbox ; each engine is fitted with a
Vulcan Sinclair scoop control fluid coupling. The
total power is 5,600 s.h.p. ; the service h.p. will
be limited to 90% of full power, i.e. 5,040 s.h.p.
The auxiliary units are unusual in that alternating
current is used — 3 phase, 60 cycles, 450 volts —
comprising three national eight cylinder diesel
engines each with a 450 kW brush alternator ; also
there is a 150 kW national/brush emergency set.
Trials
The sea trials carried out on the Skelmorlie Mile
under the British Shipbuilding Research Association Standard procedure were very successful.
The main results were as follows :
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Fig. 1   Performance on ' Bunker B' /we/.
 1. FULL POWER 5,040 S.H.P.
A speed of 16.3 knots was obtained at the trial draft with a deadweight of 1,100 tons.     This is
equivalent to a service speed of 15| knots at full load (2,140 tons deadweight).
2. THREE ENGINES
A speed of 15.1 knots was obtained at the trial draft with three engines working.     This is equivalent
to a service speed of 14 knots at full load.
note :   When three engines are working, i.e. 2 engines on one shaft and one on the other, only three
degrees (3°) of helm are necessary.
3. TWO ENGINES
A speed of 13.09 knots was obtained at the trial draft.     This is equivalent to a service speed of 12
knots at full load.
Fuel Oil Consumption
On diesel fuel the engines have a consumption of 0.348 lb. per b.h.p. hour and on heavy fuel 0.370 lb.
per b.h.p. hour. This 6% difference in consumption is the difference in calorific value between diesel
oil and residual oil, commonly known as boiler oil.
Special Features
1. Continuous service, estimated to be 362 days per year.
2. Ability to run on heavy oil, with a saving in fuel costs estimated at 50 % as against the cost when using
diesel fuel.
3. A Voith Schneider propeller installed in a forward athwartships tunnel gives a powerful lateral thrust
to the bow of the ship to facilitate manoeuvring when berthing.
4. The ship is equipped with twin rudders in a position 1' 9" inside the fore and aft centreline of each
shaft. The turning circles on trial were only 2\ to 3 ship lengths, which will make for easy
manoeuvring in service.
5. In addition to the usual telegraphs, the ship is equipped with Westinghouse control which will enable
the ship's master to manoeuvre the engines directly from the forward or after bridge positions. The
bow propeller may also be operated from these positions.
6. The surface of the car deck is virtually level with the top of the tracks, thus permitting all types of
wheeled vehicles to be carried. This spacious car deck is only possible due to the very low engine
room deck head which permits full run of the ship without interruption.
7. Manoeuvrability is exceptional due to the Vulcan Sinclair scoop type fluid couplings, which can
vary the amount of slip and thus permit low propeller speeds, and the Hindmarch/M.W.D. gearboxes
which will reverse from " ahead " to " astern " by the movement of a single lever and the fitment of
a propeller shaft brake which operates when the reverse gear lever is in the neutral position. With
the ship making full speed ahead and the lever put in the reverse position, only fourteen seconds
elapsed before the propeller shaft was running in the reverse direction.
3
 T.S.M.V. 'PRINCESS OF VANCOUVER'
One sees in this vessel the practical embodiment of the Owner's policy which had for its principal aim
overall efficiency with the minimum operational cost. Advancing this policy in the early stages on
behalf of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, Capt. O. J. Williams, General Manager, pointed
out the many aspects of operation and design which would need careful consideration before this aim
was achieved. Not least of these points was maintenance, a particularly difficult problem in view of
the sailing schedule which demanded a continuous service of 362 days per year, only 3 days being allowed
for hull cleaning and painting.
Period surveys to comply with Classification Society requirements had to be met and in the mind of
Mr. D. B. Prentice, Superintendent Engineer, these could only be accomplished by the use of more than
one propulsion unit. He considered, and he was ably supported by Mr. Gilmore, Naval Architect, and
Mr. Moffat, Chief Engineer, that only a multi-engined installation could effectively meet all requirements
having due regard to permissible weights and sizes of engine components. A service speed of 15 knots
was contemplated and it was decided that a four engine installation would be the answer, providing that
any one engine could be isolated without difficulty, to permit overhaul, and also that the service speed
could be maintained by the other three.
The choice of relatively high speed exhaust turbo pressure-charged engines with their high power/
weight ratio would then appear to be a natural choice and the addition of the inter-coolers a further step
to economical operation.
The same foresight was shown in the selection of the three National/Brush 450 kW alternators, any
two being capable of carrying the full electrical load with one always available as standby.
As a further aid to economy the engines were arranged to run on heavy fuel oil (often referred to as
boiler oil) which costs $2,565 per barrel as compared to normal diesel oil at 55.860 per barrel, resulting
in a saving on fuel costs in the neighbourhood of 50 %. Thermostatically controlled heaters ensure that
the viscosity of the heavy oil is reduced to that of the ordinary diesel fuel thus allowing the designed
fuel injection characteristics to be maintained.
Control of Propulsion Units
To facilitate the berthing of the vessel, the engine speed and propeller direction control is arranged from
six stations, inter-connected and operated pneumatically. The navigation bridge has one central control
and one control on each wing, whilst there is a control on each wing of the after docking bridge. There is
a further control placed centrally between the four main engines.
Control may be exercised from any one station and the engine room can take over at any time.
Bow Propeller
As an additional aid to docking an electrically driven Voith Schneider propeller is fitted in an athwartship
tunnel, well forward in the bow. This can be controlled either from the wheelhouse or after docking
bridge and causes the bow to swing to port or starboard as required, to counteract any current which
may be in evidence at the entrance to the dock.
 0 5 10
m hS^^m:i la^°in"TT:r:x^^H-x^-t4
Fig. 2. Machinery arrangement in the 'Princess of Vancouver'
5
 Fig. 3
DIAGRAMMATIC  ARRANGEMENT  OF
COOLING WATER  SYSTEMS   FOR
4-B4AUM7 a 3-F4A8  TYPE ENGINES.
 Main Deck
A notable feature of the main deck which has four rail tracks is the absence of vertical supports for the
superstructure; the design of the side frames and the consideration given to the scantlings of the athwart-
ship and longitudinal beams assures more than adequate strength characteristics. The track rails are
flush with the deck, allowing acceptance of any type of vehicle. The necessary engine casings and
companion ways to decks above are situated on the centre line so that there is no obstruction whatever
to the movement and parking of any vehicle.
To secure a sub-division of the car deck for fire protection, three water spray curtains extending the
full width of the vessel have been fitted.
Passengers
Not least among the many considerations was the comfort of the passengers, and a visit to the two large
lounges in the upper deck and the two on the boat deck is worth while to see how well this has been
accomplished.
There are 885 comfortable cushioned chairs arranged in bays, with an uninterrupted view through
the large windows which are fitted along the ship's sides. Meals and hot snacks are available in
the large coffee shop which is adjacent to the lounge and a soda fountain and beverage cooler give an
unmistakable Canadian atmosphere. The attractive fluorescent lighting and the artistic pictures
which are in evidence are all that remain to complete the pleasant surroundings.
Trials
The trials on April 20th and 21st were very successful ; " she ran like a yacht", was remarkably free
from vibration, obtained her design speed of 15 knots on three engines and achieved an average speed
of 16.56 knots at 90% of the maximum power on Bunker B fuel having the following specifications.
Max. Specific Gravity  0.995 (probably 0.96)
Max. Viscosity  1,000 sees. Redwood No. 1 at 100°F
Max. Sediment  0.25
Max.  Water  1%
Flash Point       Minimum 150°F (probably 200 °F)
Sulphur Content       3£-4%
Full Ahead to Astern Test
The time taken to give Astern rotation to the propeller shafts from ' Full Ahead ' was only 27 seconds.
This time differs from the statement in the last paragraph on page 3. The time of 14 seconds was
obtained by checking a crash manoeuvre, whereas 27 seconds refers to a normal reversing manoeuvre
where the control lever goes through the intermediate stations.
This excellent performance must be considered a triumph for concerted effort and thoughtful application
on the part of all concerned both in the planning stage and in its practical achievement.
 HULL PARTICULARS
The vessel is built to Lloyd's Class — 100 A1 ' Train Ferry' Canadian Board of Steamship Inspection
and British Ministry of Transport Requirements for a Class II passenger vessel making short
international voyages.
Electric welding has been adopted throughout and units weighing up to 44 tons were fabricated in the
welding bay before being assembled at berth. Longitudinal framing has been adopted in the double
bottom.
Train Capacity
Designed as a train and vehicle ferry, she will carry box-cars and other railway rolling stock on four
tracks on the Main Deck. Four sets of Automatic Couplers by the Canadian Car and Foundry Co.
Ltd. have been fitted to bumper posts at the forward end of the rails. A Westinghouse air brake charging
apparatus is also fitted. Special consideration has been given to the scantlings of the deep beams and
girders to withstand the deck load. To save weight and space, rail heads have been specially designed
for welding to the deck. The railway rolling stock and other vehicular traffic can be loaded over the
aft end of the Main Deck and new Piers at Vancouver and Nanaimo are being constructed with
adjustable loading ramps.     The stern of the vessel has been specially designed to suit.
Obstructions on the car deck have been kept to a minimum ; the engine casing and stairways to
spaces above and below are confined to a narrow house at the centre line while other items, such as
scuttles, vents, pipes and cable trays have been housed within the line of the web frames. Two rows of
14" diameter sidelights are fitted on the ship's side P. & S. At the forward end a short flat is fitted for
the Capstan Machinery while at the aft end outboard of the sweep of the rails are store and paint rooms,
also mooring arrangements.
Large spray-tight roller steel doors, electrically operated, supplied by G. Brady & Co. are fitted at
the aft end of the Main Deck, while large hinged doors have been arranged in the ship's side for
vehicular and passenger traffic to suit the existing facilities at Vancouver and Nanaimo. A number of
large freeing ports of the latest design which open automatically are fitted on the ship's sides at approved
positions to free the Car Deck of excess water.
Passenger Accommodation
The superstructure above the car deck is allocated entirely for the use of passengers, except for the
Officers' and crew's messrooms which are positioned just aft of the galley on the Upper Deck and the
Officers' living quarters on the Boat Deck forward. A spacious observation lounge is admirably
positioned at the forward end of the Boat Deck. The curved front and sides are fitted all round with
large metal framed windows 5' 3" long x 2' 6", supplied by Beckett, Laycock & Watkinson Ltd., the
bottom edge being kept sufficiently low to permit observation when seated. Tubular satin-chrome
framed armchairs, upholstered in Dunlopillo and tastefully covered in Moquette, are provided for 115
persons, while under the windows, portable upholstered foot rests are available.     The lounge is entered
 through large frameless glass double doors, having embossed design in keeping with the general scheme
of decoration.
Immediately aft of the observation lounge a large entrance hall with Purser's Office, ladies rest room,
first aid room, locker room, etc. is conveniently arranged, also a shop with large attractive display
windows.     Ship to shore telephone facilities are also provided.
Two large lounges on the Upper Deck and two on the Boat Deck are tastefully decorated. Large
windows 5' 9" long x 3' 0" are fitted for full extent of the ship's side. In order that passengers may
have an uninterrupted view, the seating has been arranged in bays. Special consideration has been
given to passengers' comfort by fitting deep Dunlopillo cushions and back rests in pleasant contrasting
coverings. Writing facilities are provided in a lounge on both decks. A cocktail bar with small
tables and comfortable tub chairs to seat 44 persons has been arranged at the aft end of the lounge on
the Boat Deck.
Meals and hot snacks can be served in a large coffee shop entered from the lounge on the Upper Deck,
and finished in decorative plastic with stainless steel rim. Large decorative windows are fitted between
the lounge and coffee shop, the design being repeated on the frameless glass entrance doors. Swivel
type chairs are provided for 115 persons at the counters. A large attractive display cabinet incorporating
ice maker, milk dispensers, coffee making units, roll warmer, etc. is fitted at the aft end. Additional
coffee and service units are provided at the counters, while a soda fountain and beverage cooler are also
fitted ;   all to the latest Canadian practice.
Galleys and Officers' and Crew's Messrooms
A large and well-equipped galley containing pantry, bakery, vegetable, silver and wash-up rooms, also
refrigerated meat, dairy and fish rooms, is fitted just aft of the coffee shop and is also convenient for
the Officers' and Crew's messes. The equipment is all electric and of the latest Canadian design
supplied by Russell Food Equipments Ltd., Vancouver. Large Gaylord exhaust vents fitted with grease
traps extend over the ranges, fryers and steamers, etc. to ensure clean and efficient ventilation. All
fitments, dressers, etc. are finished in stainless steel.
The Officers' mess, panelled in Canadian Birch, is fitted with small tables with plastic tops and
upholstered chairs to seat 18. Separate messes are also provided for 12 seamen, 12 engine room crew
and 12 stewards, and fitted with small tables, with plastic tops, and upholstered chairs. All these
messes have electric coffee makers, toasters and refrigerators.
Officers' Accommodation
On the Boat Deck forward, the Officers, Engineers and Pursers are accommodated in neatly furnished
single berth rooms panelled in white ash, having drawers under bed, large upholstered settee, knee-hole
desk, full length wardrobe, wash basin, etc. ; all to give the maximum comfort. A lounge, tastefully
designed, panelled in Avodire, has also been arranged, with small tables, writing desk, upholstered
settees and easy chairs. Large rooms for Captain and Chief Engineer, in Avodire, are arranged on the
front of the Deckhouse ; an Engineers' office has also been provided. 30" x 24" fixed windows with
ventilating tops by Bulls Metal & Marine Ltd. are fitted in each cabin.
 Wheelhouse, Chartroom and Navigational Equipment
The deckhouse forward on the Bridge Deck contains a large well-equipped wheelhouse, chartroom
and wireless room, also an emergency generator with a National 150 kW diesel generator set, and necessary switchboards, etc. A battery room, lamp room and fan room for the mechanical ventilation are also
fitted. Additional fan rooms are fitted aft of the machinery casing. Centre window in wheelhouse,
30" x 36" wide, is fitted with two wipers. Remainder in wheelhouse, chartroom and wireless room are
30" x 27"; sidelights 14" dia. fitted to other spaces.
Navigational appliances include a Sperry Minor Gyro Compass, Kelvin & Hughes Magnetic Compasses
of the projector type, Marconi Visagraph Echo Sounder, Direction Finder, Wireless Transmitter and
Receiver and ship to shore communication radio telephone for Officers' use with V.H.F. type for
passengers, also Radar of latest type. All the wireless equipment is supplied by Canadian Marconi.
The main engines are controlled directly by a Westinghouse remote control system from the stands
on the Navigating Bridge and the Docking Bridge aft. Electric docking telegraphs by Chadburn are
also fitted on the Navigating Bridge with repeaters at the winches on the Car Deck aft.
Crew Accommodation
Two compartments forward on the Lower Deck provide accommodation for 18 Seamen and 12 Engine
Room Crew in well furnished 2-berth rooms in the aft compartment and 18 stewards and 11 Orientals
in 4- and 6-berth rooms in the forward compartment. Each cabin is fitted with beds with drawers under,
lockers, chairs, wash basins with H. & C. water, etc. ; lavatory and recreation rooms are also provided.
The deckhead over the accommodation is insulated against noise from the Car Deck.
Above the aft end of the Car Deck a Mezzanine Deck is fitted P. & S. providing accommodation
for Stewardesses and coffee shop attendants, etc. in four and single berth cabins fitted out similar to the
remainder of the crew and having wash and sanitary accommodation.
Ventilation
The passenger and crew spaces are heated by steam convectors and in addition filtered heated air is
supplied from the mechanical ventilation system, each public space being thermostatically controlled.
The galley, pantries and stores are mechanically supplied with air at atmospheric temperature, and
mechanical exhaust ventilation is also fitted. Ten large torpedo fans supply the ventilation to the
Car Deck ;  the ventilation system being designed by Thermotank Ltd.
Deck Coverings
Semtex deck composition f" thick has been laid on all decks exposed to the weather, while ' Aranbee'
latex composition with decorative Korkoid by Rowan & Boden has been used for decks inside passenger
and crew spaces.
The Car Deck has been sheathed to the level of the rail heads with special non-indent oil and heat
resistant asphalt paving by Limmer and Trinidad.
Fire Protection
The most up-to-date methods of fire protection and detection have been adopted. ' A' Class decks
and bulkheads have been fitted to the requirements of the Canadian Board of Steamship Inspection
and to British M.O.T. Regulations and Caposite or Marinite insulation has been fitted where required.
10
 Fire doors supplied by Roneo Ltd. have been fitted to these bulkheads. To ensure the protection of the
passenger spaces from fire on Car Deck the underside of the Upper Deck has been completely insulated
with 1" Caposite. The insulation work throughout has been done by McEwan Insulators Ltd. A
sprinkler system by Mather & Piatt Ltd. has been fitted throughout the vessel and to ensure a subdivision
of the Car Deck, water spray curtains extending the full width of the ship have been fitted at three
positions. A watchman's patrol system incorporating ' Delinquency' feature with recorders, etc.
has been installed while an electrically supervised auto fire detection system protects the spaces where a
watchman cannot patrol. There is also a general alarm and public address system and two manual
break-glass type stations in each fire zone. In the two machinery spaces CO. 2 total flooding smothering
system has been installed. CO. 2 flooding system is also supplied to the paint room, emergency generator
room and lamp room. Six hose reels for CO.a are provided on the Car Deck. The fire main system
has a cross connection from the sanitary line to maintain continuous pressure. The usual soda acid,
foam and tetra-chloride portable extinguishers are provided.
A feature of the vessel is the cathodic protection of the cold fresh water and sanitary service pipes
by ' Guldager Electrolytic Protection System ' supplied by the Cathodic Protection Company.
Life Saving Appliances
Life saving appliances, sufficient for all persons on board, have been provided to meet the latest international requirements. There are six 30 ft. lifeboats each for 80 persons and two 26 ft. lifeboats each
for 45 persons ; all lifeboats are supplied by Viking Marine Co. and are of aluminium and fitted with
hand propelling gear, except one 26 ft. boat which has a Kelvin petrol engine. The davits are of Stone
marepa gravity type with hand winches situated on the Bridge Deck. Two portable hoisting units are
supplied for these winches.     Life rafts, of Owner's special type, will be supplied on arrival at Vancouver.
Deck Machinery, Steering Gear and Bow Propeller
Two electric anchor and warping capstans are fitted forward on the Upper Deck with machinery on
the flat below, the anchors being housed in specially recessed hawse pipes to avoid obstructions when
docking. Four electric mooring winches with automatic spooling gear capable of a 30,000 lb. line pull
are supplied by Clarke Chapman & Co. Ltd. One of these winches is fitted forward and one aft on the
Upper Deck while the remaining two are fitted at each side of the Car Deck aft.
A four ram electric hydraulic steering gear by Brown Bros. & Co. Ltd. is fitted aft operating twin
rudders which are supported on fabricated skegs welded to the ship's structure. A Duplex telemotor
installation controls the gear from the wheelhouse.
A novel feature of this ship is a powerful Voith Schneider propeller supplied by Brown Bros. & Co.
Ltd., fitted in an athwartship tunnel forward to facilitate manoeuvring when berthing. This gear is
controlled from the wheelhouse and docking bridge aft by ' Bloctube ' system of control rods.
Machinery Spaces, Double Bottom Tanks, etc.
The hull below the Main Deck is divided by 12 bulkheads forming watertight compartments to meet
the latest requirements of the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea.
Seven power operated H.S. W.T. doors by Donkin & Co. electrically controlled from the bridge and
hand controlled from the Main Deck are fitted, giving access throughout the ship including the steering
gear compartment.
11
 KEY    TO    FEATURES
l. Roller steel doors (closed). 2. Loading ramp. 3. Lift. 4. Steering gear for twin rudders. 5. Starboard rudder and propeller. 6. Stores.
7. Cars stowed. 8. Galley and bakery. 9. Coffee shop. 10. Rear side access doors for cars. 11. Side fender for protection when docking.
12. Propeller shaft tunnels (port and starboard). 13. Oil fuel tank (there are several). 14. Double bottom and oil fuel space. IS. Starboard
outer diesel engine.     There are four engines coupled in pairs driving two propeller shafts through fluid couplings. 16. Two railway
tracks, starboard side of " island ". 17. Fan uptakes. 18. Engine exhaust uptakes. These funnel uptakes form a casing, or " island ",
wif/j fwo railway tracks either side. 19. TTiree Diesel electricity generators. 20. Passengers' upper deck lounge. 21. Passengers' boat deck
lounge. 22. Hospital. 23. Ladies' room. 24. Forward side access doors. 25. Passengers' entrance. 26. Officers' cabins. 27. Radar
scanner and radio direction-finding aerial. 28. Wheelhouse and navigating bridge. 29. Passengers' observation lounge. 30. Railway box
cars stowed. 31. Crew's restroom. 32. Crew's cabins. 33. Open space oc ballast space. 34. Starboard grill and water entrance to bow of
propeller tunnel.        35. Electrically driven bow propeller to assist docking (works either way). 36. Buffers and automatic couplings.
37. Capstan machinery.    38. Starboard anchor in recess.    39. Anchor capstans.    40. Perspex anti-spray hood for bow lookout.
Hflpl
Reproduction of this drawing by L. Ashwell Wood is given by permission of" Eagle".
Separate engine and generator rooms are also provided and noise has been eliminated as far as possible,
the steel work above the floor plates being completely lined with acoustic insulation formed of 2" Stillite
sheathed with perforated sheet steel.
An electric lift by Waygood-Otis Ltd. for use of the Engineers is fitted giving access to their
accommodation on the Boat Deck.
Abaft the Engine Room an Auxiliary Machinery Room is fitted and includes sprinkler and cathodic
protection tanks, also a well-equipped Engineers' store. The space below forms the shaft tunnels with
an 86 ton F.W. tank and a 17 ton diesel oil tank on the centre line, and ballast tanks, pump suction
compartments and a 120 ton heavy oil fuel tank at the ship's side P. & S. The heavy oil tank extends
to the Main Deck. Provision stores are arranged on Lower Deck aft and an electric lift supplied by
Waygood-Otis Ltd. communicates direct with the galley. The fore peak, the compartment under
Bow Propeller Machinery and under stores flat aft are arranged for water ballast. The aft peak is a
dry compartment. The remaining compartments form void spaces, and the two below the crew accommodation forward are sub-divided longitudinally. Refrigerator and sprinkler pumps are fitted in No. 1
and No. 2 shaft compartments aft. Quick opening escape scuttles are fitted P. & S. to all compartments
below the Main Deck in addition to the ladders fitted in the crew spaces. An Adam's automatic sewage
ejector plant is installed for dealing with crew's lavatories on the Lower Deck and is fitted in the void
space under the engine room crew accommodation.
12
 ^ -m
Fig. 4
A double bottom is fitted aft of the Bow Propeller Machinery Space to forward of aftermost shaft
compartment and all double bottom tanks are suitable for carriage of water ballast. The D.B.
compartments below the Engine and Generator rooms are also arranged for carriage of oil fuel.
MACHINERY
Main Contractors — The National Gas and Oil Engine Co. Ltd.
The main propulsion machinery for this vessel is of the multi-engine type, driving twin screw propellers
through Vulcan Sinclair scoop control fluid couplings and Hindmarch/M.W.D. oil-operated twin input
reverse-reduction gearboxes. Each propeller is driven by two National ' B4AUM7 ' type 7-cylinder
turbo pressure-charged diesel engines, each rated at 1,575 b.h.p. at 333 r.p.m. continuously. In addition,
there are three auxiliary units of 450 kW each, 450 volts, 3 phase, 60 cycles, at 0.8 p.f. These alternators,
of Brush manufacture, are driven by three National ' F4A8 ' type 8-cylinder diesel engines, each developing 780 b.h.p. at 514 r.p.m. Also there is an emergency set to comply with the Classification
requirements and this comprises a National' M4AA8 ' type auxiliary diesel engine developing 265 b.h.p.,
1,200 r.p.m., coupled to a 150 kW Brush alternator.
 Fig. 5.  View from above of two of the main engines which are direct coupled to one gearbox.
National 'B4AUM7' Type Diesel Propulsion Engines
The propulsion engines have a cylinder bore of 17" and stroke of 21.5" giving a normal output of 1,750
b.h.p., and a one hour output of 1,925 b.h.p. at 333 r.p.m., the piston speed being 1,200 ft. per minute.
The Owner's rating is specified as 1,575 b.h.p. The engines are of the exhaust turbo pressure-charged
type fitted with inter-coolers between the turbo blowers and the engine air inlet manifold. The inter-
coolers serve a very useful purpose as it is well known that in the turbo pressure-charged engine the
turbine increases in speed with the load, resulting in an increase to the air pressure and temperature
finally causing much higher compression pressures at full than at no load. It has long been in the mind
of the diesel engineer to control this increase in compression pressure as the load increases, and the
introduction of inter-coolers is a step in this direction. As sea water is available anywhere in
the world at 90/100°F., it is simple to control the inlet air temperature to the engine after the turbo-
charger to 120°F. The inter-coolers become more effective as the load increases because the temperature
difference between the water and air from the turbo-charger is greater and permits of more heat extraction.
The benefit of an inter-cooler is two-fold ; (1) As the result of supplying air at a lower temperature
the density required in the cylinder can be achieved at a lower induction pressure and,
consequently, at a lower final compression pressure, and (2) A lower final compression temperature.
Both these are beneficial, as the former results in lower loading on the engine bearings, piston rings
and scantlings generally, and the latter results in a lower cyclic temperature, which permits heavy loads
being carried with a lower rate of heat dissipation per b.h.p. hour.
Tests on engines at a B.M.E.P. in the order of 140 p.s.i. show that the heat flow to engine circulating
water is reduced as low as 1,000 B. Th. U. per b.h.p. hour, the balance of heat being taken out in the
inter-cooler with the result that the engine pistons, cylinder covers and liners can be maintained at a
safe temperature even when running on overload and at high mean pressures.
 Fuel
Another feature with these engines is that they are specified to run on bunker and diesel fuel and we give
below the specification, from which it will be noted that the fuel is not only a heavy oil with a fairly high
viscosity but also contains a high sulphur content of 1.6%.
Sample of Fuel Oil marked C.P.R.
Order No. 26845/XA757/5401
Specific Gravity at 60°F 9895 = 11.50° A.P.I.
Closed Flash Point (LP.) 182°F.
Viscosity (Redwood No. 1) 682 seconds at 100°F.
Total Sulphur Content (Bomb method)      1-60%
Water Content      0.4% by weight.
Sediment Trace only.
Carbon Residue (Conradson)     12.90%
Carbon Content 86.70%
Hydrogen Content 10.22%
Calorific Value (Bomb method) Gross 10.060 Calories 18,108 B.Th.U
Residual Oil: After distilling to 350°C residue = 58% by volume.
To cope with these conditions the fuel oil is
heated so that the viscosity is reduced to a standard which corresponds with normal diesel oil,
so that the injection system is maintained under
constant conditions, preventing any undue rise
in pressures due to high viscosity and also, what
is more important, maintaining the injection
characteristics in keeping the rate of injection
constant with the design conditions. As a further
aid to temperature control the old practice of
carrying the fuel oil main the length of the engine,
with no return, has been dispensed with, because,
due to the small rate of flow, this resulted in
number 7 pump receiving oil at a much lower
temperature than number 1. National have
fitted a circular main which permits the oil to be
circulated to the fuel pumps at a fairly high rate
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and back to the service tank, with the result that the last pump is kept at the same temperature as the
first pump, giving equal temperature of fuel oil to each cylinder.
The viscosity temperature chart, Fig. 6 shown, enables the operator to decide what temperature is
required should oil of a different viscosity be used. In addition, research at the National Works has
shown that it is necessary that this type of oil should be centrifuged in two stages — first, normal
centrifuging to take out water and foreign matter, and a second stage called a clarifier, which deals with
the very fine foreign matter shown to be present in most of the residual oils ; this pays for itself in
protecting the fuel pumps and atomisers against abrasive wear. This is in line with what has been
found necessary with other investigations into the use of residual oils.
To deal with the sulphur content the engine has been fitted with chromium plated liners, and all
bearings, which would otherwise be in bronze, have been replaced, using an aluminium alloy which
 is resistant to sulphuric corrosion. In addition, provision has been made in the closed fresh water
cooling circuit to maintain a high inlet temperature to the engine so that the bottom of the liner will
be at a reasonably high temperature to combat any tendency of the gases to condense and deposit
moisture on the liner should their temperature fall below dew point.
Cooling
The fresh water and lubricating oil coolers for the engines are supplied by Serck. The circulation of
sea water is by motor driven centrifugal pumps supplying to a main with branches to the four propulsion
engines. Fresh water is circulated by a centrifugal pump mounted directly on each engine and is used
for cooling the engine cylinders, cylinder heads and pressure-chargers, after which it passes to the heat
exchanger, where it is cooled by the sea water. The sea water flows through the oil cooler, air inter-
cooler and heat exchanger.     Figure 3 shows the cooling system diagrammatically.
Pressure-Chargers
The pressure-chargers are the Napier TS 400 type and the exhaust system is split into four pipes supplying
four inlets in the nozzle ring of the Napier turbo blower.
Fuel Consumption
During tests at the maker's works the fuel consumption using the residual oil specified, averaged on the
four engines, at the normal rating under propulsion conditions, 0.370 lb. per b.h.p. hour. This is
6 % lower in calorific value than normal diesel oil. Tests on normal diesel oil yielded a fuel consumption
of 0.348 lb. per b.h.p. hour.
The engines are fitted with variable speed governors, giving a speed range from 333 to 133 r.p.m.,
and the governors are inter-connected through control gear, which will be described later.
There are two main control panels which each contain two pyrometers — one for each engine, giving
the exhaust gas temperature from the outlet branch on each cylinder cover, and also the exhaust temperature into the exhaust gas turbine. In addition, these control panels have the usual pressure gauges
for oil and water.     One desk in the engine room carries the controls for the four propulsion units.
Starting is by means of compressed air at 350 p.s.i.
CONTROL OF PROPULSION UNITS
1. DETAILS OF ENGINE SPEEDS, ETC.
Engine speed  333 r.p.m.
Gearbox Input Shaft speed  323 r.p.m.
Corresponding Propeller speed  200 r.p.m.
Reduction Gear Ratio  1.61 to 1
Engine speed range  333 r.p.m. to 133 r.p.m.
2. Lowest Propeller Speed using scoop control =21 r.p.m. (giving approximately 3 knots) i.e. thus there
is 79% slip provided by the coupling scoop control.
3. REVERSING
Supposing that with the ship travelling at ' Full Ahead ', ' Full Astern ' is required, then the following sequence of operations would take place.
16
 (a) The control lever at the particular control station being used, is moved from the ' Full Ahead '
to the ' Full Astern' position.
(b) The engines revolutions will drop from 333 r.p.m. to 133 r.p.m.
(c) The fluid coupling scoops are withdrawn in order to reduce the torque transmitting capacity.
(d) The clutches in the gears are operated so that the gears pass to ' Neutral' from ' Ahead '.
(e) The gears pass to ' Astern ' from ' Neutral'.
(f) The hydraulic coupling scoop is lowered and the propeller speed increases.
(g) With the scoop now full in, the engine speed increases from 133 to 333 r.p.m., giving a propeller
speed of 200 r.p.m.
Though the control lever movement mentioned at (a), may be carried out without pause, the sequence
of operations is regulated over a longer period, by means of compressed air operated time lag mechanism, to avoid damage to the transmission.
Fig. 7.     A k BAA UM1' type propulsion unit on test at the works of The National Gas and Oil Engine Co. Ltd.
Shutting Down One Engine and Driving with the Other
This can only be carried out by the engine room staff and the sequence of operations is as follows.
Engineer operates the shut-down handle of the engine to be stopped; this cuts out the fuel pumps
and at the same time isolates that engine, fluid coupling and gearbox input shaft, by means of a Servo
operated isolating valve. The closing of this valve cuts off the oil pressure to the input (or pinion)
shaft clutch, thus leaving the input shaft, fluid coupling and engine, stationary.
 Propulsion Units, Control System
This equipment, together with all other Servo and pneumatic mechanisms, has been designed and
manufactured by American Westinghouse Corporation, and consists, in the case of the propulsion
unit controls, of 6 separate control stations inter-connected and operated pneumatically. The control
stations are situated about the ship as follows.
1. Centrally on Main Bridge.
2. Port Wing, Main Bridge.
3. Starboard Wing, Main Bridge.
4. Port Wing, Aft Bridge.
5. Starboard Wing, Aft Bridge.
6. Engine Room, centrally placed between the 4 main engines.
Control stations numbers 1 to 5 inclusive may only become operative when control has been passed over
from the Engine Room position (6) and this is done by lever control of a ' Rotair ' valve in the engine
room which indicates control has been passed over to deck stations.
It should be noted that when necessary, all 6 stations may be manned and control exercised from any
one station. When control is vested in the deck stations, control can be taken over at any one of the
positions 1 to 5 by depressing a button at that station. A pressure gauge at the station indicates when
control has been taken over by showing the operating pressure of 100 p.s.i. in the air supply to that station.
The pressure gauges at the deck positions which do not have control will show no pressure in the
supply line.
Engine room can take over at any time.
Fluid Couplings
Each engine is fitted with a Vulcan Sinclair scoop control fluid coupling and this takes the place of the
flywheel and is carried between the outer pedestal bearing adjacent to the engine crankshaft coupling and
the gearbox bearing. The fluid coupling is a self-contained unit having its own oil, independent of
any auxiliary pump, gravity, or sump tank or power supply for filling and emptying. The propeller
speed is obtainable down to ^th of full speed, by controlling first on the engine down to half speed
and further by regulating the scoop setting to give the desired slow propeller speed. It is particularly
necessary in this type of ship to have such flexibility to facilitate berthing, as this has to be done with a
very high degree of accuracy to ensure track alignment, when taking trains on the ferry.
Another important feature is that torsional oscillations are isolated so that each engine system can
be considered independently from other engines, and from the propeller shaft system; in consequence,
the smooth driving torque reduces the loads on the gears and shafts.
Any engine can be isolated when in harbour by operating the scoop so that, if desired, the engine
can be run up to full speed and tested quite independently of the gearbox or propeller shaft. When at
sea, any engine can be isolated at will by putting the gearbox input shaft into neutral.
The Vulcan Sinclair scoop control fluid couplings are made by Fluidrive Engineering Co. Ltd.
18
 Oil-Operated Gearboxes
The final drive to the propellers is through oil-operated twin input reverse-reduction gearboxes of the
Hindmarch/M.W.D. manufacture. This interesting feature is in line with the present tendency in marine
propulsion towards the use of medium speed internal combustion non-reversing engines. A wide
choice of gear reduction ratio is obtainable and the most efficient propeller speed for any ship can be
employed and in this case, there is a 1.6 to 1 ratio giving propeller shaft speeds of 200 r.p.m.
OUTPUT   SHAFT.
Fig. 8. Section drawing of the Hindmarch/M.W.D. gearbox.     Fig. 9. One of the Hindmarch/M.W.D. gearboxes.
The particular manner in which these gears operate can be explained briefly in the following way.
The ' Ahead ' and ' Astern ' wheels each incorporate an oil-operated clutch which consists of inner and
outer members. The outer members carrying the gear rings on their outer periphery are mounted on
journals supported on the casing or on the shafts while the inner members are carried on longitudinal
splines on the driving or driven shafts. As these gearwheels are in constant mesh, the rotation of the
primary shaft causes one set of clutch members to revolve; but power cannot be transmitted by the
secondary shaft until the members of one or other of the clutches are engaged with the corresponding
faces of the other members of that clutch. This is achieved by directing oil under pressure into the
chamber between the inner members which then slide axially on their splines until they engage the outer
members where they are maintained in working contact by oil pressure until released. Disengagement
after release is effected by oil pressure applied to the opposite face of the inner members which causes
them to return to their idling position. The oil pressure system consists of a pump, a by-pass valve,
a control cock and ducts through which the oil passes at the correct pressure and volume in order to
operate the clutches and to lubricate the working surfaces. The oil-operated clutches are engaged
and disengaged by the simple effortless action of turning the lever of the control cock which has three
positions, ' ahead ', ' stop ', ' astern '. When the control cock is in the middle position, no oil pressure
is conducted to either of the sets of clutches. The sectional drawing of the box, Fig. 8, shows the
position of the ' Ahead ' and ' Astern ' clutches and Fig. 9 shows the master control cock with the
individual controls, one to each input shaft and a third lever isolating the brake mechanism. When
' Ahead ' is engaged, oil is directed to all of the ' Ahead ' clutches by means of a fool-proof system by
which oil pressure cannot at the same time be admitted to any of the ' Astern ' clutches.     The operation
19
 is positive and the propellers can be made to go
from 'Full Ahead' to ' Full Astern ' in comparatively few seconds. Any of the engines may be
disconnected at will without stopping the others
by operating the appropriate individual clutch
control.
Release of the clutches from the engine would
still permit the propellers to revolve due to
trailing; and in this particular duty, the owners
require that it be possible to stop the propellers
revolving, on account of floating logs, prevalent in
these waters, causing damage to a revolving
propeller. A braking system is therefore incorporated in the gearbox.
Figure 8 shows the output shaft together with    Fig. 10.    A National ' FA AS ' type auxiliary unit being
the Michell thrust block housing. The two brakes    handled by the crane prior to loading into the vessel.
on the secondary shaft can also be seen.
The two Hindmarch/M.W.D. type 2MWR, size 9 gears are identical, but the two port engines
run in a clockwise direction when looking on the flywheel end of the engine and the starboard
engines run anti-clockwise, thus giving two outboard turning propellers.
The oil reservoir is located in the base of the gearbox. The gearwheels do not dip into the oil.
An externally driven oil pump of large capacity and a set of oil coolers complete the oil system.
The control mechanism in the four engines,
together with their fluid couplings and reverse
gearboxes, are so inter-connected that the engine
speed is reduced before reversing.
These gearboxes are manufactured with superlative gears and the gears have been cut on a Gould
& Eberhardt machine which is capable of greater
accuracy than is normally obtainable with similar
types of gear cutters. The accuracy of these
gears is superior to that called for in B.S.I.
Specification 1498. The gear cutting has all been
done in a thermostatically temperature controlled
gear cutting department. The special manufacturing process includes a developed technique
for perfecting the surfaces of the grooved inner
and outer clutch members, through which it will be
realised the whole motive power of the ship is
transmitted. The shafts which are of massive
construction, are splined and ground to permit
free movement of the inner clutch members.
Fig. 11.   A National ' BAA U Ml' type propulsion engine
being loaded into the side of the ' Princess of Vancouver '.
20
 The Hindmarch/M.W.D. gearboxes are designed and manufactured by Modern Wheel Drive Ltd.
and these multi-engine marine transmissions have been used for many years in coastal and deep sea
cargo vessels, tugs, trawlers, ferry boats and naval craft. For example the 'Jean Mantelet' of 3,000 h.p.
has a twin engine gear driving one propeller at a reduction ratio of 1.82 and a propeller speed of 165
r.p.m. It has been in operation in the Suez Canal area since 1949. The Danish 1,000 h.p. ' Sigyn'
salvage tug with two 500 h.p. engines driving one propeller through a Hindmarch/M.W.D. transmission
has been working in the Baltic for some years. The Mersey Docks and Harbour Board firefloat' Aestus '
of 900 h.p. from two engines driving one propeller is of somewhat similar construction. There are also
in use other vessels with four engines driving each propeller through Hindmarch/M.W.D. gearboxes,
aggregating as much as 16,000 h.p. in one twin screw ship. At present, there is under construction the
' Bluenose ' in the St. Lawrence, Canada, a large train and passenger ferry boat which will operate as the
Bar Harbour Ferry and it will have two sets of three engines each, driving twin screws through Hindmarch/
M.W.D. transmission gears with a total of 12,000 h.p. from six engines. There are numerous other
multi-engine gearboxes under construction.
National Auxiliary Units
In a ship of this type, restaurants and accommodation are on a big scale and large auxiliary engines
are required. The three auxiliary units comprise National ' F4A8 ' type, 780 b.h.p., 514 r.p.m. diesel
engines coupled to Brush alternators, each having an output of 450 kW, 450 volts, 3 phase, 60 cycles and
0.8 p.f. The engines are similar in type to the main propulsion engines but have 12" diameter cylinders
and 15" stroke, fitted with four-valve heads, which give them a very high efficiency. On test these engines
gave an average fuel consumption of 0.373 lb. per b.h.p. hour on heavy fuel as described for the main engines.
Fig. 12.  One of the 780 b.h.p. auxiliary engines driving 450 kW Brush alternator.
21
 The fuel oil system is identical with the main
engines and the engines differ only in their size
and in being naturally aspirated instead of
pressure-charged.
The engines will run in parallel. Each alternator is fitted with automatic voltage regulator
and a synchronising panel, and synchronising
is facilitated by a remote control switch which
permits the governor speeder spring to be
regulated to control the speed of the
incoming machine to the synchronous speed
of the system.
The silencers for these engines, as for the
main engines, are of the Burgess spark
arresting   heavy   duty   type.
An additional auxiliary emergency generating
set is installed. This unit comprises a National
' M4AA8' type engine, with a flange mounted 150 kW single bearing Brush alternator. The unit
is complete in every respect, being mounted on an underbase with Serck radiator and centrifugal
water circulating pump built integral with the engine. Starting is by means of compressed air.
Fig. 13.    150 kW National/Brush
diesel-alternator emergency set.
Air Compressors
Compressed air is supplied by two electrically driven compressors capable of compressing 24 cu. ft. of
free air per minute to a pressure of 350 p.s.i. when running at 870 r.p.m.
There are also two emergency compressors each capable of supplying 15 cu. ft. of free air per minute
at 350 p.s.i.
Fresh and Salt Water Circulating Systems
The ' Pneupress ' system has been adopted for both the domestic fresh water and sanitary salt water
circulating systems.
Auxiliary Boilers
Domestic heating is maintained by two oil fired boilers with an output each of 3,000 lbs. per hour at 50
p.s.i. from feed at 120°F.
Fire Extinguishing
A complete set of CO. 2 fire extinguishing equipment is supplied for the ship, with an additional froth
extinguisher for the engine room.
A sprinkler and curtain system are also installed for the purpose of fire extinguishing.
22
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OIRECTION    OF    ROTATION
STARBOARD   PAIR  :        CLOCKWISE    -   VIEW    ON   QOV.   ENO
PORT     PAIR
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GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF 2B4AUM7
TYPE ENGINES HYDRAULIC COUPLINGS
&     M.W. D.  GEARBOX.
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THE  NATIONAL GAS & OIL ENGINE CO. LTD.
ORG. No.   M 3329QD.
Fig. 14
  

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