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Canadian scenes Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1927

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July-August 192?
Souvenir of aMsiiio Canada
H.R.H. The Prince of Wales
H.R.H. Prince George
The Right Hon. Stanley Baldwin P.C.
and party
Canadian Pacific Railway
Be Vancouver Dailj Province
ON September 1st, i860, three years after the selection of Ottawa as the
seat of Government for Canada, the Prince of Wales of that date laid the
corner-stone of the Parliament Buildings. Confederation of the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia into the
Dominion of Canada was accomplished seven years later. To-day, in commemoration of the Diamond Jubilee of Confederation, Canada is honoured by the
presence of the heir to the British throne, of his younger brother Prince George
and of the Prime Minister of Great Britain.
Within these years the Canadian scene has changed, the horizon has widened
and many have been the transformations of people, of countryside and town.
The old highways which were once mostly waterways have been supplemented
by railways and by innumerable roads, with an occasional flight through the air.
The population has trebled with the aid of substantial immigration, and has
Oi ^ ~\ r \ come to busy itself as much with industry and commerce as with forestry and
agriculture. Cities have grown to cosmopolitan sise with cosmopolitan standards of luxury. Forests have been cleared for farms, and vast regions of
prairie now hum with the harvesters' machinery. Electricity has become the
giant force of the land, driving vast new industries. Universities have been
founded to meet the demand for higher education. Here indeed is a new
country which the Fathers of Confederation themselves would hardly have
To picture such a scene adequately within the limits of these pages is out of
the question. All we can do is to indicate briefly a few of the points of
interest touched by the itinerary of our distinguished visitors and to suggest
in a few pictures one or two phases of this many-sided country.
In the creation of this new Canadian scene, the Canadian Pacific Railway can
fairly claim to have played its part. The construction of that railway formed
part of the pledge under which British Columbia entered into Confederation.
Its reason for existence was to link the Canadian East with the Canadian West
and bind the Canadian people with bonds of traffic. From first to last it has
worked to build up this great Dominion, remembering always the responsibilities attaching to its birthright as the railway of Confederation. Stretching
now far beyond the confines of the Atlantic and Pacific, it has become the main
highway of Empire, and of an Empire greater than the world has ever yet
 ■■:.-'■ ■,:■.:■■■■:■'■■■-■■.■.
From a painting by
Norman Wilkinson, o.b.e., rj.
July 30th
July 31st
August 2nd -
August 5th -
August 6th -
August 8th -
August 10th-
August 12th-
August 13th-
August 15th-
August 16th-
August 17th-
August 18th-
- Saturday.    Arrive at Quebec.
H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, H.R.H. Prince George and party stay at Spencerwood.
Rt. Hon. Mr. Baldwin, Mrs. Baldwin and party stay at Chateau Frontenac.
-Sunday.    Steamer trip up the St. Lawrence.
Leave Quebec 10.C0 a.m. by S.S. "St. Lawrence."   Arrive Montreal 9.00 p.m.   Stay at Ritz
-Tuesday.    To Ottawa.
Leave Montreal 8.10 a.m. (Canadian Pacific).
House; part of party at Chateau Laurier.
Arrive Ottawa 11.00 a.m.   Stay at Government
-Friday.    The Thousand Islands.
Leave Ottawa 9.00 a.m.    Arrive Brockville 11.45 a.m.   Leave Brockville (by private yacht)
3.00 p.m.    Arrive Kingston 8.00 p.m.    Leave Kingston 9.00 p.m. (Canadian National).
-Saturday.    Toronto and T^iagara.
Arrive Toronto 9.30 a.m.    H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, H.R.H. Prince George and party at
Government House; Rt. Hon.  Mr. Baldwin, Mrs. Baldwin and party at Casa Loma.  Stay
there Saturday and Sunday, visiting Niagara Falls by boat.
-Monday.    To the West.
Leave Toronto (Canadian Pacific) 12.01 a.m.    Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday—en route.
-Wednesday.    Calgary and the Roc\ies.
Upon arrival at Calgary the royal train will be divided, Their Royal Highnesses the Prince of
Wales and Prince George proceeding to "E.P." ranch, reaching High River at 12.00 noon, and
Rt. Hon. Mr. Baldwin and Mrs. Baldwin going on to Banff, arriving there at 1.30 p.m.
-Friday.    Return Journey.
The Rt. Hon. Mr. Baldwin's party will return east, leaving Banff at 3.00 p.m.    Arrive Calgary
5.00 p.m.    Leave Calgary 7-00 p.m.
-Saturday.    Across the Prairies.
Arrive Regina 8.45 a.m.    Leave Regina 10.15 a.m.    Arrive Winnipeg 7-45 p.m. (Central Time).
Dinner at Government House.    Leave Winnipeg 11.30 p.m.    August 14th—en route.
-Monday.    To the Maritime Provinces.
Arrive Ottawa 1.30 p.m. (Eastern Time).    Leave for Saint John 2.20 p.m.
-Tuesday.    At Saint John.
Arrive 8.30 a.m. (Eastern Time).   Leave 11.30 a.m. (Atlantic Time) for Prince Edward Island.
Arrive Charlottetown 8.40 p.m.
-Wednesday.    ?iova Scotia.
Leave Charlottetown 9.30 a.m. by cruiser.    Arrive Pictou 12.00 noon.   Leave Pictou 12.30 p.m.
Arrive Halifax 4.20 p.m.    Leave Halifax 11.00 p.m.
-Thursday.    Au Revoirl
Arrive North Sydney 9.55 a.m.    Sail by Canadian Pacific steamship "Empress of Scotland."
Hanson Booth
 C    A    H    A    D    I    A    7i      a      SCENES
QUEBEC was the birthplace of K[orth America. It was the cradle of Kiew France, and with
Jts name are linked those of the heroic priests, soldiers and pioneers who established civilization
in the ?iew World. The grandeur of its site, the beauty of its scenery, and the poignancy of its
checkered history endow it with a special appeal.
The first white man to visit Quebec was Jacques Cartier in 1535, but it was not until 1608 that
a city was founded by Samuel de Champlain. For a century and a half thereafter Quebec was the
headquarters of French rule in America, contending with the J^eu; Englanders for domination.
Laval, the first bishop, La Salle, the explorer, Frontenac, the intrepid governor, Marie de Vlncarnation,
founder of the Ursuline Convent, and countless others belong to this glowing period.
In the middle of the eighteenth century the destiny of Quebec changed abruptly. Part of the wide'
world drama \nown as the Seven Tears' War was played in America; and in 1759, at one of the
most famous battles in history—that of the Plains of Abraham—the British defeated the French,
and four years later too\ possession of the country.
The city retains much of its old French tradition: The architecture of the city is French, with
some buildings of the eighteenth century which no vandal hand has attempted to destroy, others more
modern but carefully built in an artistic attempt to duplicate the essentially French strain of the old.
Then the quaint older part of Quebec, with its steep cobbled streets, its confusion of high gabled
roofs, its quiet alleys bringing one suddenly to a dim historic spot, its convents, its churches, its mon\s,
its habitants, its leafy squares and countless statues, has an individuality which cannot be duplicated
on the continent.
On the site of a building far-famed in Canadian history, the Chateau St. Louis, now stands the
Chateau Frontenac. Remembering the traditions and practice of French builders, its creators have
reproduced in every stone of its irregular shape, towers and cupolas, the architecture of an eighteenth
century chateau. The Chateau Frontenac is one of the splendid transcontinental chain of hotels operated
by the Canadian Pacific Railway. Summer and winter it is thronged with visitors, winter sports
adding to its various other attractions. In front of the Chateau is Dufferin Terrace, a popular
quarter'mile board wal\ which extends as far as the Citadel, and from which one may obtain a
succession of wonderfully fine views.
Between Quebec and Three Rivers, to give this city its English equivalent, we pass through a
number of ancient settlements, originally seigneuries fronting upon the St. Lawrence. Frequent
rivers tumble down from the hills and so supply these villages with abundant water-power.
The fishing in these useful streams is not to be despised; one of them, the Jacques Cartier, is a
noted salmon river. All the villages are quaint and picturesque, and French is the universal
language. Lorette is mainly a settlement of Christianized Huron Indians, founded two hundred
and fifty years ago. Portneuf (population 1,000) is on the Portneuf River, thirty-five miles before
reaching Quebec. It is a thriving factory town deriving power from the Shawinigan Power Company, and operates several paper mills.
The route lies across the lowlands which stretch between the St. Lawrence and the Laurentian
foothills. This plain is cut into the long narrow strips characteristic of French-Canadian farmlands. There are two reasons for the peculiarly shaped farm. One is that the continual subdivision of bequeathed estates left no alternative, the other is that a water front was absolutely
necessary to each farm, so they extended in long strips, thus giving each farmer a narrow frontage
on the river.
All along one is struck by the conspicuous part the church plays in village life. Everywhere
the church and the presbytery are the most prominent buildings in the compact little villages
one flies past so quickly.
MONTREAL is the chief city and commercial metropolis of Canada and the gateway to most
of the Province of Quebec. It stands on an island formed by the St. Lawrence and Ottawa
rivers, on the site of the ancient Indian village of Hochelaga; and not only enjoys the distinction of
being a great ocean port nearly a thousand miles inland, but in point of foreign commerce is the second
 From a water'colour by
Esther Brann
 CANADIAN S     C     E    N"   E     S
port ofJ<[orth America. The city is 150 miles above salt water, but the broad St. Lawrence forms a high'
way upon which oceangoing steamers ascend. The city has a far-reaching trade and great manufac
turing establishments, with many miles of fine concrete wharves, vast warehouses, huge grain elevators
with a total capacity of over fifteen million bushels, and a large floating dry-doc\.
Prominent from every part of Montreal is Mount Royal, a large and beautiful public par\.
From the Lookout a wonderful panoramic view can be obtained of the city and river. pestling in
the shelter of the mountain is McGill University, one of the most famous educational institutions
of this continent. A sister university, the Universite de Montreal, ministers to the French-speaking
population. Montreal has many fine public buildings and numerous churches, convents and
hospitals. Notre Dame is perhaps the largest Catholic church of America, for it can easily accommodate ten thousand worshippers and has been known to have housed fifteen thousand. Montreal
is the largest bi-lingual city and the fourth largest French-speaking city in the world; over half the
population of Greater Montreal (1,000,000) spea\French as their mother tongue.
Historically, although it lives so strictly in the present, Montreal is as interesting as Quebec.
The village of Hochelaga was visited by Jacques Cartier in 1535; in 1642 Maisonneuve established
a settlement called "Ville Marie." Wars with the Indians and later wars with the English did not
interfere with Montreal's growth. In 1760 it was the last stand of the French after Wolfe had
defeated Montcalm at Quebec. The section between Notre Dame and the St. Lawrence is full of
quaint old buildings and historical memories that go with them.
Montreal to Ottawa
Transcontinental trains from Montreal depart from Windsor Station and run through to the
Pacific Coast without change. West of Montreal are several charming suburbs, many of them
independent municipalities but included in Greater Montreal. Westmount, with a population
of 18,500, is the most important of these; its fine residential district on the mountain-side affords
a magnificent outlook over the city and the river. Leaving Greater Montreal at Montreal West
we continue across the Island of Montreal, passing a succession of charming settlements which
front on Lake St. Louis, an expansion of the River St. Lawrence. Several of Montreal's finest
golf courses may be seen here—courses that in the summer season are extremely popular.
At Ste. Annes the line leaves the Island of Montreal and crosses the Ottawa River to He
Perrot and then to Vaudreuil, a magnificent view of the river being afforded from the railway
bridge. Beyond this the river expands into the Lake of Two Mountains, which the railway
skirts for several miles and on whose shores are the popular summer resorts of Como, Hudson
Heights and Rigaud. Rigaud Mountain is a prominent landmark known as the "Devil's Playground"; in its rocky bareness it is sharply contrasted with the luxuriant vegetation of the
surrounding country. On the opposite shore of the lake stands the Trappist monastery of Oka.
Five and one-half miles beyond Rigaud the train crosses the boundary between Ontario and
Quebec. Running into the Union Station, Ottawa, we catch a glimpse of the Rideau Canal,
which connects Ottawa with Lake Ontario at Kingston.
THE capital of the Dominion of Canada stands at the junction of the Rideau and Ottawa rivers,
its site being characterized by a picturesque grandeur appropriate to its national importance.
Ottawa is the residence of the Governor-General, the meeting place of the House of Commons and
the Senate, and the headquarters of the Government administrative departments.
The Parliament Buildings, the first foundation stone of which was laid in 1860, were partly
destroyed by a disastrous fire in 1^916, but the reconstructed central building, which has just been
completed, is a magnificent pile that fitly replaces it. Rideau Hall, the Governor-General's house,
is a charming residence within the city limits and the centre of much of Ottawa's brilliant social life.
Amongst the many interesting places that Ottawa has to visit are the Royal Mint and the
National Museum, but by no means less engrossing are the many lumber mills in the Chaudiere
district, through which pass the thousands of logs floated down the Gatineau and other tributaries
of the Ottawa River.   Because of the wonderful water-power furnished by the Chaudiere Falls,
 From a pastel by
Charles W. Simpson, r.c.a.
 C    A    H    A    D    I    A    K      o      S    C    E    H    E    $
which here interrupt the navigation of the Ottawa River, these mills can easily handle all the lumber
from its large tributary districts.
The city stands on high ground, and has a large mileage of well-laid driveways, as well as many
beautiful par\s, of which two of the finest are Major s Hill and "Hepean Par\s, both overlooking the
river. From Major s Hill a beautiful panoramic view of the river, the city of Hull, and the dar\
blue Laurentian Mountains in the background can be obtained. The population of the city is
120,000, which is, of course, considerably augmented during the legislative seasons. fi[ear Ottawa
are many popular summer resorts, including those along the Gatineau River to the north.
Ottawa to Toronto
Leaving Ottawa the train passes over the Gatineau River into Hull, Quebec, and going through
that city crosses the Ottawa River back into Ontario over the Prince of Wales bridge, built in
1877"9 and named after the late King Edward. Its length is 765 feet and at the time of its
building it was one of the world's longest. It has recently been re-built to accommodate the
heavier trains of to-day. The Prince of Wales' feathers which were erected at both ends of
the bridge in 1879 have been set up again on the new structure. The route through Ontario to
the St. Lawrence river is through a pleasant rolling country and mostly through excellent farming
districts where dairying and mixed farming are largely carried on. Several towns of importance
are passed, including Carleton Place and Smiths Falls, in both of which a number of growing
industries are carried on.
Brockville (population about 10,000) is built on an elevation which rises from a branch of the
St. Lawrence in a succession of graceful ridges, and is one of the prettiest towns in Canada. It
receives its name from General Broc\, hero of the battle of Queenstown Heights, fought in 1812.
Many fine public buildings and private residences attest the prosperity of its inhabitants. It is
a vantage point from which to set out on a tour of the Thousand Islands.
The Thousand Islands region is practically an estuary of Lake Ontario. It is thickly strewn
with numberless islands of all shapes and sizes. This remarkable archipelago extends some forty
miles from Brockville to Kingston. It presents to the view of the passing traveller everything conceivable in the way of an island from a bare rock a yard across to an island covering
many acres, some heavily wooded, some covered merely with grass, some cultivated as farms,
some containing only a beautiful summer residence with its surrounding pleasure-grounds, and
others fitted up with rustic seats and tables for pleasure parties. Some of the islands are hilly,
while others scarcely rise above the water's surface, and, viewed from the deck of a steamer
winding its way among them, make an impression upon the mind that memory tenaciously
clings to. Between and among these thread innumerable channels, here pouring a swift and
crystal tide through some pent-up chasm, and there forming in deep, still pools much loved by
the wary black bass, 'neath the shadow of some castellated crag. Every turn brings one new
views, new scenes and new life. Many of the islands are owned by wealthy people who have
erected costly mansions and laid out tasteful grounds. The scenery by day is most inspiring,
while the illuminations, the music, the flashing boats, and the festivities by night make the
evenings enchanting.
Kingston (population about 24,000) is one of the historic spots of Eastern Canada. It was
first settled by the French in 1672 and was \nown as Fort Cataraqui. Later Frontenac built a
stone fort here which bore his name. In 1762 it fell into the hands of the English, who re-named it,
and in later days it stood next in strength to Quebec. It is beautifully situated on the St. Lawrence
and contains many fine buildings, including the Royal Military College and a number of other
educational institutions. The St. Lawrence River practically begins here its course of 700 miles
to the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
From Kingston to Toronto the railway runs along the lake front of the Province of Ontario
through a pleasant agricultural country that was more or less well settled before Confederation.
Before the advent of railways its towns were important lake ports, practically all travel and
transportation being by water route.    They are now fast developing into manufacturing centres.
Lake Ontario has neither the spaciousness of Lake Huron nor the limitless horizons of Lake
Superior; it is a smaller, milder lake, tamed to human companionship by the settlements that dot
its shores.   But the tonic of the lake-purified breezes, and the wonderful stretches of safe sandy
From a painting by
Gordon Gillespie
 C    A    >H    A    D    I    A    H      d      S    C    E    K    E    S
beach along its prettily wooded bays, are great attractions for summer cottagers, and a succession
of summer resorts alternate with prosperous manufacturing towns. The shore line of Lake
Ontario is the oldest settled part of the province. The towns through which the line passes
are solid well-established communities, embowered in trees and surrounded by rich agricultural
regions. The district is well-known for its fine apples, and the country throughout has a very
attractive appearance.
TORONTO is the capital of Ontario and the second largest city of Canada. Beautifully situated
on the shore of Lake Ontario, it is affectionately called the "Queen City" by its citizens. It is
the seat of the University of Toronto and of the provincial government.
Toronto has immense manufacturing establishments, large and small, numbering over three
thousand, and some of the largest commercial houses and ban\s in the Dominion are located here.
Its population is largely of English and Scottish extraction or of United Empire Loyalist descent,
but the city is distinctively North American in the intensity of its activity and energy. Through
its crowded streets throbs a vast hum of commerce. Its educational institutions are well-known;
so too is the charm of its residential districts.
The city has magnificent harbor accommodation, in addition to which a thousand acres of waste
land adjacent to and on the harbor front have been reclaimed and beautified. Electric power for its
industries is obtained from Niagara Falls, over eighty miles distant. Toronto is a very important
railway centre, with branches radiating in every direction.
Toronto's famous Exhibition is a magnet which draws visitors from all parts of Canada and the
United States every fall. It is the biggest thing of its \ind on the continent, and the attendance
during the two wee\s the exhibition runs is well over the million and a half mar\. Representative
displays of every kind of Canadian product are brought together here.
Toronto is very interesting historically. The name Fort Toronto was given, after the British
conquest of Canada, to a post taken from the French. But the real growth of the city began with
the immigration of the United Empire Loyalists into Ontario after the American War of Independence. These settlers left the United States because they preferred to remain under the British flag,
and it was their sturdy patriotism, and the undaunted tenacity of their descendants, that transformed the province of Ontario from a wilderness into what it is now, the most populous province of
J^iagara Falls still retain their hold upon the imagination and interest of everyone, and are annually the Mecca for hundreds of thousands of pilgrims, not only from North America, but from
all parts of the world. There are, it is true, waterfalls of greater height in the world, as well as
some which are situated amongst scenery of greater splendor, but the immense volume of water
and the sheer descent of the unbroken plunge give to Niagara a grandeur which height alone cannot
impart. The tumultuous rapids above the falls, and the deep gorge and rapids below, add much to
the impressiveness of the scene.
In addition to their aesthetic and spectacular value, Niagara waters now play a most important
part in the domestic, commercial and industrial life of communities in both Canada and the United
States because of the enormous amount of electrical power that is developed. The actual amount
of water available at the Falls for the generation of power is governed by a treaty between Great
Britain and the United States; the present diversion permitted totals 56,000 cubic feet per second,
or about one-quarter of the total flow in the N^gora River. The total amount of power generated
on the Canadian side of the Njagara River in 1924 was about 700,000 horse power.
Toronto to Winnipeg
Leaving Toronto, the railway line strikes away to the northwest, passing several busy manufacturing suburbs with large plants adjacent to the tracks. Then for a considerable time the
line traverses some fine farming country, with many attractive looking orchards. Turning
more directly north at Bolton we enter the prosperous agricultural country of Simcoe, and pass
a succession of small towns, centres of fine farming areas. After leaving Medonte the character
of the country through which we pass changes abruptly, the placid meadowlands giving place
to forests, rocky formations and frequent lakes.   The Muskoka Lakes and Georgian Bay districts
 i^/   From d painting by
Gordon Gillespie
 C    A    H    A    D    I    A    H S-   C    EX    E    S
which we are entering are two of the finest regions of Canada and attract summer visitors from
all over the North American continent. Near Bolton is Camp Borden, which, during the war,
was one of the most famous training grounds for aviators on the continent, and still is a large
flying centre.   AJJiston is a busy centre with flour mills and several fine nursery gardens.
The peculiar rock formations so characteristic of the Muskoka and Georgian Bay regions are
outcroppings of what is known as the Upper Laurentian formation, and according to geologists
they are part of the oldest rock strata in the world. A fine steel bridge spans the waters and
valley of the Seguin River and leads into the pleasant, leafy town of Parry Sound, from which
the first glimpse of Georgian Bay waters may be obtained. Georgian Bay, in reality a magnificent inlet of Lake Huron, is dotted with 30,000 islands, some of them of considerable size and
heavily wooded. Beautiful channels, often resembling inland lakes, separate these islands and
the district offers every inducement to the camper and fisherman.
Not far beyond Pointe au Baril the railway skirts the shores of the beautiful Six-Mile Lake.
At Byng Inlet the Magnetewan River district is reached. This river, which has many lake
expansions, lies almost due east from Georgian Bay, about twenty-five miles south of the French
River, which for some distance it practically parallels and with which connection can be made
through intervening waters. The whole region, in fact, is a maze of land-locked waterways
many miles in length. Magnificent bridges span the Pickerel and French Rivers. Beyond
French River, farming and stock-raising are carried on, as well as lumbering, eight cheese factories being located at Rutter. North of Burwash, where is the Provincial Prison Farm, we
enter a land of great rock hills and tall pines, the railway winding through deep cuts which
challenge our admiration for the men who conceived and built the line. At Romford we meet
the main transcontinental line from Montreal to Winnipeg and Vancouver and continue seven
miles west to Sudbury.
For the first few miles out of Sudbury the line climbs steeply, while the district continues to
show evidences of the nickel industry. The Murray Mine of the British American Nickel
Corporation is located near the railway not many miles west of Sudbury, and from Levack a
spur runs to the Mond Levack mine, which contains over five million tons of nickel and copper
ore. In the valley near Larchwood is a stretch of rich farming country unusual in this rocky,
hilly region. Climbing again beyond this, we pass the high falls of the Vermilion River—
creamy, foaming water cascading far below the train. In this bush country, where rivers, lakes
and muskegs are frequent, game of all kinds is abundant, moose and red deer being plentiful.
From Chapleau to the shores of Lake Superior, the character of the country is much the same
as that we have been traversing, but from Heron Bay (so named from a blue heron which was
shot down in the bay), no traveller can afford to miss the magnificient panoramas of grand and
impressive beauty which are unrolled before him. The train runs upon a ledge cut into the face
of huge rock cliffs which rise steeply from the deep cold waters of Lake Superior. It plunges
into deep cuts and rock tunnels, and out suddenly again into dazzling sunshine which turns to
blue the distant islands fringing the shore and the distant promontories ahead and behind.
Far from the bustle of cities, this Lake Superior district is a paradise of forest wilderness. Here
roam the moose and red deer; here are found the grouse, partridge, duck and goose; in these
streams lurk the elusive speckled trout and gamey bass, the pickerel and maskinonge. The
territory west of Heron Bay, the many large islands of Lake Superior and the Nipigon Lake
region which we are approaching, may be said to be the finest in Canada for caribou and moose.
The shores of Lake Superior between Nipigon and Port Arthur are deeply indented by Black
Bay and Thunder Bay, and the straight course followed by the railway makes only occasional
glimpses down the bays possible. Three miles beyond Nipigon the line turns sharply around
the base of Red Cliff. West of this point considerable farming has been developed, though there
are also a number of summer resorts at the head of the bays, Pearl and Loon being the most
popular centres.
Leaving Port Arthur and Fort William behind, the railway traverses for nearly four hundred
miles a wild, uncultivated region of primeval beauty, with rapid rivers and many lakes. This
region was first visited by La Verendrye in the first half of the eighteenth century when making
his explorations in search of the western sea. Later exploration established it to be a country
rich in mineral possibilities.   At one time great activity was displayed by prospectors in this
 From a pastel by
Norman Wilkinson, o.b.e., r.i.
area, and considerable mining is still carried on in the neighborhood of Murillo, Bonheur, Wabi'
goon, and Dryden.
At Ingolf the western boundary of Ontario is passed, and we enter the first of the prairie
provinces, Manitoba. A gradual change will be noted in the characteristics of the country;
the rocks and lumber are left behind and are succeeded by the prairie bush and level plains. We
are now, in fact, entering the great prairie region of the Canadian West, which, beginning a
few miles east of Winnipeg, stretches roughly speaking as far as Calgary, nearly 900 miles distant,
and due north from the international boundary for at least 300 miles. This vast region forms a
mammoth agricultural area of almost limitless possibilities. Of the land area of 466,000,000
acres, the conservative estimate has been made that at least 200,000,000 acres are first class
agricultural land that will raise the finest of crops. At the present time scarcely more than
35,000,000 acres are actually under cultivation. Crossing the Red River by a long bridge, we
enter Winnipeg, which claims for itself, and quite justly, the title of the Metropolis of the
WINNIPEG is Canada's third largest city. Greater Winnipeg has a population of 283,100,
the city itself of 199,500. La Verendrye, the first white man to set foot in Winnipeg, arrived in 1738, and built Fort Rouge, now part of the city. In 1806 Fort Gibraltar was built by the
North-West Trading Company; in 1822, when the North-West Company amalgamated with the
Hudson's Bay Company, that fort was rebuilt and named Fort Garry. In 1835 Governor Christie
rebuilt Fort Garry in stone. Though this was an important trading centre for the Western plains,
the population of Fort Garry, as late as 1871, was only two hundred and fifteen.
Winnipeg is beautifully situated at the junction of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers. The city
is handsomely built, one of the most notable structures being the provincial Parliament Buildings;
it is also the seat of the University of Manitoba and the Manitoba Agricultural College. It is a
city of fine boulevards and par\s, many golf courses, and summer and winter sports of all kinds.
Winnipeg is the greatest grain market and grain inspection point in the British Empire. It is
the railway centre of Western Canada and commands the trade of the vast region to the north, east
and west.   Branch lines radiate in every direction.
The Royal Alexandra, owned and operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway, ranks amongst the
finest hotels in Canada. The hotel is adjacent to the railway station, a magnificent building which
is the headquarters of the Company's western system. Immense workshops of the Canadian Pacific
Railway are situated in Winnipeg, and the railway has also the two largest train yards in the world.
Winnipeg has made remarkable strides as an industrial centre. Nine hundred industrial plants
are now located there, with an annual output of $135,000,000. In Winnipeg and St. Boniface
are the largest western stoc\ yards and packjng houses, with enormous flour mills, mills for other
cereal products, rolling mills, iron and steel wor\s, and automobile assembling plants.
Winnipeg to Calgary
The country from Winnipeg to Brandon is for the most part a well-settled area, with comfortable farm homes and large barn buildings. It is a first-class mixed farming region, renowned
for the prize cattle which it raises—the home, in fact, of several world-championship herds.
In the Portage Plains, where the country appears to be level for miles at a stretch, considerable
hay is grown and a large dairying industry has been developed. The Assiniboine Valley parallels
the railway throughout this part of the line, and the river may be seen at several points, prominently marked by the line of trees along its course. Lake Manitoba, one of the larger and finer
prairie lakes, lies north of the line, the eastern end of the lake being within a few miles of several
of the stations near Portage la Prairie. It is a popular summer resort, with many cottages and
camps. Fine fishing and duck shooting may be obtained along its shores. Marquette is the
home of the Indian tribe of that name. Reaburn is the half-way point between Montreal and
About ten miles west of the town of Qu'Appelle, where the railway crosses the end of the
Assiniboine Valley, the highest point on the line between Winnipeg and Moose Jaw is reached.
Eastward to Brandon the hills fall gradually away, over a stretch of two hundred miles.   This
pace  sixteeh
 From a painting by
Carl Rungius, n.a.
 C    A    H    A    D    1    A $     C    E    X    E    $
section of country is one of the most picturesque in Eastern Saskatchewan, its numerous lakes
and woods providing a most attractive setting to a very productive area. Westward to the
Regina Plains the drop from the hill country is made within twenty-five miles, and is consequently much more abrupt than that on the eastern slope. The various towns are well-built-up,
with good buildings, grain elevators, stock yards and other facilities definitely associated with
agricultural interests. Oa\ Lake has fine prairie chicken and duck shooting in its vicinity.
Virden is a flourishing town with a population of 1,600.
Saskatchewan, with an area of some 251,700 square miles, is pre-eminently the wheat province
of Canada. More than 50 per cent, of the annual production of this crop for the entire Dominion comes from Saskatchewan, which on several occasions has secured world championships.
In other phases of agriculture, too, the province occupies a very important place—notably in
cattle-raising and dairying. There are substantial lignite deposits in the southern regions,
where mining has been carried on for a number of years, besides large clay deposits. Amongst
the industries of Saskatchewan, flour-milling is perhaps the chief.
Regina (population 40,000, altitude 1,896 feet) is the capital and largest city in the province of
Saskatchewan and one of the most important distributing centres west of Winnipeg. The Parliament Buildings, which face the placid Wascana Lake, are very handsome. Fine exhibition buildings
are also located here. It is a modern city, with well-paved streets, fine par\s, large educational institutions and splendid buildings. Several large mail order houses, numerous wholesale concerns and
a large number of manufacturing plants are established at Regina. The factories are located in a
model industrial district planned by the city, and served by open trac\s and other industrial utilities.
A huge oil refinery, extending over fifty acres, has also been built here at a cost of $500,000.
The city owns and operates successfully well-equipped water works, street railway, and light and
power utilities. At Regina the Canadian Pacific has this year opened its newly built hotel, the
Hotel Saskatchewan. Built and equipped up to Canadian Pacific standards, it fittingly mar\s the
progress the city has made, and reflects the confidence that is generally felt in the future of this city.
Regina was formerly the capital of the North-West Territories, and was for over forty years the
headquarters of the Royal North-West Mounted Police, one of the most famous bodies of constabulary in the world, whose exploits have been so often chronicled, both in fact and in fiction, as
to have become almost historic.   This force is now known as the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
Settlement has not yet spread itself over all the available lands between Moose Jaw and Swift
Current. The country is rolling, though here and there magnificent vistas of level plain appear,
with thousands of acres of good arable land, both cultivated and uncultivated. Frequently,
old buffalo trails may be seen, scarred and pitted on the prairie by their "wallows." In the late
eighties great piles of buffalo bones were stacked up, adjacent to the railway, for transportation
to the towns to be made into fertilizer. But now practically the only reminders of the huge
herds of buffalo that roamed the prairies fifty years ago are at Banff and Wainwright, in government enclosures.
At one time this was a purely ranching country, but to-day, although great herds of cattle
may be seen in many places, it is rapidly settling with first class farmers. Many of the small
towns have sprung into active existence within the last few years. To the south are the Cypress
Hills, a country valuable because of the commercial timber and extensive clay deposits which it
Alberta, with an area of over 255,000 square miles, is the most western of the prairie provinces.
Its principal asset is agriculture; long famed as the producer of large quantities of beef stock, it
has now become a great mixed farming region, producing both wheat and dairy products. Two-
thirds of its population are directly or indirectly connected with the land. At the same time,
it has immense reserves of bituminous and some anthracite coal, as well as gas, oil, lumber and
fisheries. Milling and meat packing are amongst its principal industries. At its western side
it changes its characteristics—for it heaps up there to form the immense ranges of mountains
that interpose their giant barrier between the prairies and the Pacific Coast.
Just west of Alderson the line enters the three-million-acre Irrigation Block of the Canadian
Pacific, extending from this point to within a few miles of Calgary, a distance of over 140 miles.
This is the largest individual irrigation project on the continent.
There is not the same necessity of irrigation in this region as there is in most "dry" regions
page  eighteen
 From a painting by
Gordon Gillespie
 C    A    n    A     D     I     A     X C     £ E -. ■ S
of the United States, but the advantage of irrigation to Southern Alberta is that it increases
the crop yield and ensures a crop every year. These irrigated lands have already fully demonstrated their ability to produce many profitable crops, such as that very paying fodder crop,
alfalfa, to say nothing of vegetables and small fruits. From many points in this district the
Rockies are in full view—a magnificent line of snowy peaks extending far along the southern and
western horizon. Note also the numbers of Indians seen around many of the stations; these
are from the Reservation near Crowfoot, occupied by the Blackfoot tribe.
Near Broo\s there will be noticed a long flume crossing the railway track almost at right angles;
at the railway itself, on account of insufficient clearance overhead, it is carried underneath the
track by means of an inverted syphon; it is the first aqueduct in which the hydrostatic catenary,
or elastic curve, has been adopted for the shape of the water section.
The source for the water used in the eastern section of the Irrigation Block is the great Horseshoe Bend Dam, three miles from Bassano in the Bow River. By means of the dam, the ordinary
water level at the site is raised 45 feet, so that the waters flowing from the far distant eastern
slope of the Rocky Mountains are diverted through a total length of 2,500 miles of canals and
distributing ditches, over about 1,800 square miles of fertile prairie country, irrigating approximately one-third of that amount.
Ogden is the location of the immense Canadian Pacific construction and repair shops.
CALGARY (population 75,000, elevation 3,439 feet), largest city of Alberta and the most im'
portant between Winnipeg and Vancouver, is the business centre of this southern part of the
province. Founded only forty years ago, it is now a flourishing industrial and agricultural centre,
with fine buildings and many manufacturing establishments. It is well supplied with clay and
building stone deposits, and is close to immense developed coal areas and large developed water
powers.   A 2,500,000-bushel Dominion Government terminal elevator is located here.
At the west end of the station bloc\ is the imposing Canadian Pacific hotel, the Palliser. This
handsome structure, completed in 1914, comprises ten floors in an "JE" shape, which makes every
room an outside room. From the roof garden one can obtain a beautiful view of the Canadian
Roc\ies. At the east end of the platform is the building of the N&tural Resources Department of
the Canadian Pacific Railway, which administers all the company's land, mineral and timber
interests in the west. The Canadian Pacific has a very simple but excellent method of settling
experienced irrigation farmers on the land, giving thirty-five years for payment of the cost of the land,
after a first payment of seven per cent, has been made. This method has been the means of creating
many fine homes and contented settlers.
Calgary has municipally owned water wor\s, electric light and power systems and street railway
and asphalt paving plants. Natural gas is piped from Bow Island at very cheap prices. The city
has some beautiful parks and many golf courses, including a municipal course.
Tributary to Calgary is a most prosperous agricultural, beef-raising and ranching district, in
area some thousands of square miles, and by virtue of the nutritious and abundant grasses growing
throughout this territory, cattle raised are of excellent quality. Grain and vegetables produced in
this district are also very fine.
Alberta, still a country of considerable stoc\-raising interests, was until recent years one of the
principal ranching sections of Canada; and in the "Stampede" held at Calgary—a famous frontier-
day celebration that draws competitors from all parts of the continent—the glories of the Old West
are revived annually in a weel(s carnival of cowboy sports and contests.
NATURE has thrown up the Canadian Pacific Rockies on so vast a scale that the human mind
can with difficulty grasp their greatness, except by some comparison. The "Trans-Canada
Limited," fastest Canadian Pacific train, takes twenty-two hours to pass from Cochrane, at the
entrance to the Rockies, to Mission, where it enters the coastal plain. The simplest parallel is
that of the Swiss Alps, which throw their giant barrier between Italy and France. Two of the
best known railway routes across the Swiss Alps are the St. Gothard and the Simplon.   It
Tie VaccoBver Daily ftroiince
 From a painting by
Carl Rungius, n.a.
 C    A    H    A    D    I    A    X S    C    E    HE    S
takes an express train five hours to travel from Lucerne to Como, or from Lausanne to Arona.
When, therefore, Edward Whymper, the hero of the Matterhorn, described the Canadian
Pacific Rockies as fifty Switzerlands thrown into one, this certainly was no exaggeration. The
Canadian Pacific Rockies stretch from the Gap practically to Vancouver—nearly six hundred
miles of Alpine scenery. Snowy peaks, glaciers, rugged precipices, waterfalls, foaming torrents,
canyons, lakes like vast sapphires and amethysts set in the pine-clad mountains—these have
been flung together in unparalleled profusion on a scale which Europe has never known.
Canada has a magnificent system of fourteen National Parks, of which ten are in Western
Canada. Of the latter, six of the most important are traversed by or lie adjacent to the Canadian Pacific Railway, while others can be reached conveniently from it.
Rocky Mountains Park, largest of these six, is bounded on the west by the interprovincial
boundary between Alberta and British Columbia, and on the east by, approximately, the first
big ranges of the Rockies. It has an area of 2,751 square miles, its greatest length being about
one hundred miles. No part of the Rockies exhibits a greater variety of sublime and romantic
scenery, and nowhere are good points of view and features of special interest so accessible, with
so many good roads and bridle paths.
Its principal mountain ranges are the Vermilion, Kananaskis, Bourgeau, Bow, and Sawback
ranges; its principal river is the Bow, which has for chief tributaries the Kananaskis, Spray,
Cascade and Pipestone Rivers. Of the many beautiful lakes within the Park, the principal are
Louise, Moraine, Minnewanka, Hector, Spray, Kananaskis and Bow Lakes.
The Canadian Pacific Rockies comprise some of Nature's most gigantic works. In the various
mountain ranges that make them up—the Rockies, the Selkirks, and the Gold Coast, Cascade,
and Purcell Ranges—there are, according to Government measurements, no less than 644 mountain peaks over 6,000 feet in height above sea level. These include only those peaks which
bear names, and do not profess to exhaust the innumerable mountains that have not yet been
named or measured, or that are very inaccessible from railways. Of those actually listed, there
are 544 over 7,000 feet, 422 over 8,000 feet, 272 over 9,000 feet, 144 over 10,000 feet, 41 over
11,000 feet, and 4 over 12,000 feet.
Many of the principal mountains seen by the traveller from the train or at the most popular
mountain resorts—at and around Banff, Lake Louise, Moraine Lake, Lake O'Hara, Field, Emerald
Lake, and the Yoho Valley—average a height above the floor of the valleys at their base of about
4,800 feet, or almost a mile.
Banff is the administrative headquarters of Rocky Mountains Park. The town lies embowered in pine forests and lawns, in a pocket of a wide circle of pearly-grey limestone peaks.
Warmed by clear sunshine and kissed by clear air, exhilarated by the glacial-green Bow River
that frisks through its middle, Banff is the Mecca of tourists from all parts of the world.
The Banff Springs Hotel, built and operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway, stands on a
height between the foaming falls of the Bow and the mouth of the rapid Spray River. Looking
from the verandah of the hotel, between Tunnel Mountain and Mount Rundle, a splendid view
may be obtained of the distant snow-clad barrier of the Fairholme Range. Immediately in
front is the junction of the Bow River with the Spray River, with the former making a beautiful
From the station a magnificent panorama is to be witnessed. To the north is the grey bulk
of Cascade Mountain, towering above the town like a grim old idol. To the east are Mount
Inglismaldie and the heights of the Fairholme sub-range. Still farther to the east the sharp cone
of Mount Peechee closes the view in that direction. To the left of Cascade rises the wooded
ridge of Stoney Squaw. To the west and up the valley are the distant snowy peaks of the main
range above Simpson's Pass. To the left is Sulphur Mountain; to the south-east the isolated
wooded bluff of Tunnel Mountain and the long serrated spine of Mount Rundle. From the
Bow bridge the view is even more magnificent, for the river runs through the centre of the
Had Banff not become famous for its beauty, it must have become famous for its hot springs,
which are amongst the most important on this continent. The five chief springs have been
found to have a total flow of about a million gallons a day, and issue from the ground the year
round at a temperature of over 90 degrees Fahrenheit.   Excellent swimming in warm sulphur
 From a painting by
Belmorb Browne
 C    A    H    A    D    I    A    X S    C    E    X    E    S
water is afforded at the Upper Hot Springs (on Sulphur Mountain), the Cave and Basin Bath
House, and at the Banff Springs Hotel, which has its own beautiful sulphur pool, with fresh
water pool adjoining, and with expert masseurs in attendance at the Turkish baths attached.
An eighteen-hole golf course, situated on the banks of the Bow River at the base of Mount
Rundle, is open to visitors. Rowing, canoeing and motor-boating are available on the Bow River.
There is good fishing in Lake Minnewanka, about eight miles distant.
Magnificent views of the surrounding mountains are afforded between Banff and Lake Louise,
the railway skirting the Vermilion Lakes and following the course of the Bow River Valley
through a beautifully forested valley. Westward and to the north of Castle Mountain is the
bare, rugged and sharply serrated sub-range known as the Sawbac\. The Slate Mountains,
which appear in the foreground at Lake Louise, are a spur from this range. Far to the south are
the snowy peaks that enclose Simpson's Pass; somewhat to the south-east are Pilot Mountain
(9,680 feet), a landmark for trappers visible from either end of the Bow, and Hole-in-the-Wall
Mountain (9,184 feet) with an interesting cavern running into the mountain for 160 feet, which
has been used as a meeting place for the Masonic Lodge at Banff.
Near Eldon a wonderful array of peaks is presented. Toward the south-east may be seen
Pilot Mountain, Copper Mountain, Mount Brett and Vermilion Pass, where the continental
watershed sends the Vermilion River westward into the Kootenay. Almost directly south is
Storm Mountain (10,309 feet) and the snowy dome of Mount Ball (10,825 feet). Loftiest and
grandest of all towers Temple Mountain.
THIRTY-FOUR miles west of Banff is Lake Louise. To reach the lake we must ascend
another 630 feet, by means of a light gasoline railway. Turning a corner of the mountain we come suddenly into full view of the lake.
Lake Louise {altitude 5,670 feet), bearing the liquid music, the soft color notes of its name,
into the realm of the visible, is probably the most perfect gem of scenery in the known world.
"A lake of the deepest and most exquisite coloring," says one writer, "ever changing, defying
analysis, mirroring in its wonderful depths the sombre forest and cliffs that rise from its shores
on either side, the gleaming white glacier and tremendous snow-crowned peaks that fill the background of the picture, and the blue sky and fleecy clouds overhead."
On the shores of this beautiful lake the Canadian Pacific Railway operates the magnificent
Chateau Lake Louise. No more beautiful spot and no more comfortable hotel could be chosen
by anyone wishing to make either a short stay or a long one in the Canadian Pacific Rockies.
Many there are who are entirely satisfied to sit on the verandah watching the marvellous kaleidoscope of color that flits across the surface of the lake.
Encircling Lake Louise is an amphitheatre of peaks. From left to right they are Saddleback,
Fariview, Lefroy, Victoria, Collier, Popes, Whyte, the Devil's Thumb, the Needles, the Big
Beehive, Niblock, St. Piran and the Little Beehive. At the far end of the lake, catching for the
greater part of the day the full glory of the sun, their snowfields standing out in dazzling whiteness, are the glaciers that drop down from Mount Victoria and the lofty ice-crowned head of
Mount Lefroy.
One of the most popular excursions, either by walking or on a sure-footed mountain pony, is
to the Lakes in the Clouds, nestling a thousand feet and more higher up in the mountain ranges.
The trail, leaving the west end of the Chateau, rises gradually through spruce and fir forests
to Mirror Lake, thence upward to Lake Agnes. These lakes are good examples of "cirque"
lakes—deep, steep-walled recesses caused by glacial erosion. The view from the edge of Lake
Agnes—where a charming little rest and tea-house has been established—is magnificent.
Another excellent walking or pony excursion is to Saddleback. Crossing the bridge over Lake
Louise creek, the trail rises rapidly on the slopes of Mount Fairview, between that mountain
and Saddleback. The view of Paradise Valley and Mount Temple from this point is one of the
finest in the Rockies. At the top is a tea and rest house, over two thousand feet higher than
Lake Louise.
Moraine Lake, a lovely mountain lake in the Valley of the Ten Peaks, is 9 miles distant
from the Chateau, and can be reached by automobile.   The tremendous semi-circle of the Ten
From a painting by
Richard M. Kimbal
 A     J<[    A    D    I    A     N      o      S    C    E    H    E    S
Peaks presents a jagged profile that makes a most majestic view. Not one of them is less than
10,000 feet in height—the highest is 11,225 feet. Moraine Lake is exquisitely tinted in color,
its waters sometimes so still that they reflect everything above its surface. On the shore of
the lake is a charming bungalow camp.
The Great Divide, six miles west of Lake Louise and fourteen miles east of Field, is at once
the highest elevation of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the boundary between Alberta and
British Columbia, and the very backbone of the continent. It is marked by a rustic arch spanning a stream under which the water divides. The waters that flow to the east eventually
reach Hudson Bay and the Atlantic Ocean; the rivulet that runs to the west adds its mite to
the volume of the Pacific. On the left is the granite shaft erected to the memory of Sir James
Hector, the discoverer of the Kicking Horse Pass, which permits the Canadian Pacific Railway
to cross the Rockies. The Pass owes its name to an incident of exploration days in which a
kicking horse figured literally.
Toho Par\ (area 476 square miles) immediately adjoins Rocky Mountains Park on the west,
and lies, broadly speaking, on the descending slopes of the Rockies, with the President and Van
Home ranges as its western boundary. It is a region of charm and winsome beauty, of giant
mountains and deep forests, of rushing rivers and sapphire-like lakes. Its principal river is the
Kicking Horse, with the Ottertail and Yoho as main tributaries; its chief lakes are Emerald,
Wapta, McArthur, O'Hara and Sherbrooke. The Yoho Valley, Emerald Lake, Burgess Pass
and other points are amongst the chief scenic features. The Canadian Pacific runs through the
centre of Yoho Park following the Kicking Horse"River.
Resuming our journey westward from Field, the route for some 35 miles is parallel to the
turbulent Kicking Horse River. The railway begins to descend steadily, until at Golden it is
nearly 1,500 feet lower. The narrow valley of the Kicking Horse divides the Ottertail Range
on the south from the Van Home Range on the north. A vivid contrast in mountain formation
is evident between the two ranges. One mile west of Emerald Mount Goodsir (11,676 feet)
can be seen on the south, while on the north we get a fine glimpse of the President Range.
On the south Mounts Vaux and Chancellor are seen, the glacier on the former plainly visible.
Mount Chancellor (10,731 feet) is one of the giant peaks of the Ottertail Range. At the base of
Mount Hunter the river turns abruptly and plunges into the lower Kicking Horse Canyon.
The canyon rapidly deepens until, beyond Palliser, the mountain sides become vertical. The
roar of the river as it rushes from side to side of the narrow gorge, the thunder of the train as it
follows the river—pandemonium increased a thousandfold by the reverberations of the canyon
walls—gives an indescribable sensation until at Golden we suddenly reach daylight again and
the noisy, turbulent Kicking Horse is received into the calm bosom of the mighty Columbia.
Everything combines to make the scenery between Golden and Glacier a climax of mountain
grandeur. There is first the magnificent eastern thrust of the Selkirks, with its glorious array
of mountain peaks culminating in the lofty pinnacle of Sir Donald; then there are mountain
torrents that tumble in splendid cascades, through the narrow gorges cut deeply into the steep
hillsides, the Rocky Mountain trench, flanked by the two highest mountain systems of the
Canadian Pacific Rockies; and the Columbia River itself, which for more than twenty-five miles
parallels the railway line, and at the base of the Selkirks is a raging roaring flood, forcing its way
through precipitous canyons to the high slopes along which the railway creeps.
Not only is the scenery impressive, but the engineering feats are particularly remarkable,
especially in the construction of bridges and tunnels. West of Cedar Creek is a very high bridge,
spanning a foaming cascade, whence one of the most beautiful prospects of the whole journey
is to be seen. So impressed were the builders with the charm of this magnificent picture that
they named the spot "The Surprise."
Glacier Park, covering an area of 468 square miles, differs very noticeably from the other parks
of the Canadian Pacific Rockies. It has an atmosphere of austere majesty and high loveliness.
The Selkirk Mountains, smaller in size than the Rockies, are geologically much older; the tooth
of time was already gnawing its scarred sides when the Rockies were first pushed up from the
crumpled sea-bottom.
Between Glacier and Revelstoke lies the steep western slope of the Selkirk Mountains, with
their magnificent peaks and impressive mountain scenery.   For a considerable part of the journey
 From a painting by
Gordon Gillespib
 C    A    H    A    D    1    A    H      d      S     C     E    N    E    S
the railway follows the Illecillewaet River, which, tumbling along precipitous gorges, rushing
and foaming in splendid cascades, pours its flood from its glacier source to the broad waters of the
majestic Columbia River, over 2,000 feet below.
Just below Kamloops, the Thompson widens out into Kamloops Lake, a beautiful sheet of
water. The railway runs along its south shore for twenty miles, and, because of the series of
mountain spurs projecting into the lake, a number of tunnels punctuate this twenty miles.
At Savona the lake ends, and we enter the series of Thompson River canyons which lead us
through marvellous scenery westward to the Fraser. The Thompson is the chief tributary of
the Fraser River; in characteristics, however, it is much different. It is not, for one thing, so
rapid; and then again its banks are largely the sandy hills that hedge it in.
At the little trading town of Lytton the canyon widens to admit the Fraser, the chief river
of British Columbia, which comes down from the north between two great lines of mountain
peaks, and whose turbid flood soon absorbs the bright green waters of the Thompson. The
Fraser is navigable for steamers from its mouth to about Yale. The river, 800 miles in length,
is an historic one; its name and that of the Thompson commemorate two of the earliest and most
famous explorers who sought the Pacific Ocean overland from the east. In the fifties of last
century it served as the avenue of approach to the rich discoveries of gold that were made in
the Cariboo country.
From this point westward the canyon widens out and is soon succeeded by broad level valleys
with rich soil and heavy timber. Vegetation of all kinds increases; fruit orchards, lovely green
meadows, and beautiful dairy cattle are seen on either side. We are almost at sea level; and so
for a few miles we roll on through this meadow-like country towards Vancouver. Ruby Cree\
obtains its name from the garnets found in the neighborhood. A few miles beyond Nicoamen,
the isolated cone that will be seen to the south is the gigantic Mount Baker, in the State of
Washington. At the crossing of the Stave River, near Mission, a magnificent view can be
obtained of the Fraser River. Thence we traverse the Pitt Meadows, until at Coquitlam
we leave the Fraser River and turn towards Burrard Inlet.
Vancouver (population including suburbs 230,000), the terminal of the Canadian Pacific transcontinental rail lines and its trans-Pacific steamship routes, is the largest commercial centre in
British Columbia. It has an excellent harbor nearly land-locked and fully sheltered, facing a beautiful
range of mountains. Two pea\s, silhouetted against the s\y, and remarkably resembling two
couchant lions, are visible from almost any point in the city or harbor, which has been appropriately
called "The Lions' Gate." The city is most picturesquely situated on Burrard Inlet, surrounded
by beautiful environs of varied character. All \inds of water sports are available, and are encouraged through a mild climate and extensive bodies of water. There are many bathing beaches,
par\s, boulevards, automobile roads, and paved streets.
The magnificent Hotel Vancouver is the finest hotel of the North Pacific, with 490 guests' bedrooms. Wonderful views of the Straits of Georgia can be obtained from the roof garden of this
Vancouver is a highly important port. From here the well-known Canadian Pacific "Princess"
steamers offer splendid service to Victoria, Seattle, Northern British Columbia, and Alas\a. Canadian Pacific "Empress" steamships cross the Pacific to the Orient. The Canadian-Australasian
Line runs regularly from Vancouver to Honolulu, Suva (Fiji), New Zealand and Australia.
In and around Vancouver are immense lumber and shingle mills. Mining, lumbering, farming, shipbuilding, and shipping, with a vast Oriental business, form the reason of the city's phenomenal growth and prosperity. From a forest clearing less than forty years ago it has become one of
the principal cities and most important seaports of the North Pacific Coast.
Victoria (population 50,000) is charmingly situated at the southern end of Vancouver Island,
overlooking the Straits of Juan de Fuca across to the snow-capped Olympic Mountains on the mainland. Its delightfully mild climate makes it a favorite resort for both summer and winter, and,
owing to the characteristic beauty of its residential district, it has often been called "a bit of England
on the shores of the Pacific." It is distinctively a home city, with fine roads and beautiful gardens,
although its enterprising business district spea\s of a rich commerce drawn from the fishing, lumber
and agricultural industries of Vancouver Island. Victoria's beauty lies in its residential districts,
its boulevards, par\s, public buildings, numerous bathing beaches and semi-tropical foliage.
 •■•■   ■:-■■■*•.
I   \     V-^-^..-/     From a painting by
'» ''tsSr* l~^7 JA J        "K ■—   J* G.J.Greenwood
 C    A    X    A    D    1    A    X S    C    E    X    E    S
The Empress Hotel, last in the chain of Canadian Pacific hotels, overloo\s the inner harbor,
within a stone's throw of the Parliament buildings. It is an hotel of stately architecture, hospitable
spirit, spacious atmosphere, and social warmth. Adjoining the Empress Hotel a new amusement
casino, the Crystal Gardens, contains one of the largest glass-enclosed salt-water swimming pools
in the world, with dancing floors, promenades, picture galleries, etc.
THE Canadian Pacific route from Montreal to the Maritime Provinces is through the pleasant
country south of the St. Lawrence, through the Eastern Townships, and across the State of
Maine. Before a direct eastern course is taken the line swings due west as far as Montreal
West and then south. The Lachine Canal, which is used by vessels to overcome the dangers
of navigation in the Lachine Rapids, is crossed by means of an electrically operated swing bridge
that opens to permit the passage of canal traffic. Not far beyond the canal is the pretty little
village of Highlands and the majestic St. Lawrence River. The St. Lawrence is the grandest of
all Canadian waterways, a river of charm, beauty and history. To its springs at the head of
Lake Superior this noble river has a length of 1,900 miles. It carries to the sea all the waters of
the five Great Lakes and of scarcely less important tributaries, draining thereby over 500,000
square miles. From Montreal to Newfoundland it forms a protected waterway, unimpeded
by any obstacle to navigation, 970 miles long.
Shortly after crossing the river one of the finest farming areas in Canada is entered, thriving
towns and villages being frequent.
The "Eastern Townships," which we are traversing and of which Sherbrooke is the metropolis,
is an old and well-settled section of Quebec that lias a very prosperous agricultural system as
well as a flourishing industrial life distributed through numerous small cities. The region was
originally settled by Scottish soldiers after the conquest of Canada in 1759, but these intermarried very largely with the French-Canadian inhabitants, with the consequence that one
finds nowadays many French-speaking people bearing good old Highland—and also some Irish—
names. East of Sherbrooke there are no industrial centres; prosperous agricultural towns and
well-settled farming areas are still in evidence, however, though as we travel on they become
less frequent. Soon the country begins to take on a wilder aspect and we enter the outskirts
of a wonderful sporting region.   Between Megantic and McAdam we cross the State of Maine.
Leaving McAdam, we soon reach the basin of the great Saint John River, which is 450 miles
long and navigable for 100 miles; it passes through a region of great beauty and fertility, possessing rich natural resources in timber, coal, lime, gypsum, etc. At Westfield Beach, a beautiful
summer resort, we come within sight of the river, which makes a big bend from Fredericton to
its outlet at Saint John into the Bay of Fundy. The Bay of Fundy is noted for its tremendous
tides. Of these, the most marvellous is at the Reversing Falls at Saint John. The Saint John River,
flowing into the bay, has a drop of from seventeen to twenty-five feet, in a narrow gorge of great
beauty; but when the tide rises, the water more than overcomes this difference of level. The
salt water rises steadily and forces its way up the river bed; as it ebbs again, the half-fresh half-
salt water has to find its way out, and does so at speed comparable to that of Niagara Whirlpool.
At half-tide a level of the two waters is reached, making the Falls area navigable for vessels. The
railway crosses the Falls by a steel cantilever bridge, built in 1921, and enters the city of Saint John.
 From a painting by
Bertha Des Clayes
1871 1921
Born in Canada        2,902,359 6,832,747
BorninBritish Isles. ...           486,376 1,025,121
Born in British Possessions              1,928 39,680
Foreign born            94,668 890,282
Born at Sea                 430 653
Total        3,485,761 8,788,483
Estimated, 1800  250,000
Estimated, 1927        9,519,520
1871 1927
(first census) (estimated)
Halifax            29,582 60,000
Saint John             41,325 60,000
Quebec ,            59,699 117,000
Montreal           115,000 900,000
Ottawa             24,141 120,000
Toronto            59,000 650,000
Winnipeg.                 241 283,000
Regina                .... 40,000
Calgary                .... 75,000
Vancouver.                .... 160,000
Victoria               3,270 50,000
British:                                                                                                                                        1871 1921
English           706,369 2,545,496
Irish           846,414 1,107,817
Scotch           549,946 1,173,637
Other              7,773 41,953
2,110,502 4,868,903
French        1,082,940 2,452,751
1868 1927
Total      $120,000,000       $2,298,000,000
With the United Kingdom          55,000,000 673,000,000
Exports          48,000,000 1,315,356,000
Value of Manufactures        200,000,000 3,000,000,000
Land under cultivation (acres)          17,000,000 75,000,000
Canada, 1927


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